(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Uniform crime reports for the United States"



rE" 



A-v} 




^i 






o 




T 



Given By 
Tf £. SUPTV OF DOCUMENTS 



^ 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/uniformcrimerepo38unit 



9 



- 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume IX — Number 1 
FIRST QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1938 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1938 



- 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 
of Justice, Washington, D. C. 



Volume 9 April 1938 Number 1 



CONTENTS 

Classification of offenses. 
Extent of reporting area. 
Monthly returns: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population (table 1). 
Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1931-38 (table 2). 
Data for individual cities over 100,000 in population (table 3). 
Offenses known in territories and possessions (table 4). 
Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 5-7) . 
Annual returns: 

Offenses known and offenses cleared by arrest, 1937 — cities divided accord- 
ing to population (tables 8, 9) . 
Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1937 — cities divided according to 

population (tables 10-12). 
Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and persons found guilty (tables 

13, 14). 
Persons released (not held for prosecution), 1937 — cities divided according 

to population (tables 15, 16). 
Percentage of offenses cleared by arrest, 1934-37 (table 17). 
Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest and persons charged, by geo- 
graphic divisions (tables 18-37). 
Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1937: 

Number of persons arrested outside of their native State (table 38). 
Definitions of part I and part II offense classifications. 

Classification of Offenses. 

The term "offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to 
the police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting 
or court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following 
group of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be 
those most generally and completely reported to the police : Criminal 
homicide, including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (6) 
manslaughter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; bur- 
glary — breaking or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The 
figures contained herein include also the number of attempted crimes 
of the designated classes. Attempted murders, however, are reported 
as aggravated assaults. In other words, an attempted burglary or 
robbery, for example, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner 
as if the crime had been completed. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the police depart- 
ments of contributing cities and not merely arrests or cleared cases. 
Complaints which upon investigation are learned to be groundless 
are not included in the tabulations which follow. 

(1) 



In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions 
of part I and part II offense classifications. 

Extent of Reporting Area. 

In the table which follows there is shown the number of police 
departments from which one or more crime reports were received 
during the first 3 months of 1938. Information is presented for the 
cities divided according to size. The population figures employed 
are estimates as of July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census for cities 
with population in excess of 10,000. No estimates were available, 
however, for those with a smaller number of inhabitants, and, accord- 
ingly, for them the figures listed in the 1930 decennial census were 
used. 



Population group 


Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 


Cities filing 
returns 


Total 
population 


Population repre- 
sented in returns 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


983 


880 


89.5 


60, 281, C88 


58, 074, 866 


96.3 


1. Cities over 250,000 


37 

57 

104 

191 

594 


37 

57 
98 
172 
516 


100.0 
100.0 
94.2 
90.1 
86.9 


29, 695, 500 
7,850,312 
6, 980, 407 
6, 638, 544 
9,116,925 


29, 695, 500 
7, 850, 312 

6, 576, 274 
5, 981, 556 

7, 971, 224 


100.0 


2. Cities 100,000 to 250,000 


100.0 


3. Cities 50,000 to 100,000 


94.2 


4. Cities 25,000 to 50,000 


90.1 


5. Cities 10,000 to 25,000 


87.4 







Note. — The above table does not include 1,462 cities and rural townships aggregating a total population 
of 7,422,160. The cities included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 population filing returns, whereas 
the rural townships are of varying population groups. 

The growth in the crime reporting area is evidenced by the following 
figures for the first 3 months of 1932-38: 



Year 


Number 
of cities 


Population 


Year 


Number 
of cities 


Population 


1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 


1,476 
1,561 
1,593 
1,833 


49, 368, 231 
53, 295, 629 
61, 715, 079 
62, 304, 616 


1936 

1937 

1938 


2,111 
2,166 
2,342 


63, 766, 619 
64, 196, 843 
65, 497, 026 



The foregoing comparison shows that during the first 3 months of 
1938 there was an increase of 176 cities as compared with the corre- 
sponding period of 1937, the population represented by those cities 
being 1,300,183. 

In addition to the 2,342 city and village police departments which 
submitted crime reports during the first 3 months of 1938, one or more 
reports were received during that period from 1,210 sheriffs and State 
police units and from 8 agencies in territories and possessions of the 
United States. This makes a grand total of 3,560 agencies contributing 
crime reports during 1938. 



MONTHLY RETURNS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population. 

There is presented in table 1 the number of offenses reported as 
committed during the first 3 months of 1938 by the police depart- 
ments of 1,885 cities with an aggregate population of 61,392,571. 
The data are also presented in the form of crime rates for cities 
divided according to size in order that interested persons may readily 
compare the crime rates of their communities with the average 
figures for cities of approximately the same size. 

It is observed that, in line with similar compilations published in 
prior years, there is a tendency for larger cities to report higher crime 
rates than the smaller communities. 

More than one-half (53.9 percent) of the crimes committed were 
larcenies and nearly one-fourth (24.5 percent) constituted offenses of 
burglary. The amount of each type of crime is indicated in the 
following percentage distribution: 



Offense 



Total 

Larceny 

Burglary.. 
Auto theft. 



Rate per 
100,000 



378.2 



203.8 
92.8 
49.0 



Percent 



100.0 



53.9 
24.5 
13.0 



Offense 



Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Rape 

Murder 

Manslaughter 



Rate per 
100,000 



17.9 

10.2 

2.0 

1.3 

1.2 



Percent 



4.7 

2.7 

.5 

.4 

.3 



More detailed information concerning the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission, and value of property stolen may 
be found in tables 5-7. 

Most of the police departments forwarding crime reports to the 
FBI divided offenses of larceny into two groups, those in which the 
value of the property stolen was $50 or more, and those in which the 
value was less than $50. There is presented below a separate com- 
pilation of that information as reported by 86 police departments of 
cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants: 





Larceny 


—theft 


Population group 


Larceny 


-theft 


Population group 


$50 and 
over in 
value 


Under 

$50 in 
value 


$50 and 
over in 
value 


Under 
$50 in 
value 


31 cities over 250,000; total 
population, 19,643,700: 
Number of offenses 


5,730 
29.2 


37,304 
189.9 


55 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; 

total population, 7,586,612: 

Number of offenses 

known.. 

Rate per 100,000 


1,687 
22.2 


16, 207 


Rate per 100,000 


213.6 



There were 60,928 larcenies classified according to the value of the 
property involved, and the preceding figures reveal that 7,417 (12.2 
percent) were cases in which the value of the property exceeded $50. 

(3) 



Table 1. 



-Offenses known to the police, January to March, inclusive, 1988; number 
and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 



[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Censusl 



Population group 



36 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 29,375,600: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP II 

57 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,850,312: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP III 

89 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 6,025,944: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP IV 

154 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 5,348,039: 

Number of offenses known :.. 

Rate per 100,000 _■ 



454 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 7,041,694: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP VI 

1,095 cities under 10,000; 
population, 5,750,982: 
Number of offenses known 
Rate per 100,000 



total 



Total 1,885 cities; total population, 
61,392,571: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Criminal homi 
cide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



392 
1.3 



144 

l.s 



53 
1.0 



72 
1.0 



72 
1.3 



823 
1.3 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



'424 
1.5 



3 99 
1.3 



57 
0.9 



42 
0.8 



29 
0.4 



39 
0.7 



<690 
1.2 



Rape 



753 
2.6 



103 
1.3 



62 
1.2 



114 
1.6 



116 
2.0 



1,244 
2.0 



Rob- 
bery 



7,207 
24.5 



1,322 
16.8 



948 
15.7 



547 
10.2 



571 
8.1 



397 
6.9 



10, 992 
17.9 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



3,068 
10.4 



1.000 
12.9 



745 
12.4 



490 
9.2 



554 
7.9 



402 
7.0 



5 6, 259 
10.2 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



2 22, 635 
101.9 



8,564 
109. 1 



6,124 
101.6 



4,861 
90.9 



4,673 
66.4 



3,462 
60.2 



s 50, 319 
92.8 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



2 48, 892 
220.0 



18, 474 
235.3 



13, 662 
226.7 



11,340 
212.0 



11, 538 
163.9 



6, 657 
115.8 



8 110,563 
203.8 



Auto 
theft 



13, 434 
60.5 



55.9 



2,943 

48.8 



2,352 
44.0 



2,139 
30.4 



1,330 
23.1 



26, 586 
49.0 



1 The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports of 34 cities with a 
total population of 27,647,400. 

2 The number of offenses and rate for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on reports of 35 cities with 
a total population of 22,221,300. 

3 The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence and aggravated assault are based on 
reports of 56 cities with a total population of 7,726,812. 

4 The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports of 1,882 cities with a 
total population of 59,540,871. 

6 The number of offenses and rate for aggravated assault are based on reports of 1,884 cities with a total 
population of 61,269,071. 

6 The number of offenses and rate for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on reports of 1,884 cities 
with a total population of 54,238,271. 



Annual Trends, Offenses Known to the Police, 1931-38. 

Annual variations in the number of crimes committed during the 
first quarters of the years 1931-38 are presented in table 2. The data 
are based on reports received from 68 cities representing a total popu- 
lation of 19,063,102. Robbery, burglary, and larceny offenses dis- 
close an increase as compared with 1937. Auto theft was the only 
offense against property which reflects a decrease in 1938. 

The data shown in table 2 are also presented in figure 1 . 



Table 2. — Annual trends, offenses knoion to the police, 68 cities over 100,000 in 
population, January to March, inclusive, 1981-88 

[Total population, 19,003,102, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 




Year 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Number of offenses known: 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 


357 
363 
380 
315 
343 
295 
321 
300 

4.0 
4.0 
4.2 
3.5 
3.8 
3.2 
3.6 
3.3 


352 
303 
229 
315 
226 
181 
287 
196 

3.9 
3.3 
2.5 
3.5 
2.5 
2.0 
3.2 
2.2 


276 
286 
305 
301 
336 
311 
403 
402 

3.1 
3.1 
3.4 
3.3 
3.7 
3.4 
4.5 
4.5 


5,694 
5,234 
5,168 
3,946 
3,657 
3,138 
3,580 
3,965 

63.3 
57.5 
57.4 
43.8 
40.6 
34.5 
39.8 
44.1 


2,213 
1,953 
2,278 
2,146 
2,145 
2,182 
2,257 
2,070 

24.6 
21.5 
25.3 
23.8 
23.8 
24.0 
25.1 
23.0 


17,520 
19, 213 
19, 093 
18, 671 
18, 571 
16, 097 

17, 224 

18, 551 

194.7 
211.1 
212.1 
207.5 
206.3 
176.9 
191.4 
206.1 


36, 612 
36, 556 
38,711 

39, 724 

40, 683 
36,963 
42, 117 
45, 169 

406.8 
401.7 
430.1 
441.4 
452.0 
406.2 
468.0 
501.9 


21, 560 
18, 492 
16, 993 
14, 077 
14, 474 
11,471 


1937 


12, 671 


1938 


11,061 


Daily average: 

1931 


239.6 


1932... 


203.2 


1933... 


188.8 


1934 . . 


156.4 


1935 


160.8 


1936 


126.1 


1937 


140.8 


1938 


122.9 







CO 

o 



UJ o 

— o 

I l H 

or 

&" CO 

UJ 
. U - 

Ixlzct: 

2pS 



3= ,• 

ccrg | 

• ^: • 
P* 

UJ 

■■-»§'*' 

uli 



< 




Data for Individual Cities With More than 100,000 Inhabitants. 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the first quarter of 1938 is shown in table 3. The compilation has 
been limited to the reports received from police departments in cities 
with more than 100,000 inhabitants. Such data are included here in 
order that interested individuals and organizations may have readily 
available up-to-date information concerning the amount of crime 
committed in their communities. Police administrators and other 
interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare the 
crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in table 1 of 
this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire to make com- 
parisons with the figures for their communities for prior periods, in 
order to determine whether there has been an increase or a decrease 
in the amount of crime committed. 

With reference to the possibility of comparing the amount of crime 
in one city with the amount of reported crime in other individual 
communities, it is suggested that such comparisons be made with a 
great deal of caution, because differences in the figures may be due to 
a great variety of factors. The amount of crime committed in a 
community is not chargeable to the police but is rather a charge 
against the entire community. The following is a list of some of the 
factors which might affect the amount of crime in a community: 
The composition of the population with reference particularly to age, 
sex, and race; the economic status and activities of the population; 
climate; educational, recreational, and religious facilities; the number 
of police employees per unit of population; the standards governing 
appointments to the police force; the policies of the prosecuting 
officials and the courts; the attitude of the public toward law enforce- 
ment problems. Comparisons between the crime rates of individual 
cities should not be made without giving consideration to the above- 
mentioned factors. It should be noted that it is more important to 
determine whether the figures for a given community show increases 
or decreases in the amount of crime committed than to ascertain 
whether the figures are above or below those of some other community. 

In examining a compilation of crime figures for individual com- 
munities it should be borne in mind that in view of the fact that the 
data are compiled by different record departments operating under 
separate and distinct administrative systems, it is entirely possible 
that there may be variations in the practices employed in classifying 
complaints of offenses. On the other hand, the crime reporting 
manual has been distributed to all contributors of crime reports and 
the figures received are included in this bulletin only if they apparently 
have been compiled in accordance with the provisions of the manual, 
and the individual department has so indicated. 



63421°— 38- 



Table 3.- 



-Number of offenses known to the police, January to March, inclusive, 
1938, cities over 100,000 in population 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 



Akron, Ohio 

Albany, N. Y 

Atlanta, Ga 

Baltimore, Md 

Birmingham, Ala 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Cambridge, Mass 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 

Chattanooga, Tenn 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Columbus, Ohio 

Dallas, Tex 

Dayton, Ohio 

Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Detroit, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 

Elizabeth, N. J 

El Paso, Tex 

Erie, Pa 

Evansville, Ind 

Fall River, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Fort Worth, Tex r _ 

Gary, Ind 

Grand Rapids, Mich 

Hartford, Conn 

Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii - 

Houston, Tex. -, 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Kansas City, Kans 

Kansas City, Mo 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Long Beach, Calif 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn 

Miami, Fla 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Nashville, Tenn 

Newark, N. J 

New Bedford, Mass 

New Haven, Conn 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N. Y 

Norfolk, Va 

Oakland, Calif 

Oklahoma City, Okla 

Omaha, Nebr 

Paterson, N. J 

Peoria, 111 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Oreg 

Providence, R. I 

Reading, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif 

Scranton, Pa 



49 

7 

151 

223 

51 

12" 

6 

42 

13 

11 

32 

35 

2,222 

156 

464 

135 

38 

46 

70 

12 

418 

12 

12 

31 

15 

9 

5 

55 

12 

25 

27 

27 

2 

12 

69 

174 

35 

37 

176 

18 

33 

468 

123 

1 

12 

105 

100 

10 

74 

42 

91 

13 

10 

28 

347 

52 

81 

69 

14 

16 

5 

274 

196 

73 

11 

5 

68 

15 

188 

37 

15 

70 

26 

157 



31 
10 
91 
170 
22 
33 



( 2 ) 



50 
1 

12 
8 

310 
66 
31 
15 
51 
13 
Id 



32 
3 
5 

33 

4 

9 

5 

44 

97 

43 

13 

19 

5 

9 

116 

99 

2 

1 

195 

222 

11 

22 

76 

113 

3 

4 

80 

682 

35 

24 

52 

13 

8 

3 

171 

55 

17 

7 

12 

96 

8 

37 

5 

5 

52 

3 

90 

14 



323 
36 

780 
768 
428 
272 
177 
239 
111 

10 
130 
156 
3,649 
711 
694 
716 
449 
188 
266 

92 
1,614 

28 

85 
213 

78 
106 
169 
171 
109 
240 

68 
177 
257 
215 
554 
635 
246 
167 
341 
107 
315 
2,318 
833 

88 
106 
352 
287 
147 
408 
154 
278 
153 
233 
175 
891 
256 
530 
288 

38 
165 

22 
556 
549 
668 
121 
107 
393 
180 
444 
206 
169 
424 
147 
722 
106 



53 

18 

191 

225 

101 

190 

30 

107 

16 

47 

9 

844 

211 
65 

169 
42 
19 
76 
36 

218 
23 
23 
23 
13 
3 
6 
45 
19 
19 
10 
16 
39 
27 
78 

455 

172 
20 
(•) 
37 
56 
1,114 

229 

7 

20 

33 

144 
50 

137 
(') 

118 
19 
36 
60 



( 2 ) 



0) 



0) 



19 
67 
16 
12 
21 
3 
195 
131 
226 
23 
23 
108 
30 

44 
10 
63 
16 

16 



302 
129 

1,265 
875 
364 
668 
177 
426 
133 
60 
214 
318 

2,680 

1,487 

2,882 
856 

1,996 
673 
453 
320 

5,116 
290 
170 
466 
60 
274 
77 
536 
417 
800 
118 
422 
392 
386 

1,685 
929 
727 
222 
590 
208 
611 

3,992 
746 
74 
195 
356 
570 
945 
708 
363 
972 
239 
233 
193 

( 2 ) 
399 
969 
804 
131 
49 
21 
556 
351 

1,358 
133 
168 

1,041 
319 

2,683 
293 
328 
445 
241 

2,103 
140 



1 Larcenies not separately reported. 

2 Not reported. 



Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



Table 3. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to March, inclusive, 
1988, cities over 100,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 







Bur- 


Larceny — theft 




Aggra- 


glary— 






Robbery 


vated 


breaking 








assault 


or enter- 


$50 and 


Under 






ing 


over 


$50 


60 


21 


803 


73 


910 


6 




23 


13 


36 


26 




97 


15 


86 


19 


18 


237 


91 


446 


4 


3 


93 


17 


202 


10 


1 


136 


19 


187 


8 




83 


12 


243 


11 


25 


85 


40 


212 


107 


20 


322 


97 


1,030 


10 


19 


160 


28 


231 


$4 


35 


307 


57 


604 


C 


1 


51 


23 


156 


197 


90 


584 


209 


1,840 


5 




61 


12 


74 


4 


5 


119 


15 


382 


5 


16 


137 


34 


202 


10 


23 


133 


53 


58 


1 


7 


45 


7 


91 


69 


13 


228 


19 


319 



Auto 
theft 



Seattle, Wash 

Somerville, Mass... 
South Bend, Ind... 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, Mass.. 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo, Ohio 

Trenton, N.J 

Tulsa. Okla 

Utica, N. Y 

Washington, D. C 
Waterbury, Conn._ 

Wichita, Kans 

Wilmington, Del— . 
Worcester, Mass... 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, Ohio. 



349 
35 
45 
40 
71 

108 
54 
30 

271 
30 
78 
33 

441 
45 
20 
49 

140 
60 

103 



Offenses Known in Territories and Possessions of the United States. 

In table 4 available data are shown concerning the number of 
offenses known to law-enforcement agencies in Territories and pos- 
sessions of the United States for the first 3 months of 1938. 

The table includes reports from Honolulu County, Territory of 
Hawaii, the Canal Zone, and Puerto Rico. The figures are based on 
both urban and rural areas and the population figures from the 1930 
decennial census are indicated in the table. 

Offense data for the city of Honolulu are shown in table 3. 

Table 4. — Number of offenses known in United States Territories and possessions, 
January to March, inclusive, 1988 

[Population figures from Federal census, Apr. 1, 1930] 





Criminal homi- 
cide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Larceny- 
theft 




Jurisdiction reporting 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Over 
$50 


Under 
$50 


Auto 

theft 


Hawaii: Honolulu County, pop- 
ulation, 65,341; number of of- 
fenses known ... 








1 

1 
8 


2 
406 


38 

21 
258 


4 

5 

21 


67 

78 
848 


10 


Isthmus of Panama: Canal Zone, 
population, 39,367; number of 
offenses known . ... 




1 
33 


22 


7 


Puerto Rico: Population, 1,543,- 
913; number of offenses known.. 


63 


13 



10 



Data From Supplementary Offense Reports. 

In tables 5-7 there are presented the more detailed data compiled 
from supplementary offense reports received from the police depart- 
ments of 36 cities with an aggregate population of 13,373,841. The 
period covered is the first quarter of 1938. 

Table 5 reveals that nearly one-half of the rapes reported were for- 
cible in nature. Of the 4,174 robberies reported, 2,220 (53.2 percent) 
were committed on city highways, and 1,703 (40.8 percent) were 
robberies of commercial establishments. 

The 36 police departments represented in the tabulation reported 
14,375 burglaries, almost one-half of which were committed in dwelling 
houses. With reference to the time of day the burglaries were per- 
petrated, it is shown that 77 percent were committed during the night, 
and 23 percent during the daytime. With reference to residences, 
however, the proportion of daytime burglaries was larger, amounting 
to 37 percent. 

The figures for larceny disclose that 13.5 percent were cases in which 
the property stolen exceeded $50 in value. In 64.4 percent of the 
cases the value of the property stolen was from $5 to $50, and was 
less than $5 in the remaining 22.1 percent of the larcenies. The tabu- 
lation also reflects that 1.1 percent of the thefts were cases of pocket- 
picking and that 3.9 percent were instances of purse-snatching. 

Table 5. — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission, and, value of property stolen, January to March, 
inclusive, 193S; 86 cities over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 13,373,841, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Classification 


Number 
of actual 
offenses 


Classification 


Number 
of actual 
offenses 


Rape: 

Forcible 

Statutory -- 


128 
164 


Larceny— theft (except auto theft), 
(grouped according to value of article 
stolen) : 
Over $50 






3,760 


Total 


292 


$5 to $50 


17, 947 






6,167 


Robbery: 

Highway 


2,220 
1,218 
398 
83 
101 
4 
150 


Total. 

Larceny — theft (grouped as to type of 
offense) : 


27, 874 












314 




Purse-snatching ... . ... 


1,089 


Miscellaneous - ... 


All other ... . ... 

Total . 


26, 471 


Total. . 


4,174 


27, 874 








Burglary — breaking or entering: 
Residence (dwelling) : 

Committed during night ... 

Committed during day. 


4,252 
2,465 

6,875 
783 




All other (store, 'office, etc.) : 

Committed during night ... 

Committed during day 








Total 


14, 375 





The figures presented in table 6 show that the police departments 
of the 36 cities represented reported 7,428 automobiles stolen during 
the first quarter of 1938, of which 7,077 were recovered. The per- 
centage of recoveries of stolen automobiles amounts to 95.3. 



11 

Table 6. — Recoveries of stolen automobiles, January to March, inclusive, 1988; 
36 cities over 100,000 in 'population 

[Total population, 13,373,841, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 

Number of automobiles stolen 7, 428 

Number of automobiles recovered 7, 077 

Percentage recovered J 95. 3 

The value of property stolen and the value of property recovered 
are shown in table 7, as reported by 36 police departments. The 
total value of property stolen was $5,541,558.50. Property recovered 
was valued at $3,507,458.22 (63.3 percent). Automobiles constitute 
more than one-half of the property represented in table 7. Exclusive 
of automobiles, the value of property stolen was $2,248,885, and the 
value of recoveries was $412,273.22 (18 percent). 



Table 7. — Value of properly stolen and value of property recovered with divisions 
as to type of property involved, January to March, inclusive, 1938; 36 cities over 
100,000 in population 

[Total population, 13,373,841, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Type of property 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



Value of prop- 
erty recovered 



Percent 
recovered 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Miscellaneous 

Total 



$509, (m. 4S 
456, 222. 45 
130, 655. 75 
336, 015. 64 
3, 292, 673. 50 
816, 291. 68 



$74, 934. 82 

77, 154. 89 

9, 629. 18 

58, 245. 60 

3, 095, 185. 00 

192, 308. 73 



14.7 
16.9 
7.4 
17.3 
94.0 
23.6 



5, 541, 558. 50 



3, 507, 458. 22 



63.3 



12 

ANNUAL RETURNS, 1937 

Under the system of uniform crime reporting provision is made for 
annual reports which provide data for the compilation of information 
concerning the number of offenses disposed of by arrest and the num- 
ber of persons taken into custody by the police. Comprehensive 
data for 1937 based on monthly crime reports were published in 
volume VIII, No. 4, of this publication. The following tabulations 
present information based on the annual reports for the calendar 
year 1937. 
Offenses Known and Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1937. 

In table 8 information is presented concerning the number of actual 
offenses known to have been committed and the number cleared by 
arrest during 1937. The figures are also presented for the cities 
divided into six groups according to size. 

The number of offenses listed as cleared by arrest indicates the 
number of crimes for each of which at least one of the offenders has 
been apprehended and made available for prosecution. In addition, 
the figures include cases cleared through exceptional circumstances, 
such as the suicide of the offender, the incarceration of the offender for 
another offense, etc. 

The figures also include offenses cleared by arrest during 1937 
which were committed during some prior year. The relationship 
between the number of offenses committed, the number of crimes dis- 
posed of by arrest and the number of persons held for prosecution is 
shown in table 9. The data in table 9 should be interpreted as follows : 

With reference to group I, 81 of each 100 murders committed were 
cleared by the arrest of 85 persons who were made available for prose- 
cution. 

Relative to the figures showing the percentage of offenses disposed 
of by arrest, it may be pertinent to note that there are instances in 
which the police clear the crimes by arresting the guilty individuals, 
but they are unable to take credit for such clearances in their statistical 
reports due to the fact that it is not possible for them to produce proof 
that the individuals arrested were responsible for the crimes and be- 
cause the persons arrested did not confess thereto, even though they 
had been convicted of one or more other violations. This factor 
would tend to cause the figures relative to offenses disposed of by 
arrest to be conservative. 

Portions of the data in table 9 are presented in figure 2. 



13 



Table 8. — Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and percentage of offenses 
cleared by arrest, 1987, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 




Population group 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


GROUP I 


















26 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 17,544,100: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest -.. 
Percentage cleared by arrest 


1,283 
1,044 
81.4 


857 

710 

82.8 


1,697 
1,311 
77.3 


17,612 

7. 5i is 
42.6 


7,480 

5,263 

70.4 


56, 935 

21, 830 

38.3 


142, 234 

34, 939 

24.6 


39, 493 

7,022 

17.8 


GROUP II 


















35 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 5,093,341: 
Number of offenses known . 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


241 

227 

94.2 


358 

299 

83.5 


361 

316 
87.5 


2,179 

747 

34.3 


2,386 
1,767 

74.1 


17, 552 

5,281 

30.1 


43, 347 

11,824 

27.3 


11,887 

2,357 

19.8 


GROUP III 


















58 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total popu- 
lation, 4,006,168: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


273 

252 

92.3 


164 

151 

92.1 


283 

245 

86.6 


1,830 

669 

36.6 


1,578 
1,264 
80.1 


14, 148 

4,008 

28.3 


34, 667 

8,604 

24.8 


8,218 
1,671 
20.3 


GROUP IV 


















98 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total popu- 
lation, 3,311,950: 
Number of offenses known.. .. 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


154 

146 

94.8 


112 

111 

99.1 


251 

231 

92.0 


1,079 
415 
38.5 


1,372 
1,166 
85.0 


10, 351 
2,953 
28.5 


28,401 

8,144 

28.7 


6,437 
1,388 
21.6 


GROUP V 


















277 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 4,325,101: 
Number of offenses known .-. 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


130 

112 

86.2 


139 

120 

86.3 


287 

268 

93.4 


1,109 

486 

43.8 


860 

795 

92.4 


10, 140 

3,065 

30.2 


28,260 

7,807 

27.6 


6,409 
1,844 
28.8 


GROUP VI 


















604 cities under 10,000; total popu- 
lation, 3,273,522: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


108 

95 

88.0 


126 

119 

94.4 


202 

177 

87.6 


794 
318 
40.1 


708 

612 

86.4 


6,633 

2,305 

34.8 


14, 765 

4,941 

33.5 


3,190 

1,128 
35.4 


Total, 1,098 cities; total population, 
37,554,182: 
Number of offenses known-- .. 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


2,189 
1,876 
85.7 


1,756 
1,520 
86.0 


3,081 
2,548 
82.7 


24,603 

10, 143 

41.2 


14,384 

10. 867 

75.5 


115,759 

39,442 

34.1 


291, 674 

76, 259 

26.1 


75, 634 

15, 410 

20.4 



14 



Table 9. — Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and persons charged {held for 
prosecution) , 1987, by population groups — number per 100 known offenses 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 

26 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 17,544,100: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GKOTJP II 

35 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 5,093,341: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP III 

58 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 4,006,168: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP IV 

98 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total popu- 
lation, 3,311,950: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP v 

277 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total popu 
lation, 4,325,101: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



604 cities under 10,000; total popu- 
lation, 3,273,522: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

TOTAL, GROUP I-VI 

1,098 cities; total population, 37,554,- 
182: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



100.0 
81.4 

85.2 



100.0 
94.2 
94.2 



100.0 
92.3 
96.0 



100.0 
94.8 
95.5 



100.0 
86.2 
72.3 



100.0 
88.0 
91.7 



100.0 
85.7 
87.8 



Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 



100.0 
82.8 
124.3 



100.0 
83.5 
97.8 



100.0 
92.1 

101.8 



100.0 
99.1 
96.4 



100.0 
86.3 
89.9 



100.0 
94.4 
97.6 



100.0 
86.0 
110.4 



Rape 



100.0 
77.3 

75.5 



100.0 
89.2 
93.9 



100.0 
86.6 

88.7 



100.0 
92.0 
91.6 



100.0 
93.4 
98.6 



100.0 
87.6 
90.1 



100.0 
82.7 
82.8 



Rob- 
bery 



100.0 
42.6 
32.3 



100.0 
34.3 
42.8 



100.0 
36.6 
32.7 



100.0 
38.5 
44.6 



100.0 
43.8 
50.7 



100.0 
40.1 



100.0 
41.2 
35.2 



Aggra- 
vated 



sault 



100.0 
70.4 
71.0 



100.0 
74.1 
71.5 



100.0 
80.1 
96.6 



100.0 
85.0 
91.5 



100.0 
92.4 
92.1 



100.0 
86.4 
86.6 



100.0 
75.5 
77.9 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



100.0 
38.3 
24.6 



100.0 
30.1 

21.5 



100.0 
28.3 
19.2 



100.0 
28.5 
24.1 



100.0 
30.2 

24.7 



100.0 
34.8 
31.1 



100.0 
34.1 

23.8 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



100.0 
24.6 
20.7 



100.0 
27.3 
26.3 



100.0 
24.8 
20.4 



100.0 
28.7 
25.1 



100.0 
27.6 
24.1 



100.0 
33.5 

29.7 



100.0 
26.1 
22.7 



15 




63421°— 38- 



17 

Persons Charged (Held for Prosecution), 1937. 

The information contained in tables 8 and 9 was based on annual 
police reports for 1937. They deal with the number of offenses com- 
mitted, the number disposed of by arrest of the offender and the rela- 
tion between such figures and those showing the number of persons 
arrested and held for prosecution. Tables 10 and 11 show the number 
of persons arrested by the police and made available for prosecution 
for all types of violations of State laws and municipal ordinances. The 
data are presented according to size of city and the number of arrests 
per 100,000 inhabitants. 

Those desiring to employ the data relative to persons charged should 
note that the figures represent the number of persons arrested and not 
the number of charges placed against such persons. For example, if "a 
person commits a robbery on each of three different days and is sub- 
sequently taken into custody and charged with those crimes, the re- 
ports will show three offenses of robbery committed, three disposed of 
by arrest and one person held for prosecution for robbery. 

Table 10, showing a percentage distribution, reflects that the ma- 
jority of persons arrested and charged by the police were prosecuted 
for minor violations. Of the 4,149,622 persons listed in table 11, it 
was found that 64 percent (2,653,923) were charged with traffic and 
motor vehicle violations, 15.1 percent (625,691) with drunkenness and 
3.9 percent (162,597) with disorderly conduct. 

However, a large number of arrests were for serious crimes as 
reflected bv the following figures : 



Stolen property (receiving, 

etc.) 4,113 

Forgery and counterfeiting 4, 270 

Rape 2,550 

Narcotic drug laws 2,700 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 6, 359 



Murder 1, 922 

Manslaughter by negligence 1, 938 

Robbery 8,656 

Aggravated assault 11, 200 

Burglary 27, 632 

Larceny 66, 684 

Auto theft 12, 224 

Embezzlement and fraud 8,618 Total__ . 158,866 

The above figures were limited to reports of the police departments 
of 1,098 cities with a combined population of 37,554,182. It should be 
noted that summonses or police notices were frequently used in lieu 
of arrests, particularly in connection with violators of traffic regula- 
tions. 

In a very small number of the reports received from police agencies 
the data for two or more classifications were presented in a single 
figure. In such instances the arrests were distributed among the 
several classifications in the ratio in which they occurred in the reports 
received from the remaining police agencies in the same population 
group. 



18 



Table 10. — Percentage distribution of persons charged {held for -prosecution), 1937 
[1,098 cities; total population, 37,554,182] 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man 
slaughter 

(6) Manslaughter by negligence 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Other assaults 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, pos 

sessing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 



Percent 


0.05 


.05 


.21 


.27 


1.25 


.67 


1.61 


.29 


.21 


.10 


.10 


.06 



Offense charged 



Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against the family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

All other offenses 

Total 



Percent 



1.11 

.25 
.07 
.15 
.53 
.53 

1.02 
63.95 

3.91 
15.07 

1.98 

5.24 



100. 00 



Table 11. — Persons charged {held for prosecution), 1937, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by popidation groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man- 
slaughter: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

( 6 ) Manslaughter by negligence: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary — breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possess- 
ing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 




1,093 
6.2 



1,065 
6.1 



32.4 



5,311 
30.3 



23, 671 
134.9 



14,016 
79.9 



29, 460 
167.9 



5,732 
32.7 



4,861 
27.7 



1, 956 
11.1 



1,536 



1,282 
7.3 



36, 039 
205.4 



Group 
II 



2 ft? 



',3,-r O 

•s°>-2 



227 
4.5 



350 
6.9 



932 
18.3 



1,705 
33.5 



8,804 
172.9 



3,846 
75.5 



11,838 
232.4 



1,720 
33.8 



1,156 
22.7 



694 
13.6 



714 
14.0 



322 
6.3 



6,906 
135.6 



Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


B* 


° cb 


See 


S3 c« 


o3» 




o go 




dag 


to ftl3 


2 &K 


ftg 


agrf 


So" 


So*" 


So" 


■H°-a 


.Jo - 


28 a" 


'Sgc 


"So. 2 


o o".2 


°>a3 


o-.2 




















en 


C-) 




262 


147 


94 


99 


6.5 


4.4 


2.2 


3.0 


167 


108 


125 


123 


4.2 


3.3 


2.9 


3.8 


599 


481 


562 


394 


15.0 


14.5 


13.0 


12.0 


i 1, 524 


1,255 


792 


613 


38.6 


37.9 


18.3 


18.7 


5,417 


6,139 


4,909 


2,985 


135.2 


185.4 


113.5 


91.2 


2,719 


2,490 


2,501 


2,060 


67.9 


75.2 


57.8 


62.9 


7,056 


7,134 


6,818 


4,378 


176.1 


215.4 


157.6 


133.7 


1,090 


1, 153 


1,536 


993 


27.2 


34.8 


35.5 


30.3 


753 


749 


660 


439 


18.8 


22.6 


15.3 


13.4 


393 


408 


340 


322 


9.8 


12.3 


7.9 


9.8 


458 


576 


490 


496 


11.4 


17.4 


11.3 


15.2 


251 


230 


283 


182 


6.3 


6.9 


6.5 


5.6 


1,116 


1,200 


571 


384 


27.9 


36.2 


13.2 


11.7 



1,922 
5.1 



1,938 
5.2 



8,656 
23.0 



U 1,200 
29.9 



51, 925 
138.3 



27, 632 
73.6 



66, 684 
177.6 



12, 224 
32.6 



8,618 
22.9 



4,113 
11.0 



4,270 
11.4 



2,550 
6.8 



46, 216 
123.1 



19 



Table 11. — Persons charged (held for prosecution) , 1937, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution) 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 

I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


03 

-is 00 


>~ o 

2 5" 

•| g^ 

g.2 


°.o m - 
o S.5 
So 

»§» 

.2= a 
■3 §.2 


lis 

o ftS 

•3 S.J 

00 


Sis 
o"3g 
o o °2. 

Ȥ - 

3 o a 

'5 o .2 

00 
03 


sis 

O r< lO 
CO 

58d 

°U5.2 

r^ cn +- 


P.J2 

.2 . 4S 

•.So™ 

"3 8 a 

o\2 


.2 *° 

CO CO 

00 £ 

o3 

~3 g 

o 

E- 


5,345 
30.5 


1, 306 
25.6 


1,255 
31.3 


1,029 
31.1 


986 
22.8 


523 
16.0 


10, 444 
27.8 


1,996 
11.4 


305 
6.0 


207 
5.2 


66 
2.0 


60 

1.4 


66 
2.0 


2,700 
7.2 


3,198 
18.2 


856 
16.8 


807 
20.1 


662 
20.0 


437 
10.1 


399 
12.2 


6,359 
16.9 


311,749 
68.0 


i 3, 963 
85.3 


1,552 
38.7 


1,999 
60.4 


1,685 
39.0 


919 
28.1 


« 21, 867 
59.4 


8,559 
48.8 


« 4, 433 
91.4 


2,823 
70.5 


2, 663 
80.4 


1,883 
43.5 


1,428 
43.6 


7 21, 789 
58.4 


s 11, 768 
70.4 


5,487 
107.7 


5,142 
128.4 


5, 245 
158.4 


7,402 
171.1 


7,147 
218.3 


• 42, 191 
114.8 


1CI I,490,S45 
10, 099. 8 


"384,910 
8, 276. 


269, 484 
6, 726. 7 


210, 881 
6, 367. 3 


180, 004 
4,161.8 


117,799 
3, 598. 5 


'22,653,923 
7, 730. 9 


82, 860 
472.3 


21,617 

424.4 


15,020 
374.9 


12,603 
380.5 


17,292 
399.8 


13, 205 
403.4 


162, 597 
433.0 


297, 445 
1, 695. 4 


96,042 
1, 885. 6 


53,814 
1, 343. 3 


r,t.'.ir.s 
1,961.6 


63, 392 
1, 465. 7 


50, 030 
1,528.3 


625, 691 
1,666.1 


39, 559 
225.5 


12, 919 
253.6 


10,230 
255.4 


5,692 
171.9 


8,373 
193.6 


5,291 
161.6 


82, 064 
218.5 


36, 803 
209.8 


5,442 
106.8 


5,024 
125.4 


2,765 
83.5 


2,798 
64.7 


1,796 
54.9 


54,628 
145.5 


115, 245 
656.9 


39, 352 
772.6 


17,268 
431.0 


21,854 
659.9 


14,843 
343.2 


8,859 
270.6 


217, 421 
579.0 



I-' 2 The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports from the number of cities indi- 
cated below: 



Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


1 


57 

1,097 

25 

33 


3, 948, 768 
37, 496, 782 
17, 266, 100 

4, 648, 441 


5 

6 


1,095 
34 

1,097 
25 


36, 831, 282 
4, 849, 841 
37, 310, 682 
16, 727, 000 


9 


1,097 
23 
32 

1,092 


36, 737, 082 


2 


10 

11 

12 


14, 761, 200 


3 


7 


4, 650, 944 


4 


8 


34, 328, 885 









Most of the police departments presented in their reports detailed 
information concerning the nature of the traffic violations with which 
persons were charged. This information is included in table 12 and is 
based upon the number of reports indicated in the table. 

The types of violations to be included in each of the classes pre- 
sented in table 12 are as follows: 

Violation of road and driving laws includes violations of regulations 
with respect to the proper handling of a vehicle in order to prevent 
accidents. Examples are failure to obey traffic signal, improper 
speed, reckless driving, and operating with unsafe equipment. 



20 

Parking violations include all types of violations of parking regula- 
tions. 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws include violations not provided 
for in separate offense classes. Examples of cases to be listed here 
are failure to secure proper license for car or for driving, leaving scene 
of accident, lack of title, and obscured or defective markers. 

The traffic infractions represented in table 12 were distributed as 
follows: Parking violations, 58.8 percent; violation of road and driv- 
ing laws, 27.9 percent; other traffic and motor vehicle laws, 13.3 per- 
cent. 

Table 12. — Persons charged (held for prosecution) , traffic violations, except driving 
while intoxicated, 1937; number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population 
groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Group 
I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


Total, 


Offense charged 


21 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

13,347,800 


27 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
3,905,044 


52 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
3,607,979 


91 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
3,086,186 


265 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
4,115,168 


592 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

3,202,639 


1,048 
cities; 
total 
popula- 
tion, 
31,264,816 


Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


400, 997 
3, 004. 2 

744, 708 
5, 579. 3 

155, 639 
1, 166. 


50, 684 
1, 297. 9 

210, 799 
5, 398. 1 

33, 914 

868.5 


66, 068 
1, 831. 2 

161, 033 
4, 463. 2 

31, 946 

885.4 


39, 455 
1, 278. 4 

138, 727 
4, 495. 1 

27, 775 
900.0 


56, 210 
1, 365. 9 

87, 096 
2, 116. 5 

30, 198 
733.8 


42, 877 
1, 338. 8 

37, 749 
1, 178. 7 

32. 661 
1, 019. 8 


656, 291 
2, 099. 1 


Parking violations: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


1,380,112 
4, 414. 3 


Other traffic and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 


312, 133 
998.4 







Offenses Known, Offenses Cleared by Arrest, and Persons Found Guilty, 
1937. 

The annual crime reports for the calendar year 1937 included in- 
formation concerning the number of persons found guilty. Com- 
pilations containing such information are presented in tables 13 and 
14. The tabulations are based on reports received from the police 
departments of 51 cities with a combined population of 11,890,710. 
Reports were used only if the data concerning persons found guilty 
were apparently compiled in accordance with the procedure outlined 
in the crime reporting manual. If all, or almost all, of the persons 
listed as held for prosecution were also shown as convicted, the report 
was not used in preparing the following compilations, because it was 
thought probable that there was some misunderstanding as to the 
nature of the information to be recorded. 

Table 13 contains information concerning the number of offenses 
known, the number cleared by arrest, the number of persons held 
for prosecution, and the number found guilty. Table 14 does not 
contain information concerning the number of offenses committed or 
the number of offenses disposed of by arrest, because under the system 
of uniform crime reporting such data are not collected for the part II 
offense classes. 

Persons found guilty are subdivided as to whether they were con- 
victed of the offense charged or of a less serious offense. A lesser 



21 

offense is one which bears a less severe penalty. The figures concern- 
ing those found guilty of a lesser offense include those convicted of a 
less serious offense within the same class or of a less serious offense in a 
different class. 

The figures in table 13 show that there were 33,232 persons held for 
prosecution for part I classes. There were 18,378 (55.3 percent) 
found guilty of the offense charged, and 4,813 (14.5 percent) found 
guilty of a lesser offense, making a total of 23,191 (69.8 percent) 
found guilty. Table 14 shows that there were 1,084,953 persons held 
for prosecution for part II classes and that 781,741 (72.1 percent) 
were found guilty of the offense charged, and 4,345 (0.4 percent) were 
found guilty of a lesser offense, making a total of 786,086 (72.5 per- 
cent) found guilty. 



Table 13. — Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and number of persons found 
guilty, 1937 ; 51 cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 11,890,710, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense 
(Part I classes) 



Number 

of offenses 

known 

to the 


Number 

of offenses 

cleared 

by arrest 


Number 

of persons 

charged 

(held for 


Number 
found 

guilty of 
offense 


Number 
found 

guilty of 
lesser 


Total 
found 

guilty (of 
offense 

charged 


police 


tion) 


charged 


offense 


or lesser 

offense) 


701 


554 


614 


186 


123 


309 


576 


457 


617 


155 


31 


186 


1,204 


856 


833 


273 


141 


414 


12, 055 


4,921 


2,960 


1,402 


614 


2,016 


4,938 


3,146 


3,272 


1,304 


463 


1,767 


37, 696 


14, 081 


6,159 


2,688 


1,756 


4,444 


100, 229 


23, 301 


16, 059 


10,839 


1,351 


12,190 


20, 758 


4,327 


2,718 


1,531 


334 


1,865 



Percent- 
age found 
guilty 



Criminal homicide: 

(o) Murder . and nonnegli- 

gent manslaughter 

(b) Manslaughter by negli- 
gence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering- 
Larceny— theft (except auto 

theft) 

Auto theft 



50.3 

30.1 
49.7 
68.1 
54.0 
72.2 

75.9 



Table 14.— Number of persons charged (held for prosecution) and number found 
guilty, 1937; 51 cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 11,890,710, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense 
(Part II classes) 



Number 
of persons 
charged 
(held for 
prosecu- 
tion) 



Number 
found 

guilty of 
offense 

charged 



Number 
found 

guilty of 
lesser 
offense 



Total 

found 

guilty (of 

offense 

charged 

or of 

lesser 

offense) 



Percent- 
age found 
guilty 



Other assaults 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Sex offenses (including prostitution and commercial 

ized vice) 

Offenses against the family and children 

Narcotic drug laws 

Liquor laws . 

Drunkenness; disorderly conduct and vagrancy 

Gambling 

Driving while intoxicated 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws... 

All other offenses 



13, 001 

801 

3,467 

1,002 

1,660 

i 11,695 

8,006 

757 

5,088 

174, 104 

13,915 

8,034 

2 802, 010 

41,413 



6,590 
466 

1,482 

425 

- 1,015 

i 5, 716 

3,977 

441 

3,212 

108, 644 

5,058 

5,916 

2 621, 648 

17, 151 



102 
142 
302 
88 
83 

i 124 

176 

40 

21 

288 

129 

445 

M59 

1,946 



6,692 
608 

1,784 
513 

1,098 

15,840 

4,153 

481 

3,233 

108, 932 

5,187 

6,361 

2 622, 107 

19, 097 



51.5 
75.9 
51.5 
51.2 
66.1 

149.9 
51.9 
63.5 
63.5 
62.6 
37.3 
79.2 

2 77.6 
46.1 



1 Based on reports of 50 cities with a total population of 11,060,410. 

2 Based on reports of 49 cities with a total population of 9,925,710. 



22 

In several instances the offense classes in table 14 are not identical 
with those in table 11. This is due to the fact that some of the 
reports did not include separate figures for the classes which have been 
consolidated in table 14. 

Persons Released (Not Held for Prosecution), 1937. 

The annual report concerning persons dealt with by the police pro- 
vides for a listing of the number of persons taken into custody who 
were released without any formal charge having been placed against 
them. Information of this type based on reports received from police 
departments of 613 cities with a total population of 15,286,656 is 
presented in table 15. The number of cities represented is substan- 
tially less than in table 1 1 because the reports were excluded if there 
were no entries in the column devoted to this type of data or if the 
entries appeared to be incomplete. 

The figures in the following table include persons who were taken 
into custody because it was thought they had been involved in the 
commission of crimes and who were later released either because it 
was found that they were innocent or because of insufficient evidence. 
Also, the table includes instances in which youthful persons were 
taken into custody but were released because the complaining wit- 
nesses refused to prosecute when they learned of the youth of the 
offender. Likewise, the compilation includes individuals who were 
taken into custody and released with a reprimand or on the "golden 
rule" principle. Persons summoned, notified, or cited to appear in 
court or at a police traffic bureau because of alleged violations, who 
failed to appear in response thereto, and who were not subsequently 
arrested, are also represented in table 15. Warning tags issued in 
some cities for minor violations of traffic regulations are also repre- 
sented in the following tabulation. 

With reference to the classification "suspicion," it should be noted 
that if a person was taken into custody because it was suspected that 
he had been involved in the commission of a specific offense, his arrest 
and subsequent release without being held for prosecution should be 
listed opposite the offense class involved. Entries in table 15 oppo- 
site "suspicion" should be limited to instances in which persons were 
taken into custody because of circumstances which caused the police 
to believe that they had been involved in criminal activities of some 
nature, although they were not taken into custody in connection with 
some specific offense. From an examination of the reports received, 
it appears probable that in some instances the entries were placed 
opposite "suspicion" when they would have been more properly listed 
opposite some other offense class in accordance with the foregoing 
explanation. 



23 



Table 15. — Persons released without being held for prosecution, 1937; number and 
rate -per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense 



Group 
I 



Group 
II 



§ |S 



Group 
III 



Group 
IV 



Group 
V 



.^ 9 c3 



Group 
VI 



Criminal homicide: 

(o) Murder and nonnegligent man- 
slaughter: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

(6) Manslaughter by negligence: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Bobbery: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Burglary— breaking or entering: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Larceny — theft: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possess- 
ing: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Bape: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution): 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons released 

Bate per 100,000 

63421"— 38 4 



203 
3.5 

558 



2,487 
43.1 



1,148 
19.9 



3,224 
55.9 



601 
10.4 



384 
6.7 



152 
2.6 



llll 

1.9 



196 
3.4 



5,378 
93.3 



136 
2.4 



140 
2.4 



203 
3.5 



i 191 
3.5 



748 
13.0 



130 
2.3 



* 60,020 
1, 577. 8 



3,117 
54.1 



39, 140 
678.8 



17 
1.1 



168 
10.6 



108 
6.8 



130 
8.2 



348 
21.9 



567 
35.8 



204 
12.9 



55 
3.5 



37 
2.3 



25 
1.6 



33 

2.1 



38 
2.4 



9 
0.6 



32 
2.0 



106 

7.7 



25 
1.6 



70 
4.4 



» 71,689 
6, 230. 6 



358 
22.6 



2,295 
144.7 



41 
2.1 



17 
0.9 



157 
8.1 



96 
5.0 



200 
10.3 



410 
21.2 



726 
37.5 



177 
9.2 



49 

2.5 



48 
2.5 



24 
1.2 



S'J 

4.6 



120 
6.2 



4 
0.2 



3 
0.2 



43 
2.5 



230 
13.1 



257 
14.6 



602 
34.3 



121 
6.9 



30 

1.7 



64 
3.6 



29 
1.7 



9 
0.5 



17 

l.i) 



83 
4.7 



37 
1.9 


3 
0.2 


29 
1.5 


35 
2.0 


97 
5.0 


93 
5.3 


65 
3.4 


66 
3.8 


114 
5.9 


106 
6.0 


26,813 
, 386. 4 


20, 633 
1, 175. 9 


502 
26.0 


505 
28.8 


10, 215 
528.2 


3,363 
191.7 



13 
0.6 



127 
5.6 



109 
4.8 



408 



613 
27.3 



1,288 
57.3 



234 
10.4 



75 
3.3 



3.4 



20 
0.9 



41 
1.8 



61 
2.7 



21 
0.9 



55 

2.4 



8.5 



115 
5.1 



37, 633 
1, 673. 7 

1,380 
61.4 

4,168 
185.4 



13 
0.7 



11 
0.6 



139 
7.0 



70 
3.5 



354 
17.7 



555 
27.8 



1,056 
52.8 



178 



93 
4.7 



75 
3.8 



3.5 



33 

1.7 



84 
4.2 



57 
2.9 



20 
1.0 



200 
10.0 



110 
5.5 



220 
11.0 



29,283 
1, 465. 3 



1,579 
79.0 



6,376 
319.1 



« 246,071 
1, 909. 



24 

Table 15. — Persons released without being held for prosecution, 1937; number and 
rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense 



Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


o~o 


§d§ 


§3* 


Sag 


8sa 


I-c ■ 


*n O 


° ft° 


°as 


°.P.§ 


©Q.^ 


"213=6 












asj 


;-, <5 


s ft £ 


«ftg? 


« »S 


-o.^ 


CO M io 


»o —i 
fflO . 
.So 

+JiO o 


o=l 

ao" o 
So o 


-o _r 

crt o ^ 
oiO •* 

Bo g 
■3S.0 


om.2 


as 

Bo ri 

'5op 

o-.S 






















Tt< 


to 


rH 


' H 






^ 


CO 


468 


1,472 


438 


1,434 


1,135 


6,346 


8.1 


92.8 


22.6 


81.7 


50.5 


317.5 


11,876 


72 


124 


108 


99 


116 


206.0 


4.5 


6.4 


6.2 


4.4 


5.8 


37, 290 


2,539 


8,040 


4,401 


7,262 


5,404 


646.8 


160.1 


415.7 


250.8 


323.0 


270.4 


7,240 


3,101 


1,544 


1,490 


1,982 


1,872 


125.6 


195.6 


79.8 


84.9 


88.1 


93.7 



Vagrancy: 

Number of persons released 
Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons released 
Rate per 100,000 

Suspicion: 

Number of persons released 
Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons released 
Rate per 100,000 



11, 293 
73.9 



12, 395 
81.1 



64, 936 
424.8 



17, 229 
112.7 



1-6 The number of persons released and the rate are based on the reports from the number of cities indicated 
below: 



Footnote 


Cities 


Popula- 
tion 


Footnote 


Cities 


Popula- 
tion 


Footnote 


Cities 


Popula- 
tion 


1 


9 

11 


5, 487, 700 
1, 384, 109 


3 


611 
8 


14, 807, 256 
3, 804, 000 


5 

6 


9 
608 


1, 150, 600 


2 


4 


12, 890, 056 







As previously indicated, some of the reports listed all types of vio- 
lators of traffic laws (except driving while intoxicated) in a single 
figure. In table 16 there are presented data for three types of viola- 
tions of traffic laws based on reports which were apparently correctly 
prepared in that respect. The nature of the violations included in 
each class is the same as indicated in the comment preceding table 12. 



25 

Table 16. — Persons released without being held for 'prosecution, traffic violations, 
except driving while intoxicated, 1937; number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, 
by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 






I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


3 

a 






o 


o 


o 






a 




a 

o 
ex 
















8*8 


o"2 
o M . 


SfS? 




M 


C3 t^ 


































Offense 


CN CN 


O CN 


2°l 
So 


3d 


■WOO 

o „ 


■fliH 

3 9 


.2oT 






o 3 


o-2 


>o.2 






c 




















OS 


rH 3 


8 3 


» 2 


a> 3 


+3 3 


U3 




.2~^ 


a> o 

3 a 


•2 a 
u a 


•2 a 

.- O 

« a 


^> a 
"3 g 


■s a 
o 


"3 




































o 




'-' 


■*}> 


rt 


CO 




Road and driving laws: 


















14,711 


9,888 


2,101 


2,105 


2,635 


6,573 


38, 013 


Rate per 100,000 


576.4 


1, 073. 1 


170.9 


134.9 


144.4 


3S8. 5 


388.7 


Parking violations: 






43, 992 


61, 133 


22, 680 


13,991 


32, 368 


16, 040 


190, 204 


Rate per 100,000 


1, 723. 8 


6, 634. 8 


1, 844. 9 


896.4 


1, 774. 3 


948.0 


1,944.9 


Other traffic and motor vehicle laws: 






652 


600 


1,652 


3,733 


2,573 


6, 124 


15, 334 


Rate per 100,000 


25.5 


65.1 


134.4 


239.2 


141.0 


361.9 


156.8 







Percentage of Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1934-37. 

There is presented in table 17 comparative data concerning the pro- 
portion of offenses cleared by arrest for the years 1934-37. The fig- 
ures are based on reports received from the police departments of 46 
cities with a combined population of 16,777,615. The compilation 
shows that the proportion of cleared cases of auto theft increased for 
each of the years represented. For larceny and robbery the highest 
proportion of clearances occurred in 1935. However, in the case of 
robbery the proportion of clearances in 1937 is higher than that shown 
for 1934. For burglary the highest proportion of offenses cleared 
occurred in 1936 although the 1937 figure is higher than that shown 
for each of the first two years represented in the table. For the re- 
maining types of crimes (classed as offenses against the person), the 
variation in the figures is rather irregular. 



Table 17. — Percentage of offenses cleared by arrest, 1934-37 
[46 cities over 100,000, total population 16,777,615, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny — 

theft 




Year 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


1934.. 


79.5 
83.5 
79.3 
80.0 


77.7 
65.1 
71.6 
79.0 


77.5 
69.1 
70.8 
73.9 


35.5 

47.9 
44.1 
39.7 


64.8 
62.4 
63.3 
65.8 


127.9 
132.8 
136.7 
135.4 


2 23.3 
2 24.9 
2 23.8 
2 22. 1 


3 11.9 


1935 


3 14.8 


1936 


3 16.5 


1937 


3 17.1 







• The data for burglary are based on reports of 45 cities with a total population of 16,620,615. 

2 The data for larceny — theft are based on reports of 43 cities with a total population of 16,221,481. 

3 The data for auto theft are based on reports of 41 cities with a total population of 12,229,915. 



26 

Offenses Known, Offenses Cleared by Arrest, and Persons Charged, by 
Geographic Divisions, 1937. 

The preceding tables showed cities divided into six groups accord- 
ing to size. The information presented in tables 18-37 is based on 
the same reports. However, the cities have been divided into nine 
groups according to location. It will, therefore, be possible to 
furnish some basis for estimating the approximate amount of minor 
crimes in each of the nine geographic sections of the United States. 

In examining the tabulations relative to the proportion of offenses 
cleared by arrest, it should be noted that in some of the geographic 
divisions the total number of cities represented is quite low. This is 
particularly noticeable in the tables where the cities are divided 
according to size within each geographic division. Variances may be 
partially attributable to a failure to maintain a complete record of 
offenses cleared. Inadequate personnel would cause a tendency 
toward low figures. Figures shown for prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice may be considered conservative inasmuch as many jurisdic- 
tions treat charges for these violations as vagrancy, disorderly 
conduct, etc. 



27 



Table 18. — Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared 
by arrest, 1937, by geographic divisions 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 








Bur- 






















Geographic division 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


New England States 


















117 cities; total population, 3,947,479: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest.. . .. 
Percentage cleared by arrest 


56 

49 

87.5 


161 

153 
95.0 


315 

304 

96.5 


719 
412 
57.3 


446 
407 
91.3 


8,899 

3,347 

37.6 


18,918 
7,161 
37.9 


7,455 
1,609 
21.6 


Middle Atlantic States 


















293 cities; total population, 7,571,366: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


233 

201 

86.3 


352 

333 

94.6 


515 

490 

95.1 


1,913 

951 

49.7 


2,146 
1,849 
86.2 


12, 786 

4,790 

37.5 


25, 901 

8,605 

33.2 


10, 018 

2,136 

21.3 


East North Central States 


















283 cities; total population, 12,492,- 
822: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


















595 
461 

77.5 


492 
368 

74.8 


1,234 
850 
68.9 


12. 299 

4,714 

38.3 


4,580 

2,650 

57.9 


39, 376 

12, 457 

31.6 


98, 611 

19, 825 

20.1 


21, 268 

4,454 

20.9 


West North Central States 


















132 cities; total population, 4,187,718: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


199 

179 

89.9 


178 

157 

88.2 


199 

172 

86.4 


2,319 
998 
43.0 


691 

583 

84.4 


11,884 

5,021 

42.3 


33,917 

9,516 

28.1 


8,630 

2,185 

25.3 


South Atlantic States 


















57 cities; total population, 2,905,989: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


491 

441 

89.8 


136 
122 

89.7 


319 
291 
91.2 


3,282 
1,460 
44.5 


3,353 
2,783 
83.0 


14, 833 

5,015 

33.8 


35, 628 

11, 261 

31.6 


9,087 

1,241 

13.7 


East South Central States 


















17 cities; total population, 282,180: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


74 

67 

90.5 


44 

38 

86.4 


15 

11 

73.3 


140 

80 

57.1 


246 

217 

88.2 


1,055 
223 

21.1 


1,568 
707 

45.1 


476 

87 

18.3 


West South Central States 


















49 cities; total population, 2,451,273: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


394 

353 

89.6 


149 

142 

95.3 


191 

179 

93.7 


1,512 

661 

43.7 


1,942 
1,586 
81.7 


11, 035 

3,807 

34.5 


32, 281 

9,686 

30.0 


5,046 
1,487 
29.5 


Mountain States 


















42 cities; total population, 775,112: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


35 

31 

88.6 


15 

12 

80.0 


79 

69 

87.3 


489 

242 

49.5 


171 

157 

91.8 


3,356 
1,264 
37.7 


8,681 
2,788 
32.1 


2,170 
539 
24.8 


Pacific States 


















108 cities; total population, 2,940,243: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


112 

94 

83.9 


229 

185 

80.8 


214 

182 

85.0 


1,930 

625 

32.4 


809 

635 

78.5 


12, 535 

3,518 

28.1 


36, 169 

6,710 

18.6 


11, 484 
1,672 
14.6 



28 

Table 19. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1937, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by geographic divisions 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 
gent manslaughter: 
Number of persons 

charged 

Kate per 100,000 

(6) Manslaughter by neg- 
ligence: 
Number of persons 

charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary— breaking or entering 
Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny — theft: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 
Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, re- 
ceiving, possessing: 
Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 
Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice: 
Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and 
prostitution) : 
Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 
etc.: 
Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and 
children: 
Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100,000 

Footnotes at end of table. 



New 
Eng- 
land 
States 



44 
1.1 



205 
5.2 



523 
13.2 



403 
10.2 



4,388 
111.2 



3,217 

81.5 



6,459 
163.6 



1,440 
36.5 



407 
10.3 



518 
13.1 



318 
8.1 



327 
8.3 



532 
13.5 



2,518 
63.8 



133 
3.4 



295 

7.5 



3,943 
99.9 



Mid- 
dle 

Atlan- 
tic 

States 



I'd™. 



191 
2.5 



346 
4.6 



12.7 



1,924 
25.4 



12, 424 
164.1 



4,236 
55.9 



6,967 
92.0 



1,867 
24.7 



813 
10.7 



598 
7.9 



5.4 
520 



11, 584 
153.0 



1,358 
17.9 

176 
2.3 



926 
12.2 



3,459 
45.7 



East 
North 
Central 
States 



.^3 ^ 



546 
4.4 



2,868 
23.0 



2,427 
19.4 



11,173 
89.4 



5,854 



14, 509 
116.1 



2,856 
22.9 



3,386 
27.1 



1,119 
9.0 



818 
6.5 



785 
6.3 



9,496 
76.0 



2,184 
17.5 



568 
4.5 



1,511 
12.1 



6,690 
53.6 



West 
North 
Cen- 
tral 

States 



o.o 
'-^ £.!> 

O O l-H 
<M Pith 



182 
4.3 



159 
3.8 



786 
18.8 



601 
14.4 



2,425 
57.9 



7,400 
176.7 



1,472 
35.2 



987 
23.6 



272 
6.5 



636 
15.2 



197 
4.7 



7,990 
190.8 



654 
15.6 



210 
5.0 



365 
8.7 



1,679 
40.1 



South 
Atlan- 
tic 

States 



.- 03 00 

.§■35 



486 
16.7 



346 
11.9 



1,782 
61.3 



1 3, 259 
114.4 



15, 243 
524.5 



5,562 
191.4 



12, 548 
431.8 



1,614 
55.5 



1,756 
60.4 



673 
23.2 



454 
15.6 



282 



5,334 
183.6 



156 
5.4 



1,522 
52.4 



4,632 
159.4 



East 
South 
Cen- 
tral 

States 



55 
19.5 



42 
14.9 



201 
71.2 



653 
231.4 



214 
75.8 



751 
266.1 



47 
16.7 



73 
25.9 



45 

15.9 



11 
3.9 



29 
10.3 



15 
5.3 



14 
5.0 



161 
57.1 



52 
18.4 



West 
South 
Central 
States 



332 
13.5 



116 
4.7 



779 
31.8 



1,631 
66.5 



3.688 
150.5 



3,277 
133.7 



10, 273 
419.1 



1,271 
51.9 



399 
16.3 



568 
23.2 



556 
22.7 



200 

8.2 



5,054 
206.2 



901 
36.8 



552 
22.5 



935 
38.1 



3 329 
19.0 



Moun- 
tain 

States 



S Pi'1 

•30K 



28 
3.6 



16 
2.1 



189 
24.4 



110 
14.2 



552 
71.2 



693 

89.4 



1,736 
224.0 



249 
32.1 



150 
19.4 



167 
21.5 



73 

9.4 



2 681 
141.3 



169 
21.8 



105 
13.5 



191 
24.6 



34 

4.4 



29 

Table 19. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1937, number and rate 
100,000 inhabitants, by geographic divisions — Continued 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



per 



Offense charged 



Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Numberof persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 



New 
Eng- 
land 

States 



674 
17.1 



4,185 
106.0 



« 137, 267 
3, 579. 4 



5,084 
128.8 



97, 176 
2, 461. 7 



1,528 
38.7 



4,456 
112.9 



15. 435 
391. 



Mid- 
dle 

Atlan- 
tic 

States 



3 o 

o.2 

£*§ 

•San 



1,941 
25.6 



4,944 
65.3 



386, 812 
5, 108. 9 



33, 046 
436.5 



90, 132 
1, 190. 4 



12, 994 
171.6 



4,577 
60.5 



43, 874 
579.5 



East 
North 
Central 

States 



5,111 
40.9 



11,800 
94.5 



846,807 
8, 178. 4 



34, 889 
279.3 



128,342 
1,027.3 



8,535 
68.3 



15, 159 
121.3 



45, 402 
363.4 



West 
North 
Cen- 
tral 

States 



■r ~ x - 

o o -h 



1,875 
44.8 



3,851 
92.0 



281, 754 
6, 728. 1 



14,728 
351.7 



47, 665 
1, 138. 2 



10, oos 
239.0 



1,987 
47.4 



19, 844 
473.9 



South 
Atlan- 
tic 

States 



299. 3 



6 5, 465 
201.6 



i 197, 440 
9, 451. 9 



43, 597 
1,500.2 



86, 742 
2, 984. 9 



5,702 
196.2 



7,458 
256. 6 



38, 038 
1,309.0 



East 
South 
Cen- 
tral 
States 






'■3 a". 

; 3 ai 



458 
162.3 



681 
241.3 



7,912 
, 803. 9 



1,981 
702.0 



7,803 
, 765. 3 



396 

Hii.:: 



455 
161.2 



2,257 
799.8 



West 
South 
Central 
States 



£ c 
c.2 

a 3 - 

'-3 as 

•3 o-r 

Go* 
OS 



4 2, 243 
101.6 



2,289 
93.4 



358, 978 
14,644.6 



14, 972 
610.8 



57, 802 
2, 358. 



11, 835 

482.8 



5.907 
241.0 



27, 969 
1,141.0 



Moun- 
tain 

States 






233 
30.1 



1,391 
179.5 



87, 559 
11, 296. 3 



6,403 
826.1 



16, 513 
2, 130. 4 



2 2, 779 

576.7 



499 
64.4 



4,436 
572.3 



Pacific 

States 



.S3" 

Sag 

o 001 

OO P,tN 



553 
18.9 



7,585 
258.0 



5 349,394 
12, 553. 5 



7,901 
268.7 



93, 516 
3, 180. 6 



27,317 
929.1 



14, 130 

480.6 



20, 166 
685.9 



i-s The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports of the number of cities indicated 
below: 



Footnote 


Cities 


Popula- 
tion 


Footnote 


Cities 


Popula- 
tion 


Footnote 


C ities 


Popula- 
tion 


1 


56 
41 
46 


2, 848, 589 

481,912 

1,728,373 


4 


48 
56 
116 


2, 207, 773 
2, 088, 889 
3, 834, 882 


7 


280 

107 


10, 354, 222 


2 


5 - 

6 


8. 


2, 783, 243 


3 











30 

Table 20. — Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared 
by arrest, 1937, by population groups 

NEW ENGLAND STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census! 





Criminal homicide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Population group 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Group I.— 2 cities over 250,000; to- 


















tal population, 1,042,500: 


















Number of offenses known. .. 


18 


73 


137 


380 


214 


1,785 


4,565 


3,227 


Number cleared by arrest 


15 


72 


137 


255 


210 


1,486 


3,284 


699 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


83.3 


98.6 


100.0 


67.1 


98.1 


83.2 


71.9 


21.7 


Group II— 8 cities, 100,000 to 250,- 


















000; total population, 1,051,831: 


















Number of offenses known 


7 


30 


52 


138 


141 


3,404 


7,022 


2,394 


Number cleared by arrest - 


7 


29 


51 


62 


112 


809 


1,667 


354 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


100.0 


96.7 


98.1 


44.9 


79.4 


23.8 


23.7 


14.8 


Group III— 5 cities, 50,000 to 100,- 


















000; total population, 344.802: 


















Number of offenses known 


7 


13 


27 


32 


12 


703 


1,161 


490 


Number cleared bv arrest 


6 


13 


27 


9 


12 


181 


281 


160 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


85.7 


100.0 


100.0 


28.1 


100.0 


25.7 


24.2 


32.7 


Group IV.— 15 cities, 25,000 to 50,- 


















000; total population, 506,392: 


















Number of offenses known 


4 


17 


18 


57 


28 


1,232 


2,418 


626 


Number cleared by arrest - - 


4 


16 


17 


12 


27 


328 


706 


128 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


100.0 


94.1 


94.4 


21.1 


96.4 


26.6 


29.2 


20.4 


Group V— 46 cities, 10,000 to 25,- 


















000; total population, 750,270: 


















Number of offenses known .. 


13 


24 


56 


102 


39 


1,391 


3,022 


586 


Number cleared by arrest 


13 


19 


50 


68 


35 


391 


908 


222 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


100.0 


79.2 


89.3 


66.7 


89.7 


28.1 


30.0 


37.9 


Group VI.— 41 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 251,684: 


















Number of offenses known . 


7 


4 


25 


10 


12 


384 


730 


132 


Number cleared by arrest .. _ 


4 


4 


22 


6 


11 


152 


315 


46 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


57.1 


100.0 


88.0 


60.0 


91.7 


39.6 


43.2 


34.8 


Total, 117 cities; total population, 


















3,947,479: 


















Number of offenses known 


56 


161 


315 


719 


446 


8,899 


18,918 


7,455 


Number cleared by arrest 


49 


153 


304 


412 


407 


3,347 


7,161 


1,609 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


87.5 


95.0 


96.5 


57.3 


91.3 


37.6 


37.9 


21.6 



Table 21. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1937, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

NEW ENGLAND STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Group 
I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 

V 


Group 
VI 


ft 
o 
a 


Offense charged 


IMS 

u£ 

> ftO 

° og 

:lg° 

OOi-t 
IM 


8 "oo 

~ ° — r 

2 ■-<=> 
o,_r 

rn O 

S°.d 
onS 

00 


Sea 

gas 

too™ 
•Jo- » 

"3 


O O.C-1 

° °S 

»o P.™ 
<M «5 

.!#! 

*= o a 

'B o\2 


o ^ 

o"3 
o ao 
° °fc 
d ra°l 

r-l o 

*j o O 
o o .3 

CM -w 

to 


Oft 
w ftoo 
.3 ,J° 
'■3 on 


. ^ 
.3 ^ 

ll 

—-"3 

o 


Murder, nonnegligent manslaughter: 


20 

1.9 

121 
11.6 

335 
32.1 


6 
0.6 

30 
2.9 

75 
7.1 


4 
1.2 

13 

3.8 

12 
3.5 


3 

0.6 

18 
3.6 

24 
4.7 


7 
0.9 

19 
2.5 

70 
9.3 


4 
1.6 

4 
1.6 

7 
2.8 


44 


Rate per 100,000 -- 


1.1 


Manslaughter by negligence: 


205 


Rate per 100,000. 


5.2 


Robbery: 


523 


Rate per 100,000 


13.2 



31 



Table 21. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1937, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

NEW ENGLAND STATES— Continued 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Group 
I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


198 
19.0 


108 
10.3 


18 
5.2 


25 
4.9 


41 
5.5 


13 
5.2 


1,546 
148.3 


1,224 
116.4 


248 
71.9 


314 
62.0 


806 
107.4 


250 
99.3 


1,618 
155.2 


602 
57.2 


164 
47.6 


322 
63.6 


370 
49.3 


141 
56.0 


2,870 
275.3 


1,551 

147.5 


275 
79.8 


586 
115.7 


841 
112.1 


336 

133.5 


632 
60.6 


320 
30.4 


116 
33.6 


102 
20.1 


227 
30.3 


43 
17.1 


187 
17.9 


132 
12.5 


3 
0.9 


30 
5.9 


46 
6.1 


9 
3.6 


309 
29.6 


99 
9.4 


19 
5.5 


20 
3.9 


49 
6.5 


22 
8.7 


194 
18.6 


55 
5.2 


5 
1.5 


15 
3.0 


20 
2.7 


29 
11.5 


156 
15.0 


50 
4.8 


23 
8.1 


15 
3.0 


56 
7.5 


22 

8.7 


246 
23.6 


194 
18.4 


1 
0.3 


71 
14.0 


9 
1.2 


11 
4.4 


1,411 
135.3 


421 
40.0 


129 
37.4 


198 
39.1 


259 
34.5 


100 
39.7 


105 
10.1 


22 
2.1 




4 
0.8 


1 

0.1 


1 
0.4 


187 
17.9 


46 
4.4 


7 
2.0 


22 
4.3 


24 
3.2 


9 
3.6 


1,408 
135.1 


1,180 
112.2 


162 
47.0 


388 
76.6 


606 
80.8 


199 
79.1 


191 
18.3 


246 
23.4 


24 
7.0 


81 
16.0 


91 
12.1 


41 
16.3 


774 
74.2 


837 
79.6 


296 
85.8 


652 

128.8 


1,124 

149.8 


502 
199.5 


48, 717 
4, 673. 1 


' 66, 575 
7,088 1 


4,339 
1, 258. 4 


6,836 
1, 349. 9 


8,561 
1, 141. 1 


2,239 
889.6 


1,170 
112.2 


2,349 
223.3 


80 
23.2 


687 
135.7 


636 

84.8 


162 
64.4 


51, 166 
4, 908. 


22, 416 
2, 131. 1 


4,682 
1, 357. 9 


7,211 
1, 424. 


9,212 
1, 227. 8 


2,489 
9S8.9 


279 
26.8 


544 
51.7 


121 
35.1 


226 
44.6 


267 
35.6 


91 
36.2 


2,176 
208.7 


917 
87.2 


387 
112.2 


274 
54.1 


526 
70.1 


176 
69.9 


4,463 

428.1 


3,977 
378.1 


1,066 
309.2 


2,395 
473.0 


2,904 
387.1 


630 
250.3 



Total 



Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary— breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000-. 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 - 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution): 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000... 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



403 
10.2 



4,388 
111.2 



3,217 
81.5 



6,459 
163.6 



1,440 
36.5 



407 
10.3 



518 
13.1 



318 
8.1 



327 
8.3 



532 
13.5 



2,518 
63.8 



133 
3.4 



295 
7.5 



3,943 



674 
17.1 



4,185 
106.0 



2 137, 267 
3, 579. 4 



5,084 
12S.8 



97, 176 
2, 461. 7 



1,528 
38.7 



4,456 
112.9 



15, 435 
391.0 



i-' The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports of the number of cities indicated 
below: ' 7 cities, 939,234 population; * 116 cities, 3,834,882 population. 



32 



Table 22. — Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared by 
arrest, 1937, by population groups 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 







Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Population gro 


JP 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Group I .—3 cities over 250,000; total 
population, 2,890,600: 

Number of offenses known . 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 

Group II.— 8 cities, 100,000 to 

250,000; total population, 1,112,800: 

Number of offenses known L . . 

Number cleared by arrest . 

Percentage cleared by arrest 

Group III.— 12 cities, 50,000 to 

100,000; total population, 876,600: 

Number of offenses known. _ _ 

Number cleared by arrest. 

Percentage cleared by arrest 

Group IV.— 18 cities, 25,000 to 
50,000; total population, 592,600: 
Number of offenses known 
Number cleared by arrest. ... 
Percentage cleared by arrest 

Group V.— 73 cities, 10,000 to 
25,000; total population, 1,161,184: 
Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 

Group VI.— 179 cities under 10,000; 
total population, 937,582: 
Number of offenses known ... 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 

Total, 293 cities; total population, 
7,571,366: 
Number of offenses known . . . 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest 


135 

113 

83.7 

12 

10 

83.3 

25 

24 

96.0 

16 

14 

87.5 

25 

22 

88.0 

20 

18 

90.0 

233 
201 
86.3 


78 

72 

92.3 

99 

97 

98.0 

21 

18 

85.7 

30 

30 

100.0 

67 

60 

89.6 

57 

56 

98.2 

352 
333 

94.6 


227 

211 

93.0 

74 

72 

97.3 

41 

39 

95.1 

50 

47 

94.0 

79 

79 

100.0 

44 

42 

95.5 

515 

490 

95.1 


977 
572 

58.5 

240 

90 

37.5 

239 

82 

34.3 

86 

38 

44.2 

217 

118 

54.4 

154 

51 

33.1 

1,913 
951 
49.7 


1,043 
866 
83.0 

329 
253 
76.9 

211 

180 

85.3 

158 

164 

103.8 

262 

255 

97.3 

143 

131 

91.6 

2,146 
1,849 
86.2 


3,478 
1,940 
55.8 

2,771 
982 
35.4 

2,144 

513 

23.9 

1,143 

289 

25.3 

1,976 
630 
31.9 

1,274 
436 
34.2 

12, 786 

4,790 

37.5 


7,047 
3, 135 

44.5 

5,263 
1,374 
26.1 

3,785 
1,048 
27.7 

3,021 

743 

24.6 

4,494 
1,454 
32.4 

2,291 

851 

37.1 

25, 901 

8,605 

33.2 


4,013 
856 
21.3 

1,851 
260 
14.0 

1, 550 
250 
16.1 

807 

173 

21.4 

1,276 
378 
29.6 

521 

219 

42.0 

10, 018 

2,136 

21.3 



Table 23. — Persons charged {held for prosecution) , 1937, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 






I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


Total, 


















*■* ri 


Si 


■2=8 


B« 


2i 


a c3 


293 




> 38 


o 3o 


o 3 


o 3 


'3'* 


3 ooo 


cities; 


Offense charged 


og"°. 


o P.O 

O O OO 


O Go 

o c o 


o fto 


o O.S2 


total 




Ȥ 


o a« 


o c*^ 


«5ft . 


o a^ 


G"0 


popu- 




W ..OO 








—' 1 




lation, 




•— O ^ 


zn O ^ 


So 00 


n=ri 


■2§«- 


33 o« 


7,571,366 




















o>o.2 


SS.2 


•3 8.2 


'So. 2 


'3 uf.S 


o.S 


























C-) 


00 












00 


rH 


1-1 


i^ 


1-1 




Murder, nonnegligent manslaughter: 
















Number of persons charged . . . ... 


104 


10 


24 


14 


22 


17 


191 


Rate per 100,000 


3.6 


0.9 


2.7 


2.4 


1.9 


1.8 


2.5 


Manslaughter by negligence: 
















Number of persons charged 


72 
2.5 


97 

8.7 


20 
2.3 


30 
5.1 


69 
5.9 


58 
6.2 


346 


Rate per 100,000 


4.6 


Robbery: 
















Number of persons charged 


494 


97 


91 


54 


150 


73 


959 


Rate wr 100,000 


17.1 


8. 7 


10.4 


9.1 


12.9 


7.8 


12.7 



33 



Table 23. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1987, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES— Continued 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Group 
I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


918 
31.8 


269 
24.2 


200 
22.8 


168 
28.3 


239 
20.6 


130 
13.9 


6,771 
234.2 


1,407 
126.4 


807 
92.1 


1,132 
191.0 


1,398 
120.4 


909 
97.0 


2,074 

71.7 


531 
47.7 


391 
44.6 


287 
48.4 


579 
49.9 


374 
39.9 


1,865 
64.5 


1,108 
99.6 


916 
104.5 


798 
134.7 


1,389 
119.6 


891 
95.0 


785 
27.2 


237 
21.3 


198 
22.6 


159 
26.8 


277 
23.9 


211 
22.5 


161 

5.6 


119 

10.7 


82 
9.4 


125 
21.1 


189 
16.3 


137 

14.6 


321 

11.1 


63 

5.7 


40 
4.6 


43 
7.3 


65 
5.6 


66 
7.0 


113 
3.9 


78 
7.0 


31 
3.5 


56 
9.4 


74 

6.4 


57 
6.1 


229 
7.9 


69 
6.2 


39 
4.4 


50 

8.4 


87 
7.5 


46 
4.9 


10, 748 
371.8 


352 
31.6 


310 
35.4 


58 
9.8 


102 

8.8 


14 
1.5 


682 
23.6 


192 
17.3 


143 
16.3 


94 
15.9 


129 
11.1 


118 
12.6 


117 
4.0 


21 
1.9 


28 
3.2 


1 
0.2 


2 
0.2 


0.7 


524 
18.1 


107 
9.6 


86 
9.8 


C5 
11.0 


78 
6.7 


66 
7.0 


1,560 
54.0 


508 
45.7 


375 
42.8 


267 
45. 1 


519 
44.7 


230 
24.5 


1,328 
45.9 


138 
12.4 


138 
15.7 


94 
15.9 


169 
14.6 


74 
7.9 


1,994 
69.0 


420 
37.7 


564 
64.3 


402 
67.8 


898 
77.3 


666 
71.0 


159, 373 
5,513.5 


66, 949 
6,016.3 


46, 770 
5, 335. 4 


39, 096 
6, 597. 4 


41,738 
3, 594. 4 


32, 886 
3, 507. 5 


12, 728 
440.3 


3,404 
305.9 


2,789 
318.2 


3,398 
573.4 


5,960 
513.3 


4,767 
508.4 


46, 852 
1, 620. 8 


10, 732 
964.4 


9,928 
1, 132. 6 


6,576 
1, 109. 7 


9,936 

855.7 


6,108 
651.5 


8,236 
284.9 


969 

87.1 


1,007 
114.9 


490 
82.7 


1,2S4 
110.6 


1,008 
107.5 


2,593 
89.7 


353 
31.7 


362 
41.3 


784 
132.3 


320 
27.6 


165 
17.6 


28, 621 
990.1 


4,622 
415.3 


1,880 
214.5 


2,754 
464.7 


3,564 
306.9 


2,433 
259. 5 



Total 



Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary — breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100.000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possess- 
ing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100.000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution): 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged . . 

Rate per 100,000.- 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



1,924 
25.4 



12, 424 
164.1 



4,236 
55.9 



6,967 
92.0 



1,867 
24.7 



813 
10.7 



409 
5.4 



520 
6.9 



11,584 
153.0 



1,358 
17.9 



176 
2.3 



926 
12.2 



3,459 
45.7 



1.941 
25.6 



4,944 
65.3 



386, 812 
5, 108. 9 



33, 046 
436.5 



90, 132 
1, 190. 4 



12, 994 
171.6 



4, 577 
60.5 



43, 874 
579.5 



Table 24. — Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared by 
arrest, 1937, by 'population groups 

EAST NORTH CENTRAL STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Population group 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Group I.— 7 cities over 250,000; total 


















population, 7,399,000: 


















Number of offenses known 


457 


301 


849 


10, 255 


3,547 


26, 028 


63, 600 


12, 314 


Number cleared by arrest 


342 


220 


532 


4,062 


1,983 


8,491 


11,748 


2,105 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


74.8 


73.1 


62.7 


39.6 


55.9 


32.6 


18.5 


17.1 


Group II.— 6 cities, 100,000 to 


















250,000; total population, 871,100: 


















Number of offenses known 


37 


76 


86 


410 


419 


2,690 


8,889 


2,381 


Number cleared by arrest 


36 


37 


58 


144 


224 


885 


1,420 


524 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


97.3 


48.7 


67.4 


35.1 


53.5 


32.9 


16.0 


22.0 


Group III.— 19 cities, 50,000 to 


















100,000; total population, 1,253,410: 


















Number of offenses known 


41 


55 


112 


729 


202 


3,825 


8,834 


2,390 


Number cleared by arrest 


35 


52 


91 


247 


124 


1,151 


2,308 


590 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


85.4 


94.5 


81.3 


33.9 


61.4 


30.1 


26.1 


24.7 


Group IV.— 31 cities, 25,000 to 


















50,000; total population, 1,066,100: 


















Number of offenses known 


28 


21 


84 


395 


167 


2,864 


8,317 


2,026 


Number cleared by arrest. .. _ 


25 


20 


80 


122 


128 


689 


1,796 


533 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


89.3 


95.2 


95.2 


30.9 


76.6 


24.1 


21.6 


26.3 


Group V.— 68 cities, 10,000 to 


















25,000; total population, 1,066,525: 


















Number of offenses known.. 


14 


12 


55 


319 


110 


2,492 


6,133 


1,462 


Number cleared by arrest 


8 


12 


50 


86 


96 


719 


1,548 


418 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


57.1 


100.0 


90.9 


27.0 


87.3 


28.9 


25.2 


28.6 


Group VI.— 152 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 836,687: 


















Number of offenses known 


18 


27 


48 


191 


135 


1,477 


2,838 


695 


Number cleared by arrest 


15 


27 


39 


53 


95 


522 


1,005 


284 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


83.3 


100.0 


81.3 


27.7 


70.4 


35.3 


35.4 


40.9 


Total, 283 cities; total population, 


















12,492,822: 


















Number of offenses known. . 


595 


492 


1,234 


12, 299 


4,580 


39, 376 


98, 611 


21, 268 


Number cleared by arrest 


461 


368 


850 


4,714 


2,650 


12, 457 


19, 825 


4,454 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


77.5 


74.8 


68.9 


38.3 


57.9 


31.6 


20.1 


20.9 



Table 25. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1937, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

EAST NORTH CENTRAL STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


3 
ft 




I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


"iaS 




£« 


5s 


o ^ 


Bcs 


Si 


fe ca 


Ocq 


Offense charged 


> s ; 8 


sEo 


= I 2 
So!- 


— a 
8c.S 


Sag 


^3 


•ji "* 
.Him" 




a§ 


= &-l 








a 10 . 


3 £ 






= •-£ 


*o ,„C<1 


N O 


"-I o 








»6V 


goo 


•Jj ° rt 






So 60 


Ksl 




«|fl 


l°.fl 


■M s -a 


■32 a 




'38 a 






•-3.2 


Bgo 


•3 8.2 


•3 g.2 


'Ss-2 


N g-2 


-S 
































Eh 




r~ 


■■o 


1-1 






1—1 


Murder, nonnegligent manslaughter: 
















Number of persons charged _ _ 


383 


33 


38 


19 


8 


17 


498 


Rate per 100,000 


5.2 


3.8 


3.0 


1.8 


0.8 


2.0 


4.0 


Manslaughter by negligence: 
















Number of persons charged 


394 


42 


49 


21 


14 


26 


546 


Rate per 100,000 .. 


5.3 


4.8 


3.9 


2.0 


1.3 


3.1 


4.4 


Robbery: 


















2,220 


178 


170 


138 


88 


74 


2,868 


Rate per 100,000 


30.0 


20.4 


13.6 


12.9 


8.3 


8.8 


23.0 



35 



Table 25.— Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1937, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

EAST NORTH CENTRAL STATES— Continued 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged - 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary— breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000... 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution) : 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number ofpersonscharged 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 
I 



1,835 
24.8 

6,475 
87.5 

3,475 
47.0 

8,190 
110.7 

1,291 
17.4 

2,445 
33.0 

752 
10.2 

262 

3.5 

461 
6.2 

8,496 
114.8 

1,182 
16.0 



1,014 
13.7 



4,790 
64.7 



3,124 
42.2 



4,039 
54.6 



'590,458 
10,867.6 



18, 739 
253.3 



72, 065 
974.0 



3, 302 
44.6 



12, 575 
170.0 



27,502 
371.7 



Group 
II 



134 
15.4 



1,078 
123.8 



375 
43.0 



1,265 
145.2 



222 
25.5 



212 
24.3 



59 
6.8 



124 
14.2 



350 
40.2 



166 
19.1 



20 
2.3 



87 
10.0 



320 
36.7 



562 
64.5 



1.014 
116.4 



2 58, 878 
8, 431. 6 



3, 159 
302.6 



8,748 
1, 004. 2 



1,265 
145.2 



603 
69.2 



3,396 
389.9 



Group 
III 



126 
10.1 



1,035 
82.6 



538 
42.9 



1,455 
116.1 



328 
26.2 



207 
16.5 



96 

7. , 



90 
7.2 



215 
17.2 



245 
19.5 



12 
1.0 



118 
9.4 



554 
44.2 



410 
32.7 



1,666 
132.9 



79, 418 
6, 336. 2 



3.772 
300.9 



11.906 
949.9 



1,586 
126.5 



829 
66.1 



4,727 
377.1 



Group 
IV 



145 
13.6 



1,372 
128.7 



554 
52.0 



1,499 
140.6 



416 
39.0 



255 
23.9 



106 



152 
14.3 



284 
26.6 



304 
28.5 



19 
1.8 



144 
13.5 



574 
53. 8 



530 
49.7 



1,664 
156.1 



48, 675 
4, 565. 7 



3,021 
283.4 



17,287 
1, 621. 5 



631 
59.2 



345 
32.4 



4,904 
460.0 



Group 
V 



91 

8.5 



492 
46.1 



1,272 
119.3 



358 
33.6 



126 
11.8 



58 
5.4 



52 
4.9 



133 

12.5 



209 
19.6 



81 
7.6 



295 

27.7 



302 
28.3 



1,658 
155.5 



42. 066 
3, 944. 2 



3,503 
328.4 



9,989 
936.6 



1,320 
123.8 



630 
59.1 



2,497 
234.1 



Group 
VI 



527 
03.0 



420 
50.2 



211 

L's. s 



141 
16.9 



46 
5.5 



87 
10.4 



46 
5.5 



18 
2.2 



11 
1.3 



67 
8.0 



157 
18.8 



183 
21.9 



1,759 
210.2 



27.312 
3, 264. 3 



2,695 
322.1 



8,347 
997.6 



431 
51.5 



177 
21.2 



2,376 
284.0 



Total 



2.427 
19.4 



11, 173 
89.4 



5, 854 
46.9 



14,509 
116.1 



2, 856 
22.9 



3,386 
27.1 



1,119 
9.0 



818 
6.5 



785 
6.3 



9,496 
76.0 



2,184 
17.5 



568 
4.5 



1,511 
12.1 



6,690 
53.6 



5,111 
40.9 



11,800 
94.5 



3 846, 807 
8, 178. 4 



34, 889 
279.3 



128, 342 
1, 027. 3 



8,535 
68.3 



15, 159 
121.3 



45, 402 
363.4 



1-3 The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports of the number of cities indicated 
below: ' 5 cities, 5,433,200 population; * 5 cities, 698,300 population; 3 280 cities, 10,354,222 population. 



36 



Table 26. — Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared 
by arrest, 19S7, by population groups 

WEST NORTH CENTRAL STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Population group 


Murder, 

nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 


Auto 
theft 




slaughter 
















Group I.— 4 cities over 250,000; 


















total population, 1,998,500: 


















Number of offenses known.. ... 


111 


103 


118 


1,489 


340 


5,446 


17, 002 


4,252 


Number cleared by arrest . 


92 


96 


99 


731 


284 


3,129 


4,400 


1,002 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


82.9 


93.2 


83.9 


49.1 


83.5 


57.5 


25.9 


23.6 


Group II.— 5 cities, 100,000 to 250,- 


















000; total population, 706,000: 


















Number of offenses known 


31 


56 


18 


348 


140 


2,110 


4,534 


1,535 


Number cleared by arrest - 


33 


47 


16 


98 


119 


607 


1,467 


514 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


106.5 


83.9 


88.9 


28.2 


85.0 


28.8 


32.4 


33.5 


Group III.— 5 cities, 50,000 to 100,- 


















000; total population, 348,300: 


















Number of offenses known.. .. 


15 


2 


15 


137 


42 


1,490 


4,079 


1,160 


Number cleared by arrest , 


15 


2 


12 


46 


30 


385 


925 


217 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


100.0 


100.0 


80.0 


33.6 


71.4 


25.8 


22.7 


18.7 


Group IV.— 7 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; 


















total population, 232,700: 


















Number of offenses known . . 


9 




11 


111 


31 


848 


2,534 


493 




9 




11 


37 


29 


299 


932 


88 




100.0 




100.0 


33.3 


93.5 


35.3 


36.8 


17.8 


Group V.— 35 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; 


















total population, 500,823: 


















Number of offenses known . . 


21 


14 


27 


134 


90 


1,256 


4,049 


778 


Number cleared by arrest 


19 


10 


26 


48 


79 


351 


1,234 


256 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


90.5 


71.4 


96.3 


35.8 


87.8 


27.9 


30.5 


32.9 


Group VI.— 76 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 401,395: 


















Number of offenses known . . . 


12 


3 


10 


100 


48 


734 


1,719 


412 


Number cleared by arrest . 


11 


2 


8 


38 


42 


250 


558 


108 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


91.7 


66.7 


80.0 


38.0 


87.5 


34.1 


32.5 


26.2 


Total, 132 cities; total population, 


















4,187,718: 


















Number of offenses known . 


199 


178 


199 


2,319 


691 


11,884 


33, 917 


8,630 


Number cleared by arrest. . . . 


179 


157 


172 


998 


583 


5,021 


9,516 


2,185 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


89.9 


88.2 


86.4 


43.0 


84.4 


42.3 


28.1 


25.3 



Table 27. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1937, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

WEST NORTH CENTRAL STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





















Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


5 




I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 








S<3' 


B& 


Si 


-Scb 


9 ft»o 

3 OO 


.1=1 ■* 


Offense charged 


Sag 


=> 3 

= fto 
o oo 


o 3 


8 So 


<= a 

o ft" 


a 
o 




ftg 


o ft° 


o O." 


lifO^S 


oft 00 - 


ft". 


£o '•£> 






o to 




c* <N 












H o° 


M S™ 


wo" 


So 10 


|o° 


3 




















og.2 


SS o 


So^ 


bo a 
■a o .3 


■3 Si 


o\S 


Bft 






















lO 


•o 


t^. 




t^ 


ir> 


Murder, nonnegligent manslaughter: 


















103 
5.2 


35 
5.0 


14 
4.0 


6 
2.6 


11 

2.2 


13 
3.2 


182 


Rate per 100,000 


4.3 


Manslaughter by negligence: 


















94 


55 


2 




7 


1 


159 


Rate per 100,000 


4.7 


7.8 


.6 




1.4 


.2 


3.8 


Robbery: 


















474 


119 


41 


54 


60 


38 


786 


Rate per 100,000 


23.7 


16.9 


11.8 


23.2 


12.0 


9.5 


18.8 



37 



Table 27. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1937, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by poprdation groups — Continued 

WEST NORTH CENTRAL STATES— Continued 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary — breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Autotheft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possess 
ing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution) : 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000... 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 , 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 

I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


313 
15.7 


104 
14.7 


26 
7.5 


28 
12.0 


85 

17.0 


45 
11.2 


485 
24.3 


717 
101.6 


208 
59.7 


68 
29.2 


285 
56.9 


136 
33.9 


1.017 
50.9 


560 
79.3 


166 
47.7 


157 
67.5 


317 
63.3 


208 
51.8 


2.040 
147.1 


1.711 
242.4 


653 
187.5 


417 
179.2 


1,128 
225.2 


551 
137.3 


702 
35.1 


298 
42.2 


93 
26.7 


57 
24.5 


204 
40.7 


118 

29.4 


685 
34.3 


86 

12.2 


85 
24.4 


30 
12.9 


72 
14.4 


29 
7.2 


74 
3.7 


78 
11.0 


16 
4.6 


15 
6.4 


56 
11.2 


33 
8.2 


222 
U.l 


125 

17.7 


60 
17.2 


46 
19.8 


122 
24.4 


61 
15.2 


114 
5.7 


26 
3.7 


13 
3.7 


11 

4.7 


26 
5.2 


1.7 


7.571 
378.8 


247 
35.0 


23 

6.6 


73 
31.4 


54 
10.8 


22 
5.5 


338 
lfi. 9 


118 
16.7 


71 
20.4 


38 
16.3 


55 
11.0 


34 
8.5 


108 
5.4 


12 
1.7 


76 
21.8 


4 
1.7 


4 
.8 


6 
1.5 


204 
10.2 


68 
9.6 


21 
6.0 


11 

1.7 


41 
8.2 


20 

5.0 


1,342 
67.2 


147 
20.8 


52 
14.9 


17 
7.3 


72 
14.4 


49 
12.2 


276 
13.8 


674 
95.5 


144 
41.3 


85 
36.5 


436 

87.1 


260 
64.8 


1,040 
52.0 


872 
123.5 


210 
60.3 


262 
112.6 


894 
178.5 


573 
142.8 


191,121 
9, 563. 2 


37, 561 
5, 320. 3 


30, 680 
8. 808. 5 


2,278 
978.9 


12, 763 
2, 548. 4 


7,351 
1,831.4 


10, 988 
549.8 


601 
85.1 


785 
225.4 


400 
171.9 


1,224 
244.4 


730 
181.9 


12, 761 
638.5 


13, 933 
1, 973. 5 


4,454 

1, 278. 8 


3,334 
1, 432. 7 


7,330 
1, 463. 6 


5,853 
1, 458. 2 


5,255 
262.9 


2,418 
342.5 


506 
145.3 


602 
258.7 


824 
164.5 


403 
100.4 


369 
18.5 


614 
87.0 


561 
161.1 


76 
32.7 


266 
53.1 


101 
25.2 


7.441 
372.3 


7,388 
1, 046. 5 


2,114 
606.9 


600 
257.8 


1,646 
328.7 


655 
163.2 



Total 



601 
14.4 



2,425 
57.9 



7,400 
176.7 



1,472 
35.2 



23.6 



272 
6.5 



636 
15.2 



197 
4.7 



7,990 
190.8 



654 
15.6 



210 
5.0 



365 



1,679 
40.1 



1,875 
44.8 



3,851 
92.0 



281, 754 
6, 728. 1 



14, 728 
351.7 



47, 665 
1, 138. 2 



10, 008 
239.0 



1,987 
47.4 



19, 844 
473.9 



38 

Table 28. — Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared by 
arrest, 1937, by population groups 

SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Population group 


Murder, 

nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 


Auto 
theft 




slaughter 
















Group I.— 3 cities over 250,000; 


















total population, 1,592,500: 


















Number of offenses known. _ . 


245 


51 


197 


2,497 


906 


8,547 


17, 677 


6,223 


Number cleared by arrest- _. . 


203 


44 


183 


1,132 


792 


2,973 


5,709 


765 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


82.9 


86.3 


92.9 


45.3 


87.4 


34.8 


32.3 


12.3 


Group II.— 2 cities, 100,000 to 


















250,000; total population, 314,610: 


















Number of offenses known. 


68 


20 


35 


347 


788 


2,357 


6,065 


1,035 


Number cleared by arrest 


61 


18 


32 


112 


598 


565 


1,424 


116 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


89.7 


90.0 


91.4 


32.3 


75.9 


24.0 


23.5 


11.2 


Group III.— 5 cities, 50,000 to 


















100,000; total population, 337,289: 


















Number of offenses known _ 


80 


22 


34 


181 


479 


1,566 


5,170 


665 


Number cleared by arrest 


81 


20 


26 


80 


406 


484 


1,216 


64 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


101.3 


90.9 


76.5 


44.2 


84.8 


30.9 


23.5 


9.6 


Group IV— 10 cities, 25,000 to 


















50,000; total population, 356,434: 


















Number of offenses known ... 


66 


29 


34 


154 


825 


1,391 


4,616 


728 


Number cleared by arrest 


66 


29 


33 


74 


669 


580 


2,008 


156 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


100.0 


100.0 


97.1 


48.1 


81.1 


41.7 


43.5 


21.4 


Group V.-10 cities, 10,000 to 


















25,000; total population, 164,849: 


















Number of offenses known 


20 


4 


12 


67 


235 


541 


1,317 


272 


Number cleared by arrest - 


18 


3 


11 


44 


212 


208 


568 


82 


Percentage cleared by arrest, _. 


90.0 


75.0 


91.7 


65.7 


90.2 


38.4 


43.1 


30.1 


Group VI.- 27 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 140,307: 


















Number of offenses known 


12 


10 


7 


36 


120 


431 


783 


164 


Number cleared by arrest 


12 


8 


6 


18 


106 


205 


336 


58 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


100.0 


80.0 


85.7 


50.0 


88.3 


47.6 


42.9 


35.4 


Total, 57 cities; total population, 


















2,905,989: 


















Number of offenses known 


491 


136 


319 


3,282 


3,353 


14, 833 


35, 628 


9,087 


Number cleared by arrest 


441 


122 


291 


1,460 


2,783 


5,015 


11,261 


1,241 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


89.8 


89.7 


91.2 


44.5 


83.0 


33.8 


31.6 


13.7 



Table 29. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1937, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


a 




I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


a 






°s 


S A 


°m 


° k 


U ' 

■§•3 

P o o 


°«T 




> 3 S 


o 3 


_T3 


O 3 


o 3 


.-OS 


Offense charged 


° o" 5 . 


5 ao 


s »=» 


O Pi'* 


o ftcs 


<3 e^ 




aes 


oft°- 


S ^ 


in &^l 


oO. 00 - 


p.™. 


s a 






o ^ 


C^l CO 




en ° 


a 




S§J 


»8" 


m 8 ro 


m o co 




29^ 


f~'£ 




«°-a 


• °.a 


5=-B 


58- (J 


■BSo 


•38 H 






._o o 


•■Sg.2 


•3 8. 2 


•3 o .2 


3 o\2 


0.2 






















CO 


<M 


*o 






<M 


H 


Murder, nonnegligent manslaughter: 


















230 
14.4 


61 
19.4 


91 
27.0 


72 
20.2 


20 
12.1 


12 
8.6 


486 


Rate per 100,000 


16.7 


Manslaughter by negligence: 


















235 


48 


23 


26 


4 


10 


346 


Rate per 100,000 


14.8 


15.3 


6.8 


7.3 


2.4 


7.1 


11.9 


Robbery: 
















Number of persons charged - 


1,358 


157 


99 


92 


44 


32 


1,782 


Rate per 100,000 


85.3 


49.9 


20.4 


25.8 


26.7 


22.8 


61.3 



39 



Table 29. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1937, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES— Continued 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary— breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possess 
ing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution): 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000-. 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 , 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 
I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


935 

58.7 


624 
198.3 


1679 
234.2 


703 
197.2 


203 
123.1 


115 
82.0 


6.60G 
414.8 


3,134 
996.2 


2,032 
602.5 


2,149 
602.9 


743 
450.7 


579 
412.7 


3,698 
232.2 


552 
175.5 


411 
121.9 


525 
147.3 


188 
114.0 


188 
134.0 


7,109 
446.4 


1,324 
420.8 


1,244 
368.8 


1,920 
538.7 


577 
350. 


374 
266.6 


1,161 
72.9 


138 
43.9 


50 
14.8 


143 

40. 1 


84 
51.0 


38 
27.1 


823 
51.7 


432 
137.3 


192 

56.9 


211 
59.2 


83 
50.3 


15 
10.7 


251 

15.8 


143 

45. 5 


58 
17.2 


12H 
35.4 


38 
23.1 


40.6 


151 
9.5 


79 
25.1 


62 
18.4 


109 
30.6 


22 
13.3 


31 
22.1 


105 
10.4 


42 
13.3 


29 
8.6 


29 

8.1 


11 
6.7 


6 
4.3 


4,013 
252.0 


839 
266.7 


246 
72.9 


163 
45.7 


37 
22. 4 


36 

25.7 


1,339 
84. 1 


139 
44.2 


132 
39.1 


176 
49.4 


141 
85.5 


61 
43.5 


141 
8.9 


2 

0.6 


8 
2.4 


3 

0.8 




2 
1.4 


672 
42.2 


191 
60.7 


269 
79.8 


251 
70.4 


66 
40.0 


73 
52.0 


1,857 

116.6 


1,547 
491.7 


287 
85.1 


587 
164.7 


147 
89.2 


207 
147.5 


2,997 
188.2 


1,640 
521.3 


1,779 
527.4 


1,624 
455.6 


303 

183.8 


355 
253.0 


3 1, 733 
223.5 


471 
149.7 


930 
275.7 


1,180 
331.1 


485 
294.2 


666 
474.7 


3114,903 
14,818.5 


30, 406 
9, 664. 7 


19, 999 
5, 929. 3 


22, 521 
6, 318. 4 


6,129 
3, 717. 9 


3,482 
2, 481. 7 


25, 558 
1, 604. 9 


7,820 
2, 485. 6 


4,640 
1, 375. 7 


3,051 
856.0 


1,446 

877.2 


1,082 

771. 2 


39, 518 
2, 481. 5 


10, 621 
3, 375. 9 


9,002 
2, 668. 9 


14, 385 
4, 035. 8 


6,765 
4, 103. 8 


6,451 
4, 597. 8 


3,675 
230.8 


781 
248.2 


382 
113.3 


450 
126.3 


224 
135.9 


190 
135.4 


3,082 
193.5 


1,197 
380.5 


1,537 
455.7 


876 
245.8 


514 
311.8 


252 
179.6 


20, 007 
1, 256. 3 


7,337 
2, 332. 1 


1,797 
532.8 


7,180 
2, 014. 4 


969 

587.8 


748 
533.1 



Total 



2 3, 259 
114.4 



15, 243 
524.5 



5,562 
191.4 



12, 548 
431.8 



1,614 
55.5 



1,756 
60.4 



673 
23.2 



454 
15.6 



282 
9.7 



5,334 
183.6 



1,988 
68.4 



156 
5.4 



1,522 
52.4 



4,632 
159.4 



299.3 



« 5. 465 
261.6 



f 197, 440 
9,451.9 



43, 597 
1, 500. 2 



86, 742 
2, 984. 9 



5,702 
196.2 



7,458 
256.6 



38, 038 
1, 309. 



'-* The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports of the number of cities indicated 
below: i 4 cities, 289,889 population; 3 56 cities, 2,848,589 population; 3 2 cities, 775,400 population; * 56 cities, 
2,088,889 population. 



40 

Table 30. — Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared by 
arrest, 1987, by population groups 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 




Population group 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Group I and Group II. 1 


















Group III— 2 cities, 50,000 to 


















100,000; total population, 134,400: 


















Number of offenses known 


43 


31 


5 


65 


128 


614 


870 


259 


Number cleared by arrest _ 


40 


26 


3 


35 


106 


112 


428 


21 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


93.0 


83.9 


60.0 


53.8 


82.8 


18.2 


49.2 


8.1 


Group IV.— 1 city, 25,000 to 50,000; 


















population, 32,824: 


















Number of offenses known 


3 


1 


3 


47 


40 


278 


243 


95 


Number cleared by arrest _ 


3 


1 


2 


23 


37 


36 


63 


10 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


100.0 


100.0 


66.7 


48.9 


92.5 


12.9 


25.9 


10.5 


Group V.— 5 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; 


















total population, 67,000: 


















Number of offenses known 


15 


7 


2 


16 


20 


77 


275 


87 


Number cleared by arrest . . _ 


12 


6 


1 


13 


19 


24 


111 


35 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


80.0 


85.7 


50.0 


81.3 


95.0 


31.2 


40.4 


40.2 


Group VI— 9 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 47,956: 


















Number of offenses known 


13 


5 


5 


12 


58 


86 


180 


35 


Number cleared by arrest 


12 


5 


5 


9 


55 


51 


105 


21 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


92.3 


100.0 


100.0 


75.0 


94.8 


59.3 


58.3 


60.0 


Total, 17 cities; total population, 


















282,180: 


















Number of offenses known 


74 


44 


15 


140 


246 


1,055 


1,568 


476 


Number cleared by arrest 


67 


38 


11 


80 


217 


223 


707 


87 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


90.5 


86.4 


73.3 


57.1 


88.2 


21.1 


45.1 


18.3 



No cities in this population group represented. 



Table 31. — Persons charged (held for prosecution) , 1937, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Murder, nonnegligent manslaughter: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Manslaughter by negligence: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 
III 



37 
27.5 



31 
23.1 



35 
26.0 



73.7 



330 

245.5 



Group 
IV 



■So.2 



3 
9.1 



1 
3.0 



23 
70.1 



37 

112.7 



34 
103.6 



Group 
V 



6 
9.0 



5 
7.5 



15 
22.4 



21 
31.3 



213 
317.9 



Group 
VI 



5 
10.4 



11 
22.9 



44 
91.8 



76 
158.5 



42 
14.9 



84 
29.8 



201 
71.2 



653 
231.4 



1 No cities in this population group represented. 



41 



Table 31. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1987, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES— Continued 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Group 
I 



Group 
II 



Group 
III 



Group 
IV 



Group 
V 



Group 
VI 



Total 



Burglary— breaking or entering: 

N umber of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000- 

Larceny — theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, pos- 
sessing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Number o f persons charged 

• Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution): 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 .. 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000- 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Gambling: 

Number o f persons charged 

Rate per 100,000— 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 



111 
82.6 



416 
309.5 



20 
14.9 



21 
15.6 



16 
11.9 



15 
11.2 



3 

2.2 



5 
3.7 



1 
0.7 



2 
1.5 



48 
35.7 



2 

1.5 



55 
40.9 



211 
157. 



4,579 
, 407. 



736 
547.6 



2,717 
,021.6 



265 

197.2 



73 

54.3 



1,961 
459. 1 



36 

109.7 



59 
179.7 



10 
30.5 



9 

27.4 



28 
85.3 



10 
30.5 



2 
6.1 



18 
54.8 



24.4 



12 
36.6 



43 
131.0 



34 
103.6 



4 
12.2 



295. 5 



375 
1, 142. 5 



61 
185.8 



22 

67.0 



141 
429.6 



17 
25.4 



180 

268.7 



15 
22.4 



15 
22.4 



26 
38.8 



6 
9.0 



1 
1.5 



2 
3.0 



5 
7.5 

1 
1.5 



55 

82.1 



3 
4.5 



195 
291.0 



196 
292.5 



2,280 
3, 403. 



357 
532.8 



2,892 
4,316.4 



51 
76.1 



143 
213.4 



71 
106.0 



50 

104.3 



96 

200.2 



22 
45.9 



2 
4.2 



3 
6.3 



14 
29.2 



5 

10.4 



4 
8.3 



1 
2.1 



3 
6.3 



46 
95.9 



4 
8.3 



174 
362.8 



270 
563.0 



956 
1, 993. 5 



513 
1, 069. 7 



2,192 
4, 570. 9 



19 
39.6 



217 
452.5 



84 
175.2 



214 

75.8 



751 
266.1 



67 
23.7 



47 
16.7 



73 
25.9 

45 
15.9 

11 
3.9 

29 
10.3 

15 
5.3 

14 
5.0 

161 
57.1 

52 

18.4 

458 
162.3 

681 
241.3 

7,912 
2, 803. 9 

1,981 
702.0 

7,803 
2, 765. 3 

396 
140.3 

455 
161.2 

2,257 

799.8 



42 



Table 32. — Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared 
by arrest, 1937, by population groups 

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 




Population group 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Group I.— 3 cities over 250,000; to- 


















tal population, 1,066,900: 


















Number of offenses known 


239 


73 


87 


702 


860 


4,233 


13, 338 


2,642 


Number cleared by arrest 


216 


72 


79 


371 


672 


1,539 


3,034 


789 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


90.4 


98.6 


90.8 


52.8 


78.1 


36.4 


22.7 


29.9 


Group II.— 4 cities, 100,000 to 250,- 


















000: total population, 719,900: 


















Number of offenses known. _ 


75 


55 


47 


533 


525 


3,825 


10, 645 


1,529 


Number cleared by arrest 


69 


49 


46 


165 


427 


1,277 


4,241 


404 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


92.0 


89.1 


97.9 


31.0 


81.3 


33.4 


39.8 


26.4 


Group III— 4 cities, 50,000 to 100,- 


















000; total population, 256,700: 


















Number of offenses known. „■_ 


48 


12 


15 


122 


391 


1,622 


4,088 


412 


Number cleared by arrest 


38 


12 


14 


52 


324 


541 


974 


104 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


79.2 


100.0 


93.3 


42.6 


82.9 


33.4 


23.8 


25.2 


Group IV.— 4 cities, 25,000 to 50,- 


















000; total population, 132,600: 


















Number of offenses known 


11 


4 


19 


57 


68 


453 


1,756 


177 


Number cleared by arrest 


9 


4 


18 


24 


66 


185 


689 


54 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


81.8 


100.0 


94.7 


42.1 


97.1 


40.8 


39.2 


30.5 


Group V— 8 cities, 10,000 to 25,- 


















000; total population, 128,330: 


















Number of offenses known 


12 


1 


9 


47 


46 


423 


1,429 


165 


Number cleared by arrest 


12 


1 


8 


21 


45 


109 


402 


68 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


100.0 


100.0 


88.9 


44.7 


97.8 


25.8 


28.1 


41.2 


Group VI.— 26 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 146,843: 


















Number of offenses known 


9 


4 


14 


51 


52 


479 


1,025 


121 


Number cleared by arrest 


9 


4 


14 


28 


52 


156 


346 


68 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


54.9 


100.0 


32.6 


33.8 


56.2 


Total, 49 cities; total population, 


















2,451,273: 


















Number of offenses known . . 


394 


149 


191 


1,512 


1,942 


11, 035 


32,281 


5,046 


Number cleared by arrest _ _ . 


353 


142 


179 


661 


1,586 


3,807 


9,686 


1,487 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


89.6 


95.3 


93.7 


43.7 


81.7 


34.5 


30.0 


29.5 



Table 33. — Persons charged (held for prosecution) , 1937, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Group I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


"3 
ore 

IN 


Offense charged 


u i © 

<c So 
> tt °i 

^ Oo 

o nx , 
o 

•28 a 

*jO o 


© fto 

500 

O P.© 

© a 
8°- .2 


2 k° 

_ do 
§ cr "^ 
a *S 

- >o 

O ._<N 

oo .. 
,„©. O 
S°o 

•j30"J3 

>3< 


3o 

0,0 

00 
10 Oief 

CN ..« 

co° 
.go P 

.-3 ©-.2 


3o 
O Ceo 
O OM 

Coo 

S ..^ 

„© ** 

.§§B 

5 m -o 

00 


So <a 

■ggee 

5 P.-* 

P 00 

ftto 

CO ,„"<*< 

®o H 

"If 

CO 
CM 


CO *0 
cp "* 

' 3 rf 


©73 
"** 

CC Q 
O & 

Eh 


Murder, nonnegligent manslaughter: 


184 
17.2 

29 
2.7 


73 
10. 1 

56 
7.8 


39 
15.2 

23 
9.0 


14 
10.6 

4 
3.0 


13 
10.1 

1 

.8 


9 

6.1 

3 
2.0 


332 


Rate per 100,000 


13.5 


Manslaughter by negligence: 


116 


Rate per 100,000 


4.7 






43 



Table 33. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1937, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES— Continued 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Group I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


386 
36.2 


253 
35.1 


59 
23.0 


24 
18.1 


23 
17.9 


34 
23.2 


726 
68.0 


436 
60.6 


302 
117.6 


68 
51.3 


43 
33.5 


56 
38.1 


1,022 
95.8 


958 
133.1 


423 
164.8 


814 
613.9 


259 
201.8 


212 
144.4 


1,189 
111.4 


1,104 
153.4 


529 
206.1 


181 
136.5 


116 
90.4 


158 
107.6 


3,291 
308.5 


4,463 
619.9 


1,091 
425.0 


699 
527.1 


411 
32Qi3 


318 
216.6 


581 
54.5 


411 
57.1 


81 
31.6 


50 
37.7 


60.0 


71 
48.4 


196 
18.4 


82 
11.4 


58 
22.6 


25 
18.9 


5.5 


31 
21.1 


138 
12.9 


214 
29.7 


129 
50.3 


19 
14.3 


25 
19.5 


43 
29.3 


233 
21.8 


147 
20.4 


71 
27.7 


58 
43.7 


16 
12.5 


31 
21.1 


92 
8.6 


49 
6.8 


19 
7.4 


18 
13.6 


8 
6.2 


14 
9.5 


1,036 
97.1 


3,877 
538.5 


81 
31.6 


29 
21.9 


23 
17.9 


8 
5.4 


176 
16.5 


188 
26.1 


347 
135.2 


116 
87.5 


33 
25.7 


41 
27.9 


291 
27.3 


219 
30.4 


24 
9.3 


14 
10.6 


2 
1.6 


2 
1.4 


360 
33.7 


309 
42.9 


121 
47.1 


80 
60.3 


26 
20.3 


39 
26.6 


i 152 
19.3 


U58 
57.5 




3 
2.3 




16 
10.9 


408 
38.2 


* 1,150 
241.4 


229 
89.2 


91 
68.6 


127 
99.0 


238 

162.1 


632 
59.2 


693 
96.3 


305 
118.8 


271 
204.4 


182 
141.8 


206 
140.3 


210, 028 
19,685.8 


90, 632 
12,589.5 


35, 929 
13,996.5 


9,066 
6, 837. 1 


8,023 
6, 251. 9 


5,300 
3, 609. 3 


9,678 
907.1 


3,015 
418.8 


1,113 
433.6 


242 
182.5 


449 
349.9 


475 
323.5 


19, 863 
1,861.7 


18, 842 
2, 617. 3 


6,175 
2, 405. 5 


4,341 
3, 273. 8 


4,203 
3, 275. 2 


4,378 
2, 981. 4 


5,124 
480.3 


5,005 
695.2 


558 
217.4 


606 
457.0 


399 
310.9 


143 
97.4 


2,835 
265.7 


1,411 
196.0 


1,069 
416.4 


216 
162.9 


85 
66.2 


291 
198.2 


14, 469 
1, 356. 2 


9,315 
1, 293. 9 


1,663 
647.8 


1,181 
890.6 


876 
682.6 


465 
316.7 



Total 



Robbery: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. . 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate'per 100,000 

Burglary— breaking or entering: 

Number o f persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 - 

Larceny — theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution) : 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000... 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged.. 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number o f persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number o f persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



779 
31.8 



1,631 
66.5 



3,688 
150.5 



3,277 
133.7 



10, 273 
419.1 



1,271 
51.9 



399 
16.3 



568 
23.2 



556 
22.7 



200 

8.2 



5,054 
206.2 



901 
36.8 



552 
22.5 



935 
38.1 



3 329 
19.0 



5 2, 243 
101.6 



2,289 
93.4 



358, 978 
14, 644. 6 



14, 972 
610.8 



57, 802 
2, 358. 



11,835 
482.8 



5,907 
241.0 



27, 969 
1,141.0 



1-5 The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports of the number of cities indicated 
below: i 2 cities, 788,900 population; 2 2 cities, 275,000 population: 3 46 cities, 1,728,373 population; 1 3 cities, 
476,400 population; 5 48 cities, 2,207,773 population. 



44 



Table 34. — Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared by 
arrest, 1937, by population groups 

MOUNTAIN STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 




Population group 


Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Group I. — 1 city over 250,000; popu- 


















lation, 293.200: 


















Number of offenses known . . 


18 


4 


30 


205 


67 


1,323 


1,805 


622 


Number cleared by arrest . . 


17 


3 


30 


94 


67 


661 


900 


232 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


94.4 


75.0 


100.0 


45.9 


100.0 


50.0 


49.9 


37.3 


Group II.i 


















Group III— 1 city, 50,000 to 100,000; 


















population, 51,300: 


















Number of offenses known _ _ 


2 


1 


5 


46 


20 


225 


386 


106 


Number cleared by arrest 


2 


1 


4 


18 


18 


56 


118 


14 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


100.0 


100.0 


80.0 


39.1 


90.0 


24.9 


30.6 


13.2 


Group IV.— 4 cities, 25,000 to 


















50,000; total population, 136,600: 


















Number of offenses known. _ . 


7 


5 


20 


56 


29 


792 


2,417 


685 


Number cleared by arrest 


6 


5 


16 


28 


22 


209 


672 


105 


Percentage cleared by arrest. . - 


85.7 


100.0 


80.0 


50.0 


75.9 


26.4 


27.8 


15.3 


Group V.— 9 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; 


















total population, 137,744: 


















Number of off enses known 


3 


1 


12 


79 


21 


550 


2,551 


555 




2 




10 


47 


20 


208 


690 


128 




66.7 




83.3 


59.5 


95.2 


37.8 


27.0 


23.1 


Group VI.— 27 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 156,268: 


















Number of offenses known . ... 


5 


4 


12 


103 


34 


466 


1,522 


202 


Number cleared by arrest _ . . 


4 


3 


9 


55 


30 


130 


408 


60 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


80.0 


75.0 


75.0 


53.4 


88.2 


27.9 


26.8 


29.7 


Total, 42 cities; total population, 


















775,112: 


















Number of offenses known 


35 


15 


79 


489 


171 


3,356 


8,681 


2,170 


Number cleared by arrest. 


31 


12 


69 


242 


157 


1,264 


2,788 


539 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


88.6 


80.0 


87.3 


49.5 


91.8 


37.7 


32.1 


24.8 



1 No cities in this population group represented. 

Table 35. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1937, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

MOUNTAIN STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Group 
I 


a 
3 

O 

O 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


"3 


Offense charged 


o o 

lag 
o e.(M_ 


3m 

3 

S 3- 
o oo 

o m „ 

8"° 
•3|| 


o ^ 

glo 
§ oo 

« ..CO 

!Z>0' , - , 

|l« 

•Sg-B 


o ^ 

2 *- 
05,0 v^ 

•3 H 

05 


»-< • 

3 w 
ft" 

8.-S 

33 

■ago 
0.2 


.2 ^ 

3 

• a 




Murder, nonnegligent manslaughter: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


13 
4.4 

7 
2.4 

53 
18.1 

18 
6.1 




2 
3.9 

1 

1.9 

17 
33.1 

18 
35.1 


6 
4.4 

5 
3.7 

18 
13.2 

22 
16.1 


2 

1.5 

62 
45.0 

25 
18.1 


5 
3.2 

3 
1.9 

39 
25.0 

27 
17.3 


28 
3.6 


Manslaughter by negligence: 


16 


Rate per 100,000.. 


2.1 


Robbery: 


189 


Rate per 100,000 


24.4 


Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 


110 
14.2 



1 No cities in this population group represented. 



45 



Table 35. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1937, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

MOUNTAIN STATES— Continued 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Group 
I 



Group 
II 



Group 
III 



Group 
IV 



Group 
V 



Group 
VI 



Total 



Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary — breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000- 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possess- 
ing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged . _ - 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution): 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



11 
3.8 



133 
45.4 



304 
103.7 



33 
11.3 



64 

21.8 



L3 

4.4 



i;r, 



22 
7.5 



50 
17.1 



58 
19.8 



31 
10.6 

407 
138.8 

45, 366 
15,472. 7 

1,606 
547.7 

2,918 
995.2 

( 2 ) 
( 2 ) 

183 
62.4 

1,692 
577.1 



18 
35.1 



56 

109.2 



118 
230.0 



14 
27.3 



4 
7.8 



16 
31.2 



14 
27.3 



21 
40.9 



1 
1.9 



5 

9.7 



97 
189.1 



1,552 
. 025. 3 



266 
518. 5 



1,153 
, 247. 6 



365 
711.5 



29 
56.5 



504 
982.5 



136 

99. 6 



158 
115.7 



618 
452.4 



40 
29.3 



15 
11.0 



35 

25.6 



16 
11.7 



451 
330.2 



21 

15.4 



3 

2.2 



50 
36.6 



73 

53.4 



240 
175.7 



21.421 
15,681.6 



637 
466.3 



4.692 
3, 434. 8 



897 

656.7 



87 
63.7 



1,249 
914.3 



316 

229.4 



172 
124.9 



424 
307.8 



61 
44.3 



16 
11.6 



11 
8.0 



106 

77.0 



25 
18.1 



22 
16.0 



13 
9.4 



84 
61.0 



317 
230.1 



13, 456 
9, 768. 8 



2,598 
1,886.1 



3,483 
2, 528. 6 



811 
588.8 



35.6 

689 

500.2 



71 
45.4 



174 
111.3 



272 
174.1 



64 
41.0 



20 

12.8 



5.8 



52 
33.3 



203 
129.9 



20 
12.8 



13 
8.3 



40 
25.6 



10 
6.4 



40 
25.6 



330 
211.2 



5,764 
3, 688. 5 



1,296 
829.3 



,267 
2, 730. 6 



706 
451.8 



302 
193.3 



552 
71.2 



693 

89.4 



1,736 
224.0 



249 
32.1 



150 
19.4 



167 
21.5 



73 

9.4 



3 681 
141.3 



169 
21.8 



105 
13.5 



191 
24.6 



34 

4.4 



233 
30.1 



1,391 
179.5 



87, 559 
11, 296. 3 



6,403 
826.1 



16, 513 
2, 130. 4 



' 2, 779 
576.7 



499 
64.4 



4,436 
572.3 



8 Figures for prostitution and commercialized vice and vagrancy were not separately listed on the report 
for this city. The combined figure for those classes is 1,852. 

3 Figures for prostitution and commercialized vice and vagrancy are based on reports of 41 cities with a 
total population of 481,912. 



46 

Table 36. — Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared 
by arrest, 1937, by population groups 

PACIFIC STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Population group 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Group I.— 3 cities over 250,000; total 


















population, 1,260,900: 


















Number of offenses known 


60 


174 


52 


1,107 


503 


6,095 


17, 200 


6,200 


Number cleared by arrest . 


46 


131 


40 


291 


389 


1,611 


2,729 


574 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


76.7 


75.3 


76.9 


26.3 


77.3 


26.4 


15.9 


9.3 


Group II.— 2 cities, 100,000 to 250,- 


















000; total population, 317,100: 


















Number of offenses known .. 


11 


22 


49 


163 


44 


395 


929 


1,162 


Number cleared by arrest 


11 


22 


41 


76 


34 


156 


231 


185 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


100.0 


100.0 


83.7 


46.6 


77.3 


39.5 


24.9 


15.9 


Group III— 5 cities, 50,000 to 100,- 


















000; total population, 403,367: 


















Number of offenses known 


12 


7 


29 


279 


93 


1,959 


6,294 


1,186 


Number cleared by arrest 


11 


7 


29 


100 


64 


585 


1,306 


251 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


91.7 


100.0 


100.0 


35.8 


68.8 


29.9 


20.7 


21.2 


Group IV.— 8 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; 


















total population, 255,700: 


















Number of offenses known 


10 


5 


12 


116 


26 


1,350 


3,079 


800 


Number cleared by arrest _ 


10 


6 


7 


57 


24 


338 


535 


141 


Percentage cleared bv arrest 


100.0 


120.0 


58.3 


49.1 


92.3 


25.0 


17.4 


17.6 


Group V— 23 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; 


















total population, 348,376: 


















Number of offenses known 


i 


9 


35 


128 


37 


1,434 


4,990 


1,228 


Number cleared by arrest 


6 


9 


33 


41 


34 


425 


892 


257 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


85.7 


100.0 


94.3 


32.0 


91.9 


29.6 


17.9 


20.9 


Group VI.— 67 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 354,800: 


















Number of offenses known 


12 


12 


37 


137 


106 


1,302 


3,677 


908 


Number cleared by arrest.. 


10 


10 


32 


60 


90 


403 


1,017 


264 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


83.3 


83.3 


86.5 


43.8 


84.9 


31.0 


27.7 


29.1 


Total, 108 cities; total population, 


















2,940,243: 


















Number of offenses known 


112 


229 


214 


1,930 


809 


12, 535 


36, 169 


11,484 


Number cleared by arrest 


94 


185 


182 


625 


635 


3,518 


6,710 


1,672 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


83.9 


80.8 


85.0 


32.4 


78.5 


28.1 


18.6 


14.6 



Table 37. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1937, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

PACIFIC STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 







Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 






ense charged 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 






Of 


o~ Cl- 
io o 
ess 

> H,o 

O o o 


S<k 

o"3 

O 0,0 

o o o 

o.O.^- 

o t> 


o ^^ 
°* rvco 

o"* 


_ 3 
§ Oo 
o og 

<*> ig 
0,0^ 


O OtO 
° °£ 

o a™ 

t=S oo 


2"§ 
So, 

3 Oo 


oo 
53 of 

' 3 P 

00.2 

.3 

•3 O. 

-5 ° 




s §nt 




■-§8.2 


•2Sfl 

« o .2 


ISA- 
'S «o .2 


+2 o -^ 




O O^H 


unw 














cc 


cs 


>o 


00 


a 


to 


EH 


Murder, nonnegligent manslaughter: 


















56 


9 


13 


10 


5 


13 


106 


Rate per 100,000 


4.4 


2.8 


3.2 


3.9 


1.4 


3.7 


3.6 


Manslaughter by negligence: 
















Number of persons charged 


113 


22 


5 


3 


6 


13 


162 


Rate per 100,000 


9.0 


6.9 


1.2 


1.2 


1.7 


3.7 


5.5 


Robbery: 
















Number of pe 
Rate per 100,0 




368 
29.2 


53 
16.7 


75 
18.6 


54 
21.1 


50 
14.4 


86 
24.2 


686 


00 


23.3 



47 



Table 37. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1937, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

PACIFIC STATES— Continued 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



O Sense charged 



Group 
1 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


Total 


368 
29.2 


30 
9.5 


56 
13.9 


59 
23.1 


44 
12.6 


87 
24.5 


644 
21.9 


755 
59.9 


286 
90.2 


316 
78.3 


120 
46.9 


203 
58.3 


225 
63.4 


1,905 
64.8 


812 
64.4 


122 
38.5 


353 
87.5 


270 
105.6 


250 
71.8 


347 
97.8 


2,154 
73.3 


2,891 
229.3 


416 
131.2 


888 
220.1 


538 
210.4 


596 
171.1 


712 

200.7 


6,041 
205.5 


547 
43.4 


94 
29.6 


190 
47.1 


176 
68.8 


196 
56.3 


185 
52.1 


1,388 
47.2 


300 
23.8 


93 
29.3 


99 
24.5 


49 
19.2 


77 
22.1 


55 
15.5 


673 
22.9 


111 
8.8 


38 
12.0 


13 
3.2 


2 
0.8 


16 
4.6 


43 

12.1 


223 
7.6 


348 
27.6 


106 
33.4 


112 

27.8 


95 
37.2 


72 
20.7 


134 
37.8 


867 
29.5 


39 
3.1 


28 
8.8 


26 
6.4 


11 

4.3 


26 
7.5 


25 
7.0 


155 
5.3 


3,047 
241.7 


1,047 
330.2 


219 
54.3 


53 
20.7 


200 
57.4 


68 
19.2 


4,634 
157.6 


195 
15.5 


82 
25.9 


187 
46.4 


74 
28.9 


49 

14.1 


70 
19.7 


657 
22.3 


685 
54.3 


9 
2.8 


43 
10.7 


10 
3.9 


18 
5.2 


21 
5.9 


786 
26.7 


179 
14.2 


48 
15. 1 


116 
28.8 


27 
10.6 


44 
12.6 


39 
11.0 


453 
15.4 


638 
50.6 


103 
32.5 


119 
29.5 


112 
43.8 


30 
8.6 


47 
13.2 


1,049 
35.7 


204 
16.2 


23 
7.3 


39 
9.7 


51 
19.9 


176 
50.5 


63 
17.8 


556 
18.9 


1,149 
91.1 


1,180 
372.1 


863 
213.9 


570 
222.9 


1,648 
473.1 


2,175 
613.0 


7,585 
258.0 


130, 879 
10,379.8 


i 33,909 
21,179.9 


46, 218 
11,458.1 


60,891 
23,813.5 


44,988 
12,913.6 


32, 509 
9, 162. 6 


2 349,394 
12, 553. 5 


2.393 
189.8 


1,269 
400.2 


839 

208.0 


792 
309.7 


1,123 
322.4 


1,485 
418.5 


7,901 
268.7 


52, 302 
4, 148. 


10, 750 
3, 390. 1 


3,797 
941.3 


7.140 
2, 792. 3 


9,582 
2, 750. 5 


9,945 
2, 803. 


93, 516 
3, 180. 6 


12, 718 
1, 008. 6 


1,937 
610.8 


5,440 
1,348.6 


1,729 
676.2 


3,193 
916.5 


2,300 
648.3 


27,317 
929.1 


12. 990 
1, 030. 2 


347 
109.4 


177 
43.9 


85 
33.2 


265 
76.1 


266 
75.0 


14,130 
480.6 


11,050 
876.4 


3,317 
1, 046. 


1,556 
385.8 


1,450 
567.1 


1,627 
467. 


1,166 
328.6 


20, 166 
685.9 



Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary— breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possess- 
ing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution): 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



1 2 The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports of the number of cities indicated 
below: i 1 city, 160,100 population; 2 107 cities, 2,783,243 population. 



DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

Persons Arrested Outside of State of Birth, 1937. 

The decennial census of 1930 indicates that 23.4 percent of the 
native population of the United States resides in a State different from 
the State of birth. However, the following table shows that 49.4 
percent of the persons arrested and fingerprinted were at the time 
outside of their State of birth. This means that more than one- 
fourth of the persons arrested and fingerprinted throughout the 
United States are transients in the sense that they have moved from 
one State to another (this is in excess of the normal interstate move- 
ment amounting to 23.4 percent, as shown by the 1930 decennial 
census). It is doubtless true that the proportion of transients among 
persons arrested in the larger cities is considerably higher than is 
indicated by the following tabulation, since there will be persons who 
were in the status of transients even though they did not come from 
outside of the State. 

Table 38. — Number of cases in which persons were arrested outside of State of 
birth, Jan. 1-Dec. 81, 1987 

Total born in 
United States 

Part I and Part II offense classes (all violations of State laws and 
municipal ordinances) : 

Number of arrest records examined 478, 640 

Number of arrests outside of State of birth 236, 266 

Percentage of arrests outside of State of birth 49. 4 

Part I offenses (murder, manslaughter by negligence, rape, robbery, 
aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft) : 

Number of arrest records examined 152, 500 

Number of arrests outside of State of birth 64, 845 

Percentage of arrests outside of State of birth 42. 5 

Part II offenses (all State and municipal violations except those in 
Part I) : 

Number of arrest records examined 326, 140 

Number of arrests outside of State of birth 171, 421 

Percentage of arrests outside of State of birth 52. 6 

Note. — Excluded from the foregoing tabulation are those persons whose place of birth was shown to be 
outside of the continental United States, and also those whose place of birth was not known at the time of 
their arrest. In addition, fingerprint cards which did not include information concerning the offense charged 
were excluded. 

(48) 



OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in Part I and 
Part II offenses, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 

Part I Offenses. 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter includes 
all felonious homicides except those caused by negligence. Does not include 
attempts to kill, assaults to kill, justifiable homicides, suicides, or accidental 
deaths. (6) Manslaughter by negligence includes only those cases in which 
death is caused by culpable negligence which is so clearly evident that if the 
person responsible for the death were apprehended he would be prosecuted for 
manslaughter. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape, assault to rape, and attempted 
rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as highway robbery, stick-ups, robbery 
armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or theft. Includes attempted 
burglary and assault to commit a burglar}-. Burglar}- followed by a larceny is 
entered here and is not counted again under larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value. 
(b) Under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of property stolen, pocket-picking, purse-snatching, shoplifting, 
or any stealing of property or thing of value which is not taken by force and vio- 
lence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" games, forgery, 
passing worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven 
away and abandoned, including the so-called "joy-riding" thefts. Does not 
include taking for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unau- 
thorized use by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses. 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which is 
made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false pretenses. 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing.— Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those offenses. 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of regulations 
or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing and manufactur- 
ing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes or 
regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commer- 
cialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as, prostitution, keeping 
bawdy house, procuring, transporting or detaining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice). — In- 
cludes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

15. Offenses against the family and children.- — Includes offenses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, sale, or use. Exclude Federal offenses. 

(49) 



50 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "Drunkenness" (class 18) and "Driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations, State or local, are placed in 
this class. Exclude Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage; begging; loitering; etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regulations with 
respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters but not in connection with any specific offense and who are released 
without formal charges being placed against them. 

o 



S 



"I'Hr 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume IX — Number 2 
SECOND QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1938 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1938 



ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE ON UNIFORM CRIME RECORDS 

OF THE 

INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHIEFS OF POLICE 

(ii) 

■AUG 24 193 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department of 
Justice, Washington, D. C. 

Volume 9 July 1938 Number 2 



CONTENTS 

Summary. 

Classification of offenses. 
Extent of reporting area. 
Monthly returns: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population (table 
39). 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1931-38 (table 40). 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location (tables 
41-42). 

Data for individual cities over 100,000 in population (table 43). 

Offenses known to sheriffs and State police (table 44) . 

Offenses known in territories and possessions (table 45). 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 46-48) . 

Relation between number of police employees and crime rates, 1937 (table 
49). 

Number of police employees, 1937 (tables 50-52). 
Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1938: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 53) . 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 54-55). 

Number with records showing previous convictions (table 56). 

SUMMARY 

Increase in Crimes Against Property. 

With the exception of auto theft, crimes against property increased 
during the first half of 1938. Robberies increased 5.2 percent, bur- 
glaries 4.7 percent, and larcenies 4.3 percent as compared with the 
first half of 1937. 

Although the increases were moderate, they represent a continuation 
of an upward trend previously evidenced in 1937. Compared with 
figures for 1936, the 1938 figures represent the following increases: 
Robbery 21.9 percent, burglary 16.9 percent, larceny 21.8 percent. 

Decrease in Crimes Against Persons. 

To somewhat counterbalance the increase in crimes against property* 
there were decreases in the number of murders, manslaughters, rapes, 
and other felonious assaults during the first half of 1938. However, 
the 1938 rape figure is higher than for all preceding years except 1937. 
There is some indication that complete figures for the entire Nation 
will show the 1938 figure is in excess of 1937. 
Distribution of Crimes. 

Fifty-five percent of the crimes were larcenies, 23.6 percent bur- 
glaries, 13.0 percent auto thefts, and 4.3 percent robberies, making a 
total of 95.9 percent committed for the purpose of obtaining property. 
The remaining 4.1 percent consisted of homicides, rapes, and other 
felonious assaults. 

(51) 



52 

Approximately one-half of the places burglarized were residences, 
36 percent of which were entered in the daytime. With reference to 
both residence and nonresidence burglaries, it was found that 22 per- 
cent occurred during the daytime. 

Thirteen percent of the larcenies involved theft of property valued 
in excess of $50 ; 64 percent involved property ranging from $5 to $50 
in value; and the property was valued at less than $5 in the remaining 
23 percent of the thefts. 

Recoveries of stolen automobiles amounted to 96 percent. 
Geographic Division of Crime Rates. 

The crime information has been arranged to make it possible to make 
comparisons between local data and average figures for cities of the 
same size located in the same section of the United States. National 
averages for cities grouped by size are also presented. 
Crime Rates and Number of Police Employees. 

Cities with the larger number of police employees reported the lower 
crime rates. Group I cities had an average of 2.0 police per 1,000 
inhabitants, whereas group II cities had 1.2. Group II cities reported 
43 percent more murders, 17 percent more robberies, 25 percent more 
aggravated assaults, 25 percent more burglaries, and 38 percent more 
larcenies than the group I cities. Police personnel figures for indi- 
vidual cities are shown herein. 

Persons Arrested. 

Fingerprint cards representing 288,264 arrests during the first half 
of 1938 reveal that 18.9 percent of the persons arrested were under 21 
years of age. There were more arrests for age 21 than for any other 
single age group. 

The records revealed that 83,073 of the persons arrested had pre- 
viously been convicted of 213,149 crimes. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to 
the police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting 
or court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following 
group of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be 
those most generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal 
homicide, including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (6) 
manslaughter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; 
burglary — breaking or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The 
figures contained herein include also the number of attempted crimes 
of the designated classes. Attempted murders, however, are reported 
as aggravated assaults. In other words, an attempted burglary or 
robbery, for example, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner 
as if the crime had been completed. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the police depart- 
ments of contributing cities and not merely arrests or cleared cases. 
Complaints which upon investigation are learned to be groundless are 
not included in the tabulations which follow. 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in 
each group, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 



53 



1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligemt manslaughter — includes 
all felonious homicides except those caused by negligence. Does not include 
attempts to kill, assaults to kill, justifiable homicides, suicides, or accidental 
deaths. (6) Manslaughter by negligence — -includes only those cases in which 
death is caused by culpable negligence which is so clearly evident that if the 
person responsible for the death were apprehended he would be prosecuted for 
manslaughter. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape, assault to rape, and attempted 
rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as highway robbery, stick-ups, robbery 
armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or theft. Includes attempted 
burglary and assault to commit a burglary. Burglary followed by a larceny is 
entered here and is not counted again under larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value, (b) 
Under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of the property stolen, pocket-picking, purse-snatching, shop- 
lifting, or any stealing of property or thing of value which is not taken by force 
and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" games, forgery, 
passing worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven 
away and abandoned, including the so-called "joy-riding" thefts. Does not 
include taking for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unau- 
thorized use by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of crime 
and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 
Extent of Reporting Area. 

In the table which follows there is shown the number of police 
departments from which one or more crime reports have been received 
during the first 6 months of 1938. Information is presented for the 
cities divided according to size. The population figures employed 
are estimates as of July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census for 
cities with population in excess of 10,000. No estimates were avail- 
able, however, for those with a smaller number of inhabitants and, 
accordingly, for them the figures listed in the 1930 decennial census 
were used. 

The growth in the crime-reporting area is evidenced by the following 
figures for the first 6 months of 1933-38: 



Year 


Cities 


Population 


Year 


Cities 


Population 


1933- 


1,606 
1,645 
1,949 


54, 208, 740 
62,319,945 
63, 270, 583 


1936 

1937 

1938 


2,189 
2,278 
2,512 


64, 648, 798 


1934 


65, 241, 398 


1935 


66,669,040 









The foregoing comparison shows that during the first half of 1938 
there was an increase of 234 cities as compared with the corresponding 
period of 1937, the population represented for those cities being 
1,417,642. 



54 



In addition to the 2,512 city and village police departments which 
submitted crime reports during 1938, one or more reports were re- 
ceived during that period from 1,397 sheriffs and State police organiza- 
tions and from 8 agencies in possessions of the United States. This 
makes a grand total of 3,917 agencies contributing crime reports 
during 1938. 



Population group 


Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 


Cities filing 
returns 


Total pop- 
ulation 


Population repre- 
sented in returns 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


983 


904 


92.0 


60, 281, 688 


58,613,319 


97.2 


1. Cities over 250,000 


37 

57 
104 
191 
594 


37 
57 
100 
175 
535 


100.0 
100.0 
96.2 
91.6 
90.1 


29, 695, 500 
7, 850, 31>2 
6, 980, 407 
6, 638, 544 
9,116,925 


29, 695, 500 
7,850,312 
6, 714, 074 
6,083,968 
8, 269, 465 


100.0 


2 Cities 100,000 to 250,000.. . 


100.0 


3. Cities 50,000 to 100,000 


96.2 


4. Cities 25,000 to 50,000 


91.6 


5. Cities 10,000 to 25,000 


90.7 







Note. — The above table does not include 1,608 cities and rural townships aggregating a total population 
of 8,045,721. The cities included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 population filing returns whereas 
the rural townships are of varying population groups. 



MONTHLY RETURNS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population. 

Table 39 shows the number of offenses known to the police during 
the first half of 1938 as reported by the police departments in 1,832 
cities with a combined population of 60,324,269. The information is 
also presented for the cities divided into six groups according to size. 
This compilation makes it possible for police executives to compare 
their local crime rates with the national average for cities of approxi- 
mately the same size. In table 42 is presented information which 
makes it possible to compare local crime data with average figures 
for cities of the same size located in the same section of the United 
States. 

Table 39 reveals that 55 percent of the crimes consisted of larcenies, 
23.6 percent burglaries, 13.0 percent auto theft and 4.3 percent rob- 
beries. This means that 95.9 percent of the crimes listed in the 
compilation were primarily offenses against property. The remaining 
4.1 percent of the crimes consisted of homicides, rapes and felonious 
assaults, such as assault with a deadly weapon. 

Most of the cities represented in table 39 furnished information 
concerning the value of the property stolen in connection with offenses 
of larceny. A compilation showing the larcenies divided according to 
the value of the property stolen reveals the following figures: 



Population group 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and over 
in value 



Under $50 
in value 



32 cities over 250,000; total population 20,606,300: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate Per 100,000 

52 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total population 7,255,212 
Number of offenses known 

Rate Per 100,000 - 



10, 792 
52.4 



3,214 
44.3 



74,816 
363. 1 



31, 446 
433.4 



There were 120,268 larcenies classified according to the value of 
property involved, and the preceding figures reveal that 14,006 
(11.6 percent) were cases in which the value of the property stolen 
exceeded $50. 

(55) 



56 



Table 39. — Offenses known to the police, January to June, inclusive, 1938; number 
and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 

35 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 29,003,500: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 . 

GROUP II 

54 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,518,912: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP III 

88 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total popu- 
lation, 5,945,381: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP IV 

154 cities 25,000 to 50,000; total popu- 
lation, 5.335,992: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 - 

GROUP v 

454 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total popu- 
lation, 7,028,578: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP VI 

1,047 cities under 10,000; total popu- 
lation: 5,491,906: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

Total 1,832 cities; total population, 
60,324,269: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Criminal 
homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



757 
2.6 



278 
3.7 



168 
2.8 



119 

1.7 



106 

1.9 



1,517 
2.5 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



s 184 
2.5 



111 
1.9 



63 

1.2 



55 
1.0 



4 1, 260 
2.2 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



1,482 
5.1 



231 
3.1 



222 
3.7 



163 
3.1 



201 
2.9 



217 
4.0 



2,516 
4.2 



12, 046 
41.5 



2,189 
29.1 



1,661 
27.9 



904 
16.9 



vated 
assault 



6,557 
22.6 



2,066 
27.9 



1,553 
26.1 



866 
16.2 



1, 003 1, 030 

14.3 14.7 



647 701 

11.8 12.8 



18,450 
30.6 



6 12,773 
21.2 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



2 39,762 
182.0 



15, 777 
209.8 



11,055 
185.9 



8,844 
165.7 



9,000 
128.0 



5,986 
109.0 



90,424 
170.1 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



2 91,571 
419.1 



35, 772 

475.8 



27, 033 

454.7 



20,978 
393.1 



23, 271 
331.1 



11,838 
215.6 



6 210, 463 
395.8 



Auto 
theft 



2 25, 037 
114.6 



8,170 
108.7 



5,574 
93.8 



4,446 
83.3 



4,078 
58.0 



2,241 
40.8 



6 49, 546 
93.2 



1 The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports of 33 cities with a 
total population of 27,275,300. 

2 The number of offenses and rate for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on reports of 34 cities 
with a total population of 21,849,200. 

3 The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence and aggravated assault are based on 
reports of 53 cities with a total population of 7,395,412. 

4 The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports of 1,829 cities with 
a total population of 58,472,569. 

6 The number of offenses and rate for aggravated assault are based on reports of 1,831 cities with a total 
population of 60,200,769. 

6 The number of offenses and rate for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on reports of 1,831 cities 
with a total population of 53,169,969. 



57 

Annual Trends, Offenses Known to the Police, 1931-38. 

In table 40 there are shown annual variations in the number of 
crimes committed. The compilation is based on reports received 
from the police departments of 64 cities for the period January-June 
1931-38. Each of the cities reporting has a population in excess of 
100,000 and the combined population is 18,411,602. 

The information presented in table 40 makes it possible for the 
police executive to compare local crime trends with national trends 
and to readily detect any instances in which annual variations in 
crime in his community differ from trends for the entire Nation as 
indicated by this representative group of larger cities. Those desiring 
to compare local trends with the tendencies indicated by a group of 
cities located in the same section of the United States may desire to 
examine the figures shown in table 42 as compared with similar figures 
for prior years. 

The figures in table 40 reveal that during the first half of 1938 as 
compared with the same period of 1937, there have been decreases 
in homicides, rapes, aggravated assaults, and auto thefts. On the 
other hand, there have been increases in robberies, burglaries, and 
larcenies. It is interesting to observe that all crimes committed 
primarily for the purpose of obtaining property showed increases 
with the exception of auto theft, whereas all crimes against the person 
showed decreases. 

With reference to rape, however, it may be noted that the 1938 
figure is higher than for all previous years with the exception of 1937. 
Furthermore, the information shown in table 39 when compared with 
similar compilations for the first half of 1937 indicates that when all 
sizes of cities are considered, there is an increase in rapes during 1938. 

With reference to the extent of change in the number of crimes 
against property during the first half of the years 1937 and 1938, it 
may be noted that auto thefts decreased from 23,521 to 19,929. 
This decrease amounts to 15.3 percent. On the other hand, the 
robbery figures increased from 6,146 to 6,463, burglary from 30,979 
to 32,422, and larceny from 81,531 to 85,046. The proportion of 
increase in the number of each of those types of crimes is as follows: 
Robbery, 5.2 percent; burglary, 4.7 percent; and larceny, 4.3 percent. 
Although the percentage of increase in those types of crimes was 
somewhat moderate, it may be significant to note that the increase 
during 1938 was a continuation of an earlier increase shown in the 
1937 figures as compared with 1936. If the 1938 figures are compared 
with those for 1936, the following increases are revealed: Robbery, 
21.9 percent; burglary, 16.9 percent; and larceny, 21.8 percent. It 
should be noted, however, that the 1936 figures for those crimes 
were lower than for any other of the years represented in the tabulation. 

The information presented in table 40 is also shown in figure 3. 



85583°— 38- 



58 



Table 40. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 64 cities over 100,000 in 

■population, January to June, inclusive, 1931-38 

[Total population, 18,411,602, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny- 
theft 




Year 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Number of offenses known: 
1931 


737 
703 
713 
648 
615 
546 
599 
536 

4.1 
3.9 
3.9 
3.6 
3.4 
3.0 
3.3 
3.0 


681 
629 
452 
580 
374 
339 
478 
361 

3.8 
3.5 
2.5 
3.2 
2.1 
1.9 
2.6 
2.0 


552 
569 
639 
619 
770 
690 
875 
825 

3.0 
3.1 
3.5 
3.4 
4.3 
3.8 
4.8 
4.6 


9,847 
8,938 
8,468 
6,800 
6,649 
5,303 
6, 146 
6,463 

54.4 
49.1 
46.8 
37.6 
36.7 
29.1 
34.0 
35.7 


4,696 
4,104 
4,892 
4,574 
4,595 
4,739 
4,779 
4,299 

25.9 
22.5 
27.0 
25.3 
25.4 
26.0 
26.4 
23.8 


32, 682 
34, 897 
34, 616 
32, 977 
34, 024 
27, 731 
30, 979 
32, 422 

180.6 
191.7 
191.2 
182.2 
188.0 
152.4 
171.2 
179.1 


72, 278 
71, 258 
75, 449 
75, 153 
77, 670 
69, 823 
81, 531 
85, 046 

399.3 
391.5 
416.8 
415.2 
429.1 
383.6 
450.4 
469.9 


43, 599 
35 736 


1932 


1933 


32, 677 
29 416 


1934 


1935 


27 450 


1936 


21 727 


1937 


23 521 


1938 


19, 929 
240.9 


Daily average: 

1931 


1932 


196 4 


1933 


180.5 


1934 


162.5 


1935 . 


151.7 


1936 


119.4 


1937 

1938 


130.0 
110.1 



Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location. 

In table 41 there is presented information regarding the number of 
police departments whose reports were employed in the preparation 
of figures for crime rates for the nine geographic divisions of the 
United States, as well as in preparing the data shown in table 39. 
This information is included here primarily in order to supplement 
the figures shown in table 42, since it indicates the number of con- 
tributors whose reports were employed in preparing the crime rates 
for each of the population groups within each of the nine geographic 
divisions. 

Table 41. — Number of cities included in the tabulation of uniform crime reports, 
January to June, inclusive, 1938 





Population 


Division and State 


Group 
I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 






Over 
250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


Total 


GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England: 164 cities; total population, 
5,492,108 


2 

6 

8 

4 

3 

3 

3 

1 
5 


11 
9 

10 

5 

6 

3 

5 

1 
4 


10 

20 

23 

7 

13 

2 

5 

2 
6 


27 
27 
48 
10 
13 
3 
6 

6 

14 


58 

129 

97 

53 

25 

IS 

24 

15 
35 


56 

293 

269 

143 

66 

21 

60 

55 
84 


164 


Middle Atlantic: 484 cities; total population, 
18,299,862 


484 


East North Central: 455 cities; total popula- 
tion, 15,459,914 


455 


West North Central: 222 cities; total popula- 
tion, 4,989,609 


222 


South Atlantic: 1 126 cities; total population, 
4,403,991 


126 


East South Central: 50 cities; total popula- 
tion, 1,845,223 


50 


West South Central: 103 cities; total popula- 
tion, 3,155,686 


103 


Mountain: 80 cities; total population, 
1,264,028 


80 


Pacific: 148 cities; total population, 5,413,848.. 


148 






1 Includes report of District of Columbia. 



59 

The information presented in table 42 has been made available in 
order to make it possible for the police executive to compare the local 



m 
a 

(X 
H 



MJ.J 

o£ 
— o 

O 1 

ui 

(- o 
O <t> 



O 

< 

< 



o 



UJ [ 

tn - 



O 




crime rates not only with the general average for the entire country 
as shown in table 39, but also with the average crime rates for cities 
of approximately the same size in the same section of the United States. 



60 



Table 42. — Number of offenses known to the police -per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to June, inclusive, 1938, by geographic divisions and population groups 



Geographic division and population group 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


New England: 

Group I . 


0.2 
.9 
.4 
.2 
.4 

1.7 
.6 

1.8 
1.8 
1.5 
1.1 
.9 
.7 
1.5 

2.3 

2.5 
1.1 

.8 
1. 1 

.4 
1.8 

2.2 
2.0 
1.6 
1.5 
1.2 
.8 
1.7 

5.7 
8.4 
8.2 
6.2 
6. 1 
8.7 
7.0 

9.2 
15.4 
5.9 
9.0 
7.1 
13.9 
10.2 

9.0 

6.7 
6.4 
7.2 
5.5 
5.8 
7.2 

1.4 
2.8 
17.6 
1.9 
.5 
3.0 
3.2 

2.0 
1.3 

.4 
.7 
1.1 
1.8 
1.6 


21.9 
9.7 
9.5 
7.0 
5.1 
3.6 

10.3 

14.4 
11.1 
18.8 
10.8 
9.7 
8.9 
13.4 

74.7 
35.7 
35.5 
18.5 
21.8 
13.0 
50.6 

39.2 
20.4 
20.1 
14.4 
13.2 
11.0 
25.1 

56.8 
57.2 
40.6 
22.7 
26.4 
15.6 
44.5 

67.9 
43.8 
8.4 
37.8 
14.2 
18.2 
46.7 

22.9 
55.1 
22.5 
29.7 
17.9 
17.0 
30.9 

38.9 
31.2 
100.8 
25.7 
20.3 
12.6 
31.4 

53.8 
24.7 
35.3 
26.4 
14.8 
16.9 
40.2 


9.9 
7.0 
1.9 
2.0 
4.7 
1.9 
5.3 

20.8 
13.2 
16.9 
10.1 
7.6 
6.7 
16.8 

18.4 
19.5 
10.2 
7.3 
6.1 
8.6 
14.4 

6.9 
11.5 
5.9 
2.4 
8.5 
4.9 
7.1 

50.0 
107.3 
103.0 

86.8 
102.2 

71.4 

80.5 

86.5 
84.3 
6.7 
94.4 
48.8 
47.0 
73.2 

37.0 
37.2 
50.8 
34.3 
26.2 
22.2 
35.4 

8.5 
7.6 
21.5 
10.7 
6.5 
8.3 
9.4 

19.1 
10.9 
6.6 
8.4 
5.1 
12.8 
14.5 


72.6 
200.3 
137.1 
147.1 
94.9 
77.8 
132.5 

181.0 

120.9 
154.3 
111.3 
79.4 
72.8 
2 95. 8 

187.2 
183.9 
167.0 
146.2 
151.8 
100.3 
169.2 

124.4 
124.1 
176.4 
144.6 
128.7 
108.7 
129.2 

231.3 

358.2 
230.5 
246.9 
180. 5 
174.0 
246. 1 

354.9 
< 189. 6 
100.8 
214.3 
111.9 
154.9 
5 248. 8 

204.7 
307.4 
200.6 
170.3 
195.5 
158.3 
224.5 

154.8 
249.7 
423.7 
271.6 
165.4 
146.9 
206.3 

299.2 
251.3 
302.9 
265.8 
211.7 
165. 1 
272.4 


201.6 
304.4 
236.1 
237.3 
217.1 
148.2 
239.1 

i 165. 9 
237.9 
212.0 
209.1 
159.7 
123.3 

2 176. 4 

427.2 
480.6 
402.5 
381.6 
300.6 
164.9 
338.5 

426.1 
432.4 
498.1 
417.6 
388.8 
194.6 
394.9 

530.2 
839.4 
680.3 
745.4 
477.8 
300.0 
613.6 

402.3 
453.0 
357.7 
634.0 
344.6 
165.6 
405.0 

651.7 

728. 1 
692.4 
741.2 
451.9 
286.9 
619.8 

299.5 

452.8 
1, 023. 5 
370.2 
855.6 
409.2 
508.7 

683.2 
627.2 
959.3 
593.6 
778.7 
541.8 
691. 1 


171.9 


Group II __ 


96.8 


Group III __ ._. 


63.9 


Group IV 


58.4 


Group V __ . 


30.2 


Group VI ..... 


24.7 


Total, groups I-VI 


83.9 


Middle Atlantic: 

Group I .. . _. 


'95.8 


Group II . 


65.3 


Group III 


76.8 


Group IV.. _ 


54.1 


Group V.. . 


42.6 


Group VI 


26.6 


Total, groups I-VI 


2 67. 4 


East North Central: 

Group I .. 


66.6 


Group II .. . 


113.2 


Group III ... . _. 


94.3 


Group IV _______ 


75.8 


Group V. _ ... ... 


58.4 


Group VI 


38.1 


Total, groups I-VI .. . 


71.0 


West North Central: 

Group I . _ . 


92.5 


Group II 


77.3 


Group III _. 


109.7 


GroupIV 


89.3 


Group V . . 


64.5 


Group VI . ... ... ... 


40.0 


Total, groups I-VI 


80.1 


South Atlantic: 3 

Groupl . . 


169.2 


Group II ._ ... . ... _ 


164.7 


Group III ._. 


96.7 


GroupIV . ... 


94.2 


Group V .. . .. . 


61.8 


Group VI 


61.8 


Total, groups I-VI . 


128.9 


East South Central: 

Groupl ... . . . 


107.0 


Group II . ... -._ 


168.1 


Group III 


78.9 


GroupIV 


109.2 


Group V 


60.4 


Group VI ._ __ 


37.4 


Total, groups I-VI 


108.0 


West South Central: 

Groupl . 


95.6 


Group II 


108.5 


Group III .. . 


86.1 


GroupIV... ... ._ . 


131.5 


Group V ... .... 


57.9 


Group VI 


29.8 


Total, groups I-VI 


89.0 


Mountain : 

Groupl . 


95.5 


Group II 


172.7 


GroupIII 


261.3 


GroupIV 


202.6 


Group V _. _. ._ 


122.1 


Group VI .. 


60.4 


Total, groups I-VI... 


131.3 


Pacific: 

Groupl .. 


244.9 


Group II 


129.2 


GroupIII _ 


137.7 


GroupIV . 


129.1 


Group V .. .. 


126.6 


Group VI __ __ 


92.1 


Total, groups I-VI. _ . .. . 


190.5 







1 The rates for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on the reports of 5 cities. 2 The rates for bur- 
glary, larceny, and auto theft are based on the reports of 483 cities. 3 Includes the District of Columbia. 

4 The rate for aggravated assault is based on the reports of 2 cities. 6 The rate for aggravated assault is 
based on the reports of 49 cities. 



61 

Data for Individual Cities With More than 100,000 Inhabitants. 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the second quarter of 1938 is shown in table 43. ^ The compilation 
has been limited to the reports received from police departments in 
cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. Such data are included 
here in order that interested individuals and organizations may have 
readily available up-to-date information concerning the amount of 
crime committed in their communities. Police administrators and 
other interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare 
the crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in table 39 
of this publication. Similarly, they wall doubtless desire to make 
comparisons with the figures for their communities for prior periods, 
in order to determine whether there has been an increase or a decrease 
in the amount of crime committed. 

With reference to the possibility of comparing the amount of crime 
in one city with the amount of reported crime in other individual 
communities, it is suggested that such comparisons be made with a 
great deal of caution, because differences in the figures may be due to a 
great variety of factors. The amount of crime committed in a com- 
munity is not chargeable to the police but is rather a charge against 
the entire community. The following is a list of some of the factors 
which might affect the amount of crime in a community: The com- 
position of the population with reference particularly to age, sex, and 
race; the economic status and activities of the population; climate; 
educational, recreational, and religious facilities; the number of police 
employees per unit of population; the standards governing appoint- 
ments to the police force ; the policies of the prosecuting officials and 
the courts; the attitude of the public toward law-enforcement prob- 
lems. Comparisons between the crime rates of individual cities 
should not be made without giving consideration to the above- 
mentioned factors. It should be noted that it is more important to 
determine whether the figures for a given community show increases 
or decreases in the amount of crime committed than to ascertain 
whether the figures are above or below those of some other community. 

In examining a compilation of crime figures for individual communi- 
ties it should be borne in mind that in view of the fact that the data are 
compiled by different record departments operating under separate 
and distinct administrative systems, it is entirely possible that there 
may be variations in the practices employed in classifying complaints 
of offenses. On the other hand, the crime reporting manual has been 
distributed to all contributors of crime reports and the figures received 
are included in this bulletin only if they apparently have been compiled 
in accordance with the provisions of the manual, and the individual 
department has so indicated. 



62 

Table 43. — Number of offenses known to the police, April to June, inclusive, 1938, 
cities over 100,000 in population 



City 



Akron, Ohio 

Albany, N. Y 

Atlanta, Ga 

Baltimore, Md 

Birmingham, Ala 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Cambridge, Mass 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 

Chattanooga, Tenn 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Columbus, Ohio 

Dallas, Tex 

Dayton, Ohio 

Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Detroit, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 

Elizabeth, N. J 

El Paso, Tex 

Evansville, Ind 

Fall River, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Gary, Ind 

Grand Rapids, Mich_. 

Hartford, Conn 

Honolulu, Hawaii 

Houston, Tex 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Kansas City, Kans 

Kansas City, Mo 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Long Beach, Calif 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn 

Miami, Fla 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Nashville, Tenn 

Newark, N.J 

New Bedford, Mass— . 

New Haven, Conn 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N. Y 

Norfolk, Va 

Oakland, Calif 

Oklahoma City, Okla_ 

Omaha, Nebr 

Paterson, N. J 

Peoria, III 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Oreg 

Providence, R. I 

Reading, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif—. 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Somerville, Mass 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



1 Larcenies not separately reported. 

2 Not reported. 



Robbery 



17 

5 

77 

144 

37 

88 

11 

23 

7 

6 

22 

23 

,469 

115 

235 

129 

23 

23 

44 

14 

369 

6 

10 

16 

16 

2 

22 

10 

18 

12 

9 

2 

3 

54 

19 

32 

131 

4 

14 

413 

106 

2 

10 

157 

52 

14 

49 



4 

6 

32 

298 

35 

66 

35 

10 

12 

3 

164 

106 

72 



51 

7 
110 
19 
30 
70 
21 
162 

3 
55 

2 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



39 
7 
99 
213 
22 
55 



(?) 



35 
6 
16 
15 

'351 

101 

53 

20 

39 

4 

15 

4 

209 

2 

10 

18 

3 

1 

40 

1 

7 

43 

4 

21 

8 

84 

25 

21 

17 

10 

10 

114 

154 

4 

1 

245 

136 

14 

15 

122 

164 

2 

1 

97 

767 

40 

45 

44 

12 

17 

13 

192 

74 

6 



155 

10 

20 

3 

6 

60 

8 

116 

18 

23 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



250 

42 
467 
628 
359 
282 

88 
124 

91 

37 

96 
118 
2,869 
532 
676 
655 
469 
177 
188 
109 
1,275 

14 
110 
104 

94 
106 
207 

96 
199 

73 
163 
262 
142 
423 
263 
176 
335 

95 

231 

1,851 

661 

42 
191 
392 
285 
149 
280 
110 
239 
137 
201 
114 
703 
175 
391 
302 

36 

78 

19 
486 
434 
428 

82 

72 
397 
168 
305 
168 
191 
277 

78 
589 

70 
644 

31 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



57 
13 
91 

235 
64 

193 
37 
79 
17 
24 
(') 
8 

776 

143 
93 

140 
30 
10 
58 
39 

219 

30 

20 

4 

10 

9 

41 

32 

17 

7 

15 

38 

35 

49 

106 
18 

41 

74 

1,000 

297 

9 

16 

26 

66 

59 

136 

0) 



21 
49 
46 

19 
51 
145 



( 2 ) 



(') 



221 
121 
190 
17 
17 
85 
33 

38 

22 
81 
19 

263 
21 

100 
13 



Under 
$50 



279 
121 
873 
790 
231 
706 
1.53 
600 
129 
61 
243 
268 

2,882 

1, 105 

2,971 
752 

1,434 
575 
291 
426 

5,787 
320 
204 
297 
297 
90 
576 
519 
636 
123 
504 
412 
371 

1,180 
563 
211 
588 
224 
492 

3,592 
713 
64 
261 
269 
336 

1,099 
892 
292 
937 
293 
318 
160 

( 2 ) 
328 
887 
565 
128 
38 
12 
504 
343 

1,004 
172 
143 
930 
532 

2,102 
304 
293 
5S2 
199 

1, 669 

174 

794 

38 



Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



63 



Table 43. — Number of offenses known to the police, April to June, inclusive, 1988, 
cities over 100,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Auto 
theft 



South Bend, Ind-_- 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, Mass. . 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo, Ohio 

Trenton, N.J 

Tulsa, Okla 

Utica, N. Y 

Washington, D. C. 

Wichita, Kans 

Wilmington, DeL.- 
Worcester, Mass... 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, Ohio. 



11 
5 
5 
9 
8 
4 

65 
4 

60 

2 

113 

3 

11 

11 
4 

57 



133 
4 
18 
11 
5 
33 



139 
185 
125 
107 

86 

93 
393 
157 
314 

53 
456 

97 
158 
150 

41 
ISO 



15 
42 
27 
31 
6 
21 
95 
23 
62 
20 
166 
14 
45 
52 
5 
17 



82 
551 
321 
259 
300 
162 
705 
201 
633 
1S1 
1.683 
407 
175 

69 
110 
330 



23 
77 
50 
82 
44 
11 

152 
42 
60 
30 

430 
23 
48 
79 
45 

131 



Offenses Known to Sheriffs, State Police, and Other Rural Officers, 1938. 
In compiling and publishing national crime data, the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation distinguishes between urban and rural crimes. 
The figures presented in the preceding table are based on reports from 
a large majority of the agencies policing urban areas (places with 
2,500 or more inhabitants). Comprehensive data regarding rural 
crimes are not yet available, but the information on hand is shown in 
table 44, which is based on reports from 650 sheriffs, 75 police agencies 
in rural villages, and 6 State police organizations. 

Table 44. — Offenses known, January to June, inclusive, 1988, as reported by 650 
sheriffs, 6 State police organizations, and 75 village officers 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 



sault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



Auto 
theft 



Offenses known _ 



805 1, 420 



11,339 16,412 



3,344 



Offenses Known in Territories and Possessions of the United States. 

In table 45 there are shown available data concerning the number of 
offenses known to law-enforcement agencies in Territories and pos- 
sessions of the United States. The tabulation includes reports from 
Honolulu (city and county), Territory of Hawaii; the Canal Zone; 
and Puerto Rico. The figures are based on both urban and rural 
areas and the population figures from the 1930 decennial census are 
indicated in the table. 



64 



Table 45. — Number of offenses known in United States Territories and Possessions, 
January to June, inclusive, 1938 

[Population figures from Federal Census, Apr. 1, 1930] 





Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated as- 
sault 


Bur. 
glary— 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny — theft 


Auto 
theft 


Jurisdiction reporting 


Over 
$50 


Under 
$50 


Hawaii: 

Honolulu City, population, 137,582; 

number of offenses known ... .. 

Honolulu County, population, 65,- 

341; number of offenses known 

Isthmus of Panama: Canal Zone, popu- 
lation, 39,367; number of offenses 


4 
1 


15 
1 

2 
14 


13 

5 

3 
912 


357 
78 

41 
468 


62 

6 

46 


757 
133 

145 
1,619 


93 
19 

15 


Puerto Rico: Population, 1,543,913; 


115 


37 







Data From Supplementary Offense Reports. 

In tables 46-48 there are presented the more detailed data compiled 
from supplementary offense reports received from the police depart- 
ments of 41 cities with an aggregate population of 15,581,941, The 
period covered is the first half of 1938. 

Table 46 reveals that nearly one-half of the rapes reported were 
forcible in nature. Of the 7,881 robberies reported, 4,38:7 (55.7 per- 
cent) were committed on city highways, and 3,039 (38.6 percent) 
were robberies of commercial establishments. 

The 41 police departments represented in the tabulation reported 
29,909 burglaries, almost one-half of which were committed in dwell- 
ing houses. With reference to the time of day the burglaries were 
perpetrated, it is shown that 78 percent were committed during the 
night, and 22 percent during the daytime. With reference to resi- 
dences, however, the proportion of daytime burglaries was larger, 
amounting to 36 percent. 

The figures for larceny disclose that 13.4 percent were cases in 
which the property stolen exceeded $50 in value. In 63.7 percent of 
the cases the value of the property stolen was from $5 to $50, and was 
less than $5 in the remaining 22.9 percent of the larcenies. The tabu- 
lation also reflects that 1.3 percent of the thefts were cases of pocket- 
picking and that 3.1 percent were instances of purse-snatching. 



65 

Table 46. — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission, and value of property stolen, January to June, 
inclusive, 1988; 41 cities over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 15,581,941, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Classification 


Number 
of actual 
offenses 


Classification 


Number 
of actual 
offenses 


Rape: 


333 
341 


Larceny — theft (except auto theft), 
(grouped according to value of article 
stolen) : 










8,498 
40,368 


Total 


674 


$5 to $50_. .. 






Robbery: 

Highway 


4,387 
2,157 
739 
134 
204 
9 
251 


Total 

Larceny— theft (grouped as to type of 
offense) : 




63, 356 












825 


Bank 




1,940 




AJJother 


60, 591 




Total 




Total 


7,881 


63, 356 


Burglary — breaking or entering: 
Residence (dwelling): 

Committed during night ___ 


8,691 
4,967 

14,622 
1,629 




All other (store, office, etc.) : 

Committed during night. 

Committed during day 








Total 


29, 909 





The figures presented in table 47 show that the police departments 
of the 41 cities represented reported 16,509 automobiles stolen during 
the first half of 1938, of which 15,882 were recovered. The percentage 
of recoveries of stolen automobiles amounts to 96.2. 

Table 47. — Recovery of stolen automobiles, January to June, inclusive, 1988; 
41 cities over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 15,581,941, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 

Number of automobiles stolen 16, 509 

Number of automobiles recovered 15, 882 

Percentage recovered 96. 2 

The value of property stolen and the value of property recovered 
are shown in table 48, as reported by 41 police departments. The 
total value of property stolen was $11,916,527.02. Property re- 
covered was valued at $7,630,480.80 (64 percent). Automobiles 
constitute more than one-half of the property represented in table 48. 
Exclusive of automobiles, the value of property stolen was 
$4,815,406.52, and the value of recoveries was $924,885.80 (19 per- 
cent) . 



85583°- 



66 



Table 48. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered with divisions 
as to type of property involved, January to June, inclusive, 1938; Ifl cities over 
100,000 in population 

[Total population, 15,581,941, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Type of property 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



Value of prop- 
erty recovered 



Percent 
recovered 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Miscellaneous 

Total 



$1, 065, 595. 61 

1, 119, 570. 59 

231, 184. 53 

665, 788. 86 

7, 101, 120. 50 

1, 733, 266. 93 



$146, 243. 53 

186, 140. 08 

15, 446. 18 

133, 225. 71 

6, 705, 595. 00 

443, 830. 30 



13.7 
16.6 
6.7 
20.0 
94.4 
25.6 



11,916,527.02 



7, 630, 480. 80 



64.0 



Relation Between Average Crime Rates and Average Number of Police 
Emplogees, 1937. 

Table 49 represents a comparison of average crime rates and aver- 
age police personnel figures based on data for 1937. Cities over 
100,000 in population were divided into two groups, the division 
being based on the number of police employees per 1,000 inhabitants. 
An examination of the average crime rates of the two groups revealed 
that in all instances the cities with the larger number of employees 
had the lower crime rates. 

The group I cities had an average of 2.0 police per 1,000 of popula- 
tion, whereas the figure for group II was only 1.2. The average crime 
rates for the two groups show that group II (the cities with only 1.2 
police per 1,000 inhabitants) reported 43 percent more murders, 17 
percent more robberies, 25 percent more aggravated assaults, 25 per- 
cent more burglaries, and 38 percent more larcenies than the cities in 
group I. It is of course true that there are several factors other than 
size of the police force which affect the amount of crime. For a 
further discussion of this point, reference is made to the comment 
preceding tables 43 and 51. 

The figures shown in table 49 represent the averages of the indi- 
vidual rates (both crime rates and police personnel rates) for the 
several cities. There are 93 cities represented and the number of 
police employees per 1,000 inhabitants ranges from 3.1 to 0.7. 

The information included in table 49 is also shown in figure 4. 



Table 49. — Relation between average crime rates and average number of police 
employees, cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, 1937 





Average 
number 
of police 
employ- 
ees per 
1,000 
inhabit- 
ants 


Average number of offenses per 100,000 inhabitants 


Group 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


I 

II 


2.0 
1.2 


6.3 
9.0 


63.4 
74.3 


45.2 
56.7 


366.2 
455.9 


787.0 
1, 081. 9 


257.8 
259.6 







All cities represented in the above tabulation have populations in excess of 100,000. The arrangement 
into groups was based on the number of police employees per 1,000 inhabitants (descending order). 
Group I consists of 46 cities. 
Group II consists of 47 cities. 



67 



o 

z 
< 

<f>HJ 
Ui UJ 

< Q 

a:: -J 
a. 






UJ 



tti UJ 2 

0;;:0| 

o o; 

< 0l| 
(T £ 

> Ol 

< S 

Z UJ S 

UJ 
CD UJ 

z < 
o cc 



< 
-J 

UJ 

a: 



ui 
> 

< 




Cfcz 
(to 




«d^ 




<M 





!*:: 



GJ 

M 



68 

Number of Police Department Employees, 1937. 

In table 50 are shown figures concerning the average number of 
police department employees during the calendar year, 1937. The 
cities represented have been separated into six groups according to 
size, and the figures show for each group the average number of 
police employees per 1,000 inhabitants. 

It will be noted that in several instances there seem to be only slight 
differences between the average figures. The significance of the 
difference may be more evident if the same information is presented 
in terms of the number of inhabitants per police officer in each of the 
six groups as follows: 

Average number of 
„ , , . inhabitants per 

Population group : police officer 

I 461 

II 694 

III 757 

IV 838 

V 958 

VI 871 

As in previous years, the average figures shown in table 50 were 
obtained by first determining the total number of police employees 
and then dividing by the total population of the cities represented. 
Population figures used were estimates as of July 1, 1933, by the 
Bureau of the Census, for all cities over 10,000 in population. No 
similar estimates were available, however, for cities with a smaller 
number of inhabitants, and for them the figures listed in the 1930 
decennial census were used. 

Figures for individual cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants are 
presented in table 51. Although information concerning the number 
of police employees is included in the monthly crime reports received 
from police departments, this item was made the subject of a separate 
detailed inquiry in order to reach the highest possible degree of ac- 
curacy and comparability in the figures and in order to make it 
possible to present information concerning the number of civilian 
employees. Table 51 reveals that on the average 7 percent of the 
employees in police departments in cities over 100,000 in population 
are civilians. 

In previous years the figures for individual cities have also been 
expressed in terms of the number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants. 
This type of figure has, however, been omitted from table 51, due to 
the fact that recent official population figures are not available. It is 
suggested that local agencies can readily compute the police employee 
rate for their own community (based on the best available local 
population figure) in order to compare the local rate with the national 
average number of police employees in cities of similar size. Those 
desiring to compare their local figure with the figures for selected 
individual communities will probably desire to obtain the best avail- 
able population figures for the communities selected, possibly by 
communicating with the local authorities. 

In connection with the possibility of making comparisons between 
the police personnel figures of individual cities, it should be noted that 
there are several variable factors to be considered, which are not 
represented in any way in table 51. Reference is made to the follow- 
ing facts: 



69 

(1) In some cities, when regular police officers are absent due to 
vacations, days off, sickness, or otherwise, their places are taken by 
special or reserve officers who are paid only for the time they actually 
work. This means that the effective strength of the department is not 
lowered by absences for the reasons mentioned. On the other hand, 
in many cities, absences due to vacations, days off, sickness, etc., 
result in a lowering of the effective strength of the department, due 
to the fact that no reserve officers are used for replacements. 

(2) Some police departments operate on two shifts, whereas in 
other departments the men are distributed among three shifts. 
Obviously the practice followed in any individual community would 
have a substantial influence upon the effective strength of the depart- 
ment. 

(3) Differences in automobile equipment, radio communica- 
tion facilities, and the like are significant and should be considered 
in any careful comparison of law-enforcement facilities in individual 
communities. 

(4) Some cities use special school-crossing guards to make it un- 
necessary to detail regular police officers to guide children and regulate 
traffic at school-crossings during hours when children are going to or 
returning from school. In some instances, the reporting departments 
had apparently calculated the equivalent number of full-time em- 
ployees represented by the school-crossing guards and included them 
in the figure representing the total number of employees. In other 
cases it was not clear whether this had been done, and this is pointed 
out as an item to be considered when comparing figures for individual 
communities. 

(5) In some cities, a heavy volume of traffic requires a larger than 
average proportion of the force on traffic duty, with a resultant de- 
crease in the number of men available to handle criminal cases. 

(6) Differences in police salaries and standards for appointment to 
the force and their influence on the quality and morale of personnel are 
significant. 

(7) Communities vary also as to the number of private police 
employed by individuals and organizations. 

All of the preceding items are of significance when attempting to 
make a comparison of the police personnel figures for individual cities. 

Table 52 includes figures for individual police departments in cities 
ranging from 2,500 to 25,000 in population. 

The information presented in table 50 is also shown in figure 5. 



70 







































10 


















CM 












< 


JV 






















to 






















CD 




CO 


















i 




(- 

2 w 
















■ " 














f° 




< 

1- 


















i-i Af 






















, ^J - 




0Q 
< 

X 


















U*.** 




















o o 




Z 
















n§ 


*vj 






















^ '&■ 




O 


















Ui S 




O w 




























CQ Uj „ 
























UI 

Q. 




H 

■ 


■ O 

H 


■ 


ms& 













CO 
UJ 




H Q. 

n 

8 "> 


■ °- 

H 
Bj 


1 
■ 0. 

fl 


B 
■ 



0. 








UJ 





H CM 




N "^ 


■ CM 












** ^ 




>- O 
O - 


Q, 

O 


M 


Bo 


HB-O 

fig 1- 


BR h 




BBT 1- 














Q. 

UJ 


CM 

tE 
UJ 

> 
O 

z 


1 O 
fl 
B ° 

H ~ 

fl z 


1 

sBi ° 

B z 

■ 


■ 

B 0. 

B to 

■ CM 

ffll 2 

■ ° 


B 

■ 

B — 
B 2 
fl ° 


8 
■ 

fl CM 

B z 
B ° 








llllillll 












9 ° 


■ 1- 


B •- 


1 f- 


fl *- 

m < 










Ui 






1- 


9 1- 


■ < 


■ < 


■ < 


■ -> 












q; 


< 


B < 


H -J 


■ -i 


■ _i 


B => 
















_l 


m _i 


9 ^ 


B 3 


■ 3 












VJ 




y m 


3 


B => 


■ Q- 


■ Q- 


B CL 


fl 














00 r? 


0-- 


■raUa. 


BBE-o 


58-° 


lls-o 
















2° 

Z> 


O 


Ho 


■ °- 


B °" 


fl °- 












:-^j ::.=,■,:::•. 




0. 


■ Q. 


1 ' 


I | 


1 1 


1 ' 










■; f 




2 


1 


1 ' 


I to 


fl to 


■ CO 


fl to 










-. Q^: 






to 


■ to 


■ LJ 


■ UJ 


■ UJ 


















H w 








1 h- 




















■ 1- 


B H 


■ I- 


















t- 


H <- 








1 O 




















9 ° 


B ° 


B ° 





















■ ° 


B >^ 


B * 


B * 


fl <J- 
fl M- 
















f- 


1 f- 


■ 


B °° 


fl ^ 


■ IO 
















IO 


■ m 


I — 


B ~ 


B ^ 


fl "~" 

































j 
























llllllll lllllll 

















P 

a 



71 

Table 50. — Average number of police department employees, 1937, by population 

groups 



Population group 


Number of 

police 
employees 


Average 
number of 
employees 

per 1,000 
inhabitants 


GROUP I 

37 cities over 250,000; total population, 29,695,500 


64, 398 
11,312 
9,101 
7, 661 
8,501 
7,586 


2.17 


GROUP II 

57 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total population, 7,850,312 


1.44 


GROUP III 

103 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total population, 6,889,307 


1.32 


GROUP IV 

184 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total population, 6,420,021 


1.19 


GROUP V 

544 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total population, 8,142,951 

GROUP VI 

1,344 cities, 2,500 to 10,000; total population, 6,606,535 


1.04 
1. 15 







Table 51. — Number of police department employees, 1937; cities over 25,000 in 

population 

CITIES WITH OVER 250,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Birmingham, Ala... 
Los Angeles, Calif,. 

Oakland, Calif. 

San Francisco, Calif 

Denver, Colo 

Washington, D. C.- 
Atlanta, Ga 

Chicago, 111 

Indianapolis, Ind_.. 

Louisville, Ky 

New Orleans, La... 

Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass 

Detroit, Mich 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

St. Paul, Minn 

Kansas City, Mo... 

St. Louis, Mo 

Jersey City, N. J 



Num- 


Num- 


Total 




ber of 


ber of 


number 




police 


civil- 


of em- 




officers 


ians 


ployees 




(■) 


(0 


247 




2,416 


330 


2,746 




368 


10 


378 




1,276 


64 


1,340 




400 





402 




1.391 


96 


1,487 




367 


45 


412 




6,304 


302 


6,606 




523 


53 


576 




405 


15 


420 




(') 


(') 


845 




1,711 


203 


1,914 




2,262 


181 


2,443 




3,824 


301 


4,125 




480 


23 


503 




338 


17 


355 




0) 


0) 


646 




1,849 


467 


2,316 




0) 


(>) 


1,000 





Newark, N. J 

Buffalo, N. Y 

New York City, N. Y 

Rochester, N. Y. 

Akron, Ohio 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Columbus, Ohio 

Toledo, Ohio 

Portland, Oreg 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Providence, R. I 

Memphis, Tenn 

Dallas, Tex 

Houston, Tex 

Seattle, Wash 

Milwaukee, Wis 



Num- 


Num- 


ber of 


ber of 


police 


civil- 


officers 


ians 


1,153 


104 


1,173 


124 


18, 321 


823 


431 


46 


189 


22 


685 


29 


1,455 


220 


(') 


(') 


341 


42 


366 


67 


5,037 


247 


970 


131 


495 


74 


260 


31 


267 


56 


350 


22 


526 


45 


1,104 


114 



Total 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



1,257 

1,297 

19, 144 

477 

211 

714 

1,675 

317 

383 

433 

5,284 

1,101 

569 

291 

323 

372 

571 

1,218 



CITIES WITH 100,000 TO 250,000 INHABITANTS 



Long Beach, Calif.. 
San Diego, Calif. .. 
Bridgeport, Conn.. 

Hartford, Conn 

New Haven, Conn. 
Waterbury, Conn.. 
Wilmington, Del.. 
Jacksonville, Fla... 

Miami, Fla_ 

Tampa, Fla 

Peoria, 111 

Evansville, Ind 

Fort Wayne, Ind.. 



193 


17 


210 


204 


26 


230 


266 


2 


268 


324 


21 


345 


368 


28 


396 


188 


7 


195 


166 


4" 


170 


186 


9 


195 


214 


32 


246 


107 


31 


138 


130 


11 


141 


127 


11 


138 


122 


1 


123 



Gary, Ind 

South Bend, Ind 

Des Moines, Iowa_. 
Kansas City, Kans. 

Wichita, Kans 

Cambridge, Mass.. . 

Fall River, Mass 

Lowell, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

New Bedford, Mass 

Somerville, Mass 

Springfield, Mass... 
Worcester, Mass 



0) 


0) 


102 


4 


134 


18 


(') 


(') 


100 


16 


218 


5 


185 


11 


137 


17 


120 


7 


213 


8 


155 


1 


294 


19 


378 


20 



140 
106 
152 
104 
116 
223 
196 
154 
127 
221 
156 
313 
398 



1 Not separately reported. 



72 



Table 51. — Number of police department employees, 1937; cities over 25,000 in 

population — Continued 

CITIES WITH 100,000 TO 250,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Flint, Mich 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Duluth, Minn 

Omaha, Nebr 

Camden, N. J 

Elizabeth, N. J 

Paterson, N. J 

Trenton, N. J 

Albany, N. Y 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Utica, N. Y 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Canton, Ohio 

Dayton, Ohio 

Youngstown, Ohio 

Oklahoma City, Okla 



Num- 


Num- 


Total 


ber of 


ber of 


number 


police 


civil- 


of em- 


officers 


ians 


ployees 


143 


19 


162 


180 


17 


197 


127 


3 


130 


0) 


0) 


266 


G) 


0) 


192 


199 


11 


210 


248 


20 


268 


217 


15 


232 


(0 


C 1 ) 


369 


315 


12 


327 


0) 


0) 


168 


274 


14 


288 


0) 


0) 


114 


184 


19 


203 


0) 


0) 


164 


(') 


0) 


260 



City 



Tulsa, Okla 

Erie, Pa ._ 

Reading, Pa 

Scranton, Pa 

Chattanooga, Tenn.. 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Nashville, Tenn 

El Paso, Tex 

Fort Worth, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

Norfolk, Va 

Richmond, Va 

Spokane, Wash 

Tacoma, Wash 



Num- 


Num- 


ber of 


ber of 


police 


civil- 


officers 


ians 


0) 


(') 


(') 


0) 


163 


2 


167 


13 


0) 


0) 


133 


25 


149 


54 


0) 


(>) 


196 


16 


215 


18 


0) 


0) 


222 


14 


255 


29 


135 


4 


109 


1 



CITIES WITH 50,000 TO 100,000 INHABITANTS 



Mobile, Ala 

Montgomery, Ala 

Phoenix, Ariz 

Little Rock, Ark 

Berkeley, Calif 

Fresno, Calif 

Glendale, Calif 

Pasadena, Calif 

Sacramento, Calif 

San Jose, Calif 

Pueblo, Colo 

New Britain, Conn... 

Augusta, Ga 

Macon, Ga 

Savannah, Ga 

Berwyn, 111 

Cicero, 111 

Decatur, Bl 

East St. Louis, Bl 

Evanston, 111 

Oak Park, Bl 

Rockford, Bl. 

Springfield, Bl 

East Chicago, Ind 

Hammond, Ind 

Terre Haute, Ind 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa. . 

Davenport, Iowa 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Topeka, Kans 

Covington, Ky 

Shreveport, La 

Portland, Maine 

Brockton, Mass 

Holyoke, Mass 

Lawrence, Mass 

Maiden, Mass 

Medford, Mass 

Newton, Mass 

Pittsfleld, Mass 

Quincy, Mass 

Dearborn, Mich 

Hamtramck, Mich 

Highland Park, Mich 

Jackson, Mich 

Kalamazoo, Mich 

Lansing, Mich 

Pontiac, Mich 

Saginaw, Mich 

Jackson, Miss 

St. Joseph, Mo 

Springfield, Mo 



(') 


(0 


104 


0) 


0) 


110 


0) 


0) 


91 


82 


3 


85 


73 




73 


77 




77 


82 




82 


93 


10 


103 


120 


19 


139 


59 


1 


60 


47 




47 


94 




94 


103 


2 


105 


74 


1 


75 


136 


12 


148 


36 




36 


72 


2 


74 


50 




50 


66 


8 


74 


104 


5 


109 


76 


1 


77 


83 


4 


87 


80 


17 


97 


69 




69 


75 





80 


76 




76 


56 


1 


57 


68 


1 


69 


80 


6 


86 


56 


10 


66 


65 


6 


71 


(') 


(') 


102 


124 


7 


131 


106 


4 


110 


94 


1 


95 


130 


2 


132 




2 


89 


87 


1 


88 


136 


3 


139 


60 




60 


120 


2 


122 


125 


2 


127 


93 


4 


97 


86 


10 


96 


57 




57 


(') 


(') 


79 


83 


3 


86 


65 


7 


72 


77 


9 


86 


48 


2 


50 


71 


37 


108 


66 




66 



Lincoln, Nebr 

Manchester, N. H 

Atlantic City, N.J 

Clifton, N.J 

East Orange, N. J 

Hoboken, N. J 

Irvington, N. J 

Passaic, N. J 

Union City, N.J 

Binghamton, N. Y 

Mount Vernon, N. Y___ 

New Rochelle, N. Y 

Niagara Falls, N. Y 

Schenectady, N. Y 

Troy, N. Y 

Asheville, N. C 

Charlotte, N. O.J 

Durham, N. C„. 

Greensboro, N. C 

Winston-Salem, N. O 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Lakewood, Ohio 

Springfield, Ohio 

Allentown, Pa.... 

Altoona, Pa 

Bethlehem, Pa... 

Chester, Pa 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Johnstown, Pa 

Lancaster, Pa 

MeKeesport, Pa 

Upper Darby Township 

Pa 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa 

York, Pa 

Pawtucket, R. I 

Woonsocket, R. I 

Charleston, S. C 

Columbia, S. C 

Austin, Tex 

Beaumont, Tex 

Galveston, Tex 

Port Arthur, Tex 

Waco, Tex.. 

Roanoke, Va 

Charleston, W. Va 

Huntington, W. Va 

Wheeling, W. Va ... 

Kenosha, Wis ... 

Madison, Wis 

Racine, Wis 



64 


1 


100 


3 


196 


9 


52 




110 


1 


168 




66 


5 


103 




118 


2 


115 




127 


1 


138 


5 


115 


2 


149 


11 


174 


10 


66 


1 


93 


9 


66 


3 


73 


2 


99 


1 


52 




51 




57 


2 


50 


2 


92 


8 


65 




0) 


(') 


56 




129 


1 


65 




54 


2 


60 


2 


84 


7 


104 


3 


55 




120 


8 


76 


3 


135 


6 


76 




71 




54 




0) 


C) 


22 




54 


1 


91 




75 


10 


70 


1 


71 




70 




68 


2 


66 


2 



1 Not separately reported. 



73 



Table 51. — Number of police department employees, 1937; cities over 25,000 in 

population — Continued 

CITIES WITH 25,000 TO 50,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Gadsden, Ala 

Tucson, Ariz 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Alameda, Calif 

Alhambra, Calif . 

Bakersfield, Calif 

Huntington Park, Calif.. 

Inglewood, Calif 

Riverside, Calif 

San Bernardino, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif 

Santa Monica, Calif 

Stockton, Calif 

Colorado Springs, Colo.. 

Bristol, Conn . 

Meriden, Conn 

Middletown, Conn 

New London, Conn 

Stamford, Conn 

West Hartford, Conn 

West Haven, Conn 

Orlando, Fla 

Pensacola, Fla 

St. Petersburg, Fla 

West Palm Beach, Fla... 

Columbus, Ga 

Alton, 111 

Aurora, 111 

Belleville, 111 

Bloomington, 111 

Danville, 111 

Elgin. Ill 

Galesburg, 111 

Granite City, 111 

Joliet.Ill 

Maywood, 111 

Moline, 111 

Quincy, 111 

Rock Island, 111 

Waukegan, 111 

Anderson, Ind 

Elkhart, Ind 

Kokomo, Ind 

Lafayette, Ind 

Michigan City, Ind 

Mishawaka, Ind 

Muncie, Ind 

New Albany, Ind 

Richmond, Ind 

Burlington ,Iowa 

Clinton, Iowa 

Council Bluffs, Iowa 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Ottumwa, Iowa 

Waterloo, Iowa 

Hutchinson, Kans 

Ashland, Ky 

Lexington-Ky 

Newport, Ky 

Paducah, Ky 

Baton Rouge, La 

Monroe, La 

Bangor, Maine 

Lewiston, Maine 

Cumberland, Md 

Hagerstown, Md 

Arlington, Mass 

Beverly, Mass 

Brookline, Mass 

Chelsea, Mass . 

Chicopee, Mass . 

Everett, Mass 



Num- 
ber of 
police 
officers 



Num- 
ber of 
civil- 
ians 



(') 



38 
20 
48 
86 
35 
49 
41 
45 
45 
35 
67 
31 
42 
17 
33 
30 
32 
32 
8 
50 
19 
25 
46 
29 
25 
41 
38 
35 
36 
30 
24 
51 
15 
30 
24 
16 
27 
40 
15 
41 

0) 
25 
82 
42 
36 
27 
32 
43 
43 
45 
31 
51 
40 
126 
76 
56 
80 



(>) 



(>) 



(') 



Total 
number 

of em- 
ployees 



37 
41 
23 
38 
33 
51 
33 
33 
36 
43 
42 
43 
57 
62 
36 
31 
38 
20 
49 
90 
36 
50 
53 
46 
50 
36 
70 
31 
42 
23 
33 
30 
34 
32 
10 
51 
19 
25 
46 
29 
25 
44 
39 
35 
37 
30 
25 
56 
15 
31 
24 
17 
27 
40 
15 
41 
30 
25 
90 
47 
36 
34 
34 
14 
43 
49 
36 
54 
40 
120 
80 
57 
81 



City 



Fitchburg, Mass 

Haverhill, Mass 

Revere, Mass..: 

Salem, Mass 

Taunton, Mass 

Waltham, Mass 

Watertown, Mass 

Ann Arbor, Mich 

Battle Creek, Mich 

Bay City, Mich 

Muskegon, Mich.- 

Port Huron, Mich 

Royal Oak, Mich 

Wyandotte, Mich 

Joplin, Mo 

University City, Mo 

Butte, Mont 

Great Falls, Mont 

Concord, N. H 

Nashua, N. H 

Belleville, N. J 

Bloomfield, N. J 

Garfield, N.J 

Hackensack, N. J 

Kearny, N. J 

Montclair, N. J 

New Brunswick, N.J — 
North Bergen Township, 

N.J 

Orange, N. J 

Perth Amboy, N. J 

Plainfield, N. J 

West New York, N. J... 

West Orange, N. J 

Woodbridge Township, 

N.J.... 

Albuquerque, N. Mex... 

Amsterdam, N. Y 

Auburn, N. Y 

Elmira, N. Y._ 

Jamestown, N. Y 

Kingston, N. Y 

Lackawanna, N. Y 

Newburgh, N. Y 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y 

Rome, N. Y 

Watertown, N. Y 

White Plains, N. Y 

High Point, N. C 

Raleigh, N. C 

Wilmington, N. C 

Fargo, N. Dak 

Barberton, Ohio 

East Cleveland, Ohio 

Elyria, Ohio. 

Lima, Ohio 

Lorain, Ohio 

Mansfield, Ohio 

Marion, Ohio 

Massillon, Ohio 

Middletown r Ohio 

Newark, Ohio 

Norwood, Ohio 

Portsmouth, Ohio 

Steubenville, Ohio 

Warren, Ohio 

Zanesville, Ohio 

Enid, Okla 

Muskogee, Okla 

Salem, Oreg 

Aliquippa, Pa 

Easton, Pa 

Hazelton, Pa 



Num- 
ber of 
police 
officers 



(') 



35 
48 
85 
69 
44 

63 

65 
03 
60 
81 
44 

34 
38 
35 
46 
79 
54 
42 
43 
46 
60 
29 
36 
106 
41 
62 
45 
38 
14 
43 
27 
30 
35 
28 
17 
18 
37 
28 
31 
35 
37 
32 
26 
21 
32 
19 
20 
37 
27 



Num- 
ber of 
civil- 
ians 



Total 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



(') 



i Not separately reported. 



74 

Table 51. — Number of police department employees, 1937; cities over 25,000 in 

population — Continued 

CITIES WITH 25,000 TO 50,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Lebanon, Pa 

Lower Merion Town 

ship, Pa 

Nanticoke, Pa 

New Castle, Pa 

Norristown, Pa 

Sharon, Pa 

Washington, Pa 

Wilkinsburg, Pa 

Williamsport, Pa 

Central Falls, R. I 

Cranston, R. I 

East Providence, R. I_ . 

Newport, R. I 

Greenville, S. C 

Spartanburg, S. C 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak 

Abilene, Tex 

Amarillo, Tex 

Brownsville, Tex 

Corpus Christi, Tex 



Num- 


Num- 


Total 


ber of 


ber of 


number 


police 


civil- 


of em- 


officers 


ians 


ployees 


25 




25 


100 


3 


103 


18 




18 


43 




43 


32 




32 


23 




23 


23 




23 


20 




20 


33 


1 


34 


35 





37 


44 




44 


43 


2 


45 


56 


9 


58 


58 


2 


60 


(') 


0) 


44 


46 


1 


47 


28 


1 


29 


44 




44 


13 


4 


17 


34 




34 



City 



San Angelo, Tex 

Wichita Falls, Tex.. 

Ogden, Utah 

Burlington, Vt 

Danville, Va 

Lynchburg, Va 

Newport News, Va. 

Petersburg, Va 

Portsmouth, Va 

Bellingham, Wash__ 

Everett, Wash 

Parkersburg, W. Va 

Eau Claire, Wis 

Fond du Lac, Wis._ 

Green Bay, Wis 

Lacrosse, Wis 

Oshkosh, Wis 

Sheboygan, Wis 

Superior, Wis 

West Allis, Wis 



Num- 


Num- 


ber of 


ber of 


police 


civil- 


officers 


ians 


25 




37 


4 


37 




31 




37 


1 


54 


1 


47 




34 


2 


41 




30 




31 




17 


1 


23 




32 




50 


4 


48 


1 


49 


1 


43 




58 


1 


39 


4 



Total 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



1 Not separately reported. 



Table 52. — Number of police department employees, 1937; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 25,000 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS 




Florence, Ala 

Huntsville, Ala 

Phenix City, Ala 

Selma, Ala 

Tuscaloosa, Ala 

El Dorado, Ark 

Hot Springs, Ark 

Jonesboro, Ark 

North Little Rock, Ark 

Pine Bluff, Ark 

Texarkana, Ark 

Anaheim, Calif 

Beverly Hills, Calif 

Brawley, Calif 

Burbank, Calif 

Burlingame, Calif 

Compton, Calif 

Eureka, Calif 

Fullerton, Calif 

Modesto, Calif 

Monrovia, Calif 

Ontario, Calif 

Palo Alto, Calif 

Pomona, Calif 

Redlands, Calif 

Richmond, Calif 

Salinas, Calif 

San Leandro, Calif 

San Mateo, Calif 

Santa Cruz, Calif 

Santa Rosa, Calif 

South Gate, Calif 

South Pasadena, Calif. 

Vallejo, Calif 

Ventura, Calif 

Whittier, Calif 

Boulder, Colo 

Fort Collins, Colo 



Grand Junction, Colo 

Greeley, Colo 

Trinidad, Colo 

Ansonia, Conn 

Danbury, Conn 

Derby, Conn 

East Hartford, Conn. 

Naugatuck, Conn 

Norwich, Conn 

Stratford, Conn 

Wallingford, Conn... 
Willimantic, Conn... 
Daytona Beach, Fla. 

Gainesville, Fla 

Lakeland, Fla 

St. Augustine, Fla. _ _ 

Sanford, Fla 

Tallahassee, Fla 

Albany, Ga 

Brunswick, Ga 

La Grange, Ga 

Rome, Ga 

Valdosta, Ga 

Way cross, Ga 

Boise, Idaho 

Pocatello, Idaho 

Blue Island, 111 

Brookfield, HI 

Cairo, 111 

Calumet City, 111 

Canton, HI 

Centralia, 111 

Champaign, 111 

Chicago Heights, 111.. 

East Moline, 111 

Elmhurst, 111 

Elmwood Park, 111... 
Forest Park, 111 



II 
11 
30 
12 
21 
28 
20 
30 
61 
18 
29 
22 
33 
13 
16 
13 

7 

12 
18 
17 
22 
22 
12 
13 
27 
22 
17 
12 
11 

9 



75 

Table 52. — Number of police department employees, 1937; cities with population 
from 2,500 to 25,000— Continued 



CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Freeport, 111 

Harrisburg, 111 

Harvey, HI 

Highland Park, 111 

Jacksonville, HI 

Kankakee, 111 

Kewanee, 111 

La Grange, 111 

La Salle, 111 

Lincoln, 111 

Mattoon, 111 

Melrose Park, 111 

Mount Vernon, 111 

Ottawa, 111 

Park Ridge, 111.... 

Pekin, 111 

Sterling, 111 

Streator, 111 

Urbana, 111 

West Frankfort, 111 

Wilmette, 111 

Winnetka, 111 

Bloomington, Ind 

Connersville, Ind 

Crawfords ville, Ind 

Elwood, Ind - 

Frankfort, Ind 

Goshen, Ind 

Huntington, Ind.- 

La Porte, Ind 

Logansport, Ind 

Marion, Ind. 

New Castle, Ind 

Peru, Ind 

Shelby ville, Ind 

Vincennes, Ind 

Whiting, Ind 

Fort Dodge, Iowa 

Fort Madison, Iowa 

Iowa City, Iowa 

Marshalltown, Iowa 

Mason City, Iowa 

Muscatine, Iowa 

Newton, Iowa 

Oskaloosa, Iowa 

Arkansas City, Kans... 

Atchison, Kans 

Chanute, Kans 

Coffey ville, Kans 

Dodge City, Kans 

El Dorado, Kans 

Emporia, Kans 

Fort Scott, Kans 

Independence, Kans 

Lawrence, Kaas 

Leavenworth, Kans 

Manhattan, Kans 

Newton, Kans 

Parsons, Kans 

Salina, Kans 

Fort Thomas, Ky 

Frankfort, Ky 

Henderson, Ky 

Hopkinsville, Ky 

Alexandria, La 

Bogalusa, La 

La Fayette, La 

Lake Charles, La 

Auburn, Maine 

Augusta, Maine 

Biddeford, Maine 

South Portland, Maine 

Waterville, Maine 

Westbrook, Maine 

Annapolis, Md 

Frederick, Md 



Number 
of em- 
ployees 




Salisbury, Md 

Adams, Mass 

Amesbury, Mass 

Attleboro, Mass 

Belmont, Mass 

Braintree, Mass 

Clinton, Mass 

Danvers, Mass 

Dedham, Mass 

Easthampton, Mass 

Fairhaven, Mass 

Framingham, Mass. 

Gardner, Mass 

Gloucester, Mass 

Greenfield, Mass 

Leominster, Mass 

Marlboro, Mass 

Melrose, Mass 

Methuen, Mass 

Milford, Mass 

Milton, Mass 

Natick, Mass 

Needham, Mass 

Newburyport, Mass 

North Adams, Mass 

North Attleboro, Mass 

Norwood, Mass 

Peabody, Mass 

Plymouth, Mass 

Saugus, Mass 

Southbridge, Mass 

Stoneham, Mass 

Swampscott, Mass 

Wakefield, Mass 

Webster, Mass 

Westfield, Mass 

West Springfield, Mass... 

Weymouth, Mass 

Winchester, Mass 

Winthrop, Mass 

Woburn, Mass 

Alpena, Mich 

Benton Harbor, Mich 

Ecorse, Mich 

Escanaba, Mich 

Ferndale, Mich 

Grosse Pointe Park, Mich 

Holland, Mich 

Iron Mountain, Mich 

Ironwood, Mich 

Lincoln Park, Mich 

Marquette, Mich 

Menominee, Mich 

Monroe, Mich 

Mount Clemens, Mich 

Muskegon Heights, Mich. 

Niles, Mich 

Owosso, Mich 

River Rouge, Mich 

Sault Ste. Marie, Mich 

Traverse City, Mich 

Ypsilanti, Mich 

Albert Lea, Minn 

Austin, Minn 

Brainerd, Minn 

Faribault, Minn 

Hibbing, Minn 

Mankato, Minn 

Rochester, Minn 

St. Cloud, Minn 

South St. Paul, Minn 

Virginia, Minn 

Winona, Minn 

Columbus, Miss 

Greenville, Miss 

Greenwood, Miss 



76 



Table 52. — Number of police department employees, 1937; cities with population 
from 2,500 to 25,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Gulfport, Miss 

Hattiesburg, Miss 

Laurel, Miss 

McComb, Miss 

Natchez, Miss 

Vicksburg, Miss 

Cape Girardeau, Mo 

Columbia, Mo 

Hannibal, Mo 

Independence, Mo 

Jefferson City, Mo 

Maplewood, Mo 

Moberlv, Mo 

St. Charles, Mo 

Sedalia, Mo 

Webster Groves, Mo 

Anaconda, Mont 

Billings, Mont 

Helena, Mont 

Missoula, Mont 

Beatrice, Nebr 

Fremont, Nebr 

Grand Island, Nebr 

Hastings, Nebr 

Norfolk, Nebr 

North Platte, Nebr 

Reno, Nev 

Claremont, N. H 

Dover, N. H 

Keene, N. H 

Laconia, N. H 

Portsmouth, N. H 

Bridgeton, N. J 

Burlington, N. J 

Carteret, N. J 

Cliffside Park, N. J 

Cranford Township, N. J_ _ _ 

Dover, N. J 

Englewood, N. J 

Gloucester, N. J 

Harrison, N. J 

Hawthorne, N. J 

Hillside Township, N.J 

Linden, N. J 

Long Branch, N. J 

Lyndhurst Township, N. J. 
Maplewood Township, N. J. 

Morristown, N. J 

Neptune Township, N. J _ . . 

Nutley, N. J 

Pensauken Township, N. J. 

Phillipsburg, N. J 

Pleasantville, N. J 

Rahway, N. J 

Red Bank, N. J 

Ridgefleld Park, N. J 

Ridgewood, N. J 

Roselle, N. J 

South Orange, N. J 

South River, N. J 

Summit, N. J... 

Teaneek Township, N. J 

Union Township, N. J 

Weehawken Towns-hip, N. J 

Westfleld, N. J 

Roswell, N. Mex 

Santa Fe, N. Mex 

Batavia, N. Y 

Beacon, N. Y 

Cohoes, N. Y 

Corning, N. Y 

Cortland, N. Y 

Dunkirk, N. Y 

Endicott, N. Y 

Floral Park, N. Y 

Freeport, N. Y 

Fulton, N. Y 

Geneva, N. Y 



Number 
of em- 
ployees 




Glen Cove, N. Y 

Glens Falls, N. Y 

Gloversville, N. Y 

Hempstead, N. Y 

Herkimer, N. Y 

Hornell.N. Y 

Hudson, N. Y 

Irondequoit, N. Y 

Ithaca, N. Y 

Johnson City, N. Y 

Johnstown, N. Y 

Kenmore, N. Y 

Little Falls, N. Y 

Lockport, N. Y 

Lynbrook, N. Y 

Mamaroneck, N. Y 

Massena, N. Y 

Middletown, N. Y 

North Tonawanda, N. Y 

Ogdensburg, N. Y 

Olean, N. Y 

Oneida, N. Y 

Oneonta, N. Y 

Ossining, N. Y 

Oswego, N. Y 

Peekskill, N. Y 

Plattsburg, N. Y 

Port Chester, N. Y 

Port Jervis, N. Y 

Rensselaer, N . Y 

Rockville Centre, N. Y:. 
Saratoga Springs, N. Y___ 

Tonawanda, N. Y 

Watervliet, N. Y 

Concord, N. C 

Elizabeth City, N. C 

Fayette ville, N. C 

Gastonia, N. C 

Goldsboro, N. C 

Kinston, N. C 

Rocky Mount, N. C 

Salisbury, N. C 

Shelby, N. C 

Statesville, N. C 

Thomasville, N. C 

Wilson, N. C 

Bismarck, N. Dak 

Grand Forks, N. Dak._._ 

Minot, N. Dak 

Alliance, Ohio 

Ashland, Ohio 

Ashtabula, Ohio 

Bellaire, Ohio 

Bucyrus, Ohio 

Cambridge, Ohio 

Campbell, Ohio 

Chillicothe, Ohio 

Coshocton, Ohio 

Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio 

East Liverpool, Ohio 

Euclid, Ohio 

Findlay, Ohio 

Fostoria, Ohio 

Fremont, Ohio 

Garfield Heights, Ohio_._ 

Ironton, Ohio 

Lancaster, Ohio 

Marietta, Ohio 

Martins Ferry, Ohio 

New Philadelphia, Ohio. 

Niles, Ohio 

Parma Village, Ohio 

Piqua, Ohio 

Salem, Ohio 

Sandusky, Ohio 

Shaker Heights, Ohio 

Struthers, Ohio 

Wooster, Ohio 



77 



Table 52. — Number of 'police department employees, 1937; cities with population 
from 2,500 to 25,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Xenia, Ohio 

Ada, Okla 

Ardmore, Okla 

Bartlesville, Okla 

Chickasha, Okla 

Lawton, Okla 

Okmulgee, Okla .. 

Ponca City, Okla 

Sapulpa, Okla 

Shawnee, Okla 

Wewoka, Okla 

Astoria, Oreg 

Eugene, Oreg 

Klamath Falls, Oreg 

Medford, Oreg 

Abington Township, Pa 

Ambridge, Pa. 

Arnold, Pa 

Beaver Falls, Pa 

Bellevue, Pa 

Berwick, Pa 

Braddock, Pa 

Bradford, Pa 

Bristol, Pa 

Butler, Pa 

Cannonsburg, Pa 

Carbondale, Pa 

Carlisle, Pa 

Carnegie, Pa 

Chambersburg, Pa 

Charleroi, Pa 

Cheltenham Township, Pa 

Clairton, Pa 

Coatesville, Pa 

Connellsville, Pa 

Conshohocken, Pa 

Coraopolis, Pa 

Dickson City, Pa 

Donora, Pa 

Dormont, Pa 

DuBois, Pa 

Duquesne, Pa 

Ellwood City, Pa 

Farrell, Pa 

Franklin, Pa 

Greensburg, Pa 

Hanover, Pa 

Hanover Township, Pa 

Haverford Township, Pa 

Homestead, Pa 

Jeannette, Pa 

Kingston, Pa 

Latrobe, Pa 

Lewistown, Pa 

Mahanoy City, Pa 

McKees Rocks, Pa 

Meadville, Pa 

Monessen, Pa 

Mount Carmel, Pa 

Mount Lebanon Township, Pa 

Munhall, Pa 

New Kensington, Pa 

North Braddock, Pa 

Oil City, Pa 

Olyphant, Pa 

Phoenixville, Pa 

Pittston, Pa 

Plymouth, Pa 

Pottstown, Pa 

Pottsville, Pa 

Shamokin, Pa 

Shenandoah, Pa 

Steelton, Pa 

Stowe Township, Pa 

Sunbury, Pa 1 

Swissvale, Pa 

Tamaqua, Pa 



Number 
of em- 
ployees 



City 



Taylor, Pa 

Turtle Creek, Pa 

Uniontown, Pa.. 

Vandergrif t, Pa 

Waynesboro, Pa 

Bristol Town, R. I 

Lincoln, R. I 

North Providence, R. I 

Warwick, R. I 

Westerly, R.I 

West Warwick, R. I. . . 

Anderson, S. C 

Greenwood, S. C 

Rock Hill, S.C 

Aberdeen, S. Dak 

Huron, S. Dak 

Mitchell, S. Dak 

Rapid City, S. Dak 

Watertown, S. Dak 

Bristol, Tenn.. 

Jackson, Tenn 

Johnson City, Tenn 

Kingsport, Tenn 

Big Spring, Tex._ 

Brownwood, Tex 

Cleburne, Tex 

Corsicana, Tex. 

Del Rio, Tex 

Depison, Tex.. 

Harlingen, Tex 

Lubbock, Tex 

Marshall, Tex 

Pampa, Tex 

Paris, Tex... 

San Benito, Tex 

Sherman, Tex. 

Sweetwater, Tex 

Temple, Tex_. 

Texarkana, Tex 

Tyler, Tex 

Provo, Utah 

Barre, Vt 

Rutland, Vt 

Alexandria, Va 

Charlottesville, Va 

Hopewell, Va 

Staunton, Va 

Suffolk, Va 

Aberdeen, Wash 

Bremerton, Wash 

Hoquiam, Wash 

Longview, Wash 

Olympia, Wash 

Port Angeles, Wash 

Vancouver, Wash 

Walla Walla, Wash 

Wenatchee, Wash 

Yakima, Wash 

Fairmont, W. Va 

Morgantown, W. Va 

Moundsville, W. Va 

Ashland, Wis 

Beloit, Wis 

Cudahy, Wis 

Janesville, Wis 

Manitowoc, Wis 

Marinette, Wis 

Shorewood Village, Wis 
South Milwaukee, Wis. 

Stevens Point, Wis 

Two Rivers, Wis 

Watertown, Wis 

Waukesha, Wis 

Wausau, Wis 

Wauwatosa, Wis 

Casper, Wyo 

Cheyenne, Wyo 



78 



Table 52. — Number of police department employees, 1987; cities with population 
from 2,500 to 25,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Auburn, Ala 

Carbon Hill, Ala 

Cullman, Ala 

Demopolis, Ala 

Fort Payne, Ala 

Homewood, Ala 

Jacksonville, Ala 

Lanett, Ala 

Leeds, Ala 

Piedmont, Ala 

Russellville, Ala 

Sheffield, Ala 

Tarrant City, Ala 

Tuscumbia, Ala 

Bisbee, Ariz.., 

Glendale, Ariz 

Globe, Ariz 

Miami, Ariz 

Nogales, Ariz 

Prescott, Ariz 

Winslow, Ariz 

Yuma, Ariz 

Batesville, Ark 

Brinkley, Ark 

Crossett, Ark 

Dermott, Ark 

Fayetteville, Ark 

Helena, Ark 

Hope, Ark 

Malvern, Ark 

Marianna, Ark 

Monticello, Ark 

Newport, Ark 

Rogers, Ark 

Russellville, Ark 

Searcy, Ark 

Stamps, Ark 

Stuttgart, Ark 

Wynne, Ark 

Albany, Calif 

Antioeh, Calif 

Arcadia, Calif 

Auburn, Calif 

Azusa, Calif 

Bell, Calif 

Calexico, Calif 

Chico, Calif 

Chino, Calif 

Chula Vista, Calif„_ 

Claremont, Calif 

Coalinga, Calif 

Colton, Calif 

Corona, Calif 

Coronado, Calif 

Culver City, Calif 

Daly City, Calif 

Delano, Calif 

Dinuba, Calif 

Dunsmuir, Calif 

ElCentro, Calif 

El Cerrito, Calif 

El Segundo, Calif 

Escondido, Calif 

Exeter, Calif 

Fillmore, Calif 

Fort Bragg, Calif 

Gilroy, Calif 

Glendora, Calif 

Hawthorne, Calif 

Hayward, Calif 

Hermosa Beach, Calif 

Huntington Beach, Calif 

La Mesa, Calif 

La Verne, Calif 

Livermore, Calif 

Lompoc, Calif 

Los Gatos, Calif 



Number 
of em- 
ployees 




Lynwood, Calif 

Madera, Calif 

Marysville, CaliL 

Maywood, Calif 

Merced, Calif 

Mill Valley, Calif 

Montebello, Calif 

Monterey, Calif 

Monterey Park, Calif 

Mountain View, Calif 

Napa, Calif 

National City, Calif 

Needles, Calif 

Oceanside, Calif 

Orange, Calif 

Oroville, Calif . 

Oxnard, Calif 

Pacific Grove, Calif 

Petaluma, Calif 

Piedmont, Calif 

Pittsburg, Calif 

Porterville, Calif 

Redding, Calif 

Redond.oBea.ch, Calif 

Redwood City, Calif 

Roseville, Calif 

San Anselmo, Calif 

San Bruno, Calif 

San Fernando, Calif 

San Gabriel, Calif 

San Marino, Calif 

San Rafael, Calif 

Santa Clara, Calif .. 

Santa Maria, Calif 

Santa Paula, Calif 

Sausalito, Calif 

Sierra Madre, Calif 

Signal Hill, Calif 

South San Francisco, Calif 

Sunnyvale, Calif 

Torrance, Calif 

Tracy, Calif 

Tulare, Calif 

Upland, Calif 

Visalia, Calif 

Watsonville, Calif 

Woodland, Calif 

Alamosa, Colo 

Duratago, Colo 

Errglewood, Colo 

Fort Morgan, Colo 

I/a Junta, Colo 

LaYnar, Colo 

Longmont, Colo 

Loveland, Colo 

Monte Vista, Colo 

Montrose, Colo 

Rocky Ford, Colo 

Salida, Colo 

Sterling, Colo 

Danielson, Conn 

Groton Borough, Conn 

Putnam, Conn 

Southington, Conn 

Dover, Del 

Milford, Del 

Newark, Del 

New Castle, Del 

Arcadia, Fla 

Avon Park, Fla 

Bradenton, Fla 

Clearwater, Fla _. 

Coral Gables, Fla 

De Funiak Springs, Fla 

Fort Lauderdale, Fla 

Fort Pierce, Fla 



79 

Table 52. — Number of 'police department employees, 1937; cities with population 
from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 



CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Number 
of em- 
ployees 



Hialeah, Fla 

Hollywood, Fla 

Kissimmee, Fla 

Lake City, Fla 

Lake Wales, Fla 

Lake Worth, Fla 

Leesburg, Fla 

Marianna, Fla 

Miami Beach, Fla... 

New Smyrna, Fla 

Oeala, Fla 

Palatka, Fla 

Palmetto, Fla 

Perry, Fla 

Pompano, Fla. 

Quincy, Fla 

Sarasota, Fla 

Wauchula, Fla 

Winter Haven, Fla... 

Winter Park, Fla 

Americus, Ga 

Dalton, Ga 

Elberton, Ga 

Quitman, Ga 

Blackfoot, Idaho 

Caldwell, Idaho 

Coeur d'Alene, Idaho 

Emmett, Idaho 

Idaho Falls, Idaho... 

Lewiston, Idaho 

Moscow, Idaho 

Nampa, Idaho 

Preston, Idaho 

St. Anthony, Idaho. . 

Sandpoint, Idaho 

Twin Falls, Idaho... 

Anna, 111 

Arlington Heights, III 

Batavia, 111 

Beardstown, 111 

Bellwood, 111 

Belvidere, III.. 

Benld,IlL... 

Benton, 111 

Carbondale, 111 

Carlinville, 111 

Carmi, 111 

Carterville, 111 

Clinton, 111 

DeKalb, 111 

Des Plaines, 111 

Dixon, 111 

Dolton, 111 

Downers Grove, 111.. 

Duquoin, 111 

Dwight.EJ 

East Alton, 111 

East Peoria, 111 .. 

E d wards v ille, HI 

Flora, HI 

Galva, 111. 

Geneva, 111.. 

Gillespie, 111 

Glencoe, 111 

Glen Ellyn, 111 

Herrin, 111 

Highland, 111 

Highwood, 111 

Hillsboro, El 

Hinsdale, 111 

Homewood, 111 

Hoopeston, 111 

Johnston City, 111 

Kenilworth, 111 

La Grange Park, H'.. 




Lake Forest, 111 

Lansing, Dl 

Lemont, 111 

Liberty ville, 111 

Litchfield, 111 

Lockport, 111 

Lombard, 111 

Lyons, 111 

Macomb, 111 

Madison, 111 

Marseilles, 111 

Mendota, 111 

Morris, 111 

Morrison, 111 

Naperville, 111 

Niles Center, 111 

Normal, 111 

North Chicago, 111.. 

Oglesby, 111 

Pana, 111 

Paris, 111 

Peoria Heights, 111. . 

Peru, EL. 

Pinckney ville, HI... 

Pontiac, 111 

Princeton, 111 

Riverdale, 111 

River Forest, 111 

River Grove, 111 

Riverside, 111 

Robinson, 111 

Rochelle, HI 

Savanna, 111 

Silvis, 111 

Staunton, 111 

Steger, 111 

Summit, 111 

Taylorville, 111 

Tuscola, 111 

Venice, 111 

Villa Park, 111 

Virden, 111 

Watseka, 111 

West Chicago, 111... 
Western Springs, 111. 

Westmont, 111 

Westville, 111 

Wneaton, 111 

AVood River, 111 

Zion, 111 

Alexandria, Ind 

Angola, Ind 

Attica, Ind 

Auburn, Ind 

Aurora, Ind 

Batesville, Ind 

Beech Grove, Ind... 

Bicknell, Ind 

Blufiton, Ind 

Boonville, Ind 

Brazil, Ind 

Clinton, Ind 

Columbia City, Ind 
Crown Point, Ind-_. 

Dunkirk, Ind 

Gas City, Ind 

Greencastle, Ind 

Greensburg, Ind 

Hartford City, Ind. 

Jasonville, Ind 

Kendallville, Ind 

Lawrenceburg, Ind. 

Lebanon, Ind 

Linton, Ind 

Madison, Ind 



80 

Table 52. — Number of police department employees, 1987; cities with population 
from 2,500 to 25,000— Continued 



CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Martinsville, Ind 

Mitchell, Ind 

Mount Vernon, Ind 

Noblesville, Ind 

North Vernon, Ind 

Oakland City, Ind 

Petersburg, Ind 

Salem, Ind 

Sullivan, Ind 

Valparaiso, Ind 

Wabash, Ind 

West Lafayette, Ind _ . - 
West Terre Haute, Ind 

Winchester, Ind 

Albia, Iowa ---. 

Algona, Iowa 

Anamosa, Iowa 

Atlantic, Iowa 

Belle Plaine, Iowa 

Bettendorf, Iowa 

Carroll, Iowa 

Cedar Falls, Iowa 

Centerville, Iowa 

Charles City, Iowa 

Cherokee, Iowa 

Clarinda, Iowa 

Clarion, Iowa 

Creston, Iowa 

Decorah, Iowa 

Eagle Grove, Iowa 

Eldora, Iowa 

Emmetsburg, Iowa 

Fairfield, Iowa 

Grinnell, Iowa 

Hampton, Iowa 

Iowa Falls, Iowa 

Jefferson, Iowa 

Knoxville, Iowa 

Maquoketa, Iowa 

Marion, Iowa 

Missouri Valley, Iowa. 
Mount Pleasant, Iowa. 

Nevada, Iowa 

Oelwein, Iowa 

Onawa, Iowa 

Sheldon, Iowa 

Shenandoah, Iowa 

Spencer, Iowa 

Tama, Iowa 

Washington, Iowa 

Waverly, Iowa 

Webster City, Iowa 

Abilene, Kans 

Augusta, Kans 

Baxter Springs, Kans.. 

Caney, Kans 

Fredonia, Kans 

Garden City, Kans 

Garnett, Kans 

Hays, Kans 

Herington, Kans 

Hiawatha, Kans 

Hoisington, Kans 

Humboldt, Kans 

Iola, Kans 

Junction City, Kans... 

Liberal, Kans 

McPherson, Kans 

Neodesha, Kans 

Ottawa, Kans 

Wellington, Kans 

Winfield, Kans 

Corbfn, Ky 

Cumberland, Ky 

Danville, Ky 

Dayton, Ky 



Number 
of em- 
ployees 




Fulton, Ky 

Georgetown, Ky 

Glasgow, Ky 

Harrodsburg, Ky 

Jenkins, Ky 

Lebanon, Ky 

Ludlow, Ky 

Mount Sterling, Ky 

Pikeville, Ky 

Winchester, Ky 

Bossier City, La 

Franklin, La 

Haynesville, La 

Houma, La 

Lake Providence, La 

Merryville, La 

Minden, La 

Natchitoches, La 

New Iberia, La 

Oakdale, La 

Pineville, La 

Plaquemine, La 

Rayne, La 

Slidell, La 

Tallulah, La 

West Monroe, La 

Bath, Maine 

Belfast, Maine 

Calais, Maine 

Fort Fairfield, Maine. .. 

Gardiner, Maine 

Hallowell, Maine 

Old Town, Maine 

Presque Isle, Maine 

Rockland, Maine 

Saco, Maine 

Cambridge, Md 

Frostburg, Md 

Takoma Park, Md 

Western port, Md 

Abington, Mass 

Amherst, Mass..---.. 

Andover, Mass 

Auburn, Mass 

Ayer, Mass 

Barnstable, Mass 

Bridgewater, Mass 

Canton, Mass 

Cohasset, Mass 

Dalton, Mass 

Dartmouth, Mass 

Dracut, Mass 

Franklin, Mass 

Great Barrington, Mass 

Hingham, Mass 

Ipswich, Mass 

Lexington, Mass 

Longmeadow, Mass 

Ludlow, Mass 

Marblehead, Mass 

Maynard, Mass 

Middleborough, Mass... 

Montague, Mass 

Nantucket, Mass 

North Andover, Mass... 

North bridge, Mass 

Orange, Mass 

Palmer, Mass 

Randolph, Mass 

Reading, Mass 

Rockport, Mass 

Somerset, Mass 

South Hadley, Mass 

TJxbridge, Mass 

Walpole, Mass 

Ware, Mass 

Winchendon , Mass 



81 



Table 52. — Number of police department employees, 1937; cities with population 
from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 




Albion, Mich 

Allegan, Midi 

Alma, Mich 

Belding, Mich 

Berkley, Mich 

Bessemer, Mich 

Big Rapids, Mich 

Birmingham, Mich 

Buchanan, Mich 

Cadillac, Mich 

Caro, Mich 

Centerline, Mich 

Charlotte, Mich 

Cheboygan, Mich 

Clawson, Mich.. 

Coldwater, Mich 

Crystal Falls, Mich 

Dowagiac, Mich 

East Detroit, Mich 

East Grand Rapids, Mich. 

East Lansing, Mich 

Eaton Rapids, Mich 

Gladstone, Mich 

Grand Haven, Mich 

Grand Ledge, Mich 

Greenville, Mich 

Grosse Pointe, Mich 

Grosse Pointe Farms, Mich 

Hancock, Mich 

Hastings, Mich 

Houghton, Mich 

Howell, Mich 

Ionia, Mich 

Iron River, Mich 

Ishpeming, Mich 

Kingsford, Mich 

Lapeer, Mich 

Laurium, Mich 

Ludington, Mich 

Manistee, Mich 

Manistique, Mich 

Marine City, Mich 

Marshall, Mich 

Melvindale, Mich 

Midland, Mich 

Mount Pleasant, Mich 

Munising, Mich 

Negaunee, Mich 

Northville, Mich 

Norway, Mich 

Otsego, Mich 

Petoskey, Mich 

Pleasant Ridge, Mich 

Plymouth, Mich 

Rochester, Mich 

Rogers City, Mich 

Roseville, Mich 

St. Clair, Mich 

St. Clair Shores, Mich 

St. Joseph, Mich 

South Haven, Mich 

Sturgis, Mich 

Three Rivers, Mich 

Trenton, Mich 

Wakefield, Mich 

Wayne, Mich 

Zeeland, Mich 

Alexandria, Minn 

Anoka, Minn 

Bayport, Minn 

Bemidji, Minn 

Blue Earth, Minn 

Chisholm, Minn 

Columbia Heights, Minn.. 
Crookston, Minn 



Crosby, Minn.. 

Detroit Lakes, Minn 

East Grand Forks, Minn. 

Edina, Minn 

Eveleth, Minn 

Fairmont, Minn 

Fergus Falls, Minn 

Gilbert, Minn 

Hastings, Minn 

Hopkins, Minn 

Hutchinson, Minn 

International Falls, Minn 

Lake City, Minn 

Litchfield, Minn 

Little Falls, Minn 

Luverne, Minn 

Marshall, Minn 

Montevideo, Minn 

Moorhead, Minn.. 

Nashwauk, Minn 

New Ulm, Minn 

Northfield, Minn 

North Mankato, Minn._- 
North St. Paul, Minn.... 

Owatonna, Minn 

Pipestone, Minn 

Proctorknott, Minn 

Red Wing, Minn 

Redwood Falls, Minn 

Robbinsdale, Minn 

St. James, Minn 

St. Louis Park, Minn 

St. Peter, Minn 

Sauk Center, Minn 

Sauk Rapids, Minn 

Sleepy Eye, Minn 

Staples, Minn 

Stillwater, Minn 

Thief River Falls, Minn. 

Tracy, Minn 

Two Harbors, Minn 

Wadena, Minn 

Waseca, Minn 

West St. Paul, Minn 

White Bear Lake, Minn. 

Willmar, Minn 

Worthington, Minn 

Lexington, Miss 

New Albany, Miss 

Pascagoula, Miss 

Picayune, Miss 

Aurora, Mo 

Boonville, Mo 

Cameron, Mo 

Carrollton, Mo . 

Carthage, Mo 

Clayton, Mo 

Clinton, Mo 

DeSoto, Mo 

Excelsior Springs, Mo 

Higginsville, Mo 

Marceline, Mo 

Marshall, Mo 

Maryville, Mo 

Monett, Mo 

Richmond Heights, Mo— 

Trenton, Mo 

Washington, Mo 

West Plains, Mo 

Bozeman, Mont 

Havre, Mont 

Kalispell, Mont 

Laurel, Mont 

Lewistown, Mont 

Livingston, Mont 



82 



Table 52. — Number of police department employees, 1937; cities with population 
from 2,500 to 25,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Whiteflsh, Mont 

Alliance, Nebr 

Auburn, Nebr 

Aurora, Nebr 

Blair, Nebr 

Chadron, Nebr 

Crete, Nebr 

Fairbury , Nebr 

Falls City, Nebr 

Kearney, Nebr 

Lexington, Nebr 

McCook, Nebr 

Nebraska City, Nebr 

Schuyler, Nebr 

Scottsbluff, Nebr 

Seward, Nebr 

South Sioux City, Nebr.. 

Wahoo, Nebr 

Wymore, Nebr 

York, Nebr 

Boulder City, Nev 

Ely, Nev 

Las Vegas, Nev 

Sparks, Nev 

Derry Town, N. H 

Exeter, N. H 

Franklin, N. H : 

Littleton, N. H 

Newport, N. H 

Somersworth, N. H 

Audubon, N. J 

Belmar, N. J 

Bernardsville, N. J 

Bogota, N. J 

Boonton, N. J 

Bound Brook, N. J 

Bradley Beach, N. J 

Butler, N.J 

Caldwell, N.J 

Cape May, N. J 

Carlstadt, N. J 

Clementon, N. J 

Dunellen, N.J 

East Paterson, N. J 

Edgewater, N. J 

Fairlawn, N. J 

Fairview, N. J 

Flemington, N.J 

Fort Lee, N. J 

Freehold, N.J 

Garwood, N. J 

Glassboro, N. J 

GlenEidge, N. J 

Glen Rock, N. J 

Guttenberg, N. J 

Hackettstown, N. J 

Haddonfield, N. J 

Haddon Heights, N.J... 

Hammonton, N. J 

Hasbrouck Heights, N. J 

Highland Park, N. J 

Keyport, N. J 

Leonia, N. J 

Madison, N. J 

Manville, N. J 

Maywood, N. J 

Merchantville, N. J 

Metuchen, N. J 

Middlesex, N. J 

New Milford, N. J 

Newton, N. J 

Northfield, N. J 

North Plainfield, N. J.... 

Ocean City, N. J 

Paramus, N. J 



Number 
of em- 
ployees 




Paulsboro, N. J 

Penns Grove, N. J 

Pitman, N. J 

Pompton Lakes, N. J 

Princeton, N. J 

Prospect Park, N. J 

Ramsey, N. J 

Raritan, N. J.._ 

RosellePark, N.J 

Salem, N.J 

Sayreville, N. J 

Secaucus, N. J 

Somerville, N.J 

South Plainfield, N. J 

Tenafly, N.J 

Verona, N. J 

Vineland, N. J 

Washington, N. J 

Westwood, N. J _. 

Wildwood, N. J 

Woodbury, N. J 

Wood Ridge, N.J 

Alamogordo, N. Mex 

Carlsbad, N. Mex 

Clayton, N. Mex 

Clovis, N. Mex 

Gallup, N. Mex 

Portales, N. Mex _ _ 

Albion, N. Y 

Amityville, N. Y _ . 

Babylon, N. Y 

Baldwinsville, N. Y 

BallstonSpa, N. Y... 

Bath, N. Y 

Bronxville, N. Y 

Cana joharie, N. Y 

Canandaigua, N. Y ; 

Canastota, N. Y 

Canisteo, N. Y 

Canton, N. Y 

Carthage, N.Y 

Catskill, N. Y 

Cobleskill, N. Y 

Cooperstown, N. Y 

Dansville, N. Y 

Depew, N. Y 

Dobbs Ferry, N. Y 

Dolgeville, N. Y 

East Rochester, N. Y 

East Rockaway, N. Y 

Ellenville, N. Y 

Elmira Heights, N.Y 

Elmsford, N. Y 

Falconer, N. Y 

Farmingdale, N. Y 

Fort Edward, N. Y 

Fort Plain, N. Y 

Frankfort, N. Y 

Fredonia, N. Y 

Garden City, N. Y 

Goshen, N. Y 

Gowanda, N. Y 

Granville, N. Y 

Green Island, N. Y 

Greenport, N. Y 

Hamburg, NT. Y 

Hastings-on-Hudson, N. Y 

Haverstraw, N. Y 

Highland Falls, N. Y 

Hudson Falls, N. Y 

Ilion, N. Y 

Irvington, N. Y 

Lake Placid, N. Y 

Lancaster, N. Y 

Larchmont, N. Y 



83 



Table 52. — Number of police department employees, 1937; cities with population 
from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 




Lawrence, N. Y 

Liberty, N. Y 

Lindenhurst, N. Y 

Lowville, N. Y 

Lyons, N. Y 

Malone, N. Y 

Mechanicville, N. Y 

Medina, N. Y 

Mohawk, N. Y 

Montieello, N. Y 

Newark, N. Y... 

New York Mills, N. Y. 
North Pelham, N. Y.... 

Northport, N. Y 

North Tarrytown, N. Y 

Norwich, N. Y 

Nyack, N. Y 

Owego, N. Y 

Palmyra, N. Y 

Patchogue, N. Y 

Pelham Manor, N. Y— 

PennYan, N. Y 

Perry, N. Y 

Pleasantville, N. Y 

Potsdam, N.Y 

Rye, N. Y 

Sag Harbor, N. Y 

Salamanca, N. Y 

Saranac Lake, N. Y 

Saugerties, N. Y 

Scarsdale, N. Y 

Scotia, N.Y 

Sea Cliff, N.Y 

Seneca Falls, N. Y 

Silver Creek, N. Y 

Solvay, N. Y 

Southampton, N. Y 

Spring Valley, N. Y 

Springville, N. Y 

Suffern, N. Y 

Tarrytown, N. Y 

Tuckahoe, N. Y 

Tupper Lake, N. Y 

Walden, N. Y 

Wappingers Falls, N. Y. 

Warsaw, N. Y 

Waterford, N. Y 

Waterloo, N. Y 

Waverly, N. Y 

Wellsville, N. Y 

Westfield.N. Y 

West Haverstraw, N. Y. 

Whitehall, N. Y 

Yorkville, N. Y 

Asheboro, N. C 

Canton, N. C. 

Forest City, N. C 

Henderson ville, N. C 

Hickory, N. C 

Lenoir, N. C 

Lexington, N. C 

Lumberton, N. C 

Mount Airy, N. C 

Mount Olive, N. C 

Reidsville, N. C 

Roanoke Rapids, N. C. 

Sanford, N. G__ 

Southern Pines, N. C... 

Devils Lake, N. Dak 

Jamestown, N. Dak 

Mandan, N. Dak 

Williston, N. Dak 

Amherst, Ohio 

Athens, Ohio 

Barnesville, Ohio 

Bedford, Ohio 



Bellefontaine, Ohio 

Bellevue, Ohio 

Bridgeport, Ohio 

Bryan, Ohio 

Carey, Ohio 

Chagrin Falls, Ohio 

Chevoit, Ohio.... 

Circleville, Ohio 

Clyde, Ohio 

Conneaut, Ohio 

Crestline, Ohio 

Crooksville, Ohio 

Defiance, Ohio 

Delaware, Ohio 

Delphos, Ohio... 

Dennison, Ohio 

Dover, Ohio 

East Palestine, Ohio 

Eaton, Ohio 

Elmwood Place, Ohio 

Fairport Harbor, Ohio 

Franklin, Ohio 

Oalion, Ohio... 

Geneva, Ohio 

Girard, Ohio^ 

Glouster, Ohio 

Grandview Heights, Ohio 

Greenville, Ohio 

Hillsboro, Ohio 

Hubbard, Ohio 

Jackson, Ohio 

Kent, Ohio 

Kenton, Ohio.. 

Lebanon, Ohio 

Lisbon, Ohio 

Lockland, Ohio 

Logan, Ohio 

Lowellville, Ohio 

Maple Heights, Ohio 

Maumee, Ohio 

Miamisburg, Ohio 

Middleport, Ohio 

Minerva, Ohio 

Mingo Junction, Ohio 

Montpelier, Ohio 

Mount Vernon, Ohio 

New Boston, Ohio 

Newton Falls, Ohio... 

North Canton, Ohio 

North College Hill, Ohio 

Oakwood, Ohio 

Oberlin, Ohio.. 

Orrville, Ohio 

Oxford, Ohio 

Port Clinton, Ohio 

Ravenna, Ohio 

Reading, Ohio 

Rocky River, Ohio 

St. Bernard, Ohio 

St. Marys, Ohio 

Sebring, Ohio 

Shadyside, Ohio 

Shelby, Ohio 

Sidney, Ohio 

South Euclid, Ohio 

Tippecanoe City, Ohio 

Toronto, Ohio 

Troy, Ohio 

Uhrichsville, Ohio 

Upper Arlington, Ohio 

Urbana, Ohio 

Van Wert, Ohio 

Wadsworth, Ohio 

Washington Court House, Ohio. 

Wellston, Ohio 

Westerville, Ohio 



84 



Table 52. — Number of police department employees, 1937; cities with population 
from 2,500 to 25,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Number 
of em- 
ployees 



Willoughby, Ohio.. 
Wilmington, Ohio. 

Wyoming, Ohio 

Alva, Okla 

Blackwell, Okla.... 

Bristow, Okla 

Chandler, Okla 

Claremore, Okla 

Cleveland, Okla... 

Clinton, Okla 

Commerce, Okla... 

Cordell, Okla 

Cushing, Okla 

Drumright, Okla... 

Duncan, Okla 

Durant, Okla 

Edmond, Okla 

Elk City, Okla 

El Reno, Okla 

Frederick, Okla 

Guthrie, Okla 

Henryetta, Okla 

Holdenville, Okla__ 

Hollis, Okla 

Hominy, Okla 

Kingfisher, Okla 

Mangum, Okla 

Marlow, Okla 

Miami, Okla 

Norman, Okla 

Pawhuska, Okla... 

Pawnee, Okla 

Poteau, Okla 

Sand Springs, Okla 

Stillwater, Okla 

Sulphur, Okla 

Tonka wa, Okla 

Wilson, Okla 

Albany, Oreg 

Ashland, Oreg 

Baker, Oreg 

Bend, Oreg 

Burns, Oreg 

Corvallis, Oreg 

Grants Pass, Oreg_. 
Hood River, Oreg__ 
La Grande, Oreg._. 

Pendleton, Oreg 

Roseburg, Oreg 

The Dalles, Oreg... 

Ambler, Pa 

Apollo, Pa 

Ashley, Pa 

Avalon, Pa 

Barnesboro, Pa 

Beaver, Pa 

Bedford, Pa 

Bellefonte, Pa 

Blairsville, Pa 

Boyertown, Pa 

Brackenridge, Pa_. 

Brentwood, Pa 

Brock way, Pa 

Brookville, Pa 

Brownsville, Pa 

Camp Hill, Pa 

Catasauqua, Pa 

Clearfield, Pa 

Clifton Heights, Pa 

Clymer, Pa 

Coaldale, Pa 

Coplay, Pa 

Corry, Pa 

Dale, Pa 

Dallastown, Pa 

Danville, Pa 




Derry, Pa 

Downingtown, Pa 

Doylestown, Pa 

Dupont, Pa 

East Conemaugh, Pa_. 
East McKeesport, Pa_. 
East Pittsburgh, Pa... 
East Stroudsburg, Pa_. 

Ebensburg, Pa 

Edgewood, Pa 

Elizabeth town, Pa 

Emaus, Pa 

Emporium, Pa 

Ephrata, Pa 

Ferndale, Pa 

Ford City, Pa 

Forest City, Pa 

Fountain Hill, Pa 

Freedom, Pa 

Freeland, Pa 

Freeport, Pa 

Gallitzin, Pa 

Gettysburg, Pa 

Gilberton, Pa 

Glenolden, Pa 

Greenville, Pa 

Grove City, Pa 

Hamburg, Pa 

Hatboro, Pa 

Hellertown, Pa 

Hollidaysburg, Pa 

Honesdale, Pa 

Huntingdon, Pa 

Indiana, Pa 

Ingram, Pa 

Irwin, Pa 

Jenkintown, Pa 

Jersey Shore, Pa 

Kane, Pa 

Kittanning, Pa 

Kutztown, Pa 

Lansdale, Pa 

Lansdowne, Pa 

Lansford, Pa 

Leechburg, Pa 

Lititz, Pa 

Lock Haven, Pa 

McAdoo, Pa 

McDonald, Pa 

Marcus Hook, Pa 

Mechanicsburg, Pa 

Midland, Pa 

MiUvale, Pa 

Milton, Pa 

Monaca, Pa 

Monongahela City, Pa. 

Morrisville, Pa 

Mount Joy, Pa 

Mount Penn, Pa 

Mount Pleasant, Pa_._ 

Nanty Glo, Pa 

Nazareth, Pa 

New Cumberland, Pa__ 

Northampton, Pa 

North Bellevcrnon, Pa- 
North East, Pa 

Norwood, Pa 

Oakmont, Pa 

Palmerton, Pa ... 

Patton, Pa 

Pen Argyl, Pa 

Penbrook, Pa 

Portage. Pa 

Punxsutawney, Pa 

Quakertown, Pa 

Rankin, Pa 



85 



Table 52. — Number of 'police department employees, 1937; cities with population 
from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Reynoldsville, Pa 

Ridgway, Pa 

Roaring Spring, Pa 

Rochester, Pa 

St. Clair, Pa 

St. Marys, Pa 

Sayre, Pa 

Schuylkill Haven, Pa 

Scottdale, Pa 

Sewickley, Pa 

Sharpsburg, Pa 

Sharpsville, Pa 

Shillington, Pa— --- 

Shippensburg, Pa 

Slatington, Pa - 

Somerset, Pa 

South Connellsville, Pa 

South Fork, Pa 

South Greensburg, Pa 

Southwest Greensburg, Pa- 
Spring City, Pa 

State College, Pa 

Stroudsburg, Pa 

Summit Hill, Pa 

Swarthmore, Pa 

Swoyerville, Pa 

Tarentum, Pa 

Throop, Pa 

Titusville, Pa 

Traflord, Pa 

Tyrone, Pa. 

Upland, Pa 

Verona, Pa 

Waynesburg, Pa 

Weatherly, Pa 

West Conshohocken, Pa... 

Westmont, Pa 

West Newton, Pa 

West Pittston, Pa 

West Reading, Pa 

Westview, Pa 

West York, Pa 

Windber, Pa 

Wyomissing, Pa 

Youngwood, Pa 

Barrington, R. I 

Burrillville, R. I 

East Greenwich, R. I 

Warren, R. I 

Clinton, S. C 

Darlington, S. C 

Hartsville, S. C 

Lancaster, S. C 

Marion, S. C 

Newberry, S. C 

Union, S. C 

Brooking, S. Dak 

Hot Springs, S. Dak 

Lead, S. Dak 

Mobridge, S. Dak 

Pierre, S. Dak 

Yankton, S. Dak 

Alcoa, Tenn 

Cleveland, Tenn 

Dyersburg, Tenn 

Elizabethton, Tenn 

Greeneville, Tenn 

Norris, Tenn 

Tullahoma, Tenn 

Union City, Tenn 

Alpine, Tex 

Arlington, Tex 

Borger, Tex 

Breckenridge, Tex 



Number 
of em- 
ployees 




Bryan, Tex 

Burkburnett, Tex 

Cisco, Tex 

Coleman, Tex 

Commerce, Tex 

Denton, Tex 

Eastland, Tex 

HillsborOj Tex 

Jacksonville, Tex 

Jasper, Tex 

Kerrville, Tex 

Longview, Tex 

McAllen, Tex 

McKinney, Tex 

Mexia, Tex 

Mineola, Tex 

Mineral Wells, Tex 

Olney, Tex 

Orange, Tex 

Paducah, Tex 

Perryton, Tex 

Pharr, Tex 

Ranger, Tex 

Smithville, Tex 

Stamford, Tex 

University Park, Tex 

Uvalde, Tex 

Weatherford, Tex 

Weslaco, Tex 

American Fork, Utah 

Bingham Canyon, Utah. 

Cedar City, Utah 

Eureka, Utah.. 

Logan, Utah 

Murray, Utah 

Nephi, Utah 

Park City, Utah 

Payson, Utah 

Spanish Fork, Utah 

Springville, Utah 

Bennington Village, Vt.. 

Brattleboro, Vt 

Montpelier, Vt 

St. Albans, Vt 

St. Johnsbury, Vt 

Springfield, Vt 

Windsor, Vt 

Winooski, Vt 

Covington, Va 

Farmville, Va 

Franklin, Va 

Galax, Va 

Hampton, Va 

Harrisonburg, Va 

Lexington, Va 

Norton, Va 

Radford, Va 

Salem, Va 

South Norfolk, Va 

Vinton, Va 

Waynesboro, Va 

Williamsburg, Va 

Anacortes, Wash 

Camas, Wash 

Centralia, Wash 

Chehalis, Wash 

Clarkston, Wash 

Cle Elum, Wash 

Colfax, Wash 

Ellensburg, Wash 

Kelso, Wash 

Pasco, Wash 

Port Townsend, Wash.. 
Puyallup, Wash 



86 

Table 52. — Number of police department employees, 1937; cities with population 
from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 


Number 
of em- 
ployees 


City 


Number 
of em- 
ployees 




3 
5 
7 
5 
1 
5 
7 
5 
8 
3 
5 
2 
2 
7 
3 
2 
1 
4 
9 
3 
5 

11 
7 

11 
5 
9 
6 
4 
2 
4 
2 


Kaukauna, Wis .. . 


6 




2 


Benwood, W. Va 


Little Chute, Wis 

Marshfield, Wis— ..... . 


2 
9 


Chester, W. Va 


14 


Elkins, W. Va 




6 


Grafton, W. Va 

Hinton, W. Va 


Merrill, Wis 

Monroe, Wis _. .. 


7 
7 




13 






4 


Logan r W. Va 

Manmngton, W. Va 

McMechen, W. Va 


Park Falls, Wis 

Portage, Wis - 

Port Washington, Wis 

Reedsburg, Wis 


4 
4 
4 


Princeton. W. Va _ 

St. Albans, W. Va 


2 

5 


Salem, W. Va. 




2 


Sisterville, W. Va 

South Charleston, W. Va 

Welch, W. Va 

Wellsburg, W. Va 

Weston, W. Va 

Williamson, W. Va 


Sparta, Wis 

Sturgeon Bay, Wis - ... 

Tomah, Wis - .--_-. 

Tomahawk, Wis . ... . 

Waupaca, Wis 

Waupun, Wis ... 

West Bend, Wis.. 


6 
4 
3 
3 
7 
3 
7 


Beaver Dam, Wis 

Burlington, Wis .. . - . 


West Milwaukee, Wis ... 

Whitefish Bay, Wis 

Whitewater, Wis... ... ... 


11 
13 

5 




11 


Delavan, Wis. 

Edgerton, Wis 

Fort Atkinson, Wis _ ... 

Jefferson, Wis . __--._ 


Laramie, Wyo 

Rock Springs, Wyo. .. 

Sheridan, Wyo... ... 


7 
8 
7 






DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

During the first 6 months of 1938 the FBI examined 288,264 
arrest records as evidenced by fingerprint cards, in order to obtain 
data concerning the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of 
the persons represented. The compilation has been limited to in- 
stances of arrests for violations of State laws and municipal ordinances. 
In other words, fingerprint cards representing arrests for violations 
of Federal laws or representing commitments to any type of penal 
institution have been excluded from this tabulation. 

The number of fingerprint records examined was considerably 
larger than for the corresponding portion of prior years, which were 
as follows: 1937, 251,575; 1936, 219,868. The increase in the number 
of arrest records examined should not necessarily be construed as 
reflecting an increase in the amount of crime, nor as an increase in 
the number of persons arrested, since it quite probably is at least 
partially the result of an increase in the number of local agencies 
contributing fingerprint records to the Identification Division of the 
FBI. The tabulation of data from fingerprint cards obviously does 
not include all persons arrested, since there are individuals taken into 
custody for whom no fingerprint cards are forwarded to Washington. 
Furthermore, data pertaining to persons arrested should not be 
treated as information regarding the number of offenses committed, 
since two or more persons may be involved in the joint commission 
of a single offense, and on the other hand one person may be arrested 
and charged with the commission of several separate crimes. 

More than 30 percent of the arrest records examined during the 
first half of 1938 represented persons taken into custody for murder, 
robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft. Arrests for major 
violations are reflected by the following figures: 

Criminal homicide 3, 313 

Robbery 8, 121 

Assault 15, 240 

Burglary 1 9, 753 

Larceny (except auto theft) 33, 381 

Autotheft 6,841 

Embezzlement and fraud 10, 148 

Stolen property (receiving, etc.) 2,116 

Forgery and counterfeiting 4, 327 

Rape 3, 167 

Narcotic drug laws 2, 262 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 3, 209 

Driving while intoxicated 10, 644 

Gambling 3, 603 

Arson 526 

Total 126,651 

Sex. — Of the 288,264 arrest records examined, 269,141 (93.4 percent) 
represented men and 19,123 (6.6 percent) represented women. For 
all types of crime except commercialized vice the number of men 

(87) 



arrested was larger than the number of women. However, a com- 
parison of the figures representing an average group of 100 men 
arrested with those for an average group of 100 women arrested indi- 
cates that there were more women than men charged with murder, 
assault, and the use of narcotic drugs. Also, the same type of com- 
parison indicates a somewhat larger ratio of arrests of women for 
larceny; but for other types of crimes against property, such as rob- 
bery, burglary, and auto theft, men predominate. The comparison 
further reveals that 12 of each 1,000 women arrested and fingerprinted 
were charged with driving while intoxicated, whereas 39 of each 1,000 
men arrested were charged with that type of violation. Data for 
individual types of crimes may be found in the following table. 

Distribution of arrests by sex Jan. 1-June 30, 1938 



Offense charged 



Number 



Total Male Female 



Percent 



Total Male Female 



Criminal homicide-. 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Autotheft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children. _. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws... 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy.. 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



3,313 
8, 121 
15, 240 

19, 753 
33,381 

6,841 

10, 148 

2,116 

526 

4,327 

3,167 

3,219 

3,792 

2,262 

3,209 

3,551 

4,285 

10, 644 

1,982 

7 

3,655 

12, 691 

40, 977 

28,061 

3,603 

34, 760 

4,119 

20, 514 



3, 004 

7,803 

14, 046 

19,445 

31, 003 

6,759 

9,733 

1,976 

488 

4,079 

3,167 

800 

3,301 

1,623 

3,103 

3,473 

3,657 

10, 405 

1,957 

7 

3,599 

11,273 

38, 834 

26, 478 

3,397 

32, 349 

3,841 

19, 541 



309 
318 

1,194 
308 

2,378 
82 
415 
140 
38 
248 



2,419 
491 
639 
106 
78 
628 
239 
25 



56 

1,418 

2,143 

1,583 

206 

2,411 

278 

973 



1.1 
2.8 
5.3 
6.9 

11.6 

2.4 

3.5 

.7 

.2 

1.5 

1.1 

1.1 

1.3 

.8 

1.1 

1.2 

1.5 

3.7 

.7 

(0 
1.3 
4.4 

14.2 
9.7 
1.3 

12.1 
1.4 
7.1 



1.1 
2.9 
5.2 
7.2 
11.5 
2.5 
3.6 

.7 

.2 
1.5 
1.2 

.3 
1.2 

.6 
1.2 
1.3 
1.4 
3.9 

.7 

1.3 
4.2 

14.4 
9.9 
1.3 

12.0 
1.4 
7.3 



1.6 

1.7 

6.3 

1.6 

12.4 

.4 

2.2 

.7 

_ 2 

1.3 



12.6 

2.6 

3.3 

.6 

.4 

3.3 

1.2 

.1 



.3 
7.4 

11.2 
8.3 
1.1 

12.6 
1.5 
5.1 



288, 264 



269, 141 



19, 123 



100. 



100.0 



100.0 



1 Less than Ho of 1 percent. 



Age. — From 1932 to the middle of 1935 age 19 was the group in 
which the largest number of arrests occurred. Since the middle of 
1935 there have been more arrests for ages 21, 22, and 23 than for 
any other groups. During the first 6 months of 1938 there were 
more arrests for age 21 than for any other single age group. The 
groups for which the largest number of arrests occurred during the 
first half of 1938 are as follows: 

Number of 
Age* arrests 

*21 ._ 12,863 

22 1 - 12,838 

23 _. _ ._ 12,792 

19 12,619 



89 

The compilation for 1937 reflected that 18.0 percent of the persons 
arrested were less than 21 years old, but during the first half of 1938 
the proportion was 18.9 percent. In addition to the 54,615 persons 
less than 21 years old arrested during the first 6 months of 1938, there 
were 50,216 (17.4 percent) between the ages of 21 and 24, making a 
total of 104,831 (36.4 percent) less than 25 years old. Persons 
arrested who were between the ages of 25 and 29 numbered 49,692 
(17.2 percent). This makes a total of 154,523 (53.6 percent) less 
than 30 years old. (With reference to the ages of persons represented 
by fingerprint cards received at the FBI, it should be borne in 
mind that the number of arrests records is doubtless incomplete in 
the lower age groups, because in some jurisdictions the practice is not 
to fingerprint youthful individuals.) 



90 



Jr-iOMHWCiO 

H (N rt< lO 00 -* ^ 

JHOINMOOH 



< :i :i -5 Hoi!ooo»>too 



J 00 *C OS CO CD O CM «* CO 

HHCO r-i 



) *# GO 

I CO OS 

Tcn'co CO tJ^cTt 



i0 35NtOO'Xi^H 
tDtDQO^NHiO 



HO iO M iO N •* O 00 



OS OS rH CO CO Tp -rH O t- CD CO OSCOCO-h^CNcOCO CD CI OJ >0 N iO - 



CO -* CO OS 



■* r-i N (N O r-< rH rH CO CO CO 00 CO CO 
HON rH i-T 



kCNOHCDOON Tf* CO t^ "* 

NdOOlCiiON *3< CO ^ CN OHrfiOO'COO'O 

rH rH oO CO CN t- i-i ' ' ■ 



O.OS NCO^OCi'f 
OHTtKXiCOOL" 
hNhh(NCOO! 



Tt<COCO»OCOOSCOOS 

i— i no os co co >— imr- 

rHt^OS'OCN'HHCNrH 



(MOiOiOO'fH t-~ CD r^ rH 



^OSCNCOt^-OSrHCO 
CO H ■* ^ O ■<}* H o 
rHCOCNCN^-^COrH 



HO>HHCC-*-*HCi 



rH lq ,-h Q0 CO CN CN N^CO 00 •H^'t O ■* ^ O OOhOO 'O'* NCD 

CNOCNO-^CNCO^O 



l- .to '-c cc -.c i~ ■ 



iO OS "** CN OON'trtOMHMHNiNIMtOCOOOHO 

TfCDNt- N iO W •* a> h iO O OSOOOSGOOS»OCOt« 

)Or-tOWtO CN id CN CO tP CO CO ^O CD t^ CN CO ^ © O "C ^ >C l> 

c^t^T'co t-h i-T '-Tcoco co t-T 



ONC0 030H b-^'i^.Cn NN^INhOhOihOOhOONNO) 



> OS OS CO I>- CO C 



O rH lO rH -H^ OS r- HO CO -+■ CO — I c 



O O CO i> N Tf( iC CN COCO lO O CO ■* l> CD CO W Tf< t^ CO t^. CO -** 1 *0 ( 

CNrHCO rH rH tHCD^CO tjh" c 



ncoojoococo oo- 



OdCOOQOiOONH 



- ■< OS O CO CO CN OS 1Q CO COGO»OT-HGOI>.TfiCO 

co co o os o oo oo co r- *o 00CO"^COcOt--Ol-^ 
rHCOCNiO*" i-T i-T 



^fHlCCOOHlO-* 
CN* «0 TJH CO CO" 



t^ CO CO CO rH CO CO O CD CN O CN CO t-- rf 00 CD CO CD t-h Tf CO O CO *-< CO t- 00 



iC O (N 00 <N •# ■ 



) CM CO -*• W3 CO t 



)MiOiO-H(N' 



CO -HH o CO CO 00 CO iCOcO^ CO^tD"*^r-irHTfiHtDiOOOCOO(N<OlM 
"") ^ N O 00 --< r-i OS CN 00 OS CCCCi'CCO'O'CH -00'tCOCl-*h.r 



rH U0 CO 00 tF CO "■*< 



(rH CN rH rHrH w CO rH 



(N!DHCOH00HOl 



CN CO 00 rH rH CO Tt< UOCOI^t^ N<OOOhhh« 

IM -f M CO >C tD >0 NhoOOO CNiOCO»OCNiOCNCN 
ri irj to OJ CO CO ■* rHrH CN rH rH rH i— I CO rH 



>O^H00»O»ON CN h- rH CO MNNOtDCD'OO 
CO *0 GO OS OS I-- CN Or- 1 CO 00 HHtONCOWCiCO 

H»OlOOtO , t't rH rHrH rHrH rH rHCNrH 



os oo io oo cn os co co^r^t-- coco o co oo co o o 



O CN lO O rH OS CO OS rH lO t 
rH lO Tt* CN t- <tf rH 



t-rHiOCNiOOt^rH 



CO rH CO t^- CN iO 'rjn io CN rt< CO CN O 00 OS CO CO 00 CO 

OiONtfOJHO ©HNO 00 CN ^O u-j tJH OS CN CN 

rH CD -r^ *D O t~- rH rH CN rH ^-i rHrH 



OCON-*COO(N OOCOCOCO INWOhOhNO 
00 CO CD ID rtH CN CO NiHiOOO CO CN CO tP CN CD t- CO 

lOCONCOOOH rHrH rH i-i 



*«# r^ -^ rt* io * 



CNcO^CO t^ O OS CO *0 CO CO CD 



J^IO^IOCON !>■ rH O O rH O CN 00 rH CO CO CN 

CO CN t- OS CD 



lONCOOtOiO CN ■«* CO OS *C rH t-» iO rH OS CO OS 



CN O -hh rH -^ 00 CN -** *C *0 
CN rH CO CO "5 






HOONQOOSOO'* CO CN CO 00 ^ OS i OS i CO rH 



<OOS>CNTfTt< CO CO OS rHOOCONWk 



■" CO O — i -H jo o 



r- cn io co co os o 



CNt'-COCN^OCDCO 




ICOOHNTflOCOH 

COOSCOOCJSCNcOrH 

CN O OS 'HH 00 rH O 



CO -^ 00 CO 00 W3 Ui OS 

•OOOOSOOSOCOt— 
CN IO GO "** 00 rH O 



•O-VCOOOOOiCOO 
NN-^NiCNCON 

rH ■**( CO OS O rH OS 



NONTf* HNCON 
OSOt^rHtDO-^fCO 

rH iO Id CN 00 rH O 



cor^ocouocNcoco 

to >o O CO Tf o »o o 

rH «t» 04* rH NHO 



OOOONHHtOOtO 
CDOSt^-COCOCNcOOS 

CN rH CD CN rH ^ 



H>*COOSCO00COOSCN 
co-^uoo OSI> t*- 

rH CO ^O O 



lOCCOCOiOOHOO 

tp rH -n< oo ^ r- 



^OOCOLOCNOCNO 
CN IQ OO ■* -tH 



91 

Youths less than 2 1 years old were frequently charged with offenses 
against property, particularly robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto 
theft. This is clearly indicated by the following tabulation: 

Percentage distribution of arrests by age groups 



Age group 


All offenses 


Criminal 
homicide 


Robbery 


Burglary 


Larceny 


Auto theft 


Under 21.. 


18.9 
34.7 
24.7 
13.5 
8.1 
.1 


11.9 
36.3 
28.2 
14.7 
8.8 
.1 


28.8 
46.9 
18.5 
4.6 
1.1 
.1 


43.2 
34.1 
14.9 

5.5 
2.2 
.1 


31.2 
33.4 
20.4 
9.8 
5.1 
.1 


52.5 


21-29 


33.2 


30-39 


10.9 


40-49 


2.6 




.7 




.1 






Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 







The predominance of youthful persons among those charged with 
offenses against property is further indicated by the fact that 85,213 
persons of all ages were arrested for crimes against property (robbery, 
burglary, larceny, auto theft, embezzlement and fraud, forgery and 
counterfeiting, receiving stolen property, and arson). During the 
first 6 months of 1938, 26,589 (31.2 percent) of the persons arrested 
for such crimes were less than 21 years old. 

Further indication of the large part played by youthful persons in 
the commission of crimes against property is seen in the figures showing 
that 36.4 percent of all persons arrested were less than 25 years of age. 
However, persons less than 25 years old numbered 55.3 percent of 
those charged with robbery, 62.2 percent of those charged with bur- 
glary, 49.7 percent of those charged with larceny, and 73.0 percent of 
those charged with auto theft. One-half of all crimes against property 
during the first half of 1938 were committed by persons under 25 
years of age. 

Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, Jan. 1-June 30, 

1938 



Offense charged 



Total num 
ber of per- 
sons ar- 
rested 



Number 

under 21 

years of age 



Total num- 
ber under 
25 years of 



Percentage 

under 21 

years of age 



Total per- 
centage un- 
der 25 years 
of age 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud. 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children. __ 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws... 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



3,313 

8,121 
15, 240 
19, 753 

33, 381 
6,841 

10, 148 

2,116 

526 

4,327 

3,167 

3,219 

3,792 

2,262 

3,209 

3,551 

4,285 

10, 644 

1,982 

7 

3,655 

12, 691 

40, 977 

28,061 

3, 603 

34, 760 
4,119 

20,514 



393 

2,337 

1,747 

8,529 

10, 431 

3,593 

572 

388 

69 

670 

788 

244 

528 

186 

580 

139 

325 

415 

348 



646 
1,951 
1,869 
4,354 

210 
7,467 

727 
5,109 



940 
4,487 
4,249 
12,284 
16, 584 
4,995 
2,279 

740 

138 
1,396 
1,475 
1,078 
1,102 

556 
1,188 

625 

919 
1,748 

840 
2 
1,564 
4,266 
6,026 
9,758 

633 

14, 567 

1,393 

8,999 



11.9 
28.8 
11.5 
43.2 
31.2 
52.5 

5.6 
18.3 
13.1 
15.5 
24.9 

7.6 
13.9 

8.2 
18.1 

3.9 

7.6 

3.9 
17.6 



17.7 
15.4 

4.6 
15.5 

5.8 
21.5 
17.6 
24.9 



28.4 
55.3 
27.9 
62.2 
49.7 
73.0 
22.5 
35.0 
26.2 
32.3 
46.6 
33.5 
29.1 
24.6 
37.0 
17.6 
21.4 
16.4 
42.4 
28.6 
42.8 
33.6 
14.7 
34.8 
17.6 
41.9 
33.8 
43.9 



288,264 



54,615 



104, 831 



18.9 



36.4 



92 

Recidivism.— There were 126,218 (43.8 percent) of the 288,264 
persons arrested during the first 6 months of 1938 who already had 
prior fingerprint cards on file in the Identification Division of the 
FBI. In addition, there were 4,914 current records bearing nota- 
tions relative to prior criminal activities of persons arrested during 
the first 6 months of 1938 although their fingerprints had not previously 
been on file. This makes a total of 131,132 persons arrested during 
the first 6 months of 1938 concerning whom there was information 
on file dealing with prior criminal activities, and the records showed 
that 83,073 had been convicted previously of one or more crimes. 
This number is 63.4 percent of the 131,132 records containing data 
concerning prior criminal activities, and 28.8 percent of the 288,264 
arrest records examined. 

In more than one-half of the cases the previous convictions were 
based on major violations as indicated by the following figures: 

Criminal homicide 761 

Robbery 3,371 

Assault 4,067 

Burglary 9, 106 

Larceny (and related offenses) 19, 859 

Arson 107 

Forgery and counterfeiting 2, 605 

Rape 612 

Narcotic drug laws 1, 350 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 938 

Driving while intoxicated ; 1, 884 

Total . 44, 660 

Number of cases in which fingerprint records show one or more prior convictions, 
and the total of prior convictions disclosed by the records, Jan. 1-June SO, 1938 



Offense charged at time of current arrest 



Number of 
records show- 
ing one or 
more prior 

convictions 



Number of 
prior convic- 
tions of nfajor 
offenses 



Number of 
prior convic- 
tions of minor 
offenses 



Total num- 
ber of prior 
convictions 
disclosed 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Autotheft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting. 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice- 
Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws. 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children... 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws... 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



564 

2,712 

3,715 

5,750 

9,101 

1,628 

2,698 

432 

75 

1,410 

602 

822 

715 

994 

765 

603 

1,100 

1,872 

334 

3 

849 

3,630 

14, 858 

10, 400 

618 

9,520 

1,124 

6,179 



654 
3,932 
4,363 
9,223 
15, 496 
2,330 
4,126 

575 

83 

2,666 

705 
1,087 

800 
2,760 

938 

565 

810 
1,472 

267 



785 
3,357 
9,442 
8,959 

679 
11,456 
1,537 
6,644 



573 

2,680 

4,150 

5,411 

11,772 

1,332 

2,478 

402 

57 

1,047 

491 

802 

853 

1,157 

728 

511 

1,329 

1,909 

303 

5 

906 

6,696 

37, 337 

12, 681 

602 

12, 129 

1,243 

7,854 



1,227 

6,612 

8,513 

14, 634 

27,268 

3,662 

6,604 

977 

140 

3,713 

1,196 

1,889 

1,653 

3,917 

1,666 

1,076 

2,139 

3,381 

570 

5 

1,691 

10, 053 

46, 779 

21, 640 

1,281 

23,585 

2,780 

14, 498 



83, 073 



95, 711 



117,438 



213, 149 



93 

There were 23 persons arrested for murder or manslaughter during 
the first half of 1938 whose criminal history revealed that they had on a 
prior occasion been convicted of criminal homicide in some degree. 
As already indicated, more than one-half of all persons whose records 
reflected prior convictions had been convicted of major crimes, and 
the tabulation further indicates a general tendency for recidivists to 
repeat the same type of crime. 

The 83,073 persons whose records revealed one or more prior convic- 
tions were found to have been convicted of a total of 213,149 offenses. 
In 95,711 instances the convictions were of major crimes, and in 117,438 
cases the convictions were of less serious violations of the law. 

Race. — Whites were represented by 214,990 of the records examined 
and Negroes by 62,119. The remaining races were represented as 
follows: Indian, 1,448; Chinese, 447; Japanese, 117; Mexican, 8,053; 
all others, 1,090. 

The significance of the figures showing the number of Negroes 
arrested as compared with the number of whites can best be indicated 
in terms of the number of each in the general population of the country. 
Exclusive of those under 15 years of age, there were according to the 
1930 decennial census, 8,041,014 Negroes, 13,069,192 foreign-born 
whites, and 64,365,193 native whites in the United States. Of each 
100,000 Negroes, 773 were arrested and fingerprinted during the 
first 6 months of 1938, whereas the corresponding figure for native 
whites was 296 and for foreign-born whites 109. It should be observed 
in connection with the foregoing data that the figure for native whites 
includes the immediate descendants of foreign-born individuals. 
Persons desiring to make a thorough study of the comparative amounts 
of crime committed by native whites and foreign-born whites should 
employ available compilations showing the number of instances in 
which offenders are of foreign or mixed parentage. 

At the end of June 1938 there were 8,927,728 fingerprint records and 
10,258,132 index cards containing the names and aliases of individuals 
on file in the Identification Division of the FBI. Of each 100 
fingerprint cards received during the first 6 months of 1938, more than 
58 were identified with those on file in the Bureau. Fugitives num- 
bering 3,858 were identified through fingerprint records during the 
same period, and interested law enforcement officials were immediately 
notified of the whereabouts of those fugitives. As of June 30, 1938, 
there were 10,653 police departments, peace officers, and law enforce- 
ment agencies throughout the United States and foreign countries 
voluntarily contributing fingerprints to the FBI. 

o 









a 









UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume IX — Number 3 
THIRD QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1938 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1938 



... 
1 193$ 



ADVISORY 



COMMITTEE ON UNIFORM CRIME RECORDS 

OF THE 

INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHIEFS OF POLICE 

(n) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 
of Justice, Washington, D. C. 



Volume 9 October 1938 Number 3 



CONTENTS 

Summary. 

Classification of offenses. 
Extent of reporting area. 
Monthly returns: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population (table 
57). 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1931-38 (table 58). 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location (tables 
59-61). 

Offenses in individual cities over 100,000 in population (table 62). 

Offenses known to sheriffs and State police (table 63). 

Offenses known in territories and possessions (table 64). 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 65-67). 
Policemen killed by criminals, 1937 (table 68). 
Annual returns: 

Annual trends, offenses known and persons charged (table 69). 
Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1938: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 70) . 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 71, 72). 

Number with records showing previous convictions (table 73). 

SUMMARY 

Increase in Crimes of Burglary and Larceny. 

Crimes of burglary and larceny increased during the first 9 months 
of 1938 as compared with 1937. The increases evidenced were mod- 
erate, amounting to 2.2 percent and 2.1 percent, respectively. In 
other offenses against property, robbery and auto theft, decreases were 
noted. The decrease in robbery was very small. 

Compared with 1936 figures, the 1938 figures show the following 
increases: Robbery, 13.7 percent; burglary, 9.5 percent; larceny, 16.4 
percent. 
Decrease in Crimes Against Persons. 

There were decreases in the number of murders, manslaughters, 
rapes, and other felonious assaults during the first 9 months of 1938. 
However, the 1938 rape figure is higher than for all preceding years 
of this decade except 1937. 

Distribution of Crimes. 

More than one-half (55.7 percent) of the crimes were larcenies, 23.1 
percent burglaries, 12.8 percent auto thefts, and 4.0 percent robberies, 
making a total of 95.6 percent committed for the purpose of obtaining 
property. The remaining 4.4 percent consisted of homicides, rapes, 
and other felonious assaults. 

(95) 



96 

Approximately one-half of the places burglarized were residences, 
35 percent of which were entered in the daytime. With reference to 
both residence and nonresidence burglaries, it was found that 21 
percent occurred during the daytime. 

Thirteen percent of the larcenies involved thefts of property valued 
in excess of $50; 65 percent involved property ranging from $5 to 
$50 in value; and the property was valued at less than $5 per offense 
in the remaining 22 percent of the thefts. 

Recoveries of stolen automobiles amounted to 95.8 percent. 
Geographic Division of Crime Rates. 

The crime information has been arranged to make it possible to 
make comparisons between local data and average figures for cities 
of the same size located in the same section of the United States. 
National averages for cities grouped by size and annual trends by 
States are also presented. 

Persons Arrested. 

Fingerprint cards representing 432,527 arrests during the first 9 
months of 1938 reveal that 19.0 percent of the persons arrested were 
under 21 years of age. During 1937, only 18.0 percent of the persons 
arrested were less than 21 years old. 

There were more arrests for age 21 than for any other single age 
group. 

The records revealed that 120,639 of the persons arrested had pre- 
viously been convicted of 301,446 crimes. 

Police Killed by Criminals, 1937. 

Reports received from police departments of 389 cities disclosed 
that 40 police officers were killed by criminals during the calendar 
year 1937. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to 
the police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting 
or court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following 
group of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be 
those most generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal 
homicide, including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (6) 
manslaughter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; 
burglary — breaking or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The 
figures contained herein include also the number of attempted crimes 
of the designated classes. Attempted murders, however, are reported 
as aggravated assaults. In other words, an attempted burglary or 
robbery, for example, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner 
as if the crime had been completed. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the police depart- 
ments of contributing cities and not merely arrests or cleared cases. 
Complaints which upon investigation are learned to be groundless are 
not included in the tabulations which follow. 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in 
each group, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 



97 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter — includes 
all felonious homicides except those caused by negligence. Does not include 
attempts to kill, assaults to kill, justifiable homicides, suicides, or accidental 
deaths. (6) Manslaughter by negligence — includes only those cases in which 
death is caused by culpable negligence which is so clearly evident that if the 
person responsible for the death were apprehended he would be prosecuted for 
manslaughter. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape, assault to rape, and attempted 
rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as highway robbery, stick-ups, robbery 
armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or theft. Includes attempted 
burglary and assault to commit a burglary. Burglary followed by a larceny is 
entered here and is not counted again under larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value. (6) 
Under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of the property stolen, pocket-picking, purse-snatching, shop- 
lifting, or any stealing of property or thing of value which is not taken by force 
and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" games, forgery, 
passing worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven 
away and abandoned, including the so-called "joy-riding" thefts. Does not 
include taking for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unau- 
thorized use by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of crime 
and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 
Extent of Reporting Area. 

In the table which follows there is shown the number of police 
departments from which one or more crime reports have been received 
during the first 9 months of 1938. Information is presented for the 
cities divided according to size. The population figures employed are 
estimates as of July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census for cities 
with population in excess of 10,000. No estimates were available, 
however, for those with a smaller number of inhabitants and, accord- 
ingly, for them the figures listed in the 1930 decennial census were 
used. 

The growth in the crime reporting area is evidenced by the following 
figures for the first 9 months of 1932-1938: 



Year 


Cities 


Population 


Year 


Cities 


Population 


1932 

1933 


1,546 
1,638 
1,727 
2,050 


52, 802, 362 
62, 041, 342 
62, 391, 056 
64, 012, 959 


1936 

1937 

1938 


2,271 
2,358 
2,617 


65, 319, 548 
65, 811, 861 


1934 


67, 262, 788 


1935.. 











The foregoing comparison shows that during the first 9 months of 
1938 there was an increase of 259 cities as compared with the cor- 
responding period of 1937, the population represented for those cities 
being 1,450,927. 



In addition to the 2,617 city and village police departments which 
submitted crime reports during 1938, one or more reports were re- 
ceived during that period from 1,532 sheriffs and State police organi- 
zations and from 9 agencies in possessions of the United States. 
This makes a grand total of 4,158 agencies contributing crime reports 
during 1938. 



Population group 


Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 


Cities filing returns 


Total pop- 
ulation 


Population repre- 
sented in returns 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


982 


912 


92.9 


60, 265, 719 


58,815,119 


97.6 






1. Cities over 250,000 


37 
57 
104 

191 
593 


37 
57 
101 
177 
540 


100.0 
100.0 
97.1 
92.7 
91.1 


29, 695, 500 
7,850,312 
6, 980, 407 
6, 638, 544 
9, 100, 956 


29, 695, 500 
7, 850, 312 
6, 781, 874 
6, 144, 668 
8, 342, 765 


100.0 


2. Cities 100,000 to 250,000 


100.0 


3. Cities 50,000 to 100,000 


97.2 


4. Cities 25,000 to 50,000.- 


92.6 


5. Cities 10,000 to 25,000 


91.7 







Note. — The above table does not include 1,705 cities and rural townships aggregating a total population 
of 8,447,669. The cities included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 population filing returns whereas 
the rural townships are of varying population groups. 



MONTHLY RETURNS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population. 

In table 57 there is presented the number of offenses known to the 
police during the first 9 months of 1938 as reported by 1,894 cities 
with an aggregate population of 61,645,533. The information is also 
presented in the form of crime rates for the cities divided into six 
groups according to size, in order that police executives may compare 
their local crime rates with national averages for cities of approxi- 
mately the same size. Table 60 presents the information with 
the cities divided according to size within the nine geographic divisions 
of the country which makes it possible to compare local crime data 
with average figures for cities of the same size located in the same 
section of the United States. 

Table 57 discloses that 55.7 percent of the crimes reported consisted 
of larcenies, 23.1 percent burglaries, 12.8 percent auto theft, and 4.0 
percent robberies. From the foregoing it will be seen that offenses 
classed as offenses against property constituted 95.6 percent of the 
total offenses listed. On the other hand, only 4.4 percent of the 
crimes consisted of homicides, rapes, and assaults. 

Most of the cities represented in table 57 furnished information 
concerning the value of the property stolen in connection with offenses 
of larceny. A compilation showing the larcenies divided according 
to the value of the property stolen reveals the following figures: 



Population group 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and over 
in value 



Under $50 
in value 



32 cities over 250,000; total population 20,606,300: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000... 

54 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total population 7,429,612 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



15, 902 

77.2 



4,672 
62.9 



110, 249 
535.0 



46, 765 
629.4 



There were 177,588 larcenies classified according to the value of 
property involved, and the preceding figures reveal that 20,574 
(11.6 percent) were cases in which the value of the property stolen 
exceeded $50. 

(99) 



100 

Table 57.— Offenses known to the police, January to September, inclusive, 1938; 
number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 

35 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 29,003,500: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



group n 

56 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total pop- 
ulation, 7,693,312: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP III 

92 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total popu- 
lation, 6,208,913: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP IV 

155 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total popu- 
lation, 5,337,039: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



group v 

454 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total popu- 
lation, 7,065,626: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



group VI 

1,102 cities under 10,000; total popu- 
lation, 6,337,143: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Total 1,894 cities; total population, 
61,645,533: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Criminal 
homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



1,208 
4.2 



427 
5.6 



277 
4.5 



124 
2.3 



186 
2.6 



181 
2.9 



2, 403 
3.9 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



i 1, 155 
4.2 



152 
2.4 



93 

1.7 



79 
1.1 



126 
2.0 



* 1, 852 
3.1 



Rape 



2,243 

7.7 



369 
4.8 



320 
5.2 



249 
4.7 



339 
18 



360 
5.7 



3,880 
6.3 



Rob- 
bery 



16, 746 
57.7 



3,055 
39.7 



2,416 
38.9 



1,280 
24.0 



1,443 
20.4 



1,167 
18.4 



26, 107 
42.4 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



10, 487 
38.2 



3 3, 206 
42.4 



2.62S 
42.3 



1,116 
20.9 



1, 543 
21.8 



1,194 
18.8 



20,174 
32.8 



Bur- 
glary- 
break - 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



2 56,715 
259.6 



23, 148 
300.9 



16, 557 
266.7 



13,018 
243.9 



13, 433 
190.1 



9,543 
150. 6 



6132,414 
243.0 



Lar- 
ceny— 
theft 



2 134, 924 
617.5 



53, 144 
690.8 



41,731 
672.1 



33, 305 
624.0 



36, 004 
509.6 



19, 621 
309.6 



1 318, 729 
584.9 



Auto 
theft 



2 37, 157 
170.1 



11,788 
153.2 



8,382 
135.0 



6,288 
117.8 



6,190 
87.6 



3,641 
57.5 



6 73, 444 
134.8 



i The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports of 33 cities with a 
total population of 27,275,300. 

2 The number of offenses and rate for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on reports of 34 cities 
with a total population of 21,849,200. 

s The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence and aggravated assault are based on 
reports of 55 cities with a total population of 7,569,812. 

4 The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports of 1,891 cities with 
a total population of 59,793,833. 

6 The number of offenses and rate for aggravated assault are based on reports of 1,893 cities with a total 
population of 61,522,033. 

6 The number of offenses and rate for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on reports of 1,893 cities 
with a total population of 54,491,233. 



101 

Annual Trends, Offenses Known to the Police, 1931-38. 

Annual variations in the number of crimes committed during the 
first 9 months of the years 1931-38 are shown in table 58. The 
compilation is based on the reports of 66 cities with population in 
excess of 100,000 inhabitants, with a combined population of 18,- 
597,602. 

Table 58 reveals that the 1938 figures are in excess of those for 1937 
for offenses of burglary and larceny. For the other offenses listed, 
homicides, rapes, assaults, robberies, and auto thefts, there were more 
crimes of these types committed during 1937. It should be noted, 
that the 1938 rape figure is in excess of every year with the exception 
of 1937. _ 

Larcenies for 1938 increased 2.1 percent over 1937 and 16.4 per- 
cent over 1936; burglaries increased 2.2 percent over 1937 and 9.5 
percent over 1936. Although the robbery figure for 1938 showed a 
very slight decrease, as compared with the 1937 figure, the 1938 rob- 
bery figure represented a 13.7 percent increase over 1936. It should 
be noted, however, that the 1936 figures for those crimes were lower 
than for any other year represented in the tabulation. The informa- 
tion presented in table 58 is also presented in figure 6. 

Table 58. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 66 cities over 100,000 in 
population, January to September, inclusive, 1931-38 

[Total population 38,597,602, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 








Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 




Year 


nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Auto 
theft 


Number of offenses known: 
1931 


1,124 

1,156 

1,230 

1,084 

977 

926 

953 

860 

4.1 
4.2 
4.5 
4.0 
3.6 
3.4 
3.5 
3.2 


992 
769 
871 
594 
556 
554 
714 
520 

3.6 
2.8 
3.2 
2.2 
2.0 
2.0 
2.6 
1.9 


880 

903 

957 

952 

1,184 

1,137 

1,280 

1,267 

3.2 
3.3 
3.5 
3.5 
4.3 
4.1 
4.7 
4.6 


14, 062 
13, 443 
13, 015 
10, 669 
9,074 
V. 962 
9,066 
9,050 

51.5 
49.1 
47.7 
39.1 
33.2 
29.1 
33.2 
33.2 


7,589 
6,825 
8,513 
7,685 
7,280 
7,675 
7,662 
6,808 

27.8 
24.9 
31.2 
28.2 
26.7 
28.0 
28.1 
24.9 


49, 070 
53,992 
54,465 
51, 730 
49, 471 
42, 577 
45, 633 
46,640 

179.7 
197.1 
199.5 

189.5 
181.2 
155.4 
167.2 
170.8 


108, 059 
111,067 
116,475 
114,065 
116,391 
107, 785 
122,889 
125, 431 

395.8 
405.4 
426.6 
417.8 
426.3 
393.4 
450.1 
459.5 


61, 829 


1932 


52, 599 


1933 


49, 681 


1934 


45,881 


1935 


40, 009 


1936 


33, 082 


1937 


34, 743 


1938 


28,743 


Daily average: 

1931 


226.5 


1932 


192.0 


1933 


182.0 


1934 


168.1 


1935 


146.6 


1936 


120.7 


1937 


127.3 


1938 


105.3 







105386°— 38- 



102 



(f) 
Q 



UJ 



Oi- 



r .Oi 

UJ 

. . UJ — 

LjJ jzt 






O 



o 



-*- en 

Ld - 

IJ-> 
Or 




103 



Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location. 

Table 59 shows the number of police departments whose reports 
were employed in the preparation of the crime rates presented in 
tables 57 and 60. The figures in table 59 indicate the number of 
contributors whose reports were used, divided according to size of 
city, within the nine geographic divisions of the country. The 
information presented in table 60 makes it possible for a police execu- 
tive to compare the local crime rates with the average for cities of the 
same size located in the same section of the country. 

In order to make available comparative crime data for States 
covering several years, there are presented in table 61 figures for 
individual States for 1935-37. Similar information was previously 
presented in table 37, volume VIII, No. 2, of this publication for the 
period 1933-36. Table 61 is based on the period 1935-37 rather 
than the period 1933-37, in order to make it possible to use a larger 
number of cities. Increases in the number of cities employed were 
evidenced in practically every State. For the tabulation shown in 
volume VIII, No. 2, there were 1,069 cities represented, whereas in 
table 61 reports from 1,402 cities were used. 

The proportion of urban population represented varies among indi- 
vidual States. However, in most instances the cities whose reports 
were used, constituted more than 50 percent of the total urban popu- 
lation of the State. 

For each State represented in table 61, there is shown the number 
of cities whose reports were used and their combined population. No 
figures are included for Mississippi and South Carolina, because 
available reports represented only a comparatively small portion of 
the total urban population in each State. 

Table 59. — Number of cities included in the tabulation of uniform crime reports, 
January to September, inclusive, 1938 





Population 




Division and State 


Group 

I 


Group 
II 


Group 

m 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


Total 




Over 

250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 




GEOGEAPH1C DIVISION 

New England: 166 cities; total population, 
5,641,500 


2 

6 

8 

4 

3 

3 

3 

1 
5 


12 

11 

10 

5 

6 

3 

5 

1 
3 


12 
20 
24 

14 

2 

5 

2 
6 


25 

29 

46 

10 

13 

4 

9 

6 
13 


59 

125 

98 

52 

26 

18 

23 

16 
37 


56 

307 

290 

147 

72 

23 

58 

54 
95 


166 


Middle Atlantic: 498 cities; total population, 
19,182,595— 


498 


East North Central: 476 cities; total popula- 
tion, 15,573,722 


476 


West North Central: 225 cities; total popula- 
tion, 5,001,314 


225 


South Atlantic: l 134 cities; total population, 
4,513,020 


134 


East South Central: 53 cities; total popula- 
tion, 1,910,621 


53 


West South Central: 103 cities; total popula- 
tion, 3,240,526 


103 


Mountain: 80 cities; total population, 
1,279,950 


80 


Pacific: 159 cities; total population, 5,302,285. . 


159 



' Includes report of District of Columbia. 



104 



Table 60. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to September, inclusive, 1988, by geographic divisions and population groups 



Geographic division and population group 



New England: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I- VI. 

Middle Atlantic: 

Groupl 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI. 

East North Central: 

Groupl 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI. 

West North Central: 

Groupl 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI_ 

South Atlantic: 3 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI. 

East South Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI.. 

Total, groups I-VI. 

West South Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI 

Mountain: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI 

Pacific: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI 



Murder, 






Bur- 






nonneg- 




Aggra- 


glary- 


Lar- 


Auto 
theft 


ligent 


Robbery 


vated 


breaking 


ceny- 


man- 




assault 


or enter- 


theft 


slaughter 






ing 






0.8 


29.1 


17.5 


107.1 


302.3 


254.9 


1.5 


12.3 


8.9 


292.4 


475.2 


143.6 


.5 


15.5 


2.9 


197.3 


392.0 


100.5 


.2 


9.0 


2.9 


225.0 


398.5 


95.3 


.9 


5.8 


7.2 


140.9 


327.2 


46.4 


1.4 


7.8 


4.9 


108.8 


205.1 


33.8 


.9 


14.0 


8.1 


196.6 


377.2 


127.0 


2.9 


20.5 


33.3 


1 116.4 


i 245. 8 


1 136. 5 


1.8 


17.2 


21.1 


183.6 


373.5 


98.5 


1.9 


25.2 


24.7 


223. 6 


352.4 


111.4 


1.3 


16.1 


17.4 


165.5 


332.2 


83.3 


1.6 


13.3 


12.9 


122.4 


246.7 


62.7 


.7 


10.5 


7.4 


78.4 


135.1 


27.1 


2.3 


18.5 


25.9 


2 135. 6 


2 261. 6 


2 92.8 


3.6 


102.4 


30.5 


260.0 


633.6 


96.7 


3.8 


47.5 


31.0 


257.3 


709.5 


155. 5 


2.0 


48.6 


16.2 


246.6 


607.0 


132.7 


1.3 


27.1 


11.8 


215.8 


608.0 


115.6 


1.4 


28.7 


9.2 


218.4 


476.0 


82.8 


1.1 


18.7 


12.1 


148.0 


247.3 


50.9 


2.8 


69.1 


23.3 


238.9 


582.4 


101.7 


3.9 


51.6 


9.7 


177.2 


644.2 


160.0 


3.8 


32.6 


17.6 


208.2 


671.1 


124.4 


2.7 


27.5 


9.2 


266.7 


756.7 


158.8 


2.1 


22.3 


3.4 


202.7 


631.9 


131.2 


1.7 


18.8 


10.8 


195.1 


597.4 


99.1 


1.1 


13.8 


8.6 


155.3 


273.5 


65.1 


2.9 


34.2 


10.3 


191.6 


598.2 


130.1 


8.9 


78.1 


78.2 


340.4 


764.3 


251.7 


14.5 


74.5 


162.5 


520.1 


1,217.3 


227.4 


14.1 


54.1 


160.8 


321.6 


972.0 


139.6 


8.2 


31.1 


72.2 


366.0 


1, 002. 8 


128.5 


8.3 


34.4 


153.2 


268.1 


646.8 


92.0 


16.8 


38.2 


125.8 


291.2 


453.3 


110.1 


11.5 


60.7 


119.8 


359.3 


871.8 


186.4 


13.4 


96.0 


139.2 


508.0 


600.7 


158.0 


23.6 


77.4 


< 123. 7 


301.8 


668.5 


248.0 


14.6 


14.6 


87.0 


165.9 


407.3 


102.4 


11.1 


47.8 


110.7 


302.6 


814.8 


134.3 


9.5 


24.9 


48.3 


164.9 


473.0 


103.1 


18.5 


30.3 


52.2 


197.0 


332.5 


65.7 


15.1 


68.8 


5 111.1 


359.0 


584.3 


157.3 


13.4 


34.6 


58.2 


291.7 


904.1 


136.1 


9.3 


74.7 


60.0 


431.2 


1, 057. 


149.6 


8.7 


30.9 


83.9 


288.3 


973.0 


122.1 


6.5 


35.0 


46.2 


261.1 


983.7 


85.2 


9.2 


29.8 


42.7 


265.6 


709.3 


95. £ 


7. 7 


26.9 


28.7 


237.7 


512.1 


61. J 


10.2 


43.6 


55.2 


317.4 


894.8 


121.6 


1.7 


50.8 


13.3 


214.5 


511.3 


128.6 


2.8 


46.5 


15.3 


434.1 


735.1 


256.6 


20.5 


125.2 


33.3 


566.5 


1, 383. 6 


355.2 


1.9 


50.0 


19.4 


426.1 


1, 273. 9 


278.4 


2.2 


42.3 


15.1 


255.9 


1, 382. 7 


162. C 


3.9 


26.5 


11.9 


216.9 


671.7 


89.1 


4.0 


48.8 


16.1 


309.2 


920.6 


181.5 


3.5 


78.8 


28.6 


438.2 


1, 000. 7 


364.5 


2.3 


33.5 


18.7 


321.6 


871.1 


169.1 


1.1 


64.7 


13.6 


427.4 


1,397.0 


211.6 


1.5 


27.8 


13.8 


367.2 


845.7 


173. S 


2.1 


23.1 


7.5 


308.6 


1, 150. 1 


196.6 


3.2 


37.5 


23.0 


275.5 


899.6 


149. t 


2.9 


60.5 


22.7 


394.3 


1, 019. 7 


284.4 



i The rates for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on the reports of 5 cities. 

2 The rates for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on the reports of 497 cities. 

3 Includes the District of Columbia. 

i The rate for aggravated assault is based on the reports of 2 cities. 
5 The rate for aggravated assault is based on the reports of 52 cities. 



105 



Table 61. 



-Number of offenses known to the -police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to December, inclusive, 1935-37, by States 



State 


Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


Alabama (9 cities; total population, 
442,063): 
1935 


29.2 
27.4 
28.1 

16.5 
19.6 
9.3 

18.0 
12.8 
18.8 

4.2 
3.7 
4.4 

7.3 

7.5 
5.1 

1.7 

1.5 
1.3 

7.2 
6.3 
9.0 

23.6 
18.0 
21.2 

29.7 
33.8 
35.6 

2.9 
2.9 
2.9 

5.8 
5.2 
5.1 

5.0 
5.6 
5.5 

2.8 
1.5 
1.8 

5.9 
4.1 
6.3 

13.5 

15.3 

1 17.5 


66.1 
70.1 

57.5 

127.9 
123.8 
105. 2 

120.3 
78.9 
94.0 

52.8 

57.5 
75. 3 

111.9 
54.2 
66.5 

19.7 
16.6 
13.7 

27.8 
17. 1 
42.2 

83.4 
98.2 
114.8 

153.0 
141.4 
139.7 

34.9 
42.2 
39.3 

224.1 
133.1 
124.9 

78.0 
66.4 

67.7 

47.3 
39.7 
29.0 

87.8 
61.8 
45.5 

141.7 
121.2 
104.1 


107.2 
90.3 
95.2 

68.1 
61.9 
67.1 

109.7 
116.5 
114.3 

30.3 
31.4 
29.7 

22.5 
18.2 
22.5 

13.8 
12.5 
13.3 

56. 6 
44.9 
44.9 

2 74. 5 
2 88.6 
2 95. 7 

125.9 
122.4 
114.7 

26.2 
16.0 
8.7 

40.7 
36.7 
35.5 

48.6 
46.3 
48.7 

9.6 
10.4 

14.1 

26.4 
21.3 
23.1 

185.0 
160.4 
149.0 


531. 1 
479.8 
422.6 

670.5 
566. 3 
616.9 

587.8 
455.5 

475.8 

439.9 
423.8 
470.9 

630.6 
321.1 

412.0 

318.0 
303.1 
296.1 

288.2 
234.3 
347.4 

658.4 
811.4 
881.3 

668.4 
750. 7 
797.5 

209.7 
391.7 
432.4 

449.6 
342.2 
326.4 

363.1 
310.8 
344.0 

309.4 
274.3 
274.6 

431.0 

390.4 
393.9 

651.6 
620.2 
593.6 


i 538. 6 
924.3 
789.3 

1, 440. 1 
1,350.3 
1, 535. 

1, 190. 
1,129.8 
1, 285. 4 

1,038.8 
1,010.0 
1,201.5 

1, 065. 4 
806.2 
904.4 

637.4 
600.1 
585.4 

658.9 
662.5 

761.2 

1, 349. 7 
1, 497. 7 
1, 673. 3 

1, 638. 3 
1, 528. 1 
1,614.8 

927.5 
1, 032. 3 

1. 306. 

502.8 
438. 1 
452.7 

966.5 
766.2 
925.7 

856.0 
895.1 
916.0 

1, 296. 4 
1, 146. 3 

1, 136. 3 

1, 201. 9 
1,119.2 

1. 172. 1 


237.1 


1936 


198.4 


1937 


190.2 


Arizona (4 cities; total population, 96,940) : 
1935 


874.8 


1936... 


922.2 


1937 


635.4 


Arkansas (5 cities; total population, 
133,030) : 
1935 


254.8 


1936 


120.3 


1937 


91.7 


California (105 cities; total population, 
4,057,234) : 
1935 


406.0 


1936 . 


430.5 


1937 


495.2 


Colorado (15 cities; total population, 
466,504) : 

1935 


238.4 


1936 


214.8 


1937 


207.3 


Connecticut (18 cities; total population, 
957,843): 

1935 


224.4 


1936 


203.0 


1937 


154.6 


Delaware (2 cities; total population, 
111,397): 
1935 . 


227.1 


1936 


240.6 


1937 


245. 1 


Florida (12 cities; total population, 
499,970): 
1935 


288.6 


1936 . 


269.8 


1937 


213.8 


Georgia (10 cities; total population, 
491,655): 

1935 


388.3 


1936 


326.9 


1937 


290.9 


Idaho (6 cities; total population, 68,681): 
1935 


254.8 


1936 


307.2 


1937 


311.6 


Illinois (96 cities; total population, 
5,071,613): 
1935 


164.1 


1936. 


107.6 


1937. 


97.7 


Indiana (38 cities; total population, 
1,451,797): 
1935 


298.5 


1936 


259. 1 


1937—. 


232.5 


Iowa (21 cities; total population, 617,668): 
1935 


222.9 


1936 


193.1 


1937... 


209.7 


Kansas (28 cities; total population, 
511,567): 
1935 


177.9 


1936 


132.7 


1937 


127.5 


Kentucky (9 cities; total population, 
496,795): 
1935 


294.3 


1936 


272.1 


1937 


334.3 



1 Based on reports of 8 cities with a total population of 168,763. 

2 Based on reports of 11 cities with a total population of 391,770. 



106 



Table 61. 



-Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to December, inclusive, 1935-37, by States — Continued 



State 



Louisiana (8 cities; total population, 
683,300) : 

1935 

1936 

1937 

Maine (15 cities; total population, 244,589) : 

1935 

1936 

1937 

Maryland (6 cities; total population, 
919,588): 

1935 

1936 

1937 

Massachusetts (90 cities; total population, 
3,308,255): 

1935 

1936 

1937 

Michigan (93 cities; total population, 
3,345,430): 

1935 

1936 

1937 

Minnesota (47 cities; total population, 
1,171,438): 

1935 

1936 

1937 

Missouri (25 cities; total population, 
1,260,840): 

1935 ---- 

1936 

1937 

Montana (10 cities; total population, 
143,705) : 

1935 

1936 

1937 

Nebraska (18 cities; total population, 
442,613): 

1935 

1936 

1937 

Nevada (3 cities; total population, 33,765) : 

1935 

1936 

1937 

New Hampshire (11 cities; total popula- 
tion, 187,734): 

1935 

1936 

1937 

New Jersey (91 cities; total population, 
1,767,677): 

1935 

1936 

1937 

New Mexico (4 cities; total population, 
54,708): 

1935 

1936 

1937 

New York (137 cities; total population, 
10,466,344): 

1935 

1936 

1937 

North Carolina (19 cities; total population, 
501,902): 

1935 

1936 

1937 



Murder, 




nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


16.5 
18.3 
15.1 


45.5 
44.3 
33.2 


1.2 
2.5 
1.2 


18.4 
18.0 
11.0 


4.8 

7.4 
7.5 


39.6 
66.9 
105.3 


1.0 
1.0 
1.1 


21.9 
16.1 
24.3 


3.3 
2.9 
3.3 


47.6 
55.7 
59.2 


1.5 
1.4 
1.9 


67.6 
52.0 
45.8 


6.5 
6.8 
6.5 


76.9 
55.1 
55.8 


7.0 
2.8 
4.9 


31.3 
61.9 
63.3 


6.1 

4.1 
2.7 


55.1 
38.4 
29.8 


20.7 
14.8 
5.9 


91.8 
68.1 
82.9 



.5 
1.1 


5.9 
4.8 
12.3 


5.0 
4.3 
3.7 


39.1 
30.3 
33.1 


11.0 
7.3 
7.3 


67.6 
34.7 
36.6 


4.3 
4.1 
3.7 


15.6 
15.8 
16.2 


17.5 
22.3 
22.1 


65.2 
60.2 
68.7 



Aggra- 
vate! 
assault 



119.6 
121.3 
89.4 

22.5 
11.0 
42.1 



3 57.6 
3 32.2 
3 22.4 



14.0 
10.3 
12.4 



41.1 
37.7 
41.9 



16.0 
14.3 
10.4 



35.6 
34.8 
19.0 



18.1 
25.1 
23.7 



16.5 
14.9 
14.9 

11.8 
35.5 
8.9 



8.0 
5.3 
6.9 



53.3 
53.4 
60.6 



16.5 
36.6 
32.9 



29.8 
31.1 
33.7 



s 475. 1 
« 516. 7 
5 478. 7 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



231.4 
238. 1 
176.9 

301.3 
272.3 

271.1 



237.7 
245.2 
269.1 



265.8 
228.3 
252. 2 



220.8 
220.8 
267.3 



356.2 
326.9 
270.9 



305.4 
272.2 
255.3 



142.0 
240.1 
233.1 



237.9 
148.4 
123.4 

693.0 
621.9 
571.6 



174.2 
181.1 
155.0 



370.5 
250.7 
271.5 



458. 8 
442.3 
636.1 



* 201. 9 

* 160. 4 
» 163. 9 



461.4 
435.7 
497.9 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



529.1 
490.6 
449.0 

462.0 
441.1 

483.7 



493.3 
457.5 
503.7 



431.9 
432.9 
470.5 



946.0 
911.9 

1, 037. 7 



443.7 

474.4 
616.4 



1, 081. 4 
1,145.6 
1, 103. 2 



1, 379. 2 
1, 339. 5 
1, 269. 3 



622. 9 
483.5 
446.4 

2, 621. 1 

1, 705. 9 

2, 422. 6 



322.3 
290.8 
314.3 



561.4 
533.4 
570.9 



1, 632. 3 
1, 495. 2 
1, 767. 6 



* 420. 4 

* 403.0 

* 434. 



823.7 
754.9 
848.2 



3 Based on reports of 5 cities with a total population of 102,488. 

4 Based on reports of 136 cities with a total population of 3,312,044. 
6 Based on reports of 17 cities with a total population of 365,802. 



107 



Table 61. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to December, inclusive, 1935-87, by States — Continued 



State 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


North Dakota (9 cities; total population, 
105,249): 
1935 


1.0 
3.8 
1.0 

6.9 
6.5 
5.7 

8.1 
8.9 
8.4 

2.6 
1.6 
2.1 

4.3 
4.4 
4.4 

1.8 
.7 
1.8 

2 7 
2.7 


29.8 
25.8 
23.2 

14.7 
21.0 
19.4 

3.4 
5.1 

1.7 


3.0 

1.5 

15.4 
17.8 
19.2 

3.8 
2.8 
3.1 

9.7 
10.0 
9.4 

.7 
1. 1 
1.4 

1.9 
5.7 
1.9 


94.1 
32.3 
48.5 

94.5 
83.4 
106.8 

110.7 
79.4 
77.9 

95.2 

104. 6 
93.8 

44.2 
48.4 
43.3 

0.8 
7.5 
7.2 

67.5 
33.3 
26. 1 

157.9 
142.6 
126.8 

74.5 
G9. 5 
69.8 

75. 6 
51.5 
57.0 

12.0 

19.5 

6.0 

82.6 
78.5 
79.2 

77.5 
59.1 
65.7 

46.8 
47.8 

88.7 

11.5 
10.5 
10.3 

40.2 
26.8 
42.1 


6.7 
S. 
6.7 

40.9 
38.9 
39.8 

43.0 
53.8 
60.6 

17.0 
14.1 
21.0 

31.3 
35.4 
32.0 

9.8 
8.0 
9.3 

0.3 
4.6 
0.3 

8 247. 7 
« 248! 
« 255. 9 

87.4 
90. 2 
82.7 

19.8 
19.4 
12.2 

1.5 
1.5 
1.5 

260.0 
250. 9 
211.6 

38.0 
22.2 
22.0 

104.6 
86.3 

74.1 

8.2 
6.2 
6.6 

9.6 

1.1 
7.7 


341. 1 
305. 
341.1 

365. 2 
330. 3 
369.9 

017.5 
454. 6 
477. 5 

723.6 
642.6 
710.4 

172.3 

154. 3 
163. 3 

213.0 
172.8 
174.0 

214.1 

202. 4 
182.6 

443. 9 
408.9 
483. 4 

557. 9 
548. 3 
567.8 

422.7 
541.0 
574.3 

60.0 
94.0 
43.0 

519.4 
520.8 
549.8 

058.0 
615.0 
640.6 

374.5 
326. 7 
340.9 

125.0 
119.0 

111.7 

317.7 
254.6 
193.3 


766.8 
528.3 
550.1 

957.8 

874.9 

1, 027. 3 

1, 303. 2 
1,398.7 
1,412.9 

1,531.1 
1.450.5 
1,606. 1 

232.6 

227. 3 
230. 9 

571.0 
449. 9 
472.4 

530.7 
621.6 
740.3 

409.9 

568.4 
587.2 

1, 627. 9 
1,624.6 
1,648.9 

1, 049. 4 
1, 054. 
1, 085. 3 

91.6 
168.2 
172.7 

1,603.5 
1, 568. 6 
1, 479. 2 

1,270.5 
1,112.6 
1, 203. 

819.7 
889.0 
952. 

592. 8 
501.4 
561.7 

1, 667. 1 
1, 207. 8 
1, 261. 4 


164.4 


1936 


136.8 


1937 


218.5 


Ohio (106 cities; total population, 4,265,946): 

1935 

1936 


227.0 
212.5 


1937 


228.3 


Oklahoma (24 cities; total population, 
592,834): 

1935 

1936 


207.5 
124.3 


1937 

Oregon (10 cities; total population, 
424,392): 
1935 


131.7 
307.5 


1936 


278.0 


1937 


328.9 


Pennsylvania (126 cities; total popula- 
tion, 4,877,182): 
1935 


153.7 


1936 


160.2 


1937 

Rhode Island (16 cities; total population, 
613,286): 
1935 


168.7 

78.6 


1936 


80.7 


1937 


93.4 


South Dakota (9 cities; total population, 
111,169): 
1935 


181.7 


1936 


252.8 


1937 


171.8 


Tennessee (8 cities; total population, 
576,484): 

1935 


347.5 


1936 


280.5 


1937 


252.9 


Texas (25 cities; total population, 1,539,- 
188): 
1935 


413.3 


1936 


310.4 


1937. 


266.2 


Utah (10 cities; total population, 236,805) : 
1935 


381.7 


1936 


364.0 


1937 


370.3 


Vermont (8 cities; total population, 
66,573): 
1935 


78.1 


1936 


61.6 


1937 


52.6 


Virginia (22 cities; total population, 
657,705): 
1935 


284.8 


1936 


257.7 


1937 


247.2 


Washington (18 cities; total population, 
813,958): 
1935 


395.0 


1936 


370.9 


1937 


346.9 


West Virginia (8 cities; total population, 
288,652): 

1935 


269.2 


1936 


206.5 


1937 


225.2 


Wisconsin (44 cities; total population, 
1,490,165): 
1935 


110.9 


1936 


95.8 


1937 


125.4 


Wyoming (4 cities; total population, 
52,245): 

1935. 


264.1 


1936 


195.2 


1937 


160.8 



1 Based on reports of 7 cities with a total population of 465,884. 



108 

Offenses in Individual Cities over 100,000 in Population. 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the third quarter of 1938 is shown in table 62. The compilation has 
been limited to the reports received from police departments in cities 
with more than 100,000 inhabitants. Such data are included here in 
order that interested individuals and organizations may have readily 
available up-to-date information concerning the amount of crime 
committed in their communities. Police administrators and other 
interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare the 
crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in table 57 of 
this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire to make com- 
parisons with the figures for their communities for prior periods, in 
order to determine whether there has been an increase or a decrease in 
the amount of crime committed. 

With reference to the possibility of comparing the amount of crime 
in one city with the amount of reported crime in other individual 
communities, it is suggested that such comparisons be made with a 
great deal of caution, because differences in the figures may be due to a 
great variety of factors. The amount of crime committed in a com- 
munity is not chargeable to the police but is rather a charge against 
the entire community. The following is a list of some of the factors 
which might affect the amount of crime in a community: 

The composition of the population with reference particularly to 

age, sex, and race. 
The economic status and activities of the population. 
Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 
The number of police employees per unit of population. 
The standards governing appointments to the police force. 
The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 
The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 

Comparisons between the crime rates of individual cities should not 
be made without giving consideration to the above-mentioned factors. 
It should be noted that it is more important to determine whether the 
figures for a given community show increases or decreases in the 
amount of crime committed than to ascertain whether the figures are 
above or below those of some other community. 

In examining a compilation of crime figures for individual com- 
munities it should be borne in mind that in view of the fact that the 
data are compiled by different record departments operating under 
separate and distinct administrative systems, it is entirely possible 
that there may be variations in the practices employed in classifying 
complaints of offenses. On the other hand, the crime reporting 
manual has been distributed to all contributors of crime reports and 
the figures received are included in this bulletin only if they apparently 
have been compiled in accordance with the provisions of the manual, 
and the individual department has so indicated. 



109 



Table 62.- 



-Number of offenses known to the police, July to September, inclusive, 
1938, cities over 100,000 in population 



City 



Akron, Ohio 

Albany, N. Y 

Atlanta, Qa 

Baltimore, Md 

Birmingham, Ala 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Cambridge, Mass 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 

Chattanooga, Tenn... 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Columbus, Ohio 

Dallas, Tex 

Dayton, Ohio 

Denver, Colo . 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Detroit, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 

Elizabeth, N.J 

El Paso, Tex 

Erie, Pa 

Evansville, Ind 

Fall River, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Gary, Ind 

Grand Rapids, Mich.. 

Hartford, Conn 

Houston, Tex 

Honolulu, Hawaii 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Kansas City, Kans 

Kansas City, Mo 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Long Beach, Calif 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn 

Miami, Fla 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn... 

Nashville, Tenn 

Newark, N. J 

New Bedford, Mass... 

New Haven, Conn 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N. Y 

Norfolk, Va 

Oakland, Calif 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha, Nebr 

Paterson, N. J 

Peoria, 111 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Oreg 

Providence, R. I 

Reading, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif... 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 





Aggra- 


Robbery 


vated 




assault 


25 


38 


4 


11 


66 


90 


119 


214 


31 


32 


73 


65 


3 




14 


62 


10 


1 


9 


24 


13 


16 


40 


( 2 ) 


1,396 


443 


119 


117 


207 


59 


99 


27 


48 


46 


21 




35 


14 


18 


5 


316 


241 


7 


1 


7 


2 


18 


10 


10 


4 


17 


7 


3 


3 


18 


45 


9 


4 


9 


8 


15 


50 


4 


4 




11 
72 


54 


1 


6 


126 


93 


28 


30 


35 


18 


83 


15 


6 


10 


33 


9 


362 


136 


94 


153 


2 


1 


4 


1 


114 


264 


27 


174 


14 


17 


33 


20 


85 


95 


38 


184 


4 


3 


5 


4 


28 


108 


315 


845 


31 


51 


53 


38 


31 


63 


22 


18 


16 


12 


4 


4 


182 


207 


116 


92 


89 


17 


2 


14 


4 


9 


36 


120 


10 


13 


99 


18 


32 


2 


22 


11 


57 


88 


12 


8 


163 


108 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



240 

65 

645 

575 

338 

282 

120 

106 

108 

12 

85 

201 

2,464 

444 

654 

601 

414 

128 

175 

159 

1,049 

31 

111 

97 

76 

70 

102 

151 

77 

229 

90 

189 

164 

384 

189 

543 

300 

259 

274 

97 

242 

2.014 

490 

34 

173 

477 

258 

130 

324 

140 

233 

156 

228 

130 

616 

182 

344 

253 

35 

75 

10 

410 

478 

632 

78 

123 

300 

196 

291 

165 

266 

196 

102 

590 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



(') 



54 

17 

105 

216 

76 

218 

37 

80 

26 

24 

11 

739 

165 

82 

152 

27 

13 

74 

30 

215 

36 

20 

19 

19 

10 

33 

21 

14 

8 

21 

24 

61 

18 

355 

116 

24 



(') 



(') 



( 2 ) 



936 
310 
12 
12 
69 
52 
76 
117 

76 
30 

47 
36 

19 
34 
83 
11 
20 



P) 



L62 

1 1 3 
199 
30 
11 
91 
39 

57 
26 

108 
21 

233 



Under 

$50 



344 
181 
920 
771 
207 
651 
308 
485 
129 
65 
248 
328 

2,899 

1,172 

2,820 
748 

1,298 
524 
547 
466 

5,083 
387 
231 
339 
105 
278 
116 
515 
390 
607 
72 
473 
446 

1,128 
388 

1,049 
651 
224 
568 
123 
632 

3,786 

628 

94 

214 

401 

L'S'.) 

1,087 
873 
347 
874 
301 
213 
173 

( 2 ) 
369 
778 
506 
151 
60 
29 
538 
337 

1,165 
150 
132 
931 
505 

2,242 
502 
381 
565 
263 

1,519 



Auto 
theft 



55 

51 

269 

558 

111 

817 

68 

134 

138 

11 

20 

85 

684 

153 

354 

156 

137 

93 

97 

92 

704 

66 

26 

37 

34 

58 

20 

28 

76 

66 

41 

47 

93 

205 

23 

358 

87 

50 

304 

74 

131 

,175 

192 

18 

48 

132 

44 

122 

344 

153 

325 

13 

58 

90 

,324 

122 

171 

65 

96 

34 

37 

596 

506 

295 

48 

38 

153 

76 

254 

155 

121 

113 

105 

600 



1 Larcenies not separately reported. 

2 Not reported. 



Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



110 



Table 62. — Number of offenses known to the police, July to September, inclusive, 
1938, cities over 100,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Sornerville, Mass— 
South Bend, Ind... 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, Mass.. 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo, Ohio 

Trenton, N. J 

Tulsa, Okla 

Utica, N. Y 

Washington, D. C. 
Waterbury, Conn_. 

Wichita, Eans 

Wilmington, Del- 
Worcester, Mass.-. 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, Ohio. 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



1 

13 

23 

2 

4 

7 

6 

43 

14 

55 

1 

153 

2 

4 

6 

9 

3 

49 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



20 
30 
27 
29 
3 
L46 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



85 
573 

35 

82 
181 

95 

77 
139 

74 
335 
155 
299 

27 
518 

89 
110 
141 
227 

39 
131 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 


Under 


over 


$50 


21 


160 


97 


744 


12 


48 


26 


163 


39 


602 


28 


293 


37 


362 


13 


278 


15 


201 


82 


773 


21 


268 


65 


549 


16 


166 


180 


1,537 


21 


99 


11 


345 


15 


141 


37 


284 


2 


92 


16 


324 



Auto 
theft 



73 

336 
46 
24 
71 
42 
74 
58 
15 

186 
36 
75 
34 

487 
39 
28 
65 

151 
49 

160 



Offenses Known to Sheriffs, State Police, and Other Rural Officers, 1938. 
In compiling and publishing national crime data, the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation distinguishes between urban and rural crimes. The 
figures presented in the preceding tables are based on reports from a 
large majority of the agencies policing urban areas (places with 2,500 
or more inhabitants). Comprehensive data regarding rural crimes are 
not yet available, but the information on hand is shown in table 63, 
which is based on reports from 700 sheriffs, 71 police agencies in rural 
villages, and 5 State police organizations. 

Table 63. — Offenses known, January to September, inclusive, 1938, as reported by 
700 sheriffs, 5 State police organizations, and 71 rural officers 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or en- 
tering 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 






Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 




802 


585 


1,297 


2,202 


3, 137 


16, 505 


25, 450 


4,921 







Ill 



Offenses Known in Territories and Possessions of the United States. 

In table 64 there are shown available data concerning the number 
of offenses known to law-enforcement agencies in Territories and pos- 
sessions of the United States. The tabulation includes reports from 
Honolulu (city and county), Kauai County, Territory of Hawaii; and 
the Canal Zone. The figures are based on both urban and rural areas 
and the population figures from the 1930 decennial census are indicated 
in the table. 

Table 64. — Number of offenses known in United States Territories and possessions, 
January to September, inclusive, 1938 

[Population figures from Federal Census, Apr. 1, 1930] 



Jurisdiction reporting 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 

entering 


Larceny- 
theft 


Auto 


Over 
$50 


Under 
$50 


theft 


Hawaii: 

Honolulu City, population, 137,582; 

number of offenses known 

Honolulu County, population, 

65,341; number of offenses known. 
Kauai County, population, 35,942; 


6 

1 


16 
3 
1 

8 


19 

7 
2 

7 


546 

107 

9 

72 


80 
11 

12 


1,145 
182 
21 

235 


110 
27 
3 


Isthmus of Panama: Canal Zone, popu- 
lation, 39,367; number of offenses 


1 


20 







112 



Data From Supplementary Offense Reports. 

In tables 65-67 there are presented the more detailed data com- 
piled from supplementary offense reports received from the police 
departments of 43 cities with an aggregate population of 15,773,841. 
The period covered is the first 9 months of 1938. 

Table 65 reveals that nearly one-half of the rapes reported were 
forcible in nature. Of the 10,666 robberies reported, 6,020 (56.4 per- 
cent) were committed on city highways, and 4,052 (38.0 percent) were 
robberies of commercial establishments. 

The 43 police departments represented in the tabulation reported 
41,416 burglaries, almost one-half of which were committed in dwell- 
ing houses. With reference to the time of day the burglaries were 
perpetrated, it is shown that 79 percent were committed during the 
night, and 21 percent during the daytime. With reference to resi- 
dences, however, the proportion of daytime burglaries was larger, 
amounting to 35 percent. 

The figures for larceny disclose that 12.9 percent were cases in 
which the property stolen exceeded $50 in value. In 65.3 percent of 
the cases the value of the property stolen was from $5 to $50, and 
was less than $5 in the remaining 21.8 percent of the larcenies. The 
tabulation also reflects that 1.3 percent of the thefts were cases of 
pocket-picking and that 2.8 percent were instances of purse-snatching. 

Table 65. — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission, and value of property stolen, January to Sep- 
tember, inclusive, 1988; 43 cities over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 15,773,841, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Classification 


Number 
of actual 
offenses 


Classification 


Number 
of actual 
offenses 


Rape: 


521 
529 


Burglary — breaking or entering— Con. 
All other (store, office, etc.): 

Committed during night . . 

Committed during day - 

Total 

Larceny-theft (except auto theft), 
(grouped according to value of article 
stolen) : 
Over $50 






20, 430 




1,803 


Total 


1,050 




41,416 


Robbery: 


6,020 
2,902 
967 
171 
256 
12 
338 














11, 885 




$5 to $50 


60, 408 




Under $5 


20, 179 




Total 






92, 472 




10,666 


Larceny-theft (grouped as to type of of- 
fense) : 






Burglary— breaking or entering: 


12, 392 
6,791 


1,173 


rommitted during night 




2,619 






88,680 




Total 






92, 472 









113 

The figures presented in table 66 show that the police departments 
of the 43 cities represented reported 24,097 automobiles stolen during 
the first 9 months of 1938, of which 23,094 were recovered. The 
percentage of recoveries of stolen automobiles amounts to 95.8. 

Table 66. — Recoveries of stolen automobiles, January to September, inclusive, 1938; 
43 cities over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 15,773,841, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 

Number of automobiles stolen 24, 097 

Number of automobiles recovered 23, 094 

Percentage recovered 95. 8 

The value of property stolen and the value of property recovered 
are shown in table 67, as reported by 43 police departments. The 
total value of property stolen was $17,313,404.94. Property recovered 
was valued at $11,014,880.11 (63.6 percent). Automobiles constitute 
more than one-half of the property represented in table 67. Exclusive 
of automobiles, the value of property stolen was $7,006,907.94, and 
the value of recoveries was $1,378,552.61 (19.7 percent). 



Table 67. — Value of property stolen and value of properly recovered with divisions 
as to type of property involved, January to September, inclusive, 1938; 43 cities 
over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 15,773.841, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Type of property 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles. . 
Miscellaneous - 

Total 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



$1,631,799.43 

1, 646, 339. 44 

322, 890. 93 

849, 359. 89 

10, 306, 497. 00 

2, 556, 518. 25 



17,313,404.94 



Value of prop- 
erty recovered 



$213, 897. 65 

297, 369. 88 

22, 948. 38 

172, 542. 03 

9, 636, 327. 50 

671, 794. 67 



11,014,880.11 



Percent 
recovered 



13.1 
18.1 
7.1 
20.3 
93.5 
26.3 



63.6 



Police Officers Killed by Criminals, 1937. 

In table 68 it is shown that during the calendar year 1937 there 
were 40 police officers killed by criminals in the 389 cities represented. 
This information was received from the police departments of cities 
with population in excess of 25,000. The data are also presented for 
the cities divided into four groups according to size. 



Table 68. — Number of policemen killed by criminals, 1937 



Population group 


Number of 

policemen 

killed 


Number of 
policemen 
killed, per 
5,000,000 
inhabitants 


37 cities over 250,000; total population, 29,695,500 


21 
2 
7 

10 


3.5 


57 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total population, 7,850,312 


1.3 


104 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total population, 6,980,407 


5.0 


191 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total population, 6,638,544.. . 


7.5 






Total, 389 cities; total population, 51,164,763 ... 


40 


3.9 







114 

Number of Police Department Employees, 1937. 

The issue of this bulletin for the second quarter of 1938 contained 
information regarding the number of police department employees 
during 1937. Since that time, additional information has been re- 
ceived modifying the figures for the Tampa (Fla.) Police Department. 
The figures set forth below should be employed for the Tampa Police 
Department instead of those shown on page 72, volume IX, No. 2, 
of this bulletin; however, for all other cities the figures appearing in 
volume IX, No. 2, should be used: 



City 


Number of 
police em- 
ployees 


Number of 
civilians 


Total num- 
ber of 
employees 




92 


14 


106 







ANNUAL RETURNS 

Annual Trends, Offenses Known, and Persons Charged. 

The compilation presented in table 69 has been prepared in order 
to make it possible to ascertain whether variations in the number of 
persons arrested follow closely variations in the number of offenses 
committed. 

Table 69 reveals generally that in the cities represented arrest trends 
follow trends in the number of offenses committed. However, in some 
instances, the fluctuations in the number of crimes committed is con- 
siderably more marked than in the number of persons arrested. In 
addition, the figures for individual offense classes reflect that in some 
years there was an increase in the number of arrests, whereas there 
was a decrease in the number of crimes committed. 



Table 69. — Annual trends, number of offenses known, number of persons charged 
(held for prosecution), 1984-37, 88 cities over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 14,085,505, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent 
manslaughter 

(6) Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft ] 

Autotheft --. 



Offenses known 



1934 1935 1936 1937 



894 

560 

1,035 

21, 184 

7,686 

59, 828 

116, 720 



751 

644 

1,206 

16, 067 

7,039 

53, 773 

112, 189 

38, 106 



769 

558 

1,267 

11,355 

6,445 

45, 497 

107,316 

30, 842 



740 
1,430 
11,917 
6,298 
46, 465 
119,204 
31, 274 



850 
783 
1,065 
4,193 
4,837 
7,950 
24, 352 
3,829 



Persons charged 



1934 1935 1936 1937 



687 

703 

920 

3,589 

4,175 

8,171 

23, 030 

4,428 



645 

654 

942 

3,317 

4,184 

7,540 

20, 995 

3,913 



635 
786 
1,081 
3,467 
4,034 
8,746 
23, 495 
4,090 



i Based on reports of 37 cities. 



DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

During the first 9 months of 1938 the FBI examined 432,527 arrest 
records, as evidenced by fingerprint cards, in order to obtain data 
concerning the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of the 
persons represented. The compilation has been limited to instances 
of arrests for violations of State laws and municipal ordinances. In 
other words, fingerprint cards representing arrests for violations of 
Federal laws or representing commitments to any type of penal 
institution have been excluded from this tabulation. 

The number of fingerprint records examined was considerably 
larger than for the corresponding portion of prior years, which were 
as follows: 1937, 389,077; 1936, 343,132. The increase in the number 
of arrest records examined should not necessarily be construed as 
reflecting an increase in the amount of crime, nor as an increase in the 
number of persons arrested, since it quite probably is at least partially 
the result of an increase in the number of local agencies contributing 
fingerprint records to the Identification Division of the FBI. The 
tabulation of data from fingerprint cards obviously does not include 
all persons arrested, since there are individuals taken into custody for 
whom no fingerprint cards are forwarded to Washington. Further- 
more, data pertaining to persons arrested should not be treated as 
information regarding the number of offenses committed, since two or 
more persons may be involved in the joint commission of a single 
offense, and on the other hand one person may be arrested and 
charged with the commission of several separate crimes. 

Approximately 30 percent of the arrest records examined during the 
first 9 months of 1938 represented persons taken into custody for 
murder, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft. Arrests 
for major violations are reflected by the following figures: 

Criminal homicide 4, 987 

Robbery 11,462 

Assault 24, 357 

Burglary 28, 383 

Larceny (except auto theft) 48, 886 

Auto theft 10, 082 

Embezzlement and fraud 15, 210 

Stolen property (receiving, etc.) 3, 027 

Forgery and counterfeiting 6, 439 

Rape 4,931 

Narcotic drug laws 3, 265 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 4, 696 

Driving while intoxicated 15, 967 

Gambling _■ 5, 287 

Arson 723 

Total 187, 702 

Sex.— Of the 432,527 arrest records examined, 403,067 (93.2 per- 
cent) represented men and 29,460 (6.8 percent) represented women. 
For all types of crime except commercialized vice the number of men 
arrested was larger than the number of women. However, a com- 

(115) 



116 

parison of the figures representing an average group of 100 men arrested 
with those for an average group of 100 women arrested indicates that 
there were more women than men charged with murder, assault, and 
the use of narcotic drugs. Also, the same type of comparison indicates 
a somewhat larger ratio of arrests of women for larceny ; but for other 
types of crimes against property, such as robbery, burglary, and auto 
theft, men predominate. The comparison further reveals that 12 of 
each 1,000 women arrested and fingerprinted were charged with 
driving while intoxicated, whereas 39 of each 1,000 men arrested 
were charged with that type of violation. Data for individual types 
of crimes may be found in the following table: 



Table 70.- — Distribution of arrests by sex Jan. 1-Sept. 80, 1938 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide. 

Robbery 

Assault : 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc. 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated... 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion. 

Not stated 

All other offenses 



Total 432,527 403,06' 



Total Male Female 



4,987 

11,462 

24, 357 

28, 383 

48, 886 

10, 082 

15,210 

3,027 

723 

6,439 

4,931 

5,169 

6,010 

3, 265 

4,696 

5,335 

6,449 

15, 967 

3,124 

17 

5,611 

20, 337 

63, 512 

40, 898 

5,287 

50, 465 

6,368 

31, 530 



4,511 

11,012 

22, 399 

27, 952 

45, 445 

9,949 

14, 573 

2,837 

677 

6,078 

4,931 

1,228 

5,252 

2,339 

4,527 

5,210 

5,459 

15,612 

3,087 

16 

5,521 

18, 024 

60, 132 

38, 464 

4,986 

46, 908 

5,937 

30, 001 



476 
450 

1,958 
431 

3,441 
133 
637 
190 
46 
361 



3,941 

758 

926 

169 

125 

990 

355 

37 

1 

90 

2,313 

3,380 

2,434 

301 

3,557 

431 

1,529 



29, 460 



Percent 



Total Male Female 



1.1 
2.6 
5.6 
6.6 
11.3 
2.3 
3.5 
.7 
2 

1.5 
1.1 

1.2 
1.4 



0) 
1.3 
4.7 

14.7 
9.5 
1.2 

11.7 
1.5 
7.3 



100.0 



1.1 
2.7 
5.6 
6.9 

11.3 

2.5 

3.6 

.7 

.2 

1.5 

1.2 

.3 

1.3 

.6 

1.1 

1.3 

1.4 

3.9 

.8 

(0 
1.4 
4.5 

14.9 
9.5 
1.2 

11.6 
1.5 
7.4 



100.0 



1.6 

1.5 

6.6 

1.5 

11.7 

.4 

2.2 

.6 

.2 

1.2 



(') 



13.4 
2.6 
3.1 
.6 
.4 
3.4 
1.2 
.1 

.3 

7.8 
11.5 
8.3 
1.0 
12.1 
1.5 
5.2 



100.0 



i Less than one-tenth of 1 percent. 

Age.— From 1932 to the middle of 1935 age 19 was the group in 
which the largest number of arrests occurred. Since the middle of 
1935 there have been more arrests for ages 21, 22, and 23 than for 
any other groups. During the first 9 months of 1938 there were 
more arrests for age 21 than for any other single age group. The 
groups for which the largest number of arrests occurred during the 
first 9 months of 1938 are as follows: 

Age ' Number of arrests 

21 19,085 

22 19,039 

23 18, 874 

19 1 18, 802 

The compilation for 1937 reflected that 18.0 percent of the persons 
arrested were less than 21 years old, but during the first 9 months of 
1938 the proportion was 19.0 percent. In addition to the 81,964 



117 

persons less than 21 years old arrested during the first 9 months of 
1938, there were 74,464 (17.2 percent) between the ages of 21 and 24, 
making a total of 156,428 (36.2 percent) less than 25 years old. 
Persons arrested who were between the ages of 25 and 29 numbered 
74,167 (17.1 percent). This makes a total of 230,595 (53.3 percent) 
less than 30 years old. (With reference to the ages of persons repre- 
sented by fingerprint cards received in the FBI, it should be 
borne in mind that the number of arrest records is doubtless incom- 
plete in the lower age groups, because in some jurisdictions the 
practice is not to fingerprint youthful individuals.) The number of 
arrests for ages 16-24 is shown in figure 7. 



118 



£h <?3 



to o 



t"- CN h- CO CD CN O 

00 'D lO CO 00 00 H NNCOCCCHCOCJN^CDClHHMj-HCJOOtCSD: 

OS -*** CO CO 00 CD CN 

■*jH , *oo*oo*d l o 

rn CN N^ihh 



NWaHDOiOtDiODh-^NHNMCON»0000 
(NiMMW!DrHiXiOiWTficDClHHirOTHa>OOiCiDCO 
ON^CDHOCNtDM^Qrt CD CO »D 00 CN t*h CO »D 

^T^"'j5cD"co""T^iocD* k ioco~ 100'codiod'O'H 



rjH r-t r-l CD "^ tP 



CN tJ* -^ ID OS CO CN 



NiOOIMiOiO»ODNClNCOj 
y C ~ CO *D "O *0 — iNCCC'l 
aHTt<^>H0ONfOrtCONH 



DN»0 500COO C0^tDO«005H«:NNC000 
INH^IOOO CN rt M M t-i CO IN IM CO ■«# CO 



I^D<NDHtO^00 

»D CN CO CO »D <* 1^- O 

WOOCOD"5N^O 

hO*^" CN CN 



■ 00C0»D*DCNCOCNCO 
i OSCN •C^OON'O 
tH(NCNMTt<OCOCO 

l rHCOCN CN i-T 



os cm j-i so ti< os cd o co oo © i>. id © co en co «3 co CN cn co oo © th i-h oo »o 

Tfi'XlNOOOOO CDCOOvQN^iOONHN CNCOCN©COeN»DiD 
Tji CO H O CO j-I CO CN ©NM"5COMCOODH CO <C ri Cft -C CO "O N 



CMHN 1-4 



ID CN CD CO — i rH rH 
TOOHINCiOlO 
CD 00 CN i^ CO CO CO CO 



OH0300NNtOHO l OHCO k O'*H«D'MO^)tO 
^D»CCOCDHCiO}00iODrH CO "O W CO N iO CO ^O 



cfo^ «r of 



COHOCOCOOHNHCODOO^NiOCOiOCOeONCO 
iCiONOODD'O O-O CWWHH^NHiOO} -hNOhMCONH 

- t"*-00©CO©iDCO'D 

<n"©"id cd" co" 



D^tOO'HO'O 
>OiONQ0003»0 
!>• CO t— »D Th CD CO 



!0©MKIHHCNNH>OD 
'HOiOCOCO^tOOONCO 



lOCOCJDDNO 

i-- r-» r> co © t- oo 

©COCO rHCN NX*- 
CN ^rjTtCj-rcN 



COiOCOT-iiOi-iCOCNCO»0"*COCO-^ t »D'-l 1 DCN- 

C -^ O 1~- O CJ N CO Tf iO »C N NCOC^'f ■ 

^HrtDO^OCOCOOHDtO hCihhOJ 1 



4 CO © t- Oii-i «3 



D^HHNCOD 
?1 N O O 00 M iO 



. . CONhCNCOOhcO'OIOhD , *COCOOOMHH 

rH © © t-- © CNNOCONMcDO^CO^t- © CO O CO CO CO CO <N 

i-h CN rH CO CN rH CN CN CN tO rH CNCCr-COrHCOCNCO 



CO O CN iO CN CO OS 

os Tt< co r- »h oo *h 

H^ONrt^T 



CNCN^CNrHCNCNCN»Dj-l 



CO©r^CSrH»DCNiD 

r-Ti-T cn j-T 



OQNOCOCNH OhNC! 



CN r-~ CO CO CO ID CD 



OO'OCOCON'H 

. - HH ■ "■ 

i-i CN CN CO CN 



) rjH ID NMIn.CO'O-^COCNO^'. 



t-~t— co©cNrHcoco 

*D CO CN CD *D CO CO ID' 
COD"50H«ON»0 



OS CO »D OS CO t**. j— I 

j— i OO CO 1^- CD CO CO 
CN r^ OS iQ ^ CD CO 



■^OCOOONCOOOO 
OSOHOOCOCOCOCO 
COD-^OHiOCNco 



. - 4 CN COO © *D niODNHCON'ODOCOO'* 
J^OOOCO^QO COCNTlH^HCNCOIr--r-O0Tt4tDt^ 



1 1^. t^ co »D I 



rH CN CO r-l j-H j-t hCNi 



HOHMCONDD 
N N CO CO 00 CC' h h 
CNi>- OS TF CN CN >d 



© CO CO l~- © 00 © N^^IOOOONONNNO 
iDcOiD-fHOO-^TjH rOHNHCOOOCC ClOO^OO^ 
H00NNOOM rH (MCOjHH CN rH rH rH 



COCOt^©»DcOCOcO 
WOOcDOOSCN-^CN 
COt^ 00 00 CO CNl^- 



NNDOtOOlN lONCNCOiOCON^TfOiD''* 
HiCOOCOOO CO(N-«J*COON>OOSCOCO- 'CO 
HNCHQiOrHlM rH CN CN rH rH rH rtH 



CNOCOOOOcDCOas 
>O^HNN»0«ON 
CN1>- CD t^ iD CN CO 



rH CN rH 



COMNCODHH ^HDO'OONNOM"5 k C) 
COOHiONCSIrt OSCNCOCDCN'*COCNi-H'D^D'* 



■Ot)*»C050j 



^^^OS^OSCOiD 
OCDt^-CO'^OSf^CN 



OS t^. rt* OS rH CN { 

co co t c i ? i re ; 

CN CN OS ©CO 



D0iDt--cOCOCN©>-iCO00CNcO 

«o r- oo j-h go rH w cn rH i-i 



CO OS CO CO CN CN ■* tH CD 

*dcocs*dcnt-hcnco as 



00 I s - TJ4 iD ID CO OS 

rH CO ** CO <* CO 
CD CD CN 



ID CN iD CO *D TJ4 CO <D i© 



>00 1>-©i0© 



CO rH CO *D © ID *D CO CO CO CO rH 1-- CO rH CN J>. i CN 
rH-^COCOCO'D rHrHj-H 



lOHOCOCOCOCOO 
CD rH 00 CN ID rH 



t-. CD CN © © CO CO CN CN tP CO rH CN CN COt-I- ©!>• 



Th 00 00 Tf CO CN t^- CN 

CN r^ CO CO CO DO 



£ A 






CD ^ 

s§ 

2-S ft 



■"£.213 

3£|£f§S-2^ 

:o8aS3Bo 



tpt3 



fl«SS 



2 f 5 



3-5 o « ° 



Jd-sssai.s.s^.at's-gss.gl 



119 




120 



Youths less than 21 years old were frequently charged with offenses 
against property, particularly robbery, burglary, larceny and auto 
theft. This is clearly indicated by the following tabulation: 





Percentage distribution 


of arrests by age groups 






Age group 


All of- 
fenses 

19.0 
34.4 
24.7 
13.6 
8.2 
.1 


Criminal 
homicide 


Robbery 


Burglary 


Larceny 


Auto 
theft 


Under 21 . 


11.9 
36.6 

27.8 

14.9 

8.7 

.1 


28.3 
46.8 
18.8 
4.7 
1.3 
.1 


43.6 

33.3 

15.2 

5.6 

2.2 

. 1 


32.1 
32.9 
20.0 
9.8 
5.1 
.1 


52 4 


21-29 


33 3 


30-39 


10 7 


40-49 . : 


2 8 




.7 




1 








Total.. 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 







The predominance of youthful persons among those charged with 
offenses against property is further indicated by the fact that 124,212 
persons of all ages were arrested for crimes against property (robbery, 
burglary, larceny, auto theft, embezzlement and fraud, forgery and 
counterfeiting, receiving stolen property, and arson). During the 
first 9 months of 1938, 39,172 (31.5 percent) of the persons arrested 
for such crimes were less than 21 years old. 

Further indication of the large part played by youthful persons in 
the commission of crimes against property is seen in the figures show- 
ing that 36.2 percent of all persons arrested were less than 25 years 
of age. However, persons less than 25 years old numbered 54.4 
percent of those charged with robbery, 62.3 percent of those charged 
with burglary, 50.1 percent of those charged with larceny, and 73.0 
percent of those charged with auto theft. One-half of all crimes 
against property during the first 9 months of 1938 were committed 
by persons under 25 years of age. 



Table 72. 



-Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, 
Jan. 1-Sept. SO, 1.938 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault ~. 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape '-.. 

Prostitution and commercialized vice-. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children.-. 

Liquor laws _ 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws_-- 

D isorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagraney 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Total num- 
ber of 
persons 
arrested 



4,987 

11, 462 

24, 357 

28,383 

48, 886 

10, 082 

15,210 

3,027 

723 

6,439 

4,931 

5,169 

6,010 

3,265 

4,696 

5,335 

6,449 

15, 967 

3,124 

17 

5,611 

20, 337 

63,512 

40, 898 

5,287 

50, 465 

6,368 

31, 530 



432. 527 



Number 

under 21 

years of 

age 



591 
3,244 

2,798 
12, 378 
15, 680 

5,279 



102 
1,022 
1.180 
408 
802 
274 
813 
213 
479 
624 
542 



1,010 
3,140 
2,858 
6,634 
335 
11,028 
1,140 
7,923 



81,964 



Total num- 
ber under 
25 years 
of age 



1,443 
6,241 
6,783 

17, 693 

24, 485 

7,364 

3,399 

1,086 

197 

2,115 

2,215 

1,753 

1,675 

801 

1,721 

970 

1,369 

2,590 

1,344 

4 

2,405 

6,769 

9,269 

14, 575 
958 

21, 063 
2,186 

13, 955 



156. 428 



Percentage 
under 21 
years of 



11.9 
28.3 
11.5 
43.6 
32.1 
52.4 

5.9 
18.8 
14.1 
15.9 
23.9 

7.9 
13.3 

8.4 
17.3 

4.0 

7.4 

3.9 
17.3 



18.0 
15.4 

4.5 
16.2 

6.3 
21.9 
17.9 
25.1 



19.0 



Total per- 
centage 
under 25 
years of 
of age 



28.9 
54.4 
27.8 
62.3 
50.1 
73.0 
22.3 
35.9 
27.2 
32.8 
44.9 
33.9 
27.9 
24.5 
36.6 
18.2 
21.2 
16.2 
43.0 
23.5 
42.9 
33.3 
14.6 
35.6 
18.1 
41.7 
34.3 
44.3 



36.2 



121 

Recidivism.— There were 190,860 (44.1 percent) of the 432,527 
persons arrested during the first 9 months of 1938 who already had 
prior fingerprint cards on file in the Identification Division of the 
FBI. In addition, there were 6,680 current records bearing nota- 
tions relative to prior criminal activities of persons arrested during 
the first 9 months of 1938, although their fingerprints had not pre- 
viously been on file. This makes a total of 197,540 persons arrested 
during the first 9 months of 1938 concerning whom there was infor- 
mation on file dealing with prior criminal activities, and the records 
showed that 120,639 had been convicted previously of one or more 
crimes. This number is 61.1 percent of the 197,540 records contain- 
ing data concerning prior criminal activities and 27.9 percent of the 
432,527 arrest records examined. 

In more than one-half of the cases the previous convictions were 
based on .major violations as indicated by the following figures: 

Criminal homicide 1, 096 

Robbery 4,734 

Assault 5, 95 1 

Burglary 12, 985 

Larceny (and related offenses) 28, 183 

Arson 155 

Forgery and counterfeiting 3, 637 

Rape 881 

Narcotic drug laws 1, 931 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 1, 341 

Driving while intoxicated 2, 760 

Total 63, 654 

Table 73. — Number of cases in which fingerprint records shotv 1 or more prior 
convictions, and the total of prior convictions disclosed by the records, Jan. 1— 
Sept. SO, 1938 



Offense charged at time of current arrest 



Number of 
records show- 
ing 1 or 
more prior 
convictions 



Number of 
prior con- 
victions of 
major 

o (Tenses 



Number of 
prior con- 
victions of 
minor 
offenses 



Total num- 
ber of prior 
convictions 
disclosed 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children- _ 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated.. 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws_._ 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



831 
772 
731 
981 
705 
385 
922 
605 
107 
039 
942 
259 
144 
372 
li:. 

SMI 

59 1 
875 
515 
5 
237 
591 
717 
438 
901 
130 
646 
2hi I 



912 

5.476 

6,608 

12, 642 

21,001 

3,421 

5. 855 

759 

116 

3, 651 

1,123 

1,621 

1,292 

3,733 

1,407 

824 

1,149 

2,228 

408 

8 

1,129 

4,980 

13, 237 

12.805 

950 

15, 565 

2.215 

10. Sill 



784 

3.743 

6, 320 

7,344 

15,901 

1,895 

3,463 

560 

83 

1,460 

816 

1,136 

1,332 

1,656 

1,022 

717 

1,937 

2,925 

483 

10 

1,264 

9.664 

52, 172 

18, 669 

835 

15,928 

1,741 

11,641 



1,696 

9,219 

12,928 

19, 986 

36,902 

5,310 

9,318 

1,319 

199 

5.111 

1,939 

2,757 

2,624 

5,389 

2,429 

1,541 

3,086 

5,153 

891 

18 

2,393 

14, 644 

65,409 

31,474 

1,785 

31, 493 

3,956 

22, 471 



120, 639 



135, 945 



165, 501 



301,446 



122 

There were 39 persons arrested for murder or manslaughter during 
the first 9 months of 1938 whose criminal history revealed that they 
had on a prior occasion been convicted of criminal homicide in some 
degree. As already indicated, more than one-half of all persons whose 
records reflected prior convictions had been convicted of major crimes, 
and the tabulation further indicates a general tendency for recidivists 
to repeat the same type of crime. 

The 120,639 persons whose records revealed one or more prior con- 
victions were found to have been convicted of a total of 301,446 
offenses. In 135,945 instances the convictions were of major crimes, 
and in 165,501 cases the convictions were of less serious violations of 
the law. 

Race. — Whites were represented by 321,089 of the records examined 
and Negroes by 94,482. The remaining races were represented as 
follows: Indian, 2,119; Chinese, 623; Japanese, 173; Mexican, 12,482; 
all others, 1,559. 

The significance of the figures showing the number of Negroes 
arrested as compared with the number of whites can best be indicated 
in terms of the number of each in the general population of the coun- 
try. Exclusive of those under 15 years of age, there were according 
to the 1930 decennial census, 8,041,014 Negroes, 13,069,192 foreign- 
born whites, and 64,365,193 native whites in the United States. Of 
each 100,000 Negroes, 1,175 were arrested and fingerprinted during 
the first 9 months of 1938, whereas the corresponding figure for native 
whites was 444 and for foreign-born whites 164. It should be observed 
in connection with the foregoing data that the figure for native whites 
includes the immediate descendants of foreign-born individuals. 
Persons desiring to make a thorough study of the comparative amounts 
of crime committed by native whites and foreign-born whites should 
employ available compilations showing the number of instances in 
which offenders are of foreign or mixed parentage. 

At the end of September 1938 there were 9,377,354 fingerprint 
records and 10,731,628 index cards containing the names and aliases 
of individuals on file in the Identification Division of the FBI. Of 
each 100 fingerprint cards received during the first 9 months of 1938, 
more than 58 were identified with those on file in the Bureau. Fugi- 
tives numbering 5,769 were identified through fingerprint records 
during the same period, and interested law enforcement officials were 
immediately notified of the whereabouts of those fugitives. As of 
September 30, 1938/, there were 10,674 police departments, peace 
officers, and law enforcement agencies throughout the United States 
and foreign countries voluntarily contributing fingerprints to the 
FBI. 

O 



Q3r3.^s 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume IX — Number 4 
FOURTH QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1938 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1939 



ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE ON UNIFORM CRIME RECORDS 

OF THE 

INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHIEFS OF POLICE 

(ii) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 
of Justice, Washington, D. C. 

Volume 9 January 1939 Number 4 



CONTENTS 

Classification of offenses. 
Extent of reporting area. 
Monthly returns: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population (table 
74). 

Monthly trends, offenses known to the police, 1938 (table 75). 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1931-38 (table 76). 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location (tables 
77-79). 

Offenses in individual cities over 25,000 in population (table 80). 

Offenses known to sheriffs and State police (table 81). 

Offenses known in territories and possessions (table 82). 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 83-87). 

Estimated number of major crimes, 1937-38 (table 88). 
Criminal history of persons in single fingerprint file. 
Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1938: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 89) . 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 90-93) . 

Number and percentage with previous fingerprint records (tables 94-95). 

Number with records showing previous convictions (tables 96-99). 

Race distribution of persons arrested (tables 100-103). 
Index to Volume 9. 

SUMMARY 

Decrease in Crimes Against Persons. 

During 1938, there were decreases in the number of murders, man- 
slaughters, rapes, and other felonious assaults as compared with 1937. 
However, the 1938 rape figure is higher than for all preceding years of 
this decade except 1937. On the other hand, the 1938 figure for 
criminal homicide is lower than for all prior years of this decade. 

Increase in Crimes of Burglary and Larceny. 

Crimes of burglary and larceny increased in frequency during 1938 
as compared with 1937. The increase in larceny was moderately 
substantial, amounting to 5.7 percent. However, the increase in 
burglary was considerably smaller amounting to 1.5 percent. On 
the other hand, decreases were shown for robbery and auto theft. 
Compared with 1937, robberies decreased 0.9 percent and auto thefts 
12.7 percent. 

Monthly Variations in Crimes. 

Monthly figures for 1938 show that generally property crimes are 
most frequently committed during the first and fourth quarters of the 
year, with low points in the second and third quarters, but crimes 

(123) 



124 

against the person tend to show highest frequency during hot summer 
months. Murders occurred most frequently in July. 

Distribution of Crimes by Type. 

More than one-half (56.6 percent) of the crimes were larcenies, 
22.7 percent burglaries, 12.5 percent auto thefts, and 4.0 percent rob- 
beries, making a total of 95.8 percent committed for the purpose of 
obtaining property. The remaining 4.2 percent consisted of homicides, 
rapes, and other felonious assaults. Approximately one-half of the 
places burglarized were residences, 33.0 percent of which were entered 
in the daytime. With reference to both residence and nonresidence 
burglaries, it was found that 19 percent occurred during the daytime. 

One-fifth of the larcenies consisted of thefts of personal property 
from automobiles, 14 percent were thefts of bicycles, and 14 percent 
were thefts of automobile accessories. Eleven percent of the larcenies 
involved thefts of property valued in excess of $50; 65 percent involved 
property ranging from $5 to $50 in value; and the property was 
valued at less than $5 per offense in the remaining 24 percent of the 
thefts. The average value of property stolen per offense was: 
Robbery, $88.95; Burglary, $63.52; Larceny, $29.56. Recoveries of 
stolen automobiles amounted to 93.6 percent. Exclusive of auto- 
mobiles, 21.5 percent of stolen property was recovered. 

Geographic Distribution of Crimes. 

The crime data have been arranged to make possible comparisons 
between local data and average figures for cities of the same size 
located in the same section of the United States. National averages 
for cities grouped by size, and State crime rates are also presented, 
together with figures for individual cities with population in excess of 
25,000. 
Persons Arrested. 

Fingerprint cards representing 554,376 arrests during 1938 reveal 
that 18.8 percent of the persons arrested were under 21 years of age. 
During 1937, only 18.0 percent of the persons arrested were less than 
21 years old. 

There were more arrests for age 21 than for any other single age 
group. During 1937, age 22 showed the largest number of arrests. 

Persons under 21 years of age numbered 31.5 percent of the total 
arrests for crimes against property (robbery, burglary, larceny, auto 
theft, embezzlement and fraud, forgery and counterfeiting, receiving- 
stolen property, and arson). Persons less than 25 years old numbered 
54.5 percent of those charged with robbery, 62.3 percent of those 
charged with burglary, 49.6 percent of those charged with larceny, 
and 73.2 percent of those charged with auto theft. 

Women were represented by 37,780 (6.8 percent) of the records 
examined. 

There were 150,021 persons arrested during 1938 whose records 
revealed they had been previously convicted of 372,939 offenses 
(169,319 major crimes and 203,620 less serious violations). 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to 
the police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting 



125 

or court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following 
group of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be 
those most generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal 
homicide, including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (6) 
manslaughter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; 
burglary — breaking or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The 
figures contained herein include also the number of attempted crimes 
of the designated classes. Attempted murders, however, are reported 
as aggravated assaults. In other words, an attempted burglary or 
robbery, for example, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner 
as if the crime had been completed. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the police depart- 
ments of contributing cities and not merely arrests or cleared cases. 
Complaints which upon investigation are learned to be groundless are 
not included in the tabulations which follow. 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in 
each group, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter — includes 
all felonious homicides except those caused by negligence. Does not include 
attempts to kill, assaults to kill, justifiable homicides, suicides, or accidental 
deaths. (6) Manslaughter by negligence — includes only those cases in which 
death is caused by culpable negligence which is so clearly evident that if the 
person responsible for the death were apprehended he would be prosecuted for 
manslaughter. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape, assault to rape, and attempted 
rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as highway robbery, stick-ups, robbery 
armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or theft. Includes attempted 
burglary and assault to commit a burglary. Burglary followed by a larceny is 
entered here and is not counted again under larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value. (6) 
Under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of the property stolen, pocket-picking, purse-snatching, shop- 
lifting, or any stealing of property or thing of value which is not taken by force 
and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" games, forgery, 
passing worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven away 
and abandoned, including the so-called "joy-riding" thefts. Does not include 
taking for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unauthorized use 
by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of crime 
and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 
Extent of Reporting Area. 

In the table which follows there is shown the number of police 
departments from which one or more crime reports were received 
during the calendar year 1938. Information is presented for the 
cities divided according to size. The population figures employed 



126 

are estimates as of July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census for 
cities with population in excess of 10,000. No estimates were avail- 
able, however, for those with a smaller number of inhabitants, and, 
accordingly, for them the figures listed in the 1930 decennial census 
were used. 



Population group 


Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 


Cities filing returns 


Total pop- 
ulation 


Population repre- 
sented in returns 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


982 


917 


93.4 


60, 265, 719 


58, 933, 834 


97.8 






1. Cities over 250,000 


37 
57 
104 
191 
593 


37 

57 
101 
179 
543 


100.0 
100.0 
97.1 
93.7 
91.6 


29, 695, 500 
7, 850, 312 
6, 980, 407 
6, 638, 544 
9, 100, 956 


29. 695, 500 

7, 850, 312 
6, 781, 874 
6, 213, 968 

8, 392, 180 


100.0 


2. Cities 100,000 to 250,000 


100.0 


3 Cities 50,000 to 100,000 .. 


97.2 


4 Cities 25,000 to 50,000 


93.6 


5. Cities 10,000 to 25,000 


92.2 







Note. — The above table does not include 1,745 cities and rural townships aggregating a total population 
of 8,622,138. The cities included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 population filing returns, whereas 
the rural townships are of varying population groups. 

The growth in the crime reporting area is evidenced by the following 
figures for 1930-38: 



Year 


Number 
of cities 


Population 


Year 


Number 
of cities 


Population 


1930 


1,127 
1,511 
1,578 
1,658 
1,799 


45, 929, 965 
51, 145, 734 
53, 212, 230 
62, 357, 262 

62, 757, 643 


1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 


2,156 
2,318 
2, 429 
2,662 


64, 615, 330 


1931. 


65, 639, 430 


1932 


66, 279, 987 


1933 


67, 555. 972 


1934 









The foregoing comparison shows that during 1938 there was an 
increase of 233 cities as compared with 1937, the population repre- 
sented by those cities being 1,275,985. 

In addition to the 2,662 city and village police departments which 
submitted crime reports during 1938, one or more reports were 
received during that year from 1,612 sheriffs and State police organi- 
zations and from 9 agencies in Territories and possessions of the 
United States. This makes a grand total of 4,283 agencies contribut- 
ing crime reports during 1938. 



MONTHLY RETURNS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population. 

In table 74 there is presented the number of offenses known to have 
been committed during the calendar year 1938. These figures are 
based on reports received from police departments in 1,929 cities, 
representing a combined population of 62,463,295. The figures are 
also presented for the cities divided into six groups according to size. 

The compilation discloses that the number of offenses committed 
per unit of population is higher in the large cities than in the com- 
paratively smaller communities. This distribution of the crimes is 
similar to the distribution shown in tabulations for prior years. 

More than two-thirds of the crimes listed in the following table 
consist of larcenies (56.6 percent) and auto thefts (12.5 percent). 
Burglaries and robberies represented 26.7 percent of the crimes listed 
in the table. The foregoing crimes are classed as offenses against 
property and constitute 95.8 percent of the total offenses. The 
remaining crimes, murder, manslaughter, rape, and aggravated 
assault, are classed as offenses against the person and constitute 
4.2 percent of the total. In spite of the small percentage of offenses 
against the person, it will be seen from the table that 3,296 murders, 
2,760 manslaughters, 5,186 rapes, and 27,739 aggravated assaults 
were reported by the police departments of the cities represented in 
the compilation. Estimates of the total number of such crimes 
committed in the United States during 1938 will be found in table 88. 
A percentage distribution of the crimes shown in table 74 is presented 
below. 



Offense 



Total 

Larceny 

Burglary... 
Auto theft. 



Rate per 
100,000 



1, 499. 6 



849.2 
340.2 
188.2 



100.0 



56.6 
22.7 
12.5 



Offense 



Robbery 

Aggravated assault 
Rape 

Murder 

Manslaughter 



Rate per 

100,000 



59.3 

44.5 

8.3 

5.3 

4.6 



Percent 



4.0 

3.0 

.6 

.3 

.3 



The majority of the cities represented made separate reports of 
the larcenies in which the property stolen was valued at $50 or more. 
A compilation showing the larcenies divided according to the value 
of the property stolen yields the following figures: 





Larcenj 


—theft 


Population group 


Larceny 


—theft 


Population group 


$50 and 
over in 
value 


Under 
$50 in 
value 


$50 and 
over in 
value 


Under 
$50 in 
value 


31 cities over 250,000; total 
population, 20,288,800: 
Number of offenses 


20, 678 
101.9 


148, 410 
731.5 


55 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; 

total population 7,586,612: 

Number of offenses 


6,681 
88.1 


67, 931 


Rate per 100,000 


Rate per 100,000 


895.4 







There were 243,700 larcenies classified according to the value of 
the property involved, and the preceding figures reveal that 27,359 
(11.2 percent) were cases in which the value of the property ex- 
ceeded $50. 

(128) 



129 

Table 74. — Offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 1938; 
number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 

36 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 29,375,000: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP II 

67 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,850,312: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000.. 



GROUP III 

94 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 6,347,454: 

Number of oflenses known 

Rate per 100,000 _. 



171 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 5,964,868: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000... 



451 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 7,035,700: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



1,120 cities under 10,000; total popu- 
lation, 5,889,361: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

1,929 cities; total population, 
62,463,295: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



1,631 
5.6 



564 
7.2 



36S 
5.8 



217 
3.6 



260 
3.7 



256 
4.3 



3,296 
5.3 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



i 1,748 
6.3 



i 353 
4.6 



217 
3.4 



154 
2.6 



i 2,760 
4.6 



Rape 



2,946 
10.0 



511 
6.5 



420 
6.6 



395 
6.6 



464 
6.6 



450 
7.6 



5,186 
8.3 



Rob- 
bery 



23, 651 
80.5 



4,320 
55.0 



3,323 
52.4 



2,027 
31.0 



2.110 
30.0 



1,593 
27.0 



37, 024 
59.3 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



14,259 
48.5 



s 4, 215 
54.6 



3,629 
57.2 



» 1,997 
33.7 



5 2, 175 
31.0 



1,464 
24.9 



5 27,739 
44.5 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



2 75, 749 
374.1 



2 31,711 
415.5 



22, 595 
356.0 



19, 493 
326. 8 



17, 930 
254. 8 



13, 205 
224.2 



2 180, 683 
340.2 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



3 187, 889 
927.9 



76, 930 
980.0 



59,172 
932.2 



51, 629 
865.6 



49, 029 
696.9 



28, 277 
480.1 



3 452,926 
849.2 



Auto 
theft 



* 51, 930 
233.7 



16,738 
213.2 



11, 666 
183.8 



10, 070 
168.8 



8,550 
121.5 



5,139 
87.3 



< 104, 093 
188.2 



i The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports as follows: Group I, 
34 cities, total population, 27,647,400; group II, 56 cities, total population, 7,726,812; groups I- VI, 1,926 cities, 
total population, 60,611,595. 

2 The number of offenses and rate for burglary are based on reports as follows: Group I, 34 cities, total 
population, 20,248,600; group II, 56 cities, total population, 7,632,512; groups I- VI, 1,926 cities, total popula- 
tion, 53,118,495. 

3 The number of offenses and rate for larceny-theft are based on reports as follows: Group I, 34 cities, 
total population, 20,248,600; groups I- VI, 1,927 cities, total population, 63,336,295. 

* The number of offenses and rate for auto theft are based on reports as follows: Group I, 35 cities, total 
population, 22,221,300; groups I-VI, 1,928 cities, total population, 55,308,995. 

6 The number of offenses and rate for aggravated assault are based on reports as follows: Group II, 56 
cities, total population, 7,726,812; group IV, 170 cities, total population, 5,932,598; group V, 450 cities, total 
population, 7,021,900; groups I-VI, 1,926 cities, total population, 62,293,725. 



125917°— 39- 



130 

Monthly Trends, Offenses Known to the Police (Daily Average), 1938. 

Monthly variations in the number of crimes committed during 1938 
are indicated in table 75. These figures are based on reports received 
from 93 cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants and show the aver- 
age number of the various offenses which occurred daily during the 
months indicated. The second portion of table 75 sets forth a seasonal 
variation in the daily average of offenses. 

This table indicates that offenses of murder occurred most frequently 
during the month of July and that the daily average number of offenses 
of aggravated assault was highest during the month of August. 

All offenses against property (robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto 
theft) show generally similar monthly trends. The highest points for 
these offenses were in the first and fourth quarters of the year, the lowest 
averages being during the summer months. 

Generally speaking the figures below indicate that offenses against 
the person usually reach their peak during the hot summer months 
and offenses against property are usually highest during the winter. 
These seasonal variations shown by the 1938 data are similar to the 
trends reflected by the figures for 1937. 

The fluctuation in the 1938 figures for individual types of crimes may 
be readily noted in figure 8. 

Table 75. — Monthly trends, offenses known to the police (daily average), 1938, 93 
cities over 100,000 in population, January to December, inclusive, 1938 



[Total population, 37,225,912, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Month 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January to March 

April to June 

July to September 

October to December. 
January to December 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



6.2 
5.4 
6.1 
5.3 
7.0 
6.3 
6.4 
6. 1 
5.3 
6.2 



6.0 
5.6 
6.6 
5.9 
6.0 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence ' 



6.6 

5.5 
5.7 
5.3 
4.2 
5.2 
5.0 
4.0 
5.0 
5.5 
6.7 
10.3 



6 
4.9 

4.7 
7.5 
5.8 



Rape 



9.2 
10.4 
9.0 
10.0 
9.6 
9.7 
9.3 
10.4 
9.5 
9.7 
8.7 
8.2 



Rob- 
bery 



102.9 
98.9 
82.9 
69.4 
66.5 
63.0 
61.9 
60.4 
65.0 
71.6 
76.1 

102. 1 



94.8 
66.3 
62.4 
83.4 
76.6 



Aggra- 
vated 



sault 2 



42.3 
45.3 
47.7 
49.3 
54.1 
52.4 
55.8 
59.6 
54.2 
51.8 
47.5 
46.9 



45. 1 
52.0 
56.5 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 3 



352.8 
350.2 
318.4 
292.2 
274.0 
271.5 
272.8 
272.0 
266.2 
263.3 
282. 3 
320.6 



340. 1 
279.2 
270.4 
288.8 
294.4 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft * 



747.9 
740.2 
732.5 
705.1 
681.2 
683.6 
646.6 
689.3 
710.3 
757.0 
793.7 
820.0 



740.2 
689.9 
681. 7 
790.2 
725.5 



Auto 
theft ' 



203.1 
202.3 
200.4 
187.7 
178.2 
166.9 
163.2 
169.2 
187.8 
193.7 
197.5 
208.2 



201.9 
177.6 
173.3 
199.8 
188.1 



1 Daily averages for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports of 90 cities with a total population of 
35,374,212. 

2 Daily averages for aggravated assault are based on reports of 92 cities with a total population of 37,102,412. 

3 Daily averages for burglary are based on reports of 90 cities with a total population of 27,881,112. 

4 Daily averages for larceny are based on reports of 91 cities with a total population of 28,098,912. 

5 Daily averages for auto theft are based on reports of 92 cities with a total population of 30,071,612. 



131 



MONTHLY CRIME 
TRENDS 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE 










JAN, "FEB,' MAR APR. MAY JUN. JUL. AUG. SEP. OCT. NOV. 01 




1,000 

900 
800 
700 
600 
500 
400 

300 

UJ 

e> 

2O0 <j 
IE 
Ui 

too 

90 > 

80 ** 

70 

60 

SO 

40 

50 

20 

,0 >■ 

9 -» 
8 ~ 
7 < 

a 

6 
S 
4 
3 
2 
< TO 


1,000 

800 
700 
€00 
500 
400 

300 
UJ 

O 

< 200 

a 

UJ 

100 
> so 

< 80 
70 
60 
SO 
40 
50 
20 

>■ .0 

-» 9 
~ 8 

< 7 

O 

6 

5 

4 
3 

2 




1 




















LARCENY 
















r— • 


















""" 










^^ ~ 








mm ■" 






























mma 


BURGL 


APY 


















^ 


















- «# 




AUTO THEFT 


















^m=z 


















ROBBE 


RY 

wm*B 








^s£ 


















/ 




^V> 


■» 
















^ 














































AGGRAVA" SAU1 


.T 


























































RAPE - 

7" 




















































































MURDER 


























/ 


"^^ 










S 








s 


/ 








s 


^ 


























































































Jj 


\M FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUN. JUL. AUG. SEP. OCT. NOV. D£ 


c. $ 



Figure 8. 



132 



Annual Trends, Offenses Known to the Police, 1931-38. 

Annual variations in the number of crimes committed during 
1931-38 are indicated in table 76. This compilation is based on re- 
ports received from police departments of 73 cities of over 100,000 
inhabitants. The total population area represented is 20,912,712. 
All types of crimes reported during 1938 were lower than those for 
1937, with the exception of larceny which figure, it will be seen, is 
higher than any other during the past 8 years. 

In several instances the number of crimes committed shows a 
substantial decrease. Offenses of murder, manslaughter by negli- 
gence, and auto theft for 1938 were fewer than for any other year 
shown in the table. The number of offenses of burglary during 1938 
was lower than any other year in the table with the exception of 1936. 
It should be noted that, although the number of offenses of rape shows 
a slight decrease, the number of those offenses was still higher than 
any preceding year in the table with the exception of 1937. 

In connection with the decrease in the number of offenses of mur- 
der and nonnegligent manslaughter (wilful felonious homicides), it 
is suggested that the decrease may be partially attributed to the fact 
that during 1935 it was ascertained that many police departments had 
been including cases which were excusable in nature, such as the killing 
of a felon who was resisting arrest by a police officer. Such cases 
were subsequently excluded in order that the published figures might 
represent felonious homicides. This naturally has resulted in a 
reduction in the number of offenses of this type listed since 1935. 

With reference to the general downward trend of crimes in the cities 
represented in table 76, it should be noted that, although no definite 
population figures are available, there probably has been a significant 
increase in the population of the cities represented during the period 
covered by the table. 

Estimates of the total number of major crimes committed in the 
entire United States during 1937 and 1938 may be found in table 88. 

The data shown in table 76 are also presented in figure 9. 

Table 76. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 73 cities over 100,000 in 

population, January to December, inclusive, 1931-38 

[Total population 20,912,712, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
cenv — 
theft 




Year 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Number of offenses known: 
1931 


1,630 

1,637 
1,761 
1,613 
1,422 
1,418 
1,456 
1,282 

4.5 
4.5 
4.8 
4.4 
3.9 
3.9 
4.0 
3.5 


1,504 

1,170 

1,398 

935 

930 

995 

1,180 

821 

4.1 
3.2 
3.8 
2.6 
2.5 
2.7 
3.2 
2.2 


1,273 
1,306 
1,324 
1,398 
1,596 
1,681 
1,910 
1,877 

3.5 
3.6 
3.6 
3.8 
4.4 
4.6 
5.2 
5. 1 


21, 887 
20, 784 
19, 981 
16, 973 

14, 204 
13, 339 

15, 381 
14, 424 

60.0 
56.8 
54.7 
46.5 
38.9 
36.4 
42.1 
39.5 


11, 137 

9,792 
12, 079 
11,205 
10, 731 
11,598 
11,046 
10, 943 

30.5 
26.8 
33.1 
30.7 
29.4 
31.7 
30.3 
30.0 


78, 983 
84, 340 
87, 202 
82, 813 
75, 532 
67, 352 
71, 936 
70, 677 

216.4 

230.4 
238.9 
226.9 
206.9 
184.0 
197.1 
193.6 


165, 630 
168, 782 
180, 876 
181,713 
179, 102 
170, 432 
189, 428 
193, 788 

453.8 
461.2 
495.6 
497.8 
490.7 
465.7 
519.0 
530.9 


95, 894 


1932_ 


81,867 


1933 


78, 398 


1934 


72, 144 


1935 


61,881 


1936 


53, 662 


1937 


54,848 


1938_ 


46, 756 


Daily average: 

1931 


262.7 


1932 


223.7 


1933 


214.8 


1934 


197.7 


1935 

1936 


169.5 
146.6 


1937- 


150.3 


1938 


128.1 







133 




134 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location. 

In table 77 there is presented information regarding the number of 
police departments whose reports were employed in the preparation of 
figures representing crime rates for the individual States. This infor- 
mation is included here in order to show the number of such contribu- 
tors according to size of city, and it is believed it will be helpful in 
evaluating the crime data for individual States, since table 74 has 
indicated that there is a noticeable tendency for the large cities to 
report higher crime rates than the smaller communities. It should be 
further observed that in several instances the number of records 
entering into the construction of State rates is quite limited. In some 
cases the figures for individual States are based on reports from only 
four or five police departments. Obviously, the crime rates based on 
such a limited number of records may differ considerably from the 
figures which would result if reports were available for all urban 
communities in the State. 

In table 78 there are presented the crime rates for the individual 
States, together with figures for nine geographic divisions of the 
country. 

In table 79 may be found crime rates for the nine geographic divi- 
sions of the country, with the cities in each division being segregated 
into- six groups according to size. This information is presented in 
order to make possible comparisons between the figures for an individ- 
ual community and the average figures for cities of the same size which 
are located in the same section of the United States. 



135 



Table 77. 



-Number of cities in each State included in the tabulation of uniform 
crime reports, January to December, inclusive, 1938 





Population 




Division and State 


Over 

250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 
to 

1011,11(11! 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


Total 


GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England: 169 cities; total population, 
5,764,403 


o 

6 

9 

4 

3 

3 

3 

1 
5 


12 

11 

10 

5 

6 

3 

5 

1 
4 


13 
18 
26 

13 
2 

2 
6 

1 
1 


27 

29 

53 

10 

16 

5 

11 

6 
14 

1 
2 
1 

12 
4 
7 

11 
9 
9 

15 
9 

14 
7 
8 


58 

125 

96 

55 

26 

19 

23 

14 
35 

6 
3 
1 
36 
5 
7 

44 
28 
53 

30 
11 
27 
17 
11 

11 
9 
8 
3 
5 
6 

13 


57 

305 

287 

152 

73 

25 

64 

55 
102 

10 
6 
7 

27 
3 
4 

105 
65 
135 

82 
28 
83 
60 
34 

51 

34 

18 

4 

5 

16 
24 

3 

4 
13 
16 
8 
4 
6 
19 

8 
7 
9 
1 

7 
8 
22 
27 

8 
10 
3 
10 
5 
6 
9 
4 

11 
12 
79 


169 


Middle Atlantic: 494 cities; total population, 
18,506,819 


494 


East North Central: 481 cities; total popula- 
tion, 16,319,453 


481 


West North Central: 233 cities; total popula- 
tion, 5,092,603 


233 


South Atlantic: 1 137 cities; total population, 
4,580,846 


137 


East South Central: 57 cities; total popula- 
tion, 1,959,858 


57 


West South Central: 113 cities; total popula- 
tion, 3,475,051. 


113 


Mountain: 79 cities; total population, 1,249,- 
235 


79 


Pacific; 166 cities; total population, 5,515,027.. 
New England: 


166 
18 








12 








9 


Massachusetts 


1 
1 


8 

4 

4 
4 
3 

3 
4 
1 
2 

1 
1 


8 

2 
1 

5 
5 

8 

4 
3 

8 
8 
3 


92 


Rhode Island 


15 


Connecticut... ... 


23 


Middle Atlantic: 

New York 


3 
1 

2 

5 

1 

1 
1 
1 

2 


172 


New Jersey. 


112 


Pennsylvania. .. _. 


210 


East North Central: 

Ohio 


139 


Indiana 


56 


Illinois 


134 


Michigan 


95 


Wisconsin 


57 


West North Central: 


65 




3 
2 


5 
2 
1 
1 

1 


52 




2 


32 


North Dakota 


8 


South Dakota 








11 


Nebraska . . ... _ 




1 
2 

1 


1 
1 


24 


Kansas . . . 




41 


South Atlantic: 

Delaware. . 




4 


Maryland.. _ _ _ 


1 




2 
5 
1 
2 
2 
T 
3 

3 


3 

5 
4 
6 
1 
3 
4 

5 
3 
2 
9 

3 
4 
6 
10 

2 
2 
2 
5 
2 

1 

8 
4 
23 


10 


Virginia 


2 


1 
3 
5 
1 
3 


26 


West Virginia 




24 


North Carolina 






21 


South Carolina 






8 


Georgia 


1 


3 


14 


Florida 


29 


East South Central: 

Kentucky ... 


1 
1 
1 


17 


Tennessee 


3 




14 


Alabama _ 


1 

1 

1 

1 

5 


1 
1 

1 
2 
2 
6 

2 


14 


Mississippi . . ...... ... 


12 


West South Central: 






12 


Louisiana 


1 


2 
3 


16 


Oklahoma. . 


32 


Texas 


2 


53 


Mountain: 

Montana ... 


12 


Idaho 








12 


Wyoming _. 










5 


Colorado.. 


1 




1 


1 
1 
1 
1 


18 


New Mexico .. 


8 


Arizona 






1 


8 


Utah 




1 


11 


Nevada 




5 


Pacific: 

Washington .. 


1 
1 
3 


2 




2 
1 
11 


24 


Oregon . 


18 


California 


2 


6 


124 







1 Includes District of Columbia. 



136 



Table 78. — Number of offenses known io the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to December, inclusive, 1938, by States 



Division and State 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burglary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny 
—theft 


Auto 
theft 


GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 


1.1 

3.2 

3.7 

3.6 

15.5 

22.1 

12.9 

5.1 

3.8 

2.4 
1.4 
2.3 
.8 
.8 
1.9 

3.0 
3.1 
3.5 

4.6 
5. 1 
4.1 
2.3 
1.4 

1. 1 
1.7 
6.3 

2. 1 
.8 

3.3 
4.7 

5.9 
6.6 
17.0 
7.2 
19.6 
18.6 
26.0 
23.6 

13.8 
26.7 
22.8 
22.3 

18.1 
12.5 
8.2 
14.3 

1.5 
2.0 
3.3 
4.1 
10.8 
19.9 
2.3 
2.4 

3.8 
2.4 
3.9 


18.2 
26.2 
91.7 
49.1 
86.9 
99.8 
57.5 
62.5 
89.6 

11.0 
5.3 

10.1 

22.5 
6.5 

16.0 

16.1 
31.6 
43.3 

82.8 
68.3 
144.5 
62.5 
12.9 

42.3 
30.9 
75.7 
29.9 
9.2 
23.7 
44.3 

26.8 
76.6 
84.3 
92.1 
70.3 
45.0 
98.4 
91.2 

108.6 
135.6 
50.1 
32.0 

98.1 
34.7 
87.8 
54.3 

37.9 
34.4 
34.6 
58.7 
89.5 
148.1 
53.4 
50.8 

60.7 
95.4 
94.7 


10.4 
35.0 
32.6 
14.6 

5 154. 4 

6 159. 8 

78.0 
22.2 
30.4 

6.7 
6.3 
1.1 

11.5 
6.7 

12.1 

33.7 
52.3 

30.1 

29.9 
52.3 

34.7 

34.5 

6.4 

9.5 
10. 1 
17.0 
28.8 

9.2 
17.0 
20.9 

67.1 
83.1 
201.1 
138.6 
io 326. 4 
116.9 
119.7 
184.7 

147.7 

ii 234. 4 

91.9 

51.5 

87.4 

104.7 

66.6 

7S. 5 

13.9 
13.7 
16.5 
19.9 
43.4 
52.9 
16.7 
7.3 

23.2 
14.4 
33.6 


252.8 
i 208. 6 
319.0 
3 267. 7 
479.5 
500.6 
420.9 
418.5 
540.5 

288.8 
163.9 
100.3 
259. 
163.6 
346.9 

' 169. 8 

279. 2 

8 199. 5 

366.9 
358.8 
313.4 
313.1 
162.7 

251.2 
228.2 
262.6 
262.7 
229.9 
« 184. 
405.8 

481.4 
305.8 
,524. 6 
333.8 
516.2 
316.1 
613.1 
720.3 

636.0 
473.3 
412.3 
363.2 

403.2 
158.5 
577.2 
457.6 

333.3 
409.3 
275.2 
305.3 
633.1 
656.0 
550.1 
501.0 

566.4 
692.9 
518.7 


527.8 
i 426. 7 

806.4 

840.4 
1, 195. 2 

870.5 
1, 221. 
1, 266. 9 
1, 414. 4 

495.4 

298.4 
444.2 
324.4 
461.9 
699.0 

~ 459. 4 

559.4 

s 304. 9 

979.0 
967.7 
460.9 
1, 122. 5 
677.8 

754.7 
802.9 
941.2 
600.6 
785.2 
436.2 
1, 129. 4 

684.3 
567.8 
1, 438. 5 
682.4 
1, 171. 2 
1. 315. 9 
1, 534. 1 
1, 688. 8 

1,126.8 
786.1 
552.8 
736.1 

1, 138. 4 

463.6 

1,371.6 

1, 488. 8 

876.0 
1, 375. 1 
1, 545. 7 

1, 067. 5 

2, 057. 9 

1, 746. 3 
1, 114. 7 

2, 265. 4 

1, 319. 7 
1, 730. 1 
1, 398. 9 


171.2 




2 134. 2 




141.9 


West North Central 


178.3 




253.9 




211.8 




175.3 




262.2 




391.5 


New England: 


98.2 


New Hampshire .. _ 


58.3 
80.0 


Massachusetts 


206.6 




77.1 




165.8 


Middle Atlantic: 


~ 107. 2 


New Jersey . L_ 


141.0 
148.6 


East North Central: 

Ohio 


161.3 




219. 9 




99.9 


Michigan _. ... 


165.9 




100.2 


West North Central: 

Minnesota . 


210.3 


Iowa. ..: ... 


173.1 


Missouri ... 


180.7 


North Dakota.. ..... _._..i 


186.5 


South Dakota ... L 


156.9 


Nebraska '_. 


144.9 


Kansas ... 


142.7 


South Atlantic: ■ 


183.7 


Maryland 


291.7 




281.5 


West Virginia . . . 


143.2 


North Carolina _ 


215.1 


South Carolina ... ... 


158.1 


Georgia . . 


268.5 


Florida 


194.8 


East South Central: 

Kentucky 


236.9 


Tennessee .. ... . 


242.7 




152.6 


Mississippi 


84.9 


West South Central: 

Arkansas _. .. ... 


170.9 




102.6 


Oklahoma . . . 


137.9 


Texas... 


218.6 


Mountain: 


196.9 


Idaho . ... .. 


250.3 




159.8 


Colorado ........ 


157.3 




363.3 


Arizona .. 


530.3 


Utah 


344.7 


Nevada 


503.4 


Pacific: 

Washington .. . 


293.0 


Oregon. .. ... 


299.0 




421.2 







i The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 492 cities with a total population of 9,379,819. 
2 The rate for auto theft is based on the reports of 493 cities with a total population of 11,357,519. 3 The rate 
for burglary is based on the reports of 232 cities with a total population of 4,874,813. 4 Includes report of 
District of Columbia. 6 The rate for aggravated assault is based on the reports of 135 cities with a total 
population of 4,534,776. 6 The rate for aggravated assault is based on the reports of 56 cities with a total 
population of 1,836,358. 7 The rates for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on reports of 171 cities. 
8 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on reports of 209 cities. 9 The rate for burglary is based on 
reports of 23 cities. 10 The rate for aggravated assault is based on reports of 19 cities. n The rate for aggra- 
vated assault is based on reports of 10 cities. 



137 

Table 79. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, Jan- 
uary to December 1938, by geographic divisions and population groups 



Geographic division and population 
group 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 




Aggra- 


Burglary- 


Lar- 


Robbery 


vated 


breaking or 


ceny- 




assault 


entering 


theft 


1.1 


38.9 


22.0 


139.4 


418.2 


1.7 


15.7 


11.1 


389.4 


690.6 


.8 


17.6 


3.6 


257.4 


550.5 


.7 


13.3 


5.6 


284.2 


580.6 


.6 


9.7 


9.5 


183.7 


434.5 


1.9 


8.5 


7.7 


175.5 


335.2 


3.9 


29.2 


43.4 


i 209. 2 


1520.5 


2.2 


22. 4 


27.4 


252.1 


525.4 


2.7 


33.0 


34.6 


310.0 


492.3 


1.6 


20.2 


22.6 


221.0 


472.5 


1.7 


17.3 


16.1 


160.2 


330.8 


1.7 


17.6 


14.8 


138.1 


251.9 


4.9 


136.1 


43.4 


353.4 


885.0 


5.2 


64.4 


43.4 


347.7 


988.3 


2.2 


59.4 


20.8 


315.6 


824.7 


2.0 


36.0 


17.1 


277.0 


806.9 


1.9 


42.7 


11.3 


281.8 


650.5 


1.4 


24.4 


15.9 


193.9 


335.4 


5.2 


75.2 


12.9 


240.6 


896.0 


4.2 


47.0 


23.8 


3 367. 7 


945.2 


2.9 


40.2 


12.1 


356.7 


1,073.8 


1.7 


32.1 


9.0 


307.5 


980.8 


2.2 


26.6 


16.3 


264.8 


824.0 


1.8 


19.7 


12.5 


200.9 


391.1 


11.9 


113.3 


101.2 


453.9 


1, 048. 4 


19.4 


104.7 


203.5 


689.8 


1,658.2 


18.8 


78.1 


211.6 


450.9 


1,340.0 


11.9 


52.2 


« 146. 9 


472.4 


1, 307. 2 


14.2 


50.8 


6 202. 5 


352.4 


963.4 


21.0 


48.9 


106.6 


368.6 


613.8 


18.7 


136.2 


190.2 


693.4 


877.4 


33.3 


110.7 


" 156.7 


394.3 


sv, -, 


20.3 


22.8 


111.4 


252.8 


552.0 


17.9 


55.2 


116.4 


479.8 


1, 104. 1 


16.3 


43.1 


100.0 


239.0 


669.8 


26.3 


37.0 


84.6 


242.4 


370.5 


17.2 


47.6 


80.0 


380.1 


1, 297. 1 


11.4 


102.7 


80.7 


563.4 


1, 475. 4 


10.3 


50.6 


137.3 


371.3 


1, 255. 5 


10.1 


31.1 


71.1 


307.0 


1,181.6 


12.7 


49.0 


78.4 


404.6 


1.052.2 


11.1 


37.1 


39.3 


330.0 


676.8 


2.7 


65.1 


16.0 


282.7 


810.7 


3.5 


60.3 


20.1 


554.8 


1,047.2 


27.4 


147.7 


55.8 


758.3 


1, 860. 1 


2.4 


71.9 


20.9 


567.9 


1, 693. 6 


2.5 


54.1 


20.8 


367.7 


1, 878. 


4.3 


31.4 


19.5 


302.4 


915.8 


4.3 


114.4 


38.7 


589.1 


1, 355. 6 


3.5 


55.7 


26.9 


496.8 


1, 359. 7 


2.2 


98.9 


17.5 


563.6 


1, 943. 6 


2.4 


56.5 


17.8 


541.2 


1, 253. 


3.0 


37.0 


9.9 


428.5 


1, 572. 4 


4.3 


57.9 


30.1 


405.7 


1, 327. 8 



New England: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Middle Atlantic: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

East North Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI. 

West North Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III.. 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

South Atlantic: 

Group I * 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

East South Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

West South Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Mountain: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Pacific: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 



1 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 4 cities. 

2 The rate for auto theft is based on the reports of 5 cities. 

3 The rate for burglary is based on the reports of 4 cities. 

4 Includes the District of Columbia. 

6 The rate for aggravated assault is based on the reports of 15 cities. 

6 The rate for aggravated assault is based on the reports of 25 cities. 

7 The rate for aggravated assault is based on the reports of 2 cities. 



125917°— 39- 



138 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 25,000 Inhabitants. 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the calendar year 1938 is shown in table 80. The compilation includes 
the reports received from police departments in cities with more than 
25,000 inhabitants. Such data are included here in order that inter- 
ested individuals and organizations may have readily available up-to- 
date information concerning the amount of crime committed in their 
communities. Police administrators and other interested individuals 
will probably find it desirable to compare the crime rates of their cities 
with the average rates shown in tables 74 and 79 of this publication. 
Similarly, they will doubtless desire to make comparisons with the 
figures for their communities for prior periods, in order to determine 
whether there has been an increase or a decrease in the amount of 
crime committed. 

With reference to the possibility of comparing the amount of crime 
in one city with the amount of reported crime in other individual com- 
munities, it is suggested that such comparisons be made with a great 
deal of caution, because differences in the figures may be due to a 
great variety of factors. The amount of crime committed in a com- 
munity is not chargeable to the police but is rather a charge against 
the entire community. The following is a list of some of the factors 
which might affect the amount of crime in a community: 

The composition of the population with reference particularly to 

age, sex, and race. 
The economic status and activities of the population. 
Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 
The number of police employees per unit of population. 
The standards governing appointments to the police force. 
The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 
The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 

Comparisons between the crime rates of individual cities should not 
be made without giving consideration to the above-mentioned factors. 
It should be noted that it is more important to determine whether the 
figures for a given community show increases or decreases in the 
amount of crime committed than to ascertain whether the figures are 
above or below those of some other community. 

In examining a compilation of crime figures for individual com- 
munities it should be borne in mind that in view of the fact that the 
data are compiled by different record departments operating under 
separate and distinct administrative systems, it is entirely possible 
that there may be variations in the practices employed in classifying 
complaints of offenses. On the other hand, the crime reporting 
manual has been distributed to all contributors of crime reports, and 
the figures received are included in this bulletin only if they apparently 
have been compiled in accordance with the provisions of the manual, 
and the individual department has so indicated. 



139 



Table 80. 



-Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1938, cities over 25,000 in population 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny — theft 



Over $50 



Under 



Abilene, Tex 

Akron, Ohio 

Alameda, Calif 

Albany, N. Y 

Albuquerque, N. Mex 

Albambra, Calif 

Aliquippa, Pa 

Allentown, Pa 

Alton, 111.. 

Altoona, Pa 

Amarillo, Tex 

Amsterdam, N. Y 

Anderson, Ind 

Ann Arbor, Mich 

Appleton, Wis 

Arlington, Mass 

Asheville, N. C 

Ashland, Ky 

Atlanta, Ga 

Atlantic City, N. J 

Auburn, N. Y 

Augusta, Ga 

Aurora, 111 

Austin, Tex 

Bakersfield, Calif 

Baltimore, Md 

Bangor, Me 

Barberton, Ohio 

Baton Rouge, La 

Battle Creek, Mich 

Bay City, Mich 

Bayonne, N. J 

Beaumont, Tex 

Belleville, 111 

Belleville, N. J 

Bellingham, Wash 

Belvedere Township, Calif. 

Berkeley, Calif 

Berwyn, HI 

Bethlehem, Pa 

Beverly, Mass 

Binghamton, N. Y 

Birmingham. Ala 

Bloomfield, N. J 

Bloomington, 111 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Bristol, Conn 

Brockton, Mass 

Brookline, Mass 

Brownsville, Tex 

Bufialo, N. Y 

Burlington, Iowa 

Burlington, Vt 

Butte, Mont 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Camden, N.J 

Canton, Ohio 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

Central Falls, R. I 

Charleston, S. C 

Charleston, W. Va 

Charlotte, N. C 

Chattanooga, Tenn 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chester, Pa 

Chicago, 111 

Chicopee, Mass 

Cicero, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Clarksburg, W. Va 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio... 

Clifton, N. J 

Clinton, Iowa 

Colorado Springs, Colo 



15 
184 



11 
136 



19 

148 
2 
33 
4 



70 
1,096 



5 


2 


53 


272 


10 


. 8 


462 


351 


49 


82 


3 




30 


89 


23 


10 


29 


50 


27 


16 


686 


755 


/ 


1 


28 


2 


9 


26 


4 


1 



14 


.'■t 


7 




5 


6 


2 




22 


29 


17 


12 


30 





237 
251 
310 

55 
238 
125 
208 

41 

85 
124 
114 
No reports received. 

80 
262 

88 

2,561 

575 

22 
318 

69 

451 

118 

2,623 

78 

67 

99 
194 
116 
No reports received. 



195 
60 
62 
117 
196 
437 



27 
217 

6 
59 
39 
25 
10 
57 

8 
23 
44 
16 
56 
44 

10 

96 

11 

535 

279 

12 

50 

39 

35 

62 

938 

19 

6 

50 

10 

41 



0) 



No reports received 



2 
9 




48 
117 


7 


163 


112 


1,550 


12 


1 


no 


38 


2 


128 


388 


194 


1,094 


24 
2 

14 
9 




504 

37 

264 

279 






1 






102 
650 


102 


189 


2 
4 




23 
38 




28 


12 


234 


39 


12 


418 


22 


79 


92 


88 


49 


417 


13 


19 


114 


3 

34 




67 
142 


125 


150 


297 


266 


97 


278 


730 


120 


(') 


604 


10 


17 


276 


46 


32 


143 


6,756 


1,494 


12,016 




2 


48 
149 


67 


534 


365 


2,159 



21 

13 
49 
10 

9 

28 

358 

21 

12 

812 

144 



14 

12 

88 

128 

( 2 ) 

28 

10 

102 

197 

107 

42 

43 

29 

3,328 

17 

27 

716 



1,187 


173 


17 


2 


18 


2 


5 




5 





Only 1 month received. 

2,668 

134 

117 

55 

106 



431 
1,389 
237 
628 
718 
213 
105 
273 
216 
165 
156 
131 
100 
381 

85 
500 
218 

4,124 
939 
220 
831 
102 

1,454 
775 

3,454 
228 
51 
269 
529 
409 

243 
54 

200 
80 

988 
90 

92 
328 

1,080 
197 
289 

2,766 

1,019 

44 

416 

191 

119 

1,985 
59 
245 
165 
561 
223 

1,003 
574 
150 
584 
364 

1,931 

1,270 
182 
164 
11,605 
175 
163 

5,101 



340 


11, 783 


44 


439 


42 


108 


7 


120 


31 


707 



For footnotes see end of table. 



140 

Table 80. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1938, cities over 25,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny — theft 



Over $50 



Under 
$50 



Columbia, S. C 

Columbus, Ga -.- 

Columbus, Ohio 

Concord, N. H 

Corpus Christi, Tex___ 
Council Bluffs, Iowa_. 

Covington, Ky 

Cranston, R.I 

Cumberland, Md 

Dallas, Tex 

Danville, 111 

Danville, Va 

Davenport, Iowa 

Dayton, Ohio 

Dearborn, Mich 

Decatur, 111 

Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Detroit, Mich 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Duluth, Minn 

Durham, N. C 

East Chicago, Ind 

East Cleveland, Ohio_ 

Easton, Pa 

East Orange, N. J 

East Providence, R. I_ 

East St. Louis, 111 

Eau Claire, Wis 

Elgin, 111 

Elizabeth, N.J 

Elkhart, Ind 

Elmira, N. Y 

El Paso, Tex 

Elyria, Ohio 

Enid, Okla— - 

Erie, Pa 

Evanston, 111 

Evansville, Ind 

Everett, Mass. . 

Everett, Wash 

Fall River, Mass 

Fargo, N. Dak 

Fitchburg, Mass. 

Flint, Mich 

Fond du Lac, Wis 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Fort Worth, Tex. 

Fresno, Calif 

Gadsden, Ala 

Galesburg, 111 

Galveston, Tex 

Garfield, N.J 

Gary, Ind 

Glendale, Calif 

Grand Rapids, Mich.. 

Granite City, 111 

Great Falls, Mont 

Green Bay, Wis 

Greensboro, N. C 

Greenville, S. C 

Hackensack, N. J 

Hagerstown, Md 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Hammond, Ind 

Hamtramck, Mich 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Hartford, Conn 

Haverhill, Mass 

Hazelton, Pa 

Highland Park, Mich- 
High Point, N. C 

Hoboken, N. J 

Holvoke, Mass 

Honolulu, T. H 



30 

442 

1 

19 

23 

18 

2 

2 

162 

31 

23 

40 

112 

15 

52 

191 

62 

1,476 

4 

32 

40 

29 

12 



17 

1 

155 

10 

3 
33 
16 

3 
87 

2 
16 
49 
19 
63 
15 
13 
14 
12 

1 
125 

2 
23 
39 
72 
167 
23 
14 
31 

75 
31 
54 
16 
3 



23 

832 



2 

11 

3 

115 



C) 

197 

2,518 

64 

99 

154 

(') 

51 

52 

1,754 

160 

163 

216 

704 

165 

250 

829 

484 

4,975 

85 

88 

265 

90 

170 

78 

256 

124 

246 

40 

55 

379 

97 

81 

532 

62 

107 

353 

132 

374 

140 

124 

464 

66 

100 

688 

45 

75 

353 

903 

520 

63 

95 

218 



( 2 ) 



29 
55 

633 

8 

28 

12 

128 
34 
37 

151 
15 
34 
23 
64 
68 
28 

276 

156 

824 
15 

126 
61 
19 

24 
47 

8 
57 
16 
19 
92 
24 
17 
59 

8 

5 
62 
87 
24 
31 

3 
44 
28 

3 
164 
20 



5 

12 

24 

17 

15 

1 

111 

No reports received. 



176 



41 


2 


34 


170 


5 


3 


4 




23 


27 



16 
4 
3 
1 

65 
14 
39 

7 

6 
13 

2 
44 
57 

1 
No reports received. 



28/ 
355 
689 
93 
54 
116 
391 
141 
123 
47 



306 
876 
189 



191 
70 
11 

167 

35 
67 
69 
6 
19 
27 

119 
50 
23 
27 
55 
46 
91 
97 

140 
91 



395 
144 



203 
776 



(') 



28 
116 



439 
611 

3,301 
59 
163 
517 
354 
199 
216 

6,733 
279 
464 
806 

2,402 
721 
312 

2,101 

1,721 

20, 874 

410 

1,298 
481 
160 
266 
131 
325 
189 
427 
179 
221 
794 
443 
242 

1,465 
105 
272 
324 
666 

1,180 
271 
495 
396 
225 
251 

2,284 
110 
409 

1,798 

2,940 

1,135 
203 
144 
365 

387 
1,651 
1,883 
111 
431 
279 
770 
697 
137 
254 
420 
500 
681 
554 
1,839 
171 

693 
130 

(') 
443 

1,653 



For footnotes see end of table. 



141 



Table 80. 



-Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1938, cities over 25,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 



or enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



Over $50 



Under 
$50 



Houston, Tex 

Huntington, W. Va 

Huntington Park, Calif 

Hutchinson, Kans 

Indianapolis Ind 

Inglewood, Calif 

Irvington, N. J 

Jackson, Mich 

Jackson, Miss 

Jacksonville, Fla : 

Jamestown, N. Y 

Jersey City, N. J 

Johnstown, Pa 

Joliet, El 

Joplin, Mo 

Kalamazoo, Mich 

Kansas City, Kans 

Kansas City, Mo 

Kearny, N. J 

Kenosha, Wis 

Kingston, N. Y 

KnoxvOle, Tenn 

Kokomo, Ind 

Lackawanna, N. Y 

La Crosse, Wis 

La Fayette, Ind 

Lakewood, Ohio 

Lancaster, Pa 

Lansing, Mich 

Laredo, Tex 

Lawrence, Mass 

Lebanon, Pa 

Lewiston, Maine 

Lexington, Ky 

Lima, Ohio 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Little Rock, Ark 

Long Beach, Calif 

Lorain, Ohio 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lower Merion Township, Pa. 

Lynchburg, Va 

Lynn, Mass 

Macon, Qa 

Madison, Wis 

Maiden, Mass 

Manchester, N. H 

Mansfield, Ohio 

Marion, Ohio 

Massillon, Ohio 

Maywood, HI 

McKeesport, Pa 

Medford, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn 

Meriden, Conn 

Meridian, Miss 

Miami, Fla 

Michigan City, Ind 

Middletown, Conn 

Middletown, Ohio 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Mishawaka, Ind 

Mobile, Ala 

Moline, El 

Monroe, La 

Montclair, N. J 

Montgomery, Ala 

Mount Vernon, N. Y 

Muncie, Ind 

Muskogee, Okla 

Muskegon, Mich 

Nanticoke, Pa 

Nashua, N. H 

Nashville, Tenn 



228 

93 

17 

2 

519 

8 

18 

19 

11 

115 

4 

3 

6 

43 

27 

145 

558 

6 

5 

5 

48 

7 

13 
5 
13 
18 
12 
10 



257 1, 776 

137 424 

2 318 

3 82 
363 2, 222 (2) 

1 177 

1 328 

9 161 

11 195 

139 1, 066 
79 
Complete data not received 
1 

11 
4 
12 
61 
83 



11 



82 


12 


66 


4 


252 


40 


245 


24 


808 


103 


1,316 


( 2 ) 


100 


27 


78 


10 


49 


21 


388 


155 


129 


41 


33 


12 


64 


6 


78 


30 


153 


15 


170 


43 


161 


74 



Only 1 month received. 
8 | 7 | 106 | 

No reports received. 
No reports received. 



38 



44 


74 


2 
23 




80 


25 


12 


8 


2 



Only 11 months received. 
II 2 1 92 I 

264 363 547 (?) 



5,593 

1,055 
341 
560 

5,698 
276 
276 
464 
371 

2,746 
115 

134 
139 
549 

1,199 
963 

2,403 
121 
115 
67 
687 
462 
96 
169 
360 
249 
406 
477 

120 



41 


173 


277 


84 


885 


15 


3 


184 


36 


393 


12 


/ 


114 


31 


340 


68 


117 


399 


(?) 


1,189 


104 


41 


1,035 


281 


2,346 


18 


9 


98 


24 


293 


1,764 


495 


8,449 


4,072 


15, 313 


443 


541 


2,604 


(?) 


4,120 


10 


7 


239 


36 


327 


14 


4 


132 


38 


60 


6 


73 


99 


35 


217 


33 


5 


679 


61 


955 


38 


182 


305 


53 


703 


15 


3 


100 


71 


375 


20 


4 


137 


33 


324 


3 


3 


75 


16 


315 


16 


3 


76 


42 


304 


15 


1 


83 


25 


325 


12 


5 


102 


26 


125 


18 


3 


62 


7 


115 


76 


103 


93 


88 


152 


12 


1 


140 


17 


287 


555 


968 


1,756 


264 


1,656 


5 


2 


138 


12 


181 


6 


1 


272 


24 


294 


232 


650 


1,173 


337 


1,613 


20 


11 


70 


23 


101 


3 


3 


40 


13 


'350 


10 


11 


144 


28 


386 


51 


57 


577 


253 


4,360 


276 


69 


1,446 


584 


3,474 


8 

17 




62 
116 


6 

34 


195 
252 


126 


12 


12 


114 


48 


296 


22 


1 


83 


8 


294 



■10 


397 


6 


101 


18 


482 


10 


477 


32 


423 



103 
1,315 



24 
722 



For footnotes see end of table. 



142 

Table 80. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1938, cities over 25,000 in population — Continued 



City 



New Albany, Ind 

Newark, N. J 

Newark, Ohio 

New Bedford, Mass__. 
New Britain, Conn... 
New Brunswick, N. J. 

Newburgh, N. Y 

New Castle, Pa 

New Haven, Conn 

New London, Conn... 

New Orleans, La 

Newport, Ky 

Newport, R. I 

Newport News. Va 

New Rochelle, N. Y.- 
Newton, Mass 

New York, N. Y 

Niagara Falls, N. Y... 

Norfolk, Va 

Norristown, Pa 

North Bergen, N. J_._ 

Norwalk, Conn 

Norwood, Ohio 

Oakland, Calif 

Oak Park, 111 

Ogden, Utah 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha, Nebr 

Orlando, Fla 

Orange, N. J 

Oshkosh, "Wis 

Ottumwa, Iowa 

Paducah, Ky 

Parkersburg, W. Va__ 

Pasadena, Calif 

Passaic, N. J 

Paterson, N.J 

Pawtucket, R. I 

Pensacola, Fla 

Peoria, 111 

Perth Amboy, N. J . . . 

Petersburg, Va 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Phoenix, Ariz 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Pittsfleld, Mass 

Plainfleld, N. J 

Pontiac, Mich 

Port Arthur, Tex 

Port Huron, Mich 

Portland, Maine . 

Portland, Oreg 

Portsmouth, Ohio 

Portsmouth, Va 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y__ 

Providence, R. I 

Pueblo, Colo 

Quincy, 111 

Quincy, Mass 

Racine, Wis 

Raleigh, N. C 

Reading, Pa 

Revere, Mass 

Richmond, Ind 

Richmond, Va 

Riverside, Calif 

Roanoke, Va 

Rochester, N. Y 

Rockford, 111 

Rock Island, 111 

Rome, N. Y 

Royal Oak, Mich 

Sacramento, Calif 

Saginaw, Mich 

St. Joseph, Mo 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



4 
1 

64 
5 
2 
3 
1 
1 
272 
1 

30 



Robbery 



3 

106 
20 
26 



9 

219 

5 

23 

55 

9 

3 

9 

27 

1 

118 

23 

1 

18 

1 

7 

1,297 

28 

157 

7 

6 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



1 

13 
9 

14 
8 
1 

12 

1 

399 

18 
1 

58 

38 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



117 
569 
212 
173 

57 
133 
882 

40 
525 
186 

72 
183 

85 
152 
2,826 
429 
830 

74 
104 



Larceny — theft 



Over $50 



18 

360 

15 

95 

46 

21 

34 

10 

230 

8 

245 

18 

22 

25 

40 



2,961 
33 
150 
9 
1 
No reports received. 
118 
1,592 
384 
349 
1,157 
185 
169 
87 
66 
67 
Only 9 months received. 
6 121 

385 
292 
426 
106 

Only 4 months received. 

32 | 115 | 

No reports received. 



Under 
$50 



13 




301 


157 


82 


5 


30 


8 


187 


229 


78 


64 


18 


29 


20 


34 


2 


1 


8 


5 



37 



Complete data not received. 




12 

844 

213 

498 

24 

15 

65 

15 

3 



61 
63 
26 

102 
19 



( 2 ) 



( 2 ) 



69 
41 
17 

358 

4 

86 

142 
44 
57 
13 
15 

346 
55 
94 



312 

3,813 
630 

1,094 
231 
298 
110 
215 

1,145 
158 
859 
232 
231 
142 
101 
304 

558 

1,619 

60 



9 


148 


222 


3,608 


43 


476 


45 


816 


338 


2,539 


56 


614 


45 


426 


19 


69 


10 


246 


11 


131 


19 


147 


139 


1,513 


27 


255 


61 


225 


47 


637 



207 

475 

2,145 

1,164 

1,551 

289 

116 

494 

177 

273 

523 

4,887 

738 

788 

280 

680 

505 

336 

435 

575 

632 

420 

91 

3.783 

379 

606 

1,940 

518 

503 

154 

191 

2,377 

1,146 

1,000 

9,570 

1,686 



For footnotes see end of table. 



143 



Table 80. 



-Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1938, cities over 25,000 in -population — Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 


Larceny — theft 


glary- 






breaking 






or enter- 
ing 


Over $50 


Under 
$50 


440 


105 


818 


68 


29 


260 


81 


17 


258 


800 


73 


1,437 


85 


34 


248 


1,105 


363 


2,329 


211 


6 


536 


399 


78 


1,029 


2,519 


896 


6,921 


254 


31 


975 


118 


20 


341 


149 


44 


475 


324 


136 


659 


149 


457 


1,556 


321 


102 


193 


389 


82 


624 


2,539 


381 


3,431 


53 


11 


106 


67 


12 


251 


183 


32 


984 


212 


8 


458 


97 


27 


152 


123 


44 


175 


406 


69 


523 


144 


37 


400 


771 


196 


2,241 


392 


11 


828 


404 


95 


1,121 


231 


59 


899 


239 


( 2 ) 


726 


124 


47 


308 


85 


4 


112 



Auto 
theft 



St. Petersburg, Fla 

Salem, Mass 

Salem, Oreg 

Salt Lake City, Utah... 

San Angelo, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Bernardino, Calif... 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif 

San Jose, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif 

Santa Monica, Calif 

Savannah, Ga 

Schenectady, N. Y 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Sharon, Pa 

Sheboygan, Wis 

Shreveport, La 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak 

Somerville, Mass 

South Bend, Ind 

Spartanburg, S. C 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, 111 

Springfield, Mass 

Springfield, Mo 

Springfield, Ohio 

Stamford, Conn 

Steubenville, Ohio 

Stockton, Calif 

Superior, Wis 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Taunton, Mass 

Terre Haute, Ind 

Toledo, Ohio 

Topeka, Kans 

Torrineiton, Conn 

Trenton, N.J 

Troy, N. Y 

Tucson, Ariz. 

Tulsa, Okia 

Union City, N. J 

University City, Mo... 

Upper Darby, Pa 

Utica, N. Y 

Waco, Tex 

Waltham, Mass 

Warren, Ohio 

Washington, D. C 

Washington, Pa 

Waterbury, Conn 

Waterloo, Iowa 

Watertown, Mass 

Watertown, N. Y 

Waukegan, 111 

West Allis, Wis 

West Hartford, Conn.. 

West Haven, Conn 

West New York, N. J.. 

West Orange, N. J 

West Palm Beach, Fla. 

Wheeling, W. Va. 

White Plains, N. Y.— 

Wichita, Kans 

Wichita Fails, Tex 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa 

Wilkinsburg, Pa 

Wilmington, Del 

Wilmington, N . C 

Winston-Salem, N. C. 

Williamsport, Pa 

Woodbridge, N. J 



Only 

2 
10 

2 



12 

6 

13 

87 

4 

282 

35 

75 

724 

22 

6 

6 

79 

24 

15 

33 

279 

5 

8 

64 

41 

3 

17 

57 

19 

91 

73 

11 

14 

26 

10 

23 



26 
32 
32 

46 

293 

29 



1 

29 

33 

284 

7 

24 
377 
8 
7 
2 
2 
20 
18 
46 
82 



L52 

4 
2 



Xo reports received. 
2 I 112 

12 414 

487 

90 I 320 

No reports received. 

8 1 166 I 

106 1,350 

4 I 346 | 

No reports received. 
62 | 606 ' 



36 

68 

67 

533 

49 

700 

155 

411 

2,899 

187 

89 

71 

234 

97 

132 

268 

1,377 

34 

42 

184 

259 

68 

143 

125 

83 

366 

301 

228 

91 

100 

60 

65 



17 | 


339 


65 


130 


1,258 


353 


39 


1,158 


214 


99 1 


906 


74 



24 

374 

19 

106 | 



445 

3,284 

896 

937 



44 | 
11 months received; October records destroyed by fire. 
47 
263 



87 
747 
287 

139 



16 

115 



14 

15 
5 

18 
657 
7 
8 
3 
6 
2 

15 
3 



175 
1,193 
(0 
123 
No reports received. 



95 


408 


192 


269 


2,429 


303 


46 


73 


93 


33 


192 


15 



5 

116 



505 

7 



185 
159 
165 
124 

2,045 
46 
336 
74 
56 
80 
75 
48 
53 
42 



Only 11 months received. 

2 

10 

7 

11 

17 

75 

20 

13 

72 

127 

249 

4 

3 



769 
899 
334 
279 
6,913 

95 
366 
334 

73 
333 
168 
463 

60 

24 



47 


16 


58 


194 


26 


565 


188 


41 


278 


39 


43 


113 


415 


64 


1,572 


151 


52 


1,097 


165 


51 


224 


106 


15 


133 


556 


116 


656 


130 


22 


263 


392 


34 


592 


54 


13 


307 


74 


6 


117 



134 
73 
49 
64 
1,850 
45 

190 
30 
21 
43 
43 
26 
16 
7 

19 
51 
73 
28 
93 
84 

111 
19 

204 
89 

110 
47 
12 



For footnotes see end of table. 



144 

Table 80. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
19S8, cities over 25,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



Auto 
theft 



Woonsocket, R. I.- 
Worcester, Mass 

Wyandotte, Mich.. 

Yonkers, N. Y 

York, Pa 

Youngstown, Ohio. 
Zanesville, Ohio 



3 

37 
11 
11 
12 
248 



36 

2 

28 

1 

121 

4 



143 
668 

71 
163 

79 
769 

81 



15 
184 
6 
19 
15 
71 
21 



151 
735 
89 
385 
256 
1,391 
230 



17 

523 
30 

232 
66 

566 
64 



i Complete figures not received. 

3 Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 

3 Includes 300 separate thefts of lanterns reported stolen in 1 month during emergency conditions. 



145 

Offenses Known to Sheriffs, State Police, and Other Rural Officers, 1938. 
In compiling and publishing national crime data, the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation distinguishes between urban and rural crimes. 
The figures presented in the preceding tables are based on reports from 
a large majority of the agencies policing urban areas (places with 2,500 
or more inhabitants). Comprehensive data regarding rural crimes 
are not yet available, but the information on hand is shown in table 81, 
which is based on reports from 652 sheriffs, 74 police agencies in rural 
villages, and 7 State police organizations. For comparative purposes, 
there are presented below percentage distributions of rural and urban 
crimes. (The urban data are based on figures shown in table 74.) 
The percentage figures which follow should be thought of as represent- 
ing an average group of 100 urban crimes and an average group of 100 
rural crimes. 



Offense 



Total 

Larceny. _ . 
Burglary. __ 
Auto theft- 



Percent 



Urban 



56.6 
22.7 
12.5 



Rural 



47.6 
29.9 
8.6 



Offense 



Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Rape 

Murder 

Manslaughter 



Percent 



Urban 



4.0 
3.0 



Rural 



3.5 
5.6 
2.3 

1.4 
1.1 



The preceding comparison reveals that whereas only 4.2 percent of the 
urban crimes are offenses against the person (murder, manslaughter, 
rape, and aggravated assault), 10.4 percent of the rural crimes 
reported fall within those classes. This does not mean that more 
crimes against the person are committed in rural areas than in urban 
communities. The figures merely indicate that in an average group 
of 100 rural crimes there would be a larger number of offenses against 
the person than in an average group of 100 urban crimes. This may 
be due to the fact that some of the reports representing rural crimes 
indicate the possibility that they were limited to instances in which 
arrests were made. Incompleteness of this sort in the reports of rural 
crimes will tend to increase the percentage of rural crimes against the 
person because such offenses are much more generally followed by 
arrests than are the less serious offenses against property. 

The percentage distribution of urban and rural crimes is also shown 
in figure 10. 

Table 81. — Offenses known, January to December, inclusive, 1938, as reported by 
652 sheriffs, 7 State police organizations, and 74 village officers 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 






Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by neg- 
ligence 


Auto 
theft 


Offenses known _ .. 


1,027 


793 


1,684 


2,602 


4,083 


21, 979 


35, 025 


6,329 







125917°— 39- 



146 



U< 



%&£3 



ua 



s*a 



CO 







147 

Offenses Known in Territories and Possessions of the United States. 

In table 82 there are shown available data concerning the number 
of offenses known to law-enforcement agencies in Territories and 
possessions of the United States. The tabulation includes reports 
from the first judicial division, Alaska; Honolulu (city and county), 
Kauai County, Maui County, Territory of Hawaii; and Puerto Rico. 
The figures are based on both urban and rural areas and the popula- 
tion figures from the 1930 decennial census are indicated in the table. 



Table 82. — Number of offenses known in United States Territories and possessions, 
January to December, inclusive, 1938 

[Population figures from Federal Census, Apr. 1, 1930] 







Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or enter- 
ing 


Larceny — 
theft 


Auto 




Over 
$50 


Under 
$50 


theft 


Alaska: First judicial division (Juneau), 
population, 19,304; number of offenses 


8 
9 


6 

23 
5 
1 

34 


3 

27 

10 

6 

12 

1,807 


24 

776 
140 
12 
89 
846 


31 

116 

20 

1 

10 

85 


36 

1,653 

248 

32 

148 

3,359 




Hawaii: 

Honolulu City, population, 137,582 




160 


Honolulu County, population, 65,341 




35 


Kauai County, population, 35,942 




3 


Maui County, population, 56,146 




3 

225 


18 


Puerto Kico: Population, 1,543,913; num- 


66 







148 



Data From Supplementary Offense Reports. 

In tables 83-87 there are presented the more detailed data com- 
piled from supplementary offense reports received from the police 
departments of the number of cities indicated in the tables. 

As shown by table 83, almost one-half of the rapes reported were 
forcible in nature. There were 16,503 robberies reported by the 
cities represented, and it was found that 9,113 (55.2 percent) of them 
were committed on city highways, while 6,308 (38.2 percent) were 
robberies of various types of commercial establishments. 

Cases of burglary — breaking or entering numbered 73,403, of which 
33,490 (45.6 percent) were committed in residences. Eighty-one per- 
cent of the total burglaries reported were committed at night, and 19 
percent during the daytime. However, the proportion of daytime 
burglaries in residences amounted to 33 percent. In other types of 
places, only 8 percent of the burglaries were committed during the 
daytime. 

The 171 cities represented hi table 83 reported 179,155 larcenies. 
There were 19,945 (11.1 percent) in which the value of property stolen 
was $50 or more; 116,377 (65.0 percent) involving property valued at 
$5 to $50; and 42,833 (23.9 percent) in which the value of the property 
involved was less than $5 per offense. The compilation also indicates 
that 1.3 percent of the thefts were cases of pocket-picking and 2.7 
percent were instances of purse-snatching. 

Table 83. — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission, and value of property stolen, January to 
December, inclusive, 1988; 171 cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 21,106,726, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Classification 


Number of 
actual 
offenses 


Classification 


Number of 
actual 
offenses 


Rape: 


787 
843 


Larceny— theft (except auto theft.) 
(grouped according to value of article 
stolen) : 
Over $50 










19, 945 


Total 


1,630 


$5 to $50 


116,377 






42, 833 


Robbery: 


9,113 

4,399 

1,594 

291 

432 

24 

650 


Total 

Larceny— theft (grouped as to type of 
offense) : 


179, 155 
















2,302 






4,905 






171, 948 




Total - - . . - . 




Total. 


16, 503 


179, 155 








Burglary — breaking or entering: 

Residence (dwelling) : 

Committed during night ._ _ 
Committed during day___ 

Nonresidence (store, office, etc.): 
Committed during night - 
Committed during day 


22, 582 
10, 908 

36, 915 

2,998 




Total 


73, 403 









In August 1938 the supplementary offense report was modified to 
reflect additional information concerning the nature of the larcenies 
reported. During September-December 1938 there were 46,349 
thefts without violence reported as having been committed in 44 
cities with a combined population of 14,790,941. These crimes repre- 
sent cases designated as "larceny — theft" and do not include cases of 
robbery, burglary, or auto theft. 



149 



Thefts of personal property from automobiles were found to be the 
type most frequently committed, such offenses numbering 9,812 
(21.2 percent) of the total thefts reported. Bicycle thefts were next 
in order of frequency (6,548), reflecting the development of a theft 
problem which has grown rapidly in recent years. Automobile 
accessories were involved in 6,464 of the cases. The average value 
of property stolen per offense amounted to $28.40. For individual 
types of thefts, however, the figures varied, being highest for cases of 
pocket-picking ($47.61), and lowest for cases involving thefts of 
automobile accessories ($12.03). Detailed figures for individual types 
of thefts are presented in table 84. 

Table 84. — Larcenies subdivided by type of theft, September to December, inclusive, 
1988; 44 cities over 100,000 in population 

[Total population 14,790,941, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Nature of theft 



Pocket-picking 

Purse-snatching 

Shoplifting 

Thefts from autos (exclusive of auto accessories) 

Auto accessories 

Bicycles 

All other 

Total 



Number of 
offenses 



442 
1,480 
1,456 
9,812 
6,464 
6,548 
20, 147 



46, 349 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



$21, 042. 02 
21, 341. 80 
45, 371. 01 

284, 917. 83 
77, 755. 04 
94, 686. 17 

771,114.47 



1,316,228.34 



Average 

value per 

offense 



$47. CI 
14.42 
31.16 
29.04 
12.03 
14.46 
38.27 



28.40 



The police departments of 171 cities reported thefts of 40,558 auto- 
mobiles during the calendar year 1938. Table 85 indicates that 38,554 
(95.1 percent) of the automobiles were recovered. 

Table 85. — Recoveries of stolen automobiles, January to December, inclusive, 1988; 

171 cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 21,106,726, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 

Number of automobiles stolen 40, 558 

Number of automobiles recovered 38, 554 

Percentage recovered 95. 1 

Reports received from 171 police departments reflected that the 
value of property stolen in connection with offenses of robbery, bur- 
glary, larceny, and auto theft during 1938 was $28,541,997.63. Re- 
coveries totaled $18,503,865.63, which is 64.8 percent of the amount 
stolen. More than one-half of the value of stolen property consisted 
of automobiles. Exclusive of automobiles the value of stolen property 
was $11,390,793.82, and the value of recovered property was 
$2,452,376.75 (21.5 percent). 

The data presented in table 86 are also shown in figure 1 1 . 

Table 86. — Value of property stolen and value of properly recovered with divisions 
as to type of property involved, January to December, inclusive, 1938; 171 cities 
over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 21,106,726, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Type of property 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals. 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles... 
Miscellaneous 



Total. 



Value of prop- Value of prop- Percent re- 
erty stolen erty recovered covered 



$2, 697, 419. 45 

2, 575, 976. 36 

488, 565. 60 

1, 414, 563. 96 

17, 151, 203. 81 
4, 214, 268. 45 



28, 541. 997. 63 



$371, 415. 92 

544, 020. 10 

42, 719. 33 

291, 426. 22 

16, 051, 488. 88 

1, 202, 795. 18 



18, 503, 865. 63 



13.8 
21.1 
8.7 
20.6 
93.6 
28.5 



64.8 



150 



Es3 














^ 




v9 












^ 


^ 


^ 


Si 




PC* 






00 


— 


K 




CD 




in 










LU 


ro 


OJ 


00 




6 
00 




00 
CvJ 






o 




| 


w 


O 




ro 




w 




CO 6S 


. o 




j°-l 


10 


d 








IS 




in B 

N El 


w 




Ldl 




q 




Cvj 








o g 


* 


w 


>l 


■w- 


in 








■w- 


*$ 


-«- 






O 


a: 


I) 


3 




=> 




3 




3 




£S5 


5 • ; 


0| 


< 
> 


< 
> 




< 
> 




i 


*f 


< 






2 

o 


1 2 


_l 
< 

o 


< 
O 




_J 
< 

O 




< 

o 

1- 


*8 


< 






*J 


JllJ~ 




^ 












if 






5S 


1 ' ■-. 


q: 


m 




If 








**ig 




If 




OLE 

INCLUDED) 


tM " 








if 




.. 


1 


If 




<Pg 




















^ 


























^ 








o> 


























ui 


1 
















*4i 








5 
^1 




2 1 

i ° 


in 


10 

<fl" 
1- 




o 
u> 

in 




10 
0> 

m 

IS 

in 






KM' 




£-t| 




1 LJ^ 






If) 




IS 

in 




- 


^S 




^i^ <i- 




«xr 


1 ' 


z 


^ 


v^ 


01 


<s£i£ 


fi 00 




CO 
CD 


^ 


* 
•**• 










5 ] 


o 

H 






3 

3 
< 






< 

> 

< 




3 
-1 
< 
> 
_l 
< 
(- 


^ 
^ 


< 






|< H 




O - 1 


col 


e€ 


$€ 


O 


*€ 




o 




O 

1- 


e€ 


o 








P-. 


<■■'": | 




^ 


*€ 




«€ 






*S3 




e€ 




^ 






O 


Z ■ ■ J 

< - 




*4 






m 


fi*£~* 




«*€ 




^ 




^ 










^ 


fi^Q 








^ 




&% 




&@ 








>-" 




<S en 






i 




I c/ 


) 




w 






"to . 


>-23 


CO 






_J 3 


) I 


< 

> 






O 


JEWELR 

PRECIC 

METAI 


u. 




X 




UJ c 
o u 

CO 2 

— < 
2 _ 


J 

c 
J 





















151 

The value of property stolen in connection with offenses of robbery, 
burglary, larceny, and auto theft is shown for individual types of 
crimes in table 87. It should be noted that this compilation is based 
on reports of 170 police departments, whereas tables 83, 85, and 86 
were based on reports from 171 police departments. 

Exclusive of auto thefts, the average value of property stolen per 
offense is lowest for larceny and highest for robbery. Because of the 
nature of the property involved, the average value per offense of auto 
theft is considerably higher than for the preceding types of crimes. In 
this connection it should be noted that 95 percent of the stolen auto- 
mobiles are recovered, whereas only 22 percent of other types of prop- 
erty stolen are shown in table 86 as recovered. 

With reference to table 87, it should be noted that the figures rep- 
resenting the number of actual offenses include attempted crimes in 
which no thefts occurred and for which no property values are shown. 
This naturally has the effect of reducing the average property loss per 
offense. 

The data presented in table 87 are also portrayed in figure 12. 



Value of properly stolen, by type of crime, January to December, in- 
clusive, 1938; 170 cities over 25,000 in population 



Table 87 

[Total population, 21,068,326, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Classification 



Number of 
actual 
offenses 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



Average 

value per 

offense 



Robbery 

Burglary 

Larceny — theft 
Auto theft 

Total 



16, 500 
73, 355 
178, 665 
40,532 



$1, 467, 626. 84 
4, 659, 554. 93 
5, 280, 291. 23 

17,067,069.06 



$88.95 
63.52 
29.56 

421.08 



309, 052 



28, 474, 542. 06 



92.14 



152 






Ok o 

a. =-; 



j p r "| -*-*-« ^: 



h?3 



> 



cog 

CO-! 

UJ ; 

iu. . 

|6*I 



> 




153 

Estimated Number of Major Crimes in the United States, 1937-38. 

Based on monthly reports received from law enforcement agencies 
during 1937 and 1938, there have been prepared estimates of the total 
number of serious crimes committed in the entire United States during 
those years. The population area represented by the reports on 
which the estimates were based is in excess of 60,000,000 for each year. 

While the tabulation refers to the offenses listed as major crimes, 
it will be observed that the offenses included therein are limited to 
certain types, i. e., the crimes represented on the report forms for- 
warded to the FBI listing ''offenses known to the police." Larceny 
is included and it is recognized that many of the larcenies reported 
were minor in character. However, it is believed that this is more 
than compensated for by the fact that miscellaneous types of serious 
crimes, such as embezzlement, fraud, receiving stolen property, 
forgery, coimterfeiting, arson, drug violations, carrying concealed 
weapons, etc., have not been represented in the estimates. It is, 
therefore, believed that the estimated total of major crimes for each 
year is conservative. 

The compilation reveals decreases in all types of crimes except 
burglary and larceny. The estimated total of 1,433,812 crimes for 
1938 is 17,996 in excess of the 1,415,816 for 1937. This represents 
an increase of 1.3 percent during 1938. During 1938 the daily average 
number of crimes listed in the table was 3,927 as compared to 3,879 
during 1937. This represents an increase during 1938 of 48 crimes 
daily. However, it should be noted that with the exception of 
burglary and larceny there were decreases for all types of crimes 
represented in the compilation, amounting to 30,616 crimes. The 
increase in burglary was 4,338 and in larceny 44,274, the combined 
increase being 48,612. It is apparent, therefore, that the net in- 
crease of 17,996 is attributable to the increase in larceny. 

Table 88. — Estimated number of major crimes in the United States, 1937-88 



Offense 



Number of offenses 



1937 



Change 



Number Percent 



i Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary . 

Larceny 

Auto theft 

Total J 



59, 
45, 
292, 
780, 
215, 



7,438 

4,554 

8,302 

59, 273 

44,529 

297, 208 

824, 305 

188, 203 



-421 

-1,151 

-216 

-513 

-949 

+4,338 

+44, 274 

-27, 366 



1, 415, 816 



1, 433, 812 



+17, 996 



-5.4 
-20.2 
-2.5 
-.9 
-2.1 
+1.5 
+5.7 
-12.7 



+1.3 



154 




155 




DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

Criminal History of Persons in Single Fingerprint File. 

In February 1933, the FBI established a so-called single finger- 
print file as an adjunct to its main file of fingerprint records. The 
main file contains more than 9 million sets of fingerprint records and 
the average rate of increase is more than 6,000 daily. However, the 
number of individuals represented in the single fingerprint file is 
definitely restricted due to certain technical reasons pertaining to 
criminal investigations. As of December 31, 1938, there were 13,937 
persons represented in the single fingerprint file. They were selected 
because they had been arrested for or convicted of kidnaping, extor- 
tion, bank robbery or bank burglary, or had known gang affiliations. 

The data on file contain highly interesting information concerning 
the previous criminal history of the persons represented. Examina- 
tion of their records shows that the 13,937 individuals had been 
convicted of 25,426 crimes as follows: 

Number 

of con- 

Offense: victions 

Criminal homicide 449 

Rape 150 

Robbery 5, 171 

Aggravated assault 240 

Minor assault 489 

Burglary 2, 633 

Larceny 3, 537 

Autotheft 958 

Kidnaping 743 

Blackmail 130 

Extortion 968 

Forgery and counterfeiting 677 

Embezzlement and fraud 679 

Receiving stolen property 208 

Carrying concealed weapons 520 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 154 

Other sex offenses 111 

Neglect of family and children 58 

Narcotic drug laws 446 

Liquor laws 1, 122 

Drunkenness 691 

Disorderly conduct 881 

Vagrancy 1, 126 

Gambling 162 

Driving while intoxicated 78 

Other traffic violations 543 

Miscellaneous 1, 578 

Not stated _• 924 

Total 25,426 

The records show further that 2,895 of the criminals were recipients 
of paroles on various occasions during their careers of lawlessness. 
In 1,044 cases they were thereafter arrested before the expiration of 
the parole period. In other words, 36.1 percent of the paroles extended 
to these major criminals were violated by the recipients. In addition, 

(156) 



157 

there were 1,169 persons who apparently lived within the law during the 
parole period but who were arrested subsequent to the expiration of 
the parole. This means that 76.4 percent of the 2,895 major criminals 
who were given paroles were subsequently arrested either while on 
parole or after the expiration of the parole period. 

With reference to the 1,044 individuals arrested while on parole, 
the records indicate that two-thirds of them were charged with murder, 
rape, robbery, kidnaping, and other felonies. 

For convenient reference there is set out a summary of the data 
pertaining to the criminal histories of the persons represented in the 
single fingerprint file. 

1. Number of persons represented in the single fingerprint 

file (Dec. 31, 1938) 13, 937 

2. Number who had received pardons, paroles, probationary 

or suspended sentences 4, 218 

3. Percent who received pardons, paroles, etc 30. 3 

4. Number who had received paroles 2,895 

5. Number subsequently arrested while on parole 1,044 

6. Percent of parolees arrested while on parole 36. 1 

7. Number arrested after expiration of parole period 1,169 

8. Total parolees arrested on parole or subsequent to parole 

period 2,213 

9. Percent of parolees arrested on parole or subsequent to 

parole period 76. 4 

It should be noted that the preceding data are probably not entirely 
complete, because full information concerning the previous criminal 
activities of the persons represented are probably not on file. The 
amount of information on file in the fingerprint division of the FBI 
is, of course, dependent upon the contribution of data pertaining to 
criminal activities by local officials. 

Fingerprint Arrest Records for 1938. 

During the calendar year 1938 the FBI examined 554,376 arrest 
records, as evidenced by fingerprint cards, in order to obtain data con- 
cerning the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of the persons 
represented. The compilation has been limited to instances of arrests 
forviolations of State laws and municipal ordinances. In other words, 
fingerprint cards representing arrests for violations of Federal laws or 
representing commitments to any type of penal institution have been 
excluded from this tabulation. 

The number of fingerprint records examined was considerably larger 
than for prior years, which were as follows: 1937 — 520,153; 1936— 
461,589. The increase in the number of arrest records examined 
should not necessarily be construed as reflecting an increase in the 
amount of crime, nor as an increase in the number of persons arrested, 
since it quite probably is at least partially the result of an increase 
in the number of local agencies contributing fingerprint records to the 
Identification Division of the FBI. The tabulation of data from 
fingerprint cards obviously does not include all persons arrested, since 
there are individuals taken into custody for whom no fingerprint cards 
are forwarded to Washington. Furthermore, data pertaining to per- 
sons arrested should not be treated as information regarding the number 



158 

of offenses committed, since two or more persons may be involved in the 
joint commission of a single offense, and on the other hand one person 
may be arrested and charged with the commission of several separate 
crimes. 

Approximately 30 percent of the arrest records examined during 
1938 represented persons taken into custody for murder, robbery, 
assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft. Arrests for major viola- 
tions are reflected by the following figures: 

Criminal homicide 6, 507 

Robbery 14,698 

Assault 30, 978 

Burglary 35,778 

Larceny (except auto theft) 62, 848 

Autotheft 12,958 

Embezzlement and fraud 19, 226 

Stolen property (receiving, etc.) 3, 810 

Arson 941 

Forgery and counterfeiting 8, 162 

Rape 6, 333 

Narcotic drug laws 4, 164 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 6, 125 

Driving while intoxicated 21, 169 

Gambling 7,233 

Total 240,930 

Sex. — Women were represented by 37,780 (6.8 percent) of the 
554,376 arrest records examined. The remaining 516,596 (93.2 per- 
cent) represented men. The number of men arrested was larger than 
the number of women arrested for all types of crimes except commer- 
cialized vice. However, a comparison of the figures representing an 
average group of 1,000 men arrested with those for an average group 
of 1,000 women arrested indicates that there were more women than 
men charged with murder, assault, and the use of narcotic drugs. 
The same type of comparison also indicates a somewhat larger ratio 
of arrests of women than men for larceny, but in more violent tj 7 pes 
of crimes against property, such as robbery, burglary, and auto theft, 
men predominate. Similarly, 13 of each 1,000 women arrested and 
fingerprinted were charged with driving while intoxicated, whereas 40 
of each 1,000 men arrested were charged with that type of violation. 
Data for individual types of crimes may be found in the following 
table. 

As mentioned in the preceding paragraph, 6.8 percent of the arrest 
records examined during 1938 represented women. The correspond- 
ing figures for prior years are as follows: 1937 — 6.9 percent; 1936 — 7.3 
percent; 1935—6.9 percent; 1934 — 6.9 percent. 



159 



Table 89. — Distribution of arrests by sex, Jan. 1-Dec. 81, 1938 



Offense charged 



Number 



Total 



Male 



Female 



Percent 



Total Male Female 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

B urglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc. 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

O ther sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children ._. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness. 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated - 

All other offenses 



39, 



5,885 
14, 120 
28, 528 
35, 240 

58, 399 
12, 768 
18, 398 

3,559 

875 

7,700 

6,333 

1,522 

6,869 

3,038 

5,895 

6,754 

6,982 

20, 681 

4,095 

16 

7,184 

22. 700 

78, 001 

49, 594 

6,837 

59, 537 
7,441 

37, 645 



622 
578 

2,450 
538 

4,449 
190 
828 
251 
66 
462 



5,045 
1,019 
1,126 

230 

156 
1,265 

488 

55 

1 

112 
2,920 
4,311 
3,097 

396 
4,588 

561 
1,976 



1.2 

2.7 

5.6 

6.5 

11.4 

2.3 

3.5 

. 7 

.2 

1.5 

1.1 

1.2 

1.4 

.8 

1.1 

1.2 

1.5 

3.8 

G) 

1.3 
4.6 

14.8 
9.5 
1.3 

11.6 
1.4 
7.1 



1. 1 
2.7 
5.5 
6.8 
11.3 
2.5 
3.6 

.7 

.2 
1.5 
1.2 

.3 
1.3 

.6 
1.1 
1.3 
1.4 
4.0 

.8 

(') 

1.4 

4.4 

15.2 

9.6 

1.3 

11.5 

1.4 

7.3 



1.6 

1.5 

6.5 

1.4 

11.8 

.5 

2.2 

.7 

.2 

1.2 



13.4 

2.7 

3.0 

.6 

.4 

3.4 

1.3 

.1 

0) 

.3 

7.7 

11.4 

8.2 

1.1 

12.1 

1.5 

5.2 



Total - 554.376 516.596 



37, 780 100. 100. 



100.0 



JLess than Ho of 1 percent. 

Age. — During 1938, there were more arrests for age 21 than for 
any other single age group. This differs from the record for 1937 
when age 22 reflected the largest number of arrests. From 1932 to 
the middle of 1935, age 19 was the group in which arrests occurred 
most frequently, but since the middle of 1935 there have been more 
arrests of persons age 21 and 22. An additional change in the record 
for 1938 is that there were more arrests for age 18 than for age 19. 
The groups for which the largest number of arrests occurred during 
1938 are as follows: 

Number of 
Age : arrests 

21 24,295 

22 24, 287 

23 23,968 

18 23, 900 

19 23,877 

In 1936, 17.4 percent of the persons arrested w T ere less than 21 years 
old and in 1937 the proportion was 18.0 percent. However, during 
1938 it was found that 18.8 percent of the persons arrested and finger- 
printed were less than 21 years of age. In addition to the 104,425 
persons less than 21 years old arrested during 1938, there were 94,909 
(17.1 percent) between the ages of 21 and 24, making a total of 199,334 
(35.9 percent) less than 25 years old. Persons arrested who were 
between the ages of 25 and 29 numbered 94,815 (17.1 percent). 
This makes a total of 294,149 (53.0 percent) less than 30 years old. 
The corresponding proportion under 30 years of age during 1937 was 
51.6 percent. (With reference to the ages of persons represented by 
fingerprint cards received at the F B I, it should be borne in mind 
that the number of arrest records is doubtless incomplete in the lower 
age groups, because in some jurisdictions the practice is not to finger- 
print youthful individuals.) 

The number of arrests for ages 16-24 is shown in figure 15. 



160 




161 



t- GO X 00 X X CO O-KNM b- X ** 

— ~ i - i - -r o on .— i -th o co c xo 

iO CO 0> N 00 OS Cl X OS •-< CO tOQO'-H 

co"^o"^cn"cn"oT co" ooo cdn^* 

HCOMCDHH 



CN i-t ^co» 



ONOCN 

rHrrCOiOH 

os cn ^ ^h 
co" goTx""-^"-^ 



OJINrHOlCONON 
CNOCOOCNhO© 



b-i-O WNN-*»Ol 



- 03 

c3 > 

O o 



NC7.33OH00O 
id i— t O O0 CO OS 



00 CO O0 CO 
CO -— i tC »o 



»-H ,-H CO 



os -«o>cnc<jih 

rP to O CO i— l 



XuoCN^XiOcOO 

cqooi-tcMicoo 

C-j CO M CN N O © tO 



CN CO iO CO CN 



MD0OOCN05 t^ CO CO *-< t^t~-0C CO O >— < O O 

< CO --» -*r CO CO CO CO OMN 



«CM00N^HiO 



xi* CN CN *C CN CO C l- ,X • 



CO^IOXCOOOSCO 

co*oco*ocoooio*o 
CN O — CO >o CO t o 



1 '.-. co co co uo x io r>- co i^- cc on co 

l- — i - ( - i - ro cn x *o cm r- on -r 
: -r co on r- CN i-t co r-- co cont 



■***©*oaoQO'— icooo 
wo'm" ->^" CM*" 



O t— ^ CN ~H no CO 



NNO00 COrP CO 



:i «: c o i' ~. ?) cm <— < as co o-^o co toco--' 

COOOCNN^OJ •*}< ,-c o i-O t"~- OS CO CO i— iNM'" 



- CO >-< CO h N X X 1^ 'O I 



BO CO — CN CO C~- 

r- as co co •— < -cf c 



»OCO-fco-^iOtM OS CO <— < CO O — ' -^ 

co ro on co — ■ on os en CN on t- t-oo 

ONI>NC5 00Ci -^ ^h CN CO O O CO 



io co x as »o -r 

CO ONOCO 

CO CO CN 1^ »C 

rHrHCO 



MiCCCiOiOMNr-i 
05»OQ000CN i ^'-H»J0 

CO CN" CO*" i-? co" i-? "*" 



O — < CO 00 Ol CO CO 

r co os — < co cm T 

CM O 1-t CM CO CO -cf 

r-7 co co" lo" as" i-T co" 



OTf^Hr-i cm on CM 
x ro on — < co on -* x co o os co oo ro 

lO r-4 TJ- O t^ CO X 



O lO CO — X 



< O CO CO CO 
> CO Tf 00 
JVCDOO 



iO^CNNO>«ON 
lOWNCN-HOJOCN 
V >C C4 CN M O T N 



t-h-^^OI^CM^CO 



co co vz co co on x 
o on on uo cm x uo 

CO X ^ CO ■* -<P N 



T^xic^conocM-^ 
crncccor-cOTj'^-uo 

COOCOCCCNOSCOCD 
i-Tcn"cm" CM" r-i* 



CN -h X CN uO w-r}- »oh© comoo O CO CO uO CO CO 



tO-^CMcON lOCON^ 



l.COCONON 



COCO OCNH CO CM CM CO CM 



uo on x -r c -o - t- co o". co - 



COtP-^COCOwcOO 
•OtOHt - 
xj* — <CM ' 

i-TcNCN CO" iH 



i-i O CM CO X CO CO CO — * CO CO —i ^ ■*?« 
N MO CC N C X uC CO CO CO cos ~- CO 

cn as cm r-- con i>. i>- ^h coco t co ^h 



■^ -f 00 IN -- CM 00 CN 
COOOO-h^COO 
•*3<CNOSI>-CNCNC0OS 



<-H -H CM CO ^H 



co s cc lo o". x on 
r- o co o on x co 

CM CO ^ O O CON 



lONCN OS 



COCNt~-i.OTt<I^-CMCO 

OCN-rHOl^-COCN 
iQ-nXNr-iCNCOO 

f-T-TcM" co cm" 



-* OS CO ~* t- CO CM 

on N oo ro o uo so 

CM OS CS -h CM OS CO 



— » co *-* co co on co co 

iO t-» CS CO r-l CO CO CS 

<-H CN CN i-H >— ICO CM 



Nt-NNOOOCO 
- lO O CN rO N N CO 

CO CJ CN OS >H 00 CN 00 

f-Tr-T CN r-7 



cn co t— xco-r io oocoio oxco 
cn — <-oi cn tt o co t^ ro ro co co re co 
ri r-. os x os co co i-t co t <-> cm ^ 



1 o r- CN uo uo CN 



p-i CO CO -h N O ^ 

H CO LO CN N CO H i-t h; 



t^. co •— co cncoi>- co **r '■ 



t^ co co to o uo r- 



CSCS^J'^'COSt^CO 

XXCN'-'COOSO-cf 
COOSi-HCO^CNCO'— 



r-tCN CO 



< t^ ~ Oi *-< i 



CN CO CN CO 



NM*CONOCOCOiO 
CO X rj* CM t-« CO CM 'COS 



r-t M il 



i-01MOC»0-a OS O CN CM 



uo oi m uo *— t~- ■ 

CO CN rr CO O 



O f?M! 



. »-h O -h ,-t O »-" OS CO — > CN 



t^O-iXCNCi-OT}. x 
CO --I iQ CN ^H O OS 



CN uo O CO CO OS t-i 

CNXOOhnh 



OS CO ^f CO t— OS i 



N - N O OS - iO O X 

cs cn cn lo co cm os 

~H 4C lO I CO 



CN uo -* t^ u0 — 



OS CO 'O UO i-H c 



O O CO N X 1 "5 1 ^ »C I O 

nmcs r» i^- cm i ^» 



CiNC^XNN 



CO CN »0 CO h CN ! 



X O X CO X 



3-5 
£ R 

o: 3 

•3.Q 

p 

51? 






*f 0> P 

= — ffl 

5 = 2 

<Sa 



«b 



P in t- JJO 



03 S 

.H.S 



<o.& 



a 

.2 a 



'5 * 



p ! '«.C" 
•p ' 'S C— o 

- I— . M p to" 






- § 2~.2 



oZ; 



ajWOS u o g«™ii e b 2 Sop 



162 



Offenses against property, particularly robbery, burglary, larceny, 
and auto theft, were frequently committed by youths less than 21 
years old. This is clearly indicated by the following tabulation: 

Percentage distribution of arrests by age groups 



Age group 


All offenses 


Criminal 
homicide 


Robbery 


Burglary 


Larceny 


Auto theft 


Under 21 


18.8 
34.2 
24.9 
13.7 
8.3 
.1 


12.0 
36.7 
27.4 
14.8 
8.9 
.2 


28.5 

46.6 

19.0 

4.5 

1.3 

.1 


43.5 

33.3 

15.3 

5.5 

2.3 

.1 


31.7 
32.8 
20.2 
9.9 
5.3 
.1 


52.3 


21-29 


33.4 


30-39 


10.7 


40-49 


2.8 


50 and over _. - 

Unknown ; 


.7 
.1 


Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



Note.— The data in the preceding compilation are also shown in figure 16. 

During 1938 there were 158,421 persons of all ages arrested for 
crimes against property (robbery, burglary, larceny, auto theft, 
embezzlement and fraud, forgery and counterfeiting, receiving stolen 
property, and arson). The predominance of youthful persons among 
those charged with offenses against property is further indicated by 
the fact that 31.5 percent (49,833) of the persons arrested for such 
crimes were less than 21 years old. The corresponding figures for 
prior years are as follows: 1937 — 31.0 percent; 1936 — 28.5 percent. 

Additional evidence of the large part played by youthful persons 
in the commission of crimes against property is reflected by the 
following figures. During 1938, 35.9 percent of all persons arrested 
were less than 25 years of age, but such persons numbered 54.5 percent 
of those charged with robbery, 62.3 percent of those charged with 
burglary, 49.6 percent of those charged with larceny, and 73.2 percent 
of those charged with auto theft. One-half of all crimes against 
property during 1938 were committed by persons under 25 years of 
age. 



163 




164 



Table 91. — Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, 
male and female, Jan. 1-Dec. 81, 1938 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Autotheft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice__ 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children. _. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws... 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Total num- 
ber of per- 
sons ar- 
rested 



6,507 

14, 698 

30, 978 

35, 778 

62, 848 

12, 958 

19, 226 

3,810 

941 

8,162 

6,333 

6,567 

7,888 

4,164 

6,125 

6,910 

8,247 

21, 169 

4,150 

17 

7,296 

25, 620 

82, 312 

52, 691 

7,233 

64, 125 

8,002 

39, 621 



554, 376 



Number 
under 21 
years of age 



783 

4,183 

3,578 

15, 573 

19, 950 

6,774 

1,171 

732 

151 

1,299 

1,539 

484 

1,050 

331 

1,069 

280 

642 

839 

734 



1,312 
3,974 
3,694 
8,545 
494 
14, 021 
1,424 
9,799 



104, 425 



Total num- 
ber under 
25 years of 



1,892 

8,014 

8,601 

22, 276 

31, 178 

9,485 

4,260 

1, 375 

276 

2,703 

2,886 

2,248 

2,197 

996 

2,237 

1,226 

1,802 

3,415 

1,766 

4 

3,129 

8,502 

12, 048 

18, 806 

1,374 

26,611 

2,742 

17. 285 



199,331 



Percentage 
under 21 
years of age 



12.0 

28.5 

11.6 

43.5 

31.7 

52.3 

6.1 

19.2 

16.0 

15.9 

24.3 

7.4 

13.3 

7.9 

17.5 

4.1 

7.8 

4.0 

17.7 



18.0 
15.5 

4.5 
16.2 

6.8 
21.9 
17.8 
24.7 



18.8 



Total per- 
centage 
under 25 
years of age 



29.1 
54.5 
27.8 
62.3 
49.6 
73.2 
22.2 
36.1 
29.3 
33.1 
45.6 
34.2 
27.9 
23.9 
36.5 
17.7 
21.9 
16.1 
42.6 
23.5 
42.9 
33.2 
14.6 
35.7 
19.0 
41.5 
34.3 
43.6 



35.9 



The age distribution of males arrested during 1938 is somewhat 
different from that of all persons arrested. For males there were 
more arrests for age 21 than for any other single age group, and in 
this respect the distribution is identical with that for all persons 
arrested; but ages 18 and 19 exceed in frequency of arrests ages 22 and 
23, and in this respect the distribution differs from that for all persons 
arrested. 

The age distribution of females arrested is even more different 
from the distribution of all arrest records examined, and this is to be 
expected, inasmuch as women represented only 6.8 percent of the 
total. For females the highest frequency of arrests occurred at ages 
22 and 23, with ages 24, 21, 18, 19, and 20 following in the order 
named. 

For convenience in comparing figures for selected individual age 
groups, data for the separate sexes are presented herewith: 





Number of arrests 


Age 


Number of arrests 


Age 


Male and 
female 


Male 


Female 


Male and 
female 


Male 


Female 


21 

22 

23 

18 


24, 295 
24, 287 
23, 968 
23, 900 


22, 461 
22, 048 
21, 730 
22, 183 


1,834 
2,239 
2,238 
1,717 


19 

24 

20 


23, 877 
22, 359 

20,844 


22, 231 
20, 130 
19, 436 


1,646 
2,229 
1,408 



165 



C3_ m 
*^r3 CO 



Tf ~ '— ~ LINO 



tO O 00 O O CO 00 

tO ^ x~ tO* od of 00 



O tO O CO OJ O CO 



-f C^l -- iC C ^ C h tJ( N N ' 



ri co re ~ >o x x a. — - -,o c: = as co co -<$< ■ 



tO GO t-- CO to 00 O 

no i-Toco" to odo"^ 



^NCCOO^^O 

" of oo o" co" a" I> N** 
oi r- •-* *o co 



NOOONCC: 
to O0 CO O re X ' 

IQMONri C 



^ ^H _C -^ 



CO <-h tO tO HH« 



0«OWH CO N N tO CO X X OJ 

O CO Ol N CI Oi C N C. Z X 03 

tO © CO >— i CCW-Hr-iCiTfiOiO 

of of co" to" co" of 



-ct< —h ~* X © X OJ CO — < © ^ 



c c :M ^. r. c c oj co -* co o — < -^t« 



CO M OO O O H LO 
i-H Of i-H 



* oo »o to -- ■ 



■^ CM i-t to ( 



O'Cl-COOOMO 

oj ^ © n to to rt< © 

r-" i> of of i-f 



O CO -f t> iO CI C ^- O X I - 



co re -* ^.j oj t _ _ 
tO Tt* to C^ O OJ o 



N CO MCD< 



h (N ^ N C 



HiflNNawtT-H 
^©•"-■NNOCON- 



LOCOOONLO lO CO CO CC Ol Ol Ol O — N Ol ""*< OJ 
W h M Tf t X X X O CI CO CM t.h O to CO N N c 

NOb"-"WtN CO •— < C tO OlOOtO O •— > © Ol ■**■ 



: CO U2 CO © — CM CM 
«r-C135Q0C»HM 
. CO O to o o © tP 
of of to" r-J" co" co" 



CM Ol © © O 00 N 

t^. o — i — tO x to 

O0 CO rt« OJ CO CO CO 

•-" t)" CO" CO" Of 






CO © to to 

HrtW 



«OON»GNM 

oj t- as to oo to Tf — 

OhO tJ*-.-. 00 O CO 
co" of CO" r-T N rH TT 



O ■* CO OS O N »C 

coasaoHNLo 

■"H OO to -— ' to to CN 

i-T of to" to" od <-f co* 



w as i-h -"-< coco 

CO i— < CO O OQCO 

tO ^ CO O CO O to 



(NOCOC 
CO CM X GC 

HHCO" 



•h»NNNC^« 
"MOtCO'^'OOp- 
rf 3C O LO (N C CM tj- 



HW-iXH--! 



tO N OJ CO CO © X 
tO to N CM CO X 7 i 
Ol 00 '-' CO CM TT N 

i-T— "of 



■ CO — < CM N Ol CM to 00 X tO 
; CM O) 3D W « N LO N c 

• CM COOO«HOOWU3 



O 00 Tt* ^ CO — ' to 
nO«KHN^ 



C CO * - N - - c 
•9* C - O M - C Ol 

tOOOClONX 

of of or i-* 



co-*ogj;icc-j r r © co x co co o *-• r -- x to 



■ 01 re O "O as <_ 

1 O i— iNNCON i— i COCO 



. to ao r- N o i- - 

Ol Ol CM CM to CN 



. — -r 3 co — h 



CO — OS to © i 

r^asx^cMascox 
1-* of oJ i-T 



cooxacoN- 



: O tO X COCC ■-* NCOrf I 



IONONCN1 1 CO CM — » I— *<r N © OJ C CI 1 



oj as © o x x t - 



r-< CO CO i— > CO »-t OU «3 CM 



NTflNO"*0!XiN 
O -H- rf O X CM O tO 

f o c ^ - ascoo 



• CM Ol »-t 



ONhcOOOh 

o © -- © © re ce 

NOcoocccc 

of co" 



co — ■ x as co to as ci now c 



:co*c co o to 



Ol HrtCOM 



»o O to CO — ' to CO CO 

-r co tt x oi **r to x 

CO X - N - O CN N 
.-" —" cm _T 



n TJ« CO CO CM CM ~ 

N co to o x a. — 

^ O X X CO CM CO 



fH Ol CO — < 



lONtOtO CM^f^- CO COCN 

LOOl-C ^fXC I- NC-tCO 

i-H CO T " Ol <— CM CM 



i- — < co o -- co to n 

x »o Ol 01 CO CO N CO 

WCOO^hONC 

»-"of co" of 



: oi oi i 

co"-*}"- 



— . -?- — CO tO O Ol CO — — -NO 

r^coxco CMXCO to TT Y X 

.— iCMCO »— O* ,—,^-1^. 



OJ O CO CO O — CO o 
^NOQHOON 

co x n o — as CO' o 



Ol 01 1-H 



O to CO N • 



' r- x oi as co 

■ ' — CO OJ — 



: to OJ co n c 



tO 01 ?1 t-0 c-. tO ' 



: O — ■ CCOCI' 



l" n co '.o x co oi r 
co as o t co oi ~ r 

i— t co ~- — * oj : 

fH Ol* 

x © co — as co x _ 

l>- CO O -n Ol — CO — ' 



e I 



: X ^ ^ 2C 00 1^ t^ 
r~ — o 0*0'* 



: -^ [^ c^t ^h 

OOOfl 



CO CI "^ — T"! 



:c.oi~xx'/;n 



'CI O r^ 



bjg OX3_ 
3 a 3 S 
CQ>J<Sc 



w ? ^ 



oc c; <-" re jr 



.2 a 

*-* o 
•^3 a) u. o q, 






gco,2i£ 
S"0 



: c: ^: — cc cr. i^ t^ 



>>a 



'Co 



> [_i p w r" *' 






166 



o 
Eh 


03 *> 


622 
578 

2,450 
538 

4,449 
190 
828 

251 

66 

462 




5, 045 
1,019 
1,126 

230 

156 

1,265 

488 

55 

1 

112 
2,920 
4,311 
3,097 

396 
4,588 

561 
1,-976 


© 

00 

r*- 

CO 


o 

bjO 

< 


1° 

O O 


lONHHtCHIO CO t-- CO 
CO COHN HH rH rH 


O tO to to i-H CD CO I ' tO CO to © to b- CO 00 
00 --I CM COH i i CD CD CO CO CD rH l> 


© 
© 


to 


CO to t- 00 t^ rP 1- tP CO t- 

i-l NiH<© -tf 1 i-H rH 


NOD CO IQOC5H i CO tO "* O t- O CO f- 
OCMCO ©CO ' N C) CO CO O H tO 
— i i CM 


tO 
CO 
CO 


1 

o 


00 CO CO CD «0 CO CO rt*NO 
'tlNiOfN^ CD rH CO 
rH CO 


t-^ © £-- CO CO © "tH CO ' lOOOiCOtoCOWCM 
Hif)«3 i-l CO rjl t •* N 00 »0 CD CCl H 

CM 1-4 1 rH CO rH rH 


o 
cm" 


OS 
CO 

CO 


lO i— I CO CD »0 00 rH CO -<cH t*- 

00 hh r-- to CM H* -*H i—t CO 


t^CMi-h H^ COO-*I>H tOOSCOCMOOOtOtO 
00 O O CO i— i CO © H 00 C5 « N o -o C 
tt< --H ^H CM CM CO CM rfi i-H 


CO 
CM 


CO 

o 

CO 


M h lO N ^ N iO HH 00 CO 
C5NNTt<CO CO CO CD 
CO "5 .H 


t-4 h- HH CD tOOOtO-^ 1 i ^ © O tH to 00 -^ CO 

O CO 00 CO COOliHrH i HN^O'OCDCOOJ 

XHH i-l r-H CO t^ CO tO rH 


CO 


CM 
CM 


HNODOiCOOO IQ1CO 
H iH CO H GO rH 


©©CO tO © CO © ^ i i-J CD tO to CM t^ CO CD 
tO i— < CD tO CO tO i— ii— l i COtOCMCDI>-COO'— ' 
-rP CO CO CM --I i CO CD CD OHCQ 


00 




OOCOCCNOQO t«~ rH £- 

co co cm co © co cm 


tjh to h- CO O Tfl O ^ • CM ^ CO CD tJ* CM HH CD 
CM CD i— I i-l tO CM t to — < to ^H 00 CO CO 
^ rH i rH CM CM CM 


C» 
(M 


CO 
CM 


CM CO **** 00 CM O © © 'O 
CO tO "^ CO rH rH CO 'TtH 
rH CM i 


rH 00 ^ CO COi-iCOtO I O i— i CO CM CD © to O 

r-- t*< to t-i hich i moooo oo co cd 

HH i CM rH rH CI 


00 
CO 
CM 

CM 


CM 

CM 


CO CO CO Th © CO CO »0 CO HH 
CM "^ CM CM CM i-i CM i-H CM 


CO tO i-H rt< ONO ' i 00 00 © t- i-( t^ CO CD 
CO tO 00 i— 1 H CO i— 1 i i O CO tO i— I © CM 00 
■* i ' CM T-4C0 CO 


CO 
CM 

CM 


CM 


o to O CO CO i-i 00 i-( -to 
CO CO © CO CO rH CO t-i i i-i 
^H CM 


CM ^h CM CO 00 i-t CM CO i CD 00 tO © © t~- Tt< CD 
© © Hh ^ rH ' t- t>- i— i i— I © CM CO 
CM i rH i-l CM CM 


CO 

oo 


o 


^N(NCOCO^H I--CMC0 

CO CO © CO © -— I CO CM 


tOCOCM i-< CO © tJ* . i cocot---cf<©tocor-- 
i-h to CO i-H CM ii Hi-i-^ CM CM i>. 

i-l i ' i-l --I rH CO 


00 

o 


OS 


CM CM i— i to Tf CM tO to CO 00 
CM HH O CM CO i-H CM <-i i-i 


■00 ^ CO i-H NH>OfO ' COOOi-H^HHCOCOcO 
HO"* i—l HCO ' CO©© COCO© 
rH r rH. rH rH CM - rH 


CD 
CO 


oo 


00 00 tO CM © t- © !"*• CM i— I 

H N rH ^ to N C-l CO 
i-H CM 


tO !>• CO i>- ©©^©CM i to -^ N ^ CO CO O tO 

©tOCO rHrH 1 uO©©©CMCO 

, ph rH rH CM rH 


t^ 


r~ 


»— 1 CI O CD CO O tO tO i CO 
CM rH CD CM tO i-t It — 1 


CO © !>■ CO TfGCO 1 i CM t^ CO CM CM © -h GO 
CO H^ rH i i 00-^00 rr" CM ^ 


CO 

o 


CO 


CON»OOHO^ t-h CM -^f 
MNOSH 


rH © b- CO i I>- CO i 1 i— I rH i— 1 © i CO to i—l 
rH CM 1 II HH CO -^H 1 00 rH CO 


CO 

»o 


»o 


CO —1 CM "* O ■* t-h " ! ! CM 


■^ "H^ Til CO 1 rH i— 1 I I i— 1 CO CO !>• rH CO CO CO 
1 11 rH "«CH |>. 


CO 
CM 


a>-< 


MHCOONH i CO I CM 
CM I 1 


ICOCO 1 i rH 1 ( 1 ' © rH 00 I CO © 00 
1 i 1 111 1 rH r CO © 


00 


a 

°c! 
£g 


'• IcM IcM ! CM I i rH 


rH rH CO ' rH CO I t to CO CO ^H CO i CO 






T3 

<B 

cfl 

o 

© 

a 

o 


Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault . . 

Burglary — breaking or entering. _ _ 

Larceny — theft _ _. 

Autotheft. ... . . 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiv- 
ing, etc 

Arson... ... 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

RaDe 


Prostitution and commercialized 

vice_._ 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws . . _ 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 

etc 

Offenses against family and chil- 
dren __ 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle 

laws .. 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 


"3 
o 
EH 



167 

Recidivism. — Of the 554,376 arrest records examined during 1938, 
243,921 (44.0 percent) represented individuals who already had finger- 
print records on file in the Identification Division of the FBI. There 
were, in addition, 8,136 instances in which the individuals represented 
had no prior fingerprints on file at Washington, but the current arrest 
records bore notations concerning prior criminal activities of the per- 
sons. This makes a total of 252,057 records containing information 
concerning the previous criminal histories of the individuals concerned, 
and it was found that 150,021 of them had been previously convicted. 
This is 59.5 percent of the 252,057 cases in which information concerning 
prior criminal activities was available, and 27.1 percent of the 554,376 
arrest records examined. 

The compilation reveals that more than one-half of the prior con- 
victions were based on major violations of the criminal statutes, as 
indicated by the following figures: 

Criminal homicide 1, 396 

Robbery 5, 936 

Assault 7, 381 

Burglary 16, 129 

Larceny (and related offenses) 34,960 

Arson 188 

Forgery and counterfeiting 4, 576 

Rape 1, 110 

Narcotic drug laws 2, 426 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 1, 700 

Driving while intoxicated 3, 396 

Total 79, 198 

The records indicate that during 1938 there were 50 persons ar- 
rested for murder or manslaughter whose criminal history showed 
prior convictions for some degree of criminal homicide. With reference 
to other offense classes, the compilation reveals a tendency for recidi- 
vists to repeat the same type of crime. 

The records of the 150,021 persons previously convicted showed a 
total of 372,939 convictions prior to the arrest represented by the cur- 
rent record. Major violations were involved in 169,319 of the con- 
victions, and in 203,620 cases the convictions were based on less serious 
violations. 

Of the 37,780 females arrested, only 28.7 percent had previous 
fingerprint cards on file as compared with 44.0 percent for all persons 
arrested during 1938. Similarly, women represented only 4.0 percent 
of the 150,021 previous convictions found in the records. Since 
women represented 6.8 percent of the total persons whose arrest records 
were examined during the year, the percentage of women among those 
whose records showed previous convictions is comparatively low. 



168 



Table 94. — Number with previous fingerprint records, arrests, Jan. 1-Dec. SI, 1938 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Autotheft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc_- 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice,-- 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy- 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Total 



Number 
arrested 



6,507 

14, 698 

30, 978 

35, 778 

62, 848 

12, 958 

19, 226 

3,810 

941 

8,162 

6,333 

6,567 

7,888 

4,164 

6,125 

6,910 

8,247 

21, 169 

4,150 

17 

7,296 

25, 620 

82, 312 

52, 691 

7,233 

64, 125 

8,002 

39, 621 



554, 376 



Previous 
finger- 
print 
record 



1, 758 

7,459 

11, 591 

15, 387 

25, 619 

5, 301 

8,946 

1,199 

214 

4,121 

1,884 

2,841 

2,378 

2,536 

2,209 

2,309 

3,153 

6,399 

1,114 

10 

2,615 

10, 754 

40, 652 

31, 103 

2,218 

29, 264 

3,182 

17, 705 



243, 921 



Male 



Number 
arrested 



5,885 
14, 120 
28, 528 
35, 240 

58, 399 
12, 768 
18, 398 

3,559 

875 

7,700 

6,333 

1,522 

6,869 

3,038 

5,895 

6,754 

6,982 

20,681 

4,095 

16 

7,184 

22, 700 

78, 001 

49, 594 

6,837 

59, 537 
7,441 

37, 645 



516, 596 



Previous 
finger- 
print 
record 



1,665 

7,262 

11, 094 

15, 259 

24, 555 

5,270 

8,775 

1,169 

205 

4,013 

1,884 

602 

2,184 

2,066 

2,154 

2,289 

2,849 

6,299 

1,102 

10 

2,594 

10, 031 

39, 233 

29, 951 

2,148 

28, 053 

3,062 

17,319 



233, 097 



Female 



Number 
arrested 



622 
578 

,450 
538 

,449 
190 
828 
251 
66 
462 



5,045 
1,019 
1,126 

230 

156 
1,265 

488 

55 

1 

112 
2,920 
4,311 
3,097 

396 
4,588 

561 
1,976 



37, 780 



Previous 
finger- 
print 
record 



93 

197 

497 

128 

1,064 

31 

171 

30 

9 

108 



2,239 

194 

470 

55 

20 

304 

100 

12 



21 

723 

1,419 

1,152 

70 

1,211 

120 

386 



10, 824 



169 



Table 95. — Percentage with previous fingerprint records, arrests, male and female, 

Jan. 1-Dec. SI, 1938 



flense 



Narcotic drug laws 

Vagrancy 

Parking violations l 

Robbery 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Drunkenness 

Embezzelment and fraud 

Suspicion 

All other offenses 

Prostitution and commercialized vice. 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Disorderly conduct 

Autotheft . 

Larceny — theft 



60.9 
59.0 
58.8 
50.7 
50.5 
49.4 
46.5 
45.6 
44.7 
43.3 
43.0 
42.0 
40.9 
40.8 



Offense 



Liquor laws 

Assault 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws.. 
Offenses against family and children_. 
Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Gambling T 

Driving while intoxicated 

Other sex offenses 

Rape 

Criminal homicide 

Road and driving laws 

Arson 



Percent 



38.2 
37.4 
36.1 
35.8 
33.4 
31.5 
30.7 
30.2 
30.1 
29.7 
27.0 
26.8 
22.7 



1 Only 17 fingerprint cards were received representing arrests for violation of parking regulations. 



170 



CO^OCGCDCMt— 'CCCOr-H-H^T-HcOt^cOOO^cOoO iO00O05HN»0io o 
WOONONCOCO-H (NINHH »0 CO CO iCMl^aor^CMr^CMCO O 



2 I 






iCMOO^CMOCMt'-«OcO 
. T- i CO T-H tJ< CM CM CM 



QHNtONOmN 

oo cc r- co t— co Oi 



HMNtOOON'OHCNH^-rC XX C I - 

H^t^-iJIOOHlN rH rH CC O0 T-H T-H .-H T-H CM 



iCCWCClNOOOiMO 

75 ,-H CO lOHH 

NH j-H rH 






l— i CO t-» CM CM i-H 



i t-h t-h to ^ O0 CM CM 



iQ0C&NOMNO»O 

t-Ht-H (M 



^M-NSJOC'T-itOrHpq^NCOiOOOOt-lWb'N 
tH^NIOOOItHH CMtO CO t-H rH t-h CM 



i CM -*tfi O OS CSWH 



Si^ S'l 



fe d o i--h 



»M0000O«O(NfC^00Na)'HOeDNMN 



t-H (N tO lO 



icsohcocooojoo 

H-*Tf CD CM 



CMTPo^cot---ocMT«T-HCMCMi>. i m n N ro n 



IN »C « tO CO 00 Tf OO 



.53 a-S 

^-2 o'S 



NOCOOO»COJ»CHOONCONHr'^t-.LO 
CO "* CS CM r-H t-H rH t-H t-H t-H t-H 



cioi*or^cccNT«co 

0OO1HNC1CDH 



hcOOhCW-h'COO 
i O t-i CM CM rH r-H CO N CO t-h 



CS Oi -hh Tt^ 1^ CM CM rp "-" lC CC — CS ~ CO CM CO CO CO 

CM i— I "^ tO ^ r-H t-H rH 



iHOOO^^ciCDO 
i t— I CC CO O ©"5 i— I tO 



i Co in o Tt* cc to co ca 

*lr-t^M(NNO'H 

t-h CO CO lO CM 



I ^ N CO »C t> rH C35 IC 

iMNHINHOt^O 
HCCt CO "tf 



> 00 « CO O tH 00 ■* COcOCOOOOOH^NNCQHt-IHtHHOO' 1 



■o c: co ko cr. -rr '-C co c; x : 



H Oi O CM rH t-- Q0 t-H cOCMrHrHCMCMrHCI'rfl 



CO to O tC — *0 CT- ^ I - -f rH CM CT CO h Ci tjh rH CO 

o co r^ cm o oo t-h ,-h t-h cm to -hh ,-h o oo r~ cm cm co 



) *0 CO -rf< CM CO 00 r^Oi^CMCO^CMcO 



. CO C*J T-H "H4 CO T 



CM r-H ,-H ,-H t-H T-H CM 



CMoOCDOOt— IHWN 

Tcm" co i-h 



iCOcO^OOt-hqO-^iO 
iCOINoCONGOiOC 
i ,— i to CM CO OJ CM Th 



O! n O tt ^ « o ^ : ki r: x r- *r Tf »c c n ao h m h n h rf h n - 

H lO M N h 00 Tf hh H -^ C "-'. C h -t ;: ^ M M O N CO O N M Ol 1 

r- 1 CM rH CO CO rH rH ,-h ,-h ,-i T}< O CO t^. k 



NTtb-cor-tr>oico»coocooa50coTt*MHTti 

CO CC CO GO O0 CO CO' CM X CO' CC rT 'O ~ CM iO C3 CM 



) Tf rH Oi Cft O CN OS rH C5 C ?1 C C CI LC — X CM 

) T}i N CO IN rH IN t-HCMt-H rH CO CM -<f 



•rt j i>.<NcoLOior*-''HH 

tJ"h001*N001 



0<NCM-***COcrJOOrH 
CMCOtOOlT-Ht-COTf 



^•3 



O w S 03 3 P 






9 s 



a 

© 

a w 



g'gSS'S 



.IP 

o~* w B o 

§0 



at 









■ • '" C3 to 3 J3 "T 

i-, ra ® !i.5 cfl "£ xl ffi 3 be P «■"_. 
3.JW.S C o Eats-S C Ja ca S 03 



171 






P.0 
5'S 



SOJU 
a 

C3;3 



S a 



fl-o 



»- " h ® -„ 



52? 



J « 5 c 



53 ^ £ & 



NO00^'*O00C0OMI-' , tCi0(MHC(NCN»OC0050000(N0i00a> 
Ot > -CSC0050COh-HiOT-<iOT}<b.rt<H03NCi tQQO^OHOOCQ 



r-t ^ I- OS ud CO ^ 



i-iCOQQt^i-HCOeNi-' 



t^iOOOiNNONt IN Ci -* O C h c: t^ tC ^ O 05 W C ^ 00 C* "* 



ci co cc cr. ci cj 



h.-COCO i-l ^-<< 



tDOMoOHHiox iiOHNOCCOOJCON i iO C» ^ — I <N — « 00 C 



I •«* CO 00 i-H co 



MHfflONWOO' 



IHHH i-H CN CI 



iCCHCDINHCOHNOOH 



)io«'-'noi^rtH'*N©Trcc , icO'- 1 ^ 



IM ■* (N ID CO H Tj< H 



t-< CO I"- <N 



TT CO t- CN O — — < C4 0C ^ CO X ~ >~ CO -T C CI 

CN CN rP O --< CC i— i-i i-i 



co a. m h o t^ ^j- 



i'ticc:c;>ciocoN 
i— t ^f co cO cc 



iC (N CR O Tf >0 iO X 

i ^ tr in t. t - en 



'(NOOOi^WOCC 

*o r- oo i-- — t-- 



•* O O CO CO C O N "C I- N ■- !M I- G N h -t tJ* N C |, C CO C « C Ol 



I- l-^O" J- CO t~- CO H h N Cft t 

c* r- *c — i -i c- 



; 00 "* -T CO t- 1- X >•* C C - l- C. 



i-> tJ- CN i-t 



n o; ■* c tO rf C N O "O h h G h c» r~- CO O CI i CO CC CO I- cr- ~ CO C) 

i-~ o G -t j; c co co c n ci - c: o c c cn ci i o o c - r: c x c 

CN CO CO CO .— i-i f-» i-t 



<N 1^ C «C CO -f I- X Tf CO' -t t -r CO C CC r- C CN 
HiOCNClCO'-CTji.H CNCO CN ^- CO i-h t^ CC 



i- CO CD iO •* H O b. 
CN CN *0 tT 00 CI CO 



>fl M ^ ^ « ^ l-. if; o C 
,-h ,_ _h rH ,-t ^h C =0 



CN OS C CI "*• 1- CO iO 



C « c. l^ h a n C 

t t lg t ^ 01 co 



^- f^ a o 



N^COWNiOMWNtj<miCW-*COO^O 

^-»Tj-ifr;aic ? 5t--oO'-< cocn cc cn -r co *- »c 



CNCOCOOOOCOOOCO 

CR t O C: ^- C T CI 



Sfe 



oi ^* ^ »c c ^ n / ci -^ f: -~ -m c; -r x o i- x 

X CO O -- ^* ^"-* IO rH iC fC ^ IC X N T X' rC t 



t~COOOO~HCGTt<<N 
l^ ■— C3 t- O — t~ <N 



3 els £ 



^Ot^NHHCrti-^OVCC^C'CtOtO 



t-h r~ n- a; cm »-~ 



,_, ,_* ;o ^ cn 



'-i "1* CO 00 00 CO ** 



C3 >> 



£« 



T3 - 

c3 CI 



> t» 



iSJo 
■B®-g«g«S Ho ' 



a 
s"S 

®2 

boia 

a « 
'5-3 
IS 



5? 



Si? 

a" 



as 



-fc: c 
2 S« 



<^B1°C3 P'O " 



.2 P . 
SmS B § 

II II 



S J bi a "g ° 
o ?? a 5 S n 
£ o .3 c « c 



S S 2-s.S « & 
o 9 Kl 



c3®(B.g^t- c 3+s-™ c 3 03 SOS 

^^OiJGtffL ( ofiQ>OM^;«; 



QJ3 



172 



^TFCOCO^NrHCOCOrH^OCOcOeOOOcOCOOO lOOHt^i-iOOifl CM 
WCOt^ONTCCOH CN CM rH rH lO CO CO I CM !>■ 00 t^ CM t- CM CO t- 

r-lr-t i-l t-i CO 



©NMCOMCOHQ 



iHiOiCOOOOWNCOCD 
lil HQOH CM i-l 



1>- 1^ »OCO ' 



NHiOiOOOJNiOHONH^HOOO^N^ 
CM CD ^ t>- CM rH rH t^- rH rH rH r- I CM 



iN(SXiO00NH»O 
t- OO tJH COHQ 



■S-oiR 



4 g o3 g ©. 

1+3 a 



rH -»H rH <£> r-l IHHCOHH t-i rH 



MKlM^'XHiOHNTfNWiOOOtDHfONN 



HTtiNOON-^H CM *0 



iOON!COC»Oh O 



fe § o -.2 

fa ^ 



lNHi0NTtfNNMTjH0i0003CKDO>flONC 

i-h o cc © © oo co r-i x^ cm co o :i t :i :. - 



r-l (NO « CD 



(N-^OlCOCCNOIN-^'HiN it^. iiMcON WIN 



iCOiOWNCCrHN'* 
"1 O H O) CO Ol O N 



t CM -^ CO lO CO 00 -^ 00 CO 



NTjtQOMHHrt rH rH rH r-l 



tHOlCDHTfOOOS 
i rH CM <0 O O rH tP 



OSt>-COt--»aCNTf<CO 
OOCfiHCO^H 



itCOHO^HHiOUDO 
iOjrtHINHHCONOH 



i05HiOO00Hi0"C 

lNH(ONNH03H 

rH CO CO *0 CM 



005-^-Hnr^CNCN-HH'iH' 



) GO CO CO CM CO CO O 



CON-^iOiOiDNW O^HCJHTf!NCOHH 

CM rH -<H IO tH rH 



. _-- CO CM (-- 0O © ** 

i N W h « H OJ N O 



NCOO'OOJQONCC'^OcO>CO>0'-0^0:Ohh 
>h co co rc ■■_ ro r ■: -^r c i i - o »-~ x cc » " '- 3 o x 

rH CO O CM © t- 00 rH CO CM r-i !N IM H (N ■* 



rHWDOOCOCOCO©© 

NiCQOt-COlTOH^ 
NCO'ONhOMN 

CM CN CO rH 




; i 

■• i3 b Si' 

3 o s s s 3 a o a 

3fi ^pq^-jJWoQ^ 



173 



•*r i-~* co »~ ao o o r w '-- co t— co »o co •— 1 1— > m co cc c ^- ^ n x c c ^ a 
:i - -r o x -i c -- :i c /. k ?? :i z ?: ~ t x l: - r: c c ^ t o 

Ot0 05COCOONNH^HCOfQiCCOHt>.cOC 'O^'^OhtCih 



( ***« CO OS iO CO -^ CS . 



NH M ^H 






CS CO CO OS Ol CN i-t 



* co o cq r-< ^ go 



c o :i x c -- -f oo noHHO^ociNL-cN ■ •**« r- to co oi ;o x> co 



ci -f co r- f-=* co 



fCOOi-i-iXCO 



COO«OON'/> 

i-H r-H CN M- i-H 



•^TfiO t-» cc 



Boo 
CI 



IOIQHHOO^COH^NIO^IOi-KOOIHi 



N'tNCXH-Tn .-4 



r-1 CO *C (N 



i L-J o S C ?3 rt « o 
-rJ-MCnrt" CO 



03 c*i cc -r o — 1 1- go -r ro w-\ -j go c*j r - t- N «h o: 

KNC- CDHOCS » ■* CO N "C C « ■* OS r-i 

cm c^ -*r os .— i co 



-Nr^o^ro^ooN 
onn go i-h r* 



2 c 












cj >-- o x u-: i, c :i -- ^ ci / e r. x n c i, .r: n -r ?: x u-. x ci h ao 



r-coos-rr-^t^^co-H— -r-c 



ro ^ r- rroas-Htcch-N 



-HCOCS «-< 



x x *r x r: rt -c c ■- -r r-i t- >r. os o -o t*j:i m » *o CO OS 00 O >* 

CO O0 C CO W -OS « CO u0 t>- CM OS CO CO CO i-O CM Ol CX-CCtt'ZZ 



HCKO I-l 



(N N X uO (N t t^ X' •q* r: T -h CC X C X •- C M 
HLO^OSXiC-VH CN CO <M t-» CO ■-« t— CO 



iHXCiC'-'J'-'Ct^ 
CN N C Tf X N CO 



i lo cc CM *- co -r «-o lo cs — 



iNX-asG^r-rcf 

-• I- — < OS CM ifl OJ -h 



iCO^fOSt- '1^-t^.GO 

- tf IO ^« r-l OS CO 









— t^cs ■— a cc •-: -i 

~ T 00 C) ^- * T n 



2 w 

.11 



) CO OS t-h Q - 



i*cuoosocococo-r 

-.ONCiOCC- 
NNrtHC CO 



■STj^.a 



TfO^NO^CCCHiCDKC^COOCC 



rtNtCiMii: 



i-l i-h CO i-hN 



HO'-O'HOJIOH'S 
--t CC 00 O0 00 CO CO 



.5 <s — 

3j 3 
LOS 



.2 g" Si 

Sciaa: 




174 



e 

"Son 
S °5 






s 



A .2 



o o 
x a 






SS 5 g £ g.S 



t» 


i-H CMCOr-<i-< 






£?a 3£ o 




8 * 8 S- S 




^ « 





a o ^ *-h 
WT3 






■9 g gxi 



CM i CM >CM 



< Ot~ rH O r 



.-Hi-<0500r-lrHrH 

cm cm <r> 



COC30000-^CM^»O 

rHTOM(N CM 



«HTi<XH 



OrJHOMN 



rH^lQ i CM 



rH irHCO iCM 



■*!oc«miop:th 



O IHH. 



t CO 00 CM I CM 



1-1 CM CM 



rt^fiON i CO i-l lO 
HClH li-l i-H 



i-H00t~M<CMCOCMCC 
CO t^O OHN 



NiCIN I iO 
O CM t^i 



•OwNNNClO 
CO tP r-« CM -H 



1 CO 00 rH t^ 



3 W) 



fl3 



>» 



-Q-C 



1 r*> i. O 



H O 



a 

"O in 

a a 






p,-g 



™ U CJ 



■C O 



■CoS3fi3B°i2oS25 



ca «f§.2"n o §5-2 2 c^§ Sos 

- Ol^P«PHOQR>OtBr5<; 



gf£ 



175 



"COCO CO»0 HMHCC^NCX 




, „ >>£~ ft 

®"j d O-p Sri J 
o"3o3 3° £ 

pj «j m fj < w a <; 



176 



Table 99. — Number of cases in which fingerprint records show one or more prior 
convictions, and the total of prior convictions disclosed by the records, male and 
female, Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1938 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice — 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and ohildren 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Number of 
records show, 
ing one or 
more prior 
convictions 



1,072 
4,720 
7,208 
9,875 

15, 994 

3,030 

4,838 

728 

130 

2,523 

1,187 

1,544 

1,458 

1,762 

1,411 

1,136 

1,962 

3,700 

647 

5 

1,568 

6,849 

28. 448 

17,628 
1,192 

16, 009 
2,008 

11,389 



150, 021 



Number of 

prior con vie 

tions of major 

offenses 



1,179 

6,851 

8,221 

15, 666 

26, 031 

4,305 

7,269 

942 

136 

4,529 

1,427 

1,911 

1,649 

4,714 

1,788 

1,048 

1,439 

2,926 

497 

8 

1,482 

5,912 

16, 089 

16, 228 

1,320 

19, 410 

2,679 

13, 663 



169,319 



Number of 
prior convic- 
tions of minor 
offenses 



1,032 

4,586 

7,841 

8,925 

19, 755 

2,314 

4,115 

655 

97 

1,797 

1,000 

1,355 

1,662 

2,119 

1,264 

946 

2,351 

3,818 

617 

10 

1,588 

11,641 

63, 234 

23, 617 

1,082 

19, 084 

2,035 

15, 080 



203, 620 



Total number 
of prior con- 
victions dis- 
closed 



2,211 

11,437 

16, 062 

24, 591 

45, 786 

6,619 

11, 384 

1,597 

233 

6,326 

2,427 

3,266 

3,311 

6,833 

3,052 

1,994 

3,790 

6,744 

1,114 

18 

3,070 

17, 553 

79, 323 

39,845 

2,402 

38, 494 

4,714 

28, 743 



372, 939 



Race. — Whites were represented by 411,679 of the records examined 
and Negroes by 120,863. The remaining races were represented as 
follows: Indian, 2,651; Chinese, 837; Japanese, 238; Mexican, 16,028; 
all others, 2,080. 

The significance of the figures showhig the number of Negroes 
arrested as compared with the number of whites can best be indicated 
in terms of the number of each in the general population of the 
country. Exclusive of those under 15 years of age, there were, accord- 
ing to the 1930 decennial census, 8,041,014 Negroes, 13,069,192 
foreign-born whites, and 64,365,193 native whites in the United 
States. Of each 100,000 Negroes, 1,503 were arrested and finger- 
printed during 1938, whereas the corresponding figure for native 
whites was 571 and for foreign-born whites 209. Figures for indi- 
vidual types of violations may be found in the following tabulations. 
It should be observed in connection with the foregoing data that the 
figure for native whites includes the immediate descendants of foreign- 
born individuals. Persons desiring to make a thorough study of the 
comparative amounts of crime committeed by native whites and 
foreign-born whites should employ available compilations showing 
the number of instances in which offenders are of foreign or mixed 
parentage. 



177 



Table 100. — Distribution of arrests according to race, male and female, Jan. 1- 

Dec. 31, 1938 



Offense charged 



Race 



White 



Negro 



In- 
dian 



Chi- 
nese 



Jap- 
anese 



Mexi- 
can 



All 

others 



Total 
all 

races 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice . 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children.. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws. . - 

Disorderly conduct --- 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



3,733 

10, 163 

17, 194 

26,298 

44,619 

10, 844 

16, 388 

2,814 

793 

7,269 

4,704 

4,664 

6,598 

2,553 

3,301 

5,786 

4,287 

18, 438 

2,971 

12 

5,323 

17.781 

67, 699 

40, 535 

4,009 

46, 478 

6,328 

30, 097 



2,529 

3,914 

12, 467 

8,499 

16, 309 

1,675 

2,253 

896 

138 

714 

1,305 

1,724 

1,036 

779 

2,541 

915 

3, 829 

1,481 

989 

5 

1,592 

6,724 

9,656 

9,912 

2,942 

16,044 

1,425 

8,570 



27 
52 
130 
111 
249 
45 
72 

5 
41 
24 
24 
21 
17 
12 
14 
28 
185 
21 



23 

12 

37 

3 

7 

6 

1 

. 4 

16 

3 

8 

444 

13 

2 

7 

2 
3 



162 
409 
890 
722 

1,487 
358 
462 
65 
4 
109 
219 
143 
178 
291 
166 
177 
86 

1,012 
145 



25 
139 
775 
199 
1 
240 

34 
153 



4 
18 

9 
36 
103 
33 



284 

858 

4,036 

1,726 

63 

1,162 

186 

628 



44 
142 
263 
128 
137 
29 
38 
17 



60 
91 
95 

267 
85 

156 
23 

141 



6,507 

14, 698 

30, 978 

35, 778 

62, 848 

12, 958 

19, 226 

3,810 

941 

8,162 

6,333 

6,567 

7,888 

4,164 

6,125 

6,910 

8,247 

21, 169 

4,150 

17 

7,296 

25, 620 

82, 312 

52, 691 

7,233 

64, 125 

8,002 

39, 621 



411,679 



120,863 



2,651 



s;r 



238 



16,028 



2. MM I 



554, 376 



Table 101. — Distribution of arrests according to race, male, Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1938 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeit ing 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice- 
Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children... 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws . . . 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 






White 



3,525 
9,838 

16, 684 
25, 963 

42, 195 
10, 691 
15, 767 

2,697 
748 
6,901 
4,704 
1,047 
5,826 
1,673 
3,239 
5,065 
3,944 

17, 993 
2,934 

11 

5,250 

16, 147 

64, 584 

38, 226 

3,910 

43, 346 
5,934 

28, 730 



388, 172 



Negro 



2,122 

3,667 

10,544 

8,306 

14, 365 

1,641 

2,049 

768 

117 

628 

1,305 

431 



2,373 

881 

2,915 

1,448 

972 

5 

1,557 

5,481 

8,576 

9,225 

2,646 

14,646 

1,267 

8,010 



107, 341 



In- 
dian 



25 

47 

125 

110 

233 

45 

72 

5 

5 

39 

24 

8 

16 

10 

12 

14 

27 

is:; 

20 



22 
127 
728 
175 
1 
223 

28 
138 



2,462 



Chi- 
nese 



23 

12 

37 

3 

7 

6 

1 

4 

16 

3 

8 

443 

13 

2 

7 

2 

3 



4 
18 

9 
36 
103 
33 

6 
21 



836 



Jap 

anese 



238 



Mexi- 
can 



158 
408 
878 
713 
1,424 
355 
459 

62 

4 

103 

219 

25 
166 
247 
166 
176 

80 

1,005 

145 



283 

829 

3,972 

1,653 

62 

1,122 

183 

595 



15, 492 



All 
others 



43 
142 
263 
128 
135 
29 
38 
16 



263 
85 

155 
23 

140 



2,055 



Total 

all 
races 



5,885 
14, 120 
28, 528 
35,240 

58, 399 
12, 768 
18, 398 

3,559 

875 

7,700 

6,333 

1,522 

6,869 

3,038 

5,895 

6,754 

6,982 

20, 681 

4,095 

16 

7,184 

22, 700 

78, 001 

49, 594 

6,837 

59, 537 
7,441 

37, 645 



516, 596 



178 



Table 102. — Distribution of arrests according to race, female, Jan. 1- 


Dec. 81 


, 1938 




Race 


flense charged 


White 


Negro 


In- 
dian 


Chi- 
nese 


Jap- 
anese 


Mexi- 
can 


All 
others 


Total 
all 

races 




208 
325 
510 
335 
2,424 
153 
621 
117 
45 
368 


407 

247 

1,923 

193 

1,944 

34 

204 

128 

21 

86 


2 
5 
5 
1 
16 






4 
1 

12 
9 

63 
3 
3 
3 


1 

2 
1 


622 








578 








2,450 








538 








4,449 








190 










828 


Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc. 


2 






251 








66 




2 






6 




462 













3,617 

772 

880 

62 

121 

343 

445 

37 

1 

73 

1,634 

3,115 

2,309 

99 

3,132 

394 

1,367 


1,293 

229 

190 

168 

34 

914 

33 

17 


16 

5 

7 






118 
12 

44 


I 
1 

4 


5,045 








1,019 




1 




1,126 




230 


Offenses against family and children ._ 








1 
6 
7 


1 
1 


156 




1 
2 
1 






1,265 








488 








55 












1 


Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 


35 

1,243 

1,080 

687 

296 

1,398 

158 

560 


3 

12 

47 
24 








1 

29 
64 
73 

1 
40 

3 
33 


2 
5 
4 

1 

1 


112 
2,920 








4,311 








3,097 








396 




17 
6 

15 






4,588 








561 








1,976 










Total 


23, 507 


13, 522 


189 


1 




536 


25 


37, 780 







Table 103. — Number of arrests of Negroes and whites in proportion to the number 
of each in the general population of the country, male and female, Jan. 1-Dec. 81, 
1938, rate per 100,000 of population 

[Excluding those under 15 years of age] 



Offense charged 



Native white 



Foreign-born 
white 



Negro 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Autotheft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and countef feiting 

Rape ... 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children.. .. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws. . . 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



(0 



4.9 

14.2 

22.0 

38.1 

64.0 

16.0 

21.2 

3.5 

1.0 

10.4 

6.5 

6.7 

8.6 

3.7 

4.4 

8.0 

5.7 

25.8 

4.4 

7.6 
24.7 
90.0 
56.1 

4.7 
66.8 

9.0 
43.0 



3.8 
3.0 

20.4 
7.8 

19.1 
2.0 
7.8 
3.6 
1.0 
2.5 
3.1 
1.4 
6.0 
1.1 
3.0 
4.4 
4.1 



(0 



2.4 
12.8 
36.1 
17.6 

3.7 
15.4 

3.0 
14.5 



31.5 

48.7 

155.0 

105.7 

202.8 

20.8 

28.0 

11.1 

1.7 

8.9 

16.2 

21.4 

12.9 

9.7 

31.6 

11.4 

47.6 

18.4 

12.3 

.1 

19.8 

83.6 

120.1 

123.3 

36.6 

199.5 

17.7 

106.6 



570.9 



209.2 



i Less than one-tenth of 1 per 100,000. 



179 

At the end of December 1938 there were 9,783,887 fingerprint 
records and 11,134,113 index cards containing the names and aliases of 
individuals on file in the Identification Division of the FBI. Of 
each 100 fingerprint cards received during 1938, more than 58 were 
identified with those on file in the Bureau. Fugitives numbering 
7,741 were identified through fingerprint records during 1938, and 
interested law enforcement officials were immediately notified of the 
whereabouts of those fugitives. As of December 31, 1938, there were 
10,684 police departments, peace officers, and law enforcement agen- 
cies throughout the United States and foreign countries voluntarily 
contributing fingerprints to the FBI. 



180 
INDEX TO VOLUME IX, UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

[All references are to page numbers] 
Age of offenders. (See Arrests.) 
Annual crime trends: Pa g e 

Cities grouped by location 105-107 

Cities grouped by size 5-6, 57-59, 101-2, 114, 132, 133 

Estimated total number of major crimes, 1937-38 153-155 

Arrests— based on fingerprint records 48, 87-93, 115-122, 156-179 

Age of offenders 88-91, 116-120, 159-166 

Race of offenders . 93, 122, 176-178 

Recidivism 92-93, 121-122, 167-176 

Sex of offenders 87-88, 115-116, 158-159 

Transient criminals 48 

Arrests. (See Persons charged and persons released.) 

Classification of offenses 1, 49-50, 52-53, 96-97, 124-125 

Cleared by arrest, offenses 12-15, 20-21, 25 

By geographic divisions 26-47 

Convictions, previous. (See Arrests — recidivism.) 

Crimes. (See Arrests, estimated number, offenses, persons charged, 
persons found guilty, and persons released.) 

Crime rates, relation to number of police employees 66-67 

Criminal history of persons in single fingerprint file 156-157 

Employees, number of police 68-86, 114 

Number of, and relation to crime rates 66-67 

Fingerprint records 48, 87-93, 1 15-122, 156-179 

Offenses known to the police: 

Annual variations 5-6, 57-59, 101-102, 105-107, 114, 132-133 

Cities grouped by location 105-107, 134-136 

Cities grouped by location and size 58-60, 103-104, 137 

Cities grouped by size 3-4, 55-56, 99-100, 128-129 

Cleared by arrest . 12-15, 20-21, 25 

Cleared by arrest, by geographic divisions 26-47 

Divided as to time and place and value of property stolen 

10,64-65, 112, 148-149 
Individual cities over 100,000 in population... 7-9, 61-63, 108-110, 138-144 

Individual cities over 25,000 in population 138-144 

Monthly variations 130-131 

Percentage distribution 3, 55, 99, 128, 145-146 

Rural areas 63, 110, 145-146 

Territories and possessions of the United States 9, 63, 111, 147 

Persons charged (held for prosecution) 14-20 

By geographic divisions 26-47 

Persons found guilty 20-22 

Persons released (not held for prosecution) 22-25 

Police department employees 66-86, 114 

Police officers killed by criminals, 1937 113 

Possessions and territories of the United States, offenses in 9, 63, 111, 147 

Property, value stolen and recovered 11, 65-66, 113, 149-152 

Prosecution, persons held for. (See Persons charged and persons found 

guilty.) 
Race of offenders. (See Arrests.) 
Recidivism. (See Arrests.) 

Rural crime data 63, 110, 145-146 

Reporting area, extent of 2, 53-54, 97-98, 125-126 

Sex of offenders. (See Arrests.) 

Sheriffs^ reports 63, 110, 145-146 

State crime rates. (See Offenses known — cities grouped by location.) 

State police reports 63, 110, 145-146 

Territories and possessions of the United States, offenses in 9, 63, 111, 147 

Transient criminals 48 

Trends, annual crime: 

Cities grouped by location 105-107 

Cities grouped by size 5-6, 57-59, 101-102, 114, 132-133 

Estimated total number of major crimes, 1937-38 153-155 

Trends, monthly crime 130-131 

Value of property stolen and recovered 11, 65-66, 113, 149-152 

o 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 0635 



989 4