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Full text of "Uniform crime reports for the United States"




Given By 
H S. SUPT. OF DOCUMENTS 



3^ 



Boston Public Uhrarv 






UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C 



Volume XXV 
SEMIANNUAL BULLETIN 



Number I 
1954 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 



Volume XXV— Number 1 
SEMIANNUAL BULLETIN, 1954 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1954 



CONTENTS 

Page 
Summary of volume XXV, No. 1 1 

Crime trends: 

Estimated number of major crimes, January-June, 1953-54 (table 1). 2-3 

Urban crime trends, January-June, 1953-54 (table 2) 4 

Rural crime trends, January-June, 1953-54 (table 3) 4 

Crime rates: 

UrbaTi crime rates, January-June, 1954 — ^cities divided according to 

population (table 4) 5-G 

Urban crime rates, January-June, 1954 — cities divided according to 

location (tables 5-7) 7-9 

Rural crime rates, January-June, 1954 (table 8) 10 

Offenses in individual areas: 

Offenses in cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants (table 9). 11-19 

Police employee data: 

Police employees killed, 1953 (table 10) 20 

Number of police employees per 1,000 inhabitants, April 30, 1954 — 

cities grouped by size and location (tables 11, 12) 20-23 

Police employees in individual cities, April 30, 1954 (tables 13, 14) 23-43 

Offenses cleared and persons arrested: 

Offenses cleared by arrest, 1953 — cities divided according to size 

(table 15) 44-48 

Offenses cleared by arrest, 1953- — cities divided according to location 

(table 16) ' 47,49 

Persons charged, 1953 — cities divided according to population (tables 

17, 18) 50-53 

Persons charged, 1953 — cities divided according to location (table 

19) 54-55 

Offenses known, offenses cleared, persons charged and persons found 

guilty, 1953 — part I offense classes (table 20) 56-5S 

Persons charged and persons found guilty, part II offense classes 

(table 2 1 ) 57, 59-60 

Persons released, 1953 — cities divided according to population (tables 

22, 23) 61-63 

Classification of offenses 64-66 

(II) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 
of Justice, Washington, D. C. 



Volume XXV 



JULY 1954 



Number 1 



SUMMARY 

Crime Trends, January- June, 1954 

Estimated total crime rose 8.5 percent the first half of 1954 over 
the same period of 1953. The details are as follows: 



Crime 



United 

States 



Urban 



Rural 



TOTAL_ 



Murder 

Negligent manslaughter. 

Rape 

Robbery 



+8.5 

+0.9 

-3.9 

-1.2 

+20.4 



+7.2 



+11.9 



Aggravated assault. 

Burglary 

Larceny 

Auto theft 



+13.2 
+9.0 
-2.3 



-2.1 

-6.4 

+0.6 

+22.6 

-0.5 

+11.8 

+7.1 

-2.7 



+5.8 
-0.6 

-3.5 
+10.8 

+1.8 
+16.7 
+13.6 

-0.8 



Police Employees 

Sixty-three police employees in 3,721 cities (98 percent of country's 
urban population) were killed in line of duty during 1953. The rate 
was 3.6 deaths per 5,000,000 inhabitants, the same as for 1952. 

Police employees in the above 3,721 cities numbered 161,356 as of 
April 30, 1954 (1.8 per 1,000 inhabitants), including 9.3 percent 
civilians. 
Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1953 

Police cleared by arrest 1 out of 4 offenses reported to them for 
investigation during 1953. Clearances for individual offense classes 
were in the following percentages: murder, 93.7; negligent man- 
slaughter, 84.2; rape, 79.1; aggravated assault, 73.6; robbery, 39.7; 
larceny, 19.6; and auto theft, 26.0. 
Persons Convicted, 1953 

SLxty-seven out of every 100 persons arrested and formally charged 
by police in 1953 were convicted in court. The percentage of persons 
found guilty ranged from 44.2 for manslaughter to 89.4 for driving 
while intoxicated. 



(1) 



CRIME TREND - U. S. 

BASED ON THE ESTIMATED NUMBER 
OF MAJOR CRIMES 



la •■ June 1953 vs. Ian. •• June 1954 




TOTAL — 



Murder 



Negligent 
Manslaughter 



3.9 



Rape 1.2| 

Robbery 

Aggravated 

Assault 

Burglary 

Larceny 

Auto Theft 2.3 '^ 



Percent 
Change 



Vf<<!/iftiMmiii!f<fffm: tffXf^S-mxffiifS 





+13.2 








+ 9.0 



+20.4 




FBI CHART 



Figure 1. 



CRIME TRENDS 

Estimated Number of Major Crimes, January- J line, 1953-54 

The country's estimated crime total was up 8.5 percent for the 
first half of 1954 as compared with January-June of the previous 
year, while the Nation's population from the one June to the next 
rose less than 2 percent/ Robberies jumped 20.4 percent during the 
first 6 months of 1954 while burglaries rose 13.2 percent and larceny, 
9 percent. 

Estimated murder figures rose only 0.9 percent and aggravated 
assaults showed no change at all. Rape offenses declined 1.2 percent 
and auto theft and negligent manslaughter were down 2.3 percent 
and 3.9 percent, respectively. 

The estimated crime total for the first half of the year was 1,136,140 
Part I offenses, 88,850 more than the figure for the same period of 1953. 

During an average day in the first half of 1954, 35 people in the 
United States were feloniously slain, 48 rapes occurred and 252 other 
felonious assaults were committed. Every day on the average during 
the first 6 months, 197 robberies and 1,454 burglaries were committed. 
This was in addition to 3,683 other larcenies and 608 car thefts daily 
according to estimated totals. 

The basis for the estimates for 1954 presented in table 1 were the 
usable reports received from the police serving approximately 84 
percent of the urban population and 61 percent of the rural population. 
In building up the figures to 100 percent it was necessary to estimate 
only for a small portion of the country. However, some adjustments 
were made for the rural area to make up for calculated incompleteness 
in some categories. 

Table 1.— CRIME TRENDS, URBAN AND RURAL 

[Estimated number of major crimes in the United States, January-June, 1953-54] 



Ofifense 



TOTAL 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by neghgence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary —breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 



Number of offenses 
January-June 



1953 



1, 047, 290 



3,390 
3,080 
8,860 
29, 610 

45, 630 
232, 510 
611,610 
112,600 



1, 136, 140 



3,420 

2,960 

8,750 

35, 650 

45, 630 
263, 120 
666, 550 
110,060 



Change 



Number Percent 



-1-88, 850 



-1-30 
-120 

-no 

-t-6, 040 



-f30, 610 

-1-54, 940 

-2, 540 



+8.5 



-1-0.9 
-3.9 
-1.2 

-1-20.4 



-f-13.2 
-1-9.0 
-2.3 



1 Census Bureau estimates show total population, June 1, 1953, at 159,410,000 and a year later 162,187,000. 
Population estimates dated July 12, 1954, Series P-25, Number 96. 



(3) 



Crime Trends, Urban-Rural, January-June, 1953-54 

The total reported crime as shown in the reports of police serving 
rural areas rose 11.9 percent the first half of 1954 as compared with 
a 7.2 percent rise in the total for inban communities. 

Rural burglaries and larcenies jumped 16.7 and 13.6 percent, 
respectively, as compared with an 11.8 percent rise in urban burglaries 
and a 7.1 percent increase in urban larcenies. Robberies, which rose 
22.6 percent in urban communities, increased only 10.8 percent in 
the rural communities. For murder the urban and rural trends were 
substantially different. The urban murder figure declined 2.1 percent 
and the rural data increased 5.8 percent. 

Negligent manslaughter decreased in both urban and rural areas, 
6.4 percent in the cities and 0.6 percent in the rural communities. 
Rape offenses, which showed little change in the cities ( + 0.6 percent), 
declined 3.5 percent in the rural areas. Urban aggravated assault 
decreased only 0.5 percent while rural offenses in this category showed 
a slight rise of 1.8 percent. Auto theft in the cities declined 2.7 
percent but were down only 0.8 percent in the rural districts. 

The rural and urban crime trend data are presented in tables 2 
and 3 below. The reports of identical agencies were used for January- 
June of 1953 and 1954. 



Table 2.— URBAN CRIME TRENDS, JANUARY-JUNE, 1953-54 

[Offenses known to the police in 2,287 cities, total population 74,681,937 based on 1950 decennial census] 



Offense 



TOTAL 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 



Number of offenses 
January-June 



1953 



644, 537 



1,735 

1,255 

4.310 

22, 291 

30, 771 
150, 607 
361,777 

71, 791 



1954 



690. 839 



1,699 

1,175 

4, 334 

27, 334 

30,018 
168, 309 
387, 547 

69, 823 



Change 



Number Percent 



+46,302 



-36 

-80 

+24 

+5,043 

-153 

+17, 702 

+25. 770 

-1,968 



+7.2 



-2.1 

-6.4 

+0.6 

+22.6 

-0.5 

+11.8 

+7.1 

-2.7 



Table 3.— RURAL CRIME TRENDS, JANUARY- JUNE, 1953-54 

[Based on reports of 1,412 sheriffs, 105 rural village olBcers, and 11 State police; total rural population, 37, 
686,075 based on the 1950 decennial census] 



Offense 



TOTAL... _ 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery. 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 



Number of offenses 
January-June 



1953 



114,336 



815 

967 

2,318 

3,291 

6,351 
37, 877 
51,406 
11,311 



127, 982 



862 

961 

2.238 

3,645 

0,463 
44, 190 
68,407 
11,216 



Change 



Number 



+13,646 



+47 

-6 

-80 

+354 

+ 112 

+6.313 

+7. 001 

-95 



Percent 



+ll.»i( 



+5.»i 

-o.«n 

+10. 



+1. 

+ 13.(1 
-0.8 



CRIME RATES 

Urban Crime Rates, January-June, 1954 

Crime rates are calculated on the basis of the number of loiown 
offenses per 100,000 inhabitants, and the data for the first half of 1954 
are presented in tables 4-6 for urban communities. The rates are 
based on the reports of 2,459 cities representing 78,768,084 inhabitants. 
Table 4 shows the data for these cities grouped according to size. 
Table 5 presents the crime rates for individual States, and in table 6 
may be found the crime rates for the various population groups within 
each of the 9 geographic divisions. The urban crime rate tables are 
supported by table 7 which shows the details on the number of cities 
used in compiling the tabulations. 

Generally, the larger cities report substantially higher crime rates 
than the smaller communities. Also, a marked variation in rates will 
be found for the different sections of the country. In making any 
comparison between the rates of various city groups or the rates of an 
individual community with the averages for other cities of comparable 
size or location, it should be remembered that the 1950 decennial 
census figures were used in all of these tabulations. These figures 
were used since more recent population data for the individual 
reporting communities are not available. The Census Bureau esti- 
mates reflect a growth in population of the United States since the 
1950 census and indications are that if 1954 population data were 
available for individual communities, the crime rates would have been 
approximately 5 percent lower on the average than shown. 

(5) 



Table 4.— URBAN CRIME RATES, JANUARY-JUNE, 1954, BY POPU- 
LATION GROUPS 

[Offenses known to the police and rate per 100,000 inhabitants. Population figures based on 1950 decennial- 

census] 



Population group 



TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

2,459 cities: total population, 78,708,084: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP I 

40 cities over 250,000, total population, 
34,524,513: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP II 

63 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 9,334,520: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP III 

128 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total popula- 
tion, 9,067,789: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP IV 

239 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total popula- 
tion, 8,457,471. 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP V 

653 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total popula- 
tion, 10,089,049: 

Number of offenses known.. _. 

Rate per 100,000... 

GROUP VI 

1,336 cities under 10,000; total population, 
7,294,742: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Criminal 
homicide 



Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



1,813 
2.3 



1.021 
3.0 



263 

2.8 



166 
1.8 



132 
1.6 



133 
1.3 



1.3 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



1,285 
1.6 



763 
2.2 



142 
1.5 



128 
1.4 



129 

1.5 



Rape 



4,654 
6.9 



3,108 
9.0 



458 
4.9 



338 
3.7 



250 
3.0 



288 
2.9 



212 
2.9 



Rob- 
bery 



29,262 
37.1 



22, 372 
64.8 



2, 657 
28.5 



1,474 
16.3 



1,093 
12.9 



1.071 
10.6 



595 
8.2 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



31,915 
40.5 



20. 504 
59.6 



3,632 
38.9 



3,126 
34.5 



1,781 
21.1 



1,722 
17.1 



1,090 
14.9 



Bur- 
glary, 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Lar- 
ceny, 
theft 



177, 888 
225.8 



95, 358 
276.2 



24, 252 
259.8 



18,043 
199.0 



14. 961 
176.9 



16,223 
160.8 



9,051 
124.1 



401,298 
509.5 



182.939 
529.9 



54,503 
583.9 



46,998 
518.3 



44,530 
526.5 



47, 515 
471.0 



24, 813 
340.1 



Auto 
theft 



73, 766 
93.6 



43, 470 
125.9 



9,581 
102.6 



6,964 
76.7 



,■5,387 
63.7 



5,280 
52.3 



3,088 
42.3 



Table 5.— URBAN CRIME RATES, JANUARY-JUNE, 1954, BY GEO- 
GRAPHIC DIVISIONS AND STATES 



[Offenses known per 100,000 inhabitants. 


Population based on 1950 decennial census] 




Division and State 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burglary, 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny, 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


TOTAL . . 


2.3 


37.1 


40.5 


225.8 


509.5 


93.6 


New England . 




.6 


8.0 


6.6 


131.2 


296.0 


58.5 


Connecticut ... . 




.9 
1.5 
.5 
.4 
.5 


9.3 
4.1 
9.0 
2.6 
5.5 
2.9 

39.9 


12.0 
4.4 
5.6 
3.0 
6.9 


155.2 
91.0 

126.2 
74.2 

171.3 
79.4 

218.2 


308.6 
301.4 
287.2 
241.8 
349.9 
264.5 

354.3 


61.3 


Maine . 


32.1 


Massachusetts 


63.4 


New Hampshire . 


21.8 


Rhode Island 


58.5 


Vermont 


35.8 


Middle Atlantic 


1.6 


33.8 


74.5 


New Jersey 




1.2 
1.6 
1.9 

2.0 


17.3 

48.8 
35.1 

48.2 


22.8 
42.4 
22.7 

32.9 


178.3 
245.5 
186.1 

190.2 


310.3 
397.9 
291.7 

489.9 


69.5 


New York 


73.7 


Pennsylvania 


79.0 


East North Central 


81.0 


Illinois. .. 




2.7 
1.3 
2.2 
1.9 

.7 

1.4 


77.7 
28.0 
55.0 
30.4 
6.8 

30.5 


41.5 
19.5 
56.7 
17.8 
9.2 

28.1 


200.6 
219.6 
238.0 
168.6 

78.4 

188.4 


325.0 
547.7 
705.7 
511.5 

441.8 

494.7 


65.8 


Indiana 


92.1 


Michigan 


136.5 


Ohio 


62.7 


Wisconsin . . . 


48.6 


West North Central . 


83.1 


Iowa .. 




.3 

2.0 

.3 

2.8 
.9 


7.9 
19.4 
23.2 
63.0 
11.6 
4.2 
2.3 

29.6 


4.4 
30.3 

5.5 

66.8 

10.7 

.6 

2.8 

107.8 


144.0 
231.2 
182.4 
238.4 
115.4 
80.7 
81.0 

271.2 


455.6 
571.6 
471.8 
511.7 
496.3 
483.6 
386.6 

582.6 


45.7 


Kansas . 


64.4 


Minnesota . . 


69.8 


Missouri. .. . . . 


132.3 


Nebraska .. 


72.0 


North Dakota . 


49.1 


South Dakota .. . 




26.4 


South Atlantic ' 


4.5 


120.0 


Delaware . 




1.6 
4.4 
7.2 
3.9 
3.9 
3.4 
5.1 
1.2 

6.0 


20.4 
43.8 
21.9 
34.5 
13.2 
12.7 
33.6 
9.9 

24.6 


10.2 

52.8 
106.3 

74.8 
161.7 

50.2 
118.0 

24.9 

56.1 


265.8 
472.1 
261.8 
238.9 
207.7 
248.8 
245.1 
132.3 

246.2 


677.9 
799.7 
515.9 
519.1 
467.1 
630. 3 
693.4 
308.2 

388.7 


122.7 


Florida.. _ . ..... ... 


123.5 


Georgia . 


126.0 


Maryland .. 


229.9 


North Carolina 


68.1 


South Carolina 


77.4 


Virginia 


120.7 


West Virginia 


54.7 


East South Central 


97.2 


Alabama. 




6.3 
4.5 
4.1 

7.8 

4.7 


17.4 
42.3 

8.3 
25.0 

24.6 


56.8 
70.1 
32.9 
55.1 

40.2 


280.7 
271.4 
177.1 
226.0 

256.9 


384.6 
541.2 
288.4 
323.2 

625.2 


63.1 


Kentucky ... ... 


159.0 


Mississippi 


50.8 


Tennessee 


101.7 


West South Central 


129.0 


.Arkansas _ . 




3.7 
4.8 
2.6 
5.3 

2.4 


29.6 
35.0 
18.6 
22.9 

33.2 


40.2 
43.5 
19.4 
45.0 

24.8 


223.3 
143.0 
253.3 
291.1 

319.8 


471.3 
354.7 
658.7 
703.4 

909.1 


53. 7 


Louisiana 


213.3 


Oklahoma 


92.7 


Texas. 


125.4 


Mountain. . 


130.8 


Arizona ... 




5.2 

1.9 
.5 

2.8 
10.2 

2.7 
.8 
.9 

1.6 


54.6 
44.3 
5.2 
34.1 
87.0 
22.5 
12.7 
13.5 

52.2 


57.6 
24.0 
7.6 
38.6 
21.8 
25.1 
11.0 
18.0 

43.5 


503.1 
358.1 
193.4 
166.4 
711.5 
360.6 
218.5 
152.8 

326.3 


1, 670. 1 
784.2 
923.0 
748.1 

1, 534. 2 
692.3 
813.2 
609.2 

902.5 


264.3 


Colorado . .. 


113.7 


Idaho . 


67 6 


Montana . . 


121.0 


Nevada . _. 


230.3 


New Mexico . ... 


151.4 


Utah... 


108.0 


Wyoming... ... .. 


71.0 


Pacific. 


144.8 


California 




1.7 
1.2 
1.8 


58.7 
26.1 
29.9 


52.2 
14.2 
10.9 


344.0 
267.6 
258.6 


931.0 
756.3 
823.9 


159.0 


Oregon. . 


64.0 


Washington 


109.9 






1 Includes the District of Columbia. 
313691°— 54 2 















8 



Table 6.— URBAN CRIME RATES, JANUARY-JUNE, 1954, BY GEO- 
GRAPHIC DIVISIONS AND POPULATION GROUPS 

[Offenses known per 100,000 inhabitants. Population based on 1950 decennial census] 



Division and group 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary, 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Larceny, 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


TOTAL 


2.3 


37.1 


40.5 


225.8 


509.5 


93.6 




.6 


8.0 


6.6 


131.2 


296.0 


58.5 








.4 
.8 
.5 
.3 
.8 
.3 
1.6 


20.2 
11.7 
.5.3 
4.5 
2.1 
.9 
39.9 


16.7 
11.3 
3.4 
1.5 
2.2 
2.0 
33.8 


95.7 
172.9 
137.5 
118.2 
111.4 

87.8 
218.2 


298.1 
343.8 
314.8 
274.1 
248.0 
198.7 
354.3 


130.5 




79.2 


Group III - 


46.5 


Group IV 


30.7 




24.9 




23.3 




74.5 








2.2 

1.1 

1.3 

.4 

.7 

.5 

2.0 


62.2 
10.9 
11.1 
5.6 
7.5 
3.8 
48.2 


49.7 
16.6 
17.0 
10.0 
7.6 
4.2 
82.9 


286.2 
158.2 
143.4 
123.9 
100.9 
83.9 
190.2 


406.3 
288.7 
292.0 
311.7 
277.7 
228.8 
489.9 


94.4 




67.8 


Group III - - 


58.5 


Group VI 


39.6 




36.0 


Group VI -- - - 


32.0 




81.0 








3.1 
2.1 
1.5 
.7 
.6 
.8 
1.4 


83.5 
33.5 
17.9 
13.2 
11.7 
8.2 
30.5 


.52.2 
34.5 
25.6 
10.1 
6.8 
4.3 
28.1 


223.7 
225.8 
172.2 
157.8 
145.3 
111.0 
188.4 


507.0 
558.7 
525.7 
502.6 
494.0 
288.9 
494.7 


104.0 


Group II 


84.7 




72.3 




62.3 


Group V 


49.8 




34.9 




83.1 








2.5 

2.2 

.3 

.2 

.5 
.2 

4.5 


63.8 
25.0 
10.3 
8.8 
4.3 
4.8 
29.6 


57.6 
31.2 
13.8 
4.0 
3.6 
2.3 
107.8 


257.3 
288.8 
147.4 
109.0 
130.7 
86.0 
271.2 


565.7 
662.1 
555.7 
462.5 
414.9 
252.0 
582.6 


143. 1 




84.4 




46.0 




47.7 




35.0 




27.5 


South Atlantic ' 


120.0 




5.5 
4.8 
3.9 
4.0 
3.3 
4.4 
6.0 


40.4 
50.9 
19.1 
16.9 
9.3 
13.8 
24.6 


156.7 
100.4 
95.6 
81.3 
76.5 
76.9 
56.1 


255.4 
387.2 
254.9 
250.1 
226.3 
181.7 
246.2 


558.5 
726.4 
585. 1 
666.0 
491.1 
346.9 
388.7 


178.8 




147.2 


Group III - - 


94.2 




82.5 




66.6 




53.0 


East South Central 


97.2 




5.9 
9.3 
4.4 
6.6 
5.0 
2.1 
4.7 


36.3 
29.7 
16.4 
12.9 
13.1 
11.1 
24.6 


68.6 
41.0 
81.0 
63.0 
48.2 
27.5 
40.2 


301.7 
293.1 
254.8 
174. 9 
188.7 
117.6 
256.9 


450.4 
430.4 
437.6 
398.6 
276.2 
194.2 
625.2 


125.7 




129.5 




80.7 




52.3 


Group V 


69.4 




39. 2 


West South Central 


129.0 




7.4 
3.2 
4.3 
4.1 
1.4 
3.4 
2.4 


38.0 
32.1 
15.0 
17.2 
6.3 
8.7 
33.2 


45.5 
49.5 
57.7 
27.3 
24.6 
22.1 
24.8 


327.8 
342. 6 
229.8 
218.3 
135. 4 
104.3 
319.8 


682.7 
856.4 
699.8 
627.8 
426.8 
237.4 
909.1 


221.0 




121.0 


Group III - 


103. 9 




70. S 




40.2 




27.8 


Mountain.. 


130.8 




2.4 
3.8 
1.4 
2.4 
2.6 
1.6 
1.6 


67.8 
40.1 
24.8 
32.1 
16.9 
13.5 
52.2 


35.8 
40.1 
28.0 
24.9 
9.6 
14.2 
43.5 


471.4 
396.6 
364.9 
295.1 
215.3 
205.6 
326.3 


768.2 
1,317.9 
869.9 
1, 094. 4 
872.4 
660.9 
902.5 


141. 9 




198. 7 


Group III 


167.7 




142.9 




93.0 




76. 3 


Pacific - - 


144.8 




1.8 
1.4 
1.1 
1.9 
1.4 
1.5 


72.8 
35.8 
38.0 
26.7 
28.8 
15.1 


68.4 
9.2 
21.1 
18.6 
14.7 
14.3 


358.5 
242.7 
335. 3 
317.6 
306.0 
224. 5 


850.5 
954.7 
937.0 
1, 039. 2 
989.9 
859. 4 


178.0 




94.2 


Group III - 


122. 1 




120.6 




104.9 




94.1 







1 Includes the District of Columbia. 



9 



Table 7.— NUMBER OF CITIES IN EACH POPULATION GROUP, GEO- 
GRAPHIC DIVISION, AND STATE REPRESENTED IN THE URBAN 
CRIME RATE TABULATIONS FOR JANUARY-JUNE 1954 (TABLES 
4-6) 





TOTAL 






Population group 






Division and State 


Over 
250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


TOTAL: 

Population, 78,768,084 


2,459 


40 


63 


128 


239 


653 


1 336 






New England: 

Population, 6,210,070 


172 


1 


11 


18 


30 


61 


51 






Connecticut 


23 
19 

87 
16 
16 
11 

520 




4 


2 

1 
11 

1 
3 


9 
2 
14 
2 
2 
1 

45 


2 
8 
39 
5 
6 

136 


6 


Maine 




g 


Massachusetts . . _ 


1 


6 


16 


New Hampshire .-- 


8 


Rhode Island _ - 




1 


4 


Vermont .. . _ 




9 


Middle Atlantic: 

Population, 20,814,605 


7 


11 


24 


297 






New Jersey - 


136 
171 
213 

592 


2 
3 
2 

9 


4 
4 
3 

10 


8 
6 
10 

31 


16 
16 
13 

63 


40 

42 
54 

142 


66 


New York. _ 


100 


Pennsylvania 


131 


East North Central: 

Population, 18,709,081 


337 








146 
78 
115 
172 
81 

270 


1 
1 
1 
5 
1 

5 


1 

4 
2 
3 


10 
4 
7 
6 
4 

9 


14 
9 
9 
19 
12 

18 


39 
18 
32 
39 
14 

73 


81 


Indiana. 


42 


Michigan 


64 


Ohio 


100 




50 


West North Central : 

Population, 6,168,371 


4 


161 






Iowa 


57 
49 
64 
46 
26 
13 
15 

252 




1 
2 

1 


4 

1 


7 
1 
3 

4 


9 
19 
16 
15 

7 
3 
4 

61 


36 


Kansas. 




26 




2 
2 
1 


42 




2 

1 


23 


Nebraska 




17 


North Dakota . ... 




2 
1 

27 


8 


South Dakota . 






1 
20 


9 


South Atlantic : 

Population, 7,850,420 


3 


9 


132 






Delaware . 


4 
1 

51 
32 
18 
57 
25 
40 
24 

110 




1 








3 


District of Columbia 


1 












3 
1 


2 
3 


7 
3 
2 
5 
1 
5 
4 

12 


10 

8 
7 

17 
5 
9 
5 

27 


29 


Georgia 


1 
1 


16 




8 




1 


5 
3 
4 
3 

4 


29 


South Carolina 




16 


Virginia . . 




3 


19 






12 


East South Central : 

Population, 3, 165,064 


3 


5 


59 






Alabama 


27 
34 
23 
26 

167 


1 
1 


2 


1 
2 

1 


3 
2 
5 
2 

13 


7 
6 
8 
6 

51 


13 


Kentucky 


23 


Mississippi 




9 




1 
4 


3 
6 


14 


West South Central : 

Population, 5,133,867 


8 


85 








20 
22 
32 
93 

122 




1 




3 

2 

4 
4 

11 


4 

6 

14 

27 

22 


12 




1 




13 


Oklahoma 


2 
3 

2 




12 


Texas 


3 

1 


8 
3 


48 


Mountain ; 

Population, 2,078,828 


83 








15 
27 
22 
12 
6 
11 
17 
12 

254 




1 




1 
1 
2 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 

20 




13 




1 


1 


7 
7 
2 
1 
1 
1 
3 

80 


17 


Idaho 




13 










7 










4 


New Mexico .. ... 






1 
1 


8 


Utah 




1 


13 


Wyoming 




8 


Pacific : 

Population, 8,637,778 


7 


5 


11 


131 


California 


179 
36 
39 


5 
1 
1 


3 


11 


13 
2 
5 


63 
8 
9 


84 




25 


Washington 


2 




22 









10 

Rural Crime Rates, January- June, 1954 

The number of offenses and the rate per 100,000 inhabitants as 
reported by 1,698 police agencies serving approximately two-thirds of 
the rural population of the country are shown in table 8. For crime 
reporting purposes the so-called old urban and rural distinction as 
followed in the 1940 census was utilized in classifying areas as rural. 

A comparison of the rural crime rates with those of the smaller 
urban communites reflects that for crimes of violence (criminal homi- 
cide, assaults and robberies) the rural rates exceed those of the small 
urban communities. For burglary there is not much difference in 
the figures, but for larceny and auto theft the urban rates are sub- 
stantially in excess of those for the rural communities. 

In compiling the rm'al crime rates any reports obviously incomplete 
were not included in the tabulations. However, it is recongnized that 
the rural reporting has not yet reached the high degree of uniformity 
found in the reports from urban communities. In some instances 
the reports used in preparing the rural data indicated the possibility 
that the entries may have been limited largely to offenses in which 
arrests were made. 

Table 8.— RURAL CRIME RATES, JANUARY-JUNE, 1954 

[Offenses known and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, as reported by 1,571 sheriffs, 115 rural village officers, and 
12 State police; total rural population 40,879,542, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Offense 



Murder and noimegligent manslaughter. 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 



Aggravated assault 

Burglary— brealcing or entering. 

Larceny — theft 

Autotheft 



Offenses known 




Number 


Rate 




1,010 


2.5 




1,039 


2.5 




2,447 


6.0 




4,083 


10.0 




7,326 


17.9 




47, 713 


116.7 




62, 716 


153.4 




12,156 


29.7 





OFFENSES IN INDIVIDUAL AREAS 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 25,000 Inhabitants 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the period of January-June, 1954, is shown in table 9. The com- 
pilation includes the reports received from police departments in 
cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants. Police administrators and 
other interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare 
the crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in tables 
4, 5, and 6 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire 
to make comparisons with the figures for their communities for 
prior periods, in order to determine whether there has been an increase 
or a decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

Caution should be exercised in comparing crime data for individual 
cities because the differences in the figures may be due to a variety 
of factors. Such comparisons are not necessarily significant even 
though the figures for individual communities are converted into 
terms of the number of offenses per 100,000 inhabitants. 

The following is a list of some of the factors which affect the amount 
of crime in the community: 

Population of the city and metropolitan area adjacent thereto. 

The composition of the population with reference particularly to 
age, sex, and race. 

The economic status and activities of the population. 

Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 

The number of police employees per unit of population. 

The standards governing appointments to the police force. 

The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 

The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 

The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 

The figures presented in the following tabulation are those reported 
by the individual police departments in the cities represented without 
reducing the data to crime rates (number of offenses per 100,000 
inhabitants) . 

In considering the volume of crime committed locally, it is gen- 
erally more important to determine whether the figures for a given 
community show increases or decreases rather than to ascertain 
whether they exceed or fall short of those for some other individual 
community, and it should be remembered that the amount of crime 
committed in a community is not solely chargeable to the police 
but is rather a charge against the entire community. 

In publishing these figures the FBI acts as a service agency. The 
figures published are those submitted by the contributing agencies. 

(11) 



12 

Table 9.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, JANU- 
ARY-JUNE, 1954, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION 



City 



Murder, 
nonncp;- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Burglary, 
break- 
ing or 

entering 



Larceny, theft 



Over 

$50 



Under 

$50 



Abilene, Tex... 
Abington, Pa.. 

Akron, Ohio 

Alameda, Calif- 
Albany, Ga 



Albany, N.Y 

Albuquerque, N. Mex_ 

Alexandria, La 

Alexandria, Va 

Alhambra, Calif 



Aliquippa, Pa.. 
Allentown, Pa. 
Alliance, Ohio. 

Alton, 111 

Altoona, Pa 



Amarillo, Tex 

Amsterdam, N. Y. 

Anderson, Ind 

Ann Arbor, Mich.. 
Anniston, Ala 



Appleton, Wis... 
Arlington, Mass. 

Arlington, Va 

Asheville, N. C. 
Ashland, Ky 



Athens, Ga 

Atlanta, Ga 

Atlantic City, N.J. 

Auburn, N. Y 

Augusta, Ga 



Aurora, 111 

Austin, Tex 

Bakersfleld, Calif- 
Baltimore, Md 

Bangor, Maine 



Barberton, Ohio 

Baton Rouge, La — 
Battle Creek, Mich- 
Bay City, Mich 

Bayonne, N. J 



Beaumont, Tex 

Belleville, 111 

Belleville, N. J 

Bellingham, Wash. 
Belmont, Mass 



Beloit, Wis 

Berkeley, Calif. 

Berwyn, 111 

Bessemer, Ala.. 
Bethlehem, Pa. 



Beverly, Mass 

Beverly Hills, Calif- 
Billings, Mont 

Biloxi, Miss 

Binghamton, N. Y.. 



Birmingham, Ala- 
Bloomfield, N. J.. 
Blooniiiigto!!, 111.. 
Blooiiiington, Ind. 
Boise, Idaho 



Boston, Mass 

Bremerton, Wash. 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Bristol, Conn 

Brockton, Mass... 



141 
2 

7 

7 
35 

27 
23 



2 
114 

25 



3 

28 

17 

382 

2 

2 

26 

7 



5 

1 

116 

3 

24 



78 
49 
718 
72 
38 



42 
23 
267 
27 
41 



12 101 

34 480 151 

No reports received 
100 181 97 

10 162 60 

7 37 18 

Only 1 month received 
54 
2 87 16 

11 73 



30 



18 
118 
No reports received 



184 
18 
66 
60 
71 

36 
22 

167 
108 



118 

7 

19 

81 

29 

16 

12 

194 

84 



34 

527 

50 



103 

11 
138 

10 

828 

1 

1 
51 
15 



46 



29 

1,376 

237 

23 

115 

47 

307 

186 

2,426 

30 

21 
203 
101 
105 

93 

162 
26 
27 
50 
34 

26 

289 
77 
46 
47 



27 

815 

165 

14 

31 

70 

117 

155 

1,702 

26 

28 
89 
35 
32 
45 

85 
19 
6 
40 
13 

19 
80 
29 
24 
30 



14 
14 


10 




77 
2 

11 
2 
4 


137 
2 
1 


2 


162 

1 

28 

1 

3 


134 


18 


5 



19 29 

No reports received 



329 

60 

1,458 

195 
82 

66 
648 

526 
257 

80 

100 
214 
179 

463 
21 
257 
153 
179 

196 

50 

450 

185 



42 

2,210 

220 

40 

77 

130 

953 

488 

3,377 

80 

84 
273 
273 
204 
181 

617 
59 
43 
60 
43 

164 
646 
67 
53 
128 

90 



85 


117 


319 


66 


38 


122 


57 


39 


183 


,195 


468 


1,090 


37 


20 


45 


67 


39 


103 


76 


48 


149 


60 


79 


287 


7()7 


844 


1,545 


aC) 


39 


230 


192 


180 


330 


;<() 


14 


35 


167 


49 


254 



13 



Table 9.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, JANU- 
ARY-JUNE, 1954, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Murder, 
iiomieg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Burglary, 
break- 
ing or 

entering 



Larceny, theft 



Over 

$50 



Under 

$50 



Brookline, Mass_. 
Brownsville, Tex. 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Burbank, Calif 

Burlington, Iowa- 



Burlington, Vt 

Butte, Mont 

Cambridge, Mass- 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 



Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

Champaign, 111 

Charleston, S. C 

Charleston, W. Va... 
Charlotte, N. C 



Charlottesville, Va.. 
Chattanooga, Term. 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chester, Pa 

Cheyenne, Wyo 



Chicago, 111 

Chicopee, Mass 

Cicero, 111 

Cincinnati, Oliio 

Clarksburg, W. Va. 



Cleveland, Ohio 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio- 

Clifton, N.J 

Clinton, Iowa 

Colorado Springs, Colo... 



Columbia, Mo... 
Columbia, S. C. 
Columbus, Ga... 
Columbus, Ohio. 
Compton, Calif.. 



Concord, N. H 

Corpus Christi, Tex.. 
Council Bluffs, Iowa- 
Covington, Ky 

Cranston, R. I 



Cumberland, Md 

Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. 

Dallas, Tex 

Danville, 111 

Danville, Va 



Davenport, Iowa 

Dayton, Ohio 

Daytona Beach, Fla. 

Dearborn, Mich 

Decatur, 111 



Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa. 

Detroit, Mich 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Duluth, Minn 



Durham, N. C 

East Chicago, Ind 

East Cleveland, Ohio- 
East Hartford, Conn.- 
Easton, Pa 



East Orange, N. J 

East Providence, R. I- 

East St. Louis, 111 

'Eau Claire, Wis 

Elgin, 111 



138 



32 



36 



2 

1 

118 

20 

2 

2 
34 
23 
39 
30 

6 

3 

33 

14 

25 



61 

5 

28 

7 

4,155 

1 

27 

138 

5 

590 
3 
2 
3 
4 



11 
14 
168 
42 



4 
172 



79 
8 

16 
4 

282 

33 

1,847 



2 
104 



40 

2 

52 

21 

3 

7 

18 
49 
231 

14 
55 



30 
5 

2,040 

1 

32 

131 



97 
102 
591 
176 

25 

45 
82 
99 
292 
209 



30 

358 
168 
203 

14 

444 

31 

72 

48 

8,190 
22 
121 

756 
22 

1,260 
52 
74 
27 



23 

52 

274 

105 

4 

37 
50 
93 
107 
90 

51 
53 

164 
) 

125 

26 
81 
42 
81 
25 



5,260 

25 

79 

564 

9 



(') 



No reports received 

52 

3 

46 

19 



1 
157 



5 

1 

391 

2 

58 

7 
84 
19 



149 

6 

1,735 



223 
10 
2 



5 
1 

178 



188 


198 


219 


110 


1,155 


749 


371 


88 


28 


12 


477 


353 


55 


33 


135 


85 


95 


48 


16 


11 


37 


33 


2,069 


404 


68 


18 


60 


50 


230 


77 


370 


150 


90 


87 


275 


129 


144 


41 


1,960 


812 


529 


282 


5,575 


1,615 


50 


34 


171 


94 


105 


80 


86 


97 


50 


10 


39 


26 


46 


12 


178 


61 


37 


32 


209 


57 


22 


23 


29 


11 



125 
281 
652 
398 
92 

123 
245 
126 
194 
400 

376 
104 
503 

525 
691 

72 
432 
43 
60 
229 

5,160 
60 
171 

1,467 
45 

6,955 
104 
115 
126 
350 



275 

1,495 

685 

79 
678 
223 
272 
127 

65 

101 

4,384 

97 



555 
743 
241 
1,188 
310 

2,382 

861 

12, 220 

166 

451 

208 
190 
101 
65 
79 

215 
129 
203 
110 
84 



See footnote at end of table. 



14 

Table 9.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, JANU- 
ARY-JUNE, 1954, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Elizabeth, N. J. 
Ellshart, Ind.... 
Elmira, N. Y... 
El Paso, Tex.._. 
Elyria, Ohio 



Enid, Okla.... 

Erie, Pa 

Euclid, Ohio.. 
Eugene, Oreg. 
Evanston, 111. 



Evansville, Ind... 

Everett, Mass 

Everett, Wash 

Fairmont, W. Va. 
Fall River, Mass.. 



Fargo, N. Dak 

Fayette ville, N. C. 

Ferndale, Mich 

Fitchburg, Mass... 
Flint, Mich 



Fond Du Lac, Wis 

Fort Dodge, Iowa 

Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Fort Wayne, Ind 



Fort Worth, Tex 

Framingham, Mass. 

Fresno, Calif 

Gadsden, Ala 

Gainesville, Fla 



Galesburg, 111... 
Galveston, Tex. 
Garfield, N.J... 

Gary, Ind 

Glendale, Calif. 



Gloucester, Mass 

Grand Forks, N. Dak. 
Grand Rapids, Mich.. 

Granite City, 111 

Great Falls, Mont 



Green Bay, Wis... 
Greensboro, N. C. 
Greenville, Miss.. 
Greenville, S. C... 
Greenwich, Conn. 

Haekcnsack, N. J. 
Hagerstown, Md.. 

Hamilton, N. J 

Hamilton, Ohio... 
Hammond, Ind... 



Hampton, Va 

Hamtranick, Mich. 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Hartford, Conn 

Ilattiesburg, Miss.. 



Haverford, Pa 

Haverhill, Mass. 

Hazleton, Pa 

Hempstead, N. Y 

Highland Park, Mich. 



High Point, N. C 

Hoboken, N.J 

Holyoke, Mass 

Honolulu City, Hawaii 

Hot Springs, Ark 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligcnt 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



12 
10 
15 

104 

34 
1 
1 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



1 
101 
27 



18 



59 



Burglary, 
break- 
ing or 

entering 



154 
51 
58 

412 
27 

74 
241 
39 
75 
104 

319 
55 

112 
33 

119 

26 
84 
45 
112 
466 



Larceny, theft 



Over 

$50 



1 20 

No reports received 



203 
115 
253 



101 
44 
63 

158 
22 

25 
59 
10 
96 
130 

170 
13 

55 

5 

91 

25 
18 
32 
38 
433 



142 
42 
126 



120 1, 036 225 

Only 1 month received 



402 
59 
83 



258 
14 
36 



1 23 11 

Only 1 month received 
6 
113 

5 

No reports received 



15 



Under 
$50 



18 


13 


437 


272 


335 


108 



277 

117 

155 

1,136 

47 

259 
329 
140 
247 
291 

529 
74 

284 
26 

255 

168 
336 
139 
207 
1,111 

156 

357 
170 
470 

2,200 

654 

66 

254 

73 

60 
727 

568 



29 


30 


165 


2S9 


194 


828 


lis 


8 


101 


19 


66 


112 


39 


19 


82 


203 


130 


251 


56 


42 


163 


180 


113 


293 


33 


10 


33 


25 


31 


77 


107 


17 


157 


72 


46 


170 


106 


72 


253 


218 


221 


550 


113 


87 


216 


74 


111 


147 


212 


118 


244 


383 


232 


463 


59 


9 


51 


32 


29 


97 


37 


15 


52 


24 


14 


21 


75 


73 


101 


117 


131 


340 


52 


39 


111 


85 


52 


85 


53 


22 


111 


592 


312 


1,501 


68 


28 


65 



15 

Table 9.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, JANU- 
ARY-JUNE, 1954, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Burglary, 
break- 
ing or 

entering 



Larceny, theft 



Over 
$50 



Under 
$50 



Houston, Tex 

Huntington, W. Va 

Huntington Park, Calif. 

HutchtQson, Kans 

Independence, Mo 



Indianapolis, Ind.. 
Inglewood, Calif... 
Iowa City, Iowa... 
Irondequoit, N. Y. 
Irvtngton, N. J 



Ithaca, N.Y 

Jackson, Mich 

Jackson, Miss 

Jackson, Term 

Jacksonville, Fla_ 



Jamestown, N. Y... 
Jefferson City, Mo.. 

Jersey City, N. J 

Johnson City, Tenn. 
Johnstown, Pa 



Joliet, HI 

Joplin, Mo 

Kalamazoo, Mich.. 

Kankakee, 111 

Kannapolis, N. C._, 

Kansas City, Kans. 
Kansas City, Mo... 

Kearny, N. J 

Kenosha, Wis 

Key West, Fla 



Kingston, N. Y 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Kokomo, Ind 

Lackawanna, N. Y. 
La Crosse, Wis 



LaFayette, Ind... 

Lafayette, La 

La Grange, Ga 

Lake Charles, La. 
Lakeland, Fla 



Lakewood, Ohio. 

Lancaster, Pa 

Lansing, Mich... 

Laredo, Tex 

Laurel, Miss 



Lawrence, Mass.. 

Lawton, Okla 

Lebanon, Pa 

Lewiston, Maine- 
Lexington, Ky... 



Lima, Ohio 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Lincoln Park, Mich. 

Linden, N. J 

Little Rock, Ark 



Lockport, N. Y 

Long Beach, Calif. 

Lorain, Ohio 

Los Angeles, Calif- 
Louisville, Ky 



Lowell, Mass 

Lower Merion, Pa. 

Lubbock, Tex 

Lynchburg, Va 

Lynn, Mass 



See footnote at end of table. 
313691°— 54 3 



19 



192 
14 
20 
4 
6 

222 

27 

1 



7 

5 

117 



218 
..... 



1 
25 

6 
2 

3 

66 

2 

146 

10 

1,781 

237 

5 
2 



151 

8 

1 

..... 

1 

10 
25 

3 
28 



2,180 

86 

149 

73 

54 

1,112 

198 

9 

35 

121 



717 
64 

119 
11 
41 

733 

126 

23 

2 

28 



33 


41 


75 


63 


279 


40 


60 


34 


800 


678 


44 


18 


15 


10 


336 


110 



Only two months received 
1 



49 

184 

2 



No reports received 



28 
216 

No reports received 
11 50 

2 45 



2 


4 


7 


20 


2 


38 


7 


1 


10 


18 


1 


3 


5 


38 


2 


2 


7 


3 


7 


8 



4 112 

No reports received 
26 
44 



95 24 

79 17 
No reports received 

2 24 10 

125 225 125 

11 146 76 

11 67 77 

No reports received 

3 

1 

1 

113 

31 

2,243 

276 



2,787 
278 
290 
154 
144 

1,675 

316 

80 

57 

133 

137 
254 
241 
128 
1,207 

85 

54 

228 



65 


39 


139 


49 


43 


162 


87 


45 


131 


130 


64 


387 


21 


16 


88 


33 


3 


54 


371 


167 


595 


630 


630 


1,201 


45 


18 


82 


40 


35 


209 



21 

138 


41 
213 


14 
16 


75 
259 


39 


220 



55 
123 

78 

153 
184 
389 
134 
52 

122 

266 

113 

366 

241 

555 



70 


33 


112 


363 


245 


643 


18 


8 


26 


1,326 


0) 


1,871 


82 


50 


142 


7,638 


6,963 


12, 067 


1,236 


1,157 


1,371 


133 


44 


168 


86 


54 


144 


230 


169 


704 


63 


15 


206 


238 


108 


400 



16 

Table 9.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, JANU- 
ARY-JUNE, 1954, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Lynwoofl, Calif 

Macon, Ga 

Madison, Wis 

Maiden, Mass 

Manchester, N. H. 



Manitowoc, Wis.. 
Mansfield, Ohio-. 
Maplewood, N. J. 

Marion, Ind 

Marion, Ohio 



Mason City, Iowa. 

Massillon, Ohio 

Maywood, 111 

McKeesport, Pa... 
Medford, Mass 



Melrose, Mass... 
Memphis, Tenn. 
Meriden, Conn.. 
Meridian, Miss.. 
Miami, Fla 



Miami Beach, Fla.. 
Michigan City, Ind. 
Middletown, Conn.. 
Middletown, Ohio.. 
Milwaukee, Wis 



Minneapolis, Minn. 

Mishawaka, Ind 

Mobile, Ala 

Moline, 111 

Monroe, La 



Montclair, N. J.. 

Montgomery, Ala 

Morgantown, W. Va.. 
Mount Lebanon, Pa.. 
Mount Vernon, N. Y. 



Muncie, Ind 

Muskegon, Mich_ 
Muskogee, Okla.. 

Nashua, N. H 

Nashville, Tenn.. 



New Albany, Ind... 

Newark, N. J 

Newark, Ohio 

New Bedford, Mass. 
New Britain, Conn.. 



New Brunswick, N. J. 

Newburgh, N. Y 

New Castle, Pa 

New Haven, Conn 

New Kensington, Pa.. 



Now London, Conu.. 

New Orleans, La 

Newport, Ky 

Newport, R. I.. 

Newport News, Va.. 

New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Newton, Mass 

New York, N. Y 

Niagara Falls, N. Y.. 
Norfolk, Va.... 



Norman, Okla 

Norristown, Pa 

Northami)ton, Mass 

North Bergen, N. J 

North Little Uock, Ark. 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



22 



Robbery 



10 



163 
2 
13 



232 
23 



233 



281 
1 

10 
6 

3 
1 
1 

22 
1 

1 

240 

3 

15 

2 

3 

5,411 

12 

161 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



335 
1 



Burglary, 
break- 
ing or 

entering 



132 

288 
121 
47 
43 

24 
94 
14 
45 
31 

15 
42 
07 

74 
49 

14 

861 
97 



Larceny, theft 



Over 

$50 



Onlv 4 months received 
108 



85 
115 
59 
17 
17 

30 

55 

5 

34 

58 

22 
4 
22 
31 
24 

4 

333 

8 



1 

145 



Only 4 months received 
4 



58 


262 
2 
12 
3 



2 

25 

7 

3 

208 
4 



Only 5 months received 
36 



9 

1 

4,023 

21 

093 



Under 

$50 



138 
2f)8 
408 
118 
137 

137 
188 
10 
152 
140 

80 
127 

53 
122 
119 

39 
490 



1,911 


623 


1,644 


397 


551 


287 


45 


56 


204 


26 


13 


54 


59 


53 


180 


388 


730 


2,226 


1, 462 


655 


2,082 


54 


32 


138 


584 


109 


403 


62 


37 


157 


65 


17 


148 


25 


23 


77 


186 


129 


290 


32 


21 


35 



93 


70 


91 


177 


06 


320 


122 


82 


247 


92 


38 


129 


28 


25 


81 


621 


309 


695 


20 


24 


134 


1,519 


553 


1,749 


59 


23 


144 


266 


153 


438 


46 


73 


ISO 


07 


20 


152 


61 


37 


84 


47 


20 


75 


392 


159 


440 


8 


12 


15 


38 


31 


130 


877 


682 


1,434 


CO 


27 


55 



130 


222 


577 


71 


83 


115 


134 


109 


252 


24,817 


20,293 


15, 590 


97 


105 


178 


877 


693 


1,089 


10 


22 


67 


31 


15 


30 


17 


19 


20 


•ts rece 


ved 





No reports received 



17 

Table 9.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, JANU- 
ARY-JUNE, 1954, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Norwalk, Conn. 
Norwich, Conn- 
Norwood, Ohio. 
Nutley, N. J..__ 
Oakland, Calif. _ 



Oak Park, 111 

Oak Ridge, Tenn 

Odessa, Tex 

Ogden, Utah 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 



Omaha, Nebr... 

Orange, N. J 

Orlando, Fla 

Oshkosh, Wis.-. 
Ottumwa, Iowa. 



Owcnsboro, Ky 

Paducah, Ky 

Palo Alto, Calif 

Panama City, Fla... 
Parkersburg, W. Va- 



Parma, Ohio 

Pasadena, Calif.. 

Passaic, N. J 

Paterson, N. J... 
Pawtueket, R. I. 



Pensacola, Fla 

Peoria, 111 

Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Petersburg, Va_ 

Philadelphia, Pa... 



Phoenix, Ariz... 
Pine Bluff, Ark. 
Pittsburgh, Pa.. 
Pittsfleld, Mass. 
Plainfield, N. J. 



Pocatello, Idaho 

Pomona, Calif 

Pontiac, Mich 

Port Arthur, Tex.. 
Port Huron, Mich. 



Portland, Maine 

Portland, Oreg 

Portsmouth, Ohio 

Portsmouth, Va 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 



Providence, R. I. 

Provo, Utah 

Pueblo, Colo 

Quincy, 111 

Quincy, Mass 



Racine, Wis 

Raleigh, N. C 

Rapid City, S. Dak..., 
Reading, Pa 

Redondo Beach, Calif. 

Redwood City, Calif... 

Reno, Nev 

Revere, Mass 

Richmond, Calif 

Richmond, Ind 



Richmond, Va 

Riverside, Calif.. 

Roanoke, Va 

Rochester, Minn. 
Rochester, N. Y. 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Burglary, 
break- 
ing or 

entering 



Larceny, theft 



Over 
$50 



20 



Only 5 months received 
Only 3 months received 
5 1 3 1 43 I 28 

No reports received 

1,426 211 



275 


162 


12 




3 


20 


8 


3 


4 


16 


45 


76 


58 


44 


3 


18 


16 


153 


1 
4 




2 


6 


7 



1 

2 
1 

1 
37 

4 
26 

1 

13 

38 

4 

23 
1,461 

84 

14 

314 

2 

2 

4 
6 
15 
1 
1 

9 
160 
22 
21 



3 
30 
12 
34 
10 

106 
11 
14 



57 

15 

103 

123 

941 

369 

47 

330 

55 
28 



40 
13 
56 
64 
695 

135 
25 

173 
13 
2 



79 43 

Only 4 months received 

12 
4 56 

2 32 



13 

112 

1 

6 

6 
4 
30 
10 
9 

5 

75 

7 

157 

4 

38 
2 

11 
3 



122 
3 
6 



2 
6 
1 

28 
2 

121 

16 

29 

1 

34 



39 

306 

76 

381 

108 

161 
338 
80 
108 
6,055 

6,52 

127 

1,406 

40 

54 

45 
156 
244 
46 
58 

101 
1,319 
127 
222 
50 

622 
40 

191 
75 

151 

87 
121 
7 
139 
174 

52 
312 

65 
182 

58 

583 
139 
146 
24 
448 



Under 
$50 



60 I 

3,399 

122 

45 

380 

536 

1,431 

1,016 

96 

329 

286 
64 

180 



62 


181 


36 


76 


35 


98 


18 


45 


242 


749 


40 


101 


32 


351 


39 


132 


59 


328 


112 


533 


60 


90 


68 


250 


3,403 


4,226 


408 


1,723 


70 


70 


755 


607 


35 


147 


52 


64 


42 


217 


83 


288 


63 


325 


15 


123 


19 


158 


82 


287 


799 


2,175 


80 


212 


163 


302 


43 


216 


308 


867 


24 


271 


96 


398 


51 


153 


42 


206 


37 


334 


73 


336 


31 


56 


59 


293 


27 


178 


56 


235 


185 


276 


29 


91 


100 


937 


61 


61 


447 


1,401 


97 


338 


109 


343 


24 


178 


265 


1,227 



18 

Table 9.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, JANU- 
ARY-JUNE, 1954, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Burglary, 
break- 
ing or 

entering 



Larceny, theft 



Over 

$.10 



Under 
$50 



Rock-ford, 111 

Rock Island, III 

Rocky Mount, N. C. 

Rome, Ga.- 

Rome, N. Y 



Roswell, N. Mex.. 
Royal Oak, Mich.. 
Sacramento, Calif. 

Saginaw, Mich 

St. Cloud, Minn.- 



St. Joseph, Mo 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

St. Petersburg, Fla. 
Salem, Mass 



Salem, Oreg 

Salina, Kans 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Angelo, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 



San Bernardino, Calif. 

San Diego, Calif 

Sandusky, Ohio 

San Francisco, Calif.... 
San Jose, Calif 



San Leandro, Calif... 

San Mateo, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif. 
Sante Fe, N. Mex.... 



Santa Monica, Calif. 

Savannah, Ga 

Schenectady, N. Y... 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 



Shaker Heights, Ohio. 

Sharon, Pa.. 

Sheboygan, Wis 

Shreveport, La 

Sioux City, Iowa 



Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 

Somervillc, Mass 

South Bend, Ind.... 
South Gate, Calif... 
Spartanburg, S. C. 



Spokane, Wash... 
Springfield, 111.... 
Springfield, Mass. 
Springfield, Mo... 
Springfield, Ohio.. 



Stamford, Conn 

Stcubenville, Ohio. 

Stockton, Calif 

Stratford, Conn 

Superior, Wis 



Syracuse, N. Y.. 
Tacoma, Wash.. 
Tallahassee, Fla. 

Tampa, Fla 

Taunton, Mass.. 



Teaneck, N.J 

Teniiile, Tex 

Terre Haute, Ind. 

Toledo, Ohio 

Topeka, Kans 



2 

926 

94 

12 

5 



32 

14 

106 

42 

116 

1 

591 

36 

10 
6 



7 
249 



129 
132 

75 



Only 5 months received 
2 1 27 I 9 



No reports received 

102 

372 

116 

39 



11 

1,079 

15 

11 



68 

3,125 

582 

294 

95 



61 
Only 5 months received 
18 
18 
388 

29 

81 

11 

372 



1 
5 

7 

20 

2 

23 

252 

4 

11 

71 



Only 5 months received 



7 


7 


1 




6 


12 


23 


15 


9 




1 


7 


31 


15 


13 


16 


3 


10 


9 


2 


17 


5 


2 


19 


10 


10 


47 


24 


2 




4 


1 


18 


3 


39 


/ 



103 


83 




4 
1 


2 


7 


20 


10 


y 


87 


121 


28 


39 



No reports received 
930 
50 

31 

54 
161 
771 

188 



367 
226 
137 

73 



29 


289 


466 


1, 233 


54 


633 


17 


136 


47 


284 


945 


4,998 


1H6 


1,716 


161 


422 


20 


121 


30 


194 



494 


359 


1,318 


132 


21 


164 


1,357 


582 


2,390 


266 


217 


589 


722 


886 


1,703 


30 


10 


112 


2,347 


815 


4,487 


280 


85 


1,060 


74 


53 


260 


54 


80 


302 


136 


91 


40S 


98 


53 


297 


89 


56 


197 


357 


312 


547 


351 


226 


422 


59 


70 


137 


219 


46 


251 


1,558 


833 


2,545 


16 


22 


140 


25 


16 


44 


24 


29 


91 



118 


54 


337 


41 


38 


204 


155 


90 


251 


411 


157 


685 


269 


147 


250 


74 


40 


194 


340 


239 


1,500 


148 


44 


318 


103 


70 


233 


112 


59 


102 


122 


48 


304 


131 


98 


281 


119 


57 


104 


293 


255 


678 


46 


32 


62 


44 


14 


194 


214 


265 


639 


298 


228 


897 



43S 


723 


13 


120 


28 


42 


22 


141 


57 


298 


471 


1,473 


83 


465 



19 

Table 9.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, JANU- 
ARY-JUNE, 1954, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Burglary, 
break- 
ing or 

entering 



Larceny, theft 



Over 

$50 



Under 
$50 



Torrington, Conn. 

Trenton, N.J 

Troy, N. Y 

Tucson, Ariz 

Tulsa, Okla 



Tuscaloosa, Ala 

Tyler, Tex 

Union, N. J 

Union City, N. J 

University City, Mo. 



Upper Darby, Pa 

Utica, N. Y... -. 

Vallejo, Calif 

Valley Stream, N. Y. 
Vancouver, Wash 



Vicksburg, Miss. 

Waco, Tex 

Waltham. Mass.. 

Warren, Ohio 

Warwick, R. I... 



Washington, D. C. 

Washington, Pa 

Waterbury, Conn.. 

Waterloo, Iowa 

Watertown, Mass.. 



Vv'atertown, N. Y. 

Waukegan, 111 

Wausau, Wis 

Wauwatosa, Wis_. 
West Allis, Wis... 



West Hartford, Conn. _ 

West Haven, Conn 

West Xew York, N. J._ 

West Orange, N. J 

West Palm Beach, Fla. 



Weymouth, Mass... 
Wheeling, W. Va... 
White Plains, N. Y. 

Wichita, Kans 

Wichita Falls, Tex.. 



AVilkes-Barre, Pa.. 
Wilkinsburg, Pa... 
Williamsport, Pa_. 
Wilmington, Del... 
Wilmington, N. C. 



Winona, Minn 

Winston-Salem, N. C. 

Woodbridge, N. J 

Woonsocket, R. I 

Worcester, Mass 



Wyandotte, Mich_. 

Yakima, Wash 

Yonkers, N. Y 

York, Pa 

Youngsto'mi, Ohio. 

ZanesvUle, Ohio 



387 
2 



Only 5 months received 



334 

92 

253 

522 



144 

40 

108 

401 



69 68 34 

Complete data not received 
2 
2 



44 
2 

10 
3 
3 

1 

105 

2 

1 



2,066 



72 


41 


102 


30 


67 


61 


153 


34 


124 


43 


57 


49 


45 


44 


69 


46 


25 


25 


253 


70 


76 


22 


110 


64 


80 


61 


1,774 


799 


40 


26 


165 


88 


78 


45 



8 
13 
Only 5 months received 



64 23 

24 16 

Complete data not received 



25 



27 
127 



1 


1 


9 


19 


37 


119 


14 


45 


4 


1 


5 


7 


3 


5 


25 


13 


12 


133 


1 

16 




54 


3 


1 


2 
29 




4 


3 


1 


10 


8 


7 


16 


7 


6 


51 


14 


7 


3 



No reports received 

56 

96 

605 

195 



76 
47 
60 
320 
194 

16 
219 
93 
49 
381 



35 
133 
143 
126 
279 

83 



34 

72 

240 

113 

34 
9 

63 
166 
64 

28 
92 
34 
18 
145 

27 
64 
41 
49 
165 



284 

40 

822 

895 



145 
66 
129 

231 
259 
231 
72 
266 

64 
557 
169 
145 

74 

3,291 
92 

185 
264 



117 
89 
112 
118 
200 

38 
26 

56 
158 



47 

147 

1,152 

504 

72 

90 

180 

619 

236 

135 

312 

50 

68 

523 

164 
611 
385 
301 
445 

165 



> Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



POLICE EMPLOYEE DATA 

Police Killed, 1953 

City police reported that 63 police employees on active duty were 
killed in 1953 during performance of official police acts. These 
deaths include police employees killed by criminals, traffic mishaps, 
etc., so long as the death occurred in line of duty. 

These figures do not represent all such deaths in 1953 but are 
limited to reports from 3,721 cities with a combined 1950 population 
of 87,423,339. Table 10 shows by geographic division and size city 
the actual deaths reported and these deaths in terms of deaths per 
5 million inhabitants (1950 census figures). 

Table 10.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES KILLED, 
1953, BY GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS AND POPULATION GROUPS 

[3,721 cities, total population 87,423,339, according to 1950 decennial census] 





TOTAL 


Population group 


Geographic division 


Num- 
ber 


Rate per 
5,000,000 
inhabi- 
tants 


Group 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 




Over 
250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50.000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 




63 


--- 


23 
3.3 


6 
3.1 


3 
1.7 


4 
2.1 


12 
5.0 


15 


Rate per 5,000,000 inhabitants 


6.1 




2 
14 
13 

4 

7 
2 
10 
3 

8 


1.5 
3.1 
3.3 
2.9 

3.9 
2.5 
6.9 
6.1 

4.4 


" 9' 

6 


1 


1 










1 

1 


3 
2" 

1 

1 
1 

4 


1 


East North Central .- 


2 


1 


3 


West North Central— 


2 


South Atlantic - - 


3 
1 

1 
1 
2 








3 














3 


1 


-- 

1 


4 




1 








1 











Number of Police Employees, April 30, 1954 

Police departments in 3,721 cities reported 161,356 police employees 
as of April 30, 1954. These cities have a combined population of 
87.4 million (1950 census figures) and average 1.8 employees per 1,000 
inhabitants. Variations in the average number of employees in 
police departments in cities grouped by size and geographic division 
can be observed in table 1 1 . 

It should be noted that the police employee figures per 1,000 
population are based on the 1950 decennial census data in the absence 
of cmTcnt figures on population for individual cities. In making 
any studies or comparisons of these average police figures as of April 
30, 1954, the changes in population since the 1950 decennial census 
should be borne in mind. 

The use of civilian employees in police work has grown steadily 
over the years. For the 5-year period 1950-54 the percentage of 
civilian employees was as follows: 1950, 7.5; 1951, 7.6; 1952, 8.1; 
1953, 8.8; and 1954, 9.3. In addition to utilizing civilian personnel 

(20) 



21 



in ofRce work and records and communications, some departments 
use civilians in such quasi police activities as school-crossing guards. 
In this connection it should be noted that the practice is not uniform 
with reference to school-crossing guards. Some departments report 
them as civilians, while others list them as police officers. 

The percentage of civilian employees for all cities and by city groups 
as of April 30, 1954, is as follows: 

PCTCCTitCLQE 

Population group: civilian employees 

Total, all cities 9. 3 

Group I (over 250,000) 10. 7 

Group II (100,000-250,000) 12. 3 

Group III (50,000-100,000) 9. 8 

Group IV (25,000-50,000) 7. 6 

Group V (10,000-25,000) - 5. 1 

Group VI (2,500-10,000) 5. 4 

Table 11.— POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 30, 1954, NUM- 
BER AND RATE PER 1,000 INHABITANTS, BY GEOGRAPHIC DIVI- 
SIONS AND POPULATION GROUPS 

[3,721 cities, total population 87,423,339, based on 1950 decennial census] 





TOTAL 


Population group 


Division 


Group 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 




Over 
250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


TOTAL: 


161, 356 
1.8 


80, 375 
2.3 


16, 935 
1.7 


14, 820 
1.6 


14, 885 
1.6 


17, 795 
1.5 


16, 546 


Average number of employees per 1,000 


1.3 






New England: 


14, 112 

2.1 

48,212 

2.2 

34, 796 

1.8 

9,728 

1.4 

17, 393 

1.9 

6,643 

1.4 

9,639 

1.3 

3,560 

1.4 

18,273 

2.0 


3,046 

3.8 
31,385 

2.6 
19, 601 

2.2 
4,387 

1.8 
5,801 

2.7 
1,462 

1.3 
3,526 

1.5 

670 

1.6 
10,497 

2.3 


3,715 
2.2 

3,003 
1.9 

2,379 
1.6 
792 
1.4 

2,815 
1.8 

1,031 
1.5 

1,652 
1.4 
471 
1.6 

1,077 
1.6 


2,233 
1.9 

3,211 
1.9 

3,167 
1.5 
846 
1.3 

2,408 
1.7 
421 
1.5 
805 
1.3 
252 
1.2 

1,477 
1.8 


2,592 
1.9 

3,128 
1.8 

3,150 
1.4 
723 
1.2 

1,831 
1.8 
704 
1.4 
791 
1.3 
632 
1.6 

1,334 
1.7 


1,902 
1.5 

4,117 
1.6 

3,118 
1.3 

1,392 
1.2 

2,026 
1.8 
798 
1.4 

1,459 
1.2 
619 
1.4 

2,364 
1.7 


624 


Average number of employees per 1,000 


1.2 


Middle Atlantic : 


3,368 


Average number of employees per 1,000 


1.4 


East North Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 


3,381 
1.3 


West North Central : 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 


1,588 
1.1 


South Atlantic : 1 


2,512 


Average number of employees per 1,000 


1.6 


East South Central : 

Number of police employees 


1,227 


Average number of employees per 1,000 


1.4 


West South Central : 


1,406 


Average number of employees per 1,000 


1.0 


Mountain : 


916 


Average number of employees per 1,000 


1.3 


Pacific : 


1,624 


Average number of employees per 1,000 


1.8 







1 Includes the District of Columbia. 



22 




PER 
1,000 INHABITANTS 



.8 



1.5 



1.6 1.6 



1.7 



1.3 



AVERAGE CITIES 

OF ALL LESS 

CITIES THAN 

10,000 



CITIES 
10.000 

TO 
25,000 



CITIES 
25,000 

TO 
50,000 



CITIES 
50,000 

TO 
100,000 



CITIES CITIES 

100,000 OVER 

TO 250,000 
250,000 



FBI CHART 



Figure 2. 



23 



Table 12— NUMBER OF CITIES USED IN TABULATIONS REGARDING 
NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 30, 1954, 
AND POLICE KILLED, 1953 

[Population figures from 1950 decennial census] 



Division 



TOTAL: 

Population represented. 
Number of cities 



87,423,339 
3,721 



New England: Total popula- 
tion, 6,812,899 

Middle Atlantic: Total popula- 
tion, 22,321,527 

East North Central: Total pop- 
ulation, 19,780,805 

West North Central: Total 
population, 6,828,745 

South Atlantic: Total popula- 
tion, 8,955,660 

East South Central: Total pop 
ulation, 3,967,792 

West South Central: Tota 
population, 7,286,412 

Mountain: Total population 
2,455,677 

Pacific: Total population 
9,013,822 



TOTAI 



224 
734 
786 
406 
453 
236 
384 
189 
309 



34,932,955 
41 



Population group 



Group I Group II Group III Group IV Group V Group VI 



Over 
250,000 



100,000 to 
250,000 



9,694,111 



50,000 to 
100,000 



9,034,619 
128 



25,000 to 
50,000 



9,392,521 
268 



10,000 to 
25,000 



12,098,937 
790 



164 
161 
78 
74 
36 
78 
28 
91 



Less than 
10,000 



12,270,196 
2,428 



77 
478 
511 
291 
316 
172 
267 
143 
173 



Police Employees in Individual Cities 

The number of police employees as of April 30, 1954, is listed by 
reporting cities in tables 13 and 14. Table 13 is for those cities having 
a population of 25,000 or over (1950 decennial census figures). For 
these larger cities the total personnel is shown together with the 
number of police officers and the number of civilian police employees. 
Table 14 lists only the total police strength for cities under 25,000 in 
population. 

These data do not include (1) auxiliary police (unpaid) ; (2) school- 
boy patrols (the unpaid juveniles who assist officers assigned to 
school-crossing duties) ; and (3) merchant police (individuals paid out 
of private funds). Assistance received in the policing problem from 
the above sources varies greatly, and these are only some of the factors 
having a direct bearing on comparisons of police strength among 
cities. 

Some of the other factors affecting comparisons of police strength 
are as follows: (1) length of workweek; (2) amount of annual leave 
and vacation; (3) extent of use of civilian employees on outside duties, 
such as school-crossing guards; (4) availability and use of automotive 
and radio equipment; and (5) type of city, resort or recreation center 
or a work or shopping center where large numbers of people regularly 
commute from heavily populated fringe areas outside the city limits. 

In the next two tables, the part-time paid employees reported by 
police, whether civilians or officers, are presented in terms of their 

313001° — 54 4 



24 

full-time equivalents. For example, if a police department reported 
45 part-time employees who worked, during April, 1954, the equivalent 
of 21 full-time employees, the latter figure (21) is included in the 
tables and not the former figure (45). 

Also, it might well be that these 45 part-time employees were 
classed by the reporting department as civilians assigned to school- 
crossing guard duty, in which case 21 employees would be added to 
the reported full-time civilians. Accordingly, full cognizance must 
be taken of all these and perhaps other factors in drawing any com- 
parisons between the figures of one department and another or the 
published averages for the various city groups. 

If a police department furnished no ratio for converting the hours 
worked by part-time emploj'^ees to their full-time equivalents, an 
arbitrary ratio based on a 48-hour week or 208-hour month was 
applied in processing the reports. If a part-time employee was 
reported as working as much as 75 percent of a full-time employee's 
hours for the month, one full-time employee was added to the figures. 

Employees not paid from police funds were not counted. Em- 
ployees on extended leave, such as military leave, are not counted in 
these police figures. Letters were written to 356 of these contributors 
concerning adjustments and other items affecting uniformity in the 
data. 



Table 13.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30, 1954, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION 



City 



ALABAMA 



Anniston 

Bessemer 

Birmingham.. 

Gadsden 

Mobile 1— 

Montgomery ^ 
Tuscaloosa 



ARIZONA 



Phoenix ■_ 
Tucson.... 



ABKANSAS 

Fort Smith 

Hot Springs 

Little Rocic.. 

North Little Rock... 
Pine Bluff 



CALIFOKNIA 



Alameda 

Alhambra 

Bakersfield 

Berkeley ' 

Beverly Hills '. 
Burbank ' 



Number of pel 


ce de- 


partment employees 1 


TOTAI 


Police 
officers 


Civil- 
ians 


46 


46 




37 


37 




425 


378 


47 


75 


74 


1 


184 


150 


34 


158 


145 


13 


59 


55 


4 


230 


195 


35 


92 


79 


13 


50 


49 


1 


38 


37 


1 


141 


132 


9 


61 


61 




33 


33 




76 


70 


6 


76 


67 


9 


117 


97 


20 


137 


131 


6 


73 


62 


11 


143 


112 


31 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 




CALIFORNIA— Con 

Compton 1 

Fresno 

Olendale ' .- 

Huntington Park 

Inglewood__ 

T/ong Beach ' 

Los Angeles ' 

Ly nwood _ 

Oakland'...- 

Palo Alto 

Pasadena ' 

Pomona ' 

Redondo Beach 

Redwood City ' 

Richmond ' 

Riverside 

Sacramento 

San Bernardino ' 

San Diego ' 

San Francisco 

San Jose ' 

San Leandro ' 

San Mateo • 

Santa Ana 

Santa Barbara 

Santa Monica 

South Gate ' 

Stockton 

Vallejoi 



65 

194 

180 

50 

66 

452 

5,263 

29 

822 

43 

201 

69 

35 

46 

157 

79 

271 

171 

549 

1,770 

138 

39 

64 

79 

72 

152 

62 

128 

81 



52 

170 

138 

49 

61 

358 

4.252 

27 

680 

41 

159 

58 

34 

43 

130 

75 

237 

139 

470 

1,672 

132 

32 

60 

73 

64 

118 

50 

115 

64 



13 

24 

42 

1 

5 

94 

1,011 

2 

142 

2 

42 

11 

1 

3 

27 

4 

34 

32 

79 

98 

6 

7 

4 

6 

8 

34 

12 

13 

17 



See footnote at end of tablo. 



25 



Table 13.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30, 1954, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



COLORADO 



Colorado Springs. 

Denver 

Pueblo 



CONNECTICUT 



Bridgeport ' 

Bristol ' 

East Hartford '.. 

Greenwich ' 

Hartford ' 

Meriden ■ 

Middletown '..- 
New Britain '„. 

New Haven ' 

New London L. 

Norwalk • 

Norwich '. 

Stamford 

Stratford i 

Torrington ' 

Waterbury ' 

West Hartford K 
West Haven ' 



DEIAWARE 

Wilmington ' 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

Washington ' 

FLORIDA 



Daytona Beach i 

Fort Lauderdale 

Gainesville 

Jacksonville 

Key West ' 

Lakeland 

Miami ' -. 

Miami Beach 

Orlando i 

Panama City 

Pensacola 

St. Petersburg i 

Tallahassee ' 

Tampa 

West Palm Beach i. 



GEORGIA 



Albany ' 

Athens i 

Atlanta ' 

Augusta >.-. 
Columbus. . 
La Grange _ . 

Macon ' 

Rome 

Savannah i. 



Boise. 
Pocatello- 



IDAHO 



ILLINOIS 

Alton 

Aurora 

Belleville 

Berwyn ' 

Bloomington 

Champaign 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



TOTAL 



670 
93 



368 
59 
62 

132 

414 
73 
53 

153 

441 
63 

113 
56 

171 
52 
60 

271 



2,314 



46 
384 

29. 

45 
694 
190 

90 

39 

77 
111 

55 
215 

85 



50 

44 
720 
169 
121 

37 
109 

40 
177 



Police 
officers 



568 

87 



341 
58 
60 

116 

370 
71 
51 

145 

406 
60 

100 
54 

162 
50 
58 

256 
77 
66 



219 



2,124 



57 
77 
40 

331 
29 
36 

529 

147 
82 
30 
67 
94 
52 

196 
77 



47 

36 
626 
146 
120 

36 
107 

38 
149 



Civil- 
ians 



5 

102 

6 



37 



190 



165 
43 



City 



ILLINOIS— Continued 

Chicago 

Cicero ' 

Danville 

Decatur 

East St. Louis ' 

Elgin 1 

Evanston i 

Galesburg ' 

Granite City 

Joliet 

Kankakee 

Maywood 

Moline 

Oak Park 1 

Peoria 

Quincy 

Rockford i 

Rock Island 

Springfield ' 

Waukegan i 

INDIANA 

Anderson 

Bloomington 

East Chicago 

Elkhart i - - 

Evansville 

Fort Wayne 

Gary 

Hammond i 

Indianapolis > 

Kokomo 1 

Lafayette 

Marion 

Michigan City. 

Mishawaka > 

Muncie i 

New Albany 

Richmond 

South Bend i 

Terre Haute 

IOWA 

Burlington 

Cedar Rapids 

Clinton 

Council Bluffs 

Davenport 

Des Moines 

Dubuque 

Iowa City 

Mason City 

Ottumwa ' 

Sioux City 

Waterloo 

KANSAS 

Hutchinson 

Kansas City ' 

Salina 

Topeka 

Wichita 1 

KENTUCKY 

Ashland 

Covington 

Lexington ' 

Louisville ' 

Newport 

Owensboro i 

Paducah 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



TOTAL 



109 
34 
50 

100 
42 

125 
34 
23 
72 
24 
26 
31 
80 

146 
46 

115 
46 

108 
52 



72 

38 

132 

61 

201 

204 

254 

146 

854 

59 

53 

43 

47 

47 

84 

32 

54 

190 

91 



34 
90 
28 
43 
88 

210 
50 
23 
39 
33 

106 
72 



37 
172 

35 
120 



35 
91 
99 
574 
58 
52 
61 



Police 
officers 



7,036 
82 
34 
47 
81 
39 
92 
29 
23 
68 
23 
26 
28 
76 
134 
43 
107 
46 
90 
43 



35 

127 

55 

184 

200 

198 

127 

749 

58 

53 

43 

46 

42 

80 

32 

50 

178 



33 

82 
28 
40 
83 
188 
49 
22 
32 
31 
87 
71 



34 
148 
34 
93 
227 



91 
537 
52 
50 
60 



See footnote at end of table. 



26 



Table 13.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30, 1954, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



lOUISIANA 



Alexandria 

Baton Rouge '. 

Lafayette ' 

Lake Charles-. 

Monroe ' 

New Orleans ' . 
Shreveport i-- 



MAINE 



Bangor >.. 

Lewiston. 
Portland. 



MARYLAND 



Baltimore i... 
Cumberland.. 
Hagerstown '. 



MASSACHUSETTS 



Arlington* 

Belmont ' 

Beverly i 

Boston 

Brockton i 

Brookline 

Cambridge 

Chelsea ' .- 

Chicopee i 

Everett 

Fall River 

Fitchburg ' 

Framingham '_ 

Gloucester ' 

Haverhill ' 

Holyoke 

Lawrence 

Lowell ' 

Maiden i 

Medford 

Melrose i 

New Bedford.. 

Newton ' 

Northampton ' 

Pittsfield 1 

Quincy 

Revere 

Salem i 

Somerville 

Springfield 

Taunton ' 

Waltham ' 

Watertown i... 

Weymouth 

Worcester ' 



MICHIGAN 



Ann Arbor' 

Battle Creek i.. 

Bay City 

Dearborn ' 

Detroit ' 

Ferndale ' 

Flint'- 

Grand Rapids.. 
Highland Park. 

Jackson.. 

Kalamazoo ' 

Lansing ' 

Lincoln Park '.. 

Muskegon ' 

Pontiac 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



TOTAL 



58 
139 
41 
32 
61 
1,052 
177 



61 
48 
112 



2,767 
59 
52 



85 

47 

74 

3,046 

107 

133 

251 

77 

94 

118 

258 

77 

36 

45 

68 

116 

147 

199 

122 

111 

60 

227 

168 

40 

90 

150 

75 

80 

171 

367 

65 

81 

75 

53 

420 



71 

57 

83 

216 

4,730 

43 

306 

274 

133 

77 

112 

161 

51 



Police Civil- 
officers ians 



122 
See footnote at end of tabic. 



58 
121 
39 
31 
48 
1,042 
161 



45 
104 



2,252 
52 

48 



74 

44 

74 

2,828 

101 

128 

243 

75 

82 

115 

239 

70 

36 

43 

66 

114 

140 

184 

122 

108 

51 

215 

157 

40 

81 

143 

70 

74 

169 

348 

57 

75 

70 

51 

368 



64 
49 
76 
185 
4,252 
40 
232 
228 
121 
71 
84 
139 
49 
68 
110 



515 
7 
4 



31 
478 

3 
74 
46 
12 

6 
28 
22 

2 
11 
12 



City 



Number of police 'de- 
partment employees 



TOTAL 



MICHIGAN— Continued 



Port Huron '. 
Royal Oak'-. 

Saginaw ' 

Wyandotte '_ 



MINNESOTA 



Duluth 

Minneapolis- 
Rochester 

St. Cloud..-. 

St. Paul ' 

Winona 



MISSISSIPPI 



Biloxi • 

Greenville '. 
Hattiesburg. 

Jackson ' 

Laurel 

Meridian 

Vicksburg '. 



MISSOURI 



Independence '. 
Jefferson City... 

Joplin 

Kansas City '... 

St. Joseph 

St. Louis 

Springfield 

University City 



MONTANA 



Billings ' 

Butte 

Great Falls. 



Lincoln. 
Omaha. 



NEBRASKA 



NEVADA 



Reno. 



NEW HAMPSHISE 



Concord '--- 
Manchester. 
Nashua 



NEW JERSEY 



Atlantic City 

Bavonne 

Belleville'.... 
Bloomfield '.. 

Camden 

(Mifton 1 

East Orange ' 

Elizabeth 

Garfield 

Hackensack.. 
Hamilton '... 

Iloboken 

Irvington ' 

Jersey City '. 

Kearny 

Linden 

Maplewood.. 
Montclair '. . 



57 
61 
150 
66 



141 

621 

45 

35 

403 

34 



37 
41 
32 
156 
27 
69 
35 



41 
29 
50 
726 
100 
2,302 
89 
49 



112 
331 



45 
131 
52 



218 

216 

63 

95 

285 

89 

154 

282 

48 

61 

67 

176 

118 

1,028 

113 

99 

47 

111 



Police ICivil- 
officers I ians 



47 
53 
141 

57 



124 
560 
44 
35 
378 
34 



37 
38 
29 
126 
26 
61 
35 



40 
29 
38 
534 
92 
1,862 
75 



4U 

46 


3 


34 


2 


40 


3 


91 


21 


300 


31 


76 


12 


42 


3 


123 


8 


48 


4 


184 


34 


213 


3 


58 


5 


92 


3 


200 


85 


87 


2 


143 


11 


256 


26 


48 




60 


1 


64 


3 


176 




105 


13 


845 


183 


112 


1 


99 




47 




100 


5 



27 



Table 13.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30, 1954, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



NEW JERSEY— Continued 



Newark ' 

New Brunswick. _ 
North Bergen i.-_ 

Nutley 

Orange ■ 

Passaic 

Paterson ' 

Perth Amboy 

Plainfield 

Teaneck 

Trenton 

Union ' 

Union City > 

West New York '. 

West Orange ' 

Woodhridge ' 



NEW MEXICO 



Albuquerque >. 

Roswell 

Santa Fe 



NEW YORK 



Albany ' 

Amsterdam i 

Auburn 

Binghamton '_. 

Buffalo' 

Elmira 

Hempstead ' 

Irondequoit 

Ithaca > 

Jamestown 

Kingston ' 

Lackawanna.-, 

Lockport 

Mount Vernon ' 

New burgh ' 

New Rochelle i. 

New York 

Niagara Falls... 
Poughkeepsie i. 

Rochester ' 

Rome ' 

Schenectady i... 

Syracuse i 

Troy 1 

Utica 

Watertown > 

White Plains... 
Yonkers ' 



NORTH CAROIINA 



Asheville 

Charlotte i 

Durham > 

Fayette ville i 

Greensboro i 

High Point ' 

Kannapolis 

Raleigh i 

Rocky Mount '.. 

Wilmington ' 

Winston-Salem '. 



NORTH DAKOTA 



Fargo' 

Grand Forks. 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



TOTAL 



OHIO 



1,383 

71 

103 



129 
276 

87 
88 
50 

266 
83 

136 
87 
68 
83 



329 

47 

66 

144 

1,422 

91 

72 

26 

41 

63 

53 

63 

33 

164 

61 

159 

20, 671 

167 

84 

544 

58 

167 

425 

178 

168 

57 

119 

297 



83 
233 
119 
69 
151 
82 
23 
122 
52 
95 
173 



Akron' 311 

See footnote at end of table. 



Police 

officers 



1,180 
69 
91 
38 
88 

129 

245 
87 
76 
50 

244 
64 

108 
87 
64 
67 



275 

45 

53 

134 

1,231 

91 

63 

26 

35 

57 

50 

62 

32 

147 

61 

134 

753 

161 

71 

446 

51 

157 

337 

152 

157 

52 

115 

265 



19 



82 
198 
103 

66 

126 
75 
22 

108 
49 
77 

151 



Civil- 
ians 



203 
2 
12 
1 
1 



54 

2 

13 

10 

191 



25 
918 

6 
13 
98 

7 

10 
88 
26 
11 

5 

4 
32 



47 



City 



OHIO— Continued 

Alliance ' 

Barberton ' 

Canton 

Cincinnati ' 

Cleveland 

Cleveland Heights ' 

Columbus 

Cuyahoga Falls ' 

Dayton 

East Cleveland ' 

Elyria ' 

Euclid ' 

Hamilton 

Lakewood ' 

Lima 

Lorain 

Mansfield 

Marion 

Massillon 

Middletown 

Newark 

Norwood ' 

Parma 

Portsmouth 

Sandusky 

Shaker Heights ' 

Springfield 

Steubenville 

Toledo 

Warren 

Youngstown ' 

Zanesville 

OKLAHOMA 
Enid 

Lawton ' 

Muskogee 

Norman ' 

Oklahoma City ' 

Tulsa ' 

OREGON 

Eugene 

Portland ' 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Abington 

Aliquippa ' 

Allentown 

Altoona ' 

Bethlehem 

Chester 

Easton 

Erie ' .... 

Harrisburg 

Haverford 

Hazleton 

Johnstown 

Lancaster ' 

Lower Merion 

McKeesport ' 

Mount Lebanon ' 

New Castle 

New Kensington 

Norristown 

Philadelphia 

Pittsburgh ' 

Reading ' 

Scran ton 

Sharon ' 

Upper Darby 

Washington 

Wilkes-Barre' 

Wilkinsburgi 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



TOTAL 



29 
32 

148 

877 

2,138 

96 

546 
34 

351 
67 
39 
75 
82 
75 
58 
56 
50 
36 
27 
58 
40 
45 
37 
52 
32 
57 
90 
45 

462 
59 

305 
34 



43 
41 
49 
20 
392 
275 



52 
766 



35 
36 
129 
111 
88 
81 
46 
195 
149 
44 
33 
89 
79 
111 
92 
31 
61 
28 
43 
4,629 
1,593 
168 
183 
38 
119 
32 
102 
49 



Police 

officers 



29 
27 

138 

836 

1,785 

65 

441 
31 

309 
53 
36 
58 
79 
61 
53 
55 
48 
34 
27 
56 
39 
42 
35 
50 
32 
56 
81 
44 

383 
57 

257 
34 



39 
36 

44 

20 

356 

267 



42 
665 



35 
29 
118 
106 
82 
72 
43 
171 
144 
41 
33 
80 
75 
94 
81 
30 
58 
28 
43 
4,308 
1,442 
136 
173 
37 
100 
31 



34 



28 



Table 13.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30, 1954, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



PENNSYLVANIA-Con. 

Williamsport 

York • .- 

RHODE ISLAND 

C ranston 

East Providence » 

Newport 

Pawtucke t 

Providence • 

Warwick 

Woonsocket 

SOUTH CAROIINA 

Charleston i 

Columbia ' 

Greenville 

Spartanburg • 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

Rapid City 

Sioux Falls... 

TENNESSEE 

Chattanooga 

Jackson 

Johnson City 

Knoxville 

Memphis ' 

Nashville • 

Oak Ridge 

TEXAS 

Abilene 

Amarillo i 

Austin ' 

Beaumont •. 

Brownsville - _. 

Corpus Ohristi 

Dallas 1 

El Paso 

Fort Worth i 

Galveston 

Houston 1 

Laredo ' 

Lubbock > 

Odessa 

Port Arthur '... 

San Angelo 

San Antonio i 

Temple 

Tyler 

Waco_.. 

Wichita Falls 



UTAH 

Ogden 

Provo 1 

Salt Lake City i... 



Number of police de- 


partment employees 


TOTAL 


Police 
officers 


Civil- 
ians 


55 


54 


1 


86 


83 


3 


75 


74 


1 


71 


68 


3 


91 


89 


2 


151 


139 


12 


527 


442 


85 


59 


56 


3 


97 


93 


4 


159 


146 


13 


147 


137 


10 


12fi 


115 


11 


79 


76 


3 


27 


26 


1 


69 


63 


6 


167 


156 


11 


38 


38 




37 


36 


1 


185 


152 


33 


463 


369 


94 


337 


273 


64 


40 


39 


1 


72 


64 


8 


126 


117 


9 


207 


162 


45 


108 


96 


12 


56 


42 


14 


135 


119 


16 


758 


657 


101 


186 


153 


33 


453 


425 


28 


87 


87 




854 


708 


146 


56 


52 


4 


123 


113 


10 


63 


57 


6 


67 


64 


3 


52 


42 


10 


409 


342 


67 


30 


30 




43 


43 




105 


101 


4 


78 


69 


9 


63 


61 


2 


29 


26 


3 


241 


222 


19 



City 



VERMONT 

Burlington 

VIRGINIA 

Alexandria i 

Arlington ' _. 

Charlottesville ' 

Danville i 

Hampton i 

Lynchburg i 

Newport News ' 

Norfolk 1.. 

Petersburg 

Portsmouth. 

Richmond i 

Roanoke 

WASHINGTON 

Belllngham 

Bremerton 

Everett.. 

Seattle! 

Spokane ' 

Tacoma • 

Vancouver 

Yakima 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Charleston 

Clarksburg 

Fairmont 

Huntington 

Morgantown _. 

Parkersburg. 

Wheeling.- 

WISCONSIN 

Appleton 

Beloit 

Eau Claire ' 

Fond du Lac 

Green Bay 

Kenosha i 

La Crosse • 

Madison 

Manitowoc ' 

Milwaukee 

Oshkosh 

Racine ' 

Sheboygan 

Superior 

Wausau ' 

Wauwatosa • 

West Allisi 

WYOMING 

Cheyemie 

HAWAn 

Honolulu City 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



TOTAL 



46 



112 

142 

45 

73 

60 

75 

78 

362 

46 

96 

352 

127 



45 

55 

50 

875 

228 

240 

55 

70 



132 
33 
31 

107 
16 
34 
94 



47 
46 
59 
39 
86 
86 
70 

158 

43 

1,599 

60 

135 
55 
58 
43 
66 
82 



548 



Police 
officers 



103 

125 

44 

71 

57 

64 

71 

316 

43 

88 

320 

123 



44 

48 

48 

767 

203 

217 

54 

70 



107 
33 
29 
97 
16 
32 
93 



46 
44 
49 
36 
80 
75 
63 

133 

40 

1,509 

60 

123 
55 
57 
41 
66 
79 



40 



457 



1 The figures for the cities Indicated Include part-time employees expressed in terms of full-time personnel. 
See comments on pages 23 and 24. 



29 



Table 14 —NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30, 1954, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000 



City 



ALABAMA 



Albertville 

Alexander City.-- 

Andalusia --- 

Athens i 

Atmore 

Attalla 

Auburn ' 

Bay Minette 

Boaz - 

Brewton 

Brundldge 

Chickasaw 

Childersburg 

Clanton 

Cullman -- 

Decatur 

Dothan.-- -- 

Elba 

Enterprise ' 

Evergreen 

Fairfield 

Fairhope 

Fayette 

Florala 

Florence 

Fort Pajme -- 

Geneva 

Greenville 

GuntersvUle 

Haley ville 

Hartselle- 

Home wood 

Jacksonville 

Jasper 

Lanett 

Leeds 

Lipscomb--- 

Marion ' 

Monroeville 

Mountain Brook. 

Northport 

Oneonta 

Gpelika.-. - 

Opp 

Ozark 

Phenix City 

Prattville 

Prichard i 

Russell ville 

Scottsboro 1 

Selma 

Sylacauga 

Talladega 1 

Tallassee 

Troy 

Tuscumbia 

Tuskegee 

Union Springs >-- 

ARIZONA 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



Avondale 

Bisbee 

Casa Grande- - 

Chandler ' 

Clifton 

Coolidge 

Douglas 

Eloy 

Flagstaff 

Glendale 

Globe 

Mesa 

Miami 

Nogales 

Prescott ' 

Saflord 



7 

17 
9 

13 
6 
9 

21 
6 
5 
5 
2 

11 
5 
5 

11 

27 

39 
4 

10 
3 

17 
5 
6 
4 

25 

10 
4 
7 
5 
8 
6 

11 
6 

14 
11 
6 
3 
4 
2 
12 
6 
5 

19 

9 

7 

26 

3 

24 

6 

8 

36 

22 

19 

5 

10 
13 



ARIZONA— Con. 



Tempc--- 
Tolleson. 
Win slow. 
Yuma '- - 



ARKANSAS 

Arkadelphia 

BatesviUe 

Benton 

Blytheville 

Brinkley 

Camden 

Clarendon.. 

Clarksville 

Conway 

Crossett 

Dermott 

De Witt'...- -. 

El Dorado 

Eudora 

Fayette ville 

Forrest City -^- 

Hamburg 1 

Harrison 

Helena 

Hope 

Jonesboro 

Magnolia 

Malvern 

Mena 

Monticello 

Morrilton 

Newport 

Osceola 

Paragould 

Paris 

Piggott 

Pocahontas 

Prescott 

Russell ville 

Searcy 

Siloam Springs 

Springdale 

Stuttgart 

Texarkana 

Trumann 

Van Buren 

Walnut Ridge 

Warren- 

West Helena ' 

West Memphis 

Wynne 

CALIFORNIA 

Albany 

Alturas 

Anaheim i 

Antioch 

Arcadia 

Areata 

Atherton 

Atwater 

Auburn > 

Azusa ' 

Banning 

Barstow 

Beaumont 

Bell 

Belmont ' 

Benicia 

Bishop 

Blythe 

Brawley 

Brea 

Burlingame ' 

Calexico i 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



6 
6 
6 
11 
6 
10 
3 
3 
7 
5 
2 
3 
19 
3 
17 
9 
3 
5 
12 
9 
19 
6 
9 
5 
4 
4 
8 
5 
11 
2 
2 
3 
4 
5 
7 
4 
7 
9 
23 
5 
@ 
3 
4 
4 
11 
3 



City 



CALIFORNIA— Con. 



Carmel by the Sea.. 

Chico • 

Chino 

Chowchilla 

Chula Vista i 

Claremont 

Clovis 

Coachella 

Coalinga 

Colton 1 

Colusa 

Concord-. 

Corcoran 

Corning 

Corona 

Coronado ' 

Covina i 

Culver City > 

Daly City > 

Davis 

Delano 

Dinuba 

El Cajon 

El Centroi- --- 

El Cerrito 

El Monte- --- 

El Segundo --- 

Emeryville 

Escondido 

Eureka 

Exeter 

Fairfax- 

Fairfield 

Fillmore 

Fontana 

Fort Bragg 

Fullerton 

Gardena 

Gilroy 

Glendora 

Grass Valley 

Gridley 

Hanford 

Hawthorne 

Hayward i 

Healdsburg 

Hemet 

Hermosa Beach L. 

Hillsborough 

Hollister-- 

Huntington Beach. 

Indio--- 

Laguna Beach 

La Habra 

La Mesa i 

Larkspur 

La Verne 

Lindsay 

Livermore 

Lodi 

Lompoc ' 

Los Banos 

Los Gatos 

Madera 

Manhattan Beach- 
Man teca » 

Martinez 

Marysville 

Maywoodi 

Menlo Park 

Merced 

Millbrae 

Mill Valley 

Modesto 

Monrovia i 

Montebello 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



10 
21 
11 

8 

30 

10 

7 

4 

12 

27 

4 

18 

8 

4 

17 

20 

13 

50 

31 

5 

13 

6 

13 

30 

30 

19 

21 

14 

15 

32 

5 

5 

9 

6 

17 

5 

27 

25 

9 



5 

17 

29 

42 

8 

7 

25 

11 

8 

17 

15 

17 

11 

19 

5 

6 

8 

11 

29 

12 

12 

9 

17 

25 

11 

11 

21 

26 

22 

31 

9 

9 

44 

33 

30 



See footnote at end of table. 



30 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30. 1954, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



CALIFORNIA— Con. 



Monterey 

Monterey Park 

Mountain View 

Napa ' 

National City 

Needles 

Nevada City 

Newport Beach i 

North Sacramento.- . 

Oakdale 

Oceanside • 

Ojai 

Ontario 

Orange i 

Oroville 

Oxnard i .-. 

Pacific Grove 

Palm Springs i 

Paso Robles L _. 

Petaluma i 

Piedmont. 

Pittsburg 

Placerville 

Porterville 

Port Hueneme 

Red Bluff 

Redding 

Redlands 

Reedley 

Rialtoi 

Riverbank. 

Roseville '. 

Salinas i 

San Anselmo ' 

San Bruno ' 

San Carlos 

San Fernando 

San Gabriel 

Sanger ' 

San Luis Obispo • 

San Marino 

San Pablo 

San Rafael 

Santa Clara 

Santa Cruz 

Santa Maria 

Santa Paula 

Santa Rosa • 

Sausalito 

Seal Beach 

Sebastopol 

Selma 

Sierra Madre 

Signal Hill 1 ___. 

South Pasadena 

South San Francisco- 

Sunnyvale... 

Susanville 

Taft 1 

Torrance 

Tracy 

Tulare.-.. 

Turlock 

Ukiahi 

Upland 1 

Vacaville 

Ventura i 

Visalia 

Wasco.. 

Watsonville > 

West Covina « 

Whiltier ' 

WiUits.. 

Willows 

Woodlake 

Woodland 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



CALIFORNIA— Con. 



Yreka CitV- 
Yuba City. 



COLOSADO 



Alamosa. 

Aurora 

Boulder 

Brighton 

Canon City 

Cortez 

Craig 

Durango 

Edgewater 

Englewood 

Florence 

Fort Collins 

Fort Morgan 

Golden 

Grand Junction.. 

Greeley 

Gunnison ^... 

La Junta fl.. 

Lamar 

Las Animas i 

Leadville... 

Littleton 

Longmont 

Loveland 

Manitou Springs. 

Monte Vista 

Montrose 

Rocky Ford 

Salida 

Sterling 

Trinidad-- 

Walsenburg 



Niunber 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



CONNECTICUT 



Ansonia '..- 

Branford i 

Danbury ' 

Danielson ' 

Derby' 

Groton 

Naugatuck ' 

Putnam ' 

RockvilleL 

Sheltoni 

Stafford Springs ' 

Wallingford i 

Wlllimantic ' 

Winsted > 



DELAWARE 



Dover 

Elsmere '... 

Laurel 

Lewes 

Milford 

Newark '-.. 
New Castle. 
Seaford 



FLORIDA 



Apalachicola 

Arcadia 

iVuburndale 

Avon Park 

Bartow... 

Belle Glade 

Boynton Beach. 
Bradenton 



City 



FLORIDA— Con. 



Chattahoochee 

Chipley 

Clearwater ' 

Cocoa 

Coral Gables 

Crestview 

Dade City 

Danla 

De Funiak Springs. . 

De Land 

Delray Beach 

Dunedin ' 

Eustis 

Femandina. 

Fort Meade 

Fort Myers 

Fort Pierce 

Green Cove Springs. 

Gulfport 

Haines City 

Hallandale 

Hialeah 

Holly HUl 

Hollywood 

Homestead 

Kisstmmee 

Lake City 

Lake Wales 

Lake Worth' 

Leesburg 

Live Oak 

Madison 

Marianna.-- 

Melbourne 

Miami Shores 

Miami Springs 

Mount Dora 

New Smyrna Beach- 
North Miami' 

Ocala 

Opalocka.-- 

Ormond ' 

Pahokee 

Palatka 

Palm Beach 

Palmetto ' 

Perry 

Pinellas Park 

Plant City 

Pompano Beach 

Quincy.- 

Riviera Beach 

St. Augustine 

St. Cloud 

Sanford '... 

Sarasota... 

SeDring 

South Miami... 

Starke... 

Stuart. 

Tarpon Springs 

Titusville 

Vero Beach 

Wauchula 

West Miami... 

AVinter Haven 

Winter Park 



Number" 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



GEORGIA 



Adel 

Alma.. 

Americus... 

.\shbum 

Barnesville. 
Baxley 



See footnobe at end of tabic. 



31 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30, 1954, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000--Con. 



City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


City 


Nimiber 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


GEORGIA— Con. 
Buford 


6 

7 

6 

4 

5 

9 

8 
13 

5 
16 

5 
13 

6 

4 
23 

6 
26 

4 
11 

5 
11 

3 
32 

3 
1] 
12 

4 

4 
23 

3 
33 
14 

6 

6 

4 

6 

6 

7 

7 

4 
32 
12 1 

7 i 

6 
22 

4 
15 

3 

4 

6 

6 

6 

5 

6 

1 

9 

4 

7 

6 

3 
12 
20 

6 
17 

9 

5 
31 

7 

9 

5 
30 

7 

3 


IDAHO— Continued 

Blackfoot 

Buhl. .. 


8 
5 
8 

19 

14 
5 
4 
2 

38 
7 
6 

26 
2 
5 

11 

22 
5 
4 
3 
5 
3 
3 
6 

21 
6 
5 

2 

2 

3 

20 

6 

6 

5 

16 

7 

15 

3 

6 

15 

2 

11 

15 

13 

5 

2 

5 

4 

14 

5 

5 

4 

3 

4 

12 

12 

6 

6 

13 

20 

11 

5 

14 

5 

4 

6 

15 

8 

7 

31 

22 

16 

5 

2 


miNOIS— Con. 

Flora 


4 


Cairo _ 


Forest Park i 


22 


Calhoun 


Burley 


Franklin Park i 


12 


Camilla 


Caldwell.... 

Coeur d'Alene 

Emmett 


20 


Canton 


Fulton 


1 


Carrollton 




4 


Cartersville ' 


Gooding- ... 


Galva. 


2 


Cedartown 


Grange ville 

Idaho Falls 


Qeneseo _ 


5 


Chamblee 




6 


College Park ' 


Jerome 

; Kellogg 

Lewiston 


Georgetown .. 


2 


Commerce . 


Gibson City 


2 


Cordele 


Gillespie 


3 


Covington 


Malad City 


Glencoe ' 

Glen Ellyni 


16 


Cuthbert 


Montpeller 


15 


Dalton.... 


Moscow. .. 


15 


Dawson .. 


' Nampa 


Harrisburg 


6 


Decatur L 


Payette... . 




5 


Donalsonville.- 


Preston 


Harvey 


21 


Douglas 


, Rexburg. 




5 


Douglasville 


i Rupert --- 


Herrin 


6 


Dublin 


1 St. Anthony 


Highland 

Highland Park 


G 


Eastman ... . _ 


i Salmon . . ... 


19 


East Point 


Sandpolnt 

Twin Falls 


^ 


Eatonton... 


Hillsboro . . .. 


5 


Elberton ' 


Wallace 


Hinsdale . 


11 


Fitzgerald 


Weiser 

ILIINOIS 

Abingdon 

Aledo. 


Homewood .. . 


7 


Forest Park 


Hoopeston . 


5 


Fort Valley 


Jacksonville 


16 


Gainesville. 


Jersevville-. .. . 


5 


Greensboro 


Johnston City 

Kenilworth 


2 


Griffin ' 


10 


Hapevilie ' 


Anna 

Arlington Heights '.-- 

Barrington 

Batavia 

Beardstown... .. 




13 


Hartwell... 


La Grange 


22 


Hawkinsville 


La Grange Park ' 

Lake Forest 


12 


Hazelhurst 


20 


Hogansville.. 


Lansing. .- 


5 


Jesup 


Bellwood 1 

Belvidere.. 


La Salle 


14 


Lafavette.- . 




6 


Lawrenceville -- 


Blue Island ' 


Lemont i. .. 


2 


Manchester 


Bradley 1 

Broadview .. . 


Lewistown . .. 


2 


Marietta i __ 


Liberty vUle 


6 


Milledgeville 


Brookflold- . . 


Lincoln.. 


11 


Millen .... 


Bushnell 

Cairo 

Calumet City' 

Canton 

Carlinville > 


Lincolnwood .- 


8 


Monroe-. 


Litchfield 


5 


Moultrie 


Lockport 

Lombard 


4 


Xashville 


10 


Xewnan _ . 


Loves Park ' - 


4 


Ocilla.. 


Carlyle 

Carmi 

Casey 

Centralia 

Charleston .. 


Lyons i 


16 


Pelham. . 


13 


Porterdale.. . 


Madison 


15 


Quitman. 


Marengo .... 


3 


Rockmart ... 


Marion 

Markham ' 

Marseilles 

Marshall . . . .- 


6 


Rossville 


Chester 

ChilUcothe 

Christopher ' 


3 


Sanders ville 

Silvertown 


4 
3 


Statesboro 


Clinton 

Colltnsville.. 


Mascoutah 


1 


Summerville 


Matoon 


19 


Swainsboro 


Creve Coeur 

Crystal Lake i 

Deerfield > 

DeKalb 

Des Plaines... 




3 


Svlvania . 


Melrose Park' 


23 


Tallapoosa 


6 


Thomaston 

Thoniasville ' 


Metropolis 

Midlothian ' 

Momence 

Monmouth 

Monticello 1 

Morris ' 

Morrison 

Morton 

Morton Grove 

Mount Carmel 


11 
8 


Thomson 


Dixon 


2 


Tifton 1. 


Dolton 

Downers Grove 

Du Quoin .. 


10 


Toecoa 


5 


Trion_._ 


7 


Valdosta'... 


Dwight 

East Alton . 


3 


Vidalia ' 


3 


Warner Robins 


East Moline ' 


12 


Washington 


Edwards ville . 


6 




Effingham 

Elmhurst 

Elmwood Park i 

Evergreen Park ' 

Fairfield 

Farmington 


3 


Winder 


Mount Prospect 

Mount Vernon 


7 


IDAHO 


14 

4 


Alameda 


Murphysboro 

Naperville ' 


5 
10 



See footnote at end of table. 
."51.3691°— 54 5 



32 



Table 14— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30, 1954, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


IlLINOIS-Con. 
Newton .. . 


2 


Niles 1 

Nokomis. .. 


11 
3 




8 


Northbrook 


4 


North Chicago ' 

North Lake ' 


11 
9 


North Riverside ' 

Oak Lawn ' 


8 
12 


O'Fallon 


3 


Oplesby .-. - 


4 


Olney 


7 




3 


Ottawa 


16 




7 


Pana - 


5 


Paris 


10 


Park Forest 


14 


Park Ridge 1 - .. 


25 


Paxton - 


4 


Pekin 


15 




6 


Peru.- 


11 


Phoenix ' 


2 




2 


Pittsfidd 


3 


Pontiae 


6 




4 


Rantoul - .. 


8 




7 


River Forest ' 

River Grove ' .- 


23 

8 




14 


Robinson 


4 


Rochelle' 


8 


Rock Falls 


6 




2 


St. Charles 


9 


Salem 


6 




3 


Savanna 


6 


Shelby ville -- 


4 


Silvis 


3 


Skokie' - 


32 


South Beloit' 


5 


South Holland • 


2 

2 


Spring Valley 


5 




3 


Steger ' 


4 


Sterling! 


15 




6 


Streator 


16 


Sullivan 


5 


Summit i - 


12 




5 


Tavlor ville 


7 




3 


Ilrbana 


16 


Vandalia ' 


5 


Venice 


13 


Villa Park 


9 


Virden 


1 


Washington Park'... 
Waterloo 


4 
2 


Watseka 

Westchester'.- 


6 
8 


West Chicago' 

Western Springs' 

West Frankfort 


5 
12 
5 
3 


Westville 


2 


Wheaton . 


15 


White Hall 


3 


Wilmette ' 


26 


Wilmington '... 


5 




ILLINOIS— Con. 

Winnetka '. 

Wood River-. 

Woodstock ' 

Zion '..- 

INDIANA 

Alexand ria 

Angola 

Attica 

Auburn 

Aurora 

Batesville. 

Bedford 

Beech Grove 

Bieknell 

Bluffton 

Boonville 

Brazil 

Bremen 

Brookville 

Charlestown.. 

Chesterton 

Clarksville 

Clinton 

Columbia City '... 

Columbus 

Coimersville 

Crawfordsville ' 

Crown Point 

Decatur ' 

Delphi 

Dunkirk 

East Gary' 

Elwood 

Fairmount 

Frankfort ' 

Franklin 

Garrett 

Gas City-- -. 

Goshen 

Greencar.tle 

Greenfield 

Greensburg 

Greenwood 

Griffith' ... 

Hartford City 

Highland ' 

Hobart--- 

Huntington 

Jasonville 

Jasper 

Jeffersonville 

Kendallville- 

Knox - 

La Porte '-- 

Lawrenceburg 

Lebanon 

Linton 

Logansport- - 

Martinsxille 

Mitchell--- 

Monticello 

Munster. 

Nappanec- _ - 

New Castle ' 

Noblesville 

North Manchester. 

North Vernon ' 

Oakland City 

Paoli--- 

Peru 

Petersburg 

Plainfield 

Plymouth ' 

Portland 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 




INDIANA— Con. 

Princeton 

Rensselaer ' 

Rochester '_ -- 

Rushville. 

Salem 

Scottsburg 

Sevmour 

Shelbyville 

Speedway 

Sullivan- 

Tell City 

Tipton 

Union City 

Valparaiso ' 

Vincennes 

Wabash 

Warsaw ' 

Washington 

West Lafayette 

West Terre Haute. . 

Whiting- -- 

Winchester- - 

IOWA 

Albia 

Algona 

Ames 

Anamosa 

Atlantic 

Audubon 

Belle Plaine 

Bettendorf 1 

Bloomfteld 

Boone '.^ 

Carroll 

Cedar Falls 

Centervillc 

Chariton 

Charles City 

Cherokee 

Clarinda 

Clarion 

. Creston 

Decorah 

Denlson 

De Witt 

Eagle Grove-- 

Eldora 

Emmetsburg 

Estherville 

Fairfield 

Forest City 

Fort Madison 

Glen wood 

Grinnell 

Hampton ' 

Harlan 

Hawarden 

Humboldt.- 

Independence 

Indianola 

Iowa Falls.- 

Jeflerson 

Keokuk 

Knoxville 

Le Mars 

Manchester 

Maciuokcta 

Marion ' 

Marshalltown 

Alissouri Valley 

Monticello ' - 

Mount Pleasant — 

Muscatine 

Nevada 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



See footnote at end of table. 



33 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30, 1954, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



IOWA— Con. 



New Hampton _ 

Newton 

Oelwein 

Onawa 



Osceola 

Oskaloosa- 

Pella 

Perry ' 

Red Oak_. -.. 

Rock Rapids 

Sac City 

Sheldon 

Shenandoah 

Spencer ' 

Storm Lake 

Tama 

Tipton 

Vinton 

Washington 

Waukon 

Waverly 

Webster City 

West Des Moines ' . 
Winterset _. 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



KANSAS 



Abilene 

Anthony 

Arkansas City.. 

Atchison 

Augusta ' 

Baxter Springs. 

Belleville 

Beloit 

Caney 

Chanute 

Cherry vale 

Clay Center 

Cofleyville •.__. 

Colby. 

Columbus 

Concordia 

Council Grove.. 

Dodge City 

El Dorado 

Ellin wood 

Emporia ' 

Eureka 

Fort Scott 

Fredonia 

Galena 

Garden City '_. 

Garnett 

Goodland 

Great Bend 

Hays__. 

Herjngton 

Hiawatha 

Hoisington 

Helton 

Hugoton 

Independence... 

Ida 

Junction City.. 

Kingman 

Lamed 

Lawrence ' 

Leavenworth... 

Liberal i 

Lyons i 

Manhattan 

Marysville 

McPherson ' 

Neodesha 



City 



KANSAS— Con. 

Newton 

Norton 

Olathe 

Osawatoraie 

Ottawa 

Paola 

Parsons 

Phillipsburg 

Pittsburg 

Pratt 

Russell 

Scott City 

Wellington 

WLiifield 

KENTUCKY 

Barbourville 

Bardstown ' 

Belle vue 

Berea 

Bowling Green 

Campbollsville _ 

Carrollton ' 

Catlettsburg 

Central City. 

Corbin 

Cumberland 

Cynthiana 

Danville 

Dayton 

Earlington 

Elizabethtown 

Elsmere 

Erlanger 

Fort Thomas 

Frankfort 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Georgetown 

Glasgow 

Greenville 

Harlan 

Harrodsburg 

Hazard 

Henderson i 

Hopkinsville 

Irvine 

Jenkins 

Lebanon 

London 

Ludlow 

Madison ville 

Mayfield 

Maysville ' 

Middlesboro 

Monticello 

Morehead 

Morganfleld 

Mount Sterling 

Murray 

Nicholasville 

Paintsville 

Paris 

Park Hills 

Pikeville 

Piiieville 

Prestonsburg 

Princeton 

Providence 

Richmond 

Russell ville 

Somerset 

South Fort Mitchell 
Versailles 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



KENTUCKY— Con. 

Williamsburg 

Winchester 

LOUISIANA 

Abbeville ' 

Berwick 

Bogalusa i 

Bossier City 

Bunkie 

Church Point 

De Quincy 

De Ridder 

Donaldson ville ' 

Franklin.. 

Hammond 

Haynesville 

Homer 

Houma 

Jemiings 

Jonesboro 

Kaplan 

Kenner 

Mansiield 

Minden 

Morgan City 

Natchitoches i 

New Iberia 

New Roads 

Oakdale 

Opelousas 

Pineville 

Plaquemine 

Ponchatoula 

Port Allen 

Rayne ' 

Ruston 

St. Martinville 

Slidell 

Springhill 

Tallulah 

Thibodaux 

Vinton 

West Monroe i 

Winnfield 

Winnsboro 

MAINE 

Auburn i 

Augusta 

Bath 

Belfast' 

Biddeford 

Brewer ' 

Brunswick 

Calais ' 

Eastport 

Ellsworth 

Gardiner ' 

Hallowell 

Madison 

Old Town 

Presque Isle 

Rockland i 

Rumford 

Saco 1 

South Portland i 

Waterville 

Westbrook 

MARYLAND 

Annapolis 

Bel Air 1 

Bladensburg 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



See footnote at end of table. 



34 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30, 1954, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



MARYLAND-Con. 



Brentwood ' 

Brunswick 

Cambridge 

Capitol Heights. 

riisHcld I 

Iviston 1 

Klkton... 

Frederick i 

Frostburg 

Oreenbelt i 

Havre de Grace ' 

Hyattsville i 

Laurel • 

Mount Rainier.. 
Pocomoke City.. 

Riverdale ' 

Rockville 

Salisbury 

Takoma Park... 

Westernport 

Westminster • _ . . 



MASSACHUSETTS 



Abington i 

Adams 

Amesbury 

Amherst 

Andover i 

Athol 

Attleboro 

Auburn > 

Ayer i... 

Barnstable • 

Blackstone 

Braintree i 

Bridgewater ' 

Canton ' 

(^linton 1 

Concord ' 

Dalton 

Danvers ' 

Dartmouth ' 

Dcdham 

Dracut ' 

Easthampton i — 

Fairhaven ' 

Franklin ' 

Gardner ' 

Great Barrington. 

Greenfield.. 

Hingham 

H udson ' 

Ipswich 

Leei 

Leominster 

Lexington ' 

Longmeadow' 

Ludlow ' 

Mansfield 

Marblehead ■ 

Marlborough 

Mayiiard 

Middleborough... 

Milford 

Millhury ' 

Milton 

Montague 

Xaiituckct ' 

Xatiek 1 

.Veedham' 

Xewburyport • 

North Adams 

North Andover... 
North Attleboro '. 
Northbridge ' 



City 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



MASSACHUSETTS— 
Continued 

Norwood • 

Orange 

Palmer ' 

Peabody i 

Plymouth 

Provincetown 

Randolph '... 

Reading 

Rockland 

Rockport 

Saugus ' 

Southbridge • 

South Hadley 

Spencer 

Stoneham 

Stoughton ' 

Swampscott ' 

Uxbridge i 

Wakefield i 

Walpole ' 

Ware ' 

Webster '.. 

Wellesley i 

Westfleldi 

West Springfield 

Winchendon '. 

Winchester ' 

Winthrop ' 

Wobum - - 

MICHIGAN 

Adrian ' 

Albion - 

.\lgonac 

Allegan 

Allen Park 

Alma 

Alpena 

Bad Axe 

Belding 

Benton Harbor ' 

Berkley 

Bessemer 

Big Rapids 

Birmingham 

Boyne City 

Buchanan 

Cadillac 

Carol 

Center Line 

Charlevoix • 

Charlotte 

Cheboygan 

Chelsea 

Clawson ._ 

Cold water 

Dowagiac ' 

Durand _ 

East T^etroit 

East Grand Rapids '_. 

East Lansing ' 

Eaton Rapids 

Ecorsc' 

Escanaba 

Essexville ' 

Feiiton ' 

Fremont • 

Garden City 

Gladstone 

Grand Haven 

Grand Ledge 

Greenville 

Grosse Pointe 

Grosse Pointe Farms.. 
Grosse Pointe Park '.. 



City 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



MICHIGAN Con. 

Grosse Pointe Woods 

Hancock 

Hastings 

Hazel Park! 

Hillsdale' 

Holland 1 

Holly 

Houghton 

Howell > 

Hudson 

Huntington Woods.. 

Inkster 

Ionia • 

Iron Mountain • 

Iron River 

Ironwood 

Ishpeming 

Kingsford 

Lapeer ' 

Livonia ' 

Ludington 

Manistee 

Manistique 

Marine City ' 

Marquette 

Marshall 

Marysville 

Mason ' 

Melvindale ' 

Menominee 

Midland i 

Milan 

Monroe • 

Mount Clemens 

Mount Morris 

Mount Pleasant 

Munising 

Muskegon Heights. . 

Negaunee '.. 

Newberry.. 

Niles 

Norlhville ' 

Norway 

Otsego 

Owosso 1 

Petoskey 

Plauiwell 

Pleasant Ridge' 

Plymouth 

River Rouge 

Rochester 

Rogers City 

Romeo 

Roseville 

St. Clair 

St. Clair Shores 

St. Ignace 

St. .Johns.. 

St. Joseph I 

St. Louis' 

Sault Ste. Marie • 

South Haven 

Sturgis 

Tecumseh 

Three Rivers... 

Traverse City 

Trenton '... 

Vassar ' 

Wakefield 

Wayne ' 

Ypsilanti ' 

Zeeland '.. 

MINNESOTA 

Albert Lea 



18 



See footnote at end of table. 



35 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30, 1954, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



MINNESOTA— Con. 



Alexandria 

Anoka 

Austin I 

Bayport i... -.- 

Bemidji 

Benson 

Blue Earth 

Brainerd 

Breckenridge 

Brooklyn Center 

Cambridge 

Chisholm 

Cloquet 

Columbia Heights.. 

Crookston 

Crosby 

Crystal 

Detroit Lakes 

East Grand Forks. . 

Edina 

Ely 

Eveleth 

Fairmont 

Faribault 

Fergus Falls 

Fridley 

Glencoe 

Glen wood - . 

Golden Valley 

Grand Rapids 

Granite Falls 

Hastings 

Hibbing 

Hopkins ' 

Hutchinson ' 

International Falls.. 

Jackson 

Lake City 

Le Sueur ' 

Litchfield 

Little Falls 

Luverne... 

Mankato * 

Marshall 

Moorhead. 

Morris 

New Ulm i 

Northfield 

North Mankato 

North St. Pauli.._. 

Ortonville 

Owatonna 

Park Rapids 

Pipestone 

Proctor 

Red Wing 

Redwood Falls 

Richfield 

Robbinsdale 

St. .Tames 

St. Louis Park 

St. Peter 

Sauk Centre 

Sauk Rapids 

Shakopee 

Sleepy Eye 

South St. Paul 

Springfield 

Staples 

Stillwater 

Thief River Falls i.. 

Tracy 

Two Harbors 

Virgmia 

Wadena 

Waseca 



30 
3 
9 
4 
4 

16 

4 

1 

1 

14 

12 

8 

9 

3 

5 

6 

9 

12 

11 

14 

11 

16 

10 

3 

3 

2 

5 

6 

4 

5 

27 

10 

5 

8 

4 

4 

3 

4 

7 

4 

28 

8 

17 

3 

12 

5 

3 

4 

4 

12 
4 
4 
2 
13 
3 
17 
8 
4 

16 
4 
2 
2 
2 
4 

22 
3 
4 
9 
8 
2 
6 
23 
5 
5 

See footnote at end of table. 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



MINNESOTA— Con. 

White Bear Lake 

Willmar ' 

Windom... 

Worthington 

MISSISSIPPI 

Aberdeen 

Amory 

Bay St. Louis.- 

Booneville 

Brookhaven 

Canton 

Clarksdale 

Cleveland ' 

Columbia 

Columbus 

Corinth 

Ellisville 

Forest 

Greenwood 

Grenada 

Gulf port 

Hazlehurst 

Holly Springs 

Indianola 

Kosciusko 

Leland 

Lexington 

Long Beach 

Louisville 

McComb 

Moss Point 

Natchez i 

New .Albany 

Newton 

Ocean Springs 

Pascagoula ' 

Philadelphia 

Picayune 

Port Gibson 

Tupelo 1 

Water Valley! 

West Point 

Winona 

Yazoo City 

MISSOURI 

Aurora 

Berkeley 

Bethany 

Bolivar 

Boonville 

Brentwood ' 

Brookfield 

Butler 

California 

Cameron 

Cape CJirardeau 

Carrollton 

Carthage 

Caruthersville 

Chaffee 

Charleston • 

Chillicothe 

Clayton 

Clinton 

DeSoto 

Dexter 

Eldon 

E.xcelsior Springs L.. 

Farmington 

Fayette 

Ferguson 

Festus' 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



MISSOURI-Con. 

Flat River 

Florissant i 

Glendale ' 

Hannibal 

Harrison ville • 

Hayti 

Higginsville 

Jackson 

Jennings 

Kennett 

Kinloch i 

Kirksville 

Kirkwood ' 

Ladue 

Lamar ' 

Lebanon 

Lees Summit 

Liberty 

Louisiana 

Maiden 

Maplewood • 

Marceline 

Marshall 

Maryville 

Mexico 

Moberly... 

Monett 

Neosho.. 

Nevada 

New Madrid ' 

North Kansas City ' 

Overland • 

Pagedale ' 

Pine Lawn i 

Poplar Blufl 

Portageville 

Richmond 

Richmond Heights.. 

Rock Hill 

Rollai 

St. Ann > 

St. Charles 1 

Salem 

Sedalia 

Shrewsbury • 

Slater 

Sullivan... 

Trenton 

Valley Park 

Vandalia 

Warrensburg 

Washington 

Webb City 

Webster Groves 

Wellston 

West Plains ' 

MONTANA 

Bozeman 

Cut Bank 

Deer Lodge 

Dillon 

Glasgow 

Glendive 

Hamilton 

Havre 

Helena 

Kalispell 

Laurel 

Lewistown 

Livingston 

Miles City 

Missoula 

Roundup 

Shelby 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



36 



Table 14— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30, 1954, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



MONTANA— Con. 



Sidney 

Whitefish... 
Wolf Point _ 



NEBRASKA 



Alliance 

Auburn 

Beatrice 

Bellevue 

Blair 

Broken Bow... 

Chadron 

Columbus 

Cozad. -- 

Crete' 

Fairbury 

Falls City 

Fremont 

Gering 

Gothenburg... 
Grand Island.. 

Hastings 

Holdrege 

Kearney 

Lexington 

McCook 

Nebraska City. 

Norfolk 

North Platte... 

Ogallala 

O'Neill 

Plattsmouth... 

Schuyler 

Scottsblufl 

Seward 

Sidney 

Superior 

Valentine 

Wahoo 

West Point 

York 



NEVADA 



Carson City 

ElkQi 

Ely 

Las Vegas 

North Las Vegas. 
Sparks 

Winnemucca 



NEW HAMPSHIRE 



Berlin. 

Claremont L. 

Derry ■ 

Dover 

Exeter' 

Franklin 

Keene ' 

Laconia ' 

Lebanon • 

Littleton '.... 

Milford 

Newport '. .. 
Portsmouth.. 

Rochester 

Somers worth _ 



NEW JERSEY 



Asbury Park 

Atlantic Highlands. 
Audubon 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



NEW JERSEY— Con. 

Barrington 

Belmar 

Bergenfield 

Beverly 

Bloomingdale ' 

Bogota • 

Boon ton 

Bordentown 

Bound Brook 

Bradley Beach i 

Bridgeton ' 

Burlington • 

Caldwell' 

Cape May 

Carlstadt 

Carteret 

Chatham ' 

Clayton 

Cliffside Park 

Closter ' 

CoUingswood ' 

Cranford ' 

Cresskill ' 

Dover ' 

Dumont '. 

Dunellen ' 

East Paterson ' 

East Rutherford ' 

Eatontown 

Edgewater 

Ege Harbor City'... 

Englewood ' 

Fair Haven ' 

Fair Lawn ' 

Fairview 

Fanwood ' 

Flemington ' 

Fort Lee ' 

Franklin 

Freehold ' 

Garwood ' 

Glassboro 

Glen Ridge 

Glen Rock ' 

Gloucester City ' 

Guttenberg ' 

Hackettsto^vn 

Raddonfield ' 

Haddon Heights 

Hammonton ' 

Harrison 

Hasbrouok Heights '. 

Hawthorne ■ 

Highland Park 

Highlands 

Hiehtstown ' 

Hillsdale' 

HUlside '_ .- 

Keansburg 

Kenilworth. 

Keyport ' 

Lambertville 

Lconia '_ 

Lincoln Park 

Little Forry _._ 

Little Silver 

Lodi ' 

Long Branch '.. 

Lyndhurst ' 

Madison ' 

Manusquan ' 

Maiivillp '.- 

Margate City 

Matawan ' 

Maywood '... 

Merchantville ' 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



NEW JERSEY— Con. 

Metuchen ' 

Middlesex ' 

Midland Park' 

Millbum ' 

Milltown ' 

Millville' 

Morris Plains 

Morristown ' 

Mount Ephraim ' 

Neptune ' 

Neptune Township '.. 

New Milford ' 

New Providence ' 

NewtonV 

North Arlington ' 

Northfield... 

North Haledon 

North Plainfield ' 

Oaklyn 

Ocean City 

Oceanport 

Oradell'.. 

Palisades Park ' 

Palmyra ' 

Paramus ' 

Park Ridge 

Paulsboro ' 

Pennsauken ' 

Pcnns Grove 

Phillipsburg ' 

Pitman ' 

Pleasantville 

Point Pleasant 

Pt. Pleasant Beach... 

Pompton Lakes ' 

Princeton '.. 

Prospect Park ' 

Rahway '.._ 

Ramsey '_ 

Raritan ' 

Red Bank' 

Ridgefield' 

Ridgefield Park' 

Ridgewood ' 

River Edge' 

Riverton.- 

Rockaway 

Roselle ' 

Roselle Park... 

Rurason ' 

Runnemede '.. 

Rutherford 

Salem '. 

Sayrevillc- 

Secaucus 

Somerville ' 

South -\niboy' 

South Bound Brook ' 

South Orange 

South Plainfield 

South River ' 

Summit ' 

Tenafly ' 

Totowa ' 

Union Beach ' 

Ventnor City 

Verona ' 

Vineland ' 

Waldwick '.. 

Wallington ' 

Wanaque ' 

Washington ' 

Woohaw ken 

West Caldwell' 

WcstfioUl >.- 

Wi'St Long Branch 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



See footnote at end of table. 



37 

Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30, 1954, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



NEW JERSEY— Con. 



West Patorson ' 

Westville 

AVpstwood ' 

Wharton i 

Wild wood 

Woodbury 

Wood Lynne.. 
Wood Ridge '.. 



NEW MEXICO 



Alainogordo 

Artesia 

Belen 

Carlsbad 

Clavton 

Clovis 

Deming 

Farmington 

Gallup 

Hobbs 

Hot Springs 

LasCruces ' 

Las Vegas City... 
Las Vegas Town. 

Lordsburg 

Lovington 

Portales 

Raton 

Silver City 

Socorro 

Tucumcari 



NEW YORK 



Albion 

Amityville 

Attica_ 

Babylon 

Bald wins ville • 

Ballston Spa ' 

Batavia 

Bath. 

Beacon • 

Blasdell 

Brockport • 

Bronx ville 

Canajoharie i 

Canandaigua 

Canastota '__ _.. 

Canisteo 

Canton 

Carthage 

Catskill 

Cobleskill 

echoes 

Cooperstown 

Corinth 

Coming 

Cortland 1 

Coxsackie • 

Croton on Hudson... 

Dansville 

Depew ■ 

Dubbs Ferry 

Dolge ville 

Dunkirk ' 

East Aurora ' 

East Rochester ' 

East Syracuse. .. ... 

EUenville ' 

Elraira Heightsi 

Elmsford 

Endicott ' 

Falconer 

Fayette ville 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



NEW YORK-Con. 

Floral Park ' 

Fort Edward 

Fort Plain 

Frankfort 

Fredonia __. 

Freeport > 

Fulton 

Garden City ' 

Geneseo ' 

Geneva ' 

Glen Cove ' 

Glens Falls • 

Qloversville ' 

Goshen 

Oou verneur 

Gowanda 

Granville ' 

Green Island ' 

Qreenport 

Hamburg ' 

Hamilton 

Hastings on Hudson ' 

Haverstraw ' 

Herkimer *_ . . 

Highland Falls' 

Homer 

Hoosick Falls ' 

Hornell ' 

Horseheads ' 

Hudson 1 

Hudson Falls ' 

Ilion 

Irvington 

Johnson City 

Johnstown 

Kenmore ' 

Lake Placid 

Lakewood ' _. 

Lancaster ' 

Larchmont i 

Le Roy 

Liberty 

Little Falls 

Liverpool ' 

Long Beach ' 

Low ville 

Lynbrook ' 

Lyons ' 

Malone ' 

Malvorne i 

Mamaroneck 

Massena 

Mechanic ville 1 

Medina... 

Middletown ' 

Mohawk 

Monticello ' 

Mount Kisco ' 

Mount Morris 

Newark ' . 

New York Mills 

North Pelham ' 

Northport ' 

North Syracuse 

North Tarry town 

North Tonawanda... 

Norwich 

Nyack ' 

Ogdensburg 

Clean i 

Oneida i 

Oneonta 

Ossining i 

Oswego 

Owego 

PnlmjTa 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



NEW YORK— Con. 

Patchogue 

Peek-skill 1 

Pelham Manor 

Penn Yan i 

Plattsburg ' 

Pleasantville i 

Port Chester i 

Port Jervis ' 

Potsdam 

Rensselaer. 

Rock ville Centre '-_ . 

Rye 

Salamanca 

Saranac Lake 

Saratoga Springs 

Saugerties 

Scarsdale 

Scotia 1 

Seneca Falls 

Silver Creek i 

Sloan 

Solvay 

Southampton ' 

South Glons Falls i._ 

South Nyack 

Spring Valley ' 

Spring ville ' 

Suflern 

Tarrytown 

T iconderoga 

Tonawanda ' 

Tuckahoe . 

Tupper Lake 

Walden i 

Walton 

Wappingers Falls 

Warsaw 

Warwick ' 

Waterford • 

Waterloo ' 

Water vliet ' 

Watkins Glen 

Waverlv ' 

Wells ville 

Westfleld... 

Whitehall 

Whltesboro 

Yorkville 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Ahoskie 

Albermarle 

Asheboro 

Beaufort 

Belhaven 

Belmont 

Bessemer City 

Boone 

Brevard 

Burlington 

Canton i 

Chapel Hill i 

Cherryville 

Clinton 

Concord 

Draper 

Edenton 

Elizabeth City 

Elkin 

Forest City 

Gastonia 

Ooldsboro 

Graham 

Greenville 

Hamlet 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



See footnote at end of table. 



38 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30, 1954, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


NORTH CAROUNA— 
Continued 


21 

12 

33 

14 

14 

31 

15 

8 

19 

24 

4 

18 

10 

14 

11 

12 

17 

15 

5 

11 

12 

13 

4 

25 

18 

7 

7 

6 

34 

16 

3 

5 

22 

3 

11 

8 

3 

4 

26 

14 

22 

5 

7 

5 

17 

8 

8 

7 

31 

24 
8 

11 
3 

13 
8 

25 
4 
7 
4 

13 

2 

4 

19 
31 

9 

1 
6 
5 

7 


OHIO— Continued 

Bedford' 


15 

18 

11 

10 

16 

18 

13 

6 

6 

9 

16 

8 

16 

3 

17 

16 

5 

3 

7 

7 

9 

17 

13 

7 

3 

12 

15 

6 

2 

8 

15 

10 

4 

14 

10 

25 

6 

6 

5 

20 

5 

10 

22 

17 

7 

18 

14 

7 

21 

16 

5 

7 

7 

3 

11 

3 

10 

5 

5 

7 

19 

7 

11 

10 

24 

8 

3 

6 

5 

11 

6 

6 

4 

10 
4 
19 


OHIO— Continued 


g 


Henderson 


Bellaire ' 




JC 


Henderson ville 


Bellefontaine 


Martins Ferry 


14 


Hickory ' 


Bellevue 


5 


Jacksonville 


Berea ' 




12 


Kines Mountain 


Bexley 


Mayfield Heights 

Medina '. , 


9 


Kinston 


Bowling Green 

Breeks ville 


13 


Laurinburg 




10 


Leaksville 


Bridgeport 


Middleport 


3 


Lenoir 


Brooklyn 




4 


Lexington,. 


Brook Park ' 


Mingo Junction 

Montpelier 


7 


Louisburg 


Bryan 


3 


Lumberton 


Bucyrus ' 


Mount Healthy 

Mount Vernon 


4 


Marion. 


Cadiz. 


19 


Monroe 


Cambridge 


7 


Mooresville. 


Campbell ... 


Nelsonville 


4 


Morehead City 


Carey 


New Boston 


10 


Morganton 


Carrollton... 


Newburgh Heights '.. 

Newcomerstown 

New Lexington 

New Philadelphia '.,. 

Newton Falls ' 

Niles 


7 


Mount Airy 


Celina 


7 


Mount Olive 


Chagrin Falls ' 

Cheviot I 


3 


Newton 


IS 


North Wilkes boro 


Chillicothe 




Oxford 


Circleville 


19 


Plymouth. 


Clyde . 


North Baltimore 

North Canton ' 

North College Hill.... 

North Olmsted 

North Royalton ' 


3 


Reidsville 


Columbiana.. 


4 


Roanoke Rapids 


Conneaut 


5 


Rockingham.., 


Coshocton ' 




Roxboro. 


Crestline ' 


7 


Rutherfordton. - 


Crooksville. _._ 


13 


Salisbury 


Deer Park 




32 


Sanford 


Defiance 


Oberlin ' 


6 


Scotland Neck 


Delaware 


Orrville ' . 


5 


Selma. 


Dennison.. . 


Ottawa 


3 


Shelby 


Dover ' 


Oxford 


fi 


Siler City 


Eastlake ' 


Painesville 


18 


Smithfield 

Southern Pines 


East Liverpool ' 

East Palestine 

Eaton 


Parma Heights ' 

Perrysburg 


11 

8 


Spencer 


Piqua 


19 


Spindale 


Elmwood Place 

Fairborn.. 


Pomeroy . 


4 


Statesville ' 


Port Clinton 


8 


Tarboro 


Fairport Harbor ' 

Fair view Park ' 

Findlay 


Ravenna . 


9 


Thomasville 


Reading 


11 


Valdese 




3 


Wadesboro 


Fostoria 


Rocky River ' 

Rossford 


20 


Wake Forest' 


Franklin 


3 


Washington.. 


Fremont 




14 


Waynes ville 


Galion.. 


St. Marys 


7 


Whiteville 


Gallipolis 

Garfield Heights 

Girard... 




12 


Williamston 


Sebring. 


4 


Wilson 




2 




Golf Manor 


Shelby 


10 


NORTH DAKOTA 


Grandview Heights.. . 
Greenfield 


Sidney 


13 




Silverton. .. ._ 


7 


Bismarck 

Devils Lake 


Greenhills 

Greenville 

Hicksville 


Solon 

South Euclid '... 


5 
24 


Dickinson 


7 


Grafton 


Hillsboro 

Hubbard ' 




16 


Jamestown 




4 


Mandan 


Huron > 

Independence . 


Tifhn. 


20 


Minot 


Tipp City ' 


4 


Rugby 


fronton 


Toronto 


7 


Valley City 


Jackson 


Troy 

Uhrichsville 


12 


Wahpeton 


Kent 


6 


Williston 


Kenton 


University Heights '.. 

Upper Arlington 

Upper Sandusky 

Urbana 


21 




Lancaster. . 


13 


OHIO 


Lebanon.. .. 


5 


Ada.... 


Leetonia 

Lincoln Heights ' 

Lisbon 


10 
14 


Amherst... 


Wadsworth ' 


13 


Ashland ' 




5 


Ashtabula 


Logan.. 

London . 


Wanvnsvilli' Heights. 
AVashington C. H 


7 


Athens 


11 


Avon ' 


Louisville 

IvVndhurst • 


1 


Avon Lake 




4 


Barnesville ' 




Wellston . 


7 


Bay 


Maple Heights ' 


Wellsville 


7 



See footnotp nt (mkI of tabic 



39 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30, 1954, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



OHIO— Continued 



West Carrollton '. 

Wester ville 

Westlake 

Whitehall 

Wickliffe 

Willard 

Willoughby ' 

Willowick ■ 

Wilmington 

Windham ' 

Wooster ■ 

Wyoming ' 

Xenia 

Yellow Springs 



OKLAHOMA 



Ada 

Altus' 

Alva 

Anadarko 

Antlers 

Ardmore 

Atoka 

Bartlesville 

Blackwell 

Bristow 

Broken Arrow.- 

Chandler 

Checotah 

Cherokee 

Chickasha 

Claremore 

Clinton 

Cordell. _.. 

Cushuig 

Del City 

Dewey 

Drumright 

Duncan i 

Durant 

Edmond i 

Elk City 

El Reno 

Guthrie 

Guymon 

Healdton 

Henryetta ' 

Hobart 

Holden ville ' 

Hollis 

Hominy 

Hugo 

Idabel 

Kingfisher ' 

Konawa 

Lindsay 

Madill 

Mangum 

Marlow 

McAlester 

Miami 

Midwest City '. 

Nowata.. 

Okemah 

Okmulgee 

Pawhuska 

Pawnee 

Pen-y 

Ponca City 

Poteau 

Pryor Creek 

Purcell 

Sallisaw 

Sand Springs 

Sapulpa 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



12 

13 

4 

3 

9 

4 

10 

3 

3 

5 

6 

4 

2 

5 

3 

4 

4 

21 

17 

17 

5 

4 

18 

11 

4 

5 

27 

3 

7 

4 

5 

8 

11 



City 



OKLAHOMA— Con. 

Sayre 

Seminole 

Shawnee 

Stillwater 

Sulphur 

Tahlequah 

Tonkawa 

Vinita ' 

Walters 

Watonga... 

Weatherford 

Wewoka 

Woodward 

OREGON 

Albany i 

Ashland 

Astoria 

Baker 

Beaverton 

Bend 

Burns 

Coos Bay 

Coquille 

Corvallis ' 

Cottage Grove 

Dallas 

Forest Grove 

Grants Pass 

Qresham 

Hermiston 

HiUsboro 

Hood River 

Klamath Falls 

La Grande 

Lebannon 

McMinnville 

Medford 

Milwaukie... _.- 

Newberg ' 

Newport 

North Bend 

Nyssa 

Ontario 

Oregon City i 

Oswego 

Pendelton 

Prine ville ' 

Redmond 

Roseburg 

St. Helens 

Seaside 

Silverton 

Springfield 

Sweet Home 

The Dalles 

Tillamook 

West Linn 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Aldan 

Ambler 

Ambridge 

Apollo ' 

Archbald 

Arnold i 

Ashland 

Ashley 

Aspinwall 

Athens 

Avalon 

Avoca 

Baden 

Bangor 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



PENNSYLVANIA- 
Continued 

Barnesboro 

Beaver 

Beaver Falls 

Bedford 

Bellefonte ' 

Bellevue ' 

Bellwood 

Bentleyville 

Berwick i 

Birds boroi 

Blairsville' 

Blakely > 

Bloomsburg i 

Boyertown ' 

Braekenridge 

Braddoek C 

Bradford 

Brentwood i 

Bridgeport 

Bristol 

Brockway 

Brownsville 

Butler 1 

California 

Camp Hill 

Canonsburg 

Carbondale i 

Carlisle I 

Carnegie 1 

Castle Shannon 

Catasauqua ' 

Centervllle i 

C hambersburg 

Charleroi 

Cheltenham 

Clairton 

Clarion 

Clarks Summit 

Clearfield 

Clifton Heights 

Clymer 

Coaldale 

CoatesvUIe 

Collingdale i 

Columbia ' 

Connells ville 

Conshohocken 

Coplay 

Coraopolis 

Corry 

Crafton i 

Cresson 

Curwensville ' 

Dallastown 

Danville 

Darby 1 

Derry 

Dickson City • 

Donora 

Dormont ' 

Do^vnuigtown 

Doylestown ' 

Dravosburg 

Du Bois 

Dunmore' 

Dupont J 

Duquesne 

Duryea 

East Conemaugh 

East Lansdowne 

East Mauch Chunk 
East McKcesport i. 

East Pittsburgh 

East Stroudsburg... 
Ebensburg 



See footnote at end of table. 



40 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30, 1954, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



PENNSYLVANIA— 
Continued 



Eddystone » 

Edwardsville '.. 

Elizabeth' 

Ellwood CityL. 

Emmaus 

Emporium 

Emsworth 

Ephrata 

Etna" 

Exeter' 

Farrell' 

Ford City 

Forest City" 

Forest Hills"... 

Forty Fort' 

Fountain Hill... 

Franklin ' 

Freeland 

Freeport 

Qallitzin 

Gettysburg' 

Gilberton' 

Girardville 

Glassport 

Greencastle 

Greensburg 

Greenville 

Grove City 

Hamburg 

Hanover 

Hanover Twp.".. 
Harrison Twp. . . 

Hatboro' 

Hellertown 

Hollidaysburg. . . 

Homestead ' 

Honesdale 

Hummelstown. .. 

Huntingdon 

Indiana '. 

Ingram ' 

Irwin 

Jenkintown 

Jermjm 

Jersey Shore 

Johnsonburg 

Kane 

Kenhorst 

Kennett Square. 

Kingston. 

Kittanning 

Kulpmont 

Kutztown 

Lansdale ' 

Lansdowne ' 

Lansford 

Larksville " 

Latrobe 

Laureldale 

Leechburg " 

Lehighton ' 

Lemoyne 

Lewisburg ' 

Lewistown.. 

Lititz-. 

Littlestown 

Lock Haven 

Luzerne 

Lykens 

Mahanoy City.. 

Manlioim ' 

Mansfield 

Marcus Hook 

Masontown ' 

Mauch Chunk... 



5 
7 
5 

16 
6 
2 
4 
8 
8 
4 

21 
5 
3 
8 
6 
5 

19 
3 
2 
1 
8 
1 
1 
5 
2 

25 
8 
6 
3 

10 

22 
8 
9 
7 
4 

29 
5 
1 
5 

14 
4 
4 

12 
1 
3 
4 
4 
2 
5 

18 
9 
2 
3 

14 

18 
5 

11 

13 
2 
3 
5 
4 
5 

16 
3 
1 

15 
5 
2 
6 
3 
2 

10 
4 
2 

See footnote at ond of tabic. 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



PENNSYLVANIA- 
CO ntinued 

McAdoo '. 

McDonald 

McKees Rocks 

McSherrystown ' 

Meadville 

Mechanicsburg ' 

Media ' 

Meyersdale 

Middletown " 

Midland 

Millersville 

Millvale " 

Milton 

Minersville 

Monaca 

Monessen " 

Monongahela 

Mon toursville 

Moosic 1... 

Morrisville " 

Mount Carmel ' 

Mount Oliver. 

Mount Perm 

Mount Pleasant 

Mount Union 

Muncy... 

Munhall ' 

Myerstown 

Nanticoke 

Nanty Qlo 

Narberth 

Nazareth " 

New Brighton 

New Cumberland 

New Holland 

Northampton ' 

North Belle Vernon ' 

North Braddock ' 

North Catasauqua... 

North Charleroi 

North East 

Northumberland 

North Wales 

Norwood 

Oakmont _ 

Oil City 1 

Old Forge 

Olyphant ' 

Oxford 

Palmerton ' 

Palmyra 

Parkesburg 

Pen Argyl 

Penbrook 

Perkasie ' 

Phoenixville 

Pitcairn ' 

Pittston ' 

Plains ' 

Plymouth ' 

Polk 

Portage 

Port Allegany 

Port Carbon ' 

Port Vue 

Pottstown 

Pottsville' 

Prospect Park 

Punxsutawney ' 

Quakcrtown 

Rankin ' 

Red Lion 

Reynoldsville 

lUdgvvay 

Ridley Park 



City 



PENNSYLVANIA- 
Continued 

Roaring Spring 

Rochester 

Royersford " 

St. Clair "_ 

St. Marys" 

Schuylkill Haven i_.. 

Scottdale. _ 

Selinsgrove 

Sewickley " 

Shaler" 

Shamokin 

Sharon Hill" 

Sharpsburg " 

Sharpsville 

Shenandoah 

Shillington 

Shippcnsburg 

Slatington 

Somerset 

Souderton 

South CoimellsvlUe ".. 

South Fork 

South Greensburg 

Southwest Greensburg. 
South Williamsport... 

Spring City 

Springdale.. 

State College' 

Steelton 

Stroudsburg 

Summit Hill 

Sunbury 

Susquehanna " 

Swarthmore 

Swissvale ' 

Swoyerville " 

Tamaqua 

Tarentum " 

Taylor 

Throop 

Titusville 

Towanda 

Traflord' 

Turtle Creek 

Tyrone 

Union City " 

Union town 

Upland 

Vandergrift " _ 

Verona... 

Warren 

Wajmesboro 

Waynesburg " 

Weatherly _ 

Wcllshoro _ 

Weslevville 

West Chester 

West Hazelton 

West Homestead ".. . 

West Mifflin 

Westniont "... __. 

West Newton 

West Pittston 

West Reading 

West View 

West Wyoming __ 

West York.... 

Whitehall _ 

Wilnierding ". 

Wilson.. 

Windber 

Winton " 

Wyoming " 

Wyomissing 

Yeadon. 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



41 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30, 1954, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



PENNSYLVANIA- 
Continued 



Youngwood_ 
Zelienople... 



RHODE ISLAND 



Barrington i 

Bristol 

Burrillville 

Central Falls 

Cumberland 

East Greenwich »__. 

Johnston i 

Lincoln 

North Providence '. 

Warren ' 

Westerly 

West Warick ' 



SOUTH CAROLINA 



Abbeville 

Aiken i 

Anderson 

Andrews 

Bamberg ' 

Beaufort 

Belton 

Bennettsville... 

Camden 

Cheraw 

Clinton 

Clover 

Conway 

Darlington 

Denmark .- 

Dillon 

Easley 

Eau Claire 

Edgefield 

Florence 

Fort Mill 

Oaffney 

Georgetown 

Greenwood 

Greer 

Hartsville 

Honea Path 

Kingstree 

Lake City 

Lancaster 

Laurens 

Marion 

McColl 

Mullins 

Myrtle Beach... 

Newberry 

North Augusta. 

Orangeburg 

Rock Hill 

Seneca... -. 

Summerville 

Sumter 

Union 

Walhallai 

Whitmire 

Williams ton 

York.. 



SOUTH DAKOTA 



Aberdeen 23 

Belle Fourche 4 

Brookings 6 

Canton 3 

Deadwood 5 

See footnote at end of table. 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



SOUTH DAKOTA- 
Continued 

Hot Springs 

Huron 

Lead' 

Lemmon 

Madison ' 

Mitchell 

Mobridge 

Pierre 

Redfleld 

Sissetou 

Spoarflsh 

Sturgis 

Vermillion 

Watertown 

Webster 

Winner 

Yankton i 

TENNESSEE 

Alcoa 

Athens 

Belle Meade ' 

Bristol 

Brownsville 

Clarksville i 

Cleveland 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cookeville ' 

Covington ' 

Dayton 

Dickson 

Dyersburg 

Eliza bethton 

Etowah -- 

Fayetteville 

Franklin 

Gallatin I 

Greene ville 

Harriman 

Henderson 

Humboldt 

Jefferson City 

Kuigsport 1 

La Follette 

Lawrence burg i 

Lebanon ' 

Lenoir City 

Lewisburg 

Lexington 

Loudon 

Martin 

Maryville ' 

McKenzie 

McMinn ville 

Milan 

Morristown 

Mount Pleasant 

M urfreesboro 

Newport i 

Paris 

Pulaski 

Ripley 

Rockwood 

Rogersville 

Shelbyville 

South Pittsburg 

Sparta 

Union City i 

Winchester 

TEXAS 

Alamo 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



TEXAS— Con. 

Alamo Heights 

Alice 

Alpine 

Alvin 

Andrews 

Angleton 

Arlington! .__ 

-Athens 

Atlanta • 

Ballinger > 

Bastrop 

Bay City 

Baytown 

Beeville 

Belton 

Big Spring 

Bonham 

Borger 

Brady 

Breckenridge 

Brenham 

BrovsTifleld 

Brownwood 

Bryan 

Burkburnett 

Cameron 

Canadian 

Canyon 

Carrizo Springs... 

Carthage 

Center 

Childress 

Cisco 

Cleburne 

Cleveland 

Coleman 

College Station... 

Colorado City 

Commerce 

Conroe 

Corsicana 

Crockett 

Crystal City 

Cuero 

Dalhart 

Decatur i 

Del Rio 

Denison 

Denton 

Donna 

Dublin 

Dumas. 

Eagle Lake 

Eagle Pass 

Eastland 

Edcouch 

Edinburg 

Edna 

El Campo 

Electra 

Ennis 

Falfurrias 

Floydada 

Fort Stockton 

Freeport 

Gainesville 

Galena Park 

Garland i 

Gatesville • 

Georgetovra 

Qiddings 

Gilmer 

Gladewater 

Gonzales 

Graham 

Grand Prairie ' . . . 



42 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30, 1954, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



TEXAS— Continued 



Greenville 

Haltom 

Harlingen 

Haskell 

Hearne 

Henderson 

Henrietta 

Hereford 

Highland Park*.. 

Huntsville 

Irving 

Jacksboro 

Jacksonville 

Jeflerson 

Karnes City 

Kenedy 

Kermit 

Kerrville 

Kilgore 

Killeen 

Kingsville 

La Feria 

Lake Jackson 

Lamesa 

Lampasas 

Levelland 

Liberty 

Littlefield - 

Llano 

Longview i 

Lufkin 

Luling 

Marfa 

Marshall 

McAllen 

McCamey 

McGregor - 

McKinney 

Memphis 

Menard 

Mercedes 

Mexia 

Midland 

Mineola 

Mineral Wells... 

Mission 

Monahans 

Mount Pleasant ' 

Nacogdoches 

Navasota 

New Boston. -.. 
New Braunfels '. 

Nocona 

Olney 

Orange ' 

Padueah 

Palacios 

Palestine -. 

Pampa 

Paris 1 

Pasadena 

Pearsall 

Pecos--- -. 

Perry ton 

Pharr 

Pittsburg 

Plainview ' 

Port Lavaca 

Premont 

Quanah 

Ranger '. 

Raymond ville.. 

Robstown 

Rotan '. 

Rusk 

San Augustine. _ 



City 



TEXAS— Continued 



San Benito 

San Marcos ■ 

San Saba 

Seguin 

Seminole 

Seymour 

Sherman. 

Sin ton 

Smithville. 

Snyder 

South Houston • 

Stamford 

Stephen ville 

Sulphur Springs 

Sweetwater 

Taft 

Tahoka 

Taylor 

Teague 

Terrell 

Texarkana 

Tulia 

University Park 

Uvalde 

Vernon 

Victoria ' 

Waxahachie 

Weatherford 

Wellington. 

Weslaco 

W. University Place. 

Winnsboro 

Winters ' 

Yoakum 

Yorktown 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



UTAH 



American Fork... 
Bingham Canyon 

Bountiful 

Brigham 

Cedar City 

Clearfield 

Heber 

Helper 

Layton 

Lehii 

Logan - 

Mid vale. -- 

Murray 

Nephi 

Orem i 

Payson 

Pleasant Grove... 

Price 

Richfield 

Roy 

St. George 

South Ogden 

South Salt Lake.. 

Spanish Fork 

Springville 

Tooele 

Vernal 



VERMONT 



Barre ' 

Bellows Falls... 
Bennington '... 

Brattleboro 

Essex Junction. 
Middlebury '.. 

Montpelier 

Newjiort ' 



City 



VERMONT— Con. 



Rutland _ 

St. Albans 1 

St. Johnsbury i. 

Waterbury 

Windsor 

Winooski 



VIRGINIA 



Abingdon 

AltaVista 

Ashland 

Bedford... 

Big Stone Gap 

Blacksburg 

Blackstone 

Bluefield 

Bristol 

Buena Vista 

Chase City 

Chincoteague 

Christiansburg 

Clifton Forge 

Colonial Heights. 

Covington 

Culpeper 

Emporia 

Falls Church 

Farm ville • 

Franklin 

Fredericksburg.. 

Front Royal 

Galax 

Harrisonburg 

Hopewell 

Lexington 

Luray 

Marion 

Martinsville ^ 

Narrows 

Norton 

Orange.- -_ 

Pulaski 

Radford 

Richlands 

Salem 1 

Saltville 

South Boston 

South Norfolk'.. 

Staimton. ._ 

Suffolk I... 

Virginia Beach i. 

Waynesboro 

Williamsburg 

Winchester 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



WASHINGTON 



.\berdeen 

.\nacortes 

.\uburn 

Buckley 

Camas _. 

Centralia 

Chehalis 

Cheney 

Colfax 

College Place. - 

Colville ' 

Dayton 

Ellensbtirg 

Enuniclaw 

Ephrata. 

Grand Coulee. 

Grand view 

Hoquiam 



See footnote at end of table. 



43 

Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APR. 
30, 1954, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



WASHINGTON- 
Continued 



Kelso 

Kennewick 

Kent 

Kirkland i 

Longview 

Moses Lake 

Mount Vernon. 

Olympia.- _ 

Omak 

Pasco 

Port Angeles 

Port Townsend. 

Prosser ___ 

Pullman L 

Puyallup 

Raymond 

Renton 

Sedro Woolley.- 

Shelton 

Snohomish 

Sumner 

Sunnyside 

Toppenish 

Turn water 

Walla Walla.--. 

Wapato 

Wenatchee 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



WEST VIRGINIA 



Beckley 

Benwood ' 

Bluefield 

Buckhannon 

Charles Town 

Chesapeake 

Dunbar 

Elkins 

Follansbee 

Grafton 

Hinton 

Kenova 

eyser i 

—i^eystone 

Logan 

Mannington 

Martinsburg 

McMechen 

Montgomery 

Moundsville 

Mullens 

New Martinsville. 

Nitre 

Oak Hill 

PadenCity 

Philippi 

Point Pleasant 

Princeton 

Rich wood 

Salem 



City 



WEST VIRGINIA— 
Continued 



Shinnston 

South Charleston 

Weirton 

Welch 1 

Wellsburg 

Weston 1 

Westover 

White Sulphur Springs 
Williamson 



WISCONSIN 



Algoma 

Antigo 

Ashland 

Baraboo 

Beaver Dam 

Berlin 

Black River Falls. 

Bloomer 

Burlington 

Cedarburg 

Chippewa Falls... 

ClintonvUle 

Columbus 

Cudahy ' 

Delavan 

De Pere 

Dodgeville... 

Edgerton i 

Elkhom 

EvansvDle 

Fort Atkinson 

Fox Point 

Greendale ' 

Hartford 

Horicon 

Hudson 

Hurley 

Janesville i 

Jefferson 

Kaukauna 

Kewaunee 

Kimberly 

Ladysmith 

Lake Geneva 

Lake Mills 

Lancaster 

Little Chute 

Marinette 

Marshfield 

Mauston 

MayvUle 

Medford 

Menasha 

Menomonie 

Merrill 

Monona 

Monroe 

Neenah 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



WISCONSIN— Con. 



Neillsville 

New London 

New Richmond.. 

O conomo woe 

Oconto 

Onalaska 

Park Falls 

Platteville 

Plymouth 

Portage ' 

Port Washington. 
Prairie Du Chien. 

Reedsburg 

Rhinelander 

Rice Lake 

Richland Center i. 

Ripon 

River Falls 

Shawano 

Sheboygan Falls. . 

Shore wood • 

South Milwaukee. 

Sparta 

Spooner ' 

Stevens Point 

Stoughton 

Sturgeon Bay 

Tomah i 

Tomahawk 

Two Rivers 

Vtroqua 

Watertown 

Waukesha 

Waupaca 

Waupun 

West Bend 

West Milwaukee '. 
Whiteflsh Bay i._. 

Whitewater 

Wisconsin RapidS- 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



WYOMING 

Buffalo 

Casper 

Cody 

Douglas 

Evanston 

Green River 

Lander 

Laramie 

Lovell 

Newcastle 

Powell !_.. 

Rawlins 

Riverton 

Rock Springs 

Sheridan 

Torrington 

Worland 



1 The figures for the cities indicated include part-time employees expressed in terms of full-time personnel, 
lee comments on pages 23 and 24. 



OFFENSES CLEARED AND PERSONS ARRESTED 

Besides counting crimes which happen (offenses known), police 
tally the number of crimes cleared by arrest of the offender. If an 
auto is stolen, police score one auto theft. When the car is recovered, 
a notation of this accomplishment is made. But only when the thief 
is arrested can police show the crime as "cleared by arrest." Also they 
are interested in knowing how many people are arrested. So the 
police count offenses known and offenses cleared plus a count of 
persons arrested. 

The tally of offenses known and offenses cleared is limited to Part I 
offenses (murder, negligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, aggravated 
assault, burglary, auto theft, and other theft). The number of 
offenses know is not collected for other classifications (Part II 
offenses) . 

Offenses known for 1953 were reported in the annual issue of this 
bulletin. At that time a 4.5 percent increase in city crime was seen 
for the year. Crimes reported in 1953 by cities are shown again here 
in relation to the number cleared by arrest and the number of persons 
charged in these clearances. Also shown on the annual reports of 
cities are the number of people found guilty and the number of people 
arrested who were released without being formally charged. 

Figures on the age, sex, and race of persons arrested in 1953 were 
published in the 1953 annual issue of this bulletin. Those figures 
include all persons arrested whether charged or released without being 
charged and are from a separate annual report of city police. 
Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1953 

Police experience in clearing major crimes in 1953 is summarized 
here. 

For each 100 people murdered, police arrested killers of 94. This 
clearance by arrest rate is the high of the major crimes (Part I 
offenses — murder, negligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, aggravated 
assault, burglary, auto theft, and other thefts). 

For each 100 people killed by criminal negligence of another 
(negligent manslaughter) police arrested killers of 84. Most victims 
of this crime represent traffic deaths. 

For each 100 criminal homicides (murder and negligent man- 
slaughter combined) police cleared 90 by arrest. 

Police cleared by arrest 79 of each 100 rape offenses and 74 of each 
100 aggravated assaults. 

(44) 



45 



OFFENSES CLEARED BY ARREST 

OFFENSES AGAINST THE PERSON 
CALENDAR YEAR 1953 



NOT CLEARED 



FBI CHART 



r 




CLEARED 



MURDER 



93.7% 



NEGLIGENT 
MANSLAUGHTER 



84.2% 



RAPE 



79.1% 



AGGRAVATED 
ASSAULT 



73.6% 



1,676 CITIES 



62,219,047 POPULATION 



Figure 3. 



46 

The above are considered crimes against the person (murder, 
negligent manslaughter, rape, and aggravated assault). Clearance by 
arrest for these personal crimes is high compared with property crimes. 
Police cleared by arrest 75.5 percent of personal crimes — about 10 
cleared for each 13 crimes. 

By contrast, 22.9 percent of property crimes were cleared by arrest — 
10 crimes cleared for each 44 reported. Part I crimes with property 
as their object are robbery, burglary, auto theft, and larceny. 

Robbery, a property crime, is similar to personal crimes — the 
victim is confronted by the criminal. It has the highest clearance 
rate of property crimes, almost 40 robberies being cleared by arrest 
for each 100 reported to the police. 

Other property crimes were cleared as follows: burglary, 26.8 
percent; auto theft, 26.0 percent; and larceny, 19.6 percent. 

The difference in the rates of clearance for crimes against the person 
and property crimes is similar to that seen in other years. 

The personal crimes plus the property crime of robbery are generally 
considered the more vicious of the Part I crimes. Police possibly 
concentrate on these and some of their clearances may be due to leads 
provided by the personal contact of the victim with the criminal. 
Although high on a percentage basis, clearances of personal crimes 
are far down the scale in the bulk of police work. For example, about 
94 percent of the murders were cleared as compared with almost 20 
percent of the larcenies (theft other than autos). But clearances of 
murder represent only 1 percent of all offenses cleared while clearances 
of larcenies represent over 42 percent of all clearances. Police repre- 
sented in the following tables reported 66,398 offenses against the 
person and cleared 50,162 (17.2 percent of all clearances). They 
reported 1,052,894 crimes against property and cleared 240,936, 82.8 
percent of all clearances for the year 1953. 

The figures here are based on reports of police in 1,676 cities showing; 
1,119,292 Part I crimes with 291,098 cleared by the arrest of 226,931 
persons. Note that the number of offenses cleared does not agree 
with the number of persons arrested in making these clearances. This 
is because an offense, can be marked cleared upon the arrest of at 
least one of the wrongdoers. One person may commit several crimt^s 
before he is arrested. His arrest and tie-in by investigation with 
these crimes permit the police to show all his crimes cleared by 
arrest. The reverse is also true. Several persons involved in 1 crime 
may be arrested but only 1 crime is shown as cleared by arrest. The 
1,676 cities whose annual reports are summarized here represent a total 
population of 62,219,047 (1950 decennial census). 



47 

Table 15— OFFENSES KNOWN CLEARED BY ARREST, AND PERSONS 
CHARGED (HELD FOR PROSECUTION), 1953, BY POPULATION 
GROUPS, NUMBER PER 100 KNOWN OFFENSES 

[Population figures from 1950 decennial census] 



Population group 



Criminal 
homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary, 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Lar- 
ceny, 
theft 



TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

1,676 cities; total population, 62,219,- 
047: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP I 

34 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 28,721,553: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP n 

50 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,319,258: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP m 

102 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 7,202,189: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP IV 

187 cities, 25,000 to 50,000: total popu- 
lation, 6,594,689: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP V 

509 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total popu- 
lation, 7,834,036: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP VI 

794 cities under 10,000; total popula- 
tion, 4,547,322: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged___ 



100.0 
93.7 
93.5 



100.0 
84.2 
74.9 



100.0 
79.1 
74.2 



100.0 
39.7 
35.9 



100.0 
73.6 
60.3 



100.0 
26.8 
19.0 



100.0 
19.6 
14.7 



100.0 
94.7 
94.0 



100.0 
89.3 
96.1 



100.0 
93.1 
98.6 



100.0 
93.4 
85.1 



100.0 
96.5 
94.0 



100.0 

88.9 
76.8 



100.0 
83.2 
70.7 



100.0 

85.7 
76.7 



100.0 
81.5 
73.1 



100.0 
87.1 
84.5 



100.0 
91.2 
94.9 



100.0 

83.8 
81.8 



100.0 

77.8 
69.7 



100.0 

78.4 
73.4 



100.0 

78.6 
80.6 



100.0 
92.1 
97.1 



100.0 
79.1 
81.0 



100.0 

84.1 
92.5 



100.0 
39.1 
32.3 



100.0 
42.1 
42.1 



100.0 
39.1 
48.5 



100.0 
42.9 
49.6 



100.0 
39.1 
49.2 



100.0 
48.1 
61.0 



100.0 
69.8 
52.6 



100.0 
71.7 
56.5 



100.0 
83.2 
78.0 



100.0 
86.8 
85.9 



100.0 

89.7 
90.9 



100.0 
85.1 
94.0 



100.0 
24.7 
16.0 



100.0 
28.2 
19.5 



100.0 
26.9 
19.7 



100.0 
30.7 
24.4 



100.0 
30.2 
24.0 



100.0 
33.7 
32.1 



100.0 
19.4 
14.5 



100.0 
19.9 
14.3 



100.0 
17.7 
14.3 



100.0 
20.3 
15.5 



100.0 
18.5 
14.0 



100.0 
25.1 
18.4 



Offenses cleared and persons charged per 100 offenses are shown 
above, table 15. Figures by crime class are set up for the 1,676 cities 
grouped by size. Raw figures on offenses known and offenses cleared 
sent in by these 1,676 cities grouped geographically are listed in the 
next table. Also, total offenses and clearances with percent cleared 
are shown for each Part I crime class. 



48 



OFFENSES CLEARED BY ARREST 

OFFENSES AGAINST PROPERTY 
CALENDAR YEAR 1953 



NOT CLEARED 



FBI CHART 



ROBBERY 



BURGLARY 



LARCENY 



AUTO THEFT 




CLEARED 



39.7% 



26.8% 



19.6% 



26.0% 



1,676 CITIES 



62,219,047 POPULATION 



Figure 4 



49 

Table 16.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN, NUMBER AND PER- 
CENTAGE CLEARED BY ARREST, 1953, BY GEOGRAPHIC DIVI- 
SIONS 

[Population figures from 1950 decennial census] 





Criminal 
















homicide 








Bur- 






















Geographic division 


Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 


glary, 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny, 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


TOTAL, All DIVISIONS 


















1,676 cities; total population, 


















62,219,047: 


















Number of offenses known -- 


3,066 


2,261 


7,519 


41, 736 


53, 552 


258, 524 


628, 735 


123, 899 


Number cleared by arrest 


2,873 


1,903 


5,949 


16, 550 


39,437 


69, 207 


122,968 


32,211 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


93.7 


84.2 


79.1 


39.7 


73.6 


28.8 


19.6 


26.0 


New England States: 


















138 cities; total population, 


















5,046,489: 


















Number of oflenses known. . 


76 


197 


287 


745 


818 


12, 276 


30,583 


5,998 


Number cleared by arrest. _. 


62 


163 


274 


414 


683 


3, 955 


7,251 


2,051 


Percentage cleared by arrest. 


81.6 


82.7 


95.5 


55.6 


83.5 


32.2 


23.7 


34.2 


Middle Atlantic States: 


















367 cities; total population, 


















16,049,751: 


















Number of offenses known.. 


458 


578 


1,662 


10, 707 


11, 739 


64,820 


116,106 


21,874 


Number cleared by arrest.. . 


423 


479 


1,317 


3,102 


7,668 


12,515 


17, 773 


4,838 


Percentage cleared by arrest. 


92.4 


82.9 


79.2 


29.0 


65.3 


19.3 


15.3 


22.1 


East North Central States: 


















431 cities; total population, 


















16,532,914: 


















Number of oflenses known. . 


768 


516 


2,185 


14,374 


13, 215 


54,982 


161, 093 


30, 192 


Number cleared by arrest.. . 


730 


466 


1,689 


6,668 


9,491 


18,311 


34,359 


9,444 


Percentage cleared by arrest. 


95.1 


90.3 


77.3 


46.4 


71.8 


33.3 


21.3 


31.3 


West North Central States: 


















180 cities; total population. 


















5,393,599: 


















Number of oflenses known.. 


200 


155 


617 


3,104 


3,608 


19,330 


53,630 


9,910 


Number cleared by arrest... 


185 


138 


474 


1,155 


2,529 


5,088 


10,347 


2,768 


Percentage cleared by arrest. 


92.5 


89.0 


76.8 


37.2 


70.1 


26.3 


19.3 


27.9 


South Atlantic States: i 


















148 cities; total population. 


















5,908,101: 


















Number of oflenses known.. 


639 


235 


970 


3,783 


15,546 


30, 592 


70, 442 


17,064 


Number cleared by arrest... 


597 


215 


801 


1,911 


12, 705 


10, 239 


18, 107 


3,645 


Percentage cleared by arrest. 


93.4 


91.5 


82.6 


50.5 


81.7 


33.5 


25.7 


21.4 


East South Central States: 


















54 cities; total population. 


















1,867,667: 


















Number of oflenses known.. 


222 


64 


124 


980 


2,249 


8,739 


15, 062 


4,250 


Number cleared by arrest. -. 


212 


55 


115 


367 


1,563 


2,075 


3, 346 


1.014 


Percentage cleared by arrest. 


95.5 


85.9 


92.7 


37.4 


69.5 


23.7 


22.2 


23.9 


West South Central States: 


















74 cities; total population. 


















3,884,044: 


















Number of oflenses known. . 


436 


204 


546 


2,089 


3,307 


22, 851 


50, 958 


12,042 


Number cleared by arrest... 


416 


187 


447 


794 


2,618 


5,986 


10, 544 


3,090 


Percentage cleared by arrest. 


95.4 


91.7 


81.9 


38.0 


79.2 


26.2 


20.7 


25.7 


Mountain States: 


















78 cities; total population. 


















1,648,772: 


















Number of oflenses known. . 


74 


27 


233 


1,101 


677 


10, 555 


28, 943 


4,379 


Number cleared by arrest 


69 


16 


186 


461 


528 


2,983 


6,263 


1,402 


Percentage cleared by arrest. 


93.2 


59.3 


79.8 


41.9 


78.0 


28.3 


21.6 


32.0 


Pacific States: 


















206 cities; total population, 


















5,887,710: 


















Number of oflenses known. . 


193 


285 


895 


4,853 


2,393 


34,379 


101,918 


18, 190 


Number cleared by arrest... 


179 


184 


646 


1,678 


1,652 


8,055 


14, 978 


3,959 


Percentage cleared by arrest- 


92.7 


64.6 


72.2 


34.6 


69.0 


23.4 


14.7 


21.8 



> Includes the District of Columbia. 



50 

Persons Charged, 1953 

The high in 1953 for persons arrested and charged per unit of popu 
lation was in the second largest city group (100,000 to 250,000 popu- 
lation). This includes driving while intoxicated and negligent man- 
slaughter but not other traffic violations. 

Second high in number of persons charged per unit of population 
in 1953 was the third largest city group (50,000 to 100,000 population). 
The largest cities (over 250,000 population) were third in the frequency 
of persons arrested and charged. 

Although the larger cities (over 50,000 population) arrest and charge 
more persons per unit of population than do those under 50,000 ir 
population, exceptions are found in the individual crime categories. 

For example, more persons were charged proportionally in the 
smallest city group (under 10,000 population) with driving while 
intoxicated than in any other city group. In this classification the 
largest cities (over 250,000 population) charged the fewest persons 
per 100,000 population. 

The figures reported by 1,676 cities are shown in these tables o: 
persons charged in 1953. Also shown are the rates or number o: 
persons charged per 100,000 inhabitants. It is important to nott 
that the 1950 decennial census figures were used in obtaining thes( 
rates. This is because population figures for all cities are not available 
for intercensal years. Based on the information at hand indication; 
are that the rates woulel be approximately 5 percent lower than showi 
had current population figures been available for the reporting cities 

In addition to a consideration of the above, in any comparisoi 
between these rates for various groups or with local rates there ar< 
other factors involved. 

For example, in some jurisdictions persons arrested for drunkennoss 
may as a matter of practice be chargeel with elisorderly coneluct rathe] 
than drunkenness. Similarly, persons arrested for prostitution anc 
commercialized vice may frequently be charged with vagrancy oi 
disorderly conduct rather than the substantive violation. Sue! 
practices may result from prosecutive policies, local custom, and public 
opinion. 

In compiling these figures, police properly count only one persor 
charged even though several charges may be placed against the one 
person. Similarly, if 5 persons are arrested and charged for joint 
commission of 1 crime, 5 persons charged are tallied. Correspondence 
and questionnaires are used extensively to keep a high degree ol 
uniformity in these figures. For example, only 89 or 5.3 percent oi 
the 1,676 reports used were based on the number of charges placed 
rather than the number of persons charged. 



51 

These data also represent all or some juvenile offenders charged 
except for 92 or 5.5 percent of the cities whose reports are included. 
However, 103 cities (6.1 percent) reported that their reports were 
only partially complete as to juvenile offenders. Juvenile offenders 
are correctly listed opposite the crime for which they are arrested, 
such as robbery, auto theft, etc., even thouo:h the charge placed against 
them may be of a technical nature such as "juvenile delinquent." 
All but 21 or 1.3 percent of the cities reporting juveniles charged 
properly listed the juveniles opposite the substantive offense. The 
21 listed them opposite "all other offenses." 



52 

Table 17.— PERSONS CHARGED (HELD FOR PROSECUTION), 1953, 
ALL OFFENSES EXCEPT TRAFFIC, NUMBER AND RATE PER 
100,000 INHABITANTS, BY POPULATION GROUPS 

[Population figures from 1950 decennial census] 



Offense charged 



GRAND TOTAI 

BATE PER 100,000 . 

Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonncgli- 

gent manslaughter: 
Number of persons 

charged.. ._ 

Rate per 100,000 

(b) Manslaughter by neg- 

ligence: 
Number of persons 

charged _. 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000. 

Burglary — breaking or enter- 
ing: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny — theft; 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, re- 
ceiving, possessing: 

Number of persons charged _ 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Sex offenses (except rape and 
prostitution): 

Nu m her of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged- 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 
etc.: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 .... 

Offenses against family and 
children: 

Number of persons charged 

R.ite per 100,000 -.. 

Liquor laws: 

Num her of persons charged 

Rote per 100,000 



TOTAI 



1,676 

cities; 

total pop 

ulation, 

62,219,047 



2, 632, 891 
4,221.6 



2,867 
4.6 



1,693 
2.7 



14. 971 
24.1 



32, SOD 
51.9 



92. 428 
148.6 



49, 059 

78.8 



92, 376 
148.5 



28, 084 
45.1 



16, 402 
26.4 



4,322 



10, 004 
16.1 



5,581 
9.0 



25, 538 
41.0 



23, 118, 
37.2 



11,974 
19.2 



18. 589 
29.9 



32. 272 
51.9 



46, 130 
74.1 



Group I 



.'?4 cities 

over 
250,000; 



Group II 



50 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 



popula- 
tion, 
28,721,553 


popula- 
tion, 
7,319,258 


1,237,0.35 
4, 307. 


386,317 
5, 278. 1 


1,764 
6.1 


369 
S.O 


906 
3.2 


230 
3.1 


10, 268 
35.8 


1,579 
21.6 


18, 385 
6-10 


3,522 
48.1 


36,764 
128.0 


IS, 321 
209.3 


22, 880 
79.7 


6,664 
89.7 


42,016 
146.3 


12,519 
171.0 


14, 905 
51.9 


3,534 
48.3 


8,492 
29.6 


2,746 
37.5 


2,314 

8.1 


457 
6.2 


3,932 
13.7 


1,400 
19.1 


3,390 
11.8 


636 
8.7 


14,942 
52.0 


6, 574 
76.2 


10,430 
36.3 


4,044 
66.3 


9,149 
31.9 


1,009 
13.8 


9. 386 
32.7 


2,396 
32.7 


14.904 
51.9 


4,314 
58.9 


13.920 
4S.5 


9,095 
124.3 



Group III 



102 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
7,202,189 



Group IV 



322,811 
4. 482. 1 



287 
4.0 



182 
2.5 



1,214 
16.9 



4,387 
60.9 



13, 229 

183.7 



5,166 
71.7 



10, 697 
148.5 



2,633 
36.6 



1,746 
24.2 



482 
6.7 



1,371 
19.0 



494 
6.9 



3,172 
44.0 



2,812 
39.0 



962 
13.4 



2,381 
33.1 



4,799 
66.6 



7,102 
98.0 



187 cities, 
25,000 to 
.50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
6,594,689 



194 
2.9 



1&4 
2.5 



768 
11.6 



2,436 
36.9 



11,525 
174.8 



5,418 
82.2 



10, 775 
163.4 



2,517 
38.2 



1,630 
24.7 



391 
5.9 



1,321 
20.0 



443 

6.7 



954 
14.5 



2, 889. 
43.8 

328 
5.0 



2.079 
31.5 



3,633 
55.1 



6, 021 
91.3 



Group V 



.509 cities, 
10,000 to 
2.1,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
7,834,036 



261,392 
3, 336. 6 



187 
2.4 



130 
1.7 



733 
9.4 



2.371 
30.3 



10,457 
133. 5 



6,466 
69.8 



10, 621 
134.3 



2,729 
34.8 



1,154 
14.7 



337 
4.3 



1,318 
16.8 



333 
4.3 



547 
7.0 



2,126 
27.1 



377 

4.8 



1.530 
19.6 



3. .545 
45.3 



6.138 
78.4 



53 

Table 17.— PERSONS CHARGED (HELD FOR PROSECUTION), 1953, 
ALL OFFENSES EXCEPT TRAFFIC, NUMBER AND RATE PER 
100,000 INHABITANTS, BY POPULATION GROUPS— Continued 
(Population figures from 1950 decennial census] 



Sense charged 


TOTAL 


Group I 


Group n 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


1,676 
cities; 
total pop- 
ulation, 
62,219,047 


34 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
28,721,553 


50 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
7,319,258 


102 cities, 
50,000 to 

100,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
7,202,189 


187 cities, 
25,000 to 

50,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
6,594,689 


509 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
7,834,036 


794 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

4,547,322 


Driving while into.xicated: 
Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 


120, 790 
194.1 

323, 690 
520.2 

1,142,419 
1, 836. 1 

117,517 
188.9 

92. 118 
148.1 

328, 649 
528.2 


35, 606 
121.0 

170,220 
592.7 

490, 170 
1, 706. 6 

53, 790 
187.3 

67, 575 
235.3 

180,937 
630. 


15,803 
215.9 

34, 165 
466.8 

190, 196 
2, 598. 6 

24,352 
332.7 

10, 827 
147.9 

35, 665 

487.3 


17, 960 
249.4 

38, 010 
527.8 

149, 343 
2, 073. 6 

13, 902 
193.0 

5,635 

78.2 

34,845 
483.8 


15, 375 
233.1 

26, 761 
405.8 

116, 758 
1,770.5 

10,611 
161.4 

4,307 
65.3 

28, 856 
437.6 


20, 310 
259.3 

30,268 
386.4 

117,969 
1, 505. 9 

9,032 
115.3 

2,725 
34.8 

31,089 
396.8 


15, 736 
346 


Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged _ 
Rate ppr 100,000 


24,266 
533.6 


Drunkenness: 

Number of persons eharged- 
Rate per 100,000 


77,983 
1,714.9 


Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


5,800 
127.5 


Gambling: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


1,049 
23.1 


All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


17, 257 
379 5 







A complete analysis of traffic charges was not included in the reports 
of all 1,676 cities used above. However, 1,037 of the reports con- 
tained separate entries for (1) violation of road and driving laws 
(moving violations), (2) parking violations, and (3) other traffic and 
motor vehicle law violations (except driving while intoxicated). The 
following table reflects these figures. 

Table 18.— PERSONS CHARGED (HELD FOR PROSECUTION), TRAF- 
FIC VIOLATIONS, EXCEPT DRIVING WHILE INTOXICATED, 1953; 
NUMBER AND RATE PER 100,000 INHABITANTS. BY POPULATION 

GROUPS 

[Population figures from 1950 decennial census] 





TOTAL 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Offense charged 


1,037 
cities; 
total pop- 
ulation, 
48, 115, 402 


26 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
23, 176, 490 


42 cities, 
100,000 
to 250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
6, 189, 763 


85 cities, 
50,000 to 

100,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
5, 952, 338 


144 cities, 
25,000 to 

50,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
5, 069, 877 


345 cities, 
10,000 to 

25,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
5,357,195 


395 cities, 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

2, 369, 739 


Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000... 


2, 866, 680 
5, 957. 9 

13,147,584 
27, 325. 1 

702, 778 
1, 460. 6 


1, 653, 782 
7, 135. 6 

4, 443, 704 
19, 173. 3 

345, 173 
1, 489. 3 


351. 710 
5, 682. 1 

2, 302, 626 
37, 200. 6 

116, 583 
1, 883. 5 


330, 588 
5, 553. 9 

2, 024, 925 
34,019.0 

101, 414 
1, 703. 8 


223, 881 
4, 415. 9 

1, 773, 030 
34, 971. 9 

59, 660 
1, 176. 8 


213, 439 
3, 984. 2 

1, 858, 845 
34, 698. 1 

54,566 
1, 018. 6 


93, 280 
3, 936. 3 


Parking violations: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


744,454 
31,415.0 


other traffic and motor vehicle 
laws: 
Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


25. 382 
1,071.1 







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56 



PERSONS FOUND GUILTY 

(PERCENT OF PERSONS CHARGED PART 1 OFFENSES) 

CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON 

CALENDAR YEAR 1953 




MURDER 



59.4% 
1,279 CHARGED 




NEGLIGENT 
MANSLAUGHTER 



44.2% 
688 CHARGED 




RAPE 



62.4% 
2,266 CHARGED 




AGGRAVATED 
ASSAULT 



51.3% 
15,122 CHARGED 



197 CITIES OVER 2S.O0O INHABITANTS 



TOTAL POroUTKW 25,340,424 



Figure 5. 

Persons Found Guilty, 1953 

About every other murder and rape case coming to the attention 
of tlic poHce is closed with the conviction of the offender. For neg- 
hgent manslaughter, aggravated assault, and robbery the chances are 
better than 1 out of 3 that the investigation will end in a conviction. 
In crimes of stealth the pattern is somewhat different. Less than 1 
out of 4 burglaries are closed with a conviction, wiiile convictions 
result in only about 1 out of 6 reported auto thefts and other larcenies. 



57 

Such generalizations may be drawn from the data shown in table 
20 which presents for the Part I offense classes the number of of- 
fenses known, the number cleared by arrest and the number of persons 
found guilty for 1953 as reported by 197 cities with over 25,000 
inhabitants, total population 25,340,424. 

Table 21 is based on the reports from the same cities and presents 
the figures as to persons charged and persons found guilty for the 
Part II offense classes only since the uniform crime reporting pro- 
gram does not provide for the collection of data on offenses known to 
the police for offense classifications other than the Part I group shown 
in table 20. 

As in prior years, during 1953, the highest percentage of persons 
formally charged who were found guilty was for those arrested for 
driving while intoxicated. Nearly ninety percent of persons so 
charged were found guilty. The lowest percentage, 44.2 percent, 
was for manslaughter by negligence. 

Questionnaires accompanying the annual returns and correspond- 
ence with the contributors assisted in selecting the reports which were 
correctly prepared for use in the following tabulations. In other 
words, each of the police departments whose reports were used in 
tables 20 and 21 indicated affirmatively that the data for persons 
found guilty represented final dispositions rather than primary or 
some other interim findings. 



Table 20.— OFFENSES KNOWN. CLEARED BY ARREST, AND NUMBER 
OF PERSONS FOUND GUILTY, 1953; 197 CITIES OVER 25,000 IN 
POPULATION 

[Total population 25,340,424 based on 1950 decennial census] 



Offense (Part I classes) 



TOTAL 

Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and normegli- 

geut manslaughter - 

(b) Manslaughter by neg- 

ligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary— breaking or enter- 
ing 

Larceny— theft (except auto 

theft) 

Auto theft 



Number of offenses 



Known 
to the 
police 



1,388 

992 
3,881 
22, 636 
28, 980 

108, 215 

278, 959 
58, 631 



Cleared 
by arrest 



143. 674 



1,307 

821 

2,992 

10, 281 

21,969 

33, 408 

57, 822 
15, 074 



Number of persons 



Charged 
(held for 
prosecu- 
tion) 



101, 473 



1,279 



2,266 
7,673 
15, 122 

20, 288 

41, 621 
12, 536 



Found guilty 



Total 
guilty 



70, 599 



760 

304 
1,413 
5,625 

7,758 

15,017 

31,427 
8,295 



Offense 
charged 



59, 748 



559 

247 
1,017 
4,433 
5,594 

12, 228 

28, 654 
7,016 



Lesser 
offense 



10,851 



201 

57 

396 

1,192 

2,164 

2,789 

2,773 
1,279 



Percent- 
age found 
guilty 



59.4 

44.2 
62.4 
73.3 
51.3 

74.0 

75.5 
66.2 



58 



PERSONS FOUND GUILTY 

(PERCENT OF PERSONS CHARGED PART 1 OFFENSESl 

CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY 





-^^r 



^ 



BURGLARY 







LARCENY 






■V^-^/Tj AUTOTHEFT 



73.3% 
7,673 CHARGED 



74.0% 
20,288 CHARGED 



75.5% 
41,621 CHARGED 



66.2% 
12,536 CHARGED 



197 CITIES OVER 25,000 MHABrTAKTS 

rBI CHART I 



TOTAL POPUUTION 25,340,424 



Figure 6. 



59 

Table 21.— NUMBER OF PERSONS CHARGED (HELD FOR PROSECU- 
TION) AND NUMBER FOUND GUILTY, 1953; 197 CITIES OVER 25,000 
IN POPULATION 

[Total population 25,340,424 based on 1950 decennial census] 



Offense (Part II classes) 



TOTAL. 



Other assaults 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Embezzlement and fraud.-. 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc. 

Weapons; carrying, jjossessing, etc 

Sex offenses (including prostitution and com- 
mercialized vice) 

Offenses against family and children 

Narcotic drug laws 

Liquor laws 

Drunkenness; disorderly conduct; vagrancy.. 

Ganibling 

Driving while intoxicated 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws 

All other offenses 



Number of persons charged (held for 
prosecution) 



TOTAI 
CHARGED 



1 9, 571, 076 

41.637 
3,742 
8,460 
1,758 
8,914 

25, 077 
15, 229 
5,289 
20,066 
712, 568 
31, 308 
45, 155 

2 8, 529, 220 

122, 653 



Found guilty 



TOTAI 
GUILTY 



6, 420, 644 



25, 550 

2,743 

5,581 

932 

6,870 

18, 241 
8,739 
3,908 
16, 265 
534, 379 
21, 497 
40, 385 
2 5, 661, 056 
74, 498 



Offense 
charged 



1 6, 280, 046 



24, 629 

2,437 

5,121 

860 

6,505 

17, 532 

8,461 

3,837 

15, 934 

529, 747 

21,345 

36, 886 

2 5, 534, 794 

71, 958 



Lesser 
offense 



140, 598 



921 
306 
460 
72 
365 

709 

278 

71 

331 

4,632 

152 

3,499 

126, 262 

2,540 



Percent- 
age found 
guilty 



167.1 



61.4 
73.3 
66.0 
53.0 
77.1 

72.7 
57.4 
73.9 
81.1 
75.0 
68.7 
89.4 
a 66.4 
60.7 



I The total figures are subject to footnote 2. 

s Based on reports of 192 cities, total population 23,160,484. 



60 



PERSONS FOUND GUILTY 



PERCENT OF PERSONS 



CHARGED - PART II OFFENSES 
CALENDAR YEAR 1953 




STOLEN PROPERTY; 
BUYING, RECEIVING, ETC. 



53.0: 



WEAPONS; CARRYING, POSSESSING, ETC. 77. 



SEX OFFENSES (INCLUDING PROS- 70 Ho/ 

TITUTION AND COMMERCIALIZED VICE) ll.lo 



OFFENSES AGAINST 
FAMILY AND CHILDREN 



57.4/ 



NARCOTIC DRUG LAWS 



73.9; 



LIQUOR LAWS 



81.1 



DRUNKENNESS; DISORDERLY 
CONDUCT; VAGRANCY 



75.0% 



GAMBLING 



68.7% 



DRIVING WHILE INTOXICATED 



89.4' 



TRAFFIC AND 

MOTOR VEHICLE LAWS 



66.4' 



ALL OTHER OFFENSES 



60.7; 



Figures based on reports of 192 cities with over 25,000 inhabitants, 

total population 23,160,484 
All other figures based on reports of 197 cities with over 25,000 inhabitants, 

total population 25,340,424 



FBI CHART 



Figure 7 



61 

Persons Released — Not Held for Prosecution, 1953 

Persons released after arrest but without having been formally 
charged are represented in the following tables. These figures do 
not represent persons found not guilty and they are not included in 
any of the preceding tables. 

Persons released data do not include persons arrested for and 
released to other jurisdictions. Each reporting jurisdiction lists only 
those arrests made in connection with violations committed within 
its area. Where summonses, notices, or citations are issued in 
traffic and other violations, those individuals failing to respond by 
appearing as ordered are represented in the released figures. How- 
ever, if they are subsequently arrested and charged with the violation 
for which they were originally cited, they are not represented in the 
persons released data. 

Table 22.— PERSONS RELEASED WITHOUT BEING HELD FOR PROS- 
ECUTION, 1953; ALL OFFENSES EXCEPT TRAFFIC, NUMBER AND 
RATE PER 100,000 INHABITANTS, BY POPULATION GROUPS 

[Population flgui-es from 1950 decennial census) 





TOTAI 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group 
VI 


Offense charged 


927 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 

35,260,344 


24 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

16,301,891 


23 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
3,333,603 


62 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
4,349,442 


121 cities, 
25,000 to 

50,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
4,264,941 


307 cities, 
10,000 to 

25,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
4,718,818 


390 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

2,291,649 


GRAND TOTAL 


252. 995 
717.5 


130, 611 
801.2 


30, 673 
920.1 


20,282 
466.3 


24,061 
564.2 


28, 965 
613.8 


18, 403 
803 


BATE PER 100,000- 






Criminal liomicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 
gent manslaughter: 
Number of persons re- 
leased - . 


258 
0.7 

147 
0.4 

2,350 
6.7 

2,086 
5.9 

6,619 
18.8 

5,862 
16.6 

12,184 
34.6 

3,062 

8.7 

1,287 
3.6 

399 
1.1 


137 

0.8 

29 
0.2 

1,357 
8.3 

933 

5.7 

3,495 
21.4 

1,939 
11.9 

4,789 
29.4 

1,035 
6.3 

467 
2.9 

114 
0.7 


20 
0.6 

31 
0.9 

368 
11.0 

454 
13.6 

767 
23.0 

755 
22.6 

1,189 
35.7 

400 
12.0 

260 

7.8 

41 
1.2 


39 
0.9 

40 
0.9 

209 
4.8 

148 
3.4 

363 
8.3 

486 
11.2 

618 
14.2 

287 
6.6 

93 
2.1 

40 
0.9 


35 
0.8 

31 
0.7 

246 
5.8 

298 
7.0 

774 
18.1 

920 
21.6 

1,897 
44.5 

510 
12.0 

233 
5.5 

116 
2.7 


24 
0.5 

10 
0.2 

109 
2.3 

142 
3.0 

711 
15.1 

1,031 
21.8 

2,283 

48.4 

487 
10.3 

157 
3.3 

42 
0.9 


3 


Rate per 100,000 

(b) Manslaughter by neg- 
ligence: 

Number of persons re- 
leased 


0.1 

6 


Rate per 100,000 

Bobbery: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


0.3 

61 
2.7 


Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000. 


91 
4.0 


Other assaults: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000.. 


509 
22.2 


Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000.. 


731 
31.9 


Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000.. 


1,408 
61.4 


Auto theft: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


343 
15.0 


Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


77 
3.4 


Stolen property; buying, receiv- 
ing, possessing: 
Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


46 
2.0 



62 

Table 22.— PERSONS RELEASED WITHOUT BEING HELD FOR PROS- 
ECUTION, 1953; ALL OFFENSES EXCEPT TRAFFIC, NUMBER AND 
RATE PER 100,000 INHABITANTS, BY POPULATION GROUPS— Con. 

[Population figures from 1950 decennial census] 



Offense charged 



Forprry and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and 
prostitution) : 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 
etc.: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and 
children: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

N umber of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Suspicion: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Al! other offenses: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 



TOTAI 



927 cities; 
total 

popula- 
tion, 

35,260,344 



819 
2.3 



633 
1.8 



4,118 
11.7 



1,170 
3.3 



1,021 
2.9 



919 
2.6 



2,106 
6.0 

2,071 
5.9 

1,193 
3.4 

11,218 
31.8 

73, 681 
209.0 

5.773 
16.4 

3,455 
9.8 

87, 518 
248.2 

23, 066 
65.4 



Group I 



24 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

16,301,891 



161 
1.0 



193 
1.2 



3,525 
21.6 



280 
1.7 



551 
3.4 



372 
2.3 



665 
4.1 



871 
5.3 



120 
0.7 



2,736 
16.8 



38, 162 
234.1 



635 
3.9 



2,963 
18.2 



58, 802 
360.7 



6, 280 
38.5 



Group II 



Group III Group IV Group V 



23 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
3,333,603 



96 
2.9 



72 
2.2 



202 
6.1 



164 
4.9 



213 

6.4 



155 
4.6 



153 

4.6 



220 
6.6 



318 
9.5 



1,178 
35.3 



17,313 
519.3 



1,302 
39.1 



79 
2.4 



2,844 
85.3 



2,079 
62.4 



62 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
4,349,442 



62 
1.4 



55 
1.3 



187 
4.3 



127 
2.9 



87 
2.0 



60 
1.4 



205 

4.7 



43 

1.0 



1,506 
34.6 



5.811 
133.6 



342 
7.9 



52 
1.2 



7, 743 
178.0 



1.602 
36.8 



121 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
4,264,941 



186 
4.4 



95 
2.2 



26 
0.6 



228 
5.3 



67 
1.6 



132 
3.1 



232 

5.4 



384 
9.0 



196 
4.6 



1,566 
36.7 



3,466 
81.3 



834 
19.6 



173 
4.1 



6,589 
154.5 



4,827 
113.2 



307 cities. 

10,000 to 
25,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

4,718,818 



174 
3.7 



169 
3.6 



26 
0.6 



254 
5.4 



CO 
1.3 



114 
2.4 



511 
10.8 



306 
6.5 



304 
6.4 



2,477 
52.5 



5,102 
108.1 



1,141 
^4. 2 



124 
2.6 



7,683 
162.8 



5.524 
117.1 



Group 
VI 



63 

Table 23— PERSONS RELEASED WITHOUT BEING HELD FOR PROS- 
ECUTION, TRAFFIC VIOLATIONS, EXCEPT DRIVING WHILE IN- 
TOXICATED, 1953; NUMBER AND RATE PER 100,000 INHABITANTS, 
BY POPULATION GROUPS 

[Population figures from 1950 decemiial census] 





TOTAL 

623 cities: 
total 

popula- 
tion, 

20,347,477 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Offense charged 


18 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

8,382,557 


13 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000: 
popula- 
tion, 
1,980,505 


34 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,366,835 


84 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,959,114 


197 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
3,000,149 


277 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

1,658,317 


Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate perlOO.OOO 


109, 861 
539.9 

856, 626 
4,210.0 

47, 127 
231.6 


34, 479 
411.3 

137,138 
1, 636. 

17,616 
210.2 


3,556 
179.6 

99, 279 
5, 012. 8 

5. 517 
278.6 


3,541 
149.6 

87, 049 
3, 677. 9 

1,238 
52.3 


41,323 
1,396.5 

216, 355 
7,311.5 

13,840 
467.7 


9,948 
331.6 

221,109 
7, 369. 9 

3,952 
131.7 


17, 014 
1,026.0 


Parking violations: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


95, 696 
5, 770. 7 


Other traffic and motor vehicle 
laws: 
Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000. . 


4,964 
299.3 







CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

Readers who are not entirely familiar with the uniform crime- 
reporting program may be interested in a brief explanation of the 
contents of crime reports included in this bulletin: 

1. These crime figures are called "police statistics" to distinguish 
them from judicial or penal statistics in the criminal field. 

2. Crimes which are exclusively Federal are not included. 

3. Each reporting agency counts only those crimes or arrests for 
crimes committed in its jurisdiction. A sheriff reports only for his 
rural areas outside the city or town limits of any urban places in his 
county. This feature avoids duplication. 

4. ''Offenses loiown to the police" is a term which refers to those 
crimes included in the Part I offenses of the crime reporting classi- 
fication. (See below for individual classes.) The Part I offenses are 
limited to seven classes of grave offenses shown by experience to be 
those most generally and completely reported to the police. 

5. Offenses (crimes) for the Part I classes are reported as they 
become known. The police may learn of the occurrence of crime in a 
number of ways: reports of police officers; citizens' complaints; 
notification from prosecuting or court officials; or otherwise. 

6. Offenses are included without regard to: (a) the age of the 
offender; (6) the value of property involved; (c) the recovery of stolon 
property; (d) arrests; or (e) prosecutive action. The purpose is to 
show the amount of crime which has occurred as distinguished from 
arrest data, and the classifying is based strictly on the facts in 
possession of the police. 

7. Complaints found by police investigation to be groundless are 
not included in crime tables in this bulletin, and returns which appear 
incomplete or defective are excluded. 

8. Arrest data is not included in "oft'enses known" information but 
arrest data is collected separately for the entire crime classification, 
Parts I and 11. So, the only information for Part II offenses is that 
based on arrest data. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of crime 
and criminal law enforcement. 

The complete classification of crimes is shown below with brief 
definitions for each: 

Part I Offenses 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 
includes all willful felonious homicides as distinguished from deaths 

(64) 



65 

caused by negligence. Does not include attempts to kill, assaults to 
kill, suicides, accidental deaths, or justifiable homicides. Justifiable 
homicides excluded from this classification are limited to the following 
types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon by a peace officer in line of 
duty; (2) the killing of a holdup man by a private citizen, (b) Man- 
slaughter by negligence includes any death which the police investiga- 
tion establishes was primarily attributable to gross negligence on the 
part of some individual other than the victim. 

2. Rwpe. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape (no force used — 
victim under age of consent), assault to rape, and attempted rape. 

3. Bobbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the 
person by force or violence or by putting in fear, such as strong-arm 
robbery, stickups, robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and at- 
tempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault.- — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault 
by shooting, cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by 
the use of acids. Does not include simple assault, assault and battery, 
fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreak- 
ing, safecracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or a theft, 
even though no force was used to gain entrance. Includes attempts. 
Burglary followed by larceny is included in this classification and not 
counted again as larcen}^. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — {a) Fifty dollars and over in 
value ; (6) under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassi- 
fications, depending upon the value of the property stolen, thefts 
of bic3'cles, automobile accessories, shoplifting, pocket picking, or any 
stealing of propert}^ or article of value which is not taken by force 
and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" 
games, forgery, worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or 
driven away and abandoned, including the so-called joy-riding thefts. 
Does not include taking for temporary use when actually returned by 
the taker, or unauthorized use by those having lawful access to the 
vehicle. 

Part II Offenses 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults 
which are not of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in 
class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes oft'enses dealing with the 
making, altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, any- 
thing false which is made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent 
conversion, embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false 
pretenses. 



66 

1 1 . Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, 
receiving, and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to com- 
mit any of those offenses. 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of 
regulations or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, 
furnishing, and manufacturing of deadly weapons or silencers and 
all attempts to violate such statutes or regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of 
a commercialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as 
prostitution, keeping bawdy house, procuring, transporting, or de- 
taining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex ofenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized 
vice). — Includes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, 
and the like. Includes attempts. 

15. Ofenses against the family and children. — Includes offenses of 
nonsupport, neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, 
such as unlawful possession, sale, or use. Excludes Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of ''drunkenness" (class 18) 
and "driving while intoxicated" (class 22), hquor law violations. 
State or local, are placed in this class. Excludes Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxi- 
cation. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a breach 
of the peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, 
loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or en- 
gaging in gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any 
motor vehicle while drunk or under the influence of hquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regu- 
lations with respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to 
prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes viola- 
tions of State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic 
and motor vehicles not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other ofenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws 
for which no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as 
suspicious characters, but not in connection with any specific ofi'ense, 
who are released without formal charges being placed against them. 

o 



^^ 



UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C 



Volume XXV 
ANNUAL BULLETIN 



Number 2 
1954 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 



Volume XXV— Number 2 
ANNUAL BULLETIN, 1954 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1955 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

MAY 2 -1955 

CONTENTS 



Page 

Summary of volume XXV, No. 2 67-68 

Crime trends: 

Estimated number of major crimes (table 24) 69-73 

Urban trends (tables 25-27) 74-84 

Rural trends (table 28) 84-85 

Monthly variations (table 29) 86-89 

Crime rates: 

Urban rates (tables 30-33) 90-95 

Rural rates (table 34) 96 

Offenses in individual areas: 

Cities over 25,000 (table 35) 97-105 

Jurisdictions outside the United States (table 36) 106 

Supplemental crime data: 

Offense analysis trends (table 37) 107-108 

Value of property stolen by type of crime (table 38) 108-109 

Value of property stolen and value of property recovered (table 39) _. 109 
Age, sex, and race of persons arrested: 

Trends (table 40) 110-111 

Age distribution (tables 41-42) 110-114 

Sex distribution (table 43) 115 

Race distribution (table 44) 116 

Reporting area 117 

Classification of offenses 1 18-120 

Index to volume XXV 121-122 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 
of Justice, Wasliington, D. C. 

Volume XXV JANUARY 1955 Number 2 

SUMMARY 

Estimated Major Crimes 

Trend Up. Major crimes were up 5 percent — a new high of 
2,267,250 estimated major crimes in 1954. The rise in this seventh 
straight year of increases was due to robberies (+6.8 percent), bur- 
glaries (+8.4 percent), and larcenies (+5.8 percent). Up slightly 
were rapes (+0.7 percent) and aggravated assaults (+1.0 percent). 

Decreases: Criminal homicide (—4.3 percent); and auto thefts 
(—4.7 percent). 

Population and Crime. Crime, up 26.7 percent since 1950, has 
increased almost 4 times as fast as population (up 7 percent). Trans- 
lated to crimes per 100,000 population, the crime rate or criminality 
of this Nation is up 18.4 percent (1950-54). 

Propert y Loss. A 413 million dollar loss to property crimes was 
offset by a police recovery of about 55 percent. 
Crime Trends, Urban — Rural 

City crimes were up 4 percent in 1954. Increases in all cities 
(grouped by size) ranged from 2.4 percent to 7.4 percent. Criminal 
homicides and auto thefts were do\vn but increases in other major 
crimes ranged from 0.7 percent (aggravated assaults) to 8.4 percent 
(robberies). 

City crimes now are 44.2 percent above 1937-39 (pre-World War 
II average). 

Rural crime climbed 8.3 percent. Criminal homicides, rapes and 
auto thefts were down, all other offenses increased. 

Monthly Variations 

Crime Seasons. Murder and criminal assaults are high in warm 
months. Robbery, burglary, and thefts predominate in the cool 
months. Negligent manslaughters follow the curve of hazardous 
traffic conditions with a high in December. 

(67) 



68 

Property Recovered 

Fifty-two percent of the value loss in 421 cities was automobiles. 
Police in these cities reported 55.6 percent recovery of the 1954 prop- 
erty loss value for all property stolen. 

Persons Arrested 

Trends. Arrests of young persons, 17 and under, increased 2.3 
percent while arrests of 18 and over decreased 1.9 percent, 1953-54 
(1,005 cities, population 32,633,967). 

Number of Arrests. Persons under 18 represented 57.6 percent of 
all persons arrested for auto theft, 49.0 percent of all arrested for 
burglary, and 43.6 percent of those arrested for larceny in 1954 (1,389 
cities, population 38,642,183). 



CRIME TREND 

Major Crime Totals, 1954 

Trend. Major crime total rose 5.0 percent in 1954. (Curve has 
been up since 1947 — 7 years of increases.) New high, 2,267,250 esti- 
mated major crimes, tops 1953 record high by 108,170. Gain in 
1954 crime supported principally by increases in robberies (6.8 per- 
cent), burglaries (8.4 percent), and larcenies (5.8 percent). 

Upward trend of total major crime for year softened by decreases in 
criminal homicides and auto thefts (—4.3 percent and —4.7 percent, 
respectively). Rapes and aggravated assaults climbed only slightly 
(+0.7 percent and +1.0 percent, respectively). 

Population and Crime. Since 1950, United States population 
swelled 7.0 percent while the volume of crime increased 26.7 percent 
(almost 4 times the percentage increase in population). Specifically, 
the criminality of the Nation increased 18.4 percent in this period. 
(For each 100,000 persons in the general population in 1950, there were 
1,187.8 major crimes. For each 100,000 persons in the estimated 
population as of July 1, 1954, there were 1,406.5 major crimes.) 

Crimes Against the Person. (Crimes aimed at persons rather than 
property.) Criminal homicide, rape, and aggravated assault victims 
numbered 123,830 in 1954, or 520 more than the 123,310 in 1953. 
Percentagewise the increase was 0.4 — due solely to increases in rapes 
and aggravated assaults. Criminal homicides decreased. 

Criminal Homicide. The 12,260 dead at the hands of killers get 
no solace from the 4.3 percent decrease in criminal homicides during 
1954. Nevertheless, the lives of 550 persons were spared by the 
downtrend. Criminal homicides in these figures are of two main 
types; (1) wilful killings (murder and nonnegligent manslaughter) 
and (2) killings resulting from grossly negligent acts (manslaughter 
by negligence). 

Murders and nonnegligent manslaughters decreased 3.8 percent 
in 19"54^ The 6,850 killings of this type were 270 less than the 7,120 
in 1953. In the 20 years since 1934, 146,869 persons have been wil- 
fully and unlawfully slain in the United States. The high year in 
that period was 1946 with 8,442 wilful killings. Not all years in 
the past 20 have had decreases in this crime but an examination of 
murders per 100,000 in the general population according to yearly 
population estimates indicates a generally favorable trend in murders. 
For each 100,000 persons there were 6.1 murders in 1935 as compared 
with 4.2 in 1954. The 1954 murder rate (4.2 per 100,000 population) 
was the lowest for the 20-year period. 

(69) 



70 

Manslaughter by Negligence. Victims who died because others 
were grossly neghgent numbered 5,410 in 1954. This was 280 deaths 
less than the 5,690 in 1953 or a decrease of 4.9 percent. Motor 
vehicle deaths make up most of these totals, but not all traffic deaths 
are counted as crimes. (National Safety Council estimates 36,300 
motor vehicle deaths in 1954. So, something less than 15 percent of 
these are classed by the police as manslaughters.) 

Rape. Over 18,000 women were victims of rapists in 1954, a 
0.7 percent increase over the 17,900 rapes in 1953, and about one-half 
of them were forcible in nature as contrasted with the statutory 
offenses. 

Aggravated Assault. Shootings, cuttings, and other felonious 
assaults (except rapes) numbered 93,540 in 1954. This means that 
940 more persons were brutally assaulted (a 1 percent increase over 
1953). 

Crimes Against Property. Robbery, burglary, larceny and auto 
theft, grouped, increased 5.3 percent. The 2,143,420 crimes of this 
type in 1954 were 107,650 more than the 2,035,770 in 1953. Property 
valued at an estimated 413 million dollars was stolen. (Police re- 
covered about 55 percent of this dollar loss.) 

Robbery. There were 67,420 armed and strong-arm robberies 
in 1954. This is 6.8 percent more than in 1953 and represents an 
increase second only to burglary. The average loss per robbery 
was $219, indicating a loss of over 14 million dollars to this crime. 

Burglary — breaking or entering showed the highest increase of 
all crimes in 1954, 8.4 percent. The 40,000 additional crimes brought 
total unlawful entries of business houses, homes and other structures 
to 519,190 for the year. At an average loss of $176, the total loss was 
91 million dollars in property and money or about 13 million dollars 
more than in 1953. 

Larceny-theft (except autos) was third highest in increases in 
1954, 5.8 percent. At $74 per ofi'ense, over 99 million dollars in cash 
and property were taken in the 1,340,870 crimes of this type. There 
were almost 74,000 more thefts in 1954 than in 1953. 

Auto theft decreased 4.7 percent. The 215,940 auto thefts in 
1954 averaged $963 per theft and 94 percent were recovered. The 
12,956 unrecovered represent a loss of 12 million dollars. 

Estimates show conservative picture of major crime problem in 
United States. (Crimes classed as major by police are identified in 
table 24. These are the Part I crimes of the uniform crime reporting 
program described on pages 118 and 119.) 

Certain important crimes are not included in the major crime 
estimate. This is because the estimates of total major crime are 
based on "offenses known" as reported by police. Offenses known 



71 



CRIME TREND" U. S. 

BASED ON THE ESTIMATED 
NUMBER OF MAJOR CRIMES 




1953 -- 1954 PERCENT CHANGE 




TOTAL MURDER NEGLIGENT RAPE ROBBERY AGGRAVATED BURGLARY LARCENY AUTO THEFT 
MANSLAUGHTER ASSAULT 



W7.;M. 



Figure 8. 



72 

information, as shown by table 24, does not include such crimes a~ 
arson, other sex crimes, carrying concealed weapons, embezzlement, 
and so forth. When this program was designed, police designated 
the Part I crimes ("offenses known") as those constituting the major 
crime problem. The only information available for crimes not listed 
in the "major crime" group consists of arrest figures. Arrest data, 
of course, do not show the total crimes that have occurred. 

Reliability of major crime estimates is considered excellent since 
actual counts of crime for three-fourths of the population are avail- 
able. Reports used are from police representing almost 65.2 percent 
of the rural population and 89.3 percent of the urban (city) popula- 
tion. The estimating procedure adjusts for calculated incompleteness 
in reports from some rural areas. A complete set of reports for 1953 
and 1954 from identical contributors was used in the trend figures 
for total United States crime. 

With particular reference to larger cities representing substantial 
segments of the population, the following is important: A critical 
review and evaluation of all reports received under this program are 
made to detect incompleteness or radical increases or decreases in the 
crime figures. There are two primary methods used to correct 
deviations from acceptable standards in record keeping and reporting: 
(1) extensive correspondence; and (2) personal contacts with con- 
tributors. Contacts are made by the FBI and the Committee on 
Uniform Crime Records of the International Association of Chiefs of 
Police. 

Incomplete reports are not used. When a police department 
corrects a demonstrated deficiency in its reporting procedure, a com- 
parison of current complete reports with previous incomplete reports 
demonstrates only the extent of the previous incompleteness. Such 
figures are not used in crime trend figures. 

When correctly compiled reports from such a department are avail- 
able (usually after at least 18 months of complete and acceptable 
reporting), the reports are then used for trend figures for a 6-month 
period. For example, the first 6 months of this year are compared 
with the first 6 months of last year. At the end of two calendar 
years of complete reporting, the department's figures are then used in 
annual crime trend figures. 

Thus, a reliable index to crime volume and fluctuation is shown 
from year to year in the published figures. Modern business-like 
record keeping is widespread among law enforcement agencies today. 
The progress of record keeping over a 25-year period has been reflected 
in improved quality in crime reports. Because of the method of 
obtaining yearly trend figures, as mentioned above, this gradual 
change does not aft'ect the validity of short-term trends or projections 
based on chosen segments of the 25 years but should be considered in 
any calculations attempting a long-range study. 



73 



Methods of evaluating trend figures. There are several methods 
available for test checking these crime trend figures: (1) actual exami- 
nation of police records at the source and (2) comparisons of crimes 
reported by police with insured losses. These methods have been 
used by the FBI, the Uniform Crime Records Committee of the 
International Association of Chiefs of Police and students of the crime 
problem. For the casual inquirer, more readily available procedures 
may be utilized. Fluctuations up and down (within reasonable 
limits) are normal. These may be observed in trend figures by totals, 
by cities grouped by size, by geographic area, and by the actual 
figures of individual cities as published in this bulletin. 

Also, arrest figures published in the semiannual issue of this bulletin 
show that they follow generally the trend changes noted in offenses 
known to the police. Arrest records have long been standardized 
and have been singularly free of allegations of manipulation. 

Homicide figures can be independently checked against vital statis- 
tics collected by the National Office of Vital Statistics. Arson 
violations are not reported under this program except in arrest figures 
but these crimes are reported by state fire marshals to the National 
Fire Protection Association, Boston, Massachusetts. Their figures 
reflect large increases in this crime in recent years (from 1952 to 1953, 
the increase in crimes of arson was 19 percent). 

There is not readily available any accurate measure as to the volume 
of criminal acts not brought to the attention of the police and hence 
not reflected in these tables. The original research prior to 1930 led 
to the conclusion that the Part I classes (criminal homicide, rape, 
robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft) 
covered those offenses which experience had shown were most gen- 
erally and completely reported to the police. Subsequent studies 
over the years bear out the soundness of this position. 

Property loss, recovery and other analyses applied to estimated 
crime figures were obtained from Supplemental Crime Data, pages 
107-109. 

Table 24.— CRIME TRENDS, URBAN AND RURAL 

[Estimated number of major ca-imes iii the United States, 1953-54] 



Number of offenses 



Offense 



1953 



Change 



Number Percent 



TOTAL . 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault... 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Autotheft 



2,159,080 2.267,250 



+108, 170 



+5.0 



7,120 

5,690 

17,900 

63, 100 

92,600 

479, 120 

1,267,020 

226, 530 



6,850 

5,410 

18,030 

67,420 

93, 540 

519, 190 

1, 340, 870 

215, 940 



-270 

-280 

+130 

+4,320 

+940 

+40, 070 

+73, 850 

-10,590 



-3.8 
-4.9 

+.7 
+6.8 
+1.0 
+8.4 
+5.8 
-4.7 



337615° — 55- 



74 

Urban Crime Trends 

Crime rose 7.4 percent in 1954 in cities under 10,000 in population. 
For other city groups the increases ranged from +2.4 percent to +4.5 
percent. The upswing in crime for all cities continued through 1954 
for a 4.0 percent rise in the seventh consecutive year of crime increases 
in cities throughout the Nation. With cities grouped by size, no 
decrease in total crime is seen for any population group. 

The net gain of 4.0 percent for total crimes in all cities resulted 
from a continuation of increases in five crime classes: Rape, +1.6 
percent; Robbery, +8.4 percent; Aggravated assault, +0.7 percent; 
Burglary, +6.7 percent; and Larceny, +4.8 percent. Murder, 
negligent manslaughter and auto theft decreased. 

City murders continued the decline started in 1953 with a 2.3 per- 
cent decrease in 1954. The decrease w^as sharpest in cities with from 
100,000 to 250,000 population, —6.6 percent. All cities over 50,000 
had decreases while those under 50,000 had increases. The smallest 
city group (under 10,000 population) led the city groups under 50,000 
with an increase of 6.4 percent. 

Negligent manslaughters decreased 6.4 percent in cities during 1954, 
a sharp reversal of the 6.4 percent increase in 1953. Cities wnth 10,000 
to 25,000 population listed the biggest decrease, 13.3 percent. Their 
next larger neighbors, 25,000 to 50,000 population, had a gain of 5.3 
percent. 

Auto thefts dropped 4.7 percent in 1954 after a 5.1 percent rise in 
1953. This decline was general in all city groups and ranged from 
— 6.2 percent in the 50,000-100,000 group to —3.2 in the smallest 
cities (under 10,000 population). 

With cities grouped geographically (table 26), increases in total 
crime occurred in all areas with the exception of the South Atlantic 
States where a 1.2 percent decrease is shown for 1954. Increases 
in other geographic divisions range from 1.1 percent in the Pacific 
States to a high of 9.5 percent in the West North Central States. 
Table 26 shows variations among the individual geographic areas from 
the over-all trend noted for all cities as one group. These variations 
are similar to those that can be found among the cities grouped by 
size as shown in table 25. 

Notable variations from the over-all trend include a 10.3 percent 
increase in murders in the Mountain States, a 20.8 percent increase 
in negligent manslaughters in the East South Central States, an 8.1 
percent decrease in rape in the East North Central States, a 3.2 per- 
cent decrease in the Pacific States in the robbery classification, a 5.3 
percent decrease in the East North Central States for aggravated 
assault and a 7.5 percent increase in auto thefts in the New England 
States. 



75 

Crime trend computation. This is discussed in more detail in the 
text concerning 1954 major crime totals. The preparation of crime 
trends in this bulletin involves the selection of complete sets of reports 
from identical cities for the years studied. Wlien it is known that the 
reports of any city do not meet the standards established under this 
program, they are not used for either period of the comparison. 

The best known index to the fluctuations in the total volume of 
crime is found in trend figures of offenses known to the police. The 
trend figures are not related to units of population as are crime rates 
given later in this bulletin. The trend figures broken down by cities 
grouped according to size and by geographic areas permit studies of 
the indicated segments. They are of primary interest to law enforce- 
ment officials in connection with their review of crime trends in their 
individual jurisdictions. 



76 



Table 25.— URBAN CRIME TRENDS, 1953-54, BY POPULATION 

GROUPS 

Offenses known to the police in 2,378 cities, total population 75,064,168, based on 1950 decennial censiis] 





Total 


Criminal 
homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 




Population group 


Murder 

and 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


TOTAL; 

1953 


1, 341, 946 

1, 396, 282 

+4.0 


3,654 
3,570 
-2.3 


2,638 
2,470 
-6.4 


8,890 
9,034 
+1.6 


48, 666 
62, 665 
+8.4 


63, 665 

64, 134 

+0.7 


311,807 

332, 667 

+8.7 


755,317 
791, 203 

+4.8 


147, 409 


1954 --- 


140. 639 


Percent change 


-4.7 


Group I: 38 cities over 
250,000; total popula- 
tion, 31,880,928: 
1953 


674, 160 

702, 578 

+4.2 

185,116 

191,356 

+3.4 

150, 956 

154, 669 

+2.4 

129, 101 
134, 919 

+4.5 

133, 348 

138, 500 

+3.9 

69, 265 
74, 360 
+7.4 


2,033 
1,964 
-3.4 

575 

537 

-6.6 

348 

340 

-2.3 

269 

275 

+2.2 

256 

270 

+5.5 

173 

184 
+6.4 


1,500 
1,373 
-8.5 

368 

331 

-10.1 

270 

277 

+2.6 

244 

257 
+5.3 

150 

130 

-13.3 

106 

102 

-3.8 


5,642 

5, 858 
+3.8 

1,015 

979 

-3.5 

683 

640 

-6.3 

552 

541 

-2.0 

541 

595 

+ 10.0 

457 

421 

-7.9 


35,815 
39, 704 
+ 10.9 

4.999 
5,156 
+3.1 

2,891 
2,824 
-2.3 

1.923 

2,066 
+7.4 

1,808 
1,796 
-0.7 

1,130 
1,119 
-1.0 


40, 634 

41,361 

+1.8 

7,629 
7,706 
+ 1.0 

6,574 
6,362 
-3.2 

3,490 
3,471 

-0.5 

3,273 
3,211 
-1.9 

2,065 
2,023 
-2.0 


163, 125 

174,023 

+6.7 

44, 386 
47. 936 

+8.0 

32. 823 

34. 843 

+6.2 

27, 050 

28, 677 
+6.0 

28, 194 

29,898 

+6.0 

16, 229 
17,290 
+6.5 


340, 058 

356, 839 

+4.9 

105, 893 

109, 536 

+3.4 

92, 498 

95. 333 

+3.1 

84,664 

89, 156 

+5.3 

88, 962 

92. 793 

+4.3 

43, 242 
47, 546 
+10.0 


85. 353 


1954 


81.456 


Percent change 

Group II: 63 cities, 100,000 
to 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 9,334,520; 

1953 


-4.6 
20. 251 


1954 

Percent change 

Group III: 126 cities, 
50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 8,904,958: 

1953 

1954 

Percent change. 

Group IV: 232 cities, 
25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 8,191,991: 

1953 

1954 

Percent change 

Group V: 631 cities, 
10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 9,731,092: 

1953_.. .- 

1954 

Percent change. 

Group VI: 1,288 cities un- 
der 10,000; total popu- 
lation, 7,020,679: 

1953 

1954 


19. 175 
-5.3 

14. 869 

13, 950 

-6.2 

10,909 

10, 476 

-4.0 

10, 164 
9.807 
-3.5 

5.863 
5,675 


Percent change 


-3.2 



77 




URBAN CRIME TRENDS 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO POLICE 

1953 -- 1954 PERCENT CHANGE 



TOTAL 



MURDER 



NEELIGENT 
MANSLAUGHTER 



RAPE 



ROBBERY 



AUTO THEFT 



AGGRAVATED 
ASSAULT 



BURGLARY 



LARCENY 




2;J78 CITIES TOTAL POPULATION 75,064,168 



Figure 9. 



78 



Table 26.— URBAN CRIME TRENDS, 1953-54, BY GEOGRAPHIC 
DIVISIONS AND STATES 

[Offenses known to the police in 2,378 cities, total population, 75,064,168, based on 1050 decennial census] 







Criminal 1 


















horn 


cidc 








Bur- 














Divisions and States 


Total 


Murder 
and 
non- 
net-'li- 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


Auto 

theft 






gent 
man- 








mg 










slaugh- 




















ter 
















TOTAL: 




















1963- 


1, 341, 946 


3,654 


2,638 


8,890 


48, 566 


63, 665 


311,807 


755,317 


147. 409 


1954_ 


1, 396, 282 


3,570 


2,470 


9,034 


52, 665 


64, 134 


332, 667 


791, 203 


140, 539 


Percent change 


-f4.0 


-2.3 


-6.4 


+1.6 


+8.4 


+.7 


+6.7 


+4.8 


-4.7 


New England, 170 cities; 




















population, 6,141,630: 




















1953 


63. 501 


8/ 


210 


333 


905 


926 


16, 675 


38.379 


7, 093 


1954 


64, 738 


72 


178 


373 


937 


886 


16, 164 


38. 503 


7,626 


Percent change 


+1.9 


-11.1 


-16.2 


+12.0 


+3.6 


-4.3 


+3.8 


+■3 


+7.5 


Connecticut, 26 cities: 




















population, 1,212,695: 




















1953 


14, 463 


23 


02 


71 


204 


376 


3,917 


8,469 


1,341 


1954 


13, 470 


17 


38 


68 


211 


312 


3,614 


7,751 


1.459 


Maine, 16 cities; popula- 




















tion, 307,096: 




















1953 


2,987 


5 


5 


15 


25 


20 


586 


2,018 


313 


1954 


3,117 


7 


4 


6 


26 


34 


645 


2,137 


258 


Massachusetts, 86 cities: 




















population, 3,581,493: 




















1953 


34, 679 


45 


125 


188 


571 


412 


8,226 


20, 772 


4.340 


1954. 


37, 000 


41 


115 


241 


612 


436 


9,129 


21, 502 


4,924 


New Hampshire, 16 




















cities; population. 




















270,858: 




















1953 


2,158 


1 


6 


11 


10 


10 


516 


1,443 


161 


1954-.. 


2,079 


1 


10 


14 


11 


13 


409 


1,508 


113 


Rhode Island, 17 cities; 




















population, 673,758: 




















1953 . - 


8,352 
8,199 


7 
6 


11 
9 


41 
37 


93 
74 


107 

89 


2, 161 

2,188 


5,080 
5,001 


852 


1954 


795 


Vermont, 9 cities; popula- 




















tion, 95,730: 




















1953 


862 
873 




1 
2 


7 


2 
3 


i 


169 
179 


597 
604 


86 


1954 


77 


Middle Atlantic, 545 




cities; population, 




















18,105,993: 




















1953 


246. 468 

259. 616 

+6.3 


492 

521 

+6.9 


601 

494 
-17.8 


1.773 
2.041 
+ 16.1 


//. 1.16 
12. 595 
+ 13.1 


12. 204 

12. 389 

+1.6 


69, 891 

74. 142 

+6.1 


126. 417 

133. 339 

+6.6 


23.95i 


1954 


24.095 


Percent change.. 


+.6 


New Jersey, 141 cities; 




















population, 3,266,395: 




















1953 


39, 558 

40, 477 


87 
93 


128 
132 


240 
255 


1,270 
1,204 


1,801 
1, 552 


11,485 
12,112 


20.165 
20,727 


4.382 


1954. 


4,402 


New York, 173 cities; 




















population, 11,686,709: 




















1953. 


182, 387 


364 


425 


1,395 


9,394 


9,846 


52, 782 


91, 366 


16,815 


1954 


192, 805 


370 


307 


1,668 


10, 874 


10, 234 


55,649 


96,850 


16,853 


Pennsylvania, 231 cities; 




















population, 3,152,889: 




















1953 


24, 523 
26, 334 


41 

58 


48 
55 


138 
118 


472 
517 


557 
603 


5,624 
6,381 


14, 886 
15. 762 


2.757 


1954 


2.840 


East North Central, 578 




cities; population. 




















18,195,036: 




















19.53 .... 


296. 314 
317. 549 


801 
763 


640 
491 


2.303 
2.116 


14,713 
16.876 


13,077 
12, 384 


69.344 
68, 512 


173. 4S3 
186.992 


32, 0,'>3 


1954 - 


29, 426 


Percent change 


+7.2 


-6.0 


-9.1 


-8.1 


+ 14-7 


-6.3 


+1S.4 


+7.8 


-8.2 


Illinois, 142 cities; popu- 




















lation, 5,816,398: 




















1953 


80, 404 
83, 445 


326 
315 


186 
170 


673 
575 


7.714 
8,693 


4,927 
4,718 


19. 105 
22,610 


37,292 
38. 914 


10, 181 


19.54.. 


7.4.50 


Indiana, 80 cities; popu- 




















lation, 1,999,.528: 




















1953 


37, 122 
37, 170 


79 
71 


64 
48 


170 
182 


1,030 
984 


930 
774 


8.279 
8.730 


22, 524 
22,637 


4. 046 


1954 


3,744 



79 

Table 26.— URBAN CRIME TRENDS, 1953-54, BY GEOGRAPHIC 
DIVISIONS AND STATES— Continued 



Divisions and States 



East North Central — 

Continued 
Michigan, 109 cities: 
population, 3,872,121: 

1953 

1954 

Ohio, 166 cities; popula- 
tion, 4,732,262: 

1953 

1954 

Wisconsin, 81 cities; 
population, 1,774,727: 

1953 

1954 

West North Central, 268 
cities; population, 
6,138,417: 

1953 

1954 

Percent change 

Iowa, 61 cities: popula- 
tion, 1,076,032: 

1953 --- 

1954 

Kansas, 49 cities; popula- 
tion, 796,192: 

1953 

1954 

Muinesota, 62 cities; 
population, 1,470,236: 

1953 

1954 

Missouri, 40 cities: popu- 
lation, 1,908,223: 

1953 

1954 

Nebraska, 26 cities: popu- 
lation, 532,561: 

1953 

1954 

North Dakota, 13 cities; 
population, 164,817: 

1953 

1954 

South Dakota, 17 cities; 
population, 190,356: 

1953 

1954 

South Atlantic,' 221 cities; 
population, 7,598,347: 

1953 

1954 

Percent change 



Delaware, 3 cities; popu- 
lation, 121,758: 

1953 

1954 

Florida, 43 cities; popula- 
tion, 1,289,378: 

1953 

1954 

Georgia, 26 cities; popu- 
lation, 1,027,777: 

1953 

1954 



Total 



87, 499 
97, 969 



69, 136 
76, 204 



22. 153 
22, 761 



97, 636 

106, 799 

+9.6 



13, 345 
14, 485 



14. 506 
15, 189 



21, 294 
23, 648 



38, 807 
40,970 



7,553 
7,961 



2,013 
2,505 



2,018 
2,041 



171,055 

168,957 

-t.S 



2,788 
2,863 



33, 205 
36, 347 



21, 099 
20,762 



Criminal 
homicide 



Murder 
and 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



176 
167 



201 

181 



140 
131 



797 
762 
-4.4 



142 
132 



157 
174 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



117 
93 



141 
145 



157 

162 

+3.2 



290 

317 

+9.3 



Rape 



930 
930 



371 
318 



159 
111 



650 
647 

-.5 



124 
99 



360 
367 



1,074 

994 

-7.4 



128 
105 



Rob- 
bery 



3,450 
4,218 



2,272 

2,775 



247 
205 



3,180 

3,732 
+17.4 



159 
130 



343 
313 



535 
704 



1,990 
2,448 



123 
111 



4, 6-53 
4, 5-53 



867 
1,013 



496 
491 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



4,837 
4, 955 



2,056 
1,596 



327 
341 



3,661 
3,519 
-3.9 



115 
112 



444 
480 



135 
174 



2,848 
2,612 



109 
125 



17, 768 

17, 637 

-.7 



1,495 
1,299 



2,287 
2,077 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



15, 769 
18, 766 



13, 222 
15, 272 



2,969 
3,134 



21,036 
23, 830 
+13.3 



2,494 
3, 166 



3,461 
3,800 



4,592 
5,556 



8,426 
9,422 



1,320 
1,224 



335 
337 



408 
325 



39, 557 
+.7 



597 
620 



9,459 
11,459 



4,977 
5,097 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



52, 196 
58, 310 



44, 672 
49, 865 



16, 799 
17, 266 



58, 145 

63, 919 

+9.9 



9,463 
9,984 



8,954 
9,329 



13, 474 
14,885 



18, 187 
20,606 



5,080 
5, 561 



1,537 
1,981 



1,450 
1,573 



86, 766 
86,980 

+.2 



1.761 
1,850 



17, 739 
19, 217 



10, 006 
10, 146 



' Includes the District of Columbia. 



80 



Table 26.— URBAN CRIME TRENDS, 1953-54, BY GEOGRAPHIC 
DIVISIONS AND STATES— Continued 





Total 


Criminal 
homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
break - 
ingor 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Divisions and States 


Murder 
and 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


South Atlantic— Con. 
Maryland, 16 cities; pop- 
ulation, 1,143,500: 
1953 

1954 


27, 927 
25, 098 

19, 971 

20, 640 

8,843 
8,787 

30, 615 
30, 699 

4,531 
5,015 

46, 437 

49, 287 

+6.1 


80 

88 

129 
116 

38 
31 

144 
128 

27 
15 

364 

375 

+3.0 


19 
10 

58 
69 

8 
7 

68 
61 

3 

6 

101 

m 

+20.8 


261 
195 

102 
115 

45 
50 

209 
224 

18 
16 

193 

237 

+22.8 


1,016 
773 

290 
328 

97 
139 

805 
837 

119 
103 

/, 493 

1.497 

+.3 


1,678 
1,779 

3,964 
3,950 

566 
469 

3,012 
3,106 

222 
273 

3,495 

3,489 

-.2 


5,946 
5,276 

4,377 
4,274 

1,951 
2,133 

6, 277 
5,981 

1,117 
1,203 

1.3, SOS 

14, 449 

+8.6 


13,415 
11,890 

9,485 
10, 225 

5,332 
5,306 

16, 857 
17,343 

2,483 
2,920 

2t, 484 

23,329 

+8.6 


5,512 
5,087 


North Carolina, 53 cities; 
population, 1,083,498: 
1953 


1,566 


1954 


1,563 


South Carolina, 24 cities; 
population, 431,651: 
1953 


806 


1954 


652 


Virginia, 36 cities; popu- 
lation, 1,269,151: 

1953 


3.243 


1954 


3.019 


West Virginia, 19 cities; 
population, 429,456: 
1953 


.542 


1954 


470 


East South Central, 91 cit- 
ies; population, 2,937,- 
398: 
1953 -- -- -- 


6.004 


1954 


6. 789 


Percent change 


-3.6 


Alabama, 27 cities; popu- 
lation, 894,423: 

1953 - - 


13, 458 
14, 439 

16,260 
16, 532 

3,078 
3,519 

13, 641 

14, 797 

117, l!9i 

no, 737 

+Z.6 


141 
134 

79 

67 

24 

28 

120 
146 

554 

489 

-8.4 


20 
31 

29 
32 

1 
9 

51 
50 

2B1 

248 

-1.2 


56 
74 

73 
91 

13 
15 

51 

57 

039 

700 

+9.6 


328 
325 

668 
675 

35 
33 

462 
464 

2, 596 
2, 756 
+6. 2 


1,149 
1,081 

1,045 
1,107 

168 
160 

1.133 
1.141 

4, 640 
5,207 
+ 12.2 


4,241 
4,712 

4,180 
3.995 

959 
1.209 

3,923 
4,533 

28,510 

29, 131 

+2.9 


6,018 
6. 934 

7.623 
8,279 

1,670 
1.774 

6.173 
6.342 

65. 982 

67, 7"18 

+2. 6 


1,505 


1954 


1.148 


Kentucky, 29 cities; pop- 
ulation, 735,119: 

1953 


2,563 


1954 


2,286 


Mississippi, 15 cities; 
population, 304,024: 
1953 


208 


1954 . - - - 


291 


Tennessee, 20 cities; pop- 
ulation, 1,003,832: 

1953 


1.728 


1954 
West South' Central, 145 
cities; population, 
5,331,768: 
1953 . 


2,064 
14. 742 


1954 


14, 488 


Percent change 


-1.7 


Arkansas, 17 cities: pop- 
ulation, 328,975: 
1953 


5,249 
5,486 

10, 518 
12, 448 

16, 241 
16, 758 

85, 686 
86. 045 


33 
23 

63 
80 

48 
45 

390 
341 


12 
16 

56 
58 

29 
30 

154 
144 


20 
22 

170 
174 

70 
69 

379 
435 


126 
210 

436 

587 

293 
321 

1.741 
1,638 


317 
320 

645 
670 

323 
322 

3,355 
3, 895 


1,369 
1,491 

1,997 
2,040 

3,719 
4.250 

21, 225 
21.350 


2, 945 
3,026 

4,725 
5. 381 

9. 959 
10,300 

48. 363 
48. 951 


427 


1954 


378 


Louisiana, 15 cities; pop- 
ulation, 727,375: 

1953 


2.426 


1954 


3,458 


Oklahoma, 32 cities; pop- 
ulation, 808,349: 

1953 


1.800 


1954 - 


1,361 


Texas, 81 cities; popula- 
tion, 3,467,069: 

1953 


10.089 


1954 


9, 291 



81 



Table 26.— URBAN CRIME TRENDS, 1953-54, BY GEOGRAPHIC 
DIVISIONS AND STATES— Continued 



Divisions and States 



Mountain, 114 cities; pop- 
ulation, 2,003,408: 

1953 

1954 

Percent change 

Arizona, 13 cities; popu- 
lation, 222,780: 

1953 

1954 

Colorado, 27 cities; pop- 
ulation, 726,569: 

1953 

1954 

Idaho, 21 cities; popula- 
tion, 199,622: 

1953 

1954 

Montana, 14 cities; pop- 
ulation, 199,030: 

1953 

1954 

Nevada, 5 cities; popula- 
tion, 52,815: 

1953 

1954 

New Mexico, 8 cities; 
population, 143,667: 

1953 - 

1954 

Utah, 15 cities; popula- 
tion, 347,421: 

1953 

1954 

Wyoming, 11 cities; pop- 
ulation, 111,504: 

1953 

1954 

Pacific, 246 cities; popu- 
lation, 8,612,171: 

1953.- 

1954 

Percent change 

California, 177 cities; 
population, 6,773,898: 

1953 

1954 

Oregon, 30 cities; popula- 
tion, 666,102: 

1953 

1954 

Washington, 39 cities; 
population, 1,172,171: 

1953 

1954 



Total 



52, 993 

55, 97G 

+5.0 



9,810 
10, 727 



18, 449 
19, 417 



4,960 
4,916 



4,454 
4,741 



1,835 
2,259 



3,109 
3,617 



8,126 
8,254 



2,250 
2,045 



+1-1 



204, 941 
207, 218 



15, 468 
15, 484 



29, 539 
29, 921 



Criminal 
homicide 



Murder 
and 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



78 

8G 

+10.3 



809 

+S.S 



240 
256 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



UG 
-i-9 



388 
372 



Rape 



318 

+n.s 



102 
128 



UGG5 
1,008 



Rob- 
bery 



1,2G0 
1,309 
+8.7 



262 

227 



94 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



786 
979 

+24.6 



8,030 
8,351 



1,462 
1,429 



136 
127 



7,558 
7,301 



302 
330 



770 
720 



164 
307 



314 
334 



72 
114 



7,109 
7,645 

+7.5 



6,705 
7,184 



202 
215 



202 
246 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



11, 895 

12, 249 
+3.0 



2,249 
2,121 



5,015 
5,005 



845 
824 



671 
661 



501 
640 



747 
1,029 



1,478 
1,628 



329 
341 



53,172 

54. 033 

+2.7 



43, 586 
45, 074 



3,391 
3,357 



6,195 
6,202 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



33, 599 

35. 889 

+0.8 



5,909 
6,947 



10, 802 

11, .515 



3, 675 
3,702 



3,067 
3,300 



1,067 
1,342 



1,777 
1,943 



5,644 
5,672 



1,658 
1,468 



151, 002 
154. S34 

+2.S 



122, 101 
124, 344 



10,224 
10, 538 



18, 737 

19, 652 



337015°— 55- 



82 



URBAN CRIME TRENDS 

1940-54 TREND VERSUS 1937-39 AVERAGE 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE 
363 Cities-Total Population 47,586,584 




CRIMES AGAINST 
THE PERSON 

PERCENT CHANGE 



~r- I I 



KEY 

= AGGRAVATED ASSAULT 
— NEGLIGEHT MANSLAUGHTEA 



RAPE 
MURDEII 




1940 '41 '42 '43 '44 '45 '46 '47 '48 '49 '50 '51 '52 '53 '54 



I I I I I 



I I 



CRIMES AGAINST 
PROPERTY 



PERCENT CHANGE 



KEr 



BURGURY 
ROBBERY 




LARCENY 
AUTO THEn 



FBI CHART 



FlOURE 10. 



83 



Long-term Urban Trends 

Crime during and after World War II. Contrasts in crime expe- 
rience following the major upheaval of war are shown in figure 10. 
Crime figures for the years 1937-39 were used as prewar averages 
(used as the base line for the graphs) . 

Figure 10 and table 27 present crime figures for 18 years from 363 
cities. The same cities are represented for each year of the study. 
All cities used are over 25,000 in population. The combined popula- 
tion of these cities was 47,586,584 in 1950. Their 1940 population 
was 40,951,490. 

The selection of returns for inclusion in this study involved the 
same considerations outlined in the text preceding table 24. 

Table 27.— URBAN CRIME TRENDS, 1937-54 



Ofifenses known to the police in 363 cities 


with over 25,000 inhabitants, total population 
1950 decennial census] 


47,586,584 based on 


Year 


Total 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 

gent man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaushter 
by negli- 
gence 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or entering 


Larceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


1937 

1938 

1939... 

1940 

1941 

1942 

1943 

1944 

1945 

1946 

1947 


667, 140 
671.707 
695, 992 
722, 324 

727, 665 
682, 233 
657, 059 
668, 350 

754, 386 
803, 995 
775,948 
780, 094 

810,714 
810, 945 
858, 470 
901, 175 

943, 455 
977, 787 


2, 813 
2,416 
2,565 
2,519 

2,611 
2,671 
2, 375 
2,485 

2,681 
3,051 
2.911 
2,915 

2,662 
2,719 
2, 645 
2,860 

2,805 
2,709 


2.241 
1.635 
1.437 
1, 022 

2,015 

1,844 
1,540 
1, 556 

1, 861 
1,872 
1,645 
1,634 

1,509 
1,773 
1, 750 
1,902 

1,799 
1,783 


3,527 
3.431 
3,671 
3,707 

4,051 
4,459 
4,921 
5,208 

5,686 
5,874 
6, 022 
5, 995 

6,056 
5, 926 
6,285 
6.303 

6,534 
6,395 


30, 413 
31,088 
29,217 
28, 097 

26, 930 
25, 622 
25.011 
24,129 

29,881 
34, 362 
33, 199 
31, 403 

33,315 
29, 386 
29,497 
32, 893 

36, 449 
39,328 


21,482 
21, 175 
21.541 
22,529 

23,832 
26, 756 
25, 359 
28.717 

31, 102 
34, 667 
37, 247 
39, 787 

41, 278 
41, 404 
40, 896 
46, 322 

48, 241 
48, 199 


149, 237 
149, 163 
155,267 
157, 637 

151, 276 
134, 654 
137, 286 
141, 184 

166. 903 
183, 763 
179,045 
181,386 

190, 722 
187,016 
186, 067 
201,311 

212, 477 
228, 465 


3.56, 764 
375, 883 
399, 686 
422. 857 

426, 213 
404, 932 
367, 100 
366, 391 

397, 514 
429, 513 

427, 794 
436,357 

456, 649 
458, 112 
491,970 
500, 354 

519, 633 
541, 285 


100, 663 
86, 916 
82, 608 
83, 356 

90, 737 
81, 295 
93, 467 
98,680 

118,758 
110, 893 
88, 085 
80, 617 

78,523 
84, 609 
99, 360 
109, 230 

115, 517 
109, 623 


1948 

1949 


1950 


1951 

1952 

1953 

1954.. 



84 



Rural Crime Trends 

Rural crime rose 8.3 percent in 1954. The rise was dominated by- 
increases of 12.8 percent in burglaries and 9.9 percent in larcenies. 
Increases, though less pronounced, were registered for aggravated 
assault (+2.1 percent) and robbery ( + 0.1 percent). Murder, 
negligent manslaughter, rape and auto theft declined during 1954 in 
areas outside the cities. 

Murder led the decreases, a 6.2 percent dip, followed by auto theft, 
down 4.6 percent. Negligent manslaughters declined 2.9 percent and 
the change in the rape classification was only slightly downward, 
— 0.3 percent. 

Rural crime trends are from 1,525 law enforcement agencies. In 
1953 and 1954 these 1,525 agencies sent in reports for rural areas (out- 
side the limits of urban communities). These agencies represent a 
rural population of almost 37,000,000 (1950 decennial census). 

Table 28.— RURAL CRIME TRENDS, 1953-54 

(Based on reports of 1,378 sherifls, 137 rural village officers, and 10 State police; total rural population 
36,937,638, based on the 1950 decennial census] 



Offense 



Number of offenses 



TOTAL 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence.. 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft... 



1,716 
1, 9J0 
4,553 
7,106 

13, 231 
78, 832 
108,906 
23, 619 



1,610 
1,864 
4,539 
7,113 

13,514 
88, 943 
119,675 
22,543 



Percent 
change 



+8.3 



-6.2 
-2.9 
-.3 

+.1 

+2.1 

+12.8 

+9.9 

-4.6 



85 




TOTAL 



MURDER 



NEGLIGENT 
MANSLAUGHTER 



RAPE 



ROBBERY 



AUTO THEFT 



AGGRAVATED 
ASSAULT 



BURGLARY 



URCENY 



RURAL CRIME TRENDS 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO POLICE 

1953 -- 1954 PERCENT CHANGE 




+ 



8.3 



REPORTING AREA Sheriffs' Offices - 1,378 State Police ■■ 10 

Rural Villages - 137 Rural Population - 36,937,638 



Figure 11. 



86 

Monthly Variations 

There is no day of rest on the crime calendar. Most days are bad, 
the others are worse. The restless activity of criminals rolls up an 
average daily crime total that permits no letdown of police vigilance. 
Some crimes flourish in warm weather, some prefer the cooler months, 
but they all flourish. 

The seasonal variations in crime are apparent in the 1954 crime data. 

The crimes against the person of murder, rape and aggravated 
assault are warm-month crimes. (Crimes against property are cool- 
month crimes.) Negligent manslaughter (principally traffic killings) 
is a cool-month crime, the only "personal" crime that does not reach 
its peak in the warmer months. 

Murders, rapes, and aggravated assaults were highest in the third 
quarter of the year with July the high month for each. 

Crimes Against Property. The first and last quarters of the jear 
saw the highs for these crimes. By quarters, robbery and burglary 
were highest in the first while larceny and auto theft were highest in 
the fourth. By month, a slightly different picture is obtained. 
Robbery was high in January, while the other three property crimes 
were high in February. 

Negligent manslaughter follows generally the hazardous driving 
conditions curve. It was highest in the last quarter of the year, 
rising to its top peak in December. Its curve does not conform to 
that for other crimes against the person. 



87 



MONTHLY VARIATIONS 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, 1954 

2,583 URBAN POLICE AGENCIES - TOTAL POPULATION 79,754,626 
OFFENSES AGAINST THE PERSON 



MURDER 



NEGLIGENT MANSLAUGHTER 



U O UJ 



_i cs £ t— ^ cji 



+ 50", 
+ 40°i 
+ 30°, 

+ 20"i- 
+ 10%- 

annualV 

AVEBAGE /r 

- 10%- 
-20", 

- 30% - 
-40", 

- 50%L 



+ 40% 




Figure 12. 



88 

Table 29.— MONTHLY VARIATIONS, URBAN COMMUNITIES, 1954 

[Daily average, offenses known to the police in 2,583 cities, total population 79,754,626, based on 1950 

decennial census] 



Month 



January-December. - 

January-March 

A pril-June 

July-September 

October-December. . 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June.. 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



10.6 



10.3 
9.9 
11.4 
10.4 



10.1 
10.8 
10.1 
9.7 

10.5 
9.4 
13.1 
11.3 



10.3 
9.5 
11.3 



Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 



7.4 



7.7 
6.4 
6.3 
9.1 



8.0 
7.4 
7.6 
6.5 

6.2 
6.6 
6.7 
7.0 

6.0 
8.1 



Rape 



26.7 



25.0 
26.6 
28.1 
27.3 



Rob- 
bery 



155.7 



184.7 
138.8 
139.1 
160.7 



22.2 
27.6 
25.4 
25.0 

27.7 
27.0 
30.2 
28.7 

25.2 
28.8 
28.4 
24.7 



196.7 
195.3 
162.8 
144.4 

137.9 
134.1 
140.2 
142.0 

134.9 
142.6 
158.2 
181.3 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 




168.4 
174.1 
170.7 
180.0 

183.9 
190.0 
213.8 
212.0 

198.2 
187.9 
173.6 
174.2 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



972.2 

1, 058. 2 
928.0 
929.0 
974.9 



Larceny- 
theft 



Auto 
theft 



2, 267. 7 

2,203.1 
2, 273. 8 
2, 261. 3 
2, 331. 4 



1,043.0 

1,114.2 

1,022.8 

956.4 

917.1 
910.8 
922.7 
954.0 

909.6 

911.3 

989.7 

1, 024. 2 



2, 019. 
2, 370. 1 
2, 236. 4 
2, 286. 4 

2, 227. 7 
2, 308. 8 
2, 245. 2 
2,290.1 

2, 248. 4 
2, 355. 1 
2, 356. 6 
2,283.3 



408.6 



424.0 
395.7 
387.1 
427.8 



410.0 
445.1 
419.0 
402.4 

395.2 
389.6 
385.1 
388.3 

387.9 
423.8 
434.3 
425.6 



89 



MONTHLY VARIATIONS 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, 1954 

2,583 URBAN POLICE AGENCIES - TOTAL POPULATION 79,754,626 

OFFENSES AGAINST PROPERTY 



ROBBERY 



BURGLARY 



^ ^ ^ H £ a 

^ ^ kU CJ ^ UJ 




LARCENY 



AUTO THEFT 




Figure 13. 



337615° — 55- 



CRIME RATES 

Explanations of Rates 

Crime rates eliminate differences due to population. Crime rates 
included in this publication are the number of crimes reported by the 
police expressed in terms of crimes per unit of population in the 
areas represented by the reporting law enforcement agencies. The 
unit of population used is 100,000 inhabitants. As indicated pre- 
viously, crime trends, as distinguished from crime rates, represent the 
total number of crimes occurring or the crime volume dealt with by 
specific law enforcement agencies during two or more periods. Crime 
rates serve as a current index to the criminality of the population of 
the area. 

Use of 1950 decennial census figures causes overstatement of crime 
rates. Extreme accuracy in rates can be approached only when 
population figures on a nationwide basis are available for individual 
cities as well as other reporting areas. Up-to-date estimates of popu- 
lation are available from the Bureau of the Census for the United 
States and for each state but these estimates do not furnish a break- 
down by cities or as to urban and rural population. 

Crime rates for the United States: The total estimated crimes as 
shown in table 24 represents estimates of the crimes occurrmg through- 
out the United States. These estimates can be used with the appro- 
priate current population estimate to obtain crime rates for the 
United States if desired. For example, the July 1, 1954, estimate of 
population residing in the United States as published by the Bureau 
of the Census reflects 161,195,000 inhabitants. If the robbery rate 
per 100,000 inhabitants for the United States is desired, the 67,420 
estimated robberies for the entire United States in 1954 can be 
converted to a robbery rate of 41.8 robbery oft'enses per 100,000 
inhabitants. 

Computation of rates. One method of obtaining crime rates per 
100,000 population is to divide 100,000 by the population involved 
and then multiply by the number of crimes. 

Crime rates in following tables are based on 1950 decennial census 
figures. The following tables show the crimes reported by city police 
departments and law enforcement agencies covering rural areas con- 
verted to the number of crimes per 100,000 in the areas represented. 
As indicated above, allowances must be made for shifts in population 
since the 1950 decennial census if a highly accurate study is desired. 

Projection of urban population, 1950-1954. Since the Bureau of 
the Census does not make estimates separately for urban areas and 
for rural areas, this has been done for the convenience of the reader 

(90) 



91 

to demonstrate one of the factors that must be considered in any 
use of crime rate figures. 

Urban Crime Rates 

As an example of the possible effect of changes in population, a 
projection of the urban population by the least squares method was 
made on the basis of the experience of the 1930, 1940, and 1950 
decennial censuses. On this basis, it is noted there has been an in- 
crease of over 7 percent in the urban population since the 1950 de- 
cennial census. To test the possible effect of the changes in the 
urban population on the urban crime rates published in the follo^ving 
tables, it was assumed that the cities represented in those tables 
experienced the 7 percent increase in population which was obtained 
for all urban population as above. After increasing the population 
of the cities represented in the following tables on urban crime rates 
by the 7 percent, the rates were refigured. Here is a comparison of 
the urban crime rates using the 1950 population and those prepared 
mth an assumed 1954 population figure. 

Urban crime rates 

1950 popu- Esfimnted pop- 

lation ulation (1954) 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 4. 8 4. 5 

Xegliaent manslaughter 3.4 3.1 

Rape - 12.2 11.4 

Robbery 71.2 66.4 

Aggravated assault 85.0 79.2 

Burelarv — breaking or entering 444. 9 414. 6 

Larcenv— theft 1,037.8 967.2 

Autotheft -- 187.0 174.3 

It will be noted from the above comparative figures that the rates 
using 1954 population estimate figures are 6.8 percent less (before 
rounding off) than the rates sho^\^l in the following urban rate tables 
using the 1950 decennial census figures. Persons interested in esti- 
mated population figures as well as more detailed population esti- 
mating methods should direct an inquiry to the Bureau of the Census, 
General Federal Office Buildings Numbers 3 and 4, Suitland, Md. 

Comparisons of crime rates: Differences in crime rates among 
cities, states, and geographic divisions are normal. Lack of con- 
sistency in the rates of one area with those of another should not be 
assumed to spring from a lack of uniformity in the compilation of the 
data. Certain consistencies can be noted in the rates of an individual 
area from year to year. All available usable reports for one year are 
used in preparing crime rate figures. Those reports known to be 
incomplete are not used. 

The change in population in individual reporting areas may not 
agree with the projection of United States urban population used 
above for illustration purposes. For this reason, the latest most 
reliable local estimates of population should be obtained before 
attempting to compare crime rates between units as small as individual 
cities. Also, the numerous factors affecting the incidence of crime 
should be considered. Some of these factors are itemized on page 97. 



92 

Table 30.— URBAN CRIME RATES, 1954, BY POPULATION GROUPS 

(Oflenses known to the police and rate per 100,000 inhabitants. Population figures based on 19M decennial 

census] 



Population group 



TOTAI, GROUPS I-VI 

2,583 cities; total population, 
79,754,626: 
Number of offenses known.. 
Bate per 100,000 

GROUP I 

41 cities over 250,000; total popu- 
lation, 34,932,955: 
Number of offenses known _ . 
Rate per 100,000 

GROUP 11 

63 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 9,334,520: 
Number of offenses known. . 
Rate per 100,000 

GROUP in 

126 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 8,904,958: 
Number of offenses known. . 
Rate per 100,000 

GROUP IV 

242 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 8,549,860: 
Number of offenses known. . 
Rate per 100,000... 

GROUP V 

668 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 10,266,438: 
Number of offenses known. 
Rate per 100,000 

GROUP VI 

1,443 cities under 10,000; total 
population, 7,765,895: 
Number of offenses known. 
Rate per 100,000 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 

lipent 

man- 
slaughter 



3,829 
4.8 



2,134 
6.1 



537 
5.8 



340 
3.8 



298 
3.6 



298 
2.9 



222 
2.9 



Man- 
slaughter 
by 
negli- 
gence 



2,688 
3.4 



1,563 
4.5 



331 
3.5 



277 
3.1 



268 
3.1 



138 
1.3 



111 
1.4 



Rape 



9,761 
12.2 



6,436 

18.4 



979 
10.5 



640 
7.2 



571 
6.7 



646 
G.3 



489 
6.3 



Rob- 
bery 



56, 823 
71.2 



43, 455 
124.4 



5. 156 
55. 2 



2,824 
31.7 



2,192 
25.6 



1,959 
19.1 



1,237 
15.9 



Aggra- 
vated 



sault 



67, 768 
85.0 



44, 082 
126.2 



7,706 
82.6 



6,362 
71.4 



3,708 
43.4 



3,537 
34.5 



2,373 
30.6 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



354. 843 
444.9 



190, 747 
546.0 



47, 936 
513.5 



34, 843 
391.3 



30,090 
351.9 



32,120 
312.9 



19, 107 
246.0 



ceny — 
theft 



827, 728 
1,037.8 



380, 152 
1, 088. 2 



109, 536 
1, 173. 5 



95, 333 
1, 070. 6 



92, 414 
1, 080. 9 



98, 151 
956.0 



52, 142 
671.4 



Auto 
theft 



149, 149 
187.0 



88,170 
252.4 



19. 175 
205.4 



13,950 
156.7 



10, 988 
128.5 



10,568 
102.9 



6,298 
81.1 



93 



Table 31.— URBAN CRIME RATES, 1954, BY GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS 

AND STATES 
[Offenses kno^^Ti per 100,000 inhabitants. Population based on 1950 decennial census] 



Division and State 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 


Larceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


TOTAL 


4.8 


71.2 


85. 


444.9 


1, 037. 8 


187.0 






New England . .. . 


1.2 


15.1 


14.2 


260.8 


621.6 


122.7 






Connecticut .. 


1.4 

2.4 

1.1 

.4 

•9 


17.4 
7.9 

16.9 
4.1 

10.9 
2.7 

77.1 


25.7 
10.6 
12.1 

4.8 
12.9 

1.8 

70.8 


298.0 
210.8 
252.3 
151.0 
321.1 
173.2 

426.8 


639.2 
674.2 
596. 3 
556. 7 
735. 8 
557. 7 

730.5 


120. 3 


iVIaine . . 


80.6 




135 7 


New Hampshire 

Rhode Island 


.41.7 
117.8 




76.2 


Middle Atlantic 


3.2 


145.3 






New Jersey 


2.8 
3.2 
3.7 

4.1 


36.3 
92.8 
69.2 

91.3 


46.9 
87.3 
51.9 

67.8 


370.5 
474.9 
363.8 

378.0 


633.1 
828.1 
593. 1 

1, 029. 1 


133. 2 


New York . .. ... 


144.0 




154.8 


East North Central - 


160.2 






Illinois 

Indiana 

Michigan 

Ohio 


5.4 
3.5 
4.3 
3.8 

1.1 

3.3 


147.8 
48.8 

107.3 
58.3 
11.5 

59.8 


80.4 
38.6 
126.0 
36.7 
19.2 

56.3 


387.7 
434.6 
482.7 
333. 7 
176.2 

384.2 


668. 
1,125.8 
1, 498. 1 
l.OfiS.S 

970. 7 

1,029.3 


127.. 5. 
185. 9 
268.3 
127. 6 


Wisconsin - 

West North Central 


92.9 
173.1 






Iowa. . . 


1 
4.6 

.5 
6.8 
2.0 


12.1 
38.4 

46.8 

126.0 

20.7 

9.1 

5.7 

59.1 


10.2 

59.3 

11.9 

133.7 

23.3 

3.0 

5.7 

229.9 


292.0 
473.5 
372.2 
487.5 
227.0 
204.5 
170.4 

518.5 


918.5 
1,176.6 

993.8 
1,063.8 
1,030.6 
1,201.9 

813. 3 

1, 139. 3 


93.5 


Kansas . 

Minnesota 


13r. 8 
144.8 


Missouri 

Nebraska ... 


274.6 
166.0 


North Dakota 


97.7 


South Dakota. 


1.5 
10.0 


52.2 


South Atlantic'. - 


236. 4 






Delaware 

Florida.. .. .. . 


5.7 

in. 1 

1G.6 
7.7 

11.0 
7.2 

10.0 
3.5 

12.9 


53.4 
76.4 
46.5 
67.3 
29.7 
31.1 
66.2 
23.2 

50.3 


21.4 
100.9 
198.7 
155.3 
367.0 
105.1 
245.0 

00.6 

117.4 


509.2 
869.1 
488.2 
462.2 
396. 9 
489.7 
473.0 
274.0 

482.2 


1.519.4 
1, 473. 5 

965. 3 
1, 037. 9 

929.9 
1,226.4 
1, 385. 1 

661.2 

779.4 


233.2 
233.3 


Georgia 


250.3 


Marvland .. . 


444.2 


North Carolina 

South Carolina . . - . 


142.8 
151.0 


Virginia ...^ 

West Virginia 

East South Central 


239.0 
109.2 

194.4 






Alabama 

Kentucky^ . 

Mississippi .' 

Tennessee 

West South Central 


14.8 
9.8 
9.4 

14.7 

8.9 


36.0 

89.7 
17.3 
45.0 

49.3 


119.7 

156.2 
48.4 
111.3 

95.2 


524.4 
530.9 
371.2 
449.7 

527.7 


770.6 

1,086.8 

592.7 

623.8 

1,225.0 


127.4 
303.8 
99.7 
204.0 

259.5 






Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma 

Texas 

Mountain . . 


6.4 
10.7 
5.4 
9.7 

4.5 


56.7 
75.6 
37.4 
45.7 

67.4 


92.2 
93.4 
38.2 
109.9 

49.1 


407.8 
275.5 
505.0 
600.9 

612.9 


836. 5 

727.6 

1,221.1 

1, 375. 

1, 804. 1 


102.5 
444.4 
162. 4 
259.1 

254.2 






Arizona . . 


8.4 
4.1 
1.8 
3.4 
18.1 
3.6 
3.5 
2.7 

3.6 


101.5 
94.7 
21.9 
61.0 

165.3 
42.0 
27.3 
38.6 

96.5 


135. 9 
46.0 
12.3 
58.1 
50.4 
58.0 
19.3 
30.5 

88.3 


957.3 
688.9 
395.1 
328.5 
1,383.0 
653.5 
447.7 
305.8 

633.6 


3, 139. 3 
1, 584. 8 
1,821.0 
1,615.3 
3, 272. 3 
1. 507. 1 
1, 533. 2 
1,316.5 

1, 794. 6 


476.2 


Colorado 

Idaho 

Montana 

Nevada . 


234.5 
141. 4 
246.0 
508. S 


New Me.xico . . . 


279.4 


Utah 

Wyoming 

Pacific 


200.2 
121.1 

290.8 


California... 

Oregon 

Washington 


3.8 
2.3 
3.1 


107.5 
49.0 
60.7 


105.6 
32.6 
20.8 


665.4 
500.0 
527.5 


1, 835. 6 
1, 562. 5 
1, 692. 2 


313.2 
141.1 
248.3 



1 Includes the report of the District of Columbia. 



94 



Table 32.— URBAN CRIxME RATES, 1954, BY GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS 
AND POPULATION GROUPS 

[Offenses known per 100,000 inhabitants. Population figures based on IMO decennial census] 



Division and Group 



TOTAL. 
New England. 



Group I 

Group II 

Group III- - 
Group IV... 

Group V 

Group VI... 

Middle Atlantic. 



Group I--. 
Group II-- 
Group III. 
Group IV- 
Group V... 
Group VI. 



East North Central. 



Group I 

Group II- 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

West North Central. 



Group I 

Group II--. 
Group III- - 
Group IV.. 

Group V 

Group VI.. 

South Atlantic i . 



Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

East South Central. 



Group I 

Group II 

Group III .. 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

West South Central. 



Group I-- 
Group II-- 
Group III- 
Group IV. 
Group V... 
Group VI. 

Mountain. 



Group I-.- 
Qroup II-- 
Qroup III- 
Group IV. 
Group V... 
Group VI. 

Pacific 



Group I--. 
Group II-- 
CJroup Ill- 
Group IV.. 
Group V... 
Group VI. 



Murder, 
nonncg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



1.7 
1.4 
1.1 

.8 
1.1 

.6 

3.2 



4.4 
2.0 
2.2 
1.1 
1.7 
1.1 

4.1 



Robbery 



6.1 
4.4 
2.3 
2.0 
2.0 
1.4 



5.8 
3.6 
1.5 
1.2 
1.7 
1.1 

10.0 



10.9 
10.6 
9.4 
9.6 
8.2 
9.9 

12.9 



11.3 
19.8 

9.5 
13.6 
10.9 

8.3 

8.9 



14.1 
6.2 
7.6 
7.1 
3.1 
4.8 

4.5 



5.5 
6.2 
3.7 
4.5 
3.5 
3.8 

3.6 



4.1 
3.6 
2.6 
3.5 
2.9 
2.4 



71.2 



15.1 



35. 1 
23.0 
10.7 
8.5 
3.8 
2.6 

77.1 



120.7 
23.0 
23.3 
13.1 
12.6 
8.8 

91.3 



160,0 
63.6 
27.2 
27.1 
19.5 
15.6 

59.8 



127.1 
48.8 
17.9 
16.7 
12.2 
7.5 

59.1 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



85.0 



14.2 



33.6 
24.5 
8.0 
5.3 
3.5 
5.2 

70.8 



81.9 
98.3 
41.6 
30.9 
17.6 
26.3 

50.3 



76.0 
55.4 
40.1 
32.4 
20.8 
18.3 

49.3 



74.6 
63.1 
31.9 
33.5 
12.5 
16.6 

67.4 



143. 6 
75.8 
53.8 
66.0 
36.4 
28.2 

96.5 



134.2 
71.4 
75.4 
47.3 
48.7 
3.3.2 



105.9 
34.5 
34.9 
18.3 
14.8 
10.1 

67.8 



108.5 
78.3 
39.3 
21.9 
15.7 
11.7 

56.3 



115.9 
63.8 
24.3 
9.8 
9.7 
6.0 

229.9 



Burg- 
lary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



444.9 



260.8 



190.0 
333.8 
272. 6 
249. 4 
223. 1 
183.9 

426.8 



561.0 
316.0 
292.9 
247. 6 
197.7 
165.3 

378.0 



437.9 
458. 8 
341.0 
313.2 
302.6 
234.2 

384.2 



338.9 
204.5 
206. 
174.3 
167.4 
155.2 

117.4 



148.7 
84.3 
192.0 
129.0 
78.3 
48.8 

95.2 



117.9 
109.8 
130.3 
58.3 
49.0 
52.3 

49.1 



70.7 
94.1 
49.2 
48.5 
26.5 
21.8 



139. 2 
23.1 
45. 6 
28.7 
31.6 
29.5 



531.5 
595. 
294.9 
225. 8 
257. 9 
186. 7 

518.5 



Larceny- 
theft 



1, 037. 8 



621.6 



590.3 
696. 2 
680.3 
598.3 
525. 8 
497. 5 

730.5 



849.0 
625.5 
599.7 
638.2 
549. 9 
434.8 
1, 029. 1 



1, 0.56. 9 
1,215.9 
1, 114.6 
1,070.6 
1,049.9 
588.4 

1, 029. 3 



490.2 
731.1 
486. 3 
502. 3 
414.0 
349. 6 

482.2 



583. 
588. 
522. 3 
367. 
334. 5 
215.0 

527.7 



678.0 
699. 4 
471.6 
466. 6 
262. 9 
194.7 

612.9 



928.8 
789.4 
659. 9 
555. 8 
462. 3 
374. 9 

633.6 

704. 2 
484.8 
628. 7 
595. 6 
567. 3 
470.4 



1, 186. 8 

1,387.9 

1, 179.2 

980.6 

863. 9 

508. 9 

1.139.3 



1,085.1 
1,415.0 
1, 138.8 
1,323.4 
933.0 
717.6 

779.4 



917.3 
813.0 
885. 1 
807.5 
578.9 
365. 3 

1,225.0 



1,367.0 
1,652.2 
1,490.0 
1,243.7 
772. 1 
457.0 

1, 804. 1 



1,578.0 
2,481.5 
1,786.2 
2, 294. 3 
1, 765. 5 
1,232.4 

1, 794. 6 



1,688.3 
1,871.8 
1,865.5 
2, 06(i. 6 
1,950.5 
1,765.6 



Includes the report of the District of Columbia. 



95 



Table 33.— NUMBER OF CITIES IN EACH POPULATION GROUP, GEO- 
GRAPHIC DIVISION, AND STATE REPRESENTED IN THE URBAN 
CRIME RATE TABULATIONS (TABLES 30-32) 





Total 






Population group 






Division and State 


Over 
250,000 


100.000 

to 
250,000 


.■^0,000 25,000 

to to 
100,000 50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


TOTAL; 

Population, 79,754,626 


2,583 


41 


63 


126 


242 


668 


1,443 


New England: 

Population, 6,254,711 


179 


1 


11 


17 


32 


66 


52 


Connecticut 


26 
19 
89 
16 
18 
11 

570 




4 


2 

1 

10 

1 
3 


10 
2 

14 
2 
3 
1 

45 


3 
7 
42 
5 
7 
2 

135 


7 


Maine 




9 


Massachusetts 

New Hampshire 


1 


6 


16 

8 


Rhode Island 




1 


4 


Vermont-. . 




s 


Middle Atlantic: 

Population, 21,034,655 


7 


11 


24 


348 


New Jersey 

New Yorlv _ 


. 149 
181 
240 

613 


2 
3 
2 

9 


4 
4 
3 

10 


8 
6 
10 

30 


16 
16 
13 

63 


37 
41 

57 

142 


82 
111 


Pennsylvania 


155 


East North Central : 

Population, 18,699,138 


359 


Illinois : 

Indiana 


152 
85 
118 
176 
82 

289 

65 
52 
68 
45 
28 
13 
18 

248 


1 

1 

1 

. 5 

1 

5 


1 
4 
2 
3 

4 


9 
4 
7 
6 
4 

9 


14 
9 
9 

19 

12 

18 


38 
18 
32 
40 
14 

76 


89 
49 


Michigan ..... . 

Ohio L- 


67 
103 


Wisconsin 

West North Central: 

Population, 6,281,509 


51 

177 


Iowa - 




1 
2 

1 


4 

1 


7 
1 
3 
4 


10 
19 
16 
17 
7 
3 
4 

57 


43 


Kansas . . 




29 


Minnesota 


2 
2 

1 


46 


Missouri.. 


2 

1 


20 


Nebraska... .. . 




19 


North Dakota 


2 
1 


8 


South Dakota 






i 


12 


South Atlantic: 

Population, 7,791,482-__.__ 


3 


9 


20 27 


132 


Delaware.. . . .. 


3 
1 
53 
30 
17 
57 
27 
' 38 
22 

109 


_ 


1 






2 


District of Columbia.. 










Florida .. 


3 
1 


2 
3 


8 
3 
2 
5 
1 
5 
3 

13 


8 
7 
7 
17 
5 
9 
4 

23 


32 


Georgia 

INTarvland. 


1 
1 


15 


North Carolina 


1 
_. 


5 
3 
4 
3 

4 


''9 


South Carolina 

Virginia 




18 
17 


West Virginia ■ 




12 


East South Central: 

Population, 3,134,880 


3 


6 


61 


Alabama 

Kentucky. 


28 

' 36 

20 

25 

183 


1 
1 


2 


1 
2 
1 


2 
3 
5 
3 


7 
5 
6 
5 

59 


15 
25 


Mississippi 




8 


Tennessee. ... . 


1 
5 


3 
6 


13 


West South Central: 

Population, 5,699,731 


3 


12 


93 


Arkansas 


22 
19 
42 
100 

132 




1 




3 
2 
3 

4 

11 


5 

6 

15 

33 

25 


13 


Louisiana. ... .. ... 


1 
- 

1 




10 


Oklahoma.- 


2 
3 

2 




22 


Texas 


8 
3 


48 


Mountain : 

Population, 2,163,341 


90 


Arizona.. 


14 
27 
24 
16 
6 
14 
20 
11 

260 




1 




1 
1 
2 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 

21 


7 
7 
3 
1 
3 
1 
3 

85 


12 


Colorado 


1 


1 


17 


Idaho 




15 


Montana.. 








10 


Nevada. _ 








4 


New Me.xico 






1 
1 


q 


Utah 




1 


16 


Wyoming 






Pacific : 

Population, 8,695,179 


7 


5 


11 


131 


California 

Oregon 


183 
34 
43 


5 

1 
1 


3 


11 


14 
2 

5 


67 
8 
10 


83 
23 


Washington 


2 


_ 


25 



96 



Rural Crime Rates 

Crime rates for rural areas in table 34 are based on the 1950 decennial 
census in lieu of more recent population data for the areas repre- 
sented. Any interpretations placed on these rates should include 
considerations of the possible effects of changes in the population 
since the 1950 decennial census. 

Effect of population changes since 1950. No official population 
estimates for rural areas are available. The rural crime rates in 
table 34 are based on the 1950 population count for the areas repre- 
sented. To illustrate to the reader the possible effect on these rates 
due to population changes since 1950, a projection was used. This 
reflected a possible increase in rural population of over 6 percent for 
the period 1950-54. Adjusting the rates in table 34 on this basis 
furnishes the following comparison : 



Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter - 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape--- ...^- 

Robbery.. - - - 



Aggravated assault :. 

Burglary— breaking or entering - 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft --- 



Rural crime rates 




Estimated 


1950 


population 


population 


(1954) 


4.9 


4.6 


5.0 


4.7 


12.5 


11.7 


20.0 


18.8 


38.3 


36.0 


238.6 


224.1 


322.3 


302.8 


60.6 


57.0 



Rural rates are 6 percent less (before rounding off) using projected 
population figures. It is not known whether the projected increase 
in rural population is applicable to all areas represented by the crime 
figures published in table 34. 

Summary figures for rural areas are published since more detailed 
presentation by states or geographic divisions does not appear practi- 
cable. The reporting base is not as broad for rural areas as for cities. 
It is noted that some rural reports used in the table may be limited 
to arrest data, particularly for those crimes where proportionately 
the fewest arrests are made. Of course, obviously incomplete rural 
reports are excluded from the tabulations. 

Table 34.— RURAL CRIME RATES, 1954 

[Offenses known and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, as reported by 1,530 sheriffs, 150 rural village officers, 
and 11 State police; total rural population 40,039,614, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Offense 



Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence..- 

Rape - - 

Robbery - 

Aggravated as.sault 

Burglary— breaking or entering- 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft - 



Offenses known 



Number Rate 



l.9«) 
2,002 
4.997 
8,021 

16.325 
9.^ 527 
129, 053 
24, 275 



4.9 
5.0 
12.5 
20.0 

38.3 
238.6 
322.3 

CO. 6 



OFFENSES IN INDIVIDUAL AREAS 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 25,000 Inhabitants 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the period of January-December 1954, is shown in table 35. The 
compihxtion inckides the reports received from poUce departments 
in cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants. Pohce administrators 
and other interested individuals will probably find it desirable to 
compare the crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown 
in tables 30, 31, and 32 of this publication. Similarly, they will 
doubtless desire to make comparisons with the figures for their com- 
munities for prior periods, in order to determine whether there has 
been an increase or a decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

Caution should be exercised in comparing crime data for individual 
cities because the differences in the figures may be due to a variety 
of factors. Such comparisons are not necessarily significant even 
though the figures for individual communities are converted into 
terms of the number of offenses per 100,000 inhabitants. 

The following is a list of some of the factors which affect the amount 
of crime in the community: 

Population of the city and metropolitan area adjacent thereto. 

The . composition of the population with reference particularly to 
age, sex, and race. 

The economic status and activities of the population. 
- Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 

The number of police employees per unit of population. 

The standards governing appointments to the police force. 

The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 

The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 

The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 

The figures presented in the following tabulation are those reported 
by the individual police departments in the cities represented without 
reducing the data to crime rates (number of offenses per 100,000 
inhabitants) . 

In considering the volume of crime committed locally, it is gener- 
ally more important to determine whether the figures for a given 
community show increases or decreases rather than to ascertain 
whether they exceed or fall short of those for some other individual 
community, and it should be remembered that the amount of crime 
committed in a community is not solely chargeable to the police 
but is rather a charge against the entire community. 

In publishing these figures the FBI acts as a service agency. The 
figures published are those submitted by the contributing agencies. 

(97) 



98 

Table 35.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, 1954, 
CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION 



City 



Abilene, Tex 

Abincrton, Pa.. 

Akron, Ohio 

Alameda, Calif- 
Albany, Ga 



Albany, N.Y. 

AlbiKuierque, N. Mex. 

Alexandria, La 

Alexandria, Va 

Alhambra, Calif 



Aliquippa, Pa-. 
Alleiitown, Pa- 
Alliance, Ohio-. 

Alton, 111 

Altoona, Pa 



Araarillo, Tex 

Amsterdam, N. Y- 

Anderson, Ind 

Ann Arbor, Mich- 
Amiiston, Ala 



Appleton, Wis-. 
Arlington, Mass- 

Arlington, Va 

Asheville, N.C. 
Ashland, Ky 



Athens, Ga 

Atlanta, Oa 

Atlantic City, N. J. 

Auburn, N. Y 

Augusta, Ga 



Aurora, 111 

Austin, Tex 

Bakersfield, Calif. 

Baltimore, Md 

Bangor, Maine 



Barberton, Ohio 

Baton Rouge, La 

Battle Creek, Mich. 

Bay City, Mich 

Bayonne, N. J 



Beaumont, Tex 

Belleville, 111 

Belleville, N. J 

Bellingham, Wash. 
Belmont, Mass 



Beloit, Wis 

Berkeley, Calif. 

Berwyn, 111 

Bessemer, Ala.. 
Bethlehem, Pa- 



Beverly, Mass 

Beverly Hills, Calif. 

Billings, Mont 

Biloxi,Miss. ,-_ 

Binghamton, N. Y.. 



Birmingham, Ala. 
Bloomfipld.N. J.. 
Bloomington, 111. . 
Bloomington, Ind. 
Boise, Idaho 



Boston, Mass 

Bremerton, Wash. 
Bridgeport, Corui. 

Bristol, Conn 

Brockton, Mass... 



Murder, , 
nonneg- ' 

ligent I Robbery 

man- | 
slaughter 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



48 



3 

2 

278 



30 



2 

238 

52 



42 

32 

746 

3 



14 

34 

30 

1 

164 
5 

17 
G 

10 

281 

3 

46 

1 

6 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



14 157 79 

2 78 49 

247 i 1,484 525 

4 1 122 I 52 

Only 7 months received 

24 211 108 

60 I 875 I 333 

Only 6 months received 

210 325 196 

19 301 152 

13 50 30 

Only 1 month received 



Under 

$50 



15 

11 

147 



41 

245 



102 
150 
150 

372 
36 
122 
141 
140 

75 

44 

327 

220 



Only 1 month received 



78 

1,003 

122 



209 

21 

272 

20 

1, 737 

2 



61 

2,497 

562 

42 
219 

104 

654 

382 

4,691 

63 



46 

1,518 ' 

464 I 

23 

58 i 

128 ■ 
212 
306 
3, 240 I 

68 I 



1 69 43 

Only 9 months received 
210 
174 
199 



190 



119 
5 

2 

1 

20 



335 
3 
1 



269 



48 



363 

50 
61 
101 
62 

65 

~ 535 

140 

81 

84 

40 
84 
178 
119 
103 

2, 198 
80 
114 
145 
116 

1,523 

92 

343 

51 

261 



703 

108 

2.910 

375 



442 
1,311 



1,008 
511 



150 



20 


212 


35 


376 


64 


292 


.SI 8 


1,109 


16 


59 i 


54 


514 i 


157 


284 


65 


358 


30 


436 ; 


32 


102 


348 


912 1 


187 


377 1 



83 

4,112 

456 

91 
153 

302 
1,886 

970 
6.736 

166 

189 



75 


580 


65 


481 


79 


310 


196 


1, 226 1 


36 


137 1 


20 


82 ! 


94 


147 , 


30 


92 1 


39 


310 1 


150 


1,234 ; 


62 


126 


49 


115 


71 


226, 


51 


187 


47 


49 


249 


766 


55 


230 


85 


428 


946 


2,307 


40 


99 


89 


256 


86 


309 


172 


617 


1, 665 


3.066 


76 


472 


348 


686 


22 


74 


111 


470 



99 

Table 35.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, 1954, 
CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Brookline, Mass.. 
Brownsville, Tex. 

Buffalo, N.Y 

Burbank, Calif 

Burlington, Iowa- 



Burlington, Vt 

Butte, Mont 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 



Cedar Rapids, Iowa- 
Champaign, 111 

Charleston, S. C 

Charleston, W. Va.. 
Charlotte, N. C 



Charlottesville, Va.. 
Chattanooga, Tenn_ 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chester, Pa 

Cheyenne, Wyo 



Chicago, 111 

Chicopee, Mass 

Cicero, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio... 
Clarksburg, W. Va. 



Cleveland, Ohio.. 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio. 
Clifton, N.J 

Clinton, Iowa.. 

Colorado Springs, Colo... 



Columbia, Mo... 
Columbia, S. C. 
Columbus, Oa... 
Columbus, Ohio. 
Compton, Calif.- 



Concord, N. H 

Corpus Christi, Tex.. 
Council BlufTs, Iowa. 

Covington, Ky 

Cranston. R. I 



Cumberland, Md 

Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. 

Dallas, Tex 

Danville, 111 

Danville, Va 



Davenport, Iowa 

Dayton, Ohio 

Daytona Beach, Fla. 

Dearborn, Mich 

Decatur, 111 



Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa. 

Detroit, Mich 

Dubuque, Iowa... 
Duluth, Minn 



Durham, N. C 

East Chicago, Ind 

East Cleveland, Ohio. 
East Hartford, Conn.. 
Easton, Pa 



East Orange, N. J-. 

East Providence, R. I. 

East St. Louis, 111 

Eau Claire, Wis 

Elgin, 111 



Murder, | 
nonneg- ( 

ligent Robbery 

man- 1 
slaughter 



277 



23 

2 

108 

1 



5 

5 

205 

35 

3 

2 
61 
40 
86 
55 

10 
12 
89 
47 
65 

1 

102 
13 
46 
18 



5 
64 
241 

5 

1,128 
4 
6 
4 
9 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



17 

25 

329 



2 
6 
379 
10 
13 

15 
133 
15 
44 
10 

597 

54 

3,540 



238 
16 
3 



62 
12 
94 
32 

3 
11 

52 
104 
532 

35 
120 
3 
56 
12 

4,132 

3 

76 

281 



315 

1 

10 

1 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



202 

209 

1, 177 

335 

36 

102 
140 
183 
681 
404 

185 

71 

704 

297 

572 

32 
977 
104 
167 

91 

15,805 

67 

234 

1,439 

- 75 

2,249 
91 
159 
55 
136 



$50 and 
over 



(') 



43 

83 

498 

229 

11 

61 
115 
197 
206 
214 

123 
90 
307 
) 
238 



151 
79 

154 
76 

10, 724 

56 

174 

1,132 

23 

1,353 
37 
92 
35 
127 



Under 
$50 



No reports received 
103 
6 
76 
38 



1 

348 

11 

110 



6 
3 

830 
11 

113 

7 
203 
37 

14 

7 

294 

32 

3,760 



7 

1 
Only 7 months received 

I 68 I 36 

12 I 68 I 31 



226 

528 

1,384 

766 
177 

291 
465 
247 
349 
869 



210 
1,088 
1,009 
1,178 

157 
707 
138 
139 
515 

10, 238 

152 

320 

3,057 

66 

14, 635 
207 
229 
258 
706 



369 


410 


1,210 


412 


200 


511 


2,208 


1,606 


3,060 


660 


161 


1,361 


53 


34 


143 


975 


565 


1,369 


137 


78 


424 


261 


158 


522 


158 


88 


282 


33 


38 


139 


77 


67 


196 


4,050 


880 


8,653 


168 


47 


204 


143 


114 


375 


399 


170 


1,115 


838 


360 


1,727 


192 


157 


433 


561 


310 


2,333 


343 


74 


619 


3,862 


1,759 


4,802 


1,140 


544 


1,921 


11,029 


3,368 


26, 042 


84 


64 


317 


308 


208 


990 


180 


182 


455 


186 


192 


418 


104 


29 


258 


70 


64 


142 


74 


25 


170 


342 


101 


446 


66 


62 


244 



213 
141 



See footnote at end of table. 



100 

Table 35.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, 1954, 
CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Murder, j 
nonneg- 

ligent Robbery 

man- 
slaughter 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Elizabeth, N.J. 
Elkhart, Ind... 
Elmira, N. Y... 
El Paso, Tex.__ 
Elyria, Ohio___ 



Enid, Okla.... 

Eric, Pa 

Euclid, Ohio.. 
Eugene, Oreg. 
Evanston, 111. 



Evansville, Ind... 

Everett, Mass. 

Everett, Wash.__- 
Falrmont, W. Va. 
Fall River, Mass.. 



Fargo, N. Dak 

Fayette vilk", N. C. 

Ferndale, Mich 

Fitehburg, Mass... 
Flint, Mich.._ 



Fond Du Lac, Wis.... 

Fort Dodge, Iowa 

Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Fort Wayne, Ind 



Fort Worth, Tex 

Framiiigham, Mass. 

Fresno, Calif 

Gadsden, Ala 

Gainesville, Fla 



Galesburg, 111.. 
Galveston, Tex. 
Garfield, N.J. _ 

Gary, Ind 

Glendale, Calif. 



Gloucester, Mass 

Grand Forks, N. Dak- 
Grand Rapids, Mich.. 

Granite City, 111 

Great Falls, Mont 



Green Bay, Wis... 
Greensboro, N. C. 
Greenville, Miss-. 
Greenville, S. C... 
Greenwich, Conn. 

Hackensack, N.J. 
Hagcrstown, Md.. 
Hamilton, N. J... 
Hamilton, Ohio... 
Hammond, Ind... 



Hampton, Va 

Hamtramck, Mich. 

Harrishurg, Pa 

Hartford, Conn 

Hattiesburg, Miss.. 



Haverford, Pa 

Haverhill, Mass 

Hazleton, Pa 

Hemi)stead, N. Y 

Highland Park, Mich. 



High Point, N. C 

Hoboken, N.J 

Holyoke, Mass 

Honolulu City, Hawaii. 
Hot Springs, Ark 



16 
12 
22 

219 

103 
5 
3 



2 
163 

47 



293 
80 
105 
922 
57 

149 

472 
65 
147 
204 

650 
97 
231 



220 
101 
133 
356 
44 

52 
131 

19 
224 
305 

324 
37 

84 



Only 6 months received 
9 263 191 



1 

123 

3 



441 



65 
147 
101 
180 
958 



1 39 

No reports received 
370 
275 
438 



55 
31 
63 
90 
1,013 

23 



142 
130 



2 50 31 

Only 7 months received 



231 

10 



41 
831 

525 



26 
564 
217 



No reports received 



230 

12 

34 

3 



67 
16 

86 
44 
13 
123 
19 



80 
728 
233 

68 

139 
437 

97 
384 

46 

62 
196 
158 
213 
392 

214 
125 
406 
756 
106 

81 
115 

43 
154 
245 

94 
162 
127 
1,351 
142 



283 
81 
259 



270 2, 196 418 

Only 2 months received 



533 
33 
69 



574 
269 
329 
2,146 
116 

482 
699 
346 
557 
683 

1,254 
152 
631 



691 

286 

435 

2,352 

323 

653 

346 

1,049 



1,209 
185 
377 



123 

1,492 
1,075 



66 


412 


396 


1,866 


20 


230 


173 


376 


55 


178 


234 


549 i 


72 


280 1 


228 


506 j 


21 


64 1 


75 


176 '■ 


43 


319 


86 


327 


138 


481 


443 


1.048 


226 


458 


224 


277 


216 


470 


404 


917 


28 


103 


49 


1C6 


32 


84 


23 


43 


142 


181 


285 


711 


74 


205 


93 


137 


68 


311 


610 


2,945 


67 


135 



101 

Table 35.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, 1954, 
CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Houston, Tex 

Huntington, W. Va 

Huntington Park, Calif. 

Hutchinson, Kans 

Independence, Mo 



Indianapolis, Ind . . 
Inglewood, Calif, . . 
Iowa City, Iowa. .. 
Irondequoit, N. Y. 
Irvington, N. J 



Ithaca, N. Y 

Jackson, Mich 

Jackson, Miss 

Jackson, Tenn 

Jacksonville, Fla. 



Jamestown, N. Y, . . 
Jefferson City, Mo.. 

Jersey City, N. J 

Johnson City, Tenn. 
Johnstown, Pa 



Joliet, 111--. 

Joplin, Mo — 

Kalamazoo, Mich.. 

Kankakee, 111 

Kannapolis, N. C 

Kansas City, Kans. 
Kansas City, Mo... 

Kearny, N. J 

Kenosha, Wis 

Key West, Fhi 



Kingston, N. Y 

Knoxville, Term.-. 

Kokomo, Irid 

Lackawanna, N. Y. 
La Crosse, Wis..... 



LaFayette, Ind... 

Lafayette, La 

La Orange, Oa 

Lake Charles, La. 
Lakeland, Fla : 



Lakewood, Ohio. 
Lancaster, Pa.j.. 
Lansing, Mich... 

Laredo, Tex 

Laurel, Miss 



Lawrence, Mass.. 

Lawton, Okla 

Lebanon, Pa 

Lewiston, Maine. 
Lexington, Ky.._ 



Lima, Ohio 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Lincoln Park, Mich. 
Linden, N. J 

Little Rock, Ark.... 



Lockport, N. Y 

Long Beach, Calif. 

Lorain, Ohio 

Los Angeles, Calif. 
Louisville, Ky 



Lowell, Mass 

Lower Merion, Pa. 

Lubbock, Tex 

Lynchburg, Va 

Lynn, Mass 



102 
1 
3 
1 
1 

32 
1 



397 
29 
36 



423 

56 

1 

1 

13 



10 
13 
13 

207 

1 

6 
67 



126 

372 

2 

2 



165 
137 



309 
21 
3 



188 
14 
1 

14 
10 
15 
12 
103 



340 
4 



5,165 
226 
275 
126 
84 

2,391 

398 

38 

65 

251 

71 

213 

587 

114 

1,564 

85 
25 
674 
141 
112 



210 
259 
63 
56 

758 

1,194 

71 

90 



1,463 

155 

226 

22 

84 

1,470 

281 

46 

16 

55 

61 
134 
76 
70 
1,152 

40 
23 
216 
33 
83 

104 
180 
159 
30 
16 

331 

1,179 

43 

66 



Only 4 months received 



No reports received 



No reports received 

3 64 37 

302 441 241 



267 
167 
No reports received 



5,989 
582 
610 
279 
239 

3,535 
615 
139 
132 
309 

222 
517 
470 
226 
2,292 

165 
90 
434 
158 
246 

391 
261 
824 
218 
105 

1,183 

2,548 

176 

385 



4 


57 




30 


91 


94 


421 




254 


373 


No reports received 






17 


95 




39 


126 


5 


90 




42 


615 


11 


195 




90 


514 



3 


7 


61 


37 


118 


9 


33 


105 


124 


216 


3 


69 


118 


95 


151 


9 


1 


118 


60 


329 


16 


37 


105 


62 


442 


8 


9 


226 


127 


834 


7 


65 


140 


37 


275 


4 


5 


137 


16 


109 


8 


6 


142 


49 


240 


25 


20 


150 


34 


456 



217 

741 



420 
1,314 



6 


4 


135 


61 


202 


145 


76 


676 


499 


1,136 


4 


1 


40 


22 


76 


267 


217 


2,526 


(') 


3,663 


16 


54 


175 


86 


292 


3,645 


4,608 


18,209 


13,547 


24.176 


510 


561 


2,506 


2,274 


2,863 


10 


67 


230 


90 


334 


3 


1 


161 


128 


283 


23 


64 


525 


347 


1,405 


10 


63 


146 


53 


372 


13 


2 


452 


221 


788 



See footnote at end of table. 



102 

Table 35.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, 1954, 
CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Murder, ' 
nonneg- 

ligent Robbery 

man- 
slaughter. 



Aggra- 
vated 

assault 



Bur- 
glary— 

breaking 

or enter- $50 and 
ing over 



Larceny — theft 



Under 
$50 



Lynwood, Calif 

Macon, Ga 

Madison, Wis 

Maiden, Mass 

Manchester, N. H. 



Manitowoc, Wis. . 
Mansfield. Ohio.. 
Maplevvood, N. J. 

Marion, Ind 

Marion, Ohio 



Mason City, Iowa. 

Massillon, Ohio 

Maywood; 111 

McKeespOrt, Pa. . . 
Medford, Mass 



Melrose, Mass... 
Memphis, Tenn. 
Meriden, Conn.. 
Meridian, Miss. . 
Miami, Fla 



Miami Beach, Fla.. 
Michigan City, Ind. 
Middletown, Conn.. 
Middlotown, Ohio.. 
Milwaukee. Wis 



Mlmieapolis, Minn. 

Mishawaka, Ind 

Mobile, Ala 

Moline, 111 

Monroe, La 



Montclair, N. J 

Montgomery, Ala 

Morgantown, W. Va.. 
Mount Lebanon. Pa.. 
Mount Vernon, N. Y. 



Muncie, Ind 

Muskegon, Mich. 
Muskogee, Okla.. 
Nashua, N. H.... 
Nashville, Tenn.. 



New Albany, Ind... 

Newark, N. J 

Newark, Ohio 

New Bedford, Mass. 
New Britain, Conn. 



New Brunswick, N. J. 

Newburgh, N. Y 

New Castle, Pa 

New Haven, Conn 

New Kensington, Pa.. 



New London, Coim. 

New Orleans, La 

Newport, Ky 

Newport, R. I 

Newport News, Va. . 



New Rochelle, X. Y. 

Newton, Mass. 

New York, N. Y 

Niagara Falls, N. Y., 
Norfolk, Va 



Norman, Okla 

Norristown, Pa 

Nortliampton, Mass 

North Bergen, N. J 

North Little Rock, Ark. 



315 
2 
28 



155 
3 



21 

M 

9 

1 

120 

4 
608 
2 
18 
13 

10 
4 
3 

40 
1 

1 

541 

9 



29 

8 

5 

10, 310 

26 

302 



232 
510 

284 
90 
81 

59 
236 
30 
93 
92 

30 
106 
101 
138 

96 



203 
144 
52 
37 

56 
106 
18 
47 
96 

42 
U 
53 
77 
51 



420 


346 


40 


16 


12 


14 


? 




6 


8 


152 


286 


462 


105 


3 


1 


64 


177 


8 


1 


11 


12 


4 


10 


36 


81 


5 





36 13 

727 1,657 628 

3 207 20 

Only 4 months received 

3,585 

765 
121 
45 
120 
810 

2, 967 

100 
1,064 

106 

144 

82 
418 
65 
Only 5 month's received 



Onlv 11 months received 
5 1 62 I 37 

I 40 I 39 

No reports received 
No reports received 



303 
573 
838 
209 
325 

287 
381 
55 
296 
295 

183 
263 
108 
281 
281 

86 
991 
142 



1,183 


3,071 


862 


668 


107 


415 


32 


99 


98 


404 


1,544 


4,963 


1,416 


4,472 


73 


282 


228 


900 


00 


354 


43 


287 


47 


165 


236 


476 


37 


71 



11 


153 


140 


168 


12 


284 


148 


651 


21 


226 


147 


516 


3 


168 


04 


280 


1 


64 


39 


191 


89 


1,034 


695 


1,392 


9 


02 


62 


299 


532 


3,366 


1,271 


3,599 


2 


91 


59 


337 


15 


443 


281 


877 


10 


96 


146 


270 


18 


173 


50 


315 


10 


119 


91 


192 


5 


96 


68 


174 


54 


690 


306 


904 


12 


17 


21 


37 


6 


80 


70 


246 


562 


1,615 


1,441 


2, 945 


7 


127 


63 


137 


7 


53 


65 


281 


88 


267 


402 


1,096 


25 


145 


146 


258 , 


3 


321 


212 


539 


9,519 


47, 596 


42, 514 


31,9*36 


45 


256 


260 


386 


1,421 


1.556 


1,413 


2.171 



103 

Table 35.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, 1954, 
CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Norwalk, Conn. 
Norwich, Conn. 
Norwood, Ohio. 
Nutley, N.J.... 
Oakland, Calif.. 



Oak Park, 111 

Oak Ridge, Tenn 

Odessa, Tex 

Ogden, Utah .. 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 



Omaha, Nebr... 

Orange, N. J 

Orlando, Fla 

Oshkosh, Wis... 
Ottumwa, Iowa. 



Owensboro, Ky 

Paducah, Ky 

Palo Alto,Calif 

Panama City, Fla.... 
Parkersburg, W. Va. 



Parma, Ohio 

Pasadena, Calif.. 

Passaic, N. J 

Paterson, N. J... 
Pawtucket, R. I. 



Pensacola, Fla 

Peoria, 111 

Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Petersburg, Va 

Philadelphia, Pa 



Phoenix, Ariz... 
Pine Bluff, Ark. 
Pittsburgh, Pa.. 
Pittsfleld, Mass- 
Plainfleld, N. J_ 



Pocatello, Idaho 

Pomona, Calif 

Pontiac, Mich 

Port Arthur, Tex_. 
Port Huron, Mich. 



Portland, Maine 

Portland, Oreg 

Portsmouth, Ohio... 

Portsmouth, Va 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 



Providence, R. I. 

Provo, Utah 

Pueblo, Colo..... 

Quiney, 111 

Quincy, Mass 



Racine, Wis 

Raleigh, N. C 

Rapid City, S. Dak... 
Reading, Pa 

Redondo Beach, Calif. 

Redwood City, Calif... 

Reno, Nev 

Revere, Mass 

Richmond, Calif 

Richmond, Ind 



Richmond, Va... 
Riverside, Calif.. 

Roanoke, Va 

Rochester, Minn. 
Rochester, N. Y. 



4 
134 

13 
7 

25 
1 
2 

1 
1 
4 
3 



18 
2 
12 
11 
107 

87 
12 
27 
1 
6 

9 
22 
1 
4 
1 

1 
52 
10 
50 

6 

23 

81 

5 

44 

2,948 

147 
23 

625 
3 
6 

11 

18 

32 

2 

3 

14 

291 

52 

50 



23 
4 
11 
16 

4 

58 
28 
64 
20 

228 
20 
19 



13 202 123 267 

Only 9 months received 

3 I 78 I 61 I 149 

No reports received 
306 



27 

12 

30 

123 



26 

225 

1 



20 
133 



6 
3 

1 

19 

30 

149 

4 

74 

118 

7 

176 

2,198 

238 

32 

264 

1 

7 

5 
10 
69 
21 
13 

16 
172 

14 
350 

17 

73 
2 

17 
5 
1 

17 

269 

5 

7 

16 

3 
13 



69 



73 
6 

243 

20 

67 

1 

72 



2,948 


408 


6,818 


133 


93 


256 


27 


23 


115 


199 


104 


702 


245 


139 


1,029 


1,927 


1,333 


2,798 


679 


250 


2,019 


99 


42 


187 


535 


273 


571 


106 


42 


692 


48 


12 


137 


149 


90 


382 


189 


106 


158 


44 


107 


359 


96 


65 


124 


72 


72 


166 


82 


28 


110 


585 


462 


1,490 


174 


96 


163 


657 


67 


737 


224 


96 


348 


301 


119 


649 


723 


198 


1,059 


114 


136 


193 


209 


135 


535 


12, 256 


7,088 


9,514 


1,222 


776 


3,139 


245 


68 


181 


2,879 


1,403 


1,321 


82 


77 


272 


121 


94 


144 


98 


81 


305 


285 


137 


620 


469 


170 


646 


66 


40 


228 


94 


40 


381 


214 


154 


595 


2,399 


1,581 


4,588 


257 


179 


438 


471 


287 


601 


103 


99 


409 


1,235 


604 


1,768 


83 


44 


577 


316 


227 


848 


155 


99 


312 


291 


87 


449 


174 


73 


723 


258 


161 


616 


32 


67 


133 


263 


133 


568 


369 


64 


404 


101 


106 


506 


532 


388 


561 


159 


70 


159 


461 


215 


1,849 


118 


123 


145 


1,606 


906 


3,533 


297 


183 


669 


282 


226 


683 


55 


59 


427 


1,004 


558 


2,578 



104 

Table 35.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, 1954, 
CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 



assault i or enter- 
I ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and ; Under 
over $50 



Auto 
theft 



Rocktord, 111 

Rock Island, 111 

Rocky Mount, N. C. 

Rome, Ga 

Rome, N. Y -. 



Roswell, N. Mcx-.. 
Royal Oak,' Mich.. 
Sacramento, Calif. . 

Saginaw, Mich 

St. Cloud, Minn... 



St. .Toseph, Mo 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

St. Petersburg, Fla. 
Salem, Mass. 



Salem, Oreg 

Salina, Kans ^ 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Angelo, Tex. 

San Antonio, Tex 1 



San Bernardino, Calif.!. = 
San Diego, Califs __:.... 

Sandusky, Ohio --l-.. 

San Francisco, Calif': 

San Jose, Calif . 



San Leandro, Calif 
San Mateo, Calif... 
Santa An^, Calif... 
Santa Barbara, Call: 
Santa Fe,;N. Mex... 

Santa Monica, Califi 

Savannah', Oa 

Schenectady, N. Y 

Scranton.'Pa 

■Seattle, 'Wash 



Shaker Heights, Ohio. 
Sharon, I^a 

Sheboygan, 'Wis ... 

Shrevepopt,- La ... 

5ioux City, Iowa...... 



Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 

Somerville, Mass 

South Bend, Ind... 
South Gate, Calif. . . 
Spartanbiirg, S. C 



Spokane, Wash... 

Springfield, III 

Springfield, Mass. 
Springfield, Mo... 
Springfield, Ohio.. 



Stamford, Conn 

SteuluMivUle, Ohio. 

Stockton, Calif 

Stratford, Conn 

Superior, Wis 



Syracuse, N. Y.. 
Tacoma, Wash.. 
Tallaliassce, Fla. 

Tampa, Fla 

Taunton, Mass.. 



Tcaneck, N. J 

Temi)le, Tex 

Terre Haute, Ind. 

Toledo, Ohio 

Topeka, Kans 



20 



6 

1,932 

195 

23 



226 
213 
138 
103 
50 



142 

171 

60 

95 

20 



1 

52 

178 

2 

17 

2,209 

41 

37 



No reports received 



195 

779 

239 

55 

138 
6,520 
1,383 

500 



66 
931 
161 

32 

90 

2,106 

405 

281 



2 




11 


16 


72 


34 


19 


33 


170 


872 


64 


.50 


239 


155 


5 


27 


1,069 


748 


68 


15 


19 


4 


10 


7 


14 


14 


10 


26' 


4. 


6 


77. 


43, 


128 


445 


11 


6 


12' 


16 


481 


137 


9 




3- 




2 





Only 7 months received 

145 

145 
1,059 

257 
2,488 

494 

1,398 

73 

5,124 

526 

IfiO 
117 
249 
209 
167 

642 
633 
193 
456 
3,225 

36 

46 
67 
Only 11 months received 



9 


14 


1 




18 


20- 


41 


21 


9.H 




8' 


24 


70 


27 


28 


34 


5 


29 


16 


4 


27 


21 


7 


29 


18 


19 


100 


55 


? 




6 


4 


31 


13: 


78 


19 



No reports received 



172 


145 


1,778 


1 


16 


109 


4 


2 


82 


14 


41 


108 


18 


10 


377 


179 


262 


1, .588 


48 


70 


353 



434 

296 

58 

155 



527 
2,511 
1,398 

279 

554 

10,491 

3,569 

767 



76 


451 


43 


358 


698 


2,557 


48 


325 


1,049 


4,390 


390 


1,019 


1,854 


3,410 


39 


289 


1,538 


9,023 


247 


-2,100 


133 


554 


153 


578 


174 


763 i 


102 


660 1 


109 


457 


672, 


... 1,167; 1 


468 


727 ! 


174 


295 


92 


■484 1 


1,684 


5,a7i I 


56 


296 


25 


69 ' 


57 


218 i 



252 


124 


725 


84 


84 


462 


328 


224 


471 


736 


342 


1,369 1 


492 


294 


544 


151 


80 


. 359 


705 


399 


2,905 


246 


108 


- 658 


256 


150 


507 1 


253 


128 


317 


236 


100 


672 1 


268 


257 


597. 


196 


111 


216.1 


572 


543 


1,350 1 


80 


82 


153 1 


76 


37 


473 : 


564 


553 


U452 i 


602 


474 


1,821 ! 



692 


1,423 1 


24 


260 


47 


100 1 


50 


317 1 


107 


615 


929 


3,072 


157 


933 1 



105 

Table 35.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, 1954, 
CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Tonington, Conn. 

Trenton, N.J 

Troy, N. Y 

Tucson, Ariz 

Tulsa, Okla 



Tuscaloosa, Ala 

Tyler, Tex 

Union, N. J 

Union City, N.J 

University City, Mo. 



Upper Darby, Pa 

Utica, N. Y 

Vallejo, Calif.. 

Valley Stream, N. Y. 
Vancouver, Wash 



Vicksburg, Miss. 

Waco, Tex... 

Waltham, Mass.. 

Warren, Ohio 

Warwick, R. I... 



Washington, D. C. 

Washington, Pa 

Waterbury, Conn.. 

Waterloo, Iowa 

Watertown, Mass.. 



Watertown, N. Y. 

Waukegan, 111 

Wausau, Wis 

Wauwatosa, Wis.. 
West Allis, Wis... 



West Hartford, Conn.. 

West Haven, Conn 

West New York, N. J.. 

West Orange, N. J 

West Palm Beach, Fla. 



Weymouth, Mass... 
Wheeling, W. Va... 
White Plains, N. Y. 

Wichita, Kans 

Wichita Falls, Tex.. 



WUkes-Barre, Pa.. 
Wilkinsburg, Pa... 
WUliamsport, Pa.. 
WUmington, Del... 
Wilmington, N. C. 



Winona, Minn 

Winston-Salem, N. C. 

Woodbridge, N. J 

Woonsocket, R. I 

Worcester, Mass 



Wyandotte, Mich.. 

Yakima, Wash 

Yonkers, N. Y._... 

York, Pa.-..- 

Youngstown, Ohlo- 

ZanesvUle, Ohio 



Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



46 

18 

38 

133 



1 

32 
4 

33 
1 

804 
4 

14 
7 
4 

2 
30 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



1 

63 

19 

40 

107 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



42 

605 

194 

472 

1,138 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



7 

291 

74 

190 

795 



146 141 

Complete data not received ^ 



Under 
$50 



70 
6 

15 
3 
3 

11 

205 

3 

2 



4,658 

1 

16 

21 

1 

5 
60 
1 
1 
1 



Complete data not received ^ 



70 
545 

80 
1.563 
1,763 

173 



166 


95 


275 


215 


m 


130 


134 


147 


270 


274 


100 


453 


238 


111 


612 


115 


101 


458 


75 


73 


1.32 


166 


103 


535 


49 


41 


125 


527 


186 


1,188 


186 


56 


371 


175 


115 


322 


166 


138 


133 


3,514 


1,617 


6,466 


67 


55 


170 


291 


167 


390 


149 


98 


507 


177 


44 


150 


120 


95 


266 


109 


97 


221 


49 


28 


233 


58 


52 


255 


75 


65 


424 


135 


42 


173 


46 


35 


43 



1 

9 


' 


66 
269 


73 
82 


118 
264 


48 


2 


33 


13 


29 


11 


5 


3 


92 


64 


130 


15 


39 


177 


147 


299 


83 


224 


1,247 


506 


2,368 


28 


72 


364 


211 


1,120 


10 


4 


146 


82 


191 


12 


8 


86 


30 


175 


7 


9 


122 


105 


413 


64 


25 


576 


358 


1,332 


24 


296 


352 


135 


450 


1 




27 


50 


222 


33 


110 


423 


162 


635 


6 


1 


201 


59 


133 


4 




112 


37 


125 


58 


10 


767 


330 


1,121 


4 


2 


99 


79 


325 


28 


17 


288 


141 


1,309 


15 


25 


238 


100 


769 


13 


16 


213 


94 


575 


113 


23 


545 


434 


981 


12 


6 


162 


80 


352 , 



' Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 
* The crime reporting for the city indicated does not meet acceptable standards established by the Com- 
mittee on Uniform Crime Records of the Intemational Association of Chiefs of Police. 



106 

Offenses Known in Jurisdictions Outside the United States 

Crimes in areas outside the 48 states are represented by the figures 
in table 36. The data inckide reports contributed vohintarily by 
law enforcement agencies in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the 
Canal Zone. These data are not presented elsewhere in this bulletin 
except that the figures for the city of Honolulu also appear in table 35. 

Table 36.— OFFENSES KNOWN IN JURISDICTIONS OUTSIDE THE 

UNITED STATES, 1954 



Jurisdiction reporting 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligcnt 
man- 
slaughter 



Roh- ' Aggra- 
e°'?: 1 vated 
^''^y assault 



Alaska: 

Anchorage City 

Department of Territorial Police 

(Juneau) 

. First judicial division (Juneau) 



Hawaii; 

HaAvaii County 

Honolulu City 

Honolulu County, 

Kauai County 

Maui County 



Isthmus of Panama: Canal Zone- 
Puerto Rico 



28 



4 
181 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



100 
119 



114 

1,351 

355 

70 

173 

177 

4,387 



Larceny— theft 



Over 
$50 



152 



335 
13 



24 

610 

195 

10 

20 

66 



Under 
$50 



190 
143 



287 
2,945 
850 
158 
346 

664 

6,648 



Auto 
theft 



321 
2 



14 

359 

68 

6 



154 



SUPPLEMENTAL CRIME DATA 

Source 

Police in cities of over 25,000 inhabitants contribute a secondary 
report each month containing vahiable analyses for the rape, robbery, 
burglary, larceny, and auto theft classifications. The extent of the 
breakdown of information is shown in tables 37, 38, and 39. 

A comparison of reports from 409 identical cities was made for 
1953-54 to provide trend information (see table 37). These 409 cities 
of over 25,000 inhabitants represent a combined population of over 
55.6 million (1950 census). 

Property loss and recovery data were supplied by slightly more 
cities than the 409 represented in the trend table. (See tables 38 
and 39.) 

Trends 

Robberies (strong arm and armed) in 409 cities over 25,000 in 
population increased 9.4 percent. Over 50 percent were highway 
robberies and these increased 4.0 percent in 1954 as compared with 
1953. Although oil station robberies declined 4.2 percent, robberies 
of other business places increased 16.7 percent. Chain store robberies 
led with an increase of 47.5 percent. Bank robberies increased 10.7 
percent in the 409 cities represented while robberies of other commer- 
cial houses (excluding oil stations, chain stores, and banks) increased 
18.0 percent. 

Robberies of residences rose 22.1 percent and miscellaneous types 
of robberies increased 0.1 percent. 

Burglaries. Unlawful entries in 409 cities over 25,000 increased 
6.9 percent. By time of day the greatest increase (8.9 percent) 
occurred in daytime burglaries. Night breakings rose only 6.2 
percent. Daytime burglaries of stores, offices and other nonresidence 
places reflected an increase of 16.4 percent while unlawful entries of 
residences in the daytime rose 6.9 percent. 

Larceny- theft. Shoplifting and auto accessory thefts led the 
increases in the larceny classification. Wliile the over-all rise in 
larcenies was 4.5 percent in 409 cities over 25,000, shoplifting jumped 
11.4 percent and auto accessory thefts climbed 9.4 percent. Pocket 
pickings declined 3.0 percent. 

(107) 



108 
Table 37— OFFENSE ANALYSIS, TRENDS, 1953-54 

[409 cities over 25,000. Total 1950 population 55,060,886] 



Classification 



Rape: 



Total . 



Forcible. - 

Statutory. 

Robbery; 

Total 



Higliway 

Commercial house- 
Oil station 

Ciiain store 

Residence.- 

Bank 

Miscellaneous 



Burglary— breaking or entering : 
Total- 



Residence (dwelling) : 

Night 

Day 

Nonresidence (store, office, etc.): 

Night ----- 

Day 



larceny— theft (except auto theft, by value): 
Total -- 



$50 and over. 

$5 to $50 

Under $5 



Larceny— theft (by type): 
Total 



Pocket-picking -. 

Purse-snatching 

Shoplifting- 1 ..'. J. . J ...... . 

Thefts from autos (except accessories) . 

Auto accessories ■.--.^..- 

Bicycles ^ 

All others...' 



Auto theft : 

Stolen 

Recovered. 



Number of offenses 



1953 



7,672 



4,155 
3,517 



44. 306 



23, 385 
11,656 
2,145 
846 
3,787 
112 
2,375 



255, 986 



57, 442 
49, 408 



135, 672 
13. 444 



594, 446 

171, 721 

343, 507 

79, 218 



7,763 



3, 932 
3.831 



48, 491 



24,312 

13, 750 

2,055 

1,248 

4,625 

124 

2,377 



273, 641 



60, 471 
52, 814 



144, 701 
15, 655 



594, 446 



7,909 
12, 386 
23, 666 
121,132 
112,282 
100, 748 
216, 323 



126, 313 
118, 579 



621,474 

173, 433 
357, 771 
90, 270 



621. 474 



7,675 
12, 350 
26, 353 
123, 361 
122, 789 
105. 107 
223, 839 



Percent 
change 



-fl.2 



-5.4 
-1-8.9 



-i-9. 4 




-1-6.9 



-f5.3 
-1-0.9 



-t-C.7 
4-16.4 



-1-4.5 



-1-1.0 
-(-4.2 
-1-14.0 



-1-4.5 



120. 449 
113, 168 



-3.0 
.. -.3 

+ 11.4 

- -fl.8 

-1-9. 4 

-1-4.3 

-1-3.5 



-4.6 
-4.6 



Property Loss, By Crime 

The average loss per property crime was $208 in 1954. For crimes 
against property except auto theft the loss per offense was $111. 
Average loss figm-es by crime in 1954 were: robber}-, $219; bm'giary, 
$176; larceny, $74; and auto theft, $963. Auto thefts represent over 
half the property loss. However, 94 percent of the autos stolen were 
recovered. 

The per capita loss to property crimes was $3.96. (The 425 cities 
represented in table 38 had a combined population of 58,469,880 
under the 1950 decennial census.) 



109 



Table 38.— VALUE OF PROPERTY STOLEN, BY TYPE OF CRIME, 1954 

1425 cities over 25,000. Total 1950 population 58,469,880. Values rounded off] 



Classification 



TOTAL. 

Robbery 

Burglary 

Larceny — theft 
Auto theft 



Number of 
offenses 



1,112,088 



52. 060 
2S8, 878 
644, 713 
126, 437 



Value of 
property stolen 



$231, 500, 646 




Average 

value per 

offense 



219 

176 

74 

963 



Value of Property Stolen and Recovered by Type of Property 

Fifty-two percent of the value loss in 1954 was automobiles (table 39, 
421 cities). Over 93 percent of the value of stolen cars was recovered. 

Of the $ 221.8 million loss to property crimes, property valued at 
$123.4 million or 55.6 percent was recovered in 1954. 

Currency, jewels, precious m etals, and furs represented 52.2 percent 
of the loss other than automobiles. 

Table 39.— VALUE OF PROPERTY STOLEN AND VALUE OF PROPERTY 
RECOVERED, BY TYPE OF PROPERTY, 1954 

[421 cities over 2.5,000. Total 1950 population 56,282,211. Values rounded off] 



Type of property 



TOTAL... 

Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles. _ 
Miscellaneous 



Value of property 



Stolen 



$221, 824, 503 

28. 649, 942 
20, 004, 202 
7,341,718 
12, 259, 254 
114.494,285 
39, 075, 102 



Recovered 



$123, 397, 662 



2,711,396 
2, 326, 281 
417,347 
1,238,320 
106, 777, 636 
9, 926, 682 



Percent 
recovered 



55.6 

11.6 
5.7 
10.1 
93.3 
25.4 



AGE, SEX, AND FACE OF PERSONS ARRESTED 

Source 

Reporting area. Reports from 1,389 cities representating 38,642,183 
inhabitants (1950 decennial census) were usable for 1954. Usable 
reports for 1953 and 1954 from 1,005 identical cities (combined 1950 
population of 32,633,967) were used in the arrest trend figures. The 
1,389 cities above represent about 43 percent of the urban population 
while the 1,005 cities represented in the trends cover approximately 
37 percent of the urban population. 

Reports are compiled locally b}^ police in urban places on an annual 
basis. Arrests of all persons for violations occurring within the 
reporting jurisdiction are counted. (The only traffic arrests included 
are those for driving wdiile intoxicated and arrests for negligent man- 
slaughter.) This count does not distinguish between arrests followed 
by the placing of formal charges and arrests followed by release 
without a formal charge being filed. 

Arrests versus offenses known. The figures presented in this section 
deal with the number of persons arrested and do not reflect the number 
of offenses known to the police. Oft'ensos known data appear in the 
preceding pages of this publication. 

Completeness of data. Reports were not used (1) where police 
pointed out that all juveniles were not included or (2) where it was 
obvious the report was incomplete in any other manner. However, a 
few reports included in the tabulations do not include all youthful 
oft'enders because local procedures bypass the police in a percentage 
of the juvenile cases, according to the police. 

A second annual arrest tabulation (Return C) received from report- 
ing police is used as a guide to the completeness of the age, sex and 
race data. Information from the Return C, which includes dispositions 
of arrests, is published in the semiannual issue of this bulletin. 

Trends, 1953-54 

Arrests of juveniles (under 18) increased 2.3 percent ^^•hilo arrests 
of adults decreased 1.9 percent in 1954 (1,005 cities over 2,500, total 
1950 population of 32,033,967). 

Cities over 25, 000 dominated the over-all 2.3 percent increase in 
arrests of juveniles. These larger cities reflected a 2.8 percent rise in 
arrests of young persons under 18 while total arrests decreased 0.5 
percent. (253 cities over 25,000, 1950 population total of 25,213,979.) 

Arrests of young persons (under 18) in smaller cities remained 

(110) 



Ill 



almost unchanged with a 0.2 percent increase shown. In the smaller 
cities, total arrests decreased 5.2 percent. (752 cities, 2,500 to 25,000 
in population, combined 1950 population of 7,419,988.) 

Table 40.— ARREST TRENDS, 1953-54 

[Population figures from 1950 decennial census] 



Total— 1,005 
cities: total 
population 
32,633,967 



Over 25,000— 
253 cities: 
population 
25,213,979 



2,500 to 25,000— 

752 cities: 

population 

7,419,988 



Total arrests : 

1953 

1954 

Change 

Percent change 
Under 18: 

1953 

1954 

Change .-- 

Percent change 



1,472,389 

1,450,721 

-21, 668 

-1.5 

139, 003 

142, 220 

+3,217 

+2.3 



1, 177, 579 

1,171,315 

-6,264 

-0.5 

111,719 

114,881 

+3, 162 

+2.8 



294, 810 

279, 406 

-15,404 

-5.2 

27, 284 

27, 339 

+55 

+0.2 



Number of Arrests, 1954 

Arrests totaled 1,688,555 in 1954 in 1,389 cities over 2,500 in popu- 
lation. Based on the 1950 combined population of 38,642,183, these 
cities represent about 43 percent of the city population of the United 
States. 

Crimes against the person. Arrests numbered 94,795 (criminal 
homicide, rape, and assault). 

Crimes against property. Arrests for crimes with property as their 
object numbered 170,814 (robbery, burglary, larceny, auto theft, 
embezzlement and fraud, buying and receiving stolen property, and 
forgery and counterfeiting). 

Age of Persons Arrested, 1954 

Persons age 17 or under represented almost 10 percent (9.7) of the 
1954 arrests in 1,389 cities. Juveniles (under 18) represented 57.6 
percent of all persons arrested for auto theft. They were also high in 
burglary and larceny arrests, 49.0 percent and 43.6 percent, respec- 
tively, of the persons arrested in each category. 

Over 51 percent of arrests for property crimes were of young persons 
under 21. For crimes against the person, young people represented 
only 14 percent of the arrests. 



112 



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obbery 

geravatcd assault. - 
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113 




PERSONS ARRESTED UNDER 
18 YEARS OF AGE 

PERCENT OF TOTAL ARRESTS 
CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY 



OFFENSES 



ROBBERY 



CALENDAR YEAR 1954 



• UNDER 18 YEARS 
OF AGE 



TOTAL ARRESTS, 
ALL AGES 



BURGLARY 



LARCENY 



AUTO THEFT 



EMBEZZLEMENT 
AND FRAUD 



RECEIVING STOLEN 
PROPERH 



FORGERY AND 
COUNTERFEITING 




12,220 

39,925 

73,650 

20,286 

13,457 

3.114 

8,162 



1,389 CITIES TOTAL POPULATION 38,642,183 




Figure 14. 



114 



Table 42.— NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF ARRESTS OF PERSONS 
UNDER 18, UNDER 21, AND UNDER 25 YEARS OF AGE, 1954; 1,389 
CITIES OVER 2,500 IN POPULATION 

[Total population 38,642,183, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Offense charged 



TOTAL 

Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man 

slaughter 

(b) Manslaughter by negligence 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Other assaults 

Burglary— breaking or entering.. 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc... 

Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

All other offenses 



Number of persons arrested 



Total 



1, 688, 555 



1.706 
1,054 

12, 220 

19, 635 

68, 585 
39, 925 

73, 650 

20, 288 
13,457 

3,114 

8,162 

3,815 

22, 833 

16, 098 

6,634 

13, 538 
22, 126 
34, 276 

84, 600 
167, 571 
713, 837 

64, 685 

36, 245 
57, 035 
133, 468 



Under 

18 



163, 666 



78 
57 

2,284 
1,301 
4,048 
19, 555 

32, 108 

11,678 

302 

810 

457 

584 

187 

2,921 

160 
1,776 
1,586 
3,651 

358 
16, 484 
4,638 
2,701 

354 
9,118 
46, 470 



Under 
21 



269, 831 



173 

146 

4,412 
2,767 
8, 766 
25, 130 

40, 163 

14,734 

1,017 

1,175 

1,148 
1,385 
1,956 
4,305 

802 
3, 265 
2,803 



3,163 
32, 857 

20, 274 
7,551 

1,217 
17,893 
63,641 



Under 
25 



438, 072 



377 
299 

6,924 
5,319 
17,993 
29,582 

47, 012 

16, 808 

2,631 

1,491 

2,523 
2,185 
8,257 
6,506 

2,391 
5,392 
5,853 
11,983 

12,714 
57, 042 
64, 434 
13. 080 

3,738 
26, 952 
84, 586 



Percentage 



Under 
18 



9.7 



4.6 
5.4 

18.7 
6.6 
5.9 

49.0 

43.6 

57.6 

2.2 

26.0 

5.6 

15.3 

.8 

18.1 

2.4 
13.1 

7.2 
10.7 

.4 
9.8 

.6 
4.2 

1.0 
16.0 
25.3 



Under 
21 



16.0 



10.1 
13.9 

36.1 
14.1 
12.8 
62.9 

54.5 

72.6 

7.6 

37.7 

14.1 
36.3 
8.6 
26.7 

12.1 
24.1 

12.7 
26.5 

3.7 
19.6 

2.8 
11.7 

3.4 
31.4 
34.7 



Under 
25 



25.8 



22.1 
28.4 

56.7 
27.1 
26.2 
74.1 

63.8 
82.9 
19.6 
47.9 

30.9 
57.3 
36.2 
40.4 

36.0 
39.8 
26. 5 
35.0 

15.0 

34.0 

9.0 

20.2 

10.3 
47.3 
46.1 



115 



Sex of Persons Arrested, 1954 

Female arrests. Eleven percent of the 1,688,555 persons arrested 
in 1,389 cities in 1954 were females. 

Male arrests numbered 1,503,172 in the same cities, or 89 percent. 

Table 43 reflects arrest information by sex as reported by 1,389 
cities. 

Table 43.— DISTRIBUTION OF ARRESTS BY SEX, 1954; 1,389 CITIES 
OVER 2,500 IN POPULATION 

[Total population 38,642,183, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Offense charged 



TOTAL 

Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

(b) Manslaughter by negligence 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault ._ 

Other assaults 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft- - - 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Disorderly conduct. 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

All other offenses 



Number 



Total 



1,688,555 



1,706 
1,054 

12. 220 

19. 835 
68. 585 
39, 925 

73, 650 

20. 286 
13, 457 

3,114 

8,162 

3,815 

22, 833 

16, 098 

6,634 
13, 538 
22, 126 
34, 276 

84, 600 
167, 571 
713, 837 

64, 685 

36, 245 
57, 035 
183,468 



Male Female 



1, 503, 172 



1,382 
985 

11,705 
16,518 
61,438 
39, 036 

64,078 
19, 787 
11,517 
2,833 

7,065 
3,815 
6,833 
12, 526 

5,473 
12, 625 
20, 007 
27, 981 

81, 0,55 
140, 082 
658, 855 

57, 449 

33, 061 
51, 512 

155, 554 



324 
69 

515 
3,117 
7,147 



9,572 
499 

1,940 
281 

1,097 



16, 000 
3.572 

1,161 

913 

2,119 

6.295 

3,545 
27. 489 
54, 982 

7,236 

3,184 
5,523 
27,914 



Percent 



Total 



100.0 



.1 
.1 

.7 
1.2 
4.1 
2.4 

4.4 
1.2 



.5 
.2 
1.4 
1.0 



1.3 
2.0 



42.2 
3.8 

2.1 
3.4 
10.8 



Male 



100.0 



1.1 
4.1 
2.6 

4.3 
1.3 



1.3 

1.9 

5.4 

9.3 

43.7 

3.8 

2.2 
3.4 
10.3 



Female 



100.0 



(') 



.3 

1.7 

3.9 

.5 

5.2 
.3 

1.0 
.2 



8.6 
1.9 

.6 

.5 

1.1 

3.4 

1.9 
14.8 
29.6 

3.9 

1.7 
3.0 
15.1 



' Less than Yio of 1 percent. 



116 

Race of Persons Arrested, 1954 

Over 71.4 percent of the 1,688,555 arrests in 1,389 cities were mem- 
bers of the white race. Members of the Negro race numbered 
439,762 or 26 percent of the arrests in the reporting cities. 



Table 44.— ARRESTS BY RACE, 1954; 1,389 CITIES OVER 2,500 IN 

POPULATION 

[Total population 38,642,183, based on 1950 docennial census] 



Offense charged 



TOTAL. 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man- 
slaughter .,_ 

(b) Manslaughter by negligence 



Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

other assaults 

Burglary-breaking or entering. 



Larceny-theft. 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving;, etc. 



Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape. 

Prostitution and commercialized vice, 
other sex offenses. 



Narcotic drug laws... 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc... 
Offenses against family and children. 
Liquor laws ^ 



Driving while intoxicated. 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 



Gambling 

Suspicion 

All other offenses. 



Tetal 

all 
races 



1, 688, 555 



1,706 
1,054 

12, 220 

19, 635 
68, 585 
39, 925 

73, 650 

20, 286 
13,457 

3.114 

8,162 
3,815 
22, 833 
16, 098 

6,634 

13, 538 
22, 126 
34, 276 

84, 600 
167, 571 
713, 837 

64, 685 

36, 245 
57, 035 
183, 468 



Race 



1,206,110 439,762 



Negro 



630 
840 

6,643 

7,372 

38, 937 

28, 481 

50, 008 
15,907 
10, 455 
2,016 

6,872 
2, 246 
8,481 
12, 361 

2,371 
5,982 
15, 788 
19. "31 

71, 732 
109,615 
556. 732 

49,507 

10,873 
39, 791 
133, 679 



1,064 
297 

6,482 
12, 106 
29, 159 
11,176 

22, 823 
4, lfi9 
2,944 

1,076 

1,234 

1, 527 

14,081 

3, 484 

4,154 
7,437 
6,179 
14, 195 

11, 

55, 737 

126, 663 

13,311 

25, 044 
16, 796 
46, 915 



Indian 



Chi- 
nese 



Japa- 
nese 



33,212 



55 
69 
282 
149 

444 

138 

28 

14 

40 
12 
174 
162 

5 
49 
82 
245 

736 
1, 

26, 289 
1,275 

17 

345 

1.103 



363 1 



REPORTING AREA 



Population Represented 

Nine out of every 10 people in the United States were represented 
by Uniform Crime Reports in 1954. The total population coverage 
was 135,589,122 or 90.0 percent (1950 census figures). 

Most city dwellers (95.7 percent) were represented and the crime 
reporting coverage extended to 81.6 percent of the people living out- 
side the limits of cities (rural areas). However, notice the next 
paragraph. Some contributors did not send in reports for all months 
of the year. 

Contributors 

Contributors numbered 5,787 in 1954. Police in 84.3 percent of the 
cities and law enforcement agencies covering 75.2 percent of the 
rural areas voluntarily contributed one or more crime reports in 1954. 
In 1954 there was an increase of 59 contributors or 1.0 percent over 
the 5,728 in 1953. 

Contributors were: 3,393 city police departments; 2,156 sheriffs; 14 
state police; 212 rural townships and villages; and 12 police agencies 
outside the 48 states. 

Urban and Rural 

Urban (city) places are defined under the Bureau of the Census 
1940 rule (generally, at least 2,500 inhabitants and incorporated). 
The limits of some "urban" places, under the 1950 definition, do not 
coincide with police boundaries. So, the 1940 definition is continued 
for uniform crime reporting purposes. 

Rural areas are those outside the urban places defined under the 
1940 rule. 

The following table shows the number of urban police contributing 
and the population (1950 census figures) represented by them. 



Population group 



TOTAI 

1. Cities over 250,000 

2. Cities 100,000 to 250,000 

3. Cities 50,000 to 100,000. 

4. Cities 25,000 to 50,000. . 

5. Cities 10,000 to 25,000.. 

6. Cities 2,500 to 10,000... 



Cities or towns 



Number 



Total 



4,026 



41 

66 

129 

275 

814 

2,701 



Contrib- 
utors 



3,393 



41 
66 
129 
262 
751 
,144 



Percent 
contrib- 
utors 



84.3 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
95.3 
92.3 
79.4 



Population 



Number 



Total 



89, 281, 777 



34, 932, 955 
9,694,111 
9, 134. 357 
9, 631, 270 
12, 454, 800 
13, 434, 284 



Repre- 
sented by 
contribu- 
tors 



85, 443, 364 




Percent 
repre- 
sented 



95.7 



100. 
100.0 
100. 
95.7 
92.6 
81.4 



(117) 



CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

Uniform Crime Reporting Program 

Readers not entirely familiar with the uniform crime reporting pro 
gram may be interested in a brief explanation of the contents of crime 
reports included in this bulletin: 

1. These crime figures are called "police statistics" to distinguish 
them from judicial or penal statistics in the criminal field. (Program 
is voluntary. International Association of Chiefs of Police started it 
January 1930. The FBI has acted as the central clearinghouse since 
September 1930, by an Act of Congress.) 

2. Crimes that are exclusively Federal are not included. 

3. Each reporting agency counts only those crimes or arrests for 
crimes committed in its jurisdiction. A sheriff reports only for his 
rural areas outside the city or town limits of any urban places in his 
county. This feature avoids duplication. 

4. "Offenses known to the police" is a term that refers to those 
crimes included in the Part I offenses of the crime reporting classi- 
fication. (See below for individual classes.) The Part I offenses are 
limited to seven classes of grave offenses shown by experience to be 
those most generally and completely reported to the police. 

5. Offenses (crimes) for the Part I classes are reported as tliej 
become known. The police may learn of the occurrence of crime ir 
a number of ways: reports of police officers; citizens' complaints 
notification from prosecuting or court oflEicials; or otherwise. 

G. Offenses are included without regard to: (a) the age of the< 
offender; (b) the value of property involved; (c) the recovery of stolem 
property; (d) arrests; or (e) prosecutive action. The purpose is tc 
show the amount of crime that has occurred as distinguished froir 
arrest data and the classifying is based strictly on the facts in posses- 
sion of the police, 

7. Complaints that are found by police investrgation to be ground- 
less are not included in crime tables in this bulletin, and returns that 
appear incomplete or defective are excluded. 

8. Arrest data is not included in "offenses known" informati* > 
but arrest data is collected separately for the entire crime classificatioi 
Parts I and II. So, the only information for Part II offenses is tliat 
based on arrest data. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cit us 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out ;i~ 
current information which may throw some light on problems ol 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

The complete classification of crimes is shown below with briel 
definitions for each: 

(118) 



119 

Part I Offenses 

1. Criminal homicide. — {a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 
includes all wilful felonious homicides as distinguished from deaths 
caused by negligence. Does not include attempts to kill, assaults to 
kill, suicides, accidental deaths, or justifiable homicides. Justifiable 
liomicides excluded from this classification are limited to the following 
types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon by a peace officer in line of 
duty; (2) the killing of a holdup man by a private citizen. (6) Man- 
slaughter by negligence includes any death which the police investiga- 
tion establishes was primarily attributable to gross negligence on the 
part of some individual other than the victim, 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape (no force used — 
victim under age of consent), assault to rape, and attempted rape. 

3. i?o66('r7/.— Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the 
person by force or violence or by putting in fear, such as strong-arm 
iTil)bery, stickups, robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and at- 
tempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault 
by shooting, cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by 
the use of acids. Does not include simple assault, assault and battery, 
fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreak- 
ing, safecracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or a theft, 
even though no force was used to gain entrance. Includes attempts. 
Burglary followed by larceny is included in this classification and not 

5| counted again as larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in 
ifj value; (6) under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassi- 

fications, depending upon the value of the property stolen, thefts 

of bicycles, automobile accessories, shoplifting, pocket picking, or any 

nil stealing of property or article of value which is not taken by force 

* and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" 

games, forgery, worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or 
driven away and abandoned, including the so-called joy-riding thefts. 
Does not include taking for temporary use when actually returned by 
the taker, or unauthorized use by those having lawful access to the 
vehicle. 

Part II Offenses 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults 
which are not of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in 
class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the 
making, altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, any- 
thing false which is made to appear true. Includes attempts. 



120 

10. Embezzlement and jraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent 
conversion, embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false 
pretenses. 

1 1 . Stolen 'property; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, j 
receiving, and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to com- 
mit any of those offenses. 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of 
regulations or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, 
furnishing, and manufacturing of deadly weapons or silencers and all 
attempts to violate such statutes or regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a 
commercialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as 
prostitution, keeping bawdy house, procuring, transporting, or de- 
taining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex o^ffenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized 
vice). — Includes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, 
and the like. Includes attempts. 

15. Offenses against the family and children. — Includes offenses of 
nonsupport, neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, 
such as unlawful possession, sale, or use. Excludes Federal offenses. 

17. Liguor laws. — With the exception of "drunkenness" (class 18) 
and "driving while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations, 
State or local, are placed in this class. Excludes Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxi- 
cation. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a 
breach of the peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging,: 
loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or 
engaging in gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any 
motor vehicle while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regu- 
lations with respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to 
prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes viola- 
tions of State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and 
motor vehicles not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local lawsj 
for which no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as* 
suspicious characters, but not in connection with any specific oft'ense, 
who are released without formal charges being placed against them. 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXV, UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

(All references are to page numbers) 

Age of ofifenders. (See Arrests.) Page 

Age, sex and race of persons arrested, reports from police 110-116 

Annual crime trends: 

Cities grouped by size 74-76 

Cities grouped by location 74-8 1 

Estimated total number of major crimes, 1954 69-73 

Long term trends 82-83 

Rural crime trends 4, 84-85 

Urban crime trends 4, 74-83 

Arrests — based on age, sex, and race of persons arrested, reports from 
police: 

Arrest trends 1 10-1 1 1 

Age of offenders 110-114 

Sex of offenders 115 

Race of offenders 116 

Automobiles — percentage recovered 108 

Classification of offenses 64-66, 118-120 

Cleared by arrest, offenses 44-49 

By geographic divisions 49 

Crimes. {See Arrests, estimated number, offenses, persons charged, 
persons found guilty, and persons released.) 

Employees, number of police 20-43 

Jurisdictions outside the United States, offenses in 106 

Monthly variations, offenses known to the police 86-89 

Offenses known to the police: 

Annual trends 1-4, 67-85 

Cities grouped by location 93 

Cities grouped by location and size 94, 95 

Cities grouped by size 92 

Cleared by arrest 44-49 

Cleared by arrest, geographic divisions 49 

Divided as to time and place and value of property stolen 108-109 

Individual cities over 25,000 in population 11-19, 97-105 

Monthly variations 86-89 

Rural areas 10, 84-85, 96 

Jurisdictions outside the United States 106 

Persons charged (held for prosecution) 50-60 

By geographic divisions 54-55 

Persons found guilty 56-60 

Persons released (not held for prosecution) 61-63 

Police department employees 20-43 

Police killed 20 

Property, value stolen 109 

Property, value stolen and recovered 109 

Prosecution, persons held for. (See Persons charged and persons found 
guilty.) 

(121) 



122 

Race of offenders. (See Arrests.) Page 

Reporting area, extent of 11 

Rural crime data 4-10, 84-85; 9( 

Sex of offenders. (See Arrests.) 

Sheriffs ' reports 4-10, 84-85, nf 

State crime rates. (See Offenses known — cities grouped by location.) 

State police reports 4-10, 84-85, 9( 

Trends, annual crime: 

Cities grouped by location 74-s] 

Cities grouped by size 74-7* 

Long term 82-s:- 

Rural 4, 84-s : 

Urban 4, 74-s:: 

Urban crime rates 5-9, 90-!t." 

Value of property stolen 10'. 

Value of property stolen and recovered 101 

Variations, monthly crime 86-s( 

o 



,1 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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