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Full text of "Uniform crime reports for the United States"

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UNIFORM 
CRIME 

D C D /^ D T C 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C 



Volume XVI 
SEMIANNUAL BULLETIN 



Number i 
1945 



y*^ >» ^^>: 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume XVI — Number 1 
SEMIANNUAL BULLETIN, 1945 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRmTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1945 



•. 5, SttPEmNTENCE..! Oi UGUtetriTS 

SEP 14 194S 

Contents 



Pa DTP 

Summar}' of volumo XVI, No. 1 1- 3 

Classification of offenses 3 

Monthly reports: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population 

(table 1) 4- 5 

Offenses known to the police, January- June, 1944-45 (table 2) 6-7 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1931-44 (tables 3, 4, 5)_ 7-16 
Offenses known to the police— cities divided according to location 

(tables 6, 7, 8) 16-20 

Offenses in individual cities over 100,000 in population (table 9) 21-23 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 10, 11, 12) 23-27 

Rural crime trends (table 13) 27-29 

Police employee data: 

Number of police department employees per 1,000 inhabitants, April 

30, 1945, cities grouped by size and location (tables 14, 15) 30-32 

Number of police department employees in individual cities over 

25,000 in population, April 30, 1945 (table 16) . 33-37 

Annual reports: 

Offenses known and offenses cleared by arrest, 1944 — cities divided 

according to population (table 17) 38-40 

Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1944 — cities divided accord- 
ing to population (tables 18, 19) 40-44 

Offenses known, offenses cleared and persons found g'lilty, 1944, part 

I offenses (table 20) 45-47 

Persons charged (held for prosecution) and persons founa guilty, 1944, 

part II offenses (table 21) 46 

Persons released (not held for prosecution), 1944 — citie? divided 

according to population (tables 22, 23) 48-61 

Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest and persons charged, 1944. 

by geographical divisions (tables 24, 25) 51-55 

Persons charged in individual cities over 100,000 in population, 1944 

(table 26) 56-62 

Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1945: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 27) 63, 65 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 27, 28) 63-68 

Definition of part I and part II offense classifications 70-71 

(11) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 
of Justice, Washington, D. C. 

Volume XVI July 1945 Number 1 

SUMMARY 

Annual Crime Trends, 1931-44 

During the 14-year period 1931-44, decreases were reflected in 
murder, negligent manslaughter, robbery, burglary, and auto theft. 
Increases occurred in rape, aggravated assault, and larceny. The 
major portion of the decreases occurred in the early part of the 14- 
year period. The reductions for robbery and auto theft were very 
substantial, amounting to 47.7 percent and 42.9 percent, respectively. 
For the other classifications, the decreases were less marked but they 
were significant. 

Offenses of rape were up 110.9 percent and aggravated assault 37.7 
percent. Larceny was the only property crime to reflect an increase 
during the period, and the upswing amounted to 11.1 percent. 

Offenses Known to the Police, January-June, 1944-45 

According to the reports of 392 cities, the first half of 1945 witnessed 
an 8.4 percent increase in crime over the first 6 months of 1944. The 
following increases were reported: Murder, 4.3 percent; rape, 9.0 per- 
cent; robbery, 10.0 percent; aggravated assault, 11.3 percent; burglary, 
12.1 percent; larceny, 7.9 percent; auto theft, 4.6 percent. Negligent 
manslaughter showed a decline of 1.6 percent. 

Supplemental information from 288 cities disclosed that forcible 
rapes increased 13.2 percent, whereas statutory violations (no force 
used — victim under age of consent) increased 8.7 percent during the 
first half of 1945. Highway robberies were up 12.3 percent and rob- 
beries of oil stations, 75.8 percent. Bank robberies increased 257 
percent. 
Value of Property Stolen, January-June, 1944-45 

Not only did the number of crimes show an increase but also the 
value of property stolen per offense went up. The increases in the 
total value of property stolen are as follows: Robbery, 59 percent; 
burglary, 31.2 percent; larceny, 20.7 percent; and auto theft, 11.1 
percent. 

In both 1944 and 1945 the police recovered 96.6 percent of the 
automobiles stolen. Exclusive of automobiles, the percentage of 
recovered property was 26.2 in the first half of 1944 and 24.3 in 1945. 
Crime Rates, January-June, 1945 

The Pacific States reported the highest number of robberies, burg- 
laries, larcenies, and auto thefts in proportion to population. The 

(1) 



highest murder rate was reported in the East South Central States, 
and the highest aggravated assault rate in the South Atlantic States. 

Average figures for the cities divided according to size disclosed 
that with two exceptions the larger cities experience more offenses 
per unit of population than the smaller communities. The compilation 
also indicates that the predominance of crime in the larger cities is 
accentuated in the more serious types of crimes, such as murder and 
robbery. 
Rural Crime Trends, January-June, 1944-45 

Rural crimes were up 10.6 percent in the first half of 1945. In- 
creases for individual classifications were as follows: Murder, 14,0 
percent; negligent manslaughter, 23.7 percent; rape, 22.5 percent; 
robbery, 14.0 percent; aggravated assault, 29.5 percent; burglary, 
14.7 percent; larceny, 5.8 percent; and auto theft, 4.7 percent. 

Persons Arrested, January-June, 1945 

The 270,739 persons arrested and fingerprinted in the first half of 
1945 constituted a 14.2 percent increase over the first half of 1944. 
Male arrests increased 15.4 percent, while female arrests were up 8.3 
percent. Persons under 21 years of age numbered 21.4 percent of 
the total arrested and fingerprinted. Such youths constituted 39.6 
percent of those charged with crimes against property. Age 17 pre- 
dominated in the frequency of male arrests and age 22 for females. 
There was an increase of 9.8 percent in arrests of males under 21 
years of age, but a decrease of 5.4 percent in arrests of girls under 21. 

More than half (52.1 percent) of the persons represented already had 
fingerprint cards on file at the FBI. For males the percentage 
having prior records was 55.5 and for females, 34.8. Of the total 
persons arrested and fingerprinted, 56.8 percent were arrested outside 
of their state of birth. 

Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1944 

During 1944, 28.5 percent of all offenses were cleared by arrest. 
The percentages for individual offenses ranged from 23.2 for larceny 
to 90.8 for murder. Figures for the remaining classifications are as 
follows: Negligent manslaughter, 81.5 percent; rape, 74.8 percent; 
robbery, 38.7 percent; aggravated assault, 75.7 percent; burglary, 
31.6 percent; auto theft, 24.4 percent. 

Persons Found Guilty, 1944 

Approximately 82 percent of the persons charged by the police 
with violations during 1944 were found guilty. This is somewhat 
higher than the 80 percent found guilty in 1943, but in 1944 there 
were decreases in the percentage of persons found guilty for most 
offense classes with the exception of traffic violations. The percent- 
age of persons found guilty during 1944 ranges from 46.3 percent for 



persons charged with neghgent manslaughter to 87.3 percent for those 
charged with driving while intoxicated. 
Police Employees, April 30, 1945 

The decrease in police personnel noted during prior war years 
continued in 1945. Cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants reported 
a decrease of 3.1 percent in police employees as compared with 1944, 
and a decline of 8.2 percent compared with 1942. The reduction in 
police persomiel during the past few years has been rather general 
thi-oughout the United States. On the average, the number of em- 
ployees per 1,000 mhabitants varies from 1.18 in the East South Cen- 
tral States to 1.96 in the Middle Atlantic States. Figures for indi- 
vidual cities are presented in the bulletin, 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to the 
police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting or 
court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following group 
of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be those most 
generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal homicide, 
including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (b) manslaugh- 
ter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; burglary — break- 
ing or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The figures contained 
herein include also the nimiber of attempted crimes of the designated 
classes. In other words, an attempted burglary or robbery, for ex- 
ample, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner as if the crime 
had been completed. Attempted murders, however, are reported as 
aggravated assaults. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the law-enforce- 
ment agencies of contributing communities and not merely arrests or 
cleared cases. Offenses committed by juveniles are included in the 
same manner as those known to have been committed by adults, 
regardless of the prosecutive action. Complaints which upon inves- 
tigation are learned to be groundless are not included in the tabulations 
which follow. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions of 
part I and II offense classifications. 



MONTHLY REPORTS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population 

Generally speaking, crime rates vary directly with the size of the 
cities represented; the larger cities on the average have the higher 
crime rates. It is, of course, true that exceptions will be found in the 
figures for individual cities, but this results from a variety of other 
factors which also affect the crime rate of a community. 

Table 1 discloses that cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants 
experience more offenses per unit of population than the smaller cities. 
Exceptions to this statement appear in the figures for cities with 50,000 
to 100,000 inhabitants, where the crime rate for aggravated assault 
is in excess of that for cities over 100,000 in population, and the 
larceny figure is higher than for cities over 250,000 in population. 
Also, for cities with from 25,000 to 50,000 inhabitants, the larceny 
rate is higher than for cities over 250,000 in population. 

The data in table 1 are presented to enable police administrators 
and other interested individuals to compare local crime rates with the 
national average for cities of approximately the same size. Similar 
average figures for cities divided both as to size and location may be 
found in table 8. 

The widest range between the lowest and highest crime rates for a 
single offense class appearing in table 1 is found for robbery, the 
figures ranging from 10.2 per 100,000 inhabitants for group VI cities 
to 33.1 for group I cities. The next widest range appears in the figures 
for manslaughter by negligence, from 0.80 for group VI to 2.34 for 
group I. For murder, group V cities were low with a rate of 1.39 and 
group II cities were high with a rate of 3.23, For the remaining ofl^ense 
classes the range is somewhat narrower, the highest crime rate being 
slightly more than double the lowest crime rate for any of the six 
groups of cities represented, with the exception of larceny, where the 
highest rate was less than double the lowest figure. These figures 
justify the observation that on the average the predominance of crime 
in the larger cities is accentuated in the more serious types of crimes. 

(4) 



Table 1, — Offenses known to the 'police, January to June, inclusive, 1945; number 
and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 

35 cities over 250,000; total popu- 
lation, 29,611,817: 
Number of offenses known. . 
Rate per 100,000 

GROUP n 

55 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,792,650: 
Number of offenses known, . 
Rate per 100,000 

GROUP in 

106 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 7,283,055: 
Number of oflenses known. 
Rate per 100,000 

GROUP IV 

211 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 7,353,277: 
Number of oflenses known. 
Rate per 100,000 

GROUP V 

557 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 8,469,636: 
Number of oflenses known. 
Rate per 100,000 

GROUP VI 

1,285 cities under 10,000; total 
population, 6,866,054: 
Number of offenses known. 
Rate per 100,000 

TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

2,249 cities; total population, 
67,376,489: 
Number of oflenses known. 
Rate per 100,000 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Murder, 
Eonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



821 

2.77 



252 
3.23 



197 
2.70 



127 
1.73 



118 
1.39 



123 
1.79 



1,638 
2.43 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by- 
negli- 
gence 



692 
2.34 



174 
2.23 



141 



112 

1.52 



91 
1.07 



55 
0.80 



1,265 
1.88 



Rape 



2,185 
7.38 



483 
6.20 



316 
4.34 



257 
3.50 



312 
3.68 



259 
3.77 



3,812 
5.66 



Rob- 
bery 



33.1 



1,840 
23.6 



1,225 
16.8 



892 
12.1 



872 
10.3 



701 
10.2 



15, 338 
22.8 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



9,270 
31.3 



2,837 
36.4 



2,729 
37.5 



2,031 
27.6 



1,455 
17.2 



1,174 
17.1 



19, 496 
28.9 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny- 
theft 



1 40, 851 
202.0 



15, 934 
204.5 



12, 336 
169.4 



10, 562 
143.6 



10, 379 
122.5 



6,923 
100.8 



1 96, 985 
167.2 



1 87, 863 
434.4 



37, 264 

478.2 



34, 200 
469.6 



32, 591 
443.2 



32, 561 
384.4 



17, 976 
261.8 



1 242, 455 
418.1 



Auto 
theft 



34,729 
117.3 



10, 609 
136.1 



7,818 
107.3 



6,644 
90.4 



6,711 
79.2 



4,418 
64.3 



70,929 
105.3 



1 The number of oflenses and rate for burglary and larceny — theft are based on reports as follows: Group 
I, 33 cities, total population, 20,225,488; groups I-VI, 2,247 cities, total population, 57,990,160, 











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Trends in Offenses Known to the Police, January-June 1944-45 

Table 2, based upon the reports of police departments in 392 cities 
with a combined population of 51,054,723, reflects an 8.4 percent 
increase in crime during the first half of 1945 as compared with the 
corresponding period of 1944. 

The compilation discloses increases for all offense classes except 
negligent manslaughter, where there is a decrease of 1 .6 percent. The 
increases for the remaining offense classes range from 4.3 percent for 
murder to 12.1 percent for burglary. 

There are 412 cities in the United States with population in excess 
of 25,000. Since 392 of these cities, including the most populous com- 
munities, are represented in table 2, the figures reported therein are 
obviously representative of the current trends in the volume of urban 
crime. A similar tabulation reflecting current rural crime trends may 
be found in table 13. 

The 1944 figures for murder, robbery, burglary, and larceny were 
somewhat below the prewar averages, but the increases shown in the 
1945 figures for these offenses indicate a swing back to, or in excess of, 
the prewar average figures. For rape, aggravated assault, and auto 
theft the 1944 figures were above the prewar averages, and the in- 
creases shown in 1945 reveal a continuation of the upward trend in 
those types of crimes. Cases of negligent manslaughter in 1945 were 
substantially at the prewar level. 

Table 2.— Offenses knoicn to the police, cities over 25,000 in population, January- 
June 1944-45 
[392 cities, total population 51,054,723; based on 1940 decennial census] 



Offense 


Number of of- 
fenses—January- 
June 


Change 




1944 


1945 


Number 


Percent 




1,313 
1,128 
2,918 
12, 309 
14,809 
73, 248 
181, 373 
55,978 


1,370 

1,110 

3,181 

13, 539 

16, 481 

82, 143 

195, 647 

58, 556 


+57 

-18 

+263 

+1,230 

+1, 672 

+8,895 

+14, 274 

+2, 578 


+4.3 


Manslaughter by negligence 


-1.6 




+9.0 


Robbery - _. -. 


+10.0 


Aggravated assault ... - 


+ 11.3 


Burglary . . _. 


+12.1 




+7.9 


Auto theft 


+4.6 






Total . -- 


343,076 


372, 027 


+28, 951 


+8.4 







Annual Crime Trends, 1931-44 

During 1931-44 decreases were reflected in five of the classifications 
on which monthly reports are made by police departments throughout 
the United States, and increases were shown in three types of crimes. 
Murder, negligent manslaughter, robbery, burglary, and auto theft 
showed substantial decreases. On the other hand, rape, aggravated 
assault, and larceny refiected increases. 

663207°— 45 2 



8 

The compilations presented in tables 3-5 are based on monthly 
reports received from the police departments of 220 cities, each with 
population in excess of 25,000. Identical cities are represented in 
the figures for each of the 14 years. 

The largest reductions occurred in robberies and auto thefts. 
Robberies decreased from 26,937 in 1931 to 14,101 in 1944, a decrease 
of 47.7 percent. Most of this decrease occurred in the early part of 
the 14-year period. During 1931-34, the yearly average for robbery- 
was 24,125 and this figure dropped to 17,022 duruig 1935-39, a 
decrease of 29.4 percent. The annual average for this type of crime 
during 1940-44 was 15,142, a decrease of 11.0 percent as compared 
with 1935-39, and a decrease of 37.2 percent as compared with 1931-34. 

Auto thefts decreased from 119,052 in 1931 to 68,009 in 1944, a 
reduction of 42.9 percent. Here too the major portion of the decrease 
occurred in the early part of the 14-year period. The yearly average 
for 1935-39 was 34.4 percent lower than for 1931-34. The annual 
average for 1940-44 declined 6.4 percent as compared with the pre- 
ceding 5-year period, but was 38.6 percent below the yearly average 
for 1931-34. It may be significant to note, however, that the auto 
theft figures for 1943 and 1944 are substantially in excess of the 
figures for 1938-42. 

The yearly average for murder during 1940-44 was 16.4 percent 
below the annual average for 1931-34. A similar comparison reflects 
the following decreases: Manslaughter by negligence, 11.6 percent, 
and burglary, 12.3 percent. In all instances the major portion of the 
decrease occurred in the early part of the 14-year period, with com- 
paratively small reductions occurring in the later years. 

Off'enses of rape increased from 1,649 in 1931 to 3,477 in 1944, an 
increase of 110.9 percent. The upward trend in this crime classifi- 
cation was apparent throughout the 14-year period but was most 
pronounced during 1940-44. 

Aggravated assaults increased fi'om 13,857 in 1931 to 19,077 in 
1944, an increase of 37.7 percent. The annual figures for this crime 
classification show little variation from 1931 through 1940, but be- 
ginning in 1941 a sharp upswing occurred. 

Of the offenses against property, larceny is the only one to show an 
increase over the 14-year period. Reported larcenies numbered 
216,754 in 1931 and 240,736 in 1944, an increase of 11.1 percent. 
The peak year for larceny offenses was 1940 with 283,143 violations 
reported. This figure dropped slightly to 281,850 in 1941, and there 
were additional decreases in 1942-44. However, the annual average 
number of larcenies for 1940-44 was 14.9 percent above the yearly 
average for 1931-34 and 6.4 percent above the corresponding figure 
for 1935-39. 



9 

Table 4 includes data for the 220 cities divided into four groups 
according to size, and table 5 is composed of compilations for the same 
cities divided into nine groups according to location. These com- 
pilations enable interested individuals to study crime trends for each 
of the various groups. 

In order to summarize the trends reflected by the yearly figures for 
1931-44, they are presented in table 3 in the form of three sets of 
averages. The first column represents the average of the four yearly 
figures for 1931-34; the second column represents the average of the 
five yearly figures for 1935-39; and the third column represents the 
average of the five yearly figures for 1940-44. 

Tables 4 and 5 present two sets of population figures for the various 
groups of cities, based on the 1930 and 1940 decennial censuses. In 
examining the data presented in table 5, it is suggested that considera- 
tion be given to the fact that significant population shifts have occurred 
since 1940. Also in evaluating the crime trend figures for the past 5 
years, consideration should be given to the influence of conditions 
existing during the war years, particularly the fact that several 
million young men have been in the armed services during 1942-44. 

It is further suggested that in evaluating the figures in table 4, it 
be borne in mind that table 2 of tliis publication discloses an 8.4 percent 
increase in crimes during the first half of 1945, with increases in all 
categories except negligent manslaughter. Tliis may indicate the 
possibility that we are entering a period which is likely to be charac- 
terized by somewhat higher crime rates than we have had during 
recent years. 



Table 3. — Trends in offenses known to the police, cities over 25,000 in population, 
Jamiary to December 1931-44 

[220 cities; total population based on Bureau of the Census estimates as of July 1, 1933—27,806,547; total 
population based on 1940 decennial census— 28,186,505] 



Offense 



Murder and nonnegli- 

gent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negli- 
gence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft -.- 



Average yearly number 
of offenses 



1931-34 1935-39 1940-44 



1,991 

1,410 
1,681 
24, 125 
13, 601 
106, 821 
231,005 
99, 721 



1,687 

1,199 
2,222 
17, 022 
13, 764 
94, 840 
249, 561 
65, 426 



1,664 

1,247 
3,060 
15, 142 
16, 675 
93, 634 
265, 442 
61, 238 



Change 



1935-39 vs. 
1931-34 



Number Percent 



-304 

-211 

-f-541 

-7, 103 

-1-163 

-11,981 

-1-18, 556 

-34, 295 



-15.3 

-15.0 
+32.2 
-29.4 

-1-1.2 
-11.2 

+8.0 
-34.4 



1940-44 vs. 
1935-39 



Number Percent 



-23 

+48 
+838 
-1,880 
+2,911 
-1,206 
+15,881 
-4, 188 



-1.4 

+4.0 

+37.7 

-11.0 

+21.1 

-1.3 

+6.4 

-6.4 



1940-44 vs. 
1931-34 



Number Percent 



-327 

-163 
+1,379 
-8, 983 
+3, 074 
-13,187 
+34, 437 
-38, 483 



-16.4 

-11.6 
+82.0 
-37.2 
+22.6 
-12.3 
+14.9 
-38.6 



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Table 4. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, cities over 25,000 in'popula- 
tion, January to December, 1981-44, by population groups 

[Population based on estimates for individual cities prepared by the Bureau of the Census as of July 1, 1933 '] 



Population group and year 



Criminal 






homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
lipent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


1,132 


1,107 


926 


16, 173 


1,115 


922 


986 


15, 526 


1,205 


942 


942 


14, 229 


1,077 


671 


997 


12, 173 


962 


709 


1, 143 


10, 076 


986 


672 


1,256 


9,612 


1,019 


771 


1,429 


11,597 


831 


524 


1,468 


10, 804 


950 


556 


1, 548 


9,841 


887 


594 


1,712 


10, 093 


886 


690 


1,835 


9.758 


993 


697 


1,895 


9,699 


932 


589 


2,139 


9, 837 


932 


590 


2,091 


8,869 


483 


369 


376 


5,719 


501 


236 


330 


5, 339 


467 


259 


378 


4,644 


497 


271 


443 


4,844 


454 


328 


461 


4,091 


430 


316 


432 


3,581 


436 


422 


464 


3,785 


459 


312 


411 


3.622 


400 


312 


482 


3,507 


376 


379 


489 


3,317 


453 


380 


539 


3,180 


477 


341 


594 


3,123 


404 


327 


706 


3,268 


413 


359 


823 


3,231 


233 


137 


196 


3,121 


217 


114 


199 


2,807 


196 


102 


171 


2,789 


222 


107 


182 


2,344 


197 


123 


172 


2,039 


192 


153 


189 


1,871 


190 


131 


255 


1,805 


187 


87 


238 


1,873 


164 


82 


223 


1,561 


197 


118 


214 


1,622 


207 


159 


248 


1,441 


186 


144 


270 


1,312 


158 


128 


309 


1,181 


203 


133 


301 


1,106 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 




GROUP I 

25 cities over 250,000; total popu- 
lation, 14,193,400: i 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 - 

1939 

1940 

1941 

1942 

1943 

1944 

GROUP n 

48 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 6,719,312: ' 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937. 

1938 

1939 

1940 

1941 

1942 

1943 

1944 

GROTJP ra 

54 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 3,673,590: <■ 

1931 

1932 _ 

1933 

1934 - 

1935 .._ 

1936 

1937 

1938 

1939. _... 

1940 

1941 

1942 

1943 

1944. 

See footnote at end of table. 



7,237 
6,604 
6,945 
6,945 
6,687 
6,812 
6,698 
7,142 
6,653 
6, 893 
8,402 
10, 191 
9,341 
9,934 



3,652 
3,237 
4,491 
4,257 
4,076 
4, 775 
4, 353 
3, COS 
3,833 
3,527 
3,612 
3,836 
4, 008 
4,715 



1,543 
1,315 
1,413 
1,584 
1,480 
1,634 
1,612 
1,630 
1,813 
2,026 
2,069 
1,906 
1,763 
2.538 



51, 526 
54, 170 
53, 692 
53, 687 
46, 725 
40,409 
44, 474 
43, 496 
45, 041 
49, 292 
47, 758 
42,519 
45, 423 
44.817 



28, 660 
30, 560 
29, 609 
29, 056 
28, 729 

26, 531 
27,517 
27, 152 
28, 284 
27, 820 

27, 387 
24, 826 
26, 242 
26, 725 



13,692 
14, 665 
13, 822 
13, 225 
13, 061 
11,902 
12,909 
13, 065 
13, 139 
12, 438 
11,887 
10.007 
10,428 
10, 924 



107, 139 
113, 186 
121,191 
122, 207 
118,321 
109, 712 
125,211 
126,562 
132, 926 
136, 696 
132, 677 
124, 398 
107, 233 
105, 743 



57, 619 
56, 397 
59, 079 
60, 055 
61,228 
60, 034 
64, 686 
67, 447 
71,015 
73, 582 
73, 297 
72, 165 
68, 473 
65, 444 



29, 290 
31, 799 
34, 235 
34, 773 
32, 529 
30, 981 
33, 237 
37, 083 
36, 885 
38, 123 
39, 579 
39, 245 
37, 166 
36, 303 



12 



Table 4. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, cities over 25,000 in popula- 
tion, January to December, 1931-44, by population groups — Continued 



Population group and year 



GROUP IV 

93 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 3,220,245: ' 

1931 

1932.-- - 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937.-- .- 

1938 

1939 

1940.-- 

1941 

1942-- -- 

1943 

1944--- _ 

TOTAL, GROUPS 1-IV 

220 cities; total population, 27,- 
806,547: i 

1931.- - 

1932 

1933-- 

1934 

1935.- 

1936 

1937 

1938. 

1939 

1940 

1941 

1942 

1943 

1944 



Criminal 
homicide 



Murder, 
nonncg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



187 
133 
154 
146 
130 
123 
116 
90 
118 
103 
139 
157 
114 
103 



2,035 
1,966 
2,022 
1,942 
1,743 
1,731 
1,761 
1, 567 
1,632 
1,563 
1,685 
1,813 
1,608 
1,651 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



96 
70 
103 
133 
111 
109 
108 
98 
70 
111 
144 
127 
120 
103 



1,709 
1,342 
1,406 
1,182 
1,271 
1,250 
1,432 
1,021 
1,020 
1,202 
1,373 
1,309 
1, 164 
1,185 



Rape 



151 
149 
140 
159 
156 
188 
192 
176 
226 
188 
201 
216 
270 
262 



1,649 
1,664 
1,631 
1,781 
1,932 
2, 065 
2,340 
2,293 
2,479 
2,603 
2,823 
2,975 
3,424 
3,477 



Rob- 
bery 



1,924 

1,835 

1,626 

1,406 

1,319 

1,046 

1,051 

1,011 

1,016 

927 

948 

954 



26, 937 
25, 507 
23, 288 
20, 767 

17, 525 
16,110 

18, 238 
17,310 
15, 925 
15,959 
15, 327 
15,088 
15,234 
14, 101 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



1,425 
1,158 
1,238 
1,361 
1,291 
1,342 
1,197 
934 
951 
1,055 
1.309 
2,261 
2,097 
1,890 



13, 857 
12,314 
14, 087 
14, 147 

13, 534 

14, 563 
13, 860 
13,614 
13. 250 
13, 501 

15, 392 
18, 194 
17, 209 
19, 077 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



9,598 

10, 580 

10, 451 

10,289 

10, 009 

9,737 

10,515 

10, 683 

10,823 

10, 779 

10, 172 

9,914 

9.604 

9,209 



103, 476 
109, 975 
107, 574 
106, 257 
98, 524 
88, 579 
95,415 
94, 396 
97, 287 
100, 329 
97, 204 
87, 266 
91,697 
91, 675 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



22, 706 
23, 602 
25, 038 
25, 702 
25, 485 
24, 967 
27, 633 
29,474 

32, 390 
34, 742 
36,297 
37, 373 
35, 429 

33, 246 



216, 754 
224, 984 

239, 543 
242, 737 
237, 563 
225, 694 
250, 767 
260, 566 
273, 216 
283, 143 
281,850 
273, 181 
248, 301 

240, 736 



Auto 
theft 



10,243 
7,952 
6,671 
6,754 
6,023 
5,908 
6,279 
5,158 
5,009 
5,193 
5,634 
5,281 
5,949 
6,131 



119,052 
100, 604 
90, 806 
88, 420 
76, 336 
66, 973 
69,227 
58,490 
56, 102 
56, 560 
61,051 
56, 462 
64,107 
68, 009 



' The population based on the 1940 decennial census and the percent change from the 1933 estimates are 
as follows: 



1940 population 



Percent change 
from 1933 
estimates 



Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV --- 

Total, all groups 



14, 330, 099 
6, 850, 721 
3, 698, 734 
3, 306, 951 



28, 186, 505 



-fl.O 
-f2.0 

+.7 
-1-2.7 



+1.4 



13 



CO 

Q 
IS 
U 

Eh 

u 
o 



UJ 
Q_ 
O 

o» t— 

— 00 



5I 

— «< 

CO 
UJ 



o 






rj~ 


3 
3 

5 

% 
» 

CO 

n 

1^ 
p 

•0 

•a 
2 


%. 






\ 


/^ 




\fil^^^ 






••CO-:-:- 


% ^^^^^^^ 


%/ ^ 


\/cr^5^ g^ 


4v^r^ 


%%^ "^ 


\/^$>\^ 






\ 1 


^^m, 1 


MeMs: 


mm^i 




14 



Table 5. — Anmial trends, offenses known to the police, cities over 25,000 in popula- 
tion, January to December, 1931-44, by geographic divisions 

[Population based on estimates for individual cities prepared by the Bureau of the Census as of July i, 1933 > ; 





Criminal 
homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Geographic division and year 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


NEW ENGLAND 

32 Cities; total population, 3,321,- 
273:1 
1931 


52 
38 
62 
38 
43 
34 
36 
50 
32 
39 
64 
47 
29 
51 

279 
262 
248 
197 
239 
206 
195 
178 
196 
177 
167 
180 
171 
155 

492 
464 
467 
464 
418 
404 
391 
321 
337 
324 
344 
361 
352 
342 


181 

142 

103 

73 

100 

89 

123 

73 

86 

110 

110 

74 

78 

87 

639 
572 
626 
287 
302 
278 
323 
195 
183 
254 
324 
291 
220 
219 

330 
198 
213 
271 
303 
273 
336 
213 
233 
274 
317 
304 
263 
269 


250 
191 
179 
251 
237 
173 
252 
225 
254 
263 
256 
238 
232 
207 

392 
334 
323 
368 
325 
365 
388 
396 
405 
468 
470 
460 
430 
399 

439 

548 

552 

517 

747 

805 

915 

832 

956 

909 

993 

1,036 

1,203 

1,133 


919 
L068 
985 
1,110 
683 
514 
725 
714 
791 
643 
550 
506 
689 
556 

2,951 
2,325 
2,122 
1,964 
1,438 
1,437 
1,651 
1,771 
1,580 
1 795 
1,341 
1,302 
1,210 
1,261 

9,224 
8.734 
7,808 
6,881 
6,425 
5.842 
6,941 
6,273 
5.528 
5,891 
5.766 
5. 260 
5.243 
4,889 


831 
553 
580 
520 
490 
384 
485 
431 
494 
458 
426 
400 
479 
424 

3,492 
2,688 
2,826 
2,581 
2,125 
2,311 
2. 2C0 
2,162 
1,938 
1,896 
1,916 
1,855 
L675 
L755 

3,233 
2,959 
3,147 
3.546 
3.316 
3.236 
3,362 
2.975 
2.673 
2.774 
3,481 
4,169 
4,142 
4,834 


9,336 
10, 362 
10, 561 
10, 166 
9.422 
8,187 
8,905 
9, 457 
9,606 
9, 508 
9,251 
8,435 
8,585 
8,035 

15, 496 

15, ros 

14,445 
14. 627 
12, 922 
9,797 
9,933 
9.902 
10. 842 
12. 749 
10, 333 
9,769 
10, 087 
10, 790 

25,824 
27, 142 

25.885 
25. 522 
24. 732 
23, 026 

26, 470 
27.686 

27. 726 
29. 293 
27. 290 
24,637 
25. 969 
25, 618 


21,495 

20, 952 

21, 161 
19. 838 
17, 083 
16, 002 
17, 476 
19, 492 

19, 501 

20, 226 
20,283 
20, 577 
17, 587 
16,220 

23,319 
21,329 
21,027 
22, 851 

22, 144 
20,583 
22,286 

23, 727 

23. 836 
23, 862 
23.561 
23, 437 
20, 270 
20, 200 

70, 849 
77, 320 

83, 496 
SO. 190 
77. 750 
70, 531 
82. 389 
84, 872 
86.716 

92. 837 
91, 193 
82. 439 
73. 628 
73, 786 


12, 719 


1932 


11,776 


1933 


11,196 


1934 


10, 866 


1935 - 


9.165 


1936 


7,623 


1937 . 


7,985 


1938 


7,611 


1939.. 


7,389 


1940 


7,749 


1941 


7,908 


1942 


6,641 


1943 ... 


6,730 


1944 


6,345 


MIDDLE ATLANTIC 

36 cities; total population, 
5,597,100: ' 
1931 . . 


13,297 


1932 

1933 


11,501 
10. 138 


1934 


11,073 


1935 


9,762 


1936 


8,788 


1937 


9,722 


1938 


8,599 


1939 


8,162 


1940 

1941 

1942 

1943 


8,779 
9,126 
7,465 
7,501 
8,712 


7,762,695: i 


31, 220 


1932 - 


24,253 




21.233 


1934 


21. 223 




18.618 


1936 


17,129 




18,284 


1938 


14,341 




13. 858 


1940 ... 


14.095 




14.614 


1942 

1943 


12.584 
15,515 


1944 


15,422 



See footnote at end of table. 



15 



Table 5. — Annual trends, ojfenses known to the police, cities over 25,000 in popula- 
tion, January to December, 1931-44, by geographic divisions — Continued 





Criminal 
homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Geographic division and year 


Murder, 
nonreg- 
lisent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


WEST NORTH CENTRAL 

16 cities; total population, 
2,621,600: • 
1931 


186 
186 
202 
194 
145 
117 
115 
101 
134 
92 
126 
109 
109 
116 

366 
391 
377 
386 
323 
358 
395 
370 
407 
435 
465 
506 
421 
424 

215 
199 
236 
259 
219 
194 
232 
202 
185 
162 
172 
200 
143 
145 

304 
295 
302 
273 
248 
300 
267 
251 
242 
217 
242 
272 
253 
257 


60 
30 
33 
51 
81 
91 
75 
58 
56 
63 
70 
74 
53 
78 

166 
123 
140 
140 
113 
100 
114 
94 
121 
131 
149 
139 
153 

i;2 

96 
85 
68 
81 
107 
135 
121 
65 
84 
66 
66 
54 
47 
40 

108 
52 
86 

115 
93 

107 
96 

107 
94 
84 
90 
99 

103 
91 


117 
137 
110 
182 
145 
131 
123 
184 
148 
177 
189 
170 
235 
328 

138 
146 
190 
167 
162 
241 
245 
242 
267 
275 
345 
391 
349 
414 

30 
26 
42 
32 
37 
47 
61 
50 
40 
74 
55 
96 
83 
86 

134 
115 
105 
101 
76 
113 
127 
139 
138 
176 
163 
126 
188 
192 


3,976 

3,404 

3,160 

2.558 

2,124 

1,479 

1,350 

1,359 

1,393 

1,038 

967 

760 

656 

568 

2,325 
2,610 
2,676 
2,376 
2, 158 
2,597 
3,142 
2,446 
2,223 
2,556 
2,571 
2, 649 
2,478 
2,173 

873 

1,155 

1,059 

1,185 

969 

899 

920 

928 

870 

869 

1,032 

1,023 

750 

640 

2,096 

2,162 

1,825 

1,710 

1,437 

1,277 

1,180 

1,159 

1,162 

1,056 

972 

940 

904 

861 


819 
837 
779 
665 
665 
677 
432 
375 
405 
360 
861 
1,358 
954 
688 

2,133 
2,050 
2,989 
3,102 
3,041 
3,894 
3.531 
3,837 
3,772 
3,555 
4,286 
5,287 
4,970 
5,673 

1,507 
1,524 
1,970 
1,565 
1,489 
1,415 
1,396 
1,303 
1,249 
1,779 
1,731 
1,646 
1,006 
1,497 

1,117 
1,014 
1,036 
1,207 
1,422 
1,654 
1,472 
1,568 
1,779 
1,824 
1,758 
2,159 
2,036 
1,937 


8,806 
9,584 
10,126 
9,525 
9.146 
7,936 
7,115 
6,553 
7,268 
7,097 
8,140 
6,674 
6,306 
5,618 

11,062 
12, 633 
12,609 
12,158 
12, 324 
12, 782 
13. 929 
12. 544 
12.410 
12. 566 
12, 688 
11.700 
12, 162 
11,982 

5,117 
5,771 
5,473 
6,207 
5,589 
5,231 
5,237 
5,094 
5,497 
5,661 
5,792 
4,934 
4,745 
5,229 

8,790 
9,220 
9,793 
9,174 
8,366 
7,836 
7.661 
7,123 
7,682 
7,662 
8, 063 
6,587 
6,730 
7,066 


18, 890 
19, 946 
22. 554 
22,719 

22. 850 
22.611 

24, 351 

25, 547 
27,817 

26, 610 

23. 430 
23, 577 
19, 598 
16, 766 

25, 397 
23, 397 
24, 982 
26, 946 
31,036 
30, 618 

32, 794 
33, 002 
32, 926 
36, 143 
39, 952 
41,195 
36, 968 

33, 544 

6,147 
6,559 
7,257 
8,624 
8,164 
9,844 
9,658 
8,128 
9,320 
9,999 
11,016 
11, 273 
9.644 
9,413 

17, 034 
17,606 
18, 979 
20, 082 
19,315 
19,619 
20, 601 
21, 154 
25, 202 
23,952 
23. 748 
23, 236 
21,010 
20, 445 


13, 743 


1932 


12,450 


1933 


12. 146 


1934 


10, 090 


1935 


8, .557 


1936 


6,283 


1937 


5,746 


1938 


4,710 


1939 


4,446 


1940 


3,775 


1941 


3,738 


1942 


3,485 


1943 


3,586 


1944 


4,117 


SOUTH ATLANTIC 

18 cities; total population, 
2,600,587: i 
1931 


12, 990 


1932 


12, 199 


1933 


9,926 


1934 


9,741 


1935 


8,947 


1936 


8,386 


1937 


8,305 


1938 


7,536 


1939 


7,746 




7,735 


1941 


9,440 




8,543 


1943 


8,792 




10, 119 


EAST SOUTH CENTRAL 

5 cities; total population, 
863,600: • 
1931 


4,759 


1932 


3,895 


1933 


3,316 




3,398 


1935 


2,998 


1936 


2,598 


1937 


2,949 


1938 


2,316 


1939 


1,943 


1940 --- 


2,148 


1941 - 


2,778 


1942 


2,637 


1943 


2,305 


1944 


2,947 


WEST SOUTH CENTRAL 

15 cities; total population, 
1,881,125: » 
1931 


10, 456 


1932 


8,858 


1933 - 


8,631 


1934 


8,026 


1935 


5,830 


1936 


4,419 


1937 


3,692 


1938. 


3,413 


1939 

1940 

1941 

1942 

1943 _ _- 

1944 


3,441 
3,362 
3,819 
3,922 
4,793 
5,815 



See footnote at end of table. 

6632070—45 3 



16 

Table 5. — Annual trends, offenses knou-n to the police, cities over 25,000 in popula- 
tion, January to December, 19S1~44> by geographic divisions — Continued 



Geographic division and year 



Criminal 












homicide 






















Bur- 








Murder, 


Man- 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 


glary- 
break - 


Lar- 
ceny- 


ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


slaugh- 




assault 


ing or 


theft 


ter by 
negli- 
gence 








entering 




40 


11 


11 


1,193 


100 


4,412 


5,843 


39 


6 


27 


991 


139 


4,448 


6,283 


32 


11 


26 


851 


108 


4,780 


7,074 


32 


17 


34 


928 


151 


4,845 


8,438 


40 


13 


45 


723 


159 


3,994 


7,352 


50 


13 


50 


389 


158 


2,795 


6,063 


31 


23 


71 


422 


137 


3,285 


6,641 


25 


21 


27 


439 


129 


2,812 


7,703 


24 


9 


45 


326 


97 


2,661 


9,048 


25 


37 


34 


384 


129 


2,837 


10,968 


23 


62 


63 


408 


144 


3,282 


11,563 


27 


68 


81 


415 


170 


3,700 


11,607 


38 


52 


138 


449 


220 


3,813 


10, 956 


25 


58 


133 


378 


279 


3,671 


9,975 


101 


118 


138 


3,380 


625 


14,633 


27,780 


92 


134 


140 


3,058 


550 


15, 307 


31, 592 


96 


126 


104 


2,802 


652 


13, 902 


33,013 


99 


147 


129 


2,055 


810 


14, 033 


33, 049 


68 


159 


158 


1,568 


827 


12,029 


31,869 


68 


164 


140 


1,676 


834 


10, 989 


29,823 


99 


221 


158 


1,907 


785 


12, 880 


34, 571 


69 


195 


198 


2,221 


834 


13, 225 


36, 941 


75 


154 


226 


2,052 


843 


13, 595 


38,850 


92 


183 


227 


1,727 


726 


12, 956 


38,546 


82 


185 


289 


1,720 


789 


12, 365 


37, 104 


111 


206 


377 


2,233 


1,150 


10,830 


35, 840 


92 


195 


566 


2,855 


1,727 


13,300 


38, 740 


136 


171 


585 


2,775 


1,990 


13, 666 


40, 387 



Auto 
theft 



MOUNTAIN 

8 cities; total population 
655,000: ' 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937-. 

1938 

1939 

1940 

1941 

1942 

1943 

1944 

PACinc 

21 cities; total population 
2,503,567: i 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 

1939 

1940 

1941 

1942 

1943 

1944 



4,363 
2,717 
2,866 
3,082 
2,007 
1,936 
2,091 
1,815 
1,601 
1,401 
1,560 
1,704 
1,996 
1,900 



15,505 
12, 955 
11,354 
10, 921 
10, 452 
9,811 
10,453 
8,149 
7,516 
7,516 
8,068 
9,481 
12,889 
12,632 



' The population based on the 1940 decennial census and the percent change from the 1933 estimates are 
as follows: 





1940 population 


Percent change 
from 1933 
estimates 




3, 286, 783 
5, 473, 221 
7, 607, 776 
2, 652, 339 
3, 003, 349 

882, 086 
1,994,198 

707, 180 
2, 579, 573 


-1.0 


Middle Atlantic -- ... . - 


-2.2 


East North Central . . . - ... 


-2.0 


"West North Central 


+ 1.2 


South Atlantic 

East South Central 


+ 15.5 
+2.1 


West South Central ^ 


+6.0 
+8.0 


Pacific 


+3.0 







Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location 

The amount of crime per unit of population varies considerably 
among the several States and geographic divisions of the Ignited 
States. This is not at all surprising, since the volume of crime in a 
community depends upon a variety of factors, which are discussed in 
some detail in the text preceding table 9. Figures representing the 



17 

number of births, deaths, marriages, divorces, automobile fatahties, 
and similar items in proportion to population vary widely among 
the several States, and it should be expected that figures representing 
the volume of crime will show similar variations. 

The liighest murder rates are found in the East South Central, 
South Atlantic, and West South Central States. The rates are 7.88, 
6.84 and 5.55, respectively, per 100,000 inhabitants. 

For robbery, the Pacific States rank liighest, mth a rate of 65.8 per 
100,000 inliabitaints, followed by the figures for the East South Central 
and East North Central divisions which are 30.7 and 29.2 respectively. 

The South Atlantic States report the liighest rate for aggravated 
assault (95.8), followed by the East South Central group which re- 
ported 75.4 offenses per unit of population. In third place is the 
West South Central division with a rate of 45 per 100,000 inhabitants. 

For burglary, the Pacific States reported the highest number of 
offenses, 304.7 per 100,000 inhabitants, followed by the Mountain 
division with 221.3 and the East South Central States with a rate of 
216.9. 

The Pacific States likewise reported the liighest larceny rate, 892.8 
per unit of population. This figure was followed by that of the 
Mountain States, 654.9, which in turn was followed by the West 
South Central States mth a rate of 569.7. 

For auto theft, the Pacific States rate of 270.7 was the highest, with 
the rate of 139.6 for the West South Central group in second place. 
The third highest auto theft rate was 133.5 for the South Atlantic 
States. 

With reference to the fact that the liighest crime rates for offenses 
against property were reported by police departments of the Pacific 
States, it should be noted that this area has experienced a substantial 
increase in population since 1940. However, the 1940 decennial 
census figures are the only comprehensive population figures available, 
and accordingly they have been used in computing the crime rates 
presented in table 7. This, of course, has the effect of raising the 
crime rates for communities which have experienced a population 
increase, and of depressing the crime rates below their true level for 
communities which have experienced a decrease in population. 

Regional and State crime rates appear in table 7, and in table 8 
may be found the figures subdivided by geographic divisions and 
population groups. This latter compilation makes it possible for 
poHce administrators or other interested individuals to compare local 
crime rates with the average for cities of the same size located in the 
same section of the United States. 

In table 6 may be found the number of cities used in preparing the 
figures for each of the various subdivisions appearing in tables 7 
and 8. 



18 



Table 6. — Number of cities in each State included in the tabulation of uniform 
crime reports, January to June, inclusive, 1946 



Division and State 



Population 



Over 
250,000 



100,000 

to 
250,000 



50,000 

to 
100,000 



25,000 

to 
50,000 



10,000 

to 
25,000 



Less 
than 
10,000 



Total 



GEOGRAPUIC DIVISION 

New England: 190 cities; total population, 

6,074,942 

Middle Atlantic: 529 cities; total population, 

19,706,215 

East North Central: 530 cities; total popula- 
tion, 16,226,205 

West North Central: 263 cities; total popula- 
tion, 5,432,656 

South Atlantic: ' 207 cities; total population, 

5,876,517 . - 

East South Central: 90 cities; total popula- 
tion, 2,435,552 

West South Central: 135 cities; total popula- 
tion, 3,929,866,. 

Mountain: 101 cities; total population. 

1,519,382 

Pacific: 204 cities; total population, 6,175,154.. 
New England: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont . 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

Middle Atlantic: 

New York _ 

New Jersey. . . 

Pennsylvania 

East North Central: 

Ohio 

Indiana.. 

Illinois.. 

Michigan 

Wisconsin. 

West North Central: 

Minnesota.. 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

South Atlantic: 

District of Columbia.. 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina . 

Georgia 

Florida '... 

East South Central: 

Kentucky _._ 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

West South Central: 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma 

Texas 

Mountain: 

Montana 

Idaho 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

Ne w M exico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Pacific: 

Washington 

Oregon..-- 

California - 



116 
62 



20 



307 
315 



70 
127 



69 
140 



' Includes the District of Columbia. 



19 



Table 7. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 

to June, inclusive, 1945, by States 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 



Division and State 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggravat- 
ed assault 


Burglary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England 


0.72 
1.19 
1.87 
1.23 
6.84 
7.88 
5.55 
2.11 
2.33 


6.4 
10.0 
29.2 
13.3 
26.6 
30.7 
19.1 
25.1 
65.8 


6.0 
15.1 
23.3 
11.9 
95.8 
75.4 
45.0 
18.8 
35.8 


119.6 
199.1 
162.5 
118.7 
191.1 
216.9 
203.1 
221.3 
304.7 


234.9 
1 198. 4 
392.1 
318.3 
499.0 
410.6 
669.7 
664.9 
892.8 


75.8 


Middle Atlantic 


68 8 


East North Central 


82.6 


West North Central 


76.5 


South Atlantic 2 


133.5 


East South Central _ 


132.6 


West South Central 


139.6 


Mountain 

Pacific 


127.5 
270.7 






New England: 

Maine 


.71 


5.3 
1.2 


7.8 
1.6 


133.4 
61.5 
70.1 
116.9 
113.7 
146.8 

3 72.5 
134.1 
<98.0 

175.9 
183.8 
151.3 
193.8 
77.6 

86.3 
113.5 
129.4 
79.7 
89.4 
152.7 
151.6 

196.3 
104.1 
240.9 
127.1 
205.9 
153.3 
206.4 
312.8 

275.7 
186.7 
221.6 
153. 6 

162.6 

70.9 

201.5 

256.5 

91.2 
186.9 
243 8 
252.1 
148.8 
241.6 
238.7 
367.5 

278.0 
345.7 
305.4 


330.6 
187.2 
328.2 
211.9 
248.3 
285.6 

3 220. 

217.1 

* 165. 7 

407.1 
509.4 
261.3 
541.7 
366.4 

269.2 
306.8 
323.5 
220.3 
371.0 
405.3 
366.3 

568.8 
247.6 
639.6 
308.1 
418.6 
648.5 
615.0 
740.6 

444.1 
352.6 
436.8 
440.2 

477.5 
257.6 
630.2 
676.3 

522.6 
622.8 
676.5 
645.4 
472.7 
1, 147. 6 
702.8 
960.4 

812.2 
859.2 
911.1 


87.6 


New Hampshire 


27.9 


Vermont . .... 




35.1 


Massachusetts 

Rhodp Island. 


.80 
.46 
.83 

1.21 
1.13 
1.19 

2.34 
1.86 
2.01 
1.77 
.44 

.53 

.73 

2.49 


7.7 
4.9 
4.6 

7.0 
13.0 
14.4 

20.0 
21.2 
38.6 
33.1 
5.4 

6.6 
8.7 

24.6 
1.6 
3.7 
8.8 

10.6 

48.9 
22.1 
38.8 
32.9 
18.1 
24.2 
24.7 
32.2 

39.8 
29.5 
28.0 
18.3 

47.4 
9.5 
20.2 
19.3 

10.8 
10.3 
33.9 
22.3 
22.4 
61.0 
23.1 
60.1 

36.2 
51.4 

72.8 


4.9 
6.6 
10.1 

13.9 
21.1 
14.4 

20.3 
27.8 
21.4 
37.3 
3.6 

4.2 

5.2 
24.0 

1.6 

.7 

13.3 

7.7 

8.8 
59.8 

100.7 
24.5 

240.1 
67.4 
83.6 

109.3 

64.4 
53.6 
107.3 
92.1 

69.9 
45.4 
19.2 
50.0 

3.6 
6.4 
19.4 
12.6 
36.0 
47.2 
19.7 
28.4 

11.7 
21.3 
41.7 


78.3 
86.1 


Connecticut 

Middle Atlantic: 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

East North Central: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois . - - - -. 


71.8 

69.1 
79.9 
62.7 

90.8 
122.4 
64.9 


Michigan ._ 

Wisconsin 

West North Central: 


110.8 
56.5 

58.3 


Iowa - - 

Missouri .. 


68.8 
76.9 


North Dakota 


57.5 


South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

South Atlantic: 
Delaware . 


.45" 
1.02 

.80 
4.64 
7.51 
3.70 
6.60 
11.58 
10.10 
9.04 

6.09 
8.67 
9.18 
6.83 

4.66 
4.91 
3.60 
6.47 


65.3 
138.3 
87.2 

116.4 


Maryland .. 


142.9 


Virginia 

West Virginia 


149.5 
82.6 


North Carolina 


83.3 


South CaroUna 


130.9 


Georgia .- 

Florida 


147.9 
180.2 


East South Central: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee.. 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

West South Central: 

Arkansas 


171.8 
136.8 
98.4 
105.7 

119.4 




119.9 


Oklahoma 


126.7 


Texas 


152.8 


Mountain: 

Montana . . 


73.2 


Idaho . 




126.5 


Wyoming 


6.46 
1.60 
4.80 
3.77 
1.16 
6.68 

2.15 
2.23 
2.37 


171.1 


Colorado 


94.7 


New Mexico 

Arizona 


100.8 
217.7 


Utah ... 


168.5 


Nevada . 


182.1 


Pacific: 

Washington. 


240.4 


Oregon 


194.9 


California . 


284.1 







< The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 527 cities with a total population of 
10,319,886. 

2 Includes report of the District of Columbia. 

3 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on reports of 166 cities. 
* The rates for burglary and larceny are based on reports of 229 cities. 



20 



Table 8. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to June, inclusive, 1945, by geographic divisions and population groups 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 



Geographic division and 
population group 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggravat- 
ed assault 



Burglary — 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larcenj'- 
theft 



NEW ENGLAND 



Group I... 
Group II _. 
Group Ill- 
Group IV. 
Group V... 
Group VI. 



MIDDLE ATLANTIC 



Group I-.. 
Group II.. 
Group III. 
Group IV.. 
Group V... 
Group VI.. 



EAST NORTH CENTRAL 



Group I... 
Group II.. 
Group III. 
Group IV.. 
Group V... 
Group VI.. 



WEST NORTH CENTRAL 



Group I... 
Group II.. 
Group III. 
Group IV.. 
Group V... 
Group VI.. 



SOUTH ATLANTIC - 



Group I... 
Group II. . 
Group III. 
Group IV. 
Group V... 
Group VI.. 



EAST SOUTH CENTRAL 



Group I. . . 
Group II.. 
Group III. 
Group IV. 
Group V... 
Group VI. 



WEST SOUTH CENTRAL 



Group I... 
Group II.. 
Group III. 
Group IV.. 
Group V... 
Group VI.. 



Group I... 
Group II.. 
Group III. 
Group IV. 
Group V... 
Group VI. 



Group I... 
Group II. . 
Group III. 
Group IV. 
Group V... 
Group VI. 



.31 
.39 

.55 
.26 



1.58 
.83 
.98 
.38 
.75 
.30 



2.53 
3.10 
1.22 
1.22 
.52 
.65 



2. 10 
1. 11 
1.27 
.25 
.44 
.58 



5.97 
8.86 
8.34 
4.82 
5.28 
7.52 



6.71 
11.79 
8.19 
8.33 
6.09 
6.86 



8.06 
4.96 
3.36 
4.18 
3.30 
5.15 



2.48 
1.33 
3.40 
.81 
.95 
3.52 



3.15 
1.28 
2.67 
1.81 
.97 
1.15 



13.0 
9.4 
5.8 
3.5 
2.0 
1.6 



12.0 
10.0 
11.0 
5.6 
5.1 
5.7 



46.2 
29.8 
16.4 
11.2 
8.6 
7.6 



22.1 
10.5 
10.0 
9.1 
4.9 
8. 1 



23.8 
51.0 
23.1 
19.3 
16.8 
19.9 



43.4 
26.5 
20.6 
29.6 
19.9 
17.8 



21.6 
25.4 
17.0 
10.7 
17.1 
16.7 



31.6 
12.0 
33.2 
31.3 
21.0 
21.7 



99.7 
39.7 
46.4 
27.0 
33.1 
14.2 



10.3 

9.8 
3.6 
4.1 
2.8 
1.8 



17.7 
15.6 
16. 1 
10.8 
9.9 
5.9 



33.8 
34.5 
15.3 
8.9 
6.8 
8.8 



21.5 
10.7 
7.1 
5.3 
4.9 
4.0 



54.3 
132.9 
120.5 
143.9 
81.0 
75.7 



73.6 
40.0 
151.6 
94.1 
06.9 
39.1 



60.9 
31.9 
36.6 
44.9 

25.7 
44.4 



11.8 
14.0 
45.9 
23.6 
11.1 
21.4 



51.1 
28.9 
26.1 
15.1 
15.7 
15.3 



107.5 
173.5 
135.5 
97.0 
94.5 
66.9 



1 129. 5 
122.2 
115.7 
93.3 
80.1 
56.4 



190.2 
193.4 
KH.O 
132. 1 

118.7 
92.1 



114. 1 
131.9 
2U2. 
117.9 
108.1 
76. 7 



1.35.0 
327.5 
192.0 
227.0 
149.0 
136.6 



291.7 
218.3 
201.1 
154.2 
177.8 
95.6 



237.3 
266.7 
177.2 
193.2 
138.3 
136.2 



340.2 
256.1 
245.8 
202.9 
100.6 
159.6 



348. 2 
289.2 
299. 6 
260. 3 
270.0 
196.2 



193.2 

268.7 
276.5 
242.9 
206.2 
176.1 



1 167.4 
232.0 
265.8 
246.3 
184.6 
120.1 



372.3 
547.7 
463.1 
432.3 
401.2 
220. 9 



308.6 
332.8 
517.1 
402.3 
335.3 
145. 



363. 3 
742.3 
595.0 
568.6 
440. 5 
302.8 



494.5 
380.7 
347.8 
461.6 
429.0 
143.3 



610.4 
790.3 
609.8 
560.3 
389. 
336.9 



567.0 
518.9 
928.8 
988.3 
717.0 
424.6 



848.5 

825. 7 
1,006.1 

948.7 
1,198.0 

764.9 



' The number of offenses and rates for biu'glary and laixeny- 
s Includes the District of Columbia. 



-theft are based on reports of 4 cities. 



21 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 100,000 Inhabitants 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the period of January-June 1945 is shown in table 9. The compi- 
lation includes the reports received from poHce departments in cities 
with more than 100,000 inhabitants. PoUce administrators and 
other interested individuals ^\dll probably find it desirable to compare 
the crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in tables 1 
and 8 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire to 
make comparisons with the figures for their communities for prior 
periods, in order to determine whether there has been an increase or 
a decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

Caution should be exercised in comparing crime data for individual 
cities, because differences in the figures may be due to a variety of 
factors. The amount of crime committed in a community is not 
solely chargeable to the police but is rather a charge against the entire 
community. The following is a list of some of the factors which 
might affect the amount of crime in a community : 

Population of the city and metropolitan area adjacent thereto. 
The composition of the population with reference particularly to 

age, sex, and race. 
The economic status and activities of the population. 
CHmate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 
The number of police employees per unit of population. 
The standards governing appointments to the pohce force. 
The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 
The attitude of the pubhc toward law-enforcement problems. 
The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 

It should be remembered that the war has brought about marked 
changes in some of the foregoing factors in many communities. 

In comparing crime rates, it is generally more important to deter- 
mine whether the figures for a given community show increases or 
decreases in the amount of crime committed than to ascertain whether 
the figures are above or below those of some other community. 



22 



Table 9. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to June, inclusive, 1945, 
cities over 100,000 in 'population {based on 1940 decennial census) 



City 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Akron, Ohio 

Albany, N. Y 

Atlanta, Ga.. 

Baltimore, Md 

Birmingham, Ala. 



Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn. 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Camden, N. J 



Canton, Ohio 

Charlotte, N. C 

Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Chicago, 111 

Cinciimati, Ohio 



Cleveland, Ohio. 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Dallas, Tex 

Dayton, Ohio 

Denver, Colo 



Des Moines, Iowa. 

Detroit, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 

Elizabeth, N.J 

Erie, Pa 



Fall River, Mass. 

Flint, Mich 

Fort Wavne, Ind. 
Fort Worth, Tex. 
Gary. Ind 



Grand Rapids, Mich_ 

Hartford, Conn 

Honolulu, T. H 

Houston, Tex 

Indianapolis, Ind 



Jacksonville, Fla_. . 
Jersey City, N. J_._ 
Kansas City, Kans. 
Kansas City, Mo... 
Knoxville, Tenn... 



Long Beach, Calif 
Los Angeles, Calif. 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass". 

Memphis, Tenn. . . 



Miami, Fla 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

Nashville, Tenn 

Newark, N. J 



New Bedford, Mass. 
New Haven, Conn.. 
New Orleans, La ... 
New York, N. Y.i 
Norfolk, Va 



Oakland, Calif 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha, Nehr 

Paterson, N. J.. 

Peoria, 111 




3 

32 

116 

21 

11 
6 
2 



Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Oreg 

Providence, R. I 

Reading, Pa. 

See footnotes at end of table. 



62 



126 
205 



112 



31 
10 
37 

31 

28 

25 

1.846 

158 

357 
114 
74 
58 
102 

6 
910 

5 
11 
14 

18 
25 
9 
20 
67 

7 
24 
13 
120 
99 



95 

17 

147 

588 

91 

83 
11 
85 
10 
56 

42 
285 

40 
951 
160 

217 
59 

288 
95 
38 

15 

1,001 

2 

15 
23 

3 
93 
32 



13 
54 
33 
139 
145 



381 
111 
813 
860 
875 

665 
158 
258 
87 
181 

192 

275 

193 

6,011 

1,174 

1,303 
1,165 
1,073 
408 
1,097 

182 
3,542 
45 
107 
171 

169 
329 
1.38 
458 
382 

274 
500 
343 
1,560 
883 



250 
54 
468 
462 
462 

386 

142 

111 

23 

65 

104 

136 

70 

2,801 

480 

357 

583 

234 

91 

328 

44 
1,053 

52 
47 
34 

64 
155 
112 
113 

99 

74 

92 

193 

419 

407 



104 566 493 

Complete data not received 



19 


3 


187 


298 


34 


60 


85 


78 


,707 


747 


175 


293 


5 


4 


109 


263 


131 


570 


46 


47 


35 


15 


49 


63 


144 


203 


4 


5 


7 


18 


44 


219 


650 


1,247 


150 


169 


306 


267 


54 


62 


35 


43 


16 


21 


4? 




370 


397 


169 


68 


2;?o 


95 


21 


22 


6 


6 



807 

197 

1,623 

1,512 

1,094 

919 
414 
547 
189 
113 

409 

483 

236 

5,513 

1,423 

3,246 
1,121 
2,725 
1,268 
1,500 

463 
7,549 
394 
166 
286 

227 
874 
596 
1,261 
445 

1,211 

397 

779 

3,518 

1,967 

1.044 



221 


57 


252 


857 


414 


1,319 


272 


349 


285 


722 


(•) 


1,277 


5, 658 


4.878 


8,758 


1,257 


732 


1,037 


94 


23 


95 


434 


241 


784 


736 


410 


640 


446 


267 


1,657 


453 


373 


786 


424 


134 


476 


959 


327 


719 


310 


65 


452 


330 


67 


502 


211 


306 


725 


2,299 


(■) 


5,891 


605 


320 


913 


1,099 


356 


2,395 


423 


113 


1, 4M 


366 


130 


605 


256 


71 


185 


240 


64 


382 


1.904 


.^^l 


714 


1,111 


230 


574 


1,413 


649 


2,245 


436 


168 


500 


105 


16 


185 



23 



Table 9. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to June, inclusive, 1945, 
cities over 100,000 in population (based on 1940 decennial census) — Continued 



City 



Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y. . 
Sacramento, Calif. 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Mimi_... 



Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif.-. 
Scranton, Pa 



Seattle, "Wash 

Somerville, Mass.. 
South Bend, Ind.. 
Spokane, Wash... 
Springfield, Mass. 



Syracuse, N. Y. 
Tacoma, Wash.. 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo, Ohio.... 
Trenton, N. J... 



Tulsa, Okla 

Utica, N. Y 

Washington, D. C. 

Wichita, Kans 

Wilmington, Del... 



Worcester, Mass... 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, Ohio. 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
lisent 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



49 
7 
74 
179 
40 

18 
71 
57 
639 
6 

224 
5 
27 



19 
36 
13 
94 
22 

59 

3 

103 

11 

60 

52 
1 

114 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



140 
19 
17 



21 
223 

72 
452 

29 

32 
1 
36 
12 
22 



25 
57 
79 
37 

37 

4 

256 

14 

10 

5 

10 
20 



Bur- 
glary — 
breaking 

or 
entering 



418 
264 
215 
578 



384 
544 
462 
1,394 
126 

1,280 
158 
192 
233 
152 

296 
407 
387 
862 
267 

517 
46 
790 
147 
242 

397 
93 
334 



Larceny— theft 


$50 and 


Under 


over 


$50 


318 


1,193 


100 


744 


253 


965 


(>) 


2,249 


97 


920 


67 


711 


141 


647 


401 


1,035 


772 


3,731 


26 


168 


591 


2,053 


26 


146 


115 


561 


57 


863 


67 


248 


129 


792 


141 


829 


158 


655 


244 


1,315 


85 


273 


292 


900 


30 


200 


526 


2,038 


59 


344 


136 


557 


142 


267 


18 


200 


50 


461 



Auto 

theft 



322 
292 
220 
669 
115 

206 

598 

846 

1,933 



1,069 
61 
123 
189 
139 

195 
290 
205 
422 
145 

213 
35 

791 
87 

141 

201 
37 
195 



1 Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 

2 Figures include offenses committed by juveniles; this is in accord with the uniform reporting procedure 
followed by other cities. 

Supplement to Return A Data 

Table 2 presented comparative figures for the first half of 1944-45, 
based on reports of 392 police departments. Of these cities, 288 fm-- 
nished supplemental reports which provide more detailed information 
concerning several of the offense classifications appearing on the 
basic monthly crime report. Compilations based on the supplemental 
reports appear in tables 10-12. 

Table 10 discloses that forcible rapes increased 13.2 percent, whereas 
statutory violations (no force used — victim under age of consent) 
increased 8.7 percent during the first half of 1945. 

Most robberies occur on public streets, and this type of crime showed 
an increase of 12.3 percent. Robberies of oil stations increased 75.8 
percent; robberies committed in residences were up 11.6 percent; and 
bank robberies increased 257.1 percent, from 7 to 25. On the other 
hand, robberies committed in chain stores decreased 14.9 percent, 
and in other types of commercial houses decreased 10.3 percent. 

Residence burglaries committed at night increased 15.4 percent, 
while those committed during the daytime were up 15.1 percent. 
Nonresidence burglaries committed during the night showed a rise 

663207°— 45 1 



24 



of 14.9 percent, but those committed during daylight hours reflected 
a moderate increase of 5.3 percent. 

Thefts of property, unaccompanied by the elements of burglary or 
robbery, showed an increase of 16.9 percent for those offenses involv- 
ing property valued at $50 or more. Thefts involving property 
valued at less than $5 increased 12.1 percent, whereas those involving 
property ranging from $5 to $50 in value were up 3.8 percent. 

When grouped by type of theft, the figures for the first half of 1945 
reflect a 25 percent increase in thefts from automobiles (exclusive of 
auto accessories). The next largest increase occurred in cases of purse- 
snatching (9.2 percent), followed by shoplifting \vith an increase of 
8.6 percent. Bicycle thefts were up 1.3 percent, whereas thefts of auto 
accessories and cases of pocket-picking reflected very minor increases 
amounting to less than 1 percent. 

Table 10. — Nuinher of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission, and value of property stole?!, January to June, 
inclusive, 1944^4^! ^88 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, 
33,341,512 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Classification 


Number of oflenses 


Percent 


1944 


1945 


change 


Rape: 

Forcible - 


1,144 
682 


1,295 
741 


+13.2 




+8.7 






Total . . . 


1,826 


2,036 


+11.5 






Robbery: 


6,942 

1,402 

149 

47 

423 

7 

383 


7,797 

1,257 

262 

40 

472 

25 

409 


+12.3 




-10.3 




+75.8 


Chain store - - 


-14.9 




+ 11.6 


Bank . - -- 


+257. 1 




+6.8 






Total . . 


9,353 


10, 262 


+9.7 






Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Residence (dwelling): 


15,314 
7,660 

29, 757 
2,486 


17,665 
8,814 

34, 186 
2,619 


+15.4 




+15.1 


Nonresidence (store, oflico, etc.): 


+14.9 




+5.3 






Total 


55, 217 


63, 284 


+14.6 






Larceny— theft (except auto theft) (grouped according to value of 
article stolen): 


25, 233 
90, 419 
21, 335 


29, 498 
93, 874 
23,914 


+16.9 


$5 to $50 


+3.8 




+12.1 






Total - 


136,987 


147,286 


+7.5 






Larceny— theft (grouped as to type of offense) : 


2,726 
4,184 
3,668 
18, 894 
16, 620 
26, 071 
64,824 


2,733 
4.570 
3,984 
23,610 
16, 659 
26,413 
69,317 


+.3 




+9.2 




+8.6 




+25.0 




+.2 




+ 1.3 




+6.9 






Total --- 


136, 987 


147, 286 


+7.5 







25 

As shown in table 11, the average value of property stolen per 
offense showed an mcrease in each crime classification, ranging from 
5.7 percent for auto theft to 44.1 percent for robbery. 

Table 1 1 is based on reports of 288 cities. It reflects an 8.8 percent 
upswing m the number of crimes reported and a 7.5 percent mcrease 
in the average value of property stolen per offense. The result of the 
combination of these two upward trends is seen in the figures repre- 
senting the value of property stolen which reflects an increase of 17.2 
percent in the first half of 1945. The increases in the total value of 
property stolen are as follows: Robbery, 59 percent; burglary, 31.2 
percent; larceny, 20.7 percent; and auto theft, 11.1 percent. 

Table 11. — Value of property stolen, by type of crime, January to June, inclusive, 
1944-45; 288 cities over 25,000; total population, 33,341,512 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census. All values have been rounded ofi to even dollars] 





Number of offenses 


Value of property stolen 


Average value per offense 


Classification 


1944 


1945 


Percent 
change 


1944 


1945 


Percent 
change 


1944 


1945 


Percent 
change 




9,353 

55,217 
136, 987 
39, 277 


10, 262 
63,284 
147, 286 
41,280 


+9.7 

+14.6 

+7.5 

+5.1 


$951,538 

5, 451, 395 

6, 156, 876 

22, 773, 539 


$1, 513, 096 
7, 153, 925 
7, 430, 925 

25, 302, 033 


+59.0 
+31.2 
+20.7 

+n.i 


$102 

99 

45 

580 


$147 

113 

50 

613 


+44.1 




+14.1 


Larceny — theft 

Auto theft - -- 


+1L1 

+5.7 






Total 


240, 834 


262, 112 


+8.8 


35,333,348 41.399,979 


+17.2 


147 


158 


+7.5 











Information concerning the proportion of stolen property recovered 
by pohce departments is reflected in table 12. Supplementing the 
information in table 12 are the following figures reflecting the number 
of automobiles stolen and the number recovered. It will be noted 
that the percentage recovered (96.6) is identical for both years. 



January-June 



Number of automobiles stolen 

Number of automobiles recovered 
Percent recovered 




1945 



41, 280 

39. 871 

96.6 



Table 12 discloses that m the first half of 1944 the police depart- 
ments of the 286 cities represented recovered property valued at 
$24,494,702 which was 71.3 percent of the value of property stolen. 
On the other hand, the value of property recovered by the police in 
the first half of 1945 amounted to $27,719,791 which was more than 
$3,000,000 in excess of the recovery figure for 1944. However, due 
to the increased value of property stolen in 1945, the value of the 
property recovered expressed in percentage terms (68.8) shows a slight 
decline. 



26 



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27 



Exclusive of automobiles, the percentage of recovered property was 
26.2 in the first half of 1944 and was 24.3 in the corresponding period 
of 1945. 

Table 12. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered by type of 
property, January to June, inclusive, 1944-45; 286 cities over 26,000; total 
population, 32,866,284 

[Population figures are from 1940 decennial census. All values have been rounded off to even dollars] 





1944 


1945 


Type of property 


Value of 

property 

stolen 


Value of 
property 
recovered 


Percent 
recov- 
ered 


Value of 

property 

stolen 


Value of 
property 
recovered 


Percent 
recov- 
ered 


Currency, notes, etc 

J e welry and precious metals 

Furs ._ 

Clothing 


$3,981,266 

2, 167, 145 

519, 126 

1, 204, 151 

22, 125, 481 
4, 359, 369 


$750, 788 

610, 575 

83,242 

312,285 

21, 290, 697 

1,447,115 


18.9 
28.2 
16.0 
25.9 
96.2 
33.2 


$4, 920, 361 

3,391,308 

794, 403 

1, 357, 288 

24, 633, 751 
5, 201, 747 


$928, 540 

804, 121 

105,042 

322, 738 

23,909,873 

1, 649, 477 


18.9 
23.7 
13.2 
23 8 


Locally stolen automobiles 


97 1 


Miscellaneous 


31.7 


Total -. 


34, 356, 538 


24, 494, 702 


71.3 


40, 298, 858 


27, 719, 791 


68.8 



Rural Crime Trends, January- June, 1944-45 

In tables 1-12 of this bulletin, the data have been based on reports 
received from police departments of urban communities. In dis- 
tinguishing between urban and rural communities, the classification 
employed by the United States Bureau of the Census has been 
followed. Generally, an incorporated community with a population 
of 2,500 or more is classed as urban. 

In table 13 are presented available data concerning crimes reported 
by law enforcement agencies responsible for policing rural areas. 
The figures are not based on reports received from identical law 
enforcement agencies in both years. However, the combined popula- 
tion represented in each year is in excess of 33,000,000. In addition, 
all large reporting units are included in the compilations for both 
years. The figures are presented in terms of the number of offenses 
per 100,000 inhabitants and these data are believed to be generally 
comparable. 

The figures for the first half of 1945 show a 10.6 percent increase in 
rural crimes in the United States. Increases are shown for all types 
of crimes represented in the compilation, ranging from 4.7 percent for 
auto theft to 29.5 percent for aggravated assault. 

The increases in urban crimes are shown in table 2 of this publica- 
tion, and it will be noted that the increases in rural crimes as reflected 
in table 13 are greater for all offense classes, except larceny, than the 
corresponding percentage increases in the number of urban crimes. 
The increase in the more serious crimes is definitely greater in the 
rural areas than in urban communities. 

Murders in rural areas were up 14.0 percent, whereas in urban 
communities the increase was 4.3 percent. Similarly, negligent man- 



28 

slaughters increased 23.7 percent in rural areas, while urban com- 
munities reported a decline of 1.6 percent. Rural rapes were up 
22.5 percent, while similar urban crimes increased 9.0 percent. For 
aggravated assaults, the rural increase was 29.5 percent and the 
urban upswing amounted to 11.3 percent. 

Robberies in urban communities were up 10.0 percent, and in rural 
areas reflected an increase of 14.0 percent. In burglary cases, 
urban communities reported an increase of 12.1 percent, and rural 
areas an upswing of 14.7 percent. For thefts unaccompanied by the 
elements of robbery or burglary, the 5.8 percent increase in rural 
areas was exceeded by the rise in urban communities which amounted 
to 7.9 percent. There was little difference in the percentage changes 
in auto thefts, in urban communities the increase was 4.6 percent and 
in rural areas, 4.7 percent. 



Table 13. — Offenses known, rural areas, number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, 
January to June, inclusive, 1944~4^ 

[1944 figures based on reports of 1,574 sheriffs, 84 rural village oflacers, and 11 State Police organizations, 
representing a combined population of 33,512,914; 1945 figures based on reports of 1,659 sherilTs, 121 rural 
village officers, and 11 State Police organizations, representing a combined population of 35,711,226. 
Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Offense 



Number of offenses 



Rate per 100,000 
inhabitants 



Percent 

change 
in rates 



Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape --- 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Total. 



739 

466 

1,398 

1,905 

3,753 

15, 070 

23, 696 

8,617 



901 

616 

1,826 

2,312 

5,189 

18,411 

26, 702 

9,601 



2.21 
1.39 

4.17 
5.7 
11.2 
45.0 
70.7 
25.7 



2.52 
1.72 
5.11 
6.5 
14.5 
51.6 
74.8 
26.9 



55, 644 



65, 558 



166.0 



183.6 



+ 14.0 
+23.7 
+22.5 
+ 14.0 
+29.5 
+ 14.7 
+5.8 
+4.7 



+10.6 



29 




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POLICE EMPLOYEE DATA 

Number of Police Employees, April 30, 1945 

As of April 30, 1945, there were 1.68 police employees for every 
1,000 inhabitants in cities over 25,000 in population.^ The decrease 
noted in police personnel during prior war years continues. The 
88,505 police employees reported by the 412 cities in 1945 represents 
a decrease of 3.1 percent from the 91,293 reported as of April 30, 1944, 
and a 5.1 percent decline from the 93,299 reported in 1943. Com- 
pared with 1942, the 1945 figure shows a drop of 8.2 percent. 

The decrease in police personnel during the past few years has been 
more or less general throughout the United States. Based on the 
number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants, decreases were shown in 
all geographic divisions during 1945 as compared with 1942, ranging 
from 1.6 percent for the West South Central States to 11.7 percent in 
the Middle Atlantic division. A decrease in the number of employees 
from April 30, 1944, to April 30, 1945, was noted in all geographic 
divisions except the West South Central and Mountain States which 
showed no change during the year. 

Generally, the larger the city the more police employees per unit 
of population, although some exceptions are noted in the various 
geographic divisions. 

Table 15 shows the number of employees and the number per 1,000 
inhabitants for cities grouped according to size and location. As indi- 
cated in the tabulation the number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants 
varies from 1.18 in the East South Central States to 1.96 in the Middle 
Atlantic States. Expressing the data somewhat differently the fol- 
lowing shows the number of inhabitants in the separate geographic 
divisions for each police employee: 



New England 539 

Middle Atlantic 509 

East North Central 643 

West North Central 731 

South Atlantic 599 



East South Central 847 

West South Central 800 

Mountain 828 

Pacific 597 

United States average 596 



The foregoing figures mean that on the average the lives and prop- 
erty of 596 citizens of the United States are protected by one police 
officer. As a practical matter, most departments operate on a three- 
shift basis which means that, on the average, there is one police officer 
on duty for each 1,788 persons in cities over 25,000. This figure is 
subject to further substantial reduction resulting from days off by the 
various employees due to vacations, sickness, or other causes. 

11940 decennial census population figures used in all compilations. 

(30) 



31 



Table 14. — Number of cities included in the tabulation of police department employ- 
ees, Apr. SO, 1945, by geographic divisions and population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial censusl 





Population 




Division 


Group I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Total 




Over 
250,000 


100,000 

to . 

250,000 

10 
11 
10 

5 

7 

3 

3 
1 
5 


50,000 to 
100,000 


25,000 to 
50,000 




New England: 61 cities; total population, 4,640,655... 

Middle Atlantic: 80 cities; total population, 

16,093,985 --- ... 


2 

7 

8 

4 
3 

3 

4 
1 
5 


13 

24 

23 

8 
17 

4 

9 
2 
7 


36 

38 

60 

12 
20 

10 

13 
7 
17 


61 

80 


East North Central: 101 cities; total population, 
13 112,140 .-- . . . -. 


101 


West North Central: 29 cities; total population, 
3,661,503 


29 


South Atlantic:' 47 cities; total population, 4,616,676. . 

East South Central: 20 cities; total population, 

1 891,962 .- 


47 
20 


West South Central: 29 cities; total population, 
3,037.883 - 


29 


Mountain: 11 cities; total population, 835,805 

Pacific- 34 cities; total population, 4,858,390 


11 

34 






Total: Cities 


37 
30.195,339 


55 
7, 792, 650 


107 
7, 343, 917 


213 
7,417,093 


412 


Population 


52, 748, 999 



I Includes the District of Columbia. 

Table 15. — Police department employees, Apr. 30, 1945, number and rate per 1,000 

inhabitants, by geographic divisions and population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial censusl 



Division 



New England: 

Number of police employees. - 

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 
ants 

Middle Atlantic: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 
ants 

East North Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 
ants 

West North Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 
ants 

South Atlantic: ' 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 
ants 

East South Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 
ants 

We.st South Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 
ants 

Mountain: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 
ants 

Pacific: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 
ants 

Total: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 inhabit- 
ants 





Population 






Group I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Total 


Over 
250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 to 
100,000 


25,000 to 
50,000 




2,642 


2,539 


1,544 


1,878 


8,603 


2.58 


L87 


1.61 


1.45 


1.85 


25, 138 


2,246 


2,471 


1,764 


31, 619 


2.15 


L56 


1.51 


1.33 


1.96 


14,545 


1,651 


1,973 


2,214 


20,383 


1.84 


1.11 


1.27 


1.03 


1.55 


3,348 


775 


524 


361 


5,008 


1.68 


1.07 


0.95 


0.91 


1.37 


3,901 


1,428 


1,444 


935 


7,708 


2.14 


1.42 


1.31 


L37 


1.67 


961 


493 


371 


409 


t234 


1.09 


1.21 


1.32 


1.26 


1.18 


1,870 


669 


783 


476 


3,798 


1.31 


1.28 


1.19 


1.11 


1.25 


433 


174 


150 


253 


1,010 


1.34 


1.16 


1.28 


1.03 


1.21 


5,619 


1,122 


662 


739 


8,142 


1.80 


1.59 


1.36 


1.34 


1.68 


68,457 


11, 097 


9,922 


9,029 


88,505 


1.94 


1.42 


1.35 


1.22 


1.68 



' Includes the District of Columbia. 
663207 — 45 5 



32 



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O 



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LXJ i 



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LU Q- 
GQ 



CD 
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33 

Police Employees in Individual Cities 

Table 16 shows the number of poHce department employees in 
individual cities grouped according to size and listed alphabetically 
within each State. The table indicates the number of police officers, 
the number of civilian employees, and the total nmnber of employees 
in each city. In analyzing the data included in table 16 it was noted 
that of the 88,505 police employees throughout the Nation 81,066 
were police ofl&cers, while the remaining 7,439 (8.4 percent) were 
civUian employees such as stenographers, file clerks, mechanics, or 
others without police power. The ratio of civilian employees to 
police ofl&cers has increased during the war years, from 7.3 percent 
in 1941 to 8.4 percent in 1945. 

The civilian employees in the various population groups, as of 
April 30, 1945, ranged from 5.2 percent in group IV cities (25,000 to 
50,000) to 9.6 percent in group II cities (100,000 to 250,000). Cities 
with population over 250,000 (group I) indicated that 8.8 percent 
of their personnel were civilian employees, while in group III cities 
(50,000 to 100,000) the percentage was 7.7. 

The data presented in both tables 15 and 16 were compiled from 
reports forwarded by each of the 412 cities over 25,000 in population 
in the United States. The report forms provided for the listing of 
full-time police officers, the number of fuU-time civilian employees, 
the number of part-time police officers, and the niunber of part-time 
civilian employees. The reporting departments were also requested 
to express the part-time employees (both police officers and civilians) 
in terms of fuU-time personnel, taking into consideration the total 
time worked by the part-time officers during the month of April in 
relation to the time worked by full-time personnel. In some in- 
stances the departments limited their entries concerning part-time 
employees to a statement of the total time worked during April, 
and in such instances this information was converted into terms of 
full-time employees. In these cases it was assumed that a full-time 
employee worked 25 days or 200 hours during the month. In the 
event the total time worked by the part-time employee was equivalent 
to at least 75 percent of that worked by a fuU-time employee, one full- 
time employee was counted. 

No employees were included in the tabulation if information was 
available indicating they were not paid from police department funds. 
School crossing guards paid from police funds were counted as civilian 
employees unless the department indicated they were police ofl&cers. 
Employees on military or other extended leave of absence were 
excluded from the tabulations. 

In comparing the police personnel of individual cities it should be 
remembered that there are several factors to be considered which 
are not reflected in table 16. For instance, some departments work 



34 

on two shifts, whereas m most departments the men are distributed 
among three shifts. Likewise, differences in automotive equipment 
and radio communication facilities would have to be considered, as 
would the number of private police employed by individuals and 
organizations, as well as public park police, who in some communities 
constitute a separate police unit. For a list of some of the other 
factors to be considered reference may be made to the data preceding 
table 9. 

Table 16. — Number of police-department employees, Apr. 30, 1945, cities over 

25,000 in population 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 

CITIES WITH OVER 250,000 INHABITANTS 






City 



Birmingham, Ala... 
Los Angeles, Calif.. 

Oakland, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif 

Denver, Colo 

Washington, D. 0.. 

Atlanta, Ga. 

Chicago, 111 

Indianapolis, Ind... 

Louisville, Ky 

New Orleans, La 

Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass 

Detroit, Mich 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

St. Paul, Minn 

Kansas City, Mo... 

St. Louis, Mo 

Jersey City, N. J. . . 



Number of po 


ice-de- 


partment employees 1 


Police 
officers 


Civil- 
ians 


Total 


261 


28 


289 


2,108 


600 


2,708 


478 


58 


536 


1,135 


92 


1,227 


415 


18 


433 


1,461 


122 


1,583 


341 


51 


392 


6,090 


302 


6,392 


512 


117 


629 


380 


23 


403 


846 


15 


861 


1,717 


209 


1,926 


1,978 


212 


2,190 


3,319 


222 


3,541 


460 


29 


489 


252 


21 


273 


404 


197 


601 


1,603 


382 


1,985 


697 


110 


807 



City 



Newark, N. J 

Buffalo, N. Y 

New York, N. Y. 
Rochester, N. Y.. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Cleveland, Ohio.. 
Columbus, Ohio.. 

Toledo, Ohio 

Portland, Oreg 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Providence, R. I.. 
Memphis, Tenn.. 

Dallas, Tex 

Houston, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 

Seattle, Wash 

Milwaukee, Wis.. 



Number of police-de- 
partment employees 



Police 
officers 



1,088 

1,118 

14,600 

403 

591 

1,370 
271 
281 
465 

4,740 
985 
396 
212 
263 
338 
212 
545 
987 



Civil- 
ians 



105 

133 

827 

53 

29 

257 

28 

52 

73 

260 

19 

56 

57 

34 

82 

80 

65 

117 



Total 



1,193 

1,251 

15,427 

456 

620 

1,627 

299 

333 

538 

5,000 

1,004 

452 

269 

297 

420 

292 

610 

1,104 



CITIES WITH 100,000 TO 260,000 INHABITANTS 



Long Beach, Calif 

Sacramento, Calif 

San Diego, Calif 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Hartford, Coim 

New Haven, Conn 

Wilmington, Del 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Miami, Fla 

Tampa, Fla 

Peoria, 111 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Gary, Ind 

South Bend, Ind 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Kansas City, Kans... 

Wichita, Kans 

Cambridge, Mass 

Fall River, Mass 

Lowell, Mass 

New Bedford, Mass.. 

Somerville, Mass 

Springfield, Mass 

Worcester, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Duluth, Minn 

Omaha, Nebr 



244 


69 


313 


129 


22 


151 


300 


77 


377 


229 


6 


235 


308 


38 


346 


305 


25 


330 


147 


17 


164 


219 


18 


237 


261 


26 


287 


103 


20 


123 


113 




113 


125 


4 


129 


137 


30 


167 


93 


7 


100 


162 




162 


114 




114 


110 


42 


152 


197 


5 


202 


199 


12 


211 


157 


12 


169 


189 


11 


200 


129 


1 


130 


320 


18 


338 


349 


29 


378 


163 
150 


39 
25 


202 
175 


104 
199 


17 

27 


121 
226 



Camden, N. J 

Elizabeth, N.J 

Paterson, N. J 

Trenton, N.J 

Albany, N.Y 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Utica, N. Y.... 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Charlotte, N. C 

Akron, Ohio 

Canton, Ohio 

Dayton, Ohio 

Youngstown, Ohio 

Oklahoma City, Okla 

Tulsa, Okla 

Erie, Pa 

Reading, Pa 

Scranton, Pa 

Chattanooga, Tenn... 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Nashville, Term 

Fort Wortli, Tex 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Norfolk, Va. 

Richmond, Va 

Spokane, Wash 

Tacoma, Wash.. 



161 


29 


210 


8 


243 




191 


11 


280 


41 


243 


18 


137 


9 


228 


16 


107 


11 


195 


48 


130 


5 


184 


30 


165 


8 


222 


28 


180 


8 


114 


4 


132 


6 


152 


13 


121 


6 


129 


19 


187 


31 


209 


22 


154 


20 


178 


21 


250 


50 


140 


9 


131 


1 



190 
218 
243 
202 
321 
261 
146 
244 
118 
243 
135 
214 
173 
250 

1QQ 

118 
138 
165 
127 
148 
218 
231 
174 
199 
300 
149 
132 



35 



Table 16. — Number of police-department employees, Apr. 30, 1945, cities over 
25,000 in population — Continued 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 

CITIES WITH 50,000 TO 100,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Mobile, Ala 

Montgomery, Ala 

Phoenix, Ariz.. 

Little Rock, Ark 

Berkeley, Calif 

Fresno, Calif 

Glendale, Calif 

Pasadena, Calif 

San Jose, Calif. 

Santa Monica, Calif 

Stockton, Calif 

Pueblo, Colo 

New Britain, Coim 

Waterbury, Conn 

St. Petersburg, Fla 

Augusta, Ga 

Columbus, Ga 

Macon, Ga 

Savannah, Qa 

Cicero, 111 

Decatur, 111 

East St. Louis, 111 

Evanston, 111 

Oak Park, 111 

Rockford, 111 

Springfield, 111 

East Chicago, Ind 

Evansville, Ind... 

Hammond, Ind 

Terre Haute, Ind 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa. . . 

Davenport, Iowa 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Waterloo, Iowa 

Topeka, Kans 

Covington, Ky.. 

Shreveport, La 

Portland, Maine 

Brockton, Mass 

Holyoke, Mass 

Lawrence, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

Maiden, Mass 

Medford, Mass 

Newton, Mass 

Quincy, Mass 

Dearborn, Mich 

Highland Park, Mich. 

Kalamazoo, Mich 

Lansing, Mich.. 

Pontiac, Mich 

Saginaw, Mich. 

Jackson, Miss. 

St. Joseph, Mo 



Number of police-de- 
partment employees 



Police 
officers 



118 

118 

94 

82 

89 

73 

98 

77 

75 

81 

80 

46 

106 

189 

48 

105 

83 

65 

132 

81 

55 

66 

72 

70 

82 

92 

86 

156 

76 

69 

61 

65 

54 

43 

48 

58 

115 

105 

95 

98 

128 

151 

91 

85 

119 

135 

141 

79 

65 

74 

65 

78 

45 

85 



Civil- 
ians 



Total 



126 

122 

101 

87 

93 

84 

123 

102 

77 

101 

82 

49 

108 

195 

59 

120 

84 

66 

143 

92 

60 

79 

91 

71 

94 

117 

88 

170 

85 

70 

69 

65 

61 

43 

62 

58 

125 

112 



131 
157 
94 
87 
124 
139 
157 



City 



Springfield, Mo 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Manchester, N. H 

Atlantic City, N. J 

Bayonne, N. J 

East Orange, N. J 

Hoboken, N. J 

Irvington, N. J 

Passaic, N. J 

Union City, N. J. 

Binghamton, N. Y 

Mount Vernon, N. Y 

New Rochelle, N. Y 

Niagara Falls, N. Y 

Schenectady, N. Y 

Troy, N. Y 

AsheviUe, N. C 

Durham, N. C 

Greensboro, N. C 

Winston-Salem, N. C 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio. 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Lakewood, Ohio 

Springfield, Ohio 

Allentown, Pa 

Altoona, Pa 

Bethlehem, Pa 

Chester, Pa 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Johnstown, Pa 

Lancaster, Pa 

McKeesport, Pa 

Upper Darby Twp., Pa 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa.. 

York, Pa 

Pawtucket, R. I 

Charleston, S. C. 

Columbia, S. C 

Amarillo, Tex.. 

Austin, Tex 

Beaumont, Tex 

Corpus Christi, Tex 

El Paso, Tex 

Galveston, Tex 

Waco, Tex 

Arlington, Va ■. 

Portsmouth, Va 

Roanoke, Va 

Charleston, W. Va. 

Huntington, W. Va 

Wheeling, W. Va.. 

Madison, Wis 

Racine, Wis 



Number of police-de- 
partment employees 



Police 
oflBcers 



44 

73 

82 

178 

207 

90 

105 

71 

109 

94 

79 

104 

105 

115 

152 

138 

58 

63 

92 

100 

56 

51 

60 

47 

84 

68 

43 

62 

120 

51 

47 

60 

77 

84 

60 

98 

116 

120 

55 

86 

80 

71 

71 

85 

55 

41 

67 

81 

64 

58 

57 

96 

77 



Civil- 
ians 



CITIES WITH 25,000 TO 50,000 INHABITANTS 



Anniston, Ala 

Gadsden, Ala. 

Tuscaloosa, Ala 

Tucson, Ariz 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Alameda, Calif 

Alhambra, Calif 

Bakersfield, Calif 

Belvedere Township, 

Calif.. 

Beverly HUls, Calif. 

Burbank, Calif 

Huntington Park, Calif.. 



38 




38 


60 


1 


51 


24 




24 


47 


7 


54 


19 


2 


21 


54 


2 


56 


37 


8 


45 


52 


2 


54 


26 


6 


32 


41 


7 


48 


58 


18 


76 


37 


5 


42 



Inglewood, Calif 

Riverside, Calif. 

San Bernardino, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif_ 

Santa Barbara, Calif.- — 

South Gate, Calif- 

Colorado Springs, Colo . 

Bristol, Conn 

Greenwich Town, Conn 

Meriden, Conn 

Middletown, Conn 

New London, Conn 

Norwalk, Conn. 



29 




38 


3 


53 


2 


54 




38 


5 


26 




32 


3 


37 


1 


66 


6 


53 


2 


31 


2 


65 


3 


52 





36 



Table 16. — Number of police-department employees, Apr. 30, 19Jf6, cities over 
25,000 in joopuZaiion-rContinued 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 

CITIES WITH 25,000 TO 60,000 INHABITANTS- Continued 



City 



Stamford, Conn 

Torrington, Conn 

West Hartford, Conn.. 

West Haven, Conn 

Miami Beach, Fla 

Orlando, Fla 

Pensacola, Fla 

West Palm Beach, Fla. 

Rome, Ga 

Boise, Idaho 

Alton, 111 ., 

Aurora, lU 

BellevUle, EL... 

Berwyn, HI 

Bloomington, HI 

Danville, HI 

Elgin, Ill_ 

Galesburg, lU... 

Joliet, 111 

Maywood, HI 

Moline, 111 

Quincy, 111 

Rock Island, 111 

Waukegan, 111 

Anderson, Ind 

Elkhart, Ind 

iCokomo, Ind... 

Lafayette, Ind.. 

Marion, Ind 

Michigan City, Ind 

Mishawaka, Ind 

Muncie, Ind 

New Albany, Ind 

Richmond, Ind 

Burlington, Iowa 

Clinton, Iowa 

Council Bluffs, Iowa... 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Mason City, Iowa 

Ottumwa, Iowa 

Hutchinson, Kans 

Ashland, Ky 

Lexington, Ky... 

Newport, Ky. 

Owensboro, Ky 

Paducah, Ky.. 

Alexandria, La.. 

Baton Rouge, La 

Monroe, La 

Bangor, Maine 

Lewiston, Maine 

Cumberland, Md 

Hagerstown, Md 

Arlington, Mass 

Belmont, Mass 

Beverly, Mass 

Brookline, Mass 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chicopee, Mass. 

Everett, Mass 

Fitchburg, Mass 

Haverhill, Mass 

Melrose, Mass 

Pittsfield, Mass 

Revere, Mass 

Salem, Mass 

Taunton, Mass 

Waltham, Mass 

Watertown, Mass 

Ann Arbor, Mich .. 

Battle Creek, Mich.... 
Bay City, Mich 



Number of police-de- 


partment employees 


Police 
officers 


Civil- 
ians 


Total 


98 


3 


101 


33 


1 


34 


43 


3 


46 


30 




30 


61 




61 


52 


17 


69 


40 




40 


32 




32 


31 


2 


33 


27 


3 


30 


23 




23 


41 




41 


20 




20 


33 


10 


43 


30 


2 


32 


25 




25 


31 




31 


28 




28 


SO 


3 


53 


17 


2 


19 


25 


1 


26 


36 


3 


39 


32 




32 


27 




27 


48 


7 


55 


42 




42 


42 




42 


41 


1 


42 


36 




36 


36 




36 


31 


1 


32 


64 


1 


55 


22 




22 


28 




28 


29 


4 


33 


23 




23 


27 


2 


29 


30 




30 


18 


2 


20 


24 




24 


21 


2 


23 


26 


1 


27 


79 


1 


80 


40 


7 


47 


37 


1 


38 


38 




38 


44 




44 


38 


5 


43 


36 




36 


43 


2 


45 


44 


2 


46 


40 


5 


45 


33 


4 


37 


61 


6 


57 


36 


3 


39 


60 




60 


101 


4 


105 


63 


6 


68 


66 


2 


67 


84 




84 


37 


4 


41 


61 




61 


33 




33 


66 




55 


49 


4 


53 


72 


4 


76 


43 


3 


46 


46 


3 


49 


66 


4 


60 


30 


1 


31 


34 


13 


47 


62 


13 


75 



City 



Hamtramck, Mich. 

Jackson, Mich.. 

Muskegon, Mich 

Port Huron, Mich 

Royal Oak, Mich 

Wyandotte, Mich 

Rochester, Minn _ 

Meridian, Miss.. 

Joplin, Mo .- 

University City, Mo 

Butte, Mont. 

Great Falls, Mont 

Concord, N.H 

Nashua, N. H 

Belleville, N. J 

Bloomfield, N.J 

Clifton, N.J-.. 

Garfield, N.J _ 

Hackensack, N. J 

Hamilton Township, 

N.J 

Kearny, N. J 

Montclair, N. J 

New Bnmswick, N. J... 

North Bergen, N. J. 

Orange, N. J 

Perth Amboy, N. J 

Plainfield, N. J 

Teaneck, N.J 

West New York, N.J... 

West Orange, N. J 

Woodbridge, N. J 

Albuquerque, N. Mex... 

Amsterdam, N. Y 

Auburn, N. Y.. 

Elmira, N. Y 

Jamestown, N. Y 

Kingston, N. Y... 

Newburgh, N. Y 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y 

Rome, N. Y 

Watertown, N. Y 

White Plains, N. Y 

High Point, N. C 

Raleigh* N. C 

Rocky Mount, N. C 

Wilmington, N. C 

Fargo, N. Dak 

East Cleveland, Ohio 

Elyria, Ohio 

Lima, Ohio 

Lorain, Ohio 

Mansfield, Ohio. 

Marion, Ohio 

Massillon, Ohio 

Middletown, Ohio 

Newark, Ohio.. 

Norwood, Ohio 

Portsmouth, Ohio 

Steubeuville, Ohio 

Warren, Ohio.. 

Zanesville, Ohio 

Enid, Okla 

Muskogee, Okla 

Salem, Oreg 

Aliquippa, Pa 

Easton, Pa 

Haverford Township, Pa. 

Hazleton, Pa.. 

Lebanon, Pa 

Lower Merlon Town- 
ship, Pa - 



Number of police-de- 
partment employees 



Police 
officers 



CivU- 

ians 



Total 



37 



Table 16. — Number .of 'police-department employees, Apr. SO, 1946, cities over 
25,000 in population — Continued 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 

CITIES WITH 25,000 TO 50,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 


Number of police-de- 
partment employees 


City 


Number of police-de- 
partment employees 


Police 
officers 


Civil- 
ians 


Total 


Police 
officers 


CivU- 

ians 


Total 


New Castle, Pa 


44 
26 
20 
18 
17 
37 
22 
50 
33 
60 
36 
79 
62 
51 
41 
21 
38 
37 
36 
28 
35 
28 
60 
47 


4 
.- 

1 

1 
3 
2 

6' 

.- 

2 
3 

S 

§" 

2" 

1 
2 

i' 

7 


48 
26 
22 
19 
18 
40 
24 
50 
39 
60 
36 
83 
64 
54 
46 
21 
41 
37 
38 
29 
37 
28 
61 
64 


Burlington, Vt_ ..- 

Alexandria, Va 


27 
46 
54 
45 
62 
39 
32 
38 
27 
26 
18 
20 
23 
24 
22 
46 
59 
43 
45 
40 
49 
26 
41 
46 


1 
4 

"2 

6 

5 

1 
1 
5 

i" 

4" 

1 

2 
2 
2 
4 

i" 

i' 


28 




50 




Danville, Va.— 


54 




Lynchburg, Va -.- 


47 


Wilkinsburg, Pa 


Newport News, Va 

Petersburg, Va 


68 


Williamsport, Pa 

Central Falls, R. I 


44 


Bellingham, Wash 

Everett, Wash_. 


33 
39 




Yakima, Wash 


32 


Newport, R. I 


Clarksburg, W. Va 

Parkersburg, W. Va 

Appleton, Wis 


26 


Warwick, R. I- 


19 




20 


Greenville, 8 G 


Beloit, Wis.. 


27 


Spartanburg, 8. C 

Sioux Falls, 8. Dak 

Johnson City, Tenn 

Abilene, Tex 


Eau Claire, Wis. 


25 


Fond du Lac, Wis 

Green Bay, Wis 


24 

48 


Kenosha, Wis. 


61 


Laredo, Tex 


La Crosse, Wis.. 


47 


Lubbock, Tex 


Oshkosh, Wis... 


45 


Port Arthur, Tex 


Sheboygan, Wis 


40 


San Angelo, Tex 


Superior, Wis. 


49 


Tyler, Tex 


Wausau, Wis... 


27 


Wichita Falls Tex 


Wauwatosa, Wis . 


41 


Ogden, Utah 


West Allis, Wis 


47 









ANNUAL REPORTS, 1944 

Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1944 

During 1944, 28.5 percent of all offenses were cleared by the arrest 
of one or more of the offenders, according to the reports of 1,378 cities 
representing a combined population of 45,610,724, This compares 
with a similar percentage of 28.9 noted during the 1943 calendar year. 
During 1944, 76.8 percent of the offenses against the person (criminal 
homicide, rape, and other felonious assaults) were followed by the 
arrest of the persons responsible, while 25.8 percent of the offenses 
against property (robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto theft) were 
cleared by arrest. The percentages for individual offense classes 
varied from 23.2 for larceny to 90.8 for murder. 

Comprehensive information concerning the number of offenses 
committed during the 1944 calendar year may be found in volume 
XV, No. 2 of this bulletin. Table 37 of that issue presents the esti- 
mated number of major crimes for the United States. The data 
presented in table 17 of this issue indicate the relation between the 
number of offenses committed, the number cleared by arrest, and the 
number of persons arrested and held for prosecution. 

Generally, an offense is treated as cleared by arrest when one or 
more of the offenders involved has been taken into custody and made 
available for prosecution, although the figures include some cases 
treated as cleared under certain exceptional cu'cumstances even 
though no arrest was made. The general requisites of an "exceptional 
clearance" are that the identity and whereabouts of the offender are 
known to the poUce but for reasons beyond their control it is not 
possible to make him available for prosecution in the local jurisdiction. 
The recovery of stolen property does not render an offense cleared. 
It is, of course, possible that the arrest of one individual may clear 
several crimes, although on the other hand, the arrest of several persons 
may clear only one offense. To indicate the manner in which the 
data in table 17 should be interpreted it may be observed that for 
group I cities, of every 100 offenses of burglary reported, 33 were 
cleared by the arrest of 21 persons. 

In connection with the relatively small percentage of auto thefts 
listed as cleared by arrest, the reports received from police departments 
for several years have reflected more than 95 percent of stolen auto- 

(38) 



39 

mobiles recovered. Detailed tabulations concerning the recovery of 
stolen property during 1944 may be found in volume XV, No. 2 of this 
publication. 

In examining table 17 it will be noted that, with the exception of 
robbery, the number of property crimes cleared by arrest generally 
exceeds the number of persons charged. This is due to the fact that 
the pohce, through careful investigation incident to the arrest of an 
offender, clear a number of previously unsolved crimes, and the 
tendency of a recidivist to repeat the same type of crime is found to be 
most pronounced on the part of persons committing crimes against 
property. 

For crimes against the person, as well as offenses of robbery, the 
number of persons charged frequently exceeds the number of offenses 
cleared by arrest. This is attributable, in part at least, to the fact 
that because of the serious nature of such crimes they doubtless receive 
more intensive investigative attention. When such serious cases 
come to the attention of the police, special efforts are exerted to arrest 
all persons involved, and those charged with being accessories to crimes 
are included with those charged with the substantive offense. 

In some instances the number of persons charged with manslaughter 
by negligence wUl even exceed the number of such offenses committed. 
This phenomenon exists by reason of the fact that the police in a 
number of communities, particularly the larger cities, follow the 
practice of arresting and charging with manslaughter all drivers of 
vehicles involved in fatal accidents, pending the outcome of their 
investigation. In quite a number of such instances the police find 
that the accident was unavoidable or due to the victim's own negli- 
gence and thus no offense of negligent manslaughter would be scored. 

To assist in the statistical verification of the annual reports, ques- 
tionnaires were distributed with them and in practically all instances 
they were returned with the reports properly executed. No reports 
were included in the following tabulations unless the law enforcement 
agency indicated the figures concerning offenses known to the police 
were based on a record of crimes and reported offenses, and included 
all offenses brought to the attention of the police. Similarly, the 
police departments represented in the following tabulations indicated 
the figures on their annual reports concerning offenses cleared by 
arrest were properly distinguished from data showing the number of 
persons arrested. 



40 



Table 17. — Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and persons charged {held for 
prosecution), 1944, by population groups, number per 100 known offenses 

(Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Population group 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Murder, 
nonneg 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Burglary— 
breaking 

or 
entering 



Larceny— 
theft 



GROUP 1 

29"cities over 250,000, total popu- 
lation, 18,626,500: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest- 
Persons charged 



GROUP n 

44 "cities, 100,000 to 250,000; 
total population, 6,281,987: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest... 
Persons charged 



GROUP ra 

79 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 5,509,774: 

Offenses known 

• Offenses cleared by arrest-. 

Persons charged 



GROUP IV 

184 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population. 5,359,260: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest... 
Persons charged.. 



GROUP V 

399 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 6,101,542: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest... 
Persons charged 

GROUP VI 

673 cities, under 10,000; total 
population, 3,731,661: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest... 
Persons charged 



TOTAL GR0X7PS I-VI 

1,378 cities, total population, 
45,610,724; 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest... 
Persons charged 



100.0 
91.1 
85.6 



100.0 
92.2 
88.5 



100.0 
88.5 
84.3 



100.0 
92.4 
93.0 



100.0 
91.7 
89.2 



100.0 
81.9 
76.4 



100.0 
90.8 
86.3 



100.0 
83.7 
141.7 



100.0 
77.3 
90.3 



100.0 
79.6 
87.5 



100.0 
76.6 
76.5 



100.0 
86.8 
95.6 



100.0 
87.1 

85.7 



100.0 
81.5 
111.6 



100.0 
71.5 
62.0 



100.0 
69.8 
65.3 



100.0 
80.5 
80.9 



100.0 
87.2 
88.3 



100.0 
82.4 
87.1 



100.0 
76.3 
82.5 



100.0 
74.8 
70.4 



100.0 
38.7 
39.0 



100.0 
34.7 
42.5 



100.0 
40.0 
49.9 



100.0 
40.5 
52.1 



100.0 
37.3 
39.4 



100.0 
52.5 
59.4 



100.0 
38.7 
41.8 



100.0 
72.4 
63.5 



100.0 
72.9 
71.5 



100.0 
81.3 
83.0 



100.0 
79.4 
84.2 



100.0 
85.9 
93.3 



100.0 
81.3 
87.8 



100.0 
75.7 
72.4 



100.0 
33.4 
21.2 



100.0 
25.6 
20.1 



100.0 
30.0 
22.1 



100.0 
31.1 
24.3 



100.0 
34.0 
29.1 



100.0 
36.7 
35.1 



100.0 
31.6 
23.0 



100.0 
23.6 
18.7 



100.0 
22.6 
18.6 



100.0 
23.3 
18.1 



100.0 
21.9 
17.7 



100.0 
22.3 
16.4 



100.0 
27.9 
21.3 



100.0 
23.2 
18.3 



Persons Charged {Held for Prosecution), 1944 

Information is presented in table 18 concerning persons charged by 
the police of 1,378 cities with a combined population of 45,610,724. 
While the majority of these persons were arrested for comparatively 



41 



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42 

minor violations, a substantial number were arrested for serious crimes 
as indicated by the following figures : 



Stolen property (receiving, 

etc.) 4,067 

Forgery and counterfeiting 3,552 

Rape 3, 558 

Narcotic drug laws 2, 071 

Weapons (carrying, possessing, 

etc.) 10,412 



Murder 1, 980 

Manslaughter 1, 832 

Robbery 8, 774 

Aggravated assault 18, 754 

Burglary 31, 666 

Larceny 67, 541 

Auto theft 18, 599 

Embezzlement and fraud 6,497 

In the analysis of any compilation involving the number of persons 
charged, it should be borue in mind that under the Uniform Crime 
Reporting system the rules for scoring the number of persons charged 
are not the same as those for scoring the number of offenses known to 
have been committed. For example, if two persons are involved in 
the theft of an automobile and both are arrested and charged with auto 
theft, only one auto theft offense would be listed as committed and 
as cleared by arrest, while two persons would be shown as arrested and 
charged with auto theft. If, on the other hand, one person murders 
two others, two offenses of murder would be scored and if the offender 
was taken into custody two such offenses would be listed as cleared by 
arrest; however, only one person would be listed as arrested and held 
for prosecution opposite the murder classification. 

In examining arrest reports received from police departments in 
cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants, it was noted that 91,1 
percent of the departments indicate that the reports were based on 
the number of persons arrested as distinguished from the number of 
charges placed against arrested persons. All juveniles were included 
in 82.8 percent of the reports, and all or a portion of the juveniles 
arrested were included in 92.3 percent of the reports. Of those 
including juvenile arrests, 96.1 percent listed them opposite the 
offense classification embracing the violation involved (i. e., robbery, 
auto theft, etc.), regardless of the technical charge, such as "juvenile 
delinquency," placed against the juvenile at the time of arrest. The 
remaining 3.9 percent of the reports included juvenile arrests opposite 
"All other offenses." 

In examining the data in table 18, it will be noted that for murder 
the number of persons arrested per imit of population is much greater 
in the large cities than in the smaller communities. On the other hand, 
the number of persons arrested for auto theft per unit of population is 
greater in cities with less than 10,000 inhabitants than in all other 
groups, with the exception of those cities from 100,000 to 250,000 io 
population. Other variances will be noted throughout the table 
which indicate that there are differences not only in the number of 
offenses committed per unit of population in cities of varying size, 
but also in the number of persons arrested and charged by the police. 



43 



Table 18. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1944, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegll- 
gent manslaughter: 
Number of persons 

charged _- 

Rate per 100,000 

(6) Manslaughter by negli- 
gence: 
Number of persons 

charged — 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons charged- 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged- 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary— breaking or entering: 

N umber of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny — theft: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, re- 
ceiving, possessing: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 _-. 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and 
prostitution): 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 
etc.: 

Number of person.s charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and 
children: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100.000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group I 



29 cities 

over 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
18,626,500 



1,099 
5.90 



1,046 
5.62 



5,160 
27.7 



8,521 
45.7 



32, 040 
172.0 



12, 631 
67.8 



25, 206 
135.3 



6,931 
37.2 



3, 061 
19.7 



9.1 



1,187 
6.4 



1,557 
8.36 



15, 130 
81.2 



4.907 
26.3 



1,378 
7.40 



5,087 
27.3 



1 12, 369 
67.5 

7,560 
40.6 

10, 715 
57.5 

^2,093,388 
L2. 311.8 



Group II 



Group III 



44 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
6,281,987 



285 
4.54 



278 
4.43 



1,155 
18.4 



2,432 
38.7 



12,204 
194.3 



4,835 
77.0 



11,287 
179.7 



3,411 
54.3 



1,058 
16.8 



553 



511 

8.1 



526 
8.37 



7,349 
117.0 



5, 901 
93.9 



219 
3.49 



1.378 
21.9 



5,273 
83.9 



3,646 
58.0 



4,505 
71.7 



* 955, 370 
16, 470. 8 



79 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
5,509,774 



241 
4.37 



189 
3.43 



893 
16.2 



2,673 
48.5 



8,871 
161.0 



3,939 
71.5 



9,389 
170.4 



2,026 
36.8 



581 
10.5 



452 
8.2 



3,810 
69.1 



2,449 

44.4 



248 
4.50 



1,295 
23.5 



2,531 
45.9 



3,166 
57.5 



5,197 
94.3 



5 547, 956 
10, 203. 4 



Group IV 



154 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
5,359,260 



160 
2.99 



150 
2.80 

664 
12.4 

2. 635 
49.2 

7,717 
144.0 

3,379 
63.0 

8,604 
160.5 

1,989 
37.1 

623 



506 
9.4 



521 
9.7 



346 
6.46 



4,402 
82.1 



2,934 
64.7 



1.83 



1,292 
24.1 



3,105 
57.9 

3,391 
63.3 

5,746 
107.2 

451, 867 
8, 431. 5 



Group V 



399 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
6,101,542 



140 
2.29 



109 
1.79 



549 
9.0 



1,620 
26.6 



7,760 
127.2 



4,295 
70.4 



8,236 
135.0 



2,468 
40.4 



461 
7.6 



594 
9.7 



489 
8.0 



464 
7.60 



1,145 
18.8 



1,743 
28.6 



82 
1.34 



957 
15.7 



2.620 
42.9 

2,842 
46.6 

7,347 
120.4 

8 367, 738 
6, 037. 2 



Group VI 



673 cities, 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 

3,731,661 



55 
1.47 



60 
1.61 



353 
9.5 



873 
23.4 



3,693 
99.0 



2,587 
69.3 



4,819 
129.1 



1,774 
47.5 



213 

5.7 



276 

7.4 



303 
8.1 



254 
6.81 



526 
14.1 



705 
18.9 



46 
1.23 



403 
10.8 



1,027 
27.5 

1, 245 
33.4 

5,302 
142.1 

142,338 
3, 814. 3 



See footnotes at end of table. 



44 



Table 18. 



-Persons charged {held for prosecution) , 1944, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groiips — Continvied 





Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Total 




29 cities 

over 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
18,626,500 


44 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
6,281,987 


79 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
5,509,774 


154 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
5,359,260 


399 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
6,101,542 


673 cities, 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 

3,731,661 


1.378 
cities; 
total 
popu- 
lation, 
45,610,724 


Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 -. 


103, 940 
558.0 

311, 783 
1, 673. 9 

28, 735 
154.3 

40. 785 
219.0 

80, 983 
434.8 


31, 867 
507.3 

132,014 
2, 101. 5 

13, 009 
207.1 

13, 865 
220.7 

35, 164 
559. 8 


24, 032 
430.2 

83, 060 
1, 507. 5 

9,159 
166.2 

12, 247 
222.3 

24. 245 
440.0 


24.282 
453.1 

87, 746 
1, 637. 3 

6,089 
113.6 

6,960 
129.9 

26, 304 
490.8 


27, 949 
458.1 

110, 044 
1,803.5 

6, 926 
113.5 

6, 326 
103.7 

23, 212 
380.4 


17, 164 
46C.0 

62, 856 
1, 684. 4 

3,586 
96.1 

1,889 
50.6 

10,502 
281.4 


229, 234 
502 6 


Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 .. 


787, 503 
1 726 6 


Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


67, 504 
148 


Gambling: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


82, 072 
180 


All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 .- . 


200, 410 
439 4 







1-' The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports from the number of cities in- 
dicated below: 



Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


1 ... 


28 

1.377 

28 

41 


18, 331, 766 

45.315,990 

17, 003, 048 

5, 800, 398 


5 


77 

398 

1,371 


5, 370, 309 
6,091, 175 


2 


6 


3 


7 


43, 355, 851 


4 - 









Inasmuch as all of the cities included in the foregoing table did 
not report separate figures for violations of road and driving laws, 
parking violations, and all other traffic and motor vehicle laws (ex- 
cluding driving while intoxicated), entries regarding persons charged 
for these offenses were included opposite the general heading "traffic 
and motor vehicle laws." However, 1,109 of these cities whose reports 
are included above did report separate figm-es for each of the 3 cate- 
gories and table 19 summarizes such data with the cities grouped 
according to size. 

Table 19. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), traffic violations, except driving 
while intoxicated, 1944; number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population 
groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Group I 


G roup II 


Group III 

71 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
4,969,963 

85, 395 
1,718.2 

403, 586 
8, 120. 5 

31,4.58 
633. 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 

511 cities 
under 
10,000; 

poi)ula- 
tion, 

2,920,226 

43, 699 
1,496.4 

62, 530 
2,141.3 

13. U58 
450.6 


Total, 


Offense charged 


26 cities 

over 
250,000; 
poi)ula- 

tion, 
15,694,952 


37 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
5,115,635 

99, 382 
1,942.7 

624, 620 
12,210.0 

33,551 
655. 9 


127 cities, 
25.000 to 

50,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
4,458,707 

58, 177 
1, 304. 8 

306, 102 
6, 865. 3 

23. 479 
526. 6 


337 cities, 
10.000 to 

25.000; 

Iiopula- 

tion. 
5,132,269 

77, 152 
1,503.3 

232, 107 
4, 522. 5 

22, 2.')8 
433. 7 


1,109 
cities; 
total 

popula- 
tion, 

38,291,752 


Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 ... 


702, 462 
4, 475. 7 

1,0.56,043 
6, 728. 6 

150, 179 
9.')6. 9 


1, 066, 267 
2, 784. 6 

2, 684. 9,88 
7,011.9 


Parking violations: 

N u in ber of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 


Other trallic and motor vehicle 
laws: 
Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 


274.083 
715.8 









45 

Offenses Known, Offenses Cleared by Arrest, and Persons Found Guilty, 
1944 

Almost 82 percent of the persons charged by the police during 1944 
were found guilty by the courts, according to the reports of 124 cities 
with over 25,000 inhabitants as indicated in the information presented 
in tables 20 and 21. Similar tabulations for 1943 appear in volume 
XV, No. 1 of this bulletin. Although the 1944 figure is somewhat 
higher than the 80 percent found guilty for'all classes in 1943, there 
were decreases in the percentage of persons found guilty for most 
offense classes wdth the exception of violations of traffic and motor 
vehicle laws. Persons found guilty oi murder or nonnegligent 
manslaughter decreased from 68.0 percent of those charged in 1943 
to 61.0 percent in 1944. Similar decreases were noted for robbery 
(from 72.5 percent in 1943 to 64.4 percent in 1944), and rape (from 
69.6 percent in 1943 to 65.7 percent in 1944). Other part I offense 
classes showed only minor changes for the two periods. 

For part II offense classes, shown in table 21, a substantial decrease 
in the percentage of persons found guilty was noted in offenses of 
drunkenness, disorderly conduct, and vagrancy which decreased from 
91.9 percent in 1943 to 78.0 percent in 1944. Other decreases were 
noted in offenses concerning the buying and receiving of stolen prop- 
erty (from 71.0 percent of those charged in 1943 to 58.7 percent in 
1944); offenses against the family and children (from 60.5 percent 
in 1943 to 54.7 in 1944) ; sex offenses (from 87.9 percent in 1943 to 79.1 
percent in 1944); and gambling (from 86.6 percent in 1943 to 69.7 
percent in 1944). A substantial increase was noted in the percentage 
of persons found guilty for violations of traffic and motor vehicle 
laws, 84.3 percent being found guilty in 1944 as compared wdth 78.4 
percent in 1943. 

The percentage of persons found guilty during 1944 for individual 
offense classes ranges from 46.3 percent for persons charged with man- 
slaughter by negligence to 87.3 percent for those charged with driving 
while intoxicated. The comparatively low average percentage found 
guilty of negligent manslaughter is influenced, to some extent, by 
the practice in some jurisdictions of formally charging with man- 
slaughter all drivers involved in traffic fatalities pending the outcome 
of the pohce investigation. With the exception of neghgent man- 
slaughter, the lowest percentage of those found guilty for any one 
offense class is for offenses against family and children (54.7 percent). 

Tabulations concerning persons found guilty for the part I and part 
II offense classes are presented separately in tables 20 and 21, respec- 
tively, since the annual returns do not provide for the listing of data 
relating to offenses known to the poUce for the part II crimes. The 
information presented was Hmited to the reports in which it appeared 
the entries for persons found guilty represented the final disposition 



46 

of the charges placed against the persons arrested, as distinguished 
from disposition at the preliminary hearing of the accused. 

The offense classes listed in table 21 are not identical with those 
appearing in table 18 because some of the reports used in preparing the 
compilations relative to persons found guilty did not include separate 
figures for the offense classes which have been consolidated in table 21. 



Table 20. — Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and number of persons found 
guilty, 1944; 1^4 cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 14,6.'54,534, based on 1940 decennial census] 



Offense (part I classes) 



Number 

of 

offenses 

known to 

the 

police 



plumber 

of 
offenses 
cleared 

by 
arrest 



Number 

of 
persons 
charged 
(held for 
prosecu- 
tion) 



Number 
found 
guilty 

of 
offense 
charged 



Number 
found 
guilty 

of 
lesser 
offense 



Total 
found 
guilty 
(of offense 
charged 
or lesser 
offense) 



Percent- 
age 
found 
guilty 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 
gent manslaughter. _ . 
(6) Manslaughter by neg- 
ligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 
Larceny— theft (except auto 

theft) 

Auto theft- 

Total- 



519 
2,083 
10,431 
10, 487 

48, 575 

126, 081 
27, 763 



691 

420 

1,469 

3,923 

7,699 

15, 494 

31,384 
7,662 



644 

492 
1,170 
3,252 
6,326 
8,512 

20, 849 
5,048 



295 

167 

578 

1, 648 

3,261 

5,499 

15,710 
3,353 



61 

191 

447 

828 

1,152 

862 
563 



393 

228 

769 

2, 095 

4,089 

6,651 

16, 572 
3,916 



226, 715 



68, 742 



46, 293 



30,511 



4,202 



61.0 

46.3 
65.7 
64.4 
64.6 

78.1 

79.5 
77.6 



Table 21. — Number of persons charged {held for prosecution) and number found 
guilty, 1944; 1^4 cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 14,654,534, based on 1940 decennial census] 



Offense (part II classes) 



Other assaults 

Forgery and counterfeiting.. 

Embezzlement and fraud.. 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Sex offenses (including prostitution and com 

merciali zed vice) _ 

Offenses against the family and children 

Narcotic drug laws _ -. 

Liquor laws 

Drunkenness; disorderly conduct and va 

graney 

Gambling 

Driving while intoxicated 

Traffic and motor vehicles laws.. 

All other offenses _. 

Total - -.- 



Number of 
persons 
charged 
(held for 
prosecu- 
tion) 



23, 956 

841 

2,275 

1,363 

3,458 

17, 905 

10, 802 

816 

7,397 

270, 721 

33, 390 

9, 258 

1,321,482 

45,286 



2 1, 748, 950 



Number 


Number 


found 


found 


guilty of 


guilty 


offense 


of lesser 


charged 


offense 


14,411 


545 


634 


96 


1,293 


150 


766 


34 


2,624 


79 


13, 971 


194 


5,676 


228 


615 


6 


6,221 


141 


210. 182 


968 


23, 167 


106 


7,302 


782 


1 1,111,623 


' 2, 794 


28,569 


627 


a 1, 427, 054 


5 6,750 



Total found 

guilty (of 

offense 

charged or 
of lesser 
offense) 



14, 956 
730 

1,443 
800 

2,703 

14, 165 

5,904 

621 

6,362 

211,150 

23, 273 

8,084 

' 1,114,417 

29, 196 



' 1, 433, 804 



Percent- 
age 
found 
guilty 



63.4 
58.7 
78.2 

79.1 
64.7 
76.1 
86.0 

78.0 
69.7 
87.3 
184.3 
64.5 



82.0 



' Based on the reports of 123 cities with a total population of 13,031,082. 
' The total figures are subject to footnote (1). 



47 



PERSONS CHARGED AND PERCENT 
FOUND GUILTY 

CALENDAR YEAR 1944 
124 CITIES WITH OVER 25,000 INHABITANTS TOTAL POPULATION 14,654,534 

100% 

J^ 

— 1 — 



NEGLIGENT 

MANSLAUGHTER 

492 

CHARGED 



MURDER 

644 

CHARGED 



ROBBERY 

3,252 

CHARGED 



AGGRAVATED 

ASSAULT 

6,326 

CHARGED 



RAPE 

1,170 

CHARGED 



AUTO THEFT 
5,048 

CHARGED 



BURGLARY 

8,512 

CHARGED 



LARCENY 

20,849 

CHARGED 




45.8% 15.2% 

"/o guFlty 



Key- 



GUILTY 
AS CHARGED 



GUILTY OF 
LESSER OFFENSE 




75.4% 



4.1% 



w^a^if. 



FiGUKE 8. 



48 

Persons Released (Not Held for Prosecution), 1944 

The annual crime reports provide for recording, in addition to the 
number of persons formally charged, the number released by the 
police without being charged. Generally, the data in table 22 repre- 
sent the number of persons taken into custody when it was thought 
they had been involved in the commission of some crime, but who 
were later released by the police, either because the police investigation 
established their innocence or because the evidence available was not 
sufficient to warrant the filing of formal charges against them. Per- 
sons taken into custody and released with a reprimand or on the 
"golden rule" principle are likewise included, as are persons sum- 
moned, notified, or cited to appear in court or at the police department 
for alleged traffic violations, who failed to appear and who were not 
subsequently arrested. Included also are some instances in which 
youthful persons were released, because under the circumstances it 
was felt the individual case would more properly be handled without 
prosecution. 

Information provided in table 22 is based on the reports of 770 
cities representing a total population of 22,554,679. The number of 
cities represented in this table is considerably less than in table 18, 
inasmuch as reports were excluded if there were no entries showing 
persons released or if the entries appeared to be incomplete or other- 
wise incorrect. However, reports listing persons released opposite 
the classification "suspicion" only were included in the compilation. 
It should be noted that the figures for "suspicion" representing 
persons released generally represent instances wherein persons were 
arrested under circumstances which caused the police to believe 
they had been involved in criminal activities of some nature, although 
they were not taken into custody in connection with some specific 
offense. 



49 



Table 22. — Persons released without being held for prosecvtion, 1944; number 
and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Total, 

770 cities; 
total 

popula- 
tion, 

22,.554,679 


Oflensc 


16 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

8,095,170 


19 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,636,213 


43 cities, 
50,000 to 

100,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
2,986,957 


82 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,777,920 


262 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
4,094,023 


348 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

1,964,-396 


Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 
gent manslaughter: 
Number of persons 
released . 


92 
1. 14 

48 
0. 59 

364 
4.5 

891 
11.0 

3.379 
41.7 

886 
10.9 

2, 952 
36.5 

521 
6.4 

261 
3.2 

151 
1.9 

89 
1.1 

172 
2.12 

4.340 
53.6 

204 
2.5 

30 
0.37 

448 
5.5 

' 163 
2.1 

681 
8.4 

255 
3.2 

3 29, 631 
457.9 


29 
1. 10 

29 
1. 10 

191 

7. 2 

145 
5.5 

852 
32.3 

415 
15.7 

1,299 
49.3 

257 
9.7 

83 
3.1 

48 
1.8 

29 
1.1 

50 
1.90 

253 
9.6 

109 
4.1 

23 

0.87 

104 
3.9 

129 
4.9 

105 
4.0 

42 
1.6 

* 40, 494 
1, 638. 1 


8 
0.27 

31 

1.04 

67 
2.2 

64 
2. 1 

296 
9.9 

248 
8.3 

801 
26.8 

101 
3.4 

30 
1.0 

17 
0.6 

29 
1.0 

21 
0.70 

48 
1.6 

130 
4.4 

13 
0.44 

59 
2.0 

55 
1.8 

32 
1.1 

48 
1.6 

29, 154 
976.0 


9 
0.32 

17 
0.61 

67 
2.4 

302 
10.9 

327 

11.8 

766 
27.6 

1,434 
51.6 

394 
14.2 

47 
1.7 

39 
1.4 

40 
1.4 

43 
1.55 

177 
6.4 

106 
3.8 

6 
0.22 

43 
1.5 

194 
7.0 

94 
3.4 

70 
2.5 

46,407 
1, 670. 6 


38 
0.93 

27 

0.66 

107 
2.6 

93 
2.3 

650 
15.9 

734 
17.9 

1.521 
37.2 

378 
9.2 

00 
1.5 

106 
2.6 

74 
1.8 

83 
2.03 

203 
5.0 

158 
3.9 

19 
0.46 

76 
1.9 

490 
12.0 

96 
2.3 

108 
2.6 

64, 003 
1, 563. 3 


8 
0.41 

10 
0.51 

94 

4.8 

109 

5.5 

407 
20.7 

504 
2.5.7 

1,237 
63.0 

247 
12.6 

27 
1.4 

82 
4.2 

50 
2.5 

25 
1.27 

168 
8.6 

78 
4.0 

15 
0.76 

94 
4.8 

547 
27.8 

69 
3.5 

173 

8.8 

20,719 
1, 054. 7 


184 


Rate per 100,000 

(6) Manslaughter by negli- 
gence: 
Number of persons 


0.82 
162 


Rate per 100,000__.. 
Robbery: 

Number of persons released _ 
Rate per 100,000 


0. -,2 

890 
3.9 


Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons released _ 
Rate per 100,000 


1.604 
7. 1 


Other assaults: 

Number of persons released - 
Rate per 100,000 


5.911 
26.2 


Burglary — breaking or entering: 
Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


3, 553 
15.8 


Larceny — theft: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


9,244 
41.0 


Auto theft: 

Number of persons released^ 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 


1.898 
8.4 

508 
2.3 


Stolen property: buying, re- 
ceiving, possessing: 
Num ber of persons released . 
Rate per 100,000 


443 
2.0 


Forgery and counterfeiting: 
Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


311 

1.4 


Rape: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100.000 


394 
1.75 


Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice: 
Number of persons released . 
Rate per 100,000 . 


5.189 
23.0 


Sex offenses (except rape and 
prostitution) : 
Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


785 
3.5 


Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


106 
0.47 


Weapons; carrying, possessing, 
etc.: 
Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000-- 


824 
3.7 


Offenses against family and 
children: 
Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 . 


2 1, 578 
7.1 


Liquor laws: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


1,077 
4.8 


Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000-. 


696 
3.1 


Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 
Number of persons released . 
Rate per 100,000 


6 230, 408 
1, 109. 5 



See footnotes at end of table. 



50 

Table 22. — Persons released without being held for prosecution, 1944; number 
and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 





Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Total, 
770 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
22,.'--54,679 


Offense 


16 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

8,095,170 


19 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
2,636,213 


43 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,986,957 


82 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,777,920 


262 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
4,094,023 


348 cities 
under 
10,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,964,396 


Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


3,249 
40.1 

28, 133 
347.5 

2,315 
28.6 

3,634 
44.9 

51, 094 
631.2 

20, 777 
256.7 


1,205 
45.7 

8,223 
311.9 

1,384 

52.5 

46 
1.7 

8,003 
303.6 

2,731 
103.6 


922 
30.9 

4,595 
153.8 

426 
14.3 

74 
2.5 

13, 632 
456.4 

1,424 

47.7 


1,045 
37.6 

3,084 
111.0 

732 
26.4 

99 
3.6 

8.823 
317.6 

3,559 
128.1 


2, 246 
54.9 

4,562 
111.4 

636 
15.5 

165 
4.0 

8.305 
202.9 

3,698 
90.3 


2,014 
102.5 

4,645 
236.5 

925 

47.1 

137 
7.0 

4,494 
228.8 

2,861 
145.6 


10,681 
47.4 


Drunkenness: 

Num ber of persons released _ 
Rate per 100,000 


53, 242 
236.1 


Vagrancy: 

N urn ber of persons released . 
Rate per 100,000 


6,418 
28.5 


Gambling: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


4,155 
18.4 


Suspicion: 

N um ber of persons released . 
Rate per 100,000. 


94, 351 
418.3 


All other offenses: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000. . 


35, 050 
155.4 







'-« The number of persons released and the rate are based on the reports from the number of citic.v 
indicated below: 



Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


1 

2 ___ 

3 


15 

769 

15 


7, 800, 436 
22, 259, 945 
6,471,718 


4 

5 


18 
768 


2, 471, 942 
20, 766. 956 



It will be noted that the information in table 22 includes opposite 
"traffic and motor vehicle laws" all types of violations of traffic laws 
with the exception of driving wliile intoxicated. This was necessary, 
inasmuch as many of the annual reports used in preparing the tabula- 
tion did not include separate information concerning the various 
traffic violations. The reports of 455 cities did, however, show sepa- 
rate figures concerning persons released by the poHce for (1) violations 
of road and driving laws, (2) parking violations, and (3) violations of 
other traffic and motor vehicle laws. Table 23 includes the number 
of persons released for these violations, together with the rate per 
100,000 inhabitants for cities grouped according to size. Warning 
tags used in some cities for minor traffic violations are included. 



51 



Table 23. — Persons released without being held for prosecution, traffic violations, 
except driving while intoxicated, 1944> number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, 
by popidation groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Total, 
455 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
13,393,351 


Offense charged 


11 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

4,886,603 


9 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,099,156 


27 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,905,701 


52 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,776,708 


167 cities, 
10,000 to 
25.000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,604,344 


189 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

1,120,839 


Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons released- 
Rate per 100,000.- 


3,952 
80.9 

20, 762 
424.9 

4,899 
100.3 


3,136 

285.3 

20. 567 

1,871.2 

691 
62.9 


826 
43.3 

27, 585 
1, 447. 5 

715 
37.5 


5,070 
285.4 

31,032 
1, 746. 6 

1,740 
97.9 


3,605 
138.4 

57, 099 
2, 192. 5 

3,031 
116.4 


3,515 
313.6 

14, 946 
1, 333. 5 

1,641 
146.4 


20, 104 
150.1 


Parljing violations: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


171.991 
1, 284. 2 


Other trafl3c and motor vehicle 
laws: 
Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


12, 717 
95.0 



Offenses Known, Offenses Cleared by Arrest, and Persons Charged by 
Geographic Divisions, 1944 

Inasmuch as marked variations are noted in the number of offenses 
committed per unit of population in the different sections of the coun- 
try, it is to be expected that like variations would occur in the number 
of persons arrested in the various geographic divisions. Accordingly, 
there are presented in tables 24 and 25 data concerning offenses cleared 
and persons charged for each of the nine geographic divisions. Thus 
it is possible to compare local figures with averages of other cities in 
the same section of the country. The identical cities were used in 
compiling the information in tables 24 and 25 as are represented in 
tables 17 and 18. For a list of the States included in each of the geo- 
graphic divisions, reference may be made to the listing of the States in 
table 7 of this issue of the bulletin. 

In examining the data presented in table 25, it should be noted that 
while theoretically an offender should be charged with the offense 
committed, in many instances the policy and practice of prosecuting 
attorneys, judges, and other officials, as well as public opinion and 
established customs in the community, will influence to a great extent 
the charge placed by the police against an arrested offender. It 
follows then that a person arrested for auto theft may, more frequently 
in some jurisdictions than in others, be charged with using an auto- 
mobile without the consent of the owner, while persons arrested for 
intoxication may be charged with disorderly conduct, et cetera. 
Similarly, the figures for prostitution and commercialized vice may 
be considered conservative since in many jurisdictions persons taken 
into custody for such violations are frequently charged with vagrancy, 
disorderly conduct, or some sex offense such as adultery or lewd and 
lascivious conduct, and such arrests are listed opposite the offense 
class which includes the charge actually placed against the offender. 



52 



Table 24. — Number of offenses knmvn, number and percentage of offenses cleared by 
arrest, 1944, by geographic divisions 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Criminal homi- 
cide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny- 
theft 




Geographic division 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


NEW ENGLAND STATES 


















140 cities; total population, 
4,148,958: 
Number of offenses known 
Number cleared by arrest _ _ 
Percentage cleared by arrest. . 


















52 

50 

96.2 


119 
101 

84.9 


220 
206 
93.6 


468 

178 

38.0 


348 

286 
82.2 


10, 256 

3,092 

30.1 


20, 683 

5,193 

25.1 


5,375 
1,362 
25.3 


MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES 


















330 cities; total population, 

9,412,306: 

Number of offenses known _ _ 

Number cleared by arrest _. 

Percentage cleared by arrest. . 


206 

177 

85.9 


340 

297 

87.4 


644 

548 

85.1 


1,975 

867 

■ 43.9 


2,662 

2,112 

79.3 


17,541 

5,868 

33.5 


34, 995 

9,392 

26.8 


13, 192 

3,066 

23.2 


EAST NORTH CENTRAL STATES 


















343 cities; total population, 

14,441,464: 

Number of offenses known . _ 

Number cleared by arrest _ . 

Percentage cleared by arrest- - 


591 

517 
87.5 


372 
271 

72.8 


1,770 
1,187 
67.1 


9,489 
3,487 
36.7 


7,333 

4,847 
66.1 


43, 085 

13, 975 

32.4 


114,916 

26.106 

22.7 


22,864 

7,308 

32.0 


WEST NORTH CENTRAL STATES 


















150 cities; total population, 

4,335,342: 

Number of offenses known. 

Number cleared by arrest.. 

Percentage cleared by arrest.. 


143 

135 
94.4 


123 

101 

82.1 


479 

405 

84.6 


864 
438 
50.7 


1,106 
810 
73.2 


8,932 

3,567 

39.9 


27, 258 
7,696 
28.2 


6,261 
2,053 
32.8 


SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES 


















117 cities; total population, 

4,349,705: 

Number of offenses known. 

Number cleared by arrest.. 

Percentage cleared by arrest.. 


581 

554 

95.4 


207 

190 

91.8 


590 

494 

83.7 


2,520 
1,325 
52.6 


7,741 
6,475 
83.6 


16, 078 
5,369 
33.4 


46, 687 

13. 153 

28.2 


13,007 

2,342 

18.0 


EAST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES 


















27 cities; total population, 

856,471: 

Number of offenses known. 

Number cleared by arrest.. 

Percentage cleared by arrest. . 


















114 

109 

95.6 


39 

37 

94.9 


84 

67 

79.8 


427 
191 

44.7 


959 
741 
77.3 


3,976 
1,086 
27.3 


8,121 
1,920 
23.6 


2,229 
557 
25.0 


WEST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES 


















72 cities; total population, 

3,085,254: 

Number of offenses known. 

Number cleared by arrest.. 

Percentage cleared by arrest. 


377 

344 

91.2 


139 

127 

91.4 


317 

255 

80.4 


1,312 

603 

46.0 


3,005 

2,486 
82.7 


12, 285 

4, 474 

36.4 


35, 745 
9,777 
27.4 


8,510 
1,894 
22.3 


MOUNTAIN STATES 


















56 cities; total population, 

1,145,130: 

Number of offenses known. 

Number cleared by arrest.. 

Percentage cleared by arrest. . 


40 

42 

105. 


64 

38 

59.4 


196 

131 

66.8 


572 

214 

37.4 


388 

286 

73.7 


5,422 
1,632 
30.1 


16,323 

3.274 

20.1 


3,097 
870 
28.1 


PACIFIC STATES 


















143 cities; total population, 
3,836,094: 
Number of offenses known. 
Number cleared by arrest- 
Percentage cleared by arrest. 


189 

154 

81.5 


239 

176 

73.6 


756 
488 
64.6 


3.386 

829 

24.5 


2,364 
1,558 
05.9 


19, 966 

4,375 

21.9 


64, 197 

9,242 

14.4 


19,258 

3.420 

17.8 



53 



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ties; 
al 

ation, 
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420 
10.95 

2,704 
70.5 

3,345 

87.2 

509 
13.27 

759 
19.8 

775 
20.2 


1,210 
31.5 

9,068 
236.4 

5,419 
061.7 

7,232 
449.2 


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South 
Central 
States 




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cities; 
otal 
Illation 
49,705 


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t^ . ^ . (N . . 




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ft 




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North 
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States 




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4,33 




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343 citic 

total 

populati 

14,441,41 


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148,9 


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f persons 
00,000 ... 
nd coram 
f persons 
00,000 ... 
xcept rap 
f persons 
00,000... 
laws: 
f persons 
00,000 ... 
ying, pos 
f persons 
00,000.... 
St family 
f persons 
00,000.... 


a IS a ::H □ 1 a 1 








iquor laws: 

Number of perso 
Rate per 100,000. 

riving while inloxi( 
Number of pcr.so 
Rate per 100,000 

raCQc and motor vc! 
Number of porso 
Rate per 100,000. 

isordcrly conduc': 
Number of perso 
Rate per 100,000. 




















0— cOO — 30— 6£0— fcO— pO — 
.0 C.C^GS.C C-C£ ft .£ c".c ft 




















Rape: 
Num 
Rate 

Prostitut 
Num 
Rate 

Sex offen: 
Num 
Rate 

Narcotic 
Num 
Rate 

Weapons 
Num 
Rate 

Offenses ; 
Num 
Rate 














-5 a 


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55 



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oow coco oos 



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-icjlcd 



56 

Persons Charged {Held for Prosecution), 1944, Cities over 100,000 in 
Population 

Table 26 discloses the number of persons arrested and held for 
prosecution during 1944 in individual cities with more than 100,000 
inhabitants. The data concerning persons arrested shown in this 
table are based on annual crime reports received for 1944 from the 
police departments in the cities listed. Urban communities over 
100,000 in population which are not listed either failed to forward 
an annual arrest report to the F B I, or indicated the report was not 
complete. 

Summary data concerning persons held for prosecution have been 
presented in other tables of this bulletin. The figures in table 26 
are generally subject to the comment in the text preceding tables 
18, 24, and 25. 

With reference to the figures for parking violations, the data for 
some cities are very low and it is possible they are for some reason 
incomplete. 



57 






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DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

Source of Data 

During the first 6 months of 1945, the F B I examined 270,739 
arrest records, as evidenced by fingerprint cards, in order to obtain 
data concerning the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of 
the persons represented. The compilation has been limited to in- 
stances of arrests for violations of state laws and municipal ordinances. 
In other words, fingerprint cards representing arrests for violations 
of Federal laws or representing commitments to any type of penal 
institution have been excluded from this tabulation. 

The number of fingerprint records examined exceeded the 237,104 
handled for the first 6 months of 1944 by 14.2 percent. The tabula- 
tion of data from fingerprint cards obviously does not include all 
persons arrested, since there are individuals taken into custody for 
whom no fingerprint cards are forwarded to Washington. Further- 
more, data pertaining to persons arrested should not be treated as 
information regarding the number of offenses committed, since two 
or more persons may be involved in the joint commission of a single 
offense, and on the other hand one person may be arrested and charged 
with the commission of several separate crimes. 

Offense Charged 

More than 38 percent (104,169) of the records examined during the 
first 6 months of 1945 represented arrests for major violations. Persons 
charged with murder, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, or auto 
theft numbered 77,716, constituting 28.7 percent of the total arrest 
records examined. 
Sex 

Fingerprint cards representing arrests of males during the first 
half of 1945 numbered 226,885, which is a 15.4 percent increase over 
the 196,619 cards received during the same period of 1944. Female 
arrest prints increased from 40,485 during the first half of 1944 to 
43,854 in the like period of 1945, representing an increase of 8.3 per- 
cent. 
Age 

Persons under 21 years of age arrested and fingerprinted during the 
first half of 1945 numbered 58,041, constituting 21.4 percent of the 
total arrests. Youths played a predominant part in the commission 
of crimes against property as indicated by the fact that of the 62,891 
persons of all ages arrested for robbery, burglary, larceny, auto theft, 
embezzlement, fraud, forgery, counterfeiting, receiving stolen property, 
and arson, 24,877 (39.6 percent) were less than 21 years old. 

(63) 



64 




f^ 



65 



For males and females combined, the figures for the groups in 
which the largest number of arrests occurred during the first 6 months 
of 1945 are as follows: 



Age 


Number of 
arrests 


17 
18 
19 
21 
22 


13, 133 
12,411 
10,602 
10, 382 
10, 298 



The predominating age group for males was 17 and for females, 22. 
Arrests of males increased generally for all age groups except those 
under 15 years, arrests of males under 21 increasing 9.8 percent. The 
greatest increase in arrests of boys under 2 1 years of age was noted in 
offenses of criminal homicide, rape, and other felonious assaults, such 
arrests increasing 23.8 percent during the first half of 1945 as com- 
pared with the same period of 1944 (from 2,936 to 3,636). 

Although the total arrests of girls under 21 years of age decreased 
5.4 percent during the first half of 1945, such arrests for offenses 
against property increased 9.2 percent, from 1,796 to 1,961, 

Table 27. — Total arrests subdivided by sex; also number and -percentage of arrests 
of persons %inder 25 years of age, Jan. 1-June SO, 1945 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or enter- 
ing 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiv- 
ing, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice 

Other sex offenses _ 

Narcotic drug laws... 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 

etc 

Offenses against family and 

children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

other traffic and motor vehicle 

laws _ 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness... 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other ofTenses 

Total 



Total number of persons ar- 
rested 



Male 



2,244 
6,571 
18, 349 

14, 277 

20, 881 

7,590 

3,971 

1,394 

304 

1,700 

3,160 

1,524 

4,428 

806 

3,572 

4,295 
2,984 
9,363 
2,055 
55 

2,114 

14, 507 
55, 484 
12, 049 

5,771 

15, 464 
1,369 

10, 604 



226, 885 



Female 



282 

418 

2,528 



202 
638 

193 

26 

352 



3,971 

2,176 

130 

249 

412 

696 

595 

56 

2 



5,010 
7,698 
5,415 

592 
2,961 

392 
4,398 



43, 854 



Total 



2.526 

6,989 

20, 877 

14,712 

24, 820 

7,792 

4,609 

1,587 

330 

2,052 

.3, 160 

5,495 

6,604 

936 

3,821 

4,707 
3,680 
9,958 
2,111 
57 

2,202 
19,517 
63, 182 

17, 464 
6,363 

18, 425 
1,761 

15,002 



270, 739 



Males and females 



Number 
under 21 
years of 



364 
2,496 
2,676 

7,531 

8,495 

4,871 

614 

284 

83 

503 

1,005 

975 

1,143 

91 



231 
264 
432 
446 



502 
3,638 
3,175 
5,020 

407 
5,983 

264 
5,625 



58, 041 



Total 
number 
under 25 
years of 



677 
4,108 
5,580 

9,791 

12, 359 

6,328 

1,294 

471 
126 

866 
1,575 

2,342 

2,219 

223 

1,491 



619 
1, 163 

795 
14 

851 
7,131 
8,280 
8,405 

935 
9,125 

512 
8,139 



96, 306 



Percent- 
age under 
21 years 
of age 



14.4 
35.7 
12.8 

51.2 
34.2 
62.5 
13.3 

17.9 
25.2 
24.5 
31.8 

17.7 
17.3 



23.9 

4.9 
7.2 
4.3 
21.1 
14.0 

22.8 
18.6 

5.0 
28.7 

6.4 
32.5 
15.0 
37.5 



21,4 



Total 
percent- 
age under 
25 years- 

of age 



26.8 
58.8 
26.7 

66.6 
49.8 
81.2 
28.1 

29.7 
38.2 
42.2 
49.8 

42.6 
33.6 
23.8 

39.0 

18.8 
16.8 
11.7 
37.7 
24.6 

38.6 
36.5 
13.1 
48.1 
14.7 
49.5 
29.1 
54.3 



35.6 



66 




ARRESTS OF MALES 
UNDER 21 YEARS OF AGE 

Percent Change 
JANUARY- JUNE, 1944-1945 

COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT 
^ \CARDS RECEIVED AT THE FBI 



PERCENT DECREASE PERCENT INCREASE 

60 50 40 30 20 10 10 20 30 40 50 60 



CRIMINAL HOMICIDE 



RAPE 



ROBBERY 



ASSAULT 



BURGLARY 



LARCENY 



AUTO THEFT 



PROSTITUTION AND 
OTHER SEX OFFENSES 



DISORDERLY CONDUCT 
AND VAGRANCY 



DRUNKENNESS 

AND DRIVING WHILE 

INTOXICATED 



MISCELLANEOUS 
TOTAL 



9.6 



29.3 



6.0 



16.1 



0.8 



1-2.3 



24.5 



0.04 



9.8 






Figure 10. 



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68 




Figure 11, 



69 

Criminal Repeaters 

Of the 270,739 arrest records examined, 141,065 (52.1 percent) 
represented persons who already had fingerprint cards on file in the 
Identification Division of the FBI. For males the percentage 
having prior records was 55.5 and for females the percentage was 
34.8 These figures pertain to fingerprint arrest records and in no 
way relate to the civil identification files of the FBI. 

For males and females combined, the percentage with a prior 
fingerprint record was 15.7 at age 15, and this figure rose rapidly to 
42.6 at age 20. For males, the percentage was 16.4 at age 15 and 
47.0 at age 20. For females, the percentage with prior fingerprint 
records was 10.2 at age 15 and 30.4 at age 20. 
Arrests Outside of State of Birth 

The 1940 decennial census indicates that 22.4 percent of the native 
population resided outside of their State of birth. A tabulation of 
similar information from the fingerprint records disclosed that 56.8 
percent of aU the persons arrested and fingerprinted during the first 
half of 1945 were arrested outside of their State of birth. The figures 
for males and females were generally quite similar, for males 57.0 
percent and for females 55.7 percent. However, there is a difference 
in these figures when subdivided by age groups. Of the females 
under 21 years of age, 45.6 percent were arrested outside of their 
state of birth, whereas the corresponding figure for males was 39.0 
percent. 
Race 

Most of the persons represented in this study were members of the 
white and Negro races. Including Mexicans, who numbered 10,013, 
members of the white race represented 192,165 of the 270,739 arrest 
records received, while 74,251 were Negroes, 3,223 were Indians, 280 
Chinese, 49 Japanese, and 771 were representatives of other races. 



OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in part I and 
part II offenses, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 

Part I Offenses 

1. Criminal homicide. — (o) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter includes all 
wilful felonious homicides as distinguished from deaths caused by negligence. 
Does not include attempts to kill, assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, or 
justifiable homicides. Justifiable homicides excluded from this classification are 
limited to the following types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon by a peace officer 
in line of duty; (2) The killing of a hold-up man by a private citizen. (6) Man- 
slaughter by negligence includes any death which the police investigation estab- 
lishes was primarily attributable to gross negligence on the part of some individual 
other than the victim. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape (no force used^victim under 
age of consent), assault to rape, and attempted rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as strong-arm robbery, stick-ups, 
robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by the use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or a theft, even though no force 
was used to gain entrance. Includes attempts. Burglary followed by larceny 
is included in this classification and not counted again as larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value; 
(b) under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of the property stolen, thefts of bicycles, automobile accessories, 
shoplifting, pocket-picking, or any stealing of property or article of value which 
is not taken by force and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, 
"con" games, forgery, worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven away 
and abandoned, including the so-called joy-riding thefts. Does not include taking 
for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unauthorized use by 
those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which is 
made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false pretenses. 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those offenses. 

(70) 



71 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of regulations 
or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing, and manufac- 
turing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes 
or regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commer- 
cialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as prostitution, keeping 
bawdy house, procuring, transporting, or detaining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice). — In- 
cludes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

15. Offenses against the family and children. — Includes offenses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, sale, or use. Excludes Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "drunkenness" (class 18) and "driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations. State or local, are placed in 
this class. Excludes Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regulations with 
respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters, but not in connection with any specific offense, who are released with- 
out formal charges being placed against them. 



i I ■■.-')■ \ 



UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Volume XVI Number 2 

ANNUAL BULLETIN • 1945 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume XVI—Number 2 
ANNUAL BULLETIN, 1945 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1946 



U. 8. SUPERir . ih 

Af.. .^ 



Contents 



Page 

Sununaiy of volume XVI, No. 2 73-74 

( 'lassification of offenses 74-75 

l']xtent of reporting area (table 29) 75-76 

Monthly reports: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to popiilalioii 

(table 30) 77-78 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police (tables 31-32) 79-86 

Monthly variations, offenses known to the police (table 33) - 87-90 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location 

(tables 34-36) 89-93 

Offenses in individual cities over 25,000 in population (table 37) 94-101 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 38-40) 101-105 

Rural crime trends (table 41) 105-107 

Offenses known in Territories and possessions (table 42) 107-108 

Estimated number of major crimes (table 43) 108-1 1 1 

Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1945: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 44) 112-113 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 45-46) 112-118 

Percentage with previous fingerprint records (table 47) 118-119 

Race distribution of persons arrested (table 48) 119 

Definition of part I and part II offense classifications 120-121 

Index to volume XVI 122-123 

(11) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 
of Justice, Washington, D. C. 

Volume XVI January 1946 Number 2 



SUMMARY 

Crime Trends, 1944-45 

The crime record for 1945 shows a 12.4 percent increase according to 
the reports of nearly 2,000 cities representing an urban population of 
over 65 million. Each offense class was on the rise with robberies up 
23.6 percent; auto thefts, 18.7 percent; burglaries, 17.0 percent; 
negligent manslaughters, 16.2 percent; and murders, 10.1 percent. 
Aggravated assaults rose 8.7 percent and an 8.6 percent rise was 
recorded for larcenies. Offenses of rape continued up in 1945 with an 
increase of 5.7 percent. 

The increases were more pronounced and widi^spread throughout the 
Nation than have been recorded in many years. A substantial up- 
swing in crime was registered for cities of all sizes and in each of the 
nine geographic divisions of the country. 

Crime Rates, 1945 

The number of offenses per 100,000 inhabitants for cities grouped 
according to size and also by location are presented in this issue of the 
Bulletin. Crime rates for individual States are also shown. These 
data are for the convenience of police administrators and other 
interested individuals in making comparisons between the crime 
figures for individual communities and national and regional averages. 

Value of Property Stolen, 1944-45 

The value of the loot in the average robbery rose 29.2 percent, from 
$113 in 1944 to $146 in 1945. Increases in the average value per 
offense for other types of crimes were as follows: Burglary, 15.7 per- 
cent; larceny, 14.9 percent; and auto theft, 3.2 percent. More than 
95 percent of the stolen cars and 23 percent of other types of stolen 
property were recovered by the police. i 

Estimated Number of Major Crimes, 1945 

A grand total of 1,565,541 major crimes was registered for the 
Nation in 1945, including 11,234 felonious homicides, 11,537 rapes and 
59,807 other aggravated assaults, 54,279 robberies, 241,491 automobile 
thefts, 321,672 burglaries and 865,521 larcenies. All classes increased 
substantially over the estimated totals for 1944. 

Monthly Variations in Crime 

Crime in 1945,. as in prior years, showed a definite tendency to 
fluctuate with the seasons. Mui'ders, rapes, and other felonious 
assaults occurred with greatest frequency during the warm summer 

(73) 



74 

months reaching a peak in August and September. Neghgent man- 
slaughter offenses, consisting largely of traffic deaths, follow the 
seasonal pattern of traffic fatalities which are generally least frequent 
during the spring and summer months, increasing sharply during the 
winter. Crimes against property, aggravated by the additional 
darkness and economic factors of the winter months, show their 
greatest frequency during that period of the year, becoming less 
frequent during the spring and early summer. 

Rural Crime Trends, 1944-45 

Murders, rapes, robberies, and felonious assaults increased sharper 
in the rural areas during 1945 than in the urban communitiips, while 
the upward trends in burglary, larceny, auto theft, and negligent 
manslaughter were not so pronounced. In the rural communities 
the over-all increase for 1945 over 1944 amounted to 8.5 percent as 
compared with a 12.4 percent rise in the cities. 

Persons Arrested, 1945 

A substantial portion of major crime is attributable to persons ujider 
voting age. An examination of the 543,852 fingerprint arrest records 
received at the FBI during 1945 reflected that 30.1 percent of the 
rapes were committed by persons under 21 years of age; as were 33.5 
percent of the larcenies, 35.2 percent of the robberies, 49.8 percent 
of the burglaries, and 61.1 percent of the car thefts. Age 17 stood 
out as the predominating age among arrested persons and age 18 
was second. 

Arrests of males under 21 increased 10.1 percent in 1945 and al- 
though arrests of girls under 21 declined 10.6 percent in 1945 the figure 
still was 109.3 percent in excess of that for 1941, the last peacetime 
year. 

Over half (51.9 percent) of the arrests represented persons who 
already had fingerprint arrest records on file in the Identification 
Division of the FBI. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to the 
police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting or 
court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following group 
of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be those most 
generally and completely reported to tha police: Criminal homicide, 
including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and {h) manslaugh- 
ter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; burglary — break- 
ing or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The figures contained 
herein include also the number of attempted crimes of the designated 



75 



classes. In other words, an attempted burglary or robbery, for ex- 
ample, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner as if the crime 
had been completed. Attempted murders, however, are reported as 
aggravated assaults. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the law-enforce- 
ment agencies of contributing communities and not merely arrests or 
cleared cases. Offenses committed by juveniles are included in the 
same manner as those known to have been committed by adults, 
regardless of the prosecutive action. Complaints which upon inves- 
tigation are learned to be groundless are not included in the tabulations 
which follow. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions of 
part I and II offense classifications. 

EXTENT OF REPORTING AREA 

In the table which follows there is shown the number of police 
departments from which one or more crime reports were received 
during the calendar year 1945. Information is presented for the 
cities divided according to size, and the population figures employed 
are from the 1940 decennial census. 



Population group 


Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 


Cities filing returns 


Total popu- 
lation 


Population repre- 
sented in returns 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


1,078 


1.038 


96.3 


62, 726, 936 


62.101.479 


99.0 








1. Cities over 250,000 


37 

55 

107 

213 

666 


37 

55 

106 

212 

628 


100.0 
100.0 
99.1 
99.5 
94.3 


30, 195, 339 

7. 792, 650 
7, 343, 917 
7, 417, 093 


30, 195, 339 
7, 792, 650 
7, 283, 055 
7- 387. 072 


100. 


2. Cities 100,000 to 250,000-- .. - . 


100. 


3. Cities 50,000 to 100,000 


99.2 


4. Cities 25,000 to 50,000- 


99.6 


5. Cities 10,000 to 25,000 


9, 977, 937 9- 443- 363 


94.6 











Note.— The above table docs not include 2,119 cities, villages, and rural townships aggregating a total 
population of 10,578,962. The cities and villages included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 popula- 
tion filing returns, whereas the rural townships are of varying population groups. 

In addition to the 3,157 city and village police departments which 
forwarded crime reports during 1945, one or more reports were 
received during the year from 2,363 sheriffs and State police organiza- 
tions and from 1 1 agencies in Territories and possessions of the 
United States, making a grand total of 5,531 agencies contributing 
crime reports to the FBI during 1945. 

The following tabulation indicates the status of the reporting area 
in 1945 by States. 



76 



Tabli; 29. — Status of reporting area, Uniform Crime Reports, 194-5, by States 





Urban police departments > 


County sheriffs 


State 


Number 

of cities 


Number 
cities con- 
tributing 


Percent 
contrib- 
uting 


Number 
of counties 


Number 
counties 
contrib- 
uting 


Percent 
contribu- 
ting 


Total 


3,463 


2 3,007 


86.8 


3,070 


3 2,507 


81.7 








59 
16 
53 

167 
30 
32 
8 
1 
69 
78 
26 

208 
98 
89 
64 
56 
54 
26 
24 

122 

125 
78 
48 
87 
23 
36 
5 
18 

178 
22 

203 
76 
12 

186 
74 
34 

355 
19 
50 
19 
57 

196 
25 
14 
53 
40 
45 
93 
12 


41 
14 

37 

165 
27 
29 
4 
1 
50 
fiO 
24 

190 
96 
76 
63 
39 
32 
23 
16 

120 

122 
76 
40 
70 
18 
31 
5 
16 

169 
20 

199 
64 
11 

173 
61 
30 

323 
18 
34 
17 
37 

113 
19 
13 
46 
39 
38 
90 
8 


69.5 
87.5 
69.8 
98,8 
90. 
90.6 
50.0 

100.0 
72.5 
76.9 
92.3 
91.3 
98.0 
85.4 
98.4 
69.6 
59.3 
88.5 
66.7 
98.4 
97.6 
97.4 
83.3 
80.5 
78.3 
86.1 

100.0 
88.9 
94.9 
90.9 
98.0 
84.2 
91.7 
93.0 
82.4 
88.2 
91.0 
94.7 
68.0 
89.5 
64.9 
57.7 
76.0 
92.9 
86.8 
97.5 
84.4 
96.8 
66.7 


67 
14 
75 
58 
63 
8 
3 


37 
14 

47 
54 
55 
8 
3 


55,2 




100.0 




62.7 




93.1 




87.3 


Connecticut < -- - 


100.0 




100.0 






Florida 


67 

159 
44 

102 
92 
99 

105 

120 
64 
16 
23 
14 
83 
87 
82 

114 
56 
93 
17 
10 
21 
31 
62 

100 
53 
88 
77 
36 
67 
5 
46 
69 
95 

254 
29 
14 

100 
39 
55 
71 
23 


50 
98 
44 
93 
78 
97 
104 
94 
52 
10 
19 
14 
77 
77 
58 
94 
55 
86 
17 
5 
4 
26 
62 
60 
51 
83 
66 
29 
67 
5 
30 
61 
47 
183 
29 
10 
74 
37 
55 
68 
20 


74.6 




61.6 


Idaho 


100.0 




91.2 




84.8 




98.0 




99.0 


Kentucky . _. -. 


78.3 




81.3 




62.5 




82.6 


Massachusetts * 


100.0 




92.8 




88.5 




70.7 




82.5 


Montana . - 


98.2 




92.5 


Nevada . 


100.0 
50.0 


New Jersey ' -- 


19.0 




83.9 




100.0 




60.0 




96.2 


Ohio -- 


94.3 




85.7 




80.6 


Pennsylvania* 


100.0 




100.0 




65.2 


South Dakota 


88.4 




49.5 


Texas - --- 


72.0 


Utah 


100.0 


Vermont 


71.4 




74.0 


Washington 


94.9 


West Virginia* - 


100.0 


Wisconsin -- 


95.8 




87.0 







1 The Census Bureau's 1940 classification of communities as urban and rural has been followed. Gen- 
erally, incorporated places with populations of 2,500 or more are classified as urban. 

2 Does not include 151 rural township and village police departments. Includes 1 city for which township 
police forward crime reports. 

3 Includes 143 counties for which State police submit crime reports and 15 counties composed entirely of 
urban communities whose police departments forward crime reports; sheriffs of those counties do not con- 
tribute reports. Does not include 14 State police organizations contributing reports. 

* All counties were counted as contributors because the State police contribute data for rural portions of 
the State. 
' State police also contribute. 



MONTHLY REPORTS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population 

The number of offenses reported during 1945 by 2,267 cities, and the 
rate per 100,000 inhabitants are presented in table 30 with the cities 
divided into 6 groups according to size. The combined population of 
the reporting cities is 67,608,610, representing over 90 percent of the 
urban population of the Nation. 

The data presented in table 30 make it possible for police admin- 
istrators or other interested persons to compare crime rates in local 
communities with national averages for cities of the same general 
population group or with the average urban crime rate for the Nation 
without regard to size of city. 

Except for aggravated assault and larceny the cities with population 
in excess of 100,000 generally show higher crime rates than are re- 
flected for the smaller communities. For aggravated assault, however, 
the rate for cities with population from 50,000 to 100,000 exceeds that 
for cities over 100,000 and for larceny the rate for cities with more 
than 250,000 inhabitants is smaller than the rates for the cities in the 
groups from 25,000 to 250,000. ' 

The following figures indicate the distribution of the reported 
offenses in 1945: 



Offense 



Total 

Larceny. . . 
Burglary -- 
Auto theft. 



Rate per 
100,000 


Percent 


1, 626. 2 


100.0 


889.9' 
359.3 
241.5 


54.7 
22.1 
14.9 



Offense 



Assault 

Robbery 

Rape. 

Murder 

Manslaughter 



Rate per 
100,000 



.59.8 
.'54. 3 
11.5 
5.5 
4.4 



Percent 



3.7 
3.3 



(77) 



78 

Table 30. — Offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 1945; 
number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Population group 



TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

2,267 cities; total population, 
67,608,610: 
Number of offenses known.. 
Rate per 100,000 



GROUP [ 

36 cities over 250,000; total popu- 
lation, 29,894,166: 
Number of offenses known. 
Rate per 100,000 



GROUP II 

S,"; cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,792,650: 
Number of offenses known- 
Rate per 100,000 



GROUP III 

106 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 7,28.3,055: 
Number of oflen.ses known. 
Rate per 100,000 



GROUP IV 

208 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 7,205,835: 
Number of offenses known. 
Rate per 100,000... 



GROUP V 

.572 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 8,640,735: 
Number of offenses known. 
Rate per, 100,000 



GROUP VI 

1,290 cities under 10,000; total 
population, 6,792,169: 
Number of offenses known . . 
Rate per 100,000 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 




3,711 
5.49 



1,933 
6.47 



538 
6.90 



421 
5.78 



282 
3.91 



275 
3. 18 



262 



1,578 
5.28 



449 
5.76 



320 
4.39 



285 
3.96 



200 
2.31 



134 
1.97 



Rape 



7,800 
11.54 



4,366 
14.60 



1,022 
13.11 



627 
8.61 



536 
7.44 



689 
7.97 



,^.60 
8.24 



Rob- 
bery 



36, 697 
64.3 



23, 148 
77.4 



4,703 
60.4 



2,929 
40.2 



2, \hO 
29.8 



2 172 

'25. I 



1, 595 
23.5 



-■Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



40,435 
69.8 



19, 349 
64,7 



5,712 
73.3 



,5, 710 
78.4 



4,338 
60.2 



2,876 
33.3 



2,450 
36.1 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny- 
theft 



1 209. 190 
359.3 



1 87, 40.'! 
426.2 



34, 937 
448.3 



27, 294 
374.8 



22, 514 
312.4 



22, .533 
260.8 



14. 509 
213.6 



1 518,115 



1 190, .527 
929.0 



80. 256 
1,029.9 



71, 612 
9.S3. 3 



67, 658 
938.9 



70, 377 
814.5 



37, 685 
554.8 



Auto 
theft 



163, 269 
241.5 



79, 684 
266.6 



24, 733 
317.4 



18. 010 
247.3 



14, 779 
205.1 



16,004 
185.2 



10, 0.59 

US. 1 



' The number ofoffenses and rates for burglary and larceny-theft are based on reports as follows: Groups 
I-VI, 2,265 cities, total population, 58,222,281; group I, 34 cities, total iiopulation, 20,.'507,837. 



79 

Annual Trends, Offenses Known to the Police 

Crime in 1945 rose 12.4 percent over the figures for 1944. Not 
since the inception of the Uniform Crime Reporting program in 1930 
has there been recorded such an over-all and widespread increase as was 
registered in 1945. Each offense classification was up with robberies, 
leading the field, showing a 23.6 percent jump, followed by increases 
of 18.7 percent in auto thefts, 17.0 percent in burglaries, 16.2 percent 
in negligent manslaughters, and 10.1 percent in murders. Aggravated 
assaults rose 8.7 percent and an 8.6 percent rise was recorded for lar- 
cenies. Offenses of rape, wliich for a number of years have been on 
the upswing, rose 5.7 percent in 1945. 

The foregoing figures are based on the reports for 1944 and 1945 
received from 1,996 cities of various sizes representing a combined 
population of over 65 million. The detailed tabulations are presented 
in tables 31 and 32. 

With the cities divided according to population groups in table 31, 
increases were recorded in the total offenses for each group of cities. 
In fact, increases were recorded for each offense class within each 
population group with only two exceptions. In cities with population 
from 10,000 to 25,000, murders declined 2.2 percent and rapes de- 
clined 0.6 percent but substantial increases were recorded for the 6 
other oft'ense classes in this population group. 

In examining the trends for various sections of the country, without 
regard to size of city, marked increases are recorded for the North, 
the South, and the West and generally for each offense class within 
each of the nine geographic divisions as presented in table 32 with 
four exceptions: Murders declined 5.3 percent in New England; 
negligent manslaughters decreased 4.5 percent in the South Atlantic 
States; and offenses of rape were off 4.6 percent and 6.3 percent in the 
Middle Atlantic and West North Central States, respectively. 

Although the increase in crime in 1945 was general throughout the 
country it would appear that most of the heavy increases were re- 
corded in the Western and Northern regions. In the Pacific. States the 
increases ranged from 4.0 percent for murder to 25.6 percent for auto 
theft, 42.7 percent for negligent manslaughter and 43.2 percent for 
robbery. In New England with a 5.3 percent drop in murders the 
increases ranged from 9.9 percent for larceny to 26.2 percent for 
robbery, 28.9 percent for aggravated assault, and 33.6 percent for 
manslaughter by negligence. 

The South Atlantic States reflected the most moderate change but 
even for that area the total volume of crime was up 5.0 percent. 

Table 31 presents the crime trend data for the cities represented 
grouped according to size and in table 32 the cities are grouped by 
regions and geographic divisions. The figures for individual States 

684714°— 46 2 



80 



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O 

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O 
CL 

LU 



I— UJ 



CO 
UJ 



u 




4jj^ 





v« 




Q> 




■^^ 




0) ^ 




^ ^ <N 






•o 


-^r 


^ ^ 


<> 

*- 
I 






UJ ^ 

- ir 



c> 

-:!• 
CO 

■I 58 
^ § 

O -J 
C "5 

— - Q. 

o 






81 

used in compiling the data for the geographic divisions and regions 
are also presented but the percent change for the individual States 
is not included since in some instances the figures are so small as to 
render insignificant large percent changes based on them. 



Table 31. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, January to December, 
inclusive, 1944^45, by population groups 



Population group 


Total 


Murder 
and 

non neg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


Total, 1,996 cities; popula- 
tion, 65,844,797: 
1944 . 


877, 332 
986, 060 
-t-12.4 


3,272 

3,603 

+10.1 


2,510 
2,916 
+16.2 


7,243 
7,654 

+5.7 


29. 145 
36, 036 
+23.6 


36, 319 
39, 466 

+8.7 


182, 254 

213. 301 

+ 17.0 


481.616 

622, 807 

+8.6 


134 973 


1945 


160 277 


Percent change. _ _ - 


+ 18.7 


Group I, 36 cities; popula- 
tion, 29,894,166: 
1944_.. . ...... 


375, 527 

430. 777 

-fl4. 7 

136, 635 
152, 357 
+11.5 

112,677 
124, 865 
+10.8 

98, 272 

107,494 

+9.4 

102, 800 

112, 313 

+9.3 

51,421 
58, 254 
+13.3 


1,743 

1,933 

+10.9 

494 

538 

+8.9 

373 
394 

+5.6 

238 

277 

+16.4 

267 

261 

-2.2 

157 

200 

+27.4 


1,346 

1,578 
+17.2 

410 

449 

+9.5 

273 

314 

+15.0 

231 

276 

+19.5 

153 

193 

+26.1 

97 

106 

+9.3 


4,110 
4,366 
+6.2 

926 

1,022 

+10.4 

607 

622 

+2.5 

480 

511 

+6.5 

675 

671 

-0.6 

445 

462 

+3.8 


18, 484 
23,148 
+25.2 

3,737 
4,703 
+25.8 

2,361 
2, 875 
+21.8 

1,680 
2,025 
+20.5 

1,768 
2,063 
+16.7 

1,115 
1,222 
+9.6 


18, 271 

19, 349 

+5.9 

5,164 
5,712 
+10.6 

5,037 
5.601 
+11.2 

3,910 
4,266 
+9.1 

2,305 
2,624 
+13.8 

1,632 

1,914 

+17.3 


81,007 
95, 691 
+18.1 

30, 323 
34, 937 
+15.2 

22, 798 
26,822 
+17.7 

18, 295 
21.448 
+17.2 

19, 108 
21, 906 
+ 14.6 

10,723 
12, 497 
+16.5 


185, 210 

205, 035 

+10.7 

74, 148 

80,256 

+8.2 

66, 243 

70, 532 

+6.5 

61,113 
64,592 
+5.7 

64, 966 

69, 058 

+6.3 

29, 936 
33, 334 
+11.4 


65 356 


1945 


79, 677 
+21.9 

21 433 


Percent change . 


Group II, 55 cities; popula- 
tion, 7,792,650: 

1944... 


1945 


24 740 




+15.4 

14,985 
17, 705 


Group III, 104 cities; popu- 
lation, 7,175,075: 
1944 . 


1945 . .- 




+18.2 
12, 325 


Group IV, 200 cities; popu- 
lation, 6,911,125: 
1944 


1945 


14. 099 


Percent change 


+14 4 


Group V, 556 cities; popu- 
lation, 8,406,205: 
1944 


13,558 


1945... .- 


15,537 




+14.6 


Group VI, 1,045 cities; popu- 
lation, 5,665,576: 
1944 


7,316 


1945 .. 


8,519 


Percent change 


+16.4 







82 




83 



Table 32. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, January to December, 
inclusive, 1944~43, by regions, geographic divisions, and States 



Regions, Divisions, 
and States 


Total 


Murder 
and 
Non- 
negli- 
gent 
Man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter "by 
Negli- 
gence 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
Assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


Total, l,99fi cities; popula- 
tion, 65,844,797: 
1944 -- 


877, 332 
986. 060 

+ 12.4 


3.272 
3,603 
+ 10.1 


2,510 

2,916 

+ 16.2 


7,243 
7,654 

+5.7 


29, 145 
36. 036 
+23.6 


36, 319 
39, 466 

+8.7 


182, 254 
213. 301 
+17.0 


481,616 

522, 807 

+8.6 


134, 973 


1945 _ 


160, 277 


Percent change . 


+ 18.7 






The North, 1,370 cities; 
population, 46,657,717: 
1944 


444,515 
500, 284 
+ 12.5 


1,358 

1.552 

+ 14.3 


1,454 

1,617 

+11.2 


4,336 

4,469 
+2.8 


15,617 
18. 284 
+ 17.8 


16, 108 
16. 224 

+7.4 


97, 650 
115,087 
+ 17.9 


240, 608 

262. 483 

+9.1 


88. 488 


1945 


80, 698 


Percent change . 


+ 17.7 






New England, 179 cities; 
population, 5,901,280: 
1944 


51,575 
58, 176 

+ie.8 


75 

71 

-5.3 


134 

179 

+33.6 


365 

455 

+24.7 


764 

964 

+26.2 


585 

754 

+28.9 


13, 089 
15, 466 
+18.2 


27. 869 

SO. 635 

+9.9 


8,694 


1945 - . 


9,652 


Percent change 


+11.0 






Connecticut, 27 cities; 
population, 1,090,877: 
1944 


11,683 
12,931 

3,094 
3,419 

29, 594 
32, 813 


25 

16 

7 

:< 
37 


44 
42 

7 
10 

70 


50 
65 

21 
25 

247 
309 

35 
26 

12 
27 


143 

184 

42 

45 

523 
615 

1 
9 

51 
108 

4 
3 

3,566 
4,476 
+25.5 


183 
243 

29 
33 

305 
368 

4 
12 

61 
96 

3 

2 

5,590 
6,161 
+10.2 


3. 038 
3,434 

719 
796 

7,645 
9,089 

351 
353 

1,236 
1,660 

100 
134 

26, 913 
30, 436 
+13.1 


6,489 
7,296 

1,828 
1,9,54 

15,4.''4 
16, 241 

940 
1,059 

2,573 
3,476 

585 
609 

53, 383 

58, 098 

+8.8 


1,711 


1945 


1,651 


Maine, 14 cities; population, 
278,320: 
1944 


441 


1945 


552 


Massachusetts, 102 cities; 
population, 3,629,004: 
1944 


5, 313 


1945 


46 


102 

6 

8 
19 


G, 043 


New Hampshire, 14 cities; 
population, 247,320: 

1944 


1,458 
1,645 

4,987 
6,539 

761 
829 

119, 115 

132,676 

+11.4 


3 

1 

3 

5 


117 


1945 - . 


179 


Rhode Island, 15 cities; 
population, 578,992: 
1944 


1,043 
1,148 


1945 


Vermont, 7 cities; popula- 
tion, 76,767: 
1944 


69 


1945 






2 

;, 595 
1,522 
-4.6 


79 


Middle Atlantic. 475 cities; 
population, 19,292,253: 

1944. _ 

1945 


.^7.5 

575 

+21.1 


789 

872 

+10.5 


26, 804 
30, 536 


Percent change 


+13.9 






New .Jersey, 120 cities; 
population, 2,687,674: 
1944 


26, 436 
28, 400 

56, 676 
63, 914 

36, 003 
40, 362 

S19, 2U 

U5, 548 

+12.0 


(13 
72 

271 
335 

141 
168 

638 

734 

+15.0 


148 
136 

441 

200 
221 

407 

426 

+4.7 


220 
241 

1,005 
861 

;i70 
420 

1,835 
1,975 
+7.6 


657 
826 

1,264 
1,735 

1,645 
1,915 

10, Hi 
11.186 
+10. 6 


1,230 
1,276 

3,062 
3,202 

1,298 
1, 683 

7,739 
7,996 
+3.3 


7,156 
7,747 

9,690 
10, a34 

10, 067 
12,055 

46, 720 
55, 675 
+19.2 


12,4.55 
13,336 

26, 345 
28, 982 

14, .583 
1.5,780 

126, 258 

136, 883 

+8.4 


4,507 


1945 . 


4,766 


New York, 156 cities; popu- 
lation, 10,945,099: 
1944 


14, .598 


194.5 _ 

Pennsylvania, 199 cities; 
population, 5,659,480: 
1944 


17,650 
7,699 


1945 


8,120 


East North Central, 469 
cities; population, 16,137,- 
525: 

1944 

1945 

Percent change 


25, 505 
30. 67S 
+20.3 






Illinois, 120 cities; popula- 
tion. 5,333,055: 
1944 


54, 268 
60, 331 


249 
254 


101 
108 


483 
560 


4, .595 
4,639 


2,371 
2,530 


13,888 
16, 253 


26, 844 
29,175 


5, 737 


1945... 


6,812 



84 



Table 32.— Annual trends, offenses known to the police, January to December 
inclusive, 1944-4^, by regions, geographic divisions, and States — Continued 



Regions, Divisions, 
and States 


Total 


Murder 
and 
Non- 
negli- 
gent 
Man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
Negli- 
gence 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
Assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


Indiana, 59 cities; popula- 
tion, 1,613,485: 
1944 


26, 927 
29, 541 

59, 863 
67,031 

62, 619 
71, 166 

15,537 
17,479 

54,611 
63, 8H4 
+17.0 


57 
83 

134 
136 

187 
240 

11 
21 

170 

172 

■\-1.2 


46 

55 

103 
91 

127 
153 

30 

19 

lU 

no 

+lg.9 


130 
156 

754 
787 

400 
382 

68 
90 

641 

607 

-6.3 


749 

844 

2,090 
2,690 

2,549 
2,833 

129 
180 

1,076 
1,668 
+54- S 


819 

988 

2,437 
2,552 

1,995 
1,794 

117 
132 

1,194 
1,313 
+10.0 


4,821 
6,191 

11,814 
13, 920 

14,181 
16,863 

2,016 
2,448 

10, 928 
IS, 610 
+23.6 


16,B23 
16, 994 

35, 823 
38,879 

35, 475 
39,460 

11,493 
12,375 

53, 096 
36, 847 
+11. S 


3,682 


1945 


4,230 


Michigan, 88 cities; popula- 
tion, 3,247,197: 
1944. 


6,708 


1945 


7,976 


Ohio, 135 cities; population, 
4,369,837: 
1944 


7,705 


1945 


9,441 


Wisconsin, 67 cities; popula- 
tion, 1,573,951: 
1944 


1,673 


1945 


2,214 


West North Central, 247 
cities; population, 5,326,- 
659: 

1944 - 


7,483 


1945 . 


9,737 


Percent change 


+30.1 






Iowa, 57 cities; population, 
949,722: 

1944 - 


9,049 
10, 688 

8,790 
9,475 

11,011 
12, 648 

17,384 
21,070 

5,896 
7,476 

1,029 
986 

1,452 
1,641 

222, 316 

243, 731 

-f9.6 


17 
16 

25 
10 

17 
17 

95 
110 

13 
9 

2 
2 

1 
2 

1,541 
1,653 

-f7.3 


24 

15 

13 
12 

35 
42 

38 
54 

12 
11 

"i 

2 

5 

566 

619 

-1-9.4 


49 
50 

69 
44 

81 
76 

295 
290 

33 
37 

9 
6 

6 
5 

1.247 
1.342 

-f7.6 


103 
144 

160 
212 

169 
257 

543 
929 

62 
99 

9 
7 

29 
10 

6,033 
7,051 
-i-16.9 


88 
74 

85 
115 

100 
114 

829 
864 

82 
134 

5 
5 

5 

7 

16, 810 

17, 970 
-f6.9 


1,638 
2,361 

1,893 
2,257 

2,267 
2,528 

3,545 
4,455 

1,092 
1,441 

228 
194 

265 
274 

44,225 
51,744 
-1-17.0 


5,919 
6,491 

5,355 
5,499 

6,995 
7,715 

9,723 
11,256 

3,509 
4,246 

637 
625 

958 
1,015 

120, 077 

126, 965 

-1-5.7 


1,211 


1945 


1,537 


Kansas, 44 cities; popula- 
tion, 660,836: 
1944 - - 


1,190 


1945 


1,320 


Minnesota, 65 cities; popu- 
lation, 1,335,845: 
1944. 


1,347 


1945 --- 


1,899 


Missouri, 38 cities; popula- 
tion, 1,662,705: 
1944. - 


2,316 


1945 


3,112 


Nebraska, 20 cities; popula- 
tion, 459,504: 
1944... 


1,093 


1945 


1,499 


North Dakota, 10 cities; 
population, 121,649: 
1944. 


139 


1945 


147 


South Dakota, 13 cities, pop- 
ulation, 136,398: 
1944- 


187 


1945 


223 


The South,' 350 cities; pop- 
ulation, 11,659,568: 
1944 


31.817 


1945 


38. 387 




-1-14.4 






South Atlantic,' 175 cities; 
population, 5,636,150: 
1944 


110,891 

116,381 

+B.0 


760 

764 

+1.9 


S9g 

S79 

-4-6 


68S 

71t 

+4.t 


3,180 
S.4G6 
+9.0 


10, 198 

10. 789 

+5.8 


•/, 1G3 
23, 771 
+12.3 


68, 684 

69. 242 

+1.0 


15,941 


1945 


17,368 




+8.9 






Delaware, 2 cities; popula- 
tion, 116,718: 
1944 


2,491 
2,604 

22, 257 
24. 830 


JO 
6 

130 
136 


16 
12 

63 
70 


6 
3 

69 
78 


104 
120 

611 
§27 


12 

23 

1,679 
1,713 


571 
527 

4,757 
6,910 


1,467 
1,512 

12,185 
13,020 


306 


1945 


301 


Florida, 31 cities; population, 
846,871: 

1944. 


2,8&3 


1945 


3,277 



I Includes tbe District of Columbia. 



85 

Table 32. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, January to December, 
inclusive, 1944^4^, by regions, geographic divisions, and States — Continued 



Regions, Divisions, 
and States 



Georgia, 21 cities; popula- 
tion, 684,316: 

1944. - 

1945 

Maryland, 13 cities; popula- 
tion, 1,012,878: 

1944 

1945 

North Carolina, 36 cities; 
population, 741,199: 

1944 _ 

1945 

South Carolina, 14 cities; 
population, 283,376: 

1944 

1945 

Virginia, 34 cities; popula- 
tion, 856,518: 

1944 

1945 

West Virginia, 23 cities; 
population, 431,183: 

1944 

1945_ 

East South Central, 68 
cities; population, 2,309,- 
853: 

1944 

1945 

Percen t change 

Alabama, 15 cities; popula- 
tion, 593,660: 

1944 

1945 

Kentucky, 21 cities; popula- 
tion, 649,827: 

1944 

1945 

Mississippi, 14 cities; popu- 
lation, 253,476; 

1944 

1945 

Tennessee, 18 cities; popula- 
tion, 812,890: 

1944. 

1945. _- 

West South Central, 107 
cities; population, 3,713,- 
565: 

1944 .-_ .._ 

1945 

Percent change 

Arkansas, 11 cities; popula- 
tion, 215,475: 

1944 

1945 

Louisiana, 16 cities; popula- 
tion, 797,754: 

1944 

1945. 

Oklahoma, 28 cities; popula- 
tion, 628,377: 

1944 

1945_ 

Texas, 52 cities; population, 
2.071,959; 

1944 

1945 



Total 



Murder 
and 
Non- 
negli- 
gent 
Man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



16, 032 
16, 175 



11,979 
12, 767 



15, 214 
15, 892 



6,676 
6,440 



21, 159 
21, 716 



4.821 
5,659 



40, 901 
4-5, 266 
+10.7 



11,159 
11,877 



13,012 
14, 971 



4,176 
4,719 



12, 654 

13, 699 



70, 524 
82, 084 
+16.4 



3,961 
4,620 



8,378 
8,747 



11,551 
14, 375 



46, 634 
54, 342 



102 



S58 

S98 

+11.2 



491 
+1S.4 



265 
310 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
Negli- 
gence 



159 
+S0.3 



181 
+19.1 



116 



Rape 



250 
+8.S 



380 
+14.1 



190 
225 



Rob- 
bery 



429 
624 



773 
762 



194 
289 



1,340 
l,74li 
+30.3 



250 
342 



463 
743 



556 
569 



1,513 
1, 

+21.6 



164 
211 



183 
214 



238 
330 



1,084 



Aggra- 
vated 
Assault 



1,033 
1,087 



1,249 
1,252 



3,445 
3, 



1,533 
1,875 



322 

248 



3, 139 
3, 644 
+16.1 



1,208 
1,365 



780 
857 



365 
480 



786 
942 



3,537 
+1.8 



194 
329 



772 
758 



305 
266 



2,202 
2,184 



Bur- 
glary — 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



2,898 
3, 095 



1,848 
2,281 



2,788 
3,296 



1, 043 
956 



4,249 
4,384 



1, 183 
1,286 



9,450 
11,008 
+16.5 



2,543 
3,161 



3,371 
3,816 



861 



2,752 
3,170 



13, 612 
16,965 

+24. e 



1,053 
1,317 



2,384 
2,945 



11, 937 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



9,152 
9,005 



5, 140 
5,417 



6,879 
6,791 



4,157 
3,927 



11,481 
11, 304 



2,461 
2,868 



20, 095 

20, 760 

+3.3 



5,613 
5,472 



6,227 
6,587 



2,264 
2,611 



5,991 
6,090 



41, 298 
46, 963 
+13.7 



2, 453 
2,540 



4,233 
4,304 



7,165 
8,724 



27,44 
31,395 



Auto 
theft 



2,258 
2,311 



3, 054 
3,040 



1, 550 
1. 5.58 



818 
922 



2.766 
3, 003 



606 
911 



6,166 
7,301 
+18.4 



1, 357 
1,341 



1,998 
2,738 



599 
583 



2,212 
2, 6.39 



9.710 
11,728 
+20.8 



505 
722 



1,960 
1,971 



1, 330 
],94:i 



5,915 
7,092 



86 



Table 32. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, January to December, 
inclusive, 1944-45, by regions, geographic divisions, and States — Continued 



Regions, Divisions, 
and States 


Total 


Murder 
and 
Non- 
negli- 
gent 
Man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
Negli- 
gence 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
Assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


.\uto 
theft 


The West, 276 cities; popu- 
lation, 7,527,512: 
1944 . - . 


210,501 

242, 045 

-flS.O 


373 

398 

-f6.7 


490 
680 

+38.8 


1,660 

1,853 

+11.6 


7,595 
10, 701 
+40.9 


4,401 
5,272 
+19.8 


40, 379 
46. 470 
+ 15.1 


120, 933 

133,379 

+ 10.3 


34, 670 


1945 


43. 292 


Percent change 


+24.9 


Mountain, 87 cities; popu- 
lation, 1,461,854: 

1944...- 


31,215 
35, 135 
+1S.3 


46 

58 

+26. 1 


75 

88 

+17.3 


225 

286 

+27.1 


730 

873 

+19. 6 


470 

662 

+19.6 


6,385 
7, 321 
+14-1 


19,616 

21,616 

+9.7 


3,728 


1945 


4,431 
+18 9 


Percent change .. 






Arizona, 9 cities; popula- 
tion, 140,199: 
1944 --- 


4,398 
5,418 

10,495 
11,745 

2,938 
3,165 

2,305 
2,635 

1,788 
2,093 

1,492 
1,602 

5,947 
6,417 

1,912 
2,060 

179, 226 

206, 910 

+15.4 


12 
12 

16 
22 

2 
1 

1 
2 

4 
4 

3 
9 

7 
4 

1 

4 

S27 

340 

+4-0 


5 
14 

32 
33 

"3 

5 
8 

1 
3 

3 

2 

28 
23 

1 
2 

415 

692 

+42.7 


39 

45 

107 
142 

13 
11 

10 
10 

12 
19 

11 
5 

22 
43 

11 
11 

1,4.35 
1,567 
+9.2 


121 
161 

298 
344 

20 
41 

37 
52 

59 
73 

16 
34 

139 
120 

40 

48 

6, 865 
9,828 
+43.2 


140 
152 

134 

1,58 

14 
20 

23 

15 

36 
27 

35 
64 

70 
95 

18 
31 

3, 931 
4.710 
+19.8 


703 

815 

2, 539 
3,202 

552 
562 

344 
397 

412 
520 

302 

283 

1,260 
1,173 

273 
369 

33, 994 
39, 149 
+15. 2 


2,826 
3,466 

6,376 
6,686 

1,954 
2,044 

1,618 
1,843 

952 
1,182 

883 
927 

3,650 
4,024 

1,3.57 
1,344 

101,317 

111,863 

+10.4 


552 


1945 . 


753 


Colorado, 19 cities; popula- 
tion, 540,125: 
1944 


993 


1945 


1,158 


Idaho, 16 cities; population, 
135,008: 
1944 


383 


1945 


483 


Montana, 12 cities; popula- 
tion, 169,728: 

1944 


267 


1945 


308 


Nevada, 5 cities; popula- 
tion, 59,869: 

1944 


312 


1945 


265 


New Mexico, 8 cities; popu- 
lation, 86,538: 
1944 


239 


1945 


278 


Utah, 11 cities; population, 
250, 899: 
1944.-.. 


771 


1945 


935 


Wyoming, 7 cities; popula- 
tion, 79,488: 

1944 


211 


1945 


251 


Pacific, 189 cities; popula- 
tion, 6,065,658: 
1944 


30,942 


1945 


38. 801 




+25. 6 






California, 140 cities; popu- 
lation, 4,740,896: 
1944 


141,966 
164, 373 

14, 126 
14, 714 

23, 134 

27, 823 


284 
277 

11 

17 

32 
46 


354 

477 

16 
24 

45 
91 


1,314 
1,421 

62 
03 

59 
83 


5,880 
8,291 

508 
558 

477 
979 


3,488 
4, 260 

236 
209 

207 
241 


26, 140 
30, 005 

2,992 
3,506 

4, 862 
5, 638 


79,511 
88,471 

8,220 
8,007 

13, 586 
15,385 


24,995 


1945 - 

Oregon, 22 cities; popula- 
tion, 455,510: 
1944 


31,171 
2,081 


1945 


2,330 


Washington, 27 cities; popu- 
lation, 869,252: 
1944 


3, 866 


1945 


5,360 







87 



MONTHLY VARIATIONS 
Offenses Known to the Police 



1945 



405 CTTJES TOTAL POPULATION 52,175,706 



(Offenses Against the Person) 



Murder 




JAN. FEB. MAR APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC 


l«0 






130 


- 


■2C 


A / 


110 
100 
90 


.rAJ 


y^ 


eo 


-^ 


70 


- 


60 


- 











Negligent Manslaughter 

JAN. FEB. MAR APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



•WWwW ' #]^WII^ SMUWWI^ 




_l I I ' I ' 





Rape 

JAN FEB MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV DEC 


LSO 
l»0 


WiBW^ ■■•^Wi*!" .yJywiWMWP -nplf. 




130 


■ 


IJO 


■ 


110 


i-.y'\/>v/\ 


90 


/ ^ \ 


to 


\ 


70 


\ 


60 


- 





Aggravated Assault 

FEB MAR. APR MAY JUN^ JUL\ AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



^r^ — ^ 1-^-— 1 — -1 — ' -1 '■ ' ! ■ ■ — 1 r — -I — -T — ^-f- 




a 



-J 1 t L. 



FlGURE 14. 



684714°— 46 3 



88 

Monthly Variations, Offenses Known to the Police 

Crime in 1945, as in prior years, was definitely aflFected by the 
change of the seasons. Murders, rapes, and other felonious assaults 
were most frequent during the long, warm days of the third quarter, 
with murdei's reaching a peak in vSeptember, and rapes and aggravated 
assaults most frequent in August. Offenses of manslaughter by negli- 
gence (mostly negligent traffic deaths) were least frequent during the 
second and third quarters, rising sharply w4th the added darkness and 
generally less favorable driving conditions of winter to a peak in 
November. 

Crimes against property, on the other hand, were generally less 
frequent during the first and second quarters, increasing in frequency 
toward the end of the year. These predatory crimes generally seem 
most apt to occur when the days are the shortest and the nights the 
longest. 

The upward seasonal curve for robberies was somewhat more ac- 
centuated in 1945 than usual due largely to the heavy increase in the 
number of these offenses committed during the last of the year as 
compared with prior years. In December the daily average number 
of robberies was more than 80 percent greater than the daily average 
for April. 

A somewhat comparable situation to the robbery picture is found 
in the figures for auto theft with the daily average car thefts over 50 
percent higher in October than in January. 

For burglary the peak month was November and larcenies were 
most frequent in October. For both of these crimes January showed 
the lowest daily average. 

The seasonal crime curves are graphically presented in figures 14 
and 15. These charts show the extent to which the daily average 
number of offenses committed for the individual months exceeds, or 
falls short of, the daily average for the year. The curves show how 
the various types of crimes tend to concentrate during certain periods 
of the year, becoming less frequent in others. The data are supported 
by the information presented in table 33. 



89 



Table 33. — Monthly variations, offenses known to the police {daily average), 
January to December, inclusive, 1945, 405 cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 52,175,706, based on 1940 decennial census] 



Month 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



Auto 
theft 



January-December. _ . 

January to March 

April to June.. . 

July to September _., 
October to Eecember 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 



8.70 



7.21 



17.95 



90.2 



494.3 



1, 163. 2 



9.99 
9.U 



6.76 
6.75 
6.35 
9.97 



17.50 
18.60 
19.64 
16.04 



78.3 
74.9 
94-6 
112.7 



90.8 
97.0 
107.8 
89.0 



461.1 
478.6 
601.0 
635.8 



1, 039. 5 
1,177.9 
1,216.8 
1,216.1 



6.68 
7.11 
7.45 
8.20 
8.94 
8.17 
9.97 
9.52 
10. 50 
8.94 
9. 10 
9.68 



7.42 
6.36 
6.45 
5.67 
5.48 
6.10 
5.94 
6.52 
6.60 
8.68 
11.27 
10.00 



15.45 
18.79 
18.39 
19.27 
17.42 
19.17 
18.58 
20.68 
19.67 
18.65 
16. 53 
12.97 



78.9 
79.5 
76.5 
68.4 
76.7 
79.5 
83.1 
97.8 
103.1 
102.5 
110.1 
125.6 



83.0 
93.5 
96.1 
96.5 
96.4 
98.3 
104. 5 
113.9 
104.9 
87.7 
88.4 
90.7 



434.9 
469.6 
479.6 
452. 5, 
492.1 
491.0 
478.7 
505. 1 
519.7 
528.9 
540.3 
538.3 



959.4 
991.8 
1, 162. 8 
1,143.5 
1,177.9 
1,212.2 
1, 197. 7 
1, 224. 4 
1, 22s. 5 
1, 297. 
1, 223. 9 
1, 127. 5 



317.1 
347.1 
404.1 



299.8 
314.5 
336.7 
339.8 
349.3 
352. 
345. 3 
427.7 
440.4 
453. 1 
432.2 
416.0 



Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location 

The amount of crime per miit of population as shown in table 30 
varies among cities of different population groups. There is an even 
greater variation in the crime rates for different sections of the country. 
This is only to be expected since the many social and economic factors 
directly affecting the extent of crime vary among the several States 
and larger geographic divisions. 

For this reason police administrators are frequently interested in 
comparing figures for their respective communities with the average 
for cities in the same general locality. Therefore, the rates shown in 
table 30 are subdivided in tables 35 and 36 to present the data for each 
State and geographic division. The information shown in tables 30, 
35, and 36 are supported by the data presented in table 34, whicli shows 
the number of cities whose reports were used in preparing the crime 
rate tables. 

In examining the crime rates for the several States and geographic 
divisions it should be remembered that the 1940 decennial census popu- 
lation figures were used in preparing the data presented and there have 
doubtless been marked changes in the population in many communities 
since 1940. More recent population estimates are possibly available 
in some instances locally for the use of law-enforcement officials in 
calculating crime rates for their respective communities; however, the 
1940 decennial census figures were used in calculating the rates pub- 
lished in the bulletin since no later figures were available for all cities. 



90 



1945 



MONTHLY VARIATIONS 
Offenses Known to the Police 

405 CITIES TOTAL POPULATION 52475,706 

(Offenses Against Property) 



Robbery 



JAN FEB. MAR. APH WAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



Wbittr ', SiMTOii; %miMMr : ,fiJ^ 



I"" ' r I '■ I"""!" — r 



/ 



"X^ 



-J I L. 



Burglary 

JAN FEB WAR, APR. WAY JUNE JUH AUS SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



^^ 



Larceny 



JAN FEB WAR APR WAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



V^M«r S|>rin,g SwwwwT ^ JMJ 



_i I u 




Auto Theft 



JAN FEB WAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AU6 SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



■I' ' ■! I — -t- — r — I ' I ' ■ I' — -1 r — 



_i i I I _i J i_ 



Figure 15. 



91 



Table 34. — Number of cities in each State included in the tabulation of uniform 
crime reports, January to December, inclusive, 1945 





Total 


Population group 


Division and State 


Over 

250,000 * 


lOO.OftO to 
' 250,000 


50,000 to 
100,000 


25,000 to 
50,000 


10,000 to 
25,000 


Less than 
10,000 


Total population, 6",- 
608,610 . 


2,267 


36 


55 


106 


208 


672 


1,290 






New England: 

Population, 6,071,357 


191 


2 


10 


13 


34 


71 


61 




28 
17 
109 
14 
16 

634 




3 


2 
1 
8 
1 
1 


8 
2 
16 

2 
5 

1 

37 


8 
(1 
44 
6 
6 
1 

146 


■J 


Maine -. 




8 


Massachusetts 


1 


7 


33 


New Hampshire 


5 


Rhode Island 


1 




3 


Vermont 




5 


Middle Atlantic: 

Population, 19,669,645 


6 


11 


24 


311 




138 

168 
228 

528 


1 
3 
2 

8 


4 
4 

3 

10 


7 
6 
11 

23 


15 
10 
12 

68 


36 
46 
63 

118 


75 


New York . 


99 




137 


Kast North Central: 

Population, 16,436.969.-.. 


311 


Illinois 


140 
67 
99 

146 

76 

269 


1 
1 

1 
4 
1 

4 


1 
3 
2 
4 


7 
4 
6 
4 
2 

8 


13 
9 
9 
14 
13 

12 


32 
14 
24 
32 
16 

63 


86 


Indiana .. 


36 


Michigan 


57 


Ohio 


88 


Wisconsin -.. 


44 


VVest North Central: 

Population, 5,463,017 


5 


177 


Iowa... 


61 
48 
67 
48 
22 
10 
13 

208 




1 
2 

1 


4 

1 


6 
1 
1 
2 
_- 

1 

20 


10 
14 
11 
13 
7 
3 
5 

46 


40 




2' 
2 


30 


Minnesota 


52 




2 
1 


29 


Nebraska. 


1 


13 


North Dakota 




6 


South Dakota 










South Atlantic: 

Population, 5,843,402 


3 


7 


17 


116 


Delaware . 


4 

1 
33 
32 
14 

45 
18 
36 
25 

83 


i" 


1 








3 


District of Columbia 










Florida 


3 


1 

4 


4 
1 
2 
4 
2 
5 
2 

10 


9 
6 
4 
11 
4 
6 
6 

22 


16 


Georgia 


1 
1 


20 


Maryland . 




7 


North Carolina. 


1 


4 
2 
3 
3 

4 


25 


South Carolina 




10 


Virginia... 




2 


20 


West Virginia 




14 


East South Central: 

Population, 2,408,261 


3 


3 


41 


Alabama 


22 
24 
17 
20 

139 


1 
1 




2 

1 
1 


3 

5 

1 
1 

. 13 


3 

5 

I 
37 


13 


Kentucky 




12 


Mississippi. .. 




6 


Tennessee ... ... .. 


1 

4 


3 
3 


10 


West South Central: 

Population, 3,955,125 


8 


74 


Arkansas 


17 
20 
35 
67 

1C4 






1 
1 


1 
3 
2 

7 

7 


6 
4 
11 
16 

25 


9 


Louisiana ... 


1 




11 


Oklahoma 


2 

1 

1 


20 


Texas 


3 
1 


6 
2 


34 


Mountain: 

Population, 1,560,222 


68 


Arizona 


11 

22 
18 
14 

5 
13 
13 

8 

211 






1 
1 


1 
1 

1 
2 




9 


Colorado 


1 




5 
5 
4 
1 
4 
2 
4 

46 


14 


Idaho 




12 


Montana 








g 


Nevada 








4 


New Mexico 








1 
1 


8 


Utah 




1 




9 


Wyoming 






4 


Pacific: 

Population, 6,200,612 


5 


5 


7 


17 


132 




153 
26 
32 


3 

1 
1 


3 




13 

1 
3 


32 
5 
8 


95 


Oregon _. 


19 


Washington 


2 




18 









92 



Table 35. — Number of offenses known to the -police per 100,000 -inhabitants, January 

to December, -inclusive, 19^5, by geographic divisions and States 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 



Division and State 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggravated 
assault 


Burglary- 
breaking or 
entering 


Larceny- 
theft 


Auto theft 


Total 


5.49 


54.3 


59.8 


> 369. 3 


> 889. 9 


241.6 








1.17 


16.7 


12.8 


260.6 


515.0 


162.6 








1.46 
1.02 
1.22 
.40 
.85 


16.8 
15.6 
17.6 

3.6 
18.4 

3.9 

23.1 


22.2 
11.9 
10.4 

4.9 
16.3 

2.6 

31.7 


314.1 
279.0 
249.4 
142.7 
283.2 
174.6 

2 218.6 


667.0 
679.3 
446.1 
428.2 
592.5 
793.3 

2 427.9 


151.1 




190.2 


Massachusetts .-. 


16.5. 7 
72.4 


Rhode Island. 


195.5 
102.9 


Middle Atlantic 


2.95 


156.5 






New Jersey 


' 2. 69 
3.05 
2.91 

4.50 


30.4 

15.8 
33.2 

68.6 


46.8 
29.2 
29.2 

49.0 


278.8 
3 178. 1 
<211.8 

342.5 


477.1 
3 482.7 
«342.8 

842.4 


172.3 




160.8 


Pennsylvania 


140.7 


East North Central . 


189.2 






Illinois - - 


4.74 
5.12 
4.11 
5.43 
1.31 

3.85 


86.2 
53.5 
81.1 
64.2 
11.5 

31.9 


46.8 
60.5 
77.3 
40.7 

8.2 

24.8 


302.3 
379.4 
426.0 
383.1 
154.5 

266.6 


542.3 

1, 038. 8 

1, 193. 2 

896.5 

775.3 

694.0 


127.3 




260.5 


Michigan 


244.5 


Ohio 


214.7 


Wisconsin 

West North Central 


138.9 
182.6 


Iowa 

Kansas 

Minnesota 

Missouri __ 


1.64 
2.38 
1.26 
6.93 
1.93 
1.64 
1.47 

13.96 


15.0 
31.5 
19.1 

57.7 

22.3 

5.8 

7.3 

61.5 


7.7 
17.1 

8.5 
51.8 
29.4 

4.1 

5.1 

190.8 


245.1 
336.7 
. 189. 8 
276.8 
312. 2 
159.5 
200.9 

419.8 


673.0 
817.7 
577.4 
697.3 
915.3 
513. 8 
744.1 

1,041.7 


160.3 
196.2 
141.9 
188.5 
326.8 


North Dakota 


120.8 


South Dakota -.- 


163.5 


South Atlantic 5 


304.8 






Delaware 

Florida 


4.81 

15.91 

■ 23. 24 

9.74 
13.47 
23.04 
14.59 

7.72 

16.90 


96.9 
73.3 
58.7 
51.6 
43.4 
53.3 
89.0 
68.1 

75.0 


19.2 
200.6 
159.6 
126.1 
483.0 
136.9 
219.0 

59.7 

157.9 


439.0 
694.5 
455.2 
228.0 
436.3 
329.8 
508.4 
294.1 

465.7 


1, 236. 9 

1,525.0 

1,281.8 

533.6 

897.7 

1, 340. 

1, 309. 9 

653.1 

879.1 


244.3 
386.8 
328.8 


Maryland 

North Carolina 

South Carolina. 


299.1 
207.4 
309.1 
347.9 




213.7 


East South Central 


309.1 






Alabama 

Kentucky . 


18.12 
13.95 
15.85 
18.75 

12.82 


58.4 
112.2 
40.9 
69.1 

48.7 


225.7 
127.1 
209.6 
114.0 

92.5 


515.0 
580.4 
322.6 
384.2 

444.8 


890.8 

1,001.2 

9(V}. 1 

741.6 

1,211.6 


222.0 
414.2 


Mississippi -. 

Tennessee 

West South Central 


211.7 
322.6 

306.4 






Arkansas 


12.09 
12.27 
8.43 
14.42 

4.10 


97.9 
26.5 
51.5 
50.2 

58.5 


153.8 
93.8 
40.8 

100.3 

41.5 


334.0 
162. 8 
458.9 
557. 7 

486.2 


1, 024. 7 

530.1 

1, 344. 

1, 445. 1 

1,424.7 


294.7 




242.9 


Oklahoma : 


303.7 


Texas 


330.1 


Mountain.- 


299.4 


Arizona 

Colorado. 


8.57 
4. 15 
.70 
1. 13 
6. 68 
9.09 
1.54 
6.02 

5.52 


107.5 
62.7 
28.8 
30.5 

121.9 
42.4 
50.1 
57.8 

159.6 


110.8 
28.8 
14.1 
9.6 
45.1 
92.4 
39.7 
37.3 

76.6 


572.3 
580. 5 
412.8 
230. 2 
868. 6 
313.5 
461.9 
446. 5 

640.4 


2. 326. 2 
1.213.7 
1, 4ftS. 5 
1, 045. 5 
1, 974. 3 
1,029.1 
1, 594. 6 
1,624.7 

1, 842. 9 


520.2 
212.0 


Idaho... 


353.8 


Montana 

Nevada 


174.3 
442.0 




305. 9 


Utah 


373.2 


Wyoming 

Pacific 


310. 5 
638.0 






California. 


5.79 
3.41 
5.18 


172.9 
115.9 
111.5 


89.0 
43.6 
27.7 


630.3 
733.3 
643.1 


1, 862. 8 
1, 799. 1 
1, 759. 7 


656.8 


Oregon 


506. 


Washington 


609.8 



' The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 2,265 cities with a total population of 

58,222,281. 
2 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 532 cities with a total population of 10,283,316. 
8The lales for burglary and larceny are based on reports of 167 cities. 
< The rates for burglary and larceny are based on reports of 227 cities. 
'Includes the report of the District of Columbia. 



93 



Table 36. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to December, inclusive, 1945, by geographic divisions and population groups 
(Based on 1940 decennial census] 



Division and group 



Total - 



New England- 



Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI .. 
Middle Atlantic. 



Group I_ 

Group II. 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

East North CentraK 



Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

West North Central. 



Group I 

Group II 

Group III.... 
Group IV.... 

Group V 

Group VI.... 
South Atlantic *. 



Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

East South Central. 



Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V... 

Group VI 

West South Central. 



Group I... 
Group II.. 
Group III. 
Group IV. 
Group V... 
Group VI. 
Mountain 



Group I... 
Group II.. 
Group III. 
Group IV. 
Group V... 
Group VI. 
Pacific 



Group I... 
Group II.. 
Group III. 
Group IV. 
Group V... 
Group VI. 



Murder, 

nonneg- 

ligent man 

slaughter 



5.49 



1.17 



2.44 

1.03 
.94 
.66 

1.08 
.76 

2.93 



3.97 
1.95 
2.02 

.93 
1.83 

.87 
4.30 



6.20 
6.20 
3.16 
2.86 
1.25 
1.63 
3.35 



5.61 
2.63 
3.64 
2.02 
1.42 
1.24 
13.96 



12.94 
17.52 
16.50 
11.83 
8.52 
14.93 
16.90 



15.23 
26.03 
17.44 
14.19 
14.19 
13.53 
12.82 



17.37 
12.21 

7.90 
10.00 

9.24 
12.76 

4.10 



6.20 
1.33 
8.51 
2.03 
2.17 
5.33 
5.52 



6.90 
5.25 
4.51 
3.63 
3.77 
3.40 



Robbery 



16.7 



34.3 
23.3 
12.6 
11.2 
6.0 
5.1 
23.1 



27.1 
22.9 
25.8 
12.4 
15.3 
11.6 
68.6 



105.0 
78.0 
38.5 
25.4 
23.0 
16.9 
31.9 



53.9 
30.9 
22.6 
24.5 
9.7 
15.1 
61.5 



57.2 
117.2 
51.1 
47.9 
36.7 
41.8 
75.0 



113.5 
63.4 
49.1 
64.1 
36.7 
44.8 
48.7 



56.4 
63.9 
47.4 
33.5 
39.8 
33.0 
58.5 



87.5 
35.3 
82.5 
63.4 
46.2 
43.5 
159.5 



231.0 
121.0 
119.4 
71.8 
79.3 
50.7 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



12.8 



21.8 
20.4 
9.2 
8.4 
6.4 
4.3 
31.7 



36.4 
29.9 
37.1 
25.4 
21.3 
14.7 
49.0 



69.9 
77.9 
33.6 
17.2 
11.5 
16.7 
24.8 



44.1 
22.9 
19.1 
12.4 
9.1 
8.5 
190.8 



112.3 
246.2 
243.8 
313.9 
136.7 
156.4 
157.9 



141.4 
89.4 
329.3 
194.0 
141.0 
95.2 
92.5 



122.9 
68.9 
70.1 
90.0 
64.5 
90.8 
41.5 



25.7 
23.3 
94.4 
62.6 
26.1 
47.4 
76.6 



110. 1 
63.8 
50.5 
33.6 
33.6 
31.7 



Burglary- 
breaking 
or entering 



339.3 



260.5 



222.4 
382.7 
298.0 
221.1 
193.7 
158.3 
'■ 218. 6 



3 274. 7 
273.8 
270.8 
210.7 
166.8 
127.3 
342.5 



398.7 
427.8 
348.5 
280.9 
236.5 
181.2 
255.6 



236.2 
285.2 
447.5 
287.1 
239.2 
159.3 
419.8 



310. 5 
709.3 
436.7 
452.8 
354.4 
262.6 
465.7 



606.0 
483.6 
455.6 
351.8 
346.1 
194.6 
444.8 



525.8 
596.5 
388.9 
409.1 
280.6 
314. 1 
486.2 



467.5 
572.4 
453.5 
379.2 
327.1 
640.4 



716.4 
634.6 
625. 
552.6 
589.8 
435.9 



I>areony- 
theft 



315.0 



435.1 
632.1 
588.8 
524.7 
419.5 
380.4 
2 427. 9 



3 352. 3 
485.9 
566.9 
550.2 
394. 5 
278. 8 
842.4 



825.3 
1,163.9 
959.8 
897.1 
836.4 
464.0 
694.0 



647.7 
787.8 

1,126.9 
881.6 
746.9 
315.4 

1, 041. 7 



773.3 

1,531.2 

1, 246. 6 

1, 194. 3 

922.4 

596.1 

879.1 



1, 022. 1 
805.1 
768.2 
956.6 
943.7 
304.4 

1,211.5 



1. 376. 2 
1, 660. 1 
1, 257. 7 
1,168.9 
815.7 
593.6 
1. 424. 7 



1, 239. 7 
1. 328. 6 
1, 865. 2 
2, 070. 9 
1, 597. 1 
863.7 
1, 842. 9 



Auto theft 



1, 734. 1 
1, 755. 7 
2, 052. 5 

1, 949. 1 

2, 428. 4 
1, 654. 9 



1 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 2,265 cities with a total population of 
58,222,281. 

2 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 532 cities with a total population of 
10,283,316. 

3 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 4 cities. 
• Includes the report of the District of Columbia. 



94 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 25,000 Inhabitants 

The number of ofi'enses reported as having been committed during 
the period of January-December 1945 is shown in table 37. The 
compilation includes the reports received from police departments in 
cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants. Police administrators and 
other interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare 
the crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in tables 30 
and 36 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire to 
make comparisons with the figures for their communities for prior 
periods, in order to determine whether there has been an increase or a 
decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

Caution should be exercised in comparing crime data for individual 
cities, because differences in the figures may be due to a variety of 
factors. The amount of crime committed in a community is not 
solely chargeable to the police but is rather a charge against the entire 
community. The following is a list of some of the factors which might 
affect the amount of crime in a community: 

Population of the city and metropolitan area adjacent thereto. 
The composition of the population with reference particularly 

to age, sex, and race. 
The economic status and activities of the popidatiou. 
Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 
The number of police employees per unit of population. 
The standards governing appointments to the police force. 
The pohcies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 
The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 
The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 

It should be remembered that the war has brought al)out marked 
changes in some of the foregoing factors in many comnumities. 

In comparing crime rates, it is generally more important to deter- 
mine wdiether the figures for a given community show increases or 
dcci'eases in the amount of crime committed than to ascertain whether 
the figures are above or below those of some other community. 



95 



Table 37. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1945, cities over 25,000 in ■population {based on 1940 decennial census) 



City 



Abilene, Tex 

Akron, Ohio 

Alameda, Calif 

Albany, N.Y 

Albuquerque, N. Mex. 



Alexandria, La... 
Alexandria, Va... 
Alhambra, Calif- 

Aliquippa, Pa 

AUentown, Pa... 



Alton, 111 

Altoona, Pa 

Amarillo, Tex 

Amsterdam, N. Y_ 
Anderson, Ind 



Ann Arbor, Mich_ 

Anniston, Ala 

Appleton, Wis_ ._ 
Arlington, Mass .. 
Arlington, Va 



Asheville, N. C 

Ashland, Ky 

Atlanta, Ga 

Atlantic City, N.J. 
Auburn, N. Y 



Augusta, Ga 

Aurora, 111 

Austin, Tex 

Bakersfield, Calif- 
Baltimore, Md 



Bangor, Maine 

Baton Rouge, La — 
Battle Creek, Mich. 

Bay City, Mich 

Bayonne, N. J 



Beaumont, Tex 

Belleville, 111 

Belleville, N.J 

Bellingham, Wash. 
Belmont, Mass 



Beloit, Wis 

Belvedere Tovpnship, Calif. 

Berkeley, Calif 

Berwyn, 111 

Bethlehem, Pa 



Beverly, Mass 

Beverly Hills, Calif. 
Binghampton, N. Y 

Birmingham, Ala 

Bloomfield, N.J 



Murder, 
noiuieg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Bloomington, III . . 

Boise, Idaho 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn. 
Bristol, Conn 



Brockton, Mass... 
Brookline, Mass.. 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Burbank, Calif.... 
Burlington, Iowa. 



Burlington, Vt 

Butte, Mont 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 



Robbery 



3 

179 

6 

27 
5 

22 
28 
11 

5 



20 
21 
272 
37 
3 

28 
8 

24 
32 

489 

3 
15 
8 
2 
12 

12 
4 
2 
1 



2 
112 
42 



11 

2 

201 

3 

6 

7 

272 

10 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



5 
138 
20 
31 
24 

134 

186 

1 

6 

2 

13 
7 
1 
6 
6 



82 



36 



294 

7^ 

310 



254 

3 

85 

4 

1,218 

6 
11 
14 



3 

2 

149 

5 



174 

23 

1 

1 

3 

151 



3 

17 
100 
82 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



102 

851 
105 
266 
134 

159 
130 
155 
59 
315 

114 
214 
143 
22 
164 

76 
95 
49 
71 
124 

242 

69 

1,704 

317 



335 
100 
445 
212 
1,928 

55 
205 
237 

93 
147 

294 
52 
46 
55 
47 

66 
282 
442 
105 



41 

119 

172 

1,944 

61 

42 

195 

1,224 

335 

39 

190 
210 
504 
222 
83 

62 
57 
174 
369 
453 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



32 

584 
23 

128 
41 

47 
64 
49 
13 
73 

18 
43 
247 
18 
21 

71 
69 
20 
9 
71 

153 

10 

1,118 

583 
29 

79 
41 
80 
232 
1,048 

57 
60 
95 
31 
37 

94 
22 
24 
23 



41 
41 

123 
52 

100 

11 
46 
100 
930 
18 



(■) 



851 
310 
33 

77 
42 
245 
113 



34 
16 
39 

149 
228 



Under 
$50 



588 
405 
485 

.381 

479 

350 

71 

288 

102 
447 
625 
76 
276 

450 
301 
341 

94 
552 

369 

100 

3,268 

1,029 

237 

643 
187 

1,102 
954 

3,276 

292 
241 
684 
345 
196 

671 
87 
63 

151 
82 

347 
154 
1,018 
100 
157 

1.32 
184 
711 
2,106 
105 

142 
656 
1,879 
843 
169 

240 
183 
1,045 
759 
108 

350- 
101 
367 
260 
813 



See footnote at end of table. 
684714°--46 4 ■ 



96 



Table 37. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
19Jf5, cities over 25,000 in population (based on 1940 decennial census) — Con. 



City 



Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 
Central Falls, R. I.. 

Charleston, S. C 

Charleston, W. Va.. 
Charlotte, N. C 



Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chester, Pa.. 

Chicago, 111 

Chicopee, Mass 



Cicero, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Clarksburg, W. Va 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio. 



Clifton, N.J 

Clinton, Iowa 

Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Columbia, S. C 

Columbus, Ga 



Columbus, Ohio 

Concord, N. H 

Corpus Christi, Tex.. 
Council Bluffs, Iowa. 
Covington, Ky 



Cranston, R. I 

Cumberland, Md. 

Dallas, Tex.. 

Danville, 111 

Danville, Va 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Davenport, Iowa. 

Dayton, Ohio 

Dearborn, Mich.. 

Decatur, 111 

Denver, Colo 



Dcs Moines, Iowa. 
Detroit, Mich_ .. 
Dubuque, Iowa _. 

Duluth, Minn 

Durham, N. C 



East Chicago, Ind 

East Cleveland, Ohio. 

Easton, Pa 

East Orange, N. J 
East Providence, R. I 



East St. Louis, 111 
Eau Claire, Wis... 
Elgin, 111 

Elizabeth, N.J... 
Elkhart, Ind 



Elmira, N. Y. 
El Paso, Tex.. 
Elyria, Ohio. . 
Enid, Okla.... 
Erie, Pa 



Evanston, 111 

Evansville, Ind.. 

Everett, Mass 

Everett, Wash... 
Fall River, Mass. 



Fargo, N. Dak 

Fitchburg, Mass... 
Flint, Mich... ... 

Fond du Lac, Wis. 
Fort Smith, Ark... 



3 

21.3 
1 

2 
40 

3 
53 

2 



3 
30 
2 
2 
20 

5 

101 

3 



Robbery 



3 
4 

66 
1,58 
68 

63 

20 

.57 

4,090 

1 

24 
381 

8 

796 

6 

3 
6 
7 
42 
22 

296 



215 
13 
22 

19 
162 

34 

9 

282 

17 
2,144 
2 
16 
19 

3.5 
11 

9 
10 

2 



Aggra- 
vated 
as.sault 



114 
83 
506 

81 

14 

57 

1.993 

2 

65 

333 

3 

442 



58 
115 



638 
5 

77 



196 

9 

5 

83 



43 
2,068 



7 
488 

48 
3 
6 

12 
1 

112 



31 
60 
10 
13 

7 

2 

1 

205 

1 

56 



Larceny— theft 



;.50 and 
over 



(') 



&3 

6 

216 

) 

275 



143 
44 
94 
6.242 
20 

71 

1, 051 

8 

769 

16 

38 
21 
109 
343 
247 

1,425 
16 
194 
32 
30 

42 
23 
622 
52 
64 

44 
212 
187 

33 
837 

102 
2,396 

21 
162 

35 

103 
8 

17 
43 
14 

147 
32 
21 



40 
214 
33 
32 
90 

103 
211 
34 
10 
143 

47 
11 
385 
16 
87 



Under 
$.50 



.547 
69 
753 
966 
883 

512 

128 

201 

10, 984 



190 

3,020 

97 

7,451 

224 

82 
262 
a34 
1, 108 
670 

2,404 
131 
6.53 
211 
330 

149 

75 

5,727 

206 

318 

661 

2,574 

780 

411 

3,160 

969 
16, 778 
250 
902 
143 

492 
213 
1.32 
318 
136 

311 

128 
190 
360 
138 

474 
1,013 
162 
270 
602 

569 
1,3.37 
168 
627 
461 

128 
151 
1,950 
317 
333 



See footnote at end of t.iblc 



97 

Table 37. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1945, cities over 25,000 in population (based on 1940 decennial census) — Con. 



City 



Fort Wayne, Ind_ 
Fort Worth, Tex.. 

Fresno, Calif 

Gadsden, Ala 

Galesburg, 111 



.Galveston, Tex_ 

Garfield, N.J 

Gary, Ind 

Glendale, Calif 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 



Great Falls, Mont- 

Green Bay, Wis. 

Greensboro, N. C 

Greenville, S. G 

Greenwich Town, Conn. 



Rackensack, N. J.. 

Hagerstown, Md 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Hamilton Township, N. J_ 
Hammond, Ind . 



Hamtramck, Mich... 

Harrisburg, Pa. 

Hartford, Conn 

Haverford Twp., Pa. 
Haverhill, Mass 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Hazleton, Pa 

Highland Park, Mich. 

High Point, N. C 

Hoboken, N. J 

Holyoke, Mass 



Honolulu, T. H- 

Houston, Tex... _ 

Huntington, AV. Va 

Huntington Park, Calif. 
Hutchinson, Kans 



Indianapolis, Ind. 
Inglewood, Calif.. 
Irvington, N. J... 

Jackson, Mich 

Jackson, Miss 



Jacksonville, Fla 

Jamestown, N. Y 

Jersey City, N. J 

Johnson City, Tenn. 
Johnstown, Pa 



Joliet, 111 

Joplin, Mo 

Kalamazoo, Mich._ 
Kansas City, Kans. 
Kansas City, Mo.. 



Kearny, N. J 

Kenosha, Wis 

Kingston. N. Y_. 
Knoxville, Tenn. 
Kokomo, Ind 



La Crosse, Wis... 
La Fayette, Ind.. 
Lakewood, Ohio. 

Lancaster, Pa 

Lansing, Mich... 



Laredo, Tex 

Lawrence, Mass.. 

Lebanon, Pa 

Lewiston, Maine. 
Lexington, Ky... 



Robbery 



31 
71 
122 



15 
2 

11 
53 
17 
84 
465 

3 
3 

1 
76 
11 

4 

14 

8 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



116 
167 
49 
110 
2 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



542 
76 
110 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



211 
219 
241 
38 
20 



2 


6 


194 


192 


17 


7 


19 


23 


12 


1 


4 




18 


433 


18 


89 


? 




8 


20 


25 


31 


17 


5 


11 


3 


29 


9 


42 


8 


32 


78 


113 


125 


1 




7 




2 


1 


39 


9 


8 


192 


12 


8 


4 


1 


51 


91 


216 


250 


20 


72 


26 


2 


6 


3 


269 


309 


24 


1 


9 


3 


24 


35 


21 


100 


218 


214 


1 


3 



No reports received 
37 
762 

228 
578 



Under 

$50 



103 
53 
289 
131 
30 

64 
135 
88 
70 
351 

178 

371 

1,047 

54 
105 

27 



53 
127 

797 

3,317 

351 

234 



1,834 
163 
141 
242 

265 



16 
235 
197 
203 

83 
17 
165 
141 
25 

34 

74 

60 

14 

138 

101 

201 

337 

7 

19 

7 
62 
51 
11 
42 

418 
899 
169 
110 
37 

856 
114 

48 
84 
138 



1, 207 1, 059 

56 24 

Complete data not received 

77 39 

11 143 50 



6 
108 

7 



69 
277 
234 
465 



31 
509 
144 



128 
82 
312 



47 
05 
254 



58 
249 

78 
154 
979 

26 

22 

12 

657 

27 

33 
59 
17 
45 
108 

37 
25 

12 
30 

187 



1,029 
2, 577 
1.261 



70 

947 

952 

2,707 

518 
93 
557 
368 



152 
363 
273 
161 
585 

221 

556 

1,439 

35 

164 

17 
435 
156 

34 
268 

1,050 

8, 566 

408 

403 

384 

4,253 
400 
212 
569 
633 

2,026 

117 

120 
138 

295 

520 

816 

620 

2,715 



198 
126 
528 
179 



260 
398 



286 
160 
203 

644 



98 

Taule 37. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1945, cities over 25,000 in population (based on 19^0 decennial census) — Con. 



City 



Lima, Ohio 

Jvincoln, Nebr 

Little Rock, Ark... 
Long Beach, Calif. 
Lorain, Ohio 



Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lower Merion Twp., Pa. 
Lubbock, Tex 



Lynchburg, Va. 

Lynn, Mass 

Macon, Ga 

Madison, Wis... 
Maiden, Mass.. 



Manchester, N. H. 
Mansfield, Ohio.... 

Marion, Ind. 

Marion, Ohio 

Mason City, Iowa. 



Massillon, Ohio.. 

May wood, 111 

McKeesport, Pa. 
Medford, Mass.. 
Melrose, Mass... 



Memphis, Term 

Meriden, Conn 

Meridian, Miss 

Miami, Fla. 

Miami Beach, Fla.. 

Michigan City, Ind. 
Middletown, Conn.. 
Middletown, Ohio.. 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn. 



Mishawaka, Ind. 

Mobile, Ala. 

Moline, 111 

Monroe, La 

Montclair, N. J.. 



Montgomery, Ala.. 
Moimt Vernon, N. 

Muncie, Ind._ 

Muskegon, Mich... 
Muskogee, Okla..., 



Nashua, N. H 

Nashville, Term.. 
New Albany, Ind. 

Newark, N. J 

Newark, Ohio 



!<!e-w Bedford, Mass... 
New Britain, Conn... 
New Brunswick, N. J. 

Newburgh, N. Y 

New Castle, Pa 



New Haven, Conn.. 
New London, Conn. 

New Orleans, La 

Newport, Ky 

Newport, R. I 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Newport News, Va 

New Rochelle, N Y 

Newton, Miuss 

New York, N. Y.2 

Niagara Falls, N. Y.. 

See footnotes at end of table. 



Robbery 



31 

7 

67 

220 

14 

3,776 

523 

15 



9 
1 

274 
1 

12 
240 

16 



5 
90 
126 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



51 
32 
53 
142 
16 

1,721 

529 

4 

2 

37 

83 

7 

101 

1 

4 

5 
10 
1 
1 



23 
1 

72 
3 
1 

550 

"58" 

898 

5 

17 

1 

2 

102 

31 

2 

705 
3 
10 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



220 
270 
387 
1,441 
150 

11,654 

2, 546 

208 

134 

188 

110 
398 
419 
133 
205 

65 
141 

69 
108 

36 

74 
39 
103 
110 

86 

840 
138 
131 
1,784 
222 

52 
37 
127 
883 
917 

35 
407 
77 
64 
67 



99 342 21 

9 101 30 

Only 6 months received 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



(■) 
(') 
47 

10,088 

1,682 

61 

38 

73 

48 
161 
293 
113 

45 

27 
87 
19 
40 



(') 



19 
12 
45 
22 
6 

559 
21 
81 
966 
286 

19 

18 
50 



28 
175 
41 
62 
17 



Under 
$50 



600 
1,059 
1,428 
2,6a3 

251 

17, 185 

2,177 

210 

239 

463 

265 
732 

787 



296 
260 
183 
360 
131 

191 
133 
278 
237 
86 

1,536 
211 
203 

1.332 
442 

77 

124 

417 

3, 545 

1,659 

263 
433 
192 
315 
120 

397 
116 



29 


9 


ZM 


132 


536 


12 


3 


229 


143 


262 


2 
119 




44 

950 


10 
383 


118 
1,055 


175 


7 


7 


71 


24 


161 


318 


450 


1,917 


757 


1,485 


2 


9 


98 


22 


379 


17 


16 


676 


145 


911 


7 


7 


154 


30 


263 


6 


25 


129 


42 


296 


6 


4 


127 


32 


144 


16 


8 


69 


25 


131 


16 


31 


725 


159 


1,129 


2 


7 


39 


oo 


151 


146 


464 


576 


037 


1,415 


40 


24 


125 


66 


164 


7 


4 


37 


41 


234 


56 


221 


420 


184 


657 


7 


14 


100 


49 


127 


2 


f) 


■J44 


0) 


323 


1,417 


2, 57!) 


4,348 


(') 


11,981 


26 


105 


291 


110 


323 



99 



Table 37. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1945, cities over 25,000 in population {based on 1940 decennial cens^^s) — Con. 



City 



Norfolk, Va 

Norristown, Pa 

North Bergen, N. J. 

Norwalk, Conn 

Norwood, Ohio 



Oakland, Calif_ 

Oak Park, 111 

Ogden, Utah 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Omaha, Nebr 



Orange, N. J 

Orlando, FIa._- 
Oshkosh, Wis._. 
Ottumwa, Iowa. 
Owensboro, Ky_ 



Padueah, Ky 

Parkersburg, W. Va. 

Pasadena, Calif 

Passaic, N. J 

Paterson, N. J 



Pawtucket, E. I 

Pensacola, Fla 

Peoria, 111 - 

Perth Amboy, N. J. 
Petersburg, Va 



Philadelphia, Pa. 

Phoenix, Ariz 

Pittsburgh, Pa... 
Pittsfield, Mass__ 
Plainfield, N. J.. 



Pontiac, Mich 

Port Arthur, Tex.. 
Port Huron, Mich_ 
Portland, Maine. _. 
Portland, Oreg 



Portsmouth, Ohio... 

Portsmouth, Va 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Providence, R. I 

Pueblo, Colo 



Quincy, 111 

Quincy, Mass. 
Racine, Wis... 
Raleigh, N. C. 
Reading, Pa_. 



Revere, Mass . 
Richmond, Ind 
Richmond, Va . 
Riverside, Calif 
Roanoke, Va 



Rochester, Minn 

Rochester, N. Y 

Rockford, 111 

Rock Island, 111 

Rocky Mount, N. C 



Rome, Ga 

Rome, N. Y 

Royal Oak, Mich 
Sacramento, Calif. 
Saginaw, Mich 



St. Joseph, Mo .,..-. 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Mmn 

St. Petersburg, Fla 

Salem, Mass 



Murder, 
normeg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



100 
9 
23 



Robbery 



359 

2 



3 
2 

752 
15 
54 

133 



17 
2 
3 
5 

.9 

15 
1 
64 
24 
43 

6 
15 
91 

4 
14 

807 
72 

450 
3 
13 

44 

11 

2 

24 

511 

23 

42 

1 



6 
16 
19 
14 
13 

33 

3 

123 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



3 

227 
56 



368 
14 
2 
9 
3 

587 



54 
132 
94 

45 

15 



41 
74 
101 

70 
63 

761 
54 

156 
1 
13 

24 
7 
3 

15 
196 



200 
15 
49 

57 

6 
2 
10 
133 
5 



313 
13 

54 

1 
52 
17 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



1,502 
51 
127 
54 
61 

2,187 
147 
325 

1,038 
704 

144 
166 
68 
26 
134 

125 
78 
416 
243 
530 

200 
200 
505 
91 
168 

3,940 
427 

2,328 
125 



376 

71 

121 

403 

3,014 

186 
370 
92 
1,054 
246 



166 
138 
215 
231 

105 
55 
864 
189 
115 

45 
753 
153 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



811 
18 
17 
30 
14 

870 
52 
244 
277 
309 

45 
126 
21 
12 
56 

14 
18 

305 
73 

144 

96 
51 
134 

57 



(') 



1,161 

228 

597 

36 

52 

138 
44 
52 

130 



(0 



61 
171 

89 
404 

29 

23 
39 
89 
33 
.50 

22 

62 
734 
107 

76 

14 
200 



Only 11 months received 
136 



193 
63 
12 

1 



63 


45 


90 




45 


20 


125 


9 


546 


624 


520 


148 


408 


76 


1,240 


(') 


867 


209 


321 


170 


83 


20 



Under 

.$50 



78 
111 
110 

81 

4,818 

247 

925 

3,213 

1,415 

176 
524 
591 
77 
369 

270 
175 
1,209 
275 
342 

448 
368 
836 
405 
275 

1,366 

1,576 

1, 114 

192 

245 

462 
346 
359 
693 
5, 963 

402 
,541 
377 
1.323 
360 

430 
399 
620 
201 
359 

HI 

120 

2, 443 



211 
1,612 



329 

125 

216 

270 

2,003 

1,212 

584 

4,764 

1,806 

961 

168 



See footnote at end of table. 



100 

Table 37. — Number of offenses knoxvn to lite police, January to December, inclusive, 
19/^5, cities over 25,000 in population (based on 1940 decennial census) — Con. 



City 



Salem, Oreg 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

San Angelo, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Bernardino, Calif. 



San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif.. 

San Jose, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif. 

Santa Monica, Calif.. 

Savannah, Ga 

Schenectady, N. Y... 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 



Sharon, Pa 

Sheboygan, Wis 

Shreveport, La 

Sioux City, Iowa — 
Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 



Somerville, Mass.. 
South Bend, Ind... 
South Gate, Calif. 
Spartanburg, S. C. 
Spokane, Wash 



Springfield, 111.... 
Springfield, Mass. 
Springfield, Mo... 
Springfield, Ohio.. 
Stamford, Conn... 



Steubenville, Ohio. 

Stockton, Calif 

Superior, Wis 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 



Tampa, Fla 

Taunton, Mass..., 

Teaneck, N. J 

Terre Haute, Ind. 
Toledo, Ohio 



Topeka, Kans 

Torrington, Conn. 

Trenton, N. J 

Troy, N. Y 

Tucson, Ariz 



Tulsa, Okla 

Tuscaloosa, Ala 

Tyler, Tex 

Union City, N.J 

University City, Mo. 



Upper Darby, Pa. 

Utica, N. Y 

Waco, Tex. .: 

Waltham, Mass... 
Warren, Ohio 



Warwick, R. I 

Washington, D. C. 
Washington, Pa.... 
Waterbury, Conn.. 
Waterloo, Iowa 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



13 

53 

9 

228 

60 

239 

1,511 

40 



75 
22 
4 
11 
646 



18 
59 
21 
20 
85 

32 
3 
12 
27 
10 

17 
222 
10 
46 
82 

49 

I 

19 

247 



282 
4 
11 
9 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



1* 
35 
31 
403 
36 

174 
843 

20 

24 

10 

52 

268 

16 

54 

82 



10 
176 

12 
5 

77 
6 
71 

62 
173 
37 



10 

8 

152 

2 



520 
6 
1 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



119 
701 
88 
1,264 
424 

978 
2, 591 
271 
131 
121 

594 

124 

220 

241 

2,866 

43 
55 
134 

474 
1.32 

394 
422 

198 



170 
345 
314 
224 
146 

143 

553 

59 

621 

875 

681 

123 

.■jO 

218 

1,609 

450 
37 
614 
239 
221 

1,107 
55 
77 
129 
126 

152 
134 
170 
116 
178 

7 

2, 033 

107 

414 

161 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



53 
211 

39 
365 
130 

824 

1,742 

44 

97 

76 

377 
575 
102 
98 
1,399 

24 
18 
86 
240 
95 

54 
259 
100 
102 

155 



132 
116 
48 
93 

32 
409 

23 
309 
348 



32 
595 

62 
16 

180 
59 

207 

626 
20 
24 
00 
34 

15 
70 

;« 

25 
47 

53 

1,233 

18 

113 

24 



Under 
.$50 



717 
1,781 

199 
1,416 

654 

2.120 

7. 028 

1,356 

782 

546 

1,107 

1,279 

321 

348 

4, 318 

122 
304 
564 
778 
439 

304 

1. 192 

346 

298 

1,898 

643 
575 
630 
455 
256 

169 
1,404 

248 
1,582 
1,722 

1,212 

185 

57 

469 

2,958 

052 
148 
.566 
198 
1,075 

1,791 
163 
221 
139 
184 

235 
440 
474 
340 
471 

95 
4,165 

93 
390 
555 



101 



Table 37. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, incbisive, 
1945, cities over 25,000 in population {based on 1940 decennial census) — Con. 



City 



Watertown, Mass. 
Watertown, N. Y. 

Waukegan, 111 

Waiisau, Wis 

Wauwatosa, Wis.- 



West Allis, Wis 

West Hartford, Conn_ 
West Haven, Conn. _ . 
West New York, N.J 
West Orange, N.J 



West Palm Beach, Fla 

Wheeling, W. Va 

White Plains, N.Y... 

Wichita, Kans 

Wichita Falls, Tex 



Wilkes-Barre, Pa.. 
Wilkinsburg, Pa... 
Williamsport, Pa.. 
Wiimmgton, Del... 
Wilmington, N. C. 



Winston-Salem, N. C. 

Woodbridge, N.J 

Woonsocket, R. I 

Worcester, Mass. 

Wyandotte, Mich 



Yakima, Wash 

Yonkers, N. Y 

York, Pa 

Youngstown, Ohio. 
Zanesville, Ohio 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
mg 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



67 31 

53 24 

No reports received 
Only 8 months received 



Under 
$50 



154 
390 
260 
249 
129 

434 
135 



Auto 
theft 



1 

15 




46 

278 


29 
115 


90 
405 


54 


13 


8 


112 


66 


159 


7 


7 


88 


64 


208 


26 


31 


361 


163 


885 


20 


56 


265 


152 


838 


3 


5 


163 


43 


129 


3 


10 


75 


12 


145 


3 


13 


66 


24 


292 


120 


21 


525 


336 


1,161 


47 


708 


276 


188 


534 


29 


145 


539 


157 


&38 


4 


4 


100 


12 


1.54 


8 


1 


107 


23 


185 


76 


9 


873 


302 


684 


1 


2 


68 


41 


158 


29 


13 


199 


289 


970 


10 


18 


272 


37 


374 


26 


12 


190 


69 


448 


245 


47 


756 


128 


916 


12 


7 


200 


40 


320 



127 
214 
165 

129 
30 
71 

301 

102 

164 
31 
53 

434 



198 
121 
147 
385 
87 



' Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 
' Figures include offenses committed by juveniles; this is in accord with the uniform reporting procedure 
followed by other cities. 

Supplement to Return A Data 

In 286 cities over 25,000 in population, 22,975 persons during 1945 
were personally accosted by thieves who robbed them of property 
valued at $3,363,739. Robberies for 1945 are up in every category 
with bank robberies showing a 171.4 percent jump ' followed by a 
rise of 76.9 percent in oil station holdups. As indicated in table 38, 
each type of robbery is on the increase: Highway robberies, +20.7 
percent; commercial house robberies, +27.1 percent; chain store 
robberies, +10.3 percent; residence robberies, +15.9 percent; and 
miscellaneous robberies, +10.3 percent. 

It should be remembered that these figures are based on reported 
crimes in a somewhat limited number of cities; however, the data 
include the reports of a substantial portion of the larger communities 
of the country representing a combined population of 32,627,779 and 
accordingly, the trends reflected are significant. All complete supple- 
mentary reports received for the year were used in the compilations. 

1 Bank robberies increased from 14 to 38 in the 286 cities from whom complete supplementary returns 
were received. Oth^r available information indicates that bank robberies for the Nation as a whole, though 
definitely on the rise in 1945, did not show such a sharp increase. 



102 

The 22.2 percent rise in the number of robbery offenses was accom- 
panied by a 29.2 percent increase in the vahie of property stolen in 
the average offense, from $113 in 1944 to $146 in 1945, with the result 
that the total vahie of property stolen in these cities increased 58.6 
percent for robbery oft'enses. 

The disturbing increase in robberies in 1945 was accompanied by 
an almost equally alarming upward trend in burglaries, with each 
type showing an increase. The supplementary crime reports showed 
a general increase in burglaries of 18.0 percent, with those involving 
residences, those of nonresidences, those committed in the daytime, 
and those committed at night, all on the rise. 

Most business places are occupied during the day, and thus only a 
small portion of the nonresidence burglaries are committed during the 
daylight hours. However, it should be observed that nearly one-third 
of the residence burglaries during 1945 were perpetrated during broad 
daylight. 

The loot stolen in the average burglary during 1945 was valued at 
$118 as compared with an average loss of $102 in such crimes during 
the previous year. This increase in the average value of property 
stolen per offense, together with the rise in the number of burglaries in 
the cities represented in tables 38 and 39, resulted in a 36.9 percent 
increase in the total value of the loot taken in burglaries from 1944 
to 1945. 

The rise in larceny offenses (7.8 percent) in the cities represented in 
the following tables was not as pronounced as the increase in robberies 
and burglaries; however, an analysis of the data available shows that 
thefts from automobiles, excluding auto accessory thefts, increased 
24.6 percent. Each type of larceny showed an increase, except bicycle 
thefts, which declined 4.2 percent. The average value of property 
stolen per larceny offense in 1945 was $54, a 14.9 percent increase over 
the average loss in such offenses during 1944. The cities represented 
in the following tabulations reported the theft of property valued at 
$16,270,256 in larceny offenses last year, a 25.3 percent increase over 
the total value of property stolen for this offense class during 1944. 

The larceny problem is a difficult one for the police because of the 
frequency with which such crimes are committed, and in this connection 
it may be observed that 28.1 percent of the larceny oft'enses constitute 
thefts of some type of article from automobiles and 17.2 percent 
represent bicycle thefts. 

Of the rape offenses reported approximately one-thii'd were charac- 
terized as statutory in nature (no force used — victim under age of 
consent). Although the statutory offenses showed a decline of 3.3 
percent during 1945, nearly two-thirds of the rapes were forcible in 
nature, and these criminal assaults showed a 14.0 percent increase. 



103 



The cities represented in tables 38 and 39 reported a 95.1 percent 
recovery of stolen automobiles during 1945, as indicated in the following 
figures : 



January-December 


1944 


194.5 


Number of automobiles stolen 


74. 345 

71, 936 

96.8 


88, 950 


Number of automobiles recovered _ . .. . 


84 595 


Percent recovered .. .._ 


95.1 



Table 40 shows the value of property stolen and the value of property 
recovered for 1944 and 1945 subdivided by type of property as reported 
by 285 cities over 25,000 in population. Exclusive of automobiles 
the cities represented reported property stolen valued at $34,268,754 
with recoveries valued at $8,033,335, or 23.4 percent of the loss. 

Table 38. — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission, and value of property stolen, January to 
December, inclusive, 1944-45; 286 cities over 25,000 in population; total popula- 
tion, 32,627,779 

[Population figures from 1940 decemilal census] 



Classification 



Number of offenses 



1945 



Percent 
change 



RAPE 

Total 

Forcible 

Statutory 

ROBBERY 

Total 

Highway 

Commercial house __ 

Oil station 

Chain store 

Residence 

Bank 

M iscellaneous 

BURGLARY— BREAKING OR ENTERING 

Total 

Residence (dwelling): 

Committed during night 

Committed during day 

Nonresidence (store, office, etc.): 

Committed during night 

Committed during day 

LARCENY— THEFT (EXCEPT AUTO THEFT) 

(Grouped according to value of article stolen) 
Total 

$50 and over. 

$5 to $50 

Under $5 

LARCENY— THEFT 

(Grouped as to type of offenses) 
Total... 

Pocket-picking 

Purse-snatching __. 

Shoplifting 

Thefts from autos (exclusive of auto accessories) 

Auto accessories 

Bicycles 

All others _ 



8,634 



3,903 



+7.4 



2,258 
1,376 



18, 806 



2,573 
1,330 



22, 975 



+14.0 
-3.3 



+22.2 



14, 005 

2,6M 



14 
773 



16,907 

3,417 

660 

96 

1,004 

38 

853 



+20.7 
+27.1 
+76.9 
+ 10.3 
+15.9 
+171.4 
+10.3 



108, 734 



128, 289 



+18.0 



30,622 
15, 769 



57, 461 
4,882 



36, 197 
17,996 



68, 725 
5,371 



+18.2 
+14.1 



+19.6 
+10.0 



276, 963 



298, 612 



+7.8 



52, 445 
182, 700 
41, 818 



63, 335 
189. 550 
45, 727 



+20.8 
+3.7 
+9.3 



276, 963 

5,333 
8,163 
7,817 
39, 781 
32, 143 
53, 476 
130, 250 



298, 612 



+7.8 



5,369 
8,856 
8,310 
49, 566 
34,484 
51, 224 
140,803 



+.7 
+8.5 
+6.3 
+24.6 
+7.3 
-4.2 
+8.1 



104 




105 , 

Table 39. — Value of property stolen, by type of crime, January to December, 
inclusive, 1944-45; 286 cities over 26,000; total population, 32,627,779 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census. All values have been rounded off to even dollars] 





Number of oflenses 


Value of property stolen 


Average value per offense 


Classification 


1944 


1945 


Percent 
change 


1944 


1945 


Percent 
change 


1944 


1945 


Percent 
change 


Total 


478, 848 


538, 826 


+ 12. a $69,730,282 


$88, 574, 453 


+27.0 


$146 


$164 


+12.3 


Robbery _ 


18, 806 
108, 734 
276, 963 

74, 345 


22, 975 
128, 289 
298, 612 

88, 950 


+22.2 2.121,518 


3, 363, 739 
1,5, 109, 336 
16, 270, 256 
53, 831, 128 


+58.6 
+36.9 
+25.3 
+23.5 


113 
102 

47 
586 


146 

118 

54 

605 


+29.2 


Burglary 

Larceny — theft -,. 
Autotheft 


+18.0 

+7.8 

+19.6 


11,037,360 
12, 983, 937 
43, 587, 467 


+ 15.7 

+14.9 

+3.2 



Table 40. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered by type of 
property, January to December, inclusive, 1944-45; 285 cities over 25,000; total 
population, 32,454,714 

[Population figures are from 1940 decennial census. All values have been rounded off to even dollars] 





1944 


1945 


TsT>e of property 


Value of 

property 

stolen 


Value of 
property 
recovered 


Percent 
recovered 


Value of 

property 

stolen 


Value of 
property 
recovered 


Percent 
recovered 


Total 


$69. 227, 931 


$47, 984, 345 


69.3 


$87, 533, 893 

11,486, 119 
6, 975, 622 
1, 464, 607 
3,163,320 
53, 265, 139 
11,179,086 


$58, 937, 687 


67.3 


Currency, note?, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals... 

Furs 

Clothing - ... 


8, 684, 289 
4, 708, 106 
1, 158, 871 
2, 429, 555 
43, 427, 077 
8,820,033 


1, 594, 625 

1, 180, 373 

139,079 

559, 374 

41,629,048 

2,881,846 


18.4 
25.1 
12.0 
23.0 
95.9 
32.7 


1, 959, ,336 

1, .583, 076 

178, 771 

661,484 

50, 904, 352 

3, 650, 668 


17.1 
22.7 
12.2 
20.9 


Locally stolen automobiles 

Miscellaneous... 


95.6 
32.7 



Rural Crime Trends, 1944-45 

The foregoing tabulations have to do entirely with the data re- 
flected on the crime reports forwarded by the pohce in urban com- 
munities, generally those cities with poDulation in excess of 2,500. 
Table 41 presents the available information as to rural crimes during 
1944 and 1945 and as indicated in the table the data are not based 
on the reports of identical agencies for both years; however, the 
combined population represented by the reporting agencies for each 
period is in excess of 30 million and accordingly, the figures reflecting 
offenses per 100,000 inhabitants for the two periods are generally 
comparable and a reasonable indication of the trends in rural crime. 

From the available information it appears that for the more violent 
types of crimes the upswing in 1945 in the rural areas was more pro- 
nounced than that experienced in the urban communities, although 
the totals show only an 8.5 percent rise as compared with a 12.4 
percent increase in the cities. Murders in the rural areas increased 
13.4 percent as compared with a 10.1 percent increase in the urban 
communities, and rural aggravated assaults rose 16.3 percent as 
against an 8.7 percent rise in the urban areas. Similarly, the increases 
in rape and robbery in the rural communities exceeded the increases 



106 



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107 



for these offenses in the cities. For burglary, larceny, auto theft and 
negligent manslaughter the rural upswing was less pronounced. 

Generally, rural crime rates for offenses against the person (murder, 
negligent manslaughter, rape, and aggravated assault) are comparable 
to the national averages for urban communities while the other offense 
classes are generally lower in the rural areas. In this connection, it 
should be observed that some incompleteness probably exists in the 
rural reporting with reference to the less serious offenses. Some 
rural agencies whose reports are included in table 41 list very few 
crimes, and it is likely that some of the reports are based on arrest 
records rather than on a record of offenses reported to the rural law- 
enforcement agencies. Accordingly, the figures presented in table 
41 generally should be considered conservative. 

Table 41. — Offenses known, rural areas, number and rate -per 100,000 inhabitants, 
January to December, inclusive, 1944-45 

[1944 figures based on reports of 1,351 sheriffs, 95 rural village officers, and 11 State police organizations 
representing a combined population of 30,489,124; 1945 figures based on reports of 1,626 sheriffs, 112 rural 
village officers, and 12 State police organizations, representing a combined population of 35,164,657. Popu- 
lation figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Offense 



Number of offenses 



1944 



1945 



Rate per 100,000 inhabi- 
tants 



1945 



Percent 

change in 

rates 



Total 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape. ' 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft ,_ 

Auto theft _ 



107, 498 



134,454 



362.6 



382.4 



+8.5 



1,207 
918 
2.648 
3,523 
6,917 
28.899 
47,383 
16,003 



1,578 

1,218 

3,422 

5,202 

9,281 

37, 854 

54,965 

20,934 



3.96 
3.01 
8.69 
11.6 
22.7 
94.8 
155. 4 
52.5 



4.49 
3.46 
9.73 
14.8 
26.4 
107.6 
1.56.3 
.59. 5 



-fl3.4 
-1-15.0 
-1-12.0 
4-27.6 
-1-16.3 
-f-13. 5 
-I- .6 
-1-13.3 



Offenses Known in Territories and Possessions of the United States 

A complete set of monthly crime reports was received from the law 
enforcement agencies in more territories and possessions for 1945 
than for any other year since 1939. Included in table 42 are the 
figures for the First, Second, and Third Judicial Districts of Alaska; 
Honolulu City, Honolulu County, Hawaii County, Kauai County, 
and Maui County in the Territory of Hawaii; the Canal Zone, 
Isthmus of Panama; and Puerto Rico. In addition, it is worthy 
to mention that since May of 1945 monthly crime reports are 
once more being received from the police department at Manila, 
P. I. The published figures are based on offenses reported monthly 
by law enforcement agencies policing both the rural and urban 
areas, except that the data for Honolulu City have been segregated 
from the figures for Honolulu County. 



108 



Table 42. — Number of offenses known in United Stales Territories and possessions 
January to December, inclusive, 1945 



[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 








Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny— theft 


Auto 
theft 


Jurisdiction reporting 


Over $50 


Under $50 


Alaska: 

First judicial division (Ju- 
neau), population, 25,241; 
number of offenses known 

Second judicial division 
(Nome), population, 11,- 
877; number of offenses 
known 


6 


6 

13 

2 

51 
5 
3 


7 

5 

42 

91 
19 
13 
5 
6 

20 

602 


16 

28 

7 

797 

208 

99 

52 

151 

108 
1,529 


19 
26 

17 

418 

45 

20 

7 

31 

161 
349 


33 
34 

57 

1,650 
175 
251 
64 
262 

1,135 

4,838 


3 

1 


Third judicial division 
(Anchorage), population, 
19,312; number of offenses 






Hawaii: 

Honolulu City, population, 
179,326; number of of- 


10 

4 

6 

1 

2 

5 
312 


598 


Honolulu County, popula- 
tion, 78,930; number of 
offenses known 

Hawaii County, popula- 
tion, 73,276; number of 


75 
38 


Kauai County, population, 
35,818; number of offenses 


12 


Maui County, population, 
55,980; number of offenses 
known . _. 


2 

26 
94 


15 


Isthmus of Panama: Canal 
Zone, population, 51,827; 
number of offenses known 

Puerto Rico: population, 1,869,- 
255; number of offenses known 


87 
74 



Estimated Number of Major Crimes in the United States, 1944-45 

By the end of December 1945, major crimes in the United States 
totaled 1,565,541 for the year, an average of 1 offense each 20.1 
seconds. Every 6.4 minutes someone was raped, feloniously assaulted 
or slain. With the passing of each day 149 persons were robbed, 662 
cars were stolen and 881 places burglarized, in addition to a daily 
average of 2,371 other thefts. 

The total volume of serious crimes for 1945 exceeds that for the 
previous year by 12.3 percent with increases indicated in each crime 
classification. In connection with the pronounced increases recorded 
for crimes against property, reference should be made to the data in 
table 39 which shows an increase of 12.3 percent in the average value 
of property stolen per offense. 

The data presented in table 43 for 1944 and 1945 represent estimates 
based on monthly ci'ime reports received during both years from the 
police in over 2,160 cities representing a combined population of more 
than 66,700,000. 

The larceny classification includes many thefts involving property 
of small value; on the other hand, the estimated total of major crimes 
does not inchuk' many miscellaneous offenses of a serious nature such 



109 




no 



as embezzlement, fraud, forgery, counterfeiting, arson, receiving 
stolen property, drug violations, carrying concealed weapons, etc. It 
is, therefore, believed that the estimated totals as set out in table 43 
are conservative. 

Table 43. — Estimated number of major crimes in the United States, 1944-4'J 



Offense 



Total 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence -. ._ 

Rape _ 

Robbery _ _ 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary .- 

Larceny 

Auto theft- 



Number of offenses 



1, 393, 655 



6,552 

3,783 

10, 915 

43, 804 

54,841 

274, 134 

7C6, 590 

203, 036 



1, 565, 541 



6,847 

4,387 

11,537 

54,279 

59, 807 

321, 672 

865, 521 

241, 491 



Change 



Number 



+171,886 



+295 

+604 

+622 

+ 10,475 

+4, 966 

+47. 538 

+68, 931 

+38, 455 



Percent 



+ 12.3 



+4.5 
+ 16.0 

+5.7 
+23.9 

+9.1 
+ 17.3 

+8.7 
+18.9 



Ill 




DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

Source of Data 

During the 1945 calendar year the FBI examined 543,852 arrest 
records, as evidenced by fingerprint cards, in order to obtain data 
concerning the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of the 
persons represented. The compilation has been limited to instances 
of arrests for violations of State laws and municipal ordinances. In 
other words, fingerprint cards representing arrests for violations of 
Federal laws or representing commitments to any type of penal 
institution have been excluded from this tabulation. 

The number of fingerprint records examined exceeded the 488,979 
handled for the 1944 calendar year by 11.2 percent. The tabulation 
of data from fingerprint cards obviously does not include all persons 
arrested, since there are individuals taken into custody for whom no 
fingerprint cards are forwarded to Washington. Furthermore, data 
pertaining to persons arrested should not be treated as information 
regarding the number of offenses committed, smce two or more persons 
may be involved in the joint commission of a single offense, and on 
the other hand one person may be arrested and charged with the 
commission of several separate crimes.. 

Offense Charged 

Nearly 40 percent (215,301) of the records examined during 1945 
represented arrests for major violations. Persons charged with 
murder, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, or auto theft numbered 
160,834, constituting 29.6 percent of the total arrest records examined. 

Sex 

Fingerprint cards representing arrests of males in 1945 numbered 
459,708, a 13.4 percent increase over the 405,379 cards received 
during 1944. Female arrest prints increased from 83,600 during 1944 
to 84,144 in 1945, representing an increase of less than 1 percent. 

Age 

During 1945, males and females under 21 years of age arrested and 
fingerprinted numbered 113,996, constituting 21.0 percent of the total 
arrests. In addition, there were 79,403 (14.6 percent) between the 
ages of 21 and 24, making a total of 193,399 (35.6 percent) less than 25 
years old. Arrests of persons 25 to 29 years old numbered 74,949 
(13.8 percent). The resultant total is 268,348 (49.3 percent) less than 
30 years of age. It should be remembered that the number of arrest 
records is doubtless incomplete in the lower age groups because of the 
practice of some jurisdictions not to fingerprint youthful ofienders. 

Youths played a predominant part in the commission of crimes 
against property as mdicated by the following figures: During 1945 
there were 129,738 persons of all ages arrested for robbery, burglary, 

(112) 



113 



Table 44. — Distribution of arrests by sex, Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1945 



Offense charged 



Total..- -. 

Criminal homicide. - 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft _ _ 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons: carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children.. 

Liquor laws — 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws. _ 

Disorderly conduct. 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling -.- 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other oflonses 



Number 



Total Male Female 



543,852 



459. 708 



4,732 

13, 955 

37,811 

28, 385 

42, 543 

17, 332 

8.037 

2,782 

559 

3,524 

6,702 

3,138 

9,255 

1,687 

7,478 

8,495 

5,479 

19, 370 

4,534 

85 

4.213 

29,546 

110.251 

23, 590 

11, 634 

30, 561 

2, 554 

21, 476 



84. 144 



649 

840 
5, 195 

918 
8,017 

457 
1,275 

350 
55 

709 



7,821 

4,668 

248 

.508 

849 

1.221 

1,183 

128 

' 4 

191 

8, 758 

14,663 

9,898 

1, 151 

5,495 

706 

8,187 



Percent 



Total Male Female 



100.0 



1.0 
2.7 
7.9 
5.4 
9.2 
3.3 
L7 
0.6 
0.1 
0.8 
1.2 
2.0 
2.6 
0.4 
1.5 
1.7 
1.2 
3.8 
0.9 

(') 
0.8 
7.0 

22.9 
6.2 
2.4 
6.6 
0.6 
5.5 



100.0 



1.0 
3.0 
8.2 
6.2 
9.3 
3.8 
1.7 
0.6 
0.1 
0.8 
1.5 
0.7 
2.0 
0.4 
1.6 
1.8 
1.2 
4.2 
1.0 

(') 
0.9 
6.4 

24.0 
5. 1 
2.5 
6.7 
0.6 
4.7 



0.8 
1.0 
6.2 
1.1 
9.5 
0.5 
1.5 
0.4 
0.1 
0.8 



9.3 

5.5 

0.3 

0.6 

1.0 

1.5 

1.4 

0.2 

(') 

0.2 

10.4 

17.5 

11.8 

1.4 

6.5 

0.8 

9.7 



1 Less than Ho of 1 percent. 



arceny, auto theft, embezzlement, fraud, forgery, counterfeiting, 
receiving stolen property and arson; and 50,622 (39.0 percent) of those 
persons were less than 21 years old. 

The extent of the participation of youths in the commission of 
crimes against property is further indicated by the following figures: 
During 1945, 35.6 percent of all persons arrested were less than 25 
years of age. However, persons less than 25 years old numbered 58.6 
percent of those charged with robbery, 65.4 percent of those charged 
with burglary, 49.6 percent of those charged with larceny, and 80.3 
percent of those charged with auto theft. More than one-half (56.1 
percent) of all crimes against property during 1945 were committed by 
persons under 25 years of age. 

For males and females combined, the figures for the groups in which 
the largest number of arrests occurred during 1945 are as follows: 



Age 


Number of ar- 
rests 


17 
18 
21 
22 

19 ■ 


25,645 
24, 360 
21, 446 
21, 044 
20, 769 



The frequency of male arrests followed the same pattern as above 
except age 19 preceded age 22 in the frequency of arrests. Arrests for 



114 



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115 

females showed the largest number occurring at age 22 followed by 
ages 21, 19, 18, and 23 in that order. 

There was a general increase in the arrests of males for all age 
groups except those under 15 years. Arrests of males under 18 in- 
creased 9.2 percent, while the increase for males under 21 was 10.1 
percent. The greatest increase in the arrests of boys was for criminal 
homicide and other assaults, such arrests increasing 16.9 percent 
during 1945 as compared with 1944 (from 6,278 to 7,342). Arrests 
for offenses against common decency of boys under 21 increased 10.7 
percent (from 17,093 to 18,917). For offenses against property the 
increase was 14.6 percent, while "all other" offenses decreased 1.0 
percent. 

The total arrests for girls under 21 years of age decreased 10.6 
percent during 1945. The number of such girls arrested for criminal 
homicide and other assaults increased 2.7 percent, from 826 in 1944 to 
848 during 1945. Arrests of these girls for offenses against property 
increased 10.9 percent, while arrests for offenses against common 
decency (prostitution and commercialized vice, other sex offenses, 
disorderly conduct, vagrancy, etc.), showed a decrease (10.1 percent), 
and arrests for miscellaneous violations decreased 23.5 percent. For all 
offenses combined , female arrests decreased for all ages up through age 
20 and increased in higher age groups. 

Compared with 1941 arrests of males under 21 in 1945 decreased 
7.3 percent while female arrests in this age bracket more than doubled 
(+109.3 percent) in 1945. 



116 




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118 

Table 46. — Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, 
Jan. 1-Dec. SI, 1945 



Offense charged 



Total 

number 

of persons 

arrested 



Number 
under 18 
years of 



Number 
under 21 
years of 



Total 

number 

under 25 

years of 

age 



Percent- Percent- 
age underiage under 
18 years 21 years 
of age of age 



Total 
percent- 
age under 
25 years 
of age 



Total 

Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assaul t-.- -- 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft. 

Auto theft - 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, re- 
ceiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice 

Other sex ofTenses_ 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 

etc 

Offenses against family and 

children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle 

laws - - 

Disorderly conduct... _. 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 



543,852 



49,566 



113,996 



K3,399 



9.1 



21.0 



35.6 



.5, 381 
14, 795 
43, 006 
29, 303 
50, 560 
17, 789 

9,312 

3,132 

614 

4,233 

6.702 

10. 959 

13,923 

1,935 

7,986 

9,344 
6, 700 
20, 553 
4,662 



4,404 
38, 304 
124,914 
33. 488 
12, 785 
36, 056 

3,260 
29, 663 



322 
1,899 
1,689 
8,657 
8,262 
5,908 

316 

264 

93 

416 

794 

334 

60S 
27 



39 
115 
229 
324 
3 

344 
2,221 
1,351 
3,074 

249 
5, 264 

162 
5,813 



5, 205 
• 5,387 

14.588 
16, 953 
10, 864 
1,190 

615 

166 

1,041 

2,015 

1,8.55 

2,202 

218 

1,834 

464 
508 
966 
929 
13 

973 

6,868 

6, 101 
9,314 

747 
11,145 

488 
10, 559 



1.524 
8,670 
11,724 
19, 178 
2.5, 087 
14,291 
2,505 

1,008 

254 

1,829 

3,232 

4,606 

4,684 

517 

3,101 

1,776 
1,140 
2, 735 
1,771 
27 

1,723 
13,596 
16,847 
15,847 

1,763 

17, 377 

945 

15, 642 



6.0 
12.8 

3.9 
29.5 
16.3 
33.2 

3.4 

8.4 
15.1 
9.8 

11.8 

3.0 
4.4 
1.4 



.4 
1.7 
1.1 
6.9 
3.4 

7.8 
.5.8 
1.1 
9.2 
1.9 

14.6 
,5.0 

19.6 



14.6 
3.5.2 
12.5 
49.8 
33.5 
61.1 
12.8 

19.6 
27.0 
24.6 
30.1 

16.9 
15.8 
11.3 

2.3.0 

5.0 
7.6 
4.7 
19.9 
14.6 

22.1 
17.9 

4.9 
27.8 

5.8 
30.9 
15.0 
35.6 



28.3 
58.6 
27.3 
6.5.4 
49.6 
80.3 
26.9 

32.2 
41.4 
43.2 
48.2 

42.0 
33.6 
26.7 

38.8 

19.0 
17.0 
13.3 
38.0 
30. 3 

39. 1 
35.5 
1.3. 5 
47.3 
1.3.8 
48.2 
29.0 
52.7 



Criminal Repeaters 

Of all the. 543,852 arrest records examined, 282,332 (51.9 percent) 
represented persons who already had fingerprint cards on file in the 
Identification Division of the FBI. For males the percentage having 
prior records was 55.2 and for females the percentage was 34.0. These 
figures pertain to fingerprint arrest records and in no way relate to 
the Civil Identification Files of the FBI. 

For males and females combined, the percentage with a prior finger- 
print record was 15.0 at age. 15 and this figure rose rapidly to 42.2 at 

Table 47. — Percentage with previous fingerprint records, arrests, Jan. 1-Dec. SI, 

1945 



Offense 



Narcotic drug laws 

Drunkenness 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Robbery 

Embezzlement and fraud. 

Vagrancy 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Liquor laws..' 

Larceny— theft 

Assault. 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Disorderly conduct 

Rape.. 



Percent 


75.7 


63.2 


62.5 


59. 6 


58.9 


56.9 


.52,9 


51.4 


,50. 6 


60. 


48.7 


46.5 


45.7 


45.2 



Offense 



Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. .. 
Offenses against family and children 

Auto Ihefi 

Stolon property; buying, receiving, etc 

-\11 other offen.ses 

Driving while intoxicated 

Prostitution and commercialized vice. 

A rson 

Other trafflc and motor vehicle laws.. 

Parking violations ' 

Criminal honi icide 

Other .sex offenses 

Violation of road and driving laws 



Percent 



45.1 
44.9 
44.7 
44.4 
43.9 
42. 5 
42.4 
42.2 
41.9 
41.6 
40.9 
36.9 
35.0 



I Only 89 fingerprint cards received representing arrests for violation of parking regulations. 



119 



age 20. For males, the percentage was 15.9 at age 15 and 46.6 at age 
20. For females, the percentage with prior fingerprint records was 
8.3 at age 15 and 28.8 at age 20. 
Arrests Outside of State of Birth 

The 1940 decennial census indicates that 22.4 percent of the native 
population resided outside of their ^tate of birth. Tabulation of 
similar information from the fingerprint jecords disclosed that 57.0 
percent of all the persons arrested and fingerprinted during 1945 were 
arrested outside of their State of birth. The figures for males and 
females were generally quite similar, for males 57.3 percent and for 
females 55.2 percent. 

However, there is a difference in these figures when subdivided by 
age groups. Of the females under 21 years of age, 45.4 percent were 
arrested outside of their State of birth, whereas the corresponding 
figure for males was 39.8 percent. 
Race 

Most of the persons represented in this study were members of the 
white and Negro races. Including Mexicans, who numbered 20,062, 
members of the white race represented 390,315 of the 543,852 arrest 
records received, while 145,571 were Negroes, 5,820 were Indians, 
544 Chinese, 81 Japanese, and 1,521 were representatives of other 

races. 

Table 48. — Arrests by race, Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1945 



Offense charged 


Total, all 
races 


Race 


White 


Negro 


Indian 


Chinese 


Japanese 


All others 


Total 


543, 852 


390,315 


145, 571 


5,820 


544 


81 


1 521 






Criminal homicide 


5,381 
14, 795 
43, 006 
29, 303 
50, 560 
17, 789 

9,312 

3,132 

614 

4,233 

6,702 

10, 959 
13, 923 
1,935 

7,986 

9,344 
6,700 
20, 553 
4.662 
89 

4,404 
38, 304 
124, 914 
33,488 
12, 785 
36, 056 
3,260 
29, 663 


2,897 
8,394 

23, 068 
20, 541 
32, 828 
14, 851 

7,808 

2,010 

440 

3,495 

4,638 

7,246 

11,264 

1,205 

3,546 

7,722 
3, 544 
18,418 
3,404 
61 

3,060 
27, 086 
102, 942 

24, 781 
5,150 

24, 562 

2,530 

22, 824 


2,441 
6, 236 

19, 420 
8,495 

17, 345 
2,771 
1,449 

1,095 
165 
682 

1,943 

3,509 

2,487 

567 

4,346 

1,541 
3.122 
1,914 
1,238 
27 

1,298 
10, 734 
18, 986 

8,177 

7,343 

11, 161 

676 

6,403 


24 
102 
246 
154 
283 
134 

27 

6 

4 

38 

52 

184 
95 
9 

27 

60 
25 
175 

11 


3 
2 
35 
10 
14 
4 
7 

3 
1 
4 

7 

6 
19 
130 

5 

6 
1 
3 




16 


Robbery 

Assault . 

Burglary— breaking or entering. 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud... ... 

Stolen property; buying, receiv- 
ing, etc . 


1 
4 
4 

7 

1 
1 

1 


60 
233 

99 
83 

28 
20 

17 


Arson . 


4 


Forgery and counterfeiting 




14 


Rape 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice 

other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws ... 


2 

6 

1 


60 

14 
52 
23 


Weapons; carrying, possessing, 
etc ... . 


62 


Offenses against family and 
children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated _ 

Road and driving laws 


"4" 

2 


15 
4 
41 

9 


Parking violations 




1 

13" 

8 
9 




Other traffic and motor vehicle 

laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 


31 

372 

2,769 

436 

17 
238 

23 
278 


2 
12 
19 
22 
136 
21 
10 
62 


13 
87 
190 


Vagrancy 


63 


Gambling 


139 


Suspicion 


8 


60 


Not stated. 


21 


All other offenses 


8 


88 







OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in part I and 
part II offenses, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 

Part I Offenses 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter includes ail 
wilful felonious homicides as distinguished from deaths caused by negligence. 
Does not include attempts to kill, assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, or 
justifiable homicides. Justifiable homicides excluded from this classification are 
limited to the following types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon by a peace officer 
ir. line of duty; (2) The killing of a hold-up man by a private citizen, (fe) Man- 
slaughter by negligence includes any death which the police investigation estab- 
lishes was primarily attributable to gross negligence on the part of some individual 
other than the victim. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape (no force used — victim under 
age of consent), assault to rape, and attempted rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as strong-arm robbery, stick-ups. 
robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault bj' shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by the use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or , entering! — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or a theft, even though no force 
wa« used to gain entrance. Includes attempts. Burglary followed by larcency 
is included in this classification and not counted again as larceny. 

6. Larceny — thejt (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value: 
(6) under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of the property stolen, thefts of bicycles, automobile accessories, 
shoplifting, pocket-picking, or any stealing of property or article of value which 
is not taken by force and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement 
"con" games, forgery, worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven away 
and abandoned, including the so-called joy-riding thefts. Does not include taking 
for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unauthorized use by 
those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which is 
made to appear true. Includes attem|)ts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offensos of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false pretenses. 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to conunit any of those offenses. 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of regulations 
or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing, and manufac- 
turing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes 
or regulations. 

(120) 



121 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commer- 
cialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as prostitution, keeping 
bawdy house, procuring, transporting, or detaining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice). — In- 
cludes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

15. Offenses against the Jamily and children. — Includes offenses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, sale, or use. Excludes Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "drunkenness" (class 18) and "driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations. State or local, are placed in 
this class. Excludes Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regulations with 
respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters, but not in connection with any specific offense, who are released with- 
out formal charges being placed against them. 



INDEX TO VOLUME XVI, UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

[All references are to page numbersl 

Age of offenders. {See Arrests.) 

Annual crime trends: Page 

Cities grouped by size 7-12, 79-81 

Cities grouped by location 14-16, 82-86 

Estimated total number of major crimes, 1944-45 108-111 

Long term trends, 1931-44 7-16 

Rural crime trends 27-29, 105-107 

Arrests — based on fingerprint records 63-69, 112-119 

Age of offenders 63-68, 112-118 

In individual cities. (See Persons charged.) 

Outside state of birth 69, 119 

Race of offenders 09, 119 

Recidivism ■. 69, 118-119 

Sex of offenders 63-65, 112-113 

Automobiles — percentage recovered 25, 103 

Classification of offenses 3, 70-71, 74-75, 120-121 

Cleared by arrest, offenses 38-40, 45-46, 51-52 

By geographic divisions 51-52 

Crimes. (See Arrests, estimated number, off"enses, persons charged, per- 
sons found guilty, and persons released.) 
Criminal repeaters. (See Arrests — recidivism.) 

Employees, number of police 30-37 

Fingerprint records 63-69, 112-119 

Monthly variations, offenses known to the police 87-90 

Offenses known to the police: 

Annual trends 7-16, 27-29, 79-86, 105-107 

Cities grouped by location 16-20, 89,91-93 

Cities grouped by location and size 20, 93 

Cities grouped by size 4-5, 77-78 

Cleared by arrests 38-40, 45-46, 51-52 

Cleared by arrest, geographic divisions 51-52 

Divided as to time and place and value of property stolen_. 23-27, 101-105 

Individual cities over 100,000 in population 21-23 

Individual cities over 25,000 in population 94-101 

Monthly variations 87-90 

Rural areas 27-29, 105-107 

Territories and possessions of the United States 107-108 

Persons charged (lield for prosecution) 40-44 

liy geographic divisions 51-55 

In individual cities over 100,000 in population 56-62 

Persons found guilty 45-46 

Persons released (not held for prosecution) 48-51 

Police department employees 30^-37 

Possessions and Territories of the United States, offenses in 107-108 

Property, value stolen 23-27, 101-105 

Property, value stolen and recovered 23-27, 101-105 

(122) 



123 

Page 
Prosecution, persons held for. (See Persons charged and persons found 

guilty.) 
Race of offenders. (See Arrests.) 
Recidivism. (See Arrests.) 

Reporting area, extent of a 75-76 

Rural crime data 27-29, 105-107 

Sex of offenders. (See Arrests.) 

Sheriffs' reports 27-29, 105-107 

State crime rates. (See Offenses known — cities grouped by location.) 

State police reports 27-29, 105-107 

Territories and possessions of the United States, offenses in 107-108 

Trends, annual crime: 

Cities grouped by size 7-12, 79-81 

Cities grouped by location 14-16, 82-86 

Long-term trends, 1931-44 7-16 

Value of property stolen 23-27, 101-105 

Value of property stolen and recovered 23-27, 101-105 

Variations, monthly crime 87-90 

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