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Full text of "Uniform crime reports for the United States"

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UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 



FOR RELEASE THURSDAY, A. M., SEPT. 27, 1956 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Volume XXVII 
SEMIANNUAL BULLETIN 



Number f 
1956 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 



Volume XXVII— Number 1 
SEMIANNUAL BULLETIN, 1956 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1956 



Boston Public Library 
CuperinteTTlorit of Document 

OCT 9 -1956 

Contents 

Page 

Summary of volume. XXVII, No. 1 1 

Crime trends, January-June, 1955-56: 

Estimated number of major crimes (table 1) 2-3 

Urban trends (table 2) 4-5 

Kural trends (table 3) 4-5 

Crime rates, January-June, 195G: 

Urban rates (tables 4-7) C-lO 

Rural rates (table 8) 11 

Offenses in individual areas: 

Cities over 25,000 (table 9) 12-20 

Police employee data: 

Police employees killed, 1955 (table 10) 21 

Number of police employees per 1,000 inhabitants, April 

30, 1956 (tables 11, 12) 22-25 

Police employees in individual cities, April 30, 1956 

(tables 13, 14) 25-4£ 

Offenses cleared and persons arrested, 1955: 

Offenses cleared by arrest (tables 15, 16) 46-5C 

Persons charged (tables 17-19) 51-55 

Offenses known, offenses cleared, persons charged and per- 
sons found guilty, part I offense classes (table 20) . . . 56-59 
Persons charged and persons found guilty, part II offense 

classes (table 21) 57, 60-61 

Persons released (tables 22, 23) 61-63 

Classification of offenses 64-66 

(II) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 



Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 
of Justice, Washington, D. C. 



olume XXVII 



JULY 1956 



Number 1 



Summary 



yiine Trends, January— June, 1956 



U. S. major crimes rose 14.4 percent as a result of a 14 percent 
icrease in urban crimes and a 14.6 percent increase in rural crimes 
1 the first 6 months of 1956 as compared with the same period in 
935. This is a sharp reversal of the slight downward trend in 1955. 
'orcentage changes for the estimated total U. S. crimes and for 
rimes reported by urban and rural police agencies are as follows: 



Criice 



United 
States 



Urban 



Rural 



TOTAL 

ruiilcr 

caliiient manslaughter 

;ipi' 

ohV)ery 

ec i':i vated assault 

iiialary 

:irf(>nv 

iiio tlieft 



+14.4 



+4.0 

+10.2 

+6.8 

-1.1 

+2.8 

+4.7 

+18.5 

+22.3 



+14.0 



+6.5 

+8.0 

+13.3 



+1.4 
+3.5 
+18.1 

+27.1 



+14.6 



-.5 

+12.8 

-1.6 

-2.2 

+8.3 

+7.5 

+22.7 

+12.7 



*olice Employees 

Police employees killed in line of duty in the year 1955 numbered 
in 3,732 cities, or a rate of 3.2 as compared with 3.5 in 1954 (rate 
er 5 million inhabitants). 

Of the 172,069 police employees in 3,732 cities as of April 30, 1956, 
percent were civilians. There were 2 police employees per 1,000 
ihabitants in the reporting cities. 

wffenses Cleared by Arrest and Persons Convicted, 1955 

For each 100 major crimes in 1955, city police cleared by arrest 
8 and charged 20 persons, 14 of whom were found guilty. 

(1) 



CRIME TREND -U. S. 

. BASED ON THE ESTIMATED NUMBER DF 
MAJOR CRIMES 

JAN. -- JUNE 1955 VS. JAN. - JUNE 1956 




Figure 1. 



Crime Trends 



Lkfojor Crime Totals, January- June, 1955-56 

A sharp increase of 14.4 percent, a 10-year high, brought the 1956 

Inidyear major crime count to 1,291,120. This is 21.9 percent above 
he previous 5-year average and 34.4 percent above the 1951 figure, 
he first of the midyear U. S. estimates. 

Urban and rural crimes increased about the same, city crimes up 
4 percent and rural crimes up 14.6 percent. The last increases of 
imilar proportions occurred in 1946 when, at the half-year mark, 
lity crimes showed an increase of 13 percent and rural crimes had risen 
9.6 percent. However, the extreme increases during the first 6 
nontlis of 1946 halted during the last half of that year, and if some 
imilar reversal is not experienced in 1956, crime totals by the year's 
?nd will reach the 2K million mark for the first time. 

In 1955, crime totals remained at almost a standstill, down 0.2 
)ercent from 1954, the first really favorable picture in 8 years. But 
my encouragement found in the trends of last year was rudely shaken 
)y the abrupt rise the first half of 1956. 

All major crime classes except robbery showed increases by the 
L956 midyear point and these ranged from 2.8 percent for aggravated 
issaults up to 22.3 percent for auto thefts. Robbery, the only class 
register any decrease, declined 1.1 percent. The percentage 
hanges for other crimes, all increases, are: aggravated assault, 2.8; 
nurder, 4; burglary, 4.7; rape, 6.8; negligent manslaughter, 10.2; 
arceny, 18.5; and auto theft, 22.3. 

A comparison of the estimated crimes and the percentage changes 
or the period January-June in 1955 and 1956 appears in table 1. 
Fhe estimates are based on usable crime reports received from areas 
•epresenting about four-fifths of the Nation's population. 

Table 1. — Crime Trends, Urban and Rural 

[Estimated number of major crimes In the United States, January-June, 1955-56] 



Offense 



Number of offenses 
January-June 



Change 



Number 



Percent 



TOTAL 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Vlanslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary, breaking or entering 

Liarceny, theft '. 

A.uto theft 



1,128,350 



1,291,120 



+ 162,770 



+ 14.4 



3,290 

2,950 

9,300 

30, 260 

46,110 
254, 330 
672, 280 
109, 830 



3,420 
3, 250 
9,930 
29, 940 

47,410 
266, 200 
796, 650 
134, 320 



+130 
+300 
+630 
-320 

+1,300 

+ 11,870 

+ 124,370 

+24, 490 



+4.0 

+ 10.2 

+6.8 

-1.1 

+2.8 

+4.7 

+18. 5 

+22.3 



(3) 



Crime Trends, Urban-Rural, January-June, 1955-56 

Th(> 14.4 percent rise in U. S. crime was felt about equally in urban 
and rural areas. Urban places reported a 14 percent increase whih 
rural areas reported a 14.6 percent increase for the first 6 months o! 
1956, as compared with the same period in the previous year. 

The direction of the trend in the individual crime classes for citj 
crimes and rural crimes was almost uniform although the trends ii 
murders and rapes were not in agreement in the two areas. Thos« 
two crimes increased in cities but decreased in rural areas. 

Increases in urban crimes, stated as percentages, were as follows 
murder, 6.5; negligent manslaughter, 8; rape, 13.3; aggravated assault 
1 .4 ; burglary, 3.5 ; larceny, 18.1 ; and auto theft 27.1 . The only urbai 
crime to decrease was robbery, down 0.8 percent. 

Rural crimes that increased, with percentage increases, were a 
follows: negligent manslaughter, 12.8; aggravated assault, 8.3 
burglary, 7.5; larceny, 22.7; and auto theft, 12.7. Decreases occurrei 
in rural crimes in tliree classes: murder, down 0.5 percent; rape 
down 1.6 percent; and robbery down 2.2 percent. 

The details are shown in tables 2 and 3. Trends are based oi 
reports from identical areas for both periods. 



Table 2. — Urban Crime Trends, January— June, 1955—56 

[f) (Tenses known to the police in 2,496 cities, total population 78,149,787 based on 1950 decennial census] 



Offense 



Number of oflenses 
January-June 



Change 



Number 



Percent 



Total. 

[unier and nonnegligent manslaughter 

[anslaughter by negligence 

ape 

obhery.. 

ppr ;i vated assault 

uri'hiry — breaking or entering 

in e II V— theft 

ntd theft 



705, 604 



804, 183 



+98, 579 



1,727 

1,177 

5, 051 

24, 301 

32, 864 
170,681 
398,441 

71,362 



1,839 

1,271 

5,722 

24, 108 

33,311 

176, 661 

470, 556 

90,715 



+ 112 

+94 

+671 

-193 

+447 

+5, 980 

+72,115 

+ 19,353 



+ 14.0 



+6.5 

+8.0 

+13.3 



+1.4 

+3.5 

+ 18.1 

+27.1 



Table 3. — Rural Crime Trends, January-June, 1955-56 

tased on reports of 1,458 sheriffs, 149 rural village officers, and 10 State police; total rural population, 
37,811,192 based on the 1950 decennial census] 



Offense 



Number of offenses 
January-June 



Change 



Number 



Percent 



Total 

[unier and nonnegligent manslaughter 

I ([anslaughter by negligence 

ape 

ohbery 

gf;ra vated assault. _ 

urglary— breaking or entering 

arceny — theft 

uto theft 



128. 904 



864 

921 

2,429 

3,120 

6,471 
44,254 
59, 992 
10, 853 



147, 776 



+ 18,872 



1,039 
2,389 
3,051 

7,007 

47, 569 
73,635 
12,226 



-4 

+ 118 

-40 

-69 

+536 

+3,315 

+13,643 

+ 1,373 



+14.6 



-.5 

+12.8 

-1.6 

-2.2 

+8.3 

+7.5 
+22.7 
+ 12.7 



Crime Rates 



Urban Crime Rates, January-June, 1956 

Crime rates presented here are for the first lialf of 1956. They ar 
of necessity based on the latest decennial census (1950) due to th 
absence of later estimates for individual areas, as has been explainet 
in some detail in previous issues of these bulletins. 

Increases in population cause such rates to be overstated whil 
decreases in population have the opposite effect. When greater pre 
ciseness is warranted, the rates may be adjusted on the basis of th 
user's population projections along the lines explained on page 91 o 
the 1955 annual issue of these reports (vol. XXVI, No. 2). 

In tables 4 and 6, it can be observed generally that crime occurs wit 
greater frequency per unit of population as the cities increase in siz( 

The variations in crime rates among the States and geograplii 
divisions, shown in table 5, should be noted in conjunction with th 
numerous factors that affect the amount of crime in an area. Thes 
are identified, in part, on page 12. 

(6) 



Table 4. — Urban Crime Rates, January- June, 1956, by Population Groups 

tTmses known to the police and rate per 100,000 inhabitants. Population figures based on 1950 decennial 

census] 



Population group 



TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

53 cities; total population, 80,364,663 

Number of offenses known 

Bate per 100,000 

GROUP I 

cities over 250,000; total population 

:4, 131,511: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP II 

cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total popula 

ion, 9,566,905: 

Number of ofTenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP III 

cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total popula 
ion, 8,869,472: 

Number of ofTenses knowai 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP IV 

cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total popula^ 
ion, 9,347,315: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP V 

cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total popula- 
ion, 10,472,085: 

Number of offenses knowTi 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP VI 

78 cities under 10,000; total popula- 

ion, 7,977,375: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Criminal 
homicide 



Mur- 
der, 
ncimeg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



1,894 
2.4 



1,062 
3.1 



260 
2.7 



168 
1.9 



160 
1.7 



138 
1.3 



106 
1.3 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



1,315 
1.8 



681 
2.0 



219 
2.3 



149 
1.7 



134 
1.4 



Rape 



5,896 
7.3 



3,900 
11.4 



571 
6.0 



408 
4.6 



352 
3.8 



303 
3.5 



302 
3.8 



Rob- 
bery 



24, 678 
30.7 



18. 123 
53.1 



2,491 
26.0 



1,346 
15.2 



1,232 
13.2 



944 
9.0 



542 
6.8 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



34, 390 

42.8 



21, 767 
63.8 



3,986 
41.7 



3,075 
34.7 



2,279 
24.4 



2,008 
19.2 



1,275 
16.0 



Bur- 
glary, 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



181,407 
225.7 



91, 232 
267.3 



26, 288 
274.8 



18. 203 
205.2 



17, 406 
186.2 



17,412 
166.3 



10, 866 
136.2 



ceny, 
theft 



480, 591 
598.0 



201, 035 
589.0 



67. 765 
708.3 



58, 577 
660.4 



60.378 
045.9 



59, 335 
566.6 



33, 501 
420.0 



Auto 
theft 



92, 969 
115.7 



54, 312 
159.1 



12. 238 
127.9 



8,785 
99.0 



7.581 
81.1 



6,356 
60.7 



3,697 
46.3 



396976° — 56- 



8 

Tahl*' 5. — Urban Crime Rates, January-June, 

and Slates 

[Offenses known per 100, 000 inhabitants. Population 


79.5rt, hy Ceofiraphic Divisions' 

based on 1950 decennial census] 


Division and State 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
llgent 
man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burglary, 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


1 

Larceny, 
theft 


Auto 1 
theft 


TOTAL 


2.4 


30.7 


42.8 


225.7 


598.0 


115.7 




New England 


.5 


5.8 


8.3 


151.5 


354.9 


64.41,, 






.7 
.3 
.5 


6.7 
5.1 
6.0 
1.5 
5.5 
1.8 

26.5 


16.3 
4.8 
4.9 
1.9 

14.8 


176.1 
99.4 

149.3 
60.9 

194.7 
51.1 

180.6 


342.5 
365. 6 
339.7 
223.1 
517.2 
294.8 

378.1 


74.2 
61. J 
6.5.1 
30. S 
6.3.7 
22.8 J 

86.2 








Rhode Island. 


1.0 




Middle Atlantic - -- -. 


1.4 


37.2 




New Jersey . 


1.0 
1.5 
1.5 

2.1 


19.5 
27.4 
28.8 

39.8 


23.6 
41.8 
36.2 

35.8 


192.8 
188.5 
157.3 

182.5 


363.0 
411.8 
319.5 

544.6 


98.0 
84.2 
83.1 

95.4 






East North Central 






2.4 
2.3 
2.2 
2.3 

.5 

1.9 


58.3 
20.1 
59.2 
23.2 
4.6 

25.2 


38.3 
18.7 
65.8 
24.6 
10.4 

24.3 


171.5 
245.3 
235.8 
162.5 
84.8 

180.8 


344.3 
606.2 
821.9 
549.6 
518.0 

628.7 


60.7 
147.9 
14.5. S 

87.1 
62.6 

104.4 






Oiiio 


Wisconsin 








.5 
2.2 

.4 
4.1 
1.5 

.6 


4.4 

20.2 

18.0 

51.2 

9.7 

1.8 

4.4 

29.2 


4.3 
26.5 

.5.3 
.53. 7 
14.7 

2.4 

5.0 

98.5 


101.0 
206. 9 
197.3 
228.8 
115.1 
112.9 
109.3 

284.3 


546. 4 
789.0 
582. 4 
657. 8 
596. 
600.1 
553. 

704.4 


.53. 7 
77.7 
90.3 
166.7 
90. S 
.52.2 
*" ■ 

147.2 




Minnesota - - 








Soutii Dakota 




6.0 




Delaware 


4.7 
6.3 
8.1 
3.7 
6.3 
4.2 
3.3 
1.5 

5.6 


22.8 
37.1 
18.0 
40.6 
11.8 
15.7 
3.5. 5 
15.2 

23.5 


14.2 
56. 3 
87.0 
99.5 

164.5 
54.3 

103.9 
23.8 

54.8 


269. 9 
476.8 
243.1 
245. 1 
200.7 
283.1 
321.5 
131.0 

240.3 


746.8 
1,078.5 
595. 1 
602.6 
585. 7 
647.7 
843. 5 
305. 6 

448.8 


138. £ 
149. C 
108. e 
334.6 
78.7 
98.1 
151.8 
49.4 

136.4 


Florida 




Maryland. 


North Carolina ^ 


South Carolina 




West Virginia 


East South Central 




.\labania 

Kentucky 


7.0 
3.5 
3.9 
6.4 

4.3 


16.2 

42.8 

7.9 

21.5 

23.6 


64.8 
6.5.6 
27.6 
48.0 

49.1 


227.4 
309.8 
157.0 
231.0 

302.0 


418.7 
649.2 
347.6 
365.5 

746.7 


93.3 
273.8 

44.4 
107.0 

145.8 


M ississippi 

Tennessee 

West South Central . 






3.2 
4.5 
2.2 
4.8 

1.3 


24.3 
44.6 
11.2 
21.1 

30.8 


56. 6 
62.5 
21.4 
51.4 

24.8 


203. 9 
252. 1 
235. 2 
339.9 

318.3 


457. 
608.4 
732.8 
813.7 

1.131.3 


66.1 
305.6 
101.6 
122.9 

168.9 


Louisiana . . 


Oklahoma.- 


Texas . 


Mountain . . 




Arizona . 


1.2 

1.9 

1.0 

.5 

2.7 

.8 

.3 

2.5 

1.9 


51.1 
49.6 
11.1 
14.2 
58.5 
10.8 
13.8 
10.8 

50.7 


61.2 
26.7 
8.6 
24.6 
65.2 
17.8 
7.2 
6.6 

53.0 


551.0 
353.7 
170.7 
170.4 
82<>. 2 
323.0 
196.0 
158.6 

377.3 


2, 032. 3 
972.9 
1,083.8 
1,014.0 
1.865.0 
1.026.7 
1.004.3 
671.8 

1.111.9 


281.0 
186.3 

79.0 
121.2 
220.2 
224.5 
115.1 

69.8 

203. « 






Montana. 




New Mexico 


Utah.. 


Wyoming 


Pacific 




California 

Oregon 


2. 1 
.9 
1.4 


r,». 

25. 6 
23. 3 


62.9 
19. 6 
15.6 


409.7 
208.8 
288.1 


1.15,5.4 
909.8 
978.1 


22.5.8 
8:1.0 

14.5. 2 


Washington 




' Includes the District of Columbia. 















Pabl** 6. — Urlutti Criiiir Rales, Jmiumy-Jutio, 19^6, by Gen^ntphir Divisions 
itml Papuliilion (Jroups 

[Offenses known per 100,000 inhabitants. Population based on 1950 decennial census] 



Division and group 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burglary, 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny, 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


TOTAL 


2.4 


30.7 


42.8 


225.7 


598.0 


115.7 






.5 


5.8 


8.3 


151.5 


354.9 


64.4 






.5 
.8 
.6 
.3 
.5 
1.4 


8.7 
6.3 
3.1 
.5.3 
2.5 
26.5 


17.9 
6.4 
5.4 
1.6 
2.5 

37.2 


210.2 
151.9 
114.3 
121. 5 
112.5 
180.6 


411.2 
419.1 
319.3 
269.3 
271.1 
378.1 


101.8 




72.6 


Group IV --- -- 


44.6 




37.7 


Group VI 


21.8 


Widdle Atlantic -- 


86.2 






2.1 
.6 

.."; 

.9 
.3 
.3 
2.1 


39.8 
16.fi 
8.7 
7.6 
5.1 
3.8 
39.8 


56.6 
17.6 
16.2 
9.6 
5.0 
6.1 
35.6 


223.7 
161.1 
148.2 
120.3 
99.4 
88.1 
182.5 


418. 5 
343.4 
335.8 
353.2 
308.5 
277.0 
544.6 


108.2 




91.1 


Group III - 


67.1 


Group IV 


53.3 


Group V - --- 


41.7 




34.2 


Sast North Central 


95.4 






3.2 

2.3 
1.5 
1.1 
.7 
.7 
1.9 


68.3 
27.7 
16.8 
14.2 
11.0 
6.2 
25.2 


57.6 
43.0 
19.8 
10.6 
9.4 
5.8 
24.3 


198.6 
233.7 
172.4 
160.2 
170.0 
120.4 
180.8 


495.7 
719.2 
662.9 
620.4 
607.4 
347.9 
628.7 


117.0 




116.8 


Group III - 


91.5 




79.6 


Group V 


63.4 


Group VI --- 


39.2 


(Vest North Central - 


104.4 


Group I - 




3.5 
2.8 
1.3 
.3 
-f) 
.5 
5.0 


53.5 
24.0 
5.5 
7.2 
5.1 
5.7 
29.2 


48.6 

31.2 

10.9 

5.7 

4.6 

5.2 

98.5 


266.8 
241.8 
134.9 

97.4 
114.5 

98.7 
284.8 


719.7 
898.5 
706.8 
604.7 
525.9 
332.1 
704.4 


189.8 


Group II 


109.4 


Group III - 


58.8 


Group IV 


46.5 




43.1 




33.6 


3outh Atlantic 1 - 


147.2 






5.3 
5.7 
4.3 
4.3 
4.5 
5.7 
6.6 


40.6 
46.5 
20.0 
21.7 
8.7 
13.8 
23.5 


128.3 
93.4 
93.2 
88.5 
75.8 
75.3 
54.8 


241.1 
421.2 
260.5 
309.1 
224.3 
207.1 
240.3 


621.2 
944.4 
693.2 
848.4 
560.2 
441.7 
448.8 


233.8 


Group II - 


189.5 


Group III 


99.1 


Group IV 


106.9 




65.3 




57.7 


East South Central . . 


136.4 






5.1 
8.6 
6.2 
4.7 
5.1 
3.2 
4.3 


39.0 
29.7 
12.4 

9.3 
13.4 

6.4 
23.6 


66.7 
41.2 
75.6 
57.3 
51.8 
31.0 
49.1 


290.1 
324.0 
251.8 
168.9 
171.1 
116.3 
302.0 


584.8 
442.3 
527.8 
393.9 
346.3 
206.1 
748.7 


247.7 


Group II - - 


129.5 




94.2 


Group IV - -- 


66.5 




54.0 


Group VI 


41.8 




146.2 






6.6 
2.4 
3.5 
3.5 
2.3 
2.8 
1.3 


40.2 
21.7 
20.8 
12.7 
4.6 
5.0 
30.8 


50.3 
58.0 
79.7 
47.0 
34.0 
22.6 
24.8 


417.1 
339.1 
304.6 
216.1 
14.5. 7 
114.4 
318.3 


814.8 
974.0 
968.5 
725.2 
465.7 
325.9 
1,131.3 


245. 


Group II - -- 


128.6 




118.9 


Group IV - - - 


81.9 




41.5 


Group VI _ --- 


35.6 




168.9 






2.4 
. 7 

1.4 

2.2 
.8 
.2 

1.9 


76.7 
37.0 
17.9 
26.1 
12.6 
11.2 
50.7 


39.0 
40.8 
14.2 
27.3 
17.0 
11.7 
53.0 


4.58. 4 
404.2 
230.2 
335.4 
268.4 
209.2 
377.3 


1,035.4 
1,.560. 2 
1,120.8 
1,364.3 
1,164.1 
731.9 
1,111.9 


260.7 


Group II -- 


229.8 


Group III- - 


237.1 


Group IV - - - 


165.1 




104.7 


Group VI 


75. 5 




203,6 






2.2 
2.6 

.8 
1.6 
1.7 
1.0 


72.8 
.39.3 
31.7 
29.0 
21.6 
11.6 


80.7 
1.5.4 
22.6 
25.2 
26.6 
18.6 


433.8 
271.1 
334.1 
355. 4 
316.3 
280.8 


993.9 
1,051.9 
1,213.8 
1,411.7 
1,282.3 
1, 193. 3 


253. 4 


Group II 


126.7 


Group III 


199.1 


Group IV 

Group V 


166.8 
131.7 




112.1 







I Includes the District of Columbia. 



10 

Table 7. — Number of Cities in Each Population Group, Geographic Division, 
and State Represented in the Urban Crime Rate Tabulations for January- 
June 1956 (Tables 4^6) 





Total 


Population group 


Division and State 


Over 
250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 

. 25,000 


Less 
thp.n 
10,000 


Total: 

Population, 80,364,603 -__ 


2,653 


40 


65 


125 


266 


679 


1,476 




New England: 

Population, 5,732,069 


190 




11 


17 


37 


68 


57 








29 
20 
99 
16 
16 
10 

556 




4 


2 

1 
11 

1 
2 


12 
2 

17 
2 
3 
I 

49 


5 

43 

5 
6 
2 

142 


t 

U 
25 
i 
4 






Massachusetts 




6 






Rhode Island. . 




1 






Middle Atlantic: 

Population, 21,152,021 


7 


12 


22 


324 


New Jersey 


158 
183 
215 

628 


2 
3 
2 

9 


4 
4 
4 

10 


8 
6 
8 

30 


18 
16 
15 

65 


43 
42 

57 

149 


85 




lU 


Pennsylvania . 


125 


East North Central: 

Population, 18,933,651 __ 


36£ 






Illinois - - - 


169 
91 
116 

175 

77 

309 


1 
1 
1 
5 

1 

5 


1 
4 
2 
3 


9 
4 

6 
4 

9 


14 
10 
9 
20 
12 

20 


41 
17 
34 
41 
16 

74 


IOS 


Indiana 


5; 




6S 


Ohio 


IOC 




44 


West North Central: 

Population, 6,417,273 


4 


197 








66 
53 
71 
63 
27 
13 
18 

260 




1 
2 

1 


4 

1 


7 
2 
3 
5 


9 
20 
15 
16 
7 
3 
4 

62 


4; 






2^ 


Minnesota 


2 
2 
1 


5C 


Missouri . - 


2 

1 


3i 




U 






2 
1 

30 


f 








1 
20 


K 


South Atlantic : 

Population, 7,967,035 


3 


9 


13€ 








4 
1 
54 
32 
19 
61 
27 
42 
20 

125 




1 








3 




1 

i" 
1 










Florida - 


3 

1 


2 
3 


10 
3 
2 
5 

1 
6 
3 

16 


9 
8 
6 
18 
6 
9 
6 

25 


3C 


Georgia 


If 
10 


North Carolina 


1 


5 
3 
4 
3 

4 


32 






17 






3 


20 


West Virginia 




8 


East South Central: 

Population, 3,327,070. 


3 


5 


72 






Alabama 

Kentucky 


35 
33 
23 
34 

193 


1 
1 


2 


1 
2 

1 


3 
4 

3 

14 


9 
6 
3 

7 

67 


19 
20 






13 


Tennessee 


1 

5 


3 
7 


20 


West South Central: 

Population, 5,981,865 


9 


101 




25 
20 
40 
108 

136 




1 
1 
2 
3 

2 




3 
3 
3 

5 

12 


4 

6 

15 

32 

24 


17 




1 




9 


Oklahoma 




20 




4 

1 


9 
3 


55 


Mountain : 

Population, 2,184,827.__ _ 


93 




15 
31 
21 
18 
6 
15 
16 
14 

257 


i 


1 




1 
1 
2 
3 

1 
2 

1 
1 

23 


1 
6 
6 
3 

1 
3 
1 
3 

78 


12 


(^olorado 


1 


22 


Idaho 




13 


Montana 








12 










3 








1 
1 


9 


Utah 




1 


12 






10 


Pacific : 

Population, 8,668,852 


7 


5 


11 


13S 


Ciilifornia 


184 
36 
37 


5 
1 
1 


3 


11 


16 

2 

5 


59 
8 
11 


90 


Oregon . . . 


25 




2 




18 









11 

lural Crime Rates, January— June, 1956 

Less people, less crime, is the picture shown by city crime rates. 
is cities decrease in size, so do the crime rates, but this general 
observation is not consistently true. 

The most serious of major crimes occur with greater frequency in 
'ural areas than in the smallest cities (Group VI — 2,500 to 10,000 
nhabitants). Criminal homicide and rape rates in rural areas are 
ibout double those in the smallest cities, and the rates for robbery 
and aggravated assault are slightly higher in the rural areas than in 
the smallest city group. In other crime classes the rural rates are 
bwer. 

''Rural" under this program refers to all areas outside incorporated 
places having at least 2,500 inhabitants. Certain portions of some 
rural areas are now highly urbanized, such as the "urbanized fringe" 
areas around cities. Contributing law enforcement agencies report 
crimes that occur in their police jurisdictions. Thus, crimes that 
happen in an urbanized fringe located in an area that is otherwise 
rural are reported by the county sheriff. 

Crime rates for rural areas in table 8 are based on the number of 
crimes in the same table as reported by 1,766 law enforcement agencies 
representing about 66 percent of the rural population. 

Table 8. — Rural Crime Rates, January-June, 1956 

[Offenses known and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, as reported by 1,594 sheriffs, 162 rural viliage officers, and 
10 State police; total rural population 40,453,233 based on 1950 decennial census] 

Offenses known 

Offense 

Number Rate 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 931 2. 3 

Manslaughter by negligence 1,097 2. 7 

Rape 2,546 6.3 

Robbery 3.288 8.1 

Aggravated assault. _ 7,560 18. 7 

Burglary^breaking or entering 49, 822 123. 2 

Larceny-theft 76.975 190.3 

Auto theft 12,788 31.6 



Offenses in Individual Areas 

Offenses in Individual Cities Willi More Than 23.000 Inlmhilants 

The iiumboi- of offensos reported as liaviiij:; Ixmmi committed duniig 
the period of January-June, 1956, is sliown in table 9. The com- 
pilation includes the reports received from police departments in 
cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants. Police administrators and 
other interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare 
the crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in tables 
4, 5, and 6 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire 
to make comparisons with the figures for their communities for 
prior periods, in order to determine whether there has been an increase 
or a decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

Caution should be exercised in comparing crime data for individual 



cities because the differences in the figures may be due to a variety 



of factors. Such comparisons are not necessarily significant even 



though the figures for individual co mmunities are converted into 
term s of number of offenses per 100,000 inhabitants. 
• The following is a list of some of the factors which affect the amount 
of crime in the community: 

Population of the city and metropolitan area adjacent thereto. 

The composition of the population with reference particularly to 
age, sex, and race. 

The economic status and activities of the population. 

Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 

The number of police employees per unit of population. 

The standards governing appointments to the police force. 

The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 

The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 

The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 
The figures presented in the following tabulation are those reported 
by the individual police departments in the cities represented without 
reducing the data to crime rates (number of offenses per 100,000 
inhabitants). 

In considering the volume of crime committed locally, it is gen- 
erally more important to determine whether the figures for a given 
community show increases or decreases rather than to ascei'tain 
whether they exceed or fall short of those for some other individual 
community, and it should be remembered that the amount of crime 
comnntted in a community is not solely chargeable to the police 
but is rather a charge against the entire community. 

In publishing these figures the FBI acts as a service agency. The 
figures published are those submitted by the contributing ngeueies. 

(12) 



13 

ral)Ie 9. — Number of Offenses Known to the Police, January-June, 1956, 
Cities Over 25,000 in Population 



City 



\bilene, Tex_'__. 
VMiipton, Pa... 

\kron, Ohio 

Vlinieda, Calif- 
\lliany, Ga 



Ul.any, N. Y 

Vlhiiquerque, N. Mex, 

Vlfxandria, La 

Vlexandria, Va 

\lhambra, Calif 



Miqnippa, Pa.. 
\llcntown, Pa- 
Alliance, Oliio. 

Uton, 111 

\ltoona, Pa 



Vmarillo, Tex 

Vnisterdam, N. Y_ 

\ndorson, Ind 

Vnn Arbor, Mich.. 
Viiniston, Ala 



Vppleton, Wis... 
Vrliiifjton, Mass, 

\t liiifiton, Va 

Vslii'ville, N. C 
Vslihind, Ky ■. 



\ilicns, Ga 

Mlaiita, Ga 

\il intic City, N. J. 

Vuhiirn, N. Y 

\i:irnsta, Ga 



\uiora, 111 

Vustin, Tex 

Bakersfield, Calif. 

Baltimore, Md 

Baiisor, Maine 



Baiiierton, Ohio 

Baton Rouge, La 

Battle Creek, Mich. 

Bay City, Mich 

Bayonne, N. J 



Beaumont, Tex 

Belleville, 111 

Belleville, N. J 

Bellingham, Wash. 
Belmont, Mass 



Beloit, Wis 

Berkeley, Calif. 

Berwyn, 111 

■Bessemer, Ala.. 
iBethlehem Pa.. 



Beverly, Mass 

Beverly Hills, Calif. 

Billings, Mont 

Biloxi, Miss 

Binghamton, N. Y._ 



Birmingham, Ala. 
Bloomfield, N. J.. 
Bloomington, 111.. 
Bloomington, Ind. 
Boise, Idaho 



Boston, Mass 

Bremerton, Wash. 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Bristol, Conn 

Brockton, Mass... 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



10 
19 
14 
441 
3 

4 
13 
4 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



3 

1 

130 

3 



Burglary, 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



90 

76 

755 

46 



Larceny, theft 



$50 and 
over 



Only 2 months received 



53 

55 

344 

25 



21 
18 
57 
116 
2 



1 
43 
27 

2 

34 
341 

51 

1 

107 

4 

176 

8 

1,122 

3 

3 

50 
13 
12 
4 

136 



219 
126 



120 
33 

77 
35 

378 

1 

77 

60 



17 

36 

238 

107 

35 

22 

1,145 

222 

5 
115 

59 

403 

211 

2,477 

23 

37 
229 
93 
95 
106 

209 
41 
21 
38 
41 



283 



20 



28 
215 

22 
124 
152 



12 
16 
6 

267 
6 
29 

127 
52 

12 

24 

204 

85 

5 

21 
709 
140 
15 
45 

59 

111 

164 

1,906 

31 

13 
213 

38 
30 
63 

122 
20 
17 
45 
28 

19 
75 
47 
24 
61 



4 

7 


8 


9 




55 
•> 


162 


4 




1 
3 


6 
3 



No reports received 
61 

72 
79 

092 
20 
86 
59 
69 

No reports received 



49 
179 
36 

85 



111 
42 
38 

506 
21 
33 
45 
65 



43 

149 

15 

65 



Under 



584 

73 

1,697 

309 



139 
1,062 
210 
651 
332 



281 

123 

265 

31 

1,070 

29 

264 

324 

132 

274 

52 

683 

223 



146 
61 
199 

182 
1,259 

605 
3,992 

111 

174 
515 
325 
379 
207 

642 
93 
36 

167 
49 

171 
693 
92 
101 

182 



485 
122 
235 

1,247 
40 
165 
174 
415 



289 
405 
46 
244 



14 

Table 9. — IS'umber of Offenses Known to the Police, January- June, 1956. 
Cities Over 25,000 in Population — Continued 



City 



Brook line, Mass.. 
Brownsville, Tex. 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Burbank, Calif. ... 
Burlington, Iowa. 



Burlinfiton, Vt 

Butte, Mont 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 



Cedar Rapids, lowa. 

Champaipn, 111 

Charleston, S. C 

Charleston, W. Va.. 
Charlotte, N. C 



Charlottesville, Va.. 
Chattanooga, Term. 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chester, Pa 

Cheyenne, Wyo 



Chicago, 111 

Chicopee, Mass 

^icero. 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Clarksburg, W. Va. 



Cleveland, Ohio 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio. 

Clifton, N. J 

Clinton, Iowa 

Colorado Springs, Colo... 



Columbia, Mo... 
Columbia, S. C. 
Columbus, Ga... 
Columbus, Ohio. 
Com p ton, Calif-. 



Concord, N. H 

Corpus Christi, Tex.. 
Council Bluffs, Iowa. 

Covington, Ky 

Cranston, R. I 



Cumberland, Md 

Cuvahoga Falls, Ohio. 

Dallas, Tex 

Danville, 111.. 

Danville, Va 



Davenport, Iowa 

Dayton, Ohio 

Daytona Beach, Fla. 

Dearborn, Mich 

Decatur, 111 



Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa. 

Detroit, Mich 

Dubuque, Iowa... 
Duluth, Minn 



Durham, N. C 

East Chicago, Ind 

East Cleveland, Ohio. 
East Hartford, Conn.. 
Easton, Pa 



East Orange, N. J 

East Providence, R. I. 

East St. Louis, 111 

Eau Claire, Wis 

Elgin, 111 



Murder, 
nonnegli 
gent man 
slaughter 



Robbery 



1 
126 



3,154 



25 

120 

11 

434 
6 
2 
1 
13 



12 
134 
30 



35 
fi 

12 
2 

3 

2 

106 

13 

4 



319 

15 

1,865 

3 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Burglary, 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



1 

11 
116 
29 



2 
4 
41 
40 
322 



87 
141 
485 
205 

17 

30 

80 

131 

364 

193 

76 

56 

322 

136 

381 



35 

381 

31 

No reports received 
2 53 



Larceny, theft 



$50 and 
over 



40 
39 
174 
143 
2 

36 
70 
98 
77 
110 



(') 



50 
146 
) 
152 

16 
43 
48 



Under 

$50 



1,981 

2 

13 

187 



161 
..... 



4 

38 

12 

303 

47 



188 
3 
9 
1 



316 
"39 



113 

25 



162 

24 

1,961 



183 

19 

1 

1 

2 

9 

2 

163 



6, 513 

29 

136 

662 



1,102 

52 

59 

20 

152 

45 
275 
178 
1,022 
377 

22 
441 

32 
126 
119 

17 
22 
1,596 
115 
56 

139 
522 
122 
338 
211 

1.906 
302 

5, 168 



133 

48 
55 
34 

155 
36 

101 
24 
44 



4, 647 

33 

113 

612 

11 

471 
18 
53 
20 

122 

13 

187 
92 
728 
145 

17 
222 

66 
111 

80 

18 
34 
375 
30 
42 

75 
163 
138 
153 

74 

1,017 
430 

1,525 
32 
105 

60 
134 
11 
33 
16 

90 
47 
58 
19 
13 



184 
248 
597 
436 
129 

150 
238 
111 
148 
526 

472 
290 
588 
374 
914 

76 
118 
63 

313 

4, 569 
130 
166 

1,834 
25 

5. 301 
103 
194 
179 
413 

116 
635 
317 
1,994 
766 

50 

1,047 

265 

266 

183 

84 
184 
4,594 
83 
237 

532 
993 
317 
1 , 367 
521 

3,288 

860 

12, 566 

208 

605 

292 
401 
106 



252 
170 
49 
114 
156 



See footnote at end of table. 



15 

Table 9. — Number of Offenses Known to the Police, January-June, 1956, 
Cities Over 25,000 in Population— Continued 



City 



U^lizaheth, N. J_ 

illkhart, Ind 

:iniira, N. Y... 
"1 Paso, Tex._-. 
:ivria, Ohio 



Cnid, Okla 

Crie, Pa 

iluclid, Ohio.. 
Cugene, Oreg. 
Dvanston, IlL 



Svansville, Ind. .. 

Cverett, Mass 

Everett, Wash 

i'airmont, W. Va. 
■"all River, Mass.. 



''argo, N. Dak 

i'ayetteville, N. C. 

i'erndale, Mich 

i'itchbtirg, Mass... 
"'lint, Mich 



•"ond du Lac, Wis 

''ort Dodge, Iowa 

i'ort Lauderdale, Fla. 

'"ort Smith, Ark 

■"ort Wayne, Ind 



'"ort Worth, Tex-... 
*"ramingham, Mass. 

''resno, Calif 

jadsden, Ala 

lainesville, Fla 



lalesburg. 111... 
jalveston, Tex. 
larfleld, N. J... 

Jary, Did 

Jlendale, Calif. 



jloucester. Mass . 

Irand Forks, N. Dak. 
jrand Rapids, Mich.. 

Iranite City, 111 

jreat Falls. Mont 



3reen Bay, AVis... 
jJreensboro, N. C_ 
jreenville, Miss., 
jrreenville, S. C... 
Ireenwich, Conn. 



FTackensack, N. J. 
ilaserstown, Md... 

Hamilton, N. J 

flainilton, Ohio... 
[laimnond, Ind... 



Hampton, Va 

Hamtramck, Mich. 

Elanishurg, Pa 

nartford, Conn 

Hattiesburg, Miss.. 



Elaverford, Pa 

Haverhill, Mass... 
Elayward, Calif... 

Hazleton, Pa 

Hempstead, N. Y. 



Highland Park, Mich... 

Hish Point, N. C 

Hdhoken, N. J. 

Hiilyoke, Mass... 

Honolulu City, Hawaii- 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robborv 



142 

1 

30 

1 

1 

2 
22 

3 
89 
21 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Burglary, 
break hig 
or enter- 
ing 



202 
38 
61 

648 
40 

30 

229 

26 

78 
91 



351 
40 
77 

No reports received 
4 176 



Larceny, theft 



$50 and 
over 



40 
132 

57 

55 

481 

22 



No reports received 



44 
1 
15 
35 
23 

1 
120 

2 
139 

3 

14 

2 

39 



26 
25 

7 

105 

17 



193 
91 
176 

1,633 
44 

312 
92 

102 

14 
203 

29 
474 



18 
55 
360 
79 
64 

61 
164 

72 

208 

17 



71 
130 
229 

261 
44 
194 
569 

65 

23 
62 
50 
18 
94 

139 
53 

107 
53 

616 



202 
55 
53 

210 

27 

15 

86 

11 

119 

163 

210 
15 

57 



33 

3 

51 

54 

643 



216 
48 
144 

221 
16 

359 
24 
38 

10 
206 

29 
405 
198 

22 
18 
169 
11 
36 

26 
103 

25 
160 

24 

47 
39 
57 
90 
243 

117 
104 
104 
196 
11 

16 
24 
67 



139 
34 
42 
47 

334 



LTnder 

$50 



424 

134 

172 

1,358 

71 

175 
491 
204 
397 
343 

658 
115 
439 

364 

182 
383 
143 
209 
1,461 

170 

627 
204 
612 

2,186 

41 

905 



149 
291 
88 
872 
934 

30 
260 
1,079 
142 
267 

105 
420 
130 

307 
50 

119 
187 
158 
303 
634 

344 

205 

239 

604 

60 

129 
17 

253 
39 

141 

369 
149 
46 
249 

1,587 



Auto 
theft 



396!»76° 



-56- 



10 

Table 9. — Niimbfr of Ojfensrs Knoun to the Police, January-June, 1956, 
Cities Over 25,000 in PopnUition — Continued 



City 



Hot Springs, Ark 

Houston, Tex 

Huntiiipton, W. Va 

Hunlington Park, Calif, 
niitcliiiison, Kans 



Indepeiuience, Mo. 
Indianapolis, Ind.. 
Inglewood, Calif... 
Iowa City, Iowa... 
Irontiequoit, N. Y. 



Irvinston, N. J. 
Itiuica, N. Y... 
Jackson, Mich.. 
Jackson, Miss... 
Jackson, Tenn.. 



Jacksonville, Fla 

Jamestown, N. Y... 
Jefferson City, Mo.. 

Jersey City, N. J 

Johnson City, Tenn. 



Johnstown, Pa 

Joliet, 111 

Joplin, Mo.. 

Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Kankakee, 111 



Kannapolis, N. C.- 
Kansas City, Kans. 
Kansas City, Mo... 

Kearny, N. J 

Kenosha, Wis 



Kettering, Ohio.. 
Key West, Fla... 
Kingston, N. Y.. 
Knoxville, Tenn. 
Kokomo, Ind 



Lackawanna, N. Y. 

La Crosse, Wis 

La Fayette, Ind 

Lafayette, La 

La Grange, Ga 



Lake Charles, La. 

Lakeland, Fla 

Lakewood, Ohio. . 

Lancaster, Pa 

Lansing, Mich 



Laredo, Tex 

Laurel, Miss 

Lawrence, Mass. 

Lawton, Okla 

Lebanon, Pa 



Lewiston, Maine 

Lexington, Ky 

Lima, Ohio 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Lincoln Park, Mich. 



Linden, N. J. 

Little Kock, Ark 

Lockport, N. Y. 

Long Reach, Calif 

Lorain, Ohio 



Los Angeles, Calif.. 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass . 

Lower Nferion, Pa. 
Lubbock, Tex 



Murder, 
nonnegli' 

gent man. 

slaughter 



Robbery 



13 
164 
14 
29 


2 
135 
22 



52 
124 



4 

59 
1 

187 
19 

1,841 

278 

7 

1 

17 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



105 
60 
4 
9 



143 

12 
2 



13 

6 

18 
3 
2 

21 
1 

3 
139 
39 
27 



Burglary, 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



52 
3,084 
99 
177 
44 

35 

1,440 

251 

11 

53 

105 
29 
82 

182 
68 

078 
21 
17 

423 

75 

73 
33 
71 

95 
44 

20 
334 
404 

38 

74 

27 
11 
55 
303 
72 

44 
57 
90 

74 
35 

104 
54 
48 
60 

112 

60 
35 
89 
71 
12 

30 
290 
101 
113 



Larceny, theft 



$50 and 
over 



No reports received 



6 
37 

1 
97 
21 

2,541 

270 

31 

2 

55 



41 
342 

34 
973 

74 

11,389 

1.590 

145 

79 

360 



(I) 



43 

859 
70 

155 
23 

37 

615 

249 

17 

7 

40 
49 

65 
44 
37 

684 
21 
26 

142 



46 
48 
55 
83 
21 

12 
129 
270 
33 
29 

18 
18 
21 
115 
75 

26 
27 
60 
23 
15 

44 
34 
17 
31 

70 

49 
23 
27 
26 
10 

29 
110 

80 
146 



28 
294 
23 

35 



Under 
$50 



1,504 

59 

99 

220 



101 
3,147 
248 
397 
191 

129 
1,443 
511 
97 
76 

186 

91 

272 

407 

85 

1,538 
94 
66 
243 
63 

162 
69 

208 
577 
142 

70 

827 

1,038 

109 

252 

71 
32 
49 
192 
162 

66 
233 
276 

80 
86 



116 
126 
272 
484 



161 

314 

57 

126 
396 
228 
805 



134 

(j30 

48 

1.432 

263 

14. 809 

1.872 

229 

160 

1.072 



See footnote at ond of t;iblo. 



17 

rable 9. — Number of Offenses Known to the Police, January- June, 1956, 
Cities Over 25,000 in Popuhttion — Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonncgli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Lynchburg, Va. 

Lynn, Mass 

Lynwood, Calif. 

Macon, Ga 

Madison, Wis--- 



Malden, Mass 

Manchester, N. H- 
Manitowoc, Wis... 

Mansfield, Ohio 

Maplewood, N. J.. 



Marion, Ind 

Marion, Ohio 

Mason City, lowa. 

MassOlon, Ohio 

Maywood, 111 



McKeesport, Pa. 

Medford, Mass... 
Melrose, Mass... 
Memphis, Tenn. 
Meriden, Conn.. 



Meridian, Miss 

Miami, Fla 

Miami Beach, Fla.. 
Michigan Oity, Ind. 
Middletown, Conn.. 

Middletown, Ohio.. 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

Mishawaka, Ind 

Mobile, Ala . 



Mnline, 111 

Monroe, La 

Montclair, N. ,T 

Montgomery, Ala 

Morgantown, W. Va. 



Mount Lebanon, Pa 

Mount Vernon, N. Y... 

M uncie, Ind 

Muskegon, Mich 

Muskogee, Okla 



Nashua, N. H 

Nashville, Tenn... 
New .Albany, Ind. 

Newark, N. J 

Newark, Ohio 



New Bedford, Mass... 

New Britain, Conn 

New Brunswick, N. J. 

Newburgh, N. Y 

New Castle, Pa 



New Haven, Conn... 
New Kensington, Pa- 
New London, Conn.. 

New Orleans, La 

Newport, Ky 



Newport, R. I 

Newport News, Va. . 
New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Newton, Mass 

New York, N. Y 



Niagara Falls, N. Y.. 
Norfolk, Va 

Norman, Okla 

Norristown, Pa 

Northampton, Mass. 



Rohhery 



93 
1 

5 

216 

21 

2 



12 

47 

177 

1 

57 

3 
3 
1 
15 
2 



2 

347 

2 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



296 
1 

24 

127 

1 



157 
33 

4 



1 

42 

1 

326 



Burglary, 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



58 
226 
137 
284 



65 
31 
39 
85 
17 

37 
52 
9 
69 
48 

97 
51 
22 
884 
61 

39 
1.956 
793 
49 
35 

69 

383 

1,410 

44 
610 

57 
57 
45 
334 
33 



91 
177 
161 

47 

15 

529 

45 

1,848 

62 



Larceny, theft 



$50 and 
over 



26 
130 
140 
121 
115 

32 

17 
14 
61 
15 

14 
43 
23 

7 
28 

55 
29 
14 
526 
61 

35 

830 

485 

41 

18 

50 
820 
668 

46 
126 

25 
42 
44 
118 
10 

9 

74 
31 
67 
26 

13 
444 

63 
833 

34 



1 


6 


4 




12 


21 


1 


5 


3 


7 


389 


385 


4 


3 


2 


3 


41 


S3 


3 


19 


1 


2 


2,974 


4, 532 


2 


30 


135 


423 


1 




8 






1 



228 132 
217 69 
Only 3 months received 

77 58 
41 39 



Under 
$50 



394 

8 

65 

1,764 

31 

47 
188 

89 

138 

18, 129 

150 
1,120 

12 
27 
12 



110 

6 

21 

1,248 

45 

27 
172 
114 
108 
20, 060 

152 

755 

57 

15 

16 



199 
465 
240 
389 
501 

159 
174 
101 
196 
12 

169 
195 
115 
134 
66 

212 
151 
66 
726 

81 

92 

2,426 

938 

201 

65 

250 
2,606 
2, 593 

152 

474 

182 
199 

83 
300 

59 

7 
194 
514 
283 
203 

64 
1,014 

202 
1,902 

209 

512 
286 

134 



436 

30 

96 

2,687 

74 

166 
,567 
100 
28H 
16,275 

280 
1, 498 

218 
42 
37 



18 

Table 9. — Number of Offenses Knoun to the Police, January-June, 1956, 
Cities Over 25,000 in Population — Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



North Borgcn, N. J 

North I.ittio Rock, Ark. 

Norwalk, Conn 

Norwich, Conn 

Norwood, Ohio 



Nutley, N. J 

Oakland, Calif.... 

Oak Park, 111 

Oak Ridge, Tenn. 
Odessa, Tex 



Ogdon, Utah-_ 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha, Ncbr 

Orange, N. J 

Orlando, Fla 



Oshkosh, Wis... 
Ottumwa, Iowa. 
Owonsboro, Ky. 
Paducah, Ky... 
Palo Alto, Calif- 



Panama City, Fla 

ParktTsburg, W. Va.. 

Parma, Ohio 

Pasadena, Calif 

Passaic, N. J 



Paterson, N. J 

Pawtucket, R. I 

Pensacola, Fla 

Peoria, 111 

Perth Amboy, N. J. 



Petersburg, Va... 
Philadelphia, Pa- 
Phoenix, Ariz 

Pine Bluff, Ark-. 
Pittsburgh, Pa... 



Pittsficld, Mass.. 
Plain field, N. J.- 
Pocatello, Idaho- 
Pomona, Calif-.. 
Pontiac, Mich.- . 



Port Arthur, Tex-. 
Port Huron, Mich. 
Portland, Maine.-. 

Portland, Oreg 

Portsmouth, Ohio- 



Portsmouth, Va 

Poughkcepsie, N. Y. 

Providence, R. I 

Provo, Utah-.- 

Pueblo, Colo 



Quincy, 111 

Quincy, Mass 

Racine, Wis 

Raleigh, N. C 

Rapid City, S. Dak. 



Reading, Pa 

Redondo Beach, Calif- 
Redwood City, Calif-. 

Reno, Nov 

Revere, Mass 



Richmond, Calif- 
Richmond, Ind.. 
Richmond, Va... 
Riverside, Calif.. 
Roanoke, Va 



Robbery 



20f) 
U 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Burglary, 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny, theft 



$50 and 
over 



4 
2 

4 
1 
2 
34 
5 

58 
5 

13 

32 

5 

13 

1,040 

72 

7 

401 



1 

7 
10 
18 

2 
1 
3 

147 
11 

22 

1 

21 



22 
18 

5 
2f. 

4 

25 

7 

137 

10 

10 



3 63 

No reports received 
78 
21 
42 



No reports received 



301 

1 

7 

32 

4 
55 
46 



11 

9 

66 
4 

58 

74 

5 

63 

1, 591 

101 

16 

297 

1 
4 
5 
8 
21 

6 



7 

100 

3 

166 

12 

78 

1 

9 



16 

168 

1 

5 

2 

1 

17 



38 

3 

154 

10 

41 



1,275 

78 

17 

138 

64 
833 

358 

56 

250 

37 
23 

54 
77 
34 

54 

50 

42 

345 

106 

330 
112 
165 
335 
65 

90 

4,417 

675 

103 

1,777 

70 
49 
64 
114 
218 

15 

46 

88 

927 

216 

272 
62 

631 
20 

123 

55 
184 

92 

180 

9 

109 
240 

47 
246 

63 

225 
114 

876 
160 
142 



232 
36 

17 
93 

52 
785 
102 

35 
161 

32 
6 
59 
40 
79 

39 
52 
16 

277 
44 

50 

85 
77 
128 
76 

31 

2,837 

405 

2 

848 

21 
54 
39 
75 
111 

19 
20 
63 

896 

84 

180 
42 
455 



41 
60 
54 
103 
44 

45 
94 
56 
152 
24 

114 
47 
404 
189 
123 



Under 

$50 



114 
47 
72 



^,566 

107 

57 

619 

552 

1,715 

1.067 

115 

364 

264 
103 
176 
102 
264 

70 
103 

50 
945 

41 

305 
253 
380 
856 
173 

259 

4,707 

1,846 

51 

1,420 

100 
153 
288 
253 
474 

104 
243 
326 
2,464 
319 

462 
213 
1,187 
265 
458 

178 
394 
408 
377 
141 

322 
397 
272 
403 
149 

796 
126 
1,926 
643 
556 



19 

'able 9. — Number of Offenses Knotvn to the Police, January-June, 
Cities Over 25,000 in Population — Continued 



1956, 



City 



ochpster, Minn 

ochester, N. Y 

ockfnrd, 111 

ock Island, 111 

iocky Mount, N. C. 



tome, Ga 

tome, N. Y 

toswcll, N. Mex.. 
;oyal Oak, Mich., 
aeraniento, Calif. 



aginaw, Mich-. 
t. Cloud, Minn. 
t. Joseph, Mo.__ 

t. I.ouis, Mo 

t. Paul, Minn. _ 



t. Petersburg, Fla.-.. 

alem, Mass 

alem, Oreg 

alina, Kans 

alt Lake City, Utah_ 



an Angelo, Tex 

an Antonio, Tex 

an Bernardino, Calif- 

an Diego, Calif 

andusky, Ohio 



Ian Francisco, Calif. 

an Jose, Calif 

an Leandro, Calif-. 

an Mateo, Calif 

5anta Ana, Calif 



anta Barbara, Calif. 

anta Fe, N. Mex 

anta Monica, Calif. . 

avannah, Ga 

chenectady, N. Y.-_ 



5cranton, Pa 

^leattle, Wash 

5haker Heights, Ohio. 

■5haron, Pa 

Sheboygan, Wis 



Shreveport, La 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 

Somerville, Mass 

South Bend, Ind 



South Gate, Calif. 
Spartanburg, S. C. 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, 111 

Springfield, Mass.. 



Springfield, Mo 

Springfield, Ohlo... 

Stamford, Conn 

Steubenville, Ohio. 
Stockton, Calif 



Stratford, Conn. 

Superior, Wis 

Syracuse, N. Y_. 
Tacoma, Wash.. 
Tallahassee, Fla. 



Tampa, Fla 

Taunton, Mass... 

Teaneck, N. J 

Temple, Tex 

Terre Haute, Ind. 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



11 
130 



2 

866 
69 



6 
3 
35 

3 
120 
31 
109 

1 

651 
31 

18 
5 
8 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



27 
47 
10 

6 

175 

3 



77 



959 
31 



Burglary, 
breaking 
or enter- 



24 
416 
149 
66 
69 

62 
42 
36 
124 

470 

77 

30 

62 

3,361 

864 



Larceny, theft 



$50 and 
over 



22 

234 

77 
82 
44 

27 
28 
25 
61 
527 

58 

32 

38 

,789 

366 



15 225 140 

No reports received 



Under 

$50 



3 

7 
17 

17 
302 

34 
100 

11 

440 

13 

5 

5 

20 

18 

4 

25 

259 

3 

11 

97 

6 

1 



63 

69 

493 

136 

1,467 

341 

623 

22 

2,661 

272 

151 

63 

181 

134 

128 

378 

347 

88 

253 

1,918 

23 

26 

22 



47 
34 
465 

36 

554 

244 

1,023 

32 

960 

351 

86 

97 

105 

67 

76 
425 
289 

76 

25 
817 
27 
18 
30 



No reports received 

111 

67 

184 

350 



8 
13 
26 

122 
5 



244 
105 
388 
120 
316 



128 

73 

336 

29 

47 

279 

307 

94 

827 
61 
76 
52 

141 



65 
67 
172 
166 

240 
69 

129 
49 
42 



53 
141 

37 
369 

41 
11 

245 
279 
57 

342 
16 
21 
20 
62 



131 

1,169 
399 
270 
211 

53 
62 
53 
439 
1,579 

863 

214 

190 

7,379 

1,984 

591 

252 

349 

1,792 

193 
2, 773 

682 
2,297 

135 

5,438 

1,180 

380 

394 

547 

443 
216 
677 
404 
54 

246 

3,376 

171 

54 

137 



568 
291 

278 
725 

438 
191 
1,454 
397 
399 

293 
321 
294 
141 
804 

116 
209 
836 
999 

218 

1, 304 
156 
84 
129 
304 



Auto 
theft 



13 

229 
47 
79 
18 

40 
11 
24 
85 
353 

66 

6 

29 

2,714 

407 

65 

19 

10 

261 

43 
741 
122 
561 

15 

3,228 

304 

46 

85 

71 

33 

70 

234 

216 

34 

86 

1,013 

30 

12 

24 



65 

18 

108 



144 
52 

181 
72 

151 

45 
36 
37 
66 
137 

20 
21 
136 
147 
37 

232 

20 

8 

30 

39 



20 

Table 9. — IWumber of Offenses Knoivn to the Police, January— June, 1956, 
Cities Over 25,000 in Population — Continued 



City 



Toledo, Ohio 

Topplia, Kans 

Torrington, Conn. 

Trenton, N. J 

Troy, N. Y 



Tucson, Ariz — 

Tulsa, Okla 

Tuscaloosa, Ala- 
Tyler, Tex 

Union, N. J 



Union City, N.J 

University City, Mo. 

Upper Darby, Pa 

Utica, N. Y 

Vallejo, Calif 



Valley Stream, N. Y. 

Vancouver, Wash 

VicksburR, Miss 

Waco, Tex 

Waltham, Mass 



Warren, Ohio 

Warwick, R. I 

Warwick, Va 

Washington, D. C. 
Washington, Pa — 



Waterhury, Conn. 
Waterloo, Iowa. .. 
Watertown, Mass. 
Watertown, N. Y. 
Waukegan, 111 



Wausau, Wis 

Wauwatosa, Wis 

West Allis, Wis 

West Hartford, Conn- 
West Haven, Conn..- 



West New York, N. J.. 

West Orange, N. J 

West Palm Beach, Fla. 

Weymouth, Mass 

Wheeling, W. Va 



White Plains, N. Y 

Wichita, Kans 

Wichita Falls, Tex- 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa.. 
Wilkinsburg, Pa... 



Williamsport, Pa. 

Wilmington, Del 

Wilmington, N. C 

Winona, Minn -- 

Winston-Salem, N. C. 



Woodbridge, N. J. 
Woonsocket, K. I. 
Worcester, Mass.. 
Wyandotte, Mich. 
Yakima, Wash 



Yonkers, N. Y 

York, Pa 

Youngstown, Ohio. 
Zanesville, Ohio 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gont man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



117 
14 

1 
SC 

4 

3.1 



1 

15 

366 

3 

3 

5 



Aggra- 
vat('(i 
assault 



Rurghiry. 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



107 
22 

1 
40 

7 

31 
70 
48 
2 
3 



59 
1,338 



650 
164 
25 
328 
120 

378 

,581 

76 

36 

80 

90 
40 
66 
115 
73 

40 

&? 

25 

305 



56 

113 

152 

1,641 

13 

188 
71 
60 
63 
74 

17 
35 
35 
38 
54 



I.iarceny, theft 



$50 and 
over 



517 

96 

7 

149 

48 

l.OO 

443 

37 

11 

40 

25 
82 
23 
42 
65 

39 
62 
17 
84 
38 

49 
63 

95 

881 

27 

69 
46 
25 
29 
60 

9 
26 
42 
12 
21 



Under 
$50 



Complete data not received 2 



1 

21 

1 

1 

107 
18 
8 
1 

2 

18 

137 



46 
128 
37 

47 

63 

626 

219 

71 

37 

58 
323 
126 

15 
231 

75 
57 

502 
75 

138 

139 

111 

247 

46 



46 
74 
21 
46 

99 

373 

119 

47 

11 

47 
187 
76 
20 



54 
31 
197 
32 
67 

5:? 
52 
250 
35 



659 
49 

360 
27 

1,238 

1, 185 

IZi 

109 

154 

86 
178 
246 
297 
278 



152 
48 
585 
188 

172 

71 

247 

3,377 

59 

190 
248 
80 
110 
191 

139 
131 
295 
25 

55 



91 

248 

46 

44 

143 
1,885 
859 
180 
107 

181 
679 
262 
73 
528 

84 
130 
(V41 
207 
932 

501 
322 
565 
173 



' Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 
2 The crime reporting for the city indicated does not meet acceptable standards established by the Com- 
mittee on Uniform Crime Records of the International Association of Chiefs of Police. 



Police Employee Data 



Police Killed, 1955 

Police in 3,732 cities reported that 55 employees were killed in 
line of duty during the calendar year 1955. The figure 55 does not 
represent all cities in the country but is limited to the area indicated 
in tables 10-12. 

A comparison of the rate per unit of population in table 10 with 
that for 1954 indicates a slight decrease in 1955 in the number of 
police who lost their lives in line of duty by acts of criminals, traffic 
accidents, and the like. 

By measuring the 55 deaths in line of duty against the total police 
employees in the reporting cities (table 11), 1 death for every 3,129 
police employees is indicated. Similar figures in 1954 disclosed 1 
death for every 2,752 police employees. 

In table 10, the data are presented by geographic location and by 
city groups. Table 12 reflects a listing of the number of reporting 
cities and the population represented (1950 census figures). 

Table 10. — Number of Police Department Employees Killed, 1955, by 
Geographic Divisions and Population Groups 

[3,732 cities, total population 86,396,819, based on 1950 decennial census] 





Total 


Population group 


Geographic division 


Group 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 




Num- 
ber 


Rate per 
5,000,000 
inhab- 
itants 


Over 
250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


Total number 


55 


---- 


22 
3.2 


4 
2.1 


8 
4.6 


4 
2.1 


10 
4.1 


7 


Rate per 5,000,000 inhabitants 


2.8 










2 
5 
13 
3 

11 
4 
5 
2 

10 


1.5 
1.1 
3.3 
2.2 

6.4 
.5.1 
3.8 
4.0 
5.5 


2 

6 
2 

2 
__ 


2 
















2 


1 


East North Central.. 


1 


1 
1 

4 


2 


3 


West North Central 




South Atlantic . 




3 
2 


2 


East South Central 


1 




2 


2 






2 

1 






9 





















(21) 



22 
Number of Police Employees, April 30, 1956 

The Tuimbor of police per unit of population is only one of numerous 
factors for consideration in an attempted study of the amount of 
crime in a particular area. Preoccupation as to the numerical 
strength of a police department leads to oversimplification of a 
highly complex problem. Selection, training, pay, retirement pro- 
visions, and quality of supervision are only some of the other items 
that must be considered. 

A portion of the police strength is never on duty in the streets 
and thus is never apparent to the public. The effectiveness of the 
police in the streets is dependent to a large extent on an unseen 
headquarters corps. Police administrators have continued to improve 
their street coverage b}^ obtaining civilian personnel to release police 
officers from the increasingly important and technical work at head- 
quarters. They have had to overcome a historical conception that 
a police employee can only be a uniformed officer. This has made 
difficult the employment of civilians more properly qualified, in some 
instances, than uniformed officers for some inside duties. 

The 10 percent of police personnel who are civilians in 1956 repre- 
sent a point on a steady curve indicating a continued rise in the 
employment of civilians by police organizations. The growth in 
the employment of civilians has been gradual and steady. For 
example, the percentage in 1950 was 7.5. 

Table 11 shows a geographic distribution by city groups of the 
172,069 police employees reported as of April 30, 1956, by 3,732 city 
police departments. The number of police emploj^ees per 1,000 
inhabitants is also listed. These departments represent almost 97 
percent of the city population in this country. 

School-crossing guards, as well as other part-time employees, are 
included in the published numerical police strength. However, 
such part-time employees are represented in the figures only to the 
extent that they equalled the hours of work of full-time employees. 
Some agencies report school guards as civilians while others state 
that they are police officers. 

Here is a list of the percentage of civilian employees by city groups : 

Police Employee Data, 1956 cenTage 

civilian 

em- 
Population group: ployees 

Total, all cities 10. 

Group I (over 250,000) 11. 2 

Group II (100,000-250,000) 12. 7 

Group III (50,000-100,000) 11. 1 

Group IV (25,000-50,000) 8. 2 

Group V (10,000-25,000) 5. 7 

Ciroup VI (2,500-10,000)^. 0. 



23 



Table 11. — Police Department Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Number and Rate 
Per 1,000 Inhabitants, by Geographic Divisions and Population Groups 

[3,732 cities, total population 86,396,819, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Division 



Total : 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants _. 

New England: 

.\uinl)er of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants -- 

Middle Atlantic: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of emploj'ees per 1,000 
inhabitants 

East North Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants 

West North Central : 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants 

South Atlantic : • 

Number of police employees.. 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhairiitants 

East South Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants 

West South Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants 

Mountain : 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants 

Pacific : 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants 

' Includes the District of Columbia. 



TOTAL 



14, 046 
2.1 

53, 593 
2.4 

37. 460 
1.9 

10, 413 
1.5 

17, 781 
2.1 

6,038 
1.5 

9,327 
1.4 

4,025 
1.6 

19, 386 
2.1 



Population group 



Group 
I 



Over 
250,000 



,380 
2.5 



3,027 
3.8 

35,816 
2.9 

20,886 
2.3 

4,522 
1.9 

6,011 

2.8 

1,598 
1.5 

2,903 
1.7 

748 
1.8 

10, 869 
2.4 



Group 
II 



100,000 

to 
250,000 



16, 854 
1.8 



3,821 
2.3 

3,220 
2.0 

2,380 
1.6 

831 
1.4 

2,348 
1.7 

1,107 
1.7 

1,559 
1.5 

485 
1.7 

1,103 
1.7 



Group 
III 



50,000 

to 
100,000 



14, 960 
1.7 



1,961 
1.9 

3,169 
2.0 

3, 333 
1.6 



2,386 
1.7 



438 
1.6 



338 

1.6 

1,559 
1.9 



Group 
IV 



25,000 

to 
50,000 



15, 930 
1.7 



2,610 
1.9 

3,226 
1.9 

3,493 
1.5 

846 
1.3 

2,058 
1.9 

708 
1.5 



685 
1.7 

1,496 
1.9 



Group 
V 



10,000 

to 
25,000 



19, 259 
1.6 



1,938 
1.6 

4,390 
1.7 

3, 457 
1.5 

1,512 
1.3 

2,229 
1.9 



1,538 
1.3 

749 
1.6 

2, 562 
1.9 



Group 
VI 



Less 
than 
10,000 



18, 686 
1.5 



3,772 
1.5 

3,911 
1.5 

1,794 
1.3 

2,749 
1.9 

1,303 
1.6 

1,651 
1.2 

1,020 
1.5 

1,797 
2.1 



396976= 



-56- 



24 



AVERAGE NUMBER OF POLICE 
DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES 

BY POPULATION GROUPS 
APRIL 30, 1956 




PER 
1,000 INHABITANTS 



2.5 



1.5 



1.6 



1.7 1.7 



1.8 



AVERAGE CITIES CITIES CITIES CITIES CITIES CITIES 

OE ALL LESS 10,000 25.000 50.000 100.000 OVER 

CITIES THAN TO TO TO TO 250.000 

10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 250,000 





rSl CNiWT 



Fiaitre 2. 



25 

Tabic 12. — Number of Cities Used in Tabiilalions Regardirifi Nitmher of 
Police Deparlnient Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, find Police Killed, 1955 

[Population figures from 1950 decennial census] 





TOTAL 


Population group 


Division 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 




Over 
2.50,000 


100,000 to 
250,000 


50,000 to 
100,000 


25,000 to 
50,000 


10,000 to 
25,000 


Less than 
10,000 


TOTAL: 

Population represented. 
Number of cities 


86, 396, 819 
3,732 


34, 362, 510 
40 


9,317,629 
64 


8, 739, 058 
124 


9, 474, 861 
271 


12, 123, 939 
792 


12, 378, 822 
2,441 


New England: Total popu- 
lation, 6,600,565 


221 
739 
796 
420 
442 
229 
385 
188 
312 


1 
7 
9 
5 
3 
3 
4 
1 


11 
12 
10 
4 
8 
5 
7 
2 
5 


15 
23 
31 
9 
19 
4 
9 
3 
11 


37 
49 
66 
21 
32 
15 
16 
12 
23 


78 
167 
161 
80 
75 
36 
75 
30 
90 


79 


Middle Atlantic: Total 
population, 22,356,173 

East North Central: Total 
population, 19,902,828 

West North Central: Total 
population, 6,944,31! 

South Atlantic: Total pop- 
ulation, 8,634,623 


481 
519 
301 
305 


East South Central: Total 
population, 3,903,315 

West South Central: Total 
population, 6,530,490 

Mountain: Total popula- 
tion, 2,471,039 


166 
274 
140 


Pacific: Total population, 
9,053,475 


176 







Police Employees in Individual Cities 

Tables 13 and 14 list police strength by cities. Civilian employees 
are reported separately for cities over 25,000. 

School-crossing guards paid from police funds are counted in the 
police strength of a city, as are other part-time employees. How- 
ever, the total hours worked by part-time employees, such as school 
guards, and not the number of such emploj^ees are considered in 
presenting figures for those who work less than a full-time week. 
For example, 5 school guards whose total time equals that of 2.6 
regular officers are counted as 2 employees rather than as 5. Frac- 
tions of less than 0.75 are ignored in the conversion. 

Tliose cities reporting school guards as well as any part-time 
employees and wdiose published strength includes a conversion to a 
full-time equivalent are marked by a footnote in the tables. 

Auxiliarj^ police, merchant police, night watchmen, schoolboy 
patrols, and other persons who are not paid or who receive their 
pay from sources other than police funds are not included in tables 
1.3 and 14. 

Tlie possible differences in the length of the workweek in cities 
should be considered in any attempted comparison of the figures for 
two or more cities. 



26 



Table 13. — Number of Police Department Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
Over 25,000 in Population 



City 


Number of police de- 
partment employees 


City 


Number of police de- 
partment employees 




TOTAL 


Police 
officers 


Civil- 
ians 


TOTAL 


Police 
officers 


Civil- 
ians 


ALABAMA 
Anni^ton ' _ 


56 

35 
439 

93 
226 
178 

73 

243 

106 

51 
38 
155 
62 
40 

76 

87 

139 

138 

77 

151 

79 

248 

185 

44 

53 

74 

470 

5,562 

34 

787 

50 

208 

74 

47 

42 

145 

271 

167 

596 

1,800 

153 

£3 

91 

71 
165 

71 
135 

81 

92 

748 
99 

395 
61 
61 
134 
429 
96 
51 


50 

35 
390 

77 
186 
167 

67 

210 

93 

48 
37 
141 
62 
37 

71 

75 

109 

132 

65 

128 

63 

224 

138 

39 

51 

65 

375 

4,384 

30 

674 

48 

163 

63 

45 

39 

127 

230 

150 

512 

1,693 

146 

41 

68 

84 

64 

128 

57 

122 

09 

S5 

621 

92 

357 
59 
58 
117 
370 
93 
41 


6 

'49 

16 

40 

11 

6 

33 

13 

3 

1 
14 

3 

5 

12 

30 

6 

12 

23 

16 

24 

47 

5 

2 

9 

95 

1,178 

4 

113 

2 

45 

11 

2 

3 

18 

41 

17 

84 

107 

12 
4 
7 
7 
37 
14 
13 
12 

127 
7 

38 
2 
3 

17 

59 
3 

10 


CONNECTICUT-Con. 

New Haven '. 

New London • 

Norwalk 1 


464 
72 

111 
55 

196 
62 
64 

270 
80 
64 

240 

2,451 

68 
116 

49 
430 

44 

62 
229 
113 

43 
106 
129 

63 
285 

96 

49 

37 
720 
163 
128 

41 
121 

50 
190 

59 
39 

45 
78 
38 
46 
45 
45 
8,867 
89 
33 
72 

100 
48 

130 
39 
30 
74 
25 
31 
37 


430 
69 

108 
53 

171 
57 
62 

256 
77 
63 

214 

2,236 

61 

100 
42 

360 
43 
53 

167 
99 
31 
94 

111 
58 

253 
88 

48 

36 
620 
146 
127 

40 
119 

44 
158 

53 
34 

45 
68 
37 
46 
40 
41 
8,078 
82 
33 
67 
75 
42 
98 
34 
30 
6S 
24 
31 
33 


34 
3 




3 




Norwich ' 


2 




Stamford ' 

Stratford I 

Torrington i 

Wiiterbury '.. 

West Hartford- 


25 




5 


Tuscaloosa • 

ARIZONA 


2 
14 
3 




West Haven '.-. . ... 


1 




DELAWARE 
Wilmington 








ARKANSAS 


32 


Fort Smith 


DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 
Washington'. 








Little Rock 


215 


North Little Rock 


FLORIDA 
Davtona Beach ' ... 




Pine Bluff 




CALIFORNIA 


7 




Fort Lauderdale 

Gainesville.. 


16 




Jacksonville' 


70 


Bakersfield * 


Key West ' 


1 




Lakeland .. . 


9 


Beverly Hills i 


Miami Beach ... ... 


62 




Orlando' .. 


14 




Panama City.. ... 


12 




Pensacola.. . 


12 


Glendal*^ i 


St. Petersburg' 


IS 




Tallahassee 


5 




Tampa 


32 




West Palm Beach ' 

GEORGIA 
Albany 


8 


Long Beach 1 














1 


Palo Alto 


Athens 


1 




Atlanta' 


lIU) 




Augusta'..- -- 


17 




Columbus ... . . 


1 




La Grange. -. 


1 




Macon ' 


2 




Rome ... 


6 




Savannah ' 


32 




IDAHO 
Boise 




San Francisco 




San Jose 






6 




Pocatello 


5 


Santa Ana. . 


ILUNOIS 
Alton 








Santa Monica^ 




South Gate ^ 




Stockton 


Aurora ' 


10 




Belleville 


1 




Berwyn ' -. 




COLORADO 


Bloomington ' 

Champaign 


5 
4 




Chicago ' 


789 




Cicero 


7 


Pueblo 


Danville 








5 


CONNECTICUT 




2S 




Elgin 


6 


Bridgeport.- 


Evanston ' 

Oalesburg' 


32 


Bristol ' 





Kiust Hartford 


Granite City 






Joliet 


6 


Hartford ' 


Kankakee - 


1 








Middletown ' 


Moline 


4 



Sec footnote at end of table. 



27 

Table 13. — Number of Police Department Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
Over 25,000 in Populntion — Continued 



City 



ILIIN OIS— Continued 

OakParki 

Peoria ' 

Quincy 

Rockfordi 

Rock Island 

Springfield ' 

Waukegan 



INDIANA 

Anderson ' 

Bloomington _.. 

East Chicago i 

Elkhart 1 

Evansville 

Fort Wayne -_., 

Gary! 

Hammond i 

Indianapolis '. 

Kokomo 

La Fayette 

Marion 

Michigan City 

Mishawaka ' 

Muncie i 

New Albany 

Richmond 

South Bend ' 

Terre Haute 



IOWA 

Burlington 

Cedar Rapids 

Clinton 

Council Bluffs--_ 

Davenport ' 

Des Moines 

Dubuque 

Fort Dodge 

Iowa City 

Mason City i 

Ottumwa • 

Sioux City 

Waterloo 



KANSAS 



Hutchinson.. 
Kansas City. 

Salina 

Topeka' 

Wichita 



KENTUCKY 



Ashland 

Covington... 
Lexington ■.. 
Louisville •.. 

Newport 

Owensboro '. 
Paducah 



LOUISIANA 



Alexandria 

Baton Rouge. 

Lafayette 

Lake Charles. 



Number of pol 


ce de- 


partment employees 1 


TOTAL 


Police 


Civil- 




officers 


lans 


86 


80 


6 


153 


145 


8 


45 


43 


2 


117 


110 


7 


52 


48 


4 


111 


89 


22 


51 


48 


3 


78 


74 


4 


41 


38 


3 


139 


127 


12 


70 


64 


6 


202 


190 


12 


215 


211 


4 


239 


198 


41 


161 


133 


28 


864 


755 


109 


66 


61 


5 


56 


55 


1 


47 


47 




49 


48 


1 


49 


43 


6 


97 


93 


4 


30 


30 




54 


50 


4 


204 


195 


9 


91 


90 


1 


33 


32 


1 


97 


89 


8 


30 


30 




53 


44 


9 


106 


89 


17 


210 


187 


23 


54 


53 


1 


26 


26 




24 


24 




39 


32 


7 


36 


32 


4 


103 


86 


17 


75 


74 


1 


39 


36 


3 


181 


147 


34 


42 


35 


1 


136 


104 


32 


302 


250 


52 


35 


33 


2 


88 


83 


5 


103 


97 


6 


587 


535 


52 


60 


52 


S 


53 


50 


3 


59 


59 




60 


58 


2 


165 


148 


17 


46 


45 


1 


42 


41 


1 



City 



MAINE 

Bangor ' 

Lewiston ' 

Portland 

MARYLAND 

Baltimore ' 

Cumberland ' 

Hagerstown ' 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Arlington i 

Belmont i 

Beverly ' 

Boston 

Brockton ' 

Brookline 

Cambridge 

Chelsea ' 

Chicopee 1 

Everett ' 

Fall River I 

Fitchburg '... 

Framingham 

Gloucester '.. ... .. . 

Haverhill' 

Holyoke 

Lawrence ; 

Lowell ' 

Maiden ' 

Medford 

Melrose ' 

New Bedford.. ._ 

Northampton ' 

Pittsfleld I 

Quincy 

Revere 

Salem 1 

Somerville 

Springfield ' 

Taunton ' 

Waltham 

Watertown i 

Weymouth 

Worcester ' 

MICHIGAN 

Ann Arbor 

Battle Creek 

Bay City 

Dearborn i 

Detroit 

Ferndale ' 

Flint I 

Grand Rapids' 

Hamtramck 

Highland Park 

Jackson 

Kalamazoo ' 

Lansing 

Lincoln Park' 

Muskegon 

Pontiac 

Port Huron ' 

Royal Oak' 

Saginaw ' 

Wyandotte ' 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



TOTAL 



63 
62 
112 



2,840 
63 
68 



62 

.027 

107 

138 

234 

75 

100 

115 

262 

77 

40 

53 

72 

114 

145 

192 

126 

109 

62 

234 

42 

91 

156 

. 74 

81 

167 

372 

73 

86 

75 

65 

397 



64 

65 

95 

218 

,907 

48 

316 

258 



126 

144 
53 
89 

138 
61 
75 

148 



Police 

officers 



53 
59 
106 



2,468 
57 
56 



79 
42 
57. 
2,824 
101 
132 
225 
73 
79 
111 
239 
70 
40 
51 
71 
112 
137 
175 
126 
105 
51 
222 
41 
87 
149 
69 
75 
165 
349 
70 
81 
69 
63 
357 



55 
55 
84 

183 

4,424 

41 

268 

218 
89 

100 
78 
91 

140 
50 
72 

117 
52 
63 

136 
62 



See footnote at end of table. 



28 



Table 13. — IWiiniber of Police Depnrltnenl Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
Over 25,000 in Population — Continued 



City 



MINNESOTA 



Duluth 

Minneapolis. 

Rochester 

St. Cloud.... 

fit. Paul 

Winona 



MISSISSIPPI 



Ctreenville L. 
Hatlieshurg. 

Jackson 

Laurel 

Meridian 

Vicksburg i. 



MISSOURI 



Columbia 

Independence 

Jefferson City 

Joplin ' 

Kansas City ' 

St. Joseph 

St. Louis' 

Springfield 

University City. 



MONTANA 



Billings 

Butte 

Great Falls. 



NEBRASKA 



Lincoln '. 
Omaha.-- 



NEVADA 
Reno ' 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 



Concord '... 
Manchester. 
Nashua ' 



NEW JERSEY 



Atlantic City '... 

Bayonne ' ___ 

Belleville' 

Bloomfield ' 

Camden 

Clifton' 

East Orange ' 

Elizabeth ' 

Garfield 

Uackensack ' 

Hamilton ' 

Hoboken 

Irvington ' 

Jersey City ' 

Kearny ' 

I^inden 

Maplewood ' 

Montclair ' 

Newark ' 

New Brunswick. 

Nutley ' 

Orange ' 

Passaic 



Number of police de- 


partment employees 


TOTAL 


Police 


Civil- 




officers 


ians 


138 


123 


15 


033 


578 


55 


ri4 


.53 


1 


34 


32 


2 


430 


416 


14 


34 


34 




46 


41 


5 


39 


35 


4 


154 


12P- 


28 


30 


30 




69 


62 


7 


40 


40 




44 


40 


4 


37 


37 




30 


30 




5fi 


43 


13 


741 


.568 


173 


99 


85 


14 


2, 353 


1.856 


497 


91 


86 


5 


47 


46 


1 


57 


53 


4 


36 


34 


2 


48 


45 


3 


120 


95 


25 


365 


306 


59 


103 


84 


19 


46 


44 


2 


124 


116 


8 


55 


49 


6 


196 


162 


34 


207 


182 


25 


69 


64 


5 


100 


88 


12 


303 


200 


103 


97 


85 


12 


148 


135 


13 


273 


254 


19 


46 


46 




74 


73 


1 


74 


70 


4 


162 


162 




109 


93 


16 


1,019 


823 


196 


117 


111 


6 


IOC) 


106 




52 


47 


5 


110 


105 


5 


1,357 


1,217 


140 


78 


76 


2 


53 


45 


8 


94 


91 


3 


125 


125 





City 



NEW JERSEY— Continued 



Paterson '. 

Perth Amhoy 

Plainfiold' 

Teaneck _. 

Trenton 

Union ' 

Union City' 

West New York '. 

West Orange ' 

Woodbridge 



NEW MEXICO 



Albuquerque ' 

Roswell 

Santa Fe 



NEW YORK 



Albany 

Amsterdam ' 

Auburn ' 

Binghamton ' 

Buffalo' 

Elmira 

Hemps; ead ' 

Irondequoit 

Ithaca ' 

Jamestown 

Kingston ' 

Lackawanna • 

Lnckport 

Mount Vernon '.. 

Newburgh 

New Rochelle '... 
New York City '. 

Niagara Falls 

Poughkeepsie ' 

Rochester ' 

Rome ' 

Schenectady ' 

Syracuse ' 

Troy 

Utica. 

Watertown '. 

White Plains '---- 
Y'onkers ' 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



NORTH CAROUNA 



Asheville 

Charlotte 

Durham ' 

Fayetteville ' 

Greensboro ' 

High Point' 

Kannapolis-. 

Raleigh ' 

Rocky Mount '.. 

Wiliningtoii ' 

Wiiislou-Salfm '. 



NORTH DAKOTA 



Fargo '. 

Grand Forks. 



OHIO 

Akron' 

Alliance ' 

Barberton '. 

Canton 

Cincinnati ' 

Cleveland ' 



TOTAL 


Police 


Civil- 




officers 


ians 


.3:i7 


274 


63 


93 


90 


3 


86 


75 


11 


47 


47 




280 


256 


24 


93 


72 


21 


134 


117 


17 


86 


86 




75 


65 


10 


76 


76 




164 


134 


30 


32 


32 




31 


31 




364 


260 


104 


47 


45 


2 


60 


58 


2 


145 


119 


26 


1, 522 


1,248 


274 


90 


90 




80 


75 


5 


32 


32 




40 


35 


5 


71 


65 


6 


58 


57 


1 


62 


61 


1 


38 


37 


1 


176 


152 


24 


53 


53 




156 


130 


26 


24, 396 


22, 654 


1,742 


174 


168 


6 


89 


72 


17 


579 


478 


101 


62 


51 


11 


180 


151 


29 


443 


341 


102 


203 


153 


50 


182 


172 


10 


56 


51 


5 


146 


134 


12 


317 


270 


47 


85 


83 


2 


273 


248 


25 


119 


103 


16 


78 


68 


10 


153 


141 


12 


S3 


72 


11 


24 


23 


1 


126 


102 


24 


57 


54 


3 


97 


77 


20 


165 


152 


13 


66 


58 


8 


31 


29 


2 


323 


269 


54 


31 


31 




37 


31 


6 


143 


138 


5 


961 


900 


61 


2,150 


1, S09 


341 



See footnote at end of table. 



29 

Table 13. — Number of Police Department Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
Over 25,000 in Population — Continued 



City 



OHIO — Continued 



Cleveland Heights '. 

Columbus 1 

Cuyahoga Falls ' 

Dayton 

East Cleveland i 

Elyria 

Euclid ' 

Hamilton 

Kettering 

Lakewood ' 

Lima 

Lorain 

Mansfield 

Marion 

Massillon 

Middletown 

Newark 

Norwood I 

Parma 

Portsmouth 

Sandusky 

Shaker Heights ' 

Springfield 

Steubenville 

Toledo 

Warren 

Youngstown 

Zanesville 



OKLAHOMA 



Enid 

Lawton 

Muskogee 

Norman 

Oklahoma City. 
Tulsa 



OREGON 



Eugene 

Portland '. 
Salem 



PENNSYLVANIA 



Abington ' 

Aliquippa 1 

Allentown i 

Altoona i 

Chester 

Easton 

Erie! 

Harrisburg...: 

Haverford 

Hazleton i 

Johnstown 

Lancaster i 

Lebanon ' 

Lower Merion ' 

McKeesport i 

Mount Lebanon. _. 

New Castle 

New Kensington '. 

Norristown ' 

Philadelphia ' 

Pittsburgh ' 

Reading ' 

Scranton L 

Sharon i 

Upper Darby 

Washington 

Wilkes-Barre ' 

WUkinsburg ' 



Number of pol 


ce de- 


partment employees 1 


TOTAL 


Police 


Civil- 




officers 


lans 


100 


67 


33 


605 


505 


100 


39 


32 


7 


352 


309 


43 


68 


60 


8 


41 


41 




78 


61 


17 


98 


95 


3 


15 


15 




78 


61 


17 


63 


57 


6 


56 


55 


1 


55 


53 


2 


36 


34 


2 


29 


29 




65 


62 


3 


42 


42 




45 


45 




49 


41 


8 


53 


51 


2 


34 


33 


1 


69 


67 


2 


101 


92 


9 


45 


44 


1 


469 


394 


75 


61 


59 


2 


.298 


275 


23 


35 


35 




48 


41 


7 


40 


40 




50 


48 


2 


23 


23 




328 


286 


42 


284 


244 


40 


62 


50 


42 


764 


665 


99 


71 


58 


13 


47 


47 




32 


31 


1 


141 


129 


12 


115 


86 


29 


86 


75 


11 


47 


45 


2 


206 


176 


30 


150 


144 


6 


48 


45 


3 


35 


34 


1 


92 


80 


12 


87 


81 


6 


40 


40 




111 


106 





95 


74 


21 


36 


33 


3 


60 


58 


2 


33 


33 




49 


46 


3 


5,382 


4,627 


755 


1,561 


1,439 


122 


180 


143 


37 


194 


173 


21 . 


36 


35 


1 


132 


110 


22 


33 


32 


1 


108 


105 


3 


51 


32 


19 



City 



PENNSYLVANIA— Con. 

Williamsport 

York'. 

RHODE ISLAND 

Cranston 

East Providence ' 

Newport 

Pawtucket ' 

Providence' 

Warwick 

Woonsocket 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston • 

Columbiai 

Greenville'. 

Spartanburg ' 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

Rapid City 

Sioux Falls ' 

TENNESSEE 

Chattanooga 

Jackson 

Johnson City 

Knoxville ' 

Memphis ' 

Nashville ' 

Oak Ridge 

TEXAS 

Abilene 

Amarillo ' 

Austin ' 

Beaumont'. 

Brownsville 

Corpus Christi 

Dallas' 

El Paso 

Fort Worth 

Galveston 

Houston ' 

Laredo ' 

Lubbock ' 

Odessa 

Port Arthur ' 

San Angelo 

San Antonio ' 

Temple 

Tyler 

Waco 

Wichita Falls ' 

UTAH 

Ogden ' 

Provo 

Salt Lake City 

VERMONT 
Burlington 

VIRGINIA 

Alexandria ' 

Arlington ' 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



TOTAL 



157 

597 

64 



116 
154 



Police 
officers 



70 
84 
133 
494 
60 



170 


153 


17 


155 


143 


12 


134 


122 


12 


77 


69 


8 


37 


33 


4 


72 


60 


12 


163 


156 


7 


42 


42 




37 


36 


1 


196 


159 


37 


572 


480 


92 


344 


269 


75 


35 


35 




87 


83 


4 


131 


114 


17 


230 


178 


52 


123 


113 


10 


61 


40 


21 


160 


148 


12 


1,000 


823 


177 


237 


205 


32 


496 


455 


41 


92 


88 


4 


958 


737 


221 


59 


55 


4 


139 


129 


10 


74 


72 


2 


66 


63 


3 


54 


54 




500 


380 


120 


31 


30 


1 


55 


54 


1 


109 


105 


4 


95 


74 


21 


75 


70 


5 


35 


31 


4 


242 


227 


15 



107 
131 



See lootnoto at eud oi' tublo. 



30 

Table 13. — Number of Police Department Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
Over 25,000 in Population— Conlinued 



City 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



TOTAI 



VIRGINIA— Con. 

Charlottesville ' 

Danville ' 

Hampton ' 

Lynchburg 

Newport News ' 

Norfolk 

Petersburg 

Portsmouth '. -.. 

Richmond i 

Roanoke - - 

Warwick ' 

WASHINGTON 

Bellingham 

Bremerton.. 

Everett -- 

Seattle ' 

Spokane 

Tacoma 

Vancouver 

Yakima 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Charleston ' 

Clarksburg 

Fairmont 

Huntington 

Morgan town 



44 
70 
64 
66 
76 
376 
45 
105 
394 
120 
42 



46 

55 

51 

890 

233 

253 

56 

74 



130 
31 
31 

127 
14 



Police 
officers 



44 
66 
58 
64 
70 
348 
42 
88 
362 
116 
37 



43 

47 

50 

782 

206 

225 

56 

74 



116 
31 
30 

102 
13 



Civil- 
ians 



1 

108 
27 
28 



City 



WEST VIRGINIA— Con. 

Parkersburg 

Wheeling 

WISCONSIN 

Appleton ' 

Beloit 

Eau Claire ' 

Fond du Lac ■ 

Green Bay ' 

Kenosha. -.- 

La Crosse' 

Madison 

Manitowoc 

Milwaukee i. - 

Oshkosh 

Racine ' 

Sheboygan 

Superior 

Wausau i 

Wauwatosa ' 

West Allis' 

WYOMING 

Cheyenne 

HAWAH 
Honolulu City 



Number of police de- 
partment employees 



TOTAL 



54 
48 
57 
43 
96 
88 
72 

171 

44 

1,802 

60 

136 
63 
58 
44 
68 

103 



Police 

officers 



48 
46 
51 
38 
85 
80 
64 

149 

42 

1,714 

60 

123 
63 
57 
41 
68 
95 



Civil- 
ians 



88 



1 The figures for the cities indicated include school-crossing guards and other part-time employees ex- 
pressed in terms of full-time personnel. See comments on page 25. 



31 

Table 14. — Number of Police Department Em.ployees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
With Population From 2,500 to 25,000 



City 



ALABAMA 



Albertville 

Alexander City 

Andalusia 

Athens i 

Atmore ' 

Attalla 

Auburn ' 

Boaz ' 

Brundidge 

Chickasaw 

Clan ton 

Cordova 

Cullman 

Decatur 

Demopolis- 

Dothan 

Elba-. 

Enterprise.-- 

Evergreen '-- - 

Fairfield 

Fairhope 

Fayette' 

Florala 

Florence 

Fort Payne 

Geneva 

Greenville 

Guntersville 

Haley ville 

Hartselle 

Homew^ood 

Huntsville 

Jackson ' 

Jacksonville 

Jasper--. 

Lanett i .- 

Leeds -. 

Lipscomb ' 

Marion.-- 

Mountain Brook '- 

Xorthport 

Oneonta 

Opelika 

Opp 

Ozark 

Phenix City 

Piedmont-.- 

Prattville' 

Priclaard ' 

Roanoke.. 

Russellville 

Scottsboro 

Selma 

S vlacauga 

Talladega' 

Tallassee '. 

Troy 

Tuscumbla 

Tuskegee 

Union Springs '_. 
Wetumpka 



ARIZONA 



Avondale ' 

Bisbee ... 

Casa Grande '. 

Chandler 

Clifton 

Coolidge 

Douglas 

Elov 

Flagstaff 

Glendale 

Globe 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



ARIZONA— Con. 

Mesa 

Miami 

Nogales 

Prescott 

Safford 

Tempe 

Tolleson 

Winslow ' 

Yuma 

ARKANSAS 

Ashdown 

Batesville — 

Benton 

Benton ville.- 

Brinkley 

Camden 

Clarendon 

Clarksville 

Conway 

Crossett 

DeWitt 

El Dorado 

Fayetteville 

Fordyce 

Forrest City 

Hamburg.- 

Harrison — 

Helena 

Magnolia.- 

Malvern ' 

Marked Tree ' 

Mena 

Monticello ' 

Morrilton 

Nashville 

Newport... .-. 

Osceola 

Paragould 

Paris 

Piggott-- ... 

Pocahontas. 

Prescott 

Rogers 

Russellville . 

Searcy 

Siloam Springs '. . 

Springdale ' 

Stuttgart , 

Texarkana .- 

Trumann .. 

Van Buren 

Walnut Ridge 

Warren. - . . 

West Helena ' 

West Memphis. - 
Wynne. 

CALIFORNIA 

Albany 

Alturas '.-- - 

Anaheim ' 

Antioch 

Arcadia 

Areata ' - 

Atherton 

Atwater-- 

Auburn 

Azusa ' 

Banning... .. 

Barstow 

Beaumont 

Bell... 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



CALIFORNIA— Con. 



Belmont ' 

Benicia.- --. 

Bishop 

Blythe 

Brawley 

Brea.--.'. 

Burlingame ' 

Calexico ' 

Carmel by the Sea. . 

Chico 

Chino' -- 

Chowchilla.-- 

Chula Vista' 

Claremont 

Clovis' 

Coachella 

Coalinga ' 

Colton' 

Colusa 

Concord 

Corcoran 

Corning 

Corona 

Coronado 

Costa Mesa 

Covina 

Culver City 

Daly City 1 

Davis 

Delano 

Dinuba' 

EI Cajon' -- 

El Centro. .- 

El Cerrito 

El Monte. 

El Segundo 

Emeryville 

Escondido ' 

Eureka 

E.xeter 

Fairfax — 

Fairfield 

Fillmore 

Fontana 

Fort Bragg 

Fullerton 

Gardena... --- 

Gilroy 

Glendora ' 

Grass Valley ' 

Gridley- --■ 

Hanford 

Hawthorne .. 

Healdsburg 

Hemet 

Hillsborough 

Hollister' 

Huntington Beach-. 

Indio 

Laguna Beach ' 

La Habra ' 

La Mesa 

Larkspur '- 

La Verne ' -- 

Lindsay ' 

Livermore ' 

Lodi 

Lompoc 

Los Banos 

Los Qatos 1 

Madera 

Manhattan Beach.. 

Manteca... 

Martinez 

Marysville 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



See footnote at end of table. 
390970° — 5G 5 



32 

Table 14:'— Number of Police Department Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
With Population From 2,500 to 25,000— Continued 



City 



Number 
of police 
flepart- 

ment 

em- 
ployees 



CAIIFORNIA-Con. 



Maywood 

Meiilo Park 

Merced 

Millbrae 

Mill Valley 

Modesto 

Monrovia > — 

Montebello — 

Monterey --. 

Monterey Park ' _ - 

Mountain View 

Napa ' 

National City 

Needles.. 

Nevada City 

Newport Reach ' 

North Sacramento — 

Oakdale 

Oceanside ' - - - - - 

Ojai 

Ontario 

Orange. -- 

Oroville- 

Oxnard ' 

Pacific Grove 

Palm Springs 

Paso Rohles ' 

Petaluma 

Piedmont 

Pittsburg 

Placer ville ' 

Porterville 

Port Hueneme 

Red Bluff 

Redding 

Redlands 

Reedley '.- 

Rialtoi 

Ri verbank — - 

Roseville --- 

Salinas 

San AiiS'^lmo 

San Bruno ' 

San Carlos 

San Fernando 

San Gabriel -- 

Sanger i 

San Luis Obispo • _ _ - 

San Marino -- 

San Pablo 

San Rafael -.- 

Santa Clara. _ --. 

Siuita Cruz - 

Santa Maria '. 

Santa Paula 

Santa Rosa. . 

Sausalito 

Seal Beach . 

Sehastopol. 

Selma 

Sierra Mad re '■ 

Signal Hill _.. 

South Pasadena 

South San Francisco 

Sunnyvale 

Susan ville.. - 

Taft' --- 

Torrance ' 

Tracy 

Tularo - 

Turlock 

Ukiahi.... 

Upland 1. 

Vacaville 

Ventura ' — 



City 



CALIFORNIA— Con 

Visalia '.. 

Wasco 

Watsonville 

West Covina • 

Whittieri 

Willits 

Willows 

Woodlake 

Woodland 

Yreka City 

Yuba City 

COLORADO 

Alamosa 

Aurora 

Boulder 

Brighton 

Canon City 

Cortez 

Craig ■- --- 

Delta' 

Durango 

Englewood 

Florence 

Fort Collins 

Fort Morgan 

Golden 

Grand Junction 

Greeley i _ 

Gunnison 

La Junta 

Lamar... 

Las Animas 

I/ead ville. .. 

Littleton. . 

Longmont. . 

Loveland 

Manitou Springs ' . . 

Monte Vista 

Montrose. 

Rocky Ford . . 

Salidai 

Sterling i 

Trinidad 

Walsenburg . 

CONNECTICUT 

Ansonia ' 

Branford '.. 

Danbury i... 

Danielson.. .- 

Derby '.-. 

Groton. 

Jewett City 

Naugatuck • 

Putnam ' 

Rockville '. -. 

Shelton ' 

Wallingford ' 

Williniantic ' 

Winsted . . 

DELAWARE 

Dover 

Elsmere i.. 

Laurel '.. 

Lewes 

Milford 

Newark ' 

New Castle' 

Seaford 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



22 

2.1 
39 I 
14 

H 
4 
3 

IK 
(■ 

13 



31 

ly I 
41 I 

5 
24 i 

IS i 
3 I 

35 j; 

11 ; 
14 
!'.» 1 
24 j 
23 

12 I 



FLORIDA 

Apalachicola 

Auburndale 

Avon Park 

Bartow ' 

Belle Glade 

Boynton Beach 

Bradenton.. -. 

Chipley 

Clearwater '. 

Cocoa '-.- 

Coral Gables 

Crest view 

Dade City 

Dania 

De Funiak Springs. 

De Land 

Delray Beach 

Dunedin.. 

Eustis ' 

Femandina Beach '. 

Fort Meade ' 

Fort Myers ' 

Fort Pierce ' 

Gulfport 

Haines City ' - 

Hallandale ' 

Hialeah '__. 

Holly Hill 

Hollywood 1 

Homestead 

Jacksonville Beach ' 

Kissimmee 

Lake City 

Lake Wales 

Lake Worth' 

Leesburg 

Live Oak 

Madison ' 

Marianna ' 

Melbourne. . 

Miami Shores . . 

Miami Springs ' 

Mount Dora ' 

New Smyrna Beach 

North Miami ' 

Ocala 

Opalocka 

Ormond Beach . . . . . 

Palatka -- 

Palm Beach 

Palmetto • - 

Perry 

Pinellas Park 

Plant City 

Pompano Beach ' . . 
Port St. Joe... 

Quincy 

Riviera Beach 

St. Augustine - 
St. Cloud. . 

Sanford '. 

Sarasota.. 
South Miami. 

Starke' 

Stuart 

Tarpon Springs 

TitusvUle' 

Vero Beach 

Wauchula... 

West Miami. . . . 
Winter (Jarden.. 

Winter Haven 

Winter Park 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



See footnote at end of table 



33 

Table 14. — Number of Police Department Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
With Population From 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 



City 



GEORGIA 



Adel 

Alma 

Americus 

Ashburn 

Barnesville 

Baxley 1 

Blakely 

Brunswick 

Caiio 

Calhoun 

Camilla 

Canton 

Carrollton 

Cartersville i 

Cedartown 

Chamblee ' 

Cochran 

College Park 

Commerce 

Covington 

Cuthbert 

Dalton 

Dawson -- 

Decatur 

DonalsonvUle — 

Douglas 

Douglas ville 

Dublin 

Eastman 

East Point ' 

Fitzgerald 

Forest Park 

Forsyth 

Fort Valley 

Gainesville ' 

Greensboro 

Griffin 1 

Hapeville 

Hartwell 

Hazlehurst 

Jesup 

Lafayette 

Lawrence ville — 

Manchester! 

Marietta i 

Milledge ville 

MUlen 

Moultrie 

Xash ville 

Xewnan 

Pelham 

Porterdale. 

Qultman 

Rockmart 

Rossville 

Sandersville ' 

Silvertown 

Statesboro i 

Summerville ' 

Sylvania 

Tallapoosa 

Thomaston 

Thomasville ' 

Thomson 

Tiftoni 

Toccoa 

Trion 

Valdosta 

Vidalla 

Warner Robins- . 

Washington 

Waycross 

Winder 




City 



IDAHO 

Alameda 

Blackfoot - 

Buhl 

Burley 

Caldwell 

Coeur d' Alene'... 

Emmett 

Gooding 

Grangeville 

Idaho Falls 

Jerome 

Kellogg 

Lewiston 

MaladCity 

Montpelier 

Moscow 1 

Nampa 

Payette 

Preston 

Rexburg 

St. Anthony 1 

Salmon 

Sandpoint 

TwinFaUs 

Wallace 

WeLser 

IIIINOIS 

Abingdon ---- 

Aledo 

Alorton 

Anna ' 

Arlington Heights ' 

Barrington 

Batavia 

Beardstown -- 

Bellwood 

Belvidere 

Bensenville ' 

Broadview i 

Brookfield 

Bushnell 

Cairo 

Calumet City 

Canton 

Carlyle 

Carmi 

Carthage 

Casey 

Centralia 

Charleston' 

Chester 

Chicago Heights -- 

Chillleothe 

Christopher 

Clinton 

Collinsville 1 

Crystal Lake • 

Deerfield ' 

De Kalb 

Des Plaines 

Dixon.- 

Dolton 

Downers Grove 

Du Quoin i 

Dwight' 

East Alton 

East Moline 

East Peoria 

EdwardsvUle 

Effingham- — 
Eldorado.- 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



ILLINOIS— Con. 

Elmhurst 

Elmwood Park 

Evergreen Park '-. 

Fairfield 

Farmington i 

Flora 

Forest Park ' 

Franklin Park '-.-. 

Freeport 

Fultoni 

Galena - 

Galvai 

Geneseo 

Geneva 

Georgetown 

Gibson City 

Gillespie 

Glencoe 

Glen Ellyn' --- 

Glenview 

Greenville ' . 

Harvard 

Harvey - 

Havana --- 

Herrin - 

Highland 

Highland Park 1.. 

Highwood 1 

Hillsboro 

Hinsdale 

Homewood 

Hoopeston _ 

Jacksonville 

Jersey ville 

Johnston City . 

Kenil worth -_ 

Kewanee - - 

La Grange. — .-- 
La Grange Park K. 

Lake Forest 

Lansing ' 

La Salle 

Lawrenceville 1 

Lemont ' 

Lewistown — 

Libertyville 

Lincoln 

Lincolnwood ' 

Litchfield i 

Lockport 1 

Lombard 

Loves Park 

^Macomb 

Madison 

Marengo 

Marion ' 

Markham* 

Marseilles 

Marshall 

Mascoutah 

Mattoon 

M c Leansboro 

Melrose Park 

Mendota ' 

Metropolis 

Midlothian i 

Momence 

Monmouth 

Montlcello ' 

Morris 

Morrison ' 

Morton 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



See footnote at end of table. 



34 

Table 14.^A^iimber of Police Department Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
With Population From 2,500 to 25,000— Continued 



City 



ULINOIS— Con. 



Morton Orove 

Mount Carmel 

Mount Morris' 

Mount Prospect-.. 

M ount Vernon 

Mundelein 

M urphy sboro 

Naperville.. 

Newton 

Niles- - - 

Nokomis -- 

Normal. 

Norridfte ' 

Northbrook ' 

North Chicago '-.. 

North Lake' 

North Riverside '-. 

Oak Lawn • 

O'Fallon 

Oglesby 

Olney 

Oregon 

Ottawa 

Palatine ' 

Pana 

Paris 

Park Forest 

Park Ridge 

Paxton 1 

Pekin 

Peoria Heights!.-. 

Peru 

Pinckney ville 

Pittsfleld 

Pontiac 

Princeton 

Rantoul 

Rivcrdale ... 

River Forest • 

River Orove 

Riverside • 

Robinson 

Rochelle 

Rock Falls 

Rushville 

St. Charles .-. 

Salem i 

Sandwich 

Savaima 

Shelby ville 

Silvis 

Skokiei 

South Beloiti 

South Holland 

Sparta 

Spring Valley 

Staunton 

Steger ' 

Sterling. 

Stickney 

Streator » 

Sullivan 

Summit ' 

Sycamore ' 

Taylorville 

Tuscola'.. 

Urbana 

Vandalia 

Venice. _ 

Villa Park' 

Vinlen.. 

Washington ' 

Washington Park. 

Waterloo 

Watseka 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



ILLINOIS— Con. 



Westchester ' 

West Chicago '... 
Western Springs '. 
West Frankfort... 

Westmont 

West ville 

Wheaton 

Wilmette' 

Wilmington ' 

Winnetka ' 

Wood River 

Woodstock 

Zeigler ' 

Zion ' 



INDIANA 



Alexandria. . 

Angola 

Attica 

Auburn 

Aurora 

Batesville 

Bedford 

Beech Grove 

Bicknell 

Bluffton 

Boonville 

Brazil 

Bremen. __ 

Brookville 

Cambridge City ' 

Charlcstown. 

Chesterton 

Clarksville ' 

Clinton 

Columbia City.. 

Columbus 

Connersville 

Crawfordsville. - . 
Crown Point '... 

Danville ' 

Decatur 

Delphi... 

Dunkirk 

East Gary' 

Edinburg 

Elwood 

Fairmount 

Frankfort.. 

Franklin... 

Garrett 

Gas City 1. 

Goshen 

Grcencastle. . . . . 

Oroenficld '_ 

Grccnsburg 

Greenwood 

Griffith '... 

Highland... 

Hobart 

Huntingburg 

Huntington. 

,Ia,son ville 

.Tasper 

Jeffersonville 

Kendall ville 

Knox 

La Porte ' 

Lawrenceburg '.. 

Lebanon 

Linton... 

Logansport 

Madison 

Martinsville 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



INDIANA— Con. 



Mitchell 

Monticello.. 

Mount Vernon 

Munster ' 

Nappanee 

New Castle ' 

Noblesville 

Nortli Manchester '. 

North Vernon 

Oakland City.. 

Paoli -- 

Peru -.- 

Petersburg 

Plainfield ' 

Plymouth 

Portland 

Princeton 

Rensselaer ' 

Rochester 

Rushville 

Salem 

Scottsburg ' 

Seymour... -. 

Shelby ville 

Speedway ..- 

Sullivan 

Tell City 

Tipton 

Union City 

Valparaiso 

Vlncennes 

Wabash ._. 

Warsaw ' 

Wash ington 

West Lafayette '.... 
West Terre Haute., 

Whiting 

Winchester - - - 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
I'loyees 



IOWA 



Albia 

Algona — 

Ames 

Anamosa 

Atlantic 

Audubon 

Belle Plaine... 
Bettendorf •... 

Bloomfleld 

Boone 

Carroll 

Cedar Falls.... 

Centerville 

Chariton 

Charles City.. 

Cherokee ' 

Clarinda 

Clarion 

Clear Lake 

Cresco 

Ores ton 

Decorah 

Denison 

De Witt 

Eagle Grove... 

Eldora 

Emmetsburg.. 
Estherville .... 

Evansdale ' 

Fairfield. 

Forest City 

Fort Madison. 

Glenwood 

Grlimell 



Sop footnote nt end of table. 



35 

Table 14. — Number of Police Department Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
With Population From 2,500 to 25,000— Continued 



City 



IOWA— Continued 



Hampton, 

Harlan 

Hawarden 

Humboldt 

Independence 

Indianola 

Iowa Falls 

Jefferson 

Keokuk 

Le Mars 

Manchester 

Maquoketa 

Marion 

Marshalltown 

Missouri Valley... 

Monticello 

Mount Pleasant.. 

Muscatine 

Nevada 

New Hampton 

Newton.. ..- 

Oelwcin 

Onawa 

Osage 

Osceola 

Oskaloosa 

Pella 

Pcrrv - 

Red Oaki 

Rock Rapids 

Sac City 

Siicldon 

Slienandoah 

Sibley 

Spencer ' 

Storm Lake... 

Tama 

Tipton 

Vinton 

Wasliington 

Waukon 

Waverly 

Webster City >.... 
West Des Moines. 
Winterset 



KANSAS 



Abilene 

Antliony 

Arkansas City.. 

Atchison 

Augusta ' 

Baxter Springs. 

Belleville 

Beloit 

Caney 

Chanute 

Cherry vale 

Clav Center 

Coffey ville '... 

Colby 

Columbus 

Concordia 

Council Grove. 

Dodge City 

El Dorado 

Ellinwood 

Ellis 

Emporia 

Eureka — 

Fort Scott I.... 

Fredonia. 

Galena 

Garden City >.. 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



KANSAS— Con. 

Garnett 

Goodland 

Great Bend ' 

Hays ' 

Herington 

Hiawatha 

Hoisington 

Holton 

Hugo ton 

Independence 

lola 

Junction City 

Kingman 

Larned ' 

Lawrence ' 

Leavenworth 

Liberal ' 

Lyons ' 

Manhattan 

Marysvillc 

McPherson ' 

Neodesha 

Newton 

Norton 

Olathe 1.... 

Osawatomie 

Ottawa 

Paola 

Parsons 

Phillipsburg 

Pittsburg- 

Pratt 

Russell 

Scott City 

Wellington 

Winfield i 

KENTUCKY 

Barbourville 

Bardstown 

Bellevue 

Berea 

Bowling Green 

Campbellsville 

Carroll ton 

Catlettsburg 

Central City 

Corbin 

Cumberland 

Cynthiana 

Danville 

Dayton ... 

Elizabethtown '... 

Elsmere 

Erlanger... 

Fort Thomas' 

Frankfort 

Franklin ' 

Fulton 

Georgetown 

Glasgow 

GreenvUle 

Harrodsburg ' 

Hazard 

Henderson ' 

HopkinsvUle... 

Irvine 

Jenkins 

Lebanon 

London 

Ludlow 

Mayfield 

Maysville 

Middlesboro 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



KENTUCKY— Con. 

Morehead 

Morganfield 

Murray 

Nicholasville 

Paintsville 

Paris 

Park Hills' 

Pikeville 

Pineville 

Princeton 

Richmond 

Russell ville 

Shelby ville... 

Somerset.. 

South Fort Mitchell 

Versailles '.. 

Williamsburg 

Winchester 

LOUISIANA 

Abbeville 

Bastrop ' 

Berwick 

Bogalusa 

Bossier City ' 

Bunkie 

Church Point 

Covington 

De Quincy 

De Ridder 

Donaldsonville 

Eunice ' 

Franklin. 

Hammond 

Haynesville 

Houma. 

Jackson 

Jeanerette 

Jennings ' 

Jonesboro 

Kaplan ' 

Kenner 

Lake Arthur 

Leesville... 

Minden 

Morgan City 

New Iberia 

New Roads 

Oakdale 

Plaquemine 

Ponchatoula 

Port Alien! 

Rayne ' 

Ruston 

St. Martinvillei 

Slidell 

Springhill i 

Sulphur 

Tallulah 

Thibodaux 

Ville Platte 

Vinton 

West Monroe 

Winnfield 

Winnsboro 

MAINE 

Auburn 

Augusta -. 

Bath 

Belfast' 

Brewer 

Brunswick.-.,-,.,-. 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



See footnoto at end of table, 



36 



Table 14^.— Numhpr of Police Department Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
With Population From 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 



City 



MAINE-Con. 



Calais 1 

Eastport- 

Ellsworth 

Fairfield 

Fort Fairfield.. .. 

Gardiner 

Hallowell 

Madison i 

Old Towni 

Prcsque Isle 

Rockland ' 

Rumford 

Saeoi 

South Portland '. 

Waterville ' 

Westbrook ' 



MARYLAND 



Aberdeen i 

Annapolis' 

Bel Air' 

Bladensburg ' 

Brentwood ■ 

Brunswick 

Cambridge 

Capitol Heights. - 

Cheverly 1 

Crisfleld 

Easton i 

Elktoni 

Frederick- __ 

Frostburg i 

Greenbelt ■ 

Havre de Grace i. 

Hyattsville ' 

Laurel ' 

Mount Rainier '. 
Pocomoke City '_ 

Riverdale ' 

Salisbury ' 

Takoma Park 

Western port 

Westminster 1 



MASSACHUSETTS 



Abington 

Adams 

Amesbury 

Amherst i 

Andover ' 

Atholi... 

Attleboro ' 

Auburn ' 

Ayar > 

Barnstable ' 

Blackstone 

Braintree 

Bridgewater ' 

Canton ' 

Clinton. __ 

Concord '.. 

Dalton 1... 

Danvers ' 

Oartmouth ' 

Dedham i 

I )racut • 

Easthampton ' 

Fairhaven ' 

Franklin i 

Gardner ' 

Great Barrington. 

Greenfield ' 

Hlngham 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



MASSACHUSETTS- 
Continued 



Hopedale 

Hudson 1 

Ipswich 1. 

Leei 

Leominster 

Lexington i 

Longmeadow '... 

Ludlow 1 

Mansfield i 

Marblehead 

Marlborough 

Maynard _. 

Methuen __. 

Middleborough i 

Milford 

Millbury 

Milton _ 

Montague 

Nantucket ' 

Naticki 

Needham i 

Newburyport ' . . 

North Adams 

North Andover. - 
North Attleboro. 

Northbridge ' 

Orange 

Palmer i 

Peabody ' 

Plymouth 

Provincetown 

Randolph ' 

Reading ' 

Rockland i 

Rockport 1 

Saugus 1 

Somerset 

Southbridge ' 

South Hadley i.. 

Spencer i 

Stoneham ' 

Stoughton 1 

Swampscott ' 

ITxbridge ' 

Wakefield 1 

Walpole '.-- 

Ware' 

Webster ' 

Wellcslev ' 

Westfieldi 

West Springfield - 

Whitman i ., 

Winchcndon ' 

Winthrop > 

Woburn 



MICHIGAN 

Adrian ' _. 

Albion 1 

Algonac 

Allegan ' 

Allen Park 

Alma ' 

Alpena 

Bad Axe 

Belding 

Benton Harbor... 

Berkley 

Bessemer 

Big R:ipi<ls.. 

Birmingliiun 

Boync City.. 

Buchanan I 

Cadillac'... 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



3 

18 

10 

5 

29 

31 

20 

13 

7 

23 

21 

11 

29 

15 

20 

5 

51 

8 

11 

32 

38 

18 

30 

12 

18 

10 

6 

10 

46 

23 

6 

23 

28 

14 

8 

25 

6 

31 

11 

3 

29 

15 

27 

7 

32 

23 

8 

27 

36 

43 

43 

11 

8 

30 

29 



City 



MICHIGAN-Con. 



Carol... 

Center Line 

Charlevoix 

C harlotte 

C heboygan 

Chelsea 

Clawson 

Coldwater 

Dowagiac ' 

Durand 

East Detroit 

East Grand Rapids'. 

East Lansing 

Eaton Rapids _. 

Ecorse ' 

Escanaba. 

Esse.wille ' 

Fenton 

Fremont ' 

GardeJi City 

Gladstone 

Grand Haven 

Greenville 

Grosse Pointe ' 

Grosse Pointe Farms. 
Qrosse Pointe Park '. 
Grosse Pointe Woods 

Hancock 

Hastings 

Hazel Park' 

Hillsdale' 

Holland' 

Holly 

Houghton 1. 

Howell' 

Hudson 

Huntington Woods '. 

Inkster 

Ionia ' __ 

Iron Mountain ' 

Iron River ' 

Ironwood 

Ishpeming 

Kingsford _ . . 

Lapeer 

Livonia 

Ludington 

Madison Heights 

Manistee ' 

Manistique 

Marine City ' 

Marquette 

Marshall 

Marysville.- 

Mason '__ 

Melvindale '. 

Menominee ' 

Midland-— 

Milan 

Monroe ' 

Mount Clemens ' 

Mount Morris 

Mount Pleasant 

Munising 

Muskegon Heights 

Negaunee ' 

NewbeiTy 

Niles 

Northville' 

Norway 

Oak Park 

Otsego 

Owosso... 

Petoskey 

Plalnwell ' 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



Sec lootnolc ill end of lublo. 



37 

Table 14. — Number of Police Department Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
With Population From 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 



City 



MICHIGAN— Con. 



Pleasant Ridge '- 

Plymoutii 

River Rouge >..- 

Roclipster 

Rogers City 

Romeo 

Roseville 

St. Clair 

St. Clair Shores'. 

St. Ignace 

St. Johns' 

St. Joseph 1 

St. Louis 

Sault Ste. Marie. 

South Haven 

Sturgis 

Tecumseh 

Three Rivers 

Traverse City 

Trenton '_ _. 

Vassar ' 

Wakefield 

Wayne 

Ypsilanti ' 

Zeeland ' 



MINNESOTA 



Albert Lea 

Ale.xandria 

Anoka 

Austin - 

Bayport > 

Bemidji 

Benson 

Blue Earth 

Brainerd 

B reckenridge 

Brooklyn Center '-. 

Cambridge 

Chisholm 

Cloquet 

Columbia Heights '. 

Crookston 

Crosby 

Crystal 

Detroit Lakes 

East Grand Forks.. 

Edina 

Ely 

Eveleth 

Fairmont 

Faribault ' 

Fergus Falls 

Fridley ' 

Glencoe 

Glenwood ' 

Golden Valley 

Grand Rapids 

Granite Falls 

Hastings 

Hibbing 

Hopkins ' 

Hutchinson -_. 

International Falls '_ 

Lake City 

Le Sueur 

Litchfield 

Little Falls' 

Luveme 

Mankato ' 

Marshall 

Montevideo '_ 

Moorhead 

Morris 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



MINNESOTA— Con. 

New Ulm 

Northfield _-. 

North Mankato 

North St. Paul 

Ortonville 

Owatonna 

Park Rapids 

Pipestone ' — 

Proctor ' 

Red Win? 

Redwood Falls 

Richfield.- 

Robbinsdale ' 

Roseville ' 

St. .Tames 

St. Louis Park 

St. Peter' 

Sauk Centre ' 

Sauk Rapids 

Shakopse ' 

Sleepy Eye. 

South St. Paul 

Springfield 

Staples 

Stillwater 

Thief River Falls... 

Tracy 

Two Harbors 

Virginia 

Wadena 

Waseca ' 

West St. Paul.. 

White Bear Lake '... 

Willmar 

Windom 

Worthington 

MISSISSIPPI 

Aberdeen 

Amory ' 

Bay St. Louis 

Boone ville 

Brookhaven 

Canton 

Clark<;dale'.... - 

Cleveland 

Columbia 

Columbus 

Corinth 

Crystal Springs 

Forest ' 

Greenwood 

Gulf port 

Hazlehurst 

Indianola ' 

Kosciusko 

Leland ' 

Lexington ' 

Long Beach... 

Louisville 

McComb -- 

Moss Point 

Natchez ' 

New Albany ' 

Newton 

Ocean Springs ' 

Oxford . 

Paseagoula 

Pass Christian ' 

Philadelphia.. 

Picayune 

Port Gibson'. 

Tupelo' 

Water Valley 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



MISSISSIPPI-Con. 

Wa^^lesboro '. 

West Point ' 

Winona 

Yazoo City.. 

MISSOURI 

Aurora ' 

Berkeley 

Bethany 

Bolivar 

Bonne Terre ' 

Boonville 

Breckenridge Hills '.. 

Brentwood '. _-. 

Brookfield' 

Butler -- 

California 

Cameron - 

Cape Girardeau 

Carrollton 

Carthage 

Caruthersville 

Charleston ' 

Chillicothe... -- 

Clayton 

Clinton' 

Crystal City 

De Soto 

Dexter 

Eldon' 

Excelsior Springs 

Farmington. 

Fayette 

Ferguson' 

Festus 1 

Flat River 

Florissant ' 

F'jlton 

Glendale 

Hannibal - 

Harrisonville ' 

Hayti 

Higginsville 

Hillsdale ' 

Jackson ' 

Jennings 1... 

Kennett ' 

Kinloch ' 

Kirksville 

Kirkwood ' 

Ladue -- 

Lebanon ' 

Lees Summit 

Liberty .- 

Louisiana 

Macon 

Maiden 

Maplewood ' 

Marceline 

Marshall ' 

Maryville ' 

Mexico 

Moberly 

Monett ' 

Mountain Grove 

Neosho 

Nevada ' 

North Kansas City.- 

Overland ' 

Pagedale '.. 

Pine Lawn '. 

Poplar Blufl. 

Portage vUle 

R ichmond- 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



See footnotes at end of table. 



38 

Table U.— Number of Police Department Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
With PopuUttion From 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 



City 



MISSOURI— Con. 

Richmond Heights. 

Rockllill 

Rolla --- 

St. Ann '. --- 

St. Charles' 

Ste. Genevieve 

Salem _._ 

Sedalia-. 

Shrewsbury '-_ 

Sikeston 

Slater 

Sullivan 

Union 

Valley Park 

Vandalia 

Warrensburg • 

Washington 

Webb City 

Webster Groves 

Wellston 

West Plains' 

MONTANA 

Anaconda 

Bozeman ' 

Cut Bank 

Deer Lodge 

Dillon I 

Glasgow 

Glendive 

Hamilton 

Havre 

Helena 

Kalispell 

Laurel 

Lewistown 

Livingston 

Miles City 

Missoula. 

Red Lodge 

Shelby 

Sidney 

Whiteflsh. 

WolfPoint '.. - 

NEBRASKA 

Alliance 

Auburn 

Beatrice. 

Bellevue 

Blair 

Broken Bow 

Chadron ' 

Columbus 

Co7-ad- -- 

Crete ' 

Fairbury. 

Falls City 

Fremont '. 

Gering 

Gothenburg 

Grand Island 

Hastings 

Holdrcge.. 

Kearney 

Lexington 

McCook 

Nebraska City 

Norfolk 

North Platte 

Ogallala 

O'Neill 

Schuyler. 

Sec footnote at end of liibl 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



NEBRASKA-Con. 

Scottsbluft 

Seward 

Sidney 

Superior ' 

Valentine 

Wahoo 

Wayne 

West Point 

York 

NEVADA 

CarsonCitv ' 

Elko' 

Henderson ' 

Las Vegas 

North Las Vegas 

Sparks 

Winnemucca , 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

Berlin 

Claremont ' 

Derry ' 

Dover 

Exeter' 

Franklin 

Keene ' 

Laconia 

Lebanon ' 

Littleton ' 

Milford 

Newport 

Portsmouth 

Rochester 

Somersworth ' 

NEW JERSEY 

Asbury Park 

Atlantic Highlands '. 

.\udubon 1 

Barrington ' 

Belmar 

Bergenfield 

Beverly ' 

Bloomingdale ' 

Boonton '.. 

Bordentown 

Bound Brook 

Bradley Beach 

Bridgeton ' 

Burlington ' 

Butler 1 

Caldwell ' 

CapeMav 

Carlstadt ' 

Carteret 

Chatham ' 

Clayton 

Clementon 

Cliffside Park ' 

Closter 1 

Collingswood ' 

Cranford 

Cresskill ' 

Dover ' 

Dumont ' 

Dimellen ' 

East I'aterson 

East Rutherford '.... 

Eatontown 

Edgewater 

Egg Harbor City 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



12 
12 
13 
120 
21 
12 
6 



City 



NEW JERSEY— Con. 

Englewood ' 

Fair Haven ' 

Fair Lawn ' 

Fairview ' 

Fanwood- 

Flemington ' 

Fort Lee ' 

Franklin ' 

Freehold ' 

Garwood ' 

Glassboro '._ 

Glen Ridge 

Glen Rock' 

Gloucester City ' 

Guttenberg ' 

Hackcttstown ' 

Haddonficldi 

Haddon Heights 

Haledon 

Harrison 

Hasbrouck Heights ' 

Hawthorne ' 

Highland Park' 

Highlands 

Hightstown ' 

Hillsdale' 

Hillside' 

Keansburg 

Kenilworth ' 

Keyport ' 

Lambert ville 

Leonia ' 

Lincoln Park ' 

Linden wold 

Little Ferrv' 

Little Silver' 

Lodi 

Long Branch 

Lyndhurst 

Madison ' 

Manasquan ' 

Manville' , 

Matawan ' 

Maywood ' 

Merchant ville J 

Metuchen ' 

Middlesex.. 

Midland Park 

Millburn ' 

Millville' 

Morris Plains' 

Morristown 

Mount Ephraim ' . . . 

Neptune 

Neptune Township 

New Milford ' 

New Providence 

Newton ' 

North Arlington 

Northfield 

North Haledon 

North Plainfiold '.... 

North Wildwood 

Oaklvn '.... 

Ocean City'. 

Oceanport ' 

Oradell'.... 

Palisades Park 

Palmyra ' 

Paramus ' 

Park Ridge 

Paulsboro 

Peimsauken 

Penns Grove' 

Phillii)sburg ' 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



39 

Table 14. — Number of Police Department Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
With Population From 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 



City 



NEW JERSEY— Con. 



Pitman i 

Pleasantville • 

Point Pleasant 

Pt. Pleasant Beach.. 

Pompton Lakes ' 

Princeton 

Prospect Park ' 

Rahway '--_ .,- 

Ramsey i 

Raritan i 

Red Banki 

Ridgcfieldi 

Ridsefield Park' 

Ridfje wood 

River Edge i 

Riverton i 

Rockaway 

Roselle 

Roselle Park 

Rumson i 

Runnemede * 

Rutherford 

Salem ' 

Sayreville 

Secaucus 

Soraerville i 

South Amboy > 

South Bound Brook. 

South Orange' 

South Plainfleld'...- 

South River 

Summit i 

Tenafly 

Totowa 

Union Beach i 

Ventnor City 

Verona ' 

Vineland ' 

Waldwick ' 

Wallington > 

Wanaque ' 

Washington ' 

Weehawken > 

West Caldwell 1 

Westfieldi 

West Long Branch _ _ 

West Paterson 

Westville ' 

Westwood 1 

Wharton 

Wildwood 1 

Woodbury 

Wood Lynne 

Wood Ridge' 



NEW MEXICO 



Alamogordo ' 

Artesia 

Belen 

Carlsbad 

Clayton 

Clevis 

Deming 

Farmington 

Gallup 

Hobbs 

Las Cruces 

Las Vegas City 

Las Vegas Town ' 

Lordsburg 

lyovington ' 

Portales 

Raton 

Silver City 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



NEW MEXICO— Con. 

Socorro 

Truth or Conse- 
quences 

Tucumcarl 

NEW YORK 

Albion 

Amity ville ' 

Attica ' _. 

Babylon ' 

Bald winsville ' 

Ballston Spa' 

Batavia' 

Bath 

Beacon ' 

Blasdell _. 

Brockport ' _ . 

Bronxville 

Canajoharie ' 

Canandaigua ' 

Canastota ' 

Canisteo 

Canton 

Carthage _, 

Catskill 

Cobleskill' 

Cohoes 

Cooperstown 

Corinth 

Corning ' 

Cortland ' 

Coxsackie ' 

Croton on Hudson '. . 

Dansville 

Depew 1 

Dobbs Ferry ' 

Dolgeville ' 

Dunkirk 

East Aurora ' 

East Rochester ' 

East Svracuse ' 

Ellenville 

Elniira Heights • 

Elmsford 

Endicott '. 

Fairport ' 

Falconer ' 

Favette ville ' 

Floral Park' 

Fort Edward 

Fort Plain . 

Frankfort' 

Fredonia 

Freeport ' 

Fulton 

Garden City ' 

Qeneseo ' 

Geneva 

Glen Cove' 

Glens Falls' 

Glovers ville 

Goshen 

Gouveneur 

Gowanda 

Granville ' 

Green Island ' 

Greenport 

Hamburg ' 

Hamilton 

Hastings on Hudson ' 

Ha verstra w ' 

Herkimer ' 

Highland Falls' 

Homer 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



NEW YORK-Con. 

Hoosick Falls ' 

Hornell' 

Horseheads ' 

Hudson 

Hudson Falls ' 

Ilion 

Irvington 

Johnson City 

Johnstown 

Kenmore 

Lake Placid 

Lake wood 

Lancaster 

Larchmont 

Le Roy 

Liberty ' 

Lindenhurst * 

Little Falls 

Liverpool ' 

Long Beach ' 

LowvUle ' 

Ly nbrook ' 

Lyons ' 

Malone' 

Malverne ' 

Mamaroneck ' 

Massena 

Mechanicville ' 

Medina --- 

Middletown ' 

Mohawk - 

Monticello ' 

Mount Kisco... 

Mount Morris ' 

Newark 

New York MUls 

North Pelham _ 

Northport ' _ 

North Syracuse 

North Tarry town — 
North Tonawanda... 

Norwich 

Nyack ' 

Ogdensburg 

Clean' 

Oneida 

Oneonta 

Ossining ' 

Oswego 

Owego 1 

Palmyra ' 

Patchogue ' 

Peekskill ' 

Pelham Manor 

Penn Yan ' 

Perry 

Plattsburgh 

Pleasantville ' 

Port Chester' 

Port Jervis ' 

Potsdam 

Rensselaer 

Rockville Centre '... 

Rye' 

Salamanca ' 

Saranac Lake 

Saratoga Springs 

Saugerties 

Scarsdale 

Scotia 

Seneca Falls. 

Sidney 

Silver Creek ' 

Sloan 

Solvay 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



fSee footnote at end of table. 



40 

Table 11. — IWiimber of Police Department Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
With Population From 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 



City 



NEW YORK— Con. 



Southampton ' 

South Glens Falls. 

Spring Valley ' 

Springville ' -. 

Suffern 

Tarry town 

Tieonderoga 

Tonawanda ' 

Tuckahoe ' 

Tupper Lake 

Walden ' 

Walton ' 

Wappingers Falls.. 

Warsaw 

Warwick 

Waterford '.- 

Waterloo ' 

Watervliet i.. 

Watkins Glen > — 

Waverly 

Wellsville'. 

Westfield 

West Haverstraw.. 

Whitehall- 

Whitesboro 

Yorkville 



NORTH CAROLINA 



.\hoskie -. 

A Ibermarle 

Asheboro 

Beaufort-. - --- 

Belhaven 

Belmont 

Bessemer City 

Boone 

Brevard 

Burlington 

Chapel Hill 1 

Cherrvville 

Clinton ' 

Concord ' -.. 

Draper- 

Dunn 

Edenton 

F.lizabeth City 

Elkin - 

Forest City -. 

Gastonia ' 

Qoldsboro 

Graham 

Greenville 

Hamlet- 

Henderson ' 

Hcndcrsonville 

Hickory ' 

Jacksonville ' 

Kings Mountain.. - 

Kinston , 

Lauriiiburg 

Leaksville 

Lenoir > 

Lexington ' 

Tvincolnton 

Louisburg 

Luiiihcrton 

Marlon 

Monroe 

Moorcsville •- 

Morehead City 

Morganton- 

Mount Airy- 

Newton ' 

North Wilkcsboro 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



NORTH CAROLINA 
Continued 

Oxford 

Plymouth--- - 

Reidsville' 

Roanoke Rapids 

Rockingham 

Roxboro 

Rutherfordton i 

Salisbury ' 

Sanford 

Scotland Neck 

Selma 

Shelbv--- 

Siler City 

Smithfield 

Southern Pines 

Spencer 

Statesville 

Tarboro 

Thomasville 

Valdese 

Wadeshoro 

Wake Forest 

Washington '- - 

Whiteville ' 

Williamston 

Wilson 

NORTH DAKOTA 

Bismarck 

Devils Lake 

Dickinson ' 

Grafton 

Jamestown 

Mandan 

Minot 

Rugby 

Valley City- -.- 

Wahpeton 

Williston 

OHIO 

Ada 

Amherst 

Ashland 

Ashtabula 

Athens 

Avon ' 

Avon Lake ' 

Barnes ville 

Bay 1 

Bedford '.... - 

Bellaire ' 

Bellefontaine 

Bellevue 

Berea ' 

Bexley 

Bowling Green 

Breeksville . . 

Bridgeport 

Brooklyn 

Brook I'ark ' 

Bryan 

Bucyrus 

Cadiz -- 

Canihridgo 

Cuui|)t)fll 

Carey 

(^arrollton ' 

Celinai 

Chagrin Falls ' 

Cheviot ' 

Chillicothe 

Circlevillc ' 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



OHIO— Continued 

Clyde 1 -.. 

Columbiana 

Conneaut 

Coshocton 

Crestline 

Crooksville.- - 

Deer Park 

Defiance ' 

Delaware 

Delphos- 

Dennison - 

Dover ' 

Eastlake i 

East Liverpool ' 

East Palestine ' 

Eaton.. 

Elmwood Place 

Fairborn 

Fairport Harbor i.-. 

Fairview Park 

Findlay ' 

Fostoria 

Franklin 

Fremont 

Gallon ' 

Gallipolis ' 

Garfield Heights- .- 

Geneva 

Girard 

Golf Manor 

Grandview Heights. 

Granville - 

Greenfield 

Greenhills 

Greenville 

Hicksville 

Hillsboro-.- 

Hubbard 

Huron ' 

Independence ' 

Ironton 

Jackson 

Kent --- 

Kenton. 

Lancaster 

Lebanon 

Leetonia 

Lincoln Heights '.-. 

Lisbon 

Lockland 

Logan 

Jyouisvillo '- 

Lyndhurst 

Madeira ' 

Maple Heights ' 

Mariemont ' 

Marietta. - 

Martins Ferry 

Marysville 

Maumee ' -. 

May field Heights... 

Medina 

Mianiisburg ' 

Middleport 

MituTvu 

M jiij!o .Miiiclion 

Moiilpillcr 

Mouiii Healthy '... 

Mount N'crnon 

Napoleon 

Nelsonville 

New Boslon 

Newburgh Heights ' 

Newconierstown 

New Lexington 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



Sec footnote al fiul rjf lablo. 



41 

Table 14. — Number of Police Department Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
With Population From 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 



City 



OHIO— Continued 

New Philadelphia. . . 

Newton Falls ' 

Niles 

North Baltimore 

North Canton i 

North CoUegeHiin. 

North Olmsted 

North Royalton • 

Norwalk 

Oakwood 

Oberlin 

Orrville' - 

Ottawa 

Oxford 1 

Painesville ' 

Parma Heights ' 

Perrysburg 

Piqua -- 

Pomeroy 

Port Clinton 

Ravenna • 

Reading ' 

Rittman 

Rocky River 

Rossford 

St. Bernard i 

St. Marys i 

Salem i 

Sebring ' 

Shadyside 

Shelby _-.. 

Sidney 

Silverton 

Solon 1 

South Euclid i 

Strongsville 

Struthers ' 

Tallmadge! 

Tiffin ____ 

TippCity-..- 

Toronto 

Troy 

Uhrichsville ' 

University Heights. . 

Upper Arlington 

Upper Sandusky 

Urbana 

Van Wert 

Wadsworth ' 

Wapakoneta 

Warrensville Heights 

Washington C. H 

W auseon 

Wellington 

Wellston _. 

Wellsville 

West CarroUton ' 

Westerville 

Westlake 

Whitehall 

Wickliffe 

Willard 

Willoughby ' 

Willowick 

Wilmington 

Windham ' 

Wooster i 

Wyoming ' 

Xenia.-. 

OKLAHOMA 

Ada. 

Alius ' 

Alva 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



OKLAHOMA— Con. 

Anadarko 

Ardmore 

Atoka 

Bartlesville 

Bethanv 

Blackwell ' 

Chandler 

Checotah i 

Cherokee 

Chickasha 

Claremore 

Clinton 

Cordell 

Cushing 

Del City i 

Drumright 

Durant 

Edmond ' 

Elk Citv 

El Reno 

Eufaula 

Guthrie 

Guymon 

Healdton 

Henryetta 

Holdenville 

Hollis.. 

Hominy 

Hugo 

IdabeP 

Kingfisher > 

Lindsay 

Madill 

Mangum 

Marlow 

McAlester 

Miami 

Midwest City ' 

Nichols Hills 

Nowata • 

Okemah 

Okmulgee ' 

Pawhuska 

Pawnee 

Perry 

Ponca City 

Poteau '-._ 

Prvor Creek 

Purcell 

Sallisaw ' 

Sand Springs i 

Sapulpa ' : 

Sayre 

Seminole 

Shawnee 

Stillwater 

Sulphur 

Tahlequah 

Tonkawa 

Vinita 

Wagoner _ 

Walters 

Watonga 

Weatherford i 

Wewoka 

Woodward 

OREGON 

Albany ' 

Ashland 

Astoria. 

Baker --- 

Beaverton 

Bend ' 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



OREGON— Continued 

Bums 

Coos Bay 

Coquillei 

Corvallis _ 

Cottage Grove . 

Dallas 

Forest Grove 

Grants Pass 

Gresham.. 

Hermiston 

Hillsboro 

Hood River 

Klamath Falls 

La Grande 

Lake view 

Lebanon 

McMinnville 

Medford 

Milwaukie 

Newbergi 

Newport' 

North Bend 

Nyssa 

Ontario 

Oregon City' 

Oswego 

Pendleton 

Prineville ' 

Redmond 

Roseburg 

St. Helens 

Seaside' 

Silverton 

Springfield 

Sweet Home' 

The Dalles 

Tillamook 

West Linn 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Aldan 

Ambler 

Ambridge 

Apollo ' 

Archbald . _ 

Arnold 

Ashland 

Aspinwall 

Athens ' 

Avalon 

Baden 

Bangor • 

Bamesboro' 

Beaver ' 

Beaver Falls 

Bedford 

Bellefonte 

Bellevue ' 

Bell wood ' 

Bentley ville 

Berwick ' 

Bethel 

Birdsboro ' .. 

Blairsville 

Blakely ' 

Bloomsburg ' 

Boyertown 

Braddock ' 

Bradford 

Brentwood ' 

Bridgeport ' 

Bridgeville 

Bristol.. 

Brockway 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



See footnote at end of table. 



42 

Table 14. — Number of Police Department Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
With Population From 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 



City 



PENNSYLVANIA— 
Continued 

Brookvilk' 

Brownsville _ 

Burnham ' 

Butler 

California- 

Camp Hill' 

Canonsburg 

Carbondale • 

Carlisle 

Carnegie 

Castle Shannon 

Catasauqua ' 

Chainbersburg 

Charleroi 

Cheltenham 1 

Clairton ' 

Clarion ' 

Clarks Summit i 

Clearfield 

Clifton Heights 1 

Clymer- 

Coaldale ' 

Coatesville ' 

Collingdale ' 

Columbia i 

Connellsville 

Conshohocken_ , 

Coplay 

Coraopolis 

Corry -.. 

Crafton i 

Cresson 

Curwensville 

Dale 

Danville _ _ 

Darby 

Derry 

Dickson City • 

Donora 

Dormont 

Downingtown 

Doylestown 

Dravosburg 

Du Boisi 

Dunmore 

Dupont > 

Duquesne 

Duryea .- 

East Cnnemaugh '._. 
East Lansdowne. ... 

East McKeesport ' 

East Pittsburgh 

East Stroudshurg ' 

Ebensburg 

Eddystone ' 

Edwardsville 

Elizabeth i... 

Elizabethtown 

Ellwood City! 

Emmaus 

Emporium 

Emsworth 

Ephrata 

Etna' 

Exeter • 

Farrell > 

Ford Citv 

Forest City 

Forest Hills > 

Forty Fort ' 

Fountain Hill 

Franklin ' 

Freedom ' 

Freeland 

Freeport .-. 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



5 
18 
5 
3 
2 

Soo f<)otnot(> at end of tablo. 



5 

34 

3 

5 

13 

16 

14 

13 

7 

4 

20 

13 

42 

24 

4 

4 

6 

9 

2 

2 

25 

11 

10 

17 

10 

1 
2 
2 
6 

19 
2 
6 

16 

12 
5 
8 
3 

11 

14 
8 

22 
3 
4 
4 
4 

12 
9 
4 
6 
5 
3 
3 

20 
7 
2 



City 



PENNSYLVANIA— 
Continued 

Oallitzin 

Gettysburg '_ 

Ciirardville ' 

G lassport 

Glenolden 

Greencastle_.. 

Greensburg 

Greentree 

Greenville 

Grove City 

Hamburg-^ 

Hanover • 

Hanover Township '. 

Hatboro ' 

Hellertown.. 

Hollidaysburg ' 

Homestead i 

Honesdale 

Hummelstown _. 

Huntingdon 

Indiana ■ 

Ingram ' 

Irwin 

Jeannette 

Jenkintown 

Jermyn 

Jersey Shore. 

Jim Thorpe' 

Kane 

Kenhorst 

Kennett Square 

Kingston 

Kittanning_ _ _ _ . 

Kulpmont- 

Kutztown 

Lansdale ' 

Lansdowne- . - 

Lansford 

Larksville 

Latrobe 

Laureldale 

Leechburg ' 

Lehigh ton > 

Lemoyne _. 

Lewisburg ' 

Lewistown 

Lititz 

Littlestown 

Lock Haven 

Luzerne . - _ 

Lykens 

Mahanoy City 

Manheim ' 

Mansfield ' 

Marcus Hook 

Mason town 

McAdoo ' 

McDonald '.._ 

McKees Rocks 

McSlierrystown 

Meadville 

Mechanicsburg ' 

Media' 

Myersdale 

Middletown 

Midland 

Millersville 

Millvale' 

Milton 

Minersville 

Monaca 

Monessen '__ 

Monongahola 

Monliiursville 

Mori isvillc- 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



2 

24 

4 

8 

7 

3 

14 

23 

12 

7 

9 

34 

5 

1 

8 

16 

5 

4 

15 

12 

1 

3 

5 

4 

2 

5 

17 

8 

2 

3 

16 

14 

5 

6 

13 

2 

4 

6 

4 

8 

16 

5 

1 

15 

5 

2 

6 

2 

3 

9 

4 

4 

4 

17 

1 

26 

5 

11 

3 

7 

14 

1 

7 

7 

4 

9 

23 

10 

1 

8 



City 



PENNSYLVANIA— 
Continued 

Mount Carmel 

Mount Joy 

Mount Oliver • 

Mount Penn. 

Mount Pleasant 

Mount Union ' 

Muncy.-- 

Munhall 

M yerstown 

Nanticoke 

Nanty Glo ' 

Narberth 

Nazareth 

New Brighton 

New Cumberland 

New Holland 

Noithampton ' 

North Belle Vernon '. 

North Braddock ' 

North Catasauqua 

Nortli East 

Northumberland ' 

Oakmont ' _. 

Oil City.. 

Old Forge 

Olyphant ' 

Oxford 

Palmerton ' 

Palmyra ' 

Parkesburg ' 

Pen Argyl ' 

Perkasie ' 

Philipsburg 

Phoenixville 

Pitcaim ' 

Pittstoni 

Plains 

Pleixsant Hills'. 

Plymouth 

Portage 

Port Allegany ' 

Port Vue 

Pottstown 

Pottsville ' 

Prospect Park 

Punxsutawney ' 

Quakertown '.. 

Rankin '.- 

Red Lion 

Renovo 

Reynoldsville ' 

Ridgwav 

Ridley Park > 

Roaring Spring ' 

Rochester.- 

Roversford ' 

St. Clair' 

St. Marys ' 

Sayre -.. 

Schuylkill Haven • 

Scottdale.. 

Selinsgrove 

Sewickley ' 

Shaler-. 

Shamokin... 

Sharon Hill' 

Sharpsburg 

Sharpsville 

Shenandoah 

Shillington 

Slatington ' 

Somerset ' 

Souderton ' 

South Fork 

South Greensburg 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



43 

Table 14. — Number of Police Department Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
With Population From 2,500 to 25,000— Continued 



City 



PENNSYLVANIA— 
Continued 

Southwest Groens- 

burg 1 

Soutii Williamsport-- 

Spangler 

Spring City i 

Springdale 

State College ' 

Steelton 

Stowe Township 

Stroudsburg 

Summit Hill 

Sunbury • 

Susquehanna 

S warthmore ' 

Swissvale ' 

Swoyerville ' 

Tamaqua 

Tarentum 

Taylor ' 

Throop t. 

Titusville 

Towanda 

Traflord i 

Turtle Creek 

Tyrone 

Union City' 

Uniontown 

Upland' 

Vandergrift ' 

Verona 

Warren 

W aynesboro 

Waynesburg 

Weatherly ' 

Wellsboro ' 

Wesley ville 

West Chester 

West Hazleton 

West Homestead 

West Mifflin ' 

Westmont ' 

West Xewton 

West Pittston ' 

West Reading 

West View ' 

West Wyoming 

West York 

WhitehaU' 

Whiteoak 

Wilmerding ' 

Wilson 

Windber_ 

Winton ' 

Wyoming ' 

Wyomissing 

Yeadon 

Youngwood 

Zelienople ' 

RHODE ISLAND 



Harrington ' 

Bristol 

Burrillville 

Central Falls 

Cumberland ' 

East Greenwich ' 

Johnston 

Lincoln ' 

North Providence '.. 

Warren ' 

Westerly ' 

West Warwick ' 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



SOUTH 
CAROLINA 

Abbeville 

Aiken ' .__ 

Anderson 

Andrews 

Bamberg ' 

Beaufort 

Belton 

Bennettsville 

BishopvUle.-- 

Camden 

Cayce 

Cheraw 

Chester 

Clinton' 

Clover 

Conway 

Darlington 

Denmark 

Easley ' 

Florence 

Fort Mill' 

Gaffney 

Georgetown ' 

Greenwood 

Greer 

Hartsvllle 

Honea Path 

Kingstree 

Lake City 

Lancaster 

Laurens 

Manning 

McColl 

Mullins 

Myrtle Beach ' 

Newberry 

North Augusta 

Orangeburg 

Rock Hill 

Seneca 

Sumter ' 

Union 

Walhalla' 

Walterboro 

Whitmire 

Williamston _ _ _ 

York 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

Aberdeen 

Belle Fourche 

Brookings 

Canton -. 

Deadwood 

Huron 

Lead 

Lemmon 

Madison 

Milbank ' 

Mitchell 

Mobridge 

Pierre ' 

Redfield 

Sisseton 

Sturgis ' 

Vermillion 

Watertown 

Webster 

Wiiuier 

Yankton 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



TENNESSEE 

Alcoa 

Belle Meade ' 

Bristol 

Brownsville 

Clarksville ' 

Cleveland 

Clinton 

Columbia ' 

Cookeville 

Dayton 

Dickson 

Dyersburg 

Elizabethton 

Etowah 

Fayetteville 

Franklin. 

Gallatin ' 

Greeneville ' 

Henderson 

Humboldt 

Jefferson City 

Kingsport ' 

Lawrenceburg 

Lebanon 

Lenoir City • 

Lewisburg 

Lexington 

Loudon 

Martin 

Maryville 

McKenzie 

McMiimville 

Milan 

Morristown 

Mount Pleasant. - 

Murfreesboro 

Newport ' 

Paris 

Pulaski 

Rockwood 

Shelbyville 

South Pittsburg.. 

Sparta 

Sweetwater 

Trenton 

Union City 

Winchester ' 

TEXAS 

Alamo 

Alamo Heights '.. 

Alice - 

Alpine 

Alvin 

Andrews 

Angleton 

Anson 

Aransas Pass 

Arlington ' 

Athens... 

Ballinger ' 

Bastrop 

Bay City' 

Bay town 

Bee ville 

Bellaire 

Belton 

Big Spring . 

Bonham 

Borger 

Bowie 1 

Brady 



See footnot(^ at end of table. 



44 



Table 14. — Number of Police Department Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
With Population From 2,500 to 25,000— Continued 



City 



TEXAS— Continued 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



Breckcnridge 

Brcnham 

Brownfield 

Brownwood 

Bryan - 

Calvert 

Cameron.- 

Canadian- 

Canyon ' 

Carrizo Springs. . 

Carthage 

Childress 

Cisco 

Cleburne 

Cleveland 

Coleman. --■ 

College Station.. 
Colorado City... 

Columbus 

Comanche • 

Commerce ' 

Corsicana 

Crockett 

Crystal City 

Cuero 

Dalhart 

Decatur 

Oel Rio 1.- 

Denison 

Denton 

Donna.. - 

Dumas 

Eagle Lake 

Eagle Pass 

Eastland 

Edinburg i 

El Campo 

Electra • 

Elgin 1 

Ennis 

Falfuirias • 

Floydada. 

Fort Stockton. - 

Freeport i. 

Gainesville 

Galena Park 

Garland i. 

Gatesville ' 

Georgetown 

Gilmer 

Gladcwater 

Gonzales 

Graham 

Grand Prairie. . 

Greenville 

Halton'. 

Hamilton 

Hamlin -- 

Harlingen 

Hearne '. 

Henderson 

Hereford 

Highland Park ' 

Hillsboro 

Huntsville 

Irving 

.Tacksboro 

Jacksonville 

Jasper 

Jefferson 

Karnes City — 

Kerrvillc 

Kilgorc.- 

Killeen 

Kingsvillc 



10 
6 

10 

21 

31 
2 
5 
2 
3 
2 
5 
8 
6 

13 
2 
5 
4 
9 
1 
2 
5 

22 
6 
1 
6 
8 
2 

10 

18 

27 
7 

11 
3 
7 
5 

10 

6 

6 

2 

6 

6 

4 

4 

11 

14 

8 

24 

2 

4 

5 

11 

1 

7 

30 
23 
23 
2 
3 
35 



City 



TEXAS— Continued 



Lake Jackson ' — 

Lamesa 

Lampasas 

Lancaster i 

La Porte. - 

Levelland 

Littlefield 

Livingston.. 

Llano 1 

Longview i 

Luling 

Marlin 

Marshall 

McAllen ' 

McCamey 

McGregor ' 

McKinney.. 

Memphis ' .- 

Mercedes 

Mexia -.- 

Midland ' 

Mineola .-- 

Mineral Wells 

Mission 

Monahans > 

Mount Pleasant. 

Nacogdoches 

Navasota 

Nederland ■ 

New Boston 

New Braunfels.. . 

Nocona 

Olmos Park 

Olney 

Paducah 

Palestine 

Pampa 

Paris 

Pasadena ' 

Pearsall i 

Pecos 

Perry ton 

Pharr 

Pittsburg 

Plain view i 

Port Lavaca 

Post 

Quanah 

Ranger '... - 

Raymond ville. .. 

Robstown.. 

Rosenberg .- 

Rotan 

Rusk 

San Augustine.. - 

San Benito 

San Marcos ' 

Seguin.. 

Seminole 

Seymour 

Shamrock 

Sherman. 

Sinton ' 

Slaton ' 

Snyder 

South Flouston '. 

Stamford 

Slfphcuville 

Sulphur Springs. 

Sweetwater 

Taft 

Tahoka 

Taylor 

Teague 

Terrell 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



TEXAS— Continued 



Texarkana 

Texas City 

Tulia - 

University Park 

Uvalde - 

Vernon 

Victoria 

Waxahachie 

Weatherford 

Wellington — 

Weslaco 

W. University Place. 

Wharton 

White Settlement i . . . 

Winnsboro 

Yoakum 

Yor ktown 

UTAH 

American Fork ' 

Bingham Canyon >.. 

Bountiful 

Brigham 

Cedar City. 

Clearfield 

Heber 

Helper.. 

Layton 

Logan... 

Mid vale 

Murray 

Nophi. 

Orem '... 

P ayson 

Pleasant Grove • 

Price 

Richfield 

Roy -- 

St. George 

South Ogden 

South Salt Lake 

Spanish Fork 

Springville ' 

Tooele. 

Vernal 

VEBMONT 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



Barre 

Bennington '.. 

Brattloboro 

Essex Junction. 
Middlebury '... 

Montpelier 

Rutland 

St. Albans i 

St. Johnsbury '. 
Spuingfleld i — 

Waterbury 

Winooski 



VIRGINIA 

Abingdon 

AltaVista 

Ashland... 

Bedford 

Big Stone Gap... 

Blacksburg 

Blackstone.. 

Bluefleld 

Bristol ■ 

Buena Vista 

Chase City 

Chincotoague 

Christ iansburg... 
Clifton Forge 



Sec footnote at cud of tabic. 



45 



Table 14. — Number of Police Department Employees, Apr. 30, 1956, Cities 
With Population From 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 



City 



VIRGINIA —Con. 

Colonial Heights — 

Covington 

Culpeper - 

Emporia 

Falls Church 

Farmville ' 

Franklin.-. 

Fre'lericksburg 

Front Royal > 

Galax 

Harrisonburg 

Hopewell 

Lexington i 

Luray 

Marion 

Martinsville i 

Narrows ' 

Norton.- 

Oranec 

Pulaski 

Radford 

Richlands 

Salem 

Saltville 

South Boston ' 

South Norfolk 

Staunton 

Suffolk! 

Vinton 

Virginia Beach i 

•Wavnesboro 

Williamsburg 

Winchester 

Wytheville 

WASHINGTON 

Aberdeen 

Anacortes- 

Auburn 

Bellevue 

Buckley 

Camas 

Centralia 

Chehalis 

Cheney i 

Clarkston 

Colfax 

College Place' 

Colville 1 

Dayton 

Ellensburg 

Enumclaw 

Ephrata ' 

Grand Coulee- 

Grand view ' 

Hoquiam ' 

Kelso 

Kennewick • 

Kent 

Kirkland ' 

Longview 

Medical Lake 

Moses Lake' 

Mount Vernon 

Olympia 

Omak 

Pasco 

Port Angeles 

Port Townsend--- 

Prosser 

Pullman i 

Puyallup 

Raymond 

Renton ' 

Sedro WooUey 

Shelton 

Snohomish 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



18 
9 
3 
5 
5 
4 
4 
2 
12 
4 
8 
3 
6 
18 
15 
16 

6 
13 
25 

1 
12 
10 
20 

5 

18 
14 

5 

3 
10 
14 

4 
26 

4 
11 

4 



WASHINGTON— Con. 

Sumner 

Sunnyside 

Toppenish 

Tumwater • 

Walla Walla 

Wapato --- 

Wenatchee ' 



WEST VIRGINIA 

Beckley 

Benwood 

Bluefield ' 

Buckhannon 

Charles Town 

Chester 

Dunbar 

Elkins 

FoUansbee 

Grafton 

Hinton 

Keyser ' 

Keystone ' 

Logan 

Mannington 

M artinsburg 

McMechen 

Montgomery ' 

Mounds ville 

Mount Hope ' 

Mullens 

New Martinsville '- 

Philippl 

Piedmont 

Point Pleasant 

Princeton 

Richwood 

St. Albans 

South Charleston--. 

Vienna 

Weirton 

Wellsburg 

Weston 

Westover 

White Sulphur 

Springs 

Williamson 

WISCONSIN 

Algoma 

Antigo ' 

Ashland 

Baraboo • 

Beaver Dam 

Berlin ' 

Black River Falls.. 

Bloomer ' 

Burlington 

Cedarburg 

Chippewa Falls — 

Clintonville 

Columbus 

Cudahy 

Delavan 

De Pere 

Dodgeville 

Edgerton ' 

Elkhorn ' 

Evansville i.- 

Fort Atkinson 

Fox Point 

Oreendale ' 

Hartford! 

Horicon ' 

Hudson 

Janesville i 

Jefferson 

Kaukauna- 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



City 



27 
4 
4 
2 
5 
7 
4 
7 
8 
9 
3 
11 
2 
15 
4 
4 
8 
3 
4 
4 
3 
2 
5 

12 

3 

11 

21 

1 

28 

5 

5 

2 

2 
11 



WISCONSIN— Con. 

Kewaunee 

Kimberly 

Ladysmith 

Lake Geneva ' 

Lake Mills 

Lancaster 

Little Chute 

Marinette 

Marshfleld.- 

Mauston 

Mayville 

Medford 

Menasha i 

Menomonie - 

Merrill 

Monona 

Monroe 

Neenah ' 

Neillsville 

New London 

New Richmond 

Oconomowoe 

Oconto 

Onalaska 

Park Falls 

Platteville 

Plymouth 

Portage ' 

Port Washington 

Prairie du Chien 

Reedsburg 

Rhinelander 

Rice Lake ' 

Richland Center '--. 

Ripon 

River Falls 

Shawano 

Sheboygan Falls 

Shorewood ' 

South Milwaukee — 

Sparta 

Spooner ' 

Stevens Point 

Stoughton 1 

Sturgeon Bay 

Tomah 

Tomahawk • 

Two Rivers 

Viroqua 

Watertown 

Waukesha 

Waupaca 

Waupun 

West Bend 

West Milwaukee '-. 

Whiteflsh Bay > 

Whitewater 

Wisconsin Rapids L 

WYOMING 



Buffalo.- 

Casper 

Cody 

Douglas 

Evanston 

Green River. . 

Lander 

Laramie 

Lovell 

Newcastle 

Powell 

Rawlins • 

Riverton 

Rock Springs- 

Sheridan 

Torrington — 
Worland 



Number 
of police 
depart- 
ment 
em- 
ployees 



3 

4 
4 
8 
3 
4 
3 
16 
20 
4 
3 
2 

26 

11 

13 

5 

13 
28 
3 
7 
4 
10 
4 
2 
4 
6 
5 

10 

7 

6 

6 

14 

10 

8 

6 

4 

7 

4 

27 

23 

7 

4 

20 

7 

9 

7 

5 

15 

4 

17 

41 

5 



4 

36 
6 
3 
4 
4 
4 
16 
3 
7 
6 
U 
8 
13 
16 
7 



1 The figures for the 
pressed in terms of full 



cities indicated include school-crossing guards 
time personnel. See comments on page 25. 



and other part-time employees ex- 



Offenses Cleared and Persons Arrested 



Here are shown the number of (1) crimes, (2) crimes cleared by 
arrest, and (3) persons charged for such crimes. The data are for the 
latest calendar year (1955). Comparison of the 3 factors is possible 
for only the Part I classes of offenses (crimes). These 7 classes are: 
criminal homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, 
larceny, and auto theft. They are defined briefly on page 65. 

For other classifications, the program does not provide for a tally 
by police of anything other than arrest data. Tliis means that the 
number of crimes or violations and clearances by arrest of such in- 
fractions are not compiled for the Part II classes defined on pages 
65 and 66. 

Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1955 

City police cleared by arrest a larger proportion of crimes in 1955 
than in any of the preceding 5 years. They cleared by arrest 2 of 
each 7 crimes (28.4 percent). The usual high clearance rate for 
crimes against the person and relatively low clearance rate for crimes 
against property are present in the 1955 data. 

Crimes Against the Person. Police cleared 78.5 percent of these 
by arrest in 1955. Individually, the percentage clearances of these 
crimes were: murder, 92.7; manslaughter by negligence, 85.1; rape, 
78.6; and aggravated assault, 77.4. Such crimes constituted 5.8 
percent of the Part I (major) crimes but with the high clearance rates 
in these categories accounted for 15.9 percent of all offenses cleared. 

Crimes Against Property. These made up 94.2 percent of the 
crimes reported. The 25.4 percent of property crimes cleared b}" 
arrest represented 84.1 percent of all Part I crimes cleared by the 
1,771 cities represented in tables 15 and 16. 

Robberies, similar to crimes against the person in that the victim is 
in personal contact with the criminal, had the highest property crime 
clearance rate in 1955, 42.8 percent. Of the other property crimes, 
police cleared by arrest 32.1 percent of the burglaries, 29.2 percent of 
the auto thefts, and 21.0 percent of other thefts. 

The arrest of one person may clear several crimes and conversely a 
number of persons may be involved in only one crime. 

The above data arc from 1,771 cities with a combined population of 
over 66 million as shown in tables 15, 16, 17, and 19. 

(46) 



47 



OFFENSES CLEARED BY ARREST 

OFFENSES AGAINST THE PERSON 

CALENDAR YEAR 1955 

1,771 CITIES 66,012,729 POPUUTION 




NOT CLEARED 



CLEARED 



MURDER 



92.7% 



NEGLIGENT 85.1 

MANSLAUGHTER 



RAPE 



78.6% 



AGGRAVATED 77.4% 

ASSAULT 





ru tiUi»r 



Figure 3. 



48 

Tabic l^.-^Offenses Known, Cleared hy Arrest, and Persons Charged (Jleld 
for Prosecution), 1955, by Popuhition Groups, Number Per 100 Known 
Offenses 

[Population figures from 1950 decennial census] 



Population group 



rriminal 
homicide 



Mur- 
der, 
nonnog- 
ligont 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Man- 
iilaugh- 
tcr by 
negli- 
gence 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary, 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Lar- 
ceny, 
theft 



TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

1,771 cities; total population, 66,012,729: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



GROUP I 

36 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 31,179,179: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged... 



GROUP 11 

51 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total popu- 
lation, 7,457,368: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged _ 



GROUP III 

103 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total popu- 
lation, 7,282,305: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



GROUP IV 

195 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total popu- 
lation, 6,912,219: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



GROUP V 

547 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total popu- 
lation, 8,416,332: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



GROUP VI 

839 cities under 10,000; total popula- 
tion, 4.765,320: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



100.0 
92.7 
95.7 



100.0 
91.1 
97.2 



100.0 
96.4 
89.4 



100.0 
95.7 
92.8 



100.0 
96.8 
102.8 



100.0 
93.2 
93.7 



100.0 
90.3 
88.3 



100.0 
85.1 
81.2 



100.0 

78.6 
74.5 



100.0 
42.8 
38.4 



100.0 
77.4 
65.6 



100.0 
32.1 
20.2 



100.0 
21.0 
15.1 



100. 
82.5 
78.0 



100.0 
91.2 

78.6 



100.0 
82.6 



100.0 
85.0 
80.2 



100.0 
93.7 
105.5 



100.0 
95.7 
105.8 



100.0 
70. 9 
68.6 



100.0 
78.1 



100.0 
81.0 
85.5 



100.0 
87.1 
91.6 



100. 
82.8 
90.6 



100.0 
88.7 
93.5 



100.0 
43.2 
35.2 



100.0 
39.5 
42.3 



100.0 
39.9 

48.5 



100.0 
43.1 
54.0 



100.0 
44.0 
54.0 



100. 
48.2 
62.4 



100.0 

75.5 
61.7 



100.0 
74.2 
55.5 



ioo.o 

81.0 
72.1 



100.0 
89.2 

88.1 



100.0 
87.6 
95.3 



100.0 
86. 2 
90.3 



100.0 
33.0 
17.1 



100.0 
30.7 
22.3 



100.0 
28.0 
19.9 



100.0 
30.8 
24.5 



100.0 
32.1 
25.7 



100.0 
35.7 
3:i. 6 



100.0 
22.9 
14.9 



100.0 
18.5 
15.2 



100.0 
17.4 
14.3 



100.0 
18.6 
14.6 



100.0 
20.4 
15.0 



100. 
25. 7 
19.0 



The number of clearances and tlie iuini})er of persons charged in 
relation to each 100 offenses known based on reports by 1,771 cities 
are shown in table 15. The raw figures from these cities for offenses 
known and offenses cleared are summarized geographically in table 16. 



49 



OFFENSES CLEARED BY ARREST 

OFFENSES AGAINST PROPERTY 

CALENDAR YEAR 1955 



1,771 CITIES 




NOT CLEARED 



LARCENY 



■^^^^^^MiWiP™— -— j--<lB^JIBL— ...S^Rfcr 



_\ 



66,012,729 POPULATION 




CLEARED 



ROBBERY 


418% 



BURGLARY 


tzM 



21J% 



AUTO THEFT 


tu% 



FBICHMIT 




Figure 4. 



50 



Table 16. — Number of Offenses Known, Number and Percentage Cleared by 
Arrest, 1955, by Geographic Divisions 

[Population figures from 1950 decennial census] 





Criminal 
















homicide 








Bur- 
















Mur- 










glary, 






Geographic division 


der, 


Man- 


Rape 


Rob- 


Aggra- 


break- 


Lar- 


Auto 




nonneg- 


slaugh- 




bery 


vated 


ing or 


ceny, 


theft 




ligent 


ter by 






assault 


enter- 


theft 






man 


negli- 








ing 








slaugh- 


gence 
















ter 
















TOTAL, ALL DIVISIONS 


















1,771 cities; total population, 
6fi,012,729: 
Number of offenses known 


















3,122 


2,138 


8,807 


41,419 


56, 151 


276, 997 


700, 039 


130,919 


Number cleared by arrest 


2,893 


1,820 


6,922 


17,714 


43, 452 


88,779 147,087 


38, 288 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


92.7 


85.1 


78.6 


42.8 


77.4 


32.1 


21.0 


29.2 


New England States: 


















141 cities; total population, 
5,12:5,308: 
Num her of offenses linown -. - 


















66 


165 


329 


1,084 


1,067 


14,360 


34,314 


7,487 


Num her cleared by arrest 


60 


142 


314 


515 


918 


5,047 


8,826 


2,394 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


90.9 


86.1 


95.4 


47.5 


86.0 


35.1 


25.7 


.32.0 


Middle Atlantic States: 


















403 cities; total population, 
18,448,349: 
Number of offenses known . _ - 


















572 


419 


2,708 


10, 776 


13,937 


70,640 


133, 557 


26, 665 


Number cleared by arrest 


500 


359 


2,098 


4,989 


10, 487 


25, 695 


29,899 


8,204 


Percentage cleared by arrest- - 


87.4 


85.7 


77.5 


46.3 


75.2 


36.4 


22.4 


30.8 


East Nortii Central States: 


















440 cities; total population. 


















17,005,553: 


















Number of offenses known . . _ 


776 


521 


2,257 


14, 076 


12, 927 


59,233 


172,433 


29,011 


Number cleared by arrest 


710 


438 


1,722 


5,985 


9,458 


18, 991 


36,690 


9, 560 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


91.5 


84.1 


76.3 


42.5 


73.2 


32.1 


21.3 


33.0 


West North Central States: 


















187 cities; total population, 
5,516,789: 
Number of offenses known ^ _ _ 


















200 


161 


596 


3,063 


3,320 


21,007 


61, 526 


10,845 


Number cleared by arrest 


183 


140 


448 


1,212 


2,401 


5,489 


11,950 


3,752 


Percentage cleared by arrest- - 


91.5 


87.0 


75.2 


39.6 


72.3 


26.1 


19.4 


34.6 


South Atlantic States: i 


















155 cities; total population. 


















6,153,962: 


















Number of offenses known _ _ _ 


610 


256 


960 


3,807 


14, 452 


32, .339 


77, 952 


16, 420 


Number cleared by arrest 


591 


245 


826 


1,800 


12, 145 


10, 425 


18,280 


3,847 


Percentage cleared by arrest - 


96.9 


95.7 


86.0 


47.3 


84.0 


32.2 


23.5 


23.4 


East South Central States: 


















67 cities; total population, 
1,684,862: 
Number of offenses known- _ - 


















179 


75 


177 


932 


1,878 


7,906 


14, 505 


4,648 


Number cleared by arrest 


165 


69 


159 


266 


1,421 


1,949 


3,103 


1,038 


Percentage cleared" by arrest - 


92.2 


92.0 


89.8 


28.5 


75.7 


24,7 


21.4 


22.3 


West South Central States: 


















95 cities; total population, 
4,663,424: 
Number of offenses known- . 


















455 


229 


613 


2,315 


5,035 


27,238 


66,360 


12, 789 


Number cleared by arrest 


451 


220 


541 


991 


4,282 


8,883 


16, 179 


3,677 


Percentage cleared by arrest- 


99.1 


96.1 


88.3 


42.8 


85.0 


32.6 


24.4 


28.8 


Mountain States: 


















81 cities; total population. 


















1,689,329: 


















Number of offenses known. - - 


71 


37 


252 


1,205 


914 


10,645 


33, 271 


5,280 


Number cleared by arrest 


64 


34 


182 


476 


613 


2,889 


5, 617 


1,687 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


90.1 


91.9 


72.2 


39.5 


67.1 


27.1 


16.9 


32.0 


Pacific States: 


















202 cities; total population, 
6,727,153: 
Num ber of offenses known , _ . 


















193 


275 


915 


4,161 


2. 621 


33,629 


106, 121 


17,774 


Number cleared by arrest 


169 


173 


6:52 


1,480 


1,727 


9,411 


16, 543 


4,129 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


87 6 


62.9 


69.1 


35.6 


65.9 


28.0 


15.6 


23.2 



' Includes the District of Columbia. 



51 
Persons Charged, 1955 

Police in 1,771 cities reported that they arrested over 2.9 million 
persons in 1955 who were charged with some violation other than 
traffic. The violations involved ranged from minor regulatory matters 
through criminal homicide. The 2.9 million persons do not include 
those persons who were arrested but released without the filing of a 
charge by police. 

For all reporting cities combined, the 2.9 million persons charged 
figure indicates that on the average 1 person in 22 in the city popula- 
tion of 66,012,729 was arrested and charged in 1955. Stated another 
way, there were almost 4,462 persons charged for every 100,000 city 
inhabitants. 

With cities grouped by size, it may be observed generally that the 
larger the population center the higher the arrest rate. However, 
the group with the biggest cities, over 250,000, did not have the 
highest rate. The high was in the second largest city group, 100,000 
to 250,000 inhabitants. 

In the 24 crime classifications in table 17, the Group II cities were 
high in 12, or one-half, while the biggest city group, I, was high in 
only 10 classes. Together, these cities over 100,000 were high in 22 
classifications. 

The rate for persons arrested and charged for offenses against the 
family and children in the Group III cities (50,000 to 100,000) was 
the high for all city groups. The only other high not reflected in the 
Groups I and II figures is that for driving while intoxicated. The 
high rate for arresting and charging for that violation occurred in the 
smallest cities. Group VI (under 10,000). For this same violation, 
the lowest rate occurred in the largest city group, I. 

Police count only one person charged for each arrest. This is true 
even though it is not uncommon for a number of charges to be filed 
against one person. For example, if a person is arrested for one 
offense of bm-glary and is charged with burglary and also with a 
count of larceny (a part of the burglary) , only one person charged is 
counted. Similarly, if a person is arrested and charged for 3 separate 
offenses of auto theft, only 1 person would be tallied as charged. 



52 

Table 17. — Persons Charf^cd (Jleld for Prosecution), 1955, all Offenses Except 
Traffic, Number and Rate Per 100,000 Inhabitants, by Population Groups 

[Population figures from 1950 decennial census] 



Offense charged 



GRAND TOTAL... 

Rate per 100,000 

Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 
gent manslaughter: 

Number of persons 

charged 

Rate per 100,000 

(b) Manslaughter by neg- 
gence: 

Number of persons 

charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged _ 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary, breaking or enter- 
ing: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny, theft: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

N umber of persons charged- 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged- 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, re- 
ceiving, possessing: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000-. 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged- 

Rate per 100,000- 

Rape: 

N u m her of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 -- 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex olTenses (except rape and 
prostitution): 

Number of persons charged- 

Rate per 100,000 - 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 
etc.: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

OlTenses against family and 
children: 

N u m her (if persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 



TOTAL 



1,771 
cities, 
total pop- 
ulation, 
66, 012, 729 



2, 945, 216 
4, 461. 6 



2,989 
4.5 



1,735 
2.6 



15, 905 
24.1 



36, 815 

55.8 



96, 779 
146.6 



55, 960 
84.8 

105. 606 
160.0 

30, 547 
46.3 

18, 978 
28.7 



5,453 
8.3 



11,963 
18.1 



6,557 



26, 388 
40.0 



29,115 
44.1 



15,937 
24.1 



20,218 
30.6 



33,815 
51.2 



36 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
31,179,179 



Group I 



Group II 



1,474,787 
4, 730. 



1,893 
6.1 



918 
2.9 



11,160 
35.8 



22, 551 
72.3 



38,383 
123.1 



25, 866 
83.0 



47, 852 
153.5 



15, 904 
51.0 



9,143 
29.3 



3,375 
10.8 



4,522 
14.5 



4,114 
13.2 



19,040 
61.1 



14, 250 
45.7 



13,429 
43.1 



10, 446 
33.5 



15, 526 
49.8 



51 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
7, 457, 368 



411,702 
5, 520. 7 



345 
4.6 



242 
3.2 



1,625 
21.8 



4,134 
55.4 



16, 356 
219.3 



8,327 
111.7 



14, 662 
196.6 



4,138 
55.5 



3,171 
42.5 



1,823 
24.4 



739 
9.9 



4, 465 
59.9 



(>, 000 
80.5 



967 
13.0 



2,892 
38.8 



4, 349 
58. 3 



Group III 



103 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
7, 282, .305 



318, 958 
4, 379. 9 



257 
3.5 



186 
2.6 



1,069 
14.7 



3, 577 
49. 1 



12, 530 
172.1 



5, 355 
73.5 



11,604 
159.3 



2, 675 
36.7 



2,033 
27.9 



356 
4.9 



1,.505 
20.7 



508 
7.0 



1,317 

18.1 



2,705 
37.1 



686 
9.4 



2,092 
28.7 



4.583 
62.9 



Group IV 



195 cities, 
25,000 to 
.50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
6, 912, 219 



268, 885 
3, 890. 



224 
3.2 



182 
2.6 



907 
13.1 



2, 587 
37.4 



11,941 
172.8 



5,977 
86.5 



11,967 
173.1 



2,172 
31.4 



453 
6.6 



1,488 
21.5 



447 
6.5 



746 
10.8 



3,003 
43.4 



344 
5.0 



2.148 
31.1 



3,938 
57.0 



Group V 



547 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
8, 416, 332 



280, 373 
3,331.3 



179 
2.1 



134 
1.6 



779 
9.3 



2,700 
32.1 



11,692 
138.9 



6,309 
75.0 



12, 174 
144.6 



3,167 
37.6 



19.8 



499 
5.9 



1,679 
19.9 



475 
5.6 



607 
7.2 



2,078 
24.7 



388 
4.6 



1,679 
19.9 



3, 908 
46.4 



53 

Table 17. — Persons Charged (Held for Prosecution), 1955, all 0_ffenses Except 
Traffic, IWurnher and Rate Per 100,000 Inhabitants, by Population Groups — 
Continucfl 





TOTAL 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Offense charged 


1,771 
cities, 
total pop- 
ulation, 
66,012,729 


36 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
31, 179, 179 


51 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
7,457,368 


103 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
7, 282, 305 


195 cities, 
25,000 to 

50,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
6, 912, 219 


547 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
8,416,332 


839 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

4, 765, 326 


Liquor laws: 

N umber of persons charged - 
Rate per 100,000 


50, 195 
76.0 

137, 098 
207.7 

325, 935 
493.7 

1, 273, 319 
1, 928. 9 

120, 653 
182.8 

96, 208 
145.7 

427, 048 
646.9 


15,112 

48.5 

38, 055 
122.1 

172,688 
553.9 

594, 120 
1, 905. 5 

60, 648 
194.5 

74, 023 
237.4 

261,769 
839.6 


8, 146 
109.2 

20, 390 
273.4 

34, 879 
467.7 

197, 829 
2, 652. 8 

21,481 
288.1 

9,673 
129.7 

44,570 
597.7 


7,724 
106.1 

18, 183 
249.7 

36, 927 
507.1 

149, 400 
2,052.4 

12, 499 
171.6 

5,036 
69.2 

36, 091 
495.6 


6,518 
94.3 

17,302 
250.3 

27, 139 
392.6 

122, 637 
1, 774. 2 

10,886 
157.5 

3,562 
51.5 

29,449 
426.0 


7,595 
90.2 

23, 565 
280.0 

30, 753 
365.4 

121, 672 
1, 445. 7 

9,098 
108.1 

2,687 
31.9 

34,887 
414.5 


5,100 
107 


Driving while into.xicated: 
Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


19, 603 


Disorderly conduct: 

N u mber of persons charged _ 
Rate per 100,000 


23, 549 
494 2 


Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


87, 601 
1 838 3 


Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


6,041 

126 8 


Gambling: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


1,227 

25 7 


All other olfenses: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


20, 282 
425.6 



Traffic violations, other than driving while intoxicated, are excluded 
from table 17. Traffic data are shown in table 18. The number of 
persons charged for such violations is from the reports of 1,030 police 
departments. 

Table 18. — Persons Charged (Held for Prosecution), Traffic Violations, Except 
Driving While Intoxicated, 1955; Number and Rate Per 100,000 Inluibitants, 
by Population Groups 

[Population figures from 1950 decennial census] 





TOTAL 


Group I 


Group II 


Group ni 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Offense charged 


1,030 
cities; 
total 
popula- 
tion, 
51,958,999 


33 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
28,459,.521 


37 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
5,442,888 


73 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
5,146,805 


149 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
5,276,994 


340 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
5,258,749 


398 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

2,374,042 


Road and driving laws: 

N umber of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


3, 976, 486 
7, 653. 1 

16,441,765 
31, 643. 7 

921,387 
1, 773. 3 


2, 560, 283 
8, 996. 2 

6,537,084 
22, 969. 8 

502, 122 
1, 764. 3 


456, 763 
8, 391. 9 

2, 690, 900 
49,438.8 

141,662 
2, 602. 7 


296, 594 
5, 762. 7 

1,917,303 
37,252.3 

89, 443 
1, 737. 8 


298, 894 
5, 664. 1 

2, 238, 277 
42, 415. 8 

92, 728 
1, 757. 2 


243, 672 
4, 633. 6 

2, 224, 524 
42, 301. 4 

60, 795 
1, 156. 1 


120, 280 
5, 066. 5 


Parking violations: 

N umber of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 

tJther traffic and motor vehicle 
laws: 
N umber of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 


833, 677 
35,116.4 

34, 637 
1, 460. 







54 



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56 



PERSONS FOUND GUILTY 

(PERCENT OF PERSONS CHARGED-PART I OFFENSES) 

CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON 

CALENDAR YEAR 1955 

206 CITIES OVER 25,000 TOTAL POPULATION 25,050,899 




MURDER 





l>3i2 CfUMQED 


NEGLI 


GENT MANSLAUGHTER 






47.4% 

^1 CRAROED 




RAPE 








58.2% 

2;26S CHAMfS 


AGGR 


AVATED ASSAULT 






48.3% 

14^7$ CMAftCEP 







FBI CHART 



;-ix.A^:.c^f^a^l;^sa^'^;^!sl^..^ 



Figure 5. 



57 
Persons Found Guilty, 1955 

Five persons were found guilty in 1955 for every 7 who were arrested 
and charged by police. 

These data are from reports of 206 cities over 25,000 population 
(tables 20 and 21) and the offenses known information may be studied 
in relation to persons charged and found guilty for Part I offense 
classes (table 20). 

For every 100 major offenses known to the police in 1955, 28 were 
cleared by arrest, 20 persons were charged and 14 persons were 
found guilty, according to table 20. Every other murder and every 
third negligent manslaughter resulted in a conviction in 1955. Rob- 
beries and aggravated assaults occurred at the rate of 4 for each 
person convicted for these crimes. 

The ratio of offenses to convictions is much lower for burglary, 
auto theft and larcencies. There were 7 burglaries and auto thefts 
for each conviction while only 1 larceny conviction was attained for 
every 9 reported offenses of that type. 

The high and the low in conviction rates for all crime classes are 
found in the same categories as in the past several years. Convictions 
of persons charged with driving while intoxicated reached 87.3 percent 
of those charged in that classification. That was the highest per- 
centage of persons found guilty in a single classification in the 206 
cities studied. Negligent manslaughters, principally traffic deaths 
where some person other than the victim is responsible due to gross 
negligence, had the lowest percentage of convictions in 1955 as in 
previous years. Only 47.4 percent of those persons charged with 
negligent killings were found guilty of any charge. 

Convictions are reported on the basis of the final disposition of 
prosecutions and not on the findings in preliminary or other interim 
court procedures. 



58 



PERSONS FOUND GUILTY 

(PERCENT OF PERSONS CHARGED -PART I OFFENSES) 

CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY 

CALENDAR YEAR 1955 

206 CITIES OVER 25,000 TOTAL POPULATION 25,050,899 




ROBBERY 



BURGLARY 



LARCENY 



AUTO THEFT 



7S.5% 

6,75« CHAR6C0 



714% 

20,03$ CHARfilS? 



715% 

43^19 CKARCSD 



63.5% 

12,23» CHAMfD 





m CKAirr 



Fiaiirc 6. 



59 



Table 20. — Offenses Known, Cleared by Arrest, and Number of Persons Found 
Guilty, 1955; 206 Cities Over 25,000 in Population 

[Total population 25,050,899 based on 1950 decennial census] 



Offense (Part I classes) 



TOTAL 

Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 

gent manslaughter. 

(b) Manslaughter by 

negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary, breaking or en- 
tering 

Larceny, theft (except auto 

theft) 

Auto theft 



Number of offenses 



Known 
to the 
police 



502, 353 



1,384 



3,833 
21, 534 
26,155 

107, 436 

284, 308 
56, 735 



Cleared 
by arrest 



1,283 

783 
2,916 
9,109 
19, 915 

32, 892 

56, 223 
15, 132 



Number of persons 



Charged 
(held for 
prosecu- 
tion) 



100, 872 



1,312 

661 
2,268 
6,756 
14, 379 

20, 038 

43, 219 
12, 239 



Found guilty 



Total 
guilty 



68,315 



313 
1,321 
5,165 
6,946 

14,713 

31,343 

7,766 



Offense 
charged 



59, 949 



603 

253 

943 

4,291 

4,855 

12, 614 

29, 504 
6,886 



Lesser 
offense 



8,366 



145 

60 

378 

874 

2,091 

2,099 

1,839 
880 



Percent- 
age found 

guilty 



67.7 



57 

47.4 
58.2 
76.5 
48 3 

73.4 

72.5 
63.5 



GO 



PERSONS FOUND GUILTY 

(PERCENT OF PERSONS CHARGED--PART II OFFENSES) 



CALENDAR YEAR 1955 



206 CITIES OVER 25,000 



TOTAL POPULATION 25,050,899 




OTHER ASSAULTS 



60.6%| 



FORGERY AND COUNTERFEITING 



EMBEZZLEMENT AND FRAUD 



STOLEN PROPERTY; 
BUYING, RECEIVING, ETC. 



52.6%| 



67.2%| 



81.2%| 



WEAPONS; CARRYING, POSSESSING, ETC. 



SEX OFFENSES (INCLUDING PROSTITUTION 
AND COMMERCIALIZED VICE) 



OFFENSES AGAINST 
FAMILY AND CHILDREN 



59.3%| 



76.5%| 
73 4%| 



NARCOTIC DRUG LAWS 



62.0%! 



LIQUOR LAWS 



DRUNKENNESS; DISORDERLY 
CONDUCT; VAGRANCY 



71.0%| 
68.B%| 



H 



DRIVING WHILE INTOXICATED 



TRAFFIC AND MOTOR VEHICLE LAW^ 72.9%| 

55.3%| 



87.3%| 



ALL OTHER OFFENSES 




rSf CHART 




Fifftire 7. 



61 

Table 21. — Number of Persons Charged (Held for Prosecution) and Number 
Found Guilty, 1955; 206 Cities Over 25,000 in Population 

[Total pnpiiliilion 2r).05n,syy based on \9U(\ (ieoennial («nsiis] 



Offense (Part II classes) 



TOTAL. 



O tlier assaults 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc.- 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Sex offenses (including prostitution and com- 

rnereialized vice) 

OlTenses against family and children 

Narcot ic drug laws 

Liquoi laws -- 

Drunkenness; disorderly conduct; vagrancy.. 

Gambling 

Driving while intoxicated 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws 

All other offenses 



Niinibor of persons charged (held for 
I)rosecution) 



TOTAL 
CHARGED 



11,325,307 



40, 594 
4,146 
9,854 
1,830 
8,060 

24, 170 

15,552 

5,716 

19, 516 

717, 276 

29, 687 

50, 798 

10. 265, 788 

132, 320 



Found guilty 



TOTAL 
GUILTY 



8, 223, 358 



24, 619 
3, 365 
6,617 
962 
6,165 

17, 745 
9,223 
3,545 
15, 989 
509, 437 
20, 438 
44, 352 
7, 487, 670 
73, 231 



Offense 
charged 



8, 164, 047 



23,552 

2,999 

6,230 

903 

5,897 

17, 008 
8,925 
3,500 
15,542 
507, 976 
20, 229 
40. 285 
7, 439, 762 
71,233 



Lesser 
offense 



59,311 



1,067 

366 

387 

59 

268 

737 

298 

39 

447 

1, 461 

209 

4,067 

47, 908 

1,998 



Peicent- 

age 

found 

guilty 



72.6 



60.6 
81.2 
67.2 
52.6 

76.5 

73.4 
59.3 
62.0 
81.9 
71.0 
68.8 
87.3 
72.9 
55.3 



Persons Released — Not Held For Prosecution, 1955 

Not all arrests reported by police for 1955 are represented in 
tables 15-21. Those tables represent persons arrested and formally 
charged. Persons arrested who are released by the police before a 
formal charge is filed are reported separately. Tables 22 and 23 
reflect the "released" data but do not include persons who are charged 
and who are not "found guilty." 

"Released" data relates to arrests by the reporting agencies for 
violations that occurred within their juiisdictions. Arrests made 
for "other authorities" or "outside authorities" for violations occurring 
elsewhere are not counted in the persons released information com- 
piled by the arresting agency. 



62 

Table 22, — Persons released without being held for prosecution, 1955; all 
offenses except traffic, number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by popu- 
lation groups 

[Population figures from lOoO decennial census] 



Offense charged 



896 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 

35, 059, 842 



GRAND TOTAL 

RATE PER 100,000 

Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 

gent manslaughter: 
Number of persons re- 
leased 
Rate per 100,666 

(b) Manslaughter by negli- 

gence: 
Number of persons re- 
leased 

RatVper 100,666 

Robbery: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

N umber of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary, breaking or entering: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny, theft: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, re- 
ceiving, possessing: 

Numtior of peisons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Niunber of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice: 

N umber of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex olTenses (except rape and 
prostitution): 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 
etc.: 

Number of iwrsons released 

Rate per loo.ooo 

OlTenses against family and 
children: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons released 

Rale per 100,000 



TOTAL 



247, 488 
705.9 



129 
.4 



2,109 
6.0 



2,392 



6,983 
19.9 



6,764 
19.3 



13, 630 
38.9 



7.6 



1,116 
3.2 



498 
1.4 



803 
2.3 



576 
1.6 



4,024 
11.8 



1,356 
3.9 



999 
2.8 



1,196 
3.4 



5.4 



2,249 
6.4 



Group 
1 



24 cities 
over 

2.')0,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
15, 9«7. 803 



109, 931 
687.6 



107 

.7 



1,275 
8.0 



1,205 
7.5 



3,794 
23.7 



2,279 
14.3 



5,039 
31.5 



825 
5.2 



470 
2.9 



168 
1. 1 



180 
1. 1 



240 
1.5 



3,700 
23. 1 



391 
2.4 



694 
4.3 



497 
3. 1 



742 
4.6 



.585 
3.7 



Oroup 
II 



25 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
3,532,080 



42, 046 
1, 190. 2 



293 
8.3 



512 
14.5 



697 
19.7 



794 
22.5 



1,488 
42.1 



367 
10.4 



151 
4.3 



45 
1.3 



109 
3. 1 



81 
2.3 



191 
5.4 



218 
6.2 



155 
4.4 



226 
^4 



367 
10.4 



Group 
III 



66 cities, 
50,000 to 

100,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
4,720,038 



18,284 
387.4 



163 
3.5 



249 
5.3 



256 
5.4 



500 
10.6 



734 
15.6 



219 

4.6 



100 
2. 1 



76 
1.6 



81 
1.7 



103 
2.2 



55 
1.2 



71 
1.5 



101 
2. 1 



87 
1.8 



Group 
IV 



120 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
4,249,828 



22, 032 
518.4 



131 
3.1 



178 
4.2 



492 
11.6 



813 
19. 1 



2,223 
52.3 



411 
9.7 



126 
3.0 



93 
2.2 



148 
3.5 



53 
1.2 



248 
5.8 



143 
3.4 



184 
4.3 



453 
10.7 



Group 
V 



289 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
4,385,278 



29, 196 
665.8 



204 
4.7 



148 
3.4 



1,092 
24.9 



1, 557 
35.5 



2, 597 
59.2 



580 
13.2 



191 
4.4 



69 
1.6 



190 
4.3 



84 
1.9 



284 
6.5 



46 
1.0 



176 
4.0 



397 
9.1 



465 
10.6 



63 



Table 22. — Persons released without being held for prosecution, 1955; all 
offenses except traffic, number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by popu- 
la tion grou ps'^Continued 





TOTAL 


Group 
I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


Ollense charged 


896 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 

35, 059, 842 


24 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
15, 987, 803 


25 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
3,532,680 


66 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
4,720,038 


120 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
4,249,828 


289 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
4,385,278 


372 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

2, 184, 215 


Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons released _ 
Rate per 100,000 


1,318 
3.8 

10. 670 
30.4 

63, 934 
182.4 

5,433 
15.5 

2,514 
7.2 

91,058 
259.7 

22, 968 
65.5 


64 
.4 

2,559 
16.0 

15, 763 
98.6 

359 
2.2 

2,107 
13.2 

60, 122 
376.0 

6,731 
42.1 


328 
9.3 

1,321 
37.4 

27, 486 
778.0 

1,000 
28.3 

205 
5.8 

3,277 
92.8 

2,505 
70.9 


89 
1.9 

981 
20.8 

4,635 
98.2 

378 
8.0 

23 

.5 

7,657 
162.2 

1,606 
34.0 


181 
4.3 

1,643 
38.7 

2,565 
60.4 

528 
12.4 

35 

.8 

6,997 
164.6 

4,301 
101.2 


250 
5.7 

2,467 
56.3 

4,185 
95.4 

1,173 
26.7 

88 
2.0 

8,122 

185.2 

4,768 
108.7 


406 
18 6 


Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons released _ 
Rate per 100,000 


1. 699 

77.8 


Drunkenness: 

Number of persons released- 
Rate per 100,000-- . .- 


9, 300 

425 8 


Vagrancy: 

Number of persons released _ 
Rate per 100,000 


1, 995 
91.3 


Gambling: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


56 
2 6 


Suspicion: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


4,883 
223.6 


All other olTenses: 

Number of persons released. 
Rate per 100,000 


3,057 
140 







Table 23. — Persons Released Without Being Held for Prosecution, Traffic 
Violations, Except Driving While Intoxicated, 1955; Number and Rate Per 
100,000 Inhabitants, by Population Groups 

[Population figures from 1950 decennial census] 





Total 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


Offense charged 


611 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 

22,413,731 


16 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
10,122,745 


15 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,113,823 


40 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,872, 241 


78 cities, 
25,000 to 

50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 

2,786,856 


194 cities, 
10,000 to 

25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 

2,919,145 


268 cities 
under 
10,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,598,921 


Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons re- 
leased 

Rate ner 100,000.. .. 


117,010 
522.0 

899, 318 
4, 012. 4 

60, 615 
270.4 


25, 591 
252.8 

176, 936 
1, 747. 9 

25, 576 
252.7 


7,102 
336. 

64, 457 
3, 049. 3 

7,041 
333.1 


7,101 
247.2 

123, 524 
4, 300. 6 

2,343 
81.6 


36, 526 
1, 310. 7 

190, 215 
6, 825. 4 

8,335 
299.1 


17, 673 
605.4 

242. 478 
8, 306. 5 

9,124 
312.6 


23, 017 
1, 439. 5 


Parking violations: 

Number of persons re- 
leased 


101, 708 


Rate per 100,000 


6, 361. 


Other traffic and motor vehicle 
laws: 
Number of persons re- 
leased 


8,196 


Rate per 100,000 


512.6 







Classification of Offenses 



Uiiiforni Crime Reporting Program 

Readers not entirely familiar with tiie uniform crime reporting 
program may be interested in a brief explanation of the contents of 
crime reports included in this bulletin: 

1. These crime figures are called "police statistics" to distinguish 
them from judicial or penal statistics in the criminal field. (Program 
is voluntary. International Association of Chiefs of Police started it 
January 19.30. The FBI has acted as the central clearinghouse since 
September 1930, by an Act of Congress.) 

2. Crimes that are exclusively Federal are not included. 

3. Each reporting agency counts only those crimes or arrests for 
crimes committed in its jurisdiction. A sheriff reports only for his 
rural areas outside the city or town limits of any urban places in his 
county. This feature avoids duplication. 

4. "Offenses known to the police" (the Part I offenses below) are 
limited to seven classes of grave offenses shown by experience to be 
those most generally and completely reported to the police. 

5. Offenses (crimes) for the Part I classes are reported as they 
become known. The police may learn of the occurrence of crime in a 
number of ways: reports of police officers; citizens' complaints; 
notification from prosecuting or court officials; or otherwise. 

6. Offenses are included without regard to: (a) age of the offender; 
(6) value of property involved; (c) recovery of stolen property; 
(d) arrests; or (e) prosecutive action. The purpose is to show the 
amount of crime that has occurred as distinguished from arrests and 
the classifying is based strictly on the facts in possession of the police. 

7. Complaints that are found by police investigation to be ground- 
less are not included in crime tables in this bulletin, and returns that 
appear incomplete or defective are excluded. 

8. Arrests are not included in "offenses known" information but 
arrest data are collected separately for the entire crime classification, 
Parts I and II. So, the only information for Part II offenses is that 
based on arrests. 

In publishing the data sent in by cliie fs of po lice in diirerent cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. Tiiey are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

The complete classification of crimes is shown below with brief 
definitions for each: 

(C4) 



65 

^arl 1 Ojfonses 

\ . Criminal homicide. — [a) Murder and nonnegligont manslaughter 
ncludes all wilful felonious homicides as distinguished from deaths 
caused by negligence. Does not include attempts to kill, assaults to 
Idll, suicides, accidental deaths, or justifiable homicides. Justifiable 
homicides excluded from this classification arc limited to the following 
types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon by a peace officer in line of 
duty; (2) the killing of a holdup man by a private citizen. (6) Man- 
slaughter by negligence includes any death which the pohce investiga- 
tion establishes was primarily attributable to gross negligence on the 
part of some individual other than the victim. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape (no force used — • 
victim under age of consent), assault to rape, and attempted rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the 
person by force or violence or by putting in fear, such as strong-arm 
robbery, stickups, robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and 
attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault 
by shooting, cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by 
the use of acids. Does not include simple assault, assault and battery, 
fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreak- 
ing, safecracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or a theft, 
even though no force was used to gain entrance. Includes attempts. 
Burglarj^ followed b}^ larceny is included in this classification and not 
counted again as larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in 
value; (b) under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassi- 
fications, depending upon the value of the property stolen, thefts of 
bicycles, automobile accessories, shoplifting, pocket picking, or any 
stealing of property or article of value which is not taken by force 
and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" 
games, forgery, worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or 
driven away and abandoned, including the so-called joy-riding thefts. 
Does not include taking for temporary use when actually returned by 
the taker, or unauthorized use by those having lawful access to the 
vehicle. 

Part II Offenses 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults 
which are not of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in 
class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the 
making, altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, any- 
thing false which is made to appear true. Includes attempts. 



66 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent 
conversion, embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false 
pretenses. 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, 
receiving, and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to com- 
mit any of those offenses. 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of 
regulations or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, 
fiu-nishing, and manufacturing of deadly weapons or silencers and all 
attempts to violate such statutes or regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a 
commercialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as 
prostitution, keeping bawdy house, procuring, transporting, or de- 
taining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex ojfenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized 
vice). — Includes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, 
and the like. Includes attempts. 

15. Offenses against the family and children. — Includes offenses of 
nonsupport, neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, 
such as unlawful possession, sale, or use. Excludes Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws.- — With the exception of "drunkenness" (class 18) 
and "driving while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations. 
State or local, are placed in this class. Excludes Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxi- 
cation. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a 
breach of the peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, 
loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or 
engaging in gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any 
motor vehicle while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regu- 
lations with respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to 
prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes viola- 
tions of State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and 
motor vehicles not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws 
for which no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Susjncion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as 
suspicious characters, but not in connection with any specific oftense, 
who arc released without formal charges being placed against them. 

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1956 



■POSITORY'i*?'^^ 



UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 



FOR RELEASE THURSDAY, P. M., APRIL 25, 1957 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C 



Volume XXVII Number 2 

ANNUAL BULLETIN • 1956 



, .,f! [ .jUrt iv>u<*n 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 



Volume XXVII— Number 2 
ANNUAL BULLETIN, 1956 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1957 



Cotton Public Ubnuy 
Superintemlent of Documents 

MAY 3-1957 
Contents 

Page 

Summary of volume XXVII, No. 2 67-68 

Crime trends: 

Estimated number of major crimes (table 24) 69-71 

Urban trends (tables 25-27) 72-81 

Rural trends (table 28) 82-83 

Monthly variations (table 29) 84-86 

Crime rates: 

Urban rates (tables 30-33) 87-91 

Rural rates (table 34) 92 

Offenses in individual areas: 

Cities over 25,000 (table 35) 93-102 

Jurisdictions outside the United States (table 36) .... 103 

Supplemental crime data: 

Offense analysis trends (table 37) 104-105 

Value of property stolen by type of crime (table 38) ... 106 
Value of property stolen and value of property recovered 

(table 39) 106 

Age, sex, and race of persons arrested : 

Trends (table 40) 107 

Age distribution (tables 41-42) 108-111 

Sex distribution (table 43) 112 

Race distribution (table 44) 113 

Reporting area (table 45) 114 

Classification of off enses 115-117 

Index to volume XXVII 118-119 

(II) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 



J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 
of Justice, Washington, D. C. 



Volume XXVII JANUARY 1957 Number 2 



Suniinary 



Crime Trends 

Estimated Major Crimes. Major crimes reached a new high in 
1956. Increases in seven of eight categories brought a record 2,563,150 
major crimes for the year. This is 13.3 percent above 1955 and the 
first total above the 2.5 million mark. 

Crime has increased almost four times as fast as population since 
1950. 

In an increase of 4.1 jDcrcent in crimes against the person, 12,620 
people were slain, 20,300 women were raped, and 96,430 persons were 
wounded or maimed by deadly weapons or acid. 

Crimes against property increased 13.8 percent with a loss of 440 
million dollars in robberies, burglaries, auto thefts, and other larcenies. 
Robberies reflected the onlj^ decrease of all crime classes, 1.3 percent. 

Urban Crimes. City crimes increased 12.7 percent, led by an 
18.0 percent rise in auto thefts. This record increase in city crimes 
was held down only slightly by a 1.9 percent decline in robbery, the 
only crime to decrease. 

Rural Crimes. Crimes outside cities rose 15.5 percent with only 
murder and negligent manslaughters decreasing, 5.4 percent and 2.7 
percent, respectively. 

Monthly Variations 

Crimes against the persons and crimes against property are generally 
warm-month crimes and cold-month crimes, respectively. 

Property Recovered 

Police in 419 cities recovered 56.9 percent of the property stolen. 
Over 93 percent of the stolen cars were recovered. Recovered cars 
represent 92.6 percent of the total value of stolen cars. 

(67) 



68 
Persons Arrested 

Arrests of young people under 18 increased 17.3 percent in cities in 
1956. The increase is not due to more young people since the number 
in this group is up only about 3 percent. Arrests in this age group 
rose 20.9 percent in cities under 25,000 inhabitants, while cities with 
more population reported a 16.5 percent increase. Arrests in other 
age groups were up only 2.6 percent. 

Almost 46 percent of the arrests for major crimes were of youngsters 
under 18 who, for example, accounted for 66.4 percent of the auto 
theft arrests. 



Crime Trends 



Major Crime Totals, 1956 

Trend. An unequaled rise brought the 1956 major crime total 
higher than that of any other year. Increases in all but one category 
brought the crime total above the 2.5 million mark for the first time. 

The major crime total of 2,563,150 was 300,700, or 13.3 percent, 
above the 1955 figure. 

Local law enforcement agencies report offenses in eight crime 
categories considered of major importance in the police problem. A 
comparison of the 1955 and 1956 estimated totals for the United 
States is shown in table 24. 



Table 24. — Crime Trends, Urban and Rural 

[Estimated number of major crimes in the United States, 1955-56] 



Offense 



Number of offenses 



1955 



1956 



Change 



Number Percent 



TOTAL 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

A ggra vated assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft - 



2, 262. 450 



2, 663, 150 



+300, 700 



6,850 

5,610 

19, 100 

57, 490 

92, 740 

492, 530 

1, 360, 980 

227, 150 



6,970 

5,650 

20,300 

56, 770 

96, 430 

525, 720 

1, 587, 590 

263, 720 



+120 

+40 

+1, 200 

-720 

+3, 690 

+33, 190 

+226, 610 

+36, 570 



+ 13.3 



+ 1.8 

+.7 

+6.3 

-1.3 

+4.0 

+6.7 

+16.7 

+ 16.1 



Percentage increases in crimes arranged from high to low are: 
larceny, 16.7; auto theft, 16.1; burglary, 6.7; rape, 6.3; aggravated 
assault, 4.0; murder, 1.8; and negligent manslaughter, 0.7. Kobbery, 
the only major crime which did not increase in 1956, decreased 1.3 
percent. 

Population and Crime. Crime has increased almost four times 
as fast as population since 1950. For that period the increase in 
crime is 43 percent while that of population is 11 percent. 

To determine whether increased crimes are due to increased popula- 
tion it is necessary to think in terms of crime rates (the number of 
crimes per 100,000 population). In 1956, the U. S. crime rate was 
1,533.1. This is 29.1 percent above the 1950 rate of 1,187.8. If the 
population increase were the only cause of increases in crime, the 
crime rate would remain the same. (Population count of 1950 and 
population estimate as of July 1, 1956, were used.) 

(69) 



70 

Crimes Against the Person. All crimes against the person in- 
creased in 1956. There were 6,970 murders or 120 more than in the 
previous year. 

Negligent manslaughters numbered 5,650 or 40 more than in 1955. 
Most of these crimes represent traffic deaths due to the gross negligence 
of someone other than the victims. 

Rapes increased 1,200 to total 20,300 for the year while the 96,430 
aggravated assaults (with deadly weapons; represented an increase 
of 3,690. 

Crimes Against Property. Crimes with property as their object 
increased 13.8 percent in 1956. Property loss due to these robberies, 
burglaries, auto thefts, and larcenies totaled about 440 million dollars 
if the experience of 429 cities (table 38) is applicable to the entire 
country. 

Robberies decreased by 720 or 1.3 percent. About 12 million dollars 
was obtained in the 56,770 robberies in 1956. 

Burglaries increased to 525,720, or 6.7 percent over 1955, and 
accounted for about 90 million dollars of the property loss. 

Autos valued at about 230 million dollars were stolen. The 263,720 
auto thefts in 1956 were 36,570 or 16.1 percent in excess of the 1955 
figure. 

Larcenies (except autos) increased 16.7 percent, and about 108 
million dollars in property was stolen in the 1,587,590 incidents of 
this type. 

Estimated Crime Totals. Estimates are necessary for less than 
19 percent of the population. Crime counts are available for over 
90 percent of the urban population and about 68 percent of the rural 
population. 

Estimates are used as a means of presenting major crime trends for 
the entire United States and are considered conservative. It will be 
noted from the definitions of part I crimes on page 116 that certain 
important crimes are excluded. The part I crimes are those deemed 
of major importance in presenting the police problem according to 
the program initiated by the International Association of Chiefs of 
Police. 



71 



CRIME TREND -U. S. 

BASED ON THE ESTIMATED 
NUMBER OF MAJOR CRIMES 






1955 


--1956 PERCENT CHANGE 


















+117+16.1 


+13.3 

1 






+ ( 


1.3 




+ 1 


1 


11 






11 


+4 


II ■ ■ 


1 


1 


+1 
1 


■': 


i\ 


1 


1 


llli 

E V E L 


1 


9 


5 


5 


L 












■ 


■ 
.3 










TOl 


AL 


MUR 


GER NEGL 

MANSLA 


GENT RA 
UGHTER 


n ROBB 


ERY A6GRA 
ASS« 


VATED BURG 
ULT 


LARY LARC 


ENY AUTO 


THEFT 



Fiaure 8. 



72 



Urban Crime Trends 



Major crimes in cities rose an abrupt 12.7 percent in 1956. This 
brought the major crime total in cities higher than in any previous 
year. No other year in twenty-six years of nationwide crime trends 
equalled the 1956 increase. Only one other similar increase has 
occurred and that was a rise of 12.4 percent hi 1945. 

Auto thefts and other larcenies increased 18 percent and 16.6 
percent, respectively, and it was due to these two classifications that 
the over-all upward urban trend was so substantial. Robbery, down 
1.9 percent, was the only classification to show a decrease. Other 
classifications had increases from 1.9 percent in aggravated assaults 
to 9.1 percent in rapes. 

When grouped by size, all cities show increases in total major 
crimes. When grouped by locations, all geographic divisions reflect 
increases, but on a state level there were three states with decreases. 
Tables 25 and 26 include information from identical cities for the 
calendar years 1955 and 1956, and about 87 percent of the urban 
population of the United States is represented. 

Cities by Size. City crime would have increased more than 12.7 
percent except for the largest population group. Crime in those 
cities, 250,000 or more inhabitants, increased 8.2 percent or less than 
one-half the 17.2 percent increase in the smaller cities, those under 
250,000. About 33.5 million inhabitants are represented in the former 
city group with about 44.2 million in the latter. 

Five cities over one million population had a 7 percent increase, 
while their next smaller neighbors, 5 cities with from 750,000 to one 
million inhabitants, had a 6.4 percent increase or the lowest of the 
four groupings listed under the group I heading in Table 25. 

Cities with from 10,000 to 25,000 inhabitants had a 19.5 percent 
increase in crime, the highest of all city groups in Table 25. 

Cities by Location. Increases in city crimes were general through- 
out the country, according to Table 26. In an arrangement of city 
crime by geographic areas, the Pacific States led with a 19.1 percent 
increase. New England was second high with an 18.5 percent in- 
crease, while the Middle Atlantic States had the lowest rate of increase, 
7 percent. The Pacific States was the only division to show increases 
in all crime classifications. All divisions had increases in auto thefts 
and other larcenies. 

Although Alabama, Utah, and Wyoming were the only three states 
showing decreases in total crime, there were only three states which 
had increases in each oft'ense category: California; Idaho; and New 
Jersey. Wisconsin had no decreases but negligent manslaughters 
reflected no change from 1955. 



73 



Table 25. — Urban Crime Trends, 1955-56, by Population Groups 

[OfYenses known to the police in 2,475 cities, total population 77,733,637, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Population group 



TOTAL: 

1955 

1956 

Percent change 

Group I Total: 39 cities 
over 250,000; population, 
33,561,066: 

1955 

1956 

Percent change 

5 cities over 1,000,000; 
population, 17,404,450: 

1955 

1956 

Percent change 

5 cities, 750,000 to 
1,000,000; population, 
4,298,847: 

1955 

1956 

Percent change 

6 cities, 500,000 to 750,000; 
population, 3,516,209: 

1955 

1956 

Percent change 

23 cities, 250,000 to 
500,000; population, 
8,341,560: 

1955_. 

1956 

Percent change 

Group II: 62 cities, 100,000 
to 250,000; population, 
9,048,498: 

1955 

1956 

Percent change... 

Group III: 126 cities, 50,000 
to 100,000; population, 
8,921,809: 

1955 

1956 

Percent change 

Group IV: 253 cities, 25,000 
to 50,000; population, 
8,907,537: 

1955_.. 

1956 

Percent change. 

Group V: 647 cities, 10,000 
to 25,000; population, 
9,982,758: 

1955 

1956 

Percent change 

Group VI: 1,348 cities un- 
der 10,000; population, 
" 7,311,969: 

1955. ._ 

1956 

Percent change 



TOTAL 



1, 438, 672 
1, 619, 707 

+ 12.7 



711,310 

789, 297 

+8.2 



339, 387 

363, 153 

+7.0 



113,430 
120, 666 

+6.4 



57, 674 
64, 938 
+12.8 



200, 819 

220, 542 

+9.8 



188. 891 

217,332 

+ 15.1 



159, 082 
185, 553 
+18.6 



151, 186 
177, 823 
+17.6 



145, 406 
173,831 
+ 19.5 



80, 797 
95, 871 

+ 18.7 



Criminal 
homicide 



Murder 
and 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



3,628 
3,835 

+5.8 



2,088 
2,173 
+4.1 



960 

946 

-1.5 



331 
363 

+9.7 



200 

220 

+10.0 



597 
644 

+7.9 



512 

535 

+4.5 



341 

358 
+5.0 



290 

311 

+7.2 



235 

266 

+13.2 



160 

192 

+20.0 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



2,574 
2,680 
+4.1 



1,385 
1,406 
+1.5 



557 

535 

-4.0 



207 

193 

-6.8 



186 

180 

-3.2 



435 

498 

+14.5 



384 
470 

+22.4 



274 

289 
+5.5 



303 

257 
-15.2 



136 

137 

+.7 



92 
121 

+31.5 



Rape 



10,416 
11,367 
+9.1 



6,978 
7.590 

+8.8 



4,260 
4,699 
+10.3 



906 
1,009 

+11.4 



462 
462 



1,350 
1,420 
+5.2 



975 

1,079 

+10.7 



691 

847 

+22.6 



640 

691 
+8.0 



661 

685 

+3.6 



471 
475 

+.8 



Rob- 
bery 



47, 666 

46, 770 

-1.9 



35, 245 

34, 021 

-3.5 



21, 737 

20, 240 

-6.9 



5,297 
5,209 
-1.7 



1,819 
1,979 

+8.8 



6,392 
6, 593 
+3.1 



4,705 

4,682 

-.5 



2,723 

2,824 
+3.7 



2,196 
2,315 
+5.4 



1, 785 
1,897 
+6.3 



1,012 
1,031 
+1.9 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



66. 333 

67, 566 

+ 1.9 



42, 322 

43, 037 

+1.7 



24, 085 

25, 625 
+6.4 



8,718 
8, 215 
-5.8 



1,615 
1,617 
+.1 



7,904 

7, 580 
-4.1 



7,928 
7,481 
-5.6 



6,274 
6,556 
+4.5 



4,187 
4,444 
+6.1 



3,573 

3,932 

+10.0 



2,049 
2,116 
+3.3 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



332, 028 
349. 963 

+5.4 



174, 212 

177, 093 

+ 1.7 



87, 802 

89, 708 

+2.2 



22, 305 

21, 628 

-3.0 



14, 075 

15, 686 
+6.9 



49, 430 

50, 071 

+1.3 



44, 898 
49, 388 
+ 10.0 



33, 649 

36, 708 

+9.1 



30, 924 

33, 819 

+9.4 



30, 071 
33, 404 
+11.1 



18, 274 

19, 551 
+7.0 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



823, 653 

980, 092 

+16.6 



362, 896 

402, 783 

+ 11.0 



164, 896 
182, 333 
+10.6 



57, 977 

62, 774 

+8.3 



29, 972 
34. 355 
+14. 6 



110.051 
123. 321 
+12.1 



109, 442 
130, 457 
+19.2 



100, 336 
119,944 
+19.5 



100, 274 
120, 943 
+20.6 



97, 956 
120, 787 
+23.3 



52, 749 
65, 178 
+23.6 



421313°— 57- 



74 



URBAN CRIME TRENDS 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO POLICE 

1955 - 1956 PERCENT CHANGE 



DECREASE 



TOTAL 

MURDER 

NEGLIGENT 
MANSLAUGHTER 

RAPE 

ROBBERY 

AGGRAVATED 
ASSAULT 

BURGLARY 
LARCENY 
AUTO THEFT - 




INCREASE 




2,475 CITIES 



TOTAL POPULATION 77,733,637 



Figure 9. 



75 



Table 26.— Urban Crime Trends, 1955-56, by Geographic Divisions and States 

[Offenses known to the police In 2,475 cities, total population 77,733,637, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Divisions and States 



TOTAL: 

1955 

1956 

Percent change. 



New England, 179 cities; 
population, 5,628,394: 

1955 

1956 

Percent change ___ 



Connecticut, 25 cities; pop- 
ulation, 1,255,722: 

1955 

1956 

Maine, 20 cities; popula- 
tion, 334,767: 

1955 

1956 

Massachusetts, 93 cities; 
population, 3,013,723: 

1955 

1956 

New Hampshire, 16 cities; 
population, 270,858: 

1955 

1956 

Rhode Island, 16 cities; 
population, 654, 662: 

1955 

1956 

Vermont, 9 cities- popula- 
tion, 98,662: 

1955 

1956 ""■ 

Middle Atlantic, 549 cities; 
population, 21,017,304: 

1955 

1956 rl'_[ 

Percent change 



New Jersey, 152 cities; pop- 
ulation, 3,460,619: 

1955 

1956 W 

New York, 181 cities; popu-. 
lation, 11,721,987: 

1955 

1956 

Pennsylvania, 216 cities; 
population, 5,834,698: 

1955 

1956 "' 

East North Central, 581 
cities; population, 
18,528,374: 

1955 

1966 

Percent change 



lUinois, 150 cities; popula- 
tion, 5,908,402: 

1955 

1956 ' 

Indiana, 66 cities; popula- 
tion, 1,837,301: 

1955 

1956 



TOTAL 



1, 436, 672 

1, 619, 707 

-fl2.7 



59, 7S2 
70, 801 
+18.5 



13, 826 
16, 372 



3,415 
3,988 



30, 299 
36, 295 



2,045 
2,257 



9,411 
11,070 



736 
819 



+7.0 



44, 654 
51,819 



175, 953 
183, 524 



67, 520 
73,041 



309, i7S 

318,907 

+12.7 



77, 752 
82, 047 



34. 239 
42, 031 



Criminal 
homicide 



Murder 
and 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 

slaugh 
ter 



3,626 
3,835 

+5.8 



5i 

n 

+37. 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



2,574 
2,680 

+4.1 



157 
155 
-1.3 



Rape 



+8.8 



636 
+1.1 



+5.9 



164 
172 



+14-5 



368 
374 



+9.9 



338 
342 



138 
192 



140 
122 



217 
210 



531 
-3.1 



174 

178 



307 
363 



821 
907 



685 
736 



149 
148 



Rob- 
bery 



47, 666 

46, 770 

-1.9 



7i7 
723 



229 
214 



364 
356 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 

glary- 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



66, 333 
87, 566 
+1.9 



1,012 
+U.6 



11, 777 
10, 562 
-10. 3 



1,133 
1,399 



418 

477 



266 
314 



151 
175 



332, 028 
349, 963 

+5.4 



15, 403 
17, 615 
+H-i 



3,701 
4,531 



,861 
,982 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



823, 653 
960, 092 
+16.6 



43,565 



Auto 
theft 



150, 376 
177. 434 
+ 18.0 



6,100 

7,309 

+19.8 



14, 752 

16, 006 

+8.5 



1. 821 7. 
2, 106 5, 797 



2,986 
3,366 



14, 480 

14, 382 

-.7 



7,430 
6,724 



700 
906 



1,682 
1,903 



9,409 
10, 302 



3,661 
3,800 



13, 109 

13, 649 

+4.1 



398 
512 



2,464 
2,667 



163 
131 



7,636 
9,144 



2,185 
2,658 



18, 394 
22, 486 



1,458 
1,515 



5,894 
7,134 



501 
628 



78,654 148,439 
76,113 165,773 
-3.2 +11.7 



4,635 
4,536 



714 

775 



12, 821 

13, 553 



47, 134 
44,344 



18, 699 
18, 216 



63, 181 

67,164 

+6.3 



20, 109 
19, 466 



23, 320 

27, 518 



92, 446 
101, 153 



32, 673 
37, 102 



184. 195 
•14, 843 
+16.6 



1.679 
1.853 



330 
430 



3,156 
3,883 



141 
180 



731 
904 



35, 395 
+16.3 



37, 034 
42, 593 



8, 048 20, 238 

9, 085 25, 397 



5,180 
6,809 



16, 977 
19, 326 



8,275 
9,260 



55, 139 
+14-0 



7,347 
7,472 



4,271 
5,580 



76 

Table 26. — Urban Crime Trends, 1955-56, by Geographic Divisions and States — 

Continued 

[Offenses known to the police in 2,475 cities, total population 77,733,637, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Divisions and States 



Michigan, 110 cities; popu- 
lation, 3,911,678: 

1955 

1956 

Ohio, 174 cities; popula- 
tion, 5,087,223: 

1955 

1956 

Wisconsin, 81 cities; popu- 
lation, 1,783,770: 

1955 

1956 

West North Central, 291 
cities; population, 6,299,868: 

1955 

1956 

Percent change 

Iowa, 60 cities; population, 
1,060,542: 

1955 

1956 

Kansas, 52 cities; popula- 
tion, 843,110: 

1955.. 

1956 

Minnesota, 67 cities; popu- 
lation, 1,501,735: 

1955 

1956 

Missouri. 58 cities; popula- 
tion, 2,016,850: 

1955 

1956 

Nebraska,27 cities; popula- 
tion, 535,897: 

1955 

1956 

North Dakota, 11 cities; 
population, 156,785: 

1955 

1956 

South Dakota, 16 cities; 
population, 184,949: 

1955 

1956 

South Atlantic.i 236 cities; 
population, 7,427,809: 

1955 

1956 

Percent change 

Delaware, 3 cities; popula- 
tion, 121,758: 

1955 

1956 

Florida, 48 cities; popula- 
tion, 1,140,179: 

1955_ _. 

195G 

Georgia, 29 cities; popula- 
tion, 1,068,071: 

1955 

1950 

' Includes the District of 



TOTAI 



95, 846 
107, 721 



79,204 



22, 434 
27, 119 



109, US 
1S8, S80 
+17.6 



13, 679 
16, 132 



15, 965 
19, 442 



22, 935 
29, 405 



43,842 
48, 931 



8,041 
9,161 



2,536 
2,714 



2,145 
2,495 



169, 175 

m, 9i6 

+9.S 



2,833 
3,252 



35, 423 
41, 188 



20, 594 
22,964 
C olunibia 



Criminal 
homicide 



Murder 
and 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



183 
154 



191 

275 



+10.6 



147 
161 



727 
+4.0 



141 
139 



152 
166 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



191 
179 



16S 

17 i 
+5.5 



+8.9 



Rape 



943 
820 



452 
437 



102 
169 



+6.5 



102 
104 



97 
109 



344 
357 



],06S 
1,124 
+5.7 



134 
130 



Rob- 
bery 



3,595 
4,134 



2, 609 
2,449 



146 
169 



3,140 
S,i76 
+4-3 



133 

112 



304 

358 



526 
601 



2,028 
2,037 



124 
144 



1463 
4,219 
-5.3 



913 
795 



391 
437 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



5,335 
5,474 



2,121 
2,469 



304 
395 



3,429 
3,071 
-10.4 



106 
103 



509 
479 



151 
115 



2,486 
2,205 



163 
160 



16, 84S 
14,667 

-7.4 



1,256 
1,091 



2,073 
1,814 



Bur- 

glary- 
brcak- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



16, 825 
18, 656 



15,209 
16, 637 



2.990 
3,320 



22, 803 

24,087 

+5.6 



2,461 
2,577 



3,459 
3,737 



5.312 
6,219 



9,468 
9,423 



1,409 
1,397 



369 
350 



325 
384 



58, 666 
40, 168 

+3.9 



694 
718 



10, 133 
10, 932 



4,963 
5,200 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



58,211 
67,602 



51,654 
58, 487 



17,058 
20,764 



67,374 
83, 220 
+23. 5 



10.009 
12, 124 



10, 423 
13, 445 



14,466 
19, 301 



23,319 
27, 796 



5.506 
6,416 



1,975 
2.150 



1,676 
1,988 



102, 084 
+H-1 



1.776 
2,032 



19, 930 
24, 573 



10, 594 
12, 714 



77 



Table 26.— Urban Crime Trends, 1955-56, by Geographic Divisions and States— 

Continued 

[Offenses known to the police in 2,475 cities, total population 77,733,637, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Divisions and States 



Maryland, 19 cities; popu- 
lation, 1,148,853: 

1955 

1956 

North Carolina, 54 cities; 
population, 978, 624: 

1955 

1956 

South Carolina, 23 cities; 
population, 426,534: 

1955 

1956 

Virginia, 39 cities; popula- 
tion, 1,283,635: 

1955 

1956 

West Virginia, 20 cities; 
population, 457,977: 

1955 

1956 

East South Central, 95 cities; 
population, 2,946,380: 
1955. __ 

1956 

Percent change 



Alabama, 26 cities; popula- 
tion, 887,906: 

1955 

1956 

Kentucky, 26 cities; popu- 
lation, 758, 117: 

1955 

1956 

Mississippi, 19 cities; popu- 
lation, 367, 583; 

1955 

1956 

Tennessee, 24 cities; popu- 
lation, 932,774: 

1955 

1956 

West South Central, 164 
cities; population, 5,295,- 
136: 

1955 

1956 

Percent change 



Arkansas, 22 cities; popula- 
tion, 357,359: 

1955 

1956 

Louisiana, 18 cities; popula- 
tion, 482,037: 

1955 

1956 

Oklahoma, 30 cities; popu- 
lation, 814,805: 

1955 

1956 

Texas, 94 cities; popula- 
tion, 3,640,935: 

1955... 

1956 



TOTAL 



26,640 
28, 139 



17, 508 
19, 831 



8,845 
9,739 



34, 585 
33, 284 



4,471 
4,980 



56, 827 
+7.1 



15, 543 
14, 800 



19, 379 
21,519 



4,238 
4,396 



13, 879 
16, 112 



122, 816 

136, 332 

+11.0 



4,857 
6,234 



7,045 
7,926 



17, 922 

18, 720 



92, 992 
103, 452 



Criminal 
homicide 




94 
100 



110 
118 



558 
+1.1 



151 
122 



478 

m 

+2.3 



360 
383 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



US 

151 

+11 



206 
227 



93 
113 



2.54 
261 



311 
285 
-8.i 



217 
-2.4 



167 
165 



123 

82 



127 

118 



935 
810 



244 
232 



148 
146 



854 
883 



122 
136 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



2,227 
2,271 



3, 038 
3,295 



Bur 

glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



5,287 
5,018 



3,404 
3,559 



457 2, 168 
486 2, 345 



1,592 
1,4S2 
-10.1 



3,116 
2,812 



199 
252 



3,799 

3,324 
-12.5 



379 1, 421 
274 1, 094 



564 

555 

-1.6 



93 



414 
417 



748 
709 



393 
396 



2,080 
+.8 



147 
169 



287 
215 



1,536 
1,603 



1,126 
1,022 



7,113 
7,989 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



12, 517 
13, 203 



9, 100 1, 485 
10, 793 1, 692 



5,181 
5,728 



19, 549 
22, 125 



1, 254 2, 402 
1, 191 2, 826 



14, 891 

14, 263 

-4-3 



4,600 
3,930 



4,706 
4,653 



970 
954 



5,493 
5,231 
-4-8 



343 
452 



348 
451 



455 
344 



4,347 
3,984 



+16. 



7, 346 
7,566 



9,110 
10, 596 



282 1,237 2,231 350 

254 1,083 2,653 295 



4,348 
4,587 



32,618 
+10.3 



1,251 
1,503 



1,599 
1,554 



4,244 
3,963 



22, 469 
25, 598 



6, 140 
8,053 



82, 194 
+13.1 



2,686 
3,553 



4,209 
5,004 



11, 129 
12, 292 



54, 658 
61, 345 



78 



Table 26. — Urban Crime Trends, 1955-56, by Geographic Divisions and States — 

Continued 

[Offenses known to the police in 2,475 cities, total population 77,733,637, based on 1950 decennial census] 





TOTAL 


Criminal 
homicide 


Bape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burg- 
lary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Divisions and States 


Murder 
and 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Mountain, 128 cities; popu- 
lation, 1,945,317: 
1955 


57, 530 
66, 575 
+16.7 


79 

74 

-6.3 


39 

73 
+87.2 


889 

272 

-5.9 


1,288 
1,274 
-1.1 


1,009 

965 

-14 


11,417 
11,822 
+3.6 


37, 672 
45, 030 
+ 19.6 


5, 737 


1956 


7. 065 


Percent change... _. _ 


+23. 1 






Arizona, 15 cities; popula- 
tion, 245,482: 
1955 


12, 367 

13, 978 

20, 990 
24, 095 

4,741 
5,701 

5,072 
6,285 

1,891 
2,408 

6,480 
8,348 

3,319 
3,223 

2,670 
2,537 

267,635 

S18, 666 

+19.1 


17 
18 

30 
26 

5 
8 

4 

5 

8 
3 

6 
3 

4 
5 

5 
6 

306 

347 

+13. 4 


12 
32 

17 
18 

1 
4 

3 
4 

1 

1 

1 
7 

4 
6 

i' 

510 

625 

+2.9 


57 
46 

139 
132 

9 
13 

24 
21 

4 

8 

21 

18 

15 
21 

20 
13 

1,975 
2,449 
+24.0 


222 
244 

709 
719 

14 
44 

88 
75 

66 
51 

107 

75 

44 
34 

38 
32 

8,126 
8,823 
+8.6 


368 
315 

317 
378 

23 
36 

112 
96 

23 

28 

109 

74 

31 

18 

26 
20 

8.016 
9,642 
+20.3 


2, 347 
2,440 

4,809 
4,960 

646 

682 

791 
736 

466 
542 

1, 468 
1, 586 

513 
440 

377 
436 

57, 461 
66, 123 
+16.1 


8,050 
9,400 

12,699 
14,984 

3,746 
4,595 

3,603 
4,811 

1,167 
1,577 

3,972 
5,383 

2,429 
2,429 

2,006 
1,851 

162. 963 
194, 616 
+19.4 


1, 294 


1956 


1, 4s:; 


Colorado, 28 cities; popula- 
tion, 732,909: 

1955 


2,270 


1956 


2,878 


Idaho, 21 cities; population, 
198,027: 
1955 


297 


1956 

Montana, 18 cities; popula- 
tion, 211,248: 
1955 

1956 

Nevada, 4 cities; popula- 
tion, 48,940: 

1955 

1956 


319 

447 
537 

156 
198 


New Mexico, 10 cities; 
population, 198,950: 

1955 

1956 


796 
1,202 


Utah, 17 cities; population, 
177,103: 
1955 

1956 . 


279 
270 


Wyoming, 15 cities; popu- 
lation, 132,658: 

1955 

1956 

Pacific, 252 cities; popula- 
tion, 8,645.055: 

1955 

1956 

Percent change 


198 
178 

28, 288 
36, 231 

+28.1 


California, 182 cities; popu- 
lation, 6,837,575: 
1955 


224, 552 
266, 077 

14, 450 
18, 152 

28, 633 
34, 426 


252 
301 

21 
16 

33 
30 


458 
470 

24 
24 

28 
31 


1,760 

2,188 

56 
78 

159 
183 


7,262 
7,915 

273 
366 

591 
542 


7, 533 
9,063 

199 
262 

284 
317 


48,846 
56, .582 

2,758 
2,969 

6,847 
6,572 


133, 870 
158, 347 

10,235 
13, 118 

18, 858 
23,050 


24,571 


1956 _ 

Oregon, 34 cities; popula- 
tion, 669,850: 

1955 

1956 

Washington, 36 cities; pop- 
ulation, 1,137,630: 

1955 

1956 


31,211 

884 
1,319 

2,833 
3,701 







79 



URBAN CRIME TRENDS 

1940-56 TREND VERSUS 1937-39 AVERAGE 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE 

353 Cities-Total Population 42,719,693 




1940 '41 '42 '43 '44 '45 '46 '47 '48 '49 '50 '51 '52 '53 '54 '55 '56l 







1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 


















CRIMES AGAINST 
PROPERTY 

PERCENT CHANGE 


KEY 

=_=, BURGLARY LARCEHIT 

ROBBERY -• • AUIO THEFI 






+100- 




















+ 80- 


































+ 60- 


































^ +40- 


























-^:-5 






V 


||^^°- 






-~^^ 


^ 




^ 


*^ 


T^ 


^. 


=^ 


^ 


^ 




"^ 


^'< 




jjBrifi- 


-^^ 


^ 




rzT. 


r^' 










^' 


''—-■ 












9 


r -40- 



































Figure 10. 



80 

Long-term Urban Trends 

Crime Count. Long-term city trend figures indicate that for 
every 100 city crimes just before World War II we now have 162 
and that at the 1956 rate of increase the pre-World War II crimes 
will have doubled in 1958. 

Criminal homicides and assaults, grouped as crimes against the 
person, are already near the doubling point. For every 100 of these 
in 1937-39 there were 192 in 1956. A similar comparison for the 
crimes against property of robbery, burglary, auto theft and other 
larcenies shows a ratio of 100 to 161. 

World War II brought practically no increase in crime (1942-45 
up 3 percent over the prewar level of 1937-39) while the postwar 
years have averaged 29.7 percent over the prewar level, according 
to data in Table 27. 

Population Changes. Population increased in these cities at a 
greater rate than crime from 1940 to 1950 (population up 17 percent 
and crime up 11 percent). As a result, a measurement of crimes by 
units of population (crime rate) shows a decrease for that period. 
A sharp reversal of the 1940-50 experience is indicated for the present 
decade. 

In the absence of population counts for the cities studied, we have 
assumed that their rate of growth is about that of the United States 
as a whole or 11 percent. On this basis, the number of crimes per 
100,000 inhabitants has increased about 23 percent during the period 
1950-56. This means that the increase in population does not explain 
away the increase in crime. 

Cities Used. For the purpose of this study. Table 27 is limited to 
cities with over 25,000 inhabitants which have reported regularly. 
The same 353 cities were used for each year. Their population was 
36,488,430 in 1940 and 42,719,693 in 1950. If a police department is 
known to have made major changes in its records procedures, its 
reports have been excluded from the table. 



81 

Table 27.— Urban Crime Trends, 1937-56 

[Offenses known to the police in 353 cities with over 25,000 inhabitants, total population 42,719,693 based 

on 1950 decennial census] 



Year 



1937. 
1938, 
1939 
1940 

1941 
1942. 
1943. 
1944 

1945 
1946. 
1947. 
1948 

1949 
1950 
1951. 
1952. 

l!i.-.3, 
lli."i4. 
l;i,i5. 

i9.:.6 



TOTAL 



605, 447 
613, 062 
637, 514 
661, 988 

661, 132 
619, 165 
604, 554 
621, 925 

702, 720 
745, 282 
708, 014 
704, 410 

734, 925 
736, 721 
779, 458 
809, 267 

845, 208 

876, 275 

884, 682 

1, 003, 641 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



2,479 
2,133 
2,223 

2,208 

2,295 
2,278 
2,030 
2,141 

2,361 
2,629 
2,535 
2,533 

2,332 
2,370 
2,302 
2,471 

2,439 
2,352 
2,410 
2,502 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



1,978 
1,428 
1,229 
1,469 

1,852 
1,698 
1,428 
1,424 

1,723 
1,724 
1,481 
1,450 

1,308 
1,544 
1,557 
1,688 

1,599 
1,573 
1,643 
1,766 



Rape 



3,047 
2,967 
3, 235 
3,207 

3,513 
3,903 
4,349 
4,592 

5,042 
5,225 
5,268 
4,987 

5,137 
4,994 
5,306 
5,302 

6,449 
5,339 
5,910 
6,502 



Rob- 
bery 



26, 696 

27, 836 

26, 347 
25, 269 

24, 212 
22, 903 
22, 636 
22, 301 

27, 671 
31, 028 
29, 395 
27, 850 

29, 693 

25, 909 

26, 086 
28, 644 

31,813 
34, 139 

30, 675 

31, 471 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



19, 841 
18, 765 
19, 063 
20,312 

20, 736 
22, 914 
22, 126 
25, 698 

28,026 
30,228 
31,004 
31,014 

32, 144 
32, 350 
31. 884 
36, 136 

38, 064 
37, 976 
38,785 

39, 439 



Burgla- 
ry- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



137, 757 

138, 939 

145, 208 

146, 361 

138, 043 
123, 642 
127, 368 
132, 768 

156,835 
171,029 
164, 709 
163, 965 

173,312 
170, 708 
169, 209 
181, 216 

191, 339 
206, 426 
202, 660 
218, 248 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



325, 974 
346, 178 
369, 442 
391,812 

393, 615 
372, 664 
342, 337 
346, 060 

375, 488 
405, 829 
396, 798 
402, 543 

422, 583 
425, 325 
457, 977 
460, 921 

476, 771 
497, 201 
505, Oil 
586, 969 



Auto 
theft 



87, 675 
74, 816 

70, 767 

71, 350 

76, 866 
69,163 
82,280 
86, 941 

105, 574 
97, 590 
76,824 
70,068 

68,416 
73, 521 
85, 137 
92, 889 

97, 734 
91, 269 
97,588 
116, 744 



421313°— 57- 



82 



RURAL CRIME TRENDS 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO POLICE 

1955 ■- 1955 PERCENT CHANGE 




DECREASE 



INCREASE 



TOTAL 

MURDER 

NEGLIGENT 
MANSLAUGHTER 

RAPE 

ROBBERY 

AGGRAVATED 
ASSAULT 

BURGLARY • 

LARCENY 

AUTO THEFT - 




+22.2 



REPORTING AREA Sheriffs' Offices •■ 1,443 State Police - 12 

Rural Villages ■■ 156 Rural Population •■39,706,735 



Fiaure 11. 



83 



Rural Crime Trends 



In 1956 rural crimes registered a 15.5 percent increase, the highest 
in 13 years of increases in areas outside cities. The 15.5 percent 
increase exceeded the 12.7 percent increase in crimes in cities during 
1956. In individual crime classifications, the experience in the two 
areas was similar except for murder, negligent manslaughter and 
robbery. 

The most striking difference was in the murder classification. 
Murder in rural areas decreased 5.4 percent as contrasted with the 
5.8 percent increase in cities. Similarly, negligent manslaughter, 
principally resulting from automobile accidents, decreased 2.7 percent 
in rural areas as contrasted with a 4.1 percent increase in the same 
category in cities during 1956. 

Robberies, the only crimes to decrease in cities (—1.9 percent) 
during 1956, increased 1.7 percent in rural areas in the same period. 
Of the two crimes against the person showing increases in rural areas, 
rape and aggravated assault, the most striking increase was registered 
in the aggravated assault classification (11.3 percent). The increase 
in crimes against property ranged from 1.7 percent for robbery to 22.2 
percent for larceny other than auto theft. 

Source and Area. Table 28 reflects the details of the 1955-56 
rural crime trends. Reports from 1,611 law enforcement agencies 
reporting for rural areas were used for both years in the comparison. 
A rm^al population of 39.7 million is represented in Table 28. 

Under the uniform crime reporting system, the term "rural" 
indicates those areas outside urban places. Urban places are generally 
any incorporated communities of 2,500 or more inhabitants. The 
lu-banized fringe areas which have developed around cities in recent 
years cannot be segregated for the purpose of crime tabulations since 
they rarely, if ever, coincide with police jurisdictions. 



Table 28. — Rural Crime Trends, 1955-56 

[Based on reports of 1,443 sheriffs, 156 rural village ofEcers, and 12 State police; total rural population 
39,706,735, based on the 1950 decennial census] 



Offense 



Number of offenses 



1955 



Percent 
change 



TOTAL. 

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 



270, 812 



312, 837 



1,883 
2,261 
5,057 
6,620 

13, 435 
90, 853 
126, 897 
23, 806 



1,781 
2,201 
5,192 
6,735 

14, 952 
99, 960 
155, 058 
26, 958 



+15.5 



-5.4 
-2.7 
+2.7 
+1.7 

+11.3 
+10.0 

+22.2 
+13.2 



84 



MONTHLY VARIATIONS 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO POLICE, 1956 

2,640 URBAN POLICE AGENCIES 
TOTAL POPULATION 80,986,991 



OFFENSES AGAINST THE PERSON 




MURDER 




NEGLIGENT 
MANSLAUGHTER 



+ 50", 
-40", 

- 30", 
-20°, 
■HO", 

10", 

- 20", 
-30", 



-» "- X -» 



•< X -» T 




Figure 12. 



85 



Monthly Variations 



Crimes against the person, as a group, reach a high during the 
warmer months, while crimes with property as their object occur 
more frequently in the cooler period of the year. 

More killings due to negligence occur at the end of the year than 
at other times. These negligent manslaughters, mostly traffic 
deaths, differ from other crimes against the person in that their 
curve seems to follow closely the rise in traffic hazards due, in part, 
to increasing darkness at the onset of winter. 

Data for 1956, based on reports from 2,640 cities, are presented in 
table 29 and the accompanying charts. 

Table 29. ^Monthly Variations, Urban Communities, 1956 

[Daily average, offenses known to the police in 2,640 cities, total population 80,986,991, based on 1950 

decennial census] 



Month 



January-December 

January-March 

April-June 

July-September . . . 
October-December 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May^ 

June' 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 



Criminal 
homicide 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



11.1 



11.0 
11.5 
12.0 

10.4 
9.3 
9.7 

10.3 

11.1 
11.7 
11.2 
11.8 

11.5 
11.8 
11.2 
12.8 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



7.9 
6.7 
7.2 
9.4 



7.7 
8.6 
7.3 
6.7 

6.9 
6.5 
6.9 
6.6 

8.0 
7.6 



Rape 



32.6 



30.9 
34.4 
33.8 
31.1 



30.3 
32.8 
29.9 
31.6 

36.2 
35.4 
34.7 
33.6 

33.0 
32.6 
30.7 
30.0 



Rob- 
bery 



132.9 



155.2 
118.7 
116.3 
141.3 



160.6 
157.1 
148.1 
132.2 

112.5 
111.7 
115.9 
113.8 

119.2 
121.8 
134.6 
167.4 



Aggra- 
vated 



sault 



193.4 



182.2 
198.6 
208.2 
184.5 



169.9 
187.8 
189.2 
196.4 

191.8 
207.9 
208.2 
206.1 

210.5 
185.5 
179.5 
188.2 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



994.1 



1, 076. 6 
925.0 
943.1 

1.031.9 



1, 086. 2 

1,104.2 

1,041.3 

993.9 

904.2 
877.4 
939.0 
957.5 

932.4 

961.5 

995.0 

1, 138. a 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



2,718.0 



2, 570. 6 
2, 745. 1 
2, 682. 1 
2, 873. 



2,411.8 
2, 608. 2 
2, 694. 3 
2, 832. 2 

2, 712. 3 
2, 691. 8 
2, 601. 8 
2, 748. 6 

2, 696. 4 
2, 908. 2 
2, 837. 3 
2, 872, 3 



Auto 
theft 



516.6 



533.7 
506.9 
475.2 
550.7 



520.8 
544.3 
536.5 
547.0 

498.9 
475.2 
466.4 
466.3 

493.5 
529.7 
546.6 
575.6 



86 



MONTHLY VARIATIONS 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO POLICE, 1956 

2,640 URBAN POLICE AGENCIES 
TOTAL POPULATION 80,986.991 



OFFENSES AGAINST PROPERTY 





LARCENY 



AUTO THEFT 




+ 50". 
+ 40", 
+ 30", 
+ 20". 

- 10", 

- 10", 

- 20", 
- 30". 

■40"; 
-M", 



Figure 13. 



Crime Rates 



Explanation of Rates 

To simplify comparisons of the volume of crime between areas, 
numerical differences of the populations are erased by resorting to 
crime rates. 

Population figures used in the conversion to the number of crimes 
per 100,000 inhabitants are from the latest decennial census. Accord- 
ingly, if the population in an area has decreased since the year of 
the last census, 1950, the crime rates for that area will be understated. 
The converse is also true. 

Other factors to consider in attempting to compare two or more 
areas are listed on page 93. 

Urban Crime Rates 

As cities increase in size, so generally do their crime rates. This 
may be noted in Table 30. However, the analysis of the largest 
cities, group I, included in Table 30, shows that the largest population 
centers do not necessarily have the largest burden of crime per capita. 

For example, cities with over one million inhabitants had the 
highest crime rates in only two classifications, rape and robbery. 

Crime rates arranged by geographic areas, Tables 31 and 32, 
demonstrate the wide variations in the incidence of crime which may 
be expected in such comparisons. Some of the reasons for such 
variations are listed on page 93. 

(87) 



88 

Table 30. — Urban Crime Rates, 1956, by Population Groups 

[Offenses known to the police and rate per 100,000 inhabitants. Population figures based on 1950 decennial 

census] 





Criminal 
homicide 


Population group 


Mur- 
der, 
nonneg- 
licent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


TOTAL, GROUPS I- VI 

2,640 cities; total population, 
80,986,991 : 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 


4,051 
5.0 


2,853 
3.5 


GROUP I 

41 cities over 250,000; population, 
34,932,9.55: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 ^ 


2,265 
6.5 

946 
5.4 

392 

7.7 

283 
6.9 

644 

7.7 

570 
6.1 

372 
4.1 

327 
3.5 

292 

2.8 

225 
2.9 


1. 520 
4 4 

535 
3.1 

240 
4.7 

247 
6 

498 
6.0 

485 
5.2 

292 
3.2 

272 
2.9 

148 
1.4 

136 
1.7 


5 cities over 1,000,000; popula- 
tion, 17,404,450: 
Number of offenses known. _ 
Rate per 100,000 


fi cities, 750,000 to 1,000,000; pop- 
ulation, 5,100,291: 
Number of oflenses known _ _ 
Rate per 100,000 . 


7 cities, 500,000 to 750,000; popu- 
lation, 4,080,654- 
Number of offenses known . . 

Rate per 100,000 

23 cities, 250,000 to 500,000; popu- 
lation, 8,341,560: 
Number of offenses known _ . 
Rate per 100,000 


CROUP II 

64 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; popu- 
lation, 9,307,309: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP III 

128 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; popu- 
lation, 9,086.345: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 


GROUP IV 

264 cities, 25,000 to .50,000; popu- 
lation, 9,301,341- 

Number of offenses known 

Rale jier 100.000 


GROUP V 

679 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; popu- 
lation, 10,489,633: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate pi'T 100,000 


GROUP VI 

1,464 cities under 10,000: popu- 
lation, 7,869,408: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Rape 



11,913 
14.7 



7,907 
22.6 



4,699 
27.0 



1,116 
21,9 



672 
16.4 



1,420 
17.0 



1,102 
11.8 



905 
10.0 



713 

7.7 



750 
7.1 



,5;j6 

6.8 



Rob- 
bery 



48, 628 
60.0 



35.183 
100.7 



20, 240 
116.3 



5, 679 
111.3 



2,671 
65.4 



6,593 
79.0 



4,788 
51.4 



3,024 
33.3 



2,417 
26.0 



2, 039 
19.4 



1,177 
15.0 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



70, 785 
87.4 



44, 204 
126.5 



25, 625 
147.2 



8. 659 
169.8 



2, 340 
57.3 



7,580 
90.9 



8.223 

88.3 



6, 848 
75.4 



4,743 
51.0 



4,317 
41.2 



2,450 
31.1 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



363, 845 
449.3 



183, 572 
525.5 



89, 708 
515.4 



24, 621 

482.7 



19, 172 
469. 1 



50, 071 
600.3 



50, 708 
544.8 



37, 363 
411.2 



35, 264 
379.1 



3.5, 755 
340. 9 



21,183 
269.2 



ceny— 
theft 



994, 806 
1, 228. 4 



417, 843 
1, 196. 1 



182, 333 
1, 047. 6 



70, 820 
1,388.5 



41, 369 
1,012.3 



123, 321 
1, 478. 4 



133,388 
1, 433. 2 



121, 726 
1, 339. 7 



124, 884 
1. 342. 6 



127,418 
1,214.7 



69, 5-17 
883. 8 



89 



Table 31. — Urban Crime Rates, 1956, by Geographic Divisions and States 

[Offenses known per 100,000 inhabitants. Population based on 1950 decennial census] 



Division and State 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


TOTAL 


5.0 


60.0 


87.4 


449.3 


1,228.4 


233 5 








1.6 

2.3 
1.2 
1.4 
.4 
2.2 


18.3 


22.3 


318.3 


797.5 


169 5 






Connecticut.- . . . 


16.8 
13.2 
21.4 
5.2 
14.0 


37.1 
9.1 

19.6 
5.5 

26.1 


354.3 
234.0 
313.3 
189.0 
403.1 
134.3 

360.4 


723.7 
790.2 
796.5 
559. 3 
1, 078. 6 
594.7 

786.0 


146 9 




126 2 


Massachusetts 


197 




66 5 




136 1 




55 


Middle Atlantic... 


3.0 


50.1 


75.6 


167.4 








2.3 
3.2 
3.1 

4.8 


39.7 
49.4 
57.6 

77.5 


54.0 
87.8 
64.6 

74.0 


388.3 
378.2 
308.6 

361.8 


788.6 
862.9 
632.7 

1,154.7 


193 6 


New York 


164.8 


Pennsylvania . . 


156 8 


East North Central 


189.1 






Illinois 


5.9 
5.0 
3.9 
5.4 
1.3 

3.8 


114.7 
47.7 

104.6 
47.9 
9.4 

61.3 


79.9 
41.1 
138.3 
48.2 
21.9 

48.3 


328.7 
487.0 
476.5 
327.5 
185.5 

380.5 


718.7 
1, 354. 6 
1,727.0 
1, 150. 1 
1, 158. 3 

1,312.9 


128 5 


Indiana 


295.2 


Michigan ...... . 


273 9 


Ohio 


177.4 


"Wisconsin 


125.9 


West North Central. 


212.6 








.9 
4.5 
1.1 
7.8 
2.2 
1.3 

.5 

10.0 


10.4 
42.5 
39.7 
98.8 
26.6 
4.5 
8.7 

56.0 


9.6 
56.8 

7.6 
107.1 
29.5 

3.8 

7.7 

201.3 


244.8 
443.2 
413.9 
461.5 
258.2 
223.2 
205.7 

539.6 


1, 138. 4 
1, 594. 7 
1, 280. 7 
1, 362. 2 
1, 196. 6 
1,371.3 
1,061.5 

1, 370. 8 


106 7 


Kansas 


149.1 




196 6 




335.3 


Nebraska 


182.4 


North Dakota .... 


121 2 




55.0 


South Atlantic '. 


285.6 








10.7 
11.9 
15.5 
6.3 
11.5 
9.0 
9.1 
3.9 

12.0 


58.3 
66.6 
40.8 
70.5 
25.0 
34.1 
68.2 
30.9 

47.9 


20.5 
94.1 
169.4 
197.7 
355.3 
112.5 
219.6 
54.7 

115.1 


589.7 
928.1 
485.5 
438.7 
379.5 
540.1 
624.4 
257.6 

475.0 


1, 668. 9 
2, 090. 7 
1, 187. 6 
1,151.2 
1, 139. 1 
1,335.4 
1, 706. 4 
607.0 

948.6 


313.7 


Florida . ... 


299 9 


Georgia .. . . . . . 


230.3 


Maryland 


562.9 




172.1 




210.2 




305.7 


West Virginia 


109.3 


East South Central 


275.1 






Alabama 

Kentucky 

Mississippi 

Tennessee 


13.8 
8.5 
7.6 

14.8 

9.4 


30.2 
92.1 
19.1 
42.3 

46.6 


128.0 
131.8 
89.4 
101.5 

101.3 


426.1 
606.0 
300.6 
489.5 

608.7 


817.8 

1, 376. 2 

723.0 

840.3 

1,501.6 


182.5 
557.8 
95.5 
220.5 


West South Central 


297.9 






Arkansas . . 


8.7 
9.9 
4.2 
10.5 

3.8 


47.3 
74.6 
26.0 
43.2 

65.9 


126.5 
111.5 
42.0 
109.0 

52.3 


420.6 
478.9 
481.2 
690.4 

624.2 


994.2 
1,141.9 
1, 488. 3 

1, 652. 4 

2, 320. 2 


136.3 


Louisiana . .. 


531.5 


Oklahoma 


215.1 


Texas 


266.4 


Mountain. 


364.5 






Arizona 


7.3 
3.5 
4.0 
2.3 

5.4 
1.7 
2.8 
4.5 

4.0 


99.4 
97.5 
22.2 
35.7 
130.5 
35.0 
19.2 
24.1 

99.9 


128.3 
51.3 
18.2 
43.4 

108.7 
48.2 
10.2 
15.1 

109.2 


994.0 
674.5 
344.4 
356.1 
1, 553. 7 
726.3 
248.4 
328.7 

757.2 


3, 829. 2 
2, 040. 2 

2, 320. 4 

2. 187. 

3, 826. 6 
2, 517. 1 
1,371.5 
1, 395. 3 

2. 242. 1 


604.1 




390.5 


Idaho 

Montana 

Nevada 


161.1 
247.1 
609.0 


New Mexico 


528.0 


Utah.. 


152.5 


Wyoming. 

Pacific 


134.2 
413.6 




4.4 
2.4 
2.5 


113.8 
54.2 
44.8 


130.4 
38.8 
26.5 


822.5 
443.8 
555.1 


2,311.7 
1. 949. 8 
2, 003. 7 


451.9 


Oregon . . 


196.0 


Washington 


313.7 



1 Includes the report of the District of Columbia. 
421313°— 57. 4 



90 



Table 32. — Urban Crime Rates, 1956, by Geographic Divisions and Population 

Croups 

[Offenses known per 100,000 inhabitants. Population based on 1950 decennial census] 



Division and group 



TOTAL 

New England 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Middle Atlantic 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

East North Central- 
Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

West North Central 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

South Atlantic ' 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

East South Central. 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

West South Central. 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Mountain 

Group I-- 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Pacific 

Group I-- 

Group II- 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



5.0 



3.6 
1.8 
1.5 
1.1 
.0 
1.3 



4.3 
1.7 
1.3 
1.7 
.9 
1.1 



4.8 



7.2 
5.1 
3.7 
2.3 
1.7 
1.4 



6.5 
4.7 
3.0 
.9 
1.8 
1.2 



9.9 
12.0 
9.5 
8.8 
8.6 
10.4 

12.0 



11.3 
20.3 
9.1 
9.5 
9.8 
6.8 

9.4 



14.8 
6.1 
6.6 



4.5 
5.1 



3.8 



4.8 
9.4 
3.2 
4.0 
2.6 
2.7 

4.0 



4.8 
4.2 
2.7 
2.2 
3.3 
2.9 



Robbery 



18.3 



58.6 
19.7 
14.1 
7.3 
9.6 
5.8 

60.1 



74.3 
31.9 
19.3 
14.6 
10.7 
11.0 

77.5 



129. 6 
55.2 
42.0 
26.7 
24.2 
11.8 

51.3 



107.4 
52.2 
16.8 
12.0 
10.6 



56.0 



77. 1 
99.1 
38.5 
38.4 
14.9 
23.3 

47.9 



74.8 
56.8 
31.8 
23.2 
22.6 
18.4 

46.6 



78.0 
40.2 
39.0 
26.7 
11.4 
14.1 

65.9 



150.3 
109. 5 
43.2 
63.4 
29.1 
28.0 

99.9 



143.8 
73.5 
63.6 
57.4 
48.1 
27.5 



Aggra- 
vated 
as.sault 



87.4 



22.3 



55.4 
39.3 
11.4 
10.5 
5.0 
7.0 

75.6 



113.7 
43.5 
34.1 
20.1 
12.5 
12.7 

74.0 



116.5 
88.0 
54.3 
22.0 
19.6 
11.4 

48.3 



95.4 
67.6 
25.0 
10.8 
10.0 
6.4 

201.3 



251. 9 
202.6 
196.7 
170.9 
170.2 
142.4 

115.1 



124.1 
88.3 
144.9 
153.1 
102.6 
74.3 

101.3 



97.7 
114.6 
178.5 
92.8 
76.7 
47.3 

52.3 



74. 1 
202.2 
27.6 
59.4 
36.3 
19.8 

109.2 



169. 6 
33.0 
50. 
51.1 
51.4 
35. 9 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



449.3 



318.3 



373.5 
418.3 
303.1 
246.3 
258.8 
245.9 

360.4 



446.7 
316.9 
294.9 
241.4 
197.1 
185.2 

361.8 



384.7 
479. 5 
350.0 
336.4 
339.0 
231.2 

380.5 



547. 7 
542. 3 
303.0 
205.7 
243.7 
201.5 

539.6 



458. 1 
839.4 
486.1 
594.3 
425.5 
385.5 

475.0 



542. 
656. 2 
490.9 
343.4 
368.3 
196.7 

608.7 



832.1 
647.9 
611.9 
432.7 
296. 6 
266. 2 

624.2 



868.7 
1, 105. 6 
546. 4 
661.3 
524. 3 
398. 5 

757.2 



871.5 
555. 2 
672. 6 
722. 5 
655. 7 
531.8 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



1. 228. 4 



797.5 



1, 003. 9 
874.6 
887.7 
715.8 
599.0 
583.8 

786.0 



858. 5 
749.4 
717.2 
748.8 
668. 1 
569.0 

1, 154. 7 



1,036.0 
1,511.9 
1,340.3 
1,332.3 
1, 345. 
788.6 

1,312.9 



1,511.3 
1,859.2 
1, 439. 6 
1, 262. 1 
1,114.9 
684.5 

1, 370. 8 



1,196.0 
1, 938. 2 
1,342.8 
1..56.5. 1 
1,150.8 
873.5 

948.6 



1, 144. 6 

1,021.6 

1,077.8 

841.9 

771.4 

420.8 

1, 501. 6 



1,599.1 
1,819.7 
1,933.0 
1,529.1 
902. 9 
786.3 

2. 320. 2 



2, 085. 
4, 065. 8 
2, 538. 
2,971.2 
2,313.2 
1,523.7 

2. 242. 1 



2,016. S 
2, 176.2 
2,381.4 
2. 839. 6 
2, 555. 3 
2, 329. 4 



» Includes the report of the District of Columbia. 



91 



Table 33. — Number of Cities in Each Population Group, Geographic Division, 
and State Represented in the Urban Crime Rate Tabulations (^Tables 30—32) 





TOTAL 


Population group 


Division and State 


Over 
250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


TOTAL: 

Population, 80,986,991. 


2,640 


41 


64 


128 


264 


679 


1,464 






New England : 

Population, 6,590,280- 


192 


1 


11 


18 


37 


68 


57 






Connecticut 


28 
21 
99 
16 
17 
11 

573 




4 


2 

1 

11 
1 
3 


12 
2 

17 
2 
3 
1 

48 


5 

7 

44 

5 
6 

1 

140 


5 


Maine 


11 


Massachusetts 


1 


6 


20 


New Hampshire 


8 


Rhode Island 




1 


4 


Vermont .- - .- 


9 


Middle Atlantic ; 

Population, 21,233,191-- 


7 


12 


23 


343 






New Jersey . . . 


164 
182 
227 

619 


2 
3 
2 

9 


4 
4 
4 

10 


8 
6 
9 

30 


18 
15 
15 

65 


43 
43 

54 

147 


89 




111 


Pennsylvania 


143 


East North Central : 

Population, 18,851,860 


358 






Illinois 


160 

77 
117 
181 

84 

305 


1 

1 
1 
5 
1 

5 


1 
4 
2 
3 

4 


10 
3 

7 
6 
4 

9 


14 
10 
9 
20 
12 

20 


40 
17 
34 
40 
16 

73 


94 


Indiana- 


42 


Michigan 


64 


Ohio 

Wisconsin 


107 
51 


West North Central : 

Population, 6,396,595 


194 






Iowa - .. .. 


63 
52 
70 
62 
28 
11 
19 

259 


2 
1 


1 
2 

1 


4 

1 

2 

1 


7 
2 
3 
5 

2 

1 

31 


9 

20 
15 

15 

3 

4 

59 


42 


Kansas - 


27 


Minnesota 


49 


M issouri 


38 


Nebraska 


19 


North Dakota .- 


6 


South Dakota--- 






1 
20 


13 


South Atlantic : 

Population, 7,771,186 


3 


8 


138 








3 
1 
53 
30 
20 
60 
26 
43 
23 

110 


1 


1 








2 


District of Columbia 










Florida . . 


2 
1 


2 
3 


11 
3 
2 
5 
1 
6 
3 

15 


7 
8 
6 

18 
5 

10 
5 

22 


31 




14 


Maryland _ .-.-.- 


11 


North Carolina 


1 


5 
3 
4 
3 

4 


31 


South Carolina 


17 


Virginia -- . 




3 


20 


West Virginia 


12 


East South Central : 

Population, 3,204,276 


3 


5 


61 






Alabama - 


31 
29 
21 
29 

180 


1 
1 


2 


1 

2 
1 

9 


3 
3 
6 
3 

14 


7 
6 
4 
5 

58 


17 


Kentucky 


17 


Mississippi-. . . . 


10 


Tennessee 


1 
5 


3 
8 


17 


West South Central : 

Population, 6,024,611 


86 






Arkansas 


22 
19 
33 
106 

135 


-. 

1 


1 
2 
2 
3 

1 


3 


3 
3 
3 
5 

11 


4 

5 

13 

36 

27 


14 




8 


Oklahoma .. 


15 


Texas 


49 


Mountain : 

Population, 2,022,664 


92 






Arizona 


15 
30 
21 
19 
5 

13 
17 
15 

267 


-- 


1 


.. 


1 
1 
2 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 

23 


1 
7 
6 
3 
1 
4 
1 
4 

85 


12 


Colorado 


20 


Idaho 


13 


Montana 








13 










3 


New Mexico 






1 
1 


7 


Utah ... 






14 


Wyoming.- 

Pacific : 

Population, 8,892,328. 






10 


7 


5 


12 


135 






California... 


192 
35 
40 


5 
1 
1 


3 


12 


16 
2 
5 


65 
8 
12 


91 
24 


Washington . 


2 




20 







92 



Rural Crime Rates 



Crimes in rural areas per unit of population are presented in table 34. 

Although the rural crime rate generally is lower than that for 
cities, there are exceptions in the individual crime classes. For 
example, in the manslaughter by negligence classification, the rural 
rate exceeds that in all cities as a group; rural murders are exceeded 
only by those in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants; and the 
rural rate for offenses of rape is exceeded only by cities having more 
than 250,000 inhabitants. 

In crimes against property, the rural rates are generally lower than 
those in cities. 

Rural rates in table 34 are based on the number of offenses reported 
by 1,762 law enforcement agencies policing rural areas representing 
almost 42 million inhabitants. The so-called urbanized fringe areas 
are included in the reporting for rural areas unless some fringe areas 
are in themselves urban places under this program. Urban places 
are generally those which are incorporated and have a population of 
at least 2,500. Rural areas under this program are any areas outside 
urban places. 



Table 34. — Rural Crime Rates, 1956 

[Offenses known and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, as reported by 1,584 sheriffs, 165 rural village officers, and 
13 State police; total rural population 41,829,816, based on 1950 deccrmial census] 



Offense 



Offenses known 



Number Rate 



Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 



1,971 
2,322 

5,482 
7,201 

16. 280 
104, 774 
162. 733 

28,044 



4.7 
5.6 
13.1 
17.2 

38. 9 
250. 5 
389. 

67.0 



Offenses in Individual Areas 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 25,000 Inhabitants 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the period of January-December, 1956, is shown in table 35. The 
compilation includes the reports received from police departments in 
cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants. Police administrators and 
other interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare 
the crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in tables 
30, 31 and 32 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire 
to make comparisons with the figures for their communities for prior 
periods, in order to determine whether there has been an increase 
or a decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

Caution should be exercised in comparing crime data for individual 
cities because the differences in the figures may be due to a variety 
of factors. Such comparisons are not necessarily significant even 
though the figures for individual communities are converted into 
terms of number of offenses per 100,000 inhabitants. 

The following is a list of some of the factors which affect the amount 
of crime in the community: 

Population of the city and metropolitan area adjacent thereto. 
The composition of the population with reference particularly to 

age, sex, and race. 
The economic status and activities of the population. 
Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 
The number of police employees per unit of population. 
The standards governing appointments to the police force. 
The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 
The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 
The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 
The figures presented in the following tabulation are those reported 
by the individual police departments in the cities represented without 
reducing the data to crime rates (number of offenses per 100,000 
inhabitants) . 

In considering the volume of crime committed locally, it is gen- 
erally more important to determine whether the figures for a given 
community show increases or decreases rather than to ascertain 
whether they exceed or fall short of those for some other individual 
community, and it should be remembered that the amount of crime 
committed in a community is not solely chargeable to the police but 
is rather a charge against the entire community. 

In publishing these figures the FBI acts as a service agency. The 
figures published are those submitted by the contributing agencies. 

(93) 



94 

Table 35.— iVumber of Offenses Known to the Police, 1956, Cities Over 25,000 

in Population 



City 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 


Larceny— theft 


glary— 
break- 








ing or 






enter- 


$50 and 


Under 


ing 


over 


$50 


189 


121 


1,123 


179 


91 


149 


1,474 


647 


3,524 


101 


52 


591 



Abilene, Tex... 
Abington, Pa... 

Akron, Ohio 

Alameda, Calif. 
Albany, Qa 



Albany, N.Y 

Albuquerque, N. Mex. 

Alexandria, La 

Alexandria, Va 

Alhambra, Calif 



Aliquippa, Pa. 
AUentown, Pa. 
Alliance, Ohio. 

Alton, 111 

Altoona, Pa 



Amarillo, Tex 

Amsterdam, N. Y. 

Anderson, Ind 

Ann Arbor, Mich., 
Anniston, Ala 



Appleton, Wis... 
Arlington, Mass. 
Arlington, Va — 
Asheville, N. C. 
Ashland Ky 



Athens, Ga 

Atlanta, Oa. 

Atlantic City, N. J_ 

Auburn, N. Y 

Augusta, Ga 



Aurora, 111 

Austin, Tex 

Bakersfield, Calif. 

Baltimore, Md 

Bangor, Maine 



Barberton, Ohio 

Baton Rouge, La... 
Battle Creek, Mich- 
Bay City, Mich 

Bayonne, N. J 



Beaumont, Tex 

Belleville, 111 

Belleville, N.J 

Bellingham, Wash. 
Belmont, Mass 



Beloit, Wis 

Berkeley, Calif. 

Berwyn, 111 

Bessemer, Ala.. 
Bethlehem, Pa. 



Beverly, Mass 

Beverly Hills, Calif. 

Billings, Mont 

Biloxi, Miss 

Binghamton, N. Y.. 



Birmingham, Ala. 
Bloomfleld, N. J.. 
Bloomlngton, 111-. 
Bloomington, Ind. 
Boise, Idaho 



48 



4 

4 

218 

11 



40 



18 

2 

243 

6 

Only 8 months received 



38 

38 

125 

237 

15 



3 

6 
2 

112 

2 

19 

7 

111 



253 


77 


364 


803 


645 


2,475 


226 


50 


415 


399 


245 


1,252 


284 


301 


644 


24 


33 


106 


243 


163 


583 


80 


22 


231 


1-19 


34 


523 


95 


22 


70 


662 


479 


2,043 


17 


25 


60 


165 


64 


507 


150 


309 


608 


177 


98 


266 


61 


22 


788 


60 


42 


125 


464 


458 


1,311 


197 


183 


468 



1 

84 
59 
Only 6 months received 



69 
643 




63 


36 


99 


2,478 


1,540 


5,490 


555 


400 


361 


9 


35 


113 


252 


83 


379 


105 


134 


326 


730 


205 


2,359 


423 


315 


1,227 


4,307 


3,590 


7.400 


57 


58 


237 


92 


31 


354 


481 


388 


991 


216 


73 


678 


201 


67 


866 


176 


148 


376 


453 


230 


1.251 


79 


31 


189 


43 


31 


82 


78 


93 


333 


70 


54 


139 


105 


43 


395 


538 


170 


1,338 


131 


98 


180 


79 


54 


171 


118 


123 


351 


38 


51 


211 


87 


64 


79 


119 


250 


1,071 


135 


80 


203 


142 


100 


571 


1,042 


888 


2.272 


55 


51 


103 


178 


86 


327 


127 


67 


376 


116 


153 


758 



95 

Table 35. — Number of Offenses Known to the Police, 1956, Cities Over 25,000 
in Population — Continued 



City 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra^ 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
brealc- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Boston, Mass 

Bremerton, Wash. 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Bristol, Conn 

Brockton, Mass... 



Brookline, Mass.. 
Brownsville, Tex. 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Burbank, Calif 

Burlington, Iowa. 



Burlington, Vt 

Butte, Mont 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 



Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

Champaign, 111 

Charleston, S. C 

Charleston, W. Va... 
Charlotte, N. C 



Charlottesville, Va.. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chester, Pa 

Cheyenne, Wyo 



Chicago, 111 . 

Chicopee, Mass 

Cicero, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Clarksburg, W. Va. 



Cleveland, Ohio 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio. 

Clifton, N.J 

Clinton, Iowa 

Colorado Springs, Colo... 



Columbia, Mo... 
Columbia, S. C. 
Columbus, Ga... 
Columbus, Ohio. 
Compton, Calif.. 



Concord, N. H 

Corpus Christi, Tex.. 
Council Bluffs, Iowa. 

Covington, Ky 

Cranston, R. I 



Cumberland, Md 

Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. 

Dallas, Tex 

Danville, 111 

DanvOle, Va 



Davenport, Iowa 

Dayton, Ohio 

Daytona Beach, Fla_ 

Dearborn, Mich 

Decatur, 111 



Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa- 
Detroit, Mich 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Duluth, Minn 



470 
3 

23 
2 
14 

10 

3 

148 

34 



1 
293 



91 



20 

4 

105 



6,062 

1 

48 

222 

35 

785 

8 

3 

3 

33 

2 
16 
18 
262 
67 



6 

257 

23 



118 
18 
60 
17 

625 

37 

3,260 

5 

16 



444 

5 

67 



1 

20 

211 

45 

3 



56 
22 
187 

14 

11 

7 

99 

99 

662 



95 
351 

69 
165 

181 

284 

,099 

502 

41 

59 
144 
227 
699 
374 

155 
139 
667 
208 
704 



2,521 

73 

321 

28 

144 

99 
83 
329 
291 

7 

59 
138 
229 
234 
231 

186 
86 
291 
(1) 
281 



65 
806 
85 
No reports received 
6 



46 

136 

5 



3,865 

4 

31 

326 



444 

1 

8 

2 

25 

6 

78 

21 

543 

103 



396 

7 

24 

2 

1 

1 

629 



65 



240 
54 
29 
6 

308 

46 

4,160 

2 

11 



5,525 
533 
874 
101 
537 

383 
559 
1,281 
857 
307 

302 
501 
260 
627 
979 

1,035 
604 

1,116 
596 

1,783 

156 
928 
133 



122 


91 


694 


11,999 


9,375 


9,039 


67 


67 


249 


272 


240 


354 


1,360 


1,220 


3,794 


113 


29 


66 


2,178 


1,016 


10, 766 


114 


36 


286 


109 


113 


387 


46 


49 


383 


286 


243 


926 


85 


27 


224 


446 


345 


1,258 


289 


140 


557 


1,994 


1,568 


4,275 


795 


389 


1,459 


50 


30 


124 


941 


384 


1,955 


79 


134 


604 


267 


194 


540 


236 


186 


408 


40 


38 


172 


63 


86 


316 


3,227 


790 


9,246 


212 


82 


203 


109 


82 


404 


464 


163 


1.116 


1,137 


388 


2,027 


324 


232 


602 


592 


310 


2,723 


456 


145 


1,030 


3,612 


2,064 


6,604 


794 


645 


2,081 


10, 326 


3,369 


26, 451 


77 


74 


398 


284 


226 


1,269 



See footnote at end of table. 



96 

Table 35. — Number of Offenses Known to the Police, 1956, Cities Over 25,000 
in Population — Continued 



City 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugli- 
ter 



Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


16 


419 


35 


48 


8 


4 


4 


1 


5 


5 


21 


24 


4 


5 


176 


272 


2 




5 


17 


79 


83 


6 




1 


3 


67 


76 


7 


5 


2 


4 


29 


59 


3 


1 


11 


13 


8 


63 


53 


12 


6 




11 


6 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Durham, N. C 

East Chicago, Ind 

East Cleveland, Ohio. 
East Hartford Conn.. 
Easton, Pa 



East Orange, N. J 

East Providence, R. I. 

East St. Louis, 111 

Kau Claire, Wis 

Elgin, 111 



Elizabeth, N.J. 
Elkhart, Ind.... 
ElmiraN. Y.... 
El Paso, Tex.... 
Eljrria, Ohio 



Enid, Okla---. 
Erie, Pa. ... 
Euclid, Ohio.. 
Eugene, Oreg. 
Evanston, 111. 



Evansville, Ind... 

Everett, Mass 

Everett, Wash 

Fairmont, W. Va. 
Fall River, Mass.. 



Fargo, N. Dak 

Fayetteville, N. O. 

Ferndale, Mich 

Fitchburg, Mass... 
Flint, Mich 



Fond du Lac, Wis 

Fort Dodge, Iowa 

Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Fort WajTie, Ind 



Fort Worth, Tex 

Framingham, Mass. 

Fresno, Calif 

Gadsden, Ala 

Gainesville, Fla 



Galesburg, 111... 
Galveston, Tex. 
Garfield, N.J... 

Gary, Ind 

Glendale, Calif. 



Gloucester, Mass 

Grand Forks, N. Dak- 
Grand Rapids, Mich.. 

Granite City, 111 

Great Falls, Mont 



Green Bay, Wis... 
Greensboro, N. C. 
Greenville, Miss.. 
Greenville, S. C... 
Greenwich, Conn. 



Hackcnsack, N. J. 
Hagerstown, Md.. 

Hamilton, N. J 

Hamilton, Ohio... 
Hammond, Ind... 



4 
32 
11 

1 
210 



135 
280 
82 
96 
94 

325 
112 
260 
46 
104 

363 

73 

102 

1,471 

81 

44 
488 

50 
166 
162 



130 

298 

15 

74 

35 

169 
107 
114 
44 
50 

390 
108 

99 
472 

47 

28 
181 

27 
198 
328 



710 
92 
165 
No reports received 
13 



3 

132 

3 



504 



No reports received 



567 
828 
226 
181 
168 

469 
342 
379 
243 
298 

815 
258 
337 
2,879 
201 

354 
979 
450 
737 
760 

1,394 
216 
857 



339 


169 


708 


99 


45 


425 


265 


4 


712 


98 


87 


288 


138 


113 


429 


968 


1,240 


2,813 


56 


36 


433 



16 


21 


395 


352 


1,170 


12 


60 


195 


101 


431 


10 


1 


358 


314 


1,257 


291 


111 


3,594 


419 


4,088 


3 


1 


74 


48 


90 


70 


44 


713 


652 


1,792 


1 


62 


161 


53 


185 


2 


38 


163 


83 


382 


4 


1 


39 


23 


287 


56 


299 


391 


437 


575 


5 


2 


44 


54 


196 


177 


283 


881 


815 


2,009 


36 


10 


608 


407 


1,789 




25 


37 


46 


78 


1 


2 


98 


39 


657 


48 


69 


743 


395 


2.437 


3 


1 


142 


20 


330 


10 


6 


143 


101 


633 


6 


1 


112 


66 


231 


15 


105 


302 


209 


769 


2 


1 


103 


50 


275 


25 


29 


435 


309 


660 


1 


1 


46 


41 


100 


6 


19 


75 


93 


227 


15 




137 


70 


379 


7 


9 


111 


115 


351 


25 


58 


273 


172 


622 


68 


32 


539 


484 


1,400 



97 

Table 35. — Number of Offenses Known to the Police, 1956, Cities Over 25,000 
in Population — Continued 



City 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Hampton, Va 

Hamtramck, Mich. 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Hartford, Conn 

Hattiesburg, Miss.. 



Haverford, Pa 

Haverhill, Mass... 
Hayward, Calif.. . 

Hazleton, Pa 

Hempstead, N. Y. 



Hialoah, Fla 

Highland Park, Mich. 

High Point, N. C 

Hoboken, N. J 

Holyoke, Mass 



Honolulu City, Hawaii. 

Hot Springs, Ark 

Houston, Tex 

Huntington, W. Va 

Huntington Park, Calif. 



Hutchinson, Kans. 
Independence, Mo. 
Indianapolis, Ind.. 

Inglewood, Calif 

Iowa City, Iowa 



Irondequoit, N. Y. 

Irvtngton, N. J 

Ithaca, N. Y 

Jackson, Mich 

Jackson, Miss 



Jackson, Tenn 

Jacksonville, Fla._. 
Jamestown, N. Y.. 
Jefferson City, Mo. 
Jersey City, N. J... 



Johnson City, Tenn. 

Johnstown, Pa 

Joliet, 111 

Joplin, Mo 

Kalamazoo, Mich... 



Kankakee, 111 

Kannapolis, N. C_. 
Kansas City, Kans. 
Kansas City, Mo... 
Kearny, N. J 



Kenosha, Wis 

Kettering, Ohio.. 
Key West, Fla... 
Kingston, N. Y.. 
Knoxville, Tenn. 



Kokomo, Ind 

Lackawanna, N. Y. 

La Crosse, Wis 

La Fayette, Ind 

Lafayette, La 



La Orange, Oa 

Lake Charles, La. 

Lakeland, Fla 

Lakewood, Ohio.. 
Lancaster, Pa 



4 

7 

109 

5 



13 

79 
2 

14 
6 

30 

22 

320 

27 



2 
353 

47 
1 

1 
5 



20 
4 

2 

207 

4 

2 

55 

43 
8 
18 
21 
14 

21 

1 

143 

269 



55 
41 
25 
235 
31 



179 

123 

9 



280 
24 
2 



98 

98 

175 

5 



394 
145 
477 
1,137 
121 

49 
159 
123 

41 
182 

177 
286 
106 
174 
135 

1,364 
104 

6,819 
196 
387 

103 

61 

2,736 

570 
30 

103 
200 
59 
146 
377 

128 

1,455 

39 

34 

785 

209 
146 
73 
116 
197 

107 

47 

681 

870 

65 

151 
71 
22 



168 
79 
118 
209 
149 

66 
171 

76 
107 
131 



236 
171 
226 
448 
30 

61 
45 

150 
20 

165 

124 
295 
57 
66 
115 

718 
83 
1,691 
148 
297 

40 

80 

1,336 



24 
73 
89 
149 
72 

81 

1,388 

41 

64 

278 

274 
83 
75 

113 

172 

41 
27 

295 
701 
69 

55 
42 
32 
33 
240 

131 
56 
60 

114 
47 



676 
311 
660 
1,216 
149 

249 
129 
510 
82 
246 

295 
783 
275 
86 
482 

3,349 
202 

6,599 
453 

759 

374 

206 

3,187 

1,050 

185 

173 
370 
187 
565 
791 

222 
2,918 
147 
144 
576 

317 
293 
134 
440 
1,138 

306 

180 

1,732 

2,203 

209 

550 
156 
69 
101 
653 

340 
145 
523 
605 
112 

150 
170 
206 
274 
594 



98 

Table 35. — Number of Offenses Known to the Police, 1956, Cities Over 25,000 
in Population — Continued 



City 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 







Bur- 


Larceny— theft 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


break- 
ing or 
enter- 






$50 and 


Under 






ing 


over 


$50 


10 


11 


240 


147 


934 


3 


35 


114 


96 


248 


1 


8 


78 


38 


171 


6 


3 


165 


46 


322 


16 


33 


172 


53 


552 


9 


2 


27 


19 


267 


2 


3 


60 


46 


257 


40 


259 


540 


276 


842 


14 


44 


220 


187 


567 


10 


64 


250 


277 


1,775 



Lansing, Mich... 

Laredo, Tex 

Laurel, Miss 

Lawrence, Mass. 
Lawton, Okla 



Lebanon, Pa 

Lewiston, Maine- 
Lexington, Ky... 

Lima, Ohio 

Lincoln, Nebr 



Lincoln Park, Mich- 
Linden, N. J 

Little Rock, Ark 

Lockport, N. Y 

Long Beach, Calif- -- 



Lorain, Ohio 

Los Angeles, Calif.. 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lower Merion, Pa. 



Lubbock, Tex... 
Lynchburg, Va-. 

Lynn, Mass 

Lynwood, Calif. 
Macon, Qa 



Madison, Wis 

Maiden, Mass 

Manchester, N. H. 
Manitowoc, Wis... 
Mansfield, Ohio.... 



Maplewood, N. J.. 

Marion, Ind 

Marion, Ohio 

Mason City, Iowa. 
Massillon, Ohio 



May wood. El 

McKeesport, Pa. 
Medford, Mass... 
Melrose, Mass... 
Memphis, Tenn. 



Meriden, Conn 

Meridian, Miss..-_. 

Miami, Fla 

Miami Beach, Fla... 
Michigan City, Ind. 



Middletown, Conii_ 
Middlotown. Ohio.- 

Milwaukoe, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
Mishawaka, Ind 



Mobile, Ala 

Molme, 111 

Monroe, I,a 

Montclair, N. J... 
Montgomery, Ala. 



Morgantown, W. Va.. 
Mount Lebanon, Pa.. 
Mount Vernon, N. Y. 

Muncie, Ind 

Muskegon, Mich 



1 
104 
32 



43 



102 

3 

379 

35 

3,548 

544 

14 

6 

34 
10 
22 
32 

4S 

11 

7 
1 



2 

5 

380 

30 

8 

1 

15 

99 

395 

4 

100 

3 

8 

5 

38 

5 

2 

14 

35 

6 



No reports received 

116 

1 

239 

35 

5,315 

494 

35 

2 

110 
50 
13 
30 
16 

5 
6 
4 



15 



560 

1 

55 

209 

3 

1 



325 

46 

7 

174 



78 


65 


270 


718 


538 


1,331 


71 


34 


121 


2,104 


(') 


3,512 


190 


69 


529 


22, 799 


16, 271 


29,005 


3,042 


3,106 


3,641 


286 


120 


500 


203 


183 


335 


820 


473 


2,115 


118 


51 


358 


418 


254 


1,039 


254 


281 


491 


474 


2S4 


755 


200 


214 


989 


104 


63 


347 


95 


64 


400 


126 


29 


200 


163 


135 


416 


37 


29 


36 


87 


32 


358 


89 


110 


424 


27 


44 


221 


104 


10 


300 


87 


51 


145 


178 


119 


429 


108 


74 


351 


51 


26 


140 


1,930 


1,043 


1,540 


158 


113 


187 


87 


72 


216 


3,681 


1,579 


4,622 


1,291 


771 


1,092 


94 


93 


340 


65 


45 


146 


113 


114 


538 


906 


1,877 


5,819 


2, 982 


1, 377 


5,570 


100 


112 


363 


1,253 


299 


1,028 


112 


55 


305 


132 


73 


505 


105 


83 


194 


627 


264 


624 


62 


21 


105 


44 


20 


25 


163 


177 


376 


305 


45 


1,152 


269 


167 


658 



See footnote at end of table. 



99 

Table 35. — Number of Offenses Knotin to the Police, 1956, Cities Over 25,000 
in Population — Continued 



City 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Muskoeee, Okla... 

Nashua, N. H 

Nashville, Tenn._. 
New Albany, Ind- 
Newark, N. J 



Newark, Ohio 

New Bedford, Mass-.- 

New Britain, Conn 

New Brunswick, N. J_ 
Newburgh, N. Y 



New Castle, Pa 

New Haven, Conn __ 
New Kensington, Pa- 
New London, Conn.. 
New Orleans, La 



Newport, Ky 

Newport, R. I 

Newport News, Va.. 
New Roehelle, N. Y. 
Newton, Mass 



New York N. Y 

Niagara Falls, N. Y_ 

Norfolk, Va 

Norman, Okla 

Norristown, Pa 



Northampton, Mass 

North Ber?en, N. J 

North Little Rock, Ark. 

Norwalk, Conn 

Norwich, Conn 



Norwood, Ohio 

Nutlev, N.J 

Oakland, Calif 

Oak Pvirk, 111 

Oak Ridge, Teiin. 



Odessa, Tex 

Ogden, Utah 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha, Nebr 

Ontario, Calif 



Orange. N. J 

Orlando, Fla 

Oshkosh, Wis... 
Ottumwa. Iowa. 
Owensboro, Ky. 
Paducah, Ky 



Palo Alto, Calif 

Panama City, Fla 

Parkersburg, W. Va. 

Parma, Ohio 

Pasadena, Calif 



Passaic, N. J 

Paterson, N. J... 
Pawtucket, R. I. 
Pensacola, Fla... 
Peoria, 111 



Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Petersburg, Va 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Phoenix, Ariz 

Pine Bluff, Ark 



315 
2 
18 



6 
129 
10 



137 

4 
708 

4 

16 
11 
7 
3 

6 
27 
2 
6 
694 

23 

7 



6,258 
23 
280 



428 
19 
1 

11 

23 

87 

123 

6 

15 
20 



2 

2 

70 

9 

106 

11 

21 

63 

7 

22 

2,112 

117 

17 



5 

2 

118 

3 

751 

1 
32 
19 
66 
10 



45 

11 

11 

723 

7 

7 

97 

35 

5 

9, 517 

66 

910 



111 

49 
1,066 

76 
4,012 

95 
459 
432 
193 
121 

86 

704 

16 

147 

3,486 

67 

83 

375 

176 

315 

36, 171 

253 

2,174 



63 

29 

840 

104 

2, 010 

78 
267 
126 

30 
112 

73 

258 

13 

50 

2,300 



82 
360 
261 
236 

40, 737 
330 
1,415 



424 
240 

L841 
420 

4,239 

392 
1,130 
561 
416 
259 

141 

902 

71 

292 

4,714 

153 
390 
1,070 
315 
595 

34, 192 
562 
3,183 



11 


Only f 
3 


) months 
61 


received 
43 


90 




1 
6 


22 
105 


33 

75 


76 
108 


8 



No reports received 



179 

62 



179 
60 



6 78 57 

No reports received 



266 
91 



178 



618 


2, 385 


461 


7,020 


1 


158 


89 


260 


18 


42 


26 


124 


47 


280 


224 


1.217 


10 


162 


145 


997 


119 


1,725 


1, 552 


3 324 


86 


808 


180 


2,134 


22 


169 


144 


494 


21 


lOS 


84 


225 


169 


520 


303 


728 


1 


100 


60 


702 


4 


46 


12 


206 


26 


127 


131 


396 


72 


147 


70 


236 


4 


76 


153 


670 


10 


108 


79 


149 


1 


155 


93 


201 


1 


89 


30 


139 


26 


745 


551 


1,862 


28 


196 


91 


150 


134 


700 


106 


&32 


7 


269 


198 


535 


113 


381 


161 


790 


139 


746 


282 


1,818 


33 


115 


159 


355 


127 


188 


40 


481 


2,768 


8,413 


5,223 


8,671 


216 


1,181 


907 


3, 436 


39 


171 


5 


115 



100 

Table 35.— Number of Offenses Knoun to the Police^ 1956, Cities Over 25,000 
in Population — Continued 



City 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Pittsburgh, Pa,.. 
Pittsfleld, Mass.. 
Plainfield, N. J.. 
Poeatello, Idaho, 
Pomona, Calif... 



Pontiac, Mich 

Port Arthur, Tex. . 
Port Huron, Mich- 
Portland, Maine... 
Portland, Oreg 



Portsmouth, Ohio... 

Portsmouth, Va 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y_ 

Providence, R. I 

Provo, Utah 



Pueblo, Colo-.- 

Quincy, 111 

Quincy, Mass.. 

Racine, Wis 

Raleigh, N. C_ 



Rapid City, S. Dak... 

Reading, Pa 

Redondo Beach, Calif. 
Redwood City, Calif,. 
Reno, Nev 



Revere, Mass 

Richmond, Calif. 
Richmond, Ind.. 
Richmond, Va... 
Riverside, Calif.. 



Roanoke, Va 

Rochester, Minn. 
Rochester, N. Y.. 

Rockford, 111 

Rock Island, 111.. 



Rocky Mount, N. C. 

Rome, Oa 

Rome, N. Y 

Roswell, N. Mex 

Royal Oak, Mich 



Sacramento, Calif. 

Saginaw, Mich 

St. Cloud, Minn.. 

St. Joseph, Mo 

St. Louis, Mo 



St. Paul, Minn 

St. Petersburg, Fla. 

Salem, Mass 

Salem, Oreg 

Salina, Kans 



Salt Lake City, Utah., 

San Angelo, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Bernardino, Calif- 
San Diego, Calif 



Sandusky, Ohio 

San Francisco, Calif- 
San Jose, Calif 

San Leandro, Calif.. 
San Mateo, Calif 



6 
16 
24 

44 
6 
1 

19 

298 

31 
51 

5 
57 

1 

21 
11 

7 



57 

13 

252 

18 

30 
3 

55 
13 
20 

3 

5 



234 
38 



1,636 



151 
13 



14 
7 

83 

9 

224 

54 
238 

2 

1,309 

67 

23 

12 



530 
4 
7 
14 
19 

47 

15 

1 

14 

206 



377 

28 

145 

1 

12 
3 
4 

35 
349 

1 

11 

2 

1 

25 

2 

75 

4 

353 

18 



96 
77 

1 
16 

2 

79 
165 



17 
1,932 



594 

82 

213 

33 

983 

35 

13 

6 



3,520 
106 
92 
121 
277 

448 
61 
111 
206 
2,042 

415 

496 

108 

1,389 

36 

224 
141 
344 
237 

286 

16 
210 
420 
105 
467 

126 
437 
230 
1,846 
356 

323 
50 
898 
337 
157 

136 
111 
80 
84 
246 

982 
165 
66 
122 
6, 735 

1,737 

511 

9 

116 

130 

1,043 
260 

2,926 
646 

1,408 

54 

5,192 

564 

246 

146 



48 
113 

96 
197 

199 
52 
50 
165 
1,920 

190 
316 
107 
916 
14 

255 
111 
139 
105 
204 

65 
118 
208 
123 
305 



226 
117 
915 
315 

233 
43 
533 
179 
174 

80 
41 
63 
67 
97 

1.283 
120 
63 
92 

3,582 

765 
285 

14 
111 

53 

894 

71 

1,139 

503 
2,034 

84 

2,129 

745 

161 

267 



2, 915 
261 
321 
556 
561 

903 
223 
522 

774 
5,350 

602 

875 

433 

2,499 

482 

1,000 
422 
860 
961 
707 

233 
681 
719 
549 
929 

253 
1,552 

253 
4,148 
1,232 

1,192 
325 

2,644 
789 
525 

409 
100 
185 
120 
949 

3,347 

1,551 

427 

422 

15, 240 

4.483 

1,145 

6 

648 

683 

3,623 
374 
5,606 
1,346 
4,406 

297 

10,961 

2, 662 

709 

930 



101 

Table 35. — Number of Offenses Knoun to the Police, 1956, Cities Over 25,000 
in Population — Continued 



City 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra^ 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif. 

Santa Fe, N. Mex 

Santa Monica, Calif. _ 
Savannah, Ga 



Schenectady, N. Y 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Shaker Heights, Ohio. 
Sharon, Pa 



Sheboygan, Wis 

Shreveport, La 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 
Somerville, Mass 



South Bend, Ind-_ 
South Gate, Calif. 
Spartanburg, S. C. 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, HI 



Springfield, Mass.. 

Springfield, Mo 

Springfield, Ohio... 

Stamford, Conn 

Steubenville, Ohio. 



Stockton, Calif.. 
Stratford, Conn- 
Superior, Wis 

Syracuse, N. Y.. 
Tacoma, Wash.. 

Tallahassee, Fla. 

Tampa, Fla 

Taunton, Mass.. 
Teaneek, N. J... 
Temple, Tex 



Terre Haute, Ind_ 

Toledo, Ohio 

Topeka, Kans 

Torrance, Calif 

Torrington, Conn- 



Trenton, N. J... 

Troy, N. Y 

Tucson, Ariz 

Tulsa, Okla 

Tuscaloosa, Ala. 



Tyler, Tex._ 

Union, N. J 

Union City, N. J 

University City, Mo. 
Upper Darby, Pa 



Utica, N. Y 

Vallejo, Calif 

Valley Stream, N. Y. 

Vancouver, Wash 

Vicksburg, Miss 



Waco, Tex 

Waltham, Mass. 
Warren, Ohio... 
Warwick, R. I.. 
Warwick, Va 



20 
9 
2 

55 
109 

12 

19 

349 



5 
116 



1 
12 

17 

287 

37 

24 

1 



40 

35 

4 

56 

479 

9 
26 
153 

17 
4 



1 
23 

40 

59 

242 

10 



40 

15 

191 

43 

20 

1 

79 
18 
71 
128 
91 

7 
4 
18 



7 

22 

7 

3 

16 

160 
4 
13 



437 
236 
251 
728 
683 

194 

411 

3,754 

63 

54 

48 
286 
246 
132 
327 

670 
500 
149 
799 
250 

662 
242 
203 



682 
47 
96 

543 



211 
1,615 
110 
153 
105 

279 
1,295 
388 
395 
44 

593 
216 
688 
1,113 
192 

64 
160 
185 
115 
160 

218 
144 
66 
101 

57 

607 
145 
164 
259 
324 



176 
170 
167 
859 



187 
70 
1,761 
61 
35 

73 
250 
125 
139 
325 



484 
104 
345 
116 

94 
130 

99 
246 



792 

97 

37 

525 

618 

109 

697 

34 

50 
46 

124 

1,184 

174 

458 

15 

335 

95 

295 

923 

74 

34 

78 
36 
176 

78 

101 
140 

75 
119 

36 

189 
81 
122 
185 
182 



1,069 
845 
471 

1,376 
706 

165 
480 
6,928 
373 
117 

348 

1,097 

1,042 

577 

593 

1,727 
861 
368 

2,745 



985 
573 
625 
540 
279 

1,717 

226 

470 

1,849 

2,133 

359 

2,333 

339 

156 
306 

665 
3,843 
1,249 

831 
80 

762 

65 

2,326 

2,304 

200 

257 
293 
152 
369 
537 

669 
581 
165 
341 
110 

1,126 
446 
388 
218 
476 



102 

Table 35. — Number of Offenses Knotvn to the Police, 1956, Cities Over 25,000 
in Population — Continued 



City 



Washington, D. C. 

Washington, Pa 

Waterbury, Conn.. 

Waterloo, Iowa_ 

Watertown, Mass.. 

Watertown, N. Y-. 

Waukegan, 111 

Wausau, Wis 

Wauwatosa, Wis... 
West Allis, Wis-... 



West Hartford, Conn.. 

West Haven, Conn 

West New York, N. J._ 

West Orange, N. J 

West Palm Beach, Fla. 



Weymouth, Mass... 

Wheeling, W. Va 

White Plains, N. Y. 

Wichita, Kans 

Wichita Falls, Tex.. 



Wilkes Barre, Pa.. 
Wilkinsburg, Pa... 
Williamsport, Pa.. 
Wilmington, Del... 
Wilmington, N. C. 



Winona, Minn 

Winston-Salem, N. C. 

Woodbridge, N. J 

Woonsocket, R. I 

Worcester, Mass 



Wyandotte,- Mich.. 

Yakima, Wash 

Yonkers, N. Y 

York, Pa 

Youngstown, Ohio. 

Zanesville, Ohio 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



65 



Rob- 
bery 



709 
5 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



2,621 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



3,216 

32 

365 

131 

153 

119 
139 
30 
73 
59 



1 67 24 

4 1 114 52 

Complete data not received 2 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



1,772 
48 
148 



74 
117 
30 
61 
108 



Under 

$50 



6,318 
128 
445 
495 
171 

234 
374 
333 
304 
619 



2 


1 


100 


75 


192 


13 


50 


274 


126 


538 


3 


3 


71 


59 


137 


13 


16 


104 


104 


187 


19 


45 


133 


224 


306 


107 


237 


1,387 


764 


3,778 


36 


53 


431 


200 


1,822 


9 


18 


114 


88 


317 


4 


2 


82 


28 


211 


9 


2 


121 


115 


459 


70 


24 


668 


390 


1,400 


19 


273 


257 


146 


533 






27 


49 


184 


35 


292 


424 


181 


893 


5 


3 


133 


111 


185 


5 


7 


111 


71 


230 


41 


27 


999 


373 


1,392 


7 


2 


131 


70 


526 


9 


28 


216 


143 


1,703 


13 


37 


299 


125 


1,058 


27 


21 


261 


117 


662 


71 


25 


559 


516 


1,088 


6 


5 


153 


92 


385 



Auto 
theft 



1,655 

46 

274 

56 

21 

30 
71 
22 
22 
66 

24 
25 

21 
80 

25 

61 

72 

421 

327 

91 
93 
35 
354 
132 

9 

110 

54 

88 

414 



95 
238 

98 
336 



' Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 
' The crime reporting for the city indicated does not meet acceptable standards established by the Com- 
mittee on Uniform Crime Records of the International Association of Chiefs of Police. 



103 
Offenses Known in Jurisdictions Outside the United States 

Police agencies in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, and the Isthmus of 
Panama forwarded crime reports in 1956 and the available information 
is presented in table 36. 

Crime figures received from agencies outside the 48 states are not 
included in summary data in other sections of this publication. 

Table 36. — Offenses Known in Jurisdictions Outside the United States, 1956 



Jurisdiction reporting 



Alaska: 

Anchorage City 

Department of Territorial Police (Juneau). 
Fii-st judicial division (Juneau) 



Guam: Agana- 



Hawaii: 

Hawaii County 

Honolulu City 

Honolulu County. 

Kauai County 

Maui County 



Isthmus of Panama: Canal Zone- 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Rob- 
bery 



32 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



103 
189 



118 



169 

1,364 

425 

71 

121 

235 



Larceny- 
theft 



Over 



236 
297 
25 



35 

718 

196 

14 

15 



Under 
$50 



328 
166 
15 

129 



404 

3,349 

1,013 

213 

319 

870 



Auto 

theft 



150 
376 



15 

512 

107 

9 

13 



Supplemental Crime Data 



Source 

Interesting and important facets of the crime problem are pre- 
sented by supplemental tabulations prepared b}^ police in the larger 
population centers. Crime hazards and shifts in criminal activity 
come to light from such studies and answers are obtained to many 
questions, such as: 

Are business houses victimized by robbers more often than are 
persons who are on the open streets and highways? 

Are purse-snatchings increasing? 

What is the value of property stolen? — Of propert}' recovered? 

As by-products of local administrative studies, police in cities over 
25,000 contribute analytical data as summarized in Tables 37-39. 
As indicated in the headnotes of Tables 38 and 39, not quite all the 
436 police departments in the cities represented in Table 37 were in 
a position to furnish all phases of the analysis. Almost all (92 per- 
cent) the population in cities over 25,000 inhabitants is represented 
in Table 37. 

Trend 

Rape. Forcible rapes, constituting 58.3 percent of the offenses in 
this category, increased 12.4 percent in 1956. This represents a 
very substantial increase in a serious problem which was brought 
sharply into focus in 1955 by a 21.3 percent increase. The 1955 jump 
in such crimes was a reversal of a trend indicated by an encouraging 
5.4 percent decrease in 1954. 

Statutory offenses, those in which victims are under the legal age 
of consent, increased 8.5 percent in 1956 to reverse the trend in 1955 
when a 4.6 percent decrease was noted. 

Rape is the only crime against the person included in the supple- 
mentary analysis under this system. 

Crimes Against Property. A resurgence of armed and strong- 
armed robberies on the streets almost nullified the effects of the 9.3 
percent decrease in robberies of places of business in 1956. Highway 
robberies made up 53.2 percent of the robbery problem in 1956, and 
the 1.3 percent increase in such crimes was instrumental in holding 
the overall decrease to only 2.4 percent in the cities studied. Rob- 
beries of business houses have declined for two j'cars, but the increase 

(104) 



105 

in highway robberies in 1956 is a sharp reversal of the experience in 
1955 when a 13.8 percent decrease occurred. 

Homes of people are entered in almost 75 percent of the daytime 
burglaries. Night and day burglaries of homes increased 2.1 percent 
in 1956 while burglaries of stores and other nonresidential structures 
increased 6.6 percent. 

A startling increase of 41.2 percent in auto accessory thefts led 
substantial increases ranging from 4.8 percent to 14.8 percent in pock- 
ket-picking, purse-snatching, shoplifting, bicycle thefts, thefts from 
automobiles and miscellaneous thefts. 

Police in 436 cities recovered 22,535 more automobiles in 1956 than 
in 1955 as a part of increased activity to meet the 17.6 percent rise in 
auto thefts in those places. Recoveries reached 93.3 percent of the 
number of automobiles stolen. 



Table 37. — Offense Analysis, Trends, 1955-56 

[436 cities over 25,000. Total 1950 population 58,376,806] 



Classification 



Number of offenses 



1956 



Percent 
change 



Rape: 

TOTAI .. 

Forcible 

Statutory 

Eobberv: 

TOTAL 

Highway 

Commercial house 

Oil station 

Chain store 

Residence 

Bank 

Miscellaneous 

Burglary— breaking or entering: 

TOTAL 

Residence (dwelling): 

Night 

Day 

Nonresidence (store, office, etc.): 

Night 

Day 

Larceny— theft (except auto theft, by value) : 
TOTAL 

$50 and over 

$5 to $50 

Under $5 

Larceny- theft (by type): 

TOTAL 

Poeket-pickirig 

Purse-snatching 

Shoplifting 

Thefts from autos (except accessories) 

Auto accessories 

Bicycles 

All others 

Auto theft: 

Stolen 

Recovered 



9,060 



5,205 
3,855 



44, 199 



22, 664 
11,984 
1,972 
1,187 
3,645 
141 
2,606 

276, 188 



63, 305 
52, 125 



145, 023 
15, 735 



655, 754 



179,669 
377, 921 
98,164 

655. 754 



7,372 
11,314 
29, 111 
117,862 
145, 606 
109, 320 
235, 169 

130, 782 
120, 959 



10, 033 



5,849 
4,184 



43, 122 



22, 958 

10, 891 

1,974 

856 

3,477 

138 

2,828 

289, 197 



65, 596 
52,248 



153, 599 

17, 754 



196, 891 
446, 926 
109, 865 

753, 682 



7,832 
11,977 
33, 409 
123, 535 
205, 539 
120, 187 
251, 203 

153,818 
143, 494 



+ 10.7 



+12.4 

+8.5 



-2.4 



+1.3 
-9.1 
+.1 
-27.9 
-4.6 
-2.1 
+8.5 

+4-7 



+3.6 
+.2 

+5.9 
+12.8 

+ 14.9 



+9.6 
+18.3 
+11.9 

+ 14.9 



+6.2 
+5.9 

+ 14.8 
+4.8 

+41.2 
+9.9 
+6.8 

+17.6 
+18.6 



106 



Property Loss, by Crime 



Robberies, burglaries and other thefts brought an average loss of 
$197 per property crime in 1956. This is $5 less than the 1955 figure, 
but the general increase in crime caused the per capita cost in the 
reporting cities to rise to $4.19, almost 10 percent above the 1955 per 
capita loss. 

Auto thefts represented 54.9 percent of the property losses reported 
by 429 cities (table 38) in 1956, and the average value of each car 
stolen was $873. 

Table 38. — Value of Property Stolen, by Type of Crime, 1956 

[429 cities over 25,000. Total 1950 population 57,218,447. Values rounded ofi] 



Classification 


Number of 
offenses 


Value of 

property 

stolen 


Average 
value per 
offense 


TOTAL -- 


1, 217, 247 


$239, 588, 177 


$197 






Robbery -.- - 


42, 522 
283, 594 
740, 489 
150, 642 


9, 277. 770 

48,574,319 

50, 177, 483 

131, 558, 605 


218 


Burglary 


171 




68 


Auto theft- -- 


873 







Loss and Recovery Valuations, by Type of Property 

Robbers, burglars and other thieves netted about 43 cents out of 
every dollar stolen in 1956. A distribution by type of property of the 
57 cents on the dollar recovery rate by police is indicated b}" table 39. 

For every dollar value recovered by the police, about 88 cents is a 
credit for the recovered stolen auto category. 



Table 39. — Value of Property Stolen and Value of Property Recovered, by Type 

of Property, 1956 



[419 cities over 25,000. Total 1950 population 54,484,1 



Values rounded offl 



Type of property 



TOTAL 

Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 
Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Miscellaneous 



Value of property 



Stolen 



$229, 590, 279 



25, 484. 319 
18. 925, 693 

7, 778, 764 

10, 530, 255 
124,111,093 
42, 760. 155 



Recovered 



$130, 601, 794 



2. 741, 144 

1, 616, 563 

280, 946 

1,279.019 

114,900,047 

9, 784, 075 



Percent 
recovered 



56.9 



10.8 
8.5 
3.6 

12.1 
92. r, 
22. 9 



Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 



Source 

Police in urban communities are requested to furnish information 
at the end of the year about the age, sex, and race of persons arrested 
by them during the year. Arrests made for other agencies for viola- 
tions outside the reporting jurisdiction are excluded. 

Trends, 1955-56 

Arrests of young people under 18 increased 17.3 percent in 1956. 
Arrests in other age groups increased only 2.6 percent during the 
same period. The population of young people age 10-17 increased 
less than 3 percent from 1955 to 1956 and, accordingly, it appears 
unlikely that the 17.3 percent increase in arrests of persons under 18 
was due solely to the increase in the number of such persons in the 
population. 

Increases in juvenile arrests in the larger population centers were 
high but were under the rise in arrests of persons under 18 in the smaller 
urban places. Cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants reported a 
16.5 percent increase in arrests of young people under 18. Their 
smaller neighbors, under 25,000 inhabitants, reported a 20.9 percent 
increase in such arrests. 

Trends are for comparisons of reports from identical places for the 
years 1955-56 which represent a population of about 34.6 million, or 
almost 39 percent of the urban population (1950 figures). 



Table 40. — Arrest Trends, 1955-56 

[Population figures from 1950 deceonial census] 



Total arrests : 

1955 

1956 

Change 

Percent change 

Under 18: 

1955 

1956 

Change 

Percent change 



(107) 



Total— 1,160 
cities; total 
population 
34,626,004 



1, 603, 205 
1, 668, 630 
+65,425 

+4.1 



164, 458 

192, 987 

+28, 629 

+17.3 



Over 25,000- 
256 cities; 

population 
26,136,663 



1, 298, 212 

1,342,251 

+44,039 

+3.4 



133, 429 

155,486 

+22, 057 

+16.5 



2,500 to 
25,000—904 
cities; popu- 
lation 
8,489,341 



304, 993 

326, 379 

+21,386 

+7.0 



31,029 

37, 501 

+6, 472 

+20.9 



108 

Number of Arrests, 1956 

Reports from 1,551 city police departments reflect 2,070,794 arrests 
during 1956 for violations occurring within the reporting jurisdictions. 
A total population of over 41 milUon or 46 percent of the urban popula- 
tion in the United States is represented b>* the 1,551 reports included in 
tables 41-44. 

Age of Persons Arrested, 1956. Of those persons under 18 arrested 
in 1956, 40.1 percent were not yet 15 years of age. Youths under 
18 made up 11.3 percent of the arrests in reporting cities but the 
serious nature of the participation of youths in crime is more clearly 
observed by an examination of selected categories. 

For part I (major) crimes as a group, 45.8 percent of the arrests in 
1956 were of youths under 18. Over 3,000 of the young people were 
arrested for criminal homicides, rapes and aggravated assaults. 
Though this presents a very serious picture, it is not so large statis- 
tically since these arrests for crimes against the person amount to 
only 9.5 percent of all such arrests. The criminal activity of youths 
in part I crimes is concentrated in the property crimes of robbery, 
burglary, auto theft, and other larcenies where they represent 52.3 
percent of the persons arrested in 1956 in the reporting cities. 

In the individual part I property crime classes, youths under 18 
represented 24.7 percent of those arrested for robbery, 53.9 percent 
of those arrested for burglary, 50.4 percent of those arrested for 
larceny, and 66.4 percent of those arrested for auto theft. 



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Table 42. — Number and Percentage of Arrests of Persons Under 18, Under 21, 
and Under 25 Years of Age, 1956; 1,551 Cities Over 2,500 in Population 

[Total population 41,219,052, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Offense charged 



TOTAL - 

Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man 

slaughter - . 

(b) Manslaughter by negligence 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Other assaults 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc.... 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other SOX offenses 

Narcotic drug laws... 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

L iquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

D isorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

All other offenses 



Number of persons arrested 



TOTAL 



2, 070, 794 



2,028 
1,420 

10, 913 
23, 760 
80, 008 
46, 406 

92, 194 
28, 035 

13. 694 
6,721 

9,036 
4,591 

14, 619 
19, 597 

7,289 
16, 179 
22, 379 

43, 471 

104, 925 

241, 167 

842,415 

75, 478 

44, 906 
84. 063 

236, 500 



234, 474 



Under 
18 



139 

74 

2,692 

1,971 

5,560 

25, 029 

46, 477 

18, 622 

311 

2,513 

581 

840 

151 

3,038 

292 
2,813 

257 
5,728 

631 
25, 444 
0, 469 
3,696 

516 
15,855 
64, 775 



Under 
21 



371, 462 



262 
227 

4,714 

3,815 

11,102 

30, 589 

,56, 101 

22, 244 

955 

3,137 

1,372 

1,882 
1,188 
4,702 



4,788 

1,550 

13, 484 

4,322 
49,417 
27, 869 
10, 114 

1,476 

28, 782 
86, 390 



Under 
25 



575, 891 



499 
432 

6,969 

7,004 

22, 487 

35, 712 

64, 020 
24, 466 
2,792 
3, 666 

2,808 
2,889 
4,119 
7,647 

2,692 
7,320 
4,824 
16, 953 

16, 254 
82,828 
82. 565 

17, 505 

4,744 
42, 346 
112,350 



Percentage 



Under 

18 



11.3 



6.9 
5.2 

24.7 
8.3 
6.9 

53,9 

.50.4 

66. 4 

2.3 

43.9 

6.4 
18.3 

1.0 
15.5 

4.0 
17.4 

1.1 
13.2 

.6 

10.6 

.8 

4.9 

1.1 
18.9 
27.4 



Under 
21 



17.9 



12.9 
16.0 

43.2 
16.1 
13.9 
65.9 

60.9 
79.3 

7.0 
54.8 

15.2 
41.0 
8.1 
24.0 

13.4 

29.6 

6.9 

31.0 

4.1 
20.5 

3.3 
13.4 

3.3 
34.2 

36.5 



Under 
25 



27. 



24.6 
30.4 

63.9 
29.5 
28.1 
77.0 

69.4 
87.3 
20.4 
04.1 

31.1 
62.9 
28.2 
39.0 

36.9 
45.2 
21.6 
39.0 

15.5 

34.3 

9.8 

23.2 

10.6 
50.4 
47.5 



Ill 



PERSONS ARRESTED UNDER 
18 YEARS OF AGE 

PERCENT OF TOTAL ARRESTS 
CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY 

CALENDAR YEAR 1956 




OFFENSES 



ROBBERY 



BURGLARY 



LARCENY 



AUTO THEFT 



EMBEZZLEMENT 
AND FRAUO 



RECEIVING STOLEN 
PROPERTY 

FORGERY AND 
COUNTERFEITING 



ARRESTS, PERSONS UNDER TOTAL ARRESTS. 
18 YEARS OF AGE ALL AGES 




10,913 

46,406 

92,194 

28,035 

13,694 

5,721 

9,036 



1^51 CITIES TOTAL POPULATION 41,219,052 



Figure 14. 



112 

Sex of Persons Arrested, 1956. Over 8 times as many men as 
women were arrested in 195G, about the same proportion as in 1955. 

Arrest figures, by sex, in table 43 are from 1,551 cities, and do not 
represent total arrests for the United States. 



Table 43. — Distribution of Arrests by Sex, 1956; 1,551 Cities Over 2,500 in 

Population 

[Total population 41,219,052, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Oflenso charged 



TOTAL 

Criminal liomicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

(b) Manslaughter by negligence 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

O ther assault s 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling- 

Suspicion 

All other offenses 



2, 070, 794 



Number 



TOTAI Male Femah 



2,028 
1,420 

10, 913 
23, 760 
80, 008 
46, 406 

92, 1S4 
28, 035 

13, 694 
5,721 

9,036 
4.591 

14, 619 
19, 597 

7,289 
16, 179 
22, 379 

43, 471 

104. 925 

241, 167 

842, 415 

75, 478 

44, 906 
84, 063 

236, 500 



1,844,682 



1,631 
1,307 

10, 448 

19, 578 
71, 576 
45, 329 

80, 575 
27, 323 
11,574 
4,995 

7, 536 
4,591 
Ti, 424 
14, 848 

6,104 
15, 286 

20, 345 
35, 421 

100, 391 

202,617 

775, 536 

67, 601 

40, 142 

75, 006 

199, 498 



226,112 



397 
113 

465 
4,182 
8,432 
1,077 

11, 619 

712 

2,120 

726 

1,500 



9, 195 

4,749 

1, 185 

893 

2,034 

8,050 

4,534 
38, 550 
66, 879 

7,877 

4, 764 
9, 057 
37, 002 



Percent 



TOTAL Male Female 



100.0 



.1 

.1 

.5 
1.1 
3.9 
2.2 



1.1 
2.1 

5.1 
11.6 
40.6 

3.6 

2.2 
4.1 
11.4 



.1 
.1 

.6 
1.1 
3.9 
2.5 

4.4 
1.5 
.6 
.3 

.4 
.2 
.3 



1.1 
1.9 

5.4 
11.0 
41.9 

3.7 

2.2 

4.1 

10.8 



100.0 



.2 
.1 

.2 
1.8 
3.7 

.5 

6.1 
.3 
.9 
.3 

.7 



4.1 
2.1 

.5 

.4 

.9 

3.6 

2.0 
17.0 
29.6 

3.5 

2.1 
4.0 

16.4 



113 

Race of Persons Arrested, 1956. Arrests by race, as tabulated by 
police in 1,551 cities during 1956, are presented in table 44. 

Table 44. — Arrests by Race, 1956; 1,551 Cities Over 2,500 in Population 

[Total population 41,219,052, based on 1950 decennial census] 



Offense charged 



TOTAL 

Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man 

slaughter 

(b) Manslaughter by negligence 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Other assaults - _ - _ 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Autotheft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc- 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 
Other sex ofTenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons, carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children. ._ 
Liquor laws - - ^ 

Driving while intoxicated 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness-- 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

All other offenses-- 



2, 070. 794 



TOTAL 



2,028 
1,420 

10,913 
23, 760 
80, 008 
46, 406 

92, 194 
28, 035 

13, 694 
5,721 

9,036 
4,591 

14, 619 
19, 597 

7,289 
16, 179 
22, 379 

43, 471 

104, 925 

241, 167 

842, 415 

75, 478 

44, 906 
84, 063 

236, 500 



Race 



White 



1, 390, 944 



634, 022 



683 
1,083 

5,160 

7,672 

42, 770 

32, 407 

62, 852 
21,694 
11,055 
3,377 

7,649 
2,509 
7,587 
13, 524 

2,862 

7,489 

14,856 

25, 071 

86, 367 
140, 281 
613,817 

54, 104 

11,584 
52, 791 
161, 700 



Negro 



1,336 
331 

5,697 
15,977 
36, 659 
13, 748 

28, 656 
6,109 
2,592 
2,304 

1,333 
2,043 

6, 926 
5,886 

4,387 
8,540 
7,421 
18, 008 

17,122 
98, 014 
193, 807 
20, 166 

33, 191 
30,682 
73, 087 



Indian 



40, 554 



2 
3 

43 

52 
307 
169 

513 

190 

30 

22 

46 
20 
73 
111 

5 

78 
72 
286 

1,211 

2,403 

32, 380 

946 

23 

404 

1,165 



Chi- 
nese 



236 



49 



Japa- 
nese 



114 



All 
others 



4,924 



2 
3 

12 

56 

250 

75 

161 
38 
16 
17 

5 
19 
32 
64 

28 
64 
29 
90 

205 

439 

2,321 

243 

90 
180 
485 



Reporting Area 



Population Represented 

Less than four percent of the population of the United States was 
not represented by one or more crime reports in 1956. Over 98 per- 
cent of the people residing in urban places and more than 93 percent 
of the people residing in rural areas were represented in the 1956 crime 
reporting. 

Contributors 

The 6,595 contributors in 1956 represent a 13.5 percent increase 
over the 5,809 agencies contributing in 1955. Total contributors 
were made up of 3,762 urban police agencies, 2,549 sheriffs, 14 state 
police, 259 law enforcement agencies in rural townships and villages 
and 11 police agencies outside the 48 states. The increase in con- 
tributors in no way affects the crime trends tabulations. For the 
urban and rural trend figures identical reporting agencies are repre- 
sented in each year studied (tables 25-28) and for the United States 
totals (table 24) estimates cover only the unreported area each year. 

Urban and Rural 

Urban places are determined by the 1940 rule of the Bureau of the 
Census. They are generally incorporated places with 2,500 or more 
inhabitants. Rural reporting areas are located outside the limits of 
urban places. 

Table 45. — Reporting Area 



Population group 



TOTAL 

1. Cities over 250,000 

2. Cities 100,000 to 250,000 

3. Cities 5(),0(K) to 100,000. 

4. Cities 25,000 to 50,0(H).. 

5. Cities lO.OOO to 25,000.. 

6. Cities 2,500 to 10,000... 



Cities or towns 



Number 



TOTAI 



4,031 



41 

66 

130 

279 

814 

2,701 



Contrib- 
utors 



3,762 



41 
66 
130 
275 
778 
2,472 



(114) 



Per- 
cent 
con- 
trib- 
utors 



93.3 



100.0 
100. 
100.0 
98.0 
95. f) 
91.5 



Population 



Number 



TOTAL 



9, 518, 135 



34, 932, 955 
9. 094, 1 1 1 
9.210,598 
9, 786, 890 
12,440,475 
13,447,106 



Represent- 
ed by con- 
tributors 



87, 859, 991 



34, 932, 955 
9.094,111 
9.210,598 
9, t>32, 030 
11,882,655 
12,501,642 



Per- 
cent 
repre- 
sented 



98.1 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
98.4 
95.5 
93.0 



Classification of Offenses 



Uniform Crime Reporting Program 

Readers not entirely familiar with the uniform crime reporting 
program may be interested in a brief explanation of the contents of 
crime reports included in this bulletin: 

1. These crime figures are called "police statistics" to distinguish 
them from judicial or penal statistics in the criminal field. (Program 
is voluntary. International Association of Chiefs of Police started it 
January 1930. The FBI has acted as the central clearinghouse since 
September 1930, by an Act of Congress.) 

2. Crimes that are exclusively Federal are not included. 

3. Each reporting agency counts only those crimes or arrests for 
crimes committed in its jurisdiction. A sheriff reports only for his 
rural areas outside the city or town limits of any urban places in his 
county. This feature avoids duplication. 

4. "Offenses known to the police" (the part I offenses below) are 
limited to seven classes of grave offenses shown by experience to be 
those mo"st generally and completely reported to the police. 

5. Offenses (crimes) for the part I classes are reported as they 
become known. The police may learn of the occurrence of crime in a 
number of ways: reports of police officers; citizens' complaints; 
notification from prosecuting or court officials; or otherwise. 

6. Offenses are included without regard to: (a) age of the offender; 
(6) value of property involved; (c) recovery of stolen property; 
(d) arrests; or (e) prosecutive action. The purpose is to show the 
amount of crime that has occurred as distinguished from arrests and 
the classifying is based strictly on the facts in possession of the police. 

7. Complaints that are found by police investigation to be ground- 
less are not included in crime tables in this bulletin, and returns that 
appear incomplete or defective are excluded. 

8. Arrests are not included in "offenses known" information but 
arrest data are collected separately for the entire crime classification, 
parts I and II. So, the only information for part II offenses is that 
based on arrests. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

The complete classification of crimes is shown below with brief 
definitions for each: 

(115) 



116 

Part I Offenses 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 
includes all willful felonious homicides as distinguished from deaths 
caused by negligence. Does not include attempts to kill, assaults to 
kill, suicides, accidental deaths, or justifiable homicides. Justifiable 
homicides excluded from this classification are limited to the following 
types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon b^^ a peace officer in line of 
duty; (2) the killing of a holdup man by a private citizen, (b) Man- 
slaughter by negligence includes any death which the police investiga- 
tion establishes was primarily attributable to gross negligence on the 
part of some individual other than the victim. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape (no force used — 
victim under age of consent), assault to rape, and attempted rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the 
person by force or violence or by putting in fear, such as strong-arm 
robbery, stickups, robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and 
attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault 
by shooting, cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by 
the use of acids. Does not include simple assault, assault and battery, 
fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreak- 
ing, safecracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felonj^ or a theft, 
even though no force was used to "gain entrance. Includes attempts. 
Burglary followed by larceny is included in this classification and not 
counted again as larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in 
value; (6) under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassi- 
fications, depending upon the value of the property stolen, thefts of 
bicycles, automobile accessories, shoplifting, pocket picking, or any 
stealing of property or article of value which is not taken by force 
and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" 
games, forgery, worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or 
driven away and abandoned, including the so-called joj^-riding thefts. 
Does not include taking for temporary use when actuallv returned by 
the taker, or unauthorized use by those having lawful access to the 
vehicle. 

Part // Offenses 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults 
which are not of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in 
class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the 
making, altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, any- 
thing false which is made to appear true. Includes attempts. 



117 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent 
conversion, embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false 
pretenses. 

1 1 . Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, 
receiving, and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to com- 
mit any of those offenses. 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of 
regulations or statutes controlling the carrying, ushig, possessing, 
furnishing, and manufacturing of deadly weapons or silencers and all 
attempts to violate such statutes or regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a 
commercialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as 
prostitution, keeping bawdy house, procuring, transporting, or de- 
taining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex o^enses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized 
vice). — Includes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, 
and the like. Includes attempts. 

15. Offenses against the family and children. — Includes offenses of 
nonsupport, neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, 
such as unlawful possession, sale, or use. Excludes Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "drunkenness" (class 18) 
and "driving while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations, 
State or local, are placed in this class. Excludes Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxi- 
cation. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a 
breach of the peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, 
loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or 
engaging in gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any 
motor vehicle while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regu- 
lations with respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to 
prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordnances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes viola- 
tions of State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and 
motor vehicles not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws 
for which no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as 
suspicious characters, but not in connection with any specific offense, 
who are released without formal charges being placed against them. 



Index to Volume XXVII, Uniform Crime 

Reports 

(All references are to page numbers) 

Page 

Age of offenders. (See Arrests.) 

Age, sex and race of persons arrested, reports from police . 107-113 

Annual crime trends: 

Cities grouped b}^ size 73 

Cities grouped by location 75-78 

Estimated total number of major crimes, 1956 3-69 

Long term trends 80-81 

Rural crime trends 4-5, 82-83 

Urban crime trends 4-5, 72-81 

Ai'rests — based on age, sex and race of persons arrested, 
reports from police: 

Arrest trends 107 

Age of offenders 108-111 

Sex of offenders 112 

Race of offenders 113 

Automobiles — percentage recovered 105 

Classification of offenses 115-117 

Cleared by arrest, offenses 46-50 

By geographic divisions 50 

Crimes. (See Arrests, estimated number, offenses, persons 
charged, persons found guilty, and persons released.) 

Employees, number of police 21-45 

Jurisdictions outside the United States, offenses in 103 

Monthly variations, offenses known to the police 84-86 

Offenses known to the police : 

Annual trends 1-4, 72-83 

Cities grouped by location 75-78 

Cities grouped by location and size 90 

Cities grouped by size 88 

Cleared by arrest 46-50 

Cleared by arrest, geographic divisions 50 

Divided as to time and place and value of property' stolen . 106 
Individual cities over 25,000 in population . . . 12-20, 93-102 

Monthly variations 84-86 

Rural areas 11,92 

Jurisdictions outside the United States 103 

118 



119 

Page 

Persons charged (held for prosecution) 51-55 

By geographic divisions 54-55 

Persons found guihy 56-61 

Persons released (not held for prosecution) 61-63 

Police department employees 21-45 

Police killed 21 

Property, value stolen 106 

Property, value stolen and recovered 106 

Prosecution, persons held for. {See Persons charged and per- 
sons found guilty.) 
Race of offenders. {See Arrests.) 

Reporting area, extent of 114 

Rural crime data 4-5,11,82-83,92 

Sex of offenders. {See Arrests.) 

Sheriff's reports 4-5,11,82-83,92 

State crime rates. {See Offenses known — cities grouped by 
location.) 

State police reports 4-5,11,82-83,92 

Trends, annual crime : 

Cities gi-ouped b}^ location 75-78 

Cities grouped b}' size 73 

Long term 80-81 

Rural 4-5,82-83 

Urban 4-5, 72-81 

Urban crime rates 6-10, 87-91 

Value of propert}' stolen 106 

Value of property stolen and recovered 106 

Variations, monthly crime i 84-86 

o 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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