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UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C 



Volume XVIII Number f 

SEMIANNUAL BULLETIN • 1947 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume XVIII— Number 1 
SEMIANNUAL BULLETIN, 1947 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



[nternational Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1947 



OCT 7 1941 



Contents 

Page 

Summary of volume XVIII, No. 1 1-2 

Classification of offenses 2-3 

Monthly reports: 

Offenses known to the pohce — cities divided according to population 

(table 1) 4-5 

Urban crime trends (table 2) 6-7 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location 

(tables 3-5) 8-11 

Offenses in individual cities over 100,000 in population (table 6) 12-14 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 7-9) 14-1 7 

Rural crime rates (table 10) 17 

Rural crime trends (table 11) 17-19 

Police employee data: 

Number of police department employees killed, 1946 (tables 12, 13)__ 20-21 
Number of police department employees per 1,000 inhabitants, April 

30, 1947, cities grouped by size and location (tables 12, 14) 20-25 

Number of police department employees in individual cities, April 30, 

1947 (tables 15, 16) 25-48 

Annual reports: 

Offenses known and offenses cleared by arrest, 1946 — cities divided 

according to population (table 17) 49-53 

Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1946 — cities divided according 

to population (tables 18, 19) 54-57 

Offenses known, offenses cleared, and persons found guilty, 1946, 

part I offenses (table 20) 57-60 

Persons charged (held for prosecution) and persons found guilty, 

1946, part II offenses (table 21)___- 57, 59 

Persons released (not held for prosecution), 1946 — cities divided 

according to population (tables 22, 23) 62-6 3 

Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest and persons charged, 1946, 

by geographic divisions (tables 24, 25) 64-67 

Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1947: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 26) 68-69 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 27, 28) 68-7 1 

Definition of part I and part II offense classifications 73-74 

(II) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 
of Justice, Washington, D. C. 



Volume XVIII July 1947 Number 1 

SUMMARY 

Crime Trends — Urban and Rural 

Crime for the first 6 months of 1947 was up 7.5 percent in the rural 
areas and down 2.3 percent in the cities, compared with the same period 
of 1946. Kapes increased 13.6 percent in the rural communities and 
3.5 percent in the urban centers. Rural burglaries and larcenies rose 
17.1 percent and 13.9 percent, respectively, as compared with increases 
of only 2.1 percent for burglaries and 1.1 percent for larcenies in 
the cities. 

Robberies showed little change, decreasing 0.3 percent in the rural 
areas and increasing 1.5 percent in the cities. Similarly, the rural 
figures for aggravated assault increased but 1.9 percent while the 
urban rise was 2.7 percent for these crimes. 

Murders and negligent manslaughters in the rural areas for the 
first half of 1947 were down 7.4 percent and 6.6 percent, respectively. 
Urban murders decreased 6.4 percent and negligent manslaughters, 
10.8 percent. Auto thefts declined sharply in both the rural areas 
(19.0 percent) and in the urban communities (22.3 percent). 
Value of Property Stolen 

Loot of $187 was stolen in the average robbery during the first 
half of 1947, while the property taken in the average burglary was 
valued at $131. In larceny cases, the stolen property was valued at 
$61 per offense and the average stolen car, $733. Ninety-five percent 
of the stolen automobiles were recovered by the police and 24 percent 
of other types of property. 
Persons Arrested, January-June 1947 

The 371,228 fingerprint arrest records received the first half of 1947 
showed a 20.0 percent increase over those received during the same 
period of 1946. Male arrests increased 20.5 percent and females, 
15.7 percent. Age 21 predominated among male arrests and age 22 
among the females. Of the fingerprint arrest records received, 
54.6 percent were those of repeaters. 

(1) 



Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1946 

Crimes against the person criminal homicide, rape, and felonious 
assault) were solved by the police in 1946 with the arrest of the 
assailant in 78.9 percent of the cases, while 25.2 of the crimes having 
property as the object (robbery, burglary, larceny, and car theft) 
were cleared by the arrest of the thieves. The percent cleared for 
individual offense classes was as follows: Murder, 88.5; negligent 
manslaughter, 81.8; rape, 74.1 , aggravated assault, 78.7; robbery, 37.1; 
burglary, 29.1; larceny, 22.0; and auto theft, 28.8. 

Persons Found Guilty, 1946 

Nearly 83 percent of all persons charged by the police were found 
guilty in 1946. This is somewhat higher than the 81 percent reported 
in 1945 and the increase in the percentage found guilty was seen in 
most offense classes. For 1946 the lowest percentage was for negligent 
manslaughter, 43.1, and the highest, 88.5, for driving while intoxicated. 

Police Killed, 1946 

Along with the widespread increase in crime in 1946 there was a 39 
percent jump in police employees killed in line of duty. Eighty- two 
law-enforcement officers were killed during the year in 3,170 cities 
for a death rate of 5.64 per 5,000,000 inhabitants as compared with 
4.06 for 1945. 
Number of Police Employees, April 30, 1946 

Police employees numbered 1.75 per 1,000 inhabitants on April 30, 
1947, a 4.8 percent increase over the figure of 1.67 for the previous 
year. Generally, it is observed the large cities report more employees 
per unit o^f population than the smaller places. Seven and one-tenth 
percent of the employees were reported as civilian personnel without 
police power. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term ''offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to the 
police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting or 
court officials, or otherwise. They arc confined to the following group 
of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be those most 
generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal homicide, 
including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (b) manslaugh- 
ter by negligence ; rape ; robbery; aggravated assault; burglary — break- 
ing or entering ; larceny— theft ; and auto theft. The figures contained 
herein include also the number of attempted crimes of the designated 
classes. In other words, an attempted burglary or robbery, for ex- 
ample, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner as if the crime 



had been completed. Attempted murders, however, are reported as 
aggravated assaults. 

''Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the law-enforce- 
ment agencies of contributing communities and not merely arrests or 
cleared cases. Offenses committed by juveniles are included in the 
same manner as those known to have been committed by adults, 
regardless of the prosecutive action. Complaints which upon inves- 
tigation are learned to be groundless are not included in the tabulations 
which follow. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime arid criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions of 
part I and II offense classifications. 



MONTHLY REPORTS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population 

The urban crime rates for January-June 1947 are shown in table 1 
along with the number of offenses reported, the number of cities used 
and the population represented. The data are presented separately 
for six population groups for convenience in comparing rates for indi- 
vidual cities with national averages for communities of approximately 
the same size. It may be observed that better than 92 percent of 
the urban population is represented in the crime rate tabulations. 

Following the pattern of prior periods the highest crime rates are 
generally shown for the larger cities except that the aggravated as- 
sault rate in group III cities (50,000-100,000) is the highest. Simi- 
larly, the group III larceny rate is higher than that for cities with 
population in excess of 250,000. 

A comparison of the data in table 1 with the similar tabulation for 
the first half of 1946 (vol. XVII, No. 1) will give a general indication 
of the crime trends within population groups. Such a comparison 
reflects an increase in murders only in group III cities while negligent 
manslaughters increased only in group II. Eapes increased in cities 
of all sizes, and auto thefts showed a decrease in each group. Bur- 
gJaries increased m all except group III. Robberies were up in groups 
I, IV, and VI while larcenies increased in each group except for cities 
with population from 10,000 to 25,000. Aggravated assaults showed 
increases in each population group except in groups IV and VI. 

Crime rates for cities grouped by size and location may be found in 
tables 4 and 5. 

(4) 



5 

Table 1. — Offenses known to the police, January-June 1947; number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Population group 



TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

2,437 cities; total population, 
68,555,254: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



, GROUP I 

36 cities over 250,000; total populg 
tion, 29,894,166: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



65 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total pop- 
ulation, 7,792.650: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP ui 

107 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
ulation, 7,343,917: 
Number of ofienses known- 
Rate per 100,000 



GROUP IV 

212 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total popu- 
lation, 7,377,654: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP V 

663 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total popu- 
lation, 8,503,555: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP VI 

1,464 cities under 10,000; total popu- 
lation, 7,643,312: 

Number of ofienses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



2,004 
2.92 



1,036 
3.47 



210 



145 
1.97 



168 



182 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 



,04 



738 
2.47 



214 

2.75 



122 



105 
1.42 



113 
1.33 



106 
1.39 



Rape 



4,197 
6.12 



2,278 
7.62 



5.95 



359 
4.89 



287 
3.89 



396 
4.66 



413 
5.40 



Rob- 
bery 



21, 020 
30.7 



13, 228 
44.2 



2,781 
35.7 



1,642 
22.4 



1,24' 
16.9 



1,101 
12.9 



1,021 
13.4 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



23, 568 
34.4 



12, 027 
40.2 



34.5 



3,049 
41.5 



2,224 
30.1 



1,967 
23.1 



1,610 
21.1 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



120. 244 
203.2 



1 48, 824 
238.1 



20, 781 
266.7 



14, 767 
201.1 



13, 134 
178.0 



12,883 
151.5 



9.855 
128, 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



279. 936 
473.1 



1 102, 478 
499.7 



43. 433 

557.4 



37, 694 
513.3 



36, 807 



35, 621 
418.9 



23.903 
312. 



Auto 
theft 



64, 785 
94.5 



30, 786 
103.0 



9,844 
126.3 



6,937 
94.5 



6,273 
85.0 



6,197 
72.9 



4,748 
62.1 



1 Thenumberofoffensesandrateforburglary and larceny— theft are based on reports as follows: Group I, 
34 cities, total population, 20,507,837; groups I-VI, 2,435 cities, total population, 59,168,925. 



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Annual Trends, Offenses Known to the Police in Urban Communities 

Increases were recorded for each crime category except auto theft 
and criminal homicide in the urban areas of the Nation during the 
first 6 months of 1947 according to the monthly reports received at 
the FBI from 2,085 city police departments. 

With reference to the 3.5 percent rise in the rape figures it should 
be remembered that these crimes have shown a practically uninter- 
rupted increase for many years. Similarly, the 2.7 percent increase in 
aggravated assaults represents a continuation of a steady upswing 
recorded for each of the past 7 years except 1943. 

The increases in robbery and burglary which have been particularly 
sharp during the past 2 years showed some leveling off tendencies 
during the first half of 1947 with increases of only 1.5 percent and 2.1 
percent!, respectively. Larceny, too, was showing marked increases 
since the war but rose only 1.1 percent during January-June of 1947 
over the same period of 1946. 

Murder and negligent manslaughter declined 6.4 percent and 10.8 
percent during the first 6 months of 1947 after alarming increases 
beginning back in 1944. Auto thefts showed the most pronounced 
change ( — 22.3 percent) during the first half of 1947 continuing a 
decline which began in 1946. For all oft'enses as a group a decrease 
of 2.3 percent was registered for the first half of 1947. 

The urban crime trend data are shown in table 2 for the first 6 
months of 1946 and 1947. The annual issue of this bulletin for 1946 
(vol. XVII, No. 2) may be referred to for charts depicting the trends 
in urban crime over the war years. Rural crime trend figures may 
be found in table 11 of this issue. 



Table 2. — Urban crime trends, January-June 1946-47 
[Offenses known to the police in 2,085 cities, total population, 65,537,365; based on 1940 decennial census] 



Offense 



Total 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary.- - 

Larceny 

Auto theft.. - 



Number of offenses 
January-June 



1946 



612,836 



2,005 

1,496 

3,850 

19, 824 

20, 950 

115,906 

268, 761 

80,043 



1947 



601, 242 



1,876 
1,334 
3,984 
20,124 
21,514 
118,361 
271, 829 
62,220 



Change 



Number 



■11,693 



-129 

-162 

+134 

+300 

+564 

+2, 455 

+3, 068 

-17, 823 



Percent 



-2.3 



-6.4 
-10.8 
+3.5 
+1.5 
+2.7 
+2.1 
+].l 
-22.3 



8 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location 

As indicated in table 2 criminal homicides and auto thefts declined 
for all cities as a group while other offenses showed moderate increases. 
A comparison of the crime rates for geographic divisions in table 4 
with the similar tabulation for the first 6 months of 1946 (vol. XVII, 
No. 1) indicates the trend in some sections of the country differed 
from the trends for the Nation as a whole. 

The decrease in auto thefts and murders was reported in all divi- 
sions except that the murder rates were somewhat higher the first half 
of 1947 in the Middle Atlantic, Mountain, and Pacific areas. Other 
instances where the regional trends varied from the national figures 
are as follows: Robberies, which as a total were up, declined in the 
South Atlantic and East South Central divisions; aggravated assaults 
decreased in the East South Central divisions and showed no change 
in the East North Central area; burglaries declined in the Middle 
Atlantic and East North Central divisions ; and the larceny rates were 
lower this year in the Middle Atlantic, East South Central, and West 
South Central groups. 

Crime rates for individual States for the first half of 1947 are shown 
in table 4, and for cities divided according to population group within 
each of the nine geographic divisions, in table 5. It wiU be observed 
there is considerable variation in the amount of crime per unit of 
population among the several States and geographic divisions of the 
country. This is only to be expected since the volume of crime 
depends upon such a large variety of factors, some of which are out- 
lined in the text preceding table 6. 

In examuiing the rates in the following tables it should be remem- 
bered that for the purpose of uniformity the 1940 decennial census 
figures were used in compiling the data and since that time marked 
changes have occurred in the population of many of the cities used. 

In table 3 may be found the number of cities used in preparing the 
figures for each of the various subdivisions appearing in tables 4 and 5. 



Table 3. — Number of cities in each State included in the tahidation of uniform crime 
reports, January-June 1947 





Total 


Population group 


Division and State 


Over ] 
250,000 


00,000 to 
250,000 


50,000 to 
100,000 


25,000 to 
50,000 


10,000 to 
25,000 


Less than 
10,000 


Total: 

Population, 68,555,254 


2,437 


36 


55 


107 


212 


563 


1,464 


New England: 

Population, 6,092,471 


194 


2 


10 


13 


36 


66 


67 




27 
21 
106 
13 
17 
10 

558 




3 


2 


9 
2 

16 
2 
6 
1 

37 


6 
6 

42 
5 
6 
1 

140 


7 






12 




1 


' 


32 


New Hampshire 




1 




3 






4 


Middle Atlantic: 

Population, 19,765,034 


6 


11 


24 


340 


New Jersey 


143 
167 

248 

578 


1 
3 
2 

8 


4 
4 
3 

10 


11 
23 


15 
10 
12 

60 


36 
46 

68 

119 


80 
98 
162 


New York 


Pennsvlvania 


East North Central: 

Population, 16,755,949 


358 


Illinois 


160 
73 
105 
160 
80 

280 


1 

1 
1 
4 
1 

4 


1 
3 

2 
4 


6 
4 
2 

8 


14 
10 
9 
14 
13 

12 


33 
13 
24 
33 
16 

60 


104 
42 
63 

101 
48 


Indiana 


Michigan 


Ohio - -- - 




West North Central: 

Population, 5,469,694 


5 


191 




61 
64 
69 
49 
25 
9 
13 

238 




1 
2 
1 


4 

1 


6 
1 
1 
2 


10 
15 
11 
11 
6 
3 
4 

53 


40 
35 
54 








2 
2 




2 
1 






1 








i 
1 

20 


5 










8 


South Atlantic: 

Population, 6,087,214 


3 


7 


17 


138 




4 
1 
87 
40 
15 
49 
21 
44 
27 

105 




1 








3 


District of Columbia.. - 

T?lnrida 


i 


-- 


i 

4 


4 

1 

2 
4 
2 
5 
2 

10 


9" 
9 
4 

14 
4 
6 

7 

23 


20 

25 

8 




1 
1 






North Carolina 


1 


4 
2 
3 
3 

4 


13 
28 
15 








2 






East South Central: 

Population, 2,556,577 


3 


3 


62 




25 
28 
22 
30 

163 


1 

1 




2 
1 

1 


3 

5 
1 

1 

13 


5 
4 
9 

5 

41 


14 
17 
11 
20 












1 
4 


3 
3 




9 




West South Central: 

Population, 4,133,796 


93 




21 
24 
38 
80 

107 






1 

1 


1 
3 
2 
7 

7 


4 
4 
12 
21 

19 


15 
15 
22 


Louisiana 


1 


9 


Oklahoma 


3" 

1 


1 
1 


7 
. 2 


41 


Mountain: 

Population, 1,503,455 


77 




10 
21 
18 
14 

2 






1 

1 


1 
1 
1 
2 




8 
14 
12 
10 

2 
13 


Colorado 

Idaho 

Montana 


1 




5 
2 


New Mexico 

Utah 

Wyoming 

Pacific: 

Population, 6,191,064 


16 

20 

6 

214 


6 


- 

5 


■ 7 


1 
17 


2 
4 

42 


16 
138 


California 


154 
29 


3 

1 
1 


3 


7 


13 

1 


30 

5 

7 


98 
22 
18 


Oregon 

Washington 


'. 31 


2 




3 



10 

Table 4. — Number of offenses known to the 'police per 100,000 inhabitants, January- 
June 1947, by geographic divisions and States 





[Based 


on 1940 decennial census 


] 






Murder, 
Division and State Hg^eTmln- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burglary- 
breaking 
or entering 


Larceny — 
theft 


Auto theft 


Total... 


2.92 


30.7 


34.4 


I 203. 2 


1 473. 1 


94.5 


New England . 


.53 1 10.3 


6.5 


141.8 


292.4 


70.0 


Connecticut - 


.28 
.32 
.70 


10.9 
6.3 

11.3 
3.7 
8.8 
3.1 

14.7 


12.8 
3.8 
4.4 
2.1 

10.7 
4.1 

18.0. 


179.8 
130.7 
134.6 
48.7 
165. 8 
105. 1 

2 119.7 


375. 1 
358.0 
259. 4 
183.2 
344.2 
342.2 

2 211.8 


72 9 




62.8 




72 9 


New Hampshire.-- 


30.5 


Rhode Island 


.31 


66 


Vermont 


73 2 


Middle Atlantic 


1.67 


65.5 


New Jersey 

New York 


1.29 
1.72 
1.76 

2.29 


20.8 
9.9 
20.6 

35.5 


24.0 
17.7 
15.7 

24.9 


163. 9 

394.0 

M10.8 

171.2 


240. 5 

3 240. 6 

4 165. 2 

404.3 


62.3 
69 6 


Pennsylvania 


59 5 


East North Central 


71.6 




2.23 
2.75 
2.47 
2. 66 
.62 

2.21 


46.9 
29.7 
38.5 
32.5 
5.1 

21.4 


18.2 
21.8 
51.5 
22.4 
3.1 

22.6 


134.7 

207.8 
232.1 
189.2 

81.8 

150.2. 


242.9 
445.8 
600.4 
451. 1 
376. 5 

389.5 


51.0 


Indiana . 


105 7 


Michigan 


85 8 


Ohio 


80.4 


Wisconsui 


52 5 


West North Central. 


82.3 




.93 
2.42 

.52 
4.71 

.87 


9.8 
1.5.8 
1,5.2 
38.8 
13.7 
10.4 

3.8 

36.8 


4.0 
8.6 
4.6 
.56. 6 
17.0 
2.6 
6.1 

109.1 


144.5 
202.0 
110.9 
168.5 
151.6 
96.7 
121.4 

274.4 


407. 6 
477.0 
330.8 
361. 3 
450.3 
549.2 
414.7 

599.6 


84.7 


Kansas 


87 3 


M^inuesota 


73 2 




90.5 


Nebraska 


84 4 


North Dakota . 


47.5 


South Dakota 


1.53 
7.03 


46 6 


South Atlantic « 


129.8 


Delaware - 


2.40 
9.11 
13.22 
5.09 
6.96 
6.06 
5.75 
2.42 

8.29 


40.1 
6.3.2 
27.2 
25.9 
21.4 
21.8 
36.3 
24.0 

39.6 


7.2 
100.1 

76.2 

68.0 
245. 1 

75.2 
106.7 

24.4 

84.7 


237.1 
517.2 
206. 
136. 6 
247.0 
197.0 
289.0 
154. 7 

273.1 


652. 9 
891.7 
543.5 
304.9 
440.0 
613.7 
684.3 
367.9 

411.2 


128.2 


Florida 


152. 7 


Georgia 


139 2 




153.7 


North Carolina 


110 3 




126.4 


Virginia 


132 3 




76.6 


East South Central 


137.8 




11.46 
4.59 
6.69 
9.39 

6.31 


30.2 
62.7 
1.5.0 
37.2 

31.0 


131.8 
71.3 
89.6 
57.5 

57.0 


295. 5 
301.8 
189. 3 
263.0 

279.6 


381.7 
467.8 
437.3 
379.3 

639.8 


125.8 


Kentucky 


167 7 




84. 1 


Tennessee 


142 4 


West South Central 


123.7 


Arkansas 


8.07 
6.53 
4.08 
6.69 

2.39 


39. 6 
33.9 
31.8 
28.7 

37.1 


75.3 
51.2 
20.6 
67.8 

26.2 


199.0 
151.6 
277.2 
335. 2 

284.3 


452. 1 
328. 6 
616. 8 
779. 

884.2 


93 7 




90.2 


Oklahoma 


102.8 


Texas . . ... 


145.2 


Momitain 


129.0 




5.44 
2.59 
.70 
1.96 
6.60 
1.62 
1.03 
4.00 

3.23 


70.0 
50. 4 
20.4 
20.3 
66. 
17.0 
21.7 
24.0 

85.4 


68.0 
20.5 
9.8 
15. 1 
29.7 
54.2 
18.9 
20.0 

42.7 


399.1 
333.4 
238.9 
156. 5 
461.8 
215.2 
258. 5 
193.3 

367.5 


1, .347. 4 
765. 9 

1,071.3 
759.7 

1, 487. 6 
633. 4 
913.0 
785.1 

1. 039. 2 


235. 2 


Colorado 


91.4 


Idaho 


133.5 


Montana 


106. 1 


Nevada 


217 7 


New Mexico. . 


113.2 


Utah 


159.8 


Wyoming 


101. 3 


Pacific 


203.4 


California 


3.68 
1.36 
1.84 


95. 5 
49.1 
51.1 


46. 8 
49.3 
16.2 


362. 8 
420.5 
362.0 


1, 068. 4 
978.7 
913.9 


207 8 


Oregon 


171.6 


Washington 


197 9 







> The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 2,435 cities with a total population of 
59,168,925. 

2 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 556 cities with a total population of 10,378,705. 

3 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on reports of 165 cities. 
* The rates for burglary and larceny are based on reports of 246 cities. 
5 Includes the report of the District of Columbia. 



11 



Table 5. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January- 
June 1947, by geographic divisions and population groups 
[Based on 1940 decennial census] 



Division and group 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggravated 
assault 


Burglary- 
breaking or 
entering 


Larceny- 
theft 


Auto theft 


Total 


2.92 


30.7 


34.4 


I 203. 2 


1 473. 1 


94.5 


New England 


.53 


10.3 


6.5 


141.8 


292.4 


70.0 


Group I 

Group II 

Group III ... .. ... 


.88 
.81 
.42 
.39 
.20 
.23 

1.67 


19.4 
13.1 
10.4 
7.3 
3.1 
5.1 

14.7 


11.9 
10.0 
4.3 
4.2 
2.1 
4.4 

18.0 


114.7 
217.2 
145.7 
125.5 
98.3 
112.9 

2 119.7 


268. 1 
379.2 
354.9 
272.4 
206.4 
201 1 

2 211.8 


128.0 
89.1 
60.8 


Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Middle Atlantic 


52.1 
31.5 
37.3 

65.5 




2.28 

1.18 

.86 

1.09 

.58 

.67 

2.29 


17.1 
16.7 
14.0 

8.5 
10.1 

8.0 

35.5 


21.4 
16.3 
17.6 
14.8 
11.2 
9.0 

24.9 


3 140.4 
153.1 
139. 6 
122.0 
94.2 
81.2 

171.2 


3 176. 
251.8 
263.0 
279.5 
190.7 
150 

404.3 


74. 1 


Group II 


71.0 


Group III 


66.8 


Group IV 

Group V 


54. 3 
49.5 


Group VI 


33 6 


East North Central 


71.6 


Group I 

Group II_ 

Group III 


3.17 
2.49 
1.87 
1.48 
1.07 
.86 

2.21 


53.2 
45.2 
19.8 
15.8 
12.2 
10.9 

21.4 


34.9 
39.3 
16.9 
10.8 
9.6 
9.0 

22.6 


191.6 
232.0 
171.6 
148.6 
131.2 
100.4 

150.2 


388.2 
581.9 
482.9 
447.7 
376.3 
241.8 

389.5 


67.5 
123.7 

78.2 


Group IV 


75.4 


Group V 

Group VI 


61.1 
47.7 


West North Central 


82.3 


Group I 


3.66 
1.66 
1.09 
1.26 
1.26 
1.50 

7.03 


38.4 
18.2 
12.4 
8.8 
8.3 
10.1 

36.8 


48.8 
13.2 
9.5 
2.3 
6.1 
5.7 

109.1 


156.2 
194.8 
210.9 
154.3 
124.8 
89.6 

274.4 


354.0 
497.7 
580.5 
499.5 
408.8 
204.7 

599.6 


98.4 
106.2 


Group III 


109.3 


Group IV 


68.9 


Group V 


57.8 


Group VI 


42.1 


South Atlantic^ 


129.8 


Group I 

Group II 


7.62 
8.66 
6.98 
5.84 
5.25 
6.37 

8.29 


46.3 
67.2 
27.6 
25.0 
15.8 
18.1 

39.6 


102. 4 
101.6 
117.3 
143.4 
107.6 
92.7 

84.7 


255. 
458.6 
232. 2 
291.1 
214.0 
177.2 

273.1 


594.6 
801.9 
620.3 
685.4 
502.5 
310.2 

411.2 


155.3 
172.6 


Group III 


105.2 


Group IV 


130.4 


Group V 

Group VI 


105.0 
67 2 


East South Central 


137.8 


Group I 

Group II 


6.25 
13.51 
8.19 
6.17 
8.07 
9.83 

6.31 


67.2 
37.8 
20.3 
30.8 
19.5 
13.1 

31.0 


100.5 
40.8 

157.7 
93.1 
71.5 
37.0 

57.0 


330.5 
3,34. 8 
293. 3 
215.9 
226.7 
122.3 

279.6 


457.0 
420.7 
354.2 
529.5 
468.1 
126.2 

639.8 


170.2 
181.5 


Group III 


111.1 


Group IV 


115.3 


Group V 

Group VI 


120.1 
55.4 


West South Central 


123.7 


Group I 


8.41 
4.77 
6.64 
3.72 
5.19 
6.42 

2.39 


46.9 
36.8 
27.3 
14.4 
15.6 
16.8 

37.1 


75.5 
40.6 
62.5 
57.0 
34.2 
41.7 

26.2 


373. 
347.9 
248.5 
229.4 
185.2 
137.6 
284.3 


751.7 
918.5 
653.2 
594.0 
472.2 
249.3 

884.2 


153.0 
141.3 


Group III 


130.8 


Group IV 


108.6 


Group V 

Group VI 


84.7 
72.0 


Mountain 


129.0 


Group I 


1.86 
2.00 
6.80 
.81 
2.18 
2.81 

3.23 


69.2 
23.3 
51.9 
32.1 
22.8 
24.8 

85.4 


14.3 
22.0 
70.6 
32.1 
15.6 
28.1 
42.7 


438. 9 
292.8 
341.9 
272.5 
214.3 
193.2 

367.5 


847.4 

823. 7 

1, 094. 6 

1,118.0 

1, 097. 7 

577.5 

1,039.2 


82.5 
217.4 


Group III 


227.9 


Group IV 


167.6 


Group V 

Group VI 


111.3 
92.1 


Pacific 


203.4 


Group I 

Group II. 


3.95 
2.27 
2.46 
1.99 
2.73 
2.94 


121.2 
71.5 
68.9 
46.1 
34.8 
28.6 


59.7 
29.8 
36.1 
23.2 
22.0 
18.6 


393. 4 
361.4 
378.2 
320.3 
370.2 
291.3 


965.6 
939.2 
1, 208. 
1, 144. 7 
1. 285. 6 
1, 059. 8 


223.2 
208.7 


Group III 


173.8 


Group IV 


154.0 


Group V 

Group VI 


190.6 
181. 4 



1 The rates for buiglary and larceny are based on the reports of 2,435 cities with a total population of 
59,168,925. 

2 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 556 cities with 
10,378,705. 

3 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 4 cities. 
< Includes the report of the District of Columbia. 



a total population of 



12 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 100,000 Inhabitants 

The number of offenses reported as having been conunitted during 
the period of January- June 1947 is shown in table 6. The compila- 
tion includes the reports received from police departments in cities 
with more than 100,000 inhabitants. Police administrators and other 
interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare the 
crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in tables 1 
and 5 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire to 
make comparisons with the figures for their communities for prior 
periods, in order to determine whether there has been an increase or 
a decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

Caution should be exercised in comparing crime data for individual 
cities, because differences in the figures may be due to a variety of 
factors. The amount of crime committed in a community is not 
solely chargeable to the police but is rather a charge against the entire 
community. The following is a list of some of the factors which might 
affect the amount of crime in a community: 

Population of the city and metropolitan area adjacent thereto. 

The composition of the population with reference particularly to 
age, sex, and race. 

The economic status and activities of the population. 

Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 

The number of police employees per unit of population. 

The standards governing appointments to the police force. 

The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 

The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 

The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 

It should be remembered that the war brought about marked 
changes in some of the foregoing factors in many communities. 

In comparing crime rates, it is generally more important to deter- 
mine whether the figures for a given community show increases or 
decreases in the amount of crime committed than to ascertain whether 
the figures are above or below those of some other community. 



13 

Table 6. — Number of offenses known to the police, January-June 1947, cities over 

100,000 in population 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 



City 



Akron, Ohio 

Albany, N.Y 

Atlanta, Ga 

Baltimore, Md---. 
Birmingham, Ala. 



Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn. 

Buffalo, N.Y 

Cambridge, Mass- 
Camden, N.J 



Canton, Ohio 

Charlotte, N. C 

Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 



Cleveland, Ohio. 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Dallas, Tex 

Dayton, Ohio 

Denver, Colo 



Des Moines, Iowa. 

Detroit, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 

Elizabeth, N. J._. 
Erie, Pa 



Fall River, Mass. 

Flint, Mich 

Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Fort Worth, Tex. 
Gary, Ind 



Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Hartford, Conn 

Honolulu, T. H 

Houston, Tex 

Indianapolis, Ind 



Jacksonville, Fla... 
Jersey City, N. J... 
Kansas City, Kans. 
Kansas City, Mo__ 
Knoxville, Tenn. . . 



Long Beach, Calif. 
Los Angeles, Calif. 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn . _ 



Miami, Fla 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

Nashville, Tenn 

Newark, N. J 



New Bedford, Mass. 
New Haven, Conn_. 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N.Y.2.- 
Norfolk, Va 



Oakland, Calif 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha, Nebr 

Paterson, N. J. . 

Peoria, 111 



Murder, 
nomieg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



31 

168 

12 

18 

7 
3 
1 
3 



148 
14 
152 
245 
131 

164 
5 
52 
16 
38 

57 
24 
50 
2,183 
161 

348 
199 
148 
108 
223 

22 
99(1 
13 
24 
18 

14 
76 
11 
29 



24 
64 
24 
121 
198 

107 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



178 
665 
292 

84 
8 

83 
2 

41 

45 
211 

31 
660 
156 

185 
100 
322 
113 



18 

1,450 

1 

17 

22 

4 

106 

13 

114 



14 
70 
26, 
119 
84 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



597 

115 

833 

1,179 



506 
181 
298 
239 
223 



342 
363 

4,771 
1,041 

1,213 
1,288 
1.734 
543 
1.415 

370 

4,630 

83 

212 

174 

165 
450 

144 
465 
409 

299 



1,976 
1,095 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



333 
68 
653 
612 
399 

641 
222 
156 
72 
80 

122 
103 

0) 

3,221 
640 

352 
894 
388 
187 
761 

85 
1,220 
115 
65 
53 

75 
243 
120 
159 
163 

103 

257 
248 
548 



115 836 536 

Complete data not received 



Under 

$50 



902 

147 

1,379 

1,784 

749 

1,183 
488 
489 
203 
128 

502 

310 

330 

3,650 

1,531 

4,044 
873 
3,483 
1,399 
1,971 

636 
9,069 
496 
221 
242 

256 
853 
496 
1,865 
435 

1,015 
772 
1,053 
2,911 
1,247 

812 



35 


13 


201 


66 


262 


172 


270 


996 


688 


1,330 


22 


46 


311 


243 


278 


142 


70 


748 


0) 


1,559 


2,161 


1,087 


6,198 


6,768 


8,891 


304 


290 


1,431 


806 


938 


12 


5 


83 


52 


181 


156 


302 


537 


297 


831 


256 


241 


1,384 


816 


991 


44 


36 


384 


362 


1,649 


125 


23 


552 


452 


786 


82 


89 


689 


277 


585 


170 


216 


1,078 


534 


733 


13 


7 


249 


75 


453 


17 


22 


453 


118 


617 


247 


276 


671 


527 


852 


852 


1,534 


2,114 


(0 


3,743 


109 


172 


740 


365 


717 


308 


256 


1,350 


307 


2,418 


78 


49 


685 


111 


1.438 


40 


54 


384 


203 


872 


37 


37 


210 


72 


172 


44 


66 


. 259 


118 


438 



See footnotes at end of table. 
759995° — 47 3 



u 



Table 



Number of offenses known to the police, January- June 1947, cities over 
100,000 in population — Continued 





Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burglary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny — theft 


Auto 


City 


$50 and 
over 


Under 
$50 


theft 


Philadelphia, Pa 


58 
17 
4 


552 
301 
214 
35 
9 

73 

24 

143 

407 

63 

35 
153 
110 
796 

8 

295 

14 

27 

67 

2 

23 
42 

57 
87 
59 

86 

5 

447 

21 

49 

21 

5 

78 


386 
184 
220 
38 
2 

169 
29 
38 

647 
33 

33 
361 

62 
251 

38 

46 


2.130 

1,056 

1,553 

669 

187 

542 
380 
416 
1.051 
517 

439 
944 
462 
1,597 
174 

1, 554 
325 
270 

484 
207 

301 

438 
495 
747 
386 

674 

61 

2,641 

367 

267 

357 
161 
283 


829 
276 
720 
218 
19 

492 
146 
450 
(') 
169 

223 

370 

397 

837 

75 

599 
34 
142 
118 
95 

186 
198 
189 
387 
94 

393 
53 
823 
139 
178 

181 
48 
63 


597 
434 
2, 269 
804 
200 

1,387 
757 

1. 035 

2, 395 
1,244 

1,012 
1, 652 

951 
5,103 

189 

2.162 
150 
553 

1, 168 
348 

650 
745 
574 
1,199 
243 

849 
327 
5,598 
715 
584 

498 
292 

448 


957 


Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Oreg 


831 
541 


Providence, R.I 


212 


Reading, Pa . 




54 


Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y. 


20 
2 
6 

53 


382 
246 




244 


St Louis Mo 


1,015 


St. Paul, Miim- 


142 


Salt Lake Citv, Utah. 


3 
13 

5 
30 

4 

8 
1 
3 


326 


San Antonio, Tex 


581 


San Diego, Calif -* 


566 




1,387 


Scranton, Pa 


74 


Seattle, Wash 


859 




72 


South Bend, Ind .. .. 


35 
25 
15 

2 

15 

107 

93 

33 

50 

9 

1, 025 

12 

5 

3 

25 
34 


69 


Spokane, Wash __ 


170 




2 

2 

6 

10 
3 

4 
1 
36 
3 
3 

1 


140 


Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 


146 
225 


Tampa Fla 


152 


Toledo, Ohio .. -.. ... 


260 


Trenton, N J 


116 


Tulsa, Okla 


203 


Utica, N. Y. 


60 


Washington, D. C 

Wichita, Kans 

Wilmington, Del- 


730 
105 
156 


Worcester, Mass 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, Ohio 


197 

50 

124 



1 Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 

2 Figures include offenses committed by juveniles; this is in accord with the uniform reporting procedure 
followed by other cities. 

Supplement to Return A Data 

In 358 cities over 25,000 in population the police investigated 
92,858 reported burglaries during the first 6 months of 1947 and 
found that 81.1 percent of them occurred during the night. However, 
of the 36,939 cases involving private residences 11,970, or 32.4 percent, 
were committed during the day. Most business places are occupied 
during the day; thus of the 55,919 nonresidence burglaries only 5,599, 
or 10.0 percent were during the daylight hours. 

Of the 16,937 robberies reported in these cities 10,645 (62.9 percent) 
were holdups and strong-arm robberies of persons accosted on side- 
walks, streets, and public highways, while 4,508 (26.6 percent) 
involved oil stations, chain stores, and other business houses. 

Nearly one-third of 205,299 larcenies reported by the above 358 
cities were thefts of auto accessories or some type of personal prop- 



15 

erty from parked automobiles, while 14.4 percent were bicycle thefts. 
Although only 3.8 percent of the thefts were pocket-picking, or purse- 
snatching, it should be observed that 7,808 persons were victims of 
such offenses in these cities during the first half of the year. Of the 
total larcenies, 24.1 percent involved property valued at $50 or over; 
in 62.4 percent the loot was valued at $5 to $50; and in 13.5 percent of 
the cases the property stolen was valued at less than $5. 

The majority (59.7 percent) of the 2,823 rapes reported were 
forcible in nature and the remainder characterized as statutory 
offenses (no force used^ — victim under age of consent.) 

The police in the 358 cities represented in the foregoing tabulation 
had reported to them 44,616 stolen cars during January- June 1947, 
and during that period recovered 42,261, representing a percentage 
recovery of 94.7. 



Table 7. — Number of known offenses by nature of criminal act, time and place of 
commission, and value of property stolen, January-June 1947 

[Based on reports of 358 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, 41,347,528, according to the 1940 

decennial census] 



Classification 


Number of 
offenses 


Percent dis- 
tribution 


Rape: 

Total 


2,823 


100 






Forcible 


1,686 
1.137 


59.7 


Statutory 


40.3 






Robbery: 

Total - -.- ... 


16, 937 


100.0 






Highway.. .. . . -. .. . 


10, 645 
3,714 
608 
165 
836 
21 
948 


62.9 


Commercial house . . . . 


21.9 


Oilstation ..- .. ..- . . . _ 


3.6 




1.0 


Residence ..... 


4.9 


Bank .. ..... . 


.1 




5.6 






Burglary— breaking or entering: 

Total .- - 


92. 858 


100.0 






Residence (dwelling): 

Committed during night- . -- .- 


24,969 
11, 970 

50, 320 
5,599 


26.9 




12.9 


Nonresidence (store, office, etc.): 


54.2 


Committed during day - .... ... 


6.0 






Larceny— theft (except auto theft) (grouped according to value of article stolen) : 
Total 


206,299 


100.0 








49,425 
128, 069 
27, 805 


24.1 


$5to$50 


62.4 


Under $5 


13.5 


Larceny- theft (grouped as to type of offense): 


205,299 


100.0 








3,300 
4,508 
8,665 
37, 296 
31,007 
29, 635 
90,888 


1.6 




2.2 


Shoplifting . -- -- . -- -- - 


4.2 




18.2 




15.1 




14.4 


All others - - - -- 


44.3 







16 

The analysis of the supplemental returns is presented in tables 7-9. 
The number of cities represented in each table is not identical since 
returns were used only when complete data were apparently included. 
Thus of the 3 58« cities whose reports were used in preparing table 7 as 
to the break-down of the number of offenses, 344 also included the 
value of property stolen by offense (table 8), and 339 reported com- 
plete information as to values by type of property (table 9) . 

In 344 of the large cities included in this study 16,218 persons were 
personally accosted by thieves and robbed of $3,040,778 during the 
first half of 1947, for an average of $187 from each victim. During 
the same 6 months 88,095 places were burglarized and $11,552,831 
worth of property stolen, for an average of $131 in loot from each 
place. 

Although, the value of property stolen in the average larceny ($61) 
was small in comparison with robbery ($187) and burglary ($131), 
because of the frequency of such crimes the 195,182 larcenies in the 
reporting cities resulted in loot aggregating $11,908,137 for this 
classification. 

The 42,283 cars stolen were valued at $31,000,886, or $733 per car; 
however, recoveries were effected in approximately 95 percent of 
these cases, while only 24 percent of other types of property was 
recovered. 

In examining the data in table 8 it should be remembered that 
attempted crimes are included and since the thefts were not consum- 
mated no value of property stolen was reported. This tends to make 
conservative the figures with reference to the average value of property 
stolen per offense. 



Table 8. — Value of property stolen, by type of crime, January- J jine 1947 

[Based on reports of 344 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, 39,384,717, according to the 1940 
decennial census. All values have been rounded off to even dollars] 



Classification 


Number of 
offenses 


Value of 

property 

stolen 


Average 

value per 

offense 


Total 


341, 778 


$57, 502, 632 


$168 






Robbery . ...... 


16, 218 
88. 095 
195, 182 
42, 283 


3, 040, 778 
11,552,831 
11,908,137 
31, 000, 886 


187 


Burglary. . . 


131 


Larceny— theft 


61 


Autotheft... 


733 







Property stolen in 339 cities with population over 25,000 totaled 
$54,055,500 during January-June 1947 and recoveries of stolen goods, 
$33,244,140. This represents a recovery percentage of 61.5. Exclud- 
ing automobiles, stolen money, jewelry, furs, and other personal prop- 
erty amounted to $24,989,055, of which 24.4 percent, or $6,091,276, 
was recovered. 



.17 



Table 9. 



-Value of property stolen and value of property recovered, by type of 
property, January-June 1947 



[Based on reports of 339 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, 37,126,203, according to the 1940 
decennial census. All values have been rounded off to even dollars] 



Type of property 


Value of 

property 

stolen 


Value of 
property 
recovered 


Percent 
recovered 


Total - - 


$54, 055, 500 

8, 130, 975 
4, 646, 090 

1. 258, 898 

2, 936, 682 
29, 066, 445 

8,016,410 


$33, 244, 140 

1. 420, 457 
1,091,078 

108, 399 

925, 466 

27,152,864 

2, 545, 876 


61.5 

17 5 


Currency, notes, etc ... 


Jewelry and precious metals 


23 5 


Furs 


8.6 
31 5 


Clothing... -. .... 


Locally stolen automobiles.- . ... ... ... . 


93 4 


Aliscellaneous . ....... ... 


31 8 







Rural Crime Rates 

The number of offenses as reported by 1,771 sheriffs, 128 rural vil- 
lage officers, and 12 State police agencies is presented in table 10, to- 
gether with the rate per 100,000 inhabitants. The rural population 
represented in the reporting area is 38,790,988. 

The rural rates for crimes against property are generally lower than 
the corresponding urban rates, and in this connection it should be ob- 
served that some incompleteness exists in the rural reporting. Some of 
the reports used in table 10 were probably based on arrest records 
rather than on a record of offenses reported. Since a comparatively 
small proportion of crimes against property are followed by arrest the 
figures should be considered conservative. 



Table 10. 



-Offenses known, rural areas, number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, 
January-June 1947 



[Based on reports of 1,771 sheriffs, 128 rural villages, and 12 State police 
according to the 1940 decemiial census 


total rural population, 38,790,988 , 




Criminal homi- 
cide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 






Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Number of offenses known . . 


1,222 
3.15 


836 
2.16 


2,423 
6.25 


3,688 
9.5 


6,724 
17.3 


27, 672 
71.3 


36, 014 
92.8 


10, 850 


Rate per 100,000 


28.0 







Rural Crime Trends 

The crime total for the rural areas was up 7.5 percent the first half 
of 1947 over January- June of 1946, according to the reports of 1,605 
law-enforcement agencies policing a rural area of 34,329,836 inhab- 
itants. 

Rapes, burglaries, and larcenies showed unusually heavy increases. 
Rape was up 13.6 percent in the rural areas as compared with a 3.5 



18 



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19 



percent rise in the cities. Rural burglaries and larcenies rose 17.1 
percent and 13.9 percent, respectively, while the urban burglary in- 
crease was 2.1 percent and the larcenies in the cities, up only 1.1 
percent. The rural aggravated assault increase of 1.9 percent differed 
only shghtly from the 2.7 percent rise in urban communities. 

The rural robbery figures showed little change (—0.3 percent) while ^ 
the urban robbery trend was up 1.5 percent during the first 6 months' 
of 1947 over the same period of last year. 

The decrease of 7.4 percent in the rural murder figures was greater 
than that in the urban areas (6.4 percent), while rural neghgent 
manslaughters declined 6.6 percent as compared with a 10.8 percent 
drop in the cities. As in the urban areas the decline in rural auto 
thefts was sharp (19.0 percent). A 22.3 percent decrease in auto 
theft offenses was registered by the police in the cities. 

Table 11. — Rural crime trends, January-June 1946-47 



[Based on reports of 1,484 sheriffs, 109 rural village oflBcers, and 12 State police 
34,329,836, according to the 1940 decennial census] 


total rural population, 


OflEense 


Number of offenses 


Percent 


1946 


1947 


change 


Total . ... 


73, 918 


79, 450 


+7.5 






Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 


1,030 

743 

1,849 

3,180 

5,390 

21,210 

28, 569 

11,947 


954 

694 

2,100 

3,169 

5,494 

24, 833 

32, 527 

9,679 


-7.4 


Manslaughter by negligence . _ . 


-6.6 


Rape 


+13.6 




-.3 


Aggravated assault 


+1.9 




+17.1 


Larceny — theft . - . 


+13.9 


Auto theft 


-19.0 







POLICE EMPLOYEE DATA 

Police Killed, 1946 

A 39-percent increase in the number of police employees killed in 
line of duty was reported for 1946, during which year there was also 
reported a widespread increase in crime with murders, robberies, 
aggravated assaults, and burglaries leading the upswing.^ 

Eighty-two police employees were killed in the performance of their 
law-enforcement duties in 1946 according to the reports of 3,170 
cities representing a combined population of 72,714,873 (98 percent 
of the urban population). The figures include not only those killed 
by criminals but also any killed in traffic accidents and the like; 
however, only those killed while on active duty with the local depart- 
ments were reported. 

Information as to the number of police employees killed during 
1946 is presented in table 13 along with the rate per 5 million inhabi- 
tants for the cities grouped by size and by location. While the figure 
for all cities as a group is 5.64 police employees killed per 5 million 
inhabitants, it may be observed that with the cities subdivided into 
population groups the rate was higher for the group with from 100,000 

Table 12. — Number of cities used in tabulations regarding number of police depart- 
ment employees, Apr. 30, 19^7 , and police killed, 1946 
[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Total 


Population group 


Division 


Group 


Group 
II 


Group 
HI 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 




Over 
250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


Total: 

Population represented 


72, 714. 873 
3,170 


29, 894, 166 
36 


7, 792, 650 
55 


7, 343, 917 
107 


7,417,093 
213 


9, 681, 800 
644 


10. 585. 247 
2.115 






New England: Total popula- 
tion, 6,350,532 . 


222 
671 
693 
360 
353 
188 
292 
154 
237 


2 

8 
4 
3 
3 
4 
1 
5 


10 
11 
10 
5 
7 
3 
3 
1 
5 


13 
24 
23 
8 
17 
4 
9 
2 
7 


36 
38 
60 
12 
20 
10 
13 
7 
17 


75 
155 
128 
68 
66 
30 
49 
26 
47 


86 


Middle Atlantic: Total popu- 
lation 20 479 193 


437 


East North Central: Total 
population, 17,373,735 

West North Central: Total 
population, 5,895,132 


464 
263 


South Atlantic: Total popula- 
tion, 6,685,434 .. ... 


240 


East South Central: Total 
population, 3,034,282 


138 


West South Central: Total 
population, 4,785,651 . 


214 


Mountain: Total population, 
1,772,795 


117 


Pacific: Total population, 
6,338,119. 


156 







For data on 1946 crime trends, see table 29, vol. XVII, No. 2, Uniform Crime Reports. 

(20) 



21 

to 250,000 inhabitants but the figure for this group was only slightly 
in excess of the rates for cities under 25,000 in population. For 
individual geographic divisions the highest rates were recorded in the 
South Atlantic and East South Central States. 



Table 13. — Number of police department employees killed, 1946, by geographic 
divisions and population groups 

[Includes only those employees killed while on active duty with their local police agencies] 





Total 


Population group 


Geographic division 


Num- 
ber 


Rate per 
5,000,000 
inhabit- 
ants 


Over 
250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


Total: 

Number .. 


82 




31 

5.18 


12 

7.70 


3 
2.04 


6 

4.04 


14 
7.23 


16 

7.56 


Rate 'per 5,000,000 in- 
habitants 


5.64 






New England . . . 


5 

15 
16 
5 

18 

7 

5 

1 

10 


3.94 
3.66 
4.60 
4.24 
13.46 
11.53 
5.22 
2.82 
7.89 


1 

2 
5 
2 

1 


2 






2 
2 

5 




Middle Atlantic 




I 




East North Central 


2 




2 


West North Central 




3 


South Atlantic 


6 

"""2' 




1 

1 


1 


2 

1 


3 


East South Central .... 


3 


West South Central 


1 


1 


Mountain ... .. 




1 


Pacific 


5 


-- — 


1 




2 


2 









Number of Police Employees, April 30, 1947 

As of April 30, 1947, a total of 127,148 police employees were re- 
ported by 3,170 cities, including 9,045 civilians without police power, 
and 118,103 police officers. 

Including civilians, the ratio between the number of police em- 
ployees and population is 1.75 employees for each 1,000 inhabitants 
for the reporting cities as a group. This represents an increase of 
4.8 percent over the figure of 1.67 for April 30, 1946. 

In the various population groups it may be said that the greater 
the population the larger the number of employees per 1,000 in- 
habitants. Cities over 250,000 in population reported 2.23 employees 
per 1,000 inhabitants while communities under 10,000 showed 1.21. 

While it is customary to think in terms of the number of police 
employees per 1,000 inhabitants the ratio can be indicated in terms 
of the number of inhabitants per police employee as follows: 

Number of Inhabitants per Police Employee 

Total, all cities 572 

Group I (over 250,000) 448 

Group II (100,000-250,000) 620 

Group III (50,000-100,000) 628 

Group IV (25,000-50,000) 698 

Group V (10,000-25,000) 758 

Group VI (2,500-10,000) 827 

759995' 



22 




23 



Table 14. — Police Department employees, Apr. 30, 1947, number and rate per 1,000 
inhabitants, by geographic divisions and population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Division 



Total: 

Number of police employ- 
ees 

Average number of em- 
ployees per 1,000 inhab- 
itants 



New England: 

Number of police employ- 
eesA-- 

Average number of em- 
ployees per 1,000 inhab- 
itants 

Middle Atlantic: 

Number of police employ- 
ees 

Average number of em- 
ployees per 1,000 inhab- 
itants 

East North Central: 

Number of police employ- 
ees 

Average number of em- 
ployees per 1,000 inhab- 
itants 

West North Central: 

Number of police employ- 
ees 

Average number of em- 
ployees per 1,000 inhab- 
itants 

South Atlantic: 1 

Number of police employ- 
ees 

Average number of em- 
ployees per 1,000 inhab- 
itants 

East South Central: 

Number of police employ- 
ees 

Average number of em- 
ployees per 1,000 inhab- 
itants 

West South Central: 

Number of police employ- 
ees 

Average number of em- 
ployees per 1,000 inhab- 
itants 

Mountain: 

Number of police employ- 
ees 

Average number of em- 
ployees per 1,000 inhab- 
itants 

Pacific: 

Number of police employ- 
ees... 

Average number of em- 
ployees per 1,000 inhab- 
itants 



Total 




11,323 

1.78 

40, 992 

2.00 

28, 549 

1.64 

8.076 

1.37 

12, 260 

1.83 

4,055 

1.34 

6,337 

1.32 

2,360 

1.33 

13, 196 

2.08 



Population group 



Group I Group II Group III Group IV Group V Group VI 



Over 

250,000 



66, 681 
2.23 

2,967 

2.90 
27, 487 

2.41 
17, 055 

2.15 
3,833 

1.92 
4,364 

2.39 
1,090 

1.24 
2,118 

1.48 
483 

1.50 
7,284 

2.34 



100,000 

to 
250,000 




2,589 

1.91 

2,505 

1.74 

1,899 

1.28 

887 

1.23 

1,850 

1.84 

522 

1.28 

815 

1.55 

176 

1.17 

1,334 

1.89 



50,000 

to 
100,000 




1,658 
1.73 
2,901 
1.77 
2,273 
1.46 

642 

1.17 

1,697 

1.54 

513 
1.83 

959 
1.46 

204 
1.74 

853 
1.75 



25,000 

to 
50,000 



10, 629 
1.43 



2,049 

1.58 

2,082 

1.57 

2,616 

1.21 

427 

1.08 

1,168 

1.71 

465 

1.43 

571 

1.33 

332 

1.35 

919 

1.67 



10,000 

to 
25,000 



12. 768 
1.32 



1,505 

1.28 
3,316 

1.36 
2,165 

1.13 
1,092 

1.10 
1,507 

1.58 
649 

1.39 
834 

1.19 
488 

1.28 
1,212 

1.82 



Includes the District of Columbia. 



24 



u. z 2 o 

QQZ>52v)Ou: 




25 

From 1942 through 1945 the pohce employee surveys were hmited 
to cities with population in excess of 25,000 and it is interesting to 
note that while the number of employees in the larger cities steadily 
declined until 1946, the rate as of April 30, 1947, is higher than any 
of the preceding 5 years. The following figures indicate the number 
of employees per 1,000 inhabitants for the 6-year period, 1942-47, for 
cities over 25,000 in population: 

Apr. 30, 1942 1. 83 

Apr. 30, 1943 1. 77 

Apr. 30, 1944 1.73 

Apr. 30, 1945 1. 68 

Apr. 30, 1946 1. 86 

Apr. 30, 1947 1. 94 

The number of police employees reported as of April 30, 1947, and 
the number per 1,000 inhabitants are shown in table 14. The data 
are subdivided according to population groups and geographic 
divisions. The number of cities used in compiling the data is presented 
in table 12. 
Police Employees in Individual Cities 

Tables 15 and 16 show the number of police employees as of April 
30, 1947, in individual cities grouped according to size and listed 
alphabetically within each State. The number of employees is sub- 
divided as to civilians and police officers for cities over 25,000 in- 
habitants. However, for the smaller cities only the total number of 
employees is shown since in some instances it was questionable 
whether proper distinction had been made between civilians and 
police officers. 

A tabulation was prepared showing the percentage of civilian 
employees for each population group. As a general rule, the larger 
communities show more of a tendency to utilize the services of civilian 
employees than do the smaller cities as indicated in the following figures : 

T, 1 ,. Percent 

Population group : ciniian employees 

Total all cities - 7. 1 

Group I, cities over 250,000 8. 3 

Group II, cities from 100,000 to 250,000 9. 1 

Group III, cities from 50,000 to 100,000 8. 4 

Group IV, cities from 25,000 to 50,000 5. 

Group V, cities from 10,000 to 25,000 3. 2 

Group VI, cities from 2,500 to 10,000 3. 5 

For cities over 25,000 as a group 8.1 percent of the employees were 
classified as civilian personnel as compared to 8.2 percent in 1946, 
and 8.4 percent in 1945. 

The data concerning the number of pohce employees presented in 
this issue of the bulletin were collected through the medium of report 
forms which provided for the listing of full-time police oflicers, the 



26 

number of full-time civilian employees, the number of part-time 
police officers and the number of part-time civilian employees. The 
form also provided for the local departments to express the number 
of part-time employees in terms of fuD-time personnel considering the 
total time worked by the part-time employees during the month of 
April in relation to full-time personnel. In some instances the 
departments limited their entries concerning part-time employees to 
a statejnent of the total time worked during April and in such instances 
this information was converted into terms of full-time emploj/ees by 
the FBI assuming that a full-time employee worked approximately 
200 hours during April. In the event the total time worked by the 
part-time employees was equivalent to at least 75 percent of that 
worked by a full-time employee, one full-time employee was counted. 

Generally, employees were not included in the tabulations if in- 
formation was available indicating they were paid from private 
sources. In other words, it was necessary that employees included 
on the reports be paid from regular police department funds or from 
some pubhc fund allocated for police personnel. Employees on 
military or other extended leave of absence were excluded from the 
tabulations. 

In examining the figures for individual cities as presented in tables 
15 and 16 it should be remembered there are several factors to be 
considered which are not reflected in the tabulations. For example, 
some departments may still operate on a two-shift basis whereas in 
most agencies the men are distributed among tln-ee shifts. Similarly, 
differences in the automotive equipment and radio communication 
facilities would have to be considered as well as the number of private 
police employed by individuals and organizations and public park 
police, who in some communities constitute a separate unit. 

Also, there is some variation among the cities as to the source of 
personnel handling traffic at intersections near schools. For instance, 
in some places this is handled by regularly assigned full-time police 
employees while in others part-time school crossing guards may be 
employed. The latter were classed as civilian employees unless there 
was a definite indication they had police powers. 

Likewise, there may be cities in the following tabulations utilizing 
the assistance of volunteer workers to augment the police service in 
selected fields. For a list of some of the other factors to be considered,, 
reference may be made to the data preceding table 6. 

It should be particularly noted that in grouping the cities, and, 
in fact in all the tabulations, the 1940 census figures were used in the 
interests of uniformity. Since 1940, however, marked changes in 
population occurred in many communities; a number in the Pacific 
area, for example, more than doubled in size. 



27 



Table 15. — Number of -police department employees, Apr. SO, 1947, cities over 

25,000 in population 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 

CITIES WITH OVER 250,000 INHABITANTS 



City 


Number of police 
department 
employees 


City 


Number of police 
department 
employees 




Police 
officers 


Civil- 
ians 


Total 


Police 
officers 


Civil- 
ians 


Total 


Birmineham, Ala . .. . 


287 

3,140 

582 

1,338 

459 

1,656 

451 

7,452 

592 

431 

892 

1,799 

2,243 

3,676 

486 

293 

563 

1,839 


29 

651 

• 88 

101 

24 
126 

73 
305 

79 

25 

5 

259 

' 222 

298 

44 

20 
141 
447 


316 

3,791 
670 

1,439 
483 

1,782 
524 

7,757 
671 
456 
897 

2,058 

2,465 

3,974 
530 
313 
704 

2,286 


Newark, N. J 


1,099 

1,148 

17, 258 

410 

711 

1,587 

299 

356 

569 

4,994 

1,031 

430 

254 

349 

429 

254 

600 

1,195 


126 

149 

904 

53 

27 

306 

32 

>56 

113 

258 

57 

72 

64 

49 

75 

65 

102 

84 


1,225 

1,297 

18, 162 

463 


Los Aneeles, Calif- - 


Buffalo, N. Y 


Oakland, Calif 


New York, N. Y 


San Francisco, Calif . . 


Rochester, N. Y 


Denver, Colo.- . ... 


Cincinnati, Ohio 


Washington, D. C 


Cleveland, Ohio 


1,893 
331 


Atlanta, Ga . 


Columbus, Ohio 


Chicago, 111 


Toledo, Ohio'' 






682 
5,252 
1,088 

502 


Louisville, 'Ky. . ... 


Philadelphia, Pa 


New Orleans, La . 


Pittsburgh, Pa 


Baltimore, Md 


Providence, R. I'' 


Boston, Mass... 


Memphis, Tenn 


318 


Detroit, Mich 


Dallas, Tex 


398 


Minneapolis, Minn 


Houston, Tex 


504 


St. Paul, Minn 


San Antonio, Tex. 


319 


Kansas City, Mo 


Seattle, Wash.... 


702 


St. Louis, Mo 


Milwaukee, Wis... 


1, 279 









CITIES WITH 100,000 TO 250,000 INHABITANTS 



Long Beach, Calif- . . 
Sacram^to, Calif..-. 

San Diego, Calif 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Hartford, Conn 

New Haven, Conn.. 

Wilmington, Del 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Miami, Fla 

Tampa, Fla 

Peoria, 111 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Gary, Ind 

South Bend, Ind 

Des Moines, Iowa-.. 
Kansas City, Kans.. 

Wichita, Kans 

Cambridge, Mass 

Fall River, Mass 

Lowell, Mass 

New Bedford, Mass. 

Somerville, Mass 

Springfield, Mass 

Worcester, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Grand Fapids, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 

Omaha, Nebr.. 



285 


68 


353 


157 


31 


188 


352 


68 


420 


260 


5 


265 


329 


36 


365 


315 


29 


344 


189 


20 


209 


261 


19 


280 


375 


28 


403 


136 


22 


158 


134 


6 


139 


148 


3 


151 


160 


33 


193 


119 


9 


128 


169 




169 


120 


7 


127 


137 


26 


163 


212 


6 


218 


196 


12 


208 


160 


13 


173 


198 


11 


209 


153 


1 


154 


301 


19 


320 


310 


23 


333 


167 


36 


203 


207 


22 


229 


129 


9 


138 


242 


48 


290 



Camden, N. J 

Elizabeth, N.J 

Paterson, N. J 

Trenton, N.J 

Albany, N. Y... 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Utica, N. Y 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Charlotte, N. C 

Akron, Ohio 

Canton, Ohio 

Dayton, Ohio 

Youngstown, Ohio 

Oklahoma City, Okla 

Tulsa, Okla 

Erie. Pa 

Reading, Pa 

Scranton, Pa 

Chattanooga, Tenn... 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Nashville, Tenn 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Norfolk, Va 

Richmond, Va 

Spokane, WasK^.- 

Tacoma, Wash 



187 


38 


216 


12 


237 




230 


21 


329 


34 


265 


31 


156 


7 


257 


17 


154 


4 


240 


50 


125 


6 


194 


32 


197 


12 


208 


54 


205 




134 


4 


141 


11 


166 


12 


132 


6 


144 


26 


183 


31 


325 


23 


162 


14 


284 


26 


287 


45 


160 


17 


188 


8 



CITIES WITH 50,000 TO 100,000 INHABITANTS 



Mobile, Ala 

Montgomery, Ala.-. 

Phoenix, Ariz 

Little Rock, Ark.... 

Berkeley, Calif 

Fresno, Calif 

Glendale, Calif 

Pasadena, Calif 

San Jose, Calif 

Santa Monica, Calif 

Stockton, Calif 

Pueblo, Colo 

New Britain, Conn. 
Waterbury, Conn-.. 



137 


23 


160 


153 


6 


159 


137 


11 


148 


109 


7 


116 


108 


6 


114 


122 


15 


137 


100 


22 


122 


108 


36 


144 


99 




99 


110 


25 


135 


98 


4 


102 


54 


2 


56 


122 


3 


125 


194 


9 


203 



St. Petersburg, Fla 

Augusta, Ga 

Columbus, Ga 

Macon, Ga 

Savannah, Ga 

Cicero, 111 

Decatur, I11^.T 

East St. Louis, 111. 

Evanston, 111 

Oak Park, 111 

Rockford, III 

Springfield, 111 

East Chicago, Ind. 
Evansville, Ind 



62 


8 


109 


15 


102 


3 


74 


2 


147 


18 


75 


15 


59 


5 


80 


18 


85 


29 


77 


6 


89 


5 


98 


22 


94 


2 


159 


10 



28 



Table 15. — Number of police department employees, Apr. SO, 1947, cities over 
25,000 in population — Continued 

CITIES WITH 50,000 TO 100,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Hammond, Ind 

Terre Haute, Ind 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa.. 

Davenport, Iowa 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Waterloo, Iowa 

Topeka, Kans 

Covington, Ky 

Shreveport, La 

Portland, Maine 

Brockton, Mass 

Holyoke, Mass 

Lawrence, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

Maiden, Mass 

Medford, Mass 

Newton, Mass 

Quincy, Mass 

Dearborn, Mich 

Highland Park, Mich. 

Kalamazoo, Mich 

Lansing, Mich 

Pontiac, Mich 

Saginaw, Mich 

Jackson, Miss 

St. Joseph, Mo 

Springfield, Mo 

T/incoln, Nebr 

Manchester, N. H 

Atlantic City, N. J... 

Bayonne, N. J 

East Orange, N. J 

Hoboken, N.J 

Irvington, N.J 

Passaic, N. J 

Union City, N. J 

Binghamton, N. Y__. 
Mount Vernon, N. Y_ 
New Rochelle, N. Y._ 
Niagara Falls, N. Y__ 



Number of police 
department 
employees 



Police 


Civil- 


officers 


ians 


105 


21 


78 


2 


69 


8 


72 


1 


80 


14 


49 




60 


16 


71 


5 


127 


12 


117 


6 


91 


4 


96 


1 


126 


4 


167 


9 


100 


2 


96 


1 


129 


5 


143 


4 


173 


18 


96 


5 


62 


23 


99 




74 


9 


97 


12 


95 


23 


89 


10 


65 


11 


85 


13 


99 


8 


205 


46 


216 


12 


111 


2 


178 


4 


83 


9 


110 




114 




103 


15 


128 


1 


134 


15 


140 


13 



Total 



126 
80 
77 
73 
94 
49 
76 
.76 
139 
123 
95 
97 
130 
176 
102 
97 
134 
147 
191 
101 
85 
99 
83 
109 
118 



107 
251 
228 
113 
182 
92 
110 
114 
118 
129 
149 
153 



City 



Schenectady, N. Y 

Troy, N. Y 

Asheville, N. C 

Durham, N. C 

Greensboro, N. C 

Winston-Salem, N. C 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Lakewood, Ohio. 

Springfield, Ohio 

Allentown, Pa 

Altoona, Pa 

Bethlehem, Pa 

Chester, Pa 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Johnstown, Pa 

Lancaster, Pa 

McKeesport, Pa 

Upper Darby Township, Pa 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa 

York, Pa 

Pawtucket, R. I 

Charleston, S. C 

Columbia, S. C 

Amarillo, Tex 

Austin, Tex 

Beaumont, Tex 

Corpus Christi, Tex 

El Paso, Tex 

Galveston, Tex 

Waco, Tex 

Arlington. Va 

Portsmouth, Va 

Roanoke, Va 

Charleston, W. Va 

Huntington, W . Va 

Wheeling, W. Va 

Madison, Wis 

Racine, Wis 



Number of police 
department 
employees 



Police 
officers 



161 

148 

72 

72 

103 

117 

53 

59 

59 

67 

94 

83 

55 

73 

138 

56 

59 

64 

85 

95 

61 

113 

127 

129 

85 

111 

76 

93 

124 

81 

71 

64 

65 

109 

72 

73 

73 

102 

81 



Civil- 
ians 



CITIES WITH 25,000 TO 50,000 INHABITANTS 








Anniston, Ala 

Gadsden, Ala 

Tuscaloosa, Ala 


35 
67 
33 
63 
36 
64 
46 
65 
37 
43 
58 
35 
41 
63 
73 
52 
50 
33 
37 
39 
*84 
49 
34 
59 
61 
107 
36 
56 
33 
121 
70 
64 
49 


6 

1 

3 

12 

11 

5 

8 

18 

7 

...... 

6 

"io" 

1 

3 

1 

s 

6 
3 
8 

1 
4 

...... 

6 

1 


35 
67 
33 
69 
37 
67 
58 
76 
42 
51 
76 
42 
41 
69 
79 
52 
60 
34 
40 
40 
92 
55 
37 
62 
61 
110 
37 
60 
33 
12] 
73 
70 
50 


Rome, Ga 

Boise, Idaho. 

Alton, IlL. 

Aurora, 111 .. 


35 
42 
26 
45 
25 
36 
33 
30 
43 
30 
52 
22 
28 
4.3 
49 
30 
66 
48 
56 
49 
36 
38 
31 
56 
22 
39 
37 
25 
29 
39 
27 
25 
25 


2 
-----2 

""z 

..... 

6 

3 

...... 

- 

5 
1 

...... 

3 
..... 

1 

1 
2 

""2 

i 


37 
42 
26 


Tucson Ariz 


47 


Fort Smith, Ark 


Belleville, 111 

Berwyn, 111 

Bloomington, 111 ... 


25 


Alameda Calif 


36 


Alhambra Calif 


36 


Bakersfield, Calif 

Belvedere Township, Calif _.. 
Beverly Hills, Calif 


Danville, 111 

Elgin, 111 . 


30 
46 


Galesburg, IlL 


36 


Burbank Calif 


Joliet, 111. 


55 


Hmitington Park, Cahf 

Inglewood, Calif 

Riverside, Calif . .. 




22 


Moline, 111 


29 


Quincy, 111 

Rock Island, 111 

Waukegan, 111 . 


43 


San Bernardino, Calif 

Santa Ana Calif 


49 
31 


Santa Barbara, Cahf 


Anderson, Ind 


71 


South Gate Calif 


Elkhart, Ind 


49 


Colorado Springs, Colo 




56 


Lafayette, Ind 


49 






36 


Meriden, Conn 


Michigan City, Ind 

Mishawaka, Ind 


38 


IVTiHHlptnvini {~lnnn 


35 




Muncie, Ind_. 


59 




New Albany, Ind ... ... ... 


22 


Stamford, Conn 


Richmond, Ind 


43 






38 


West Hartford Conn 


Clinton, Iowa 


26 


West Haven, Conn 


Council Bluffs, Iowa .. 


31 


Miami Beach, Fla 


Dubuque, Iowa _ . 


39 


Orlando, Fla 


Mason City, iowa_ . . 


29 


Pensacola, Fla .._ 


Ottumwa, Iowa 

Hutchinson, Kans 


25 


West Palm Beach, Fla 


26 



29 



Table 15. — Number of police department employees, Apr. 30, 1947, cities over 

25,000 in population — Continued 

CITIES WITH 25,000 TO 50,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Ashland, Ky 

Lexington, Ky 

Newport, Ky 

Owensboro, Ky 

Paducah, Ky 

Alexaiidria, La 

Baton Rouge, La -.- 

Monroe, I^a 

Baxigor, Maine --- 

Lewiston, ISIaine 

Cumberland, Md 

Hagerstown, Md 

Arlington, Mass 

Belmont, Mass 

Beverly, ^Nlass 

Brookline, Mass 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chicopee, Mass 

Everett, Mass 

Fitchburg, Mass 

Haverhill, Mass 

Melrose, Mass 

Pittsfield, Mass 

Revere, Mass 

Salem, Mass 

Taunton, Mass 

Waltham, Mass 

Watertown, Mass 

Ann Arbor, Mich -- 

Battle Creek, Mich 

Bay City, Mich 

Hamtramck, Mich 

Jackson, Mich 

Muskegon, Mich 

Port Huron, Mich 

Royal Oak, Mich 

Wyandotte, Mich 

Rochester, Minn 

Meridian, Miss 

Joplin, Mo 

University City, Mo 

Butte, Mont___ 

Great Falls, Mont 

Concord, N. H 

Nashua, N.H 

Belleville, N. J 

Bloomfield, N. J 

Clifton, N.J 

Garfield, N.J 

Hackensack, N. J 

Hamilton Township, N. J... 

Kearny, N. J 

Montclair, N. J 

New Brunswick, N.J 

North Bergen Township, 

N.J 

Orange, N. J 

Perth Amboy, N. J 

Plainfield, N. J 

Teaneck Township, N. J 

West New York, N. J 

West Orange, N. J 

Woodbridge Township, N. J 

Albuquerque, N. Mex 

Amsterdam, N. Y 

Auburn, N. Y 

Elmira, N. Y... 

Jamestown, N. Y.. 

Kingston, N. Y 

Newburgh, N. Y 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y 

Rome, N. Y 

Watertown, N. Y 

White Plains, N. Y 

High Point, N. C 

759995° — 47 5 



Number of police 


department 


employees 


Police 
officers 


Civil- 
ians 


Total 


30 




30 


»8 


1 


89 


44 


8 


52 


39 


1 


40 


42 




42 


51 




51 


41 


4 


45 


40 




40 


47 


4 


51 


50 


2 


52 


43 


6 


49 


39 


4 


43 


59 


7 


66 


40 


3 


43 


48 




48 


108 


4 


112 


67 


5 


72 


63 


1 


64 


85 




85 


36 


4 


40 


66 




66 


37 




37 


56 




56 


62 


4 


66 


75 


2 


77 


56 


4 


60 


54 


4 


• 58 


59 


4 


63 


44 


4 


48 


43 


10 


53 


60 


5 


65 


90 


4 


94 


63 


4 


67 


55 


7 


62 


38 


8 


46 


31 




31 


44 


7 


51 


30 


1 


31 


52 


2 


54 


34 


4 


38 


41 




41 


29 


i 


30 


32 


3 


35 


33 


1 


34 


46 




46 


49 


2 


51 


87 


3 


90 


43 


3 


46 


39 




39 


60 




60 


47 




47 


89 


1 


90 


71 


17 


88 


40 


2 


42 


78 


5 


83 


65 


2 


67 


75 


4 


79 


57 


9 


66 


33 


1 


34 


81 




81 


46 


2 


48 


46 




46 


51 


2 


53 


41 


1 


42 


45 


1 


46 


79 




79 


58 


5 


63 


42 


2 


44 


50 




50 


63 


3 


66 


38 


2 


40 


37 


1 


38 


99 


3 


102 


52 


4 


56 



City 



Raleigh, N.C 

Rocky Mount, N. C 

Wilmington, N. C 

Fargo, N. Dak 

East Cleveland, Ohio 

Elyria, Ohio 

Lima, Ohio 

Lorain, Ohio 

Mansfield, Ohio 

Mai-ion, Ohio 

Massillon, Ohio 

Middletown, Ohio 

Newai-k, Ohio 

Norwood, Ohio 

Portsmouth, Ohio 

Steuben ville, Ohio... 

Warren, Ohio 

Zanesville, Ohio 

Enid, Okla 

Muskogee, Okla 

Salem, Oreg — 

Aliquippa, Pa 

Easton, Pa 

Haverford Township, Pa 

Hazleton, Pa 

Lebanon, Pa 

Lower Merion Township, Pa 

New Castle, Pa 

Norristown, Pa 

Shai'on, Pa 

Washington,. Pa 

Wilkinsburg, Pa 

Williamsport, Pa 

Central Falls, R. I 

Cranston, R. I 

East Providence, R. I 

Newport, R. I 

Warwick, R. I 

Woonsocket, R. I 

Greenville, S. C 

Spartanburg, S. C 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak 

Johnson City, Tenn 

Abilene, Tex 

Laredo, Tex 

Lubbock, Tex 

Port Arthur, Tex 

San Angelo, Tex 

Tvler, Tex 

Wichita Falls, Tex 

Ogden, Utah 

Burlington, Vt 

Alexandria, Va 

Danville, Va 

Lynchburg, Va 

Newport News, Va 

Petersbui-g, Va 

Bellingham, Wash 

Everett, Wash 

Yakima, Wash 

Clarksburg, W. Va 

Parkersburg, W. Va 

Appleton, Wis 

Beloit, Wis 

Eau Claire, Wis 

Fond Du Lac, Wis 

Green Bay, Wis 

Kenosha, Wis 

La Crosse, Wis 

Oshkosh, Wis 

Sheboygan, Wis 

Superior, Wis 

Wausau, Wis - 

Wauwatosa, Wis 

West Allis, Wis 



Number of police 
department 
employees 



Police 
officers 



Civil- 



48 


.--.^. 


44 




40 


2 


26 




24 




36 


2 


29 




37 




37 


1 


36 




46 


4 


30 




23 




45 




40 


4 


25 




41 


2 


42 


3 


30 




29 




03 


8 


46 


9 


33 




24 


1 


23 




30 


10 


40 


3 


32 


1 


52 




37 


3 


73 





30 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, Apr. 30, 1947, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Bessemer, Ala 

Decatur, Ala 

Dothan, Ala 

Fairfield, Ala 

Florence, Ala 

Huntsville, Ala 

Phenix City, Ala 

Selma, Ala 

El Dorado, Ark 

Jonesboro, Ark 

North Little Rock, Ark 

Pine Bluff, Ark 

Texarkana, Ark 

Albany, Calif 

Anaheim, Calif 

Bell, Calif 

Brawley, Calif 

Burlingame, Calif 

Compton, Calif 

El Centro, Calif 

Eureka, Calif 

Fullerton, Calif 

Lodi, Calif 

Lynwood, Calif 

Maywood, Calif 

Merced, Calif 

Modesto, Calif 

Monrovia, Calif 

Monterey, Calif 

National City, Calif- — 

Ontario, Calif 

Palo Alto, Calif 

Pomona, Calif 

Redlands, Calif 

Redondo Beach, Calif.. 
Redwood City, Calif.. . 

Richmond, Calif 

Salinas, Calif 

San Gabriel, Calif 

San Leandro, Calif 

San Mateo, Calif 

Santa Cruz, Calif 

Santa Rosa, Calif 

South Pasadena, Calif.. 

Vallejo, Calif 

Ventura, Calif 

Whittier, Calif 

Boulder, Colo 

Fort Collins, Colo 

Grand Junction, Colo.. 

Greeley, Colo 

Trinidad, Colo 

Ansonia, Conn 

Danbury, Conn 

East Hartford, Conn... 

Nausatuck, Conn 

Norwich, Conn 

Shelton, Conn 

Stratford, Conn 

Wallingford, Conn 

Williraantic, Conn 

Bradenton, Fla 

Clearwater, Fla 

Daytona Beach, Fla... 
Fort Lauderdale, Fla... 

Fort Myers, Fla 

Gainesville, Fla 

Key West, Fla 

Lakeland, Fla 

Panama City, Fla 

St. Augustine, Fla 

Sanford, Fla 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



30 
16 
31 
11 
19 
35 
20 
29 
14 
13 
40 
17 
18 
16 
21 
17 
14 
27 
28 
16 
17 
14 
18 
18 
15 
18 
30 
20 
18 
20 
25 
32 
30 
17 
21 
20 
109 
30 
19 
25 
33 
28 
22 
19 
53 
22 
26 
14 
12 
18 
14 
13 
17 
27 
46 
26 
42 
14 
29 
15 
15 
13 
27 
41 
39 
19 
23 
15 
39 
17 
20 
17 




Sarasota, Fla 

Tallahassee, Fla 

Albany, Ga 

Athens, Ga 

Brunswick, Ga 

Dalton, Ga 

Decatur, Ga 

East Point, Ga 

Gainesville, Ga 

Griffin, Ga 

La Grange, Ga 

Moultrie, Ga 

ThomasvUle, Ga 

Valdosta, Ga 

Waycross, Ga 

Coeur d'Alene, Idaho 
Idaho Falls, Idaho... 

Lewiston, Idaho 

Nampa, Idaho 

Pocatello, Idaho 

Twin Falls, Idaho.... 

Blue Island, 111 

Brookfield. Ill 

Cairo, 111.: 

Calumet City, 111 

Canton, 111 

Centralia, 111 

Champaign, 111 

Chicago Heights, 111.. 

Dixon, 111 

East Moline, 111 

Elmhurst, 111 

Elm wood Park, 111... 

Forest Park, 111 

Freeport, 111 

Granite City, 111 

Harrisburg, 111 

Harvey, 111 

Highland Park, 111... 

Jacksonville, 111 

Kankakee, 111 

Xewanee, 111 

La Grange, 111 

La Salle, 111 

Lincoln, 111 

Mattoon, 111 

Melrose Park, 111 

Mount Vernon, 111... 

Ottawa, 111 

Park Ridge, 111 

Pekin, 111 

Sterling, 111 

Streator, 111 

Urbana, 111 

West Frankfort, 111.. 

Wilmette, 111.-.- 

Wimietka, 111 

Bedford, Ind 

Bloomington, Ind 

Columbus, Ind 

Connersville, Ind 

Crawfordsville, Ind.. 

Elwood, Ind 

Frankfort, Ind 

Goshen, Ind 

Huntington, Ind 

Jeffersonville, Ind 

La Porte, Ind 

Logansport, Ind 

New Castle, Ind 

Peru, Ind 

Shelbyville, Ind 



31 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, Apr. 30, 1947, cities with 
population. from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 

22 
20 
14 
13 
24 
10 
18 
18 
13 
18 

9 

9 
12 
14 
10 
23 
13 
15 
11 

9 
17 
22 
13 
11 

8 
15 
15 
21 
24 
10 
12 
21 
14 
14 
24 
26 
14 
23 
20 
13 
14 
24 
16 
10 
15 
15 
22 
21 
13 

9 
11 
11 
29 
28 
13 
22 
10 
10 
28 
18 
41 
21 
20 
18 
18 
20 
25 
12 
40 
17 
21 
18 
28 
31 


City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


Vincennes, Ind . 


North Attleboro, Mass.. 


9 
5 


Whiting, Ind - 


Northhridge, Mass 


Ames, Iowa 


Norwood , Mass 

Peabody, Mass 

Plymouth, Mass 


21 


Boone, Iowa . -.. .. ... .. _ 


36 


Fort Dodge, Iowa .. .... 


19 
18 
16 


Fort Madison, Iowa 


Reading, Mass 

Saugus, Mass__. 


Iowa City, Iowa . 


Keokuk, Iowa . . 


Southbridge, Mass 


21 


Marshalltown, Iowa. .. .. 


Stoneham, Mass .. 




Muscatine, Iowa ... 


Swampscott, Mass 


21 


Newton, Iowa 


Wakelaeld, Mass 


24 


Oskaloosa, Iowa . 


Webster, Mass ... 


16 


Arkansas City, Kans . . 


Welleslev, Mass 


26 


AtchisoA, Kans . .... . . 


Westfield, Mass . 


28 


Chanute, Kans 


West Springfield, Mass 


25 


Coffeyville, Kans 


Weymouth, Mass 


37 




Winchester, Mass 


27 


Emporia, Kans . . 


Winthrop, Mass.. 


22 


Fort Scott, Kans ._ 


Woburn, Mass .... 


21 




Adrian, Mich ... 


18 


Lawrence, Kans ... 


Alpena, Mich .. 


12 




Benton Harbor, Mich . 


26 




Birmingham, Mich 


19 


Newton Kans 


E corse, Mich 


35 




Escanaba, Mich 


15 


Parsons, Kans 


Ferndale, Mich 


29 




Grosse Pointe Park, Mich 

Holland, Mich 


28 


Salina, Kans 


15 


Bowling Green, Ky 


Iron Mountain, Mich 


6 




Ironwood, Mich 

Lincoln Park, Mich 

Marquette, Mich... . ... 


16 


Frankfort, Ky 


22 
12 


Hopkinsville, Ky 


Menominee, Mich 

Midland. Mich 


9 


Bogalusa, La ._ .. . ._ 


16 




Monroe, Mich... 


30 


Lake Charles, La 


Mount Clemens, Mich 


18 




Muskegon Heights, Mich ... 


17 


Auburn, Maine 


Niles, Mich 

Owosso, Mich 


18 


Augusta Maine 


15 




River Rouge, Mich . 


31 


Biddeford Maine 


St. Clair Shores, Mich 

Sault Ste. Marie, Mich 

Traverse C it V, Mich . 


17 


South Portland, Maine. -- . ... 


17 


Waterville, Maine 


13 


Westbrook, Maine... ... ... . 


Ypsilanti, Mich 

Albert Lea, Minn 


25 




13 


Cambridge, Md 


Austin, Minn .... 


19 


Frederick, Md . ... ...... 


Brainerd, Minn ... . 


10 






12 


Adams Mass 


Fergus Falls, Minn. . 


8 




Hibbins, Minn 


27 


Andover Mass 


Mankato, Minn . .. 


23 


Athol Mass 


St Cloud, Minn 


24 




South St. Paul, Minn .. .. 


19 




Virginia, Minn 

Winona, Minn . 


23 


Clinton Mass 


25 




Biloxi. Miss .. . 


25 




Clarksdale, Miss 

Columbus, Miss .. ... 


14 




19 


Framingham Mass 


Greenville, Miss 


28 


Gardner, Mass 

Gloucester Mass 


Greenwood, Miss 

Gulfport, Miss.. ... . .. 


17 
28 


Greenfield, Mass 


Hattiesburg, Miss 

Laurel, Miss 

Natchpz Miss 


31 




20 


Lexington, Mass 


28 


Vicksburg, Miss 


33 


M^arlborough Mass 


Cape Girardeau, Mo .- 


17 






11 


Milford Mass 


Clayton, Mo - 


23 


Milton, Mass ... .. 


Columbia, Mo — 

Hannibal. Mo 


25 




26 


Needham Mass 


Independence, Mo . 


17 


^Tpxvhnrvnnrf TVTn<s<; 


Jefferson C it V, Mo 


21 




Kirksville, Mo 


5 


Northampton! Mass 


Kirkwood, Mo 


15 



32 



Table 16. — Number of police department emploijees, Apr. 30, 1947, cities with 
population from. 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Maplewood, Mo 

Moberlv, Mo 

Poplar Bluff, Mo 

Richmond Heights, Mo 

St. Charles, Mo 

Sedalia, Mo 

Webster Groves, Mo 

Anaconda, Mont 

Billings, Mont 

Helena, Mont 

Missoula, Mont 

Beatrice, Nebr 

Fremont, Nebr 

Grand Island, Nebr 

Hastings, Nebr 

Norfolk, Nebr 

North Platte, Nebr 

Scottsbluff, Nebr 

Reno, Nev_. 

Berlin, N. H 

Claremont, N. H 

Dover, N. H 

Keene, N. H 

Laconia, N. H 

Portsmouth, N. H 

Asbury Park, N.J 

Bergenfield, N. J 

Bridgeton, N. J 

Burlington, N. J 

Carteret, N. J 

Cliffside Park, N. J 

Collingswood, N.J 

Cranford Township, N. J 

Dover, N. J 

Englewood, N. J 

Gloucester City, N. J 

Harrison, N.J 

Hawthorne, N.J 

Hillside Township, N. J 

Linden, N.J 

Lodi, N. J 

Long Branch, N. J 

Lyndhurst, N. J 

Maplewood, N. J 

Millbum Township, N. J 

Millville, N. J 

Morristown, N. J 

Neptune, N. J 

North Plainfield, N. J 

Nutley, N.J 

Pennsauken Township, N. J. 

Phillipsburg, N. J 

Pleasantville, N. J 

Rahway, N. J 

Red Bank, N. J 

Ridgefield Park, N. J 

Ridgewood, N. J 

Roselle, N. J.. 

Rutherford, N. J 

South Orange, N. J 

South River, N. J 

Summit, N. J 

Union Township, N. J 

Weehawken, N. J 

Westfield, N. J 

Clovis, N. Mex 

Hobbs, N. Mex 

Roswell, N. Mex 

Santa Fe, N. Mex 

Batavia, N. Y 

Beacon, N. Y 

Cohoes, N. Y 

Corning, N. Y 

Cortland, N.Y 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 




Dunkirk, N. Y 

Endicott, N. Y 

Floral Park, N. Y 

Freeport, N. Y 

Garden City, N. Y 

Geneva, N. Y 

Glen Cove, N.Y 

Glens Falls, N. Y 

Gloversville, N. Y 

Hempstead, N. Y 

Hornell, N. Y 

Hudson, N. Y 

Irondefiuoit, N. Y 

Ithaca, N.Y i 

Johnson City, N. Y 

Johnstown, N. Y 

Kenmore, N. Y 

Lackawanna, N. Y 

Little Falls, N. Y 

Lockport, N. Y 

Lynbrook, N.Y 

Mamaroneck, N. Y 

Massena, N. Y 

Middletown, N. Y 

North Tonawanda, N. ' 

Ogdensburg, N. Y 

Olean, N. Y 

Oneida, N. Y 

Oneonta, N. Y 

Ossining, N. Y 

Oswego, N. Y 

Peekskill, N. Y 

Plattsburg, N. Y 

Port Chester, N. Y 

Rensselaer, N. Y 

Rockville Centre, N. Y 
Saratoga Springs. N. Y. 

Scarsdale, N. Y 

Tonawanda, N. Y 

Watervliet, N. Y 

Burlington, N. C 

Concord, N. C 

Elizabeth City, N. C._ 

Fayetteville, N. C 

Qastonia, N. C 

Goldsboro, N. C 

Greenville, N. C 

Hickory, N. C 

Kinston, N. C 

Lexington, N. C 

New Bern, N. C 

Reidsville, N. C 

Salisbury, N. C 

Shelby, N. C 

Statesville, N. C 

Thomasville, N. C 

Wilson, N. C 

Bismarck, N. Dak 

Grand Forks, N. Dak.. 

Minot, N. Dak 

Alliance, Ohio — 

Ashland, Ohio 

Ashtabula, Ohio 

Barberton, Ohio 

Bellaire, Ohio_ 

Cambridge, Ohio 

Campbell, Ohio 

Chillicothe, Ohio 

Coshocton, Ohio 

Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio., 
East Liverpool, Ohio... 

Euclid, Ohio 

Findlay, Ohio 

Fostoria, Ohio. 



33 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, Apr. SO, 1947, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 



CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS-Continued 




City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


Fremont, Ohio 


15 
17 
18 
19 
14 
13 
14 
10 
10 
16 
18 
13 

9 
24 
39 
11 
18 
12 
10 
18 
24 
14 
18 

7 
11 

9 
22 
18 
15 
11 
23 
12 
25 
11 

7 
20 
11 
. 35 
28 
18 
30 
14 
10 
17 
11 

6 
27 
22 
12 
25 
14 
11 
14 
17 
17 
37 
24 
22 

6 
18 
10 
20 

6 
12 

8 
15 
20 
13 
16 
18 

8 
24 

7 
23 


Indiana, Pa .. 


10 
11 
16 
13 
11 
12 
13 


Garfield Heights, Ohio 




Ironton, Ohio . ... ... 


Kingston, Pa 


Lancaster, Ohio.. ... 


Lansdowne, Pa 


Marietta, Ohio 


Latrobe, Pa "" 


Martins Ferry, Ohio.. 


Lewistown, Pa 


Mount Vernon, Ohio 


Lock Haven, Pa 


New Philadelphia, Ohio 


Mahanoy City, Pa 


Niles, Ohio 


McKees Rocks, Pa 


15 
21 
16 
8 
28 


Painesville, Ohio. . ... 


Meadville, Pa 


Parma, Ohio 


Monessen, Pa 


Piqua, Ohio . .. ... 


Mount Carmel, Pa -------- 


Salem, Ohio... .. .. ... .. 




Sanduskv, Ohio 


Munhall, Pa 


Shaker Heights, Ohio 


New Kensineton, Pa 


24 


Struthers, Ohio . . 


North Braddock, Pa 


17 


Tiffin, Ohio 


Oil City, Pa 


17 


Wooster, Ohio.. .. . . ... 


Old Forge, Pa 


3 
11 


Xenia, Ohio . 


Phoenixville, Pa 


Ada, Okla 


Pittston, Pa 


25 


Ardmore, Okla... . . .. 


Plains Township, Pa 


6 


Bartlesville, Okla 


Plymouth, Pa 


12 


Chickasha, Okla 


Pottstown, Pa-.. 


19 


Durant, Okla . . . 


Pottsville, Pa 


26 


El Reno, Okla 


Shaler Township, Pa 


7 


Guthrie, Okla ... 


Shamokin, Pa 


12 


Lawton, Okla . . . 


Shenandoah, Pa 


15 


McAlester, Okla 


Steelton, Pa 


11 




Sunburv, Pa. 


12 


Okmulgee, Okla 


Swissvale, Pa' 


22 


Ponca City, Okla . .. . . .... . . 


Tamaqua, Pa... 


8 


Sapulpa, Okla 


Uniontown, Pa 


29 


Shawnee, Okla . . . ... 


Vandergrift, Pa 


7 


Stillwater, Okla ... 


Warren, Pa 


11 


Wewoka, Okla 


Waynesboro, Pa 


9 


Astoria, Oreg . . 


West Chester, Pa 


15 


Bend, Oreg 


Bristol, R. L. . 


18 


Eugene, Oreg 


Cumberland, R. I 


7 


Klamath Falls, Oreg ... 


Lincoln, R. I 


6 


Medford, Oreg 


North Providence, R. I 


11 


Abington Township, Pa 


Westerly, R. I 


15 


Ambridge, Pa 


West Warwick, R. I 


16 


Arnold Pa 


Anderson, S. C 


37 


Beaver Falls Pa 


Florence, S. C 


31 


Bellevue, Pa 


Greenwood, S. C 


25 


Berwick, Pa . . ... ... ... 


Orangeburg, S. C 

Rock Hill, S. C 


23 




32 


Bradford, Pa 


Sumter, S. C_. ... 


20 


Bristol, Pa . . . 


Aberdeen, S. Dak 


18 


Butler Pa 


Huron, S. Dak 


13 


Canonsburg Pa 


Mitchell, S. Dak . 


13 


Carbondale, Pa 


Rapid City, S. Dak 


17 


r^flrlislp Pn 


Watertown, S. Dak 


11 


Carnegie Pa 


Bristol, Tpnn 


16 




Clarksville, Tenn 


17 


Cheltenham Township Pa 


Cleveland, Term 


13 


Clairton Pa 


Columbia, Tenn 


15 


Coatesville, Pa 


Dyersburg, Tenn ... . ... 


19 


Columbia Pa 


Jackson, Tenn .. .. 


29 


Connellsville, Pa. 


Kingsport, Tenn 


25 


Big Spring, Tex . -.- - 


16 


Darby Pa 


Borger, Tex.. 


10 


Dickson Citv Pa 


Brownsville, Tex ... . 


37 




Brownwood, Tex ... 


14 


Du Boi<5 Pa 


Bryan, Tex .. . ..- 


18 


Durunore, Pa 


Cleburne, Tex.... 

Corsicana, Tex 

Denison, Te'x 

Denton, Tex . 


6 


Duquesne, Pa... - 


15 


Ellwood City, Pa . ..... 


15 


Farrell Pa 


18 




Greenville, Tex 


19 




Harlingen. Tex 


16 




Highland Park, Tex .- 


17 


TTnrn'tirm 'Pn^vnshin Pa 


Longview, Tex.. 


17 


Homestead, Pa 


McAUen, Tex . — 


12 



34 



Table 16 — Number of police department employees, Apr. 30, 1947, cities with 
population from 2,500 to ^-5,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25.000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Marshall, Tex 

Palestine, Tex 

Pampa, Tex 

Paris, Tex 

Pelly, Tex 

Sherman, Tex 

Sweetwater, Tex 

Temple, Tex 

University Park, Tex 

Victoria, Tex 

Lo^an, Utah 

Prove, Utah 

Barre, Vt 

Rutland, Vt 

Charlottesville, Va.. 
Fredericksburg, Va.- 

Martinsville, Va 

Staunton, Va 

Suffolk, Va 

Winchester, Va 

Aberdeen, Wash 

Bremerton, Wash 

Hoquiam, Wash 

Longview, Wash 

Olympia, Wash 

Vancouver, Wash 

Walla Walla, Wash.. 
Wenatchee, Wash 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



Becklev, W. Va 

Bluefield, W. Va 

Fairmont, W. Va 

Mai-tinsburg, W. Va 

Morgantown, W. Va 

Moundsville, W. Va 

South Charleston, W. Va 

Ashland, Wis 

Beaver Dam, Wis 

Chippewa Falls, Wis 

Cudahy, Wis 

Janesville, Wis 

Manitowoc, Wis 

Marinette, Wis 

Marshfield, Wis 

Menasha, Wis 

Neenah, Wis 

Shorewood, Wis 

South Milwaukee, Wis.. 

Stevens Point, Wis 

Two Rivers, Wis 

Watertowai, Wis 

Waukesha, Wis 

Wisconsin Rapids, Wis.. 

Casper, Wyo 

Cheyenne, Wyo 

Laramie, Wyo 

Sheridan, Wyo 



CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS 



Albertville, Ala 

Alexander City, Ala 

Andalusia, Ala 

Atmore, Ala 

Attalla, Ala 

Auburn, Ala 

Brewton, Ala 

Carbon Hill, Ala 

Clanton, Ala^ 

Cullman, Ala 

Demopolis, Ala 

Enterprise, Ala 

Eufaula, Ala 

Fayette, Ala 

Fort Payne, Ala 

Geneva, Ala 

Greenville, Ala 

Guntersville, Ala.-.. 

Hartselle, Ala 

Homewood, Ala 

Jacksonville, Ala 

Lanett, Ala... 

Leeds, Ala 

Northport, Ala 

Opelika, Ala 

Opp, Ala 

Ozark, Ala 

Pratt ville, Ala 

Prichard, Ala 

Roanoke, Ala 

Russellville, Ala 

Sheffield, Ala 

Sylaca-uga, Ala 

Talladega, Ala 

Tarrant City. Ala _ 

Troy, Ala 

Tuscumbia, Ala 

Tuskegee, Ala 

Bisbee, Ariz 

Clifton, Ariz 

Douglas, Ariz 



Flagstaff, Ariz 

Glendale, Ariz 

Globe, Ariz 

Mesa, Ariz 

Miami, Ariz 

Nogales, Ariz 

Prescott, Ariz 

Tempe, Ariz 

Williams, Ariz 

Winslow, Ariz 

Yuma, Ariz 

Arkadelphia, Ark... 

Batesville, Ark 

Brinkley, Ark 

Camden, Ark 

Conway, Ark 

Crossett, Ark 

De Queen, Ark 

Dermott, Ark 

Fayetteville, Ark... 

Fordyce, Ark 

Harrison, Ark 

Helena, Ark 

Hope, Ark 

Malvern, Ark . 

Mena, Ark 

Monticello, Ark 

Morrilton, Ark 

Nashville, Ark.r. 

Newport, Ark 

Osceola, Ark 

Paragould, Ark 

Paris. Ark 

Pocahontas, Ark 

Prescott, Ark 

Rogers, Ark 

Russellville, Ark 

Searcy, Ark 

Siloam Sprhigs, Ark 

Springdale, Ark 

Stuttgart, Ark 



35 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees Apr. SO, 1947, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Trumann, Ark 

Van Buren, Ark 

Warren, Ark. 

West Helena, Ark 

Wynne, Ark 

Antioch, Calif 

Arcadia, Calif 

Auburn, Calif 

Azusa, Calif 

Banning, Calif 

Brea. Calif 

Calexico, Calif 

Carmel bv the Sea, Calif. 

Chico, Ciilif 

Chino, Calif 

Chula Vista, Calif 

Claremont. Calif 

Coalinga, Calif 

Colton, Calif 

Corona, Calif 

Coronado, Calif 

Covina, Calif 

Culver City, Calif 

Daly City, Calif 

Delano, Calif 

Dinuba, Calif 

El Cerrito, Calif 

El Monte, Calif 

El Segundo, Calif 

Emeryville, Calif 

Escondido, Calif 

Exeter, Calif 

Fillmore, Calif 

Fort Bragg, Calif 

Gardena, Calif 

GUroy, Calif 

Glendora, Calif 

Grass Valley, Calif . 

Hanford, Calif 

Hawthorne, Calif 

Hayward, Calif 

Healdsbure, Calif 

Hemet, Calif 

Hermosa Beach, Calif 

Hillsborough. Calif 

HoUister, Calif 

Huntington Beach, Calif. 

Laguna Beach. Calif 

La Mesa, Calif 

La Verne, Calif 

Lindsay, Calif 

Livermore, Calif 

Lompoc, Calif 

Los Gatos, Calif 

Madera, Calif 

Manhattan Beach, Calif_ 

Martinez, Calif 

Marvsville, Calif 

Menlo Park, Calif 

Mill Valley, Calif 

Montebello, Calif 

Monterey Park, Calif 

Mountain View, Calif... 

Napa, Calif 

Needles, Calif 

Newport Beach, Calif 

North Sacramento, Calif. 

Oakdale, Calif 

Oceanside, Calif 

Orange, Calif 

Oroville, Calif 

Oxnard, Calif 

Pacific Grove, Calif 

Palm Springs, Calif 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 




Paso Robles, Calif 

Petaluma, Calif 

Piedmont, Calif 

Pittsburg, Calif 

Placerville, Calif 

Porterville, Calif 

Red Bluff, Calif 

Redding, Calif 

Rcedley, Calif 

San Anselmo, Calif 

San Bruno, Calif 

San Carlos, Calif 

San Fernando, Calif 

Sanger, Calif 

San Luis Obispo, Calif 

San Marino, Calif 

San Rafael, Calif 

Santa Clara, Calif 

Santa Maria, Calif 

Santa Paula, Calif 

Sausalito, Calif 

Selma, Calif 

Sierra Madre, Calif 

Signal Hill, Calif 

South San Francisco, Calif 

Sunnyvale, Calif 

Taft, Calif 

Torrance, Calif 

Tracv, Calif 

Tulare, Cahf 

Turlock, Calif 

Ukiah, Calif 

Upland, Calif 

Visalia, Calif 

Watsonville, Calif 

Woodland, Calif 

Yuba City, Calif 

Alamosa, Colo 

Aurora, Colo 

Brighton, Colo 

Canon City, Colo 

Delta, Colo 

Durango, Colo 

Englewood, Colo 

Florence, Colo 

Fort Morgan, Colo 

Golden, Colo 

La Junta, Colo 

Lamar, Colo 

Las Animas, Colo 

Leadville, Colo 

Longmont, Colo 

Loveland, Colo 

Monte Vista, Colo 

Montrose, Colo 

Rockv Ford, Colo 

Salida, Colo 

Sterling, Colo 

Walsenburg. Colo 

Danielson, Conn -. 

Groton, Conn 

Putnam, Conn 

Rockville, Conn 

Southington, Conn 

Stafford Springs, Conn 

Winsted, Coim 

Dover, Del 

Laurel, Del 

Milford, Del.. 

Newark, Del 

Seaford, Del 

Apalachicola, Fla 

Auburndale, Fla 

Avon Park, Fla 



36 



Table 16. — Numher of 'police department employees, Apr. 30, 1947, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10.000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



Bartow, Fla 

Belle Glade, Fla 

Cocoa, Fla 

Coral Gables, Fla 

Dade City, Fla 

Dania, Fla — 

De Funiak Springs, Fla. 

De Land, Fla 

Delray Beach, Fla 

Eustis, Fla 

Fernandina, Fla 

Fort Pierce, Fla 

Haines City, Fla 

Hollywood, Fla 

Homestead, Fla 

Jacksonville Beach, Fla. 

Kissimmee, Fla 

Lake Wales, Fla 

Lake Worth. Fla 

Leesburg. Fla 

Live Oak, Fla 

Marianna, Fla 

Melbourne . Fla 

New Smyrna Beach, Fla 

Ocala. Fla 

Palatka. Fla 

Palm Beach, Fla 

Perry, Fla 

Plant City, Fla 

Quincy, Fla 

Sebrin?;. Fla 

Vero Beach, Fla 

Wauchula, Fla 

Winter Haven, Fla 

Winter Park, Fla 

Americus, Ga 

Bainbridge, Ga 

Bamesville, Ga 

Baxley, Ga 

Buford, Ga 

Cairo, Ga 

Calhoun, Ga, 

Camilla, Ga 

Canton, Ga 

Carrollton, Ga 

Cartersville, Ga 

Cedartown, Ga 

College Park, Ga 

Commerce, Ga 

Cordele, Ga 

Cuthbert, Ga 

Dawson, Ga 

Douglas, Ga 

Douglasville, Ga 

Eastman, Ga 

Elberton, Ga 

Fitzgerald, Ga 

Fort Valley, Ga 

Hapeville, Ga 

Hogansville, Ga 

Jesup, Ga 

Lafayette, Ga 

Manchester, Ga 

Marietta, Ga 

Milledgeville, Ga 

Millen, Ga 

Monroe, Ga 

Newnan, Ga 

Pelham, Ga 

Porterdale. Ga 

Quitman, Ga 

Rockmart. Ga 

Rossville, Ga 

Statesboro, Ga 




Swainsboro, Ga 

Toccoa, Ga 

Trion, Ga 

Vidalia, Ga .--. 

Washington, Ga 

Waynesboro, Ga 

West Point, Ga 

Winder, Ga 

Blackfoot, Idaho 

Burley, Idaho 

Caldwell, Idaho 

Emmett, Idaho 

Gooding, Idaho 

Kellogg, Idaho 

Malad City, Idaho,. - 

Montpelier, Idaho 

Moscow, Idaho 

Payette, Idaho 

Preston, Idaho 

Rexburg, Idaho 

Rupert, Idaho 

St. Anthony, Idaho.. 

Sandpoint, Idaho 

Weiser, Idaho 

Abingdon, 111 

Aledo. Ill 

Anna, 111 

Arlington Heights, 111 

Barrington. Ill 

Batavia, 111 

Beardstown, 111 

Bellwood, 111 

Belvidere, 111 

Benton, 111 

Bradlev. Ill 

Bushnell, 111 

Carbondale, 111 

Carlinville, 111 

Carlvle, 111 

Carmi, 111 

Carterville, 111 

Casey, 111 - 

Charleston. Ill 

Chester, 111 

Christopher, 111 

Clinton, 111 ... 

Collinsville, 111 

Creve Coeur, 111 

Crystal Lake, 111 

DeKalb, 111 

Des Plaines, 111 

Dolton,Ill 

Downers Grove, 111. _ 

Du Quoin, 111 

East Alton, 111 

East Peoria, 111 

Edwardsville. Ill 

Effingham, 111 

Eldorado, 111 

Evergreen Park, 111.. 

Fairfield, 111 

Flora, 111 

Franklin Park, 111.... 

Galena, 111 

Galva, 111 

Geneseo, 111 

Geneva, 111 

Georgetown. Ill 

Gillespie. Ill 

Glencoe. Ill 

Glen Ellyn. Ill 

Glenview, 111 

Greenville, 111 

Harvard, 111 



37 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, Apr. 30, 1947, cities with 
population from ^,500 to 25,000 — Continued 



CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Oontinued 




City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


City 


.Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


Havana, 111 - . 


5 
5 
4 
5 
4 
7 
5 
3 
4 
2 
9 
5 
19 
5 
5 
1 
5 
4 
3 
6 
10 
10 
13 
6 
3 
3 
2 
5 
7 
9 
2 
4 
2 
7 
3 
4 
3 
7 
2 
8 

8 
4 
4 
3 
3 
9 
2 
3 

10 
3 
2 
2 
3 
7 
4 
5 

23 
6 

13 
5 
5 
4 
3 
5 
2 
6 
4 
3 

16 
3 
4 
4 
2 


Sullivan, 111 


3 


Herrin, 111 


Summit, IlL. 

Sycamore, 111 


U 
3 

7 


Highland, 111 


Highwood, 111 - - - 


Taylorville, 111 


Hillsboro, 111 


Tuscola, III.. 


2 


Hinsdale, 111 


Vandalia, 111 . 


5 


Homewood, 111 - - 


Venice, 111 


12 




Villa Park, 111 


7 


Jersevville, 111 


Washington Park, 111 


2 


Johnston City 111 


Watseka, 111 


3 


Kenilworth, 111 . 


West Chicago, 111 


4 


La Grange Park, 111 


Western Springs, III 


7 


Lake Forest, 111 -.. .. - 


Westmont, 111 


9 




Westville, 111 


2 


Lawrenceville, IlL 


Wheaton, 111 


9 




White Hall, 111 . 


3 


Liberty ville. 111 


Wood River, 111 


7 


Litchfield, 111 .- 


Woodstock, 111 


6 


Lockport, 111 - 


Zeigler, 111 ... 


3 


Lombard, 111 


Zion, 111 .. 


5 




Alexandria, Ind... . . 


5 


Macomb, 111 - 


Angola, Ind. 


4 


Madison 111 


Attica, Ind 


3 




Auburn, Ind . . . .. . 


5 


Marseilles 111 


Aurora, Ind . 


3 


Marshall 111 


Bates ville, Ind 


3 


McLeansboro, III 


Beach Grove, Ind . . 


4 


Mendota 111 


Bicknell, Ind 


3 




Bluffton, Ind . 


6 


Monmouth 111 


Boonville, Ind . .. 


3 


Monticello, 111 


Brazil, Ind ... . .. 


6 




Clinton, Ind .. 


7 


Morrison 111 


Columbia Citv, Ind 


4 




Crown Point, Ind ... .-. 


2 


Mount Olive 111 


Decatur, Ind .. . .. ... 


6 


Murphysboro 111 


Dunkirk, Ind 


2 


Nanieoki 111 


East Gary, Ind 


3 


Naperville 111 


Franklin, Ind 


5 




Garrett, Ind 


3 


Normal 111 


Gas City, Ind 


3 


North Chicago 111 


Greencastle, Ind .. . 


5 




Greenfield, Ind 


4 


Oeleshv 111 


Greensburg. Ind . . 


6 


Olney, 111 


Hartford Citv, Ind 


4 




Highland, Ind. 


2 


Pana 111 


Hobart, Ind . -- 


4 


Paris 111 


Huntingburg, Ind 


2 


Paxton 111 


Jasonville, Ind _. .... . 


3 




Jasper, Ind. . .. ... -- 


2 


Peru 111 


Kendallville, Ind 


4 




Lawrencebure, Ind . . 


4 


Phoenix 111 


Lebanon, Ind.. ... . ... .. . - .-- 


5 


Pinpknpvvillp Til 


Linton, Ind. . .. 


5 


Pittsfield 111 


Madison, Ind . .. 


6 


Pontiac 111 


Martinsville, Ind 


4 


Prinpptnn Til 


Mitchell, Ind 


3 


Riverdale 111 


Mount Vernon, Ind ... . 


4 


River Forest 111 


Nappanee, Ind 


4 


Tfivpr frrnvp Til 


Noblesville, Ind 


7 




North Vernon, Ind 


7 




Oakland Citv, Ind 


2 


RoohpllP Til 


Petersbur?, Ind .. .. 


2 


Rock Falls 111 


Plymouth, Ind .. -.- 


4 




Portland, Ind . .. 


6 


St Charlps Til 


Princeton, Ind_- . . .. .. 


7 


Sandwich 111 


Rensselaer, Ind 


3 




Rochester, Ind .. .. .. 


4 


Rhplhvvillp Til 


Rush ville, Ind .. . -. 


6 


Silvis 111 


Salem, Ind 


3 




Seymour, Ind . . 


5 


Rniith Tlplnit Til 


Tell Citv, Ind 


2 




Tipton, Ind -- - 


5 




Union Citv, Ind .. ... - 


3 


Steger, 111 


Valparaiso, Ind -- 


12 



38 

Table 16. — Number of police department employees, Apr. 30, 1947, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Wabash, Ind 

Warsaw, Ind i... 

Washington, Ind 

West Lafayette, Ind 

West Terre Haute, Ind.. 

Winchester, Ind 

Albia, Iowa, ._- 

Algona, Iowa 

Anamosa, Iowa 

Atlantic, Iowa 

Belle Plaine, Iowa 

Bettendorf, Iowa 

Bloomfield, Iowa 

Cedar Falls, Iowa 

Centerville, Iowa 

Chariton, Iowa. 

Charles City, Iowa 

Cherokee, Iowa... 

Clarinda, Iowa. 

Clarion, Iowa..' 

Clear Lake, Iowa 

Cresco, Iowa 

Creston, Iowa 

Decorah, Iowa 

Denison. Iowa 

Eagle Grove, Iowa....... 

Eldora, Iowa 

Emmetsburg, Iowa 

Estherville, Iowa 

Fairfield, Iowa 

Grinnell, Iowa 

Hampton, Iowa 

Harlan, Iowa 

Hawarden, Iowa 

Humboldt, Iowa 

Independence, Iowa 

Indianola, Iowa 

Iowa Falls, Iowa 

Jefferson, Iowa 

Knoxville, Iowa 

Le Mars, Iowa 

Maquoketa, Iowa 

Marion, Iowa _- 

Missouri Valley, Iowa..". 

Monticello, Iowa 

Mount Pleasant, Iowa. . 

Nevada, Iowa 

New Hampton, Iowa... 

Oelwein, Iowa 

Onawa. Iowa 

Osage, Iowa 

Osceola, Iowa 

Bella, Iowa 

Perry, Iowa 

Red Oak, Iowa 

Rock Rapids, Iowa 

Sac City, Iowa 

Sheldon, Iowa 

Shenandoah, Iowa 

Spencer, Iowa 

Storm Lake, Iowa 

Tipton, Iowa 

Vinton, Iowa 

Washington, Iowa 

Waukon, Iowa. 

Waverly, Iowa 

Webster City, Iowa 

West Des Moines, Iowa 

Winterset. Iowa 

Abilene, Kans_ . 

Anthony, Kans 

Augusta, Kans 

Baxter Springs, Kans... 
Belleville, Kans 



Nsmber 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 




Beloit, Kans 

Caney, Kans 

Cherry vale, Kans 

Clay Center, Kans.._ 

Columbus, Kans 

Concordia. Kans 

Council Grove, Kans 
Dodge City, Kans... 

Eureka, Kans 

Fredonia, Kans 

Galena, Kans 

Garden City, Kans.. 

Girard, Kans 

Goodland, Kans 

Great Bend, Kans... 

Hays, Kans 

Herington, Kans 

Hiawatha, Kans 

Hoisington, Kans 

Holton. Kans 

Horton, Kans 

lola, Kans 

Junction City. Kans. 

Kingman. Kans 

Earned, Kans 

Liberal, Kans 

Lyons. Kans 

Marysville, Kans 

McPherson,' Kans 

Neodesha, Kans 

Norton, Kans 

Olathe. Kans 

Osawatomie, Kans.... 

Paola, Kans 

Pratt, Kans 

Russell, Kans 

Wellington, Kans 

W infield, Kans 

Belle vue, Ky 

Carrollton, Ky 

Central City, Ky 

Corbin, Ky 

Cumberland, Ky 

Cynthiana, Ky 

Danville. Ky 

Dayton, Ky 

Eismere. Ky 

Franklin. Ky 

Geoj'getown, Ky 

Glasgow, Ky 

Harrodsburg, Ky 

Hazard, Ky 

Irvine, Ky 

Jenkins, Ky 

Lebanon, Ky 

Ludlow, Ky 

Mayfield, Ky 

Maysville, Ky 

Mount Sterling, Ky. 

Murray, Ky 

Nicholasville, Ky 

Paris, Ky 

Pikeville, Ky 

Pineville, Ky 

Princeton, Ky 

Providence, Ky 

Richmond, Ky 

Russellville, Ky 

Shelby ville, Ky 

Somerset, Ky 

Versailles, Ky 

Winchester, Ky 

Abbeville, La 

Bastrop, La 



39 



Table 16. — Number of police department emplorjeea, Apr, 30, 1947, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Bossier City, La 

Bunkie, La 

Covington, La 

Crowley, La 

De Quincy, La 

De Ridder, La 

Eunice, La 

Franklin, La 

Homer, La 

Houma, La 

Jeanerette, La 

Jennings, La 

Jonesboro, La 

Kaplan, Laf 

Morgan City, La 

Opelousas, La 

Pineville, La 

Plaquemine, La 

Ponchatoula, La 

Rayne, La 

St. Martinville, La 

Slidell, La 

Tallulah, La 

Thibodaux, La 

Ville Platte, La 

West Monroe, La 

Westwego, La 

Winnfieid, La 

Belfast, Maine 

Brewer, Maine 

Brunswick, Maine 

Calais, Maine 

Eastport, Maine 

Ellsworth, Maine 

Fairfield, Maine 

Fort Fairfield, Maine 

Gardiner, Maine 

HaUowell, Maine 

Old Town, Maine 

Presque Isle, Maine 

Rockland, Maine 

Rumford, Maine 

Saco, Maine 

Brunswick, Md 

Crisfield, Md .--- 

Easton, Md 

Frostburg, Md 

Greenbelt, Md 

Havre de Grace, Md 

Hyattsville, Md 

Laurel, Md 

Mount Rainier, Md 

Pocomoke City, Md 

Takoma Park, Md 

Westernport, Md 

Westminster, Md 

Abington, Mass 

Amherst, Mass 

Auburn, Mass 

Ayer, Mass 

Barnstable, Mass 

Blackstone, Mass 

Bridge water. Mass 

Canton, Mass 

Concord, Mass 

Dalton, Mass 

Dartmouth, Mass 

Dracut, Mass 

Franklin, Mass 

Great Barrington, Mass 

Hingham, Mass 

Hopedale, Mass 

Hudson, Mass 

Ipswich, Mass 

7599!)5°— 47 6 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 




Longmeadow, Mass 

Ludlow, Mass 

Mansfield, Mass 

Maynard, Mass 

Middleborough, Mass 

Millbury, Mass 

Montague. Mass 

Nantucket, Mass 

North Andover, Mass 

Orange, Mass 

Palmer, Mass 

Provincetown, Mass 

Randolph, Mass 

Rockland, Mass 

Rockport, Mass 

Somerset, Mass 

South Hadley, Mass 

Spencer, Mass 

Stoughton, Mass 

Uxbridge, Mass 

Walpole, Mass 

Ware. Mass 

Winchendon, Mass 

Albion, Mich 

Allegan, Mich 

Allen Park, Mich 

Alma, Mich 

Belding, Mich 

Berkley, Mich 

Bessemer, Mich 

Big Rapids, Mich 

Boyne City. Mich 

Buchanan. Mich 

Cadillac, Mich 

Caro, Mich 

Center Line, Mich 

Charlotte, Mich 

Cheboygan, Mich 

Clawson, Mich 

Coldwater, Mich 

Crystal Falls. Mich 

Dowagiac, Mich 

Durand, Mich 

East Detroit, Mich 

East Grand Rapids, Mich_. 

East Lansing, Mich 

Eaton Rapids, Mich 

Fenton, Mich 

Fremont, Mich 

Garden City, Mich 

Gladstone, Mich 

Grand Haven, Mich 

Grand Ledge. Mich 

Greenville, Mich 

Grosse Pointe, Mich 

Grosse Pointe Farms, Mich. 
Grosse Pointe Woods, Mich 

Hancock, Mich 

Hastings, Mich 

Hillsdale, Mich 

Houghton, Mich 

Howell, Mich 

Inkster, Mich 

Ionia. Mich 

Iron River, Mich 

Ishpeming, Mich 

Kingsford, Mich 

L'Anse, Mich 

Lapeer, Mich 

Ludington, Mich 

Manistee, Mich 

Manistique, Mich 

Marine City, Mich 

Marshall, Mich 



40 



Table 16. — Nu7nher of police department employees, Apr. SO, 1947, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Mason, Mich , 

Melvindale, Mich 

Mount Pleasant, Mich 

Miinising, Mich 

Negaunee, Mich 

Newberry, Mich 

Northville, Mich 

Norway, Mich 

Otsego, Michl 

Petoskey, Mich 

Pleasant Ridge, Mich 

Plymouth, Mich 

Rochester, Mich 

Rogers City, Mich 

Roseville, Mich 

St. Clair, Mich 

St. Ignace, Mich 

St. Johns, Mich 

St. Joseph, Mich 

St. I.ouis, Mich 

South Haven, Mich^ 

Sturgis, Mich 

Tccumseh, Mich 

Three Rivers, Mich 

Trenton, Mich 

Wakefield, Mich.. 

Wayne, Mich 

Zeeiand, Mich 

Alexandria, Mkml 

Anoka, Minn 

Bayport, Minn. 

Bemidji, Minn.. 

Benson, Minn... 

Blue Earth, Minn 

Breckenridge, Minn 

Chisholm, Minn. 

Cloquet, Minn 

Columbia Heights, Minn. 

Crookston, Minn. 

Crosby, Miiui 

East Grand Forks, Minn. 

Edina, Minn 

Ely, Mirnil 

Eveleth, Minn. 

Fairmont, Minn 

Gilbert, Minn 

Glenwood, Minn 

Grand Rapids, Minn 

Hastings, Mum. 

Hopkins, Minn"! 

Hutchinson, Minn 

International Falls, Minn. 

Jackson, Minn.. 

Lake City, Minn 

Litchfield, Minn 

Little Falls, Miim 

Luveme, Minn 

Marshall, Minn 

Montevideo, Minn 

Moorhead, Minn 

Morris, Minn... 

New Ulm, Minn.. 

Northfield, Minn.. 

North Mankato, Minn 

North St. Paul, Minn 

O watonna , M inn _ _ ." 

Park Rapids, Minn. 

Pipestone, Minn 

Red Wing, Minn 

Redwood Falls, Minn 

Richfield, Minn... 

Robbinsdale, Minn 

St. James, Minn 

St. Louis Park, Minn 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 




St. Peter, Minn 

Sauk Centre, Minn 

Sleepy Eye, Miim 

Staples, Minn 

Stillwater, Mimi 

Thief River Falls, Minn 

Tracy, Minn 

Two Harbors, Minn 

Wadena, Minn 

Waseca, Minn 

White Bear Lake, Minn 

Willmar, Minn 

Windom, Minn 

Worthington, Minn 

Aberdeen, Miss 

Amory, Miss 

Bay St. Louis, Miss 

Belzoni, Miss 

Brookhaven, Miss 

Canton, Miss 

Cleveland, Miss 

Columbia, Miss 

Corinth, Miss 

Durant, Miss 

Grenada, Miss 

Hazlehurst, Miss 

Indianola, Miss 

Kosciusko, Miss 

Leland, Miss 

Lexington, Miss 

Louisville, Miss 

McComb, Miss 

Moss Point, Miss 

Oxford, Miss 

Pascagoula, Miss 

Pass Christian, Miss 

Phiiadelphia, Miss 

Picayime, Miss 

Tupelo, Miss 

Water Valley, Miss 

Winona, Miss 

Yazoo City, Miss 

Aurora, Mo... 

Berkeley, Mo 

Boonville, Mo.'' 

Brentwood, Mo_ 

Butler, Mo _ 

Cameron, Mo 

Carrollton, Mo 

Caruthersville, Mo 

Chillicothe, Mo 

Clinton, Mo 

Crystal City, Mo 

De Soto, Mo 

Dexter, M© 

Excelsior Springs, Mo._. 

Farmington, Mo 

Fayette, Mo.*" 

Ferguson, Mo 

Festus, Mo 

Fredericktown, Mo 

Glendale, Mo 

Hayti, Mo 

Higginsville, Mo 

Jackson, Mo... 

Kennett, Mo 

Ladue, Mo_ 

Lamar, Mo 

Lebanon, Mo... 

Lexington, Mo 

Louisiana, Mo 

Macon, Mo 

Marceline, Mo. 

Marshall, Mo 



41 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, Apr. 30, 1947, cities with 
populatio7i from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS-Continued 



City 



Maryville, Mo 

Mexico, Mo 

Monett, Mo 

Neosho, Mo 

Nevada, Mo 

North Kansas City, Mo 

Overland, Mo 

Richmond, Mo 

Rolla, Mo 

Salem, Mo 

Sikeston, Mo 

Slater, Mo 

Sullivan, Mo 

Trenton, Wo 

Vandalia, Mo 

Warrensburg, Mo 

Washington, Mo 

Webb City, Mo 

West Plains. Mo 

Bozeman, Mont 

Cut Bank, Mont .-. 

Deer Lodge, Mont 

Dillon, Mont 

Glasgow, Mont 

Olendive, Mont 

Havre, Mont 

Kalispell, Mont 

Laurel, Mont 

Lewistown, Mont 

Livingston, Mont 

Miles City, Mont 

Red Lodge, Mont 

Roundup, Mont 

Shelby, Mont 

Sidney, Mont 

Whitefish, Mont 

Alliance, Nebr 

Auburn, Nebr 

Blair, Nebr 

Broken Bow, Nebr 

Chadron, Nebr 

Columbus, Nebr 

Crete, Nebr 

Fairbuxy, Nebr 

Falls City, Nebr 

Qering, Nebr 

Holdrege, Nebr 

Kearney, Nebr 

Lexington, Nebr 

McCook, Nebr 

Nebraska City, Nebr... 

Ogallala, Nebr 

O'Neill, Nebr 

Plattsmouth, Nebr 

Schuyler, Nebr 

Seward, Nebr 

Sidney, Nebr 

Superior, Nebr 

Wahoo, Nebr 

AVayne, Nebr 

West Point, Nebr 

York, Nebr 

Elko, Nev 

Ely, Nev 

Las Vegas, Nev 

Sparks, Nev 

Derry, N. H 

Exeter, N. H 

Franklin, N. H 

Lebanon, N. H 

Littleton, N. H 

Milford, N. H 

Newport, N. H 

Somersworth, N. H 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



Audubon, N. J 

Belraar, N. J 

Beverly, N.J 

Bogota, N. J 

Boonton, N. J 

Bordentown, N. J 

Bound Brook, N. J 

Bradley Beach, N.J... 

Butler, N.J 

Caldwell, N.J 

Cape May, N. J 

Carlstadt, N. J 

Chatham, N.J 

Clementon, N. J 

Closter, N. J 

Dumont, N. J 

Dunellen, N. J 

East Paterson, N. J... 
East Rutherford, N. J. 

Edgewater, N. J 

Egg Harbor City, N. J 

Fair Lawn, N. J 

Flemington, N.J 

FortLee, N. J 

Frankhn, N. J 

Freehold, N. J 

Garwood, N. 3 

Glassboro, N. J 

Glen Ridge, N. J 

Glen Rock, N.J 

Guttenberg, N. J 

Hackettstown, N. J... 

Haddonficld, N. J 

Haddon Heights, N. J. 

Hammonton, N. J 

Highland Park, N. J.. 

Hightstown, N. J 

Hillsdale, N. J 

Keansburg, N. J 

Keyport, N. J 

Lambertville, N. J 

Leonia, N. J 

Little Ferry, N. J 

Madison, N. J 

Manville, N. J 

Margate City, N. J 

Matawan, N. J 

Maywood, N. J 

Merchantville, N. J... 

Metuchen, N. J 

Middlesex, N. J 

Midland Park, N.J... 

Milltown,N. J 

New Milford, N.J... . 

Newton, N. J 

North Arhngton, N. J. 

Northfleld, N. J 

North Haledon, N. J.. 

Oaklvn, N. J 

Ocean City, N. J 

Oceanport, N. J 

Oradell,N. J 

Palisades Park, N. J... 

Palmyra, N. J 

Paramus, N. J 

Park Ridge, N.J 

Paulsboro, N. J 

Penns Grove, N. J 

Pitman, N. J 

Pompton Lakes, N. J. 

Princeton, N. J 

Prospect Park, N. J.... 

Ramsey, N. J 

Raritan, N. J 



42 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, Apr. SO 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 



1947\ cities with 
CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Ridgefield, N. J 

River Edge, N. J 

Rockaway, N. J 

Roselle Park, N. J 

Rumson, N. J.. — 

Runnemede, N. J -.- 

Salem, N. J .-. 

Sayreville, N. J .--. 

Seeaucus, N. J 

Somerville, N. J 

South Plainfield, N. J-.. 

Tenafly, N. J 

Totowa, N. J 

Ventnor City, N. J 

Verona, N. J 

Vineland, N. J 

Wallington, N.J 

Wanaque, N. J 

Washington, N. J 

West Caldwell, N. J 

West Paterson, N. J 

Westville,N. J 

Wharton, N. J 

Wildwood, N. J 

Woodbury, N. J 

Woodlynne, N. J 

Wood-Ridge. N. J 

Alamogordo, N. Mex 

Artesia, N. Mex 

Belen, N. Mex 

Carlsbad, N. Mex 

Clayton, N. Mex 

Deming.N. Mex 

Gallup,'N. Mex 

Hot Springs, N. Mex 

Las Cruces, N. Mex 

Las Vegas City, N. Mex. 
Las Vegas Town, N. Mex 

Lordsburg, N. Mex 

Portales, N. Mex 

Raton, N. Mex 

Silver City, N. Mex 

Socorro. N. Mex 

Tucumeari, N, Mex 

Albion, N.Y.„. 

Amityville, N. Y 

Babylon, N.Y 

Balfiwinsville, N. Y 

Ballston Spa, N. Y 

Bath. N.Y 

Brockport, N. Y 

Bronxville, N. Y 

Canajoharie, N. Y 

Canandaigua, N. Y 

Canastota, N. Y 

Canisteo, N. Y 

Carthage, N.Y 

Catskill, N.Y 

Cobleskill, N. Y.. 

Cooperstown, N. Y 

Corinth, N. Y.. 

Croton-on -Hudson, N. Y. 

Dansville, N.Y 

Depew, N. Y 

Dobbs Ferry, N. Y 

Dolgeville, N. Y 

East Aurora, N. Y 

East Rochester, N. Y 

East Syracuse, N. Y 

EUenville, N. Y 

Elmira Heights, N. Y 

Elmsford, N. Y 

Falconer, N. Y 

Fort Edward, N. Y 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 




Fort Plain, N. Y 

Frankfort, N. Y 

Fredonia, N. Y 

Goshen, N.Y 

Gouverneur, N. Y 

Gowanda, N. Y 

Granville, N.Y 

Green Island, N. Y 

Greenport, N. Y 

Hamburg, N. Y 

Hastings-on-Hudson, N. Y 

Haverstraw, N. Y 

Herkimer, N. Y._ 

Highland Falls, N. Y 

Homer, N. Y 

Hoosick Falls, N. Y 

Horseheads, N. Y 

Hudson Falls, N.Y 

Ilion, N. Y 

Irvington, N. Y 

Lake Placid, N. Y 

Larchmont, N. Y 

LeRov, N.Y . 

Liberty, N.Y 

Lindenhurst, N. Y.. 

Liverpool, N. Y 

Long Beach, N. Y 

Lvons, N. Y 

Malone, N.Y 

Malveme, N. Y 

Mechanicville, N. Y 

Medina, N. Y 

Mohawk, N.Y 

Monticello, N. Y. 

Mount Kisco, N. Y 

Mount Morris, N.Y 

Newark, N. Y 

New York Mills, N. Y.... 

North Pelham, N. Y 

Northport, N. Y 

North Tarry town, N. Y.- 
Norwich, N. Y 

Nyack, N. Y 

Owego, N. Y 

Palmyra, N. Y 

Patchogue, N. Y 

Pelham Manor, N. Y 

Penn Yan, N. Y 

Pleasantville, N. Y 

Port Jervis, N. Y 

Potsdam, N. Y 

Rye, N.Y 

Sag Harbor, N. Y 

Salamanca, N. Y 

Saranac Lake, N. Y 

Saugerties, N. Y 

Scotia, N. Y 

Seneca Falls, N. Y 

Sidney, N. Y 

Silver Creek, N. Y 

Sloan, N.Y 

Solvay, N. Y 

Southampton, N. Y 

South Glens Falls, N. Y... 

Spring Valley, N. Y 

Springville, N. Y 

Suffem,N. Y. 

Tarrytown, N. Y 

Ticonderoga, N. Y 

Tuckahoe, N. Y 

Tupper Lake, N. Y 

AVaUlen, N. Y 

Walton, N. Y 

Wappingers Falls, N. Y... 



43 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees Apr. 30, 1947, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2.500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Warsaw, N.Y 

Waterford, N. Y 

Waterloo, N. Y 

Watkins Glen, N. Y 

Waverly, N. Y 

Wellsville, N. Y 

Westficld, N. Y 

Whitehall, N. Y 

Whitesboro, N. Y 

Yorkville, N. Y 

Albemarle, N. C 

Asheboro, N. C 

Beaufort, N. C 

Belmont, N'C 

Bessemer City, N. C_.-.- 

Brevard, N. C 

Canton, N. C 

Chapel Hill, N. C 

Cherry ville, N. C 

Clmton, N. C 

Dunn, N. C 

Edenton, N. C 

Elkins, N. C 

Forest City, N. C 

Graham, N. C 

Henderson, N. C 

Hendersonville, N. C 

Kings Mountain, N. C__. 

Laurinburg, N. C 

Lenoir, N. C 

Liiicolnton, N. C 

Lumberton, N. C 

Marion, N.C.. 

Monroe, N. C 

Moores ville, N. C 

Morehead City, N. C_... 

Morganton, N. C 

Mount Airy, N. C 

Newton, N. C 

North Wilkesboro, N. C. 

Oxford, N. C 

Roanoke Rapids, N. C_. 

Rockingham, N. C 

Sanford, N. C 

Scotland Neck, N. C 

Smithfield, N. C 

Spencer, N. C 

Spindale, N. C 

Tarboro, N. C 

Valdese, N. C 

Washington, N. C 

Waynesville, N. C 

Whiteville, N. C 

Williams ton, N. C 

De\'ils Lake, N. Dak 

Dickinson, N. Dak 

Grafton, N. Dak 

Jamestown, N. Dak 

Mandan, N. Dak 

Valley City, N. Dak.... 

Wahpeton, N. Dak 

Williston, N. Dak 

Amherst, Ohio... 

Athens, Ohio 

Barnesville, Ohio 

Bay, Ohio 

Bedford, Ohio 

Bellefontaine, Ohio 

Belle vue, Ohio 

Berea, Ohio 

Bexley, Ohio 

Bowling Green, Ohio-, 

Bridgeport, Ohio 

Bryan, Ohio ---. 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



Bucyrus, Ohio 

Cadiz, Ohio- 

Carey, Ohio -- 

CarroUton, Ohio 

Celiiia, Ohio 

Chagrin Falls, Ohio.- 

Cheviot, Ohio -- 

Circleville, Ohio 

Clyde, Ohio 

Columbiana, Ohio 

Conneaut, Ohio 

Crestline, Ohio 

Crooksville, Ohio 

Deer Park, Ohio 

Defiance, Ohio 

Delaware, Ohio 

Dennison, Ohio 

Dover, Ohio 

East Palestine, Ohio 

Eaton, Ohio 

Elmwood Place, Ohio 

Fairport Harbor, Ohio 

Fairview, Ohio 

Franklin, Ohio 

Gallon, Ohio-_. 

Gallipolis, Ohio-.-. 

Geneva, Ohio 

Girard, Ohio 

Glouster, Ohio 

Grandview Heights, Ohio- 

Greenfield, Ohio 

Greenhills, Ohio 

Greenville, Ohio 

Hicksville, Ohio 

Hubbard, Ohio 

Jackson, Ohio 

Kent, Ohio -- 

Kenton, Ohio 

Lebanon, Ohio 

Lisbon, Ohio --- 

Lockland, Ohio 

Logan, Ohio-.- 

Louisville, Ohio 

Maple Heights, Ohio 

Marysville, Ohio 

Maumee, Ohio 

Mayfield Heights, OhiO-.. 

Medina, Ohio 

Miamisburg, Ohio 

Middleport, Ohio 

Minerva, Ohio 

Mingo Junction, Ohio 

Montpelier, Ohio 

Moimt Healthy, Ohio 

Napoleon, Ohio 

Nelsonville, Ohio 

New Boston, Ohio 

Newburgh Heights, Ohio. 
Newcomerstown, Ohio — 

New Lexuigton, Ohio 

Newton Falls, Ohio 

North Baltimore, Ohio..- 

North Canton, Ohio 

North College Hill, Ohio. 

North Olmsted, Ohio 

North Royalton, Ohio 

Norwalk, Ohio 

Oakwood, Ohio 

Oberlin, Ohio 

Orrville, Ohio 

Oxford, Ohio--- 

Perrysburg, Ohio 

Pomeroy, Ohio 

Port Clinton, Ohio 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



13 
2 
4 
2 
3 
6 
8 

10 
5 
2 

10 
6 
1 
4 
6 
9 
4 

12 
5 
3 
4 
4 
5 
4 



4 
3 
9 

5 
3 
10 
4 
6 
4 
4 
7 
2 
2 
5 
4 
4 
9 
5 
8 
7 
5 
3 
5 
2 
3 
4 

1 

10 
9 
4 
3 
3 
7 
4 
7 



44 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, Apr. SO 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 



19^7, cities with 
CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Ravenna , Ohio -■ 

Reading, Ohio 

Rittman, Ohio 

Rocky River, Ohio 

St. Bernard, Ohio 

St. Clairsville, Ohio 

St. Marys, Ohio 

Sebring, Ohio 

Shadvside, Ohio 

Shelby, Ohio 

Silverton, Ohio 

South Eudid, Ohio 

Tallmadge, Ohio 

Tipp City, Ohio 

Toronto, Ohio 

Trov, Ohio 

Uhrichsville, Ohio 

University Heights, Ohio 

Upper Arlington, Ohio 

Upper Sandusky, Ohio 

Urbana, Ohio 

Van Wert, Ohio 

Wadsworth, Ohio 

Wapakoneta, Ohio 

Washington Court House, Ohio. 

Wauseon, Ohio 

Wellmgton, Ohio 

Wellston, Ohio 

Wellsville, Ohio 

Westerville, Ohio 

Westlake, Ohio 

Wickliffe, Ohio 

Willard, Ohio 

Willoughby, Ohio .. 

Wilmington, Ohio 

Wyoming, Ohio 

Altus, Okla 

Anadarko, Okla 

Atoka, Okla 

Bethany, Okla 

Blackwell, Okla 

Bristow, Okla 

Chandler, Okla...- 

Cherokee, Okla 

Cleveland, Okla 

Clinton, Okla 

Cordell, Okla 

Cushing, Okla 

Drumright, Okla 

Duncan, Okla 

Edmond, Okla... 

Elk City, Okla 

Frederick, Okla 

Hartshorne, Okla 

Henryetta, Okla 

Hohart, Okla 

Holdenville, Okla 

Hollis, Okla... 

Hominv, Okla 

Hugo, Okla 

Kingfisher, Okla 

Madill, Okla.--. 

Mangum, Okla 

Marlow, Okla 

Miami, Okla... 

Nowata, Okla 

Pauls Valley, Okla. 

Pawhuska, Okla 

Pawnee, Okla 

Perry, Okla. 

Richer, Okla 

Poteau, Okla 

Pryor Creek. Okla 

Purcell, Okla 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 




Sand Springs, Okla.. 

Sayre, Okla 

Sulphur, Okla 

Tahlequah, Okla 

Tonkaw^a, Okla 

Vinita, Okla 

Wagoner, Okla 

Watonga, Okla 

Woodward, Okla 

Albany, Oreg 

Ashland, Oreg 

Baker, Oreg 

Burns. Oieg 

Coquille, Oreg 

Corvallis, Oreg 

Cottage Grove, Oreg. 

Dallas, Oreg 

Grants Pass, Oreg 

Hillsboro, Oreg 

Hood River, Oreg .-- 

La Grande, Oreg 

Lebanon, Oreg 

McMinnville, Oreg.- 

North Bend, Oreg 

Ontario, Oreg 

Oregon City, Oreg.-. 

Pendleton, Oreg 

Roseburg, Oreg 

St. Helens, Oreg 

Seaside, Oreg 

Silverton, Oreg 

Springfield, Oreg--- . 

The Dalles, Oreg 

Tillamook, Oreg 

Aldan, Pa 

.Ambler, Pa 

Apollo, Pa. 

Archbald, Pa 

Ashland, Pa.. 

Aspinwall, Pa 

Avalon, Pa 

Avoca, Pa 

Bangor, Pa 

Barnesboro, Pa 

Beaver, Pa 

Bedford, Pa 

Bellefonte, Pa 

Bellwood, Pa 

Ben Avon, Pa 

Bentleyville, Pa 

Birdsboro, Pa 

Blairsville, Pa 

Blakely, Pa .-- 

Bloomsburg, Pa 

Boyertown, Pa 

Brackenridge, Pa 

Brentwood, Pa 

Bridgeport, Pa 

Brockway, Pa 

Brookville, Pa 

Brownsville, Pa 

Burnham, Pa --. 

California, Pa- 

Camp Hill, Pa 

Castle Shannon, Pa-. 

Catasauqua, Pa 

Clarion, Pa 

Clarks Summit, Pa.. 

Clearfield, Pa 

Clifton Heights, Pa.. 

Clymer, Pa 

Coaldale, Pa 

Collingdale, Pa 

Coplay, Pa 



45 

Table 16. — Nnmher of police department, employees, Apr. 30, 1947, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Corry, Pa 

Crafton, Pa 

Cresson, Pa 

Curwensville, Pa 

Dale, Pa 

Dallastown, Pa 

Danville, Pa... 

Derry, Pa- 

Downingtown, Pa 

Doylestown, Pa 

Dupont, Pa 

Duryea, Pa 

East Lansdowne, Pa.. 
East Pittsburgh, Pa-. 
East Stroudsburg, Pa. 

Ebensburg, Pa 

Edgewood, Pa 

Edwardsville, Pa 

Elizabethtown, Pa 

Emmaus, Pa 

Emporium, Pa 

Ephrata, Pa 

Etna, Pa 

Exeter, Pa 

Ford City, Pa 

Forest City, Pa 

Forest Hills, Pa 

Forty Fort, Pa 

Fountain Hill, Pa 

Franklin, Pa.. 

Freedom, Pa 

Freeland, Pa 

Freeport, Pa 

Gettysburg, Pa 

Glassport, Pa 

Glen Olden, Pa 

Greenville, Pa 

Grove City, Pa 

Hatboro, Pa 

Hellertown, Pa 

Hollidaysburg, Pa 

Honesdale, Pa 

Hummelstown, Pa... 

Huntingdon, Pa 

Ingram, Pa 

Irwin, Pa 

Jenkintown, Pa 

Jermyn, Pa 

Jersey Shore , Pa 

Johnsonburg, Pa 

Kane, Pa 

Kennett Square, Pa.. 

Kittanning, Pa 

KutztowTi, Pa 

Lansdale, Pa 

Lansford, Pa 

Larksville, Pa 

Laureldale, Pa 

Leechburg, Pa 

Lemoyne, Pa 

Lewisburg, Pa 

Lititz, Pa 

Luzerne, Pa 

Lykens, Pa 

Manheim, Pa 

Marcus Hook, Pa 

Masontown, Pa 

Mauch Chunk, Pa... 

McAdoo, Pa 

McDonald, Pa 

Mechanicsburg, Pa. . 

Meyersdale, Pa 

Middletown, Pa 

Midland, Pa 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 




Millersburg, Pa . 

Milton, Pa 

Minersville, Pa. 

Monaca, Pa 

Monongahela, Pa 

Montoursville, Pa 

Moosic, Pa 

Morrisville, Pa 

Mount Joy, Pa 

Moimt Oliver, Pa 

Mount Penn, Pa 

Mount Pleasant, Pa 

Mount Union, Pa 

Myerstown, Pa 

Nanty Glo, Pa 

Narberth, Pa 

Nazareth, Pa 

New Brighton, Pa 

New Cumberland, Pa 

Northampton, Pa 

North Belle Vernon, Pa-_.. 

North Catasauqua, Pa 

North Charleroi, Pa 

North East, Pa 

Northumberland, Pa 

Norwood, Pa 

Oakmont, Pa 

Olyphant, Pa 

Oxford, Pa ...... 

Palmerton, Pa 

Palmyra, Pa 

Patton, Pa 

Pen Argyl, Pa 

Perkasie, Pa 

Philipsburg, Pa 

Pitcairn, Pa 

Portage, Pa 

Port Vue, Pa 

Prospect Park, Pa 

Punxsutawney, Pa 

Quakertown, Pa 

Rankin, Pa 

Red Lion, Pa 

Renovo, Pa 

Reynoldsville, Pa 

Ridgway.'Pa 

Roaring Spring, Pa 

Rochester, Pa 

Royersford, Pa 

St. Clair, Pa 

St. Marys, Pa 

Sayre, Pa 

Schuvlkill Haven, Pa 

Scottdale, Pa 

Selins Grove, Pa 

Sewicklev, Pa 

Sharon Hill, Pa 

Sharpsburg, Pa 

Shillington, Pa 

Shippensburg, Pa 

Slatington, Pa 

Somerset, Pa 

Souderton, Pa 

South Connellsville, Pa... 

South Fork, Pa 

South Greensburg, Pa 

Southwest Greensburg, Pa 
South Williamsport, Pa... 

Spangler, Pa 

Spring City, Pa 

Springdale, Pa 

State College, Pa 

Stroudsburg, Pa 

Sugar Notch, Pa 



46 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, Apr. 30, 1947, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 




Susquehanna, Pa 

Swarthmore, Pa 

Swoyerville, Pa 

Tarentum, Pa 

Taylor, Pa 

Throop.Pa .-- 

Titusville, Pa. - 

Towanda, Pa 

Trafford, Pa 

Turtle Creek, Pa 

Tyrone, Pa 

Union City, Pa 

Verona, Pa 

Waynesburg, Pa 

Weatherly, Pa 

Wellsboro, Pa 

Wesley ville. Pa 

West Hazleton, Pa 

West Homestead, Pa.. 

Westmont, Pa 

West Newton, Pa 

West Pittston, Pa 

West Reading, Pa 

West View, Pa 

West Wyoming, Pa_.. 

Williamstown, Pa 

Wilmerdmg, Pa 

Wilson, Pa 

Windber, Pa 

Winton, Pa 

Wyoming, Pa 

Wyomissing, Pa 

Yeadon, Pa 

Youngwood, Pa 

Barrington, R. I 

Burrillville, R. I 

East Greenwicii, R. I. 

Warren, R. I 

Abbeville, S. C 

Aiken, S. C. 

Bamberg, S. C 

Batesburg, S. C 

Beaufort, S.C 

Bennettsville, S. C... 

Bishopville, S. C 

Cheraw, S. C 

Chester, S. C 

Clinton, S. C 

Conway, S. C 

Darlington, S. C 

Dillon, S. C_-.. 

Eau Claire, S. C 

Fort Mill, S.C 

Gaffney, S. C 

Georgetown, S. C 

Greer, S.C 

HoneaPath, S. C...- 

Kingstree, S. C 

Lake City, S.C 

Lancaster, S. C 

Laurens, S. C 

Marion, S.C 

Mullins, S.C 

Newberry, S. C 

North Augusta, S. C. 

Union, S.C 

Walhalla, S. C 

Whitmire, S. C 

Williamston, S.C-.. 

York, S.C... 

Brookings, S. Dak... 

Canton, S. Dak 

Deadwood, S. Dak... 
Hot Springs, S. Dak. 



Lead, S. Dak 

Madison, S. Dak 

Milbank, S. Dak.. 

Mobridge, S. Dak. 

Pierre, S. Dak 

Sisseton, S. Dak 

Sturgis, S. Dak 

Vermillion, S. Dak 

Yankton, S. Dak 

Alcoa, Term 

.Athens, Tenn 

Brownsville, Tenn 

Clinton, Tenn ., 

Cookeville, Tenn 

Covington, Tenn 

Elizabethton, Tenn 

Erwin, Tenn 

Etowah, Tenn 

Fayetteville, Tenn 

Franklin, Tenn 

Gallatin, Tenn. 

Greeneville, Tenn 

Harriman, Tenn 

Humboldt, Tenn 

Jefferson City, Tenn... 

La Follette, Tenn 

Lawrenceburg, Tenn... 

Lebanon, Tenn 

Lenoir City, Tenn 

Lewisburg, Tenn 

Loudon, Term 

Martin, Tenn 

Milan, Tenn 

Morristown, Tenn 

Mount Pleasant, Tenn. 

Murfreesboro, Tenn 

Newport, Tenn 

Paris, Tenn 

Pulaski, Tenn 

Ripley, Tenn 

Shelby ville, Tenn 

Sparta, Tenn 

Springfield, Tenn 

Sweetwater, Tenn 

Trenton, Temi 

Union City, Tenn 

Winchester, Tenn 

Alamo Heights, Tex 

Alice, Te-x 

Alpine, Tex 

Alvin, Tex 

Aransas Pass, Tex 

Athens, Tex. 

Ballinger, Tex 

Beeville, Tex 

Benavides, Tex 

Bonham, Tex. 

Bowie, Tex.- 

Brady, Tex 

Brockenridge, Tex 

Brenham, Tex 

Brownfiold, Tex 

Burkburnett, Tex 

Canyon, Tex 

Childress, Tex 

Cisco, Tex 

Coleman, Tex 

Commerce, Tex 

Conroe, Tex 

Cooper, Tex.. 

Crockett, Tex.. 

Cuoro, Tex 

Dublin, Tex 

Eagle Pass, Tex 



47 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, Apr. SO, 1947, cities with 
population from. 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued ' 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS-Continued 



City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


Eastland, Tex 


3 
5 
5 
3 
2 
4 

13 
2 
4 
2 

10 
2 
4 
^ 1 
1 
4 
9 
4 
4 
8 
1 
5 

11 
9 
2 
5 
2 
3 
3 
2 

14 
1 
1 
3 
1 

12 
4 
3 
4 
3 
8 
4 
4 
6 

10 
3 

30 
2 

25 
9 
3 

10 
1 
7 
2 
2 
2 
5 
1 
1 
3 
1 
5 
4 
4 
7 
2 
5 
2 

16 
5 

11 

4 


West University Place Tox 


6 
3 
4 
<> 


Edinburg, Tex 


American Fork, Utah ' 


Electra, Tex 




Floydada, Tex .. . . 


Bountiful, Utah ' ' 


Fort Stockton, Tex 


Brigham, Utah 




Freeport, Tex 


Cedar City, Utah 


6 
5 
2 
4 
6 
3 
2 


Gainesville, Tex 


Helper, Utah 


Gatesville, Tex 


Lehi, Utah 


Georgetown, Tex . . . .---.__ 


Midvale, Utah 


Gilmer, Tex . _ . . 


Murray, Utah 


Gladewatei, Tex.. . . ... . __ 


Nephi, Utah 


Gonzales, Tex... .. 


Orem, Utah 


Graham, Tex .... . 


Park City, Utah 


Hamilton. T^x 




3 

7 


Haskell, Tex 


Price, Utah 


Hearne, Tex . . . . ... 


Richfield, Utah 




Henderson, Tex . 


St. George, Utah 


3 


Hillsboro, Tex 


South Salt Lake, Utah 




Hmitsville, Tex 


Spanish Fork, Utah 




Jacksonville, Tex ... .. . . 


Springville, Utah 


3 


Jefferson, Tex . . . ... 


Tooele, Utah . 




Kerrville, Tex 


Bellows Falls, Vt 




Kilgore, Tex 


Bennington, Vt 


5 


Kingsville, Tex 


Brattleboro, Vt 


10 








Lamesa, Tex.. . . . ... 


Newport, Vt .. .. 




Lampasas, Tex. . .... 


St. Albans, Vt 


4 


Levelland, Tex 


St. Johnsburv, Vt 


7 


Littlefield, Tex 


Springfield, Vt 


8 


Llano, Tex .. .... 


Waterbury, Vt 


1 


Lufkin, Tex 


Windsor, Vt 


3 


Luling, Tex .. . . 


Winooski, Vt 


4 


Marfa, Tex 


Abingdon, Va 


5 


Marliii, Tex . ....... 




3 


Mart, Tex 


Anpalachia, Va 


4 


McKlnney, Tex . .._ . ._ . 


Bedford, Va 


7 




Blackstone, Va . 


4 


Mercedes, Tex 


Bristol, Va 


19 


Mexia, Tex . . ... 




5 


Mineola, Tex 


Clifton Forge, Va 


8 


Mineral Wells, Tex 


Colonial Heights, Va-._ .. 


4 


Mission, Tex 


Covington, Va 


6 


Monahans, Tex 


Emporia, Va 






Falls Church, Va. 


7 


New Braunfels, Tex 


Franklin, Va 


7 


Nocona, Tex. . 


Front Royal, Va 


6 


Odessa, Tex .. . 


Galax, Va. .. ...... ... 


6 


Olney, Tex 


Hampton, Va 


17 






17 






13 


Pharr, Tex. ..... 


Lexington, Va 


6 


Plainview, Tex 


7 


Quanah Tex 


Norton, Va ... 


6 




Phoebus, Va . ... . .. 


5 






3 


Robstown Tex 


Pulaski, Va .. . 


12 


Rusk, Tex 


Radford, Va .. .. --. .. .. 


S 


San Diego, Tex 


Salem, Va . 


6 


Seagraves Tex 


Saltville, Va .. .. 


4 


Sinton, Tex 

Slaton, Tex 


South Norfolk, Va 

Vinton, Va. . . . _ . 


12 
3 


Smithville, Tex 

Snyder, Tex 

Stamford, Tex 

Stephenville, Tex 


Virginia Beach, Va 

Waynesboro, Va 


12 

12 


Williamsburg, Va 

Wvtheville, Va 


6 
9 




Anacortes, Wash... ... 


6 


Taft, Tex 


Auburn, Wash 

Camas, Wash __ 


6 


Taylor, Tex 


6 




Centralia. Wash . ... 


11 


Texas City Tex 


Chehalis, Wash 


5 


Uvalde Tex 


Clarkston, Wash 


2 


Vernon, Tex . . 


Colfax, Wash 

Davton, Wash ..... . _.. 


4 


Weatherford Tex 


2 


Weslaco, Tex 


Ellensburg, Wash 


9 



48 

Table 16. — Numher of police department employees, Apr. 30, 1947, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Enumclaw, Wash 

Grand Coulee, Wash 

Kelso, Wash 

Kent, Wash 

Mount Vernon, Wash 

Pasco, Wash 

Port Angeles, Wash 

Port Townsend, Wash 

Pullman, Wash 

Puyallup, Wash 

Raymond, Wash 

Renton, Wash 

Sedro Woolley, Wash 

Shelton, Wash 

Snohomish, Wash 

Toppenish, Wash ... 

Benwood, W. Va 

Charles Town, W. Va 

Dunbar, W. Va 

Elkins, W. Va 

Follansbee, W. Va 

Grafton, W. Va 

Hinton, W. Va 

Keyser, W. Va 

Keystone, W. Va 

Logan, W. Va 

Mannington, W. Va 

McMechen, W. Va 

Montgomery, W. Va 

Mullens, W. Va 

New Martinsville, W. Va. 

Nitro, W. Va 

Piedmont, W. Va 

Point Pleasant, W. Va 

Princeton, W. Va 

Richwood, W. Va 

St. Albans, W. Va 

Salem, W. Va 

Shinnston, W. Va 

Sistersville, W. Va 

Welch, W. Va 

Wellsburg; W. Va 

Weston, W. Va 

Williamson, W. Va 

Algoma, Wis 

Antigo, Wis 

Baraboo, Wis 

Berlin, Wis 

Black River Falls, Wis... 

Burlington, Wis 

Clintonville, Wis 

Columbus, Wis.. 

Delavan, Wis 

De Pere, Wis 

Edgerton, Wis 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



Fort Atkinson, Wis 

Greendale, Wis 

Hartford, Wis 

Hudson, Wis 

Hurley, Wis 

Jefferson, Wis 

Kaukauna, Wis 

Kewaunee, Wis 

Kimberly, Wis 

Ladysmith, Wis 

Lake Geneva, Wis 

Lancaster, Wis 

Little Chute, Wis 

Mauston, Wis 

Mayville, Wis 

Menomonie, Wis 

Merrill, Wis 

Monroe, Wis 

Neillsville, Wis 

New London, Wis 

Oconomowoc, Wis 

Oconto, Wis 

Park Falls, Wis 

Platte ville. Wis 

Plymouth, Wis 

Portage, Wis 

Port Washington, Wis 
Prairie Du Chien, Wis 

Reedsburg, Wis 

Rhinelander, Wis 

Rice Lake, Wis 

Richland Center, Wis. 

Ripon, Wis 

River Falls, Wis 

Shawano, Wis 

Sheboygan Falls, Wis. 

Sparta, Wis 

Spooner, Wis 

Stoughton, Wis 

Sturgeon Bay, Wis 

Tomah, Wis 

Viroqua, Wis 

Waupaca, Wis 

Waupun, Wis 

West Bend, Wis 

West Milwaukee, Wis 
Whitefish Bay, Wis... 

Whitewater, Wis 

Cody, Wyo 

Evanston, Wyo 

Green River, Wyo 

Lander, Wyo 

Rawlins, Wyo 

Riverton, Wyo 

Rock Springs, Wyo... 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



ANNUAL REPORTS 

Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1946 

Crimes against the person were cleared by the poUce in 1946 with 
the arrest of the assailant in 78.9 percent of the cases. This con- 
trasts sharply with a 25.2 percent arrest clearance rate for crimes 
having property as the object. Offenses against the person (criminal 
homicides, rapes, and aggravated assaults) because of their serious- 
ness are generally given concentrated investigative attention by the 
police. I Then, too, the offender is observed in many such cases and 
also the crimes are more promptly discovered in comparison with 
other offenses. 

Robbery is classed as a crime against property but is accomplished 
in the presence of the victim and accordingly has some of the elements 
of a crime against the person. The robbery arrest clearance rate, 
37.1 percent last year, reflects a relationship of this offense to crimes 
against the person. Omitting robbery, 24.8 percent of crimes against 
property were followed by the arrest of the offender. 

However, it is noted that the bulk of police investigations, 94.7 
percent in the cities studied, involved crimes against property result- 
ing in 189,031 offenses of this type being cleared by the arrest of one 
or more of the responsible persons as compared with the clearance of 
32,954 crimes against the person. 

The term ''cleared by arrest" is descriptive of most of the cases 
included under this heading in the Uniform Crime Reporting system. 
Generally, the term means that one or more of the persons responsible 
has been arrested and made available for prosecution. However, 
there is a small portion of police cases involving exceptional situations 
considered as clearing an offense although the offender is not arrested 
and charged with the commission of the offense in the jurisdiction 
where the crime occurred. There are certain specific limitations for 
''exceptional clearances" contained in the Uniform Crime Reportmg 
Handbook, published by the F B I for the guidance of the police in 
preparing the reports. In general, it is required that the identity and 
whereabouts of the offender are established by the police but for 
reasons beyond their control it is not possible to prosecute the respon- 
sible person in the local jurisdiction. 

The recovery of property alone does not warrant the listing of the 
case as cleared by arrest. For example, the police regularly recover 

(49) 



50 

over 90 percent of the automobiles stolen but in 1946 only 28.8 percent 
of such cases were cleared by the arrest of the thieves. 

For comprehensive information concerning the number of offenses 
occurring in 1946, reference may be made to the 1946 annual issue of 
this pubhcation (vol. XVII, No. 2). 

Table 17 presents for 1,466 cities having a combined population of 
46,365,639 the number of offenses cleared by arrest and the number of 
persons charged for each 100 offenses known to the police. The arrest 
of 1 person may clear 1 or many cases while the arrest of several 
persons might clear only 1 case. This should be borne in mind when 
it is noted that the figures for offenses cleared by arrest do not agree 
with those representing persons charged. In the more serious crimes 
against the person and robbery the number of persons charged 
often exceeds the number of offenses cleared. This possibly results 
in part at least from intensified effort in the solving of these cases and 
the apprehending of all participants in the crimes including accessories. 

For negligent manslaughters 115 persons were charged for each 83 
offenses cleared in 1946 in cities with population in excess of 250,000. 
This ratio is brought about by reason of the fact that in some juris- 
dictions all drivers of vehicles involved in traffic fatalities are arrested 
and charged even though it is recognized those not grossly negligent 
will be released when the police investigation establishes that no 
offense occurred. 

In contrast to crimes against the person, the number of offenses 
against property cleared by arrest generally exceeds the number of 
persons charged in these categories. One explanation of this lies in 
the proclivity of perpetrators of such crimes to repeat the same or 
similar crimes. Incidental to the arrest of an offender for a particular 
robbery or other theft, the police often establish the person as responsi- 
ble for other previously unsolved similar crimes through careful 
investigation aided by an effectively operating record system. 

Special questionnaires accompany the annual reports to assist in 
determining the quality of the figures presented and no reports are 
included in these tabulations unless the law-enforcement agency 
indicated that all known offenses in the classifications listed were 
included. Similarly, the figures relating to offenses cleared by arrest 
were properly distinguished from those pertaining to persons arrested, 
according to the police departments represented in the tabulations. 

In order to obtain the highest possible degree of uniformity in the 
published data each annual return was carefully examined and any 
unusual entry made the subject of correspondence in an effort to have 
available a correct report. Letters were sent to 671 of the 1,466 cities 
used in the following tabulation. 



61 





d 






d 



d 

(2 



a 





gj 




V 


^ 


§ 


4-' 


g 


o» 


4-» 


d 


J 


'3 


(/^ 


S 


i;)f 


an 


5 


< 


gj 




(0 


a> 




V 


.^ 




d) 


H-i 




C 








52 

Table 17. — Offenses known, offenses cleared hy arrest, and persons charged (held for 
prosecution) , 1946, by population groups, number per 100 known offenses 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Population group 



TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

1,466 cities; total population, 46,365 
639: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP I 

29 cities over 250,000; total populs 
tion, 18,390,317: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged -- 



45 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total pop- 
ulation, 6,418,183: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP III 

84 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total popu 
lation, 5,835,638: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



159 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total popu- 
lation, 5,499,057: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP V 

404 cities 10,000 to 25,000; total popu 
lation, 6,138,814: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP VI 

745 cities, imder 10,000; total popula 
tion, 4,083,630: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



Criminal 
homicide 


Mur- 




der, 


Man- 


normeg- 


slaugh- 


ligent 


ter by 


man- 


negli- 


slaugh- 


gence 


ter 





100.0 
88.5 
90.1 



100.0 
87.3 
92.7 



100.0 
89.5 
83.7 



100.0 
92.9 
93.8 



100.0 
90.2 
89.4 



100.0 

87.7 
84.8 



100.0 
89.1 
83.2 



100.0 
81.8 



100.0 
82.5 
115.1 



100.0 
80.6 
80.6 



100.0 
79.7 
88.2 



100.0 
77.6 
82.0 



100.0 
92.1 



100.0 
79.4 
82.4 



Rape 



100.0 
74.1 
74.0 



100.0 
70.7 
67.9 



100.0 
71.5 
74.9 



100.0 
83.1 
83.1 



100.0 
81.7 
87.3 



100.0 
78.8 
81.3 



100.0 
77.7 
79.7 



Rob- 
bery 



100.0 
37.1 
36.7 



100.0 
38.5 
34.5 



100.0 
31.1 
31.8 



100.0 
33.6 
39.4 



100.0 
36.5 
44.1 



100.0 
40.7 
50.6 



100.0 
45.7 
52.1 



Aggra- 
vated 



sault 



100.0 

78.7 
76.0 



100.0 

75.7 
65.8 



100.0 
71.5 
71.8 



100.0 
84.0 
86.1 



100.0 
82.1 
95.0 



100.0 
90.8 
94.9 



100.0 
86.1 
91.5 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



100.0 
29.1 
20.4 



100.0 
30.8 
18.5 



100.0 
24.2 
17.3 



100.0 
26.8 
20.2 



100.0 
29.2 
21.6 



100.0 
29.8 
26.3 



100.0 
34.3 
31.8 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



100.0 
22.0 
17.2 



100.0 
23.6 
18.3 



100.0 
19.6 
16.0 



100.0 
21.9 
16.0 



100.0 
19.8 
14.5 



100.0 
21.6 
18.5 



100.0 
25.2 
19.4 



53 




54 

Persons Charged (Held for Prosecution), 1946 

InformatioD relative to persons charged by police in 1946 is con- 
tained in table 18. The data are from 1,466 cities having a combined 
population of 46,365,639. Although a large number of persons were 
charged with comparatively minor violations, the volume of the serious 
charges brought is indicated in the following: 

Murder 2, 681 

Manslaughter . 1, 867 

Robbery 10, 571 

Aggravated assault 23, 646 

Burglary 37, 055 

Larceny 74, 688 

Auto theft 21, 427 

Embezzlement and fraud 8, 563 



Stolen property (receiving, etc.). 4, 418 

Forgery and counterfeiting 5, 493 

Rape 4, 268 

Narcotic drug laws 2, 181 

Weapons (carrying^ etc.) 17, 831 

Offenses against family and 

children 26, 952 

Driving while intoxicated 61, 260 

Figures on persons held for prosecution represent those charged with 
a crime as distinguished from those arrested and later released by the 
police before any formal procedure toward prosecution has been insti- 
tuted. Further information on this distinction in terms is included in 
the discussion of Persons Released. 

The general observation has often been made that the larger the 
city the greater the amount of crime per unit of population and a cor- 
respondmg general picture is seen in examining figures for last year as 
to persons charged. In the individual classifications there are excep- 
tions, of course. Notably, the arrest rates for assault, burglary, lar- 
ceny, auto theft, forgery and counterfeiting, liquor law violations, and 
drunkenness were greater in some small city groups than in the large 
population centers. Arrests for driving while intoxicated were greater 
per unit of population in cities having less than 10,000 inhabitants 
and decreased as the size of the cities increased. 

The basic difi'erence in figures for persons charged and offenses 
known should be considered in any study of table 18. For example, 
under the uniform crime reporting system, two oft'enses of larceny 
committed by one person would be scored as two separate offenses 
known to the police. When the responsible person is arrested and 
charged by the police for the larcenies, only one person charged would 
be shown. Conversely, the burglary of a warehouse by five persons 
would be considered as one offense of burglary and upon the appre- 
hension and charging of the perpetrators, fiYQ persons charged for the 
crime would be indicated. 

Either by correspondence or m the questionnaire which accom- 
panied the annual returns, 93 percent of the 1,466 cities represented 
in the following tabulations indicated their figures on persons charged 
reflected the number of persons arrested as distinguis'hed from the 
number of charges placed against persons arrested; i. e., if on an oc- 
casion of a single arrest a person was charged with burglary and 



55 

Table 18. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1946, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 

gent manslaughter: 
Number of persons 

charged 2,681 

Rate per 100,000- -._ 5.78 

(b) Manslaughter by negli- 

gence: 
Number of persons 

'charged 1,867 

RateperlOO,000.--_ 4.03 

Robbery: 

Number of persons charged _ 10,571 
Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

N umber of persons charged. 23, 646 
Rate per 100,000 51.0 

Other assaults: 

Nnmber of persons charged. 85, 195 
Rate per 100,000 183.7 

Burglary— breaking or enter 
ing: 

Number of persons charged. 37,055 
Rate perlOO,000 79.9 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged. 74, 688 
Rate per 100,000 161. 1 

Autotheft: 

Number of persons charged. 21,427 
Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged. 8, 563 
Rate per 100,000 18.5 

Stolen property; buying, re- 
ceiving, possessing: 
Number of persons charged. 4,418 
Rate per 100,000 9.5 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged. 5, 493 
Rate per 100,000 11. 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 9.21 

Prostitution and commercial 
ized vice: 

Number of persons charged. 26, 658 
Rate per 100,000 57. 5 

Sex offenses (except rape and 
prostitution) : 
Number of persons charged. 21, 094 
Rate per 100,000 45.5 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged. 2, 181 
Rate per 100,000 4. 7 

Weapons; cacrying, possessing 
etc.: 

Number of persons charged. 17, 831 
Rate per 100,000 38.5 

Offenses against family and 
children: 

Number of persons charged. 26, 952 
Rate per 100,000 58.1 

Liquor laws: 

Is umber of persons charged . | 22, 254 
Rate per 100,000 48.0 

Driving while intoxicated: ! 

Number of persons charged. ' 61, 260 
Rate per 100,000 1 132.2 

See footnotes at end of table. 



Total, 

1,406 

cities; 

total pop 

ulation, 

46,365,639 



Group I 



29 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

18,390,3171 



1,477 
8. 03 



991 
5.39 



10, 098 
54.9 



30, 672 
166.8 



14. 151 
76.9 



27, 847 
151.4 



7,766 
42.2 



4, 367 
23.7 



1,915 
10.4 



1,826 
9.9 



2,005 
10.90 



14, 924 
81.2 



7,433 
40.4 



1, 309 
7.1 



8,737 
47.5 



10, 230 
55.6 



5,661 
30.8 



14, 958 
81.3 



Group II 



45 cities, 
100,000 to 

2.50,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
6,418,183 



344 
5.36 



258 
4.02 



1,378 
21.5 



3.076 
47.9 



17, 079 
266.1 



5, 345 
83.3 



11, 797 
183.8 



3,749 

58.4 



1,427 
22.2 



499 



864 
13.5 



652 
10.16 



5, 314 

82.8 



5,184 
80.8 



303 
4.7 



2,389 
37.2 



6.139 
95.7 



4,711 
73.4 



5,670 
88.3 



Group III 



84 ci( ies, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
5,835,638 



302 
5.18 



209 
3.58 



1,113 
19.1 



3,824 
65.5 



12, 154 
208.3 



4.969 
85.1 



9,976 
170.9 



2,191 
37.5 



783 
13.4 



547 
9.4 



694 
11.9 



472 
8.09 



2,787 
47. S 



2,614 
44.8 



275 
4.7 



2,155 
36.9 



3,171 
54.3 



3,076 
52.7 



Group IV 



159 cities, 
25,000 to 

.50,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
5,499,057 



210 
3.82 



187 
3.40 



795 
14.5 



2,846 
51.8 



7, 846 
142.7 



4.244 

77.2 



8, 537 
155.2 



2,471 
44.9 



870 
15.8 



.501 
9.1 



781 
14.2 



400 
7.27 



1, 735 
31.6 



3,025 
55.0 



120 
2.2 



1,878 
34.2 



3,013 

54.8 

2,817 
51.2 

9,683 
176.1 



Group V 



404 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
6,138,814 



234 
3.81 



138 
2.25 



854 
13.9 



2,548 
41.5 



11, 898 
193.8 



4,810 
78.4 



10, 592 
172.5 



2,975 
48.5 



643 
10.5 



605 
9.9 



802 
13.1 



417 
6.79 



1, 263 
20.6 



1,825 
29.7 



113 

1.8 



1,771 
28.8 



3,129 
5L0 



5, 733 

60.8 



2 11, 709 
191.3 



56 



Table 18. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1946, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 





Total, 
1,466 
cities; 
total pop- 
ulation, 
46,365,639 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Offense charged 


29 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion , 

18,390,317 


45 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
6,418,183 


84 cities, 
50,000 to 

100,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
5,835,638 


159 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
5,499,057 


404 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
6,1.38,814 


745 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

4,083,630 


Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 
Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 


37,496,518 
16, 980. 6 

286. 901 
618.8 

1,035,359 
2, 233. 

82, 614 
178.2 

93, 240 
201.1 

209, 746 

452.4 


42,908,764 
17, 348. 3 

114.284 
621.4 

365. 045 
1, 985. 

32. 920 
179.0 

46. 351 
252.0 

74. 265 
403.8 


51,515,917 
24, 291. 5 

38. 668 
602.5 

164. 571 
2, 564. 1 

18, 525 
288.6 

18, 127 
282.4 

33. 158 
516.6 


61,001,788 
17, 628. 2 

35, 236 
603.8 

124. 395 
2,131.6 

11.314 
193. 9 

12, 142 
208.1 

35, 007 
599.9 


7 866, 249 
16, 227. 9 

31, 489 
572.6 

130. 221 
2, 368. 1 

7.345 
133.6 

6.573 
119.5 

26, 703 
485.6 


8 799, 014 
13, 198. 5 

39, 741 
647.4 

146, 010 
2, 378. 5 

6,990 
113.9 

7.662 
124.8 

26, 486 
431.5 


« 404, 786 
9, 957. 


Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged _ 
Rate per 100,000 


27,483 
673.0 


Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged _ 
Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged _ 
Rate per 100,000 . - - 


105, 117 
2,574.1 

5,520 
135.2 


Gambling: 

Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 . . . 


2,385 
58.4 


All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 


14, 127 
345.9 







Footnotes 1-9: The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports from the number of 
cities indicated below: 



Footnotes 


Cities 


Population 


1 .. 


1,465 

403 

1,449 

28 

44 

82 

155 

398 

742 


46, 348, 753 


2 - 


6.121,928 


3 


44,147,439 


4 . ... 


16.766,865 


5 


6, 240, 521 


6 . -- - -. . -- -- 


5, 682, 872 


7 .. 


5, 338, 036 


8 :^:^::: :::::::::::: ::::.:: 


6, 053, 802 


9 .... . . 


4, 065, 343 







larceny, the person was shown as only one person arrested, the entry 
being made opposite burglary. 

It was also determined that all or some of the juveniles arrested 
were included in 89 percent of the reports; all juveniles were said to be 
included in 84 percent of the returns. Of the departments including 
juvenile arrests 98 percent properly included them opposite the classi- 
fication embracing the violations involved (i. e., robbery, auto theft, 
etc.) regardless of the technical charge such as '^juvenile delinquency" 
placed against the juvenile at the time of his arrest and the remaining 
2 percent of the reports included juvenile arrests opposite "all other 
offenses." 

Table 19 shows detailed figures concerning persons charged with (1) 
violations of road and driving laws, (2) parking violations, and (3) 
other traffic and motor vehicle laws, except driving while intoxicated. 
The figures are from 1,321 cities. In the preceding tabulation these 
classifications were consolidated because separate figures were not 



57 



available for all of the cities included. Persons charged with speed- 
ing, reckless driving and other such ''moving violations" are listed in 
the violation of road and driving laws classification. Persons charged 
with other violations not involving the improper handling of an 
automobile, including such violations as improper license, lack of title 
and failure to report accidents are represented in the other violations 
of traffic and motor vehicle laws classification. 

Table 19. — Persons charged (held for 'prosecution), traffic violations, except driving 
ivhile intoxicated, 194^; number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population 
groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Total, 
1,321 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


















cities; 


27 cities 


36 cities. 


73 cities. 


143 cities. 


371 cities, 


6'71 cities 


Offense chai-ged 


total 


over 


100,000 to 


50,000 to 


25,000 to 


10,000 to 


under 


• 


popula- 


250,000; 


250,000; 


100,000; 


50,000; 


25,000; 


10,000; 




tion, 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 




40,663,596 


tion, 


tion, 


tion, 


tion. 


tion. 


tion, 






16,337,105 


4,870,600 


5,107,794 


4,957,721 


5,695,822 


3,694,554 


Road and di'iving laws: 
















Number of persons charged 


1, 572, 686 


892, 703 


175.174 


149, 103 


127. 866 


133, 060 


94, 780 


Rate per 100,000 


3, 867. 6 


5, 464. 3 


3, 596. 6 


2,919.1 


2, 579. 1 


2, 336. 1 


2, 565. 4 


Parking violations: 
















Number of persons charged. 


4. 934, 680 


1, 782. 643 


1.024.276 


729, 430 


582, 543 


572,834 


242, 954 


Rate per 100,000 


12, 135. 4 


10,911. 6 


21,029.8 


14, 280. 7 


11,750. 2 


10, 057. 1 


6, 576. 


Other traffic and motor vehicle 












laws: 
















Number of persons charged. 


334, 334 


160, 058 


31, 045 


43, 623 


34,891 


38. 213 


26, 504 


Rate per 100,000 


822.2 


979.7 


637.4 


854.0 


703. 8 


670.9 


717.4 







Offenses Known, Cleared by Arrest, and Persons Charged and Found 
Guilty, 1946 

The relationship between various types of police statistics can be 
observed in table 20. For each 1,000 crimes against the person in 
1946, the police cleared 749 by the arrest of 636 persons of whom 390 
were found guilty. For each 1,000 property offenses, 245 were 
cleared; 157 persons were charged; and 123 persons found guilty. 
Similar data for the total of all major crimes as a group are as follows: 
1,000 offenses; 272 cleared by arrest; 183 persons charged; and 138 
found guilty. 

In individual crime classes, the number of persons found guilty in 
relation to each 1,000 offenses committed extends from 113 for larceny 
to 500 for murder. 

Tables 20 and 21 indicate that almost 83 percent of all persons 
charged by the police were found guilty, either of the offense charged 
or of a lesser offense. 

In comparing 1946 with 1945, the percentage of persons found guilty 
increased in the majority of the classifications. Decreases were 
moderate except for persons found guilty of murder, rape and narcotic 
drug law violations. Increases were slight except for persons found 
guilty of negligent manslaughter, burglary, embezzlement and fraud, 
receivmg stolen property, and sex offenses. 



58 



PERSONS CHARGED 

AND 

PERCENT FOUND GUILTY 

Calendar Year 1946 
CRIMES AGAINST PERSON 




8,549 



FBI 

GHAUT 



173 CITIES WITH OVER 25,000 INHABITANTS 
TOTAL POPULATION 18,282,145 



Figure 7. 



59 



Among the various charges the percentage of persons found guilty 
of driving while intoxicated was highest, 88.5 percent, while the lowest 
figure for percent found guilty was 43.1 for manslaughter hy negligence. 

Tables 20 and 21 are based on the reports of 173 cities having a 
population above 25,000 with a combined population of 18,282,145. 
Part I and Part II classes of offenses are separated since there is no 
provision for collecting information relative to offenses known for the 
latter type crimes. Certain classifications were combined in these 
tabulations because separate figures were not provided in some of the 
reports used. 

Table 20. — Offenses known, offenses cleared hy arrest, and number of persons found 
guilty, 1946; 173 cities over 25,000 in population 
[Total population, 18,282,145, based on 1940 deceimial census] 



• 
Offense (part I classes) 


Number 

of 
offenses 
known 
to the 
police 


Number 

of 
offenses 
cleared 

by 
arrest 


Number 
of persons 
charged 
(held for 
prosecu- 
tion) 


Number 
found 

guilty of 
offense 

charged 


Number 
found 

guilty of 
lesser 
offense 


Total 

found 

guilty 

(of offense 

charged 

or lesser 

offense) 


Per- 
centage 
found 
guilty 


Total 


342, 704 


93,361 


62, 777 


40, 347 


6,871 


47, 218 


75 2 






Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and normegli- 

gent manslaughter 

(b) Manslaughter by neg- 

ligence,- 

Rape.-- 


1,119 

821 

2,876 

15,610 

13, 859 

78,242 

189, 099 
41,078 


972 

656 

1,979 

5,671 

10, 372 

22, 884 

39, 781 
11,046 


957 

652 

1,720 

4,411 

8,549 

11, 924 

26, 955 
7,609 


433 

196 

719 

2,536 

3,951 

7,859 

19, 866 

4,787 


127 

85 

266 

791 

1,502 

1,742 

1,485 
873 


560 

281 

985 

3,327 

5,453 

9,601 

21,351 
5,660 


58.5 

43.1 
57 3 


Robbery 

Asgravated assault- 


75.4 
63 8 


Burglary— breaking or entering- - 
Larceny— theft (except auto 
theft) . 


80.5 
79 2 


Autotheft- 


74.4 







Table 21. — Number of persons charged {held for prosecution) and number found 

guilty, 1946; 173 cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 18,282,145, based on 1940 decennial census] 



Offense (part II classes) 


Number of 
persons 
charged 
(held for 
prosecu- 
tion) 


Number 
found 

guilty of 
offense 

charged 


Number 
found 

guilty of 
lesser 
offense 


Total found 

guilty (of 

offense 

charged 

or of lesser 
offense) 


Percent- 
age found 
guilty 


Total 


1 3, 579, 408 


1 2, 954, 656 


115,033 


I 2, 969, 689 


183.0 






other assaults. . 


33, 609 
1,809 
4,214 
1,894 
6,978 

20, 304 

14, 285 

1,037 

9,670 

2 465, 472 

34, 772 
19. 601 

3 2, 905, 614 
60, 149 


19, 245 
1,213 
2,375 
1,042 
5,279 

15. 200 

7,829 

686 

8,040 

2 376. 144 

27, 327 

15, 585 

3 2, 433, 449 

41, 242 


655 
162 
296 
70 
223 

512 
273 
23 
125 

2 1, 707 

168 
1,759 

3 8, 029 


19, 900 
1,375 
2,671 

.1,112 
5,502 

15, 712 

8,102 

709 

8,165 

2 377, 851 

27, 495 

17, 344 

3 2, 441, 478 


59.2 


Forgery and counterfeiting 


76.0 


Embezzlement and fraud- ..- , - 


63.4 


Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 


58.7 


Weapons; carryinp', possessing etc 


78.8 


Sex offenses (including prostitution and com- 
mercialized vice) 


77.4 


Offenses a^iainst the family and children 

Narcotic drug laws.- -. .. 


56.7 
68.4 


Liquor laws 


84.4 


Drunkenness; disorderly conduct and vagrancy- 
Gambling . 

Driving while intoxicated 


2 81.2 
79.1 
88.5 


Traffic and motor vehicle laws -. . -- -- 


3 84.0 


All other offenses .. --- 


1,031 42,273 1 70.3 








1 





1 The total figures are subject to footnotes 2 and 3. 

2 Based on the reports of 172 cities, total population, 18,249,813. 

3 Based on the reports of 168 cities, total population, 16,281, 620. 



60 



PERSONS CHARGED 

AND 

PERCENT FOUND GUILTY 

Calendar Year 1946 
CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY 



ROBBERY 




FBI 

CHART 



173 CITIES WITH OVER 25,000 INHABITANTS 
TOTAL POPULATION 18,282,145 



Figure 8. 



61 

Persons Released Without Being Held for Prosecution, 1946 

The number of persons arrested by the pohce who are released 
without a formal charge having been filed against them are repre- 
sented in the annual reports. Thus, the number of persons released 
and the number of persons charged reflect the total arrest activity 
of the police department based on violations occurring in the reporting 
jurisdiction. To eliminate duplication a police department does not 
mclude arrests for other authorities since those police agencies would 
properly include such arrests in their reports. 

The figures on persons released include persons arrested for a viola- 
tion and then released with a reprimand or on the ''golden rule" 
principle as well as youthful offenders where the circumstances 
mdicated prosecution would not be the most appropriate handling. 
The data also represent persons arrested for the suspected commission 
of some crime but who were later released when the police invest^iga- 
tion exonerated them or the available evidence did not justify the 
filing of formal charges. 

Persons summoned, notified, or cited to appear in court or at the 
police department for alleged traffic violations who failed to appear 
and who were not subsequently arrested are included. 

Table 22 is based on the reports of 852 cities with a combined 
population of almost 25 million. Keports reflecting no entries for 
persons released or apparently incomplete or incorrect figures were 
excluded. Accordingly, the number of cities represented in table 22 
is smaller than those shown in table 18 showing persons charged. 

Only 570 of the 852 cities represented in table 22 hsted separate 
figures for road and driving laws, parking violations, and other traffic 
and motor vehicle laws. Accordingly, these classifications were com- 
bined m table 22 but the itemized data are presented in table 23. 

Figures for persons released are shown in tables 22 and 23 for cities 
grouped by size, together with the rate per 100,000 inhabitants. 



62 



Table 22. — Persons released witliout being held for prosecution, 1946; number and 
rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decermial census] 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 

gent manslaughter: 
Number of persons 

released 

Rate per 100,000 

(b) Manslaughter by negli- 

gence: 
Number of persons 

released .... 

Rate per 100,000-.-. 
Robbery: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary— breaking or enter- 
ing: 

Number of personsreleased. 

Rate per 100,000. 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Autotheft: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons released^ 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiv- 
ing, possessing: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 ^ 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of personsreleased. 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and 
prostitution): 

Num ber of person s released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 
etc.: 

Number of persons released- 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and 
children: 

N umber of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons releaf:ed. 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 



Total, 
852 cities; 
total 
popula- 
tion, 
24,952,558 



Group I 



414 



265 
1.06 



7.9 



7.4 



21.3 



4,911 
19.7 



10, 349 
41.5 



2,747 
11.0 



732 
2.9 



563 
2.3 



600 
2.4 



603 
2.42 



6,871 
27.5 



1,291 
5.2 



171 

.7 



,179 
4.7 



5.1 



826 
3.3 



3.6 



18 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

8,928,521 



157 
1.76 



99 
1.11 



978 
11.0 



1.021 
11.4 



2,714 
30.4 



1,494 
16.7 



3,636 
40.7 



998 
11.2 



277 
3.1 



149 
1.7 



138 
1.5 



289 
3.24 



400 
■1.7 



328 
3.7 



82 



541 
6.1 



132 
1.5 



342 



135 
1.5 



Group II 



21 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
2.835,253 



59 
2.08 



351 
12.4 



240 

8.5 



455 
16.0 



675 
23.8 



952 
33.6 



478 
16.9 



49 
1.7 



2.2 



104 
3.67 



165 
5.8 



365 
12.9 



162 

5.7 



169 
6.0 



51 
1.8 



49 
1.7 



Group III 



50 cities, 
50,000 to 

100,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
3.457,749 



87 
2.52 



45 
1.30 



176 
5.1 



128 
3.7 



517 
15.0 



16.5 



1,138 
32.9 



Group IV 



221 
6.4 

57 



70 
2.0 



63 



36 
1.04 



49 
1.4 



129 
3.7 



10 



97 



91 
2.6 



49 
1.4 



140 
4.0 



108 cities 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
3,717,990 



13 
0.35 



190 
5.1 



194 

5.2 



379 
10.2 



575 
15.5 



1,193 
32.1 



Group V 



243 cities 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
3,686,195 



90 
2.44 



39 
1.06 



167 
4.5 



162 
4.4 



786 
21.3 



902 
24.5 



266 
7.2 


380 
10.3 


116 
3.1 


107 
2.9 


97 
2.6 


104 
2.8 


65 
1.7 


176 
4.8 


54 
1.45 


72 
1.95 


27 

.7 


144 
3.9 


194 
5.2 


167 
4.5 


2 
.1 


15 

.4 


99 
2.7 


176 
4.8 


246 
6.6 


271 

7.4 


117 
3.1 


143 
3.9 


142 
3.8 


274 

7.4 



63 

Table 22. — Persons released withmd being held for prosecution, 1946; nurnher and 
rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 



Offense charged 



TraflBc and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons released _ 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons 

Rate per 100,000... 
Suspicion: 

Number of persons 

Rate per 100,000 

All other ofTenses: 

N umber of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 



Total, 
852 cities; 
total 
popula- 
tion, 
24,952.558 



1 442. 718 
1,927.8 



11,325 

45.4 



77, 872 
312.1 



33.3 



1.3 



93, 263 
373.8 



27, 243 



Group I 



18 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

8,928,521 



2 95. 255 
1, 304. 



3. 731 
41.8 



40, 441 
452. 9 



2,142 
24.0 



5,310 
59.5 



48, 683 
545.3 



11, 555 
129.4 



Group II 



21 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
2,835,2.53 



3 47. 372 
1, 799. 9 



589 
20.8 



12, 876 
454. 1 



1,120 
39.5 



33 

1.2 



8,924 
314.8 



1,840 
64.9 



Group III 



50 cities, 
50,000 to 

100,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
3,457,749 



4 87. 217 
2, 574. 6 



1,165 
33.7 



5.196 
150. 3 



425 
12.3 



182 
5.3 



12, 248 
354.2 



2,495 
72.2 



Group IV 



108 cities, 
25,000 to 
60,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
3,717,990 



5 61. 770 
1. 683. 9 



34.9 



6.028 
162.1 



2,292 
61.6 



212 
5.7 



8,852 
238.1 



Group V 



243 cities, 
10,000 to 
2,5,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
3,686,195 



6 93. 751 
2. 569. 5 



2.430 
65.9 



6.455 
175. 1 



1,079 
29.3 



244 



9,413 
255.4 



3,655 
99.2 



Group VI 



412 cities 
under 
10,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,326,850 



^ 57, 353 
2, 468. 5 



2,114 
90.9 



295.5 



1,241 
53.3 



87 
3.7 



5.143 
221.0 



4,010 
172.3 



Footnotes 1-7: The number of persons released and the rate are based on the reports from the number of 
cities indicated below: 



Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


1 

2 


844 
17 
20 
49 
107 
240 
411 


22, 964, 730 
7, 305, 069 


3 


2 631 912 


4 


3, 387, 565 


5 . . 


3, 668, 204 


6 


3 648 550 


7 


2, 323, 430 







Table 23. — Persons released without being held for prosecution, traffic violations, 
except driving while intoxicated, 1946; number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, 
by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Total, 
570 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
14, 995, 306 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Greup IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Offense charged 


12 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

4,816,428 


10 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,306,644 


35 cities, 
50,000 to 
100.000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,453,086 


65 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,249,472 


173 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,617,399 


275 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

1,552,277 


Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000. 


33, 218 
221.5 

357, 919 
2, 386. 9 

24, 224 
161.5 


14, 490 
300.8 

70, 196 
. 1,457.4 

10, 569 
219.4 


1,263 
96.7 

27,044 
2, 069. 7 

1,133 

86.7 


4.849 
197.7 

79, 222 
3, 229. 5 

3,146 
128.2 


1,963 
87.3 

52, 230 
2, 321. 9 

3,303 
146.8 


4.846 
185.1 

80, 781 
3, 086. 3 

3.164 
120.9 


5,807 
374.1 


Parking violations: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


48, 446 
3,121.0 


Other traffic and motor vehicle 
laws: 
Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


2,909 

187.4 







64 

Offenses Known, Cleared by Arrest, and Persons Charged, by Geographic 
Divisions, 1946 

Since a variance in the amount of crime per unit of population is 
observed in cities of different sizes and between different sections of 
the country, corresponding variations are to be expected in the arrest 
data from cities in the several geographic divisions. Offenses cleared 
and persons charged information by population groups appears in 
tables 17 and 18. The identical 1,466 cities are again represented in 
tables 24 and 25 grouped by geographic divisions. On the basis of 
such average figures, local figures can be examined in light of the 
experience of other cities in the same section of the country. 

A comparison of local figures relating to offenses known and per- 
sons charged is particularly relevant when the averages are localized 
in a particular geographic area. 

Caution should be exercised in comparisons, however. The charge 
placed against an offender in a particular community may not follow 
a theoretically logical course. Local custom growing out of public 
opinion and established policies of the prosecuting attorneys, judges 
and other officials may cause the police, of necessity, to adhere to a 
given course in bringing charges for certain violations. 'For example, 
a person arrested for auto theft may be charged in a particular juris- 
diction with using an automobile without the consent of the owner, 
while persons arrested for drunkenness may be charged with dis- 
orderly conduct. 

A similar situation exists in the figures concerning prostitution and 
commercialized vice. Persons arrested for such violations in some 
jurisdictions may be charged with disorderly conduct, vagrancy, or 
sex offenses such as lewd and lascivious conduct, fornication, or 
adultery. For the indicated reasons, the prostitution and commer- 
cialized vice figures are conservative, since persons charged are listed 
opposite the oft'ense class embracing the charge actually filed against 
the offender. 



65 



Table 24. — Nuviher of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared by 
arrest, 1946, by geographic divisions 
[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Criminiil hom- 
icide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Geographic division 


Mur- 
der, 
nomieg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


TOTAL, ALL DIVISIONS 


















1,466 cities; total population, 
46,365,639: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


2,974 
2,833 

88.5 


1,900 

1,555 
81.8 


5,767 

4,275 

74.1 


28, 787 

10,691 

37.1 


31,119 
24, 491 

78.7 


181,283 

52, 672 

29 1 


434, 948 

95, 739 

22.0 


104, 098 

29,929 

28.8 


New England States 


















143 cities; tot'al population, 5,042,035: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared, by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


75 

71 

94.7 


150 

129 

86.0 


389 

356 

91.5 


1,081 

470 

43.5 


716 

623 

87.0 


14,874 
5,011 
33.7 


29, 842 

8,140 

27.3 


8, 650 
4,168 
48.2 


Middle Atlantic States 


















364 cities; total population, 9,471,782: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


319 
283 

88.7 


335 
311 
92.8 


693 

595 

85.9 


2,871 
1,057 
36.8 


3,256 
2,610 
80.2 


23,496 
7,251 
30.9 


41,889 

10,512 

25.1 


14,655 

5,060 

34.5 


East North Central States 


















368 cities; total population, 14,748,652: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


771 

633 

82.1 


442 
318 
71.9 


2,162 
1,437 
66.5 


11,269 
4,399 
39.0 


8,545 

6,037 

70.6 


53, 586 

16, 592 

31.0 


133, 302 

28, 261 

21.2 


26, 106 

7,353 
28.2 


West North Central States 


















163 cities; total population, 4,527.232: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


221 

212 

95.9 


164 

131 

79.9 


517 
399 

77.2 


1,881 
841 
44.7 


2,327 

1,743 

74.9 


13,375 

3,872 

28.9 


38, 019 

8,950 

23.5 


8,624 

2,220 

26.0 


South Atlantic States 


















118 cities; total population, 3,776,476: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


657 

614 

93.5 


190 

164 

86.3 


587 
508 
86.5 


2,834 
1,287 
45.4 


8,398 

7,199 

85.7 


17, 641 

5,469 

31.0 


42, 439 

12,418 

29.3 


11,791 

2,573 

21.8 


East South Central States 


















32 cities; total population, 1,132,362: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


182 

158 

86.8 


81 

73 

90.1 


123 

96 

78.0 


1,144 
382 
33.4 


1,801 
1,446 
80.3 


6,633 
1,604 
24.2 


10, 704 
2,662 
24.9 


3,308 

854 

25.8 


West South Central States 


















68 cities; total population, 3,058,692: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


509 

453 

89.0 


193 
156 

80.8 


381 
311 

81.6 


2,161 

925 

42.8 


3,323 
2,935 
88.3 


19, 056 
5,432 
28.5 


45, 577 

10, 466 

23.0 


9,306 
2,717 
29.2 


Mountain States 


















57 cities; total population, 1,061,632: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


63 

56 

88.9 


46 

39 

84.8 


207 

128 

61.8 


918 

324 

35.3 


542 

423 

78.0 


6,822 
1,933 
28.3 


20, 053 

4,047 

20.2 


3,535 
1.279 
36.2 


Pacific States 


















153 cities; total population, 3,546,776: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


177 

153 

86.4 


299 

234 

78.3 


708 

445 

62.9 


4,628 
1,006 
21.7 


2,211 

1.475 
66.7 


25, 800 
5,508 
21.3 


73, 123 

10, 283 

14.1 


18, 217 

3,705 

20.3 



66 






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DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

Source of Data 

Tke FBI examined 371,228 arrest records, as evidenced by finger- 
print cards, during the first 6 months of 1947, in order to obtain 
data concerning the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of 
persons represented. The compilation has been limited to instances 
of arrests for violations of State laws and municipal ordinances. In 
other words, fingerprint cards representing arrests for violations of 
Federal laws or representing commitments to any type of penal insti- 
tution have been excluded from this tabulation. 

The number of fingerprint records examined exceeded the 309,302 
handled for the first 6 months of 1946 by 20.0 percent. The tabula- 
tion of data from fingerprint cards obviously does not include all per- 
sons arrested, since there are individuals taken into custody for whom 
no fingerprint cards are forwarded to Washington. Furthermore, data 
pertaining to persons arrested should not be treated as information 
regarding the number of offenses committed, since two or more persons 
may be involved in the joint commission of a single offense, and on 
the other hand one person may be arrested and charged with the 
commission of several separate crimes. 
Offense Charged 

More than 41 percent (155,206) of the records examined during the 
first 6 months of 1947 represented arrests for major violations. Per- 
sons charged with murder, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, and 
auto theft numbered 107,572, constituting 29.0 percent of the total 
arrest records examined. 
Sex 

Marked increases were noted in both male and female arrests during 
the first 6 months of 1947 as compared with the same period of 1946. 
Arrests of males increased from 276,621 to 333,403, or 20.5 percent, 
while female arrest prints showed an increase of 15.7 percent (from 
32,681 to 37,825). 

Most of the increases among males were for those age 18 and over 
with the heaviest increases in the group from age 18 through age 24. 
The majority of the increases in female arrests were for the age groups 
over 21 with the group over 25 showing the most pronounced rise. 
Age 

As in the past, youthful offenders were heavily represented in the 
fingerprint records examined. Persons under 21 years of age arrested 
during the first half of 1947 numbered 62,904, or 16.9 percent of the 
total arrests. In addition, there were 65,819 (17.7 percent) between 

(68) 



69 



Table 26. — Distribution of arrests by sex, January-June 1947 



Offense charged 



Total 

Criminal homicide 

Robbery -. 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Autotheft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children... 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws... 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion. 

Not stated 

All other offenses 



Number 



Total 



371,228 



3,345 
11,572 
28, 284 

20, 936 
33, 659 

9,776 

8,747 

1,797 

517 

4,336 

4,785 

5,228 

8,622 

1,561 

6,577 

6,588 

3.687 

19, 314 

3,634 

48 

3,691 

24. 885 

86, 258 

21, 389 
8.184 

24, 051 
3,533 



Male 



333, 403 



2,961 

11,105 

25, 804 

20, 373 

29, 529 

9,557 

7,857 

1,626 

462 

3,789 

4.785 

2,147 

6,851 

1,411 

6,292 

6,191 

3,083 

18,571 

3,567 

48 

3,503 

21,613 

78, 454 

17.544 

7,593 

21,584 

3,117 

13,986 



Female 



37, 825 



384 
467 

2,480 
563 

4,130 
219 
890 
171 
55 
547 



3, 081 

1,771 

150 

285 
397 
604 
743 
67 



3.272 
7.804 
3,845 

591 
2,467 

416 
2,338 



Percent 



Total 



100.0 



.9 
8.1 
7.6 
5.6 
9.0 
2.6 
2.4 

.5 

,1 
1.2 
1.3 
1.4 
2.3 

.4 
1.8 
1.8 
1.0 
6.2 
1.0 
0) 
1.0 
6.7 
23.2 
5.8 
2.2 
6.5 
1.0 
4.4 



Male 



100.0 



3.3 
7.7 
6.1 
8.8 
2.9 
2.4 

.5 

.1 
1.1 
1.4 

.6 
2.1 

.4 
1.9 
1.9 

.9 
5.6 
1.1 
(1) 
1.1 
6.5 
23.5 
5.3 
2.3 
6.5 

.9 
4.2 



Female 



100.0 



1.0 
1.2 
6.6 
1.5 
10.9 
.6 
2.4 
.5 
.1 
1.4 



8.1 
4.7 
.4 
.8 
1.0 
1.6 
2.0 
.2 



.2 
8.7 
20.6 
10.1 
1.6 
6.5 
1.1 



Less than one-tenth of 1 percent. 



the ages of 21 and 24, making a total of 128,723 (34.7 percent) less 
than 25 years old. Arrests of persons 25 to 29 years old numbered 
59,720 (16.1 percent). The resultant total is 188,443 (50.8 percent) 
less than 30 years of age. It should be remembered that the number 
of arrest records is doubtless incomplete in the lower age groups 
because of the practice of some jurisdictions not to fingerprint youthful 
offenders. 

During the first half of 1947 there were 91,340 persons of all ages 
arrested for robbery, burglary, larceny, auto theft, embezzlement, 
fraud, forgery, counterfeiting, receiving stolen property, and arson; 
and 27,550 (30.2 percent) of those persons were less than 21 years old. 

The extent of the participation of youths in the commission of crimes 
against property is further indicated by the following figures : During 
the first half of 1947, 34.7 percent of all persons arrested were less than 
25 years of age; however, persons less than 25 years old numbered 56.1 
percent of those charged with robbery, 61.0 percent of those charged 
with burglary, 46.0 percent of those charged with larceny, and 74.1 
percent of those charged with auto theft. More than one-half (50.9 
percent) of all crimes against property during the fii'st half of 1947 were 
committed by persons under 25 years of age. 

Age 21 predominated among the male arrests followed by ages 22 
and 23, and age 22 among the females with ages 23 and 21 next. 



70 






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71 



Table 28. — Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 

January-June 1947 



25 years of age, 



Offen?e charged 



Total- 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering. 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiv- 
ing, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 

etc 

Offenses against family and 

children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle 

laws 

D isorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 



Total 
number 
of persons 
arrested 



371. 



3,345 
11. 572 
28. 284 

20. 936 
33, 659 

9,776 
8,747 

1,797 

517 

4,336 

4,785 

5,228 
8,622 
1,561 

6,577 

6.588 
3.687 
19, 314 
3.634 

48 

3,591 
24, 885 
86, 258 

21. 389 
8,184 

24. 051 
3,533 
16, 324 



Number 

under 18 

years of 

age 



19,261 



119 

845 

670 

4.053 

3.328 

1,947 



72 

45 

206 



80 

218 

21 

410 

32 

39 
102 
116 

1 

124 
734 
509 
957 
64 

1,966 
129 

1,990 



Number 

under 21 

years of 

age 



62, 904 



415 
3. 339 
3. 380 

8.528 

8. 952 

4,787 

760 

326 

106 

752 

1, 349 

.551 
1, 123 

267 



326 

384 

1, 101 



705 
3,803 
4,918 
3,899 

376 
5,742 

572 
4,371 



Total 

number 

under 25 

years of 

age 



3,723 



1,015 
6.494 
8, 615 
12. 769 
15. 481 
7. 242 
2, 120 

595 

195 

1.610 

2.422 

1.861 

2. 805 
575 

2,797 

1,278 
907 

3. 9.55 
1,621 

19 

1, 539 
9, 093 

15, 060 
7,797 
1,199 

10. 939 
1.193 
7.527 



Percent- 
age under 
18 years 
of age 



5.2 



3.6 
7.3 
2.4 

19.4 
9.9 

19.9 
1.7 

4.0 
8.7 
4.8 
7.1 

1.5 
2.5 
1.3 

6.2 

.5 
1.1 

.5 
3.2 
2.1 

3.5 
2.9 

.6 
4.5 

.8 
8.2 
3.7 
12.2 



Percent- 
age under 
21 years 
of age 



16.9 



12.4 
28.9 
12.0 
40.7 
26.6 
49.0 
8.7 

18.1 
20.5 
17.3 
28.2 

10.5 
13.0 
17.1 

20.9 



10.4 
5.7 
19.1 
10.4 

19.6 
15.3 

5.7 
18.2 

4.6 
23.9 
16.2 
26.8 



Total 
percent- 
age under 
25 years 

of age 



34.7 



30.3 
56.1 
30.5 
61.0 
46.0 
74.1 
24.2 

33.1 

37.7 
37.1 
50.6 

35.6 
32.5 
36.8 

42.5 

19.4 
24.6 
20.5 
44.6 
39.6 

42.9 
36.5 
17.5 
36.5 
14.7 
45.5 
33.8 
46.1 



Criminal Repeaters 

Of the 371,228 arrest records examined, 202,678 (54.6 percent) 
represented persons who ah'eady had fingerprmt cards on file in the 
Identification Division of the FBI. For males the percentage 
having prior records was 55.9 and for females the percentage was 42.8. 
These figures pertain to fingerprint arrest records and in no way 
relate to the civil identification files of the FBI. 

For males and females combined, the percentage with a prior 
fingerprint record was 17.3 at age 15, and 40.2 at age 20. For males, 
the percentage was 17.7 at age 15 and 40.7 at age 20, wdiile for females, 
the percentage with prior fingerprint records was 13.2 at age 15 and 
36.7 at age 20. 

Race 

Most of the persons represented in this study were members of the 
white and Negro races. Including Mexicans, who numbered 9,749, 
members of the white race represented 271,738 of the 371,228 arrest 
records received, while 94,853 were Negroes, 2,800 were Indians, 
194 Chinese, 93 Japanese, and 1,550 were representatives of other 
races. 



OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in part I and 
part II offenses, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 
Part I Offenses 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter includes all 
wilful felonious homicides as distinguished from deaths caused by negligence. 
Does not include attempts to kill, assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, or 
justifiable homicides. Justifiable homicides excluded from this classification are 
limited to the following types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon by a peace officer 
in line of (iuty; (2) the killing of a hold-up man by a private citizen. (6) Man- 
slaughter by negligence includes any death which the police investigation estab- 
lishes was primarily attributable to gross negligence on the part of some individual 
other than the victim. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape (no force used — victim under 
age of consent), assault to rape, and attempted rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as strong-arm robbery, stick-ups, 
robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assaidt. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by the use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering.- — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or a theft, even though no force 
was used to gain entrance. Includes attempts. Burglary followed by larceny 
is included in this classification and not counted again as larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft) .^ — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value; 
(6) under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of the property stolen, thefts of bicycles, automobile accessories, 
shoplifting, pocket-picking, or any stealmg of property or article of value which 
is not taken by force and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, 
"con" games, forgery, worthless checks, etc. 

7. Aido theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven away 
and abandoned, including the so-called joy-riding thefts. Does not include taking 
for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unauthorized use by 
those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which is 
made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false pretenses. 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those offenses . 

(73) 



74 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.- — Includes all violations of regulations 
or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing, and manufac- 
turing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes 
or regulations. 

13.- Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commer- 
cialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as prostitution, keeping 
bawdy house, procuring, transporting, or detaining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice). — In- 
cludes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

15. Offenses against the faintly and children. — Includes offenses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws.- — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, sale, or use. Excludes Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws.- — With the exception of "drunkenness" (class 18) and "driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations. State or local, are placed in 
this class. Excludes Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness: — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regulations with 
respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses.- — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion: — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters, but not in connection with any specific offense, who are released with- 
out fonnal charges being placed against them. 

o 



^ 



ft- 



^dS'B' S7 



UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

WASHINGTON, D. C 



Volume XVIII 
ANNUAL BULLETIN 



Number 2 
1947 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume XVIIl— Number 2 
ANNUAL BULLETIN, 1947 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C, 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON i 1948 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DUCUMCNtt 

APR 1 1948 

Contents 



Page 

Summary of volume XVIII, No. 2 . 75-76 

Classification of offenses 76-77 

Extent of reporting area ^ 77 

Monthly reports: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population 

(table 29) 78-79 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police (tables 30-31) 80-88 

Monthly variations, offenses known to the poHce (table 32) 89-91 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location 

(tables 33-35) 92-95 

Offenses in individual cities over 25,000 in population (table 36) 96-103 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 37-39) 103-105 

Rural crime rates (table 40) 106 

Rural crime trends (table 41) _ 107-108 

Offenses known in Territories and possessions (table 42) 109 

Estimated number of major crimes (table 43) 110-112 

Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1947: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 44) 113-115 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 45-46) 116-119 

Percentage with previous fingerprint records (table 47) 119-121 

Race distribution of persons arrested (table 48) 121-122 

Definition of part I and part II offense classifications 123-124 

Index to volume XVIII 125-126 

(II) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department of 
Justice, Washington, D. C. 



Volume XVIII January 1948 Number 2 

SUMMARY 

Annual Crime Trends 

Compared with prewar figures, urban crime in 1947 was still high 
with rape and aggravated assault 48.3 percent and 59.5 percent over 
the average for 1938-41. Nineteen forty-seven urban crime exceeded 
prewar average figures in other categories as follows: Murder, 15.4 
percent; burglary, 15.3 percent; robbery, 14.6 percent; larceny, 2.6 
percent; negligent manslaughter, 2.1 percent; and auto theft, 1.9 
percent. 

Compared with 1946, urban crime increased in only two categories, 
rape (+2.9 percent) and aggravated assault (+3.3 percent). The 
decreases from the 1946 figures were larceny, 2.3 percent; burglary, 
3.7 percent; robbery, 5.5 percent; murder, 5.9 percent; negligent 
manslaughter, 8.9 percent; and auto theft, 20.7 percent. 

In the rural areas increases were registered in 1947 over 1946 in 
each offense class except criminal homicide and auto theft. Kapes 
increased 15.7 percent; burglaries, 13.7 percent; larcenies, 10.6 per- 
cent; aggravated assaults, 10.9 percent; and robberies, 1.9 percent. 
Murders decreased 3.7 percent and negligent manslaughters, 0.9 
percent. Auto thefts were off 15.1 percent. 

The figures for crime as a total show a 7.1 percent increase in the 
rural areas and a 5.1 percent decrease in the cities, while for the Na- 
tion as a whole it is estimated that the grand total for 1946 remained 
substantially unchanged in 1947. 
Crime Rates, 1947 

Cities with over 100,000 inhabitants reported more crime per unit 
of population than the smaller communities in 1947. Exceptions to 
this general rule were noted in the aggravated assault and larceny 
classifications, since cities with population from 50,000 to 100,000 
reported more aggravated assaults per hundred thousand inhabitants 
than the larger communities and a higher larceny rate than cities 
with population in excess of 250,000. 
Value of Property Stolen and Recovered, 1947 

Over 60 percent of stolen property was recovered by the police in 
1947. The figure for stolen automobiles based on values was 92.6 

(75) 



76 

percent and for other types of property as follows: Clothing, 24.7 
percent; jewelry, 21.3 percent; money, 14.7 percent; furs, 9.2 percent; 
and miscellaneous property, 31.9 percent. 
Estimated Number of Major Crimes 

.An estimated total of 1,665,110 serious crimes were committed in 
the United States in 1947, or one every 18.9 seconds. With the pass- 
ing of each hour on the average 12 persons were raped, feloniously 
assaulted, or killed, and during the same period 49 others were robbed 
or had their places burglarized while the cars of 21 others were stolen. 
In addition, there were 108 miscellaneous larcenies committed each 
average hour. 
Monthly Variations in Crime 

The seasonal fluctuation in crimes for 1947 was similar to that 
reported in prior years. Robberies, burglaries, and auto thefts were 
least frequent during the warm summer months and most prevalent 
during the colder seasons when the nights were longer. Robberies 
and burglaries both showed highest frequency in January. Auto 
thefts and larcenies were most frequent in April and October, respec- 
tively. Murders, rapes, and aggravated assaults were least frequent 
in February and rose to peaks during the summer months as follows: 
Murders in July, aggravated assaults in August, and rapes in Sep- 
tember. Negligent manslaughters followed the general trend of 
traffic fatalities, being least frequent in the summer and highest 
during the winter months. 
Persons Arrested, 1947 

During 1947, fingerprint arrest records received at the FBI 
totaled 734,041, the largest number since the tabulation of such data 
first began in 1932. Age 21 predominated among the single-age 
groups. Arrests of males under 21 increased 10.5 percent over the 
figures for 1946 and arrests of girls under 21 declined 6.6 percent. Of 
the total arrest records received, 55.4 percent represented persons 
who already had fingerprint arrest records on file at the FBI. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term * 'offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to the 
police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting or 
court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following group 
of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be those most 
generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal homicide, 
including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (6) manslaugh- 
ter by negligence ; rape ; robbery ; aggravated assault ; burglary — break- 
ing or entering ; larceny — theft ; and auto theft. The figures contained 



77 



herein include also the number of attempted crimes of the designated 
classes. In other words, an attempted burglary or robbery, for ex- 
ample, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner as if the crime 
had been completed. Attempted murders, however, are reported as 
aggravated assaults. 

''Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the law-enforce- 
ment agencies of contributing communities and not merely arrests or 
cleared cases. Offenses committed by juveniles are included in the 
same manner as those known to have been committed by adults, 
regardless of the prosecutive action. Complaints which upon inves- 
tigation are learned to be groundless are not included in the tabula- 
tions which follow. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions of 
part I and II offense classifications. 

EXTENT OF REPORTING AREA 

In the table which follows there is shown the number of police 
departments from which one or more crime reports were received 
during the calendar year 1947. Information is presented for the 
cities divided according to size, and the population figures employed 
are from the 1940 decennial census. 



Population group 


Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 


Cities filing returns 


Total 
population 


Population represented 
in returns 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


1,079 


1,040 


96.4 


62, 737, 577 


62, 182, 974 


99.1 


1. Cities over 250,000 


37 

55 
107 
213 
667 


37 

55 

107 

213 

628 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
94.2 


30, 195, 339 
7, 792, 650 
7, 343, 917 
7, 417, 093 
9, 988, 578 


30, 195. 339 
7, 792, 650 
7, 343, 917 
7, 417, 093 
9, 433, 975 


100.0 


2 Cities 100 000 to 250.000 


100.0 


3. Cities 50,000 to 100,000 


100.0 


4 Cities 25,000 to 50,000 


100.0 


5. Cities 10,000 to 25,000 


94.4 







Note.— The above table does not include 2,125 cities, villages, and rural townships aggregatmg a total 
population of 10,594,341. The cities and villages included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 population 
filing returns, whereas the rural townships are of varying population groups. 

In addition to the 3,165 city and village police departments which 
forwarded crime reports during 1947, one or more reports were 
received during the year from 2,376 sheriffs and State police organiza- 
tions and from 11 agencies in Territories and possessions of the 
United States, making a grand total of 5,552 agencies contributing 
crime reports to the FBI during 1947. 



MONTHLY REPORTS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population 

Over 90 percent of the urban population of the United States is 
represented by law enforcement agencies whose reports were used in 
preparing the urban crime rate tabulations in this issue of the bulletin. 
The crime reports received are carefully examined and any apparent 
discrepancies or any indications of a misunderstanding as to the pro- 
cedure to be followed in preparing reports are made the subject of 
correspondence. Special agents of the FBI are in contact from time 
to time with the contributing law-enforcement agencies, and in addi- 
tion the larger places are contacted personally by representatives 
of the FBI with special training and experience in uniform crime 
reporting for the purpose of being of all possible assistance to the local 
law-enforcement agencies in connection with the preparation of the 
uniform crime reports. 

Again in 1947, cities with over 100,000 inhabitants reported more 
crime per unit of population than the smaller communities. Excep- 
tions to this general rule are found in the aggravated assault and 
larceny classifications. Cities with population from 50,000 to 100,000 
reported more aggravated assaults per 100,000 inhabitants than the 
larger communities and a higher larceny rate than cities with popula- 
tion in excess of 250,000. 

Although less than 6 percent of the crimes reported by the cities 
represented in table 29 were offenses against the person, it should be 
observed that these communities reported 7,101 criminal homicides, 
8,615 rapes and 49,291 offenses of assault with intent to kill. Three 
and one-half percent of the offenses reported were robberies, 10.8 
percent were auto thefts, 23.1 percent were burglaries, and 56.9 
percent of the offenses reported were larcenies. 

(T8) 



79 



Table 29. — Offenses known to the police, 1947; number and rate per 100,000 
inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Population group 



TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

2,392 cities; total population, 
280,062: 
Number of offenses known. 
Rate per 100,000_-- 



• GROUP I 

3 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 29,894,166: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP n 

55 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,792,650: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



107 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 7,343,917: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



211 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total popu- 
lation, 7,344,474: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000-.- 



566 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total popu- 
lation, 8,532,054: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



1,417 cities under 10,000; total popu- 
lation, 7,372,801: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000- 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



4.178 
6.12 



2,124 
7.11 



601 
7.71 



304 
4.14 



367 
4.30 



319 
4.33 



Man- 
slaush- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



2,923 
4.28 



411 
5.27 



260 
3.54 



270 
3.68 



178 
2.09 



206 
2.79 



Rape 



8,615 
12.62 



4,790 
16.02 



979 
12.56 



729 



598 
8.14 



773 
9.06 



746 
10.12 



Rob- 
bery 



40, 677 
59.6 



25, 629 
85.7 



5.372 



3,159 
43.0 



2,371 
32.3 



2,315 
27.1 



1,831 
24.8 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



49. 291 
72.2 



25, 635 
85.8 



5,841 
75.0 



520 



4,641 
63.2 



3,912 
45.9 



2,742 
37.2 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



1 229, 571 
389.8 



92, 417 
450.6 



39, 610 
508.3 



28, 809 
392.3 



25, 251 
343. 8 



25. 182 
295.1 



18. 302 
248.2 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



961.2 



206,539 
1007. 1 



87, 343 
1120. 8 



76. 250 
1038.3 



73, 599 
1002. 1 



74,582 
874.1 



47, 767 
647.9 



1 The number of offenses and rates for burglary and larceny-theft are based on reports as follows: Groups 
I-VI, 2,.390 cities, total population, 58,893,733; group I, 34 cities, total population, 20,507,837. 



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81 

Annual Trends, Offenses Known to the Police in Urban Communities 

While crime in the urban areas was generally down in 1947 compared 
with the previous year, a study of the available figures for earlier 
periods shows clearly that 1947 crime was still high. Figures 9 and 
10 indicate the relative position of the crime totals for 1947, 1946, and 
the average war year (1942-45) in comparison with the average prewar 
year (1938-41) based on reports received over the period 1938-47 
from 373 of the Nation's largest cities. 

Criminal homicides, robberies, burglaries, and larcenies generally 
followed the same pattern over the years. In comparison with the 
prewar average, such offenses were less frequent during the war but 
rose sharply in 1946 to points well above the average for 1938-41. 
These crimes in 1947 declined, but not enough. They still exceeded 
the prewa^r figures as follows: Murder, 15.4 percent; negligent man- 
slaughter, 2.1 percent; robbery, 14.6 percent; burglary, 15.3 percent; 
and larceny, 2.6 percent. 

Auto thefts rose during the war and sharply thereafter to a position 
in 1946, 28.5 percent in excess of the prewar average. The marked 
decline in such offenses recorded in 1947 brought that year's total close 
to the average for 1938-41, but still 1.9 percent above it. 

Rape and aggravated assault have shown serious and steady in- 
creases over the years with practically no tendency to decline or even 
level off. These crimes of violence rose sharply during the war and 
were still on the increase in 1946 and 1947, with the latter year's 
figures above the prewar totals by 48.3 percent for rape and 59.5 
percent for aggravated assault. 

Tables 30 and 31 show the oft'enses reported during 1946 and 1947 
by 2,076 cities representing 65,432,168 inhabitants. Urban com- 
munities of all sizes are included and as a group their reports reflected 
decreases in all crimes except rape and aggravated assault which rose 
2.9 and 3.3 percent, respectively. Murder and negligent manslaughter 
decreased 5.9 and 8.9 percent in that order and auto thefts dropped 
20.7 percent. Other decreases were: Robbery, 5.5 percent; burglary, 
3.7 percent; and larceny, 2.3 percent. 

Generally, the separate population groups showed similar trends 
except that cities with population from 50,000 to 100,OpO, contrary to 
the general over-all trend, increased in murders and decreased in 
aggravated assaults. Similarly, urban communities under 10,000 
in population reported increases in negligent manslaughter and larceny 
and decreases in aggravated assault. The crime trends for 1947 by 
population group are shown in table 30. 

With the cities divided according to location (table 31) it is observed 
that the rise in the number of offenses of rape was recorded in all 

778450°— 48 2 



82 



areas except the East North Central and West North Central divisions. 
Similarly, aggravated assault increased in all but the New England 
and West North Central geographic divisions. Exceptions to the 
general downward trend for all other offense classes were reflected in 
the following areas: Murder increased in the Pacific States; negligent 
manslaughter increased in the New England and Middle Atlantic 
States; robbery rose in the East North Central, West North Central, 
and Mountain States; burglary was up in the South Atlantic, East 
South Central, Mountain, and Pacific areas; and larceny rose in the 
Mountain and Pacific States. 

Auto theft declined in all geographic divisions and in each individual 
State except Minnesota and Montana. 

Table 30. — Annual trends, offenses knoivn to the police, 1946-47, hy population 

groups 



Populatiou group 


Total 


Murder 
and 

nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 

-slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


Total, 2,076 cities; popu- 
lation, 65,432,168: 
1946 


1, 050. 651 

996, 785 

-5.1 


4,186 
3,941 
-5.9 


3,085 
2,812 
-8.9 


8,000 
8,232 
-1-2.9 


41, 174 

38, 906 

-6.5 


43, 850 

45, 316 

-F3.3 


234, 829 

226, 096 

-3.7 


564, 430 

661, 683 

-2.3 


150, 997 


1947 - 


119, 799 


Percent change 


-20.7 


Group I, 35 cities; popu- 
lation, 29,231,075: 
1946 


442,289 

413, 894 

-6.4 

162, 345 

157,319 

-3.1 

134, 886 

125. 980 

-6.6 

124.051 

117.469 

-5.3 

116,573 

112,506 

-3.5 

70.407 

69,617 

-1.1 


2,195 
2, 059 
-6.2 

611 

597 

-2.3 

431 
443 

-1-2.8 

330 

297 

-10.0 

376 

316 

-16.0 

243 

229 

-5.8 


1,694 
1,575 
-7.0 

437 

400 

-8.5 

291 

252 

-13.4 

319 

267 

-16.3 

192 

164 

-14.6 

152 

154 

-1-1.3 


4,568 
4,654 
-M.9 

968 
975 
+.7 

666 

684 

-f2.7 

563 

.590 

-f4.8 

655 

718 

-f9.6 

580 

611 

-f 5. 3 


25, 577 

24, 670 

-3.5 

5,656 
5. 264 
-6.9 

3, .595 
3,032 
-15.7 

2,499 
2, .342 
-6.3 

2,312 
2,151 
-7.0 

1, .')35 
1,447 

-5.7 


22, 252 

23, 245 
-1-4.5 

5,365 
5,780 

-F7.7 

6,174 

6,152 

-.4 

4,600 
4,634 

+.7 

3,150 
3,341 
4-6.1 

2, .309 
2, 164 
-6.3 


100, 430 

95, 271 

-5.1 

39, 134 

38, 977 

-.4 

29, 949 

27, 868 

-6.9 

25, 714 

24, 895 

-3.2 

23,824 

23. 564 

-1.1 

15, 778 

15, .521 

-1.6 


212, 391 

205, 141 

-3.4 

87, 183 

86, 671 

-.6 

76, 818 

74, 283 
-3.3 

75, 542 
72,603 

-3.9 

71.926 

70. 838 

-1.5 

40,570 

42, 147 

-1-3.9 


73, 182 


1947 ... . . 


57, 279 


Percent change 

Group II. 54 cities; popu- 
lation, 7,667,953: 
1946 


-21.7 
22,991 


1947 


18, 655 


Percent change 

Group HI, 105 cities; pop- 
ulation, 7,225,754: 
1946 


-18.9 
16, 962 


1947 


13, 266 


Percen t change 

Group IV, 208 cities; pop- 
ulation, 7,226,295: 

1946 


-21.8 
14. 484 


1947 

Percent change 

Group V, 525 cities; pop- 
ulation, 7,962,641: 

1946 


11,841 
-18.2 

14, 138 


1947 


11,414 


Percent change 

Group VI, 1,149 cities; 
population, 6,118,450: 
1946 


-19.3 
9.240 


1947 


7,344 


Percent change 


-20.5 



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84 



Table 31. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 
geographic divisions, and States 



1946-47, by regions, 



Regions, divisions, and 
States 


Total 


Mur- 
der and 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


Total, 2,076 cities; popula- 
tion, 65,432,168: 
1946 --- 


1, 050, 551 

996, 785 

-5.1 

538, 273 

500, 997 

-6.9 


4,186 
3,941 
-5.9 

1,872 
1,780 
-4.9 


3,085 
2.812 
-8.9 

1,751 
1,697 
-3.1 


8,000 
8,232 
+2.9 

4,914 

4,870 

-.9 


41, 174 

38, 906 

-5.5 

20, 817 

20, 794 

-.1 


43, 860 

45.316 

-f3.3 

19, 069 
19, 486 
+2.2 


234, 829 

226. 096 

-3.7 

125, 143 

116,338 

-7.0 


664, 430 

561, 683 

-2.3 

286, 314 

272. 766 

-4.4 


160, 997 


1947 -- 


119, 799 


Percent change 

The North, 1,424 cities; 
population, 46,758,018: 
1946 


-20.7 
79, 393 


1947 


63, 267 


Percent change 


-20.3 


New England, 181 cities; 
population, 5,963,345: 
1946 


64, 946 

61,950 

-4.6 


92 

84 

-8.7 


154 

185 

+20.1 


437 

450 

+3.0 


1,226 
1,117 
-8.9 


823 

734 

-10.8 


17,259 

16, 143 

-6.5 


35, 190 

35, 174 

0) 


9,765 


1947 


8,063 


Percent change 


-17.4 


Connecticut, 27 cities; 
population, 1,090,980: 
1946 


14. 357 
13, 732 

3,658 
3,414 

36, 279 
35, 077 

1,651 
1,523 

8,159 
7,426 

842 

778 

14s, 229 

123, 9f>6 

-13.5 


24 
24 

3 
3 

55 
51 

3 

1 

7 
3 


30 
33 

9 

8 

80 
118 

4 
5 

31 
21 


65 
55 

22 

18 

289 
330 

25 
17 

32 
29 

4 

1 

1,610 

1,662 
+3.2 


236 
229 

65 
40 

744 
726 

7 
12 

171 
100 

3 
10 

5, 547 
4.906 
-11.6 


246 
272 

41 
19 

397 
298 

6 

8 

131 
133 

2 

4 

6,759 
7,177 
+6.2 


3,930 
3,600 

843 
792 

9,706 
9,245 

391 
335 

2,265 
2,008 

124 
163 

34, 122 
29, 678 
-13. 


8,184 
8,061 

2,201 
2,176 

18, 667 

19, 082 

1,044 
1,022 

4,490 
4,330 

604 
503 

62, 056 
54, 936 
-11.5 


1,642 


1947 


1,458 


Maine, 18 cities; popula- 
tion, 298,877: 
1946 


474 


1947 

Massachusetts, 101 cities; 
population, 3,652,281: 
1946 


358 
6,341 


1947 


5,227 


New Hampshire, 14 cities; 
population, 239,235: 
1946 


171 


1947 


123 


Rhode Island, 15 cities; 
population, 610,107: 
1946 


1,032 


1947 


802 


Vermont, 6 cities; popula- 
tion, 71,865: 
1946 


105 


1947 

Middle Atlantic,497 cities; 
population, 19,181,071: 

1946 


2 

706 

658 

-6.8 


939 

999 

+ 6.4 


95 
31,490 


1947 


23, 950 


Percent change 


-23.9 


New Jersey, 128 cities; 
population, 2,578,400: 
1946 


28, 765 
26, 412 

71, 240 
58, 271 

43, 234 
39, 283 

255, 494 

243, 109 

-4.8 


66 
71 

400 
386 

240 
201 

f/o 

-.6 


149 
112 

546 
583 

244 
304 

488 

377 

-21.9 


232 
240 

985 
992 

393 
430 

2,291 
2,225 
-2.9 


1,023 
809 

2.213 
2,015 

2,311 
2,082 

11,840 

12, 501 

+5.6 


1.350 
1,308 

3.673 
3,980 

1,736 
1,889 

9,041 
9,175 
+1.5 


8,118 
7,708 

12, 665 
10, 006 

13, 339 
11,964 

57,918 

64, 908 

-5.2 


13. 282 
13, 140 

32, 217 
25, 725 

16, 557 
16, 071 

14i,658 

140, 148 

-3.1 


4,535 


1947 


3,024 


New York, 163 cities; pop- 
ulation, 11,001,988: 
1946 


18,541 


1947 


14,584 


Pennsylvania, 206 cities; 
population, 5,600,683: 
1946 


8,414 


1947 


6,342 


East North Central, 497 
cities; population, 16,- 

■ 304,884: 

1946 ..._ 

1947... 

Percent change 


-19.3 


Illinois, 131 cities, popula- 
tion, 5,362,611: 
1946 


59, 397 
54, 642 


303 
266 


109 

88 


607 
653 


4.716 
5,614 


2,509 
2,203 


15, 867 
14, 110 


29, 165 
26,464 


6,121 


1947 


5,244 



1 A decrease of less than one-tenth of 1 percent. 



85 



Table 31. 



-Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1946~47, by regions^ 
geographic divisions, and States — Continued 



Regions, divisions, and 
States 



Indiana, 58 cities; popula- 
tion, 1,650,648: 

1946 

1947 

Michigan, 95 cities; popu- 
lation, 3,318,433: 

1946- 

1947 

Ohio, 140 cities; popula- 
tion, 4,397,647: 

1946 

1947 

Wisconsin, 73 cities; popu- 
lation, 1,575,545: 

1946 

1947.... 

West North Central, 249 
cities; population, 5,- 
308,718: 

1946- 

1947 

Percent change 

Iowa, 53 cities; population 
916,883: 

1946-.. 

1947 

Kansas, 48 cities; popula- 
tion, 682,408: 

1946— 

1947 

Minnesota, 64 cities; pop- 
ulation, 1,333,673: 

1946-- 

1947 

Missouri, 41 cities; popu- 
lation, 1,697,483: 

1946 

1947 

Nebraska, 21 cities; pop- 
ulation, 442,247: 

1946— 

1947 

North Dakota, 9 cities; 
population, 105,072: 

1946- 

1947 

South Dakota, 13 cities; 
population, 130,952: 

1946 

1947 

The South, 369 cities; 
population, 11,103,079: 

1946 

1947 

Percent change . - 

South Atlantic, 177 cities; 
population, 5,023,666: 

1946— 

1947- 

Percent change ... 

Delaware, 2 cities; popu- 
lation, 118,021: 

1946 

1947 

Florida, 30 cities; popula- 
tion, 829,414: 

1946- 

1947-.. 



Total 



30, 795 
29, 048 



71, 187 
70, 575 



75, 641 
71, 449 



18, 474 
17, 395 



7^, 604 

71,972 

-3.5 



12, 266 
11, 448 



11, 788 
11, 179 



14, 274 
14. 421 



26, 263 
24, 788 



7,015 
7,192 



1,436 
1,409 



1,562 
1,535 



253, 112 

242, 437 

-4.2 



lU, 712 

111, 687 

-2.6 



2,642 



25, 823 
27, 144 



Mur 
der and 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh 
ter 



256 
252 



260 
228 
■12.3 



1,868 
1,708 



805 
749 
-7.0 



137 
163 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



114 



174 
156 



175 
136 



55 



670 

580 
13.4 



277 

240 

■13.4 



Rape 



161 
161 



958 
772 



Rob- 
bery 



576 

533 
-7.5 



312 
320 



1,324 

1.496 

+ 13.0 



658 

775 

-\-17.8 



72 
104 



991 



2,997 
2,823 



3,005 
2,905 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



2,204 
2,270 
■^3.0 



232 
206 



310 
375 



1,296 
1,330 



8,575 
7,330 
-14.5 



3, 976 
3,275 
-17.6 



104 



895 



3,400 
3,902 



2,019 
2,197 



2,446 
2, 400 
-1.9 



136 
133 



1,906 
1,794 



18, 863 

19, 780 

+4.9 



10, 490 

10, 914 

-\-4.O 



1,402 
1,681 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



7,332 
7,199 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



16, 898 
16, 253 



14, 734 41, 767 
15, 100 42, 135 



17, 563 
16, 143 



2,422 
2,356 



15, 844 

15, 609 

-1.5 



2,737 
2,357 



3,044 
2,776 



2,896 
2,944 



5,408 
5,595 



1,333 
1,449 



158 
210 



278 



58. 268 

57. 647 

-1.1 



25, 167 

25, 448 

+1-1 



43, 272 
42, 204 



13, 556 
13,092 



43, 410 

42, 507 

-2.1 



7,572 
7,364 



6,901 
6,721 



8,972 
9,011 



13, 573 
12, 673 



4,258 
4,606 



1,057 
1,053 



1,077 
1,079 



129. 880 
125. 662 
-3.2 



58, 133 

57, 476 

-1.1 



576 
544 



7,150 
7,981 



1,592 
1,689 



13, 296 
14,010 



8G 




87 



Table 31 



■Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1916^7 hv reaion^ 
geographic divisions, and /S^afes— Continued 



Regions, divisions, and 

States 



Georgia, 20 cities; popula- 
tion, 715,247- 

1946 

1947 

Maryland, 13 cities; pop- 
ulation, 1,007,468: 

1946 

1947 

North Carolina, 40 ciiies; 
population, 762,980: 

1946 

1947 

South Carolina, 16 cities; 
population,»293,287: 

1946 

1947 

Virginia, 34 cities; popu- 
lation, 865,704: 

1946 

1947 

West Virginia, 22 cities; 
population, 431,545: 

1946 

1947 

East South Central, 77 
cities; population, 
2,393,762: 



Total 



1947_ 

Percent change. 



Alabama, 21 cities; popu- 
lation, 632,600: 



1947 

Kentucky, 21 cities; popu- 
lation, 657,085: 



1947 

Mississippi, 15 cities; pop- 
ulation, 274,865: 

1946 

1947 

Tennessee, 20 cities; popu- 
lation, 829,212: 

1946 

1947 

West South Central, 115 
cities; population, 
3.685,651: 



1947 

Percent change . 



Arkansas, 11 cities; popu- 
lation, 207,240: 

1946 

1947 

lyouisiana, 18 cities; popu- 
lation, 804,862: 

1946 

1947 

Oklahoma, 29 cities, popu- 
lation, 622,640: 

1946 

1947 

Texas, 57 cities; popula- 
tion, 2,050,909: 

1946 .. 

1947 



16, 802 
15. 474 



13, 722 

14, 030 



18, 465 
17, 414 



6,999 
6.610 



23, 628 
22, 389 



6,676 
5,984 



4«, 738 



Mur- 
der and 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



183 
180 



147 
120 



-3.6 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter hy 
negli- 
gence 



467 

-4.7 



13, 172 
12. 493 



15, 366 
15, 014 



15, 202 
14, 661 



89, 662 

83, 767 

-6.6 



4,209 



10. 156 

11. 104 



14, 646 
13, 347 



60, 661 
65, 681 



173 
161 



696 

614 

-13.8 



181 
168 

■12.7 



399 
341 



212 
182 

■14.2 



115 
118 



Rape 



201 

248 



Rob- 
bery 



266 

267 
+4.3 



93 



410 

464 

■10.7 



268 
283 



560 



710 
539 



335 
342 



954 
62+ 



246 
224 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



2,314 
1,946 
-16.9 



940 



1,463 
1,468 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



3, 332 9, 338 
2, 930 8, 556 



2,534 
2,522 



3, 935 3, 700 
3, 961 3, 802 



466 
483 



1, 993 
1.965 



278 
252 



4,376 
4.473 
+2.2 



395 
356 



949 

777 



850 
706 



2,286 
2.109 
-7.7 



483 
522 



396 
315 



1,282 
1,272 



5.008 
4,964 



1,585 
1, 433 



5. 680 
6,525 



8,204 
7,422 



4,091 
3,855 



12,420 
12, 127 



3,512 
3,292 



12, 236 21, 191 

■12, 712 20, 427 
+S. 9 -3. 6 



1,716 3,646 
1, 770 3, 439 



1,022 
1,036 



601 
526 



1,037 
1.141 



.?, 997 
4,393 
+9.9 



1,246 
1,161 



296 
303 



868 



258 
283 



2,545 
2,939 



3,947 
4,088 



1,119 
1,133 



3,524 
4,052 



20. 866 
19, 487 



991 



2,223 
2,339 



354 



14,171 
12,972 



5, 401 
5,098 



6,844 
6,662 



2,509 
2,446 



6,437 
6,221 



60, 566 

47, 769 

-6.6 



2,119 
1,963 



4,619 
5,530 



35, 053 
32, 247 



Auto 
theft 



2,338 
2,135 



3, 076 
2,709 



1,976 
1,618 



926 
783 



2,861 
2,305 



870 
726 



7,717 
6,665 
-15.1 



1,734 
1,532 



2,381 
2,253 



554 
515 



3,048 
2,255 



10, 741 

8.869 
-17.4 



570 
377 



8, 765 1, 627 

8, 019 1, 243 



6,854 
5,620 



88 



Table 31. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1946-47, by regions, 
geographic divisions, and States — Continued 



Regions, divisions, and 
States 


Total 


Mur- 
der and 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 

ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


The West, 283 cities; pop- 
ulation, 7,571,071: 
1946 


259, 166 

253, 351 

-2.2 


446 

453 

+ 1.6 


664 

535 

-19.4 


1,762 
1,866 
+5.9 


11, 782 
10, 782 
-8.5 


5,918 
6.050 

+2.2 


51.418 
52,111 
+ 1.3 


149, 236 

153. 266 

+2.7 


37, 940 


1947 . 


28. 298 


Percent change 


-25.4 


Mountain, 89 cities; popu- 
lation, 1,476,138: 
194r>... 


42,499 

43, 081 

+1.4 


85 

68 

-20.0 


93 
91 

-2.2 


295 
308 

+4-4 


1,164 
1,244 
+7.8 


681 

790 

-[16.0 


8,761 
8,897 
+1.7 


26, 634 

27, 605 

+3.3 


4,806 


1947 


4,178 


Percent change 


-13.1 


Arizona, 9 cities; popula- 
tion, 142,015: 
1946 


6.220 
6,865 

13,815 
14, 743 

3.693 
4.224 

3.695 
4,047 

2.786 
2.417 

2,539 
2.414 

7.888 
7,598 

1.863 
1.773 

21fl, 667 

210,270 

-3.0 


12 
12 

38 
26 

5 
6 

6 
3 

4 
3 

6 
9 

10 

5 

4 

4 

361 

385 

A-6.6 


7 
18 

35 
43 

7 
2 

15 

8 

3 

1 

6 

5 

20 
13 

i 

571 

444 

-22.2 


52 
62 

141 
146 

21 
6 

12 
18 

5 
5 

18 
14 

38 
42 

8 
15 

1,467 
1,568 
+6.2 


188 
176 

500 
642 

41 
59 

65 
69 

116 
96 

47 
30 

133 
131 

64 
41 

10, 628 
9,538 
-10.3 


165 
186 

190 
231 

13 

41 

63 
80 

33 
20 

132 
104 

69 
96 

16 
32 

5,237 

5,260 

+.4 


1,075 
967 

3.717 
3,654 

714 
817 

586 
585 

627 
561 

373 
471 

1,352 
1,560 

307 

282 

42, 667 

43,214 

+1.3 


3,929 
3,737 

7.837 

8,842 

2,425 
2,939 

2,566 

2,882 

1.676 
1,438 

1,578 
1,483 

5,339 
4,960 

1,284 
1,224 

122,602 

125, 751 

+2.6 


792 


1947 


707 


Colorado, 21 cities; popu- 
lation, 550,466: 
1946 


1,357 


1947 


1,159 


Idaho, 14 cities; popula- 
tion, 130,854: 
1946 


467 


1947 


354 


Montana, 12 cities; popu- 
lation, 163,248: 

1946 


382 


1947 


402 


Nevada, 3 cities; popula- 
tion, 51,635: 

1946 


322 


1947 


293 


New Mexico, 13 cities; 
population, 111,368: 
1946 


379 


1947 


298 


Utah, 12 cities; popula- 
tion. 255,131: 
1946 


927 


1947 


791 


Wyoming, 5 cities; popu- 
lation, 71,421: 
1946 


180 


1947 


174 


Pacific, 194 cities; popula- 
tion, 6,094,933: 
1946 


S3, 134 


]947 - 


24,120 


Percent change 


-27.2 


California, 143 cities; pop- 
ulation, 4,753,368: 
1946 


170. 469 
167. 381 

16. 218 
15. 843 

29, 980 
27,048 


294 
333 

22 
14 

45 
38 


447 
344 

37 
32 

87 
68 


1,290 
1.360 

72 
103 

105 
95 


8,988 
8,208 

595 
454 

1,045 
876 


4,715 
4.576 

264 
435 

258 
249 


32. 173 
33,240 

3,940 
3,807 

6,554 
6,167 


97, 023 
100,160 

9,118 
9,387 

16, 461 
16, 204 


25. 539 


1947... 


19.160 


Oregon, 22 cities; popula- 
tion, 479,510: 

1946. 


2,170 


1947 

Washington, 29 cities; 
population, 862,055: 
1946 


1,611 

5,425 


1947 


3,349 



89 



MONTHLY VARIATIONS 

Offenses Known to the 

Police 1947 

408 CITIES TOTAL POPULATION 52,250^10 

(Offenses Against the Person) 



150% 




FBI 

CHART 



Figure 12. 



778450* 



90 

Monthly Variations, Offenses Known to the Police 

The seasonal fluctuation in crimes for 1947 was similar to that re- 
ported in prior years. Robberies, burglaries, and auto thefts are least 
frequent in the warm summer months and most prevalent during the 
colder seasons when the nights are longer. Robbery and burglary 
both showed frequency peaks in January and were least frequent 
during the summer and early fall. Auto thefts and larceny, however, 
after starting down in February rose in March and April and then 
declined, following the general pattern of robbery and burglary, ex- 
cept these offenses showed a tendency to fall off just before the end 
of the year. 

Murder, rape, and aggravated assault were least frequent in Febru- 
ary and showed a definite tendency to increase during the summer 
months. Murder rose to a peak in July, rapes were most frequent in 
September, and other felonious assaults were highest in August. 

Since the vast majority of negligent manslaughters consist of traffic 
fatalities where the police investigation indicates gross criminal neg- 
ligence is present, these offe'nses follow generally the pattern of traffic 
fatalities throughout the Nation. In 1947 they were least frequent 
during the summer, reaching a low in July and were highest during 
the winter months when the nights are longer and driving conditions 
less favorable. 



Table 32. — Monthly variations, offenses known to the police (daily average) j 1947, 
408 cities over 25,000 in population 



[Total population, 62,250,610 based on 1940 decennial census] 








Criminal homi- 
cide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 


Bur- 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Month 


Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


January-December 


9.56 


6.93 


19.43 


99.8 


n6.6 


528.6 


1,242.6 


283.0 






January to March 


8.87 
9.37 
10.90 
9.07 


6.83 
6.11 
5.83 
8.92 


17.90 
19.56 
21.78 
18.45 


117.4 
90.9 
87.4 

103.8 


103.0 
117.5 
128.4 
117.4 


591.9 
527.5 
472.8 
523. 1 


/, 199. 1 
1,287.8 
1,210.0 

1,272.5 


296.8 


April to June 


296.3 


July to September 


261.6 




277.6 








8.84 
8.64 
9.19 
8.83 
9.65 
9.73 
11.39 
10.94 
10.37 
9.29 
8.70 
9.19 


7.62 
7.00 
6.00 
7.27 
6.68 
6.40 
5.13 
6.00 
6.37 
7.81 
8.67 
10.29 


19.19 
16.32 
18.03 
17.50 
19.68 
21. 50 
21.19 
21.90 
22.27 
21.06 
16.57 
17.65 


125. 7 
116.9 
109. 5 
98.7 
88.9 
85.0 
87.4 
88.4 
86.6 
91.6 
101.8 
117.9 


103.4 
101. 6 
103.9 
109. 8 
118.5 
124.4 
120. 3 
134. 9 
129. 9 
120. 1 
117.4 
114.7 


619.8 
575.0 
579.5 
560.6 
526.1 
496.1 
492.6 
467.2 
468.4 
483.5 
620.5 
565.2 


1, 198. 3 
1, 180. 
1,217.2 
1, 307. 1 
1, 285. 7 
1, 270. 7 
1, 206. 9 
1, 208. 5 
1,214.9 
1, 327. 
1, 243. 9 
1, 245. 8 


303.0 


February 


288.9 




297.9 


April 


316.6 




296.4 




275.8 


July 


258.5 




255.8 




270.8 


October . .. 


280.0 




277.4 


December 


276.6 







91 



MONTHLY VARIATIONS 
Offenses Known to the Police 



408 CITIES 



I9A7 



TOTAL POPULATION 52,250,510 



(Offenses Against Property) 



i«3^8BiRr 



ANNUAL AVERAGE- 



150% 
140 % 
130 % 
120 % 
110% 
100 % 
90% 
80 9, 
70% 
60% 



^ORGtAnY 



•.A^yAt. AVERAGE 























PERCENT OF ANNUAL AVERAGE 
























tJ«ftCfi»y -^ : ^ 


140% 
130% 


)M 




- 




^1 


AUTO THBFf - 






- 


3S^v:'^: ^'^^^i^^ai^lSft- ^-- ^^ 








120% 


W^'fl'^i--^'':-^^>;^^ryi^^^ 






^ ^ 


110% 


iif|pi|| 


'- 




r^ 


' ~v 


'^^':0'-f^ 






^ 




ANNU> 


y.AVEftA$t 






^-^ 


vv^■vi?■;■^^^:■■i 




^ 


100% 




— 








-AKNUAOAVJS 


RAGE 


































































90% 
80% 














'.-'{t-- 


.^-^ 














c: 
< 


>- 

U. 


3 


i 

a. 
< 


% 




1 


< 


2 


8 


i 

LU 


i 
S 

Q 


70% 
60% 


< 

Z 
< 


1 


I 


CL 
< 


1 


D 
-1 




^- 


1 
en 




1 


u 
a 





FBI 

CHART 



Figure 13. 



92 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location 

Data have been presented in table 29 as to crime rates for cities 
divided according to population. Since there is a marked variation 
in the extent of crime among the States and geographic divisions of 
the country, these data have been further subdivided according to 
location. Crime rates by individual States are presented in table 34 
and for the various population groups within the nine geographic 
divisions in table 35. The figures in table 33 show the number of 
cities used in compiling the information. 

In the interests of uniformity, it was necessary to base the crime 
rate data on the 1940 decennial census figures in lieu of later data for 
all cities. Wliile the figures do indicate generally the crime problem 
among the various States and geographic divisions, caution should be 
exercised in any comparisons or singling out of different sections of the 
country since the movement of population within the United States 
during the war years has resulted in marked increases in certain areas 
with corresponding decreases elsewhere, which information is not 
reflected in the following tabulations. 



1 



93 



Table 33. — Nuinber of cities in each State included in the tahidation of vniform 

crime re-ports, 1947 





Total 


Population group 


Division and State 


Over 
250,000 


100,000 to 
250,000 


50,000 to 
100,000 


25,000 to 
50,000 


10,000 to 
25,000 


Less than 
10,000 


Total: 

Population, 68,280,062 


2,392 


88 


55 


107 


211 


566 


1,417 


New England: 

Population, 6,105,981 


196 


2 


10 


13 


36 


68 


67 


rnnnpctif^ut 


27 
20 
108 
14 
17 
10 

565 




3 


2 
1 

8 
1 
1 


9 
2 
16 
2 
6 
1 

36 


6 
6 
43 
6 
6 
2 

189 


7 






11 


Massachusetts 


1 


7 


33 


New Hampshire 


6 


Rhode Island 


1 




3 


Vermont 




7 


Middle Atlantic: 

Population, 19,729,781 


6 


11 


24 


849 


New Jersey 


142 

175 
248 

562 


1 
3 

2 

8 


4 
4 
3 

10 


7 
6 
11 

23 


14 
10 
12 

60 


33 
47 
59 

119 


83 


New York 


105 


Pennsylvania . .-. .. 


161 


East North Central: 

Population, 16,680,248 


342 




153 
65 
107 
156 
81 

277 


1 
1 
1 
4 

1 

4 


1 
3 
2 
4 


7 
4 
6 
4 
2 

8 


14 
10 
9 
14 
13 

12 


32 
13 
25 
33 
16 

61 


98 


Indiana 


34 




64 


Ohio 

Wisconsin 


97 
49 


West North Central: 

Population, 5,472,473 


6 


187 




58 
53 
70 
49 
24 
10 
13 

224 




1 
2 

1 


4 

1 


6 

1 
1 
2 


10 
16 
11 
11 
6 
3 
4 

52 


37 






33 


Minnesota 


2 
2 


55 




2 

1 


32 




1 


16 


North Dakota 




1 
1 

20 


6 


South Dakota 








8 


South Atlantic: 

Population, 5,990,076 


3 


7 


17 


125 




3 

1 
34 
32 
15 
50 
22 
41 
26 

99 




1 






.. -_. . 


2 


District of Columbia 


1 










Florida 


3 


1 
4 


4 

1 
2 
4 
2 
5 
2 

10 


10 
6 
4 

15 

4 
6 

7 

23 


16 


Georgia 


1 
1 


20 






8 




1 


4 
2 
3 
3 

4 


26 


South Carolina, 




14 


Virginia 

West Virginia 

East South Central: 

Population, 2,526,181 




2 


25 




14 


3 


3 


66 


Alabama 


26 
27 
18 
28 

147 


1 

1 




2 
1 

1 


3 

5 
1 

1 

13 


5 
4 
9 
5 

37 


15 






16 


Mississippi 




7 




1 
4 


3 
3 


18 


West South Central: 

Population, 4,012,505 


9 


81 




16 
21 
35 

75 

109 






1 
1 


1 
3 
2 

7 

7 


3 
4 
11 
19 

24 


11 


Louisiana 


1 




12 




2 

1 

1 


20 


Texas .. 


3 

1 


7 
2 


38 


Mountain: 

Population, 1,556,170 


74 




11 
23 
19 
17 

4 
14 
16 

5 

213 






1 
1 


1 
1 
1 
2 




9 




1 




5 
5 
4 
1 
3 
2 
4 

43 


15 


Idaho 




13 


M^ontana 








11 










3 


New M^exico 








1 
1 


10 


Utah 




1 




12 








1 


Pacific: 

Population, 6,206,647 


5 


6 


7 


17 


136 




154 
26 
33 


3 

1 
1 


3 


7 


13 

1 
3 


31 

5 

7 


97 


Oregon 


19 


Washington 


2 




20 



94 

Table 34. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, 1947 
by geographic divisions and States 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 



Division and State 



Murder, 

nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 

slau<rhter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Burglary 
—break- 
ing or 
entering 



Larceny 
—theft 



Total. 



New England - 



Connecticut 

Maine 

Massachusetts. _- 
New Hampshire- 
Rhode Island 

Vermont 



Middle Atlantic 

New Jersey 

New York 

Pennsylvania.-. 

East North Central. 



Illinois 

Indiana 

Michigan 

Ohio 

Wisconsin 

West North Central . 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

North Dakota- -- 

South Dakota.- . 

South Atlantic 5 



Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Maryland 

North Carolina- 
South Carolina. 

"Virginia 

West Virginia- - 

East South Central. 

Alabama 

Kentucky 

Mississippi 



West South Central. 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma 

Texas 



Mountain 

Arizona 

Colorado 

Idaho 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Mexico. 

Utah 

Wyoming 

Pacific 



California. . . 

Oregon 

Washington. 



6.12 



72.2 



2.20 
.98 

L39 
.42 
.48 

1.99 

3.43 



2.90 
3.50 
3.53 



4.97 
6.36 
4.85 
6.69 
1.67 
4.17 



1.99 
3. 93 
1.32 
8.28 
3.53 



2.29 
14.32 



4.97 
19.83 
24.54 

9.99 
15.25 
14.43 
13.54 

4.44 

18.72 



24.87 
13.13 
15.95 
19.38 

14.08 



14.73 
12.59 
8.39 
16.21 

4.76 



8.00 
5.56 
4.05 
1.61 
5.38 
8.74 
1.83 
5.60 

6.32 



18.4 



21.0 
13.1 
19.5 
5.0 
16.1 
12.9 

26.0 



7.05 
2.79 
4.32 



34.4 
18.3 
36.5 

75.4 



102.6 
59.5 
83.7 
65.1 
10.4 

41.9 



18.8 
30.4 
27.8 
76.9 
28.5 
21.4 
19.9 

72.4 



76.3 
105.5 
56.1 
53.1 
45.0 
40.3 
72.3 
49.7 

79.7 



56.1 
116.8 
38.4 
82.4 

57.1 



49.2 
65.0 
50.0 
57.2 

83.2 



120.7 
115.5 
52.6 
40.3 
173.9 
29.7 
52.8 
57.4 

154.9 



171.5 
91.8 
100.1 



12.2 



24.9 
6.9 
8.0 
3.3 

21.5 
8.0 

37.5 



52.4 
36.1 
33.1 

55.4 



40.4 
45.1 
116.0 
49.2 

7.7 

44.3 



10.3 
27.2 

9.8 

103.8 

38.2 

13.2 

6.1 

231.7 



8.3 
198.6 
149.2 
144.5 
512.2 
150.6 
223. 9 
57.7 

181.5 



268.6 
150.0 
200. 6 
132. 8 

122.5 



143.9 

106.4 

44.8 

148.7 

51.9 



127. 3 
42.2 
29.7 
43.0 
35.9 
94.3 
35.9 
44.8 

85.3 



95.4 

87.7 
28.5 



330. 
259. 
254.7 
140.0 
322.0 
176.1 

2 228. 4 



305.9 

3 185.8 

4 212.3 

333.6 



262.0 
432. 6 
450.7 
363.4 
147.4 

291.5 



258.9 
398.8 
218.7 
325.9 
321.9 
212.1 
212.3 

617.4 



465.1 
949.8 
392.8 
247.9 
481.9 
408.1 
566.5 
322. 3 

515.2 



53) . 4 
595. 3 
403. 3 
476.5 

521.2 



356.0 
287.9 
525. 2 
620.6 

583.9 



670.0 
657.9 
575. 2 
327.5 
1,043.5 
416.7 
590. 8 
394.8 

707.0 



699.4 
777.9 
708.2 



1961.2 



587. 



738. 9 
711.8 
524.6 
427.2 
693. 6 
610.0 
2 447. 2 



508.6 

3 509. 8 

4 347. 

852.5 



495.7 
976.7 
1, 262. 1 
950.7 
812.5 

796.4 



838. 1 
956.4 
666.9 
731.8 
1,016.8 
1,050.6 
824.0 

1,184.9 



1,441.8 

1,668.4 

1,113.7 

644.2 

928.9 

1,210.2 

1,376.1 

733. 7 

826.7 



782.9 
968.8 
877.4 
729.6 

1,261.0 



851.3 

678.0 

1,230.4 

1, 520. 8 

1,795.0 



2, 568. 
1,594.9 
2, 040. 6 
1,585.4 
2, 583. 6 
1,303.4 
1,854.5 
1,713.8 

2. 059. 1 



2, 107. 
1,932.9 
1, 868. 4 



1 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 2,390 cities with a total population of 
68,893,733. 

2 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on reports of .563 cities with a total population of 10,343,452. 

3 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on reports of 174 cities. 
* The rates for burglary and larceny are based on reports of 247 cities. 
« Includes the report of the District of Columbia. 



95 



Table 35. — Nmnber of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, 194? 
by geographic divisions and population groups 
[Based on 1940 decennial census] 



Division and Group 



iviuraer, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burglary 
—break- 
ing or 
entering 


Larceny 
-theft 


Auto 
theft 


6.12 


59.6 


72.2 


1 389. 8 


1 961. 2 


182.1 


1.39 


18.4 


12.2 


269.5 


587.2 


133.6 


2.34 


34.9 


22.4 


223.2 


512.6 


253.8 


2.21 


24.9 


18.9 


402.1 


756.6 


166.1 


1.46 


17.1 


8.4 


265.3 


694.3 


121.2 


.54 


12.3 


7.5 


255.2 


573.1 


98.1 


.57 


7.1 


4.4 


187.5 


427.9 


56.9 


.97 


7.8 


8.5 


212.6 


416.6 


64.5 


3.43 


26.0 


37.6 


2 228. 4 


2 447. 2 


124.0 


4.62 


30.5 


44.3 


3 267. 4 


3 378. 6 


137. 9 


2.50 


30.6 


34.6 


280.4 


525.2 


1.38. 1 


2.20 


23.5 


36.3 


275.5 


550.5 


131.3 


1.83 


13.9 


28.5 


235.9 


573.9 


■ 104. 


1.18 


18.3 


24.4 


180.7 


429.9 


98.8 


1.60 


14.1 


20.4 


153.8 


300.9 


63.7 


4.96 


75.4 


55.4 


333.6 


852.5 


140.0 


6.68 


113.8 


78.3 


371.2 


810.1 


1.32. 4 


6.13 


91.5 


83.5 


463.5 


1,182.9 


243.5 


4.32 


45.7 


42.3 


3.35.9 


1,014.5 


153.8 


2.92 


32.1 


24.1 


285.2 


942.3 


148.2 


2.13 


26.7 


20.9 


249.5 


829.2 


118.6 


2.18 


18.6 


14.2 


199.7 


540.0 


87.1 


4.17 


41.9 


44.3 


291.5 


796.4 


164.4 


6.97 


74.7 


89.8 


306.3 


709.1 


182.2 


3.88 


37.9 


39.5 


386.6 


1. 052. 8 


217.3 


2.91 


24.4 


18.6 


391.2 


1, 228. 9 


204.7 


1.77 


20.2 


7.1 


272.5 


977.8 


128.0 


2.35 


16.2 


12.5 


248.7 


810.8 


103. 6 


1.85 


18.6 


11.9 


174.8 


434.1 


75.4 


14.32 


72.4 


231.7 


517. 4 


1, 184. 9 


248.9 


13. 81 


95.7 


238.6 


450.8 


1, 152. 7 


292.9 


19.81 


118.4 


222.6 


855.2 


1, 586. 


321.7 


14.50 


52.7 


254.6 


458.7 


1,231.3 


205.2 


12.41 


49.8 


280.9 


547.5 


1, 337. 4 


247.6 


12.44 


37.9 


209.8 


443.5 


1, 004. 3 


211.8 


11.00 


31.7 


157.4 


326.8 


596.9 


125.2 


18.72 


79.7 


181.5 


515.2 


826.7 


267.5 


15.46 


124.1 


201.6 


621.1 


931.2 


331.6 


27.51 


92.1 


96.5 


610.3 


810.5 


327.6 


18.15 


42.4 


321.1 


583.1 


734.0 


217.1 


16.04 


57.4 


228.8 


398.4 


1,046.0 


229.1 


20.30 


43.9 


160.5 


434.1 


923.6 


248.9 


17.84 


30.6 


72.5 


209.4 


224.7 


93.9 


14.08 


57.1 


122.5 


521.2 


1,261.0 


237.9 


19.05 


88.6 


168.5 


670.0 


1. 466. 6 


295.4 


12. 02 


66.4 


84.5 


659.4 


1, 754. 9 


266.1 


11.89 


49.9 


132.8 


495.1 


1,291.0 


264.7 


8.37 


30.5 


124.8 


431.9 


1,169.8 


209.5 


11.35 


21.9 


- 54.7 


319.0 


856.5 


141.4 


12.59 


23.8 


83.8 


245.5 


539.2 


122.9 


4.76 


83.2 


51.9 


583.9 


1, 795. 


276.8 


5.27 


162.2 


31.9 


872.2 


1, 721. 1 


212.8 


2.00 


58.0 


38.0 


632.9 


1, 604. 7 


362.2 


11.06 


115.7 


1.33. 5 


670.2 


2, 149. 2 


475.4 


2.44 


52.9 


72.4 


542.9 


2, 193. 3 


321.7 


4.29 


63.3 


40.6 


494.0 


2, 145. 7 


266.5 


5.39 


53.1 


46.1 


398.1 


1, 229. 5 


215.1 


6.32 


154.9 


85.3 


707.0 


2, 059. 1 


393.1 


7.35 


214.4 


120.0 


745.2 


1,917.2 


428.2 


5.53 


136.7 


61.4 


704.8 


1,919.3 


414.2 


5.75 


124.1 


71.4 


750.0 


2, 346. 6 


353.5 


4.53 


86.3 


46.8 


636.0 


2, 134. 1 


285.3 


5.46 


71.9 


41.2 


697.4 


2, 581. 1 


383.7 


5.11 


61.7 


35.8 


581.4 


2,117.3 


340.0 



Total, 



New England 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Middle Atlantic 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI' 

East North Central.. 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

West North Central. 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

South Atlantic < 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

East South Central 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

West South Central. 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Mountain 



Group I--. 
Group II-. 
Group III- 
Group IV. 
Group v.. 
Group VI. 



Pacific. 



Group I-. 
Group II-. 
Group III. 
Group IV. 
Group v.. 
Group VI. 



1 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 2,390 cities with a total population of 
J 893 733 

2 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 563 cities with a total population of 10,343,452 . 

3 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 4 cities. 
< Includes the report of the District of Columbia, 



96 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 25,000 Inhabitants 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the period of January-December 1947 is shown in table 36. The com- 
pilation includes the reports received from police departments in cities 
with more than 25,000 inhabitants. Police administrators and other 
interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare the 
crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in tables 29, 34, 
and 35 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire to 
make comparisons with the figures for their communities for prior 
periods, in order to determine whether there has been an increase or a 
decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

Caution should be exercised in comparing crime data for individual 
cities, because differences in the figures may be due to a variety of 
factors. The amount of crime committed in a community is not solely 
chargeable to the police but is rather a charge against the entire com- 
munity. The following is a list of some of the factors which might 
affect the amount of crime in a community: 

Population of the city and metropolitan area adjacent thereto. 

The cojnposition of the population with reference particularly to 
age, sex, and race. 

The economic status and activities of the population. 

Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 

The number of police employees per unit of population. 

The standards governing appointments to the police force. 

The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 

The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 

The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 
It should be remembered that the war has brought about marked 
changes in some of the foregoing factors in many communities. 

In comparing crime rates, it is generally more important to deter- 
mine whether the figures for a given community show increases or 
decreases in the amount of crime committed than to ascertain whether 
the figures are above or below those of some other community. 



97 



Table 36. — Number of offenses known to the police, 1947, cities over 25,000 in 

population 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 



City 



Abilene, Tex 

Akron, Ohio 

Alameda, Calif 

Albany, N.Y 

Albuquerque, N. Mex. 



Alexandria, La... 
Alexandria, Va... 
Alhambra, Calif. 
Aliquippa, Pa.... 
Allentown, Pa... 



Alton, 111 ^... 

Altoona, Pa 

Amarillo, Tex 

Amsterdam, N. Y. 
Anderson, Ind 



Arm Arbor, Mich. 

Anniston, Ala 

Appleton, Wis 

Arlington, Mass... 
Arlington, Va 



Asheville, N. C 

Ashland, Ky 

Atlanta, Ga 

Atlantic City, N. J. 
Auburn, N. Y 



Augusta, Ga. 

Aurora, 111 

-Austin, Tex 

Bakersfield, Calif- 
Baltimore, Md 



Bangor, Maine 

Baton Rouee, La.... 
•Battle Creek, Mich. 

Bay City, Mich 

Bayonne, N. J 



Beaumont, Tex 

Belleville, 111 

Belleville, N. J 

Bellineham, Wash. 
Belmont, Mass 



Beloit, Wis 

Belvedere Township, Calif. 

Berkeley, Calif 

Berwyn, 111 

Bethlehem, Pa 



Beverly, Mass 

Beverly Hills, Calif. 
Binghamton, N. Y.. 
Birmingham, Ala... 
Bloomfield, N. J.... 



Bloomington, 111.. 

Boise, Idaho. 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn- 
Bristol, Conn 



Brockton, Mass... 
Brookline, Mass.. 

Buffalo, N.Y 

Burbank, Calif.- 
Burlington, lowa. 

778430°— 48- 



Mur- 
der, 
noimeg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Rob- 
bery 



274 

7 

2.5 

12 

12 

18 



37 
10 

287 

76 

1 



18 

225 

2 

10 

10 

299 

13 



21 

7 

106 

31 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



57 

136 

9 

24 

67 

120 

226 

1 

10 



252 

17 

.561 

131 

3 



15 


214 


7 




20 


151 


39 


14 


500 


1,402 


11 




28 


21 


11 


27 


7 




16 


24 


16 


30 


3 




4 


4 


2 




8 


3 


85 


94 


40 


65 


11 




51 


4 


1 




20 





158 
11 



170 
5 
1 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



104 
1,155 
102 
214 
205 

157 
192 
200 
60 
103 

95 
278 
217 

15 
118 

106 

145 

50 

71 

153 

344 

93 

1,482 

423 

104 

227 

51 

431 

261 

2,150 

54 
214 
227 
104 
192 

342 

48 
43 
97 

87 

71 
314 
570 



47 
103 
217 



55 
217 
075 
374 

51 

210 
240 
560 
265 
25 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



57 
701 

45 
151 

45 

40 
102 
90 
26 
112 

19 
57 
320 
20 
31 

127 
71 
29 
19 

145 



29 

1,366 

626 

57 

94 

59 

87 

236 

1,438 

63 
166 
107 
36 
29 

101 
11 
13 
37 
15 

47 
65 
130 
41 
41 



33 
131 

839 
27 

60 

124 

1.132 

459 

26 

106 

50 

346 

242 



Under 
$50 



197 
2,016 
547 
356 
711 

263 
729 
392 
107 
269 

139 
414 
381 
64 
412 

485 
254 
319 
55 
571 

453 
124 
2,631 
738 
220 

385 
179 

1,281 
923 

3,747 

350 
314 
575 
363 
204 

693 
78 
60 
118 
112 

391 

296 

1,008 

138 

93 

127 
71 
759 
1,526 
107 

172 
408 
2,140 
956 
183 



205 
1.101 



98 



Table 36. — Number of offenses known to the police, 1947, cities over 25,000 in 

population — Continued 





Mur- 
der, 
noimeg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Larceny— theft 




City 


$50 and 
over 


Under 

$50 


Auto 
theft 


Burlington, "Vt .. .. 








99 

85 
361 
435 
377 

68 

52 

208 

296 

633 

654 

155 

62 

9,255 

64 

155 

2,048 

58 

2,004 

73 

87 
49 
73 
481 
273 

2, 524 

30 

693 

86 

278 

117 
37 
3,102 
195 
173 

268 

1,102 

377 

177 

2,812 

702 

9,010 

54 

148 

340 

285 
77 
69 

273 
93 

210 
32 
76 

366 

84 

181 

541 

51 

96 

339 

138 
547 
91 
165 
331 


53 
28 
175 
190 
248 

119 
16 
166 

0) 

224 

0) 

57 

22 

6,507 

41 

89 
1,284 
30 
725 
34 

43 

43 

106 

399 

197 

1, 952 

23 

343 

71 

84 

30 
22 

829 
55 

88 

45 
350 
391 

57 
1,575 

185 

2,677 

40 

230 

197 

135 
11 
41 
94 

25 

159 
42 
38 

177 
56 

140 
197 
50 
45 
129 

177 
230 
33 
88 
164 


287 
179 
417 
280 
874 

656 
108 
665 
819 
624 

646 
151 
63 

7.282 
93 

166 

3,030 

73 

8,679 

235 

87 

209 

578 

1,021 

438 

1,739 
57 

1,094 
280 
279 

147 
114 
6,678 
219 
338 

642 
2,699 
1,153 

456 
3,973 

1,231 

18, 636 

224 

999 

503 

397 
285 
121 
212 
154 

335 
121 
161 
493 
180 

426 
823 
129 
398 
560 

557 
960 
168 
483 
488 


53 


Butte, Mont 




19 
33 
76 
96 

3 
3 

44 
97 
38 

104 

20 

24 

4,796 


24 

2 

102 

1 
2 

107 

82 

437 

99 

14 

24 

1,430 

2 

85 
339 

2 
432 

4 

2 

""127" 
62 

210 
1 

199 

5 

67 

2 

2 

666 

7 

33 

"""257" 

8 

6 

103 

37 

3,240 

1 

5 

706 

43 
2 
2 
3 
1 

156 

7" 

36 

5 

6 

70 

6 

1 

49 

34 
33 
1 
6 
12 


63 


Cambridge, Mass, . .. _ 


1 
8 
7 

1 
1 

12 
8 

21 

35 


218 


Camden, N. J 


163 


Canton, Ohio 


162 


Cedar Rapids, Iowa 


65 


Central Falls, R. I 


20 


Charleston, S. C 


165 


Charleston, W. "Va 


175 


Charlotte, N. C 


271 


Chattanooga, Tenn .. . . ... 


389 


Chelsea, Mass 


86 


Chester, Pa. 


3 
209 


92 


Chicago, 111 


2,876 


Chicopee, Mass. 


36 


Cicero, 111. 


1 

47 


64 
358 

10 

674 

9 

6 

2 

6 

43 

27 

385 


67 


Cincinnati, Ohio ...... 


705 


Clarksburg, W. "Va 


34 


Cleveland, Ohio . . . 


66 


1,011 


Cleveland Heights, Ohio 


32 


Chfton, N. J 


1 


24 


Clinton, Iowa. . .. 


34 


Colorado Springs, Colo-.. 




86 


Columbia, S. C 


11 
22 


212 


Columbus, Ga . 


137 


Columbus, Ohio .. 


653 


Concord, N. H 


5 


Corpus Christi, Tex... 


8 
2 
2 

1 
1 
75 
1 
3 

2 
22 


65 

7 
28 

5 

3 

299 

21 

23 

28 

245 

54 

12 

520 

39 

2,157 

1 

26 

46 

56 
9 
5 

25 
2 

101 
2 
2 
36 

1 

13 
76 
9 
3 
35 

20 
84 
4 
11 
24 


242 


Council Bluffs, Iowa . 


57 


Covington, Ky 


76 


Cranston, R. I. 


19 


Cumberland, Md 


98 


Dallas, Tex 


1,093 


Danville, 111.... 


70 


Danville, "V a ... 


89 


Davenport, Iowa 


104 


Daytori, Ohio... . ... 


887 


Dearborn, Mich 


224 


Decatur, 111.. . 


4 

17 

6 
112 


70 


Denver, Colo 


686 


Des Moines, Iowa . 


340 


Detroit, Mich.... 

Dubuque, Iowa 


2,965 
41 


Dnlnth, Minn 




217 


Durham, N. 


12 
9 


146 


East Chicago, Ind 


120 


East Cleveland, Ohio . . ... 


20 


Easton, Pa 




41 


East Orange, N. J ... 




41 


East Providence, R. I 




28 


East St. Louis, 111 


11 


180 


Eau Claire, Wis 


90 


Elgin, 111 




21 


Elizabeth, N. J 


3 


128 


Elkhart, Ind... 


33 


Elmira, N. Y 


1 
3 

1 


70 


El Paso, Tex 


282 


Elyria, Ohio . 


26 


Enid, Okla 


21 


Erie, Pa 


3 


219 


Evanston, 111 


32 


Evansville, Ind 


2 


292 


Everett, Mass 


37 


Everett, Wash 


1 
1 


74 


Fall River. Mass 


138 



See footnotes at end of table. 



99 

Table 36. — Number of offenses known to the police, 1947, cities over 25,000 in 

population — Continued 



City 



Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Fargo, N. Dak 

Fitchburg, Mass.. 

Flint, Mich 

Fond du Lac, Wis. 
Fort Smith, Ark... 



Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Fort Worth, Tex. 

Fresno, Calif 

Gadsden, Ala 

Galesburg, 111 



Galveston, Tex 

Garfield, N.J 

Gary, Ind . 

Glendale, CaliTf 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 



Great Falls, Mont 

Green Bay, Wis 

Greensboro, N. C 

Greenville, S. C 

Greenwich Town, Conn_ 



Hackensack, N. J 

Hagerstown, Md 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Hamilton Township, N. J_ 
Hammond, Ind 



Hamtramck, Mich 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Hartford, Conn 

Haverford Township, Pa . 
Haverhill, Mass 



Hazleton, Pa 

Highland Park, Mich. 

High Point, N. C 

Hoboken, N. J... 

Holyoke, Mass 



Honolulu, T. H 

Houston, Tex 

Huntington, W. Va 

Huntington Park, Calif. 
Hutchinson, Kans__.--. 



Indianapolis, Ind. 
Ingle wood, Calif.. 
Irvington, N. J... 

Jackson, Mich 

Jackson, Miss 



Jacksonville, Fla 

Jamestown, N. Y._. 
Jersey City, N. J.... 
Johnson City, Term. 
Johnstown, Pa 



Joliet, 111. 

Joplin, Mo 

Kalamazoo, Mich.. 
Kansas City, Kans. 
Kansas City, Mo.. 



Kearny, N. J 

Kenosha, Wis — 
Kingston, N. Y.. 
Knoxville, Tenn. 
Kokomo, Ind 



La Crosse, Wis... 
Lafayette, Ind... 
Lakewood, Ohio. 
Lancaster, Pa — 
Lansing, Mich... 



10 



13 

1 

159 

3 

4 

21 

84 

179 

4 

18 

62 

7 

203 

38 

38 

2 

1 

25 

15 



44 
22 
114 

1 
5 

1 
32 
4 



53 

259 

19 

35 

2 

342 
36 
13 
13 
22 



226 
3 

84 

43 
215 

80 
105 

7 

169 
10 

171 
6 
34 

3 

1 
507 
45 

1 

32 

48 

28 

1 



8 

58 

147 

1 

1 

1 
22 
229 



3 
2 

219 

4 

5 

37 

68 



111 

940 

81 

97 

323 

877 

560 

78 

57 

248 
35 
694 
389 
634 

116 
113 
319 
130 
43 



153 
137 
65 
241 

166 
295 
1,175 
57 
156 

23 
253 
149 

98 
109 

1,302 

3, 483 

328 

183 

107 

2,313 
239 
227 
174 
300 



57 
40 

555 
27 

.43 

251 

348 

474 

52 

22 

261 
17 
371 
271 
218 

109 
26 
259 
163 
29 

57 
92 
146 



128 
200 

484 
16 
71 

10 
115 
82 
57 
73 

461 

1,041 

177 

100 

35 



259 
155 
1,752 
326 
193 

970 

3,319 

1,388 

178 

171 

269 



1,224 
2,002 

427 
104 
582 
288 
66 

103 
451 
349 
214 
631 

189 

483 

1,400 

68 

274 

58 
493 
200 

28 
237 

2,040 

5,539 

596 

358 

413 

2,788 
454 
201 
628 



199 254 1,604 1,075 1,630 

1 4 75 32 180 

Complete data not received 



11 


7 


1 




21 




28 


11 


6 


21 


81 


97 


349 


525 


2 


2 


3 


2 


1 


6 


48 


137 


9 


12 


6 


1 


11 


7 


7 




9 


14 


4 


14 



73 


24 


99 


111 


72 


141 


118 


53 


233 


190 


200 


460 


237 


155 


733 


441 


182 


636 


,724 


1,345 


2,760 


59 


31 


73 


84 


21 


246 


18 


36 


96 


595 


406 


516 


142 


49 


246 


144 


61 


865 


76 


80 


297 


89 


32 


161 


152 


64 


367 


221 


106 


759 



100 



Table 36. — Number of offenses known to the police, 1947, cities over 25,000 in 

population — Continued 



City 



Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 



ter 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Laredo, Tex 

Lawrence, Mass. 

Lebanon, Pa 

Lewiston, Maine- 
Lexington, Ky.-_ 



Lima, Ohio 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Little Rock, Ark._ 
Long Beach, Calif. 

Lorain, Ohio 

Los Angeles, Calif, 



Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lower Merion Township, Pa . 

Lubbock, Tex 

Lynchburg, Va 



Lynn, Mass 

Macon, Ga 

Madison, Wis 

Maiden, Mass 

Manchester, N. H. 



Mansfield, Ohio.... 

Marion, Ind 

Marion, Ohio 

Mason City, lowa. 
Massillon, Ohio 



Maywood, 111 

McKeesport, Pa. 
Medford, Mass.. 

Melrose, Mass... 
Memphis, Tenn. 



Meriden, Conn 

Meridian. Miss 

Miami, Fla 

Miami Beach, Fla. . 
Michigan City, Ind. 



Middletown, Conn. 
Middletown, Ohio.. 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
Mishawaka, Ind 



Mobile, Ala 

Moline, 111 

Monroe, La 

Montclair, N. J... 
Montgomery, Ala. 



Mount Vernon, N. Y. 

Muncie, Ind 

Muskegon, Mich 

Muskogee, Okla 

Nashua, N. H 



Nashville, Tenn 

New Albany, Ind. . . 

Newark, N. J 

Newark, Ohio. 

New Bedford, Mass. 



New Britain, Conn... 
New Brunswick, N. J . 

Newburgh, N. Y 

New Castle, Pa 

New Haven, Conn 



New London, Conn 

New Orleans, La 

Newport, Ky 

Newport, R. I-. 

Newport News, Va 

See footnotes at end of table. 



14 

9 

64 

269 

34 

3,722 

566 
18 
3 
11 
14 



33 



20 




301 

2 

14 

430 

28 

3 

3 

8 

85 

209 

4 



5 

1 

20 

7 
29 
33 
10 

4 

226 
7 

275 

4 

36 

17 
18 
9 
15 
32 

3 

444 

21 

4 
58 



2 

154 

37 
30 
60 
158 
37 
2,235 

618 

7 

1 

37 

54 



17 


3 


2 




36 


23 


3 




14 


3 


26 


15 


14 


3 


12 


28 


8 





3 

7 
84 
46 

1 

643 



22 
16 
124 

20 
14 
25 
11 



207 



485 

1 

13 


23 
10 

1 
37 

14 
525 

13 

9 

171 



129 
102 
28 
117 
331 

163 
289 
433 
1,489 
177 
11,610 

2,821 
180 
192 
229 
163 

367 
356 
159 
190 
61 

162 
78 
95 
41 
74 

35 
105 
119 

67 
978 

64 

134 

2,461 

270 

49 

61 

99 

652 

1,179 



78 
161 

68 
454 

110 
201 
180 
157 
73 

1,236 
98 

1,921 
127 
546 

133 
148 
162 
154 
832 

93 

1,343 

103 

47 

445 



103 
172 

(>) 
(') 
98 
13, 483 

1,651 
136 
91 
182 
73 

220 

232 

184 

70 

78 



40 
83 
26 
20 

29 

34 

28 

11 

572 

24 

39 

1,537 

452 

42 



50 
822 
928 

43 

232 
84 
49 
25 
61 

31 
65 
167 
86 
14 

590 

31 

1,138 

39 

177 



228 

32 
,046 
66 
39 
225 



157 
321 
174 
257 
716 

369 
1,038 
1,112 

2,857 

247 

17, 287 

2,026 
374 
212 
607 
327 

878 
553 
624 
336 
337 

305 
171 
268 
156 
176 

77 
210 
212 

54 
1,577 

122 

211 

1,831 

714 

97 



365 
3.586 
1,463 

217 

467 
192 
176 
122 
338 

89 
363 
470 
279 

95 

1,142 
123 

1,482 
325 

878 

331 
289 
171 
133 
1,222 

191 

1.834 

177 

204 



101 



Table 36. — Number of offenses known to the police, 19^7, cities over 25,000 in 

population — Continued 





Mur- 
der, 
noimeg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Larceny— theft 




City 


$50 and 
over 


Under 
$50 


Auto 
theft 


New Rochelle, N. Y 




3 
6 

1,574 

18 

195 

3 
2 

4 

2 

545 

12 
34 
133 
89 
16 

3 

1 
8 
15 
20 

7 
64 
15 
49 
17 

24 

108 

12 

10 

893 

73 

583 

3 

9 

46 

6 
7 

14 
401 

16 

43 

1 
58 
63 

6 

21 
10 
14 
17 
9 

26 
147 
17 
11 
2 

38 
13 
25 
1 
13 


33 

5 

3,125 

107 

343 

22 
2 
12 

8 
528 

34' 
112 
125 

36 

69 

2 

4 

33 

43 

3 

12 
63 
64 
45 

66 
157 
46 
89 
841 

64 

362 

2 

12 

25 

15 
-- 

382 
14 

176 
28 
71 
93 
23 

" 4 

147 
10 

1 

45 
398 
43 

77 

63 

17 

4 

69 

16 


82 
325 

3, 387 
257 

1,397 

45 
76 
44 
77 
2,729 

148 
369 
1,272 
817 
158 

322 
70 

142 
96 

121 

71 
543 
281 
390 
210 

271 

571 

161 

181 

4, 060 

452 

2,144 

110 

91 

288 

91 
114 
217 

2,874 
209 

286 
80 
1,210 
336 
105 

236 
150 
145 
298 
127 

83 

1,045 

189 

184 

19 

734 
206 
160 

88 
57 

63 
109 
886 
291 
338 


94 
131 

0) 
158 
785 

18 
35 
35 
32 

588 

82 
232 
252 
469 

69 

172 
33 
40 
68 
44 

20 
397 
108 
146 
115 

129 
233 
0) 

125 
1,666 

267 
705 
31 
104 
190 

33 
61 

143 
1,606 

100 

147 

77 

421 

119 

56 

48 
102 
34 
46 
51 

93 

1,023 

122 

202 

30 

307 
120 
135 
49 
12 

45 
44 
1,027 
165 
113 


122 
372 

7,517 
323 

1,196 

59 
119 
145 
159 
4,546 

248 
1,164 
2,977 
2.014 

186 

477 
598 
117 
387 
267 

181 
1,086 
273 
308 
681 

411 
908 
515 
486 
1,267 

1,677 
937 

187 
226 
385 

238 
379 
594 
4,225 
421 

432 
328 
1,558 
464 
576 

447 
560 
175 

445 
88 

151 

2,772 

614 

408 
217 

1,566 

616 

489 

295 

98 

228 
309 
2,200 
995 
659 


57 


Newton, Mass .... .. .. 


1 

333 

3 

35 


81 

10,355 

143 


New York, N. Y.2.. 


Niagara FaUs, N. Y 


Norfolk, V a 


587 
43 


Norristown, Pa 


North Bereen, N. J.. . . 


1 

1 


51 


Norwalk, Conn 


25 


Norwood, Ohio 


17 


Oakland, Calif 


25 


1 128 


Oak Park, ni 


34 


Ogden, Utah. . . . 


2 
17 
11 

4 

7 
2 
1 

1 
4 

1 
2 
3 
2 


187 


Oklahoma City, Okla 


565 


Omaha, Nebr... 


558 


Orange, N. J 


43 


Orlando, Fla. 


147 


Oshkosh, Wis . . . . . 


31 


Ottuxnwa, Iowa 


65 


Owensboro, Ky ... 


69 


Paducah, Ky _ 


74 


Parkersburg, W. "Va ... 


50 


Pasadena, Calif . . 


173 


Passaic, N. J . 


115 




250 


Pawtucket, R, I 


145 


Pensacola, Fla. . .. 


6 

7 


84 


Peoria, 111 


357 


Perth Amboy, N. J ...... 


77 


Petersburg, ^a 


4 
118 

10 

32 

1 

1 

7 

5 
2 


59 


Philadelphia, Pa 


1,802 


Phoenix, Ariz 


421 


Pittsburgh, Pa . .. 


1,508 


Pittsfield, Mass . . 


62 


Plainfield, N. J 


31 


Pontiac, Mich.. 


194 


Port Arthur, Tex 


81 


Port Huron, Mich 


58 


Portland, Maine . 


109 


Portland, Oreg .. ... .-. . 


8 
1 

5 

1 

...... 

3 


1,038 


Portsmouth, Ohio 


80 


Portsmouth, V a - 


106 


Poughkeepsie, N. Y 


48 




457 


Pueblo, Colo 


138 


Quincy.Ill 


62 


Quincy, Mass 


85 


Racine, Wis 


1 
2 


67 


Raleigh, N.C 


95 


Reading, Pa. . . . .. 


100 






68 


Richmond, Ind. 




37 




39 
2 
2 


674 


Riverside, Calif . 


97 


Roanoke, Va 


123 




12 


Rochester, N. Y 


4 
5 
6 
4 
6 


433 


Rockford, 111 . 


42 


Rock Island, 111 


94 


Rocky Mount, N. C 


44 


Rome, Ga .. 


46 


Rome, N. Y 


62 


Royal Oak, Mich . 




8 

303 

41 

17 


1 

80 
91 
19 


52 


Sacramento, Calif 


10 
3 
4 


524 




104 


St. Joseph, Mo 


110 



See footnotes at end of table. 



102 

Table 36. — Number of offenses known to the police, 1947, cities over 25,000 in 

population — Continued 



City 



Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Rob- 
bery 





Bur- 


Larceny— theft 


Aggra- 
vated 


glary- 
break- 










assault 


enter- 
ing 


$50 and 
over 


Under 

$50 


1,144 


2,246 


0) 


4.842 


76 


963 


344 


2,466 


36 


556 


232 


710 




119 


18 


159 


7 


123 


117 


746 


57 


949 


515 


1,891 


48 


93 


34 


200 


981 


1,637 


704 


3.267 


20 


421 


231 


765 


121 


867 


858 


2,182 


513 


2,888 


1,702 


10,380 


16 


334 


61 


1,714 


13 


155 


146 


755 


21 


232 


170 


632 


62 


578 


554 


1,262 


60 


139 


689 


1,222 


18 


169 


73 


306 


72 


327 


161 


350 


80 


3,111 


1,360 


4, 536 


2 


53 


26 


123 




34 


34 


307 


64 


169 


161 


698 


28 


217 


243 


662 


3 


150 


118 


459 


2 


516 


69 


321 


56 


547 


308 


1,181 




249 


121 


359 


51 


165 


127 


332 


36 


937 


230 


2, 434 


13 


217 


204 


589 


22 


353 


173 


753 


10 


328 


138 


711 


28 


311 


88 


624 


20 


207 


171 


385 


37 


116 


43 


189 


107 


680 


677 


1.193 


1 


61 


24 


318 


11 


599 


408 


1,239 


38 


802 


368 


1,363 


196 


936 


405 


1,198 


2 


173 


31 


273 




51 


13 


38 


16 


311 


78 


539 


242 


1,578 


775 


2,660 


12 


449 


78 


660 




24 


12 


65 


61 


633 


210 


462 


19 


340 


98 


96 


50 


268 


298 


984 


116 


1,308 


765 


1,539 


198 


118 


131 


163 


14 


65 


50 


228 


1 


186 


69 


154 




134 


82 


163 


4 


195 


48 


344 


12 


145 


123 


653 


101 


173 


44 


602 




103 


45 


265 




148 


75 


421 


1 


79 


92 


175 


2,390 


4,593 


1,939 


9,909 


2 


88 


35 


106 


5 


256 


134 


361 


2 


191 


66 


745 




71 


38 


142 



St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

St. Petersburg, Fla. 

Salem, Mass... 

Salem, Oreg 



Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Angelo , Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Bernardino, Calif- 
San Diego, Calif 



San Francisco. Calif.. 

San Jose, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif- 
Santa Monica, Calif.. 



Savannah, Ga 

Schenectady, N. Y. 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Sharon, Pa 



Sheboygan, Wis 

Shreveport, La 

Sioux City, Iowa.... 
SiouxFalls, S. Dak. 
Somerville, Mass... 



South Bend, Ind.. 
South Gate, Calif. 
Spartanburg, S. C. 
Spokane, Wash... 
Springfield, 111 



Springfield, Mass.. 

Springfield, Mo 

Springfield, Ohio... 

Stamford, Conn 

Steuben ville, Ohio. 



Stockton, Calif. 
Superior, Wis.. 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
Tacoma, Wash. 
Tampa, Fla 



Taunton, Mass... 
Teaneck, N. J.... 
Terre Haute, Ind. 

Toledo, Ohio 

Topeka, Kans 



Torrington, Conn. 

Trenton, N, J 

Troy, N. Y 

Tucson, Ariz 

Tulsa, Okla 



Tuscaloosa, Ala. 

Tyler, Tex 

Union City, N. J 

University City, Mo 

Upper Darby Township, Pa. 



Utica, N. Y 

Waco, Tex 

Waltham, Mass. 
Warren, Ohio... 
Warwick, R. I.. 



Washington, D. C. 
Washington. Pa... 
Waterbury, Coim. 

Waterloo, Iowa 

Watertown, Mass. 





810 

122 

45 

14 

5 

87 
12 

263 
52 

193 

1,428 
40 
12 
39 



5 
12 
23 

3 
26 

69 
32 
13 
127 
30 



22 
16 
34 

184 
3 
47 
72 
90 

3 

1 

16 

212 

34 

1 

108 
13 
47 

131 



See footnotes at end of table. 



103 



Table 36. 



-Number of offenses known to the police, 1947, cities over 
population — Continued 



,000 in 



City 



Watertown, N. "■ 
Waukegan, IlL.. 

Wausau, Wis 

Wauwatosa, Wis 
West Allis, Wis- 



West Hartford, Conn.. 

West Haven, Conn 

West New York, N. J.. 

West Orange, N. J 

West Palm Beach, Fla. 



Wheeling, W. Va... 
White Plains, N. Y. 

Wichita, Kans 

Wichita Falls, Tex.. 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa.... 



Wilkinsburg, Pa 

Williamsport, Pa 

Wilmington, Del 

Wilmington, N. C 

W^inston-Salem, N. C. 



Woodbridge, N. J. 
Woonsocket, R. I. 
Worcester, Mass.. 
Wyandotte, Mich. 
Yakima, Wash 



Yonkers, N.Y 

York, Pa 

Youngstown, Ohio. 
Zanesville, Ohio 



Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Rob- 
bery 



18 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



83 
102 
55 
29 
41 



53 27 

4 4 57 28 

Only 6 months received 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



340 
22r. 
206 
127 
423 

111 
51 



Auto 
theft 



6 




56 


23 


110 


23 


135 


355 


174 


431 


10 


11 


124 


61 


204 


5 


72 


55 


78 


196 


38 


21 


680 


265 


1, 382 


28 


55 


270 


202 


734 


4 


17 


154 


82 


206 


11 


5 


126 


12 


91 


10 


8 


111 


32 


337 


90 


9 


517 


382 


1,248 


33 


452 


332 


108 


334 


47 


215 


446 


172 


475 


4 


3 


84 


41 


103 


5 


2 


102 


47 


240 


39 


4 


780 


378 


1,019 


1 


2 


63 


29 


129 


29 


18 


209 


284 


1,169 


12 


57 


300 


125 


523 


18 


14 


164 


69 


478 


147 


71 


535 


140 


907 


19 


1 


233 


44 


289 



4 
118 

65 
42 
208 
168 
79 

27 
44 

285 
59 

138 

19 
50 

364 
40 

130 

101 
104 
299 
106 



1 Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes b.oth major and minor larcenies. 

2 Figures include offenses committed by juveniles; this is in accord with the uniform reporting procedure 
followed by other cities. 

Supplement to Return A Data 

In combating crime it is important for police to know not only the 
total number of crimes occurring but also the nature of the criminal 
acts, time and place of commission, and value of property stolen. 
Such detailed information was furnished the F B I in 1947 by 355 cities 
over 25,000 in population. 

Over 80 percent of the 174,744 burglaries investigated by the police 
occurred at night while almost 59 percent (102,331) involved business 
houses and other nonresidence structures. Although 23,786 (32.8 per- 
cent) of the residence burglaries occurred during the day, only 10.3 
percent (10,521) of the nonresidence burglaries were perpetrated 
during daylight hours. 

Victims of 22,436 (68.6 percent) of the 32,706 robberies m these 
cities were held up or strong-armed in their homes or on sidewalks, 
streets, and pubhc highways. Places of business were robbed by 
force or threat in 8,449 (25.8 percent) of the cases reported to the 
police. 

Thefts of property from autos including accessories numbered 
134,486, almost one-third of the total thefts reported by these cities. 



104 



Bicycle thefts also represent a serious problem in police work since 
61,700 or 15 percent of the thefts were of this type. Although occur- 
ring with less frequency, pocket-picking and purse-snatching are 
among the most serious types of thefts with only the element of force 
distinguishing them from robberies. Almost 4 percent or 15,574 were 
of this type during 1947 in the indicated cities. 

Property valued at $5 or more was stolen in over 86 percent (355,655) 
of the thefts while 56,445 or 13.7 percent involved attempts and prop- 
erty less than $5 in value. Over 24 percent of the thefts resulted in 
losses of $50 and over. 

Of the 5,881 rapes reported, nearly 41 percent involved victims under 
the age of consent where no force was used while over 59 percent were 
forcible in nature. 

In these cities 84,775 autos were stolen during 1947 and the police 
recovered 79,739 or 94.1 percent. 



Table 37. — Number of known offenses hy nature of criminal act, time and -place of 
commission, and value of property stolen, 1947 



[Based on reports of 355 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, 40, 

decennial census] 


764,315, according to the 1940 


Classification 


Number of 
offenses 


Percent dis- 
tribution 


Rape: 

Total 


5,881 


100.0 








3,493 
2,388 


59.4 


Statutory. 


40.6 






Robbery: 

Total 


32, 706 


100.0 








20, 832 
7,132 
1,040 
248 
1,604 
29 
1,821 


63.6 


Commercial house 


21.8 




3.2 


Chain store 


.8 




4.9 


Bank 


.1 




5.6 






Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Total 


174, 744 


100.0 






Residence (dwelling): 


48, 627 
23, 786 

91, 810 
10, 521 


27.8 


Committed during day . - - -- . 


13.6 


Nonresidence (store, office, etc.): 

Committed during night . .- - - 


52.6 


Committed during day _. 


6.0 






Larceny- theft (except auto theft) (grouped according to value of article 
stolen): 

Total - -- 


412, 100 


100.0 






$50 and over - . . . . . 


100, 734 

254, 921 

56,445 


24.4 


$5 to $50 -- 


61.9 


Under$5 . . -- 


13.7 






Larceny— theft (grouped as to type of ofTense): 


412, 100 


100.0 


----- 




Pocket-picking --- 


7,088 
8,486 
18, 155 
76, 614 
57,872 
61, 700 
182, 185 


L7 




2.1 


Shoplifting - 


4.4 




18.6 


Auto accessories - . - 


14,0 


Bicycles--. -- 


15.0 


All others.. -- 


44.2 







105 

The number of cities furnishing the supplemental analysis of crime 
presented in tables 37-39 are not identical. While 355 cities are 
represented in table 37 as to the break-down of the number of offenses, 
only 343 included the value of property stolen by offense as shown in 
table 38, and 338 reported complete information as to values by type 
of property (table 39). 

Robberies by means of firearms, force or threat in 31,526 instances 
resulted in a total property loss of $5,791,153 or an average of $184 for 
each offense. Excluding auto thefts, the next highest average loss, 
$130, occurred in 167,426 burglaries for a total of almost 22 million 
dollars. 

The average property loss in thefts unaccompanied by the elements 
of robbery or burglary was $62 but in the 395,795 crimes of this type, 
the loot was almost 24)^ million dollars. The average value per auto 
theft wag $759. 

Table 38 includes, of course, attempted crimes not involving prop- 
erty stolen. For this reason the average value of property stolen per 
offense is considered conservative. 

Table 38. — Value of property stolen, by type of crime, 1947 

[Based on the reports of 343 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, 39,223,509, according to 1940 
decennial census. All values have been rounded off to even dollars] 



Classification 


Number of 
offenses 


Value of prop- 
erty stolen 


Average 
value per 
offense 


Total 


675, 639 


$113,443,484 


$168 






Robbery 


31, 526 
167, 426 
395, 795 

80, 892 


5, 791, 153 
21, 788, 414 
24, 494, 528 
61, 369, 389 


184 


Burglary . . 


130 


Larceny — theft 


62 


Autotheft 


759 







The 338 cities over 25,000 in population represented in table 39 
reported $106,235,467 m property stolen durmg 1947. Over 60 
percent or $64,111,340 of the property was recovered. Since automo- 
biles represent the largest recovery percentage, 92.6 percent, they 
control the recovery figures. Thus, excluding automobiles, only 22.5 
percent of stolen property was recovered. 

Table 39. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered, by type of 

property, 1947 



[Based on reports of 338 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, 36,964,995, according to the 1940 
decennial census. All values have been rounded off to even dollars] 


Type of property 


Value of prop- 
erty stolen 


Value of prop- 
erty recovered 


Percent 
recovered 


Total 


$106, 235, 467 


$64, 111, 340 


60.3 








15, 944, 811 
9, 181, 283 
2, 170. 099 
5, 545, 173 
57, 393, 730 
16,000,371 


2, 349, 118 
1, 958, 693 
200, 091 
1, 369, 778 
53, 130, 954 
5, 102, 706 


14.7 


Jewelry and precious metals 


2L3 




9.2 


Clothing ... . 


24.7 


Locally stolen automobiles 


92.6 




31.9 







106 

Rural Crime Rates, 1947 

With the exception of aggravated assault, rural rates for crimes 
against the person differ little from the National averages for urban 
communities; however, the more sparsely populated rural areas do 
report substantially lower crime rates in other offense classes. 

The rural figures may be considered conservative since some in- 
completeness probably exists in the rural reporting of less serious 
crimes. The reports of some of the rural agencies included in table 
40 listed a small number of offenses and in certain instances the re- 
ports may have been based on arrest records rather than on a record 
of offenses reported. 

A combined rural population of 36 K million is represented in the 
rural crime rate table below reflecting the number of offenses reported 
and the rate per 100,000 inhabitants. The data are based on the 
reports of 1,639 sheriffs, 123 rural village officers and 12 State Police 
organizations forwarded during the year 1947. 



Table 40. — Offenses known, rural areas, number and rate per 100,000 inhahitants, 

1947 

[Based on reports of 1,639 sheriffs, 123 rural village officers, and 12 State Police organizations representing 
a combined population of 36,519,339. Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Criminal 
homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 

assault 


Bur- 

glary- 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Offense 


Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Number of offenses known 


2,323 
6.36 


1,651 
4.52 


4,969 
13.61 


7,023 
19.2 


13, 349 
36.6 


53,163 
145.6 


72, 745 
199.2 


20, 922 


Rate per 100,000 


57.3 







107 



as 
< 

< 

o 



CD 
CO 

Z 

O 



^ 



to 





REPORTING AREA 

Sheriff's Offices 1,279 

Rural Villages 101 


5 

i 

1 

: 
1 

! 
1 



«ock> 



108 

Rural Crime Trends, 1947 

An increase of 7.1 percent was reflected in the reports of law en- 
forcement agencies serving the rural areas in 1947 as compared with 
a 5.1 percent decline in the cities. Each crime category except homi- 
cides and auto thefts showed increases while in the urban areas only 
two, rape and aggravated assault, rose over 1946. 

All crimes against property declined in the urban communities 
while in the rural areas burglary increased 13.7 percent; larceny, 10.6 
percent; and robbery, 1.9 percent. Rape and aggravated assault 
as reflected in the reports from rural areas rose 15.7 and 10.9 percent, 
respectively, as compared with an urban increase of 2.9 percent for 
rape and a 3.3 percent increase for aggravated assault. 

The decline in rural criminal homicides and auto thefts was not as 
sharp as that registered in the urban communities. Rural murders 
were down 3.7 percent in 1947 and negligent manslaughter offenses 
decreased 0.9 percent. Auto theft offenses dropped 15.1 percent in 
the rural areas. 



Table 41. — Trends in offenses known, rural areas, 1946-47 

[Based on reports of 1,279 sheriffs, 101 rural village oflBcers, and 12 State Police organizations representing 
combined population of 31,129,564. Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Offense 



Number of offenses 



1946 



1947 



Percent 
change 



Total 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Autotheft 



141, 430 



1,800 

1,354 

3,539 

5,625 

9,572 

40, 606 

57, 746 

21, 188 



161, 538 



1,734 

1,342 

4,093 

5,733 

10, 612 

46, 165 

63,872 

17, 987 



+7.1 



-3.7 

-.9 

+15.7 

+1.9 
+10.9 
+13.7 
+10.6 
-16.1 



109 

Offenses Known in Territories and Possessions 

Territories and possessions of the United States as well as conti- 
nental police agencies forward crime reports to the FBI. In table 
42 are presented the figures for the First, Second, and Fourth Judicial 
Districts of Alaska; Honolulu City, and the counties of Honolulu, 
Hawaii, and Kauai in the Territory of Hawaii; the Isthmus of Panama, 
C. Z. ; and Puerto Rico. These data are from offense reports received 
monthly from law enforcement agencies policing both rural and 
urban areas, except that the figures for Honolulu City and County 
are separated. 



Table 42. — Number of offenses known in United States Territories and possessions, 

1947 



[Population figures from 1940 decermial census] 








1 


Mur- 
der, 
noneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 


Larceny— theft 




Jurisdiction reporting 


break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Over 
$50 


Under 
$50 


Auto 
theft 


Alaska: 

First judicial division (Juneau), popula- 






9 
6 

10 

8 
69 
23 
3 
9 
751 


18 
21 

4 

113 
1,302 

149 
49 

189 
2,224 


26 
14 

44 

23 

461 

54 

7 

100 

549 


28 
11 

53 

267 
2,040 

210 

54 

1,144 

5,808 


2 


Second judicial division (Nome) , popula- 
tion, 11,877; number of offenses known_. 




1 

9 

2 
53 
10 

13 
107 


4 


Fourth judicial division (Fairbanks), 
population, 16,094; number of offenses 
known .. . - 


3 

3 
9 

7 

1 

6 

291 


9 


Hawaii: 

Hawaii County, population, 73,276; num- 


19 


Honolulu City, population, 179,326; num- 
ber of offenses known 


292 


Honolulu County, population, 78,898; 
number of offenses known 


39 


Kauai County, population, 35,818; num- 


7 


Isthmus ol Panama: Canal Zone, population, 
51,827; number of offenses known . - 


42 


Puerto Rico: population, 1,869,255; number of 
offenses known 


29 







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Ill 

Estimated Number of Major Crimes, 1947 

With the passing of each hour on the average during 1947, 12 per- 
sons were raped, feloniously assaulted, or killed. During the same 
time, 49 others were held up and robbed or had their places burglarized 
and 21 others had their cars stolen. In addition to the foregoing, 
there were 108 other thefts committed each average hour. A serious 
crime was recorded every 18.9 seconds during the year. 

The estimated number of serious crimes in the United States during 
1947 is presented below in table 43 and the data are based on monthly 
crime reports received from over 4,000 law enforcement agencies in 
communities representing more than 104 million inhabitants, includ- 
ing both urban and rural areas. While the larceny figures include 
minor thefts, a number of serious crimes such as embezzlement, fraud, 
arson, and the like were not included in the tabulation. The esti- 
mated fotal number of serious crimes committed is therefore con- 
sidered conservative. 

Table 43. — Estimated number of major crimes in the United States, 1947 
Total 1,665, 110 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 7, 760 

Manslaughter by negligence 5, 770 

Rape 17, 180 

Robbery 58, 100 

Aggravated assault 74, 690 

Burglary 373,450 

Larceny 943, 430 

Auto theft 184. 730 



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DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

Source of Data 

Fingerprint arrest records totaling 734,041 were examined by the 
FBI during 1947 to obtain the age, sex, race, and previous criminal 
history of persons represented. This is the largest number of arrest 
records examined during any single year since the tabulation of 
fingerprints was started by the F B I in 1932, exceeding the 645,431 
prints handled in 1946 by 13.7 percent. The arrest records received 
during the past 10 years were as follows: 



1 Year 


Number of 
arrests 


Year 


Number of 
arrests 


1938 


554, 376 
576, 920 
609, 013 
630, 568 
585,988 


1943 1 


490 764 


1939 


1944 


488 979 


1940 


1945 


543,852 
645 431 


1941 


1946 


1942 


1947 


734, 041 







The compilation has been limited to instances of arrests for viola- 
tions of State laws and municipal ordinances. Fingerprint cards 
representing arrests for violations of Federal laws or representing 
commitments to any type of penal institutions were excluded. 

These data obviously do not include all persons arrested, since 
there are individuals taken into custody for whom no fingerprint 
cards are forwarded to Washington. The number of persons arrested 
should not be treated as information regarding the number of offenses 
committed. For example, two or more persons may be involved in 
the joint commission of a single offense, or one person may be arrested 
and charged with the commission of several separate crimes. 

Offense Charged 

Arrests for major violations numbered 300,435, or more than 40 
percent of the records examined during 1947. Persons charged with 
murder, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft numbered 
206,809, constituting 28.2 percent of the total arrests for the year. 

Sex 

Women arrested numbered 75,391, constituting 10.3 percent of the 
total arrest records. This is an increase of 9.7 percent over the 68,742 
females arrested during 1946. 

Male arrests increased from 576,689 in 1946 to 658,650 in 1947 or 
14.2 percent. 

(113) 



114 



1 




^. 9,196 15,064 22,508 25,220 26,173 29,747 28,986 26,978 25,ll4 

CHART NUMBER OF ARRESTS PER AGE 


ber of Males Arrested 
Ages 16 to S4 

.ED FROM FINGERPRINT CARDS JANUARY 1 - DECEMBER 31, 1947 


1 

CO 
CM 

1 

CM 
CM 

1 

CM 

O 
CM 

a 

00 




/::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::v^ 
/::::::x*:::-::x:x':-:::::::::v::::::::x':v:^ 


^^^^^^M 






^^^^^^^ 


^^^^^^M 


1 

1 

1 


^^^^^^ 


^^^^M 




DATA COMPIl 





115 

Table 44. — Distribution of arrests by sex, 1947 



Offense charged 



Number 



Total 



Male 



Female 



Percent 



Total 



Male 



Fe- 
male 



Total 

Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children, _ 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws. _. 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 



734, 041 



658, 650 



75, 391 



6,571 

21, 509 

58, 094 

38, 128 

64, 213 

18. 294 

17. 332 

3.189 

1.029 

8,282 

9.742 

9.712 

17, 878 

3,388 

12. 339 

13. 101 
7.523 

38. 325 

7,420 

95 

6,978 

50, 840 

174, 722 

43. 487 

16. 081 

47, 029 

6,616 

32, 124 



5, 8.31 

20. 545 

52. 6.35 

37, 093 

56, 237 

17, 881 

15, 621 

2,919 

928 

7,256 

9,742 

3,896 

14, 495 

3.056 

11. 753 

12. 335 
6.403 

36, 772 

7,288 

95 

6,786 

44, 014 

158, 973 

35. 697 

14. 920 

41. 999 

5,838 

27,642 



740 

964 

5.459 

1. 035 

7.976 

413 

1,711 

270 

101 

1,026 



5,816 

3,383 

332 

586 

766 

1.120 

1,553 

132 



192 
6,826 
15, 749 
7,790 
1.161 
5,030 

778 
4,482 



100.0 



0.9 
2.9 
7.9 
5.2 
8.8 
2.5 
2.4 

.4 

.1 
1.1 
1.3 
1.3 
2.4 

.5 
1.7 
1.8 
1.0 
5.2 
1.0 
0) 
1.0 
6.9 
23.9 
5.9 
2.2 
6.4 

.9 
4.4 



100.0 



0.9 
3.1 

8.0 
5.6 
8.5 



2.2 
.5 
1.8 
1.9 
1.0 
5.6 
1.1 
0) 
1.0 
6.7 
24.1 
5.4 
2.3 
6.4 
.9 
4.2 



100.0 



1.0 

1.3 

7.2 

1.4 

10.6 

.5 

2.3 

.4 

.1 

1.4 



7.7 

4.5 

.4 

.8 

1.0 

1.5 

2.1 

.2 



9.1 
20.8 
10.3 
1.5 
6.7 
1.0 
5.9 



Less than Ho of 1 percent. 



116 





r 


1 . — .^ — — — ' 

885 1,497 3,012 3,312 3,260 4,029 4,479 4,096 3,522 

CHART NUMBER OF ARRESTS PER AGE 


Number of Females Arrested 
Ages 16 to 24 

DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT CARDS JANUARY 1 - DECEMBER 31, 1947 


1" 

1 

1 
1 

CM 

1 

O 
CM 

1 

o> 

1 

00 

1 

1 




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117 



Age 

For the second consecutive year age 21 predominated in the fre- 
quency of arrests. During the period 1939-41 age 19 h^d the other 
individual ages, while 18 was first in 1942 and 1943. Accentuating 
the juvenile trend evident in the early Forties, more persons aged 17 
were arrested during the last two war years (1944-45) than were 
persons in any other single age group. However, the predominate 
age jumped to 21 in 1946 and continued in that group in 1947. 

The following tabulation gives the number of arrests during 1947 
for the leading age groups for males and females combined: 



Age 


Number of 




arrests 


21 


33, 776 


22 


33, 465 


23 


31,074 


20 


29, 433 


24 


28, 636 



The pattern noted above was identical for male arrests, except that 
age 19 was higher than 24. The highest number of female arrests 
occurred at age 22 followed by ages 23, 21, 24 and 19, in that order. 

Arrests of boys under 21 increased 10.5 percent in 1947 over the 
previous year, while female arrests in this group declined 6.6 percent. 
However, there were still thirty percent more girls arrested in 1947 
than in 1941. 

The total number of males and females under 21 arrested during 
1947 reached 117,861 or 16.1 percent of all arrests. There were, in 
addition, 126,951 (17.3 percent) between the ages of 21 and 24, making 
a total of 244,812 (33.4 percent) less than 25 years old. Arrests of 
persons 25 to 29 years old numbered 119,357 (16.2 percent), resulting 
in a grand total of 364,169 (49.6 percent) arrests of persons under 30 
years of age. In this connection the number of arrest records is 
doubtless incomplete in the lower age groups because of the practice of 
some jurisdictions not to fingerprint youthful offenders. 



118 






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119 



Table 



46. — Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, 1947 



Offense charged 



Total 

number 

of persons 

arrested 



Number 

under 18 

years of 

age 



Number 
under 21 
years of 



Total 
number 
under 25 
years of 



Percent- 
age under 
18 years 
of age 



Percent- 
age under 
21 years 
of age 



Total 
percent- 
age under 
25 years 

of age 



Total .-- 

Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, re- 
ceiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 

etc 

Offenses against family and 

children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle 

laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 



734. 041 



34, 376 



117, 861 



244, 812 



4.7 



6.571 
21. 509 
58. 094 
38. 128 
64, 213 
18. 294 
17, 332 

3.189 
1.029 
8.282 
9.742 

9,712 
17, 878 
3,388 

12, 339 

13. 101 
7.523 

38,325 

7,420 

95 

6.978 
50. 840 
174, 722 
43. 487 
16. 081 
47. 029 

6,616 
32. 124 



2.31 
1,394 
1,288 
6,967 
5, 9.34 
3.390 



131 

96 

363 

714 

151 

442 

50 

623 

56 
91 
219 
215 

1 

209 
1,-321 

984 
1,689 

129 
3. 545 

219 
3,664 



815 
6.051 
6.620 
14, 955 
16. 639 
8,564 
1,435 



214 
1,331 
2,809 

994 

2,235 

572 

2,352 

642 

780 
2,200 
1,380 



1,386 
7,463 
9,400 
7,506 

710 
10,918 

977 
8,317 



1,929 
11,973 
16.920 
22, 841 
28. 949 
13. 137 

4.049 

1.073 

382 

2.915 

5.073 

3. .381 
5, .593 
1,254 

4,997 

2,601 
1, 7.32 
7.814 
3,229 
36 

3,042 
17, 735 
29. 174 
1.5. 425 

2.296 
20.904 

2.100 
14, 258 



3.5 
6.5 
2.2 

18.3 
9.2 

18.5 
1.5 

4.1 
9.3 
4.4 
7.3 

1.6 
2.5 
1.5 

5.0 



1.2 

.6 

2.9 

1.1 

3.0 
2.6 

.6 
3.9 

.8 
7.5 
3.3 
11.4 



16.1 



12.4 
28.1 
11.4 
.39.2 
2.5.9 
46.8 
8.3 

18.4 
20.8 
16.1 
28.8 

10.2 
12.5 
16.9 

19.1 

4.9 
10.4 

5.7 
18.6 

8.4 

19.9 
14.7 

5.4 
17.3 

4.4 
23.2 
14.8 
25.9 



33.4 



29.4 
5.5.7 
29.1 
59.9 
4.5.1 
71.8 
23.4 

33. 6 
37.1 
35. 2 
52.1 

34.8 
31.3 
37.0 

40.5 

19.9 
23.0 
20.4 
43. 5 
37.9 

43.6 
34.9 
16.7 
35.5 
14.3 
44.4 
31.7 
44.4 



There were 49,777 arrests of persons under 21 in 1947 for crimes 
against property or 28.9 percent of the 171,976 arrests for such crimes 
(robbery, burglary, larceny, auto theft, embezzlement, fraud, forgery, 
counterfeiting, receiving stolen property, and arson). 

The extent of the predominance of youths in the commission of 
crimes against property is further indicated by the following figures: 
During 1947, 33.4 percent of all persons arrested were less than 25 
years of age. However, persons less than 25 years old numbered 55.7 
percent of those charged with robbery, 59.9 percent of those charged 
with burglary, 45.1 percent of those charged with larceny, and 71.8 
percent of those charged with auto theft. One-half of all crimes 
against property during 1947 were committed by persons under 25 
years of age. 

Criminal Repeaters 

Prior fingerprint arrest records were on file for 406,939 (55.4 percent) 
of the 734,041 arrest records received during the year. For males the 
percentage of recidivism was 56.8 and for females the percentage was 
43 . 1 . These figures pertain to fingerprint arrest records and in no way 
relate to the Civil Identification Files of the FBI. 



120 




121 



Table 47. — Percentage with -previous finger -print record, arrests, 194'i 



Offense 


Percent 


Offense 


Percent 


Narcotic drug laws 


72.1 
67.0 
60.2 
63.8 
62.8 
61.3 
57.4 
55.1 
52.4 
52.3 
52.3 
52.2 
50.9 
50.1 


Offenses against family and children. 
JLiquor laws . 


49.3 


Vagrancy,-- . 


Forgery and counterfeiting _.. ..- 


Gambling 


48 5 


Drunkenness 


Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc... 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Arson 


47.6 
45.9 
44 2 




Robbery 


Burglary— breaking or entering - . 


Parking violations i 

Driving while intoxicated . . 


44.2 
43.7 


Larceny— theft 


Prostitution and commercialized vice 


Criminal homicide . 


43 4 


All other offenses 


Rape 


43 1 


Assault 


Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Other sex ofTenses 


42 8 


Auto theft 


41 


Suspicion . ---.-. .. .- 


Violation of road and driving laws 

1 


33.8 









1 Only 95 fingerprint cards received representing arrests for violation of parking regulations. 

Arrests Outside of State of Birth 

Information from the 1940 decennial census indicates that 22.4 
percent of the native population resided outside of their State of birth. 
The study of arrest records disclosed that 50.3 percent of all the persons 
arrested and fingerprinted during 1947 were arrested outside of their 
State of birth. The figures for males and females were generally 
quite similar, for males 50.4 percent and for females 49.7 percent. 

Race 

Members of the white and Negro races accounted for most of the 
arrest records examined. Includmg Mexicans, who numbered 20,330, 
members of the white race represented 536,695 of the 734,041 records 
received, while 187,781 were Negroes, 6,040 were Indians, 423 were 
Chinese, 154 Japanese and 2,948 were representatives of other races. 



122 



Table 48. — Arrests by race, 1947 





Total, all 
races 


Race 


Offense charged 


White 


Negro 


Indian 


Chinese 


Japanese 


All others 


Total 


734, 041 


536, 695 


187, 781 


6,040 


423 


164 


2,948 








6,571 
21, 509 
58. 094 
38. 128 
64, 213 
18, 294 
17, 332 

3,189 
1.029 
8.282 
9.742 

9.712 
17. 878 
3,388 

12,339 

13, 101 
7,523 

38. 325 

7,420 

95 

6,978 
50, 840 
174, 722 
43. 487 
16, 081 
47, 029 

6,616 
32, 124 


3. 555 
12, 806 

31, 863 
26, 415 
42, 812 
14, 909 
15, 005 

2,151 

782 

6,996 

6,731 

6, 108 
14, 541 
2,167 

5,945 

10, 729 

4,691 

34, 570 

5,872 
59 

5,244 
36,016 
143,350 

32, 534 
8, 087 

32, 954 

5,094 

24, 710 


2,959 
8,515 
25, 759 
11,452 
20, 895 
3, 197 
2,238 

1.021 

241 

1.201 

2,917 

3,460 
3,178 
1,120 

6, 305 

2,250 
2,772 
3, 314 
1,498 
36 

1,652 
14, 229 
27, 519 
10,218 

7,722 
13, 658 

1,388 

7,067 


31 
92 
234 
144 
303 
115 
50 

11 
4 

55 
49 

81 

94 

9 

33 

65 

36 

275 

27 


4 

15 
24 
14 

18 
7 
5 

4 




22 


Robbery.. .- 


2 

7 
6 
10 
3 

1 


79 


Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 
Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 


207 
97 

175 
63 


Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, re- 


33 
2 






o 


Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice 


5 

7 

11 

8 
62 

18 

2 
4 
4 
6 


4 

1 

5 
6 
3 

2 

1 
3 
10 


21 
37 

47 




51 


Narcotic drug laws 


27 


Weapons; carrying, possessing, 
etc 


36 


Offenses against family and 
children 


54 




17 


Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 


152 
17 








Other traffic and motor vehicle 
laws 


46 

387 

2,922 

465 

11 
262 

67 
172 


1 
9 
33 
31 
67 
21 
4 
39 


4 
2 

26 

11 

30 

5 

3 

9 


31 




198 


Drunkenness 


872 




228 


Gambling 


164 




129 


Not stated 


60 


All other offenses 


127 







OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in part I and 
part II offenses, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 

Part I Offenses 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter includes all 
willful felonious homicides as distinguished from deaths caused by negligence. 
Does not include attempts to kill, assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, or 
justifiable homicides. Justifiable homicides excluded from this classification are 
limited to the following types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon by a peace oflicer 
in line of duty; (2) The killing of a hold-up man by a private citizen. (6) Man- 
slaughter by negligence includes any death which the police investigation estab- 
lishes was primarily attributable to gross negligence on the part of some individual 
other than the victim, 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape (no force used — victim under 
age of consent) , assault to rape, and attempted rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as strong-arm robbery, stick-ups, 
robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by the use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or a theft, even though no force 
was used to gain entrance. Includes attempts. Burglary followed by larceny 
is included in this classification and not counted again as larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value; (6) 
under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of the property stolen, thefts of bicycles, automobile accessories, 
shoplifting, pocket-picking, or any stealing of property or article of value which 
is not taken by force and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, 
"con" games, forgery, worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven away 
and abandoned, including the so-called joy-riding thefts. Does not include tak- 
ing for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unauthorized use 
by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II offenses 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which is 
made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false pretenses. 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those offenses. 

(123) 



124 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of regulations or 
statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing, and manufac- 
turing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes or 
regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commer- 
cialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as prostitution, keeping 
bawdy house, procuring, transporting, or detaining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice). — In- 
cludes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

15. Offenses against the family and children. — Includes offenses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, sale, or use. Excludes Federal offenses, 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "drunkenness" (class 18) and "driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations. State or local, are placed in 
this class. Excludes Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling .—IvLcXndG^ offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics, 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. Includes violations of regulations with 
respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. ^IwcXxides violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. AH other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25, 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters, but not in connection with any specific offense, who are released with- 
out formal charges being placed against them. 



INDEX TO VOLUME XVIII, UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

[All references are to page numbers] 

Age of offenders. (See Arrests.) 

Annual crime trends: Page 

Cities grouped by size 81-82 

Cities grouped by location ^ 81-82, 84-88 

Estimated total number of major crimes, 1947 1 10-1 1 2 

Long-term trends, 1938-47_ . __ 80-83 

Rural crime trends 1 17-19,107-108 

Arrests — based on fingerprint records 68-71, 1 13-122 

Age of offenders 68-71, 116-119 

Outsi'de State of birth 121 

Race of offenders 71,121-122 

Recidivism 71, 119, 121 

Sex of offenders 68-69, 113, 115 

Automobiles — percentage recovered 15-17, 104 

Classification of offenses 2-3, 73-74, 76-77, 123,124 

Cleared by arrest, offenses 49-53, 57, 59, 64-65 

By geographic divisions 64-65 

Crimes. {See Arrests, estimated number, offenses, persons charged, 

persons found guilty, and persons released.) 
Criminal repeaters. (See Arrests — recidivism.) 

Employees, number of police. 20-48 

Fingerprint records 68-71,113-122 

Monthly variations, offenses known to the police 89-91 

Offenses known to the police: 

Annual trends • 7, 17-19, 80-88 

Cities grouped by location 8-11, 92-95 

Cities grouped by location and size 11,95 

Cities grouped by size 4-5, 78-79 

Cleared by arrests 49-53, 57,59, 64-65 

Cleared by arrest, geographic divisions 64-65 

Divided as to time and place and value of property stolen. _. 14-17, 103-105 

Individual cities over 100,000 in population 12-14 

Individual cities over 25,000 in population 96-103 

Monthly variations 89-91 

Rural areas 17-19,106-108 

Territories and possessions of the United States 109 

Persons charged (held for prosecution) 54-60, 64-67 

By geographic divisions 64-67 

Persons found guilty 57-60 

Persons released (not held for prosecution) 61-63 

Police department employees 20-48 

Police killed 20-21 

Possessions and Territories of the United States, offenses in 109 

Property, value stolen 16-17, 105 

(125) 



126 

Page 

Property, value stolen and recovered 17, 105 

Prosecution, persons held for. {See Persons charged and persons found 

guilty.) 
Race of offenders. {See Arrests.) 
Recidivism. {See Arrests.) 

Reporting area, extent of 77 

Rural crime data 17-19, 105-108 

Sex of offenders. {See Arrests.) 

Sheriffs' reports 17-19, 106-108 

State crime rates. {See Offenses known — cities grouped by location.) 

State police reports 17-19, 106-108 

Territories and possessions of the United States, offenses in 109 

Trends, annual crime: 

Cities grouped by size 81-82 

Cities grouped by location 81-82, 84-88 

Long-term trends, 1938-47 80-83 

Value of property stolen 16-17, 105 

Value of property stolen and recovered 17, 105 

Variations, monthly crime 89-91 

o 



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