(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Uniform crime reports for the United States"

rE" 



T 



M 



r " 

9 Jftt&AilL 




Bi 






vtio 



Given By ««.-«- 

U. S. SUPT. OF DOCUMENTS 



bJ 



J^^A/9 S 4-w JT 



UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C 



Volume XV Number I 

SEMIANNUAL BULLETIN • 1944 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume XV — Number 1 
SEMIANNUAL BULLETIN, 1944 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1944 



u s . ' CF DOCUSACU75 

SEP 30 1944 



J 



Contents 

Page 

Summary of volume XV, No. 1 1-2 

Classification of offenses 3 

Monthly reports: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population 

(table 1) ... 4-5 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1939-44 (table 2) 6-9 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location 

(tables 3, 4, 5) 10-13 

Offenses in individual cities over 100,000 in population (table 6) 14-16 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 7. S) 17-18 

Police employee data: 

Number of police department employees per 1.000 inhabitants, April 

30, 1944, cities grouped by size and location (tables 9, 10) 19-21 

Number of auxiliary police per 1,000 inhabitants, April 30, 1944, cities 

grouped by size and location (tables 9, 11) 22-23 

Number of police employees and number of auxiliary police in indi- 
vidual cities over 25,000 in population, April 30, 1944 (table 12) 24-28 

Annual reports: 

Offenses known and offenses cleared by arrest, 1943 — cities divided 

according to population (table 13) 29-33 

Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1943 — cities divided according 

to population (tables 14, 15) 34-36, 38 

Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and persons found guilty, 

1943, part I offenses (table 16) 37, 39-40 

Persons charged (held for prosecution), and persons found guilty, 1943, 

part II offenses (table 17) 41 

Persons released (not held for prosecution), 1943 — cities divided ac- 
cording to population (tables 18, 19) 41-44 

Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and persons charged, 1943, 

by geographic divisions (tables 20, 21) 44-47 

Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1944: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 22) 48 

Age distribution of persons arrest ed (tables 23, 24) 48-51 

Definitions of part I and part II offense classifications 52-53 

(ID 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department of 
Justice, Washington, D. C. 



Volume XV July 1944 Number 1 



SUMMARY 

Crime Trends, January-June, 1939-44. 

A 3.7-percent increase in crime was recorded for the first half of 
1944 with crimes against the person showing a 4.5-percent increase 
and crimes against property, a 3.7-percent increase over the figures 
for the first half of 1943. 

Negligent manslaughters rose 26.4 percent over the first half of 194.'! 
and exceeded the pre-war average for January-June of 1939-41 by 
14.4 percent. Aggravated assaults were up 5.1 percent over the first 
half of last year and 19.6 percent over the pre-war average for the 
same period. Although the number of rapes reported the first half 
of 1944 was 1.2 percent under the 1943 midyear figure, they still 
exceed the pre-war average for January-June by 26.9 percent. 
Murders for the first half of 1944 declined 3.3 percent compared with 
the same period of 1943 and were 7.5 percent under the pre-war 
average. 

Auto thefts during the first half of 1944 showed the unusual rise of 
26.6 percent over January-June of last year and the figures even ex- 
ceeded the pre-war average for the" same period by 20.1 percent. 
Burglaries showed a 1.4 percent increase over the first half of 1943, 
while robberies and larcenies decreased 6.1 percent and 0.2 percent 
respectively. 

Although the general increase in the total property crimes com- 
mitted was moderate, the value of property stolen increased 39.6 
percent during the first 6 months of 1944, as compared with the same 
period of 1943. The loot in cash alone increased 25.9 percent. 

Police Department Employees and Auxiliary Police, April 30, 1944, 

There were 1.73 police employees for each 1,000 inhabitants in 
cities over 25,000 as of April 30, 1944, representing a 5.5-percent 
reduction in police personnel as compared with the figures for April 
30, 1942. Generally, the larger cities had more police employees per 
unit of population than the smaller communities, with cities over 
250,000 in population in the New England States reporting 2.67 

(1) 



police employees per 1,000 inhabitants and cities with from 25,000 
to 50,000 inhabitants in the West North Central States showing 0.94. 

The number of auxiliary police varies considerably among the 
geographic divisions with the Pacific States showing 5.91 and the 
West North Central States reporting 1.78 auxiliary police per 1,000 
inhabitants on April 30, 1944. 

This bulletin contains summary tabulations showing the number of 
police employees and auxiliary police, together with the number of 
each per 1,000 inhabitants for cities grouped according to size and 
location. The figures for individual cities are also presented. 

Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1943. 

The police, on the average, made arrests last year in 28.9 percent 
of the crimes reported to them. For crimes against the person of 
which 75.4 percent were cleared, murders solved ranked first with 
90.5 percent of such crimes cleared by arrest, followed by negligent 
manslaughters with an 84.0 percent clearance. Seventy-four percent 
of the rapes were followed by the perpetrator's arrest, as were 73.7 
percent of the other felonious assaults. 

Of the crimes against property 26.4 percent were cleared with the 
individual offense classes showing the following proportion of cleared 
cases: Robbery, 38.1 percent; burglary, 30.7 percent; auto theft, 20. 5 
percent; and larceny, 24.1 percent. 

Persons Found Guilty, 1943. 

Over 80 percent of the persons arrested and formally charged by 
the police were found guilty by the courts last year. The successful 
prosecutions ranged from 48.7 percent for manslaughter by negligence 
and 60.5 percent for offenses against family and children to 91.5 per- 
cent for driving while intoxicated and 91.9 percent for the general 
classification including drunkeness, disorderly conduct and vagrancy. 

Persons Arrested, 1944. 

Among the 237,104 fingerprint arrest records examined during the 
first half of 1944, were the fingerprints of 40,485 arrested women, 
representing 17.1 percent of the total. Compared with the first 6 
months of 1943, the male arrests increased 1.4 percent and the arrests 
of females increased 10.2 percent. 

The predominating age of the males arrested was 17 and for females, 
18. The largest increases for individual age groups were seen for 
age 16 among the boys ( + 25.0 percent) and for age 20 among the 
girls ( + 23.4 percent). More than one-half of all crimes against 
property wore committed by persons less than 25 years of age. accord- 
ing to the fingerprints received at the FBI during the first half of 
1944. 

Of the males 51.3 percent were repeaters, and 29.9 percent of the 
females had prior fingerprint arrest records on file at the FBI. 



CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to the 
police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting or 
court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following group 
of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be those most 
generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal homicide, 
including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (6) manslaugh- 
ter by negligence ; rape ; robbery ; aggravated assault ; burglary — break- 
ing or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The figures contained 
herein include also the number of attempted crimes of the designated 
classes. In other words, an attempted burglary or robbery, for ex- 
ample, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner as if the crime 
had been completed. Attempted murders, however, are reported as 
aggravated assaults. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the law-enforce- 
ment agencies of contributing communities and not merely arrests or 
cleared cases. Offenses committed by juveniles are included in the 
same manner as those known to have been committed by adults, 
regardless of the prosecutive action. Complaints which upon inves- 
tigation are learned to be groundless are not included in the tabulations 
which follow. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions of 
part I and II offense classifications. 



MONTHLY REPORTS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population. 

The number of offenses known and the rate per 100,000 inhabitants 
for January-June 1944 are presented in table 1. The data are based 
on the monthly uniform crime reports of 2,157 cities, and the summary 
information is shown for these cities grouped by size. 

The cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants generally show more 
crime per unit of population than the smaller communities. For the 
first 6 months of 1944 exceptions to this were noted for two offense 
classes. For aggravated assault the crime rate in cities with popula- 
tion from 50,000 to 100,000 was the highest, and for larceny the rate 
in cities from 25,000 to 100,000 exceeded the rate for cities with 
population in excess of 250,000. 

The following tabulation shows the distribution of the^reported 
offenses: 



Ofiense 



Total 

Larceny. __ 
Burglary.. 
Auto theft . 



Rate per 
100,000 



690.6 



385.5 
148.6 
101.0 



Percent 



55.8 
21.5 
14.6 



Offense 



Assault 

Robbery 

Rape 

Murder 

Manslaughter 



Rate per 
100,000 



25.3 

20.7 

5.3 

2.3 

1.9 



Percent 



3.7 

3.0 

.8 

.3 

.3 



Although the foregoing percent distribution indicates that only 5.1 
percent of the reported crimes consisted of criminal homicides, rapes, 
and other felonious assaults, it should be observed that the cities 
represented in table 1 reported a total of 1,502 murders, 1,273 negligent 
manslaughters, 3,504 rapes, and 16,808 other felonious assaults. 

(4) 



Table No. 1. — Offenses known to the police, January to June, inclusive, 1944; 
number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Criminal 

homicide 



Population group 



GROUP I 



total 



35 cities over 250,000; 
population, 29,599,432: 
Number of offenses known . 
Rate per 100,000 



55 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,792,650: 
Number of offenses known . . 
Rate per 100,000 

GROUP III 

104 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 7,175,075: 
Number of offenses known_ 
Rate per 100,000 



202 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 7,041,365: 
Number of offenses known . . 
Rate per 100,000 



GROUP v 

552 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 8,365,066: 
Number of offenses known. 
Rate per 100,000 



GROUP VI 

1,209 cities under 10,000; total 
population, 6,359,833: 
Number of offenses known. 
Rate per 100,000 



TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

2,157 cities; total population, 
66,333,421: 
Number of offenses known . 
Rate per 100,000 



Murder, 
nonneg 

ligent 

man- 

slaugh 

ter 



779 
2.63 



234 
3.00 



176 
2.45 



109 
1.55 



126 
1.51 



78 
1.23 



1,502 
2.26 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



672 
2.27 



213 
2.73 



141 
1.97 



122 
1.73 



71 
0.85 



54 
0.85 



1.273 
1.92 



Rape 



1,959 
6.62 



427 

5.48 



264 
3.75 



312 
3.73 



241 
3.79 



3,504 
5.28 



Rob- 
bery 



8,852 
29.9 



1,713 

22.0 



301 1,028 
4. 20 14. 3 



819 
11.6 



551 

8.7 



13, 702 
20.7 



Aggra- 
vated 



sault 



S, 380 
28.3 



2,310 
29.6 



2,279 
31.8 



1,816 
25.8 



1,131 
13.5 



892 
14.0 



16, 808 
25.3 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



i 34, 443 
170.4 



15, 072 
193.4 



11,258 
156.9 



9. 006 
128.8 



9,209 
110. 1 



5,581 
87.8 



i 84, 629 
148.6 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



> 78, 300 
387.4 



35, 644 
457. 4 



31,218 
435. 1 



29,419 
417.8 



30, 351 
362.8 



14, 579 
229.2 



i 219.511 
385.5 



Auto 
theft 



32, 374 
109.4 



10, 857 
139.3 



7,312 
101.9 



6, 21S 



6,496 
77.7 



3,765 
59.2 



67. 020 
10!. 



1 The number of offenses and tate for burglary and larceny— theft are based on reports as follows: Group I, 
33 cities, total population, 20,213,103; groups 1-VI, 2,155 cities, total population, 56,947,092. 



ANNUAL CRIME TRENDS 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE 

January-June, 1939-1944 

318 CITIES WITH OVER 25,000 INHABITANTS; 
COMBINED POPULATION 45,062,198 



Murder 




Negligent 
Manslaughter 




January - June 



Rape 




Aggravated 

Assault 



[ OFFENSE 1939 


1940 


1941 


1942 


1943 


1944 


-•''vX-S-i 


1.259 


1,185 


1,277 


1,264 


1,183 


1,144 


i 


by Ncg 






789 


971 


901 


973 


802 


1,014 


■ 


Ra] 


2,051 


2,038 


2,155 


2,300 


2,673 


2,641 






In 9,682 


10,206 


IO,649 


1 1,042 


1 1,585 


12,174 






Figure 1. 



Annual Trends, Offenses Known to the Police, January-June 1939-44. 

The first 6 months of 1944 showed a general 3.7-percent increase in 
crime in the United States, compared with the first half of 1943, ac- 
cording to the reports received from 318 of the Nation's largest cities 
Crimes against the person showed 4.5-percent increase while offenses 
against property rose 3.7 percent. 

Among the crimes against the person, the increase in manslaughter 
by negligence of 26.4 percent represented the most pronounced change. 
The unusual rise in these offenses was noted most during the first 
quarter when the figures exceeded those for the similar period of 1 943 
by 36.1 percent and during the second quarter an increase of 15.7 per- 
cent was registered over the figures for April-June of last year. 
Compared with the average figures for January-June of 1939-41, 
negligent manslaughters this year were up 14.4 percent. 

Aggravated assaults for the first half of 1944 exceeded by 5.1 per- 
cent the figures for the first half of last year, and the increase was 
most pronounced during the second quarter. For the period Jan- 
uary-March a 1.2-percent increase was reflected in the reports, while 
for the second quarter the increase was 8.6 percent. By the end of 
June the aggravated assault figures for 1944 exceeded the pre-war 
average for the same period by 19.6 percent. 

Murders during the period of April-June of this year were 3.1 per- 
cent in excess of the number for the same period of last year, but this 
increase was more than offset by a 10.1-percent decrease recorded for 
the preceding quarter with the result that the figures for the 6-month 
period showed a 3.3-percent decrease. The January-June 1944 mur- 
der figure was 7.5 percent under the pre-war 'average for the same 
months. 

In comparison with comparable periods of 1943, rapes increased 7.2 
percent during the first quarter of 1944 and decreased 8.5 percent 
during the second quarter. For the first half of this year the number 
of such crimes showed a 1.2-percent decline from the same period of 
1943, but the figures still exceed the pre-war average for January- 
June of 1939-41 by 26.9 percent. 

The most pronounced trend among the offenses against property 
was seen for auto theft where a 26.6-percent rise was reflected during 
the first half of 1944, as compared with January- June of 1943. The 
increase in these offenses was particularly marked during January- 
March of this year when the number of such crimes exceeded by 46.9 
percent the figures for the first quarter of 1943. For the second quar- 
ter of this year the increase amounted to 9.9 percent. The number 
of auto thefts reported during the first half of 1944 reflected a 20.1 
percent increase over the average figure for January-June 1939-41, 
despite the shortage of automobiles, tires, and gasoline. However, 

605344 — 44— — 2 



8 



most of the stolen cars were recovered by the police as indicated in 
the data preceeding table 7 of this bulletin. 

Burglaries showed a 1.4-percent increase for the first half of 1944, 
over the same period of the previous year. For the first quarter the 
increase was 5.3 percent and a 2.4-percent decrease was reflected in 
the figures for April-June. 

Larcenies showed little change (—0.2 percent) at the close of June. 
During the first quarter of 1944, a 3.7-percent increase was reflected 
in these offenses over the same period of the previous year, while a 
3.6-percent decline was recorded during the second quarter. For 
offenses of robbery a 6.1-percent decrease was shown for the first half 
of this year. 

A summary of the offenses reported during January-June of 1939-44 
is presented in table 2. The average figures for 1939-41 are shown 
for January-March and April- June separately as well as for the first 
6 months as a whole in comparison with similar periods of 1942-44. 

Table 2. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 318 cities over 25,000 in 
population, January-June 1939-44 

[Total population, 45,062,198, based on 1940 decennial census] 



January to March: 
Average 1939-41 

1942 

1943 

1944.... 

April to June: 

Average 1939-41 

1942 

1943.-. 

1944 

January to June: 
Average 1939^1 

1942 

1943 

1944 



Criminal 
homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


591 
595 
575 
517 

646 
669 
608 
627 

1,237 
1,264 
1,183 
1,144 


476 
553 
421 
573 

410 
420 
381 
441 

886 

973 

802 

1,014 


1,017 
1,115 
1,243 
1,332 

1,064 
1,185 
1,430 
1,309 

2,081 
2.300 
2,673 
2,641 


7,350 
7,046 
6,310 
5,930 

5,927 
5,775 
5,526 
5,185 

13, 277 
12, 821 
11, 836 
11,115 


4,597 
4,957 
5,513 
5,580 

5,584 
6,085 
6,072 
6,594 

10, 181 
11,042 
11,. 585 
12,174 


36, 674 
36, 299 
31, 679 
33, 352 

33, 961 

30. 634 
31,336 
30, 576 

70. 635 
66,933 
63,015 
63.928 


90,740 
98,801 
74, 482 
77, 206 

94, 049 
97, 672 
85, 543 
82, 486 

184, 789 
196, 473 
160,025 
159,692 



Auto 
theft 



20, 731 
21,999 
17,321 
25, 444 

19.558 
19, 069 
20,890 
22, 950 

40, 289 
41,068 
38,211 
48,394 



ANNUAL CRIME TRENDS 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE 

January-June, 1939-1944 

318 CITIES WITH OVER 25,000 INHABITANTS; 
COMBINED POPULATION 45,062,198 




January -June 



OFFENSE 1939 



14,056 




69,945 



76,170 



38,301 



3,449 



72,253 



187,761 



40,552 



12,325 



69,698 



190,430 



4 2,02 



12,82 1 



66,933 



196,47 3 



4 1 ,068 



1,836 



63,OI5 



I 60,025 



38,21 



I 1,1 15 



63,928 



159,692 



48,394 



Larceny 





1940 


1941 


1942 






i 


i 


Y//> 


w 


1943 

1 


1944 

1 


1 


i 


I 


A 


1 


1 



Asitd Theft 




ra 



Figure 2. 



10 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location. 

Since the extent of crime varies noticeably among the several states 
and larger geographic divisions, the crime rate data presented in table 
1, with reference to offenses of murder, robbery, aggravated assault, 
burglary, larceny, and auto theft are further subdivided according to 
location, and such regional data are presented in tables 4 and 5. 
The information presented in these tabulations makes available re- 
gional crime averages to interested individuals desiring to make com- 
parisons with local figures. 

In examining crime rates for individual states and geographic 
divisions, it should be remembered that in the interest of uniformity 
the 1940 decennial census population figures were used in preparing the 
data, and in some sections of the country marked changes in the popu- 
lation of many communities have occurred since 1940. 

The information presented in tables 1, 4, and 5 is supplemented by 
the data presented in table 3 which show the number of cities used in 
preparing the tabulations. 



11 



Table 3. — Number of cities in each Stale included in the tabulation of uniform crime 
reports, January to June, inclusive, 1944 



Division and State 



Population 



Over 
250,000 



100,000 

to 
250,000 



50,000 

to 
100,000 



25,000 

to 
50,000 



10,000 

to 
25,000 



Less 
than 
10,000 



Total 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England: 183 cities; total population, 
5,942,466 

Middle Atlantic: 521 cities; total population, 
19,528,098 

Kast North Central: 515 cities; total popula- 
tion, 16,342,201 

West North Central: 264 cities; total popula- 
tion, 5,403,560 

South Atlantic: > 197 cities; total population, 
5,767,215. 

Kast South Central: 84 cities; total popula- 
tion, 2,385,443 

West South Central: 126 cities; total popula- 
tion, 3,504,239 

Mountain: 86 cities; total population, 
1,456,619 

Pacific: 181 cities; total population, 6,003,580. - . 



New England: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

Middle Atlantic- 
New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

East North Central: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

West North Central: 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas .— 

South Atlantic: 

District of Columbia - 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida. 

East South Central: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama. 

Mississippi 

West South Central: 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma 

Texas 

Mountain: 

Montana... 

Idaho 

Wyoming. 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Pacific: 

Washington 

Oregon.. 

California 



52 
106 



71) 

L37 

85 
31 
89 
54 
44 

53 
39 
22 
6 
10 
14 
29 



29 
22 
130 



1 Includes District of Columbia. 



12 



Table 4. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to June, inclusive, 1944, by States 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 



Division and State 


Murder, 

normegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burglary — 

breaking or 

entering 


Larceny— 

theft 


Auto 
theft 


GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 


0.57 
1.22 
1.88 
1.48 
5.90 
6.92 
4.65 
1.51 
2.55 


6.0 
8.8 
29.8 
8.8 
27.8 
26.2 
19.8 
24.2 
50.1 


4.7 
13.2 
23.1 
11.9 
83.3 
59.9 
39.9 
14.4 
28.1 


109.5 
'92.4 
136.5 
99.8 
190.9 
193.8 
166.3 
217.8 
273.6 


222.8 
' 183. 7 
353.4 
291.6 
506.3 
413. 5 
487.0 
657.9 
806.7 


76 3 




69 :, 


Hast North Central . ... 


79 5 


West North Central 


69 


South Atlantic 2 


143 (i 


East South Central... 


125.8 


West South Central 


120 2 


Mountain 


123.1 
248 4 






New England: 


1.05 
.40 


6.3 
.4 


3.5 


115.4 
67.9 
67.6 
104.2 
111.6 
138.0 

3 68. 5 
124.3 
•91.6 

149.4 
137.6 
125.5 
173.4 
60.1 

82.1 
84.2 
107.0 
97.0 
65.0 
122.5 
130.0 

271.6 
99.0 
265. 1 
142.6 
189.1 
177.4 
197.2 
279.0 

247.0 
165.0 
194.8 
142.7 

116.0 
71.2 

192. 
205.3 

108.1 
196.7 
154.0 
225.5 
182.6 
256. 1 
254.8 
394.2 

264.4 
322.0 
270.6 


286. 5 
167.8 
295.5 
200.5 
209. 5 
293.3 

3 202.4 

211.4 

• 146. 9 

375.5 
480.0 
222.6 
492.6 
323.5 

226.9 
294.4 
289.9 
269.6 
294.7 
365.5 
371.7 

614.3 
265.3 
634.5 
246.3 
455.1 
654.8 
626. 4 
744.8 

452.7 
365.5 
434. 7 
412.3 

562.2 
255. 7 
520.2 
570.5 

455.3 
613.9 
713.7 
592. 7 
443.5 
1,046.6 
744. 1 
875. 2 

703. S 
829.1 

823. 


69.3 




21.4 




4.0 
4.1 
6.0 

7.4 

12.9 
20.8 
10.2 

22.6 
24.4 
21.8 
34.5 
3.9 

3.3 

2.6 

28.8 


38.3 




.50 
.17 
1.01 

1.20 
1.17 
1.28 

2.15 
1.75 
2.20 
1.84 
.25 

.74 
.86 
2.52 


6.5 
5.5 
6.2 

5.8 
10.4 
13.8 

26.5 
21.1 
41.9 
30.7 
4.3 

6.7 
4.3 

13.6 
1.6 
6.8 
5.5 

11.2 

35.1 
24.8 
40.2 
20.7 
17.7 
23.0 
27.3 
32.3 

36.7 
27.5 
17.4 
14.6 

30.9 
13.4 

20.2 
21.4 

10.1 
4.7 
19.3 
27.7 
16. 1 
44.4 
24.5 
51.8 

23.4 
44.8 
55.5 


75. 3 


Rhode Island... 


102. 1 


Connecticut 


83.4 


Middle Atlantic: 


67.7 




83.3 




66.2 


East North Central: 

Ohio 


90.6 




121.3 


Illinois... 


52.2 




103.4 




50.5 


West North Central: 
Minnesota 


45.6 




63.1 




71.9 




61.7 




.68 
1.31 

1.72 

4.28 
4.40 
6.14 
2.89 
5.91 
6.06 
10.62 
6.64 

4.63 
7.64 
7.97 
8.24 

3.98 
4.75 
2.94 
5.28 


2.7 
9.0 

5.7 

5.1 
59.7 
91.5 
37.8 
207.5 
64.8 
72.0 
76.5 

52.6 
45.5 
88.2 
59.5 

40.3 
49.0 
21.8 
42.2 

8.9 
8.0 
9.6 
12.1 
10.7 
37.2 
10.2 
41.8 

8.8 
23.2 
32. -2 


66.3 


Nebraska 


115.5 


Kansas 


86.9 


South Atlantic: 


137. 9 


Maryland 


176.0 


Virginia 


160.7 




63.6 




104.0 


South Carolina 


141.4 




152.1 


Florida _._ 


173.7 


East South Central: 


156.3 




131.9 


Alabama 


91.5 


M ississippi 


105.6 


West South Central: 


104.1 




116.1 


Oklahoma 


103. 




129.9 


Mountain: 


76.5 


Idaho 


1.33 


105. U 




97. :, 




1.52 
2.15 
3.58 
2.05 


91.7 




99.9 




231. 1 


Utah 


148.9 




282. 3 


Pacific: 


1.26 
1.31 
2.91 


ao& 9 




227. 3 




258. 2 







1 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 519 cities with a total population of 
10,111,769. 
- Includes report of District of Columbia. 

3 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on reports of ltitiYilies. 
• 'Die rules for burglary and larceny are based on reports of 222 cities. 



13 



Table 5. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to June, inclusive, 1944, by geographic divisions and population groups 

[Based on 1940 decennial.census] 



Geographic division and 
population group 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



NEW ENGLAND 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III. 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC 
Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

EAST NORTH CENTRAL 

Group I 

Group II _ 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

WEST NORTH CENTRAL 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III .-- 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

SOUTH ATLANTIC 2 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI : 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III... 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL 
Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

MOUNTAIN 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

PACIFIC 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III_ 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 



0.68 
1.03 
.31 
.26 
.46 
.55 



1.62 
.83 

1.07 
.93 
.31 
.37 



2.65 
1.89 
1.48 
.81 
.89 
.87 



2.51 
2.36 
.55 
1.11 
.43 
.23 



5.54 
6.87 
6.79 
4.29 
7.08 
3.75 



5.91 
11.30 
7.83 
4.93 
6.16 
5.52 



7.59 
4.58 
2.86 
2.97 
1.84 
4.17 



1.24 
3.33 
4.25 
2.03 
.30 
.71 



2.73 
2.70 
3.08 
2.31 
2.64 
1.05 



Robbery 



11.1 
8.5 
5.3 
4.0 
1.6 
2.7 



10.3 
9.1 
9.3 
5.4 
6.6 
3.4 



47.5 
30.9 
13.7 
10.4 
8.4 
5.3 



13.3 
12.6 
6.9 
3.1 
4.5 
3.3 



30.6 
47.2 
23.9 
25.9 
10.7 
13.8 



33.9 
27.3 
17.1 
30.8 
13.0 
14.7 



27.4 
22.3 
18.2 
11.6 
12.3 
14.7 



38.8 
15.3 
26.4 
13.4 
11.5 
36.2 



72.4 
27.2 
28.9 
24.2 
29.3 
20.3 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



8.2 
6.3 
3.9 
2.3 
2.8 
4.4 



15.6 
14.5 
9.3 
10.7 
9.1 
6.6 



34.4 
26.8 
16.2 
9.2 
6.0 
6.7 



5.3 
1.7 
1.5 
2.6 



52.6 
99.7 
112.8 
144.8 
62.3 
51.2 



58.1 
38.8 
114.6 
69.4 
35.8 
52.5 



54.4 
34.7 
33.4 
46.8 
19.2 
32.8 



10.9 
14.7 
32.3 
13.8 

7.7 
19.5 



37.2 
27.4 
15.4 
11.7 
17.5 
16.6 



Burglary- 
breaking or 
entering 



75.7 
162.7 
125.6 
98.8 
81.4 
82.2 



i 103. 2 
122.6 
120.8 
84.3 
71.5 
58.8 



156.4 
185.0 
132.7 
112.0 
96.5 
70.8 



105.8 
107.6 
146.4 
92.0 
97.5 
54.8 



140.6 
328.2 
207.5 
204.5 
141.8 
118.9 



251.6 
207.8 
222.5 
140.9 
134.3 
51.1 



182.2 
263.8 
134.3 
137.3 
111.9 
133.9 



285.0 
238.1 
232.2 
215.1 
177.1 
175.1 



300.0 
240.6 
288.3 
247.8 
271.9 
183.5 



Larceny- 
theft 



160.7 
280.3 
268.0 
227.7 
183. 5 
166.0 



i 157. 1 
215.9 
221.2 
235. 1 
175.6 
120.4 



337.5 
504.7 
412.2 
387.4 
338.9 
205.4 



256.7 
339.7 
476.3 
331.9 
354.9 
127.9 



372.7 
750.1 
595.9 
583.0 
457.2 
292.0 



508.0 
396.4 
368.8 
406.4 
429.8 
110.4 



455.3 
672.4 
527.8 
628.9 
388.4 
224.5 



577.2 
594.3 
830.1 
921.6 
728.8 
397.1 



750.7 
741.7 
972.2 
870.0 
1,081.0 
702.6 



1 The number of offenses and rates for burglary and larceny— theft are based on reports of 4 cities. 
* Includes the District of Columbia. 



14 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 100,000 Inhabitants. 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the period of January-June 1944 is shown in table 6. The compila- 
tion includes the reports received from police departments in cities 
with more than 100,000 inhabitants. Police administrators and other 
interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare the 
crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in tables 1 
and 5 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire to 
make comparisons with the figures for their communities for prior 
periods, in order to determine whether there has been an increase or a 
decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

Caution should be exercised in comparing crime data for individual 
cities, because differences in the figures may be due to a variety of 
factors. The amount of crime committed in a community is not 
solely chargeable to the police but is rather a charge against the entire 
community. The following is a list of some of the factors which 
might affect the amount of crime in a community: 

Population of the city and metropolitan area adjacent thereto. 

The composition of the population with reference particularly to 
age, sex, and race. 

The economic status and activities of the population. 

Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 

The number of police employees per unit of population. 

The standards governing appointments to the police force. 

The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 

The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 

The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 
It should be remembered that the war has brought about marked 
changes in some of the foregoing factors in many communities. 

In comparing crime rates, it is generally more important to de- 
termine whether the figures for a given community show increases or 
decreases in the amount of crime committed than to ascertain whether 
the figures are above or below those of some other community. 



15 



Table 6. 



-Number of offenses known to the police, January to June, inclusive, 1944, 
cities over 100,000 in population 



City 



Akron, Ohio 

Albany, N. Y 

Atlanta, Ga 

Baltimore, Md ... 
Birmingham, Ala. 



Boston, Mass..... 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Camden, N. J 



Canton, Ohio 

Charlotte, N. C 

Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 



Cleveland, Ohio. 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Dallas, Tex 

Dayton, Ohio 

Denver, Colo 



Des Moines, Iowa. 

Detroit, Mich 

Duluth, Minn... . 

Elizabeth, N. J 

Erie, Pa 



Fall River, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Fort Wavne, Ind 
Fort Worth, Tex. 
Gary, Ind 



Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Hartford, Conn 

Honolulu, Hawaii 

Houston, Tex 

Indianapolis, Ind . 



Jacksonville, Fla... 
Jersey City, N. J... 
Kansas City, Kans. 
Kansas City, Mo.. 
Knoxville, Tenn... 



Long Beach, Calif 
Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass ... 

Memphis, Tenn. 



Miami, Fla 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

Nashville, Tenn 

Newark, N. J 



New Bedford, Mass. 
New Haven, Conn.. 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N. Y> 
Norfolk, Va_ 



Oakland, Calif 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha, Nebr.. 

Paterson, N. J 

Peoria, HI 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



11 
3 
8 
17 
13 

2 
3 

31 
112 

16 



Robbery 



58 

11 

131 

236 

54 

95 
11 
26 
7 
27 

40 
24 
32 
2,057 
114 

344 

157 
77 
77 

125 

6 

850 

11 

10 

4 



29 

7 

28 

100 

12 
31 
4 

162 
128 



20 

53 

1,217 

146 

3 



523 
135 

240 
36 
18 
22 
17 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



41 
10 

156 
579 
86 

77 
7 

65 
7 

19 

44 
202 

42 
965 
260 

247 
35 

274 
80 
35 



2 
9 

10 

3 

69 

7 

71 

67 

7 
38 
51 

75 
202 



Burg- 
lary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



515 
117 
758 
875 
635 

421 
173 
209 
106 

218 

228 
346 
255 
4,985 
939 

881 
777 
905 
303 
919 

121 
3, 250 
85 
121 
131 

200 
367 
137 
504 
274 

243 
448 
459 
1,210 
516 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



234 
29 
421 
479 
315 

339 

112 

104 

19 

63 



70 
,515 
363 

316 
339 
196 
94 
341 

44 
950 
50 
45 
21 

51 
161 
81 
72 



72 
103 
217 
391 
355 



107 484 447 

Complete data not received 
60 
358 
199 

P) 

3,653 

810 

30 

170 

211 
214 
208 
121 

312 

62 
78 
272 



13 


157 


112 


498 


54 


153 


50 


561 


495 


4,574 


234 


1,202 


1 


83 


191 


376 


315 


640 


41 


328 


20 


501 


62 


438 


198 


733 


10 


291 


9 


271 


215 


294 


1,169 


2,413 


201 


807 


185 


1,032 


70 


365 


31 


307 


58 


233 


2 


183 



(') 



315 



Under 
$50 



733 

164 

1,508 

1,653 

1, 171 

866 
341 
533 
167 
152 

376 

471 

429 

4,803 

1, 381 

3,043 
947 
2,851 
1,122 
1,520 

476 
6,966 
352 
193 
222 

220 
874 
567 
1,169 
444 

1,063 

638 

844 

2,945 

1,711 



245 

1.103 

336 

1,218 

8,332 

1,141 

119 

861 

723 

1,536 

549 

459 

750 

465 
488 
723 
5,299 
700 

2,161 

1,266 

660 

123 

266 



See footnotes at end of table. 
605344 — 44 3 



16 



Table 6.' — Number of offenses known to the police, January to June, inclusive, 1944, 
cities over 100,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Auto 
theft 



Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pittsburgh, Pa... 
Portland, Oreg... 
Providence, R. I. 
Reading, Pa 



Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y.. 
Sacramento, Calif. 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn.... 



Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif... 
Scranton, Pa 



Seattle, Wash 

Somerville, Mass.. 
South Bend, Ind.. 
Spokane, Wash... 
Springfield, Mass. 



Syracuse, N. Y. 
Tacoma, Wash. 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo, Ohio... 
Trenton, N. J.. 



Tulsa, Okla 

Utica, N. Y 

Washington, D. O. 

Wichita, Kans 

Wilmington, Del.. 



Worcester, Mass. . 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, Ohio. 



339 

154 

187 

19 



23 
60 
42 

500 



110 
5 

26 

25 

1 

6 
20 
66 
66 
27 

53 

7 

192 

7 

41 

30 

2 

92 



278 
59 
100 

7 



131 
13 

34 

357 

21 

22 
326 

81 
349 

16 



26 
18 

8 

7 
10 
39 

r,r, 
47 

41 

6 

L'2. r . 



1,619 
807 

1,263 
354 
160 

432 

318 
176 
815 
297 

357 
560 
363 
1,277 
142 

1,198 
194 
177 
272 
145 

244 
324 
271 
709 
219 

514 
67 
932 
106 
316 

297 
112 
319 



506 
200 
694 
129 
30 



(0 



321 
64 
214 

eg 



87 
336 
573 

39 

504 
14 

103 
76 
62 

87 
90 
192 
203 
100 

162 
40 

531 
46 

175 

153 
20 
19 



685 
486 
2,223 
381 
200 

1,347 

697 

1,085 

1,977 

859 

795 

740 

1,005 

3,136 

136 

1,821 
128 
556 
648 
284 

675 
557 
727 
1, 075 
291 

768 
274 

2,207 
447 
528 

271 
175 
450 



1,450 

816 

788 

367 

70 

368 
218 
242 
739 
163 

210 

315 

815 

1.625 

fill 

935 
62 
104 
125 
130 

213 

234 
273 
352 
135 

210 
85 

847 
99 

159 

185 
73 

259 



1 Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 
3 Figures include offenses committed by juveniles; this is in accord with the uniform reporting procedure 
followed by other cities. 



17 

Supplement to Return A Data. 

Forcible rape increased 4.0 percent and statutory offenses (no force 
used — victim under age of consent) declined 10.5 percent during 
January-June of 1944 in comparision with the same period of 1943, 
according to the supplementary crime reports received from 269 cities 
with over 25,000 inhabitants (combined population 31,205,147). The 
forcible offenses during the first half of this year represented 63.1 per- 
cent of the total rape cases. 

Of the burglaries reported, 58.6 percent involved nonresidence 
structures with 92.1 percent of such crimes committed during the 
night. Private homes were burglarized in 41.4 percent of the cases 
and 67.6 percent of these occurred during the night with 32.4 percent 
perpetrated during the daylight hours. The nighttime burglaries 
showed a general increase of 3.8 percent. Seventy-four percent of the 
robberies were classed as highway robbery. 

Despite the large increase in auto thefts reported, the police re- 
covered 96.7 percent of the stolen cars as indicated by the folio wing- 
figures : 



January-June 



1943 



1944 



Number of automobiles stolen 

Number of automobiles recovered. 
Percent recovered 



29,701 

28,569 

96.2 



36, 355 

35, 172 

96.7 



Larcenies in which the property was valued at $50 or more increased 
29.9 percent during January-June of 1944, over the first half of 1943, 
with the minor thefts showing a 3.2-percent decline. The largest in- 
crease was seen in thefts of automobile accessories (+67.1 percent). 
Thefts of other personal property from parked automobiles were up 
9.9 percent and pocket-picking offenses rose 4.1 percent. Purse- 
snatching decreased 2.1 percent; shoplifting, —23.4 percent; bicycle 
theft, —15.0 percent; while the group classed as "all others" showed 
little change (—0.6 percent) . An analysis of the supplementary crime 
reports appears in tables 7 and 8. 

Although the total crimes against property reported by the cities 
represented in this study of supplementary crime reports showed 
only a 4.3-percent increase, the total value of property stolen increased 
39.6 percent from $23,559,000 during the first 6 months of 1943 to 
$32,895,000 during the fiist half of 1944. Although part of this rise 
may be attributable to a general wartime increase in property values, 
it is worthy of note that the amount of actual cash stolen, as dis- 
tinguished from other personal property, increased 25.9 percent. 

The value of property stolen and recovered during the first 6 
months of 1943-44, subdivided by type of property involved, is shown 
in table 8, which indicates that 70.9 percent of the stolen property 
was recovered during the first half of this year. Exclusive of auto- 
mobiles, the percentage recovered was 25.7. 



18 



Table 7. — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission, and value of property stolen, January to June, 
inclusive, 1943~44'> ^69 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, 
31,205,147 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Classification 


Number of offenses 


Percent 


1943 


1944 


change 


Rape: 


1,036 
703 


1,077 
629 


+4.0 




-10.5 






Total 


y 1, 739 


1,706 


-1.9 






Robbery: 


6,958 

1,569 

162 

53 

441 

6 

523 


6,590 
. 1.351 

135 

41 

407 

7 

371 


-5.3 




-13.9 




-16.7 




-22.6 




-7.7 




+ 16.7 




-29.1 






Total 


9,712 


8,902 


-8.3 






Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Residence (dwelling): 

Committed during night 


13, 807 
6,970 

26, 802 
2,411 


14, 413 
6,897 

27, 731 
2,372 


+4.4 
-1.0 


Nonresidence (store, office, etc.) : 


+3.5 




-1.6 






Total 


49, 990 


51,413 


+2.8 






Larceny — theft (except auto theft) (grouped according to value of 
article stolen) : 


18, 582 
85, 044 
23,265 


24, 133 

84, 895 
19,904 


+ 29.9 


$5to$50._ 


-.2 


Under $5 


-14.4 






Total --. 


126, 891 


128,932 


+1.6 






Larceny— theft (grouped as to type of offense) : 


2,519 
4,012 
4,486 
16, 229 
9,212 
28, 816 
61,617 


2,623 
3,929 
3,437 
17, 838 
15,396 
24, 491 
61,218 


+4.1 




-2. 1 




-23.4 




+9.9 




+67.1 




-15.0 




-.6 






Total 


126,891 


128, 932 


+1.6 







Table 8. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered by type of 
property, January to June, inclusive, 1943-44; 269 cities over 25,000; total pop- 
ulation, 31,205,147 

[Population figures are from 1940 decennial census. All values have been rounded off to thousands of 

dollars] 





1943 


1944 


Type of property 


Value of 

property 

stolen 


Value of 
property 
recovered 


Percent 
recov- 
ered 


Value of 
property 

stolen 


Value of 
properly 
recovered 


Peroenl 
recov- 
ered 


Currency, notes, etc 


$3, 033, 000 
1,786,000 

332, 000 

S-I9.IKH) 

1 4, 494. 000 

3,115,000 


$525, 000 

507,000 

57,000 

229, 000 

13, 783, 000 

1,101.000 


17.3 
29.2 
17.2 
27.0 
95.1 
35.3 


$3. 818, 000 

2, OSS, 000 

504, 000 

1,168,000 

21,017,000 
4, 310. 000 


$689, 000 

585,000 

76,000 

208,000 

20, 261, 000 

1,408,000 


18.0 


Jewelry and precious metals 


28.0 


Furs 

Clothing 


15. 1 
25.7 
96.4 


Miscellaneous 


32.7 


Total 


23, 559, 000 


16, 202.000 


68.8 


32, 895, 000 


23, 317, 000 


70.9 







POLICE EMPLOYEE DATA 

Number of Police Employees, April 30, 1944. 

There were 1.73 police employees for every 1,000 inhabitants in 
cities over 25,000 in population as of April 30, 1944. l The police 
personnel in these cities showed a decrease of more than 2 percent 
from April 1943 and when compared with April 1942 the figures 
for this year show a 5.5-percent decline. The decrease was general 
throughout the country, though more pronounced in some communi- 
ties than in others, of course. 

Compared with the figures for April 30, 1943, each geographic 
division considered as a unit showed a decrease as of April 30, 1944, 
except the West South Central and Pacific States, and each popula- 
tion group in these divisions showed increases in police personnel 
with the exception of group IV (25,000-50,000) in the West South 
Central States. 

Generally the larger cities have more police employees per unit of 
population than the smaller communities, although some exceptions 
to this are noted in four of the geographic divisions. In the East 
North Central States the police departments in cities with population 
from 50,000 to 100,000 show more employees per 1,000 inhabitants 
than those in cities with population from 100,000 to 250,000, and in 
the Mountain States the figures for cities from 50,000 to 100,000 ex- 
ceed that for cities over 100,000. In the South Atlantic States the 
police employees per unit of population in cities from 25,000 to 50,000 
exceed the figures for cities in the 50,000-100,000 population group. 
In the East South Central division group I cities (over 250,000) report 
only 1.17 police employees per 1,000 inhabitants, while the highest 
figure (1.38) in this region is for cities from 50,000 to 100,000, with 
group II cities (100,000-250,000) reporting 1.24 and group IV (25,000- 
50,000) reporting 1.21 employees for each 1,000 inhabitants. 

Table 10 shows the number of police department employees and the 
number per 1,000 inhabitants on April 30, 1944, for groups of cities 
divided according to size and location. Every urban community in 
the United States with population in excess of 25,000 is included in 
the summary as indicated by the figures in table 9, showing the num- 
ber of cities used in preparing the averages. 

1 1940 decennial census population figures used in all compilations. 

(19) 



20 




21 



Table 9. — Number of cities included in the tabulation of police department employ- 
ees, Apr. SO, 1944, by geographic divisions and population groups 
[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Population — 




Division 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Total 




Over 

250,000 


100,000 to 
250,000 


50,000 to 
100,000 


25,000 to 
50,000 




New England: 61 cities; total population. 4,640,655. . . 

Middle Atlantic: 80 cities; total population, 

16,093,985 


2 

7 

8 

4 
3 

3 

4 
1 
5 


10 

11 

10 

5 
7 

3 

3 

1 
5 


13 

24 

23 

8 
17 

4 

9 
2 

7 


36 
38 

60 

12 
20 

10 

13 
7 
17 


61 
80 


East North Central: 101 cities; total population. 
13,112,140 


101 


West North Central: 29 cities; total population, 
3,661,503 


29 


South Atlantic: > 47 cities; total population, 4,616,676. . 

East South Central: 20 cities; total population, 

1,891,962 


47 
20 


West South Central: 29 cities; total population, 
3,037,883 


29 




11 


Pacific: 34 cities; total population, 4,858,390 


34 






Total: 


37 
30,195,339 


55 

7, 792, 650 


107 
7,343,917 


213 
7,417,093 


412 


Population 


52, 748, 999 



1 Includes the District of Columbia. 



Table 10. — Police department employees, Apr. 30, 1944, number and rate per 1,000 

inhabitants, by geographic divisions and population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Population 




Division 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Total 




Over 

250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25.000 

to 
50,000 




New England: 


2,730 

2.67 

26, 860 

2.30 

14, 826 

1.87 

3,457 

1.73 

4,111 

2.25 

1,028 

1.17 

1,907 

1.34 

418 

1.30 

5,685 

1.83 

61,022 

2.02 


2.530 

1.86 

2,280 

1.58 

1,681 

1.13 

773 

1.07 

1,502 

1.50 

503 

1.24 

654 

1.25 

175 

1.17 

1,206 

1.71 

11, 304 

1.45 


1.534 

1.60 

2,543 

1.55 

2,017 

1.30 

519 

0.95 

1,442 

1.31 

387 

1.38 

769 

1.17 

162 

1.38 

651 

1.34 

10, 024 

1.36 


1,859 

1.43 

1,737 

1.31 

2,232 

1.03 

374 

0.94 

928 

1.36 

393 

1.21 

453 

1.05 

256 

1.04 

711 

1.29 

8,943 

1.21 


8,653 


Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 


1.86 


Middle Atlantic: 


33, 420 


Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 


2.08 


East North Central: 


20, 756 


Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 


1.58 


West North Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 


5,123 
1.40 


South Atlantic: ' 


7,983 


Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 


1.73 


East South Central: 


2,311 


Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 


1.22 


West South Central: 


3,783 


Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 


1.25 


Mountain: 


1,011 


Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 


1.21 


Pacific: 


8,253 


Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 


1.70 


Total: 


91,293 


Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 
ants 


1.73 



1 Includes the District of Columbia. 



22 



Number of Auxiliary Police, April 30, 1944. 

The survey of police employees again this year included auxiliary 
police as a separate item and it was found that the general average 
for the country was 163 auxiliary police for each 100 police depart- 
ment employees. The summary is presented in table 11 and the 
figures include all volunteers for auxiliary police work who were 
accepted for service as of April 30, 1944, and who may be called by 
the police to assist them during any emergency condition arising as 
a result of the war. 



Table 11. — Auxiliary 'police, Apr. 30, 1944, number and rale per 1 ,000 inhabitants 
by geographic divisions and population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Division 



New England: 

Number of auxiliary 
Average number of 

inhabitants 

Middle Atlantic: 

Number of auxiliary 
Average number of 

inhabitants 

East North Central: 
Number of auxiliary 
Average number of 

inhabitants 

West North Central: 
Number of auxiliary 
Average number of 

inhabitants 

South Atlantic: 

Number of auxiliary 
Average number of 

inhabitants 

East South Central: 
Number of auxiliary 
Average number of 

inhabitants 

West South Central : 
Number of auxiliary 
Average number of 

inhabitants 

Mountain: 

Number of auxiliary 
Average number of 

inhabitants 

Pacific: 

Number of auxiliary 
Average number of 

inhabitants... 

Total: 

Number of auxiliary 

Average number of 

inhabitants 



police. 

auxiliary police per 1,000 



police 

auxiliary police per 1,000 



police 

auxiliary police per 1,000 



police . 

auxiliary police per 1,000 



police 

auxiliary police per 1,000 



police .. 

auxiliary police per 1,000 



police 

auxiliary police per 1,000 



police 

auxiliary police per 1,000 



police. 

auxiliary police per 1,000 



poli ce 

auxiliary police per 1,000 





Population 




Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Over 

250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50.000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


3, 768 


3. 918 


3,619 


5.243 


3.68 


2.89 


3.77 


4.04 


17,026 


3,112 


5,270 


5,594 


1.46 


2.16 


3.22 


4.21 


18, 460 


7,476 


3,875 


6,420 


2.33 


5.04 


2.50 


2.97 


2,209 


2,760 


959 


571 


1.11 


3.84 


1.75 


1.44 


4,733 


3,460 


4,613 


2,740 


2.59 


3.44 


4.18 


4.00 


2,800 


989 


1,393 


403 


3.18 


2.43 


4.96 


1.24 


4,572 


661 


i 521 


'610 


3.20 


1.26 


0.88 


1.55 


300 


1,025 


105 


381 


0.93 


6.84 


0.89 


1.55 


20, 145 


5,127 


1,424 


2.034 


6.47 
74,013 


7.27 
28, 534 


2.92 

2 21,779 


3.69 
2 23, 996 


2.45 


3.66 


2.99 


3.25 



Total 



16,548 

3.57 
31,002 

1.93 
36,231 

2.76 
6,505 

1.78 
15, 546 

3.37 
5.585 

2.95 
'6.364 

2.16 
1,811 

2. 17 
28. 730 

5.91 
'' 148, 322 

2.82 



i Data for the West South Central Geographic Division are based on repcrts as follows: Group in. 8 
Cities; group IV, 12 cities; groups I-IV, 27 cities, total population, 2,940,437. 

1 Data for total— all Geographic Divisions are based on reports as follows: Group III, 106 cities, total 
population, 7,283,055; group IV, 212 cities, total po, ulation, 7,380,509; groups I-IV, 410 cities, total popula- 
tion, 52,651,553. 



23 




605344 — 44- 



24 

Police Employees in Individual Cities. 

Figures showing the number of police department employees in 
individual cities are presented in table 12. The cities are grouped 
according to size and are listed alphabetically within each State. 

On the average 8.2 percent of the personnel were reported as civilian 
employees, such as stenographers, file clerks, mechanics, or others 
without police powers. 

The reports used in compiling the data in this survey provided for 
the listing of part-time employees and the reporting departments were 
requested to express the number of part-time employees in terms of 
full-time personnel, taking into consideration the total time worked 
by the part-time employees during April in relation to the time worked 
by full-time personnel. In a few instances the police departments 
limited their entries concerning part-time employees to a statement 
of the total/ time worked by them during April, and in such cases it 
was assumed, for the purpose of the publication of the figures, that 
the full-time employees each worked 25 days or 200 hours during the 
month. In the event the total time worked by the part-time employee 
was equivalent to at least 75 percent of that worked by a full-time 
employee, one full-time employee was counted. 

A few departments made separate entries on their reports relative 
to school crossing guards, and hi the absence of information to the 
contrary, the school crossing guards were treated as civilian employees. 
Most of the school crossing guards, of course, are part-time employees 
and the figures as to the number of them were converted into terms of 
full-time personnel. 

Employees on military or other extended leave of absence without 
pay were excluded. No employees were included in the tabulation if 
information was available indicating they were not paid from police 
department funds. 

Caution should be exercised in comparing the police personnel 
figures of individual cities since there are a number of variable factors 
to be considered which are not in any way represented in the tables 
which follow. For a list of some of the factors to be considered refer- 
ence may be made to the data preceding table 6. 



25 



Table 12. — Nvmber of police department employees, and number of auxiliary police, 
Apr. SO, 1944, cities over 25,000 in population 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 

CITIES WITH OVER 250,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Birmingham, Ala... 
Los Angeles, Calif... 

Oakland, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif 

Denver, Colo 

Washington, D. C__ 

Atlanta, Georgia 

Chicago, 111 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Louisville, Ky 

New Orleans, La 

Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass 

Detroit, Mich 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

St. Paul, Minn 

Kansas City, Mo... 

St. Louis, Mo 

Jersey City, N. J 



Number of police 
department 
employees 



Po- 
lice 
offi- 
cers 



Ci- 
vil- 
ians 



272 

2,066 

467 

1,188 

399 

1,613 

367 

6,192 

537 

410 

858 

1,749 

2.03S 

3,476 

489 

264 

427 

1,656 

731 



23 
563 
46 
85 
19 
119 
46 

s2 

30 

16 

217 

215 

223 

21 

21 

L6S 

414 

116 



Total 



Num- 
ber 
of 
aux- 
iliary 
po- 
lice 



2,500 

13, 121 

2,100 

1,784 

300 

2,470 

400 

12,281 

785 

300 

4,300 

1,863 

3,047 

832 

350 

500 

351 

1,008 



City 



Newark, N. J 

Buffalo, N. Y.... 
New York, N. Y. 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Cleveland, Ohio.. 
Columbus, Ohio.. 

Toledo, Ohio 

Portland, Oreg... 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pittsburgh, Pa... 
Providence, R. I. 
Memphis, Tenn.. 

Dallas, Tex 

Houston, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 
Seattle, Wash.... 
Milwaukee, Wis. 



Num 


?er of police 


department 


employees 


Po- 
lice 
offi- 


Ci- 
vil- 
ians 


Total 


cers 






1,118 


85 


1,203 


1,128 


139 


1,267 


16, 102 


942 


17, 044 


421 


47 


468 


618 


29 


647 


1,287 


255 


1,542 


276 


28 


304 


295 


53 


348 


547 


109 


656 


4,626 


232 


4,858 


1,120 


54 


1,174 


422 


55 


477 


220 


73 


293 


273 


33 


306 


313 


143 


456 


199 


72 


271 


557 


67 


624 


1,051 


122 


1,173 



Num- 
ber 
of 
aux- 
iliary 
po- 
lice 



432 
2,323 

420 

334 
1,121 
1,507 

700 
2,700 
12, 051 
1,000 

721 



440 
900 



CITIES WITH 100,000 TO 250,000 INHABITANTS 



Long Beach, Calif... 
Sacramento, Calif .. 

San Diego, Calif 

Bridgeport, Conn... 

Hartford, Conn 

New Haven, Conn.. 

Wilmington, Del 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Miami, Fla 

Tampa, Fla 

Peoria, 111 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Gary, Ind 

South Bend, Ind 

Des Moines, Iowa... 
Kansas City, Kans.. 

Wichita, Kans 

Cambridge, Mass... 

Fall River, Mass 

Lowell, Mass 

New Bedford, Mass. 

Somerville, Mass 

Springfield, Mass... 

Worcester, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Grand Rapids, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 

Omaha, Nebr 



332 


59 


391 


1,090 


129 


22 


151 


200 


317 


66 


383 


1,800 


227 


4 


231 


140 


319 


37 


356 


30 


324 


24 


348 


200 


157 


41 


198 


375 


238 


14 


252 


2, 000 


222 


33 


255 


50 


106 


14 


120 


210 


115 


11 


126 


200 


119 


4 


123 


475 


133 


31 


164 


245 


90 


7 


97 


500 


147 


4 


151 


600 


98 


7 


105 


260 


122 


30 


152 


1,056 


194 


5 


199 


250 


190 


9 


199 


800 


168 


8 


176 


348 


199 


9 


208 


250 


132 


2 


134 


350 


302 


21 


323 


450 


332 


24 


356 


1,100 


109 


73 


182 


272 


162 


24 


186 


1,900 


117 


9 


126 


250 


215 


24 


239 


600 



Camden, N. J 

Elizabeth, N. J 

Paterson, N. J 

Trenton, N. J 

Albany, N. Y 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Utica, N. Y 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Charlotte, N. C 

Akron, Ohio 

Canton, Ohio 

Dayton, Ohio 

Youngstown, Ohio... 
Oklahoma City, Okla 

Tulsa, Okla 

Erie, Pa 

Reading, Pa 

Scranton, Pa 

Chattanooga, Tenn.. 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Nashville, Tenn 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Salt Lake Citv, Utah, 

Norfolk, Va 

Richmond, Va 

Spokane, Wash 

Tacoma, Wash 



169 


31 


200 


209 


3 


212 


206 


14 


220 


183 


17 


200 


295 


38 


333 


262 


11 


273 


141 


11 


152 


236 


16 


252 


105 


14 


119 


200 


50 


250 


132 


8 


140 


216 


28 


244 


160 


9 


169 


222 


26 


248 


158 


11 


169 


111 


5 


116 


133 


10 


143 


166 


13 


179 


119 


6 


125 


127 


26 


153 


198 


27 


225 


215 


22 


237 


168 


7 


175 


183 


23 


206 


308 


44 


352 


144 


4 


148 


132 


1 


133 



371 
185 
150 
200 



822 

250 

934 

-200 

2,493 

750 

325 

316 

150 

511 

50 

""150 

800 

149 

40 

1,025 

250 

375 

1, 500 

537 



CITIES WITH 50,000 TO 100,000 INHABITANTS 



Mobile, Ala 

Montgomery, Ala... 

Phoenix, Ariz 

Little Rock, Ark.... 

Berkeley, Calif. 

Fresno, Calif 

Glendale, Calif 

Pasadena, Calif 

San Jose, Calif 

Santa Monica, Calif 

Stockton, Calif 

Pueblo, Colo... 

New Britain, Conn. 



126 


5 


131 


383 


119 


4 


123 


800 


98 


16 


114 


55 


92 




92 


25 


105 


4 


109 


234 


70 


10 


80 


50 


102 




102 


160 


84 


28 


112 


317 


66 


2 


68 


263 


83 


19 


102 


175 


76 


2 


78 


225 


46 


2 


48 


50 


109 


2 


111 


250 



Waterbury, Conn.. 
St. Petersburg, Fla 

Augusta, Ga 

Columbus, Ga 

Macon, Ga 

Savannah, Ga 

Cicero, 111 

Decatur, 111 

East St. Louis, 111.. 

Evanston, 111 

Oak Park, 111 

Rockford, 111. 

Springfield, 111 



197 


6 


203 


58 


4 


62 


100 


20 


120 


83 


4 


87 


60 


2 


62 


128 


11 


139 


101 


5 


106 


55 


4 


59 


64 


19 


83 


71 


11 


82 


62 


5 


67 


86 


6 


92 


94 


24 


118 



110 
100 
200 

90 
300 
925 
325 
325 
200 
230 
125 
200 

32 



26 



Table 12. — Number of police department employees, and number of auxiliary police, 
Apr. SO, 1944, cities over 25,000 in population — Continued 

CITIES WITH 50,000 TO 100,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



East Chicago. Ind 

Evansville, Ind 

Hammond, Ind 

Terre Haute, Ind 

Uedar Rapids, Iowa 

Davenport, Iowa 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Waterloo, Iowa 

Topeka, Kans ..- 

Covington, Ky 

Shreveport, La 

Portland, Maine 

Brockton, Mass 

Holyoke, Mass 

Lawrence, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

Maiden, Mass 

Medford, Mass 

Newton, Mass 

Quincy, Mass 

Dearborn, Mich 

Highland Park, Mich... 

Kalamazoo, Mich 

Lansing, Mich 

Pontiac, Mich 

Saginaw, Mich 

Jackson, Miss 

St. Joseph, Mo 

Springfield, Mo. 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Manchester, N. H 

Atlantic City, N. J_.__. 

Bayonne, N. J 

East Orange, N. J« 

Hoboken, N.J. 

Irvington, N. J 

Passaic, N. J 

Union City, N. J. 

Binghamton, N. Y 

Mount Vernon, N. Y. . 
New Rochelle, N. Y 



Number of police 




department 


Num- 


employees 


ber 






of 
aux- 








Po- 


Ci- 

vil- 




iliary 


lice 
offi- 


Total 


po- 
lice 










cers 








86 


2 


88 


346 


158 


13 


171 


195 


77 


9 


86 




71 


2 


73 




50 


8 


58 


210 


57 




57 


70 


64 


9 


73 


130 


46 




46 




46 


14 


60 


274 


58 


„ 


58 


133 


112 


13 


125 


240 


105 


7 


112 


509 


91 


4 


95 


420 


95 


2 


97 


175 


128 


2 


130 


174 


151 


6 


157 


350 


95 


2 


97 


324 


81 


1 


82 


250 


124 


5 


129 


350 


123 


3 


126 


400 


147 


4 


151 


166 


86 


6 


92 


22 


71 


12 


83 


83 


83 




83 


30 


64 


8 


72 


575 


83 


5 


88 


260 


60 


15 


75 


77 


78 


11 


89 


200 


43 


11 


54 


30 


73 


9 


82 


45 


88 


5 


93 


132 


176 


39 


215 


460 


212 


7 


219 


265 


95 


o 


97 


150 


133 




133 




87 


4 


91 


72 


no 




110 


200 


105 


2 


107 


32 


86 


10 


96 


292 


110 


3 


113 


195 


107 


16 


123 


149 




Niagara Falls, N. Y 

Schenectadv, N. Y. 

Troy, N. Y 

Asheville, N. C 

Durham, N. C 

Greensboro, N. C 

Winston-Salem, N. C... 
Cleveland Heights, Ohio 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Lakewood, Ohio 

Springfield, Ohio 

Allentown, Pa 

Altoona, Pa 

Bethlehem, Pa. 

Chester, Pa 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Johnstown, Pa 

Lancaster, Pa 

McKeesport, Pa 

Upper Darby Twp., Pa. 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa... 

York, Pa 

Pawtucket, R. I 

Charleston, S. C 

Columbia, S. C 

Amarillo, Tex 

Austin, Tex 

Beaumont, Tex 

Corpus Christi, Tex 

El Paso, Tex 

Galveston, Tex 

Waco, Tex 

Arlington, Va 

Portsmouth, Va 

Roanoke, Va__ 

Charleston, W. Va 

Huntington, W. Va 

Wheeling, W. Va 

Madison, Wis 

Racine, Wis 



Number of police 


department 


employees 


Po- 
lice 
offi- 


Ci- 

yil- 


Total 


cers 






113 


13 


126 


154 


14 


168 


133 


10 


143 


45 


1 


46 


76 


7 


83 


89 


6 


95 


96 


4 


100 


54 


14 


68 


53 




53 


54 


12 


66 


53 


4 


57 


76 


6 


82 


61 


3 


64 


44 


2 


46 


55 


4 


59 


126 


10 


136 


50 




50 


52 


4 


56 


62 


3 


65 


88 


8 


96 


89 




89 


59 




59 


94 


8 


102 


123 




123 


118 


16 


134 


51 




51 


88 


29 


117 


80 


2 


82 


74 


12 


86 


72 


10 


82 


75 




75 


56 


3 


59 


46 




46 


58 


2 


60 


82 


4 


86 


65 


-1 


69 


til 


7 


68 


61 


1 


62 


96 


6 


102 


75 


2 


it 



Num- 
ber 
of 
aux- 
iliary 
po- 
lice 



CITIES WITH 25,000 TO 50,000 INHABITANTS 



Anniston, Ala 

Gadsden, Ala 

Tuscaloosa, Ala 

Tucson, Ariz 

Fort Smith, Ark. 

Alameda, Calif 

Alhambra, Calif 

Bakersfield, Calif 

Belvedere Township, 

Calif 

Beverly Hills, Calif 

Burbank, Calif 

Huntington Park, Calif 

Inglewood, Calif. 

Riverside, Calif... 

San Bernardino, Calif. _ 
Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif 

South Gate, Calif 

Colorado Springs, Colo.. 

Bristol, Conn 

Greenwich Town, Conn. 

Meriden, Conn 

Middletown, Conn 

New London, Conn 

Xorwalk, Conn 

Stamford, Conn 

See footnote at end 



34 




34 


66 


44 


3 


47 


30 


20 




20 


25 


43 


7 


50 


25 


24 




24 


(') 


50 


1 


51 


225 


38 


8 


46 


296 


51 


1 


52 


63 


26 


6 


32 


259 


39 


9 


48 


50 


62 


9 


71 


25 


32 


2 


34 


83 


28 




28 


150 


35 


3 


38 


45 


50 


2 


52 


60 


52 


2 


54 


125 


38 


7 


45 


100 


25 




25 


120 


36 


3 


39 


250 


37 


1 


38 


27 


67 


5 


72 


242 


48 


2 


50 


75 


29 


2 


31 


60 


56 


2 


58 


100 


50 




50 


237 


98 


2 


100 


165 



Torrington, Conn 

West Hartford, Conn 
West Haven, Conn . 

Miami Beach, Fla 

Orlando, Fla 

Pensacola, Fla 

West Palm Beach, Fla 

Rome, Ga... ... 

Boise, Idaho 

Alton. Ill 

Aurora, 111 

Belleville, 111... . 

Berwyn, 111. 

Bloomington, 111 

Danville, 111 

Elgin, 111 

Galesburg, 111 

Jolier, in 

Maywood. ill 

Molinr, III 
Quincy, ill 
Rock island, in ... 

Waukegan, III 

Anderson, Ind 

KlklKirt, Ind 

Cokomo, IihL 

Lafayette, Ind 



of table. 



27 



Table 12. — Number of -police department employees, and number of auxiliary police, 
Apr. 30, 1944, cities over 25,000 in population — Continued 

CITIES WITH 25,000 TO 50,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Marion, Ind 

Michigan City, Ind 

M ishawaka, Ind 

Muncie, Ind 

New Albany, Ind 

Richmond, Ind 

Burlington, Iowa 

Clinton, Iowa 

Council Bluffs, Iowa 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Mason City, Iowa 

Ottumwa, Iowa 

Hutchinson, Kans 

Ashland, Ky 

Lexington, Ky 

Newport, Ky 

Owensboro, Ky 

Paducah, Ky 

Alexandria, La 

Baton Rouge, La 

Monroe, La 

Bangor, Maine 

Lewiston, Maine 

Cumberland, Md 

Hagerstown, Md 

Arlington, Mass 

Belmont, Mass 

Beverly, Mass 

Brookline, Mass 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chicopee, Mass 

Everett, Mass 

Fitch burg, Mass 

Haverhill, Mass 

Melrose, Mass 

Pittsfield, Mass 

Revere, Mass 

Salem, Mass 

Taunton, Mass 

Waltham, Mass 

Watertown, Mass 

Ann Arbor, M ich 

Battle Creek, Mich 

Bay City, Mich.. 

Hamtramck, Mich 

Jackson, Mich _ 

Muskegon, Mich 

Port Huron, Mich 

Royal Oak, Mich 

Wyandotte, Mich 

Rochester, Minn 

Meridian, Miss 

Joplin, Mo 

University, City, Mo... 

Butte, Mont 

Great Falls, Mont 

Concord, N. H... 

Nashua, N. H 

Belleville, N. J 

Bloomfield, N.J 

Clifton, N.J 

Garfield, N.J 

Hackensack, N. J 

Hamilton Township, 

N.J 

Kearny, N. J 

Montclair, N. J 

New Brunswick, N. J__ 

North Bergen, N. J 

Orange, N. J 

Perth Amboy, N. J 



Number of police 
department 
employees 



Po- 
lice 
offi- 
cers 



36 

36 
30 
54 
22 
28 
32 
24 
29 
31 
18 
22 
2S 
24 
80 
43 
36 
34 
Y2 
38 
36 
41 
44 
40 
34 
54 
41 
46 

101 

64 
61 
75 
42 
60 
35 
57 
49 
61 
45 
48 
53 
31 
43 
60 
92 
57 
36 
39 
23 
42 
26 
44 
30 
32 
27 
30 
31 
37 
41 
56 
45 
31 
33 

38 
73 

69 
41 
64 
62 
54 



Ci- 
vil- 
ians 



Total 



36 
36 
33 
56 
22 
.".I 
35 
24 
31 
31 
18 
22 
27 
24 
SO 
49 
38 
36 
42 
40 
36 
41 
45 
44 
38 
59 
44 
46 
108 

OS 
04 
75 
45 
60 
35 
57 
53 
63 
is 
51 
58 
33 
53 
73 
98 
59 
39 
44 
23 
49 
26 
44 



Num- 
ber 
of 
aux- 
iliary 
po- 
lice 



no 
180 
no 
40 
35 



37 
98 
58 
178 
56 



100 

35 

35 

37 

50 

150 

111 

75 

125 

127 

150 

300 

185 

141 

238 

66 

125 

217 

75 

75 

300 

1.50 

263 

280 

125 

121 

128 

75 

250 

185 

42 

198 

56 

100 

88 

87 

52 

75 



2!) 




31 




31 


74 


37 


60 


41 


75 


5S 


147 


45 


130 


31 


200 


34 


50 


38 


174 


75 


300 


70 


175 


44 


200 


os 


184 


02 


160 


55 


150 



City 



Plainfield, N.J 

Teaneck, N. J 

West New York, N. J. 

West Orange, N. J 

Woodbridge, N. J 

Albuquerque, N. M 

Amsterdam, N. Y 

Auburn, N. Y 

Elmira, N. Y 

Jamestown, N. Y 

Kingston, N. Y 

Newburgh, N. Y 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y — 

Rome.N. Y 

Watertown, N. Y 

White Plains, N. Y 

High Point, N. C 

Raleigh, N. C :..-. 

Rocky Mount, N. C._. 

Wilmington, N. C 

Fargo, N. Dak 

East Cleveland, Ohio. . 

Elyria, Ohio 

Lima, Ohio 

Lorain, Ohio 

Mansfield, Ohio 

Marion, Ohio 

Massillon, Ohio 

Middletown, Ohio 

Newark, Ohio 

Norwood, Ohio 

Portsmouth, Ohio 

Steubenville, Ohio 

Warren, Ohio 

Zanesville, Ohio 

Enid, Okla 

M uskogee, Okla 

Salem, Oreg 

Aliquippa, Pa 

Easton, Pa 

Haverford Township, 

Pa 

Hazleton, Pa 

Lebanon, Pa 

Lower Merion Town- 
ship, Pa 

New Castle, Pa 

Norristown, Pa 

Sharon, Pa 

Washington, Pa 

Wilkinsburg, Pa 

Williamsport, Pa 

Central Falls, R. I 

Cranston, R. I 

East Providence, R. I. 

Newport, R. I 

Warwick, R. I 

Woonsocket, R. I 

Greenville, S. C 

Spartanburg, S. C 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak 

Johnson City, Tenn 

Abilene, Tex 

Laredo, Tex 

Lubbock, Tex 

Port Arthur, Tex 

San Angelo, Tex 

Tyler, Tex 

Wichita Falls, Tex 

Ogden, Utah 

Burlington, Vt 



Number of police 
department 
employees 



Po- 
lice 
offi- 
cers 



Ci- 
vil- 
ians 



Total 



Num- 
ber 
of 
aux- 
iliary 
po- 
lice 



28 

Table 12. — Number of police department employees, and number of auxiliary polici , 
Apr. SO, 1944, cities over 25,000 in population — Continued 

CITIES WITH 25,000 TO 50,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Alexandria, Va 

Danville, Va 

Lynchburg, Va 

Newport News, Va 

Petersburg, Va 

Bellingham, Wash. 

Everett, Wash 

Yakima, Wash 

Clarksburg, W. Va. 
Parkersburg, W. Va 

Apploton, Wis 

Beloit, Wis 



Number of police 
department 
employees 



Po- 
lice 
offi- 


Ci 
vil 






iarjR 


cers 






47 




4 


54 






46 




1 


63 




4 


39 




5 


32 




1 


40 






25 




I 


25 






18 






24 






24 




t 



Total 



Num- 
ber 
of 
aux- 
iliary 
po- 
lice 



175 

150 

184 

260 

26 

160 

240 

31 

75 

75 

125 

100 



City 



Eau Claire, Wis... 
Fond du Lac, Wis 
Green Bay, Wis... 

Kenosha, Wis 

La Crosse, Wis 

Oshkosh, Wis 

Sheboygan, Wis... 

Superior, Wis 

Wausau, Wis 

Wauwatosa, Wis . 
West Allis, Wis 



Number of police 
department 
employees 



Po- 
lice 
offi- 


Ci- 
vil- 




ians 


cers 




24 




25 


1 


47 


4 


63 




43 


4 


49 




43 




48 


2 


28 


1 


40 




45 


2 



Total 



Num- 
ber 
of 
aux- 
iliary 
po- 
lice 



100 



37 
59 
75 
50 
85 
103 
18 
101 
114 



1 Number of auxiliary police not available. 



ANNUAL REPORTS, 1943 

Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1943. 

A significant measure of police activity in combating crime is 
reflected in the proportion of known offenses for which the offenders 
are arrested and made available for prosecution. During 1943, 75.4 
percent of the offenses against the person (criminal homicide, rape, 
and other felonious assaults) were followed by the arrest of the persons 
responsible, according to the reports of 1,254 cities representing a 
combined population of 43,015,156. For offenses against property 
(robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto theft) arrests were made in 26.4 
percent of the cases. All in all, 28.9 percent of the total offenses 
reported by the 1,254 cities represented in table 13 were cleared by 
arrest. The percentages range from 24.1 for larceny to 90.5 for 
murder. 

Comprehensive information concerning the number of offenses 
committed during the calendar year 1943 may be found in volume 
XIV, No. 2, of this bulletin. Table 36 of that issue presents the 
estimated number of major crimes for the United States. The data 
presented in table 13 of the current issue indicate the relation between 
the number of offenses committed, the number cleared by arrest, and 
the number of persons arrested and held for prosecution. In an 
analysis of this table it should be remembered that the arrest of one 
individual may clear several crimes, while on the other hand the 
arrest of several persons may clear only one offense. Generally, an 
offense is treated as cleared by arrest when one or more of the offenders 
involved in its commission has been taken into custody and made 
available for prosecution, although the figures include some cases 
treated as cleared under certain exceptional circumstances even 
though no arrest was made. The general requisites of an " exceptional 
clearance" are that the identity and whereabouts of the offender are 
known to the police but for reasons beyond their control it is not 
possible to make him available for prosecution in the local jurisdiction. 
The recovery of stolen property does not render an offense cleared. 

To indicate the manner in which the data in table 13 should be 
interpreted it may be observed that for group I cities, of every 100 
offenses of larceny reported, 23 were cleared by the arrest of 21 
persons. 

In connection with the relatively small percentage of auto thefts 
listed as cleared by arrest, the reports received from police depart- 

(29) 



30 




31 

ments for several years have reflected more than 90 percent of stolen 
automobiles recovered. It should be mentioned also that the figures 
for these offenses include many so-called "joy riding" cases, wherein 
the automobile reported stolen is found abandoned and undamaged 
in another section of the city a short while after the report of the 
theft. The circumstances of such a case make it extremely difficult 
to effect arrest. Detailed tabulations concerning the recovery of 
stolen property for last year may be found in volume XIV, No. 2, 
of this publication. 

In examining the following table it will be noted that, with the 
exception of robbery, the number of property crimes cleared by arrest 
generally exceeds the number of persons charged. This is due to the 
fact that the police, through careful investigation incident to the 
arrest of an offender, will clear a number of previously unsolved 
crimes, and the tendency of a recidivist to repeat the same type of 
crime is found to be most pronounced on the part of persons com- 
mitting crimes against property. 

For crimes against the person, as well as offenses of robbery, on the 
other hand, the number of persons charged frequently exceeds the 
number of offenses cleared by arrest. This is attributable, in part 
at least, to the fact that because of the serious nature of such crimes 
they doubtless receive more intensive investigative attention. When 
such serious cases come to the attention of the police, special efforts 
are exerted to arrest all persons involved and those charged with 
being accessories to crimes are included with those charged with the 
substantive offense. 

In some instances the number of persons charged with manslaughter 
by negligence will even exceed the number of such offenses committed. 
This phenomenon exists by reason of the fact that the police in a num- 
ber of communities, particularly the larger cities, follow the practice 
of arresting and formally charging with manslaughter all drivers of 
vehicles involved in fatal accidents, pending the outcome of their 
investigation. In quite a number of such instances the police will 
find that the accident was unavoidable or due to the victim's own 
negligence and thus no offense of negligent manslaughter would be 
scored. 

To assist in the statistical verification of the annual reports, ques- 
tionnaires were distributed with them and in practically all instances 
they were returned with the reports properly executed. No reports 
were included in the following tabulations unless the law enforcement 
agency indicated the figures concerning offenses known to the police 
were based on a record of crimes and reported offenses, and included 
all offenses brought to the attention of the police. Similarly, the 
police departments represented in the following tabulations indicated 



32 

the figures on their annual reports concerning offenses cleared by 
arrest were properly distinguished from data showing the number of 
persons arrested. 



Table 13.- — Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and persons charged {held for 
prosecution) , 1943, by population groups, number per 100 known offenses 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 

28 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 18,179,078: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged . . 

GROUP II 

43 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 6,182,390: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest..... . 

Persons charged 

group m 

71 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 5,013,441: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged. 

GROUP IV 

130 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total pop- 
ulation, 4,511,226: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



372 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; 
population, 5,668,927: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 
Persons charged 



total 



GROUP VI 

610 cities, under 10,000; total popu- 
lation, 3,460,094: 

Offenses known ' 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

TOTAL OEOUPS I-VI 

1,254 cities; total population, 
43,015,156: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Murder, 
nonneg 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



100. 
88.2 
90.4 



100.0 
91.9 
90.1 



100.0 
93.7 
93.7 



100.0 
94.4 
97.5 



100.0 
94.6 
93.8 



100.0 
94.3 
93.4 



100.0 
90.5 
91.6 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



100.0 
87.1 
158.4 



100.0 
83.6 
88.4 



100.0 
77.1 
80.3 



100.0 
75.9 
73.8 



100.0 
92.5 
88.3 



100.0 
81.3 
81.3 



100.0 
84.0 
116.8 



Rape 



100.0 
70.8 
72.8 



100.0 
70.1 
70.1 



100.0 
79.5 
75.1 



100.0 
78.5 
81.6 



100.0 
81.9 
86.9 



100.0 

79.1 
78.0 



100.0 
74.0 
75.2 



Rob- 
bery 



100.0 
36.9 
37.2 



100.0 
38.3 
38.5 



100.0 
39.4 
47.9 



100. 
39.3 
41.1 



100.0 
41.0 
46.8 



100.0 
52.4 
67.9 



100.0 
38.1 
39.8 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



100.0 
68.8 
65.1 



100.0 
70.4 
66.8 



100.0 
83.9 
97.2 



100.0 
74.9 
75.6 



100.0 
88.1 
86.6 



100. 
89.6 
99.2 



100.0 
73.7 
73.2 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



100.0 
30.0 
22.6 



100.0 
26.7 
18.3 



100.0 
31.5 
22.5 



100.0 
32.7 
26.2 



100.0 
33.3 
27.6 



100.0 
40.4 
39.9 



100.0 
30.7 
23.6 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



100.0 
23.0 
21.0 



100. 
24.0 
17.3 



100.0 
24.4 

18.7 



100.0 
23.5 
18.4 



100.0 
23.4 
17.1 



L00.0 

32.6 
25.1 



100.0 
24. 1 
19.4 



33 



"d 



1/5 

s 
o 

1 

d 

o 

d 



^> 
d 

O 
d 



ffl 

d 

•i 




34 

Persons Charged (Held for Prosecution), 1943. 

While the majority of the persons charged by the police in the 1,254 
cities represented in tables 13 and 14 during 1943 were arrested for 
comparatively minor violations, a substantial number were arrested 
for serious crimes as indicated by the following figures: 



Murder 1, 928 

Manslaughter 1, 827 

Robbery 8, 43 1 

Aggra vat ed assault 16, 778 

Burglary 29, 948 

Larceny 68, 554 

Auto theft 16, 306 



Embezzlement and fraud 6, 456 

Stolen property (receiving, 

etc.) 4, 05 1 

Forgery and counterfeiting 3, 445 

Rape___ 3,478 

Narcotic drug laws 1, 979 

Weapons.. 9,139 



In examining the arrest reports received from the police departments 
in cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants, it was noted that 92 per- 
cent of them properly represented the number of persons arrested as 
distinguished from the number of charges placed against arrested 
persons. 

All or a portion of the juveniles arrested were included in 82 per- 
cent of the reports, and of those including juvenile arrests, 92 percent 
listed them opposite the offense classification embracing the violation 
involved (i. e., robbery, auto theft, etc.), regardless of the technical 
charge, such as "Juvenile Delinquency," placed against the juvenile 
at the time of arrest. The remaining 8 percent of the reports in- 
cluded juvenile arrests opposite "All other offenses." 

In examining table 14 it will be noted that just as there are varia- 
tions in the number of offenses committed per unit of population in 
cities of varying size, so are there variations in the number of persons 
arrested and charged by the police. For example, the number of 
persons charged with criminal homicide and robbery in cities with over 
250,000 inhabitants was more than double the rate for communities 
under 25,000. Similarly, arrests for prostitution and commercialized 
vice in the larger cities greatly exceed those in the smaller cities. It 
will be noted, however, that arrests for burglary, larceny, and auto 
theft per unit of population in the smaller communities exceed the 
rates for the larger cities in a number of instances. Also, arrest rates 
for drunkenness in cities under 10,000 exceed those for all population 
groups except those cities with from 100,000 to 250,000 inhabitants. 

In the analysis of any compilation involving the number of persons 
charged it should be borne in mind that, under the Uniform Crime 
Reporting system, the rules for scoring the number of persons charged 
are not the same as those for scoring the number of offenses known to 
have been committed. For example, if three persons are involved in 
the burglary of a warehouse and all are arrested and charged with 
burglary, only one burglary offense would be listed as committed and 
as cleared by arrest while three persons would be shown as arrested 






35 

and charged with burglary. On the other hand, if one person murders 
three others, three offenses of murder would be scored and if the 
offender was taken into custody three such offenses would be listed as 
cleared by arrest; however, only one person would be listed as arrested 
and held for prosecution opposite the murder classification. 



Table 14. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 191^3, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and uonnegli- 
gent manslaughter: 
Number of persons 

charged 

Rate per 100,000. __ 
(6) Manslaughter by negli- 
gence: 
Number of persons 

charged 

Rate per 100,000 ._. 
Robbery: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Burglary — breaking or enter- 
ing: 
Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny — theft: 

Number of persons charged _ 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000. 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged _ 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Stolen property; buying, receiv- 
ing, possessing: 
Number of persons charged _ 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 
Number of persons charged _ 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice: 
Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and 
prostitution) : 
Number of persons charged _ 

Rate per 100,000... 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 
etc.: 
Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 



Group I 



28 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
18,179,07? 



1,053 
5.79 



1.118 
6.15 



5.184 
28.5 



7,733 
42.5 



26.292 
144.6 



12,550 
69.0 



27, 139 
149.3 



6,107 
33.6 



3,747 
20.6 



1,630 
9.0 



1.282 

7.1 



1,668 
9.18 



14. 762 
81.2 



27.9 
1,365 



4,447 
24.5 



Group II 



43 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
6,182,390 



290 
4.69 



243 
3.93 



1. 100 

17.8 



2, 167 
35.1 



11.606 
187.7 



4,312 
69.7 



11,013 

178.1 



2,954 
47.8 



935 
15.1 



500 
8.1 



578 
9.3 



7.83 



7,402 
119.7 



3, 376 
54.6 



188 
3.0 



1,526 
24.7 



Group III 



71 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
5,013,441 



Group IV Group V Group VI 



208 
4.15 



151 
3.01 



770 
15.4 



2,675 
53.4 



7,444 

148.5 



3, 564 

71.1 



9,246 

184.4 



2.000 
39.9 



525 
10.5 



686 
13.7 



485 
9.7 



374 

7.46 



3,483 
69.5 



2,945 
58.7 



246 
4.9 



1,269 
25.3 



130 cities, 372 cities, 



25,000 to 
50,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

4,511,226 



157 
3.48 



144 
3.19 



422 
9.4 



1,990 
44.1 



5, 432 
120.4 



3,136 
69.5 



8,113 
179.8 



1,577 
35.0 



540 
12.0 



276 
6.1 



362 

8.0 



6.41 



2,233 
49.5 



2,024 
44.9 



93 
2.1 



793 
17.6 



10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
5,668,927 



121 
2.13 



610 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

3,460,094 



Total, 
1,254 
cities; 
total 
popula- 
tion, 
43,015,156 



106 
1.87 


65 
1.88 


527 
9.3 


428 
12.4 


1, 313 
23.2 


900 
26.0 


7,046 
124.3 


3,487 
100.8 


3,602 
63.5 


2,784 
80.5 


7,750 
136.7 


5,293 
153.0 


2.121 

37.4 


1,547 
44.7 


449 
7.9 


260 
7.5 


625 
11.0 


334 
9.7 


425 

7.5 


313 
9.0 


432 
7.62 


231 
6.68 


1,399 
24.7 


813 
23.5 


1,438 
25.4 


681 
19.7 


53 
0.9 


34 
1.0 


667 
11.8 


437 
12.6 1 



1,928 
4.48 



1.827 
4.25 



8,431 
19.6 



16. 778 
39.0 



61, 307 
142. 5 



29, 948 
69.6 



68,554 
159.4 



16. 306 
37.9 



6,456 
15.0 



4,051 
9.4 



3,445 
8.0 



3,478 
8.09 



30, 092 
70.0 



15, 533 
36.1 



1,979 
4.6 



9,139 
21.2 



36 

Table 14. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1948, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Total, 
1,254 
cities; 
total 
popula- 
tion, 
43,015,156 


Offense charged 


28 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
18,179,078 


43 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
6,182,390 


71 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
5,013,441 


130 cities, 

25,000 to 
50,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

4,511,226 


372 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
5,668,927 


610 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

3,460,094 


Offenses against family and 
children: 
Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 


i 11.646 
65.1 

9.038 

49.7 

1(1, 104 
55.6 

31,836,570 
11,093.3 

105, 238 
578.9 

302, 227 
1, 662. 5 

30, 636 
168.5 

38,289 
210.6 

73, 265 
403.0 


5,286 
85.5 

3, 966 
64.1 

4,258 
68.9 

913. 276 
14,772.2 

35, 415 
572.8 

129, 373 
2, 092. 6 

15, 800 
255.6 

13. 997 
226.4 

38,164 
617.3 


2,062 
41.1 

2,352 
46.9 

5,077 
101.3 

4 480, 080 
9, 837. 6 

21, 073 
420.3 

85, 506 
1, 705. 5 

10, 313 
205. 7 

9,537 
190.2 

31,072 
619.8 


2.219 

49.2 

1,822 
40.4 

5,182 
114.9 

313, 367 
6, 946. 4 

19, 331 

428.5 

77, 175 
1, 710. 7 

5,053 
112.0 

5,866 
130.0 

20,410 
452.4 


2.132 
37.6 

2,097 
37.0 

6,520 
115.0 

» 298, 159 
5, 292. 3 

25, 361 
447.4 

98, 968 

1,745.8 

6,894 
121.6 

6,181 
109.0 

17. 3S3 
306.6 


1,036 

29. 9 

1,656 
47.9 

5.610 
162.1 

« 126, 519 
3, 677. 1 

17. 872 
516.5 

63, 121 
1,824.3 

4,573 
132.2 

3,265 
94.4 

9,970 
288.1 


2 24,381 
57. 1 


Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 


20,931 
48.7 


1 hiving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 


30, 751 
85.4 


Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 
Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 


'3,967,971 
9, 630. 1 


Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 


224,290 
521.4 


Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 


756. 370 
1, 758. 4 


Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 


73,269 

170. 3 


Gambling: 

Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 


77, 135 
179.3 


A 11 other offenses: 

Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 


190, 264 
442.3 











'-» The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports from the number of cities indicated 
below: 



Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


1 


27 

1,253 

27 

69 


17, 884, 344 

42, 720, 422 

16, 555, 626 

4, 880, 049 


5 


370 

608 

1,247 


5, 633, 861 


2 


6 


3, 440, 719 


3 


7 - - 


41,203,871 


4 









Inasmuch as all of the cities included in the foregoing table did not 
report separate figures for violations of road and driving laws, parking 
violations, and all other traffic and motor vehicle laws (excluding 
driving while intoxicated) , entries regarding persons charged for these 
offenses were included opposite the general heading "traffic and motor 
vehicle laws." However, 1,030 of these cities included above did 
report separate figures for each of the three categories and table 15 
summarizes such data with the cities grouped according to size. 



37 



PERSONS CHARGED AND PERCENT 
FOUND GUILTY 

Calendar Year 1943 

CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON 

118 CITIES WITH OVER 25,000 INHABITANTS TOTAL POPULATION 11,042,972 




Figure 7. 



38 



Tablk 15. — Persons charged (held for -prosecution), traffic violations, except driving 
while intoxicated, 19/ f 3; number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population 
groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Total, 
















1,030 




24 cities 


39 cities, 


60 cities, 


105 cities, 


324 cities, 


478 cities 


cities; 


Offense charged 


over 


100,000 to 


50,000 to 


25,000 to 


10,000 to 


under 


total 




250,000; 


250,000; 


100,000; 


50,000; 


25,000; 


10.000; 


popula- 




popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


tion, 




tion, 


tion, 


tion, 


tion, 


tion, 


tion, 


32,818,209 




11,850,722 


5,499,286 


4,214,042 


3,655,271 


4,843,335 


2,755,553 




Road and driving laws: 
















Number of persons charged- 


446, 977 


117,555 


69, 934 


39,284 


64,197 


36,001 


773, 948 


Rate per 100,000 


3, 771. 7 


2,137.6 


1, 659. 5 


1, 074. 7 


1,325.5 


1, 306. 5 


2, 358. 3 


Parking violations: 
















Number of persons charged. 


927, 004 


676, 206 


324,217 


193, 760 


177,821 


54, 933 


2,353.941 


Rate per 100,000 


7, 822. 3 


12, 296. 3 


7, 693. 7 


5, 300. 8 


3, 671. 5 


1, 993. 5 


7, 172. 7 


Other traffic and motor vehicle 
















laws: 
















Number of persons charged 


144.643 


36, 456 


28. 926 


19, 184 


19,881 


16, 432 


265. 522 


Rate per 100,000 


1, 220. 5 


662.9 


686.4 


524.8 


410.5 


596.3 


809. 1 







Offenses Known, Offenses Cleared by Arrest, and Persons Found Guilty, 
1943. 

Over 80 percent of the persons charged by the police during 1943 
were found guilty by the courts, according to the reports of 118 cities 
with over 25,000 inhabitants. The proportion of convictions range 
from 48.7 percent for persons charged with manslaughter by negli- 
gence to 91.9 percent for those charged with drunkenness, disorderly 
conduct, and vagrancy. The comparatively low average percentage 
found guilty of negligent manslaughter is influenced, to some extent 
at least, by the practice of some jurisdictions of formally charging 
with manslaughter all drivers involved in traffic fatalities pending the 
outcome of the police investigation. With the exception of negligent 
manslaughter, the lowest percentage of those found guilty for any one 
offense class is for offenses against family and children (60.5 percent). 

Tabulations concerning persons found guilty for the part I and 
part II offense classes are presented separately in tables 16 and 17, 
respectively, since the annual returns do not provide for the listing 
of data relating to offenses known to the police for the part II crimes. 
The information presented was limited to the reports in which it 
appeared the entries for persons found guilty represented the final 
disposition of the charges placed against the persons arrested, as 
distinguished from disposition at the preliminary hearing of the 
accused. 

For the part I offense classes 72.9 percent of those charged with 
offenses against the person were found guilty (52.7 percent guilty as 
charged and 20.2 percent guilty of a lesser offense). Of those charged 
with crimes against property, 80.0 percent were found guilty (69.5 
percent guilty as charged and 10.5 percent guilty of a less serious 
offense). Of the .39,502 persons charged for all part I offenses, 31,169 
(78.9 percent) were found guilty, and of those found guilty, 84.7 per- 



39 

cent were found guilty of the offense charged and 15.3 percent were 
convicted of a less serious offense. Of each 1,000 crimes brought to 
the attention of the police, 302 were cleared by the arrest of 212 
persons, of whom 167 were found guilty. 

The 118 cities represented in table 17 indicated that 1,463,464 
persons were held for prosecution during 1943 for part II offense 
classes, including persons responding to traffic tickets. Of these, 
1,172,958 (80.1 percent) were found guilty. The majority of the 
persons convicted were found guilty as charged, only 0.6 percent being 
convicted of a less serious offense. 

The offense classes listed in table 17 are not identical with those 
listed in table 14 because some of the reports used in preparing the 
compilations relative to persons found guilty did not include separate 
figures for the offense classes which have been consolidated in table 17. 



Table 16. — Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and number of persons 
found guilty, 1943; 118 cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 11,042,972, based on 1940 decennial census] 



Ofiense (part I classes) 



Number 
of offenses 
known to 
the police 



Number 

of offenses 

cleared 

by arrest 



Number 
of persons 
charged 
(held for 
prosecu- 
tion) 



Number 
found 

guilty of 
offense 

charged 



Number 
found 

guilty of 
lesser 
offense 



Total 

found 

guilty 

(of offense 

charged 

or lesser 

offensel 



Per- 
cent- 
age 
found 
guilty 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 

gent manslaughter 

(6) Manslaughter by negli- 
gence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering.. 
Larceny — theft (except auto 

theft) 

Auto theft 



588 

470 

1,665 

6,637 

7,670 

36, 625 

110,441 
22,540 



539 

406 
1,196 
2,410 
5,659 
11, 787 

28, 499 
5,811 



532 

374 

914 

2,216 

4,419 

7,607 

19, 191 
4,249 



271 

141 

492 

1,273 

2,382 

4,936 

14,233 
2,663 



41 
144 
344 

988 
1,143 

1,408 
629 



362 

182 

636 

1,607 

3,370 

6,079 

15,641 
3,292 



68.0 

48.7 
69.6 
72.5 
76.3 
79.9 

81.5 
77.5 



TotaL. - 186,636 



56, 307 



39,502 



26, 391 



4,778 



31, 169 



40 



PERSONS CHARGED AND PERCENT 
FOUND GUILTY 

Calendar Year 1943 

CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY 

118 CITIES WITH OVER 25,000 INHABITANTS TOTAL POPULATION 11,042,972 



ROBBERY 



72.5 




Total Charged 2,216 



BURGLARY 




KEY 

GUILTY AS 
CHARGED 

GUILTY OP 
LESSER OFFENSE 



Total Charged 7,607 



LARCENY 




Tetal Charged 19,191 



AUTO THEFT 




Total Charged 4,249 



FlUTJRK 8. 



41 



Table 17. — Number of persons charged {held for prosecution) and number found 
guilty, 1943; 118 cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 11,042,972, based on 1940 decennial census] 



Offense (part II classes) 



O ther assults 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Kmbezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Sex offenses (including prostitution and com 

mercialized vice) 

Offenses against the family and children 

Narcotic drug laws 

Liquor laws 

Drunkenness; disorderly conduct and va 

grancy 

Gambling 

Driving while intoxicated 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws 

All other offenses 

TotaL.. 



Number 
of persons 
charged 
(held for 
prosecu- 
tion) 



20, 787 
814 

1,656 
900 

3,272 

15, 792 

9,141 

474 

5,860 

234, 234 

21,853 

9,048 

, 088, 829 

50, 804 



2 1, 463, 464 



Number 
found 

guilty of 
offense 

charged 



12, 340 

601 

998 

579 

2,526 

13, 433 

5,374 

404 

4,442 

213, 584 

18, 726 

7,485 

i 851, 682 

33, 945 



2 1,166,119 



Number 

found 

guilty 

of lesser 

offense 



73 
76 
60 
156 

442 
155 
13 

289 



1,756 
194 
792 

1,495 
752 



a 6, 839 



Total found 

guilty (of 

offense 

charged or 
of lesser 
offense) 



12, 926 
674 

1,074 
639 

2,682 

13, 875 

5,529 

417 

4,731 

215, 340 

18, 920 

8,277 

i 853, 177 

34, 697 



2 1, 172, 958 



Per- 
centage 
found 
guilty 



62.2 
82.8 
64.9 
71.0 
82.0 

87.9 
60.5 
88.0 
80.7 

91.9 
86.6 
91.5 
'78.4 
68.3 



2 80.1 



1 Based on the reports of 117 cities with a total population of 9,419,520. 

2 The total figures are subject to footnote (•). 

Persons Released (Not Held for Prosecution), 1943. 

The annual crime reports provide for recording, in addition to the 
number of persons formally charged, the number released by the police 
without being charged. Generally, the data in table 18 represent the 
number of persons taken into custody when it is thought they had 
been involved in the commission of some crime, but who were later 
released by the police, either because the police investigation estab- 
lished their innocence or because the evidence available was not suffi- 
cient to warrant the filing of formal charges against them. Persons 
taken into custody and released with a reprimand or on the "golden 
rule" principle are likewise included, as are persons summoned, noti- 
fied, or cited to appear in court or at the police department for alleged 
traffic violations, who failed to appear and who were not subsequently 
arrested. Included also are some instances in which youthful persons 
were released, because under the circumstances it was felt the indi- 
vidual case would more properly be handled without prosecution. 

Information included in table 18 is based on the reports of 766 cities 
with a total population of 22,218,321. The number of cities repre- 
sented is substantially less than in table 14, inasmuch as reports were 
excluded if there were no entries showing persons released or if the 
entries appeared to be incomplete or otherwise incorrect. However, 
reports listing persons released opposite the classification "suspicion" 
only were included in the compilation. It should be noted that the 
figures for "suspicion" representing persons released generally repre- 
sent instances wherein persons were arrested under circumstances 



42 

which caused the police to believe that they had been involved in 
criminal activities of some nature, although they were not taken into 
custody in connection with some specific offense. 



Table 18. — Persons released without being held for prosecution, 19 '48; number and 
rate\per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Offense 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 
gent manslaughter: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000. 

(6) Manslaughter by negli- 
gence: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated Assault: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons released. 

Rateper 100,000 

Burglary — breaking or entering: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons released - 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiv- 
ing, possessing: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons released - 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 - 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice: 

Number of persons released - 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and 
prostitution): 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000. 
Weapons; carrying, possessing, 
etc.: 

Number of persons released. 

Hate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and 
children: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000. 

Liquor laws: 

Number of pei sons released 

Rate per 100,000 



Group I 



15 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

7,632,398 



93 
1.22 



75 
0.98 



289 
3.8 



875 
11.5 



2.932 
38.4 



2,405 
31.5 



395 
5.2 



239 
3.1 



117 
1.53 



3,323 
43.5 



170 
2.2 



37 

0.5 



418 
5.5 



'86 
1.2 



439 
5.8 



Group II 



19 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
2,616,497 



5 
0.19 



75 
2.9 



60 
2.3 



474 
18.1 



246 
9.4 



884 
33.8 



283 
10.8 



45 
1.7 



25 
1.0 



15 
0.6 



34 

1.30 



101 
3.9 



104 
4.0 



10 
0.4 



50 



19 



38 

1.5 



Group 
III 



43 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
3,071,289 



6 
0.20 



41 
1.33 



81 
2.6 



3.2 



286 
9.3 



347 
11.3 



853 

27.8 



193 
6.3 



26 
0.8 



18 
0.6 



16 

1.5 



34 
1.11 



459 
14.9 



202 
6.6 



55 
1.8 



109 
3.5 



40 
1.3 



Group 
IV 



81 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,813,037 



13 

046 



22 

0.78 



112 
4.0 



317 
11.3 



259 
9.2 



448 
15.9 



1,019 
36.2 



171 
6.1 



30 

I. 1 



40 

1.4 



29 

1.(1 



19 
0.68 



93 
3.3 



126 
4.5 



10 
0.4 



57 
2.0 



96 
3.4 



115 
4.1 



Group V 



267 cities, 
10,000 to 

25,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
4,053,872 



16 

0.39 



19 
0.47 



78 
1.9 



464 
11.4 



643 
15.9 



1,493 
36.8 



313 

7.7 



61 

1.5 



1.7 



65 
1.6 



54 
1.33 



76 



148 
3.7 



7 
0.2 



lis 
1.7 



266 
6.6 



119 
2.9 



Group 
VI 



341 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

2,031,228 



47 
2.31 



21 
1.03 



66 
3.2 



97 
4.8 



337 
16.6 



598 
29.4 



1.465 
72.1 



216 
10.6 



58 
2.9 



70 
3.4 



55 
2.7 



39 
1.92 



112 
5.5 



70 
3.4 



12 
0.6 



35 

1.7 



414 

20.4 



104 
5.1 



Total, 
766 cities; 
total pop- 
ulation, 
22,218,321 



See footnotes at end of table. 



43 



Table 18.- — Persons released without being held for prosecution, 19 jS; number and 
rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 





Group I 


Group II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group V 


Group 
VI 


Total, 
766 cities; 
total pop- 
ulation, 
22,218,321 


Offense 


15 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

7,632,398 


19 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
2,616,497 


43 cities, 
50,000 to 

100,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
3,071,289 


81 cities, 

25,000 to 
50,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

2,813,037 


267 cities, 

10,000 to 
25,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

4,053,872 


341 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

2,031,228 


Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 
Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 _ . 


276 
3.6 

3 58, 890 
980.0 

2,726 
35.7 

48, 140 
630.7 

2,065 
27.1 

11, 275 
147.7 

52, 520 
688.1 

20, 707 
271.3 


65 
2.5 

60, 539 
2, 313. 7 

729 
27.9 

9,428 
360.3 

588 
22.5 

29 
1.1 

9,667 
369.5 

1,614 
61.7 


37 
1.2 

53,348 
1, 737. 

1,099 
35.8 

6,433 
209.5 

652 
21.2 

118 
3.8 

14, 671 
477.7 

1, 833 
59.7 


57 
2.0 

45, 036 
1, 601. 

829 
29.5 

3,360 
119.4 

354 
12.6 

90 
3.2 

10, 442 
371.2 

« 2, 813 
101.1 


138 
3.4 

69, 897 
1, 724. 2 

1,767 
43.6 

5,729 
141.3 

824 
20.3 

206 
5.1 

8,975 
221.4 

2,373 

58.5 


135 
6.6 

22, 282 
1, 097. 

2,212 

108.9 

4,784 
235.5 

1,133 
55.8 

180 
8.9 

5, 524 
272.0 

4,205 
207.0 


708 
3.2 

« 309, 992 
1, 505. 2 


Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons released- 
Rate per 100,000 


9,362 

42.1 


Drunkenness: 

Number of persons released _ 
Rate per 100,000 


77,874 
350.5 


Vagrancy: 

Number of persons released- 
Rate per 100,000 . 


5, 6U> 
25.3 


Gambling: 

Number of persons released - 
Rate per 100,000 


11, 89« 
53.6 


Suspicion: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


101, 799 

458.2 


All other offenses: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


6 33, 545 
151.2 







l ~* The number of persons released and the rate are based on the reports from the number of cities 
indicated below: 



Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


1 


14 

765 

14 


7, 337, 664 
21, 923, 587 
6, 008, 946 


4 


765 
80 
765 


20, 594, 869 


9 


5 


2, 782, 581 


3 




6 


22, 187, 865 









Since many of the annual reports used in preparing the foregoing 
tabulations did not include more detailed information, the figures 
opposite classification "traffic and motor vehicle laws" include all 
types of violations of traffic laws. Separate figures were, however, 
shown on the reports of 445 cities concerning persons released by the 
police for (1) violations of road and driving laws, (2) parking violations, 
and (3) violations of other traffic and motor vehicle laws. Table 19 
includes the number of persons released for these violations, together 
with the rate per 100,000 inhabitants for cities grouped according to 
size. Warning tags issued in some cities for minor traffic violations 
are included. 



44 



Table 19. — Persons released without being held for -prosecution, traffic violations, 
except driving while intoxicated, 1948; number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by 
popxdation groups 



[Population 


figures from 1940 decennial census] 








Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Total, 
445 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
13,280,157 


Offense charged 


11 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

4,938,143 


9 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
1,131,301 


26 cities, 
50,000 to 

100,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
1,872,816 


52 cities, 

25,000 to 
50,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

1,810,789 


161 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,436,095 


186 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

1,091,013 


Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000.- 


9,477 
191.9 

43,290 
876.6 

5,825 
118.0 


2,909 
257.1 

42,602 
3, 765. 8 

1,283 
113.4 


895 
47.8 

28,308 
1,511.5 

920 
49.1 


6,669 
368.3 

28,445 
1,570.9 

2,197 
121.3 


3,017 
123.8 

63, 378 
2,601.6 

2,077 
85.3 


3,121 
286.1 

16, 987 
1, 557. 

1,848 
169.4 


26,088 
196.4 


Parking violations: 

Number of persons released . 
Rate per 100,000 


223,010 
1,679.3 


Other traffic and motor vehicle 
laws: 
Number of persons released . 
Rate per 100,000... 


14,150 
106.5 







Offenses Known, Offenses Cleared by Arrest, and Persons Charged by 
Geographic Divisions, 1943. 

Inasmuch as marked variations are noted in the number of offenses 
committed per unit of population in the different sections of the 
country, it is normally to be expected that like variations would 
occur in the number of persons arrested in the various geographic 
divisions. Accordingly, there are presented in tables 20 and 21 data 
concerning offenses cleared and persons charged separately for each 
of the nine geographic divisions. Thus it is possible to compare local 
figures with averages of other cities in the same section of the country. 
The identical cities were used in compiling the information in tables 
20 and 21 as are represented in tables 13 and 14. For a list of the 
States included in each of the geographic divisions, reference may be 
made to the listing of the States in table 4 of this issue of the bulletin. 

In examining the data presented in table 21, it should be noted that 
while, theoretically, an offender should be charged with the offense 
committed, in many instances the policy and practice of prosecuting 
attorneys, judges, and other officials, as well as public opinion and 
established customs in the community, will influence to a great extent 
the charge placed by the police against an arrested offender. It fol- 
lows then that a person arrested for auto theft may, more frequently in 
some jurisdictions than in others, be charged with using an automobile 
without the consent of the owner, while persons arrested for intoxica- 
tion may be charged with disorderly conduct, et cetera. Similarly, 
the figures for prostitution and commercialized vice may be con- 
sidered conservative since in many jurisdictions persons taken into 
custody for such violations are frequently charged with vagrancy, 
disorderly conduct, or some sex offense such as adultery or lewd and 
lascivious conduct, and such arrests are listed opposite the offense 
class embracing the charge actually placed against the offender. 



45 



Table 20. 



Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared 
by arrest, 1943, by geographic divisions 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Criminal 
homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Larceny- 
theft 




Geographic division 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


NEW ENGLAND STATES 


















127 cities; total population, 3,858,- 
201: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


















38 

31 

81.6 


104 

83 

79.8 


227 

202 

89.0 


561 

227 

40.5 


420 
321 
76.4 


10, 402 
3,073 
29.5 


21, 422 
5,048 
23.6 


5,245 
1, 215 
23.2 


MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES 


















308 cities; total population, 8,768,- 
136: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


















214 

190 

88.8 


337 

311 

92.3 


624 

531 

85.1 


1,689 
679 
40.2 


2,373 
2,026 
85.4 


16, 065 
5.282 
32.9 


33, 517 

9,292 

27.7 


10, 701 

3,540 

33.1 


EAST NORTH CENTRAL STATES 


















306 cities; total population, 13,951,- 
418: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


















575 

496 

86.3 


362 

255 

70.4 


1,701 

1,167 
68.6 


9,478 
3,438 
36.3 


6,142 
3,661 
59.6 


40, 717 

12, 322 

30.3 


110, 557 

24, 357 

22.0 


21,091 
6.987 
33.1 


WEST NORTH CENTRAL STATES 


















140 cities; total population, 4,295,- 
377: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest . 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


















144 

132 

91.7 


72 

56 

77.8 


348 

284 
81.6 


967 
392 
40.5 


1,163 

711 

61.1 


9,390 

3,226 

34.4 


29,761 

8,575 

28.8 


6,691 
1,508 
26.5 


SOUTn ATLANTIC STATES 


















101 cities; total population, 4,187,- 
872: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


















544 

516 

94.9 


200 

185 

92.5 


481 

400 

83.2 


2,829 
1,493 
52.8 


6,659 
5,488 
82.4 


15, 950 
5,161 
32.4 


48, 420 

13,845 

28.6 


10, 486 

2,029 

19.3 


EAST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES 


















25 cities; total population, 762,661: 
Number of offenses known _ _ . 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


90 

85 

94.4 


55 

47 

85.5 


62 

55 

88.7 


541 

186 

34.4 


952 

731 

76.8 


3,438 
1,031 
30.0 


7,013 

1,600 

22.8 


1,478 
339 
22.9 


WEST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES 


















66 cities; total population, 2,653,109: 
Number of offenses known. ... 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


314 

298 

94.9 


129 

122 

94.6 


206 

172 

83.5 


1,049 

527 

50.2 


2,753 
2, 252 
81.8 


8,761 

3,167 

36.1 


28, 367 

9,322 

32.9 


5,883 
1,818 
30 9 


MOUNTAIN STATES 


















51 cities; total population, 1,118,479: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


56 

51 

91.1 


57 

49 

86.0 


220 

140 

63.6 


709 

276 
38.9 


385 

279 

72.5 


5,393 
1,627 
30.2 


16, 754 

3,517 

21.0 


2,959 
983 
33.2 


PACIFIC STATES 


















130 cities; total population, 3,419,903: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


130 
106 

81.5 


248 

206 
83.1 


757 
470 
62.1 


3,358 
850 
25.3 


2,079 
1,419 
68.3 


16, 951 
4,164 
24.6 


57, 345 

0,454 

16.5 


17,275 

2,984 

17.3 



46 



"3 « 

pL,ro 




»« ooos ■* 

os r~ cs t- h . 

-h . oo co ■-" eg 
cn o o» *cc 



OO H8 
CO 00 



os-i 

OS-J< 



— CO 



8° S". 2"". 

co co -*»< -* c-s co 
-oo — ■ 



uo -^ 



IS^fo" 



diOBt 

33 P-.2 - 
•~ _ -3 <» 



•OCX -^00 
•■cH O -HO) 



CM 00 CO -I* O0 -* OS CO CO CX 



cxo <n os tec 



'3 *£ 



P OJ 

^9« 



L-fl -OS 

»o(to 

33 a.2 "- 
•t2 „ 33 co 



to o 3«" 



co ~* r~ co co t~ co — < coo coco Nt> ^-t ■«* — « oo coco 



CO OS OS CO 



CN «£> I-" ^OS 



COOS CMOS 



m U 2 
C3J3OT 



33 o«.2 co 
'3'3'SS' 

clcS 1 - 



Osr- t- t- 



•*o 00 »o O ~- CIO OS CO 00 »o CO 00 OS OS 



•f CO CX OS lOW 



CO 00 CN 00 CO OS 



— — CN CO -H-* CX CO 



i£o* 



<= c 3^r 



^hoo *— ' oo r-r— inco ox ex »-h oscn o»o r^-»c co «o 
coco oio co. -c* . t~- . co. r~. o. r~ ■ co. 
•o . -# . i-h — of i-< r» — ' r- ooos ex cm no o « 



-r cc 
-* . 
-r o 



■%0 cu 



CO O oi cm — ' 



O* ■*)* CO CO COrf tD(N coo* 



co r*l io ci o co coco *s* £- 



>C CO 
00 . 

o »o 



CO . * . «© • 

iC <M CN «0 CO 30 



,_ to i-t ~ 



03 J-c/5 
O 03 



5 tt.2 ~ 



, 03 ^03 O 



CO -m i-t 



*C CO t^ CO 



lO . CT> • 

CO "* *-i CO 






2 *S 



03 ft -CO 

oofl" 
'•S o..2 '~ : - 

°^h ^ co 

ooS42J2 

SS a «o" 



cN <M M^f 





^H W 




ffi° 


OSO0 


o — ' 


CX 00 


CN Ol 






















•OCX 


coco 


Tf 00 
























CM 


CO r-i 


■* 











X.S 



•2 o Scl 
"H _. 33 °° 



CO OO CO CO 



S *" 



1 J o c^ „ O OJ 

:>g.o o-noo. 



cxt3 

, CJ) 



O-o § »c 



8 a 

.ass 

J« &o 



.a 

8 | 

•S3 



.al 



a p 



tio 
cuc- 



030 



SflSS? 



So o as o-*-* as o 
o e3 ftg* • - Oo 

Cfl>«0*jw0 ^O w *-0«v,0 
03 o- "JJC"- 1 O'-pO'^-gO-^ 

;5sfe2S«3..c3fe§fec3ftte5P l 

| J2 D.Y^3 0-£J2 ^^S- °'0' i:i "■ 
>>P<13J Pa3«3S<i3-Saa3r!Ba3 



J2 &03.Q P-CJJ2 — i — • — i — — i; — 

Aastog^aSs&sstLssj 3 ^ 

;3fflP>3a lS a«S3oja3«iS3o!N3»l e S« 

3^,« e^« s/.tf's/.* g^« oX.«^^« sx« 

3cjjj3-:^t:p'S 



1 3 (53 _ P C3 



•sfefe 

3-° & 



« J 



47 



CI h- C) -f CO CM O tM 



i^cd go 



—t CM -H 



-** ^h io »o t*- •-< 



< *0 CO — ( CO © i— < t— »O0> MO) 



CCO -hM 



to . — 



r- r~- 



1^00 

00 V 



ooo oo f 



© r-- »c o 



CM — ' (MO 



— tM . — 



1^ o x co ^NtM 
• C= . 00 CO ■ 

CO CO t~ CO « © 



.— — « CM f 



tM ~ OCM 

O) tM co . ^ 

— . tM U0 



HO 
rt tM 



Of 0)0 tM CO 
-H- VO WD 

0)"5 tM --< OS CO 



CO tM -h 



00 00 ~- t- 

00 . tM . 

t~© O0-H 

e-f on i--" cc 

CO .. >-- 



iO 00 tM 00 tM 1^ 



OCO 

•o . 

tMCO 





1- — 


oc as 


CCO 


^ Ol 


CO CM 
































-to 


-o 




O CM 


Cfl 




CM 


-r ~^ 





n .. *-t . 



CO I-*- *C 00 CO O 



CO to 
00 . 

as ao 



iOiO 
OS 00 

-o 



00 o oo 



OS OS CO Ol 



OC> CD CO — ' 



.— ( ICO 



OO O »C 

as . r- . 

■^ o io »o 

_CM -t- 

ooco o r- 



»C CO 00 -*t" CO o 

co . as . as . 

CO CO CM CM CO O 



GO — • *- lO WN 

n oi co co o as 

.eo -as .as 

as oi o ■* cc o 



00 r - r- oo ooco cm as 

1 - •*!• CO . CM 00 . 

oi . co oo as .— — i 





CC lO 


CM CO 




O . 


CO . 










-CO 





ON CN CO 00 
CM . O - 00 . 

r- co **- »o oo as 



*o Ol "CCO 



r- .-< *c •"* oo i>- 

*o . t- . co . 

CM as W -^ CCN 

.as -co .cm 

^f »0 i-h CM *0 



os—< r-H ^ 



oi o ■* co o as 



n . 

-a* 
ooas 



CO ■-* 



oo o o 00 o 

CM . O0 . *-i . 

(NN iO OS WCO 

CO"— i 0~CM 



CO . •-< 



cDN r*. O cc 00 
h- . as - oo . 

co -^ *o o o r- 



as «t> io rt< o oo 



coco 

^ CO 



as co o Tt* as o 



tt 1 -—! oo osas aso co 



as ■**< as o 



lOH »-t kO 



t»o§go«coo 



-O bi) 



S a 



"5 c3 



5 a 



jo .gdSgd 

3tS6S5gssgsig>c3g«fc8 
»e=T f d a " S Bo 5 »o-e o> *« a ~ 



So 5 So > 

05© -S 05 © »- 
fto'C! fto"S 

Oh O —* — O O 

UltH^fcHtH [H ^ S ^ ^ ti tri ^M U ^ *; Lh t'-H L, U M 

2 n.2^3 °-%& a-^js a..A agjoflfea &fcj2 c/5 
§H239HSS92.HSH2aSS«9-2-S« M a®cs 

«5^«'S2;rt'§2;« S^« g-^« ag;p3 §^«-r:^tf E 

9-ok is S £ o 1 ■? <" 

co 2 S^Si. 43 --^ 



0)0 S< cjo o o 



3^ g ort 

fc-l tH S tn U 7f< 

Q op's g ffl a 

3 cSt-j 3 cd M 



C-l C o -< 



.o a ; ■• .o a ^j2 a o 
3 5 o 9 £.3 S ® s 

3«C3 cS" 3 tSJ3 

m s _ 

cS CS 33 

> O -< 



3 cO 
Zi5 



H 












»CD CO 


03 


cor- 


3 


CO CO 


a 

C 


tM CO 


. 


CO 
















o 




05 












o 






a 












o 






o 






ft 


■*■« 






n 


iox»o 


2 


















3 

ft 

o 

a 


CO 00 CM 


tM COtM 


m 
















o 




05 
















c 








a 
















o 








o 








ft 










^H C 


c 





DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

Source of Data. 

During the first 6 months of 1944, the FBI examined 237,104 arrest 
records, as evidenced by fingerprint cards, in order to obtain data 
concerning the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of the 
persons represented. The compilation has been limited to instances 
of arrests for violations of state laws and municipal ordinances. In 
other words, fingerprint cards representing arrests for violations of 
Fedeal laws or representing commitments to any type of penal in- 
stitution have been excluded from this tabulation. 

The number of fingerprint records tabulated exceeded the 230,740 
examined for the first 6 months of 1943. The tabulation of data 
from fingerprint cards obviously does not include all persons arrested, 
since there "are individuals taken into custody for whom no finger- 
print cards are forwarded to Washington. Furthermore, data per- 
taining to persons arrested should not be treated as information re- 
garding the number of offenses committed, since two or more persons 
may be involved in the joint commission of a single offense, and on the 
other hand one person may be arrested and charged with the com- 
mission of several separate crimes. 

Offense Charged. 

Arrests for major violations were represented by more than 37 
percent (88,527) of the records examined during the first 6 months of 
1944. Persons charged with murder, robbery, assault, burglary, 
larceny, or auto theft numbered 65,619, constituting 27.7 percent of 
the total arrest records examined. 

Sex. 

Male arrests numbered 196,619 or 82.9 percent of the total finger- 
print cards received at the FBI during the first half of 1944, while 
female arrests (40,485) represented 17.1 percent of the total. The 
arrests of males increased 1.4 percent, and females 10.2 percent, over 
the figures for January-June of 1943. 

Age. 

For males and females combined the figures for Hie groups in which 
the largest number of arrests occurred during the Hist 6 months of 
1944, are as follows: 

Age Number of arrests 

18 12,143 

17 11,839 

19 10,067 

21 8,966 

22 8, 582 

(48) 



49 

The predominating age for arrested males was 17 and for females, 18. 

Boys, age 16, showed a 25.0-percent increase, and the next largest 
increases among the males were for age 21 (+15.2 percent) and for 
age 23 ( + 14.1 percent). The most pronounced increase among 
females was for the 20-year-olds ( + 23.4 percent), followed by ages 
21 and 24, which increased 20.5 percent and 19.6 percent, respectively. 

Of the 237,104 fingerprint arrest records examined during the first 
half of 1944, 120,694 (50.9 percent) were those of persons less than 30 
years of age, and it should be remembered that the number of arrest 
records in this study is doubtless incomplete in the lower age groups 
because of the practice of some jurisdictions not to fingerprint youthful 
offenders. 

Table 22. — Distribution^ of arrests, by sex, Jan. 1-June 30, 1944 



Offense charged 



Number 



Total 



Male 



Female 



Percent 



Total 



Male 



Female 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft... 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting. 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. ..-. 
Offenses against family and children.. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Park ing violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagran cy J . . 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



2,269 
5,381 

16, 672 
12, 712 
22, 089 

6,496 
4,042 
1,336 

287 
2,020 
2,885 
5,182 
5,482 

875 
2,837 
3,823 
3,827 
8,626 
2,374 
28 
2,183 

17, 142 
49, 001 
15.691 

7,270 

18, 764 
1,658 

16, 152 

237, 104 



1,969 

5,079 

14, 699 

12, 309 

18, 560 

6,335 

3,501 

1,194 

254 

1,712 

2,885 

1,484 

3,885 

747 

2,657 

3,539 

3,193 

8,163 

2,303 

28 

2,106 

12, 358 

43, 000 

10, 264 

6,643 

15, 148 

1,168 

11,436 

196,619 



300 
302 

1,973 
403 

3,529 
161 
541 
142 
33 
308 



3,698 
1,597 
128 
180 
284 
634 
463 
71 



77 
4,784 
6,001 
5,427 

627 
3,616 

490 
4,716 



1.0 
2.3 

7.0 

5.4 

9.3 

2.7 

1.7 

.6 

. 1 

.9 

1.2 

2.2 

2.3 

.4 

1.2 

1.6 

1.6 

3.6 

1.0 

(') 

.9 

7.2 

20.7 

6.6 

3.1 

7.9 

. 7 

6.8 



1.0 

2.6 

7.4 

6.2 

9.4 

3.2 

1.8 

.6 

. 1 

.9 

1.5 

.8 

2.0 

.4 

1.4 

1.8 

1.6 

4.2 

1.2 

CO 

1.1 

6.3 

21.8 
5.2 
3.4 
7.7 
.6 
5.8 



40, 485 



0.7 
.7 
4.9 
1.0 
8.7 
.4 
1.3 
.4 
. 1 
.8 

9. 1 
3.9 
.3 
.4 
.7 
1.6 
1. 1 
.2 



.2 
11.9 
14.9 
13.5 
1.5 
8.9 
1.2 
11.0 

100.0 



1 Less than i/fo of 1 percent. 



50 



©r-©»OCNCN»Or-COI^©-r'CCCOCN.— — > © *•* cc cn 

o en !>• -- <x o> ^f w oo n co gc x i - « oj ^i en - ^» x *r c c> n '^ o o 



CN CC © t-- O ^ O 
CN* W3 CD W CN 10* "T 



CCCN©00i->'<*'COQ000CO©CO 



<HO«NNtfiH 



i-h ClCNiOO CN CO CO 00 CN CJ N a. >0 h- X r-"^ 



00 -r © CT -T © -t" f O 'X> X C -h x ^ "-*■ 31 1 • ^ M C. f -r >o c to M rt 
CI '/■ j: X ? « t» rtW^CM^COCKONrt ^'fXNOOO'O 
CN tj-MCN CO i— ( <Hf-«CN»0 MN^Nh ^-MNCNOCfti-d 



tt © cn cc ro i - © oo »o i-< t>- io -r o r^ r- © N cc ~-< cn © cn — -* cr -0 cn 



■"■a 



NO00C4O00CG 

.-« HOMO 



cn cr. cn © re © cn © 

— - . O N t- -< h- 



fOOCNM 1 ©tO CO 
-f- co « CN l- GO to 
CN CNI>- T tT tJ* 



«©ior^CNt*-.cocc»Oi— ■ i>- 

_ _S © CO © © © l>- — ' «*♦ CO 
I tT *^ CN CN ^H wD GC © -- CN t-i Oi 



ONStOH 10 CN N (N O C— Cft C X r^ 



t>- ^ iO © CC »C CN 

r- cn 10 1- to © ^h 

CN CO CN © t^ ■— ' O 
cn i-T 



-*« *0 OS >~ < »-i 1— iNMCCOX^*iO'^ , (NOO'-"00« I © 



CtOOiO^WXI- 



r- t i-(CNiO©^HCN©*0-<t<CN NX<ONiH©-N l h 



cn 00 i-" 00 ** co i>. oo©*ocN^-TfCNoo-r 



C^NONiCiO' 



^ O >o 01 cc x X cc co co co ^ cn co © f 1- go co — ©ic-rt-co^-f^ 



CO «5 !>■ OS CN CN iO r-< (M CO t^ l>- ^ CO !>• iO ^ C 



CO CO 00 "0 ^h ^h cn *o I I- 

cn©"i-<"'— "cn pJ ; c»* 



St*io©-*r©Ci *OM*oocD©otO'— • ©coco©^«TriciO'*':*:^©cn 

t^- w ^- — ■ co co occo«NX"tic-t , '-'0« 00 *o ic — © cn © en 

CO CC OS *<** OS "0 © 1— 1 CN^OiOOi-i'^rCOiOC^-^ CO © © OS © © CN OS 

CN* f4 CN* 1-? CN IQ »-5 r- ' CN t-T 



1— < -*J< -# CC »0 CN CN 00©COCO©©CNC7s©r^©-Hi-'COr*iOCOI^-COt^-' 



t-, © © © h- CO 10 



.©io©cocn©cnooos 



J CN ON I- GCCN — 

© C © 1-^ © 10 ! »o 



CO CO C-- *C GO CN OS OOi->r^'**<OSCOaOh-*©©COCN-*t*l>-iOCNcCCO©CO 



cc ■— 1 en © t-» © ^ 



lOcNcocortoiOO cnco-*»cic©©co 1 »c 



<H« CN t-h f- 1 CN ^H 



t>- © c>- ~ 00 to *o 



-^ lO *C CN rt« © Tt« 
XOCCQ-vO-V 

CO lO "^ CC' CO r-4 



r-t^CN000S00-*<.-«h-u0iOQ0 
"-sji © -^ -*f CN CO © CO Oi CO OS 

h ^CO CN ^ ^h _i 



CO lO UO 00 ^O CN CN 
- . ^ tT" © GC I - CN 

co »o uo en co -— < 



■• ^tOHcsxtocfO^roxcB 

t^ -^ Tf © 00 t^ CN CO © ^f © CO CO CN r-i CC CO © 



5 £i2 



os © cn *o co os © ©©lO-^osto^ooooocNTt* 

»0 CO ■* O tO ^h -h iOi-4O5©-^^CO^0000©00 



CO ^ © © ^ i-H 



r-tCNCN —t t-h 



I^COCN© — uO^OO CN 
GC © CO CO ■*- X. © O I 00 



»CiOkOTfh.iOXC» © 

Oi_o — CNcn©o © 
00 en © i~< 00 *>.os 



iO ^f H ^ h. lO X N 

CJsco©ososcN-*fcn 



^ 10 a »o r^ ci o •*cftxoxiCftcocNw^»oOriF-X'-acot 



*o en © ^h © cn cn 

CO tP CC CN © t-h 



> co cn 00 o co cn 

HHCl^CNH _ _ 
-HCNCOCN r-t y-+ 



Ot-CCR CO 00 © h- © CN © T 
Ht»CCnHH CC 



^f-rfuoi-'ioCN© ©t^©cccn-Hto©CN©CN-^'^Heniot^'^ , cocNccco 
r^ cc co — ' ^h en 10 © >— ■ ^h cn 00 ■<*« 1-1 r- ^r r* r* cn cNcn co -^ —* © r- © 



»o©©cn©coi>- ©cn©*o©"o©i— icocc»o: 



tCON^rHHO 

"^co©cn ©«-4 



r-4CN^H— I ^H 



TP Tt- rH lO « ■* rf Q0t^©©©^Hr-t«^W©CN© 

cocM^HHio corH©c»iocn cn--HcocNco 



CN OJ 00 © CN -«f CO r-tO©©CC^ 'N 
^ CC CC N Ol N rH ^HCNCN CN 



O. © © I - CN lO 00 Q CO ■* rH CO iH rH O 

CNF-tCNCO^O *-* rH —I l-» 



■^« -^ OS CO CN Tf CN CN 



CN© ' CO ^ UOCO CN 



t-cc©r--CNcnt^© 



r^©ooi>-© l ocN© 

©OOCOCOrP©CNO 
CNf-iCO 00 



•^t<Tj<^»OlO00I>-T*4 

^-4 t>CO 00 © © 



CN-«*tocoi>-aoec-* 
co ^r cn ro 



CN-h^-^ CN©^HCC 



'Cos 



K — < W •/. 



.SO 



y& 



I ^^'^-^ J-S.S.I'gn 
1 a me 3 

3 S.2 n £— M n bo's S § «.E o-g o 

i l-l C? Q, r-i *J .3 ^ .—4 1^ i_ _, CT "^* — r« W 



OOMJ 



h o c3 K*j w *a.s ^ o efl-w- 4 t. CO Cl 3 o^ 



r*i .*?*7 



51 



In analyzing the fingerprint arrest records received at the FBI 
with reference to the volume of crime committed by youthful persons, 
the figures indicate the lower age group plays a predominant part in 
the commission of crimes against property. During the first 6 months 
of this year, 37.1 percent of all persons arrested were 24 years of age 
or younger; however, this lower age group was responsible for 51.6 
percent of the larcenies, 58.6 percent of the robberies, 68.5 percent of 
the burglaries, and 81.7 percent of the automobile thefts. More than 
one-half of all crimes against property were committed^ by persons 
less than 25 years of age. 

Table 24. — Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, 
male and female, Jan. 1-June 30, 1944 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft ' 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc. 

A rson - - 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

O ther sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children. .. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws. . . 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 



Total 
number 

of 
persons 
arrested 



Total 237,104 



2,269 

5,381 

16,672 

12,712 

22, 089 

6,496 

4,042 

1,336 

287 

2,020 

2,885 

5,182 

5,482 

875 

2,837 

3,823 

3,827 

8,626 

2,374 

28 

2,183 

17, 142 

49, 001 

15, 691 

7,270 

18, 764 

1,658 

16, 152 



Number 
under 21 
years of 



304 

1,928 

2,104 

6,778 

8,012 

4,189 

568 

284 

95 

539 

917 

1,055 

967 

77 

657 

217 

329 

374 

460 

2 

555 

3,463 

2,563 

4,929 

460 

6,164 

287 

6,176 



54, 453 



Total 

number 

under 25 

years of 

age 



620 
3,155 
4,381 
8,711 
11,394 
5,305 
1, 135 

458 

119 

916 
1,444 
2,272 
1,860 

211 
1,118 

771 

697 
1,027 

861 
5 

904 
6,465 
6,470 
8,028 
1,058 
9,420 

563 
8,700 



Per- 
centage 
under 21 
years of 



88, 068 



13.4 
35.8 
12.6 
53.3 
36.3 
64.5 
14.1 
21.3 
33.1 
26.7 
31.8 
20.4 
17.6 

8.8 
23.2 

5.7 

8.6 

4.3 
19.4 

7. 1 
25.4 
20.2 

5.2 
31.4 

6.3 
32.9 
17.3 
38.2 



Total 
percent- 
age under 
25 years 

of age 



23.0 



27.3 
58.6 
26.3 
68.5 
51.6 
81.7 
28.1 
34.3 
41.5 
45.3 
50.1 
43.8 
33.9 
24.1 
39.4 
20.2 
18.2 
11.9 
36.3 
17.9 
41.4 
37.7 
13.2 
51.2 
14.6 
50.2 
34.0 
53.9 



37.1 



Criminal Repeaters. 

Of the 237,104 arrest records examined, 112,987 (47.7 percent) 
represented persons who already had fingerprint records on file in the 
Identification Division of the FBI. For males the percentage with 
prior records was 51.3 and for females the percentage was 29.9. 

Race. 

Most of the persons represented in this study were members of the 
white and Negro races. Including Mexicans, who numbered 7,976, 
members of the white race represented 173,658 of the 237,104 arrest 
records received, while 59,838 were Negroes, 2,759 Indians, 257 
Chinese, 42 Japanese, and 550 were representatives of other races. 



OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in part I and 
part II offenses, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 

Part I Offenses. 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter includes all 
wilful felonious homicides as distinguished from deaths caused by negligence. 
Does not include attempts to kill, assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, or 
justifiable homicides. Justifiable homicides excluded from this classification are 
limited to the following types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon by a peace officer 
in line of duty; (2) The killing of a hold-up man by a private citizen. (6) Man- 
slaughter by negligence includes any death which the police investigation estab- 
lishes was primarily attributable to gross negligence on the part of some individual 
other than the victim. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape (no force used — victim under 
age of consent), assault to rape, and attempted rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as strong-arm robbery, stick-ups, 
robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by the use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or a theft, even though no force 
was used to gain entrance. Includes attempts. Burglary followed by larceny 
is included in this classification and not counted again as larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value; 
(6) under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of the property stolen, thefts, of bicycles, automobile accessories, 
shoplifting pocket-picking, or any stealing of property or article of value which 
is not taken by force and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, 
"con" games, forgery, worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven away 
and abandoned, including the so-called joy-riding thefts. Does not include taking 
for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unauthorized use by 
those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses. 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
ot an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or possessing, with'intent to defraud, anything false which is 
made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and obtainingfmoney or property by false pretenses. 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those offenses. 

(52) 



53 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of regulations 
or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing, and manufac- 
turing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes 
or regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commer- 
cialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as prostitution, keeping 
bawdy house, procuring, transporting, or detaining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice). — In- 
cludes offences against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

15. Offenses against the family and children. — Includes offenses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, sale, or use. Excludes Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "drunkenness" (class 18) and "driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations, State or local, are placed in 
this class. Excludes Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regulations with 
respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22 -24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters, but not in connection with any specific offense, who are released with- 
out formal charges being placed against them. 

o 



A^^x^K, 



UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C 



Volume XV 

ANNUAL BULLETIN 



Number 2 
1944 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume XV— Number 2 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1945 



MA * 23 1945 






Contents 



Page 

Summary of volume XV, No. 2 55-57 

Classification of offenses 57-58 

Extent of reporting area 58 

Monthly reports: 

Offenses known to the police— cities divided according to population 

(table 25) 59-60 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police (table 26) 61-64 

Monthly variations, offenses known to the police (table 27) 64-67 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location 

(tables 28-30) 68-71 

Offenses in individual cities over 25,000 in population (table 31) 72-79 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 32-34) 79-85 

Rural crime trends (table 35) 85-86 

Offenses known in Territories and possessions (table 36) 86 

Estimated number of major crimes, 1943-44 (table 37) 87-89 

Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1944: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 38) 90-91 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 39-40) — 91-98 

Percentage with previous fingerprint record (table 41) 98 

Race distribution of persons arrested (table 42) 100 

Definition of part I and part II offense classifications 101-102 

Index to volume XV 103-104 

(ii) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 
of Justice, Washington, D. C. 

Volume XV January 1945 Number 2 



SUMMARY 

Crime Trends, 1939-44. 

Crime trends were generally upward during 1944, with all offenses 
except robberies and larcenies showing increases over 1943, according 
to the reports of 318 of the Nation's largest cities. As a group, crimes 
against the person displayed an upward swing amounting to 10.0 per- 
cent in 1944, while property offenses were up 1.5 percent. For the 
total of all offenses a 2.0 percent increase was recorded over 1943. 

As to individual offense classes, murders and negligent manslaugh- 
ters increased 3.8 percent and 10.3 percent respectively during 1944 
over the previous year, while rapes rose 4.2 percent and aggravated 
assaults, 12.0 percent. Forcible rapes increased 12.3 percent, while 
statutory violations (no force used — victim under age of consent) 
declined 2.5 percent. 

Auto thefts in 1944 were up 9.2 percent and burglaries showed a 1.5 
percent rise. Robberies declined 2.1 percent and larcenies showed 
practically no change from 1943 to 1944 (-0.2 percent). Thefts in- 
volving property valued at $50 or more increased 22.9 percent, most of 
the decline in larcenies appearing among thefts of property under $5 
in value. 

The steady increase in rape during recent years placed the 1944 
figure for such offenses 27.0 percent in excess of the average pre-war 
year (1939-41). Similarly, aggravated assaults during 1944 exceeded 
the pre-war average year by 19.9 percent. Despite the decrease in the 
number of automobiles in use during recent years, the auto theft figure 
for 1944 exceeds the pre-war average by 15.2 percent. 

In the following instances the 1944 figures were below the pre-war 
average to the extent indicated: Murder, -7.5 percent; robbery, -13.2 
percent; burglary, —8.9 percent; and larceny, —13.3 percent. 

Crime Rates, 1943-44. 

Crime rates vary aniong communities of different sizes. Murder 
increased in cities of all sizes except those with populations from 
25,000 to 50,000, and those under 10,000. Negligent manslaughters 
showed increases only in the cities over 50,000. Offenses of rape in- 
creased only among the cities with population in excess of 100,000, and 

(55) 



56 

aggravated assaults increased in cities of all sizes, except those from 
10,000 to 25,000 in population. As to property crimes, auto thefts 
increased in cities of all sizes, whereas the robbery rates increased only 
in cities with population less than 25,000, showing decreases in the 
larger communities. 

Value of Property Stolen, 1943-44. 

The average value of property stolen per offense of robbery in- 
creased 19.6 percent, from $94.26 in 1943 to $112.74 in 1944. The 
increases for other types of crimes were as follows: Burglary 30.6 per- 
cent, larceny 17.0 percent, and auto theft 13.9 percent. Ninety-seven 
percent of the stolen automobiles were recovered. Exclusive of auto- 
mobiles, 24.1 percent of the property stolen in 1944 was recovered. 

Estimated Number of Major Crimes, 1944. 

With the passing of each hour during 1944, more than 158 serious 
crimes were reported to local police authorities in the United States. 
Each day on the average brought 28 felonious killings, 30 rapes, 150 
aggravated assaults, and left 120 persons robbed, 555 with their auto- 
mobiles stolen and the homes or business places of 749 others burglar- 
ized. In addition, 2,176 larcenies occurred during the average day, 
until by the end of the year an estimated 1,393,655 major crimes were 
registered. 

Monthly Variations in Crime. 

Crime shows a definite tendency to fluctuate with the seasons, and 
the figures for 1944 followed generally the pattern of prior years. 
During the summer months when the days are longer and warmer, 
murders and other felonious assaults are most frequent, while the 
predatory crimes against property increase generally with the extended 
darkness of the winter months. Negligent manslaughters, com- 
posed almost entirely of traffic fatalities, follow generally the seasonal 
curve of traffic deaths, increasing noticeably with the darkness and 
unfavorable driving conditions of the winter months. 

Rural Crime Trends, 1943-44. 

Rural murders and rapes decreased in 1944, whereas urban crimes of 
those types increased. On the other hand, rural robberies were up 
1.7 percent, while urban robberies declined 2.1 percent. Similarly the 
rural larceny rate showed a slight increase amounting to 1.7 percent, 
whereas urban larcenies registered a slight decrease. For offenses of 
negligent manslaughter, aggravated assault, burglary, and auto theft 
the trend of both rural and urban crime figures was upwards in 1944. 

Persons Arrested, 1944. 

Among the 488,979 fingerprint arrest records received at the FBI 
in 1944, age 17 stood out as the predominating single age group among 



57 

arrested persons, followed in this respect by ages 18, 19, 21, and 22 in 
the order indicated. 

For males and females combined arrests of persons in the 18-20 
age group decreased 5.2 percent, while arrests of persons less than 18 
years old declined 2.5 percent. During 1944, boy arrests under 18 
decreased L8 percent and girl arrests under 18 decreased 7.1 percent 
as compared with 1943. Boy arrests in the 18-20 bracket decreased 
8.5 percent, but girl arrests in this age group increased 4.9 percent. 
A comparison of the 1944 data with the figures for 1941, the last 
peace-time year, showed the arrests of boys under 18 were up 18.8 
percent in 1944, and arrests of girls under 21 showed a 134.0 percent 
rise, indicating we still have an abnormally high level of juvenile 
delinquency. 

Of the total arrest records examined, 241,042 (49.3 percent) repre- 
sented persons who already had fingerprint arrest records on file at the 
FBI. For males the percentage with prior records was 52.8, and for 
females the percentage was 32.1. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to the 
police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting or 
court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following group 
of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be those most 
generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal homicide, 
including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (b) manslaugh- 
ter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; burglary — break- 
ing or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The figures contained 
herein include also the number of attempted crimes of the designated 
classes. In other words, an attempted burglary or robbery, for ex- 
ample, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner as if the crime 
had been completed. Attempted murders, however, are reported as 
aggravated assaults. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the law-enforce- 
ment agencies of contributing communities and not merely arrests or 
cleared cases. Offenses committed by juveniles are included in the 
same manner as those known to have been committed by adults, 
regardless of the prosecutive action. Complaints which upon inves- 
tigation are learned to be groundless are not included in the tabulations 
which follow. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 



58 

current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions of 
part I and II offense classifications. 

EXTENT OF REPORTING AREA 

In the table which follows, there is shown the number of police 
departments from which one or more crime reports were received 
during the calendar year 1944. Information is presented for the 
cities divided according to size, and the population figures employed 
are from the 1940 decennial census. 



Population group 


Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 


Cities filing returns 


Total 
population 


Population repre- 
sented in returns 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


1,078 


1,043 


96. 75 


62, 726, 936 


62, 242, 502 


99.23 


1. Cities over 250,000 


37 
55 
107 
213 
666 


37 

55 
107 
213 
631 


100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
94.74 


30, 195, 339 
7, 792, 650 
7,343,917 
7,417,093 
9, 977, 937 


30, 195, 339 
7, 792, 650 
7,343,917 
7, 417, 093 
9, 493, 503 


100.00 


2. Cities 100,000 to 250,000 


100.00 


3. Cities 50,000 to 100,000 


100. 00 


4. Cities 25,000 to 50,000 


100.00 


5. Cities 10,000 to 25,000 


95.14 







Note.— The above table does not include 2,085 cities, villages, and rural townships aggregating a total 
population of 10,385,121. The cities and villages included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 popu- 
lation filing returns, whereas the rural townships are of varying population groups. 

In addition to the 3,128 city and village police departments which 
forwarded crime reports during 1944, one or more reports were 
received during the year from 2,314 sheriffs and State Police organi- 
zations and from 6 agencies in Territories and possessions of the 
United States, making a grand total of 5,448 agencies contributing 
crime reports to the FBI during 1944. 



MONTHLY REPORTS 

Offenses Known to tlie Police — Cities Divided According to Population. 

Crime rates vary among communities of different sizes, with the 
higher rates generally found in the larger cities. For this reason, the 
offenses known to the police for the calendar year 1944 and the rate per 
100,000 are presented in table 25 for cities of the Nation grouped 
according to size, so that interested persons may compare the frequency 
of crime in an individual city with national averages for cities of the 
same population group. The average crime rate for all cities, regard- 
less of size is likewise shown in the tabulation. 

Similar tabulations in prior issues of the bulletin have been published 
for other periods, and although the comparable table for the calendar 
year 1943 presented in volume XIV, No. 2 was not based on exactly 
the same cities represented in table 25 of this issue, a comparison of 
the two tables does furnish some information relative to significant 
trends from 1943 to 1944 in cities of specific population groups. Such 
a comparison reflects increases in the murder rates for cities of all 
sizes, except those with population from 25,000 to 50,000, and those 
under 10,000. Negligent manslaughters showed increases only in the 
cities over 50,000. Offenses of rape increased only among the cities 
with population in excess of 100,000, showing decreases in the smaller 
communities, and aggravated assaults increased in cities of all sizes 
except those from 10,000 to 25,000. 

Among the offenses against property, increases were reflected in auto 
theft rates in cities of all sizes, whereas the robbery rates increased only 
in cities with population less than 25,000, showing decreases in the 
larger communities. The changes in the rates for burglary and 
larceny were not particularly significant, moderate increases and 
decreases being scattered among the six population groups. 

The following figures indicate the distribution of the reported 
offenses in 1944: 



Offense 



Total 

Larceny 

Burglary... 
Auto theft. 



Rate per 
100,000 


Percent 


1, 445. 4 


100.0 


819.0 
305. 2 
203.0 


56.7 
21.1 

14.0 



Offense 



Assault 

Robbery 

Rape 

Murder 

Manslaughter 



Rate per 
100,000 



54.8 

43.8 

10.9 

4.9 

3.8 



Percent 



3.8 
3.0 



(59) 



60 

It is of some significance to note that the violent crimes of criminal 
homicide, rape, and aggravated assault shown in table 25, numbering 
49,719, constituted 5.2 percent of the total offenses reported by the 
cities represented, while for the 3-year period preceding the war 
(1939-41) such crimes composed only from 4.1 percent to 4.3 percent 
of the total offenses reported. This percentage change is attrib- 
utable in part to increases in rapes and other felonious assaults and 
also to the lower figures for robbery, burglary, and larceny reported 
during the war years. 

For an estimate as to the total serious offenses committed in the 
United States during 1944, reference may be made to table 37 in this 
issue of the bulletin. 



Table 25. — Offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 1944; 
number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Criminal 
homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 




Population group 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


GROUP I 

36 cities over 250,000; total popu- 
lation. 29,894,166: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 


1,743 
5.83 

494 
6.34 

373 
5.20 

237 
3.41 

266 
3.10 

170 
2.66 


1,346 
4.50 

410 
5.26 

273 
3.80 

232 
3.33 

157 

1.83 

108 
1.69 


4,110 

13.75 

926 
11.88 

607 
8.46 

479 
6.88 

685 
7.99 

482 

7.55 


18, 484 
61.8 

3,737 
48.0 

2,361 
32.9 

1,667 
24.0 

1,783 

20.8 

1.219 
19.1 


18, 271 
61.1 

5,164 
66.3 

5, 037 
70.2 

3,872 

55.6 

2,423 
28.3 

1,854 
29.1 


i 73, 093 
356.4 

30, 323 
389.1 

22. 798 
317.7 

18, 317 
263.2 

19,278 
224.8 

11,335 
177.6 


'172,232 
839.8 

74, 148 
951.5 

66, 243 
923.2 

60.978 
876.3 

64. 929 
757. 2 

31,510 
493.8 


65, 356 
218. 6 


GROUP II 

55 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,792,650: 
Number of offenses known . . . 
Rate per 100,000 


21, 433 
275.0 


group in 

104 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 7,175,075: 
Number of offenses known . . . 
Rate per 100,000 

GROUP IV 

201 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 6,958,492: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 .. 


14, 985 
208.8 

12,308 
176.9 


GROUP V 

567 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 8,574,864: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 


13,628 
158.9 


GROUP VI 

1,198 cities under 10,000; total 
population, 6,381,576: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 


7,871 
123.3 






TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

2,161 cities; total population, 
66,776,823: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000. _ 


3,283 
4.92 


2,526 
3.78 


7,289 
10.92 


29,251 
43.8 


36, 621 
54.8 


'175,144 
305.2 


'470, 040 
819.0 


135, 581 
203.0 







1 The number of offenses and rates for burglary and larceny are based on reports as follows- (Iroup I 
34 cities, total population, 20,507,837; groups I-VI, 2,159 cities, total population, 57,390,494. 



61 

Annual Trends, Offenses Known to the Police. 

Crime trends were generally upward during 1944, with all offenses 
except robberies and larcenies showing increases, according to the 
reports of 318 of the Nation's largest cities. As a group, crimes 
against the person displayed an upswing amounting to 10.0 percent in 
1944, while property offenses were up 1.5 percent. For the total of all 
offenses reflected in table 26, a 2.0 percent increase was recorded over 
1943. 

In examining the figures for individual offense classes, increases 
were noted during 1944 in the number of murders and negligent man- 
slaughters to the extent of 3.8 percent and 10.3 percent respectively 
over 1943, while rapes rose 4.2 percent and aggravated assaults, 12.0 
percent. 

Auto thefts in 1944 were up 9.2 percent and burglaries showed a 1.5 
percent rise. Robberies declined 2.1 percent and larcenies showed 
practically no change from 1943 to 1944 ( — 0.2 percent). 

Rape, aggravated assault, and auto theft offenses have shown the 
most significant increases since the war began. Rape offenses have 
increased steadily with the result the 1944 figure is 27.0 percent in excess 
of the average pre-war year (1939-41). The 1944 rape figures were up 
in six of the nine geographic divisions, with decreases reflected in the 
New England, Middle Atlantic, and Mountain States. 

Aggravated assaults have followed generally the trend in rape 
offenses, except for the year 1943, when the figures remained practi- 
cally unchanged from 1942. In 1944, however, the sharp rise in aggra- 
vated assaults put the figure for this offense class 19.9 percent over the 
pre-war average year. Increases in 1944 were reflected in all sections 
of the country, except in those States comprising the New England, 
West North Central, and West South Central geographic divisions. 

During the first calendar year after Pearl Harbor auto thefts de- 
clined, but during 1943 and 1944 significant and steady increases have 
been recorded despite the decrease in the number of automobiles in use 
during those years. The auto theft figure for 1944 exceeds the pre-war 
average by 15.2 percent, and the increase was general in all sections of 
the country, except in the Mountain and Pacific States where decreases 
were reported. 

In the following instances the 1944 figures were below the pre-war 
average to the extent indicated: Murder, —7.5 percent; robbery, 
— 13.2 percent; burglary, -§8.9 percent; and larceny, —13.3 percent. 

Table 26 presents a summarization of the offenses known to the 
police in 318 cities with a population in excess of 25,000. In examining 
the trends for individual geographic divisions consideration should 
be given to the fact that substantial shifts in population have occurred 
subsequent to the 1940 decennial census, 

632728—45 2 



62 




63 



Table 26. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 318 cities over 25,000 in 
population, January to December, inclusive, 1939-44, by geographic divisions 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Geographic divisions 



NEW ENGLAND 

44 cities, total population, 
3,030,386: 

Average, 1939-41 

1942 

1943 

1944 

Percent change 1943-44 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC 

57 cities, total population, 
13.531,551: 

Average, 1939^1 . 

1942 

1943 

1944 

Percent change 1943-44 

EAST NORTH CENTRAL 

85 cities, total population, 
12,131,211: 

Average, 1939^1 

1942 _. 

1943 

1944 

Percent change 1934-44 

WEST NORTH CENTRAL 

27 cities, total population, 
3,541,995: 

Average, 1939-41 

1942 

1943 

1944 

Percent change 1943-44 

SOUTH ATLANTIC > 

35 cities, total population, 
3,917,445: 

Average, 1939-41 

1942 

1943 

1944 

Percent change 1943-44 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL 

12 cities, total population, 
1,228,352: 

Average, 1939-41 _ 

1942 . .. . 

1943 

1944 

Percent change 1943-44 

WEST SOUTH C ENTRAL 

20 cities, total population, 
2,414,637: 

Average, 1939-41 

1942 

1943 

1944 

Percent change 1943-44 



Criminal 
homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg' 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



35 
32 
26 
38 
+46.2 



467 
452 
371 
377 
+1.6 



594 
603 
544 
553 
+1.7 



158 
150 
145 
149 

+2.8 



591 
613 

482 
525 

+8.9 



273 
251 
209 
197 
-5.7 



Man- Rape 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



87 
80 
75 
81 
+8.0 



606 
643 
498 
603 

+21.1 



393 
392 
373 
356 
-4.6 



82 
99 
66 
116 

+75.8 



192 
187 
182 
225 

+23.6 



98 
62 
61 
60 
-1.6 



310 


104 


341 


104 


335 


100 


322 


106 


3.9 


+6.0 



179 
183 
171 
137 
-19.9 



1,292 
1.253 
1,183 
1, 142 
-3.5 



1.241 
1,338 
1,517 
1,596 
+5.2 



239 
262 
335 
432 

+29.0 



388 
489 
416 
518 

+24.5 



101 
109 
111 
114 

+2.7 



201 
180 

217 

235 

+8.3 



Rob- 
bery 



440 
388 
502 
425 
-15.3 



3.118 
2,673 
2,335 
2, 331 
-0 2 



11,791 
10, 481 
9,321 
9,293 
-0.3 



1,698 

1,006 

941 

892 

-5.2 



2,922 
3,146 
2,868 
2,423 
-15.5 



1,012 

1,003 

677 

715 
+5.6 



1, 359 
1,185 
1,113 
1,072 
-3.7 



Aggra- 
vated 

assault 



342 
296 
377 
282 
-25.2 



4.632 
4, 459 
4, 225 
4.232 
+0.2 



4.608 
5, 374 
5,935 
6. 875 
+15.8 



1,038 
1,443 
1,081 
1,075 
-0.6 



4,808 
6,019 
5,482 
6,299 
+ 14.9 



2,759 
1,872 
1,251 
1,817 

+45.2 



Bur- 
glary- 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



9,838 
8,815 



8,141 
-9.2 



20. 285 
16, 933 
17,506 
16,592 
-5.2 



40, 222 
35, 697 
36, 876 
38, 324 
+3.9 



10, 406 
8,297 
8,087 
7,811 
-3.4 



17,018 
15,763 
15, 430 
14, 639 
-5.1 



6, 325 
5. 365 
4,874 
4,783 
-1.9 



Lar- 
ceny— 
theft 



1.984 


10, 827 


2,065 


9, 545 


2,054 


9,582 


2,037 


10, 118 


-0.8 


+5.6 



20, 139 
21,094 
17, 656 
15, 894 
-10.0 



41.914 
40, 156 
32, 140 
32, 156 
0.0 



114, ti64 
107, 806 
96, 998 
97, 843 
+0.9 



34, 632 
30, 458 
25, 697 
23, 442 



48, 935 
53, 772 
45, 630 
42. 023 
-7.9 



12,474 
13, 721 
11,547 
11, 165 
-3.3 



35, 969 
34, 448 
29, 297 
31, 383 
+7.1 



1 Includes the District of Columbia. 



64 



Table 26. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 318 cities over 25,000 in 
population, January to December, inclusive, 1989-44, by geographic divisions — 
Continued. 



Geographic divisions 



MOUNTAIN 

11 cities, total population, 
835,805: 

Average, 1939-41 . 

1942 

1943 

1944... 

Percent change 1943-44 

PACIFIC 

27 cities, total population, 
4,430,816: 

Average, 1939-41 

1942 

1943 

1944 

Percent change 1943-44 

TOTAL— ALL DIVISIONS 

318 cities, total population, 
45,062,198: 

Average, 1939-41 

1942 _. 

1943 

1944 

Percent change 1943-44 



Criminal 
homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



31 
34 
44 
34 
-22.7 



173 
197 
189 
239 

+26.5 



2,632 
2,673 
2,345 
2,434 

+3.8 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



41 
70 
43 
63 
+46.5 



375 
366 
398 
371 
-6.8 



1,978 
2,003 
1,796 
1,981 
+10.3 









Bur- 




Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 


glary— 


Rape 


vated 


break- 




assault 


ing or 








entering 


58 


483 


166 


3,544 


101 


581 


216 


4,335 


158 


602 


287 


4,491 


138 


446 


321 


4,257 


-12.7 


-25.9 


+11.8 


-5.2 


587 


4,142 


1,527 


24, 848 


849 


3,907 


1,789 


19, 678 


1,116 


5,535 


2,729 


22, 844 


1,131 


5,796 


3,283 


25, 898 


+ 1.3 


+4.7 


+20.3 


+13.4 


4, 286 


26, 965 


21,864 


143, 313 


4,764 


24, 370 


23, 533 


124, 428 


5,224 


23, 894 


23, 421 


128, 656 


5,443 


23, 393 


26, 221 


130, 563 


+4.2 


-2.1 


+ 12.0 


+ 1.5 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



12, 586 
13, 840 
13, 245 
12,078 



66, 996 
61, 810 
64, 998 
70, 546 
+8.5 



388, 309 
377, 105 
337, 208 
336, 530 
-0.2 



Auto 
theft 



2,041 
2, 178 
2,613 
2, 365 
-9.5 



17, 531 
17, 423 
24, 480 
23, 027 
-5.9 



84, 293 
79,713 



97. 081 
+9.2 



Monthly Variations, Offenses Known to the Police. 

Crime shows a definite tendency to fluctuate 1 with the seasons. 
During the summer months when the days are longer and warmer, 
murders and other felonious assaults are most frequent, while the 
predatory crimes of robbery, burglary, and auto theft increase gen- 
erally with the extended darkness of the winter months. 

The seasonal crime curves are graphically presented in figures 10 
and 11. These charts show the extent to which the actual number of 
offenses exceeds, or falls short of, the number that would have been 
recorded for the month had the offenses been distributed equally 
throughout the year. The 5-year average for 1939-43 is charted in 
comparison with the data for 1944. 

As indicated in figure 10, the seasonal curve for offenses of man- 
slaughter by negligence is the inverse of those for other offenses against 
the person. However, negligent manslaughters are composed almost 
entirely of traffic fatalities wherein gross criminal negligence was 
present, and the number of such offenses, therefore, follows generally 
the seasonal curve of traffic deaths, which tend to increase with the 
darkness and unfavorable driving conditions of the winter months. 



65 



MONTHLY VARIATIONS 
Offenses Known to the Police 



1939-1944 



318 CITIES TOTAL POPULATION 45,062,198 



(Offenses Against the Person) 




Figure 10. 



66 

The larceny seasonal pattern as shown in figure 11 is slightly differ- 
ent from that of other crimes against property. This may be ex- 
plained in part by the fact that many larcenies, unlike the more pre- 
meditated crimes of robbery, burglary and auto theft, frequently 
involve the theft of personal property carelessly left unattended or 
insecure by the owners. During the winter months when there 
appears to be more of a tendency to "put things away," in the house 
or storeroom for example, the larceny frequency declines and, in- 
cidentally, the burglary curve rises. 

Table 27, shows the monthly variations in offenses known to the 
police, based on daily averages. The tabulation makes possible the 
comparison of the frequency of crime during any one month or quar- 
ter with the daily average for the year. 



Table 27. — Monthly variations, offenses known to the police {daily average), Jan- 
uary to December, inclusive, 1944> 318 cities over 25,000 in -population 

[Total population, 45,062,198, based on 1940 decennial census] 



i anuary 

February 

March 

April. _- 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September..- — 

October 

November 

December. _ 

January to March 

April to June 

July to September 

October to December 
January to December 



Criminal homi 
cide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



5.48 
5.83 
5.74 
6.73 
6.97 
6.97 
7.03 
6.74 
7.83 
6.35 
6.37 
7.74 



5.68 
6.89 
7.20 
6.83 
6.65 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



6.39 
5.86 
6.61 
5.33 
4.19 
5.03 
3.94 
3.16 
4.53 
5.87 
6.37 
7.68 



6.30 
4.85 
3.87 
6.64 
5.41 



Rape 



14.26 
15.17 
14.52 
13.43 
14.29 
15.43 
16. 58 
17.35 
14.43 
14.94 
14.43 
13.58 



14.64 
14.38 
16.14 
14.32 
14.87 



Rob- 
bery 



69.5 
65.1 
60.9 
59.7 
57.2 
54.1 
61.0 
60.6 
66.9 
63.3 
70.6 
78.1 



65.2 
57.0 
62.8 
70.7 
63.9 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



61.2 
60.9 
61.8 
68.5 
75.9 
72.8 
82.1 
78.8 
82.8 
73.4 
69.9 
71.0 



61.3 
72.5 
81.2 
71.4 
71.6 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



373.2 
376.1 
350.8 
358.2 
329.3 
320.7 
339.0 
358.8 
357.2 
354.5 
383.1 
380.8 



366.5 
336. 
351.6 
372. 7 
356.7 



851.8 
845.0 
848.3 
886.5 
912.0 
920.6 
931.4 
961.1 
984.0 
1, 006. 9 
985. 
899.7 



848.4 
906.4 
958. 5 
963. 6 
919.5 



Auto 
theft 



307.0 
264.7 
266.1 
268.5 
244.2 
244.1 
234.6 
251.2 
267.6 
280.1 
284.9 
270.1 



279. 6 
252.2 
250.9 
278. 3 
265.2 



67 



MONTHLY VARIATIONS 
Offenses Known to the Police 



1939-1944 



318 CITIES TOTAL POPULATION 45,062,198 



(Offenses Against Property) 



Burglary 



JAN. FEB- MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



Wmwf vfPVfftG. 5uw*ui#i 




Larceny 



JAN FEB MAR. APR MAY JUNE JULY AUS SEPT. OCT NOV DEC. 






Fall 




5 YEAR AVERAGE 
(1939-43) 



Auto Theft 



JAN. FEB MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC 



1W • f*T#T 9fMftttQ . 3Hlfl1rtX|C 



Ml 



^° 




5 YEAR AVERAGE 
(1939-431 



Figure 11. 



68 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location. 

The many social and economic factors directly affecting the extent 
of crime vary among the several States and larger geographic divisions, 
and thus, the frequency of crime varies throughout the different sec- 
tions of the Nation. 

The rates for crimes against property in the Western States are 
generally higher than in other sections of the country, while the rates 
for offenses against the person are generally higher in the Southern 
States. Police administrators, therefore, are frequently interested in 
comparing figures for their respective communities with the average 
for other cities in the same general area. 

Accordingly, the rates shown in table 25 are subdivided in tables 
29 and 30 to present the data for individual States and geographic 
divisions. The figures in table 28 indicate the number of cities in 
each State and geographic division used in preparing the crime rate 
data shown in tables 25, 29, and 30. 

In examining the crime rates for the several States and geographic 
divisions it should be remembered that the 1940 decennial census 
population figures were used in preparing the data presented and 
there have doubtless been marked changes in the population in many 
communities since 1940. 



69 



Table 28. 



•Number of cities in each State included in the tabulation of uniform 
crime reports, January to December, inclusive, 1944 









Population 








Division and State 


Over 

250,000 


100,000 to 
250,000 


50,000 to 
100,000 


25,000 to 
50,000 


10,000 to 
25,000 


Less than 

in. iinn 


Total 


GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England: 186 cities; total pop- 
ulation, 5,988,907 


2 
6 
8 
4 
3 
3 
4 
1 
5 


10 
11 
10 

5 

3 
3 
1 
5 


13 
23 
23 

8 
16 

4 
8 
2 

7 


32 

36 
57 
11 
20 
10 
12 

16 


73 

146 
116 
65 
48 
19 
36 
23 
41 


56 
296 
300 
172 
100 
38 
61 
58 
117 


1S6 


Middle Atlantic: 518 cities; total 
population, 19,561,797 


518 


East North Central: 514 cities; total 
population, 16,320,012... 


514 


West North Central: 265 cities; 

total population, 5,454,095 

South Atlantic: ' 194 cities; total 


265 
194 


East South Central: 77 cities; total 
population, 2,365,223 




West South Central: 124 cities; total 
population, 3,792,528. 


124 


Mountain: 92 cities; total popula- 
tion, 1,491,724. 


92 


Pacific: 191 cities; total population, 
6,059,869 


191 






New England: 






1 

1 


2 
2 

1 
13 
6 
8 

10 
15 
11 

13 
9 

14 
8 

13 

1 

6 

1 
1 
1 


6 
6 
2 

45 
6 

S 

46 

38 
62 

31 
13 
32 
24 
16 

11 
9 

14 
3 

5 
7 
16 


6 
5 
6 
31 
2 
6 

95 
67 
134 

85 
36 
84 
54 
41 

53 

40 

25 

6 

13 

28 


15 


New Hampshire . 






14 


Vermont ... 






9 


Massachusetts 


1 
1 


7 


8 
1 

2 

6 
6 
11 

4 
4 
7 
6 
2 


105 


Rhode Island .. 


16 




3 

4 
4 
3 

4 
3 
1 
2 


27 


Middle Atlantic: 


3 

1 
2 

4 
1 
1 
1 
1 

2 


164 




131 




223 


East North Central: 
Ohio 


141 


Indiana _. ... 


66 


Illinois __ ... _ 


139 




95 


Wisconsin 


73 


West North Central: 


1 
1 


68 




4 
2 


60 




2 


44 


North Dakota 




10 


South Dakota 








13 


Nebraska .. 




1 
2 


1 
1 


22 


Kansas. .. 




1 


48 


South Atlantic: 


1 


1 




1 








1 

7 
20 
13 
18 
10 
13 
18 

13 
11 

8 
6 

9 
11 

16 
25 

i 

3 
13 

6 
8 
5 
4 

16 
16 
85 


2 


Maryland.. 


1 




2 

5 
2 

4 
2 

1 
4 

5 
1 
3 

1 

1 
3 
2 
6 

2 
1 


4 
6 
7 
13 
3 
6 
9 

4 
4 
3 
■8 

4 

4 

12 
16. 

4 
5 
4 
5 
2 


14 


Virginia.-. 


2 


3 
3 
4 
2 
3 
1 

1 


36 


West Virginia . 




25 


North Carolina . . - 




1 


40 






17 




1 




24 


Florida. .. .-. 


3 


35 


East South Central: 


1 

1 

1 


24 




3 


20 




2 

1 

1 
1 


17 


Mississippi 




16 


West South Central: 






15 




1 




20 


Oklahoma- -. 


2 

1 


32 


Texas 


3 


6 


57 


Mountain: 


13 


Idaho 








18 










7 




1 




1 


1 

1 
1 

1 


21 






9 








1 


10 


Utah- 




1 


2 
1 

5 
29 


9 








5 


Pacific: 


1 
1 
3 


2 




3 


29 






22 




3 


7 


13 


140 







1 Includes the District of Columbia. 
632728—45 3 



70 



Table 29. Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to December, inclusive, 1944, by States 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 



Division and State 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent man- 
slaughter 



New England 

Middle Atlantic 

East North Central 
West North Central 

South Atlantic 2 

East South Central.. 
West South Central 

Mountain _ 

Pacific 



New England: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 
Vermont 

Massachusetts. .. 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

Middle Atlantic: 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 
East North Central: 

Ohio.. 

Indiana 

Illinois ... 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

West North Central: 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota .... 
South Dakota . 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

South Atlantic: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia... 
North Carolina 
South Carolina . 

Georgia 

Florida 

East South Central: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

West South Central: 

Arkansas ... 

Louisiana.. 

Oklahoma 

Texas 
Mountain: 

Montana. 

Idaho . 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada . . 
Pacific: 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



Robbery 



1.25 
2.43 
3.96 
3.14 
13.09 
15.26 
11.34 
3.02 
5.40 



2.49 
1.21 



1.01 
.48 
2.29 

2.46 
2.35 
2.43 

4.33 
3.53 
4.68 
4.08 
.69 

1.26 
1.76 
5.52 
1.64 
.73 
2.78 
3.74 

8.57 
9.61 
14.64 
4.21 
13. 57 
14.92 
23. 43 
15.03 

11.53 
16.29 
16.87 
17.74 



12.7 
18.5 
62.0 
20.0 
55.5 
57.4 
39.8 
50.0 
113.3 



Aggravated 
assault 



9.9 
28.9 
47.4 
22.1 
181.0 
133.2 
92.3 
31.4 
64.9 



14.9 


.4 


4.2 


14.2 


8.3 


13.1 


11.5 


24.5 


28.7 


58.1 


45.7 


84.8 


63.6 


8.6 


12.5 


10.8 


32.4 


7.4 


21.3 


13.5 


23.0 


89.1 


42.1 


89.4 



Burglary- 
breaking or 
entering 



220. 3- 
' 188.6 
286.7 
203.7 
370.7 
402.3 
358.1 
430.7 
561 9 



43.0 
39.8 
47.1 
59. 4 
59.2 

70.7 
67.8 
41.4 

28.8 



13. 75 


70.5 


11.74 


23.4 


6.02 


36. 


12.56 


44.0 


.58 


21.5 


1.40 


14.0 


1.26 


50.3 


2.89 


54.4 


8. 16 


31.6 


8.28 


83.5 


2.45 


56.4 


6.68 


98.5 


3.56 


54.8 


2.41 


111.5 


6.02 


124.2 



10.3 
1.6 
3.2 
8.4 
10.2 
16.8 

27.9 
46. 1 
22. 6 



43.9 

74.5 

7.3 

7.4 
9.2 
48.5 
4.1 
3.7 
18.4 
12.6 

10.3 
122.8 
177.4 

71.3 
457.9 
146. 9 
156. 3 
200.1 

1 17. 3 
94.7 
199.8 
140.4 

92.8 
95.0 
47.6 
105.0 

13.3 
9.8 
22.6 
24. 2 
36. 9 
96.6 
28.2 
60.1 

23.6 
51.8 

73.7 



Larceny 
theft 



470 1 
i 401..'. 

771.3 

G13. 1 
1, 030. 1 

853.5 
1, 088. 5 
1, 324. 
1, 672. 4 



255.9 
141.9 
116.7 
210.5 
206.8 
278.5 

3 144. 6 
263.4 

4 175. 4 

323.7 
294.6 
257.1 
360.4 
127.8 

167.7 
171.6 
211.2 
187.4 
194.3 
236.9 
281.9 

489.2 
182.2 
491.4 
264.4 
370.1 
352.4 
420.4 
551.3 

506.8 
336.4 
422. 1 
300. 5 

255. 3 
131.0 

370.0 

454.4 

200.8 
392.5 
343.4 
464.1 
326. 6 
486.5 
512.1 
688.2 

562.6 
656. 8 
552. 7 



Auto theft 



146.0 
137.8 

156.6 
138.4 
280.2 
262.6 
255.8 
252.7 
511.7 



650.9 
380. 1 
629.8 
426. 5 
436. 9 
594.8 

3 450. 8 

461.6 

« 313. 5 

801.2 
1,013.3 

496.8 
1,091.1 

720. 6 

519.0 
616. 9 
573.6 
523. 6 
702.4 
754. 6 
791. 1 

1, 256. 9 

504. 7 

1,327.0 

559. 5 

913. s 

1,388. 2 

1,324.9 

1,436.6 

933. 8 

730. 5 
929. 3 
860 1 

1.075. 1 

520. 6 

1. 117. S 

1,302.5 

939. 5 
1,378.4 

1,707.2 
1. 172. S 

95S ■"> 
1,950.7 
1,487.3 
1,590. 1 

1,646.8 
1,804 o 
1,682 9 



156. 9 
47.3 
81.0 
145.9 
171. 1 
156.8 

132.9 
165.6 
133.8 

175.2 
224.8 
107.1 
204.8 
105.8 

100.0 
126.0 
136.2 
114.3 
137.1 
236.7 
173.8 

262.2 
299. 8 
319. 4 
138.9 
207. 6 
276.8 
328.7 
337. 5 

301.2 
269.4 
226.1 
228.4 

219. 2 
246. 7 

206.5 
280.9 

154.9 
269.6 
265.4 
184.7 
267.6 
382.3 
313.3 
621. 1 

445. 1 
456. 9 
529.3 



i The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 516 cities with a total population of 10,175,- 

' Includes report of the District of Columbia. 

» The rates for burglary and larceny are based on reports of 163 cities. 

< The rates for burglary and larceny are based on reports of 222 cities. 



71 

Table 30. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to December, inclusive, 1944> by geographic divisions and population groups 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 



Geographic division and 
population group 



NEW ENGLAND 



Group I.-. 
Group II-. 
Group Ill- 
Group IV. 
Group V... 
Group VI. 



MIDDLE ATLANTIC 



Group I... 
Group II.. 
Group III. 
Group IV. 
Group V... 
Group VI. 



EAST NORTH CENTRAL 



Group I... 
Group II.. 
Group III. 
Group IV. 
Group V... 
Group VI. 



Murder, 
nonnegligent 
man- 
slaughter 



WEST NORTH CENTRAL 



Group I... 
Group II.. 
Group III. 
Group IV. 
Group V... 
Group VI.. 



SOUTH ATLANTIC - 



Group I... 
Group II.. 
Group III. 
Group IV. 
Group V... 
Group VI. 



EAST SOUTH CENTRAL 



Group I... 
Group II.. 
Group Ill- 
Group IV. 
Group V... 
Group VI_ 



WEST SOUTH CENTRAL 



Group I... 
Group II-. 
Group Ill- 
Group IV. 
Group V... 
Group VI. 



MOUNTAIN 



Group I... 
Group II-. 
Group III. 
Group IV.. 
Group V... 
Group VI. 



Group I... 
GroupII.. 
Group Ill- 
Group IV. 
Group V._ 
Group VI. 



1.70 
1.92 
1.15 

.52 
1.06 

.56 



3.28 
1.74 
1.64 
1.28 
.94 
.83 



5.60 
3.71 
3.16 
1.88 
1.68 
1.98 



5.16 
4.44 
2.00 
1.67 
1.15 
.91 



12.17 
15.83 
14.45 
12.27 
13.71 
8.43 



14.67 
22.84 
15. 31 
10.18 
13. 43 
13.12 



17.37 
11.83 
7.56 
6.69 
4.95 
6.95 



3.41 
4.00 
8.51 
2.85 
2.37 
.94 



6.26 
5.11 
5.54 
3.84 
4.26 
3.72 



Robbery 



22.3 
18.7 
12.6 
8.3 
3.6 
5.0 



20.7 
19.7 
22.0 
11.0 
14.3 
9.8 



95.9 
66.6 
35.1 
20.6 
19.5 
15.1 



30.1 
25.9 
19.3 
7.5 
9.3 
9.3 



55.0 
101.6 
49.3 
51.7 
25.8 
24.1 



74.7 
63.6 
34.9 
59.5 
27.9 
38.3 



51.4 
45.2 
35.8 
20.8 
26.6 
31.9 



34.0 
56.1 
30.5 
30.5 
61.9 



162.4 
65.0 
71.4 
54.6 
82.3 
36.4 



Aggravated 
assault 



17.0 
14.4 
7.6 
6.0 
5.0 
5.8 



33.9 
32.6 
25.1 
24.4 
18.2 
12.2 



71.1 
55.7 
33.1 
15.8 
11.6 
14.8 



43.6 
18.7 
10.6 
7.0 
6.4 
6.7 



111.8 
229.8 
239.7 
296.6 
126.7 
128.9 



127.8 
78.6 
271.2 
155.7 
107.5 
69.4 



128.7 
75.7 
75.0 
88.7 
35.4 
87.1 



23.9 
36.7 
68.0 
44.3 
13.9 
31.7 



85.3 
65.0 
41.2 
29.0 
45.3 
30.4 



Burglary — 

breaking or 

enterin 



155.2 
331.9 
248.5 
193.9 
169.3 
155.1 



i 216. 5 
250.5 
250.5 
172.5 
143.8 
112.8 



332.1 
371.4 
280.1 
228.6 
204.8 
153.2 



203. 6 
225.5 
324.6 
190.9 
204.1 
115.1 



278.9 
628.7 
375.2 
407.0 
302.7 
220.2 



505.2 
397.9 
455.3 
338.3 
292.4 
124.1 



419. 1 
539.3 
291.1 
284.7 
216.4 
237.4 



619.7 
484.2 
470.3 
398.6 
351.4 
308.4 



619.6 
508.8 
578.4 
502.4 
556.7 
381.8 



Larceny- 
theft 



334.2 
576.0 
552.2 
498.4 
399.9 
369.1 



1 335. 6 
468.3 
503.8 
511.2 
383.8 
259.9 



739.8 
1,081.4 
920.4 
822.5 
767.1 
438.2 



Auto theft 



540.7 


713.4 


1, 039. 8 


722.0 


700.4 


287.8 


765.3 


1, 523. 8 


1, 232. 1 


1,169.0 


896.2 


574.0 


1, 007. 2 


781.0 


820.1 


937.8 


832.5 


211.5 


1, 195. 3 


1, 399. 9 


1, 099. 7 


1, 216. 5 


730.6 


501.0 


1, 212. 1 


1, 199. 2 


1, 557. 3 


1,847.2 


1, 563. 4 


751.9 


1, 571. 1 


1, 528. 4 


1, 926. 8 


1, 757. 6 


2, 353. 9 


1, 437. 3 



i The number of offenses and rates for burglary and larceny— theft are based on reports of 4 cities 
2 Includes the District of Columbia. 



72 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 25,000 Inhabitants. 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the period of January-December 1944 is shown in table 31. The 
compilation includes the reports received from police departments in 
cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants. Police administrators and 
other interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare 
the crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in tables 25 
and 30 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire to 
make comparisons with the figures for their communities for prior 
periods, in order to determine whether there has been an increase or a 
decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

Caution should be exercised in comparing crime data for individual 
cities, because differences in the figures may be due to a variety of 
factors. The amount of crime committed in a community is not 
solely chargeable to the police but is rather a charge against the entire 
community. The following is a list of some of the factors which might 
affect the amount of crime in a community : 

Population of the city and metropolitan area adjacent thereto. 

The composition of the population with reference particularly to 
age, sex, and race. 

The economic status and activities of the population. 

Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 

The number of police employees per unit of population. 

The standards governing appointments to the police force. 

The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 

The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 

The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 
It should be remembered that the war has brought about marked 
changes in some of the foregoing factors in many communities. 

In comparing crime rates, it is generally more important to deter- 
mine whether the figures for a given community show increases or 
decreases in the amount of crime committed than to ascertain whether 
the figures are above or below those of some other community. 



73 

Table 31. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclu- 
sive, 1944, cities over 25,000 in population (based on 1940 decennial censtis) 



City 



Abilene, Tex 

Akron, Ohio 

Alameda, Calif 

Albany, N. Y 

Albuquerque, N. Mex. 



Alexandria, La,.. 
Alexandria, Va... 
Alhambra, Calif. 

Aliquippa, Pa 

Allentown, Pa... 



Alton, 111... 

Altoona, Pa 

Amarillo, Tex 

Amsterdam, N. Y. 
Anderson, Ind 



Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Auniston, Ala 

Appleton, Wis 

Arlington, Mass... 
Arlington, Va 



Asheville, N. C 

Ashland, Ky 

Atlanta, Ga 

Atlantic City, N. J. 
Auburn, N. Y 



Augusta, Ga 

Aurora, 111 

Austin, Tex 

Bakersfleld, Calif- 
Baltimore, Md 



Bangor, Maine 

Baton Rouge, La 

Battle Creek, Mich. 

Bay City, Mich 

Bayonne, N. J 



Beaumont, Tex 

Belleville, 111. 

Belleville, N.J 

Bellingham, Wash. 
Belmont, Mass 



Beloit, Wis 

Belvedere Twp., Calif- 
Berkeley, Calif 

Berwyn, 111 

Bethlehem, Pa 



Beverly, Mass 

Beverly Hills, Calif. 
Binghamton, N. Y_. 
Birmingham, Ala... 
Bloomfield, N. J 



Bloomington, 111.. 

Boise, Idaho 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn- 
Bristol, Conn 



Brockton, Mass.. 
Brookline, Mass. 
Buffalo, N. Y.... 
Burbank, Calif... 
Burlington, Iowa- 



Burlington, Vt 

Butte, Mont 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 



Murder, 

non- 
negligent 

man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



Larceny — theft 



150 and 
over 



159 

4 

23 

1 

16 
17 
5 
4 
14 

9 
22 

5 

1 

15 

5 
13 
2 
3 
1 

16 

37 

274 

24 



17 
7 
16 
16 
412 

1 
9 



1 

140 

3 



197 
16 



65 



Only 8 months received 
91 
6 

27 



Under 
$50 



180 
110 



22 

267 
7 

341 
61 
4 

283 

1 

84 

15 

1,215 



11 
Only 11 months received 
1 
11 

45 
2 
2 



2 

178 
4 



161 
23 



151 

2 



1,084 


502 


1,552 


81 


23 


372 


225 


73 


388 


98 


61 


517 


120 


62 


387 


108 


62 


548 


164 


42 


335 


38 


17 


98 


257 


55 


238 


84 


5 


102 


297 


51 


366 


138 


209 


532 


14 


8 


64 


139 


13, 


171 


65 


69 


517 


81 


68 


239 


50 


7 


385 


99 


11 


142 


100 


108 


540 


235 


123 


377 


46 


12 


117 


1,656 


874 


3,266 


387 


633 


855 


4 


34 


192 


268 


99 


625 


44 


23 


85 


345 


55 


985 


168 


130 


764 


1,607 


909 


3,151 


55 


43 


255 


86 


83 


242 



144 


35 


460 


184 


32 


270 


245 


79 


625 


45 


16 


135 


36 


14 


65 


63 


26 


125 


41 


4 


95 


56 


30 


346 


268 


31 


185 


443 


88 


971 


46 


12 


117 


106 


135 


144 


18 


10 


80 


86 


30 


154 


190 


96 


622 


, 305 


734 


2,177 


47 


21 


75 


33 


32 


109 


181 


84 


493 


902 


699 


1,743 


448 


280 


852 


40 


30 


162 


157 


63 


217 


114 


44 


188 


475 


241 


1,366 


173 


93 


667 


61 


4 


110 


64 


40 


333 


42 


9 


66 


207 


45 


309 


449 


136 


323 


414 


216 


772 



Auto 
theft 



74 

Table 31. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclu- 
sive, 1944, cities over 25,000 in -population (based on 1940 decennial census) — 
Continued 



City 



Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 
Central Falls, R.I. .. 

Charleston, S. C 

Charleston, W. Va._ 
Charlotte, N. C 



Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chester, Pa 

Chicago, 111 

Chicopee, Mass 



Cicero, 111... 

Cincinnati, Ohio... 

Clarksburg, W. Va 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio. 

Clifton, N.J 

Clinton, Iowa 

Colorado Springs, Colo 

Columbia, S. C. 

Columbus, Ga 



Columbus.'Ohio 

Concord, N. H ... 

Corpus Christi, Tex 
Council Bluffs, Iowa. 
Govington, Ky 



Cranston, R. I... 
Cumberland, Md 
Dallas, Tex... 
Danville, 111 
Danville, Va. 



Davenport, Iowa 

Dayton, Ohio 

Dearborn, Mich.. 

Decatur, 111 

Denver, Colo 



Des Moines, Iowa 

Detroit, Mich 

Dubuque, Iowa 
Duluth, Minn.. 
Durham, N. C 



East Chicago, Ind 
East Cleveland, Ohio 

Easton, Pa 

East Orange, N. J 
East Providence, R. I 



East St. Louis, 111 
Eau Claire, Wis 

Elgin, 111 

Elizabeth, N. J 
Elkhart, Ind 



Elmira, N. Y 
El Paso, Tex.. 
Elyria, Ohio 
Enid, Okla 
Erie, Pa 



Evanston, 111 

Evansville, Ind.. 

Everett, Mass 

Everett, Wash... 
Fall River, Mass 



Fargo, N. Dak 

Fitch burg, Mass 

Flint. Mich 

Fonddu Lac, Wis. 
Fort Smith, Ark... 



Murder, 

non- 
negligent 

man- 
slaughter 



25 



1 
202 



Robbery 



7 
102 



129 
54 

47 

15 

45 

4,072 

5 

33 

268 

9 

804 

16 

3 
1 
4 

31 
29 

325 



27 
6 
9 

6 

1 

137 

13 

12 

10 

132 

30 

11 

254 

20 

1,685 

1 

13 

23 

34 
22 



13 
2 

103 



07 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



144 
171 
435 

82 

14 

37 

1,924 

2 

67 
535 



499 



91 
53 

83 
..... 

8 
10 

1 

1 

553 

6 

65 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



178 
19 
11 

77 

32 

,988 

1 

4 

429 

36 
1 
2 



106 



48 
43 
391 
289 
598 

445 

116 

178 

10, 202 

57 

97 
1,938 

92 

2,237 

137 

85 

48 

59 

240 

241 

1,730 

73 

113 

98 

214 

91 
45 
1,977 
72 
94 

168 
676 
297 
194 
1,998 

270 

6,789 
51 
133 
189 

178 
176 

61 
204 

51 

189 
39 
62 

275 

68 

58 

296 

59 

59 

276 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



17 110 83 
57 504 264 
Only 5 months received 



83 
7 

178 



CO 

233 

152 

41 

49 

5,402 

18 

54 

826 

8 

748 

23 

34 

25 

100 

329 

237 

951 
9 

161 
41 
13 

24 
23 
481 
31 
52 

30 
217 
205 

30 
690 

83 
2,143 
23 
110 
39 

112 

7 

12 

31 



124 
21 



116 

28 
21 
59 



Under 
$50 



4 

24 


6 

7 


121 
368 


6 
1 

45 
3 

10 


3 


52 
85 
664 
57 
78 


143 


24 



500 
109 
835 
894 
968 

786 
121 
203 

10, 677 



169 
2,962 

140 
6,493 

235 

91 
202 
685 
1,104 
781 

2,064 
119 
698 
230 
147 

145 
114 
5,656 
232 
327 

732 

2,400 

836 

539 

3,218 

973 
15, 410 
241 
761 
140 

487 
214 
59 
108 
121 

359 

199 
168 
404 
200 

389 
676 
145 
226 
527 

552 
1,551 



16 


497 


112 


485 


16 


182 


14 


170 


368 


1.S38 


4 


188 


66 


381 



See footnotes nt end of table. 



75 

Table Sl.-^-Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclu- 
sive, 1944, cities over 25,000 in population (based on 1940 decennial census) — 
Continued 



City 



Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Fort Worth, Tex. 

Fresno, Calif 

Gadsden, Ala 

Galesburg, 111 



Galveston, Tex 

Garfield, N.J 

Gary, Ind 

Glendale, Calif 

Grand Rapids, Mich.. 



Great Falls, Mont 

Green Bay, Wis . 

Greensboro, N. C 

Greenville, S. C 

Greenwich Town, Conn. 



Hackensack, N. J 

Hagerstown, Md 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Hamilton Township, N. J. 
Hammond, Ind 



Hamtramck, Mich... 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Hartford, Conn 

Haverford Twp., Pa. 
Haverhill, Mass 



Hazelton, Pa 

Highland Park, Mich 

High Point, N. C 

Hoboken, N". J 

Holyoke, Mass 



Honolulu, T. H 

Houston, Tex 

Huntington, W. Va 

Huntington Park, Calif. 
Hutchinson, Kans 



Indianapolis, Ind. 
Inglewood, Calif. . 
Irvington, N. J_. 
Jackson, Mich. . . 
Jackson, Miss 



Jacksonville, Fla 

Jamestown, N. Y... 

Jersey City, N. J 

Johnson City, Tenn 
Johnstown , Pa 



Joliet, 111 

Joplin, Mo 

Kalamazoo, Mich.. 
Kansas City, Kans. 
Kansas City, Mo... 



Kearny, N.J 

Kenosha, Wis 

Kingston, N. Y._ 
Knoxville, Tenn. 
Kokomo, Ind 

La Crosse, Wis . 
La Fayette, Ind 
Lakewood, Ohio. 

Lancaster, Pa 

Lansing, Mich... 



Laredo, Tex 

Lawrence, Mass.. 

Lebanon, Pa 

Lewiston, Maine 
Lexington, Ky... 



Murder, 

non- 
negligent 

man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



19 



2 

225 

16 

23 

3 
3 
19 

17 
1 

7 
7 
18 



24 

8 
5 
2 

11 

327 

15 

25 



225 
13 
5 



Aggra 
vated 
assault 



22 
151 

42 

US 

5 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



236 
1,064 
448 
117 
107 



Larceny— theft. 



$50 and 
over 



218 
166 
212 



Only 2 months received 



4 
147 
11 
20 

7 

1 

385 

75 

2 

20 

14 

25 

1 



42 
579 
304 



92 
63 
319 

127 
50 

80 
91 
83 
55 
243 

173 
272 
943 
36 
87 



11 
204 
131 
150 

63 
12 
146 
120 
18 

24 
71 
45 
14 
112 

92 

154 

209 

10 

34 



Only 10 months received 



15 
198 
46 



87 

176 

86 

3 

1 

354 

2 

3 

40 

82 



336 
86 
44 

116 

856 

2,480 

243 

184 

85 

1,229 
182 

175 
114 
242 



234 1, 012 894 

3 58 16 

Complete data not received 



40 
6 
47 

429 

800 
145 



36 
94 
113 



72 34 

Only 1 month received 



25 
324 

4 
1 
2 
105 
6 



27 
1 
1 
1 

1(17 



246 

373 

1,019 

80 
62 
21 
343 
56 

39 
122 
115 
131 
146 



231 
36 



2S6 



43 
124 
790 

34 
11 
21 

458 
25 

52 
28 
22 
43 



20 
30 
8 
25 
167 



Under 
$50 



1,358 

2,269 

1,294 

269 

166 



77 

905 

956 

2,259 

466 
120 
709 
368 
102 

164 
321 
257 
234 

528 

267 

626 

1,114 

54 

119 



469 
180 

46 
305 

1,637 

6,491 

376 

522 

316 

3,749 
366 
160 
470 



2,280 
112 



168 

91 



603 
537 

2,313 



262 
100 
650 
154 

818 
429 
277 
313 

857 

371 
267 
226 
215 

597 



76 

Table 31. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclu- 
sive, 1944, cities over 25,000 in population (based on 1940 decennial census) — 
Continued 



City 



Lima, Ohio 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Little Rock, Ark... 
Long Beach, Calif. 
Lorain, Ohio 



Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lower Merion Twp., Pa. 
Lubbock, Tex 



Lynchburg, Va. 

'Lynn, Mass 

Macon, Ga 

Madison, Wis... 
Maiden, Mass.. 



Manchester, N. H. 

Mansfield, Ohio 

Marion, Ind 

Marion, Ohio 

Mason City, Iowa. 



Massillon, Ohio.. 

May wood, 111 

McKeesport, Pa. 
Medford, Mass... 
Melrose, Mass... 



Memphis, Tenn 

Meriden, Conn 

Meridian, Miss 

Miami, Fla 

Miami Beach, Fla... 

Michigan City, Ind. 
Middletown, Conn.. 
Middletown, Ohio.. 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn. 



Mishawaka, Ind. 

Mobile, Ala 

Moline, 111 

Monroe, La 

Montclair, N. J.. 



Montgomery, Ala 

Mount Vernon, N. Y. 
Muncie, Ind 

Muskegon, Mich 

Muskogee, Okla 



Nashua, N. H 

Nashville, Tenn... 
New Albany, Ind. 

Newark, N. J 

Newark, Ohio 



New Bedford, Mass... 
New Britain, Conn... 
New Brunswick, N. J. 

Newburgh, N. Y . 

New Castle, Pa 



New Haven, Conn.. 
New London, Conn. 

New Orleans, La 

Newport, Ky 

Newport, R. I. 



Newport News. Va. 
New Rochelle, N. Y 

Newton, Mass 
New York, V Y ,' 
Niagara Falls. N. Y. 



Murder, 

non- 
negligent 

man- 
slaughter 



102 

48 

1 



Robbery 



37 



L'L'S 
3 



24 

3 

69 

156 



2, 756 

270 

12 

2 

1 

6 
13 

4 
10 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



14 
4 
3 

247 
2 
7 

154 
10 

5 

1 

11 

70 



122 

4 

268 

1 

30 
4 
5 
3 

43 

23 

6 

138 

31 



97 

3 

1 

1,015 

23 



43 

14 
30 
125 
22 

1,231 

512 

3 

2 

25 



Bur- 
glary — 
breaking 



120 
179 

314 
1,117 

87 

9,657 

2, 332 

166 



81 124 43 

6 396 136 

Only 4 months received 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



101 
48 



0) 
(') 
64 

7,864 

1,557 

54 

48 

21 



Under 
$50 



434 

2 

41 

930 
6 

16 
2 
15 
81 
34 



567 
7 



103 

14 

27 

6 

19 




100 


74 


136 


51 


75 


26 


128 


55 


97 


14 


101 


37 


18 


0) 


96 


29 


41 


19 


42 


25 


82 


18 


99 


8 


807 


389 


96 


22 


123 


14 


1,228 


555 


118 


139 


53 


33 


30 


25 


133 


38 


679 


453 


887 


566 


57 


37 


474 


126 


80 


29 


100 


23 


53 


54 


349 


61 


45 


14 


157 


35 


194 


108 


145 


59 


34 


11 


832 


257 


57 


23 


1,636 


645 


78 


20 


598 


133 


97 


9 


114 


20 


68 


35 


55 


18 


495 


155 


69 


39 


474 


591 


116 


44 


53 


38 


396 


220 


51 


26 


108 


0) 


I, 586 


(') 


203 


78 



549 

779 

1,368 

2,497 

224 

17,218 

2, 253 

226 

304 

633 

278 



324 
311 

226 
323 

166 
312 
106 

228 

140 

105 

211 

74 

1,749 
200 
104 

1,322 
160 

84 

95 

416 

3,146 

1,416 

223 

668 
162 



487 
123 
434 

577 
267 

104 
877 

116 

1,485 
278 

978 

221 
187 
litt 
127 

985 
1X2 
1. 122 
203 
242 

660 
132 
338 

10, 166 
240 



See footnotes at end of table. 



Table 31. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclu- 
sive, 1944, cities over 25,000 in population (based on 1940 decennial census) — 
Continued 



City 



Murder, 

non- 
negligent 

man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Norfolk, Va..._ 

Norristown, Pa 

North Bergen, N. J. 

Norwalk, Conn 

Norwood, Ohio 



Oakland, Calif 

Oak Park, 111 

Ogden, Utah 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Omaha, Nebr 



Orange, N. J 

Orlando, Fla.— 
Oshkosh, Wis... 
Ottumwa, Iowa. 
Owensboro, Ky. 



Paducah, Ky 

Parkersburg, W. Va. 

Pasadena, Calif 

Passaic, N. J 

Paterson, N. J 



Pawtucket, R. I 

Pensacola, Fla 

Peoria, 111 

Perth Amboy, N.J. 
Petersburg, Va... :.. 



Philadelphia, Pa- 
Phoenix, Ariz 

Pittsburgh, Pa... 
Pittsfield, Mass.. 
Plainfield, N. J__ 



Pontiae, Mich 

Port Arthur, Tex_. 
Port Huron, Mich. 
Portland, Maine... 
Portland, Oreg 



Portsmouth, Ohio 

Portsmouth, Va 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Providence, R. I 

Pueblo, Colo 



Quincy, 111 

Quincy, Mass... 

Racine, Wis 

Raleigh, N. C.._ 
Reading, Pa 

Revere, Mass 

Richmond, Ind_. 
Richmond, Va.. 
Riverside, Calif. 
Roanoke, Va 



Rochester, Minn 

Rochester, N. Y 

Rockford, 111 

Rock Island, 111 

Rocky Mount, N. C. 

Rome, Ga 

Rome, N. Y... 

Royal Oak, Mich 

Sacramento, Calif 

Saginaw, Mich.. 

St. Joseph, Mo 

St. Louis, Mo.. 

St. Paul, Minn 

St. Petersburg, Fla... 
Salem, Mass 



3:. 



1 

21 

2 

5 

1 
3 
2 



320 
5 
1 
3 
4 

484 
22 
29 
80 
54 



2 
1 
3 

6 

16 
1 
34 
12 
28 

2 
20 
46 

2 
14 

648 
52 

353 
3 
3 

30 
2 

10 

32 

465 

11 

95 

1 

31 

14 

2 
12 

9 
16 
21 



264 
18 
3 



366 
1 

13 
146 

58 

47 

23 

2 

9 

10 

22 
3 
35 
51 
113 

42 
74 
2 
51 
53 

624 

37 

125 

3 



15 

17 

9 

10 

223 

16 
195 
13 
13 
43 

2 

2 

6 

91 



1,481 
83 
152 
43 
38 

1,958 
141 
290 
791 
580 

130 
212 

60 
32 

85 

75 

74 

365 

184 

435 

147 
225 
400 

65 
150 

3,318 
358 

1,596 
123 
50 

266 

57 

108 

382 

2,531 

195 
356 
81 
688 
195 

71 
208 
111 
216 
265 



(') 



771 
17 
27 
32 
18 

650 
35 
149 
204 
176 

23 
97 
15 

7 
45 

34 
11 
205 
62 
56 

83 

83 
107 

47 



1,108 

218 

450 

24 

39 

66 

43 

51 

150 

1,426 

51 
171 

61 
272 

15 

19 
34 
55 
18 
73 



Only 2 months received 



6 


18 


135 


321 


11 


21 


4 


30 


1 




27 


29 


12 


2 


10 


2 


3 


153 


6 


27 


1 




? 




107 


81 


30 


67 


17 


11 


223 


467 


54 


45 


13 


21 



1,802 
99 
143 
126 
141 

4,254 

246 

819 

2,605 

1,313 

103 
478 
608 
126 
373 

284 
161 
1,173 
293 
286 

379 
341 
603 
330 
270 

1,404 

1, 235 

896 

203 

258 

437 
551 
416 
571 
4,758 

333 
756 
382 
709 
363 

454 
478 
598 
192 

388 



57 


54 


136 


851 


641 


2,622 


194 


74 


422 


86 


62 


265 


30 


11 


265 


624 


161 


1,511 


64 


67 


619 


79 


29 


314 


40 


36 


342 


45 


2 


148 


31 


12 


213 


81 


13 


182 


384 


477 


1,963 


305 


128 


1,110 


319 


59 


674 


1,431 


(') 


3,689 


725 


164 


1,850 


354 


145 


970 


67 


14 


127 



See footnotes at end of table. 
. 632728 — 45 4 



78 

Table 31. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclu- 
sive, 1944, cities over 25,000 in population (based on 1940 decennial census) — 
Continued 



City 



Murder, 

non- 
negligent 

man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Salem, Oreg 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Angelo, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Bernardino, Calif. 



San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif.. 

San Jose, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif. 



Santa Monica, Calif. 

Savannah, Qa 

Schenectady, N. Y__ 
Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash.. 



Sharon, Pa 

Sheboygan, Wis 

Shreveport, La 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 



Somerville, Mass.. 
South Bend, Ind.. 
South Gate, Calif. 
Spartanburg, S. C. 
Spokane, Wash... 



Springfield, 111.... 
Springfield, Mass. 
Springfleld, Mo... 
Springfield, Ohio.. 
Stamford, Conn... 



Steubenville, Ohio. 

Stockton, Calif 

Superior, Wis 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 



Tampa, Fla 

Taunton, Mass... 

Teaneck, N. J 

Terre ITaute, Ind. 
Toledo, Ohio 



Topeka, Kans 

Torrington, Conn. 

Trenton, N.J 

Troy, N. Y 

Tucson, Ariz 



Tulsa, Okla. 

Tuscaloosa, Ala 

Tyler. Tex... 

Union City, N.J 

University City, Mo. 



Upper Darby, Pa. 

Utica, N. Y 

Waco, Tex. 

WaKhain, Mass... 
Warren, Ohio 



Warwick, R. I 

Washington, D. C. 

Washington, Pa 

Waterbury, Conn.. 
Waterloo, Iowa 



Watertowti, Mass. 
Watertown, N. Y. 

Waukegan, 111 

Wausau, Wis 

Wauwutosa, Wis.. 



51 
14 
132 
46 



1,091 

25 

7 

10 

35 
36 
3 
13 
263 



21 
18 

23 

116 

5 

19 

49 

76 

3 
3 

141 



56 

4 

22 

97 
4 
2 
1 
2 

8 

12 

1 

1 

14 

2 
317 
2 
6 
17 

2 
4 
9 



Onlv 4 months received 

55 

22 

692 

24 

162 
774 

13 
9 

18 

60 
182 
16 
34 
64 



726 


190 


1,608 


62 


22 


175 


1, 056 


199 


1,423 


369 


83 


713 


788 


679 


1,940 


2,617 


1,281 


6,372 


267 


46 


1,273 


108 


66 


834 


157 


58 


566 


525 


336 


1,188 


106 


496 


1,581 


199 


75 


327 


253 


91 


314 


2,537 


1,129 


3,984 


16 


20 


61 


22 


15 


147 


103 


54 


486 


344 


126 


665 


124 


63 


393 


321 


33 


260 


344 


228 


1,137 


192 


81 


436 


136 


82 


455 


557 


158 


1,576 


173 


68 


501 


277 


113 


631 


160 


76 


744 


145 


37 


432 


182 


65 


308 


121 


25 


162 


468 


309 


1,201 


84 


24 


365 


599 


225 


1, 450 


741 


221 


1,264 


575 


405 


1,366 



112 

Only 5 months received 

1 

3 

166 



111 

6 

84 

100 

95 

1 



13 

152 



484 
1 



41 


16 


46 


167 


23 


438 


1,483 


500 


2,285 


429 


41 


653 


24 


8 


41 


482 


210 


606 


175 


46 


187 


213 


149 


882 


972 


402 


1,603 


74 


36 


155 


74 


7 


129 


128 


37 


98 


85 


45 


176 


195 


9 


136 


123 


85 


546 


178 


39 


458 


63 


28 


317 


102 


35 


452 


11 


27 


77 


1, 826 


1,227 


4,535 


49 


19 


66 


213 


91 


333 


139 


12 


480 


84 


24 


110 


93 


65 


321 


66 


39 


113 


35 


8 


207 


40 


14 


135 



79 



Table 31. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclu- 
sive, 1944, cities over 25,000 in population (based on 1940 decennial census) — 
Continued 



City 



Murder, 

non- 
negligent 

man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Auto 
theft 



West Allis, Wis 

West Hartford, Conn- 
West Haven, Conn 

West New York, N. J. 
West Orange, N. J 



West Palm Beach, Fla. 

Wheeling, W. Va 

White Plains, N. Y_... 

Wichita, Kans 

Wichita Falls, Tex 



38 33 

76 21 

Only 9 months received 
Only 1 month received 



391 

185 



Wilkes-Barre, Pa_. 
Wilkinsburg, Pa_.. 
Williamsport, Pa.. 
Wilmington, Del... 
Wilmington, N. C. 



Winston-Salem, N. C. 

Woodbridge, N. J 

Woonsocket, R. I 

Worcester, Mass 

Wyandotte, Mich 



Yakima, Wash 

Yonkers, N. Y 

York, Pa 

Youngstown, Ohio. 
Zanesville, Ohio--.. 







52 
230 


20 

88 


103 
381 


14 


54 


6 


3 


221 


46 


162 


4 


44 


39 


47 


192 


14 


16 


270 


124 


944 


12 


26 


187 


113 


719 


8 


9 


167 


36 


155 


2 


13 


56 


8 


112 


7 


3 


74 


12 


224 


104 


12 


570 


357 


1,089 


76 


811 


185 


186 


713 


13 


143 


234 


91 


397 




2 
3 


57 
63 


12 

15 


108 
157 


1 


61 


5 


6S3 


305 


538 


1 




45 


13 


162 


18 
10 




107 
223 


269 
39 


1,013 
369 


31 


20 


5 


134 


39 


373 


227 


104 


634 


100 


914 


18 




136 


32 


279 



36 

94 
54 
96 
210 
144 

100 
21 
33 
299 
183 

82 
26 
32 
353 
34 

137 

135 

120 

455 

42 



1 Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 
s Figures include offenses committed by juveniles; this is in accord with the uniform reporting procedure 
followed by other cities. 

Supplement to Return A Data. 

A detailed analysis of trie crime situation for several offense classes 
is made possible by supplementary reports forwarded monthly to the 
FBI by the larger police departments throughout the country, and 
summaries of the available data are shown in tables 32-34. 

The figures reflect that forcible rapes, constituting 62.5 percent of 
the 1944 rape offenses, increased 12.3 percent, while statutory offenses 
(no force used — victim under age of consent) declined 2.5 percent. 

Highway robberies and those involving oil stations, chain stores, 
and residences increased in 1944, while robberies of commercial 
houses, banks, and the miscellaneous group decreased. Although the 
robbery total for 1944 is smaller than the figure for the previous year, 
the value of the loot obtained by holdup men in the average offense 
rose 19.6 percent from $94.26 in 1943 to $112.74 in 1944. Thus, table 
33 shows a 2.0 percent decrease in the number of robbery offenses in 
the cities represented, and at the same time an increase in the total 
value of property stolen from $1,818,074.21 in 1943 to $2,131,978.96 
in 1944. 

Nighttime burglaries showed an increase last year with a 6.2 percent 
rise in residence offenses committed during the night and a 4.3 percent 



so 



III 

u 

< 



< 



□ □ 


□ 


□ 


a 




□ □ 


□ 


□ 


□ 




□ □ 


□ 


□ 


□ 


ffl 


□ □ 


□ 


□ 


□ 


□ □ 


□ 


a 


a 




□ □ 




□ 


□ 


□ 






>- 

CO 

</> 

UJ 

S 
< 

a 

D 

CD 



81 

increase in nighttime nonresidence burglaries. Offenses committed 
during the daylight hours showed decreases. The average value of 
property stolen per offense of burglary rose sharply ( + 30.6 percent) 
from $78.05 in 1943 to $101.93 in 1944. 

Not only was there a general increase in the number of automobiles 
stolen during 1944, but in addition the value of the average stolen car 
rose 13.9 percent, from $511.30 in 1943 to $582.23 in 1944. In the 254 
cities over 25,000 represented in tables 32 and 33, the problem involv- 
ing the recovery of stolen cars showed a favorable trend, with the per- 
centage recovered increasing from 96.1 in 1943 to 97.3 in 1944, as 
indicated in the following figures: 





1943 


1944 


Number of automobiles stolen.. . ' 


67, 874 

65, 221 

96.1 


71, 238 


Number of automobiles recovered . 


69 322 


Percent recovered 


97.3 







Larcenies involving property valued at $50 or more increased 22.9 
percent in 1944, while thefts involving property valued at less than 
$50 declined. The increase in larcenies was most pronounced among 
those offenses involving the theft of automobile accessories, where a 
40.4 percent upswing was registered over the 1943 figure. Thefts of 
other articles from automobiles also increased as did pocket-picking 
and miscellaneous thefts. Decreases were registered among larcenies 
classed as purse-snatching, shoplifting, and thefts of bicycles. The 
value of property stolen in the average larceny rose from $40.32 in 1943 
to $47.16 in 1944 ( + 17.0 percent). 

Table 34, based on the reports of 253 cities over 25,000, shows the 
value of property stolen and recovered by type of property for 1943 
and 1944. Excluding automobiles the value of stolen property re- 
covered in 1944 represents 24.1 percent of that stolen, as compared 
with 25.2 percent for the previous year. 



82 




83 



Table 32. — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission, and value of property stolen, January to Decem- 
ber, inclusive, 1943-44,' 254 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, 
80,827,991 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Classification 


Number of offenses 


Percent 


1943 


1944 


change 


Rape: 


2,019 
1,393 


2,268 
1,358 


+12.3 




-2.5 






Total 


3,412 


3,626 


+6.3 






Robbery: 


13, 872 
3,128 
334 
86 
887 
23 
958 


14, 063 
2,724 
356 
91 
916 
12 
748 


+1.4 




-13.0 




+6.6 




+5.8 




+3.3 


Bank 


-47.8 




-21.9 






Total __ . ... 


19,288 


18. 910 


-2.0 






Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Residence (dwelling): 

Committed during night .. . 


28, 508 
15, 362 

52, 873 

4,987 


30, 286 
15, 238 

55, 131 

4,827 


+6.2 




-.8 


Nonresidence (store, office, etc.): 

Committed during night . 


+4.3 




-3.2 






Total 


101, 730 


105, 482 


+3.7 






Larceny — theft (except auto theft) (grouped according to value of 
article stolen): 
$50 and over .... .. 


41, 238 
175, 402 
46, 090 


50, 675 
173, 730 
40,580 


+22.9 


$5 to $50. . . 


-1.0 


Under$5. . 


-12.0 






Total 


262, 730 


264, 985 


+.9 






Larceny — theft (grouped as to type of offense) : 

Pocket-picking. ... 


5,554 

7,915 

8,697 

35, 508 

21, 228 

58, 269 

125, 559 


5,645 

7,784 
7,572 
38, 680 
29, 801 
49. 692 
125,811 


+ 1.6 




-1.7 


Shoplifting. . _ 


-12.9 




+8.9 




+40.4 


Bicycles 


-14.7 


All others •_ 


+.2 






Total.. . 


262, 730 


264, 985 


+.9 







Table 33. — Value of property stolen, by type of crime, January to December, in- 
clusive, 1948-44; 254 cities over 25,000; total population, 30,827,991 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Number of offenses 


Value of property stolen 


Average value per 
offense 


Classification 


1943 


1944 


Per- 
cent 
change 


1943 


1944 


Per- 
cent 
change 


1943 


1944 


Per- 
cent 

change 


Robbery 

Burglary 

Larceny— theft . 
Auto theft 


19,288 
101,730 
262, 730 

67, 874 


18, 910 
105, 482 
264, 985 

71, 238 


-2.0 
+3.7 
+0.9 
+5.0 


$1,818,074.21 

7, 939, 595. 80 

10, 594, 313. 89 

34, 704, 192. 84 


$2, 131, 978. 96 
10, 752, 013. 97 
12, 496, 092. 10 
41, 476, 648. 61 


+ 17.3 
+35.4 
+18.0 
+ 19.5 


$94. 26 
78.05 
40.32 

511.30 


$112. 74 
101.93 
47.16 
582. 23 


+19.6 
+30.6 
+17.0 
+13.9 


Total 


451, 622 


460, 615 


+2.0 


55, 056, 176. 74 


66, 856, 733. 64 


+21.4 


121.91 


145. 15 


+19.1 



84 




85 



Table 34. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered by type of 
property, January to December, inclusive, 1943-44; %o8 cities over 25,000; total 
population, 30,795,500 





[Population 


figures from 1940 decenn 


ial census] 








1943 


1944 


Type of property 


Value of 

property 

stolen 


Value of 
property 
recovered 


Percent 
recov- 
ered 


Value of 

property 

stolen 


Value of 
property 
recovered 


Percent 
recov- 
ered 


Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious 

metals 

Furs _. 


$6, 717, 128. 59 

3, 773, 842. 55 

783, 604. 26 

1, 961, 373. 24 

34, 676, 053. 87 
7, 087, 807. 72 


$1,113,921.60 

1, 024, 390. 42 
117, 439. 17 
485, 042. 69 

33,029,153.88 
2, 378, 233. 75 


16.6 

27.1 
15.0 
24.7 

95. 3 
33.6 


$8, 597, 998. 73 

4, 555, 380. 61 
1, 168, 632. 22 
2, 473, 608. 18 

41, 693, 795. 73 
8, 567, 529. 18 


$1, 491, 688. 74 

1.119.556.09 
129, 573. 31 
613, 383. 90 

40. 259. 199. 07 
2, 763, 333. 70 


17.3 
24.6 




24.8 

96.6 
32.3 


Locally stolen automo- 






Total_.__ 


54, 999, 810. 23 


38,148,181.51 


69.4 


67, 056, 944. 65 


46, 376, 734. 81 


69.2 



Rural Crime Trends, 1943-44. 

Under the system of uniform crime reporting, urban crimes are 
tabulated separately from rural crimes. The preceding compilations 
in this publication deal solely with urban crimes, which are generally 
those reported by the police departments of cities with population 
in excess of 2,500. In table 35 are presented available data regarding 
rural crimes during 1943 and 1944. As indicated in the table, the 
data are not based on reports of identical agencies for both years. 
However, the combined population represented by the reporting 
agencies for each year is in excess of 28,500,000, and therefore it is 
believed the figures reflecting offenses per 100,000 inhabitants 
represent general trends in rural crimes. 

The data in table 35 disclose that rural murders and rapes de- 
creased in 1944, whereas compilations of urban crimes, presented 
elsewhere in this publication, reflect increases for those types of 
crimes. On the other hand, rural robberies were up 1.7 percent, 
while urban robberies declined 2.1 percent. Similarly, the rural 
larceny rate showed a slight increase amounting to 1.7 percent, 
whereas urban larcenies registered a slight decrease. For offenses 
of negligent manslaughter, aggravated assault, burglary, and auto 
theft the trend of both rural and urban crime figures was upwards 
in 1944 . 

The 1944 rural crime rates shown in table 35 are for all offenses 
lower than the national average for urban crimes appearing in table 
25. However, it is interesting to note that the rural rates for murder, 
negligent manslaughter, and rape are in excess of the corresponding 
rates shown in table 25 for the group VI urban communities, those 
with population from 2,500 to 10,000. 

Generally, rural crime rates for offenses against the person (murder, 
manslaughter, rape, and aggravated assault) are not as much below the 



86 



national average for urban crimes as are the figures for offenses 
against property. In this connection, however, it should be noted 
that some incompleteness may exist in the rural reporting of the 
less serious crimes. Some of the rural agencies whose reports are 
included in table 35 listed very few crimes, and it is probable that 
some of the reports are based on arrest records rather than on a 
record of all offenses reported to rural law enforcement agencies. 
For that reason, the rural crime figures presented in table 35 should 
generally be considered as conservative. 

Table 35.- — Offenses known, rural areas, number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, 
January to December, inclusive 1948-44- 

[1943 figures based on reports of 1,260 sheriffs, 87 rural village officers, and 10 State police organizations, 
representing a combined population of 28,695,188; 1944 figures based on reports of 1,351 sheriffs, 86 rural 
village officers, and 10 State police organizations, representing a combined population of 29,938,044. Pop- 
ulation figures from 1940 decennial census.] 



Offense 



Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 



Number of offen- 


Rate per 100,000 


ses 


inhabitants 


1943 


1944 


1943 


1944 


1,180 


1,195 


4.11 


3.99 


859 


904 


2.99 


3.02 


2,532 


2,617 


8.82 


8.74 


3,289 


3,496 


11.5 


11.7 


6,537 


6,889 


22.8 


23.0 


26, 224 


27, 987 


91.4 


93.5 


43, 485 


46, 131 


151.5 


154.1 


12,668 


15, 741 


44.1 


52.6 



Percent 
change 
in rates 



-2.9 
+1.0 

-.9 
+1.7 

+.9 

+2.3 

+1.7 

+19.3 



Offenses Known in Territories and Possessions of the United States. 

The available data concerning crimes committed in Territories and 
possessions of the United States are presented in table 36. Included 
are the figures for the First Judicial District of Alaska, Honolulu City, 
and the County of Honolulu in the Territory of Hawaii. The tabu- 
lation is based on offenses reported monthly by law enforcement 
officers policing both the rural and urban areas, except that the data 
for Honolulu City have been segregated from the figures for Honolulu 
County. 

Table 36. — Number of offenses known in United States Territories and possessions, 
January to December, inclusive, 1944- 

[Population figures from 1910 decennial census] 





Murder, 

lionnrg- 

ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or en- 
tering 


Larceny — theft 


Auto 

theft 


J urisdicl inn reporting 


Over 

$50 


Under 
$50 


Alaska: 

Firsl judicial division 
(Juneau), population, 
25,241; number 01 offenses 
known 
Hawaii: 

Honolulu Citj , populati 

179,35s; number of of- 
fenses known . „ 

Honolulu County, popula- 
tion, 78,898; number of 


2 

13 
5 


2 
11 


4 

87 
21 


12 

856 
207 


25 

429 
38 


23 

1,637 
159 


6 

sis 

48 









87 




Pn 



Estimated Number of Major Crimes in the United States, 1943-44. 

With the passing of each hour during 1944 more than 158 serious 
crimes were reported to local police authorities in the United States. 
Each day on the average brought 28 felonious killings, 30 rapes, 150 
aggravated assaults and left 120 persons robbed, 555 with their auto- 
mobiles stolen, and the homes or business places of 749 others burglar- 
ized. In addition, 2,176 larcenies occurred during the average day, 
until by the end of the year an estimated 1,393,655 major crimes 
were registered. 

The estimates for both years are based on monthly crime reports 
received from approximately 2,100 cities representing a combined 
population in excess of 65,500,000. Table 37 presents the data for 
separate offense classes for each of the years 1943 and 1944, together 
with the percentage change. 

The figures show a general rise in crimes against the person, while 
two of the property crimes, burglary and auto theft, show increases 
and two others, robbery and larceny, show decreases. As a group, 
property crimes remained practically unchanged in frequency from 
1943 to 1944; however, as indicated in table 33, an increase of over 
19 percent is observed in the average value of property stolen per 
offense. 

The larceny classification includes many thefts involving property 
of small value; on the other hand, the estimated total of major crimes 
does not include many miscellaneous offenses of a serious nature such 
as embezzlement, fraud, forgery, counterfeiting, arson, receiving stolen 
property, drug violations, carrying concealed weapons, etc. It is, 
therefore, believed that the estimated totals as set out in table 37 
are conservative. 

Table 37. — Estimated number of major crimes in the United States, 1943-44 



Offense 



Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault ... 

Burglary — 

Larceny 

Auto theft - 

Total 



Number of offenses 



6, 

3, 

10, 

45, 

49, 

271, 

MIC. 

1ST. 



1,381,681 



Change 



6,552 

3,783 

10,915 

B.804 

54,841 

274, 134 

796, 590 

203,036 



Number Percent 



1, 393, 655 



+35 

+319 

+181 

— 1 , 404 

+5, 103 

+2, 250 

-9, 735 

+15,285 



+11,974 



+0.5 
+9.2 
+1.7 
-3.2 
+ 10.3 
+.8 
-1.2 
+8.1 



+.9 



89 



CD 

a 

•c 
u 

u 
o 

•J? 



CD 



55 

cy 
*-> 

a 

CO 

w 




DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

Source of Data. 

During the 1944 calendar year the FBI examined 488,979 arrest 
records, as evidenced by fingerprint cards, in order to obtain data 
concerning the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of the 
persons represented. The compilation has been limited to instances 
of arrests for violations of State laws and municipal ordinances. In 
other words, fingerprint cards representing arrests for violations of 
Federal laws or representing commitments to any type of penal insti- 
tution have been excluded from this tabulation. 

The number of fingerprint records examined was slightly smaller 
than the 490,764 examined in 1943. The tabulation of data from 
fingerprint cards obviously does not include all persons arrested, 
since there are individuals taken into custody for whom no fingerprint 
cards are forwarded to Washington. Furthermore, data pertaining 
to persons arrested should not be treated as information regarding 
the number of offenses committed, since two or more persons may be 
involved in the joint commission of a single offense, and on the other 
hand one person may be arrested and charged with the commission 
of several separate crimes. 

Offense Charged. 

Arrests for major violations were represented by more than 37 
percent (183,749) of the records examined during 1944. Persons 
charged with murder, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, or auto 
theft numbered 136,901, constituting 28 percent of the total arrest 
records examined. 

Sex. 

Arrests of males during 1944 numbered 405,379, a 1.5 percent de- 
crease from the 411,642 arrested and fingerprinted during 1943. On 
the other hand, female arrest records increased 5.7 percent, from 
79,122 during 1943 to 83,600 in 1944. 

It may be noted generally that although the total male arrests de- 
creased 1.5 percent in 1944, increases were shown for most of the major 
offense classes with decreases in arrests for minor violations. On the 
other hand, female arrests, with an over-all increase of 5.7 percent, 
showed increases not only for major violations but also for most of 
the less serious infractions. This is illustrated by the following 

(90) 



91 

figures reflecting some of the changes in the arrests of males and 
females of all ages during 1944 as compared with 1943: 



Offense 



Murder and manslaughter 

Robbery ~ 

Assault 

Burglary 

Larceny 

Auto theft 



Percent change 


Male 


Female 


+1.8 
+3.1 
+5.6 
+5.0 
+0.8 
+24.0 


+1.5 
+8.0 
+ 14.7 
+ 10.4 
+8.1 
+36.3 



Offense 



Embezzlement and fraud. 
Driving while intoxicated 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 



Percent change 



Male Female 



+6.2 
-4.2 
-2.3 
-7.8 
-9.7 



+4.5 
+ 14.8 
+19.6 
+10.4 
-15.0 



The number and percentage of arrests by sex during 1944 are pre- 
sented in table 38. 



Table 38. — Distribution of arrests by sex, Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1944 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice_ 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children. _ 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws. . 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling ... 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Number 



Total Male Female 



4,769 
11,189 
36, 984 
25, 022 
45, 361 

13, 576 
8,131 
2,526 

583 

3, 958 

6,028 

10, 787 

,11,532 

1,731 

6,101 

8,132 

7,625 

17,790 

4,643 

71 

4,527 

36, 399 

104, 487 

30, 972 

14, 387 
36, 883 

3,689 
31, 096 



488, 979 



4,142 

10, 567 

32, 332 

24, 207 

37, 909 

13, 249 

7,073 

2,257 

520 

3,362 

6,028 

3,155 

8,264 

1,491 

5,701 

7,467 

6,228 

16, 772 

4,509 

70 

4,339 

26, 004 

91,531 

20, 553 

13, 098 

29, 864 

2,677 

22, 010 



405, 379 



627 

622 
4,652 

815 
7,452 

327 
1,058 

269 
63 

596 



7,632 

3,268 

240 

400 

665 

1,397 

1,018 

134 

1 

188 

10, 395 

12, 956 

10,419 

1.289 

7,019 

1,012 



Percent 



Total Male Female 



1.0 

2.3 

7.6 

5. 1 

9.3 

2.8 

1.7 

.5 

. 1 

.8 

1.2 

2.2 

2.4 

.4 



(') 

.9 

7.4 

21.4 

6.3 

2.9 

7.5 

.8 

6.4 



1.0 
2.6 

8.0 

6.0 

9.4 

3.3 

1.7 

.(< 

. 1 

.8 

1.5 

.8 

2.0 

.4 

1.4 

1.8 

1.5 

4.1 

1. 1 

(') 

1.1 

6.4 

22.6 

5. 1 

3.2 

7.4 

. 7 

5.4 



100.0 



5.6 
1.0 
8.9 
.4 
1.3 
.3 
. 1 



9. 1 
3.9 
.3 
.5 
.8 
1.7 
1.2 
.2 

.2 
12.4 
15.5 
12.5 
1.5 
8.4 
1.2 
10.9 



100.0 



1 Less than 1/10 of 1 percent. 



Age. 



Males and females under 21 years of age arrested and fingerprinted 
during 1944 numbered 107,762, which amounts to 22.0 percent of 
the total arrests. Those between the ages of 21 and 24 numbered 
68,666 (14.0 percent), making a total of 176,428 (36.1 percent) less 
than 25 years old. It should be remembered that the number of 
arrest records is doubtless incomplete in the lower age groups because 



92 



of the practice of some jurisdictions not to fingerprint youthful 
offenders. 

The 1944 figures show that youths continue to play a predominant 
part in the commission of crimes against property. The portion of 
offenses committed by males and females under 21 is shown by the 
following figures: Robbery, 34.5 percent; burglary, 51.8 percent; 
larceny, 35.4 percent; and auto theft, 63.1 percent. In 1944, persons 
of all ages arrested for robbery, burglary, larceny, auto theft, embezzle- 
ment, fraud, forgery, counterfeiting, receiving stolen property, and 
arson numbered 110,346; and 44,286 (40.1 percent) of them were less 
than 21 years old. 

For males and females combined, the figures for the groups in which 
the largest number of arrests occurred during 1 944 are as follows : 



Age 


Number of 
Arrests 


17 
18 
19 
21 
22 


23, 753 
23, 749 
2(1, 134 
18, 276 
17, 739 



For males and females combined, arrests of those under 21 years 
of age decreased from 112,281 in 1943 to 107,762 in 1944 (-4.0 per- 
cent). Arrests of persons in the 18-20 age group decreased 5.2 
percent, while arrests of persons less than 18 years old declined 2.5 
percent. 

Figures for the separate sexes show different trends in certain age 
groups. Boy arrests under 18 decreased 1.8 percent and girl arrests 
under 18 decreased 7.1 percent. On the other hand, whereas boy 
arrests in the 18-20 age bracket decreased 8.5 percent, girl arrests in 
this age group increased 4.9 percent. 

As in 1943, age 17 predominated in the frequency distribution of 
male arrests during 1944. Age 18 was second in the frequency of 
arrests. Arrests during 1944 of males under 18 years of age increased 
18.1 percent for murder, 15.7 percent for assault, and 19.8 percent for 
auto theft as compared with 1943. 

Female arrests in 1944 occurred most frequently at age 19, followed 
by age 18. The figures for girls under 21 years of age disclose a 1.5 
percent increase, from 22,292 in 1943 to 22,636 in 1944. 

Although arrests of juveniles showed a moderate decrease in 1944, 
the situation as to juvenile delinquency is far from being as good as 



93 




94 



it was before the war. This is most clearly revealed by a comparison 
of 1941 and 1944 data as follows: 







Males 


Females 


Age 


1941 


1944 


Percent 
change 


1941 


1944 


Percent 
change 


Under 18. 


34, 408 
66,689 
101,097 


40, 892 
44, 234 
85, 126 


+18.8 
-33.7 

-15.8 


2,662 
7.013 
9, 675 


5,798 
16,838 
22,636 


+117.8 


18-20 


+140.1 


Under 21__ 


+134.0 











The foregoing figures indicate quite clearly that we have an abnormally 
high level of juvenile delinquency, that the moderate reduction in 
1944 is in effect a "leveling off" of a previously sharply ascending 
crime curve, and that the main job of reducing delinquency still 
remains to be accomplished. Until the amount of delinquency on 
the part of youths is reduced at least to pre-war levels, we will continue 
to have a situation constituting a grave threat to the future strength 
of our Nation. Effective community-wide delinquency prevention 
programs continue to be an urgent need. 



95 




96 




«•=« g~Sc 
K ■< PQ i-J <1 W » 



97 



1— 






Q 2: 









> 


GO 


Q_ CH 




Li_ 


s 


1_J 

1 1 1 


UJ 


en 
<n 




<C 


t 1 


t— 


t ^ 


rr 


<c 


Q ° 


<r 




U 




Ll_ 








98 



Table 40. — Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, 
male and female, Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1944 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide. _ 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice . 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children... 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations- _ 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws... 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

A 11 other offenses 

Total 



Total num- 
ber of 
persons 
arrested 



4,769 

11,189 

36, 984 

25. 022 

45, 361 

13, 576 

8,131 

2,526 

583 

3,958 

6,028 

10, 787 

11,532 

1,731 

6,101 

8,132 

7,625 

17, 790 

4, 643 

71 

4,527 

36, 399 

104, 487 

30, 972 

14, 387 

36, 883 

3, 689 

31, 096 



488, 979 



Number 

under 21 
years of age 



663 

3,864 

4,557 

12, 963 

16, 053 

8,561 

1, 120 

503 

182 

1,040 

1,884 

2,161 

1,978 

156 

1,418 

437 

592 

756 

932 

7 

1.081 

6, 968 

5,221 

9.399 

828 

11, 950 

625 

11,863 



107, 762 



Total num- 
ber under 
25 years 
of age 



1,315 
6,394 
9,577 
16, 791 
23, 039 
10, 987 

2, 253 
837 
240 

1,736 
2.955 
4,617 

3, 750 
416 

2, 367 

1,614 

1,292 

2,103 

1,737 

16 

1,849 

13,365 

13, 470 

15, 370 

1,997 

18, 262 

1,202 

16, 877 



176, 428 



Percentage 
under 21 

years of age 



13.9 
34.5 
12.3 
51.8 
35.4 
63.1 
13.8 
19.9 
31.2 
26. 3 
31.3 
20.0 
17.2 

9.0 
23.2 

5.4 

7.8 

4.2 
20.1 

9.9 
23.9 
19.1 

5.0 
30.3 

5.8 
32. 4 
16.9 
38.1 



22.0 




27.6 
57.1 
25.9 
67.1 
50.8 
80.9 
27.7 
33. 1 
41.2 
43.9 
49. 
42.8 
32.5 
24.0 
38.8 
19.8 
16.9 
11.8 
37.4 
22.5 
40.8 
36.7 
12.9 
49.6 
13.9 
49.5 
32.6 
54.3 



36. 1 



Criminal Repeaters. 

Of the 488,979 arrest records examined, 241,042 (49.3 percent) 
represented persons who already had fingerprint records on file in the 
Indentification Division of the FBI. For males the percentage with 
prior records was 52.8, and for females the percentage was 32.1. These 
figures pertain to fingerprint arrest records, and in no way relate to 
the civil identification files of the F'BI. 



Table 41.- 



-Percentage with previous fingerprint records, arrests, male and female, 
Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1944 



Offense 



Narcotic drug laws 

Drunkenness 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Robbery 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Liquor laws 

Assault 

Larceny — theft 

Parking violations > 

Auto theft 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 



Percent 



74.8 
60.7 
60.3 
59.7 
55.7 
54.3 
50.3 
49.6 
47.8 
47.5 
47.3 
46.5 
44.4 
44.3 



Offense 



Offenses against family and children. . 
Other trallic and motor vehicle laws... 

Suspicion 

All other offenses 

Rape 

Disorderly conduct 

Driving while intoxicated 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 
Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Criminal homicido 

Arson 

Other sex offenses 

Road and driving laws. 



Percent 



43.7 
43.1 
43.1 
42.7 
42.0 
41.8 
11.2 
41.0 
39.7 
38.9 
37.4 
37. 3 
35.5 



1 Only 71 fingerprint cards were received representing arrests for violations of parking regulations. 



99 





h- 






o 


Z. 


Q 




UJ 

_J 


Q- 


UJ 

> 




Q_ 


or 






2 

o 


UJ 

2 


u 

UJ 

c/"> 


UJ 


<C 




n 


(— 


t— 


> 


rr 


<: 


Q 


O 

Ll_ 


< 









fe 



100 



Race. 

Most of the persons represented in this study were members of the 
white and Negro races. Including Mexicans, who numbered 17,817, 
members of the white race represented 351,609 of the 488,979 arrest 
records received, while 129, 322v were Negroes, 6,084 Indians, 554 
Chinese, 135 Japanese, and 1,275 were representatives of other races. 

Table 42. — Distribution of arrests according to race, male and female, Jan. 1- 

Dec. 81, 1944 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice , _ 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children . . 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws... 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Race 



White Negro Indian Chinese 



351.609 129,322 



2,535 


2,187 


0,340 


4,705 


19, 907 


16, 608 


17, 896 


6,880 


29, 626 


15, 322 


11,096 


2,337 


6,606 


1,479 


1,644 


869 


445 


128 


3,396 


521 


4,192 


1,729 


7,155 


3,352 


9,412 


1,952 


1,009 


517 


2,692 


3,328 


6,688 


1,376 


3,948 


3,620 


16, 070 


1,504 


3,424 


1,159 


51 


19 


3,207 


1,278 


26, 486 


9,455 


87, 439 


14, 118 


22, 626 


7,703 


6,049 


8,073 


25, 202 


11,326 


2,759 


837 


23, 709 


6, 940 



33 

105 

240 

165 

313 

113 

33 

6 

8 

36 

46 

235 

119 

6 

27 

.60 

41 

175 

30 



25 
352 
,719 
530 

22 
267 

71 
307 



6,084 



186 
5 
1 
2 
2 
7 
1 
2 

14 
8 

22 
134 

18 
5 

41 



554 



Japa- 
nese 



135 



All 

others 



Total 
all races 



10 

38 

191 

66 

75 

21 

7 

7 

1 

5 

52 

20 

40 

12 

48 

7 

12 
38 
10 



13 

86 
189 
85 
87 
47 
17 
91 



1,275 



4,769 

11,189 

36, 984 

25, 022 

45, 361 

13, 576 

8,131 

2,526 

583 

3,958 

6,028 

10, 787 

11,532 

1,731 

6,101 

8,132 

7,625 

17, 790 

4,643 

71 

4,527 

36, 399 

104, 487 

30,972 

14,387 

36, 883 

3,689 

31,096 



488,979 



OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in part I and 
part II offenses, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 

Part I Offenses. 

1. Criminal homicide. — -(a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter includes all 
wilful felonious homicides as distinguished from deaths caused by negligence. 
Does not include attempts to kill, assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, or 
justifiable homicides. Justifiable homicides excluded from this classification are 
limited to the following types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon by a peace officer 
in line of duty; (2) The killing of a hold-up man by a private citizen. (6) Man- 
slaughter by negligence includes any death which the police investigation estab- 
lishes was primarily attributable to gross negligence on the part of some individual 
other than the victim. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape (no force used — victim under 
age of consent), assault to rape, and attempted rape. 

3. Robbery. — -Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as strong-arm robbery, stick-ups, 
robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by the use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or a theft, even though no 
force was used to gain entrance. Includes attempts. Burglary followed by 
larceny is included in this classification and not counted again as larceny. 

6. JLarceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value; 
(6) under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of the property stolen, thefts of bicycles, automobile accessories, 
shoplifting, pocket-picking, or any stealing of property or article of value which 
is not taken by force and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, 
"con" games, forgery, worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven away 
and abandoned, including the so-called joy-riding thefts. Does not include taking 
for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unauthorized use by 
those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses. 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which is 
made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false pretensls. 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those 
offenses. 

(101) 



102 



12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of regulations 
or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing, and manufac- 
turing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes 
or regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commer- 
cialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as prostitution, keeping 
bawdy house, procuring, transporting, or detaining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice). — In- 
cludes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

15. Offenses against the family and children. — Includes offenses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, sale, or use. Excludes Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "drunkenness" (class 18) and "driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations, State or local, are placed in 
this class. Excludes Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regulations with 
respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters, but not in connection with any specific offense, who are released with- 
out formal charges being placed against them. 



INDEX TO VOLUME XV, UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

[All references are to page numbers] 

Age of offenders. (See Arrests.) 

Annual crime trends: Page 

Cities grouped by size 6-9 

Cities grouped by location 61-64 

Estimated total number of major crimes, 1943-44 87-89 

Rural crime trends 85-86 

Arrests — based on fingerprint records 48-51, 90-100 

Age of offenders 48-51, 91-99 

Race of offenders 51, 100 

Recidivism 51, 98 

Sex of offenders 48-49,90-91 

Automobiles — percentage recovered 17, 81 

Classification of offenses 3, 52-53, 57-58, 101-102 

Cleared by arrest, offenses 29-33, 38-39, 44-45 

By geographic divisions 44-45 

Crimes. (See Arrests, estimated number, offenses, persons charged, per- 
sons found guilty, and persons released.) 
Criminal repeaters. (See Arrests — recidivism.) 

Employees, number of police 19-28 

Fingerprint records 48-5 1 , 90-100 

Monthly variations, offenses known to the police 64-67 

Offenses known to the police: 

Annual trends 6-9, 61-64 

Cities grouped by location 10-13, 68-71 

Cities grouped by location and size 13, 71 

Cities grouped by size . 4-5, 59-60 

Cleared by arrests 29-33, 38-39, 44, 45 

Cleared by arrest, geographic divisions 44-47 

Divided as to time and place and value of property stolen 17-18, 79-85 

Individual cities over 100,000 in population 14-16 

Individual cities over 25,000 in population 72-79 

Monthly variations 64-67 

Rural areas 85-86 

Territories and possessions of the United States 86 

Persons charged (held for prosecution) 34-4 1 

By geographic divisions 44-47 

Persons found guilty 38-41 

Persons released (not held for prosecution) 4 1-44 

Police department employees 19-28 

Auxiliary police 22-28 

Possessions and Territories of the United States, offenses in 86 

Property, value stolen 17-18, 82-85 

Property, value stolen and recovered 17-18, 84—85 

Prosecution, persons held for. (See Persons charged and persons found 
guilty.) 

(103) 



104 

Race of offenders. (See Arrests.) 

Recidivism. (See Arrests.) Page 

Reporting area, extent of 58 

Rural crime data 85-86 

Sex of offenders. (See Arrests.) 

Sheriffs' reports 85-86 

State crime rates. (See Offenses known — cities grouped by location.) 

State police reports 85-86 

Territories and possessions of the United States, offenses in 86 

Trends, annual crime: 

Cities grouped by size 6-9 

Cities grouped by location 61-64 

Value of property stolen 17-18, 82-85 

Value of property stolen and recovered 17-18, 84—85 

Variations, monthly crime 64-67 

o 



? £66 



LSS90 



"""wionSl! 



£ 66 6 e 




W 0iS08