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Full text of "Uniform crime reports for the United States"

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UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Volume XI Number f 

FIRST QUARTERLY BULLETIN, J940 



'H 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume XI — Number 1 
FIRST QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1940 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON: 1940 



'Uf^cHiNTEN 



CONTENTS 

' Page 

Summary of volume 11, No. 1 1-2 

Classification of offenses 2 

Extent of reporting area 2-3 

Monthly reports: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population 

(table 1) 4-5 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1931-40 (table 2) 5-7 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location 

(tables 3, 4) 8-10 

Offenses in individual cities over 100,000 in population (table 5) 11-13 

Offenses known to sheriffs and State police (table 6) 13 

Offenses known in Territories and possessions (table 7) 14 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 8-10) 14-1 6 

Annual reports: 

Offenses known and offenses cleared by arrest, 1939 — cities divided 

according to population (tables 11, 12~) 17-22 

Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1939, cities divided according 

to population (tables 13-15) 23-26 

Offenses known, offenses cleared bv arrest, and persons found guilty, 

1939 (tables 16, 17) 26-29 

Persons released (not held for prosecution), 1939 — cities divided ac- 
cording to population (tables 18, 19) 30-33 

Percentage of offenses cleared by arrest, 1934-39 (table 20) 33-34 

Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and persons charged, 1939, 

by geographic divisions (tables 21-38) 35-53 

Definitions of part I and part II offense classifications 54-55 

(II) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department of 

Justice, Washington, D. C. 

Volume XI April 1940 Number 1 

SUMMARY 

Annual Crime Trends, January-March, 1939-40. 

Reports from 69 of the larger cities in the United States for the 
first 3 months of 1939 and 1940 reveal that with the exception of 
negligent manslaughter substantial decreases were seen in the number 
of offenses against the person. The decrease in murder (including 
nonnegligent manslaughter) amounted to 20.2 percent; rape, 6.5 
percent; and aggravated assault, 3.9 percent. The increase in 
negligent manslaughter amounted to 7.2 percent. 

The trend for property crimes was somewhat different, robbery 
being the only one to show a decrease, which amounted to 5.9 percent. 
However, auto thefts showed a 6-percent increase, while burglaries 
and larcenies increased only slightly, less than 1 percent in each case. 

Crime Rates, 1940. 

With few exceptions, the average city with over 100,000 inhabi- 
tants experienced more crime per unit of population during the first 
quarter of this year than the average smaller community. The bul- 
letin contains crime rates for cities divided by location and size in 
order that interested persons may compare local crime data with 
average figures for cities of the same size throughout the country or 
for those similarly situated geographically. Figures for individual 
cities with over 100,000 inhabitants are presented, showing the num- 
ber of offenses committed during the first quarter of this year. 

Distribution of Crimes by Type, 1940. 

Offenses of larceny represented 56.9 percent of the total crimes 
reported; 23.8 percent were burglaries; 11.8 percent were auto thefts; 
and 3.8 percent were robberies. The remaining 3.7 percent of the 
crimes reported consisted of cririiinal homicides, rapes, and aggravated 
assaults. Residences were involved in 45.7 percent of the burglaries, 
and 52.7 percent of the robberies were classified as highway robberies. 
Of the larcency cases, 88.5 percent involved property valued at less 
than $50. Less than half (45.6 percent) of the offenses of rape were 
forcible in nature. Ninety-seven percent of the stolen automobiles 
and 22.1 percent of other types of stolen property were recovered. 

Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1939. 

Annual reports covering the calendar year 1939 forwarded by 1,214 
cities indicated the following proportion of offenses cleared by arrest: 
Murder, 87.4 percent; manslaughter by negligence, 87.7 percent; 
rape, 81.8 percent; aggravated assault, 76.5 percent; robbery, 41.9 
percent; burglary, 34.0 percent; larcency, 25.1 percent; and auto 
theft, 24.4 percent. 

(1) 



Persons Charged, 1939. 

For offenses against the person (criminal homicide, rape, and 
aggravated assault) the number of persons charged in most instances 
was equal to or in excess of the number of offenses cleared by arrest. 
However, for offenses against property (robbery, burglary, larceny, 
and auto theft) the number of offenses cleared last year was generally 
considerably in excess of the number of persons charged with those 
crimes. 

Of the persons charged by the police during 1939, the following 
figures represent those found guilty: Auto theft, 81.9 percent; 
larceny, 81.1 percent; robber}^ 79.6 percent; burglary, 77.9 percent; 
rape, 62.6 percent; murder, 62 percent; aggravated assault, 59.8 
percent; and manslaughter by negligence, 35.5 percent. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to 
the police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting 
or court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following 
group of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be 
those most generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal 
homicide, including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (b) 
manslaughter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; bur- 
glary — breaking or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The 
figures contained herein include also the number of attempted crimes 
of the designated classes. Attempted murders, however, are reported 
as aggravated assaults. In other words, an attempted burglary or 
robbery, for example, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner 
as if the crime had been completed. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the police depart- 
ments of contributing cities and not merely arrests or cleared cases. 
Complaints which upon investigation are learned to be groundless are 
not included in the tabulations which follow. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of crime 
and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions of 
part I and part II offense classifications. 

EXTENT OF REPORTING AREA 

The number of police departments from which one or more crime 
reports were received during the first quarter of 1940 is contained in 
the following table. The cities represented are classed according to 
size, and the popidation figures for cities in excess of 10,000 are esti- 
mates prepared by the Bureau of the Census as of July 1, 1933. How- 
ever, since no estimates were available for the smaller cities, the 1930 
decennial census figures were used for places under 10,000 in 
population. 



Population group 


Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 


Cities filing returns 


Total pop- 
ulation 


Population repre- 
sented in returns 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


982 


903 


92.0 


60, 406, 254 


58, 949, 803 


97.6 


1 Cities over 250,000 . .- ..- .- 


37 

57 

104 

191 

593 


37 

57 

101 

184 

524 


100.0 

100.0 

97. 1 

90.3 

88.4 


29, 695, 500 
7, 850, 312 
7, 045, 274 
6, 714, 212 
9, 100, 956 


29, 695, 500 
7, 850, 312 
6, 844, 174 
6,459, 112 
8, 100, 705 


100.0 


2. Cities 100,000 to 250,000- 


100.0 


3 Cities 50,000 to 100.000 .-. _ 


97. 1 


4. Cities 25,000 to 50,000 


96.2 


5. Cities 10,000 to 25,000 


89.0 







Note.— The above table does not include 1,652 cities and rural townships aggregating a total population 
of 8,244,584. The cities included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 population filing returns, whereas 
the rural townships are of varying population groups. 

The growth of the uniform crime reporting area is indicated by the 
following tabulation. These figures were compiled for the first 3 
months of 1932-40. 



Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


1932 

1983 

1934 


1,476 
1,561 
1,593 
1,833 
2,111 


49, 368, 231 
53. 295, 629 
61,715,079 

62, 304, 616 

63, 766, 619 


1937 

1938 

1939 


2,166 
2,342 
2,541 
2,555 


64, 196, 843 

65, 497, 026 

66, 588, 280 


1935 


1940 


67, 194, 387 


1936 







The additional 14 cities shown in the above tabulation for the first 
quarter of 1940, as compared with the corresponding period of 1939, 
increased the population represented in the uniform crime reporting 
project by 606,107, bringing the aggregate population to 67,194,387. 

There were 4,030 contributors of one or more crime reports during 
the first quarter of 1940. These consisted of 2,555 city and village 
law-enforcement agencies, 1,454 sheriffs, 8 State police units, and 13 
agencies in Territories and possessions of the United States. 



MONTHLY REPORTS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population. 

Generally the larger cities experience the higher crime rates. Dur- 
ing the first 3 months of 1940 offenses of criminal homicide, robbery, 
burglary, larceny, and auto theft occurred with more frequency in 
the cities with over 100,000 inhabitants than in the smaller communi- 
ties. The crime rate for offenses of rape was highest in the cities with 
over 250,000 inhabitants, and the next highest rate for this crime is 
seen in the cities with between 2,500 and 10,000 inhabitants. Aggra- 
vated assaults occurred with greatest frequency in group III cities 
(50,000 to 100,000 inhabitants), followed by group II cities (100,000 
to 250,000 inhabitants), and group I cities (over 250,000 inhabitants), 
respectively. 

More than half (56.9 percent) of all the offenses reported were cases 
of larceny, 23.8 percent were burglaries, 3.8 percent were robberies, 
and 11.8 percent were auto thefts. Thus, it will be seen that these 
crimes against property constituted 96.3 percent of all the offenses 
listed in table 1, while crimes classified as offenses against the person 
(criminal homicide, rape, and aggravated assault) represented 3.7 
percent of the total offenses. 

These figures are based on reports received by the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation from 2,046 cities with over 2,500 inhabitants, repre- 
senting a total population of 62,925,042. The information is presented 
in table 1 in such a manner that interested persons may compare 
crime conditions in a particular community with average figures for 
all cities in the United States of approximately the same size. The 
number of offenses per 100,000 inhabitants for cities grouped not only 
as to size but also by geographic divisions is presented in table 4. 

(4) 



Table 1.— Offenses known to the police, January to March, inclusive, 1940; mimber 
and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

(Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 

36 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 29.375,600: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP 11 

57 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,850,312: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000._. 

GROUP HI 

94 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 6,315,171: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP IV 

108 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 5,817,505: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP V 

474 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 7,356,879: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP VI 

1,217 cities under 10,000; total 
population, 6,209,575: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

Total 2,046 cities; total population, 
62,925,042: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Murder, 
nonncg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



370 
1.3 



99 
1.3 



76 
1.2 



52 
0.9 



71 
1.0 



69 

1.1 



737 
1.2 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



' 414 
1.5 



'90 
1.2 



51 
0.8 



40 
0.7 



39 
0.5 



42 
0.7 



'1676 
1.1 



Rape 



800 
2.7 



126 
1.6 



79 
1.3 



91 
1.6 



103 
1.4 



107 

1.7 



1,306 
2.1 



Rob- 
bery 



5,994 
20.4 



1,185 
15.1 



600 
9.5 



495 

8.5 



468 
6.4 



357 
5.7 



9,099 
14.5 



Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 



3, 096 
10.5 



874 
11.1 



921 
14.6 



463 
8.0 



509 
6.9 



423 
6.8 



6,286 
10.0 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



2 20, 948 
103.5 



7,975 
101.6 



6.058 
95.9 



4,652 
80.0 



4,823 
65.6 



3.974 
64.0 



2 49, 137 
91.3 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



2 48, 110 
237.6 



20,437 
260.3 



14, 597 
231.1 



12,726 
218.8 



12, 610 
171.4 



8,285 
133.4 



Auto 
theft 



15, 009 
51.1 



4,124 
52.5 



2,456 
38.9 



2,481 
42.6 



2,015 
27.4 



1.595 
25.7 



2 117,528 27,680 
218.5 44.0 



1 The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports as follows: Group 
I, 35 cWies, total population, 28,021,500; group II, 56 cities, total population, 7,742,112; groups I-VI, 2,044 
cities, total population, 61,462,742. 

2 The number of offenses and rate for burglarv and larceny — theft are based on reports as follows: Group 
I, 34 cities, total population, 20,248,600; groups I-VI, 2,044 cities, total population, 53,798,042. 

Annual Trends, Offenses Known to the Police, 1931-40. 

In comparing the reports from 69 of the larger cities in the United 
States for the first 3 months of 1939 and 1940, it was found that 
with the exception of manslaughter by negligence substantial decreases 
were seen in the number of oft'enses against the person. The decrease 
in murder (including nonnegligent manslaughter) amounted to 20.2 
percent; rape, 6.5 percent; and aggravated assault, 3.9 percent. The 
increase in negligent manslaughter amounted to 7.2 percent. 



6 



With reference to offenses against property, robbery is the only 
one in which a decrease is shown. These offenses during the first 3 
months of this year showed a decrease of 5.9 percent from the figure 
for the first quarter of 1939. Burghiries and larcenies increased only 
slightly, less than 1 percent in each case. However, auto thefts 
showed a 6-percent increase. This is interesting in view of the fact 
that auto thefts have generally shown a rather steady decrease during 

1931-39. . . 

The figures reflecting annual trends m crime are presented m 
table 2 and are based on the reports of 69 cities each with more than 
100,000 inhabitants representmg a total population of 19,237,302. 
These cities forwarded a complete set of reports during the first 3 
months of each of the years 1931-40. 

As already indicated, the reports from the 69 cities showed an 
increase in aiito theft amounting to 6 percent. However, in examining 
the 1939 and 1940 crime rates for all urban communities, regardless 
of size, it is noted that a slight decrease in auto thefts occurred in 
1940. ' A similar comparison of the crime rates for aggravated assault 
discloses an increase for the larger group of cities, whereas a decrease 
in these crimes is reflected in the reports of the 69 cities over 100,000 
included in table 2. (See table 1 of this issue and the corresponding 
table in vol. X, No. 1 of this bulletin.) 

Table 2. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 69 cities over 100,000 in 
population, January to March, inclusive, 1931-40 

[Total population, 19,237,302, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny- 
theft 




Year 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Number of oflEenses known: 
1931 


359 
367 
382 
317 
334 
293 
324 
301 
312 
249 

4.0 
4.0 
4.2 
3.5 
3.7 
3.2 
3.6 
3.3 
3.5 
2.7 


352 
303 
229 
216 
230 
188 
293 
202 
194 
208 

3.9 
3.3 
2.5 
2.4 
2.6 
2.1 
3.3 
2.2 
2.2 
2.3 


280 
288 
305 
303 
333 
312 
407 
409 
432 
404 

3.1 
3.2 
3.4 
3.4 
3.7 
3.4 
4.5 
4.5 
4.8 
4.4 


5,811 
5,320 
5,217 
3,985 
3,660 
3,193 
3,643 
4.034 
3,518 
3,309 

64.6 
58.5 
58.0 
44.3 
40.7 
35.1 
40.5 
44.8 
39.1 
36.4 


2,254 
1,977 
2,304 
2,183 
2,162 
2,218 
2.282 
2,069 
1,921 
1,846 

25.0 
21.7 
25.6 
24.3 
24.0 
24.4 
25.4 
23.0 
21.3 
20.3 


17, 786 
19, 512 
19, 275 

18, 860 
18, 785 

16, 183 

17, 349 

18, 782 
17, 481 
17, 495 

197.6 
214.4 
214.2 
209.6 
208.7 
177.8 
192.8 
208.7 
194.2 
192.3 


36,429 
37,001 
39, 017 
39, 951 

41, 164 
36, 907 

42, 317 
45, 516 
45, 105 
45, 483 

404.8 
406.6 
433.5 
443.9 
457.4 
405.6 
470.2 
505.7 
501.2 
499.8 


21, 909 


1932 


18, 728 


1933 


17, 181 


1934 - --- - --- 


15, 440 


1935 


14, 578 


1936 


11,687 


1937 


12, 861 


1938 -- 


11,172 


1939 


9,854 


1940 - 


10, 443 


Daily average: 

1931 . 


243.4 


1932 -- 


205.8 


1933 


190.9 


1934 - 


171.6 


1935 


162. 


1936 


128.4 


1937 


142.9 


1938 -- 


124.1 


1939 


109.5 


1940 


114.8 








■J 



229255° — 40- 



8 



Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location. 

Marked variances are found in crime rates in the different sections 
of the United States. This is only to be expected in view of the many 
factors affecting the extent of crime. Comments concerning this 
subject may be found in the text preceding table 5 of this bulletin. 
Individuals interested in comparing local crime conditions with aver- 
ages of other cities of the same size in the same section of the country 
may refer to the figures presented in table 4. 

The data presented in tables 1 and 4 are supplemented by the infor- 
mation shown in table 3 wherein there is indicated the number of police 
departments whose reports were employed m preparing the crime rates 
for each of the subgroups shown in tables 1 and 4. 

Table 3. — Number of cities included in the tabulation of uniform crime reports, 

January to March, inclusive, 1940 





Population 


Division 


Group 


Group 
II 


Group 
HI 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 






Over 
250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


Total 


GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England: 172 cities; total population, 
5,613,972 


2 

6 

9 

4 

3 

3 

3 

1 
5 


12 

11 

10 

5 

6 

3 

5 

1 
4 


10 

22 

23 

7 

13 

4 

7 

2 
6 


26 

30 

49 

10 

18 

5 

11 

6 
13 


61 

128 

104 

52 

31 

23 

26 

15 
34 


61 

311 

303 

156 

96 

37 

77 

60 
116 


172 


Middle Atlantic: 508 cities; total population, 
18,786,581 - 


508 


East North Central: 498 cities; total popula- 
tion 16,140,619 -- --- 


498 


West North Central: 234 cities; total popula- 
tion, 5, 023,861 - - 


234 


South Atlantic: ' 167 cities; total population, 

4 785 837 - 


167 


East South Central: 75 cities; total popula- 
tion, 2,205,745 --- 


75 


West South Central: 129 cities; total popula- 
tion, 3,582,691 - -_- -- 


129 


Mountain: 85 cities; total population, 1,283,- 
719 . 


85 


Pacific: 178 cities; total population, 5,502,017-_ 


178 


Total: 2,040 cities; total population, 
62,925,042 


36 


57 


94 


168 


474 


1,217 


2,046 







1 Includes report of District of Columbia. 



9 



In order that the information may be readily avaihihle, there are 
hsted below the States included in the nine geographic divisions. 

States Divided by Geographic Divisions 



New P'ngland: 
Connecticut. 
Maine. 

Massachusetts. 
New Hamsphire. 
Rhode Island. 
Vermont. 

West North Central: 
Iowa. 
Kansas. 
Minnesota. 
Missouri. 
Nebraska. 
North Dakota. 
South Dakota. 



West South Central: 
Arkansas. 
Louisiana. 
Oklahoma. 
Texas. 



' Includes District of Columbia. 



Middle Atlantic: 
New Jersey. 
New York. 
Pennsylvania. 



South Atlantic:! 
Delaware. 
Florida. 
Georgia. 
Maryland. 
North Carolina. 
South Carolina. 
Virginia. 
West Virginia. 

Mountain: 
Arizona. 
Colorado. 
Idaho. 
Montana. 
Nevada. 
New Mexico. 
Utah. 
Wyoming. 



East North Central: 
Illinois. 
Indiana. 
Michigan. 
Ohio. 
Wisconsin. 



East South Central: 
Alabama. 
Kentucky. 
Mississippi. 
Tennessee. 



Pacific: 

California. 

Oregon. 

Washington. 



Table 4. — Number of offenses knoivn to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to March, inclusive, 1940, by geographic divisions and population groups 



Geographic division and population 
group 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gcnt man- 
slaughter 


Eobbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burglary- 
breaking or 
entering 


Larceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


New England: 
GrouD I 


0.4 
.1 
.1 
.2 
.4 


9.6 
6.2 
2.8 
2.7 
1.7 
.8 


5.1 
3.2 
2.2 
2.8 
.2 
3.1 


41.3 
89.3 
78.5 
63.1 
45.4 
49.9 


86.4 
158.1 

99.8 
113.3 
106.0 

64.5 


92.8 


Group II -- 


48.6 


Group III 


29.1 


Group IV 

Group V- 


26.0 
12.3 


Group VI 


11.5 




-X 




Total, groups I-VI 


.2 


4.7 


2.8 


64.4 


114.6 


41.8 


Middle Atlantic: 

Group I - 


.8 
.5 
.1 
.4 
.4 
.8 


8.9 
5.3 
7.0 
5.1 
3.9 
3.7 


8.5 
4.4 
6.1 
4.0 
3.7 
3.5 


' 78.7 
62.4 
69.8 
52.1 
49.7 
41.1 


I 101.0 

116.4 

108.9 

102.9 

79.0 

68.1 


40.1 


Group II 


36.5 


Group III - 


35.5 


Group IV 


29.7 


Group V. . 


23.0 


Group VI 


15.9 






Total. erouDS I-VI 


.6 


8.0 


5.6 


2 59.8 


2 93.2 


35.0 






East North Central: 

Group I - 


1.2 
.9 
.5 
.4 
.8 
.3 


31.0 

14.6 

10.2 

7.8 

9.1 

5.7 


8.3 
10.4 
4.1 
3.2 
2.9 
2.9 


89.5 
82.0 
69.2 
61.5 
57.4 
55.9 


200.7 
242.5 
161.7 
164.8 
144.8 
87.4 


34.6 


Group II .. 


54.0 


Group III 


30.6 


Group IV 


39.5 


Group V .. .. . 


26.8 


Group VI 


24.2 






Total, groups I-VI 


.9 


20.6 


6.5 


77.5 


180.2 


34.6 







1 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 4 cities. 

2 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 506 cities. 



10 



Table 4. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to March, inclusive, 1940, by geographic divisions and population groups — Contd. 



Geographic division and population 
group 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burglary- 
breaking or 
entering 


Larceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


West North Central: 

GrouD I _-__ 


1.1 
.3 

1.2 
.3 
.3 
.6 


16.1 
10.6 
6.6 
4.5 
4.0 
3.9 


3.0 
4.8 
1.6 
2.1 
3.5 
2.8 


57.8 
75.2 
101.3 
80.2 
56.5 
53.0 


235.6 
182.9 
276.9 
195.5 
195.0 
104.4 


33.5 




41.1 


Group III - - 


48.6 


GrouD IV - 


55.0 




27.9 


Group VI . 


16.7 






Total erouDs I-VI 


.7 


10.0 


3.1 


65.1 


204.3 


34.2 






South Atlantic: 

Group I ' 


2.9 
3.6 
4.0 
3.4 
3.2 
3.0 


31.0 

35.5 
18.8 
19.1 
8.9 
10.6 


18.5 
31.9 
47.4 
28.4 
40.3 
32.1 


116.9 
177.9 
145.8 
135.8 
94.1 
94.4 


243.5 
527.4 
352. 3 
363.3 
240.1 
209.4 


88.4 


Group II 


82.2 


Group III - 


43.0 


GrouD IV -- - 


51.6 


Group V 


30.5 


Group VI 


35.5 






Total, groups I-VI ... 


3.3 


23.8 


30.6 


129.9 


320.7 


63.6 






East South Central: 

Group I 


3.9 
5.1 
3.1 
5.3 
6.3 
4.2 


40.1 
29.5 
18.3 
12.2 
13.4 
8.5 


64.5 
33.3 
54.4 
37.1 
24.2 
29.7 


198.6 
84.6 
127. 8 
121.3 
107.7 
87.8 


300.0 
241.1 
290.2 
361.8 
214.6 
104.8 


55.1 


GrouD II 


50.7 


Group III - -- 


38.9 


Group IV .. 


63.6 


GrouD V 


29.0 


Group VI 


26.0 






Total, groups I-VI . _. 


4.5 . 


26.7 


46.4 


140.8 


265.5 


46.8 






West South Central: 

Group I - 


3.6 
2.2 
2.9 

1.4 

.7 

5.2 


20.8 
24.8 
13.9 

9.1 
10.9 

9.5 


IS. 1 
21.0 
35.2 
15.0 
15.9 
11.2 


115.8 

147.8 

109.1 

99.5 

99.2 

88.3 


433.7 
463.4 
420.6 
331.4 
275.3 
181.8 


49.4 


Group II - - 


52.0 


Group III --- 


41.7 


Group IV . - 


36.0 


Group V -- 


26.8 


Group VI - 


22.4 






Total, groups I-VI 


2.8 


17.2 


18.6 


115.9 


380.9 


41.9 


Mountain: 

Group I - -- 


1.7 

.7 

2.0 


9.5 
18.7 
16.6 
7.8 
7.8 
8.4 


2.7 
1.4 
10.8 
8.7 
4.1 
4.4 


61.4 
126.2 
146.8 
103.0 
108.3 

84.7 


304.6 
240.6 
569.5 
584.5 
492.1 
252.5 


39.2 


Group II 


70.7 


Group III . 


63.6 


GrouD IV 


63.2 


Group V 


.5 
.9 


61.3 


Group VI 


33.6 






Total, groups I-VI 


.9 


10.3 


4.8 


95.9 


382.0 


50.9 


Pacific; 

Group I 


1.0 
1.5 
.7 
.5 
.6 
.5 


30.0 
18.6 
18.2 
18.5 

8.7 
8.1 


10.7 
3.9 
0.6 
4.0 
1.6 
5.0 


177.0 
150.0 
155.3 
131.9 
105.8 
109.9 


391.0 
405.6 
494.1 
421.5 
401.9 
386.9 


116.4 


GrouD II 


73.6 


Group III - 


65.8 


Group IV -. 


87.0 


GrouD V 


57.4 


Group VI ... . 


66.3 






Total, groups I-VI 


.9 


22.7 


7.7 


155.4 


403.9 


95.0 







3 Includes the District of Columbia. 



11 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 100,000 Inhabitants. 

Th(> number of" od'cMisos reported as havijie: been eommitled during 
the first 3 months of 1940 is shown in table 5. The compilation in- 
cludes the reports received from police departments in cities with 
more than 100,000 inhabitants. Such data are included here in 
ordei- that interested individuals and organizations may have readily 
available up-to-date information concerning the amount of crime 
committed in their communities. Police administrators and other 
interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare the 
crime rates of their citi(^s with the average rates shown in tables 1 and 4 
of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire to make 
comparisons with the figures for their communities for prior periods, in 
order to determine whether there has been an increase or a decrease in 
the amount of crime committed. 

A great deal of caution should be exercised in comparing crime data 
for individual cities, because differences in the figures may be due to a 
variety of factors. The amount of crime committed in a community 
is not solely chargeable to the police but is rather a charge against the 
entire community. The following is a list of some of the factors which 
might affect the amount of crime in a community: 

The composition of the popidation with reference particularly to 

age, sex, and race. 
The economic status and activities of the population. 
Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 
The number of police employees per unit of population. 
The standards governing appointments to the police forcie. 
The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 
The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 
The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 

Comparisons between the crime rates of individual cities should not 
be made without giving consideration to the above-mentioned factors. 
It is more important to determine whether the figures for a given com- 
munity show" increases or decreases in the amount of crime committed 
than to ascertain whether the figures are above or below those of some 
other community. 

In examining a compilation of crime figures for individual com- 
munities it should be borne in mind that in view of the fact that the 
data are compiled by different record departments operating under 
separate and distinct administrative systems, it is entirely possible 
that there may be variations in the practices employed in classifying 
complaints of offenses. On the other hand, the crime-reporting hand- 
book has been distributed to all contributors of crime reports, and the 
figures received are included in this bulletin only if they apparently 
have been compiled in accordance with the provisions of the handbook, 
and the individual department has so indicated. 



12 



Table 5. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to March, inclusive, 

1940, cities over 100,000 in population 



City 



Akron, Ohio 

Albany, N. Y 

Atlanta, Ga 

Baltimore, Md 

Birmingham, Ala 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Buflalo, N. Y 

Cambridge, Mass 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 

Chattanooga, Tenn 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio _ 

Columbus, Ohio 

Dallas, Tex 

Dayton, Ohio 

Denver, Colo 

Des Moines. Iowa 

Detroit, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 

Elizabeth, N. J 

El Paso, Tex 

Erie, Pa 

Evansville, Ind 

Fall River, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Gary, Ind 

Grand Rapids, Mich__ 

Hartford, Conn 

Honolulu, T. H_ 

Houston, Tex 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Jersey City, N. J 

Kansas City, Kans 

Kansas City, Mo 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Long Beach, Calif 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn 

Miami, Fla 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn... 

Nashville, Tenn 

Newark, N.J 

New Bedford, Mass... 

New Haven, Conn 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N. Y 

Norfolk, Va 

Oakland, Calif 

Oklahoma City, Okla_ 

Omaha, Nebr 

Paterson, N. J 

Peoria, 111 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Oreg 

Providence, R. I 

Reading, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif... 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle. Wash 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



3 

1 

19 

16 

11 

3 

1 

1 



6 
40 

5 
14 

6 
13 

2 

5 



21 



4 

17 

1 

9 

2 

7 

7 

1 

15 



Robbery 



13 
11 
2 
2 
7 
3 



54 
2 
6 
5 



2 
1 
24 
7 
1 
1 



12 
1 
1 
7 
3 
6 



32 

2 

110 

139 

40 

96 

8 

29 

13 

15 

17 

36 

,616 

97 

241 

86 

62 

21 

28 

21 

381 

7 

9 

22 

10 

10 

5 

16 

13 

27 

39 

6 

12 

3 

103 

97 

75 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



34 
3 

74 

1.38 

82 

45 



36 

6 

19 

20 

50 

313 

43 

26 

15 

39 

4 

8 

5 

181 

2 

2 

6 

2 

12 

2 

27 

2 

5 

34 

2 

17 

4 

35 

52 

44 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



255 

68 

648 

564 

463 

315 

106 

177 

130 

18 

46 

140 

2,716 

538 

782 

648 

477 

150 

180 

129 

1,389 

85 

63 

92 

68 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



(') 



164 
150 
102 
267 
141 
142 
199 
274 
629 
665 
310 
Complete data not received 
171 
365 
65 
318 
2,656 
689 



541 
374 
160 
286 
135 
686 
171 
201 
130 
2,131 
189 
343 
365 
100 
162 
68 
707 
607 
753 
116 
134 
235 
139 
329 
176 
182 
305 
170 
704 
133 
835 



49 

14 

178 

139 

70 

161 

41 

65 

13 

54 

25 

928 

146 

70 

101 

49 

15 

83 

38 

223 

18 

19 

5 

10 
12 
11 
62 
32 
19 
31 
19 
49 
41 
57 
186 
132 



27 


9 


116 


31 


1 


21 


34 


7 


577 


177 


102 


101 


1 




7 


9 


200 


367 


83 


53 


10 


12 


56 


9 


78 


59 


90 


104 


10 


2 


20 





57 


87 


437 


634 


41 


26 


28 


31 


34 


31 


17 


16 


4 


15 


15 


9 


280 


121 


148 


52 


87 


7 


4 


8 


9 


3 


61 


77 


7 


6 


119 


16 


31 


3 


27 


2 


67 


129 


29 


5 


139 


91 


/ 


6 


66 


13 



0) 



0) 



(') 



(') 



131 

42 

67 

,115 

277 

7 

44 

123 

191 
61 

180 

91 

19 

70 

151 

36 
61 
56 
19 
9 
10 

281 
88 

172 
29 
18 
75 
33 

46 
16 
76 
31 
198 
30 
75 



Under 

$50 



406 

132 

1,242 

627 

554 

566 

284 

240 

119 

143 

208 

400 

2,303 

1,202 

2,458 

806 

2,291 

499 

810 

281 

4,676 

249 

130 

265 

124 

305 

61 

424 

356 

925 

246 

451 

469 

542 

1,741 

1,451 

826 

244 
857 
223 
711 

5,172 
706 
52 
156 
827 
730 
821 
562 
251 
918 
208 
261 
338 

4,710 
507 

1,050 
698 
203 
75 
166 
482 
285 

1,245 
145 
159 
795 
343 

2,516 
416 
331 

1,117 
646 

1.694 
137 
904 



Auto 
theft 



117 

43 

281 

664 

89 

865 

77 

139 

111 

58 

14 

58 

740 

150 

234 

178 

110 

71 

115 

72 

825 

44 

35 

47 

75 

81 

21 

111 

135 

56 

46 

93 

122 

56 

214 

367 

81 

38 
148 

44 

108 

2,159 

302 

37 

22 

79 
111 
134 
272 

96 
273 

28 
107 
196 
2,393 
152 
163 

96 
108 

58 

32 

1,115 

463 

226 

102 

22 
142 

92 
179 

71 
102 
168 
117 
622 

60 
310 



' Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



1 



Table 5. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to March, inchisive, 
1940, cities over 100,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Soinerville, Mass... 
South Bend, Ind... 

Spokane, AVash 

Springfield, Mass.. 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo, Ohio 

Trenton, N. J 

Tulsa, Okla 

Utica. N. Y 

Washington, D. C. 
Waterbury, Conn.. 

Wichita. Kans 

Wilmington, DeL.. 

Worcester, Mass 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, Ohio. 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



3 

2 

4 
1 
5 
1 
U 



Robbery 



3 

12 

25 

1 

2 

13 

9 

38 

14 

65 

2 

245 

1 

3 

6 

17 

3 

53 



.Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



8 

7 
2 
1 
28 
22 
10 
11 



83 



2 

19 

3 

3 

33 



Bur- 
glary- 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



28 

89 

207 

87 

93 

118 

165 

338 

121 

254 

32 

649 

67 

46 

105 

95 

21 

156 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



12 
19 
23 
16 
19 
10 
33 
72 
27 
80 
14 
150 
18 

3 
28 
33 

6 
28 



Under 
$50 



42 

212 
505 
199 
189 
205 
487 
838 
234 
781 

no 

1,542 
76 
236 
246 
242 
49 
253 



Auto 
theft 



28 
37 
75 
66 
66 
99 
92 

152 
61 
84 
19 

463 
t)7 
28 
59 
83 
36 

125 



Offenses Knoicn to Sheriffs, State Police, and Other Rural Officers, 1940. 
In compiling national crime statistics, the FBI distinguishes 
between crimes committed in urban communities and those occurring 
in rural areas. The preceding tables in this bulletin have dealt with 
urban crimes. In table 6, there is presented information compiled 
from the reports received during the first 3 months of 1940 from 
1,037 sheriffs, 7 State police organizations, and 99 village officers. 

Table 6.- — Offenses known, January to March, inclusive, 1940, as reported by 1,037 
sheriffs, 7 State police organizations, and 99 village officers 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny- 
theft 






Murder, 
nonncg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 


.\uto 
theft 


Offenses known 


296 


198 


443 


883 


1,271 


6,976 


10,941 


2.161 







14 

Offenses Known in Territories and Possessions of the United States. 

Available crime data for the Territories and possessions of the 
United States are presented in table 7, which includes reports from 
three judicial divisions in Alaska; Honolulu City and the counties 
of Honolulu, Kauai, and Maui, in the Territory of Hawaii; Isthmus 
of Panama, C. Z.; and Puerto Rico. The tabulation is based upon 
the number of offenses known to law-enforcement officials of both 
urban and rural areas, with the exception that the data for Honolulu 
City have been segregated from the figures for Honolulu County. 

Table 7. — Nurnber of offenses known in United States Territories and possessions, 

January to March, inclusive, 1940 

[Population figures from Federal census, Apr. 1, 1930] 





Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny— theft 


.\uto 
theft 


Jurisdiction reporting 


Over 
$50 


Under 

$50 


Alaska: 

First judicial division (Juneau), pop- 
ulation, 19,304; number of offenses 
known 






3 


10 


9 
3 

41 
5 

3 

6 

39 


11 

1 

10 

542 

61 

16 

52 

108 

716 




Second judicial division (Nome), 
population, 10,127; number of of- 
fenses known__ 








Third judicial division (Valdez), pop- 
ulation, 16,309; number of offenses 
known. 






3 

4 
4 
8 
3 
1 
539 


1 

274 

32 

2 

23 

11 

248 




Hawaii: 

Honolulu City, population, 137,582; 
number of offenses known, .. 


4 
1 


3 


56 


Honolulu County, population, 65,341; 
number of offenses known.. 


8 


Kauai County, population, 35,942; 
number of offenses known 


2 


Maui County, population, 56,146; 
number of offenses known 




1 

1 

12 


1 


Isthmus of Panama: Canal Zone, popula- 
tion, 39,467; number of offenses known . 




1 


Puerto Rico: Population, 1,543,913; num- 
ber of offenses known 


73 


20 







Data From Supplementary Offense Reports. 

During the first 3 months of this year, 45.7 percent of the burglaries 
involved residences, and the balance occurred in offices, stores, ware- 
houses, and other business places. The great majority of all bur- 
glaries (78.3 percent) were committed during the night. However, 
of the residence burglaries, only 64.1 percent were committed during 
the night as compared with 90.2 percent of the burglaries perpetrated 
in nonresidence structures. 

Highway robberies constituted 52.7 percent of all the robbery 
offenses. Less than one-fifth of 1 percent were bank robberies; 9.4 
percent involved oil stations; 1.1 percent, chain stores; and 29.2 
percent, other types of commercial houses. 

In 63.8 percent of the larceny cases the value of the property 
stolen was between $5 and $50; in 24.7 percent, the property was 
valued at less than $5; and only 11.5 percent of the thefts involved 
property valued in excess of $50. Thefts of automobile accessories 
and other types of personal property from automobiles parked in 
public places represented 39.6 percent of the larcenies reported, and 
bicycle thefts constituted 9.8 percent. 

More than half (54.4 percent) of the offenses of rape were classified 
as statutory (not forcible — victim under age of consent) in character. 



15 

These fi2:ures represent an analysis of supplementary offense reports 
forwarded to the FBI durinp; tlie first 3 months of 1940 by 52 police 
departments in cities with populations in excess of 100,000, and the 
tiirures upon which the percentages are based are presented in table 8. 

Table 8. — X umber of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of comrtiission, and value of property stolen, January to March, 
inclusive, 1940; 62 cities over 100,000 in population. 

[Total population, 16,543,138, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Classification 


Number 
of actual 

offenses 


Classification 


Number 
of actual 
offenses 


Rape: 

Forcible 


155 

185 


Larceny— theft (except auto theft) 
(grouped according to value of article 
stolen) : 
Over $50 




Statutory - - 








Total.' 


340 


4 845 




$5 to $50 . ._ 






2,155 

1,193 

386 

44 

158 

8 

142 




Robbery: 


Under $5 


10,364 


nierhwav 


Total 




Commercial house.. - 


42, 023 


Oil "station 


Larceny— theft (grouped as to type of 
offense) : 
Pocket-picking .... 


Chain store _ 

Residence . 




Bank 


559 


Miscellaneous 


Purse-snatching . 


1,632 
1 9fi9 




ShoDliftinsr 


Total 


4,086 


Thefts from autos (exclusive of auto 






8,804 
7,828 


Burglary— breaking or entering: 


5,210 
2,923 

8,721 
948 


Auto accessories 


Residence (dwelling) : 


Bicycles. . . 


4, 129 


Committed during night 


Another 


17, 809 


Committed during day 


Total 




Nonresidence (store, office, etc.): 


42, 023 


Committed during night 

Committed during day . 








Total 


17, 802 





The large majority (97.3 percent) of automobiles stolen are recov- 
ered, according to the offense reports received during the first 3 months 
of this year from the 52 cities represented in table 8. As will be seen 
in the following tabulation, 8,795 automobiles were stolen, and during 
the same period 8,560 were recovered. 

Table 9. — Recoveries of stolen automobiles, January to March, inclusive, 1940; 52 

cities over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 16,543,138, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 

Number of automobiles stolen 8, 795 

Number of automobiles recovered 8, 560 

Percentage recovered 97. 3 

Exclusive of automobiles, property stolen in the 52 cities represented 
ill table 8 was valued at $2,762,029.88, and the value of recovered 
property was $610,287.65, or 22.1 percent. Stolen automobiles were 
valued at $3,830,051.40, and during the first quarter of the year 
recoveries of this type of property amounted to $3,704,526.25, or 96.7 
percent. In table 10 there are presented figures relative to the value 
of property stolen and recovered, divided by types of pro])erty, which 
show that for all types of property stolen, including automobiles, 
65.5 percent was recovered. 



22925.0°— 40- 



16 

Table 10. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered loith divisions 
as to type of property involved, January to March, inclusive, 1940; 52 cities over 
100,000 in population 

[Total population, 16,543,138, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Type of property 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Miscellaneous 

Total 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



$635, 128. 16 
686, 462. 51 
153, 486. 70 
361, 379. 49 
3, 830, 051. 40 
925, 573. 02 



6, 592, 081. 28 



Value of prop- 
erty recovered 



$65, 140. 70 

133, 750. 41 

17, 130. 63 

76, 919. 77 

3, 704, 526. 25 

317, 346. 14 



4, 314, 813. 90 



Percent 
recovered 



10.3 
19.5 
11.2 
21.3 
96.7 
34.3 



65.5 



ANNUAL REPORTS, 1939 

Durino; 1930. 79.1 percent of the offenses committed against persons 
were cleared by the arrest of the offenders. Likewise, in 27.7 percent 
of the offenses against property, one or more of the offenders were 
arrested. The highest percentage of clearances was seen in cases of 
criminal homicide (manslaughter by negligence, 87.7 percent, murder 
and nonnegligent manslaughter, 87.4 percent). On an average, 81.8 
percent of the off'enses of rape, and 76.5 percent of other felonious 
assaults were cleared by arrest. The individual figures for the 
predatory crimes against property cleared were as follows: Robbery, 
41.9 percent; burglary, 34.0 percent; larceny, 25.1 percent; and auto 
theft, 24.4 percent. 

Offenses of the types referred to in the first paragraph occurring in 
1,214 cities in the^United States (total population, 39,147,097) last 
year totaled 562,616. Of the 20,066 offenses against the person, 
15,872 were cleared by the arrest of 17,276 individuals; and of the 
542,553 offenses against property, 150,373 were cleared by the arrest 
of 115,568 persons. 

Monthly and annual crime reports are received from police agencies 
throughout the country by the Federal Bureau of Investigation under 
the system of uniform crime reporting. Information concerning the 
number of crimes known to have been committed during 1939, based 
on the monthly reports, has been presented in volume X, No. 4, of 
this publication. Supplementing this type of information, the annual 
crime reports include data concerning the number of offenses disposed 
of by arrest, and the number of persons arrested, as well as figures 
indicating the number of persons found guilty. 

The annual reports received by the Federal Bureau of Investigation 
were all scrutinized, and only those reports were included in the 
following tables which apparently had been compiled according to 
the uniform crime reporting system. For record purposes, it is noted 
here that letters were written to police departments whose reports 
were included in the tabulations in this issue of the bulletin in a 
large number of instances in an effort to obtain the highest possible 
degree of accuracy and uniformity in the reports used. Letters were 
written to the police departments in 18 of the 25 cities having a popu- 
lation in excess of 250,000; in 24 of the 38 cities with a population of 
100,000 to 250,000; in 45 of the 69 cities between 50,000 and 100,000; 
and in 77 of the 106 cities with from 25,000 to 50,000 inhabitants. 
In addition, a questionnaire accompanied the annual return forms, 
and in practically all instances the (|uestionnairc bore appropriate 
entries. In some instances the nature of the entries on the question- 
naire was responsible for the communications subsequently forwarded 
to the contributing agency. The questionnaire related to the several 
phases of the annual returns and was founfl of considerable assistance 
in obtaining uniformly compiled figures. 

(17) 



18 

All of the agencies whose reports are included in the following 
tabulations indicated that the figures concerning offenses known to 
the police were based on records of crimes and complaints of crimes, 
and included all cases brought to the attention of the police. Similarly, 
all of the law-enforcement agencies indicated that figures concerning 
offenses cleared by arrest represented the number of crimes disposed 
of by arrests, or through other specified exceptional circumstances, 
and did not represent the number of persons arrested. 

With reference to the compilations showing persons charged 
(held for prosecution) all but 5 of the police departments in cities with 
populations in excess of 25,000 represented in the following tables 
stated that the figures reflected the number of persons arrested rather 
than the number of charges placed against the persons arrested. 
In other words, if on the occasion of a single arrest a person was 
charged with robbery and auto theft, he was counted as only 1 person 
arrested, the entry being made opposite robbery. Of course, if the 
same person was arrested on different occasions, each case was counted 
as a separate arrest. 

In connection with reports dealing with persons arrested perhaps 
the greatest lack of uniformity appeared in connection with the policy 
as to the inclusion of juveniles taken into custody. The replies re- 
ceived from the police departments of cities with more than 25,000 
inhabitants indicated that 91 percent of the reports forwarded included 
all or part of the juveniles taken into custody. All juveniles were 
said to be included in the reports of 79 percent of the cities. 

A further problem with reference to juveniles is whether juveniles 
listed in the reports were shown opposite the classification embracing 
the violation (i. e., burglary, larceny, etc.) for which they were taken 
into custody, regardless of the nature of the technical charge (i. e., 
"juvenile delinquent," etc.) placed against the juvenile at the time of 
arrest. The response to this item indicated that 95 percent of the 
departments including juveniles in their reports properly listed them 
opposite the classification embracing the violation involved. The 
remaining departments listed arrests of juveniles opposite "All other 
oft'enses." 

An additional problem with reference to the tabulation concerning 
persons arrested appeared in connection with the figures relative to 
the number found guilty. A careful examination of the reports 
indicated in a large number of instances that entries which purported 
to represent the final disposition of the charges placed against per- 
sons arrested in fact merely represented disposition at preliminary 
hearing. Accordingly, there have been included in tables 16 and 17 
only the reports from a limited number of police departments wliich 
appeared to have been properly compiled with reference to persons 
found guilty. 



19 

Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1939. 

In examining: the data presented in the tabnlations which follow, it 
should be borne in mind that there is a distinct difference, under the 
system of miiform crime reporting, between offenses cleared by arrest 
and persons arrested. An offense is considered cleared by arrest 
generally when one or more of the offenders involved in its commission 
have been taken into custody and made available for prosecution. 
It is not necessary that all persons involved be arrested. There are 
certain other exceptional circumstances by which an offense is con- 
sidered cleared, such as the suicide of the offender, responsible person 
in custody in another jurisdiction and not available for local prosecu- 
tion, etc. The general requisites of an "exceptional clearance" are 
that the identity and whereabouts of the offender are known to the 
police, but for some reason beyond their control it is not possible to 
make hmi available for prosecution in the local jurisdiction. 

An examination of the individual reports revealed a considerable 
range of variation in the percentage of offenses listed as cleared by 
individual police departments. This is, of course, entirely reasonable, 
masmuch as some cities have more police per unit of population, 
better record practices, etc., than other cities. It is probably true 
that more crmies are cleared by arrest than are shown in table 11, 
because of instances wherein an offender is arrested and charged with 
a single crime, although in fact he had committed two or more crimes, 
but this was not known to the police. 

There are presented in table 11 figures concerning the number of 
offenses committed, the number cleared by arrest, and the percentage 
of offenses cleared by arrest as reflected in the annual returns of all the 
cities represented. The data are presented for six different groups of 
cities divided according to size, in order that interested individuals may 
compare available local data of this type with national averages for 
cities of any population group, as well as with averages for cities of 
all sizes. 

The figures for the groups of smaller cities reveal that the percentage 
of offenses of auto theft listed as cleared by arrest is somewhat higher 
than for the groups of larger cities. This may accurately represent 
the relative proportion of auto thefts cleared by arrest, but on the 
other hand, it is possible that the reports received from police depart- 
ments in the smaller cities are less accurate in this regard than those 
representing the larger communities. In a very limited number of 
instances it has been detected that in cases where the automobiles 
have been recovered the offenses have been listed as cleared by arrest 
even though the offenders have not been taken into custody. The 
recovery of property does not render an offense cleared under the 
system of uniform crime reporting, and efforts have been made to 
eliminate all such instances from the reports used in the tabulations. 

It will be seen generally that the smallest percentage of offenses 
cleared by arrest is reflected in connection with auto thefts. This is to 
a large extent undoubtedly due to the many so-called "joy-riding" 
cases, the circumstances of which make it extremely difficult to effect 
arrests. However, the reports received from police departments for 
several years have consistently reflected that more than 90 percent 
of all stolen automobiles have been recovered by the police. Detailed 
tabulations concerning the recovery of stolen property for last year 
may be found in volume X, No. 4, of this publication. 



20 



Table 11. — Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and percentage of offenses 
cleared by arrest, 1939, by population groups 



[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, 


by the Bureau of the Census] 








Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 




Population group 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


GROUP I 


















25 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 17,055,000: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest... 


1,172 

1,005 

85.8 


479 

407 

8.5.0 


1,627 

1,239 

76.2 


15, 589 

6,664 

42.7 


6,759 

4,798 

71.0 


50, 884 

19,171 

37.7 


140. 767 

32, 307 

23.0 


28, 769 

6,574 

22.9 


GROUP II 


















38 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 5,382,215: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest.. 


237 

216 

91.1 


265 
224 

84.5 


394 

329 

83.5 


2, 255 

834 

37.0 


2,158 

1,542 

71.5 


22, 051 
6,274 

28.5 


53, 270 

13,546 

25.4 


11,837 

2,767 

23.4 


GROUP ni 


















69 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 4,716,590: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest .. 


232 

211 

90.9 


134 

126 

94.0 


351 

335 

95.4 


1,777 

684 

38.5 


1,824 

1,524 

83.6 


17, 2.56 

5,107 

29.6 


44, 253 

11,337 

25.6 


7,330 

1,569 

21.4 


GROUP IV 


















106 cities, 25,000 to .50,000; total 
population, 3,623,552: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest... 


159 

147 

92.5 


82 

79 

96.3 


267 
233 

87.3 


1,090 

459 

42.1 


1,144 

1,032 

90.2 


12, 107 

3.971 

32.8 


35, 595 

9,241 

26.0 


5,595 

1,362 

24.3 


GROUP V 


















310 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 4,835,725: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest... 


134 

120 

89.6 


117 

102 
87.2 


289 
253 

87.5 


1,134 

466 

41.1 


1,113 

986 

88.6 


13, 051 

4,352 

33.3 


38, 970 

10,783 

27.7 


5,887 

1,810 

30.7 


GROUP VI 


















666 cities under 10,000; total popu- 
lation, 3,534,015: 

Number of oflienses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest... 


88 

68 

77.3 


90 

85 
94.4 


298 

251 

84.2 


748 

354 

47.3 


650 

560 
86.2 


8,634 

3,231 

37.4 


20, 467 

6,292 

30.7 


3,237 

1,218 
37.6 


TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 


















1,214 cities; total population, 
39,147,097: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest... 


2,022 

1,767 

87.4 


1,107 

1,023 

87.7 


3,226 

2,640 

81.8 


22, 593 

9,461 

41.9 


13, 648 

10, 442 

76.5 


123, 983 

42, 106 

34.0 


333, 322 

83, 506 

25.1 


62, 655 

15, 300 

24.4 



In table 12 there are presented data showing the relationship be- 
tween offenses committed, offenses cleared by arrest, and persons 
arrested and held for prosecution. To indicate the manner in which 
the data in the table should be interpreted, it may be noted that for 
group I cities, in examining an average group of 100 offenses of rape, 
76 were found to have been cleared by the arrest of 75 persons. Like- 
wise, of each 100 offenses of burglary — breaking or entering, 37 were 
cleared by the arrest of 23 persons. 

For offenses against persons (criminal homicide, rape, and aggra- 
vated assault) the number of persons charged generally equals or 
exceeds the number of offenses cleared by arrest. For manslaughter 
by negligence it is seen that in several instances the number of persons 
arrested exceeds the number of crimes committed. This is undoubt- 
edly due in part to the practice of some police departments to arrest 



21 



and formally charge all drivers of vehicles involved in traffic fatalities. 
Tliis would include sonic cases in which the police investigation later 
determined the death was the result of negligence on the part of the 
victim, rather tlian the driver, and was therefore not scored as an 
actual offense of negligent manslaughter. 

For offenses against property (rohhery, burglary, larceny, and auto 
theft) the number of offenses cleared is generally considerably in 
excess of the number of persons charged with the crimes. Quite often 
the police department will arrest one individual, and by questioning 
him and through investigation of his activities, clear a number of 
previously unsolved cases. 

Table 12.— Offenses knoivn, offenses cleared by arrest, and persons charged (held for 

prosecution) , 1939, by population groups- — number per 100 known offenses 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 

25 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 17,055,000: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP II 

38 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 5,382,215: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP III 

69 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 4,716,590: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP IV 

106 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 3,023, 552: 

Offenses known _ 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP V 

310 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 4,835,725: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP VI 

600 cities under 10,000; total popu- 
lation, 3,534,015: 

Offenses known. 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged.. 

TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

J 214 cities; total population, 
39,147,097: 

Offenses known. 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



100.0 
85.8 
83.4 



100.0 

91.1 

101.3 



100.0 
90.9 
94.0 



100.0 
92. 5 
95. 6 



100.0 
89.6 
95.5 



100.0 
77.3 
77.3 



100.0 
87.4 
88.2 



Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 



100.0 

85.0 

158.7 



100.0 

84.5 
75.5 



100.0 

94.0 

101.5 



100. 
96. 3 
90.2 



100. 
87.2 
84.6 



100.0 
94.4 
93.3 



100.0 

87.7 

115.9 



Rape 



100.0 
76.2 
75.2 



100.0 
83.5 
97.0 



100.0 
95.4 
98.6 



100.0 

87.3 
96. 



100.0 
87.5 
99. 3 



100.0 
84.2 
79.5 



100.0 
81.8 
84.7 



Rob- 
bery 



100.0 
42.7 
33.4 



100.0 
37.0 
41. 1 



100.0 
38.5 
33.2 



100.0 
42. 1 
52. 1 



100.0 
41. 1 
53.4 



100.0 
47.3 
55.7 



100.0 
41.9 
36.8 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



100.0 
71.0 
77.1 



100.0 

71.5 
76.3 



100.0 

83.6 

101.3 



100.0 
90.2 
80. 1 



100.0 

88.6 

101.3 



100.0 
86.2 
91.4 



100.0 
76.5 
83.6 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



100.0 
37.7 
23.0 



100.0 
28.5 
18.9 



100.0 
29.6 
20.2 



100.0 
32.8 
23.0 



100.0 
33.3 
26.5 



100.0 
37.4 
32.2 



100.0 
34.0 
22.9 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



100.0 
23.0 

18.5 



100.0 
25.4 
19.3 



100.0 
25.6 
21.3 



100.0 
20. 
21.6 



100.0 
27.7 
21.2 



100.0 
30.7 
24.2 



100.0 
25.1 
20.0 



Auto 
theft 



100.0 
22.9 
19.2 



100.0 
23.4 
14.1 



100.0 
21.4 
16.3 



100.0 
24.3 
19.4 



100.0 
30.7 
27.6 



100.0 
37.6 
36.0 



100.0 
24.4 
19.6 



22 




P 

O 



23 

Persons Charged (Held for Prosecution), 1939. 

JVIore than 09 percent of all persons formally charged by the police 
in 1939 were held because of a violation of some motor-veliicle or 
traffic law. This includes persons who were issued parking tickets 
or police summonses and responded thereto. Over 13 percent of all 
persons taken into custody were charged with drunkenness. 

One section of the annual returns forwarded to the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation deals with persons arrested by the police, and there 
is presented in tables 13 and 14 information concerning the number 
of persons formally charged and the rate per 100,000 inhabitants for 
6 groups of cities divided according to size. These tables make it 
possible for interested persons to compare local figures concerning 
persons arrested with national averages for cities of the same size. 
In addition, the tabulation furnishes some basis for estimating the 
number of minor crimes committed; however, it should be borne in 
mind that the rules for scoring the number of items to be recorded 
concerning persons charged are not the same as for scoring the num- 
ber of oft'enses known to have been committed. To illustrate: If two 
persons acting jointly rob a business place and both of the oft'enders 
are arrested and charged with robbery, the offense report (annual 
return B) will show 1 robbery committed and 1 robbery cleared by 
arrest, while the arrest report (annual return C) will show 2 persons 
arrested and charged with robbery. Similarly, if 1 person steals 4 
automobiles, 4 offenses of this type will be reported on the annual 
offense report; and if he is taken into custody, the oft'ense report will 
show 4 auto thefts cleared by arrest, and the arrest report will reflect 
1 person arrested and held for prosecution opposite the auto-theft 
classification. 

Although a large majority of the 4,364,420 persons arrested (in- 
cluding persons who responded to traffic tickets) by the police depart- 
ments represented in table 14 were proceeded against for compara- 
tively minor violations, it may be noted that many arrests were for 
serious crimes, as reflected in the following figures: 

Murder 1,783 Embezzlement and fraud 8,952 

Manslaughter by negligence 1,353 Stolen property (receiving, etc.) _ 3,945 

Robbery 8,311 Forgery and counterfeiting 4,606 

Aggravated assault 11,407 Rape 2,733 

Burglary 28,410 Narcotic drug laws 2,472 

Larceny 66,58,6 Weapons (carrying, etc.) 5,495 

Auto theft 12, 261 

As indicated in table 14 these figures are based on the reports 
received from the police departments in only 1,214 cities with a 
combined population of 39,147,097. 

In a very small number of the reports received from police agencies, 
the data for two or more classifications were presented in a single 
figure. In such instances the arrests were distributed among the 
several classifications in the ratio in which tliey appeared in the 
reports received from the remaining police agencies in the same 
population group. 

As previously shown, 9 to 21 percent of the police departments in 
cities with a population in excess of 25,000 indicated that their annual 
arrest reports did not include all or part of the juveniles arrested. 
Since youthful offenders were frequently involved in oft'enses against 
property, it is apparent that the figures in table 13 showing arrests 
for those violations are quite conservative. 

229255° — iO 4 



24 

Table 13. — Percentage distrihidion of persons charged (held for prosecution), 1939 
(1,214 cities; total population, 39,147,097) 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man 
slaughter 

(6) Manslaughter by negligence 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Other assaults 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, pos 

sessing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 



Percent 



0.04 
.03 
.18 
.25 

1.16 
.63 

1.48 
.27 
.20 

.09 
.10 
.06 



Offense charged 



Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against the family and children 

Liquor laws- 

Driving while intoxicated 

Traffic and motor- vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

All other offenses 

Total 



Percent 



0.71 


.25 


.05 


.12 


.46 


.49 


.92 


69.08 


3.52 


13.06 


1.75 


1.37 


3.73 



100.00 



Table 14. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1939, mimher and rate per 

100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Group I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 

666 
cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
3,534,015 




Offense charged 


25 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
17,065,000 


38 
cities, 
100,000 

to 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
5,382,215 


69 
cities, 
50,000 

to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
4,716,.590 


106 
cities, 
25,000 

to 
50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
3,023,552 


310 
cities, 
10,000 

to 

25,000; 

popu- 

lat on, 

4,835,725 


Total, 
1,214 
cities; 
total pop- 
ulation, 
39,147,097 


Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 
gent manslaughter: 
Number of persons 
charged - . 


977 
5.7 

760 

4.5 

5,204 
30.5 

5,208 
30.5 

22, 233 
130.4 

11,723 
68.7 

2.5, 972 
152.3 

5,520 
32.4 

4,769 
28.0 

1,762 
10.3 

1,269 
7.4 

1,223 
7.2 


240 
4.5 

200 
3.7 

926 

17.2 

1,646 
30.6 

8,308 
154.4 

4, 173 

77.5 

' 10, 294 
202.6 

1,670 
31.0 

1,208 
22.4 

608 
11.3 

815 
15.1 

382 

7.1 


218 
4.6 

136 
2.9 

590 
12.5 

1,847 
39.2 

6,823 
144.7 

3,486 
73.9 

9,418 
199.7 

1,195 
25.3 

3 1, 053 
22.6 

5 511 

11.0 

741 
15.7 

346 
7.3 


152 
4.2 

74 
2.0 

568 
15.7 

985 
27.2 

6,409 
176.9 

2,790 
77.0 

7,675 
211.8 

1,087 
30.0 

629 
17.4 

336 
9.3 

524 
14.5 

258 
7.1 


128 
2.6 

99 
2.0 

606 
12.5 

1,127 
23.3 

6,179 
127.8 

3,458 
71.5 

8,276 
171.1 

1,623 
33.6 

866 
17.9 

469 
9.7 

698 
14.4 

287 
5.9 


68 
1.9 

84 
2.4 

417 
11.8 

594 
16.8 

2,814 
79.6 

2,780 
78.7 

4,951 
140.1 

1,166 
33.0 

427 
12.1 

259 
7.3 

559 
1.5.8 

237 

6.7 


1,783 


Rate per 100,000 


4.6 


(b) Manslaughter by negli- 
gence: 
Number of persons 
charged-. - _.- 


1,353 


Rate per 100,000 .. -- 


3.5 


Robbery: 

Number of persons charged. _ 
Rate per 100,000 . _ . 


8,311 
21.2 


Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged- _ 
Rate per 100,000 


11, 407 
29.1 


Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged. _ 
Rate per 100,000 


52, 766 

134.8 


Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Number of persons charged. . 
Rate per 100,000 


28, 410 
72.6 


Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged. . 
Rate per 100,000 ... 


a 66. 586 
171.4 


Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged. . 
Rate per 100,000 


12, 261 
31.3 


Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged. . 
Rate per 100,000 


« 8, 952 
22.9 


Stolen property; buying, receiv- 
ing, possessing: 
Number of persons charged. _ 
Rate per 100,000 


3,945 
10.1 


Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged. . 
Rate per 100,000 -. .-- 


4,606 
11.8 


Rape: 

Number of persons charged. . 
Rate per 100,000 


2,733 
7.0 



For footnotes, see end of table. 



Table 14.- 



25 



-Persons charged {held for prosecution), 198.9, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabilants, by population groups — Continued 





Group I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 




Offense charged 


25 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
17,055,000 

■ 


38 
cities, 
100,000 

to 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
5,382,215 


69 
cities, 
50.000 

to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
4,716,590 


106 
cities. 
25,000 

to 

50,000; 

popu- 

lat on, 

3,623,552 

1, 260 
34.8 

1,295 
35.7 

00 
1.8 

519 
14.3 

2,396 
66.1 

2,318 
64.0 

5,510 
152. 1 

"211,331 
6, 929. 8 

12,211 
337.0 

57, 233 
1, 579. 5 

7,136 
196.9 

3,643 
100.5 

16,992 
468.9 


310 
cities, 
10,000 

to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
4,835,725 


666 
cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lat on, 
3,534,015 


Total. 
1,214 
cities; 
total pop- 
ulation, 
39,147,097 


Prostitution and commercialized 
vice: 
Number of persons charged. _ 
Rate per 100,000 


'23,011 
137.5 

4,558 
26.7 

1,830 
10.7 

2, 571 
15.1 

10, 445 
61.2 

6, 037 
35.4 

11, 489 
67.4 

" 1,614,829 
10, 493. 5 

79, 155 
464. 1 

254, 078 
1, 489. 8 

25, 771 
151.1 

38, 903 
228.1 

78,049 
457.6 


4, 555 
84.6 

1,838 
34.1 

256 

4.8 

753 
14.0 

« 3, 709 
70.5 

5,538 
102.9 

4,857 
90.2 

■2448,824 
8, 883. 4 

19, 479 
361.9 

102, 150 
1, 897. 9 

16, 479 
306.2 

7,759 
144.2 

24,223 
450.1 


2, 033 
43.1 

1,809 
38.4 

126 
2.7 

739 
15.7 

6 1, 878 
40.4 

4,867 
103.2 

5,348 
113.4 

13327,300 
7, 045. 5 

16, 504 
349.9 

61, 669 
1, 307. 5 

13, 521 
286.7 

7,047 
149.4 

22. 803 
483.5 


814 
16.8 

1,098 
22.7 

111 
2.3 

553 
11.4 

1,638 
33.9 

2,222 
46.9 

7,171 
148.3 

222, 852 
4, 608. 5 

18, 232 
377.0 

70,788 
1, 463. 9 

10, 427 
215. 6 

3,206 
66.3 

16,282 
336.7 


331 
9.4 

551 
15.6 

83 
2.3 

360 
10.2 

828 
23.4 

1,134 
32.1 

7,121 
201.5 

138,000 
3, 904. 9 

13, 836 
391.5 

46, 592 
1,318.4 

6,156 
174.2 

1,552 
43.9 

10, 669 
301.9 


8 32,004 

82.4 


Sex offenses (except rape and 
prostitution) : 
Number of persons charged . . 
Rate per 100,000 


11, 149 

28.5 


Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged.. 
Rate per 100,000-. 


2,472 
6.3 


Weapons; carrying, possessing, 
etc.: 
Number of persons charged.-. 
Rate per 100,000. 


5, 495 
14.0 


Offenses against family and chil- 
dren: 
Number of persons charged... 
Rate per 100,000 


'0 20, 894 
53.6 


Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged... 
Rate per 100,000 


22,116 
56.5 


Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged . . 
Rate per 100,000. 


41,496 
106.0 


Traffic and motor-vehicle laws: 
Number of persons charged... 
Rate per 100,000 


16 2,963,1.36 
8, 004. 1 


Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged... 
Rate per 100,000 


159,417 
407.2 


Drunkenne.ss: 

.Number of persons charged... 
Rate per 100,000 


592, 510 

1,513.5 


Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged... 
Rate per 100,000 


79, 490 
203.1 


Gambling: 

Number of persons charged... 
Rate per 100,000. 


62, 110 

158.7 


All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged... 
Rate per 100,000... 


169. 018 
431.8 







1-18 The number of pensons charged and the rate ate based on the reports from the number of cities indi- 
cated below: 



Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


1 

2 

3.. 

4 

5 


36 
1,212 

68 
1,213 

68 


5, 079, 915 
38, 844, 797 

4, 657, 090 
39, 087, 597 

4, 650, 890 


6 

7. 

8 

9 

10 


1,213 
24 

1,213 
37 

1,212 


39, 081, 397 
16, 737, 100 
38, 829, 197 
5, 264, 615 
38, 963, 797 


11 

12 

13 

14 

15. 


24 

36 

68 

104 

1,208 


15, 388, 900 
5,052,415 
4, 645, 490 
3, 503, 852 

37. 020, 397 







Of the persons formally charged by police departments with traffic 
violations, 59 percent had violated some parking regulation. Thirty- 
one percent of the persons charged with traffic infractions were pro- 
ceeded against for violations of road and driving laws with respect to 
the proper handling of a motor vehicle in order to avoid accidents, 
such as failure to obey traffic signal, improper speed, recldess driving, 
and operating with unsafe equipment. The remaining 10 percent were 



26 



charged with violatmg some other type of traffic or motor- vehicle law, 
including failure to secure proper license for car or driver, leaving scene 
of an accident, lack of title, and obscured or defective markers. 

Figures concerning persons charged with traffic violations and the 
rate per 100,000 inhabitants for 6 different groups of cities divided 
according to size are presented in table 15. 

Table 15. — Persons charged {held for prosecution), traffic violations, except driving 
while intoxicated, 1939; number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population 
groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100,000 

Parking violations: 

Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100,000 

Other traffic and motor-vehicle 
laws: 
Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100,000 



Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


18 cities 


24 cities. 


48 cities, 


73 cities. 


218 cities, 


508 cities 


over 


100,000 to 


50,000 to 


25,000 to 


10.000 to 


under 


250,000; 


250,000; 


100,000; 


50,000; 


25,000; 


10,000; 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


tion. 


tion. 


tion. 


tion, 


tion. 


tion. 


11,234.800 


3,358,107 


3,278,034 


2,509,833 


3,456,110 


2,758,675 

■ 


376, 179 


55, 343 


61, 493 


29, 505 


47, 707 


39, 561 


3, 348. 3 


1, 648. 


1, 875. 9 


1,175.6 


1, 380. 4 


1, 434. 1 


493, 659 


262, 392 


141, 293 


106, 783 


110,335 


44, 095 


4, 394. 


7, 813. 7 


4,310.3 


4, 254. 6 


3, 192. 5 


1, 598. 4 


125. 488 


18,016 


19. 417 


10, 779 


9,958 


12, 322 


1,117.0 


536. 5 


592.3 


429.5 


288.1 


446.7 



Total, 
889 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
26,595,559 



609, 788 
2, 292. 8 

1,158,557 
4, 356. 2 



195, 980 
736. 9 



Offenses Known, Offenses Cleared by Arrest, and Persons Found Guilty. 

Last year 76.9 percent of the persons held for prosecution for 
part I classes of oft'enses (homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, 
burglary, larceny, and auto theft) were found guilty by the courts, 
according to the reports received from 78 police departments in 
cities over 25,000 in population. These reports showed that of the 
36,222 persons formally charged, 23,755 (65.6 percent) were found 
guilty as charged, and 4,096 (11.3 percent) were found guilty of a 
lesser offense. 

The detailed figures for the individual oflFenses are presented in 
table 16 and show not only the offenses known and the offenses 
cleared by arrest for the cities represented, but also the number of 
persons formally charged by the police and the number that were 
found guilty. 

For the part II offense classes, 79.0 percent of the persons held for 
prosecution were found guilty. The police departments in the 
cities represented charged 1,173,642 persons with the violations 
shown in table 17. Of these, 921,718, or 78.6 percent, were found 
guilty of the offense charged, and 4,969, or 0.4 percent, were found 
guilty of lesser offenses. 

The figures for the part II offense classes presented in table 17 
indicate only the number of persons arrested and the number of 
persons found guilty, inasmuch as the annual reports provide for the 
listing of offenses committed only for the part I classes. 

In several instances the offense classes shown in table 17 are not 
identical with those shown in table 14. This is due to the fact that 
some of the reports did not include separate figures for the offense 
classes which have been consolidated in table 17. 



27 

Tlie figures in tables 10 and 17 are limited to the reports received 
from 7S police de])ai-tments. inasmuch as a careful examination of 
them indicated that they had been properly compiled with reference 
to this particular type of information. For record purposes, it may 
be noted that if all persons listed as found ouiUy were indicated as 
havintr been found guilty of the offense charged, the report was not 
inchuled in the tabulation. Similarly the reports showing an un- 
usually low or exceedingly high proportion of persons found guilty 
were excluded, on the assumption that they were probably not 
correct. An additional requirement for inclusion of the report in 
these compilations was that it be accompanied by a statement in- 
dicating affirmatively that the figures concerning persons found 
guilty represented the final disposition of the charge as distinguished 
from the disposition at some intermediate judicial stage. 



Table 16. — Offenses knoivn, offenses cleared by arrest, and number of persons found 
guilty, 1989; 78 cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 12,801,421, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense (Part I classes) 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent 
manslaughter 

(6) Manslaughter by negli- 
gence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary^breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft (except auto theft). 
Auto theft 



Number 

of offenses 

known 

to the 

police 



771 

379 

1,335 

12, 185 

5,197 

40,587 

115, 785 

17, 475 



Number 

of offenses 

cleared 

by arrest 



667 

305 

958 

4,629 

3,335 

14, 084 

25, 849 

3,717 



Number 
of persons 
charged 
(held for 
prosecu- 
tion) 



635 

465 
834 
3,034 
3,688 
7,061 
18, 018 
2,487 



Number 
found 

guilty of 
offense 

charged 



315 

144 
355 
1,597 
1,792 
4,061 
13,719 
1,772 



Number 
found 

guilty of 
lesser 

offense 



79 

21 
167 
819 
412 
1,438 
894 
266 



Total 
found 
guilty (of 
offense 
charged 
or lesser 
offense) 



394 

165 
522 
2,416 
2,204 
5,499 
14,613 
2,038 



Per- 
cent- 
age 
found 
guilty 



62.0 

35.5 
62.6 
79.6 
59.8 
77.9 
81.1 
81.9 



Table 17. — Number of persons charged {held for prosecution) and number found 
guilty, 1939; 78 cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 12,801,421, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census! 



Offense (Part II classes) 



Other assaults 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Sex offenses (including prostitution and commercial 

ized vice) 

Offenses against the family and children... 

Narcotic drug laws 

Lifjuor laws 

Drunkenness; disorderly conduct and vagrancy 

Gambling 

Driving while intoxicated 

Traffic and motor-vehicle laws 

.\11 other offenses 



Number 

of persons 

charged 

(held for 


Number 


Number 


Total 
found 


found 


found 


guilty (of 


guilty of 


guilty of 


offense 


offense 


lesser 


charged or 


tion) 


charged 


offense 


of lesser 
offense) 


14, 022 


8,667 


242 


8,909 


988 


695 


104 


799 


3,985 


2,164 


267 


2,431 


1,309 


709 


111 


820 


1, 604 


1,191 


76 


1,267 


17, 755 


7,528 


156 


7,684 


■ 8, 205 


1 4, 424 


1 192 


14.616 


804 


495 


14 


509 


6,516 


5,113 


148 


5,261 


206, 475 


133, 785 


938 


134, 723 


17, 531 


8,702 


233 


8, 935 


8,533 


6,522 


813 


7,335 


2 843, 054 


2 718, 379 


>915 


2 719, 294 


42, 861 


23, 344 


760 


24, 104 



Percent- 
age 
found 
guilty 



63.5 
80.9 
61.0 
62.6 
79.0 

43.3 

1 56.3 
63.3 
80.7 
65.2 
51.0 
86.0 

2 85.3 
66.2 



1 Based on reports of 77 cities with a total population of 12,683,821. 

2 Based on reports of 77 cities with a total population of 11,135,321. 



28 




00 

<A 
P 
O 

l-H 



29 



ij^W 



i;v*^ ^^^ 




Pi 
D 
O 



30 

Persons Released (Not Held for Prosecution), 1939. 

The annual report concerning persons dealt with by the police 
provides for a listing of the number of persons taken into custody who 
were released without any formal charge having been placed against 
them. Information of this type based on reports received from 
police departments of 872 cities with a total population of 23,955,440 
is presented in table 18. The number of cities represented is sub- 
stantially less than in table 14 because the reports were excluded if 
there were no entries in the column devoted to persons released, or if 
the entries appeared to be incomplete, or otherwise incorrect. Reports 
listing persons released opposite only the classification ''suspicion" 
were included in the compilation. 

The figures in the following table include persons who were taken 
into custody because it was thought they had been involved in the 
commission of crimes and who were later released either because it 
was found that they were innocent or because of insufficient evidence. 
Also, the table includes instances in which youthful persons were 
taken into custody but were released because the complaining wit- 
nesses refused to prosecute when they learned of the youth of the 
offender. Likewise, the compilation includes individuals who were 
taken into custody and released with a reprimand or on the "golden 
rule" principle. Persons summoned, notified, or cited to appear in 
court or at a police traffic bureau because of alleged violations, who 
failed to appear in response thereto, and who were not subsequently 
arrested, are also represented in table 18. Warning tags issued in 
some cities for minor violations of traffic regulations are also repre- 
sented in the following tabulation. 

With reference to the classification "suspicion," it should be noted 
that if a person was taken into custody because it was suspected 
that he had been involved in the commission of a specific offense, 
his arrest and subsequent release without being held for prosecution 
should be listed opposite the offense class involved. Entries in table 
18 opposite "suspicion" should be limited to instances in which 
persons were taken into custody because of circumstances which 
caused the police to believe that they had been involved in criminal 
activities of some nature, although they were not taken into custody 
in connection with some specific offense. From an examination of 
the reports received, it appears probable that in some instances the 
entries were placed opposite "suspicion" when they would have been 
more properly listed opposite some other offense class in accordance 
with the foregoing explanation. 



31 



Table 18. — Persons released without being held for prosecution, 1939; mimber and 
rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent 
manslaughter: 
Number of persons released. . 
Rate per 100,000 

(6) Manslaughter by negligence: 
Number of persons released. . 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

-Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons released. . 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary — breaking or entering: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny — theft: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, 
possessing: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons released . . 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized 
vice: 

Number of persons released. . . 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prosti- 
tution): 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses againstfamily and children: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Numberof persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor- vehicle laws: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000. 

For footnotes, see end of table. 



Group 
I 



16 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

8,982,500 



115 
1.3 

90 
1.0 

745 
8.3 

615 
6.8 

2,309 
2.5.7 

1,321 
14.7 

3,249 
36.2 

471 

5.2 

347 
3.9 



161 

1.8 

78 
.9 

202 
2.2 



5,389 
60.0 



192 
2.1 

200 
2.2 

166 

1.8 

184 
2.0 

532 
5.9 

63 

.7 

5 128, 727 
1, 864. 6 

2, 587 
28.8 



Group 
II 



21 cities, 
100, 000 to 

2.50,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
2,957,797 



6 
.2 

12 

.4 

135 

4.6 

139 
4.7 

271 
9.2 

453 
15.3 

673 

22.8 

204 
6.9 

73 
2.5 



38 
1.3 

37 
1.3 

39 
1.3 



346 

11.7 



77 
2.6 

38 
1.3 

34 
1.1 

'13 
.5 

254 

8.6 

48 
1.6 

87, 515 
3, 330. 1 

600 
20.3 



Group 
III 



46 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
3,113,258 



21 

.7 

24 

.8 

126 
4.0 

115 
3.7 

304 

9.8 

486 
15.6 

1,435 
46.1 

136 
4.4 

117 
3.8- 



<80 
2.6 

82 
2.6 

63 
2.0 



91 
2.9 



138 
4.4 

37 
1.2 

47 
1.5 

I 95 
3.1 

198 
6.4 

86 
2.8 

26, 276 
858.5 

967 
31.1 



Group 
IV 



74 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,620,064 



23 
.9 

10 

.4 

84 
3.2 

22 



149 
5.7 

317 
12.1 

677 
25.8 

123 

4.7 

18 
.7 



27 
1.0 

32 
1.2 

16 
.6 



17 

.6 



77 
2.9 

3 
.1 

4 
.2 

57 
2.2 

40 

1.8 

67 
2.6 

' 50, 131 
1, 935. 6 

555 
21.2 



Group 
V 



234 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
3,646,611 



12 
.3 

9 
.2 

173 
4.7 

83 
2.3 

539 

14.8 

802 
22.0 

1,650 
45.2 

248 
6.8 

138 
3.8 



105 
2.9 

93 
2.6 

35 
1.0 



45 
1.2 



91 
2.5 

19 
.5 

27 
.7 

306 
8.4 

95 
2.6 

143 
3.9 

59, 956 
1, 644. 2 

1,560 
42.8 



Group 
VI 



481 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

2,635,210 



9 
.3 

12 
.5 

139 
5.3 

79 
3.0 

367 
13.9 

838 
31.8 

1,321 
50.1 

259 
9.8 

68 
2.6 



105 
4.0 

83 
3.1 

45 
1.7 



82 
3.1 



74 
2.8 

23 



35 
1.3 

230 

8.7 

100 
3.8 



233 



33, 818 
1, 283. 3 

1,515 
57.5 



Total, 
872 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
23,955,440 



186 



157 

.7 

1,402 
5.9 

1,053 
4.4 

3,939 
16.4 

4,217 

17.6 

9,005 
37.6 

1,441 
6.0 

761 
3.2 



2 516 
2.2 

405 
1.7 

400 
1.7 



5,970 
24.9 



649 

2.7 

320 
1.3 

313 
1.3 

<885 
3.7 

1,225 
5.1 

640 

2.7 

« 386, 423 
1, 800. 3 

7,784 
32.5 



32 

Table 18. — Persons released without being held for prosecution, 1939; number and 
rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 





Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 






I 


11 


111 


IV 


V 


VI 


Total, 
















872 cities; 


Offense 


16 cities 


21 cities. 


46cities, 


74 cities. 


234cities, 


481 cities 


total 


over 


100,000 to 


50,000 to 


25,000 to 


10,000 to 


under 


popula- 




250,000; 


250,000; 


100,000; 


50,000: 


25,000: 


10,000; 


tion, 




popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


23,955,440 




tion, 


tion, 


tion. 


tion. 


tion. 


tion. 






8,982,500 


2,957,797 


3,113,258 


2,620,064 


3,646,611 


2,635,210 




Drunkenness: 
















Number of persons released 


37, 396 


4,871 


15, 454 


3.090 


5,664 


6,960 


73, 435 


Rate per 100,000 


416.3 


164.7 


496.4 


117.9 


155.3 


264.1 


306.5 


Vagrancy: 
















Number of persons released 


205 


1,251 


1,012 


1,746 


2,449 


5,358 


12. 021 


Rate per 100,000 


2.3 


42.3 


32.5 


66.6 


67.2 


203.3 


50.2 


Gambling: 
















Number of persons released 


12, 869 


141 


283 


29 


171 


182 


13, 675 


Rate per 100,000 


143.3 


4.8 


9. 1 


1. 1 


4.7 


6.9 


57.1 


Suspicion: 
















Number of persons released 


66, 437 


12, 460 


20, 040 


7,909 


13, 401 


6,960 


127, 207 


Rate per 100,000 


739.6 


421.3 


643.7 


301.9 


367.5 


264.1 


531.0 


All other oflenses: 
















Number of persons released 


7,304 


2,999 


2,789 


2,592 


4,447 


2,394 


22, 525 


Rate per 100,000 


81.3 


101.4 


89.6 


98.9 


121.9 


90.8 


94.0 







'-'The number of persons released and the rate are based on the reports from the number of cities indicated 
below: 



Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


1 

2 


45 

871 

20 


3, 047, 558 

23, 889, 740 

2, 840, 197 


4 

5 

6 


870 
14 
19 


23, 772, 140 
6, 903, 800 
2, 627, 997 


7 

8 


45 

73 

866 


3, 060, 758 
2. 589. 964 


3 


9 


21, 464, 340 







The figures in table 18 opposite the classification traflfic and motor- 
vehicle laws include all types of violations of traffic laws, inasmuch as 
more detailed information was not included on many of the reports 
used. The reports of 605 cities, however, did present detailed figures 
of this type, and the available data are shown in table 19 for 6 different 
groups of cities. 

It -is noted that 74.6 percent of the persons released were shown 
opposite the classification parking violations, and the corresponding 
percentages for road and driving laws and other traffic and motor- 
vehicle laws were 17.7 and 7.7 percent, respectively. The high per- 
centage of "persons released" for parking violations undoubtedly is the 
result of the issuance of parking tickets without the subsequent re- 
sponse of the offender or his arrest by the police, and the practice 
employed in some jurisdictions of issuing warning tags. 



33 



Table 19. — Persons released without being held for prosecution, traffic violations, 
except driving while intoxicated, 1939; number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, 
by population groxips 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense 



Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Parlcing violations: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Other trafTic and motor-vehicle laws: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 



Group I 



9 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
3,801,600 



22. 633 
595.4 

22, 443 
590.4 

3,158 
83. 1 



Group 
II 



15 cities, 
100,000 

to 
2,50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,968,397 



II, 707 
594.7 

68,364 
3, 473. 1 

7,444 
378.2 



Group 
III 



30cities. 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,125,058 



2,047 
96.3 

22, 327 
1, 050. 7 

2,978 
140.1 



Group 
IV 



47cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,661,068 



2,696 
162.3 

19, 474 
1, 172. 4 

3,479 
209.4 



Group 
V 



167 cit- 
ies, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,507,609 



2,842 
113.3 

46, 746 

1, 864. 2 

1,312 
52.3 



Group 
VI 



337 cit- 
ies un- 
der 
10,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,874,380 



5,665 
302. 2 

21, 035 
1, 1 22. 2 

2,183 
116.5 



Total, 
605 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
13,938,112 



47, 590 
341.4 

200,389 
1, 437. 7 

20,554 
147.5 



Percentage of Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1934-39. 

Annual trends in the percentage of offenses cleared by arrest are 
shown in table 20. With the exception of auto theft the compilation 
does not show for any of the types of crimes a regular annual improve- 
ment in the proportion of cases cleared. It is interesting to note, 
however, that the reports of the 47 cities representing a total popula- 
tion of 16,490,615 have shown a rather steady increase over the. period 
of 1934-39 in the percentage of auto thefts cleared by arrest. The 
proportion of offenses of auto theft cleared increased from 13.4 percent 
in 1934 to 22.5 percent in 1939. For all the other crimes except 
larceny slight decreases were seen in the percentage of offenses cleared 
during 1939 as compared with 1938 in the cities represented. 



Table 20. — Percentage of offenses cleared by arrest, 1934-39 
[47 cities over 100,000, total population 16,490,615, as estimated .Tuly 1, 1933, by the Bureau of thejCensus] 



Year 



1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 



Criminal homicide 


















Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 


Bur- 
glary— 


Lar- 






Murder, 


Man- 


Rape 


vated 


break- 


ceny- 


nonnegli- 


slaughter 




assault 


ing or 


theft 1 


gent man- 


by negli- 








entering 




slaughter 


gence 












80.0 


80.8 


77.7 


35.6 


64.5 


29.0 


24.0 


84.7 


74.3 


69.7 


47.6 


60.8 


33.6 


24.8 


81.0 


80.7 


71.2 


44.8 


62.7 


37.6 


23.9 


80.0 


81.3 


72.1 


35.8 


65.0 


32.8 


22.7 


89.3 


81.9 


76.3 


42.9 


70.2 


36.7 


21.2 


86.6 


81.4 


75.1 


41.0 


69.2 


35.6 


21.4 



Auto 
theft 2 



13.4 
17.2 
19.2 
23.5 
21.4 
22.5 



1 The data for larceny — theft are based on reports of 45 cities with a total population of 16,091,481. 

2 The data for auto theft are based on reports of 43 cities with a total population of 12,099,915. 



34 






1—1 

S i 




H 

H 
Of 







35 

Offenses Knoirn, Offenses Cleared by Arrest, and Persons Charged, by 
(Geographic Divisions, 1939. 

Many persons stiidyint; average figures concerning ofrenses coni- 
inittod, offenses cleared by arrest, and persons charged, will undouDt- 
edly he interested in such data for a i)articular locality or geographic 
division. In the preceding tables, the figures are for the various 
groups of cities divided accordhig to size only; and the information 
presented in tables 21-38 is based on the same reports. However, the 
cities have been divided into nine geographic divisions, and within 
each division the cities have been further subdivided according to size. 
This makes it possible to compare local figures concerning offenses 
cleared by arrest and persons charged with average figures for cities 
of the same size in the same section of the United States. 

In tables such as those which follow, where the cities are divided 
according to size within each geographic division, in some of the 
groui)s the total number of cities represented is necessarily small. 
Under such circumstances considerable variation in the proportion of 
offenses cleared by arrest is to be expected. Unusually low figures 
may be partially attributable to a failure to maintain a complete 
record of offenses cleared. Likewise, inadequate personnel would 
cause a tendency toward low figures. On the other hand, figures 
showing an unusually high proportion of offenses cleared may indicate 
a failure to maintain a complete record of all crimes committed, par- 
ticularly thefts involving property of comparatively small value. 
Such incompleteness in the record of offenses committed would tend to 
result in an artificially high figure concerning the percentage of offenses 
cleared by arrest. 

Figures for prostitution and commercialized vice may be considered 
conservative, inasmuch as in many jurisdictions, persons taken into 
custody for such violations are charged with vagrancy or disorderly 
conduct, and such arrests would of course be listed opposite those 
offense classes. 

For a list of the States included in the nine geographic divisions, 
reference may be made to the data immediately preceding table 4 of 
this issue of the bulletin. 



36 



Table 21.- 



-Numher of offenses knoivn, number and -percentage of offenses cleared by 
arrest, 1939, by population groups 

NEW ENGLAND STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 


Lar- 
ceny- 




Population group 


Murder, 


Man- 


Auto 
theft 




nonnegli- 


slaughter 




assault 


mgor 


theft 




gent man- 


by negli- 








entering 








slaughter 


gence 














Group I.— 2 cities over 250,000; 


















total population, 1,042,500: 


















Number of offenses known , 


8 


51 


127 


375 


201 


1,637 


4.033 


3,255 


Number cleared by arrest 


7 


50 


125 


258 


195 


983 


2,680 


795 


Percentage cleared by arrest. .. 


87.5 


98.0 


98.4 


68.8 


97.0 


60.0 


66.5 


24.4 


Group 11.— 10 cities, 100,000 to 


















250,000; total population, 1,378,105: 


















Number of offenses known 


15 


24 


74 


302 


197 


5,320 


9,959 


2,998 


Number cleared by arrest 


13 


24 


73 


112 


153 


1,387 


2,209 


627 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


86.7 


100.0 


98.6 


37.1 


77.7 


26.1 


22.2 


20.9 


Group III.— 7 cities, 50,000 to 100,- 


















000, total population, 479,699: 


















Number of offenses known 


2 


10 


38 


55 


19 


1.260 


2,719 


575 


Number cleared by arrest 


2 


10 


33 


28 


20 


337 


645 


115 


Percentage cleared by arrest _.- 


100.0 


100.0 


86.8 


50.9 


105.3 


26.7 


23.7 


20.0 


Group IV.— 19 cities, 25,000 to 50,- 


















000; total population, 686,892: 


















Number of offenses known 


4 


10 


32 


99 


70 


2,017 


4.439 


766 


Number cleared by arrest 


4 


10 


30 


59 


53 


651 


1,332 


211 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


100.0 


100.0 


93.8 


59.0 


75.7 


32.3 


30.0 


27.5 


Group v.— 45 cities, 10,000 to 25,- 


















000; total population, 722,606: 


















Number of offenses known 


3 


18 


39 


66 


41 


1,479 


3,443 


432 


Number cleared by arrest 


1 


16 


37 


39 


35 


437 


930 


144 


Percentage cleared by arrest.. . 


33.3 


88.9 


94.9 


59.1 


85.4 


29.5 


27.0 


33.3 


Group VI.— 36 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 232,255: 


















Number of offenses known 




5 


25 


14 


4 


502 


789 


117 


Number cleared by arrest 




5 


23 


6 


3 


234 


258 


60 


Percentage cleared by arrest 




100.0 


92.0 


42.9 


75.0 


46.6 


32.7 


51.3 


Total, 119 cities; total population, 


















4,542,057: 


















Number of oflenses known 


32 


118 


335 


911 


532 


12,215 


25,382 


8,143 


Number cleared by arrest 


27 


115 


321 


502 


459 


4,029 


8,054 


1.952 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


84.4 


97.5 


95.8 


55.1 


86.3 


33.0 


31.7 


24.0 



Table 22. — Persons charged {held for prosecution) , 1939, number and rate per 100,000 

inhabitants, by population groups 

NEW ENGLAND STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Group I 


Group II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


Total, 
















119 cities; 


Offense charged 


2 cities 


10 cities. 


7 cities. 


19 cities, 


45 cities. 


36 cities 


total 


over 


100,000 to 


50,900 to 


25,000 to 


10,000 to 


under 


popula- 




250,000; 


250,000; 


100,000; 


50,000; 


25,000; 


10,000; 


tion. 




popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


4,542,057 




tion, 


tion, 


tion. 


tion. 


tion. 


tion. 






1,042,500 


1,378,105 


479,699 


686,892 


722.606 


232,255 




Criminal homicide: 
















(a) Murder and nonnegligent 
















manslaughter: 
















Number of persons charged 


9 


9 


1 


3 


1 




23 


Rate per 100,000 


.9 


.7 


.2 


.4 


.1 




0.5 


(6) Manslaughter by negligence: 
















Number of persons charged 


83 


27 


10 


7 


16 


5 


148 


Rate per 100,000 


8.0 


2.0 


2.1 


1.0 


2.2 


2.2 


3.3 


Robbery: 
















Number of persons charged 


399 


142 


37 


66 


49 


11 


704 


Rate per 100,000 


38.3 


10.3 


7.7 


9.6 


6.8 


4.7 


15.5 


Aggravated assault: 




Number of persons charged 


193 


163 


27 


68 


44 


5 


500 


Rate per 100,000 


18.5 


11.8 


5.6 


9.9 


6.1 


2.2 


11.0 



37 

Table 22. — Persons charged (held for prosecution) , 1939, number and rate per 100,000 
inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

NEW ENGLAND STATES— Continued 



O Sense charged 



Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100.000 

Burglary — breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100.000.. 

Larceny— thoft : 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged j . 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, 
possessing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000... 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitu- 
tion): 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor-vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 _. 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. 



Group I 



2 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

1,042,500 



10 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,378,105 



1.386 
132.9 

1,606 
154. 1 

2,580 
247.5 

779 
74.7 

149 
14.3 



240 
23.0 

65 
6.2 

127 
12.2 

221 
21.2 



1,496 
143. 5 

202 
19.4 

171 
16.4 

903 

86.6 

179 
17.2 

543 
52.1 

60,982 
5, 849. 6 

408 
39.1 

43, 893 
4,210.4 

104 
15.7 

1,487 
142.6 

6,798 
652.1 



Group II 



1,319 
9.5.7 

1,095 
79.5 

2,115 
153.5 

449 
32.6 

164 
11.9 



138 
10.0 

83 
6.0 

85 
6.2 

186 
13.5 



842 
61.1 

41 
3.0 

73 
5.3 

1,471 
106.7 

283 
20.5 

"' 838 
60.8 

70, 792 
5,136.9 

2,164 
157.0 

25, 262 
1,8.33.1 

1,027 
74.5 

932 
67.6 

6, 866 
498.2 



Group 
III 



7 cities, 
.50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
479,699 



426 

88.8 

237 
49.4 

534 
111.3 

99 
20.6 

24 
5.0 



28 
5.8 

13 

2.7 

35 
7.3 

8 
1.7 



240 
50.0 



16 
3.3 

341 
71.1 

23 

4.8 

283 
59.0 

I 3, 795 
928.8 

314 
65.5 

8,899 
1, 855. 1 

202 

42.1 

297 
61.9 

1,025 
213.7 



Group 
IV 



19 cities, 
25,000 to 

50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 

686,892 



638 
92.9 

4,52 
6.5.8 

1, 165 
169.6 

167 
24.3 

36 
5.2 



41 
6.0 

22 
3.2 

23 
3.3 

46 
6.7 



259 
37.7 



1.2 

27 
3.9 

564 
82.1 

92 
13.4 

560 
81.5 

16, 786 
2, 443. 8 

529 
77.0 

7,745 
1, 127. 5 

388 
56.5 

363 

52.8 

1,949 
283.7 



Group 
V 



45 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
722,606 



535 
74.0 

373 
51.6 

818 
113.2 

170 
2.3.5 

52 

7.2 



49 
6.8 

13 
1.8 

41 
5.7 

8 
1.1 



221 
30.6 

1 
.1 

25 
3.5 

465 
64.4 

58 
8.0 

883 
122.2 

9,771 
1, 352. 2 

382 
52.9 

7,617 
1,054.1 

538 
74.5 

212 
29.3 

2,210 
305.8 



Group 
VI 



36 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
232,255 



232 
99.9 

166 
71.5 

236 
101.6 

54 
23.3 

22 
9.5 



24 
10.3 

12 

5.2 

22 
9.5 



83 
35.7 



10 
4.3 

149 
64.2 

28 
12.1 

389 
167. 5 

2,361 
1,016.6 

140 
60.3 

2,090 
899.9 

66 
28.4 

47 
20.2 

6,52 
280.7 



Total, 
119 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
4,542,057 



4,636 
99.9 

3,929 
86.5 

7,448 
164.0 

1,718 
37.8 

447 



520 
11.4 

208 
4.6 

333 

7.3 

469 
10.3 



3,141 
69.2 

252 
5.5 

322 
7.1 

3,893 
85.7 

663 
14.6 

3,496 
77.0 

a 164, 487 
3, 679. 

3,937 

86.7 

95, 506 
2, 102. 7 

2,385 
,52.5 

3,338 
73.5 

19, 500 
429.3 



'-' The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports of the number of cities as fol- 
lows: (1) 6 cities, 408,599 population; (2) 118 cities, 4,470,957 population. 



38 



Table 23.- 



-Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared 
by arrest, 1939, by population groups 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 


Lar- 
ceny- 




Population group 


Murder, 


Man- 


Auto 
theft 




nonnegli- 


slaughter 




assault 


ing or 


theft 




gent man- 


by negli- 








entering 








slaughter 


gence 














Group I.— 3 cities over 250,000; 


















total population, 2,890,600: 


















Number of offenses known 


148 


48 


154 


926 


777 


3,872 


7,121 


3,914 


Number cleared by arrest 


137 


46 


147 


546 


680 


1,893 


2,922 


589 


Percentage cleared by arrest. _. 


92.6 


95.8 


95.5 


59.0 


87.5 


48.9 


41.0 


15.0 


Group II.— 7 cities, 100,000 to 250,- 


















000; total population, 968,000: 


















Number of offenses known 


9 


46 


62 


151 


154 


2,158 


5,127 


1,415 


Number cleared by arrest 


9 


43 


56 


68 


128 


790 


1,759 


243 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


100.0 


93.5 


90.3 


45.0 


83.1 


36.6 


34.3 


17.2 


Group III.— 15 cities, 50,000 to 100,- 


















000; total population, 1,098,800: 


















Number of offenses known 


28 


9 


77 


237 


337 


3,435 


6,341 


1,536 


Number cleared by arrest 


27 


fi 


81 


127 


291 


950 


1.575 


269 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


96.4 


66.7 


105.2 


53.6 


86.4 


27.7 


24.8 


17.5 


Group IV.— 20 cities, 25,000 to 50,- 


















000; total population, 660,700: 


















Number of offenses known 


9 


26 


75 


121 


154 


1,479 


3,451 


695 


Number cleared by arrest 


5 


25 


62 


55 


146 


504 


884 


146 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


55.6 


96.2 


82.7 


45.5 


94.8 


34.1 


25.6 


21.0 


Group v.— 78 cities, 10,000 to 25,- 


















000; total population, 1,260,063: 


















Number of offenses known 


20 


43 


68 


154 


235 


2,529 


5,702 


1,126 


Number cleared by arrest 


19 


35 


63 


68 


195 


843 


1,534 


349 


Percentage cleared by arrest.. . 


95.0 


81.4 


92.fi 


44.2 


83.0 


33.3 


26.9 


31.0 


Group VI.— 202 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 1,036,114: 


















Number of offenses known 


15 


39 


75 


110 


122 


1,598 


3,060 


547 


Number cleared by arrest 


12 


38 


65 


66 


120 


635 


996 


236 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


80.0 


97.4 


86.7 


60.0 


98.4 


39.7 


32.5 


43.1 


Total, 325 cities; total population, 
7,914,277: 
Number of offenses known 


















229 


211 


511 


1,699 


1,779 


15,071- 


30,802 


9,233 


Number cleared by arrest 


209 


193 


474 


930 


1,560 


5,615 


9,670 


1,832 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


91.3 


91.5 


92.8 


54.7 


87.7 


37.3 


31.4 


19.8 



Table 24. — Persons charged {held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Group I 


Group II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group V 


Group 
VI 


Total, 

325 cities, 

total 




3 cities 


7 cities. 


15 cities, 


20 cities, 


78 cities, 


202 cities 


Offense charged 


over 


100,000 

to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
968,000 


50,000 to 


25,000 to 


10,000 to 


under 


popula- 




250,000; 


100,000; 


50,000; 


25,000; 


10,000; 


tion. 




popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


7, 914, 277 




tion. 


tion, 


tion. 


tion. 


tion. 






2, 890, 600 


1, 098, 800 


660,700 


1, 260, 063 


1,036,114 




Criminal homicide: 
















(a) Murder and nonnegligent 
















manslaughter: 
















Number of persons charged 


136 


8 


26 


5 


20 


11 


206 


Rate per 100,000 


4.7 


.8 


2.4 


.8 


1.6 


1.1 


2.6 


(6) Mans aughter by negligence: 
















Number of persons charged 


43 


49 


17 


27 


39 


37 


212 


Rate per 100,000 


1.5 


5.1 


1.5 


4.1 


3.1 


3.6 


2.7 


Robbery: 
















Number of persons charged 


431 


71 


130 


76 


82 


98 


888 


Rate per 100,000 


14.9 


7.3 


11.8 


11.5 


6.5 


9.5 


11.2 



39 



Table 24. — Persons charged {held for prosecution), 
100,000 hihabitants, by population groups- 



19S9, number 
-Continued 



and rate per 



MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES— Continued 



Offense charged 



Agsravatpd assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Hate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary — breaking or entering: 

Number of jiersons charged 

Rate per 100.000 

Larceny — theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number o f persons charged 

Rate per 100,000_. 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number o f persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 _ 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, 
possessing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitu- 
tion) : 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number o f persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number o f persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor-vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group I 


Group II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


GroupV 


3 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
2, 890, 600 


7 cities, 
100,000 

to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
968,000 


15 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1, 098, 800 


20 cities, 
25,000 to 

50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 

060, 7(X) 


78 cities, 
10,000 to 
2.5,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,260,003 


740 
25.6 


159 
16.4 


307 
27.9 


153 
23.2 


234 
18.6 


4,414 
152.7 


1,288 
133.1 


852 

77.5 


1,296 
196.2 


1,439 
114.2 


1,861 
64.4 


466 
48.1 


664 
60.4 


420 
63.6 


664 

52.7 


2,780 
96.2 


997 
103.0 


1,502 
136.7 


977 
147.9 


1,347 
106. 9 


1,011 
35.0 


153 
15.8 


256 
23.3 


131 

19.8 


272 
21.6 


150 
5.2 


112 

n.6 


189 
17.2 


152 
23.0 


199 
15.8 


292 
10.1 


28 
2.9 


78 
7.1 


40 
6.1 


59 
4.7 


98 
3.4 


61 
6.3 


66 
6.0 


38 
5.8 


98 

7.8 


151 

5.2 


66 
6.7 


92 

8.4 


66 
10.0 


72 
5.7 


5,721 
197.9 


436 
45.0 


432 
39.3 


91 
13.8 


88 
7.0 


435 
15.0 


90 
9.3 


191 

17.4 


121 
18.3 


221 
17.5 


167 

5.8 


17 
1.8 


24 
2.2 


4 
0.6 


14 
LI 


420 
14.5 


51 
5.3 


105 
9.6 


50 
7.6 


79 
6.3 


1,153 
39.9 


293 
30.3 


343 
31.2 


386 
58.4 


407 
32.3 


972 
33.6 


. 93 
9.6 


169 
15.4 


97 
14.7 


128 
10.2 


1,020 
35.3 


318 
32.9 


465 
42.3 


341 
51.6 


643 
51.0 


123, 552 
4, 274. 3 


74, 801 
7, 727. 4 


48,861 
4, 446. 8 


46,298 
7, 007. 4 


56, 223 
4,461.9 


10, 782 
373.0 


2,449 
2,'i3.0 


3,328 
302.9 


2,862 
433.2 


5,138 
407.8 


38, 694 
1,338.6 


10,976 
1, 133. 9 


10, 204 
928.6 


5,743 
869.2 


8,404 
667. 


3, 563 
123. 3 


822 
84.9 


1,475 
134.2 


485 
73.4 


1,094 
86.8 


1,763 
61.0 


286 
29.5 


387 
35.2 


290 
4,3.9 


348 
27.6 


14, 256 
493.2 


2,179 
225.1 


3,712 
337.8 


2,530 
382.9 


3,406 
270.3 



Group 
VI 



202 cities 
under 
10,0(X); 

popula- 
tion, 

1. 036, 114 



129 
12.5 

700 
67.6 

589 
56.8 

1,012 
97.7 

234 
22.6 

171 
16.5 



48 
4.6 

53 
5.1 

64 
6.2 

6 
0.6 



110 
10.6 



0.9 

38 
3.7 

217 
20.9 

68 
6.6 

494 

47.7 

34, 465 
3, 326. 4 

4,145 
400.1 

4, 624 
446.3 

1.135 
109.5 

244 
23.5 

2,338 
225. 7 



Total, 
325 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
7, 914, 277 



1,722 
21.8 

9,989 
126.2 

4,664 
58.9 

8,615 
108.9 

2,057 
26.0 

973 
12.3 



645 
6.9 

414 
5.2 

510 
6.4 

6,774 
85.6 



1,168 
14.8 

235 
3.0 

743 
9.4 

2,799 
35.4 

1,527 
19.3 

3,281 
41.5 

384, 200 
4, 854. 5 

28,704 
362. 7 

78, 645 
993.7 

8,574 
108.3 

3,318 
41.9 

28,421 
359.1 



40 

Table 25. — Niimher of offenses knoivn, number and percentage of offenses cleared 

by arrest, 19S9, by population groups 

EAST NORTH CENTRAL STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census! 





Criminal homicide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Population group 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Group 1— 9 cities over 250,000; total 


















population, 8,370,200: 


















Number of offenses known 


499 


234 


953 


11.010 


3,315 


29, 252 


76, 017 


11, 026 


Number cleared by arrest 


409 


175 


629 


4,116 


1,688 


9,015 


12, 754 


2.108 


Percentage cleared by arrest- __ 


82.0 


74.8 


66.0 


37.4 


50.9 


30.8 


16.8 


19.1 


Group II.— 6 cities, 100,000 to 250,- 


















000; total population, 871,100: 


















Number of offenses known 


37 


52 


89 


381 


305 


3,529 


9.905 


1,965 


Number cleared by arrest 


35 


28 


67 


142 


201 


1.158 


1.994 


457 


Percentage cleared by arrest. __ 


94.6 


53.8 


75.3 


37.3 


65.9 


32.8 


20.1 


23.3 


Group III.— 21 cities, 50,000 to 100,- 


















000: total population, 1.383,300: 


















Number of offenses known 


24 


33 


109 


664 


245 


4,148 


11,024 


1, 952 


Number cleared by arrest 


22 


33 


95 


215 


205 


1,388 


2,842 


538 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


91.7 


100.0 


87.2 


32.4 


83.7 


33.5 


25.8 


27.6 


Group IV.— 32 cities, 25,000 to 50,- 


















000; total population, 1,088,668: 


















Number of offenses known 


40 


19 


72 


340 


137 


3,224 


9,478 


1,673 


Number cleared by arrest 


38 


17 


64 


112 


126 


1,019 


2,509 


452 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


95.0 


89.5 


88.9 


32.9 


92.0 


31.6 


26.5 


27.0 


Group v.— 75 cities, 10,000 to 25,- 


















000: total population, 1,156,068: 


















Number of offenses known 


22 


10 


74 


366 


119 


3,120 


8,348 


1,319 


Number cleared by arrest 


19 


9 


58 


117 


108 


929 


2.048 


370 


Percentage cleared by arrest.. _ 


86.4 


90.0 


78.4 


32.0 


90.8 


29.8 


24.5 


28.1 


Group VI.— 174 cities under 10.000; 


















total population, 954,670: 


















Number of offenses known 


22 


15 


70 


245 


122 


2,243 


4,435 


812 


Number cleared by arrest 


13 


12 


51 


107 


99 


840 


1.366 


296 


Percentage cleared by arrest ... 


59.1 


80.0 


72.9 


43.7 


81.1 


37.4 


30.8 


36.5 


Total, 317 cities; total population, 


















13,824,006: 


















Number of offenses known 


644 


363 


1,367 


13,006 


4,243 


45,516 


119, 207 


18, 747 


Number cleared by arrest 


536 


274 


964 


4,809 


2.427 


14, 349 


23, 513 


4,221 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


83.2 


75.5 


70.5 


37.0 


.57.2 


31.5 


19.7 


22.5 



Table 26. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population grorips 

EAST NORTH CENTRAL STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent 
manslaughter: 
Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

(6) Manslaughter by negligence: 
Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100.000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


9 cities 


6 cities, 


21 cities. 


32 cities, 


75 cities, 


174 cities 


over 


100,000 to 


50,000 to 


25,000 to 


10,000 to 


under 


250,000; 


250,000; 


100,000; 


50,000; 


25,000; 


10,000; 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


tion, 


tion, 


tion. 


tion. 


tion, 


tion, 


8, 370, 200 


871, 100 


1, 383, 300 


1,088,668 


1,156,068 


954, 670 


379 


35 


19 


32 


30 


12 


4.5 


4.0 


1.4 


2.9 


2.6 


1.3 


318 


23 


32 


14 


6 


13 


3.8 


2.6 


2.3 


1.3 


0.5 


1.4 


2,430 


141 


139 


132 


148 


99 


29.0 


16.2 


10.0 


12.1 


12.8 


10.4 


1,895 


181 


229 


126 


131 


85 


22.6 


20.8 


16.6 


11.6 


11.3 


8.9 


8.114 


1,125 


1,081 


1.051 


727 


561 


98.9 


129.1 


78.1 


96.5 


62.9 


58.8 



Total, 
317 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
13, 824, 006 



507 
3.7 

406 
2.9 

3,089 
22.3 

2,647 
19.1 

12, 659 
91.6 



41 

Table 26. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1939, mimhe.r and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

EAST NORTH CENTRAL STATES— Continued 



Offense charged 



Burglary — breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny — theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100.000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, 
possessing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000_ 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prosti- 
tution): 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. _ 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged.. 

Rate per 100,000 

Oflenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor lavFS: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor-vehicle laws: 

Number of per.sons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of i)ersons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other olfenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 


Group 
II 


9 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
8, 370, 200 


6 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
poiiula- 

tion, 
871, 100 


4,090 
48.9 


672 
77.1 


9,758 
llfi.6 


1,245 
142.9 


1,246 
14.9 


251 
28.8 


3,291 
39.3 


231 
26.5 


708 
8.5 


76 

8.7 


420 
5.0 


115 
13.2 


568 
6.8 


76 

8.7 


9,731 
116.3 


303 
34.8 


1,832 
21.9 


160 
18.4 


582 
7.0 


15 
1.7 


889 
10.6 


57 
6.5 


5, 643 
67.4 


330 
37.9 


2,057 
24.6 


434 
49.8 


4,765 
56.9 


730 
83,8 


1597,557 
8,913.3 


2 91, 563 
13,112.3 


22, 061 
263.6 


2,072 
237.9 


89,924 
1, 074. 3 


7,208 
827.5 


7,125 
85.1 


1,767 
202.8 


24, 393 
291.4 


286 
32.8 


23, 049 
275.4 


2,309 
205. 1 



Group 
III 



21 cities, 
.50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,383,300 



594 
42.9 

1,701 
123.0 

282 
20.4 

270 
19.5 



7.1 

164 
11.9 

94 

6.8 

426 
30.8 



312 
22.6 

7 
0.5 

118 
8.5 

479 
34.6 

267 
19.3 

1,929 
139.4 

108, 959 
7, 876. 7 

3,912 

282.8 

10, 956 
792.0 

1,946 
140.7 

1,090 
78.8 

7,065 
510.7 



Group 
IV 



32 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,088,668 



561 
.51. 5 

1,682 
154. 5 

336 
30.9 

212 
19.5 



85 
7.8 

154 
14.1 

81 
7.4 

252 
23.1 



281 
2.5.8 

5 
0.5 

71 
0.5 

533 
49.0 

427 
39.2 

1,668 
153.2 

3 50, 679 
4, 925. 2 

2,851 
261.9 

11,850 
1,088,5 

953 

87.5 

586 
53.8 

4,173 
383. 3 



Group 
V 



75 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,156,068 



769 
66, 5 

1,364 
118.0 

335 
29.0 

187 
16.2 



89 

7.7 

108 
9.3 

67 
5.8 

157 
13.6 



230 
19.9 

4 
0.3 

73 
6.3 

353 
30.5 

141 
12.2 

1,742 
150, 7 

41,044 
3, 550. 3 

3,336 

288.6 

9,720 
840.8 

749 
64.8 

407 
35.2 

3,260 
282.0 



Group 
VI 



174 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

954, 670 



649 
68.0 

992 
103.9 

260 
27.2 

77 
8.1 



51 
5.3 

109 
11.4 

49 
5.1 

35 
3.7 



151 
15.8 

9 
0.9 

58 
6.1 

189 
19.8 

85 
8.9 

1,962 
205.5 

31, 275 
3, 276. 

2,411 
252.5 

7,142 
748.1 

484 
50.7 

273 
28.6 

2,411 
252.5 



Total, 
317 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
13,824,006 



7,335 
53.1 

16, 742 
121,1 

2,710 
19.6 

4,268 
30.9 



1,107 
8.0 

1,070 

7.7 

935 
6.8 

10,904 
78.9 



2,966 
21.5 

622 
4.5 

1,266 
9.2 

7,527 
.54.4 

3,411 
24.7 

12, 796 
92.6 

< 921, 077 
7, 723. 7 

36, 643 
265.1 

136, 800 
989.6 

13,024 
94.2 

27, 035 
195.6 

42, 267 
305.8 



-' The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports of the number of cities as follow.s : 



Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


1 


8 
5 


6, 704, 100 
698, 300 


3 


30 
313 


1 028 968 


2 


4 


11,92,5,406 





42 



Table 27. — Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared 

by arrest, 19S9, by population groups 

WEST NORTH CENTRAL STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Population group 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 


Auto 
theft 




slaughter 


gence 








entering 






Group I.— 4 cities over 250,000; 


















total population, 1,998,500: 


















Number of offenses known 


122 


43 


130 


1,458 


407 


5,414 


20, 846 


3,390 


Number cleared by arrest 


106 


39 


113 


861 


372 


2,915 


6,433 


1,310 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


86.9 


90.7 


86.9 


59.1 


91.4 


53.8 


30.9 


38.6 


Group II.— 4 cities, 100,000 to 250,- 


















000; total population, 582,600: 


















Number of offenses known 


17 


31 


15 


211 


119 


1,695 


3,887 


1,215 


Number cleared by arrest 


18 


30 


12 


70 


104 


479 


1.342 


386 


Percentage cleared by arrest — 


105.9 


96.8 


80.0 


33.2 


87.4 


28.3 


34.5 


31.8 


Group III.— 6 cities, 50,000 to 100,- 


















000; total population, 405,600: 


















Number of offenses known 


13 


6 


22 


179 


40 


1,934 


.5,292 


861 


Number cleared by arrest 


13 


6 


22 


57 


30 


465 


1,052 


188 


Percentage cleared by arrest — 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


31.8 


75.0 


24.0 


19.9 


21.8 


Group IV.— 6 cities, 25,000 to 50,- 


















000; total population, 202,900: 


















Number of offenses known 


6 




9 


58 


9 


621 


2,406 


388 


Number cleared by arrest. . 


5 




9 


31 


8 


180 


711 


152 


Percentage cleared by arrest . 


100.0 




100.0 


53.4 


88.9 


29.0 


29.6 


39.2 


Group v.— 40 cities, 10,000 to 


















25,000; total population, 560,023: 


















Number of offenses known 


11 


11 


36 


126 


61 


1,592 


5, 093 


836 


Number cleared by arrest 


9 


9 


33 


47 


56 


610 


1,381 


345 


Percentage cleared by arrest. . . . 


81.8 


81.8 


91.7 


37.3 


91.8 


38.3 


27.1 


41.3 


Group VI.— 88 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 422,140: 


















Number of offenses known 


9 


8 


32 


85 


31 


995 


2,055 


373 


Number cleared by arrest 


8 


7 


28 


38 


25 


315 


690 


140 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


88.9 


87.5 


87.5 


44.7 


80.6 


31.7 


33.6 


37.5 


Total, 148 cities; total population, 
4,171,763: 
Number of offenses known 


















177 


99 


244 


2,117 


667 


12. 251 


39, 579 


7,063 


Number cleared by arrest 


169 


91 


217 


1,104 


595 


4,964 


11.609 


2,521 


Percentage cleared by arrest — 


89.8 


91.9 


88.9 


52.1 


89.2 


40.5 


29.3 


3.5.7 



Table 28. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 

100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

WEST NORTH CENTRAL STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man 
slaughter: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

(6) Manslaughter by negligence: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons charged-. 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 

V 


Group 
VI 


4 cities 
over 

250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 

1,998,500 


4 cities, 
100,000 

to 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
582,600 


6 cities, 
50,000 

to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
405,600 


6 cities, 
25,000 

to 
50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
202,-900 


40 
cities, 
10,000 

to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
560,023 


88 
cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
422,140 


110 

5.5 


19 
3.3 


10 
2.5 


2 
1.0 


10 

1.8 


6 

1.4 


69 
3.5 


4 
0.7 


5 
1.2 




9 

1.6 


8 
1.9 


910 
45.5 


66 
11.3 


34 

8.4 


24 
11.8 


68 
12.1 


50 
11.8 


556 
27.8 


59 
10.1 


24 
5.9 


9 
4.4 


54 
9.6 


26 
6.2 


2,903 
145.3 


553 
94.9 


205 
50.5 


65 
32.0 


367 
65.5 


177 
41.9 



Total, 

148 
cities; 
total 
popu- 
lation, 
1,171,763 



157 
3.8 

95 
2.3 

1,152 

27.6 

728 
17.5 

4,270 
102.4 



43 

Table 28.— Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1939, nitmher and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

WEST NORTH CENTRAL STATES— Continued 



Offense charged 



RurRlary— breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 , 

Larceny — theft : 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number per persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100.000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possess- 
ing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per lOO.OOO.^ -.. 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged.. 

. Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged.. 

Rate i>er 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution) : 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged.. 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100.000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

'I'rafBc and motor-vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per KW.OOO 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Kate per 100,000.. 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 
I 



4 cities 

over 
2.'-)0,000; 
popu- 
lation, 

i.ggs,^^! 



1,476 
73.9 

3,399 
170.1 

1.064 
53.2 

610 
.30.5 



149 
7.5 

199 
10.0 

114 
5.7 

4,780 
239.2 

381 
19.1 

399 
20.0 

184 
9.2 

1.354 
67.8 

1. 120 
56. 

1.345 
67.3 

252. 296. 
12, 624. 3 

10, 915 
546.2 

18,320 
916.7 

5,910 
295.7 

2. 764 
138.3 

8,269 
413.8 



Group 
II 



4 cities, 
100,000 

to 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
.582,600 



334 
57.3 

1 1. 192 
272.6 

152 
26.1 

151 
25.9 



61 
10.5 

114 
19.6 

13 
2.2 

199 
34.2 

138 
23.7 

7 
1.2 

72 
12.4 

7 32 
6.9 

694 
119.1 

754 
129.4 

47, 183 
8, 098. 7 

1,092 
187.4 

12.688 
2, 177. 8 

3,061 
525.4 

612 
105.0 

1,377 
236.4 



Group 
III 



6 cities, 
.50,000 

to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
405,600 



281 
69.3 

585 
144.2 

101 
24.9 

3 111 
32.1 



59 
2.6 

91 
22.4 

20 
4.9 

79 
19.5 

300 
74.0 

46 
11.3 

29 
7.1 

9 103 
30.3 

108 
26.6 

218 
53.7 

16, 263 
4, 009. 6 

817 
201.4 

5,744 
1.416.2 

880 
217.0 

1,157 
285.3 

538 
132.6 



Group 
IV 



6 cities, 
25,000 

to 
50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
202,900 



134 
06.0 

372 
183.3 

76 
37.5 

12 
5.9 



21 
10.3 

20 
9.9 

8 
3.9 

7 
3.4 

30 
14.8 

7 
3.4 

5 
2.5 

54 
26.6 

85 
41.9 

218 
107.4 

9,012 
4,441.6 

320 
157.7 

2.396 
1,180.9 

615 
303.1 

89 
43.9 

387 
190.7 



Group 
V 



40 
cities, 
10,000 

to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
560,023 



439 
78.4 

1,137 
203.0 

230 
41.1 

79 
14.1 



54 
9.6 

105 

18.7 

34 
6.1 

33 
5.9 

65 
11.6 

19 
3.4 

32 
5.7 

74 
13.2 

408 
72.9 

877 
156.6 

22, 270 
3, 976. 

1,328 
237.1 

7,938 
1,417.4 

1,107 
197.7 

2,50 
44.6 

1,185 
211.6 



Group 
VI 



cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
422,140 



293 
69.4 

529 
125. 3 

132 
31.3 

35 
8.3 



26 
6.2 

70 
16. 6 

25 
5.9 

40 
9.5 

25 
5.9 

21 
5.0 

19 
4.5 

84 
19.9 

205 
48.6 

623 
147.6 

11, 124 
2, 635. 1 

898 
212.7 

4,920 
1, 165. 5 

391 
92.6 

100 
23.7 

1,021 
241.9 



Total, 

148 
cities; 
total 
popu- 
lation, 
4,171,763 



2,957 
70.9 

2 7, 214 
179.2 

1,755 
42.1 

<998 
24.3 



6320 

7.8 

599 
14.4 

214 
5.1 

5,138 
123.2 

939 
22.5 

499 
12.0 

341 

8.2 

» 1, 701 
42.6 

2,620 
62.8 

4,035 
96.7 

358, 148 
8, 585. 1 

15, 370 
368.4 

52,006 
1.246.6 

11,964 
286.8 

4,972 
119.2 

12, 777 
306.3 



'-• The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports of the number of cities, as follows: 



Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


1 


3 

147 
5 

147 
5 


437, 300 
4, 026, 463 

346, 100 
4,112.263 

339,900 


6 


147 
3 
5 

146 


4, 106, 063 


2 


7 


465,000 


3... 


8 


339.900 


4 


9 


3, 988. 463 


5 







44 



Table 29. — Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared 

by arrest, 1939, by popidation groups 

SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 






















Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 


Bur- 
glary— 


Lar- 










Auto 
theft 


Population group 


Murder, 


Man- 


Kape 


vated 


break- 


ceny- 




nonnegli- 


slaughter 




assault 


ing or 


theft 




gent man- 


by negli- 








entering 








slaughter 


gence 














Group 1—2 cities over 250,000; total 


















population, 1,097,500: 


















Number of offenses known 


173 


28 


120 


898 


1,013 


4,148 


8,177 


3,959 


Number cleared by arrest 


147 


26 


107 


375 


981 


1,468 


2,544 


441 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


85.0 


92.9 


89.2 


41.8 


96.8 


35.4 


31.1 


11.1 


Group II.— 3 cities, 100,000 to 


















250,000; total population, 453,510: 


















Number of offenses known 


98 


52 


88 


491 


766 


3.504 


9,628 


1,599 


Number cleared by arrest 


81 


49 


75 


186 


572 


732 


1,669 


263 


Percentage cleared by arrest. . _ 


82.7 


94.2 


85.2 


37.9 


74.7 


20.9 


17.5 


16.4 


Group III.— 6 cities, 50,000 to 


















100.000; total population, 396,524: 


















Number of offenses known 


70 


32 


43 


167 


577 


1,692 


4,926 


622 


Number cleared by arrest 


69 


29 


41 


71 


499 


521 


1,444 


124 


Percentage cleared by arrest. .. 


98.6 


90.6 


95.3 


42.5 


86.5 


30.8 


29.3 


19.9 


Group IV.- 10 cities, 25,000 to 


















50.000; total population, 350,368: 
















• 


Number of offenses known 


70 


14 


38 


182 


578 


1,690 


5,165 


617 


Number cleared by arrest 


65 


15 


39 


82 


512 


653 


1,844 


125 


Percentage cleared by arrest, _ . 


92.9 


107.1 


102.6 


45.1 


88.6 


38.6 


35.7 


20.3 


Group v.— 15 cities, 10,000 to 


















25,000; total population, 237,769: 


















Number of offenses known 


27 


7 


8 


80 


296 


619 


2,128 


300 


Number cleared by arrest 


24 


8 


7 


47 


256 


316 


1,087 


118 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


88.9 


114.3 


87.5 


58.8 


86.5 


51.1 


51.1 


39.3 


Group VI.— 29 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 164,842: 


















Number of offenses known 


19 


3 


10 


41 


111 


605 


1,145 


224 


Number cleared by arrest 


16 


3 


8 


27 


93 


191 


371 


75 


Percentage cleared by arrest__. 


84.2 


100.0 


80.0 


65.9 


83.8 


31.6 


32.4 


33.5 


Total, 65 cities; total population, 


















2,700,503: 


















Number of offenses known 


457 


136 


307 


1,869 


3,341 


12,258 


31,069 


7,321 


Number cleared by arrest 


402 


130 


277 


788 


2,913 


3,881 


8,959 


1,146 


Percentage cleared by arrest. . . 


88.0 


95.6 


90.2 


42.4 


87.2 


31.7 


28.8 


15.7 



Table 30. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Group I 


Group II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


Total, 
















65 cities; 


Offense charged 


2 cities 


3 cities, 


6 cities. 


lOcities, 


15cities, 


29 cities 


total 


over 


100,000 to 


60,000 to 


25,000 to 


10,000 to 


under 


popu- 




250,000; 


250,000; 


100,000; 


50,000; 


25,000; 


10,000; 


lation. 




popu- 


popu- 


popu- 


popu- 


popu- 


popu- 


2,700,603 




lation, 


lation. 


lation, 


lation. 


lation. 


lation. 






1,097,500 


453,510 


396,524 


350,368 


237,759 


164,842 




Criminal homicide: 
















(a) Murder and nonnegligent man- 
















slaughter: 
















Number of persons charged ... 


161 


108 


79 


82 


19 


17 


466 


Rate per 100,000 - . 


14.7 


23.8 


19.9 


23.4 


8.0 


10.3 


17.3 


(b) Manslaughter by negligence: 
















Number of persons charged 


197 


59 


31 


14 


9 


3 


313 


Rate per 100,000 .... 


17.9 


13.0 


7.8 


4.0 


3.8 


1.8 


11.6 



45 

Table 30. — Persons charged {held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabita7its, by population groups — Continued 

SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES— Continued 



Offense charged 



Robbery: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 -.. 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate iier 100,000 

Burglary — breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged..- 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny — theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of i>crsons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Embozzlpment and fraud: 

N um ber of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, pos- 
sessing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

f'orgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 .-. 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution) : 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug lavps: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 __ 

Weapons: carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor-vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged.. 

Rate per 100,000. 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group I 



2 cities 

over 
2.')0,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
1,097,500 



Group II 



3 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
453,510 



526 
47.9 

1,054 
96.0 

3,887 
354.2 

1,361 
124.0 

3,277 
298.6 

628 
57.2 

137 
12.5 



158 
14.4 

152 
13.8 

130 

11.8 

574 
52.3 

161 
14.7 

17 
L5 

504 
4.5.9 

1,071 
97.6 

1, 500 
137.2 

2,330 
212.3 

163, 349 
14, 883. 7 

20,401 

1, 858. 9 

28,672 

2, 612. 5 

1,276 
110.3 

2,511 
228.8 

16,004 
1. 458. 2 



Group 
III 



6 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
396,524 



262 
57.8 

789 
171.0 

3,370 
743.1 

751 
165.6 

2,290 
505. 

221 

48.7 

423 
93.3 



183 
40.4 

86 
19.0 

103 
22.7 

1,197 
263.9 

486 
107.2 

15 
3.3 

217 

47.8 

1,299 
286.4 

1,849 
407.7 

484 
106.7 

49, 073 
10, 820. 7 

7,644 
1, 685. 5 

14, 967 
3, 300. 3 

2,107 
464. 6 

3,010 
663.7 

3,529 
778.2 



82 
20.7 

744 
187.6 

2,957 
745.7 

555 
140.0 

1,662 
419.1 

124 
31.3 

187 
47.2 



103 
26.0 

160 
40.4 

43 
10.8 

679 
171.2 

215 
54.2 

17 
4.3 

266 
67.1 

507 
127.9 

3,489 
879.9 

855 
215.6 

22, 525 
5,680.6 

4,944 

1, 246. 8 

10, 393 

2, 621. 

460 
116.0 

2,426 
611.8 

4,661 
1, 175. 5 



Group 
IV 



lOcities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
350,368 



28.0 

438 
125.0 

2,282 
651.3 

548 
156.4 

1,665 

475.2 

123 
35.1 

147 
42.0 



83 
23.7 

53 
15.1 

37 
10.6 

124 
3.5.4 

386 
110.2 

11 
3.1 

261 
74.5 

638 
182.1 

1,467 
418.7 

941 
268.6 

27, 169 
7, 754. 4 

3,729 
1.064.3 

14, 571 
4, 1.58. 8 

792 
226.0 

1.728 
493.2 

4,546 
1, 297. 5 



Group 
V 



IScities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
237,759 



57 
24.0 

302 

127.0 

1,709 
718.8 

354 
148.9 

984 
413.9 

161 
67.7 

128 
53.8 



62 
26.1 

45 
18.9 

12 
5.0 

85 
35.8 

136 
57.2 

1 
0.4 

138 
58. 

205 
86.2 

541 
227.5 

773 
325.1 

15, 961 
6, 713. 1 

2,765 
1,162.9 

10, 671 
4, 488. 2 

659 
277.2 

975 
410.1 

1,687 
709.5 



Group 
VI 



29 cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
164,842 



31 
18.8 

109 
66.1 

631 
382.8 

231 

140.1 

416 
252.4 

76 
46.1 

19 
11.5 



34 
20.6 

38 
23.1 

9 
5.5 

15 
9.1 

76 
46.1 



Total, 
65 cities; 
total 
popu- 
lation, 
2,700,.503 



101 
61.3 

66 
40.0 

428 
259.6 

667 
404.6 

5,984 
3, 630. 1 

3,022 
1, 833. 3 

7,107 
4,311.4 

110 
66.7 

364 
220.8 

702 
425.9 



1,056 
39.1 

3,436 
127.2 

14, 836 
549.4 

3,800 
140.7 

10, 294 
381.2 

1,333 
49.4 

1,041 
38.5 



623 
23.1 

534 
19.8 

334 
12.4 

2,674 
99.0 

1,460 
54.1 

61 
2.3 

1,487 
55. 1 

3,786 
140.2 

9,280 
343.6 

6,050 
224.0 

284, 061 
10. 518. 8 

42, 505 
1,574.0 

86, 381 
3, 198. 7 

5,404 
200.1 

11,014 
407.8 

31, 129 
1, 152. 7 



46 



Table 31.- 



-Number of offenses known, mimber and percentage of offenses cleared 
by arrest, 1939, by population groups 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES 
[Population as estirnated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 


Lar- 
ceny- 




Population group 


Murder, 


Man- 


Auto 
theft 




nonnegli- 


slaughter 




assault 


mg or 


theft 




gent man- 


by negli- 








entering 








slaughter 


gence 














Group I.i 


















Group II.— 1 city, 100,000 to 250,000; 


















population, 110,600: 


















Number of offenses known 


26 


21 


1 


30 


166 


307 


850 


250 


Number cleared by arrest 


26 


20 


1 


24 


117 


173 


409 


121 


Percentage cleared by arrest. _. 


100.0 


95.2 


100.0 


80.0 


70.5 


56.4 


48.1 


48.4 


Group III.— 3 cities, 50,000 to 100- 


















000; total population, 186,900: 


















Number of oflenses known 


37 


17 


6 


64 


161 


1,004 


1,647 


279 


Number cleared by arrest 


29 


16 


6 


26 


112 


278 


683 


34 


Percentage cleared by arrest__. 


78.4 


94.1 


100.0 


40.6 


69.6 


27.7 


41.5 


12.2 


Group IV.— 1 city, 25,000 to 50,000; 


















population, 32,824: 


















Number of offenses known _. 


1 




3 


15 


15 


144 


308 


69 


Number cleared by arrest 


1 




2 


10 


14 


63 


74 


18 


Percentage cleared bv arrest 


100.0 




66.7 


66.7 


93.3 


43.8 


24.0 


26. 1 


Group v.— 6 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; 


















total population, 96,800: 


















Number of offenses known 


12 


9 


3 


27 


70 


321 


882 


130 


Number cleared by arrest 


12 


9 


3 


15 


64 


111 


331 


33 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


55.6 


91.4 


34.6 


37.5 


25.4 


Group VI.— 8 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 35,651: 


















Number of offenses known 


5 


3 


3 


13 


33 


114 


116 


30 


Number cleared by arrest 


5 


4 


3 


6 


31 


44 


66 


19 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


100.0 


133.3 


100.0 


46.2 


93.9 


38.6 


56.9 


63.3 


Total, 19 cities; total population. 


















462,775: 


















Number of offenses known 


81 


50 


16 


149 


445 


1,890 


3,803 


758 


Number cleared by arrest 


73 


49 


15 


81 


338 


669 


1,563 


225 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


90.1 


98.0 


93.8 


54.4 


76.0 


35.4 


41.1 


29.7 



1 No cities in this population group represented. 

Table 32. — Persons charged {held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man- 
slaughter: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

(6) Manslaughter by negligence: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100.000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 .-. 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 --. 



Group 
I 



(') 



Group 
II 



1 city, 
100,000 

to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
110,600 



28 
25.3 

20 

18.1 

22 
19.9 

117 
105.8 



Group 
III 



3 cities, 

50,000 

to 

100,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

186,900 



34 
18.2 

17 
9.1 

27 
14.4 

154 
82.4 

505 
270.2 



Group 
IV 



1 city, 
25,000 

to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
32,824 



1 
3.0 



24 
73.1 

17 
51.8 

37 
112.7 



Group 
V 



6 cities, 
10,000 

to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
96,800 



13 
13.4 

6 
6.2 

33 
34.1 

85 
87.8 

379 
391.5 



Group 
VI 



8 cities 
under 
10,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
35,651 



5 
14.0 

3 

8.4 

7 
19.6 

39 
109.4 

53 
148.7 



Total, 

19 cities; 
total 

popula- 
tion, 

462,775 



81 
17.5 

46 
9.9 

113 
24.4 

412 
89.0 

974 
210.5 



See footnote at ejid of table. 



47 

Tablk 32. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 19S9, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES-Contiuued 



Offense charged 



BuFRlary— brertkiuR or cnteriiiji: 

\ u in l>or of persons cliMsied 

Krtte per llW.OOO _. l 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Hate per lOD.OOO. 

Auto theft: 

Xuniber of persons charged 

Rate per UX).IX10. , 

Enibe/.z.leniont and fraud: 

N'uniber of persons charged 

Rate per UX),00(1 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, posscss- 
ins; 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per l(X),t)00 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Xuniber of persons charged. 

Rate per U)0,0(X) T 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per lOO.WO .., 

Prostilutioti and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per IW.tXW 

Sex ofTeuses (except rape and prostitution): 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 1(X).(KX) 

Narcotic drus; laws: 

Number of persons charged . . 

Rate per KXi.tXX) 

Weapons; carryiiii;, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged .. .. 

Rate per lOO.iXXl 

Oflfenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charge<.l 

Rate per UXl.tXX) 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per lOO.lXX) 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per lOO.tXX) "'.. 

TraflU' and motor-vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per UX1.(XX) 

Disonierly conduct: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per l(X).(XXt 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per lOO.tXX) 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per UXl.OOO 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate piT KKt.lXX) 

All other otTenses: 

Number of persons cliarged 

Rale per KXt.tXX) 



Group 
I 



(') 



Group 
II 



1 city, 
lOO.tXX) 

to 

S.W.tXX); 

pojiula 

tion. 

IIO.WX) 



171 
154.6 

408 
368,9 

118 
106.7 

2 
1.8 



21 
19.0 

58 
52.4 

1 
0.9 

3lH 
274. 9 



129 
116. (i 

215 
194.4 

682 
616. 6 

198 
179. 

5.079 
, 592. 2 



560 
506.3 

3.963 
,583.2 

784 
708.9 

206 
186.3 



Group 
III 



3 cities. 

50,000 

to 

UX),tXX); 

popula- 
tion, 

1S6,9(X) 



224 
119.9 

968 
517.9 

18 
9.6 

83 
44.4 



67 
35.8 

32 
17.1 

10 
5.4 



Group 
IV 



1 city, 
25,000 

to 
oO.lXX); 
popula- 
tion, 
32,824 



3.7 

6 
3.2 



69 
36.9 

6 
3.2 

529 
•283.0 

394 
210. 8 

13, 362 
7, 149. 3 

1,134 
606.7 

3, 756 
2, 009. 6 

521 
278. S 

457 
244.5 

2.296 
1.228.5 



89 
271.1 

67 
204.1 

25 
76.2 



24.4 



29 
88.3 

18 
54.8 

3 
9.1 

67 
204.1 

6 
IS. 3 



12 
36.6 

32 
97.5 

20 
60.9 

13 
39.6 

153 
466.1 

264 
804.3 

13 
39.6 

94 
286.4 

12 
36.6 

252 
767.7 



Group 
V 



6 cities, 
10,000 

to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion. 
9(5,800 



145 
149.8 

396 
409.1 

43 
44.4 

15 
15.5 



84 
86.8 

27 
27.9 

6 
6.2 

3 
3.1 

10 

10.3 

5 
5.2 

61 
63.0 

6 
6.2 

379 
391.5 

229 
236.6 

2,310 
, 386. 4 

1,165 
, 203. 5 

4, 051 
, 184. 9 

322 
332.6 

173 

178.7 

.536 
5.'>3. 7 



Group 
VI 



8 cities 
under 
10,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
35,651 



53 
148.7 

62 
173.9 

19 
53.3 

8 
22.4 



19.6 

9 
25.2 

3 

8.4 

6 
16.8 

12 
33.7 

2 
5.6 

19 
53.3 

3 
8.4 

93 
260.9 

73 
204.8 

399 
,119.2 

304 

852. 7 

1. 702 
. 774. 1 

45 
126.2 

62 
173.9 

128 
359.0 



Total. 

19 cities: 
total 

popula- 
tion. 

462.775 



682 
147,4 

1,901 
410.8 

223 

48. 2 

lit) 
25.1 



208 
44.9 

144 
31.1 



5.0 

387 
83.6 

34 

7.3 

12 
2.6 

290 
62.7 

262 
56.6 

1.703 
368.0 

907 
196.0 

21,303 
4. 603. 3 

3. 427 
740. 5 

13. 485 
2. 9i;v 9 

1. 766 
381.6 

910 
196.6 

3.212 
694. 1 



' No cities in this population group represented. 



48 



Table 33.- 



-Numher of offenses known, numher and percentage of offenses cleared 
by arrest, 1939, by population groups 

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census]* 





Criminal homicide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 


Lar- 
ceny — 




Population group 


Murder, 


Man- 


Auto 




nonnegli- 


slaughter 




assault 


ing or 


theft 


theft 




gent man- 


by negli- 








entering 








slaughter 


gence 














Group I.— 3 cities over 250,000; total 


















population, 1,066,900: 


















Number of olTenses Icnown 


200 


54 


78 


588 


831 


4,406 


16, 736 


2,006 


Number cleared by arrest 


181 


53 


70 


322 


699 


1,696 


3 022 


823 


Percentage cleared by arrest— _ 


90.5 


98.1 


89.7 


54.8 


84.1 


38.5 


19.3 


41.0 


Group II.— 3 cities, 100,000 to 250,- 


















000; total population, 476,100: 


















Number of offenses known 


28 


18 


25 


325 


317 


2,731 


8,345 


835 


Number cleared by arrest 


27 


16 


19 


116 


185 


1,010 


2,810 


356 


Percentage cleared by arrest. -. 


96.4 


88.9 


76.0 


35.7 


58.4 


37.0 


33.7 


42.6 


Group III.— 5 cities, 50,000 to 100,- 


















000; total population, 311,100: 


















Number of offenses known 


44 


15 


20 


121 


371 


1,433 


4,629 


447 


Number cleared by arrest 


39 


14 


19 


37 


297 


569 


1,252 


115 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


88.6 


93.3 


95.0 


30.6 


SO. I 


39.7 


27.0 


25.7 


Group IV.— 4 cities, 25,000 to 50,- 


















000; total population, 137,900: 


















Number of offenses known 


19 


/ 


10 


61 


117 


420 


1, 899 


207 


Number cleared by arrest 


18 


7 


9 


29 


112 


136 


447 


48 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


94.7 


100.0 


90.0 


47.5 


95.7 


32.4 


23.5 


23.2 


Group v.— 18 cities, 10,000 to 25,- 


















000; total population, 293,230: 


















Number of offenses known 


21 


9 


15 


125 


217 


1.220 


3,576 


413 


Number cleared by arrest 


18 


/ 


12 


56- 


210 


353 


1.158 


162 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


85.7 


77.7 


80.0 


44.8 


96.8 


28.9 


32.4 


39.2 


Group VI.— 21 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 127,483: 


















Number of offenses known 


6 


3 


10 


30 


41 


356 


911 


109 


Number cleared by arrest 


6 


3 


10 


8 


36 


163 


403 


67 


Percentage cleared by arrest. ._ 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


26.7 


87.8 


45.8 


44.2 


61.5 


Total, 54 cities; total population. 


















2,413,013: 


















Number of offenses known 


318 


106 


158 


],250 


1,894 


10, 566 


36, 096 


4,017 


Number cleared by arrest 


289 


100 


139 


568 


1,539 


3,927 


9,292 


1,571 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


90.9 


94.3 


88.0 


45.4 


81.3 


37.2 


2.5.7 


39.1 



Table 34. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man- 
slaughter: 
Number of persons charged.. . 

Rate per 100,000 

(6) Manslaughter by negligence: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. 



Group I 



3 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

1,066,900 



168 
15.7 

31 
2.9 

395 
37.0 

723 
67.8 



Group II 



Group 
III 



3 cities, 
100,000 

te 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
476,400 



29 
6.1 

9 
1.9 

157 
33.0 

117 
24.6 



5 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
311,100 



Group 
IV 



40 
12.9 

14 
4.5 

46 

14.8 

306 

98.4 



4 cities, 
25,000 to 

50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 

137,900 



17 
12.3 

6 
3.fi 

34 
24.7 

103 
74.7 



Group 

V 



18 
cities, 
10,000 

to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
293,230 



17 

5.8 

3 
1.0 

79 
26.9 

204 
69.6 



Group 
VI 



21 
cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
127,483 



6 

4.7 



6.3 

33 
25.9 



Total, 
54 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
2,413,013 



277 
11.5 

64 



719 
29.8 

1,486 
61.6 



49 

Table 34. — Persons charged (held for prosecution) , 1939, number and 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES— Continued 



rate per 



OBense charged 



Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary— breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.... 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, pos- 
sessing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex ofTenses (except rape and prostitu- 
tion): 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor-vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000... 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other ofFpn.ses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group I 


Group II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


3 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

1,066,900 


3 cities, 
100,000 

to 
2.50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
476,400 


5 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
311,100 


4 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
137,900 


18 
cities, 
10,000 

to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
293,230 


21 
cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
127,483 


1,014 
95.0 


433 
90.9 


434 
139.5 


681 
493.8 


723 
246.6 


146 
114.5 


972 
91.1 


453 
95.1 


596 
191.6 


117 

84.8 


271 
92.4 


144 
113.0 


3,004 
2S7. 2 


1,470 
308.6 


1,341 
431. 1 


400 
290.1 


919 
313.4 


233 

182.8 


536 
50.2 


135 
28.3 


138 
44.4 


47 
34.1 


158 
53.9 


59 
46.3 


303 
28.4 


108 
22.7 


83 
26.7 


21 
15.2 


90 
30.7 


3 
2.4 


165 
15.5 


74 
15.5 


102 
32.8 


9 
6.5 


55 
18.8 


28 
22.0 


244 
22.9 


150 
31.5 


100 
32.1 


29 
21.0 


101 
34.4 


16 
12.6 


89 
8.3 


24 
5.0 


20 
6.4 


12 

8.7 


11 
3.8 


9 
7.1 


'577 
77.0 


1,364 
286.3 


40 
12.9 


308 
223.4 


135 
46.0 


45 
35.3 


174 
16.3 


56 
11.8 


338 
108.6 


96 
69.6 


90 
30.7 


13 
10.2 


396 
37.1 


143 
30.0 


16 
5.1 


4 
2.9 


39 
13.3 


1 
0.8 


330 
30.9 


117 
24.6 


76 
24.4 


53 
38.4 


92 
31.4 


19 
14.9 


205 
19.2 


11 
2.3 


3 
1.0 


2 
1.5 


62 
21.1 


4 
3.1 


154 
14.4 


852 
178.8 


218 
70.1 


37 
26.8 


322 
109.8 


65 
51.0 


667 
62.5 


386 
81.0 


180 
57.9 


222 
161.0 


440 
150.1 


163 
127.9 


343, 221 
32, 169. 9 


78, 083 
16, 390. 2 


49, 910 
16, 043. 1 


13, 807 
10, 012. 3 


11,885 
4, 053. 1 


4,158 
3,261.6 


12, 618 
1, 182. 7 


1,898 
398.4 


1,122 
360.7 


584 
423.5 


2,285 
779.3 


437 
342.8 


20,480 
1,919.6 


12, 139 

2, 548. 1 


7,205 
2,316.0 


4,227 
3, 065. 3 


10, 437 
3, 559. 3 


2,883 
2,261.5 


5,784 
542.1 


3,559 
747.1 


1,039 
334.0 


652 
472.8 


992 
338.3 


97 
76.1 


4,802 
450.1 


1,735 
364.2 


979 
314.7 


231 
167.5 


578 
197.1 


191 
149.8 


8,488 
795.6 


3,434 
720.8 


1,076 
345.9 


357 
258.9 


2,110 
719.6 


348 
273.0 



Total, 
54 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
2,413,013 



3,431 
142.2 

2,553 
105.8 

7,427 
307.8 

1,073 
44.5 

608 
25.2 



433 
17.9 

640 
26.5 

165 
6.8 

2 2, 469 
117.8 



767 
31.8 

599 
24.8 

687 
28.5 

287 
11.9 

1,648 
68.3 

2,058 
85.3 

501,064 
20, 765. 1 

18, 944 
785. 1 

57, 371 
2, 377. 6 

12, 123 
502.4 

8,516 
352.9 

15,813 
655. 3 



1-' The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports of the number of cities as follows: 
(!) 2 cities, 749,000 population; (2) 53 cities, 2,095, 1 13 population. 



50 

Table Zb.— Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared 

by arrest, 1939, by population groups 

MOUNTAIN STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 
















Murder, 




Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 


Lar- 
ceny- 




Population group 


Man- 


Auto 
theft 




nonnegli- 


slaughter 




assault 


ing or 


theft 




gent man- 


by negli- 








entering 








slaughter 


gence 














Group I.— 1 city over 250,000; pop- 


















ulation, 293, 200: 


















Number of offenses known 


10 


4 


21 


114 


47 


677 


3,684 


487 


Number cleared by arrest 


10 


4 


16 


72 


45 


535 


564 


330 


Percentage cleared by arrest.. _ 


100.0 


100.0 


76.2 


63.2 


95.7 


79.0 


15.3 


67.8 


Group II ' 


















Group III— 1 city, 50,000 to 100,000; 


















population, 51,300: 


















Number of oflenses known 


2 


2 




18 


5 


237 


402 


85 


Number cleared by arrest 





2 




3 


4 


51 


96 


5 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


100.0 


100.0 




16.7 


80.0 


21.5 


23.9 


5.9 


Group IV— 3 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; 


















total population, 102,500: 


















Number of offenses known 


4 


2 


7 


43 


5 


639 


2, 272 


354 


Number cleared by arrest 


4 


2 


3 


17 


5 


172 


424 


46 


Percentage cleared by arrest. . . 


100.0 


100.0 


42.9 


39.5 


100. 


26.9 


18.7 


13.0 


Group v.— 8 cities, 10,000 to 25,000: 


















total population, 120,500: 


















Number of offenses known 


8 


4 


5 


67 


19 


544 


2,496 


323 


Number cleared by arrest 


8 


3 


5 


33 


18 


236 


846 


43 


Percentage cleared by arrest.. . 


100. 


75.0 


100.0 


49.3 


94.7 


43.4 


33.9 


13.3 


Group VI.— 32 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 159,241: 


















Number of offenses known 


1 


4 


17 


50 


41 


591 


1.786 


243 


Number cleared by arrest 


1 


4 


15 


25 


33 


210 


461 


77 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


100.0 


100.0 


88.2 


50.0 


80.5 


35.5 


25.8 


31.7 


Total, 45 cities; total population. 


















726,741; 


















Number of offenses known 


25 


16 


50 


292 


117 


2,688 


10, 640 


1,492 


Number cleared by arrest 


25 


15 


39 


150 


105 


1.204 


2,391 


501 


Percentage cleared by arrest. .. 


100.0 


93.8 


78.0 


51.4 


89.7 


44.8 


22.5 


33.6 



No cities in this population group represented. 



Table 36. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

MOUNTAIN STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man 
slaughter: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

(6) Manslaughter by negligence: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Num ber of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

^5ee footnotes at end of table. 



Group 

I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


1 city 
over 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
293,200 


(1) 


1 city, 
50,000 

to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
51,300 


3 cities, 
25,000 

to 
50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
102,500 


8 cities, 
10,000 

to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
120,500 


32 cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
159,241 


6 
2.0 




1 
1.9 


3 
2.9 


8 
6.6 


2 
1.3 


9 
3.1 




2 
3.9 


2 
2.0 


5 
4. 1 


3 
1.9 


47 
16.0 




2 
3.9 


21 
20.5 


33 

27.4 


40 

25.1 


18 
6.1 




4 
7.8 


8 
7.8 


19 
15.8 


43 
27.0 



Total, 

45 
cities; 
total 
popu- 
lation, 
726,741 



20 
2.8 

21 
2.9 

143 

19.7 

92 
12.7 



51 



Table 36. — Persons charged {held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 

100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

MOUNTAIN STATES— Conlinued 



Offense charged 



Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary— breakinp or entering: 

Number of persons charged. . 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged ._ 

Rate per 100,000__- 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 10f),000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possess- 
ing: 

Number of persons charged. . . 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex oflenses (except rape and prostitution): 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Oflenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged . . 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 '..I 

Traffic and motor-vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000... 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of i)orsons charged .... 

Rate piT 100.000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged. . .. . 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged . . 

Rate per 100,000 

All other oflenses: 

Number of persons charged . .. 

Rate per 100,000 



Group Group 
I II 



1 city 
over 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
293,200 



10 
3.4 

163 

55.6 

(2) 

157 
53.5 

67 
22.9 



(2) 



2.7 

19 
6.5 

{*) 
(') 

12 
4. 1 

21 
7.2 

59 
20.1 

4 
1.4 

42 
14.3 

301" 
102.7 

21, 835 
', 447. 1 

1,742 
594.1 

4,741 
,617.0 

(*) 
0) 

209 
71.3 

581 
198.2 



0) 



Group 
III 



1 city, 
50,000 

to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
51,300 



24 

46.8 

32 
62.4 

85 
165.7 

5 
9.7 

1 
1.9 



2 
3.9 

17 
33. 1 



41 

79,9 

10 
19.5 

3 

5.8 

18 
35. 1 

2 
3.9 

3 
5.8 

70 
136.5 

1,827 
, 561. 4 

319 

621.8 

727 
, 417. 2 

373 
727.1 

20 
39.0 

238 
463.9 



Group 
IV 



3 cities, 
25,000 

to 
50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
102,500 



95.6 

109 
106.3 

474 
462.4 

27 
26.3 

16 
15.6 



15 
14.6 

20 
19.5 

3 
2.9 

149 
145.4 

26 
25.4 

5 
4.9 

14 
13.7 

44 
42.9 

28 
27.3 

197 
192.2 

11,576 
11,293.7 

456 
444.9 

2,083 
2, 032. 2 

519 
506.3 

32 
31.2 

1,370 
1, 336. 6 



Group 
V, 



8 cities, 
10,000 

to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
120,500 



87 
72.2. 

135 
112.0 

469 
389.2 

51 
42.3 

49 
40.7 



6.6 

47 
39.0 

6 
5.0 

46 
38.2 

4 
3.3 

15 
12.4 

28 
23.2 

11 
9.1 

23 
19.1 

273 
226.6 

10, 945 
9, 083. 

760 
630.7 

2,412 
2, 001. 7 

2,119 
1, 758. 5 

45 
37.3 

781 
648.1 



Group 
VI 



32 cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
159,241 



76 
47.7 

242 
152.0 

421 
264.4 

81 
50.9 

40 
25. 1 



12 

7.5 

55 
34.5 

15 
9.4 

96 
60.3 

18 
11.3 

7 
4.4 

30 

18.8 

18 
11.3 

57 
35.8 

289 
181.5 

4,927 
3, 094. 1 

754 
473.5 

3,453 
2, 168. 4 

782 
491.1 

51 
32.0 

295 
185.3 



Total, 

45 
cities; 
total 
popu- 
lation, 
726,741 



295 
40.6 

681 
93.7 

1,449 
334. 2 

321 

44.2 

173 
23.8 



337 

8.5 

147 
20.2 

43 
5.9 

3332 

76.6 

70 
9.0 

51 
7.0 

149 
20.5 

79 
10.9 

153 
21.1 

1,130 

155. 5 

51, 110 
7, 032. 8 

4,031 
554.7 

13, 416 
1, 846. 

3 3, 793 
874.9 

357 
49.1 

3,265 
449.3 



' No cities in this population group represented. 

> Figures for larceny— theft and stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing, were not separately listed 
on the report for this city. The combined figure for those classes is 617. 

3 The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports of 44 cities with a total population 
of 433, Ml. 

' Figures for prostitution and commercialized vice and vagrancy were not separately listed on the report 
for this city. The combined figure for those classes is 2,394. 



52 



Table 37. — Number of offenses known, nwnber and percentage of offenses- cleared by 

arrest, 1939, by population groups 

PACIFIC STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 




















Kape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 


Lar- 
ceny- 




Population group 


Murder, 


Man- 


Auto 
theft 




nonnegli- 


slaughter 




assault 


ing or 


theft 




gent man- 


by negli- 








entering 








slaughter 


gence 














GROUP I.— 1 city over 250,000; popu- • 


















lation, 295,600: 


















Number of oflenses known 


12 


17 


44 


220 


168 


1,478 


4,153 


732 


Number cleared by arrest 


8 


14 


32 


114 


138 


666 


1,188 


178 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


66.7 


82.4 


72.7 


51.8 


82.1 


45.1 


28.6 


24.3 


GROUP 11.— 4 cities, 100,000 to 250,- 


















000; total population, 541,900: 


















Number of oflenses known 


7 


21 


40 


364 


134 


2,807 


5,669 


1,560 


Number cleared by arrest 


7 


14 


26 


116 


82 


545 


1,354 


314 


Percentage cleared by arrest- . 


100.0 


66.7 


65.0 


31.9 


61.2 


19.4 


23.9 


20.1 


GROUP III.— 5 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; 


















total population, 403,367: 


















Number of offenses known 


12 


10 


36 


272 


69 


2,113 


7,273 


973 


• Number cleared by arrest 


8 


10 


38 


120 


66 


548 


1,748 


181 


Percentage cleared by arrest. _. 


66.7 


100.0 


105.6 


44.1 


95.7 


25.9 


24.0 


18.6 


GROUP IV.— 11 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; 


















total population, 360,800: 


















Number of oflenses known 


7 


4 


21 


171 


59 


1,873 


6,177 


826 


Number cleared by arrest 


7 


3 


15 


64 


56 


593 


1,016 


164 


Percentage cleared by arrest. __ 


100.0 


75.0 


71.4 


37.4 


94.9 


31.7 


16.4 


19.9 


GROUP v.— 25 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; 


















total population, 388,676: 


















Number of oflenses known 


10 


6 


41 


123 


55 


1,627 


7,302 


1,008 


Number cleared by arrest 


10 


6 


35 


44 


44 


517 


1,468 


246 


Percentage cleared by arrest.. . 


100.0 


100.0 


85.4 


35.8 


80.0 


31.8 


20.1 


24.4 


GROUP VI.— 76 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 401,619: 


















Number of oflenses known 


11 


10 


56 


160 


146 


1,630 


6,170 


782 


Number cl eared by arrest 


7 


9 


48 


71 


120 


599 


1,681 


248 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


63.6 


90.0 


85.7 


44.4 


82.8 


36.7 


27.2 


31.7 


Total, 122 cities; total population, 


















2,391,962: 


















Number of oflenses known 


59 


68 


238 


1,310 


630 


11, 528 


36, 744 


5,881 


Number cleared by arrest 


47 


56 


194 


529 


506 


3,468 


8,455 


1,331 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


79.7 


82.4 


81.5 


40.4 


80.3 


30.1 


23.0 


22.6 



Table 38. — Persons charged {held for prosecution) , 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

PACIFIC STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Group 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


Total, 


Oflense charged 


1 city 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

295,600 


4 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
541,900 


5 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
403,367 


11 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
360,800 


25 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
388,676 


76 cities 
under 
10,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
401,619 


122 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
2,391,962 


Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man- 
slaughter: 
Number of persons charged.. 
Rate per 100,000 


8 
2.7 

10 
3.4 

66 
22.3 


4 
0.7 

9 
1.7 

65 
12.0 


8 
2.0 

8 
2.0 

93 
23.1 


7 
1.9 

5 
1.4 

93 

25.8 


10 
2.6 

6 
1.5 

57 
14.7 


9 
2.2 

10 
2.5 

73 

18.2 


46 
1 9 


(6) Manslaughter by negligence: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


48 
2.0 


Robbery: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


447 
18.7 



53 



Table 38.— Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

PACIFIC STATES— Continued 



03ense charged 



Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100.000 

Other assaults. ■ 

Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100,000 

Burglary — breaking or entering: 
Number of persons charged 
Rate perl 00,000... 

Larceny — theft: 

Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 
Rate per 1 00,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100, 000 

Stolen property: buying, receiving, 
possessing: 
Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 
Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100,000. 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100.000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 
Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100.000... 

Sox offenses (except rape and prosti- 
tution): 
Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100,000. _ 

Weapons: carrying, possessing, etc.: 
Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children:" 
Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000... "" 

Driving while intoxicated: " 

Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor-vehicle laws: 
Number of persons charged 
Rste per 100,000 _.",' 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Kate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 
I 



1 city 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

295,000 



29 
9.8 

505 
170.8 

194 
65.6 

537 
181.7 

99 
33.5 

62 
21.0 



10 
3.4 

83 
28.1 

25 
8.5 

210 
71.0 



07 
22.7 

46 

15.6 

14 

4.7 

112 
37.9 

7 
2.4 

518 
175.2 

52, 037 

17,603.9 

228 
77.1 

9, 354 
3,164.4 

752 
254.4 

974 
329.5 

604 
204.3 



Group 
II 



4 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
541,900 



61 
11.3 

220 
40. 6 

231 
42.6 

> 577 
140.9 

191 
35.2 



Group 
III 



17 
3.1 



27 
.5.0 

148 
27.3 

15 

2.8 

560 
104.4 



66 
12.2 

18 
3.3 

37 
6.8 

58 
1Q.7 

651 
120.1 

1,149 
212.0 

' 32, 250 

8, 378. 8 

1,600 
295.3 

14,947 
2, 7.58. 3 

3, 352 

618. 6 

692 
127.7 

4,529 
835.8 



5 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
403,367 



52 
12.9 

339 

84.0 

303 

75.1 

1,040 
257.8 

172 
42.0 

105 
26.0 



24 
5.9 



24.3 

32 
7.9 

321 
79.0 



Group 
IV 



197 
48.8 



2.0 

42 
10.4 

94 
23.3 

61 
15.1 

954 
236. 5 

61,798 
15, .320. 5 

614 
152.2 

3,785 
938.4 

6,62,5 
1,642.4 

234 
58.0 

2,192 
543.4 



11 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
360,800 



63 

17.5 

261 
72.3 

360 
99.8 

873 
242.0 

155 
43.0 

25 
6.9 



13 

3.0 

170 

47.1 

25 
6.9 

216 
59.9 



Group 
V 



90 
24.9 

22 

6.1 

26 
7.2 

143 
39.6 

65 
18.0 

1,.3.50 
374.2 

35, 851 
9, 9.36. 5 

616 
170.7 

8, 605 
2, .385. 

2,638 
731.2 

312 
86.5 

1,428 
395.8 



25 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
388,676 



54 
13.9 

213 
54.8 

308 
79.2 

842 
216.6 

203 
52.2 

67 
17.2 



9 
2.3 

154 
39.6 

38 
9.8 

259 
66.0 



Group 
VI 



121 
31.1 

13 
3.3 

25 
6.4 

55 
14.2 

222 
57.1 

1.311 
337. 3 

52, 443 
13. 492. 7 

1,073 
276.1 

9,538 
2, 4.54. 

2,847 
732. 5 

218 
56.1 

1,107 ! 
284.8 I 



76 cities 
under 

10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

401,619 



125 
31.1 

238 
59.3 

413 
102.8 

1,050 
261 . 4 

251 

62.5 

52 
12.9 



29 
7.2 

197 
49.1 

41 
10.2 

88 
21.9 



63 

15.7 

34 

8.5 

66 
16.4 



24.4 

105 
26.1 

2, 461 
612.8 



43, 307 

10, 783. 1 

1, 725 
429.5 

12,671 
.3,1,55.0 

3.046 

758.4 

220 
54.8 

2,774 
690.7 



Total, 
122cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
2,391,962 



384 
16.1 

1, 770 
74.2 

1,809 
75.6 

2 4,919 
220.1 

1,071 
44.8 

328 
13.7 



112 
4.7 

850 
35.5 

176 
7.4 

1, 660 
69.4 



604 
25.3 

141 

5.9 

210 



560 
23.4 

1,111 
46.4 

7,743 
323. 7 

2 277, 686 
12,424.6 

5,856 
244.8 

58. 900 
2, 462. 4 

19,260 
805. 2 

2, 6,50 
110.8 

12.634 
528.2 



(i\'l ^Hnf "iS'^.S^"^ persons charged and the rate are based on the reports of the number of cities as follows: 
(') 3 cities. 384,900 population; («) 121 cities, 2,2.34,962 population. 



OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in part I and 
part II offenses, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 

Part I Offenses. 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter • includes 
all felonious homicides except those caused by negligence. Does not include 
attempts to kill, assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, or justifiable homi- 
cides. Justifiable homicides excluded from this classification are limited to the 
following types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon by a peace officer in line of 
duty; (2) the killing of a hold-up man by a private citizen who was his intended 
victim. (6) Manslaughter by negligence includes only those cases in which death 
is caused by culpable negligence which is so clearly evident that if the person 
responsible for the death were apprehended he would be prosecuted for man- 
slaughter. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape, assault to rape, and attempted 
rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as highway robbery, stick-ups, robbery 
armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assavlt. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breakirig or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or theft. Includes attempted 
burglary and assault to commit a burglary. Burglary followed by a larceny is 
entered here and is not counted again under larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value. 
(6) Under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depend- 
ing upon the value of property stolen, pocket-picking, purse-snatching, shoplifting, 
or any stealing of property or thing of value which is not taken by force and 
violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" games, forgery, 
passing worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven 
away and abandoned, including the so-called "joy-riding" thefts. Does not 
include taking for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unau- 
thorized use by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses. 

8. Other assaults.- — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or po.ssessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which is 
made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and ol^taining money or property by false pretenses. 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those offenses. 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of regulations 
or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing, and manufactur- 
ing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes or 
regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commer- 
cialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as, prostitution, keeping 
bawdy house, procuring, transporting or detaining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Se.r offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice). — In- 
cludes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

(54) 



55 

15. Offenses against the family and children. — ^Includes offenses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

i6. Narcotic drug /aws.— Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, sale, or use. Exclude Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "Drunkenness" (class 18) and "Driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations, State or local, are placed in 
this class. Exclude Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regulations with 
respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — ^Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor-vehicle laws. — Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters but not in connection with any specific offense and who are released 
without formal charges being placed against them. 

o 



Cy -a, C-s . ^TTh-l 



UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Volume XI 



Number 2 



SECOND QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1940 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume XI— Number 2 
SECOND QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1940 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1940 



IJ. S. SUPFRINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTb 

SEP 5 1940 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Summary of volume XI, No. 2 61-62 

ClassificatioQ of offenses 62-63 

Extent of reporting area 63 

Monthly reports: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population 

(table 39) 64-65 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1939-40 (table 40") 65-67 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location 

(tables 41, 42) 68-72 

Offenses in individual cities over 100,000 in population (table 43) 73-75 

Offenses known to sheriffs and State police (table 44) 75 

Urban and rural crime rates, 1939 (table 45) 76-77 

Offenses known in Territories and possessions (table 46) 78 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 47-49) 79-84 

Police employee data: 

Police killed by criminals, 1939 (table 50) - 85 

Number of police employees, 1939 (tables 51-54) 86-108 

Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1940: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 55) 109-110 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 56-58) 1 10-112 

Number with records showing previous convictions (table 59) 113-114 

Definitions of part I and part II offense classifications 115-116 

(ID 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 

of Justice, Washington, D. C. 



Volume XI July, 1940 Number 2 



SUMMARY 

Annual Crime Trends, January-June, 1939-40. 

Offenses of aggravated assault and negligent manslaughter showed 
increases of 6.5 and 4.2 percent respectively during the first half of 
1940 over the corresponding period of 1939 according to crime reports 
received from 342 cities of 25,000 inhabitants or more. Other crimes 
against the person showed decreases as follows: Murder, 6.4 percent; 
rape, 5.4 percent. 

Robbery showed a decrease of 3.3 percent. Other crimes against 
property showed increases as follows: Larceny, 5.2 percent; auto theft, 
1.2 percent; and burglary, 0.6 percent. 

Crime Rates, 1940. 

During the first half of this year cities over 100,000 in population 
experienced the highest crime rates, except for rapes and other feloni- 
ous assaults. The highest rate for rape was seen in cities over 250,000, 
followed by cities between 2,500 and 10,000. Aggravated assaults 
occurred with most frecpiency in cities with populations from 50,000 to 
100,000, followed by cities over 100,000. Tables are included in this 
issue of the bulletin presenting crime rates for cities grouped according 
to size and also by location. The number of offenses reported during 
the second quarter by individual cities with over 100,000 inhabitants 
is also presented. 

Distribution of Crimes by Type, 1940. 

The majority (58.5 percent) of the offenses reported during the 
first half of this year were classified as larcenies, and more than half 
of these were thefts of some type of property from automobiles or 
thefts of bicycles. Burglary offenses made up 22.9 percent of the 
crimes reported and more than half of such cases involved nonresi- 
dence structures. Twenty-one percent of the burglaries were perpe- 
trated during daytime. Auto thefts represented 11.1 percent, and 
robberies, 3.5 percent of the total crimes reported. The remaining 
4.0 percent consisted of criminal homicides, rapes, and other felonious 
assaults. 

Recoveries were effected in 97 percent of the auto thefts; and recov- 
eries of other types of stolen property amounted to 23 percent. 

Urban and Rural Crime Rates, 1939. 

In studying the urban and rural crime rates for 1939 in several 
selected States it was found that the number of offenses per 100,000 

(61) 



62 

inhabitants occurring in the cities and towns was generally higher 
than the crime rates for the rural sections of the States. This is 
particularly true with reference to crimes against property. In sev- 
eral of the States included in this study it was found that the crime 
rates for offenses against the person were noticeably higher in the 
rural areas than in the urban communities. 

Police Employees, 1939. 

Last year the police departments in cities in the eastern geographic 
divisions (Middle Atlantic, New England, and South Atlantic) had 
more police employees per unit of population than the departments 
in other sections of the country. It was generally found, throughout 
the Nation, that the police departments in the larger cities had more 
employees per 1,000 inhabitants than those in the smaller communities. 

During 1939 there were 18 police officers killed in 374 cities with 
more than 25,000 inhabitants. This represents a rate of 1.8 for every 
5,000,000 inhabitants in the general population. 

In this issue of the bulletin tabulations are presented showing the 
average number of police employees for cities grouped according to 
size and by location. Figures for individual cities are likewise in- 
cluded. 

Persons Arrested. 

Of the 298,423 arrest records examined by the FBI during the 
first half of this year, more represented arrests of persons aged 19 
than any other single age group. Persons under 25 years of age 
represented 33.3 percent of the total. Persons less than 25 years of 
age numbered 53.7 percent of those charged with robbery, 63.3 percent 
of those charged with burglary, 49.1 percent of those charged with 
larceny, and 73.0 percent of those charged with auto theft. 

In examining the 298,423 arrest records received during the period 
of January-June 1940 it was found that 102,589 of these persons had 
previously been convicted of at least 296,510 violations. 

Women were represented by 8.2 percent (24,362) of the 298,423 
arrest records examined. During the comparable portion of 1939, 
women were represented by only 7.1 percent of the records. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to 
the police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting 
or court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following 
group of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be 
those most generally and completely reported to the police : Criminal 
homicide, including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (b) 
manslaughter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; 
burglary — breaking or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The 
figures contained herein include also the number of attempted crimes 
of the designated classes. Attempted murders, however, are reported 
as aggravated assaults. In other words, an attempted burglary or 
robbery, for example, is reported in the bufietin in the same manner 
as if the crime had been completed. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the police depart- 



63 



nients of contributing cities and not merely arrests or cleared cases. 
Coni[)laiiits which upon investigation are learned to be groundless are 
not included in the tabulations which follow. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of crime 
and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions of 
part I and part II offense classifications. 

EXTENT OF REPORTING AREA 

The number of police departments from which one or more crime 
reports were received diu'ing the first half of 1940 is contained in the 
following table. The cities represented are classed according to size, 
and the population figures for cities in excess of 10,000 are estimates 
prepared by the Bureau of the Census as of July 1, 1933. However, 
since no estimates were available for the smaller cities, the 1930 
decennial census figures were used for places under 10,000 in popu- 
lation. 



Population aroup 


Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 


Cities filing returns 


Total pop- 
ulation 


Population repre- 
sented in returns 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


982 


922 


93.9 


60, 406, 254 


59, 331, 103 


98.2 






1 Cities over 2.50,000 --- ^. .. .- 


37 

57 

104 

191 

693 


37 

57 

102 

186 

540 


100.0 

100.0 

98.1 

97.4 

91.1 


29, 695, .500 
7, 850, 312 
7, 045, 274 
6,714,212 
9, 100, 956 


29, 695, 500 
7, 850, 312 
6, 894, 574 
6,531,112 
8, 359, 605 


100 


2. Cities 100,000 to 250,000- 


100 


3. Cities 50,000 to 100,000 


97.9 


4. Cities 25,000 to 50,000 


97.3 


fi. Cities 10,000 to 25,000 


91.9 







Note. — The above table docs not include 1,722 cities and rural townships aggregating a total population 
of 8,563,142. The cities included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 population filing returns, whereas 
the rural townships are of varying population groups. 

The growth of the uniform crime reporting area is indicated by the 
following tabulation. These figures were compiled for the first 6 
months of 1932-40. 



Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


1932_.. 


1,536 
1,606 
1,645 
1,949 
2,189 


62, 692. 749 
64, 208, 740 

62, 319, 945 

63, 270, 583 
64, 648, 798 


1937-. 


2,278 
2,512 
2,615 
2,644 


65 241 398 


19.33 -- 


1938- . 


66, 659, 040 
67 293 0''8 


1934 - .. 


1939 

1940 


1935 .. 


67, 894, 245 


19.36 







The additional 29 cities shown in the above tabulation for the first 
lialf of 1940, as compared with the corresponding period of 1939, 
increased the population represented in the uniform crime reporting 
project by 601,217, bringing the aggregate population to 67,894,245. 

There were 4,197 contributors of one or more crime reports during 
the first half of 1940. These consisted of 2,644 city and village law 
enforcement agencies, 1,532 sheriffs, 8 State police units, and 13 
agencies in Territories and possessions of the United States. 



MONTHLY REPORTS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population. 

With few exceptions, during the first 6 months of 1940 the average 
city with over 100,000 inhabitants experienced more crime per unit 
of population than the average smaller community. These larger 
cities, during the first half of 1940, showed the highest crime rates 
for offenses of criminal homicide, robberv, burglary, larceny, and auto 
theft. 

More offenses of rape per unit of population occurred during the 
first 6 months in cities with populations in excess of 250,000, and the 
next highest rate was seen in cities with populations between 2,500 
and 10,000. Aggravated assaults occurred with greatest frequency in 
cities with populations ranging from 50,000 to 100,000, followed by 
cities between 100,000 and 250,000 and cities over 250,000, respectively. 

Most of the offenses listed on the monthly reports received at the 
FBI were classified as larcenies. These cases constituted 58.5 per- 
cent of all offenses reported during the first 6 months of this year. 
Burglary offenses made up 22.9 percent of the total; auto thefts, 11.1 
percent; and robberies, 3.5 percent. Thus, 96.0 percent of the total 
crimes reported consisted of offenses against property. Oft'enses 
against the person, aggravated assault, rape, and criminal homicide 
represented only 4.0 percent of the total crimes. 

These data are based on crime reports received by the Federal Bu- 
reau of Investigation from 1,953 cities with over 2,500 inhabitants, 
representing a total population of 61,780,182. The information is 
presented in table 39 in such a manner that interested persons may 
compare crime conditions in a particular community with average 
figures for other cities in the United States of approximately the same 
size. The number of offenses per 100,000 inhabitants for cities grouped 
not only as to size but also by geographic division is presented in table 
42. 

(64) 



65 

Table 39. — Offenses known to the police, January to June, inclusive, 1940; number 
and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



OKOUP I 

35 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 28,(507,100: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP II 

57 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,850,312: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP in 

93 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 6,293,713: 

Number of oflenses known 

Rate i)er 100,000 -. 

r.ROUP IV 

164 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total pop- 
ulation, 5,740,860: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP V 

4T0 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total pop- 
ulation, 7,302,403: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP VI 

1,134 cities under 10,000; total pop- 
ulation, 5,895,794: 

Number of oflenses known 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Total 1,953 cities; total population, 
61,780,182: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000. 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



830 
2.9 



214 
2.7 



144 
2.3 



107 
1.9 



138 
1.9 



121 

2.1 



1,554 
2.5 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



799 
2.9 



173 
2.2 



91 

1.4 



76 
1.3 



65 
0.9 



Rape 



1,594 
5.6 



266 
3.4 



185 
2.9 



172 
3.0 



249 
3.4 



64 238 669 
1.1 4.0 11.3 



Rob- 
bery 



10. 788 
37.6 



2,119 
27.0 



1,206 
19.2 



866 
15.1 



893 
12.2 



1,268 
2.1 



2,704 
4.4 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



6,810 
23.7 



1,924 
24.5 



1,828 
29.0 



1,112 
19.4 



1,070 
14.7 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or en- 
tering 



2 39, 818 
203.5 



15, 990 
203.7 



11,705 
186.0 



9,369 
163. 2 



9,410 
128.9 



834 7, 356 
14.1 124.8 



16,541 
26.8 



13, 578 
22.0 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



2 99, 497 
508.4 



41,125 
523.9 



29, 475 
468.3 



27, 370 
476.8 



26,411 
361.7 



15,608 
264.7 



» 93, 648 
177.9 



a 239,486 
454.8 



Auto 
theft 



28,400 
99.0 



8,169 
104.1 



4,967 
78.9 



4,662 
81.2 



4,085 
55.9 



2,998 
50.8 



53,281 
86.2 



' The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are ba.sed on rejHjrts as follows: Group I, 
34 cities, total population, 27,:M3,()00; groups I-VI, 1,952 cities, total population, 60,426,082. 

2 The number of ofTen.'^es and rate for burglary and larceny-theft are based on reports as follows: Group I, 
33 cities, total jwpulation, 19,.570,100; groups I-VI, 1,951 cities, total population, 52,653,182. 



Annual Trends, Offenses Known to the Police, 193940. 

Accorclin<2; to tlu' jnonthly reports received from the country's larger 
cities during the first 6 months of 1939 and 1940 the following increases 
in crimes were noted: Aggravated assault, 6.5 percent; larceny, 5.2 
percent; manslaughter by negligence, 4.2 percent; auto theft, 1.2 per- 
cent. A slight increase of 0.6 jiercent was seen in offenses of burglaiy. 

On the other hand, some offenses showed marked decreases during 
the first 6 months of this year in comparison with the corresponding 
period of last year. Murders decreased 6.4 p(>rcent, rapes, 5.4 ))ercent, 
and robberies, 3.3 percent. There is presented in table 40 the number 



66 

of offenses known to have been committed during the period of Janu- 
ary-June, inchisive, 1939-40, as reported by 342 cities over 25,000 
in population. The total population represented is 41,201,385. The 
data are presented separately for the first and second quarters of each 
year, as well as for the entire first half of 1939 and 1940. 

It is interesting to note that in each instance where an increase in 
offenses was seen over the 6-month period during 1940 as compared 
with 1939 the increase was more pronounced during the second quarter 
of this year. For example, aggravated assaults, which showed an 
increase of 6.5 percent in comparing the two 6-month periods, in- 
creased only 2.8 percent during the first quarter of 1940, but showed 
an upward trend amounting to 9.6 percent during the second quarter 
in comparison with the corresponding periods of last year. 

On the other hand, in each instance where a decrease was seen in 
the 6-month period of 1940 in comparison with last year, the decrease 
was most pronounced during the first quarter. To illustrate, it will 
be seen that rape offenses during the 6-month period decreased 5.4 
percent. However, in comparing the first quarter of 1940 with the 
first quarter of 1939 a decrease in this offense is seen of 10.5 percent, 
while offenses of rape during the period of April-June of 1940 showed 
a decrease of only 0.3 percent when compared with the same period 
of last year. In other words it appears that, compared with 1939, the 
second quarter of 1940 was not as favorable as the first quarter of 
this year. 

Table 40. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 3^2 cities over 25,000 in 
population, January to June, inclusive, 1939~40 

[Total population, 41,201,385, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



January-March 1939 
January-March 1940 

April-June 1939 

April-June 1940 

January-June 1939.. 
January-June 1940-.. 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



609 

525 

644 
648 

1. 253 
1,173 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



■ 354 
'366 

1 309 
1 325 

1 663 
1691 



Rape 



912 
816 

905 
902 

1,817 
1,718 



Rob- 
bery 



8,094 
7,711 

6, 554 
6,454 

14, 648 
14, 165 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



4,468 
4,594 

5,209 
5,710 

9,677 
10, 304 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or en- 
tering 



2 39, 267 
2 38,911 

2 36, 764 
2 37, 582 

2 76,031 
2 76, 493 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



2 93, 053 
2 94, 998 

2 93, 857 
2 101,578 

2 186,910 
2 196, 576 



Auto 
theft 



21, 301 
21,122 

19. 312 
19, 974 

40, 613 
41,096 



1 The number of offenses of manslaughter by negligence is based on reports of 340 cities with a total popula- 
tion of 39,473,185. 

2 The number of offenses of burglary and larceny is based on reports of 341 cities with a total population 
of 39,228,685. 



67 




Figure 6. 



251951°— 40- 



68 



Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location. 

In order that there may be available to interested individuals data 
concerning crime conditions in specific sections of the country there 
is presented in table 42 the number of offenses known to the police 
per 100,000 inhabitants during the first 6 months of 1940 for cities 
grouped not only according to size but also by geographic divisions. 
In examining the crime rates presented in this table marked variances 
will be seen in the rates for different sections of the country. Some 
of the factors affecting the extent of crime in local communities are 
dealt with in the text preceding table 43. 

The information presented in tables 39 and 42 is supplemented by 
that shown in table 41, wherein may be found the number of poHce 
departments whose reports were employed in preparing crime rates 
for each of the subgroups shown in tables 39 and 42. 

Table 41. — Number of cities included in the tabulation of uniform crime reports, 

January to June, inclusive, 1940 





Population 


Division 


Group 
I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 






Over 
250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


Total 


GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England: 173 cities; total population, 
5,700,610 - 


2 

5 

9 

4 

3 

3 

3 
1 
5 


12 

11 

10 

5 

6 

3 

5 

1 
4 


11 
22 
23 

7 
13 

4 

5 
2 
6 


26 
29 
49 

9 
18 

4 

10 

6 

13 


62 

128 

100 

53 

32 

22 

25 
13 
35 


60 

297 

282 

148 

84 

34 

65 

55 

109 


173 


Middle Atlantic: 492 cities; total population, 
18,068,927 - 


492 


East North Central: 473 cities; total popula- 
tion, 16,036,960 -- -- 


473 


West North Central: 226 cities; total popula- 
tion, 4 976,607 - . . 


226 


South Atlantic:' i56 cities; total population, 
4,775,757 


156 


East South Central: 70 cities; total popula- 
tion, 2,151,591 - 


70 


West South Central: 113 cities; total popula- 
tion, 3,343,396 - - - - - 


113 


Mountain: 78 cities; total population, 1,221,578. 
Pacific: 172 cities; total population, 5,504,756-_ 


78 
172 


Total: 1,953 cities; total population, 
61.780.182 


35 


57 


93 


164 


470 


1,134 


1.953 







1 Includes report of District of Columbia. 



69 



Vy>^ 




FlGORE 7. 



70 

In order that the information may be readily available, there are 
listed below the States included in the nine geographic divisions. 



States Divided by Geographic Division 



New England: 
Connecticut. 
Maine. 

Massachusetts. 
New Hampshire. 
Rliode Island. 
Vermont. 



Middle Atlantic: 
New Jersey. 
New York. 
Pennsylvania. 



East North Central: 
Illinois. 
Indiana. 
Michigan. 
Ohio. 
Wisconsin. 



West North Central: 
Iowa. 
Kansas. 
Minnesota. 
Missouri. 
Nebraska. 
North Dakota. 
South Dakota. 



West Soutti Central: 
Arkansas. 
Louisiana. 
Oklahoma. 
Texas. 



South Atlantic:' 
Delaware. 
Florida. 
Georgia. 
Maryland. 
North Carolina. 
South Carolina. 
Virginia. 
West Virginia. 

Mountain : 
Arizona. 
Colorado. 
Idaho. 
Montana. 
Nevada. 
New Mexico. 
Utah. 
Wyoming. 



East South Central: 
Alabama. 
Kentucky. 
Mississippi. 
Tennessee. 



Pacific : 

California. 

Oregon. 

Washington. 



1 Includes District of Columbia. 



Table 42. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to June, inclusive, 1940, by geographic divisions and population groups 



Geographic division and population 
group 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery- 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Burglary- 
breaking or 
entering 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



Auto 
theft 



New England: 

Group I 

Group 11. _ 
Group III_ 
Group IV_. 
Group V.._ 
Group VI_. 



Total, groups I-VI, 

Middle Atlantic: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 



Total, groups I-VI. 

East North Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI..__ _._. 



Total, groups I-VI. 



See footnotes at end of table. 



0.8 
.2 
.1 
.3 
.6 



1.8 
1.1 
.4 
.7 
1.1 
1.2 



1.4 



2.7 
2.0 
1.0 
1.1 
1.4 
.8 



2.0 



16.5 
9.7 
5.3 
4.3 
2.9 
2.1 



7.8 



14.3 

10.7 

14.4 

8.5 

9.0 

7.7 



12.5 



68.3 
28.2 
21.1 
13.8 
16.6 
11.3 



39.0 



8.8 
6.3 
5.4 
4,5 
3.0 
4.2 



6.6 



18.6 
10.3 
13.0 
9.3 

8.2 
6.5 



14.7 



19.0 

22.1 

10.5 

6.9 

7.1 

7.0 



14.9 



87.7 
180.8 
162. 1 
121,3 
103.0 
101.2 



132.5 



I 194. 3 
129.7 
146.2 
119.2 
100.6 
83.5 



126.7 



179.5 
181.3 
140.6 
136.2 
116.8 
108.8 



158.7 



175.8 
345.3 
300.5 
277.7 
224.2 
146.8 



262.7 



' 327.8 
243.5 
237. 9 
255.0 
174.6 
123.6 



>220. 5 



448.7 
547.6 
379.2 
377.2 
320.5 
178.9 



405.6 



182.6 
104.2 
63.8 
55.6 
27.1 
22.4 



86.2 



74.7 
72.5 
70.5 
58.9 
44.5 
30.0 



66.1 



70.3 
115,1 
67.3 
76.6 
68.8 
46,4 



71.2 



71 



Table 42. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to June, inclusive, 1940, by geographic divisions and population groups — Con. 



Geographic division and population 
group 


Miirder. 
nonnegli- 
gonl man- 
slaughter 


Eobbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burglary- 
breaking or 
entering 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


West North Central: 


2.6 
.4 

1.2 
.6 

.9 

.7 


31.2 

22.1 

12.3 

9.0 

8.2 
7.8 


8.8 
10.1 
3.5 
4.5 
fl. 1 
6.5 


123.0 
151.8 
197. 5 
160. 3 
119.6 
101.7 


507.9 
422. 5 
598.8 
466.7 
435. 3 
225.7 


65.0 




86.7 


Group III 


111.2 


Group IV - 


91.5 


Group V 


57.1 


Group VI 


37.6 






Total, groups I-VI 


1.5 


19.8 


7.4 


133. 2 


450.8 


69.2 






South Atlantic: 

Group I ' - . - 


7.3 
8.5 
7.5 
7.7 
fi.2 
5.9 


52.2 

.19.5 
29. f. 
34.5 
Ifi. 3 
15.3 


40.4 
73.8 
100.4 
83.4 
86.5 
58.8 


212.5 
345.2 
254.2 
2G9.9 
172.0 
172.3 


493.2 
945.5 
671.6 
755.4 
511. 1 
372.7 


165.7 


Group II 


145.5 


Group III 


86.6 


Group IV _ . -. 


90.9 


Group V _ - 


62.4 


Group VI . 


77.4 






Total, groups I-VI .- 


7.4 


40.0 


68.7 


241.5 


624.7 


119.8 






East South Central: 


10.9 

11.8 

7.8 

8.5 

7.9 

10.2 


74.0 
52.3 
26.8 
27.3 
20.5 
30.0 


152.2 
69.4 

107.2 
91.7 
44.3 
72.7 


364.1 
178.3 
266.5 
234.1 
203.2 
159.4 


605.3 
455.3 
509.3 
708.2 
426.4 
190.0 


104.9 


Group II- 


90.4 




73.0 


Group IV 


98.9 


Group V 


53.4 


Group VI 


54.2 






Total, groups I-VI -- 


10.0 


49.4 


104.6 


269.0 


515.3 


86.2 






West South Central: 


7.2 
4.5 
6.8 
2.4 
3.0 
8.9 


34.4 
44.0 
18.6 
17.1 
21.4 
18.6 


36.1 
46.2 
59.8 
31.7 
28.1 
29.9 


227.0 
282.2 
222.4 
205.9 
177.8 
188.8 


780.9 
841.1 
803.0 
710.3 
532.2 
364.2 


94. 1 


Group II - - - . 


92. 1 


Group III 


74.3 


Group IV 


65.5 


Group V - 


59.1 


Group VI .- 


39.9 






Total, groups I-VI .- 


5.7 


30.4 


38.9 


228.7 


716.6 


78.8 






Mountain: 


2.4 
1.4 
3.9 
1.5 
1.1 
1.7 


22.9 
27.0 
39.1 
20.4 
24.0 
16.4 


5.8 

4.2 

18.6 

14.6 

5.4 

11.6 


106.8 
263.5 
313.1 
192.9 
198.7 
171.7 


699.2 

513.9 

1, 007. 8 

1,119.4 

1, 020. 1 

512.2 


93.8 


Group II 


134.5 




132. 1 


Group IV.. 


143.8 


Group V 


109.4 


Group VI 


69.8 






Total, groups I-VI 


1.9 


22.9 


9.5 


186.4 


777.4 


106.8 






Pacific: 

Group I 


2.2 
2.0 
1.1 
.9 
1.9 
1.4 


57.3 
32.8 
.30.5 
27.0 
15.1 
16.9 


22.0 
8.7 

11.6 

10.1 
4.4 

11.3 


319.5 

268.9 
267.8 
241.7 
187.4 
212.1 


739.0 
814.2 
913.9 

868.7 
826.3 
745.4 


223.0 


Group II 


145. 


Group III 


116.5 


Group IV 


163. 6 


Group V 


120. 


Group VI 


130.7 






Total, groups I-VI 


1.9 


42.1 


16.1 


280.6 


779.9 


182 6 







' The rates for burglary and larceny arc based on the reports of 3 cities. 

2 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 490 cities. 

3 Includes the District of Columbia. 



72 




Figure 8. 



73 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 100,000 Inhabitants. 

The number of offenses reported as having been coinniitted during 
the period of April-June 1940 is sliown in table 43. The compilation 
includes the reports received from police departments in cities with 
more than 100,000 inhabitants. Such data are included here in 
order that interested individuals and organizations may have readily 
available up-to-date information concerning the amount of crime 
committed in their comnuinities. Police administrators and other 
interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare the 
crime rates of their cities with the average rates sliown in tables 39 
and 42 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire to 
make comparisons with the figures for their communities for prior 
periods, in order to determine whether there has been an increase or a 
decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

A great deal of caution should be exercised in comparing crime 
data for individual cities, because dift'erences in the figures may be 
due to a variety of factors. The amount of crime committed in a com- 
munity is not solely chargeable to the police but is rather a charge 
against the entire community. The following is a list of some of the 
factors which might aft'ect the amount of crime in a community: 

The composition of the population with reference particularly to 

age, sex, and race. 
The economic status and activities of the population. 
Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 
The number of police employees per unit of population. 
The standards governing appointments to the police force. 
The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 
The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 
The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 

Comparisons between the crime rates of individual cities should not 
be made without giving consideration to the above-mentioned factors. 
It is more important to determine whether the figures for a given com- 
munity show increases or decreases in the amount of crime committed 
than to ascertain whether the figures are above or below those of some 
other community. 

In examining a compilation of crime figures for individual com- 
munities it should be borne in mind that in view of the fact that the 
data are compiled by different record departments operating under 
separate and distinct administrative systems, it is entirely possible 
that there may be variations in the practices employed in classifying 
complaints of offenses. On the other hand, the crime-reporting 
handbook has been distributed to all contributors of crime reports, 
and the figures received are included in this bulletin only if they 
apparently have been compiled in accordance with the provisions of 
the handbook, and the individual department has so indicated. 



74 

Table 43. — Number of offenses known to the police, April to June, inclusive, 1940, 

cities over 100,000 in population 



City 



Akron, Ohio 

Albany, N. Y 

Atlanta, Ga 

Baltimore, Md 

Birmingham, Ala 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Cambridge, Mass 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 

Chattanooga, Tenn... 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Columbus, Ohio _ 

Dallas, Tex 

Dayton, Ohio 

Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Detroit, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 

Elizabeth, N. J 

El Paso, Tex 

Erie, Pa 

Evansville, Ind 

Fall River, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Fort Wavne, Ind 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Gary, Ind 

Grand Rapids, Mjch.. 

Hartford, Conn 

Honolulu, T. H 

Houston, Tex 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Jersey City, N. J 

Kansas City, Kans 

Kansas City, Mo 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Long Beach, Calif 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn 

Miami, Fla 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Nashville, Tenn 

Newark, N. J 

New Bedford, Mass .. 

New Haven, Conn 

New Orleans, La_. - . 

New York, N. Y 

Norfolk, Va 

Oakland, Calif 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha, Nebr._ _ 

Paterson, N. J 

Peoria, 111 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Oreg 

Providence, R. I 

Reading, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif. _. 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



3 

1 

30 

22 

19 

4 



10 

57 

20 

15 

1 

17 

3 

2 



21 



10 

4 

12 

1 
13 

7 



Robbery 



24 
16 



25 
10 
2 
3 
9 
6 



12 

61 

6 

1 

2 



27 



7 
1 

12 
2 
I 
7 



33 

8 
80 
94 
47 
70 

5 
17 

3 

22 

17 

24 

1,235 

101 

215 

59 

46 

9 

39 

16 

440 

5 

7 
19 

6 
12 

4 
15 
15 
21 
34 
15 

4 

4 

79 

118 

45 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



23 

10 

90 

188 

157 

32 

1 

34 

2 

12 

16 

66 

403 

55 

38 

19 

67 

7 

9 

9 

252 

1 

5 

19 

2 

23 



32 

3 

9 
29 

5 
31 

6 
52 
55 
40 
Complete 



Burglary 
— break- 
ing or 
entering 



37 


5 


135 


66 


5 


35 


30 


5 


498 


197 


98 


151 


1 




8 




144 


439 


56 


77 


27 


15 


39 


16 


60 


40 


89 


159 


5 


1 


14 


3 


20 


105 


351 


673 


21 


38 


37 


25 


47 


50 


21 


17 


10 




10 


14 


197 


171 


140 


83 


67 


9 


2 


7 


2 


3 


43 


93 


4 


16 


97 


21 


30 


13 


12 


4 


57 


113 


18 


7 


148 


83 



255 

53 

549 

403 

390 

342 

92 

204 

93 

57 

93 

147 

2,681 

500 

780 

563 

415 

203 

133 

122 

1,444 

67 

66 

90 

100 

107 

125 

181 

67 

240 

175 

127 

217 

245 

642 

7.39 

241 

data not 

184 

334 

84 

235 

2,221 

77 
105 
422 
310 
162 
332 
135 
714 
205 
214 
129 
964 
232 
333 
243 
114 
105 
113 
603 
676 
465 
141 

93 
259 
129 
345 
292 
198 
330 
132 
739 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



0) 



1, 



52 

23 

108 

190 

65 

167 

51 

66 

21 

49 

14 

894 

177 

43 

97 

31 

20 

62 

60 

267 

25 

14 

9 

10 

9 



49 
19 
21 
27 
29 
37 
27 
61 

153 
70 
received 
(') 

151 
54 
65 

913 

249 

9 

53 

109 
73 
88 

141 

105 
16 
6S 

133 

0) 

40 

35 

31 

22 

21 

12 

209 

110 

161 

48 

16 

62 

34 

(■) 
45 
11 
77 
34 
167 



Under 

$50 



486 

138 

1,030 

753 

406 

541 

359 

398 

189 

86 

223 

362 

2,929 

1,297 

2,803 

9.52 

1,704 

781 

1,095 

417 

7,156 

307 

156 

340 

186 

350 

80 

4.59 

524 

791 

202 

594 

479 

524 

1,405 

1,353 

630 



324 

1, 042 
188 
789 

4.332 

1,090 

47 

219 

683 

356 

1,213 
879 
218 
968 
281 
334 
370 

4.792 
473 

1.065 
443 
233 
62 
187 
483 
523 

1,178 
176 
113 
835 
.521 

2,476 
709 
383 
900 
547 

1,634 



1 Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



76 



Table 43.- — Number of offenses known to the police, April to June, inclusive, 19^0, 
cities over 100,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Scranton, Pa.. 

Seattle, Wash 

Somcrville, Mass... 
South Bend, Ind... 

Spwkane, Wash 

Springfield, Mass.. 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo, Ohio 

Trenton, N. J 

Tulsa, Okla 

Utica, N. Y 

Washington, D. C. 
Waterbury, Conn.. 

Wichita, Kans 

Wilmington, Del... 
Worcester, Mass... 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, Ohio. 



Murder, 

nonnogli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



2 
2 
2 
1 
2 
1 
19 





Aggra- 


Burglary 
—break- 


Larceny— theft 


Robbery 


vated 








assault 


entering 


$50 and 
over 


Under 
$60 


5 


10 


154 


21 


176 


66 


26 


501 


07 


852 


5 


1 


33 


8 


49 


7 


2 


111 


21 


361 


20 


11 


170 


16 


571 


1 


4 


95 


22 


268 


2 


3 


85 


31 


226 


9 


3 


107 


11 


181 


7 


18 


168 


19 


341 


67 


30 


406 


92 


706 


17 


33 


220 


22 


253 


27 


31 


263 


61 


602 


1 


2 


19 


14 


175 


163 


70 


571 


191 


1,704 


1 


1 


91 


9 


71 


2 


5 


54 


7 


297 


14 


33 


87 


31 


310 


4 


6 


101 


30 


253 




6 


31 


6 


60 


63 


31 


197 


23 


324 



Auto 
theft 



45 
288 
35 
56 
76 
94 
73 
45 
36 
164 
46 
69 
28 
461 
58 
20 
48 
84 
41 
98 



Offenses Known to Sheriffs, State Police, and Other Rural Officers, 1940. 

In compiling national police statistics under the system of uniform 
crime reporting a distinction is made between offenses committed in 
urban communities and those occurring in rural sections of the coun- 
try. The preceding tables in this issue of the bulletin have dealt en- 
tirely with urban offenses. Comprehensive data regarding rural 
crimes are not yet available. However, there is presented in table 44 
the number of rural offenses reported by 1,014 sheriffs, 8 State police 
organizations, and 88 village officers. 

Table 44. — Offenses known, January to June, inclusive, 1940, as reported by 1,014 
sheriffs, 8 State police organizations, and 88 village officers 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 






Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Offenses known 


561 


411 


1,081 


1,766 


2,999 


14, 144 


22, 544 


4.680 







251951°— 40 3 



76 



Urban and Rural Crime Rates, 1939. 

Generally, it is found that crime rates for offenses against property 
(robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto theft) are lower in the rural 
sections of the Nation than in the urban communities. However, it 
is quite frequently found that the rural crime rates for offenses against 
the person (criminal homicide, rape, and aggravated assault) exceed 
the rates in the cities and towns. These observations were made from 
an examination of crime reports received during the calendar year 
1939 from law-enforcement agencies policing the urban and rural areas 
of seven selected States. 

In selecting the States to be used for this study an effort was made 
to have dift'erent sections of the Nation represented. Other factors 
taken into consideration in the selection of the States to be used in 
this study were (1) the number of cities represented by a complete 
set of monthly reports during last year; (2) the number of counties 
represented by a complete set of reports; (3) the percentage of urban 
and rural populations represented; and (4) the uniformity with which 
the urban and rural crime reports had apparently been prepared. 

The results of the study are presented in table 45, which shows the 
number of offenses known per 100,000 inhabitants for the urban and 
rural sections of the States indicated. The following tabulation shows 
for each State involved the proportion of the total urban and rural 
population represented in table 45. 



State 


Percentage 

of urban 
population 
represented 


Percentage 

of rural 
population 
represented 


State 


Percentage 

of urban 
population 
represented 


Percentage 

of rural 
population 
represented 


California _, - 


93.8 
61.5 
95.2 
96.8 


76.5 

61.1 

100.0 

71.4 


Minnesota 

Rhode Island 


100.0 
96.9 
96.5 


100.0 


Idaho 


100.0 




Washington 


64.2 


Michigan 











The classification of communities as urban or rural by the Bureau 
of the Census has been employed in preparing the following tabula- 
tion. Generally communities classed as urban are incorporated places 
with populations of 2,500 or more. 

Table 45. — Urban and rural offenses known, January to December, inclusive, 1939; 
number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, in selected States 

[Both urban and rural population data are from the 1930 census] 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burgla- 
ry— 
break- 
ing or 

entering 


Larce- 
ny- 
theft 




State 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- ^ 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


CALIFOR.MA 

Urban (population repre- 
sented, 3,904,212): 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000. 


164 
4.2 

79 
6.8 


155 
4.0 

79 
6.8 


642 
16.4 

271 
23.4 


3,807 
97.5 

479 
41.3 


1, 528 
39.1 

445 
38.4 


22, 489 
576. 

4,582 
395.1 


62,984 
1, 613. 2 

7,648 
659.6 


16, 440 
421.1 


Rural (population repre- 
sented, 1,159,571): 
Number of offenses 
known 


1, 606 


Rate per 100,000 


138.5 



77 



Table 45. — Urban and rural offenses known, January to Decetnber, inclusive, 1939; 
number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, in selected States — Continued 



state 



lUAHO 

Urban (population repre- 
sented, 79,(>11): 
Number of offenses 

known. 

Rate per 100,000 

Rural (population repre- 
sented, 192,782): 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000 



MASSACHUSETTS 

Urban (i)opulation repre- 
sented, 3,649,391): 
Number of offenses 

known — 

Rate per 100,000 -- 

Rural (population repre- 
sented, 418,188): 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000 



Criminal homicide 



MICHIGAN 

Urban (population repre- 
sented, 3,197,439): 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000 

Rural (population repre- 
sented, 1,099,055): 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000 



MINNESOTA 

Urban (population repre- 
sented, 1,254,272):' 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000- 

Rural (population repre- 
sented, l,309,fi81): > 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000 



RHODE ISLAND 

Urban (population repre- 
sented, 615,051): 
Number of offenses 

known - . 

Rate per 100,000. _. 

Rural (population repre- 
sented, 52,068): 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000. 



Murder, 

nonnesj- 
lipent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



WASHINOTON 

Urban (population repre- 
sented, 853,443): 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000 

Rural (population repre- 
sented, t36,010): 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000 



5 
6.3 



7 
3.6 



34 
0.9 



6 
1.4 



93 
2.9 



20 
1.8 



25 
2.0 



32 
2.4 



4 
0.6 



21 
2.5 



6 
1.4 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



2 
2.5 



5 
2.6 



93 
2.5 



1.9 



80 
2.6 



30 
2.7 



20 
1.6 



10 

0.8 



11 
1.8 



1 

i.y 



15 

1.8 



13 
3.0 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



8 
10.0 



26 
13.5 



318 

8.7 



40 
9.6 



661 
20.7 



128 
11.6 



50 
4.0 



82 
0.3 



23 
3.7 



1 
l.'J 



48 
5.6 



68 
15.6 



37 
46. 5 



26 
13.5 



832 
22.8 



26 

6.2 



1,914 
59.9 



137 
12.5 



520 
41.5 



133 
10.2 



27 
4.4 



1 
1.9 



517 
60. 6 



72 
16.5 



.\ggra- 
vated 
assault 



9 
11.3 



34 
17.6 



341 
9.3 



29 
6.9 



1,030 
32.2 



96 

8.7 



128 
10.2 



86 
6.6 



60 
9.7 



3.8 



185 
21.7 



118 
27.1 



Burgla- 
ry— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



459 
.576. 6 



344 
178.4 



9,323 
255. 5 



520 
124. 3 



10, 168 
318.0 



1,606 
146.1 



3, 483 

277.7 



1,275 
97.4 



1,228 
199.5 



162 
311.1 



5, 224 
612.1 



873 
200.2 



Larce- 
ny- 
theft 



1,569 
1,970.8 



773 
403.6 



18, 863 

516.9 



750 
179.3 



37, 786 
1.181.8 



2,965 
269. 8 



10, 195 

812.8 



1,626 
124.2 



3.071 

49S. S 



119 

228.5 



11,741 
1, 375. 7 



?,073 
47.5. 4 



Auto 
theft 



258 
324. 1 



118 
61.2 



6, 441 
170.5 



lO'J 
26.1 



5,768 
180.4 



535 
48.7 



2, 436 
194.2 



386 
29.5 



467 
75.9 



12 
23.0 



2,514 
294.6 



214 
49.1 



1 Richfield, population 3,344 (including Fort Snelling), treated as rural. 



78 



Offenses Known in Territories and Possessions of the United States. 

There are presented in table 46 the avaihible crime data for the 
Territories and possessions of the United States. The figures are 
based on reports received from the first three judicial divisions of 
Alaska; Honolulu City and the Counties of Hawaii, Honolulu, and 
Maui, in the Territory of Hawaii; Isthmus of Panama, C. Z., and 
Puerto Rico. The tabulation is based on the number of offenses 
known to law-enforcement officials of both urban and rural areas with 
the exception that the data for Honolulu City have been segregated 
from the figures for Honolulu County. 

Table 46. — Number of offenses known in United States Territories and possessions, 

January to June, inclusive, 1940 

[Population figures from Federal census, Apr. 1, 1930] 



Jurisdiction reporting 



Alaska: 

First judicial division (Juneau), 
population, 19,304; number of of- 
fenses known 

Second judicial division (Nome), 
population, 10,127; number of of- 
fenses known 

Third judicial division (Valdez), 
population, 16,309; number of of- 
fenses known 

Hawaii: 

Honolulu City, population, 137,582 

number of offenses known 

Hawaii County, population, 73,325 

number of offenses known 

Honolulu County, population, 65,341 

number of offenses known 

Maui County, population, 56,146 

number of offenses known 

Isthmus of Panama: Canal Zone, popu- 
lation, 39,467; number of offenses 

known 

Puerto Rico: Population, 1,543,913; num- 
ber of offenses known 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



1 

126 



Rob- 
bery 



3 
33 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



10 
3 
4 
6 

6 
1,040 



Bur- 

glary- 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



22 

3 

3 

519 

107 

78 

53 



32 
566 



Larceny — theft 



Over 

$50 



13 



68 

8 

10 

4 

17 
62 



Under 
$50 



17 



11 

1, 066 
212 
137 
115 

217 
1,587 



Auto 
theft 



112 

11 

19 

5 

18 
45 



79 

Data From Supplementary Offense Reports. 

The majority (53.3 percent) of the robberies committed durinti; 
the first 6 months of 1940 were classified as liiohway robberies, and 
40 percent were robberies of some type of commercial house. Only 
4 percent were residence robberies, and 2.7 percent classed as miscel- 
hi neons. 

More than half (53.9 percent) of the burglaries were perpetrated 
in nonresidence structures, and 46.1 percent were burglaries of resi- 
dences. During the first 6 months of this year 21 percent of the 
burglaries committed were perpetrated during the day. However, 
the proportion of daytime burglaries is noticeably different when 
considering only residence burglaries. Only 9.6 percent of the non- 
residence burglaries were perpetrated during the day, while a study 
of the residence burglaries discloses that 34 percent were committed 
(hiring the day. 

Most of the larcenies involved property valued between $5 and 
$50. During the period January-June 1940, 64.1 percent of the 
larcenies reported involved property from $5 to $50 in value; 24.9 
percent involved property valued at less than $5; and only in 11 
percent of the thefts was the property valued in excess of $50. Thefts 
of automobile accessories and other articles from automobiles rep- 
resented 37.1 percent of the larcenies reported, and bicycles consti- 
tuted 13 percent of the total. Thus, thefts of articles from auto- 
mobiles, and thefts of bicycles constituted one-half of all the larcenies 
reported during the first 6 months of this year. 

More than half (51.3 percent) of the offenses of rape reported were 
classified as statutory (not forcible — victim under age of consent) in 
character. 

The preceding analysis of offenses committed was made possible 
by supplementary offense reports forwarded to the FBI by 52 
police departments in cities with populations in excess of 100,000, 
and the figures upon which the percentages are based are presented 
in table 47. 



80 




Figure 9. 



81 



Table 47. — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the crim- 
inal act, time and place of commitision,' and value of property stolen, January to 
June, inclusive, 1940: 52 cities over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 18,252,038, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Classification 



Rape: 

Forcible 

Statutory 

Total 

Robbery: 

Highway 

Commercial house - 

Oil station 

Chain store.- 

Residence 

Bank 

Miscellaneous.- 

Total 

Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Residence (dwelling) : 

Committed during night. ._ 

Committed during day 

Nonresidence (store, office, etc.) 

Committed during night. .. 

Committed during day 

Total .. 



Number 
of actual 
offenses 



391 
412 



803 



4,190 

2,357 

691 

90 

312 

16 

210 



7,866 



10, 595 
5,568 

17,116 
1,809 



35, 088 



Classification 



Larceny — theft (except auto theft) 
(grouped according to value of article 
stolen) • 

Over $50 

$5 to $50 

Under $5.. 

Total _ 

Larceny — theft (grouped as to type of 
offense) : 

Pocket-picking 

Purse-snatching. 

Shoplifting 

Thefts from autos (exclusive of auto 

accessories) _ 

Auto accessories 

Bicycles 

All other 

Total 



Number 
of actual 
offenses 



9,290 
54,012 
20, 957 



84,259 



1,086 
2,707 
2,553 

16, 268 
14, 980 
10, 933 
35, 732 



f4. 259 



In further examining the supplementary offense reports forwarded 
to the Bureau this year it is found that during the first 6 months 97.2 
percent of stolen automobiles were recovered. The 52 cities referred 
to in table 48 reported the theft of 18,63 T automobiles and 18,113 
were reported recovered. 

Table 48. — Recoveries of stolen automobiles, January to June, inclusive, 1940; 

52 cities over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 18,252,038, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 

Number of automobiles stolen 18, 631 

Number of automobiles recovered 18, 113 

Percentage recovered 97. 2 

Recovered property amounted to 67.1 percent of the value of 
property reported stolen. E.xcluding automobiles, the value of 
property recovered during the first 6 months of 1940 was equal to 
23 percent of that stolen (hiring the same period. In table 49 there 
are presented data taken from the supplementary offense reports 
received from 52 police departments in cities with populations in 
excess of 100,000 conc(!rning the value of property stolen and recov- 
ered, subdivided by type of property. Exclusive of automobiles, 
there was stolen in these cities property valued at $5,539,762.57, 
and during the same period property recovered was valued at $1,274,- 
614.40. Stolen automobiles were valued at $8,214,319.89 and 
recovered automobiles amounted to $7,949,905.25. 



82 

Table 49. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered with divisions 
as to type of property involved, January to June, inclusive, 1940; 52 cities over 
100,000 in population 

[Total population, 18,252,038, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Type of property 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Miscellaneous _ 

Total 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



$1, 352, 362. 81 

1, 249, 202. 13 

274, 638. 18 

694, 766. 69 

8, 214, 319. 89 

1, 968. 792. 76 



13, 754, 082. 46 



Value of prop- 
erty recovered 



$187, 130. 44 

249,771.26 

33, 432. 23 

126, 640. 73 

7, 949, 905. 25 

677, 639. 74 



9, 224, 519. 65 



Percent 
recovered 



13.8 
20.0 
12.2 
18.2 
96.8 
34.4 



67.1 



83 




Figure 10. 



251951°— 40- 



84 




Figure 11. 



POLICE EMPLOYEE DATA 

Police Officers Killed by Criminals, 1939. 

There were 18 police officers killed in line of duty last year in 374 
cities, with over 25,000 inhabitants, representing a total population 
of 50,199,054. This constitutes a rate of 1.8 for every 5 million 
inhabitants. 

This information was made available by means of special reports 
forwarded to the Federal Bureau of Investigation covering the calen- 
dar year 1939 and in examining similar data for the 2 preceding years, 
it is noted that the number of police officers killed by criminals per 
5 million inhabitants during 1937 and 1938 was in each instance more 
than double the rate for 1939. The rate for each of the years 1937 
and 1938 was 3.9. 

The 1939 data are shown in table 50, with the cities divided into 
four groups according to size. The data in this tabulation may be 
compared with similar information presented in table 51 of volume X, 
No. 2 and table 68 of volume IX, No. 3 of this bulletin for 1938 and 
1937 respectively. 



Table 50. — Number of pot 


icemen killed by criminals, 1939 






Population group 


Number 
per 

5,000,000 
inhabi- 
tants 


Geographic division 


Group I 


Group 11 


Group III 


Group IV 


Total 




Over 
250,000 


100,000 to 
250,000 


50,000 to 
100,000 


25,000 to 
50,000 


Groups 
I-IV 


New England: 56 cities; total popula- 
tion, 4,529,663; number of policemen 
killed 














Middle Atlantic: 78 cities; total popu- 
lation, 15,884,872; number of police- 
men killed 


3 
6 




1 




4 

7 


1 3 


East North Central: 98 cities; total pop- 
ulation, 13,174,178; number of police- 
men killed 


1 


1 


2 7 


West North Central: 27 cities; total 
population, 3,562,300; number of 
po icemen killed.. 






South Atlantic: ' 36 cities; total popu- 
lation, 3,586,451; number of police- 
men killed 








1 


1 
3 
2 


1 4 


East South Central: 14 cities; total pop- 
ulation, 1,531,468; number of police- 
men killed _._ 


2 
1 


1 




9 8 


West South Central: 27 cities; total 
population, 2,772,900; number of 
policemen killed. . 


1 




3.6 


Mountain: 9 cities; total population, 
715,732; number of policemen killed. . 






Pacific: 29 cities; total population, 
4,441,490; number of policemen killed. 


1 








1 


1. 1 












Total: 

Number of policemen killed . 


12 

2.0 

37 

29, 695, 500 


2 

1.3 

54 

7,413,412 


2 

1.5 

100 

6,728,174 


2 

1.6 

183 

6,301,968 


18 

1.8 

374 

50, 199, 054 




Number killed per 5,000,000 inhabi- 
tants 




Number of cities 




Total population of cities. 









' Includes the District of Columbia. 



(85) 



86 

Number of Police Employees, 1939. 

On an average the police departments in cities in the eastern geo- 
graphic divisions (Middle Atlantic, New England, and South Atlantic) 
have more police employees per unit of population than do the police 
departments in other sections of the country, according to reports 
covering the calendar year 1939 forwarded to the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation by 2,750 cities in the United States. This is particularly 
true with reference to cities with over 250,000 inhabitants. 

It is found generally that the police departments in the larger cities 
throughout the country have more police employees per 1,000 inhabi- 
tants than those in the smaller communities. This is true in each 
geographic division with the exception of the East South Central 
States where more employees per unit of population will be found in 
the police departments in cities between 50,000 and 100,000, followed 
by cities from 100,000 to 250,000 and those over 250,000 respectively. 

In table 52 there is presented the average number of police-depart- 
ment employees per 1,000 inhabitants for the calendar year 1939. 
The data are shown for the cities grouped according to population 
and geographic location. The information presented in table 52 is 
supplemented by that shown in table 51, which indicates the number 
of cities in each group whose reports showing the number of police 
employees were used in preparing the summary tabulations. 

In examining the data presented in table 52, it will be noted that 
in several instances there seems to be only a slight difference in the 
average number of police employees between some of the groups of 
cities. The significance of the difference is more evident when pre- 
sented in terms of the number of inhabitants per police officer. The 
following tabulation shows these data for the six groups of cities 
divided according to size: 

Average number of 
inhabUnntx per 
Population group: police officer 

I 457 

II 680 

III 737 

IV 826 

V 923 

VI 898 

The population figures used in preparing the data presented in table 
52 were estimates as of July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census for 
all cities over 10,000 in population. No similar estimates were avail- 
able, however, for cities with a smaller number of inhabitants, and for 
them the figures listed in the 1930 decennial census were used. 



87 



Table 51. — Number of cities included in the tabulation showing the average number 
of police-department employees, 1939, by geographic divisions and population 
groups 





Population 


Division 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


















Total 




Over 


100,000 to 


50,000 to 


26,000 to 


10,000 to 


Less than 






250,000 


250,000 


100,000 


50,000 


25,000 


10,000 




New England: 214 cities; total 
















population, 6,292,471 


2 


12 


13 


31 


72 


84 


214 


Middle Atlantic: 645 cities; 
















total population, 20,387,261 _ 


7 


11 


24 


37 


151 


415 


045 


East North Central: 616 cities; 
















total population, 17,163,284__ 


9 


10 


26 


54 


117 


400 


616 


West North Central: 312 cities; 
















total population, 5,513,535. _ 


4 


5 


7 


11 


62 


223 


312 


South Atlantic:' 255 cities; 
















total population, 5,423,508. -. 


3 


6 


14 


19 


44 


169 


255 


East South Central; 130 cities; 
















total population, 2,541,818. 


3 


3 


4 


6 


28 


86 


130 


West South Central: 21 8 cities; 
















total population, 4,126,823... 


3 


5 


7 


12 


38 


153 


218 


Mountain: 123 cities; total 
















population, 1 ,461 ,785 


1 


1 


2 


6 


17 


96 


123 


Pacific: 237 cities; total popu- 
















lation, 5,782,400 


5 


4 


6 


15 


39 


168 


237 






Total: 
















Cities 


37 
29, 695, 500 


57 
7, 850, 312 


103 
6, 893, 474 


191 
6,650,168 


568 
8, 765, 546 


1,794 
8, 837, 885 


2,750 


Population 


68, 692, 885 







» Includes report of District of Columbia. 



88 

Table 52. — Average number of ■police-department employees, 19S9, by geographic 

divisions and population groups 



Population 



Division 



New England: 

Number of police 
Average number 

inhabitants 

Middle Atlantic: 
Number of police 
Average number 

inhabitants 

East North Central: 

Number of police 

Average number 

inhabitants 

West North Central: 

Number of police 

Average number 

inhabitants 

South Atlantic: ' 

Number of police 
Average number 
inhabitants 
East South Central: 
Number of police 
Average number 

inhabitants 

West South Central: 
Number of police 
Average number 

inhabitants 

Mountain: 

Number of police 
Average number 

inhabitants 

Pacific: 

Number of police 

Average number 

inhabitants 



employees 

of employees per 1,000 




employees 
of employees 



employees 
of employees 



Total: 

Number of police employees 
Average number of employees per 
1,000 inhabitants 



113, 22fi 
1. 65 



' Includes Washington, D. C. 



89 



m 



m 
^ 
^ 






-JsiNVllSVHNI OOO'I U3d SaBAOIdMB iO U3eNnNl- 






O tf> o m 

cj — — o 

iSlNVliavHNI OOO'l H3d S33A01dN3dO tl38NnN 






m o 
<7> 



Figure 12. 



90 

Figures for individual cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants are 
presented in table 53. The cities are divided into groups according to 
size, and for each group the cities are listed alphabetically, first by 
State and then by name of city. For each city separate figures are 
shown for the number of police officers and the number of civilians 
employed in the police department. It is observed that 7 percent of 
the police emjiloyees in table 53 were classified as civilians. 

Although information concerning the number of police employees 
is included in the monthly crime reports received from police depart- 
ments, this item was made the subject of a separate detailed inquiry 
in order to obtain the highest possible degree of accuracy and uni- 
formity in the figures published. 

Table 54 includes figures for individual police departments of cities 
ranging from 2,500 to 25,000 inhabitants. 

In connection with the possibility of making a comparison between 
the police personnel figures of individual cities, it should be noted that 
there are several variable factors to be considered which are not in any 
way represented in the tables which follow. Reference is made to the 
following facts: 

(1) In some cities, when regular police officers are absent due to 
vacations, days off, sickness, or otherwise, their places are taken by 
special or reserve officers who are paid only for the time they actually 
work. This means that the effective strength of the department is 
not lowered by absences for the reasons mentioned. On the other 
hand, in many cities, absences due to vacations, days off, sickness, etc., 
result in a lowering of the effective strength of the department, due to 
the fact that no reserve officers are used for replacements. 

(2) Some police departments operate on two shifts, whereas in 
other departments the men are distributed among three shifts. 
Obviously the practice followed in any individual community would 
have a substantial influence upon the effective strength of the de- 
partment. 

(3) Differences in automobile equipment, radio-communication 
facilities, and the like are significant and should be considered m 
any careful comparison of law-enforcement facilities in individual 
communities. 

(4) Some cities use special school-crossing guards to make it im- 
necessary to detail regular police officers to guide children and regulate 
traffic at school crossings during horn's when children are going to or 
returning from school. In some instances, the reporting departments 
had apparently calculated the equivalent number of full-time em- 
ployees represented by the school-crossing guards and included them 
in the figure representing the total number of employees. In other 
cases, it was not clear whether this had been done, and this is pointed 
out as an item to be considered when comparing figures for individual 
communities. 

(5) In some cities, a heavy volume of traffic requires a larger than 
average proportion of the force on traffic duty, with a resultant de- 
crease in the number of men available to handle criminal cases. 

(6) Differences in police salaries and standards for appointment to 
the force and their influence on the quality and morale of personnel 
are significant. 

(7) Communities vary also as to the number of private police 
employed by individuals and organizations. 



91 



(8) Tli(>r(> is i\ great v^arianco in cities throughout the United States 
with reference to the number of inhabitants per square mile. 

Table 53. — A^umbcr of police-department employees, 1939; cities over 26,000 in 

population 

CITIES WITH OVEH 2SO,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Birmingham, Ala 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Oakland. Calif 

San Francisco, Calif. 

Denver, Colo._ 

Washington, I). O... 

Atlanta, Qa. 

Chic:igo. Ill 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Louisville, Ky 

New Orleans, La 

Baltimore, Md 

Boston, ^Iass 

Detroit, Mich 

Minneai)olis, Minn _ 

St. Paul, Minn 

Kansas City, Mo 

St. Louis, Mo - 

Jersey City, N. J 



Num- 


Num- 


ber of 


ber of 


police 


civil- 


officers 


ians 


237 


11 


2,410 


360 


395 


11 


1,303 


70 


406 


.1 


1,422 


10(J 


398 


64 


6,329 


293 


.V20 


55 


410 


18 


844 




1,708 


211 


2,183 


184 


3,674 


279 


471 


33 


330 


22 


485 


177 


1,802 


440 


832 


109 



Total 
num- 
ber of 
em- 
ployees 



248 
2.770 

406 
1, 373 

411 

1, .522 
462 

6,622 
.575 
428 
844 

1,919 

2, 367 

3, 9.53 
.504 
352 
662 

2,242 
941 



City 



Newark, N. J 

Buffalo. N. Y 

New York, N. Y. 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Akron, Ohio 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Cleveland, Ohio.. 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Toledo, Ohio. 

Portland, Oreg 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pittsburgh, Pa.. 
Providence, R. I_ 
Memphis, Tenn.. 

Dallas, Tex 

Houston, Tex 

Seattle, Wash 

Milwaukee, Wis. 



Num- 


Num- 


ber of 


ber of 


police 


civil- 


officers 


ians 


1,111 


106 


1,139 


137 


18,766 


1,134 


430 


34 


194 


23 


704 


28 


1,420 


213 


318 




352 


50 


378 


72 


5,037 


225 


982 


56 


485 


68 


271 


62 


270 


55 


367 


46 


526 


49 


1,104 


117 



Total 
num- 
ber of 
em- 
ployees 

1,217 

1,276 

19, 9(K) 

464 

217 

732 

1,033 

318 

402 

4.50 

5,262 

1.038 

5.53 

333 

325 

413 

575 

1.221 



CITIES WITH 100,000 TO 250,000 INHABITANTS 



Long Beach, Calif 

San Diego, Calif 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Hartford, Conn 

New Haven, Conn 

Waterbury, Conn 

Wilmington, Del 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Miami, Fla 

Tampa, Fla 

Peoria, IlL 

Evansville, Ind 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Gary, Ind 

South Bend, Ind 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Kansas City, Kans... 

Wicliita, Kans 

Cambridge, Mass 

Fall River, Mass 

Lowell, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

New Bedford, Mass.. 

Somerville, Mass 

Springfield, Mass . . . 

Worcester, Mass 

Flint. Mich 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Duluth, Minn 



205 


38 


243 


201 


26 


227 


264 


2 


266 


339 


22 


361 


339 


26 


365 


202 


8 


210 


167 


3 


170 


200 


17 


217 


208 


44 


252 


83 


15 


98 


117 


16 


133 


128 


13 


141 


123 


1 


124 


148 


11 


1.59 


99 


5 


104 


1.56 


18 


174 


87 


6 


93 


98 


11 


109 


232 


3 


235 


187 


12 


199 


170 


15 


185 


148 


5 


1.53 


212 


8 


220 


1.50 


2 


152 


283 


18 


301 


348 


21 


369 


1.52 


25 


177 


181 


24 


205 


134 


4 


1.38 



Omaha, Nebr 

Camden, N. J 

Elizabeth, N.J 

Paterson, N. J 

Trenton, N. J 

Albany, N. Y 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Utica, N. Y 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Canton, Ohio 

Dayton, Ohio 

Youngstown, Ohio 

Oklahoma City, Okla.. 

Tulsa, Okla 

Erie, Pa 

Reading, Pa 

Scranton, Pa 

Chattanooga, Tenn 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Nashville, Tenn 

El Paso, Tex 

Fort Worth, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 

Norfolk, Va 

Richmond, Va 

Spokane, Wash 

Tacoina, Wash 



253 


45 


187 


19 


199 


14 


241 


1 


221 


17 


332 


28 


299 


17 


153 


12 


290 


11 


100 




185 


20 


158 


5 


241 


18 


127 


29 


129 


3 


159 


4 


167 


14 


1,37 




148 


32 


179 


31 


86 


11 


219 


10 


208 


59 


164 


2 


225 


18 


255 


32 


136 


4 


111 


1 



298 
206 
213 
242 
238 
360 
316 
165 
301 
100 
205 
163 
2.59 
156 
132 
163 
181 
137 
180 
210 
97 
229 
267 
166 
243 
287 
140 
112 



CITIES WITH .50,000 TO 100,000 INHABITANTS 



Mobile, Ala 

Montgomery, Ala... 

Phoonix, hv'n. 

Little Rock, Ark... 

Berkeley. Calif 

Fresno. Calif 

Olendale. Calif 

Pasadena, Calif 

Sacramento, Calif . 
San Jose, Calif . 

Pueblo, Colo 

New Britain, Conn. 

Augusta, Ga 

Macon, Oa . 

Savannah, Ga 

Berwyn, 111 

Cicero, III 

Decatur, 111 



100 


14 


114 


114 




114 


81 


8 


89 


81 




81 


80 


2 


82 


79 


17 


96 


97 


1 


98 


94 


15 


109 


125 


22 


147 


60 


1 


61 


48 


1 


49 


97 




97 


102 


6 


108 


67 


3 


70 


139 


10 


149 


36 


3 


39 


75 


1 


76 


.50 


3 


53 



See footnotes at end of table. 
251951° — 40 5 



East St. Louis, 111... 

Evanston, 111 

Oak Park, 111. 

Rockford, 111 

Springfield, 111 

East Chicago, Ind... 

Hammond, Ind 

Terre Haute, Ind 

Cedar Rapids, lowa. 

Davenport, Iowa 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Tojieka, Kans 

Covington, Ky 

Shreveport, La 

Portland, Maine 

Brockton, Mass 

Holyoke, Mass 

Lawrence, Mass 



67 


9 


82 


17 


69 


2 


84 


6 


83 


19 


70 




83 


5 


77 




59 




68 




78 


5 


65 


7 


67 


3 


(') 


(') 


102 


5 


100 


4 


95 


3 


128 


2 



76 

99 

71 

90 

102 

70 

88 

77 

59 

68 

83 

72 

70 

120 

107 

104 

98 

130 



92 

Table 53. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities over 25,000 in 

population — Continued 

CITIES WITH 50,000 TO 100,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Maiden, Mass 

Medford, Mass 

Newton, Mass 

Pittsfield, Mass 

Quiney, Mass 

Dearborn, Mich 

Hamtramck, Mich__. 
Highland Park, Mich 

Jackson, Mich 

Kalamazoo, Mich 

Lansing, Mich 

Pontiac, Mich 

Saginaw, Mich 

Jackson, Miss 

St. Joseph, Mo 

Springfield, Mo 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Manchester, N. H 

Atlantic City, N. J... 
Bayonne, N. J 

Clifton, N.J 

East Orange, N. J 

Hoboken, N. J 

Irvington, N. J 

Passaic, N. J 

Union City, N. J 

Binghamton, N. Y_.. 
Mount Vernon, N. Y 
New Rochelle, N. Y^ 
Niagara Falls, N. Y_. 
Schenectady, N. Y., 

Troy, N. Y 

Asheville, N. C 

Charlotte, N. C 



Num- 


Num- 


ber of 


ber of 


police 


civil- 


officers 


ians 


113 


2 


98 


1 


139 


5 


56 




126 


i 


130 


11 


87 


6 


99 


6 


60 


2 


68 


7 


85 


4 


59 


9 


81 


11 


57 


13 


94 


9 


61 


3 


70 


10 


103 


4 


131 


10 



Total 
num- 
ber of 
em- 
ployees 



115 
99 

144 
56 

127 

141 
93 

105 
62 
75 
89 
68 
92 
70 

103 
64 
80 

107 

141 



Complete data 
received 



not 



51 




111 




157 




71 


7 


105 


8 


118 




114 


7 


129 


3 


140 


3 


120 


10 


150 


14 


166 


3 


65 


2 


101 


4 



51 
111 
157 

78 
113 
118 
121 
132 
143 
130 
164 
169 

67 
105 



City 



Durham, N. C 

Greensboro, N. C 

Winston-Salem, N. C 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio. 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Lakewood, Ohio 

Springfield, Ohio 

Allentown, Pa 

Altoona, Pa 

Bethlehem, Pa 

Chester, Pa 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Johnstown, Pa 

Lancaster, Pa 

McKeesport, Pa 

Upper Darby Township, 

Pa 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

York, Pa 

Pawtucket, R. I 

Woonsocket, R. I 

Charleston, S. C 

Columbia, S. C 

Austin, Tex 

Beaumont, Tex 

Galveston, Tex 

Port Arthur, Tex 

Waco, Tex 

Roanoke, Va 

Charleston, W. Va 

Huntington, W. Va 

Wheeling, W. Va 

Kenosha, Wis 

Madison, Wis 

Racine, Wis 



Num- 


Num- 


ber of 


ber of 


police 


civil- 


officers 


ians 


72 


18 


73 


3 


102 


3 


51 


14 


53 




68 


7 


54 


3 


92 


8 


63 




58 


1 


62 


4 


131 


11 


60 


1 


59 


5 


74 




86 


8 


105 


2 


55 


1 


124 


7 


73 


3 


126 


14 


81 




82 


8 


60 




65 


2 


25 




54 




90 


1 


75 


3 


71 


6 


71 


2 


66 


2 


71 


4 


66 


2 



Total 
num- 
ber of 
em- 
ployees 



CITIES WITH 25,000 TO 50,000 INHABITANTS 



Gadsden, Ala 

Tdcson, Ariz 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Alameda, Calif 

Alhambra, Calif 

Bakersfield, Calif 

Belvedere Township, 

Calif.a 

Huntington Park, Calif.. 

Inglewood, Calif 

Riverside, Calif 

San Bernardino, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif 

Santa Monica, Calif 

Stockton, Calif 

Colorado Springs, Colo.. 

Bristol, Conn 

Meriden, Conn_ 

Middletown, Conn 

New London, Conn 

Norwalk, Conn 

Stamford, Conn 

Torrington, Conn 

West Hartford, Conn 

West Haven, Conn 

Orlando, Fla..^ 

Pensacola, Fla 

St. Petersburg, Fla 

West Palm Beach, Fla.- 

Columbus, Qa. _ . 

Alton, 111 

Aurora, 111 

Belleville, 111 

Bloomington, 111 - - 

Danville, 111 

See footnotes at end 



28 


2 


30 


41 


1 


42 


26 




26 


37 


1 


38 


36 




36 


54 


2 


56 


12 




12 


31 




31 


34 




34 


34 


2 


36 


40 


1 


41 


44 




44 


42 


4 


46 


63 


16 


79 


61 


1 


62 


36 




36 


19 


i 


20 


41 




41 


22 




22 


53 


3 


56 


50 




50 


92 


2 


94 


31 


1 


32 


40 


1 


41 


28 




28 


43 


10 


53 


44 


4 


48 


59 


4 


63 


34 




34 


69 


2 


71 


31 




31 


42 




42 


22 


1 


23 


35 


3 


38 


30 


1 


31 



Elgin, 111 

Galesburg, 111 

Granite City, 111 

Joliet, 111 

Maywood, 111 

Moline, 111 

Quiney, 111 

Rock Island, 111 

Waukegan, 111 

Anderson, Ind 

Elkhart, Ind 

Kokomo, Ind 

Lafayette, Ind 

Michigan City, Ind_. 

Mishawaka, Ind 

MuDcie, Ind 

New Albany, Ind 

Richmond, Ind 

Burlington, Iowa 

Clinton, Iowa 

Council Bluffs, Iowa 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Ottumwa, lowa^ 

Waterloo, Iowa 

Hutchinson, Kans_.. 

Ashland, Ky 

Lexington, Ky 

Newport, Ky 

Paducah, Ky 

Baton Rouge, La 

Monroe, La 

Bangor, Maine 

Lewiston, Maine 

Cumberland, Md — 

Hagerstown, Md 

Arlington, Mass 



(') 



38 
33 
13 
50 
19 
23 
44 
29 
25 
) 

37 
35 
37 
33 
26 
54 
15 
30 
24 
20 
30 
40 
21 
46 
30 
25 
74 
43 
32 
36 
35 
46 
44 
46 
31 
51 



(>) 



of table. 



93 



Table 53. — Number of police-deparlment employees, 1939; cities over 26,000 in 

population — Continued 

CITIES WITH 25,000 TO 50.000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Beverly, Mass .-- 

Brookline, Mass -. 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chicopcc, Mass 

Everett, Mass 

FitchburR, Mass 

Haverhill, Mass _ 

Revere, Mass -.-. 

Salein, Mass. 

Taunton, Mass 

Waltham, Mass 

Watertown, Mass 

Ann Arbor, Mich 

Battle Creek, Mich 

Bay City, Mich 

Muskegon, Mich - 

Port Huron, Mich 

Royal Oak, Mich 

Wyanfiotte, Mich 

Meridian, Miss 

Joplin, Mo 

University City, Mo 

Butte, Mont 

Great Falls, Mont 

Concord, N. H 

Nashua, N. H... 

Belleville, N.J 

Bloomflcld, N.J 

Garfield, N.J 

Hackensack, N. J 

Kearny, N. J 

Montclair, N.J 

New Brunswick, N. J-_, 
North Bergen Town- 
ship, N. J 

Orange, N. J 

Perth .\mboy, N. J 

Plainfield, N.J. 

West New York, N. J. . . 

West Orange, N.J 

Wood bridge Township, 

N.J 

Albuquerque, N. Mex.. 

Amsterdam, N. Y 

Auburn, N. Y _.. 

Elmira, N. Y 

Jamestown, N. Y 

Kingston, N. Y 

Lackawanna, N. Y 

Newburgh, N. Y 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y 

Rome, N. Y 

Watertown, N. Y 

White Plains, N. Y 

High Point, N. C. 

Raleigh, N. C 

Wilmington, N. C 

Fargo, N. Dak 

Barberton, Ohio 

East Cleveland, Ohio... 

Elyria, Ohio 

Lima, Ohio 



Num- 


Num- 


Total 


ber of 


ber of 


ber of 
em- 
ployees 


police 


civil- 


ofTicers 


ians 


46 


1 


47 


126 


4 


130 


68 


4 


72 


54 


4 


58 


80 




80 


41 


5 


46 


64 




64 


44 




44 


73 


4 


77 


48 


4 


52 


56 


4 


60 


52 


5 


57 


37 




37 


49 


3 


52 


65 


11 


76 


50 




50 


37 


1 


3H 


25 




25 


36 


6 


42 


36 




36 


36 


5 


41 


37 




37 


31 




31 


31 




31 


27 




27 


35 




35 


35 




35 


61 


2 


63 


34 




34 


41 


1 


42 


76 


2 


78 


76 


1 


77 


45 


1 


46 


65 


2 


67 


60 


1 


61 


67 




67 


59 


5 


64 


(') 


(■) 


80 


45 




45 


35 




35 


41 




41 


35 




35 


46 




46 


80 




80 


54 


2 


56 


34 




34 


45 




45 . 


47 


2 


49 


61 


3 


64 


30 


2 


32 


38 




38 


105 


I 


106 


41 




41 


57 


3 


60 


45 




45 


38 




38 


17 




17 


37 


11 


48 


27 




27 


30 




30 



City 



Lorain, Ohio 

Mansfield, Ohio 

Marion, Ohio 

Massillon, Ohio 

Middletown, Ohio 

Newark, Ohio 

Norwood, Ohio 

Portsmouth, Ohio. 

Steubenville, Ohio 

Warren, Ohio 

Zancsville, Ohio 

Enid, Okla 

Muskogee, Okla 

Salem, Oreg 

Aliquippa, Pa 

Easton, Pa 

Hazleton, Pa 

Lebanon, Pa 

Lower Merion Town 

ship, Pa 

Nantieoke, Pa.. -.. 

New Castle, Pa 

Norristown, Pa 

Sharon, Pa 

Washington, Pa 

Wilkinsburg, Pa 

Williamsport, Pa 

Central Falls, R.I 

Cranston, R. I 

East Providence, R. I.. 

Newport, R. I 

Greenville, S. C 

Spartanburg; S. O 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak 

Abilene, Tex 

Amarillo, Tex 

Brownsville, Tex 

Corpus Christi, Tex 

Laredo, Tex 

San Angelo, Tex 

Wichita Falls, Tex 

Ogden, Utah 

Burlington, Vt 

Danville, Va 

Lynchburg, Va «.- 

Newport News, Va 

Petersburg, Va 

Portsmouth, Va -. 

Bellingham, Wash 

Everett, Wash 

Clarksburg, W. Va 

Parkersburg, W. Va 

Ap|)leton, Wis 

V.a,n Claire, Wis 

Fond du Lac, Wis 

Green Bay, Wis 

LaCrosse, Wis 

Oshkosh, Wis 

Sheboygan, Wis 

Superior, Wis 

West Allis, Wis 



Num- 
ber of 
police 
oflTicers 



35 
28 
16 
19 
33 
27 
32 
35 
37 
33 
25 
20 
30 
21 
21 
36 
27 
26 

112 
17 
42 
37 
23 
23 
27 
33 
34 
48 
30 
61 
58 
54 
41 
25 
42 
17 
45 
36 
24 
45 
36 
31 
40 
53 
48 
37 
43 
30 
34 



(') 



17 
28 
26 
31 
50 
47 
49 
43 
52 
41 



Num- 
ber of 
civil- 
ians 



1 


36 


1 


29 




16 




19 


1 


34 




27 




32 


1 


36 




37 




33 




25 




20 


2 


32 


5 


26 




21 


1 


37 




27 




20 



1 

13 



(') 



Total 
num- 
ber of 
em- 
ployees 



119 
19 
44 
37 
23 
23 
27 
34 
36 
48 
36 
61 
60 
55 
43 
28 
42 
18 
58 
36 
24 
49 
36 
32 
40 
53 
48 
40 
43 
30 
34 
24 
17 
28 
26 
32 
54 
48 
49 
43 
53 
43 



' Not separately reported. 

2 Belvidcre Townshi[), Calif., is under the jurisdiction of Los Angeles sheriflf's office, 
represent employees of the sheriff's office generally assigned to this city. 



Figures listed 



94 



Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 25,000 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Number of 
employees 



Anniston, Ala 

Bessemer, Ala 

Fairfield, Ala 

Florence, Ala 

Hunts ville, Ala 

Phenix City, Ala 

Selma, Ala 

Tuscaloosa, Ala 

El Dorado, Ark 

Hot Springs, Ark 

Jonesboro, Ark 

North Little Rock, Ark_ 

Pine Bluff, Ark 

Texarkana, Ark 

Anaheim. Calif 

Beverly Hills, Calif 

Brawley, Calif 

Burbank, Calif 

Burlingame, Calif 

Compton, Calif 

Eureka, Calif 

Fullerton, Calif 

Modesto, Calif 

Monrovia, Calif 

Ontario, Calif 

Palo Alto, Calif 

Pomona, Calif 

Redlands, Calif 

Richmond, Calif 

Salinas, Califs 

San Leandro, Calif 

San Mateo, Calif 

Santa Cruz, Calif 

Santa Rosa, Calif 

South Gate, Calif 

South Pasadena, Calif__. 

Vallejo, Calif 

Ventura, Calif 

Whittier, Calif 

Boulder, Colo 

Fort Collins, Colo 

Grand Junction, Colo-.. 

Greeley, Colo 

Trinidad, Colo 

Ansonia, Conn 

Dan bury. Conn 

Derby, Conn 

East Hartford, Conn 

Naugatuck, Conn 

Norwich, Conn_. 

Stratford Town, Conn.. 

Wallingford, Conn 

Willimantic, Conn 

Daytona Beach, Fla 

Gainesville, Fla 

Key West, Fla 

Lakeland, Fla 

St. Augustine, Fla 

Sanford, Fla 

Tallahassee, Fla 

Albany, Ga 

Athens, Ga 

Brunswick, Ga 

Decatur, Ga 

La Grange, Ga 

Rome, Ga 

Waycross, Ga 

Boise, Idaho 

Pocatello, Idaho 

Blue Island, 111 

Brookfield, 111... 

Cairo, 111 

Calumet City, 111 

Canton, 111 

Centralia, 111 

Champaign, 111 

Chicago Heights, 111 

East Moline, 111 

Elmhurst, IH 



20 
16 
9 
8 
20 
10 
21 
20 
10 
24 
10 
26 
12 

9 
12 
62 
12 
26 
15 
16 
16 
11 
22 
17 
19 
22 
18 
15 
35 
19 
13 
21 
17 
13 
18 
12 
17 
16 
18 

8 

8 
14 
12 
10 
11 
22 
10 
21 
29 
38 
19 
13 
23 
26 
14 
12 
24 
13 

8 
17 
18 
24 
17 
10 
18 
25 
13 
30 
23 
15 

8 
12 

9 

8 
14 
17 
22 

9 
12 




Elmwood Park, 111 

Forest Park, 111 

Freeport, 111 

Harrisburg, 111 

Harvey, 111 

Highland Park, 111.... 

Jacksonville, 111 

Kankakee, 111 

Kewanee, 111 

La Grange, 111 

La Salle, 111 

Lincoln, 111 

Mattoon, 111 

Melrose Park, 111 

Mount Vernon, 111 

Ottawa, 111 

Park Ridge, 111 

Pekin, 111 

Streator, 111 

Urbana, 111 

West Frankfort, 111... 

Wilmette, 111 

Winnetka, 111 

Bedford, Ind 

Bloomington, Ind 

Connersville, Ind 

Crawfordsville, Ind... 

Elwood, Ind 

Frankfort, Ind 

Goshen, Ind 

Huntington, Ind 

Jeffersonville, Ind 

La Porte, Ind 

Logansport, Ind 

Marion, Ind 

New Castle, Ind 

Peru, Ind 

Shelbyville, Ind 

Vincennes, Ind 

Whiting, Ind 

Ames, Iowa. 

Boone, Iowa 

Fort Dodge, Iowa 

Fort Madison, Iowa.. 

Iowa City, Iowa 

Keokuk, Iowa 

Marshalltown, Iowa.. 

Mason City, Iowa 

Muscatine, Iowa 

Newton, Iowa 

Oskaloosa, Iowa 

Arkansas City, Kans. 

Atchison, Kans 

Chanute, Kans 

Cofley ville, Kans 

Dodge City, Kans. . . 

El Dorado, Kans 

Emporia, Kans 

Fort Scott, Kans 

Independence, Kans. 

Lawrence, Kans 

Leavenworth, Kans.. 

Manhattan, Kans 

Newton, Kans 

Parsons, Kans 

Pittsburg, Kans 

Salina, Kans 

Bowling Green, Ky.. 

Fort Thomas, Ky 

Frankfort, Ky 

Henderson, Ky 

Hopkinsville, Ky 

Owensboro, Ky 

Alexandria, La 

Bogalusa La 

La Fayette, La 

Lake Charles, La 

Auburn, Maine 

Augusta, Maine 



95 



Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities ivith population 

from 2,500 to 25 ,000— Coninmed 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS 




Biddeforil, Maino 

South rorlhuul, Maine 

WattTvillp, Maine 

West brook , Maine 

Annapolis, Md 

Frodorick, Md _ 

Salisbury, Md 

Adams Town, Mass 

Amesbury Town, Mass 

Athol Town, Mass 

Attlcboro, Mass _ 

Belmont Town, Mass 

Braintree Town, Mass -.. 

CMinton, Mass.. 

Danvers Town, Mass 

Dedham Town, Mass 

Eastiiampton Town, Mass 

Fairhaven Town, Mass 

Framingham Town, Mass 

Gardner, Mass 

Gloucester, Mass -.. 

Greenfield Town, Mass 

Leominster, Mass 

Marlborough, Mass.. 

Melrose, Mass. . 

Methuen Town, Mass 

Milford Town, Mass 

Milton Town, Mass 

Natick Town, Mass.. 

Needham Town, Mass 

Newbury port. Mass 

North Adams, Mass.. 

Northampton, Mass 

North Attleboro Town, Mass. 

Norwood, Mass 

Peabody, Mass 

Plymouth, Mass... 

Saugus Town, Mass 

Southbridge Town, Mass 

Stoneham Town, Mass 

Swarapscott Town, Mass 

Wakefield Town, Mass 

Webster Town, Mass 

Wellesley Town, Mass 

Westfleld, Mass . . ; 

West Springfield Town, Mass 

Winchester Town, Mass 

Winthrop, Mass 

Woburn, Mass 

Adrian, Mich. 

Alpena, Mich 

Benton Harbor, Mich 

Ecorse, Mich 

Escanaba, Mich 

Ferndale, Mich 

Grosse Pointe Park, Mich 

Holland, Mich 

Iron Mountain, Mich 

Ironwood, Mich 

Lincoln Park, Mich 

Marf|uette, Mich 

Menominee, Mich 

Monroe, Mich 

Mount Clemens, Mich 

Muskegon Heights, Mich 

Niles, Mich.. 

Owosso, Mich.. 

River Rouge, Mich" 

Sault Stc. Marie, Mich 

Traverse City, Mich 

Ypsilanti, Mich 

Albert Lea, Minn 

Austin, Minn . 

Brainerd, Minn . 

Faribault, Minn 

nibbing, Minn . 

Mankato, Minn 

Rochester, Minn... 

St. Cloud, Minn... , 

South St. Paul. Minn 



14 
13 
12 
16 
If) 
20 
16 
12 

9 
16 
28 
44 
19 

9 
10 
19 
13 

9 
25 
21 
48 
16 
26 
19 
41 
28 
12 
35 
18 
18 
18 
24 
29 
19 
27 
45 
14 
26 
15 
12 
17 
21 
II 
25 
24 
24 
23 
21 
21 
12 

9 
15 
23 
14 
24 
36 
II 

6 
17 
13 
12 

7 
18 
15 
39 
12 
]•-• 
24 
12 

10 
16 

8 

16 

7 

10 
30 
16 
25 
21 
13 



Virginia, Minn 

Winona, Minn 

Biloxi, Miss.. 

Clarksdale, Miss. 

Columbus, Miss 

Greenville, Miss 

Greenwood, Miss 

Gulfport, Miss 

Hattiesburg, Miss 

Laurel, Miss. 

McComb, Miss 

Natchez, Miss 

Vioksburg, Miss 

Cai)e Girardeau, Mo 

Columbia, Mo 

Hannibal, Mo 

Independence, Mo 

Jeffer.son City, Mo. 

Maplewood, Mo 

Moberly, Mo- 

St. Charles, Mo 

Sedalia, Mo 

Webster Groves, Mo 

Anaconda, Mont 

Billings, Mont 

Helena, Mont 

Missoula, Mont 

Beatrice, Nebr 

Fremont, Nebr 

Grand Island, Nebr 

Hastings, Nebr . . 

Norfolk, Nebr 

North Platte, Nebr 

Reno, Nev... 

Berlin, N. H 

Claremont, N. H ... . 

Dover, N. H: 

Keene, N. H 

Laconia, N. H 

Portsmouth, N. H 

Rochester, N. H 

Bridgeton, N. J 

Burlington, N. J... 

Carteret, N. J 

ClitTside Park, N. J... 

Collingswood, N. J 

Cranford Township, N. J... 

Dover, N. J 

Englewood, N. J 

Gloucester, N. J 

Harrison, N. J.._ 

Hawthorne, N. J_._ 

Hillside Township, N. J 

Linden, N. J ... 

Lodi. N.J 

Long Branch, N. J 

Lyndhur.st Township, N. J. 
Maplewood Township, N. J. 

Millville, N. J 

Morristown, N.J 

Neptune Township, N. J... 

Nutley, N.J 

Pensauken Township, N. J., 

Phillipsburg, N. J.. 

Pleasantville, N. J 

Rah way, N. J 

Red Bank, N. J 

Ridgefiold Park, N. J , 

Ridgowood, N.J. 

Roselle, N.J 

South Orange, N. J 

South River, N.J 

Summit, N. J- 

Teaneck Township, N. J 

Union Township, N. J 

Wcchawken Townshij), N. J 

Westfield, N. J 

Roswcll, N. Mex 

Sante Fe, N. Mex 



29 
20 
13 
19 
12 
15 
13 
15 
16 
13 

6 
17 
30 
13 
20 
22 
14 
14 
35 
12 
12 
13 
16 

7 
18 
14 
14 

8 
10 
21 
15 
11 
14 
36 
24 

6 
16 
15 
20 
19 

9 
12 
11 
22 
26 
17 
17 

9 
39 
19 
51 
12 
28 
59 
27 
38 
24 
41 
17 
25 
19 
30 
15 
15 
14 
24 
19 
13 
27 
16 
34 
13 
29 
33 
30 
55 
25 

9 
12 



96 



Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 25 ,000— Contmued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Number of 
employees 



Batavia, N. Y 

Beacon, N. Y 

Cohoes, N. Y 

Corning, N. Y 

Cortland, N. Y 

Dunkirk, N.Y 

Endicott, N. Y 

Floral Park, N. Y 

Freeport, N. Y 

Fulton, N.Y 

Geneva, N. Y 

Glen Cove, N.Y 

Glens Falls, N. Y 

Gloversville, N. Y 

Hempstead, N. Y 

Herkimer, N. Y 

Hornell, N. Y 

Hudson, N.Y 

Irondequoit Town, N. Y. 

Ithaca, N. Y 

Johnson City, N. Y 

Johnstown, N. Y 

Kenmore, N. Y 

Little Falls, N.Y 

Lockport, N. Y 

Lynbrook, N. Y 

Mamaroneck, N. Y 

Massena, N. Y 

Middletown, N. Y 

North Tonawanda, N. Y 

Ogdensburg, N. Y 

Olean, N. Y 

Oneida, N.Y 

Oneonta, N. Y 

Ossining, N. Y 

Oswego, N. Y 

Peekskill, N. Y 

Plattsburg, N. Y 

Port Chester, N. Y 

Port Jervis, N. Y 

Rensselaer, N. Y 

Rockville Centre, N. Y.. 
Saratoga Springs, N. Y.. 

Tonawanda, N. Y 

Watervliet, N. Y 

Concord, N. C 

Elizabeth City, N. G 

Fayetteville, N. C 

Gastonia, N. C 

Goldsboro, N. C 

Kinston, N. C 

Rocky Mount, N. C 

Salisbury N. C 

Shelby, N.C 

Statesville, N. C 

Thomasville, N. C 

Wilson, N.C 

Bismarck, N. Dak 

Grand Forks, N. Dak.... 

Minot, N. Dak 

Alliance, Ohio 

Ashland, Ohio 

Ashtabula, Ohio 

Bellaire, Ohio 

Bucyrus, Ohio 

Cambridge, Ohio.. 

Campbell, Ohio.. 

Chillicothe, Ohio 

Coshocton, Ohio 

Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio 

East Liverpool, Ohio 

Euclid, Ohio 

Ffndlay, Ohio 

Fostoria, Ohio. 

Fremont, Ohio 

Garfield Heights, Ohio... 

Ironton, Ohio.- 

Lancaster, Ohio 

Marietta, Ohio 

Martins Ferry, Ohio 



29 
20 
29 
16 
15 
17 
23 
18 
32 
20 
20 
32 
28 
20 
44 
17 
22 
19 

9 
23 
13 
11 
18 

8 
32 
31 
28 
12 
26 
25 
16 
25 
14 
14 
20 
23 
23 
12 
43 
18 
15 
38 
26 
19 
22 
16 
12 
24 
28 
15 
18 
27 
18 
12 
11 
10 
21 

n 

20 

14 

8 

9 

19 

9 

7 

9 

12 

12 

8 

11 

9 

22 

16 

9 

10 

14 

14 

15 

13 

11 




New Philadelphia, Ohio 

Niles, Ohio 

Painesville, Ohio 

Parma Village, Ohio 

Piqua, Ohio 

Salem, Ohio 

Sandusky, Ohio 

Shaker Heights, Ohio 

Struthers, Ohio 

Tiffin, Ohio 

Wooster, Ohio 

Xenia, Ohio 

Ada, Okla 

Ardmore, Okla 

Bartlesville, Okla 

Chickasha, Okla 

Lawton, Okla 

McAIester, Okla 

Okmulgee, Okla 

Ponca City, Okla 

Sapulpa, Okla 

Shawnee, Okla 

Wewoka, Okla 

Astoria, Oreg 

Eugene, Oreg 

Klamath Falls, Oreg 

Medford, Oreg 

Abington Township, Pa 

Ambridge, Pa 

Arnold, Pa 

Beaver Falls, Pa 

Bellevue, Pa 

Berwick, Pa 

Braddock, Pa 

Bradford, Pa 

Bristol, Pa 

Butler, Pa 

Cannonsburg, Pa 

Carbondale, Pa 

Carlisle, Pa 

Carnegie, Pa 

Chambersburg, Pa 

Charleroi, Pa 

Cheltenham Township, Pa 

Clairton, Pa 

Coa tes ville, Pa. 

Columbia, Pa 

Connellsville, Pa 

Conshohocken, Pa 

Donora, Pa 

Dormont, Pa 

DuBois, Pa 

Dunmore, Pa 

Duquesne, Pa. 

Ellwood City, Pa 

Farrell, Pa... 

Franklin, Pa 

Greensburg, Pa 

Hanover, Pa 

Harrison Township, Pa 

Haverford Township, Pa 

Homestead, Pa 

Jeannctte, Pa 

Kingston, Pa 

Latrobe, Pa.. 

Lewistown, Pa 

Mahanoy City, Pa 

McKees Rocks, Pa 

Meadville, Pa 

Monessen, Pa 

Mount Carmel, Pa. 

Mount Lebanon Township, Pa 

Munhall, Pa 

New Kensington, Pa 

North Braddock, Pa 

Oil City, Pa 

Olyphant, Pa 

Phoenixville, Pa 

Pittston, Pa 

Plains Township, Pa 



97 

Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 26,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Plymouth, Pa 

Pottstown, Pa - 

Pottsville, Pa 

Sluunokin, Pa -- 

Shmiandoah, Pa 

Stoelton, Pa... 

Stowe Township, Pa 

Siinlmry, Pa - 

Swiss vale. Pa 

Tama(iua, Pa 

Taylor. Pa. 

Turtle Creek, Pa 

Uniontown, Pa. - 

VanderRrift, Pa - 

Warren, Pa. 

Waynesboro, Pa.. --- 

West Chester, Pa --- 

Bristol Town, R. I.. 

Cumberland Town, R. I 

Lincoln Town, R. I 

North Providence Town, R. I 

Warwick, R. I ..- -- 

Westerly Town, R. I 

West Warwick Town, R. I 

Anderson, S. C 

Florence, S. C_ 

Greenwood, S. C 

Rock Hill, S. C 

Sumter, S. C 

Aberdeen, S. Dak 

Huron, S. Dak 

Mitchell, S. Dak._ 

Rapid City, S. Dak 

Watertown, S. Dak 

Bristol, Tenn 

Johnson City, Tenn 

Kingsport, Tenn 

Big Spring, Tex.. 

Brownwood, Tex. 

Corsicana, Tex 

Del Rio, Tex.... 

Denison, Tex. 

Harlingen, Tex 

Lubbock, Tex 

Marshall, Tex 

Palestine, Tex 



Number of 
employees 



15 

17 

35 

10 

12 

8 

17 

5 

25 

16 

6 

12 

28 

4 

9 

6 

14 

8 

6 

9 

3 

31 

11 

12 

26 

16 

20 

21 

15 

19 

9 

10 

11 

9 

12 

21 

16 

14 

10 

13 

7 

12 

7 

22 

15 

10 



City 



Pampa, Tex 

Paris, Tex 

San Benito, Tex 

Sherman, Tex 

Sweetwater, Tex 

Temple, Tex.. 

Texarkana, Tex 

Tyler, Tex 

Pro vo, Utah 

Rutland, Vt 

Alexandria, Va... 

Charlottesville, Va 

Hopewell, Va 

Staunton, Va.. , 

Suffolk, Va 

Winchester, Va 

Aberdeen, Wash 

Bremerton, Wash 

Hoquiam, Wash 

Long view. Wash 

Olympia, Wash 

Port Angeles, Wash 

Vancouver, Wash 

Walla Walla, Wash 

Wenatchee, Wash 

Yakima, Wash 

Bluefield, W. Va 

Fairmont, W. Va 

Morgantown, W. Va... 

Moundsville, W. Va 

Ashland, Wis 

Beloit, Wis 

Cudahy, Wis 

Janesville, Wis 

Manitowoc, Wis 

Shorewood Village Wis 
South Milwaukee, Wis. 

Stevens Point, Wis 

Two Rivers, Wis 

Watertown, Wis 

Waukesha, Wis 

Wausau, Wis 

Wauwatosa, Wis 

Casper, Wyo 

Cheyenne, Wyo 



Number of 
employees 



8 
12 

4 
13 
12 
12 
14 
26 

9 
14 
38 
23 
14 
15 
19 
12 
19 
14 
10 

5 
11 
10 
«j 
17 
15 
30 
18 
17 

9 

7 

10 
27 
12 
22 
27 
15 
11 
15 
10 
11 
21 
36 
35 
16 
14 



CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10.000 INHABITANTS 



Attalla, Ala 

Auburn, Ala 

Carbon Hill, Ala.. 

Cullman, Ala 

Demopolis, Ala... 
Enterprise, Ala... 

Eufaula, Ala 

Florala, Ala 

Fort Payne, Ala.. 

Greenville, Ala 

Ountersville, Ala. 
Homewood, Ala... 

Jasper, Ala. 

Jacksonville, Ala.. 

Lanett, Ala 

Leeds, Ala 

Piedmont, Ala 

Prichard, Ala 

Roanoke, .\la 

Russell ville, Ala.. 

ShefrieW, Ala 

Sylacauga, Ala 

Talladega, Ala 

Tarrant City, Ala 

Troy. Ala 

Tuseumbia, Ala... 

Bisbee, .\riz 

Douglas, Ariz 



5 
4 
4 
5 
3 
3 
4 
2 
5 
4 
5 
5 
9 
2 
7 
2 
4 
8 
4 
3 
7 
5 
5 
5 
7 
4 
7 
11 



Flagstaff, Ariz 

Glendale, Ariz 

Globe, Ariz 

Jerome, Ariz 

Miami, Ariz 

Nogales, Ariz 

Prescott, .\riz 

Winslow, Ariz 

Yuma, Ariz 

Batesville, Ark... 

Brinkley, Ark 

Camden, Ark 

Crossett, Ark 

Dermott, -\rk 

Fayette ville, Ark. 
Forrest City, Ark 

Helena, Ark. 

Hope, Ark 

Malvern, Ark 

McGehee, Ark... 
Marianna, Ark... 

Mena, Ark. 

Monticello, Ark.. 
Morrilton, Ark... 

Newport, Ark 

Rogers, Ark 

Russellville, Ark. 
Searcy, Ark. 



98 



Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 26,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 




Stamps, Ark_ 

Stuttgart, Ark 

Trumann, Ark 

Van Buren, Ark 

West Helena, Ark 

Wvnne, Ark 

Albany, Calif 

Antioch, Calif 

Arcadia, Calif 

Auburn, Calif 

Azusa, Calif 

Bell, Calif 

Calexico, Calif - 

Cliico, Calif 

Chino, Calif 

Chula Vista, Calif - 

Claremont, Calif 

Coalinga, Calif 

Colton, Calif 

Corona, Calif 

Coronado, Calif 

Covina, Calif 

Culver City, Calif 

Daly City, Calif 

Delano, Calif 

Dinuba, Calif 

Dunsmuir, Calif 

El Centre, Calif 

El Cerrito, Calif 

El Atonte, Calif 

El Segundo, Calif 

Escondido, Calif 

Exeter, Calif 

Fillmore, Calif 

Fort Bragg, Calif 

Gardena, Calif 

Gilroy, Calif 

Glendora, Calif 

Grass Valley, Calif 

Hanford, Calif 

Hawthorne, Calif 

Hayward, Calif 

Hermosa Beach, Calif 

Hollister, Calif 

Huntington Beach, Calif- 
La Mesa, Calif 

La Verne, Calif 

Livermore, Calif 

Lodi, Calif---. 

Lompoc, Calif 

Los Oatos, Calif 

Lynwood, Calif 

Madera, Calif 

Martinez, Calif 

Marysville, Calif 

Maywood, Calif 

Merced, Calif 

Mill Valley, Calif 

Montebello, Calif 

Monterey, Calif 

Monterey Park, Calif.--. 

Mountain View, Calif 

Napa, Calif 

National City, Calif - 

Needles, Calif 

Oceanside, Calif 

Orange, Calif 

Oroville, Calif 

Oxnard , Calif 

Pacific Grove, Calif 

Petaluma, Calif 

Piedmont, Calif 

Pittsburg, Calif 

Porterville, Calif.- 

Redding, Calif 

Redondo Beach, Calif 

Redwood City, Calif 

Reedley, Calif 

Roseville, Calif- 



1 

3 

4 

3 

3 

5 

8 

5 
14 

2 

9 
10 

7 

3 
7 

12 
7 

15 
6 

18 
4 

20 

12 
4 
4 
3 

14 
6 
9 

18 
4 
4 
3 
5 
5 
5 
3 

11 
8 

11 
6 

11 
6 
9 
5 
4 
4 
7 
3 
4 

13 
6 
6 

14 

10 

10 
8 

12 

11 

11 

3 

8 

10 

3 

7 

9 

7 

6 

5 

9 

28 

11 

6 

12 

18 

13 

4 

8 



San Anselmo, Calif 

San Bruno, Calif 

San Fernando, Calif 

San Gabriel, Calif 

San Luis Obispo, Calif 

San Marino, Calif 

San Rafael, Calif 

Santa Clara, Calif 

Santa Maria, Calif 

Santa Paula, Calif 

Sausalito, Calif 

Selma, Calif 

Sierra Madre, Calif 

Signal Hill, Calif 

South San Francisco, Calif- 
Sunnyvale, Calif 

Taft, Calif 

Torrence, Calif 

Tracy, Calif 

Tulare, Calif 

Turlock, Calif 

Upland, Calif 

Visalia, Calif 

Watsonville, Calif 

Woodland, Calif 

Yuba City, Calif 

Alamosa, Colo 

Brighton, Colo 

Canon City, Colo 

Delta, Colo 

Durango, Colo 

Englewood, Colo 

Fort Morgan, Colo 

La Junta, Colo 

Lamar, Colo 

Leadville, Colo 

Longmont, Colo 

Loveland, Colo 

Monte Vista, Colo 

Montrose, Colo 

Rocky Ford, Colo 

Salida, Colo 

Sterling, Colo 

Walsenburg, Colo 

Danielson, Conn 

Qroton Borough, Conn 

Putnam, Conn 

Rock ville. Conn 

Southington, Conn 

Stafford Springs, Conn 

Winsted, Conn 

Dover, Del 

Milford, Del 

Newark, Del 

New Castle, Del 

Arcadia, Fla 

Avon Park, Fla 

Bartow, Fla 

Bradenton, Fla 

Clearwater, Fla 

Coral Gables, Fla 

De Funiak Springs, Fla 

Eustis, Fla 

Fort Lauderdale, Fla 

Fort Pierce, Fla 

Hialeah, Fla 

Hollywood, Fla 

Kissimmee, Fla 

Lake City, Fla 

Lake Wales, Fla 

Lake Worth, Fla 

Lecsburg, Fla 

Marianna, Fla 

Melbourne, Fla 

Miami Beach, Fla 

New Smyrna, Fla 

Ocala, Fla 

Palatka, Fla 

Palmetto, Fla 



99 



Table 54. 



-Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 
from 2,500 to M.OOO— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 


Number of 
employees 


City 


Number of 
employees 


Panama Citv, Fla. 


9 
8 
5 
2 
5 
3 

11 
2 
4 
3 
7 
5 
9 
6 
5 
4 
6 
6 
9 
6 
7 
3 

10 
4 

12 
6 

U 
2 
7 
4 
4 
4 
2 
5 
4 
4 
4 
4 
6 
2 

15 
9 
2 
4 

lO 
3 
3 
3 
3 

12 
3 
3 
2 
2 
7 
3 
4 
7 
7 
7 
3 
3 
2 
3 
3 
5 
3 
2 
4 
5 
3 
5 

10 
4 
8 

11 
8 
6 
8 


Duquoin, 111. 


6 
3 
4 


Perrv, Fla . _ 


Dwiffht, 111 


rhint City, Fla 


East Alton, 111. 


Poriipano, Fla 


East Peoria, 111 


10 

6 
5 


Quincv, Fla 


Edwardsville, 111 


RiviT Junction, Fla 


Eiringham, 111 


Sarsvsota, Fla 


Flora, 111 


6 
3 


Sobrintr. Fla 


Oalva, 111 


Tarpon Springs, Fla . 


Geneva, 111 


7 


^\'a^K•llula, Fla 


Gillespie, 111... 


4 


Winter Ilavon, Fla 


Glencoe, 111 


11 


Winter Park, Fla 


Glen EUvn, 111 


11 


AnKTiPus, Oa 


Greenville, 111 .... 


7 


Bainbridee, Ga 


Harvard, 111 


2 


Barnesville, Oa .. 


Havana, 111 . 


6 
5 
3 


Cairo, Ga - 


Herrin, 111 


Carrollton, Qa 


Highland, 111 


Cartorsville, Qa 


Highwood, 111 . 


7 


Cofiartown, Oa . 


Hillsboro, III . 


4 


Commorce, Ga 


Hinsdale, 111. 


12 


Cordolo, Oa 


Homewood, 111 . 


4 
3 

4 


Ciithbert, Oa 


Hoopeston, 111 ..... 


Dalton, Ga.- 


Johnston Citv, 111 


Dawson, Oa 


Kenilworth, 111 . . 


9 
4 
17 
3 
5 
3 
3 
4 


East Point, Oa -.. 


La Orange Park, 111. . 


Elberton, Oa 


Lake Forest, 111 


IVI;iri(>tta, Oa _. 


Lansing, 111 ..... 


Afilli'n, Oa 


Lawrenc^ville, 111 . 


Xcwnnn, Oa 


Lemont, 111 .. 


Pclluitn, Ga . - . 


Libertyville, 111 


Portcrdale, Ga . 


Litchfield, 111 


Quitman, Ga 


Lockport, 111 


3 
6 

10 
7 

10 
4 
6 
6 

10 
5 


Rossville, Ga 


Lombard, 111. . 


P tatcsboro, Ga 


Lyons, 111 


Vidalia, Ga 


Macomb, 111 


Blackfoot, Idaho 


Madison, 111.' . . 


Burloy, Idaho 


Marseilles, 111 


Caldwell, Idaho . 


Mendota, III 


Coeur d'Aleuo, Idaho 


Metropolis, III . 


Emmott, Idaho 


Monmouth, 111 


Idaho Falls, Idaho 


Morris, 111 . . 


Lrf'wiston. Idaho. 


Morrison, 111 . 


2 


Malad, Idaho 


Mount Carmel, 111. .. 


4 
3 


Moscow, Idaho 


Mount Olive, III 


Xanipa, Idaho. 


Murphvsboro, III ... 


4 


Pavctte, Idaho 


Naperville, 111 


7 

18 

7 


Preston, Idaho 


Niles Center, III 


St. Anthony, Idaho 


Normal, 111 .. 


Sandpoiut, Idaho. 


North Chicago, III 


6 
5 
4 
4 


Twin Falls, Idaho 


Oglesbv, III--- 


Wallace, Idaho 


Olnev, III 


Weiser. Idaho 


~ Pana, 111 ... 


.Vbinsdon, 111 


Paris, 111 . . 


8 

5 


Anna, 111 


Peoria Heights, III 


.VrliiiKton Heights, 111 


Peru, 111 . 


6 
2 
3 
5 

5 


Barrinnton. Ill 


Phoenix, 111 


IJitavia. Ill 


Pincknevville, 111 


Hi-irdstown, III 


Princeton, 111 . . 


Bellwood, 111 


Pontiac, 111 - - 


Belvidere, 111 


Riverdale, 111 


3 
17 

6 
11 


Benld, 111 


River Forest, 111 . . 


Benton, 111 


River Grove, III. . 


Bradley, 111.. 


Riverside, III 


Bushnell, III 


Robinson, III 


7 
5 


Carlinville, 111 


Rochello, III 


Carbondale, 111 


Roodhouse. Ill 


3 


Carmi, 111 


St Charles, 111 . . 


4 


Cnrterville, 111. 


Salem 111 


7 


Charleston, 111 




1 


Chester. Ill 


Sjiv.inna III 


5 
3 
4 


Ciiristoplier, III 


Shelbvville, 111 


Clinton, 111 


Silvis, 111 


Collinsville, 111 


Sparta III 


3 


Crystal Lake. Ill 


Spring Valley, 111 .. . 


4 


De Kalb, 111 




3 

4 


Dcs Plaines, 111 


Steeer 111 


Dixon, 111 


Summit 111 


g 


Dolton, 111 


Tavlorville, III 


5 


Downers Grove, 111.. 


Tuscola, 111-. 


3 



100 



Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,600 to ^5,000— Continued 



CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Vandalia, 111 

Venice, 111 

Villa Park, 111 

Virden, 111 

Watseka, 111 

West Chicago, 111 

Western Springs, HI 

Westmont, 111 

Westville, 111 

Wheaton, 111 

White Hall, 111 

Wood River, 111 .. 

Woodstock, 111 

Zeigler, 111 

Zion, 111 _- 

Alexandria, Ind 

Angola, Ind _. 

Attica, Ind 

Auburn, Ind.^ .. 

Aurora, Ind 

Beech Grove, Ind 

Bicknell, Ind 

Bluffton, Ind 

Boonville, Ind 

Brazil, Ind .. 

Clinton, Ind .. 

Columbia City, Ind-..__ 

Columbus, Ind .. 

Crown Point, Ind 

Decatur, Ind _. 

Dunkirk, Ind 

Franklin, Ind 

Garrett, Ind _. 

Gas City, Ind .. 

Greencastle, Ind _ . 

Greenfield, Ind _. 

Greensburg, Ind .. 

Hartford City, Ind .. 

Hobart, Ind 

Huntingburg, Ind .. 

Jasonville, Ind . . 

Jasper, Ind _. 

Kendallville, Ind _. 

Lawrenceburg, Ind — .. 

Lebanon, Ind _. 

Linton, Ind .. 

Madison, Ind _. 

Martinsville, Ind _. 

Mitchell, Ind .. 

Mount Vernon, Ind..... 

Nappanee, Ind 

Noblesville, Ind 

North Vernon, Ind 

Oakland City, Ind 

Petersburg, Ind 

Plymouth, Ind 

Portland, Ind 

Princeton, Ind 

Rensselaer, Ind 

Rochester, Ind 

Rushville, Ind 

Salem, Ind 

Seymour, Ind 

Sullivan, Ind 

Tipton, Ind 

Valparaiso, Ind 

Wabash, Ind 

Warsaw, Ind 

Washington, Ind 

West Lafayette, Ind — 
West Terre Haute, Ind. 

Winchester, Ind 

Albia, Iowa. 

Algona, Iowa 

Anamosa, Iowa 

Atlantic, Iowa 

Belle Plains, Iowa 

Bettendorf, Iowa 

Carroll, Iowa 



Number of 
employees 



6 
2 
4 
2 
5 
8 
4 

10 
3 
fi 
3 
2 
4 
6 
2 
4 
3 
4 
6 
4 
6 
2 
7 
6 
5 

10 
2 
4 
2 
4 
3 
2 
4 
4 
3 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 
4 
4 
4 
4 
6 
3 
4 
3 
3 
5 
4 
1 
2 
6 
4 
5 
3 
4 
5 
4 
6 
3 
4 
11 
8 
10 
6 
4 
3 
4 
2 
3 
2 
3 
2 
2 
4 




Cedar Falls, Iowa 

Centerville, Iowa 

Chariton, Iowa 

Charles City, Iowa 

Cherokee, Iowa 

Clarinda, Iowa 

Clarion, Iowa 

Clear Lake, Iowa 

Cresco, Iowa 

Creston, Iowa 

Decorah, Iowa 

Denison, Iowa 

Eagle Grove, Iowa 

Eldora, Iowa 

Emmetsburg, Iowa 

Estherville, Iowa 

Fairfield, Iowa 

Glenwood, Iowa 

Grinnell, Iowa 

Hampton, Iowa 

Iowa Falls, Iowa 

Jefferson, Iowa 

Knoxville, Iowa 

Le Mars, Iowa 

Maquoketa, Iowa 

Marion, Iowa 

Missouri Valley, Iowa . 
Mount Pleasant, Iowa. 

Nevada, Iowa 

Oelwein, Iowa 

Onawa, Iowa 

Osage, Iowa 

Osceola, Iowa 

Pella, Iowa 

Perry, Iowa 

Red Oak, Iowa 

Sac City, Iowa 

Sheldon, Iowa 

Shenandoah, Iowa 

Spencer, Iowa 

Storm Lake, Iowa 

Tama, Iowa 

Vinton, Iowa 

Washington, Iowa 

Waukon, Iowa 

Waverly, Iowa 

Webster City, Iowa 

Winterset, Iowa 

Abilene, Kans 

Anthony, Kans 

Augusta, Kans 

Baxter Springs, Kans.. 

Caney, Kans 

Cherry vale, Kans 

Clay Center, Kans 

Concordia, Kans 

Council Grove, Kans... 

Eureka, Kans 

Fredonia, Kans 

Galena, Kans 

Garden City, Kans 

Garnett, Kans 

Goodland, Kans 

Great Bend, Kans 

Hays, Kans 

Herington, Kans 

Hiawatha, Kans 

Hoisington, Kans 

Holton, Kans 

Horton, Kans 

Humboldt, Kans 

lola, Kans 

Junction City, Kans... 

Kingman, Kans 

Larned, Kans 

Liberal, Kans 

Lyons, Kans 

Marysville, Kans 

McPherson, Kans 



101 



Table 54. — Number of police-departmenl employees, 1939; cities xoith population 

from 2,500 to ^5, 000— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10.000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Neodesha, Kans 

Norton, Kans 

Olathe, Kans 

Osawatoniio, Kans 

Ottawa, Kans 

Paola, Kans 

Pratt, Kans 

Wellington, Kans 

Winfield, Kans 

CatlettsburK, Ky 

Corbin, Ky 

Cumberland, Ky 

Cynthiana. Ky. 

Danville. Ky. 

Dayton, Ky 

Elsinere, Ky 

Fulton, Ky. 

Georgetown, Ky 

Glasgow, Ky 

Harlan, Ky. 

Harrodsburg, Ky 

Irvine, Ky 

Jenkins, Ky 

Lebanon, Ky 

Ludlow, Ky. 

Mount Sterling, Ky.. 

Murray, Ky.. 

NIcholasville, Ky 

Pikoville, Ky 

Pineville, Ky 

Providence, Ky 

Ricliniond, Ky 

Russellville, Ky 

Winchester, Ky 

Amite, La. 

Bastrop, La. 

Bossier City, La 

De Quincy, La 

Donaldson ville, La... 

Eunice, La 

Franklin, La 

Hammond, La 

Haynesville, La 

Houma, La 

JenninRS, La 

Lake Providence, La. 

Leesville, La 

Mansfield, La 

Minden, La 

Natchitoches, La 

New Iberia, La 

Oakdale, La 

Opelousas, La 

Pineville, La. 

Plaquemine, La 

Rayne, La 

Ruston, La 

Slldell, La 

Tallulah, La 

Thibodaux, La 

West Monroe, La 

Westwego, La 

Bath, Maine.. 

Belfast, Maine 

Brunswick, Maine... 

Calais, Maine 

Fort Fairfield, Maine 

Oariliner, Maine 

Hallowell, Maine 

Madison, Maine 

Old Town, Maine 

Prpsr4ue Isle, Maine.. 

Rockland, Maine 

Saco, Maine 

Cambridge, Md 

Easton, Md. 

Frostburg, Md 

Laurel, Md 



Number of 
employees 



3 
2 
3 

4 
7 
3 
4 
4 
8 
4 
6 
4 
5 
6 
5 
6 
4 
6 
8 
5 
5 
3 
10 
4 
5 
5 
4 
4 
••i 
3 
3 
7 
4 
8 
2 
7 
6 
6 
4 
3 
2 

6 
2 
6 
2 
2 
4 
2 
4 
8 

12 
2 
7 
2 
5 
3 
5 
3 
4 
5 
6 
1 
9 
4 
3 
7 
2 
6 
3 
1 

17 
3 
8 

12 
8 
5 
5 
2 




Mount Rainier, Md 

Pocomoke City, Md 

Takoma Park. Md 

Westernport, Md. 

Westminster, Md 

Amherst, Mass 

Andover, Mass. 

Auburn, Mass 

Ayer, Mass. . 

Barnstable, Mass 

Bridgewater, Mass 

Canton, Mass.. 

Concord, Mass... 

Dalton, Mass. 

Dartmouth, Mass 

Dracut, Mass.. 

Franklin, Mass 

Great Harrington, Mass — 

Hingham, Mass.. 

Hudson, Mass. 

Ipswich, Mass 

Lexington, Mass 

Longmeadow, Mass 

Ludlow, Mass 

Marblehead, Mass 

Maynard, Mass 

Middleborough, Mass 

Millbury, Mass 

Montague, Mass... 

Nantucket, Mass 

North Andover, Mass 

Northhridge, Mass 

Orange, Mass 

Palmer, Mass 

Provincetown, Mass 

Randolph, Mass. 

Reading, Mass 

Rockland, Mass 

Rockport, Mass 

Somerset, Mass.. 

South Hadley, Mass 

Spencer. Mass 

Stoughton, Mass 

Uxbridge, Mass 

Walpole, Mass 

Ware, Mass 

Winchendon, Mass 

Albion, Mich.. 

Allegan, Mich 

Alma, Mich 

Belding, Mich 

Berkley, Mich 

Bessemer, Mich 

Big Rapids, Mich 

Birmingham, Mich 

Boyne City, Mich 

Buchanan, Mich 

Cadillac, Mich 

Caro, Mich 

Centerline, Mich 

Charlotte, Mich 

Cheboygan, Mich 

Clawson, Mich 

Coldwater, Mich... 

Crystal Falls, Mich 

Dowagiac, Mich.. 

Durand, Mich.. 

East Detroit, Mich 

East Grand Rapids, Mich.. 

East Lansing, Mich 

Eaton Rapids, Mich 

Gladstone, Mich 

Grand Haven, Mich 

Granil T.,odge, Mich 

Greenville, Mich 

Gro.sse Pointe, Mich 

Grosse Pointe Farms, Mich 

Hancock, Mich 

Hastings, Mich 



Number of 
employees 



6 
5 
8 
1 
3 
4 

12 

10 
3 

16 
9 
8 

10 
2 
8 
2 
6 
7 

12 
9 
9 

17 
8 
9 

24 
8 
6 
6 
4 
7 

10 

14 
4 

12 
6 
4 

18 
5 
7 
3 
4 

13 
6 
6 

10 
4 
9 
6 
4 
5 
1 
6 
4 
6 

18 
2 
3 
6 
6 
5 
2 
3 
3 
7 
3 
5 
1 
7 
5 
5 
8 
4 
5 
5 
5 

16 

21 
7 
3 



102 

Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,600 to 25 ,000— Contivmed 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Hillsdale, Mich__ 

Howell, Mich 

Inkster, Mich 

Ionia, Mich 

Iron River, Mich 

Ishpeming, Mich 

Kingsford, Mich 

Lapeer, Mich 

Laurium, Mich 

Ludington, Mich 

Manistee, Mich 

Manistique, Mich 

Marine City, Mich 

Marshall, Mich. 

Mason, Mich 

Melvindale, Mich 

Midland, Mich 

Mount Pleasant, Mich 

Munising, Mich 

Negaunee, Mieh 

North ville, Mich 

Norway, Mich 

Otsego, Mich 

Petosky, Mich 

Pleasant Ridge, Mich 

Plymouth, Mich 

Rochester, Mich 

Rogers City, Mich 

Roseville, Mich 

St. Clair, Mich 

St. Clair Shores, Mich 

St. Joseph, Mich 

South Haven, Mich 

Sturgis, Mich 

Three Rivers, Mich 

Trenton, Mich 

Wakefield, Mich 

Wayne, Mich 

Zeeland, Mich 

Alexandria, Minn 

Anoka, Minn 

Bayport, Minn 

Bemidji, Minn 

Blue Earth, Minn 

Chishohn, Minn 

Cloquet, Minn 

Columbia Heights, Minn_ 

Crookston, Minn 

Crosby, Minn 

Detroit Lakes, Minn 

East Grand Forks, Minn_. 

Edina, Minn 

Ely, Minn 

Eveleth, Minn 

Fairmont, Minn 

Fergus Falls, Minn 

Gilbert, Minn 

Grand Rapids, Minn 

Hastings, Minn 

Hopkins, Minn 

Hutchinson, Minn__ 

International Falls, Minn. 

Lake City, Minn 

Litchfield, Minn 

Little Falls, Minn 

Luverne, Minn 

Marshall, Minn 

Montevideo, Minn 

Moorhead, Minn 

Nashwauk, Minn 

New Ulm, Minn 

Northfleld, Minn 

North Mankato, Minn 

North St. Paul, Minn 

Owatonna, Minn 

Pipestone, Minn 

Proctorknott, Minn._ 

Red Wing, Minn ... 

Redwood Falls, Minn 



Number of 
employees 



2 
3 

5 
1 
4 
9 
4 
2 
3 
5 
7 
4 
3 
4 
2 
6 
6 

3 
11 
5 
3 
3 
5 
6 
7 
4 
1 
8 
3 

n 

8 
4 
7 
7 
9 
6 
5 
2 
4 
3 
2 
6 
3 

15 
8 
7 
7 
3 
4 
7 
4 

13 
16 
5 
5 
5 
4 
4 
2 
3 
5 
3 
3 
5 
3 
4 
4 
8 
4 
6 
3 
2 
1 
8 
3 
1 
9 
3 




Robbinsdale, Minn 

St. James, Minn 

St. Louis Park, Minn... 

St. Peter, Minn 

Sauk Center, Minn 

Sauk Rapids, Minn 

Sleepy Eye, Minn 

Staples, Minn 

Stillwater, Minn 

Thief River Falls, Minn 

Tracy, Minn 

Two Harbors, Minn 

Wadena, Minn 

Waseca, Minn 

West St. Paul, Minn^... 
White Bear Lake, Minn 

Willmar, Minn 

Worthington, Minn 

Canton, Miss.. 

Columbia, Miss 

Indianola, Miss 

Lexington, Miss 

Louisville, Miss 

New Albany, Miss 

Oxford, Miss 

Philadelphia, Miss 

Picayune, Miss 

Starkville, Miss 

Water Valley, Miss 

West Point, Miss 

Winona, Miss 

Yazoo City, Miss 

Aurora, Mo 

Bonne Terro, Mo 

Boonville, Mo 

Brentwood, Mo 

Cameron, Mo... 

Carrollton, Mo 

Carthage, Mo 

Chillicothe, Mo 

Clayton, Mo 

Clinton, Mo 

DeSoto, Mo 

Excelsior Springs, Mo-.. 

Farmington, Mo 

Fulton, Mo 

Higginsville, Mo 

Kirksville, Mo 

Kirkwood, Mo 

Marceline, Mo 

Marshall, Mo 

Maryville, Mo 

Mexico, Mo 

Monett, Mo 

Nevada, Mo 

Richmond Heights, Mo. 

Ste. Genevieve, Mo 

Sikeston, Mo 

Slater, Mo 

Trenton, Mo 

Washington, Mo 

West Plains, Mo 

Bozeman, Mont 

Deer Lodge, Mont 

Glendive, Mont 

Havre, Mont 

Kalispell, Mont 

Laurel, Mont 

Lewistown, Mont 

Livingston, Mont 

Miles City, Mont 

Roundup, Mont 

Whiteflsh, Mont 

Alliance, Nebr 

Auburn, Nebr 

Aurora, Nebr 

Blair, Nebr 

Chadron, Nebr 

Columbus, Nebr 



103 



Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to ^.5,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10.000 INHABITANTS 




Crete, Nebr 

Fairbury, Nebr 

Falls City, Kebr 

Oering, Nobr 

Holdrege, Nebr 

Kearney, Nebr 

Lexington, Nebr 

McCook, Nebr 

Nebraska City, Nebr 

Scottsbluff, Nebr 

Schuyler, Nebr 

Seward, Nebr 

Sidney, Nebr 

South Sioux City, Nebr.. 

Wahoo, Nebr 

Wymore, Nebr 

York, Nebr... 

Boulder City, Nev 

Elko, Nev 

Ely, Nev 

Las Vegas, Nev 

Sparks, Nev 

Derry Town. N. H 

Exeter, N. H 

Franklin, N. H 

Littleton, N. H 

Milford, N. H__ 

Newport, N. H 

Soniersworth, N. H 

Audubon, N.J 

BerfienHeld, N.J 

Bernardsville, N. J 

Beverly, N.J 

Bogota, N. J 

Boonton, N. J 

Bound Brook, N. J 

Bradlev Beach, N.J 

Butler, N.J 

Caldwell, N.J 

Cape May, N.J 

Carlstadt. N.J 

Chatham, N.J 

Clomenton, N. J... 

Closter, N. J..._ 

Dunellen, N. J. 

East Newark, N. J 

East Patcrson, N. J 

Edgewater, N. J 

Egg Harbor, N. J 

Fairlawn, N. J 

Fairview, N.J 

Fleniington, N. J 

Fort Lee, N.J 

Freehold, N.J 

Garwood, N.J 

Olassboro, N. J 

Olen Ridge, N. J 

Olen Rock, N.J 

Quttcnberg, N. J 

Hackettstown, N. J 

Haddonfield, N.J 

Haddon Heights, N. J... 

Haledon, N. J 

Hanimonton, N. J 

Hasbrouck Heights, N. J 

Highland Park, N.J 

Hightstown. N. J.. 

Hillsdale, N.J 

Keyport, N.J 

Lainbertville, N. J 

Lconia, N.J 

Little Ferry, N.J 

Madi.sou, N.J 

Manvillc, N.J 

Margate City, N. J 

Maywood, N. J.. 

Merchantville, N.J 

Metuchen, N. J 

Middlesex, N. J 



3 

5 
6 
3 
3 
7 
3 
4 
4 
8 
4 
3 
3 
3 
2 
2 
5 
S 
4 
5 

11 
5 
4 
9 
5 
8 
2 
8 
6 

14 

12 
5 
6 

11 
8 
9 

11 
4 

11 
8 

10 
7 
2 
5 
5 
5 
6 

25 
5 
9 

13 
2 

23 
4 
9 
4 

21 
9 

11 
3 

22 

10 

.5 

11 

11 
4 
7 
4 
3 

13 
8 

10 
4 

11 

10 
9 



Midland Park, N.J... 

New Milford, N. J 

Newton, N.J 

Northfleld, N.J 

North Plainfleld, N. J. 

Ocean City, N. J 

Paramus, N. J. 

Paulsboro, N. J 

Penns Grove, N. J 

Pitman, N. J. 

Pompton Lakes, N. J.. 

Princeton, N.J 

Prospect Park, N. J 

Ramsey, N. J 

Raritan, N. J 

Ridgefield, N.J 

Rockaway, N. J 

Roselle Park, N.J 

Salem, N. J , 

Sayreville, N.J 

Secaucus, N. J 

Somerville, N. J.._ 

South Plainfleld, N. J.. 

Tenafly, N.J 

Ventnor City, N.J 

Verona, N. J 

Vineland, N. J 

Wallington, N. J 

Washington, N. J. 

West Caldwell, N.J... 

Westwood, N. J 

Wharton, N.J 

Wildwood, N.J 

Woodbury, N. J 

Woodlynne, N. J 

Wood Ridge,. N.J 

Alamogordo, N. Max... 

Carlsbad, N. Mex 

Clayton, N. Mex 

Clovis, N. Mex 

Deming, N. Mex 

Gallup, N. Mex 

Las Cruees, N. Mex 

Portales, N. Mex 

Raton, N. Mex 

Silver City, N. Mex.... 

Albion, N. Y. 

Amityville, N. Y 

Babylon, N. Y 

Baldwinsville, N. Y... 

Ballston Spa, N. Y 

Bath, N. Y... 

Brockport, N. Y 

Bronxville, N. Y 

Canajoharie, N. Y 

Canadaigua, N. Y 

Canastota, N. Y 

Canisteo, N. Y 

Canton, N. Y 

Carthage, N. Y 

Catskill. N. Y 

Cobleskill, N. Y 

Cooperstown, N. Y 

Corinth, N. Y 

Dansville, N. Y... 

Depew, N. Y 

Dobbs Ferry, N. Y 

Dolgevillc, N. Y 

East Aurora, N. Y 

East Rochester, N. Y.. 
East Svracuso, N. Y... 

Ellenville. N. Y 

Ehnira Heights, N. Y.. 

Elnisford, N. Y 

Kairport, N. Y 

Falconer, N. Y 

Farmingdale, N. Y 

Fort Edward. N. Y 

Fort Plain, N. Y 



4 

6 

10 

3 

10 

32 

4 

8 

6 

6 

4 

15 

13 

6 

3 

12 

1 

10 

8 

10 

15 

12 

7 

17 

22 

16 

13 

12 

4 

5 

14 

1 

20 

13 

3 

10 

2 

5 

3 

12 
3 
6 
4 
3 
5 
3 
6 
11 
12 
3 
9 
9 
3 
19 
2 
10 
7 
3 
4 
6 
6 
3 
2 
1 
5 
6 
11 
4 
6 
4 
fi 
7 
5 
G 
4 
3 
8 
4 
3 



104 



Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 19S9; cities with population 

from 2,600 to ^o, 000— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 




Frankfort, N. Y 

Fredonia, N. Y 

Garden City, N. Y 

Goshen, N. Y. 

Gouverneur, N. Y 

Gowanda, N. Y 

Granville, N. Y 

Green Island, N. Y 

Greenport, N. Y 

Hamburg. N. Y.._ 

Hastings-on-Hudson, N. Y 

Haverstraw, N. Y 

Highland Falls, N. Y 

Homer, N. Y 

Hoosick Falls, N. Y 

Hudson Falls, N. Y 

Ilion, N. Y 

Irvineton, N. Y 

Lake Placid, N. Y 

Lancaster, N. Y 

Larchmont, N. Y 

LeRoy, N. Y 

Liberty, N. Y 

Lindenhurst, N. Y 

Long Beach, N. Y 

Lowville, N. Y 

Lyons, N. Y 

Malone, N. Y 

Mechanicville, N. Y 

Medina, N. Y 

Mohawk, N. Y 

Monticello, N. Y__. 

Mount Kisco, N. Y 

Mount Morris, N. Y 

Newark, N. Y 

New York Mills, N. Y.... 

North Pelham, N. Y 

Northport, N. Y 

North Tarrytown, N. Y.. 

Norwich, N. Y 

Nyack, N. Y 

Owego, N. Y 

Palmyra, N. Y 

Patchogue, N. Y 

Pelham Manor, N. Y 

Penn Yan, N. Y 

Perry, N. Y 

Pleasantville, N. Y 

Potsdam, N. Y 

Rye, N. Y 

Sag Harbor, N. Y 

Salamanca, N. Y 

Saranac Lake, N. Y 

Saugerties, N. Y 

Scarsdale, N. Y 

Scotia, N. Y 

Senaea Falls, N. Y 

Silver Creek, N. Y 

Sloan, N. Y 

Solvay, N. Y 

Southampton, N. Y 

Spring Valley, N. Y 

Springville, N. Y 

Suffern, N. Y 

Tarrytown, N. Y.__ 

Ticonderoga, N. Y 

Tuckahoe, N. Y 

Tupper I^ake, N. Y 

Walden, N. Y 

Walton, N.Y 

Wappingers Falls, N. Y... 

Warsaw, N. Y 

Watcrford, N.Y 

Waterloo, N.Y. 

WatkinsGlen, N.Y 

Waverly, N. Y 

Wellsville, N.Y 

Westfield, N. Y 

West Haverstraw, N. Y... 



4 
5 

29 
5 
4 
5 
4 
5 
6 
5 

14 
9 
2 
1 
3 
5 

11 
9 
6 
5 

18 
5 
7 
8 

49 
3 

11 
9 
7 
7 
3 

10 

11 

12 

1,5 
1 

13 
4 

16 
8 

12 
3 
6 

17 

23 
5 
3 

13 
6 

34 
3 

14 
7 
6 

26 
8 
6 
5 
4 

14 
7 
6 
4 

11 

17 
9 

15 
4 
5 
2 
3 
3 
5 
3 
1 
4 
5 
4 



Whitehall, N. Y 

Whitesboro, N. Y 

Yorkville, N. Y 

Albemarle, N. C 

Asheboro, N. C 

Belmont, N. C 

Canton, N. C 

Chapel Hill, N. C 

Cherryville, N. C 

Dunn, N. C 

Edenton, N. C 

Forest City, N. C 

Greenville, N. C 

Hamlet, N. C 

Hendersonville, N. C 

Hickory, N. C 

Lenoir, N. C 

Lexington, N. C 

Lincolnton, N. C 

Lumberton, N. C 

Morganton, N. C 

Mount Airy, N. C 

North Wilkesboro, N. C. 

O.xford, N. C 

Reidsville, N. C 

Roanoke Rapids, N. C 

Sanford, N. C 

Smithfield, N. C 

Southern Pines, N. C 

Spencer, N. C 

Spindale, N. C 

Tarboro, N. C 

Washington, N. C 

Devils Lake, N. Dak 

Dickinson, N. Dak 

Jamestown, N. Dak 

Mandan, N. Dak 

Valley City, N. Dak 

Wahpeton, N. Dak 

Williston, N. Dak 

Amherst, Ohio 

Athens, Ohio 

Barnesville, Ohio 

Bedford, Ohio 

Bellefontaine, Ohio 

Bellevue, Ohio 

Berea, Ohio 

Bexley, Ohio 

Bridgeport, Ohio 

Bryan, Ohio 

Carey, Ohio 

Celina, Ohio 

Chagrin Falls, Ohio 

Chevoit, Ohio 

Circleville, Ohio 

Clyde, Ohio 

Conneaut, Ohio 

Crestline, Ohio 

Crooksville, Ohio 

Defiance, Ohio 

Delaware, Ohio 

Delphos, Ohio 

Dennison, Ohio 

Dover, Ohio 

East Palestine, Ohio 

Eaton, Ohio 

Elmwood Place, Ohio 

Fairport Harbor, Ohio 

Fairview, Ohio 

Franklin, Ohio 

Gallon, Ohio 

Gallipolis, Ohio 

Geneva, Ohio 

Qirard, Ohio 

Glouster, Ohio.-. — 

Grandview Heights, Ohio 

Greenville, Ohio. ._ 

Hillsboro, Ohio 

Hubbard, Ohio 



105 



Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to ^5,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Jackson, Ohio 

Kent. Ohio - - 

Kenton. Ohio 

Lebanon, Ohio 

Lisbon. Ohio 

Logan. Ohio -- 

Ijondon, Ohio - 

Louisville. Ohio 

Lowell viUe, Ohio 

Maple Heights, Ohio, 

Marysville Heights, Ohio 

Maumee, Ohio - 

Mayfield Heights, Ohio 

Medina, Ohio 

Miainisburg. Ohio -- 

Middleport, Ohio 

Minerva, Ohio 

Mingo Junction, Ohio 

Montpelier. Ohio 

Mount Healthy, Ohio 

Mount Vernon, Ohio... 

New Boston, Ohio -. 

New Lexington, Ohio --■ 

Newton Falls, Ohio 

North Canton, Ohio 

North College Hill, Ohio 

North Olmsted, Ohio.. ---. 

Norwalk, Ohio 

Oakwood, Ohio 

Oberlin, Ohio 

Orrville. Ohio--. 

Oxford, Ohio 

Perrysburg, Ohio -. 

Pomeroy, Ohio 

Port Clinton, Ohio 

Ravenna, Ohio--- 

Reading, Ohio 

Rittman, Ohio 

Rocky River, Ohio 

St. Bernard, Ohio 

St. Marys, Ohio 

Sebring, Ohio 

Shadyside, Ohio 

Shelby. Ohio 

Sidney, Ohio 

South" Euclid, Ohio 

Tipp City, Ohio 

Toronto, Ohio 

Troy, Ohio.-- 

Uhrichsville, Ohio 

Upper Arlington, Ohio 

Urbana, Ohio -. 

Van Wert. Ohio 

Wadsworth. Ohio 

Wai)akoneta, Ohio 

Washington Court House, Ohio 

Wauseon, Ohio -- - 

Wellston, Ohio 

Westerville, Ohio - 

Willoughby, Ohio 

Wilmington, Ohio 

Wyoming, Ohio 

Altus, Okla.- 

Alva, Okla , 

Anadarko, Okla 

Blaekwell, Okla 

Bristow. Okla , 

Chandler. Okla. , 

Claremore. Okla 

Cleveland. Okla 

Clinton, Okla , 

Conlell, Okla. .- 

Cushing. Okla , 

Drurnright, Okla 

Duncan. Okla 

Durant. Okla 

Edmond. Okla 

Elk City, Okla 



Number of 
employees 



6 
3 
2 
3 
3 
3 
3 
6 
3 
6 
4 
5 
5 
2 
3 
6 
3 
3 
7 

11 
3 
2 
3 
4 
3 
5 

19 
3 
2 
3 
3 
6 
3 
4 

10 
1 
7 

13 
4 
1 
3 
7 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
5 
4 
6 
5 
5 
4 
6 
1 
4 
2 
6 
5 

12 
6 
3 
4 

II 
5 
2 
6 
2 
6 
3 
7 
2 
9 
4 
4 
3 




El Reno, Okla 

Frederick, Okla 

Guthrie, Okla 

Henryetta, Okla 

Hobart, Okla. 

Holdenville, Okla.. 

Hollis, Okla 

Hominy, Okla 

Hugo, Okla 

Kingfisher, Okla 

Marlow, Okla 

Maud, Okla 

Miami, Okla 

Norman, Okla 

Nowata, Okla 

Pawhuska, Okla.-- 

Pawnee, Okla 

Perry, Okla 

Poteau, Okla 

Purcell, Okla 

Sandsprings, Okla-- 

Sayre, Okla 

Stillwater, Okla 

Sulphur, Okla 

Tonkawa, Okla 

Wagoner, Okla 

Wilson, Okla 

Woodward, Okla..- 

Albany, Oreg 

Ashland, Oreg 

Baker, Oreg 

Bend, Oreg 

Burns, Oreg 

Corvallis, Oreg 

Dallas, Oreg 

Grants Pass, Oreg— 

Hillsboro, Oreg'. 

Hood River, Oreg-- 
La Grande, Oreg — 
Marshfleld, Oreg... 
McMinnville, Oreg. 
Oregon City, Oreg- 

Pendleton, Oreg 

Roseburg, Oreg 

St. Helens, Oreg 

The Dalles, Oreg-- 

Ambler, Pa 

Apollo, Pa 

Arciihald, Pa 

Ashley, Pa 

Aspinwall, Pa 

Avalon, Pa 

Avoca, Pa 

Bangor, Pa 

Barnesboro, Pa 

Beaver, Pa..- 

Bedford, Pa 

Bellefonte, Pa 

Bellwood, Pa 

Bentleyville, Pa 

Birdsboro, Pa 

Blairsville, Pa 

Blakely, Pa 

Boyertown, Pa 

Bloomsburg, Pa 

Brackenridge, Pa-- 

Brentwood, Pa 

Bridgeport, Pa 

Brockway, Pa 

Brook villc. Pa 

Brownsville, Pa 

Burnham, Pa 

Camp Hill. Pa 

Castle Shannon, Pa 

Catas(4Ufiua, Pa 

Clarks Summit, Pa 

Clearfield, Pa 

Clifton Heights, Pa. 



Number of 
employees 



9 
5 
9 
6 
6 
5 
3 
3 
8 
5 
3 
1 
8 

11 
3 
7 
4 
4 
2 
4 
2 
2 
9 
4 
6 
2 
2 
3 
6 
6 
7 
6 
3 
5 
4 
5 
3 
5 
8 
7 
3 
7 
5 
3 
2 
8 
4 
4 
6 
4 
5 

12 
3 
3 
4 

10 
2 
3 
2 
1 
3 
4 
4 
7 

16 
3 
9 
4 
2 
3 
8 
I 
2 
1 
6 
1 
2 
6 



106 



Table 54 — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to :g5,000— Continued 

CITIKS WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 




Clymer, Pa 

Coaldale, Pa 

Collingdale, Pa 

Coplay, Pa 

Corry, Pa 

Crafton, Pa 

Curwensville, Pa 

Dale, Pa 

Dallastown, Pa 

Danville, Pa 

Darby, Pa.-i 

Derry, Pa 

Downingtown, Pa 

Doylestown, Pa 

Dupont, Pa.- .-- 

Duryea, Pa 

East Conemaugh, Pa- 
East Lansdowne, Pa-- 
East McKcesport, Pa. 
East Pittsburgh, Pa--- 
East Stroudsburg, Pa. 

Ebensburg, Pa 

Edgewond, Pa 

Edwardsville, Pa 

Elizabeth, Pa 

Elizabethtown, Pa 

Emmaus, Pa 

Emporium, Pa 

Ephrata, Pa 

Etna, Pa 

Exeter, Pa 

Ferndale, Pa. 

Ford City, Pa 

Forest City, Pa 

Forest Hills, Pa 

Forty Fort, Pa 

Fountain Hill, Pa 

Freedom, Pa 

Freeland, Pa ,-. 

Freeport, Pa. 

Gallitzin, Pa: 

Gettysburg, Pa 

Girardville, Pa 

Glassport, Pa 

Glenolden, Pa 

Oreencastle. Pa 

Greenville, Pa 

Grove City, Pa 

Hamburg, Pa 

Hatboro, Pa 

Hellertown, Pa 

Hollidaysburg, Pa 

Honesdale, Pa 

Huntingdon, Pa 

Indiana, Pa 

Ingram, Pa 

Irwin, Pa---- 

Jenkintown, Pa 

Jermyn, Pa 

Jersey Shore, Pa 

Kane, Pa J 

Kennett Square, Pa-. 

Kittanning, Pa 

Kutztown, Pa 

Lansdale, Pa 

Lansdowne, Pa 

Lansford, Pa 

Larksville, Pa _-- 

Leechburg, Pa 

Leetsdale, Pa 

Lehighton, Pa 

Lemoyne, Pa 

Lewisburg, Pa 

Lititz, Pa 

Lock Haven, Pa 

Luzerne, Pa 

Lykens, Pa 

McAdoo, Pa 



2 

3 

7 

6 

7 

9 

2 

2 

1 

3 
U 

3 

3 

5 

4 

3 

5 

3 

2 

12 
5 
2 

10 

15 
2 
1 
3 
1 
4 
7 
5 
3 
3 

13 
6 
5 
4 
1 
3 
1 
2 
3 
2 
5 
5 
2 
5 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
5 
3 
8 
8 
3 

11 
2 
5 
5 
2 
5 
4 
5 

11 
2 
9 
1 
2 
3 
2 
2 
3 
9 
4 
1 
3 



McDonald, Pa 

Marcus Hook, Pa 

Masontown, Pa 

Mauch Chunk, Pa 

Mayfield, Pa 

Mechanicsburg, Pa 

Media, Pa 

Meyersdale, Pa 

Middlctown, Pa 

Midland, Pa 

Millvale, Pa 

Milton, Pa 

Minersville, Pa 

Monaca, Pa 

Monongahela City, Pa 

Montoursville, Pa 

Moosie, Pa 

Morrisville, Pa 

Mount Joy, Pa 

Mount Penn, Pa 

Mount Pleasant, Pa 

Mount Union, Pa 

Myerstown, Pa 

Nanty Glo, Pa 

Nazareth, Pa 

New Cumberland, Pa 

New Philadelphia, Pa 

Northampton, Pa 

North Bellevernon, Pa 

North Charleroi, Pa 

North East, Pa 

Northumberland, Pa 

Norwood, Pa 

Oakmont, Pa 

Palmerton, Pa 

Palmyra, Pa 

Patton, Pa 

Pen Argyl, Pa 

Penbrook, Pa 

Philipsburg, Pa 

Portage, Pa 

Port Carbon, Pa 

Port Vue, Pa 

Prospect Park, Pa 

Punxsutawney, Pa 

Quakertown, Pa 

Rankin, Pa 

Renovo, Pa 

Reynoldsville, Pa 

Ridgway, Pa 

Roaring Springs, Pa 

Rochester, Pa 

Roycrsford, Pa 

St. Clair, Pa 

St. Marys, Pa I 

Sayre, Pa 

Schuylkill Haven, Pa 

Scottdale, Pa 

Selingsgrove, Pa 

Sewickley, Pa 

Sharpsburg, Pa 

Sharpsville, Pa 

Shillington, Pa 

Shippensburg, Pa 

Slatington, Pa 

Somerset, Pa 

South Connellsville, Pa 

South Fork, Pa 

South Greensburg, Pa 

Southwest Greensburg, Pa. 

Spangler, Pa 

Spring City, Pa 

Springdale, Pa 

State College, Pa 

Stroudsburg, Pa 

Summit Hill, Pa 

Susquehanna Depot, Pa 

Swarthmore, Pa 



2 

6 

2 

2 

4 

5 

6 

2 

4 

8 

6 

3 

3 

3 

4 

1 

3 

3 
1 

4 
3 
2 
2 
2 
4 
1 
4 
3 
2 
1 
3 
2 
4 
6 
6 
2 
1 
3 
4 
2 
2 
4 
1 
4 
7 
4 

12 
3 
2 
2 
1 
8 
3 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
1 
9 
9 
5 
3 
3 
6 
3 
3 
1 
2 
2 
2 
1 
4 
4 
2 
5 
2 
8 



107 



Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to ^5,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 




Swoyerville, Pa... 

Tarentum, Pa. 

Throop, Pa 

Titusville, Pa 

Towanda, Pa 

TrafTnrd, Pa 

Tyrone, Pa 

Upland, Pa 

N'crona, Pa 

Wavnosburg, Pa. 

Wcathcrly, Pa 

Wesleyville, Pa 

West Conshohocken, Pa 

West Homestead, Pa 

Westmont, Pa 

West Newton, Pa 

West Pittston, Pa 

West Reading, Pa 

Westview, Pa 

West Wyoming, Pa 

West York, Pa... 

Wilmerding, Pa.. 

Windber, Pa 

Wyomissing, Pa.. 

Veadon, Pa 

Voiingwood, Pa 

Harrington, R. I 

nurrillville, R. I 

East Greenwich, R. I 

Johnston, R. I 

Warren, R. I 

Abbeville, S. O 

Aiken, S. C 

Batesburg, S. C 

Chester. S. C 

Clinton, S. C 

Darlington, S. G 

Dillon, S. C 

Kan Claire, S. O 

CrafTney, S. C 

Georgetown, S. O 

Hartsville, S. C 

Lancaster, S. C 

Laurens, S. O 

Marion, S. O 

Newberry, S. C 

Siimmerville, S. O 

Cnion, S. C 

York, S. C 

Brookings, S. Dak 

Dcadwood, S. Dak 

Hot Springs, S. Dak 

Lead. .S. Dak 

Madison, S. Dak 

Mobridge, S. Dak 

Pierre, S. Dak 

Redfield, S. Dak 

Vermillion, S. Dak 

Yankton, S. Dak 

Alcoa, Tenn 

Athens, Tenn 

Cleveland, Tenn 

Cookeville, Tenn 

Dyersburg, Tenn 

Elizabothton, Tenn 

Erwin, Tenn 

Fayetteville, Tenn 

Franklin, Tenn 

Greeneville, Tenn 

La Follette, Tenn. 

Lenoir City, Tenn 

Lowisburg, Tenn 

Loudon, Tenn 

McMinnville, Tenn 

Murfreeshoro, Tenn 

Norris, Tenn 

Paris, Tenn... 

Pulaski, Tena 



Number of 
employees 



14 
7 
6 
7 
4 
3 
4 
3 
4 
4 
1 
1 
2 

12 
5 
1 
9 

10 
7 
1 
2 
6 
5 
6 

15 
4 
4 
3 
3 
7 
6 
6 

11 
3 
8 
7 
7 
4 
3 

10 
7 
7 
6 

10 
4 



3 

4 
7 
4 
3 
6 
3 
5 
2 
3 
9 
3 
2 

10 
4 
9 
7 
3 
4 
4 
7 
4 
2 
3 
3 
3 
8 

20 
6 
4 




TuUahoma, Tenn 

Union City, Tenn 

Alpine, Tex 

Arlington, Tex 

Athens, Tex 

Bonham, Tex 

Borger, Tex 

Bowie, Tex 

Brady, Tex 

Breckenridge, Tex 

Bryan, Tex 

Burkburnett, Tex 

Canyon, Tex 

Center, Tex 

Cisco, Tex 

Coleman, Tex 

Commerce, Tex 

Denton, Tex 

Eastland, Tex 

Electra, Tex 

Fort Stockton, Tex 

Gatesville, Tex 

Gainesville. Tex _ 

Highland Park, Tex 

Hillsboro, Tex 

Jacksonville, Tex 

Kerrville, Tex 

Kingsville, Tex 

Longview, Tex 

Lufkin, Tex 

McAllen, Tex 

McCamey, Tex 

McKinney, Tex 

Memphis, Tex 

Mexia, Tex 

Midland, Tex 

Mineral Wells, Tex 

Mineola, Tex 

New Braunfels, Tex 

Olney, Tex 

Orange, Tex 

Paducah, Tex 

Pecos, Tex 

Perryton, Tex .. 

Pharr, Tex 

Plainview, Tex 

Quanah, Tex 

Ranger, Tex 

Robstown, Tex 

Smithville, Tex. 

Stamford, Tex 

Teague, Tex 

University Park, Tex... 

Uvalde, Tex... 

Victoria, Tex 

Weatherford, Tex 

Weslaco, Tex 

Wink, Tex 

American Fork, Utah... 
Bingham Canyon, Utah 

Bountiful, Utah 

Brigham City, Utah . 

Cedar City, Utah 

Eureka, Utah 

Helper, Utah 

Lehi, Utah 

Logan, Utah 

Murray, Utah 

Nephi, Utah 

Park City. Utah 

Payson, Utah 

Price, Utah 

Richfield, Utah 

Spanish Fork, Utah 

Springville, Utah 

Tooele, Utah 

Bellows Falls. Vt 

Bennington Village, Vt., 



Number of 
employees 



4 
7 
3 
5 
3 
4 
6 
5 
5 
2 
9 
3 
2 
1 
6 
5 
.3 
10 
4 
4 
2 
2 
10 
13 
5 
5 
7 
2 
8 
S 
8 
1 
14 
3 
4 
4 
6 
2 
5 
2 
4 
1 
2 
3 
2 
8 
1 
5 
2 
1 
4 
2 

19 
3 
7 
5 
3 
1 
2 
2 
2 
5 
3 
2 
3 
2 
9 
4 
3 
2 
4 
4 
2 
3 
3 
3 
6 
6 



108 



Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 19S9; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Brattleboro, Vt __ 

Montpelier, Vt 

Newport, Vt 

Proctor, Vt . 

St. Albans, Vt 

St. Johnsbury, Vt 

Springfield, Vt 

Windsor, Vt 

Winooski, Vt 

Abingdon, Va. 

Appalachia, Va 

Big Stone Gap, Va 

Bluefleld, Va 

Cape Charles, Va 

Clifton Forge, Va 

Covington. Va 

Franklin, Va 

Fredericksburg, Va 

Galax, Va 

Hampton, Va 

Harrisonburg, Va 

Lexington, Va 

Martinsville, Va 

Norton, Va 

Phoebus, Va 

Radford, Va 

Salem, Va 

South Norfolk, Va 

Vinton, Va 

Waynesboro, Va 

Williamsburg, Va 

Anacortes, Wash 

Auburn, Wash 

Camas, Wash 

Centraiia, Wash 

Chehalis, Wash 

Clarkston, Wash 

CleElum, Wash 

Colfax, Wash 

Dayton, Wash 

Ellensburg, Wash 

Mount Vernon, Wash 

Pasco, Wash 

Port Townsend, Wash 

Pullman, Wash 

Puyallup, Wash 

Raymond, Wash 

Renton, Wash 

Sedro-Wooley, Wash 

Shelton, Wash 

Snohomish, Wash 

Toppenish, Wash 

Beckley, W. Va 

Benwood, W. Va 

Buckhannon, W. Va 

Chester, W. Va 

Dunbar, W. Va 

Elkins, W. Va 

Follansbee, W. Va 

Grafton, W. Va 

Hinton, W. Va 

Hollidays Cove, W. Va... 

Kenova, W. Va 

Keyser, W. Va 

Logan, W. Va 

McMechen, W. Va 

Mannington, W. Va 

New Martinsville, W. Va. 



Number of 
employees 



14 

12 
8 
2 
3 

10 
7 
5 
3 
3 
4 
3 
3 
2 
8 
6 
4 

10 
4 
9 

11 
5 

16 
2 
5 
5 




Point Pleasant, W. Va 

Princeton, W. Va 

Riehwood, W. Va 

St. Albans, W. Va 

Salem, W. Va 

Sisterville, W. Va 

South Charleston, W. Va. 

Welch, W. Va 

Wellsburg, W. Va 

Weston, W. Va 

Williamson, W. Va 

Antigo, Wis 

Beaver Dam, Wis 

Berlin, Wis 

Burlington, Wis 

Chippewa Falls, Wis 

Clintonville, Wis 

Columbus, Wis 

Delavan, Wis 

Edgerton, Wis 

Fort Atkinson, Wis 

Hartford, Wis 

Hudson, Wis 

Jefferson, Wis 

Kaukauna, Wis 

Ladysmith, Wis 

Lake Geneva, Wis 

Little Chute, Wis 

Marshfield, Wis 

Mayville, Wis 

Menasha, Wis 

Menomonie, Wis 

Merrill, Wis 

Monroe, Wis 

Neenah, Wis 

New London, Wis 

Oconomowoc, Wis 

Oconto, Wis 

Park Falls, Wis 

Platteville, Wis 

Plymouth, Wis 

Portage, Wis 

Port Washington, Wis 

Reedsburg, Wis 

Rhinelander, Wis 

Richland Center, Wis 

Ripon, Wis 

Sheboygan Palls, Wis 

Sparta, Wis 

Stoughton, Wis 

Sturgeon Bay, Wis 

Tomah, Wis 

Tomahawk, Wis 

Viroqua, Wis 

Waupaca, Wis 

Waupun, Wis 

West Bend, Wis 

West Milwaukee, Wis 

Whiteflsh Bay, Wis 

Whitewater, Wis 

Wisconsin Rapids, Wis.. 

Evanston, Wyo 

Green River, Wyo 

Laramie, Wyo 

Rawlins, Wyo .. 

Rock Springs, Wyo 

Sheridan, Wyo 



DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

Source of Data. 

Tlicro wore 298,423 arrest records (fingerprint cards) examined 
by the Federal Bureau of Inve3tit2:ation during the first 6 months of 
1940. Through this examination it was possible to obtain information 
relative to the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of the 
poisons who wore arrested for violation of State laws and munit-ipal 
ordinances. All fingeri)rint cards relating to persons arrested for 
violation of Federal statutes, as well as those representing persons 
committed to penal institutions, both Federal and State, were excluded. 

Tiio (hita presented do not purport to represent all persons arrested, 
since the Federal Bureau of Investigation does not receive a finger- 
l)rint card for each individual taken into custody. Likewise, the 
number of persons arrested should not be interpreted as determining 
the (luantity of offenses committed, as the arrest of one person may 
solve several cases while, on the other hand, two or more individuals 
may be responsible for the commission of only one offense. 

Offense Charged. 

Persons arrested during the first half of 1940 for murder, robbery, 
assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft represented more than 27 
percent of the fingerprint cards examined. The following tabulation 
sets forth the arrests for major violations during this period: 

Criniinal homicide 3, 054 

Robl)erv 6, 837 

Assault J 15, 499 

Burglary — breaking or entering 18, 543 

Larceny — theft (excluding auto theft) 31, 885 

Auto theft 6, 670 

Embezzlement and fraud 10, 183 

Stolen property; buj'ing, receiving, possessing 1, 913 

Arson 527 

Forgery and counterfeiting 3, 250 

Rape 2, 849 

Narcotic drug laws 2, 629 

Weapons (carrying, possessing, etc.) 2, 794 

Driying while intoxicated 13, 604 

Gambling .- 6, 981 

Total 127, 218 

Sex. 

The number of males arrested during the first 6 months of 1940 
exceeded the number of females in all types of crime, with the 
exception of commercialized vice. This is shown by further studv of 
298,423 arrest records. Of this total, 274,061 (9l'.8 percent) repre- 
sented males arrested*, while 24,362 (8.2 percent) were females taken 
into custody. The number of females arrested is an increase over the 
same period in 1939, when the percentage of females was 7.1. 

A comparison of an average group of 1,000 males arrested with 
1,000 fomulos arrested, disclosetl that females were charged more 
frequently with murder, assault, use of narcotic drugs, and licjuor 
violations than males. However, males exceeded females in crimes 
against property, such as robbery, burglary, and auto theft. 

(109) 



no 



Table 55.^ — Distribution of arrests hy sex Jan. 1-June 30, 1940 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice- 
Other sex ofienses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children.. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor-vehicle laws.. 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 





Number 






Percent 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Male 


3,054 


2,745 


309 


1.0 


1.0 


6,837 


6,537 


300 


2.3 


2.4 


15, 499 


14, 155 


1,344 


5.2 


5.2 


18,543 


18, 247 


296 


6.2 


6.7 


31, 885 


29, 301 


2,584 


10.7 


10.7 


6,670 


6.572 


98 


2.2 


2.4 


10, 183 


9,640 


543 


3.4 


3.5 


1,913 


1,774 


139 


.6 


.6 


527 


483 


44 


.2 


.2 


3,250 


3,038 


212 


1.1 


1.1 


2,849 


2,849 




.9 


1.0 


4,361 


1,147 


3,214 


1.5 


.4 


4,426 


3,826 


600 


1.5 


1.4 


2,629 


1,710 


919 


.9 


.6 


2,794 


2,686 


108 


.9 


1.0 


3,790 


3,669 


121 


1.3 


1.3 


4,905 


4,014 


891 


1.6 


l.S 


13, 604 


13, 262 


342 


4.6 


4.8 


2,854 


2,808 


46 


1.0 


1.0 


14 


14 




(') 


(') 


4,485 


4,386 


99 


1.5 


1.6 


13, 781 


12, 104 


1,677 


4.6 


4.4 


52, 554 


49, 285 


3,269 


17.6 


18.0 


27, 922 


25,681 


2,241 


9.4 


9.4 


6,981 


6,541 


440 


2.3 


2.4 


31, 222 


27, 941 


3,281 


10.5 


10.2 


2,516 


2,362 


154 


.8 


.9 


18, 375 


17,284 


1, 091 


6.2 


6.3 


298, 423 


274, 061 


24, 362 


100.0 


100.0 



Female 



1.3 

1.2 

5.5 

1.2 

10.6 

.4 

2.2 

.6 

.2 



13.2 

2.5 

3.8 

.4 

.5 

3.6 

1.4 

.2 



.4 

6.9 

13.4 

9.2 

1.8 

13.5 

.6 

4.5 

100.0 



' Less than Ho of 1 percent. 

Age. 

The arrest records reviewed during the first half of 1940 indicate 
that persons of 19 years were most frequently taken into custody. 
This group was followed by those of 21, 22, 23, and 18 years, 
respectively. While fluctuations are to be expected, it is interesting 
to note that age 19 has led in the majority of the compilations of this 
nature since 1932. 

The following tabulation sets forth the number of arrests in the five 
most prominent age groups: 

l^cTQ- Number of arrests 
19 12,327 

21 12,008 

22 _ 11,905 

23 11,801 

18 11,555 

There were 52,534 (17.6 percent) youthful oftenders arrested during 
the first 6 months of 1940 under 21 years of age. Those between 
21-24 years old increased this sum by 46,797 (15.7 percent), making a 
total of 99,331 persons arrested under 25 years cff age. 

Extending the analysis to the age group 25-29 enlarged the number 
of arrests made by 49,631 (16.6 percent), making an aggregate of 
148,962 (49.9 percent) persons arrested less than 30 years old. (It 
must be remembered that the number of fingerprint cards received 
by the Federal Bureau of Investigation representing those arrested 
under 21 years of age is incomplete, as some communities do not 
fingerprint youthful offenders.) 



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o 
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riminal homicide 

Jobbery 

ssault 

urglary— breaking or en 

arceny— theft.. 

uto theft 


Is 

%-^ 

P ^ 


ing. etc 

rson - _ 

orgery and counterfeitin 
aoe 


IH 

a 

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ther se.\ offenses 

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a 

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children 

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riving while intoxicated 
oad and driving laws... 
arkins violations 


IH 



a 

-3 

a 
a 

S 

03 

t-> 

l-> 

x: 


laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness. . _ 

Vagrancy _ 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated ._ _.. 

All other offenses 


■3 







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►JOWix, 








112 



Youths less than 21 years old were frequently charged with offenses 
against property, particularly robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto 
theft. This is clearly indicated by the following tabulation: 

Table 57. — Percentage distribution of arrests by age groups, Jan. 1-June 30, 1940 



Age group 


All 
ofienses 


Criminal 
homicide 


Robbery 


Burglary 


Larceny 


Auto theft 


Under 21 


17.6 
32.3 
25.6 
15.1 
9.3 
.1 


12.3 
36.8 
26.0 
14.8 
10.0 
.1 


28.7 

44.9 

18.9 

5.8 

1.7 

.0 


44.4 

33.0 

15.3 

5.2 

2.0 

.1 


31.7 
32.7 
19.9 
10.2 
5.4 
.1 


52.5 


21-29 


33.0 


30-39 


10.9 


40-49 


2.8 


50 and over _ 


.7 


Unknown 


.1 






Total _. 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 







The predominance of youthful persons among those charged with 
offenses against property is further indicated by the fact that 79,808 
persons of all ages were arrested for crimes against property (robbery, 
burglary, larceny, auto theft, embezzlement and fraud, forgery and 
counterfeiting, receiving stolen property, and arson). During the 
first 6 months of 1940, 25,459 (31.9 percent) of the persons arrested for 
such crimes were less than 21 years old. 

Further indication of the large part played by youthful persons in 
the commission of crimes against property is seen in the figures show- 
ing that 33.3 percent of all persons arrested were less than 25 years of 
age. However, persons less than 25 years old numbered 53.7 percent 
of those charged with robbery, 63.3 percent of those charged with bur- 
glary, 49.1 percent of those charged with larceny, and 73.0 pcrcentof 
those charged with auto theft. More than one-half of all crimes 
against property during the first half of 1940 were committed by per- 
sons under 25 years of age. 

Table 58. — Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, 

Jan. 1-June 30, 1940 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws.. _ 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children.- 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor-vehicle laws... 

Disorderly conduct. _ 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other ofienses 

Total 



Total 

number of 

persons 

arrested 



3,054 

6,837 

15,499 

18, 543 

31,885 

fi, 670 

10, 183 

1,913 

527 

3,250 

2,849 

4,361 

4,426 

2,629 

2,794 

3,790 

4,905 

13, 604 

2,854 

14 

4,485 

13, 781 

52,554 

27, 922 

6,981 

31, 222 

2,516 

18, 375 



298, 423 



Number 

under 21 

years of age 



375 

1,964 

1,796 

8,228 

10, 092 

3,505 

708 

380 

95 

487 

761 

280 

599 

226 

498 

183 

365 

549 

472 

1 

836 

1,924 

2,116 

4,284 

354 

6, 553 

348 

4,555 



52, 534 



Total 

number 

under 25 

years of age 


Percentage 

under 21 
years of age 


874 


12.3 


3,671 
4,253 


28.7 
11.6 


11, 746 


44.4 


15, 655 


31.7 


4,872 


52.5 


2,211 
702 


7.0 
19.9 


162 


18.0 


1,082 


15.0 


1,398 


26.7 


1,.366 


6.4 


1,307 


13.5 


626 


8.6 


998 


17.8 


710 


4.8 


995 


7.4 


2,132 


4.0 


1,167 


16. 5 


5 


7.1 


1,814 


18.6 


4,290 


14.0 


6,828 
8,775 


4.0 
15.3 


1,130 


5.1 


12, 205 
695 


21.0 
13.8 


7,662 


24.8 


99, 331 


17.6 



Total per- 
centage 
under 25 

years of age 

28.6 
53.7 
27.4 
63.3 
49. 1 
73.0 
21.7 
36.7 
30.7 
33.3 
49.1 
31.3 
29.5 
23.8 
35.7 
18.7 
20.3 
15.7 
40.9 
35.7 
40.4 
31.1 
13.0 
31.4 
16.2 
39.1 
27.6 
4r7 

33.3 



113 

Critninol Itvpcoters. 

The extent to w liich persons with ciiniinal tendencies continue to 
viohite the law is indicated by the fact that 148,201 (almost one-half) 
of the persons arrested during the lirst half of 1940 had previously 
been linj^erprinted and cards covering: them were on file in the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation. In addition, there were 3,492 current 
records receivetl containing reference to past criminal activities, 
although no fingerprint cards were on file prior to 1940. This in- 
creases the total to 151,693 arrested persons during the first 6 months 
of 1940 who have previously been engaged in various criminal 
activities. 

The examination disclosed that of the 298,423 arrest records 
received, 102,589 persons had been convicted of at least 296,510 
crimes, of which 176,496 constituted minor violations. 

Of those persons with previous convictions, more than 52 percent 
were based on major violations as indicated by the following tabu- 
lation : 

Criminal homicide 816 

Rolihery 3, 879 

.\ssault 5, 218 

Burglary 10, 680 

Larceny (and related offenses) 23,866 

Arson 110 

Forgery and counterfeiting 2, 397 

Rape 659 

Narcotic drug laws 2, 021 

Weapons (carrying, possessing, etc.) 1, 086 

Driving wliile intoxicated 3, 134 

Total 53,866 

The study revealed that in many instances criminals repeat the 
type of offense for which they had previously been arrested or 
convicted. 



114 



Table 59. — Number of cases in which fingerprint records show one or more prior 
convictions, and the total of prior convictions disclosed by the records, Jan. 1-June 
30, 1940 



Offense charged 



Number of 
records show- 
ing one or 
more prior 
convictions 



Number of Number of 
prior convic- prior eonvic 
tions of major tions of minor 
offenses offenses 



Total num- 
ber of prior 
convictions 
disclosed 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc. 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice. . 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children... 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traflSc and motor-vehicle laws — 

Disorderly conduct . . 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 



589 
2,662 
4,510 
6,327 
10, 333 
2,004 
3,401 

458 

108 
1,212 

681 
1,571 

997 
1,268 

768 

845 
1,566 
2,977 

548 



717 
4,360 
5,483 
10, 689 
17, 621 
2,996 
5,447 

672 

108 
2,070 

800 
2,491 
1,276 
3,135 
1,073 

863 
1,075 
2,581 

456 



497 

2,636 

4,881 

5,708 

13,442 



590 
2,939 

391 
84 

833 

545 
1,358 

982 
1,359 

708 

756 
2,513 
3,143 

486 



1,214 

6,996 

10,364 

16, 397 

31,063 

4, 586 

8,386 

1,063 

192 

2,903 

1,345 

3,849 

2,258 

4,494 

1,781 

1,619 

3,588 

6,724 

942 



1,081 

4, 615 

22, ,348 

12, 892 

1,386 

10, 024 

1,088 

6,330 



1,006 

4,336 

14, 546 

12, 715 

1,547 

13, 137 

1,547 

7,267 



Total. 



102, 589 



120, 014 



1,268 

9,331 

66, 337 

29, 136 

1,183 

14, 061 

1,272 

9,057 



2,274 
13, 667 
80,883 
41,851 

2,730 
27, 198 

2,819 
16, 324 



176, 496 



296, 510 



Race. 

Members of the white race represent 218,650 of the 298,423 arrest 
records received, while 65,358 were Negroes, 10,871 Mexicans, 1,704 
Indians, 539 Chinese, 220 Japanese, and 1,081 all others. 

In order to properly stiicly the relationship between the number 
of whites arrested as compared with the number of Negroes, it becomes 
necessary to employ the 1930 decennial census, which reflects that 
there were 8,041,014 Negroes, 13,069,192 foreign-born whites, and 
64,365,193 native-born whites in the United States. All persons 
under 15 years of age were excluded from the above population figures. 
However, the immediate descendants of foreign-bom whites have 
been treated as native whites. 

There were 813 Negroes arrested and fingerprinted during the 
first half of 1940 of each 100,000 Negroes in the general population 
of the United States, while the corresponding figure for native whites 
was 312, and for foreign-born whites, 98. 

Size of Fingerprint File. 

At the end of June 1940, there were 13,205,855 fingerprint records 
and 14,267,994 index cards containing the names and aliases of indi- 
viduals on file in the Identification Division of the FBI. Of each 
100 fingerprint cards received during the first 6 months of 1940, more 
than 61 were identified with those on file in the Bureau. Fugitives 
numbering 3,858 were identified through fingerprint records during 
the first 6 months of 1940, and interested law-enforcement officials 
were immediately notified of the whereabouts of those fugitives. As 
of June 30, 1940, there were 10,885 police departments, peace officers, 
and law-enforcement agencies throughout the United States and 
foreign countries voluntarily contributing fingerprints to the FBI. 



OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in part I and 
part II offenses, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 

Part I Offenses. 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter includes 
all felonious homicides except those caused by negligence. Does not include 
attempts to kill, assaults to kill, justifiable homicides, suicides, or accidental 
deaths. (6) Manslaughter by negligence includes only those cases in which 
death is caused by culpable negligence which is .so clearly evident that if the 
j>erson responsible for the death were apprehended he would be prosecuted for 
manslaughter. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape, assault to rape, and attempted 
rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as highway robbery, stick-ups, robbery 
armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. .Aggravated assatili. — Includes a.ssault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, .scalding, or by u.se of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

.5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or theft. Includes attempted 
burglary and assault to commit a burglary. Burglary followed by a larceny is 
entered here and is not counted again under larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto tlieft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value. 
(6) Under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of property stolen, pocket-picking, punse-snatching, shoplifting, 
or any stealing of property or thing of value which is not taken by force and vio- 
lence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" games, forgery, passing 
worthless checks, etc. 

7. A7ito theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven 
away and abandoned, including the .so-called "joy-riding" thefts. Does not 
include taking for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unau- 
thorized u.se by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses. 

8. Other a.'i.sanlt^. — Includes all assaiilts and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in c.la.ss 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting.- liichides offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or po.ssessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which is 
made to appear true. Includes attemi)ts. ' 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false pretenses. 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, po.s.tessing. — Includes buying, receiving, 
and iiossessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those offenses. 

12. Weapons; carrying, posses.'sing, etc. — Includes all violations of regulations 
or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnLshing, and matuifactur- 
ing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes or 
regulations. 

13. I'rostitntion and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commer- 
cialized nature, or attempts to commit the .same, such as, prostitution, keeping 
bawdy house, procuring, transjjorting, or detaining women for immoral i)urposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice).— In- 
cludes offen.ses againsf chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

1.5. Offenses against the family and children. — Includes offen.ses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug /atijs.^ Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, sale, or u.se. Excludes Federal offenses. 

(115) 



116 

17. Liquor laivs. — With the exception of "Drunkenness" (class 18) and "Driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations, State or local, are placed in 
this class. Excludes Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage; begging; loitering; etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regulations with 
respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters but not in connection with any specific offense who are released without 
formal charges being placed against them. 

o 





UNIFORM 


CRIME 


REPORTS 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Volume XI 



Number 3 



THIRD QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1940 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume XI — Number 3 
THIRD QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1940 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1940 



CONTENTS Page 

Summary of volume XI, No. 3 117-118 

Classificati ;.i of offenses 118 

Extent of reporting area 119 

Monthly reports: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population 

(table 60) 120-121 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1939-40 (table 61) 122-123 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location 

(tables 62, 63) 124-128, 132 

Offenses in individual cities over 100,000 in population (table 64).. 129-131 

Offenses known to sheriffs and State police (table 65) 133 

Offenses kno\\ai in Territories and possessions (table 66) 133 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 67-69) 134-135 

Persons Charged, 1939: 

Persons charged in individual cities over 25,000 in population (table 70). 136-140 

Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1940: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 71) 141-142 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 72-74) 142-146 

Number with records showing previous convictions (table 75) 147-148 

Definitions of part I and part II offense classifications 150-151 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S, Department 

of Justice, Washington, D. C. 

Volume XI October 1940 Number 3 

SUMMARY 

Annual Crime Trends, January-September 1939 40. 

Iiicreasos wore seen in the first 9 months of 1940 over the correspond- 
ing period of 1939 in aU offenses except murder, rape, aii4 robbery. 
Negligent manslaughter increased 8.8 percent; larceny, 6.3 percent; 
aggravated assault, 3.4 percent; burglary, 1.6 percent; and auto 
theft, 1.0 percent. The decreases were as follows: robbery, 4.5 
percent; murder, 4.1 percent; and rape, 2.0 percent. 

Crime Rates, 1940. 

Cities with over 100,000 inhabitants continue to experience the 
highest crime rates, except for aggravated assault. Felonious assaults 
(other than rape) occur v/ith greatest frequency in cities with popula- 
tion from 50,000 to 100,000. Communities ranging in population 
from 2,500 to 10,000 reported more offenses of rape in proportion to 
population than other cities, except those with more than 100,000 
inhabitants. 

Distribution of Crimes by Type, 1940. 

Offenses against the person (criminal homicide, rape, and aggravated 
assault) constitute only 4.2 percent of the total offenses reported dur- 
ing the first 9 months of this year. The majority (59.0 percent) 
were larcenies; burglaries constituted 22.5 percent of the total crimes 
reported; auto thefts, 11.0 percent; and robberies, 3.3 percent. 

Less than half of the burglaries involved residences. That parked 
automobiles are frequently attacked by thieves is shown by the fact 
that over 36 percent of all reported larcenies consisted of some type 
of theft from automobiles. 

Stolen Property Recovered, 1940. 

Exclusive of automobiles, 22.2 percent of the property stolen was 
recovered. Over 97 percent of the stolen automobiles were recovered. 

Persons Arrested, 1940. 

Fingerprint cards of 459,167 persons arrested during the first 9 
months of this year were examined. The examination indicated that 
191,844 of these individuals were arrested for the commission of some 
major crime. Women arrested represented 8.4 percent of the total, 
being an increase over the comparable period of 1939, when the 
percentage of females was 7.5. 

(117) 



118 

More persons aged 19 were arrested than any other singh^ age group, 
followed by ages 21, 22, 18, and 23, respectively. Persons under 
21 years of age made up 12.2 percent of those charged with criminal 
homicide, 28.9 percent of those charged with robbery, 44.9 percent 
of those charged with burglary, 32.3 percent of tlaose charged with 
larceny, and 52.6 percent of the persons charged with auto theft. 

More than one-half of the persons fingerprinted during January- 
September 1940, had previous criminal records on file in the FBI, 
and 158,121 had previously been convicted. More than one-half of 
the persons with previous conviction records had been found guilty 
of some major violation. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring witliin the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to 
the police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting 
or court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following 
group of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be 
those most generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal 
homicide, including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (b) 
manslaughter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; 
burglary — breaking or entering; larceny — theft ; and auto theft. The 
figures contained herein include also the number of attempted crimes 
of the designated classes. In other words, an attempted burglary 
or robbery, for example, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner 
as if the crime had been completed. Attempted murders, however, 
are reported as aggravated assaults. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the law-enforce- 
ment agencies of contributing communities and not merely arrests 
or cleared cases. Complaints which upon investigation are learned 
to be groundless are not included in the tabulations which follow. 

In publishing the data sent m by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out 
as current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions of 
part I and part II offense classifications. 



119 

EXTENT OF REPORTING AREA 

The number of police (lei)artinents from which one or more crime 
reports were received during tlie first 9 months of 1940 is contained in 
the following table. The cities represented are classed accordmg to 
size, and the population figures for cities in excess of 10,000 are esti- 
mates prepared by the Bureau of the Census as of July 1 , 1933. How- 
ever, since no estimates were available for the smaller cities, the 
1930 decennial census figures were used for places under 10,000 in 
population. 



Population group 


Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 


Cities filing returns 


Total pop- 
ulation 


Population repre- 
sented in returns 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


982 


924 


94.1 


60, 265, 719 


59, 244, 459 


98.3 


1 Cities over 250,000 


37 

57 

104 

191 

593 


37 

57 

102 

187 

541 


100.0 

100.0 

98.1 

97.9 

91.2 


29, 695, 500 
7,8,50,312 
6, 980, 407 
6, 638, 544 
9. 100, 956 


29, 695, 500 

7, 850, 312 
6, 833, 874 
6, 493, 268 

8, 371, 505 


100.0 


2 Cities 100,000 to 2.')0,000 


100.0 


3 Cities 50,000 to 100,000 


97.9 


4 Cities 25,000 to 50,000 


97.8 


5 Cities 10,000 to 25,000 


92.0 







Note.— The above tablo does not include 1,744 cities and rural townships agfjregating a total population of 
8,667,131. The cities included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 population filing returns, whereas 
the rural townships are of varying population groups. 

The growth of the uniform crime reporting area is indicated b}^ the 
following tabulation. These figures are compiled for the first 9 months 
of 1932-40. 



Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


1932 


1,546 
1,638 
1,727 
2,050 
2,271 


52, 802, 362 
62,041,342 
62,391,056 

64, 012, 959 

65, 319, 548 


1937 

1938 

1939 

1940 


2,358 
2,617 
2, 662 


65,811,861 


1933 


67, 262, 788 


1934 


67. 735. 765 


1935 


2,668 1 67,911,590 


1936 




1 









The additional 6 cities shown in the above tabulation for the first 
9 months of 1940, as compared with the corresponding period of 1939, 
increased the population represented in the uniform crime reporting 
project by 175,825, bringing the aggregate population to 67,911,590. 

There were 4,256 contributors of one or more crime reports during 
the first 9 months of 1940. These consisted of 2,668 city and village 
law-enforcement agencies, 1 ,566 sheriffs, 9 State police units, and 
13 agencies in Territories and possessions of the United States. 



MONTHLY REPORTS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population. 

Generally, the largest cities experience the highest crime rates. For 
all offenses except aggravated assault, more crimes per imit of popu- 
lation occurred in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants than in the 
smaller communities, according to a study made of the monthly crime 
reports received for the first 9 months of the year from 2,025 cities 
with population in excess of 2,500. 

The highest crime rate for aggravated assault was experienced in 
cities with population between 50,000 and 100,000, followed by cities 
from 100,000 to 250,000, and those over 250,000 respectively.' Cities 
with population from 100,000 to 250,000 reported fewer rapes per unit 
of population than communities with from 2,500 to 10,000 inhabitants; 
but the highest rape figures were reported by cities over 250,000 in 
population, w^ith the result that, considered as a single group, cities 
over 100,000 in population reported the highest frequency of rape 
offenses. 

The majority (59.0 percent) of all offenses reported were classified 
as larcenies. Burglaries made up 22.5 percent of the total; auto thefts, 
11.0 percent; and robberies, 3.3 percent. Only 4.2 percent of the 
crimes reported were offenses against the person, such as criminal 
homicide, rape, and aggravated assault. 

The total population of the 2,025 cities whose reports were used in 
compiling the data published in this issue of the bulletin was 62,288,351. 
The crime rates for cities of 6 different population groups are shown in 
table 60 in order that interested persons may compare crime conditions 
of a particular community with average figures for other cities in the 
United States of approximately the same size. Crime rates for 
cities grouped not only according to size but also by location are 
presented in table 63. 

(120) 



121 

Table 60. — Offenses known to the police, January to September, inclusive, 1940; 
number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by popxdation groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GROrP I 

36 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 29,375,600: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000.-. 



GROUP II 

57 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total pop- 
ulation, 7,850,312: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP III 

90 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total pop- 
ulation, 6,047,8&3: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP IV 

160 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total pop- 
ulation, 5,545,213: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP V 

46() cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total popu- 
lation, 7,221,264: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP VI 

1,216 cities under 10,000; total pop- 
ulation, 6,248,079: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Total 2,025 cities; total popu- 
lation, 02,288,351: 
Number of offenses known 
Rate per 100,000 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



1,337 
4.6 



346 
4.4 



237 
3.9 



161 
2.9 



215 
3.0 



226 
3.6 



2,522 
4.0 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



1 1, 185 
4.0 



254 
3.2 



163 
2.7 



1 143 
2.6 



103 
1.4 



110 
1.8 



1 1,958 
3.1 



Rape 



2,518 
8.6 



409 
5.2 



291 
4.8 



271 
4.9 



387 
5.4 



387 
6.2 



4,263 
6.8 



Rob- 
bery 



15,910 
h^.2 



2, 939 
37.4 



1,791 
29.6 



1,271 
22.9 



1,339 
18.5 



1,097 
17.6 



24, 347 
.39.1 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



10, 986 
.37.4 



3,233 
41.2 



2,744 
45.4 



1,640 
29.6 



1,726 
23.9 



1,.322 
21.2 



21, 651 
34.8 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



2 60, 038 
296.5 



23,951 
305. 1 



16, 572 
274.0 



13, 473 
243.0 



14,151 
196. 



12, 079 
193. 3 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



2 140,264 
263.8 



Auto 
theft 



2 153, 965 
760.4 



61,825 
787. 5 



43, 844 
724.9 



39, 887 
719. 3 



40, 942 
567.0 



26, 497 
424. 1 



2 366,960 
690.3 



43,909 
149.5 



11,906 
151.7 



7,167 
118.5 



6,482 
116.9 



6,045 
8.3.7 



4,821 
77.2 



80,330 
129.0 



1 The number of offen.ses and rate for inanslauglitcr by negligence are based on reports as follows: Group 
I, 35 cities, total population, 2H,()21 ,.500; group IV, l.'iO cities, total population, 5..506,n3; groups I-Vl, 2,023 
cities, total population, 60,895,151. 

2 The number of offenses and rate for burglary and larceny— theft are based on reports as follows: Group 
I, 34 cities, total population, 20,248,600; groups I-VT, 2,023 cities, total population, ,53,161,351. 



122 



Annual Trends, Offenses Known to the Police, 1939-40. 

In examining the monthly reports received during the first 9 
months of 1939 and 1940 from the police departments of 336 cities 
with population in excess of 25,000, increases were seen in all offenses 
except murder, rape, and robbery. The more pronounced increases 
were noted in offenses of manslaughter by negligence and larceny, 
which increased 8.8 percent and 6.3 percent, respectively. Aggravated 
assaults showed a 3.4 percent increase; burglaries, 1.6 percent; and 
auto thefts, which during recent years have shown a general down- 
ward trend, increased 1.0 percent. 

In examining the other side of the picture, we find that the number 
of robbery offenses committed during the first 9 months of 1940 was 
4.5 percent less than the number committed during the same period 
of last year. Murders and rapes decreased 4.1 percent and 2.0 
percent, respectively. 

The number of offenses reported during the first three quarters of 
1939 and 1940 by police departments in 336 cities with population 
of 25,000 or more is shown in table 61. The total population reported 
is 41,435,908, and the data are presented for each 3-month period in 
order to make possible comparisons of individual quarters. 

Table 61.- — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 336 cities over 25,000 in 
■population, January to September, inclusive, 1939-4.0 

[Total population, 41,43.'i,908, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 


Burg- 
lary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny- 
theft 






Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


January to March 1939 

January to March 1940 

April to June 1939 


607 
539 

650 
665 

692 
665 

1,949 
1,869 


1367 
1421 

1317 
1371 

1319 
1299 

1 1, 003 
1 1,091 


907 
832 

915 
914 

1,007 
1,027 

2,829 
2,773 


8,232 
7,798 

6,596 
6,555 

6,907 
6,400 

21, 735 
20, 753 


4,520 
4,586 

5, 183 
5,744 

6,234 
6,153 

15, 937 

16, 483 


2 39, 204 
2 38, 936 

2 35, 721 
2 37, 159 

2 36, 615 
2 37, 221 

2 111,540 
2 113,316 


2 92, 243 
2 94, 261 

2 93, 139 
2 100, 776 

2 95, 099 
2 103, 133 

2 280, 481 
2 298, 170 


21, 700 
21, 366 

19, 606 


April to June 1940 


20, 407 


July to September 1939 

July to September 1940 

January to September 1939. . 
January to September 1940. _ 


19, 547 
19, 660 

60, 853 

61, 433 



1 The number of offenses of manslaughter by negligence is based on reports of 332 cities with a total popu- 
lation of 39,560,408. 

2 The number of offenses of burglary and larceny is based on reports of 335 cities with a total population 
Of 39,463,208. 



123 




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124 



Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location. 

Marked variances are seen in the crime rates for different sections 
of the country. This is only to be expected, inasmuch as the frequency 
of crime is affected by many factors, which vary greatly in the extent 
to which they are present in individual communities. For a list of 
some of the factors affecting the amount of crime m a community, 
reference may be made to the comments immediately preceding 
table 64. 

There is presented m table 63 the number of offenses known to the 
police per 100,000 inhabitants for cities grouped not only according to 
size, but also by geograpliic divisions. Many persons will undoubtedly 
be interested in comparing local crime conditions with the averages 
shown in tliis tabulation. 

Figures indicating the number of police departments whose reports 
were employed in preparing the rates for each of the subgroups in 
tables 60 and 63 are shown in table 62. 

Table 62. — Number of cities included in the tabulation of uniform crime reports, 

January to September, inclusive, 1940 



Division 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England: 180 cities; total population, 
5,717,431 

Middle Atlantic: 497 cities; total population, 
18,549,050 

East North Central: 501 cities; total popula- 
tion, 16,124,725- - 

West North Central: 233 cities; total popula- 
tion, 5,052,825 

South Atlantic: 160 cities; total population, 
4,743,292 

East South Central: 70 cities; total popula- 
tion, 2,087,797 

West South Central: 118 cities; total popula- 
tion, 3,345,136 

Mountain: 88cities; total population, 1,292,827 

Pacific: 178 cities; total population, 5,375,268. 

Total: 2,025 cities; total population, 
62,288,351 



Population 



Group 
I 



Over 

250,000 



Group 
II 



100,000 

to 
250,000 



36 



12 

11 

10 

5 

6 

3 

5 
1 
4 



Group 
III 



50,000 

to 
100,000 



11 
20 
26 

7 
13 

3 

4 
2 
5 



90 



Group 
IV 



25,000 

to 
50,000 



26 

30 

47 

10 

17 

4 

10 
6 

11 



160 



Group 
V 



10,000 

to 
25,000 



63 

122 

100 

53 

30 

22 

27 
15 
34 



Group 
VI 



Less 
than 
10,000 



466 



67 

308 

310 

154 

91 

35 



63 
119 



1,216 



Total 



180 

497 

501 

233 

160 

70 

118 

88 

178 



2,025 



125 



In order that the information may be readily available, there are 
listed below the States included in the nine geographic divisions. 



States Divided by Geographic Division 



New England: 
Connecticut. 
Maine. 

Massachusetts. 
New Hampshire. 
Rhode Island. 
Vermont. 

West North Central: 
Iowa. 
Kansas. 
Minnesota. 
Missouri. 
Nebraska. 
North Dakota. 
South Dakota. 



West South Central: 
Arkansas. 
Louisiana. 
Oklahoma. 
Texas. 



Middle Atlantic: 
New Jersey. 
New York. 
Pennsvlvania. 



South Atlantic: 
Delaware. 

District of Columbia. 
Florida. 
Georgia. 
Maryland. 
North Carolina. 
South Carolina. 
Virginia. 
West Virginia. 

Mountain: 
Arizona. 
Colorado. 
Idaho. 
Montana. 
Nevada. 
New Mexico. 
Utah. 
Wj'oming. 



East North Central: 
IlIinoLs. 
Indiana. 
Michigan. 
Ohio. 
Wisconsin. 



East South Central: 
Alabama. 
Kentucky. 
Mississippi. 
Tennessee. 



Pacific : 

California. 

Oregon. 

Washington. 



126 




ij; 



.vBLK 63. — Xumher of offenses krwirn to Ike police per 100,000 inhnbitants, Janu- 
ary to September, inclusive, 1940, by geographic divisio7is and popiilalion groups 



Qeographir division and population 
group 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
Ront man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


•Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burglary— 

breaking or 

entering 


Larceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


New England: 

Group I 


1.0 
.6 
.7 
.6 

1.1 
.5 


22.9 
12.9 
7.8 
8.3 
8.0 
4.4 


a 7 
10.4 
6.8 
5.8 
4.4 
6.1 


119.4 
270.5 
336.4 
193.4 
154.9 
169.8 


262.2 
537.3 
431.5 
428.8 
353.0 
255.5 


288.4 


Orou'i LI 


150.0 


Group III 


88.9 


Group IV 


75.7 


Group V 


41.5 


Group VI 


43. 1 


Total, groups I- VI 


.7 


11.5 


8.2 


198.3 


402.3 


124.6 


Middle .\tlantic- 

Group 1 


3.0 
1.4 
1.2 

.8 
1.6 
1.8 


22.4 
16.1 
22.8 
13.6 
15.2 
10.4 


29.7 
15.9 
25.3 
16.5 
13.3 
9.5 


' 240. 2 
196.7 
208.9 
177. 3 
148.1 
125. 8 


' 355. 4 
372.8 
388.7 
390. 2 
283.0 
209.6 


119.7 


Group II . 


106.6 


Group III-- --- -.. 


105.7 


Group IV 


85.5 


Group V 


66. 1 


Group V'l --. 


41.6 


Total, groups I-VI 


2.4 


19.7 


24.1 


a 184. 1 


2 327. 9 


103.8 


Ea.st North Central: 

CJroup I- 


4.3 
2.9 
1.3 
1.7 
1.8 
1.3 


85.5 
43.4 
32.8 
21.6 
22.2 
18.7 


30.1 
35.3 

18.6 

0.9 

12.6 

10.1 


261.2 
286.6 
217.3 
217.4 
182.3 
172.1 


703.5 
836.5 
617.7 
622.8 
513.1 
305.4 


103.6 




163.2 


Group III- - 


102. 5 


Group IV - 

Group V ... - 


110.1 
85.3 


Group VI -- 


68.3 




3.1 


57.5 


23.7 


238.3 


640.9 


104.1 


West North Central: 


4.0 
1.7 
1.8 
.9 
.8 
1.6 


43.9 
29.5 
19.1 
11.9 

16.8 
16.5 


12.0 

15.6 

5.1 

6.2 

7.4 

10.0 


188.7 
228.3 
282.5 
234.7 
187.7 
172.6 


763.8 
656.9 
921.0 
722.5 
690.7 
384.6 


98.4 


Group II 


125.4 


Group III - - 


162. 1 


Group IV 


127.2 


Group V , 


86.9 


Group VI_ 


59.8 


Total, groups I-VI. 


2.4 


29.1 


10.4 


203.8 


694.2 


102.8 






South jVtlantic: 

Group I -_ .-. 


11.2 
12.5 
12.8 
10.9 
9.2 
13.3 


74.1 
80.9 
45.6 
57.5 
23.3 
26.0 


65.4 
117.3 
164.8 
135,7 
143.6 

92.7 


317.9 
509.5 
393. 6 
393. 8 
255.1 
264.3 


773.1 

1,355.8 

1,114. 1 

1.118.0 

766.7 

586.0 


251.7 


Group II 


208. 6 


Group III --- 


144.7 


Group I\ -- 


138. 6 


Group V . . 


101.6 


Group VI.... 


119.4 


Total, groups I-VI... 


11.7 


58.4 


111.1 


361.6 


955.9 


183.8 






East South Central: 

Group I _ 


16.7 
21.0 
16.6 
17.2 
17. 1 
20.3 


98.8 
67.9 
31.0 
31.9 
27.8 
33.1 


252. 6 
121.7 
145.0 
105.9 
73.5 
84.7 


550. 5 
283.4 
459.1 
293. 4 
264. 3 
23S. 7 


894.8 
702. S 
892. 5 
1, 126. 5 
591.9 
265. 1 


152.3 


Group II 


153.0 


Group III 


91.0 


Group IV.. 


179. 2 


Group V 


74.4 


Group VI 


85.3 


Total, groups I-VI... 


17.9 


65.3 


165.3 


402.3 


777.8 


131.1 


Grouj) I.. 


11.8 
7.4 
9.8 
3.6 
5.7 

13.1 


44.1 
. 60.6 
27.8 
23.9 
33.1 
27.4 


56.1 
89.4 
74.3 
49.7 
52.8 
46.7 


332.2 
403.2 
327.9 
289. 1 
290.9 
275.4 


1,123.5 
1,191.0 
1,111.1 
1.022.7 
854.2 
549.5 


136.4 




135.0 


Group III 


114.2 


Group IV 


101. H 


Group V 


88.7 


Group VI 


63. 2 


Total, groups I-VI 


9.0 


41.8 


64.0 


334.1 


1, 029. 1 


116.3 


Mountain: 


3.1 

2.8 
6.8 
3.9 
1.4 
2.4 


.50.5 
36.8 
75.3 
36.0 
34.9 
24.9 


14.3 
7.6 
29.4 
17.5 
11.0 
16.4 


253.4 

389.7 
426.6 
296.8 
302.5 

275.5 


1,105.0 
850.2 
1,384.5 
1,636.8 
1,481.3 
791.7 


131.3 


Group II 


199.0 


Group III 


184. 


Group IV 


231.7 


Group v.. 


196.0 


Group VI 


101.4 






Total, groups I-VI 


3.0 


39.4 


15.2 


303. 1 


1,166.9 


162.3 






Pacific: 

Group I.- 


3.2 
3.3 
2.9 
1.4 
2.4 
1.8 


83.4 
40.6 
49.1 
32.8 
18.2 
22.8 


31.3 
12.4 
22.4 
15.5 
5.1 
19.7 


475.3 
389.4 
375.7 
334.9 
290.5 
300.8 


1,159.3 
1,268.5 
1,329.6 
1, 186. 9 
1, 224. 9 
1,089.1 


333.2 


Group II 


214. 6 


Group III 


175.8 


Group IV 

Group v.. 


216.6 
164.4 


Group VI 


189.7 






Total, groups I-VI . 


2.8 


60.4 


24.1 


413.3 


1,182.3 


270.4 



' The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 4 cities. 
- The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 495 cities. 



128 




129 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 100,000 Inhabitants. 

The number of oiFeiises reported as having been coniniittecl during 
tlie period of July-September 1940 is shown in table 64. The com- 
pilation includes (he reports received from police departments in 
cities with more than 100,000 mhabitants. Such data are included 
here in order that interested individuals and organizations may have 
readily available up-to-date information concerning the amount of 
crime committed hi their communities. Police administrators and 
other interested individuals will probably find it desirable to com- 
pare the crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in 
tables 60 and 63 of tliis publication. Similarly, they will doubtless 
desire to make comparisons with the figures for their communities 
for prior periods, hi order to determine whether tliere has been an 
increase or a decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

A great deal of caution should be exercised in comparing crime 
data for uidividual cities, because differences in the figures may be 
due to a variety of factors. The amount of crime committed in a 
community is not solely chargeable to the police but is rather a 
charge against the entire community. The following is a list of some 
of the factors which might affect the amount of crime in a community: 

The composition of the population with reference particularly 

to age, sex, ami race. 
The economic status and activities of the population. 
Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 
The number of police employees per unit of population. 
The standards governing appointments to the police force. 
The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 
The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 
The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 

Comparisons between the crime rates of individual cities should 
not be made without giving consideration to the above-mentioned 
factors. It is more important to determine whether the figures for 
a given community show increases or decreases in the amount of 
crime committed than to ascertain whether the figures are above or 
below those of some other community. 

In examining a compilation of crime figures for individual com- 
munities it should be borne in mind that in view of the fact that the 
data are compiled by dift'erent record departments operating under 
separate and distinct administrative systems, it is entirely possible 
that there may be variations in the practices employed in classifying 
complaints of offenses. On the other hand, the crime-reporting 
handbook has been distributed to all contributors of crime reports, 
and the figures received are included in this bulletin only if they 
ai)parently have been compiled in accordance with the provisions of 
the handbook, and th(> individual department has so indicated. 



130 

Table 64. — Nximher of offenses known to the police, July to September, inclusive, 

19^0, cities over 100,000 in population 



City 



Akron, Ohio 

Albany, N. Y 

Atlanta, Ga 

Baltimore, Md 

Birmingham, Ala 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Cambridge, Mass 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 

Chattanooga, Tenn.. 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Columbus, Ohio 

Dallas, Tex 

Dayton, Ohio 

Denver, r,olo 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Detroit, Mich.._ 

Duluth, Minn 

Elizabeth, N. J 

El Paso, Tex 

Erie, Pa 

Evansville, Ind 

Fall River, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Gary, Ind 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Hartford, Conn 

Honolulu, T. H 

Houston, Tex... 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Jersey City, N. J 

Kansas City, Kans... 

Kansas City, Mo 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Long Beach, Calif 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky ._ 

Lowell, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn 

Miami, Fla 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



2 

1 

25 

24 

17 

1 



21 

73 
9 

13 
5 

13 
7 
2 
2 

17 



1 
2 
1 

17 

7 
9 

4 
8 
6 
1 

18 
9 



23 
3 



30 

10 

59 

88 

29 

62 

1 

8 

8 

16 

27 

21 

,240 

105 

157 

59 

28 

26 

81 

10 

469 

1 

11 

13 

8 

13 

1 

14 
10 
11 
45 
12 
9 
10 
53 
156 
49 

28 
88 
11 
18 
506 
72 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



12 

110 

41 




Under 
$50 



511 

148 

1,141 

1,016 

439 

527 

369 

365 

184 

149 

228 

352 

3, 443 

1,446 

2,793 

914 

1.697 

648 

1,101 

417 

7,388 

289 

127 

326 

209 

331 

108 

443 

554 

767 

286 

497 

552 

493 

1,375 

716 

671 



263 
895 
192 
795 
6,107 
938 
60 
247 
697 
289 



Auto 
theft 



92 
36 
217 
585 
127 
822 
80 



60 
32 

85 

692 

135 

264 

218 

116 

82 

110 

110 

737 

24 

31 

30 

67 

59 

26 

67 

101 

87 

49 

85 

103 

85 

213 

316 

72 

28 

129 

75 

74 

2,017 

211 

21 

40 

66 

60 



I Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



131 

Table 64. — Number of offenses known to the police, July to September, inclusive, 
1940, cities over 100,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn... 

Nashville, Tenn 

Newark, N. J 

New Bedford, Mass... 

New Haven, Conn 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N.Y 

Norfolk, Va 

Oakland, Calif 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha, Nebr 

Paterson, N. J 

Peoria, 111 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Oreg 

Providence, R. I 

Reading, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y 

St. Louis. Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif... 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Somerville, Mass 

South Bend, Ind 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, Mass 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo, Ohio 

Trenton, N. J 

Tulsa, Okla 

Utica, N. Y 

Washington, D. C 

Waterhury, Conn 

Wichita, Kans 

Wilmington, Del 

Worcester, Mass 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, Ohio 



Murder, 
nonncgli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



19 
89 
3 
2 
6 
2 



33 

5 



1 

15' 
26' 



5 

13 
.... 

.... 

.... 



Robbery 



6 
35 
29 
78 

1 

7 
23 
320 
31 
24 
36 
12 

7 

12 

206 

100 

76 

5 

2 
23 

5 

106 

25 

14 

34 

6 
129 

3 
45 

4 
12 
11 

5 

4 

7 

10 
49 
17 
46 



202 
1 
1 

12 

2 

1 

40 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



12 

11 

56 

145 

3 

8 

101 

715 

39 

39 

49 

14 



14 

198 

128 

7 

7 

5 

141 

6 

17 

20 

5 

135 

9 

83 



24 
33 
13 
36 



62 



3 
21 

11 

8 

41 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



128 
409 
248 
613 
168 
170 
141 
1, 958 
196 
297 
262 
137 
114 
137 
1,125 
655 
550 
121 

73 
282 
153 
316 
270 
182 
185 
119 
657 

90 
666 

38 
163 
177 

77 
115 
102 
121 
■275 
158 
317 

41 
670 

53 

63 

78 
225 

24 
221 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



(') 



0) 



71 
135 

34 
120 

25 

54 
106 

55 

42 

21 

14 

12 

7 

280 

114 

185 

57 

15 

64 

40 

57 
24 
68 
48 

170 
36 

134 
8 
29 
32 
28 
33 
25 
16 

101 
25 
49 
12 

206 
13 
14 
26 
34 
6 
14 



Under 
$50 



1,305 
833 
337 
844 
282 
279 
388 

4, 555 
455 
992 
472 
242 
59 
166 
857 
345 

1,119 
173 
151 
860 
588 

2,398 
670 
461 
749 
605 

1,586 
132 

1,090 
48 
281 
640 
250 
244 
260 
328 
837 
225 
551 
169 

1,838 
57 
323 
276 
266 
61 
359 



Auto 
theft 



119 

242 
84 

314 
28 
79 

122 
2.872 

112 

152 
84 
90 
57 
63 

651 

453 

202 
72 
24 

136 
84 

219 
77 
93 
86 

140 

650 
38 

274 
47 
46 
93 
67 

• 73 
70 
43 

217 
64 
87 
23 

567 
48 
21 
66 
99 
25 
80 



Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



273359°— 40- 



132 




r-H 
W 
P 

o 



133 



Offenses Known to Sheriffs, State Police, and Other Rural Officers, 1940. 

In compiling and publishing national police statistics under the 
system of uniform crime reporting the FBI distinguishes between 
urban and rural crimes. The figures presented in the preceding tables 
are based on reports received from the large majority of the agencies 
policing urban communities (places with 2,500 or more inhabitants, 
according to the U. S. Bureau of the Census). Comprehensive data 
regarding rural crimes are not yet available, but the information on 
hand is shown in table 65, which is based on the reports from 987 
sheriffs, 87 police agencies in rural vihages. and 9 State police organiza- 
tions. 

Table 65. — Offenses known, January to September, inclusive, 1940, as reported 
by 987 sheriffs, 9 State police organizations, and 87 village officers 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or entering 








Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 


Larceny — 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


Offenses known _ . . 


792 


601 


1, 636 2. 488 


3,824 


20, 828 


35, 877 


6,999 











Offenses Known in Territories and Possessions of the United States. 

There are presented in table 66 the available crime data for the 
Territories and possessions of the United States. The figures are based 
on reports received from the first and second judicial divisions of 
Alaska; Honolulu City and the Counties of Honolulu and Maui; in 
the Territory of Hawaii; Isthmus of Panama, Canal Zone, and Puerto 
Rico. The tabulation is based on the number of offenses known to 
law-enforcement officials of both urban and rural areas, with the 
exception that the data for Honolulu City have been segregated from 
the figures for the remainder of Honolulu County. 

Table 66. — Number of offenses known in United States Territories and possessions, 

January to September, inclusive, 1940 



[Population figures from Federal 


census 


, Apr. 1, 1030] 








Jurisdiction reporting 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 


Larceny- 
theft 


Auto 


Over 

$50 


Under 
$50 


theft 


Alaska: 

First judicial division (Juneau) , population, 
19,304; number of offenses known 

Second judicial division (Nome), popula- 
tion, 10,127; number of offenses known 


1 


1 
17 

3 

4 
47 


6 

1 

14 
4 

16 

7 

1,618 


25 
16 

807 
109 
101 
68 
850 


24 
3 

115 

14 

6 

26 

87 


29 

1 

1,559 
192 
179 
367 

2,487 


3 


Hawaii: 

Honolulu City, population, 137,582; num- 
ber of offenses known 

Honolulu County, population, 65,341; 
number of offenses known 


5 
1 
3 
1 
203 


197 
26 


Maui County, population, 56,146; number 
of offenses known . . _ 


12 


Isthmus of Panama: Canal Zone, population, 
39,467; number of offenses known 


30 


Puerto Rico: Population, 1,543,913; number of 
offenses known 


64 



134 



Data From Supplementary Offense Reports. 

The need for the adoption of more adequate measures to protect 
nonresidence structures against burglary continues to be apparent 
when it is seen that during the first 9 months of this year more 
than half (52.9 percent) of all burglaries involved a store, warehouse, 
office building, or some other type of nonresidence structure, and 89.4 
percent of such cases occurred during the night. On the other hand, 
only 63.4 percent of the residence burglaries occurred after nightfall. 

The majority (56.9 percent) of the robberies during the period of 
January-September of this year were classified as highway robberies. 
On the other extreme, only 0.2 percent were bank robberies. The 
classification of other robberies is as follows: commercial houses, 26.5 
percent; oil stations, 8.7 percent; chain stores, 1.2 percent; residences, 
3.9 percent; and miscellaneous, 2.6 percent. 

An analysis of larcenies committed during the first 9 months of 
1940 discloses that parked automobiles probably constitute the 
greatest single problem in combating these offenses. During this 
period, thefts of auto accessories represented 17.8 percent, and thefts 
of other types of property from automobiles, 18.7 percent of all 
larcenies. Bicycle thefts made up 15.3 percent of the total. In 
studying the value of property stolen in larceny cases it was found 
that 65 percent of the thefts involved property valued between $5 
and $50. In 24.1 percent of the cases the property was valued at less 
than $5, and the value of the property involved in the remaining 10.9 
percent of the thefts was in excess of $50. 

More than half (55.1 percent) of the offenses of rape reported were 
classified as forcible in character. 

The preceding analysis of offenses committed during the first 9 
months of 1940 was made from supplementary offense reports for- 
warded to the FB I by 54 cities with population in excess of 100,000, 
and the figures upon which the percentages were based are presented 
in table 67. 

Table 67. — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the criininal 
act, ti^ne and place of commission, and value of property stolen, January to Sep- 
tember, inclusive, 1940; 54 cities over 100,000 in population 



[Total population, 17,484,638, 


as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census 




Classifl cation 


Number 
of actual 
offenses 


Classification 


Number 
of actual 
offenses 


Eape: 

Forcible.-- - . .-_ 


646 
527 


Larceny— theft (except auto theft) 
(grouped according to value of article 
stolen): 
Over $50 




Statutory 






14 690 


Total 


1,173 


$5 to $50 -- - - - - 


87^ 673 




Under $5 


32,458 


Robbery: 


6, 402 
2,988 
986 
132 
436 
24 
293 


Total 


Highway- . 




Commercial house - 


134, 821 


Larceny — theft (grouped as to type of 
offense) : 
Pocket-picking 




Oilstation,- ._. _ 




Chain store -.. . 




Residence 


1,800 


Bank- -- .- 


Purse-snatching- - _ 






3, 876 


Miscellaneous 


Shoplifting 

Thefts from autos (exclusive of auto 

accessories) 

Auto accessories 

Bicycles- _-_ 






3, 732 


Total 


11,261 


25, 188 


Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Residence (dwelling): 


16,016 
9,237 

25, 371 
3,002 


23, 968 
20, 649 


Committed during night - 


Another 


55, 608 




Total -- 




Nonresidence (store, office, etc.): 


134, 821 


Committed during night 

Committed during day 










Total 


53. 626 





135 



The reports from 54 cities with popiiUxtion in excess of 100,000 
received (luring tlie period of fT}inuarv-Se])teniber, 1940 s1iow<m1 27,796 
automobiles stolen. The police departments in these cities, however, 
effected recoveries in 27,178 (97.8 percent) of the cases as shown in 
table 68. 

Table 68. — Recoveries of stolen automobiles, January to September, inclusive, 1940; 

54 cities over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 17,484,638, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 

Number of automobiles stolen 27, 796 

Number of automobiles recovered 27, 178 

Percentage recovered 97. 8 

Property stolen amounted to $20,371,856.10 during the first 9 
months of this year in 54 cities with over 100,000 inhabitants (total 
population, 17,484,638), while recoveries during the same period 
amounted to $13,549,753.29, or 66.5 percent of that stolen. Exclusive 
of automobiles, propertv stolen in these cities was valued at $8,301,- 
586.71, with 22.2 percent ($1,841,859.39) recovered. Automobiles 
stolen were valued at $12,070,269.39, and recovered cars at $11,707,- 
893.90. There are presented in table 69 figures indicating the value 
of various types of property stolen and recovered in these 54 cities 
with over 100,000 inhabitants. 

Table 69. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered with divisions 
as to type of property involved, January to September, inclusive, 1940; 54 cities 
over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 17,484,638, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Type of property 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Miscellaneous 

Total 



Value of prop- 
erty- stolen 



$2, 121, 536. 91 

1,954,920.44 

350, 320. 38 

979,981.72 

12, 070, 269. 39 

2, 894, 827. 26 



20, 371, 856. 10 



Value of prop- 
erty recovered 



$264, 184. 28 

425, 268. 62 

37, 064. 08 

185, 700. 63 

11,707,893.90 

929, 641. 78 



13, 549, 753. 29 



Percent 
recovered 



12.5 
21.8 
10.6 
18.9 
97.0 
32.1 



66.5 



PERSONS CHARGED, 1939 

Persons Charged (Held for Prosecution), 1939, in Individual Cities With 
More Than 25,000 Inhabitants. 

The number of offenses reported during 1939 by individual cities 
with popuhition m excess of 25,000 was presented m vokime X, 
No. 4, table 89, of tliis publication. In table 70 of the current issue 
of the bulletin all available figures are shown concerning persons 
arrested and held for prosecution during 1939 for murder, robbery, 
aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft, as reported by 
police departments in cities with population in excess of 25,000. 

It should be observed that the data in table 70 represent the 
number of individuals arrested and held for prosecution, and should 
not be treated as an index of the number of offenses committed, since 
it is generally agreed that the most accurate index to the amount of 
crime is a record of offenses known to the police. Tables 60 and 63 
of this issue of the bulletin present crime rates based on this type of 
information. 

Table 70. — Number of persons charged (held for prosecution), January to December, 
inclusive, 1939, cities over 25,000 in population 



City 



Akron, Ohio 

Alameda, Calif 

Albany, N. Y 

Albuquerque, .N. Mex. 

Allentown, Pa 

Altoona, Pa 

Amarillo, Tex 

Arlington, Mass 

Atlanta, Ga 

Atlantic City, N.J 

Auburn, N. Y 

Austin, Tex 

Bakersfield, Calif 

Baltimore, Md 

Bangor, Maine 

Battle Creek, Mich..-. 

Bay City, Mich 

Beaumont, Tex 

Belleville, 111 

Belleville, N. J -.. 

Bellingham, Wash 

Berkeley, Calif 

Berwyn, 111 

Beverly, Mass 

Binghamton, N. Y 

Bloomington, 111 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Bristol, Conn 

Brockton, Mass 

Brookline, Mass 

Buffalo, N.Y 

Burlington, Vt 

Cambridge, Mass 

Canton, Ohio 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

Central Falls, R. I 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



87 
3 



16 
"74" 



13 
l 



Robbery 



42 



11 

5 
1 
7 
1 
6 
172 
28 



14 

23 

354 

4 

5 

15 

17 

2 

4 



393 

IP 

1 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



17 
2 

•1 
5 

70 
2 

277 

86 

1 

54 

15 

777 



5 

2 

65 



1 
3 
4 
4 

7 

163 

6 



9 


10 







64 


138 


2 




24 


16 


10 


12 


2 


3 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or entering 



178 
4 
41 
38 
47 
63 
26 
10 

462 
96 
12 

208 
61 

899 

27 

23 

15 

64 

8 

17 

6 

40 

25 

8 

68 

14 

1,500 

49 

17 

39 

39 

358 
22 

110 
32 
17 
17 



Larceny- 
theft 



340 
25 

55 

287 
59 
68 

109 

37 

1,224 

324 
58 

302 

180 
2.053 
53 
61 
81 
38 
16 
!2 
29 
68 
41 
13 

198 
45 
2,352 
81 
14 
64 
89 

989 
47 

211 
56 
66 
53 



Auto 
theft 



51 
3 

30 

14 

16 

18 

17 

7 

214 

26 

2 

34 

29 

414 

5 

17 

13 

6 

2 

4 

2 

14 

3 

10 

9 

21 

720 

19 

2 

9 

16 

169 

12 

76 

11 

14 

4 



(136) 



137 

Table 70. — Number of persons charged (held for prosecution), January to December, 
inclusive, 1939, cities over 25,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or entering 



Larceny- 
theft 



Auto 

theft 



Charleston, S. C 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chester, Pa 

Chicago, Ill.i 

Chicopee, Mass. .-- 

Cicero, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio. 

Clifton, N. J 

Clinton, Iowa 

Colorado Springs, Colo.. 

Columbus, Ga 

Columbus, Ohio ^ 

Concord, N, H 

Council Bluffs, Iowa 

Covington, Ky.2 

Cranston, R. I 

Cumberland, Md 

Dallas, Tex 

Danville, 111 

Danville, Va 

Davenport, Iowa 

Dayton, Ohio 

Dearborn, Mich 

Decatur, 111 

Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Detroit, Mich 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Duluth, Minn 

Durham, N. C 

East Cleveland, Ohio 

East Providence, R. I-.. 

East St. Louis, 111 

Eau Claire, Wis 

Elgin, 111 

Elizabeth, N. J.> 

Elkhart, Ind.' ♦ 

Elmira, N. Y 

El Paso, Tex 

Elyria, Ohio!' 

Erie, Pa 

Evanston, 111 

Evansville, Ind 

Everett, Mass 

Everett, Wash 

Fall River, Mass 

Fargo, N. Dak 

Fitchburg, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Fond du Lac, Wis 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Fresno, Calif 

Gary, Ind 

Glendale, Calif.. 

Grand Rapids, Mich 

Granite City, 111 

Green Bay, Wis 

Greensboro, N. C 

Greenville, S. C 

Hackensack, N. J 

Hagerstown, Md 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Hammond, Ind 

Hamtramck, Mich 

Harrisburg, Pa _. 

Hartford, Conn 

Highland Park, Mich 

High Point, N. C 

Hoboken, N. J.* 

Houston, Tex 

Huntington Park, Calif. . 

Hutchinson, Kans 

Indianapolis, Ind.' 

Inglewood, Calif 



12 



12 
176 



1 
41 
55 



I 
19 



1 
46 

2 
15 



14 



6 
6 
47 
1 
1 



6 

16 

^ 

34 

2 

3 

1 

2 

20 

9 



8 
"47' 



15 



29 

16 

22 

1,284 



272 

255 

2 

5 

3 

6 

11 

61 



19 

4 



1 
69 

1 
12 

6 
48 

8 

16 

47 

20 

296 



3 

22 
11 

1 
25 

3 



9 

1 

3 

39 



12 

1 
9 

7 



1 
29 

2 
15 
58 
20 
31 
22 
15 

2 



16 

10 

6 

3 

11 

3 

4 

31 

23 

9 

10 

6 

196 



100 
1 



153 

6 

26 

1,084 



3 
170 

78 



7 

4 

3 

24 

66 



1 
27 



1 
206 

3 
48 

3 
73 

2 

3 

18 

35 

173 



3 

56 



2 

124 

3 

3 

37 
3 
1 

43 
4 
6 

26 

19 
5 
1 
4 
7 



33 

1 

14 

19 

30 

32 

2 

9 

2 

2 

22 

31 

29 

6 

4 

7 

4 

39 

87 

4 

198 

4 

268 

1 

2 

144 

2 



130 
57 
86 
1,060 
10 
11 

619 

624 
22 
16 
9 
14 
88 

151 
10 
74 
35 
34 
30 

288 
11 
29 
29 

235 
17 
41 

163 

124 

374 

15 

22 

67 

9 

21 

71 

8 

8 

75 

16 

15 

139 

1 

56 

37 

101 
35 
23 
80 
13 
24 

125 
17 
23 

229 

102 
48 
43 
78 
10 
33 

118 
42 
37 
17 
31 
12 
24 
48 

125 
52 

250 
45 

436 
29 
14 

341 
29 



329 

127 

185 

3,455 

26 

40 

1,328 

760 

22 

16 

7 

31 

179 

333 

39 

182 

28 

70 

47 

1,037 

18 

162 

182 

403 

95 

93 

3 617 

289 

795 

36 

178 

316 

18 

39 

109 

23 

27 

126 

44 

38 

479 

17 

106 

176 

64 

78 

121 

152 

57 

35 

158 

35 

110 

661 

270 

170 

71 

262 

4 

134 

298 

185 

29 

73 

99 

113 

32 

120 

362 

110 

262 

58 

1,080 

53 

83 

501 

61 



31 

20 

80 

186 

3 

3 

181 

219 

7 

5 

1 

6 

8 

64 

13 

50 

11 

8 



22 

4 

12 

31 

67 

22 

18 

157 

96 

120 

19 

15 

19 

3 

2 

2 

6 

5 

12 

3 

12 

33 

1 

20 

8 

40 

2 

8 

34 

12 

11 

57 

16 

6 

66 

47 

21 

32 

50 

7 

13 

44 

6 

3 

2 

23 

10 

9 

18 

78 

28 

36 

8 

450 

17 

2 

144 

23 



See footnotes at end of table. 



138 

Table 70.^ — Number of persons charged {held for prosecution) , January to December y 
inclusive, 1939, cities over 25,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Irvington, N. J.i 

Jackson, Miss 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Jamestown, N. Y 

Jersey City, N. J 

Joliet, 111 

Kalamazoo, Mich 

Kansas City, Mo 

Kenosha, Wis 

Kingston, N. Y 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Kokonio, Ind 

Lackawanna, N. Y 

La Crosse, Wis. 2 

La Fayette, Ind 

Lakewood, Ohio 

Lancaster, Pa 

Lansing, Mich 

Lawrence, Mass. 2 

Lebanon, Pa 

Lewiston, Maine ^ 

Lincoln, Nehr.^ 

Little Rock, Ark.* 

Long Beach, Calif 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Lowell, Mass 

Lower Merion Township, Pa. 

Lynchburg, Va 

Macon, Ga 

Madison, Wis 

Manchester, N. H 

Mansfield, Ohio 

Marion, Ohio 

Massillon, Ohio 

Maywood, III.2 

Medford, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn 

Michigan City, Ind 

Middletown, Conn 

Middletown, Ohio 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Mishawaka, Ind.' 

Moline, 111 

Monroe, La 

Montgomery, Ala.i 

Mount Vernon, N. Y 

Muncie, Ind 

New Albany, Ind 

Newark, N. J 

Newark, Ohio 

New Bedford, Mass 

New Brunswick, N. J 

Newburgh, N. Y 

New Haven, Conn 

New London, Conn 

New Orleans, La 

Newport, Ky 

Newport News, Va. ... 

New Rochelle, N. Y 

Newton. Mass 

Niagara Falls, N. Y .. 

Norfolk, Va. ' 

Norristown, Pa 

North Bergen, N. J 

Norwood, Ohio '. 

Oakland, Calif 

Oak Park, 111 

Ogden, Utah 

Oklahoma City, Okla 

Omaha, Nebr 

Orlando, Fla 

Oshkosh, Wis 

Paducah, Ky 

Parkersburg, W. Va 

Pasadena, Calif 

Pensacola, Fla 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



4 
52 



10 
1 



48 



28 
1 



12 

1 

42 

i 

16 
24 



50 



7 
28 
1 
3 
1 
22 



76 
1 
5 
1 
1 
1 

22 



Robbery 



2 

8 

10 

3 



13 
78 

2 
34 

8 



672 
3 



22 

7 
7 



12 

9 

19 



9 

12 

514 

3 

7 

4 

10 

1 

1 

9 

7 

11 

2 



117 

3 

2 

6 

66 

61 

7 

5 

10 

10 

2 

2 

1 

105 

3 

2 

5 



21 

1 

130 

24 

4 



6 

8 

54 

2 



6 
66 

7 
10 
60 
30 

3 



10 
2 
2 

21 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



5 

23 

222 

1 

61 

6 

2 

381 



6 

117 

2 

10 



1 

1 

11 

8 

3 

1 

1 

16 

47 

12 

204 

5 

2 

57 

116 

3 



151 

2 

fi 

13 

46 

23 



5 

6 

104 

3 

10 

5 

233 

6 

6 

4 

6 

6 

9 

249 

17 

64 

43 



32 

145 

10 

3 

1 

29 

2 

3 

55 

14 

38 



14 

9 

11 

44 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or entering 



20 
90 

277 
21 

123 
36 
18 

858 
27 
15 

171 
31 
13 
27 
17 
15 
22 
16 
48 
11 
18 
29 

233 
61 

712 
41 
60 
31 
67 
17 
34 
23 
17 
10 
3 
14 

253 

12 

4 

13 

539 

167 
16 
4 
39 
99 
17 
35 
10 

285 
32 
89 
15 
21 

100 
20 

248 
89 

106 
18 
38 
38 

143 

31 

13 

1 

194 
20 
57 
85 
95 
45 
5 
16 
39 

104 

174 



Larceny- 
theft 



16 

305 

925 

58 

67 

39 

71 

1,518 

111 

8 

408 

127 

36 

106 

70 

13 

46 

56 

62 

73 

98 

76 

486 

201 

722 

106 

109 

112 

197 

77 

116 

71 

85 

35 

13 

»38 

767 

147 

4 

70 

1,551 

595 

59 

52 

149 

635 

23 

102 

40 

562 

5 

181 

36 

37 

212 

176 

947 

67 

222 

49 

50 

78 

435 

47 

4 

10 

537 

44 

156 

330 

474 

174 

12 

61 

55 

335 

175 



See footnotes at end of table. 



139 



Table 70.- — Nu7nber of perso^is charged {held for prosectition) , January to Decnutx i 
incbisivf, 1939, cities over 25,000 in ■population — Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— Larceny — j Auto 
breaking theft I theft 
or entering 



Peoria, 111 

Petersburg, Va 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsficld, Mass. 

Plainfiold, X. J 

Ponti;u'. Mich 

Port Arthur, Tex 

Portland, Maine 

Portland, Oreg.. 

Portsmouth, Va 

Poughkei'psie, N. Y... 

Providence, R. I.i 

Pueblo, Colo 

Quincy, I1L_ 

Racine, Wis -. 

Revere, Mass 

Richmond, Va 

Riverside, Calif 

Rochester, N. Y 

Rockford, ni.... 

Rome, N. Y 

Royal Oak, Mich 

Sacramento, Calif 

Saginaw, Mich.^ 

St. Joseph. Mo.i 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

St. Petersburg, Fla 

Salem, Mass 

Salem, Oreg 

San Angelo, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Bernardino, Calif _ 

San Diego, Calif.' 

San Francisco, Calif__. 

San Jose, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif. _ 
Santa Monica, Calif. . . 

Savannah, Ga 

Schenectady, N. Y 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Sheboygan, Wis 

Sioux Citv, Iowa 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak.'__ 

Somerville, Mass 

South Bend, Ind 

Spokane, Wash. 2 

Springfield, 111 

Springfield. Mass 

Springfield, Mo 

Springfield, Ohio 

Steuben ville, Ohio 

Superior, Wis 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 

Terre Haute, Ind.' 

Toledo, Ohio 

Topeka, Kans 

Trenton, N. J.2 

Troy, N. Y... 

Tucson, Ariz 

University City, Mo.. 

Utica, N. Y... 

Waco, Tex 

Waltham, Mass 

Warren, Ohio 

Washington, D. C 

Washington, Pa 

Watertown, N. Y 

West Allis, Wis 

West Hartford, Conn. 

West Orange, N. J 

Wheeling, W. Va 



9 

121 



9 
13 



34 



4 
3 
3 
52 
5 
3 



2 

19 

3 

3 

18 

1 

1 

1 

2 

13 



10 
3 
2 
2 
1 



3 

49 



31 
3 
344 
2 
5 
9 



10 

70 

47 

2 

6 
2 

14 

2 

5 

130 

1 

23 
9 
2 



47 

9 

7 

141 

36 

3 

7 

2 

8 

63 

16 

19 

178 

22 

1 

11 
34 
9 
3 
12 
30 



3 
2 

12 
9 

20 

10 

9 

7 

7 

7 

5 

13 

14 

12 

54 

9 

8 

9 

17 



6 
6 
7 
7 
534 
7 



37 

83 

562 

4 

11 

26 

18 

5 

28 

13.5 

18 

30 

4 

4 

4 

10 

422 

11 

40 

7 

1 

1 

25 

7 

7 

149 

3 

7 

2 

1 

13 

668 

8 

19 

218 

13 

6 

13 

6 

17 

15 

54 

2 



6 

10 

25 

11 

18 

3 

15 

10 

7 

5 

5 

18 

50 

5 

48 

18 

14 

2 

8 

122 

4 

9 

479 

3 

4 



18 
1 
6 



66 

31 

1,400 

15 

9 

22 
17 
49 

337 

126 
22 

106 
32 
23 
44 
44 

331 
11 

103 
26 
13 
9 
63 
29 
34 

364 
87 

100 
26 
18 
29 

169 
64 
50 

498 
53 
33 
50 
50 
97 
77 
89 

125 
27 
24 
5 
51 
67 
45 
72 

273 

101 
.54 
29 
49 

111 
75 
71 

204 
76 
61 
20 
36 
17 
61 
74 
15 
15 
1,279 
6 
26 
9 
22 
15 
30 



212 

226 

1,503 

48 

41 

57 

150 

160 

573 

322 

58 

228 

85 

145 

90 

83 

930 

23 

288 

138 

63 

19 

406 

54 

42 

826 

400 

219 

139 

33 

32 

771 

138 

169 

1,019 

160 

46 

141 

56 

323 

152 

1S3 

270 

72 

57 

27 

120 

146 

163 

173 

421 

184 

236 

4 

104 

320 

245 

162 

695 

54 

115 

82 

130 

37 

131 

365 

59 

95 

2, 376 

33 

90 

60 

23 

13 

51 



11 
14 

771 
22 
18 
13 

5 

25 
94 

3 

9 
59 

5 



(«) 



1 

12 

136 

8 

71 

27 

1 

11 
35 
13 
15 
74 
135 
19 
22 
10 
18 

23 
90 
232 
. 41 
10 
19 
13 
13 
13 
46 
41 

6 
15 

2 

21 

26 

11 

1 

86 

14 

32 

9 

35 

31 

56 

55 

89 

12 

7 

1 

9 

2 

7 

21 

8 

1 

294 

8 

2 

1 

2 

3 

17 



See footnotes at end of table. 



140 

Table 70. — Number of persons charged {held for prosecution) , January to December, 
inclusive, 1939, cities over 25,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Murder, 
noimegll- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Bobbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or entering 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



Auto 
theft 



White Plains, N. Y... 

Wichita, Kans 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa.i.... 

WUkinsburg, Pa. 

Wilmington, Del 

Winston-Salem, N. C. 

Woodbridge, N. J 

Worcester, Mass 

Wyandotte, Mich 

Yonkers, N. Y.i 

Zanesville, Ohio 



4 

15 
2 
1 
1 
2 



4 
13 
10 

6 

23 
20 

2 

25 
2 



11 
7 

12 

27 

50 

527 

4 

10 

2 

32 



19 

93 

28 

51 

177 

176 

10 

177 

26 

33 

22 



109 

540 

86 

50 

541 

477 

25 

269 

27 

76 

14 



1 

13 
23 
13 
31 
22 

3 
47 

7 

7 
22 



' Juveniles not included. 

2 Complete data for juveniles not included. ^ 

3 Includes persons charged with buying, receiving or possessing stolen property. 
* Figures represent the number of charges placed against persons arre.'ited. 

5 Includes persons charged with embezzlement and fraud. 

6 Complete data not available. 



DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

Source of Data. 

There were 459,167 arrest records (fingerprint cards) examined by 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation during the first 9 months of 
1940. Through this examination it was possible to obtain informa- 
tion relative to the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of the 
persons who were arrested for violation of State laws and municii)id 
ordinances. All fingerprint cards relating to persons arrested for vio- 
lation of Federal statutes were excluded. Similarly, all records re- 
ceived from penal institutions were excluded for the reason that in 
most instances fingerprint cards had previously been rcceiv(Ml from the 
arresting agency. 

The data presented do not purport to represent all persons airested, 
since the Federal Bureau of Investigation does not receive a finger- 
print card for each individual taken into custody. Likewise, the 
number of persons arrested should not be interpreted as determining 
the quantity of oft'enses committed, as the arrest of one ])erson may 
solve several cases while, on the other hand, two or more indivichials 
may be responsible for the commission of only one oft'ense. 

Offense Charged. 

Persons arrested during the first 9 months of 1940 for nuu-der, 
robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft represented more 
than 27 percent of the fingerprint cards examined. 

In this respect, the following tabulation sets forth the arrests for 
major violations during this period: 

Criminal homicide 1 t. 727 

Robbery 9, 9-"jt; 

Assault 25, 291 

Burglar\ ■ — breaking? or entering 27, 020 

Larcenv — theft (excluding auto theft) 47. 428 

Auto theft 10. OSn 

Embezzlement and fraud 14, !)!)! 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing 2, 749 

Arson _ ^23 

Forgery and counterfeiting 5, 197 

Rape 4, 190 

Narcotic drug laws 3. S(M» 

Weapons (carrying, possessing, etc.) 4, 220 

Driving while intoxicated -O. '*.».< 

Gambling ^- 'J'^ 

Total 191.844 

Sex. 

The number of males arrested during tli<> first 9 months of l',»4() 
exceeded the number of females in all types of crime, with (he excep- 
tion of commercialized vice. This is showni by furth(>r study of the 
459,167 arrest records. Of this total, 420,r)21 (91.6 percent) repre- 
sented males arrested. whih> •^HM^) (S.4 i)ercent) wer(> females taken 
into custody. The number of females arr(>sted is an increase over the 
same period in 1939, when the percentage of females was 7.5. 

A comparison of an average group of 1.000 mah's arrested with 
1 000 females arrested, disclosed thai females were chiuged more 
frequently with murder, assault, use of narcotic drugs, and liquor 

(141) 



142 

violations than males. However, males exceeded females in crimes 
against property, such as robbery, burglary, and auto theft. 

Table 71. — Distribution of arrests by sex Jan. 1-Sept. SO, 1940 



Oflense charged 



Number 



Percent 



Total 



Male 



Female i Total Male Femalr 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault --- 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson — 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice. 

Other sex offenses... 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Oflenses against famOy and children... 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated -. 

Road and driving laws... 

Parking violations 

other trafhc and motor vehicle laws. . . 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy... 

Gambling. __ 

Suspicion 

Not 'itated -.. 

All other offenses 

Total 



4,727 

9,956 

25,291 

27,020 

47,428 

10, 089 

14, 991 

2,749 

823 

5,197 

4,490 

6,942 

7,195 

3,800 

4,220 

5,853 

7. 514 

20. 953 

4,421 

33 

7,097 

22,209 

83, 377 

41,673 

10,110 

47,812 

3,308 

29, 889 



459, 167 



4,205 


522 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


9,510 


446 


2.2 


2.3 


1.2 


22. 904 


2.387 


5.5 


5.4 


6.2 


26, 549 


471 


5.9 


6.3 


1.2 


43, 587 


3.841 


10.3 


10.4 


10.0 


9,941 


148 


2.2 


2.4 


.4 


14, 182 


809 


3.3 


3.4 


2.1 


2,546 


203 


.6 


.6 


.5 


760 


63 


.2 


.2 


.2 


4,871 


326 


1.1 


1.2 


.8 


4,490 




1.0 
1.5 


1.1 
.4 




1,923 


5,019 


13.0 


6,212 


983 


1.6 


1.5 


2.5 


2,414 


1,386 


.8 


.6 


3.6 


4,032 


188 


.9 


1.0 


.5 


5,668 


185 


1.3 


1.3 


.5 


6, 151 


1.363 


l.R 


1.5 


3.5 


20. 380 


573 


4.6 


4.8 


1.5 


4.348 


73 


1.0 


1.0 


.2 


33 




(') 


(1) 




6,930 


167 


1.5 


1.6 


.4 


19, 418 


2,791 


4.8 


4.6 


7.2 


77, 982 


5.395 


18.2 


18.5 


14.0 


38, 1C5 


3,568 


9.1 


9.1 


9.3 


9.491 


619 


2.2 


2.2 


1.6 


42, 751 


5. 061 


10.4 


10.2 


13.1 


3,076 


232 


. 1 


. 7 


.6 


28,162 


1,727 


6.5 


6.7 


4.5 


420, 621 


38. 546 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



1 Less than 'in of 1 percent. 

Age. 

The arrest records reviewed during the first 9 months of 1940 
indicate that persons of 19 years were most frequently taken into 
custody. This group was followed by those of 21, 22, 18, and 23 
years, respectively. While fluctuations are to be expected, it is 
interesting to note that age 19 has led in the majority of the compila- 
tions of this nature since 1932. 

The tabulation below sets forth the number of arrests in the five 
age groups mentioned above: 

\orQ- Number of arrests 

19 18. 990 

21 18, 302 

22_ 18,299 

18 17, 877 

23 17, 843 

There were 81,031 (17.6 percent) youthful offenders arrested during 
the first 9 months of 1940 under 21 years of age. Those between 
21-24 years old increased this sum by 71,183 (15.5 percent), making 
a total of 152,214 persons arrested under 25 years of age. 

Extending the analysis to the age group 25-29 enlarged the number 
of arrests made by another 75,613 (16.5 percent), making an aggregate 
of 227,827 (49.6 percent) persons arrested less than 30 years old. (It 
must be remembered that the number of fingerprint cards received 
by the Federal Bureau of Investigation representing those arrested 
under 21 years of age is incomplete, as some communities do not 
fingerprint youthful offenders.) 



143 





















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M 



S 






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144 



Youths less than 21 years old were frequently charged with offenses 
against property, particularly robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto 
theft. This is clearly indicated by the following tabulation: 

Table 73. — Percentage distribution of arrests by age groups 



Age group 


All 
ofienses 


Criminal 
homicide 


Kobbery 


Burglary 


Larceny 


Auto theft 


Under 21 


17.6 
32.0 
25.6 
15.2 
9.5 
0.1 


12.2 
36.1 
26.9 
14.8 
9.9 
0.1 


28.9 

44.4 

19.1 

5.8 

1.8 

0.0 


44.9 

32.7 

14.9 

.5.3 

2.1 

0.1 


32.3 
32.5 
19.7 
10.1 
6.3 
0.1 


52.6 


21-29 . - 


33.0 


30-39 


10.9 


40-49 


2.8 


50 and over .--.-- 


0.7 


Unknown 


0.0 






Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 







The predominance of youthful persons among those charged with 
offenses against property is further indicated by the fact that 118,253 
persons of all ages were arrested for crimes against property (robbery, 
burglary, larceny, auto theft, embezzlement and fraud, forgery and 
counterfeiting, receiving stolen property, and arson) during the first 
9 months of 1940, and 38,185 (32.3 percent) of those persons were 
less than 21 years old. 

Further indication of the large part played by youthful persons in 
the commission of crimes against property is seen in the figures show- 
ing that 33.2 percent of all persons arrested were less than 25 years 
of age. However, persons less than 25 years old numbered 53.6 
percent of those charged with robbery, 63.9 percent of those charged 
with burglary, 49.8 percent of those charged with larceny, and 
72.7 percent of those charged with auto theft. More than one-half 
of all crimes against property during the first 9 months of 1940 were 
committed by persons under 25 years of age. 



145 







146 

Table 74.^ — Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age^ 

Jan. 1-Sept. 30, 1940 



Oflense charged 



Total num- 
ber of 
persons 
arrested 



Criminal homicide- 

Robbery. 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering. 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children... 

Liquor laws „ 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws... 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion. 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



4,727 

9,956 

25, 291 

27, 020 

47, 428 

10, 089 

14, 991 

2,749 

823 

5,197 

4,490 

6.942 

7.195 

3,800 

4.220 

5,853 

7,514 

20,953 

4,421 

33 

7,097 

22,209 

83, 377 

41, 673 

10, 110 

47,812 

3,308 

29,889 



459, 167 



Number 

under 21 

years of 

age 



576 

2,874 

2,914 

12, 146 

15,313 

5,306 

1,056 

546 

163 

781 

1,187 

474 

995 

335 

767 

298 

574 

834 

744 

3 

1,333 

3,085 

3,253 

6,740 

544 

10, 249 

462 

7,479 



81,031 



Total num- 
ber under 
25 years 
of age 



1,366 

5,337 

6,891 

17, 253 

23, 606 



,339 

3,264 

998 

273 

1,717 

2,186 

2,167 

2,080 

962 

1,532 

1,131 

1,553 

3,190 

1,820 

10 

2,905 

6,796 

10, 447 

13,471 

1,612 

18, 786 

941 

12, 581 



152, 214 



Percentage 

under 21 

years of 

age 



Total per- 
centage un- 
der 25 years 
of age 



12.2 
28.9 
11.5 
45.0 
32.3 
52.6 

7.0 
19.9 
19.8 
15.0 
26.4 

6.8 
13.8 

8.8 
18.2 

5.1 

7.6 

4.0 
16.8 

9.1 
18.8 
13.9 

3.9 
16.2 

5.4 
21.4 
14.0 
25.0 



17.6 



28.9 
53.6 
27.2 
63.9 
49.8 
72.7 
21.8 
36.3 
33.2 
33.0 
48.7 
31.2 
28.9 



25. 
36. 
19. 
20. 
15. 
41. 
30. 



40.9 



30. 
12. 
32. 
15. 
39. 
28. 
42. 



33.2 



147 

Criminal Repeaters. 

The extent to which persons with knowni criminal tendencies con- 
tinue to violate the law is indicated by the fact that 230,423 (more 
than one-half) of the persons arrested during the first 9 montlis of 
1940 had previously been fingerprinted and cards covering them were 
on file in the Federal Bureau of Investigation. In addition, there were 
5,101 current records received containing reference to past criminal 
activities, although no fingerprint cards were on file prior to 1940. 
This increases the total to 235,524 persons arrested durhig the first 9 
months of 1940 concerning whom there was on file information dealing 
with prior arrests, and the records showed that 158,121 of these persons 
had previously been convicted one or more times. Convictions of 
51 percent of these individuals were based on major violations, as 
indicated in the following tabulation: 

Criminal homicide 1, 239 

Robbery 5, 778 

Assault 8, 175 

Burglary 15, 944 

Larceny and related offenses 35, 538 

Arson 172 

Forger}'- and counterfeiting 3, 761 

Rape 1,029 

Narcotic drug laws 2,917 

Weapons (carrying, possessing, etc.) 1, 656 

Driving while intoxicated 4, 973 

Total 81, 182 

Many of the 158,121 persons with prior conviction records had been 
convicted more than once. The records for them showed a total of 
425,654 prior convictions, 177,381 of which were for the commission of 
major crimes. 



148 

Table 75. — Nianber of cases in which fingerprint records show one or more prior 
convictions, and the total of prior convictions disclosed bij the records, Jan. 1- 
Sept. 30, 1940 



O flense charged 



Xumber of 
records show- 
ing one or 
more prior 
convictions 



Xumber of ; Xumber of 'Total number 
prior convic- prior convic- of prior con- 
tions of major .tions of minor; victions dis- 
oflenses i oflenses j closed 



I 



Criminal homicide.. 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud.. 

Stolen property; bujlng, receiving, etc. 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

Other ses oflenses... 

Xarcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Oflenses against family and children 

Liquor laws... _ 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other oflenses.. 

Total 



937 


1,142 


765 


1,907 


3,951 


6,368 


3,747 


10, 115 


7,446 


8,972 


7,693 


16,665 


9,228 


15,a46 


8,043 


23.389 


15, 435 


25,365 


18, 394 


43,759 


3,108 


4,631 


2,374 


7,005 


5,003 


7.764 


4,114 


11, 878 


675 


958 


564 


1,522 


171 


179 


118 


297 


1,991 


3,411 


1,263 


4,674 


1,087 


1,337 


816 


2,153 


2,450 


3,750 


1,991 


5,741 


1,661 


2,106 


1,555 


3,661 


1,793 


4.331 


1,787 


6, lis 


1,187 


1,648 


1,053 


2,701 


1,358 


1,401 


1,202 


2,603 


2,406 


1,583 


3,649 


5,232 


4,830 


4,246 


4,943 


9,189 


845 


700 


795 


1, 495 


6 


8 


8 


16 


1,778 


1,681 


1,971 


3. 652 


7,467 


6,634 


13,908 


20,542 


35,446 


21,372 


91,150 


112, 522 


18,888 


17,608 


39.468 


57, 076 


2,063 


2,289 


1,743 


4,032 


15,106 


19, 247 


19,540 


38, 787 


1,392 


1,910 


1,549 


3,459 


10, 413 


11,394 


14,070 


25,464 


158, 121 


177. 381 


248,273 


425,654 



149 
Race. 

Excluding Mexicans, who numbered 17,115, members of the wliitc 
race represent 332,852 of the 459,167 arrest records received, whih' 
103,760 were Negroes, 2,650 Indians, 766 Chinese, 325 Japanese, and 
1,699 all others. 

In order to properly study the relationship between the number of 
whites arrested as compared with the number of Negroes, it becomes 
necessary to employ the 1930 decennial census, which reflects that 
there were 8,041,014 Negroes, 13,069,192 foreign-born wliites, and 
64,365,193 native whites in the United States. All persons under 15 
years of age were excluded from the preceding population figures. 
However, the immediate descendants of foreign-born whites have been 
treated as native whites. 

There were 1,290 Negroes arrested and fingerprinted during the 
first 9 months of 1940 of each 100,000 Negroes hi the geiionil popula- 
tion of the United States, while the corresponding figure for native 
whites was 474, and for foreign-born wliites, 151. 

Size of Fingerprint File. 

At the end of September 1940, there were 14,031,423 fingerprint 
records and 14,938,314 index cards contammg the names and aliases 
of mdividuals on file in the Identification Division of the FBI. Of 
each 100 fingerprint cards received during the first 9 months of 1940, 
more than 61 were identified with those on file in the Bureau. Fugi- 
tives numbering 5,741 were identified through fingerprint records dur- 
ing the first 9 months of 1940, and interested law-enforcement officials 
were immediately notified of the whereabouts of those fugitives. As 
of September 30, 1940, there were 11,036 police departments, peace 
ofiicers, and law-enforcement agcnicies throughout the United States 
and foreign countries voluntarily contributing fingerprints to the 
FBI. 



OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in part I and 
part II offenses, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 

Part I Offenses. 

1. Criminal ho7nicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter includes all 
wilful felonious homicides as distinguished from deaths caused by negligence. 
Does not include attempts to kill, assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, or 
justifiable homicides. Justifiable homicides excluded from this classification are 
limited to the following types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon by a peace officer 
in line of duty. (2) The killing of a hold-up man by a private citizen. (6) Man- 
slaughter by negligence includes any death which the police investigation estab- 
lishes was primarily attributable to gross negligence on the part of some individual 
other than the victim. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape (no force used — victim under 
age of consent), assault to rape, and attempted rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as strong-arm robbery, stick-ups, 
robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by the use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safecrack- 
ing, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or a theft, even though no force was 
used to gain entrance. Includes attempted burglary. Burglary followed by 
larceny is included in this classification and not counted again as larcel)J^ 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value, (b) 
Under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of the property stolen, thefts of bicycles, automobile accessories, 
shoplifting, pocket-picking, or any stealing of property or article of value which 
is not taken by force and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, 
"con" games, forgery, worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven 
away and abandoned, including the so-called joy-riding thefts. Does not include 
taking for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unauthorized use 
by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses. 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting.— Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which ls 
made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false pretenses. 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those offenses. 

12. Weapons: carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of regulations 
or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing, and manufactur- 
ing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes or 
regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized z^ice.— Includes sex offenses of a commercial- 
ized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as, prostitution, keeping bawdy 
house, procuring, transporting, or detaining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice). — In- 
cludes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
atteinpts. 

(150) 



151 

15. OffeiLses against the family and children. - Includes offenses of nonsupjiort, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

1(). Xarcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, sale, or use. Exclude Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of '* Drunkenness" (class 18) and "Driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations, State or local, are placed in 
this class. Exclude Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regulations with 
resjiect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and ynotor vehicle laws.- — Includes violations of 
State laws and inunicii)al ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offerises. — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters, but not in connection with any specific offense, who are released with- 
out formal charges being placed against them. 

o 



f D^ > o ^n^-o 


UNIFORM 


CRIME 


REPORTS 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 




/SSUfD BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C 



Volume XI 



Number 4 



FOURTH QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1940 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume XI— Number 4 
FOURTH QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1940 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department ol Justice 

Washington, I). C. 



■fis 




ADVISOKY 



Internationul Atui«>ciali«ii of <hiifM..r ^'»\ic» 



I'MTKl) STATKS 

(;t)VKKNMKNT l>KIMIN«. <»KK1<K 

WASHINGTON : lyil 






CONTENTS 

Page 

Summary of volume XI, No. 4 153-155 

Classification of offenses 156 

Extent of reporting area 156-159 

Monthly reports: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population 

(table 76) 160-161 

Monthly trends, offenses known to the police, 1940 (tables 77-78) _ 161-169 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1931-40 (table 79) 170-171 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location 

(tables 80-82) 172-177 

Offenses in individual cities over 25,000 in population (table 83) 178-185 

Offenses known to sheriffs and State police (tables 84-85) 186 

Offenses known in Territories and possessions (table 86) 187 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 87-90) 188-197 

Traffic deaths and offenses of manslaughter by negligence (table 90a) _ 197-199 
Estimated number of major crimes, 1939-40 (table 91) 200-202 

Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1940: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 92) 204 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 93-97) 205-2 1 2 

Number and percentage with previous fingerprint records (tables 

98-99) 213-215 

Number with records showing previous convictions (tables 100-103) . 216-222 
Race distribution of persons arrested (tables 104-107) 222-225 

Index to volume XI 228-229 

(II) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 

of Justice, Washington, D. C. 

Volume XI January 1941 Number 4 

SUMMARY 

Estimated Number of Major Crimes, 1939-40. 

The estimated number of serious crimes in the United States during 
1940 was 1,517,026. This represents an increase over the 1939 figure 
of 32,472 (2.2 percent). 

For individual ofJ'cnse classes increases were shown during 1940 as 
follows: Murder, 0.3 percent; negligent manslaughter, 0.7 percent; 
rape, 2.5 percent; aggravated assault, 0.1 percent; burglary, 1.7 
percent; larceny, 3.3 percent. Decreases were shown as follows 
during 1940: Robbery, 3.3 percent; auto theft, 0.3 percent. 

Crime Trends, 1931-40. 

The average number of crimes annually during 1936-40 was in 
many instances substantially lower than the average annual number 
of offenses during 1931-35. Comparison of the two sets of 5-year 
averages reveals the following decreases: Murder, 15.2 percent; 
negligent manslaughter, 14.6 percent; robbery, 26.8 percent; burglary, 
9.5 percent; auto theft, 35.3 percent. On the other hand, increases 
were shown in the following classes: Rape, 35.9 percent; aggravated 
assault, 1.5 percent; larceny, 11.4 percent. 

Although the comparison of the two sets of 5-year averages reveals 
decreases in many classes, it should be noted that the 1940 figures 
showed increases in all ofi'ense classes except robbery and auto theft, 
continuing an upward trend which was also reflected by the 1939 
figures as compared with 1938. There is definite evidence of an 
upward trend during 1939 and 1940 which is particularly noticeable in 
offenses of rape, burglary, and larceny. Robbery and auto theft 
figures, however, continued to decline. 

Monthly Variations in Crimes. 

Crime is generally found to vary with the seasons. Robberies, 
burglaries, and auto thefts reached their peaks during the fall and 
winter months. The daily average for robbery was lowest in July 
and highest in December. Similarly the daily average for auto thefts 
was lowest in July and highest in November. Burglaries occurred 
with least frequency in June and were most numerous in December. 

(153) 



154 

The seasonal variation in crimes against property during the past 
several years has been most marked in the case of robberies and least 
noticeable with reference to larcenies. , 

The monthly figures for 1940 reflect a rather general upward trend 
in offenses of murder, rape, and aggravated assault during the second 
and third quarters of the year, with a tendency to drop somewhat 
during the last quarter. However, the daily average for murder 
during the fourth quarter was higher than for the preceding portions 
of the year. 

The factors contributing to the commission of various types of 
crimes are subject to constant change, and for this reason many law 
enforcement agencies study not only seasonal crime variations but 
also monthly, weekly, daily, hourly, and geographical variations in 
the incidence of crime within their jurisdiction. 

The monthly larceny figures for 1940 show an upward trend through- 
out the year. These figures indicate the possibility of a continued 
increase in larcenies during 1941. 
Distribution of Crimes by Type. 

Almost 96 percent of the crimes reported were for the purpose of 
obtaining property. More than one-half (59.1 percent) were larce- 
nies, 22.3 percent burglaries, 11.1 percent auto thefts, and 3.4 percent 
robberies. The remaining 4.1 percent were murders, negligent man- 
slaughters, rapes, and other felonious assaults. 

Owners of automobiles and bicycles might well take greater pre- 
cautions to protect their property against thieves, for half of all 
larcenies reported were thefts of bicycles or thefts of some type of 
property from automobiles. 

The majority (65.3 percent) of larceny offenses involved property 
valued from $5 to $50; in 25.3 percent of the cases the property was 
valued at less than $5; and the property was valued in excess of $50 
in 9.4 percent of the cases. 

More than one-half (58.4 percent) of the robberies were classed 
as highway robberies. Gasoline filling stations, chain stores, and other 
commercial houses, were the scenes of 34.7 percent of the robberies. 

Burglaries of nonresidence structures constituted 54.5 percent of 
the total burglaries reported; 91 percent of the nonresidence burglaries 
occurred during the night, whereas 65.2 percent of the residence 
burglaries were committed at night. 

Property stolen from the victim in an average robbery durmg 1940 
was valued at $102.89. The average value of the loot stolen in bur- 
glaries was $54.43, and the average larceny, unaccompanied by the 
elements of robbery or burglary, involved property valued at $26.33. 
The average automobile stolen was valued at $421.19. Ninety-six 
percent of the automobiles stolen and 26 percent of all other types of 
stolen property were recovered. 



155 

("rime Rates. 

With few exceptions, the averatjo city with more than 100,000 
inhabitants has more crime jx'f unit of popuhition than tlie avera<i;o 
city with popuhition unck'r 1 00, 000. Tlie bulletin includes crime 
rates for cities divided by location and size so that police executives 
iuul interested individuals may compare local crime figures with 
national and regional averages. Crime rates for individual states 
;uui figures for individual cities with over 25,000 inhabitants arc 
also presented. 

The amount of crime varies among the several States and larger 
geographic divisions. Burglary, larceny, and auto theft rates for the 
Pacific states are somewhat higher than those in other sections of the 
nation. On the other hand, murder and felonious assault rates are 
highest m the South Atlantic, East South Central, and West South 
Central states. These variations reflect the fact that the amount of 
crime in a community, like other social phenomena, is affected by 
many factors. 

Persons Arrested. 

During 1940 the Federal Bureau of Investigation examined 609,013 
fingerprint arrest records of which 240,680 were arrests for major 
violations. 

The proportion of women represented by fingerprint arrest cards 
1ms been increasing. During 1940 women were represented by 8.5 
percent of the total records, wdiereas the con-esponding figure for 1939 
was 7.6 percent, and for 1938 it was 6.8 percent. 

For males and females combined, age 19 predominated in the fre- 
quency of arrests and was followed by ages 21 and 22, respectively. 
For males alone age 19 predominates and is followed by ages 18, 21, 
and 22 in frequency of arrests. For females, however, the largest 
nund)er of arrests was for age 22, followed by ages 23 and 24. 

The percentage of the total persons arrested who were less than 
21 years old was 17.4 in 1936, 18.0 in 1937, 18.8 in 1938, 18.9 in 1939, 
and 17.5 in 1940. 

During 1940, 28.8 percent of the robbery arrests, 44.8 percent of 
the burglaiy arrests, 32.0 percent of the larceny arrests, and 53.3 
percent of the auto theft arrests involved persons less than 21 years old. 

The presence of the problem of the criminal repeater was indicated 
by the following figures: 50 persons arrested for criminal homicide dur- 
ing 1940 had records of prior convictions of murder or manslaughter; 
311,222 of the persons arrested and fingerprinted during the year had 
prior records on file showing that 206,484 of them had been convicted 
previously of one or more crimes. The total of such prior convictions 
was 540,847. 



156 



CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term ''offenses known to the poUce" is designed to inchide those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occm-- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to the 
police through reports of poHce officers, of citizens, of prosecuting or 
court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following group 
of seven classes of grave oft'enses, shown by experience to be those 
most generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal homi- 
cide, including (a) mm'der, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (6) man- 
slaughter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; burglary — 
breaking or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The figures 
contained herein include also the number of attempted crimes of the 
designated classes. In other words, an attempted burglary or robbery, 
for example, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner as if the 
crime had been completed. Attempted murders, however, are 
reported as aggravated assaults. 

"Oft'enses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the law-enforce- 
ment agencies of contributing communities and not merely arrests or 
cleared cases. Complaints which upon investigation are learned to be 
groundless are not included in the tabulations which follow. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions of 
part I and part II offense classifications. 

EXTENT OF REPORTING AREA 

In the table which follows there is shown the number of police de- 
partments from which one or more crime reports were received during 
the calendar year 1940. Information is presented for the cities divided 
according to size, and the population figures employed are from the 
1940 decennial census. 





Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 

1,077 


Cities filing returns 


Total pop- 
ulation 


Population repre- 
sented in returns 


Population group 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


1,005 


93.3 


62, 715, 897 


61, 542, 171 


98.1 


1. Cities over 250,000 . 


37 

55 
107 
213 
665 


37 

55 

104 

210 

599 


100.0 

100.0 

97.2 

98.6 

90.1 


30, 195, 339 
7, 792, 650 
7, 343. 917 
7, 417, 093 
9, 966, 898 


30, 195. 339 
7, 792, 650 
7, 152, 965 
7. 321, 370 
9, 079, 847 


100.0 


2. Cities 100,000 to 250,000 


100.0 


3. Cities 50,000 to 100,000 


97.4 


4. Cities 25,000 to 50,000 


98.7 


5. Cities 10,000 to 25,000 


91.1 







Note.— The above table does not include 1,742 cities and rural townships aggregating a total population 
of 9,021,169. The cities included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 population filing returns, whereas 
the rural townships are of varying population groups. 



157 




158 



The growth in the crime-reporting area is evidenced by the following 
figures for 1930-40: 



Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


1930 

1931 - - 


1,127 
1,511 
1,578 
1,658 
1,799 
2,156 


45, 929, 965 
51, 145, 734 
53, 212, 230 
62, 357, 262 
62, 757, 643 
64, 615, 330 


1936 

1937 

1938 

1939 

1940 


2,318 
2,429 
2,662 
2,698 
2,747 


65, 639, 430 

66, 279. 987 


19.32 

1933 

1934 

1935 


67, 555, 972 
67, 964. 488 
70, 563, 340 



The foregoing comparison shows that during 1940 there was an 
increase of 49 cities contributing as compared with 1939. The increase 
in the population represented by contributing police departments 
during 1940 over 1939 amounted to 2,598,852. However, this increase 
in population resulted only in part from the 49 cities whose police 
departments joined the uniform crime reporting program last year; 
the major portion of the increase is attributable to the use of 1940 
population figures in showing the aggregate population of the 2,747 
cities. For years prior to 1940, the aggregate population of the cities 
represented is shown in terms of the 1930 decennial census, with the 
exception that for cities over 10,000 in population the 1933 estimates 
of the Bureau of the Census were used. 

In addition to the 2,747 city and village police departments which 
forwarded crime reports during 1940, one or more reports were received 
during that year from 1,609 sheriffs and State police organizations 
and from 13 agencies in Territories and possessions of the United 
States. This makes a grand total of 4,369 agencies contributing 
crime reports during 1940. 

The following tabulation indicates the status of the reporting area 
last year by States. Although 49 more police departments contributed 
crime reports during 1940 than during 1939, this tabulation indicates 
that the percentage of urban police departments contributing last 
year was smaller than the percentage for 1939. The same is true for 
many of the individual States. This is due to the fact that as a result 
of the 1940 decennial census there was a substantial increase in the 
number of communities classed as urban, and the police departments 
in many of these new urban communities have not had an opportunity 
to become fully acquainted with the procedure to be followed in the 
preparation of the moutlily crime reports. Inasmuch as the informa- 
tion concerning the reclassification of the cities as urban was not 
available in most instances until January 11, 1941, it was not feasible 
to enroll as contributors during 1940 the communities newly classed 
as urban. 



15U 



Status of reporting area, 


Uniform Crime Reports, 1940 


, by States 






Urban police departments ' 


County sheriffs 


State 


Number 
of cities 


Number 
cities 

contrib 
uting 


Percent 
contrib- 
uting 


Number 

of counties 


Number 
counties 
contrib- 
uting 


Percent 
contrib- 
uting 


Alabama 


59 
16 
53 

167 
30 
32 
8 
1 
70 
78 
26 

208 
98 
89 
64 
56 
54 
26 
24 

122 

125 
78 
48 
87 
23 
36 
5 
18 

178 
22 

203 
76 
12 

186 
74 
34 

356 
19 
50 
19 
57 

196 
25 
14 
53 
40 
45 
93 
12 


28 
10 
30 

152 
26 
28 
5 
1 
46 
32 
21 

176 
82 
72 
59 
36 
28 
22 
16 

111 

115 
73 
23 
47 
18 
31 
4 
14 

148 
12 

191 
47 
12 

160 
47 
24 

291 
18 
23 
16 
28 
79 
20 
14 
36 
36 
30 
73^ 
9 


47.5 
62.5 
56.6 
91.0 
86.7 
87.5 
62.5 
100.0 
65.7 
41.0 
80.8 
84.6 
83.7 
80.9 
92.2 
64.3 
51.9 
84.6 
66.7 
91.0 
92.0 
93.6 
47.9 
54.0 
78.3 
86.1 
80.0 
77.8 

as. 1 

54.5 
94.1 
61.8 

100.0 
86.0 
63.5 
70.6 
82.0 
94.7 
46.0 
84.2 
49.1 
40.3 
80.0 

100.0 
67.9 
90.0 
66.7 
78.5 
75.0 


67 
14 
75 
58 
63 
8 
3 


22 

8 
29 

44 

49 

8 

3 


32.8 


Arizona 


57. 1 


Arkansas ; 

California 


38.7 
75.9 


Colorado.. 


77.8 


Connecticut > 

Delaware ' ..... 


100.0 
100.0 


1 ) ist rict ol Columbia 




Florida 


67 

161 
44 

102 
92 
99 

105 

120 
64 
16 
23 
14 
83 
87 
82 

114 
56 
93 
17 
10 
21 
31 
62 

100 
53 
88 
77 
36 
67 
5 
46 
69 
95 

254 
29 
14 

100 
39 
55 
71 
23 


28 
51 
40 
69 
52 
77 
85 
36 
44 
12 
7 
14 
69 
78 
28 
43 
46 
70 
14 
2 
4 
14 
47 
28 
47 
66 
46 
26 
67 
5 
9 
44 
25 
82 
26 
7 
39 
30 
55 
39 
18 


41.8 


Georgia 


31.7 


Idaho 


90.9 


Illinois . 


67.6 


Indiana 


56.5 


Iowa . 


77.8 


Kansas . .. 


81.0 


Kentucky 


30. 


Louisiana . . 


68.8 


Maine 


75.0 


.Maryland 

Massachusetts • ... 


30.4 

100. 


Michigan ^ . 


83. 1 


Minnesota 


89.7 


Mississippi 


34. 1 


Missouri . . 


37.7 


Montana 


82. 1 


.Vebraska.. 


75. .S 


Nevada .. . _ 


82.4 


New Hamijshire 


20.0 


New Jersey ' _ 


■ 19.0 


New Mexico 

New York ' 


45.2 

75.8 


.North Carolina 


28.0 


North Dakota 


88.7 


Ohio 


75. 


Oklahoma 


.19.7 


(Jregon 


72. 2 


Pennsylvania' 


100. 


Rhode Island ' 


1(K). 


South Carolina 


19.6 


South Dakota 


63.8 


Tennessee 

Texas 


26.3 
32. 3 


Utah. 


89.7 


Vermont 


50. 


Virt-'inia 


39.0 


Wasliington 


76.9 


West Virginia > 


KM). 


\V isconsin 


54.9 


Wyoming. .. . 


78.3 






Total 


3,464 


<2,620 


75.6 


3.072 


« 1. 752 


57.0 







1 The Census Bureau's 1940 cla,ssifieatioii of eoninuiiiities as urban and rural has been followed. Gener- 
ally. ineori)<jrate<l places with |>opulations of 2,.5(Kl or more are ela.ssified as urban. 

'' \\\ counties were counted as contributors because the State police contribiUe data for rural iiortions 
of the State. 

^ State police also contribute. 

* Does not iticlude 127 rural village police departments. 

' Includes I.V2 counties for which State police submit crime reports. SheritTs f.f those counties do not 
coiitriliute reports. Does not include '.» State police organizations eontrit)Uting reports. 



-.^431(1 41- 



MONTHLY REPORTS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population. 

Since the collection and tabulation of police statistics on a national 
scale first began over 10 years ago, the montlily reports received at 
the FBI during each year have generally shown more crimes per unit 
of population in the large cities than in the smaller places. The year 
1940 followed this precedent. 

Again last year the one usual exception was noted. The highest rate 
for aggravated assaults was not for the largest cities but for those with 
population from 50,000 to 100,000. This is probably due, at least to 
some extent, to the large number of such crimes committed in cities 
of that population range in the vSouth Atlantic, East South Central, 
and West South Central States. 

Although the highest rate for offenses of rape was experienced in 
cities with population in excess of 250,000, the next highest rate was 
noted in the reports received from cities with population from 2,500 
to 10,000. 

The number of offenses reported during 1940 and the rate per 100,000 
inhabitants for all population groups are presented in table 76. The 
table is based on reports received from 2,001 cities with a total popu- 
lation of 65,128,946, according to the 1940 decennial census. The 
cities have been grouped into six classes according to size in order 
that interested individuals may compare local crime rates with national 
averages for cities of approximately the same size. Table 82 lists 
similar figures divided further on a regional basis. 

Of all the crimes tabulated in table 76, crimes against property 
(larceny, burglary, auto theft, and robbery) total 95.9 percent. The 
remainder are murders, manslaughters, rapes, and other felonious 
assaults. Below appears a percentage distribution of the crimes: 



Offense 


Rate per 
100,000 


Percent 


Offense 


Rate per 
100,000 


Percent 


Total 


1, 566. 3 


100.0 


Robbery _ _ 


52.5 

45.8 

8.9 

5.4 

4.4 


3.4 




Aggravated assault 

Rape --- 


2 9 




926.3 
348.4 
174.6 


59.1 
22.3 
11.1 


.6 




Murder _ _ 


.3 


Aiito thf^ft 


Manslaughter 


.3 









In order that the low percentage of offenses committed against 
the person may not be misleading, attention is directed to the fact 
that the cities represented in table 76 reported 3,509 murders, 2,768 
negligent manslaughters, 5,799 rapes, and 29,803 aggravated assaults. 

Although only 3.4 percent of the crimes reported were classed as 
robberies, these cities reported 34,220 such offenses (thefts from the 
person accompanied by the element of force or threat of force). 

The estimated total of serious crimes committed in the United 
States last year is presented in table 91. 

(160) 



161 

Table 76.- Offcufici^ known to the police, Janunry to December, inclusive, 1940; 
number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 deceiinial census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 

36 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 29,894,166: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



OROUP II 

55 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,792,660: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



OROUP m 

100 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 6,929,998: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP IV 

191 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 6,666,956: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP V 

516 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 7,820,022: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP VI 

1,103 cities under 10,000; total pop- 
ulation, 6,025,154: 
Number of offenses known. . . . 
Rate per 100,000 _ 



TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

2,001 cities; total population, 
6.5,128,946: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000. 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



1,816 
6.1 



610 
6.5 



396 
6.7 



230 
3.4 



308 
3.9 



249 
4. 1 



3,500 
6.4 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



1 1,611 
6.7 



383 
4.9 



254 
3.7 



240 
3.6 



146 
1.9 



134 
2.2. 



'2,768 
4.4 



Rape 



3,407 
11.4 



665 

7.1 



461 

fi. 7 



.395 

5.9 



531 
6.8 



450 
7.5 



5,799 
8.9 



Rob- 
bery 



22, 336 
74.7 



3,960 
50.8 



2,618 
37.8 



2, 145 
32.2 



1, 823 
23.3 



1,338 
22.2 



34,220 
62.5 



Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 



15, 036 
50.3 



4,187 
53.7 



4,419 
63.8 



2,383 

35.7 



2,128 
27.2 



1,660 
27.4 



29,803 
46.8 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



2 81, 482 
397.3 



32, 604 
418.4 



25. 284 
364.8 



20,899 
313.5 



19,840 
2.53.7 



14, 107 
234.1 



2194,216 
348.4 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



2 213,073 
1, 039. 



83,314 
1. 069. 1 



68, 839 
993.3 



63,556 
963.3 



56, 566 
710.6 



32,008 
531.2 



2 516, 356 
926.3 



Auto 
theft 



60,842 
203. S 



16,281 
208.9 



11,651 
168.1 



10, 646 

158.2 



8,681 
111.0 



5,703 
94.7 



113, 704 
174.6 



' The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports as follows: Group 
I, 35 cities, total population, 28,.389,889; groups I-VI, 2,000 cities, total population, 63,624,669. 

2 The number of offen.ses and rate for burglary and larceny— theft are based on reports as follows: Group I, 
34 cities, total population, 20, .507,837; groups I-VI, 1,999 cities, total population, 55,742,617. 

Monthly Trends, Offenses Known to the Police (Daily Average), 1940. 



Crime is? generally found to vary with the seasons. This is reflected 
in the monthly reports received during 1940 from cities with more 
than 25,000 inhabitants. A study of these reports indicates a rath(>r 
general upward trend in ofi"ensos of murder, rape, and aggravated 
assault during the second and third quarters of the year, with a tend- 
ency to drop somewhat during the last quarter. However, the daily 



162 



■■11 1.-. JL * '■■I MM i m i m i J)... ! JJig lMpff^^M 






1" 

® 

® 

@ 

® 

© 
t 
% 

5 






\ 










( 












\ 








/ 


^ 






/ 


r 
















000*001 M3d 3iTa 



1— ( 

O 




163 

avorajjo for niurdor diii-ing' tlic loui'tli (|iuir(('j' was iii<i;lu'r than for tlie 
preceding" portions of tlie year. 

During 1940 offenses of manslangliter by negligence showed a 
marked seasonal variation with tlie high points in the first and fourth 
quarters of the year. This confirms the experience of prior years and 
is to be expected inasmuch as the frequency of automobile fatalities 
has generally been highest during the first and fourth quarters of the 
year as the result of less favorable driving conditions. The large 
majority of negligent manslaughters consists of automobile fatalities. 

Robberies, burglaries, and auto thefts reached their peaks during 
the fall and winter months. The daily average for robberies was 
lowest in July and highest during December. Similarly, the daily 
average for auto thefts was lowest in July and highest in November. 
Burglaries occurred with less frequency in June than in any other 
month and were most numerous in December. 

The larceny figures show a rather consistent upward trend through- 
out the year. This is somewhat at variance with the larceny data for 
most of the preceding years, which have on the whole reflected a 
lower number of larcenies during the summer months of the year. 

The seasonal variation in the number of crimes against property 
(robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto theft) has during the past several 
years alw^ays been most marked in the case of robberies and least 
noticeable with reference to larcenies. 

In tables 77 and 78 figures are presented representing the daily 
average of offenses committed each month in the cities represented. 
The data are presented in table 77 for the cities divided into four 
groups according to size, and in table 78 for the same cities divided 
into nine groups according to location without regard to size. 

Although there are rather definite seasonal trends in most types of 
crimes, there are sufficient differences in the patterns of the variations 
reflected by the data for the different groups of cities to indicate that 
many factors influence the amount of crime in a coimnunity. (For a 
list of some of these items see the text preceding table 83.) 

The foregoing facts point to the need for each law enforcement 
agency to compile and study its own figures regarding not only seasoiuil 
crime variations but also monthly, weeldy, daily, hourly, and geo- 
graphical variations in the incidence of crime within its jurisdiction. 
The many forces contributing to the commission of crimes are not 
static but are, on the other hand, subject to constant change, with the 
result that those charged with the responsibility of combating crime 
must persistently study its various manifestations in order to most 
efficiently carry out a remedial program. It may be noted that many 
police departments do regularly prepare and use the types of tabula- 
tions mentioned for the purposes indicated. 



164 

In table 77 the larceny fig:iires for all four population groups show 
an upward trend throug:hout the year. These figures may indicate 
the likelihood of a continued increase in larcenies during 1941. In a 
somewhat similar manner, the fact that the fourth quarter figures for 
robbery and auto theft are higher than for any other three-month 
period of 1940 indicates the possibility of general increases in robber- 
ies and auto thefts during 1941 unless the factors causing the present 
up-swing are curbed. 



Table 77. —Monthly trends, offenses known to the -police, January to December, 
inclusive, 1940, 382 cities over 25,000 in 'population, by population groups 





Population figures from 1940 decennia 


census] 










Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Population group and 
month 


Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


GROUP I ' 

36 cities over 250,000; total 
population, 29,894,166: 
January ._ .... 


3.7 
4.4 
4.2 
4.5 
4.8 
6.5 
5.2 
5.6 
5.2 
6.2 
4.1 
5.0 


5.0 
4.3 
4.2 
5.7 
3.8 
4.2 
3.2 
3.8 
4.5 
4.0 
4.6 
5.6 


7.5 
9.9 
9.2 
8.3 
9.2 
9.7 
9.7 
9.5 
9.1 
11.1 
9.7 
8.8 


65.2 
68.4 
65.3 
.57.4 
56.0 
55.0 
51.2 
51.1 
55.6 
61.6 
70.2 
75.7 


32.5 
34.2 
38.4 
42.3 
43.4 
44.1 
43.2 
46.2 
45.6 
44.6 
38.7 
39.5 


217.7 
242.4 
232.9 
228.4 
211.7 
207.0 
205.4 
216.1 
213.2 
214.5 
234.2 
249.1 


499.9 

542.6 
568.3 
574. 
574.5 
570. 3 
575. 4 
604.4 
593.7 
633.5 
636.6 
611.8 


159.0 


February 


169.1 


March 


168. 5 


April 


162.3 


May . 


157.7 


.Tune 


155.9 


July 


154.4 


August 


154. 5 


September ... 


162.4 


October 


178.7 


November 


184.9 


December . 


187.7 






January to March 

April to June. 


4.1 
5.3 
5.3 
5.1 
• 5.0 


4.5 
4.5 
3.8 
4.7 
4.4 


8.8 
9.1 
9.4 
9.9 
9.3 


66.3 
56.1 
52.6 
69.2 
61.0 


35.1 
43.3 
45.0 
41.0 
41.1 


230.7 
215.7 
211.5 
232.6 
222. 6 


536.8 
573.0 
591.1 
627.2 
582.2 


165.4 
158.6 


July to September 

October to December 

January to December — 


157.0 
183.8 
166.2 


GROUP 11 

55 cities, 100.000 to 250,000; 
total population, 7,792,650: 
January . 


1.2 
1.0 
1.4 
1.1 
1.3 
1.5 
1.5 
1.5 
1.5 
1.5 
1.4 
1.8 


1.4 

.8 

1.1 

.7 

.9 

.9 

.4 

. 7 

1.2 

1.2 

2.0 

1.3 


1.1 
1.3 
1.6 
1.5 
1.3 
1.5 
1.7 
1.7 
1.4 
1.4 
2.2 
1.5 


12.5 

14.5 

12.1 

10.7 

10.8 

9.1 

7.8 

10.5 

8.8 

8.7 

10.9 

13.5 


9.3 
10.3 

9.7 
10.2 
10.5 
12.9 
12.8 
13.7 
13.0 
11.4 
11.4 
12.2 


83.5 
93.6 
91.3 
91.6 
89.6 
82.1 
86.7 
90.0 
90.3 
87.4 
92.5 
90.7 


205.7 
224.5 
229.2 
230.5 
224.4 
217.0 
226.3 
225.2 
226.9 
247.6 
239.5 
234.9 


41.4 


February . ._ 


46.6 


March 


44.8 


April 


45.6 


May 


43.2 


June 


43.1 


July 


35.9 


August 


41.4 


September 


45.0 


October 


46.8 


November 


51.5 


December _. _ 


48.7 






January to March 

April to June 


1.2 
1.3 
1.5 
1.6 
1.4 


1.1 

.9 

.8 

1.5 

1.0 


1.3 
1.4 
1.6 

1.7 
1.5 


13.0 
10.2 
9.1 
11.0 
10.8 


9.8 
11.2 
13.2 
11.7 
11.4 


89.4 
87.8 
89.0 
90.2 
89.1 


219.7 
224.0 
226.1 
240.7 
227.6 


44.2 
44.0 


July to September 

October to December 

January to December _ . 


40.7 
49.0 
44.5 



See footnote at end of table. 



165 



Table 77.- Monthly trends, offenses known to the police, Jannary to December, 
inclusive, 1940, 382 cities over 25,000 in population, by population groups — Con. 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Population group and 
month 


Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


GKOUP in 

100 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; 
total population, 6,929,998: 

January 

February 

March. _ _ 


0.8 

.8 

.9 

1.0 

.9 

.9 

1.4 

1.1 

1.5 

1.2 

1.0 

1.5 


0.8 
.7 
.8 
.8 
.7 
.8 
.5 
.5 
.6 
.5 
.7 

I.O 


0.8 
1.5 

.9 
1.7 
1.7 
1.1 
1.5 
1.6 
1.1 

.8 
1.2 
1.2 


7.5 
7.3 
7.1 
6.7 
6.0 
6.9 
7.3 
7.5 
6.3 
6.1 
7.5 
9.8 


9.6 
9.7 
11.4 
12.8 
12.3 
13.9 
12.7 
13.5 
13.1 
12.8 
10.4 
12.6 


62.6 
73.0 
80.3 
74.2 
70.5 
61.5 
70.5 
67.5 
65.8 
61.5 
69.1 
72.5 


160.3 
181.4 
189.7 
195.0 
191.0 
183.2 
189.9 
188.2 
186.6 
199.2 
199.3 
193.1 


28.2 
32.1 
33.1 


April . . 


33. 1 


May . _ .- 


30.2 


June 


29.7 


July 


26.5 


August 


27.9 


September 


.32.0 


October 


36.2 


November 


37.1 


December.. 


35.9 


January to March 

April to June 

July to September 

October to December 

January to December 


.8 

.9 

1.3 

1.2 

1.1 


.7 
.8 
.5 
.7 
.7 


1.1 
1.5 
1.4 
1.0 
1.3 


7.3 

6.5 
7.0 
7.8 
7.2 


10.2 
13.0 
13.1 
12.0 
12.1 


72.0 
68.8 
68.0 
67.7 
69.1 


177.1 
189.8 
188.3 
197.2 

188.1 


31.1 
31.0 
28.8 
36.4 
31.8 


GROUP IV 

191 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; 
total population, 6,666,9.^6: 

January 

February ... 


.7 
.6 
.5 
.6 
.9 
.7 
.6 
.4 
.3 
.8 
.4 
1.0 


.6 
.6 

1.0 
.7 
.6 
.6 
.5 
.4 
.7 
.5 
.6 

1.0 


1.1 

.8 

1.1 

.9 

1.0 

1.0 

1.2 

1.6 

1.4 

1.2 

1.0 

.7 


5.8 
5.9 
6.5 
5.1 
4.4 
4.4 
5.2 
6.2 
6.6 
5.6 
6.0 
8.6 


5.5 
6.0 
.5.5 
6.2 
5.5 
8.3 
7.4 
6.6 
7.2 
6.6 
7.4 
6.0 


.50.5 
61.3 
59.3 
61.7 
54.5 
52.8 
56.7 
57.6 
.58. 5 
54.7 
.56.9 
60.9 


146.5 
155. 6 
169.9 
176.3 
179.3 
166.5 
165.9 
168.9 
183.1 
190.3 
190.4 
190.6 


27.6 
29. 1 


March 


31. ,5 


April 


27.0 


May 


29.2 


June 


25.8 


July 


25.1 


August 


26.8 


September. 


28.5 


October 


30.2 


November 


32.7 


December 


32.2 






January to March 

April to June 


.6 
.7 
.5 
.7 
.6 


.7 
.6 
.5 
.7 
.7 


1.0 
1.0 
1.4 
. 1.0 
1.1 


6.1 
4.6 
6.0 
6.7 
5.9 


5.7 
6.6 
7.1 
6.7 
6.5 


56.9 
56.3 
57.6 
57.5 
57.1 


157.4 
174.1 
172.5 
190.4 
173.7 


29.4 
27.4 


July to September 

October to December 

January to December 


26.8 
31.7 
28.8 


TOT.M., GROUPS I-IV ' 

382 cities, total population, 
51,283,770: 
January . 


6.5 

6.8 
7.1 
7.2 
7.9 
9.5 
8.6 
8.7 
8.5 
9.8 
6.9 
9.3 


7.9 
6.3 
7.0 
7.9 
6.0 
6.6 
4.7 
5.4 
6.9 
6.2 
7.9 
8.8 


10.5 
13.5 
12.8 
12.5 
13.2 
13.4 
14.1 
14.4 
13.0 
14.5 
14.0 
12.2 


91.1 
96.0 
91.0 
79.8 
77.2 
75.4 
71.5 
75.3 
77.2 
82.0 
94.6 
107.6 


56.9 
60.3 
64.9 
71.5 
71.6 
79.1 
76.1 
80.1 
78.9 
75.4 
67.9 
70.3 


414.3 
470.4 
463.8 
455.9 
426.4 
403.4 
419.4 
431.2 
427.8 
418.0 
452.7 
473.3 


1,012.4 
1,104.1 
1,157.1 
1,175.8 
1,169.2 
1,137.1 
1.1,57.5 
1, 186.7 
1, 190.3 
1,270.5 
1,265.7 
1,230.4 


256.2 


February 


276. 9 


March 


277.8 


April 


2fa. 1 


May 


260. 3 


June 


254. 5 


July 


241.9 


.\ugust 


250. 7 


Sei)tomber - 


267. 9 


October 


292.0 


November 


306.2 


December 


304.6 






January to March 

April to June 


6.8 
8.2 
8.6 
8.7 
8.1 


7.1 
6.8 
5.7 
7.7 
6.8 


12.2 
13.0 
13.8 
13.6 
13.2 


92.6 
77.5 
74.6 
94.7 
84.9 


60.7 
74.0 
78.3 
71.2 
71.1 


449.0 
428.5 
426.1 
447.9 
437.9 


1,090.9 
1.160.8 
1,178.0 
1,255. < 
1,171.5 


270.2 
261.0 


.Inly to September 

October to December 

■lanuary to December 


253.3 
300.9 
271.4 



' Daily averages for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports a,s fr)Ilows: Group I, 35 cities, total 
population, 28, .389,889; Groups I-IV, 381 cities, total population, 49,779,493. Daily averages for burglary 
and larceny are based on reports as follows: Group I, 34 cities, total population, 20,,507,837; Groups I-IV, 
.380 cities, total population, 41,897,441. 



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167 

I^ABLE 78." — Mojithbj trends, offenses known to the police, January to December, in- 
clusive, 1940, 382 cities over 26,000 in ■population, by geographic divisions 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 




Geographic division and 
month 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


NEW ENGLAND 

.'■)4 cities over 25,000; total 
population, 4,380,313: 
January 


0.2 
. 1 
(>) 
. 1 
.1 
.1 
.2 
.1 
.2 
.2 
.2 
.2 


0.6 
.3 
.3 
.4 
.3 
.3 
.2 
.2 
. 1 
.2 
.8 
.5 


0.6 

.7 
1.0 

.5 
1.0 
1. 1 

.8 

.9 
1.1 

.8 
1.0 

.5 


2.2 
3.0 

2.8 
2.0 
2.1 
1.7 
2.3 
1.8 
2.0 
1.9 
2.2 
1.9 


1.5 
1.9 
1.5 
1.3 
1.4 
1.6 
1.5 
1.4 
1.5 
1.5 
.9 
1.3 


32.8 
37.6 
36.8 
40.4 
34.4 
34.2 
34.6 
35.8 
35.4 
33.4 
30.6 
32.5 


60.0 
56.7 
65. 2 
74.8 
83.7 
77.0 
75.9 
74.1 
79.0 
84.4 
81.0 
75.4 


24 5 


February 


23 5 


March . . . 


26 4 


April 


27 1 


May 


25 1 


June ... 


25 7 


July 


21 7 


August . 


20 3 


September 

October. 


26.7 
25 9 


November 

December 


26.5 
26.7 


January to March 

April to June 

July to September 

October to December 

January to December.... 


.1 
.1 
.1 
.2 
.1 


.4 
.3 
.2 
.5 
.3 


.8 
.8 
.9 
.8 
.8 


2.7 
2.0 
2.0 
2.0 
2.2 


1.6 
1.5 
1.5 
1.2 
1.4 


35.7 
36.3 
35.3 
32.2 
34.9 


60.7 
78.5 
76.3 
80.2 
74.0 


24.8 
26.0 
22.8 
26.4 
25.0 


MIDDLE ATLANTIC 2 

72 cities over 25,000; total 
population, 15,450,932: 
January.. ..... 


.9 
1.4 
1.1 
1.1 
1.5 
1.5 
1.8 
1.6 
1.6 
1.7 
1.2 
1.5 


3.1 
3.1 
3.3 
4.5 
3.2 
3.2 
2.3 
2.8 
.3.6 
2.5 
3.3 
2.9 


3.4 
5.9 
4.3 
4.6 
4.1 
4.1 
4.7 
3.7 
3.7 
5.3 
5.1 
4.2 


12.3 
14.6 
14.3 
11.7 
12.2 
10.2 
9.0 
11.2 
10.7 
10.9 
13.0 
13.7 


12.7 
14.1 
11.3 
13.9 
16.4 
15.3 
16.8 
16.6 
17.4 
14.9 
12.8 
12.5 


41.5 
48.3 
52.4 
53.2 
51.7 
44.7 
47.6 
49.7 
45.3 
48.6 
54.4 
53.5 


72.9 
72.1 
77.0 
85.9 
94.6 
88.8 
91.9 
88.4 
87.3 
101.7 
95.7 
93.0 


63 


February 


63 8 


March 


67 6 


April 


63 6 


May 


62 5 


June 


65 6 


July.... 


61 3 


August 


60 5 


September.. 


68 1 


October 


73 7 


November 

December 


80.3 
83 2 






January to March 

April to June 

July to September 

October to December 

January to December 


1.1 
1.4 
1.7 
1.4 
1.4 


3.2 
3.6 
2.9 
2.9 
3.2 


4.5 
4.3 

- 4.1 
4.8 
4.4 


13.7 
11.4 
10.3 
12.5 
12.0 


12.7 
15.2 
16.9 
13.4 
14.6 


47.4 
49.9 
47.6 
52.2 
49.3 


74. 1 
89.8 
89.2 
96.8 
87.5 


64.8 
63.9 
63.3 
79.1 
67.8 


EAST NORTH CENTRAL 

99 cities over 25,000; total 
population, 13,050,945: 
January 


1.3 
1.4 
1.7 
1.6 
1.4 
2.5 
1.6 
1.9 
1.5 
1.8 
1.4 
1.7 


1.5 

1.1 

1.1 

1.0 

.9 

1.0 

.9 

.6 

.9 

1.1 

1.2 

1.4 


3.0 
2.8 
2.6 
2.7 
3.5 
3.7 
3.5 
4.2 
3.6 
3.6 
3.6 
3.6 


33.9 
35.7 
33.4 
29.7 
31.3 
30.0 
29.7 
31.8 
31.4 
35.3 
39.6 
44.3 


10.0 
10.8 
10.9 
13.9 
13.4 
13.7 
14.0 
15.5 
13.8 
14.6 
10.9 
13.6 


107.8 
123.3 
130.0 
133.9 
125.7 
120.0 
119.7 
120.3 
119.1 
119.5 
131.5 
139.3 


259. 3 
286.4 
315. 1 
356. 3 
363.1 
363.8 
358.9 
374.2 
372.0 
414.8 
364.8 
346.4 


49 6 


February... 


54 4 


March 


57 2 


April 


55 7 


May 


.59 4 


June 


53 3 


July.. 

August 


49. 8 
53 


September 


51 1 


October . . . 


60 2 


November 

December 


58.9 
58.4 


January to March 

April to June 


1.5 
1.8 
1.7 
1.6 
1.7 


1.2 
1.0 
.8 
1.2 
1.1 


2.8 
3.3 
3.7 
3.6 
3.4 


34.3 
30.5 
30.9 
39.7 
33.9 


10.6 
13.7 
14.4 
13.1 
12.9 


120.3 
126.5 
119.7 
130.1 
124.2 


286.9 
361.1 
368.3 
375. 4 
348.1 


53.7 
56 2 


July to Sc|>tember 

October to December 

January to December.... 


51.3 
59.2 
55.1 



See footnotes at end of table. 



294316°— 41- 



168 



Table 78. — Monthly trends, offenses known to the police, Jantmry to December, in- 
clusive, 1940, 382 cities over 25,000 in population, by geographic divisions — Con. 



Geographic division and 
month 



WEST NORTH CENTRAL 

28 cities over 25,000; total 
population, 3,624,359: 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January to March 

April to June 

July to September 

October to December 

January to December... 

SOUTH ATLANTIC 3 

44 cities over 25,000; total 
population, 4,496,808: 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January to March 

April to June 

July to September 

October to December.. 
January to December... 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL 

18 cities over 25,000; total 
population, 1,838,946: 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

Decern her 

January to March 

April to June . 

July to September 

October to December... 
January to December. . 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



0.3 
.3 

.4 
.3 
.4 
.4 
.5 
.5 
.2 
.4 
.2 
.4 



.3 

.4 
.4 
.3 
.4 



1.3 

1.5 
1.8 
1.6 
2.0 
2.2 
1.9 
1.6 
1.9 
2.7 
1.9 
2.7 



1.5 
1.9 
1.8 
2.5 
1.9 



.9 

.7 

.7 

.9 

1.3 

1.4 

1.1 

1.2 

1.5 

1.0 

.8 

1.2 



1.2 
1.2 
1.0 

1. 1 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



.3 
.2 
.2 
.3 
.2 



.7 
.6 
.7 
. 7 
.5 
.6 
.3 
.4 
.5 
.4 
.6 
1.0 



.7 
.6 
.4 
.7 
.6 



Rape 



0.3 

.8 
.6 
.4 
.8 
.6 
.6 
.6 



1.0 
.9 
1.3 
1.0 
1.1 
1.3 
1.5 
1.4 
.8 
1.2 
1.1 
1.1 



1.0 
1.1 
1.2 
1.1 
1.1 



Rob- 
bery 



4.2 
5.2 
5.3 
4.4 
4.8 
4.7 
4.1 
3.7 
3.7 
4.1 
5.1 
4.9 



4.9 
4.7 
3.8 
4.7 
4.5 



11.7 

11.8 

11.8 

10.0 

7. 7 

7.1 

8.0 

8.6 

9.5 

9.0 

10.7 

14.2 



11.8 

8.3 

8.7 

11.3 

10.0 



6.5 
5.8 
5.4 
5.6 
4.3 
4.2 
3.3 
3.4 
4.3 
4.4 
5.6 
6.0 



5.9 
4.7 
3.7 
5.3 
4.9 



Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 



0.9 
1.3 
1.4 
2.0 
1.8 
1.8 
1.5 
1.2 
1.2 
1.7 
.9 
2.6 



1.2 
1.9 
1.3 
1.7 
1.5 



13.4 
12.9 
15.2 
17.4 
16.2 
18.6 
17.4 
17.7 
18.7 
18.2 
16.9 
18.1 



13.8 
17.4 
17.9 
17.7 
16.7 



7.3 
9.2 
13.2 
10.8 
11.8 
14.0 
12.0 
15.8 
13.9 
13.2 
13.4 
10.8 



9.9 
12.2 
13.9 
12.4 
12.1 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



20.5 
30.1 
30.6 
29.8 
28.8 
26.3 
24.7 
30.1 
28.9 
29.6 
28.9 
31.6 



27.0 
28.3 
27.9 
30.1 
28.3 



55.5 
70.5 
58.5 
54.2 
52.5 
49.7 
51.7 
54.5 
54.5 
52.7 
59.1 
60.8 



61.3 

52.2 
53.6 
57.5 
56.1 



25.8 
30.9 
31.9 
28.1 
26.3 
25.0 
27.5 
27.7 
32.3 
27.3 
30.7 
31.4 



29.5 

26.4 
29.1 
29.8 
28.7 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



71.3 

94.8, 
100.7 
108.0 
110.5 
100.1 

98.5 
101.7 
106.1 
110.4 
103.1 

97.8 



106.3 
102.1 
103.8 
100.2 



143.6 
166.6 
164.7 
154.3 
142.4 
139.1 
141.6 
147.2 
150.1 
155.3 
180.9 
183.2 



158.1 
145.3 
146.3 
173.0 
155.7 



44.5 
58.9 
64.6 
54.1 
53.2 
53. 1 
52.9 
51.6 
55.0 
56.1 
61.4 
62.2 



56.0 
53.5 
53.2 
59.9 
55.6 



See footnotes at end of table. 



169 

Table 78.- — Monthly trends, offenses known to the police, January to December, in- 
clusive, 1940, S82 cities over 25,000 in population, by geographic divisions- — Con. 



tieopraphif divisioii and 
month 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 



Bur- 
glary- 
break - 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



Auto 
theft 



WEST SOUTH CENTRAL 

25 citios over 25,000; total 
population. 2,889,823: 

January 

. February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January to March 

April to June 

July to September 

October to December... 
January to December- _ 

MOUNTAIN 

11 cities over 25,000; total 
population, 835,805: 

January 

February 

March 

April.- 

May 

June. 

July 

August... 

September 

October. 

November 

December 

January to March 

April to June 

July to September 

October to December... 
January to December. . 

PACIFIC ' 

31 cities over 25,(XHJ; total 
population, 4, 715, 839: 

January 

February 

March 

April.. 

May 

June 

July 

AuRust 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January to March 

April to June 

July to September 

October to December.... 
January to December... 



1.0 
.9 
.7 
.7 
.9 
.9 

1.1 
.9 

1.0 

1.0 
.8 
.8 



.9 
.9 
1.0 
.9 
.9 



(0 



0.5 
.2 
.1 
.3 
.2 
.3 
.2 
.2 
.3 
.5 
.4 
.5 



0.4 
.8 
.5 
.9 
.7 
.9 
.7 

1.0 
.5 
.5 
.6 
.5 



5.8 
6.6 
4.8 
3.5 
3.9 
5.0 
3.1 
2.9 
3.8 
3.3 
4.3 
5.9 



5.7 
6.0 
6.8 
8.1 
6.1 
8.2 
8.0 
8.1 
7.5 
7.2 
7.8 
6.5 



35.3 
38.9 
37.2 
37.1 
35.6 
32.8 
34.2 
32.5 
29.0 
27.3 
27.8 
33.1 



.3 
.3 
.2 
.5 
.3 



5.7 
4.1 
3.3 

4.5 
4.4 



6.2 

7.4 
7.9 
7.2 
7.2 



37.1 
35.1 
31.9 
29.4 
33.4 



(') 
(') 



.1 
.1 
.1 



(') 



.1 
.1 
.1 
.3 
.3 



(0 



.2 
.2 
.1 
.1 
.2 
,1 

.3 
.1 
,1 
,1 



.9 
1.2 

.9 
1.6 

.8 
1.1 
1.5 
2.3 
1.7 
1.0 
1.5 
1.9 



9.3 

8.3 

7.8 

9.1 

7.0 

7.9 

9.7 

11.7 

10. 5 

9.7 

9.6 

11.0 



. 1 
.1 
.1 
.2 
.1 



1.0 
1.1 
1.8 
1.5 
1.4 



8.5 

8.0 

10.6 

10.1 

9.3 



.7 
.3 
.5 
.4 
.4 
.5 
.3 
.4 
.7 
.6 
.7 
1.2 



1.4 
1.4 
2.1 
1.8 
1.5 
1.3 
1.6 
1.7 
1.6 
1.7 
1.6 
1.3 



.5 
.4 
.4 
.8 
.5 



1.6 

1.5 
1.7 
1.5 
1.6 



13.5 
12.3 
12.4 
11.2 
10.1 
11.3 
10.5 
9.6 
10.2 
12.2 
12.7 
14.8 



4.8 
3.6 
4.3 
3.8 
4.4 
5.4 
4.1 
3.4 
4.4 
4.0 
3.7 
4.4 



85.7 
82.6 
78.5 
70.0 
64.4 
62.9 
69.7 
68.9 
72.8 
69.8 
80.2 
79.9 



12.7 
10.9 
10.1 
13.2 
11.7 



4.3 
4.5 
4.0 
4.0 
4.2 



82.3 
65.7 
70.4 
76.6 
73.8 



124.3 
136.1 
130.9 
120.7 
104.8 

99.9 
100. 1 
101.8 

97.7 
108.2 
123.9 
133.5 



130.3 
108.4 
99.9 
121.8 
115.1 



31.1 
36.0 
,37.2 
36. 
38.3 
32.2 
35.6 
35.7 
33.6 
37.3 
39.1 
37.3 



34.7 
35.5 
35.0 
37.8 
35.8 



205.4 
196.3 
201.7 
185.7 
178.6 
183.1 
202.0 
212.0 
209.6 
202.5 
215.9 
201.8 



201.2 
182.4 
207.8 
206.6 
199.6 



14.6 
15.0 
14.1 
12.3 
12.8 
11.6 
13.7 
11.4 
11.8 
13.8 
15.2 
18.0 



14.6 
12.2 
12.3 
15.7 
13.7 



5.5 
4.9 
4.0 
5.7 
6.9 
4.4 
4.4 
4.8 
.=). 5 
4.9 
5.4 
5.1 



4.8 
5.7 
4.9 
5.1 
5.1 



50. I 
51.4 
50. 3 
47. 5 
44. (•) 
44.3 
43.9 
47.4 
48.2 
52.7 
53.7 
51.3 



50.6 
45.5 
46.5 
52. 5 
48.8 



' Less than 0.1. 

- Burglary and larceny— theft figures are based on reports from 70 cities with a total iiopulation of 
6,064.603. ' ' 

' Includes reports from District of Columbia. 

' .Manslaughter by negligence figures are based on reports from 30 cities with a total population of 
3,211,562. 



170 

Average Yearly Number of Offenses Known to the Police, 1931-40. 

The past 5 years have seen increases in offenses of rape, other 
felonious assaults, and larcenies, while substantial decreases were 
experienced in offenses of criminal homicide, robbery, burglary, and 
auto theft. 

Of the increases, rape was the most substantial. The average yearly 
number of offenses of this type committed during the past 5 years 
was 35.9 percent larger than the corresponding figure for 1931-35. 
Larcenies continued to show a steady increase, and in examining the 
average yearly number of offenses committed during 1936-40 an in- 
crease of 11.4 percent was seen over the preceding 5 years. The 
increase in aggravated assaults was slight, amounting to 1.5 percent. 

The average annual murder figure during the past 5 years was 15.2 
percent lower than the corresponding figure for the 5-year period 
1931-35. Negligent manslaughters, too, showed a decrease of 14.6 
percent. 

Except for the increase in larcenies, property crimes showed 
significant decreases as follows: Auto theft, 35.3 percent; robbery, 
26.8 percent; and burglary, 9.5 percent. 

The preceding statements are based on data presented in table 79 
which includes average annual figures for two 5-year periods, 1931-35, 
1936-40, based on reports received from 219 cities with population 
in excess of 25,000. In addition the figures are presented for nine 
subgroups, the cities being divided by location. 

In evaluating the figures in table 79, reference should also be made 
to table 91 which presents figures representing the estimated number 
of major crimes in the United States during 1939 and 1940. Table 
91 reflects increases during 1940 in all offense classes except robbery 
and auto theft, and a similar upward trend was reflected during 
1939 as compared with 1938. In other words, although the yearly 
average number of crimes during 1936-40 was in many instances 
considerably below the yearly average during 1931-35, there is 
definite evidence of an upward trend during 1939 and 1940 which is 
particularly noticeable in offenses of rape, burglary, and larceny. 
Robbery and auto theft figures, however, continue to decline. 



171 



Table 79. — Average yearly number of offenses known to the police, for the periods 
1931-35 and 1936-.',0; cities over 25,000 in population, by geographic division 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Criminal homicide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Qeographie division 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by neg- 
ligence 


Auto 
theft 


NEW ENGLAND 


















32 cities, total population, 
3,281,694: 
Yearly average: 1931-35.. 
Yearly average: 193(5-40. . 
Percent change 


49 

38 

-22.4 


123 

99 

-19.5 


222 
235 

+5.9 


973 

691 

-29.0 


601 

476 

-20.8 


10,015 
9, 233 

-7.8 


20,168 

18, 681 

-7.4 


11,303 

7,720 

-31.7 


MIDDLE ATLANTIC 


















35 cities, total population, 
5,449,163: 
Yearly average: 1931-35-. 
Yearly average: 1936-40.. 
Percent change 


243 

190 
—21.8 


485 

247 

-49. 1 


343 

398 

+ 16.0 


2, 152 

1,638 

-23.9 


2,708 

2, 093 

-22.7 


14, 557 
10,613 

-27. 1 


21, 995 

22, 776 
+3.6 


11,137 
8,788 
-21. 1 


EAST NORTH CENTRAL 


















69 cities, total population, 
7,624,214: 
Yearly average: 1931-35. . 
Yearly average: 1936-40-. 
Percent change 


463 

357 

—22.9 


263 

264 

+0.4 


564 

885 

+56. 9 


7,824 

6,099 

-22.0 


3,267 
3,014 

-7.7 


25, 938 

26, 981 

+4.0 


78, 432 
84, 142 

+7.3 


23, 355 
15, 630 
-33. 1 


WEST NORTH CENTRAL 


















16 cities, total population, 

2,652,339: 

Yearlv average: 1931-35.. 

Yearly average: 1936-40- . 

Percent change 


183 

111 

-39.3 


51 

67 

+31.4 


138 

1.52 

+ 10. 1 


3,044 

1,326 

-.56.4 


753 

450 

-40.2 


9,437 

7,198 

-23.7 


21, 392 
25, 39(1 

+ 18.7 


11.397 

4,994 

-55.3 


SOUTH ATLANTIC 


















18 cities, total population, 
3,003,349: 
Yearlv average: 1931-35- 
Yearly average: 1936-40-. 
Percent change 


369 
393 

-+-6.5 


136 

112 

-17.6 


161 
254 

+.57. 8 


2,429 
2,593 

+6.8 


2,663 

3,718 

+39. 6 


12, 157 

12, 847 

+.5.7 


26, 352 
33, 097 

+25. 6 


10, 761 

7. 942 

-26.2 


EAST SOUTH CENTRAL 


















5 cities, total population, 
882,086: 

Yearly average: 1931-35 
Yearly average: 1936-40 . 
Percen t change 


226 

195 

-1.3.7 


87 

94 

+K. 


^ 33 

54 
+63.6 


1,048 

897 

-14.4 


1,611 

1,428 

-11.4 


5,631 
5, 344 

-.5. 1 


7,350 
9,390 

+27.8 


3, 673 

2, 391 

-34.9 


WEST SOUTH CENTRAL 


















15 cities, total population, 
1,998,727: 
Yearly average: 1931-35.. 
Yearly average: 1936-40- 
Percent change 


289 

256 

-11.4 


90 
97 

+7.8 


107 

139 

+29.9 


1,859 

1,173 

-36. 9 


1,170 

1,682 

+43.8 


9,178 

7,602 

-17.2 


18,914 
22,395 
+18.4 


8,406 

3.689 

-56.1 


MOUNTAIN 


















8 cities, total population, 
707,180: 
Yearly average: 1931-35.. 
Yearly average: 1936-40.. 
Percent change 


















37 

31 

-16.2 


12 

21 

+75. 


29 

45 
+.55. 2 


937 

392 

-58.2 


131 
130 

-.7 


4,496 

2,878 

-36. 


6,998 

8,085 

+15. 5 


3,007 

1.769 

-41.2 


PACIFIC 


















21 cities, total population, 
2,579,573: 
Yearly average: 1931-35.. 
Yearly average: 1936-40.. 
Percent change 


91 

81 

-11.0 


137 

183 

+33. 6 


134 
190 

+41.8 


2.573 

1,916 

-2.5. 5 


693 

806 

+16.3 


13,981 

12. 728 

-9.0 


31. 461 
3.5, 741 
+ 13.6 


12, 237 

8,689 

-29.0 


TOTAL 


















219 cities, total population, 
28,178,325: 

Yearly average: 1931-35.. 
Yearly average: 1936-40.- 
Percent change 


















1,948 

1.6.52 

-15.2 


1,385 

1, 183 

-14.6 


1,731 

2,352 
+35. 9 


22,839 
16, 725 
-26.8 


13, 597 
13, 797 

+ 1.5 


105. 391 

95, 424 

-9.5 


233,061 

2.59, 697 
+ 11.4 


95, 276 
61,611 
-35. 3 



172 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location. 

The frequency with which crimes are committed varies among the 
several States and larger geographic divisions. This is more noticeable 
in some types of crimes than in others. For example, the burglary, 
larceny, and auto theft rates for cities in the Pacific States are some- 
what higher than those in some of the other States. 

Murder and felonious assault rates, on the other hand, are highest 
in the South Atlantic, East South Central, and West South Central 
States. 

To the student of criminal statistics the irregular distribution of 
crimes among the various portions of the country is not surprising, 
as it is well-recognized that the frequency of crimes, as well as other 
social phenomena, including births, deaths, diseases, marriages, di- 
vorces, automobile accidents, et cetera, is affected by a large variety 
of factors. 

For a discussion of some of the factors affecting the extent of crime, 
reference may be made to the text preceding table 83. 

In order that local officials and other interested individuals may 
compare the local crime data with State and regional averages, such 
figures are presented in tables 81 and 82. The number of cities used 
in preparing the crime rates reflected in those tables is shown in table 
80. 

The States represented in each geographic division in table 82 are 
of course the same as indicated in table 81. The population groups 
shown in table 82 are the same as those shown in table 76, but are set 
out here again for convenience: 

Group I. Over 250,000 inhabitants. 

Group II. 100,000 to 250,000 inhabitants. 

Group III. 50,000 to 100,000 inhabitants. 

Group IV. 25,000 to 50,000 inhabitants. 

Group V. 10,000 to 25,000 inhabitants. 

Group VI. Under 10,000 inhabitants. 



173 



Table 80. — Number of cities in each State inchided in the tabulation of uniform 
crime reports, January to December, inclusive, 19^0 



Division and State 



Population 



Over 

250,000 



100,000 

to 
250,000 



50,000 

to 
100,000 



2.';,ooo ! 10,000 



to 
50,000 



to 
25,000 



Less 
than 
10,000 



Total 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New Encland: 178 cities; total population, 
5,797,600 

Middle Atlantic: 488 cities; total population, 
19,001,711 - _ _. 

East North Central: 492 cities; total popula- 
tion, lfi.271,722 

West North Central: 243 cities; total popula- 
tion, 5,324,328 

South Atlantic: ' 158 cities; total population, 
5,465,573 

East South Central: 70 cities; total popula- 
tion, 2,294,258 

West South Central: 108 cities; total popula- 
tion, 3,640,172 

Mountain: 84 cities; total population, 1,436,- 
889 

Pacific: 180 cities; total population, 5,896,633-. 

New England: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont- 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island ^ 

Connecticut 

Middle Atlantic: 

Xew York - 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania- 

East North Central: 

Ohio .-. _--. 

Indiana 

Illinois--. 

Michigan. 

Wisconsin 

West North Centra): 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansiis 

South Atlantic: 

District of Columbia 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina- 

South Carolina.. 

Oeorgia 

Flori<la 

East South Central: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama -. 

Mississippi 

West South Central: 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma - 

Texas. - - 

Mountain: 

Montana 

Idaho 

Wyoming , 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Pacific: 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



10 

11 

10 

5 

7 

3 

3 

1 
5 



13 
21 
23 

8 
16 

4 



29 

34 

58 

11 

18 

8 

10 

7 
16 



1 
2 

6 

5 

10 

4 
4 

7 
6 
2 



2 

2 

1 

12 

6 
6 

1(1 
13 
11 

14 
10 
14 
K 
12 

1 

6 
1 
1 
1 



3 

1 

12 



66 

128 

no 

61 

39 

19 

31 

23 
39 



7 
4 
1 
41 
6 
7 

47 
31 
50 

28 
14 
33 
20 
15 

10 
7 

14 
3 
5 
7 

15 



4 
6 
4 
11 
4 
4 
6 

5 
3 
3 

8 

3 

3 

11 

14 

2 
6 
4 
5 
3 



2 

1 

8 

2 

29 



58 

288 

283 

154 

75 

33 

52 

50 
110 



5 

9 

27 

3 

6 

102 

69 

117 

74 
36 
88 
52 
33 

48 
36 
16 
6 
6 
16 
26 



3 

5 
17 

8 
14 

6 

7 
15 

II 

10 

9 

3 

12 



10 

6 
10 
3 
13 
2 
7 
5 
4 

18 
16 
76 



178 

488 

492 

243 

158 

70 

108 

84 
180 



18 
12 
11 
96 
17 
24 

172 
123 
193 

128 
68 

144 
89 
63 

62 
54 
35 
10 
12 
25 
45 

1 
4 
12 
32 
16 
34 
13 
17 
29 

23 
18 
16 
13 

17 
14 
32 
45 

10 
17 
7 
21 
6 
9 
9 
5 

32 

20 

128 



' Includes District of Columbia. 



174 




1/0 



o 



Table 81. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, Janu- 
nni to December, inclusive, 1940, by Stales 



Division and State 


Murder, 

nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burglary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 


Lar- 

cenv— 

theft 


Auto 
theft 


GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New Kngland. 


1.2 

3.1 

4.1 

3.1 

15.2 

21.6 

11.4 

3.7 

3.7 


15.5 
26.3 
81.6 
37.7 
72.0 
85.6 
50.9 
46.8 
78.1 


10.5 
31.1 
32.1 
14.1 
135.6 
210.7 
83.5 
19.3 
29.5 


269.3 
1 259. 
326. 5 
267.0 
4;<0. 3 
519. 2 
405. 3 
372. 5 
522. 8 


571.5 
1 471. 
891.7 
912.2 
1,175.7 
1. 009. 4 
1,316.9 
1.429.3 
1, 499. 1 


172. 3 


Middle Atlantic 

Kast N'orth Central 


14.5. 7 
144 


West N'orth Central 


140. 2 


South Atlantic' 


222.6 


Kast South Central 


182.4 


West South Central 


15.5.4 


Mountain 


197. 6 


Pacific . . 


344.2 






New England: 

Maine .. . 




11.6 
7.2 
6.9 

18.4 
8.3 

13.9 

16.3 
37.3 
41.3 

66.8 
63.6 
123.1 
73.6 
10.9 

26.6 
21.3 
61.6 
19.3 
14.3 
21.0 
40.8 

33.1 
46.0 
64.8 
44.4 
51.4 
69.6 
82.8 
92.2 

. 83.3 

120.8 

53.1 

50.0 

65.5 
28.9 
63.4 
53.2 

47.4 
28.4 
33.5 
51.6 
30.0 
71.1 
39.4 
68.4 

50.4 
83.8 
83.0 


9.3 
9.9 


310. 9 
172.1 
195.4 
267. 2 
246. 4 
307. 6 

3 179. 8 

302. 1 

«265.9 

379.2 
406.7 
296.7 
348. 
149. 4 

276. 1 
218. 5 
256. 8 
217. 5 
226.3 
197. 3 
407.9 

319.6 
220.0 
451.7 
.324.9 
467. 2 
524. 
523.8 
622.6 

585. 1 
489.9 
549. 3 
367. 4 

327. 1 
189.3 
509.2 
461.8 

252.7 
400.2 
269.4 
344. 1 
341. 3 
489.4 
459. 3 
401.0 

534.2 
6,54. 2 
507.7 


717. 5 
434.2 
640.4 
527.4 
494.8 
753.2 

3 474. 9 

560.2 

< 404. 3 

1 , 024. 9 
1,006.6 

513. 3 
1,3,59.2 

761. 

749.8 
823.6 
1,074.3 
1,066.7 
1.164.8 
611.4 
1. 076. 4 

1. 083. 3 
544.0 
1, 428. 3 
986.7 
1,129.8 
1, 354. 6 
1.487.4 
1.516.0 

1.23,5.4 
962.3 
780.7 

1.072.8 

1, 101. 4 

595. 

1, 283. 

1, 625. 1 

1, 195. 5 
1,458.6 
1,080.0 
1, 385. 5 
1.759.8 

2. 1.52. 6 
1. i:i9. 3 
1,818.5 

1.367.0 
1,660. 1 
1, .509. 2 


133.0 


New Hampshire 


1.4 


.58.7 


Vermont 


75. 6 


Massachusetts.- -.. 


1.0 
1.3 
2.1 

2.9 
2.6 
3.8 

4.8 
4.0 
5.0 
3.2 
1.3 

1.1 
1.0 
6.5 

.8 
2.3 

.8 
3.0 

1.6 
8.6 
I3.fi 
10.7 
21.5 
16.6 
28.8 
14.6 

15.9 
25.8 
25.6 
14.2 

9.8 
12.6 

8.2 
12.2 

5.2 
2.0 
6.2 
3.1 
3.2 
4.9 
4.5 


9.1 

9.9 

17.2 

28.4 
4.1.3 
30.2 

28.2 
35.1 
36.6 
40.7 
5.6 

11.6 
7.6 

20.5 
6.7 
1.5 

14.5 

15.4 

69.4 
81.2 
171.1 
107.6 
318.2 
203.9 
108.9 
101.9 

128.6 
300.4 
212.7 
132.9 

58.2 
86.9 
56.5 
94.2 

24.5 
8.8 
12.4 
18.3 
34.2 
31.7 
10.7 
42.5 

14.7 
10.3 
34.3 


191.7 


Rhode Island 


116.3 


Connecticut 


186. 


Middle Atlantic: 

New York 


136.8 


New Jcrsev 


157. 5 


Pennsylvania 


158.1 


East North Central: 

Ohio 


146.1 


Indiana 


247.0 


Illinois 


99.7 


Michigan 


187. 6 


Wisconsin . 


90.0 


West North Central: 

Minnesota _ 


140.9 


Iowa _ .. . _ .. 


178. 3 


Missouri _ . 


117.7 


North Dakota 


176.4 


South Dakota 


148. I 


Nebraska 


1.5.3.2 


Kansas 


126. 6 


South Atlantic: 

Delaware 


207.5 


Maryland _ .. . 


263.1 




227.2 


West Virginia 


145. 6 


North Carolina 


171.6 


South Carolina 


187. 3 


Georgia. 


222.8 


Florida 


182.0 


East South Central: 

Kentucky 


262. 


Tennessee.- 


167.0 


Alabama - 


1.57. 4 


Mississippi .. 


73.1 


West South Central: 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 


104.6 
137. 7 


Oklahoma 


1.52. 6 


Texas 


169. 2 


Mountain: 

Montana 


243.9 


Idaho 


188.2 


Wyoming 


140. 3 


Colorado . 


147. 3 


New Mexico 


212. 9 


Arizona 


238.7 


Utah 


237. 1 


Nevada - 


450.5 


Pacific: 

Washington 


3.1 
1.6 
4.1 


256.3 


Oregon 


254. 5 




370.2 







" The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 486 cities with a total population of 9,61.5,:182. 

■ Includes report of District of Columbia. 

3 The rates for burglary an'l larceny are ba.>ie(i on reports of 171 cities. 

* The rates for burglary and larceny are based on reports of 192 cities. 



2941! I r,° II 



176 




177 

Table 82. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, Jan- 
uary to December, inclusive, 1940, by geographic divisiotis and population 
groups 



Geographic division and iiopiilation 
group 



NEW ENGLAND 

(iroup I - 

Cir<iiii> II --- 

(irunpIII -- 

(iroup IV 

(irou]) V 

Group VI --- 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC 

(iroup I 

(iroup II 

Group III -- 

(irouj) IV... 

(iroui) V-. 

(iroup VI 

EAST NORTH CENTRAL 

Group I 

GrouiJ II . - 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI _ 

WEST NORTH CENTRAL 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

SOUTH ATLANTIC 

Group 12.. 

(Jroup II.. 

Group III .- 

Group IV.. 

Group V. 

Group VI 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL 

Group L -. 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group v.. 

Group VI 

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

MOUNTAIN 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III.. 

Group IV... 

Group V 

Group VI 

PACIFIC 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III. 

Group I v. 

Group V 

Group VI 



Murder, 
nonnepli- 
pcnt man- 
slaughter 



1.6 
1.3 
.6 
.7 
1.6 
1.3 



3.9 

1.9 
2.1 
1.1 
1.8 
2.4 



5.9 
3.7 
2.3 
2.2 
2.3 
2.0 



5.2 
2.2 
1.6 
1.1 
1.2 
2.4 



14.6 
18.8 
16.9 
12.1 
13.2 
11.9 



20.2 
29.2 
17.8 
15.9 
22.4 
24.6 



13.2 
10.1 
11.3 
5.8 
9.2 
15.2 



3.1 
3.3 
6.8 
5.7 
2.4 
3.0 



4.5 
4.0 
3.4 
1.5 
3.2 
2.6 



Robbery 



30.4 
17.5 
14.3 
10.1 
7.2 
9.0 



30.1 
21.1 
28.0 
20.6 
17.3 
17.7 



127.7 
59.4 
44.2 
33.6 
31.5 
24.1 



57.9 
42.2 
26.0 
13.4 
21.5 
20.3 



90.7 
93.5 
59.7 
71.9 
24.3 
32.8 



135.1 
81.5 
49. S 
48.3 
M2.0 
31.5 



58.0 
77.4 
42.0 
35.6 
39.6 
21.9 



62.0 
48.7 
92.7 
47.2 
31.1 
26.3 



111. 1 
68.5 
32.2 
44.5 
25.4 
27.4 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



17.1 
15.2 
8.1 
6.6 
5.2 
6.9 



38.0 
20.8 
31.4 
20. r, 
17.9 
15.0 



41.2 
47.3 
30.3 
14.4 
16.2 
14.1 



17.2 

21.2 

6.6 

7.0 

9.6 

13.4 



77.3 
147.6 
204.0 
175. 4 
134.1 
132. 6 



329.2 
169.2 
189.4 
118.7 
90.1 
80.8 



92.0 
92. 1 
103.7 
60.9 
48.6 
66.8 



18.6 
12.0 
31.5 
17.5 
H. 2 
27.0 



39.8 
21.8 
15.8 
16.2 
12.4 
20.7 



Burglary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



165.6 
392.0 
327.8 
250.1 
203.2 
195.9 



1 341. 5 
279. 7 
295. 1 
246. 1 
206.4 
176. 2 



362.9 
401.8 
305. 3 
286.4 
253.9 
222.0 



263.4 
308.1 
351.7 
266.4 
255.0 
195. 



372.8 
609.4 
471.8 
431.9 
296.6 
321.9 



709.9 
396.2 
529. 7 
429.1 
319. 2 
290.4 



392.3 

574.9 
•116. 5 
328.0 
353. 5 
313.1 



353.6 
506.2 
487. 3 
380. 3 
327.4 
319.0 



615.7 
505.7 
452. 1 
491.6 
316.7 
330.7 



Lar- 

wny— 

theft 



375.4 

780.8 
672.1 
i94.7 
464.0 
327.5 



I 521. 1 
525. t) 
536.8 
532.7 
407.8 
327.0 



988.7 
, 108. 
918.5 
878.9 
663.6 
427.3 



1, 030. 4 
885.3 

1,184.6 
903.5 
900.3 
473.8 



962.7 

1, 648. 5 

1,414.9 

1, 295. 8 

811.0 

667. 5 



1,191. 1 
958. 9 
926. 6 

1, 244. 5 
759.2 
382. 6 



1, 424. 2 

1 



673.3 

1.4,')7. .'i 

1.266.9 

899. 1 

570. 7 



1, 340. 5 
1.165.8 
1.609.2 

2, 086. 
1.554.9 

851.8 



1.518.1 
1,608.8 
1..518.8 
1.6.'3.0 
1,3:8.6 
1, 259. 7 



Auto 
theft 



358.3 

219. 6 

149. 3 

102.5 

(JO. 9 

54.2 



166.6 
154.4 
1.55. 4 
115.3 
91.7 
66.3 



142. 
214. 
155. 
156. 
114. 



136.2 
i71.7 
234.0 
134.3 
123.3 
78.9 



306.7 
246.9 
160.3 
196.8 
126.3 
117.9 



210.5 
224.5 
155.2 
206. 4 
79.8 
113.4 



180.2 
173.4 
188.1 
120. 1 
96.7 
67.5 



157.3 
2.V2. I 
213.5 
303. 
195. 3 
115.8 



438.6 

280.7 
20.5.7 
276.2 
211.3 
203. & 



' The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 4 cities. 
2 Includes the District of Columbia. 



178 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 25,000 Inhabitants. 

The nimiber of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the calendar year 1940 is shown in table 83. The compilation in- 
cludes the reports received from police departments in cities with 
more than 25,000 inhabitants according to the 1940 decennial census. 
Such data are included here in order that interested individuals and 
organizations may have readily available up-to-date information 
concerning the amount of crime committed in their communities. 
Police administrators and other interested individuals will probably 
find it desirable to compare the crime rates of theh cities with the 
average rates shown in tables 76 and 82 of this publication. Simi- 
larly, they will doubtless desire to make comparisons with the figures 
for their conmiunities for prior periods, in order to determine whether 
there has been an mcrease or a decrease in the amount of crime 
committed. 

A great deal of caution should be exercised in comparing crime data 
for individual cities, because differences in the figures may be due to a 
variety of factors. The amount of crime committed in a community 
is not solely chargeable to the police but is rather a charge against 
the entire community. The following is a list of some of the factors 
which might affect the amount of crime in a community: 

The composition of the population with reference particularly 
to age, sex, and race. 

The economic status and activities of the population. 

Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 

The number of police employees per unit of population. 

The standards governing appointments to the police force. 

The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 

The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 

The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 
Comparisons between the crime rates of individual cities should 
not be made without giving consideration to the above-mentioned 
factors. It is more important to determine whether the figures for a 
given community show increases or decreases in the amount of crime 
committed than to ascertain whether the figures are above or below 
those of some other community. 

In examining a compilation of crime figures for individual com- 
munities it should be borne in mind that in view of the fact that the 
data are compiled by different record departments operating under 
separate and distinct administrative systems, it is entirely possible 
that there may be variations in the practices employed in. classifying 
complaints of offenses. On the other hand, the crime-reporting hand- 
book has been distributed to all contributors of crime reports, and the 



179 



figures received are included in this bulletin only if they apparently 
have been compiled in accordance with the provisions of the handbook, 
and the individual department has so indicated. 

Table 83. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1940, cities over 25,000 in population (based on 1940 decennial census) 



City 



Abilene, Tex 

Akron, Ohio 

Alameda, Calif 

Albany, N. Y 

Albuquerque, N. Mex. 



Ale.xandria, La._. 
Alexandria, Va.., 
Alhambra, Calif. 
Aliquippa, Pa. - . 
Allentown, Pa. . . 



Alton, 111 

Altoona, Pa. 

Amarillo, Tex 

Amsterdam, N. Y. 
Anderson, Ind. 



Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Anniston, Ala 

Appleton, Wis 

Arlington, Mass.- 
Arlington, Va 



Asheville, N. C 

Ashland, Ky 

Atlanta, Ga 

Atlantic City, N. J. 
Auburn, N. Y 



Augusta, Qa. 

Aurora, 111 

Austin, Tex 

Balcersfield, Calif. 
Baltimore, Md -.. 



Bangor, Maine 

Baton Rouge, La 

Battle Creek, Mich- 
Bay City, Mich 

Bayonne, N. J. 



Beaumont, Tex 

Belleville, 111 

Belleville, N. J 

Bellingham, Wash. 
Belmont, Mass 



Beloit, Wis 

Belvedere Township, Calif . 

Berkeley, Calif 

Berwyn, 111 

Bethlehem, Pa - 



Beverly, Mass 

Beverly Hills, Calif. 
Binghamton, N. Y_, 
Birmingham, Ala... 
Bloomfleld, N. J... 



Bloominpton, 111 
Boise, Idaho 
Boston, Mass _ 
Bridgeport, Conn 
Bristol, Conn 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



9 

4 

111 

2 

1 

12 



g 
1 

83 



60 



13 
2 
1 



2 
121 

1 
30 
12 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



38 
122 

1 
22 

2 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



110 

1, 058 

50 

236 

137 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



19 

242 

5 

C8 

30 



Only 11 months received 



Under 

$50 



24 


70 


14 




1 


18 


41 


2 


7 


14 


25 


/ 


19 


36 


4 


2 


15 


13 


3 


2 



1 1- 



48 


393 


12 


18 


383 


336 


49 


104 




1 
54 


29 


11 


5 


25 


99 


22 


8 


415 


781 


6 


7 


11 


40 


27 


5 


6 


2 



Only !0 months received 
Only 5 months received 
. I . 85 I 

No reports received 



13 



10 


19 


1 


1 


1 


7 


1 


5 




2 
1 


1 


1 


30 


1 


6 


1 


33 



No reports received 



70 



3 

20 

8 

1 



Only 10 months received 



386 

1,803 
218 
535 
949 



94 


41 


379 


258 


34 


420 


57 


12 


119 


143 


46 


322 


77 


9 


179 


225 


23 


195 


222 


92 


626 


79 


16 


101 


326 


13 


348 


61 


50 


380 



138 



208 


82 


421 


85 


15 


264 


2, 354 


585 


4,806 


351 


190 


979 


13 


23 


214 


423 


24 


713 


76 


32 


161 


515 


48 


1,994 


93 


52 


834 


1,895 


671 


3.697 


55 


22 


250 


145 


44 


373 


222 


8 


501 


123 


15 


528 



129 


10 


331 


56 


15 


141 


84 


2 


149 


111 


12 


171 


43 


8 


158 


66 


7 


354 


247 


25 


221 


268 


26 


891 


97 


8 


121 



2 
22 

1 




46 

177 
122 


14 
88 
18 


149 
352 
284 




4 


170 


665 


1, 698 


297 


2,015 


3 


1 


97 


17 


101 


23 


10 


100 


44 


296 


13 


1 


140 


35 


460 


293 


146 


1. 117 


638 


2.197 


19 


4 


360 


200 


1.3.16 


2 


3 


82 


5 


90 



Auto 
theft 



30 
409 

12 
177 
132 



55 

92 

14 

1,54 

33 

75 
114 

25 
115 

58 



12 



71 

52 

1.047 

263 

36 

63 

47 

135 

170 

2.434 

58 

33 

107 

132 



83 
27 
28 
29 
7 

42 

222 

47 

12 



14 

71 

115 

487 

41 

136 

95 

3. 245 

300 

22 



180 

Table 83. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1940, cities over 25,000 in -population {based on 1940 decennial census) — Con. 



City 



Brockton, Mass__ . 
Brookline, Mass_. 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Burbank, Calif 

Burlington, Iowa_ 



Burlington, Vt 

Butte, Mont 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 



Cedar Rapids, Iowa- 
Central Falls, R. I-.. 

Charleston, S. C 

Charleston, W. Va... 
Charlotte, N. C 



Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chester, Pa 

Chicago. Ill 

Chicopee, Mass 



Cicero, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Clarksburg, W. Va 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Cleveland Heights, OhiO- 



Clifton, N.J 

Clinton, Iowa 

Colorado Springs, Colo- 
Columbia, S. C 



Columbus, Qa 

Columbus, Ohio 

Concord, N. H 

Corpus Christi, Tex.. 
Council Bluffs, Iowa- 



Covington, Ky 

Cranston, R. I 

Cumberland, Md- 

Dallas, Tex 

Danville, 111 



Danville, Va 

Davenport, Iowa- 
Dayton, Ohio 

Dearborn, Mich.- 
Decatur, 111 



Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa- 
Detroit, Mich 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Duluth, Minn 



Durham, N. C 

East Chicago, Ind 

East Cleveland, Ohio. 
Easton, Pa 

East Orange, N. J 



East Providence, R. I. 

East St. Louis, 111 

Eau Claire, Wis 

Elgin, 111 

Elizabeth, N. J 



Elkhart, Ind.. 
Elmira, N. Y. 
El Paso, Tex.. 
Elvria, Ohio,. 
Enid, Okla.... 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



13 
1 



1 

7 

21 

47 

54 

2 

11 

231 



43 



58 



1 
12 

10 
14 



59 



4 

1 

16 



10 

4 

80 



Robbery 



5 
11 
72 



1 
42 
34 
65 
73 

12 

2 

103 

60 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



111 

10 

34 

5,803 



63 

494 

4 

898 
18 

14 
2 
5 

39 

32 

276 

2 

11 

13 

28 

2 

8 

179 

24 

23 
29 
78 
34 
28 

200 

64 

1,887 

4 

17 

36 

36 

5 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



15 
21 
72 
79 



5 289 44 
1 277 89 
134 677 258 
Only 5 months received 
5 26 



88 28 

61 30 

431 56 

281 150 

279 (1) 

75 64 

58 3 

328 108 

211 (1) 

721 237 

555 66 

146 25 

108 33 

10, 939 3, 840 

79 16 

97 30 

2, 173 737 

50 11 

2, 735 249 

162 23 

115 31 

68 37 

85 15 

541 115 

159 52 

2, 426 483 

54 3 

343 105 

150 26 

254 24 

65 37 

110 41 

1, 637 167 

1.36 9 

150 27 

152 12 

748 71 

215 94 

149 44 

1, 140 315 

440 187 

6, 012 1, 105 

47 18 

340 111 



313 
220 
318 

254 

6 

26 

1,500 

3 

2 

209 

10 

112 

1 



1 
91 



27 

82 



55 
3 

31 
1 



261 
18 

68 
2 
29 
22 
20 

60 

34 

1,040 



101 

.58 
1 



456 58 

145 42 

162 8 
Only 5 months received 

430 14 



121 11 

215 57 

52 16 

71 11 
297 71 

80 26 

67 26 

395 34 

72 11 
92 9 



15 


3 


3 


2 


04 


132 


7 




4 


1 


32 


20 


9 


4 


7 


1 


73 


45 


5 




5 


7 



Under 
$50 



372 

325 

1,390 

124 

385 
185 
659 
479 
890 

528 

144 

809 

1,339 

1,766 

1,489 

208 

171 

11,989 

149 

196 

5,493 

128 

10, 999 

276 

128 

114 

661 

1, 015 

678 
3, 700 

117 
1,117 

413 

394 
216 

238 

7,911 

328 

404 

816 

2,686 

1,042 

498 

4,007 

1, 515 

26, 490 

277 

1,144 

613 
262 
224 

174 

208 
420 
304 
183 

588 

494 
311 
1,332 
116 
305 



Auto 
theft 



71 
124 
556 



See footnotes at end of table. 



181 

Table 83. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1940, cities over 25,000 in population (based on 1940 decennial census) — Con. 



City 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligcnt 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Auto 
theft 



Erie, Pa 

Evanston, 111 

Evansville, Ind 
Everett, Mass . 
Everett, Wash.. 



Fall River, Mass... 

Fargo, N. Dak 

Fitchburg, Mass... 

Flint, Mich 

Fond du Lac, Wis. 



Fort Smith, Ark.. 
Fort Wavne, Ind. 
Fort Worth, Tex. 

Fresno, Calif 

Gadsden, Ala 



Galesburg, 111... 
Galvi'ston, Tex. 
Garfield, N. J... 

Garv, Ind 

Glendale, Calif.. 



Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Great Falls, Mont... 

Green Bay, Wis 

Greensboro, N. C 

Greenville, S. C 



Hackensack, N. J.. 
Hagorstown, Md... 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Hammond, Ind 

Hamtramck, Mich. 



Harrisburg, Pa 

Hartford, Conn 

Haverford Township, Pa., 

Haverhill, Mass 

Hazelton, Pa 



Highland Park, Mich. 

High Point, N. C 

Hoboken, N. J... 

Holvoke, Mass 

Honolulu, T. H 



Houston, Tex 

Huntington, W. Va 

Huntington Park, Calif. 

Hutchinson, Kans 

Indianapolis, Ind 



Inglewood, Calif. 
Irvington, N. J.- 
Jackson, Mich... 

Jackson, Miss 

Jacksonville, Fla. 



Jamestown, N. Y 

Jersey City, N. J 

Johnson City, Tenn. 

Johnstown, Pa 

Joliet, 111 



Joplin, Mo .' 

Kalamazoo, Mich... 
Kansas City, Kans. 
Kansas City, Mo... 
Kearny, N. J 



Kenosha, Wis 

Kingston, N. Y.. 
Knoxville, Tenn. 
Kokonio, Ind . . 
La Crosse, Wis .. 



2 
23 

6 
14 



9 

1 

1 

2 

2 

11 

14 



1 
6 

1 

7 

55 
5 



1 
24 



1 
1 

11 
43 



8 
40 



26 



30 
20 
40 



8 

178 

25 

37 



17 
17 

7 
16 
10 
22 
67 

44 
30 
2 
13 
31 



6 

9 

46 



20 
23 
73 



396 

172 

390 

Only 2 months received 

90 



570 
106 
107 
689 
27 



3 


2 


18 


6 


9 


6 


? 




51 


106 


3 


1 


12 


4 


48 


14 


84 


196 


49 


24 


10 


42 


9 


1 



116 
341 
882 
303 
103 



66 

88 
55 



48 
21 
10 
194 
19 

25 
107 
85 
88 
13 



119 
Only 3 months received 



6 

148 

4 

11 

3 

3 

18 

23 

23 

4 

4 

15 

4 

48 

101 

2 

3 

6 



76 
617 
397 

559 
114 
62 
383 
214 

90 

76 

56 

200 

171 

316 
786 
76 
135 
119 



^ 


3 


18 


19 


313 


176 


62 


111 


24 




4 


3 


501 


153 


10 


4 


29 


4 


16 


15 


23 


149 


242 


185 


2 


1 



39 9 432 

18 173 I 117 

Only 8 months received 
212 
1,072 

2,371 
375 
207 
168 

2,580 

183 
236 
160 
280 
1,179 

78 
Complete data not received 



27 
3 
6 



114 
169 
175 



10 

130 

92 

97 
30 
10 
108 
60 

11 
17 
46 
40 
114 

65 

168 

7 

29 

23 

59 
21 

37 
161 

231 
82 
28 
11 

421 

31 
33 
27 

60 
409 

28 

10 
36 
27 



Only 2 months received 



13 


4 


138 


36 


453 


133 


11 




1? 




1 


6 


23 


211 


6 


1 


6 


1 



227 

700 

1,344 

75 

57 

37 

287 

253 

106 



(') 



42 

548 
26 

9 

20 

207 

18 

12 



718 

623 

1,311 

528 

536 
276 
196 
1,821 
120 

542 

1,998 

3,310 

942 

277 

112 

84 

962 

1,342 

2,078 
636 
295 
724 
598 

114 
284 
289 
609 
543 

619 
2,016 
106 
174 
134 

668 
199 

411 
2,084 

6,292 
972 
636 
433 

4,162 

471 

251 

569 

1,201 

2,939 

208 

198 
1.59 
219 



724 
1,217 
3,775 

111 

207 
164 
886 
415 
434 



297 

40 

295 

65 

130 

74 

24 

409 

32 

38 

544 

275 

212 

54 

82 

13 
209 
161 

357 

42 

42 

169 

113 

62 
37 
42 
98 
126 

135 

523 

9 

60 

27 

109 
71 

86 
270 

895 

114 

171 

37 

1,528 

61 
75 

lft3 
73 

303 

46 

29 
97 

71 



91 
1.39 
562 

20 

22 

30 

292 

102 

44 



See footnotes at end of table. 



182 

Table 83. — Number of offenses known to the -police, January to December, inclusive, 
1940, cities over 25,000 in population {based on 1940 decennial census) — Con. 



City 



La Fayette, Ind_. 
Lakewood, Ohio. 

Lancaster, Pa 

Lansing, Mich.-. 
Laredo, Tex 



Lawrence, Mass . 

Lebanon, Pa 

Lewiston, Maine- 
Lexington, Ky__. 
Lima, Ohio 



Lincoln, Nebr 

Little Rock, Ark__. 
Long Beach, Calif. 

Lorain, Ohio 

Los Angeles, Calif 



Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lower Merion Township, Pa_ 

Lubbock, Tex 

Lynchburg, Va 



Lynn, Mass 

Macon, Ga 

Madison, Wis 

Maiden, Mass 

Manchester, N. H_ 

Mansfield, Ohio 

Marion, Ind 

Marion, Ohio 

Mason City, lowa. 
Massillon, Ohio 



May wood. 111 

McKee«port, Pa. 
Medford, Mass. 
Melrose, Mass._. 
Memphis, Tenn_ 



Meriden, Conn 

Meridian, Miss 

Miami, Fla 

Miami Beach, Fla. . 
Michigan City, Ind. 

Middletown, Conn. 
Middletown, Ohio.. 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
Mishawaka, Ind 



Mobile, Ala 

Moline, 111 

Monroe, La 

Montclair, N. J... 
Montgomery, Ala. 



Mount Vernon, N. Y. 
Muncie, Ind 

Muskegon, Mich 

Muskogee, Okla 

Nashua, N. H 



Nashville, Tenn 

New Albany, Ind... 

Newark, N. J.. 

Newark, Ohio 

New Bedford, Mass. 



New Britain, Conn 

New Brunswick, N. J. 

Newburgh, N. Y 

New Castle, Pa 

New Haven, Conn 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



8 
2 
3 

86 

46 



3 

4 

1 
27 



1 
'72' 



1 
32 



3 
11 

7 
1 



•3 

7 
27 

1 
4 
1 
2 



40 

1 

21 



Robbery 



4 
12 
15 

5 
6 

10 
19 
6 
31 
16 

10 

56 

105 

16 

2,169 

405 
8 

17 
9 

10 

34 

54 

9 

19 
1 

21 
4 
5 
1 

12 

12 

3'7 

8 

3 

613 

1 

32 

226 



1 

6 

57 

166 

3 

65 
10 
13 
7 
24 

5 
8 
9 
21 
1 

198 
3 

331 
21 
18 

9 
15 

2 
11 
49 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



2 

2 

15 

8 
31 

1 



1 
152 

7 

2 

60 

26 

11 

684 

531 

2 

7 

22 

41 

14 

193 

3 



9 
10 



3 

1 
13 

2 

86 

3 

1 

1,700 



55 
281 

8 



2 
10 
53 

47 
1 

207 

10 

5 

27 

145 

11 
22 

4 

7 
4 

224 
6 

528 

33 

9 

4 

21 

5 

5 

15 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



90 
131 
125 
184 
163 

169 

32 

91 

301 

186 

73 

332 

1,015 

103 

10, 022 

2,542 
327 
192 
138 
129 

413 
201 
154 
210 
76 

205 
70 
99 
36 
70 

59 

125 

157 

57 

2,004 

96 

206 

1,324 

116 

35 

51 

104 

592 

1,557 

25 

349 
82 
85 
45 

605 

112 
119 
161 
213 
57 

771 

35 

2,596 

80 

657 

216 

180 

80 

91 

719 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



25 
16 
29 
35 
14 

43 

15 

14 

107 

35 

21 

(1) 
247 
25 
4,437 

949 
41 
56 
49 
23 

182 
53 
57 
48 
17 

50 
14 
14 
27 
29 

12 
61 
21 
11 
423 

10 

25 

379 

204 

15 

7 

24 

299 

648 

6 

71 
31 
17 
5 
35 

35 

27 

56 

4 

6 



C) 



5 
450 
33 

77 

23 
19 
25 
26 
255 



Under 
$50 



443 
307 
434 
569 
398 

429 
135 
264 

1, 152 
462 

561 
1. 055 
2, 816 

287 
21. 497 

3,844 
321 
333 
680 
300 

857 
684 
436 
356 
421 

317 
283 
311 
178 
126 

125 

151 

277 

83 

2,949 

156 
285 
1,765 
422 
174 

99 

447 
4,517 
3,076 

144 

308 
262 
293 
56 
510 

184 
353 
569 
469 
139 

1,256 
197 

3,541 
491 

1,000 

330 
268 
184 
155 
1,220 



gee footnotes at end of table. 



183 



Table 83. — Numher of offfrTsrs Icnown to the -police, January to December, inclusive 
1940, cities over 25,000 in population (based on 1940 decennial census) — Con. 



City 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 

$50 



Auto 
theft 



New London, Conn. 

New Orleans, La 

Newport, Ky 
Newport, K. 1 
Newport News, V'a- 



New Roehelle, N. Y. 

Newton, Mass 

New York. N. Y 

Niagara Falls, N. Y.. 
Norfolk, Va 



Norristown, Pa 

North Bergen, N.J. 

Norwalk, Conn 

Norwood , Ohio 

Oakland, Calif. 



Oak Park. Ill 

Ogden. Utah 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha. Nebr 

Orange, N. J 



Orlando, Fla.__. 
Oshkosh, Wis--- 
Ottumwa, lowa. 
Owensboro. Ky. 
Paducah, Ky. .. 



Parkers burg. W. Va. 

Pasadena, Calif 

Passaic, N. J 

Paterson, N. J 

Pawtucket, R. I 



Pensaeola, Fla. 

Peoria, 111 

Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Petersburg, Va 

Philadelphia, Pa 



Phoenix, Ariz... 
Pittsburgh. Pa . 
Pitt-sfield. Mass. 
Plainfield. .V. J. 
Pontiae, Mich. . 



Port Arthur, Tex . . 
Port Iluroii, Mich. 
Portland. Maine... 

Portland, Oreg 

l^ortsniouth, Ohio. 



Portsmouth, Va 

Pouphkeepsie, N. Y. 

Providence, R. I 

Pueblo, Colo 

Quincy, 111. 



Ouincy, Mass. 
iiacine, WLs... 
Raleigh. N. O. 
Reading, Pa. . 
Revere, Mass. 



Richmond, Ind.. 
Richmond, Va... 
Riverside, Calif. . 

Roanoke, Va 

Rochester, Mirm. 



Rochester, N. Y 

Roekford, 111. 

Rock Island, 111 

Rocky Mount, N. C. 
Rome. Ga 



56 
5 



275 

1 

18 



1 

"2 

14 



1 

4 

18 
4 
1 



2 
2 

2 
110 

6 
25 



6 
5 

12 



1 
15 



1 

39 

2 

4 



3 

140 

18 

3 
35 

6 

1 

1.497 

10 

135 

5 

4 

6 

11 

127 

50 
19 
146 
67 
12 

15 



3 
11 
11 

2 
24 
16 
29 
11 

145 
55 



6 

402 

19 

3 
103 

39 

3 

,622 

24 

128 

9 
1 
9 
2 
120 

1 

9 

190 

61 

53 

18 



3 

4 
5 

1 

9 

38 

15 

97 



80 
570 
1.33 
.96 
284 

111 
169 
8.240 
369 
871 

68 

132 

153 

127 

1,430 

269 

197 

1,098 

482 

99 

190 
105 
52 
118 
104 

87 
420 
240 
524 
289 



16 


61 


958 


691 


59 


15 


.550 


323 


2 




3 


2 


21 


12 


^ 


25 


6 


2 


16 


8 


332 


33 


20 


5 


37 


176 


6 


9 


18 


29 ' 


50 


22 ' 


39 


34 


20 




12 


3 


35 


137 


14 


15 


17 


21 


14 


7 


165 


401 


10 


14 


12 


70 


1 




19 


35 


27 


4 


28 


1 


15 


77 


9 


23 



109 150 

50 402 

Ko reports received 

103 

3,592 



371 
2, 985 
108 
136 
228 

50 

88 

476 

2,385 

203 

243 

98 

579 

202 

54 

195 
121 
253 
413 
151 

66 

1,057 

166 

140 

24 

579 

155 

120 

94 

85 



28 

563 

29 

19 

78 

51 
(') 
(') 

54 
206 

20 
15 
14 
13 
173 

60 

32 

132 

87 
12 

49 
21 
H 
19 

18 

18 

139 

35 

52 

45 

125 
45 

22 
1,148 

47 
498 
15 
26 
56 

9 
1 

78 

702 

41 

39 

46 

214 

13 

68 

13 
31 
109 
65 
19 

57 
279 
11 
90 
25 

141 
41 
34 
15 
10 



201 
1,469 
242 
234 
350 

171 

410 

18, 697 

448 

2.058 

66 
160 
333 

140 

4,088 

344 
726 

2,387 
927 
142 

408 

361 

96 

167 

555 

201 
1,457 
311 
252 
595 

470 
726 

498 

2,780 

1,365 

2,114 

186 

232 

458 

291 
352 
808 
4,691 
650 

883 
351 
796 
467 
180 

311 
.•VIS 
792 
596 
244 

186 
.3,566 
373 
674 
212 

2,041 
548 
389 
462 
134 






34 

724 

50 

22 

101 

72 

87 

11.332 

177 

530 

36 
32 
48 
25 

598 

36 
130 
340 
442 

48 

64 
16 
52 
67 
140 

26 
199 
106 
215 
112 

131 
225 

28 
3,297 

186 

2.091 

31 

76 

166 

52 

78 

189 

828 

71 

74 
26 
425 
65 
30 

69 

61 

68 

100 

85 

50 
.5,56 

43 
100 

22 

;J95 
87 
61 
32 
37 



Hfc. footnotes at end of table. 

294316°— 41 5 



184 

Table 83. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1940, cities over 25,000 in population {based on 1940 decennial census) — Con. 



City 



Rome, N. Y 

Royal Oak, Mich. 
Sacramento, Calif. 

Saginaw, Mich 

St. Joseph, Mo 



St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

St. Petersburg, Fla. 

Salem, Mass 

Salem, Oreg 



Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Angelo, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Bernardino, Calif- 
San Diego, Calif 



San Francisco, Calif.. 

San Jose, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif. 
Santa Monica, Calif-. 



Savannah, Ga 

Schenectady, N. Y. 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Sharon, Pa 



Sheboygan, Wis 

Shreveport, La 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 
Somerville, Mass 



South Bend, Ind.. 
South Gate, Calif. 
Spartanburg, S. C- 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, 111 



Springfield, Mass.. 

Springfield, Mo 

Springfield, Ohio... 

Stamford, Conn 

Steubenville, Ohio. 



Stockton, Calif. 
Superior, Wis.. 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
Tacoma, Wash. 
Tampa, Fla 



Taunton, Mass. . . 

Teaneck, N.J 

Terre Haute, Ind. 

Toledo, Ohio 

Topeka, Kans 



Torrineton, Conn. 

Trenton. N.J 

Troy, N. Y 

Tucson, Ariz 

Tulsa, Okla 



Tuscaloosa, Ala 

Tyler, Tex 

Union City, N. J 

University City, Mo- 
Upper Darby, Pa 



Utica, N. Y 

Waco, Tex 

Waltham, Mass. 
Warren, Ohio .. 
Warwick, R. I. . 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



7 
3 
4 

55 
4 
9 



5 
1 
19 
1 
8 

26 

5 



(2) 



1 

1 

22 



16 
1 



Robbery 



5 

11 

o 



1 
13 




10 

168 

25 

26 

421 

116 

19 

14 

6 

73 

6 

196 

59 

74 

574 

18 

2 

9 

39 

54 
5 

17 

259 

4 

1 
35 
26 

2 
22 

49 
9 
11 
87 
41 

10 
10 
23 
6 
28 



4 

7 

21 

3 
12 

1 
29 



Bur- 

Aggra- , glary— 
vated I breaking 
assault I or 

entering 



52 
25 
19 

119 
45 
21 



1 

IS 
18 
475 
21 
36 

339 

15 

3 



38 
10 
35 
64 
3 



120 
3 



(2) 



5 
2 

35 
17 

15 
3 

31 
3 

22 



34 
103 
842 
376 
384 

1.354 
1.000 

436 
89 

165 

759 

56 

1.022 

235 

574 

2.675 
266 
111 
134 
311 

235 

359 

510 

2.667 

43 

41 
325 
290 
105 
512 

487 
182 
119 
734 
281 

339 

265 

216 

98 

136 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



7 


1 


15 


9 


49 


5 


32 


86 


1 


1 


2 


2 


33 


5 


191 


117 


22 


5 



4 

295 

52 

78 



0) 



65 


66 


7 


15 


19 


15 


176 


96 



187 

116 

18 

31 

64 

13 

279 

62 

158 

684 
23 
28 
39 

117 

269 

81 

110 

407 

6 

14 
50 
17 
40 
29 

92 
21 
54 
95 

75 

92 
48 
26 
62 
10 



Under 
$50 



No reports received 
86 
372 

4on 

588 

56 

63 

170 

1,304 

525 



No reports received 

66 673 112 

157 55 

201 83 

1. 034 238 

No reports received 
Onlv 11 months received 
" 1 
3 
2 



3 

132 

3 

13 



128 

192 

2,264 

1,049 

1.051 

9,941 

2,384 

1,029 

278 

736 

1,684 
231 

3,420 
654 

2.332 

6,494 
872 
612 
573 

1,290 

2.117 
445 
597 

4,110 
74 

235 
1,282 
895 
603 
423 

1.182 
489 
335 

2,141 

855 

1.011 
854 
785 
244 
174 



22 


373 


102 


947 


61 


933 


99 


1, 530 


23 


152 


6 


39 


10 


348 


362 


3,318 


39 


1,014 



958 I 

445 I 

1,257 I 

2,620 ■ 



101 


27 


74 


174 


36 


255 


197 


49 


286 


116 


56 


644 


217 


8 


588 


113 


20 


421 


209 


21 


407 


17 


43 


111 



See footnotes at end of table. 



185 

Table 83. — Xumber of offenses knoum to the police, Janunnj to December, inclusive, 
1940, cities over 25,000 in population {based on 1940 decennial census) — Con. 



City 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



AVa;^hington, D. C. 

Washington, Pa 

Watorbury, Conn.. 

Waterloo, Iowa 

Watertown, Mass.. 



Watcrtown, N. Y. 

Waukcgan, 111 

Wausau, Wis 

Wauwatosa, Wis.- 
West Allis, Wis,.. 



West Hartford, Conn.. 

West Haven, Conn 

West Xcw York, N. J.. 

West Orange, N. J 

West Palm Beach, Fla 



Wheeling, W. Va 

White Plains, N. Y. 

Wichita, Kans 

Wichita Falls, Tex.. 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa 



Wilkinsburg, Pa 

Williamsport, Pa 

Wilmington, Del 

Wilmington. N. C 

Winston-Salem, N. C. 



Woodbridge, N. J. 
Woonsocket, R. I. 
Worce.'^ter, Mass.. 
Wyandotte, Mich. 
Yakima, Wash 



Vonkers, N. Y 

York, Pa 

Youngstown, Ohio. 
Zanesville, Ohio 



72 
1 



3 

9 

10 



12 
2 



Robbery 



856 
1 
3 
8 
S 

2 
4 

1 
2 

1 

1 
9 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



29'! 
I 
2 
2 
2 

2 

5 



1 
1 

18 
4 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



,552 

45 

304 

167 

61 

40 
72 
27 
52 
82 

68 
71 



Larceny— theft 



.$50 and 
over 



Only 5 months received 

5,T 

326 



269 
74 
242 
206 
197 

118 
160 
381 
77 
327 

75 
164 
662 

33 
133 



6 


1 1 


16 


27 


10 


4 


4 


5 


14 


15 


13 


48 


21 


13 


16 


16 


10 


i 


41 


83 


34 


154 


13 


304 


5 


1 


3 




30 


27 


6 




5 




6 


18 


12 


1 


192 


138 


•>-> 


1 





229 

94 

782 

218 



786 

14 

55 

28 

5 



27 
10 

13 

81 

45 
49 
68 
32 
55 



10 

117 

26 

26 

11 

16 

149 

17 

48 

30 
19 
76 
46 



Under 
$50 



7,019 

143 

276 

478 

61 



14 


429 


65 


139 


11 


219 


3 


133 


22 


398 



142 
143 

53 
589 

396 

135 

1,132 

1,162 

315 

126 
303 
1,208 
355 
467 

90 

145 

1.062 

165 

794 

359 

381 

1, 242 

405 



Auto 
theft 



.114 

53 

209 

150 

18 

33 
30 
19 
15 
27 

30 
13 

35 
63 

57 
62 
95 
97 
94 

26 
87 
251 
61 
93 

10 

23 

374 

30 

44 

162 
90 

416 
62 



' Larcenies not separately reported. 
2 Complete figures not received. 



Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



186 

Offenses Known to Sheriffs, State Police, and Other Rural Officers, 1940. 

Under the system of uniform crime reporting, urban crimes are 
compiled separately from rural crimes. The figures presented in the 
preceding tables are based on reports received from police depart- 
ments in urban communities (places with 2,500 or more inhabitants). 
Comprehensive data regarding rural crimes are not yet available 
but the information on hand is shown in table 85. 

A percentage distribution of offenses committed in rural places 
during 1940 is generally similar to a percentage distribution of urban 
crimes. The two sets of figures are shown in table 84. 

Tablk 84. — Comparison of average groups of 100 urban crimes and 100 

rural crimes 



Offense 



Total 

Larceny 

Burglary... 
Auto theft. 



Percent 



Urban Rural 



100.0 



59.1 
22.3 
11.1 



100.0 



48.4 

28.7 

9.7 



Offense 



Robbery 

.^.ggravated assault 
Rape 

Murder 

Manslaughter 



Percent 



Urban Rural 



3.4 

2.9 

.6 

.3 

.3 



3.3 
5.6 
2.3 
1. 1 
.9 



The preceding comparison shows that 9.9 percent of the rural 
crimes were offenses against the person (criminal homicide, rape, and 
aggravated assault) while the corresponding urban figure was 4.1 
percent. This does not mean that the total of crimes against the 
person committed in rural areas is greater than in urban communities, 
because the figures in table 84 represent only average groups of 100 
urban crimes and 100 rural crimes. The higher proportion of rural 
crimes against the person may be due to the fact that some of the 
reports representing rural crimes indicate that possibly they were 
limited to instances in which arrests were made. Incompleteness of 
this sort would tend to increase the percentage of rural crimes against 
the person, since such crimes are more often followed by arrests than 
are the less serious offenses against property. 

Table 85. — Offenses known, January to December, inclusive, 1940, as reported by 
1,016 sheriffs, 9 State police organizations, and 66 village officers 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 






Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Offenses known 


1,080 


937 


2.246 


3,331 


5,544 


28,700 


48, 374 


9,660 



187 

Offenses Known in Territories and Possessions of the United States. 

Thero are presented in iiihh 86 the available data concerning crimes 
committed in Territories and possessions of the United States. In- 
cluded are the figures taken from reports received from the first and 
second judicial divisions of Alaska; Honolulu City, and the counties 
of Honolulu and Maui in the Territory of Hawaii; the Isthmus of 
Panama, C. Z. ; and Puerto Rico. The tabulation is based on offenses 
reported by law enforcement officials policing both the urban and 
rural areas, except that the data for Honolulu City have been segre- 
gated from the figures for Honolulu County. 



Table 86. — Number of offenses known in United States Territories and possessions, 

January to December, inclusive, 1940 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Jurisdiction reporting 


Murder, 
noimeg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny-^ 
theft 


Auto 


Over 

$50 


Under 
$50 


theft 


Alaska: 

First judicial division (Juneau), 
population, 25,241; number of of- 
fenses known 

Second judicial division (Nome), 
population, 11,877; number of of- 
fenses known 


1 


1 

18 

3 

6 
62 


11 
■1 

19 
5 

18 

8 

2,190 


29 

18 

1,072 
152 

142 

86 

1,065 


33 
6 

161 
21 
10 
38 

104 


42 
3 

2,084 
250 
233 
559 

3.366 


4 


Hawaii: 

Honolulu City, population, 179,358; 

number of offenses known 

Honolulu County, population, 78,898; 

number of offenses known 


7 

1 

4 

1 

273 


270 
38 


Maui County, population, 55,534; 

number of offenses known 

Isthmus of Panama: Canal Zone, popu- 
lation, 51,827; number of offenses known. 
Puerto Kieo: population, 1,869,255; num- 
ber of oflenses known. 


12 
55 
90 







188 




CO 

O 



189 

Data From Supplement ary Offense Reports. 

Stores, office buildings, warehouses, and other nonresidence struc- 
tures continued, during 1940, to be the places most frequently attacked 
by burglars, particularly during the night. This is evident in analyz- 
ing the reports received from 215 cities with population in excess of 
25,000. The polic(> departments in these cities last year re])orted a 
total of 95,101 burglaries, 54.5 percent of which involved nomcsidcnce 
structures. It was also observed that 91 percent of the nonresidence 
bvu'glaries occurred dm-ing the night as compared with 05.2 percent 
of the biu'glaries involving residences. 

Owners of automobiles and bicycles might do well to note how 
vvdnerable such property is to the attacks of thieves, for the figures of 
last year reflect that 50.9 percent of all the larcenies reported were 
thefts of some type of property from automobiles or thefts of bicycles. 
Thefts of automobile accessories represented 14.2 percent; other thefts 
from automobiles, 18.5 percent; and thefts of bicycles, 18.2 percent 
of the total larcenies. 

As indicated in the text immediately preceding table 76, automobile 
thefts — so important in the crime classification they merit a category 
independent of larcenies in general — represent more than 1 1 percent 
of aU the crimes committed. 

Exclusive of auto thefts, the majority (65.3 percent) of the larceny 
ofl'enses involved property valued from $5 to $50; in 25.3 pc^rcent of 
the cases the property was valued at less than $5; and the property 
was valued in excess of $50 in 9.4 percent of the cases. 

The 215 cities represented in table 87 reported 17,536 robberies, 
the majority (58.4 percent) being classed as highway robberies. 
Gasoline filling stations, chain stores, and other commercial houses 
were the scenes of 34.7 percent of the robberies. 

Of the 2,031 offenses of rape reported, more than half (51.1 percent) 
were classed as forcible rapes, and the remainder as statutory ofl'enses 
(no force used — victim under age of consent). 



190 



Table 87. — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission., and value of property stolen, January to 
December, inclusive, 1940; cities over 25,000 in population, grouped by size 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Number of actual offenses 




Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Total 


Classification 


22 cities, 
over 

250,000: 

population 

14,479,273 


34 cities, 

100,000 

to 250,000: 

population 

4,729,452 


60 cities, 

50,000 
to 100,000: 
population 

4,193,219 


99 cities, 

25,000 

to 50,000; 

population 

3,472,671 


215 cities; 

total 
population 
26,874,615 


Rape: 

Forcible 

Statutory ._ 


622 

561 


179 
211 


155 
119 


82 
102 


1,038 
993 






Total 


1,183 


390 


274 


184 


2,031 






Robbery: 
Hiehwav 


7,551 

3,611 

1,009 

154 

453 

19 

319 


1,281 

290 

178 

39 

74 

1 

62 


928 

245 

192 

50 

80 

1 

HI 


479 

131 

117 

34 

33 

1 

93 


10, 239 


Commercial house 


4,277 


Oil Station . . _ . 


1,496 


Chain store - 


277 


Residence _ - 


640 


Bank 


22 


Miscellaneous-- -- - - 


585 






Total . - 


13,116 


1,925 


■1,607 


888 


17, 536 






Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Residence (dwelling): 

Committed during night 


14, 623 
9,476 

22, 147 
.3, 010 


5,228 
2,276 

10, 984 

579 


4,991 
2,034 

8,035 
634 


3,363 
1,264 

6,039 
418 


28,205 


Committed during day 


15, 050 


Nonresidence (store, office, etc.): 
Committed during night 


47, 205 


Committed during day 


4,641 






Total 


49, 256 


19, 067 


15. 694 


11, 084 


95, 101 






Larceny— theft (except auto theft) (grouped 
according to value of article stolen) : 
$50 and over -- _ _ . 


13, 172 
73,205 
28,920 


4,412 
34, 437 
12, 970 


3,335 
30.473 
12.073 


2,463 

23,977 

8,647 


23,382 


$5 to .$50 _- _ 


162, 092 


Under .$5 - _ - 


62, 610 






Total 


115, 2S7 


51, 819 


45, 881 


35, 087 


248, 084 






Larceny— theft (grouped as to type of of- 
fense): 
Pocket-Dickine 


1,198 
4,319 
3,993 

24, 542 
15. 974 
17, 594 
47, 677 


819 
1,035 
2, 021 

8,855 

7,119 

9,112 

22, 858 


654 
759 

1,887 

7,118 

7,061 

10. 006 

18, 396 


397 

603 

1,052 

5,258 

5,106 

8, 348 

14, 323 


3,068 


Purse-snatching - _ .. 


6,716 


Shoplifting - 


8,953 


Thefts from autos (exclusive of auto 
accessories) 


45, 77;i 


Auto accessories - - . 


35, 260 


Bicycles 

All other - 


45.060 
103, 254 






Total 


115, 297 


51,819 


45,881 


35, 087 


248, 084 



191 




-J 



192 




a 



193 



In 215 cities in the United States with population in excess of 25,000 
the police departments reported the theft of 47,800 automobiles. 
During the same period 46,154 (96.6 percent) were recovered. 

In examining the data relative to automobiles stolen and recovered 
in table 88 it is noted that the proportion of stolen cars recovered is 
generally higher in the larger cities than in tlie smaller communities. 
However, as indicated in table 76 of this issue of the bulletin the 
larger cities show a substantially higher number of offenses of auto 
theft committed per unit of population. 

Table 88. — Number of automobiles stolen and recovered, January to December, 
inclusive, 1940; cities over 25,000 in population, grouped by size 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Population group 



Group I: 22 cities over 250,000; total population, 14,479,273 

Group H: 34 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total population, 4, 729,452 . 
Group ni: 60 cities, 50,000 to 100.000; total population, 4,193.219.. 
Group IV: 99 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total population, 3,472,67k. 

Total, Groups I-IV: 215 cities; total population, 26,874,615. _ 



Number of 

automobiles 

stolen 



25, 733 
9,735 
6,903 
5,429 



47, 800 



Number of 

automobiles 

recovered 



25, 411 

9,408 
6,290 
5,045 



46, 154 



Percent re- 
covered 



98.7 
96.6 
91.1 
92.9 



96.6 



The aggregate value of property stolen in the 215 cities was $33,441,- 
858.95. The value of recovered property was $22,863,659.51, or 
68.4 percent of the amount stolen. The percentage is affected to a 
large extent, however, by the value of automobiles stolen and recov- 
ered. Of all the property stolen in these cities, automobiles repre- 
sented $20,057,956.85, and as indicated in table 89, recovered cars 
were valued at $19,330,357.68, representing a 96.4 percentage of 
recovery. 

Excluding automobiles, the money, jewelry, furs, clothing, and 
other property stolen during 1940 amounted to $13,383,902.10, and 
recoveries were valued at $3,533,301.83 (26.4 percent). The corre- 
sponding figure for 1939 was 23 percent. 



194 

Table 89. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered with divisions 
as to type of property involved, January to December, inclusive, 1940: cities over 
25,000 in population, grouped by size 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Population group 



Group I: 22 cities over 250,000; 
total population, 14,479,273. 



Total- 



Group II: 34 cities, 100,000 to 
250,000; total population, 
4,729,452. 



Total- 



Group III: 60 cities, 50,000 to 
100,000: total population, 
4,193,219. 



Total. 



Group IV: 99 cities, 25,000 to 
50,000; total population, 
3,472,671. 



Total - 



Total, groups I-IV: 215 cities; 
total population, 26,874.615. 



Total - 



Type of property 



Currency, notes, etc.- 

.Jewelry and precious metals - 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Miscellaneous 



Currency, notes, etc 

.Tewelry and precious metals . 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobUes. , 
Miscellaneous 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals. 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles. . 
Miscellaneous 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals. 

Furs 

Clothing. - 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Miscellaneous 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals. 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Miscellaneous 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



$2,119,744.51 

1,813,926.49 

344, 522. 33 

1,017,818.26 

11, 466, ,514. 39 
2, 794, 485. 71 



19,557,011.69 



560, 408. 02 
369, 237. 59 
42, 736. 63 
260, 570. 69 
3, 727, 968. 90 
833, 004. 29 



5, 793, 926. 12 



461,825.69 
385,971.60 
47, 864. 82 
188, 021. 19 
2, 701, 023. 41 
751,294.08 



4, 536, 000. 79 



325, 194. 94 
302, .591. 51 
34, 169. 10 
122, 640. 29 
, 162, 450. 15 
607, 874. 36 



3, 554, 920. 35 



3, 467, 173. 16 
2, 871, 727. 19 
469, 292. 88 
1, 589, 050. 43 
20, 057, 956. 85 
4, 986, 658. 44 



33,441,858.95 



Value of prop/-f-t 
erty recovered I ^^'1 



$231,506.90 

454, 162. 17 

41, 606. 73 

206. 263. 36 

11, 179, 423. 27 

956, 437. 91 



13, 069, 400. 34 



112,237.38 

156, 026. 63 

13, 002. 95 

79, 518. 73 

3, 632, 818. 25 

321, 700. 63 



4, 315, 304. 57 



94, 012. 48 

125, 624. 49 

9, 725. 65 

54, 213. 69 

2, 515, 107. 57 

270, 424. 36 



3, 069, 108. 24 



45, 423. 18 

101,504. 13 

5, 686. 00 

33. 079. 67 

2, 003, 008. 59 

221, 144. 79 



2, 409, 846. 36 



483. 179. 94 

837, 317. 42 

70,021.33 

373, 075. 45 

19, 330, 357. 68 

1, 769, 707. 69 



22, 863, 659. 51 



10.9 
25.0 
12.1 
20.3 
97.5 
.34.2 



66. 



20.0 
42.3 
30.4 
30.5 
97.4 
38.6 

74.5 



20.4 
32.5 
20.3 

28.8 
93.1 
36.0 



67.7 



14.0 
33.5 
16.6 
27.0 
92.6 
36.4 



67.8 



13.9 
29.2 
14.9 
23.5 
96.4 
35.5 



68.4 



195 



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197 



Property stolen from the victim in an average robbery last year was 
valued at $102.89 according to the reports of 214 cities with popula- 
tion in excess of 25,000. 

The average value of the loot stolen in burglaries was $54.43; and 
in larcenies, unaccompanied bj^ the elements of robbery or burglary, 
the average value of property stolen was $26.33 per offense. 

However, inasmuch as the larceny offenses made up over 59 per- 
cent of all the crimes committed, the total value of property stolen 
in such cases exceeded that for either burglary or robbery. Similarly, 
more than 22 percent of the offenses committed were burglaries as 
compared with 3.4 percent for robberies, and consequently the total 
value of property stolen in burglary cases exceeded by far that taken 
in robberies. 

The 214 cities whose reports were studied listed 46,753 automobiles 
stolen valued at $19,691,769.43. or an average of $421.19 per car. 
However, the police were successful in recovering more than 96 per- 
cent of the stolen cars, whereas for other types of property the re- 
coveries represented only 26 percent of the property stolen. 

In examining the figures presented in table 90 it should be remem- 
bered that the number of offenses listed mcludes attempts to commit 
offenses, and inasmuch as the thefts were not consummated, the 
value of the property sought was not reported. This would naturally 
tend to reduce the figure with reference to the average value of the 
property stolen per offense. 

Table 90. — Value of property stolen, by type oj crime, January to December, 
inclusive, 1940; 214. cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 26,372.327, based on 1940 decennial census] 



Classification 



Robbery.. 

Burglary 

Larceny — theft 
.\uto tiioft 

Total . . 



Number of 
actual of- 
fenses 



17, 153 

92, 747 

242, 693 

46, 753 



399, 346 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



$1, 764, 806. 59 

5, 047, 967. 34 

6, 389, 279. .59 
19, 691, 769. 43 



32, 893. 822. 95 



Average 

value per 

offense 



.$102. 89 

54.43 

26.33 

421. 19 



82.37 



The police departments in 236 cities with population in excess of 
25,000 listed 4,346 traffic fatalities on their supplementary homicide 
reports for 1940. Of these traffic deaths, 1,281 (29.5 percent) were 
classified as actual offenses of manslaughter by negligence. In other 
words, the police investigation of 29.5 percent of the ti'affic deaths 
indicated that they were primarily attributable to the gross negligence 
of persons other than the victims. The remaining 70.5 percent 
of the traffic deaths were classed as accidental or due primarily to the 
negligence of the victims. 



198 

Under the system of uniform crime reporting, any traffic death 
which the pohce investigation discloses was primarily attributable to 
the gross negligence of some person other than the victim should be 
classed as an offense of manslaughter by negligence. This is true, 
regardless of the charge placed against the oft'ender or the findings of 
the court or a semijudicial body. In other words, the classification is 
based upon the facts set out in the investigating officer's report. 



Table 90a. — Number of traffic fatalities and number of offenses of manslaughter by 
negligence, January to December, inclusive, 1940, cities over 25,000 inhabitants 
by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Number of 
traffic deaths 


Manslaughter by negligence 


Population group 


Number of 
offenses 


Percentage 

of traffic 
deaths 


Group 1: 29 cities over 250,000; total population, 17,665.486 

Group II: 40 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total population, 5,771,837. 
Group III: 57 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total population, 3,919,127_ 
Group IV: 110 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total population, 3,950,409. 


2,632 
841 
446 
427 


660 
331 
164 
126 


25.1 
39.4 
36.8 
29.5 


Total, groups I-IV: 236 cities; total population, 31.306,859. 


4,346 


1,281 


29.5 



199 



vs 







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(X) 



00 




200 

Estimated Number of Major Crimes in the United States, 1939-40. 

The estimated number of major crimes in the United States during 
1940 was 1,517,026. This is an increase of 32,472 (2.2 percent) over 
1939. 

Increases were reflected during 1940 in all oft'ense classes represented 
in the tabulation with the exception of robbery and auto theft, which 
showed decreases of 3.3 percent and 0.3 percent, respectively. The 
increases in criminal homicide and aggravated assault were slight 
(less than 1 percent). Rape increased 2.5 percent, burglary 1.7 per- 
cent, and larceny 3.3 percent. 

The estimates presented in table 91 were based on the monthly 
crime reports forwarded to the Federal Bureau of Investigation by 
police departments of cities with an aggregate population in excess of 
65 million. 

It is recognized that the larceny classification includes many thefts 
involving property of small value. However, it is also noted that the 
estimated total of major crimes does not include miscellaneous crimes 
of a serious nature, such as embezzlement, fraud, forgery, counter- 
feiting, arson, receiving stolen property, drug violations, carrying 
concealed weapons, etc. It is therefore believed that the estimated 
totals set out in table 91 are conservative. 



Table 91. — Estimated number of major crimes in the United States, 1939-40 



O Sense 



Number of offenses 



1939 



1940 



Change 



Number 



Percent 



Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary 

Larceny . 

Auto theft ..f, 

Total --_•_. 



7,514 

4.394 

8,832 

55, 242 

46, 483 

311, 104 

872, 988 

177, 997 



1, 484, 554 



7,540 

4.425 

9,055 

53, 435 

46, 538 

316,369 

902,113 

177, 551 



+26 

+31 

+223 

-1,807 

+55 

+5, 265 

+29, 125 

-446 



1,517,026 



+32, 472 



+0.3 

+.7 

+2.5 

-3.3 

+.1 

+1.7 

+3.3 

-.3 



+2.2 



201 




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203 

DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

Source of Data. 

Diii-ing the calendar year 1940 the FBI examined 609,013 arrest 
records, as evidenced by fingerprint cards, in order to obtain data 
concerning the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of the 
persons represented. The compilation has been limited to instances 
of arrests for violation of State laws and municipal ordinances. In 
other words, fmgerprint cards representing arrests for violations of 
Federal laws or representing commitments to any type of penal 
institution have been excluded from this tabulation. 

The number of fingerprint records examined was considerably 
larger than for prior years, which were as follows: 1939, 576,920; 
1938, 554,376; 1937, 520,153; 1936, 461,589. The increase in the 
number of arrest records examined should not necessarily be con- 
strued as reflecting an increase in the amount of crime, nor as an 
increase in the number of persons arrested, since it quite probably is 
at least partially the result of an increased tendency on the part of 
local agencies to contribute fingerprint records to the Identification 
Division of the FBI. The tabulation of data from fingerprint cards 
obviously does not include all persons arrested, since there are in- 
dividuals taken into custody for whom no fingerprint cards are 
forwarded to Washington. Furthermore, data pertaining to persons 
arrested should not be treated as information regarding the number of 
offenses committed, since two or more persons may be involved in 
the joint commission of a single oftense, and on the other hand one 
person may be arrested and charged with the commission of several 
separate crimes. 

Offense Charged. 

More than 39 percent (240,680) of the records examined during 
1940 represented arrests for major violations as follows: 

Criminal homicide 6, 351 

Robbery 13,251 

Assault 34,018 

Burglary . i 34, 829 

Larceny (except auto theft) 62, 440 

Auto theft 13, 364 

Embezzlement and fraud 19, 132 

Stolen property (receiving, etc.) 3, 577 

Arson _• I. 081 

Forgery and counterfeiting . 7, 105 

Rape 6, 031 

Narcotic drug laws 5,014 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 5, 684 

Driving while intoxicated 28, 803 



Total 240,680 



204 

Persons charged with murder, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, 
or auto theft numbered 164,253 which represents 27 percent of the 
total arrest records examined. 



Sex. 

Males arrested outnumbered females arrested for all types of crimes 
except commercialized vice. However, there are significant differ- 
ences in the criminal tendencies of males and females which are re- 
vealed when a study is made of the figures representing an average 
group of 1,000 men arrested in comparison with an average group of 
1,000 women arrested. Such a comparison indicates there were more 
women than men charged with murder, assaidt, commercialized vice, 
and narcotic drug violations. In the average group of 1,000 men 
arrested and the average group of 1,000 women arrested, 13 women 
and 10 men were charged with criminal homicide; 63 women and 55 
men with assault; 38 women and 5 men with narcotic drug violations. 
On the other hand, men predominated in most of the remaining types 
of crimes, particularly in robberies, burglaries, and auto thefts. 

During 1940, 8.5 percent (51,950) of the records represented women. 
This is an increase over the corresponding figures for prior years, 
which are as follows: 1939, 7.6 percent; 1938, 6.8 percent; 1937, 6.9 
percent; 1936, 7.3 percent; 1935, 6.9 percent; 1934, 6.9 percent; 
1933, 7.2 percent. 

Table 92. — Distribution of arrests by sex, Jan. 1-Dec. SI, 1940 



Offense charged 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Criminal homicide - - 


6,351 

13, 251 

■ 34, 018 

34, 829 

62, 440 

13, 364 

19, 132 

3,577 

1,081 

7,105 

6,031 

8,987 

9,548 

5,014 

5,684 

7,978 

9,957 

28,803 

5,953 

49 

9,498 

29,403 

115.848 

53,664 

13, 283 

62,090 

4,286 

37, 789 


5,671 
12, 662 
30, 769 

34, 204 
57,094 
13, 156 
18, 067 

3,313 

987 

6,654 

6,031 

2,494 

8,154 

3,051 

5,423 

7,730 

8,140 

28,001 

5,851 

49 

9,295 

2.5, 739 

108, 292 

48, 952 

12, 488 

55, 361 

3,966 

35, 469 


680 

589 
3,249 

625 
5,346 

208 
1,065 

264 
94 

451 


1.0 

2.2 

5.6 

5.7 

10.3 

2.2 

3.1 

.6 

.2 

1.2 

1.0 

1.5 

1.6 

.8 

.9 

1.3 

1.6 

4.7 

1.0 

(') 
1.6 
4.8 

19.0 
8.8 
2.2 

10.2 

. 7 

6.2 


1.0 

2.3 

5.5 

6.1 

10.2 

2.4 

3.2 

.6 

2 

l!2 
1.1 

.4 
1.5 

.5 
1.0 
1.4 
1.5 
5.0 
1. 1 

(') 
1.7 
4.6 

19.4 
8.8 
2.3 
9.9 
. 7 
6.4 


1.3 


Robbery - -. - 


1.1 


Assault - 


6.3 


Burglary — breaking or entering- 


1.1 


Larceny — theft - 


10.3 


Auto theft - - . 


.4 


Embezzlement and fraud .. 


2.1 


Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 


.5 


Arson 


.2 


Foreerv and counterfeiting 


.9 






Prostitution and commercialized vice 


6,493 

1,394 

1,963 

261 

248 

1,817 

802 

102 


12.5 


Other sex offenses .- - - 


2.7 


Narcotic drug laws 


3.8 


Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 


.5 


Offenses against family and children - -- 


.5 


Liquor laws 


3.5 


Driving while intoxicated 


1.5 


Road and driving laws - 


.2 






other traflSc and motor vehicle laws 


203 
3,664 
7,556 
4,712 

795 
6,729 

320 
2,320 


.4 


Disorderly conduct . 


7.0 


Drunkenness . 


14.5 




9.1 


Gambling 


1.5 


Suspicion 


13.0 


Not stated 


.6 


All other offenses 


4.5 


Total - 


609,013 


557.063 


51, 950 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 







' Less than Mo of 1 percent. 



205 

Age. 

During 1940 ago 19 predoininatod in (ho froquoncy of arrosts and 
was followod by agos 21 and 22, rospoctivoly. This difiois from tho 
situation in 1939 whon arrests for age 21 were less frequent tlian for 

ago 18 or 22. 

During 5 of the past 9 years age 19 has predominated in the fre- 
quency of arrests, 1932-34 and 1939-40. Arrests for ages 21, 22, and 
23 exceeded arrests for age 19 in 1935-38. Figures for the groups in 
which the largest number of arrosts occurred during 1940 are as 
follows: 

4 . Number of arrests 

19 24,870 

2i]^ ' 23, 9r)7 

22 _ 23,878 

18 23, r)05 

23!!'!-!- .1! 23, 208 

The percentage of the total persons arrested who wore less than 21 
years old was 17.4 m 1936; 18.0 in 1937; 18.8 in 1938; 18.9 in 1939; 

and 17.5 in 1940. 

There were 106,298 persons less than 21 years old arrested and 
fingerprinted during 1940. In addition, there were 92,913 (15.3 
percent) between the ages of 21 and 24, making a total of 199,211 
(32.7 percent) less than 25 years old. Arrests in age group 25-29 
numbered 99,556 (16.3 percent) resulting in a total of 298,767 (49.1 
percent) less than 30 years of age. (With reference to the ages of 
persons represented by fingerprint cards received at the FBI, it 
should be borne in mind that the number of arrest records is doubtless 
incomplete in the lower age groups because in some jurisdictions the 
practice is not to fingerprint youthful individuals.) 



206 




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208 



Confirming studies made in prior years, the 1940 figures indicate 
that youths commit a large proportion of the total offenses against 
property. This is particularly true with reference to robbery, bur- 
glary, larceny, and auto theft, as revealed by the following tabulation: 

Table 94. — Percentage distribution of arrests by age groups 



Age group 


All 
oflenses ' 


Criminal 
homicide 


Robbery 


Burglary 


Larceny 


Auto theft 


Under 21 


17.5 
31.6 
25.7 
15.5 
9.6 
.1 


12.5 
37.2 
26.5 
13.9 
9.8 
. 1 


28.8 

44.5 

19.0 

5.8 

1.8 

.1 


44.8 

32.5 

14.9 

5.6 

2.1 

.1 


32.0 
32.3 
19.8 
10.3 
5.5 
.1 


53.3 


21-29 


32.2 


30-39 -- - 


10.8 


40-49 


2.9 


50 and over -. -. 


.7 


Unknown 


.1 


Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100 







1 Not limited to specific crimes listed in the table. 

The extent to which youthful offenders committed crimes against 
property is further revealed by an examination of the age distribution 
of all persons arrested for such crimes. Durmg 1940, there were 
154,779 persons of all ages arrested for robbery, burglary, larceny, 
auto theft, embezzlement and fraud, forgery and counterfeiting, 
receiving stolen property, and arson; and 49,866 (32.2 percent) of 
those persons were less than 21 years old. The corresponding per- 
centages for prior years are as follows: 1939, 32.9; 1938, 31.5; 1937, 
31.0; 1936, 28.5. 

The extent of the participation of youth in the commission of crimes 
against property is further indicated by the following figures. During 
1940, 32.7 percent of all persons arrested were less than 25 years of 
age. However, persons less than 25 years old numbered 53.5 percent 
of those charged with robbery, 63.6 percent of those charged with 
burglary, 49.3 percent of those charged with larceny, and 73.1 percent 
of those charged with auto theft. More than one-half of all crimes 
against property durmg 1940 were committed by persons imder 25 
years of age. 



2(19 







210 



Table 95. — Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, male 

and female, Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1940 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice . 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children.. . 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor-vehicle laws... 

D isorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Total num- 
ber of per- 
sons ar- 
rested 



6,351 

13, 251 

34, 018 

34, 829 

62, 440 

13, 364 

19, 132 

3,577 

1,081 

7,105 

6,031 

8,987 

9,548 

5,014 

5,684 

7,978 

9,957 

28, 803 
5, 953 

49 
9,498 

29, 403 
115,848 

53. 664 
13, 283 
62, 090 
4,286 
37, 789 



609, 013 



Number 

under 21 

years of age 



797 
3,813 
3,906 
15, 620 
20, 008 
7,117 
1.339 

686 

205 
1,078 
1.592 

638 
1,327 

466 
1,014 

393 

761 
1, 134 
1, 028 
5 
1,803 
4,082 
4,492 
8,811 

738 
13, 310 

592 
9,543 



106, 298 



Total num- 
ber under 
25 years of 
age 



1,878 

7.090 

9,228 

22, 141 

30, 793 

9,768 

4.098 

1,281 

357 

2,341 

2, 895 

2, 857 

2, 803 

1,342 

2,034 

1, 532 

2,073 

4,378 

2,466 

15 

3,881 

8, 883 

14,214 

17. 323 

2,119 

24, 278 

1,205 

15, 938 



199, 211 



Percentage 

under 21 

years of age 



12.5 
28.8 
11.5 
44.8 
32.0 
53.3 
7.0 
19.2 
19.0 
15.2 



26. 

7. 
13. 

9. 
17. 

4. 



3. 
17. 
10.2 
19.0 
13.9 

3.9 
16.4 

5.6 
21.4 
13.8 
25.3 



17.5 



Total per- 
centage 
under 25 

years of age 



29.6 
53.5 
27.1 
63.6 
49.3 
73.1 
21.4 
35.8 
33.0 
32.9 
48.0 
31.8 
29.4 
26.8 
35.8 
19.2 
20.8 
15.2 
41.4 
30.6 
40.9 
30.2 
12.3 
32.3 
16.0 
39.1 
28.1 
42.2 



32.7 



In examining the percentage distribution of arrests by age for males 
alone, it is found that in the frequency of arrests age 19 is followed 
by ages 18, 21, and 22, respectively. This differs from the figures for 
all persons arrested, which showed more arrests for ages 21 and 22 
than for age 18. 

The age distribution of females arrested differs substantially from 
the corresponding figures for males and those for both sexes combined. 
For females the largest number of arrests was for ages 22, 23, and 24. 

To facilitate comparison, data for separate sexes for selected indi- 
vidual age groups are presented herewith: 





1 
Number of arrests 


Age 


Number of arrests 


Age 


Male and 
female 


Male 


Female 


Male and 
female 


Male 


Female 


19 

21 ._ 


24. 870 
23, 957 
23, 878 
23,505 


22, 659 
21,525 
20,814 
21, 634 


2,211 
2,432 
3,064 
1,871 


23 

20 

24 


23,208 
22, 591 
21, 870 


20,175 
20,517 
19, 252 


3,033 
2,074 


22 


2,618 


18 











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213 

Criminal Repeaters. 

The 1940 ligurcs attain disclose the oxtont of the serious problem of 
the criminal repeater. Duriii<2; the caleiular year, there were 50 per- 
sons arrested for criminal homicide wliose records showed prior con- 
victions of murder or manslaughter. Similarly, the figures listed 
hereafter indicate instances of persons charged witli crimes during 1940 
whose criminal histories contained prior convictions of the same type 
of oft'ense: 

Robbery 837 

Burglary ■.-.1 3, 793 

Larceny 6, 469 

Auto theft 742 

Embezzlement and fraud 1, 592 

Forgery and counterfeiting 727 

Rape 77 

Narcotic drug laws 1, 003 

Driving while intoxicated 1, 450 

The compilation generally reflects a tendency on the part of recid- 
ivists to repeat the same type of offense. This is particularly true 
with reference to crimes against property. 

One-half of the persons whose records show^ed prior convictions had 
been convicted of a major violation before they were arrested and 
fingerprinted in 1940. Prior convictions for the more serious types of 
crimes were revealed as follows: 

Criminal homicide 1, 621 

Robbery :. 7, 382 

Assault 10, 497 

Burglary 20,092 

Larceny (and related offenses) 44, 909 

Arson 210 

Forgery and counterfeiting 4, 973 

Rape . 1, 335 

Narcotic drug laws 3, 651 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 2, 111 

Driving while intoxicated^ 6, 659 

Total 103,440 

Of the 009,01.3 arrest records (>xamined during 1940, there were 
304,300 (50.0 percent) representing individuals who already had 
fingerprint cards on file in the Jdentification Division of the FB 1. 
There were, in addition, 6,922 current records bearing notations 
relative to previous criminal activities of persons arrested during 
1940 although their fingerprints had not been on fil(> prior to 1940. 
This makes a total of 311,222 persons arrested during the year con- 
cerning whom there was information on file dealing with prior criminal 
activities, and the records showed that 206,484 of them had been 



214 

convicted previously of one or more crimes. This number is 66.3 
percent of the 311,222 records containing data concerning prior 
criminal activities, and 33.9 percent of the 609,013 arrest records 
examined. The records of the 206,484 persons reveal a total of 540,847 
convictions prior to 1940. In 226,301 instances the convictions were 
of major offenses, whereas in 314,546 cases the convictions were based 
on violations less serious in nature. 

As previously indicated, women represented 8.5 percent of the total 
persons arrested and fingerprinted during 1940. However, only 5.9 
percent of the 206,484 persons with previous convictions represented 
women. Of the total males arrested and fingerprinted during the 
year, 51.0 percent had previous fingerprint records on file, whereas 
the corresponding percentage for females was 38.6. 



Table 98. — Number with previous fingerprint records, arrests, Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1940 



Offense charged 



Total 



Number 
arrested 



Previous 
finger- 
print 
record 



Male 



Number 
arrested 



Previous 
finger- 
print 
record 



Female 



Number 
arrested 



Previous 
finger- 
print 
record 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — brealiing or entering 

Larceny — theft - 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud,. _ 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, ete..- 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Ofifenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor- vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other oSenses 

Total 



6,351 

13, 251 

34, 018 

34, 829 

62, 440 

13, 364 

19, 132 

3, 577 

1,081 

7,105 

6,031 

8,987 

9,548 

5,014 

5,684 

7,978 

9,957 

28,803 

5, 953 

49 

9,498 

29, 403 

115,848 

53, 664 

13,283 

62, 090 

4,286 

37, 789 



1,964 

7,822 

14, 751 

17, 146 

29, 059 

6,425 

10, 075 

1,366 

342 

4,035 

2,202 

4,862 

3,377 

3,197 

2,250 

3,157 

4,550 

9,981 

1, 883 

16 

3,613 

13, 764 

66, 639 

35, 281 

4,783 

31, 185 

2,411 

18, 164 



5,671 
12, 662 
30, 769 

34, 204 
57, 094 
13, 156 
18, 067 

3,313 

987 

6,654 

6,031 

2,494 

8,154 

3,051 

5,423 

7,730 

8,140 

28,001 

5,851 

49 

9,295 

25, 739 

108, 292 

48, 952 

12, 488 

55, 361 

3,966 

35, 469 



1,833 

7,543 

13, 910 

16, 948 

27, 412 
6,370 
9,706 
1,300 

331 

3,916 

2,202 

1,117 

2,997 

2,205 

2.189 

3,105 

4,043 

9,784 

1,857 

16 

3.568 

12, 569 

63, 320 

32, 874 

4,614 

28, 589 
2,298 

17, 609 



680 

589 
3,249 

625 
5,346 

208 
1,065 

264 
94 

451 



6,493 

1,394 

1,963 

261 

248 

1,817 

802 

102 



203 
3.664 
7,556 
4,712 

795 
6,729 

320 
2,320 



131 

279 

841 

198 

1,647 

55 

369 

66 

11 

119 



3,745 

380 

992 

61 

52 

507 

197 

26 



45 

1, 195 

3,319 

2,407 

169 

2,596 

113 

555 



609. 013 



304, 300 



557, 063 



284, 225 



51, 950 



20, 075 



215 



Table 99. — Percentage with previous fiiiger-print records, arrests, male and female, 

Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1940 



Offense 



Vagrancy --- 

Narcotic drug laws 

Robhery. . 

Drunkenness _ . ^ - .. 

FofKory and counterfeiting... 

Prostitution and eomnicrcialized vioe. 

Embezzleniont and fraud 

Suspicion 

Burjilary— breaking or entering 

Autotheft - 

All other oiTcnses 

Disorderly conduct 

Larceny— theft.-" 

Liquor laws 



Percent 



65.7 
63.8 
59.0 
57.5 
56.8 
54.1 
52.7 
."iO. 2 
49.2 
48.1 
48.1 
46.8 
46.5 
45.7 



Offense 



Assault 

Offenses against family and children _. 
Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. . .. 
Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 
Other trallic and motor-vehicle laws . 

Haiie - 

(lamhling 

Other sex offenses 

Driving while intoxicated. 

Parking violations ' 

Arson 

Road and driving laws.. 

Criminal homicide 



Percent 



43.4 
39.6 
39.6 
38.2 
38. 
36. 5 
36.0 
35, 4 
34.7 
32.7 
31.6 
31.6 
30.9 



• Only 49 fingerprint cards were received representing arrests for violation of parking regulations. 



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Table 103. — Number of cases in which fingerprint records show 1 or more prior 
convictions, and the total of prior convictions disclosed by the records, male and 
female, Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1940 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering _ 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children.. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws.- 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total '. 



Number of 
records show- 
ing 1 or more 
prior con- 
victions 



1,265 

5,286 

9,962 

11,824 

19, 919 

4,044 

6,240 

859 

224 

2, 680 
1,457 

3, 141 
2,172 
2,289 
1,541 
1,835 
3,234 
6,543 
1. 182 

10 
2,372 
9,813 

48, 270 

23, 722 
2,713 

19, 203 
1,690 

12, 994 



206, 484 



Number of 
prior con- 
victions of 
major of- 
fenses 



1,496 

8,548 

11,936 

19,711 

32, 413 

5,907 

9,644 

1,177 

237 

4,603 

1,767 

4,547 

2, 647 

5,444 

2,140 

1,832 

2, 104 

5,688 

973 

9 

2,232 

8,370 

27, 704 

21, 580 

2, 981 

24, 104 

2,202 

14, 305 



Number of 
prior con- 
victions of 
minor of- 
fenses 



1,044 

4,979 

10, 313 

10, 402 

23, 481 
3,143 
5,136 

726 

163 

1,709 

1, 117 

2,505 

2,089 

2,239 

1,367 

1,599 

4,778 

6,640 

1,156 

12 

2,663 

17, 781 

115, 309 

48, 068 

2,253 

24, 712 
1,953 

17,209 



226, 301 



314,546 



Total num- 
ber of prior 
convictions 
disclosed 



2,540 

13, 527 
22, 249 
30, 113 
55, 894 

9,050 

14, 780 
1,903 

400 
6,312 
2,884 
7,052 
4,736 
7,683 
3,507 
3,431 
6,882 

12, 328 

2,129 

21 

4,895 

26, 151 
143, 013 

69, 648 
5,234 

48, 816 
4,155 

31,514 



540.847 



Race. 

Most of the persons represented in this study were members of 
the white and Negro races. Excluding Mexicans, who numbered 
23,184, members of the white race represent 439,695 of the 609,013 
arrest records received, while 138,746 were Negroes, 3,647 Indians, 
1,032 Chinese, 440 Japanese, and 2,269 all others. 

Inasmuch as whites greatly outnumber Negroes in the general popu- 
lation of the United States, it is significant to express the figures repre- 
senting whites and Negroes arrested in terms of the number of each 
in the general population. According to the 1930 decennial census, 
there were, exclusive of those imder 15 years of age, 8,041,014 Negroes, 
13,069,192 foreign-born whites, and 64,365,193 native w^iites in the 
United States. (Similar figures l)ased on the 1940 decennial census are 
not yet available.) 



223 

Of each 100,000 Negroes in the general population of the United 
States, 1,708 were arrested and finger[)nnted during 1940, whereas the 
corresponding figure for native whites was 620 and for foreign-horn 
whites 202. The relationship hetween the three figures will of course 
vaiy consich'rahly for indivichial types of violations. 

In connection with the foregoing data, it is of some significance to 
point out that the figure for native whites includes the immediate 
descendants of foreign-born individuals. Persons desiring to make a 
thorough study of the comparative amounts of crime committed by 
native whites and foreign-born whites should refer to existing compi- 
lations showing the number of instances in which offenders are of 
foreign or mixed parentage. Such information camiot be presented 
here for the reason that fingerprint arrest records do not provide for 
the recording of such data. 



Table 104. — Distribution of arrests according to race, male and female, 

Jan. 1-Dec. SI, 1940 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery^ -.- .- 

Assault - 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft - 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape . -- 

Prostitution and commercialized vice. 

Other sex oflfenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children.. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated.. 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws. . 

Disorderly conduct . 

Drunkenness. 

Vagrancy 

Oambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total. 



White 



3,539 

8,643 

17, 331 

25,269 

42, 430 

10,928 

16, 475 

2,519 

867 

6,332 

4,385 

6,374 

7,800 

3,118 

2,857 

6,431 

5,074 

24,962 

4,387 

37 

7,017 

19,583 

92, 629 

39,500 

6,809 

43, 485 

3,228 

27,686 



439, 695 



Race 



Negro 



2,549 

4.077 

14, 978 

8.531 

17, 763 

1,983 

2,206 

977 

188 

646 

1,333 

2,283 

1,426 

968 

2,606 

1,247 

4,700 

1,967 

1,285 

7 

1,990 

8, 255 

14, 192 

10,485 

5,563 

16,806 

836 

8,899 



138, 746 



In- 
dian 



25 

50 

164 

130 

263 

60 

66 

4 

3 

26 

31 

74 

33 

28 

8 

22 

47 

284 

44 



Chi- 
nese 



47 

210 

,232 

319 

4 

277 

32 

164 



3,647 



7 

11 

44 

9 

26 

3 

8 

1 



15 
9 

16 

527 

8 

1 

14 
7 
3 



2 
10 
15 
46 
187 
28 

3 
24 



Jap- 
anese 



4 
1 

21 
11 
14 

6 

11 
1 
1 

4 

4 

18 

8 

8 

4 

1 

10 

19 

3 



12 

7 

59 

26 

147 

7 

6 

27 



Mexi- 
can 



192 
385 

1,267 
776 

1,792 

363 

318 

68 

18 

73 

207 

188 

216 

300 

152 

259 

104 

1,493 

211 

4 

370 

1,239 

7, .577 

3. 003 
320 

1,283 
154 
853 



1,032 



440 23, 184 



All 
others 



35 

84 

213 

103 

152 

21 

48 

7 

4 

16 

56 

41 

50 

65 

49 

17 

8 

71 

20 

1 

60 

99 

144 

285 

253 

204 

27 

1.36 



2,269 



Total, 

all 
races 



6,351 

13, 251 

34,018 

34,829 

■ 62,440 

13, 364 

19, 132 

3.577 

1,081 

7, 105 

6,031 

8,987 

9,548 

5, 014 

5, 684 

7,978 

9,957 

28,803 

5,953 

49 

9,498 

29, 403 

115,848 

53, 664 

13, 283 

62,090 

4,286 

37, 789 



609,013 



224 



Table 105. — Distribution of arrests according to race, male, Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1940 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice- 
Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other trafhc and motor-vehicle laws. - 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Race 



White 



3,326 
8,333 

16, 606 
24, 877 
39, 655 
10, 764 
15, 636 

2,405 

800 

5,964 

4,385 

1,669 

6,749 

1,521 

2,775 

6, 234 

4, 534 

24, 240 

4,309 

37 

6,871 

17, 720 
87, 138 
36, 088 

6. 531 
38, 735 

3,021 
26, 156 



407, 079 



Negro 



2,094 

3,812 

12, 507 

8,326 

15, 341 

1,945 

1,992 

837 

163 

571 

1,333 

684 

1, 115 

689 

2,428 

1,202 

3,443 

1,913 

1,262 

7 

1,943 

6, 534 

12, 418 

9,452 

5,055 

14, 961 

733 

8,187 



120, 947 



In- 
dian 



20 

45 

151 

128 

238 

60 

62 

3 

3 

24 
31 
12 
22 
16 
8 
22 
41 
268 
44 



46 

188 

1,128 

265 

3 

224 

30 

151 



3,233 



Chi- 
nese 



7 
11 
43 

9 
26 

3 



15 
7 

16 

524 

8 

1 

13 
7 
3 



2 
10 
15 
44 
187 
27 

3 
24 



1,021 



Jap- 
anese 



4 

1 

20 

11 

14 

6 

11 

1 

1 

4 

4 

17 

7 

7 

4 

1 

9 

19 

3 



12 

7 

58 

26 

146 

7 

6 

24 



430 



Mexi- 
can 



185 

379 

1,232 

751 

1,707 

358 

315 

60 

16 

70 

207 

77 

197 

235 

151 

254 

92 

1,483 

210 

4 

363 

1,187 



394 
814 
315 
233 
147 
799 



22, 235 



All 
others 



35 

81 

210 

102 

113 

20 

43 

7 

4 

13 

56 

28 

48 

59 

49 

16 

S 

71 

20 

1 

58 

93 

141 

263 

251 

174 

26 

128 



2, 118 



Total, 

all 
races 



5,671 
12, 662 
30, 769 

34, 204 
57, 094 
13, 156 
18, 067 

3,313 

987 

6,654 

6,031 

2,494 

8, 154 

3,051 

5,423 

7,730 

8, 140 

28,001 

5,851 

49 

9,295 

25, 739 

108, 292 

48, 952 

12, 488 

55,361 

3,966 

35, 469 



557, 063 



Table 106. — Distribution of arrests according to race, female, Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1940 





Race 


Total, 


Offense charged 


White 


Negro 


In- 
dian 


Chi- 
nese 


Jap- 
anese 


Mexi- 
can 


All 
others 


all 
races 


Criminal homicide 


213 
310 
725 
392 
2,775 
164 
839 
114 
67 
368 


455 

265 

2,471 

205 

2,422 

38 

214 

140 

25 

75 


5 
5 

13 
2 

25 






7 

6 

35 

25 

85 

5 

3 

8 

2 

3 


3 
3 

1 

39 

1 

5 

3 


680 


Robbery 






589 


Assault _ - -.- 


1 


1 


3,249 


Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larcenv — theft 


625 






5,346 








208 


Embezzlement and fraud -- . 


4 
1 






1, 065 


Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc. 


1 




264 
94 


Forcrerv and counterfeitiner 


2 






451 











Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 
Other sex offenses 


4,705 

1,051 

1,597 

82 

197 

540 

722 

78 


1,599 
311 
279 

178 

45 

1,257 

54 

23 


62 
11 
12 


2 
3 


1 
1 
1 


111 

18 

65 

1 

5 

12 

10 

1 


13 

2 
6 
.- 


6,493 
1,394 


Narcotic drug laws . 


1,963 


Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children.., 
Linuor laws .. 


261 








248 


6 
16 


1 


1 


1,817 


Driving while intoxicated 


802 


Road and driving laws 






102 













Other traffie and motor-vehicle laws 


146 
1,863 
5,491 
3,412 

278 
4,750 

207 
1.530 


47 

1,721 

1,774 

1,033 

508 

1,845 

103 

712 


1 

22 

104 

54 

1 
53 

2 
13 






7 

52 

183 

189 

5 

50 

7 

54 


2 
6 
3 

22 
2 

30 
1 
8 


203 


Disorderly conduct 






3,6(i4 


Drunkenness 


2 

i' 


1 


7, 556 


Vagrancy - 


4,712 


Gambling _- - 


795 


Suspicion _ 


6,729 


Not stated 


320 


All other offenses 




3 


2,320 






Total.. 


32, 616 


17, 799 


454 


11 


10 


949 


151 


51,950 



225 

Tahi.k 107.- \^i(mber of arrests of Xcgrocs (lutl whites in proportion to the number 
of each in the general population of the country, male and female, J ait. 1 Dec. 
31, 1940, rate per 100,000 of population > 

[Excluding those under 15 years of age] 



Offense charged 



Native white 



Foreign-born 
white 



Negro 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery.. 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc. 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children.. , 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other trallic and motor-vehicle laws... 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling - 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



4.6 

12.4 

23.2 

36.3 

61.1 

16.0 

23.0 

3.3 

1.1 

9.3 

6.2 

8.7 

10.5 

4.5 

3.9 

9.0 

6.9 

35.6 

6.5 

.1 

10.1 

27.6 

128.9 

56.4 

8.0 

63.3 

4.6 

38.8 



m 



3.3 

2.3 

16.2 

fi. 1 

15.4 

1.9 

7.3 

2.7 

.9 

1.6 

2.5 

1.5 

6.1 

1.2 

2.2 

3.9 

4.3 

10.9 

1.3 

2.5 
12.9 
42.9 
17.2 

5.5 
13.9 

1.6 
13.6 



619.9 



201.7 



31.6 

50.6 

IS.-i. 8 

103.0 

214.7 

24.4 

27.4 

12.0 

2.3 

7.9 

16.5 

28.4 

17.7 

12.0 

32.3 

15.5 

58.4 

24.4 

16.0 

. 1 

24.7 

102.0 

176.5 

129.7 

69. 1 

206.3 

10.4 

108.4 



1, 708. 1 



' Population figures from Federal census, Apr. 1 , 1930. 
> Less than Mo of 1 per 100,000. 



Size of Fingerprint File. 

At the end of December 1940, there were 15,023,719 fingerprint 
records and 15,868,850 index cards containing the names and ahases 
of individuals on file in the Identification Division of the FBI. Of 
each 100 fingerprint cards received during 1940, more than 61 were 
identified with those on file in the Bureau. Fugitives numbering 
7,530 were identified through fingerprint records during 1940, and 
interested law enforcement officials were immediately notified of the 
whereabouts of those fugitives. As of December 31, 1940, there were 
11,130 poHce departments, peace officers, and law-enforcement agen- 
cies tlu'oughout the United States and foreign countries vohmtarily 
contributing fingerprints to the F" B I. 



OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in part I and 
part II offenses, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 

Part I Offenses. 

1 . Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter includes all 
wilful felonious homicides as distinguished from deaths caused by negligence. 
Does not include attempts to kill, assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, or 
justifiable homicides. Justifiable homicides excluded from this classification are 
limited to the following types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon b.v a peace officer 
in line of duty. (2) The killing of a hold-up man by a private citizen. (6) Man- 
slaughter by negligence includes any death which the police investigation estab- 
lishes was primarily attributable to gross negligence on the part of some individual 
other than the victim. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape (no force used — victim under 
age of consent), assault to rape, and attempted rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as strong-arm robbery, stick-ups, 
robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by the use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safecrack- 
ing, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or a theft, even though no force was 
used to gain entrance. Includes attempted burglary. Burglary followed by 
larceny is included in this classification and not counted again as larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value. (6) 
Under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclas.sifications, depending 
upon the value of the property stolen, thefts of bicycles, automobile accessories, 
shoplifting, pocket-picking, or any stealing of property or article of value which 
is not taken by force and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, 
"con" games, forgery, worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven 
away and abandoned, including the so-called joy-riding thefts. Does not include 
taking for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unauthorized use 
by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses. 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which is 
made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offen.ses of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false pretenses. 

(226) 



227 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, poaaetn^ijig. Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those offenses. 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of regulations 
or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, lurnishing, and manufactur- 
ing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes or 
regidations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commercial- 
ized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as, prostitution, keeping 
l)awdy house, procuring, transporting, or detaining women for immoral I'urposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice).^ — In- 
cludes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

15. Offenses against tlie family and children. — Includes offenses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laivs. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, .sale, or use. Exclude Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "Drunkenness" (class 18) and "Driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations, State or local, are i)laced in 
this class. lOxclude Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct.— Inchida^ all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, loitering, etc. 

21. GambliJig. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laivs. — Includes violations of regulations. with 
respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Inchides violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters, but not in connection with any specific offense, who are released with- 
out formal charges being placed against them. 



INDEX TO VOLUME XI, UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

[All references are to page numbers] 

Age of offenders. (See Arrests.) 

Annual crime trends: Page 

Cities grouped by size 5-7, 65-67, 122-123 

Cities grouped by location 170-171 

Estimated total number of major crimes, 1939-40 200-202 

Arrests — based on fingerprint records 109-114, 141-149, 203 225 

Age of offenders 110-112, 142-146, 205-212 

Race of offenders 114, 149, 222-225 

Recidivism 113-114, 147-148, 213-222 

Sex of offenders 109-110, 141-142, 204 

Automobiles — Percentage of stolen recovered 15, 81, 135, 193 

Classification of offenses 2, 54-55, 62-63, 115-116, 118, 150-151, 156, 226-227 

Cleared by arrest, offenses 19-22, 33-34 

By geographic divisions 35-52 

Convictions, previous. (See Arrests — recidivism.) 

Crimes. (See Arrests, estimated number, offenses, persons charged, per- 
sons found guilty, and persons released.) 
Criminal repeaters. (See Arrests — recidivism.) 

Employees, number of police 86-108 

Fingerprint records . 109-114, 141-149, 203-225 

Offenses known to the police: 

Annual variations 5-7,65-67, 122-123, 170-171,200-202 

Cities grouped by location 8-10, 68-72, 124-128, 172-176 

Cities grouped by location and size 8-10, 68-72, 124-128, 177 

Cities grouped by size 4-5, 64r-65, 120-121, 160-162 

Cleared by arrest-_ 19-22, 33-34 

Cleared by arrest, by geographic divisions 35-52 

Divided as to time and place and value of property stolen ■ 14-15, 

79-81, 83-84, 134, 188-192 
Individual cities over 100,000 in population^ 11-13, 73-75, 129-131, 178-185 

Individual cities over 25,000 in population 178-185 

Monthly variations 161-169 

Rural areas 13, 75, 133, 186 

Compared with urban areas 76-77, 186 

Territories and possessions of the United States 14, 78, 133, 187 

Persons charged (held for prosecution) . 20-26 

By geographic divisions 35-53 

For individual cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants 136-140 

Persons found guilty 26-29 

Persons released (not held for prosecution) 30-33 

Police department employees 86-1 08 

Police officers killed by criminals, 1939 85 

Possessions and territories of the United States, offenses in 14, 78, 133, 187 

Property, value stolen and recovered 15-16, 81-82, 135, 193-197 

(228) 



229 

Prosecution, persons hold for. {See Persons charged iuid persons found 

guilty.) 
Race of offenders. (See Arrests.) 
Recidivism. (See Arre.sts.) Page. 

Reporting area, extent of 2-3, 63, 119, 156-159 

Contributors by States 159 

Rural crime data 13, 75, 133, 186 

Compared with urban 76-77, 186 

Se.x of offenders. {See Arrests.) 

Sheriffs' reports 13, 75, 133, 186 

State crime rates. (See Offenses known — cities grouped bj^ location.) 

State police reports 13, 75, 133, 186 

Territories and possessions of the United States, offenses in 14, 78, 133, 187 

Traffic fatalities, percentage classed as negligent homicide 197-199 

Trends, annual crime: 

Cities grouped by location 170-171 

Cities grouped l)y size 5-7, 65-67, 122-123 

Estimated total number of major crimes, 1939-40 200-202 

Trends, monthly crime 161-169 

Value of property stolen and recovered 15-16, 81-82, 135, 193-197 

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