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Full text of "Uniform crime reports for the United States"

UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C 



Volume XX Number I 

SEMIANNUAL BULLETIN • 1949 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume XX — Number 1 
SEMIANNUAL BULLETIN, 1949 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, I). C. 




AI>VISOKY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1949 



U. S. SttPCRlKTENDENT OF DOCUMCft* 

OCT 10 1949 

Contents 



Page 
Summary of volume XX, No. 1 1-2 

Classification of offenses 2-3 

Monthly reports: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population 

(table 1) 4-5 

Urban crime trends (table 2) 6-7 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location 

(tables 3-5) 7-10 

Offenses in individual cities over 100,000 in population (table 6) 11-13 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 7-9) 14-16 

Rural crime rates (table 10) 16 

Rural crime trends (table 11) 17-18 

Police employee data: 

Number of police department employees killed, 1948 (tables 12, 13)__ 19-20 
Number of police department employees per 1,000 inhabitants, 

April 30, 1949, cities grouped by size and location (tables 12, 14) __ 19-22 
Number of police department employees in individual cities, April 30, 

1949 (tables 15, 16) 23-46 

Annual reports: 

Offenses known and offenses cleared by arrest, 1948 — cities divided 

according to population (table 17) 47-51 

Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1948 — cities divided according 

to population (tables 18, 19) 52-55 

Offenses known, offenses cleared, and persons found guilty, 1948, part I 

offenses (table 20) 55-59 

Persons charged (held for prosecution) and persons found guilty, 1948, 

part II offenses (table 21) 55,57,59,60 

Persons released (not held for prosecution), 1948 — cities divided 

according to population (tables 22, 23) 61-63 

Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest and persons charged, 1948, 

by geographic divisions (tables 24, 25) 64-67 

Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1949: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 26) 68-69 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 27, 28) 68-71 

Definition of part I and part II offense classifications 73-74 

(ii) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department of 
Justice, Washington, D. C. 



Volume XX JULY 1949 Number 1 

SUMMARY 

Crime Trends, January-June, 1949 

Crime increased across the Nation, 2.7 percent in cities and 7.6 
percent in rural areas, during the first half of 1949 compared with the 
same period of the previous year. 

Burglaries and larcenies in urhan communities rose 4.4 and 3.3 
percent, respectively, as compared with a 13.1 percent increase in 
burglaries and an 8.8 percent increase in larcenies committed in the 
rural districts. Aggravated assaults rose 4.1 percent in the cities and 
3.8 percent in the rural communities, while robberies in the cities 
showed only a 0.5 percent increase as compared with an 8.0 percent 
rise in such offenses in the rural areas. 

Rapes showed a 1.3 percent increase in urban communities and no 
change in the rural areas, while murders and negligent manslaughters, 
respectively, were down 6.6 and 15.5 percent in the cities as compared 
with a 7.1 percent murder decline and a 4.9 percent decrease in 
negligent manslaughters in rural areas. Auto thefts decreased 3.7 
percent in urban communities and 5.8 percent in rural places. 
Stolen Property Recovered, January-June, 1949 

During the first half of 1949 the police made recoveries in 93 percent 
of their auto theft cases. The percentage recovered for other types 
of property was as follows: Currency, 14.5; jewelry, 14.5; furs, 9.8; 
clothing, 19.1; and miscellaneous property, 30.0. 

Persons Arrested, January-June, 1949 

Forty-one percent of the 400,089 arrest fingerprint cards received 
during the first half of 1949 represented persons charged with major 
violations. Approximately one-half of all crimes against property 
during the first 6 months of 1949 were committed by persons under 
25 years of age. 
Offenses Cleared By Arrest, 1948 

During 1948 the police made arrests in 28.9 percent of the known 
offenses and the figures indicate that generally the more serious the 
offense, the greater is the likelihood of its being cleared by arrest. 
Murders and negligent manslaughters head the list of cleared offenses 
with 90.9 and 84.1 percent cleared respectively. The percentage 

(1) 



cleared by other offense classes was as follows: Aggravated assault, 
79.2; rape, 79.0; robbery, 41.8; burglary, 29.7; auto theft, 27.3; and 
larceny, 22.7. 
Persons Found Guilty, 1948 

Over 77 percent of the persons charged by the police during 1948 
were found guilty on trial with the percentage found guilty ranging 
from 84.5 for driving while intoxicated to 38.3 for manslaughter by 
negligence. A comparison of data for offenses committed with the 
figures representing persons convicted indicates that the police in- 
vestigation of an average group of 100 murders would culminate in the 
conviction of 50 persons, while for other crime classes the number of 
persons convicted out of each 100 crimes committed is as follows: 
Aggravated assault, 39; rape, 38; negligent manslaughter, 32; robbery, 
21; auto theft, 13; and burglary and larceny, 12. 

Police Employees Killed, 1948 

During 1948 municipal police killed in line of duty totaled 64 for a 
rate per 5 million inhabitants of 4.35 as compared with 4.59 in 1947 
and 5.64 in 1946. 
Number of Police Employees, April 30, 1949 

As of April 30, 1949, police departments representing 98.8 percent 
of the total urban population reported a total of 139,240 employees or 
1.89 employees for each 1,000 inhabitants. This figure is somewhat in 
excess of that for April 30, 1948, which was 1.83 and of the 1.75 for 
April 30, 1947, and 1.67 of April 30, 1946. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to the 
police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting or 
court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following group 
of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be those most 
generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal homicide, 
including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (b) manslaugh- 
ter by negligence; rape; robbery ; aggravated assault; burglary — break- 
ing or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The figures contained 
herein include also the number of attempted crimes of the designated 
classes. In other words, an attempted burglary or robbery, for ex- 
ample, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner as if the crime 
had been completed. Attempted murders, however, are reported as 
aggravated assaults. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the law-enforce- 
ment agencies of contributing communities and not merely arrests or 



cleared cases. Offenses committed by juveniles are included in the 
same manner as those known to have been committed by adults, 
regardless of the prosecutive action. Complaints which upon inves- 
tigation are learned to be groundless are not included in the tabula- 
tions which follow. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions of 
part I and II offense classifications. 



MONTHLY REPORTS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population 

A considerable variation is regularly observed in the crime rates 
among cities of different population groups with generally the larger 
number of offenses per 100,000 inhabitants registered for the larger 
cities. Because of this the number of offenses known and the rate per 
100,000 inhabitants are presented in table 1 covering the first 6 months 
of this year for the reporting cities divided into six population groups. 

The data are based on the monthly crime reports received during 
January-June of 1949 from 2,384 cities representing a combined 
population of 60,601,033. 

Figures showing the number of offenses per 100,000 inhabitants for 
cities grouped according to location may be found in tables 4 and 5. 

(4) 



Table 1. — Offenses known to the police, January-June 1949; number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census) 



Population group 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
aegli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 



sault 



Bur- 
glary— 

break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

2,384 cities; total population, 
60,601,033: 

Number of offenses known - . 
Rate per 100,0(10 



GEOUF I 

35 cities over 250,000; total popu- 
lation, 22,439,171: 
Number of offenses known . 
Rate per 100,000 



group n 

55 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,792,650: 
Number of offenses known. . 
Rate per 100,000 



GROUP III 

105 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 7,199,435: 
Number of offenses known- . 
Rate per 100,000 



208 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 7,244,809: 
Number of offenses known. . 
Rate per 100,000 



563 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 8,516,480: 
Number of offenses known. . 
Rate per 100,000 



GROUP VI 

1,418 cities under 10,000; total 
population, 7,408,488: 
Number of offenses known. . 
Rate per 100,000 



1,706 
2.82 



244 
3.13 



203 

2.82 



128 
1.77 



157 
1.84 



153 
2.07 



902 
1.49 



3.837 
6.33 



19, 123 
31.6 



24, 116 
39.8 



i 122, 741 
209.2 



" 289. 276 
493.1 



107 
1.49 



111 
1.53 



56 
0.66 



69 
0.93 



2,181 
9.72 



425 
5.45 



333 
4.63 



231 
3.19 



392 



275 
3.71 



12, 353 
55.1 



2,244 
28.8 



1,588 
22.1 



1,021 
14.1 



1,044 
12.3 



873 
11.8 



13, 522 

60.3 



2,497 
32.0 



3,000 
41.7 



1,922 
26.5 



1,938 
22.8 



1,237 
16.7 



i 51, Hid 
249. 5 



19,371 
248.6 



15,421 
214.2 



13, 128 
181.2 



13, 274 
155.9 



10, 387 
140.2 



l 110,056 
536. 7 



44, 506 
571.1 



37, 847 
525.7 



35, 684 
492.5 



35, 359 
415.2 



25, 824 
348. 6 



1 The number and offenses and rate for burglary and larceny-theft are based on reports as follows: Group 
I, 34 cities, total population, 20,507,837; Groups I-VI, 2,383 cities, total population, 58,669,699. 



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Annual Trends, Offenses Known to the Police in Urban Communities 

Crime in the cities was up 2.7 percent for the first half of 1949 as 
compared with the same period of 1948, according to monthly crime 
reports received from 2,081 cities representing nearly four-fifths of 
the Nation's urban population. The only decreases were registered 
for criminal homicide and auto theft, and here was noted a 6.6 percent 
decrease in murders, a 15.5 percent decline in negligent manslaughters, 
and a 3.7 percent decrease in auto thefts. 

All other offense classes showed increases, though none were par- 
ticularly pronounced. Burglaries and larcenies were up 4.4 and 3.3 
percent, respectively, while a 4.1 percent increase was registered for 
aggravated assaults. Rape showed an increase of 1.3 percent and 
the rise in robbery amounted to only 0.5 percent. 

Table 2. — Urban, crime trends, January-June 1948-49 
[Offenses known to the police in 2,081 cities, total population, 58,387,015; based on L940 decennial census] 



Offense 



Number of offenses 
January-June 



1948 



Change 



Number Percent 



Total 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

A ggra vated assault 

Burglary 

Larceny --- 

Auto theft 



489, 298 



502. 378 



+ 13.080 



+2.7 



1,733 

1.030 
3,677 
18, 533 
22, 471 
116,606 
275, 127 
50, 121 



1,618 

870 

3,725 

18, 628 

23,396 

121, 765 

284, 099 

48, 277 



-115 
-160 

+48 

+95 

+925 

+5, 159 

+8, 972 

-1,844 



-6.6 
-15.5 
+1.3 
+.5 
+4.1 
+4.4 
+3.3 
-3.7 



Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location 

Since there is such a wide variation in the figures showing the 
number of offenses per unit of population in the different sections of the 
country, the crime rate data based on offenses known to the police for 
the first half of 1949 are presented in the following tables with the 
cities divided as to location. Generally, murder and aggravated 
assault rates are highest in the South Atlantic and East South Central 
States. The robbery figures are generally highest in the East North 
Central and Pacific areas while the Mountain and Pacific States 
show T ed the highest rates for burglary, larceny, and auto theft. 

In this connection, however, it should be remembered that the 
crime rate data have been compiled using the 1940 census as a basis 
and substantial changes have occurred in the population of some 
sections of the country since that time. The increases in urban 
population were particularly pronounced in the Pacific area. 

The crime rate data are presented in table 4 for the individual 
States and in table 5 for the individual population groups within each 
of the nine geographic divisions. The information presented in 
tables 1, 4, and 5 is supplemented by that shown in table 3, which 
indicates the number of cities used in the preparation of the tabulations. 

852297°— 49 2 



Table 3. — Number of cities in each State included in the tabulation of uniform crime 
reports, January-June 1949 





Total 


Population group 


Division and State 


Over 
250,000 


100,000 
to 250,000 


50,000 1 25,000 to 
to 100,000 50,000 


10,000 to 
25,000 


Less than 
10,000 


Total: 

Population, 60,601,033 


2,384 


35 


55 


105 


208 


563 


1,418 


New England: 

Population, 5,824,443 


185 


2 


10 


11 


34 


64 


64 




25 

18 
101 
15 
16 
10 

546 

142 
167 
237 

563 




3 




7 
2 

16 
2 
6 
1 

37 


7 
5 
39 
6 
6 
1 

138 


7 


Maine 




10 


Massachusetts .. 


1 


7 


30 
6 


Rhode Island 


1 




3 








8 


Middle Atlantic: 

Population, 12,245,318 


5 


11 


24 


331 




1 
2 
2 

8 


4 
4 
3 

10 


11 
23 


15 
10 
12 

59 


36 
46 
56 

119 


79 




99 




153 


East North Central: 

Population, 16,661,795 


344 


Illinois. 


153 
79 
103 
153 

75 

259 


1 
1 
1 
4 
1 

4 


1 
3 
2 
4 




13 

10 
9 
14 
13 

12 


33 

15 
22 
33 
16 

58 


98 
46 




63 


Ohio 


94 


Wisconsin--. 


43 


West North Central: 

Population, 5,360,779 


5 


172 




62 

53 
61 
40 
20 
10 
13 

233 




1 

2 
1 




6 
1 

1 
2 


10 
16 
11 
9 
5 
3 
4 

55 


41 






33 




2 
2 


46 






25 


Nebraska 


1 


13 


North Dakota 




1 
1 

20 


6 


South Dakota.. . 








8 


South Atlantic: 

Population, 6,088,283 


3 


7 


17 


131 




5 
1 
38 
41 
17 
48 
20 
38 
25 

111 




1 








4 




1 










Florida. 


3 




4 
1 
2 
4 
2 
5 
2 

9 


10 
9 
4 

16 
3 
6 
7 

26 


20 




1 

1 


26 


Maryland 




10 




1 




23 


South Carolina .. 




13 


Virginia 




2 


22 






13 


East South Central: 

Population, 2,577,855 


3 


3 


66 




27 

37 
19 
28 

156 


1 

1 






3 

5 


5 
6 
10 
5 

40 


16 






24 






8 




1 
4 


3 
3 


1 
13 


18 


West South Central: 

Population, 4,097,814 




87 




22 

22 
36 
76 

116 








1 
3 
2 

7 

7 


6 
4 
13 
17 

22 


14 




1 




13 


Oklahoma 


2 
1 

1 


19 


Texas 


3 
1 




41 


Mountain: 

Population, 1,561,434.. 


83 




13 

24 
20 
16 

5 
11 
19 

8 

215 








1 
1 

1 
2 




11 


Colorado 


1 




5 
5 
3 
1 
2 
2 
4 

41 


16 






14 


Montana. 








11 










4 










1 

1 


8 


Utah 




1 




15 


Wyoming. 






4 


Pacific: 

Population, 6,183,312 


5 


5 


7 


17 


140 


California 


153 
28 
34 


3 
1 

1 


3 


7 


13 
1 
3 


31 
4 
6 


96 

22 


Washington 


2 




22 









Table 4. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
June 1049, by geographic divisions and Stales 

[Bused on 1940 decennial census] 



Division and State 


Murder, 

nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary 
breaking 
.11 entei 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


Auto 
thefl 


Total 


2.82 


31.6 


39.8 


1 209. 2 


1 493. 1 


81.8 






Nru England 


.39 


9.2 


5.7 


137.1 


300.7 


54.2 




.62 

.71 
.41 


12.4 

4.6 
9.2 

2.0 
10.2 

l.l) 
15.7 


13.3 
2.1 
4.2 
3.6 

6. 1 


IKS. 1 

132. 7 

l?. r . 'i 
st;. t 
149. 3 
123. 7 
2 117. 2 


350. S 
389. 6 
280.3 
221. 7 
334 B 
314.4 
2 230. 5 


00.9 




51.0 




55. 9 




34. 2 






45. 1 






37. 1 




1.34 


15.0 


50.4 








1.22 

.96 

1.63 

2.58 


12.9 

4.9 
23.7 
42,8 


19.0 
10.3 
15.9 
36.4 


150.7 

107.1 

3 101.6 

185.4 


264.2 

261.0 

3 177. 7 

446.8 


57.8 




43.0 


Bast North Central - 


51.3 
67.3 








3.09 
2.59 
2.28 
2.83 
.75 
1.68 


65.2 
24.1 
48.5 
31.7 
5.7 
20.8 


43.8 
24.4 
61.6 
24.7 
4.6 
30.6 


174.0 
203. 5 
241.0 
183.7 
92.4 
162.7 


291.3 
499.6 
680.7 

it;:., s 
3«1.3 
423.0 


59.9 




88.1 




88.8 


Ohio 


61. 1 




42.4 


West North Central - 


69.3 








.51 
1.13 

.53 
3.59 
1.87 
1.64 


7.3 

14.1 
14.7 
39.8 
16.9 
3.3 
6.9 
33.1 


2.6 

8.3 

4. 1 

84.9 

18.0 

1.0 

4.6 

118.5 


137. 8 
176.0 
109.6 
215.5 
171.0 
97.8 
167.2 
275.7 


375.0 
506.3 
376.1 
428.8 
518.6 
461.2 
381.8 
587.3 


55.6 




07. 




63.2 




77.9 




95.6 




64.9 




51.9 


South Atlantic * '- 


6.24 


102.2 








4.64 
7.07 
9.92 
3.88 
6.41 
7.30 
6.07 
3.59 
7.64 


30.2 
43.0 
24.9 
26.4 
19.0 
19.0 
44.3 
36.6 
31.0 


26.3 
64.6 
76.3 
58.7 
245.0 
69.2 
99.6 
31.0 
72.3 


238.3 
460.1 
177. 1 
124. y 
279.5 
261.2 
346. 5 
198.7 
263.2 


620.5 
808.5 
502.7 
306.8 
495.2 
666.1 
822.1 
327. 8 
425.9 


87.4 




103.2 




98.0 




122. 3 




86.2 




110.8 




125.7 




67.1 




113.9 








11.09 
5.03 
7.20 
7.37 
5.93 


25.9 
45.8 
15.1 
27.2 
28.7 


97.8 
53.3 
71.6 
69.1 
54.8 


274.7 
327.4 
204.7 
217.2 
293.7 


430.8 
465.7 
429.6 
386.1 
646.4 


86.8 




155. 3 




67.6 




113.8 




112.8 








5.44 
4.56 
3.05 
7.36 
1.86 


25.5 
25.7 
19.3 
33.0 
32.2 


58.4 
54.8 
21.2 
64.5 
25.4 


228.0 
171.3 
300.5 
344.9 
317.5 


386.0 
353. 7 
633. 2 
791.0 
945.3 


80.2 




102.6 




95.2 




126.1 




130.1 








1.25 
2.13 


56.3 
41.7 
16.5 
20.7 
63.5 
14.6 
21.5 
26.5 
63.2 


66.9 
21.1 
10.6 
15.8 
46.8 
46.8 
10.2 
31.3 
40.6 


496.7 
388.0 
235.8 
182.3 
419.2 
305.8 
222.9 
175.6 
363.9 


1, 523. 3 
881.1 
920.8 
698.7 

1.112.4 
997. 6 
908.2 
746.8 

1,017.1 


221.5 




113.7 




101.7 




2.43 


106.3 




132.0 




3.12 
1.06 
6.01 
2.43 


195.6 


Utah 


121.0 




117.9 




153.7 








2.35 
1.79 
3.19 


69.6 
34.4 
45.0 


47.2 
22.7 
14.5 


382.3 
305.4 
297.4 


1,039.9 
888.0 
966.4 


157.1 




124. 2 




152.2 







1 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 2,383 cities with a total population of 
58,669.699. 

- The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 545 cities with a total population of 
10,313,984. 

% The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 236 cities. 

* Includes the District of Columbia. 



10 

Table 5. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, 
January-June 1949, by geographic divisions and population groups 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 



Division and group 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



Auto 
theft 



Total. 



New England. 



Group I 

Group II . 

Group III. . 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Middle Atlantic. 



Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

East North Central- 



Group I 

Group II 

Group III. 
Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

West North Central . 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

South Atlantic 4 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV... 

Group V 

Group VI _ 
East South Central. . 

Group I_. _ 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

West South Central . 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Mountain 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Pacific. 



Group I_- 
Group II_. 
Group III, 
Group IV. 
Group V_. 
Group VI- 



.39 



.59 
.88 
.25 



.10 
.49 
1.34 



2.39 
.97 

1.16 
.62 

.73 

.75 
2.58 



3. 59 
3.10 
1.80 
1.75 
.83 
1.12 
1.68 

3.01 

2.08 
. 36 
.76 
.60 
.58 

6.24 



5.92 

7.77 
6.98 
4.67 
6.34 
5.10 
7.64 



6.93 
9.58 
9.26 
7.62 
8.10 
5.21 
5.93 



7.78 
4.58 
5.64 
4.18 
3.75 
6.55 
1.86 



2.79 



2.55 
2.03 
2.22 
1.22 
2.43 



2.83 
2.27 
1.85 
.54 
1.37 
3.50 



31.6 



i 209. 2 



' 493. 1 



9.2 



5.7 



137.1 



300.7 



18.1 
13.3 
6.0 
6.1 
3.2 
3.2 
15.7 



11.8 
8.6 
2.5 
3.8 
2.3 
1.5 

15.0 



123.3 
182.8 
138.1 
128.0 
114.1 
101.0 
-' 117. 2 



343.2 
349. 5 
327.2 
289.9 
224.7 
194.8 
'■ 230. 5 



31.2 
11.0 
10.6 

6.7 
7.1 
6.9 
42.8 



69.9 
38.0 
21.5 
13.2 
13.9 
9.4 
20.8 



38.5 
19.8 
13.5 
6.1 
6. 6 
6.0 
33.1 



38. 4 

56.5 
30.2 
23.1 
14.5 
21.3 
31.0 



50.7 
24.6 
26. 
22.9 
22.3 
8.0 
28.7 



41.9 
30.7 
37.7 
13.9 
10.4 
10.1 
33.2 



58.9 
22.0 
52.7 
22.8 
23.8 
25.1 
63.2 



Mi. v 

47.8 
49.7 
39.2 
35.9 
27.2 



23.8 
16.1 
15.1 
10.5 
8.2 
6.2 
36.4 



a 157. 3 
140.9 
122.6 
111.7 
90.8 
83.5 
185.4 



3 241.8 
278.5 
242.1 
294.4 
206.2 
149.6 
446.8 



57.3 
40.2 
24.7 
10.5 
11.2 
7.1 
30.6 



214. 5 
222.9 
188.6 
146.5 
135. 3 
118.6 
162.7 



457.8 
575. 8 
514. 9 
437. 8 
411.1 
278.2 
423.0 



70.6 
12.8 
9.1 
6.1 
2.9 
5.1 
118.5 



194.9 
173.6 
199.6 
178. 5 
112.3 
97.0 
275.7 



444.0 
528. 
585. 2 
420.7 
393. 2 
213. 1 
587.3 



156.8 
81.8 
122. 1 
118.4 
113.4 
69.4 
72.3 



228.9 
473. 5 
258.9 
279.7 
231.2 
183.0 
263.2 



523.1 
837. 4 

651. 9 
720.9 
439. 9 
320.0 
425.9 



93.1 

56.7 
96.8 
72.4 
62. 3 
26.4 
54.8 



334. 
229.4 
339. 6 
207.1 
219.9 
151.1 
293.7 



546.4 
396.4 
396.2 
495.5 
383.6 
152.7 
646.4 



67.3 
46.2 
67.2 
62.1 
25.9 
38.9 
25.4 



376. 7 
394.1 
284.1 
230.4 
170.4 
156.0 
317.5 



725.8 
898.8 
777.3 
621.2 
385. 5 
292.1 
945.3 



8.4 
10.0 
93.6 
27.2 
27.3 
22.2 
40.6 



525. 7 
250.8 
534.1 
302. 6 
235.8 
188.0 
363.9 



1. 036. 9 
873.1 
1. 270. 7 
1,131.0 
1,024.7 
634.0 
1,017.1 



59.5 
21.3 
26.3 
25.2 
19.2 
17.1 



375.1 
308.0 
402. 6 
370.7 
393.9 
316.4 



916.3 
1,013.3 
1 . 048. 5 
1,004.0 
1,260.9 
1,213.1 



1 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 2,383 cities with a population of 58,669,699. 

2 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of. 545 cities with a total population of 
10,313,984. 

s The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 4 cities. 
* Includes the District of Columbia. 



11 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 100,000 Inhabitants 

The number of offenses reported! as having been committed during 
the period of January-Juno 1949 is shown in table 6. The compilation 
includes the reports received from police departments in cities with 
more than 100,000 inhabitants. Police administrators and other in- 
terested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare the 
crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in tables 1 and 
5 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire to make 
comparisons with the figures for their communities for prior periods, 
in order to determine whether there has been an increase or a decrease 
in the amount of crime committed. 

Caution should be exercised in comparing crime data for individual 
cities, because differences in the figures may be due to a variety of 
factors. The amount of crime committed in a community is not solely 
chargeable to the police but is rather a charge against the entire com- 
munity. The following is a list of some of the factors which might 
affect the amount of crime in a community: 

Population of the city and metropolitan area adjacent thereto. 

The composition of the population with reference particularly to 
age, sex, and race. 

The economic status and activities of the population. 

Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 

The number of police employees per unit of population. 

The standards governing appointments to the police force. 

The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 

The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 

The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 

It should be remembered that the war brought about marked 
changes in some of the foregoing factors in many communities. 

In comparing crime rates, it is generally more important to deter- 
mine whether the figures for a given community show increases or 
decreases in the amount of crime committed than to ascertain whether 
the figures are above or below those of some other community. 



12 

Table 6. — Number of offenses known to the -police, January-June 1949, cities over 

100,000 in population 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 



City 



Akron, Ohio 

Albany, N. Y 

Atlanta, Qa 

Baltimore, Md 

Birmingham, Ala- 



Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn. 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Camden, N. J 



Canton, Ohio 

Charlotte, N. C 

Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 



Cleveland, Ohio. 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Dallas,. Tex 

Dayton, Ohio 

Denver, Colo 



Des Moines, Iowa- 
Detroit, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 

Elizabeth, N.J. .- 
Erie, Pa 



Fall River, Mass. 

Flint, Mich 

Fort Wavne, Ind. 
Fort Worth, Tex.. 
Gary, Ind 



Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Hartford, Conn 

Honolulu, T. H 

Houston, Tex 

Indianapolis, Ind 



Jacksonville, Fla... 
Jersey City, N. J__. 
Kansas City, Kans_ 
Kansas City, Mo. _ 
Knoxville, Tenn. _ _ 



Long Beach, Calif- 
Los Angeles, Calif- 
Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn._- 



Miami, Fla 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn- 
Nashville, Tenn 

Newark, N. J 



New Bedford, Mass. 
New Haven, Conn.. 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N. Y 

Norfolk, Va 



Oakland, Calif 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha. Nebr 

Paterson, N. J 

Peoria, 111 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



9 
2 
1 

1 

4 
16 
145 
19 

33 
13 
31 
12 



Robbery 



120 
253 



142 
13 
38 
15 
26 

37 
35 
27 
3, 172 
199 

336 
153 
142 
113 

190 

15 
1,365 
12 
14 
11 

18 
34 
7 
56 
110 

22 
44 
21 
168 
114 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



55 

14 

291 

573 

235 



31 

73 

230 

51 

2,031 

133 

176 
156 
334 
165 
27 

7 
1,697 



•J. r , 
26 

3 

91 
28 
130 

72 

18 
60 
56 
108 
175 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



482 
132 
761 
1,048 
681 

742 
215 
687 
92 
200 

163 
332 
269 
6,716 
959 

1,156 
1,103 
1, 563 
610 
1,695 

251 
4,759 
109 
158 
167 

125 
451 
246 
634 
232 

300 

572 

505 

2.015 

1,098 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



299 

73 

567 

741 
566 

1,029 

207 

325 

69 

94 

120 
105 

(0 

3.998 
568 

323 

1.001 

451 

245 

729 

80 
1,264 
84 
55 
79 

75 
214 
146 
125 
209 

110 
239 
181 
597 
618 



122 604 542 

Complete data not received 



Lender 
$50 



Complete data not received 



917 

165 

1,395 

1,730 

844 

1,445 
359 

1,079 
171 
129 

386 

463 

206 

5,570 

1,414 

4,267 
922 
3,503 
1,334 
2,614 

528 
10, 744 
430 
243 
342 

216 
764 
554 
1,583 
421 

1,022 
632 
1,249 
2,477 
1,438 

985 



37 


20 


179 


138 


407 


150 


219 


757 


769 


1,550 


39 


71 


340 


182 


452 


100 


85 


829 


(0 


1,560 


1,393 


1,218 


5,730 


5, 597 


8,731 


226 


247 


1,608 


1,039 


965 


6 




140 


63 


140 


121 


337 


649 


377 


1,015 


150 


112 


1,644 


530 


699 


57 


54 


347 


415 


1,690 


97 


10 


526 


503 


1,412 


34 


109 


325 


252 


522 


137 


215 


941 


474 


1,064 


11 


7 


249 


107 


459 


24 


24 


370 


130 


562 


185 


290 


971 


621 


961 



165 


130 


902 


566 


887 


284 


232 


1,038 


232 


2,699 


64 


62 


802 


297 


1,550 


58 


53 


436 


215 


1,035 


23 


43 


335 


59 


296 


76 


37 


324 


109 


513 



See footnote at end of table. 



13 

Table 6. — Number of offenses known to the police, January-June 1949, cities over 
100,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Murder, 

nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



A ggra- 

n at i'il 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 

entering 



Larceny— -theft 



$60 and 
over 



i fader 

$50 



Auto 
theft 



Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pittsburgh, Pa... 
Portland, Oreg... 
Providence, R. I. 

Rcading, Pa 



Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y. 
Sacramento, Calif. 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn.... 



Salt Lake City, I'tah. 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif 
Scranton, Pa 



Seattle, Wash.. 
Somerville, Mass. 
south Bend, bid- 
Spokane, Wash . 
Springfield, Mass. 



Syracuse, N. Y_ 
Tacoma, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo, Ohio... 
Trenton, N. J... 



Tulsa, Okla 

Utiea, N. Y 

Washington, D. C. 

Wichita, Kans 

Wilmington, Del.. 



Worcester, Mass... 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, Ohio. 



708 

324 

156 

43 

10 

69 

19 

86 

444 

77 

33 
103 
42 

620 



249 

15 

22 

47 

4 

12 
62 
29 
140 
36 

41 

1 

328 

21 

23 

30 



464 

152 

100 

25 

15 

169 

13 

21 

1.138 

42 

15 
229 

25 
231 

22 

70 

7 

42 

13 

5 

11 
6 
45 
115 
17 

50 
4 
1,996 
12 
14 

3 
24 
12 



2.573 

1 , 1 16 

1,112 

521 

104 

708 
376 
280 
2,098 
508 

376 
829 
336 
2,478 
120 

1, 325 

214 
260 
325 
167 

253 
401 
282 
848 
286 

630 

96 

2, 368 

277 

284 

337 
177 
239 



1,061 

480 

639 

240 

46 

506 
174 
455 
(') 



246 
221 

528 
747 
60 

553 
34 
136 
163 
76 

204 
286 
235 
471 



366 
88 
919 
144 
173 

175 
66 
150 



1,040 
485 

2, 156 
801 
251 

1,521 
761 

1,101 
3.186 
1.294 

1,063 
1, 531 

1,101 

4,781 
196 

2,405 
146 

476 

1, 393 

369 

642 
778 
643 
1,544 
260 

791 
240 
4,191 
747 
556 

515 
322 
420 



918 
801 
419 
155 
25 

371 
126 
202 
837 
183 

216 

294 

344 

1, 346 

66 

710 
47 
89 

128 



91 
146 
102 
259 

82 

159 
28 

572 
83 
99 

210 
50 
97 



1 Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



14 

Supplement to Return A Data 

A total of 3,033 rapes, 16,504 robberies, 96,114 burglaries, and 
217,978 larcenies were reported during January-June 1949, by 361 
cities over 25,000 in population. These figures are large, and to the 
end that more specific information might be available as to the 
nature of the criminal acts comprising these totals, a Supplement 
to the monthly Return A report was forwarded by each of these 
departments. 

Thus we find that 56.4 percent of the crimes of rape were forcible 
in nature, while 43.6 percent were classified as statutory offenses 
(no force used — victim under the age of consent). 

Thirty percent of the robberies involved some type of commercial 
institution and 60.3 percent were classed as highway robberies, while 
the remaining 9.7 percent involved residences or were of miscel- 
laneous types. 

Of the total burglaries reported by these 361 large cities, 37.1 
percent were of residences and the rest were burglaries of stores, offices, 
warehouses, and other nonresidence places. Among the residence 
burglaries, 64.8 percent were found to have been committed after 
dark, while 89.6 percent of the nonresidence burglaries were com- 
mitted during the night. 

The largest single total for any offense classification is for larceny, 
and the cities represented in this study showed a total of 217,978 
such offenses. Half of these were cases of thefts of bicycles or thefts 
of some type of property from parked automobiles. More specifically, 
14.9 percent were bicycle thefts; 16.1 percent were thefts of auto acces- 
sories; and 19.7 percent, thefts of other types of personal property 
from automobiles. Pocket-picking and purse-snatching comprised 
3.5 percent of the total larcenies and shoplifting cases accounted for 
4.4 percent. The remaining 41.4 percent were of miscellaneous types. 

With reference to the value of property stolen in larceny offenses, 
the reports of the cities represented in this study indicated that 23.7 
percent involved property valued at $50 and over, while 61.8 percent 
of the thefts were of property valued at from $5 to $50. Property 
valued at less than $5 was taken in 14.5 percent of the larceny offenses. 

These 361 cities over 25,000 reported 39,134 stolen automobiles 
during the first half of 1949, and during this same period 36,333, 
or 92.8 percent, of the number stolen were recovered by the police. 



15 



Table 7. — Number of known offenses by nature of criminal act, time and -place of 
commission, and value of property stolen, January- J une 1949 



[Based on reports of 361 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, 

decennial census] 


42,024,074, according to 1940 


Classification 


Number of 
offenses 


P nt dis- 
tribution 


Rape: 

Total . 


3.033 


100.0 










1.712 
1,321 


56. 1 




13 6 








Robbery: 
Total 


16, 504 


100 








H ighway. 


9,947 
1. 258 
514 
142 
878 
39 
726 


60.3 




25. 8 


Oil station. 


3. 1 


Chain store ... ........ 


.9 


Residence 


5.3 


Bank. 


.2 


Miscellaneous... _ 


4.4 








Burglary— breaking or entering: 

Total 


96. 114 


100.0 








Residence (dwelling): 

Committed during night 


23, 116 

12, 551 

54, L57 
6,290 


24. 1 


Committed during day.. 


13.1 


Nonresidence (store, office, etc.): 


56. 3 


Committed during day 


o value of article 


6.5 


Larceny — theft (except auto theft) (grouped according t 
stolen): 

Total 


217, 978 


100.0 








$50 and over _. _. ... . 


."pl.t Mil 
134, 775 
31, 542 


23.7 


$5 to $50 


61.8 


Under $5 


14.5 








Larceny — theft (grouped as to type of offense) : 

Total 


217, 978 


100.0 








Pocket-picking . _ 


3,122 
4, 572 
9,683 
42, 833 
35, 090 
32, 453 
90, 225 


1.4 




2.1 




4.4 


Thefts from autos (exclusive of auto accessories) _ . 


19.7 




16.1 




14.9 




41.4 









Three hundred fifty of the cities over 25,000 reported complete 
details with reference to the value of property stolen for the various 
offense classes. For the 359,671 property crimes, the loot in these 
cities during the first six months of 1949 amounted to $62,325,318 or 
$173 per offense. 

The average car stolen was valued at $893 and the loot taken in 
robberies averaged $193 for each offense. The property stolen in 
the average burglary was valued at $135, whereas $61 represented 
the value of the property stolen in the average larceny offense. 

Table 8. — Value of property stolen, by type of crime, January-June 1949 

[Based on reports of 350 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, 40,806,302, according to the 1940 
decennial census. All values have been rounded off to even dollars] 



Classification 



Number of 
offenses 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



Average 

value per 

offense 



Total 

Robbery 

Burglary 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

852297°— 49 3 



359, 671 



$62, 325. 318 



$173 



16,176 
93, 362 
212,341 
37, 792 



3,118,084 
12, 578, 528 
12,897,015 
33, 731, 091 



193 

135 

til 

893 



16 



The value of property stolen and recovered by type of property was 
reported during the first half of 1949 by 347 of the Nation's largest 
cities. These cities reported a total of $59,235,111 in property stolen 
and 59.5 percent of this was recovered by the police. Exclusive of 
automobiles, 20.4 percent of the stolen property was recovered. 

Table 9. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered, by type of prop- 
erty, January- June 1949 

[Based on reports of 347 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, 39,032,870, according to the 1940 
decennial census. All values have been rounded off to even dollars] 



Type of property 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



Value of prop- 
erty recovered 



Percent 
recovered 



Total 

Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Miscellaneous 



$59,235,111 



$35. 239, 475 



59.5 



7, 768, 844 
5, 647, 376 
1,096,502 
3. 013, 000 
31, 747, 485 
9, 961, 904 



1, 126, 844 

820, 900 

107, 279 

576, 097 

29, 622, 555 

2, 985, 800 



14.5 
14.5 
9.8 
19.1 
93.3 
30.0 



Rural Crime Rates 

While as a group rural crime rates are considerably lower than those 
in urban areas, when a crime is committed the chance that it will be a 
homicide, rape, or other felonious assault is about twice as great in the 
rural areas than in the cities. 

Generally speaking, rural rates for crimes against property are con- 
siderably lower than the corresponding urban crime rates, but for 
murder, negligent manslaughter, and rape, the crime rates for the 
two areas do not differ widely. 

With reference to the relatively low crime rates in the rural areas 
for offenses against property, it should be observed that some incom- 
pleteness probably exists in the rural reporting. Some of the reports 
used in table 10 may have been based on arrest records rather than 
on a record of reported offenses and since a comparatively small 
proportion of crimes against property are cleared by arrest, the 
figures should be considered conservative. 

Table 10. — Offenses known, rural areas, number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, 

January-June 1949 



Based on reports of 1,771 sheriffs, 137 rural village officers, and 11 State police; total rural population, 
38,714,230, according to the 1940 decennial census] 




Criminal homi- 
cide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 






Murder, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Population 38,714,230: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 . - 


1,042 
2.69 


930 
2.40 


2,199 
5.68 


3,644 
9.4 


6,804 
17.6 


30,464 
78.7 


41, 379 
106.9 


9,355 
24.2 







17 




w 

o 



18 

Rural Crime Trends 

Crime in the rural areas for the first 6 months of 1949 increased 
7.6 percent as compared with the 2.7 percent rise in the urban com- 
munities. Rural burglaries were up 13.1 percent and larcenies in- 
creased 8.8 percent. Offenses of robbery showed an increase of 8.0 
percent and aggravated assault rose 3.8 percent. 

Rape offenses in rural areas showed no change during the first 
half of 1949 compared with the same period of the previous year, 
while murders and negligent manslaughters were down 7.1 and 4.9 
percent respectively. Rural auto thefts showed a 5.8 percent decrease. 

Table 11. — Rural crime trends, January-June 1948-49 

[Based on reports of 1,486 sheriffs, 112 rural village officers, and 10 State police; total rural population, 
32,636,955, according to the 1940 decennial census] 



Offense 



Number of offenses 



1948 



1949 



Percent 
change 



Total 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 



77, 927 



83. 889 



885 

570 

1,881 

2, 932 

5,370 

24,039 

33,587 

8,663 



822 

542 

1,881 

3,167 

5,573 

27, 187 

36, 538 

8,159 



+7.8 



-7.1 
-4.9 



+8.0 

+3.8 

+13.1 

+8.8 
-5.8 



POLICE EMPLOYEE DATA 



Police Killed, 1948 

During 1948, municipal police killed in line of duty totaled 64 for a 
rate per 5 million inhabitants of 4.35 as compared with 4.59 in 1947 
and 5.64 in 1946. The data reported by urban police throughout the 
Nation are presented in table 13, with the cities grouped by size and 
location. 

An analysis of similar tabulations for the past 4 years generally 
indicates that the occupation of a police officer is somewhat more 
hazardous in the South Atlantic and the West South Central States, 
with the Pacific area close in third place as compared with other 
divisions. The death rates have generally been lowest in the New 
England and Middle Atlantic States. A review of the figures for 
cities of the several population groups indicates generally the highest 
rates for police employees killed are in the smallest cities, with the 
lowest rates reported in cities with population between 25,000 
and 100,000. 

In table 12 are shown the number of cities covered in the survey of 
police employees killed in 1948 and the number of police employees on 
the rolls as of April 30, 1949. The reporting area represents 98.8 
percent of the total urban population according to the 1940 decennial 
census. 

Table 12. — Number of cities used in tabulations regarding number of police 
department employees, April 30, 1949, and police killed, 1948 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Total 


Population group 


Division 


Group 
I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 




Over 

250,000 


100,000 to 
250,000 


50,000 to 
100,000 


25,000 to 
50,000 


10,000 to 
25,000 


Less than 
10,000 


Total: 

I 'ovulation represented. . 
Number of cities 


73,519,946 
3,275 


30,195,339 
37 


7,792,650 
55 


7,343,917 
107 


7,417,093 
213 


9,790,001 
653 


10,980,946 
2,210 






New England: Total popula- 
tion, 6 r 374,186 


224 
697 
697 
369 
372 
201 
318 
156 
241 


2 
7 
« 
4 
3 
3 
4 
1 
5 


10 
11 
10 
5 
7 
3 
3 
1 
5 


13 
24 
23 
8 
17 
4 
g 

7 


36 
38 
60 
12 
20 
10 
13 
7 
17 


77 
158 
127 
67 
65 
31 
55 
26 
47 


86 


Middle Atlantic: Total popula- 
tion, 20,915,244 


459 


East North Central: Total pop- 
ulation, 17,383,959 


469 


West North Central: Total pop- 
ulation, 5,901,499- 


273 


South Atlantic: Total popula- 
tion, 6,757,689. 


260 


East South Central: Total pop- 
ulation, 3,087,144 


150 


West South Central: Total pop- 
ulation, 4,960,468 


234 


Mountain: Total population, 
1,777,848 


119 


Pacific: Total population, 
6,355,909. 


160 







(19) 



20 



Table 13. — Number of police department employees killed, 19^8, by geographic 
divisions and population groxips 

[Includes only those employees killed while on active duty with their local police agencies] 





Total 




Population 


group 






Geographic division 


Num- 
ber 


Rate per 
5,000,000 
inhab- 
itants 


Over 
250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


Total: 


64 




30 
4.97 


3 

1.92 


8 
5.45 


3 
2.02 


9 
4.60 


11 


Rate per 5,000,000 in- 


4.35 


5.01 










1 

7 
17 

7 
13 

3 
10 

1 

5 


.78 
1.67 
4.89 
5.93 
9.62 
4.86 
10.07 
2.81 
3.93 












1 




3 

9 
7 
6 
1 
2 




3 


1 


1 
2 






5 












2 


2 


1 


1 
1 
2 
L 

1 


1 




1 




1 


3 




2 








2 






1 


1 











Number of Police Employees, April 30, 1949 

As of April 30, 1949, there were 1.89 police employees for each 
1,000 inhabitants in the urban area of the country, continuing an 
increase noticed in the last several years. The figure for April 30, 
1948, was 1.83; for April 30, 1947, 1.75; and for April 30, 1946, 1.67. 
The 3 percent increase in police strength observed from 1948 to 1949 
was general throughout the Nation. The only area showing a decline 
was the group of cities with population between 100,000 and 250,000 
in the New England States where the figures decreased from 1.97 
employees per 1,000 inhabitants as of April 30, 1948, to 1.96 on April 
30, 1949. Two groups showed no change, cities with population from 
50,000 to 100,000 in New England, and cities over 250,000 in the 
West North Central States. 

Although police strength is generally discussed in terms of the 
number of employees per unit of population, the data can be expressed 
in terms of the number of inhabitants per police officer as indicated 
in the following tabulation: 

Number of inhabitants per police employee 



1949 



Total, all cities 

Group I (over 250,000)..-. 
Group II (100,000-250,000) 
Group III (50,000-100,000) 
Group IV (25,000-50,000). 
Group V (10,000-25,000).. 
Group VI (2,500-10,000)-. 



548 



528 



429 


415 


597 


579 


606 


585 


667 


639 


729 


696 


777 


742 



21 

The foregoing tabulation does not mean that as of April 30, 1949, 
the lives and properly of each . r >2cS citizens were protected by 1 police 
employee for it should he remembered that the employees generally 
work on 3 shifts and, in addition, the effective strength of a depart- 
ment is necessarily affected because of days off for vacation, illness, 
and the like. Also, a substantial number of employees are assigned 
to administrative duties inside the department. 



Table 14. — Police Department employees, April SO, 1949, number and rate per 1 ,000 
inhabitants, by geographic divisions and population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



DivL ton 



Total: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 
1 ,000 inhabitants 

New England: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 

1,000 inhabitants . 

Middle Atlantic: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 

1 ,000 inhabitants 

East North Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 

1,000 inhabitants --. 

West North Central: 

Number of police employees.- 

Average number of employees per 

1,000 inhabitants 

South Atlantic: ' 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 

1 ,000 inhabitants 

East South Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 

1,000 inhabitants 

West South Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 

1,000 inhabitants 

Mountain: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 

1,000 inhabitants 

Pacific: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 
1,000 inhabitants 

1 Includes the District of Columbia. 



Total 



139, 240 
1.89 



12, 052 
1.89 

44,122 
2.11 

30, 633 

1.76 

8,545 

1.45 

13, 626 
2.02 

4,495 

1.46 
7,222 

1.45 
2,771 

1.56 
15, 774 

2.48 



Population group 



Group I 



Over 

250,000 



72, 747 
2.41 



3,162 

3.09 
29, 892 

2.56 
17, 956 

2.27 
3,885 

1.95 
4,697 

2.57 
1,216 

1.38 
2,347 

1.64 
552 

1.71 
9,040 

2.90 



Group II 



100,000 to 
250,000 



13,451 
1.73 



2,665 

1.96 

2,568 

1.78 

2,085 

1.41 

948 

1.31 

2,063 

2.05 

579 

1.42 

835 

1.59 

225 

1.50 

1,483 

2.10 



Group III 



50,000 to 
100,000 



12, 555 
1.71 



1,756 

1.83 

2,998 

1.83 

2,440 

1.57 

703 

1.28 

1,879 

1.70 

495 

1.76 

1,062 

1. 62 

237 

2.02 

985 

2.02 



Group 
IV 



25,000 

to 
50,000 



11,607 
1.56 



2,212 

1.70 

2,171 

1.64 

2,847 

1.32 

470 

1.19 

1,298 

1.90 

499 

1.54 

667 

1.55 

376 

1.53 

1,067 

1.94 



Group 
V 



L0,l 

to 
25,000 



14,075 
1.44 



1,664 

1.39 
3,498 

1.41 
2,386 

1. 26 
1,178 

1.21 
1, 650 

1.75 
731 

1.53 
1,034 

1.32 
575 

1.51 
1,359 

2.05 



Group 
VI 



Less 
than 

in, in mi 



14, 805 
1.35 



593 

1.10 
2,995 

1.28 
2,919 

1.23 
1,361 

1.08 
2,039 

1.70 
975 

1.36 
1,277 

1.12 
800 

1.13 
1,840 

2.21 



22 



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23 

Police Employees in Individual Cities 

The number of police employees as of April 30, 1949, for individual 
cities may be obtained by reference to tables 15 and 16. Reporting 
cities are arranged by size and listed alphabetically by State. For 
cities over 25,000 in population the employees are separated as to 
civilians and police officers. 

Most of the departments in cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants 
employ some civilian personnel. On the other hand, in cities with 
population between 10,000 and 25,000 only two-fifths utilize civilian 
personnel, and in urban places under 10,000 in population only 15 
percent reported any civilian personnel. This is understandable when 
it is recognized that many of these places are quite small. In fact, 
half of the cities with less than 10,000 inhabitants reported 5 or less 
employees on the rolls as of April 30, 1949. 

The following tabulation indicates, on the average, the proportion 
of employees that were classified as civilians in cities of the various 
population groups: 

Population group: Percent civilian employees 

Total, all cities 7. 6 

Group I (over 250,000) . 8.7 

Group II (100,000-250,000) _ 9.8 

Group III (50,000-100,000) 9. 

Group IV (25,000-50,000) 5. 7 

Group V (10,000-25,000) 3. 9 

Group VI (2,500-10,000) 3. 8 

The report form forwarded by the police as of April 30, 1949, pro- 
vided for a separate listing of full-time and part-time employees and 
further, a designation of the number in each class who were police 
officers and those who were civilians. The form was also designed to 
include a statement of the equivalent number of full-time employees 
represented by the work of the part-time employees in April. If the 
department's entries relative to part-time employees were limited to 
the total time worked during April the FBI changed the data into 
terms of full-time employees. For this purpose it was assumed that 
200 hours was the approximate monthly time of a regular employee. 
In the event a part-time employee worked at least 75 percent of the 
normal working hours for the month, one full-time employee was 
counted. 



852297 49 



24 

If employees were not paid from police department funds or from 
some public fund allocated for police personnel, they were excluded 
from the tabulations. Also employees on military or other extended 
leave of absence were excluded from the figures. 

Comparisons of police strength between cities represented in tables 
15 and 16 cannot be used indiscriminately. There are many complex- 
factors entering into the question of adequacy or inadequacy of person- 
nel in a particular police department. One of the primary con- 
siderations in such a study should be the volume of police business 
handled. The amount of work confronting police departments cannot 
be measured by reference to major crimes alone. For example, in 
some cities the police expend a great deal of time in escort work, 
investigations of all sorts of license applications, taking the city 
census, and the like. Conversely, in other cities such activities are 
not performed by the police. 

In addition, some departments may have a 40-hour week while 
others work 60 hours or longer. In most departments the three- 
shifts-per-day method of operation is in use, but some still may 
retain the 12-hour day. Differences in automotive and communica- 
tion equipment affect comparisons of departments as do the number 
of private police and separate police organizations such as public 
park police. 

In some instances volunteer workers may assist the police in certain 
phases of their activities. The problem of handling traffic at school 
crossings is also important. Full-time police officers may be assigned 
to this work or the department may utilize part-time guards who are 
classed as civilian employees in these tabulations unless it was specifi- 
cally stated that they had police powers. 

Other factors which must be considered in an intelligent study of 
police strength as between cities are suggested in the text preceding 
table 6. 

It should be particularly noted that in grouping the cities, and, in 
fact, in all tabulations, the 1940 census figures were used in the 
interests of uniformity. Since 1940, however, marked changes in 
population occurred in many communities; a number in the Pacific 
area, for example, more than doubled in size. 



25 



Table 15. — Number of police department employees, April 30, 19/ t 9, cities over 

25,000 in population 

1 Based on 1940 decennial census] 

CITIES WITH OVER 250,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Birmingham, Ala... 
Los Angeles, Calif. _ 

Oakland, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif 

Denver, Colo 

Washington, D. C. 

Atkinta, Ga... 

Chicago, 111 

Indianapolis, Ind... 

Louisville, Ky 

New Orleans, La 

Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass 

Detroit, Mich 

Minneapolis, Minn_ 

St. Paul, Minn 

Kansas City, Mo..- 

St. Louis, Mo 

Jersey City, N. J... 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



Police 
officers 



323 

4,168 

057 

1.510 

515 

1,769 

460 

7, 365 

623 

483 

905 

1,975 

2,425 

4,377 

577 

311 

565 

1,827 

826 



Civil- 
ians 



25 

1,110 

115 

78 

37 

167 

74 

352 

83 

39 

16 

252 

232 

306 

49 

25 

132 

399 

117 



Total 



348 

5,278 

772 

1,594 

552 

1,936 

534 

7,717 

706 

522 

921 

2,227 

2,657 

4,683 

626 

336 

697 

2,226 

943 



City 



Newark, N. J 

Buffalo, N. Y„„ 

New York, N. V 
Rochester, X. Y. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Toledo, Ohio 

Portland, Oreg... 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pittsburgh, Pa... 
Providence, R. I. 
Memphis, Tenn. 

Dallas, Tex 

Houston, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 
Seattle, Wash.... 
Milwaukee, Wis. 



N umber of police de- 
partment employees 



Police 
officers 



1,281 

1,202 

18,545 

435 

765 

1,656 

374 

349 

584 

4,672 

1,106 

437 

272 

427 

464 

261 

609 

1,281 



Civil- 
ians 



143 

130 

971 

50 

29 

217 

40 

59 

95 

296 

118 

68 

74 

60 

139 

75 

108 



CITIES WITH 100,000 TO 250,000 INHABITANTS 



Long Beach, Calif. _ . 

Sacramento, Calif 

San Diego, Calif 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Hartford, Conn 

New Haven, Conn... 

Wilmington, Del 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Miami, Fla 

Tampa, Fla 

Peoria, 111 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Gary, Ind 

South Bend, Ind 

Des Moines, Iowa... 
Kansas City, Kans.. 

Wichita, Kans 

Cambridge, Mass 

Fall River, Mass 

Lowell, Mass.. 

New Bedford, Mass. 

Somerville, Mass 

Springfield, Mass 

Worcester, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Grand Rapids, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 

Omaha, Nebr 



370 


42 


412 


181 


32 


213 


375 


78 


453 


285 


9 


294 


307 


34 


341 


314 


28 


342 


184 


21 


205 


296 


37 


333 


471 


49 


520 


158 


22 


180 


137 


8 


145 


175 


3 


178 


181 


37 


218 


150 


35 


185 


161 


15 


176 


138 


16 


154 


160 


28 


188 


204 


9 


213 


210 


14 


224 


165 


13 


178 


205 


11 


216 


160 


2 


162 


302 


18 


320 


351 


24 


375 


178 


39 


217 


228 


26 


254 


132 


10 


142 


252 


36 


288 



Camden, N. J 

Elizabeth, N.J 

Paterson, N. J 

Trenton, N. J 

Albany, N. Y 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Utica, N. Y 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Charlotte, N. C 

Akron, Ohio 

Canton, Ohio 

Dayton, Ohio 

Youngstown, Ohio 

Oklahoma City, Okla 

Tulsa, Okla 

Erie, Pa 

Reading, Pa 

Scranton, Pa 

Chattanooga, Tenn.. 

Knoxville; Tenn 

Nashville, Tenn 

Fort Worth, Tex...... 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Norfolk, Va 

Richmond, Va 

Spokane, Wash 

Tacoma, Wash 



184 


30 


220 


12 


236 


15 


226 


17 


297 


46 


307 


39 


155 


9 


260 


16 


163 


4 


254 


13 


125 


6 


206 


43 


202 


39 


197 


74 


212 


14 


149 


13 


140 


16 


169 


12 


151 


9 


159 


34 


202 


24 


318 


20 


210 


15 


308 


24 


290 


36 


182 


16 


203 


4 



CITIES WITH 50,000 TO 100,000 INHABITANTS 



Mobile, Ala. 

Montgomery, Ala... 

Phoenix, Ariz 

Little Rock, Ark... 

Berkeley, Calif 

Fresno, Calif 

Glendale, Calif 

Pasadena, Calif 

San Jose, Calif . 

Santa Monica, Calif 

Stockton, Calif 

Pueblo, Colo 

New Britain, Conn. 
Waterbury, Conn... 
St. Petersburg, Fla. 

Augusta, Ga 

Columbus, Ga 

Macon, Ga 

Savannah, Ga 



139 


19 


158 


118 


21 


139 


158 


19 


177 


112 


7 


119 


125 


8 


133 


155 


22 


177 


114 


37 


151 


133 


30 


163 


116 


3 


119 


114 


30 


144 


94 


4 


98 


58 


2 


60 


130 


4 


134 


195 


9 


204 


81 


5 


86 


122 


10 


132 


108 




108 I 


96 


3 


99 


157 


17 


174 I 



Cicero, 111 

Decatur, 111 

East St. Louis, 111.. 

Evanston, 111 

Oak Park, 111 

Rockford, 111 

Springfield, 111 

East Chicago, Ind.. 

Evansville, Ind 

Hammond, Ind 

Terre Haute, Ind... 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

Davenport, Iowa 

Sioux City, Iowa... 

Waterloo, Iowa 

Topeka, Kans 

Covington, Ky 

Shreveport, La 

Portland, Maine 



79 


16 


57 


4 


66 


7 


89 


41 


79 


6 


93 


5 


99 


24 


103 


3 


154 


16 


111 


16 


84 


1 


79 


7 


74 


1 


77 


17 


61 




81 


17 


71 


1 


142 


14 


110 


7 



26 



Tablk 15. — Number of police department employees, April 30, 19^9, cities over 

25,000 in population — Confirmed 

CITIES WITH 50,000 TO 100,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Brockton, Mass 

Holyoke, Mass. 

Lawrence, Mass 

Lynn, Mass. 

Maiden, Mass 

Medford, Mass 

Newton, Mass 

Quincy, Mass 

Dearborn, Mich 

Highland Park, Mich.. 

Kalamazoo, Mich." 

Lansing, Mich 

Pontiac, Mich 

Saginaw, Mich 

Jackson, Miss 

St. Joseph, Mo 

Springfield, Mo 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Manchester, N. H 

Atlantic City, N.J 

Bayonne, N. J 

East Orange, N. J 

Hoboken, N. J 

Irvington, N. J 

Passaic, N. J 

Union City, N.J 

Binghamton, N. Y 

Mount Vernon, N. Y._ 
New Rochelle, N. Y... 
Niagara Falls, N. Y... 

Schenectady, N. Y 

Troy, N. Y 

Asheville, N. C 

Durham, N. C 

Greensboro, N. C 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



Police 
officers 



101 
• 104 
136 
179 
102 
109 
137 
138 
167 
93 
87 
111 
70 
127 
103 



110 
205 
209 
110 
168 
84 
116 
115 
115 
135 
140 
145 
153 
148 
77 
87 
110 



Civil- 
ians 



Total 



105 
105 
139 
192 
105 
110 
142 
142 
189 
106 
101 
115 

80 
144 
126 
101 

84 
104 
116 
245 
226 
112 
173 

92 
116 
116 
132 
141 
157 
158 
168 
170 

77 

93 
119 



City 



Winston-Salem, N. C 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Lakewood, Ohio 

Springfield, Ohio 

Allen town, Pa 

Altoona, Pa 

Bethlehem, Pa 

Chester, Pa 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Johnstown, Pa 

Lancaster, Pa 

McKeesport, Pa 

Upper Darby Township, Pa 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa 

York, Pa 

Pawtucket, R. I 

Charleston, S. C 

Columbia, S. C 

Amarillo, Tex 

Austin, Tex 

Beaumont, Tex 

Corpus Christi, Tex 

El Paso, Tex... 

Galveston, Tex 

Waco, Tex 

Arlington, Va 

Portsmouth, Va 

Roanoke, Va 

Charleston, W. Va 

Huntington, W. Va 

Wheeling, W. Va 

Madison, Wis 

Racine, Wis 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



Police 
officers 



142 
56 
69 
62 
79 

102 
82 
68 
71 

128 
72 
70 



95 
71 
133 
144 
121 
94 
129 
91 
94 
135 
85 
79 
75 
80 
124 
79 
91 
74 
101 
105 



Civil- 
ians 



CITIES WITH 25,000 TO 50,000 INHABITANTS 



Anniston, Ala 

Gadsden, Ala 

Tuscaloosa, Ala 

Tucson, Ariz 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Alameda, Calif 

Alhambra, Calif 

Bakersfield, Calif 

Belvedere Township, Calif 

Beverly Hills, Calif 

Burbank, Calif 

Huntington Park, Calif 

Inglewood, Calif 

Riverside, Calif 

San Bernardino, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif 

South Gate, Calif 

Colorado Springs, Colo 

Bristol, Conn 

Greenwich Town, Conn... 

Meriden, Conn 

Middletown, Conn 

New London, Conn 

Norwalk, Conn 

Stamford, Conn 

Torrington, Conn 

West Hartford, Conn 

West Haven, Conn 

Miami Beach, Fla 

Orlando, Fla 

Pensacola, Fla 

West Palm Beach, Fla 

Rome, Ga 

Boise, Idaho 



31 


1 


32 


72 




72 


44 


1 


45 


62 


8 


70 


39 


2 


41 


65 


2 


67 


48 


14 


62 


69 


8 


77 


52 


8 


60 


53 


11 


64 


85 


7 


92 


40 


6 


46 


43 


4 


47 


65 


7 


72 


109 


10 


119 


57 


3 


60 


54 


11 


65 


43 


8 


51 


60 


6 


66 


42 


2 


44 


91 


10 


101 


65 


1 


66 


35 


3 


38 


57 


3 


60 


61 




61 


112 


5 


117 


42 


1 


43 


60 


4 


64 


39 




39 


110 


12 


122 


69 


10 


79 


71 


3 


74 


67 


2 


69 


38 


5 


43 


48 




48 



Alton, 111 

Aurora, 111 

Belleville, 111 

Berwyn, 111 

Bloomington, 111 

Danville, 111 

Elgin, 111 

Galesburg, 111 

Joliet, 111 

May wood. 111 

Moiine, 111 

Quincy, 111 

Rock Island, 111 

Waukegan , 111 

Anderson, Ind 

Elkhart, Ind 

Kokomo, Ind 

Lafayette, Ind 

Marion, Ind 

Michigan City, Ind 

Mishawaka, Ind 

Muncie, Ind 

New Albany, Ind — 

Richmond, Ind 

Burlington, Iowa 

Clinton, Iowa 

Council Bluffs, Iowa 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Mason City, Iowa... 

Ottumwa, Iowa 

Hutchinson, Kans... 

Ashland, Ky 

Lexington, Ky 

Newport, Ky 

Owensboro, Ky 



36 




49 


3 


29 


1 


43 


9 


37 


3 


31 


1 


45 


2 


31 


5 


63 


2 


23 




30 


1 


42 


4 


49 




35 


2 


66 


4 


57 


4 


57 


3 


47 




38 




43 




40 


1 


69 


3 


22 




47 




33 


1 


26 




35 


3 


39 




29 


4 


28 


3 


29 


1 


32 


4 


84 


5 


47 


8 


42 


2 



•J7 

Table 15. — Number of police department employees, April SO, 1949, cities over 
25,000 in population — Continued 

CITIES WITH 25,000 TO 50,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



Police Civil- 

officers ians 



Paducah, Ky 

Alexandria, La, 

Baton Rouge, La 

Monroe, I. a 

Bangor, Maine.. 

Lewiston, Maine 

Cumberland, Md 

Bagerstown, Md 

Arlington, Mass 

Belmont, Mass 

Beverly, Mass 

Brookline, Mass... 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chiuiptv, Mass 

Everett, Mass 

Fitchburg, Mass 

Haverhill, Mass 

Melrose, Mass 

Pittsfield, Mass 

Revere, Mass 

Salem, Mass 

Taunton, Mass 

Waltham, Mass 

Watertown, Mass 

Ann Arbor, Mich 

Battle Creek, Mich 

Bay City, Mich 

Hamtramck, Mich 

Jackson, Mich 

Muskegon, Mich 

Port Huron, Mich 

Royal Oak, Mich 

Wyandotte, Mich 

Rochester, Minn 

Meridian, Miss 

Joplin, Mo 

University City, Mo 

Butte, Mont 

Great Falls, Mont 

Concord, N. H 

Nashua, N. H 

Belleville, N. J . 

Bloomfield, N. J 

Clifton, N.J 

Garfield, N.J 

Hackensack, N. J 

Hamilton Township, N. J... 

Keaniy, N. J 

Montclair, N. J 

New Brunswick, N. J 

North Bergen Township, 

N.J 

Orange, N. J 

Perth Amboy, N. J 

Plainfield, N. J 

Teaneck Township, N. J 

West New York, N. J 

West Orange, N. J 

Woodbridge Township, N. J. 

Albuquerque, N. Mex 

Amsterdam, N. Y 

Auburn, N. Y 

Klmira, N. Y 

Jamestown, N. Y 

Kingston, N. Y 

Newburgh, N. Y 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y 

Rome, N. Y 

Watertown, N. Y 

White Plains, N. Y 

High Point, N. C 

Raleigh, N. C 

Rocky Mount, N. C 



42 
52 
75 
45 
50 
51 
44 
44 
62 
40 
55 
118 
77 
59 
L06 
58 
G3 
41 
66 
67 
71 
52 
55 
60 
48 
49 
70 
93 
65 
59 
38 
33 
49 
41 
52 
35 
37 
32 
32 
34 
49 
54 
85 
63 
39 
60 
43 
92 



78 
65 
72 
60 
37 
79 
49 
45 
68 
42 
48 
85 
59 
41 
52 
68 
39 
41 
106 
60 
67 
37 



Total 



42 
54 
82 
45 
55 
55 
50 
45 
68 
43 
55 

123 
82 
60 

108 
66 
66 
41 
67 
70 
73 
56 
59 
63 
53 
60 
79 
96 
70 
66 
48 
36 
56 
42 
59 
38 
43 
33 
33 
37 
49 
55 
92 
63 
39 
60 
44 
93 
90 
57 

82 
67 
74 
75 
37 
79 
51 
50 
71 
43 
50 
85 
64 
43 
53 
71 
41 
42 
110 
65 
77 
38 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



City 



Wilmington, N. C._ 

Fargo, N. Dak.... 
East Cleveland, Ohio. . 

Elyria, Ohio.. 

Lima, Ohio 

Lorain, Ohio 

Mansfield, Ohio 

Marion, Ohio 

Massillon, Ohio 

Middletown, Ohio. 

Newark, Ohio 

Norwood, Ohio 

Portsmouth, Ohio 

Steubenville, Ohio. 

Warren, Ohio 

Zanesville, Ohio... .. 

Enid, Okla 

Muskogee, Okla 

Salem, Oreg 

Aliquippa, Pa 

Easton, Pa 

Haverford Township, Pa... 

Hazleton, Pa 

Lebanon, Pa... 

Lower Merion Township, Pa 

New Castle, Pa 

Norristown, Pa 

Sharon, Pa 

Washington, Pa. 

Wilkinsburg, Pa 

Williamsport, Pa 

Central Falls, R. I 

Cranston, R. I 

East Providence, R. I 

Newport, R. I 

Warwick, R.I 

Woonsocket, R. I 

Greenville, S. C 

Spartanburg, S. C 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 

Johnson City, Term 

Abilene, Tex 

Laredo, Tex 

Lubbock, Tex 

Port Arthur, Tex 

San Angelo, Tex 

Tyler, Tex 

Wichita Falls, Tex 

Ogden, Utah 

Burlington, Vt 

Alexandria, Va. 

Danville, Va 

Lynchburg, Va 

Newport News, Va 

Petersburg, Va 

Bellingham, Wash 

Everett, Wash 

Yakima, Wash 

Clarksburg, W. Va 

Parkersburg, W. Va... 

Appleton, Wis 

Beloit, Wis 

Eau Claire, Wis 

Fond du Lac, Wis 

Green Bay, Wis 

Kenosha, Wis 

La Crosse, Wis 

Oshkosh, Wis 

Sheboygan, Wis 

Superior, Wis 

Wausau, Wis.. 

Wauwatosa, Wis 

WestAllis, Wis 



Police 


Civil- 


olliccrs 


ians 


72 


5 


46 


4 


41 


11 


30 




49 


3 


44 




40 


1 


26 




26 




40 


1 


33 




32 


9 


38 


1 


40 


1 


49 




30 




30 




40 


...3 


38 


7 


28 




43 


2 


39 


3 


32 


2 


30 




96 


8 


48 


10 


38 




26 


1 


30 




26 


3 


39 


1 


34 


1 


54 


1 


45 




73 




49 


2 


83 


5 


98 


5 


54 




54 


12 


25 




57 


1 


48 


2 


72 


6 


44 


2 


44 


2 


36 




52 


6 


50 


5 


34 


3 


74 


2 


60 




66 


3 


79 


11 


43 


3 


34 


2 


49 




51 


4 


26 




33 


2 


34 




38 


2 


46 


2 


32 


2 


69 


2 


66 


4 


60 


5 


56 




48 




51 


3 


37 




45 




57 


2 



28 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April 30, 1949, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Bessemer, Ala 

Decatur, Ala 

Dothan, Ala 

Fairfield, Ala 

Florence, Ala 

Huntsville, Ala 

Phenix City, Ala 

Selma, Ala 

Blytheville, Ark 

El Dorado, Ark 

Hot Springs, Ark 

Jonesboro, Ark__ 

North Little Rock, Ark_ 

Pine Bluff, Ark 

Texarkanai Ark 

Albany, Calif 

Anaheim, Calif. --- 

Bell, Calif 

Brawley, Calif 

Burlingame, Calif 

Compton, Calif 

El Centro, Calif 

Eureka, Calif 

Fullerton, Calif 

Lodi, Calif 

Lynwood, Calif 

Maywood, Calif 

Merced, Calif 

Modesto, Calif- - 

Monrovia, Calif 

Monterey, Calif 

National City, Calif 

Ontario, Calif - -- 

Palo Alto, Calif 

Pomona, Calif 

Redlands, Calif 

Redondo Beach, Calif... 
Redwood City, Calif.... 

Richmond, Calif 

Salinas, Calif 

San Gabriel, Calif 

San Leandro, Calif 

San Mateo, Calif. 

Santa Cruz, Calif 

Santa Rosa, Calif 

South Pasadena, Calif.. 

Vallejo, Calif 

Ventura, Calif 

Whittier, Calif 

Boulder, Colo 

Fort Collins, Colo 

Grand Junction, Colo . 

Greeley, Colo 

Trinidad, Colo 

Ansonia, Conn. 

Danbury, Conn. 

Derby, Conn 

East Hartford, Conn 

Naugatuck, Conn 

Norwich, Conn 

Shelton, Conn 

Stratford, Conn 

Wallingford, Conn 

Bradenton, Fla 

Clearwater, Fla... 

Daytona Beach, Fla. .. 
Fort Lauderdale, Fla... 

Fort M yers, Fla 

Gainesville, Fla 

Key West, Fla 

Lakeland, Fla 

Panama City, Fla 

St. Augustine, Fla 

Sanford, Fla 

Sarasota, Fla. 

Tallahassee, Fla.. 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 



35 
20 
31 
12 
21 
37 
21 
31 
9 
is 
35 
13 
44 
19 
20 
17 
21 
18 
15 
28 
34 
22 
25 
15 
19 
23 
18 
20 
36 
23 
23 
21 
26 
31 
53 
23 
33 
26 
123 
31 
21 
30 
40 
33 
22 
22 
58 
24 
26 
14 
14 
20 
18 
13 
26 
46 
20 
52 
24 
49 
11 
32 
20 
13 
27 
48 
41 
16 
33 
16 
38 
18 
21 
13 
17 
34 




Albany, Ga 

Athens, Ga 

Brunswick, Ga 

Dalton, Ga 

Decatur, Ga 

East Point, Ga... 

Gainesville, Ga 

Griffin, Ga 

La Grange, Ga 

Moultrie, Ga 

Thomasville, Ga 

Valdosta, Ga 

Waycross, Ga 

Coeur d'Alene, Idaho . 

Idaho Falls, Idaho 

Lewiston, Idaho 

Nampa, Idaho 

Pocatello, Idaho 

Twin Falls, Idaho 

Blue Island, 111 

Brookfield, 111 

Cairo, 111 

Calumet City, 111 

Canton, 111 

Centralia, 111 

Champaign, 111 

Chicago Heights, 111.. 

Dixon, El 

East Moline, 111 

Elmhurst, 111 

Elmwood Park, 111 

Forest Park, 111 

Freeport, 111 

Granite City, 111 

Harrisburg, 111 

Harvey, 111 

Highland Park, 111-— . 

Jacksonville, 111. 

Kankakee, 111 

Kewanee, 111 

La Grange. Ill 

La Salle, 111 

Lincoln, 111 

Mattoon, 111 

Melrose Park, 111 

Mount Vernon, 111 

Ottawa, 111 

Park Ridge, 111 

Pekin, 111 

Sterling, 111 

Streator, 111 

Urbana, 111 

West Frankfort, 111... 

Wilmette, 111 

Winnetka, 111 

Bedford, Ind 

Bloomington, Ind 

Columbus, Ind 

Cormersville, Ind 

Crawfordsville, Ind.. 

Elwood, Ind 

Frankfort, Ind 

Goshen, Ind 

Huntington, Ind 

Jeffersonville, Ind 

La Porte, Ind 

Logansport, Ind 

New Castle, Ind 

Peru, Ind 

Shelbyville, Ind 

Vincennes, Ind 

Whiting, Ind 

Ames, Iowa 

Boone, Iowa 

Fort Dodge, Iowa 

Fort Madison, Iowa 



29 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April SO, 1949, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Iowa City, Iovra 

Keokuk, Iowa 

Marshalltown, Iowa 

Muscatine, Iowa 

Newton. Iowa 

Oskaloosa, Iowa 

Arkansas City, Kans. ... 

Atchison, Kans 

Chanute. Kans 

Coffey ville, Kans 

El Dorado, Kans 

Emporia, Kans 

Fort Scott, Kans 

Independence, Kans 

Lawrence, Kans 

Leavenworth, Kans 

Manhattan, Kans 

Newton, Kans 

Ottawa, Kans 

Parsons, Kans 

Pittsburg, Kans 

Salina, Kans 

Bowling Qreen, Ky 

Fort Thomas, Ky 

Frankfort, Ky 

Henderson, Ky 

Hopkinsville, Ky 

Middlesborough, Ky — 

Bogalusa, La. 

Lafayette, La 

Lake Charles, La_ 

New Iberia, La 

Auburn, Maine 

Augusta, Maine.. 

Bath, Maine 

Biddeford, Maine 

South Portland, Maine 

Waterville, Maine 

Westbrook, Maine 

Annapolis, Md 

Cambridge, Md 

Frederick, Md 

Salisbury, Md — 

Adams, Mass 

Amesbury, Mass 

Andover, Mass 

Athol, Mass 

Attleboro, Mass 

Braintree, Mass 

Clinton, Mass 

Danvers, Mass 

Dedham, Mass 

Easthampton, Mass 

Fairhaven, Mass 

Framingham, Mass 

Gardner, Mass 

Gloucester, Mass 

Greenfield, Mass 

Leominster, Mass 

Lexington, Mass 

Marblehead, Mass 

Marlboro, Mass 

Methuen, Mass 

Milford, Mass 

Milton, Mass 

N atick, Mass 

Needham, Mass 

Newburyport, Mass... 
North Adams, Mass. .. 
Northampton, Mass. . . 
North Attleboro, Mass. 

Northbridge, Mass 

Norwood, Mass 

Pea body , Mass 

Plymouth, Mass 

Reading, Mass... 

Saugus, Mass. 

Southbridge, Mass 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 




Stoneham, Mass 

Swampscott, Mass 

Wakefield, Mass 

Webster, Mass 

Wellesley, Mass 

Westfield, Mass 

Wesi Springfield, Mass 

Weymouth, Mass 

Winchester, Mass. 

Winthrop, Mass 

Woburn, Mass 

Adrian, Mich 

Alpena, Mich 

Benton Harbor, Mich 

Birmingham, Mich 

Ecorse, Mich - 

Escanaba, Mich 

Ferndale, Mich 

Grosse Pointe Park, Mich 

Holland, Mich 

Iron Mountain, Mich 

Ironwood, Mich 

Marquette, Mich 

Menominee, Mich 

Midland, Mich 

Monroe, Mich 

Mount Clemens, Mich 

Muskegon Heights, Mich. 

Niles, Mich 

O wosso, Mich 

River Rouge, Mich 

St. Clair Shores, Mich 

Sault Ste. Marie, Mich 

Traverse City, Mich 

Ypsilanti, Mich 

Albert Lea, Minn 

Austin, Minn 

Brainerd, Minn 

Faribault, Minn 

Fergus Falls, Minn 

Hibbing, Minn 

Mankato, Minn 

St. Cloud, Minn 

South St. Paul, Minn 

Virginia, Minn 

Winona, Minn 

Biloxi, Miss 

Clarksdale, Miss 

Columbus, Miss 

Greenville, Miss 

Greenwood, Miss 

Gulfport, Miss 

Hattiesburg, Miss 

Laurel, Miss 

Natchez, Miss 

Vicksburg, Miss . _ 

Cape Girardeau, Mo 

Carthage, Mo 

Clayton, Mo — 

Columbia, Mo 

Hannibal, Mo. . 

Independence, Mo. 

Jefferson City, Mo 

Kirksville, Mo 

Kirkwood, Mo 

Maplewood, Mo 

Moberly, Mo 

Poplar Bluff, Mo 

Richmond Heights, Mo... 

St. Charles, Mo.. 

Sedalia, Mo. 

Webster Groves, Mo 

Anaconda, Mont 

Billings, Mont.. 

Helena, Mont 

Missoula, Mont 

Beatrice, Nebr 

Fremont, Nebr 



30 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April 30, 19^9, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Grand Island, Nebr 

Hastings, Nebr 

Norfolk, Nebr 

North Platte, Nebr 

Scottsbluff, Nebr 

Reno, Nev 

Berlin, N. H 

Claremont, N. H 

Dover, N. H 

Keene, N. H 

Laconia, N. H 

Portsmouth, N. H 

Rochester, N. H 

Bergenfleld, N. J 

Bridgeton.N. ,T 

Burlington, N. J 

Carteret, N. J 

ClifTside Park, N. J 

Collingswood, N. J 

Cranford Township, N. J... 

Dover, N. J 

Englewood, N. J_ 

Gloucester City, N. J 

Harrison, N. J 

Hawthorne, N. J 

Hillside Township, N. J 

Linden, N. J 

Lodi.N. J 

Long Branch, N. J 

Lyndhurst, N. J 

Maplewood, N. J 

Millburn Township, N. J... 

Millville, N. J 

Morristown. N. J 

Neptune, N. J 

North Plainfield, N. J 

Nutley, Is. J 

Pennsauken Township, N. J 

Phillipsburg, N. J 

Pleasantville, N. J 

Rahway, N. J 

Red Bank, N. J 

Ridgefield Park, N. J 

Ridgewood, N. J 

Roselle, N.J 

Rutherford, N. J 

South Orange, N. J 

South River, N. J 

Summit, N. J... 

Union Township, N. J 

Weehawken, N. J 

Westfield, N. J 

Clovis, N. Mex 

Hobbs, N. Mex 

Roswell, N. Mex 

Santa Fe, N. Mex 

Batavia, N. Y 

Beacon, N. Y 

Cohoes, N. Y 

Corning, N. Y 

Cortland, N.Y 

Dunkirk, N. Y 

Endicott, N. Y 

Floral Park, N. Y 

Freeport, N. Y 

Garden City, N. Y 

Geneva, N. Y 

Glen Cove, N. Y 

Glens Falls, N. Y 

Gloversville, N. Y 

Hempstead, N. Y... . 

Hornell, N. Y 

Hudson, N. Y 

Irondequoit, N. Y 

Ithaca, N. Y 

Johnson City, N. Y 

Johnstown, N. Y 

Kenmore, N. Y -.- 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 




Lackawanna, N. Y 

Little Falls, N.Y 

Lockport, N. Y 

Lynbrook, N. Y 

Mamaroneck, N. Y 

Massena, N. Y 

Middletown, N. Y 

North Tonawanda, N. Y 

Ogdensburg, N. Y 

Olean, N. Y 

Oneida, N. Y 

Oneonta, N. Y 

Ossining, N. Y 

Oswego, N. Y 

Peekskill, N. Y 

Pittsburgh, N. Y 

Port Chester, N.Y 

Rensselaer, N. Y 

Rockville Centre, N. Y_. 
Saratoga Springs, N. Y__ 

Scarsdale, N. Y 

Tonawanda, N. Y 

Watervliet, N. Y 

Burlington, N. C 

Concord, N. C 

Elizabeth City, N. C 

Fayetteville, N. C 

Gastonia, N. C 

Goldsboro, N. C 

Greenville, N. C 

Hickory, N. C 

Kinston, N. C 

Lexington, N. C 

Reidsville, N. C 

Salisbury, N. C 

Shelby, N. C 

Statesville, N. C 

Thomasville, N. C 

Wilson, N. C 

Bismarck, N. Dak 

Grand Forks, N. Dak 

Minot, N. Dak 

Alliance, Ohio 

Ashland, Ohio 

Ashtabula, Ohio 

Barberton, Ohio 

Bellaire. Ohio 

Cambridge, Ohio 

Campbell, Ohio 

Chillicothe, Ohio 

Coshocton, Ohio 

Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio 

East Liverpool, Ohio 

Euclid, Ohio 

Findlay, Ohio 

Fostoria, Ohio 

Fremont, Ohio 

Garfield Heights, Ohio... 

Ironton, Ohio 

Lancaster, Ohio 

Marietta, Ohio 

Martins Ferry, Ohio 

Mount Vernon, Ohio 

New Philadelphia, Ohio. 

Niles, Ohio 

Painesville, Ohio 

Parma, Ohio 

Piqua, Ohio 

Salem, Ohio 

Sandusky, Ohio 

Shaker Heights, Ohio 

Struthers, Ohio 

Tiffin, Ohio 

Wooster, Ohio 

Xenia, Ohio 

Ada, Okla 

Ardmore, Okla 

Bartlesville, Okla 



31 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April 30, 191/9, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



c hickasha, Okla 

Durant, Okla... 

Kl Reno, Okla 

(iul brie, Okla 

Law i on, Okla 

M.AU'ster, Okla.. 

Norman, Okla 

Okmulgee, Okla 

Ponca City, Okla 

Sapulpa, Okla - 

Seminole, Okla 

Shaw-nee, Okla 

Stillwater, Okla 

We woka, Okla 

Astoria, Oreg 

Bend, Oreg_. 

Eugene, Oreg... 

Klamath Falls, Oreg.. 

Medford, Oreg 

Abington Township, Pa 

Ambridge, Pa 

Arnold, Pa 

Beaver Falls, Pa 

Bellevue, Pa 

Hit wick, Pa 

Braddock, Pa 

Bradford, Pa 

Bristol, Pa 

Butler, Pa 

Canonsburg, Pa 

Carbondale, Pa 

Carlisle, Pa 

Carnegie, Pa 

Chambersburg, Pa 

Charleroi, Pa 

Cheltenham Township, Pa 

Clairton, Pa 

Coatesville, Pa 

Columbia, Pa 

Connellsville, Pa 

Conshohocken, Pa . 

Coraopolis, Pa 

Darby, Pa 

Dickson City, Pa 

Donora, Pa 

Dormont, Pa 

Du Bois, Pa 

Dunmore, Pa 

Duquesne, Pa 

Ellwood City, Pa 

Farrell, Pa 

Greensburg, Pa 

Hanover, Pa 

Hanover Township, Pa 

Harrison Township, Pa 

Homestead, Pa 

Indiana, Pa 

Jeannette, Pa 

Kingston, Pa 

Lansdowne, Pa 

Latrobe, Pa.._ 

Lew ist own, Pa 

Lock Haven, Pa 

Mahanoy City, Pa 

McKees Rocks, Pa 

Meadville, Pa 

Monessen, Pa 

Mount Carmel, Pa 

Mount Lebanon Township, Pa. 

Munhall, Pa 

Nanticoke, Pa 

New Kensington, Pa 

North Braddock, Pa 

Oil City, Pa 

Old Forge, Pa 

Phoenixville, Pa..- 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 




Pittston, Pa 

Plains Township, Pa 

Plymouth, Pa 

Pottstown, Pa 

Pottsville, Pa 

Shaler Township, Pa 

Shamokin, Pa 

Shenandoah, Pa 

Steelton, Pa 

Stowe Township, Pa 

Sunbury, Pa 

Swissvale, Pa 

Tamaqua, Pa 

Uniontown, Pa 

Vandergrift, Pa 

Warren, Pa 

Waynesboro, Pa 

West Chester, Pa 

Bristol, R. I 

Cumberland, R. I.. 

Johnston, R. I 

Lincoln, R. I 

North Providence, R. I. 

Westerly, R. I 

West Warwick, R.I 

Andersor , S. C 

Florence, S. C 

Greenwood, S. C 

Orangeburg, S. C 

Rock Hill, S. C 

Sumter, S. C 

Aberdeen, S. Dak. 

Huron, S. Dak 

Mitchell, S. Dak 

Rapid City, S. Dak 

Watertown, S. Dak 

Bristol, Term 

Clarksville, Tenn. 

Cleveland, Tenn 

Columbia, Tenn 

Dyersburg, Tenn 

Jackson, Tenn 

Kingsport, Tenn 

Bay Town, Tex 

Big Spring, Tex 

Borger, Tex 

Brownsville, Tex 

Brownwood, Tex 

Bryan, Tex 

Cleburne, Tex 

Corsicana, Tex 

Del Rio, Tex 

Denison, Tex 

Denton, Tex 

Greenville, Tex 

Harlingen, Tex 

Highland Park, Tex 

Longview, Tex 

Marshall, Tex 

McAllen, Tex_. 

Palestine, Tex.. ..:. 

Pampa, Tex 

Paris, Tex 

Sherman, Tex 

Sweetwater, Tex 

Temple, Tex 

Terrell, Tex 

Texarkana, Tex 

University Park, Tex._ 

Victoria, Tex 

Logan, Utah 

Provo, Utah 

Rutland, Vt 

Charlottesville, Va 

Fredericksburg, Va....". 
Martinsville, Va 



352297°— 49 5 



32 



Table 16. — X umber of police department employees, April 30, 19^9, cities with 
population from 2.500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 


Number of 
police de- 
partment 
employees 


City 


Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 




21 
28 
16 
24 
55 
16 
21 
18 
55 
34 
23 
17 
22 
29 
12 
17 
9 
15 
11 
10 


Chippewa Falls, Wis 


14 


Suffolk Va 


Cudahv, Wis .-- 


14 




Janesville, Wis.. _ . . _ 

Manitowoc, Wis . 


27 




34 




Marinette, Wis .. 


15 




Marshfield, Wis ... ,._ ... .. .. 


15 






20 






19 






22 


"Walla Walla, Wash 


South Milwaukee, Wis. ... _._ 


17 




Stevens Point, Wis . __"_ 


17 




12 


Bluefield, W. Va 


Watertown, Wis - . . _- 


15 




25 






16 


Morgantown, W. Va 




22 




29 






14 




Sheridan, Wyo 


13 













CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS 



Albertville, Ala 

Alexander City, Ala 

Andalusia. Ala 

Atmore, Ala_ 

Attalla, Ala 

Auburn, Ala 

Brewton, Ala 

Carbon Hill, Ala 

Clanton, Ala 

Cullman, Ala 

Demopolis, Ala 

Enterprise. Ala . 

Eufaula, Ala 

Fayette, Ala 

Florala, Ala 

Fort Payne, Ala 

Geneva, Ala 

Greenville, Ala 

Guntersville, Ala — 

Hartselle, Ala 

Homewood, A In . .. 
Jacksonville, Ala — 

Jasper, Ala 

Lanett, Ala 

Leeds, Ala 

Northport, Ala 

Opelika, Ala_ ._ 

Opp, Ala 

Prattville, Ala 

Prichard, Ala 

Roanoke, Ala 

Russellville, Ala 

Scottsboro, Ala 

Sheffield, Ala 

Sylacauga, Ala 

Talladega, Ala 

Tarrant City, Ala— 

Troy, Ala 

Tuscumbia, Ala 

Tuskegee, Ala 

Cnion Springs. Ala. 

Bisbee, Ariz 

Clifton, Ariz 

Douglas, Ariz 

Flagstaff, Ariz 

Glendale, Ariz 

Globe, Ariz 

Mesa, Ariz 

Miami, Ariz 

Nogales, Ariz 

Prescott, Ariz 

Tempe, Ariz 

Williams, Ariz - 



Winslow, Ariz 

Yuma, Ariz 

Arkadelphia, Ark 

Batesville, Ark 

Camden, Ark 

Clarksville, Ark 

Conway, Ark 

Crossett, Ark 

De Queen, Ark 

Dermott, Ark 

Fayette ville, Ark 

Fordyce, Ark 

Forrest City, Ark 

Harrison, Ark 

Helena, Ark 

Hope, Ark 

Magnolia, Ark 

Malvern, Ark 

Marianna, Ark 

Marked Tree, Ark 

Mena, Ark 

Monticello, Ark 

Nashville, Ark 

Newport, Ark 

Osceola, Ark 

Paragould, Ark 

Paris, Ark 

Prescott, Ark 

Rogers, Ark___ 

Russellville, Ark 

Searcy, Ark 

Siloam Springs, Ark 

Springdale, Ark 

Stuttgart, Ark 

Trumann, Ark 

Van Buren, Ark 

Warren, Ark 

West Helena, Ark 

West Memphis, Ark 

Wynne, Ark 

Antioch, Calif 

Arcadia, Calif 

Auburn, Calif 

Azusa, Calif 

Banning, Calif 

Brea, Calif 

Calexico, Calif 

Carmel by the Sea, Calif 

Chico, Calif 

Chino, Calif 

Chula Vista, Calif 

Claremont, Calif 

Coalinga, Calif 

Colton, Calif 



33 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April ZQ, 191,9, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 2-~>,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Number <>f 
police de- 
partment 

employees 




Corona, Calif 

Coronado, Calif 

Covina, Calif . 

Culver Citv, Calif 

Daly City, Calif 

Delano, Calif... 

Dinuba, Calif 

El Cerrito, Calif 

El Monte, Calif 

El Segundo, Calif 

Emeryville. Calif. . ...... 

E soondido, Calif 

Exeter, Calif 

Fillmore, Calif.. 

Fort Brags, Calif 

Gardena, Calif 

Gilroy, Calif 

Glendora, Calif 

Grass Valley, Calif 

Hanford, Calif 

Hawthorne. Calif 

Hayward, Calif 

Healdsburg, Calif 

Heniet, Calif 

Hermosa Beach, Calif 

Hillsborough, Calif 

Hollister, Calif 

Huntington Beach, Calif 

Laguna Beach, Calif 

La Mesa, Calif 

La Verne, Calif 

Lindsay, Calif 

Livermore, Calif 

Lompoc, Calif 

Los Gatos, Calif 

M adera, Calif 

Manhattan Beach, Calif 

Martinez. Calif 

Marvsville, Calif 

Menlo Park, Calif 

Mill Valley, Calif 

Montebello, Calif 

Monterey Park, Calif 

Mountain View, Calif 

Napa, Calif 

Needles, Calif 

Newport Beach, Calif 

North Sacramento, Calif 

Oakdale, Calif 

Oceanside, Calif 

Orange, Calif. 

Oroville, Calif 

Oxnard, Calif 

Pacific Grove, Calif 

Palm Springs, Calif 

Paso Robles, Calif 

Petaluma, Calif 

Piedmont, Calif 

Pittsburg, Calif 

Placerville, Calif 

Porterville, Calif 

Red Blutf, Calif 

Redding, Calif 

Reedley, Calif 

RoseviUe, Calif 

San Anselmo, Calif 

San Bruno, Calif 

San Carlos, Calif 

San Fernando, Calif 

Sanger, Calif 

San Luis Obispo, Calif 

San Marino, Calif 

San Rafael, Calif 

Santa Clara, Calif 

Santa Maria, Calif... 

Santa Paula, Calif 

Sansalito, Calif 

Selma, Calif 



Sierra Madre, Calif 

Signal Hill, Calif.. 

So. San Francisco, Calif _ 

Sunnyvale, Calif.. 

Tail, Calif 

Torrance, Calif 

Tracy, Calif 

Tulare, Calif 

Turlock, Calif 

Ukiah, Calif 

Upland, Calif 

Visalia, Calif 

Watsotiville. Calif 

Woodland, Calif . 

Yuba City. Calif 

Alamosa, Colo 

Aurora, Colo 

Brighton, Colo 

Canon City, Colo 

Delta, Colo 

Durango, Colo 

Englewood, Colo 

Florence, Colo 

Fort Morgan, Colo 

Golden, Colo 

La Junta, Colo 

Lamar, Colo 

Las Animas, Colo 

Longmont, Colo 

Loveland, Colo 

Monte Vista, Colo 

Montrose, Colo 

Rocky Ford, Colo 

Salida, Colo 

Sterling, Colo . 

Walsenburg, Colo 

Danielson, Conn 

Groton, Conn 

Jewett City, Conn 

Putnam, Conn 

Rockville, Conn 

Southington, Conn 

Stafford Springs, Conn.. 

Winsted, Conn 

Dover, Del 

Laurel, Del 

Milford, Del 

Newark, Del 

New Castle, Del.. 

Seaford, Del 

Apalachicola, Fla 

Arcadia, Fla 

Auburndale, Fla 

Bartow, Fla 

Belle Glade, Fla 

Cocoa, Fla 

Coral Gables, Fla 

Dade City, Fla 

Dania, Fla 

De Funiak Springs, Fla. 

De Land, Fla 

Delray Beach, Fla 

Eustis, Fla 

Fernandina, Fla 

Fort Pierce, Fla 

Haines City, Fla 

Hialeah, Fla 

Hollywood, Fla.. 

Homestead, Fla 

Jacksonville Beach, Fla. 

Kissimmee, Fla 

Lake City, Fla 

Lake Wales, Fla 

Lake Worth, Fla 

Leesburg, Fla_ 

Live Oak, Fla 

Madison, Fla 

Marianiia, Fla 



34 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April SO, l'.r',!>, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 




Melbourne, Fla 

New Smyrna Beach, Fla. 

Ocala, Fla 

Pahokee, Fla 

Palatka, Fla 

Palm Beach, Fla 

Perry, Fla 

Plant City, Fla 

Pompano, Fla 

Quincy, Fla 

Sebring, Fla 

Tarpon Springs, Fla 

Vero Beach, Fla 

Wauchula, Fla 

Winter Haven, Fla 

Winter Park, Fla 

Americus, Ga 

Bainbridge, Ga 

Barnes ville, Ga 

Baxlev, Ga 

Blakely, Ga 

Buford, Ga 

Cairo, Ga 

Calhoun, Ga 

Camilla, Ga 

Canton, Ga 

Carrollton, Ga 

Cartersville, Ga :_.. 

Cedartown, Ga 

College Park, Ga 

Commerce, Ga 

Cordele, Ga 

Covington, Ga 

Cuthbert, Ga 

Dawson, Ga 

Douglas, Ga 

Douglasville, Ga 

Eastman, Ga 

Elberton, Ga 

Fitzgerald, Ga 

Fort Valley, Ga 

Hapeville, Ga 

Hogansville, Ga 

.lesup, Ga 

Manchester, Ga 

Marietta, Ga 

Milledgeville, Ga 

Millen, Ga 

Monroe, Ga 

Newnan, Ga 

Pelham, Ga 

Porterdale, Ga 

Quitman, Ga 

Rockmart, Ga 

Sandersville, Ga 

Statesboro, Ga 

Swainsboro, Ga 

Thomaston, Ga 

Thomson, Ga 

Tifton, Ga 

Toccoa, Ga 

Trion, Ga 

Vidalia, Ga 

Washington, Ga 

West Point, Ga 

Winder, Ga 

Alameda, Idaho 

Blackfoot, Idaho 

Burley, Idaho 

Caldwell, Idaho 

Emmett, Idaho. 

Gooding, Idaho 

Jerome, Idaho 

Kellogg, Idaho 

Malad City, Idaho 

Montpelier, Idaho 

Moscow, Idaho 

Payette, Idaho 



Preston, Idaho 

Rexburg, Idaho 

Rupert, Idaho 

St. Anthony, Idaho... 

Sandpoint, Idaho 

Wallace, Idaho 

Weiser, Idaho 

Abingdon, 111 

Aledo, 111 

Anna, 111 

Arlington Heights, 111. 

Barrington, 111 

Batavia, 111 

Beardstown, III _ 

Bellwood, 111 

Belvidere, El 

Benton, 111 

Bradley, 111 

Bushnell, 111 

Carbondale, 111 

Carlinville, 111 

Carlvle, 111 

Carmi,Ill 

Carterville, 111 

Casey, 111 

C harleston, 111 

Chester, 111 

C hristopher, 111 

Clinton, 111 _. 

Collins ville, 111 .. 

Creve Coeur, 111 

Crystal Lake, 111 . 

De Kalb, 111 

Des Plaines, 111 

Dolton, 111 

Downers Grove, 111 . 

Du Quoin, 111 

East Alton, 111 

East Peoria, 111 — 

Edwardsville, 111 

Effingham, 111 .... 

Evergreen Park, 111. - 

Fairfield, 111 

Flora, 111 

Fulton, 111 

Galena, 111 

Galva, 111 ... 

Geneseo, 111 ... 

Geneva, 111 — 

Georgetown, 111 

Gillespie, 111 

Glencoe, 111 

Glen EllyD, 111— .... 

Glenview, 111 — 

Greenville, 111 

Harvard, 111 

Havana, 111 

Herrin, 111 

Highland, 111 

nighwood, 111 

Hillsboro, 111 

Hinsdale, 111 

Homewood, 111 

Hoopeston, 111 

Jerseyville, 111 .. 

Johnston City. Ill 

Kenilworth, 111 

La Grange Fark, 111.. 

Lake Forest, 111 

Lansing, 111 

Lawrenceville, 111 

Lemont, 111 

Libertyville, 111 

Litchfield, 111 

Lockport, 111 

Lombard, 111 

Lyons, 111 

Macomb, 111 



35 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, ipril 80, 1949, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 26,000 — Continued 

CITIES Willi 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS Continued 



City 



Madison, 111 

Marion, 111 

Marseilles, HL 

Marshall. Ill 
M cLeansboro, ill 

Mendota, 111 

Metropolis, 111 

Monmouth, 111 

Montlcello, 111 

Morris, 111 

M unison, 111 

Mount Carmel, 111 - 
Mount Olive, 111 .... 
Murphysboro, ill 

Naperv [lie, 111 

Nokomis, 111... 

Normal, 111 

North Chicago, 111. 

Oak I. awn. Ill 

Oglesby, 111 

Olney, 111 

Oregon, 111 

Pana, 111 

Paiis, 111 

Paxton, 111 

Peoria Heights, 111. . . 

Peru, 111 

Petersburg, 111 

Phoenix, 111 

Pineknevville, 111 

Pittstield, 111 

Pontiac, 111 

Princeton, 111 

Riverdale, 111 

River Forest, 111 

River Grove, 111 

Riverside, 111 

Robinson, 111 

Rochelle, 111 

Rock Falls, 111 

Roodhouse, 111. 

St. Charles, 111 

Salem, 111 

Sandwich. Ill 

Savanna, HI 

Shelbvville, 111 

Silvis, 111 

Skokie. Ill 

South Beloit, 111 

Sparta, HI 

Spring Valley, HI 

Staunton, 111 

Steger, 111 

Sullivan, 111. 

Summit, 111 

Sycamore, 111 

Taylorville, 111 

Vandalia, 111 

Venice, 111 

Villa Park, ni... 

■Washington Park, HI 

Watseka, 111 

West Chicago, 111.... 
Western Springs, 111.. 

Westmont, 111 

Wcstvffle, 111.. 

Wheaton, 111... 

White Hall, 111 

Wood River, 111 

Woodstock, 111 

Zeigler, 111 

/ion. Ill 

Alexandria, Ind 

Ansrola, Ind 

Attica. Ind 

Auburn, Ind 

Aurora, Ind 

Batesville, Ind 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 




Beach < Irove, Ind 

Bicknell, Ind 
Bluffton, Ind 
Boonville, Ind 

Brazil, Ind 

Clinton, Ind 

i Columbia City, Ind... 

I lecatur, Ind 

1 >unkirk, Ind. 

Fast Gary, Ind 

Franklin, Ind 

Garrett, Ind 

Gas City, Ind 

l Ireencastle, Ind..' 

Greenfield, Ind 

Oreensburg, Ind 

Hartford City, Ind 

Highland, Ind_. 

Hobart, Ind 

Huntingburg, Ind 

Jasonville, Ind 

Jasper, Ind 

Kendall ville, Ind 

Lawrenceburg, Ind 

Lebanon, Ind 

Linton, Ind 

Madison, Ind 

Martinsville, Ind 

Mitchell, Ind 

Monticello, Ind... 
Mount Vernon, Ind... 

Nappanee, Ind 

Xoblesville, Ind 

North Manchester, Ind 
North Vernon, Ind. . . 

Oakland City, Ind 

Petersburg, Ind__ 

Plymouth, Ind 

Portland, Ind 

Princeton, Ind 

Rensselaer, Ind 

Rochester, Ind 

Rushville, Ind 

Salem, Ind 

Seymour, Ind 

Tell City, Ind 

Tipton, Ind 

Union City, Ind 

Valparaiso, Ind 

Wabash. Ind 

Warsaw, Ind 

Washington, Ind 

Wesl Lafayette, Ind 
West Terre Haute, Ind. 

Winchester, Ind 

Alhia, lowa 

Algona, Iowa 

Anamosa, Iowa 

Atlantic, Iowa 

Belle Plaine, Iowa 

Bettendorf, Iowa 

Bloomfleld, Iowa 

Carroll, Iowa 

Cedar Falls, Iowa 

Centerville, Iowa 

Chariton, Iowa 

Charles City, Iowa 

Cherokee, Iowa 

Clarinda, Iowa 

Clarion, Iowa 

Clear Lake, Iowa 

Cresco, Iowa 

Creston, Iowa..i 

Decorah, Iowa... 

Denison, Iowa 

Eagle Grove, Iowa 

Eldora, Iowa 

Emmetsburg, Iowa . . 



36 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April 30, 19^9, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25.000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 




Estherville, Iowa__- - 

Fairfield, Iowa 

Forest City, Iowa 

Glen wood, Iowa 

Grinnell, Iowa 

Hampton, Iowa 

Harlan, Iowa 

Hawarden, Iowa 

Humboldt, Iowa 

Independence, Iowa 

Indianola, Iowa 

Iowa Falls, Iowa. --- 

Jefferson, Iowa 

Knoxville, Iowa 

Le Mars, Iowa 

Manchester, Iowa 

Maquoketa, Iowa 

Marion, Iowa 

Missouri Valley, Iowa..- 

Monticello, Iowa... 

Mount Pleasant, Iowa.-. 

Ne vada, Iowa 

New Hampton, Iowa 

Oelwein, Iowa 

Onawa, Iowa 

Osage, Iowa 

Osceola, Iowa 

Pella, Iowa 

Perry, Iowa 

Red Oak, Iowa - 

Rock Rapids, Iowa 

Sac City, Iowa 

Sheldon, Iowa 

Shenandoah, Iowa 

Spencer, Iowa 

Storm Lake, Iowa 

Tama, Iowa 

Tipton, Iowa 

Vinton, Iowa 

Washington, Iowa 

Waukon, Iowa 

Waverly, Iowa 

Webster City, Iowa 

West Des Moines, Iowa_ 

Winterset, Iowa 

Abilene, Kans 

Anthony, Kans 

Augusta, Kans 

Baxter Springs, Kans... 

Belleville, Kans 

Beloit, Kans 

Caney, Kans 

Cherryvale, Kans 

Clay Center, Kans 

Columbus, Kans 

Concordia, Kans 

Council Grove. Kans — 

Dodge City, Kans 

Eureka, Kans 

Fredonia, Kans 

Galena, Kans 

Garden City, Kans 

Garnett, Kans 

Girard, Kans 

Goodland, Kans 

Great Bend, Kans 

Hays, Kans 

Herington, Kans 

Hiawatha, Kans 

Hoisington, Kans 

Holton, Kans 

Horton, Kans 

Iola, Kans 

Junction City, Kans 

Kingman, Kans 

Lamed, Kans 

Libera], Kans 

Lyons, Kans 



Marysville, Kans. 
McPherson, Kans. 

Neodesha, Kans 

Norton, Kans 

Olathe, Kans 

Osawatomie, Kans 

Paola, Kans 

Pratt, Kans 

Russell. Kans 

Wellington, Kans 

Winfield, Kans.. 

Bardstown, Ky 

Bellevue, Ky 

Carrollton, Ky 

Catlettsburg, Ky 

Corbin, Ky 

Cumberland, Ky 

Cynthiana, Ky 

Danville, Ky 

Dawson Springs, Ky. 

Dayton, Ky 

Earlington, Ky 

Elizabethtown, Ky_ . 

Elsmere, Ky 

Franklin, Ky 

Fulton, Ky 

Georgetown, Ky 

Glasgow, Ky 

Harlan, Ky 

Harrodsburg, Ky 

Hazard, Ky 

Irvine, Ky 

Jenkins, Ky 

Lebanon, Ky 

Ludlow, Ky 

Mayfield, Ky 

Mavsville, Ky 

Mount Sterling, Ky.. 

Murray, Ky 

Nicholasville, Ky 

Paris, Ky 

Pikeville, Ky 

Pineville, Ky 

Princeton, Ky 

Providence , Ky 

Richmond, Ky 

Russellville, Ky 

Shelbyville, Ky 

Somerset, Ky 

Versailles, Ky 

Winchester, Ky 

Abbeville, La 

Bastrop, La 

Bossier City, La 

Bunkie, La 

Crowley, La 

De Quincy, La 

De Ridder, La 

Donaldsonville, La 

Eunice, La 

Ferriday, La 

Franklin, La 

Hounia, La 

Jackson, La 

Jeanerette, La 

Jennings, La 

Jonesboro, La 

Kaplan, La 

Mansfield, La 

Minden, La 

Morgan City, La... 
Natchitoches, La 

Opelousas, La 

Pineville, La 

Plaquemine, La 

Ponchatoula, La 

Ruston, La 

St. Martinsville, La. 



37 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April SO, 1949, cities with 
population front 1,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 ixii \bita\is Continued 



City 



Slidell, La.... 

Springhill, La 

Tallulah, La 

Thibodaux, La 

Ville Platte, La 

West Monroe, La 

Winnfleld, La 

Winnsboro, La 

Belfast, Maine 

B rewer, Maine 

Brunswick, Maine 

Calais, Maine 

Eastport, Maine 

Fairfield, Maine. 

Fort Fairfield, Maine 

Gardiner, Maine... 

Hallowell, Maine 

Old Town, Maine 

Presque Isle, Maine 

Rockland, Maine 

Rumford, Maine 

Saco, Maine 

Brunswick, Md 

Chestertown, Md 

Crisfield, Md 

Easton, Md 

Elkton, Md 

Frostburg, Md 

Greenbelt, Md 

Hyattsville, Md 

Laurel, Md 

Mount Rainier, Md 

Pocomoke City, Md 

Takoma Park, Md 

Westernport, Md 

Westminster, Md 

Amherst, Mass 

Auburn, Mass 

Ayer, Mass 

Barnstable, Mass 

Blackstone, Mass 

Bridgewater, Mass 

Canton, Mass 

Concord, Mass 

Dalton, Mass 

Dartmouth, Mass 

Dracut, Mass 

Franklin, Mass 

Great Barrington, Mass. 

Hingham, Mass 

Hopedale, Mass 

Hudson, Mass 

Ipswich, Mass 

Lee, Mass 

Longmeadow, Mass 

Ludlow, Mass 

Maynard, Mass 

Middleborough, Mass... 

Millbury, Mass 

Montague, Mass 

Nantucket, Mass 

North Andover, Mass... 

Orange, Mass 

Palmer, Mass 

Provincctown, Mass 

Randolph, Mass 

Rockland, Mass 

Rockport, Mass 

Somerset, Mass 

South Hadley, Mass 

Spencer, Mass 

Stoughton, Mass 

Uxbridge, Mass 

Walpole, Mass.. 

Ware, Mass 

Whitman, Mass 

Winchendon, .Mass 

Albion, Mich 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 




\ llegan, Mich. 

Allm Park, Mich 

Alma, Mich 

Bad Axe, Mich. 

Belding, Mich 

Berkley, Mich 

Bessemer, Mich 

Big Rapids, Mich 

Boyne City, Mich 

Buchanan, Mich 

Cadillac, Mich 

Caro, Mich 

Center Line, Mich 

Charlotte, Mich 

Cheboygan, Mich 

Clawson, Mich 

Coldwater, Mich 

Crystal Falls, Mich 

Dowagiac, Mich 

Durand, Mich 

East Detroit, Mich 

East Grand Rapids, Mich... 

East Lansing, Mich.. 

Eaton Rapids, Mich 

Fenton, Mich 

Fremont, Mich 

Garden City, Mich 

Gladstone, Mich 

Grand Haven, Mich 

Grand Ledge, Mich 

Greenville, Mich 

Grosse Pointe, Mich 

Grosse Pointe Farms, Mich. 
Grosse Pointe Woods, Mich. 

Hancock, Mich 

Hastings, Mich 

Hillsdale, Mich 

Houghton, Mich 

Howell, Mich 

Inkster, Mich 

Ionia, Mich 

Iron River, Mich 

Ishpeming, Mich 

Kingsford, Mich 

L'Anse, Mich 

Lapeer, Mich 

Ludington, Mich 

Manistee-, Mich 

Manistique, Mich 

Marine City, Mich 

Marshall, Mich 

Mason, Mich 

Melvindale, Mich 

Mount Pleasant, Mich 

Munising, Mich 

Negaunee, Mich 

Newberry, Mich 

Northville, Mich 

Norway, Mich 

Otsego, Mich 

Petoskey, Mich 

Pleasant Ridge, Mich. 

Plymouth, Mich 

Rochester, Mich 

Rogers City, Mich 

Romeo, Mich 

Roseville, Mich 

St. Clair, Mich 

St. Ignace, Mich .. 

St. Johns, Mich 

St. Joseph, Mich 

St. Louis, Mich 

South Haven, Mich 

Sturgis, Mich 

Tecumseh, Mich 

Three Rivers, Mich 

Trenton, Mich... 

Wakefield, Mich 



38 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April 30, 191)9, cities villi 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Wayne, Mich 

Zeeland, Mich 

Alexandria, Minn 

Anoka, Minn.. 

Bayport, Minn 

Bemid.ji, Minn 

Benson, Minn 

Blue Earth, Minn 

Breckenridge. Minn 

Chisholm, Minn 

Cloquet, Minn 

Columbia Heights, Minn. 

Crookston, Minn 

Crosby, Minn 

Detroit Lakes, Minn 

East Grand Forks, Minn. 

Edina, Minn 

Ely, Minn 

Eveleth, Minn 

Fairmont, Minn 

Gilbert, Minn 

Glenwood, Minn 

Grand Rapids, Minn 

Hastings, Minn 

Hopkins, Minn 

Hutchinson, Minn 

International Falls, Minn 

Jackson, Minn 

Lake City, Minn 

Litchfield, Minn 

Little Falls, Minn-. 

Luverne, Minn 

Marshall, Minn.. 

Montevideo, Minn 

Moorhead, Minn 

Morris, Minn 

New Ulm, Minn 

Northfield, Minn 

North Mankato, Minn__. 

North St. Paul, Minn 

Owatonna, Minn 

Park Rapids, Minn 

Pipestone, Minn 

Red Wing, Minn 

Redwood Falls, Minn 

Richfield, Minn 

Robbinsdale, Minn 

St. James, Minn 

St. Peter, Minn 

Sauk Center, Minn 

Sauk Rapids, Minn 

Sleepy Eye, Minn 

Staples, Minn 

Stillwater, Minn 

Thief River Falls. Minn. 

Tracy, Minn 

Two Harbors, Minn 

Wadena, Minn 

Waseca, Minn 

West St. Paul, Minn 

White Bear Lake, Minn. 

Willmar, Minn 

Windom, Minn 

Worthington, Minn 

Aberdeen, Miss 

Amory, Miss 

Brookhaven, Miss 

Canton, Miss 

Cleveland, Miss 

Columbia, Miss 

Corinth, Miss 

Durant, Miss 

Grenada, Miss 

Holly Springs, Miss 

Indianola, Miss 

•Kosciusko, Miss 

Leland, Miss 

Lexington, Miss.. 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 




McCornb, Miss 

Moss Point, Miss 

New Albany, Miss 

Oxford, Miss _._ 

Pascagoula, Miss 

Pass Christian, Miss 

Philadelphia, Miss 

Picayune, Miss 

Port Gibson, Miss 

Starkville, Miss 

Tupelo, Miss 

Water Valley, Miss 

West Point, Miss 

Winona, Miss 

Yazoo City, Miss 

Aurora, Mo 

Berkeley, Mo 

Bethany, Mo 

Bonne Terre, Mo . 

Boonville, Mo 

Brentwood, Mo 

Brookfield, Mo 

Butler, Mo 

California, Mo 

Cameron, Mo 

Carrollton, Mo 

Caruthersville, Mo 

Charleston, Mo 

Chillicothe, Mo 

Clinton, Mo 

Crystal City, Mo 

De Soto, Mo 

Dexter, Mo 

Eldon, Mo 

Excelsior Springs, Mo... 

Farmington, Mo 

Fayette, Mo 

Ferguson, Mo 

Festus, Mo 

Fredericktown, Mo 

Fulton, Mo 

Glendale, Mo 

Hayti, Mo.. 

Higginsville, Mo 

Jackson, Mo 

Ladue, Mo 

Lamar, Mo 

Lebanon, Mo 

Lexington, Mo 

Maiden, Mo 

Marceline, Mo 

Marshall, Mo 

Maryville, Mo 

Mexico, Mo 

Monett, Mo 

Neosho, Mo 

Nevada, Mo 

North Kansas City, Mo 

Overland, Mo 

Richmond, Mo 

Rolla, Mo 

Ste. Genevieve, Mo 

Salem, Mo 

Slater, Mo 

Sullivan, Mo. 

Vandalia, Mo 

Warrens burg, Mo 

Washington, Mo 

West Plains. Mo 

Bozeman, Mont 

Cut Bank, Mont 

Deer Lodge, Mont 

Dillon, Mont 

Glasgow, Mont 

Glendive, Mont 

Havre, Mont 

Kalispell, Mont 

Laurel, Mont 



39 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April SO, /■''/■'. cities with 
population from 2,500 to 15,000- Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 fO 10,000 [NHABITANTS Continued 



City 



Lewistown. Moni 

ton, Moni 

Miles City, Moni 

Roundup, Mont 

Shelbj . Mont.. 

Sidney . Mont 

Whitefish, Mont 

Alliance, Nebr 

Auburn, Nebr 

Blair, Nebr 

Broken How, Xebr 

Chadron, Xebr 

Columbus, Xebr.. 

Crete, Nebr 

Fairbury, Xebr 

Falls City, Nebr 

Gering, Xebr 

Kearney, Nebr 

Lexington, Nebr 

MeCook, Nebr 

Nebraska City, Nebr_. 

Ogallala, Nebr 

O'Xeill, Xebr 

Plattsmouth, Nebr 

Schuyler, Nebr 

Seward, Nebr 

Sidney, Xebr 

Superior, Xebr 

Wahoo, Nebr 

Wayne, Xebr 

West Point, Nebr 

York, Nebr 

Elko, Nev 

Ely, Xev 

Las Vegas, Nev 

Sparks, Nev 

Derry, N. H 

Exeter, N. H 

Franklin, N. H 

Lebanon, N. H 

Littleton, N. H 

Milford, N. H 

Newport, N. H 

Somersworth, N. H 

Audubon, N. J 

Belmar, N. J 

Bernardsville, N. J 

Beverly, N. J 

Bogota, N. J 

Boonton, N. J 

Bordentown, N. J 

Bound Brook, N. J 

Bradley Beach, N. J. . 

Butler, N.J 

Caldwell, N.J 

Cape May, N. J 

Carlstadt, N.J 

Chatham, N.J 

Closter, N. J.. 

Dumont, N. J 

Dunellen, N.J 

East Paterson, X. J. .. 
East Rutherford, N. J_ 

Edgewater, N. J 

Egg Harbor City. N. .1 

Fair Lawn, N. J 

Flemington, N. J 

Fort Lee, N.J 

Franklin, N.J 

Freehold, N.J 

Garwood, N. J 

Glassboro, N. J 

Glen Ridge, N.J 

Glen Rock, N.J 

Guttenberg, N. J 

Haokcttstown, N. J_.. 

Haddonficld, N. J 

Haddon Heights, N. J. 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 




Haledon, X.J 

Bammonton, N. J 

Highland Park, N. J.. 

Hightstown, N. J 

Hillsdale, X..I 

Keansburg, N. J 

Keyport, X. J 

Lambei'tville, N. J 

Leonia, N. J 

Little Ferry, N.J 

Madison, N. J 

Manville. N.J 

Margate City, N.J... 
Matawan, N. J 
May wood, X. .1 
Merchantville, N . .1 

Metuchen, N. J 

Middlesex, N. J 

Midland Park, N. J... 

Milltown, N.J 

New Milford, N. J... 

Newton, N.J. _. 

North Arlington, N. J 

Northfield, N. J 

North Haledon, N. J.. 

Oaklyn, N.J 

Ocean City, N.J 

Oceanport, N. J 

Oradell, N. J 

Palisades Park, N. J__ 

Palmyra, N. J 

Paramus, N. J 

Park Ridge, N. J .. 

Paulsboro, N. J.. 

Penns Grove, N. J_._ 

Pitman, N. J 

Pompton Lakes, N. J. 

Princeton, N.J 

Prospect Park, N. J . 

Ramsey, N. J 

Raritan, N. J_ 

Ridgefield, N. J 

River Edge, N. J 

Rockaway, N. J 

Roselle Park, N. J 

Rumson, N. J 

Runnemede, N. J 

Salem, N.J 

Sayreville, N.J 

Secaucus, N. J 

Somerville, N. J 

South Amboy, N.J... 
South Plainfield, N. J. 

Tenafly, N.J 

Totowa, N.J 

Ventnor City. N. J___. 

Verona, N. J _. 

Wallington, N. J 

Wanaque, N. J 

Washington, N. J 

West Caldwell, N. J. 
West Paterson. X. .1 

Westville, N.J 

Westwood, N. J 

Wharton, N.J 

Wildwood, N.J 

Woodbury, N.J 

Woodlvnne, N. J 

Wood Ridge, X . .1 
Alamogordo, N. Mex.. 
Artesia, N. Mex... ... 

Belen, N. Mex 

Carlsbad, N. Mex 

Clayton, N. Mex 

Deming, N. Mex 

Gallup, N. Mex 

Hot Springs, N. Mex. 

Las Cruces, N. Mex... 



40 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April SO, 1949, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 




Las Vegas City, N. Mex. . . 
Las Vegas Town, N. Mex._ 

Lordsburg, N. Mex 

Portales, N. Mex 

Raton, N. Mex 

Silver City, N. Mex 

Socorro, N. Mex 

Tucumcari, N. Mex 

Albion, N. Y 

Amityville, N. Y 

Babylon, N. Y 

Baldwinsville, N. Y 

Ballston Spa, N. Y 

Bath, N. Y 

Brockport, N. Y 

Bronxville, N. Y 

Canajoharie, N. Y 

Canandaigua, N. Y 

Canastota, N. Y 

Canisteo, N. Y 

Canton, N. Y 

Carthage, N. Y .. 

Catskill, N. Y 

Cobleskill, N. Y 

Cooperstown, N. Y 

Corinth, N. Y 

Croton-on-Hudson, N. Y___ 

Dansville, N. Y 

Depew, N. Y 

Dobbs Ferry, N. Y 

Dolgeville, N. Y__ 

East Aurora, N. Y 

East Rochester, N. Y 

East Syracuse, N. Y 

Ellenville, N. Y 

Elmira Heights, N. Y 

Elmsford, N. Y 

Falconer, N. Y 

Fort Edward, N. Y 

Fort Plain, N. Y 

Frankfort, N. Y 

Fredonia, N. Y 

Goshen, N. Y 

Gouverneur, N. Y 

Gowanda, N. Y 

Granville, N. Y 

Great Neck, N. Y 

Green Island, N. Y 

Greenport, N. Y 

Hamburg, N. Y 

Hastings-on-Hudson, N. Y 

Haverstraw, N. Y 

Herkimer, N. Y 

Highland Falls, N. Y 

Homer, N. Y 

Hoosick Falls, N. Y 

Horseheads, N. Y 

Hudson Falls, N. Y 

Rion, N. Y 

Irvington, N. Y 

Lake Placid, N. Y 

Lancaster, N. Y 

Larchmont, N. Y 

LeRoy, N. Y 

Liberty, N. Y 

Lindenhurst, N. Y 

Liverpool, N. Y 

Long Beach, N. Y 

Lyons, N. Y 

Malone, N. Y 

Malverne, N. V 

Mechanicville, N. Y 

Medina, N. Y 

Mohawk, N. Y 

Monticello, N. Y 

Mount Kisco, N. Y 

Mount Morris, N. Y 

Newark, N. Y 



New York Mills, N. Y... 

North Pelham, N. Y 

Northport, N. Y 

North Tarrytown, N. Y. 

Norwich, N. Y 

Nyack, N. Y. 

Owego, N. Y-. 

Palmyra, N. Y 

Patchogue, N. Y 

Pelham Manor, N. Y 

Perm Yan, N. Y 

Perry, N. Y 

Pleasantville, N. Y 

Port Jervis, N. Y 

Potsdam, N. Y 

Rye, N. Y 

Sag Harbor, N. Y 

Salamanca, N. Y 

Saranac Lake, N. Y 

Sausierties, N. Y 

Scotia, N. Y 

Seneca Falls, N. Y 

Sidney, N. Y 

Silver Creek, N. Y 

Sloan, N. Y 

Solvay, N. Y 

Southampton, N. Y 

South Glens Falls, N. Y. 

Spring Valley, N. Y 

Springville, N. Y 

SuiTern, N. Y 

Tarrytown, N. Y 

Ticonderoga, N. Y 

Tuckahoe, N. Y 

Tupper Lake, N. Y 

Walden, N. Y 

Walton, N. Y 

Wappingers Falls, N. Y_ 

Warsaw, N. Y 

Waterford, N. Y 

Waterloo, N. Y 

Watkins Glen, N. Y 

Waverly, N. Y 

Wells ville, N. Y 

Westfleld, N. Y 

Whitehall, N. Y 

Whitesboro, N. Y 

Williamsville, N. Y 

York ville, N. Y 

Albemarle, N. C 

Asheboro, N. C 

Beaufort, N. C 

Belmont, N. C 

Brevard, N. C 

Canton, N. C 

Chapel Hill, N. C 

Clinton, N. C 

Dunn, N. C 

Edenton, N. C 

Elkin, N. C 

Farmville, N. C 

Forest City, N. C 

Graham, N. C 

Hamlet, N. C 

Henderson, N. C 

Hendersonville, N. C — 
Kings Mountain, N. C— 

Laurinburg, N. C 

Lenoir, N. C 

Lincolnton, N. C 

Lumberton, N. C 

Marion, N. C 

Monroe, N. C 

Mooresville, N. C 

Morehead City, N. C__. 

Morganton, N. C 

Mount Airy, N. C 



41 



Table Hi. — Number of police department employees, April 30, 1949, cities with 
population front 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Mount Olive, X. C 
North Wilkesboro, V C 

Oxford. X. C. 

Roanoke Rapids, X. C 

Rockingham, X. C 

Sanford, N. C... 

Scotland Neck, \. C 

Smithfield, X. C 

Southern fines, N. C 

Spencer, X". 0.. 

Spindale, X. C 

Tarboro, X". C 

Valdese, X. C... 

Washington, N. 

Waynesville, N. C 

Whiteville, X T . C 

Williamston, N. C 

Devils Lake, X. Dak 

Dickinson. X. Dak 

Grafton, X. Dak 

Jamestown, N. Dak 

Mandan, X. Dak 

Valley City, X. Dak 

Wahpeton, N. Dak 

Williston, N. Dak 

Athens, Ohio 

Bay, Ohio 

Bedford, Ohio 

Bellefontaine, Ohio 

Bellevue, Ohio 

Berea, Ohio 

Bexley, Ohio 

Bowling Green, Ohio 

Bridgeport, Ohio 

Bryan, Ohio 

Bucyrus, Ohio 

Cadiz, Ohio 

Carey, Ohio 

Carrollton, Ohio 

Celina, Ohio 

Chagrin Falls, Ohio 

Cheviot, Ohio 

Circle ville, Ohio 

Clyde, Ohio 

Columbiana, Ohio 

Conneaut, Ohio 

Crestline, Ohio 

Crooksvil'.e, Ohio 

Deer Park, Ohio 

Defiance, Ohio 

Delaware, Ohio 

Delphos, Ohio . 

Demiison, Ohio 

Dover, Ohio 

East Palestine, Ohio 

Eaton, Ohio 

Elmwood Place, Ohio 

Fairfield, Ohio 

Fairport Harbor, Ohio. _ . 

Fair view Park, Ohio 

Franklin, Ohio 

Galion, Ohio 

Gallipolis, Ohio 

Geneva, Ohio 

Girard, Ohio .. 

Glouster, Ohio 

Grandview Heights, Ohio 

Greenfield, Ohio 

Greenhills, Ohio 

Greenville, Ohio 

Hicksville, Ohio.. 

Hillsboro, Ohio 

Hubbard, Ohio 

Jackson, Ohio 

Kent, Ohio. 

Kenton, Ohio.. 

Lebanon, Ohio 

Lisbon, Ohio.. 



Number of 
police 'I'- 
partment 

employees 




I., ckland, < i 
Logan, Ohio 
L adoi . I >hio. 

Louisa i!h', Ohio 

m pie Heights, Ohio 

Marysville, Ohio .. 

M aumee, Ohio. 

Mayfield Heights, Ohio.. 

Medina, Ohio 

M i.imishurg, Ohio 

Middleport, Ohio... 

Minerva, Ohio 

Mingo Junction, Ohio 

Montpelier, Ohio 

Mount Healthy, Ohio 

Napoleon, Ohio 

Nelson ville, Ohio. 

New Boston, Ohio. 

Xewburgh Heights, Ohio 

Xew Lexington, Ohio 

Newton Falls, Ohio 

X'orth Baltimore, Ohio... 

Xorth Canton, Ohio 

Xorth College Hill, Ohio. 
North Olmsted, Ohio 

Xorth Royalton, Ohio 

Norwalk, Ohio 

Oakwood, Ohio 

< (berlin, Ohio 

Orrville, Ohio 

Oxford, Ohio 

Perrysburg, Ohio 

T'omeroy, Ohio 

Port Clinton, Ohio 

Ravenna, Ohio 

Reading, Ohio 

Rittman, Ohio 

Rocky River, Ohio 

St. Bernard, Ohio 

St. Clairsville, Ohio 

St. Marys, Ohio 

Sebring, Ohio 

Shadyside, Ohio 

Shelby, Ohio 

Sidney, Ohio 

Silverton, Ohio 

South Euclid, Ohio... 

Tallmadge, Ohio 

Tipp City. Ohio 

Toronto, Ohio 

Troy, Ohio 

Uhrichsville, Ohio 

University Heights, Ohio 
Upper Arlington, Ohio... 
Upper Sandusky, Ohio.. 

Urbana, Ohio 

Van Wert, Ohio 

Wadsworth, Ohio 

Wapakoneta, Ohio 

Washington C. H., Ohio 

Wauscon, Ohio 

Wellington, Ohio. 

Wellston, Ohio 

Wrllsville, Ohio 

Westerville, Ohio. 

Westlake, Ohio 

Wickliffe, Ohio.... 

Willard, Ohio 

Willoughby, Ohio 

Wilmington, Ohio 

Wyoming, Ohio. . 

Alius, Okla 

Alva, Okla... 

Anadarko, Okla 

Antlers, Okla 

Atoka, Okla.. 

Bethany, Okla 

Blackwell, Okla 



Number of 
pohcr de- 
partment 
employees 



42 



Tarle 16. — Number of police department employees, April 30, 19Jf9, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Bristow, Okla 

Chandler, Okla 

Cherokee, Okla 

Claremore, Okla 

Cleveland, Okla 

Clinton, Okla 

Cordell, Okla 

Gushing, Okla 

Drumright, Okla 

Duncan, Okla 

Edmond, Okla 

Elk City, Okla 

Frederick, Okla 

Hartshorne, Okla. 

Henryetta, Okla 

Hobart, Okla 

Holdenville, Okla 

Hollis, Okla 

Hominy, Okla 

Hugo, Okla 

Idabel, Okla 

Kingfisher, Okla 

Madill, Okla 

Mangum, Okla 

Marlow, Okla 

Miami, Okla 

Nowata, Okla 

Pauls Valley, Okla.-. 

Pawhuska, Okla 

Perry, Okla 

Picher, Okla 

Poteau, Okla 

Pryor Creek, Okla. . . 

Purcell, Okla 

Sand Springs, Okla . 

Savre, Okla 

Sulphur, Okla 

Tahlequah, Okla.. 

Tonka wa, Okla 

Vinita, Okla 

Wagoner, Okla 

Watonga, Okla 

Weatherford, Okla. ._ 

Woodward, Okla 

Albany, Oreg 

Ashland, Oreg 

Baker, Oreg 

Burns, Oreg 

Coos Bay, Oreg 

Coquille, Oreg 

Corvallis, Oreg 

Cottage Grove, Oreg 

Dallas, Oreg 

Grants Pass, Oreg — 

Hillsboro, Oreg- 

Hood River, Oreg 

La Grande, Oreg 

Lebanon, Oreg 

McMinnville, Oreg- - 

Newberg, Oreg 

North Bend, Oreg 

Ontario, Oreg 

Oregon City, Oreg- 

Pendleton, Oreg 

Roseburg, Oreg 

St. Helens, Oreg 

Seaside, Oreg 

Silverton, Oreg 

Springfield, Oreg 

The Dalles, Oreg 

Tillamook, Oreg 

Aldan, Pa 

Ambler, Pa 

Apollo, Pa 

Archbald, Pa 

Ashland, Pa 

Ashley, Pa 

Aspinwall, Pa ._. 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 




Athens, Pa 

Avalon, Pa 

Avoca, Pa 

Bangor, Pa 

Barnesboro, Pa 

Beaver, Pa 

Bedford, Pa 

Bellefonte, Pa 

Bellwood, Pa 

Ben Avon, Pa 

Bentleyville, Pa 

Birdsboro, Pa 

Blairsville, Pa 

Blakely, Pa 

Bloomsburg, Pa 

Boyertown, Pa 

Brackenridge, Pa 

Brentwood, Pa 

Bridgeport, Pa 

Bridgeville, Pa 

Brockway, Pa 

Brookville, Pa 

Brownsville, Pa 

Burnham, Pa 

California, Pa 

Camp Hill, Pa 

Castle Shannon, Pa 

Catasauqua, Pa 

Clarion, Pa 

Clarks Summit, Pa 

Clearfield, Pa 

Clifton Heights, Pa 

Clymer, Pa 

Coaldale, Pa 

Collingdale, Pa 

Coplay, Pa 

Corry, Pa 

Crafton, Pa 

Cresson, Pa 

Curwensville, Pa 

Dale, Pa 

Dallastown, Pa 

Danville, Pa 

Derry, Pa 

Downingtown, Pa 

Doylestown, Pa 

Dupont, Pa 

Duryea, Pa 

East Conemaugh, Pa 

East Lansdowne, Pa 

East Mauch Chunk, Pa 
East McKeesport, Pa... 

East Pittsburgh, Pa 

East Stroudsburg, Pa... 

Ebensburg, Pa 

Edgewood, Pa 

Elizabeth, Pa 

Elizabethtown, Pa 

Emmaus, Pa 

Emporium, Pa 

Emsworth, Pa 

Ephrata, Pa 

Etna, Pa 

Exeter, Pa 

Ferndale, Pa 

Ford City, Pa 

Forest City, Pa 

Forest Hills, Pa 

Forty Fort, Pa 

Fountain Hill, Pa 

Frackville, Pa 

Franklin, Pa 

Freedom, Pa 

Freeland, Pa -. 

Freeport, Pa 

Gallitzin, Pa 

Gettysburg, Pa 

Gilberton, Pa 



43 



Table 16. — Number of police department employees, April SO, t949, cities ivith 
population from 2,.',0U to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITIT 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS Continued 



City 



Glassport, Pa 

Glenolden, Pa. 
( treencastle, Pa 
Greenville, Pa 

Grove City, Pa.. 

Hatboro, Pa.. 

Hellertown, Pa.. 

Hollidaysburg, Pa 

Honesdale, Pa 

Bummi lsto\i n, Pa 

Huntingdon, l'a. 

Ingram, Pa 

Irwin, Pa 

JenMntown, Pa 

Jermyn, Pa 

Jersey shore. Pa 

Jonnsonburg, Pa 

Kane, Pa 

Kennett Square, Pa 

Kittanning, Pa 

Kulpmont, Pa 

Kutztown, Pa 

Lansdale, Pa 

Lansford, Pa 

Larks ville. Pa 

Laureldale, Pa 

Leechburg, Pa 

Lehighton, Pa 

Lemoyne, Pa 

Lewisburg, Pa 

Lititz, Pa 

Luzerne, Pa 

Lykens, Pa 

M:mhi'im, Pa 

Marcus Hook, Pa 

Masontown, Pa 

Maucb Chunk, Pa 

McAdoo, Pa 

McDonald, Pa 

Mechanicsburg, Pa 

Media, Pa 

Meyersdale, Pa 

Middletown, Pa 

Midland, Pa 

Millersburg, Pa 

Milton, Pa 

M iners ville, Pa 

Monaca, Pa 

Monongahela, Pa 

Montours ville. Pa 

Moosic, Pa 

Morrisville, Pa 

Mount Joy, Pa 

Mount Oliver, Pa 

Mount Penn, Pa 

Mount Pleasant, Pa 

Mount Union, Pa 

Muncy, Pa 

Myerstown, Pa 

Nanty Glo, Pa 

Narberth, Pa 

Nazareth, Pa 

New Brighton, Pa 

Xew Cumberland, Pa . 

Northampton, Pa 

North Belle Vernon, Pa 
North Catasauqua, Pa._ 

North East, Pa 

Northumberland, Pa. ... 

Norwood, Pa 

Oakmont, Pa 

Olyphant, Pa.. 
Oxford, Pa... 
Palmerton, Pa._ 

Palmyra, Pa. 

Patton, Pa 

Pen Argyl, Pa 

Perkasie, Pa 



Numbei ol 
police de 
partmenl 

eniploj 'v 




Philipsburg, Pa.. 

Pitcairn, Pa 

Portage, Pa 

Port Vue, Pa 

Prospect Park, t'a 

Punxsutawnej , Pa 

Quakertown, Pa 

Rankin, Pa 

Red Lion, Pa 

Renovo, Pa 

Reynoldsville, Pa 

Ridgway, Pa . 

Ridles Park, Pa 

Roaring Spring, Pa 

Rochester, Pa 

Royersford, Pa 

St. Clair, Pa 

St. Marys, Pa 

Sayre, Pa 

Schuylkill Haven, Pa 

Scottdale, Pa 

Sewickley, Pa 

Sharpsburg, Pa 

Sharpsville, Pa 

Shillington, Pa 

Shippensburg, Pa 

Slatington, Pa 

Somerset, Pa 

Souderton, Pa 

South Connellsville, Pa 

South Fork, Pa 

South Greensburg, Pa 
Southwest Greensburg, Pa. 
South Williamsport, Pa 

Spangler, Pa 

Spring City, Pa _. 

Springdale, Pa 

State College, Pa 

Stroudsburg, Pa 

Sugar Notch, Pa 

Summit Hill, Pa 

Susquehanna, Pa 

Swart hmore, Pa 

Swoyerville, Pa 

Tarentum, Pa.. 

Taylor, Pa 

Throop, Pa 

Titusville, Pa 

Towanda, Pa 

Trafford, Pa.. 

Turtle Creek, Pa 

Tyrone, Pa 

Union City, Pa 

Verona, Pa 

Waynesburg, Pa 

Weatherly, Pa 

Wellsboro, Pa 

Wrslcvville, Pa.. 

West Hazk'ton, Pa 

West Homestead, Pa 

Westmont, Pa 

West Newton, Pa 

West Pittston, Pa 

West Reading, Pa 

West View, Pa 

West Wyoming, Pa 

Williamstown, Pa 

Wilmerding, Pa 

Wilson, Pa 

Windber, Pa 

Winton, Pa 

Wyoming, Pa 

Wyomissing, Pa_. 

Yeadon, Pa 

Youngwood, Pa . 

Harrington, R. I 

Burrillville, K. I 

East Greenwich, K. I 



44 



Table 16.- 



-Number of police department employees, April 30 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 



191(9, cities with 



CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Warren, R. I 

Abbeville, S. C 

Aiken, S. C 

Bamberg, S. C 

Batesburg, S. C 

Beaufort, S. C 

Bennetts ville, S. C 

Bishopville, S. C 

Camden, S. C 

Cheraw, S. C 

Chester, S. C 

Clinton, S. C 

Clover, S. C 

Conway, S. C 

Darlington, S. C 

Dillon, S. C 

Easley, S. C 

Eau Claire, S. C 

Fort Mill, S. C 

Qaflney, S. C 

Georgetown, S. C 

Greer, S. C 

HoneaPath, S. C 

Kingstree, S. C 

Lake City, S. C 

Lancaster, S. C 

Laurens, S. C 

Marion, S. C 

Mullins, S. C 

Newberry, S. C 

North Augusta, S. C 

Union, S. C 

Walhalla, S. C 

Whitmire, S. C 

Williamston, S. C 

York, S. C 

Brookings, S. Dak 

Canton, S. Dak 

Deadwood, S. Dak 

Hot Springs, S. Dak 

Lead, S. Dak 

Madison, S. Dak 

Milbank, S. Dak 

Mobridge, S. Dak 

Pierre, S. Dak 

Sisseton, S. Dak 

Sturgis, S. Dak 

Vermillion, S. Dak 

Yankton, S. Dak 

Alcoa, Term.. 

Athens, Tenn 

Brownsville, Tenn 

Clinton, Tenn 

Cookeville, Tenn 

Covington, Tenn 

Dickson, Tenn 

Elizabethton, Tenn 

Erwin, Tenn 

Etowah, Tenn 

Fayetteville, Tenn 

Franklin, Tenn 

Gallatin, Tenn 

Harriman, Tenn 

Humboldt, Tenn 

Jefferson City, Tenn... 

LaFollette, Tenn 

Lawrenceburg, Tenn... 

Lebanon, Tenn 

Lenoir City, Tenn 

Lewisburg, Term 

Lexington, Tenn 

Loudon, Tenn 

Martin, Tenn 

Mary ville, Tenn 

McMinnville, Tenn 

Milan, Tenn... 

Morristown, Tenn 

Mount Pleasant, Tenn. 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 
employees 




Murfreesboro, Tenn. 

Newport, Tenn 

Paris, Tenn 

Pulaski, Tenn 

Shelbyville, Term... 

Sparta, Term. 

Springfield, Tenn 

Sweetwater, Tenn... 

Trenton, Tenn 

Tullahoma, Tenn 

Union City, Tenn... 
Winchester, Tenn... 
Alamo Heights, Tex. 

Alpine, Tex 

Arlington, Tex 

Athens, Tex 

Ballinger, Tex 

Bay City, Tex. 

Bee ville, Tex 

Benavides, Tex 

Bonham, Tex 

Bowie, Tex 

Brady, Tex 

Breckenridge, Tex. . 

Brenham, Tex 

Brownfield, Tex 

Burkburnett, Tex... 

Canyon, Tex 

Childress, Tex 

Cisco, Tex... 

Clarksville, Tex 

Coleman, Tex 

Comanche, Tex 

Commerce, Tex 

Conroe, Tex... 

Crockett, Tex 

Cuero, Tex 

Dalhart, Tex 

Dublin, Tex 

Eastland, Tex 

Edinburg, Tex 

Electra, Tex 

Ennis, Tex 

Floydada, Tex 

Fort Stockton, Tex.. 

Freeport, Tex _ 

Gainesville, Tex 

Gatesville, Tex 

Georgetown, Tex 

Gladewater, Tex 

Gonzales, Tex 

Graham, Tex.. 

Haskell, Tex... 

Hearne, Tex 

Henderson, Tex 

Hereford, Tex 

Huntsville, Tex 

Jacksonville, Tex 

Jasper, Tex — 

Kenedy, Tex 

Kerrville, Tex.. 

Kilgore, Tex 

Kingsville, Tex 

La Grange, Tex 

Lamesa, Tex 

Lampasas, Tex 

Levelland, Tex 

Liberty, Tex 

Littlefield, Tex 

Llano, Tex 

Lufkin, Tex 

Luling, Tex 

Marfa, Tex 

Marlin, Tex 

Mart, Tex 

McCamey, Tex 

McKinney, Tex 

Memphis, Tex 



45 



Tablk 16. — Number of police department employees, April SO, 19^9, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Mercedes, Tex 

Mexia, Tex 

M idland, Tex. 

Mineola, Tex 

Mineral Wells, Tex 

Mission, Tex 

Monahans, Tex 

Mount Pleasant, Tex 

Nacogdoches, Tex. 

Navasota, Tex 

New Braunfels, Tex 

Nocona, Tex 

Odessa, Tex 

Olney, Tex 

Orange, Tex 

Paducah, Tex 

Pasadena, Tex 

Pecos, Tex 

Pharr, Tex. 

Pittsburg, Tex 

Plainview, Tex — .. 

Quanah, Tex 

Ranger, Tex 

Raymondville, Tex 

Robsto wn, Tex 

Rusk, Tex 

Seguin, Tex... 

Seymour, Tex 

Shamrock, Tex. 

Slaton, Tex 

Smithville, Tex 

Snyder, Tex 

Stamford, Tex 

Stephenville, Tex 

Sulphur Springs, Tex 

Taylor, Tex 

Teague, Tex 

Texas City, Tex 

Vernon, Tex 

Waxahachie, Tex 

Weatherford, Tex.. 

Wellington, Tex. 

Weslaco, Tex 

W. University Place, Tex 

Yoakum, Tex 

American Fork, Utah 
Bingham Canyon, Utah. 

Bountiful, Utah — 

Brigham, Utah 

Cedar City, Utah 

Helper, Utah. 

Lehi, Utah 

Midvale, Utah 

Murray, Utah 

Nephi, Utah 

Orem, Utah 

Park City, Utah 

Payson, Utah 

Price, Utah 

Richfield, Utah 

St. George, Utah.. 

South Salt Lake, Utah... 

Spanish Fork, Utah 

Springville, Utah.. 

Tooele, Utah 

Bellows Falls, Vt 

Bennington, Vt 

Brattleboro, Vt 

Montpelier, Vt 

Newport, Vt 

St. Albans, Vt. 

St. Johnsbury, Vt 

Springfield, Vt 

Waterbury, Vt 

Windsor, vt 

Winooski, Vt. 

Abingdon, Va 

Altavista, Va 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 
employees 




Appalachia, Va 

Big Stone Gap, Va 

Blackstone, Va 

Bluefleld, Va.. 

Bristol, Va 

Buena Vista, Va 

Clifton Forge, Va... 

Colonial Heights, Va 

Covington, Va 

Emporia, Va._ 

Falls Church, Va 

Farmville, Va.. 

Franklin, Va 

Front Royal, Va 

Qalax, Va... 

Hampton, Va 

Harrisonburg, Va 

Hopewell, Va 

Lexington, Va 

Marion, Va 

Norton, Va 

Phoebus, Va- 

Pocahontas, Va 

Pulaski, Va 

Radford, Va_. 

Salem, Va 

Saltville, Va 

South Boston, Va 

South Norfolk, Va 

Vinton, Va 

Virginia Beach, Va 

Waynesboro, Va 

Williamsburg, Va 

Wytheville, Va 

Anacortes, Wash 

Auburn, Wash 

Camas, Wash 

Centralia, Wash 

Chehalis, Wash 

Clarkston, Wash 

Colfax, Wash 

Dayton, Wash... 

Ellensburg, Wash... 

Enumclaw, Wash 

Grand Coulee, Wash 

Kelso, Wash.. 

Kent, Wash 

Mount Vernon, Wash 

Omak, Wash 

Pasco, Wash 

Port Angeles, Wash 

Port Townsend, Wash... 

Pullman, Wash 

Puyallup, Wash 

Raymond, Wash 

Renton, Wash 

Sedro Woolley, Wash 

Shelton, Wash.. 

Snohomish, Wash 

Toppenish, Wash 

Benwood, W. Va... 

Buckhannon, W. Va 

Charles Town, W. Va.... 

Chester, W. Va 

Dunbar, W. Va 

Elkins, W. Va 

Follansbee, W. Va 

Grafton, W. Va 

Hinton, W. Va 

Kenova, W. Va 

Keyser, W. Va 

Keystone, W. Va 

Logan t W. Va... 

Mannington, W. Va 

McMechen, W. Va 

Montgomery, W. Va 

Mullens, W. Va... 

New Martinsville, W. Va 



46 

Table 16. — Number of police depart in rut employees, April 30, 19^9, cities with 
population from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 2,500 TO 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Nitro, W. Va 

Oak Hill, W. Va 

Point Pleasant, W. Va. 

Princeton, W. Va 

Richwood, W. Va 

Salem, W. Va. 

Shinnston, W. Va 

Sistersville, W. Va 

Welch, W. Va 

Wellsburg, W. Va 

Weston, W. Va 

Williamson, W. Va 

Algoma, Wis 

Antigo, Wis 

Baraboo, Wis 

Berlin, Wis 

Black River Falls, Wis 

Burlington, Wis 

Clintonville, Wis 

Columbus, Wis 

Delavan, Wis 

De Pere, Wis 

Edgerton, Wis 

Fort Atkinson, Wis 

Greendale, Wis 

Hartford, Wis 

Hudson, Wis 

Hurley, Wis 

Jefferson, Wis 

Kaukauna, Wis 

Kewaunee, Wis 

Kimberly, Wis 

Ladysmith, Wis 

Lake Geneva, Wis 

Lancaster, Wis 

Little Chute, Wis 

Mauston, Wis_ — 

May ville, Wis 

Menomonie, Wis 

Merrill, Wis 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 



City 



Monroe, Wis 

Neillsville, Wis 

New London, Wis 

Oconomowoc, Wis 

Oconto, Wis 

Park Falls, Wis 

Platteville, Wis 

Plymouth, Wis 

Portage, Wis 

Port Washington, Wis 
Prairie Du Chien, Wis 

Reedsburg, Wis 

Rhinelander, Wis 

Rice Lake, Wis 

Richland Center, Wis. 

Ripon, Wis 

River Falls, Wis 

Shawano, Wis 

Sheboygan Falls, Wis. 

Sparta, Wis 

Spooner, Wis 

Stoughton, Wis 

Sturgeon Bay, Wis 

Tomah, Wis 

Tomahawk, Wis 

Viroqua, Wis 

Waupaca, Wis 

Waupun, Wis 

West Bend, Wis 

West Milwaukee, Wis. 
Whiteflsh Bay, Wis... 

Whitewater, Wis 

Cody, Wyo 

Evanston, Wyo 

Green River, Wyo 

Lander, Wyo 

Rawlins, Wyo 

Riverton, Wyo 

Rock Springs, Wyo 

Worland, Wyo 



Number of 
police de- 
partment 

employees 



ANNUAL REPORTS 

Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1948 

The police, in 1948, made arrests in 28.9 percent of the known 
offenses. Generally, the more serious the offense the greater is the 
likelihood of its being cleared by arrest due, to a great extent at 
least, to the vigorous investigative attention afforded such crimes. 

Murders and negligent manslaughters head the list with 90.9 and 

84.1 percent cleared, respectively, in 1948. In aggravated assaults, 

79.2 percent of the cases were solved by the arrest of the offender and 
79.0 percent of the rapes were cleared by arrest through police inves- 
tigation. As a group, 80 percent of crimes against the person were 
cleared by arrest during 1948. 

On the other hand, the majority of the generally less serious but 
much more frequent crimes against property go unsolved, with 25.6 
percent cleared by arrest according to police reports received for 1948. 
The highest clearance rate among the property crimes was 41.8 per- 
cent for robbery. Such crimes are generally considered the most 
serious of the crimes against property, and in one respect are similar 
to crimes against the person in that such offenses are committed in 
the presence of the victim. Other crimes against property were 
cleared by arrest last year as follows: burglary, 29.7 percent; auto 
theft, 27.3 percent; and larceny, 22.7 percent. 

While the percentage of property crimes cleared is relatively 
lower than that for crimes against the person, it should be noted that 
in the 1,654 reporting cities used in the following tabulations the 
police cleared 200,256 crimes against property and 40,176 crimes 
against the person. 

The term "cleared by arrest" ordinarily means that one or more 
of the offenders responsible for the offense have been arrested and 
made available for prosecution. The arrest of one individual ma}^ 
clear several offenses when the police investigation discloses evidence 
identifying that individual as a perpetrator of other crimes. On the 
other hand, if several people were jointly involved in the commission 
of a single crime and all arrested, only one offense cleared by arrest 
woidd be scored. 

In some instances, an offense may be treated as cleared through 
exceptional circumstances although the offender has not been arrested 
and made available locally for prosecution. This would include such 
instances as the suicide of the offender or the offender's arrest and 
prosecution in another jurisdiction. In any event, an exceptional 

(47) 



48 

clearance would be treated as such only when the police have definitely 
identified the offender and located him but for reasons beyond their 
control he was not made available for prosecution locally. These 
"exceptional clearances" are relatively few and limited under the 
instructions appearing in the Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook 
distributed to contributing police agencies. 

While the recovery of stolen property in itself does not render an 
offense cleared by arrest, it should be observed in connection with the 
comparatively low clearance rate for crimes against property that 
the police in 1948 recovered approximately 60 percent of all stolen 
property. 

In table 17 there are presented for each 100 known offenses the 
number of offenses cleared and the number of persons charged by the 
police. As will be noted, the figures for offenses cleared and persons 
charged do not agree since the arrest of one individual may clear 
several crimes, while the arrest of several persons on other occasions 
may clear only one offense. In the negligent manslaughter classifi- 
cation for some of the city groups the number of persons charged 
actually exceeds the number of known offenses. This is due to the 
practice prevailing in some jurisdictions to arrest and charge surviving 
drivers involved in fatal automobile accidents pending completion 
of the police investigation. Comparable practices are reflected in 
the figures for the murder classification. 

No reports are included in the tabulations which follow unless the 
contributing police agency indicated on the questionnaires accompany- 
ing the reports that all offenses of the indicated types known to have 
been committed were included. Also, these departments indicated 
that figures pertaining to offenses cleared were properly distinguished 
from those relating to the number of persons arrested. 

All reports were carefully reviewed as to reasonableness of the 
figures and any apparent discrepancies or misunderstandings made the 
subject of correspondence. Letters were sent to 441 of the 1,654 
cities whose returns were used in the tabulations which follow. 



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50 



Table 17. — Offenses known, cleared by arrest, and persons charged (held for prose- 
cution), 1948, by population groups, number per 100 known offenses 
[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Population group 



TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

1,654 cities; total population, 
49,740,725: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP I 

30 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 19,385,781: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



GROUP II 

48 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 6,854,283: 
Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged. 

group m 

87 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total pop- 
ulation, 6,018,816: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



GROUP IV 



166 cities, 25,000 to 50,000: 
population, 5,767,112: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



total 



GROUP V 

461 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 7,041,285: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



862 cities under 10,000; total popula 
tion, 4,673,448: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



Criminal 
homicide 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



100.0 
90.9 
91.7 



100.0 
88.7 



100.0 
95.4 
101.7 



100.0 
92.2 
93.3 



100.0 
95.4 
95.9 



100.0 
91.3 
96.4 



100. 
91.2 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



100.0 
84.1 
94.1 



100.0 
85.1 
106. 5 



100.0 
78.5 
80.1 



100.0 
84.7 



100.0 
78.3 
72.8 



100.0 
90.8 
98.6 



100.0 
92.9 

82.7 



Rape 



100.0 
79.0 
78.1 



100.0 
76.2 
73.3 



100. 
79.0 
75.5 



100.0 
81.3 
84.0 



100.0 
83.4 
91.0 



100.0 
83.4 
88.0 



100.0 
88.9 
87.9 



Rob- 
bery 



100.0 
41.8 



100.0 
43.9 
38.0 



100.0 
35.8 
37.4 



100.0 
33.0 
38.8 



100.0 
41.1 
47.5 



100.0 
41.0 
49.7 



100.0 
50.7 
59.3 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



100.0 
79.2 
71.4 



100.0 
76.4 
60.3 



100.0 
76.2 
70.6 



100.0 
81.5 
85.5 



100.0 
85.2 
91.2 



100.0 
85.8 
98.2 



100. 
90.9 
90.6 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



100.0 
29.7 
21.0 



100.0 
31.1 
20.4 



100.0 
25.5 
17.5 



100.0 
29.0 
17.7 



100.0 
29.4 
22.5 



100.0 
27.9 
25.7 



100. 
35.5 
31.6 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



100.0 
22.7 
17.9 



100.0 
24.7 

19.8 



100.0 
21.7 
16.2 



100.0 
21.1 
15.5 



100.0 
20.2 
16.8 



100.0 
20.9 
17.5 



100.0 
25.3 
19.4 



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52 

Persons Charged (Held for prosecution), 1948 

As a general rule, the largest cities reported in 1948 the greatest 
number of persons charged per unit of population. For murder, negli- 
gent manslaughter, robbery, larceny, embezzlement and fraud, rape, 
prostitution, narcotic violations, weapon violations, and gambling, 
for example, this is particularly evident. 

The most obvious exception to this general observation is for driving 
while intoxicated, where the inverse is observed. Cities with popu- 
lation under 10,000 showed an arrest rate in that category nearly 
three times as great as that for cities over 250,000 in population. A 
number of other, though less pronounced, exceptions may be seen by 
the examination of the data in table 18. 

The scoring of the number of persons charged is governed by differ- 
ent rules from those for scoring offenses known to the police. This 
distinction should be recognized in studying table 18. For example, 
an armed robbery of a drug store, a candy store, and a service station 
by the same robber would count as three separate offenses of robbery 
known to the police. Upon the arrest of the robber and his identifi- 
cation with the three offenses, he would be charged with robbery and 
only one person charged would be scored. This distinction between 
the counting of crimes and counting of persons may be further illus- 
trated by assuming that a grocery store is robbed by three armed 
bandits. The police would score one offense of robbery. Upon ar- 
resting and charging the three bandits, three persons charged with 
robbery would be listed. An auto thief might be charged with 
"unauthorized use" which would be listed under "all other offenses." 

Of the 1,654 cities represented in the following tabulations, 96 
percent indicated by way of executed questionnaires and correspond- 
ence that they had correctly listed the number of persons charged 
rather than the number of charges placed against persons arrested; 
i. e., if on an occasion of a single arrest an offender was charged with 
robbery and larceny, only one person was shown as charged, the 
entry being made opposite robbery. 

Nearly 87 percent of the departments reporting advised that all or 
some juveniles were included in the return of persons charged. 
Eighty- three percent indicated that all juveniles were included and 
of those including juvenile arrests 97 percent properly included 
them opposite the classification embracing the violation involved, 
such as robbery, auto theft, larceny, and the like, even though a 
technical charge such as "juvenile delinquency" was placed against 
the offender on the records of the department at the time of his 
arrest. The remainder of the departments including juveniles, showed 
them opposite "all other offenses." 



53 



Table 18.— Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1948, number and rate per 

100,000 inhabitants, 6y population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Offense charged 



Total, 
1.654 
cities; 
total 

popula- 
tion. 
49,740,725 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 
gent manslaughter: 
Number of prisons 

charged 

Rate per 100,000 
(6) Manslaughter by negli- 
gence: 
Number of persons 

charged 

Rate per 100,000.-.- 
Robbery: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000— 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100.000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged - - 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged. - 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiv- 
ing, possessing: 
Number of persons charged . . 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged. . 

Rate per 100,000--- - 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized 

vice: 
Number of persons charged - 
Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and 
prostitution): 

Number of persons charged - 

Rate per 100,000 - 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 

Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and 
children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 - 



Group I 



30 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

19,385,781 



2,838 
5.71 



1.672 
3.36 



11,750 
23 " 



28, 028 
56.3 



91,115 
183.2 



40, 278 
81.0 



85, 562 
172.0 



17. 929 
36.0 



i 13. 079 
26.3 



4.054 
8.2 



8.641 
17.4 



4.758 
9.57 



25. 356 
51.0 



20, 537 
41.3 



3,125 
8.3 



18, 755 
37.7 



30, 879 
62.1 



30, 487 
61.3 



Group 
II 



48 
cities, 
100,000 

to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
6,854,283 



7.68 



872 
4.50 



7,114 
36.7 



13, 220 

68.2 



33, 332 
171.9 



16, 894 

87.1 



34, 793 
179.5 



6,584 
34.0 



6,646 
34.3 



1,879 
9.7 



2.851 
14.7 



2,449 
12.63 



14, 343 
74.0 



7,079 
36.5 



1,920 
9.9 



45.5 



10. 698 
55.2 



7,368 
38.0 



Group 
III 



87 

cities, 

50,000 to 

100,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
6,018,816 



424 
6.19 



2.50 
3.65 



1,510 
22.0 



15, 980 
233. 1 



5,714 
83.4 



13, 198 
192.6 



2,131 
31.1 



435 
6. 3 



1,211 
1 



629 
9.18 



4,697 
68.5 



4, 000 
58.4 



425 
6.2 



2,754 
40.2 



6, 142 
89.6 



7,393 
107. 9| 



Group 
IV 



166 
cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
5,767,112 



Group 
V 



340 
5. 75 



195 
3.24 



983 
10. 3 



4, 19^ 



13.080 
227. 3 

4,459 

74.1 

9,924 
164.9 

1,841 
30.6 

1,396 
23.2 



318 

5.3 



1,302 
21.6 



503 
8.36 



2, 823 
46.9 



2,728 
45. 3 



353 
5.9 



2,320 
38.5 



3,565 
59.2 



461 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
7,041,285 



Group 
VI 



4,185 
69.5 



208 
3.61 



134 
2.32 



769 
13.3 



2.910 
50. 5 



9, 287 
161.0 



4, 256 

73.8 



9, 533 
165.3 



2,127 
36.9 



1,01 
17.6 



513 
8.9 



1.188 
20.6 



395 
6.85 



1,985 
34.4 



3,745 
64.9 



L65 

2.9 



1,686 
29.2 



5, 163 
89.5 



4,178 
72.4 



862 
cities 
under 
10,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
4,073,448 



244 
3.4 



140 
1.99 



757 
10. 8 



3,014 
42.8 



12.690 
180.2 



5, 085 
72.2 



10, 967 
155. 8 



2,716 
38.6 



1,113 
15.8 



483 

6.9 



1,215 
17.3 



418 
5.94 



14.2 



2,005 
28.5 



11(1 
2.0 



2,118 
30.1 



* 3, 851 
54.9 



4,631 
65.8 



127 
2.72 



81 
1.73 



617 
13.2 



1,599 
34.2 



6,146 
131.5 



3,870 
82.8 



7,147 
152.9 



1,793 
38.4 



2 776 
16.6 



426 
9.1 



874 
18.7 



364 
7.79 



509 
10.9 



122 
2.6 



1,051 
22.5 



1,460 
31.2 



2,732 
58.5 



See footnote at end of table. 



54 



Table 18. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1948, number and rate -per 
100,000 inhabitants, by -population groups — Continued 





Total, 

1,654 
cities; 
total 
popula- 
tion, 
49,740,725 


Group I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


Offense charged 


30 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

19,385,781 


48 
cities, 
100,000 

to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
6,854,283 


87 
cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
6,018,816 


166 

cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
5,767,112 


461 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
7,041,285 


862 
cities 
under 
10,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
4,673,448 


Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged.. 
Rate per 100,000 


6 76,315 
153.5 

'11,900,486 
25,006.5 

318,220 
639.8 

1, 239, 668 
2, 492. 3 

135,865 
273.1 

92, 834 
186.6 

236, 710 
475.9 


18, 361 
94.7 

84,527,895 
25, 491. 6 

136, 911 
706.2 

461, 738 
2, 381. 8 

60, 449 
311.8 

51, 637 
266.4 

94,123 
485.5 


8.410 
122.7 

2. 162, 074 
31,543.4 

44. 030 
642.4 

223, 108 
3, 255. 

34,215 
499.2 

14, 160 
206.6 

30, 418 
443.8 


11.402 
189.4 

1, 648, 585 
27, 390. 5 

38, 257 
635.6 

147, 276 
2, 446. 9 

14,363 
238.6 

9. 655 
160.4 

27, 453 
456.1 


10, 482 
181.8 

U, 285, 749 
22, 731. S 

29,925 
518.9 

138, 879 
2, 408. 1 

8,260 
143.2 

7,122 
123. 5 

31. 150 
540.1 


e 15, 219 
216.8 

io 1, 447, 286 
20, 692. 6 

40,515 

575.4 

158, 872 
2, 256. 3 

10, 431 
148.1 

7, 231 
102.7 

32, 752 
465. 1 


12,441 
266 2 


Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 
Number of persons charged. . 
Rate per 100,000 - 


'i 918.897 
19, 703. 6 


Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged. . 
Rate per 100,000 


28. 582 
611.6 


Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged. . 
Rate per 100,000 


109. 795 
2, 349. 3 


Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged . . 
Rate per 100,000 


8,147 
174.3 


Gambline: 

Number of persons charged . . 
Rate per 100,000.. 


3,029 
64.8 


All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged. . 
Rate per 100,000 


20.814 
445.4 







Footnotes 1-11. — The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports from the number of 
cities indicated below: 



Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


1 


1,653 
861 

1,653 
460 

1,653 
460 


49, 737, 424 
4, 670, 147 

49, 720. 297 
7, 020, 857 

49, 720, 046 
7, 020, 606 


7 


1,645 

29 

163 

458 

860 


47, 949, 401 


2 


8 


17, 762, 329 


3. 


9 

10 


5, 656, 160 


4 


6, 994, 224 


5 _ 


11 


4, 663, 589 


6 











In the preceding tabulation persons charged with traffic violations 
were grouped opposite one heading, "Traffic and motor vehicle laws." 
However, 1,525 of the cities reported separate data: (1) Violations of 
road and driving laws (usually referred to as moving violations) ; 
(2) parking violations; and (3) other traffic and motor-vehicle laws, 
except driving while intoxicated. These data are presented in table 
19 for the cities grouped according to size. 



55 

Table 19. — Persons charged (held for -prosecution), traffic violations, except driving 
while intoxicated, 1948; number an ' rate per 100,000 inhabitants, bij population 
groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Total, 
1,525 

cities; 
total 

popula- 
tion, 
43,707,946 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Offense charged 


27 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
16,464,233 


43 cities, 

1110,(1(10 to 

250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 

i;,(>:;n,n.-,.s 


75 cities, 
50,000 i" 

100,000; 

popula- 

t ion, 
5,190,870 


l it cities, 
25,000 to 

50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 

5,097,472 


4'?7 cities, 
lo.oou to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
6,537,806 


806 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

l.:;v\7(>7 


Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons charged 
Kate per 100,000 

Parking violations: 

Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100,000 


2.233,276 
5. 109. 5 

8. 335, 770 

19.071.5 

453. 153 
1, 036. 8 


1, 160, 203 
7,051.1 

2. sjj. :;:;:; 
17, 152. 6 

211.980 
1, 288. 3 


277, 174 
4, 589. 8 

1, 194,588 
24,749.5 

71, 252 
1,179.9 


253. 127 
1,876. i 

1, 2.38, 979 

23, KliS. 1 

54, 767 
1,055. 1 


189, 360 
3, 714. 8 

937,354 

ls,:',sx. f, 

41,302 
810.2 


182. 281 
2, 788. 1 

1, 172, 784 
17, 938. 5 

39,237 
600.2 


171.131 
3, 899. 3 

669, 732 
15, 260. 3 


Other traffic and motor vehicle 
laws: 
Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000-. 


34, 615 
788.7 







Offenses Known, Cleared by Arrest, and Persons Charged and Found 
Guilty, 1948 

Of the persons formally charged by the police during 1948, 77. 1 
percent were found guilty. Classes in which persons charged were 
most frequently found guilty were driving while intoxicated, 84.5 
percent; forgery and counterfeiting, 82.5 percent; liquor laws, 81.2 
percent ; and weapons violations, 80.7 percent. At the other extreme, 
it is observed that only 38.3 percent of persons charged with man- 
slaughter by negligence were found guilty. Other classes showing a 
relatively small proportion found guilty were possessing stolen property 
violations, 55.8 percent; rape, 57.1 percent; and murder, 57.8 percent. 

The data relative to persons charged and persons found guilty 
reported by 184 cities with population in excess of 25,000 are presented 
in tables 20 and 21. Under the system of uniform crime reporting, 
data relative to offenses known to the police are limited to the part I 
offense classes and, accordingly, the persons-found-guilty data are 
presented separately for the part I and part II classes in the indicated 
tables. 

Table 20, covering the part I offense classes, shows in addition to the 
number of persons charged and the number found guilty, the number of 
offenses known and the number cleared by arrest. Thus, in addition 
to indicating the percentage of persons charged who were found guilty, 
a comparison can be made between the figures for offenses known, 
of lenses cleared by arrest and persons charged and persons found 
guilty. Such a comparison would indicate, for example, that follow- 
ing the investigation of an average group of 100 murders there are 
approximately 50 persons ultimately found guilty, while for each 
group of 100 known offenses, in other crimes against the person, 



56 



PERSONS CHARGED 

AND 

PERCENT FOUND GUILTY 

Calendar year 1948 

CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON 



Percent found guilty 

MURDER 1,072 C HARGED 

57.8% 

NEGLIGENT MA NSLAUGHTER 598 CHARGED 

FiliUiiiM 



38.3% 

RAPE 1,943 CHARGED 




•- mB v mm v iBB v mm \ mm » 



MM 



57.1% 
AGGRAVATED ASSAULT 9,134 CHARGED 



64.8 % 



184 CITIES WITH OVER 25,000 INHABITANTS 
jjj^. TOTAL POPULATION 19,493,822 

Figure 6 



57 

the number of persons who are found guilty is as follows: Aggravated 
assault, 39; rape, 38; and negligent manslaughter, 32. For offenses 
against property the likelihood of a conviction following a reported 
offense is somewhat less than for crimes against the person. The 
reporting cities represented in table 20 indicated that following the 
investigation of each 100 robberies, 21 persons were convicted, while 
for auto thefts the figure was 13 and for burglaries and larcenies, 12 
persons convicted for each 100 crimes investigated. 

In selecting the cities used in tables 20 and 21, reports were 
eliminated unless the verification of them or the answers to question- 
naires and correspondence indicated the figures for persons found 
guilty represented the final disposition of the charges placed against 
persons as distinguished from the disposition at some preliminary 
judicial stage. A few classifications are not separately presented 
in table 21 since the figures in sufficient detail were not available in 
some of the reports used. 



58 



PERSONS CHARGED 

AND 

PERCENT FOUND GUILTY 

Calendar year 1948 
CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY 



Percent found guilty 

ROBBERY 4,813 CHARGED 

ftllll lltU 



72.9% 

BURGLARY 12,142 CHARGED 



1111111% 



78.3% 

LARCENY 30,949 CHARGED 

Dnmiui 



79.2% 

AUTO THEFT 5,773 CHARGED 



enmnii 



75.8% 



FBI 



184 CITIES WITH OVER 25,000 INHABITANTS 



TOTAL POPULATION 19,493,822 



Figure 7 



59 



Table 20. — Offenses known, cleared by arrest, and number of persons found guilty, 
1948; 184 cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 19,493,822, based on 1940 decennial census] 



Offense (part I classes) 



Number 
of offenses 
known to 

the police 



Number 

of offenses 
cleared 

by arrest 



Numbei 
of persons 
charged 
(held for 
prosecu- 
tion) 



Number 

found 

guilty of 
offense 
charged 



Number 
found 

guiltj "i 
lesser 
offense 



Total 
found 
guilty (of 
offense 
charged 
or lesser 
offense) 



Percent- 
age found 
guilty 



Total 



353, 298 



95, 037 



66. 424 



42. 946 



6,853 



49, 799 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 

gent manslaughter. 
(6) Manslaughter bj aegli 

gence 

Rape -. 

Robbery... 

Aggravated assault 

Hurglary— breaking or enterim? 
Larceny — theft (except auto 

theft) 

Auto theft 



1,242 

713 
2,911 
16, 619 
15,016 

81,449 

202, 014 
33, 334 



1,084 

550 
2,231 
6, 722 
11,230 

23,343 

42,511 

7, 366 



1,072 

598 

1.943 

1,813 

9, 134 
12, 142 

30, 949 
5,773 



453 

180 

751 

2,536 

4,300 

7,804 

23,150 
3,772 



167 

49 
359 

975 
1,620 
1,704 

1,375 
604 



620 

229 
1,110 
3,511 

5,920 
9,508 

24, 525 
4,376 



75.0 



57.8 

38.3 
57.1 
72.9 
64.8 
78.3 

79.2 

75.8 



Table 21. — Number of persons charged (held for prosecution) and number found 
guilty, 1948; 184 cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 19,493,822, based on 1940 decennial census] 



Offense (part II classes) 



Number of 
persons 
charged 
(held for 
prosecu- 
tion) 



Number 
found 

guilty of 
offense 

charged 



Number 
found 

guilty of 
lesser 

offense 



Total found 

guilty (of 

offense 

charged 

or of lesser 
offense) 



Percentage 

found 
guilty 



Total 

Other assaults 

Forgery and counterfeiting.. 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Sex offenses (including prostitution and 

commercialized vice) 

i tffenses against the family and children.. 

Narcotic drug laws 

Li' I nor laws 

Dnmkenness; disorderly conduct; va- 
grancy 

Gambling 

Driving while intoxicated 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws 

All other offenses 



5, 751, 926 



• 4, 404. 805 



i 31, 521 



i 4, 436, 326 



33, 746 
2,587 

5, 464 
1,530 

6, 637 

17, 632 

14, 355 

1,428 

9,504 

575, 896 

36, 812 

25, 803 

2 4,960,190 

60, 342 



18, 992 

1,935 

2,842 

773 

5,210 

12, 498 

8,025 
1.049 
7,592 

431,181 

22, 734 

19, 621 

2 3,830,842 

41,511 



704 
200 
329 



406 

310 

21 

124 

1,047 

89 

2.184 

2 24, 917 

966 



19, 696 
2,135 
3,171 
853 
5,354 

12,904 
8,335 
1,070 
7,716 

432, 228 

22, 823 

21,805 

2 3, 855, 759 

42, 477 



177.1 



58.4 
82.5 
58.0 
55.8 
80.7 

73.2 
58.1 
74.9 
81.2 

75.1 
62.0 
84.5 
2 77.7 
70.4 



' The total figures are subject to footnote 2. 

2 Based on the reports of 180 cities, total population, 17,759,418. 



60 



PERSONS CHARGED 

AND 

PERCENT FOUND GUILTY 

Calendar Year 1948 
PART II CLASS OFFENSES 
Percent found guilty 



Other Assaults 



58.4% 



Forgery And Counterfeiting 



82.5% 



Embezzlement And Fraud 



58.0% 



Stolen Property; Buying, Receiving, Etc. 



55.8% 



Weapons; Carrying, Possessing, Etc. 



80.7% 



Sex Offenses (Except Rape) 



73.2% 



Offenses Against Family And Children 



58.1 % 



Narcotic Drug Laws 



74.9% 



Liquor Laws 



81.2% 



Drunkenness; Disorderly Conduct; Vagrancy 



75.1% 



Gambling 



62.0% 



Driving While Intoxicated 



84.5% 



Traffic And Motor Vehicle Laws 



77.7% 



Other Offenses 



70.4% 









184 CITIES WITH OVER 25,000 INHABITANTS 
TOTAL POPULATION 19,493,822 



FBI 

CHART 



Figure 8 



61 

Persons Released Without Being Held for Prosecution, 1948 

Preceding data based on annual reports are limited to the number of 
persons formally charged by the police, whereas the annual reports 
forwarded to the FBI also include a column showing the number of 
persons arrested and released without formal charge. To com- 
plete the picture of police activity relative to persons taken into 
custody, the data concerning persons charged and persons released 
should be combined. The arrests for other authorities arc not 
included by the reporting agency to avoid duplication. 

The reports which were apparently complete relative to persons 
released by the police are used in compiling the data used in tables 22 
and 23. The figures are based on the reports from 1,126 cities repre- 
senting a combined population of 33,076,671. The figures include 
persons taken into custody and released with a reprimand or on the 
"golden rule" principle. Youthful offenders released for various 
reasons without a formal charge being placed are included, as are 
persons not appearing for traffic violations who are not subsequently 
arrested and charged. 



Table 22. — Perso?is released without being held for prosecution, 1948; number and 
rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

| Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Total, 
1,126 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


















cities; 


22 cities 


30 cities, 


72 cities, 


130 cities, 


320 cities, 


552 cities 


Offense charged 


total 


over 


100,000 to 


50,000 to 


25,000 to 


10,000 to 


under 




popula- 


250,000; 


250,000; 


100,000; 


50,000; 


25,000; 


10,000; 




tion, 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 




33,076,671 


tion, 


tion. 


tion. 


tion, 


tion, 


tion, 






11,388,341 


4,238,715 


4,977,342 


4,528,974 


4,859,996 


3,083,303 


Criminal homicide: 
















la) Murder and nonnegli- 
















gent manslaughter: 
















Number of persons 
















released 


331 


89 


75 


46 


57 


54 


10 


Rate per 100,000 


1.00 


0.78 


1.77 


0.92 


1.26 


1.11 


0.32 


(6) Manslaughter by negli- 
















gence: 
















Number of persons 
















released... __ _.. 


282 


87 


30 


49 


60 


35 


21 


Rate per 100,000 


0.85 


0.76 


0.71 


0.98 


1.32 


0.72 


0.68 


Robbery: 
















Number of persons released. 


1,745 


566 


411 


224 


245 


186 


113 


Rate per 100,000 


5.3 


5.0 


9.7 


4.5 


5.4 


3.8 


3.7 


Aggravated assault : 
















Number of persons released 


2,059 


859 


338 


232 


193 


255 


182 


Rate per 100,000 


6.2 


7.5 


8.0 


4.7 


4.3 


5.2 


5.9 


Other assaults: 
















Number of persons released . 


4,531 


1,681 


639 


425 


434 


804 


548 


Rate per 100,000 


13.7 


14.8 


15.1 


8.5 


9.6 


16.5 


17.8 


Burglary— breaking or enter- 
ing: 

Number of persons released 
















5,492 


1,124 


827 


712 


618 


1,327 


884 


Rate per 100,000 


16.6 


9.9 


19.5 


14.3 


13.6 


27.3 


28.7 


Larceny— theft: 
















Number of persons released 


10, 550 


3,036 


1,242 


1,264 


1,236 


2,005 


1,767 


Rate per 100,000 


31.9 


26.7 


29.3 


25.4 


27.3 


41.3 


57.3 


Auto theft: 
















Number of persons released. 


2,199 


377 


331 


289 


336 


428 


438 


Rate per 100,000 


6.6 


3.3 


7.8 


5.8 


7.4 


8.8 


14.2 


Embezzlement and fraud: 
















Number of persons released. 


1,006 


267 


149 


52 


170 


182 


186 


Rate per 100,000 


3.0 


2.3 


3.5 


1.0 


3.8 


3.7 


6.0 



62 

Table 22. — Persons released without being held for prosecution, 1948; number and 
rate -per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 



Offense charged 



Total, 
1,126 
cities; 
total 
popula- 
tion, 
33,076,671 



Stolen property; buying, re- 
ceiving, possessing: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and 
prostitution) : 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 
etc.: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and 
children: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Suspicion: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 



496 
1.5 



830 

2.5 



542 
1.64 



6,521 
19.7 



923 

2. S 



362 
1.1 



1,111 
3.4 



1,273 
3.8 



2.078 
6.3 



1.380 
4.2 



i 739,481 
2, 382. 2 



11.758 
35.5 



97, 096 
293.5 



12, 148 
36.7 



4,624 
14.0 



126,815 
383.4 



21,898 
65.6 



Group I 



22 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
11,388,341 



112 
1.0 



80 
0.7 



159 
1.40 



5,975 
52.5 



80 
0.7 



111 
l.o 



449 
3.9 



L43 

1.3 



702 
6.7 



163 
1.4 



I 10, 803 
494.5 



2, 801 
24.6 



53. 126 
466.5 



3,145 
27.6 



3,480 
30.6 



70, 507 
619. 1 



5, 642 
49.5 



Group II 



30 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
4,238,715 



40 
0.9 



97 
2.3 



2.08 



122 
2.9 



131 
3.1 



1.6 



158 
3.7 



259 
6.1 



20.8 



304 
7.2 



87. 065 
2, 054. 



1, 303 
30.7 



17, 816 
420.3 



3, 067 
72.4 



581 
13.7 



9, 809 
231.4 



2,394 
56.5 



Group III 



Group IV 



72 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
4,977,342 



130 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
4,528,974 



50 
1.0 



172 
3.5 



71 
1.43 



159 
3.2 



161 
3.2 



110 
2.2 



79 
1.6 



44 
0.9 



146, 170 
2, 936. 7 



1,130 
22.7 



7,203 
144.7 



is", 
3.7 



15, 583 
313.1 



1,661 
33.4 



133 
2.9 



56 
1.24 



26 
0.6 



231 

5.1 



40 
0.9 



2.0 



202 

4.5 



77 
1.7 



139 
3.1 



3 121,158 
2, 742. 4 



1,233 
27.2 



5,595 
123.5 



Kin 
3.5 



9,913 
218.9 



3,249 
71.7 



Group V 



Group VI 



320 cities, 
10,000 to 

25,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
4,859,996 



102 
2.1 



209 
4.3 



2.02 



134 

2.8 



186 
3.8 



29 
0.6 



192 
4.0 



270 
5.6 



133 

2.7 



390 

8.0 



4 233, 876 
4, 825. 1 



3,212 
66.1 



8,003 
164.7 



L38 

2.8 



13, 944 

286.9 



4,599 
94.6 



552 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

3,083,303 



109 
3.5 



139 
4.5 



70 
2.27 



105 
3.4 



134 
4.3 



24 
0.8 



113 
3.7 



320 
10.4 



182 
5.9 



304 
9.9 



104, 349 
3, 384. 3 



2,079 
67.4 



5,353 
173.6 



2, 330 
75.6 



2.6 

7,059 
228.9 

4,153 
134.7 



Footnotes 1-4.- — The number of persons released and the rate are based on the reports from the number 
of cities indicated below: 



Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


1 


1,120 
20 


31,041,636 
9, 477, 153 


3 


127 
319 


4, 418, 022 


2. 




4... 


4, 847, 101 











G3 

A few of the cities did not itemize persons released for road and 
driving laws, parking violations, and other traffic motor vehicle 
violations and, as a result, these data are combined in table 22 above 
and the available data for each of these violations are presented in 
table 23 which follows. 



"able 23. — Persons released tritium! being held for prosecution, traffic violations, 

except driving while intoxicated, 1948; number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, hi/ 
population groups 

[Population figures from 1340 decennial census] 





Total, 
738 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
18,797,870 


Group I 


Group n 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Offense charged 


( .t cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
4,944,137 


18 cities, 
100,000 to 

L'.'.O.OOtl; 

popula- 
tion, 
2,633,377 


IS cities. 
50, to 

100,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
3,011,824 


- 

25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,855,294 


217 cities. 

1(1. Ill III to 

25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
3,296,644 


366 cities 
under 

10,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,056,594 


Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons released . 
Elate per 100,000 


50, 355 
267.9 

631, 369 
3. 358. 7 

26. 279 
139.8 


4.713 
95.3 

29, 835 
603.4 

12, 315 
249.1 


11,379 
432.1 

48, 745 
1,851.0 

2,556 
97.1 


7,313 
242.8 

136,106 

4, 519. 1 

2,751 
91.3 


7, 522 
263.4 

110,683 

3, 876. 4 

2. 392 
83.8 


7,031 

213.3 

218, 683 
6, 633. 5 

3,131 
95.0 


12, 397 
602.8 


Parking violations: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


87,317 
4, 245. 7 


< >ther traffic and motor vehicle 
laws: 
N umber of persons released^ 
Kate per 100,000 


3,134 
152.4 







64 

Offenses Known, Cleared by Arrest, and Persons Charged, by Geographic 
Divisions, 1948 

So that a local police agency may compare its arrest experience and 
cleared rate with that of other cities in the same general location, the 
data presented in tables 17 and 18 relative to offenses cleared and 
persons charged have been rearranged for the nine geographic divisions 
and presented in tables 24 and 25. 

Variations in the data which follow between the geographic divisions 
will be observed, but it should be remembered that many factors are 
involved affecting the charge which may be placed against an indi- 
vidual under certain conditions in a local community. For example, 
persons arrested for negligent manslaughter growing out of a traffic 
fatality may, by local custom, be charged with reckless or drunken 
driving or some offense considered less serious than manslaughter. 
Established local custom is reflected also in other classifications. 
The figures for prostitution and commercialized vice may be con- 
sidered conservative since violators of such laws may in some areas 
be charged with some other sex offense, vagrancy, or disorderly con- 
duct. Further, persons arrested for intoxication may be formally 
charged with disorderly conduct, while a person responsible for an 
aggravated assault may be taken into custody under a misdemeanor 
charge. 

While technically an offender should be charged with the offense 
committed, in many instances the policy and practice of prosecuting 
attorneys, judges, and other officials, as well as public opinion and 
established custom in the community, will influence to a great extent 
the charge placed by the police against the arrested offender and, 
of course, the entries on the annual reports of the police concerning 
persons charged are based upon the charge actually placed against 
the offender regardless of the violation committed. 



65 



Table 24. — Number of offenses known, number and percentage cleared by arrest, 
1948, by geographic divisions 



[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Criminal 
homicide 




















Rape 


Kob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Geographic division 


Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 

ligellt 

man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


TOTAL, ALL DIVISIONS 


















1,654 cities; total population, 
49,740,725: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


3.096 

2,813 

90.9 


1,777 
1,494 
84.1 


6.094 

4,818 

79.0 


29. 490 

12, 320 

41.8 


39. 233 

31.053 

79.2 


191, 663 

56. 860 

29.7 


477, 713 

108, 554 

22.7 


82, 527 

22, 522 

27.3 


New England states 


















150 cities; total population, 5,208,025: 

Number of offenses known, 

N um her cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared bv arrest 


70 

60 

94.3 


141 

121 

85.8 


389 
355 
91.3 


930 
488 
52.5 


680 

610 

89.7 


14, 098 
4. 737 
33.6 


31,963 

8,322 

26.0 


6,390 
2,389 
37.4 


• Middle Atlantic States 


















388 cities; total population, 9,581,690: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 
Percentage cleared by arrest 


302 

268 

88.7 


280 

254 

90.7 


641 

547 

85.3 


2,585 
1,059 
41.0 


3,279 
2,650 
80.8 


22, 534 
6,827 
30.3 


44, 302 

10, 398 

23.5 


9,468 
2,899 
30.6 


East North Central States 


















432 cities; total population, 15,266,563: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared bv arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest . -. 


850 

710 

83.5 


424 

305 
71.9 


2,231 
1,668 
74.8 


12, 744 
5,377 
42.2 


9,741 

7,118 

73.1 


53, 575 

17, 151 

32.0 


137, 815 

30, 332 

22.0 


20, 870 

5,859 

28.1 


West North Central States 


















178 cities; total population, 4,854,650: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared bv arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest - . - 


229 

213 

93.0 


151 

125 

82.8 


591 

471 

79.7 


1,943 
866 
44.6 


3,293 
2,381 
72.3 


17,123 
5,152 
30.1 


43,805 

10, 940 

25.0 


6,761 
1,827 
27.0 


South Atlantic States > 


















138 cities; total population, 4,911,786: 
Number of offenses known 

Percentage cleared by arrest — 


720 

708 

98.3 


168 

166 

98.8 


884 

784 

88.7 


3,479 
1,843 
53.0 


13, 491 

11, 464 

85.0 


24,831 
8,222 
33.1 


59, 781 

17, 697 

29.6 


11,507 
2,816 
24.5 


East South Central States 


















4:s eities; total population, 1,404,531: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared bv arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest _ 


258 

241 
•14. 6 


101 

88 

87.1 


122 

89 

73. 


1,009 

289 

28.6 


2,198 
1,758 
80.0 


8,054 
1,915 
23.8 


12, 665 
3,018 
23.8 


3,758 
856 
22.8 


West South Central States 


















81 cities; total population, 3,229,074: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


428 

4111 

93.7 


218 

198 

90.8 


386 
324 
83.9 


1,831 

799 

43.6 


3,749 
3,287 

87.7 


17,904 

5, 103 

28.5 


42,260 

11, 169 

26.4 


7, 513 

2,227 

29.6 


Mountain States 


















74 cities; total population, 1,270,344: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


69 

61 

88.4 


65 

57 

87.7 


220 

166 
75.5 


975 

411 

42.2 


641 

538 

83.9 


8,604 
2,372 
27.6 


24,303 

5,123 

21.1 


3,528 
1,131 
32.1 


Pacific States 


















171' cities; total population, 4,014,062: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared bv arrest 


170 

142 

83.5 


229 

180 

78.6 


630 
412 
65.4 


3,994 

1,188 
29.7 


2, 161 

1,247 
57.7 


24, 940 

5. 381 

21.6 


80, 819 

11, 555 

14.3 


12, 732 

2,518 

19.8 



1 Includes the District of Columbia. 



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i-i cn co ^r »o co t^ 



DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

Source of Data 

During the first 6 months of 1949 the FBI examined 400,089 
arrest records, as evidenced by fingerprint cards, in order to obtain 
data concerning the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of 
the persons represented. The compilation has been limited to in- 
stances of arrests for violations of wState laws and municipal ordinances. 
In other words, fingerprint cards representing arrests for violations 
of Federal laws or representing commitments to any type of penal 
institutions have been excluded from this tabulation. 

The number of fingerprint records examined exceeded the 377,933 
prints handled during the first 6 months of 1948 by 5.9 percent. 
The tabulation of data from fingerprint cards obviously does not 
include all persons arrested, since there are individuals taken into 
custody for whom no fingerprint cards are forwarded to Washington. 
Furthermore, data pertaining to persons arrested should not be 
treated as information regarding the number of offenses committed, 
since two or more persons may be involved in the joint commission 
of a single offense, and on the other hand one person may be arrested 
and charged with the commission of several separate crimes. 

Offense Charged 

More than 41 percent (166,851) of the records examined during 
the first half of 1949 represented arrests for major violations. Persons 
charged with murder, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, and auto 
theft numbered 112,933 constituting 28.2 percent of the total arrest 
records examined. 
-Sex 

Fingerprint cards representing arrests of males during the first half 
of 1949 numbered 360,944, a 6.1 percent increase over the 340,130 
cards received during the first half of 1948. 

Female arrest prints increased from 37,803 during the first half of 
1948 to 39,145 during the same period of 1949, representing an increase 
of 3.5 percent. 
Age 

During the first half of 1949, males and females under 21 years of 
age arrested and fingerprinted numbered 61,373, constituting 15.3 
percent of the total arrests. In addition, there were 65,986, (16.5 
percent) between the ages of 21 and 24, making a total of 127,359 
(31.8 percent) less than 25 years old. Arrests of persons 25 to 29 

(68) 



69 

years old numbered 65,849 (16.5 percent). The resultant total is 
193,208 (48.3 percent) less than 30 years of age. It should be re- 
membered that the number of arrest records is doubtless incomplete 
in the lower age groups because of the practice of some jurisdictions 
not to fingerprint youthful offenders. 

Youths played a predominant part in the commission of crimes 
against property as indicated by the following figures: During the 
first half of 1949, there were 99,904 persons of all ages arrested for 
robbery, burglary, larceny, auto theft, embezzlement, fraud, forgery, 
counterfeiting, receiving stolen property, and arson; and 27,999 (28.0 
percent) of those persons were less than 21 years old. 

The extent of the participation of youths in the commission of 
crimes against property is further indicated by the following figures: 
During the first half of 1949, 31.8 percent of all persons arrested were 
less than 25 years of age. However, persons less than 25 years old 
numbered 53.4 percent of those charged with robbery, 59.9 percent 
of those charged with burglary, 45.1 percent of those charged with 
larceny, and 67.8 percent of those charged with auto theft. Approxi- 
mately one-half of all crimes against property during the first 6 
months of 1949 were committed by persons under 25 years of age. 

Table 26. — Distribution of arrests by sex, January-June 1949 



Offense charged 



Number 



Total 



Male 



Female 



Percent 



Total 



Male 



Female 



Total 

Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting. 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children... 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws. . 

D isorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 



400, 089 



3,137 

11,500 

29, 025 

24, 329 

35, 269 

9,673 

11,219 

1,748 

555 

5,611 

4,771 

4,675 

9,089 

3,188 

5,790 

7.614 

4,869 

21, 036 

4,486 

63 

4,619 

24, 337 

90, 763 

27, 746 

8,765 

23, 748 

3,484 

18, 980 



360, 944 



39, 145 



100.0 



2,758 

10,988 

26, 071 

23,734 

31,303 

9,479 

10,272 

1,601 

497 

4,959 

4,771 

1,730 

7,688 

2,886 

5,509 

7,248 

4,110 

20, 130 

4,385 

62 

4,494 

20, 999 

82, 748 

23,623 

8,041 

21, 198 

2,964 

16, 696 



379 
512 

2,954 
595 

3,966 
194 
947 
147 
58 
652 



2,945 

1,401 

302 

281 

366 

759 

906 

101 

1 

125 

3,338 

8,015 

4,123 

724 

2,550 

520 

2,284 



2.9 
7.3 
6.1 
8.8 
2.4 
2.8 
.4 
.1 
1.4 
1.2 
1.2 
2.3 
.8 
1.4 
1.9 
1.2 
5.3 
1.1 

1.2 
6.1 
22.7 
6.9 
2.2 
5.9 
.9 
4.7 



100.0 



3.0 
7.2 
6.6 
8.7 
2.6 
2.9 

.4 

.1 
1.4 
1.3 

.5 
2.1 

.8 
1.5 
2.0 
1.2 
5.6 
1.2 

1.3 
5.8 
22.9 
6.6 
2.2 
5.9 
.8 
4.6 



100.0 



1.0 
1.3 
7.6 
1.5 
10.1 
.5 
2.4 
.4 
.1 
1.7 



C> 



7.5 

3.6 

.8 

.7 

.9 

1.9 

2.3 

.3 



.3 
8.5 

20.5 
10.6 
1.8 
0.5 
1.3 
5.9 



i Less than Mo of 1%. 



70 



II 



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71 

Table 28. — Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, 

January-June 1949 



Offense charged 



Total 
number 

of 
persons 
arrested 



Number 

unilcr IS 

years of 

age 



Number 

under 21 

years of 

age 



Total 

number 

under 25 

years of 

age 



Percent- 

der is 
age 



P< rcent- 
age un- 
der 21 

years of 
age 



Total 
percent- 
age un- 
der 25 
years of 



Total.. 

C rimtnal homicide 

R obbery 

Assault 

Hm -clary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft . 

Auto theft 

Embezzlemenl and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, re- 
ceiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting ... 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice. 

I m Imt si \ offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 

etc 

Offenses against family and 

children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violat ions 

Other traffic and motor vehicle 

laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 



■100. 0X9 



3.137 
11. 500 
29. 025 
24. 329 
35. 269 

9.673 
11,219 

1,748 

555 

5,611 

4,771 

4,675 
9.089 
3,188 

5,790 

7,614 

4,869 

21.036 

4.486 

63 

4,619 
24, 337 
90, 763 
27. 746 

8,765 
23, 748 

3.484 
18,980 



17.351 



61. 373 



127. 359 



4.3 



107 

702 

527 

4,024 

3, 073 

1,783 

146 

04 

42 

179 

331 

63 
233 

44 



24 
76 
68 
102 



136 

617 

403 

797 

48 

1, 624 

76 

1,809 



362 
3,041 
3,047 
9,415 

9,255 

4,328 

801 

275 
119 

765 
1,563 

421 

1,062 

554 

1,035 

345 
562 
961 
813 
4 

909 
3, 344 
4,038 
4, 133 

316 
5,200 

369 
4,336 



881 
6, 140 
8,109 
14. 572 

15,918 

6, 558 

2, i:;j 

557 

203 

1,865 

2,684 

1,452 
2,700 
1,312 



1, 556 
1,160 
3, 656 

1,919 
22 

2, 003 
7,945 
12, 956 

8,764 
1,108 
10, 104 



3.4 

6.1 

1.8 
16.5 

8.7 
18.4 

1.3 

3.7 
7.6 
3.2 
6.9 

1.3 
2.6 
1.4 



.3 

1.6 

.3 

2.3 



2.9 
2.5 

.4 
2.9 

.5 
6.8 
2.2 
9.5 



15.3 



11.5 
26.4 
10.5 
38.7 
26. 2 
44.7 
7.1 

15.7 
21.4 
13. 6 
32.8 

9.0 
11.7 
17.4 

17.9 

4.5 
11.5 

4.6 
18.1 

6.3 

19.7 

13.7 
4.4 
14.9 
3.6 
21.9 
10.6 
22.8 



31.8 



28.1 
53.4 
27.9 
59.9 
45.1 
67.8 
21.7 

31.9 
36.6 
33.2 
56.3 

31.1 
29.7 
41.2 

38.0 

20.4 
23.8 
17.4 
42.8 
34.9 

43.4 
32.6 
14.3 
31.6 
12.6 
42.5 
25.4 
40.6 



For males and females combined, the figures for the groups in which 
the largest number of arrests occurred during the first half of 1949 
are as follows: 



Age 


Number of 

arrests 


Age 


Number of 
arrests 


21 


17, 755 
16,482 
16,068 


20... 


15, 685 
15,681 


22 


24 .. 


23 









The frequency of male arrests followed the same pattern as above, 
except age 20 followed age 22 in the frequency of arrests. Arrests for 
females showed the largest number occurring at age 23 followed by 
ages 22, 24, 21, and 25 in that order. 



72 

Criminal Repeaters 

Of all the 400,089 arrest records examined, 237,699 (59.4 percent) 
represented persons who already had fingerprint cards on file in the 
Identification Division of the FBI. For males the percentage having 
prior records was 60.9 and for females the percentage was 46.1. 
These figures pertain to fingerprint arrest records and in no way 
relate to the Civil Identification Files of the FBI. 

For males and females combined, the percentage with a prior finger- 
print record was 19.2 at age 15 and this figure rose rapidly to 46.8 at 
age 20. For males, the percentage was 19.7 at age 15 and 47.8 at 
age 20. For females, the percentage with prior fingerprint records 
was 14.5 at age 15 and 37.4 at age 20. 

Race 

Most of the persons represented in this study were members of the 
white and Negro races. Members of the white race represented 
292,918 of the 400,089 arrest records received, while 101,820 were 
Negroes, 3,286 were Indians, 378 Chinese, 162 Japanese, and 1,525 
were representatives of other races. 



OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in part I and 
part II offenses, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 

Part I Offenses 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter includes all 
wilful felonious homicides as distinguished from deaths caused by negligence. 
Does not include attempts to kill, assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, 
or justifiable homicides. Justifiable homicides excluded from this classification 
are limited to the following types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon by a 
peace officer in line of duty; (2) the killing of a hold-up man by a private citizen. 
(b) Manslaughter by negligence includes any death which the police investigation 
establishes was primarily attributable to gross negligence on the part of some 
individual other than the victim. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape (no force used— victim under 
age of consent), assault to rape, and attempted rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as strong-arm robbery, stick-ups, 
robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by the use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or a theft, even though no force 
was used to gain entrance. Includes attempts. Burglary followed by larceny 
is included in this classification and not counted again as larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value; 
(b) under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of the property stolen, thefts of bicycles, automobile accessories, 
shoplifting, pocket-picking, or any stealing of property or article of value which 
is not taken by force and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, 
"con" games, forgery, worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven away 
and abandoned, including the so-called joy-riding thefts. Does not include taking 
for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unauthorized use by 
those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses 

8. Other assaidts. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which is 
made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false pretenses. 

11. Stolen properly; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those offenses. 

(73) 



74 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of regulations 
or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing, and manufac- 
turing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes 
or regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commer- 
cialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as prostitution, keeping 
bawdy house, procuring, transporting, or detaining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice). — In- 
cludes offenses against chasity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

15. Offenses against the family and children. — Includes offenses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, sale, or use. Excludes Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "drunkenness" (class 18) and "driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations, State or local, are placed in 
this class. Excludes Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regulations with 
respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters, but not in connection with any specific offense, who are released with- 
out formal charges being placed against them. 

o 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume XX— Number 2 
ANNUAL BULLETIN, 1949 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

i'nited States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1950 



M. 5. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMElft 

MAR 28 1950 

CONTENTS 



Page 

Summary of volume XX, No. 2 • 75-76 

Classification of offenses 76-77 

Extent of reporting area 77 

Crime trends: 

Estimated number of major crimes, 1948-49 (table 29) 78-79 

Urban crime trends (tables 30-31) 1 80-85 

Rural crime trends (table 32) 86-87 

Monthly variations, urban (table 33) „__ 88-91^1 

Monthly variations, rural (table 34) 88-91 ' 

Crime rates: 

Urban crime rates, 1949, cities divided according to population (table 

35) 92-93 

Urban crime rates, 1949, cities divided according to location (tables 

36-38) 94-96 

Rural crime rates, 1949 (table 39) 97 

Offenses in individual areas: 

Offenses in cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants (table 40) 98-105 

Offenses in Territories and possessions (table 41) 106 

Supplemental crime data: 

Offense analysis (table 42) 107-109 

Value of property stolen by type of crime (table 43) 110 

Value of property stolen and value of property recovered (table 44) __ 110 

Data compiled from fingerprint records, 1949: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 45) 111-112 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 46-47) 113-116 

Percentage with previous fingerprint records (table 48) 117 

Race distribution of persons arrested (table 49) 117-118 

Definition of part I and part II offense classifications 119-120 

Index to volume XX 121-122 

(ID 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 
U. S. Department of Justice, Washington, D. C. 



Volume XX January 1950 Number 2 

SUMMARY 

Estimated Number of Major Crimes 

B}- the year's end, 1949 crime totaled an estimated 1,763,290 serious 
offenses, a crime every 18 seconds. During an average day, 293 per- 
sons were feloniously killed or assaulted: 162 robberies were commit- 
ted; more than 1,100 places burglarized; over 440 cars were stolen, in 
addition to 2,800 other thefts. 

Crime Trends 

Crime was up 4.5 percent across the Nation during 1949 compared 
with the previous year, with all offenses on the rise except criminal 
homicide and auto theft. The increase was 4.2 percent in the urban 
communities and 8.5 percent in the rural districts. 

Burglaries rose 6.7 percent in the cities and 17.5 percent in the 
rural districts, while robbery offenses showed a 6.4 percent increase 
in urban areas and a 12.7 percent increase in rural communities. 
Urban larcenies showed an increase of 4.6 percent, while in the rural 
areas these offenses were up 7.4 percent. 

Aggravated assaults and rapes rose 2.1 and 0.3 percent, respectively, 
in the urban districts and both showed a rise of 1.9 percent in the 
rural communities. 

Murders and negligent manslaughters declined 7.6 and 9.7 percent, 
respectively, in the urban communities, while murders decreased 9.2 
percent and negligent manslaughters 7.7 percent in the rural com- 
munities. Auto thefts in the cities were down 2.6 percent and in 
the rural areas 5.0 percent. 

Monthly Variations in Crime 

Robberies, burglaries, and auto thefts show tendencies to occur with 
greatest frequency during the winter months and least frequently dur- 
ing the summer. Larcenies, on the other hand, generally start the 
year out low and increase to a high point in the late fall or early winter 
before falling off. 

(75) 



76 

Assaults against the person are generally most frequent during the 
warm summer months and least frequent during the winter periods. 

Property Recovered 

According to the reports from the larger cities, more than 93 per- 
cent of the stolen automobiles were recovered by the police last year. 
The proportion of other types of stolen property recovered last year 
was as follows: Currency, 15.6 percent; jewelry, 18.7 percent; furs, 
13.3 percent; clothing, 19.7 percent; and miscellaneous property, 32.3 
percent. 

Persons Arrested 

Of the 792,029 fingerprint arrest records examined during 1949, 9.9 
percent represented arrests of women. Persons under 21 years of age 
represented 26.7 percent of those charged with robbery, 38.2 percent 
of those charged with burglary, 25.6 percent of those charged with 
larceny, 30.4 percent of those charged with rape and 43.8 percent of 
the persons charged with auto theft. Age 21 predominated in the 
frequency of arrests, followed by ages, 22, 23, and 24 in that order. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "offeq^es known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to the 
police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting or 
court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following group 
of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be those most 
generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal homicide, 
including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (b) manslaugh- 
ter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; burglary — break- 
ing or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The figures contained 
herein include also the number of attempted crimes of the designated 
classes. In other words, an attempted burglary or robbery, for ex- 
ample, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner as if the crime 
had been completed. Attempted murders, however, are reported as 
aggravated assaults. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the law-enforce- 
ment agencies of contributing communities and not merely arrests or 
cleared cases. Offenses committed by juveniles are included in the 
same manner as those known to have been committed by adults, 
regardless of the prosecutive action. Complaints which upon inves- 
tigation are learned to be groundless are not included in the tabula- 
tions which follow. 



77 

In publishing; the (lain sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the F B 1 docs not vouch for their accuracy. They arc given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete. 
or Otherwise defective were excluded. 

In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions of 
part I and II offense classifications. 

EXTENT OF REPORTING AREA 

In the table which follows there is shown the number of police 
departments from which one or more crime reports were received dur- 
ing the calendar year 1 949. Information is presented for the cities 
divided according to size, and the population figures employed are 
from the 1940 decennial census. 



Population group 


Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 


Cities filing 
returns 


Total pop- 
ulation 


Population repre- 
sented in returns 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


1,079 


1,027 


95.2 


62, 737, 577 


62,012,498 


98.8 






1. Cities over 250.000-. 


37 

55 
107 
213 
667 


37 

55 
107 
212 
616 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
99.5 
92.4 


30, 195, 339 

7. 792, 650 
7, 343, 917 
7, 417, 093 
9, 988, 578 


30, 195, 339 
7, 792, 650 
7, 343, 917 
7, 389, 902 
9, 290, 688 


100.0 


2. Cities 100,000 to 250,000 


100.0 


3. Cities 50,000 to 100,000 


100.0 


4. Cities 25,000 to 50,000 


99.6 


5. Cities 10,000 to 25,000 


93.0 







Note.— The above table does not include 2,014 cities, villages, and rural townships aggregating a total 
population of 10,027,064. The cities and villages included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 popula- 
tion filing returns, whereas the rural townships are of varying population groups. 

In addition to the 3,041 city and village police departments which 
forwarded crime reports during 1949, one or more reports were received 
during the year from 2,133 sheriffs and State police organizations 
and from 10 agencies in Territories and possessions of the United 
States, making a grand total of 5,184 agencies contributing crime 
reports to the FBI during 1949. 



CRIME TRENDS 

Estimated Number of Major Crimes, 1948-49 

By the end of 1949, crime across the Nation rolled up an annual 
total of 1,763,290 major crimes, according to estimates based on the 
reports of over 4,200 police agencies serving nearly 100 million inhabi- 
tants in the continental United States. This was an increase of 4.5 
percent over the figure for 1948. 

On the average, there was a crime every 18 seconds and while the 
estimates include some larceny offenses involving property of small 
value, the figures do not include crimes of arson, carrying concealed 
weapons, embezzlement and fraud, and other serious offenses of the 
Part II classes, and accordingly, the estimates are considered con- 
servative. 

During an average day in 1949 there were 293 persons feloniously 
killed or assaulted; 162 robberies were committed; over 1,100 places 
burglarized , more than 440 cars were stolen, in addition to 2,800 thefts 
under the general larceny classification. 

Increases were registered for each offense class except criminal 
homicide and auto theft, with burglaries and robberies showing an 
8.4 percent and 7.5 percent increase, respectively. Larcenies were up 
4.8 percent; aggravated assaults rose 2.0 percent; and offenses of rape 
were up 1.2 percent over the estimated total for these offenses for 1948. 

Compared with the previous year, murders in 1949 were off 8.3 
percent and negligent manslaughter offenses down 9.5 percent. Auto 
thefts showed a decrease of 3.8 percent. 



Table 29. — Crime trends, urban and rural 
[Estimated number of major crimes in the United States 1948-49] 



Offense 



Total 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary— breaking oi entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 



Number of offenses 



1948 



1,686,670 



7, 

5, 

16, 

54, 

77, 

377, 

978, 

169, 



1949 



1,763,290 



6,990 

4,880 

16, 380 

59, 120 

78,860 

409, 400 

1,024,520 

163, 140 



Change 



Number Percent 



+76, 620 



-630 
-510 

+200 

+4, 130 

+ 1, 550 

+31,760 

+46, 520 

-6,400 



+4.5 



-8.3 
-9.5 

+1.2 
+7.5 
+2.0 
+8.4 
+4.8 
-3.8 



(78) 



79 




&H 



80 

Urban Crime Trends 

Crime in the urban areas during 1949 rose 4.2 percent over the 
reported total for 1948, according to the reports of 2,193 cities repre- 
senting a combined urban population of 59,284,126. The increase was 
registered for cities of all sizes and in every section of the country 
except in the Middle Atlantic and South Atlantic States. 

The urban crime trends were up in each crime category except 
criminal homicide and auto theft. Burglaries and robberies showed 
increases of 6.7 and 6.4 percent, respectively, while other increases 
were: larceny, 4.6 percent; aggravated assault, 2.1 percent; and rape, 
0.3 percent. The burglary increase was registered for cities of every 
population group and in each geographic division of the country. 

The most consistently reported decrease was for murder, which was 
down in each population group and in each geographic division except 
the Mountain States. In addition to the 7.6 percent decrease in 
murders, negligent manslaughters were off 9.7 percent and automobile 
thefts showed a decrease of 2.6 percent. 



Table 30. — Urban crime trends, 1948-49, by population groups 
[Offenses known to the police in 2,193 cities, total population 59,284,126, based on 1940 decennial census] 



Population group 


Total 


Mur- 
der and 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter hy 
negli- 
gence 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


Total: 

1948 

1949 

Percent change 


1, 001, 470 
1, 043, 221 

+4.2 


3,694 
3,414 
-7.6 


2,205 
1,992 
-9.7 


7,439 
7,462 
+0.3 


36, 466 
38, 807 

+6.4 


48, 295 

49, 321 

+2.1 


231,881 

247. 323 

+6.7 


570, 162 

596, 220 

+4.6 


101, 328 

98, 682 

-2.6 


Group I, 35 cities; popula- 
tion, 22,439,171: 

1948 

1949 

Percent change 

Group II, 54 cities; popu- 
lation, 7,667,953: 

1948 

1949 

Percent change 

Group III, 105 cities; pop- 
ulation, 7,225,117: 
1948 


418. 356 

445, 448 

+6.5 

155, 282 

156, 465 
+0.8 

129, 598 

132, 483 

+2.2 

114,357 

115.454 

+ 1.0 

109, 561 
114, 444 

+4.5 

74, 316 

78, 927 

+6.2 


1,861 
1,691 
-9.1 

539 

517 

-4.1 

445 

414 

-7.0 

283 

256 

-9.5 

310 

303 

-2.3 

256 

233 

-9.0 


1,065 

924 

-13.2 

384 

344 

-10.4 

247 

242 

-2.0 

209 

237 

+13.4 

154 

112 

-27.3 

146 

133 

-8.9 


4,177 
4.240 
+1.5 

891 
867 

-2.7 

678 
634 

-6.5 

542 

507 

-6.5 

542 

719 

+32.7 

609 

495 

-18.7 


23, 107 

25, 200 

+9.1 

4,698 
4,589 
-2.3 

3,20S 
3,353 

+4.5 

2,043 
2,096 
+2.6 

1,822 
2,042 
+12.1 

1,588 
1,527 
-3.8 


26,263 

28,108 

+7.0 

5, 337 
5,305 
-0.6 

6,282 
6,328 
+0.7 

4,272 
3,924 
-8.1 

3,780 
3,668 
-3.0 

2,361 
1,988 
-15.8 


100,142 

106, 098 

+5.9 

37, 658 

38, 627 

+2.6 

30, 148 

31,036 

+2.9 

24, 463 

26, 132 

+6.8 

22, 755 
25, 924 
+13.9 

16, 715 
19,506 
+16.7 


216, 832 

234, 213 

+8.0 

89, 346 
90, 696 

+1.5 

76, 118 

78. 372 
+3.0 

71, 660 

72, 125 

+0.6 

70, 396 

72, 441 

+2.9 

45,810 

48. 373 
+5.6 


44, 909 

44, 974 

+0.1 

16, 429 

15, 520 
-5.5 

12, 472 


1949 

Percent change 

Group IV, 206 cities; pop- 
ulation, 7,178,909: 
1948 


12, 104 
-3.0 

10, 885 


1949 


10, 177 


Percent change 

Group V, 531 cities; popu- 
lation, 8,064.203: 
1948 


-6.5 
9,802 


1949 


9,235 


Percent change 

Group VI, 1,262 cities; 
population, 6,708,773: 
1948 


-5.8 
6,831 


1949 


6,672 


Percent change 


-2.3 



81 



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82 

Table 31. — Urban crime trends, 1948-49, by regions, geographic divisions, and 

States 



[Offenses known to the police in 2,193 cities, 


total population 59,284,126, based on 1940 decennial census] 


Regions, divisions, and 
States 


Total 


Murder 
and 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter 
by 
negli- 
gence 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


Total: 

1948 

1949 

Percent change 


1. 001, 470 

1, 043, 221 

+4.2 


3,694 
3,414 
-7.6 


2,205 
1,992 
-9.7 


7,439 
7,462 
+0.3 


36, 466 

38. 807 
+6.4 


48, 295 

49. 321 
+2.1 


231, 881 

247, 323 

+6.7 


570, 162 

596. 220 

+4.6 


101, 328 

98, 682 

-2.6 


The North, 1,468 cities; 
population, 39,349,723: 
1948 


495, 624 
516, 391 

+4.2 


1.531 
1,405 
-8.2 


1,159 
1,061 
-8.5 


4.189 
4,202 
+0.3 


19, 604 
21, 911 
+ 11.8 


18,281 
20, 305 
+ 11.1 


119, 176 

124, 384 

+4.4 


282, 740 

295, 713 

+4.6 


48 944 


1949 - 


47, 410 
-3.1 


Percent change 


New England, 176 cities; 
population, 5,782,699: 
1948 


60, 248 

60, 914 

+1.1 


78 

68 

-12.8 


149 

172 

+15.4 


409 

317 

-22.5 


973 
1,090 
+12.0 


764 

680 

-11.0 


16, 503 

15, 720 

+1-4 


35,420 

36, 861 

+4-1 


6,962 


1949 


6 006 


Percent change 


-13.6 


Connecticut, 22 cities; 
population, 928,464: 
1948 


11, 884 
11, 308 

3,350 
3.419 

35, 537 

36, 612 

1,795 
1,925 

6,726 
6.650 

956 
1,000 

102, 972 

101, 151 

-1.8 


17 
17 

6 

43 
41 

1 
1 

14 
3 

3 


42 
20 

5 
6 

79 
118 

6 
2 

17 
26 


49 
43 

12 
11 

290 
220 

17 
15 

36 
25 

5 
3 

868 

773 

-10.9 


177 
214 

38 
35 

657 
726 

9 
10 

89 
104 

3 

1 

3,429 
3,666 
+6.9 


222 
232 

33 
17 

348 

347 

10 
13 

151 
70 

1 

3,924 
3,791 
S.4 


3,486 
3,094 

841 
760 

8,773 
9,277 

446 

470 

1,785 
1,888 

172 
231 

28, 160 

28, 419 

+0.9 


6, 852 
6,738 

2,053 
2,308 

20, 676 
21,779 

1,160 
1,274 

3,986 
4,068 

693 
694 

53, 534 

62, 228 

-2.4 


1,039 


1949 


950 


Maine, 16 cities; popula- 
tion, 269,289: 
1948 


368 


1949 


276 


Massachusetts, 101 cities; 
population, 3,661,157: 
1948 


4,671 


1949 


4,104 


New Hampshire, 14 cities; 
population, 239,235: 
1948 


146 


1949 


140 


Rhode Island, 14 cities; 
population, 594,977: 
1948 


648 


1949 


466 


Vermont, 9 cities; popula- 
tion, 89,577: 
1948 


80 


1949 


70 


Middle Atlantic, 521 
cities; population, 
11,850,442: 
1948 


346 
320 

-7.5 


399 

381 

-4.5 


12, 312 


1949 


11, 573 


Percent change 


-6.0 


New Jersey, 131 cities; 
population, 2,592,698: 
1948 


27. 818 
26, 207 

33, 182 
32, 512 

41, 972 

42, 432 

254, 655 

273, 448 

+7.4 


72 
79 

70 
50 

204 
191 

881 

841 

-4.5 


100 
96 

35 
29 

264 
256 

456 

365 

-19.8 


216 
195 

201 
195 

451 
383 

2,310 
2,573 
+11-4 


715 
741 

380 
429 

2,334 
2,496 

13, 127 
14, 707 
+12.0 


1, 245 
1,164 

877 
735 

1,802 
1,892 

10, 246 
12.413 
+21.1 


8,123 

7,484 

7,308 
7,799 

12, 729 

13. 136 

57, 497 

62. 137 
+8.1 


14, 609 
13, 720 

20, 462 
20, 046 

18, 463 
18, 462 

H7,544 

158, 362 

+7.3 


2,738 


1949 


2,728 


New York, 169 cities; 

population, 3,558,613: 

1948 


3,849 


1949 ... 


3,229 


Pennsylvania, 221 cities; 
population, 5,699,131: 
1948 


5,725 


1949 


5,616 


East North Central, 524 
cities; population, 16,- 
420,866: 
1948 


22, 595 


1949 


22, 050 


Percent change _ - 


-2.4 



83 



Table 31.- 



Urban crime trends, 10J,8-/ t 9 by regions, geographic divisions, on, I 
States — Continued 



Regions, divisions, and 
States 



Illinois, 143 cities; popula- 
tion. .1,421,344: 

1948 . 

1949 

Indiana, 69 cities; popula- 
tion, 1,718,845: 

1948 

1949 

Michigan, 95 cities; popu- 
lation, 3,275,289: 

1948 

1949 

Ohio, 140 cities; popula- 
tion. 4,399,102: 

1948 

1949 

Wisconsin. 77 cities) pop- 
ulation, 1,606,286: 

1948 

1949 

West North Central, 247 
cities; population, 5,- 
295,716: 

1948 

1949 

Percent change 



Iowa, 52 cities; popula- 
tion, 912,265: 

1948 

1949 

Kansas, 49 cities, popula- 
tion, 683,684: 

1948 

1949 

Minnesota, 62 cities; pop- 
ulation, 1,306,591: 

1948 

1949 

Missouri, 42 cities; popu- 
lation, 1,706,805: 

1948 

1949 

Nebraska, 21 cities; popu- 
lation, 448,503: 

1948 

1949. 

North Dakota, 10 cities; 
population, 121,649: 

1948 

1949___ 

South Dakota, 11 cities; 
population, 116,219: 

1948 

1949 

The South, 424 cities; pop- 
ulation, 12,328,283: 

1948 

1949. 

Percent change 

South Atlantic, 1 201 cities; 
population, 5,909,037: 

1948 

1949 

Percent change 



Total 



63, 942 
71,671 



32, 383 
31. 176 



71,423 
80, 712 



68, 589 
71, 248 



18.318 
18, 641 



77, 749 

80, 878 

+4-0 



11.578 
11,427 



11. 144 
11,616 



15, 627 
15. 934 



28, 777 
30, 737 



7,179 
7,703 



1,811 

1,751 



1.633 
1,710 



268, 881 

272, 336 

+ 1.3 



Lie,, ,isi; 

134. 752 

-1.2 



Murder 

and 
non- 
negli- 

| Till 

man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter 
by 
uegli- 
gence 



383 
346 



154 
149 



238 
238 



m 

22.1 



137 
123 



1,805 
1,655 
-8.3 



135 



140 
L24 



156 
143 



Rape 



595 
549 

-7.7 



818 
794 
-2.9 .+21.0 



771 
943 



179 

148 



755 
953 



540 
454 



-10.5 



382 
302 



1,688 
1.652 
-2. 1 



991 

907 
-2.4 



Bob- 
bery 



6, 376 

7.347 



934 
944 



2,892 
3,419 



2,780 
2.813 



145 

is! 



2,075 
2,448 
+18.0 



Aggra- 
\ ated 

assault 



140 

150 



242 
216 



423 

435 



1. 095 
1,453 



141 
152 



, 179 
.010 
-2. 1 



3, 074 

4,788 



852 

800 



4.091 
4.499 



2, 109 
2, 160 



120 

166 



3,347 
3,421 

+2.2 



203 
152 



126 

104 



2,791 

2.929 



128 
157 



Bur- 
glary 

break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



17.209 
18. 777 



7. 443 

7,285 



14, 897 
16,680 



15.4J5 

16,248 



2, 533 
3,147 



18. 016 

18. 108 

+0.5 



Lar- 
ceny 
thefi 



2, 347 
2,560 



2.699 
2.770 



3.278 

3.145 



7,722 

7. 3S3 



1,342 

1.557 



301 

275 



327 
418 



30,215 

32, 794 



19, ICO 
18,811 



43. 309 

49, L'Mi 



40, 99S 
43, S71 



13, 862 
13,600 



46, 242 

48, 262 
+4-4 



7,886 
7.378 



6, 910 
7,415 



10,177 
10,507 



14, 154 
15. 722 



4,737 

4,.s.-:: 



1,246 
1,262 



1,132 
1,125 



63. 569 140. 672 

67.614 142.222 

+6.4 +1.1 



4, 350 15, 198 
1.071 J t4,97£ 
-6.4 -1.5 



30,673 

32, 041 
+4.6 



1 Includes the District of Columbia. 



70, 531 

69. 036 

-2.1 



84 

Table 31. — Urban crime trends, 1948-49, by regions, geographic divisions, and 

Stales — Continued 



Regions, divisions, and 
States 



Delaware, 4 cities; popu 
lation, 124,828: 

1948 

1949 

Florida, 28 cities; popula- 
tion, 829,075: 

1948 

1949. 

Georgia, 28 cities; popula 
tion, 794,750: 

1948 

1949 

Maryland, 15 cities; popu 
lation, 1,021,478: 

1948 

1949 

North Carolina, 47 cities; 
population, 848,909: 

1948... 

1949 

South Carolina, 19 cities; 
population, 310,647: 

1948.. 

1949 

Virginia, 34 cities; popula- 
tion, 870,982: 

1948 

1949 

West Virginia, 25 cities 
population, 445,277: 

1948 

1949 

East South Central, 
88 cities; population. 
2,439,673: 

1948 

1949 

Percent change 

Alabama, 22 cities; popu- 
lation, 648,833: 

1948 

1949 

Kentucky, 26 cities; popu 
lation, 683,887: 

1948 

1949 

Mississippi, 17 cities 
population, 266,472: 

1948 

1949 

Tennessee, 23 cities; popu 
lation, 840,481: 

1948 

1949 

West South Central 
135 cities; population 
3,979,573: 

1948 

1949 

Percent change 

Arkansas, 15 cities; popu 
lation, 256,877: 

1948 

1949 

Louisiana, 21 cities; popu 
lation, 826,596: 

1948 

1949 



Total 



2.443 
2.381 



26, 885 
24, 532 



15, 739 
14. 529 



13, 467 
13. 633 



18,450 
19, 652 



7,011 
6.737 



24, 340 

25. 987 



5,382 
6.166 



12, 850 
12, 024 



15,810 
15, 106 



4,163 
4,151 



12, 836 
14, 682 



86, 836 

91,621 

+5.5 



4,055 
4,078 



12, 059 
11, 604 



Murder 
and 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



120 
133 



174 
173 



118 

84 



137 
118 



138 
120 



476 
371 

n.i 



160 
136 



181 
139 



511 
490 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter 
by 
negli- 
gence 



171 

117 

-31.6 



196 

-14.4 



Rape 



159 

157 



126 

105 



194 
236 



216 
204 
-5.6 



481 
481 



Rob- 
bery 



818 

681 



434 

435 



485 
617 



341 
323 



153 
108 



733 

801 



2S9 
362 



1,725 
1,628 
-5.6 



333 
364 



761 
657 



542 
530 



2,104 
2,311 
+9.8 



116 
143 



446 
376 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



1 , 349 
994 



1.363 
1.320 



1.322 
1. 185 



4. 466 
4,427 



1,946 
2, 026 



244 
286 



4,108 
3,846 
-6.4 



1,589 
1,269 



381 
375 



1,191 
1,342 



4,590 
i,S68 

-4-8 



363 
327 



906 

892 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



600 
542 



7,663 
7,942 



3,429 

2,916 



2, 406 
2, 543 



3,969 
4. 488 



1,394 
1,649 



5. 303 
6,000 



1,366 
1,810 



12, 362 

12, 605 

+2.0 



3,608 
3,217 



4, 590 
4,455 



971 

1,095 



3,183 

3,838 



20, 544 
J>.9i;s 
+11.8 



1,029 
1,178 



2,619 
2,807 



Lar- 

cenv— 
theft 



1,482 
1,508 



14,701 
12,864 



8, 328 

7, 886 



6, 403 
6,464 



7,742 
8, 534 



4,207 
3.&31 



13, 687 
14,475 



2, 694 
3,007 



20, 601 

21, 683 
+5.8 



5,765 
5, 756 



6,887 
7,037 



2,257 
2,185 



5,592 
6, 705 



49, 640 

51,503 

+3.8 



2, 064 
1,944 



6, 090 
5, 636 



85 

Table 31. — Urban crime trends, 1948-49, by regions, geographic divisions, and 

States — Continued 



Regions, divisions, and 
States 


Total 


Murder 
and 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter 
by 

llegli- 

gence 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 

enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


Oklahoma, 31 cities; popu- 
lation, 650,160: 
1948 


13, 388 

14. 577 

57, 336 
61. 362 

236. 965 

254. 494 

+7.4 


38 
34 

352 

334 

358 

354 

-1.1 


29 
13 

127 

130 

451 

382 

-15.3 


69 
65 

281 
266 

1,562 
1,808 
+2.9 


266 
285 

1,276 
1,507 

8.883 
8,886 
+2.3 


306 
281 

3,015 

2,868 

6,118 
5,830 
-4.7 


3,239 
3,805 

13, 657 

15, 178 

49. 136 
55, 325 
+ 12.6 


8,273 
8,870 

33, 213 
35, 053 

146. 750 

158, 285 

+7.9 


1,166 


1949 


1,224 


Texas, 68 cities; popula- 
tion, 2,245,940: 

I'.US 


5,415 


1949.. _ 


6.026 


The West, 301 cities; 
population, 7,606.120: 

194H 

1949 


23. 907 
23. 824 


Percent change 


-0.3 


Mountain, 97 cities; popu- 
lation, 1,476,702: 

1948 


41, 864 
46, 412 
+10.9 


74 

76 

+2.7 


75 

64 

-14.7 


237 

216 

-8.9 


1,076 
1.107 
+2.9 


694 

767 

+10.6 


9,284 
10. 158 
+9.4 


26. 482 
29. 714 
+12. 2 


8,942 


1949 


4,310 


Percent change 


+9.3 


Arizona, 11 cities; popula- 
tion, 151,420: 

1948 

1949 


5.905 

6.881 

15. 028 
17, 559 

4,294 
4,210 

3,142 
3,373 

2,042 
2,157 

2,712 

2,849 

7,051 
7,365 

1,690 
2,018 

195, 101 

208, 082 

+6.7 


15 
8 

29 
28 

4 
8 

3 

5 

8 
3 

9 
11 

4 

7 

2 

6 

284 

278 

-2.1 


10 
10 

36 
36 

3 
2 

15 
2 

3 

4 

5 
11 

1 
1 

376 

318 

-15.1 


37 
32 

116 
62 

13 
19 

11 
12 

9 
14 

15 
27 

26 
28 

10 
22 

1,325 
1,392 
+5.1 


147 
137 

541 

543 

49 
51 

74 
69 

67 
86 

37 
43 

113 
136 

48 
42 

7,607 
7,779 
+2.3 


110 
181 

214 
252 

52 
35 

76 
52 

41 
53 

97 
100 

58 
48 

46 
46 

5,424 

5.')':.: 
-6.7 


1,079 
1,377 

4,024 
4,382 

786 
750 

514 

675 

552 
531 

532 
509 

1.499 
1,589 

298 
345 

:!<). S:r> 

45. 167 
+13.3 


3,764 
4,445 

8,826 
10, 732 

2,988 
2,994 

2,201 
2,174 

1,185 
1,336 

1,642 
1.775 

1. 771) 
4,900 

1,106 
1, 358 

120. 208 

128, 571 

+6.9 


743 
691 


Colorado, 18 cities; popu- 
lation, 537,247: 

1948 


1,242 


1949 


1,524 


Idaho, 18 cities; popula- 
tion, 145,366: 

1948 


399 


1949 


351 


Montana, 17 cities; popu- 
lation, 165,447: 

1948 


248 


1949 


386 


Nevada, 4 cities; popula- 
tion, 55,775: 
1948 


178 


1949 


134 


New Mexico, 10 cities; 
population, 93,091: 
1948 


377 


1949—. 

Utah, 13 cities; popula- 
tion, 259,437: 
1948 


380 
576 


1949 

Wyoming, 6 cities; popu- 
lation, 68,919: 
1948 


646 
179 


1949 


198 


Pacific, 204 cities; popula- 
tion, 6,129,418: 
1948 


19, 965 


1949 


19, 514 


Percent change 


-2.3 


California, 148 cities; pop- 
ulation, 4,762,178: 
1948 


153. 634 
165. 134 

14. 636 
15,444 

26. 831 

27, 504 


238 
232 

19 
16 

27 
30 


286 

251 

34 

19 

56 
48 


1,140 
1.166 

77 
94 

108 
132 


6,466 
6,493 

388 
393 

753 
893 


4,942 
4,582 

297 
240 

185 
241 


:;n. ,s;;:i 
35,902 

3,124 
3,457 

5,895 

5,808 


94, 272 
101,196 

9,257 
9.837 

16, 739 
17,538 


15, 457 


1949 

Oregon, 25 cities; popula- 
tion, 498,556: 
1948 


15, 312 
1,440 


1949 


1,388 


Washington, 31 cities; 
population, 868,684: 
1948 


3,068 


1949 


2,814 







SG 



CO 





z 






Ul 


<u 




OS 




s 


H 


Ou 


u 


W 


0> 

o 


UJ 


2 


H-< 




NN 


> 


UJ 


0* 


o 


Oh 


U 





Oh 



a) 

c 

S±3 






Oi 



00 







"ll 




* +1 


THEFT 


e 

S 




CENY 

7.4 




1 








3 -n 

2 + 




AGGRAVATED 1 
ASSAULT 

+ 1.9 




ROBBERY 

+ 12.7 








Si <> 




2 + 




t NEGLIGENT 
MANSLAUGHTER 


MURDEI 

i 
i 
i 
1 
i 











— _ 



o J\ 



— 




wm 



iKsl r / 




87 

Rural Crime Trends 

The crime increase in the rural areas amounted to 8.5 percent, 
according to the reports of 1 ,558 rural police agencies serving a popula- 
tion of 32,813,514, and the increases in the rural areas were generally 
more pronounced than those reported by the police serving the urban 
communities. The burglary increase in the rural districts was 17.") 
percent as compared with a 6.7 percent rise in the cities. Similarly, 
robberies in the rural areas rose 12.7 percent during 1949 over the 
previous year, as compared with a 6.4 percent increase in the cities. 

Larcenies in the rural areas showed an increase of 7.4 percent, while 
these crimes in the urban communities rose only 4.6 percent and rapes 
in the rural areas showed a rise of 1.9 percent, as compared with a 0.3 
percent increase in the urban communities. On the other hand, the 
aggravated assault figures in the rural districts rose only 1.9 percent, 
which was slightly less than the 2.1 percent increase in the urban 
areas. 

Murders and negligent manslaughters in the rural districts declined 

9.2 and 7.7 percent, respectively, while auto thefts showed a decrease 

of 5.0 percent. 

Table 32. — Rural crime trends, 191^8-^9 

[Offenses known as reported by 1,435 sheriffs, 113 rural village officers, and 10 State police. Total rural 
population, 32,813,514, based on 1940 decennial census] 



Offense 



Total 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

A ggra vated assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft. _ 



Number of offenses 



1948 



162. 058 



1,88^ 

1,292 

3, 964 

5, 900 

11. 367 

48, 739 

71,987 

16, 923 



175, 853 



1,713 
1,193 
4,040 
6,648 
11, 587 
57, 272 
77, 325 
16, 075 



Percent 
change 



+8.5 



-9.2 
-7.7 
+1.9 

+12.7 
+ 1.9 

+17.5 
+7.4 
-5.0 



MONTHLY VARIATIONS 
Offenses Known to the Police , 1949 

—d 2,416 URBAN POUCE AGENCIES ■ -TOTAL URBAN POPULATION 60,781,747 
=» 1,868 RURAL POUCE AGENCIES ■ -TOTAL RURAL POPULATION 38,296,058 



(Offenses Against the Person) 



Murd 



urder 



^ | n I M M ^ 




Negligent Manslaughter 









Rape 






i? 1 


inMHMi 




140 






• 


130 




- 


< 

1 
< 


120 
110 
100 

w 


S\ 


W^X. 


• 
a. 


' /*^ 


'r x 




80 


# 


■ 




70 




- 




60 
50 


< > 


1 > ■ 



Aggravated Assault 



S S ff £ 



M H- ? ? M 




Figure 12. 



89 



Monthly Variations 

The frequency with which the various types of crimes are committed 
appears to fluctuate with the changes brought about by the different 
seasons of the year. Some offenses in the general category of crimes 
against property occur with greatest frequency during the winter 
months when these acts of stealth are aided by the relatively long 
nights. On the other hand, as a general rule crimes against the 
person show their greatest frequency during the warm summer 
months with the longer- daylight hours and conditions perhaps gen- 
erally more favorable to personal contact. 

This latter observation is particularly applicable for the offenses of 
rape and aggravated assault, which reached peaks in frequency 
during June and July, respectively, with the lowest figures registered 
for December and January according to the reports from the urban 
areas. In the rural areas rapes were most frequent during July and 
aggravated assaults during August, with January being the lowest 
month for both offenses. 

Murders in the urban areas were committed most frequently during 
August and with least frequency during March, while in the rural 
districts these offenses showed the highest daily average in October 
and the lowest in March. 

Negligent manslaughter offenses for the most part grow out of 
traffic fatalities and, as would be expected, these offenses are most 
frequent during the winter months when driving conditions are 
generally less favorable. 

Table 33. — Monthly variations, urban communities, 1949 
[Daily average, offenses known to the police in 2,416 cities, total population 60,781,747, based on 1940 

decennial census] 



Month 



January-December 

January-March 

April-June.. 

July-September. . _ 
October-December. 

January 

February 

March 

April.. ... 

May 

June 

July... 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December. 



Criminal 
homicide 



Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh 
ter 



9.31 
9.48 
10.04 
9.52 



9.81 
9.07 
9.03 
9.53 
9.32 
9.60 
9.94 
10.13 
10.07 
9.32 
9.50 
9.74 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



5.54 



5. 16 
4.76 
4.92 
7.29 



5.39 
5.14 
4.94 
5.63 
4.13 
4.53 
4.81 
4.55 
5.43 
6.35 
6.20 
9.29 



Rape 



20.80 



SI. 10 
19.86 



19.10 
21.75 
20.48 
21.07 
20. 90 
23. 60 
21.13 
21.45 
20.70 
22.00 
19. 63 
17.90 



Rob- 
bery 



107.7 



115.4 
96.0 
99. S 

120.3 



115.1 
122.9 
108.9 
104.9 
92.9 
90.4 
96.6 
99.1 
102.3 
105.4 
114.2 
141.1 



Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 



137.6 



m s 

139. 9 
151.7 
132.1 



123.1 
128.6 
127.4 
139.7 
137.1 
143. 
159.0 
149.2 
146. 7 
141.4 
127.0 
127.7 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



733.1 
648.5 
662.1 
714-4 



712.7 
766.0 
723.6 
683.9 
637.7 
624.3 
652.5 
663.3 
670.7 
669.6 
709.7 
763.7 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



1, 662. 3 



1,565.6 
t,656.6 

1,667.2 
1,757.3 



1, 484. 1 
1, 588. 1 
1, 626. 8 
1, 693. 1 
1,617.8 
1, 660. 2 
1, 605. 1 
1,683.3 
1,714.9 
1.791.9 
1.757.5 
1. 722. 6 



Auto 
theft 



275.6 



264.7 
265.2 



281.3 
286.1 
284.2 
280.3 
268.7 
244.8 
251.3 
266.6 
278.1 
287.8 
280.4 
298.0 



875666°— 50- 



90 



MONTHLY VARIATIONS 
Offenses Known to the Police , 1949 

» 2,416 URBAN POLICE AGENCIES --TOTAL URBAN POPULATION 60,781,747 
=» 1,868 RURAL POLICE AGENCIES --TOTAL RURAL POPULATION 38,296,058 

(Offenses Against Property) 



Robbery 



i a s g_|ji 



-» -> < vt 




Burglary 



$ o> j ! 5 i5 5: fj j; o 



Larceny 



^ a> >: z 



1 I 



J-Jt 




Auto Theft 



* 2? Z li H £ f. ft O 




Figure 13. 



91 

Robberies and burglaries in both the urban and rural areas show a 
pronounced seasonal curve with high points in the winter and low in 
the summer. Robberies were most frequent during December in 
both the urban and rural areas and were least frequent during dune 
in the cities and in May in the rural districts. 

Burglaries in both the urban and rural areas showed the lowest 
daily average during June and were highesl during February in the 
urban communities and in December in the rural areas. 

Larceny offenses generally start the year out low in relative fre- 
quency, increasing during the year until the last two months when 
some decline is registered. In both the urban and rural areas the 
high month for larceny offenses was October and the low month 
January. 

Auto theft offenses were reported with greatest frequency in 
December in the urban areas and in November in the rural districts 
and were least frequent during June in the cities and during January 
in the rural areas. 

Table 34. — Monthly variations, rural areas, 1949 

[Daily average, offenses known as reported by 1,726 sheriffs, 131 rural village officers, and 1 1 State police. 
Total rural population, 38,296,058, based on 1940 decennial census] 



Month 



January-December 

January-March 

April-June 

July-September _ _ . 
October-December 

January 

February 

Match 

April... 

May 

June 

July.. 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 



Criminal 
homicide 



Mur- 
der, 

noD- 
neg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



5.91 



5. 59 
5. 53 
6 I ; 
6.39 



6.19 
5.61 
4.97 
5.17 
5.39 
6.03 
6.26 
6.19 
5.93 
6. 71 
6.03 
6.42 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 

negli- 
gence 



5.58 



5.21 
;. 66 
■6. 05 
6.30 



5.39 
5.68 
4.61 
4.67 
4.84 
4.47 
5.03 
5.87 
7. 30 
5.74 
7.07 
6.29 



Rape 



13.03 



11.10 
13. 24 
14-77 
12.97 



10.52 
11.61 
11.23 
13. 03 
12.55 
14.17 
15.45 
14.71 
,14.13 
13.87 
12.47 
12.55 



Rob- 
bery 



21.4 



18.8 



20.3 
20.7 
23.1 
20.1 
17.1 
19.3 
20.2 
23.6 
24.0 
22.4 
21.4 
24.2 



Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 



40.7 



32.8 
35.4 
37.3 
36.9 
38.4 
41.8 
42.3 
43.8 
40.8 
42. 1 
40.4 
39.3 



Bur- 

glary- 

break- 

ing or 

entering 



178.6 



175.7 

177.9 
196. 9 



164.5 

184.8 
178.6 
167.0 
162.8 
161.6 
164.3 
184.5 
185.0 
187.7 
198.0 
205.1 



ceny— 

theft 



241.5 



' > I ) 

i3i'.6 

25 i. 6 
254.1 



'JOY 1 

232. 6 
227.0 
225.5 
237.9 
240. 3 
251.1 
261. 7 
250.7 
263.5 
256.1 
242.8 



Auto 
theft 



51.5 



50.4 
50. 9 
52.1 
52. 6 



45. S 
53. 1 
52.6 
51.4 
49.7 
51.5 
52.2 
53.7 
50.3 
53.6 
56.0 
49. 2 



CRIME RATES 

Urban Crime Rates, 1949 

Tables 35-37 which follow clearly indicate the undesirability of 
comparing volume of crime or crime rates between individual com- 
munities, since it is so evident that those factors affecting the extent 
of crime vary greatly according to the size and location of the city. 

While it could be generalized that the higher crime rates are found 
in the larger communities, an even more pronounced variation is ob- 
served between crime rates for groups of cities subdivided according 
to location. 

Thus, in order that police administrators or other interested in- 
dividuals may have available appropriate data with which to com- 
pare local crime rates, the offenses reported by 2,416 cities during 
1949, representing a combined population of 60,781,747, were reduced 
to crime rates per 100,000 inhabitants for cities grouped by size (table 
35) and by location (tables 36 and 37). 

In compiling the data presented in these tables, only those returns 
were used wherein an examination indicated they had been prepared 
in accordance with the principles of uniform crime reporting. The 
number of cities whose returns were used in compiling the urban 
crime rate data is shown in table 38. 

(92) 



93 

TABLE 35. Urban crime rates, 1949, by population (/roups 

[Offenses known to the police and rate per 100,000 Inhabitants. Population figures based on 1040 decennial 

census] 



Population group 



TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

2,416 cities; total population, 
60,781,747: 
Number of offenses known.. 
Kate per 100,000.. 

GROUP I 

35 cities over 250,000; total popu- 
lation, 22,439,171: 
Number of offenses known 
Rate per 100,000 



54 cities, 100,000 to 2,50,000; total 
population, 7,667,953: 
Number of offenses known. 
Rate per 100,000 



GROUP III 

107 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 7,343,917: 
Number of offenses known 
Rate per 100,000 

GROUP IV 

208 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 7,251,938: 
Number of offenses known 
Rate per 100,000 



group v 

563 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 8,503,602: 
Number of offenses known 
Rate per 100,000 



group vi 

1,449 cities under 10,000; total 
population, 7,575,166: 
Number of offenses known . . 
Rate, per 100,000 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Mur- 
der, 
nonneg 
ligent 

man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



3.501 
5.76 



1,691 
7.54 



517 
6.74 



416 
5.66 



257 
3.54 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



286 
3.78 



2,020 
3.32 



924 
4.12 



344 
4.49 



243 
3.31 



237 
3. 27 



334 123 

3.93 1.45 



149 
1.97 



Rape 



7.591 
12.49 



4,240 
18.90 



867 
11.31 



635 
8.65 



510 
7.03 



745 
8.76 



594 

7.84 



Rob- 
bery 



39, 324 
64.7 



25, 200 
112.3 



4,589 
59.8 



3,372 
45.9 



2, 106 
29.0 



2,212 
26.0 



1,845 
24.4 



Aggra- 
vated 

assault 



50. 207 
82.6 



28,108 
125.3 



5, 305 
69.2 



6, 330 

86.2 



3,944 
54.4 



3,970 
46.7 



2, 550 
33.7 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



i 246. 625 
419.1 



i 101, 101 
493.0 



38,627 
503.7 



31, 270 
425.8 



26,387 
363. 9 



27,474 
323.1 



21 , 766 
287.3 



Lar- 
ceny— 

theft 



i 602, 276 
1, 023. 4 



' 229, 763 
1,120.4 



90, 696 
1,182.8 



78, 853 
1,073.7 



72, 717 
1, 002. 7 



70, 295 
897.2 



53, 952 
712.2 



Auto 
theft 



100. 802 
165.5 



44,974 
200.4 



15,520 
202.4 



12,213 
166.3 



10,269 
141.6 



10,089 
118.6 



7,537 



' The number of offenses and rates for burglary and larceny-theft are based on reports as follows: Groups 
I-VI, 2,415 cities, total population, 58,850,413; group I, 34 cities, total population, 20,507,837. 



94 



Table 36. — Urban crime rates, 194-9, by geographic divisions and States 
[Offenses known per 100,000 inhabitants. Population figures based on 1940 decennial census] 



Division and State 


Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burgla- 
ry- 
breaking 

or 
entering 


Larceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


Total 


5.76 


64.7 


82.6 


i 419. 1 


> 1, 023. 4 


165 5 






New England . ... 


1.19 


18.6 


11.7 


269.2 


631.2. 


102.5 








1.81 

2.43 

1.11 

.42 

.48 


22.2 
12.5 
19.8 

4.2 
16.6 

2.0 

30.5 


23.9 
6.2 
9.4 
5.4 

11.2 
1.0 

31.7 


319.0 

274.5 
253.1 
196.5 
311.2 
232.1 

2 234. 7 


704.0 
823.7 
593. 3 
532.5 
669.4 
699.3 

2 481. 3 


96.7 




98 8 




111.9 




58.5 




80 




72.1 


Middle Atlantic 


2.70 


97.5 




2.96 
1.41 
3.37 

5.06 


27.6 
11.9 
43.5 

88.6 


43.9 
20.4 
32.9 

74.7 


287.0 

217.7 

3 213. 6 

376.1 


530.3 

564.3 

3 368. 8 

958.5 


107.0 




89 9 




97.8 


East North Central.. ... . . ... 


133.3 








6.33 
4.99 
4.49 
5.37 
1.23 

3.26 


134. 4 
54.6 

102.7 
63.3 
11.5 

45.7 


87.6 
46.3 
134.6 
48.6 
10.3 

62.9 


343. 9 
419.2 
505.5 
367.3 
195.8 

336.9 


601.1 

1,075.9 

1, 496. 4 

990.3 

839.7 

894.5 


120.5 




175.3 




171.2 


Ohio 


120.4 




88.2 




144.4 








1.05 
2.58 
.82 
7.09 
2.64 
1.64 


16.4 
31.4 
32.5 
84.0 
34.7 
14.0 
21.3 

69.6 


6.0 
21.8 

7.7 
166.6 
35.0 

5.8 
14.2 

253.1 


275.4 
403.0 
238.4 
424.0 
345.9 
226.1 
340.6 

540.8 


785.7 
1.079.3 

792.4 

898.6 
1,078.1 
1,037.4 

924.7 

1,159.4 


127.5 




138.0 


Minnesota ._ 


122.0 
160.0 




208.9 




138.1 




103.3 




13.37 


212.3 








8.33 
15.89 
21.14 

8.18 
13.94 
13.41 
13.67 

7.59 

15.04 


67.4 
85.5 
51.6 
60.4 
43.1 
32.2 
91.1 
80.8 

65.3 


53.7 
124.5 
166.3 
116.2 
525.9 
136.5 
230.1 

65.1 

153.5 


435.9 
942.3 
369. 3 
252.1 
525.7 
508.0 
689.6 
405.4 

503.2 


1,197.3 

1,521.5 

978.6 

636. 7 

1,002.6 

1,196.5 

1,645.3 

672.0 

860.8 


180.9 




215.7 




206.6 




251.7 




188.6 




202.0 




263.0 




141.2 


East South Central .. .. .. ... .. 


g22.3 






20. 49 
8.79 
13.96 
16.42 

12.44 


53.4 
95.2 
27.6 
61.4 

56.5 


192.2 
119.4 
134.6 
158.4 

108.9 


482.0 
624.9 
399.4 
449.4 

564.9 


856.2 
976.6 
812.4 
781.0 
1, 267. 7 


179.6 




279.5 




122.4 




239.5 
232.0 








10.51 
11.27 
5.54 
15.15 

5.04 


52.5 
44.3 
42.3 
65.8 
73.0 


129.3 
105.7 
42.0 
127.5 

52.3 


437. 2 
335.5 
567.0 
664.5 

671.3 


717.1 

667.8 

1.319.9 

1,540.7 

1, 969. 9 


159.0 




193.9 




181.9 


Texas 


269.8 




286.0 








5.04 
5.14 
5.50 
2.91 
5.38 
10.75 
2.61 
8.53 

4.65 


89.5 
97.9 
35.1 
41.8 
154.2 
46.9 
50.7 
52.4 

126.6 


121.0 
49.7 
24.1 
30.2 
95.0 
97.7 
17.9 
60.9 

82.2 


880.6 
793.5 
515.9 
424.2 
952.0 
514.1 
599.3 
460.5 

738.7 


2, 823. 3 
1,950.6 
2, 059. 6 
1,405.7 
2, 395. 3 
1, 773. 8 
1,843.0 
1, 845. 7 

2,112.2 


443.8 




276.6 




241.5 




233.0 




240.3 


New Mexico 

Utah 


386.0 
243.7 




280.2 




319.9 








4.97 
3.31 

3.65 


136. 1 
78.2 
102.9 


95.4 
47.3 
30.1 


756.8 
687.2 
669.3 


2,141.6 
1,966.1 
2, 036. 


323.3 




279.0 




325.1 







1 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 2,415 cities with a total population of 
58,850,413. 

2 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 554 cities with a total population of 10,- 
197,912. 

3 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 237 cities. 

4 Includes the report of the District of Columbia. 



95 



Table 37. — Urban crime rates, 1949, by geographic divisions and population groups 
[Offenses known per 100,000 inhabitants. Population figures based on 1940 decennial census] 



Division and group 



Murder, 

nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Rob- 
bei 5 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Burgla- 
ry 
breaking 

or 
entering 



Larceny- 
theft 



Am ci 
theft 



Total 



New England... 

Group I 

Group II -- 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Middle Atlantic 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV... 

Group V 

Group VI 

East North Central- 
Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

West North Central . 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

South Atlantic 4 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

East South Central.. 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Wesl South Central- 
Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Mountain 

Group I 

Group II... 

Group III. 

Group IV__ 

Group V... 

Group VI 

Pacific 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 



5.76 



84.7 



' 419. 1 



' 1, 023. 4 



1.19 



18.6 



11.7 



2C9. 



631.2 




25. 9 
IT. 1 
4.4 
8.1 
4.9 
2.9 
31.7 



228. I 
347.9 
276. 5 
260.3 

230. 

L99.9 

2 234. 7 



703. 1 
739.8 
681.6 
596. 1 
190.6 
414.2 
2 481.3 



323 8 
258.0 
254. 3 
227.1 
184. 9 
165. 5 
376.1 



3 495. 6 
589. I 
519.2 
57(5. 2 
453.9 
313. 9 
958.5 




425.4 
473. 6 
384. 1 
304. 
280. 5 
251. 9 
336. 9 
393. 3 
409.3 
408.2 
338. 9 
233.2 
213.4 
540.8 



985.7 

1.209.3 

1.081.0 

945. 1 

928.8 

575.4 

894. 5 

959.0 

1.111.8 

1, 255. 7 

943.7 

820.1 

424.8 

1.159.4 



84.1 
113.9 
62.1 
43.8 
31.7 
48.2 
65.3 



333. 3 
183.0 
264. 3 
243. 3 
235. 9 
150.5 
153.5 



420. 6 
914.0 
519. 8 
568.7 
487.6 
359.9 
503.2 



1,055.6 

1,617.2 

1.259.9 

1,390.3 

912.9 

643.8 

860.8 



44 



110.0 
53.5 
53.0 
51.6 
36.3 
15.6 
56.5 



183.7 
154. 2 
195.1 
166. 9 
128.7 
50. 1 
108.9 



608. 9 
490.7 
649.6 
434.9 
409.2 
273. 9 
564.9 



1,102.4 
815.9 
796.6 
997.9 
755.9 
305.5 

1. 267. 7 



15. 90 
8.77 

13.27 

10. 23 
9.82 

10.40 
5.04 



78.2 
72.5 
73.8 
31.6 
24.9 
14.7 
73.0 



130. 4 
90.6 
143. 6 
120.2 
64.0 
65.9 
52.3 



145. 5 
42.0 
92.7 
61.4 
50.1 
45.4 

126.6 



28.2 
11.3 
202.4 
57.8 
48.8 
42.4 
82.2 



725.8 
732. 5 
568.7 
462. 8 
338.5 
284.4 

671.3 

1,071.3 
675.0 
958.5 
640.1 
511.5 
405. 9 
738.7 



1. 402. 5 
1,844.9 
1, 560. 4 
1, 222. 3 
783.9 
509.3 
1.969.9 



2, 321. 3 

1, 706. 8 

2, 484. 4 
2, 297 4 
2, 184. 4 
1.257.5 
2,112.2 



169.1 
102. 3 
116.3 
73.9 
75.8 
60.4 



120. 3 
43. 3 
56.2 
,50.9 
33. 5 
40.9 



764. 1 
638.6 
786. 1 
697. 9 

803. 1 
673. 



1,894.2 
2. 148. 9 
2. 224. 3 
•J. 1131.3 
2. 616. 3 
2. 535. 4 



165.5 



102.5 

179.4 

134.7 

96. 1 

66.4 

54.4 

43.5 

97.5 

132.8 

109.5 

102.4 

82.1 

67.2 

54.3 

J33. 3 

147.0 

170.5 

152.3 

122.7 

100.3 

71.4 

144. 4 

170.2 

217.4 

173.2 

102.3 

101.1 

74.0 

J!12. 3 

248.1 



189.6 
221.6 
150.7 
102.1 
222.3 



277.1 
284.7 
181.5 
215. 4 
185.3 
77.8 
232.0 



294.2 
254.5 
274.5 
204.1 
149.8 
97.0 
286.0 



355. 4 
250.1 
448.2 
418.9 
218.4 
166. 4 
319.9 



339.2 
339.9 
280.9 
251.1 
307. 4 
305. 



1 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 2,415 cities with a total population of 
58,850,413. 

2 The rates for burglary and larcenv are based on the reports of 554 cities with a total population of 
10,197,912. 

3 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 4 cities. 

4 Includes the report of the District of Columbia. 



96 



Table 38. — Number of cities in each population group, geographic division, and 
State represented in the urban crime rate tabulations (tables 35-37) 





Total 




Population 


group 






Division and State 


Over 
250,000 


100,000 to 
250,000 


50,000 to 
100,000 


25,000 to 
50,000 


10,000 to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


Total: 

Population, 60,781,747 


2.416 


35 


54 


107 


208 


563 


1,449 




New England: 

Population, 5,984,607 _ 


188 


2 


10 


13 


35 


62 


66 




Connecticut . ... 


25 
19 
103 
14 
16 
11 

555 




3 


2 
1 

8 
1 
1 


8 
2 
16 
2 
6 
1 

37 


5 
5 
41 
5 
5 
1 

138 


7 
11 
30 

6 


Maine __ 






1 


7 


New Hampshire ... 


Rhode Island 


1 






Vermont 






Middle Atlantic: 

Population, 12,129,246 


5 


10 


24 


343 






140 
177 
238 

566 


1 
2 
2 

8 


3 
4 
3 

10 


7 
6 
11 

23 


15 
10 
12 

59 


36 

47 
53 

117 












East North Central: 

Population, 16,646,483 










153 
78 
105 
150 
80 

277 


1 
1 

1 
4 

1 

4 


1 
3 

2 
4 


4 
6 
4 
2 

8 


13 
10 
9 
14 
13 

12 


31 
14 
23 
33 
16 

59 




Indiana 


46 

64 


Ohio. 


91 


Wisconsin. .. _. 


48 


West North Central: 

Population, 5,456,895 


5 


189 








61 
53 
67 
51 
23 
10 
12 

230 




1 
2 
1 


4 
1 


6 

1 
1 
2 

1 

1 

20 


8 
15 
11 
12 
6 
3 
4 

56 


42 






34 


Minnesota 


2 
2 


52 




2 
1 


33 




1 


15 


North Dakota 




6 


South Dakota 










South Atlantic: 

Population, 6,088,599. 


3 


7 


17 


127 






Delaware .- 


6 
1 
36 
35 
16 
50 
23 
37 
26 

108 




1 








5 


District of Columbia 


1 










Florida 


3 


1 

4 


4 
1 
o 
4 
2 
5 
2 

9 


10 
10 
4 

16 
4 
6 
6 

26 


18 




1 

1 


19 


Maryland. .. .. . ... 




9 




1 


4 
2 
3 
3 

4 


25 






15 


Virginia.. 




2 


21 


West Virginia .. 




15 


East South Central: 

Population, 2,567,249 


3 


3 


63 






Alabama 


28 
34 
19 
27 

161 


1 
1 




2 


3 

5 

1 
13 


5 
6 
10 
5 

41 


17 






21 


Mississippi 




8 


Tennessee 


1 
4 


3 
3 


17 


West South Central: 

Population, 4,139,678 




91 






Arkansas ... 


21 

26 
37 

77 

112 








1 
3 

2 

7 

7 


6 
4 

12 
19 

22 


13 




1 




17 




2 
1 

1 


21 




3 

1 




40 


Mountain: 

Population, 1,547,982 


79 




12 
25 
18 

18 
4 
12 
15 
8 

219 








1 
1 
1 
2 


5 
5 
3 
1 
2 
2 
4 

44 


10 




1 




17 






12 










13 










3 










1 
1 


9 


Utah 




1 




11 








4 


Pacific: 

Population, 6,221,008 


5 


5 


7 


16 


142 






California 

O regon 

Washington. . ... 


157 
29 
33 


3 
1 
1 


3 


7 


12 
1 
3 


33 
5 
6 


99 
22 


2 




21 



97 

Rural Crime Rates, 1949 

The number of offenses and the rate per 100,000 inhabitants 
reported during 1949 by 1,718 sheriffs, 131 rural village officers, and 
11 State police are shown in table 39. It may be noted that the rural 
crime rates for most offenses against the person are generally com- 
parable to those in the urban areas, while the data for crimes against 
property appear generally to be considerably lower. 

A\*liilt- it is clear that rural rates for crimes against property are 
substantially lower than those for urban areas, it should be observed 
that in compiling the rural crime data the figures on some of the 
returns used may have been limited to cases in which arrests were 
made, and such incompleteness in reporting would be most pro- 
nounced in connection with crimes against property, since a relatively 
small proportion of such offenses are followed by arrests. 

Table 39. — Rural crime rates, 1949 



[Ofienses known and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, as reported by 1,718 sheriffs, 131 rural village officers, 
and 11 State police; total rural population 38,071,569, based on 1940 decennial census] 




Criminal 
homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 






Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 


2,101 
5.52 


1,601 

4.21 


4,712 
12.38 


7,644 
20.1 


13,612 
35.8 


64, 818 
170.3 


87, 397 
229.6 


18, 697 
49.1 







875660°— 50- 



OFFENSES IN INDIVIDUAL AREAS 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 25,000 Inhabitants 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the period of January-December 1949 is shown in table 40. The com- 
pilation includes the reports received from police departments in 
cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants. Police administrators and 
other interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare 
the crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in tables 
35, 36, and 37 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless 
desire to make comparisons with the figures for their communities for 
prior periods, in order to determine whether there has been an increase 
or a decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

Caution should be exercised in comparing crime data for individual 
cities, because differences in the figures may be due to a variety of 
factors. The amount of crime committed in a community is not 
solely chargeable to the police but is rather a charge against the entire 
community. The following is a list of some of the factors which might 
affect the amount of crime in a community: 

Population of the city and metropolitan area adjacent thereto. 

The composition of the population with reference particularly to 
age, sex, and race. 

The economic status and activities of the population. 

Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 

The number of police employees per unit of population. 

The standards governing appointments to the police force. 

The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 

The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 

The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 

In comparing crime rates, it is generally more important to deter- 
mine whether the figures for a given community show increases or 
decreases in the amount of crime committed than to ascertain whether 
the figures are above or below those of some other community. 

(98) 



99 



Table 40. — Number of offenses known to the poller, 1949, cities over 25,000 in 

population 

[Based on 1940 decennial census] 



City 



Abilene, 1 r\ 

Akron, Ohio 

Alameda, Calif 

Albany. X. Y 

Albuquerque, X. Mex. 



Alexandria, La... 
Alexandria. Va. .. 
Alhambra, Calif. 

Aliquippa, Pa 

Allentown, Pa... 



Alton, 111. 

Altoona, Pa 

Amarillo, Tex 

Amsterdam, N. Y. 
Anderson, Ind 



Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Anniston, Ala 

Appleton, Wis 

Arlington, Mass... 
Arlington, Va 



Asheville, X. C 

Ashland, Ky__ 

Atlanta, Ga 

Atlantic City, X. J. 
Auburn, X. Y 



Augusta, Ga 

Aurora, 111 

Austin, Tex 

Bakersfield, Calif. 
Baltimore, Md 



Bangor, Maine 

Baton Rouge, La 

Battle Creek, Mich. 

Bay City, Mich 

Bayonne, X. J 



Beaumont, Tex 

Belleville, 111 

Belleville, X. J 

Bellingham, Wash. 
Belmont, Mass 



Beloit, Wis. 

Belvedere Township, Calif. 

Berkeley, Calif 

Berwyn, 111 

Bethlehem, Pa 



Beverly, Mass 

Beverly Hills, Calif. 
Binghamton, X. Y_. 
Birmingham, Ala... 
Bloomfield, X.J 



Bloomington, 111.. 

Boise, Idaho 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn. 
Bristol, Conn 



Brockton, Mass.. 
Brookline, Mass. . 
Buffalo, N. Y.... 
Burbank, Calif— 
Burlington, Iowa. 



Murder, 
nonneg- 

llgent 

man- 
slaughter 



Rob- 
bery 



191 
9 

25 
25 

21 
23 
23 

10 
6 

10 
6 
76 



Aggra- 
vate 1 

assault 



3 
13 

2 
3 

25 

18 

4 

257 

51 



27 
41 
590 

2 
17 
13 



35 

5 
5 
2 
2 

4 

70 
51 
16 
47 

2 

10 

8 

199 

2 

15 

4 

290 

16 
2 



14 

110 
3 

19 

47 

138 

231 
1 

19 
6 

2 

24 

65 

2 

3 

1 
87 



260 

3 

627 

116 

1 

305 

1 

114 

4 

1,140 

1 
22 
19 



Bur- 
glary 

breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



2 
113 
55 

3 
10 



3 

5 

427 

5 



4 

213 

15 

1 

3 

1 

186 

9 

1 



130 

1,011 
88 
246 
230 

135 

180 

356 

56 

163 

113 
203 
359 
16 
272 



L06 



240 

77 

1,524 

336 
53 

258 

„ 52 

415 

414 

2, 109 

82 
147 
256 

127 
194 

351 
28 
39 
56 
54 

120 
461 
464 

104 
68 

46 

74 

202 

1,201 

85 



152 

1,372 

393 

79 

249 
212 
1,341 
357 
36 



Larceny— theft 



$5(1 and 

over 



93 
657 

38 
132 

44 

22 
111 
114 

28 
105 

37 
67 

500 
29 

140 

132 
54 
35 
14 

236 

214 

27 

1,065 

511 
44 

100 

78 

59 

201 

1,661 

42 
125 
86 
25 
27 

112 
23 
21 
61 
17 

50 
118 
91 
49 
41 

29 
27 
121 
1,104 
45 

83 

111 

2, 198 

405 

37 

102 

23 

662 

220 



Under 
$50 



344 

1, 851 

492 

319 

828 

232 
703 
391 
102 

465 

228 
262 
842 
47 
372 

466 
200 
338 
42 
911 

385 
149 
2,649 
600 
225 

352 
173 

1, 155 
769 

3,418 

277 
276 
610 



819 
74 
73 
198 
103 



442 

948 

142 

54 

186 

57 

684 

1,708 

126 

242 
357 
2,974 
813 
118 

374 
159 
2,107 
854 
157 



100 



Table 40. — Number of offenses knoivn to the police, 1949, cities over 25,000 in 
-population — Continued 





Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny— theft 


Auto 
theft 


City 


$50 and 
over 

59 
28 
167 
235 
264 

89 
41 
187 
(') 
197 

(') 

44 

52 

8. 173 

62 

112 
1,168 

25 
703 

29 

46 

52 

127 

375 

162 

(') 
27 

407 
83 
85 

32 
32 
905 
45 
73 

59 
553 
315 

47 
1, 521 

168 
2,715 
30 
159 
218 

154 
16 
29 
81 
43 

128 
45 
29 

130 
49 

122 
210 
32 
53 
149 


Under 
$50 


Burlington, Vt _.. 








105 
120 
207 
381 
420 

122 

75 
557 
441 
657 

560 

104 

185 

13,132 

54 

214 

1, 705 

79 

2,118 

139 

105 

40 

65 

377 

240 

2,442 

44 

653 

158 

319 

101 
77 
3,014 
153 
120 

259 

1,120 

507 

185 

3,454 

621 

9,860 

67 

239 

197 

198 
99 
68 
212 
100 

474 
33 
65 

301 
82 

110 
581 
56 
100 
345 


398 
329 
352 
285 

758 

' 553 
96 

656 
1,087 

902 

366 
95 

127 

11,088 

92 

215 

3, 053 

38 

9,289 

206 

94 
307 
560 
901 
359 

4,130 
168 

1.065 
305 

280 

162 
190 
6,904 
190 
159 

740 
2,734 
1,967 

463 
5,963 

1,180 

24. 084 

165 

913 

485 

452 
263 
125 
216 
153 

276 
142 
115 
443 
94 

371 
861 
95 
472 
685 




Butte, Mont... 


2 

4 

21 

4 


17 
38 

57 
71 

7 

2 

51 

240 

58 

58 

14 

27 

6,490 

1 

49 

368 

7 

714 

11 

16 
2 
4 

19 

25 

392 


29 

1 
89 
116 

4 

84 
106 
490 

93 
4 

16 

4,144 

1 

102 

284 

386 

1 

1 
121 
20 

289 




Cambridge, Mass, 




Camden, N. J___ 




Canton, Ohio 




Cedar Rapids, Iowa 




Central Falls, R.I.... 


1 

8 
5 
11 

28 




Charleston, S. C.- 




Charleston, W. Va... 


184 


Charlotte, N. C 




Chattanooga, Tenn 


304 


Chelsea, Mass 


26 


Chester, Pa 


7 

294 

1 

1 

38 




Chicago, 111 


4 398 


Chicopee, Mass 


24 


Cicero, 111. . 


50 


Cincinnati, Ohio 


621 


Clarksburg, W. Va 


31 


Cleveland, Ohio 


69 


839 


Cleveland Heights, Ohio 


19 


Clifton, N.J 




21 


Clinton, Iowa 




17 


Colorado Springs, Colo. .. .. 




69 


Columbia, S. C 


19 

9 

22 


202 


Columbus, Qa_. 


125 


Columbus, Ohio 


537 


Concord. N. H 


29 


Corpus Christi, Tex 


13 


36 
12 

38 

4 

6 

325 

15 

9 

14 

207 

59 

14 

469 

34 

2,786 

2 

18 

26 

46 

12 

6 

7 

1 

115 


189 

4 

72 

1 

657 

5 

36 

318 

26 

5 

91 

14 
3,747 

1 
633 

32 

2 
6 
1 

114 


321 


Council Bluffs, Iowa . 


72 


Covington, Ky. 




96 


Cranston, R. I 




11 


Cumberland, Md 




42 


Dallas, Tex 


60 

1 
7 


1,147 


Danville, 111.. 


71 


Danville, Va 


31 


Davenport, Iowa _. .. . 


98 


Dayton, Ohio 


22 
2 
2 

18 

1 

103 

1 

1 

11 

4 


475 


Dearborn, Mich 


222 


Decatur, 111.. 


49 




1,146 


Des Moines, Iowa . 


318 


Detroit, Mich _ 


3,315 


Dubuque, Iowa ... 


27 


Duluth, Minn ... 


165 


Durham, N. C 


134 


East Chicago, Ind. ... 


100 




9 


Easton, Pa... .. 




27 


East Orange, N. J 


1 


54 


East Providence, R. I 


11 


East St. Louis, 111 


8 


191 


Eau Claire, Wis . . 


24 


Elgin. Ill 


1 
2 


2 

32 

6 

10 

104 

1 

2 

22 


10 
46 

5 

1 

44 

9 

1 

53 


9 


Elizabeth, N. J . 


78 


Elkhart, Ind 


38 


Elmira, N. Y 




37 


El Paso, Tex 


4 
1 


297 


Elyria, Ohio 

Enid, Okla 


20 

27 


Erie, Pa 


3 


144 



See footnotes at end of table. 



101 



Table 40. — Number of offenses known to the police, 1949, cities over 25,000 in 
population — Continued 



City 



Evanston, 111 
Evansville, Ind.. 

Everett, Mass 

Everett, Wash... 
Fall River. Mass 



Fargo, N. Dak 

Fitehburg, Mass... 

Flint, Mich 

Fond du Lac, Wis 
Fort Smith. Ark- 
Fort Wayne, Ind.. 
Fort Worth. Tex 

Fresno, Calif 

Gadsden. Ala 
Galesburg, 111 



Oalveston, Tex 

Garfield, N. J 

Gary, Tnd ... 

Glendale, Calif. 

Grand Rapids, Mich 



Great Falls, Mont 

Green Bay, Wis 

Greensboro, N. C 

Greenville, S. C 

Greenwich Town, Conn. 



Hackensack, N. J 

Hagerstown, Md 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Hamilton Township, N. J. 
Hammond, Ind 



Hamtramck, Mich... 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Hartford. Conn 

Haverford Twp., Pa. 
Haverhill, Mass 



Hazleton, Pa 

Highland Park, Mich. 

High Point, N. C 

Hoboken, X. J 

Holyoke, Mass 



Honolulu, T. H 

Houston, Tex 

Huntington, W. Va 

Huntington Park. Calif 
Hutchinson, Kans 



Indianapolis, Ind. 
Inglewood, Calif- - 
Irvington, X. J_ . 

Jackson, Mich 

Jackson, Miss 



Jacksonville, Fla 

Jamestown, X. Y 
Jersey City. X. J. ... 
Johnson City, Term. 
Johnstown, Pa 



Joliet, 111. 

Joplin, Mo.. 

Kalamazoo, Mich.. 
Kansas City, Kans. 
Kansas City, Mo.. 



Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



^39 
1 



Rob- 
bery 



17 
57 
11 
15 
29 

5 
2 

106 

1 

11 

19 
131 

114 
6 
2 

131 
4 

219 
22 
39 

24 
3 

26 

10 

1 

7 
15 
22 

4 
30 

46 
19 
86 
5 
3 

2 

32 

2 

11 



49 

310 

25 

29 

6 

313 
42 
10 
12 
16 

187 
4 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



217 

1 

84 

50 

265 

56 

60 



255 
4 

150 
10 
39 



497 

52 

2 

19 
19 

15 



32 

29 

116 

1 



1 
41 
173 

3 



LOO 

217 
91 



Bur- 


Larceny— theft 


glary— 






breaking 






or enter- 


$.50 and 


Under 


ing 


over 


$50 


204 


197 


661 


451 


240 


886 


52 


36 


157 


1.56 


80 


544 


221 


157 


446 


61 


6(1 


261 


75 


57 


288 


943 


468 


1,758 


66 


26 


235 


138 


50 


129 


539 


288 


1,033 


1,209 


268 


3. 132 


776 


521 


1.296 


70 


63 


161 


65 


28 


106 


569 


723 


862 


32 


21 


99 


570 


428 


940 


448 


204 


810 


777 


265 


2.102 


200 


142 


524 


174 


47 


175 


385 


251 


479 


262 


221 


398 


34 


31 


88 


93 


51 


130 


116 


57 


304 


153 


173 


284 


101 


33 


187 


153 


191 


666 


177 


145 


274 


397 


136 


391 


911 


485 


1.240 


70 


28 


44 


179 


45 


221 


27 


13 


59 


218 


116 


519 


164 


33 


122 


89 


45 


S3 


87 


71 


201 


1,220 


378 


2,568 


3,829 


1. 106 


i. 589 


435 


152 


619 


215 


92 


390 


158 


33 


457 


2,174 


1,336 


3.261 


260 


172 


518 


187 


77 


290 


183 


231 


519 


297 


107 


479 


1,262 


970 


1.S99 


92 


33 


186 



7 




15 


:: 


26 


14 


15 


34 


78 


50 


346 


492 



299 

11 
6 
51 
57 

188 
1 
Complete data not received 



53 


27 


65 


119 


90 


236 


102 


59 


247 


206 


294 


363 


203 


162 


758 


505 


236 


917 


,578 


1, 727 


3,220 



49 
54 

58 
40 
48 
199 

529 



102 



Table 40. 



-Number of offenses known to the police, 1949, cities over 25,000 in 
'population — Continued 



City 



Kearny, N. J 

Kenosha, Wis 

Kingston, N. Y_. 
Knoxville, Tenn. 
Kokorno, Ind 



La Crosse, Wis... 
LaFayette, Ind.. 
Lakewood, Ohio. 

Lancaster, Pa 

Lansing, Mich... 



Laredo, Tex 

Lawrence, Mass.. 

Lebanon, Pa 

Lewiston, Maine. 
Lexington, Ky... 



Lima, Ohio 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Little Rock, Ark... 
Long Beach, Calif. 
Lorain, Ohio 



Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lower Merion Township, Pa. 
Lubbock, Tex 



Lynchburg, Va. 

Lynn, Mass 

Macon, Ga 

Madison, Wis... 
Maiden, Mass.. 



Manchester, N. H. 

Mansfield, Ohio 

Marion, Ind 

Marion, Ohio 

Mason City, Iowa. 



Massillon, Ohio.. 

Maywood, 111 

McKeesport, Pa. 
Medford, Mass.__ 
Melrose, Mass. . . 



Memphis, Tenn 

Meriden, Conn 

Meridian, Miss 

Miami, Fla 

Miami Beach, Fla.. 

Michigan City, Ind. 
Middletown, Conn.. 
Middletown, Ohio.. 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn. 



Mishawaka, Ind. 

Mobile, Ala 

Moline, 111 

Monroe, La 

Montclair, N. J.. 



Montgomery, Ala 

Mount Vernon, N. Y. 

Muncie, Ind 

Muskegon, Mich 

Muskogee, Okla 



Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



52 
237 
38 

.664 

481 

18 

3 

17 

11 
21 
37 
7 
16 

3 
16 



5 

3 

321 

4 

1 
15 

2 
14 
10 

35 
2 



1 
118 

22 
34 
50 
163 

47 

2,561 
530 



Bur- 
glary — 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



67 
108 

14 
781 
145 

125 
137 

158 
84 
205 



177 
33 
90 

473 

155 
263 

477 

1,603 

195 

11, 323 

2,823 

304 

174 
290 

176 
405 
291 
270 

155 

97 
204 
42 
78 
92 



35 
101 
165 

46 



659 1. 332 

3 60 

Only 11 months received 



340 

93 
29 
111 
746 
1,138 



Larceny— theft 


$50 and 


Under 


over 


$50 


31 


94 


37 


221 


31 


131 


410 


1,009 


45 


238 


46 


507 


87 


533 


45 


204 


49 


407 


79 


765 


26 


186 


58 


263 


2 


22 


39 


232 


333 


676 


108 


313 


165 


1,165 


0) 


966 


(') 


3,119 


117 


208 


11, 089 


17, 963 


2,093 


2, 054 


127 


291 


61 


193 


201 


562 


60 


347 


213 


765 


167 


516 


144 


586 


62 


299 


89 


374 


99 


402 


25 


295 


83 


285 


51 


126 


14 


158 


13 


86 


19 


87 


41 


247 


10 


66 


780 


1,958 


13 


81 



280 


279 


39 


3 


3 


2 


1 


7 


4 


7 


104 


121 


221 


23 


1 


2 


68 


332 


17 


1 


10 


19 




9 
132 


27 


7 


6 


28 


20 


6 


23 


6 


4 



39 

660 
76 
124 



504 
80 
288 
112 
337 



975 


1,371 


621 


734 


59 


301 


26 


86 


45 


288 


1,025 


3,896 


1,107 


2.962 


45 


264 


168 


441 


72 


220 


48 


228 


28 


151 


136 


542 


29 


37 


151 


421 


132 


439 


83 


323 



See footnotes at end of table. 



103 



Tablk 40. 



Number of offenses known l<> the police, 1949, cities over 25,000 in 
population — Continued 



City 



Nashua. XII 
Nashville, Tenn 
\i« Albany, Iml 
Newark, X. J.. 
Newark, Ohio 



\cw Bedford, Mass... 
New Britain, Conru . 
New Brunswick, X. .1 
Newburgh, X. Y - - 
New < iastle, Pa 



New I la vcn. Conn 
Xrw London, Conn 
New Orleans. La 
Newport. Ky 
Newport, R. I 

Newport News, Va 
New Rochelle, X. Y. 

Newton, Mass 

New York. X. V 
Niagara Falls. X. V 



Norfolk, Va 

Norristown, Pa 

North Bergen, N. J. 

Norwalk, Conn 

Norwood, Ohio 



Oakland, Calif 

Oak Park, 111 

Ogden, Utah 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Omaha, Nebr 



Orange, N. J 

Orlando, Fla 

Oshkosh, 'Wis... 
Ottumwa, Iowa. 
Owensboro, Ky_ 



Paducah, Ky 

Parkersbure, W. Va. 

Pasadena, Calif 

Passaic, N. J 

Paterson, N. J 



Pawtucket, R. I 

Pensacola, Fla 

Peoria, 111 

Perth Amboy, N. J. 
Petersburg, Va 



Philadelphia, Pa- 
Phoenix, Ariz. ._ 
Pittsburgh. Pa ... 
Pittsfleld, Mass.. 
Plainfield, N. J__ 



Pontiac, Mich 

Port Arthur, Tex.. 
Port Huron, Mich 
Portland, Maine . 
Portland, Oreg 



Portsmouth, Ohio .... 
Portsmouth. Va 
Poughkeepsie. X. Y 
Providence, K. I 
Pueblo, Colo 



Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 



39 



122 

4 
23 



Rob- 
ber \ 



2 
74 

1 

322 

5 

23 

15 
5 
4 

16 



Aggra- 
vated 

assault 



3 

214 



Bur- 
glars 
breaking 

or enter- 
ing 



106 
657 

72 

1,806 

82 

521 
145 
147 
86 
81 



Larceny— theft 



$60and Qnder 
over $50 



16 

533 
65 



40 38 740 

Only 9 months recei\ ed 



309 


565 


11 


12 


11 


11 


23 


133 


3 


27 


5 


1 



117 

77 

365 
90 
232 



1.181 
73 

51 

182 
61 
123 



Complete data not received 



23 


71 


346 


487 


2 


5 


3 


5 


5 


13 


10 


1 


500 


410 


18 




46 


27 


154 


126 


123 


104 


8 


22 


17 


125 


2 




2 


3 


13 


26 


14 


28 


8 


3 


59 


24 


18 


22 


40 


88 


7 


3 


21 


96 


144 


98 


3 


40 


16 


71 


1.289 


973 


68 


102 


587 


322 


2 


3 


4 


8 


64 


22 


8 


8 


6 


6 


13 


6 


341 


208 


34 


9 


57 


294 


5 


13 


73 


52 


41 


136 



136 

1,004 

290 



III, 
44 


I.VBU 
355 


233 


1,047 


S3 


270 


44 


254 


62 


188 


37 


117 


319 


1, 159 



I 814 
169 

217 

557 

53 

546 



264 


154 


303 i 


1.594 


1,129 


1,925 ! 


22 


7 


51 


71 


42 


99 


108 




294 


74 


31 


117 


2.174 


498 


5,828 


140 


74 


223 


349 


186 


1.002 


1.479 


831 


3,073 


900 


501 


2,049 


89 


38 


124 


293 


120 


325 


67 


60 


486 


69 


15 


118 


163 


53 


335 , 


130 


29 


220 


70 


33 


167 


502 


344 


965 


162 


95 


182 


567 


133 


615 


258 


91 


354 


343 


142 


541 


538 


208 


1.011 


216 


(') 


714 


146 


140 


502 


4.997 


2,351 


2,099 


664 


354 


1,855 


2.528 


945 


1,075 


135 


38 


241 


192 


8'4 


314 


327 


195 


654 


47 


47 


264 


115 


57 


425 


245 


170 


731 


2.553 


1.485 


4,807 


186 


110 


377 


466 


202 


559 1 


139 


69 


316 


964 


459 


1 574 


463 


140 


572 1 



66 
142 

47 
264 
162 



See footnotes at end ol table. 



104 

Table 40. — Number of offenses known to the police, 1949, cities over 25,000 in 
population — Continued 



City 



Quincy, 111 

Quincy, Mass. 
Racine, Wis ... 
Raleigh, N. C. 
Reading, Pa.. 



Revere, Mass... 
Richmond, Ind. 
Richmond, Va_. 
Riverside, Calif. 
Roanoke, Va 



Rochester, Minn 

Rochester, N. Y 

Rockford, 111.. 

Rock Island, 111 

Rocky Mount, N. C . 



Rome, Oa 

Rome, N. Y 

Royal Oak, Mich. 
Sacramento, Calif. 
Saginaw, Mich 



St. Joseph, Mo 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

St. Petersburg, Fla. 
Salem, Mass _ 



Salem, Oreg 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Angelo, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Bernardino, Calif 



San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif.. 

San Jose, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif. 



Santa Monica, Calif. 

Savannah, Qa 

Schenectady, N. Y... 
Scran ton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash.. 



Sharon, Pa 

Sheboygan, Wis 

Shreveport, La 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 



Somerville, Mass.. 
South Bend, Ind.. 
South Gate, Calif. 
Spartanburg, S. C_ 
Spokane, Wash... 



Springfield, 111 

Springfield, Mass. 
Springfield, Mo... 
Springfield, Ohio.. 
Stamford, Conn... 



Steubenville, Ohio. 

Stockton, Calif 

Superior, Wis 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 



Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 



7 
166 

47 

33 

952 

176 

14 

11 

4 

60 

14 

172 

58 

90 
1,189 
37 
18 
15 

70 
19 

7 

17 

574 

3 

1 

5 

31 

4 

33 

46 
23 
17 



18 
11 
13 
32 
17 

21 

214 

4 

28 
130 



Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


4 


5 


13 




4 


3 


28 


166 


20 


23 


6 


3 


11 


9 


152 


321 


9 


16 


30 


68 


3 


1 


42 


49 


17 


35 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



70 
249 
204 
292 
245 

97 
62 
1,494 
201 
259 

81 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



38 
59 
116 
183 

87 

48 

35 

939 

125 

256 

38 
348 
131 



Only 3 months received 
70 



14 



Cnder 



47 

87 

28 

2,329 

74 

22 



3 

17 
74 
123 
31 

46 
121 
16 
22 
36 

35 

54 
30 
38 

142 

4 

1 

33 

17 

4 



272 
482 
615 
511 
447 



2.939 
535 
639 



1,779 
675 



97 


53 


255 


55 


29 


64 


46 


51 


202 


176 


43 


391 


584 


910 


2,331 


447 


162 


814 


287 


131 


866 


4, 085 


1,293 


5, 621 


1,047 


347 


2,858 


453 


208 


614 


199 


19 


183 


120 


65 


495 


1,012 


470 


2,089 


120 


60 


288 


1,633 


479 


3,045 


460 


276 


805 


705 


1,010 


2,244 


4,797 


1,433 


9,625 


357 


90 


2,160 


166 


77 


708 


168 


113 


767 


429 


484 


1,052 


64 


489 


1,208 


210 


108 


314 


224 


141 


427 


2,953 


1,274 


4,996 


58 


37 


103 


102 


27 


218 


138 


215 


647 


370 


206 


832 


228 


122 


414 


427 


70 


348 


473 


332 


1,088 


272 


155 


424 


210 


104 


379 


762 


348 


3,017 


165 


176 


565 


286 


174 


756 


375 


129 


678 


301 


68 


700 


244 


217 


441 


132 


51 


179 


855 


480 


1,395 


69 


30 


422 


532 


455 


1,573 


838 


590 [ 


1,580 



105 



Table 40. Number of offense* known to the "police, 1949, cities over 25,000 in 

population — Continued 



City 



Murder, 

nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 

assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 

$50 



Tampa, Fla 

Taunton, Mass. . 
Teaneck, N. J 
Terre Haute, Irnl 
Toledo, Ohio 



Topeka, Kans 

Torrington, Conn. 

Trenton, X. J 

Troy, N. Y 

Tucson, Ariz 



Tulsa. Okla 

Tuscaloosa, Ala 

Tyler, Tex.. 
Union City, X. .T 
University City, Mo 



I'pper Darby, Pa. 

Utica, X. V 

Waco. Tex 

Waltham, Mass... 
Warren, Ohio 



Warwick, R. I 

Washington, D. C. 

Washington, Pa 

Waterbury, Conn. 
Waterloo, low a 



Water-town, Mass. 
Watertown, X. Y. 

Waukegan, 111 

Wausau, Wis 

Wauwatosa, Wis.. 



West Allis, Wis 

West Hartford, Conn.. 
West Haven, Conn 
West Xew York, N. J. 
West Orange, N. J 



West Palm Beach, Fla. 
Wheeling, W. Va 
White Plains, X. Y .. 

Wichita, Kan.. 

Wichita Falls, Tex 



Wilkes-Barre, Pa.. 

Wilkinsburg, Pa... 
Williamsport, Pa.. 
Wilmington, Del.. 
Wilmington, X. C. 



Winston-Salem, X. C. 

Woodbridge, X. J 

Woonsocket, R. I 

Worcester, Mass 

Wyandotte, Mich 



Yakima, Wash 

Yonkers, X. Y 

York, Pa 

Youngstown, Ohio. 
Zanesville, Ohio 



69 
4 
1 

32 
271 

33 
1 



21 

207 



133 

58 

425 

1.502 



400 
37 
30 

L03 



16 


14 


31 


34 


95 


84 


11 


148 




7 


8 




6 


1 


12 


11 


5 


4 


4 


135 


6 


2 


33 


5 


688 


4.314 


6 


3 


13 


20 


22 




3 


3 


2 


11 


19 


28 


1 


3 


2 


2 


5 




2 




6 


1 


1 




2 




4 


15 


16 


14 


16 


79 


48 


34 


21 


100 


12 


24 


9 


14 


4 




52 


22 


26 


316 


28 


251 



338 110 

30 15 

Only 11 months received 



5 


2 


59 


12 


4 


2 


20 


14 


21 


42 


29 


13 


101 


24 


16 





Xo reports received 



1.178 

297 

54 

167 

3, 131 

592 



267 


97 


90 


458 


248 


1,164 


1.152 


756 


1. 612 


93 


67 


181 


94 


36 


164 


170 


59 


162 


146 


69 


126 


102 


if.. 


244 


203 


in 


513 


197 


61 


734 


125 


47 


313 


198 


34 


298 


72 


101 


131 


4. 151 


1 . 977 


8,490 


76 


74 


114 


245 


117 


357 


227 


50 


529 


73 


56 


140 


136 


64 


298 


110 


74 


250 


30 


19 


263 


58 


26 


170 


46 


40 


378 


64 


15 


59 


107 


47 


90 


38 


10 


4 


40 


38 


60 


181 


73 


258 


206 


86 


161 


56 


125 


208 


687 


325 


1. 570 


249 


123 


769 


108 


103 


184 


81 


27 


107 


128 


34 


383 


500 


324 


1.095 


319 


146 


442 


514 


163 


501 



85 


67 


215 


713 


340 


1.106 


65 


59 


123 


232 


172 


1,088 


340 


142 


694 


151 


52 


530 


607 


356 


857 


113 


93 


322 



1 Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



lOti 



Offenses in Territories and Possessions 

During- 1949 a complete set of monthly crime reports was received 
from eight Territories and possessions of the United States and the 
available data are presented in table 41. Included are the figures 
reported by the First Judicial Division of Alaska; Honolulu Cit} T ; 
and the counties of Hawaii, Honolulu, Kauai, and Maui in the Terri- 
tory of Hawaii; the Isthmus of Panama and Puerto Rico. The 
figures represent offenses reported to the police agencies serving 
both the urban and rural areas, except that the data for Honolulu 
City and Honolulu County are reported separately. 

Table 41. — Number of offenses known in United States Territories and possessions, 

1949 

[Population figures based ou 1940 decennial census] 





Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny — theft 


Auto 
theft 


Jurisdiction reporting 


Over 
$50 

4 

14 
378 
94 
22 
19 
94 
413 


Under 
$50 


Alaska: 

First judicial division (Juneau), 
population, 25,241; number of 


1 




9 

6 

100 

27 

2 

3 

14 

652 


9 

113 
1,220 

237 
143 
154 
108 
1,955 


15 

219 
2,568 
381 
145 
318 
786 
5,003 




Hawaii: 

Hawaii County, population, 73,276; 


16 


Honolulu City, population, 179,326; 


12 
3 
1 
1 

1 
237 


49 

8 

22 
116 


297 


Honolulu County, population, 78,898; 


43 


Kauai County, population, 35,818; 


3 


Maui County, population, 55,980; 


9 


Isthmus of Panama: Canal Zone, popula- 
tion, 51,827; number of offenses known- . 
Puerto Rico: population, 1,869,255; num- 


41 
73 







SUPPLEMENTAL CRIME DATA 

For every hold-up in a commercial establishment, there were two on 
the public highways during 1949, according to the supplementary 
crime reports forwarded the FBI by 357 cities over 2"), 000 in popula- 
tion. These cities classified 60.4 percent of their robberies as highway 
robberies and 29.1 percent as robberies of oil stations, chain stores, or 
other commercial establishments. Of the 27,249 robberies reported 
by these cities, 5.4 percent involved residences and the remaining 5.1 
percent were miscellaneous types. 

These cities reported a total of 178,301 burglaries, 61.6 percent of 
which involved nonresidence structures such as stores, warehouses, 
and the like. Of the burglaries of residences, there were two com- 
mitted at night for every one during the daylight hours, but in the 
nonresidence burglaries the ratio was 10 nighttime offenses for each 
1 during the day, which is understandable since places of business 
are usually occupied most of the daylight hours. 

The largest single total of offenses reported generally is for larcenies 
and the 357 cities included in tins study showed 433,081 such offenses 
for 1949. Of this total, 84.6 percent involved property valued at more 
than $5. and in 22.6 percent of the cases the property stolen was 
valued at $50 or more. 

Of the total larcenies reported, 15.4 percent were bicycle thefts; 
15.7 percent, thefts of auto accessories; and 20.3 percent, thefts of 
other types of property from parked automobiles. Also included in 
the total were 4.5 percent classed as shoplifting offenses; 1.7 percent, 
purse-snatchings; 1.5 percent, pocket-picking offenses; and 40.9 per- 
cent, miscellaneous thefts. 

Of the 5,263 rape offenses reported, 45.5 percent were classed as 
statutory in nature (no force used — victim under age of consent.) 

These 357 cities reported 74,778 automobiles stolen and 69,583 
locally stolen cars recovered for a recovery percentage of 93.1. 

(107) 



108 



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o 

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a, 



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z 

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E 

u* 

o 
z 

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u 



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o 

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UJ 

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On 

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109 



Table 42. — Offense analysis, by nature of criminal act, time and place of commis- 
sion, arid value of property stolen, 1949 

[Offenses known to the police in 357 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, 38,712,820, based on 

1040 decennial census] 



Classification 



Rape: 

Total... 

Forcible 

Statutory 

Robbery: 

Total 

Highway 

Commercial house 

Oil station -- 

Chain store 

Residence - 

Bank... 

Miscellaneous 

Burglary— breaking or entering: 

Total 

Residence (dwelling): 

Committed during night 

Committed during day 

Nonresidence (store, office, etc.): 

Committed during night 

Committed during day 

Larceny — theft (except auto theft) (grouped according to value of article 
stolen) : 

Total. 

$50 and over 

$5 to $50. 

Under $5 

Larceny— theft (grouped as to type of offense): 

Total 

Pocket-picking 

Purse-snatching 

Shoplifting 

Thefts from autos (exclusive of auto accessories) 

Auto accessories 

Bicycles 

All others 



Number of 
offenses 



5,263 



2.870 
2. 393 



27. 249 



16. 450 

6,541 

988 

357 

1,479 

57 

1,377 



178, 301 



45, 634 
22, 744 



6, 577 

7, 237 
19, 583 
88,003 
68, 082 
66. 573 

177, 026 



Percent 
distribution 



100.0 



54.5 
45.5 



100.0 



60.4 
24.0 
3.6 
1.3 
5.4 
.2 
5.1 



100.0 



25.6 
12.8 



100,047 
9,876 


56.1 
5.5 


433, 081 


100.0 


97, 729 
268, 702 
66, 650 


22.6 
62.0 
15.4 


433, 081 


100.0 



1.5 
1.7 
4.5 
20.3 
15.7 
15.4 
40.9 



Of the foregoing cities, 346 reported complete data relative to the 
value of property stolen by offense classification. Their reports 
indicate that the average hold-up involved property valued at $172, 
whereas the loot in the average burglary offense was valued at $116; 
in larcenies, $56; and in auto theft offenses, $835. 

These cities reported 692,800 offenses against property involving 
a total loot of $108,047,968, or $156 per offense. This average was 
approximately 10 percent lower than that reported by the larger 
cities during 1948. 



110 



Table 43. — Value of property stolen, by type of crime, 1949 

[Based on the reports of 346 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, 37,480,886, based on 1940 
decennial census. All values have been rounded off to even dollars] 



Classification 



Number of 
offenses 



Value of 

property 

stolen 



Average 

value per 

offense 



Total 

Robbery 

Burglary 

Larceny — theft 
Autotheft 



692, 800 



$108,047,968 



26, 533 
172, 951 
421, 328 

71,988 



4, 559, 675 
19,985,911 
23, 414. 944 
60, 087, 438 



$156 



172 

116 

56 

835 



Of the larger cities, 343 also reported the value of property stolen 
and recovered by type of property. These cities reported property 
stolen of $102,061,209 and recoveries of $63,650,471 or 62.4 percent 
of that stolen. 

Exclusive of automobiles, the recoveries of stolen property amounted 
to 22.6 percent and generally speaking, the percentage recovered for 
the various types of property was higher than that reported during 
1948. 

It will be noted that table 44 shows a percentage of recoveries for 
automobiles of 94.3 whereas in the comments immediately preceding 
table 42 it was pointed out that 93.1 percent of the stolen automobiles 
were recovered. While this difference in percentages may be explained 
to some extent by the fact that the two are not based on the reports 
of identical cities, it has been found that in many cities the percentage 
of recoveries of automobiles based on values often exceeds that based 
on the number of automobiles. This has been made the subject of 
inquiry on many occasions with individual police agencies and it 
appears that as a general rule the new and relatively more expensive 
automobiles are recovered with greater regularity than the older, 
less expensive models. 

Table 44. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered, by type of 

property, 1949 

[Based on reports of 343 cities over 25,000 in population; total population, 35,707,454, based on 1940 decennial 
census. All values have been rounded off to even dollars] 



Type of property 



Total 

Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles .. 
M iscellaneous 



Value of 

property 

stolen 



$102,061,209 



14, 276, 457 
8, 682, 721 
1, 291, 156 
4, 861, 857 
56,603,215 
16, 345, 803 



Value of 
property 
recovered 



3,650,471 



2, 224, 324 
1, 624, 846 
171, 961 
957, 083 
53, 388, 527 
5, 283, 730 



Percent 
recovered 



62.4 



15.6 
18.7 
13.3 
19.7 
94.3 
32.3 



DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

Source of Data 

During 1949, the F B I received 792,029 fingerprint arrest records 
which were examined in order to tabulate data concerning the age, 
sex, race, and previous criminal history of the persons represented. 
The compilation was limited to instances of arrests for violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances. In other words, fingerprint 
cards representing arrests for violations of Federal laws or representing 
commitments to any type of penal institutions have been excluded 
from this tabulation. 

The number of fingerprint records examined exceeded the 759,698 
prints handled during 1948 by 4.3 percent. The tabulation of data 
from fingerprint cards obviously does not include all persons arrested, 
since there are individuals taken into custody for whom no fingerprint 
cards are forwarded to Washington. Furthermore, data pertaining 
to persons arrested should not be treated as information regarding 
the number of offenses committed, since two or more persons may be 
involved in the joint commission of a single offense, and on the other 
hand one person may be arrested and charged with the commission 
of several separate crimes. 

Offense Charged 

More than 41 percent (327,688) of the records examined during 
1949 represented arrests for major violations. Persons charged with 
murder, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft numbered 
219,587 constituting 27.7 percent of the total arrest records examined. 

Sex 

Fingerprint cards representing arrests of males during 1949 num- 
bered 713,444, a 4.5 percent increase over the 682,721 cards received 
during 1948. 

Female arrest prints increased from 76,977 during 1948 to 78,585 
during 1949, representing an increase of 2.1 percent. 

Fingerprint cards representing the arrests of women constituted 9.9 
percent of the total of all fingerprint arrest records received during 
the year. 

(Ill) 



112 



Table 45. — Distribution of arrests by sex, 19^9 



Offense charged 



Number 



Total 



Male 



Female 



Percent 



Total 



Male 



Female 



Total 

Criminal homicide.: — 

Robbery.. _ 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Autotheft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 
Offenses against family and children.. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws. . . 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated , 

All other offenses 



792, 029 



6,436 
21.623 
58, 870 
45, 892 
67, 647 
19,119 
22, 245 

3,268 

1,097 
11,231 

9,449 

9,208 
18, 448 

6,546 
11,358 
15,342 

9,934 

42, 907 

10, 595 

162 

9,695 
49, 085 
178, 776 
54.511 
16, 274 
47,114 

7,228 
37, 969 



713,444 



78, 585 



5,616 
20, 658 
52, 675 
44, 747 
59, 572 
18, 668 
20, 363 

2,999 
983 

9,913 

9,449 

3,391 
15, 702 

5.878 
10,817 
14, 554 

8,429 

41,013 

10,356 

158 

9,396 
42, 265 
162,643 
46, 176 
14.980 
42, 071 

6,290 
33, 682 



820 

965 

6.195 

1,145 

8,075 

451 

1,882 

269 

114 

1,318 



5,817 
2,746 

668 
' 541 

788 
1,505 
1,894 

239 
4 

299 
6,820 
16, 133 
8,335 
1,294 
5,043 

938 
4,287 



100.0 



100.0 



2.7 
7.4 
5.8 
8.6 
2.4 
2.8 
.4 
.1 
1.4 
1.2 
1.2 
2.3 



1.4 
1.9 
1.3 
5.4 
1.3 

(') 
1.2 
6.2 

22.7 
6.9 
2.1 
6.0 
.9 
4.8 



2.9 

7.4 

6.3 

8.3 

2.6 

2.9 

.4 

.1 

1.4 

1.3 

.5 

2.2 



1.5 
2.0 
1.2 
5.7 
1.5 

0) 
1.3 
5.9 

22.9 
6.5 
2.1 
5.9 
.9 
4.7 



100.0 



1.0 

1.2 

7.9 

1.5 

10.3 

.6 

2.4 

.3 

.1 

1.7 

~~7.~4 
3.5 



1.0 

1.9 

2.4 

.3 

.4 
8.7 
20.5 
10.6 
1.6 
6.4 
1.2 
5.5 



i Less than Ho of 1 percent. 



113 

Age 

During 1949, males and females under 21 years of age arrested and 
fingerprinted numbered 117,562, constituting 14.8 percent of the total 
arrests. In addition, there were 129,509 (16.4 percent) between the 
ages of 21 and 24, making a total of 247,071 (31.2 percent) less than 
25 years old. Arrests of persons 25 to 29 years old numbered 131,427 
(16.6 percent). The resultant total is 378,498 (47.8 percent) less 
than 30 years of age. It should be remembered that the number of 
arrest records is doubtless incomplete in the lower age groups because 
of the practice of some jurisdictions not to fingerprint youthful 
offend e is. 

That youths played a predominant part in the commission of crimes 
against property is indicated by the following figures: During 1949, 
there were 192,122 persons of all ages arrested for robbery, burglary, 
larceny, auto theft, embezzlement, fraud, forgery, counterfeiting, 
receiving stolen property, and arson; and 52,670 (27.4 percent) of 
those persons were less than 21 years old. 

The extent of the participation of youths in the commission of 
crimes against property is further indicated by the following figures: 
During 1949, 31.2 percent of all persons arrested were less than 25 
years of age. However, persons less than 25 years old numbered 
54.1 percent of those charged with robbery, 59.5 percent of those 
charged with burglary, 44.8 percent of those charged with larceny, 
and 67.0 percent of those charged with auto theft. Approximately 
one-half of all crimes against property during 1949 were committed 
by persons under 25 years of age. 



114 



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115 



Table 47. — Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 18, under 21, and 
under .'■'> years of age, 191+9 



Offense charged 



Tut :il 
nuin- 
bei ol 
persons 



XllTIl- 

ber 
under 
is years 

nf age 



Xuni- 

ber 

under 

iM years 

of age 



Total 
num- 
ber 
under 
25 years 
of age 



Per- 
under 
of age 



Per- 
centage 
under 

21 years 

oi age 



Total 
percent- 
er under 

25 years 
of age 



Total 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery r . - 

Assault -- 

Burglary breaking or entering 

Larceny theft 

Autn theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting _ 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized \ ice 

oilier sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws _. 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 
( (flenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws__ 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws... 

Disorderly conduct 

I )run kenness 

Vagrancy - 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 



792. 029 



6.436 

21. 623 
58. 870 
45 892 
67. 647 
19.119 

22, 245 
3.268 
1,097 

11.231 
9,449 
9,208 

18. 448 
6.546 

11.358 

15. 342 
9,934 

42, 907 
10, 595 
162 
9.695 
49. 085 
178. 776 
54.511 

16, 274 
47. 114 

7.228 
37. 969 



32, 922 



117,562 



247,071 



4.2 



14.8 



211 
1,303 
1,007 

7. 149 
5, 858 
3, 464 

252 
111 

65 
337 
646 
108 
423 
102 
504 

45 
132 
141 
254 



272 
1,185 

732 

1.535 

84 

3, 133 

117 
3,422 



764 

5, 776 
5,943 

17,520 

17,3311 
8,381 

1. 171 
506 
188 

1,489 

2. S74 
819 

2, 050 
1, 082 
1,978 
670 
1,172 
1, 856 
1,946 
9 
1,868 

6, 550 

7, 517 
7.898 

555 

10, 089 

754 

8,498 



! , S2 1 

11,689 

16,066 

27,288 

30, 290 

12,819 

1,697 

1,041 

349 

3, CIS 
5. 159 
2, 856 
5.157 
2, 693 

4, 235 
3.089 
2. 338 
7. 259 
4,647 

39 
I. 184 

15, 5S1 
24, 237 

16, 984 
2,003 

19.802 

1,781 

15,346 



3.3 
6.0 

1.7 

16.2 

S. 7 

18.1 

1.1 

3.4 

5.9 

3.0 

6.8 

1.2 

2.3 

1.6 

4.4 

.3 

1.3 

.3 

2.4 



2.8 
2.4 

.4 
2.8 

.5 
6.6 
2.0 
9.0 



11.9 
26. 7 
10.1 
38.2 
25.6 
43.8 
6. 6 

15.5 
17. 1 
13.3 
30.4 

8.9 
11.1 
10. 5 
17.4 

4.4 
11.8 

4.3 
18.4 

5. 6 
lit. 3 
13.3 

4.2 
14.5 

3.4 
21.4 
10.4 
22.4 



31.2 



28.3 
54.1 
27.3 
59.5 
44.8 
67.0 
21.1 
31.9 
31.8 
32.2 
54.6 
31.0 
28.0 
41.1 
37.3 
2d. 1 
23.5 
1H. 9 
43.9 
24.1 
43.2 
31.7 
13.6 
31.2 
12.3 
42.0 
24.6 
40.4 



For males and females combined, the figures for the groups in 
which t lie largest number of arrests occurred during 1949 are as 
follows: 

. Number of 

Age: arrests 

21 1 34, 514 

22 32,792 

23 31,486 

24 30,717 

20 29, 416 



11(5 



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NUMBER OF PERSONS 
ARRESTED 

CALENDAR YEAR 1949 

MALE AND FEMALE 26,270 










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117 

Criminal Repeaters 

Of all the 792,029 nnvst records examined, 4C>9,:>91 (59.3 percent) 
represented persons who already had fingerprint cards on file in the 
Identification Division of the F B I. For males the percentage having 
prior records was 60.8 and for females the percentage was 45.6. These 
figures pertain to fingerprinl arresl records and in no way relate to 
the Civil Identification Files of the. FBI. 

For males and females combined, the percentage with a prior finger- 
print record was 16.2 at age 15 and this figure rose rapidly to 45.4 at 
age 20. For males, the percentage was 17.0 at age 15 and 46.3 at age 
20. For females, the percentage with prior fingerprint records was 
9.9 at age 15 and 36.2 at age 20. 



Table 48. — Percentage with -previous fingerprint records, 1949 



Offense 



Narcot ic drug laws 

Vagrancy 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Drunkenness- - 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Robbery _ _ 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Autothefts 

All other offenses 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Larceny— theft 

Suspicion. - 

Assault 

Disorderly conduct 



Percent 



73.8 
72. 
69.2 
68.4 
64 6 
63.3 
59.3 
56.9 
56. 8 
56.6 
56.3 
55. 9 
55.2 
54.6 



Offense 



Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws _ 

Gambling 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Driving while intoxicated 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 
Other traffic and motor vehicle laws-._ 

Arson 

Criminal homicide 

"Rape 

Parking violations ' . . _ 

Other sex offenses 

Road and driving laws. . . 



Percent 



52. 4 
51.4 

51.1 
50.1 
49.3 
49.3 
48.9 
46.7 
45.6 
44.8 
44.4 
43.4 
39.6 



1 Only 162 fingerprint cards received representing arrests for violations of parking regulations. 
Race 

Most of the persons represented in this study were members of the 
white and Negro races. Members of the white race represented 
582,447 of the 792,029 arrest records received, while 198,596 were 
Negroes, 6,881 were Indians, 743 Chinese, 302 Japanese, and 3,060 
were representatives of other races. 



118 



Table 49. — Arrests by race, 1949 



Offense charged 



Total 

Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice- 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children- - 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations ___ 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws__- 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 



Total, 

all 
races 



792, 029 



21,623 

58, 870 

45, 892 

67. 647 

19.119 

22. 245 

3.268 

1,097 

11,231 

9. 449 

9,208 

18. 448 

6,546 

11,358 

15, 342 
9.934 

42, 907 
10, 595 
162 
9.695 
49. 085 
178, 776 
54.511 

16. 274 
47.114 

7,228 
37, 969 



Race 



White 



582. 447 



3, 456 
13,678 

31, 577 

32, 963 
46, 301 
15,479 
19, 309 

2,262 
847 

9,562 

6,420 

5,742 
15, 424 

3, 620 

5,783 
12,312 

5,696 
38, 361 

8,134 
117 

7,281 
34, 147 
145, 905 
41. 564 

8,311 

33, 987 
5.691 

28,518 



Negro 



198. 596 



2,918 

7.745 

26, 769 

12, 569 

20, 788 

3,437 

2,797 

986 

234 

1, 567 

2,911 

3,315 

2,836 

2,677 

5,478 

2,903 

4,157 

4,055 

2,357 

42 

2,294 

14, 293 

28, 740 

12, 191 

7,452 

12, 778 

1,388 

8,919 



Indian 



6,881 



Chinese 



Japa- 
nese 



23 

97 

280 

201 

320 

135 

69 

9 

12 

55 

57 

63 

73 

12 

31 

83 

46 

344 

73 

3 

67 

438 

3, 338 

480 

9 

218 

107 

238 



7 
13 
22 
17 
40 

5 
12 

5 

1 
11 

8 
15 
22 
135 
10 

3 

6 



All 

others 



3,060 



26 

87 

210 

133 

173 

55 

49 

5 

3 

34 

46 

45 

71 

97 

55 

39 

25 

128 

24 

182 
716 
231 
254 
114 
32 
185 



OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in pari I and 
part IT offenses, there follow- a brief definition of cadi classification: 
Part I Offenses 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and Qonnegligent manslaughter includes all 
willful felonious homicides as distinguished from deal lis caused by negligence. 
Does not include attempts to kill, assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, or 
justifiable homicides. Justifiable homicides excluded from this classification are 
limited to the following types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon by a peace officer 
in line of duty; (2) The killing of a hold-up man by a private citizen, (b) Man- 
slaughter by negligence includes any death which the police investigation estab- 
lishes was primarily attributable to gross negligence on the part of some individual 
other than the victim. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape (no force used — victim under 
age of consent), assault to rape, and attempted rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as strong-arm robbery, stick-up>, 
robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by the use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or a theft, even though no force 
was used to gain entrance. Includes attempts. Burglary followed by larceny 
is included in this classification and not counted again as larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value; (b) 
under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of the property stolen, thefts of bicycles, automobile accessories, 
shoplifting, pocket-picking, or any stealing of property or article of value which 
is not taken by force and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, 
"con" games, forgery, worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven away 
and abandoned, including the so-called joy-riding thefts. Does not include tak- 
ing for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unauthorized use 
by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which i> 
made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false pretenses. 

11. Stolen properly; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those offeiiM-. 

(119) 



120 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of regulations or 
statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing, and manufactur- 
ing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes or 
regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commer- 
cialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as prostitution, keeping 
bawdy house, procuring, transporting, or detaining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice). — 
Includes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

15. Offenses against the family and children. — Includes offenses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, sale, or use. Excludes Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "drunkenness" (class 18) and "driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations, State or local, are placed in 
this class. Excludes Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regulations with 
respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters, but not in connection with any specific offense, who are released 
without formal charges being placed against them. 



INDEX TO VOLUME XX, UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

[All references are to page numbers] 

Age of offenders. (See Arrests.) 

Annual crime trends: Pa e c 

Cities grouped by size 80 

Cities grouped by location 82-85 

Estimated total number of major crimes, 1949 78-79 

Rural crime trends 17-18,87-88 

Arrests — based on fingerprint records 68-72, 111-118 

Age of offenders 68-71, 113-116 

Race of offenders 72, 117-118 

Recidivism . . 72, 117 

Sex of offenders 68-69,111-112 

Automobiles — percentage recovered 14, 107 

Classification of offenses. .. 2-3,73-74,76-77,119-120 

Cleared by arrest, offenses - - - 47-51, 55, 59, 64-65 

By geographic divisions 64-65 

Crimes. (See Arrests, estimated number, offenses, persons charged, per- 
sons found guilty, and persons released.) 
Criminal repeaters. (See Arrests — recidivism.) 

Employees, number of police 19-46 

Fingerprint records 68-72, 111-118 

Monthly variations, offenses known to the police 89-91 

Offenses known to the police: 

Annual trends 7, 17-18,79-87 

Cities grouped by location 7-10, 94 

Cities grouped by location and size 10, 95 

Cities grouped 1>\ size 4-5,92-93 

Cleared by arrest 47-51, 55, 59, 64-65 

Cleared by arrest, geographic divisions 64-65 

Divided as to time and place and value of property stolen _ _ 14-16, 107-110 

Individual cities over 100,000 in population 11-13 

Individual cities over 25,000 in population 98-105 

Monthly variations ■__ 89-91 

Rural areas 16-18, 97 

Territories and possessions of the United States 106 

Persons charged (held for prosecution) 52-60, 66-67 

By geographic divisions * 64—67 

Persons found guilty 55-60 

Persons released (not held for prosecution) 61-63 

Police department employees . . 19-46 

Police killed 19-20 

Possessions and Territories of the United States, offenses in 106 

Property, value stolen 14-16,107.110 

Property, value stolen and recovered 16, 110 

Prosecution, persons held for. (Sec Persons charged and persons found 
guilty.) 

(121) 



122 

• 

Race of offenders. (See Arrests.) 

Recidivism. (See Arrests.) Page 

Reporting area, extent of 77 

Rural crime data --- 16-18,87-88,97 

Sex of offenders. (See Arrests.) 

Sheriffs' reports 16-18,87-88,97 

State crime rates. (See Offenses known — cities grouped by location.) 

State police reports 16-18,87-88,97 

Territories and possessions of the United States, offenses in 106 

Trends, annual crime: 

Cities grouped by size 80 

Cities grouped bv location 82-85 

Rural 17-18,87-88 

Value of property stolen 14-16, 107, 110 

Value of property stolen and recovered 16, 110 

Variations, monthly crime 89-91 

o 



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