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Full text of "Uniform crime reports for the United States"

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UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C 



Volume XIX 

SEMIANNUAL BULLETIN 



Number I 
1948 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume XIX— Number 1 
SEMIANNUAL BULLETIN, 1948 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1948 



Contents 

Page 

Summary of volume XIX, No. 1 1-2 

Classification of offenses 2-3 

Monthly reports: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population 

(table 1) 4-5 

Urban crime trends (table 2) 6-7 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location 

(tables 3-5) 7-10 

Offenses in individual cities over 100,000 in population (table 6) 11-13 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 7-9) 13-16 

Rural crime rates (table 10) 16, 18 

Rural crime trends (table 11) 17-18 

Police employee data: 

Number of police department employees killed, 1947 (tables 12, 13) __ 19-20 

Number of police department employees per 1,000 inhabitants, April 

30, 1948, cities grouped by size and location (tables 12, 14) 20-22 

Number of police department employees in individual cities, April 30, 

1948 (tables 15, 16) 23-47 

Annual reports: 

Offenses known and offenses cleared by arrest, 1947 — cities divided ac- 
cording to population (table 17) 48-52 

Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1947 — cities divided according 

to population (tables 18, 19) 53-56 

Offenses known, offenses cleared, and persons found guilty, 1947, part I 

offenses (table 20) 56-59 

Persons charged (held for prosecution) and persons found guilty, 1947, 

part II offenses (table 21) 56, 58 

Persons released (not held for prosecution), 1947 — cities divided ac- 
cording to population (tables 22, 23) 60-62 

Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest and persons charged, 1947, 

by geographic divisions (tables 24, 25) 62-65 

Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1948: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 26) 66-67 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 27, 28) 66-69 

Definition of part I and part II offense classifications 71-72 

(II) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 
of Justice, Washington, D. C. 

Volume XIX July 1948 Number 1 

SUMMARY 

Crime Trends, January— June, 1948 

While urban crime declined 1.8 percent during the first 6 months of 
1948, the trend in the rural areas was upward, increasing 3.8 percent 
compared with the first half of 1947. 

For one of the few times in 18 years oft'enses of rape showed a de- 
crease^ — 0.4 percent in the urban places and 9.3 percent in the rural 
areas. Aggravated assaults rose 4.0 percent in the cities but only 0.2 
percent in the rural communities, and larcenies, which were up only 0.6 
percent in the urban areas, increased 8.9 percent in the rural sections. 

Urban murders declined 2.3 percent during the first half of 1948, 
while murders in the rural areas rose 1 .7 percent. Similarly, burglaries 
in the urban communities declined 1.9 percent wliile in the rural areas 
these oft'enses showed an increase of 5.3 percent. 

Other crimes showed decreases in both the urban and rural areas as 
follows: Negligent manslaughter, urban 5.7 percent and rural 4.8 
percent; robbery, urban 5.6 percent and rural 7.5 percent; and auto 
theft, urban 12.7 percent and rural 7.6 percent. 

Value of Property Stolen 

Hold-up men took an average of $218 per robbery during the first 6 
months in 1948, while the loot in the average burglary was $125; in the 
average larceny $62; and the average car stolen was valued at $848. 
The police recovered 93.8 percent of the stolen cars and 21.5 percent 
of other stolen property. 

Persons Arrested, January— June, 194$ 

Of the 377,933 fingerprint arrest records received at the FBI 
during the first half of 1948, ages 21, 22, 23, 19, and 20 predominated 
in that order. Ten percent (37,803) were females. 
Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1947 

The police in 1947 arrested the offender in 800 of each 1,000 crimes 
against persons and in 256 of each 1,000 offenses against property. 

(1) 



For individual crime classes the percentage cleared by arrest was: 
Murder, 88.1; negligent manslaughter, 85.5: rape, 76.5; aggravated 
assault, 79.6; robbery, 41.1; burglary, 29.2; larceny, 22.4; and auto 
theft, 29.2. In each category except murder the clearance rate 
improved somewhat over 1946. 

Persons Found Guilty, 1947 

Over 79 percent of all persons formally charged by the police in 
1947 were found guilty by the courts, with the percentage guilty 
ranging from 39.4 for negligent manslaughter to 89.0 for driving 
while intoxicated. Following the investigation of an average group 
of 1,000 major crimes reported to the police in 1947, ultimately 140 
persons were convicted in court. 

Police Employees Killed, 1947 

Sixty-seven city police employees were killed in line of duty during 
1947 for a fatality rate of 4.59 per 5,000,000 inhabitants; a much 
improved figure, over the 5.64 for 1946, but not as good as the 4.06 
recorded for 1945. 

Number of Police Employees, April 30, 1948 

As of April 30, 1948, police departments in 3,225 urban communities 
reported a total of 133,361 employees, or 1.83 for each 1,000 in- 
habitants. The figures ranged from 1 .29 in cities with less than 10,000 
inhabitants to 2.33 in cities over 250,000. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to the 
police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting or 
court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following group 
of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be those most 
generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal homicide, 
including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (b) manslaugh- 
ter by negligence ; rape ; robbery ; aggravated assault; burglary — break- 
ing or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The figures contained 
herein include also the number of attempted crimes of the designated 
classes. In other words, an attempted burglary or robbery, for ex- 
ample, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner as if the crime 
had been completed. Attempted murders, however, are reported as 
aggravated assaults. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the law-enforce- 
ment agencies of contributing communities and not merely arrests or 
cleared cases. Offenses committed by juveniles are included in the 



same manner as those known to have been committed by adults, 
regardless of the prosecutive action. Complaints which upon inves- 
tigation are learned to be groundless are not included in the tabula- 
tions which follow. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions of 
part I and II offense classifications. 



MONTHLY REPORTS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population 

The number of offenses together with the rate per 100,000 inhabit- 
ants as reported by city pohce during the first 6 months of 1948 is 
presented in table 1. The data are divided into 6 groups of cities 
according to size to make possible a comparison of crime rates in a 
local community with national averages for cities of comparable popu- 
lation. The figures of 2,279 cities representing 67,179,008 inhabitants 
are included. 

The crime rates in table 1 may be compared generally with those in 
a similar tabulation for January-June 1947 (vol. XVIII, No. 1). 
Such a comparison reflects only a few increases, most of which are in 
the large cities. Cities over 250,000 in population showed increases 
in each offense class except robbery and auto theft, while cities from 
100,000 to 250,000 had increases in murder, rape, aggravated assault 
and larceny. The 50,000 to 100,000 group showed higher rates the 
first half of 1948 for negligent manslaughter, rape, and burglary. In 
the smaller communities the only increases noted were for rape in cities 
with population from 25,000 to 50,000 and for larceny in cities under 
10,000. 

Crime rates for cities grouped by location may be found in tables 4 
and 5. 

(4) 



Table 1. — Offenses known to the police, January- June 1948; number and rate per 
100,000 ijihahitants, by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Population group 



TOTAL, GROUP? I-VI 

2.279 cities; total population, 67,179,- 
008: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP I 

36 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 29,894,166: 

Num her of offenses known 

' Rate pprlOO.OOO 



GROUP II 

53 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; 
population, 7,557,385: 
Xumhor of offenses known 
Rate per 100,000 



total 



GROUP III 

105 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 7,207,318: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP IV 

209 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 7,278,799: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



548 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 8,299,178: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



1,328 cities under 10,000; total popu- 
lation, 6,942,162: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Criminal hom- 
icide 



Mur- 
der, 

nonneg- 
lipent 
man- 

sLiugh- 
ter 



1,923 
2.86 



1,049 
3.51 



260 
3.44 



124 

1.70 



146 
1.76 



139 
2.00 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



1,233 
1.91 



753 
2.52 



174 
2.30 



123 
1.71 



65 
0.78 



70 
1.01 



Rape 



4,135 
6.16 



2,428 
8.12 



482 
6.38 



371 
5.15 



288 



278 
4.00 



Rob- 
bery 



19, 586 
29.2 



12, 992 
43.5 



2,336 
30.9 



1,481 
20.5 



1,084 
14.9 



825 
11.9 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



24, 089 
35.9 



13,590 
45.5 



2,614 
34.6 



2,786 
38.7 



2,084 
28.6 



1,737 
20.9 



1,278 
18.4 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



1 116,129 
200.9 



I 49, 322 
240.5 



18, 871 
249.7 



15,220 
211.2 



12, 391 
170.2 



11, 530 
138.9 



8,795 
126. 7 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



' 277,290 
479.8 



' 103,993 
507.1 



43, 511 
575. 7 



36, 321 
503.9 



35, 332 
485.4 



34, 036 
410.1 



24, 097 
347.1 



Auto 
theft 



55, 776 
83.0 



27, 443 
91.8 



8,436 
111.6 



6,002 
83.3 



5,512 

75.7 



4,837 
58.3 



3,546 
51.1 



I The number of offenses and rate for burglary and larceny-theft are based on reports as follows: Group 
I, 34 cities, total population, 20,507,837; groups I-VI, 2,277 cities, total population, 57,792,679. 



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Annual Trends, Offenses Known to the Police in Urban Communities 

Urban crime the first half of 1948 declined 1.8 percent from the 
relatively high figures for the first six months of 1947, based on the 
reports of the police in over 2,000 cities representing 88 percent of the 
Nation's urban population. 

While aggravated assault increased 4.0 percent and larceny, 0.6 
percent, decreases were recorded lor all other ofl'ense classes. The 
decline in rape, while only 0.4 percent, is significant since it is one of 
only a few inteniiptions observed in a steady increase in such crimes 
over many years. 

The largest decline was registered for auto thefts, 12.7 percent, and 
other decreases were as follows: Alurder, 2.3 percent; negligent man- 
slaughter, 5.7 percent; robbery, 5.6 percent; and burglary, 1.9 percent. 

Table 2. — Urban crime trends, Januarrj-June 1947-48 
[Offenses known to the police in 2,094 cities, total population, 66,031,608; based on 1940 decennial census] 



Offense 



Number of offenses 
Januar-yJune 



1947 



1948 



Change 



Number Percent 



Total 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence _ 

Rape 

Robbery 

A ggra vated assault - 

Burglary _.. 

Larceny 

Autotheft 



512,816 



603, 769 



-9,047 



-1. 



1,931 

1,341 

4,110 

20,600 

22, 892 

120, 931 

277, 917 

63, 094 



1,886 

1,264 

4,093 

19, 447 

23, 810 

118, 604 

279, 562 

55, 103 



-45 

-77 

-17 

-1, 153 

+918 

-2,327 

+1, 645 

-7,991 



-2.3 

-5.7 
-.4 
-5.6 
+4.0 
-1.9 
+.6 
-12.7 



Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location 

The amount of crime per unit of population is found to vary con- 
siderably among the several States and geographic divisions as would 
be expected since the volume of crime depends upon many factors, 
some of which are listed on the page immediately preceding table 6 of 
this bulletin. Because of these understandable differences in crime 
rates the data shown in table 1 have been subdivided according to 
location as shown in tables 4 and 5 below. 

In examining the crime rates for individual States and geographic 
divisions, it should be remembered that in the interest of uniformity 
the 1940 decennial census population figures were used in preparing 
the data, and in some sections of the country marked changes in the 
population of many communities have occurred since 1940. 

The mformation presented in tables 1, 4, and 5 is supplemented by 
the data in table 3 which mdicates the number of cities used m prepar- 
ing the tabulations. 



803181°- 



Table 3. — Number of cities in each State included in the tabulation of uniform crime 
reports, January- June 1948 





Total 


Population group 


Division and State 


Over 
250,000 


100,000 to 
250,000 


50,000 to 
100,000 


25,000 to 
50,000 


10,000 to 
25,000 


Less than 
10,000 


Total: 

Population, 67,179,008 


2,279 


36 


53 


105 


209 


548 


1.328 


New England: 

Population, 5,891,034 


181 


2 


10 


12 


36 


62 


60 




24 
IS 
101 
16 
14 
8 

533 




3 


1 
1 
8 
1 

1 


8 
2 
16 
2 
6 
1 

37 


6 
6 
41 
6 
3 


g 






9 




1 


7 


28 


New Hampshire 


7 




1 




3 






7 


Middle Atlantic: 

Population, 19,367,722 


6 


9 


24 


139 


318 




141 
166 
226 

536 


1 
3 
2 

8 


3 
4 
2 

10 


7 

6 

11 

23 


15 
10 
12 

68 


36 
47 
56 

119 


79 


New York 


96 


Pennsylvania 


143 


East North Central: 

Population, 16,511,148 


318 


Illinois 


147 

71 

104 

137 

77 

258 


1 
1 

1 
4 
1 

4 


1 
3 
2 
4 


7 
4 
6 
4 
2 

8 


13 
10 
9 
13 
13 

12 


33 
14 
23 
33 
16 

61 


92 


Indiana - -- 


39 




63 


Ohio 


79 




45 


West North Central: 

Population, 5,391,089 


6 


168 


Iowa 


62 
63 
58 
43 
22 
10 
10 

212 




1 
2 

1 


4 

1 


6 

1 
1 
2 


10 
16 
10 
12 
7 
3 
3 

50 


41 


Kansas . 




33 




2 
2 


44 




2 
1 


25 




1 


13 






1 
1 

20 


6 










6 


South Atlantic: 

Population, 5,858,744 


3 


7 


16 


lie 




3 
1 
32 
32 
16 
45 
22 
37 
24 

102 




1 








2 


District of Columbia 


1 










Florida 


3 


1 
4 


4 
1 
2 
4 
2 
5 
2 

10 


7 
8 
4 
14 
4 
6 
7 

22 


17 




1 
1 


18 






9 


North Carolina 


1 


4 
2 
3 
2 

4 


22 






14 






2 


21 






13 


East South Central: 

Population, 2,537,928 


3 


3 


60 


Alabama 


27 
33 
20 
22 

144 


1 
1 




2 

1 

1 


3 

5 

1 
1 

13 


4 
4 
10 
4 

37 


17 






22 


Mississippi 




8 


1 
4 


3 
3 


13 


West South Central: 

Population, 4,005,450 


9 


78 


Arkansas 


15 
22 
34 
78 

102 






1 
1 


1 
3 
2 
7 

7 


4 
4 
11 
18 

19 


9 




1 
__ 

1 




13 


Oklahoma 


2 
1 

1 


19 


Texas 

Mountain: 

Population, 1,466,225 


7 
2 


37 
72 




12 
20 
19 
16 

3 
11 
18 

7 

211 






1 
1 


1 
1 
1 
2 




10 




1 




5 
5 
2 


12 






13 










11 










3 










1 

1 


2 
2 
3 

39 


8 


Utah _ . 




1 




11 


Wyoming 






4 


Pacific: 

Population, 6,149,668 


5 


6 


7 


17 


138 


California. .-- ._- 


163 
25 
33 


3 
1 

1 


3 


7 


13 29 


98 




1 
3 


5 
5 


18 


Washington _ 


2 




22 







9 



Table 4. — N^trnber of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, Jarmarii- 
June 1948, by geographic divisions and States 
[Based on 1940 deccnninl census] 



Division and State 



Total. 



New Encland- 



Connecticut 

Maine 

Massachusetts^-. 
New Hampshire. 

Rhode Island 

Vermont 



Middle Atlantic 

New Jersey 

New York 

Pennsylvania... 

East North Central. 



Illinois 

Indiana 

Michigan.. 

Ohio 

Wisconsin. 



West North Central. 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

North Dakota... 
South Dakota. _. 



South Atlantic' 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Maryland 

North Carolina. 
South Carolina. 

Virginia 

West Virginia... 

East South Central. 



Alabama 

Kentucky.. 
Mississippi. 
Tennessee . . 



West South Central. 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma 

Texas 



Mountain.. 

Arizona 

Colorado 

Idaho 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Mexico. 

Utah 

Wyoming 

Pacific. 



California 

Oregon 

Washington. 



Murder, 
noniiceli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



2.86 



1.34 
1.45 



1.32 
1.74 
1.72 

2.39 



3.00 
2.43 
1.98 
2.59 
.56 

2.02 



.82 
2.24 

.46 
4.01 
1.96 

.82 



6.81 



.83 
6.41 
13.20 
5.74 
6.70 
6.05 
7.07 
2.89 

9.54 



12. 62 
6.29 

4.77 
11.62 

5.54 



5.45 
4.81 
2.14 

6.80 

2.46 



3.85 
2.74 



8.71 
6.23 
1.12 
1.40 

2.55 



2.82 
2.01 
1.40 



Robbery 



27.7 



6.3 
9.3 
.8 
6.2 
2.9 

13.6 



14.3 
9.3 
21.5 

39.3 



58.4 
26.2 
44.2 
29.7 
4.0 

18.3 



6.2 
17.0 
16.4 
30.4 
13.3 
5.7 
4.8 

39.3 



28.2 
59.8 
25.2 
24.0 
19.7 
22.1 
37.8 
21.5 

34.9 



24.6 
56.9 
13.7 
32.1 

25.2 



21.8 
27.6 
19.3 
26.4 

38.7 



56.5 
57.3 
19.6 
20.1 
31.9 
16.6 
19.8 
37.7 

52.5 



75.4 
39.2 
49.0 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



6.6 



14.2 
5.7 
4.3 
1.5 

11.4 



16.3 



21.6 
15.7 
15.0 

28.1 



23.7 
24.5 
56.6 
22.4 
3.5 

28.9 



3.9 
13.5 

4.6 
75,5 
12.4 

3.3 

3.8 

120.4 



7.5 
81.9 
82.3 
58.7 

241.9 
59.3 

114.1 
18.1 

80.0 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 

1200.9 



127.4 



154.5 
146.3 
118.7 

76.0 
154.7 

85.4 



156.2 
3 lOO. 5 
< 104. 8 

173.9 



154.6 
227.9 
223.2 
176.9 
70.5 

174.3 



131.2 
202. 
136.7 
232.1 
143.9 
109.8 
115.2 

268.3 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



1 479. 8 



274.2 



337. 1 
329. 4 
254. 9 
191.4 

28K. 7 
373. 4 

' 237. 3 



265. 3 
1 266. 1 
I 189. 2 

421.2 



422.6 



125.9 
60.4 
73.8 
62.6 

56.5 



78.0 
54.3 
26.1 
63.8 

22.3 



44.9 
17.9 
13.5 
25.7 
40.6 
45.7 
9.3 
26.5 

43.3 



223.9 
504.9 
222.1 
130.9 
229.5 
226.2 
293.5 
143.2 

257.7 



289.9 
316.8 
200.5 
203.4 

261.1 



210.9 
162.6 
257.4 
303.5 

316.7 



51.0 

30.5 

7.8 



397.2 
374. 9 
263.8 
152.5 
275.7 
325. 1 
296.6 
219.2 



346.8 
333.2 
369.1 



408. 
498. 2 
389. 1 
391.5 
529. 9 
422. 1 
496. 2 

604.0 



5.38. 1 
966. 9 
506. 3 
325. 7 
447.3 
652.1 
756.3 
252.6 
401.4 



410.3 
470. 6 
391.5 
334.7 

614.8 



433. 6 
381.6 
595.0 
724.6 

873.5 



1,247.3 
785.4 

1,011.8 
709.3 
745.8 
784.2 
935.4 
730.2 

1,010.0 



1,031.6 
953.3 
922.2 



Auto 
theft 



83.0 



62.5 



57.7 
65.5 
67.4 
29.0 
54.3 
56.4 

56.7 

51.4 
62.3 
48.2 

68.9 



255.5 


51.5 


532. 7 


117.4 


607.9 


76.4 


448.8 


73.9 


402. 5 


46.8 



65.2 



56.4 
71.0 
56.4 
69.4 
84.1 
67.2 
60.5 

116.6 



98.7 
148.6 
105.0 
120.2 

96.5 
108.2 
132.7 

65.6 

127.0 



103.7 
176.1 
68.7 
125.5 

106.5 



76.3 
111.3 

89.3 
112.9 

122.7 



232.9 
102.9 
122.4 
71.4 
116.1 
177.6 
110.4 
113.1 

164.3 



165. 6 
122.9 
181.5 



1 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 2,277 cities with a total population of 
57,792,679. 
■ The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 531 cities with a total poi)ulation of 

3 The rates for burglary and larceny are ba.sed on reports of 165 cities. 
< The rates for burglary and larceny arc based on reports of 225 cities, 
« Includes the report of the District of Columbia. 



10 



Table 5.- — N^imber oj offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January- 
June 1948, by geographic divisions and population groups 
[Based on 1940 decennial census] 



Division and group 



Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



Larceny, 
theft 



Total. 



New England 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Middle Atlantic 

Group I 

Group II-. 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

East North Central.. 

Group I.. 

Group II.- 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

West North Central. 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III- 

Group IV.. 

Group V 

Group VI 

South Atlantic * 

Group I_. .- 

Group II 

Group III.- 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

East South Central.. 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

West South Central. 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Mountain 

Group I 

Group II.. 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI.. 

Pacific 



Group I... 
Group II-. 
Group III. 
Group IV. 
Group V_.. 
Group VI. 



2.86 



1.66 
.66 
.34 
.56 



.79 



2.21 
1.08 
.98 
1.08 
.96 
.55 

2.39 



3.45 
2.76 
1.55 
1.29 
.95 
.72 

2.02 



3.31 
2.36 
2.00 

.51 
1.11 

.36 

6.81 



7 45 
7 77 
7 15 
4.53 
,5.56 
6.77 

9.54 



8.30 
16.21 
9.26 
5.24 
8.39 
10.33 

5.54 



8.27 
4.20 
6.10 
2 32 
3.35 
3.25 

2.46 



4.03 



1.70 

3.66 

.38 

3.01 

2.55 



3.24 
1.99 
1.85 
1.27 
1.81 
2.17 



29.2 



35. 



1 200. 9 



I 479. 8 



8.3 



127 4 



274.2 



19.0 
9.1 
6.5 
5.8 
2.9 
2.6 

13.6 



12.3 
9.9 
5.7 
3.3 
2.6 
2.4 

16.3 



114.7 
182.1 
119.3 
118.3 
89.2 
113.3 

2 117.3 



250.2 
365.5 
313.4 
257 4 
192.6 
187 

: 237. 3 



17.5 
10.9 
11.2 
5.3 
8.1 
4.4 

39.3 



19.7 
13.2 
15.9 
11.7 
10.9 
6.7 

28.1 



3 149. 7 
137.7 
143.2 
115.1 
91.3 
73.3 

173.9 



3 253. 5 
272.2 
257 5 
299.4 
218.1 
148.8 

421.2 



60.8 
42.7 
23.3 
14.7 
11.7 
9.2 

18.3 



41.1 
41>2 
19.2 

10.7 
8.9 
5.8 

28.9 



198.1 
222.8 
194.2 
137 7 
116.3 
104.0 

174.3 



401.1 
585.1 
492.4 
454.5 
408. 5 
276.4 

422.6 



31.9 
16.1 
15.8 
9.8 
4.8 
8.1 

39.3 



65.2 
16.1 
7 8 
4.5 
3.3 
5.9 

120.4 



230.4 
204.3 
207 6 

127 8 
105.8 
87.9 

268.3 



406.2 
581.8 
614.7 
417 9 
369. 4 
255.7 

604.0 



56.4 
70.1 
24.1 
23.1 
9.5 
16.2 

34.9 



155.9 
102.0 
111.1 
121.8 
104.3 
76. 1 
80.0 



244.1 
449.3 
246.3 
269.9 
200.8 
154.3 

257.7 



56.6 
29.5 
27.1 
30.2 
15.3 
13.3 

25.2 



91.7 
37 8 
115.3 
121.5 
76.6 
28.7 

56.6 



316.1 
254.0 
323.6 
199.5 
220.9 
135.3 

261.1 



36.8 
24.0 
28.5 
15.3 
8.9 
13.3 

38.7 



71.0 
39.3 
66.5 
54.6 
23.1 
58.1 
22.3 



316.6 
333.8 
279.2 
232. 2 
149.0 
1.30. 

316.7 



84.1 
18.0 
45.9 
25.2 
17 4 
29.3 



8.7 
5.3 
73.1 
29.3 
17 7 
23.5 

43.3 



499.1 
320.8 
432.9 
275.7 
233. 5 
204.5 

348.8 



97.2 
50.2 
46.4 
38.4 
.34.7 
29.9 



63.4 
28.5 
28.3 
20.5 
17 5 
19.1 



369.5 
309.8 
381.0 
335. 9 
356.9 
281.1 



573.6 
872.7 
596. 4 
695.1 
463.6 
320.0 

401.4 



507 
321.0 
391.2 
454.8 
408.9 
144.3 

614.8 



680.3 
832.1 
677 
635.6 
406.4 
277.8 

873.5 



819.4 

799.7 

1,093.8 

1,108.3 

1,024.0 

613.5 

1, 010. 



938.0 

958. 9 

1, 086. 1 

971.2 

1. 270. 6 

1, 146. 3 



I The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 2,277 cities with a total population of 
67,792,679. 
» The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 531 cities with a total population of 9,981,393. 
3 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 4 cities. 
* Includes the report of the District of Columbia. 



11 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 100,000 Inhabitants 

The number of offenses reported as hav^ing been committed during 
the period of January-June 1948 is shown in tabk> 6. The compilation 
inchides the reports received from police departments in cities with 
more than 100,000 inhabitants. Police administrators and other 
interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare the 
crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in tables 1 
and 5 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire to 
make comparisons with the figures for their communities for prior 
periods, in order to determine whether there has been an increase or a 
decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

Caution should be exercised in comparing crime data for individual 
cities, because differences in the figures may be due to a variety of 
factors. The amount of crime committed in a community is not solely 
chargeable to the police but is rather a charge against the entire com- 
munity. The following is a list of some of the factors which might 
affect the amount of crime in a community: 

Population of the city and metropolitan area adjacent thereto. 

The composition of the population with reference particularly to 
age, sex, and race. 

The economic status and activities of the population. 

Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 

The number of police employees per unit of population. 

The standards governing appointments to the police force. 

The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 

The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 

The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 

It should be remembered that the war brought about marked 
changes in some of the foregoing factors in many communities. 

In comparing crime rates, it is generally more important to determine 
whether the figures for a given conun unity show increases or decreases 
in the amount of crime committed than to ascertain whether the 
figures are above or below those of some other connnunity. 



12 

Table 6.^ — Number of offenses known to the police, January-June 1948, cities over 

100,000 in population 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 



City 



Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn. 

Buffalo, N.Y 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Camden, N. J 



Canton, Ohio 

Charlotte, N. C 

Chattanooga, Term. 
Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 



Cleveland, Ohio.. 
Columbus, Ohio- 

Dallas, Tex 

Dayton, Ohio 

Denver, Colo 



Des Moines, Iowa. 

Detroit, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 

Elizabeth, N.J 

Erie, Pa 



Fall River, Mass. 

Flint, Mich ., 

Fort Wavne, Ind. 
Fort Worth, Tex. 
Gary, Ind 



Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Hartford, Conn 

Honolulu, T. H 

Houston, Tex 

Indianapolis, Ind 



Jacksonville, Fla — 
Jersey City, N. J — 
Kansas City, Kans. 
Kansas City, Mo... 
Knoxville, Tenn... 



Long Beach, Calif- 
Los Angeles, Calif- 
Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn... 



Miami, Fla 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Miimeapolis, Minn. 

Nashville, Tenn 

Newark, N. J 



New Bedford, Mass. 
New Haven, Conn.. 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N.Y.2.. 
Norfolk, Va 



Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Akron, Ohio 

Albany, N.Y 

Atlanta, Qa 

Baltimore, Md 

Birmingham, Ala. 



Oakland, Calif 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha, Nebr 

Paterson, N. J 

Peoria, 111 



1 
1 

1 

12 
21 
140 
24 

31 
7 
30 
13 
13 

3 

45 




1 

25 

155 

16 







Bur- 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 

assault 


glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


150 


47 


480 


5 


14 


96 


125 


411 


945 


228 


566 


1,128 


91 


230 


987 


175 


95 


609 


11 


7 


196 


71 


102 


708 


8 




119 


43 


33 


257 


30 


56 


194 


31 


233 


299 


47 


54 


313 


2,791 


957 


5, 733 


172 


130 


1,040 


259 


184 


1,098 


167 


87 


1,057 


120 


272 


1, 268 


134 


166 


570 


271 


28 


1,609 


3 


7 


468 


1,206 


1,581 


4,479 


15 




51 


13 


12 


125 


, 16 


18 


163 


8 


4 


124 


46 


102 


445 


11 


33 


193 


28 


66 


536 


80 


57 


257 


22 


12 


328 


31 


74 


474 


21 


24 


554 


113 


108 


1,600 


135 


154 


1,166 


123 


38 


848 



Larceny — theft 




344 
92 
657 
779 
549 

674 
193 
398 
92 
154 

126 

111 

(1) 

3,359 

517 

302 
928 
347 
197 
703 

107 
1,252 
88 
96 
59 

90 
257 
111 
149 
216 

121 
209 
191 
468 
571 



534 
Complete data not received 



1,058 

158 

1,289 

1,876 

794 

1,063 
406 

1,371 
171 
192 

375 

370 

204 

3,951 

1,433 

4,015 
785 
3.146 
1,146 
1,939 

666 

8,979 
565 
277 
320 

258 
871 
496 
1,470 
510 

941 

619 

1,110 

2,260 

1,580 

922 



48 


45 


265 


163 


389 


157 


237 


773 


623 


1,383 


23 


31 


299 


178 


246 


116 


120 


648 


(0 


1,342 


1,689 


1,324 


5,476 


6,064 


8,376 


277 


257 


1,404 


862 


1,075 


3 


2 


73 


60 


166 


130 


320 


386 


325 


897 


266 


260 


1,438 


782 


1,081 


26 


42 


298 


476 


1,844 


133 


14 


704 


463 


1,251 


50 


69 


422 


228 


451 


164 


235 


981 


574 


828 


12 


5 


298 


96 


471 


8 


21 


395 


117 


571 


191 


277 


859 


773 


1,015 


848 


1,306 


1,498 


(') 


3,661 


145 


214 


685 


489 


751 


250 


191 


1,334 


264 


2,685 


57 


75 


629 


119 


1,472 


42 


44 


332 


342 


977 


25 


33 


378 


44 


149 


66 


57 


309 


126 


522 



See footnotes at end of table. 



13 

Table 6. — Number oj offenses known to the police, January-June 1948, cities over 
100,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
lipent 
nian- 
slaiijih- 
ter 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Auto 
theft 



Philadelphia, Pa- 
Pittsburgh, Pa... 
Portland, Oreg... 
Providence, R. I. 
Reading, Pa 



Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y... 
Sacramento, Calif. 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn. A. 



Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Diego. Calif 

San Francisco, Calif.. . 
Scran ton, Pa 



Seattle, Wash 

Somorville, Mass.. 
South Bend, Ind.. 
Spokane, Wash... 
Springfield, Mass. 



Syracuse, N. Y. 
Tacoma, Wash.. 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo, Ohio.... 
Trenton, N. J... 



Tulsa, Okla 

Utica, N. Y 

Washington, D. C. 

Wichita, Kans 

Wilmington, Del... 



Worcester, Mass 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, Ohio. 



564 

339 

172 

20 



399 
170 
134 
31 



2,306 

1,070 

1,234 

566 



928 
461 



205 



Only 4 months received 



750 

612 

2, 266 

621 



66 


183 


605 


513 


1,642 


9 


33 


239 


164 


667 


84 


24 


366 


399 


1,054 


291 


1,010 


2,433 


(') 


2,950 


56 


40 


688 


160 


1,276 


27 


8 


481 


248 


951 


102 


356 


793 


247 


1, 4.56 


53 


40 


399 


551 


1,147 


651 


293 


1,713 


743 


4,896 


12 


13 


115 


37 


183 


264 


33 


1.753 


710 


2, 523 


11 


5 


178 


36 


151 


31 


48 


270 


175 


557 


58 


4 


356 


151 


1,147 


1 


12 


172 


93 


388 


11 


6 


280 


225 


566 


43 


13 


413 


181 


787 


40 


88 


378 


219 


727 


59 


116 


810 


427 


1,335 


47 


29 


218 


105 


250 


41 


65 


585 


399 


753 


3 


3 


89 


64 


265 


676 


1,867 


2,381 


1,007 


4,858 


8 


20 


357 


1.36 


763 


33 


8 


260 


152 


472 


31 


4 


443 


207 


567 


3 


27 


155 


98 


299 


63 


34 


260 


116 


418 



704 
757 
393 
205 



346 
232 
206 
750 
134 

171 

329 

415 

1,228 

72 

938 
60 
144 
148 
101 

152 
167 
136 
276 
60 

179 
58 

832 
98 

118 

207 
43 
149 



• Larcencies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcencies. 
2 Figures include offenses committed by juveniles; this is in accord with the uniform reporting procedure 
followed by other cities. 



Supplement to Return A Data 

The monthly return A form prepared by all contributors provides 
basic information on the number of crimes occurring for each of the 
Part I crime classes. Police in cities of 25,000 and over population 
also forward the Supplement to Return A each month. This form 
furnishes details concerning specific types of criminal activity within 
the mam crime classes and also reflects the value of property stolen 
and the value of stolen property recovered by the police. \^ith the 
exception of the rape classification, the supplement form deals with 
crimes against property. 

Young gu'ls were victims in at least 1,254 crimes of rape durmg 
January-June 1948 in the 355 reportmg cities represented in table 7. 
Thus, 44 percent of the 2,848 offenses of rape were statutory in nature 
(no force used — victim under age of consent). The balance, 1,594, 
(56 percent) represent forcible criminal assaults. 



14 

Victims were assaulted by force, weapons or threats iii the 15,680 
robberies reported by these cities and ahnost 64 percent (9,953) of 
these hold-ups and strong-arm robberies occurred on sidewalks, streets, 
and other public highways. Business houses, including oil stations, 
chain stores, and banks were the victims of 4,332 (almost 28 percent) 
of the robberies. 

Of the 90,214 burglaries in these cities, 73,528 (81.5 percent) occurred 
at night. Suice business and other nonresidence places generally are 
occupied during the day they were victimized m only 34.8 percent of 
the 16,686 daylight burglaries. Residence burglaries represent only 
37.6 percent (33,926) of the total burglaries while the balance, 62.4 
percent (56,288), were those of stores and other nom^esidenccstructures. 

Of the 202,140 larcenies, 7,340 were thefts from the person involving 
pocket-picking and purse-snatching. While numerically small as 
compared to the total larceny figure, these thefts fall short of the 
robbery classification only because of the lack of the element of force. 

Thefts of accessories and other articles from automobiles occurred 
in 68,932 instances or 34.1 percent of the thefts. Over 29,000 bicycles 
were stolen and although these represented less than 15 percent of 
the thefts, such crimes present a major problem to the police. 

The police may further analyze the theft problem by value of 
property stolen. Almost 25 percent of the 202,140 thefts involved 
property valued at $50 and over, and over 61 percent (124,432) of 
the thefts involved property valued at $5 to $50 while the property 
stolen was valued at less than $5 in only 14 percent of the cases. 

During the first 6 months of this year, 38,427 automobiles were 
stolen m the cities represented in table 7 and the police recovered 
36,032 or 93.8 percent. 

The value of property stolen, by type of crime, is shown in table 8 
and the value of property stolen and property recovered, by type of 
property, is reflected in table 9. Complete data were not included 
in the reports of all 355 cities represented in table 7. However, 
table 8 includes information for 346 of these cities while table 9 
covers 339 of the cities. 



15 



Table 7. — Number of known offenses by nature of criminal act, time and place of 
commission, and value of property stolen, January-June 1948 • 

[Based on reports of 355 cities over 25,000 in i)oi)ulation; total population, 40,619,453, according to 

1940 decennial census] 



Classification 



Rape: 

Total -- - 

Forcible - --- - - 

Statutory 

Robbery: 

Total - ---- 

Highway - 

rommercial house 

Oil station 

Chain store -.- 

Residence 

Bank .-- 

Miscellaneous 

Burglary— breaking or entering: 

Total 

Residence (dwelling): 

Committed during night 

Committed during day 

Nonresidcnce (store, office, etc.): 

Committed during night 

Committed during day 

Larceny-theft (except auto theft) (grouped according to value of article 
stolen): 

Total 

$50 and over 

$5 to $50 

Under $5 -. 

Larceny-theft (grouped as to type of offense) : 

Total— 

Pocket-picking 

Purse-snatching 

Shoplifting 

Thefts from autos (exclusive of auto accessories) 

Auto accessories 

Bicycles - 

All others --. 



Number of 
otTenses 



2,848 



1,594 
1,254 



16, 680 



9,953 
3,672 
482 
145 
803 
33 
592 



23, 055 

10, 871 



50,473 
5.815 



202, 140 



49, 498 
124, 432 
28, 210 



202, 140 



3, 231 
4,109 
8, 983 
37, 382 
.31, 550 
29,521 
87,364 



Percent dis- 
tribution 



56.0 
44.0 



100.0 



63.5 

23.4 

3.1 

.9 

5.1 

.2 

3.8 



100.0 



25.6 
12.1 



55.9 
6.4 



100.0 



24.5 
61.5 
14.0 



100.0 



1.6 
2.0 
4.4 
18.5 
15.6 
14.6 
43.3 



The $57,851,005 in loot reported in table 8 for 346 cities with a com- 
bined population of 39,298,213 represents an average of $1.47 per 
citizen for the first 6 months of 1948. However, the 15,299 persons 
who were confronted with a robber's gun or subjected to other force or 
threats each lost $218 on the average or a total of $3,336,266. During 
the same 6 months $10,918,647 was obtained by burglars in 87,677 
places or an average loss of $125 per offense. 

Though some thefts are not considered of major importance, their 
very number accounted for a loss of $12,184,053 or $62 per theft on 
the average. Automobiles valued at $31,412,039 were stolen during 
the period under study in the 346 cities. This represents an average 
value of $848 for each of the 37,053 cars stolen. 

The average value of property stolen per offense as shown in table 8 
is conservative, since attempted crimes are counted as though the 
crime were completed, except that no property value is listed. 

80.3181°— 48 3 



16 



Police, recovered property valued at $32,874,544 or 60.4 percent of 
the $54,385,043 total stolen during January-June 1948 in 339 cities 
with population over 25,000. Stolen money, jeweliy, furs, and other 
personal property except automobiles totalled $25,009,313 and 
$5,383,809 of this property was recovered. This represents a recovery 
percentage of 21.5. 

Table 8. — Value of property stolen, by type of crime, January— June 1948 

[Based on reports of 346 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, 39,298,21.3, according to the 1940 
decennial census. All values have been rounded off to even dollars] 



Classification 



Number of 
offenses 



Value of 

property 

stolen 



Average 

value per 

oflense 



Total.. 

Robbery 

Burglary 

Larceny-theft 
Auto theft.. - 



336, 687 



$57,851,006 



$172 



15,299 
87, 677 
196, 658 
37, 053 



3, 336, 266 
10, 918, G47 
12, 184, 053 
31, 412, 039 



218 
125 
62 



Table 9. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered, by type of 
property, January- June 1948 

[Based on reports of 339 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, 37,118,923, according to the 1940 
decennial census. All values have been rounded off to even dollars] 



Type of property 



Value of 

property 

stolen 



Value of 
property 
recovered 



Percent 
recovered 



Total 

Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing. 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Miscellaneous. 



$54, 385, 043 



$32, 874, 544 



7, 493, 065 
4,515,443 

1, 370, 726 

2, 815, 555 
29, 375, 730 

8, 814, 524 



1, 118, 805 

988, 944 

170, 849 

519, 754 

27, 490, 735 

2, 585, 457 



60.4 



14.9 
21.9 
12.5 
18.5 
93.6 
29.3 



Rural Crime Rates 

The number of offenses as reported by 1,681 sheriffs, 127 rural 
village officers, and 11 State police agencies is presented in table 10, 
together with the rate per 100,000 inhabitants. The rural population 
represented in the reporting area is 36,628,387. 

The rural rates for crimes against property are generally lower than 
the corresponding urban rates, and in this connection it should be 
observed that some incompleteness exists in the rural reporting. 
Some of the reports used in table 10 were probably based on arrest 
records rather than on a record of offenses reported. Since a com- 
paratively small proportion of crimes against property are followed 
by arrest the figures should be considered conservative. 



17 



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18 

Table 10. — Offenses known, rural areas, number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, 

January- June 1948 



[Based on reports of 1,681 sheriffs, 127 rural villages, and 11 State police 
according to the 1940 decennial census 


total rural population, 36,628,387, 




Criminal homi- 
cide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
break - 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 






Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Population 36,628,387: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 .._.._- _ - 


1,089 
2.97 


673 
1.84 


2,080 
5.68 


3,392 
9.3 


6,349 
17.3 


26, 542 
72.5 


37, 223 
101.6 


9,610 
26.0 







Rural Crime Trends 

While urban crime was down somewhat during the first half of 
1948, the trend in the rural areas continued upward with the total 
3.8 percent over that for January-June of 1947, according to reports 
received during both periods from 1,608 police agencies serving a 
rural population of 33,851,561. 

In burglaries and larcenies, which comprise well over two-thirds of 
the rural crime, the increases were fairly substantial — ^5.3 percent for 
burglary, and 8.9 percent for larceny — -while in the cities burglaries 
declined 1.9 percent and larcenies rose 0.6 percent. 

Rural murders increased 1.7 percent as compared with a 2.3 percent 
drop in urban communities but the rural increase in aggravated assault 
of only 0.2 percent was much less than the 4.0 percent rise in the cities. 
Other offenses declined in both urban and rural areas with the rural 
figures off as follows: Negligent manslaughter, 4.8 percent; rape, 9.3 
percent; robbery, 7.5 percent; and auto theft, 7.6 percent. 

Table 11. — Rural crime trends, January-June 1947-48 

[Based on reports of 1,489 sheriffs, 108 rural village officers, and 11 State police; total rural population, 
33,851,561, according to the 1940 decennial census] 



Offense 



Number of offenses 



Percent 
change 



Total 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape - 

Robbery _ 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary-breaking or entering 

Larcony-theft- - -_. 

Auto theft 



75, 824 



921 

629 

1.987 

3,149 

5,241 

23, 203 

31, 164 

9,530 



78, 690 



937 

599 

1,802 

2,912 

5,251 

24, 435 

33, 947 



-f3.8 



+1.7 
-4.8 
-9.3 
-7.5 
+0.2 
+5.3 
+8.9 
-7.6 



POLICE EMPLOYEE DATA 

Police Killed, 1947 

Sixty-seven more police employees lost their lives during the per- 
formance of official duties during 1947, bringing the postwar toll in 
url)an communities to 208 (82 in 1946 and 59 in 1945). 

The number of police employees killed during 1947 by geogi-aphic 
divisions and size of city is presented in table 13 together with the 
rate per 5 million inhabitants. 

There were 4.59 police employees killed per 5 million inhabitants 
for all cities as a group. For individual city groups, those with from 
10,000 to 25,000 inhabitants had the highest rate, 5.59, with the low 
of 3.40 registered in the city gi'oup with 50,000 to 100,000 population. 
The rates ranged from 1.56 in the New England States to 8.49 in the 
Mountain States. The Moimtain States enjoyed the low position in 
1946. 

The figures in table 12 indicate the number of cities included in the 
study of police employees presented in the other tabulations which 
follow. It will be noted that 98 percent of the urban population is 
represented in the survey and this was also true for the two previous 
years. 



Table 12. — Number oj cities used in tahulntions regarding number of 'police depart- 
ment employees, April 30, 1948, and police killed, 1947 

fPopulation figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Total 


Population group 


Division 


Group 
I 


Group 
II 


Group 
HI 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 




Over 
250,000 


100,000 to 
250,000 


50,000 to 
100,000 


25,000 to 
50,000 


10,000 to 
25,000 


Less than 
10,000 


Total: 


73, 042, 807 
3.225 


29, 894, 166 
36 


7, 792, 650 
55 


7, 343, 917 
107 


7, 417, 093 
213 


9, 830, 987 

655 


10, 763. 994 




2.159 






New England: Total population, 
6,392,166 


226 

690 

699 

361 

364 

191 

301 

153 
240 


2 

6 

8 

4 

3 

3 

4 

1 
5 


10 

11 

10 

5 

7 

3 

3 

1 
6 


13 
24 
23 
8 
17 
4 
9 

2 

7 


36 

38 
60 
12 
20 
10 
13 

17 


78 

160 

128 

67 

64 

31 

54 

26 
47 


87 


Middle Atlantic: Total population, 
20,625,015. 


451 


East North Central: Total popula- 
tion, 17,:m,U8 


470 


West North Central: Total popula- 
tion, 5,870,781 


265 


South Atlantic: Total population, 
6,712,556 


253 


East South Central: Total popula- 
tion, 3,045,275 


140 


W("it South f'cntral: Total popula- 

ticin, 4,sw>,4r)l _. 


218 


Mouuluiu; Total population, 1,765,- 
853 


116 


Pacific: Total population, 6,352,582 


159 



(19) 



20 

Table 13. — Nximher of police de-parhnent employees killed, 1947, by geographic 
divisions and population groups 

[Includes only those employees killed while on active duty with their local police agencies] 





Total 




Population 


group 






Geographic division 


Num- 
ber 


Rate per 
5.000,000 
inhabi- 
tants 


Over 
250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


Total: 

Number .._ .. . 


67 


4.59 


29 
4.85 


7 
4.49 


5 
3.40 


6 

4.04 


11 
5.59 


9 


Rate per 5,000,000 in- 
habitants 


4 18 








New England- 


2 

15 
15 
6 
10 
1 
6 
3 
9 


1.58 
3.64 
4.31 
5.11 
7.45 
1.64 
6.14 
8.49 
7.08 




1 

1 
3 
1 
1 


1 


1 








10 

8 
1 
3 
1 

1 


3 
1 




East North Central -. 


1 


West North Central 


4 


South Atlantic -- - 


1 




3 


2 


East South Central-.- _ - 




West South Central 




2 


2 


1 
2 
1 




Mountain . . 




1 


Paciflc— 


5 






2 


1 











Number of Police Employees, April 30, 1948 

On April 30, 1948, police departments in 3,225 cities reported a total 
personnel of 133,361, including 9,676 civilians without police power 
and 123,685 police officers. 

The ratio of all police personnel, including civilians, to population 
is 1.83 employees for each 1,000 inhabitants. It is noted that the 
larger the city the gi'eater the number of police personnel by unit of 
population, wdth cities over 250,000 reporting 2.33 police employees 
per 1,000 population while places under 10,000 listed 1.29. However, 
there was an increase in each city group in terms of the number of 
police per 1,000 inhabitants as compared with 1947. Last year the 
over-all average was 1.75 police compared with 1.83 this year. 

Table 14 presents the number of police employees and rate per 
1,000 inhabitants by geographic divisions and population groups. 
The increase in police personnel is demonstrated m the decrease in 
number of inhabitants per police employee, as of April 30, as follows: 

Number of inhabitants per police employee 



Total, all cities 

Group I (over 250,000) 

Group II (ion,onn~25o,noo) 
Group III (5<i.<ii«)-l(Ki,ii00) 
Group IV (2.'i,(i(Ki-.')0.(ioi))-. 
Group V (10,000-25,000).-. 
Group VI (2,500-10,000).-. 



1947 



1948 



548 



448 


429 


620 


597 


628 


606 


698 


667 


758 


729 


827 


777 



While the foregoing shows there was on April 30, 1948, one police 
employee for every 548 persons living in urban areas, in considering 
available police protection it must be remembered that police business 
continues around the clock each day of the week with the men working 



21 



in shifts. In addition the effective str(>n^th of a department is re- 
duced because of days off eacli week, vacations, injuries, etc. Also, 
a substantial niunber of eni})loyees are necessarily on administrative 
and other inside assignments regularly. Considering such factors, one 
])olice officer on the average is prol)ably responsible for the protection 
of the lives and property of nearer 2,000 persons than 548 as the fore- 
going tabulation indicates. 

The number of police employees per 1,000 inhabitants for the 7-year' 
period 1942-48 is shown below. The figures are limited to cities 
having over 25,000 inhabitants, since the data were not collected from 
smaller communities from 1942 through 1945. The following figures 
are for April 30 of each year*: 



1942 


-- 1.83 


1944 


_. 1.73 


1946 


_. 1.86 


1943 


-_ 1.77 


1945 


._ 1. 68 


1947 


-_ 1.94 



1948. 



2.02 



Table 14. — Police Department employees, April 30, 1948, numher and rate per 
1,000 inhabitants, by geographic divisions and population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Division 







I 


Population 


group 






Total 


Group 

I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 




Over 
250,000 


100,000 
to 

250,000 


50,000 
to 

100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 

10,(X)0 


133, 361 


69, 730 


13,051 


12, 123 


11,116 


13.480 


13, 861 


1.83 


2.33 


1.67 


1.65 


1.50 


1.37 


1.29 


11,821 


3,075 


2.668 


1,756 


2,144 


1,603 


575 


1.85 


3.00 


1.97 


1.83 


1.65 


1.33 


1.06 


41, 993 


28, 043 


2,517 


2,953 


2,144 


3,468 


2,868 


2.04 


2.46 


1.75 


1.80 


1.61 


l.,38 


1.24 


29, 950 


17„886 


1,975 


2,299 


2,750 


2,298 


2,742 


1.72 


2.26 


1.33 


1.48 


1.27 


1.20 


1.16 


8,341 


3. 887 


900 


684 


445 


1, 1.36 


1,283 


1.42 


1.95 


1.26 


1.25 


1.12 


1.16 


1.04 


13, 057 


4,604 


1,999 


1,796 


1,217 


I,.';'(9 


1,892 


1.95 


2. 52 


1.99 


1. 63 


1.78 


1.68 


1.61 


4.162 


1,123 


541 


487 


475 


669 


867 


1.37 


1.28 


1.33 


1.73 


1.46 


1,40 


1.28 


6,788 


2,283 


806 


994 


601 


947 


1,157 


1.39 


1.60 


1.54 


1.52 


1.40 


1.22 


1.08 


2,595 


544 


224 


209 


343 


526 


749 


1.47 


1.69 


1.49 


1.78 


1..39 


1.39 


1.36 


14, 654 


8,285 


1,415 


94rj 


997 


1,284 


1,728 


2.31 


2.66 


2.01 


1.94 


1.81 


1.93 


2. OS 



Total: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 
1,000 inhabitants 

New England: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 

1,000 inhabitants 

Middle Atlantic: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 

1,000 inhabitants 

East North Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 

1 ,000 inhabitants 

West North Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 

1 .000 inhabitants 

South .Atlantic: ' 

Number of poljce employees 

Average number of employees per 

1,000 inhabitants 

East South Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 

1 ,000 inhabitants 

West South Central: 

Number of police employees 

Averaee number of employees per 

1,000 inhabitants, __ 

fountain: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 

1,000 inhabitants 

Pacific: 

Number of police employees. _ . 

Average number of employees per 
1,000 inhabitants _ 

' Includes the District of Columbia. 



22 






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23 

Police Employees in Individual Cities 

The number of police emplo3^ees as of April 30, 1948, for individual 
cities may be obtained by reference to tables 15 and 16. Reporting 
cities are arranged by size and listed alphabetically by State. For 
cities over 25,000 in population the employees are separated as to 
civilians and police officers. 

Although the number of civilian employees is not shown in the in- 
dividual figures for cities under 25,000, they are included in the tabu- 
lation below which reflects the percentage of civilian employees for 
each population group. Generally, the larger communities reported 
the greater proportion of civilians to the total police employees as 
shown in the following: 

. Percen 

Population group: civilian employees 

Total all cities 7. 3 

Group I 8. 3 

Group II - 9. 6 

Group III 8.6 

Group IV 5.6 

Group V 3. 7 

Group VI -- 3.5 

The report form forwarded by the police as of April 30, 1948, 
provided for a separate listing of full-time and part-time employees 
and, further, a designation of the number in each class who were 
police officers and those who were civilians. The form was also 
designed to include a statement of the equivalent number of full-time 
employees represented by the work of the part-time employees in 
April. If the department's entries relative to part-time employees 
were limited to the total time worked during April the FBI changed 
the data into terms of full-time employees. For this purpose it was 
assumed that 200 hours was the approximate time of a regular em- 
ployee. In the event a part-time employee worked at least 75 
percent of the normal working hours for the month, one full-time 
employee was counted. 

If employees were not paid from police department funds or from 
some public fund allocated for police personnel, they were excluded 
from the tabulations. Also employees on military or other extended 
leave of absence were excluded from the figures. 

Comparisons of police strength between cities represented in tables 
15 and 16 cannot be used indiscrmiinately. There are many complex 
factors entering into the question of adequacy or inadequacy of the 
number of personnel in a particular police department. One of the 
primary considerations in such a study should be the volume of police 



803181°— 48- 



24 




25 

business handled. The amount of work confronting pohce depart- 
ments cannot be measured by reference to major crimes alone. For 
example, in some cities the police expend a great deal of time in escort 
work, investigations of all sorts of license applications, taking the city- 
census, and the like. Conversely, in other cities such activities are 
not performed by the police. 

In addition, some departments may have a 40-hour week while 
others work 60 hours or longer. In most departments the three- 
shifts per day method of operation is cbmmon, but some still may re- 
tain the 12-hour day. Differences in automotive and communication 
equipment affect comparisons of departments as do the number of 
private police and separate police organizations such as public park 
police. 

In some instances volunteer workers may assist the police in certain 
phases of theii" activities. The problem of handling traffic at school 
crossings is also important. Full-time police officers may be assigned 
to this work or the department may utilize part-time guards who are 
classed as civilian employees in these tabulations unless it was speci- 
fically stated that they had police powers. 

Other factors which must be considered in an intelligent studj^ of 
police strength as between cities are suggested in the text preceding 
table 6. 

It should be particularly noted that in grouping the cities, and, in 
fact, in all tabulations, the 1940 census figures were used in the interests 
of uniformity. Since 1940, however, marked changes in population 
occurred in many communities; a number in the Pacific area, for ex- 
ample, more than doubled in size. 



Table 15. — Number of 'police department employees, Apr. 30, 1948, cities over 

25,000 in population 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 

CITIES WITH OVER 250,000 INHABITANTS. 



City 



Birmingham, Ala... 
Los Angeles, Calif.. 

Oakland, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif 

Denver, Colo 

Washington, D. C. 

Atlanta, Ga 

Chicago, 111 

Indianpolis, Ind 

Louisville, Ky 

New Orleans, La 

Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass 

Detroit, Mich 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

St. Paul, Minn 

Kansas City, Mo... 
St. Louis, Mo.. 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



Police Civil- 
officers ians 



3,725 
633 

1,478 
518 

1, 732 
460 

7,644 
571 
446 
917 

1,974 

2,327 

4,228 
568 
315 
565 

1,811 



25 

856 

107 

77 

26 

157 

74 

303 

76 

28 

4 

207 

219 

299 

48 

23 

126 

431 



Total 



313 

4,581 

740 

1,555 

544 

1,889 

534 

7,947 

647 

474 

921 

2. 181 

2, 546 

4,527 

616 

338 

691 

2,242 



City 



Newark, N. J 

Buffalo, N. Y... 
New York, N. Y. 
Rochester, N. Y.. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Cleveland, Ohio.. 
Columbus, Ohio., 

Toledo, Ohio 

Portland, Greg 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pittsburgh, Pa... 
Providence, R. I. 
Memphis, Term.. 

Dallas Te.ic 

Houston, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 

Seattle, Wash 

Milwaukee, Wis.. 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



Police 
ofTicers 



1,178 

1,204 

17, 650 

439 

757 

1,584 

375 

345 

594 

4,877 

1,076 

451 

275 

397 

480 

264 

617 

1,195 



Civil 
ians 



138 

148 

912 

41 

28 

303 

35 

57 

90 

266 

114 

78 

61 

58 

90 

73 

108 

86 



Total 



1,316 

1,352 

18,562 

480 

785 

1,887 

410 

402 

684 

h, 143 

1,190 

529 

336 

455 

570 

337 

725 

1,281 



26 



Table 15. — Number of police department employees, April S( 
25,000 in population — Continued 

CITIES WITH 100,000 TO 250,000 INHABITANTS 



1948, cities over 



City 



Long Beach, Calif... 

Sacramento, Calif 

San Diego, Calif 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Hartford, Conn 

New Haven, Conn__. 

Wilmington, Del 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Miami, Fla 

Tampa, Fla 

Peoria, 111 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Gary, Ind 

South Bend, Ind 

Des Moines, Iowa... 
Kansas City, Kans.. 

Wichita, Kans 

Cambridge Mass 

Fall River, Mass 

Lowell, Mass 

New Bedford, Mass. 

Somerville, Mass 

Springfield, Mass 

Worcester, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Grand Rapids, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 

Omaha, Nebr 



Number of police de- || 


partment em 


ployees 


Police 
ofiBcers 


Civil- 
ians 


Total 


296 


79 


375 


171 


27 


198 


3fi8 


82 


450 


268 


7 


275 


326 


34 


360 


312 


28 


340 


184 


20 


204 


300 


26 


326 


429 


49 


478 


160 


18 


178 


138 


8 


146 


165 


3 


168 


176 


37 


213 


141 


9 


150 


168 


3 


171 


125 


14 


139 


147 


29 


176 


210 


8 


218 


211 


13 


224 


166 


12 


178 


210 


11 


221 


159 


2 


161 


302 


20 


322 


346 


23 


369 


173 


38 


211 


206 


26 


232 


125 


9 


134 


256 


30 


286 



City 



Camden, N. J 

Elizabeth, N.J 

Paterson, N. J 

Trenton, N.J 

Albany, N.Y 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Utica, N. Y 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Charlotte, N. C 

Akron, Ohio 

Canton, Ohio 

Dayton, Ohio 

Youngstown, Ohio 

Oklahoma City, Okla 

Tulsa, Okla 

Erie, Pa 

Reading, Pa 

Scranton, Pa 

Chattanooga, Tenn... 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Nashville, Tenn 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Norfolk, Va 

Richmond, Va-.. 

Spokane, Wash 

Tacoma, Wash 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



Police 
oflBcers 



170 
219 
239 
223 
308 
287 
153 
269 
153 
273 
125 
159 
197 
192 
187 
142 
146 
166 
135 
142 
201 
308 
207 
298 
288 
173 
199 



Civil- 
ians 



CITIES WITH 50,000 TO 100,000 INHABITANTS 



Mobile, Ala 

Montgomery, Ala... 

Phoenix, Ariz 

Little Rock, Ark_... 

Berkeley, Calif 

Fresno, Calif 

Glendale, Calif 

Pasadena, Calif 

San Jose, Calif 

Santa Monica, Calif 

Stockton, Calif 

Pueblo, Colo 

New Britain, Coim. 
Waterbury, Conn... 
St. Petersburg, Fla. 

Augusta, Ga 

Columbus, Ga 

Macon, Ga 

Savannah, Ga 

Cicero, 111. 

Decatur, 111 

East St. Louis, 111.. 

Evanston, 111. 

Oak Park, 111 

Rockford, IlL. 

Springfield, 111 

East Chicago, Ind.. 

Evansville, Ind 

Hammond, Ind 

Terre Haute, Ind... 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

Davenport, Iowa 

Sioux City, Iowa 

AVaterloo, Iowa 

Topeka, Kans 

Covington, Ky 

Shreveport, La 

Portland, Maine 

Brockton, Mass 

Holyoke, Mass 

Lawrence, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

Maiden, Mass 



131 


26 


157 


118 


15 


133 


139 


10 


149 


109 


4 


113 


117 


17 


134 


142 


17 


159 


108 


29 


137 


113 


36 


149 


118 




118 


115 


30 


145 


99 


4 


103 


57 


3 


60 


119 


6 


125 


193 


9 


202 


75 


7 


82 


111 


13 


124 


102 


1 


103 


84 


4 


88 


153 


18 


171 


75 


24 


99 


59 


6 


65 


75 


9 


84 


89 


21 


110 


72 


4 


76 


86 


5 


91 


98 


22 


120 


97 


2 


99 


145 


14 


159 


108 


7 


115 


76 


1 


77 


80 


8 


88 


76 


1 


77 


80 


15 


95 


61 




61 


62 


17 


79 


74 




74 


121 


12 


133 


114 


5 


119 


96 


4 


100 


98 


2 


100 


134 


4 


138 


168 


9 


177 


101 


3 


104 



Medford, Mass 

Newton, Mass 

Quincy, Mass 

Dearborn, Mich 

Highland Park, Mich.... 

Kalamazoo, Mich 

Lansing, Mich 

Pontiac, Mich 

Saginaw, Mich__ 

Jackson, Miss 

St. Joseph, Mo 

Springfield, Mo 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Manchester, N. H.. 

Atlantic City, N. J 

Bayonne, N. J 

East Orange, N. J 

Hoboken, N. J 

Irvington, N. J 

Passaic, N. J 

Union City, N.J. 

Binghamton, N. Y 

Mount Vernon, N. Y 

New Rochelle, N. Y 

Niagara Falls, N. Y 

Schenectady, N. Y 

Trov, N. Y 

Asheville, N. C 

Durham, N. C 

Greensboro, N. C 

Winston-Salem, N. C 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Lakewood, Ohio 

Springfield, Ohio 

Allentown, Pa 

Altoona, Pa... 

Bethlehem, Pa 

Chester, Pa 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Johnstown. Pa 

Lancaster, Pa 

McKeesport, Pa 



107 


1 


134 


5 


1.36 


4 


154 


16 


91 


18 


64 


25 


103 


3 


73 


10 


125 


12 


98 


25 


86 


15 


71 


10 


87 


15 


111 


7 


202 


48 


198 


10 


108 




179 


4 


85 


8 


110 




115 




126 


11 


132 


6 


136 


16 


147 


12 


154 


16 


148 


21 


72 


2 


86 


- 9 


104 


9 


138 


12 


55 


20 


71 


4 


75 


3 


65 


4 


101 


9 


81 


5 


49 


1 


70 


10 


132 


7 


72 


5 



72 



27 



Table 15. — A^mnber of police departjnent employees, April SO, 1948, cities over 
25,000 in population — Continued 

CITIES WITH 50,000 TO 100,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Upper Darby Twp, Pa 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa 

York, Pa. 

Pawtucket, R. I 

Charleston, S. C 

Columbia, S. C. 

Aniarillo, Tex 

Austin, Tex.. 

Beaumont, Tex 

Corpus Christi, Tex.._ 
El Paso, Tex 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



Police 
oflBcers 



87 

94 

69 

128 

119 

134 

86 

127 

73 

96 

137 



Civil- 
ians 



Total 



101 
95 
70 
139 
139 
145 
86 
150 
74 
116 
160 



City 



Galveston, Tex 

Waco, Tex 

Arlington, Va 

Portsmouth, Va 

Roanoke, Va 

Charleston, W. Va. 
Huntington, W. Va 
WliecHng, W. Va... 

Madison, Wis 

Racine, Wis 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



Police 

oflieers 



85 
76 
75 
72 

117 
74 
81 
74 

102 
87 



Civil- 
ians 



Total 



CITIES WITH 25,000 TO 50,000 INHABITANTS 



Anniston, Ala 

Gadsden, Ala 

Tuscaloosa, Ala 

Tucson, Ariz 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Alameda, Calif 

Alhambra, Calif 

Bakersfield, Calif 

Belvedere Twp., Calif.. 

Beverly Hills, Calif 

Burbank, Calif 

Huntington Park, Calif. 

Inglewood, Calif 

Riverside, Calif 

San Bernardino, Calif. - 

Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif 

South Gate, Calif 

Colorado Springs, Colo- 

Bristol, Conn 

Greenwich Town, Conn 

Meriden, Conn 

Middletown, Coim 

New London, Conn 

Norwalk, Conn 

Stamford, Conn... 

Torrington, Conn 

West Hartford, Conn... 

West Haven, Conn 

Miami Beach, Fla 

Orlando, Fla 

Pensacola, Fla 

West Palm Beach, Fla.. 

Rome, Ga 

Boise, Idaho 

Alton, 111... 

-Aurora, 111 

Belleville, 111.. 

Berwyn, 111 

Bloomington, 111 

Danville, 111 

Elgin, 111 

Oalesburg, HI 

Joliet, 111 

Maywood, 111 

Molino, 111 

Quincv, 111 

Rock island, 111. 

Waukegan, 111... 

Anderson, Ind 

Elkhart, Ind 

Kokomo, Ind. 

Lafayette, Ind 

Marion, Ind 

Michigan City, Ind 

Mishawaka, Ind 

Muncie, Ind. 

New Albany, Ind. 

Richmond, Ind 

Burlington, Iowa 



33 


1 


34 


70 




70 


35 




35 


62 


7 


69 


36 


2 


38 


64 


3 


67 


52 


7 


59 


68 


7 


75 


38 


5 


43 


53 


11 


64 


69 


21 


90 


40 


5 


45 


42 


4 


46 


61 


5 


66 


93 


4 


97 


53 


4 


57 


55 


9 


64 


38 


8 


46 


50 


3 


53 


39 


2 


41 


92 




99 


60 


6 


66 


33 


3 


36 


59 


3 


62 


61 




61 


112 


4 


116 


40 


1 


41 


58 


4 


62 


38 




38 


93 


19 


112 


67 


10 


77 


70 


5 


75 


57 


1 


58 


36 


2 


38 


46 




46 


28 




28 


46 


1 


47 


27 




27 


41 


2 


43 


36 


2 


38 


30 




30 


51 


2 


53 


30 


5 


35 


58 


3 


61 


22 




22 


28 


1 


. 29 


43 




43 


49 




49 


34 


1 


35 


65 
53 
66 


4 
3 


69 
56 
56 


48 


1 


49 


36 




36 


40 
38 
65 
22 


...... 

8 


40 
41 
73 
22 


38 
35 




38 
35 



Clinton, Iowa 

Council Bluffs, Iowa 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Mason City, Iowa 

Ottumwa, Iowa 

Hutchinson, Kans 

Ashland, Ivy 

Lexington, Ky 

Newport, Ky 

Owensboro, Ky 

Paducah, Ky 

Alexandria, La 

Baton Rouge, La 

Monioe, La 

Bangor, Maine 

liCwiston, Maine 

Cumberland, Md 

Hager.^town, Md 

.\rlington. Mass 

Belmont, Mass 

Beverly, Mass 

Brookline, Mass 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chicopee, Mass 

Everett, Mass. 

Fitchburg, Mass 

Haverhill, Mass 

Melrose, Mass.. 

Pittsfield, Mass 

Revere, Mass 

Salem, Mass 

Taunton, Mass 

Waltham, Mass__ 

Watertown, Mass 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Battle Creek, Mich 

Bay City, Mich 

Hamtramck, Mich 

Jackson, Mich 

Muskegon, Mich 

Port Huron, .Mich 

Royal Oak, Mich 

Wyandotte, Mich 

Rochester, Minn.. 

Meridian, Miss 

Joplin, Mo 

Universitv City, Mo 

Butte, Mont 

Great Falls, Mont 

Concord, N. H 

Na.shua, N. H 

Belleville, N.J. 

Hloomfield, N.J 

Clifton, N. J.. 

(iarfu'lil, N.J. 

JIackensack, N. J... 

Haiiiillon 'I'ownship, N. J 

Kearney, N.J 

Montclair, N. J 

New Brtmswick, N. J 



27 




31 


3 


42 




30 


4 


27 




28 


4 


32 




89 


2 


47 


8 


41 


1 


42 




52 




49 


4 


43 




50 


5 


51 


4 


43 


6 


39 


4 


61 


6 


41 


3 


49 




113 


4 


72 


5 


50 


1 


92 


2 


52 


8 


65 


2 


34 




63 




65 


3 


79 


4 


52 


4 


56 


4 


59 


4 


49 


5 


43 


9 


71 


8 


87 


3 


67 


4 


57 


8 


46 


8 


30 


3 


47 


7 


30 


1 


51 


2 


33 


3 


36 


5 


28 


1 


32 


2 


34 


3 


49 




51 


2 


81 


7 


61 




39 




56 




43 


1 


91 


1 


73 


18 


56 


3 



28 



Table 15. — Number of 'police department employees, April 30, 1948, cities over 
25,000 in population — Continued 

CITIES WITH 25,000 TO S0,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



North Bergen Township, 

N.J 

Orange, N. J 

Perth Ambov, N. J 

Plainfleld, N. J 

Teaneck Township, N. J 

West New York, N. J 

West Orange, N. J_ 

Woodbridge Township, N. J. 

Albuquerque, N. M _ 

Amsterdam, N. Y 

Auburn, N. Y _. 

E'.mira, N. Y 

Jamestown, N. Y 

Kingston, N. Y 

New burgh, N. Y 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y 

Rome, N. Y 

Watertown, N. Y 

White Plains, N. Y 

High Point, N. C 

Raleigh, N. C 

Rocky Mount, N. C 

Wilmington, N. C 

Fargo, N. Dak 

East Cleveland, Ohio 

Elyria, Ohio 

Lima, Ohio 

Lorain, Ohio 

Mansfield, Ohio 

Marion, Ohio 

Massillon, Ohio 

Middletown, Ohio 

Newark, Ohio 

Norwood, Ohio 

Portsmouth, Ohio 

Steubenville, Ohio 

Warren, Ohio.. 

Zanesville, Ohio 

Enid, Okla 

Muskogee, Okla.. __ 

Salem, Oreg 

Aliquippa, Pa 

Easton, Pa - 

Haverford Township, Pa 

Hazleton, Pa 

Lebanon , Pa 

Lower Merion Township, Pa 



Number of police de- 


partment em 


ployees 


Police 
officers 


Civil- 
ians 


Total 


71 


6 


77 


65 


1 


66 


74 




74 


59 


6 


65 


40 




40 


81 




81 


49 


2 


51 


46 


7 


53 


52 


2 


54 


41 


1 


42 


49 


2 


51 


79 


5 


84 


59 


5 


64 


41 


2 


43 


51 


1 


52 


67 


3 


70 


37 


1 


38 


39 


1 


40 


106 


5 


111 


59 


4 


63 


61 


4 


65 


37 


1 


38 


72 


4 


76 


40 


4 


44 


42 


20 


62 


29 




29 


45 


2 


47 


43 




43 


40 


1 


41 


26 




26 


24 


3 


27 


40 


1 


41 


30 




30 


32 


4 


36 


37 


1 


38 


40 




40 


51 




51 


29 




29 


29 




29 


34 


10 


44 


44 




44 


26 




26 


43 


2 


45 


41 


3 


44 


29 




29 


30 


1 


31 


104 


4 


108 



City 



New Castle, Pa 

Norristown, Pa 

Sharon, Pa 

Washington, Pa 

Wilkinsburg, Pa 

Williamsport, Pa 

Central Falls, R. I.... 

Cranston, R. I 

East Providence, E. I 

Newport, R. I 

Warwick, R. I 

Woonsocket, R. I 

Greenville, S. C 

Spartanburg, S. C 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak... 
Johnson City, Term.. 

Abilene, Tex 

Laredo, Tex 

Lubbock, Tex 

Port Aurthur, Tex 

San Angelo, Tex 

Tyler, Tex 

Wichita Falls, Tex.... 

Ogden, Utah 

Burlington, Vt 

Alexandria, Va 

Danville, Va 

Lynchburg, Va 

Newport News, Va... 

Petersburg, Va _ 

Bellingham, Wash 

Everett, Wash 

Yakima, Wash 

Clarksburg, W. Va-.. 
Parkersburg, W. Va. . 

Appleton, Wis 

Beloit, Wis _- 

Eau Claire, Wis 

Fond Du Lac, Wis 

Green Bay, Wis 

Kenosha, Wis 

La Crosse, Wis 

Oshkosh, Wis 

Sheboygan, Wis 

Superior, Wis 

Wausau, Wis. 

Wauwatosa, Wis 

West Alhs, Wis 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



Police 
officers 



Civil- 
ians 



Total 



29 



Table 16. — Number of police department eviplnyees, April SO, 1948, cities %vith 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 

IBased on 1940 decennial census] 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Bessemer, Ala 

Decatur, Ala . .. 

Dothan, Ala 

Fairfield, Ala 

Florence, Ala 

lluntsville, Ala 

Phenix City, Ala -. 

Selrna, Ala 

Blytheville, Ark 

El Dorado, Ark 

Hot Springs, Ark 

Jonesboro, Ark 

North Little Rock, Ark 

Pine Bluff, Ark 

Texarkana, Ark 

Albany, Calif 

Anaheim, Calif ._. 

Bell. Calif 

Brawley, Calif 

Burlingame, Calif- 

Compton, Calif 

El Centre, Calif 

Eureka, Calif 

Fullerton, Calif 

Lodi, Calif 

Lynwood, Calif.. 

Mayw'ood, Calif 

Merced, Calif 

Modesto, Calif 

Monrovia, Calif 

Monterev, Calif 

National Citv. Calif . 

Ontario, Calif I 

Palo Alto, Calif 

Pomona, Calif __ 

Red lands, Calif 

Redondo Beach, Calif 

Redwood City, Calif 

Richmond, Calif __ 

Salinas, Calif 

San Gabriel, Calif 

San Leandro, Calif. 

San Mateo, Calif 

Santa Cruz, Calif 

Santa Rosa, Calif 

South Pasadena, Calif 

Vallejo, Calif _ 

Ventura, Calif 

Whittier, Calif 

Boulder, Colo 

Fort Collins, Colo _ 

Crand Junction, Colo 

Oreeley, Colo 

Trinidad, Colo.. 

A nsonia. Conn 

Danbury, Conn 

Derliy, Conn 

East Hartford, Conn 

Naugatuck, Conn 

Norwich, Conn 

Shelton, Conn 

Stratford, Conn 

Wallingford, Conn 

Willimantic, Conn. 

Bradent on, F la . _ 

Clearwater, Fla 

Daytona Beach, Fla 

Fort I-auderdale, Fla 

Fort Myers, Fla 

Gainesville, Fla 

Key West, Fla 

Lakeland, Fla 

Panama City, Fla 

St. Augustine, Fla 

Sanford, Fla 

Sarasota, Fla 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 



34 
10 
30 
12 
19 
30 
21 
2S 
11 
16 
32 
12 
40 
18 
17 
16 
23 
15 
14 
28 
29 
18 
23 
14 
18 
21 
17 
20 
34 
21 
18 
20 
26 
33 
39 
20 
27 
23 
107 
30 
24 
27 
36 
30 
21 
21 
58 
22 
27 
13 
12 
19 
16 
10 
17 
31 
23 
48 
23 
46 
11 
30 
16 
16 
14 
23 
42 
40 
15 
27 
21 
42 
16 
21 
15 
17 




Tallahassee, Fla 

Albany, Ga 

Athens, Ga 

Brunswick, Ga 

Dalton, Ga 

Decatur, Ga 

East Point, Ga 

Gainesville. Ga 

QrifBn, Ga 

La Grange, Ga 

Moultrie, Ga 

Thomasville, Ga 

Valdosta, Ga 

Waycross, Ga 

Coeur d'Alene, Idaho 
Idaho Falls, Idaho... 

Lewiston, Idaho 

Nampa, Idaho 

Pocatello, Idaho 

Twin Falls, Idaho.... 

Blue Island, 111 

Brookfleld, 111 

Cairo, 111 

Calumet City, 111 

Canton, 111 

Centralia, 111 

Champaign, 111 

Chicago Heights, 111.. 

Dixon, 111 

East Moline, 111 

Elmhurst, 111. 

Ehnwood Park, 111... 

Forest Park, 111 

Freeport, 111 .• 

Granite City, 111 

Harrisburg, 111 

Harvey, 111 

Highland Park, 111... 

.Jacksonville, 111 

Kankakee, 111 

Kewance, 111 

La Grange, 111 

La Salle, 111 

Lincoln, 111 

Mattoon, 111. 

Melrose Park, 111 

Mount Vernon, 111... 

Ottawa, 111... 

Park Ridge, 111.. 

Pekin,Ill 

Sterling, 111... 

Streator, 111... 

Urbana, III 

West Frankfort, 111 .. 

Wilmette, 111 

Winnetka, 111 

Bedford, Ind 

Bloomington, Ind 

Columbus, Ind 

Connersville, Ind 

Crawfordsvillc, Ind.. 

Elwood, Ind 

Frankfort, Ind._ 

Cioshen, Ind 

Huntington, Ind 

.leflersnnville, Ind 

La Porte, Ind 

Logansport, Ind 

New Castle, Ind 

Peru, Ind 

Shelbyville, Ind 

Vincennes, Ind 

Whiting, Ind 

Ames, Iowa.. 

Boone, Iowa 

Fort Dodge, Iowa 



30 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April SO, 1948, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Fort Madison, Iowa.__. 

Iowa City, Iowa 

Keokuk, Iowa 

Marshalltown, Iowa- _ . 

Muscatine, Iowa 

Newton, Iowa 

Oskaloosa, Iowa 

Arkansas City, Kans... 

Atchison, Kans 

Chanute, Kans 

Coffejn-ille, Kans 

El Dorado, Kans 

Emporia, Kans 

Fort Scott, Kans 

Independence, Kans_.- 

Lawrence, Kans 

Leavenwortti, Kans 

Manhattan, Kans 

Newton, Kans 

Ottawa, Kans 

Parsons, Kans 

Salina, Kans 

Bowling Green, Ky.. _ 

Fort Thomas, Ky 

Frankfort, Ky 

Henderson, Ky 

Hopkinsville, Ky 

Middlesboro, Ky. 

Bogalusa, La 

Lafayette, La 

Lake Charles, La 

New Iberia, La 

Auburn, Maine 

Augusta, Maine 

Bath, Maine 

Biddeford, Maine 

South Portland, Maine 

Waterville, Maine 

Annapolis, Md 

Cambridge, Md 

Frederick, Md 

Salisbury, Md 

Adams, Mass 

Amesbury, Mass 

Andover, Mass.. 

.\thol. Mass 

Attleboro, Mass 

Braintree, Mass 

Clinton, Mass 

Danvers, Mass 

Dedham, Mass. 

Easthampton. Mass 

Fairhaven, Mass 

Framingham, Mass 

Gardner, Mass 

Gloucester, Mass 

Greenfield, Mass 

Leominster, Mass 

Lexington, Mass 

Marblehead, Mass 

Marlboro, Mass 

Methuen, Mass. 

Milford, Mass 

Milton, Mass 

Natick, Mass 

Needhara, Mass 

Newbnryport, Mass 

North Adams, Mass 

Northampton, Mass 

North Attleboro, Mass. 

Northbridge, Mass 

Norwood, Mass 

Peabody, Mass. 

Plymouth, Mass 

Reading, Mass 

Saugus, Mass 

Southbridge, Mass 

Stoneham, Mass 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 




Swampscott, Mass 

Wakefield, Mass 

Webster, Mass 

Wellesley, Mass 

Westfleld, Mass 

West Springfield, Mass... 

Weymouth, Mass 

Winchester, Mass 

Winthrop. Mass 

Woburn, Mass.. 

Adrian, Mich 

Alpena, Mich 

Benton Harbor, Mich 

Birmingham, Mich 

Ecorse, Mich 

Escanaba, Mich 

Ferndale, Mich 

Grosse Pointe Park, Mich 

Holland, Mich 

Iron Mountain, Mich 

Ironwood, Mich 

Lincoln Park, Mich 

Marquette, Mich 

Menominee, Mich 

Midland, Mich 

Monroe, Mich 

Mount Clemens, Mich 

Muskegon Heights, Mich. 

Niles, Mich.. 

Owosso, Mioh 

River Rouge, Mich 

St. Clair Shores, Mich 

Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. . 

Traverse City, Mich 

Ypsilanti, Mich 

Albert Lea, Minn 

Austin, Minn 

Brainerd, Minn 

Faribault, Minn 

Fergus Falls, Minn 

Hibbing, Minn 

Mankato, Minn 

St. Cloud, Minn 

South St. Paul, Minn 

Virginia, Minn 

Winona, Minn 

Biloxi, Miss 

Clarksdale, Miss 

Columbus, Miss 

Greenville, Miss 

Greenwood, Miss 

Gulfport, Miss 

Hattiesburg, Miss 

Laurel, Miss 

Natchez, Miss 

Vicksburg, Miss 

Cape Girardeau, Mo 

Carthage, Mo 

Clayton, Mo. 

Columbia, Mo 

Hannibal, Mo 

Independence, Mo 

.Tefferson City, Mo 

Kirksville, Mo 

Kirkwood, Mo 

Maplewood, Mo 

Moberlv, Mo 

Poplar Bluff, Mo 

Richmond Heights, Mo... 

St. Charles, Mo. 

Sedalia, Mo 

Webster Groves, Mo 

Anaconda, Mont 

Billings, Mont 

Helena, Mont 

Missoula, Mont 

Beatrice, Nebr 

Fremont, Nebr... 



31 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April SO, 1948, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Contiiuied 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS-Continued 




Grand Island, Nebr 

Hastings, Nebr 

Norfolk, Nebr 

North Platte, Nebr.. 

Scottsbluff, Nebr 

Reno, Ncv 

Berlin, N. H 

Claremont, N. H 

Dover, N. H 

Keene, N. H 

Laeonia, N. H 

Portsmouth, N. H 

Rochester, N. H 

Asbury Park, N. J 

Bergenfield, N. J 

Bridgeton, N. J 

Burlington, N. J 

Carteret, N. J 

Cliffside Park, N. J 

Collingswood, N. J 

Cranford TovTnship, N. J 

Dover, N. J 

Englewood, N. J 

Gloucester City, N. J. 

Harrison, N. J 

Hawthorne, N. J 

Hillside Township, N. J 

Linden, N. J 

Lodi, N.J 

Long Branch, N. J 

Lyndhurst, N. J 

Maplewood, N. J 

Millburn Township, N. J 

Millville, N. J 

Morristown, N. J 

Neptune, N. J 

North Plainfleld, N. J 

Nutley, N. J 

Pennsauken Township, N. J. 

Phillipsburg, N. J... 

Pleasantville, N. J 

Rahway, N. J 

Red Bank, N.J . . 

Ridgefield Park, N. J 

Ridgewood, N . J . . . 

Roselle, N. J 

Rutherford, N. J 

South Orange, N. J . 

South River, N. J 

Summit, N. J 

Union Township, N. J 

Weehawken, N. J. 

Westfield, N. J 

Clovis, N. Mex... 

Hobbs, N. Mex 

Roswell, N. Max.. 
Santa Fe, N. Mex. 

Batavia, N. Y 

Beacon, N. Y 

Cohoes, N. Y 

Corning, N. Y . 

Cortland, N. Y... 
Dunkirk, N. Y.... 
Endicott, N. Y.. 
Floral Park, N. Y.... 

Freeport, N. Y 

Fulton, N.Y 

Garden City, N. Y 

Geneva, N. Y... 
Glen Cove, N. Y.... 

Glens Falls. NY... ..'. 

Gloversville, N. Y 

Hempstead, N. Y 

Hornell, N. Y 

Hudson, N. Y 

Irondequoit, N. Y.. 

Ithaca, N. Y 



24 
24 
14 
16 
15 
76 
31 
13 
18 
16 
15 
28 
10 
49 
19 
20 
16 
23 
25 
19 
23 
15 
37 
19 
63 
13 
28 
71 
25 
44 
26 
44 
24 
14 
26 
17 
15 
39 
21 
20 
18 
41 
20 
15 

30 
20 
18 

36 
14 

33 

48 

55 

29 

13 

14 

19 

26 

21 

21 

44 

17 

18 

25 

35 

24 

44 

19 

29 

24 

25 

32 

28 

49 

21 

18 

19 

28 



Johnson City, N. Y 

Johnstown, N. Y 

Kenmore, N. Y 

Lackawanna, N. Y.. 

Little Falls, N. Y 

Lockport, N. Y 

Lynbrook, N. Y 

Mamaroneck, N. Y 

Massena, N. Y. 

Midilletown, N. Y 

North Tonawanda, N. "5 
Ogdensburg, N. Y.. 
Olean, N. Y.... 

Oneida. N. Y 

Oneonta, N. Y 

Ossining, N. Y 

Oswego, N. Y. 
Peekskill, N. Y 
Pittsburgh, N. Y 

Port Chester, N. Y 

Rensselaer, N. Y 

Rockville Centre, N. Y. 
Saratoga Springs, N. Y.. 

Scarsdale, N. Y 

Tonawanda, N. Y 

Watervliet, N. Y 

Burlington, N. C 

Concord, N. C 

Elizabeth City, N. C 

Fayetteville, N. C 

Gastonia, N. C _ 

Goldrboro, N. C 

Greenville, N. C.. 
Hickory, N. O. 

Kinston, N. C... 

Lexington, N. C 
Reidsville, N. C 
Salisbury, N. C 
Shelby, N. C_.. 
Statesville, N. C 
Thomasville, N. C. 

Wilson, N. C 

Bismarck, N. Dak 

Grand Forks, N. Dak... 

Minot, N. Dak 

Alliance, Ohio 

Ashland, Ohio 

Ashtabula, Ohio 

Barberton, Ohio 

Bellaire, Ohio 

Cambridge, Ohio 

Campbell, Ohio 

Chillicothe, Ohio 

Coshocton, Ohio 

Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio 

East Liverpool, Ohio 

Euclid, Ohio 

Findlay, Ohio 

Fostoria, Ohio 

Fremont, Ohio 

Garfield Heights, Ohio... 

Ironton, Ohio 

Lancaster, Ohio.. 

Marietta, Ohio 

Martins Ferry, Ohio 

Mount Vernon, Ohio 

New Philadelphia, Ohio.. 

Nilcs, Ohio 

Painesville, Ohio 

Parma, Ohio 

Pi(iua, Ohio 

Salem, Ohio- 

Sandusky, Ohio 

Shaker Heights, Ohio 

Struthers, Ohio 

Tiffin, Ohio 

Wooster, Ohio. 



803181" — 48- 



32 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April SO, 1948, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 




Xenia, Ohio 

Ada, Okla 

Ardmore, Okla 

Bartlesville, Okla 

Chickasha, Okla 

Durant, Okla 

El Reno, Okla 

Guthrie, Okla 

Lawton, Okla --- 

McAlester, Okla 

Norman, Okla 

Okmulgee, Okla 

Ponca City, Okla 

Sapulpa, Okla 

Seminole, Okla 

Shawnee, Okla 

Stillwater, Okla 

We.woka, Okla 

Astoria, Oreg 

Bend, Oreg 

Eugene, Oreg 

Klamath Falls, Oreg 

Medford, Oreg 

Abington Township, Pa 

Ambridge, Pa 

Arnold, Pa 

Beaver Falls, Pa 

Bellevue, Pa 

Berwick, Pa 

Braddock, Pa 

Bradford, Pa 

Bristol, Pa 

Butler, Pa 

Canonsburg, Pa 

Carbondale, Pa 

Carlisle, Pa 

Carnegie, Pa 

Chambersburg, Pa 

Cheltenham Township, Pa 

Clairton, Pa 

Coatesville, Pa 

Columbia, Pa 

Connells ville. Pa 

Conshohocken, Pa 

Coraopolis, Pa 

Darby, Pa 

Dickson City, Pa 

Donora, Pa 

Dormont, Pa 

Du Bois, Pa - 

Dunmore, Pa 

Duquesne, Pa 

Ellwood City, Pa 

Farrell, Pa 

Oreensburg, Pa 

Hanover, Pa 

Hanover Township, Pa 

Harrison Township, Pa 

Homestead, Pa 

Indiana, Pa 

Jeannette, Pa 

Kingston, Pa 

Lansdowne, Pa 

Latrobe, Pa 

Lewistown, Pa 

Lock Haven, Pa 

Mahanoy City, Pa 

McKees Rocks, Pa - 

MeadvUle, Pa 

Monessen, Pa 

Mount Carmel, Pa 

Mount Lebanon Township, Pa. 

Munhall, Pa 

Nanticoke, Pa 

New Kensington, Pa 

North Braddock, Pa 

Oil Citv, Pa 

Old Forge, Pa 



15 
15 
26 
14 
17 
9 
11 
10 
22 
20 
17 
12 
22 
12 
12 
25 
16 
7 
19 
13 
34 
31 
18 
27 
16 
II 
21 
11 

7 
24 
22 
11 
27 
14 
13 
12 
13 
18 
33 
26 
22 

6 
18 
10 
11 
20 

3 
15 
15 

8 

15 
21 
13 
18 
21 
10 
21 

6 
24 
12 
14 
18 
14 
13 
14 
13 

7 
14 
22 
17 

8 
27 
20 
19 
24 
20 

17 

3 



Phoenix ville, Pa 

Pittston, Pa 

Plains Township, Pa 

Plymouth, Pa 

Pottstown, Pa 

Potts ville. Pa 

Shaler Township, Pa 

Shamokin, Pa 

Shenandoah, Pa 

Steelton, Pa 

Stowe Township, Pa 

Sunbury, Pa 

Swissvale, Pa 

Tamaqua, Pa 

Uniontown, Pa 

Vandergrift, Pa 

Warren, Pa 

Waynesboro, Pa 

West Chester, Pa 

Bristol, R. I 

Cumberland, R. I 

Johnston, R. I 

Lincoln, R. I 

North Providence, R. I- 

Westerly, R. I 

West Warwick, R. I 

Anderson, S. C 

Florence, S. C 

Greenwood, S. C 

Orangeburg, S. C 

Rock Hill, S. C 

Sumter, S. C 

Aberdeen, S. Dak 

Huron, S. Dak 

Mitchell, S. Dak 

Rapid City, S. Dak 

Watertown, S. Dak 

Bristol, Term 

Clarkesville, Term 

Cleveland, Tenn 

Columbia, Tenn 

Dyersburg, Tenn 

Jackson, Tenn 

Kingsport, Tenn 

Bay Town, Tex 

Big Spring, Tex 

Borger, Tex 

Brownsville, Tex 

Brownwood, Tex 

Bryan, Tex 

Cleburne, Tex 

Corsicana, Tex 

Del Rio, Tex 

Denison, Tex 

Denton, Tex 

Greenville, Tex 

Harlingen, Tex 

Highland Park, Tex..._ 

Longview, Tex 

Marshall, Tex 

McAllen, Tex 

Palestine, Tex 

Pampa, Tex 

Paris, Tex 

Sherman, Tex 

Sweetwater, Tex 

Temple, Tex 

Texarkana, Tex 

University Park, Tex.. 

Victoria, Tex 

Logan, Utah 

Provo, Utah.. 

Barre, Vt 

Rutland, Vt 

Charlottesville, Va 

Fredericksburg, Va 

Martinsville, Va 

Staunton, Va 



33 

Table 16. — Number of police depnrinient employees, April 30, 1948, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25.000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 


Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 


City 


Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 


Suffolk, Va 


25 
16 
27 
54 
15 
20 
20 
57 
34 
22 
15 
20 
28 
11 
11 
10 
14 
11 
8 


Chippewa Falls, Wis 

Cudahy, Wis 


14 


Winchester, Va 


13 




Janesville, Wis -. 


27 




Manitowoc. Wis 


34 


Hoquiani, Wash . . 


Marinette, Wis 


13 




Marshfield, Wis 

Menasha, Wis 


16 


Olvmpia, Wash_ 


16 


Vancouver, Wash. 


Neenah, Wis . .. . ... 


19 


Walla Walla, Wash 


Shorewood, Wis 


21 


Wenatchee, Wash . 


South Milwaukee, Wis 


13 


Becklev. W. Va 


Stevens Point, Wis.. 


17 


Bluolield, W. Va.- 


Two Rivers, Wis 


11 


Fairmont, W. Va 


Watertown, Wis 


15 


Martinsbur^, W. Va 


Waukesha, Wis 


25 


Morganto«Ti, W. Va . 


Wisconsin Rapids, Wis 


15 


Moundsville, W. Va.. 


Casper, Wvo .... 


20 


South Charleston, W. Va 


Cheyenne, Wyo 


25 


Ashland, Wis . - 


Laramie, Wyo 


12 


Beaver Dam, Wis 


Sheridan, Wyo._ _ . 


10 









CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 TNHABITANTS 



Albertville, Ala 

Alexander City, Ala 

Andalusia, Ala 

Atmore, Ala 

Attalla, Ala 

Auburn, Ala 

Brewton, Ala 

Carbon Rill, Ala.... 

Clanton, .\la 

Cullman, Ala 

Demopolis, Ala 

Enterprise. Ala 

Fayette, Ala 

Florala, Ala 

Fort Payne, Ala 

Greenville, Ala 

Guntersville, Ala 

Hartselle, Ala 

Homowood, Ala 

Jacksonville, Ala 

Lannett, Ala 

Leeds, Ala 

Northport, Ala 

Opelika, Ala 

Opp, .\la 

Ozark, Ala 

Piedmont, Ala 

Prattville, Ala 

Prichard, Ala 

Roanoke, Ala. 

Russell ville, Ala 

Sheffield, Ala 

Sylaeauca, Ala 

Tarrant City, Ala... 

Tuscumbia, Ala 

Tuskegee, Ala....... 

Union Springs, Ala. 

Bisbee, Ariz 

Douglas, Ariz 

Flagstaflf, Ariz 

Olcndale, .\riz 

Globe, Ariz 

Mesa, Ariz 

Nogales, Ariz 

Prescott, Ariz 

Temi)e, Ariz 

Williams, Ariz 

Winslow, Ariz 

Yuma, Ariz 

Arkadelphia, Ark... 

Batesville, .\rk 

Camden, Ark 

Clarksville, Ark 



Conway, Ark _ _ _ 

Crossett, Ark 

De Queen, Ark 

Dermott, .\rk__ 

Fayetteville, Ark 

Fordyce, Ark 

Forrest City, Ark 

Harrison, Ark 

Helena, Ark 

Hope, Ark 

Malvern, Ark 

Marked Tree, Ark 

McQehee, Ark 

Mena, Ark 

Monticello, Ark 

Nashville, Ark 

Newport, Ark 

Osceola, Ark 

Paris, Ark 

Prescott, Ark 

Rogers, Ark 

Searcy, Ark.__ 

Siloam Springs, Ark 

Springdale, Ark 

Stuttgart, Ark 

Trumann, Ark 

Van Buren, Ark 

Warren, Ark 

West Helena, .\rk 

West Memphis, Ark 

Wynne, Ark _ 

Antioch, Calif 

Arcadia, Calif... 

Auburn, Calif, 

Azusa, Calif 

Banning, Calif 

Brea, Calif 

Calexico, Calif 

Carmel By The Sea, Calif 

Chico, Calif 

Chino, Calif 

Chula Vista. Calif... 

riaremont , Calif 

Coalinga, Calif. 

Colton, Calif- 

Corona, Calif, 

Coronado, Calif 

Covina, Calif 

Culver City, Calif.. 

Daly Citv, Calif 

Delano, Calif 

Dinuba, Calif 

El Cerrito, Calif 



34 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees. April SO, 1948, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



El Monte, Calif 

El Segundo, Calif 

Emeryville, Calif 

Escondido, Calif 

Exeter, Calif 

Fillmore, Calif 

Fort Bragg, Calif 

Gardena, Calif 

Gilroy, Calif 

Glendora, Calif 

Grass Valley, Calif 

Hanford, Calif 

Hawthorne, Calif 

Hayward, Calif 

Healdsburg, Calif 

Hemet, Calif 

Hermosa Beach, Calif 

Hillsborough, Calif 

HoUister, Calif 

Huntington Beach, Calif. 

Laguna Beach, Calif 

La Mesa, Calif 

La Verne, Calif 

Lindsay, Calif 

Livermore, Calif 

Lompoc, Calif 

Los Qatos, Calif 

Madera, Calif 

Manhattan Beach, Calif . 

Martinez, Calif 

Marys ville, Calif 

Menlo Park, Calif 

Mill Valley, Calif 

Montebello, Calif 

Monterey Park, Calif 

Mountain View, Calif 

Napa, Calif 

Needles, Calif 

Newport Beach, Calif 

North Sacramento, Calif- 

Oakdale, Calif 

Oceanside, Calif 

Orange, Calif 

Oroville, Calif 

Oxnard, Calif 

Pacific Grove, Calif - 

Palm Springs, Calif 

Paso Robles, Calif 

Petaluma, Calif 

Piedmont, Calif 

Pittsburg, Calif 

Placerville, Calif 

Porter ville, Calif 

Red Blua, Calif 

Redding, Calif 

Reedley, Calif 

Roseville, Calif 

San Anselmo, Calif _ 

San Bruno, Calif 

San Carlos, Cahf 

San Fernando, Calif 

Sanger, Cahf 

San Luis Obispo, Calif- __ 

San Marino, Calif 

San Rafael, Calif 

Santa Clara, Calif 

Santa Maria, Calif 

Santa Paula, Calif 

Sausalito, Calif 

Selma, Calif 

Sierra Madre, Calif 

Signal Hill, Calif 

So. San Francisco, Calif. - 

Sunnyvale, Calif 

Taft, Calif 

Torrance, Calif 

Tracy, Calif 

Tulare, Calif 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 




Turlock, Calif 

Ukiah, Calif 

Upland, Calif 

Visalia, Calif 

Watsonville, Calif 

Woodland, Calif 

Yuba City, Calif 

Alamosa, Colo 

Aurora, Colo 

Brighton, Colo 

Canon City, Colo 

Delta, Colo 

Durango, Colo 

Englewood, Colo 

Florence, Colo 

Fort Morgan, Colo 

Golden, Colo 

La Junta, Colo 

Lamar, Colo 

Las Animas, Colo 

Leadville, Colo 

Longmont, Colo 

Loveland, Colo 

Monte Vista, Colo 

Montrose, Colo 

Rocky Ford, Colo 

Salida, Colo 

Sterling, Colo 

Walsenburg, Colo 

Danielson, Conn 

Groton, Conn 

Putnam, Conn 

Rockville, Conn.. _. 

Southington, Conn 

Stafford Springs, Coim... 

Winsted, Conn 

Bellefonte, Del 

Dover, Del 

Laurel, Del 

Milford, Del 

Newark, Del 

New Castle, Del 

Seaford, Del 

Apalachicola, Fla 

Arcadia, Fla 

Auburndale, Fla 

Bartow, Fla 

Cocoa, Fla 

Coral Gables, Fla 

Dade City, Fla 

Dania, Fla 

De Funiak Springs, Fla. 

DeLand, Fla 

Delray Beach, Fla 

Eustis, Fla 

Fort Pierce, Fla 

Hialeah, Fla 

Hollywood, Fla 

Homestead, Fla 

Jacksonville Beach, Fla. 

Kissimmee, Fla 

Lake City, Fla 

Lake Wales, Fla 

Lake Worth, Fla 

Leesburg, Fla 

Live Oak, Fla 

Marianna, Fla 

Melbourne, Fla 

New Smyrna Beach, Fla 

Ocala, Fla 

Palatka, Fla 

Palm Beach, Fla 

Perry, Fla 

Plant City, Fla 

Pompano, Fla 

Quincy, Fla --. 

Sebring, Fla 

Vero Beach, Fla 



35 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April SO, 1948, cities with 
population from 2,500 to :?5,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Wauchula, Fla 

Winter Haven, Fla... 

W inter Park, Fla 

Anierieus, Ga 

Bainbridge, Ga 

Barnesville, Ga 

Baxlev, Ga 

Buford, Ga 

Cairo, Ga 

Calhoun, Ga 

Canton, Ga 

Carrollton, Ga 

Cartersville, Ga 

Cedartown, Ga 

College Park, Ga 

Commerce, Ga 

Cordele, Ga.. 

Covington, Ga 

Cuthbert, Ga 

Dawson, Ga 

Douglas, Ga 

Douglasville, Ga 

Eastman, Ga 

Elberton, Ga 

Fitzgerald, Ga-_ 

Fort Valley, Ga 

Hapeville, Ga.. 

Hawkinsville, Ga 

Hogansville, Ga 

Jesup, Ga 

Lafayette, Ga 

Manchester, Ga 

Marietta, Ga 

Milledgeville, Ga 

Millen, Ga 

Monroe, Ga 

Newnan, Ga 

Pelham, Ga... 

Porterdale, Ga 

Quitman, Ga 

Rockmart, Ga 

Sandersville, Ga 

Statesboro, Ga.. 

Thomaston, Ga 

Thomson, Ga 

Tifton, Ga 

Toccoa, Ga 

Trion, Ga 

Washington, Ga 

Waynesboro, Ga 

West Point, Ga 

Winder, Ga 

.\lame.da, Idaho 

Blackfoot, Idaho 

Burlev, Idaho.. 

Caldwell, Idaho 

Emniett, Idaho 

Gooding, Idaho 

Jerome, Idaho 

Kellogg, Idaho 

Malad City, Idaho... 

Montpflier, Idaho 

Moscow, Idaho 

Payette, Idaho 

Preston, Idaho.. 

Rexbtirg, Idaho 

Rupert, Idaho 

St. Anthony, Idaho.. 

Sandpoint, Idaho 

Wallace, Idaho 

Weiser, Idaho 

Abingdon, 111 

Aledo, 111 

Arlington Heights, 111 

Barrington ,111 

Batavia, 111 

Beardstown, 111 

Bellwood.IlL 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 




Bclvidere, 111 

Benton, 111 

Bradley, 111 

Bushnell.Ill 

Carbondale, 111 

Carlinville, 111 

Carlyle, 111 

Carmi, 111 

Carterville, 111 

Carthage, 111 

Casev, 111 

Charleston, 111 

Chester, 111 

Christopher, 111 

Clinton, 111 

Creve Coeur, 111 

Crystal Lake, 111... 

De Kalb, 111 

Des Plaines, 111 

Dolton, 111 __ 

Downers Grove, 111. 

Du Quoin, 111 

East Alton, 111 

East Peoria, 111 

Edwardsville, 111... 

Effingham, 111. 

Eldorado, 111 

Evergreen Park, HI. 

Fairfield. Ill 

Flora, 111 

Franklin Park, HI.. 

Fulton, 111 

Galena, 111 

Geneva, 111 

GeorgetovvTi, 111.-... 

Gillespie, HI 

Glencoe, 111 

Glen EUyn, 111 

Glenview, 111 

Greenville, lU 

Harvard, 111 

Havana, 111 

Herrin, 111 

Highland, 111 

Highwood, 111 

HilLsboro, 111.. 

Hinsdale, 111 

Home wood. 111 

Jer.seyvillo, 111 

Johnston City, 111.. 

Kenilworth, 111 

La Grange Park, 111 

Lake Forest, 111 

Lansing, 111 

Lawrenceville, 111... 

Lemont, 111 

Libertyville, 111 

Litchfield, 111 

Lockport, 111 

Lorabiird, 111 

Lyons, 111 

Macomb, 111. 

Madison, 111 

M<irion, 111 

Marseilles, 111 

Marshall, 111 

McLeanaboro, 111... 

Mcndota, 111.. 

Metropolis, 111 

Monmouth, 111. 

Monticello, 111 

Morris, Ill__ 

Morrison, 111 

Mount Carmel, 111.. 
Mount Olive, 111.... 
Murphysboro, 111... 

Nanu'oki, 111 

Napcrville, 111 



36 



Tabte 16 -Number of poUce department employees April 30, 1948, cities with 
Table 16. ^^'"^^^;p^^ J,;^^ ;,,^, 2,500 to 25 ,000-Contmued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS-Continued 



City 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 
employees 



Nokomis, 111 

Normal, 111 

North Chicago, HI 

Oak Lawn, 111 

Oglesby, 111 

Olney, 111 

Oregon, 111 

Pana, 111 

Paris, 111 

Paxton, 111 

Peoria Heights, 111 

Peru, 111 

Petersburg, 111 

Phoenix, 111 

Pincknevville, HI 

Pittsfield, 111 

Pontiac, 111 

Princeton, 111 

Riverdale, 111 

River Forest, 111 

River Grove, 111 

Riverside, 111 

Robinson, 111 

Rochelle.Ill 

Rock Falls, 111 

Roodhouse, 111 

St. Charles, 111 

Sandwich, 111 

Savanna, 111 

Shelbyville, 111 

Silvis, 111 

Skokie.Ill 

South Beloit, 111 

Sparta, III 

Spring Valley, HI 

Staunton, 111 

Steger, 111 

Sullivan, 111 

Summit, 111 

Sycamore, 111 

Taylorville, 111 

Tuscola, 111 

Vandalia, 111 

Venice, 111 

Villa Park, 111 

Virden, 111 -,— xK" 

Washington Park, 111. 

Watseka, 111 

West Chicago, 111 

Western Springs, 111- 

Westmont, 111- 

WestvQle, 111 

Wheaton, 111 

White Hall, 111 

Wood River, 111 

Woodstock, 111 

Zeigler, HI 

Zion, 111 

Alexandria, Ind 

Angola, Ind 

Attica, Ind 

.\uburn, Ind 

.\urora, Ind 

Batesville, Ind 

Beach Grove, Ind 

Bicknell, Ind 

Bluffton, Ind.- 

Boonville, Ind 

Brazil, Ind • 

Clinton, Ind -.. 

Columbia City, Ind. 
Crown Point, Ind-- 

Decatur, Ind.. - 

Dxmkirk, Ind. 

East Gary, Ind 

Franklin, Ind 

Garrett, Ind 

Gas City, Ind- 



City 



10 
7 
4 
6 
3 
4 
11 
3 
6 
10 
3 
2 
2 
2 
7 
6 
5 
23 
8 
13 
.s 
8 
5 
3 
5 
2 
6 
4 
3 
21 
2 
2 
4 
4 
2 
3 
11 
4 
7 
2 
5 

12 
8 
1 
1 
6 
4 
7 
7 
2 
11 
3 



Greencastle, Ind-- -- 

Greenfield, Ind — - --- 

Greenshurg, Ind 

Hartford City, Ind 

Highland, Ind 

Hobart, Ind 

Huntingburg, Ind 

Jasonville, Ind 

Jasper, Ind 

Kendallville, Ind 

Lawrencehurg, Ind 

Lebanon, Ind 

Linton, Ind 

Madison, Ind 

Martinsville, Ind 

Mitchell, Ind 

Monticello, Ind 

Mount Vernon, Ind 

Nappanee, Ind 

Noblesville, Ind 

North Manchester, Ind-- 

North Vernoji, Ind 

Oakland City, Ind 

Petersburg, Ind 

Plymouth, Ind 

Portland, Ind 

Princeton, Ind 

Rensselaer, Ind 

Rochester, Ind 

Rushville, Ind 

Salem, Ind 

Sevmour, Ind 

Tell City, Ind 

Tipton, Ind 

Union City, Ind 

Valparaiso, Ind 

Wabash, Ind 

Warsaw, Ind 

Washington, Ind 

West Lafayette, Ind 

West Terre Haute, Ind- 

Winchester, Ind 

Albia, Iowa 

Algona, Iowa 

Anamosa, Iowa 

Atlantic, Iowa 

Belle Plaine, Iowa 

Bloomfield, Iowa 

Carroll, Iowa 

Cedar Falls, Iowa 

Center ville, Iowa 

Chariton, Iowa -.- 

Charles City, Iowa 

Cherokee, Iowa 

Clarinda, Iowa 

Clarion, Iowa 

Clear Lake, Iowa 

Cresco, Iowa 

Creston, Iowa 

Decorah, Iowa 

Denison, Iowa 

Eagle Grove, Iowa 

Eldora, Iowa 

Emmetsburg, lowa.-- 

Estherville, Iowa 

Fairfield, Iowa 

Forest City, Iowa 

Grimiell, Iowa 

Hampton, Iowa 

Harlan, Iowa 

5 Hawarden, Iowa 

3 Humboldt, Iowa 

7 Independence, Iowa— . 

2 Indianola, Iowa 

3 Iowa Falls, Iowa 

7 Jeflerson, Iowa 

3 Knoxville, Iowa 

3 Le Mars, Iowa 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 
employees 



3 
4 
10 
3 
7 
3 
6 
5 
13 
13 
7 
13 
8 
5 
7 
3 
4 
3 
4 
3 
3 
4 
10 
8 
3 
10 
4 
4 
2 
4 
2 
8 
5 
5 
4 
3 
6 
6 
4 
2 
3 
4 
2 
3 
3 
5 
3 
5 
4 
4 
4 



37 



Table 16. — Number of police department emiployees, April 30, 194S, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Maquokcta, Iowa_ 

Marion, Iowa 

Missouri Valley, Iowa.. 

MonticoUo, Iowa 

Mount Pleasant, Iowa- 
Nevada, Iowa 

New Hampton, Iowa... 

Oelwcin, Iowa 

Onawa, Iowa 

Osage, Iowa. 

Osceola, Iowa 

Pella, Iowa 

Perry, Iowa 

Red Oak, Iowa 

Rock Rapids, Iowa 

Sac City, Iowa.... 

Sheldon, Iowa 

Shenandoah, Iowa 

Spencer, Iowa 

Storm Lake, Iowa 

Tama, Iowa. 

Tipton, Iowa. 

Vinton, Iowa 

Washington, Iowa 

Waukon, Iowa 

Waverly, Iowa 

Webster City, Iowa 

West Des Moines, Iowa 

Wintcrset, Iowa 

Abilene, Kans 

Anthony, Kans 

Augusta, Kans. 

Belleville, Kans 

Beloit, Kans 

Caney, Kans 

Cherry vale, Kans 

Clay Center, Kans 

Columbus, Kans 

Concordia, Kans 

Dodge City, Kans 

Eureka, Kans 

Fredonia, Kans 

Galena, Kans 

Garden City, Kans 

Garnett, Kans.. 

Girard, Kans 

Goodland, Kans 

Great Bend, Kans 

Hays, Kans... 

Herington, Kans 

Hiawatha, Kans. 

Uoisington, Kans 

Holton, Kans 

Horton, Kans 

lola, Kans 

Junction City, Kans 

Kingman, Kans 

Lamed, Kans 

Liberal, Kans. 

Lyons, Kans 

Marysville, Kans 

Mcpherson, Kans 

Neodesha, Kans 

Norton, Kans 

Olalhe, Kans 

Osawatomie, Kans 

Paola, Kans 

Pratt, Kans 

Russell, Kans. 

Wcllijigton, Kans 

Winfield, Kans 

Beardstown, Ky 

Bellevue, Ky 

Carrollton, Ky... 

Catlettsburg, Ky 

Central City, Ky 

Corbin, Ky 

Cumberland, Ky 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 




C>Tithiana, Ky 

Danville, Ky 

Dayton, Ky 

Earlington, Ky 

Elsmere, Ky... 

Franklin, Ky 

Fulton, Ky 

Georgetown, Ky 

Glasgow, Ky 

Harlan, Ky 

Harrodsburg, Ky 

Hazard, Ky _. 

Irvine, Ky.. 

Jenkins, Ky 

Lebanon, Ky 

Ludlow, Ky.. 

Mayfleld, Ky 

Maysville, Ky 

Mount Sterling, Ky.. 

Murray, Ky 

Nicholasvilie, Ky 

Paris, Ky 

Pikesville, Ky 

Princeton, Ky 

Providence, Ky 

Richmond, Ky 

Russellville, Ky 

Shelbyville, Ky 

Somerset, Ky 

Versailles, Ky 

Winchester, Ky 

Abbeville, La 

Bastrop, La 

Bossier City, La 

Bunkie, La ■ 

Crowley, La 

De Bidder, La 

Eunice, La 

Franklin, La 

Hammond, La 

Houma, La. 

Jeanerette, La 

Jennings, La 

Jonesboro, La 

Kaplan, La 

Mansfield, La 

Minden, La 

Morgan City, La 

Natchitoches, La 

Opelousas, La 

Plaquemine, La 

Ponchatoula, La 

Ruston, La 

St. Martinsville, La.. 

Slidell, La.... 

Springhill, La 

Tallulah, La 

Thibodau.x, La 

Ville Platte, La 

West Monroe, La 

Westwego, La 

Winnsboro, La 

Belfast, Maine 

Brewer, Maine 

Bruiiswi'k, Maine... 

Calais, Maine 

Eastport, Maine 

Ellsworth, Maine 

Fairfield, Mahie 

Fort Fairfield, Maine 

Gardiner, Maine 

Hallowell, Maine 

Old Town, Maine 

Prestjue Isle. Maine.. 

Rockland, Maine 

Rumford, Mame 

Saco, Maine 

Brunswick, Md 



38 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April SO, 1948, cities with 
population from 2,500 to ^5,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Chestertown, Md 

Orisfield, Md 

Easton, Md 

Elkton, Md 

Frostburg, Md 

Greenbelt, Md 

Havre De Grace, Md 

Laurel, Md 

Mount Rainier, Md 

Pocomoke City, Md 

Takoma Park, Md 

Westminster, Md 

Abington, Mass 

Auburn, Mass 

Ayer, Mass 

Barnstable, Mass 

Blackstone, Mass 

Bridtrewater, Mass 

Canton, Mass 

Concord, Mass 

Dalton, Mass 

Dartmouth, Mass 

Dracut. Mass 

Franklin, Mass 

Great Barrington, Mass 

Hingham, Mass 

Hopedale, Mass 

Hudson, Mass 

Ipswich, Mass 

Lee, Mass 

Longmeadow, Mass 

Ludlow, Mass 

Mansfield, Mass 

Maynard, Mass 

Middleborough, Mass 

Millbury, Ma,ss 

Montague, Mass 

Nantucket, Mass 

North Andover, Mass 

Orange, Mass 

Palmer, Mass 

Provincetown, Mass 

Randolph, Mass 

Rockland, Mass 

Rockfort, Mass 

Somerset, Mass 

South Hadley, Mass 

Spencer, Mass 

Stoughton, Mass 

Uxbridge, Mass 

Walpole, Mass 

Ware, Mass 

Whitman, Mass 

Winchendon, Mass 

Albion, Mich 

Allen Park, Mich 

Alma, Mich 

Belding, Mich 

Berkley, Mich 

Bessemer, Mich 

Big Rapids, Mich 

Boyne City, Mich.. 

Buchanan, Mich 

Cadillac, Mich 

Caro, Mich 

Center Line, Mich 

Charlotte, Mich 

Cheboygan, Mich... 

Clawson, Mich.. 

Coldwater, Mich.. 

Crystal Falls, Mich 

Dowagiac, Mich 

Durand, Mich 

East Detroit, Mich 

East Grand Rapids, Mich. 

East Lansing, Mich 

Eaton Rapids, Mich 

Fenton, Mich 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 




Freemont, Mich 

Garden City, Mich 

Gladstone, Mich 

Grand Haven, Mich 

Grand Ledge, Mich 

Greenville. Mich 

Grosse Pointe, Mich 

Grosse Pointe Farms, Mich. 
Grosse Pointe Woods, Mich. 

Hancock, Mich 

Hastings, M ich 

Hillsdale, Mich 

Houghton, Mich 

Howell, Mich 

Inkster, Mich 

Ionia, Mich 

Iron River, Mich 

Ishpeming, Mich 

Kingsford, Mich 

L'Anse, Mich 

Lapeer, Mich_ 

Ludington, Mich 

Manistee, Mich 

Manistique, Mich 

Marine City, Mich 

Marshall, Mich 

Mason, Mich 

Melvindale, Mich. 

Mount Pleasant, Mich 

Munising, Mich 

Negaunee, Mich 

Newberry, Mich 

Northvilie, Mich 

Norway, Mich 

Otsego, Mich 

Petoskey, Mich 

Pleasant Ridge, Mich 

Plymouth, Mich 

Rochester, Mich 

Rogers City, Mich 

Romeo, Mich 

Roseville, Mich 

St. Clair, Mich 

St. Ignace, Mich 

St. Johns, Mich 

St. Joseph, Mich 

St. Louis, Mich 

South Haven, Mich 

Sturgis, Mich 

Tecumseh, Mich 

Three Rivers, Mich 

Trenton, Mich. 

Wakefield, Mich 

Wayne, Mich 

Zeeland, Mich 

Alexandria, Minn 

Anoka, Minn 

Bayport, Minn 

Bemidji, Minn 

Benson, Minn 

Blue Earth, Minn 

Breckenridge, Minn 

Chisholm, Mirm 

CloQuet, Minn 

Columbia Heights, Minn... 

Crookston, Minn — 

Crosby, Minn 

East Grand Forks, Minn... 

Edina, Minn 

Ely, Minn 

Eveleth, Minn 

Fairmont, Minn 

Gilbert, Minn 

Glenwood, Minn 

Grand Rapids, Mirm 

Hastings, Minn 

Hopkins, Minn 

Hutchinson, Minn.. 



39 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April SO, 1948, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 


Number of 
police de- 
partment 
employees 


Infprnfttinnnl Falls, Minn 


6 


Lake Citv, Minn.- 


3 


Litchfiold, Minn 


3 


I.ittlo F.ills. \Tinn 




Luvorne. Minn 


4 


Marshall, Alinn - 


6 




6 


Monrhead. Minn. 


11 


Morris. Minn . 


4 


New I'lm, Minn 


g 


Northfleld, Minn 


4 


North Mankato, Minn. 


3 


North St. Paul, Minn 


2 


Owatonna, Minn 


11 


Park Rapids, Minn 


2 


Pipestone, Minn 


3 


Red Winp, Minn 


11 


Redwood Falls, Minn 


2 


Richfield, Minn . 


9 


Robbinsdale, Minn . . ... 


5 


St. James, Minn 


4 


St. Peter, Minn 


3 


Sauk Center, Minn 


2 


Sauk Rapids, Minn 


2 


Sleepy Eve, Minn 


3 


Staples, Minn . 


4 


Stillwater, Minn... 


g 


Thief River Falls, Minn 


g 


Tracy, Minn 


2 


Two Harbors, Mmn 


5 


Wadena, Minn 


5 


Waseca, Minn 


4 


West St. Paul, Minn 


5 


White Bear Lake, Minn 


2 


Willmar, Minn 


10 


Windom, Minn 


2 


Worthington, Minn .. .. 


5 


Aberdeen, Miss ... 


5 


Amory, Miss... 


5 


Bay St. Louis, Miss 


4 


Belzoni, Miss . 


3 


Brookhaven, Miss .. 


6 


Cleveland, Miss 


7 


Columbia, Miss. 


5 


Corinth, Miss. 


11 


Durant, Miss . . 


2 


Grenada, Miss . 




Holly Springs, Miss 


4 


Indianola, Miss... 


5 


Kosciusko, Miss 


6 


Leland, Miss 


4 


Lexington, Miss 


4 


Louisville, Miss 


4 


McComb, Miss 


11 


Moss Point, Miss . 


3 


Oxford, Miss 


4 


Pascagoula, Miss 


14 


Picayune, Miss 


3 


Tupelo, Mi.ss 


11 


Water Valley, Miss 


3 


West Point, Miss 


5 


Winona, Mi.ss 


3 


Yazoo City, Miss 


9 


Aurora, Mo 


4 


Berkeley, Mo. 


4 


Bethany, Mo 


2 


Boonville, Mo... 


7 


Brentwood, Mo 


9 


Butler, Mo 


2 


California, Mo.. 


1 


Cameron, Mo... 


3 




3 


Caruthersville, Mo 


5 


Chillicothe, Mo 


10 


Crystal City, Mo 


1 


De Soto, Mo 


3 


Dexter, Mo _ 


3 


Eldon, Mo 


2 




Excelsior Springs, Mo... 

Farmington, Mo 

Fayette, Mo 

Ferguson, Mo 

Festus, Mo 

Fredericktown, Mo 

Fulton, Mo 

Glcndale, Mo 

Hayti, Mo 

Higginsville, Mo 

Jackson, Mo 

Ladue, Mo 

Lamar, Mo 

Lebanon, Mo 

Lexington, Mo 

Liberty, Mo 

Macon, Mo 

Marcoline, Mo 

Marshall, Mo 

Maryville, Mo 

Mexico, Mo 

Monett, Mo 

Neosho, Mo 

Nevada, Mo 

North Kansas City, Mo 

Overland, Mo 

Richmond, Mo 

Rolla, Mo 

Ste. Genevieve, Mo 

Salem, Mo 

Slater, Mo 

Sullivan, Mo 

Trenton, Mo 

Warrens burg, Mo 

Washington, Mo 

West Plains, Mo 

Bozeman, Mont 

Cut Bank, Mont 

Deer Lodge, Mont 

Dillon, Mont 

Glasgow, Mont 

Glendive, Mont 

Havre, Mont 

Kalispell, Mont 

Laurel, Mont 

Lewistown, Mont 

Livingston, Mont 

Miles City, Mont 

Red Lodge, Mont 

Roundup, Mont... 

Shelby, Mont 

Sidney, Mont 

Whitefish, Mont 

Alliance, Nebr 

Auburn, Nebr 

Blair, Nebr 

Broken Bow, Nebr 

Chadron, Nebr.. 

Columbus, Nebr 

Crete, Nebr 

Fairbury, Nebr 

Falls City, Nebr.- 

Oering, Nebr 

Iloldrpge, Nebr. 

Kearney, Nebr 

Lexington, Nebr 

McCook, IS^'ebr 

Nebraska City, Nebr... 

Ogallala, Nebr... 

Plattsmouth, Nebr 

Schuyler, Nebr 

Seward, Nebr 

Sidney, Nebr.. 

South Sioux City, Nebr. 

Superior, Nebr 

Wahoo, Nebr.. 

Wayne, Nebr... 

West Point, Nebr 



40 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April SO, 1948, cities voith 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



York, Nebr 

Elko, Nev.-- 

Ely, Nev 

Las Vegas, Nev 

Sparks, Nev 

Derry, N. H 

Exeter, N. H 

Franklin, N. H 

Lebanon, N. H 

Littleton, N. H 

Milford, N. H 

Newport, N. H 

Somersworth, N. H 

Audubon, N. J_. --- 

Belmar, N. J 

Bernardsville, N. J 

Beverly, N. J 

Blooniingdale, N. J 

Bogota, N. J 

Boonton, N. J 

Bordcntown, N. J 

Bound Brook, N. J 

Bradlev Beach, N. J 

Butler, N. J --- 

Caldwell, N.J 

Cape May, N. J 

Carlstadt, N. J___- 

Chatham, N. J 

Clementon, N. J 

Closter, N. J 

Dumont, N. J 

Dunellen, N. J 

East Paterson, N. J 

East Rutherford, N. J— 

Edgewater, N. J 

Egg Harbor City, N. J.. 

Fair Lawn, N. J 

Fairview, N. J 

Flemington, N. J 

Fort Lee, N. J 

Franklin, N. .7 

Freehold, N. J 

Garwood, N. J 

Glassboro, N. J 

Glen Ridge, N. J 

GlenRock, N. J 

Guttenberg, N. J 

Haekettstown, N. J 

Haddonfield, N. J 

Haddon Heights, N. J. 

Haledon, N. J 

Hammonton, N. J 

Highland Park, N.J... 

Hightstown, N. J 

Hillsdale, N. J 

Keansburg, N. J 

Keyport, N. J 

Lambertville, N. J 

Leonia, N. J 

Little Ferry, N. J 

Madison, N. J 

Manville, N. J 

Margate City, N. J 

Mattawan, N. J_ 

Maywood, N. J... 

Merehantville, N. J 

Metuchen, N. J. 

Middlesex, N. J 

Midland Park, N. J.... 

Milltown, N.J 

New Milford, N. J 

Newton, N. J 

North Arlington, N. J. 

Northfield, N. J 

North Haledon, N. J... 

Oaklyn, N. J 

Ocean City, N. J 

Oceanport, N. J 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 
employees 



City 



Oradell, N. J 

Palisades Park, N. J 

Palmyra, N. J 

Paramus, N. J 

Park Ridge, N. J 

Paulsboro, N. J 

Penns Grove, N. J 

Pitman, N. J 

Pompton Lakes, N. J 

Princeton, N. J 

Prospect Park, N. J 

Ramsey, N. J 

Raritan, N. J 

Ridgefield, N. J 

River Edge, N. J 

Rockawav, N. J 

Roselle Park, N.J 

Rumson, N. J 

Runnemede, N. J 

Salem, N. J 

Sayreville, N. J 

Secaucus, N. J 

Somerville, N. J 

South Plainfield, N. J 

Tenaflv, N. J 

Totowa, N. J 

Ventnor City, N. J 

Verona, N. J 

Vineland, N. J 

Wallington, N. J 

AVanaquo, N. J 

Washington, N. J 

West Caldwell, N. J 

West Paterson, N. J 

Westville, N. J 

Westwood, N. J 

Wharton, N. J 

Wildwood, N. J 

Woodbury, N. J 

Woodlynne, N. J 

Wood Ridge, N. J 

Alamogordo, N. Mex 

Artesia, N. Mex 

Belen, N. Mex... 

Carlsbad, N. Mex 

Clayton, N. Mex 

Deming, N. Mex 

Gallup, N. Mex 

Hot Springs, N. Mex 

Las Cruces, N. Mex 

Las Vegas Town, N. Mex. 

Lordsburg, N. Mex 

Portales, N. Mex 

Raton, N. Mex 

Silver City, N. Mex 

Socorro, N. Mex 

Tucumcari, N. Mex 

Albion, N. Y 

Amitvville, N. Y 

Babylon, N. Y 

Bakiwinsville, N. Y 

Ballston Spa, N. Y 

Bath, N. Y 

Brockport, N. Y 

Bronxville, N. Y 

Canajoharie, N. Y 

Canandaigua, N. Y 

Canastota, N. Y 

Canisteo, N. Y 

Canton, N. Y 

Carthage, N. Y _... 

Catskill, N. Y 

Cobleskill, N. Y 

Cooperstown, N. Y 

Corinth, N.Y 

Croton-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

DansviHe, N. Y 

Depew, N. Y 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 



2 

10 
8 
7 
5 

16 
3 
4 
4 

14 
9 
3 

10 



11 

15 

19 

16 
7 

18 
5 

29 

17 

11 

13 
2 
5 
5 
3 
6 

12 
2 

16 

16 
4 

14 
4 
7 
6 

12 
4 
4 
5 
8 

11 
5 
3 
5 
6 
5 
5 
9 
6 
10 
11 
3 
2 
5 
4 
22 
3 
10 
5 
3 
4 
6 
6 
4 
2 
2 
8 
6 
9 



41 



Table 16. — A^umber of police department employees, April SO, 1948, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Dobbs Ferrv, N. Y 

nolgeville, N. Y 

East Aurora, N. Y 

East Rochester, N. Y 

East Syracuse, N. Y 

Ellenville, N. Y 

Elmira Heights, N. Y 

Elmsford, N. Y 

Falconer, N. Y... 

Fort Edward. N. Y... 

Fort Plain, N. Y 

Frankfort, N. Y 

Fredonia, N. Y 

Goshen, N. Y. 

Oouverneur, N. Y 

Oowanda, N. Y 

Oranville, N. Y_ 

Oreen Island, N. Y 

Oreenport, N. Y 

Hamburg, N. Y 

Hastings-on-Hudson, N. Y 

Havcrstraw, N. Y 

Herkimer, N. Y 

Highland Falls, N. Y 

Homer, N.Y 

Hoosick Falls, N. Y 

Horseheads, N. Y_ 

Hudson Falls, N. Y 

Ilion, N.Y 

Irvington, N. Y._ 

Lake Placid, N. Y 

Lancaster, N. Y 

Larchmont, N. Y 

Le Rov, N. Y 

Liberty, N. Y 

Lindenhurst, N. Y 

Liverpool, N. Y 

Long Beach, N. Y 

Lyons, N. Y 

Malone, N. Y 

Malverne, N. Y 

MechanicvUle, N. Y 

Medina, N. Y 

Mohawk, N. Y 

Monticello, N. Y 

Mount Kisco, N. Y_ 

Mount Morris, N. Y 

Newark, N. Y 

New York Mills, N. Y 

North Pelham, N. Y._ 

Northport, N. Y 

North Tarrytown, N. Y... 

Norwich, N. Y 

Nyack, N. Y 

Owego, N. Y 

Palmyra, N. Y 

Patchogue, N. Y 

Pelham Manor, N. Y 

Penn Yan, N. Y... 

Perry, N. Y 

Pleasantville, N. Y.. 

Port Jervis, N. Y 

Potsdam, N. Y 

Rye, N. Y 

Sag Harbor, N. Y. 

Salamanca, N. Y... 

Saranac Lake, N. Y 

Saugerties, N. Y 

Scotia, N. Y 

Seneca Falls, N. Y 

Sidney, N.Y. 

SUver Creek, N. Y 

Solvay, N. Y.... 

Southampton, N. Y- 

South Glens Falls, N. Y... 

Spring Valley, N. Y... 

Springville, N. Y 

Suflern, N. Y 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 




Tarrj'town, N. Y 

Ticonderoga, N. Y 

Tuckahoe, N. Y_.. 

Tupper Lake, N. Y. 

Walden, N. Y .. 

Walton, N. Y_... 

Warsaw, N. Y 

Waterloo. N. Y 

Watk ins Glen, N. Y... 

Waverlv, N. Y .. 

Wellsvi'lle, N. Y 

Westfield, N. Y.. 

Whitehall, N. Y_ 

Whitesboro, N. Y. 

Yorkville. N. Y. 

Albemarle, N. C 

Asheboro, N. C. ... . 

Beaufort, N. C 

Belmont, N. C 

Brevard, N. C 

Canton, N. C.._ .. 

Chapel Hill, N. C 

Cherr-^-ville, N. C 

Clinton, N. C... 

Dunn, N. C 

Elkin, N. C_... 

Farmville, N. C 

Forest City, N. C 

Graham, N. C. 

Hamlet, N. C 

Henderson, N. C 

Hendersonville, N. C 

Kings Mountain, N. C.. 

Laurinburg, N. C 

Lenoir, N. C 

Lincolnton, N. C 

Lumberton, N. C 

Marion, N. C 

Monroe, N. C 

Mooresville, N. C 

Morehead City, N. C... 

Morganton, N. C 

Mount Airy, N. C 

Newton, N. C .. 

North Wilkesboro, N. C 

Oxford, N. C 

Roanoke Rapids, N. C 

Rockingham, N. C 

Ro.\boro, N. C 

Sanford, N. C 

Scotland Neck, N. C... 

Smithfield, N. C 

Southern Pines, N. C... 

Spencer, N. C 

Spindale, N. C 

Tarboro, N. C 

Valdese, N. C_ 

Wadesboro, N. C 

Washington, N. C 

Waviu'sville, N. C 

Whilcvillc, N. C 

Willinmston, N. C 

Devils Lake, N. Dak 

Dickinson, N. Dak 

Grafton, N. Dak '. 

Jamestown, N. Dak 

Mandan, N. Dak 

Valley City, N. Dak.... 

Wahpeton, N. Dak 

Williston, N. Dak 

Amherst, Ohio 

Athens, Ohio 

Barnesville, Ohio ■... 

Bav, Ohio 

Bedford, Ohio... 

Bellefontaine, Ohio 

Bellevue, Ohio 

Berea, Ohio 



42 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April SO, 1948, cities with 
population, from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Bexley, Ohio 

Bowling Green, Ohio 

Bridgeport, Ohio 

Brj'an, Ohio 

Bucyrus, Ohio 

Cadiz, Ohio 

Carey, Ohio 

Carrollton, Ohio 

Celina, Ohio 

Chagrin Falls, Ohio 

Cheviot, Ohio 

Circleviile, Ohio 

Clyde, Ohio 

Columbiana, Ohio 

Conneaut, Ohio 

Crestline, Ohio 

Deer Park, Ohio 

Defiance, Ohio 

Delaware, Ohio 

Delphos, Ohio 

Dennison, Ohio 

Dover, Ohio 

East Palestine, Ohio 

Eaton, Ohio 

Elmwood Place, Ohio 

Fairfield, Ohio 

Fairport Harbor, Ohio 

Faiiview, Ohio 

Franklin, Ohio 

Gallon, Ohio 

Gallipolis, Ohio 

Geneva, Ohio.. 

Girard, Ohio 

Glouster, Ohio 

Grandview Heights, Ohio. 

Greenfield, Ohio 

Greenhills, Ohio 

Greenville, Ohio 

Hicksville, Ohio 

Hillsboro, Ohio 

Hubbard, Ohio 

Jackson, Ohio 

Kent, Ohio 

Kenton, Ohio 

Lebanon, Ohio 

Lisbon, Ohio 

Lockland, Ohio 

Logan, Ohio 

London, Ohio 

Louisville, Ohio 

Maple Heights, Ohio 

Marysville, Ohio 

Maumee, Ohio 

Mayfleld Heights, Ohio... 

Medina, Ohio 

Miamisburg, Ohio 

Middleport, Ohio 

Minerva, Ohio 

Mingo Junction, Ohio 

Montpelier, Ohio.. 

Mount Healthy, Ohio 

Napoleon, Ohio 

Nelsonville, Ohio 

New Boston, Ohio 

Newburgh Heights, Ohio. 

Newcomerstown, Ohio 

New Lexington, Ohio 

Newton Falls, Ohio 

North Baltimore, Ohio 

North Canton, Ohio 

North Colleee Hill, Ohio_ 

North Olmsted, Ohio 

North Royalton, Ohio 

Norwalk, Ohio 

Oakwood, Ohio 

Oberlin, Ohio 

Orrville, Ohio.. 

Oxford, Ohio 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 



14 
9 
4 
6 

13 
2 
4 
2 
4 
5 
8 

10 
5 
2 

10 
7 
6 
6 
8 
5 
4 

12 
5 
5 
5 
3 
3 
6 
5 
8 
6 
6 
8 
2 
5 
4 
4 

10 
2 
4 
4 
7 
7 
9 
4 
3 

10 
5 
4 
3 

11 
4 
7 
6 
6 
7 
2 
3 
5 
3 
4 
7 
4 
6 
7 
£ 
3 
6 
2 
3 
6 
3 
4 
10 
12 
3 
2 
3 




Perrysburg, Ohio 

Pomeroy, Ohio 

Port Clinton, Ohio.. _ 

Ravenna, Ohio 

Reading, Ohio 

Rittman, Ohio 

Rocky River, Ohio 

St. Bernard, Ohio 

St. Clairsville, Ohio 

St. Marys, Ohio 

Sebring, Ohio 

Shadyside, Ohio 

Shelby, Ohio 

Sidney, Ohio 

Silverton, Ohio 

South Euclid, Ohio 

Talmadge, Ohio 

Tipp City, Ohio 

Toronto, Ohio 

Troy, Ohio 

Uhrichsville, Ohio 

University Heights, Ohio. 

Upper Arlington, Ohio 

Upper Sandusky, Ohio 

Urbana, Ohio 

Van Wert, Ohio 

Wadsworth, Ohio 

Wapakoneta, Ohio 

Washington, C. H., Ohio. 

Wauseon, Ohio 

Wellington, Ohio 

Wellston, Ohio 

Wellsville, Ohio 

Westerville, Ohio 

Westlake, Ohio 

Wickliffe. Ohio 

Willard, Ohio 

Willoughby, Ohio 

Wilmington, Ohio 

Wyoming, Ohio 

Altus, Okla 

Alva, Okla 

Anadarko, Okla 

Bethany, Okla 

Blackwell, Okla 

Bristow, Okla 

Chandler, Okla 

Cherokee, Okla 

Claremore, Okla 

Cleveland, Okla 

Clinton, Okla 

Cordell.Okla 

Cushing, Okla 

Drumright, Okla 

Duncan, Okla 

Edmond, Okla 

Elk City, Okla 

Frederick, Okla 

Hartshorne, Okla.. 

Henryetta, Okla 

Hohart, Okla 

Hollis. Okla 

Hominy, Okla 

Hugo, Okla 

Idabnl, Okla 

Kingfisher, Okla 

Madill.Okla 

Mangum, Okla 

Marlow, Okla 

Miami, Okla 

Nowata, Okla 

Okemah, Okla 

Pauls Valley, Okla 

Pawhuska, Okla 

Perry, Okla 

Richer, Okla 

Poteau, Okla 

Pryor Creek, Okla 



43 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April SO, 1948, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,S0n TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 




Purcell, Okla 

Sand Springs, Okla. 

Sayrc, Okla 

Sulphur. Okla. 

Tahleriuah, Okla.... 

Tonkawa, Okla 

Vinita, Okla _ 

Wagoner, Okla 

Watonjia, Okla 

Woodward, Okla 

Albany, Oreg 

.\shland, Oreg.. 

Raker, Oreg 

Burns, Oreg 

Coos Bay, Oreg 

Corvallis, Oreg 

Cottage Orove, Oreg 

Dallas, Oreg 

Grants Pass, Oreg... 

Hillsboro. Oreg 

Hood River, Oreg .. 

La Grande, Oreg 

Lebanon, Oreg 

McMinnville, Oreg. 

Newbere, Oreg 

North Bend, Oreg... 

Ontario, Oreg 

Oregon City, Oreg.. 

Pendleton, Oreg 

Roseburg, Oreg 

St. Helens, Oreg 

Seaside, Oreg 

Silverlon, Oreg 

Springfield, Oreg 

The Dalles, Oreg... 

Tillamook, Oreg 

Aldan, Pa. 

Ambler, Pa 

Apollo, Pa 

Arehbald, Pa 

Ashland, Pa. 

Aspinwall, Pa 

Avalon, Pa 

Avoca, Pa 

Bangor, Pa 

Barnesboro, Pa 

Beaver, Pa 

Bedford, Pa. 

Bellefonte, Pa 

Bellwood, Pa 

Ben Avon, Pa 

Bentleyville, Pa 

Birdsboro, Pa 

Blairsvillc, Pa. 

Blakely, Pa 

Bloomsburg, Pa 

Boyertown, Pa 

Brackenridiie, Pa 

Brentwood, Pa 

Bridgeport, Pa 

Brockway, Pa 

Brookville, Pa 

Brownsville, Pa 

Burnham, Pa 

California, Pa 

Camp Hill, Pa 

Castle Shannon, Pa. 

CatasauQua, Pa 

Clarion, Pa... 

Clarks Summit, Pa. 

Clearfield , Pa 

Clifton Heights, Pa. 

Clymer, Pa 

Coaldale, Pa 

Collingdale, Pa 

Coplay, Pa 

Corry, Pa 

Crafton, Pa 



Cresson, Pa 

Curwensville, Pa 

Dallastown, Pa 

Danville, Pa 

Derry, Pa. 

Downingtown, Pa 

Doylestown, Pa 

Dupont , Pa 

Duryea, Pa. 

East Conemaugh, Pa. . . 

East Lansdowne, Pa 

East Maueh Chunk, Pa 
East McKeesport, Pa... 

East Pittsburgh, Pa 

East Stroudsburg, Pa... 

Ebensburg, Pa 

Edge wood. Pa 

Edwardsville, Pa 

Elizabeth, Pa 

Elizabethtown, Pa 

Emmaus, Pa 

Emporium, Pa... 

Emsworth, Pa.. 

Ephrata, Pa 

Etna, Pa 

Exeter, Pa.. 

Ferndale, Pa 

Ford City, Pa 

Forest City, Pa 

Forest Hilis, Pa 

Forty Fort, Pa. 

Fountain Hill, Pa 

Franklin, Pa 

Freedom, Pa 

Freeland, Pa...... 

Freeport, Pa. 

Gallitzin, Pa 

Gettysburg, Pa 

Olassport, Pa 

Glenolden, Pa. 

Greenville, Pa. 

Grove City, Pa 

Hatboro, Pa 

Hellertown, Pa 

Hollidavsburg, Pa 

Hones.lale, Pa 

Humnu'Istown, Pa 

Huntingdon, Pa 

Ingram, Pa 

Irwin, Pa 

Jenkintown, Pa 

Jermyn, Pa 

.lersey Shore, Pa 

Johnsonburg, Pa 

Kane, Pa 

Kennett Square, Pa 

Kittanning, Pa 

Kulimiont, Pa 

Kutztown, Pa.. 

Lansdale, Pa. 

Lansford, Pa 

Larksville, Pa 

Laureldale, Pa 

Leechburg, Pa 

Lehighton, Pa 

Lemoyne, Pa 

Lewisburg, Pa... 

Lititz, Pa.. 

Luzerne, Pa 

Manheim, Pa 

Marcus Hook, Pa. 

Masontown, Pa 

Maueh Chunk, Pa 

McAdoo, Pa 

McDonald, Pa.. 

Mechanicsburg, Pa 

Media, Pa 

Meyersdale, Pa 



44 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April SO, 10^8, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 




Middletown, Pa 

Midland, Pa 

Millersburg, Pa 

Milton, Pa 

Minersville, Pa 

Monaca, Pa 

Monongahela, Pa 

Montoursville, Pa 

Moosic, Pa_._ 

Morrisville, Pa 

Mount Joy, Pa 

Mount Oliver, Pa 

Mount Penn, Pa.. 

Mount Pleasant, Pa 

Mount Union, Pa 

Muncy, Pa 

Mverstown, Pa 

Nanty Glo, Pa 

Narberth, Pa 

Nazareth, Pa 

New Brighton, Pa 

New Cumberland, Pa 

Northampton, Pa 

North Belle Vernon, Pa.. 

North Charleroi, Pa 

North East, Pa 

Northumberland, Pa 

Norwood, Pa 

Oakmont, Pa 

Olyphant, Pa 

Oxford, Pa 

Palmerton, Pa 

Palmyra, Pa 

Patton, Pa.... 

Pen Argyl, Pa 

Perkasie, Pa 

Philipsburg, Pa 

Pitcairn, Pa 

Portage, Pa 

Port Vue, Pa 

Prospect Park, Pa 

Punxsutawney, Pa 

Quakertown, Pa 

Rankin, Pa 

Renovo, Pa 

Reynolds ville, Pa 

Ridgway , Pa 

Ridley Park, Pa 

Roaring Spring, Pa 

Rochester, Pa 

Royersford, Pa 

St. Clair, Pa 

St. Marys, Pa 

Sayre, Pa 

Schuylkill Haven, Pa... 

Scottdale, Pa , 

Selinsgrove, Pa 

Sewickley, Pa 

Sharon Hill, Pa 

Sharpsburg, Pa 

Sharpsville, Pa 

Shillington, Pa 

Shippensburg, Pa 

Slatington, Pa 

Somerset, Pa 

Souderton, Pa 

South Connellsville, Pa. 

South Fork, Pa 

South Greensburg, Pa... 
South Williamsport, Pa. 

Spangler, Pa 

Spring City, Pa 

Springdale. Pa 

State College, Pa .- 

Stroudsburg, Pa 

Sugar Notch, Pa 

Summit Hill, Pa 

Susquehanna, Pa 



Swarthmore, Pa 

Swoyerville, Pa 

Tarentum, Pa 

Taylor, Pa 

Throop, Pa 

Titusville, Pa 

Towanda, Pa 

Trafford, Pa 

Turtle Creek, Pa 

Tyrone, Pa 

Union City, Pa 

Verona, Pa 

Waynesburg, Pa 

Weatherly, Pa 

Wellsboro,, Pa 

We'^ley ville, Pa 

West Hazleton, Pa 

West Homestead, Pa.. 

Westmont, Pa 

West Newton, Pa 

West Pittston, Pa 

West Reading, Pa 

West View, Pa 

West Wyoming, Pa... 

Williamstown, Pa 

Wilmerding, Pa 

Wilson, Pa 

Windber, Pa 

Winton, Pa 

Wyoming, Pa 

Wyomissing, Pa 

Yeadon, Pa 

Youngwood, Pa 

Barrington, R. I 

Burrillville, R. I 

East Greenwich, R. 1. 

Warren, R. I 

Abbeville, S. C 

Aiken, S. C... 

Bamberg, S. C 

Batesburg, S. C . 

Beaufort, S. C 

Bennettsville, S. C... 

BishopvUIe, S. C 

Cheraw, S. C 

Chester, S. C 

Clinton, S. C... 

Clover, S. C 

Conway, S. C 

Dillon, S. C 

Easlev, S. C 

Eau Claire, S. C 

Fort Mill, S. C .. 

GafTney, S. C 

Georgetown, S. C 

Greer, S. C 

Hartsville, S. C 

Honea Path, S. C 

Kingstree, S. C 

Lancaster, S. C 

Laurens, S. C. 

Marion, S. C 

Mullins, S. C 

Newberry, S. C 

North Augusta, S. C. 

Union, S. C 

Walhalla, S. C 

Whitmire, S. C 

Williamston, S. C 

York, S. C 

Brookings, S. Dak 

Canton, S. Dak 

Deadwood, S. Dak... 
Hot Springs, S. Dak. 

Lead, S. Dak 

Madison, S. Dak 

Milbank, S. Dak 

Mobridge, S. Dak... 



45 



Table 16. — Number of police depnrlmcnt employees, April 30, 1948, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Pierre, S. Dak 

Sisseton, S. Dak 

SturRis, S. Dak 

Vermillion, S. Dak 

Yankton, S. Dak 

Alcoa, Tenn 

Athens, Tenn 

Brownsville, Tenn 

Clinton, Tenn 

Cookeville, Tenn 

Covington, Tenn 

Eliza both ton, Tenn 

Erwin, Tenn 

Etowah, Tenn 

Fayetteville, Tenn 

Franklin, Tenn 

Oallatin, Tenn 

Oreeneville, Tenn 

Harriman, Tenn 

Humboldt, Tenn 

Jefferson City, Tenn... 

La Follette, Tenn. 

Lawrenceburg, Term-.. 

Lebanon, Tenn 

Lenoir City, Tenn 

Lewisburg, Tenn 

Martin, Tenn 

Maryville, Tenn 

McMinnville, Tenn 

Milan, Tenn 

Morristown, Tenn 

Mount Pleasant, Tenn 

Murfreesboro, Tenn 

Newport, Tenn 

Paris, Tenn 

Pulaski, Tenn 

Ripley, Tenn 

Shelby ville, Tenn 

Sparta, Tenn 

Springfield, Tenn 

Sweetwater, Tenn 

Trenton, Tenn 

Union City, Tenn 

Winchester, Tenn 

Alamo Heights, Tex_.. 

Alpine, Tex 

Arlington, Tex 

Ballinger, Tex 

Beeville, Tex, 

Belton, Tex 

Benavides, Tex 

Bonham, Tex... 

Bowie, Tex 

Brady, Tex 

Breckenridge, Tex 

Brenham, Tex ■ 

Brownfield, Tex 

Burkhurnett, Tex 

Canyon, Tex 

Childress, Tex 

Cisco, Tex 

Coleman, Tex 

Comanche, Tex 

Commerce, Tex 

Conroe, Tex 

Crockett, Tex 

Cuero, Tex 

Dalhart, Tex.... 

Dublin, Tex 

Eagle Pass, Tex 

Eastland, Tex 

Edinburg, Tex 

Electra, Tex 

Fort Stockton, Tex.... 

Freeport, Tex 

Gainesville, Tex 

Oatesville, Tex.. 

Georgetown, Tex 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 




Gladewater, Tex 

Gonzales, Tex 

Graham, Tex 

Haskell, Tex 

Hearne, Tex 

Henderson, Tex 

Hillsboro, Tex 

Huntsville, Tex 

Jacksonville, Tex 

Jasper, Tex 

Jefferson, Tex 

Kenedy, Tex 

Kerrville, Tex 

Kilgore, Tex 

Kingsville, Tex 

La Grange, Tex 

Lamesa, Tex 

Lampasas, Tex..'. 

Levelland, Tex 

Littlefleld, Tex 

Llano, Tex 

Lufkin, Tex 

Luling, Tex 

Marfa, Tex 

Marlin, Tex 

Mart, Tex 

McCamey, Tex 

McKinney, Tex 

Memphis, Tex 

Mercedes, Tex 

Mexia, Tex 

Midland, Tex 

Mineola, Tex 

M ineral Wells, Tex 

Mission, Tex _. 

Monahaas, Tex 

Niicoedochos, Tex. 

Navasota, Tex 

New Braunfels, Tex 

Odessa, Tex 

Olney, Tex 

Orange, Tex 

Pasadena, Tex 

Pecos, Tex 

Pharr, Tex 

Pittsburg, Tex 

Plainview, Tex 

Quanah, Tex 

Ranger, Tex 

Raymondville, Tex 

Refugio, Tex... 

Robstown, Tex. 

Rusk, Tex 

Seymour, Tex 

Shamrock, Tex 

Slaton, Tex 

Smithville, Tex 

Snyder, Tex 

Stamford, Tex.. 

Stephenville, Tex 

Taylor, Tex 

Teague, Tex 

Texas City, Tex 

Vernon, Tex.. 

Wiixahaehie, Tex , 

Wcuthcrford, Tex 

Wellington, Tex 

Weslaco, Tex... 

West University Place, Tex 

Yoakum, Tex 

American Fork, Utah 

Bingham Canyon, Utah 

Bountiful, Utah 

Brieham, Utah 

Cedar City, Utah 

Heber, Utah 

Helper, Utah 

Lehi, Utah , 



46 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April SO, 1948, cities with 
popxdation from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Midvale, Utah 

Murray, Utah _ 

Orem, Utah ._. 

Park City, Utah 

Payson, Utah 

Price, Utah 

Richfield, Utah 

South Salt Lake, Utah 

Spanish Fork, Utah 

Springville, Utah 

Tooele, Utah 

Bellows Falls, Vt 

Bennington, Vt 

Brattleboro, Vt 

Montpelier, Vt 

Newport, Vt 

St. Albans, Vt 

St. Johnsbury, Vt 

Springfield, Vt 

Waterbury, Vt 

Windsor, Vt 

Winooski, Vt 

Abingdon, Va 

AltaVista. Va 

Appalachia, Va 

Bedford, Va 

Big Stone Gap, Va 

Blackstone, Va 

Bluefield, Va 

Bristol, Va 

Buena Vista, Va 

Clifton Forge, Va 

Colonial Heights, Va.. 

Covineton, Va 

Emporia, Va 

Falls Church, Va 

Farmville, Va 

Franklin, Va 

Front Royal, Va 

Galax, Va 

Hampton, Va 

Harrisonburg, Va 

Hopewell, Va 

Lexington, Va 

Marion, Va 

Norton, Va 

Phoebus, Va 

Pocahontas, Va _- 

Pulaski, Va 

Radford, Va.. - 

Salem, Va 

Saltville, Va 

South Boston, Va 

South Norfolk, Va 

Vinton, Va 

Virginia Beach, Va 

Waynesboro, Va 

Williamsburg, Va 

Wytheville, Va 

Anacortes, Wash 

Auburn, Wash 

Camas, Wash 

Centralia, Wash 

Chehalis, Wash 

Clarkston, Wash, 

Colfax, Wash 

Dayton, Wash,. 

Ellensburg, Wash 

Enumclaw, Wash 

Grand Coulee, Wash.. 

Kelso, Wash 

Kent, Wash 

Mount Vernon, Wash. 

Omak, Wash 

Pasco, Wash 

Port Angeles, Wash... 
Port Townsend, Wash 
Pullman, Wash 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 
employees 




Puyallup, Wash.- 

Raymond, Wash 

Rent on, Wash 

Sedro Woolley, Wash 

Shelton, Wash 

Snohomish, Wash 

Toppenish, Wash 

Benwood, W. Va 

Buckhannon, W. Va 

Charles Town, W. Va 

Chester, W. Va 

Dunbar, W. Va 

Elkins, W. Va 

Grafton, W. Va 

Hinton, W. Va 

Kenova, W. Va 

Keyser, W. Va 

Keystone, W. Va 

Logan, W. Va 

Mannington, W. Va 

McMechen, W. Va 

Montgomery, W. Va 

Mullens, W. Va 

New Martinsville, W. Va 

Nitro, W. Va 

Piedmont, W. Va 

Point Pleasant, W. Va... 

Princeton, W. Va 

Richwood, W. Va 

Salem, W.Va 

Shinnston, W. Va 

Sistersville, W. Va 

Welch, W. Va 

Wellsburg, W. Va 

Weston, W. Va.. 

Williamson; W. Va 

Algoma, Wis 

Antigo, Wis 

Baraboo, Wis 

Berlin, Wis 

Black River Falls, Wis... 

Burlington, Wis 

Clintonville, Wis 

Columbus, Wis 

Delavan, Wis 

De Pere, Wis 

Edgerton, Wis 

Fort Atkinson, Wis 

Greendale, Wis 

Hartford, Wis 

Hudson, Wis 

Hurley, Wis. 

Jefferson, Wis... 

Kaukauna, Wis 

Kewaunee, Wis 

Kimberly, Wis 

Ladysmith, Wis 

Lake Geneva, Wis 

Lancaster, Wis 

Little Chute, Wis 

Mauston, Wis 

Mayville, Wis 

Menomonie, Wis 

Merrill, Wis 

Monroe, Wis 

Neillsville, Wis 

New London, Wis 

Oconomowoc, Wis 

Oconto, Wis. 

Park Falls, Wis 

Platteville, Wis 

Plymouth, Wis 

Portage, Wis.. 

Port Washington, Wis... 
Prairie Du Chien, Wis... 

Reedsburg, Wis 

Rhinelander, Wis 

Rice Lake, Wis 



47 



Tabi.k 16. — Number of police department employees, April SO, 1948, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 


Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 


City 


Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 


Richland Center, Wis 


6 
5 
3 
6 
3 
8 
4 
5 
8 
4 
4 
4 
5 


Waupun, Wis 


5 


Ripon, Wis 


West Bend, Wis 




River Falls, Wis 


West Milwaukee, Wis 


12 


Shawano, Wis 


Whitefish Bav, Wis 


17 


Shebovgan Falls, Wis . .. 


Whitewater, Wis 


5 


Sparta. Wis 


Cody, Wvo 


4 


Spooner, Wis. _ 


E vanston , Wyo 

Green River, Wyo . 


4 


Stoughton, Wis 


3 


Sturgeon Bav, Wis 


Lander, Wyo 


3 


Tomah, Wis 


Rawlins, Wyo 


8 




Riverton, Wyo 


4 


Viroqua, Wis 


Rock Springs, Wyo 


10 


Waupaca, Wis 







ANNUAL REPORTS 

Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1947 

Eighty of every 100 crimes against the person were cleared by the 
pohce in 1947, and for each 100 crimes against property, almost 26 
were cleared by arrest. Intensified investigation of the comparatively 
more serious crimes, those involving personal assault, a prompt re- 
porting of such crimes and the availability of a description of the 
assailant are doubtless major factors affecting the clearance rate for 
crimes against the person. In the individual classifications of crimes 
against the person, the police in 1947 cleared by arrest 88.1 percent of 
the murders, 85.5 percent of the negligent manslaughters, 76.5 percent 
of the rapes, and 79.6 percent of the aggravated assaults. 

In crimes with property as the object in 1947 the police cleared by 
arrest 41.1 percent of the robberies, 29.2 percent of the burglaries, 22.4 
percent of the larcenies, and 29.2 percent of the auto thefts. Although 
a robbery is considered as a crime against property, it does involve an 
assault on the victim or threats of bodily harm and its similarity to a 
crime against the person is thus reflected in the relatively higher 
clearance rate in comparison with other crimes against property. 

Property crimes comprised 94.4 percent of the offenses investigated 
in the reporting cities and 194,856 of these were cleared by arrest as 
contrasted with 36,265 clearances of crimes against the person. 

"Cleared by arrest" means generally that one or more offenders in 
the case have been arrested and made available for prosecution. 
Several offenses may be cleared by the arrest of one individual if the 
police investigation establishes evidence identifying that person as the 
perpetrator of the offenses. However, if several people were arrested 
who jointly committed only one crime, the police would score only 
one offense as cleared by arrest. The police may in some instances 
"close" an investigative case when the oft'ender has been definitely 
identified and located, but not formally arrested and charged in the 
local jurisdiction for reasons beyond the control of the police. As a 
practical matter the police would consider such a case cleared and 
provision for these "exceptional clearances" is included in the system 
of uniform crime reporting. These "exceptional clearances" are com- 
paratively few in number and are strictly limited under the instruc- 
tions in the Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook, distributed by the 
FBI to contributing agencies. 

A case is not cleared by arrest merely because stolen property is 
recovered. However, as an offset to the low arrest clearance of prop- 

(48) 



49 

erty crimes and as an indication of police activity, it may be noted 
that 60.3 percent of property stolen in 1947 was recovered by the police. 

The number of offenses cleared by arrest and the number of persons 
charged for each 100 ofl'enses known to the police in 1,639 cities having 
a combined population of 49,236,928 are presented in table 17. The 
number of offenses cleared by arrest does not agree with the number 
of persons charged since the arrest of one individual may clear several 
crimes but only one person would be charged. Likewise, several 
persons may be charged for the commission of only one offense. 
Certain crime classifili'ations will show more persons charged than 
there are offenses cleared by arrest. This will be observed particularly 
in the negligent manslaughter classification. It is the practice in 
some jurisdictions to arrest and charge surviving drivers involved in 
fatal automobile accidents even though they are released upon com- 
pletion of the police investigation if it is established they were not 
operating the vehicle in a grossly negligent manner. 

Questionnaires are used in conjunction with the annual reports to 
insure uniformity in the figures compiled by the various contributing 
agencies. No reports are included in the tabulations unless the 
agency indicated that all offenses of the indicated types known to 
have occurred were included. Also these departments indicated that 
the figures pertaining to offenses cleared by arrest were properly 
distinguished from those relating to the number of persons arrested 
by the police. 

Each report is carefully reviewed as to reasonableness of the figures 
and any apparent discrepancy or possible misunderstanding is made 
the subject of correspondence as a further precaution in determining 
the quality of the figures reported. Letters were sent to 750 of the 
1,639 cities used in the following tabulation. 



50 



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51 



Table 17 —Offenses known, cleared hy arrest, and persons charged (held for prose- 
cution), 1947, by population groups, number per 100 known offenses 

[Population figures from 1940 deceimial census] 



Population group 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh 
ter 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

1, 639 cities; total population, 49,236,- 
928: 

Offenses known 100.0 

Offenses cleared by arrest 88. 1 

Persons charged 92. 4 

GROUP I 

31 cities over 250,000; total popula 
lation, 19,307,202: 

Offenses known 100.0 

Offenses cleared by arrest 85.6 

Persons charged 90.2 

GROUP II 

48 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 6,855,810: 

O ffenses known 100. 

Offenses cleared by arrest 90. 1 

Persons charged 97. 5 

GROUP III 

86 citiee, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 5,955,530: 

Offenses known 100.0 

Offenses cleared by arrest 92.2 

Persons charged 94. 1 



163 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total popu 
lation, 5,660,490: 

Offenses known 100.0 

Offenses cleared by arrest 89. 6 

Persons charged 105.6 

GROUP V 

446 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total popu 
lation, 6,761,370: 

Offenses known 100. 

Offenses cleared by arrest 91. 1 

Persons charged 87.5 

GROUP VI 

865 cities under 10,000; total popu 
lation, 4,696,520: 

Offenses known.. lOO.O 

Offenses cleared by arrest 88. 9 

Persons charged 83.3 



100.0 
85.5 
96.7 



100.0 
85.2 
119.2 



100.0 
78.9 
74.1 



100.0 
91.3 
74.2 



100.0 
86.4 
79.3 



100.0 
89.6 
91.6 



100.0 
89.8 
90.7 



100.0 
76.5 
79.4 



100.0 
73.1 
76.0 



100.0 
75.9 
74.1 



100.0 
80.3 
79.9 



100.0 
81.1 
90.9 



100.0 
82.5 
88.1 



100.0 
82.6 



100.0 
41.1 
38.0 



100.0 
43.5 
35.3 



100.0 
34.0 
38.2 



100.0 
40.1 
46.5 



100.0 
40. 3 
52.4 



100.0 
48.1 
60.0 



100.0 
79.6 
71.5 



100.0 

77.4 
59.4 



100. 100. 

33. 8 72. 8 

34. 6 66. 3 



100.0 
83.8 
88.3 



100. 
82.0 
85.6 



100. 
88.3 
91.4 



100.0 
89.3 
99.3 



100.0 
29.2 
19.3 



100.0 
31.2 
17.9 



100.0 
25.1 
16.5 



100.0 
27.4 
18.1 



100.0 
27.5 
19.2 



100.0 
28.3 
23.6 



100.0 
35.6 
31.3 



100.0 
22.4 
17.1 



100.0 
23.6 
19.1 



100.0 
20.4 
15.6 



100.0 
22.2 
16.3 



100.0 
20.5 
13.8 



100.0 
21.0 
16.3 



100.0 
26.5 
19.2 



52 





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53 



Persons Charged (Held for Prosecution), 1947 

Of 2,451,724 persons charged by the reporting poHce departments 
in 1947, for violations other than minor traffic infractions, 326,388 or 
13.3 percent were charged with serious crimes. The data in table 18 
are from 1,639 cities with a combined population of 49,236,928 and 
the number of persons charged with serious crimes in the individual 
classifications is as follows: 



Murder 2,838 

Manslaughter 1, 799 

Robbery 11,347 

Aggravated assault 24, 456 

Burglary 35, 675 

Larceny 78, 207 

Auto theft 18, 870 

Embezzlement and fraud 11, 372 



Stolen property (receiving, etc.) _ 4, 554 

Forgery and counterfeiting 7, 711 

Rape 4, 931 

Narcotic drug laws 2,585 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 19, 045 

Offenses against family and 

children 31, 112 

Driving while intoxicated 71, 886 



With some exceptions, more persons were arrested and charged per 
unit of population in the larger cities. This coincides with the general 
observation that the greater the population in a city the more numerous 
are the crimes which are committed per unit of population. However, 
the persons charged rates for assault, burglary, larceny, auto theft, 
buying, receiving and possessing stolen property, forgery and counter- 
feiting, sex offenses, offenses against famity- and children, liquor law 
violations and drunkenness were greater in some small city groups 
than in the large population centers. The lowest rate for driving 
while intoxicated was registered in cities of over 250,000 inhabitants 
while cities under 10,000 had the highest rate in this category. 

The scoring of the number of persons charged is governed by 
different rules from those for scoring offenses known to the police. 
This distinction should be recognized in studying table 18. For 
example, an armed robbery of a drug store, a candy store, and a 
service station by the same robber would count as three separate 
offenses of robbery known to the police. Upon the arrest of the 
robber and his identification with the three offenses, he would be 
charged with robbery but only one person charged would be scored. 
This distinction between the counting of crimes and counting of 
persons may be further illustrated by assuming that a grocery store 
is robbed by three armed bandits. The police would score one 
offense of robbery. Upon arresting and charging the three bandits, 
three persons charged with robbery would be listed. An auto thief 
might be charged with "unauthorized use" which would be listed 
under "all other offenses." 

Almost 96 percent of the 1,639 cities represented in the following 
tabulations indicated they had correctly listed the number of persons 
charged rather than the number of charges placed against persons 
arrested; i. e., if on an occasion of a single arrest an offender was 



54 

charged with burglary and larceny, the person was listed as only one 
person charged, the entry being made opposite burglary. 

Over 86 percent of the departments advised that all or some juve- 
niles were included in the reports. Over 81 percent stated that all 
juveniles were included. Of the departments including juvenile 
arrests, 97 percent properly included them opposite the classification 
embracing the violations involved, such as robbery, auto theft, and 
the like, even though a technical charge such as "juvenile delinquency" 
was placed against the juvenile at the time of his arrest. The remain- 
der of the departments reported juveniles opposite "all other offenses." 

Table 19 includes detailed figures concerning persons charged with 
(1) violations of road and driving laws (usually distinguished as 
"moving" violations), (2) parking violations, and (3) other traffic and 
motor vehicle laws, except driving while intoxicated. The figures are 
from 1,434 cities and are set forth separately in table 19, since such 
detail was not furnished by all 1,639 cities represented in table 18. 



Table 18. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1947, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Totaf 
1,639 

cities; 
total pop- 
ulation, 
49, 236, 928 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Offense charged 


31 cities 

over 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 

19, 307, 202 


48 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
6,855,810 


86 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
5,955,530 


163 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
5,660,496 


446 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
6,761,370 


865 cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 

4,696,520 


Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 
gent manslaughter: 
Number of persons 

charged 

Rate per 100,000.-.- 
(6) Manslaughter by negli- 
gence: 
Number of persons 
charged 


2,838 
5.76 

1,799 
3.65 

11, 347 
23.0 

24, 466 
49.7 

1 92, 447 
188.0 

35,675 
72.5 

78, 207 
158.8 

18, 870 
38.3 

11,372 
23.1 

4,554 
9.2 


1,394 
7.22 

961 
4.98 

6,524 
33.8 

10,000 
51.8 

33, 402 
173.0 

13, 809 
71.5 

31,098 
161.1 

6,718 
34.8 

5,995 
31.1 

1,912 
9.9 


472 

6.88 

260 
3.79 

1,535 
22.4 

3,216 
46.9 

17. 753 
258.9 

5,541 
80.8 

12, 230 
178.4 

3,137 

45.8 

1,868 
27.2 

489 
7.1 


348 
5.84 

170 

2.85 

920 
15.4 

4,124 
69.2 

2 12. 587 
213.6 

4,162 
69.9 

10,021 
168.3 

1, 856 
31.2 

1,024 
17.2 

352 
5.9 


244 
4.31 

169 
2.99 

851 
15.0 

2,859 
50.5 

9,183 
162.2 

3,707 
65.5 

8,026 
141.8 

2,160 
38.2 

968 
17.1 

651 
11.5 


245 
3.62 

141 
2.09 

886 
13.1 

2,622 
38.8 

12, 722 

188.2 

4,700 
69.5 

9,959 
147.3 

2,841 
42.0 

950 
14.1 

794 
11.7 


135 

2.87 

98 


Rate per 100,000. -_. 
Robbery: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


2.09 

631 
13.4 


Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged- 
Rate per 100,000 


1,635 
34.8 


Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100,000 


6,800 
144.8 


Burglary — breaking or entering: 
Number of persons charged- 
Rate per 100,000 


3,756 
80.0 


Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 - 


6,873 
146.3 


Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


2,158 
45.9 


Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged, 
Rate per 100,000 


567 
12.1 


Stolen property; buying, re- 
ceiving, possessing: 
Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000.. 


356 
7.6 



See footnotes at end of table. 



Table 18. 



55 

-Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1947 number and rate -per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

(Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Offense charged 



Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Xumber of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and 
prostitution): 

Num ber of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 
etc.: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and 
children: 

Number of persons eharged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 .... 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenne.ss: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Total, 
1,6.39 

cities; 
total pop- 
ulation, 
49, 236, 928 



7,711 
15.7 



4,931 
10.01 



26,016 
52.8 



22, 374 
45.4 



2,585 
5.3 



19, 045 
38.7 



» 31, 112 
63.2 

26, 180 
53.2 

» 71. 886 
148.4 

n0,288,447 
21, 930. 5 

307, 867 
625.3 

1, 218, 607 
2, 470. 7 

118, 887 
241.4 

92, 854 
188.6 

"222.254 
466.8 



Group I 



31 cities 

over 
2,'i0,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
19, 307, 202 



2,421 
12.5 



2,370 
12.28 



15, 059 
78.0 



7,806 
40.4 



1,456 
7.5 



8,690 
45.0 



11, 388 
59.0 



5,840 
30.2 



17, 630 
91.3 



i«4,171,092 
23, 587. 1 



121, 187 

627.7 



442, 370 
2,291.2 



51,509 
266.8 



48,505 
251.2 



'1 75, 460 
426.7 



Group II 



48 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
6,855,810 



1.087 
15.9 



685 
9.99 



6,094 



4,286 
62.5 



286 
4.2 



2,776 
40.5 



6,294 
91.8 



6,949 
101.4 



7,6S1 
111.3 



"1,924,289 
28, 814. 7 



43, 052 
628.0 



216, 563 
3, 158. 8 



30. 002 
'437. 6 



15, 447 
225.3 



33, 944 
495.1 



Group III 



86 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
5,955,530 



1.293 
21.7 



478 
8.03 



1,941 
32.6 



2,755 
46.3 



310 
5.2 



2,367 
39.7 



3.360 
56.4 

3, 669 
61.6 

« 9. 193 
155.8 

121,284,146 
22, 370. 4 

37, 218 
624.9 

144, 727 
2, 430. 1 

11,435 
192.0 

11,271 
189.3 

34, 218 
574.6 



Group IV 



163 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
5,660,496 



1,019 
18.0 



418 
7.38 



4,161 
73.6 



279 
4.9 



1.879 
33.2 



4,897 
86.5 



3,854 
68.1 



^ 10, 367 
184.6 



131,019,835 
18, 571. 3 



31,115 

549.7 



134, 489 
2, 375. 9 



9,392 
165.9 



7,228 
127.7 



30, 554 
539.8 



Group V 



446 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
6,761,370 



1,110 
16.4 



555 
8.21 



1,022 
15.1 



2,258 
33.4 



141 
2.1 



2,225 
32.9 



« 3, 399 
50.4 



3,662 
54.2 



14, 521 
215.9 



"1,179,949 
17, 660. 6 



43, 325 
640.8 



159, 595 
2, 360. 4 



8,289 
122.6 



7,182 
106.2 



29, 587 
437.6 



Group VI 



865 cities 
u,nder ^ 
10,000;"^ 
popu- 
lation, 

4,696,520 



781 
16.6 



425 
9.05 



512 
10.9 



113 
2.4 



1,108 
23.6 



1,774 
37.8 



2,206 
47.0 



12, 544 
267.1 



15 709,136 

15, 286. 7 



31, 970 
680.7 



118,763 
2, 528. 7 



8,210 
174.8 



3,221 
68.6 



18, 491 
393.7 



bekjw""™^^"^ Of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports from the number of cities indicated 



Footnote 



1 
2 
3 
4 
6 
6. 
7. 
8 



Cities 



1,638 

85 

1,638 

445 

1,635 

85 

162 

444 



Population 



49, 174, 532 

5, 893, 134 
49, 217, 528 

6, 741, 970 
49, 100, 209 

5, 898, 818 

5, 615, 785 

6, 726, 074 



Footnote 



10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 



Cities 



1,616 

30 

47 

83 

159 

441 

856 

1,638 



Population 



46, 913, 909 
17,683,750 
6, 678, 148 
5, 740, 368 
5, 491, 467 
6,681,253 
4, 638, 923 
47, 613, 476 



56 

Table 19. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), traffic violations, except driving 
while intoxicated, 1947; number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population 
groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Total, 
1,434 
cities; 
total pop- 
ulation, 
43,691,043 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Offense charged 


28 cities 
over 

250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 

18,100,556 


39 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
5,321,190 


73 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
5,124,333 


144 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
4,981,660 


396 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
6,024,169 


754 cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 

4,139,135 


Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 


1, 946, 752 

4,455.7 

6, 919. 599 
15, 837. 6 

372, 703 
853.0 


1, 066, 316 
5, 891. 1 

2, 660, 328 
14, 697. 5 

182, 586 
1, 008. 7 


222, 166 
4, 175. 1 

1, 350, 006 
25, 370. 4 

31, 906 
599.6 


202, 048 
3, 942. 9 

896, 205 
17, 489. 2 

44,293 
864.4 


154, 553 
3, 102. 4 

696, 159 
13, 974. 4 

39, 813 
799.2 


161, 780 
2, 685. 5 

868, 399 
14, 415. 2 

39, 109 
649.2 


139, 889 
3, 379. 7 


Parking violations: 

Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 


448, 502 
10, 835. 6 


Other traffic and motor vehicle 
laws: 

N umber of persons charged - 
Rate per 100,000 


34, 996 
845.5 







Offenses Known, Cleared by Arrest, and Persons Charged and Found 
Guilty, 1947 

Of each 1,000 major crimes in 1947, police cleared 278 with the 
arrest of 185 persons of whom 140 were found guilty (119 guilty as 
charged and 21 of a lesser offense). Such information is of value to a 
police administrator measuring the efficiency of his investigators m 
preparing cases for court. 

For each 1,000 crimes against the person in 1947, 767 were cleared 
by the arrest of 651 persons and 403 of these were found guilty, while 
the conviction ratio for crimes against property was 125 for each 
1,000 offenses. Of the persons formally charged the percentage found 
guilty ranged from 89.0 for driving while intoxicated to 39.4 for 
negligent manslaughter. Over 79 percent of all persons charged by 
the police in 1947 were found guilty, according to the information in 
tables 20 and 21. 

The percentage of persons found guilty decreased in 1947 as com- 
pared with 1946. Decreases were sharp in embezzlement and fraud, 
negligent manslaughter, stolen property, and drunkenness. Increases 
were noticeable in the robbery, auto theft, offenses against family and 
children, and narcotic drug laws classes. 

Tables 20 and 21 are based on the reports of 181 cities with more 
than 25,000 inhabitants representing a combined population of 
19,161,801. The reports do not provide for listing offenses laiown for 
the part II crimes and accordingly the persons found guilty data are 
presented separately in the indicated tables. Unless the entries in 
the reports for persons found guilty represented the final disposition 
of the charges placed against persons arrested they were excluded 
from the summaries. Certain classifications were not listed separately 
in table 21 since separate figures were not provided in some reports 
used. 



57 



PERSONS CHARGED 

AND 

PERCENT FOUND GUILTY 

Calendar year 1947 

CRIMES AGAINST PERSON 



Percent found guilty 

MURDER 990 CHARGED 

fMMMMMtUU 

57.6 % 

NEGLIGENT MANSLAUGHTER 589 CHARGED 

RAPE 2,026 CHARGED 

AGGRAVATED ASSAULT 8,744 CHARGED 



181 CITIES WITH OVER 25,000 INHABITANTS 
cJart """OTAL POPULATION 19,161,801 



Figure 7. 



58 



Table 20. — Offenses known, cleared by arrest, and number of persons found guilty, 
1947; 181 cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 19,161,801, based on 1940 decennial censusl 



Oflense (part I classes) 



Total. 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 
gent manslaughter _ 
(6) Manslaughter by negli- 
gence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary— breaking or enter- 
ing 

Larceny— theft (except auto 

theft) 

Auto theft 



Number 

of 

offenses 

known to 

the 

police 



345, 971 



1,099 

746 
2,979 
16,666 
14, 151 

77, 890 

196, 706 
35, 734 



Number 

of 
offenses 
cleared 

by 
arrest 



96, 192 



915 

611 
2,175 
6,997 
10,860 

23, 028 

42, 130 
9,476 



Number 

of 
persons 
charged 
(held for 
prosecu- 
tion) 



63, 908 



589 
2,026 
4,995 
8,744 

11,507 

28, 858 
6,194 



Number 
found 
guilty 

of 
offense 
charged 



41,281 



441 

176 

850 

3,216 

3,996 

7,459 

21,062 
4,081 



Number 
found 
guilty 

of 
lesser 
oflense 



7,189 



129 

56 

339 

900 

1,655 

1,766 

1,447 
897 



Total 

found 

guilty 

(o( offense 

charged 

or lesser 

offense) 



48.470 



570 

232 
1,189 
4,116 
5,651 

9, 225 

22, 509 
4,978 



Percent- 
age found 
guilty 



57.6 

39.4 

58.7 
82.4 
64.6 

80.2 

78.0 
80.4 



Table 21. — Number of persons charged (held for prosecution) and number found 
guilty, 1947; 181 cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 19,161,801, based on 1940 deceimial census] 



Oflense (part II classes) 



Number of 
persons 
charged 
(held for 
prosecu- 
tion) 



Number 
found 

guilty of 
oflense 

charged 



Number 
found 

guilty of 
lesser 
oflense 



Total found 

guilty (of 

offense 

charged or 
of lesser 
offense) 



Percent- 
age 
found 
guilty 



TotaL__ 

Other assaults. 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Sex offenses (including prostitution and com 

merci'.'lized vice) 

Offenses against the family and children. 

Narcotic drug laws 

Liquor laws. 

Drunkenness; disorderly conduct and vag 

rancy. 

Gambling 

Driving while intoxicated 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws 

All other offenses 



1 4, 976, 018 



1 3, 923, 416 



1 3, 941, 395 



33, 895 
2,391 
4,974 
1, 668 
7,102 

20, 781 

15, 322 

1,429 

10, 321 

570, 927 

36, 115 

22, 042 

2 4, 188, 504 

3 60, 547 



19,315 
1,616 
2,604 
776 
5,557 

16, 123 
9, 253 
1,029 
8,443 

422, 909 

26,589 

17, 542 

2 3, 350, 620 

3 41,040 



716 
194 
337 
86 
163 

516 
239 
35 
139 

1,081 

119 

2,072 

2 11,065 

3 1.217 



20, 031 

1.810 

2,941 

862 

5,720 

16, 639 
9,492 
1,064 
8,582 

423,990 

26, 708 

19,614 

'■ 3, 361, 685 

3 42, 257 



179.2 



59.1 
75.7 
59.1 
51.7 
80.5 

80.1 
62.0 

74.5 
83.2 

74.3 
74.0 
89.0 

2 80.3 

3 69. 8 



1 The total figures are subject to footnotes 2 and 3. 

2 Based on the reports of 173 cities, total population, 16,657,544. 

3 Based on the reports of 180 cities, total population, 17,538,349. 



59 



PERSONS CHARGED 

AND 

PERCENT FOUND GUILTY 

Calendar year 1947 

CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY 

Percent found guilty 

ROBBERY 4,995 CHARGED 

miiiiwi 



82.4 % 



BURGLARY 11,507 CHARGED 



ninin 



80.2 % 



LARCENY 28,858 CHARGED 



millllU;^ 



78.0 % 



AUTO THEFT 6,194 CHARGED 



nnini 



80.4 % 



181 CITIES WITH OVER 25,000 INHABITANTS 
TOTAL POPULATION 19,161,801 



FBI 

CHART 



Figure 8. 



60 

Persons Released Without Being Held for Prosecution, 1947 

The arrest data in the preceding text and tables have been limited 
to the number of persons formally charged with a crime. The annual 
reports forwarded by the police also include the number of persons 
arrested and released without a formal charge being brought against 
them. By combining the number of persons charged and those re- 
leased without being held for prosecution the police have the total 
number of arrests for violations occurring locally for the year. Arrests 
for other authorities are not included by the reporting agency to avoid 
a duplicate listing of such matters. 

The figures include persons taken into custody and released with a 
reprimand or on the "golden rule" principle. Youthful offenders 
released for various reasons without a formal charge being placed are 
included as are persons ignoring notices to appear for traffic violations 
who are not subsequently arrested and charged. 

Reports appearing incomplete or incorrect as to persons released 
were excluded from tables 22 and 23. Accordingly, 1,084 cities with a 
combined population of 29,637,974 are represented although figures 
for persons charged were available for 1,639 cities in table 18. 

Some cities did not itemize the persons released figures for road and 
driving laws, parking violations, and other traffic and motor vehicle 
laws, resulting in a combining of these classes in table 22 and available 
separate data in table 23. 



Table 22. — Persons released without being held for prosecution, 1947; number and 
rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Total, 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


















1,084 
cities; 
total pop- 
ulation, 
29,637,974 


22 cities 


24 cities, 


54 cities, 


113 cities, 


316 cities. 


555 cities 


Offense charged 


over 


100,000 to 


50,000 to 


25,000 to 


10,000 to 


under 




250,000; 


250,000; 


100,000; 


50,000; 


25,000; 


10,000; 




popu- 


popu- 


popu- 


popu- 


popu- 


popu- 




lation, 


lation. 


lation. 


lation. 


lation, 


lation, 






10,801,180 


3,300,171 


3,762,949 


3,873,291 


4,768,162 


3,132,221 


Criminal homicide: 
















(a) Murder and nonnegli- 
















gent manslaughter: 
















Number of persons 
















released 


407 


169 


71 


76 


48 


27 


16 


Rate per 100,000.... 


1.37 


1.56 


2.15 


2.02 


1.24 


0.57 


0.51 


(6) Manslaughter by negli- 
















gence: 
















Number of persons 
















released 


261 


107 


24 


50 


43 


25 


12 


RateperlOO.OOO... 


.88 


.99 


.73 


1.33 


1.11 


.52 


.38 


Robbery: 
















Number of persons released. 


2,134 


972 


380 


241 


243 


199 


99 


Rate per 100,000 


7.2 


9.0 


11.5 


6.4 


6.3 


4.2 


3.2 


Aggravated assault: 
















Number of persons released. 


2,194 


990 


339 


287 


171 


276 


131 


Rate per 100,000 


7.4 


9.2 


10.3 


7.6 


4.4 


5.8 


4.2 


Other assaults: 
















Number of persons released. 


5,587 


2,558 


536 


404 


483 


857 


749 


Rate per 100,000. 


18.9 


23.7 


16.2 


10.7 


12.5 


18.0 


23.9 


Burglary— breaking or enter- 




mg: 
Number of persons released. 


4,870 


1,265 


650 


688 


633 


907 


727 


Rate per 100,000 


16.4 


11.7 


19.7 


18.3 


16.3 


19.0 


23.2 



61 



Table 22. — Persons released without being held for prosecution, 1947; number and 
rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 



Offense charged 



Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons relesised- 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Niinibor of persons released- 

Rate per IDO.OOO 

Stolen property; buying, recei\-- 
ing, possessiiiK: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

N um bcr of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per lOO.OoO.. 

Sex offenses (except rape and 
prostitution): 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 1(10,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 
etc.: 

N um bcr of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and 
children: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000.. .-.. 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons released. 

Rale i)cr 1()0,(K)0 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100.000 

Disorderly ajnduct: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000... 

Gambling: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Suspicion: 

Number of persons released 

K:ite per 1(10,000 

All otticr ofTciises: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 



Total, 
1.084 
cities; 
total pop- 
ulation, 
29,637.974 



10, 939 
36.9 



2,599 



844 
2.8 



513 
1.7 



2.3 



745 
2.51 



5,792 
19.5 



990 
3.3 



1,142 
3.9 



I 1, 592 
5.4 



1,093 
3.7 



3 1, 383 

4.7 



i 434, 469 
1, 580. 7 



17,411 
58.7 



93, 721 
316.2 



9,930 
33.5 



5,434 
18.3 



■191,919 
310.2 



13 38, 528 
137.6 



Group I 




3, 608 
33.4 



775 
7.2 



266 
2.5 



139 
1.3 



118 
1.1 



314 
2.91 



5,139 
47.6 



262 
2.4 



470 
4.4 



125 
1.2 



297 
2.7 



145 
1.3 



8 44, 364 
499.0 



8,402 

77.8 



55, 800 
516.6 



2,044 
18.9 



3,864 
35.8 



52.603 
487.0 



i< 18, 597 
202. 6 



Group II 

24 cities, 
100,000 to 
2.'iO,()()0; 
popu- 
lation, 
3,300,171 



1,130 
34.2 



392 
11.9 



128 
3.9 



35 
1.1 



65 
2.0 



104 
3.15 



99 
3.0 



41 
1.2 



191 

5.8 



152 
4.6 



208 
6.3 



374 
11.3 



57, 754 
1, 750. 



1,200 
36.4 



13,651 
413.6 



1,841 
55 8 



764 
23.2 



4,241 
128.5 



5,984 
181.3 



Group III 

54 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
3,762,949 



1,279 
34.0 



287 
7.6 



77 
2.0 



77 
2.0 



125 
3.3 



110 
2.92 



129 
3.4 



152 
4.0 



146 
3.9 



234 
6.2 



42 
1.1 



77 
2.0 



' 55, 426 
1,506.0 



1,180 
31.4 



5,834 
155.0 



692 
18.4 



141 
3.7 



10,810 
287.3 



2,099 
55.8 



Group IV 



113 cities, 
2.5.000 to 
50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
3,873,291 



1,295 
33.4 



302 
7.8 



2.2 



75 
1.9 



95 
2.5 



55 
1.42 



156 
4.0 



56 
1.4 



87 
2.2 



261 
6.7 



213 
5.5 



205 
5 3 



s 54, 535 
1,438.7 



1,408 
36.4 



5,338 
137.8 



2,005 
51.8 



242 
6.2 



7.014 
181.1 



3,399 
87.8 



Group V 



316 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
4,768,162 



2,021 
42.4 



.^42 

11.4 



125 
2.6 



68 
1.4 



166 
3.5 



79 
1.66 



92 
1.9 



193 
4.0 



143 
3.0 



2 337 
7.1 

171 
3.6 

*397 
8.4 

e 148.640 
3, 143. 4 

2,365 
49.6 

6,176 
129.5 

1,004 
21.1 

250 
5.2 

10, 375 
217.6 

4.377 
91.8 



Group VI 



555 cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 

3,132,221 



1, 606 
51.3 



301 
9.6 



162 
5.2 



119 
3.8 



119 
3.8 



83 
2.65 



109 
3.5 



128 
4.1 



105 
3.4 



483 
15 4 



162 
5.2 



185 
5.9 



10 73,750 
2,381.7 



2,856 
91.2 



6,922 
221.0 



2, .344 
74.8 



173 
5 5 



12 0, 876 
220.2 



12 4.072 
1.30. 4 



The number of persons released and the rate are based on the reports from the number of cities indicated 
below: 



Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


1 


1,083 

315 

1,083 

315 

1,072 

20 

53 


29, 618, 574 
4, 748, 762 

29,617,295 
4, 747, 483 

27, 486, 317 
8, 889, 992 
3,680,367 


8 


111 

314 
550 

1,083 
554 

1,082 
21 


3, 790, 637 


2 


9 


4, 728, 647 


3 


10 


3, 096, 503 


4.. 


11 


29,628, 119 


5 


12 


3, 122, 366 


6 


13 


28, 004, 667 


7 


14 


9, 177, 728 









62 

Table 23. — Persons released withoxd being held for 'prosecution, traffic violations, 
except driving while intoxicated, 1947; number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, 
by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decemiial census] 





Total, 
646 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
17,361,385 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Oflense charged 


13 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

5,788,223 


14 cities, 
100,000 to 

250.000; 

popula- 
tion, 
1,950,202 


37 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,619,383 


67 cities, 

25,000 to 
50,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

2,284,178 


193 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,887,937 


322 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

1,831,462 


Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


25, 656 
147.8 

340. 112 
1,959.0 

23.310 
134.3 


6,582 
113.7 

23, 219 
401.1 

14, 563 
251.6 


675 
34.6 

18,511 
949.2 

1,031 
52.9 


2,802 
107.0 

51, 942 
1, 983. 

682 
26.0 


3.243 
142.0 

45, 871 
2, 008. 2 

1,543 
67.6 


4,503 
155.9 

141, 697 
4, 906. 5 

2,440 
84.5 


7,851 
428.7 


Parking violations: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


58, 872 
3, 214. 5 


Other traffic and motor vehicle 
laws: 
Number of persons released- 
Rateper 100,000 


3,051 
166.6 







Offenses Known, Cleared by Arrest, and Persons Charged, by Geographic 
Divisions, 1947 

A police department may compare its experience with that of other 
cities in the same geographic division by reference to tables 24 and 25. 
These figures are based on the reports of the 1,639 cities represented 
in tables 17 and 18 where the information was arranged by population 
groups. 

As in any other comparisons of crime data between police depart- 
ments, other information must be taken into consideration. The police 
are confronted with practical problems which affect the charge placed 
against an individual in certain instances in a given community. For 
example, persons arrested for manslaughter by negligence involving a 
traffic death may be charged with reckless or drunken driving or some 
other lesser violation. It may be that experience has shown that public 
opinion in the community as reflected in the attitude of other officials 
and juries will not support convictions for manslaughter in such in- 
stances. 

Established local custom also is reflected in other classifications. 
The figures for prostitution and commercialized vice may be considered 
conservative since violators of such laws may be charged with some 
other sex offense, vagrancy, or disorderly conduct. Further, persons 
arrested for intoxication may be charged with disorderly conduct, 
while felonious assaults may be followed by a misdemeanor charge. 



63 



Table 24. — A'uniber of offenses known, number and pereentnge cleared by arrest, 
1947, by geographic division 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Geographic division 



Criminal 
homiciiie 



Mur- 
der, 
non-. 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter hy 
negli- 
gence 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



Auto 
theft 



TOTAL, ALL DIVISIONS 

1.639 cities; total population, 
49,236.928: 

X umber of offenses known 

Xumber cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 

New England States 

15.5 cities; total population, 5,251,842: 

Xumber of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 

Middle Atlantic States 

400 cities; total population, 9,812,502: 

Xumber of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 

East North Central States 

408 cities; total population, 15,126,476 

Xumber of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 

West North Central States 

175 cities; total population, 4,753,654: 

N umber of offen.ses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 

South Atlantic States 

129 cities; total population, 4,095,452: 

X umber of offenses known 

Xumber cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 

East South Central States 

4s cities; total population, 1,448,773; 

Xumber of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared" by arrest 

West South Central States 

»2 cities: total population, 3,177,566: 

Xumber of offenses known 

Xumber cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 

Mountain States 

69 cities; total population, 1,253,796: 

Xumber of offenses known 

Xumber cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 

Pacific States 

173 cities; total population, 4,316,867: 

Xumber of offenses known 

Xumber cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared bv arrest 



3,073 

2,707 

88.1 



81 

79 

97.5 



282 

244 

86.5 



785 
625 
79.6 



211 

184 

87.2 



652 
602 
92.3 



273 

258 
94.5 



465 

447 

96.1 



63 

55 

87.3 



261 

213 

81.6 



1,861 
1,592 
85.5 



184 

152 

82.6 



380 
347 
91.3 



369 

288 
78.0 



123 

107 
87.0 



183 

167 

91.3 



95 

77 

81.1 



175 

168 

96.0 



279 
223 
79.9 



6,210 

4,749 

76.5 



399 
380 
95.2 



766 

658 

85.9 



2,166 
1,540 
71.1 



502 
383 
76.3 



655 
^ 565 
86.3 



188 

148 

78.7 



393 
324 

82.4 



202 

163 

62.2 



879 

688 

66.9 



29, 898 

12, 276 

41.1 



34, 209 

27, 217 

79.6 



185, 043 

54. 034 

29.2 



457, 764 

102, 330 

22.4 



979 

435 

44.4 



2,474 
1,061 
42.9 



12, 185 
5,503 
45.2 



2,068 

868 

42.0 



2,478 
1.197 
48.3 



1,160 
480 
41.4 



1,985 
867 
43.7 



1,097 
388 
35.4 



5,472 
1,477 
27.0 



671 
610 



3,503 
2,805 
80.1 



8,906 

6,848 

76.9 



2,339 
1,917 
82.0 



9,000 
7.534 
83.7 



3,748 
3,282 

87.6 



646 
486 
75.2 



2,907 
1,755 
(50.4 



14, 574 
4.574 
31.4 



21, 688 
6,360 
29.3 



51,820 

17, 668 

34.1 



14,235 
4,184 
29.4 



19, 286 

6,058 

31.4 



8,107 
1,811 
22.3 



17,599 

4,987 

28.3 



8,062 
2,347 
29.1 



29, 672 
6, 045 
20.4 



31, 124 

8.323 

26.7 



41,018 

9,645 

23.5 



132, 157 

29, 922 

22.6 



39, 416 

10,004 

25.4 



46, 567 

13, 932 

29.9 



13,190 

3,566 

27.0 



42,316 

10,211 

24.1 



24, 404 
5,172 
21.2 



87. 572 

11,555 

13.2 



89, 643 

26,218 

29.2 



7,347 

3.402 

46.3 



11,057 

3,172 

28.7 



21, 247 
7,021 
33.0 



7,692 
2,434 
31.6 



10, 465 

2,448 

23.4 



4,174 
1,070 
25.6 



7,739 

2,094 

27.1 



3,655 
1,210 
33.1 



16, 267 

3,365 

20.7 



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DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

Source of Data 

During the first 6 months of 1948 the FBI examined 377,933 
arrest records, as evidenced by fingerprint cards, in order to obtain 
data concerning the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of the 
persons represented. The compilation has been limited to instances 
of arrests for violations of State laws and municipal ordinances. In 
other words, fingerprint cards representing arrests for violations of 
Federal laws or representing commitments to any type of penal institu- 
tions have been excluded from this tabulation. 

The number of fingerprint records examined exceeded the 371,228 
prints handled during the first 6 months of 1947 by 1.8 percent. The 
tabulation of data from fingerprint cards obviously does not include 
all persons arrested, since there are individuals taken into custody for 
whom no fingerprint cards are forwarded to Washington. Further- 
more, data pertaining to persons arrested should not be treated as 
information regarding the number of oft'enses committed, since two 
or more persons may be involved in the joint commission of a single 
offense, and on the other hand one person may be arrested and charged 
with the commission of several separate crimes. 

Offense Charged 

More than 41 percent (157,361) of the records examined during the 
first half of 1948 represented arrests for major violations. Persons 
charged with murder, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, and auto 
theft numbered 107,537 and constituted 28.5 percent of the total arrest 
records examined. 

Sex 

Fingerprint cards representing arrests of males during the first 
half of 1948 numbered 340,130, a 2.0 percent increase over the 333,403 
cards received during the first half of 1947. 

Female arrest prints decreased from 37,825 the first half of 1947 
to 37,803 during the first half of 1948, representing a decrease of only 
0.1 percent. 

Age 

During the first half of 1948, males and females under 21 years of 
age arrested and fingerprinted numbered 60,862, constituting 16.1 
percent of the total arrests. In addition, there were 63,430 (16.8 
percent) between the ages of 21 and 24, making a total of 124,292 

(66) 



I 



67 

(32.9 percent) less than 25 years old. Arrests of persons 25 to 29 
years old numbered 61,175 (16.2 percent). The resultant total is 
185,467 (49.1 percent) less than 30 years of age. It should be re- 
membered that the number of arrest records is doubtless incomplete 
in the lower age groups because of the pi-actice of some jurisdictions 
not to fingerprint youthful oil'enders. 

Youths played a predominant part in the commission of crimes 
against pi'operty as iiuUcated by the following figures: During the 
first half of 1948 there were 93,073 persons of all ages arrested for 
robbery, burglary, larceny, auto theft, embezzlement, fraud, forgery, 
counterfeiting, receiving stolen property, and arson; and 26,861 
(28.9 percent) of those persons were less than 21 years old. 

The extent of the participation of youths in the commission of 
crimes against property is further indicated by the following figures: 
During the first half of 1948, 32.9 percent of all persons arrested were 
less than 25 years of age; however, persons less than 25 years old 
numbered 55.5 percent of those charged with robbery, 59.9 percent 
of those charged with burglary, 45.2 percent of those charged with 
larceny, and 71.6 percent of those charged with auto theft. Approxi- 
mately one-half of all crimes against property during the first half 
of 1948 were committed by persons under 25 years of age. 



Table 26. — Distribution of arrests by sex, January-June 1948 



Oflense charged 



Number 



Total Male Female 



Percent 



Total Male Female 



Total 

Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault _. 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting.. 

Rape - 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children . . 

Liquor laws .. 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Park ing violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws. . 

1 )isorderly conduct 

Drun kermess. _ 

Vagrancy , 

Gambling.. 

Suspicion 

Not stated -. 

All other offenses 

' Less than one-tenth of 1 percent. 



377, 933 



3,286 

10, 988 

28, 432 

22, 107 

34, 155 

8,569 

10, 276 

1,789 

495 

4,694 

4,605 

4,251 

8,398 

2,203 

5,971 

7,577 

4,185 

19, 791 

3,805 

34 

4,023 

22, 336 
87, 940 
26, 162 

8.857 

23, 341 
2,925 

16, 738 



340, 130 



37, 803 



100.0 



2,853 

10, 515 

25, 443 

21,523 

29, 955 

' 8,346 

9,300 

1,641 

434 

4,158 

4,605 

1,629 

6,957 

1,979 

5,726 

7, 119 

3,586 

18, 959 

3,702 

33 

3, 871 

19, 392 

80, 107 

22, 120 

8,209 

20, 814 

2,493 

14. 661 



433 
473 

2,989 
584 

4,200 
223 
976 
148 
61 
536 



2,622 

1,441 

224 

245 

458 

599 

832 

103 

1 

152 

2,944 

7,833 

4,042 

648 

2,527 

432 

2,077 



0.9 
2.9 
7.5 
5.9 
9.0 
2.3 
2.7 
.5 
.1 
1.2 
1.2 
1.1 
2.2 
.6 
1.6 
2.0 
1.1 
5.3 
LO 
(') 
1.1 
5.9 
23.3 
6.9 
2.3 
6.2 



100.0 



0.8 
3.1 
7.5 
6.3 
8.8 
2.5 
2.7 

.5 

.1 
1.2 
1.4 

.5 
2.0 

.6 
1.7 
2.1 
1.1 
5.6 
1.1 

1.1 

5.7 
23.6 
6.5 
2.4 
6.1 
.7 
4.3 



100.0 



1.1 

1.3 

7.9 

1.5 

11.1 

.6 

2.6 

.4 

.2 

1.4 



(0 



6.9 

3.8 

.6 

.6 

1.2 

1.6 

2.2 

3 



.4 

7.8 
20.8 
10.7 
1.7 
6.7 
1.1 
5.5 



68 









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Table 28.- 



G9 



-A^titnber and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, 
January- June 1948 



Oflense charged 



Total 
number 
of per- 
sons ar- 
rested 



Number 

under 18 

years of 

ape 



Number 
under 21 

years of 
ajje 



Total 

number 

under 25 

years of 

age 



Percent- 
ape under 
18 years 
of age 



Percent- 
ape under 
21 years 
of age 



Total 
percent- 
ape under 
25 years 

of age 



Total 

Criminal homicide 

Robbery -. - 

Assault- 

Burglary — breaking or enter- 
ing. 

Larceny — theft 

Autotheft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, re- 
ceiving, etc. 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape - - 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice. 

Other se.\ offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 

etc. 
Offenses against family and 
children. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor-vehicle 
laws. 

Disorderly conduct - 

Dnmkenness 

Vaprancy -. 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses -.. 



377, 933 



16. 943 



60. 862 



124, 292 



4.5 



16.1 



32.9 



3,286 
10, 988 
28, 432 
22, 107 

34, 155 
8,569 

10, 276 
1,789 

495 
4.694 
4.605 
4,251 

8,398 
2,203 
5,971 

7,577 

4,185 
19.791 
3,805 
34 
4,023 

22, 336 
87, 940 
26. 162 

8.857 

23, 341 
2,925 

16, 738 



108 

646 

629 

3, 809 

3, 076 

1, 585 

139 

74 

40 
193 
400 

40 

233 
39 
256 



121 

571 

426 

794 

59 

1,523 

92 

1,808 



427 
3,070 
3,288 
8,794 

9, 008 

4,001 

844 

280 

74 

790 

1,527 

418 

1,079 

445 

1,095 

383 

571 
1,146 

783 

4 

825 

3,284 
4,454 
4,119 

364 
5,204 

376 
4,209 



992 
6, 098 
8, 286 
13,232 

1,5,425 

6,138 

2,392 

599 

157 
1,698 
2,572 
1,426 

2,675 

948 

2,378 

1,633 

1,054 
3,827 
1,728 
9 
1,772 

7,591 
13, 488 
8,819 
1,228 
9,934 
832 
7.361 



3.3 
5.9 
2.2 
17.2 

9.0 

18.5 

1.4 

4. 1 

8.1 
4.1 

8.7 



2.8 
1.8 
4.3 



l.G 

.4 

2.5 



3.0 

2.6 

.5 

3.0 

6!5 
3.1 
10.8 



13.0 
27.9 
11.6 
39.8 

26.4 

46.7 

8.2 

15.7 

14.9 

16.8 

33.2 

9.8 

12.8 
20.2 
18.3 

5.1 

13.6 
5.8 
20.6 
11.8 
20.5 

14.7 
.5.1 
1,5.7 
4.1 
22.3 
12.9 
2.5.1 



30.2 
5,5.5 
29.1 
59.9 

45.2 
71.6 
23.3 
33.5 

31.7 
36.2 
55.9 
33.5 

31.9 
43.0 
39.8 

21.6 

25.2 
19.3 
45.4 
26.5 
44.0 

34.0 
15.3 
33.7 
1.3.9 
42.6 
28.4 
44.0 



For males and females combined, the figures for the groups in which 
the largest number of arrests occurred during the first half of 1948 are 
as follows: 



Age 


Number of 
arrests 


Age 


Number of 

arrests 


21 


16, 702 
16,427 
15, 871 


19 -.. 


15, 283 


22 


20 


15, 159 


23 











The frequency of male arrests followed the same pattern as above, 
while arrests for females showed the largest number occurring at age 
22 followed by ages 23, 21, 24, and 25 in that order. 

Criminal Repeaters 

Of the 377,933 arrest records examined, 218,448 (57.8 percent) 
represented persons who already had fingerprint cards on file in the 
Identification Division of the FBI. For males the percentage having 
prior records was 59.3 and lor females the percentage was 44.3 These 
figures pertain to fingerprint arrest records and in no way relate to the 
Civil Identification Files of the FBI. 



70 

For males and females combined, the percentage with a prior finger- 
print record was 20.0 at age 15 and this figure rose rapidly to 43.9 
at age 20. For males, the percentage was 20.5 at age 15 and 44.6 
at age 20. For females, the percentage with prior fingerprint records 
was 15.5 at age 15 and 38.0 at age 20. 

Race 

Most of the persons represented in this study were members of the 
white and Negro races. Members of the white race represented 
279,054 of the 377,933 arrest records received, while 93,876 were 
Negroes, 3,228 were Indians, 275 Chinese, 160 Japanese and 1,340 
were representatives of other races. 



OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in part I and 
part II offenses, tfiere follows a brief definition of each classification: 

Part I Offenses 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter includes all 
wilful felonious homicides as distinguished from deaths caused by negligence. 
Does not include attempts to kill, assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, 
or justifiable homicides. Justifiable homicides excluded from this classification 
are limited to the following types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon by a 
peace officer in line of duty; (2) the killing of a hold-up man by a private 
citizen. (6) Manslaughter by negligence includes any death which the police 
investigation establishes was primarily attributable to gross negligence on the 
part of some individual other than the victim. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape (no force used — victim under 
age of consent), assault to rape, and attempted rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as strong-arm robbery, stick-ups, 
robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisomng, scalding, or by the use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or a theft, even though no force 
was used to gain entrance. Includes attempts. Burglary followed by larceny 
is included in this classification and not counted again as larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value; 
(6) under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of the property stolen, thefts of bicycles, automobile accessories, 
shoplifting, pocket-picking, or any stealing of property or article of value which 
is not taken by force and violence or by fratid. Does not include embezzlement, 
"con" games, forgery, worthless checks, etc. 

7. Ante theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven away 
and abandoned, including the so-called joy-riding thefts. Does not include taking 
for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unauthorized use by 
those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which is 
made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false pretenses. 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those offenses. 

(71) 



72 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of regulations 
or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing, and manufac- 
turing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes 
or regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commer- 
cialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as prostitution, keeping 
bawdy house, procuring, transporting, or detaining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice). — In- 
cludes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

15. Offenses against the family and children. — Includes offenses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, sale, or use. Excludes Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "drunkenness" (class 18) and "driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations, State or local, are placed in 
this class. Excludes Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regulations with 
respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters, but not in connection with any specific offense, who are released with 
out formal charges being placed against them. 

o 



-k 



'^-^S^.5-^ 3 



UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C 



Volume XIX 

ANNUAL BULLETIN 



Number 2 
1948 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume XIX— Number 2 
ANNUAL BULLETIN, 1948 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1949 



WIAR 23 t949 



Page 

Summary of volume XIX, No. 2 73-74 

Classification of offenses ^ 74-75 

Extent of reporting area (table 29) 75-76 

Monthly reports: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population 

(table 30) 77-78 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police (tables 31-32) 79-87 

Monthly variations, offenses known to the police (table 33) 88-90 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location 

(tables 34-36) 91-94 

Offenses in individual cities over 25,000 in population (table 37) 95-102 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 38-40) 103-105 

Rural crime rates (table 41) 106 

Rural crime trends (table 42) 107-108 

Offenses known in Territories and possessions (table 43)--- 109 

Estimated number of major crimes (table 44) 110-112 

Data compiled from fingerprint cards: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 45) - 113-114 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 46-47) 114-119 

Percentage with previous fingerprint records (table 48) 119 

Race distribution of persons arrested (table 49) 119-120 

Definition of part I and part II offense classifications 121-122 

Index to volume XIX 123-124 

(n) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 
of Justice, Washington, D. C. 



Volume XIX January 1949 Number 2 

SUMMARY 

Estimated Number of Major Crimes 

During 1948 a serious crime was committed every 18.7 seconds, on 
the average, and by the year's end the total reached an estimated 
1,686,670 offenses. With the passing of each day on the average 36 
persons were feloniously slain, 255 were victims of aggravated assault 
or rape and 150 robberies were committed. During an average 24- 
hour period 1,032 places were burglarized, 463 automobiles were 
stolen, in addition to 2,672 miscellaneous larcenies. 

Crime Trends 

Long-term crime trend data, based on cities with population in 
excess of 25,000, indicate that only negligent manslaughters and auto 
thefts have declined to points below the prewar average. Aggravated 
assaults and rapes in the larger communities reached peaks in 1948 of 
68.7 and 49.9 percent, respectively, over the prewar averages and 
larceny, while declining during the war years, more recently has shown 
increases and for 1948 was 4.6 percent in excess of the prewar average. 
Other crimes, though showing some tendency to decline, still exceeded 
the prewar averages as follows: Burglary, 16.7 percent; murder, 14.1 
percent; and robbery, 8.9 percent. 

The total volume of crime throughout the country showed little 
change in 1948, increasing only 1.3 percent over the 1947 figures. The 
rise in the urban areas amounted to only 0.3 percent while the rural 
figures were up 4.3 percent. In the urban areas aggravated assaults 
increased 4.7 percent, larcenies 2.3 percent, and burglaries 0.8 percent, 
while in the rural areas aggravated assault showed a decrease of 0.6 
percent but larceny increased 9.6 percent and burglary rose 5.1 
percent. 

Decreases m the city crime figures were as follows: Murder, 2.1 
percent; negligent manslaughter, 7.7 percent; rape, 2.3 percent; 
robbery, 5.8 percent; and auto theft, 8.8 percent. In the rural areas 
in addition to the slight decrease in aggravated assault, other crimes 
declined as follows: Murder, 1.3 percent; negligent manslaughter, 1.1 
percent; rape, 10.8 percent; robbery, 5.7 percent; and auto theft, 
6.1 percent. 

(73) 



74 

Monthly Variations in Crime 

The crime figures reported monthly in 1948 show again the pro- 
nounced effect the seasons have on this social phenomenon. Crimes 
of murder, rape, and aggravated assault are most frequently com- 
mitted during the summer months and least frequently during the 
cold winter season. Negligent manslaughter offenses, consisting 
almost entirely of traffic fatalities, show a trend inverse to that of 
other crimes against the person and were least frequent during the 
summer months and most frequent during the winter season, reaching 
a decided peak in December. 

Robberies and burglaries were most frequent during the first 
quarter of the year and showed the smallest daily average during the 
third quarter. Larcenies were most frequent during the second 
quarter, reaching a peak in April and were least frequent durmg the 
first 3 months of the year with the lowest daily average reported for 
January. Auto thefts were most frequent during the fourth quarter 
of the year, reachmg a peak in October and showed the lowest daily 
average in January. 

Supplemental Crime Data 

Over half (57.4 percent) of the rape offenses reported in 1948 were 
forcible in nature and the others classed as statutory cases. Of the 
robberies reported, 65.2 percent were considered highway robberies; 
25.7 percent involved places of business; 5.1 percent occurred in 
private residences; and 4 percent were other types. 

Of the burglaries reported, 39.4 percent involved residences and 
two-thirds of these were committed during the night, while 89 percent 
of the nonresidence burglaries were committed after dark. 

The loot stolen in the average robbery amounted to $202; in the 
average burglary, $127; in the average larceny, $64; and the average 
automobile stolen was valued at $869. 

Ninety-three percent of stolen automobiles and 21 percent of other 
types of stolen property were recovered by the police. 

Persons Arrested 

During 1948 fingerprint arrest records received at the FBI totaled 
759,698, an increase of 3.5 percent over the previous all-time high of 
1947. Approximately one-tenth of the arrest records received 
represented women and the predominating age of all persons arrested 
was 21, followed by ages 22, 23, 24, and 20 in that order. Fifty-eight 
percent of the arrest records received represented persons who already 
had fingerprint arrest records on file in Washington. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to the 



75 



police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting or 
court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following group 
of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be those most 
generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal homicide, 
including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (b) manslaugh- 
ter by negligence ; rape ; robbery ; aggi'avated assault ; burglary — break- 
ing or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The figures contained 
herein include also the number of attempted crimes of the designated 
classes. In other words, an attempted burglary or robbery, for ex- 
ample, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner as if the crime 
had been completed. Attempted murders, however, are reported as 
aggravated assaults. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the law-enforce- 
ment agencies of contributing communities and not merely arrests or 
cleared cases. Offenses committed by juveniles are included in the 
same manner as those known to have been committed by adults, 
regardless of the prosecutive action. Complaints which upon inves- 
tigation are learned to be groundless are not included in the tabula- 
tions which follow. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions of 
part I and II offense classifications. 

EXTENT OF REPORTING AREA 

In the table which follows there is shown the number of police 
departments from which one or more crime reports were received 
dui4ng the calendar year 1948. Information is presented for the 
cities divided according to size, and the population figures employed 
are from the 1940 decennial census. 



Population group 


Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 


Cities filing 
returns 


Total popu- 
lation 


Population represented 
in returns 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


1,079 


1,037 


96.1 


62, 737, 577 


62, 157, 314 


99.1 






1. Cities over 250,000 - 


37 
55 
107 
213 
667 


37 
55 
107 
213 
625 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
93.7 


30, 195, 339 
7, 792, 650 
7, 343, 917 
7, 417, 093 
9. 988, 578 


30, 195, 339 
7, 792, 650 
7, .343, 91 7 
7,417,093 
9,408,315 


100.0 


2. Cities 100,000 to 250,000 

3. Cities .50,000 to 100,000 

4. Cities 25,000 to 50,000 _. 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


5. Cities 10,000 to 25,000 


94.2 







Note. — The above table does not include 2,069 cities, villages, and rural townships aggregating a total 
population of 10,223,6,50. The cities and villages included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 popula- 
tion filing returns, whereas the rural townships are of varying population groups. 



76 

In addition to the 3,106 city and village police departments which 
forwarded crime reports during 1948, one or more reports were re- 
ceived during the year from 2,236 sheriffs and State police organiza- 
tions and from 1 1 agencies in Territories and possessions of the United 
States, making a grand total of 5,353 agencies contributing crime 
reports to the FBI during 1948. The status of the reporting area by 
individual States is indicated in table 29. 



Table 29. — Status of reporting area, Uniform Crime Reports, 1948, by States 



State 



Urban police departments ' 



Number of 
cities 



Number of 
cities con- 
tributing 



Percent 
contribut- 
ing 



County sheriffs 



Number of 
counties 



Number of 
counties 
contribut- 
ing 



Percent 
contribut- 
ing 



Total 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California.- 

Colorado 

Connecticut * 

Delaware * 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois -.. 

Indiana ' 

Iowa.-- 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana ' -.. 

Maine ' 

Maryland 

Massachusetts * 

Michigan ' 

Minnesota. 

Mississippi. 

Missouri. 

Montana -.. 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire ' 

New Jersey ' 

New Mexico ' 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania ' 

Rhode Island * 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah.. 

Vermont. 

Virginia ' 

Washington 

West Virginia* 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



3,462 



2 2,i 



84.8 



3,070 



59 
16 
53 

167 
30 
32 
8 
1 
69 
78 
26 

208 
98 
89 
64 
56 
64 
26 
24 

122 

125 
78 
48 
87 
23 
36 
5 
18 

178 
22 

203 
76 
12 

186 
74 
34 

355 
19 
50 
19 
57 

195 
25 
14 
53 
40 
45 
93 
12 



42 
14 
30 

165 
28 
30 
7 
1 
48 
56 
25 

194 
91 
79 
59 
47 
32 
23 
17 

111 

120 
76 
28 
64 
20 
31 
5 
17 

160 
21 

190 
56 
12 

175 
54 
31 

301 
18 
32 
18 
42 

109 
23 
12 
49 
37 
35 
90 
11 



71.2 
87.5 
56.6 
98.8 
93.3 
93.8 
87.5 

100.0 
69.6 
71.8 
96.2 
93.3 
92.9 
88.8 
92.2 
83.9 
59.3 
88.5 
70.8 
91.0 
96.0 
97.4 
58.3 
73.6 
87.0 
86.1 

100.0 
94.4 
89.9 
95.5 
93.6 
73.7 

100.0 
94.1 
73.0 
91.2 
84.8 
94.7 
64.0 
94.7 
73.7 
55.9 
92.0 
85.7 
92.5 
92.5 
77.8 
96.8 
91.7 



67 

159 
44 

102 
92 
99 

105 

120 
64 
16 
23 
14 
83 
87 
82 

114 
56 
93 
17 
10 
21 
31 
62 

100 
53 
88 
77 
36 
67 
5 
46 
69 
95 

254 
29 
14 

100 
39 
55 
71 
23 



' 2, 381 



41 
84 
43 
90 
75 
89 
93 
82 
52 
12 
16 
14 
76 
84 
45 
83 
53 
81 
16 

5 

2 
29 
61 
59 
51 
77 
66 
28 
67 

5 
24 
59 
53 
178 
24 

9 
73 
38 
55 
67 
21 



77.6 



41.8 
92.9 
56.0 
89.7 
87.3 
100.0 
100.0 



61.2 

52.8 
97.7 
88.2 
81.5 
89.9 
88.6 
68.3 
81.3 
75.0 
69.6 

100.0 
91.6 
96.6 
54.9 
72.8 
94.6 
87.1 
94.1 
50.0 
9.5 
93.5 
98.4 
59.0 
96.2 
87.5 
85.7 
77.8 

100.0 

100.0 
52.2 
85.5 
55.8 
70.1 
82.8 
64.3 
73.0 
97.4 

100.0 
94.4 
91.3 



1 The Census Bureau's 1940 classification of communities as urban and rural has been followed. Gener- 
ally, incorporated places with populations of 2,500 or more are classified as urban. 

2 Does not include 170 rural township and village police departments. 

8 Includes 144 counties for which State police submit crime reports and 15 counties composed entirely of 
urban communities whose police departments foward crime reports; sheriffs of these counties do not con- 
tribute reports. Does not include 14 State police organizations contributing reports. 

* All counties were counted as contributors because the State police contribute data for rural portions of the 
State. 

« State police also contribute. 



MONTHLY REPORTS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population 

As indicated in table 29, a total of 2,936 cities contributed crime 
reports to the FBI during 1948. However, not all of these cities 
sent in a complete set of reports for the year. The reports received 
were carefully examined and in some instances the verification of the 
returns indicated they were not properly prepared. Accordingly, any 
apparent discrepancies or any indication of misunderstanding as to 
the proper method to be followed in preparing the reports were made 
the subject of correspondence. In addition, frequent contacts were 
made with the contributing law enforcement agencies by Special 
Agents of the F B I to assist in correct uniform crime reporting. The 
tabulations which follow were based on the reports of those cities from 
whom a complete set of returns were received provided these returns 
appeared to have been prepared in accordance with Uniform Crime 
Reporting procedures. 

Table 30 shows the number of offenses reported and the rate per 
100,000 inhabitants by 2,404 cities representing a combined popula- 
tion in excess of 68 million. The data are divided with the cities 
grouped according to size so that interested individuals may compare 
local crime rates with averages for other cities of approximately the 
same size. This is generally desirable since there is a considerable 
variation in the crime rates for cities of different population groups. 

The following figures show the percentage distribution of the crimes 
reported for 1948. 



Offense 


Rate per 
100,000 


Percent 


Total.- 


1, 687. 2 


100.0 








Larceny 


975. 2 
392.2 
165.5 
75.8 
56.2 
12.3 
6.0 
4.0 


57.8 


Burglary 


23.3 


Auto theft 


9.8 


Assault., 


4.5 


Robbery '. 


3.3 


Rape. 


.7 


Murder 


.4 


Manslaughter 


.2 







(77) 



78 

Table 30. — Offenses known to the police, 1948; number and rate per 100,000 
inhahitants, by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Population group 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



Auto 
theft 



TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

2,404 cities; total population, 68,142,- 
674: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP I 

36 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 29,894,166: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000. ._ 



GROUP II 

55 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,792,650: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



105 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; 
population, 7,225,117: 
Number of offenses known 
Rate per 100,000 



total 



GROUP IV 

209 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; 
population, 7.274,098: 
Number of offenses known. 
Rate per 100,000 



GROUP V 

557 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; 
population, 8,472,286: 
Nimiber of offenses known. 
Rate per 100,000 



GROT'P VI 

1,442 cities under 10,000; 
population, 7,484.357: 
Number of offenses known 
Rate per 100,000 



total 



4,085 
5.99 



2,176 
7.28 



544 
6.98 



445 
6.16 



285 
3.92 



.3?: 



298 



2,701 
3.96 



8,402 
12.33 



38, 285 
58.2 



51.625 
75.8 



1 230,432 
392.2 



1 573,008 
975.2 



112,769 
165.5 



1,528 
5.11 



394 
5.06 



247 
3.42 



216 
2.97 



156 
1.84 



160 
2.14 



5.025 
16.81 



11.54 



678 
9.38 



555 
7.63 



563 
6.65 



682 
9.11 



24, 622 
82.4 



4,768 
61.2 



3,208 
44.4 



2, 085 
28.7 



1,876 
22.1 



1,726 
23.1 



29, 073 
97.3 



5,389 
69.2 



4,382 
60.2 



3, 859 
45.5 



2,640 
35.3 



I 95, 349 
464.9 



38, 132 
489.3 



30, 148 
417.3 



25, 000 
343.7 



23. 440 

276.7 



18,363 
245.4 



' 212,836 
103T. 8 



90,092 
1156. 1 



76,118 
1053.5 



73, 031 
1004. 



72, 223 

852. 5 



48, 708 
650. 8 



55, 000 
184.0 



16, 582 
212.8 



12, 472 
172.6 



11,080 
152.3 



10,142 
119.7 



7,483 
100. 



' The number of offenses and rates for burglary and larceny— theft are based on reports as follows: Groups 
I-VI, 2,402 cities, total population, 58,756,345; group I, 34 cities, total population, 20,507,837. 



79 



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826001°— 49- 



80 

Urban Crime Trends 

Urban crime as a total during 1948 showed little change (+0.3 
percent) over the figures for 1947 although moderate increases were 
registered for aggravated assault, 4.7 percent; burglary, 0.8 percent; 
and larceny, 2.3 percent. 

Auto theft and negligent manslaughter declined 8.8 and 7.7 percent, 
respectively, while other decreases noted in the cities were as follows: 
Kobbery, 5.8 percent; rape, 2.3 percent; and murder, 2.1 percent. 

Most of the increases were reported by cities in the Northern region 
where all offenses except negligent manslaughter and auto theft 
exceeded the 1947 figures. In the South and West the only increases 
registered were moderate ones for aggravated assault. 

Among the individual geographic divisions the East North Central 
and West North Central States showed the heaviest increases while 
generally the largest decreases were recorded in the Pacific area. 

With the crime trend data grouped according to size of city, most 
of the increases were seen in the larger communities. For cities with 
less than 50,000 inhabitants only larceny showed increases, while 
cities over 250,000 in population registered increases in each offense 
class except manslaughter by negligence, robbery, and auto theft. 

Auto thefts declined in each geographic division and in cities of each 
population group. 

The foregoing comments are based on monthly crime reports re- 
ceived during 1947 and 1948 from 2,166 urban communities of all sizes 
throughout the country representing a combined population of 
66,713,389 and the details are presented in tables 31 and 32. 

Available long-term crime trend data are illustrated in figures 9 and 
10. These charts are based on the reports of 373 cities with population 
in excess of 25,000 — combined population, 50,616,919. The illustra- 
tions indicate the marked crime increases during and shortly after 
World War II. 

Only negligent manslaughter and auto theft offenses have declined 
to points below the prewar average. Aggravated assaults and rapes 
in the larger communities reached peaks in 1948 of 68.7 and 49.9 
percent, respectively, over the prewar averages for these offenses and 
larceny, while declining during the war years, more recently has shown 
increases and for 1948 was 4.6 percent in excess of the prewar average. 
Other crimes, though showing some tendency to decline, still exceeded 
the prewar averages as follows: Burglary^ 16.7 percent; murder, 14.1 
percent; and robbery, 8.9 percent. 

Auto theft offenses have shown the most pronounced rise and fall 
of any of the crimes during recent years. These offenses in 1942 were 
5.4 percent below the prewar average but thereafter rose sharply 
in 1945 to a point 35.5 percent in excess of the average for 1938-41, 
but have since fallen to a level 6.6 percent below the prewar average 
in 1948. 



81 



Table 31. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1947-48, by population 

groups 



Population group 


Total 


Murder 

and 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


.-^ggra - 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


Total, 2,166 cities; popula- 
tion, 66,713,389: 
1947 


1, 025, 621 
1, 028, 828 

+ .3 


4.071 
3.984 
-2.1 


2.878 
2,655 
-7.7 


8,467 
8,274 
-2.3 


40. 222 

37. 893 

-5.8 


48, 539 
50. 801 

+4.7 


233. 088 

234. 884 

+.8 


566. 240 

579. 008 

+2.3 


122. 116 


1948 


111.327 


Percent change 


-8.8 


Group 1, 36 cities; popula- 
tion, 29,894,166: 
1947 -- 


435. 308 

444. 837 

+2.2 

159, 004 

158. 800 

-1.4 

129. 043 
129, 598 

+.4 

117, 574 

116, 534 

-.9 

111,392 

107, 806 

-3.2 

73, 300 

73.251 

-.1 


2.123 
2,176 
+2.5 

601 

544 

-9.5 

459 

445 

-3.1 

296 

285 

-.3.7 

334 

293 

-12.3 

258 

241 

-6.6 


1.598 
1. ,528 
-4.4 

411 

394 

-4.1 

256 

247 

-3.5 

267 

216 

-19.1 

171 

135 

-21.1 

175 

135 

-22.9 


4.786 
5,025 
+5.0 

979 

899 

-8.2 

718 

678 

—5.6 

591 

555 

-6.1 

715 

508 

-29.0 

678 

609 

-10.2 


25.612 

24, 622 

-3.9 

5,372 
4.768 
-11.2 

3,136 
3,208 
+2.3 

2,338 
2,082 
-11.0 

2,134 
1,796 
-15.8 

1,630 
1,417 
-13.1 


25, 624 
29, 073 
+13.5 

5,841 
5,389 

-7.7 

6,518 
6,282 
-3.6 

4,622 
4,382 
-5.2 

3, 635 
3, 520 
-3.2 

2, 299 
2,155 
-6.3 


99. 809 

102,868 

+3.1 

39, 610 

38,132 

-3.7 

28, 583 

30, 148 

+5.5 

24, 963 

24,961 

(') 

23, 547 

22,316 

-5.2 

16, 576 

16, 459 

-.7 


216. 901 

224, 545 

+3.5 

87, 343 

90, 092 

+3.1 

75, 749 

76, 118 

+.5 

72, 646 
73. 003 

+.5 

69, 633 

69, 623 

(') 

43, 968 

45, 627 

+3.8 


58, 855 


1948 


55, 000 


Percent change 

Oroup II, 55 cities; popula- 
tion, 7,792,650: 
1947 


-6.6 

18,847 


1948 


16,582 


Percent change 

Group III, 105 cities; pop- 
ulation, 7,225,117: 
1947 


-12.0 
13,624 


1948 


12, 472 


Percent change 

Group IV, 208 cities; pop- 
ulation, 7,234,659: 


-8.5 
11,851 


1948 


11,050 


Group V, 527 cities; popu- 
lation, 8,020,884: 
1947 


-6.8 
11,223 


1948 


9,615 


Percent change 

Group VI, 1,235 cities; 
population, 6,545,913: 


-14.3 

7,716 


1948 - .-. 


6,608 




-14.4 



A decrease of less than one-tenth of 1 percent. 



82 




83 



Table 32. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1947-48, by regions, 
geographic divisions, and States 



Regions, divisions, and 
States 



Total 



Murder 

and 
nonneg 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



Total, 2,166 cities; popula- 
tion, 66,713,389: 

1947 

1948 

Percent change 

The North, 1,471 cities; 
population, 47,003,154: 

1947 __ 

1948 

Percent change 

New England, 183 cities; 
population, 5,886,237: 

1947 

1948 

Percent change 

Connecticut, 23 cities; 
population, 958,920: 

1947 

1948_. _ 

Maine, 17 cities; popula- 
tion, 274,745: 

1947.. __ _._ 

1948 

Massachusetts, 105 cities; 
population, 3,717,624: 

1947— 

1948 

New Hampshire, 14 cities; 
population, 239, 235: 

1947 

1948... 

Rhode Island, 15 cities; 
population, 606,136: 

1947.- 

1948 

Vermont, 9 cities; popu- 
lation, 89,577: 

1947 

1948 

Middle Atlantic, 522 cities; 
population, 19,390,318: 

1947 

1948. 

Percent change 

New Jersey, 131 cities; 
population, 2,644,983: 

1947 

1948- 

New York, 166 cities; pop- 
ulation, 11,005,024: 

1947 

1948 

Pennsylvania, 225 cities; 
population, 5,740,311: 

1947-- 

1948 

East North Central, 516 
cities; population, 16,- 
391,708: 

1947. - 

1948... 

Percent change 

Illinois, 140 cities: popula- 
tion, 5,428,238: 

1947..- - 

1948 

Indiana, 59 cities; popula- 
tion, 1,660,849: 

1947--- - 

1948 



1,025,621 

1, 028, 826 

-fO.3 



503, 718 

525, 142 

+4.3 



61, 685 

61, 234 

-0.7 



12, 706 
12, 253 



3,264 
3,378 



35, 889 
36, 042 



1,523 
1,795 



7,381 
6,810 



922 
956 



12S, 686 

131,147 

+4-4 



27, 624 
29, 262 



57, 937 
59, 632 



40,025 
42, 253 



S43, 737 

g64, 220 

+4-S 



55, 131 
63, 902 



29, 209 
32, 082 



4,071 
3,984 
-2.1 



2,878 
2,655 
-7.7 



8,467 
8,274 
-2.3 



40, 222 

37, 893 

-5.8 



48, 539 
50, 801 

+4.7 



233, 088 

234, 884 

+0.8 



566, 240 

679, 008 

+2.3 



1,788 
1,870 

+4.6 



1,716 
1,634 



4,890 
5,060 

+3.5 



20, 909 
21, 147 

+1.1 



19, 589 

21, 151 

+8.0 



117,354 

122, 722 

+4.8 



273, 895 
292, 326 

+6.7 



79 
80 

+1.3 



447 
419 
-6.3 



1,097 

983 

-10.4 



723 

781 

+8.0 



16, 125 

15, 712 

-2.6 



35, 016 

36, 083 

+3.0 



119 
80 



668 

676 

+1.0 



1,016 

870 

-14.4 



335 
297 



/, 681 
1, 726 
+2.7 



204 
183 



730 
660 



90 



5,035 
5,014 
-0.4 



252 
233 



301 
352 



134 
152 



7,260 
6,777 
-6.7 



3,395 
3,574 



735 

854 



9,492 

8,875 



335 
446 



1,992 
1,791 



176 
172 



SO, 430 

31,412 

+3.2 



7,406 
7,081 



2,101 
2,065 



19, 578 
21, 028 



1,022 
1,160 



4,305 
4,056 



604 
693 



56, 374 
62, 122 
+12.2 



385 
385 



205 
212 



815 

882 
+8.2 



123 
110 



584 



309 
262 



378 

466 
+20.4 



241 
224 



1,004 
1,048 



436 
454 



2,218 
2,309 
+4-1 



924 
781 



1,998 
1,891 



2,113 
2,342 



12, 603 
13, 066 

+4-5 



1,366 
1,298 



3,972 
3,678 



1,922 
1,801 



9,188 
10, 231 
+11.4 



8,219 
8,570 



9,977 
10,023 



12,234 
12, 819 



66, 066 

57, 396 

+4-^ 



13, 493 
15, 319 



25, 515 
28,176 



16, 366 
18,627 



140, 495 

147,351 

+4-9 



267 
385 



104 



656 
771 



164 
178 



5,632 
6,360 



982 
904 



2,220 
3,069 



751 
846 



14, 259 
17, 164 



7,230 
7,355 



26, 678 
30,230 



16,368 
19, 038 



84 



Table 32.— Annnal trends, offenses known to the police, 1947-48, by regions, 
geographic divisions, and States — Continued 



Regions, divisions, and 
States 



Total 



Murder 

and 
nonneg 
lisent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



Michigan, 97 cities; popu- 
lation, 3,296,214: 

1947 

1948 

Ohio, 144 cities; popula- 
tion, 4,418,662: 

1947 

1948 

Wisconsin, 76 cities; pop- 
ulation, 1,587,745: 

1947. 

1948 

West North Central, 250 
cities; population, 5,- 
334,891: 

1947 

1948 

Percent change 



Iowa, 50 cities; popula- 
tion, 926,637: 

1947 

1948,__ 

Kansas, 49 cities; popula- 
tion, 698,464: 

1947 

1948 

Minnesota, 65 cities; pop- 
ulation, 1,318,096: 

1947 

1948 

Missouri, 42 cities; popu- 
lation, 1,702,304: 

1947 

1948 

Nebraska, 22 cities; popu- 
lation, 447,422: 

1947 _ 

1948 

North Dakota, 10 cities; 
population, 121,649: 

1947 

1948_.._ _ 

South Dakota, 12 cities; 
population, 120,319: 

1947 

1948 

The South, 407 cities; 
population, 12,172,472: 

1947 

1948 

Percent change 



South Atlantic,' 193 cities; 
population, 5,820,268: 

1947 

1948 

Percent change 



Delaware, 3 cities; popu- 
lation, 120.614: 

1947 

1948... 

Florida, 30 cities; popula- 
tion, 830,254: 

1947 

1948..._ 

Georgia, 22 cities; popula- 
tion, 728,303: 

1947 

1948 



70, 325 

71, 534 



71, 632 

68, 747 



17, 440 
17, 955 



72, 710 

78, 541 

+8.0 



12, 133 
12,069 



11, 284 
11,458 



14, 152 
16, 706 



24, 806 
28, 786 



7,197 
7,053 



1,728 
1,811 



1,410 
1,658 



270, 987 

267, 130 

-1.4 



136. 117 

135. 542 

+0.3 



2,711 
2,434 



27, 328 
26,904 



15,443 
15, 224 



162 
154 



255 
236 



+S.1 



158 
141 



130 

157 

+S0.8 



761 

758 



547 
541 



5U 

606 

+11. i 



2,813 
2,889 



2,908 
2,769 



168 
144 



-8.4 



3,913 
4,092 



2,181 
2,106 



123 
118 



2. 418 
3, 362 
+39.0 



15,048 
14, 920 



16, 159 
15,453 



2,369 
2,504 



15, 734 
18, 202 
+15.7 



41, 985 
43, 402 



42, 352 
41, 121 



13,112 
13, 560 



43,010 

46, 770 

+8.7 



142 
137 



1,834 
1,764 
-3.8 



628 
577 
-8.1 



75 



319 
381 



1,712 
1,661 
-3.0 



169 
144 



217 
246 



377 
423 



1,330 
1,091 



129 
145 



8,665 
8,107 
-5.3 



192 
212 



131 

126 



1,801 
2,792 



173 
135 



22, 939 
23, 549 

+2.7 



2,439 
2,422 



2,801 
2, 789 



2,919 
3,298 



5,612 

7,724 



1,457 
1,330 



258 
301 



248 
338 



63, 830 

63, 114 

-1.1 



7,928 
8,252 



6,782 
7,092 



8,769 
10,233 



12, 670 
14, 167 



4, .592 
4,640 



1,278 
1,246 



991 
1,140 



140, 832 

140, 071 

-0.6 



800 
-5.2 



190 
-SI. 2 



170 
119 



188 
157 



976 
+6.1 



4,306 
4.'ilS 
+0.2 



13. 695 

14. 945 

+9.1 



30. 486 
+0.6 



70, 120 

70, 273 

+0.2 



105 
95 



902 
816 



435 
417 



1,648 
1,352 



1,169 
1,302 



561 

598 



8,038 
7,618 



2,857 
3,305 



1,739 
1,479 



14, 108 
14, 756 



8,576 
8,093 



1 Includes the District of Columbia. 



85 




86 



Table 32. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 19^7-48, by regions, 
geographic divisions, and States — Continued 



Regions, divisions, and 
States 


Total 


Murder 

and 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


Maryland, 15 cities; popu- 
lation, 1,021,478: 
1947 


14, 117 
13, 467 

18, 704 
17, 958 

6,632 
7,110 

22,544 
24. 393 

5,983 
5,383 

J,7, U8 

45, m 

-3.7 


102 
118 

129 
139 

45 
35 

119 
138 

20 
25 

U8 

46S 

+4.6 


7 
8 

57 
33 

10 
10 

38 
22 

21 
17 

160 

165 

+S.1 


159 
159 

116 
117 

34 
41 

255 
198 

17 
16 

280 

219 

-21.8 


542 

485 

381 
328 

132 
152 

639 
734 

224 
286 

1,994 
1,702 
-14.6 


1,476 
1,322 

4,331 
4,280 

440 
440 

1,974 
1,946 

257 
237 

4,447 
4, ISO 
-7.1 


2,532 
2,406 

4,063 
3,913 

1,286 
1,428 

4,976 
5,311 

1,422 
1,364 

12, 779 

12,S34 

-S.5 


6,680 
6,403 

7,853 
7,553 

3,903 

4,258 

12, 217 
13, 717 

3,296 
2,727 

20, 489 

20, 417 

-0.4 


2,719 


1948 - 


2,566 


North Carolina, 46 cities; 
population, 832,335: 
1947 


1,774 


1948 


1,595 


South Carolina, 18 cities; 
population, 309,376: 
1947 


782 


1948 


746 


Virginia, 36 cities; popu- 
lation, 878,464: 
1947 


2,326 


1948 


2,327 


West Virginia, 22 cities; 
population, 436,353: 
1947 


726 


1948 


711 


East South Central, 83 
cities; population, 
2,435,794: 
1947 


6,651 


1948 . 


6,056 


Percent change 


-8.9 


Alabama, 20 cities; popu- 
lation, 636,538: 
1947 - 


12,703 
12,653 

15,124 
15,805 

4,943 
4,231 

14,478 
12,802 

88, en 

86,097 
-S.9 


154 
157 

86 
92 

41 
36 

167 
183 

542 

496 

-8.6 


42 
42 

44 
42 

21 
16 

53 
65 

192 

222 

+16.6 


104 
61 

72 
59 

38 
27 

66 
72 

60S 

466 

-7.4 


370 
331 

802 
748 

108 
88 

714 
535 

2.265 
2,090 
-7.7 


1,751 
1,577 

1,035 
935 

512 
432 

1,149 
1,186 

4.797 
4.474 
-6.7 


3,515 
3,571 

4,105 
4,590 

1,157 
996 

4,002 
3,177 

20, 72S 

20.294 

-2.1 


5,163 
5,641 

6,706 
6,924 

2,533 
2,261 

6,087 
5,591 

60. 22S 

49.S8I 

-1.7 


1,604 


1948 


1,273 


Kentucky, 23 cities; popu- 
lation, 673,138: 
1947 


2,274 


1948 ___. 


2,415 


Mississippi, 15 cities; pop- 
ulation, 278,741: 
1947 


533 


1948 


375 


Tennessee, 25 cities; popu- 
lation, 847,377: 
1947 


2,240 


1948. 


1,993 


West South Central, 
131 cities; population, 
3,916,410: 
1947 


9,S77 


1948 


8,674 


Percent change 


-7.6 


Arkansas, 13 cities; popu- 
lation, 226,479: 
1947 


3,743 
3,684 

11,119 
11,890 

13, 703 
13, 372 

60, 057 
57, 151 


26 
25 

103 
89 

52 
37 

361 
345 


12 
26 

33 

40 

21 
29 

126 
127 


27 
26 

83 
94 

67 
69 

326 
277 


115 
102 

526 
443 

324 
265 

1,300 
1,280 


321 
287 

869 
882 

290 
305 

3,317 
3,000 


838 
923 

2,344 
2,565 

3,478 
3,233 

14, 063 
13, 573 


2,019 
1,944 

6,532 
6,017 

8,159 
8, 273 

34, 513 


385 


1948 


351 


Louisiana, 19 cities; popu- 
lation, 810,104: 
1947- 


1,629 


1948 


1,760 


Oklahoma, 32 cities; popu- 
lation, 651,543: 
1947 


1,312 


1948. 


1,161 


Texas, 67 cities; popula- 
tion, 2,228,284: 
1947... 


6. 051 


1948... 


33, 147 5, 402 



87 

Table 32. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1947-48, by regions, 
geographic divisions, and States — Continued 



Regions, divisions, and 
States 


Total 


Murder 

and 
nonneg- 
ligcnt 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


The West, 288 cities; pop- 
ulation, 7,537,763: 
1947 


250,916 

236, 554 

-5.7 


449 

350 

-22.0 


534 

444 

-16.9 


1,865 
1,553 
-16.7 


10, 748 
8,639 
-19.6 


6,011 
6,101 
+ 1.5 


51, 904 

49, 048 

-5.5 


151,513 

146,611 

-3.2 


27, 892 


1948 


23, 808 


Percent change - - 


-14.6 


Mountain, 93 cities, popu- 
lation, 1,455,998: 
1947 


41,641 

41,618 

+0.2 


62 

68 

+9.7 


90 

73 

-18.9 


293 

244 

-16.7 


1,213 
1,075 
-11.4 


739 

688 

-6.9 


8,737 
9,236 
+6.7 


26,431 

26, 329 

-0.4 


3,976 


1948 


3,906 


Percent change 


-1.8 


Arizona, 11 cities; popu- 
lation, 150,001: 
1947 


6,060 
6,194 

14, 557 
15, 084 

4,328 
4,218 

3,120 
3,080 

2,443 
2,042 

2,053 
2,467 

7,711 
7,057 

1,269 
1,476 

Z09, 375 

194. 93G 

-6.9 


12 
14 

26 
27 

6 

4 

2 
3 

3 

8 

5 

7 

5 
4 

3 

1 

387 

282 

-27.1 


19 
9 

43 
35 

2 
3 

8 
15 

1 
2 

3 
3 

14 
5 

444 

371 

-16.4 


64 

54 

142 
116 

6 
9 

11 
10 

5 
9 

10 
12 

45 
27 

10 
7 

1,672 
1,309 
-16.7 


181 
174 

641 
540 

60 
45 

43 
73 

97 
67 

23 
33 

143 
112 

25 
31 

9,536 
7,684 
-20.7 


191 
150 

229 
214 

41 
38 

50 
75 

20 
41 

93 

84 

96 
56 

19 
30 

6,272 
6,413 
+2.7 


1,005 
1,124 

3,618 
4,045 

838 
769 

486 
496 

582 
552 

389 
504 

1,590 
1,507 

229 
238 

43, 167 

39. 813 

-7.8 


3,852 
3,906 

8,734 
8,861 

3,006 
2,969 

2,231 
2,165 

1,441 
1,185 

1,297 
1,464 

5,003 
4,774 

867 
1,005 

126, 082 

120, 282 

-3.8 


736 


1948 


763 


Colorado, 18 cities; popu- 
lation, 538,771: 

1947 


1,124 


1948 


1,246 


Idaho, 17 cities; popula- 
tion, 141,011: 
1947 


369 


1948 


381 


Montana, 15 cities; popu- 
lation, 156,042: 
1947 


289 




243 


Nevada, 4 cities; popula- 
tion, 55,775: 
1947 


294 


1948 


178 


New Mexico, 10 cities; 
population, 88,775: 
1947 


233 


1948 


360 


Utah, 14 cities; popula- 
tion, 264,829: 
1947..- 


815 




572 


Wyoming, 4 cities; popu- 
lation, 60,794: 
1947... 


116 


1948 


163 


Pacific, 195 cities; popula- 
tion, 6,081,765: 
1947 


23,916 


1948 


19. 902 


Percent change 


-16.8 


California, 142 cities; pop- 
ulation, 4,745,080: 
1947 


166, 872 
153, 961 

16,110 
14, 428 

26, 393 
26, 547 


336 
235 

14 
19 

37 
28 


342 
283 

33 
34 

69 
54 


1,370 
1,130 

110 
73 

92 
106 


8,207 
6.445 

459 
386 

869 
733 


4,592 
4,928 

436 
297 

244 
188 


33, 2.38 
30, 914 

3, 844 
3,089 

6, 085 
5,810 


99, 728 
94, 597 

9,578 
9,098 

15, 776 
16,587 


19, 059 


1948... _-- 


15,429 


Oregon, 24 cities; popula- 
tion, 492,432: 
1947 


1,636 


1948 


1,432 


Washington, 29 cities; 
population, 844,253: 
1947 .. - 


3,221 


1948 


3,041 



826001°— 49 3 



MONTHLY VARIATIOINS 

Offenses Knoivn to the Police 



1048 



2/404 CITIES 



TOTAL POPULATION 68,142,674 



(Offenses Against the Person) 



MURDER 



ANNVAL AveftAGE 



150'? 

140 

130 

120 

110 

100? 

90 

80 

70 

60% 



NEGUGENT 
MANSLAUGHTER 



rV 



ANNUAL AVERAGE 



PERCENT OF ANNUAL AVERAGE 



RAPE 



ANNUAL AVERAGE" 



150% 

m 

130 
120 
110 
100% 

90 

80 

70 

60% 



AGGRAVATED 
ASSAULT 



AVERAGE 



FBI 

CHAAT 



Figure 12. 



89 



Monthly Variations — Offenses Known to the Police 

Crime shows definite monthly variations and the patterns are 
rather well established over the years. Offenses of murder, rape, and 
aggravated assault are most frequently committed during the summer 
months and show the lowest daily average during the cold winter 
season. These crimes reached frequency peaks in June or July of 
1948 and were least frequent during January. 

Negligent manslaughter, while classed as a crime against the person, 
is quite difl^erent from other offenses in this general category in that 
these deaths are attributable to culpable negligence. Substantially 
all of them grow out of traffic fatalities and accordingly the seasonal 
fluctuation for negligent manslaughters shows the lowest frequency 
during the summer months and highest during the winter when 
driving conditions are less favorable. They reached a definite peak 
in frequency in December and the daily average was lowest in June 
and September. 

Robbery and burglary were highest during the first quarter of the 
year and lowest in frequency during the third quarter. Robbery 
reached a peak in the number of offenses committed daily during 
December and the burglary peak was in February and March. The 
low months for these offenses were June for robbery and September 
for burglary. 

Larceny offenses were most frequent during the second quarter, 
reaching a peak in April. They were least frequent during the fii'st 
quarter with the smallest daily average being reported for January. 
Auto thefts were highest in frequency during the fourth quarter of 
the year, reaching a peak in October and showed the lowest daily 
average during January. 

Table 33. — Monthly variations, offenses known to the -police {daily average), 1948 
[2,404 cities, total population 68,142,674, based on 1940 decennial census] 



Month 



Criminal 
homicide 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 



sault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



Auto 
theft 



January-December 

January-March 

April-June. 

July-September 

October-December. 

January... 

February., 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July... 

August... 

September.. 

October 

November 

December 



11.16 



7.38 



22.96 



104.6 



141.1 



1,613.0 



308.1 



10.10 
11.30 
It 37 
10.87 



7.34 
6.67 
6.74 
8.76 



21.34 
24.43 
24.45 
21.61 



120.7 
96.7 
90.2 

110.8 



120.9 
146.8 
155.7 
140.6 



696.2 
6SI.7 
606.1 



1.486.9 
1,703.5 
1.561.3 



666.9 1.700.0 



303. 5 
311.7 
290.6 
326.6 



8.10 
10.8.3 
11.42 
10.87 
11.74 
11.27 
12.61 
12.29 
12.20 
10.16 
11.17 
11.29 



7.71 
6.93 
7.35 
6.67 
6.87 
6.47 
6.84 
7.06 
6.30 
8.00 
8.23 
10.03 



18.97 
20.93 
24.10 
2.3.77 
24.19 
25.33 
24.55 
25.26 
23.50 
23.06 
22.17 
19.61 



121.1 
124.5 
116.8 
104.9 
97.6 
87.7 
89.2 
89.7 
91.8 
96.0 
104.9 
131.3 



113.2 
121.3 
128.3 
138.9 
149.6 
151.9 
157.0 
154.4 
155.7 
146.4 
137.1 
138.3 



667.0 
711.3 
711.3 
665. 5 
625.4 
604.5 
604.3 
617.3 
596.3 
608.5 
686.4 
706.3 



1,407.5 
1,480.9 
1,572.0 
1,891.3 
1,629.8 
1,591.9 
1,534.9 
1, 573. 1 
1, 576. 4 
1, 701. 7 
1, 724. 5 
1, 674. 6 



282.4 
307.4 
320.7 
327.9 
313. 3 
293.8 
284.0 
289.1 
298.9 
331.6 
329.4 
319.0 



90 



MOI^THLY VARIATIOX!^ 

Offenses KnoiivTi to the Police 
1948 

2,404 CITIES TOTAL POPULATION 68,142,674 

(Offenses Against Property) 



ROBBERY 



ANNUALAVER^E 



150% 
140 % 
130 % 

m% 

110% 
100% 
90% 
80% 
70% 
60% 



BUROURY 



AMNUAL AVERAGE 



PERCENT OF ANNUAL AVERAGE 



LARCENY 



Af**UAL AVSRAGE 



150% 

140% 
130% 
120% 
110^ 
100% 
90% 
80% 
70% 
60% 



AUTO THErr 



Wage 



FBI 

CHART 



Figure 13. 



91 

Offenses Known to the Police, Cities Divided According to Location 

The volume of crime in a given location is affected by a large vari- 
ety of factors, some of which are set forth on the page preceding 
table 37. The degree to which these factors influence the crime 
picture varies among the different areas of the country and accordingly 
marked variations in the crime rates among the several States and 
larger geographic divisions are observed. 

The data presented heretofore in table 30 are shown in tables 35 
and 36 with the rates per 100,000 presented for cities grouped according 
to location for the information of police administrators and others 
interested in studying the crime picture in a local community and 
making comparisons with average figures for other communities in 
the same general location. 

Caution should be exercised in making comparisons between the 
different sections of the country, bearing in mind that the tabulations 
in the interests of uniformity were based on the 1940 decennial census, 
whereas in some sections of the country marked changes in the popu- 
lation of individual communities have occurred. The figures in 
table 34 indicate the number of cities used in compiling the crime 
rate data. 



92 



Table 34. 



-Number of cities in each State incbided in the tabulation of uniform 
crime reports, 1948 





Total 


Population group 


Division and State 


1 
Over 
250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


Total: 

Population, 68,142,674 


2.404 


36 


55 


106 


209 


567 


1,442 


New England: 

Population, 5,943,583 


189 


2 


10 


12 


35 


63 


67 




24 
18 
107 
16 
16 
9 

566 




3 


1 
1 
8 
1 

1 


8 
2 

16 
2 
6 
1 

36 


5 
5 
42 
6 
4 
1 

138 


7 






10 




1 


7 


33 


New Hampshire 


7 


1 




3 






7 


Middle Atlantic: 

Population, 19,705,777 


6 


11 


23 


352 


New Tersev . 


143 
175 
248 

566 


1 
3 
2 

8 


4 
4 
3 

10 


6 
6 
11 

23 


14 
10 

12 

69 


36 
46 
56 

118 


82 


New York 


106 


Pennsylvania 


164 


East North Central: 

Population, 16,637,676 


347 


Illinois 


163 
76 
104 
151 
81 

279 


1 
1 
1 
4 

1 

4 


1 
3 
2 
4 


4 
6 
4 
2 

8 


13 
10 
9 
14 
13 

12 


33 
14 
22 
33 
16 

61 


98 


Indiana 


44 


Michigan 


64 


Ohio 


92 




49 


West North Central: 

Population, 5,476,507 


5 


189 




69 
63 
68 
49 
26 




1 
2 

1 


4 
1 

2" 
1 


6 
1 

1 
2 


10 
16 
10 
12 
7 
3 
3 

52 


39 






33 


Minnesota 


2 
2 


54 




31 




1 


16 


North Dakota 


10 
14 

228 




1 
1 

20 


6 


South Dakota 








10 


South Atlantic: 

Population, 6,033,553 


3 


7 


17 


129 




4 
1 
32 
34 
16 
62 
22 
38 
29 

105 




1 








3 




1 










Florida 


3 


1 
4 


4 
1 

4 
2 
5 
2 

10 


8 
8 
4 

16 
3 
6 
7 

23 


16 




1 

1 


20 






9 


North Carolina 


1 


4 
2 
3 
3 

4 


27 
15 






2 


22 






17 


East South Central: 

Population, 2,568,358 


3 


3 


62 




26 
31 
19 
29 

181 


1 
1 




1 
1 


3 
5 
1 
1 

13 


5 
4 

10 
4 

40 


15 






20 






7 




1 

4 


3 
3 


20 


West South Central: 

Population, 4,071,072 


9 


82 




18 
21 
36 
76 

112 






1 
1 


1 
3 
2 

7 

7 


5 

•4 

12 

19 

21 


11 




1 




12 




2 

1 

1 


20 


Texas 


3 

1 


7 
2 


39 


Mountain: 

Population, 1,534,200 


80 




13 
19 
21 
17 

4 
12 
18 

8 

209 






1 
1 


1 
1 
1 
2 




11 


Colorado 


1 




5 
5 
3 
1 
2 
2 
3 

41 


11 






15 










12 










3 










1 

1 


9 


Utah 




1 




14 


Wyoming 






5 


Pacific 

Population, 6,171,948 


6 


5 


7 


17 


134 




161 
25 
33 


3 
1 
1 


3 


' 


13 

1 
3 


30 
5 
6 


95 




18 


Washington 


2 




21 



93 



Table 35. — Number of offenses knorvn to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, 1948, 

by geographic divisions and States 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 



Division and State 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
?ent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggravated 
assault 



Burglary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



Larceny- 
theft 



Auto theft 



Total. 



New England - 



Connecticut 

Maine 

Massachusetts... 
New Hampshire- 
Rhode Island 

Vermont... 



Middle Atlantic. 

New Jersey.. - 

New York 

Pennsylvania. 



East North Central- 
Illinois 

Indiana 

Michigan 

Ohio 

Wisconsin 



AVest North Central. 

Iowa -- 

Kansas 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

North Dakota... 
South Dakota... 



South Atlantic ' 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Maryland 

North Carolina. 
South Carolina. 

Virginia 

West Virginia. -- 

East South Central. 

Alabama 

Kentucky 

Mississippi 

Tennessee. 



West South Central. 

Arkansas 

Louisiana , 

Oklahoma 

Texas 



Mountain. 



Arizona 

Colorado 

Idaho 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Mexico- 

Utah .-- 

Wyoming 



Pacitic 

California 

Oregon 

Washington. 



5.99 



1.38 



1.94 



1.18 

.77 

2.31 

3.35 

3.44 



2.80 
3.49 
3.64 

5.33 



7.02 
5.20 
4.63 
5.35 
1.11 

4.31 



1.44 
5.62 
1.88 
7.% 
3.19 
.82 
1.59 

13.82 



4.81 
14.45 
21.73 
11.48 
16.49 
11.13 
15.60 

5.74 

19.04 



23.95 
13.63 
13.68 
21.51 

12.75 



11.75 
10.77 
6.10 
15.52 

4.89 



9.45 
5.32 
2.60 
1.81 
14.34 
9.01 
1.43 
3.99 

4.63 



4.98 
3.81 
3.20 



56.2 



16.6 



18.8 
13.6 
17.7 

4.2 
14.8 

3.3 

25.7 



28.3 
17.2 
40.6 

79.1 



116.3 
53.9 
87.0 
62.7 
9.0 

38.2 



14.8 
34.7 
31.8 
62.8 
31.1 
21.4 
7.2 

72.5 



59.3 
97.0 
53.0 
47.2 
39.9 
47.3 
83.2 
63.4 

68.1 



48.9 
107.4 
35.2 
62.7 

62.0 



44.1 
54.0 
39.7 
55.8 

72.2 



109.6 
99.3 
32.4 
44.7 

120.1 
39.0 
40.7 
63.8 

123.7 



135.3 

77.8 
86.2 



I 392. 2 



13.2 



266.1 



610.1 



23.9 
12.1 
9.4 
4.2 
25.1 



34.6 



372.3 
305.1 
238.2 
183.1 
295.5 
192.0 

2 234. 6 



738.9 
737.7 
563.7 
459. 7 
669.2 
773.6 

2 494. 



46.9 
33.4 
31.2 

61.8 



313.1 
3 204. 4 
< 206. 5 

347.6 



560.3 
3 573. 6 
< 374. 9 

891.2 



56.3 
48.8 
123.1 
47.5 
7.5 

61.6 



314.4 
430.3 
450.6 
348.4 
157.2 

335.0 



554.2 

1,101.3 

1, 308. 4 

925.6 

856.5 

861.0 



8.2 
30.2 

9.5 
160.1 
29.0 
11.5 

4.0 

253.6 



253.8 
392.4 
248.2 
445.8 
289.0 
247.4 
270.2 

514.4 



859.7 
999.2 
770.0 
817.9 
1,016.3 
1, 024. 3 
909.9 

1,177.8 



15.2 
160.7 
166.0 
128.8 
522.9 
136.7 
221.0 

53.0 

164.3 



480.7 
912.3 
425.1 
237.3 
468.2 
443.8 
602. 7 
298.1 

495.2 



1,187.2 

1, 754. 1 

1, 025. 1 

624.7 

896.9 

1,324.1 

1,551.0 

593.8 

818.4 



234.8 
133.1 
154.7 
138.2 

114.2 



539.3 
655.5 
360.2 
377.2 

509.3 



863.5 
982.7 
815.7 
649.6 

1, 227. 



134.8 
109.6 
46.0 
133.4 

48.8 



395.9 
316.8 
483.2 
599.5 

620.0 



806.1 

736. 8 

1, 232. 7 

1,451.5 

1,751.5 



99.5 
39.3 
34.4 
45.9 
73.5 
101.1 
21.0 
61.1 

88.1 



721.8 
744.0 
541.9 
310.7 
989.7 
540.6 
551. 8 
433.3 

651.8 



2, 476. 6 

1. 629. 8 
1,968.4 
1, 330. 3 
2, 124. 6 

1. 657. 9 
1, 729. 6 
1,513.9 

1, 967. 6 



103.2 
59.6 
21.8 



649.8 
626.6 
677.3 



1, 985. 9 
1, 856. 8 
1, 930. 7 



' The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 2,402 cities with a total population of 

58,756,345. 
' The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 564 cities with a total population of 10,319,443. 
' The rates for burglary and larceny are based on reports of 174 cities. 

♦ The rates for burglary and larceny are based on reports of 247 cities. 

* Includes the report of the District of Columbia. 



94 



Table 36. — Number of offenses knoxmi to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, 1948, 

by geographic divisions and population groups 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 



Division and group 



Total 

New England 

Group I-- -- 

Group II- - 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Middle Atlantic 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

East North Central.. 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III -- 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI_ 

West North Central. 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI_ 

South Atlantic* 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

East South Central.. 



Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

West South Central. 



Group I... 
Group II.. 
Group III. 
Group IV. 
Group v.. 
Group VI. 

Mountain 

Group I.-. 
Group II.. 
Group Ill- 
Group IV. 
Group v.. 
Group VI. 

Pacific 



Group I... 
Group II.- 
Group III. 
Group IV. 
Group v.. 
Group VI. 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



5.99 



1.38 



2.83 
1.55 
.34 
1.43 
.71 
.95 

3.44 



4. .53 
1.95 
2.65 
1.81 
1.64 
1.75 

5.33 



7.67 
5.66 
4.44 
2.60 
2.19 
1.84 

4.31 



7.12 
5.27 
3.82 
.76 
2.01 
1.52 

13.82 



13.70 
18.22 
14.50 
11.68 
11.21 
11. 55 

19.04 



18.99 
27.51 
17.80 
12.64 
21.21 
13.40 

12.75 



19.12 
8.97 

10.67 
8.83 
9.14 
8.36 



7.44 
.67 
7.65 
6.10 
1.64 
5.34 

4.63 



Robbery 



5.39 
4.26 
4.31 
2.18 
2.55 
5.51 



16.6 



35.9 
20.3 
12.7 
12.1 
5.9 
4.7 

25.7 



31.7 
24.0 
24.6 
10.1 
16.3 
1.3.1 

79.1 



122.7 
89.8 
47.0 
28.5 
24.4 
19.3 

38.2 



67.3 
36.7 
31.9 
18.7 
11.9 
14.0 

72.6 



93.2 
131. 5 
59.7 
43.7 
2.3.1 
.33. 3 

68.1 



116.9 
52.1 
52.0 
51.5 
.36.6 
20.4 

52.0 



74.9 
55.9 
62.1 
28.1 
21.6 
22.4 

72.2 



142.7 
36.7 
94.4 
56.5 
49.2 
48.8 

123.7 



171.2 
95.0 
97.9 
72.9 
56.5 
.58.0 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



13.2 



26.2 
17.3 
12.7 
7.2 
6.2 
3.8 

34.6 



42.3 

28.5 
.32.7 
29. 1 
20.6 
14.4 

61.8 



91.4 

85.7 
45.2 
22.4 
21.5 
12.1 

61.6 



140.4 

32.3 

16.0 

9.3 

9.0 

14.5 

253.6 



334. 3 
200.4 
255. 6 
256.8 
218.2 
144.7 

164.3 



190.3 
103. 6 
237. 1 
239. 6 
155.1 
38.0 

114.2 



148.1 
75.9 

141.3 

117.6 
43.7 

100.5 

48.8 



18.9 
13.3 
150.5 
62.2 
45.3 
50.6 

88.1 



128.6 
54.8 
56.6 
39.7 
42.2 
42.4 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



1 392. 2 



268.1 



240.9 
398.8 
250.2 
236.5 
186.3 
209.7 

2 234. 6 



■■ 290. 4 
291.6 
293.0 
240.4 
174.9 
145.7 

347.6 



394.3 
454.8 
377.7 
286.3 
235.8 
209.5 

335.0 



438.0 
396.4 
391.8 
291.2 
207.7 
172.2 

514.4 



457.5 
862.5 
483.0 
526'. 4 
402.9 
308.2 

495.2 



624.6 
450.0 
664.6 
403.3 
393. 1 
252.4 

509.3 



633.5 
638.4 
547.4 
446.6 
286.0 
258.2 

620.0 



970.8 
589.6 
805.4 
547.4 
530. 7 
403.3 

651.8 



677.4 
593.9 
722.3 
650.4 
660.4 
545.3 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



1975.2 



610.1 



613.8 
765.5 
675.3 
577.7 
469.1 
390.7 

2 494. 



3 512. 6 
569.6 
563.1 
644.0 
438. 3 
317.1 

891.2 



864.9 
1,218.9 
1, 044. 3 
951.0 
885.0 
538.2 

861.0 



865.4 
1, 145. 1 
1, 287. 2 
881.3 
761.2 
462.7 

1,177.8 



1,118.0 
1, 743. 5 
1,211.0 
1, 333. 5 

891.7 
588.4 

818.4 



1, 040. 8 
641.8 
762.1 
981.5 
812.1 
312. 7 

1, 227. 



1, 360. 7 
1, 710. 3 
1,441.6 
1, 261. 6 
761.8 
493.0 

1,751.5 



1, 729. 5 
1,514.0 

2. 195. 2 

2. 263. 3 
2, 105. 3 
1, 133. 7 

1, 967. 6 



1, 797. 7 
1, 956. 9 
2, 122. 5 
1, 937. 5 
2,501.1 
2, 194. 1 



1 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 2,402 cities with a total population of 

2 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 664 cities with a total population of 
10,319,448. , . . 

» The rates for burglary and larceny are based op the reports of 4 cities. 
* Includes the report of the District of Columbia. 



95 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 25,000 Inhabitants 

Tho number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the period of January-December 1948 is shown in table 37. The com- 
pilation includes the reports received from police departments in 
cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants. Police administrators and 
other interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare 
the crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in tables 
30, 35, and 36 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless 
desire to make comparisons with the figures for their communities 
for prior periods, in order to determine whether there has been an 
increase or a decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

Caution should be exercised in comparing crime data for individual 
cities, because differences in the figures may be due to a variety of 
factors. The amount of crime committed in a community is not 
solely chargeable to the police buCTs rather a charge against the entire 
community. The following is a list of some of the factors which might 
affect the amount of crime in a community: 

Population of the city and metropolitan area adjacent thereto. 

The composition of the population with reference particularly to 
age, sex, and race. 

The economic status and activities of the population. 

Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 

The number of police employees per unit of population. 

The standards governing appointments to the police force. 

The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 

The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 

The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 
It should be remembered that the war brought about marked 
changes in some of the foregoing factors in many communities. 

In comparing crime rates, it is generally more important to deter- 
mine whether the figures for a given community show increases or 
decreases in the amount of crime committed than to ascertain whether 
the figures are above or below those of some other community. 



826001°— 49- 



96 

Table 37. — Number of offenses known to the police, 1948, cities over 26,000 in 

'population 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 



Oity 



Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Abilene, Tex 

Akron, Ohio 

Alameda, Calif 

Albany, N. Y 

Albuquerque, N. Mex. 



Alexandria, La.-. 
Alexandria, Va.. 
Alhambra, Calif. 

Aliquippa, Pa 

Allentown, Pa... 



Alton, ni_... 

Altoona, Pa 

Amarillo, Tex 

Amsterdam, N. Y. 
Anderson, Ind 



Ann Arbor, Mich_ 

Anniston, Ala 

Appleton, Wis 

Arlington, Mass... 
Arlington, Va 



Asheville, N. C 

Ashland, Ky 

Atlanta, Ga 

Atlantic City, N. J. 
Auburn, N. Y 



Augusta, Ga 

Aurora, 111 

Austin, Tex 

Bakersfield, Calif- 
Baltimore, Md 



Bangor, Maine 

Baton Rouge, La 

Battle Creek, Mich, 

Bay City, Mich 

Bayonne, N. J 



Beaumont, Tex 

Belleville, El 

Belleville, N.J 

Bellingham, Wash_ 
Belmont, Mass 



Beloit, Wis 

Belvedere Township, Calif- 
Berkeley, Calif - - - 

Berwyn, 111 

Bethlehem, Pa 



Beverly, Mass 

Beverly Hills, Calif. 
Binghamton, N. Y.- 
Birmingham, Ala--. 
Bloomfield, N. J 



Bloomington, 111.. 

Boise, Idaho 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn. 
Bristol, Coim 



Brockton, Mass... 
Brookline, Mass.. 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Burbank, Calif-... 
Burlington, Iowa. 



6 
272 
7 
16 
16 

13 

17 
20 



1 
110 



30 
6 

245 



26 
10 
20 
20 
433 

12 
11 
10 
5 
16 



17 

1 

186 

2 



314 
22 
2 

18 
15 
139 
24 
4 



15 
111 
4 
24 
61 

154 

225 

1 

11 



3 

105 

1 



66 

281 

16 

815 

118 

1 

126 

"129 

8 

1,235 

1 

7 
24 



2 

5 

467 

2 

1 

2 
199 
10 



6 

2 

223 

7 



95 
1,011 

60 
227 
211 

128 
185 
260 
63 
190 



277 

296 

16 

232 

99 
82 
29 
64 
227 

335 
94 

1,805 
561 
34 

271 

42 

438 

318 



192 
192 
120 
187 

299 
33 
65 
84 
61 

87 
290 
469 
102 
112 

28 

90 

161 

1,631 

81 

93 

150 

1,333 

408 

58 

249 
176 
1,265 
272 
44 



95 
713 

26 
200 

61 

35 
130 
67 

28 
148 

12 
72 

427 
17 

166 

132 
43 
35 
20 

177 

204 

48 

1,346 

575 

56 

83 

67 

75 

236 

1,495 

66 
162 
63 
31 

40 

100 
10 
27 
42 
17 

35 
83 
112 
32 
50 

31 
37 
94 
1,154 
31 

71 

121 

1,851 

421 

36 

121 
39 
834 
255 
7 



308 

2,063 

435 

334 

715 

199 
668 
325 
114 
379 

194 
325 
659 
56 
481 

440 
145 
337 
46 
666 

402 
100 
2,732 
737 
195 

349 
168 

1,318 
660 

3,537 

242 
287 
618 
364 
247 

784 
73 
86 
125 
102 

316 
266 
1,089 
145 
64 

167 

73 

684 

1,601 

149 

214 
400 
2,513 
843 
129 

394 
146 
2,688 
702 
118 



97 



Table 37. — Nvmber of offenses knoivn to the police, 1948, cities over 25,000 in 

'population — Continued 



Olty 



Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Burlington, Vt 

Butte, Mont 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 



Cedar Rapids, Iowa- 
Central Falls, R. I.. 

Charleston, S. C 

Charleston, W. Va.. 
Charlotte, N. C 



Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chester, Pa 

Chicago, Dl 

Chicopee, Mass 



Cicero, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Clarksburg, W. Va 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio- 



Clifton, N. J.-- 

Clinton, Iowa. _ 

Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Columbia, S. C 

Columbus, Qa 



Columbus, Ohio 

Concord, N. H 

Corpus Christi, Tex.. 
Council Bluffs, Iowa. 
Covington, Ky 



Cranston, R. I 

Cumberland, Md. 

Dallas, Tex 

Danville, 111 

Danville, Va 



Davenport, Iowa- 
Dayton, Ohio 

Dearborn, Mich.. 

Decatur, 111 

Denver, Colo 



Des Moines, Iowa- 
Detroit, Mich 

Dubuque, Iowa... 

Duluth, Minn 

Durham, N. C 



Kast Chicago, Ind 

East Cleveland, Ohio- 

Easton, Pa--- 

East Orange, N. J 

East Providence, R. I. 



East St. Louis, 111. 
Eau Claire, Wis... 

Elgin, 111 

Ehzabeth, N.J... 
Elkhart, Ind 



Elmira, N. Y. 
El Paso, Tex.. 
Elyria, Ohio.. 
Enid, Okla.... 
Erie, Pa 



7 

7 

22 

38 
1 

11 

326 

1 

3 

48 



5 
105 



69 
143 
46 



32 

5,595 

1 

32 
369 

41 
576 

13 

7 
3 
4 
41 
29 

329 

2 

73 

8 
38 

3 
11 

253 
18 



29 

269 

39 

17 

461 

11 

2,340 



22 

5 

70 

111 



117 
100 
454 

115 

2 

14 

2,343 

3 

78 

285 

1 

415 



118 
48 

194 
1 

252 

5 

57 



730 

8 
28 



307 

30 

4 

60 

11 

3,394 

2 

1 

673 

37 
1 



6 
1 

136 



94 
116 
221 
504 
397 

102 

53 

363 

357 
558 

571 
164 
185 
11,743 
42 

185 

1,957 

76 

2,097 

93 

72 

59 

67 

431 

252 

1,963 

66 

838 

67 

407 

69 
85 
2,717 
143 
95 

405 

1,190 

326 

267 

3,130 

758 
8,977 
47 
123 
258 

265 
72 
67 

198 
70 

389 
32 
34 

257 



101 
660 
64 
49 
340 



76 
30 
193 
286 
283 

113 

15 
210 
(') 
207 

(') 

52 

64 

7,584 

52 

106 

1,126 

29 

659 

20 

58 
47 
101 
450 
142 

1,796 
35 
286 

84 
67 

34 
31 

737 
56 
64 

58 
426 
363 

55 
1,595 

216 

2,652 

27 

190 

234 

188 

9 

32 

80 

42 

87 
69 
32 
173 
61 

126 

238 

50 

52 

133 



353 
310 
354 
389 
760 

686 
94 
766 
949 
750 

405 
134 
115 
9,199 
130 

196 

2,974 

71 

8,281 

214 

96 

252 

086 

1,069 

362 

1,738 
160 

1,144 
268 
247 

142 
114 

6,484 
250 
200 

905 
2,388 
1,446 

424 
3,992 

1,277 

19, 448 

198 

1,022 

431 

436 
195 
155 
194 
151 

313 
113 
134 
483 
116 

405 
1,037 
158 
360 
638 



See footnotes at end of table. 



98 



Table 37. — Number of offenses known to the police, 1948, cities over 25,000 in 

population — Continued 



City 



Mur- 
der, 
nonneg 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 







Bur- 


Larceny— theft 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 






$50 and 
over 


Under 
$50 


18 


38 


167 


222 


592 


99 


49 


575 


275 


1,092 


5 


2 


71 


21 


147 


8 


3 


178 


60 


437 


20 


7 


254 


194 


511 


10 


4 


114 


68 


241 


2 




70 


37 


217 


85 


242 


844 


565 


1,744 


2 




49 


40 


257 


11 


85 


100 


43 


180 


25 


63 


393 


242 


1,086 


73 


152 


1,100 


283 


2,807 


120 


64 


722 


565 


1,319 


3 


75 


63 


47 


189 


4 


4 


92 


34 


171 


76 


182 


269 


339 


384 


1 


5 


50 


15 


64 


203 


138 


530 


495 


1,037 


29 


3 


327 


196 


857 


59 


22 


661 


285 


2,058 


9 


14 


114 


110 


458 


4 


1 


107 


51 


160 


44 


533 


360 


328 


564 


15 


38 


176 


228 


332 






22 

77 


26 
51 


73 
95 


4 


16 


28 


46 


107 


56 


383 


36 


24 


140 


142 


260 


2 




81 


45 


205 


38 


14 


222 


217 


601 


29 


9 


116 


150 


197 


29 


28 


333 


180 


435 


65 


122 


1, 356 


461 


1,319 


3 




50 


20 


54 


2 




175 


60 


269 


2 




39 


16 


54 


48 


27 


180 


121 


444 


3 


177 


162 


60 


137 



Evanston, III 

Evansville, Ind-_ 

Everett, Mass 

Everett, Wash.__ 
Fall River, Mass- 



Fargo, N. Dak 

Fitchburg, Mass-_. 

Flint, Mich 

Fond du Lac, Wis- 
Fort Smith, Ark... 



Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Fort Worth, Tex. 

Fresno, Calif 

Gadsden, Ala 

Galesburg, 111 



Galveston, Tex 

Garfield, N. J 

Gary, Ind 

Glendale, Calif 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 



Great Falls, Mont 

Green Bay, Wis 

Greensboro, N. C 

Greenville, S. C... 

Greenwich Town, Conn. 



Hackensack, N. J 
Hagerstown, Md. 
Hamilton, Ohio 
Hamilton Township, N. J 
Hammond, Ind 



Hamtramck, Mich 
Harrisburg, Pa 
Hartford, Conn 
Haverford Township, Pa 
Haverhill, Mass 



Hazleton, Pa 

Highland Park, Mich. 

High Pomt, N. C 

Hoboken, N. J 

Holyoke, Mass 



Honolulu, T. H 

Houston, Tex 

Huntington, W. Va 

Huntington Park, Calif. 
Hutchinson, Kans 



Indianapolis, Ind- 
Inglewood, Calif. . 

Irvington, N. J 

Jackson, Mich 

Jackson, Miss 



Jacksonville, Fla 

Jamestown, N. Y. . . 

Jersey City, N.J 

Johnson City, Term. 
Johnstown, Pa 



Joliet,Ill 

Joplin, Mo 

Kalamazoo, Mich.. 
Kansas City, Kans. 
Kansas City, Mo.. 



Keamy, N.J 

Kenosha, Wis 

Kingston, N. Y.. 
Knoxville, Term. 
KokomOjInd 



13 

106 

5 



Only 11 months received 



44 
267 
37 
34 
2 

243 

40 

7 

9 

12 

214 
2 



327 



1 


86 


67 


192 


82 


1,107 


413 


2,372 


214 


3,312 


994 


4,585 


63 


263 


129 


360 


3 


200 


107 


381 


9 


146 


56 


380 


275 


2,244 


1,216 


3,206 


2 


257 


166 


448 


5 


205 


92 


252 


37 


156 


150 


554 


63 


234 


132 


507 


122 


1,497 


1,102 


1,902 


2 


115 

Hats. nn( 


41 


136 



16 

4 

17 

86 

482 

3 
1 
1 
63 
6 



50 


27 


71 


155 


81 


250 


76 


50 


243 


195 


234 


264 


190 


162 


707 


460 


310 


796 


1,491 


1,346 


2,872 


63 


35 


105 


95 


27 


208 


21 


18 


100 


534 


360 


477 


201 


84 


34Q 



99 



Table Z7. -Number of offenses known to the police, 1948, cities over 25 000 in 

population — Continued 



La Crosse, Wis 
Lafayette, Ind _ 
Lakewood, Ohio 
Lancaster, Pa 
Lansing, Mich 



Laredo, Tex 

Lawrence, Mass 

Lebanon, Pa 

Lewiston, Maine 
Lexington, Ky 




Lima, Ohio_.. 
Lincoln, Nebr 
Little Roclv, Ark__ 
Long Beach, Calif 
Lorain, Ohio 



Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lower Merion Township,'Pa 
Lubbock, Tex 

Lynchburg, Va 
Lynn, Mass 
Macon, Ga._.. 
Madison, Wis 
Maiden, Mass 

Manchester, N. H 
Mansfield, Ohio 
Marion, Ind- 

Marion, Ohio 

Mason City, Iowa 

Massillon, Ohio 
May wood, Ill._. 
McKeesport, Pa 
Medford, Mass 
Melrose, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn 
Meriden, Conn 
Meridian, Miss 

Miami, Fla. 

Miami Beach, Fla 



Michigan City, Ind 
Middletown, Conn 
Middletown, Ohio 
Milwaukee, Wis... 
Minneapolis, Minn 

Mishawaka, Ind 

Mobile, Ala 

Moline, HI 

Monroe, La 

Montclair, N. J 

Montgomery, Ala. 
Mount Vernon, N. Y 
Muncie, Ind 
Muskegon, Mich 
Muskogee, Okla 

Nashua, N. H.. 

Nashville, Tenn 

New Albany, Ind 

Newark, N. J I -ji 

Newark, Ohio --.-"""'''""";" 1 

See footnotes at end of table. 



100 

Table 37. — Number of offenses known to the police, 1948, cities over 25,000 in 

population — Continued 



City 



Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assaul 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 



New Bedford, Mass.._ 
New Britain, Conn.-. 
New Brunswick, N. J. 

Newburgh, N. Y 

New Castle, Pa 



New Haven, Conn:._ 
New London, Conn.-. 

New Orleans, La 

Newport, Ky 

Newport, R. I 



Newport News, Va.. 
New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Newton, Mass 

New York, N. Y.2 .. 
Niagara Falls, N. Y_. 



Norfolk, Va 

Norristown, Pa 

North Bergen, N. J_ 

Norwalk, Conn 

Norwood, Ohio 



Oakland, Calif. _ 

Oak Park, 111 

Ogden, Utah 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Omaha, Nebr 



Orange, N. J 

Orlando, Fla 

Oshkosh, Wis_._ 
Ottumwa, lowa. 
Owensboro, Ky. 



Paducah, Ky 

Parkersburg, W. Va. 

Pasadena, Calif 

Passaic, N. J 

Paterson, N. J 



Pawtucket, R. I 

Pensacola, Fla 

Peoria, Dl 

Perth Amboy, N. J_ 
Petersburg, Va 



Philadelphia, Pa- 
Phoenix, Ariz 

Pittsburgh, Pa... 
Pittsfleld, Mass.. 
Plainfield, N. J. _ 



Pontiac, Mich 

Port Arthur, Tex_. 
Port Huron, Mich. 
Portland, Maine.. . 
Portland, Oreg 



Portsmouth, Ohio... 

Portsmouth, Va 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Providence, R. I 

Pueblo, Colo 



Quincy, 111 

Quincy, Mass. 
Racine, Wis... 
Raleigh, N. C. 
Reading, Pa... 



315 
1 



117 

7 

29 



10 



20 12 592 190 

Only 8 months received 
10 

2 

5 



34 

6 

375 

23 
6 

30 

6 

2 

1,515 

19 

323 
12 



36 

11 

534 

20 

4 

134 

26 

1 

2,810 

100 

402 
13 



110 


43 


298 


97 


74 


198 


120 


35 


124 


799 


332 


1,167 


88 


48 


181 


1,684 


1,369 


1,993 


101 


81 


153 


61 


40 


179 


395 


228 


484 


108 


63 


85 


242 


136 


422 


2,726 


(') 


7,713 


225 


155 


332 


1,474 


1,085 


1,737 


25 


13 


90 


62 


29 


137 



Only 11 months received 



3 


2 


450 


431 


17 




49 


34 


143 


137 


108 


92 


7 


24 


7 


114 


3 




8 


6 


11 


27 


11 


42 


2 




44 


11 


18 


47 


38 


77 


10 


72 


15 


83 


145 


126 


6 


123 


10 


72 


,086 


908 


68 


65 


570 


318 


5 


2 


6 


6 


34 


26 


10 


18 


3 


7 


11 


8 


332 


252 


20 


11 


60 


208 


3 


23 


54 


69 


43 


112 


9 


14 


6 




11 


1 


25 


216 


27 


29 



74 


34 


116 


2,281 


495 


4,866 


123 


77 


237 


353 


210 


1,128 


1,169 


252 


3,286 


719 


653 


1,980 


96 


32 


113 


249 


221 


447 


100 


70 


561 


86 


25 


143 


154 


60 


396 


182 


55 


243 


84 


49 


161 


433 


328 


929 


214 


110 


263 


744 


119 


400 


191 


118 


529 


297 


173 


495 


699 


267 


1,097 


475 


(') 


1,500 


145 


134 


469 


4,793 


2,184 


1,812 


519 


321 


1,641 


2,147 


894 


. 1,084 


148 


32 


241 


131 


109 


266 


371 


198 


292 


75 


64 


359 


85 


93 


477 


273 


189 


627 


2,315 


1,361 


4,460 


219 


97 


402 


395 


189 


550 


121 


77 


305 


1,135 


504 


1,419 


428 


123 


496 


150 


48 


381 


222 


60 


430 


196 


105 


591 


159 


74 


167 


322 


86 


525 



See footnotes at end of table. 



101 

Table 37. — Number of offenses known to the police, 1948, cities over 25,000 in 

population — Continued 



Olty 



Mur- 
der, 
nonnftg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Revere, Mass__. 
Richmond, Ind. 
Richmond, Va.. 
Riverside, Calif. 
Roanoke, Va 



Rochester, Minn 

Rochester, NT. Y 

Rockford, 111 

Rock Island, 111 

Rocky Mount, N. C. 



Rome, Oa 

Rome, N. Y 

Royal Oak, Mich. 
Sacramento, Calif. 
Saginaw, Mich 



St. Joseph, Mo 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

St. Petersburg, Fla. 
Salem, Mass 



Salem, Oreg 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 

San Aneelo, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Bernardino, Calif. 



San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif.. 

San Jose, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif. 



Santa Monica, Calif. 

Savannah, Ga 

Schenectady, N. Y... 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 



Sharon, Pa 

Sheboygan, Wis 

Shreveport, La 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 



Somerville, Mass.. 
South Bend, Ind.. 
South Gate, Calif.. 
Spartanburg, S. C. 
Spokane, Wash 



Springfield, 111 

Spriugfleld, Mass. 
Springfield, Mo... 
Springfield, Ohio.. 
Stamford, Conn... 



Steubenville, Ohio. 

Stockton, Calif 

Superior, Wis 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 



Tampa, Fla , 

Taunton, Mass. . . 

Teaneck, N. J 

Terre Haute, Ind. 
Toledo, Ohio 



2 

39 

356 

20 

71 



76 

67 

1,177 

250 

271 



58 

51 

1,050 

112 

231 



34 41 

71 520 392 

28 221 125 

Only 6 months receivec 

74 



18 

54 

43 

963 

172 

131 

(') 
325 
229 

28 

95 
542 

49 
501 
222 

1,057 

1,508 

86 

126 

160 

457 
588 
117 
111 
1,459 

40 
38 
213 
241 
110 

94 
335 
152 
110 
373 

195 
197 
145 
65 
176 

65 
572 

32 
461 
428 

413 
36 
32 

119 



5 


87 


123 


9 


26 


48 


2 


1 


74 


9 


1 


174 


162 


63 


573 


35 


103 


343 


21 


32 


229 


643 


2,214 


4,682 


111 


79 


1,260 


20 


47 


520 


4 




152 


5 


5 


132 


55 


20 


884 


14 


65 


125 


174 


637 


1,331 


36 


21 


352 


103 


70 


760 


1,205 


552 


3,056 


35 


26 


346 


16 


26 


155 


13 


21 


237 


67 


49 


572 


28 


67 


165 


3 


14 


221 


21 


28 


225 


468 


80 


3,083 


5 


2 


51 


5 




52 


15 


43 


153 


26 


13 


214 


1 


2 


180 


19 


10 


401 


55 


89 


483 


33 


2 


227 


13 


28 


204 


98 


28 


717 


38 


24 


201 


14 


23 


298 


8 


6 


358 


38 


36 


330 


18 


30 


193 


50 


31 


115 


143 


66 


651 


3 




68 


25 


17 


608 


93 


19 


830 


81 


195 


672 


4 


9 


155 
50 


32 


17 


449 


191 


236 


1,596 



82 

136 

3,177 

491 

501 

152 

1,604 

621 

258 

55 

183 

320 

2,179 

1,040 

669 

6,435 

2,695 

519 

155 

603 
1,728 

284 
2,763 

840 

2,101 

9,162 

1,671 

687 

608 

990 

1,054 

280 

398 

5,133 

117 
312 
723 
713 
403 

311 

1,142 

389 

404 

2,396 

595 
737 
627 
668 
377 

151 
1,173 

440 
1,289 
1,601 

1,349 

318 

55 

552 

2,860 



See footnotes at end of table. 



102 

Table 37. — Number of offenses known to the police, 1948, cities over 26,000 in 

population — Continued 



City 



Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Topeka, Kans 

Torrington, Conn. 

Trenton, N.J 

Troy, N. Y 

Tucson, Ariz 



Tulsa, Okla 

Tuscaloosa, Ala 

Tyler, Tex 

Union City, N. J 

University City, Mo. 



Upper Darby, Pa. 

Utica, N. Y 

Waco, Tex 

Waltham, Mass... 
Warren, Ohio 



Warwick, R. I 

Washington, D. C. 
Washington, Pa — 
Waterbury, Conn.. 
Waterloo, Iowa 



Watertown, Mass. 
Watertown, N. Y. 

Waukegan, 111 

Wausau, Wis 

Wauwatosa, Wis.. 



West AUis, Wis 

West Hartford, Conn_. 
West Haven, Conn — 
West New York. N. J. 
West Orange, N. .T 



West Palm Beach, Fla. 

W heeling, W. Va 

White Plains. N. Y 

Wichita, Kans 

Wichita Falls, Tex 



Wilkes-Barre, Pa.. 
Wilkinsburg, Pa... 
Williamsport, Pa.. 
Wilmington, Del... 
Wilmington, N. C. 



Wmston-Salem, N. C. 

Woodbridge, N. J 

AV'oonsocket, R. I 

Worcester, Mass 

Wyandotte, Mich 



Yakima, Wash 

Yonkers, N. Y 

York, Pa 

Youngstown, Ohio. 
Zanesville, Ohio 



72 
23 
31 

77 
3 
1 
5 

10 

11 
5 
8 
3 

21 

3 

1,023 

3 

7 

23 

1 
3 

7 



6 
33 

154 
26 



44 
19 
20 

109 

245 

17 



108 
2 
10 

2 
4,049 

5 
7 



83 
10 

78 
44 
41 

24 
7 
1 

16 
337 



21 
474 
364 
333 

1,078 
125 
103 
201 
152 

189 
195 
155 
89 
147 

44 
4,543 

73 
192 
179 

61 
123 
80 
33 
40 

44 
56 
102 
39 
40 

244 
140 

87 
800 
222 

115 

75 
103 
569 
307 



84 
10 
207 
113 
255 

825 
124 
31 
65 
74 

51 
130 
43 
48 
70 

no 

1,993 
42 
116 

72 

47 
73 
59 
17 
21 



108 
111 
291 
217 

102 

20 

40 

334 

125 



260 326 148 

Only 11 months received 
2 
5 



73 


49 


875 


487 


68 


49 


224 


233 


316 


161 


171 


82 


541 


334 


157 


93 



593 
86 

539 
92 

982 

1,513 
178 
156 
155 
191 

323 
552 
662 
319 
291 

167 

9,294 

124 

365 

827 

128 
322 
233 
264 
140 

397 
81 
46 
16 

85 

327 
147 
221 
1,523 
810 

195 

86 

370 

1,082 



458 

188 

1,215 

126 

1,034 
585 
559 
768 
231 



1 Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 

2 Figures include offenses committed by juveniles: this is in accord with the uniform reporting procedure 
followed by other cities. 



103 



Supplement to Return A Data 

Generally the Police Chief in a city over 25,000 in population is in 
need of something more than mere monthly totals as to the number of 
offenses of robbery, burglary, larceny, and the like, and the number of 
such offenses cleared by arrest. To most effectively cope with the 
crime problem, he should have available a more detailed analysis of 
the crime picture in his community. 

Thus, most of the larger city departments are in a position to forward 
the F B I a supplement to the monthly Return A of offenses known to 
the police showing an analysis of reported offenses by nature of the 
criminal act, time and place of commission, and value of property 
stolen and value of property recovered. Summaries based on these 
reports follow in tables 38-40. 

The 353 cities over 25,000 in population forwarding additional 
information relative to offenses known reported 5,731 crimes of rape 
and 57.4 percent of these were forcible offenses while 42.6 percent were 
classed as statutory in nature (no force used — victim under the age 
of consent). They reported 30,770 robberies, the majority of which 
(65.2 percent) were committed on sidewalks and other public thorough- 
fares. These were classed as highway robberies. In 25.7 percent of 
the robbery offenses a place of business was involved; in 5.1 percent 
of the cases the robberies occurred in private residences and 4.0 
percent of the robberies were classed as miscellaneous in nature. 

Of the 178,553 burglaries reported, 39.4 percent involved residences 
and 60.6 percent were committed in business establishments. Two- 
thirds of the residence burglaries were committed during the night, 
while 89 percent of the nonresidence offenses were committed after 
dark. 

Twenty-five percent of the 418,596 larcenies involved property 
over $50 in value; 61.3 percent were thefts of property valued from $5 
to $50; and 13.7 percent of the thefts involved property valued at 
less than $5. Nearly one-half of all the larcenies involved thefts of 
auto accessories or other personal property from automobiles and 
bicycle thefts. 

The reporting cities showed car thefts totaling 75,094 during 1948 
with recoveries of stolen cars during the same period of 69,917 or 
93.1 percent. 



104 



Table 38. — Number of known offenses by nature of criminal act, time and place of 
commission, and value of property stolen, 1948 

[Based on reports of 353 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, 40,892,943, according to the 1940 

decennial census] 



Classification 



Number of 
offenses 



Percent dis- 
tribution 



Rape: 

Total 

Forcible 

Statutory 

Robbery: 

Total 

Highway 

Commercial house 

Oil station 

Chain store 

Residence 

Bank_- 

Miscellaneous 

Burglary — breaking or entering: 

Total 

Residence (dwelling): 

Committed during night 

Committed during day 

Nonresidenee (store, office, etc.): 

Committed during night 

Committed during day 

Larceny— theft (except auto theft) (grouped according to value of article 
stolen) : 

Total 

$50 and over --- 

$5 to $50-- 

Under $5 

Larceny— theft (grouped as to type of offense) : 

Total 

Pocket-picking - 

Purse-snatching - 

Shoplifting 

Thefts from autos (exclusive of auto accessories) -.. 

Auto accessories 

Bicycles 

All others 



3,289 
2,442 



30, 770 



20, 062 

6,682 

913 

251 

1,574 

53 

1,235 



178, 553 



46,834 
23,436 



96, 412 
11,871 



104, 708 

256, 550 

57, 338 



418, 596 



7,292 
8,028 
18, 529 
78, 787 
62, 136 
63, 050 
180, 774 



100.0 



57.4 
42.6 



100.0 



65.2 

21.7 

3.0 

.8 

5.1 

.2 

4.0 



100.0 



26.2 
13.1 



54.0 
6.7 



25.0 
61.3 
13.7 



100.0 



1.7 
1.9 
4.4 
18.8 
14.9 
15.1 
43.2 



Of the 353 cities with over 25,000 inhabitants mentioned above, 344 
reported information as to the value of property stolen by individual 
offense classification and the summary data are presented in table 39. 
These cities reported 685,459 crimes against property with a total 
value of property stolen of $119,240,431, for an average of $174 
per offense. 

In 29,940 instances victims were personally accosted by thieves 
who robbed them of property valued at $6,036,608 or $202 on the 
average for each hold-up. Over 22 million dollars in property was 
taken in the 173,047 burglaries reported for an average value of 
property stolen of $127 per offense. 



105 



While the average larceny involved property of only $64, such 
crimes are of great frequency; thus the loot taken in the reporting 
cities totaled nearly 26 million dollars in the 407,378 thefts reported 
The average automobile stolen was valued at $869. 

Table 39. — Value of property stolen, by type of crime, 1948 

[Based on the reports of 344 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, .39,571,703, according to 1940 
decennial census. All values have been rounded oil to even dollars] 



Classification 



Number of 
offenses 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



Average 

value per 

offense 



Total 

Robbery 

Burglary 

Larceny — theft 
Auto theft 



685, 459 



.$119,240,431 



.$174 



29, 940 
173, 047 
407, 378 

75, 094 



6, 036, 608 
22, 055, 563 
25, 916, 513 
65,231,747 



202 

127 

64 

869 



In 337 instances the cities over 25,000 in population reported com- 
plete data relative to the value of property stolen and recovered by 
type of property as indicated in table 40. The loot taken by thieves 
in the reporting cities during 1948 totaled $112,093,594 and 59.9 
percent or $67,184,640 in stolen property was recovered by the police. 
Exclusive of automobiles, the recoveries amounted to 20.8 percent. 



Table 40. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered, by type of 

property, 1948 

[Based on reports of 337 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, 37,388,336, according to the 1940 
decennial census. All values have, been rounded off to oven dollars] 



Type of property 



Value of 

property 

stolen 



Value of 
property 
recovered 



Percent 
recovered 



Total 

Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing. 

Locally stolen automobiles. . 
Miscellaneous 



$112,093,594 



$67,184,640 



59. 



15,388,216 
8, 992, 586 
2, 491, 409 
5, 698, 188 
61,045,059 
18, 478, 136 



2, 054, 928 
1,876,266 
242, 315 
1,017,178 
56, 580, 495 
5, 413, 458 



13.4 
20.9 
9.7 
17.9 
92.7 
29.3 



106 



Rural Crime Rates 

The 1948 murder and nonnegligent manslaughter crime rates for the 
rural areas exceed slightly the corresponding figures for the urban 
communities as a group, and the rates for rape in the two areas are 
substantially the same. For other offense classes, however, the rural 
rates are noticeably lower. 

A comparison of the rural crime rates with those for cities with 
population under 10,000 reflects substantially higher rates in the rural 
areas for murder, manslaughter by negligence, and rape with the rates 
for aggravated assault and robbery reasonably comparable. The 
small city rates for burglary, larceny, and auto theft exceed those for 
the rural areas, but not to such a pronounced degree as is observed in 
the comparison between the rural rates and those for urban communi- 
ties of all sizes. 

The rural crime data presented in table 41 are based on the reports 
of 1,574 sheriffs, 132 rural village officers, and 11 State police organiza- 
tions representing a combined rural population of 34,168,627. The 
rural figures include the reports of some agencies which listed a very 
small number of ofi^enses and in some instances the entries on the 
reports for oft'enses known may have been limited to cases in which 
arrests were made. Thus some incompleteness probably exists in the 
rural reports, particularly in the less serious crime classes. 

Table 41. — Offenses known, rural areas, mimher and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, 

1948 



[Based on reports of 1,574 sherills, 132 rural village officers, and 11 State police organizations representing 
a combined population of 34,168,627. Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 




Criminal 
homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 






IVIur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Number of offenses known 


2,103 
6.15 


1,456 
4.26 


4,179 
12.23 


6,284 
18.4 


12, 459 
36.6 


51, 191 
149.8 


75, 288 
220.3 


18,454 


Rate perlOO,000 .. 


54.0 







107 




108 



Rural Crime Trends 

Rural crime in 1948 was up 4.3 percent over the figures for 1947, 
as compared with a 0.3 percent increase in the cities. 

The trends in the rural areas were generally in the same direction 
as those reported by the cities, although aggravated assault showed a 
slight decrease (0.6 percent) as compared with a 4.7 percent rise in 
the urban areas. 

The rise in rural burglaries and larcenies of 5.1 and 9.6 percent was 
more pronounced than the 0.8 percent burglary increase and 2.3 
percent larceny increase in the cities. 

Rural murders and negligent homicides were down 1.3 and 1.1 
percent, in that order, as compared with a 2.1 percent urban murder 
decrease and a 7.7 percent decrease in urban negligent manslaughter 
offenses. Offenses of rape in the rural areas declined 10.8 percent 
from the 1947 figures and robberies were down 5.7 percent, while 
urban crimes in these classes declined 2.3 and 5.8 percent, respectively. 

A 6.1 percent decrease in auto thefts was reported in the rural areas 
while in urban communities these crimes were down 8.8 percent during 
1948 as compared with the previous year. 



Table 42. — Trends in offenses known, rural areas, 1947-48 

[Based on reports of 1,358 sheriffs, 107 rural village officers, and 11 State police organizations representing a 
combined population of 31 ,351 ,503. Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Offense 



Total - 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 



Number of offenses 


1947 


1948 


147. 396 


153, 757 


1,718 


1 , 695 


1,247 


1,233 


3,947 


3,522 


5.494 


5,180 


9, 884 


9,827 


44, 256 


46, 493 


62, 929 


68, 977 


17, 921 


16, 830 



Percent 
change 



+4.3 



-1.3 
-1.1 
-10.8 
-5.7 
-.6 
+5.1 
+9.6 
-6.1 



109 



Offenses Known in Territories and Possessions 

During 1948 a complete set of montlily reports was received from 
nine Territories and possessions of the United States. Included in 
table 43 are the data reported from the First and Fourth Judicial 
Districts in Alaska; Honolulu City, and the counties of Hawaii, 
Honolulu, Kauai, and Maui in the Territory of Hawaii; the Isthmus 
of Panama; and Puerto Rico. The figures represent offenses reported 
to the police agencies serving both the urban and rural areas with 
the exception that the figures for Honolulu City and Honolulu County 
are reported separately. 



Table 43. — Number of offenses known in United States Territories and possessions, 

1948 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Larceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


Jurisdiction reporting 


Over 
$50 


Under 
$50 


Alaska: 

First judicial division (Juneau), popula- 
tion, 25,241; number of offenses known. 
Fourth judicial division (Fairbanks), 
population, 16,094; number of offenses 
known... _ _ . 


4 

3 

4 
13 
9 
2 


2 

5 

2 

44 

. 9 


2 

10 

9 
82 
24 
3 
2 
12 
757 


15 
9 

105 
1,107 

170 
68 

126 

161 
2,033 


26 

43 

21 

413 

73 

16 

12 

115 

534 


14 
16 

210 
2,372 

323 
96 

328 

890 
5,323 


7 
11 


Hawaii: 

Hawaii County, population, 73,276; num- 


11 


Honolulu City, population, 179,326; num- 
ber of offenses known 

Honolulu County, population, 78,898; 
number of offenses known . 


303 
46 


Kauai Comity, population, 35,818; num- 
ber of offenses known ... _ . 


7 


Maui County^ population, 55,980; num- 
ber of offenses known 


7 


Isthmus of Panama: Canal Zone, population, 
51,827; number of offenses known... 


1 
303 


13 
124 


28 


Puerto Rico: population, 1,869,255; number 
of offenses known. . 


41 







no 




Ill 

Estimated Number of Major Crimes, 1948 

A serious crime was committed every 18.7 seconds during 1948 and 
by the year's end the estimated total reached 1,686,670 offenses. 

On the average each day 36 persons were feloniously slain, 255 were 
victims of aggravated assault or rape, and 150 robberies were com- 
mitted. Places burglarized numbered 1,032; 463 automobiles were 
stolen; and 2,672 larcenies of miscellaneous types were committed. 

The estimates with reference to total crime in the United States 
during 1948 as presented in table 44 are based on crime reports re- 
ceived each month during the year from over 4,100 local law-enforce- 
ment agencies policing a population in excess of 102,000,000 including 
both urban and rural areas. While the larceny figures include minor 
thefts, a number of serious crimes such as embezzlement, fraud, arson, 
and the like are not included in the tabulation. Thus the estimated 
total of serious crimes is considered conservative. 



Table 44. — Estimated number of major crimes in the United States, 1947— 4S 



Oflense 



Total -_ 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary... :. 

Larfeny 

Autotheft 



Number of offenses 



1947 



1,665,110 



7,760 

5,770 

17, 180 

58, 100 

74, G90 

373, 450 

943, 430 

184, 730 



1948 



1, 686, 670 



7,620 

5,390 

16, 180 

54, 990 

77,310 

377, 640 

978, 000 

169,540 



Change 



Number 



+21, 560 



-140 

-380 

-1,000 

-3,110 

+2. 620 

+4, 190 

+34. 570 

-15, ICO 



Percent 



+1.3 



-1.8 
-6.6 
-5.8 
-5.4 
+3.5 
+1.1 
+3.7 
-8 2 



112 




DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

Source of Data 

A total of 759,698 fingerprint arrest records were received at the 
FBI during 1948. This figure exceeded the 1947 total of 734,041 by 
3.5 percent and, in fact, was the largest of any yearly total since the 
tabulation of fingerprint arrest records first began in 1932. The 
fingerprint arrest records as received are examined to record data 
concerning the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of the 
persons arrested and the tabulations which follow are based on this 
study. 

In recording the data, duplications (two fingerprint cards repre- 
senting the same arrest) are eliminated as are the fingerprint cards 
representing commitments to any type of penal institution. Also, 
the compilation is limited to arrests for violations of State laws and 
municipal ordinances, Federal charges being excluded. 

The data compiled from fingerprint cards by no means represents 
all persons arrested since there are many persons taken into custody 
for whom no fingerprints are forwarded to Washington. In addition, 
data pertaining to persons arrested should not be treated as informa- 
tion relative to the volume of crime since many oftenses are com- 
mitted in connection with which no arrests are made. Then, too, one 
person may be arrested for the commission of several separate crimes 
while in another instance two or more arrested persons may be in- 
volved in the joint commission of a smgle offense. 
Offense Charged 

Of the total fingerprint arrest records received in 1948, more than 
41 percent (312,264) represented arrests for major violations. Those 
charged with murder, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, and auto 
theft numbered 212,823 or 28.0 percent of the total. 
Sex 

Approximately one-tenth (76,977) of the fingerprint ariest records 
received during 1948 represented arrests of women while the remain- 
mg 682,721 were males. Female arrest fingerprints increased 2.1 
percent over the figures for 1947 while male arrests showed a 3.7 
percent rise. 

(113) 



114 



Table 45. — Distribution of arrests by sex, 1948 



Offense charged 



Total.- -. 

Criminal homicide 

Robbery.- 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft-.. 

Autotheft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson. . - 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice- 
Other sex offenses 

Narcot ic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children . . 

Liquor laws - 

Driving wh ile intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws. . , 

Disorderly cond uct . - 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated - 

A 11 other offenses 



Number 



Total 



769, 698 



703 
583 
304 
299 
154 
720 
246 
350 
986 
314 
517 
674 
602 
846 
598 
410 
770 
584 
906 
87 
064 
402 
863 
423 
561 
135 
102 
435 



Male 



682, 721 



5,848 
19, 644 
52, 145 
40, 246 
59, 697 

17, 307 

18, 329 
3, 059 

867 

8,216 

9,517 

3,257 

14, 819 

4, 363 

11.085 

13. 588 

7,573 

37, 925 

7,731 

85 

7,802 

40, 964 

165, 591 

41,356 

16, 228 

40,214 

5,154 

30,111 



Female 



76, 977 



855 

939 

6,219 

1,053 

8, 457 

413 

1,917 

291 

119 

1,098 



5,417 

2, 783 

483 

513 

822 

1,197 

1, 6.59 

175 

2 

262 

6, 438 

16,272 

8,067 

1,333 

4,921 

948 

4,324 



Percent 



Total 



100.0 



.9 
2.7 
7.7 
5.4 
9.0 
2.3 
2.7 

.4 

.1 
1.2 
1.3 
1.1 
2.3 

.6 
1.5 
1.9 
1.2 
5.2 
1.0 
(') 
1.1 
6.3 
24.0 
6.5 
2.3 
6.0 

.8 
4.5 



Male 



100.0 



2.9 
7.6 
5.9 
8.7 
2.5 
2.7 

.4 

.1 
1.2 
1.4 

.5 
2.2 

.6 
1.6 
2.0 
1.1 
5.6 
1.1 
(') 
1.1 
6.0 
24.3 
6.1 
2.4 
5.9 

.8 
4.4 



Female 



100.0 



1. 1 

1.2 
8.1 
1.4 
11.0 

.5 
2.5 
.4 
.2 
1.4 



7.0 

3.6 

.6 



1. 1 

1.6 

2.2 

.2 

(') 

.3 

8,4 

21.1 

10.5 

1.7 

6.4 

1.2 

5.6 



1 Less than Mo of 1 percent. 



Age 

During 1948, males and females under 21 years of age arrested and 
fingerprinted numbered 115,940, constituting 15.3 percent of the total 
arrests. In addition, there were 125,362 (16.5 percent) between the 
ages of 21 and 24, making a total of 241,302 (31.8 percent) less than 
25 years old. Arrests of persons 25 to 29 years old numbered 123,468 
(16.2 percent). The resultant total is 364,770 (48.0 percent) less 
than 30 years of age. It should be remembered that the number of 
arrest records is doubtless incomplete in the lower age groups because 
of the practice of some jurisdictions not to fingerprint youthful 
offenders. 

Youths played a predominant part in the commission of crimes 
against property as indicated by the following figures: During 1948 
there were 181,652 persons of all ages arrested for robbery, burglary, 
larceny, auto theft, embezzlement, fraud, forgery,- counterfeiting, 
receiving stolen property, and arson; and 50,723 (27.9 percent) of 
those persons were less than 21 years old. 



115 






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117 



Table 47.- 



-Nu7nber and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, 1948 



Offense charged 



Total. 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault ...I. 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft _ 

E mbezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, re- 
ceiving, etc 

Arson _'_" 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape _. 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 

etc 

Oflenses against family and 

children 

Liquor laws _." 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle 

laws 

D isorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling. 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other oflenses 



Total 
number 
of persons 
arrested 



759, 698 



6,703 
20, 583 
58, 364 
41,299 
68, 154 
17,720 
20, 246 

3,350 

986 

9,314 

9,517 

8,674 
17, 602 
4,846 

11,598 

14,410 
8,770 

39, 584 

7,906 

87 

8,064 
47, 402 
181,863 
49, 423 
17,561 
45, 135 

6,102 
34, 435 



Number 

under 18 

years of 

age 



31,750 



208 
1, 121 
1,157 
6,821 
6,093 
3,030 

249 

138 

58 

327 

773 

80 

415 

70 



58 

129 

157 

181 

1 

211 
1,163 

866 
1,424 

110 
2,831 

163 
3,440 



Number 
under 21 
years of 



115,940 



824 
5. 577 
6,332 
15, 899 
17,659 
7,920 
1,534 

539 

152 

1,443 

3,010 

801 
2,120 



2,023 

719 
1,053 
2,059 
1, 550 



1, 535 
6,593 
8,659 
7,652 

676 
9,749 

722 
8,233 



Total 
number 
under 25 
years of 



241, 302 



1,988 
11.269 
16, 429 
24. 310 
.30, 374 
12,334 

4,463 

1,128 

314 

3,251 

5,249 

2,819 
5,293 
1,971 

4,422 

3,038 
2,045 
7,318 
3, 434 
26 

3,473 
15,691 
26, 895 
16,356 

2,382 
18, 837 

1,663 
14, 530 



Percent- 
age under 
18 years 
of age 



Percent- 
age under 
21 years 
of age 



4.2 



3.1 
5.4 
2.0 

16.5 
8.9 

17.1 
1.2 

4.1 
5.9 
3.5 
8.1 



2.4 
1.4 



.4 
1.5 

.4 
2.3 
1.1 

2.6 

2.5 

.5 

2.9 

.6 

6.3 

2.7 

10.0 



15.3 



12.3 
27.1 
10.8 
38.5 
25.9 
44.7 
7.6 

16.1 
15.4 
15.5 
31.6 

9.2 
12.0 
18.6 

17.4 

5.0 
12.0 

5.2 
19.6 

9.2 

19.0 
13.9 

4.8 
15.5 

3.8 
21.6 
11.8 
23.9 



Total 
percent- 
age under 
25 years 

of age 



31.8 



29.7 
54.7 
28.1 
58.9 
44.6 
69.6 
22.0 

33.7 
31.8 
34.9 
55.2 

32.5 
30.1 
40.7 

38.1 

21.1 
23.3 
18.5 
43.4 
29.9 

43.1 
33.1 
14.8 
33.1 
13.6 
41.7 
27.3 
42.2 



118 



ARRESTS - SELECTED 
AGE GROUPS 

193 8 ■ 19 4 8 




AGE 

21-24 

125,362 



AGE 

18-20 

84,190 



AGE 

17& 

UNDER 

31J50 

1938 '^^ '^^ '^^ '42 '43 '44 '45 '46 '47 I943 

DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS pg| 
^ CHART 



Figure 18. 



119 

The extent of the participation of youths in the commission of crimes 
against property is further indicated by the following figures: During 
1948, 31.8 percent of all persons arrested were less than 25 years of age. 
However, persons less than 25 years old numbered 54.7 percent of 
those charged with robbery, 58.9 percent of those charged with bur- 
glary, 44.6 percent of those charged with larceny, and 69.6 percent of 
those charged with auto theft. Approximately one-half of all crimes 
against property during 1948 were committed by persons under 25 
years of age. 

Age 21 predominated during 1948 among the single age groups 
followed by ages 22, 23, 24, and 20, in that order. 
Criminal Repeaters 

A search of the 759,698 fingerprint arrest records received during 
1948 against the fingerprint arrest records on file in the Identification 
Division of the FBI disclosed that 58.0 percent of the arrest records 
received during the year represented persons who already had finger- 
print arrest cards oh file in Washington. The percentage was higher 
for males (59.5) .than for females (44.7). These figures pertain to 
fingerprint arrest records and in no way relate to civil identification 
files at the FBI. 



Table 48. — Percentage with previous fingerprint records, arrests, 1948 



Offense 



Narcotic drug laws.. 

Vagrancy 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Drunkenness 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Robbery _ . _ 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

A uto theft _ . _ 

Larceny— theft 

All other offenses 

Assault 

Suspicion 

Disorderly conduct 



Percent 



74.0 
69.4. 
68.8 
66.6 
64.1 
63.8 
59.1 
58.0 
56. .3 
56.0 
55.5 
54.3 
54.3 
52.7 



Offense 



Liquor laws 

Offenses against family and children.. 
Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Gambling _. 

A rson _ 

Driving while intoxicated 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws... 

Criminal homicide. 

Rape 

Other sex offenses 

Parking violations ' 

Violation of road and driving laws 



Percent 



51.2 
50.8 
50.8 
49.4 
49.2 
48.3 
46.0 
44.8 
44.6 
44.4 
41.8 
37.9 
37.6 



'Only 87 fingerprint cards received representing arrests for violation of parking regulations. 

Race 

Most of the persons represented in this study were members of the 
white and Negro races. Members of the white race represented 
557,125 of the 759,698 arrest records received, while 191,921 were 
Negroes, 6,846 were Indians, 653 Chinese, 309 Japanese, and 2,844 
were representatives of other races. 



120 



Table 49. — Arrests by race, 1948 



Offense charged 



Total 

Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or enter- 
ing 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, re- 
ceiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 

etc 

Offenses against family and 

children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parkins violations 

Other traflic and motor vehicle 

laws 

Disorderly conduct — -- 

Drunkenness. 

Vagrancy ,. 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 



Total, 
all races 



759, 698 



6,703 
20, 583 
58, 364 

41, 299 
68, 154 
17, 720 
20, 246 

3,350 

986 

9,314 

9,517 

8,674 
17, 602 
4,846 

11, 598 

14, 410 
8,770 

39, 584 

7,906 

87 

8,064 
47, 402 
181, 863 
49, 423 
17, 561 
45, 135 

6,102 
34, 435 



Race 



White 



3,579 
12, 579 
31, 025 



46, 022 
14, 275 
17, 592 

2,249 
749 

7,928 



5,563 
14, 618 

2,876 

5,621 

11, 556 
5,362 

35, 732 

6,320 

54 

6,085 
33, 375 
149, 474 
37, 498 

8,810 
31,871 

4,713 
26,116 



Negro 



191,921 



3,072 

7,816 

26, 780 

12,012 
21, 626 
3,265 
2,544 

1,078 

231 

1,312 

2,924 

2,931 

2,847 
1,776 



2,759 
3,320 
3,387 
1,522 
31 

1,887 
13, 381 
28,021 
11,165 

8,279 
12, 927 

1,279 

7,861 



Indian 



6,846 



26 
96 
296 

161 
273 
123 

54 

3 

6 
48 
64 



61 

53 

321 

45 

2 

58 

444 

3,569 

484 

14 
211 

74 
176 



Chinese 



Japanese 



All others 



653 



15 

13 

107 



6 
21 
48 
32 
110 
13 

5 
95 



309 



,844 



24 

78 
215 

116 
172 
44 

45 



19 
20 

61 

47 
71 

40 

31 

24 

129 

13 



25 
177 
703 
226 
254 
109 



OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in part I and 
part II offenses, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 

Part I Offenses 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter includes all 
willful felonious homicides as distinguished from deaths caused by negligence. 
Does not include attempts to kill, assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, or 
justifiable homicides. Justifiable homicides excluded from this classification are 
limited to the following types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon by a peace officer 
in line of duty; (2) The killing of a hold-up man by a private citizen. (6) Man- 
slaughter by negligence includes any death which the police investigation estab- 
lishes was primarily attributable to gross negligence on the part of some individual 
other than the victim. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape (no force used — victim under 
age of consent), assault to rape, and attempted rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as strong-arm robbery, stick-ups, 
robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by the use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or a theft, even though no force 
was used to gain entrance. Includes attempts. Burglary followed by larceny 
is included in this classification and not counted again as larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty doUars and over in value; (6) 
under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of the property stolen, thefts of bicycles, automobile accessories, 
shoplifting, pocket-picking, or any stealing of property or article of value which 
is not taken by force and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, 
"con" games, forgery, worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven away 
and abandoned, including the so-called joy-riding thefts. Does not include tak- 
ing for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unauthorized use 
by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which is 
made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false pretenses. 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, possi ssing. — -Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those offenses. 

(121) 



122 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of regulations or 
statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing, and manufac- 
turing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes or 
regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commer- 
cialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as prostitution, keeping 
bawdy house, procuring, transporting, or detaining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice). — In- 
cludes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

15. Offenses against the family and children. — Includes offenses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, sale, or use. Excludes Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "drunkenness" (class 18) and "driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations. State or local, are placed in 
this class. Excludes Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — ^Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regulations with 
respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — -Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — ^Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion.- — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters, but not in connection with any specific offense, who are released with- 
out formal charges being placed against them. 



INDEX TO VOLUME XIX, UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

[All references are to page numbers] 

Age of offenders. {See Arrests.) 

Annual crime trends: Page 

Cities grouped by size 80-81 

Cities grouped by location 80,83-84,86-87 

Estimated total number of major crimes, 1948 110-112 

Long-term trends, 1938-48 79-80, 82 

Rural crime trends 17-18, 107-108 

Arrests — based on fingerprint records 66-70, 113-120 

Age of offenders 66-69, 114-119 

Race of offenders 70, 119-120 

Recidivism 69-70, 1 1 9 

Sex of offenders 66-67, 113-114 

Automobiles — percentage recovered 15-16, 103 

Classification of offenses 2-3, 71-72,74-75, 121-122 

Cleared by arrest, offenses 48-52, 56, 58, 62-63 

By geographic divisions 62-63 

Crimes. (See Arrests, estimated number, offenses, persons charged, per- 
sons found guilty, and persons released.) 
Criminal repeaters. {See Arrests — recidivism.) 

Employees, number of police 19-47 

Fingerprint records 66-70, 1 13-120 

Monthly variations, offenses known to the police 88-90 

Offenses known to the police: 

Annual trends ' 7, 17-18, 79-87 

Cities grouped by location 7-10, 91-94 

Cities grouped by location and size 10, 94 

• Cities grouped by size 4-5, 77-78 

Cleared by arrests 48-52, 56, 58, 62-63 

Cleared by arrest, geographic divisions 62-63 

Divided as to time and place and value of property stolen... 13-16, 103-105 

Individual cities over 100,000 in population 11-13 

Individual cities over 25,000 in population 95-102 

Monthly variations 88-90 

Rural areas 16-18, 106-108 

Territories and possessions of the United States 109 

Persons charged (held for prosecution) 53-59, 62-65 

By geographic divisions 62-65 

Persons found guilty 56-59 

Persons released (not held for prosecution) 60-62 

Police department employees 19-47 

Police killed 19-20 

Possessions and Territories of the United States, offenses in 109 

Property, value stolen 15-16, 104-105 

Property, value stolen and recovered 16, 105 

Prosecution, persons held for. (See Persons charged and persons found 
guilty.) 

(123) 



124 

Race of offenders. {See Arrests.) 
Recidivism. {See Arrests.) 

Reporting area, extent of 75-76 

Rural crime data 16-18, 106-108 

Sex of offenders. {See Arrests.) 

Sheriffs' reports 16-18, 106-108 

State crime rates. {See Offenses known — ^cities grouped by location.) 

State police reports 16-18, 106-108 

Territories and possessions of the United States, offenses in 109 

Trends, annual crime: 

Cities grouped by size 80-81 

Cities grouped by location 80,83-84,86-87 

Long-term trends, 1938-48 79-80,82 

Value of property stolen 15-16, 104-105 

Value of property stolen and recovered 16, 105 

Variations, monthly crime 88-90 

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