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Full text of "Uniform crime reports for the United States"

-B" 



3i 







Given By 
H S. SUPT. OF DOCUMENTS 






I 



UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 



FOR RELEASE MONDAY, A.M., SEPT. 26,1955 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C 



Volume XXVI 
SEMIANNUAL BULLETIN 



Number f 
1955 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 



Volume XXVI— Number 1 
SEMIANNUAL BULLETIN, 1955 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1955 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

OCT 7 - 1955 



CONTENTS 



Page 
Summary of volume XXVI, No. 1 1 

Crime trends, January-June, 1954-55: 

Estimated number of major crimes (table 1) 2-3 

Urban trends (table 2) 4 

Rural trends (table 3) 4-5 

Crime rates, January- June, 1955: 

Urban rates (tables 4-7) 6-10 

Rural rates (table 8) 11 

Offenses in individual areas: 

Cities over 25,000 (table 9) 12-20 

Police employee data: 

Police employees killed, 1954 (table 10) 21 

Number of police employees per 1,000 inhabitants, April 30, 1955 

(tables 11, 12) 22-25 

Police employees in individual cities, April 30, 1955 (tables 13, 14) 25-45 

Offenses cleared and persons arrested, 1954: 

Offenses cleared by arrest (tables 15, 16) 46-50 

Persons charged (tables 17-19) 51-55 

Offenses known, offenses cleared, persons charged and persons found 

guilty, part I offense classes (table 20) 56-59 

Persons charged and persons found guilty, part II offense classes 

(table 21) 57,60-61 

Persons released (tables 22, 23) 61-63 

Classification of offenses 64-66 

(n) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 
of Justice, Washington, D. C. 



Volume XXVI 



JULY 1955 



Number 1 



SUMMARY 

Crime Trends, January- June, 1955 

Estimated total major crimes declined one (0.7) percent in the 
first half of 1955 as compared with the same months in 1954. Re- 
ported urban and rural crime totals also declined. Here are the 
detailed percentage changes: 



Crime 



TOTAL 

Murder 

Negligent manslaughter 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary 

Larceny 

Auto theft 



United 
States 



-0.7 



-3.8 

-.3 

+6.3 

-15.1 

+1.1 
-3.3 

+.9 
-.2 



Urban 



-1.4 



-3.4 
+5.7 
+ 10.4 
-15.3 

+2.9 

-4.0 

+.1 

-.4 



Rural 



-0.0 



-4.1 
-7.2 

+ 1.5 
-14.3 

-5.5 
-1.7 
+2.9 

+.4 



Police Employees 

Reports of 3,704 cities show that 61 city police employees were 
killed in line of duty in 1954. The rate was 3.5 deaths per 5,000,000 
inhabitants as compared with a rate of 3.6 in 1953. 

An estimated 171,000 city police employees as of April 30, 1955, is 
an increase of more than 4 percent over the 164,000 for the same date 
in 1954. Cities reported 1.9 police employees per 1,000 inhabitants. 
Civilians represented 9.6 percent of the reported police personnel. 

Offenses Cleared by Arrest and Persons Convicted, 1954 

Police cleared by arrest better than 1 out of 4 crimes in 1954. 
They cleared by arrest 3 out of 4 homicides and felonious assaults 
(crimes against the person) and 1 out of 4 property crimes. 

Five out of seven persons charged by the police in 1954 were found 
guilty. 



(1) 



tiB&id 



CRIME TREND -U. S. 

BASED ON THE ESTIMATED NUMBER OF 
MAJOR CRIMES 

JAN. --JUNE 1954 VS. JAN. --JUNE 1955 



1954 Level 



TOTAL -0.7 

MURDER 3.8 1 

0.: 

LAUonitn 

'E 



PERCENT 
CHANGE 



NEGLIGENT 

MANSLAUGHTER 




+ 6.3 



ROBBERY- -15.1 



AGGRAVATED 
ASSAULT 



■ +1.1 



BURGLARY 3.3 

URCENY t| 

AUTOTHEFT -0.2 



FBI CHART 



FlOURE 1. 



CRIME TRENDS 

Major Crime Totals, January-June, 1954-55 

The year 1955 may show a long overdue break in the upward crime 
trend of the past seven years. 

Estimated major crime totals for January-June, 1955, reached 
1,128,350, a decline of 7,790 from the 1,136,140 total for the same 
period in 1954. The decrease was not quite one (0.7) percent in the 
first half of 1955. 

The first half-year estimate published, January-June, 1951, re- 
flected a total of 960,600 major crimes. The 1955 half-year crime 
total is 17.5 percent above the 1951 figure. 

The range in decreases within the individual crime classes in the 
first half of 1955 was from —0.2 percent to —15.1 percent. Five of 
the eight major crime classes show decreases. 

Decreases. Robbery, —15.1 percent; murder, —3.8 percent; bur- 
glary, — 3.3 percent; manslaughter by negligence, —0.3 percent; and 
auto theft, —0.2 percent. 

Increases. Rape, +6.3 percent; aggravated assault, +1.1 per- 
cent; larceny, +0.9 percent. 

Area Estimated. Estimated total crime includes actual counts for 
about 90 percent of the urban population and about 68 percent of 
the rural population. The portion of the figures that are estimates 
represents about 19 percent of the population. Estimates are pre- 
pared by a build-up to 100 percent of the population plus adjustments 
for rural areas to resolve understatement due to incomplete reporting. 



Table 1.— CRIME TRENDS, URBAN AND RURAL 

[Estimated number of major crimes in the United States, January-June, 1954-55] 



Ofiense 



Number of offenses 
January-June 



1955 



Change 



Number 



Percent 



TOTAL 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery. 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 



1, 136, 140 



1, 128, 350 



-7, 790 



3, 420 

2,960 

8,750 

35, 650 

45, 630 
263, 120 
666, 550 
110,060 



3,290 
2,950 
9,300 
30, 260 

46, 110 
254, 330 
672, 280 
109, 830 



-130 

-10 

+550 

-5,390 

+480 

-8, 790 

+5, 730 

-230 



-0.7 



-3.8 
-.3 

+6. i 
-15. 1 

+ 1.1 

-3.3 

+.9 

-.2 



(3) 



Crime Trends, Urban-Rural, January-June, 1954-55 

Crime decreased in and out of cities in the first half of 1955. Total 
major crimes reported by city police decreased 1.4 percent. Sheriffs 
and other officers policing rural areas reported a decrease of three- 
hundredths of one percent. 

The direction of the trends coincided for urban and rural areas in 
five of the eight crime classes — murders, robberies and burglaries 
down; rapes and larcenies up. Negligent manslaughters and aggra- 
vated assaults were up in cities, down outside the cities. Auto thefts 
decreased in cities but rose in rural areas. 

Urban Crime Trends. The 1.4 percent decrease in total city crime 
was led by a 15.3 percent decrease in robberies. Burglaries decreased 
4 percent and murders were down 3.4 percent. The fourth classifi- 
cation showing a decrease was auto theft, down 0.4 percent. 

Increases in city crimes totaled 2,021 as compared with a decrease 
of 11,960. Rape had the highest increase, 10.4 percent. Man- 
slaughter by negligence was next with a 5.7 percent increase, while 
aggravated assault rose 2.9 percent. Larcenies were virtually un- 
changed but registered a 0.1 percent increase. 



Table 2.— URBAN CRIME TRENDS, JANUARY-JUNE, 1954-55 

[Offenses known to the police in 2,462 cities, total population 79,032,289 based on 1950 decennial census] 



Offense 



Number of offenses 
January-June 



TOTAL 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape. -. 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

larceny— theft 

Auto theft 



721,058 



1,805 

1,149 

4,655 

29,162 

31,917 
178, 732 
399, 994 

73, 644 



711,119 



1, 743 

1,214 

5, 141 

24, 712 

32, 848 

lri.-isr 

till). 533 
73,341 



Change 



Number 



-9, 939 



-62 

+65 

+486 

-4,450 

+931 

-7, 145 

+539 

-303 



Percent 



-1.4 



-3, 4 
+5.7 

+ 10.4 
-15.3 

+2.9 
-4.0 
+.1 
-.4 



Rural Crime Trends. Rural crimes showed almost no change but 
the three-hundredths of one percent decrease represents an abrupt 
halt in rising crime totals in rural areas over many years. 

Decreases in rural crime for the first half of 1955 were: robbery, 
14.3 percent; manslaughter by negligence, 7.2 percent; aggravated 
assault, 5.5 percent; murder, 4.1 percent; and burglary, 1.7 percent. 

Increases occurred in rural areas in larceny (+2.9 percent), rape 
(+1.5 percent), and auto theft ( + 0.4 percent). 



Table 3.— RURAL CRIME TRENDS, JANUARY-JUNE, 1954-55 

[Based on reports of 1,422 sheriffs, 114 rural village officers, and 13 State police; total rural population, 
38,902,650 based on the 1950 decennial census] 



Offense 



Number of offenses 
January-June 



1954 



1955 



Change 



Number 



TOTAI 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault. . _ 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 



117, 133 



117,098 



-3S 



-0.0 



934 

972 

2,142 

3,244 

5, 944 
41, 163 
52, 137 
10, 597 



896 
902 

2, 175 
2,779 

5,616 
40, 468 
53, 626 
10, 636 



-38 
-70 

+33 
-465 

-32S 

-695 

+1,489 

+39 



-4. 1 
-7.2 
+1.5 
-14.3 

—5. 5 
-1.7 

+2.9 
+0.4 






CRIME RATES 

Urban Crime Rates, January-June, 1955 

Crime rates for cities in the following tables are based on the 1950 
decennial census. To that extent they are accurate. The user may 
desire to study the probable effects of population changes by pre- 
paring projections of the urban population. 

Rates which may be prepared for individual cities or other areas for 
comparison of the areas should be based on the latest and most re- 
liable local population estimates. 

A review of the rate tables will reflect that crime rates vary by size 
of city and by area. 

The rates are the number of crimes reported by police converted 
to the number of crimes per 100,000 inhabitants in the various areas. 
Urban rates are based on reports from 2,615 police departments repre-l 
senting more than 90 percent of the urban population. 

(6) 



["able 4.— URBAN CRIME RATES, JANUARY-JUNE, 1955, BY POPU- 
LATION GROUPS 

[Offenses known to the police and rate per 100,000 inhabitants. Population figures based on 1950 decennial 

census] 



Population group 



Criminal 
homicide 


Mur- 




der, 


Man- 


nonneg- 


slaugh- 


ligent 


ter by 


man- 


negli- 


slaugh- 


gence 


ter 





Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary, 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Lar- 
ceny, 
theft 



Auto 
theft 






TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

2,615 cities; total population, 80,657,440: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

CRorp i 

41 cities over 250,000; total population, 
34,932,955: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

OROT'P II 

05 cities, 100,000 to 250,000: total popula- 
tion, 9,560,069: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

OBOT7P III 

128 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total popula- 
tion, 9,052,062: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000.. . 

OROT'P IV 

252 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total popu- 
lation, 8,873,026: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000___ 

nRorp v 

670 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total popula- 
tion, 10,345,588: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000___ 

>:roip vi 

1,459 cities under 10,000; total population, 
7,893,740: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



1,777 
2.2 



1,011 
2.9 



270 
2.8 



154 
1.7 



130 
1.5 



110 
1.1 



102 
1.3 



1,229 
1.5 



5,198 
6.4 



24, 963 
30.9 



33, 362 
41.4 



174,311 
216.1 



407, 386 
505.1 



74,411 
92.3 



678 
1.9 



180 
1.9 



133 
1.5 



126 
1.4 



3,456 
9.9 



495 
5.2 



375 
4.1 



316 
3.6 



307 
3.0 



249 
3.2 



18, 539 
53.1 



2,456 

25.7 



1,380 
15.2 



1, 100 
12.4 



876 
8.5 



612 

7.8 



21, 169 
60.6 



4,295 
44.9 



3,013 
33.3 



1,937 
21.8 



1,762 
17.0 



1,186 
15.0 



92, 571 

265. 



24, 294 
254.1 



17,254 
190.6 



15, 202 
171.3 



15, 528 
150.1 



9,462 
119.9 



180, 598 
517.0 



55, 804 
583. 7 



4S, 086 
531. 2 



48, 125 
542.4 



47, 512 
459. 2 



27, 261 
345.3 



43. 276 
123.9 



10,114 
105.8 



6,924 
76.5 



5,859 
66.0 



5,226 
50.5 



3,012 
38.2 



355502°— 55- 



s 



Table 5.— URBAN CRIME RATES, JANUARY-JUNE, 1955, BY 
GRAPHIC DIVISIONS AND STATES 

[Offense? known per 100,000 inhabitants. Population based on 1950 decennial census] 



GEO- 



Division and State 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary, 
break- 
ing or 
entering 


Larceny, 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


TOTAL 


2.2 


30.9 


41.4 


216.1 


505.1 


92 3 






New England. 


.5 


9.1 


8.4 


133.8 


291.2 


64.0 


Connecticut 

Maine 


.5 
.9 
.5 


9.9 
5.6 
10.0 
3.8 

7.7 
2.4 

31.4 


15.9 
4.3 
6.5 
3.4 

10.4 
.8 

34.3 


150.2 
137.9 
123. 9 

88.2 
1S5. 7 
77.8 

202.0 


289. a 

324.0 
276. 5 
251.6 
393.3 
207.3 

348.6 


62.9 
47.2 

71.2 




27. 2 


Rhode Island . 


.6 


55.7 




21.4 




1.5 


70.0 








1.1 
1.6 
1.5 

1.8 


17.2 
38.1 
26.5 

37.9 


22.0 
41.0 
28.3 

33.0 


178.7 
221.5 
177.2 

169.2 


316.8 
387.4 
291.1 

466.7 


63.2 


New York .. .. 


70.3 


Pennsylvania 

East North Central 


73.3 

79.5 






Illinois.. 

Indiana.. ... .. 

Michigan 

Ohio 


2.7 
1.9 
1.8 
1.4 
.4 

1.7 


63.6 
16.9 
41.3 
25.0 
3.7 

24.1 


37.1 
19.0 
62.7 
19.1 
8.2 

25.8 


176. 1 
209.8 
205.2 
148.4 
81.1 

175.7 


300.9 
523. 8 
679.6 
486.5 
432.7 

510.1 


58.5 
102.0 
134.3 

63.3 


Wisconsin 

West North Central. 


49. 9 
84.9 








.6 
1.4 

.5 
3.7 

.8 

.6 
1.1 

4.4 


4.8 
16.0 
15.3 
51.7 
9.4 
3.0 
4.3 

30.9 


4.7 
29.9 

5.4 
57.5 
15.2 

1.2 

2.7 

107.9 


117.4 
202.4 
169.5 
228.5 
120.1 
119.5 
78.7 

275.2 


427.3 
596.1 
455.1 
564.0 
498.4 
558.8 
443.8 

600.9 


39.2 


Kansas 


61.2 


Minnesota. 


67. 1 


Missouri 


143.2 


Nebraska 

North Dakota . 


78.1 
40.0 


South Dakota 


32.4 


South Atlantic ' ... 


117.5 






Delaware 


.8 
6.2 
6.3 
2.9 
4.4 
5.0 
4.0 
1.4 

6.6 


30.4 
41.4 
20.7 
36.3 
14.2 
17.7 
34.4 
12.0 

23.9 


10.7 

56.1 
100.4 

85.8 
149.5 

54.2 
131.2 

22.1 

60.1 


322.8 
474.6 
234.0 
23a 3 
181.0 
250.2 
274.7 
142.3 

256.3 


693. 2 
877.7 
468. 6 

539.3 
461.2 

5KS. 1) 
732. 3 
274.9 

398.6 


102.7 


Florida 


120.9 


Georgia . 


105. 1 


Maryland. 


204. 1 


North Carolina . 


73. a 


South Carolina 


79.2 


Virginia... ... 


133. 7 


West Virginia 


51.4 


East South Central 


110.9 






Alabama 

Kentucky 


9.3 
5.8 
3.9 
6.1 

3.9 


19.5 
41.9 
11.5 
19.1 

22.2 


71.7 
69.0 
35.6 
53.6 

52.8 


271.0 
312.8 

176.5 
233.8 

266.8 


401.9 
563. 6 
321.3 
304.3 

648.7 


70.0 
199. 1 


Mississippi 


is. 1 


Tennessee 


105. 


West South Central 


114.2 






Arkansas 


1.5 
4.3 
2.6 
4.3 

2.1 


20.0 
38.6 
17.8 
18.9 

28.0 


51.2 
42.9 
25.5 
62.3 

23.6 


198.0 
163.8 

237.7 
309.7 

276.9 


379.9 
429.1 
640.0 
740. 1 

877.3 


42.8 


Louisiana 


146.| 


Oklahoma 


98. l 


Texas 


116.1 


Mountain 


134.9 






Arizona 


2.4 
2.0 
.5 
2.0 
11.4 
2.4 
1.6 
1.6 

1.6 


49.2 
40.3 
3.7 
19.7 
47.3 
26.8 
11.0 
12.0 

45.5 


80.4 
19.4 
2.8 
27.2 
20.8 
24.4 
9.1 
6.4 

43.0 


449.4 
314.6 
154.5 
196. 2 
435. 6 
317.7 
191.3 
152.9 

323.6 


K'.W. 1 
800. G 
844 1 
813.0 

1255. 3 
803.3 

774.9 

880.1 


279.7 


Colorado 


146.9 


Idaho 


60, 7 


Mi ml ana.. 


90. 1 


Nevada.. 


162.1 




156.3 


Utah. 


84.1 


Wyoming 


66. 4 


Pacific 


144.2 








1.7 
1.6 
1.3 


51.6 
19.3 
25.7 


51.3 
13. 5 
12.0 


348. (i 
199.1 

IT. 1.7 


921.2 

700.7 
747. 1 


159.2 




56. 1 


Washington _ 


108.1 







i Includes the District of Columbia. 



9 



Table 6.— URBAN CRIME RATES, JANUARY-JUNE, 1955, BY GEO- 
GRAPHIC DIVISIONS AND POPULATION GROUPS 

[Offenses known per 100,000 inhabitants. Population based on 1950 decennial census] 



Division and group 



Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary, 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny, 

theft 



TOTAL_ 



New England, 



Group I 

Group II 

Group III_ _ 
Group IV... 

Group V 

Group VI... 

Middle Atlantic. 






Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI—...- 

East North Central . 



Group I — 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

West North Central- 



Group I 

Group II _ 
Group III_. 
Group IV.. 
Group V— 
Group VI.. 

South Atlantic '. 



Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V ... 

Group VI 

East South Central- 



Group I 

Group II- - — 

Group III 

Group IV----.- 

Group V ... 

Group VI 

West South Central. 



Group I... 
Group II . . 
Group III. 
Group IV. 
Group V.. 
Group VI- 

Mountain __. 



Group I... 
Group II_ . 
Group III. 
Group IV. 
Group V... 
Group VI. 

Pacific 



Group I... 
Group II_. 
Group Ill- 
Group IV. 
Group V.. 
Group VI. 



2.2 



1.6 
.4 
.4 

.5 

.1 



1.0 
.6 
.5 
.4 



2.9 
2.5 
.6 
.6 
.8 
.5 

1.7 



3.1 

1.2 
1.3 
.5 
.5 
1.0 



4.3 
5.2 
4.2 
5.0 
2.7 
4.4 

6.6 



f.. 3 
10.7 
5.8 
3.3 
fi. 1 
5.7 
3.9 



6.1 

2.9 
3.4 
3. i 
1.5 
2.1 



2.9 
3.5 
1.8 
2.7 



1.2 

1.6 



2. 1 
2. 

1.0 
1.0 
1. 



30.9 



216.1 



505.1 



3. i 



8.4 



133.8 



291.2 



22.3 
11.7 
7.5 
5.5 
3.9 
1.8 

31.4 



13.1 
15.9 
6.3 
3.5 
3.1 
3.1 

34.3 



91.5 
181.1 
142.3 
118.6 
113.1 

95.0 

202.0 



255.2 
341.6 
326.7 
267.1 
252.6 
213.7 

348.6 



48.8 
8.3 

11.0 
6.1 
5.5 
5.0 

37.9 



51.9 
15.1 
14.7 
9.1 
5.7 
5.6 

33.0 



262.6 
149.7 
151.9 
116.7 
93.4 
82.7 
169.2 



66.0 
26.5 
11.8 
12.8 
9.7 
6.0 

24.1 



52.5 
44.9 
19.6 
8.5 
7.2 
5.7 

25.8 



193.4 
212. 1 
152.1 
142.1 
140.2 
107.2 

175.7 



51.2 
20.2 
7.1 
4.5 
5.5 
4.9 

30.9 



51.3 
33.8 
14.1 
3.4 
5.1 
4.3 

107.9 



252.9 
249.9 
145.9 

89.2 
114.2 

87.5 

275.2 



41.4 
53.6 
21.2 
21.9 
7.7 
13.6 

23.9 



152.8 
111.1 
87.2 
83.3 
83.9 
70.8 

60.1 



250.1 
422.6 
233.6 
307.0 
220.3 
166.7 

256.3 



34.8 
31.8 
21.2 
9.3 
11.6 
10.3 

22.2 



73.9 
55.4 
78.8 
68.1 
37.0 
26.5 

52.8 



325.0 
300.6 
279.2 
184.3 
186.5 
119.5 

266.8 



34.8 
22.7 
17.4 
12.9 
7.0 
10.2 

28.0 



64.9 
57.4 
74.3 
35.0 
31.0 
25.7 

23.6 



373.2 
300.4 
250.5 
208.6 
120.1 
98.6 

276.9 



64.9 
35.0 
29.0 
22.1 
7.0 
13.6 

45.5 



29.8 
56.1 
20.7 
23.6 
6.7 
13.6 

43.0 



63.8 
38.7 
33.1 
26.3 
19.6 
13.1 



66.5 
15.6 
24.8 
20.9 
13.7 
11.5 



423. 1 
371.4 
279.9 
248.0 
187.6 
190.5 

323.6 



372.2 
234.4 
300.5 
283.7 
285.3 
227.5 



397.7 
305.3 
289.0 
317.9 
260.4 
235.0 

486.7 



454.5 
589.9 
524.8 
520.6 
484.3 
282.4 

510.1 



667.6 
567.0 
483.8 
412.5 
263.6 

600.9 



549.0 
823.3 
546.0 
745.0 
480.7 
389.5 

398.6 



498.4 
370.2 
479.6 
400.7 
298.4 
190.7 

648.7 



739.8 
799.5 
851.7 
611.0 
390.7 
254.3 

877.3 



797.3 
1, 081. 9 

954.0 
1, 070. 1 

850.0 

654.0 

880.1 



810.1 
863.1 
964.1 
1, 068. 2 
963.5 



1 Includes the District of Columbia. 



10 



Table 7.— NUMBER OF CITIES IN EACH POPULATION GROUP, GEO- 
GRAPHIC DIVISION, AND STATE REPRESENTED IN THE URBAN 

CRIME RATE TABULATIONS FOR JANUARY-JUNE, 1955 (TABLES 
4-6) 





Total 


Population group 


Division and State 


Over 
250,000 


100,000 
to 

250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


Total : 

Population, 80,657,440. 


2,615 


41 


65 


128 


252 


670 


1,459 


New England: 

Population, 6,438,207 


187 
28 
18 
96 
15 
17 
13 

540 
150 

165 
225 

620 
168 

79 
117 
173 

83 

300 


1 


11 


18 


34 


66 


57 






Connecticut . 


4 


2 
1 
11 
1 
3 


11 
2 

15 
2 
3 
1 

46 


3 

7 
43 
5 
6 
2 

137 


8 


Maine 




8 


Massachusetts 


1 


6 


20 


New Hampshire 




Rhode Island 




1 


4 


Vermont 




10 


Middle Atlantic: 

Population, 21,059,038 


7 


12 


24 


314 






New Jersey... 


2 
3 
2 

9 


4 

4 
4 

10 


8 
6 
10 

30 


16 

16 
14 

63 


37 

42 
58 

147 


83 


New York 


94 


Pennsylvania 


137 


East North Central: 

Population, 18,830,052 _ 


361 


Illinois 


1 
1 
1 

5 
1 

5 


1 

4 
2 
3 


9 

4 

7 
r, 

4 

9 
4 

1 

2 

i 


13 

9 
9 
20 
12 

19 


42 

16 
33 
41 
15 

78 


102 


Indiana 


Li 


Michigan 


65 


Ohio 


98 


Wisconsin 


51 


West North Central : 

Population, 6,353,297 


4 


190 






Iowa 


65 
56 
67 
57 
26 
13 
16 

254 




1 

2 
1 


7 
2 
3 
4 


10 
20 
14 
15 
7 
3 
4 

57 


43 


Kansas 




31 


Minnesota 


2 
2 
1 


47 


Missouri 


34 


Nebraska 




17 


North Dakota 




2 
1 

27 


8 


South Dakota 






1 

20 


10 


South Atlantic : 

Population, 7,685,912 


3 


8 


139 


Delaware 


3 
1 
54 
35 
19 
54 
26 
43 
19 

117 


1 

1 
1 


1 








2 


District of Columbia 










Florida 


3 

1 


2 
3 


8 
3 
2 
5 
1 
5 
3 

15 


9 

8 
6 
17 
6 
7 
4 

24 


32 


Georgia... 


19 


Maryland 


10 


North Carolina.. 




5 
3 
4 
3 

4 


27 


South Carolina 






16 


Virginia 




3 


24 


West Virginia .. 


9 


East South Central: 

Population, 3,245,923 


3 
1 
1 


5 
2 


66 




29 
37 
24 
27 

195 
24 
23 
39 

109 

140 


1 
2 
1 


3 

3 
6 
3 

13 
3 

2 
4 
4 

12 
1 
1 

2 
3 
1 

1 
1 

23 


6 

6 
5 
7 

60 


16 


Kentucky 


25 


Mississippi 


12 


Tennessee 


1 

5 


3 
8 


IS 


West South Central : 

Population, 6, 106,704 


9 


100 






1 
2 
2 

3 
2 




6 
6 
14 
34 

25 


14 




1 




12 






19 




4 
1 


9 
3 


55 


Mountain: 

Population, 2,202,971 


97 




17 
30 
23 
16 
5 
15 
21 
13 

262 
184 
37 
41 




1 




1 

7 
7 
3 


11 




1 


1 


20 






11 










10 










4 








1 

1 


2 

1 
4 

81 


10 


Utah 




1 


17 






8 


Pacific : 

Population, 8,735,336 


7 


5 


11 


135 




5 

1 
1 


3 


11 


16 
2 
5 


63 

8 
10 


86 




26 




2 




23 









11 

Rural Crime Rates, January- June, 1955 

Crime rates for rural areas are based generally on reports from 
communities outside the limits of incorporated places of 2,500 or 
more. The rural reports are received from sheriffs and other law 
enforcement agencies policing those places. Rural areas, under the 
crime reporting definition, now include some population considered 
currently as urban in character by the United States Bureau of the 
Census. In other words, the current trends in the movement of 
population to "urbanized fringe" areas outside cities have blurred 
the one-time concept of a distinct cleavage between town and coun- 
try. Crime reporting is limited to police jurisdictions and cannot 
reflect a separate accounting for the numerous urbanized fringes. 

Rural crime rates are based on reports representing about 68 per- 
cent of the rural population. The presentation of rural rates is 
limited to a summary for the United States because of recognized 
limitations in the figures reported by some rural areas. 

Table 8.— RURAL CRIME RATES, JANUARY-JUNE, 1955 

[Offenses known and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, as reported by 1,565 sheriffs, 126 rural village officers, 
and 13 State police; total rural population 41,855,914, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Offenses known 



Number Rate 



Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter. 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny-theft 

Auto theft 



979 

954 

2,635 

3,440 

7,185 
47, 420 
64,639 
12, 189 



2.3 
2.3 
6.3 

8.2 

17.2 
113.3 
154.4 

29.1 



OFFENSES IN INDIVIDUAL AREAS 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 25,000 Inhabitants 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the period of January-June, 1955, is shown in table 9. The com- 
pilation includes the reports received from police departments in 
cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants. Police administrators and 
other interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare 
the crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in tables 
4, 5, and 6 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire 
to make comparisons with the figures for their communities for 
prior periods, in order to determine whether there has been an increase 
or a decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

Caution should be exercised in comparing crime data for individual 
cities because the differences in the figures may be due to a variety 
of factors. Such comparisons are not necessarily significant even 
though the figures for individual communities are converted into 
terms of the number of offenses per 100,000 inhabitants. 

The following is a list of some of the factors which affect the amount 
of crime in the community: 

Population of the city and metropolitan area adjacent thereto. 

The composition of the population with reference particularly to 
age, sex, and race. 

The economic status and activities of the population. 

Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 

The number of police employees per unit of population. 

The standards governing appointments to the police force. 

The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 

The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 

The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 
The figures presented in the following tabulation are those reported 
by the individual police departments in the cities represented without 
reducing the data to crime rates (number of offenses per 100,000 
inhabitants) . 

In considering the volume of crime committed locally, it is gen- 
erally more important to determine whether the figures for a given 
community show increases or decreases rather than to ascertain 
whether they exceed or fall short of those for some other individual 
community, and it should be remembered that the amount of crime 
committed in a community is not solely chargeable to the police 
but is rather a charge against the entire community. 

In publishing these figures the FBI acts as a service agency. The 
figures published are those submitted by the contributing agencies. 

(12) 



13 



Table 9.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, JANU- 
ARY-JUNE, 1955, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny-theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under $50 



Abilene, Tex_._ 
Abington, Pa.. 

Akron, Ohio 

Alameda, Calif- 
Albany, Ga 



Albany, N. Y 

Albuquerque, X. Mex. 

Alexandria, La 

Alexandria, Va 

Alhambra, Calif 



Aliquippa, Pa. 
Allentown, Pa. 
Alliance, Ohio. 

Alton, 111 

Altoona, Pa 



Amarillo, Tex 

Amsterdam, N. Y 

Anderson, Ind 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Anniston, Ala 



Appleton, Wis.. 
Arlington, Mass. 

Arlington, Va 

Asheville, N. C_. 
Ashland, Ky 



Athens, Ga 

Altanta, Ga 

Atlantic City, X. J. 

Auburn, X. Y 

Augusta, Ga 



Aurora, 111 

Austin, Tex 

Bakersfleld, Calif. 

Baltimore, Md 

Bangor, Maine 



Barberton, Ohio 

Baton Rouge, La 

Battle Creek, Mich. 

Bay City, Mich 

Bayonne, X. J 



Beaumont, Tex 

Belleville, 111 

Belleville, X. J 

Bellingham, Wash. 
Belmont, Mass 



Beloit, Wis 

Berkeley, Calif. 

Berwyn, 111 

Bessemer, Ala.. 
Bethlehem, Pa. 



Beverly, Mass 

Beverly Hills, Calif. 

Billings, Mont 

Biloxi, Miss 

Binghamton, N. Y._ 



Birmingham, Ala. 
Bloom field, X. J__ 
Bloomington, 111.. 
Bloomington, Ind. 
Boise, Idaho 



Boston, Mass 

Bremerton, Wash. 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Bristol, Conn 

Brockton, Mass... 



1 

1 

107 

6 



13 

7 

9 

14 

399 

1 

4 
20 
4 
3 

1 

12 

1 
3 

1 
2 

1 

62 
10 
1 
3 



2 

7 
1 

79 
2 
9 
4 
2 

179 
3 
26 



30 

5 

126 

2 



38 
555 
60 



14 


15 


4;i 


25 


4 


53 


20 


88 


12 


7 


6 


13 


5 


3 


4 




3 




2 


2 


24 


40 


1 




6 


9 


2 


5 


9 


74 


1 




3 




13 


35 


12 


36 



Xo reports received 

144 

393 
97 
178 
121 

19 
128 
62 
43 
58 

237 
13 
42 
46 

85 

37 

50 

153 

67 

Xo reports received 



34 

413 

45 

1 

117 

11 

149 

5 

964 

3 

5 
51 
15 



35 

52 

252 

26 



47 
222 

32 
123 

95 

18 
121 
12 
21 
13 

171 

10 
21 
80 
31 

10 

21 

161 

104 



12 
134 



Xo reports received 



11 



105 



95 

46 
97 

1,104 
27 

77 
72 
51 

733 
29 

193 
23 

155 



22 


13 


1,164 


606 


224 


146 


8 


13 


97 


44 


46 


52 


306 


114 


178 


136 


2,431 


1,676 


53 


17 


35 


12 


272 


173 


117 


32 


94 


25 


90 


65 


189 


104 


21 


24 


37 


12 


35 


61 


44 


15 


28 


14 


303 


72 


80 


29 


66 


17 


71 
11 


54 
17 



106 
28 
45 



26 

149 

24^ 
50 



288 

50 

1,347 

273 



200 
798 
163 
554 
304 

69 

296 
107 
208 

47 

705 
27 
237 
213 
169 

219 
28 
543 

201 



38 

2,027 

195 

45 



156 
1,203 

478 

3,505 

92 

119 
393 
243 
251 
164 

619 
82 
27 
70 
37 

122 
593 
51 
74 
128 

60 

358 
122 
212 

1,180 

55 

147 

153 

294 

1,357 

256 

336 

53 

213 



X 



14 



Table 9.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, JANU- 
ARY-JUNE, 1955, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Brookline, Mass_ . 
Brownsville, Tex_ 
Buffalo, N. Y-_. 
Burbank, Calif... 
Burlington, Iowa- 



Burlington, Vt 

Butte, Mont 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 



Cedar Rapids, Iowa- 
Champaign, 111 

Charleston, S. C 

Charleston, W. Va.. 
Charlotte, N. C 



Charlottesville, Va_. 
Chattanooga, Tenn_ 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chester, Pa 

Cheyenne, Wyo 



Chicago, 111 

Chicopee, Mass 

Cicero, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio... 
Clarksburg, W. Va. 



Cleveland, Ohio 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio. 
Clifton, N.J 

Clinton, Iowa 

Colorado Springs, Colo._. 



Columbia, Mo... 
Columbia, S. C. 
Columbus, Ga... 
Columbus, Ohio. 
Compton, Calif.. 



Concord, N. H 

Corpus Christi, Tex.. 
Council Bluffs, Iowa. 

Covington, Ky__ 

Cranston, R. I 



Cumberland, Md 

Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. 

Dallas, Tex 

Danville, 111 

Danville, Va 



Davenport, Iowa 

Dayton, Ohio 

Daytona Beach, Fla. 

Dearborn, Mich 

Decatur, 111 



Denver, Colo 

Pes Moines, Iowa- 
Detroit, Mich 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Duluth, Minn 



Durham, N. C 

East Chicago, Ind 

East Cleveland, Ohio. 
Easl Hartford, Conn.. 
Easton, Pa 



East Orange, N.J 

East Providence, K. I. 

East St. Louis, 111 

Eau Claire, Wis 

Elgin, 111 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



14 

9 

200 

47 



36 



4 
146 



59 

8 
19 
14 

270 

21 

1,347 

1 

10 

6 
16 
5 



4 

106 

10 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



83 

91 

646 

151 

18 



100 
367 

255 

83 

41 

306 

105 



1 

40 
10 
21 
5 

3,477 

2 

28 

105 

11 


19 

77 
1 

26 
3 

1,924 

1 

33 

190 


422 
6 


141 


6 
1 


1 


5 









6 
45 
35 
No reports received 



Larceny-theft 



!50 and 
over 



(>) 



16 

58 

180 

118 

5 

23 
69 

130 
83 

129 

58 
45 
138 



37 
397 

45 
106 

52 

7,118 
30 
147 

647 
57 

911 
50 
80 
28 
65 



29 

58 
31 
64 
30 

4,487 

30 

77 

480 

13 

584 
14 
33 
22 
60 



No reports received 
39 
24 
31 

54 

2 

199 

1 

40 

2 



1 
652 



37 

1 
141 
27 
15 

5 

124 

24 

1,843 

1 

2 

179 

13 

1 

1 

1 



184 

206 

1,194 

282 

12 
432 

38 
156 

91 

13 
38 
2,062 
57 
55 

125 
400 
99 
228 
114 

1,759 
396 

4, 557 
31 
116 

73 
100 
30 
56 

34 



137 
66 

No reports received 

■i-l 8 1 



Under $50 



103 
245 
697 
435 
104 

108 
185 
127 
116 
424 

353 
125 
555 
294 



85 
200 

55 
121 
370 

4,350 
96 
139 

1, 363 
12 

5,578 
113 
145 
114 
337 



178 


546 


89 


239 


767 


1,636 


179 


570 


10 


53 


128 


868 


35 


191 


70 


214 


53 


142 


22 


58 


23 


101 


391 


4,251 


33 


105 


55 


233 


72 


301 


172 


1,017 


58 


221 


158 


1,044 


45 


275 


897 


2,418 


254 


777 


,393 


11, 136 


16 


137 


118 


438 


66 


258 


86 


202 


10 


164 


32 


86 


11 


05 


53 


211 


48 


109 



104 
46 



See footnote at end of table, 



15 



Table 9.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, JANU- 
ARY-JUNE, 1955, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny-theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under $50 



Elizabeth, N. J. 
Elkhart, Ind.... 
Elmira, N. Y__. 
El Paso, Tex.... 
Elyria, Ohio 



Enid, Okla.... 

Erie, Pa 

Euclid, Ohio.. 
Eugene, Oreg. 
Evanston, 111. 



Evansville, Ind... 

Everett, Mass 

Everett, Wash 

Fairmont, W. Va. 
Fall River, Mass.. 



Fargo, N. Dak 

Fayetteville, N. C. 

Ferndale, Mich 

Fitchburg, Mass... 
Flint, Mich 



Fond du Lac, Wis 

Fort Dodge, Iowa 

Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Fort Wayne, Ind 



Fort Worth, Tex 

Framingham, Mass. 

Fresno, Calif 

Gadsden, Ala 

Gainesville, Fla 



Galesburg, 111.. 
Galveston, Tex. 
Garfield, N. J... 

Gary, Ind 

Glendale, Calif. 



Gloucester, Mass 

Grand Forks. N. Dak. 
Grand Rapids, Mich.. 

Granite City, 111 

Great Falls, Mont 



Green Bay, Wis... 
Greensboro, N. C. 
Greenville, Miss.. 
Greenville, S. C... 
Greenwich, Conn. 

Hackensack, N. J. 
Hagerstown, Md.. 
Hamilton, N. J.. r 
Hamilton, Ohio... 
Hammond, Ind... 



Hampton, Va 

Hamtramck, Mich. 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Hartford, Conn 

Hattiesburg, Miss.. 



Haverford, Pa 

Haverhill, Mass... 
Hayward, Calif... 

Hazleton, Pa 

Hempstead, N. Y. 



Highland Park, Mich... 

High Point, N. C 

Hoboken, N. J 

Holyoke, Mass 

Honolulu City, Hawaii. 



20 



139 
33 
70 

440 
39 

43 
149 
16 
54 
102 

371 
35 
81 



35 
126 



71 
416 



81 

1 

116 

5 

5 

~~3§' 
..... 



10 



208 
116 
189 

1,324 

18 
363 
103 

42 

20 
206 

28 
471 
224 



26 
331 
113 



86 
149 

90 
198 

16 

42 
101 
83 



101 
44 
216 
465 
36 

19 
61 
43 
16 
68 

87 
51 
80 
58 



111 
41 
58 

222 
22 

22 
64 
12 
100 
120 

149 
11 
46 



No reports received 
4 108 83 



19 

8 

36 

32 

551 



1 16 

No reports received 



250 



173 
1,133 



160 
390 
209 
254 
326 

668 

51 

315 

223 

226 
359 
131 
161 
1,136 

149 



164 


447 


42 


156 


128 


465 


198 


1,931 


38 


44 


272 


614 


31 


127 


52 


188 


19 


88 


276 


262 


25 


81 


284 


669 


102 


576 


12 


20 


21 


223 


142 


848 


11 


125 


81 


240 


26 


92 


132 


265 


46 


127 


106 


205 


17 


47 


31 


103 


26 


182 


41 


148 


77 


249 


204 


467 


107 


285 


93 


167 


88 


243 


159 


417 


9 


50 


23 


99 


19 


21 


38 


144 


12 


20 


74 


89 


129 


282 


38 


101 


42 


66 


58 


208 


323 


1,499 



355502°— 55 3 



16 

Table 9.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, JANU- 
ARY-JUNE, 1955, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Hot Springs, Ark 

Houston, Tex 

Huntington, W. Va 

Huntington Park, Calif. 
Hutchinson, Kans 



Independence, Mo. 
Indianapolis, Ind.. 

Inglewood, Calif 

Iowa City, Iowa 

Irondequoit, N. Y_ 



Irvington, N.J. 
Ithaca, N. Y... 
Jackson, Mich_. 
Jackson, Miss.. 
Jackson, Tenn.. 



Jacksonville, Fla 

Jamestown, N. Y... 
Jefferson City, Mo.. 

Jersey City, N. J 

Johnson City, Tenn. 



Johnstown, Pa 

Joliet, 111 

Joplin, Mo 

Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Kankakee, 111 



Kannapolis, N. C 
Kansas City, Kans. 
Kansas City, Mo... 

Kearny, N. J 

Kenosha, Wis 



Kettering, Ohio.. 
Key West, Fla... 
Kingston, N. Y_. 
Knoxville, Tenn. 
Kokomo, Ind 



Lackawanna, N. Y_ 

La Crosse, Wis 

LaFayette, Ind 

Lafayette, La 

La Grange, Ga 



Lake Charles, La. 

Lakeland, Fla 

Lakewood, Ohio. . 

Lancaster, Pa 

Lansing, Mich 



Laredo, Tex 

Laurel, Miss 

Lawrence, Mass 

Lawton, Okla 

Lebanon, Pa 



Lewlston, Maine 

Lexington, Ky 

Lima, Ohio. -. 

Lincoln, Xebr 

Lincoln Park, Mich. 



Linden, N. J. 

Little Hock, Ark . 
Lockport, N. Y... 
Long Beach, Calif 
Lorain, Ohio 



Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lower Merion, Pa 

Lubbock, Tc\ 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 

gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



5 

157 

11 

19 

1 

1 

101 

14 

4 



1 
1 
7 
1 

131 



35 
2 

1 
12 
3 
4 
1 

3 
48 
114 



45 

1 

142 

11 

1. 163 
246 

7 

1 

21 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



157 
8 

1 
1 

1 
1 

19 

25 

1 

46 

1 



47 
34 
124 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



78 

2.780 

143 

108 

47 

31 

1,227 

191 

16 

45 

156 
25 
58 

206 
48 

843 

35 

9 

386 
76 

53 
38 
56 
86 
43 

15 

385 

459 

27 

51 

21 

24 

45 

245 



Larceny-theft 



$50 and 
over 



74 
63 

79 

77 
108 

44 
78 
81 

82 



No reports received 



l 
118 

37 
35 



37 
300 

11!) 
127 



No reports received 



2 
55 

3 
iim 
24 

2,200 

261 

33 

2 

37 



56 

323 

23 

1, 112 
83 

8,200 

1,535 

94 
67 

2E I 



28 

811 

65 

86 



40 

822 

179 

14 

13 

50 
39 
50 
47 
37 

608 
14 
9 



28 
38 
62 
76 
14 

17 

211 

428 

26 

32 

13 
25 
21 
102 



Under $,50 



No reports received 

9 47 28 

51 16 

3 I 52 I 37 

No reports received 
2 75 



92 

3,310 

166 

328 
107 

93 

1.536 

322 

89 

56 

150 
102 
231 
272 
90 

1,497 

78 

46 

308 

62 

91 

85 

156 

430 

141 

56 

613 

1,203 

86 
210 

48 
59 
44 
112 



58 
192 
204 



23 


87 


44 


76 


52 


87 


27 


156 


63 


230 


63 


423 


20 


140 


28 


85 


27 


ins 


26 


230 



21 


SI 


131 


422 


95 


153 


86 


706 



21 


91 


241 


527 


11 


is 


(') 


1,687 


34 


163 


5, 666 


11,698 


1.212 


1,522 


32 


192 


80 


153 


270 


MO 



See footnote at end of table. 



17 



Table 9.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, JANU 
ARY-JUNE, 1955, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Murder, 

nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Lareeny-theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under $50 



Lynchburg, Va. 

Lynn, Mass 

Lynwood, Calif. 

Macon, Ga 

Madison, Wis... 



Malden, Mass 

Manchester, N. H. 
Manitowoc, Wis.. 
Mansfield, Ohio... 
Maplewood, N. J.. 



Marion, Ind 

Marion, Ohio 

Mason City, Iowa. 
Massillon, Ohio... 
Maywood, 111 



McKeesport, Pa. 
Medford, Mass... 

Melrose, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn. 
Meriden, Conn.. 



Meridian, Miss 

Miami, Fla 

Miami Beach, Fla... 
Michigan City, Ind. 
Middletown, Conn... 

Middletown, Ohio.. 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn.. 

Mishawaka, Ind 

Mobile, Ala 



Moline, 111 

Monroe, La 

Montclair, N. J 

Montgomery, Ala 

Morgantown, W. Va. 

Mount Lebanon, Pa_. 
Mount Vernon, N. Y. 

Muncie, Ind. 

Muskegon, Mich 

Muskogee, Okla 



Nashua, N. H 

Nashville ,Tenn... 
New Albany, Ind. 

Newark, N.J 

Newark, Ohio 



New Bedford, Mass.. 

New Britain, Conn 

New Brunswick, N. J. 

Newburgh, N. Y 

Newcastle, Pa 



New Haven, Conn... 
New Kensington, Pa. 
New London, Conn.. 

New Orleans, La 

Newport, Ky 



Newport, R. I 

Newport News, Va._ 
New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Newton, Mass 

New York, N. Y 



Niagara Falls, N. Y.. 

Norfolk, Va 

Norman, Okla 

Norristown, Pa 

Northampton, Mass. 



1 
151 



13 

5 
1 

55 
4 

2 

197 

40 

3 



3 

50 
132 

4 
46 



295 
2 

5 
7 
4 
3 
3 

28 

1 

2 

338 

3 



17 
3 
3 

4, 183 

16 
153 



2$ 



10 



73 
216 
102 
224 



38 
53 
28 
107 
11 

40 
50 
22 
41 



20 
101 
95 
96 
87 

16 
21 
20 
37 
9 

20 

38 
20 

5 



Only 3 months received 



11 



314 
1 



24 
214 



126 

55 

1 

90 



58 

1 

277 



26 
5 

1 

289 

4 



52 
13 
4 

,424 

24 
793 



151 
387 
207 
314 
423 

121 

172 
86 

200 
26 

154 
131 
110 
112 



58 


39 


162 


61 


40 


111 


24 


6 


65 


907 


395 


641 


51 


5 


73 


60 


64 


139 


1,761 


768 


1,727 


718 


490 


588 


77 


57 


177 


28 


32 


63 


42 


33 


169 


365 


638 


2,310 


1, 257 


612 


1,936 


35 


33 


124 


496 


83 


477 


56 


31 


162 


73 


10 


146 


65 


31 


90 


287 


123 


259 


21 


11 


29 


13 


10 


22 


74 


62 


92 


125 


75 


246 


121 


62 


259 


61 


28 


153 


20 


20 


77 


576 


350 


700 


44 


44 


163 


1,813 


733 


1,867 


49 


30 


201 


337 


118 


445 


78 


79 


165 


59 


4 


123 


42 


37 


106 


68 


45 


81 


317 


121 


436 


20 


4 


24 


37 


21 


88 


989 


866 


1,763 


66 


33 


63 


68 


30 


132 


200 


212 


539 


66 


69 


123 


141 


71 


224 


21, 665 


20,715 


13, 784 


125 


85 


236 


858 


718 


1,325 


26 


24 


145 


30 


14 


44 


8 


13 


32 



18 



Table 9.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, JANU- 
ARY-JUNE, 1955, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny-theft 



$ o4r d Under $50 



Auto 
theft 



North Bergen, N. J 

North Little Rock, Ark. 

Norwalk, Conn 

Norwich, Conn 

Norwood, Ohio 



Nutley.N.J 

Oakland, Calif... 

Oak Park, 111 

Oak Ridge, Tenn. 
Odessa, Tex 



Ogden, Utah 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha, Nebr 

Orange, N.J 

Orlando, Fla 



Oshkosh, Wis... 
Ottumwa, Iowa. 
Owensboro, Ky. 

Paducah, Ky 

Palo Alto, Calif. _ 



Panama City, Fla... 
Parkersburg, W. Va. 

Parma, Ohio 

Pasadena, Calif 

Passaic, N.J 



Paterson, N. J 

Pawtucket, R. I 

Pensacola, Fla 

Peoria, HI. 

Perth Amboy, N.J. 



Petersburg, Va... 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Phoenix, Ariz 

Pine Bluff, Ark.. 
Pittsburgh, Pa... 



Pittsfleld, Mass. 
Plainfleld, N. J.. 
Pocatello, Idaho. 
Pomona, Calif. . . 
Pontiac, Mich... 



Port Arthur, Tex.. 
Port Huron, Mich. 
Portland, Maine. .. 

Portland, Oreg 

Portsmouth, Ohio. 



Portsmouth, Va 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Providence, R. I 

Provo, Utah 

Pueblo, Colo 



Quincy, 111 

Quiney, Mass 

Racine, Wis 

Raleigh. N. C 

Rapid City, S. Dak. 



Reading, Pa 

Redondo Beach, Calif 
Redwood city, Calif 
Reno, Nev. 
Revere, Mass 



Richmond, Oalif 
Richmond, tod 
Richmond, Va 
Riverside, Calif . 

Roanoke, Va 



343 

7 



1 
2 

10 
4 

1 

1 

2 

25 

10 

23 
6 
9 

43 
5 

15 

1,042 

75 

10 

330 

1 
2 



10 
110 
26 

35 

4 

36 



No reports received 
No reports received 



No reports received 
164 



1,223 

142 

15 

221 



2 

2 

24 

14 
4 
7 

67 
2 

193 
15 

60 



159 
3 

3 

6 
5 



■lit 

5 

147 

17 

35 



1, 569 


238 


3,738 


52 


41 


95 


17 


14 


91 


108 


57 


538 


66 


71 


393 


968 


768 


1,367 


327 


76 


983 


49 


32 


73 


226 


112 


235 


58 


24 


244 


18 


6 


70 


51 


52 


183 


88 


41 


106 


33 


53 


190 


59 


28 


50 


49 


54 


85 


16 


14 


63 


316 


199 


751 


117 


46 


72 


282 


27 


337 


144 


44 


138 


178 


63 


426 


317 


108 


588 


27 


50 


114 


111 


54 


331 


5,341 


2,815 


4, 313 


600 


366 


1,700 


70 


11 


48 


1,857 


816 


1,139 


54 


19 


141 


53 


55 


127 


28 


36 


184 


76 


43 


280 


122 


75 


317 


22 


7 


107 


56 


19 


258 


149 


81 


285 


934 


738 


2. 010 


111 


102 


231 


240 


159 


347 


57 


36 


163 


612 


323 


949 


36 


19 


252 


150 


131 


461 


79 


42 


157 


169 


53 


310 


93 


39 


347 


136 


03 


1^7 


17 


34 


156 


117 


80 


L'7:; 


L'lir, 


31 


'J.-. 7 


,-.o 


57 


268 


170 


L3S 


283 


68 


30 


85 


239 


'HI 


1,023 


58 


55 


103 


889 


381 


1,574 


1 1.", 


103 




154 


mi 


317 



19 

Table 9.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, JANU- 
ARY-JUNE, 1955, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny-theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under $50 



Rochester, Minn 

Rochester, N. Y 

Rockford, 111 

Rock Island, HI 

Rocky Mount, N. C. 



Rome, Ga. 

Rome, N. Y 

Roswell, N. Mex__ 
Royal Oak, Mich- 
Sacramento, Calif. 



Saginaw, Mich__. 
St. Cloud, Minn_ 
St. Joseph, Mo.- 
St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn.. 



St Petersburg, Fla 

Salem, Mass 

Salem, Oreg 

Salina, Kans 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 



San Angelo, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Bernardino, Calif- 
San Diego, Calif 

Sandusky, Ohio 



San Francisco, Calif- 
San Jose, Calif 

San Leandro, Calif.. 

San Mateo, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif 



Santa Barbara, Calif- 
Santa Fe, N. Mex.-„ 
Santa Monica, Calif. - 

Savannah, Ga 

Schenectady, N. Y_._ 



Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Shaker Heights, Ohio. 

Sharon, Pa 

Sheboygan, Wis 



Shreveport, La 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 

Somerville, Mass 

South Bend, Ind 



South Gate, Calif. 
Spartanburg, S. C. 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, 111 

Springfield, Mass.. 



Springfield, Mo 

Springfield, Ohio... 

Stamford, Conn 

Steubenville, Ohio. 
Stockton, Calif 



Stratford, Conn. 
Superior, Wis... 
Syracuse, N. Y_. 
Tacoma, Wash.. 
Tallahassee, Fla. 



2 

887 
59 



2 
3 
26 

6 
83 
13 

97 
2 

553 

34 

8 

2 

13 



3 
198 

7 



S7 



11 

995 

19 



33 
571 
102 
85 
97 

82 
42 
25 
100 
382 

134 

21 

46 

3,342 

679 



25 323 

No reports received 
4 
6 
20 

10 

400 

22 



330 

15 

1 

4 

12 

20 

6 

29 

279 

1 

13 
71 



18 
234 
52 
68 
29 

51 
22 
29 
36 

460 

57 

18 

26 

1,238 

232 

163 



170 
1,183 
305 
206 
125 

30 

67 

21 

328 

1,304 

706 

123 

223 

6,078 

1,813 

412 



61 


41 


209 


28 


22 


181 


473 


292 


768 


110 


27 


169 


1,384 


617 


2,790 


285 


154 


536 


716 


874 


1,598 


32 


24 


139 


2,825 


816 


4, 693 


305 


175 


996 


105 


83 


327 


64 


89 


315 


171 


71 


425 


100 


54 


449 


102 


56 


225 


278 


323 


518 


328 


226 


376 


104 


52 


102 


279 


38 


249 


1,603 


688 


2,471 


20 


22 


170 


41 


21 


27 


32 


18 


79 


154 


137 


490 


127 


75 


477 


54 


43 


201 


173 


150 


221 


186 


99 


541 


156 


161 


363 


92 


47 


204 


312 


120 


1,224 


122 


68 


402 


153 


71 


346 


109 


59 


204 


90 


39 


284 


124 


109 


214 


73 


54 


103 


322 


250 


629 


50 


29 


86 


47 


8 


178 


286 


222 


800 


237 


218 


767 



No reports received 



20 



Table 9.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, JANU- 
ARY-JUNE, 1955, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Tampa, Fla 

Taunton, Mass... 

Teaneck, N. J 

Temple, Tex 

Terre Haute, Ind. 



Toledo, Ohio - 

Topeka. Kans 

Torrington, Conn. 

Trenton, N. J 

Troy, N. Y 



Tucson, Ariz 

Tulsa, Okla 

Tuscaloosa, Ala- 
Tyler, Tex 

Union, N. J 



Union City, N. J 

University City, Mo. 

Upper Darby, Pa 

Utica, N. Y 

Vallejo, Calif... _ 



Valley Stream, N. Y. 

Vancouver, Wash 

Vicksburg, Miss 

Waco, Tex 

Waltham, Mass 



Warren, Ohio 

Warwick, R. I 

Washington, D. C. 

Washington, Pa 

Waterbury, Conn.. 



Waterloo, Iowa 

Watertown, Mass. 
Watertown, N. Y. 

Waukegan, 111 

Wausau, Wis 



Wauwatosa, Wis _ 

AVest Allis, Wis 

West Hartford, Conn. 

West Haven, Conn 

West New York, N. J. 



West Orange, N. J 

West Palm Beach, Fla. 

Weymouth, Mass 

Wheeling, W. Va 

White Plains, N. Y.... 



Wichita, Kans 

Wichita Falls, Tex. 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa._ 
Wilkinsburg, Pa... 
Williamsport, Pa._ 



Wilmington, Del. 

Wilmington, N. C 

Winona, Minn 

Winston-Salem, N. C. 
Woodbridge, N. J 



Woonsocket, R. I. 
Worcester, Mass.. 
Wyandotte, M ich 

Yakima, Wash 

Yonkers, N. Y.... 



York, Pa 

Youngstown, Ohio. 
Zanesville, Ohio — 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



408 
1 
3 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



104 
5 
1 

16 
3 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



996 
76 
55 
81 

169 



138 657 416 

34 247 75 

Only 2 months received 



Larceny-theft 



$50 and 
over 



334 
18 
32 
24 

58 



13 


21 


5 


13 


21 


30 


4t; 


107 


l 


62 



284 
81 

228 
567 

68 



129 
39 

116 

442 
37 



Complete data not received 
3 66 



101 
63 
136 
102 
57 



90 
3 

3 

"i,"958" 
..... 



50 
59 
16 
282 
76 



1,866 
22 
140 

62 
66 
51 
44 
36 

21 
18 
55 
59 



3 


2 


4 


18 


38 


136 


in 


28 


4 


1 


4 


1 


3 


1 


37 


12 


II 


126 


? 




IS 


50 


4 


2 


1 


1 


13 


5 


1 




in 


10 


8 


18 


12 


9 


49 


14 


5 


3 



554 
211 
95 
52 
64 

375 
138 

15 
226 

38 

51 
415 
34 
91 
99 

138 

230 

92 



268 
127 

44 
8 

37 

170 
56 
18 
81 
39 

36 
114 
37 
43 
46 

33 

226 

44 



Under $50 



Complete data not received - 



32 33 

24 I 97 I 72 

No reports received 

55 21 

70 89 



1,070 

142 

86 

183 

332 

1, 395 
478 

299 
45 

769 
1,008 

77 



37 


143 


26 


53 


113 


127 


44 


248 


44 


219 


44 


265 


49 


108 


40 


230 


20 


25 


91 


646 


42 


170 


54 


164 


70 


73 


840 


3, 332 


18 


57 


58 


177 


37 


275 


27 


65 


31 


87 


41 


165 


17 


139 


27 


114 


28 


196 


12 


36 


22 


33 



148 

56 
126 

1, 195 

701 
101 
76 
190 

606 
279 

71 

317 



81 
530 
158 

ISO 
404 

307 
in J 
196 



i Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies, 

■ The ciime reporting fur the city Indicated does not meet acceptable standards established by the Com" 

miller (in filiform Crime Records of the International Association of Chiefs of Police. 



POLICE EMPLOYEE DATA 

Police Killed, 1954 

In 1954, 61 city police employees were killed while on active police 
duty according to the reports of 3,704 cities. The figures are not 
limited to deaths of police at the hands of criminals, but include 
deaths of police in traffic mishaps and the like, so long as the death 
occurred in line of duty. 

The number of deaths reported for 1953 by 3,721 cities was 63. 
Although the reports for the two periods are not from identical cities, 
the 61 deaths in 1954 compare roughly with the 63 deaths in 1953. 
Over 97 percent of the urban population was represented by reports 
for both years. 

The reported 61 deaths for 1954 average one in 2,752 police em- 
ployees killed in line of duty. Stated another way, this represents 
3.6 deaths for every 10,000 employees. 

Reported figures are listed in table 10 by cities grouped by size and 
by geographic area. Rates based on the 1950 decennial census are 
also included. The number of reporting cities and the population 
represented are shown in table 12. 

Information about police employees killed is collected for the 
previous calendar year while the number of police employees shown in 
the next section is as of April 30, of the current year. 

Table 10.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES KILLED, 
1954, BY GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS AND POPULATION GROUPS 

[3,704 cities, total population 87,066,845, based on 1950 decennial census] 





TOTAL 


Population group 


Geographic division 


Num- 
ber 


Rate per 
5,000,000 
inhab- 
itants 


Group 
I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 




Over 

250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 
to 

50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


Total number 


61 




18 
2.6 


8 
4.3 


5 
2.8 


9 
4.8 


5 
2.0 


16 


Rate per 5,000,000 inhabitants 


3.5 


6.6 








New England 


1 

11 
10 

2 

10 
5 
11 

4 

7 


.7 
2.5 
2.5 
1.5 

5.7 
6.7 
7.7 
8.1 
3.9 


3 
5 


1 
2 










Middle Atlantic 




3 
1 


1 
1 


3 


East North Central 


2 


West North Central 






3 


1 


5 


East South Central 


2 

1 
1 
1 


1 


2 


West South Central 


3 
4 


2 
2 




4 








2 













(21) 



22 

Number of Police Employees, April 30, 1955 

An estimated 171,000 employees policed the cities of the United 
States as of April 30, 1955. This is an increase of more than 4 percent 
over the 164,000 city police employees estimated for the same date in 
1954. Of the above, police employees without the power of arrest 
(civilians) increased from 15,000 in 1954 to 16,000 in 1955, or 7 percent. 

(Note that the above refers to city police. For all police in State 
and local governments it has been estimated there were 259,000 in 
October, 1954, as compared with 248,000 in October, 1953. Source: 
Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census; annual report, 
State Distribution of Public Employment.) 

The rate of growth in the number of police employees is not a final 
index to the change in available police strength. 

For example, a change from a 48- to a 40-hour week decreases 
available man-hours by about 17 percent. The trend in police work, 
as elsewhere in recent years, has been toward a shortened workweek. 
Figures are not available to demonstrate on a nationwide scale the 
effect of shortened workweeks, more liberal leave policies, and the like. 

For every 10 police officers there is on the average at least 1 civilian 
police employee. Police continue to expand the use of civilians in 
limited police functions. In 1950, 7.5 percent of the police employees 
were civilians while in 1955, 9.6 percent were civilians. Substitution 
of civilian employees for police officers in records, communications and 
other inside work as well as outside work, such as guarding at school 
crossings, is responsible in part for this trend. 

School guards are listed as civilian employees without tbe power of 
arrest by some departments, while others show them as police officers. 

The following tabulation shows the percentage of civilian employees 
as of April 30, 1955, by cities grouped by size: 

Percentage Chilian 
Population group: employm 

Total, all cities 9. 6 

Group I (over 250,000) 10. 8 

Group II (100,000-250,000) 12. S 

Group III (50,000-100,000) 10. 1 

Group IV (25,000-50,000) 8. 6 

Group V (10,000-25,000) 5. 3 

Group VI (2,500-10,000) 0. 1 

Table 11 presents the reported number of police employees ar- 
ranged by city groups and geographic divisions. Also, the average 
number of police employees per 1,000 inhabitants is included in table 
11. The population used in determining averages in that table is 
from the 1950 decennial census. 

Table 12 shows the number of reporting police departments and 
the population represented under the 1950 decennial census. 



23 



Table 11.— POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APRIL 30, 1955, 
BER AND RATE PER 1,000 INHABITANTS, BY GEOGRAPHIC 
SIONS AND POPULATION GROUPS 

[3,704 cities, total population 87,066,845, based on 1950 decennial census] 



NUM- 
DIVI- 



Division 



TOTAI: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants 

New England: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants 

Middle Atlantic: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants 

East North Central : 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants 

West North Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants 

South Atlantic: ' 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants 

East South Central : 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants 

West South Central : 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants 

Mountain: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants 

Pacific: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants 

1 Includes the District of Columbia. 



TOTAL 



167, 862 
1.9 



14, 405 
2.1 

51, 642 
2.3 

36, 022 
1.8 

10, 020 
1.5 

17, 675 
2.0 

5,475 
1.5 

9,991 
1.4 

3,782 
1.5 

18, 850 
2.1 



Population group 



Group 
I 



Over 

250,000 



84, 731 
2.4 



3,045 
3.8 

34, 206 

2.8 

20, 262 
2.3 

4,501 
1.9 

6,006 

2.8 

1,475 
1.4 

3,823 
1.7 

711 

1.7 

10, 702 
2.3 



Group 
II 



100,000 

to 
250,000 



16, 570 
1.8 



3,771 
2.3 

3,138 
2.0 

2,274 
1.5 

782 
1.3 

2,648 
1.8 

893 
1.7 

1,490 
1.5 

465 
1.6 

1,109 
1.7 



Group 
III 



50,000 

to 
100,000 



15, 040 
1.7 



2,259 
1.9 

3,209 
1.9 

3,217 
1.5 

872 
1.3 

2,457 
1.7 

426 
1.6 

816 
1.3 

270 
1.2 

1,514 
1.8 



Group 
IV 



25,000 
to 

50,000 



15, 528 
1.6 



2,660 
1.9 

3,230 
1.9 

3,354 
1.4 

759 
1.2 

1,876 
1.9 

630 
1.4 

824 
1.3 

659 
1.6 

1,536 
1.8 



Group 
V 



10,000 
to 

25,1100 



18, 531 
1.5 



1,993 
1.6 

4,209 
1.6 

3,290 
1.4 

1,404 
1.2 

2,146 

1.8 

819 
1.5 



695 
1.5 

2,387 
1.8 



Group 
VI 



Less 
than 
10,000 



17, 462 
1.4 



677 
1.3 

3,650 
1.5 

3,625 
1.4 

1,702 
1.2 

2,542 
1.8 

1,232 
1.5 

1,450 
1.1 

982 
1.4 

1,602 
1.9 



355502°— 55- 



24 




11111 



1.9 



AVERAGE NUMBER OF POLICE 
DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES 

By Population Groups 
April 30, 1955 



PER 
1,000 INHABITANTS 



2.4 



■,:o:. 
:':¥S :: 



1.4 



. . 



1.5 






1,6 



■: : ::': ■.'■ 



1.7 



. 



WM 



& 



:■,:■ 



: -,v 



1.8 



I 



mm® 

llllli 






:■:••■:■:■:■:*¥: 
111 



HI 



AVERAGE CITIES CITIES CITIES CITIES CITIES CITIES 

OF ALL LESS 10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 OVER 

CITIES THAN TO TO TO TO 250,000 

10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 250,000 



F8I CHART 



Figure 2. 



25 

Table 12.— NUMBER OF CITIES USED IN TABULATIONS REGARD- 
ING NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, APRIL 30, 
1955, AND POLICE KILLED, 1954 

[Population figures from 1950 decennial census] 





TOTAL 


Population group 


Division 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 




Over 
250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


TOTAL: 

Population represented. 
Number of cities 


87, 066, 845 
3,704 


34, 932, 955 
41 


9, 308, 094 
63 


9, 034, 619 
128 


9, 426, 923 
269 


12, 199, 201 
797 


12, 165, 053 
2,406 


New England: Total popu- 
lation, 6,850,848 


229 
734 
793 
412 
433 
225 
382 
189 
307 


1 

7 
9 
5 
3 
3 
5 
1 
7 


11 
12 
10 
4 
8 
4 
7 
2 
5 


17 
24 
31 
9 
20 
4 
9 
3 
11 


38 
48 
66 
20 
30 
14 
17 
12 
24 


81 
165 
163 
77 
75 
35 
81 
30 
90 


81 
478 
514 
297 
297 


Middle Atlantic: Total 
population, 22,288,477 

East North Central: Total 
population, 19,921,811 

West North Central: Total 
population, 6,853,283 

South Atlantic: Total pop- 
ulation, 8, 723,196 


East South Central: Total 
population, 3,720,208 

West South Central: Total 
population, 7,172,150 

Mountain: Total popula- 
tion, 2,470,152 


165 
263 
141 


Pacific: Total population, 
9,066,720 


170 







Police Employees in Individual Cities 

Police employee figures as reported by individual cities are shown 
in tables 13 and 14. The first of these is for the larger citFes (25,000 
and over in population). Civilians as well as police officers are shown 
for the larger places. Such figures are combined in table 14 for the 
smaller urban places (2,500 to 25,000 in population). 

The numerical strength shown is the equivalent full-time strength. 
That is, the hours worked by part-time employees are converted to 
full-time equivalents. For example, 17 part-time employees who 
worked 6.9 times the hours of one full-time employee are expressed 
in the figures as 7 employees and not 17. Fractional time less than 
three-fourths a full-time employee's hours was ignored in the indi- 
vidual conversions. 

A regular 48-hour week was assumed where no ratio was indicated 
by the reporting agency for part-time employees. 

Persons who are not paid from police funds are not counted in 
these tabulations. Examples are: (1) unpaid auxiliary police; (2) 
unpaid crossing guards, such as school-boy patrols; and (3) night 
watchmen or merchant police paid by individuals from private funds. 

A comparison of police strength in two or more cities is not too 
informative unless many factors are studied. Crime factors (see 
p. 12) have some bearing on this problem. Also, the more obvious 
differences such as length of workweek should be considered. 



26 



Table 13.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APRIL 30, 1955, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION 



City 


Number of police de- 
partment employees 


City 


Number of police de- 
partment employee? 


TOTAL 


Police 
officers 


Civil- 
ians 


TOTAL 


Police 
officers 


Civil- 
ians 


ALABAMA 


52 

41 
432 

81 
216 
171 

70 

227 
98 

54 
38 
143 
62 
37 

74 
81 

123 

137 
78 

146 
65 

221 

181 
40 
56 
81 

474 

5,393 

32 

806 
48 

205 
75 
35 
47 

147 
85 

280 

174 

570 
1,812 

141 
48 
69 
83 
71 

157 
65 

126 
85 

86 

711 

91 

393 
58 
64 

ll'l 
lis 
ill 

46 


50 

37 
385 

73 
159 
160 

64 

192 
81 

52 
37 
134 
62 
35 

69 
70 

103 

131 
65 

113 
53 

197 

136 
35 
50 
62 

375 

4,346 

29 

666 
46 

170 
59 
34 
44 

128 
79 

239 

139 

488 
1,701 

132 
37 
65 
77 
64 

122 
52 

113 
71 

83 
590 

82 

357 
56 
57 

in; 

369 
89 
45 


2 

4 
47 

8 

57 
11 

6 

35 
17 

2 
1 
9 

2 

5 
11 
20 

6 
13 
33 
12 
24 
45 

5 

6 

19 

99 

1,047 

3 
140 

2 
35 
16 

1 

3 
19 

6 
41 
35 
82 
111 

9 
11 

4 

6 

7 

35 
13 
13 
14 

3 

121 

9 

36 

2 
7 
8 
49 
2 
1 


C O N NECTIC UT— Con. 

New Britain '... 

New Haven 1 


169 

427 
66 

115 
65 

178 
62 
58 

271 
85 
60 

258 

2,460 

69 
91 
45 
405 
35 
59 
670 
198 
100 
43 
106 
126 
55 
264 
86 

51 

37 
719 
164 
124 

42 
114 

45 
169 

64 
37 

44 
67 
38 
56 
43 
37 
8,390 
84 
34 
50 

102 
40 

129 
33 
23 
72 
24 


146 

398 
63 

101 
63 

168 
60 
56 

256 
81 
60 

226 

2,253 

61 
76 
39 

332 
34 
50 

498 

140 
92 
34 
94 

113 
51 

235 
75 

48 

36 
622 
147 
123 

41 
112 

41 
143 

54 
32 

44 
56 
37 
47 
38 
37 
7. 730 
80 
34 
47 
74 
39 
97 
29 
23 
68 
23 


23 




29 




New London ' 


3 




Norwalk i 

Norwich i 

Stamford 


14 


Mobile ' 


2 




10 




Stratford > 


9 




1 


ARIZONA 


Waterburv ■ 


15 




West Hartford ' 


4 




West Haven ' 






DELAWARE 

Wilmington' 

DISTRICT OF 
COLUMBIA 

Washington > 




ARKANSAS 
Fort Smith 


32 






Little Rock 




North Little Rock 




Pine Bluff 


207 


CALIFORNIA 


FLORIDA 
Daytona Beach ' 


8 




Fort Lauderdale.. ..- 


15 


Bakersfield 


Gainesville • 

Jacksonville 1 - 


6 

73 


Beverlv Hills ■ 


Key West ' 


1 




Lakeland 


9 


Compton i 


Miami ' . 


172 


Miami Beach 


58 




Orlando ' 


8 


Hay ward 

Huntington Park ' 


Panama City 

Pensacola 

St. Petersburg 1 


9 
12 
13 




Tallahassee 


4 


Los Angeles ' 


Tampa 


29 
11 


Oakland ' 

Palo Alto 1 


GEORGIA 

Albany t 

Athens 

Atlanta > 

Augusta » 

Columbus 

La Grange '. 

Macon [ 

Rome . 

Savannah ' 

IDAHO 

Boise L 

Pocatello 

ILLINOIS 
Alton 










3 




1 




97 




17 


Riverside 


1 
1 









4 


San Francisco 


26 
















10 




5 






South Gate ' 
















11 


COLORADO 


Belleville. 

Berwvn ' 


1 
9 




Bh mini nut on i 


5 




('hainpaiini.. 




Pueblo ' 


< Ihicago '... -. 


670 






4 


CONNECTICUT 










3 




East St. Louis '.._ 


28 


Bristol i 


Elgin 


1 




Evanston '-.. 


32 




i talesburg - 


4 


1 larl ford ' 


Granite city 








4 


Middletown ' 




1 



See footnote ;it end <>t table. 



27 



Table 13.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APRIL 30, 1955, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 


Number of police de- 
partment employees 


City 


Number of police de- 
partment employees 


TOTAL 


Police 
officers 


Civil- 
ians 


TOTAL 


Police 
officers 


Civil- 
ians 


ILLINOIS— Continued 
Maywood . 


29 
34 
72 

142 
46 

119 
50 

102 
50 

70 

39 

138 

66 

206 

208 

213 

159 

855 

63 

55 

47 

49 

49 

88 

32 

55 

183 

92 

35 
92 
30 
54 
97 

206 
52 
29 
24 
38 
37 

105 
75 

35 
165 

35 
133 
273 

35 
84 
105 
551 
60 
56 
60 

57 
134 
52 
39 
60 
1,118 


29 
31 
68 

135 
43 

111 
46 
87 
47 

65 

36 

125 

58 

189 

204 

197 

132 

751 

58 

53 

47 

48 

43 

80 

32 

54 

175 

90 

34 
83 
30 
42 
87 
183 
51 
26 
24 
32 
33 
87 
74 

32 
138 
33 
93 
227 

32 
80 
99 
512 
52 
53 
60 

57 
121 
49 
38 
43 
1, 105 


3 
4 
7 
3 
8 
4 

15 
3 

5 
3 

13 
8 

17 
4 

16 

27 

104 

5 

2 

1 
6 

8 

1 
8 
2 

1 

9 

12 
10 
23 
1 
3 

6 
4 

18 
1 

3 
27 

2 
40 
46 

3 

4 

6 

39 

8 
3 

13 
3 
1 

17 
13 


MAINE 


72 
56 
122 

2,827 
59 
55 

81 

50 

60 

3,045 

110 

139 

231 

81 

95 

115 

254 

77 

39 

47 

69 

114 

145 

190 

123 

111 

62 

232 

167 

40 

90 

158 

79 

79 

171 

390 

70 

88 

77 

59 

402 

78 

64 

101 

210 

4,880 

45 

288 

255 

103 

132 

8l 

117 

144 

52 

74 

119 

57 

65 

150 

68 

138 
635 


49 
53 
108 

2,438 
53 
45 

73 

44 

57 

2,835 

106 

132 

223 

75 

79 

112 

236 

69 

38 

45 

68 

112 

137 

176 

123 

107 

51 

220 

157 

40 

82 

149 

74 

72 

171 

352 

64 

83 

70 

57 

362 

63 
54 
76 

178 

4,382 

42 

245 

231 
94 

102 
75 
98 

140 
50 
68 

105 
52 
58 

142 
59 

123 
581 


23 


Moline 




3 


Oak Park 




14 


Peoria 


MARYLAND 




Quincy .. 








Rock Island 


389 


Springfield ' 


Cumberland 


6 






10 


INDIANA 
Anderson 


MASSACHUSETTS 


8 


Bloomington 


Belmont ' 


6 


East Chicago ' 


Beverly '_. 


3 


Elkhart i 


Boston.. 


210 


Evansville 


Brockton i .. 


4 


Fort Wayne. 




7 


Gary 




8 


Hammond [ 


Chelsea >._ 


6 


Indianapolis ' 




16 




Everett . . 


3 


LaFayette > 


Fall River. . 


18 


Marion 




8 


Michigan City... ... 


Framingham ■ 


1 


Mishawaka ' 




2 


Muncie ' 




1 


New Albany 


Holyoke 


2 


Richmond... 




8 


South Bend 




14 


Terre Haute 


Maiden L.. 






Medford 


4 


IOWA 




11 




New Bedford ... 


12 


Burlington 




10 


Cedar Rapids 






Clinton 


Pittsfield i 


8 


Council Bluffs « 




9 


Davenport __ 




5 


Des Moines 




7 


Dubuque 






Fort Dodge 




38 


Iowa City 




6 


Mason City . 


Waltham « 


5 


Ottumwa 






Sioux City 




2 


Waterloo _ . 




40 


KANSAS 


MICHIGAN 

Ann Arbor ' 


15 




Battle Creek 


10 


Salina ' 


Bay City 


25 




Dearborn i_ _ 


32 




Detroit 


498 




Ferndale 1 


3 




Flint " 


43 


KENTUCKY 

Ashland 


Grand Rapids 1.. 

Hamtramck ' 

Highland Park.. 


24 

9 
30 


Covington 


Jackson 

Kalamazoo 1 . . 

Lansing. _ ... 


6 
19 

4 
2 


Lexington L 


Newport. 


Owensboro 1 


Muskegon ... 

Pontiac . ... 


6 
14 
5 




LOUISIANA 


Royal Oak. _ . . 


7 


Alexandria 


Saginaw ' 

Wyandotte ' 

MINNESOTA 

Duluth 


8 
9 


Lafayette ' 




Lake Charles. 




M onroe ' 


15 


New Orleans ' 


Minneapolis 


54 



See footnote at end of table. 



28 

Table 13.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APRIL 30, 1955, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



MINNESOTA— Con. 



Rochester. 
St. Cloud. 
St. Paul... 
Winona... 



Greenville >. 
Hattiesburg. 

Jackson 

Laurel 

Vicksburg '.. 



MISSOURI 

Columbia. 

Independence 

Jefferson City 

Kansas City l . 

St. Joseph 

St. Louis ' 

Springfield 

University City '... 



MONTANA 



Billings 

Butte 

Great Falls. 



NEBRASKA 



Lincoln 
Omaha_ 



NEW JERSEY 



Atlantic City 

Bayonne 

Belleville 1 

Bloomfield 

Camden 

Clifton »__ 

East Orange ' 

Elizabeth... 

Garfield 

Hackensack 

I lamilion i 

Iloboken. 

Irvington ' 

Jersey City ' 

Kearny l 

Linden 

Maplewond ' 

Montclair ' 

Newark ' 

New Brunswick 
North Bergen ' 

Nutley 

Orange '. 

Passaic 

Paterson > 
Perth Amboj 
Plainfleld 
Teaneck 



MISSISSIPPI 



NEVADA 
Reno 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 



Concord '... 
Manchester. 
Nashua ' 



Number of police de- 


partment employees 


TOTAL 


Police 


Civil- 




officers 


ians 


45 


44 


1 


33 


32 


1 


420 


397 


23 


34 


34 




45 


39 


6 


31 


29 


2 


156 


128 


28 


28 


27 


1 


3!) 


39 




38 


35 


3 


34 


33 


1 


29 


29 




781 


593 


188 


99 


91 


8 


2,317 


1,837 


480 


89 


78 


11 


54 


42 


12 


56 


52 


4 


35 


33 


2 


49 


46 


3 


115 


91 


24 


348 


292 


56 


91 


78 


13 


48 


45 


3 


127 


119 


8 


54 


50 


4 


209 


175 


34 


207 


197 


10 


63 


59 


4 


101 


88 


13 


301 


200 


101 


99 


96 


3 


143 


133 


10 


200 


250 


10 


48 


48 




65 


65 




69 


67 


2 


173 


173 




104 


97 


7 


1,013 


849 


104 


117 


111 


6 


98 

51 


'.IS 
51 




111 


1 (if, 


5 


1,310 


1, 173 


137 


68 


66 


2 


HIS 


'.ill 


12 


43 


42 


1 


91 


81 


10 


129 


129 




31 '.1 


272 


47 


Ml 


SI 


5 


ss 


77 


11 


■IS 


48 





City 



NEW JERSEY— Con. 

Trenton • 

Union ' 

Union City 

West New York i 

West Orange l 

Woodbridge ' 

NEW MEXICO 

Albuquerque 

RoswelL 

Santa Fe 

NEW YORK 

Albany • 

Amsterdam 

Auburn ' 

Binghamton < 

Buffalo i 

Elmira 

Hempstead ' 

Ithaca 1 

Jamestown '.. 

Kingston ' 

Lackawanna l 

Lockport 

Mount Vernon > 

Newburgh 

New Rochelle 1 

New York • 

Niagara Falls 

Poughkeepsie > 

Rochester ' 

Rome ' 

Schenectady ' 

Syracuse ' 

Troy 

Utica 

Watertown ' 

White Plains '... 

Yonkers ' 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Asheville '.. 

Durham ' 

Fayetteville ' 

Greensboro l 

High Point ■ 

Kannapolis. 

Raleigh i 

Rocky Mount '. 

Wilmington ' 

Winston Salem ' 

NORTH DAKOTA 

Fargo 

Grand Porks 

OHIO 

Akron ' 

Alliance ' 

Barberton > 

Canton 

Cincinnati ' 

Cleveland 

( 'leveland Heights 

Columbus 

i iuyahoga I'alls ' 

Dayton i. 

East Cleveland ' 

Klyria.. 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



TOTAL 



274 
90 

121 
89 

77 
94 



117 
30 

3! 



339 

44 

61 

141 

,497 

91 

78 

42 

71 

56 

62 

40 

175 

54 

155 

,675 

170 

84 

566 

63 

163 

439 

202 

179 

57 

135 

311 



93 

Lie 

72 
lis 
85 
23 
123 
56 
96 
171 



319 
30 
34 

143 

891 

2, 109 

93 

667 
40 

352 
68 
36 



Police 
officers 



252 
71 

115 
89 
65 
72 



109 
30 
34 



274 

42 

59 

131 

1,200 

91 

73 

37 

62 

52 

61 

39 

147 

54 

133 

21,345 

165 

71 

445 

51 

155 

340 

152 

168 

51 

125 

270 



84 

101 
68 

127 
78 
22 

102 
50 
77 

154 



268 
30 
30 

139 

846 

1 . 792 

64 

155 
32 

308 
53 
36 



Sec footnote al end of table. 



29 



Table 13.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APRIL 30, 1955, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 


Number of police de- 
partment employees 


City 


Number of police de- 
partment employees 


TOTAL 


Police 
officers 

62 
92 
11 
59 
52 
55 
49 
34 
27 
57 
39 
45 
34 
50 
34 
63 
93 
43 

385 
59 

259 
35 

39 
36 
46 
22 
279 
244 

42 
665 
59 

38 
29 

128 
87 
81 
76 
45 

170 

139 
45 
34 
80 
82 
98 
80 
40 
58 
33 
46 
4,763 
1,443 

152 

173 
37 

110 
31 

101 
33 
53 
89 

84 
74 
84 


Civil- 
ians 

14 
3 

17 

5 
1 
2 
2 

3 
1 
2 
2 
3 
1 
2 
9 
1 

80 
2 

25 

4 
2 

72 

43 

21 
93 
10 

6 

8 
20 
5 
9 
3 

25 
5 
3 

9 
6 
7 
12 

3 

4 
812 
127 

33 

21 
1 

21 
1 
3 

15 
1 
3 

3 
3 


TOTAL 


Police 
officers 


Civil- 
ians 


OHIO— Con. 

Euclid i 

Hamilton 


76 
95 
11 
76 
57 
56 
51 
36 
27 
60 
40 
47 
36 
53 
35 
65 

102 
44 

465 
61 

284 
35 

43 
36 
48 
22 
351 
287 

63 

758 

69 

38 
35 
136 
107 
86 
85 
48 
195 
144 
48 
34 
89 
88 
105 
92 
40 
61 
33 
50 
5,575 
1,570 
185 
194 
38 
131 
32 
104 
48 
54 
92 

84 
77 
87 


RHODE ISLAND— Con. 
Pawtucket 


132 
582 
62 
100 

164 
147 
125 

77 

30 
67 

167 
40 
37 
191 
492 
339 
36 

72 
116 
217 
125 

58 
146 
894 
212 
464 

92 
880 

59 
117 

72 

69 

60 
467 

31 

43 
104 

88 

62 

34 

238 

42 

111 
141 
41 
74 
59 
65 
74 
395 
46 
99 
346 
127 


127 

489 

59 

96 

151 
137 
114 

75 

29 
61 

160 

40 

36 

155 

391 

267 

36 

63 
108 
162 
112 

42 
135 
776 
179 
430 

92 
674 

55 
108 

64 

66 

59 
372 

31 

43 
100 

72 

60 

31 

220 

37 

100 

121 

41 

71 

56 

63 

68 

343 

43 

89 

324 

123 


5 


Kettering 




3 


Lakewood > 






Lima- . 


SOUTH CAROLINA 




Lorain _ 




Mansfield 




Marion .. 


13 


Massillon 






Middletown 


Greenville ... 


11 


Newark 




2 




SOUTH DAKOTA 




Parma _ 




Portsmouth 




Sandusky 


1 


Shaker Heights ' 


Sioux Falls ' 


6 


Springfield 

Steubenville 


TENNESSEE 




Toledo 

Warren '_ .. .. 


_ 


Youngstown 






Zanesville 




1 




Knoxville 


36 


OKLAHOMA 


Memphis l __ 


101 


Enid 




72 


Lawton 








TEXAS 








Oklahoma City ' 




Tulsa '. 


9 




Amarillo L 


8 


OREGON 




55 






13 


Eugene 




16 


Portland ' 




11 


Salem _ 


Dallas' 


118 




El Paso 


33 


PENNSYLVANIA 


Fort Worth i 


34 




Galveston 




Abington 




206 


Aliquippa ' 




4 


Allentown.. 


Lubbock'.. 


9 


Altoona ' __ __ 




g 


Bethlehem ' 




3 


Chester 




1 






95 


Erie i 








Tyler 




Haverford 


4 


Hazleton ' 


Wichita Falls 


16 




UTAH 




Lancaster '__. _ 




Lower Merion ' 

McKeesport ' 


2 


Mount Lebanon ' 




3 


New Castle 


Salt Lake City ' 


18 


New Kensington '... 


VERMONT 




Norristown. 




Philadelphia ' 




Pittsburgh ' 


5 




VIRGINIA 








Sharon L. 






11 






20 


Wilkes-Barre '. 










3 






3 


York i 




2 






6 


RHODE ISLAND 


Norfolk i 


52 






3 


Cranston 




10 


East Providence ' 




22 


Newport 


Roanoke. 


4 



See footnote at end of table. 



30 



Table 13.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APRIL 30, 1955, CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



WASHINGTON 

Bellingham 

Bremerton 

Everett. __ 

Seattle t... 

Spokane 

Tacoma 

Vancouver... 

Yakima 

WEST VIRGINIA 

C harleston 

Clarksburg 

Huntington 

Morgantown 

Parkersburg 

Wheeling.. 

WISCONSIN 

A ppleton 

Beloit 

Eau Claire 



Number of police de- 


partment employees 


TOTAL 


Police 
officers 


Civil- 
ians 


47 


44 


3 


55 


47 


8 


52 


50 


2 


889 


779 


110 


233 


209 


24 


254 


225 


29 


55 


53 


2 


74 


74 




128 


103 


25 


31 


31 




121 


103 


18 


20 


17 


3 


40 


38 


2 


94 


92 


2 


46 


46 




47 


45 


2 


55 


49 


6 



City 



WISCONSIN— Con. 

Fond du Lac 

Green Bay 

Kenosha ' 

La Crosse > 

Madison ' 

Manitowoc 

Milwaukee ' 

Oshkosh ' 

Racine C 

Sheboygan 

Superior 

Wausau 

Wauwatosa • 

West Allis ' 

WYOMJNG 

Cheyenne -. 

HAWAII 

Honolulu City 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



TOTAL 



38 
87 
89 
70 
175 
44 
1,786 
63 
139 
55 
58 
40 
68 
97 



552 



Police 

officers 



36 
81 

77 
63 

151 

42 

1, 635 

60 

123 
55 
57 
40 
68 
92 



462 



Civil- 
ians 



2 
6 
12 

24 

2 

151 

3 

16 



90 



i The figures for the cities indicated include part-time employees expressed in terms of full-time personnel. 
See comments on page 25. 



31 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APR. 30, 1955, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000 



City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


ALABAMA 
Albertville 


7 
15 
9 
15 
8 
15 
6 
6 
5 
3 

12 

5 

5 

3 

11 

21 

45 

4 

8 

5 

17 

5 

7 

4 

28 

10 

8 

9 

6 

11 

39 

4 

15 
8 
7 
3 
3 
13 
9 
5 

19 

9 

7 

5 

7 

27 

8 

5 

36 

23 

18 

5 

7 

10 

13 

9 

5 

3 

8 
10 
12 

2 
10 
14 
11 
13 
13 
10 
23 

7 
12 
14 


ARIZONA— Con. 

Safford 

Tempe .. 


6 
14 

3 

12 
27 

2 
6 

11 

13 
3 
3 
7 
6 
2 
3 

20 
3 

17 
2 
9 
3 
5 

11 

17 
7 
9 
5 
4 
4 
4 
5 
2 
6 

11 
2 
2 
4 
4 
4 
5 
5 
4 
8 
1 
9 

20 
5 
6 
4 
5 
4 

12 
5 

21 
4 

42 

16 

39 

9 

11 

7 

9 

31 

12 

17 

7 

23 

12 

12 


CALIFORNIA— Con. 


5 


Alexander City 


Blythe 


13 


Andalusia 




Brawley 


24 


Athens 




6 


Atmore. 


Yuma ' 




36 


Auburn 


ARKANSAS 




14 


Bay Minette 


Carmel by the Sea 

Chico 


10 


Boaz i 


20 


Brewton .. 




11 


Brundidge 


Batesville 




7 


Chickasaw 


Blytheville. 


Chula Vista ' 


37 


Childersburg 


Camden 




12 


Clanton 


Clarendon 

Clarksville 


Clovis i 


11 


Cordova 




14 


Cullman 




Colton i 


27 


Decatur 


Crossett. . 




4 




De Witt 




20 


Elba.. 


Dumas .. 




9 


E n terprise 


El Dorado 




4 


Evergreen ' 






17 


Fairfield 






23 


Fairhope 


Fordyce. 


Culver City 


58 


Fayette i 


Forrest City. 


Dalv City ' 


34 


Florala 






6 


Florence ' 


Harrison.. 




16 


Fort Payne 


Helena 




10 


Greenville... 


Jonesboro 


El Cajon i 


15 


Halevville 


El Centro ' 


31 


Hartselle 


Malvern ' 


El Cerrito 


26 


Homewood.- 




El Monte 


19 


Huntsville . 


McGehee 

Mena 




22 


Jacksonville 




15 


Jasper 






16 


Lanett 






37 


Leeds 


Nashville 

Osceola _ 




5 


Lipscomb 




5 


Marion 






12 


Mountain Brook 


Paris 




6 


Northport .. 


Piggott. _ 




17 


Oneonta Town ' 


Pocahontas L. 


Fort Bragg 


4 


Opelika 


Prescott. 




34 


Opp 






27 


Ozark 






9 


Piedmont 






9 


Prattville i 


Siloam Springs 




9 


Prichard ' 




5 


Roanoke.. 


Stamps 

Stuttgart 

Texarkana 

Trumann.... .. 

Van Buren 




18 


Russellville 




33 


Selma 




8 


Svlacauga 


Hemet. - - 

Hermosa Beach ' 


7 


Talladega .. 


24 


Tallassee 


Walnut Ridge 


12 


Tarrant City 


Hollister __ 

Huntington Beach 

Indio 

Laguna Beach 


8 


Trov 

Tuscumbia 


West Helena > .. 

"West Memphis . 

Wynne '_.-. .. 


17 
16 


Tuskegee i 


16 


Union Springs 


CALIFORNIA 


12 




La Mesa ._. .. 


17 


ARIZONA 




4 






8 


Avondale 


Alturas. 




9 


Bisbee 




13 


Casa Grande 

Chandler 


Antioch___ 


Lodi. . 

Lompoc . _ 


30 
9 


Clifton 




10 


Coolidge i___ 






9 


Douglas 




Madera _.. 

Manhattan Beach 


17 


Eloy 


Auburn 


28 


Flagstaff 


11 


Glendale... 


Banning .. 

Barstow 

Beaumont. . - 

Bell 




12 


Globe' 


Marvsville. . 


21 


Mesa 


May wood 

Menlo Park 


21 


Miami 


23 


Nogales 


Merced .-. 
Millbrae... 


28 


Prescott . 


Benicia 


9 



See footnote at end of table. 

355502°— 55 5 



32 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APR. 30, 1955, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



CALIFORNIA— Con. 



Number 
of police 

depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



Mill Valley 

Modesto. _ 

Monrovia 

Montebello. 

Monterey 

Monterey Park 

Mountain View 

Napa ' 

National City 

Needles 

Nevada City 

Newport Beach.... 

Oakdale 

Oceanside l 

Ojai 

Ontario. 

Orange 

Oroville 

Oxnard. 

Pacific Grove. 

Palm Springs ' — 

Paso Robles L 

Petaluma ' 

Piedmont... 

Pittsburg. 

Placerville 

Porterville.. 

Port Hueneme.. 

Red Bluff 

Redding- — 

Redlands 

Reedley.. 

RialtoL 

Riverbank 

Roseville i 

Salinas 

San Anselmo 

San Bruno 1 

San Carlos - 

San Fernando 

San Gabriel — 

Sanger 

San Luis Obispo > — 

San Marino 

San Pablo 

San Rafael 

Santa Clara --- 

Santa Cruz ' 

Santa Maria 

Simla Paula 

Simla Rosa.... 

Sausalito 

Seal Beach 

Sebastopol 

Selma 

Sierra Madre 

Signal Hill 

South Pasadena 

South San Francisco 

Sunnyvale.. - 

Susanville - 

Taft '.. - 

Torrance 

Tracy. 

Tulare... 

Turlook 

II. Mill 1. - 

Upland '...-- 

Vacaville 

Ventura 

Visalia 

Wasco -- 

Watsonville 

West Covina '.. — 
Whittier ' 



City 



10 
l(i 
33 
30 
32 
30 
20 
26 
34 

9 

4 
37 

5 

35 
7 

in 

18 

12 

40 

11 

30 

15 

20 

19 

23 
6 

14 
8 

20 
32 
10 
11 
5 

18 

41 

12 

22 

21 

29 

27 

10 

27 

25 

23 

19 

23 

40 

19 

21 

29 

9 

14 

f. 

12 

9 

11 

2(1 

24 

20 

8 
49 
19 
15 

14 
17 
17 
9 
37 
21 



CALIFORNIA— Con. 

warns 

Willows 

Woodlake 

Woodland 

Yreka City. 

Yuba City i 

COLORADO 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



Alamosa 

Aurora. 

Boulder 

Brighton 

Canon City 

Cortez 

Craig 

Delta'—. 

Durango.. 

Edgewater ' .. 

Englewood 

Florence 

Fort Collins 

Fort Morgan 

Golden 

Grand Junction... 

Greeley 

Gunnison.. 

La Junta 

Lamar 

Las Animas 

Leadville ' 

Littleton 

Longmont 

Loveland 

Manitou Springs. 
Monte Vista 

Montrose 

Rocky Ford 

Salida 

Sterling ' 

Trinidad 

Walsenburg 



CONNECTICUT 



Ansonia 1 

Branford ' 

Danbury ' 
l >anielson '... 

Derby ' 

Grot on 
Jewetl City ' 
Naugatuck >. 
Put nam ' 
Rockville i . 
Sbelton ' 
Stafford Springs 
Wallingford 
Willimantic 
Winsted 



q i 



DELAWARE 



Dover 

Elsmere l 

Laurel 

I. ewes 

M ilford 

New ark 
New ( 'astle ' 
Seaford 



19 

2 

16 

10 
7 

25 

31 
4 
8 

12 
3 
6 
3 

14 
9 
5 
5 
6 
6 
7 

15 
14 
7 



City 



FLORIDA 



Apalachicola 

Arcadia 

Auburndale 

Avon Park 

Bartow • 

Bradenton. 

Chipley 

Clearwater ' 

Cocoa • 

Coral Gables 

Crestview 

Dade City. 

Dania 

DeFuniak Springs... 

De Land 

Delray Beach 

Dunedin ' 

Fernandina Beach... 

Fort Meade 

Fort Myers ' 

Fort Pierce ' 

Green Cove Springs ». 

Gulfport 

Haines City — 

Hallandale... 

Hialeah 

Holly Hill 

Hollywood ' 

Homestead ' 

Jacksonville Beach 1 . 

Kissimmee 

Lake City ■ 

Lake Wales.. 

Lake Worth ' 

Leesburg 

Live Oak 

Madison 

Marianna 

Melbourne 

Miami Shores 

Miami Springs 

Mount Dora ' 

New Smyrna Beach. 

North Miami ' 

Ocala ' 

Opalocka '. 

Ormond '... --- 

Palatka 

Palm Beach 

Palmetto 

Perry. 

Plain Citj 
Pompano Beach '.. 

Port St. Joe 

Quincy ...- 

Riviera Beacb ] 

st. Augustine 

St. Cloud . 

Sanford '... - 

Sarasota 

Soul h Miami 

Starke 

Sluart 

Tarpon Sprin 

Titusville 

Vero Beacb 

Wauchula 

West Miami 

\\ Inter l larden 
Winter Haven 
Winter Park. 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



GEORGIA 



A del 

Alma 



3 
4 
5 
4 

16 

24 

2 

53 

13 

62 

5 

4 

7 

3 

15 

17 

8 

8 

4 

33 

28 

7 

5 

8 

10 

59 

5 

53 

20 

19 

7 

12 

11 

33 

11 

6 

3 

7 

7 

17 
21 
6 
14 
39 
28 
18 

10 

14 

45 

7 

6 

16 

18 

4 

12 

15 

27 

3 

19 

29 

15 

6 

4 



Sec footnote ai end of table 



33 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APR. 30. 1 955, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



GEORGIA— Continued 



Americus 

Ashburn 

Barnesville ' 

Baxley 

Brunswick 

Cairo 

Calhoun 

Camilla ' 

Canton 

Carrollton 

Cartersville ' 

Cedartown 

Chamblee l 

College Park i... 

Commerce. 

Cordele 

Covington 

Cuthbert ' 

Dalton 

Dawson 

Decatur 

Donalsonville--- 

Douglas 

Douglasville l ... 

Dublin 

Eastman 

East Point > 

Eatonton 

Elberton__„ 

Fitzgerald 

Forest Park ».... 

Gainesville 

Greensboro 

Griffln i 

Hapeville 1 

Hartwell 

Hazlehurst 

Hogansville 

Jesup 

Lawrenceville..-. 

Lyons 

Manchester 

Marietta ' 

Milledgeville 

Monroe 

Montezuma 

Moultrie 

Nashville 

Newnan 

Ocilla 

Pelham 

Porterdale 

Rossville ' 

Statesboro ' 

Summerville 

Swainsboro 

Sylvania 

Tallapoosa 

jFhomaston 

Thomasville '— 

Tifton 

Toccoa 

Trion 

Valdosta 

Vidalia 

Warner Robins. 

Washington 

AVaycross 

Winder 



IDAHO 



Alameda_- 
Blackfoot. 
Buhl 




IDAHO— Continued 



Burlev > 

Caldwell 

Coeur d'Alene- 

Emmett 

Gooding 

Idaho Falls. ... 

Jerome 

Kellogg 

Lewiston 

Malad City— . 
Montpelier '... 

Moscow 

Kampa 

Payette 

Preston ' 

Rexburg 

Rupert 

St. Anthony- _. 

Salmon 

Sandpoint 

Twin Falls 

Wallace 

Weiser 



ILLINOIS 



Aledo 

Anna • 

Arlington Heights 

Barrington 

Batavia 

Bellwood * 

Belvidere 

Blue Island i 

Bradley ' 

Broadview 

Brookfield 

Bushnell 

Cairo 

Calumet City 

Canton , 

Carbondale 

Carlyle 

Carmi 

Casey 

Centralia 

Charleston 

Chester 

Chicago Heights.- 

Chillicothe 

Christopher 

Clinton ' 

Collinsville ' 

Creve Coeur 

Crystal Lake ' 

Deerfleld 

De Kalb 

Des Plaines 

Dixon 

Dolt on 

Downers Grove... 

Du Quoin 

Dwight ' 

East Alton 

East Moline ' 

East Peoria ' 

Edwardsville 

Effingham 

Elmhurst 

Elmwood Park >_. 
Evergreen Park C 

Fairfield 

Farmington 

Flora 

Forest Park « 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



2 

4 
19 

6 

7 
15 

7 
14 

6 

6 
15 

2 
13 
14 
12 

7 

2 

5 

4 
13 

5 

5 
32 

3 

2 

6 

12 I 
11 

7 

4 
14 
22 
12 

5 
15 

4 

4 

5 
15 
15 

6 

30 
24 
19 

6 

2 

4 
22 



City 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



ILLINOIS— Continued 



Franklin Park L„ 

Freeport 

Fulton 

Galena 

Galva 

Geneseo 

Geneva 

Georgetown ._. 

Gibson City 

Gillespie 

Glencoe ' 

Glen Ellyn ■ 

Glenview 

Hairishurg 

Harvard 

Harvey 

Havana ' 

Herrin 

Highland 

Highland Park- _. 

Highwood 

Hillsboro 

Hinsdale 

Home wood 

Hoopeston 

Jacksonville 

Jerseyville 

Johnston City. - . 

Kenilworth 

Kewanee 

La Grange 

La Grange Park_ 

Lake Forest 

Lansing ' 

La Salle 

Lawreneeville 

Lemont ' 

Lewistown 

Libert yville l 

Lincoln 

Lincolnwood 

Litchfield-- 

Lockport ' 

Lombard ._ 

Loves Park ' 

Lyons l 

Macomb 

Madison 

Marengo 

Marion ' 

Markham L 

Marseilles 

Marshall 

Mascoutah 

Mattoon 

McLeansboro_._- 
Melrose Park.-.. 

Mendota • 

Metropolis ... 

Midlothian ' 

Momence 

Monmouth 

Monticello 

Morris 

Morrison 

Morton 

Morton Grove. ~ 
Mount Carmel.. 
Mount Prospect- 
Mount Vernon__. 

Mundelein 

Murphysboro 

Naperville 

Newton 

Niles 



See footnote at end of table. 



34 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APR. 30, 1955, CITIES WITH POPULATION F ROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


ILLINOIS— Continued 
Nokomis 


3 
10 

8 

11 

10 

8 

12 

3 

4 

7 

4 

17 

8 

5 

10 

15 

20 

4 

15 

8 

11 

3 

2 

3 

6 

4 

8 

8 

21 

11 

13 

8 

4 

8 

7 

9 

5 

3 

6 

5 

3 

37 

5 

2 

2 

4 

4 

4 

14 

6 

16 

3 

16 

5 

7 

5 

17 

4 

13 

10 

1 

4 

6 

12 

6 

11 

4 

6 

2 

17 

27 

5 

22 

9 

7 


ILLIN OIS— Continued 
Ziegler. 


2 
10 

8 

4 

4 

6 

6 

1 

21 

7 

4 

9 

6 

12 

4 

3 

2 

4 

3 

6 

10 

9 

26 

24 

20 

5 

3 

11 

4 

4 

5 

5 

14 

1 

28 

12 

5 

4 

17 

12 

6 

11 

3 

5 

8 

5 

10 

3 

23 

3 

4 

17 

8 

4 

29 

7 

13 

10 

31 

11 

10 

4 

5 

14 

7 

4 

31 

13 

3 

7 

2 

3 


INDIANA— Continued 


23 


Normal ' 


Zion '_.. 

INDIANA 

Alexandria 

Angola 




2 


Northbrook ' 

North Chicago » 


Plainfield 1 

Plymouth 


7 
7 


North Lake'_ 


Portland ' . 


10 


North Riverside ' 




10 


Oak Lawn ' 






O'Fallon 


Rochester ' 




Oglesby 


Auburn 


11 


Olney 




4 








7 


Ottawa i 


Bedford .. 




13 




Beech Grove... 

BickneJl 


Shelbyville i 


23 


Pana. 




6 


Paris -. 


Bluflton 




7 


Park Forest 




Tell City 


4 


Park Ridge 




Tipton 


8 


Paxton i 


Bremen 

Brookville____- 

Cambridge City 

Charlestown. 

Chesterton. 

Clarksville ' 




7 


Pekin 




15 


Peoria Heights i .. 




25 


Peru 




18 


Phoenix > 




11 






15 


Pittsfield 




West LaFayette 

Whiting ' 


16 


Pontiac 


Columbia City 

Columbus 


28 






8 


Rantoul 


IOWA 




Riverdale 

River Forest 

River Grove ' 


Crawfordsville 

Crown Point ' 

Danville. 


4 


Riverside ' 




6 


Robbins ' - 


Delphi 

Dunkirk 




21 


Robinson 




2 


Rochelle ' 




6 


Rock Falls 






2 


St. Charles 


Elwood. - 


Belle Plaine 


3 


Salem 


Bettendorf ' 


10 








4 








15 


Shelby ville ' 


Garrett.. 

Gas City i 


Carroll 




Silvis 


Cedar Falls 


14 


Skokie > 


Goshen 




8 


South Beloit i 




4 


South Holland 




Charles City 


12 


Sparta. - - 








Spring Valley 






6 




Griffith i 




3 




Hartford City 




4 


Sterling.. 




3 




Hobart - - 




12 


Streator 




5 




Huntington 

Jasonville 

Jasper.. 




6 




De Witt 


3 






4 




Kldora 


3 








C 






Estherville ' 


9 






Fairfield 


6 


Venice 


Lawrenceburg 

Lebanon ^ 

Linton 


Forest City 


3 


Villa Park ' 




14 






■2 






7 








4 








3 




Mitchell 




3 








3 


Wesl Frankfort ... . 


Mount Vernon 




5 


Westmonl ' 




3 




Nappanee 




7 






4 




Noblesville 
North Manchester 




20 






4 






5 




Oakland City 

Paoli -. 




5 


\\ oodstock 


Maquoketa. 


5 



See footnote at end of (aide. 



35 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APR. 30, 1955, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



IOWA— Continued 



Marion i 

Marshalltown 

Missouri Valley... 

Monticello ' 

Muscatine 

Nevada 

New Hampton 1 ... 

Newton 

Oelwein 

Onawa 

Osage ' 

Osceola 

Oskaloosa . 

Pella 1 

Perry > 

Red Oak i 

Rock Rapids 

Sac City 

Sheldon 

Shenandoah 

Sibley 

Spencer ' 

Storm Lake 

Tama 

Tipton 

Vinton 

Washington 

Waukon 

Waverly ' 

Webster City 

West Des Moines. 
Winterset 



KANSAS 



Abilene 

Anthony 

Arkansas City. 

Atchison 

Augusta ' 

Baxter Springs. 

Belleville 

Beloit 

Caney 

Chanute 

Cherryvale 

Clay Center 

Coffey ville 

Colby 

Columbus 

Concordia 

Dodge City 

El Dorado 

Ellinwood 

Ellis 

Emporia 1 

Eureka 

Fort Scott 

Fredonia 

Galena 

Garden City L. 

Garnett 

Goodland 

Great Bend 

Hays 

Herington 

Hiawatha 

Hoisington 

Holton 

Independence. . 

Iola 

Junction City.. 

Kingman 

Lamed 

Lawrence ' 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



KANSAS— Continued 

Leavenworth ' 

Liberal ' 

Lyons L 

Manhattan 

Marysville 

McPherson i 

Neodesha 

Newton 

Norton i 

Olathe 

Osawatomie 

Ottawa 

Paola 

Parsons 

Phillipsburg 

Pittsburg 

Pratt 

Russell 

Scott City i 

Wellington 

Winfield 

KENTUCKY 

Barbourville 

Bardstown 

Bellevue 

Berea 

Bowling Green. 

Carrollton 

Catlettsburg 

Central City 

Corbin 

Cumberland.. 

Cynthiana 

Danville 

Dayton 

Elizabethtown 

Elsmere 

Erlanger.. 

Fort Thomas 

Frankfort 

Franklin 

Georgetown 

Glasgow 

Greenville 

Hailan 

Harrodsburg ' 

Hazard 

Henderson ' 

Hopkinsville 

Irvine 

Jenkins. 

Lebanon 

London 

Ludlow 

Mayfleld 

Maysville 

Middlesboro. _ 

Monticello 

Morehead 

Morganfield 

Mount Sterling. 

Murray 

Nicholasville 

Paintsville '.. 

Paris 

Park Hills i 

Pikeville 

Pineville 

Princeton 

Providence 

Richmond 

Russellville « 

Somerset 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



KENTUCKY— Con. 

South Fort Mitchell 

Versailles 

Williamsburg 

Winchester 

LOUISIANA 

Abbeville • 

Bastrop ' 

Berwick 

Bogalusa 

Bossier City ' 

Church Point 

De Quincy 

De Ridder 

Donaldsonville i 

Ferriday 

Franklin 

Hammond ' 

Haynesville. ... 

Homer 

Houma 

Jackson l 

Jennings 

Kaplan • 

Kenner 

Mansfield 

Marksville 

Minden 

Morgan City 

New Iberia 

New Roads 

Oakdale 

Opelousas • 

Pineville 

Plaquemine 

Ponchatoula 

Port Allen 

Rayne ' 

Ruston 

St. Martinville 

Slidell. 

Springhill 

Sulphur 

Tallulah 

Thibodaux 

Ville Platte 

Vinton 

West Monroe.. 

Winnfield 

MAINE 

Auburn ' 

Augusta. 

Bath. 

Belfast 

Biddeford 

Brewer 

Brunswick L 

Calais i 

Eastport 

Ellsworth 

Fairfield 

Fort Fairfield ' 

Gardiner ' 

Hallowell 

Madison... 

Old Town 

Presque Isle 

Rockland ' 

Rumford 

Sacoi 

South Portland » 

Waterville ' 

Westbrook 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



See footnote at end of table. 



36 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APR. 30, 1955, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



MARYLAND 



Aberdeen 

Annapolis 

Bel Air « 

Bladensburg ' 

Brentwood ' 

Brunswick 

Cambridge 

Capitol Heights.. 

Crisfield » 

Easton ' 

Elkton i 

Frederick 

Frostburg 

Oreenbelt ' 

Havre de Grace >. 

Hyattsville ' 

Laurel ' 

Mount Rainier '. 
Pocomoke City '. 

Riverdale ' — 

Salisbury 

Takoma Park L_ 

Westernport 

Westminster ' 



MASSACHUSETTS 



Abington ' 

Adams 

Amesbury 

Amherst ' 

Andover ' 

Atholi 

Attleboro ' 

Ayer ' 

B arnstable 

Blaokstone... 

Braintree 

Bridgewater ' 

Canton ' 

Clinton >_.. 

Concord 1 

Dalton 

Danvers J 

Dartmouth L 

Dedham ' 

Dracut l 

Easthampton ' 

Fairhaven ' 

Franklin ' 

Gardner ' 

Great Barrington. 

Greenfield ' 

Hingham 

Hudson 

Ipswich 

Lee i 

Leominster. - 

Lexington '_ 

Longmeadow ' 

Ludlow i_ 

Mansfield 

Marblehead ' 

Marlborough. 

Maynard 

Methuen ' 

Middleborough '_ 

Milford «. 

Millbury ' 

Milton 

Montague 

Nantucket.. 

Natick .. 

Needham ' 

Newburyport ' 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



MASSACHUSETTS- 
Continued 

North Adams ' 

North Andover ■ 

North Attleboro. 

Northbridge • 

Norwood i 

Orange 

Palmer ' 

Peabody ' 

Plymouth ' 

Provincetown 

Randolph I 

Reading ' 

Rockland 

Rockport ' 

Saugus ' 

Somerset ' 

Southbridge l 

South Hadley « 

Spencer ' 

Stoneham 

Stoughton i 

Swampscott ' 

Cxbridge ' 

Wakefield i 

Walpole ' 

Ware' 

Webster 

Wellesley • 

Westfield i 

West Springfield « 

Whitman ' 

Winchendon ' 

Winchester ' 

Winthrop ' 

Woburn 

MICHIGAN 

Adrian 

Albion ' 

Algonac 

Allegan 

Allen Park 

Alma ' 

Alpena 

Bad Axe 

Belding 

Benton Harbor 

Berkley 

Bessemer 

Big Rapids.. 

Birmingham 

Boyne City... 

Buchanan. 

Cadillac 

Caro 

Center Line 

Charlevoix 

Charlotte... 

Cheboygan 

Chelsea ' 

Clawson 

Coldwater... 

Dowagiac 

Durand 

East Detroit 

Bast Grand Rapids '. 

East Lansing 

Eaton Rapids ' 

Eeorse ' 

Escanaba 

Kssewille ' 

Kenton '.. 

Fremont ' 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



MICHIGAN— 
Continued 

Garden City... 

Gladstone 

Grand Haven 

Greenville ' 

Grosse Pointe • 

Grosse Pointe Farms 
Grosse Pointe Park '. 
Grosse Pointe Woods 

Hancock... 

Hastings 

Hazel Park > 

Hillsdale' 

Holland ' 

Holly 

Houghton 

Howell 

Hudson 

Huntington Woods '. 

Inkster 

Ionia 

Iron Mountain • 

Iron River 

Ironwood 

Ishpeming 

Kingsford 

Lapeer • 

Livonia 

Ludington ' 

Manistee ' 

Manistique 

Marine City 

Marquette. 

Marshall 

Marysville 

Mason ' 

Melvindale ' 

Menominee 

Midland ' 

Milan 

Monroe 

Mount Clemens 

Mount Morris ' 

Mount Pleasant 

Munising 

Muskegon Heights... 

Negaunee 1 

Newberry 

Niles 

Northville • 

Norway 

Oak Park 

Otsego 

Owosso ' 

Petoskey 

Plainwell ' 

Pleasant Ridge ' 

Plymouth 

Portland 

River Rouge > 

Rochester '. - 

Rogers City 

Romeo 

Roseville 

St. Clair... 

St. Clair Shores 

St. Ignace 

St. Johns 

St. Joseph ' 

St. Louis ' 

Sault Ste. Marie 

South Haven. 

Sturgis' 

Tecumsch 

Three Rivers.. 



See footnote at end of table. 



37 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APR. 30, 1955, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



MICHIGAN— 
Continued 



Traverse City. 

Trenton* 

Vassar 

Wakefield 

Wayne 

Ypsilanti ' 

Zeeland ' 



MINNESOTA 



Albert Lea 

Alexandria 

Anoka l 

Austin 

Bayport 

Bemidji 

Benson 

Blue Earth 

Brainerd 

Breekenridge 

Brooklyn Center >__. 

Cambridge 

Chisholm. _ - 

Cloquet 

Columbia Heights. _ 

Crookston 

Crosby 

Crystal 

Detroit Lakes 

East Grand Forks- .. 

Edina 

Ely 

Eveleth 

Fairmont 

Faribault > 

Fergus Falls 

Fridley 

Glencoe 

Glenwood 

Golden Valley 

Grand Rapids 

Granite Falls > 

Hastings * 

Hibbing 

Hopkins ' 

Hutchinson 

International Falls. . 

Jackson l 

Lake City 

Le Sueur 

Litchfield 

Little Falls 1 

Luverne 

Mankato 1 

Marshall 

Montevideo 

Moorhead 

Morris l 

New Ulm 

Northfield 

North Mankato 

North St. Paul 

Ortonville 

O watonna 

Park Rapids 

Pipestone 

Proctor 

Red Wing 

Redwood Falls 

Richfield 

Robbinsdale • 

Roseville Village '_- 

St. James ' 

St. Louis Park 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



MINNESOTA— Con. 

St. Peteri 

Sauk Centre 

Sauk Rapids 

Shakopee 

Sleepy Eye 

South St. Paul 

Springfield 

Staples 

Stillwater 

Thief River Falls 

Tracy 

Two Harbors 

Virginia 

Wadena 

Waseca 

West St. Paul 

White Bear Lake 

Willmari 

Windom 

Worthington 

MISSISSIPPI 



Aberdeen 

Amory 

Bay St. Louis 

Brookhaven 

Canton 

Clarksdale 

Cleveland • 

Columbia > 

Columbus 

Corinth i 

Crystal Springs.. 

Ellisville i 

Forest 1 

Greenwood 

Grenada 

Gulfport.. 

Hazlehurst 

Indianola... 

Kosciusko -. 

Leland 1 

Lexington 

Long Beach 

Louisville 

McComb--_ 

Moss Point > 

Natchez ' 

New Albany 

Newton 

Ocean Springs '.. 

Pascagoula ' 

Philadelphia 

Picayune • 

Port Gibson 

Tupelo i . 

Water Valley 

West Point 

Winona 

Yazoo City 

MISSOURI 

Aurora 

Berkeley 

Bethany ' ... 

Bonne Terre 

Boonville 

Brentwood ' 

Brookfield > 

Butler.. 

California 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



MISSOURI— Con. 

Cameron 

Cape Girardeau 

Carrollton 

Carthage 

Caruthersville 

Charleston 

Chillicothe 

Clayton 

Clinton 

Crystal City « 

De Soto 

Dexter 

Eldon. 

Excelsior Springs 

Farmington 

Fayette 

Ferguson 

Festus 

Flat River.. 

Florissant • 

Fulton 

Glendale > 

Hannibal 

Harrisonville • 

Hayti 

Higginsville 

Jackson > 

Jennings 

Kennett ' 

Kirksville 

Kirkwood ' 

Ladue 

Lamar 

Lebanon 

Lees Summit 

Liberty 

Louisiana 

Macon 

Maiden 

Maplewood 

Marshall [ 

Maryville 

Mexico 

Moberly 

Monett i 

Mountain Grove 

Nevada > 

New Madrid ] 

North Kansas City.. 

Overland '._ 

Pagedale > 

Pine Lawn i 

Poplar Bluff 

Portageville 

Richmond ' 

Richmond Heights.. 

Rock Hill 

RollaL. 

St. Ann i 

St. Charles i._ 

Ste. Genevieve 

Salem.. 

Sedalia 

Shrewsbury • 

Slater 

Sullivan 

Union 

Valley Park' 

Vandalia. 

Warrensburg 

Washington i 

Webb City i 

Webster Groves 

Wellston i 

West Plains i 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



See footnote at end of table. 



38 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APR. 30, 1955, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


City 


Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 


MONTANA 
Anaconda. 


11 

13 

6 

3 

4 

7 

10 

3 

10 

19 

10 

4 

8 

10 

13 

29 

3 

7 

4 

4 

5 

10 
4 

15 
6 
4 
3 
5 

12 
2 
4 
7 
8 
6 
3 

32 

30 
5 

13 
7 

13 
fi 

17 

23 
5 
3 
4 
3 
A. 

14 
6 
3 
3 

2 
4 
3 

5 

13 
10 

7 
10 
117 
14 
11 

5 

28 

17 


NEW HAMPSHIRE— 
Con. 


6 
22 
10 
6 
18 
22 
9 
7 
3 
6 
36 
13 
8 

52 

6 
13 

4 

7 
20 
35 

2 

3 

16 
15 

9 
15 
13 
22 
27 

4 
20 

9 
14 
34 
20 

5 

2 
26 
10 
27 
44 

9 
15 
20 
10 
20 
26 

6 
21 

5 
57 

7 
32 
19 
12 

3 
41 

5 
12 
14 
10 
21 
34 
22 
13 

6 
26 
13 

6 
14 
62 


NEW JERSEY— Con. 
Hasbrouck Heights L. 


23 
18 


Cut Bank 




Highland Park ' 

Highlands 


19 


Deer Lodge 




5 


Dillon 






6 






Hillsdale ' 


9 


Glendive 




Hillside > 


59 








13 




Littleton • 




12 


Helena.. 


Milford 




12 








4 








16 






Lincoln Park ' 


3 






13 


Miles City 


NEW JERSEY 


Little Ferry ' 


10 




Little Silver 


5 






38 


Shelby 


Long Branch > 


51 


Sidney 


Atlantic Highlands 


32 


Whitefish 




28 


Wolf Point i 






12 








11 


NEBRASKA 






17 








5 




Beverlv 




17 




Bloomingdale ' 


Merehantville 


10 




2-3 


Blair . 






9 






Midland Park » 

Millville i 


7 




Bound Brook ' 

Bradley Beach. 


19 






35 




Mountain Lakes ' 

Mount Ephraim ' 


7 


Crete ' 




9 




Butler. 


4 


Falls City 


Caldwell ' 


Neptune Township '„ 

New Milford ' 

New Providence ' 


26 






26 




Carlstadt 


8 






16 






North Arlington l 


23 






3 


Kearney 




North Haledon. 

North Plainfleld ' 
North Wildwood 
Oaklvn '..-. 


5 




Cliffside Park 


27 




Closter ' 


15 




Collingswood ' 


5 




Ocean City ' 


33 


North Platte 


Cresskill ' 


Oceanport 


7 






Oradell ' 


11 


O'Neill ' . 


Dumont ' 


Palisades Park 

Palmyra l 


14 




Dunellen 


16 




East Paterson 

East Rutherford ' 


Paramus ' 


30 




Park Ridge 


6 




Paulsboro __ 


12 








29 


Superior 


Egg Harbor City ' 


Penns Grove ' 

Phillipshurg ' 


25 




28 






Pitman '.. .- 


12 






Pleasantville _.. 


19 






Point Pleasant 1 

Pt . Pleasant Beach 

Pompton Lakes ' 

Princeton '-. 

Prospect Park ' 

Rahwayi 


10 






15 






11 


NEVADA 


Fort Lee ' 


23 






5 






IS 


Elko . 






ii 


Ely 




Raritan ' 


12 




Glen Ridge. 


Red Bank 


•--.i 




Qlen Roci 


Ridgefleld ' 


30 


North Las Vegas ' 


Gloucester City 


Ridgefleld Park 


hi 
42 




Backettstown ' 

Baddonfleld 1 




Hi 






6 


NEW HAMPSHIRE 


Baddon Heights ' 
Haledon ■ 




3 




Roselle ' .. 


36 




1 lammontcm '.. 

Harrison 


17 


Claremont '.. 


Rumson... 


11 



Sec footnote at end of table 



39 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APR. 30, 1955, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



NEW JERSEY— Con. 



Runnemede ' 

Rutherford 

Salem i 

Sayreville ' 

Secaucus 

Somerville 

South Amboy ' .. 

South Bound Brook i. 

South Orange 

South Plainfield 

South River 

Summit • 

Tenafly 

Totowa i 

Union Beach ' 

Ventnor City 

Verona ' 

Vineland i 

Waldwick ' 

Wallington 

Wanaque ' 

Washington 

Weehawken • 

West Caldwell' 

Westfieldi 

West Long Branch 

West Paterson 

Westville 

Westwood i 

Wharton J 

Wildwood i 

Woodbury 

Wood Ridge ' 



NEW MEXICO 



Alamogordo ' 

Artesia 

Belen 

Carslbad 

Clayton! 

Clovis 

Deming 

Parmington >. 

Gallup 

Hobbs 

Las Cruces ' 

Las Vegas City 

Las Vegas Town 

Lordsburg 

Lovington 

Raton 

Silver City 

Socorro 

Truth or Consequences 
Tucumcari 



NEW YORK 



Albion 

Amityville 

Attica i 

Babylon 

Baldwinsville ' 
Ballston Spa '. 

Batavia 

Bath 

Beacon i 

Blasdell 

Brockport i 

Bronxville ' 

Canajoharie 

Canandaigua '. 

Canastota ' 

Canisteo 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



NEW YORK— Con. 

Canton ' 

Carthage 

Catskilli 

Cobleskilli 

Cohoes 

Cooperstown 

Corinth 

Corning ' 

Cortland i 

Coxsackie 

Croton on Hudson... 

Dansville 

Depew 

Dobbs Ferry ' 

Dolgeville 

Dunkirk i 

East Aurora ' 

East Rochester 

East Syracuse 

Ellenville 

Elmira Heights 1 

Elmsford 

Endicott i 

Fairport ' 

Falconer ' 

Fayetteville '.-- 

Floral Park i 

Fort Edward 

Fort Plain 

Frankfort ' 

Fredonia 

Freeport 1 

Fulton 

Garden City 1 

Geneseo ' 

Geneva 

Glen Cove ' 

Glens Falls' 

Gloversville 

Goshen 

Gouverneur 

Gowanda 

Granville ' 

Green Island ' 

Greenport 

Hamburg ' 

Hamilton 

Hastings on Hudson 1 

Haverstraw ' 

Herkimer > 

Highland Falls' 

Homer 

Hoosick Falls • 

Hornell 1 

Horseheads 

Hudson 

Hudson Falls ' 

Ilion 1 

Irvington 

Johnson City ' 

Johnstown 

Kenmore > 

Lake Placid 

Lakewood 

Lancaster 

Larchmont i 

Le Roy 

Liberty 

Lindenhurst 

Little Falls 

Liverpool i 

Long Beach 

Low ville 

Lynbrook ' 

Lyons > 



City 



NEW YORK— Con. 

Malone l 

Malverne • 

M am aroneck 

Massena i 

Mechanicville ' 

Medina 

Middletown 

Mohawk ' 

Monticello ■ 

Mount Kisco i 

Mount Morris r 

Newark ' 

New York Mills 

North Pelham i 

Northport ' 

North Syracuse 1 

North Tarrytown..-. 
North Tonawanda.. 

Norwich 

Nyack ! 

Ogdensburg 

Olean 1 

Oneida 

Oneonta 

Ossining • 

Oswego 

Owego 

Palmyra ■ 

Patchogue 

Peekskill 1 

Pelham Manor 

Penn Yan 

Plattsburg ' 

Pleasantville i 

Port Chester 1 

Port Jervis • 

Potsdam 

Rensselaer 

Rockville Centre 1 ... 

Rye 

Salamanca ' 

Saranac Lake 

Saratoga Springs 1 ... 

Saugerties 

Scarsdale 

Scotia 1 

Seneca Falls 

Silver Creek 

Sloan 

Solvay 

Southampton 

South Glens Falls.... 

South Nyack i 

Spring Valley ' 

Springville ■.. 

Suffern 

Tarrytown 

Ticonderoga 

Tonawanda > 

Tuckahoe 1 

Tupper Lake » 

Walden > 

Walton i 

Wappingers Falls 

Warsaw 

Warwick • 

Waterford • 

Waterloo 

Watervliet 

Watkins Glen i 

Waverly 1 

Wellsville 1 

Westfield 

West Haverstraw 

Whitehall 1 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



See footnote at end of table. 



40 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APR. 30, 1955, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



NEW YORK— Con. 



Whitesboro 

Yorkville 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Ahoskie.-- 

Albermarle 

Asheboro 

Beaufort 

Belhaven.- 

Bessemer City 

Boone 

Brevard 

Burlington 

Canton ' 

Chapel Hill i 

Clinton 

Concord l 

Draper 

Dunn i 

Edenton.. 

Elizabeth City 

Elkin 

Farmville 

Forest City-.- 

Oastonia i 

Goldsboro 

Graham 

Greenville 

Hamlet 

Henderson 

Hendersonville 

Hickory 

Jacksonville 

Kings Mountain 

Kinston 

Laurinburg 

Leaksville 

Lexington.- 

Lincolnton 

Louisburg 

Lumberton 

Marion 

Monroe 

Mooresville 

Morehead City 

Morganton 

Mount Airy 

Newton 

North Wilkesboro.- 

Oxford 

Plymouth 

Reidsville 

Roanoke Rapids..-- 

Rockingham 

Roxboro 

Ruthcrfordton 

Salisbury 

Sanford 

Scotland Neck i 

Selma 

Shelby.. 

Siler City 

Kmithfield 

Southern Pines 

Spencer. 

Statesville 

Tarboro 

Thomasville. 

V aldose - 

Wadesboro '.. 

Washington .- 

Waynesville 

Whiteville i 

Williamston » 

Wilson 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



5 
17 
16 

3 

3 

4 

3 

4 
58 

9 
15 
12 
33 

6 
13 

6 
22 

6 

7 

13 

57 
30 

8 

29 

9 

21 

15 

10 

14 

15 

30 

15 
8 

26 
9 
5 

23 

10 

19 

12 

11 

17 

15 

11 

12 

11 
5 

26 

19 
7 
7 
6 

38 

16 

4 

5 

22 

4 

11 

9 

3 

26 

15 

23 

5 

7 

19 

8 

12 

9 

34 



NORTH DAKOTA 



Bismarck ' 

Devils Lake.. 
Dickinson 1 — - 

Grafton 

Jamestown — 

Mandan 

Minot 

Rugby. -. 

Valley City 1 . 
Wahpeton... 
Williston 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



OHIO 



Ada 1 

Amherst 

Ashland • 

Ashtabula 

Athens 

Avon > 

Avon Lake ' 

Barnesville * 

Bay i 

Bedford 

Bellaire 

Bellefontaine 

Bellevue 

Berea > 

Bexley 

Bowling Green 

Brecksville 

Bridgeport 

Brooklyn.. 

Brook Park 1 

Bryan 

Bucyrus.— 

Cadiz 

Cambridge 

Campbell 

Carey 

Carrollton 

Celina • 

Chagrin Falls ' 

Cheviot 

Chillicothe 

Circleville.. 

Columbiana 

Conneaut 

Coshocton 1 . 

Crestline 

Crooksville 

Deer Park i 

Defiance 

Delaware 

Delphos » 

Dennison 

Dover » 

Eastlake 

East Liverpool •-. 
East Palestine L.- 
Eaton.. --- 

Elmwood Place. .- 

Fairborn 

Fairport Harbor L 
Fairview Park '___ 

Findlay > 

Fost.oria — 

Franklin 

Fremont 

flalion ' 

Gallipolis l 

Garfield Heights- 
Geneva ' 

Girard 

Golf Manor 1 



City 



is 

9 

3 

12 

15 

5 

2 

9 

in 

12 

9 

4 

15 

9 

24 

7 

6 

6 

•.'1 

5 

13 

29 

19 

6 

22 

16 

10 

20 

7 

Lfl 



OHIO— Continued 

Grandview Heights... 

Granville. 

Greenfield 

Greenhills 

Greenville 

Hicksville 

Hillsboro 

Hubbard »_. 

Huron * 

Independence > 

Ironton 

Jackson. 

Kent -- 

Kenton 

Lancaster 

Lebanon 

Lincoln Heights I 

Lisbon.. 

Lockland 

Logan.. 

London 

Louisville -- 

Lyndhurst 

Madeira J 

Maple Heights > 

Mariemont i 

Marietta.. - 

Martins Ferry 

Marysville.. 

Maumee l 

Mayfield Heights — 

Medina 1 -- 

Miamisburg l 

Middleport 

Minerva 

Mingo Junction l — 

Montpelier 

Mount Healthy 

Mount Vernon 

Napoleon 

Nelsonville 

New Boston 

Newburgh Heights • 

Newcomerstown 

New Lexington l — 
New Philadelphia- . 

Newton Falls 

Niles 

North Baltimore — 

North Canton > 

North College Hill 1 

North Olmsted 

North Royalton 

Norwalk 

Oakwood.- 

Oberlin • -- 

Orrville 1 -. 

Ottawa 

Oxford 1 - 

Painesville 

Parma Heights ' 

Perrysburg 

Piqua 

Pomeroy • 

Port Clinton 

Ravenna 

Reading 

Rittman — 

Rocky River 

Rossford 

St. Bernard ».. 

St. Clairsville. 

St Marys 

Salem 

Sebring ' - 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



6 

1 

7 

3 
10 

3 

9 

7 

5 

7 
20 

10 

11 

10 

26 

8 

6 

5 

11 

6 

6 

4 

10 
5 

22 

12 

18 

15 
4 

12 
9 

13 

10 
3 
4 
8 
3 
4 

19 
7 
4 

10 
8 
7 
3 

16 
5 

19 
3 
6 
6 
8 
6 

12 

31 
6 
6 
4 
7 

18 
8 
8 
19 
6 
9 
9 
12 
3 
16 
4 

17 
3 
8 
12 
5 



See footnote at <'nd of tabic 



41 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APR. 30, 1955, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



OHIO— Continued 



Shadyside 

Shelby 

Sidney 

Silverton 

Solon 

South Euclid ' 

Strongsville 

Struthers 

Tallmadge 

Tiffin 

Tipp City 

Toronto 

Troy 

Uhrichsville 

University Heights. _. 

Upper Arlington 

Upper Sandusky 

Urbana 

Van Wert ' 

Wadsworth i 

Wapakoneta 

Warrensville Heights 1 . 

Washington C. H 

Wauseon 

Wellington 

Wellston 

Wellsville 

West Carrollton ' 

Westerville 

Westlake 

Whitehall 

Wickliffe 

Willard 

Willoughby » 

Wilmington 

Windham 

Wooster 1 

Wyoming i 

Xenia 

Yellow Springs 



OKLAHOMA 



Ada 

Altus 

Alva 

Anadarko 

Ardmore 

Atoka 

Bartlesville L„ 

Bethany ' 

Blackwell 

Broken Arrow. 

Chandler 

Checotah 

Cherokee 

Chickasha 

Claremore 

Clinton 

Gushing 

Dewey 

Drumright 

Duncan 

Durant 

Edmond 

Elk City 

El Reno 

Guthrie 

Guymon 

Healdton 

Henryetta 

Hobart 

Holdenville 

Hollis 

Hugo 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



OKLAHOMA-Con. 

Idabel 

Kingfisher '. 

Lindsay 

Madill 

Mangum 

Marlow__ 

McAlester 

Miami 

Midwest City ' 

Nowata ' 

Okemah ' 

Okmulgee 

Pawhuska 

Pawnee 

Perry 

Ponca City 

Poteau 

Pryor Creek 

Purcell'.. 

Sallisaw ' 

Sand Springs 

Sapulpa 

Sayre 

Seminole 

Shawnee 

Stillwater 

Tahlequah 

Tonkawa 

Vinita ' 

Walters 

Watonga 

Weatherford • 

Wewoka 

Woodward 

OREGON 

Albany l 

Ashland 

Astoria 

Baker 

Beaverton 

Bend 

Burns 

Coos Bay 

Cocaine 

Corvallis 

Cottage Grove 

Dallas 

Forest Grove 

Grants Pass 

Gresham 

Hermiston 

Hillsboro ' 

Hood River ' 

Klamath Falls 

La Grande 

Lebanon ' 

McMinnville 

Medford 

Milwaukie 

Newberg ' 

Newport 

North Bend 

Nyssa 

Ontario 

Oregon City ' 

Oswego * 

Pendleton 

Prineville • 

Redmond 

Roseburg 

St. Helens 

Seaside *„. 

Silverton 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



OREGON— Con. 

Springfield 

Sweet Home 

The Dalles 

Tillamook 

West Linn 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Aldan' 

Ambler 

Ambridge 

Apollo 

Archbald 

Arnold 

Ashland 

Ashley 

Aspinwall 

Athens ' 

Avalon 

Avoca 

Baden > 

Bangor ' 

Barnesboro 

Beaver '... 

Beaver Falls.. 

Bedford 

Bellefonte 1 

Bellevue ' 

Bellwood 

Bentleyville • 

Berwick l 

Bethel « 

Birdsboro l 

Blairsville • 

Blakely i 

Bloomsburg 

Boyertown 

Brackenridge 

Braddock 

Bradford 

Brentwood ' 

Bridgeville • 

Bristol 

Brockway 

Brookville 

Brownsville 

Burnham 

Butler i 

California 

Camp Hill i 

Canonsburg 

Carbondale ' 

Carlisle L 

Carnegie 

Castle Shannon >.., 

Catasauqua ' 

Chambersburg 

Cheltenham ' 

Clarion 

Clarks Summit ' 

Clearfield 

Clifton Heights »_„ 

Clymer 

Coatesville '_ 

Collingdale '. 

Columbia l . 

Connellsville 

C onshohocken 

Coplay 

Coraopolis 

Corry 

Coudersport 

Cresson 

Curwensville 

Danville '.. 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



See footnote at end of table. 



42 



Table 14— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APR. 30, 1955, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



PENNSYLVANIA— 
Continued 



Darby 

Derry 

Dickson City ' 

Donora 

Dormont ' 

Downingtown.. 

Doylestown ' 

Dravosburg ' 

Du Bois i 

Dunmore 

Dupnnt i 

Duquesne 

Duryea 

East Conemaugh i 

East Lansdowne ' 

East Mauch Chunk,. 
East MeKeesport '_.. 

East Pittsburgh 

East Stroudsburg 

Ebensburg 

Eddystone 

Edwardsville ' 

Elizabeth i 

Elizabethtown 

Ellwood City i 

Emmaus ' 

Emporium 

Emsworth ' 

Ephrata 

Etna 

Exeter i 

Farrell ' 

Ford City 

Forest City 

Forest Hills 

Forty Fort' 

Fountain Hill' 

Franklin ' 

Freedom 

Freeland__. 

Freeport ' 

Gallitzin 

Gettysburg ' 

Girardville ' 

Glassport 

Glenolden ' 

Greeneastle 

Greensburg 

Greenville 

Grove City 

Hamburg 

Hanover 

Hanover Twp 

Hatboro ' 

Hellertown 

Hollidaysburg 

Homestead ' 

I [onesdale ' 

Hummelstown 

Huntingdon 

[ndiana ' 

Ingram ' 

Irwin L__ 

Jeannette. 

Jenkintown.. --. 

Jcrmyn 

Jersey shore. 

Johnsonburg ' 

Kane I 

Kenhorst. 

Kcniicit Square. 

Kingston 

ECittanning 

Culpmonl 



20 
2 
6 

16 

16 
5 
8 
4 

11 

15 
5 

22 
3 
4 
5 
1 
4 

12 
8 
4 
5 
6 
3 
3 

15 
7 
2 
5 
8 

10 
5 

23 
5 
2 
7 
7 
6 

16 
4 
3 
2 
1 
7 
2 
9 
5 
2 

25 
8 
6 
3 

12 

21 

12 
8 
6 

28 
6 
1 
5 

17 
4 
5 

15 

12 
1 
3 
5 
5 
2 
5 

18 

(i 
2 

Sec fool note .■! I end of table, 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



PENNSYLVANIA— 
Continued 

Kutztown 

Lansdale '. 

Lansdowne • 

Lansford 

Laiksville 

Latrobe 

Laureldale ' 

Leechburg • 

Lehighton ' 

Lemoyne 

Lewisburg » 

Lewistown 

Lit it z 

Littlestown 

Lock Haven 

Luzerne 

Mahanoy City 

Manheim ' 

Mansfield [ 

Marcus Hook 

Masontown 

Mauch Chunk 

McAdoo • 

McDonald " 

McKees Rocks 

Meadville 

Mechanicsburg ' 

Media 

Meyersdale 

Middletown ' 

Midland 

Millersburg 

Millersville 

Millvalei 

Milton 

Minersville 

Monaca 

Monessen ' 

Monongahela 

Montoursville 

Morrisville ' 

Mount Carmel > 

Mount Joy 

Mount Oliver 

Mount Penn ' 

Mount Pleasant 

Mount LTnion 

Muncy 

Munhall ' 

M yerstown 

Nanticoke 

Nanty Olo 

Nar berth 

Nazareth ' 

New Brighton ' 

New Cumberland L_. 

New Holland 

Norl bampton ' 

North Helle Vernon. 
North Braddoch ' , 
North Catasauqua... 

North Charlerol 

Nortli Bast 

Northumberland 

Oakmont 

oil City 1 - 

Old Forge 

Olyphant ' 

Oxford 

Palmerton '. 

Palmyra ' 

Parkesburg 

Ten Argyll 

I'erkasie ' , 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



PENNSYLVANIA— 
Continued 

Philipsburg 

Phoenix ville 

Pitcairn 1 

Pittston i 

Plains 

Plymouth • 

Polki 

Portage ' 

Port Allegany 

Port Carbon 

Port Vue i 

Pottstown 

Pottsville 

Prospect Park 

Punxsutawney t 

Quakertown 

Rankin ' 

Renovo ' 

Reynoldsville 

Ridgway 

Ridley Park 

Roaring Spring 

Rochester 

Royersford 

St. Clair i 

St. Marys 1 

Sayre l 

Scottdale 

Selinsgrove 

Sewickley ' 

Shaler ' _. 

Shamokin 

Sharon Hill ' 

Sharpsville 

Shenandoah 

Shillington 

Shippensburg •_. 

Slatington 

Somerset ! 

Souderton ' 

South Connellsville... 

South Fork 

South Greensburg 

Southwest Greens 

burg 

South Williamsport--. 

Spring City ' 

Springdale 

State College. 

Steelton 

Stowe Township 

Stroudsburg- 

Summit Hill 

Sunbury • 

Susquehanna ' 

Swissvale ' 

Tamaqua 

Tarentum ' 

Taylor... 

Throop 

Titusville 

Towanda 

Traflord ' 

Turtle Creek 

Tyrone. 

Union City i 

rjniontown ' 

Upland.. -. 

Vandergrlft ' 

Warren 

Waynesboro. 

Waynesburg ' 

Weatherlj 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



43 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APR. 30, 1955, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



PENNSYLVANIA— 
Continued 



Wellsboro 

Wesleyville 

West Chester ' 

West Hazleton ' 

West Homestead '. 

West Mifflin 

Westmont ' 

West Newton 1 

West Pittston • 

West Reading 

West View 

West Wyoming 

West York 

Whitehall 

Wilmerding i 

Wilson 

Windber L 

Winton 1 

Wyomissing 

Yeadon 

Youngwood 

Zelienople.. ._ 



RHODE ISLAND 



Barrington 

Bristol L 

Burrillville _. 

Central Falls ' 

Cumberland l 

East Greenwich i 

Johnston ' 

Lincoln ' 

North Providence ' 

W T arren l 

Westerly ' 

West Warwick ' 



SOUTH CAROLINA 



Aiken '... 

Anderson 

Andrews 

Beaufort 

Belton 

Bennettsville.. 

Bishopville 

Camden 

Cheraw 

Chester 

Clinton 

Clover 

Conway 

Darlington 

Denmark 

Dillon 

Easley J 

Eau Claire 

Florence 

Forest Acres '. 

Fort Mill 

Gaffney ' 

Georgetown .. 
Greenwood •.. 

Greer 

Hartsville 

Honea Path... 

Kingstree 

Lake City 

Lancaster 

Laurens 

Manning _ 

Marion 

McColl 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



SOUTH CAROLINA- 
Continued 

Mullins 

Newberry... 

North Augusta 

Orangeburg 

Rock Hill 

Seneca 

Summerville ' 

Sumter 

Union 

Walhallai 

Walterboro 

Whitmire 

Williamston 

York i.... 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

Aberdeen 

Belle Fourche 

Brookings 

Canton 

Deadwood 

Hot Springs 

Huron 

Lead' 

Lemmon 

Madison 

Milbank 

Mitchell 

Mobridge 

Pierre '. 

Redfield 

Sisseton 

Spearfish i. 

Vermillion 

Watertown > 

Webster 

Yankton 

TENNESSEE 

Alcoa 

Athens 

Belle Meade ' 

Bristol 

Brownsville 

Clarksville ' 

Cleveland 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cookeville 

Dayton 

Dickson.. 

Dyersburg 

Elizabethton 

Etowah • 

Fayette ville 

Franklin 

Gallatin ' 

Greeneville 

Harriman 

Henderson 

Humboldt 

Jefferson City 

Kingsport ' 

Lawrenceburg 

Lebanon l 

Lenoir City • 

Lewisburg 

Lexington 

Loudon 

Martin.. 

Maryville 

McKenzie 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



TENNESSEE- 
Continued 

McMinnville '... 

Milan 

Morristown 

Mount Pleasant. 
Murfreesboro L.- 
Newport ' 

Paris 

Pulaski 

Ripley 

Rockwood 

Rogersville • 

Shelbyville' 

South Pittsburg.. 

Sparta 

Trenton 

Union City ' 

Winchester 

TEXAS 

Alamo 

Alamo Heights... 

Alice ' 

Alpine 

Alvin 

Andrews 

Angleton 

Anson 

Aransas Pass '.... 

Arlington ' 

Athens 

Atlanta 

Ballinger ! 

Bastrop 

Bay City i 

Baytown 

Beeville 

Bellaire 

Belton 

Big Spring 

Bonham 

Borger 

Brady _- 

Breckenridge 

Brenham 

Brownfleld * 

Brownwood 

Bryan 

Burkburnett ' 

Calvert 

Cameron 

Canadian 

Canyon 

Carthage ! 

Cisco 

Clarksville 

Cleburne 

Cleveland 

Coleman 

College Station... 

Colorado City 

Comanche • 

Commerce 1 

Conroe 

Corsicana 

Crockett 

Cuero 

Dalhart 

Del Rio 

Denison 

Denton 

Donna l 

Dublin 

Dumas ' 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



See footnote at end of table. 



44 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APR. 30, 1955, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



TEXAS— Continued 



Eagle Lake 

Eagle Pass 

Eastland 

Edcouch 

Edinburg 

Edna... 

Electra 

Elgin i 

Ennis 

Falfurrias 

Floydada « 

Fort Stockton 

Freeport 

Gainesville 

Galena Park 

Garland 

Gatesville 

Georgetown 

Gilmer 

Gonzales 

Graham 

Grand Prairie '.. 

Greenville 

Haltom 

Hamlin 

Harlingen 

Haskell 

Hearne ' 

Henderson « 

Henrietta 

Hereford 

Highland Park '. 

Hillsboro 

Irving i 

Jacksboro.— 

Jacksonville 

Karnes City 

Kermit 

Kerrville 

Kilgore 

Killeen 

Kingsville 

Lake Jackson 

Lamesa 

Lampasas 

Lancaster... 

Levelland 

Littlefield 

Livingston 

Llano i 

Longview i 

Lufkin 

Luling 

Marfa.. 

Marlin 

Marshall 

McAllen 

McCamey 

McGregor i 

McKinney ' 

Memphis 

Mercedes 

Mexia 

Midland 

Mineola 

Mineral Wells... 

Mission 

Monahans 

Mount Pleasant. 

Nacogdoches 

Navasota 

Nederland 

New Boston 

New Braunfels i. 
Nocona 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



TEXAS— Continued 

Olney 

Orange « 

Paducah 

Palacios 

Palestine 

Pampa « 

Paris 

Pasadena « 

Pecos. 

Perry ton 

Pharr 

Pittsburg 

Plainview «... 

Port Lavaca 

Port Neches 

Premont 

Quanah 

Ranger 

Raymondville 

Robstown 

Rosenberg 

Rusk 

San Benito - 

San Juan 

San Marcos' 

San Saba 

Seguin... 

Seminole 

Seymour. 

Sherman. 

Sinton « 

Slaton 

Smithville 

Snyder 

South Houston * 

Stamford 

Stephenville « 

Sulphur Springs 

Sweetwater 

Taft.. 

Tahoka 

Taylor 

Teague 

Terrell 

Texarkana 

Texas City «... 

Tulia 

University Park 

Uvalde 

Vernon 

Victoria 

Waxahachie 

Wellington 

Weslaco 

W. University Place. 

Winnsboro 

Winters... 

Yoakum.. 

UTAH 

American Fork ' 

Bountiful 

Brigham 

Cedar City 

Clearfield 

Heber 

Helper « 

Layton 

Lehi > 

Logan 

Midvale «... 

Murray ' 

Nephi 

Orem 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



UTAH— Continued 

Payson « 

Pleasant Grove « 

Price 

Richfield 

Roy 

St. George 

South Ogden 

South Salt Lake 

Spanish Fork 

Springville « 

Tooele 

Vernal 

VERMONT 

Barre 

Bellows Falls 

Bennington 

Essex Junction 

Middlebury « 

Montpelier 

Newport ' 

Rutland 

St Albans « 

St Johnsbury ' 

Springfield « 

Waterbury. 

Windsor « 

Winooski 

VIRGINIA 

Abingdon 

Altavista 

Ashland 

Bedford 

Big Stone Gap ' 

Blacksburg 

Blackstone 

Bristol 

Buena Vista 

Chase City. 

Chincoteague 

Christ iansburg 

Clifton Forge 

Colonial Heights 

Covington 

Culpeper 

Emporia 

Falls Church 

Farmville ' 

Franklin.. 

Fredericksburg 

Front Royal 

Galax 

Harrisonburg 

Hopewell 

Lexington 

Luray 

Marion 

Martinsville. 

Norton 

Orange 

Pulaski 

Radford 

Richlands 

Salem ' 

Saltville 

South Boston... 

S,mth Norfolk ' 

Staunton 

Suffolk ' 

Vinton 

Virginia Beach « 

Waynesboro 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



See footnote at end of table. 



45 



Table 14.— NUMBER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES, 
APR. 30, 1955, CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 2,500 TO 25,000— Con. 



City 



VIRGINIA— Continued 

Williamsburg 

Winchester 

WASHINGTON 

Aberdeen 

Anacortes 

Auburn 

Buckley 

Camas 

Centralis 

Chehalis 

Cheney 

Clarkston 

Colfax i 

Colville' 

Dayton 

Ellensburg.. 

Enumclaw 

Ephrata... 

Grand Coulee 

Grandview 

Hoquiam 

Kelso. 

Kennewick 

Kent 

Kirkland ' 

Longview 

Medical Lake 

Moses Lake 

Mount Vernon 

Olympia 

Omak 

Pasco 

Port Angeles 

Port Townsend 

Prosser 

Pullman ' 

Puyallup 

Raymond 

Renton 

Sedro Woolley 

Shelton 

Snohomish 

Sumner 

Sunnyside '_._ 

Toppenish.. 

Tumwater i 

Walla Walla 

Wapato 

Wenatchee 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Beckley 

Benwood 

Bluefield 

Buckhannon L _ 

Charles Town 

Chester 

Dunbar 

Elkins 

Grafton 

Hinton 

Kenova... 

Keyser 

Keystone > 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



WEST VIRGINIA— 
Continued 

Logan 

Mannington 

Martinsburg 

McMechen 

Montgomery 

Moundsville 

Mullens 

New Martinsville 

Oak Hill 

Philippi 

Piedmont 

Point Pleasant 

Princeton 

Rich wood 

Salem 

South Charleston '... 

War i 

AVeirton 

Welch i 

Wellsburg 

Weston i 

White Sulphur Springs 
Williamson i 

WISCONSIN 

Algoma 

Antigo.— 

Ashland 

Baraboo 

Beaver Dam 

Berlin L 

Black River Falls.... 

Bloomer 

Burlington 

Cedarburg 

Chippewa Falls 

Clintonville 

Columbus 

Cudahy 

Delavan 

De Pere 

Dodgeville 

Edgerton • 

Elkhorn 

Evansville ' 

Fort Atkinson 

Fox Point ' 

Greendale ' 

Hartford « 

Horicon ' 

Hudson 

Hurley 

Janesville ' 

Jefferson 

Kaukauna 

Kewaunee 

Kimberly 

Ladysmith 

Lake Geneva ' 

Lake Mills 

Lancaster 

Little Chute 

Marinette 

Marshfleld 

Mauston 

Mayville 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



City 



WISCONSIN— Con. 

Medford ' 

Menasha 

Menomonie 

Merrill 

Monona 

Monroe 

Neenah ' 

Neillsville 

New London 

New Richmond 

Oconomowoc 

Oconto 

Onalaska 

Park Falls 

Platte ville 

Plymouth 

Portage [ _. 

Port Washington 

Prairie du Chien 

Reedsburg 

Rhinelander 

Rice Lake 

Richland Center >._. 

Ripon 

River Falls 

Shawano 

Sheboygan Falls 

Shorewood ' 

South Milwaukee 

Sparta 

Spooner ' 

Stevens Point ._. 

Stoughton 

Sturgeon Bay... 

Tomah ' 

Tomahawk 

Two Rivers 

Viroqua ' 

Watertown 

Waukesha 

Waupaca 

Waupun 

West Bend ' 

West Milwaukee '__. 

Whitefish Bay > 

Whitewater 

Wisconsin Rapids. .. 

WYOMING 

Buffalo 

Casper 

Cody 

Douglas 

Evanston 

Green River 

Lander 

Laramie 

Lovi'll 

Powell 

Rawlins 

Riverton 

Rock Springs 

Sheridan 

Thermopolis 

Torrington 

Worland 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment em- 
ployees 



1 The figures for the cities indicated include part-time employees expressed in terms of full-time personnel. 
See comments on page 25. 



OFFENSES CLEARED AND PERSONS ARRESTED 

Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1954 

Better than one crime in four (27.6 percent) cleared by arrest, 
was the city police experience, in 1954. The over-all figures are 
reduced by a relatively low clearance rate for the numerous property 
crimes. 

Police cleared by arrest over 3 out of 4 (76.8 percent) homicides 
and felonious assaults. This continues the high clearance rate for 
crimes against the person. Clearance rates of these personal crimes 
for 1954 are: (1) murder and nonnegligent manslaughter (wilful 
killings), 93.1 percent; (2) manslaughter by negligence (mostly traffic 
deaths), 88.0 percent; (3) rape, 75.8 percent; and (4) aggravated 
assault, 75.6 percent. 

Property crimes were cleared at the rate of 1 in 4 (24.6 percent) 
in 1954. Robberies, similar to the "personal" crimes in that the vic- 
tim is present, were cleared at the rate of 2 out of 5 (40.6 percent). 
Property crimes, other than robbery, were cleared at the rate of 
slightly less than 1 per 4 such crimes (23.9 percent). However, 
these crimes (burglary, auto theft and other larcenies) made up 78.3 
percent of all offenses cleared by arrest in 1 954 . 

Police representing 72 percent of the urban population (1,732 cities) 
reported 1,208,844 offenses and 333,631 offenses cleared by arrest of 
242,687 persons. Figures from these cities are presented in tables 15, 
16 and 17. The data indicate that on the average for every 100 
offenses, 28 were cleared by the arrest of 20 persons. Note that the 
number of persons arrested does not indicate the number of offenses 
cleared. One person may commit several crimes. Several persons 
may be involved in only one crime. 

(46) 



47 




OFFENSES CLEARED BY ARREST 

OFFENSES AGAINST THE PERSON 
CALENDAR YEAR 1954 

1,732 CITIES 64,550/726 POPULATION 



NOT CLEARED 



FBI CHART 



CLEARED 



MURDER 



NEGLIGENT 
MANSLAUGHTER 



RAPE 



AGGRAVATED 
ASSAULT 



93.1% 



88.0% 



75.8% 



75.6% 



Figure 3. 



48 



Table 15.— OFFENSES KNOWN, CLEARED BY ARREST, AND PERSONS 
CHARGED (HELD FOR PROSECUTION), 1054, BY POPULATION 
GROUPS, NUMBER PER 100 KNOWN OFFENSES 

(Population figures from 1950 decennial census) 



Population group 



Criminal 
homicide 



Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

1,732 cities; total population, 64,550,- 
726: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP I 

35 cities over 250,000; total population, 
30,722,557: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP II 

49 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,168,546: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest -- 

Persons charged -- 

group in 

100 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total pop- 
ulation, 7,078,715: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged --. 

group IV 

187 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total pop- 
ulation, 6,600,732: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

group v 

533 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total pop- 
ulation, 8,190,924: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

group VI 

828 cities under 10,000; total popula- 
tion, 4,789,252: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



100.0 
93.1 
92.6 



100.0 
92.4 
92.0 



100.0 
90.3 
89.1 



100.0 
100.4 
104.9 



100.0 
95.8 
99.5 



100.0 
92.2 
89.7 



100.0 
92. 2 
77.0 



100.0 
88.0 
84.6 



100.0 
75.8 
71.2 



100.0 
40.6 
33.7 



100.0 
75.6 
61.4 



100.0 
29.6 
18.8 



100.0 
20.9 
14.8 



100.0 
87.0 
85.3 



100.0 
94.1 
81.9 



100.0 
85.5 
81.8 



100.0 
84.5 
75.3 



100.0 
96.6 
95.7 



100.0 
89.1 
101.6 



100.0 
73.2 
65.1 



100.0 
77.1 
73.7 



100.0 
79.7 
84.1 



100.0 
84.3 
87.3 



100.0 
85.3 
87.5 



100.0 
84.5 
101.1 



100.0 
40.7 
30.0 



100.0 
37.8 
38.7 



100.0 
38.0 
49.7 



100.0 
45.0 
55.2 



100.0 
42.1 
50.5 



100.0 
47.6 
67.8 



100.0 
72.1 

55.5 



100.0 
75.8 
47.7 



100.0 
81.7 
78.5 



100.0 
88.0 
89.1 



100.0 
90.4 
92.8 



100.0 
91.5 
97.1 



100.0 
29.5 
15.1 



100.0 
28.5 
20.4 



100.0 
26.4 
19.2 



100.0 
31.5 
26.0 



100.0 
31.2 
26.0 



100.0 
34.4 
33.0 



100.0 
22.5 
14.3 



100.0 
17.9 
14.0 



100.0 
16.8 
14.4 



100.0 
20.2 
15.6 



100.0 
20.5 
14.8 



100.0 
24.3 
20.2 



The ratio of offenses cleared and persons charged per 100 offenses 
known in 1,732 cities is shown by city groups in the above table. 
A geographic arrangement of offenses known and clearances is shown 
in the next table. 



49 



OFFENSES CLEARED BY ARREST 

OFFENSES AGAINST PROPERTY 
CALENDAR YEAR 1954 








1,732 CITIES 64,550/726 POPULATION 


__ 




NOT CLEARED 


CLEARED 






ROBBERY 


40.$% 


















BURGLARY 


29.6% 


















LARCENY 


20.9% 


















AUTO THEFT 


27.5% 




. 






t 


Bl CHART 



FirjURE 4. 



50 



Table 16.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN, NUMBER AND PER- 
CENTAGE CLEARED BY ARREST, 1954, BY GEOGRAPHIC DIVI- 
SIONS 

(Population figures from 1950 decennial census) 





Criminal homi- 
















cide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
elary- 
break- 

ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Geographic division 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 

theft 


TOTAL, AIL DIVISIONS 


















1,732 cities; total population, 


















64,550,726: 


















Number of offenses known 


3,054 


2,136 


8,163 


48, 527 


55, 353 


289. 586 


679, 330 


122, 695 


Number cleared by arrest 


2,842 


1,879 


6.191 


19, 720 


41, 845 


85. 693 


141,671 


33, 790 


Percentage cleared by arrest. .-. 


93.1 


88.0 


75.8 


40.6 


75.6 


29.6 


20.9 


27.5 


New England States: 


















145 cities; total population, 


















5,138,216: 


















Number of offenses known.. 


65 


148 


337 


807 


874 


13,017 


31, 471 


6,397 


Number cleared by arrest 


58 


123 


316 


444 


784 


4,721 


8,216 


2, 039 


Percentage cleared by arrest. 


89.2 


83.1 


93.8 


55.0 


89.7 


36.3 


26.1 


31.9 


Middle Atlantic States: 


















379 cities; total population, 


















18,277,090: 


















Number of offenses known.. 


632 


569 


2,410 


15, 224 


14, 208 


82, 127 


140, 185 


26, 990 


Number cleared by arrest 


561 


536 


1,727 


5,848 


9, 547 


24,420 


27, 189 


6,907 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


88.8 


94.2 


71.7 


38.4 


67.2 


29.7 


19.4 


25.6 


East North Central States: 


















450 cities; total population, 


















16,898,759: 


















Number of offenses known.. 


725 


478 


2,070 


16, 556 


12, 213 


65, 207 


177, 393 


28,048 


Number cleared by arrest 


672 


418 


1,663 


7,077 


8,799 


20,410 


40, 373 


9,452 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


92.7 


87.4 


80.3 


42.7 


72.0 


31.3 


22.8 


33.7 


West North Central States: 


















182 cities; total population, 


















5,003,885: 


















Number of offenses known.. 


145 


138 


564 


3,295 


3,152 


21, 274 


55, 642 


9,436 


Number cleared by arrest 


137 


118 


419 


1,072 


2,223 


5,531 


10, 141 


2,560 


Percentage cleared by arrest. 


94.5 


85.5 


74.3 


32.5 


70.5 


26.0 


18.2 


27.1 


South Atlantic States: i 


















142 cities; total population, 


















5,557,623: 


















Number of offenses known... 


602 


228 


847 


3,571 


15, 047 


28, 330 


67, 409 


14, 892 


Number cleared by arrest 


578 


215 


729 


1,852 


13, 148 


9,377 


17,416 


3,138 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


96.0 


94.3 


86.1 


51.9 


87.4 


33.1 


25.8 


21.1 


East South Central States: 


















63 cities; total population, 


















1,502,808: 


















Number of offenses known.. 


156 


72 


139 


830 


1,701 


6,683 


12, 795 


2,888 


Number cleared by arrest 


148 


63 


116 


227 


1,218 


1. Till 


2, 756 


779 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


94.9 


87.5 


83.5 


27.3 


71.6 


26.2 


21.5 


27.il 


West South Central States: 


















88 cities; total population, 


















4,649,923: 


















Number of offenses known.. 


464 


236 


654 


2,589 


4,674 


27, 206 


61,694 


13, 60S 


Number cleared by arrest... 


438 


216 


423 


1,192 


3,798 


8, 013 


14,829 


3,770 


Percentage cleared by arrest. 


94.4 


91.5 


64.7 


46.0 


81.3 


29.6 


21.1 


27.9 


Mountain States: 


















80 cities; total population, 


















1,684,040: 


















Number of offenses known.. 


77 


32 


275 


1,243 


886 


11,157 


30,900 


4,513 


Number cleared by airest 


75 


28 


208 


475 


601 


3, 117 


5,698 


1, 456 


Percentage cleared by arrest. 


97.4 


87.5 


75.6 


38.2 


67.8 


27.9 


18.4 


32.3 


Pacific States: 


















203 cities; total population 


















5,838,382: 


















Number of olfenses known.. 


188 


235 


867 


4,412 


2,598 


34,585 


101,941 


16,028 


Number cleared by arrest 


175 


162 


590 


1, 533 


1,727 


8,325 


15.053 


3. 689 


Percentage cleared by airest 


93. l 


68.9 


68. 1 


34.7 


66.5 


24.1 


14.8 


l>:<. o 



1 Includes the District of Columhia. 



51 

Persons Charged, 1954 

It is estimated that city police arrested and charged 2 percent more 
persons in 1954 than in 1953. Total persons charged in cities num- 
bered 3,718,000 in 1953 and 3,795,000 in 1954, according to the 
estimates. 

The estimates do not include (1) persons charged with traffic viola- 
tions other than driving while intoxicated or (2) persons arrested but 
released without a formal charge having been placed against them. 

The number of persons charged per 100,000 inhabitants varied in 
cities of different sizes and among the geographic divisions as shown 
in the following tables. The rates shown in the tables use the latest 
United States census figures, those for 1950. 

In comparisons, the population changes since 1950 and also possible 
variations in local practices should be considered. For example, 
persons arrested for drunkenness may be charged with disorderly 
conduct rather than with drunkenness. 

In properly counting persons charged, the number of persons is 
counted and not the number of charges placed against them. Most 
of the reports used in the tables followed the indicated procedure, but 
a few (only 5.2 percent) were based on the number of charges and not 
on the number of persons charged. 

Of the reports used in the tabulations concerning persons charged, 
most included juvenile offenders, but a few (5.8 percent) did not. Six 
percent of the departments reporting juveniles noted that their 
juvenile figures were only partially complete. Less than 1 (0.7) 
percent of the departments listed juveniles opposite "all other 
offenses" instead of properly opposite the offense for which juvenile 
arrests were made. 



52 



Table 17.— PERSONS CHARGED (HELD FOR PROSECUTION), 1954, 
ALL OFFENSES EXCEPT TRAFFIC, NUMBER AND RATE PER 
100,000 INHABITANTS, BY POPULATION GROUPS 

(Population figures from 1950 decennial census) 



Offense Charged 



Grand Total 

Rate per 100,000 

Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 
gent manslaughter: 
Number of persons 

charged 

Rate per 100,000 

(h) Manslaughter by neg- 
ligence: 
Number of persons 

charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons ch arged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged. 

.Rate per 100,000 

Burglary— breaking or enter- 
ing: 
Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny-theft: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 
Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, re- 
ceiving, possessing: 

Number of persons charged. 

Kate per 100,000 

Forgers and counterfeiting: 
Number of persons charged. 

Kate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged. 

Kale per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice: 
Number of persons charged. 

Kate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except, rape and 
prostitution): 
Number of persons charged. 

Kate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged. 

Kate p,.,- 100,000 

Weapons: Carrying, possessing, 
etc.: 
Number of persons charged. 

Kate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and 
children: 

Number of persons charged. 
Kate per 1(10,000 



TOTAL 



1,732 

cities; 

total pop 

illation, 

64, 550, 726 



2,776,389 
4,301.1 



2,827 
4.4 



1,807 
2.8 

16, 363 
25.3 

33, 987 
52.7 

98,454 
152.5 



54,320 
84.2 

100, 383 
155.5 

27, 188 
42.1 

18,413 
28.5 



4,767 
7.4 

11.513 
17.8 

5,812 
9.0 



26, 353 
40.8 



27,111 
42.0 

14, 226 
22.0 



20, 024 
31.0 



33, 580 
52.0 



Group I 



35 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
30, 722, 557 



1,345,967 
4,381.0 



1,719 
5.6 



1,090 
3.5 



11,508 
37.5 



20, 807 
67.7 



40, 888 
133.1 



24, 980 
81.3 



46, 471 
151.3 



14,114 
45.9 



8,661 
28.2 



2,693 
8.8 



4,138 
13.5 



3,610 
11.8 



is. it:: 
60.0 



13,152 

42.8 



11,512 
37.5 



10,808 
35.2 



15,216 

49.5 



Group II 



49 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
7,168,546 



381,536 
5, 322. 4 



311 
4.3 



195 

2.7 



1,49 
20. 



2,821 
39.4 



15, 323 
213.8 



7, 236 
100.9 



12, 581 
175.5 



3,292 
45.9 



3,143 
43.8 



448 
6.2 



1,673 
23.3 



589 
8.2 



4,439 
61.9 



5, 030 
70.3 



927 
12.9 



2, 579 
36.0 



1. Its 

61.6 



Group 

III 



100 cit- 
ies, 50,000 
to 100,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
7,078,715 



317,629 
4, 487. 1 



278 
3.9 



180 
2.5 



1,170 
16.5 



3,765 
53.2 



12,290 
173.6 



5,311 
75.0 



10, 922 
154.3 



2,314 
32.7 



2,020 
28.5 



339 

4.8 



1,671 
23.6 



434 

6.1 



1,571 
22. 2 



2,800 
39.6 



907 
12.8 



1,914 

27. o 



4,771 
67.4 



Group 

IV 



isr (it 

ies, 25,000 
to 50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 

6,600,732 



263,041 
3, 985. 



211 
3.2 



165 
2.5 



892 
13.5 



2,333 
35.3 



11,479 
173.9 



6, 001 
90.9 



11,340 
171.8 



2,637 
40.0 



2,011 
30.5 



457 
6.9 



1,387 
21.0 



118 

6.3 



1,007 
15.3 



3,023 
45.8 



284 

4.3 



2, 076 
31. 5 



54.3 



Group 
V 



533 cit- 
ies, 10,000 
to 25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
8,190,924 



280, 749 
3, 427. 6 



218 
2.7 



112 
1.4 



794 
9.7 



2,747 
33.5 



12, 385 
151.2 



6,557 
80.1 



11,741 
143.3 



2,980 
36.4 



1,755 
21.4 



532 

6.5 



1.77s 
21.7 



481 
5.9 



664 

s. 1 



2,151 
26.3 



440 
5. I 



1,616 
19.7 



I. 001 
is. s 



53 

Table 17.— PERSONS CHARGED (HELD FOR PROSECUTION), 1954, 
ALL OFFENSES EXCEPT TRAFFIC, NUMBER AND RATE PER 
100,000 INHABITANTS, BY POPULATION GROUPS— Continued 

(Population figures from 1950 decennial census) 





TOTAL 


Group I 


Group II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


Offense Charged 


1,732 
cities; 
total pop- 
ulation, 
64, 550, 726 


35 cities 

over 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
30, 722, 557 


49 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
7,168,546 


100 cit- 
ies, 50,000 
to 100,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
7,078,715 


187 cit- 
ies, 25,000 
to 50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
6,600,732 


533 cit- 
ies, 10,000 
to 25,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
8,190,924 


828 cit- 
ies under 

10,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
4,789,252 


Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged _ 
Rate per 100,000 


47, 878 
74.2 

122, 779 
190.2 

329, 394 
510.3 

1,191.785 
1,846.3 

131,615 
203.9 

91,823 

142.2 

363, 987 
563.9 


13, 683 

44.5 

32, 262 
105.0 

174, 678 
568.6 

540, 986 
1,760.9 

64, 466 
209.8 

68, 932 
224.4 

201,150 

654.7 


8, 339 
116.3 

18, 094 
252.4 

35,287 
492.2 

179. 524 
2, 504. 3 

22, 902 
319.5 

9,740 
135.9 

41,141 
573.9 


7,282 
102.9 

17, 157 
242.4 

35, 405 
500.2 

148, 712 
2, 100. 8 

15, 756 
222.6 

4,724 
66.7 

35, 936 
507.7 


6,880 
104.2 

16, 066 
243.4 

27, 107 
410.7 

116,257 
1,761.3 

11,318 
171.5 

3,894 
59.0 

32,212 
488.0 


7,044 
86.0 

21, 716 
265.1 

31,952 
390.1 

121,938 
1,488.7 

10,551 
128.8 

2,786 
34.0 

33, 810 
412.8 


4,650 
97 1 


Driving while intoxicated: 
Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


17,484 
365.1 


Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


24, 965 
521.3 


Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


84,368 
1,761.6 


Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


6,622 
138.3 


Gambling: 

Number of persons charged . 
Rate per 100,000 


1,747 
36.5 


All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000. -. 


19, 738 
412. 1 







Persons charged during 1954 with traffic violations other than driving 
while intoxicated are represented in table 18. The data are from 
1,233 cities. 

Table 18.— PERSONS CHARGED (HELD FOR PROSECUTION), TRAF- 
FIC VIOLATIONS, EXCEPT DRIVING WHILE INTOXICATED, 1954; 
NUMBER AND RATE PER 100,000 INHABITANTS, BY POPULATION 
GROUPS 

(Population figures from 1950 decennial census) 





TOTAL 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Offense charged 


1,233 
cities; 
total 
popula- 
tion, 
52,878,853 


29 cities 

over 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
26,677,339 


39 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
5,810,355 


80 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
5,566,117 


158 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
5,573,545 


391 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
6,062,416 


536 cities, 
under 
10,000 

popula- 
tion, 

3,189,081 


Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


3, 567, 664 
6, 746. 9 

15,505,230 
29, 322. 2 

847, 894 
1, 603. 5 


2, 065, 096 
7, 741. 

5, 799, 592 
21, 739. 8 

396, 983 
1, 488. 1 


452, 988 
7, 796. 2 

2, 553, 921 
43, 954. 6 

137, 225 
2, 361. 7 


324, 903 
5, 837. 2 

1, 944, 078 
34, 927. 

98, 360 
1, 767. 1 


258, 902 
4, 645. 2 

2, 063, 732 
37, 027. 3 

64, 297 
1, 153. 6 


313, 078 
5, 164. 2 

2, 254, 643 
37, 190. 5 

102, 717 
1, 694. 3 


152, 697 
4, 788. 1 


Parking violations: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Other traffic and motor vehicle 
laws: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 


889, 264 
27, 884. 6 

48, 312 
1, 514. 9 







54 



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56 



PERSONS FOUND GUILTY 

(PERCENT OF PERSONS CHARGED -PART 1 OFFENSES) 

CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON 

CALENDAR YEAR 1954 

201 CITIES OVER 25.000 INHABITANTS TOTAL POPULATION 24,662.474 






-v / 

1\ 





MURDER 



67.2% 
1,145 CHARGED 



NEGLIGENT 425% 

MANSLAUGHTER 677 charged 





RAPE 


66.7% 
1,953 CHARGED 








AGGRAVATED 
ASSAULT 


49.5% 
14,042 CHARGED 





Figure 5. 



57 

Persons Found Guilty, 1954 

For every 7 major offenses reported to police, there is an average of 
1 conviction in court. For murder, the ratio is about 2 offenses for 
each conviction. Every third offense of negligent manslaughter and 
rape is followed by a conviction. Robberies and aggravated assaults 
occur at the rate of about 4 for every conviction in these categories. 
Burglaries and auto thefts occur 7 times more frequently than do con- 
victions for such crimes. Other thefts, larceny, occur almost 9 times 
more frequently than do convictions. 

The above ratios compare the number of offenses known with the 
number of persons convicted. In any use of these broad ratios it 
should be recalled that while all offenses are scored by police, only the 
number of persons convicted is counted and not the number of offenses 
(charges) for which they are convicted. 

Five out of 7 persons charged by the police in 1954 were found 
guilty, according to the reports of 201 cities. 

The highest conviction rate in the individual crime classes continues 
in cases of driving while intoxicated (87.5 percent). The lowest is 
again in the manslaughter by negligence category, 42.5 percent found 
guilty. (Manslaughter by negligence offenses are principally traffic 
killings. An offense is scored only when the police investigation re- 
flects that the victim was killed as the result of the gross negligence of 
someone else.) 

The observations above are based on reports of 201 cities over 
25,000 in population. The reports from these cities show final dis- 
positions of charges placed. Reports were excluded from the tabula- 
tion on guilty data if the dispositions shown were based on some 
preliminary proceedings. 



58 



PERSONS FOUND GUILTY 

(PERCENT OF PERSONS C HARG ED •• PART 1 OFFENSES) 

CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY 



CALENDAR YEAR 1954 



201 CITIES OVER 25,000 INHABITANTS TOTAL POPULATION 24,662,474 



ra£ k 



$ * 






ROBBERY 



BURGLARY 



^.< 



LARCENY 



AUTO THEFT 



80.0% 
7,108 CHARGED 



78.1% 
20,504 CHARGED 



78.1% 
41,529 CHARGED 



65.2% 
11,061 CHARGED 



Fioure 6. 



59 



Table 20.— OFFENSES KNOWN, CLEARED BY ARREST, AND NUM- 
BER OF PERSONS FOUND GUILTY, 1954; 201 CITIES OVER 25,000 
IN POPULATION 

(Total population 24,662,474 based on 1950 decennial census) 



Offense (Part I classes) 



TOTAL 

Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 

gent manslaughter. 

(b) Manslaughter by neg- 

ligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary— breaking or enter- 
ing 

Larceny— theft (except auto 

theft). 

Auto theft 



Number of offenses 



Known 
to the 
police 



506, 028 



1,245 

874 
3,476 
24, 258 
26, 595 

113,964 

283, 755 
51, 861 



Cleared 

by 
arrest 



141,434 



1,168 

749 

2,708 

10, 097 

20, 333 

33,260 

59, 687 
13, 432 



Number of persons 



Charged 
(held for 
prosecu- 
tion) 



98,019 



1,145 

677 
1,953 
7,108 
14, 042 

20, 504 

41, 529 
11,061 



Found guilty 



Total 
guilty 



70, 672 



769 



1,302 
5,683 
6,951 

16, 014 

32, 450 
7,215 



Offense 
charged 



61, 905 



609 

234 

943 

4,590 

4, 837 

13, 671 

30, 708 
6,313 



Lesser 
offense 



8,767 



160 

54 

359 

1,093 

2,114 

2,343 

1,742 
902 



Percent- 



found 
guilty 



72.1 



67.2 

42.5 
66.7 
80.0 
49.5 

78.1 

78.1 
65.2 



60 




PERSONS FOUND GUILTY 

PERCENT OF PERSONS CHARGED - PART II OFFENSES 
CALENDAR YEAR 1954 

201 CITIES OVER 25.000 INHABITANTS TOTAL POPULATION 24.662.474 



OTHER ASSAULTS 



61.4% 



FORGERY AND COUNTERFEITING 



81.3% 



EMBEZZLEMENT AND FRAUD 



68.7% 



STOLEN PROPERTY; 
BUYING, RECEIVING, ETC 



56.5% 



WEAPONS; CARRYING, POSSESSING, ETC. 75.9 % 



SEX OFFENSES (INCLUDING PROS- -jo 1 Of 

TITUTION AND COMMERCIALIZED VICE) l0.\A> 



OFFENSES AGAINST 
FAMILY AND CHILDREN 



60.1 % 



NARCOTIC DRUG LAWS 



70.1% 



LIQUOR LAWS 



81.5% 



DRUNKENNESS; DISORDERLY 
CONDUCT; VAGRANCY 



73.2% 



GAMBLING 



66.5% 



DRIVING WHILE INTOXICATED 



87.5% 



TRAFFIC AND 

MOTOR -VEHICLE LAWS 



70.9 % 



ALL OTHER OFFENSES 



58.4% 



Figure 7. 



61 



Table 21.— NUMBER OF PERSONS CHARGED (HELD FOR PROSE- 
CUTION) AND NUMBER FOUND GUILTY, 1954; 201 CITIES OVER 
25,000 IN POPULATION 

(Total population 24,662,474 based on 1950 decennial census) 



Offense (Part II classes) 



TOTAL 

Other assaults 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Sex offenses (including prostitution and com- 
mercialized vice) 

Offenses against family and children 

Narcotic drug laws 

Liquor laws 

Drunkenness; disorderly conduct; vagrancy. _ . 

(lambling 

Driving while intoxicated 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws 

All other offenses 



Number of persons charged (held for prosecution) 



TOTAL 
CHARGED 



1 10, 634, 514 



40, 653 
3,955 
9,835 
1,880 
8,197 

23,011 
16, 017 

5,084 
19, 721 
702, 223 
27, 013 
44,988 
, 599, 590 
132, 347 



Found guilty 



TOTAL 
GUILTY 



i 7, 543, 778 



24, 980 
3,216 
6,757 
1,062 
6,224 

16, 810 
9,622 
3,563 
16, 070 
513, 840 
17, 957 
39, 374 
2 6, 807, 058 
77, 245 



Offense 
charged 



' 7, 488, 827 



23,928 

2,851 

6,291 

986 

5,976 

16, 234 

9,249 

3,524 

15, 609 

511,327 

17,816 

36, 194 

2 6, 763, 750 

75, 092 



Lesser 
offense 



1,052 
365 
466 
76 
248 

576 

373 

39 

461 

2,513 

141 

3,180 

2 43, 308 

2,153 



Percent- 
age found 
guilty 



i 70.9 



61.4 
81.3 
68.7 
56.5 
75.9 

73.1 
60.1 
70.1 
81.5 
73.2 
66.5 
87.5 
70.9 
58.4 



1 The total figures are subject to footnote 2. 

2 Based on reports of 195 cities, total population 22,349,727. 

Persons Released — Not Held for Prosecution, 1954 

In the annual report of persons arrested, police count separately 
those who are released without a formal charge being filed after the 
arrest. In the tabulation of "persons released" no count is included 
of persons found "not guilty" and persons released to other jurisdic- 
tions for prosecution. In some classifications, principally traffic, 
persons who fail to respond to a summons or citation are counted as 
"released." This is true only in those instances where the failure to 
appear as ordered is not followed by an actual arrest for the original 
violation. 



62 



Table 22.— PERSONS RELEASED WITHOUT RETXG HELD FOR PROS- 
ECUTION, 1954; ALL OFFENSES EXCEPT TRAFFIC, NUMBER AND 
RATE PER 100,000 INHABITANTS, BY POPULATION GROUPS 
(Population figures from 1960 decennial census) 



Offense charged 



GRAND TOTAL 

RATE PER 100,000 

Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 

gent manslaughter: 
Number of persons re- 
leased 
Rate per 100,000 

(b) Manslaughter by neg- 

ligence: 
Number of persons re- 
leased 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons released 
Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons released 
Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons released 
Rate per 100,000 

Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Number of persons released 
Rate per 100,000 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons released 
Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons released 
Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons released 
Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, re- 
ceiving, possessing: 
Number of persons released 
Rate per 100.000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 
Number of persons released 
Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons released 
Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice: 

Number of persons released 
Kate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and 
prostitution): 
Number of persons released 
Kate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons released 

Kate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possession, 

etc.: 

Number of persons released 
Rate per 100.000 

Offenses against family and 
children: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

\ umber of persons released 
Rate per 100,000 



TOTAL 



846 
cities; 
total 
popula- 
tion, 
34, 208, 898 



242, 140 
707.8 



238 
0.7 



141 

0.4 

2,032 
5.9 

1,958 
5.7 

6,670 
19.5 

5,853 
17.1 

11, 572 
33.8 

2,497 
7.3 

1,259 
3.7 



411 
1.2 



886 
2.6 



483 
1.4 



3,692 
10.8 



1,101 
3.2 

1,109 
3.2 



983 
2.9 



1,974 
5.8 

1,897 
5.5 



Group I 



24 cities 

over 
250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
16,101,020 



114,857 

713.3 



109 
0.7 



26 

0.2 

1,090 
6.8 

821 
5.1 

3, 645 
22.6 

1, 666 
10. 3 

3,961 

24.6 

680 
4.2 

528 
3.3 



132 
0.8 



187 
1.2 



151 
0.9 



3,226 
20.0 



217 
1.3 



611 

:i.s 



364 

2.3 



756 

1.7 



577 

3.6 



Group II 



25 cities, 

100,000 to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
3,520,728 



38, 227 

1, 085. 8 



12 
0.3 



19 

0.5 



316 
9.0 



443 
12.6 



760 
21.6 



606 
17.2 



l, 187 
42.2 



274 
7.8 



210 
6.0 



17 

1.3 



82 
2.3 



74 
2.1 



236 
6.7 



203 
5.8 



200 
5.7 



154 

4.4 



267 

7.0, 



194 

5.5 



Group 
III 



Group 
IV 



01 cities, 
50,000 to 

100,000; 

tion, 



18, 669 
429.4 



13 
0.3 



38 
0.9 



222 
5.1 



211 
4.9 



392 
9.0 



704 
16.2 



712 
16.4 



403 
9.3 



87 
2.0 



30 
0.7 



133 
3.1 



7s 
1.8 



16 
0.4 



137 
3.2 



lo| 
2.4 



51 
1.2 



204 
1.7 



93 

2.1 



113 
cities, 

25,000 to 
50,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

3,969,662 



20,555 
517.8 



53 
1.3 



33 
0.8 

159 
4.0 

145 
3.7 

513 
12.9 

699 
17.6 

1, 605 
40.4 

387 
9.7 

136 
3.4 



50 
1.3 



103 
2.6 



49 
1.2 



10 
0.3 



145 



48 
1.2 



123 
3.1 



i:.s 
4.0 



271 

O.N 



Group V 



274 
cities, 

10,000 to 
25,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

4,204,825 



28, 112 

i,r,s. 6 



20 
0.5 



13 

0.3 



159 
3.8 



225 
5.4 



20.2 

1,340 

31.9 

2,339 
55. 6 

477 
11.3 

199 
4.7 



82 
2.0 



212 
5.0 



76 
1.8 



67 
1.6 



260 
8. 2 



112 

2.7 



167 
4.0 



284 
6.8 



490 
11.7 



63 

Table 22.— PERSONS RELEASED WITHOUT BEING HELD FOR PROS- 
ECUTION, 1954; ALL OFFENSES EXCEPT TRAFFIC, NUMBER AND 
RATE PER 100,000 INHABITANTS, BY POPULATION GROUPS— Con. 

(Population figures from 1950 decennial census) 





TOTAL 


Group I 


Group II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group V 


Group 
VI 


Offense charged 


846 

cities; 
total 
popula- 
tion, 
34, 208, 898 


24 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
16, 101, 626 


25 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
3,520,728 


61 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
4,348,100 


113 
cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
3,969,662 


274 
cities, 

10,000 to 
25,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

4,204,825 


349 
cities 
under 
10,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2, 063, 957 


Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000.. 


2,260 
6.6 

9,929 
29.0 

66, 302 
193.8 

6,634 
19.4 

3,332 
9.7 

88, 490 
258.7 

20, 437 
59.7 


60 
0.4 

2,199 
13.7 

26, 192 
162.7 

525 
3.3 

2,815 
17.5 

59, 820 
371.5 

4,499 
27.9 


457 
13.0 

1,417 
40.2 

23, 879 
678.2 

1,097 
31.2 

203 

5.8 

2,984 
84.8 

2,606 
74.0 


77 
1.8 

895 
20.6 

4,909 
112.9 

999 
23.0 

31 
0.7 

6,732 
154.8 

1,398 
32.2 


264 
6.7 

1,329 
33.5 

3,018 
76.0 

771 
19.4 

53 
1.3 

6,301 
158.7 

4,132 
104.1 


369 

8.8 

2,203 
52.4 

4,586 
109.1 

1,232 
29.3 

126 
3.0 

8,120 
193.1 

4,106 
97.6 


1,033 
50.3 


Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


1,886 
91.4 


Drunkenness: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000. 


3,718 
180.1 


Vagrancy: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


2,010 

97.4 


Gambling: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


104 

5.0 


Suspicion: 

Number of persons released . 
Rate per 100,000 


4,533 
219.6 


All other offenses: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000.. 


3,666 
179.1 







Table 23.— PERSONS RELEASED WITHOUT BEING HELD FOR PROS- 
ECUTION, TRAFFIC VIOLATIONS, EXCEPT DRIVING WHILE 
INTOXICATED, 1954; NUMBER AND RATE PER 100,000 INHABIT- 
ANTS, BY POPULATION GROUPS 

(Population figures from 1950 decennial census) 





TOTAL 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Offense charged 


610 cities, 
total 
popu- 
lation, 

23,884,708 


19 cities 

over 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
11, 803, 254 


13 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
1,922,939 


38 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
2,721,809 


80 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
2,821,600 


199 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
3,046,356 


261 cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 

1,568,750 


Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons re- 


131, 521 
550.6 

917, 583 
3, 841. 7 

45, 118 
188.9 


50, 154 
424.9 

150, 345 
1, 273. 8 

18, 749 
158.8 


4,342 

225.8 

92, 906 
4, 831. 5 

5,677 
295.2 


1,555 
57.1 

94, 479 
3, 471. 2 

928 
34.1 


42, 315 
1, 499. 7 

186, 203 
6, 599. 2 

8,081 
286.4 


15, 413 
505.9 

277, 609 
9, 112. 8 

5,159 
169.3 


17, 742 


Rate per 100,000 


1, 131. 


Parking violations: 

Number of persons re- 


116, 041 


Rate per 100,000 


7, 397. 


Other traffic and motor vehicle 
laws: 
Number of persons re- 


6,524 


Rate per 100,000 


415.9 







CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

Uniform Crime Reporting Program 

Readers not entirely familiar with the uniform crime reporting pro- 
gram may be interested in a brief explanation of the contents of crime 
reports included in this bulletin: 

1. These crime figures are called "police statistics" to distinguish 
them from judicial or penal statistics in the criminal field. (Program 
is voluntary. International Association of Chiefs of Police started it 
January 1930. The FBI has acted as the central clearinghouse since 
September 1930, by an Act of Congress.) 

2. Crimes that are exclusively Federal are not included. 

3. Each reporting agency counts only those crimes or arrests for 
crimes committed in its jurisdiction. A sheriff reports only for his 
rural areas outside the city or town limits of any urban places in his 
county. This feature avoids duplication. 

4. "Offenses known to the police" is a term that refers to those 
crimes included in the Part I offenses of the crime reporting classi- 
fication. (See below for individual classes.) The Part I offenses are 
limited to seven classes of grave offenses shown by experience to be 
those most generally and completely reported to the police. 

5. Offenses (crimes) for the Part I classes are reported as they 
become known. The police may learn of the occurrence of crime in 
a number of ways: reports of police officers; citizens' complaints; 
notification from prosecuting or court officials; or otherwise. 

6. Offenses are included without regard to: (a) the age of the 
offender; (b) the value of property involved; (c) the recovery of stolen 
property; ((/) arrests; or (e) prosecutive action. The purpose is to 
show the amount of crime that has occurred as distinguished from 
arrest data and the classifying is based strictly on the facts in posses- 
sion of the police. 

7. Complaints that are found by police investigation to be ground- 
less are not included in crime tables in this bulletin, and returns that 
appear incomplete or defective are excluded. 

8. Arrest data is not included in "offenses known" information 
but arrest data is collected separately for the entire crime classification, 
Parts I and II. So, the only information for Part II offenses is that 
based on arrest data. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-low enforcement. 

The complete classification of crimes is shown below with brief 
definitions for each: 

(64) 



65 

Part I Offenses 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 
includes all wilful felonious homicides as distinguished from deaths 
caused by negligence. Does not include attempts to kill, assaults to 
kill, suicides, accidental deaths, or justifiable homicides. Justifiable 
homicides excluded from this classification are limited to the following 
types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon by a peace officer in line of 
duty; (2) the killing of a holdup man by a private citizen. (6) Man- 
slaughter by negligence includes any death which the police investiga- 
tion establishes was primarily attributable to gross negligence on the 
part of some individual other than the victim. 

2. Rape.- — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape (no force used — 
victim under age of consent), assault to rape, and attempted rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the 
person by force or violence or by putting in fear, such as strong-arm 
robbery, stickups, robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and 
attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault 
by shooting, cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by 
the use of acids. Does not include simple assault, assault and battery, 
fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreak- 
ing, safecracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or a theft, 
even though no force was used to gain entrance. Includes attempts. 
Burglary followed by larceny is included in this classification and not 
counted again as larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in 
value; (b) under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassi- 
fications, depending upon the value of the property stolen, thefts of 
bicycles, automobile accessories, shoplifting, pocket picking, or any 
stealing of property or article of value which is not taken by force 
and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" 
games, forgery, worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or 
driven away and abandoned, including the so-called joy-riding thefts. 
Does not include taking for temporary use when actually returned by 
the taker, or unauthorized use by those having lawful access to the 
vehicle. 

Part II Offenses 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults 
which are not of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in 
class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the 
making, altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, any- 
thing false which is made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent 



66 

conversion, embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false 
pretenses. 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, 
receiving, and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to com- 
mit any of those offenses. 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of 
regulations or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, 
furnishing, and manufacturing of deadly weapons or silencers and all 
attempts to violate such statutes or regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a 
commercialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as 
prostitution, keeping bawdy house, procuring, transporting, or de- 
taining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized 
vice). — Includes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals. 
and the like. Includes attempts. 

15. Offenses against the family and children. — Includes offenses of 
nonsupport, neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, 
such as unlawful possession, sale, or use. Excludes Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "drunkenness" (class 18) 
and "driving while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations, 
State or local, are placed in this class. Excludes Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxi- 
cation. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a 
breach of the peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, 
loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or 
engaging in gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any 
motor vehicle while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regu- 
lations with respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to 
prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes viola- 
tions of State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and 
motor vehicles not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws 
for which no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as 
suspicious characters, but not in connection with any specific offense, 
who are released without formal charges being placed against them. 

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1955 



7 



UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 



FOR RELEASE MONDAY, P.M., APRIL 30, 1956 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C 



Volume XXVI Number 2 

ANNUAL BULLETIN 1955 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 



Volume XXVI— Number 2 
ANNUAL BULLETIN, 1955 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1956 



CONTENTS 

Pag 

Summary of volume XXVI, No. 2 67-6 

Crime trends: 

Estimated number of major crimes (table 24) 69-7 

Urban trends (tables 25-27) 73-S 

Rural trends (table 28) 84-8| 

Monthly variations (table 29) 86-8 \ 

Crime rates: 

Urban rates (tables 30-33) 90-91 

Rural rates (table 34) 90-91,9| 

Offenses in individual areas: 

Cities over 25,000 (table 35) 97-10 1 

Jurisdictions outside the United States (table 36) It 

Supplemental crime data: 

Offense analysis trends (table 37) 107-10 

Value of property stolen by type of crime (table 38) 109-1 1 

Value of property stolen and value of property recovered (table 39) 11 
Age, sex, and race of persons arrested: 

Trends (table 40) 111-111 

Age distribution (tables 41-42) 113-111 

Sex distribution (table 43) 11 

Race distribution (table 44) 11 

Reporting area (table 45) 118-11 

Classification of offenses 120-12 

Index to volume XXVI 123-12' 

(ii) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 
of Justice, Washington, D. C. 



Volume XXVI JANUARY 1956 Number 2 

SUMMARY 

Estimated Major Crimes 

Major crimes were over the 2-million mark for the fourth year but 
i slight decrease of two-tenths of one percent made 1955 the first 
pear in eight not to register an increase in crime. The estimated 
2,262,450 major crimes in 1955 resulted from percentage increases in 
•ape (5.9), auto theft (5.2), manslaughter by negligence (3.7), and 
arceny (1.5), and percentage decreases in robbery (14.7), burglary 
(5.1) and aggravated assault (0.9). There was no change in murder. 

The 1955 property loss to robberies, burglaries, auto thefts, and 
3ther larcenies was about $399 million, and this was offset by a police 
recovery rate of about 57 percent. 

The percentage rise in crime since 1950 is almost three times that 
of population. Crime is up 26 percent while population is up 9 
percent (since 1950). 
Crime Trends, Urban — Rural 

A decline of city crime by 0.8 percent was caused by a 4.3 percent 
decrease in cities over 250,000. Cities under 250,000 had a 2.9 per- 
cent increase in crime. Murders, robberies, aggravated assaults and 
burglaries decreased in cities. Other major crimes increased. 

Rural crimes were up 1.8 percent with increases in murders, negli- 
gent manslaughters, rapes, larcenies, and auto thefts. 
Monthly Variations 

Seasonal variations in 1955 were similar to those in other years. 
Crimes against the person generally rise in the warmer months while 
crimes against property occur with greater frequency during the cool 
dark months. Negligent manslaughter, a crime against the person, 
follows the hazardous driving conditions with a high in December. 
I Murder was exceptional in 1955, registering a high for the year in 
) December. 

Property Recovered 

Police in 420 cities recovered 56.8 percent of the property stolen. 
Currency, notes, and other negotiables made up 25.4 percent of the 

(67) 



68 

unrecovered loss. Autos represented only 8.3 percent of the unre- 
covered loss. 
Persons Arrested 

Arrests of young persons under 18 increased 11.4 percent in 1,162 
cities in 1955. In 276 of these cities (over 25,000 population), such 
arrests rose 10.5 percent but the increase was 15.6 percent in 886 oi 
the cities with population under 25,000. Of the arrests for majoij 
crimes in 1,477 cities, 42.3 percent were of persons under 18 and al-j 
most half (47.9) of these were under the age of 15. The high percentage 
of arrests for major crimes of persons under 18 results from a high ratiq 
of arrests of such persons for the major crimes against property o) 
robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto theft. Of all persons arrestee 
for auto theft in the reporting cities, 62.2 percent were under the ag€ 
of 18. 



CRIME TREND 

Major Crime Totals, 1955 

Trend. — Major crimes numbered 2,262,450 in 1955, the fourth 
consecutive year above the 2-million mark. The 1955 estimate is 
:wo-tenths of one percent below the 2,267,250 such crimes estimated 
'or 1954. 

The slight change marks the first decrease in 8 years of comparable 
crime totals. Percentage increases since 1947 have ranged from 1.3 
:o 8.2. Thus, the negligible decrease in 1955 still leaves the major 
crime total standing 18.7 percent above the 1947-54 8-year annual 
iverage of 1,906,260 crimes. 

Offenses (crimes) designated as "major" and reported by local law 
enforcement agencies are shown in table 24 below with a comparison 
)f the 1954 and 1955 estimated totals for the United States. 



Table 24.— CRIME TRENDS, URBAN AND RURAL 

[Estimated number of major crimes in the United States, 1954-55] 



Offense 



Number of offenses 



1955 



Change 



Number Percent 



TOTAI 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 



2, 267, 250 



2,262,450 



-4, 800 



6,850 

5,410 

18, 030 

67,420 

93, 540 

519, 190 

1, 340, 870 

215, 940 



6,850 

5,610 

19, 100 

57,490 

92,740 

492, 530 

1, 360, 980 

227, 150 



+200 
+1,070 
-9,930 

-800 
-26, 660 
+20, 110 
+11, 210 



-0.2 



+3.7 
+5.9 
-14.7 



-5.1 

+1.5 

+5.2 



No change occurred in the murder class. The downward trend in 
three individual classes ranged from 0.9 percent to 14.7 percent. A 
sharp decrease of 14.7 percent in robberies was accompanied by a 
moderate decrease of 5.1 percent in burglaries. Aggravated assaults 
(other than rapes) declined only slightly, 0.9 percent. The spread in 
percentage changes in the four classes showing increases was not so 
marked, from 1.5 to 5.9. Percentage increases from high to low are: 
rape, 5.9; auto theft, 5.2; negligent manslaughter (mostly traffic 
deaths), 3.7; and larceny, 1.5. 

Population and Crime. — Population has increased 9 percent and 
crime has increased 26 percent since 1950 — the percentage increase 
in crime is almost 3 times that of population. Measuring crimes 
against units of population, the 1955 crime rate is 15.9 percent above 
the 1950 rate. (Crimes per 100,000 inhabitants in 1950 numbered 

(69) 



70 

1,187.8 as compared with 1,377.2 in 1955; the 1950 population count 
was used for the 1950 rate and the population estimate for July 1, 
1955, was used for the 1955 rate.) 

Crimes Against the Person. — There were 124,300 criminal attacks 
on persons in 1955, or 470 more slain, maimed or violated than in 
1954 — a percentage increase of 0.4. Crimes against the person are: 
murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, negligent manslaughter, rape, 
and aggravated assault. 

Criminal homicide consists of wilful and negligent killings which 
are treated separately in tabulations in this program. With (a) 
murder and nonnegligent manslaughter and (b) manslaughter by neg- 
ligence grouped, the total persons who died in 1955 at the hands of 
killers is 12,460 or 200 (1.6 percent) more than the 12,260 persons 
killed in 1954 by criminal acts. 

The 6,850 wilful killings (murder and nonnegligent manslaughter) 
in 1955 equaled the number in 1954, while killings by persons acting 
in a grossly negligent manner (manslaughter by negligence) num- 
bered 5,610 in 1955 or 3.7 percent above the 5,410 in 1954. Most 
of these negligent manslaughters are traffic fatalities but do not 
include all traffic deaths. 

Rapes increased 5.9 percent, the highest percentage increase re- 
corded in any major crime class in 1955. The 19,100 rapes in 1955 
were 1,070 or 5.9 percent greater than the 1954 figure. An analysis 
by 433 cities (table 37) shows that forcible rapes increased 21.3 per- 
cent and statutory offenses declined 4.6 percent. 

Aggravated assaults numbered 92,740 or 800 (0.9 percent) fewer 
persons shot, stabbed, or otherwise feloniously assaulted than in; 
1954 (rapes are not included). 

Crimes Against Property. — These decreased 0.2 percent in 1955. 
Loss to robberies, burglaries, auto thefts and other larcenies was 
about $399 million and about 57 percent of this amount was re- 
covered, assuming that the national experience was similar to the 
average for over 400 cities (tables 38 and 39). 

Robberies, down 14.7 percent, still cost about $14 million or about 
the same as in 1954. This is due to an increase in the average loss 
per robbery of $246 in 1955 (table 38) as compared with $219 in 1954. 
The 57,490 armed and unarmed robberies in 1955 were 9,930 less than 
the 67,420 in 1954. In 433 cities (table 37), all types of robberies, 
except bank robberies, decreased and this may be indicative of the 
robbery experience nationally. 

Burglaries decreased 26,660 or 5.1 percent in 1955. The average 
loss per burglary was $175 (table 38), a dollar less than the 1954 < 
figure. The loss to burglars was about $86 million in 1955, $5 million 
less than 1954. 



71 



mgam ^ mmmi ^tmmmmmmmM 







CRIME TREND -I). S. 

BASED ON THE ESTIMATED 
NUMBER OF MAJOR CRIMES 



tmmmmmmmmmmmmmm 



1954-1955 PERCENT CHANGE 



+5.9 



II 



+5.2 



1954 LEVEL 



-0.2 




E L 



-14.7 



TOTAL MURDER NEGLIGENT RAPE ROBBERY AGGRAVATED BURGLARY LARCENY AUTOTHEFT 
MANSLAUGHTER ASSAULT 



Figure 8. 



72 

Larcenies (except autos) increased 1.5 percent and at an average' 
loss per offense of $70 (table 38) the 1,360,980 larcenies in 1955 in- 
volved property valued at about $95 million. 

Autos valued at about $203 million were stolen in 1955. However, 
the high recovery rate for autos, about 92 percent of the number 
stolen, cuts the unrecovered loss to a comparatively small figure 
(tables 37-39). The 227,150 auto thefts in 1955 were 11,210 or 5.2 
percent more than the 1954 estimated figure. 

Estimated Crime Totals. — These are considered as conservative 
indications of the nationwide major crime problem. Certain im- 
portant crime's are not included in the "major" offense category of 
the program originated by the police (International Association of 
Chiefs of Police). The indicated exclusions were due to various 
practical considerations (see p. 120 for a brief outline of the program). 

Actual counts of crime as reported by police are available for over 
four-fifths of the population (about 90 percent of the urban and about 
68 percent of the rural). So, the estimates in effect are necessary for 
less than one-fifth of the potential reporting areas. Crime figures 
that are incomplete for any periods under study are excluded from 
trend data in order to present a reliable index to crime from year 
to year. 



' 



73 



rban Crime Trends 

Cities by Size. — City crime decreased slightly, 0.8 percent. Crimes 
n the biggest cities caused it. They were down 4.3 percent (Group I — 
>ver 250,000 inhabitants). Their smaller neighbors were up 2.9 
)ercent in 1955. 

The increase was about the same in the five city groups below 
jroup I. The smallest increase, 2.0 percent, was in Group V (10,000- 
55,000 inhabitants). The largest increase, 3.7 percent, was in Group 
E (under 10,000). 

The trend was the same in each city group for four crimes: rape, 
•obbery, burglary, and auto theft. Robbery and burglary were down, 
itape and auto theft were up. 

Robbery declined the most in the largest cities (Group I), 18.3 
)ercent. The smallest cities had the second greatest decrease in 
•obberies, 16.9 percent. Those are the "cities" under 10,000 (Group 

b). 

Burglaries decreased 9.2 percent in the Group I cities. They were 
lown from 1.3 percent to 3.7 percent in other city groups. 

Increases in rape ranged from 2.2 percent to 11.9 percent. The 
smallest city group had the largest increase. 

Auto thefts rose from 0.5 percent to 9.4 percent. Group II cities 
(100,000-250,000) led the auto theft increases. 

Larcenies increased (up to 8.0 percent) in cities of all sizes except 
the largest. Group I had a 2.3 percent decline in these crimes. 

Murders rose from 0.9 percent to 3.6 percent in the three city groups 
above 50,000 inhabitants. They declined from 6.0 percent to 20.7 
percent in the three city groups under 50,000 inhabitants. 

A pattern for city trends is not so clear for manslaughter by negli- 
gence and aggravated assault. Group I had a 5.2 percent decrease 
in manslaughter by negligence, but Group II had a 23.3 percent 
increase. The smallest city group had an 11.1 percent decrease in 
negligent killings. Other changes ranged from a minus 2.1 percent 
to plus 8.5 percent. Aggravated assaults changed erratically. From 
a decrease of 8.5 percent in the smallest city group, the changes ranged 
to a plus 13.4 percent increase in Group II (100,000-250,000). 

Details of the changes from 1954 to 1955 for cities arranged by six 
population groups are shown in table 25. Reports from the same 
cities for both years were used. If reports are incomplete for either 
period, they are not used in trend information. 

Cities by Location. — We saw that cities with more than 250,000 

population held the trend to the slight decrease. The over-all decrease 

jean be further pinpointed in a geographic grouping of these cities. 

City crime increased in all geographic divisions but two. A 

idecrease of 6.2 percent for the Middle Atlantic and East North Central 

380095°— 56 2 



74 

States overrode the 3.4 percent increase in other geographic divisions 
as a group. 

The sharpest decrease, 7.8 percent, occurred in the Middle Atlantic 
States. The East North Central States followed with a 4.7 percent 
decline. Other groups of States had increases, from 0.1 percent in 
the West North Central to 5.8 percent in the East South Central and 
also the Mountain States. 

Murder decreased in all but two divisions. The 3.8 percent in- 
crease in the West North Central and the 6.9 percent increase in the 
East North Central States were accompanied by decreases from 0.8 
percent to 10.2 percent in other divisions. Other criminal homicides, 
manslaughter by negligence, were up in all divisions except the Middle 
and South Atlantic. 

Rape decreased in four and increased in five of the geographic 
divisions. 

Six divisions had decreases in robbery while three showed increases. 
The largest decrease was 28.4 percent (Middle Atlantic) and the largest 
increase was 10.5 (New England). 

Aggravated assault rose in five divisions with a high of 27.9 percent 
in New England. In the four divisions with decreases, the South 
Atlantic States registered the greatest decline, 8.2 percent. 

Burglary decreased from 2.5 percent to 13.8 percent in five geo- 
graphic divisions while it increased from 1.0 percent to 2.0 percent 
in four. 

Larceny increased from 3.4 percent to 8.5 percent in seven divisions 
and declined 3.7 percent and 4.4 percent in the other two. 

Auto theft increased from 3.4 percent to 22.8 percent in seven divi-l 
sions with the East South Central States high. The Middle Atlantic 
and West South Central States decreased, 0.8 percent and 5.3 percent, 
respectively. 



75 



Table 25.— URBAN CRIME TRENDS, 1954-55, BY POPULATION GROUPS 

[Offenses known to the police in 2,503 cities, total population 77,450,624, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Population group 



Total: 

1954_ 

1955 

Percent change 

Group I: 38 cities over 
250,000; total popula- 
tion, 32,987,114: 

1954_ 

1955 

Percent change 

Group II: 62 cities, 100,000 
to 250,000; total popu- 
lation, 9,200,478: 

1954 

1955 

Percent change 

Group III: 127 cities, 
50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 8,985,494: 

1954 

1955 

Percent change 

Group IV: 245 cities, 
25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 8,674,096: 

19.54 

1955 

Percent change 

Group V: 660 cities, 10,000 
to 25,000; total popula- 
tion, 10,178,569: 

1954. 

1955 

Percent change 

Group VI: 1,371 cities 
under 10,000; total pop- 
ulation, 7,424,873: 

1954. 

1955 

Percent change 



Total 



1, 442, 146 

1,431,066 

-0.8 



731,515 

700, 176 

-4.3 



189, 701 

195, 079 

+2.8 



155, 106 

159, 478 

+2.8 



143, 482 

148, 199 

+3.3 



144, 187 

147, 069 

+2.0 



78, 155 

81, 065 

+3.7 



Criminal hom- 
icide 



Murder 

and 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



3,741 
3,676 
-1.7 



2,076 
2,094 



525 

544 

+3.6 



340 
343 

+.9 



301 

283 

-6.0 



291 

247 

-15.1 



208 

165 

-20.7 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



2,574 
2,580 
+0.2 



1,455 
1,380 
-5.2 



322 

397 

+23.3 



280 

274 

-2.1 



270 
293 

+8.5 



139 

140 

+.7 



108 

96 

•11.1 



Rape 



9,692 
10, 356 

+6.9 



6,401 

6,874 
+7.4 



969 
1,006 
+3.8 



643 

708 

+10.1 



587 
609 

+3.7 



647 
661 

+2.2 



445 

498 

+ 11.9 



Rob- 
bery 



55, 805 
47, 287 
-15.3 



42, 494 
34, 726 
-18.3 



5,116 
4,890 
-4.4 



2,832 
2,748 
-3.0 



2,226 
2,101 
-5.6 



1,939 
1,826 
-5.8 



1,198 

996 

-16.9 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Burgla- 
ry— 

break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



66,719 350,955 

66,226 329,546 

-0. 7 -6. 1 



43, 412 

42,298 

-2.6 



7,174 
8,134 
+13.4 



6,418 
6,200 
-3.4 



3,894 
3,979 

+2.2 



3,620 

3,600 

-.6 



2,201 
2,015 
-8.5 



186, 862 

169, 606 

-9.2 



47, 750 

47, 123 

-1.3 



34, 985 

33, 696 

-3.7 



30, 937 

30, 347 

-1.9 



31, 621 

30,642 

-3.1 



18,800 

18, 132 

-3.6 



Larce- 
ny- 
theft 



809, 645 
821, 039 

+1.4 



366, 377 

357, 910 

-2.3 



108, 830 

112, 183 

+3.1 



95, 611 

100, 500 

+5.1 



94,111 

98, 536 

+4.7 



95,554 

98, 810 

+3.4 



49, 162 

53,100 

+8.0 



Auto 
theft 



143, 015 
150, 356 

+5.1 



82, 438 

85,288 

+3.5 



19,015 

20, 802 

+9.4 



13, 997 
15,009 
+7.2 



11,156 
12, 051 
+8.0 



10, 376 

11, 143 

+7.4 



6,033 
6,063 

+.5 



76 




URBAN CRIME TRENDS 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO POLICE 

1954 •- 1955 PERCENT CHANGE 



TOTAL 



NEGLIGENT 
MANSLAUGHTER 



RAPE 



AGGRAVATED 
ASSAULT 



BURGLARY 



LARCENY 



AUTO THEFT 



DECREASE 

-0.8 

1.7 



INCREASE 




+ 0.2 



ROBBERY J 15.3 




+ 6.9 



2,503 CITIES TOTAL POPULATION 77,450,624 



Figure 9. 



77 

Table 26.— URBAN CRIME TRENDS, 1954-55, BY GEOGRAPHIC 
DIVISIONS AND STATES 

[Offenses known to the police in 2,503 cities, total population, 77,450,624, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Divisions and States 



| TOTAL: 

1954. 

1955 

Percent change 

New England, 181 cities; 
population, 5,558,982: 

1954.. 

1955 

Percent change 

Connecticut, 26 cities; 
population, 1,237,119: 

1954 

1955 

Maine, 19 cities; popula- 
tion, 330,178: 

1954 

1955 

Massachusetts, 94 cities; 
population, 2,954,978: 

1954 

1955 

New Hampshire, 16 
cities; population, 
270,858: 

1954 

1955 

Rhode Island, 16 cities; 
population, 654,662: 

1954 

1955 

Vermont, 10 cities; popu- 
lation, 111,187: 

1954 

1955 

Middle Atlantic, 538 
cities; population, 
20,296,416: 

1954 

1955 

Percent change 

New Jersey, 156 cities; 
population, 3,500,597: 

1954_. 

1955... 

New York, 172 cities; 
population, 11,698,152: 

1954 

1955 

Pennsylvania, 210 cities; 
population, 5,097,667: 

1954 

1955 
East North Centra^ 592 
cities; population, 
18,627,226: 

1954 

1955 

Percent change 

Illinois, 157 cities; popu- 
lation, 5,914,676: 

1954 

1955 



Total 



1, 442, 146 

1, 431, 066 

-0.8 



56, 590 

59, 248 

+4-7 



13, 589 
13, 824 



3,267 
3,404 



28, 652 

29, 795 



2,079 
2,045 



8,060 
9,411 



943 
769 



42, 735 
45, 169 



193, 180 
175, 804 



65, 327 
56, 799 



325, 267 

310, 052 

-4-7 



84, 249 
77, 428 



Criminal 
homicide 



Murder 

and 
n on neg- 
ligent 

man- 
slaugh 

ter 



3,741 
3,676 
-1.7 



69 

. 63 
-10.2 



654 

606 

-7.S 



371 
367 



192 
164 



768 

821 

+6.9 



318 
338 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



2,574 
2,580 
+0.2 



136 

166 

+14-0 



38 
65 



44" 



136 
139 



307 
141 



178 
166 



60S 

648 

+8.9 



Rape 



9,692 
10, 356 
+6.9 



319 
-4-2 



201 
163 



2,497 
2, 823 
+13.1 



260 
311 



1,667 
1,820 



564 
692 



2,160 
2,337 
+8.2 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



55, 805 
47, 287 
-15.3 



66, 719 

66, 226 

-0.7 



681 

871 

+27.9 



211 
229 



349 
357 



74 
102 



15, 572 
11, 150 
-28.4 



1,236 
1,140 



10, 879 
7,659 



3,457 
2,351 



17, 100 
14, 481 
-15.3 



168 
172 



586 
686 



8,735 
7,420 



313 
417 



229 
255, 



//„ 672 

14, 389 

-1.9 



1,631 
1,721 



10, 237 
9,401 



2,804 
3,267 



13, 108 
+3.4 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



350,955 

329, 546 

-6.1 



14, 976 
15,282 
+2.0 



3,653 
3,694 



696 
814 



7,840 
7,749 



409 
398 



2,157 
2,464 



221 
163 



87, 210 
75, 154 



12, 823 
12, 897 



55, 738 
47, 088 



18,649 
15, 169 



70, 416 
63, 278 
-10.2 



4,759 
4,623 



22, 831 
19, 978 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



809, 645 
821, 039 

+ 1.4 



34, 351 

35, 756 
+U 



7,826 
7,635 



2,226 
2,176 



17, 267 
18, 068 



1,508 
1,458 



4,904 
5,894 



620 
525 



151, 186 

144,595 

-4.4 



21,991 
23, 635 



97, 095 
92, 354 



32, 100 

28, 606 



191,716 

184, 659 

-3.7 



39, 325 
36, 882 



Auto 
theft 



143, 015 
150, 356 

+5.1 



5,380 
6,067 
+12.8 



1,464 
l,6s7 



266 
330 



2,667 
3,112 



113 
141 



783 
731 



4,561 
5,251 



16, 886 
16, 974 



7,383 
6,384 



29, 904 

30, 920 
+3.4 



7, 527 
7,329 



78 

Table 26.— URBAN CRIME TRENDS, 1954-55, BY GEOGRAPHIC 
DIVISIONS AND STATES— Continued 

[Offenses known to the police in 2,503 cities, total population, 77,450,624, based on 1950 decennial census 



Divisions and States 



Indiana, 76 cities; popu- 
lation, 1,977,469: 

1954 

1955 _ 

Michigan, 113 cities; pop- 
ulation, 3,927,350: 

1954 

1955 

Ohio, 167 cities; popula- 
tion, 5,033,600: 

1954 

1955 

Wisconsin, 79 cities; pop- 
ulation, 1,774,131: 

1954 __ 

^955 

West North Central, 295 
cities; population, 
6,320,098: 

1954. 

1955 

Percent change 

Iowa, 66 cities; popula- 
tion, 1,098,223: 

1954 

1955 

Kansas, 54 cities; popu- 
lation, 830,891: 

1954 

1955 

Minnesota, 70 cities; pop- 
ulation, 1,513,352: 

1954-.- 

1955 

Missouri, 51 cities; popu- 
lation, 1,996,989: 

1954 

1955 

Nebraska, 26 cities; pop- 
ulation, 533,153: 

1954.. 

1955 

North Dakota, 13 cities; 
population, 164,817: 

1954. -. 

1955 

South Dakota, 15 cities; 
population, 182,673: 

1954 

1955 

South Atlantic, 1 242 cities; 
population, 7,642,429: 

1954 

1955._ 

Percent change 

Delaware, 4 cities; popu- 
lation, 127,154: 

1954 

1955 

Florida, 51 Cities; popu- 
lation, 1,372,305: 

1954 

1955 -. 



Total 



37, 077 
36, 046 



98, 518 
95,270 



82, 529 
78,921 



22, 894 
22, 387 



108,526 

108, 423 

+■1 



14, 629 
13, 834 



15,611 
15, 548 



23, 901 
22, 861 



41,727 
43,432 



7,948 
8,071 



2,505 
2,571 



2,005 
2,106 



170, m 

175, 051 
+2.6 



2,870 
2,840 



38, 394 
41, 543 



Murder 

and 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Criminal 
homicide 



192 
191 



216 
+3.8 



134 
145 



753 

726 

-3.7 



139 

173 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



160 

190 



166 
+2.6 



316 
305 
-3.6 



Rape 



177 
ICil 



929 
937 



356 
452 



112 
101 



-4.9 



102 
103 



373 
344 



1,007 
7,077 
+7.0 



100 



Rob- 
bery 



978 
732 



4,225 
3,585 



2,954 
2,599 



3,783 
3,137 
-17.1 



vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



136 
137 



314 
299 



709 
527 



2,487 
2, 025 



111 
(23 



4,562 
4. <U9 
+1.2 



1,051 
1.073 



728 



4, 959 
5, 334 



1,857 
2,119 



339 
304 



3,418 
-3.4 



113 
108 



485 
494 



178 
151 



2,623 

2,488 



124 
162 



/7.S78 
15, 954 



1.371 
1,443 



8,725 
8,531 



18,950 
16, 729 



16,767 
15,079 



3,163 
2,961 



22, 660 
-7.1 



3,240 
2,515 



3,914 
3,438 



5,660 
5,302 



9,683 
9,333 



1,222 
1,385 



337 
376 



325 
311 



40, 579 

40, 767 

+1.0 



823 
696 



12,047 
12,289 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



22, 581 
21,365 



58, 655 
57, 742 



53, 793 
51,520 



17,362 
17, 050 



64, 686 

66, 853 

+3.4 



10, 035 
10, 096 



9,619 
10, 075 



14,999 

14,403 



20, 959 
23, 073 



5, 555 
5, 561 



1,981 

1,993 



1,538 
1,652 



88, t0» 

92. 553 

+5.1 



1,830 

1,779 



20, 102 
23, L69 



Includes the District of Columbia. 



79 



Table 26.— URBAN CRIME TRENDS, 1954-55, BY GEOGRAPHIC 
DIVISIONS AND STATES— Continued 

Offenses known to the police in 2,503 cities, total population, 77,450,624, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Divisions and States 



Jeorgia, 29 cities; popu- 
lation, 1,059,481: 

1954 

1955 

vf aryland, IS cities; pop- 
ulation, 1,152,863: 

1954 

1955... 

■forth Carolina, 57 cities; 
population, 979,570: 

1954 

1955 

South Carolina, 25 cities; 
population, 434,569: 

1954 

1955... 

Virginia, 40 cities; popu- 
lation, 1,284,468: 

1954 

1955 

iVest Virginia, 17 cities; 
population, 429,841: 

1954 

1955 

Jast South Central, 106 
cities; population, 
3,188,666: 

1954 

1955 

Percent change 

Alabama, 27 cities; popu- 
lation, 911,827: 

1954 

1955 

lentucky, 33 cities; pop- 
ulation, 785,304: 

1954.... 

1955 

Mississippi, 19 cities; 
population, 405,246: 

1954 

1955 

Tennessee, 27 cities; pop- 
ulation, 1,086,289: 

1954 

1955 
West South Central, 169 
cities; population, 
5,564,052: 

1954 

1955 

Percent change 

Arkansas, 26 cities; popu- 
lation, 377,460: 

1954 

1955 

Louisiana, 18 cities; pop- 
ulation, 777,584: 

1954 

1955 

Oklahoma, 36 cities; pop- 
ulation, 860,453: 

1954 

1?55 



Total 



21,029 
20, 512 



25,283 
26, 723 



18, 207 
17,492 



8,822 
8,824 



32, 299 
34, 550 



5,122 
4,271 



5i, 709 

65, 745 

+5.8 



14,845 
15,688 



17, 343 
19, 563 



4,731 

4,747 



15,790 
15,747 



US, 001 

128, 65i 

+4-6 



5,748 
4,900 



12, 861 
14, 179 



17, 378 

18, 386 



Criminal 
homicide 



Murder 

and 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



168 

145 



87 



107 
97 



14 

11 



417 
386 
-7.4 



137 
157 



161 
118 



501 
497 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



131 

156 

+19.1 



33 

50 



+4-0 



Rape 



106 
132 



197 
208 



107 
97 



226 
253 



263 

S18 

+20.9 



75 
122 



105 
131 



708 
692 



166 
159 



79 
101 



Rob- 
bery 



494 
391 



775 
933 



257 
256 



138 
145 



850 



111 
125 



1, 593 
1,651 
+S.6 



335 
381 



484 
450 



2,785 
2,499 
-10.3 



220 

151 



577 
578 



335 

289 



vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



2,140 
2,065 



1,819 
2,221 



3, .506 
3,027 



467 
450 



3,120 
3,077 



271 
194 



1,207 
1,422 



1,301 
1,139 



223 
220 



1,184 
1,102 



5, 316 
5, 733 
+7.8 



358 
345 



679 
725 



5,201 
4,937 



5,346 
5,313 



3,821 

3,415 



2,154 
2,164 



6,435 
7,105 



1,238 
1,199 



15, 409 
15, 686 
+1.8 



4,821 
4,668 



4,184 
4,752 



1,498 
1,347 



4,906 
4,919 



+1-4 



1,550 
1,273 



2,136 
2,705 



4,471 
4,363 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



10, 221 
10, 572 



11,936 
12, 577 



8, 905 
9,064 



5,317 
5,184 



18,416 
19, 560 



2,972 
2,264 



25, 940 
+5.1 



7,058 
7,406 



8,523 
9,170 



2,469 
2,624 



6,642 
6,740 



68, 961 

74, 835 

+8.5 



3,144 
2,701 



5,674 
6,996 



10,650 
11,370 



Auto 
theft 



2,659 
2,223 



5,111 
5,336 



1,439 
1,490 



658 
772 



3,045 
3,549 



491 
455 



6,289 

7, 725 
+22.8 



1,179 
1,476 



2,407 
3, 500 



406 
430 



2,297 
2,319 



14. 676 

13,901 

-5.3 



408 
355 



3,491 
2,893 



1,427 
1,698 



80 



-URBAN CRIME TRENDS, 1954-55, BY GEOGRAPHIC 
DIVISIONS AND STATES— Continued 



Table 26 

[Offenses known to the police in 2,503 cities, total population, 77,450,624, based on 1950 decennial census 



Divisions and States 



Texas, 89 cities; popula- 
tion, 3,548,555: 

1954. _ 

1955 

Mountain, 126 cities; pop- 
ulation, 2,068,461: 

1954_._ 

1955 

Percent change 



Arizona, 14 cities; popu- 
lation, 227,117: 

1954 

1955.. 

Colorado, 29 cities; popu- 
lation, 738,147: 

1954 

1955 

Idaho, 20 cities; popula- 
tion, 194,928: 

1954 

1955...., 

Montana, 14 cities; popu- 
lation, 162,158: 

1954 

1955 

Nevada, 4 cities; popula- 
tion, 44,612: 

1954 . 

1955 

New Mexico, 13 cities; 
population, 210,282: 

1954 

1955 

Utah, 19 cities; popula- 
tion, 364,350: 

1954 

1955 

Wyoming, 13 cities; pop- 
ulation, 126,867: 

1954. _. 

1955 

Pacific, 254 cities; popu- 
lation, 8,184,294: 

1954. •. 

1955 

Percent change 



California, 182 cities; pop- 
ulation, 6,797,930: 

1954 -. 

1955 

Oregon, 35 cities; popula- 
tion, 679,156: 

1954 

1955 

Washington, 37 cities; 
population, 707,208: 

1954 

1955.. 



Total 



87, 014 
91, 187 



57, W 

60, 485 

+5.8 



11,017 
11,750 



19, 498 
21,075 



4,864 
4,719 



3,597 
3,969 



2,122 
2,025 



5,355 
6,458 



8,380 
7,781 



2,309 
2,658 



241,097 

255, 708 

+3.6 



213, 797 
224, 285 



15,469 
14, 660 



17,831 
16, 763 



Murder 

and 
non neg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Criminal 
homicide 



349 
356 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



263 
253 



148 
160 



+7.9 



415 
501 
-2. 7 +20. 7 



Rape 



436 

400 



317 

300 

-5.4 



376 
455 



126 
139 



1,754 
1,869 
+6.6 



1, 660 

1, 755 



Rob- 
bery 



1,653 
1,481 



233 
221 



709 



68 
100 



103 
104 



7,722 
-7.9 



7,813 
7,240 



333 
273 



242 

209 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



3,940 
4,175 



977 
1.006 
+3.0 



318 
381 



336 
317 



123 
121 



7, 561 
7,864 
+4.0 



7,230 
7,529 



220 
202 



11 1 
133 



21, 645 
21, 892 



12,613 
12, 140 



2,185 
2,235 



5,047 
4,821 



808 
641 



507 
630 



590 
468 



1,415 
1,459 



1,677 
1,513 



384 
373 



55, 749 
54, 346 



49, 335 
48, 796 



3, 370 
2,820 



3,044 

2, 730 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



49, 493 
53, 768 



36, 700 

39, 536 

+7.7 



7,109 
7,549 



11, 554 

12, 761 



3, 670 
3,730 



2,620 
2,954 



1, 267 
1,255 



3, 098 
3,990 



5,723 
5,293 



1, 659 
2,004 



149, 251 
166, U» 

+4-8 



125, 651 
133, 757 



10, 522 
L0.36S 



13,078 
1 2,886 




81 



. - 

URBAN CRIME TRENDS 

1940-55 TREND VERSUS 1937-39 AVERAGE 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE 
355 Cities-Total Population 44,091,582 



CRIMES AGAINST 
THE PERSON 




1940 '41 '42 '43 '44 '45 '46 '47 '48 '49 '50 '51 '52 '53 '54 '55 



CRIMES AGAINST 
PROPERTY 

PERCENT CHANGE 




Figure 10. 



380095°— 56- 



82 

Long-Term Urban Trends 

Crime Count. — Major crime is 44.4 percent (1955) above the pre- 
World War II level in 355 cities (table 27). The annual average for 
the war years (1942-45) was 2.8 percent above the prewar annual 
average (1937-39). The annual average for the post-war years 
(1946-55) is 26.8 percent above the prewar average. Figure 10 and 
table 27 reflect changes in individual crime classes for a 19-year period 
(1937-55). 

Population Changes. — Population counts are available for the 355 
cities used for only 2 years of the study, 1940 and 1950. Population 
increased 16.8 percent and crime increased 11.8 percent from 1940 to 
1950 in the 355 cities studied. 

Crimes per 100,000 inhabitants (the crime rate) in these 355 cities 
declined 4.3 percent from 1940 to 1950. The rate of crimes against 
the person increased 29.5 percent while crimes against property de- 
creased 5.7 percent in the same period. However, note that from 1940 
to 1950 crime increased only 11.8 percent while a 20.8 percent rise has 
occurred since 1950. 

Cities Used.— Table 27 is limited to 355 cities with over 25,000 
inhabitants which have a record of regular crime reporting. Their 
1940 population was 37,753,783. In 1950, their population was 
44,091,582. Exact counts or estimates for these cities are not avail- 
able from the Bureau of the Census for intercensal years. 

Cities whose police departments are known to have undergone 
major record procedure changes, possibly affecting crime reporting, are 
not included in table 27. The same 355 cities are represented for each 
year in the table. 



83 



Table 27.— URBAN CRIME TRENDS, 1937-55 

[Offenses known to the police in 355 cities with over 25,000 inhabitants, total population 44,091,582 based 

on 1950 decennial census] 



Year 


Total 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 

assault 


Burg- 
lary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Lar- 

cenv — 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


1937 

1938 

1939 

1940 

1941 

1942 

1943 

1944 

1945 


616,778 
624, 595 
649, 400 
673, 778 

672, 747 
630,081 
615,208 
632, 762 

714, 807 
758,906 
721,608 
720, 020 

750, 758 
753, 309 
795,918 
825, 277 

862, 221 
896, 259 
910, 179 


2,569 
2,209 
2,321 
2,277 

2,371 
2,375 
2,099 
2,226 

2,447 
2,724 
2,618 
2,607 

2,399 
2,446 
2,372 
2,555 

2,515 
2,433 

2,487 


2,046 
1,480 
1,286 
1,512 

1,889 
1,731 
1,451 
1,451 

1,759 
1,773 
1,534 
1,513 

1,371 
1,626 
1,642 
1,789 

1,692 
1,671 
1,736 


3,220 
3,117 
3,390 
3,381 

3,661 
4,024 
4,474 
4,713 

5,184 

5,376 

5,428 

. 5, 161 

5,295 
5,172 
5,493 
5,526 

5,653 
5,560 
6,103 


27, 187 
28, 342 
26, 840 

25, 702 

24, 591 
23, 255 
23, 055 
22, 636 

28, 089 
31,749 
30, 138 
28, 539 

30, 292 

26, 559 
26, 702 
29,239 

32, 448 
34, 961 
31, 679 


20, 365 
19, 358 
19, 634 
20, 860 

21,317 
23, 529 
22, 710 
26, 275 

28, 664 
31,004 
31, 687 
31,747 

32, 922 
33, 133 
32, 607 
36, 973 

38, 841 

38, 807 

39, 681 


139,654 
140, 558 
146,912 
148, 048 

139,403 
124, 744 
128, 493 
134, 144 

158, 635 
173, 569 
167, 127 
166, 982 

176,570 
174,056 
172, 065 
183, 987 

194, 099 
209, 564 
207, 522 


330, 577 
350, 860 
374,618 
396, 679 

398, 328 
377, 306 
346, 423 
350, 515 

380, 270 
411,232 
402, 950 
410, 269 

430, 750 
433, 695 
466, 047 
468, 450 

484, 969 
5C6, 318 
517,331 


91,160 
78, 671 
74, 399 
75, 319 

81,187 
73,117 
86, 503 
90, 802 

109, 759 


1946... 


101,479 


1947. 

1948.. 

1949. 


80, 126 
73, 202 

71, 159 


1950 

1951 

1952.. 


76, 622 
88, 990 
96, 758 


1953 

1954 


102, 004 
96, 945 


1955 


103, 640 



84 

Rural Crime Trends 

Rural crime increased 1.8 percent in 1955. This is the first 
levelling off for crime in areas outside cities since 1943. For eleven 
years the rise has been unbroken with percentage increases ranging 
from 4.0 to 14.1. Since 1951, the annual increases have been above 
8 percent. 

Although rural crime increased 1.8 percent and urban crime 
decreased a slight 0.8 percent, trends for the two areas were similai 
in all individual crime classes except mureler. Rural murders in- 
creased 3.1 percent (city murders eleclined 1.7 percent). 

Other rural increases were: negligent manslaughter, 7.5 percent 
rape, 4.7 percent; larceny, 5.5 percent; and auto theft, 5.5 percent 
(Urban crimes increased in these classes also.) 

Robbery decreased sharply, 12 percent, in rural areas with less 
marked decreases in burglary (2.7 percent) and aggravated assaull 
(1.4 percent). (Urban crimes were down in the same classes.) 

There was not too much change in the total number of crimes 
against the person and crimes with property as their object. When 
grouped, both reflect increases. Property crimes were up 1.9 perceni 
while "personal" crimes were up 1 percent in the rural areas. 

Table 28 shows the details of the 1954-55 rural crime trends 
Reports from the same 1,586 law enforcement agencies were used foi 
both years in making the comparison. These agencies represent ; 
total rural population of 38,769,606 (1950 decennial census). 

Here "rural" means areas outside the limits of cities (urban places— 
any incorporated place of 2,500 or more inhabitants). Such rura 
areas include "urbanized fringe" areas around cities. These fringe 
areas cannot be separately reported. They do not coincide wit] 
police jurisdictions and there are practical difficulties, including thf 
defining of the boundaries of these growing communities. 

Table 28.— RURAL CRIME TRENDS, 1954-55 

[Based on reports of 1,429 sheriffs, 145 rural village officers, and 12 State police; total rural population 
38,769,606, based on the 1960 decennial census] 



Offense 



TOTAL 

Murder and aonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence.-- 

Rape - 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Buti lary breaking or entering 

Larceny- theft 

Auto theft 



Number of offenses 



271.517 



1,848 
1,838 

I. 829 

7. .'-(',7 

11. Ill 

93, 330 
124, 109 

■J :(. S55 



1, 905 
1,972 
6,064 
6, 656 

13,948 
90,806 
130,875 
25, L69 



Percent 

change 



+1.8 



+3.1 
+ 7.1! 
+4.7 
-12.0 

-1.4 
-2.7 

+5.5 
+5.5 



85 




RURAL CRIME TRENDS 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO POLICE 

1954 -- 1955 PERCENT CHANGE 



DECREASE 



INCREASE 




REPORTING AREA Sheriffs' Offices -- 1,429 State Police - 12 

Rural Villages - 145 Rural Population - 38,769,606 



F8I CHART 



Figure 11. 



86 

Monthly Variations 

People, not seasons, cause crimes. Different seasons, however, 
seem to motivate different crimes. Opportunity, social contacts, 
heat, cold and other factors have been pointed out as probables by 
students of the seasonal variations in criminal activity. 

Even though certain seasonal variations can be graphically demon- 
strated, there is no average day in the year that is crime free. In 
1955, there were 3,767 offenses daily in July in the cities studied. 
The daily average in all other months was higher. In December, 
the highest month, the daily average was only 16.6 percent above 
that for July, the low month. So, for every 100 crimes per day in 
July there were as many each day plus a few more in other months of 
the year. 

One of the most marked seasonal variations is found in the major 
crime of negligent manslaughter, the killing of another by gross 
negligence. Criminal intent is not an element of this crime; rather 
it is the criminal carelessness of people that gives rise to such a crime. 
Most of these grow out of automobile "accidents" but only those 
deaths due to the gross negligence of some person other than the 
victim are classed under this crime. 

Unlike the other crimes against the person (murder, rape, and 
aggravated assault), negligent manslaughter is at its low during the 
warm months of the year but rises to a tremendous peak in December. 
Hazardous traffic conditions, including increased darkness, confront 
drivers in the month of December. Such crimes might be expected 
to continue into January but there is always a sharp drop in that 
month from the December peak. 

Murder (including nonnegligent manslaughter) is generally a 
warm-weather crime. The months of July, August, and September 
had the highest average number of offenses in 1955. The high for 
the year, however, did not occur during that quarter. December 
was the high month for murder for the year 1955. Similar upswings 
in recent years in the curve for murder occurred in 1950, 1951, and 
1952, but only in 1951 was December the high month for the year. 

Rape and aggravated assault, the other two crimes against the 
person, appear definitely as warm-weather crimes. In 1955, their 
high was in the third quarter (July, August, and September). The 
graphs for these crimes appear very similar to those for previous 
years. 

Of the crimes against property, robbery and burglary present the 
most perfect picture of crimes which occur most frequently during 
the darker and colder months of the year, high during the first and 
last quarters, and low during the second and third quarters. Of the 
two remaining property crimes (auto theft and larceny), auto theft 



87 



MONTHLY VARIATIONS 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO POLICE, 1955 



2,643 URBAN POLICE AGENCIES 
TOTAL POPULATION 80,350,125 



OFFENSES AGAINST THE PERSON 



*= a «j 



= «£•-: 



+ 50"; 
+ 40",; I 



MURDER 



10", 

- 20- r ; 

- 30"; 

- «%r 

-a* 



zze*: 




+ 40% 
+ 30% 
+ 20% 
+ 10' 



NEGLIGENT 
MANSLAUGHTER 



10% 
-20°; 
-30% 
-40% 
-50% 





Figure 12. 



88 

shows a strong upsurge from September to the end of the year with 
December the high month. Auto theft, however, drops back to 
below average in January and reaches its low during June and Jul} 7 . 
The curve for auto theft is fairly consistent from year to year. Lar- 
ceny reached its peak in the last quarter of 1955 although its low 
for the year was in January. It went above average in April and 
then dropped back until the start of the strong rise in the latter part 
of the year. 

Table 29 and the accompanying graphs present details from 2,643 
cities. 

Table 29.— MONTHLY VARIATIONS, URBAN COMMUNITIES, 1955 

[Daily average, offenses known to the police in 2,043 cities, total population 80,350,125, based on 1950 decen- 
nial census] 



Month 



January-December 

January-March. . . 

April-June 

July-September... 
October-December 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June.— 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November. 

December 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



10.4 



9.3 
10.1 
11.2 

10.8 



9.4 
9.6 
9.0 

10.1 

10.9 
9.2 
11.4 
10.6 

11.5 
10.0 
10.6 
11.8 



Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 



7.4 



6.7 
7.0 
6.3 
9.6 



7.0 
6.6 
6.5 
7.1 

7.0 
6.9 
6.4 

5.8 

6.6 
8.5 
8.9 
11.5 



Rape 



29.1 



27.6 
29.4 
31.9 
27.6 



26.1 
28.8 
27.9 
30.0 

29.6 
28.7 
31.4 
32.5 

31.8 
28.4 
28.3 
26.3 



Rob- 
bery 



133.5 



154. 
119.5 
116.2 
144.7 



104. 9 
156. 7 
140.5 
138.8 

112.8 
107.1 
112.5 
114.3 

122.0 
120. 4 
134.3 
173.0 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



173.6 
193.4 



170. 4 



172.8 
107.2 
180.1 
196.6 

199.4 
183.8 
203. 5 
200. 2 

192.6 
185.2 
168. 9 
174.8 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



931.1 



1, 034. 6 
888.4 
863.0 
940.2 



1,044.3 

1, 063. 6 

998.6 

964.6 

869.6 
831.5 
845.5 



857.3 

877.4 

916.5 

1,025.9 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



2. 306. 5 



2, 168. 3 
2.3(17.4 
2. 272. 8 
2, 471. 5 



2.1174.4 
2, 160. 
2, 209. 7 
2, 403. 3 

2, 216. 9 

2.3(14.9 
2, 175. 7 
2, 318. 2 

2, 320. 3 
2, 514. 8 
2, 458. 5 
2, 449. 6 



Auto 
theft 



429.1 



415.8 
399.2 
4(13.8 
497.1 



413.9 
413.0 
420. 1 
426.7 

391.1 
3S0. 
380. 8 
408. 5 

422.8 
495.8 
475. 5 
519.5 



89 



MONTHLY VARIATIONS 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO POLICE, 1955 



2,643 URBAN POLICE AGENCIES 
TOTAL POPULATION 80,350,125 



OFFENSES AGAINST PROPERTY 




Figure 13. 



380095°— 56- 



CRIME RATES 

Qualifying Factors In Interpretation And Use Of Rates 

Explanation of Rates. — A comparison of crime in two areas is of 
little value unless the differences in the makeup of the two areas can 
be eliminated for the study. The extent of the differences that may 
exist is indicated by the factors affecting the amount of crime in a 
community as discussed on page 97. A common practice is to 
consider only one factor, that of differences in population. There is 
danger in drawing conclusions based on only one factor of the many 
affecting differences in the incidence of crime. So, it is incumbent 
upon the user of any such comparative measures to use extreme 
caution. 

By expressing the number of crimes in terms of the number per 
unit of population comparative figures of certain limited application 
are obtained. The unit of population used in the crime rate tables 
in this bulletin is 100,000. In other words, crime rates are ratios of 
the number of crimes to the population. For example: 55 crimes 
in a city of 25,000 equal a crime rate per 100,000 of 220 (55 divided 
by 25,000 equals 0.0022, the crimes per one person in the population — 
to furnish an easy to use figure multiply by 100,000 to get 220, the 
number of crimes per 100,000 population). 

Population. — In converting raw figures to crime rates, the signifi- 
cance of the rates depends on the accuracy of the population figures 
used. True accuracy can be approached only once each ten years 
when the decennial census is taken. Even then the accuracy is only 
approximate. Current estimates of the population are made by the 
Bureau of the Census. These, however, cannot be utilized here 
because the estimates do not include a breakdown of urban population 
(for preparing urban crime rates) or of rural population (for preparing 
rural crime rates). Further, estimates of the current population of 
individual cities and other areas are not available for converting 
crime figures from reporting areas to crime rates. The latest decennial 
population figures for the individual areas are necessarily used. 

Use of rates. — Rates based on the latest decennial population 
figures are presented as a matter of convenience primarily for use in 
certain rough measures by police administrators. Where desired, 
rates using reliable local estimates can be constructed by using crime 1 
data for an individual city as set forth in the listing by individual 
cities of over 25,000 population in another section of this publication. 
Also, the summary rates as published here can be adjusted as desired. 

(90) 



91 

Effect of Population Changes on Crime Rates. — From the census of 
April 1, 1950, to July 1, 1955, the population of this country increased 
9.0 percent. For the individual states, the percentage changes range 
from minus 6.3 to plus 40.6. (U. S. Bureau of the Census, Current 
Population Reports, Population Estimates, Series P-25, Number 129, 
Provisional Estimates of the Population of States, July 1, 1955, 
dated January 20, 1956. For sale by the Bureau of the Census, 
Washington 25, D. C. Price 10 cents.) 

The range in the percentage changes since 1950 in smaller areas, 
such as cities, would undoubtedly reflect a much wider spread than 
that noted in the estimates for states. 

For adjusting the accompanying rate tables, where desired, the 
following example may be of assistance. The population of Nevada 
increased from 160,083 in 1950 to an estimated 225,000 as of July 1, 
1955, or 40.6 percent (source identified above). For the example, it 
is assumed that the population of the cities represented in the urban 
rates for Nevada had an increase of 40.6 percent, the same as the 
increase for the entire State (urban and rural). The population has 
increased so the rates based on the 1950 population are overstated. 
The rates are in terms of crimes per 100,000 population. To deter- 
mine the adjusted rate apply the assumed percentage increase of 
population to 100,000. One hundred thousand increased by 40.6 
percent is 140,600. Thus, the rates based on the 1950 population 
are actually the number of crimes per 140,600 inhabitants. So, reduce 
the published rates by the percentage that 100,000 is under 140,600 
or 28.9 percent (to adjust, multiply the published rates by 71.1 which 
is 100 minus 28.9). This method is about as accurate as when the 
percentage change is applied directly to the population figures and 
the rates recalculated from the raw crime figures. 

If the assumed change in the Nevada cities is applicable, the murder 
rate for Nevada in 1955, for example, was 14.4 instead of 20.2 as found 
by using the 1950 population figures. 

Urban Crime Rates 

Crime rates presented in tables 30-32 are based on the reports of 
2,643 cities with a total population of 80,350,125 (as of 1950). The 
representation by city groups and geographic distribution is shown 
in table 33. 

Urban crime rates are based on the 1950 decennial census and are 
subject to the observations set forth above. 



92 

Table 30.— URBAN CRIME RATES, 1955, BY POPULATION GROUPS 

[Offenses known to the police and rate per 100, 000 inhabitants. Population figures based on 1950 

decennial census] 



Population group 



TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

2,643 cities; total population, 
80,350,125: 
Number of offenses known,.. 
Rate per 100,000 _. 

GROUP I 

40 cities over 250,000; total popu- 
lation, 34,465,364: 
Number of offenses known. 
Rate per 100,000 

GROUP II 

64 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 9,432,863: 
Number of offenses known . . 
Rate per 100,000 

GROUP III 

128 cities. 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 9,052,062: 
Number of offenses known_ . 
Rate per 100,000 

GROUP IV 

255 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 8,977,456: 
Number of offenses known- . 
Rate per 100,000 

GROUP V 

680 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 10,470,202: 
Number of offenses known. 
Rate per 100,000 

GROUP VI 

1,476 cities under 10,000; total 
population, 7, 952, 178: 
Number of offenses known- 
Rate per 100,000 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



3,780 

4.7 



2,147 
6.2 



552 
5.9 



349 
3.9 



292 
3.3 



253 
2.4 



187 
2.4 



Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 



2,702 
3.4 



1,472 
4.3 



400 
4.2 



279 
3.1 



304 
3.4 



111 
1.4 



103 

1.3 



Rape 



10, 634 
13.2 



7,066 
20.5 



1,014 
10.7 



720 
8.0 



029 
7.0 



676 
6.5 



529 
6.7 



Rob- 
bery 



48, 732 
60.6 



35, 865 
104.1 



4, 936 
52.3 



2,797 
30.9 



2.147 
23.9 



1.876 
17.9 



1,111 
14.0 



Aggra- 
vated 



sault 



67, 736 
84.3 



43, 066 
125.0 



8,238 
87.3 



6,369 
70.4 



4, 135 
46.1 



3.721 
35.5 



2,207 
27.8 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



339. 846 
423.0 



175, 876 
510.3 



47, 909 
507. 9 



34, 177 
377.6 



31,039 
345.7 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



Auto 

theft 



841,864 156,631 
1,047.7 194.9 



368, 392 
1, 068. 9 



114, 199 

1,210.7 



101, 483 
1, 121. 1 



100. 616 
1,120.8 



31.402 101,068 
299. 9 965. 3 



19. 443 56, 106 
244. 5 7115. 5 



90, 215 
261.8 



21.H24 
222.9 



15.D26 
166.0 



12,406 

138. 2 



11. 106 

lo.S.9 



6, 554 
82. i 



93 



Table 31.— URBAN CRIME RATES, 1955, BY GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS 

AND STATES 

[Offenses known per 100,000 inhabitants. Population based on 1950 decennial census] 



Division and State 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Robbery 


. Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burg- 
lary- 
breaking 
or en- 
tering 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


TOTAL 


4.7 


60.6 


84.3 


423. 


1, 047. 7 


194.9 








1.2 


18.7 


18.0 


280.5 


660.7 


139.3 




1.2 

1.8 
1.2 

. 7 
1.4 


18.0 
9.3 

21.4 
6.6 

15.6 
7.2 

55.9 


32.4 
8.4 

14.4 
7.0 

23.1 
.9 

70.2 


292.4 
243.8 
276.7 
146.9 
376.4 
146.6 

372.7 


603.2 
652.7 
654.1 
538.3 
900.3 
472.2 

705.3 


132.0 




98.6 




158.5 




52.1 




111.7 




59.4 




3.0 


145.0 








2.1 
3.1 
3.2 

4.4 


32. 8 
65.3 
51.1 

77.1 


49.2 
80.2 
63.1 

69.9 


366.9 
401.8 
318.7 

338.6 


671.3 
789.2 
560.3 

987.6 


149.4 




144.8 




142.7 




165.1 








5.7 
4.4 
4.6 
3.7 
1.2 

3.4 


124.1 
37.1 
90.9 

51.2 
8.1 

49.2 


77.8 
36.8 
134.8 
41.6 
16.9 

53.6 


335.3 
431.0 
427.8 
297.6 
167.0 

357.4 


619.4 
1, 077. 7 
1, 479. 7 
1, 015. 4 

952.7 

1. 060. 2 


123.3 




221.9 




270.6 


Ohio - 


133.3 




99.5 


West North Central 


179.0 








1.1 
2.8 
1. 1 
7.2 
2.0 
1.8 
2.2 

9.4 


12.4 
35.3 
34.5 
100.7 
22.9 
9.1 
6.0 

59.7 


9.7 
59.5 

9.9 
123.3 
30.0 

4.2 

4.4 

206.6 


227.9 
407.9 
348.9 
467.4 
258.5 
228.1 
170.2 

528.5 


912.3 
1, 225. 8 

954.9 
1, 158. 7 
1, 038. 2 
1, 209. 2 

904.3 

1,197.2 


81.6 




131.7 




152.4 




298.1 




147.8 




102.5 




61.9 




246.1 








3.9 

12.3 

13.6 

7.6 

9.9 

10.0 

8.4 

2.6 

12.1 


48. 8 
77.0 
36.6 
80.6 
25.8 
31.5 
66.0 
28.1 

51.2 


28.3 
103.6 
193.3 
191.8 
306.2 
109.8 
239.3 

43.2 

120.3 


547.4 
881.7 
462.4 
459.4 
346.8 
488.7 
548.7 
274.7 

487.9 


1, 399. 1 
1, 659. 1 

989.2 
1, 088. 1 

919.1 
1,157.8 
1, 506. 

519.8 

805.1 


198.2 


Florida 


234.3 




208.3 




461.5 




151.7 




170.3 




272.8 




100.9 




239.5 








17. 1* 
9.4 
9.4 

10.8 

8.9 


41.6 
96.1 
14.2 
41.3 

44.0 


155.4 
143. 5 
53.0 
100.9 

103.4 


511.0 
600.4 
324.5 
452.2 

535.5 


810.2 

1, 157. 8 

618.8 

618.7 

1,314.4 


161.2 




441.5 




103.3 




212.6 


West South Central 


240.0 








7.4 
8.6 
5.2 
9.9 

4.3 


39.9 
66.4 
33.0 
41.3 

60.7 


90.7 
98.3 
55.8 
117.2 

48.6 


33S. 7 
369.1 
497.8 
606.3 

578.5 


715.8 

919.2 

1, 295. 2 

1, 479. 3 

1, 883. 4 


93.5 




332.2 




194.0 




242.6 


Mountain - 


288.8 




6.7 
4.1 
3.0 
2.8 
20.2 
4.5 
2.4 
3.8 

3.5 


91.5 
96.1 
6.9 
22.7 
147.9 
44.9 
28.1 
28.6 

93.7 


158.3 
42.9 
11.4 
29.0 
56.0 
54.3 
20.0 
19.6 

95.4 


955. 2 
653.1 
324.8 
365.6 
1, 049. 
650.6 
411.4 
284.2 

661.1 


3, 304. 8 
1, 728. 8 
1, 880. 8 
1, 708. 8 
2,813.1 
1,695.3 
1, 445. 
1, 512. 2 

1, 903. 8 


538.3 




309.0 




148.0 




170.9 




430.4 




346. 3 


Utah 


204.6 




149.3 


Pacific 


324.8 




3.7 
3.1 
2.1 


105.7 
39.9 
29.6 


109.8 
29.6 
18.8 


714.2 
412.5 
386.0 


1, 959. 1 
1,521.8 
1, 737. 3 


358.5 




130.8 




185.8 







1 Includes the report of the District of Columbia. 



94 



Table 32.— URBAN CRIME RATES, 1955, BY GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS 
AND POPULATION GROUPS 

[Offenses known per 100,000 inhabitants. Population based on 1950 decennial census] 



Division and group 



TOTAL 

New England 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Middle Atlantic 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

East North Central. 

Group I 

Group II- 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

West North Central 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

South Atlantic ' 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

East South Central. 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

West South Central 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Mountain 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Pacific 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 



Murder, 

nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 

ilaughter 



4.7 



1.2 



3.1 
1.6 



4.2 
1.5 
1.9 
1.5 
.8 
1.0 

4.4 



6.8 
5.4 
1.9 
1.1 
2.0 
1.3 

3.4 



6.3 
3.4 
2.5 
1.3 
.8 
1.3 

9.4 



9.5 
11.2 
10.2 
9.3 
6.7 
7.3 

12.1 



11.5 
19.2 
10.2 
10.1 
10.6 
5.8 



13.4 
6.7 
6.8 
8.9 
4.5 
3.9 

4.3 



5.1 
5.9 
4.6 
4.9 
2.1 
3.7 

3.5 



4.5 
3.5 
2.8 
2.8 
2.0 
1.6 



Robberv 



60. 



18.7 



57.1 
22.5 
13.7 
8.9 
7.5 
2.7 

55.9 



86.2 
19.8 
20.0 
12.5 
11.0 
9.2 

77.1 



133. 1 
56.6 
26.6 
26.1 
20.4 
12.7 

49.2 



46. 2 
16.5 
11.5 
11. 1 

8.1 

59.7 



85.5 
101.7 
38.9 
37.4 
18.6 
24.8 

51.2 



81.7 
64.6 
39.8 
19.2 
23.8 
13.4 

44.0 



68. 8 
49.4 
37.2 
25.7 
12.4 
10.0 
60.7 



152.0 

Be. s 

58.4 
40.9 
19.2 
28.8 

93.7 



134.3 
77.9 
72.7 
52.7 
43.8 
26. 4 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Burgla- 
ry- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



423.0 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



1, 047. 7 



18.0 



35.7 
32.9 
13.5 

7.6 
4.0 
5.7 

70.2 



105.4 
32.9 
36.4 
19.3 
13.2 
11.4 

69.9 



111.4 
92.0 
43.5 

20.2 
15.4 
9.7 

53.6 



109.2 

70.0 

28.3 

8.1 

9.2 

7. I 

206.6 



291. 3 
201.7 
176.4 
166.3 
166.7 
132.0 

120.3 



154.4 
99.5 
155.1 
142.5 
77.2 
43.1 

103.4 



117.2 
121.9 
164. 9 
90.8 
55.9 
38.8 

48.6 



64.0 
113.5 
41.8 
37.3 
20.8 
30.6 

95.4 



153.9 
28. 4 
50.2 
44. 1 
35.9 
27. 9 



280.5 



340. 
357. 5 
261.0 
234.5 
231.9 
181.5 

372.7 



475.0 
301 3 
287.9 
231.1 
192.3 
166.1 

338.6 



380.3 
441.7 
313.8 
283.5 
286.3 
217.4 

357.4 



513.8 
484.9 
307.9 
194.2 
226.2 
191.8 

528.5 



485.4 
805.6 
462.7 
566.9 
416.3 
338.8 

487.9 



620.3 
567. 9 
515.0 
368. 4 
346.4 
223.5 

535.5 



714.0 
657.8 
509.8 
445.1 
228.8 
215.5 

578.5 



s.Mi. s 
777.0 
596.0 
566. 
364. 4 
391.2 

661.1 



766. 4 

480. 7 
600. 

618. 2 

5S3. 9 

166. s 



660.7 



834.5 
722.9 
717.4 
591.9 
528.2 
440.5 

705.3 



794.2 
624.4 
622.3 
664.9 
552.4 
468.4 

987.6 



959.4 
1, 246. 9 
1,116.8 
1, 094. 6 
1, 033. 7 

603.6 

1,060.2 



1,251.8 
1, 388. 1 
1,187.4 
1, 070. 7 
849.1 
557.1 

1,197.2 



1, 125.3 
1,647.2 
1,110.7 
1,395.9 
951.3 
767.8 

805.1 



1, 028. 3 
771.6 
966.1 
771.8 
570.9 
352.1 

1,314.4 



1, 482. 8 
1, 674. 7 
1, 697. 8 
1, 254. 9 
779.2 
534.9 

1. 883. 4 



1, 763. 2 

2. 396. 
2,061.0 
2, 316. 5 
1. 783. 
1,352.6 

1,903.8 



1, 750. 1 

1, 843. 1 
2, 099. 8 

2, 275. 
2, 132. 6 
1,801.0 



i Includes the report of the District of Columbia. 



95 



Table 33.— NUMBER OF CITIES IN EACH POPULATION GROUP, 
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION, AND STATE REPRESENTED IN THE 
URBAN CRIME RATE TABULATIONS (TABLES 30-32) 





Total 


Population group 


Division and State 


Over 
250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less than 
10,000 


TOTAL: 

Population, 80,350,125 


2,643 


40 


64 


128 


255 


680 


1,476 


New England: 

Population, 6,507,206 


190 


1 


11 


18 


36 


66 


58 




29 
20 
99 
16 
16 
10 

556 




4 


2 
1 
11 
1 
3 


12 
2 

16 
2 
3 
1 

47 


4 
7 
43 
5 
5 
2 

142 


7 






10 


Massachusetts 

New Hampshire 


1 


6 


22 

8 




1 


4 






7 


Middle Atlantic : 

Population, 21,212,988 


7 


12 


24 


324 




160 
175 
221 

618 


2 
3 
2 

9 


4 
4 
4 

10 


8 

6 

10 

30 


17 
16 
14 

63 


43 
43 
56 

147 


86 




103 




135 


East North Central : 

Population, 18,832,980 


359 




169 
78 
116 
172 
83 

308 


1 
1 
1 
5 
1 

5 


1 
4 
2 
3 


9 
4 
7 
6 
4 

9 


13 
9 
9 

20 
12 

19 


41 
17 
33 
41 
15 

77 


104 




43 




64 


Ohio -. - 


97 




51 


West North Central: 

Population, 6,408,362 


4 


194 




69 
56 
72 
55 
28 
13 
15 

263 




1 
2 

1 


4 
1 


7 
2 
3 
4 


10 
20 
16 
17 
7 
3 
4 

62 


47 






31 




2 
2 

1 


50 




2 
1 


30 






19 






2 
1 

28 


8 








1 
20 


9 


South Atlantic : 

Population, 7,795,781 


3 


8 


142 




4 
1 
54 
32 
20 
59 
28 
44 
21 

114 




1 








3 




1 












3 

1 


2 
3 


9 
3 
2 
5 
1 
5 
3 

15 


9 
8 
7 
18 
6 
9 
5 

24 


31 




1 
1 


16 




10 






5 
3 

4 
3 

4 


31 








18 






3 


23 






10 


East South Central : 

Population, 3,242,782 


3 


5 


63 




28 
35 
22 
29 

193 


1 
1 


2 


1 
2 
1 


3 
3 
6 
3 

13 


6 
6 
6 
6 

56 


15 




23 






9 




1 
5 


3 
7 


16 


West South Central: 

Population, 5,931,235 


9 


103 




27 
20 
38 
108 

138 




1 
1 
2 
3 

2 




3 
3 

3 

4 

11 


4 

5 

15 

32 

25 


19 




1 




10 






18 




4 
1 


9 
3 


56 


Mountain : 

Population, 2,163,663 


96 




17 
29 
22 
16 
4 
15 
20 
15 

263 




1 




1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 

23 


1 
7 
6 
4 


14 




1 


1 


19 






14 










10 










3 








1 
1 


2 
1 

4 

81 


10 


Utah 




1 


16 






10 


Pacific : 

Population, 8,255,128 


6 


5 


11 


137 


California 

Oregon 

Washington 


189 
37 
37 


5 
1 


3 


11 


16 
2 
5 


63 
8 
10 


91 
26 


2 




20 



96 



Rural Crime Rates 

Crimes per 100,000 population for rural areas are shown in table 
34. The rates are based on the 1950 decennial census figures in the 
absence of current population estimates for individual rural areas. 

The extent of the possible effect of population changes in the rural 
areas of the United States since 1950 on rural crime rates prepared 
by using 1950 figures is indicated by the discussion of rates on page 
91. 

No attempt is made to present rural data by States or geographic 
divisions because the coverage in rural areas is not as broad as that 
for urban places. Reports received from rural areas may in some 
instances be limited to arrest information rather than offenses-known 
information. This is particularly true in those offense classes where 
the smallest percentage of arrests is made. When it is obvious that 
rural reports are incorrectly prepared, they are excluded from pub- 
lished figures. 

The data presented in table 34 represent a rural population of 
41,889,165 (1950 census figures). 

Table 34.— RURAL CRIME RATES, 1955 

[Offenses known and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, as reported by 1,577 sheriffs, 161 rural village officers, 
and 13 State police; total rural population 41,889,165, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Offense 



Offenses known 



Number Rate 



Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery.. 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft -- 



2,075 
2,324 
5,528 
7,308 

15, 296 
96, 485 
137, 660 
26, 307 



5.0 

5.5 

13. a 

17. I 

36.5 
230.3 
328.6 

62. S 



OFFENSES IN INDIVIDUAL AREAS 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 25,000 Inhabitants 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the period of January-December 1955, is shown in table 35. The 
compilation includes the reports received from police departments 
in cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants. Police administrators 
and other interested individuals will probably find it desirable to 
compare the crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown 
in tables 30, 31, and 32 of this publication. Similarly, they will 
doubtless desire to make comparisons with the figures for their com- 
munities for prior periods, in order to determine whether there has 
been an increase or a decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

Caution should be exercised in comparing crime data for individual 
cities because the differences in the figures may be due to a variety of 
factors. Such comparisons are not necessarily significant even though 
the figures for individual communities are converted into terms of the 
number of offenses per 100,000 inhabitants. 

The following is a list of some of the factors which affect the amount 
of crime in the community: 

Population of the city and metropolitan area adjacent thereto. 

The composition of the population with reference particularly to 
age, sex, and race. 

The economic status and activities of the population. 

Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 

The number of police employees per unit of population. 

The standards governing appointments to the police force. 

The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 

The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 

The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 

The figures presented in the following tabulation are those reported 
by the individual police departments in the cities represented without 
reducing the data to crime rates (number of offenses per 100,000 
inhabitants) . 

In considering the volume of crime committed locally, it is gener- 
ally more important to determine whether the figures for a given 
community show increases or decreases rather than to ascertain 
whether they exceed or fall short of those for some other individual 
community, and it should be remembered that the amount of crime 
committed in a community is not solely chargeable to the police 
but is rather a charge against the entire community. 

In publishing these figures the FBI acts as a service agency. The 
figures published are those submitted by the contributing agencies. 

(97) 



98 



Table 35.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, 
CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION 



1955, 



City 



Abilene, Tex... 
Abington, Pa.. 
Akron, Ohio... 
Alameda, Calif. 
Albany, Ga 



Albany, N. Y 

Albuquerque, N. Mex_ 

Alexandria, La 

Alexandria, Va 

Alhambra, Calif.. 



Aliquippa, Pa. 
Allentown, Pa- 
Alliance. Ohio. 

Alton, 111 _. 

Altoona, Pa 



Amarillo, Tex 

Amsterdam, N. Y. 

Anderson, Ind 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Anniston, Ala 



Appleton, Wis... 
Arlington, Mass. 

Arlington, Va 

Asheville, N. C. 
Ashland, Ky 



Athens, Ga 

Atlanta, Ga 

Atlantic City, N. J. 

Auburn, N. Y 

Augusta, Ga 



Aurora, 111 

Austin, Tex 

Bakersfleld, Calif- 
Baltimore, Md... 
Bangor, Maine 



Barberton, Ohio 

Baton Rouge, La 

Battle Creek, Mich. 

Bay City, Mich 

Bayonne, N. J 



Beaumont, Tex 

Belleville, 111 

Belleville, N.J 

Bellingham, Wash. 
Belmont, Mass 



Beloit, Wis 

Berkeley, Calif. 

Berwyn, 111 

Bessemer, Ala.. 
Bethlehem, Pa. 



Beverly, Mass 

Beverly Hills, Calif. 

Billings, Mont 

Biloxi, Miss 

Binghamton, N. Y_. 



Hirmingham, Ala. 
Bloom field, N. J.. 
Bloomington, 111. - 
Bloomington, Ind. 
Boise, Idaho 



Boston, Mass 

Bremerton, Wash. 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Bristol, Conn 

Brockton, Mass... 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



5 

2 

262 

11 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



180 

28 



12 

25 

39 

903 

2 

6 
35 
9 
5 
6 

29 

1 
4 
2 
3 



184 
2 
16 
7 
2 

458 

3 

39 

1 
9 



62 

6 

264 

4 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



132 

120 

1,165 

90 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



M 



Only 1 month received 



582 
52 



Under 
$50 



Only 1 month received 



61 

765 

110 

1 

224 

20 

318 

17 

2,153 

3 

10 
95 
24 

5 
22 

323 



2 

42 

1 

159 

2 



510 
1 



1 

5 

286 



6 so 
92 



5'. tn 



23 


33 


267 


91 


390 


65 


45 


727 


391 


1,536 


10 


102 


198 


48 


388 


34 


188 


434 


214 


1,066 


17 


14 


233 


198 


616 


10 


27 


39 


42 


112 


11 


9 


226 


229 


596 


11 


1 


92 


23 


201 


5 


5 


112 


38 


444 


3 


2 


99 


33 


87 


36 


83 


442 


365 


1,661 


1 
9 




17 
128 


26 

49 


64 
471 


17 


4 


15 


111 


169 


436 


15 


135 


162 


84 


307 


1 


2 


78 


17 


450 


3 

26 




85 
383 


35 
333 


72 
1,166 


77 


20 


64 


142 


203 


407 



45 


26 


77 


2,318 


1,323 


4,281 


543 


399 


429 


23 


25 


92 


209 


87 


212 


106 


90 


335 


642 


224 


2,220 


367 


302 


1,012 


4,630 


3,486 


7,093 


80 


42 


190 


76 


22 


254 


559 


353 


839 


194 


66 


493 


190 


50 


572 


135 


160 


345 


430 


229 


1,184 


79 


64 


146 


67 


22 


68 


77 


111 


138 


73 


38 


99 


67 


37 


261 


555 


135 


1,324 


159 


72 


134 


145 


28 


161 


117 


122 


271 


29 


32 


117 


75 


74 


68 


185 


219 


804 


116 


69 


246 


174 


98 


468 


2, 051 


999 


2,443 


58 


32 


112 


139 


85 


313 


139 


80 


328 


137 


122 


700 


2,725 


2,143 


4,545 


82 


68 


4s:i 


335 


321 


663 


58 


40 


87 


322 


117 


439 



99 



Table 35.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, 
CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



1955, 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Brookline, Mass.. 
Brownsville, Tex. 
Buffalo, N. Y._-_ 
Burbank, Calif... 
Burlington, Iowa. 



Burlington, Vt 

Butte, Mont...--- 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 



Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

Champaign, 111 . 

Charleston, S. C 

Charleston, W. Va_. 
Charlotte, N. C..__. 



Charlottesville, Va.. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chester, Pa 

Cheyenne, Wyo 



Chicago, 111 

Chicopee, Mass 

Cicero, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio... 
Clarksburg, W. Va. 



Cleveland, Ohio 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio. 

Clifton, N.J.--. .--- 

Clinton, Iowa 

Colorado Springs, Colo... 



Columbia, Mo... 
Columbia, S. C. 
Columbus, Ga... 
Columbus, Ohio. 
Compton, Calif.. 



Concord, N. H 

Corpus Christi, Tex.. 
Council Bluffs, Iowa- 
Covington, Ky 

Cranston, R. I 



Cumberland, Md 

Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. 

Dallas, Tex 

Danville, 111 

Danville, Va 



Davenport, Iowa 

Dayton, Ohio 

Daytona Beach, Fla. 

Dearborn, Mich 

Decatur, 111 



Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa. 

Detroit, Mich 

Dubuque, Iowa... 
Duluth, Minn 



Durham, N. C 

East Chicago, Ind 

East Cleveland, Ohio. 
East Hartford, Conn.. 
Easton, Pa 



292 



1 
27 
2 
2 
1 

21 
1 

140 



6 
152 
38 



19 

46 

6 

6,725 

8 

69 

220 

20 

802 
9 
10 
1 
10 



23 

18 
365 



4 

298 

19 

11 

16 
119 
16 
45 
21 

632 

47 

2,905 

3 

21 

12 

33 

6 

1 

1 



13 

221 
17 



2 
11 

77 

79 

597 

32 

145 

3 

86 

4 

4,053 

7 

58 

380 



87 
50 
81 
106 

2 

345 

3 

97 

4 

2 

4 

992 



4 

284 

49 

22 

5 

266 

45 

4.011 

4 



357 

27 

2 

2 

1 



157 
208 
1,199 
289 
38 

64 
128 
199 
664 
367 

143 
87 
597 
220 
1,012 

59 
757 

94 
194 

91 

13, 236 

40 

251 

1,260 

97 

1,759 
111 
145 
46 
160 

42 

361 

407 

2.404 

630 

23 
944 

83 
308 
201 

39 
70 
3,656 
160 
107 

255 
796 
282 
471 
345 

3,575 
747 

9,365 

52 

234 

134 
186 

51 
102 

54 



(') 



413 

213 

15 

50 
145 
253 
155 
218 

152 

101 
296 
) 
402 

47 
106 

65 
140 

75 



9,013 

70 

150 

1,079 
24 

1,145 
28 
64 
47 
130 

25 
336 
176 

1,540 
301 

30 
312 

74 
144 
111 

33 

57 
820 

77 
124 

137 
377 
132 
349 
92 

1,937 
543 

3,123 
48 
221 

143 
195 
26 
82 
29 



197 
467 
1,452 
834 
237 

249 

388 
258 
255 
801 

837 
307 

1,165 
521 

1,709 

158 
343 
129 
255 
774 

8,779 
207 
258 

3,030 
30 

11, 182 
241 
287 
336 
613 

227 
1,065 

513 
3,660 
1,120 

145 
1,585 
468 
477 
310 

101 
220 

8,400 
240 
451 

863 
1,935 

490 
2,386 

608 

5,394 

1,668 

24,158 

284 

923 

577 
456 
323 
178 
146 



See footnote at end of table. 



Table 35. 



100 



-NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, 1955, 
CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and Under 
over $50 



East Orange, N. J 

East Providence, R. I. 

East St. Louis, 111 

Eau Claire, Wis.. 

Elgin, 111 



Elizabeth, N. J. 
Elkhart, Ind... 
Elmira, N. Y... 
El Paso, Tex... 
Elyria, Ohio 



Enid, Okla.... 
Erie, Pa 

Euclid, Ohio.. 
Eugene, Oreg. 
Evanston, 111. 



Evansville, Ind... 

Everett, Mass 

Everett, Wash 

Fairmont, W. Va. 
Fall River, Mass.. 



Fargo, N. Dak 

Fayette ville, N. C. 

Ferndale, Mich 

Fitchburg, Mass... 
Flint, Mich 



Fond du Lac, Wis 

Fort Dodge, Iowa 

Fort Lauderdale, Fla_ 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Fort Wayne, Ind 



Fort Worth, Tex.... 
Framingham, Mass. 

Fresno, Calif 

Gadsden, Ala 

Gainesville, Fla 



Galesburg, 111... 
Galveston, Tex. 
Garfield, N. J... 

Garv, Ind 

Glendale, Calif. 



Gloucester, Mass 

Grand Forks, N. Dak. 
Grand Rapids, Mich.. 

Granite City, 111 

Great Falls, Mont 



Green Bay, Wis... 
Greensboro, N. C. 
Greenville, Miss. . 
Greenville, 8. C... 
Greenwich, Conn. 



Hackensack, N. J. 
Hagerstown, Md_. 
Hamilton, N. .T. .. 
Hamilton, Ohio... 
Hammond, Ind... 



Hampton, Va 

Ilamtramck, Mich. 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Hartlord, Conn 

Hattlesburg, Miss.. 



Haverford, Pa 

Haverhill, Mass... 
Hay ward, Calif... 

Hazk'ton, Pa 

Hempstead, N. Y. 



34 
10 
28 

185 
2 

114 
4 
2 

1 
49 

o 
130 
38 

1 
4 
54 
11 



12 271 131 

4 117 | 104 

Only 1 month received 

1 
7 

40 

1 

3 
56 

2 

4 
53 

1 

8 
55 



No reports received 



No reports received 
25 
63 
16 

109 



83 
63 
40 

1 

169 

1 

260 

11 



2 

125 



5 
38 
17 

61 
65 
24 

1SI 

35 



419 
224 



77 


45 


201 


65 


30 


132 


333 


227 


564 


66 


94 


204 


137 


132 


358 


917 


550 


2,209 


75 


37 


150 


87 


46 


338 


381 


151 


804 


53 


26 


405 


137 


230 


562 


191 


260 


651 


789 


319 


1,381 


66 


28 


127 


165 


86 


630 



10 


13 


227 


179 


507 


3 

38 

9 

3 

189 




86 
251 
124 
158 
942 


58 
25 
73 

77 
1.247 


475 
684 
277 
354 
2,486 


156 
4 


559 


2 


1 


52 


29 


431 



370 


282 


912 


225 


92 


273 


436 


237 


992 


2,440 


443 


3,901 


40 


60 


69 


718 


587 


1, 342 


165 


57 


236 


83 


85 


362 


40 


34 


160 


481 


458 


525 


54 


52 


145 


936 


544 


1,426 


422 


242 


1,155 


34 


34 


63 


83 


42 


537 


796 


298 


1.860 


208 


20 


264 


151 


134 


507 


129 


55 


205 


274 


214 


5X4 


152 


104 


235 


376 


209 


470 


42 


45 


112 


86 


64 


202 


196 


62 


360 


145 


108 


312 


219 


148 


525 


401 


392 


960 


264 


241 


584 


105 


192 


292 


401 


186 


490 


933 


322 


965 


78 


20 


90 


48 


51 


187 


106 


41 


38 


96 


85 


282 


23 


14 


60 


162 


141 


169 



101 



Table 35.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, 1955, 
CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Highland Park, Mich.. 

High Point, N. C 

Hoboken, N. J 

Holyoke, Mass 

Honolulu City, Hawaii . 



Hot Springs, Ark 

Houston, Tex 

Huntington, W. Va 

Huntington Park, Calif. 
Hutchinson, Kans 



Independence, Mo. 
Indianapolis, Ind. . 
Inglewood, Calif.. . 
Iowa City, Iowa... 
Irondequoit, N. Y_ 



Irvington, N. J. 
Ithaca, N. Y„_ 
Jackson, Mich.. 
Jackson, Miss_. 
Jackson, Term.. 



Jacksonville, Fla 

Jamestown, N. Y 

Jefferson City, Mo.. 

Jersey City, N. J 

Johnson City, Tenn. 



Johnstown, Pa 

Joliet, 111 

Joplin, Mo 

Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Kankakee, 111 



Kannapolis, N. C 
Kansas City, Kans. 
Kansas City, Mo... 

Kearny, N. J 

Kenosha, Wis 



Kettering, Ohio.. 
Key West, Fla... 
Kingston, N. Y._ 
Knoxville, Tenn. 
Kokomo, Ind 



Lackawanna, N. Y_ 

La Crosse, Wis 

La Fayette, Ind 

Lafayette, La 

La Grange, Ga 



Lake Charles, La- 
Lakeland, Fla 

Lakewood, Ohio.. 

Lancaster, Pa 

Lansing, Mich 



Laredo, Tex 

Laurel, Miss 

Lawrence, Mass. 

Lawtoti, Okla 

Lebanon, Pa 



Lewiston, Maine 

Lexington, Ky 

Lima, Ohio 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Lincoln Park, Mich. 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Linden, N. J 

Little Rock, Ark 

Lockport, N. Y 

Long Beach, Calif 

Lorain, Ohio 

See footnote at end of table. 



Robbery 



58 
5 

16 
2 

41 

10 

367 

26 

32 

7 

1 

258 

29 

4 

2 

12 
2 
4 

15 
4 

239 

1 

1 

61 

6 

7 
21 
10 
12 



3 

107 
270 

1 
5 

6 
10 

1 
55 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



13 

1 



1 
97 

1 

335 

20 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



37 
71 
51 
5 
28 

1 

177 

87 

11 

6 



290 

23 

3 

1 

1 

2 

35 

55 

6 

81 
2 



142 
12 

3 

24 
4 

18 
2 

96 
72 

270 
1 
2 

3 
13 

110 



205 
122 
178 
144 
1,664 

148 

5,339 

256 

291 

106 

58 

2,498 

410 

28 

86 

257 
40 
141 
418 
119 

1.651 

61 

33 

810 

140 

115 
57 
105 
159 
71 

40 
684 
988 

53 
106 

52 

50 

69 

510 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



275 
68 
90 

126 

674 

54 

1,706 

126 

213 

38 

74 

1,538 

389 

48 

30 

121 
63 
119 

81 
62 

1,164 
31 
17 

241 
20 

64 
70 
111 
169 
28 

26 

367 

963 

53 

63 

31 
61 
37 
219 



Only 1 month received 

21 i 102 
I 85 

5 101 

Onlv 1 month received 
2 



50 

29 

3 

36 

Only 1 month received 



2 
210 
109 

75 



63 

520 
236 
323 



No reports received 



5 

93 

7 

244 

46 



135 

525 

55 

2,312 

157 



(') 



47 

464 

24 



101 


37 


191 


94 


124 


102 


137 


48 


146 


104 


243 


145 


80 


58 


133 


44 


152 


59 


196 


51 



Under 



614 
235 
145 
444 
3,005 

199 
6,587 
355 
701 
294 

168 
3,037 
863 
186 
132 

327 
198 
508 
570 
208 

2,712 
153 

90 
620 
112 

197 
169 
309 
859 
311 

100 
1,117 
2,450 

168 

447 

122 
97 
97 

271 



125 
476 
490 

167 

134 
163 
313 
499 
876 

176 
152 
294 
443 



38 


205 


289 


793 


197 


414 


190 


1,456 



195 
1,009 

101 
3,222 

383 



23 

156 

25 

1, 193 

52 



102 



Table 35. 



-NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, 1955, 
CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Los Angeles, Calif- 
Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lower Merion, Pa. 
Lubbock, Tex 



Lynchburg, Va. 

Lynn, Mass 

Lynwood, Calif. 

Macon, Ga 

Madison, Wis... 



Maiden, Mass 

Manchester, N. H. 
Manitowoc, Wis... 

Mansfield, Ohio 

Maplewood, N. J.. 



Marion, Ind 

Marion, Ohio 

Mason City, Iowa. 

Massillon, Ohio 

Maywood, 111 



McKeesport, Pa. 
Medford, Mass. _ 

Melrose, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn. 
Meriden, Conn.. 



Meridian, Miss 

Miami, Fla. 

Miami Beach, Fla. . 
Michigan City, Ind. 
Middletown, Conn. 

Middletown, Ohio.. 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

Mishawaka, Ind 

Mobile, Ala 



Moline, 111 

Monroe, La 

Montclair, N. J 

Montgomery, Ala 

Morgantown, W. Va_. 

Mount Lebanon, Pa.. 
Mount Vernon, N. Y. 

Muncie, Ind 

Muskegon, Mich 

Muskogee, Okla 



Nashua, N. H 

Nashville, Tenn. . 
New Albany, Ind. 

Newark, N.J 

Newark, Ohio 



New Bedford, Mass... 
New Britain, Conn... 
New Brunswick, N. J. 

Newburgh, N. Y 

Nei7 Castle, Pa 



New Haven, Conn... 
New Kensington, Pa. 
New London, Conn.. 

New Orleans, La 

Newport, Ky 



Newport, P. I. _ 

Newport News, Va. . 
New Kochelle, N. V. 

Newton, Mass 

New York, N. Y 



28 



1 

300 



3,049 

583 

13 

5 

52 

10 
28 
21 
28 
4 

14 
7 
2 

26 
3 



20 

9 

1 

125 

7 

4 
430 

54 
5 



6 

93 

306 

4 



12 
14 
13 
11 

1 
139 

3 
569 

4 

14 
12 
9 

7 
10 



5 

546 

10 

1 

46 

11 

9 

7,133 



4,639 

544 

76 

4 



631 
5 

49 

450 

11 



12 

257 



2 

an 



5 
4 

112 



12 
2 

2 

91 

3 

652 

1 

20 
20 
18 
3 
1 

47 

11 

4 

610 



4 

121 

21 

4 

,679 



17, 184 

2,863 

186 

146 



148 
362 
190 
506 
237 

72 
83 
51 
182 
21 



102 
51 
72 
62 

118 
108 

46 
1,853 

95 

105 
3,352 
1,143 

113 
50 

117 

786 

2,546 

64 

936 



143 
123 
592 
33 

13 
146 
246 
228 
105 

51 

985 

74 

3,692 

90 

555 
146 
100 
93 
109 

659 
29 

103 

2,137 

93 

116 

165 

255 

88, 963 



12, 873 

2,534 

68 

149 

466 

37 
234 
189 
183 
198 

67 
72 
40 
89 
26 

41 
87 
38 
7 
63 

87 
71 
21 
828 
14 

114 
1,408 
764 
93 
54 

85 
1,386 
1,282 

65 
209 

65 
48 
72 
279 
27 

15 
148 
127 
137 

54 

34 
754 
87 
1,562 
63 

251 
164 
21 
88 



256 

12 

52 

1,908 

57 

78 

405 

171 

ISO 

41,966 



24, 117 

3,156 

448 

320 

1,878 

340 
792 
419 
647 
854 

266 
376 
170 
364 
38 

290 
344 
191 
290 
99 

304 
276 
129 
1,260 
154 

238 

3,459 

1,111 

375 

125 

344 

5,182 

4, 061 

266 

935 

345 
335 
163 
532 

71 

34 
226 
795 
530 
302 

187 
1,488 

368 
3,820 

360 

951 
311 
346 

207 
151 

838 

41 

205 

3,724 

125 

373 

1.052 

270 

459 

27,824 



103 

Table 35.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, 1955, 
CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Niagara Falls, N. Y_. 

Norfolk, Va 

Gorman, Okla 

Norristown, Pa. 

Northampton, Mass. 



North Bergen, N. J 

North Little Rock, Ark. 

Norwalk, Conn 

Norwich, Conn 

Morwood, Ohio 



Nutley, N. J 

Oakland, Calif... 

Dak Park, 111 

Dak Ridge, Tenn. 
Odessa, Tex 



Dgden, Utah 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha, Nebr 

Orange, N. J 

Orlando, FH 



Oshkosh, Wis... 
Ottumwa, Iowa. 
Owensboro, Ky. 
Padueah, Ky... 
Palo Alto, Calif. 



Panama City, Fla... 
Parkersburg, W. Va. 

Parma, Ohio 

Pasadena. Calif 

Passaic, N. J 



Paterson, N. J 

Pawtucket, R. I 

Pensaeola, Fla 

Peoria, 111 

Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Petersbi :g, Va 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Phoenix, Ariz 

Pine Bluff, Ark 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

jPittsfield, Mass 

qPlainfield, N. J 

Pocatello, Idaho 

Pomona, Calif 

Pontiac, Mich 



Port Arthur, Tex.. 
Port Huron, Mich. 
Portland Maine.... 

Portland, Oreg 

Portsmouth, Ohio. 



Portsmouth, Va 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Providence, R. I 

Provo, Utah 

Pueblo, Colo... 



Quincy, 111 

Quincy, Mass 

Racine, Wis 

Raleigh, N. C 

Rapid City, S. Dak. 



Reading, Pa 

Redondo Beach, Calif- 
Redwood City, Calif.. 

Reno, Nev 

Revere, Mass 



Robbery 



3 
126 
13 

3 

28 



23 

286 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



547 

15 

1 

11 

29 
130 
89 
17 
21 



5 
4 
19 

7 

2 
2 
3 

70 
15 

50 
7 
14 
98 
10 

29 

1,925 

130 

15 

681 



4 
15 
19 

3 
1 
15 

223 
40 

53 
4 

79 
1 

33 

10 
6 
8 

12 
5 

24 
23 
4 
57 
18 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



51 231 258 

1,223 1,652 1.490 

Onlv 6 months received 

10 I 53 I 37 

2 25 23 

Only 6 months received 
No reports received 



Under 
$50 



124 
70 
96 



116 
51 
58 



Xo reports received 



397 

1 

21 

50 

27 
162 
77 
26 
144 



22 
29 

156 
7 

82 
112 

22 

162 

,703 

285 

24 

482 



11 
4 
12 
52 

22 

6 
12 
140 
10 

366 
26 
123 



2,909 
109 
34 
222 

193 
1.925 
681 
102 
433 

107 
30 
114 
217 
92 

108 
84 
46 
640 
214 

601 
248 
314 
653 
63 



\ 



252 
9,054 
1,265 

127 
3,545 



479 
69 
23 

137 

138 

1,504 

198 

01 

233 

54 

9 

112 

75 

110 

66 
93 
25 
442 
110 

65 
175 
124 
207 
126 

85 

5,339 

717 

15 

1,503 



7 

3 

17 

324 

4 

5 
14 

5 
21 

2 



81 


53 


128 


124 


93 


80 


201 


101 


278 


197 


46 


26 


113 


37 


269 


133 


1,896 


1,589 


211 


193 


418 


273 


80 


85 


1,285 


719 


77 


30 


319 


290 


136 


71 


300 


107 


181 


71 


251 


134 


39 


67 


218 


145 


399 


63 


106 


113 


377 


336 


138 


64 



487 
2,723 



223 
95 
162 



7,623 
229 
149 

1,118 

1.000 

3,099 

1,997 

168 

481 

559 
181 
390 
194 
378 

105 
164 
124 
1.520 
152 

645 
450 
787 
1,224 
259 

568 

7,704 

3,389 

75 

2,291 

240 
302 
398 
509 

761 

183 
532 
598 
4,323 
487 

674 
358 
2,124 
544 
961 

310 
626 
747 
567 
253 

540 
687 
562 
521 
232 



Auto 
theft 



104 

Table 35.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, 1955. 
CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 

$50 



Richmond, Calif. 
Richmond, Ind_. 
Richmond, Va ._ 
, Riverside, Calif. . 
Roanoke, Va 



Rochester, Minn 

Rochester, N. Y 

Rockford, 111... 

Rock Island, 111 

Rocky Mount, N. C. 



Rome, Oa 

Rome, N. Y 

Roswell, N. Mex__ 
Royal Oak, Mich- 
Sacramento, Calif. 



Saginaw, Mich... 
St. Cloud, Minn. 
St. Joseph, Mo.- 
St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn... 



St. Petersburg, Fla.... 

Salem, Mass 

Salem, Oreg 

Salina, Kans 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 



San Angelo, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Bernardino, Calif. 

San Diego, Calif 

Sandusky, Ohio 



San Francisco, Calif. 

San Jose, Calif 

San Leandro, Calif... 

San Mateo, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif 



Santa Barbara, Calif. 
Santa Fe, N. Mex_... 
Santa Monica, Calif.. 

Savannah, Ga 

Schenectady, N. Y... 



Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Shaker Heights, Ohio. 

Sharon, Pa 

Sheboygan, Wis 



Shreveport, La 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 

Somerville, Mass 

South Bend, Ind_... 



South Gate, Calif. 
Spartanburg, S. C. 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, 111 

Springfield, Mass.. 



Springfield, Mo 

Springfield, Ohio 

Stamford, Conn 

Steubenville, Ohio. .. 
Stockton, Calif 



Stratford. Conn. 

Superior, Wis 

Syracuse, N. Y. . 
Tacoma, Wash . 
Tallahassee, Fla. 



55 
13 
216 
17 
23 

2 
76 
10 
20 

4 



1 

15 

215 

22 



5 

1,677 

154 

23 

5 

5 

60 



179 

34 

206 

2 

1,131 
74 
18 
14 
24 

16 

5 

70 

104 



7 
384 



17 
19 
19 
126 



10 
320 
32 
75 

1 
76 
36 

8 
68 

66 
..... 

"65' 
206 



15 

2,136 

36 



443 
124 
1,790 
252 
294 

50 
1,118 
271 
130 
167 

145 
63 
72 

212 

787 

231 
40 

108 
6,630 
1,473 



167 
120 
847 
228 
203 

48 
497 
133 
156 

74 



40 

53 

80 

883 

153 

39 

64 

2,853 

544 



38 520 

No reports received 
6 
18 
43 

15 
795 

46 
192 

34 

682 

32 

3 

10 
24 

46 
12 
50 

581 
4 

22 
152 



2 
11 
18 
Only 6 months received 



1,943 
199 

3,484 
841 



377 
2,383 
730 
459 
277 

65 

135 

33 

675 

2,730 

1,394 

349 

403 

12,046 

3,620 

813 



133 


90 


453 


67 


47 


416 


980 


741 


2,076 


205 


61 


338 


2,797 


1,179 


5,353 


558 


362 


1,226 


1, 361 


1,804 


3,753 


61 


53 


303 


5,637 


1,788 


10,000 


620 


477 


2,397 


209 


160 


699 


118 


182 


688 


410 


189 


1,018 


234 


111 


786 


223 


139 


483 


578 


703 


1,207 


561 


430 


729 


175 


112 


197 


521 


71 


490 


3,198 


1,472 


5,349 


40 


40 


331 


73 


46 


81 


51 


47 


193 


278 


273 


948 


251 


142 


878 


118 


92 


462 


318 


280 


444 


412 


284 


1,226 


383 


362 


796 


186 


85 


357 


666 


301 


2,747 


247 


117 


803 


335 


114 


678 


263 


116 


436 


203 


77 


581 


236 


258 


478 


136 


89 


204 


666 


577 


1,460 


74 


74 


181 


85 


18 


373 


543 


486 


1,641 


551 


479 


1, 644 



105 

Table 35.— NUMBER OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE, 1955, 
CITIES OVER 25,000 IN POPULATION— Continued 



City 



Tampa, Fla 

Taunton, Mass... 

Teaneck, N. J 

Temple, Tex 

Terre Flaute, Ind. 



Toledo, Ohio 

Topeka, Kans 

Torrington, Conn. 

Trenton, N. J 

Trov, N. Y 



Tucson, Ariz 

Tulsa, Okla 

Tuscaloosa, Ala. 

Tyler, Tex 

Union, N. J 



Union City, N. J 

University City, Mo. 

Upper Darby, Pa 

Utica, N. Y 

Vallejo, Calif 



Valley Stream, N. Y. 

Vancouver, Wa~h 

Vickshurg, Miss 

Waco, Tex 

Waltham, Mass 

Warren, Ohio 

Warwick, R. I 

Washington, D. C... 

Washington, Pa 

Waterbury, Conn 



Waterloo, Iowa.. . 
Watertown, Mass. 
Watertown, N. Y. 

Waukegan, 111 

Wausau, Wis 



Wauwatosa, Wis 

West Allis, Wis 

West Hartford, Conn. 
West Haven, Conn. _ . 
West Xew York, N. J. 



West Orange, N. J 

West Palm Beach, Fla. 

Wevmouth, Mass 

Wheeling, W. Va 

White Plains, N. Y 



Wichita, Kans 

Wichita Falls, Tex.... 

Wilkes Barre, Pa 

Wilkinsburg, Pa 

Williamsport, Pa 

Wilmington, Del 

Wilmington, N. C 

Winona, Minn 

Winston-Salem, N. C. 
Woodbridge, N. J 

Woonsocket, R. I 

Worcester, Mass 

Wyandotte, Mich 

Yakima, Wash 

Yonkers, N. Y 

York, Pa 

Youngstown, Ohio 

Zanesville, Ohio . .. __. 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



133 
3 

7 
18 
27 

227 
37 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



784 
2 
6 

12 
3 



194 

12 

1 

46 



286 
62 
3 
59 
18 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



1,799 
185 
103 
116 
334 

1,400 

475 

34 

606 

152 



54 530 208 

181 1, 232 885 

118 131 

Complete data not received 2 

6 128 79 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



613 
38 
70 
44 

117 

1,013 
160 

25 

276 

69 



Under 
$50 



16 



210 
3 



3,441 
6' 



242 
171 
207 
218 
135 

99 
111 

41 
534 
139 

159 

206 

3,649 

29 

272 

131 

123 

137 

92 

70 

61 

48 

92 

138 



0) 



46 
203 
83 
83 
104 

87 
91 

199 

72 

113 
191 
1,708 
41 
139 

83 
57 
63 
84 
30 

60 
64 
20 

47 



Complete data not received 2 



s 




13 


59 


2 


24 


8 


12 


10 


34 


93 


280 


21 


61 


7 


7 


5 


7 


3 


1 


62 


33 


17 


274 


3 




36 


138 


9 


4 


1 


7 


27 


17 


6 


2 


17 


20 


23 


42 


20 


18 


94 


27 


8 


4 



56 
205 

16 
104 
142 

1,149 
446 

155 
107 
96 

658 
268 

38 
476 

96 

125 
830 
82 
218 
203 

238 
480 
178 



61 
106 
39 
57 
182 

544 
242 
83 
22 
86 

382 
133 
42 

166 
76 

72 
287 

82 
128 

95 

92 

433 

83 



2,058 
308 
162 
340 
635 

3,038 

982 

76 

634 

72 

1,641 

1,999 

139 



129 
284 
501 
504 

547 

218 

507 

81 

1,220 

369 

307 
160 
6,676 
125 
373 

522 
136 
224 
312 
271 

281 
434 

71 
63 

150 
266 
51 
115 
304 

2,671 

1,273 

217 

184 

329 

1,234 
555 
142 
673 

144 

191 
1,105 

317 
1,138 

780 

645 
960 
346 



1 Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 

2 The crime reporting for the city indicated does not meet acceptable standards established by the Com- 
mittee on Uniform Crime Records of the International Association of Chiefs of Police. 



106 

Offenses Known in Jurisdictions Outside the United States 

Some areas that are closely related to this country but outside the 
48 states contribute crime reports under the crime reporting program. 
The figures submitted are informative and useful and are published 
in table 36. Such data, however, are not included in other summary 
tables in this bulletin. 

During 1955, complete sets of reports were received from law 
enforcement agencies in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii and the Isthmus of 
Panama. 

Table 36.— OFFENSES KNOWN IN JURISDICTIONS OUTSIDE THE 
UNITED STATES, 1955 



Jurisdiction reporting 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 

glary— 
breaking 

or 
entering 



Larceny — theft 



Over 

$50 



Under 
$50 



Auto 
theft 



Alaska: 

Department of Territorial Police 

(Juneau) 

First judicial division (Juneau) 

Guam: Agana_ 

Hawaii: 

Hawaii County --- 

Honolulu City 

Honolulu County 

Kauai County 

Maui County 

Isthmus of Panama: Canal Zone 



163 

10 

172 

146 
1,664 
471 
67 
147 
189 



233 

5 

101 

27 

674 

214 

9 

15 

69 



150 

2 

92 

266 
3,005 
1,031 
192 
360 
848 



287 
3 



9 
319 
83 

7 
15 
20 



SUPPLEMENTAL CRIME DATA 

Source 

Five of the seven major classes are analyzed under this program. 
This is done by police in cities of over 25,000 inhabitants with the 
ise of a report that supplements the basic count of total crimes by 
;lass. These breakdowns for rape, robbery, burglary, larceny, and 
luto theft plus property value data are in tables 37-39. 

To compare crime breakdowns in the same cities for 1954 and 1955, 
;able 37 is limited to 433 cities (over 25,000 — combined population, 
j>7.4 million). Valuation information for 1955 is from fewer cities, 
is shown in tables 38 and 39. 

Trends 

Trends in table 37 are from 433 cities but may be used as an indi- 
bation of the average police experience for the entire country. Also, 
(percent distributions made from table 37 can be applied to other 
Studies, as a matter of interest. (See text about estimated crime 
totals shown in table 24.) 

Rape. — Forcible rapes increased 21.3 percent while statutory crimes 
(victim under legal age of consent) decreased 4.6 percent. The per- 
centage of forcible rapes in this classification was 51.5 in 1954 but 
rose to 57.4 in 1955. 

Robbery. — Except for bank robberies, all types of armed and 
strong-arm robberies declined. Bank robberies increased by only 20 
offenses in the cities studied but because of a small base figure, 122 in 
1954, the percentage increase is 16.4 percent. Robberies in or on the 
premises of residences reflected the sharpest decrease, 24.7 percent. 
Robberies on streets and alleys ("highway") decreased 13.8 percent 
while places of business ("commercial houses"), other than oil sta- 
tions, chain stores and banks, had 17.4 percent fewer thefts by threat 
and violence. All places of business except banks had 15.5 percent 
fewer robberies. 

The substantial decreases in all types of robberies other than bank 
robberies leave the robbery problem about as evenly spread among 
the various points of attack as in 1954. Highway robberies consti- 
tute 51.1 percent of the problem with business houses other than 
banks the targets in 34.5 percent of the cases. The increase of 20 
bank robberies in 433 cities raised the frequency of attacks on banks 
by only one-tenth of one percent. 

Burglary. — The 5.3 percent decrease in burglaries in 433 cities was 
about equally divided between residence and nonresidence structures. 
Unlawful entries of residences for the purpose of theft or felony de- 

(107) 



108 

creased 5.0 percent and the same crimes in nonresidence structures 
decreased 5.6 percent. Residences are victimized 16.6 percent less 
frequently than nonresidences but present 41.7 percent of the burglarj 
problem with an almost unique hazard. A large percentage (75.3' 
of burglaries occur at night, as might be expected, but almost hal: 
(45.4 percent) the residence burglaries occur during the daytime 
Contrasted to the large percentage of daylight residence burglaries is 
the expected small proportion (9.8 percent) of such attacks on struc- 
tures not used as nor a part of living quarters. 

Larceny — theft. — Police itemize thefts (larcenies), other than autc 
thefts, by valuation groups and by types. Thefts of property undei 
$5 in value (including attempts) make up 15 percent of these incidents 
Almost 58 percent of the thefts involve property valued in the $5 tc 
$50 category while 27.4 percent are of property valued at $50 or more 
No significant trend appears in the analysis of thefts by value. 

Although the increase in total thefts in 433 cities was less than on( 
percent, certain distinct shifts occurred in the problem. Pocket- 
picking, purse-snatchings and thefts from autos (other than acces- 
sories) showed percentage decreases of 15.2, 13.5, and 9.0. 

There is a very thin line between a purse-snatching and a robber} 
under this system. If the purse-snatcher strikes the victim or uses 
more force than necessary to snatch the purse from the unsuspecting 
victim, then it is classed as robbery. With this close relation betweer 
purse-snatching as a theft and as a robbery in mind, it will be noted 
that if the 10,924 purse-snatchings are considered with the 43,447 
robberies reported in 433 cities, the robbery problem is potentially 
one-fourth greater than the count of robberies indicates. 

Thefts of auto accessories rose 12.2 percent but thefts of other 
articles from autos decreased 9.0 percent. The net change in thefts 
of all kinds from autos was only a 1.6 percent increase. However, 
these thefts numbered 258,230 in the reporting cities in 1955 and 
represented 40.1 percent of the theft problem. Special statutes in 
some states designating certain thefts from autos as "burglary" do 
not affect the classifying under this crime reporting system — they are 
still reported by all jurisdictions as thefts and not as burglaries. 

Shoplifting increased 4.4 percent in 1955 and accounted for the 
same percentage (4.4) of the theft problem. Such incidents are classed 
as thefts under this reporting system even though some jurisdictions 
have special statutes providing "burglary" penalties for this t} r pe of 
theft. 

Auto Thefts. — Police recovered about one car fewer per 100 stolen 
in 1955 than in 1954. The increase of 5.2 percent in auto thefts in 
433 cities was accompanied by an increase of 3.7 percent in recoveries. 
Recoveries of stolen cars reached 92.3 percent of the number reported 



109 



istolen. Cars counted stolen in 1954 or previous years but recovered 
nn 1955 are included in the 1955 recovery figures. 

Table 37.— OFFENSE ANALYSIS, TRENDS, 1954-55 

[433 cities over 25,000. Total 1950 population 57,361,704] 


Classification 


Number of offenses 


Percent 


1954 


1955 


change 


Rape: 

Total 


8,160 


8,872 


+8.7 






4,199 
3,961 


5,093 
3,779 


+21.3 
—4. 6 


Statutory 


Robbery: 

Total 




51, 189 


43, 447 


-15. 1 


Highway 




25, 763 
14, 342 
2,144 
1,267 
4,738 
122 
2,813 


22, 199 
11,848 
1,971 
1,189 
3,566 
142 
2,532 


— 13.8 




— 17 4 




—8 1 


Chain store 


-6.2 
—24 7 


Bank 


+16.4 




— 10.0 


Burglary — breaking or entering: 

Total 




285,246 


269, 998 


-5.3 






Residence (dwelling): 

Night 


63, 194 
55, 409 

150, 347 
16, 296 


61, 449 
51, 193 

141,936 
15,420 


-2.8 


Day 


—7.6 


Nonresidence (store, office, etc.): 

Nieht 


-5.6 


Day 


—5.4 






Larceny — theft (except auto theft, by value) : 

Total 


638, 302 


643, 520 


+.8 








177,934 

364, 160 

96,208 


176,049 
371,163 
96, 308 


— 1. 1 


$5 to $50 


+1.9 


Under $5 


+. 1 






larceny — theft (by type) : 

Total 


638, 302 


643, 520 


+.8 






Pocket-picking . _. 


8,050 
12, 622 
27, 074 
127,658 
126, 603 
107, 625 
228, 670 


6,823 
10, 924 
28, 266 
116,233 
141,997 
108, 459 
230,818 


-15.2 
-13. 5 


Shoplifting .. .... . ... 


+4.4 
-9.0 




+12.2 




+.8 




+.9 






Auto theft : 


122, 506 
114,812 


128,911 
119,005 


+5.2 




+3.7 







Property Loss, By Crime 

Losses averaged $202 per crime against property in 427 cities in 
1955 (table 38). Excluding auto thefts, the average loss per crime 
was $108. Autos accounted for 52.9 percent of the $217.9 million 
property theft total in the 427 cities. The average loss per stolen car 
was $896. The auto theft loss is offset by a relatively high recovery 
rate, 92.3 percent of the number stolen. 

The per capita loss in the 427 cities included in table 38 for the 
property crimes listed was $3.82 (1950 census figures used). However, 



110 

police recoveries of stolen property held the unrecovered loss per 
capita to $1.63, according to other information (table 39). 

Table 38.— VALUE OF PROPERTY STOLEN, BY TYPE OF CRIME, 1955 

[427 cities over 25,000. Total 1950 population 56,989,214. Values rounded off] 



Classification 



TOTAL._ 

Robbery 

Burglary 

Larceny— theft 
Auto theft 



Number of 
offenses 



1, 080, 734 



43, 730 
269, 391 
638, 904 
128, 709 



Value of 

property 

stolen 



$217, 886, 267 



10, 749, 536 
47, 107, 797 
44, 676, 842 
115,352,092 



Average 

value per 

offense 



S202 



246 

175 

70 

898 



Loss and Recovery Valuations, by Type of Property 

The value of property stolen and the value of stolen property re- 
covered for the year 1955, as reported by 420 cities, are shown in 
table 39. 

The value of autos stolen is the largest loss item — 52.9 percent of 
all property stolen. However, 93.2 percent valuation of stolen cars was 
reported recovered leaving a net loss of $7.1 million. The net loss to 
other types of property was $78.7 million or eleven times greater than 
the unrecovered loss in stolen autos. 

Autos represented 8.3 percent of the unrecovered loss in 420 cities 
in 1955 exceeding only the net loss in stolen furs. "Miscellaneous" 
property made up 30.9 percent of the unrecovered loss while stolen 
currency and other negotiables represented 25.4 percent of the unre- 
covered loss for the year. Jewelry and precious metals comprised 
17.9 percent of the unrecovered loss followed by clothing (10.1 percent), 
autos (8.3 percent) and furs (7.4 percent). 



Table 39.— VALUE OF PROPERTY STOLEN AND VALUE OF PROPERTY 
RECOVERED, BY TYPE OF PROPERTY, 1955 

[420 cities over 25,000. Total 1950 population 52,776,275. Values rounded off] 



Type of property 



TOTAL 

Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles. . 
M iscellaneous 



Value of property 



Stolen 



$198,617,529 



24, 791, 581 
18, 056, 328 
6, 634, 581 
9, 643, 059 
105, 124, 059 
34, 367, 921 



Recovered 



$112,813,362 



2, 990, 864 

2, 736, '."74 

267,071 

9SS.249 

97, 974, 810 

7, 855, 394 



Percent 
recovered 



56.8 



12.1 
15.2 
4.0 
10.2 
93.2 
22.9 



AGE, SEX, AND RACE OF PERSONS ARRESTED 

Source 

Police in all urban places (2,500 inhabitants or more and incor- 
porated) are requested to report the number and certain character- 
sties of persons arrested for violations that occurred in their 
urisdiction. Arrests made by police for other agencies for violations 
elsewhere are excluded from the report of the arresting agency. 
Arrests for crimes that are exclusively Federal are not included. 

Police report arrest information to the FBI under this program at 
the end of the calendar year. 

For 1954 and 1955, usable reports are available from 1,162 identical 
cities for comparison to obtain trend information (table 40). These 
1,162 cities represent 40.5 percent of the urban population (1950 census 
figures) . 

Usable reports for 1955 were received from 1,477 cities (tables 41- 
44) representing 46.8 percent of the urban population (1950). 

Some returns included indicated that not all juvenile offenders 
arrested passed through the hands of the police. However, where 
it was reported that juvenile offenders were excluded from the report 
or that the report was incomplete in other respects, the figures were 
not used in the tabulations. 

The information in the following tables does not present total 
arrests in the United States but, as indicated above, is limited to 
usable information received from reporting cities. These annual data 
are not comparable to similar information compiled from fingerprint 
cards published before 1952. 

Trends, 1954-55 

Arrests of young persons (under 18) increased 11.4 percent in 1955, 
according to the reports of 1,162 cities. Arrests of persons under 18 
in 276 larger cities (over 25,000 population) rose 10.5 percent. Arrests 
of persons under 18 in 886 cities under 25,000 rose 15.6 percent. 
(There were decreases as well as increases in the individual cities 
reporting for both 1954 and 1955 for trend information.) 

Arrests for all ages changed only slightly in 1955 — a 0.4 percent 
increase. Total arrests in 276 cities over 25,000 decreased 0.7 percent 
while in 886 cities under 25,000 the increase was 5.1 percent. 

(ill) 



112 



Table 40.— ARREST TRENDS, 1954-55 

[Population figures from 1950 decennial census] 



Total arrests : 

1954 

1955 

Change 

Percent change 

Under 18: 

1954 

1955 

Change 

Percent change 



Total — 1,162 

cities; total 

population 

36, 192, 073 



1, 595, 464 

1, 602, 321 

+6, 857 

+0.4 

157, 299 

175, 262 

+17, 963 

+11.4 



Over 25,000— 

276 cities; 

population 

27, 744, 870 



1, 290, 055 

1, 281, 292 

-8, 763 

-0.7 

128, 382 

141, 832 

+ 13,450 

+10.5 



2,500 to 25,000 
886 cities; 
population 

8, 447, 203 



305, 409 

321, 029 

+ 15,620 

+5.1 

28, 917 

33,430 

+4, 513 

+15.6 



Number of Arrests, 1955 

Reports on persons arrested by 1,477 cities reflect 1,861,764 arrests 
in 1955. The reports do not include traffic arrests except for driving 
while intoxicated. The reporting cities represent 46.8 percent of the 
urban population, according to the last decennial census. 

A study of the percent distribution of arrests for 1955 and those 
published for 1954 reflects no significant shifts within the individual 
crime classifications in 1955. 
Age of Persons Arrested, 1955 

Of the 1,861,764 persons arrested in 1,477 cities in 1955, 195,626 or 
10.5 percent were under the age of 18. Of those under 18, 80,122 or 
41 .0 percent had not reached their fifteenth birthday. In the previous 
year, 1954, 9.7 percent were under 18 and of those 40.0 percent were 
under 15 (1,389 cities). 

Persons under the age of 18 were arrested in 42.3 percent of the 
arrests for major crimes (murder, negligent manslaughter, rape, 
robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft)/ 
Of the substantial portion of these young people arrested for major- 
crimes, almost half (47.9 percent) were under the age of 15. 

Of the arrests for auto theft, persons under 18 represented 62.2 
percent. For burglary, 52.7 percent of all arrests were of persons under 
18. Similarly, 46.9 percent of the arrests for larceny and 21.4 per- 
cent of the arrests for robbery were of young persons who had not, 
reached then eighteenth birthday. 



113 



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114 



Table 42.— NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF ARRESTS OF PERSONS 
UNDER 18, UNDER 21, AND UNDER 25 YEARS OF AGE, 1955; 1,473 
CITIES OVER 2,500 IN POPULATION 

[Total population 41,792,800, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Offense charged 



TOTAL. 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man- 

slaughter 

(b) Manslaughter by negligence - 



Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Other assaults 

Burglary— breaking or entering. 



Larceny-theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc. 



Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice. 
Other sex offenses 



Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc... 
Offenses against family and children. 
Liquor laws 



Driving while intoxicated. 

D isorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 



Gambling 

Suspicion 

All other offenses. 



Number of persons arrested 



Total 



1.861,764 



2,073 
1,277 

12,788 
23, 148 
73, 477 
44, 440 

82, 860 
23, 491 

13, 525 
3,238 

8,502 

4,599 

24, 836 

18, 923 

6,888 

14, 328 
23, 062 
37, 028 

96, 165 
193, 119 
772, 943 

63, 936 

42,951 

70,511 

203, 856 



Under 
18 



195, 626 



311,193 



94 

67 

2,742 

1,728 

5,023 

23,411 

38, 750 

14,621 

299 

892 

503 

831 

222 

2,774 

249 
2,400 
1,033 
4,203 

506 

19, 879 

5,570 

2,740 

402 
11,610 

55, 077 



Under Under 
21 25 



495,918 



232 
192 

4,811 
3,345 
9,972 
28, 977 

46, 939 

17, 695 

947 

1,286 

1,277 

1,805 
2,153 
4,334 

881 
3,993 
2,349 
9,947 

3,661 
38, 207 
23, 252 

7,529 

1,393 
22, 421 

73, 595 



482 
392 

7,351 

6,320 

20, 144 

33, 876 

54,149 

19, 785 

2,409 

1,599 

2,616 
2,677 
8,497 
7,149 

2,477 
6,136 
5,590 
13, 034 

15,511 
65, 570 
72, 514 
13, 389 

4,392 
33, 578 
96, 281 



Percentage 



Under 
18 



10.5 



4.5 
5.2 

21.4 
7.5 
6.8 

52.7 

46.9 

62.2 

2.2 

27.5 

5.9 

18.1 

.9 

14.7 

3.6 
16.8 

4.5 
11.4 

.5 

10.3 

.7 

4.3 

.9 
16.5 
27.0 



Under 
21 



Under 
25 



16.7 I 



11.2 
15.0 

37.6 
14.5 
13.6 
65.2 

56.8 

75.3 

7.0 

39.7 

15.0 
39.2 
8.7 
22.9 

12.8 
27.9 
10.2 
26.9 

3.8 
19.8 

3.0 
11.8 

3.2 
31.8 
36.1 



23.3 
30.7 

57.5 
27.3 
27.4 
76.2 

65.5 
84.2 
17.8 
49.4 

30.8 
58.2 
34.2 
37.8 

36.0 
42.8 
24.2 
35.2 

16.1 

34.0 

9.4 

20.9 

10.2 
47.6 
47.2 



115 




| PERSONS ARRESTED UNDER 
18 YEARS OF AGE 



PERCENT OF TOTAL ARRESTS 

CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY 



CALENDAR YEAR 1955 



OFFENSES 


• 
1 21.4% 


ARRESTS, PERSONS UNDER 
18 YEARS OF AGE 


TOTAL ARRESTS, 
ALL AGES 


ROBOERY 


■■■ 




52.7% 


BURGLARY 


■HIH^HH 




46.9% 


LARCENY 


■■■■■H 




62.2% 


AUTO THEFT 


^MOBMHBHH 


EMBEZZLEMENT 
AND FRAUD 


2.2%""' 


L 13 - 525 


|27.5% 


RECEIVING STOLEN 
PROPERTY 


^HHHi I 


5.9% 


FORGERY AND 
COUNTERFEITING 


■ 8,502 



1,477 CITIES TOTAL POPULATION 41,792,800 



Figure 14. 



116 

Sex of Persons Arrested, 1955 

Table 43 presents a distribution of 1955 arrests by sex in 1,477 
cities. Eleven percent of the 1,861,764 arrests reported involved 
females. This is the same percentage of females arrested as in 1954. 

Table 43.— DISTRIBUTION OF ARRESTS BY SEX, 1955; 1,477 CITIES 
OVER 2,500 IN POPULATION 

[Total population 41,792,800, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Offense charged 



TOTAL 

Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

(b) Manslaughter by negligence 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Other assaults 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion - 

All other offenses --- 



Number 



Total 



1, 861, 764 



2,073 
1,277 

12, 788 
23, 148 
73, 477 
44, 440 

82, 660 
23,491 

13, 525 
3,238 

8,502 

4,599 

24, 836 

18, 923 



14, 328 
23, 062 
37, 028 

96, 165 
193, 119 
772,943 

63, 936 

42, 951 

70, 511 

203, 856 



Male Female 



1, 656, 927 



1,698 
1,176 

12, 248 

19, 434 
65, 671 
43, 432 

71,689 

22,880 

11,412 

2,972 

7,208 
4,599 

7,747 
14, 662 

5,710 

13, 468 

20, 813 
30, 199 

92, 178 
161, 595 
713, 936 

57, 083 

38, 793 
63,500 
172, 824 



375 
101 

540 
3,714 
7,806 
1,008 

10, 971 

611 

2,113 

266 

1,294 



17, 089 
4,261 

1,178 

860 

2,249 

6,829 

3,987 
31, 524 
59,007 

6,853 

4,158 

7,011 

31,032 



Percent 



Total Male Female 



100.0 



.1 
.1 

.7 
1.2 
3.9 
2.4 

4.4 
1.3 

.7 
.2 

.5 
.2 
1.3 
1.0 



1.2 
2.0 

5.2 
10.4 
41.6 

3.4 

2.3 
3.8 
10.9 



.1 
.1 

.7 
1.2 
4.0 
2.6 



1.3 

1.8 



43.1 
3.4 

2.3 
3.8 

10.4 



100.0 



W 



.3 

1.8 
3.8 



5.4 
.3 

1.0 
.1 



Less than l/10th of 1 percent. 



117 

\R,ace of Persons Arrested, 1955 

I Table 44 presents the 1,861,764 arrests in 1,477 cities distributed 
|>y race as compiled by police during 1955. 



Jable 44.— ARRESTS BY RACE, 1955; 1,477 CITIES OVER 2,500 IN 

POPULATION 

[Total population 41, 792, 800, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Offense charged 



Total. 



jRminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man- 
slaughter ..- 

(b) Manslaughter by negligence 



Jobbery -.. - 

Aggravated assault 

)ther assaults 

Hurglary — breaking or entering. 



-.arceny— theft 

Vuto theft — 

Embezzlement and fraud.. 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc. 



Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice- 
Other sex offenses 



■Narcotic drug laws 

•Weapons, carrying, possessing, etc... 
rOffenses against family and children. 
iLiquor laws.. 



r Driving while intoxicated. 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 



Gambling 

Suspicion.. 

All other offenses. 



Total 

all 

races 



1,861,764 



2,073 
1,277 

12,788 
23, 148 
73, 477 
44, 440 

82, 660 

23,491 

13, 525 

3,238 

8,502 
4,599 
24, 836 
18, 923 



14, 328 
23, 062 
37,028 

96, 165 
193, 119 
772, 943 

63, 936 

42,951 

70,511 

203, 856 



Race 



White 



1,310.481 



807 
1,029 

6,256 
8,235 
41, 085 
31,373 

56, 167 
18, 697 
10, 565 
2, 

7,170 
2, 615 
10, 060 
13, 602 

2,462 
6,506 
15, 528 
20, 830 

80, 503 
126, 046 
594, 580 

48, 944 

11,220 
47, 495 
146, 626 



Negro 



510, 228 



1,241 
245 

6,460 
14, 781 
31,924 
12, 777 

25, 958 
4,571 
2,902 
1,139 

1,267 
1,947 
14, 589 
5,133 

4,363 
7,743 
7,382 
15, 881 

14, 508 

65, 262 

147, 095 

13, 605 

31,615 
22, 451 
55, 389 



Indian 



36,032 



17 
3 

60 

85 

304 

217 

415 

183 

43 

5 

45 
24 
133 

128 

17 
45 
109 
248 

934 

1,495 

28,844 

1,145 

4 

438 
1,091 



Chi- 
nese 



Japa- 
nese 



253 



6 


1 
2 


16 


2 




5 


9 


9 


4 


1 


4 


1 


3 




2 


3 




5 


4 


7 


22 


3 


3 




4 





All 
others 



4,514 



11 
39 
146 

68 

102 
35 
10 
11 

15 
13 
49 
49 

21 
31 
39 
51 

196 

261 

2,239 

221 

107 
111 

684 



REPORTING AREA 

Population Represented 

Ninety percent of the population in the United States was repre- 
sented by one or more crime reports in 1955. The extent of the cover- 
age was higher in urban (city) areas with 96 percent of the peopl< 
living within incorporated urban areas of 2,500 or more populatioi 
represented. Of the people living outside the corporate limits o: 
urban places, rural areas under this program, 81 percent were repre 
sen ted by crime reports. 
Contributors 

Police departments in cities and other law enforcement agencies 
numbering 5,809 contributed one or more crime reports under this 
program during 1955. This is a slight increase of 0.4 percent ovei 
the 5,787 that contributed during 1954. 

In addition to the 3,425 police departments that contributed, a 
shown in table 45, there were 2,372 agencies that contributed foi 
rural areas. Of the 2,372 contributing for rural areas, 2,100 wen 
sheriffs, 14 were State police, and 258 were law enforcement agencies 
in rural townships and villages. The reports received from police 
agencies outside the 48 states numbered 12 but these are not considerec 
in figuring the population representation in the United States, o: 
course. 
Urban and Rural 

Urban places under this program are determined according to the 
1940 rule of the Bureau of the Census. This designated as urbai 
any incorporated place with a population of 2,500 or more. Then 
are a few other places designated as urban under a special rule of the 
Bureau of the Census. Urban places are referred to as "cities' 
in the text of this publication as a matter of simplification. It is 
recognized, of course, that certain urban places are more properly 
referred to as towns or otherwise. For example, Arlington County, 
Va., is not a city but is one of the few places designated as urban 
under the special rule referred to above. 

Rural areas consist of all areas outside the limits of urban places 
as described above. Some rural areas contain "urbanized fringe"] 
areas that are usually just outside cities. 

(118) 



119 

Table 45.— REPORTING AREA 






Population group 


Cities or towns 


Population 


Number 


Percent 
contrib- 
utors 


Number 


Percent 
repre- 
sented 


Total 


Contrib- 
utors 


Total 


Represent- 
ed by con- 
tributors 


Total 


4,028 


3,425 


85.0 


89,353,115 


85, 844, 305 


96.1 


. Cities over 250,000 


41 

66 
129 
277 
814 
2,701 


41 
66 
129 
270 
756 
2,163 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
97.5 
92.9 
80.1 


34. 932, 955 
9,694, 111 
9, 134, 357 
9, 703, 880 
12, 453, 528 
13, 434, 284 


34, 932, 955 
9,694,111 
9, 134, 357 
9, 468, 468 
11,609,338 
11, 005, 076 


100 


:. Cities 100,000 to 250,000 


100.0 


. Cities 50,000 to 100,000 


100.0 


. Cities 25,000 to 50,000 


97.6 


i. Cities 10,000 to 25,000 


93.2 


i. Cities 2,500 to 10,000 


81 9 











CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

Uniform Crime Reporting Program 

Headers not entirely familiar with the uniform crime reporting 
program may be interested in a brief explanation of the contents ol 
crime reports included in this bulletin : 

1. These crime figures are called "police statistics" to distinguish 
them from judicial or penal statistics in the criminal field. (Program 
is voluntary. International Association of Chiefs of Police started it 
January 1930. The FBI has acted as the central clearinghouse since 
September 1930, by an Act of Congress.) 

2. Crimes that are exclusively Federal are not included. 

3. Each reporting agency counts only those crimes or arrests foi 
crimes committed in its jurisdiction. A sheriff reports only for his 
rural areas outside the city or town limits of any urban places in his j 
county. This feature avoids duplication. 

4. "Offenses known to the police" (the Part I offenses below) art 
limited to seven classes of grave offenses shown by experience to bt| 
those most generally and completely reported to the police. 

5. Offenses (crimes) for the Part I classes are reported as the} 
become known. The police may learn of the occurrence of crime in 8 
number of ways: reports of police officers; citizens' complaints 
notification from prosecuting or court officials; or otherwise. 

6. Offenses are included without regard to: (a) age of the offender 
(b) value of property involved; (c) recovery of stolen property 
(d) arrests; or (e) prosecutive action. The purpose is to show tht< 
amount of crime that has occurred as distinguished from arrests and 
the classifying is based strictly on the facts in possession of the police. 

7. Complaints that are found by police investigation to be ground- 
less are not included in crime tables in this bulletin, and returns that 
appear incomplete or defective are excluded. 

8. Arrests are not included in "offenses known" information but 
arrest data are collected separately for the entire crime classification, 
Parts I and II. So, the only information for Part II offenses is that 
based on arrests. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

The complete classification of crimes is shown below with brief defi- 
nitions for each: 

Part I Offenses 

1 . Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

(120) 



121 

ncludes all wilful felonious homicides as distinguished from deaths 
paused by negligence. Does not include attempts to kill, assaults to 
till, suicides, accidental deaths, or justifiable homicides. Justifiable 
lomicides excluded from this classification are limited to the following 
types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon by a peace officer in line of 
iuty; (2) the killing of a holdup man by a private citizen. (6) Man- 
daughter by negligence includes any death which the police investiga- 
tion establishes was primarily attributable to gross negligence on the 
bart of some individual other than the victim. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape (no force used- 
victim under age of consent), assault to rape, and attempted rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the 
^person by force or violence or by putting in fear, such as strong-arm 
robbery, stickups, robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and at- 
temp to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault 
by shooting, cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by 
the use of acids. Does not include simple assault, assault and battery, 
fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreak- 
ing, safecracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or a theft, 
even though no force was used to gain entrance. Includes attempts. 
Burglary followed by larceny is included in this classification and not 
counted again as larceny. 

6. Larceny— theft (except auto theft).— (a) Fifty dollars and over in 
value ; (b) under $50 in value— includes in one of the above subclassi- 
fications, depending upon the value of the property stolen, thefts 
of bicycles, automobile accessories, shoplifting, pocket picking, or any 
stealing of property or article of value which is not taken by force 
and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" 
'games, forgery, worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or 
driven away and abandoned, including the so-called joy-riding thefts. 
Does not include taking for temporary use when actually returned by 
the taker, or unauthorized use by those having lawful access to the 
vehicle. 

Part II Offenses 

8. Other assaults.— Includes all assaults and attempted assaults 
which are not of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in 
class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the 
making, altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, any- 
thing false which is made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud.— Includes all offenses of fraudulent 



122 

conversion, embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false 
pretenses. 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes bu}ang, 
receiving, and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to com- 
mit any of those offenses. 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of 
regulations or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, 
furnishing, and manufacturing of deadly weapons or silencers and all! 
attempts to violate such statutes or regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a 
commercialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as 
prostitution, keeping bawdy house, procuring, transporting, or de- 
taining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized 
vice) . — Includes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, , 
and the like. Includes attempts. 

15. Offenses against the family and children. — Includes offenses of 
nonsupport, neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, 
such as unlawful possession, sale, or use. Excludes Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "drunkenness" (class 18)1 
and "driving while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations, 
State or local, are placed in this class. Excludes Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxi- 
cation. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a 
breach of the peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, 
loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or 
engaging in gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any 
motor vehicle while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regu- 
lations with respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to 
prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations oj traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes viola- 
tions of State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and 
motor vehicles not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

2G. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws 
for which no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as 
suspicious characters, but not in connection with any specific offense, 
who are released without formal charges being placed against them. 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXVI, UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

(All references are to page numbers) 

Page 
^.ge of offenders. (See Arrests.) 

^.ge, sex and race of persons arrested, reports from police 111-117 

Annual crime trends: 

Cities grouped by size 73, 75 

Cities grouped by location 73-74, 77-80 

Estimated total number of major crimes, 1955 69 

Long term trends 82-83 

Rural crime trends 4-5, 84 

Urban crime trends 4, 73-83 

\rrests — based on age, sex and race of persons arrested, reports from police: 

Arrest trends 111-112 

Age of offenders 1 13-115 

Sex of offenders 116 

Race of offenders 117 

Automobiles — percentage recovered 108 

lassification of offenses 64-66, 120-122 

leared by arrest, offenses 46-50 

By geographic divisions 50 

Crimes. (See Arrests, estimated number, offenses, persons charged, persons 
found guilty, and persons released.) 

Employees, number of police 21-45 

Jurisdictions outside the United States, offenses in 106 

Monthly variations, offenses known to the police 86-89 

Offenses known to the police: 

Annual trends 1-4, 69-85 

Cities grouped by locations 73-74, 77-80 

Cities grouped by location and size 94 

Cities grouped by size 92 

Cleared by arrest 46-50 

Cleared by arrest, geographic divisions 50 

Divided as to time and place and value of property stolen 107-110 

Individual cities over 25,000 in population 12-20,97-105 

Monthly variations 86-89 

Rural areas 11, 96 

Jurisdictions outside the United States 106 

Persons charged (held for prosecution) 51-55 

By geographic divisions 54-55 

Persons found guilty 56-61 

Persons released (not held for prosecution) 62-6 3 

Police department employees 21-45 

Police killed 21 

Property, value stolen 110 

Property, value stolen and recovered 110 

Prosecution, persons held for. (See Persons charged and persons found 

guilty.) 
Race of offenders. (See Arrests.) 

(123) 



124 

Pagd 

Reporting area, extent of 1 18-1 19 

Rural crime data 4-5, 1 1, 84, 96 

Sex of offenders. (See Arrests.) 

Sheriffs' reports 4-5, 11,84,96 

State crime rates. (See Offenses known — cities grouped by location.) 

State police reports 4-5, 11, 84, 96 

Trends, annual crime: 

Cities grouped by location 77-80 

Cities grouped by size 75 

Long term 83 

Rural 4-5,84 

Urban 4,73-83 

Urban crime rates 4, 90-95 

Value of property stolen 109-110 

Value of property stolen and recovered 110 

Variations, monthly crime . 86-89 

o 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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