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Full text of "Uniform crime reports for the United States"

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U N I F O R M 

C R { M £ 
REPORT S 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



United states 

government printing office 

washington : 1939 



VOLUME X 



NUMBER 2 



SECOND QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1939 



\L 8. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMh' 

SEP 13 1939 



ADVISORY 



Committee on Uniform Crime Records of the International 
Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 
U. S. Department of Justice, Washington, D. C. 



Volume 10 July 1939 Number 2 



CONTENTS 

Classification of offenses. 
Extent of reporting area. 
Monthly returns: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population (table 
41). 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1931-39 (table 42). 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location (tables 
43-44). 

Data for individual cities over 100,000 in population (table 45). 

Offenses known to sheriffs and State police (table 46). 

Offenses known in territories and possessions (table 47). 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 48-50) . 
Police employee data: 

Police killed by criminals, 1938 (table 51). 

Relation between number of police employees and crime rates, 1938 (table 
62). 

Number of police employees, and motorized equipment, 1938 (tables 53-58). 
Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1939: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 59) . 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 60-61). 

Number with records showing previous convictions (table 62). 
Definitions of part I and part II offense classifications. 

SUMMARY 

Crimes Against Property. 

With the exception of larceny, crimes against property decreased 
during the first half of 1939. The increase in larceny offenses 
amounted to 3.3 percent, and the figure for these crimes during the 
first half of 1939 was higher than for the corresponding period in any 
preceding year. 

The decrease in offenses against property was most prominent in 
offenses of robbery, which during the first half of 1939 were 11.3 
percent lower than in the corresponding period of 1938. Offenses of 
auto theft decreased 8.5 percent, and burglary, 2.3 percent. 

Crimes Against Persons. 

During the first half of this year, offenses of rape increased 1.5 
percent as compared with last year. However, offenses of man- 
slaughter by negligence decreased 3.4 percent, and aggravated assaults 
were 5.0 percent lower than for the first 6 months of 1938. The figure 
for murder remained substantially the same. 

(55) 



56 

Distribution of Crimes. 

Crimes of larceny not only increased during the first half of 1939 as 
compared with 1938, but these offenses constituted 57.6 percent of the 
total offenses. Burglaries represented 23.1 percent, auto thefts 11.7 
percent, and robberies 3.7 percent. The remaining 3.9 percent of the 
crimes consisted of offenses against the person, including homicides, 
rapes, and other felonious assaults. 

More than 90 percent of the nonresidence burglaries occurred during 
the nighttime. Nonresidence burglaries constituted more than 50 
percent of the total burglaries committed. Approximately one-third 
of the residence burglaries were committed during the day. 

Nineteen percent of the larcenies involved the theft of personal 
property from automobiles, exclusive of automobile accessories, and 
thefts of this latter type of property amounted to 16.2 percent of all 
the larcenies. 

Geographic Division of Crime Rates. 

Crime rates are presented for six different groups of cities according 
to size, and this information is also presented for the nine geographic 
divisions in order to make possible comparisons between local crime 
data and average figures for cities of the same size located in the same 
section of the country. 

Police Employee Data. 

When the cities in the United States of over 100,000 population 
were divided into two groups according to the number of police 
employees per unit of population, it was found that the one group 
of cities having an average of 20 police employees per 10,000 in- 
habitants reported 26 percent less murders, 19 percent less robberies, 
14 percent less aggravated assaults, 11 percent less burglaries, and 
16 percent less larcenies, than the police departments having an 
average of 12 employees per 10,000 inhabitants. 

Detailed information concerning the number and functional dis- 
tribution of police employees, and motorized equipment for the 
calendar year 1938 is shown herein. Summary figures for this type 
of information are likewise presented. 

Persons Arrested. 

Fingerprint cards representing 288,107 arrests during the first half 
of 1939 revealed that 19.3 percent of the persons arrested were under 
21 years of age. There were more arrests for age 19 than for any 
other single age group. 

The records reveal that, of the 288,107 persons arrested, there was 
information on file dealing with prior criminal activities of 132,289. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known^ to 
the police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting 
or court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following 
group of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be 
those most generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal 
homicide, including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (b) 
manslaughter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; 
burglary — breaking or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The 



57 



figures contained herein include also the number of attempted crimes 
of the designated classes. Attempted murders, however, are reported 
as aggravated assaults. In other words, an attempted burglary or 
robbery, for example, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner 
as if the crime had been completed. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the police depart- 
ments of contributing cities and not merely arrests or cleared cases. 
Complaints which upon investigation are learned to be groundless are 
not included in the tabulations which follov/. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of crime 
and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 
Extent of Reporting Area. 

In the table which follows there is shown the number of police 
departments from which one or more crime reports have been received 
during the first 6 months of 1939. Information is presented for the 
cities divided accordmg to size. The population figures employed are 
estimates as of July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census for cities 
with population in excess of 10,000. No estimates were available, 
however, for those with a smaller number of inhabitants and, accord- 
ingly, for them the figures listed in the 1930 decennial census were used. 



Population group 


Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 


Cities filing returns 


TotaJ pop- 
ulation 


Population repre- 
sented in returns 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total - - - 


982 

37 

57 

104 

191 

593 


910 


92.7 


60, 265, 719 

29, 695, 500 
7, 850, 312 
6, 980, 407 
6, 638, 544 
9, 100, 956 


58, 807, 506 

29, 695, 500 
7, 850, 312 
6, 831, 307 
6, 113, 744 
8, 316, 643 


97 6 






1. Cities over 250,000 


37 

57 

102 

176 

538 


100.0 

100.0 

98.1 

92.1 

90.7 


100 


2, Cities 100,000 to 250,000 


100 


3. Cities 50,000 to 100,000 


97 9 


4. Cities 25,000 to 50,000. 


92 1 


5. Cities 10,000 to 25,000 - 


91 4 







Note.— The above table does not include 1,705 cities and rural townships aggregating a total population 
of 8,485,522. The cities included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 population filing returns, whereas 
the rural townships are of varying population groups. 

The growth in the crime-reporting area is evidenced by the following 
figures for the first 6 months of 1932-39: 



Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


1932 

1933 

1934 


1,536 
1,606 
1,645 
1,949 


52, 692, 749 
54, 208, 740 
62, 319, 945 
63, 270, 583 


1936 

1937 

1938 


2,189 
2,278 
2,512 
2,615 


64, 648, 798 
65, 241, 398 
66, 659, 040 


1935 


1939 


67, 293, 028 





The foregoing comparison shows that during the first half of 1939 
there was an increase of 103 cities as compared with the corresponding 
period of 1938, the population represented for those cities being 633,988. 

In addition to the 2,615 city and village police departments which 
submitted crime reports during 1939, one or more reports were received 
during that period from 1,578 sheriffs and State police organizations 
and from 1 1 agencies in possessions of the United States. This makes 
a grand total of 4,204 agencies contributing crime reports during 1939. 



.'^^ 



MONTHLY RETURNS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population. 

There are presented in table 41 figures showing the number of 
offenses known to the poUce during the period of January-June, in- 
clusive, 1939, as reported by police departments in 1,907 cities with 
a combined population of 61,608,286. These data are also presented 
for the cities divided into six groups according to size. Table 41 indi- 
cates not only the number of offenses known to the police, but also 
the rate per 100,000 inhabitants. This compilation makes it possible 
for police executives or other interested persons to compare the crime 
rate of an individual community with the national average for cities 
of approximately the same size. 

In table 44 these data are presented in a manner wliich makes it 
possible to compare local crime data with average figures for cities 
of the same size located in the same section of the United States. 

Table 41 reveals that 57.6 percent of the crimes consisted of lar- 
cenies, 23.1 percent burglaries, 11.7 percent auto theft, and 3.7 percent 
robberies. This means that 96.1 percent of the crimes listed in the 
compilation were primarily offenses against property. The remain- 
ing 3.9 percent of the crimes consisted of homicides, rapes, and felo- 
nious assaults, such as assault with a deadly weapon. 

(58) 



59 



Table 41. — Offenses known to the police, January to June, inclusive, 1939; num- 
ber and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 

35 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 29,1]4,100: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP n 

57 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,850,312: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP in 

92 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total popu- 
lation, 6,225,954: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP IV 

151 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total popu- 
lation, 5,267,201: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP V 

471 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total pop- 
ulation, 7,297,428: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP VI 

1,101 cities under 10,000; total popula- 
tion, 5,853,291: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

Total 1,907 cities; total population, 
61,608,286: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000. _ 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



851 
2.9 



227 
2.9 



181 
2.9 



93 
1.8 



127 
1.7 



1Q5 
1.8 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



Rape 



1 735 1, 594 
2. 7 5. 5 



1,584 
2.6 



172 
2.2 



82 
1.3 



54 
1.0 



65 
.9 



61 
1.0 



' 1, 169 
2.0 



Rob- 
berv 



287 
3.7 



192 
3.1 



152 
2.9 



231 
3.2 



255 
4.4 



2,711 
4.4 



11,101 
38.1 



2,074 
26.4 



1,321 
21.2 



806 
15.3 



929 
12.7 



693 
11.8 



Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 



6, 152 
21.1 



* 1, 787 
23.1 



1,767 
28.4 



956 
18.2 



1,227 
16.8 



783 
13.4 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



2 37,522 3 94,158 
187. 7 471. 1 



16, 977 
216.3 



11, 200 
179.9 



8,670 
164.6 



9,346 
128.1 



7,005 
119.7 



16,924 < 12, 672 2 90,720 
27.5 20.6 172.9 



39. 024 
497.1 



28, 163 
452.3 



23,646 

448.9 



26, 277 
360.1 



15, 270 
260.9 



Auto 
theft 



2 226,538 
431.7 



» 23, 504 
107.0 



8,414 
107.2 



5,280 
84.8 



4,208 
79.9 



4,069 
55.8 



2,494 
42.6 



3 47, 969 
88.1 



' The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports as follows: Group I. 
33 cities, total population, 27,.385,900; groups I-VI, 1,905 cities, total population, 59,880,086. 

2 The number of offenses and rate for burglary and larceny— theft are based on reports as follows: Group I, 
33 cities, total population, 19,987,100; groups I-VI, 1,905 cities, total population, 52,481,286. 

3 The number of offenses and rate for auto theft are based on reports as follows: Group I, 34 cities, total 
population, 21,959,800; groups I-VI, 1,906 cities, total population, 54,453,986. 

< The number of offenses and rate for aggravated assault are based on reports as follows: Group II, 56 
cities, total population, 7,742,112; groups I-VI, 1,906 cities, total population, 61,500,086. 



60 



Annual Trends, Offenses Known to the Police, 1931-39. 

Annual variations in the number of offenses known to have been 
committed are presented in table 42. The information is based upon 
reports received from 66 cities of over 100,000 inhabitants for the 
period of January-June for each year of 1931-39. A total population 
of 18,895,102 is represented. The information is presented in the form 
of the total number of offenses reported, as well as the daily average for 
each of the various types of crimes. This tabulation makes it possible 
for interested persons to compare crime trends in an individual com- 
munity with the annual variations for the entire nation. 

The figures in this table indicate that during the first 6 months of 
1939 as compared with 1938 there were decreases in offenses of man- 
slaughter by negligence, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary and 
auto theft. The figures for rape and larceny show increases, while 
offenses of murder remained substantially the same. 

It is interesting to note that offenses of larceny were higher during 
the first 6 months of 1939 than for that period in any other year, 
whereas larcenies of automobiles were fewer during the first 6 months 
than in the corresponding period of any of the other years. Aggra- 
vated assaults showed a small decrease, and the figure for this type of 
offense is likewise smaller than for any other year presented in the 
table. The information presented in table 42 is also shown in figure 2. 

Table 42. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 66 cities over 100,000 in 
population, January to June, inclusive, 1931-39 



[Total population, 18,895,102, as estimated July 1, 1933, 


by the Bureau of the Censusl 






Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
brealiing 

or 
entering 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Year 


Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Number of oflenses kD own : 
1931 . -- 


745 
710 
721 
667 
612 
553 
594 
531 
530 

4.1 
3.9 
4.0 
3.7 
3.4 
3.0 
3.3 
2.9 
2.9 


679 
637 
454 
580 
372 
351 
471 
355 
343 

3.8 
3.5 
2.5 
3.2 
2.1 
1.9 
2.6 
2.0 
1.9 


568 
584 
651 
616 
781 
701 
890 
849 
862 

3.1 
3.2 
3.6 
3.4 
4.3 
3.9 
4.9 
4.7 
4.8 


10, 123 
9,171 
8,682 
7,025 
6,931 
5,393 
6,197 
6.624 
5,876 

55.9 
50.4 
48.0 
38.8 
38.3 
29.6 
34.2 
36.6 
32.5 


4,783 
4,154 
4,786 
4,501 
4,619 
4,490 
4,549 
4,130 
3,925 

26.4 
22.8 
26.4 
24.9 
25.5 
24.7 
25.1 
22.8 
21.7 


33, 682 
35, 937 
35, 709 
33, 847 
34, 899 
28, 320 
31,185 
33, 361 
32, 599 

186.1 
197.5 
197.2 
187.0 
192.8 
155.6 
172.3 
184.3 
180.1 


74, 898 
74, 187 
78, 606 
78, 570 
81,113 
71, 642 
83, 099 
87,021 
89, 932 

413,8 
407.6 
434.3 
434.1 
448.1 
393.6 
459.1 
480.8 
496.9 


45, 138 


1932 

1933 


36, 862 
33, 741 


1934 


30, 485 


1935 


28, 354 


1936 


22, 032 


1937 


24, 171 


1938 -. 


20, 506 


1939 


18, 758 


Daily average: 

1931 


249.4 


1932 


202.5 


1933 


186.4 


1934 


168.4 


1935 


156.7 


1936 -_ 


121.1 


1937 


133.5 


1938 _. 


113.3 


1939 _ .. 


103.6 







61 



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62 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location. 

The data presented in tables 41 and 44 are supplemented by the 
information shown in table 43. In this latter tabulation there is 
indicated the number of contributors whose reports were employed 
in preparing the crime rates for each of the population groups within 
each of the nine geographic divisions. 

The information presented in table 44 has been made available in 
order to make it possible for the police executive to compare the 
local crime rates not only with the general average for the entire 
country as shown in table 41, but also with the average crime rates 
for cities of approximately the same size in the same section of the 
United States. 

Table 43. — Number of cities included in the tabulation of uniform crime reports, 

January to June, inclusive, 1939 



Division 



Population 



Group 
I 



Over 
250,000 



Group 
II 



100,000 

to 
250,000 



Group 
III 



50,000 

to 
100,000 



Group 
IV 



25,000 

to 
50,000 



Group 
V 



10,000 

to 
25,000 



Group 
VI 



Less 
than 
10,000 



Total 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England: 165 cities; total population, 
5,545,048 - 

Middle Atlantic: 487 cities; total population, 
18,545,496 

East North Central: 463 cities; total popula- 
tion, 16,024,820 

West North Central: 222 cities; total popula- 
tion, 5,000,132 

South Atlantic: ' 153 cities; total population, 
4.694,666 

East South Central: 63 cities; total popula- 
tion, 1,766,180 

West South Central: 113 cities; total popula- 
tion, 3,398,526 

Mountain: 74 cities; total population, 
1,180,423 

Pacific: 167 cities; total population, 5,452,995, . 



12 

11 

10 

5 

6 

3 

5 

1 
4 



11 

20 

23 

7 

13 

3 

7 

2 
6 



22 

26 

49 

10 

15 

4 

8 

5 
12 



61 

129 

102 

52 

33 

18 

26 

14 
36 



57 

295 

270 

144 

83 

33 

64 

51 
104 



165 

487 

463 

222 

153 

63 

113 

74 
167 



1 Includes report of District of Columbia. 



63 



Table 44.- — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, Jamiary 
to June, inclusive, 1939, by geographic divisions and population groups 



Geographic division and population group 



New England: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group in 

Group IV 

Group V 

GroupVI 

Total, groups I-VI. 

Middle Atlantic: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI_ 

East North Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

GroupVI 

Total, groups I-VI_ 

West North Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

GroupVI 

Total, groups I-VI_ 

South Atlantic: 

Group I "i 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI_ 

East South Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

GroupVI 

Total, groups I-VI_ 

West South Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

GroupVI 

Total, groups I-VI. 

Moutain: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

GroupVI 

Total, groups I-VI_ 

Pacific: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

GroupVI 

Total, groups I-VI.. 



Murder, 






Bur- 






nonneg- 




Aggra- 


glary- 


Lar- 


Auto 
theft 


ligent 


Robbery 


vated 


breaking 


ceny- 


man- 




assault 


or enter- 


theft 


slaughter 






ing 






0.5 


21.."; 


9.2 


87.2 


188.9 


140.3 


.5 


11.2 


5.9 


192,9 


341.2 


103.2 


.1 


5.7 


1.5 


119.9 


262.5 


60.4 


.fi 


6.8 


2.7 


142.0 


296.7 


60.4 


. i 


4.2 


2.5 


91.2 


187.3 


29.7 


.3 


2.6 


1.8 


95.9 


127.5 


22.1 


. 5 


9.9 


4.6 


131.0 


253.2 


79.5 


2,4 


14.2 


21.0 


I 103. 9 


1239.4 


2 89.0 


.5 


11.1 


9.0 


141.5 


246.5 


68.7 


1.3 


12.1 


15.5 


156.4 


2.54. 4 


69.5 


.2 


7.8 


11.1 


113.2 


254.0 


47.5 


1.0 


8.2 


8.9 


88.8 


167.0 


41.2 


1.0 


7.5 


5.2 


78,6 


124.5 


27.6 


1.8 


12.3 


16.5 


3 111.1 


3 209. 8 


<63.8 


2.4 


63.6 


18.9 


172.5 


417.3 


62.7 


1.6 


31.0 


26.9 


206.0 


494.7 


112.2 


.4 


25.2 


8,6 


148.6 


367.7 


73.9 


1.4 


16.1 


5,5 


134.6 


380.1 


74.0 


1.2 


18.6 


5.4 


137.9 


323.6 


54.1 


.9 


12.1 


7.9 


102.6 


174.3 


34.7 


1.8 


42.9 


14.9 


159.2 


383.6 


65.8 


2,6 


41.6 


6.8 


136. 8 


493.3 


84.6 


2,1 


27.9 


12.3 


156.4 


480,3 


102.5 


1,0 


20.7 


4.3 


203.1 


572.5 


110.6 


.6 


18.4 


4.1 


148,9 


483.5 


80.7 


1,3 


9.5 


7.2 


137,1 


443.9 


70.7 


1.1 


7.4 


4.3 


106.9 


224.7 


38.8 


1.8 


26.3 


6.8 


142.7 


453.1 


80.8 


6.7 


50.6 


44.8 


221.7 


522.7 


186.0 


10.5 


45.0 


8 69.3 


362.7 


858.3 


139.9 


9.4 


30.2 


98.6 


218.8 


613.5 


84.6 


5.8 


24.2 


94.9 


248.7 


670.7 


97.4 


6.2 


15.5 


117,3 


176.8 


502.4 


64.1 


6.2 


19.4 


72.0 


168.4 


388.9 


75.7 


7.6 


36.4 


'74.7 


237.8 


597.0 


126.5 


8.8 


49.9 


50.3 


352,2 


583.8 


97.0 


13.1 


30.7 


51.5 


189.9 


408.4 


105.6 


13.2 


27.8 


64.9 


223.0 


322.6 


91.8 


7.7 


28.1 


72.7 


248.1 


634.7 


125.0 


6.1 


16.7 


42.2 


131.1 


380.4 


39.9 


11.2 


15.6 


58,0 


164.7 


238.4 


46.8 


10.0 


33.1 


53.7 


242.2 


457.6 


87.7 


9.5 


29.2 


39.3 


192.1 


776.6 


91.9 


4.4 


48.2 


43.1 


312.8 


821.6 


121.3 


6.7 


24.0 


75.5 


215.2 


703.7 


83.3 


5.6 


28.1 


28.9 


232.2 


848.5 


100.8 


4.4 


23.4 


32,5 


161.5 


568.5 


57.3 


3.2 


20.2 


21.1 


168.0 


391.7 


39.3 


6.3 


31.7 


41.6 


222.6 


719.0 


89.3 


. 7 


14.7 


7.5 


103.3 


598.9 


67.5 


1.4 


35.4 


4.2 


251.0 


453,5 


153.3 


2.9 


40.1 


10.8 


265.2 


818.0 


253.4 


1.2 


19.8 


1.2 


225.9 


842.0 


173.5 


2.0 


18.7 


6.1 


154.5 


985.1 


96.2 


1.1 


13.3 


8.8 


162.3 


421.9 


58.5 


1.4 


20.5 


6.5 


175.4 


659.3 


112.2 


2.3 


56.4 


18.0 


313.0 


692.4 


227.9 


.4 


31.6 


10.9 


236.0 


695.5 


135.3 


2.0 


34.2 


9.4 


280.1 


940.4 


140.8 


.8 


17.1 


10.6 


264.0 


702.0 


127.1 


.6 


18.1 


6.3 


221.6 


864.1 


126.4 


1.5 


22.7 


8.9 


212.3 


769.8 


93.0 


1.7 


42.1 


14.0 


280.1 


738.9 


180.9 



' The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 4 cities. 

2 The rate for auto theft is based on the reports of 5 cities. 

3 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 485 cities. 
* The rate for auto theft is based on the reports of 486 cities. 

5 Includes the District of Columbia. 

' The rate for aggravated assault is based on the reports of 5 cities. 

' The rate for aggravated assault is based on the reports of 152 cities. 



64 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 100,000 Inhabitants. 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the first 6 months of 1939 is shown in table 45. The compilation 
includes the reports received from police departments in cities with 
more than 100,000 inhabitants. Such data are included here in order 
that interested individuals and organizations may have readily 
available up-to-date information concerning the amount of crime 
committed in their communities. Police administrators and other 
interested individuals will probablj^ find it desirable to compare the 
crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in tables 41 
and 44 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire to 
make comparisons with the figures for their communities for prior 
periods, in order to determine whether there has been an increase or 
a decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

With reference to the possibility of comparing the amount of 
crime in one city with the amount of reported crime in other individual 
communities, it is suggested that such comparisons be made with a 
great deal of caution, because differences in the figures may be due to 
a great variety of factors. The amount of crime committed in a 
community is not chargeable to the police but is rather a charge 
against the entire community. The following is a list of some of the 
factors which might affect the amount of crime in a community: 

The composition of the population with reference particularly to 

age, sex, and race. 
The economic status and activities of the population. 
Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 
The number of police employees per unit of population. 
The standards governing appointments to the police force. 
The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 
The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 

Comparisons between the crime rates of individual cities should 
not be made without giving consideration to the above-mentioned 
factors. It should be noted that it is more important to determine 
whether the figures for a given community show increases or decreases 
in the amount of crime committed than to ascertain whether the 
figures are above or below those of some other community. 

In examining a compilation of crime figures for individual com- 
munities it should be borne in mind that in view of the fact that the 
data are compiled by different record departments operating under 
separate and distinct administrative systems, it is entirely possible 
that there may be variations in the practices employed in classifying 
complaints of offenses. On the other hand, the crime reporting 
manual has been distributed to all contributors of crime reports, and 
the figures received are included in this bulletin only if they apparently 
have been compiled in accordance with the provisions of the manual, 
and the individual department has so indicated. 



65 

Table 45. — Number of offenses known to the police, April to June, inclusive, 1939, 

cities over 100,000 in population 



City 



Akron, Ohio 

Albany, N. Y 

Atlanta, Ga 

Baltimore, Md 

Birmingham, Ala 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Cambridge, Mass 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 

Chattanooga, Tenn_ . 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Columbus, Ohio 

Dallas, Tex 

Dayton, Ohio 

Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Detroit, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 

Elizabeth, N. J 

El Paso, Tex 

Erie, Pa 

Evansville, Ind 

Fall River, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Gary, Ind 

Grand Rapids, Mich.. 

Hartford, Conn 

Honolulu, T. H 

Houston, Tex 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Jersey City, N. J 

Kansas City, Kans — 

Kansas City, Mo 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Long Beach, Calif 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn 

Miami, Fla 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Nashville, Tenn 

Newark, N. J 

New Bedford, Mass... 

New Haven, Conn 

New Orleans, La 

NewYork, N. Y 

Norfolk, Va 

Oakland, Calif 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha, Nebr 

Paterson, N. J 

Peoria, 111 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Oreg 

Providence, R.I 

Reading, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif... 



Murder, 

non- 
negligent 

man- 
slaughter 



23 
21 

10 
2 



6 
62 

9 

17 

3 

22 

2 

1 

1 

11 



3 

13 

4 

6 

2 

7 
6 



Robbery 



16 

13 

1 

1 

10 
2 
5 

13 
6 



1 
22 
73 
4 
2 
1 
4 



40 

15 

3 



7 
1 

12 
2 
2 

15 
1 
2 



46 

7 

76 

136 

27 

71 

5 

15 

6 

17 

26 

20 

1,76S 

102 

159 
87 
27 
33 
21 
21 

276 



4 

28 

8 

9 

4 

16 

11 

12 

29 

3 

10 

4 

88 

98 

20 

42 

132 

2 

22 

377 

102 

1 

9 

31 
18 
37 
33 
40 
6 
10 
23 

321 
19 
54 
31 
17 
10 
18 

170 

103 

48 

4 

8 

31 

20 

122 
34 
27 
55 
14 

137 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



29 

3 

48 

179 
20 
33 
3 
35 
2 
29 
19 
51 

406 
73 
51 
20 
64 
41 
11 
11 

170 



37 
5 
1 

65 
5 

23 
5 

42 
111 

37 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



283 

60 

499 

357 

356 

319 

93 

171 

86 

46 

79 

195 

2,982 

465 

617 

575 

347 

294 

169 

178 

1,085 

32 

95 

114 

114 

127 

91 

202 

103 

298 

80 

133 

245 

245 

438 

586 

389 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



(') 



33 

10 
122 

162 
58 

177 
48 
75 
24 
37 



13 

861 

164 

57 

80 

27 

14 

70 

50 

174 

33 

11 

11 

22 

22 

2 

30 

29 

15 

7 

15 

27 

50 

77 

176 



Complete data not received. 



Under 
$50 



(2) 



456 
171 
986 
676 
514 
648 
407 
425 
180 
116 
232 
345 
3,060 
1,175 
2,614 
737 
1,796 
545 
775 
404 
5,633 
326 
167 
333 
158 
347 
101 
559 
471 
682 



553 
447 
524 
1,579 
1,427 
636 



Auto 
theft 



80 

45 

262 

711 

76 

706 

109 

180 

117 

25 

23 

33 

708 

175 

241 

114 

136 

127 

100 

109 

690 

44 

30 

63 

82 

99 

16 

82 

133 

58 

51 

72 

122 

47 

204 

350 

87 



9 


157 


22 


260 


36 


11 


355 


0) 


958 


121 


12 


64 


35 


144 


37 


4 


186 


66 


639 


86 


116 


2, 273 


813 


3,429 


1,829 


142 


588 


171 


897 


216 


5 


58 


8 


66 


38 


2 


141 


18 


255 


43 


nly ] 


month re( 


jeived. 








269 


61 


254 


44 


18 


112 


77 


1,072 


122 


14 


328 


162 


799 


336 


44 


86 


(') 


208 


73 


158 


239 


86 


989 


286 


1 


194 


21 


265 


41 


2 


168 


67 


299 


161 


111 


111 


101 


249 


141 


800 


884 


0) 


4,166 


1,523 


38 


221 


35 


380 


169 


29 


306 


54 


937 


159 


76 


287 


51 


610 


89 


16 


139 


10 


238 


107 


5 


131 


18 


59 


47 


15 


187 


14 


198 


68 


156 


554 


184 


485 


538 


70 


495 


118 


363 


482 


11 


660 


185 


1,240 


215 


9 


133 


33 


173 


64 


5 


158 


25 


121 


44 


138 


320 


79 


1,084 


147 


21 


144 


46 


563 


110 


22 


316 


(') 


2,410 


206 


10 


273 


43 


692 


80 


4 


179 


10 


302 


93 


88 


281 


91 


754 


161 


7 


125 


27 


373 


117 


91 


595 


201 


1,660 


599 



See footnotes at end of table. 



Table 45. 



66 

-Number of offenses known to the police, April to June, inclusive, 1939, 
cities over 100,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Seranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Somerville, Mass... 
South Bend, Ind... 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, Mass_. 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo, Ohio 

Trenton, N.J 

Tulsa, Okla 

Utica, N. Y 

Washington, D. C. 
Waterbury, Conn_. 

Wichita, Kans 

Wilmington, Del.-. 
Worcester, Mass,.. 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, Ohio. 



Murder, 

non- 
negligent 

man- 
slaughter 



13 



Robbery 



20 
51 

4 
20 
18 

4 

6 
14 

6 
49 

3 
63 

1 
129 

2 

1 

1 
12 

3 
34 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



9 

15 

1 

5 

19 

6 

2 

2 

24 

26 

10 

31 



125 
2 
11 
17 
9 
10 
34 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



103 

588 

31 

113 

181 

97 

81 

91 

92 

283 

1.56 

327 

29 

732 

79 

74 

66 

193 

28 

179 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



27 
78 
6 
20 
22 
30 
26 
11 
17 
70 
26 
71 
18 
206 
13 
10 
31 
35 
15 
20 



Under 
$50 



141 
879 

46 
257 
592 
261 
277 
319 
214 
804 
240 
618 
188 
,879 

96 
406 
149 
261 

80 
333 



Auto 
theft 



74 
271 
38 
48 
46 
44 
61 
94 
32 
104 
36 
99 
26 
420 
43 
26 
40 
97 
32 
62 



' Larcenies not separately reported. 
' Complete figure not received. 



Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



Offenses Known to Sheriffs, State Police, and Other Rural Officers, 1939. 
National police statistics as compiled by the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation are tabulated and published separately in this bulletin 
as to offenses occurring in cities and towns of more than 2,500 inhabit- 
ants, and those occurring in strictly rural areas. Comprehensive 
data of this type are not yet available with reference to rural crimes. 
However, in table 46 there is shown the number of offenses known to 
have been committed, as reported by 889 sheriffs, 8 State police 
organizations, and 88 village officers, for the period of January-June, 
1939. 



Table 46. — Offenses known, January to June, inclusive, 1939, as reported by 889 
sheriffs, 8 State police organizations, and 88 village officers 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 






Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligcnt 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Offenses known. . . 


672 


438 


1,177 


1,647 


2,924 


14, 491 


22, 184 


3,911 







Offenses Known in Territories and Possessions of the United States. 

Crime reports are received from various Territories and possessions 
of the United States, In table 47 there is shown the number of offenses 
known to have been committed during the first half of 1939 as reported 
by law enforcement agencies in Alaska, Hawaii, the Isthmus of Pan- 
ama, and Puerto Rico. For Hawaii the figures are separately tabu- 
lated as to offenses occurring in Honolulu City and those occurring in 
the Counties of Honolulu, Kauai, and Maui. 



67 

Table 47. — Number of offenses known in United States Territories and possessions, 

January to June, inclusive, 1939 

[Population figures from Federal census, Apr. 1, 1930] 





Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny—theft 


Auto 
theft 


Jurisdiction reporting 


Over 

$50 


Under 
$50 


Alaska: 

First judicial division (Juneau), 
population, 19,304; number of 
offenses known - - 




1 

5 

1 


2 

8 
7 
1 
8 

1 
998 


12 

497 

75 

6 

38 

31 

417 


24 

74 
12 

3 

10 
42 


31 

1,046 

137 

6 

96 

157 
1,631 




Hawaii: 

Honolulu City, population, 137,582; 

number of offenses known 

Honolulu County, population, 65,341; 

number of offenses known 

Kauai County, population, 35,942; 

number of offenses known 


8 
1 


92 

31 

1 


Maui County, population, 56,146; 
number of offenses known 






13 


Isthmus of Panama: 

Canal Zone, population, 39,467; 
number of offenses known 




1 
12 


11 


Puerto Rico: Population, 1,543,913; num- 
ber of oiTenses known 


124 


19 







Data From Supplementary Offense Reports. 

In tables 48-50 there are presented data for certain offenses with 
reference to the time and place of occurrence, nature of the criminal 
act, and value of property stolen. This information was obtained 
from supplementary offense reports received from 45 cities, each with 
more than 100,000 inhabitants, for the period of January-June, 1939. 
The combined population of these cities is 16,886,338. 

Aside from the break-down of 763 offenses of rape into forcible and 
statutory rape, table 48 presents an analysis of the offenses of robbery, 
burglary, and larceny reported by the 45 cities represented in the 
tabulation. 

It will be seen that of the 7,752 offenses of robbery, 4,246 (54.8 
percent) occurred on city streets and highways. Only 22 of the 
offenses of robbery occurred in banks. 

There were 31,166 offenses of burglary reported by these 45 cities, 
and a little more than half (55.2 percent) of these burglaries were 
committed in some type of nonresidence building, such as stores, 
office buildings, etc. However, it is interesting to note that approxi- 
mately two-thirds of the residence burglaries were committed during 
the night, whereas more than 90 percent of the nonresidence burglaries 
occurred after nightfall. 

Of the 71,867 larceny offenses, 46,084 (64.1 percent) involved 
property valued at between $5 and $50. Only 11.7 percent of the 
larceny offenses involved property valued at more than $50. With 
reference to the types of larceny offenses committed, the figures 
presented in table 48 indicate that 19 percent of the larcenies involved 
theft of personal property from automobiles, exclusive of automobile 
accessories. The theft of auto accessories amounted to 16.2 percent 
of all the larcenies. 



68 

Table 48. — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission, and value of property stolen, January to June, 
inclusive, 1939; 45 cities over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 16,886,338, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Classification 


Number 
of actual 
offenses 


Classification 


Number 
of actual 
offenses 


Rape: 

Forcible 

Statutory .. 


414 
349 


Larceny — theft (except auto theft) 
(grouped according to value of article 
stolen) : 
Over $50 






8,382 
46, 084 


Total 


763 


$5 to $50 






17, 401 


Robbery: 

Highway 


4,246 

2, 338 

605 

71 

239 

22 

231 


Total 


71, 867 


Commercial house 

Oil station . .. .. . 


Larceny— theft (grouped as to type of 
offense) : 
Pocket-picking 






Chain store -. -...- .. 




Residence -_. -.. -. 


871 


Bank 


Purse-snatching 

Shoplifting. _ 


2,513 


Miscellaneous. .._ 


2,147 




Thefts from autos (exclusive of 
auto accessories) . 




Total- 


7,752 


14,011 




Auto accessories 

Bicycles 

All other .. ...._ 


11,639 

9,381 

31, 305 


Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Residence (dwelling): 


9.404 
4,544 

15, 754 
1,464 


Committed during night 

Committed during day..- 


Total .• 




71, 867 


Nonresidence (store, office, etc.): 

Committed during night 

Committed during day 








Total 


31, 166 





In table 49 there are presented figures relative to the number of 
automobiles stolen and the number of automobiles recovered in the 
45 cities represented in the preceding table. It will be seen that of the 
18,125 cars stolen during the first 6 months of 1939, 96.2 percent 
were recovered. 



Table 49. — Recoveries of stolen automobiles, Jamiary to June, inclusive, 1939; 

4-5 cities over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 16,886,338, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 

Number of automobiles stolen 18, 125 

Number of automobiles recovered 17,431 

Percentage recovered 96. 2 

The supplementary offense reports forwarded to the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation by the 45 cities referred to in the two preceding tables 
furnished information relative to the value of various types of property 
stolen and recovered. It will be seen that during the first 6 months of 
1939, property was stolen in these cities valued at $12,576,534.51. 
However, the value of stolen automobiles represented $7,623,094.25 of 
this total. 

Table 50 also presents figures relative to the percentage of property 
recovered. It will be noted that the figure (8.3 percent) representing 
the value of stolen furs recovered is smaller than any of the other 
percentages shown. The highest percentage shown in the table refers 
to automobiles. It will be observed that the value of this type of 
property recovered during the first half of 1939 was equal to 95.9 
percent of the value of cars stolen during the same period. 



69 



Table 50. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered with divisions 
as to type of property involved, January to June, inclusive, 1939; 45 cities over 
100,000 in population 

[Total population, 16,886,338, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Type of property 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles. _ 
Miscellaneous 

Total 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



$1, 190, 131. 62 

1,223,916.91 

276, 041. 44 

673, 178. 33 

7, 623, 094. 25 

1,590, 171.96 



12, 576, 534. 51 



Value of prop- 
erty recovered 



$128,924.31 

245, 557. 32 

22, 793. 90 

150, 088. 27 

7, 307, 154. 00 

518, 588. 55 



8, 373, 106. 35 



Percent 
recovered 



10.8 
20.1 
8.3 
22.3 
95.9 
32.6 



66.6 



Police Officers Killed by Criminals, 1938. 

In table 51 there are presented figures for 1938 relative to the number 
of police killed by criminals in 389 cities in the United States of over 
25,000 inhabitants. The cities are divided into four groups according 
to size, and on the basis of the total population in each group the rate 
with reference to the number of policemen killed by criminals per 
5,000,000 inhabitants is also presented. It will be seen that 40 police 
officers were killed by criminals during the calendar year 1938 in the 
cities represented. This figure is the same as that shown for the 
calendar year 1937 in table 68 of volume IX, number 3, of this bulletin. 

Table 51. — Number of policemen killed by criminals, 1938 



Population group 



37 cities over 250,000; total population, 29,695,500 

57 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total population, 7,850,312 
104 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total population, 6,980,407 
191 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total population, 6,638,544. 

Total, 389 cities; total population, 51,164,763--. 



Number 
of police- 
men 
killed 



40 



I 



Number of 
policemen 
killed, per 
5,000,000 
inhabitants 



23 


3.9 


6 


3.8 


5 


3.6 


6 


4.5 



3.9 



167972°— 39- 



70 



Relation Between Average Crime Rates and Average Number of Police 
Employees, 1938. 

In table 52 the crime rates for the calendar year 1938 of 93 cities in 
the United States each having a population in excess of 100,000, are 
reflected in the form of averages for two different groups. The 
arrangement into two groups is based on the number of pohce em- 
ployees per 1,000 inhabitants. 

Group I consists of 49 cities having police employees per 1,000 
mhabitants from 3.1 to 1.5, the average being 2.0 per 1,000 inhabitants. 
Group II consists of 44 cities havmg from 1.4 police officers per 1,000 
inhabitants to 0.8, the average being 1.2. 

The tabulation reveals that the 49 cities having an average of 20 
employees per 10,000 inhabitants reported 26 percent less murders, 
19 percent less robberies, 14 percent less aggravated assaults, 11 percent 
less burglaries, and 16 percent less larcenies, than the police depart- 
ments having an average of 12 police employees per 10,000 inhabitants. 
The figures for auto theft indicate that the cities having the smaller 
number of police officers per unit of population had a slightly lower 
offense rate, the difference amounting to 4 percent. 

The fact that the cities with the larger number of police employees 
also showed the higher auto theft rates is significant in that it calls 
attention to the fact that there are other factors than the size of the 
police organization which affect the crime rate of an individual com- 
mimity. For a further discussion of this point, reference is made to 
the comment preceding tables 45 and 46. 

The information presented in table 52 is also shown in figure 3. 

Table 52. — Relation between average crime rates and average number of police 
employees, cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, 1938 





Average 
number 
of police 
employ- 
ees per 
1,000 in- 
habit- 
ants 


Average number of offenses per 100,000 inhabitants 


Group 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


I 


2.0 
1.2 


6.1 
8.2 


59.5 
73.6 


47.2 
54.6 


390.2 
439.9 


896.9 
1,071.9 


227.2 


n - - 


218.0 







All cities represented in the above tabulation have populations in 
excess of 100,000. The arrangement into groups was based on the 
number of pohce employees per 1,000 inhabitants (descending order). 

Group I consists of 49 cities havmg an average of 3.1 to 1.5 police 
employees per 1,000 inhabitants. 

Group II consists of 44 cities having an average of 1.4 to 0.8 police 
employees per 1,000 inhabitants. 



71 




72 

Number and Functional Distribution of Police Employees, and Motorized 
Equipment, 1938. 

In table 54 there are presented the average number of pohce depart- 
ment employees per 1 ,000 inhabitants for the calendar year 1938. The 
data are presented for six different groups of cities divided according 
to population and location. The information presented in this table 
is supplemented by that shown in table 53. In this latter tabulation 
there is shown the number of cities in each of the population groups 
and geographical divisions used in preparing the data presented in 
table 54. 

It will be noted that in several instances there seem to be only slight 
differences between the average number of police employees as pre- 
sented in table 54. The significance of the difference is more evident 
when presented in terms of the number of inhabitants per police officer. 
The following tabulation shows these data for the six different groups 
of cities, without regard to geographical divisions: Average number of 

inhabitants per 
Population group: police officer 

I 461 

II 688 

III 737 

IV 828 

V 941 

VI , 903 

The average figures shown in table 54 were obtained by first deter- 
mining the total number of police employees and then dividing by the 
total population of the cities represented. Population figures used 
were estimates as of July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census, for 
all cities over 10,000 in population. No sunilar estimates were avail- 
able, however, for cities with a smaller number of inhabitants, and 
for them the figures listed in the 1930 decennial census were used. 
The information presented in the total figures for each of the six 
groups of cities in table 54 is also presented in figure 4. 



73 

Table 53. — Number of cities included in the tabulation showing the average number 
of police department employees, 1938, by geographic divisions and population 
groups 



Division 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England: 212 cities; 
total population, 6,270,928. 

Middle Atlantic: 609 cities; 
total population, 20,167,549 

East North Central: 584 
cities; total population, 
17,010,419 

West North Central: 292 
cities; total population, 
5,405,977 

South Atlantic: i 224 cities; 
total population, 5,278,606. 

East South Central: 113 
cities; total population, 
2,507,971 

West South Central: 197 
cities; total population, 
4,022,237 

Mountain: 107 cities; total 
population, 1,395,010 

Pacific: 200 cities; total pop- 
ulation, 5,714,149 







Group I 


Group II 


Over 
250,000 


100,000 to 
250,000 


2 


12 


7 


11 


9 


10 


4 


5 


3 


6 


3 


3 


3 


5 


1 


1 


5 


4 



Population 



Group III 



50,000 to 
100,000 



13 
23 

26 

7 
14 



Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 


25,000 to 
50,000 


10,000 to 
25,000 


Less than 
10,000 


31 


72 


82 


37 


152 


379 


54 


117 


368 


11 


59 


206 


19 


44 


138 


6 


31 


66 


12 


40 


130 


6 


17 


80 


14 


39 


132 



Total 



212 
609 

584 

292 
224 

113 

197 
107 
200 



' Includes report of District of Columbia. 



74 



Table 54. — Average number of police department employees, 1938, by geographic 

divisions and population groups 



Division 



New England: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 

inhabitants 

Middle Atlantic: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 

inhabitants 

East North Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 

inhabitants 

West North Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 

inhabitants 

South Atlantic: ' 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 

inhabitants 

East South Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 

inhabitants 

West South Central: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 

inhabitants 

Mountain: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 

inhabitants 

Pacific: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants •. 

Total: 

Number of police employees..- 

Average number of employees per 1,000 
inhabitants 

'Includes Washington, D. C. 



Population 



Group 
I 



Over 
250,000 



2,986 

2.9 
29, 369 

2.6 
15, 883 

1.9 
3,837 

1.9 
3,832 

2.4 
1,004 

1.2 
1,529 

1.4 

421 

1.4 
5,526 

1.8 



64, 387 
2.2 



Group 
II 



100,000 

to 
250,000 



3,033 
1.9 

2,546 
1.7 

1,497 
1.1 
771 
1.1 

1,260 
1.6 
486 
1.2 
928 
1.1 
159 
1.1 
729 
1.3 



11, 409 
1.5 



Group 
III 



50,000 

to 
100,000 



1,413 
1.6 

2,490 
1.6 

1,991 
1.2 
520 
1.1 

1,294 
1.4 
358 
1.4 
490 
1.1 
155 
1.5 
563 
1.2 



9,274 
1.4 



Group 
IV 



25,000 

to 
50,000 



1,580 
1.4 

1,795 
1.4 

1,919 
1.0 
362 
1.0 
871 
1.3 
271 
1.2 
409 
1.0 
208 
1.0 
580 
1.2 



7,995 
1.2 



Group 
V 



10,000 

to 
25,000 



1,337 
1.2 

2,886 
1.2 

1,616 

.9 

813 

.9 

783 

1.2 

489 

1.0 

509 

.8 

247 

1.0 

657 

1.1 



9,337 
1.1 



Group 
VI 



Less 
than 
10,000 



609 
1.2 

2,329 
1.2 

1,870 
1.0 
872 
.9 
877 
1.3 
328 
1.1 
590 
.9 
397 
1.0 
971 
1.4 



8,843 
1.1 



Total 



10, 958 

1.7 
41. 415 

2.1 
24, 776 

1.5 
7,175 

1.3 
8,917 

1.7 
2,936 

1.2 
4,455 

1.1 
1,587 

1.1 
9,026 

1.6 



111,245 
1.6 



I 



75 



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76 

In tables 55 to 57 there are presented data as to not only the num- 
ber, but also the functional distribution of police department employees 
as well as information regarding motorized equipment for the calendar 
year 1938. 

This information was obtained from cities over 25,000 in population 
by means of special reports forwarded to the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation. Among other things, these reports provided for the 
listing of the number of police officers employed and also the number 
of civilians employed during the year 1938. Provision was also made 
for the listing of part-time employees and their equivalent in terms 
of full-time employees. 

Another portion of this special report provided for the listing of the 
police department employees, both officers and civilians, according 
to their principal function or duty in the department. The following 
remarks deal briefly with the type of information recorded in this 
section of the report and represented by the entries in tables 55 and 
57 with regard to the functional distribution of police employees. 

Office of chief or commissioner. — Under this item is listed the person 
or persons responsible for the operation of the department as a whole. 
Secretarial employees in the office of the chief or commissioner are also 
included here. Many police departments listed opposite this item 
only the chief of police and his secretary. Others, where the opera- 
tions of the police department were supervised by several commis- 
sioners, listed these commissioners as well as their secretarial employees. 
In a few instances it was ascertained that the cliief of detectives, or 
assistant chief of police in charge of the traffic bureau, was listed 
opposite the office of chief or commissioner, and in these cases the 
reports were adjusted to list those employees opposite "Detective 
Bureau", "Traffic Bureau", etc. 

Communications and records. — This item includes all persons assigned 
to duties relating to communications and records, such as record 
clerks, fingerprint and other identification employees, telephone, tele- 
graph, and radio operators. In approximately 20 percent of the 
police departments of cities with population from 25,000 to 50,000, no 
employees were listed under this subdivision. In explanation of this 
it may be stated that in the smaller departments, it is not unusual for 
these duties to be handled by the desk sergeant, secretary to chief of 
police, or other employees. Since the record work or communica- 
tions work handled by each such employee did not constitute his 
major assignment, he was not listed opposite this subdivision of the 
tabulation. Also in a limited number of instances it was found that 
the communications facilities were operated by a separate organization 
serving both the police and fire departments, and employees in that 
organization were not included. 

Uniformed force. — Under this heading there are listed the employees 
assigned to the uniformed force exclusive of traffic. A separate listing 
is made for those employees assigned to foot patrol, motorized and 
mounted patrol, and the number assigned to indoor work such as desk 
sergeants, etc. In some instances it was noted that no employees were 
fisted on the report opposite "Motorized and mounted patrol," and 
as a result of correspondence, it was ascertained that the employees 
listed opposite "Foot patrol" also spend a portion of their time doing 
patrol duty in automobiles. Likewise, it was found in some instances 
that no employees were listed under "Foot patrol" as employees 



77 

engaged in that type of work were listed under "Motorized and 
mounted patrol" as this was their principal function. However, in 
many cases it was found where the police department listed few or no 
employees opposite "Foot patrol" that the greater part of the city 
was patrolled by officers in automobiles. 

Detective Bureau. — This item includes all employees assigned to the 
detective biu-eau, such as detectives, plain clothes men, members of 
vice squads, and other criminal investigators. Clerks and stenog- 
raphers in the detective Bureau are also shown under this item. In 
a few cases it was found that no employees were listed opposite "De- 
tective Biu-eau" inasmuch as those duties were all handled by the 
uniformed force. 

Traffic Bureau. — As indicated, this item provided for the listing of 
all employees assigned to the traffic bureau, including police officers 
and clerks. It was found in some cases that the police departments 
did not maintain a separate traffic bureau and this work was handled 
by employees in the uniformed division. However, in many such 
cases, it was possible to ascertain by means of correspondence the 
number of employees of the uniformed force regularly assigned to 
traffic work, and in these cases the reports were adjusted accordingly. 

Miscellaneous.- — In the reports of some cities adjustments were 
made with reference to the miscellaneous classification. For example, 
policewomen and members of a vice squad, if listed under "Miscel- 
laneous" were deducted therefrom and listed opposite "Detective 
Bureau." Another type of adjustment occurred in a very few cases 
where it was ascertained from the entries on the report or by corre- 
spondence that park police were included mider "Miscellaneous." 
In these instances these employees were transferred to foot patrol. 
The following is a list of the duties of some of the employees included 
opposite the miscellaneous classification: 

Surgeons, Painters. 

Ambulance and wagon employees. Employees assigned to parking 

Crime prevention bureau em- meter maintenance. 

ployees. Employees assigned to city pound. 

Matrons. Employees assigned to courts. 

Employees assigned to jails and Employees assigned to health de- 
lock-ups. partment. 

Cooks. License inspectors. 

Messengers. Pawnshop inspectors. 

Porters. Elevator inspectors. 

Janitors. Building inspectors. 

Maintenance employees. Automobile inspectors. 

Instructors assigned to training 
duties. 

The last section of the special report referred to above provided for 
the listing of data relative to motorized equipment used during 1938. 

For record purposes it is noted here that letters were written to 
police departments whose reports were included in the tables in a 
rather large number of instances in order to obtain the highest possible 
degree of accuracy and uniformity in the material received from the 
individual law enforcement agencies. Letters were written to 27 
of the police departments represented in cities having a population in 
excess of 250,000; to 29 of the police departments in cities with from 

167972"— 39 4 



78 

100,000 to 250,000; to 60 of the police departments in cities with 
population from 50,000 to 100,000; and to 105 of the police depart- 
ments in cities with from 25,000 to 50,000 inhabitants. 

In table 57 there are listed the figures for individual cities with 
reference to the number of police employees and their functional 
distribution, as well as available data concerning the motorized 
equipment used. As indicated, this information was obtained from 
cities in the United States over 25,000 in population for the calendar 
year 1938. 

The data are presented for four different groups of cities according 
to population. In each group the cities are listed alphabetically, 
first by State, and then by name of city. 

As indicated by the headings, the table is divided into three 
sections. The first section deals with the number of police depart- 
ment employees, subdivided as to police officers and civilians. The 
second section deals with the functional distribution of the police 
employees listed in the first column; and the last section of the table 
presents data relative to motorized equipment. 

In connection with the possibility of making a comparison between 
the police personnel figures of individual cities, it should be noted 
that there are several variable factors to be considered which are 
not in any way represented in table 57. Reference is made to the 
following facts: 

(1) In some cities, when regular police officers are absent due to 
vacations, days off, sickness, or otherwise, their places are taken by 
special or reserve officers who are paid only for the time they actually 
work. This means that the effective strength of the department is 
not lowered by absences for the reasons mentioned. On the other 
hand, in many cities, absences due to vacations, days off, sickness, 
etc., result in a lowering of the effective strength of the department, 
due to the fact that no reserve officers are used for replacements. 

(2) Some police departments operate on two shifts, whereas in 
other departments the men are distributed among three shifts. 
Obviously the practice followed in any individual commimity would 
have a substantial influence upon the effective strength of the depart- 
ment. 

(3) Differences in automobile equipment, radio communication 
facilities, and the like are significant and should be considered in any 
careful comparison of law enforcement facilities in individual com- 
munities. 

(4) Some cities use special school-crossing guards to make it un- 
necessary to detail regular police officers to guide children and regulate 
traffic at school-crossings during hours when children are going to or 
returning from school. In some instances, the reporting depart- 
ments had apparently calculated the equivalent number of full-time 
employees represented by the school-crossing guards and included 
them in the figure representing the total number of employees. In 
other cases it was not clear whether this had been done, and this is 
pointed out as an item to be considered when comparing figures for 
individual communities. 

(5) In some cities, a heavy volume of traffic requires a larger than 
average proportion of the force on traffic duty, with a resultant 
decrease in the number of men available to handle criminal cases. 



79 

(6) Differences in police salaries and standards for appointment to 
the force and their influence on the quality and morale of personnel 
are significant. 

(7) Communities vary also as to the number of private police 
employed by individuals and organizations. 

(8) There is a great variance in cities throughout the United States 
with reference to the number of inhabitants per square mile. 

All the preceding items are of significance when attempting to make 
a comparison of the police personnel figures for individual cities. 

Table 58 includes figures for individual police departments in cities 
ranging from 2,500 to 25,000 inhabitants. 

Table 55 presents a summary of the information shown in table 57 
with reference to the number and functional distribution of police 
department employees. The data are presented for four different 
groups of cities according to population. With a limited number of 
exceptions, all of the cities presented in table 57 were used in compiling 
the figures presented in the summary table. To indicate the manner 
in which the information presented in tliis table should be interpreted , 
it may be noted that for group II (cities from 100,000 to 250,000), of 
every 100 employees, 12 were assigned to the Detective Bureau. 

In table 56 there is presented a summary of the motorized equipment 
as reported by cities over 25,000 in population for the calendar year 
1938. It is interesting to note that these figures indicate that for 
group I cities (over 250,000) the average number of automobiles used 
by police departments is 8.5 per 100 police employees, while for group 
IV (25,000 to 50,000), 11.4 automobiles per 100 employees were used 
during 1938. It is entirely possible, however, that some of the larger 
cities used automobiles privately owned by employees of the depart- 
ment, and these automobiles may not have been listed on the reports 
from which the data in this table were prepared. 

The table indicates that a substantial number of all automobiles in 
the various cities were equipped with radio, either one-way or two-way. 
Of the radio-equipped cars, the smaller police departments showed 
more equipped with two-way than did the police departments in the 
larger cities. For example, for group I cities the summary indicates 
that on an average 77.8 percent of the automobiles used were equipped 
with radio. However, 64.4 percent were equipped with one-way, and 
only 13.4 percent with two-way radio. On the other hand, police de- 
partments in the group IV cities had on an average 74.4 percent of 
their automobiles radio equipped, but 36 percent were equipped with 
two-way radio, and 38.4 percent equipped with one-way. 



Table 55. 



80 



-Summary, functional distribution of police employees, 1938, cities over 
25,000 inhabitants, by populatio7i groups 





Group I, 35 

cities over 

250,000 


Group II, 57 

cities 100,000 

to 250,000 


Group III, 101 

cities 50,000 
to 100,000 


Group IV, 184 

cities 25,000 

to 50,000 


Total, 377 

cities over 

25,000 




Num- 
ber of 
employ- 
ees 


Per- 
cent 


Num- 
ber of 
employ- 
ees 


Per- 
cent 


Num- 
ber of 
employ- 
ees 


Per- 
cent 


Num- 
ber of 
employ- 
ees 


Per- 
cent 


Num- 
ber of 
employ- 
ees 


Per- 
cent 


Police officers 


40, 873 
3,743 


91.6 
8.4 


10, 634 
775 


93.2 
6.8 


8,741 
439 


95.2 

4.8 


7, 450 
271 


96.5 
3.5 


67, 698 
5,228 


92.8 


Civilians 


7.2 


Total employees 


44, 616 


100.0 


11,409 


100.0 


9,180 


100.0 


7,721 


100.0 


72, 926 


100.0 


Distribution of personnel: 
Office of chief or com- 
missioner 


259 

2,857 

14,814 

8,867 

2,730 
5,309 
5,086 

4,694 


.6 

6.4 
33.2 
19.9 

6.1 
11.9 
11.4 

10.5 


170 

684 
3,626 
2,396 

684 
1,368 

1,705 

776 


1.5 

6.0 
31.8 
21.0 

6.0 
12.0 
14.9 

6.8 


205 

646 
2,934 
2,013 

684 

998 

1,337 

463 


2.2 

5.9 
32.0 
21.9 

7.5 
10.9 
14.6 

5.0 


272 

403 

2.679 
1,724 

787 
629 
928 

299 


3.5 

5.2 

34.7 
22.4 

10.2 

8.1 
12.0 

3.9 


906 

4,490 
24, 049 
15, 000 

4,885 
8,304 
9,056 

6,236 


1 2 


Communications and 
records- .. . - 


6.2 


Foot patrol 


33.0 


Motorized patrol _ 


20.6 


Indoor assignment (desk 
serfieants, etc.), .- 


6.7 


Detective bureau . .- 


11.4 


Traffic bureau 


12.4 


Miscellaneous (mainte- 
nance, lock-ups, jails, 
etc.) 


8.5 






Total 


44, 616 


100.0 


11.409 


100.0 


9,180 


100.0 


7,721 


100.0 


72, 926 


100.0 







Table 56. 



-Sum,mary, m,oiorized equipment, 1938, cities over 25,000 inhabitants by 
population groups 





Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Total 




35 cities 
over 

250,000 


57 cities 

100,000 

to 250,000 


100 cities 
50,000 to 
to 100,000 


184 cities 

25,000 to 

50,000 


376 cities 

over 

25,000 


Total number of automobiles . ,_ 


3,783 
2,438 

566 
1,770 

449 

8.5 

64.4 

13.4 

4.0 

25.4 


1,167 
632 
372 
599 
234 

10.2 

54.2 

31.9 

5.3 

39.1 


1,019 
504 
341 
535 
214 

11.2 

49.5 

33.5 

5.9 

40.0 


880 
338 
317 
508 
183 

11.4 

38.4 

36.0 

6.6 

36.0 


6,849 


Number of automobiles equipped with 1-way radio. 
Number of automobiles equipped with 2-way radio. 
Total number of motorcycles _ - - 


3,912 
1,536 
3,412 


Number of motorcycles equipped with radio 

Number of automobiles per 100 police employees. . 
Percentage of automobi es equipped with 1-way 
radio . . . _._. ._ 


1,080 

9.4 

57.1 


Percentage of automobiles equipped with 2-way 
radio . - . . -- 


22.4 


Number of motorcycles per 100 police employees 

Percentage of motorcycles equipped with radio 


4.7 
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92 



Table 58. — Number of police department employees, 1938; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 25,000 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Anniston, Ala 

Bessemer, Ala 

Decatur, Ala 

Dothan, Ala 

Florence, Ala 

Huntsville, Ala 

Phenix City, Ala 

Selma, Ala 

Tuscaloosa, Ala 

Blytheville, Ark 

El Dorado, Ark 

Hot Springs, Ark 

Jonesboro, Ark 

North Little Rock, Ark 

Texarkana, Ark 

Anaheim, Calif 

Beverly Hills, Calif 

Brawley, Calif --- 

Burbank, Calif 

Burlingame, Calif 

Compton, Calif 

Eureka, Calif 

Fullerton, Calif 

Modesto, Calif 

Monrovia, Calif 

Ontario, Calif 

Palo Alto, Calif 

Pomona, Calif 

Redlands, Calif 

Richmond, Calif 

Salinas, Calif 

San Leandro, Calif 

San Mateo, Calif 

Santa Cruz, Calif 

Santa Rosa, Calif 

South Gate, Calif 

South Pasadena, Calif 

Vallejo, Calif 

Ventura, Calif 

Whittier, Calif 

Boulder, Colo 

Fort Collins, Colo 

Grand Junction, Colo 

Greeley, Colo 

Trinidad, Colo 

Ansonia, Conn 

Danbury, Conn 

Derby, Conn... 

East Hartford Town, Conn 
Naugatuck Borough, Conn. 

Norwich, Conn 

Shelton, Conn 

Stratford Town, Conn 

Wallingford, Conn 

Willimantic, Conn 

Daytona Beach, Fla 

Gainesville, Fla 

Key West, Fla. 

Lakeland, Fla 

St. Augustine, Fla 

Sanford, Fla 

Tallahassee, Fla. 

Albany, Ga 

Athens, Ga 

Brunswick, Ga 

Decatur, Ga 

Griffin, Ga 

La Orange, Ga 

Rome, Ga.- 

Thomasville, Ga 

Waycross, Ga 

Boise, Idaho. ._ •_ 

Pocatello, Idaho- 

Blue Island, 111 

Brookfield, 111 

Cairo, 111 

Calumet City, 111 

Canton, 111 



Number of 
employees 




19 
16 
U 
14 

8 
23 

9 
20 
19 

4 
11 
24 

9 
27 

9 
12 
58 
12 
28 
15 
15 
16 
12 
21 
17 
16 
22 
17 
15 
35 
19 
12 
17 
19 
12 
18 
11 
16 
16 
16 

8 

9 
14 
11 
10 
12 
21 
10 
22 
16 
35 
22 
19 

9 
23 
27 
14 
47 
18 
13 

7 
14 
19 
21 
17 
10 
17 
18 
25 

9 
13 
29 
22 
16 

8 

8 

9 

8 



Centralia, 111 

Champaign, 111 

Chicago Heights, 111. 

East Moline, 111 

Elmhurst, IlL 

Elmwood Park, 111... 

Forest Park, 111 

Freeport, 111 

Harrisburg, 111 

Harvey, 111 

Highland Park, 111... 

Jacksonville, 111 

Kankakee, 111 

Kewanee, 111 

La Grange, 111 

La Salle, 111 

Lincoln, 111 

Mattoon, 111 

Melrose Park, 111 

Mount Vernon, 111... 

Ottawa, HI 

Park Ridge, 111 

Pekin, 111 

Sterling, 111 

Streator, 111 

Urbana, 111 

West Frankfort, 111.. 

Wilmette, 111 

Winnetka, El 

Bedford, Ind 

Bloomington, Ind — 

Connersville, Ind 

Crawfordsville, Ind.. 

Elwood, Ind 

Frankfort, Ind 

Goshen, Ind 

Huntington, Ind 

Jeffersonville, Ind — 

La Porte, Ind 

Logansport, Ind 

Marion, Ind 

New Castle, Ind 

Peru, Ind 

Shelbyville, Ind 

Vincennes, Ind 

Whiting, Ind 

Fort Dodge, Iowa 

Fort Madison, Iowa- 
Iowa City, Iowa 

Keokuk, Iowa 

Marshalltown, Iowa- 
Mason City, Iowa — 

Muscatine, Iowa 

Newton, Iowa 

Oskaloosa, Iowa 

Arkansas City, Kans 

Atchison, Kans 

Chanute, Kans 

ColTeyville, Kans 

Dodge City, Kans... 

El Dorado, Kans 

Emporia, Kans 

Fort Scott, Kans 

Independence, Kans. 

Lawrence, Kans 

Leavenworth, Kans.. 

Manhattan, Kans 

Newton, Kans 

Parsons, Kans 

Salina, Kans 

Bowling Green, Ky.. 

Fort Thomas, Ky 

Frankfort , Ky 

Henderson, Ky. 

Hopkinsville, Ky 

Middleborough, Ky.. 

Owensboro, Ky 

Alexandria, La. 



93 



Table 58. — Number of -police department employees, 1938; cities with population 

from 2,500 to ^5,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Bogalusa, La 

La Fayette, La 

Lake Charles, La 

Auburn, Maine 

Augusta, iVIaine 

Biddeford, Maine 

South Portland, Maine 

Waterville, Maine 

Westbrook, Maine 

Annapolis, Md 

Frederick, Md 

Salisbury, Md 

Adams Town, Mass 

Amesbury Town, Mass 

Athol Town, Mass 

Attleboro, Mass 

Belmont Town, Mass 

Braintree Town, Mass 

Clinton, Mass 

Danvers Town, Mass 

Dedham Town, Mass 

Easthampton Town, Mass 

Fairhaven Town, Mass 

Framingham Town, Mass 

Gardner, Mass 

Gloucester, Mass. _ 

Greenfield Town, Mass 

Leominster, Mass 

Marlborough , Mass 

Melrose, Mass 

Methuen Town, Mass 

Milford Town, Mass 

Milton Town, Mass 

NatickTown, Mass 

Needham Town, Mass 

Newburyport, Mass 

North Adams, Mass 

Northampton, Mass 

North Attleborough Town, Mass. 

Peabody, Mass 

Plymouth, Mass 

Saugus Town, Mass 

Southbridge Town, Mass. 

Stoneham Town, Mass 

Swampscott Town, Mass 

Wakefield Town, Mass 

M''ebster Town, Mass 

Wellesley Town, Mass 

Westfield , Ma?s 

West Springfield Town, Mass 

Weymouth Town, Mass 

Winchester Town, Mass 

Winthrop, Mass 

Woburn, Mass 

Adrian , Mich 

.Alpena, Mich 

Benton Harbor, Mich 

E corse, Mich 

Escanaba, Mich 

Ferndale, Mich 

Grosse Pointe Park, Mich 

Holland , Mich 

Iron Mountain, Mich 

Ironwood, Mich.. 

Marquette, Mich 

Menominee, Mich 

Monroe, Mich 

Mount Clemens, Mich 

Muskegon Heights, Mich 

Niles, Mich 

O wosso, Mich 

River Rouge, Mich 

Sault Ste. Marie 

Traverse City, Mich 

Ypsilanti, Mich 

Albert Lea, Minn 

Austin, Minn 

Brainerd, Minn 

Faribault, Minn 



Number of 
employees 



10 
17 
16 
18 
20 
14 
11 
12 
7 

15 
20 
15 
12 
9 
8 
28 
43 
18 
9 
10 
18 
17 
10 
25 
18 
37 
15 
26 
19 
39 
28 
12 
33 
16 
17 
18 
25 
28 
31 
45 
14 
14 
15 
12 
17 
21 
13 
22 
24 
23 
32 
21 
25 
21 
31 
9 
15 
22 
14 
23 
38 
10 
6 
15 
13 
7 
19 
15 
39 
12 
12 
24 
10 
9 
16 
8 
16 
7 
9 




nibbing, Minn 

Mankato, Minn 

Rochester, Minn. 
St. Cloud, Minn... 

South St. Paul, Minn 

Virginia, Minn 

Winona, Minn 

Biloxi, Miss 

Clarksdale, Miss 

Columbus, Miss 

Greenville, Miss 

Greenwood, Miss 

Gulfport, Miss 

Hattiesburg, Miss 

Laurel, Miss 

McComb, Miss 

Natchez, Miss 

Vicksburg, Miss 

Cape Girardeau, Mo 

Columbia, Mo 

Hannibal, Mo 

Independence, Mo 

Jefferson City, Mo 

Maplewood.Mo 

Moberly, Mo 

St. Charles, Mo 

Sedalia, Mo 

Webster Groves, Mo 

Anaconda, Mont 

Billings, Mont 

Helena, Mont 

Missoula, Mont 

Beatrice, Nebr 

Fremont, Nebr 

Grand Island, Nebr 

Hastings, Nebr 

Norfolk, Nebr... _ 

North Platte, Nebr 

Reno, Nev 

Claremont Town, N. H .. 

Dover, N. H 

Keene, N. H 

Laconia, N. H 

Portsmouth, N. H 

Rochester, N. H 

Asbury Park, N. J 

Bridgeton, N. J 

Burlington, N. J 

Carteret, N.J 

Cliffside Park, N.J 

Collingswood, N. J 

Cranford Township, N. J. . _ 

Dover, N.J 

Englewood, N. J 

Gloucester, N. J 

Harrison, N. J 

Hawthorne, N. J 

Hillside Township, N. J 

Linden, N. J 

Lodi,N.-J 

Long Branch, N. J 

Lyndhurst Township, N. J. . 
Maplewood Township, N. J. 

Millville, N.J 

Morristown, N. J. 

Neptune Township, N. J 

Nutley, N. J 

Pensauken Township, N. J_ . 

Phillipsburg, N. J. 

Pleasantville, N. J 

Rahway, N.J 

Red Bank, N. J 

Ridgefield Park, N. J 

Ridgewood, N. J . 

Roselle, N.J . 

Rutherford, N. J 

South Orange, N. J 

South River, N. J 

Summit, N. J 



94 



Table 58. — Number of police department employees, 19S8; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Teaneck Township, N. J 

Union Township, N. J 

Weehawken Township, N. J 

Westfield, N. J 

Roswell, N. Mex 

Santa Fe, N. Mex 

Batavia, N. Y 

Beacon, N. Y 

Cohoes, N. Y 

Corning, N. Y 

Cortland, N.Y 

Dunkirk, N.Y 

Endicott, N. Y 

Floral Park, N. Y 

Freeport, N. Y 

Fulton, N.Y 

Geneva, N. Y 

Glen Cove, N. Y 

Glens Falls, N. Y 

Gloversville, N. Y 

Hempstead, N. Y 

Herkimer, N. Y 

Hornel, N. Y 

Hudson, N. Y 

Irondequoit Town, N. Y 

Ithaca, N.Y 

Johnson City, N. Y 

Johnstown, N. Y 

Kenmore, N. Y 

Little Falls, N. Y 

Lockport, N. Y 

Lynbrook, N. Y 

Mamaroneck, N. Y 

Massena; N. Y.. 

Middlctown, N. Y 

North Tonawanda, N. Y 

Ogdcnsbur?, N. Y 

Clean, N.Y 

O-neida, N. Y 

Oheonta, N. Y 

Orsining, N. Y 

Oswego, N. Y 

Pcekskill, N. Y 

Plattsburp, N. Y 

Port Chester, N. Y 

Port Jervis, N. Y 

Rennssplaer, N. Y 

Rock ville Centre, N.Y 

Saratoga Springs, N. Y 

Tonawanda, N. Y 

Watervliet, N. Y 

Concord, N. C 

Fayette ville, N. C 

Gastonia, N. C 

Goldsboro, N. C 

Kinston, N. C 

Rocky Mount, N. C_ _ 

Salisbury, N. C 

Shelby, N.C 

Statesville, N. C 

Thomasville, N. C 

Wilson, N. C 

Bismarck, N. Dak 

Grand Forks, N. Dak 

Minot, N. Dak 

Alliance, Ohio 

A.shland, Ohio 

Ashtabula, Ohio 

Bellaire, Ohio 

Bucyrus, Ohio 

Cambridge, Ohio 

Campbell, Ohio 

ChiHicothe, Ohio 

Coshocton, Ohio 

Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio 

East lyivorpool, Ohio 

Euclid, Ohio 

Findlay, Ohio 



Number of 
employees 



33 
28 
65 
25 

8 
12 
20 
20 
29 
16 
15 
18 
23 
18 
33 
19 
20 
29 
26 
20 
44 
16 
22 
18 

9 
24 
13 
11 
18 

8 
31 
31 
26 
11 
26 
26 
16 
22 
14 
14 
20 
23 
23 
12 
40 
19 
15 
30 
26 
18 
22 
16 
23 
26 
15 
16 
25 
18 
11 
12 

8 
20 
10 
19 
14 

8 

9 
18 

9 

7 

8 
12 
13 

8 
10 

9 
22 
14 




Fostoria, Ohio 

Fremont, Ohio 

Oarrield Heights, Ohio 

Ironton, Ohio 

Lancaster, Ohio 

Marietta, Ohio 

Martins Ferry, Ohio 

New Philadelphia, Ohio _. 

Niles, Ohio.-- 

Parma Village, Ohio 

Piqua, Ohio 

Salem, Ohio 

Sandusky, Ohio 

Shaker Heights, Ohio 

Struthcrs, Ohio 

Tiffin, Ohio 

Wooster, Ohio 

Xenia, Ohio 

Ada, Okla 

Ardmorc, Okla 

Parties ville, Okla 

Chickasha, Okla 

Lawton, Okla 

McAlestor, Okla 

Okmulgee, Okla 

Ponca City, Okla 

Sapulpa, Okla 

Seminole, Okla 

Shawnee, Okla ... 

Wewoka, Okla 

Astoria, Oreg 

Eugejie, Oreg 

Klamath Falls, Oreg 

Medford, Oreg 

Abington Township, Pa 

Ambridge Borough, Pa 

Arnold Borough, Pa 

Beaver Falls, Pa 

Belle vue Borough, Pa 

Bradford, Pa 

Bristol Borough, Pa 

Butler, Pa 

Cannonsburg Borough, Pa 

Carbondale, Pa 

Carlisle Borough, Pa 

Carnegie Borough, Pa 

Chambersburg Borough, Pa 

Charleroi Borough, Pa 

Cheltenham Township, Pa 

Clairton, Pa 

Coatesville, Pa 

Columbia Borough, Pa 

Connells ville, Pa 

Coraopolis Borough, Pa 

Dickson City Borough, Pa 

Donora Borough, Pa 

Dormont Borough, Pa 

Du Bois, Pa 

Dunmore Borough, Pa 

Duquesne. Pa.._ 

Ellwood City Borough, Pa 

Farrell Borough, Pa 

Franklin, Pa 

Grcensburg, Pa 

Hanover Township, Pa 

Harrison Township, Pa 

Haverford Township, Pa 

Jeannette Borough, Pa 

Kingston Borough, Pa 

Latrobe Borough, Pa 

Lewistown Borough, Pa 

Mahanoy City Borough, Pa 

McKees Rocks Borough, Pa 

Meadville, Pa 

Monessen, Pa 

Mount Carmel Borough, Pa._- 
Mount Lebanon Township, Pa 

Munhall Borough, Pa 

New Kensington Borough, Pa. 



95 

Table 58. — Number of 'police department employees, 1938; cities with population 

from 2,500 to ^5,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



North Braddock Borough, Pa- 
Oil City, Pa 

Old Forge Borough, Pa 

Olyphant Borough, Pa 

Phoenixville Borough, Pa 

Pittston, Pa 

Plains Township, Pa 

Plymouth Borough, Pa 

Pottstown Borough, Pa 

Pottsville, Pa.. 

Shamokin Borough, Pa 

Shenandoah Borough, Pa 

Steelton Borough, Pa 

Stowe Township, Pa 

Sunbury, Pa 

Swissvale Borough, Pa 

Tamaqua Borough, Pa 

Taylor Borough, Pa 

Turtle Creek Borough, Pa 

Uniontown, Pa 

Vandergrift Borough, Pa 

Warren Borough, Pa 

Waynesboro Borough, Pa 

West Chester Borough, Pa 

Bristol Town, R. I 

Cumberland Town, R. I 

Lincoln Town, R. I 

North Providence Town, R. I 

Warwick, R. I 

Westerly Town, R. I 

West Warwick Town, R. I 

Anderson, S. C 

Florence, S. C 

Greenwood, S. C 

Rock Hill, S. C 

Aberdeen, S. Dak 

Huron, S. Dak 

Mitchell, S. Dak __ 

Rapid City, S. Dak 

Watertown, S. Dak 

Bristol, Tenn 

Jackson, Tenn 

Johnson City, Tenn.. _._ 

Kingsport, Tenn 

Big Spring, Tex 

Brownwood. Tex _ 

Cleburne, Tex 

Corsicana, Tex 

Del Rio, Tex 

Denison, Tex 



Number of 
employees 



19 

15 

4 

6 

9 

23 

10 

15 

19 

33 

10 

12 

8 

17 

5 

25 

5 

7 

10 

28 

4 

9 

5 

13 

8 

6 

9 

3 

33 

11 

12 

24 

16 

22 

21 

19 

9 

10 

11 

9 

11 

19 

24 

16 

10 

10 

6 

12 

7 

11 




Greenville, Tex 

Harlingen, Tex 

Lubbock, Tex 

Marshall, Tex 

Palestine, Tex 

Pampa, Tex 

San Benito, Tex 

Sherman, Tex 

Sweetwater, Tex 

Temple, Tex. 

Texarkana, Tex 

Tyler, Tex 

Provo, Utah 

Rutland, Vt 

Alexandria, Va . 

Charlottesville, Va.. 

Hopewell, Va 

Staunton, Va 

Suffolk, Va 

Winchester, Va 

Aberdeen, Wash 

Bremerton, Wash 

Hoquiam, Wash 

Longview, Wash 

Olympia, Wash. _.. 

Port Angeles, Wash 

Vancouver, Wash 

Walla Walla, Wash 

Wenatchee, Wash 

Yakima, Wash 

Bluefield, W. Va 

Fairmont, W. Va 

Morgantown, W. Va 

Moundsville, W. Va 

Ashland, Wis... 

Beloit, Wis 

Cudahy, Wis 

Janes ville. Wis 

Manitowoc, Wis 

Marinette, Wis 

Shorewood Village, Wis. 
South Milwaukee, Wis.. 

Stevens Point, Wis 

Two Rivers, Wis... 

Watertown, Wis. 

Waukesha, Wis 

Wausau, Wis 

Wauwatosa, Wis 

Casper, Wyo 

Cheyenne, Wyo 



Number of 
employees 



13 
7 
19 
12 
8 
7 
6 
13 
10 
12 
13 
25 
9 
14 
39 
23 
14 
15 
17 
12 
19 
12 
10 
5 
10 
9 
14 
17 
14 
31 
18 
17 
9 
7 
10 
27 
11 
21 
27 
10 
15 
11 
15 
10 
11 
21 
36 
33 
16 
14 



CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



Auburn, Ala 

Carbon Hill, Ala.. 
Demopolis, Ala... 

Florala, Ala 

Fort Payne, Ala.. 

Greenville, Ala 

Homewood, Ala... 

Jasper, Ala 

Jacksonville, Ala.. 

Lanett, Ala 

Leeds, Ala 

Opp, Ala 

Piedmont, Ala 

Russellville, Ala.. 

Sheffield, Ala 

Sylacauga, Ala 

Tarrant City, Ala 
Tuscumbia, Ala... 

Bisbee, Ariz 

Douglas, Ariz 

Flagstaff, Ariz 

Glendale, Ariz 

Jerome, Ariz 



4 
4 
3 
3 
7 
4 
5 
7 
2 
8 
2 
4 
3 
2 
8 
5 
6 
4 
7 
11 
6 
3 
4 



Miami, Ariz 

Nogales, Ariz 

Prescott, Ariz 

Winslow, Ariz 

Yuma, Ariz 

Batesville, Ark... 

Brinkley, Ark 

Camden, Ark 

Crossett, Ark 

Dermott, Ark 

Fayetteville, Ark. 
Forrest City, Ark 

Helena, Ark 

Hope, Ark 

Malvern, Ark 

Marianna, Ark... 
Monticello, Ark.. 
Morrilton, Ark... 

Newport, Ark 

Rogers, Ark 

Russellville, Ark. 

Searcy, Ark 

Stamps, Ark 



5 
9 
8 
7 
5 
4 
3 
4 
2 
3 
4 
4 
6 
7 
4 
6 
3 
3 
4 
4 
4 
6 
1 



96 



Table 58. — Number of police department employees, 1938; cities with population 

from 2,500 to ^5,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Stuttgart, Ark 

Trumann, Ark 

West Helena, Ark 

Albany, Calif 

Antioch, Calif 

Arcadia, Calif 

Auburn, Calif 

Azusa, Calif 

Bell, Calif 

Calexico, Calif 

Chieo, Calif 

Cliino, Calif 

Chula Vista, Calif 

Claremont, Calif 

Coalinga, Calif. 

Colton, Calif 

Corona, Calif 

Coronado, Calif - 

Culver City, Calif 

Daly City, Calif 

Delano, Calif 

Dinuba, Calif 

Dunsmuir, Calif 

El Centre, Calif 

El Cerrito, Calif 

El Monte, Calif 

ElSegundo, Calif 

Escondido, Calif 

Exeter, Calif 

Fillmore, Calif 

Fort Bragg, Calif 

Gardena Township, Calif 

Gilroy, Calif 

Glendora, Calif 

Grass Valley, Calif 

Hanford, Calif 

Hawthorne, Calif 

Hayward, Calif 

Hermosa, Beach, Calif. .. 

Hollister, Calif 

Huntington Beach, Calif- 
La Mesa, Calif 

La Verne, Calif 

Livermore, Calif 

Lodi, Calif 

Lompoc, Calif 

Los Gatos, Calif 

Madera, Calif 

Marysville, Calif 

Maywood, Calif 

Merced, Calif 

Mill Valley, Calif 

Montebello, Calif 

Monterey, Calif 

Monterey Park, Calif 

Mountain View, Calif 

Napa, Calif 

National City, Calif 

Needles, Calif 

Oceanside, Calif 

Orange, Calif 

Oroville, Calif 

Oxnard, Calif 

Pacific Grove, Calif 

Petaluma, Calif 

Piedmont, Calif 

Pittsburg, C alif 

Porterville, Calif 

Redding, Calif 

Redondo Beach, Calif 

Redwood City, Calif 

Reedley, Calif 

Roseville, Calif 

San Anselmo, Calif 

San Bruno, Calif 

San Fernando, Calif 

San Gabriel, Calif 



Number of 
employees 



3 
4 
2 
7 
5 

24 
4 
7 

11 
7 
9 
3 
7 
8 
5 

15 
7 

12 

23 

12 
4 
4 
3 

14 
6 
8 

18 
4 
4 
3 
3 
5 
6 
4 
5 
8 

11 
6 

11 
5 
9 
5 
4 
6 
7 
3 
4 
6 

13 



8 

12 

11 

10 

3 

8 

10 

3 

8 

9 

7 

6 

5 

9 

19 

11 

6 

12 

18 

13 

4 

8 

5 

8 

12 

13 




San Luis Obispo, Calif 

San Marino, Calif 

San Rafael, Calif 

Santa Clara, Calif 

Santa Maria, Calif 

Santa Paula, Calif 

Sausalito, Calif 

Sierra Madre, C alif 

Signal Hill, Calif 

South San Francisco, Calif 

Sunnyvale, Calif 

Torrance, Calif 

Tracy, Calif.. 

Tulare, Calif 

Turlock, Calif 

Upland, Calif 

Visalia, Calif 

Watsonville, Calif 

Woodland, Calif 

Yuba City, Calif 

Alamosa, Colo 

Brighton, Colo 

Delta, Colo 

Durango, Colo 

Englewood, CqIo 

Fort Morgan, Colo 

La Junta, Colo 

Longmont, Colo 

Loveland, Colo 

Monte Vista, Colo 

Montrose, Colo . 

Rocky Ford, Colo 

Salida, Colo 

Sterling, Colo 

Walsenburg, Colo 

Danielson, Conn 

Groton Borough, Conn 

Putnam, Conn 

Rockville, Conn 

Southington, Conn 

Stafford Springs, Conn 

Winsted, Conn 

Dover, Del 

Milford, Del 

Newark, Del 

New Castle, Del 

Arcadia, Fla 

Avon Park, Fla 

Bartow, Fla 

Bradenton, Fla 

Clearwater, Fla 

Coral Gables, Fla 

De Funiak Springs, Fla... 

Eustis, Fla 

Fort Lauderdale, Fla 

Fort Pierce, Fla 

Hialeahi Fla 

Hollywood, Fla 

Kissimmee, Fla 

Lake City, Fla 

Lake Wales, Fla 

Lake Worth, Fla 

Leesburg, Fla 

Melbourne, Fla 

Miami Beach, Fla 

New Smyrna, Fla 

Oeala, Fla 

Palatka, Fla 

Palmetto, Fla 

Pompano, Fla 

Quincy, Fla 

River J ujiction, Fla 

Sarasota, Fla 

Sebring, Fla 

Wauchula, Fla 

Winter Haven, Fla 

Winter Park, Fla 



97 



Table 58. — Number of police department employees, 1938; cities with population 

from 2,500 to ^5,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Amerieus, Ga 

Bainbridge, Ga 

BarnesviUe, Ga 

Cairo, Ga 

Carrollton, Ga _ 

Cartersville, Ga 

Commerce, Ga 

Cuthbert, Ga 

Dalton, Ga 

East Point, Ga 

Elberton, Ga 

Newnan, Ga 

Porterdale, Ga 

Quitman, Ga 

Rossville, Ga 

Statesboro, Ga 

Vidalia, Ga 

Blackfoot, Idaho 

Burley, Idaho 

Caldwell, Idaho 

Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. 

Emmett, Idaho 

Idaho Falls, Idaho 

Lewiston, Idaho 

Malad City, Idaho 

Moscow, Idaho 

Nampa, Idaho 

Payette, Idaho 

Preston, Idaho 

St. Anthony, Idaho__. 

Sandpoint, Idaho 

Twin Falls, Idaho 

Weiser, Idaho 

Abingdon, 111.. 

Anna, 111 __. 

Arlington Heights, 111. 

Barrington, 111 

Batavia, 111 

Beardstown, 111.. 

Bellwood, 111 

Belvidere, 111 

Benld, 111. 

Benton, 111 

Carbondale, 111 

Carlinville, 111 

Carmi, 111 

Carter ville. Ill 

Charleston, 111 

Christopher, 111 

Clinton, 111 

Collinsville, 111 

Crystal Lake, 111 

DeKalb, 111 

DesPlaines, 111 

Dixon, 111 

Dolton, 111 

Downers Grove, 111 

Duquoin, 111. 

Dwight,Ill. 

East Alton, 111 

East Peoria, 111 

Edwardsville, 111 

Flora, 111. 

Galva, 111 

Geneva, 111 

Gillespie, 111 

Glencoe, 111 

Glen Ellyn, 111 

Greenville, 111 

Herrin,Ill 

Highland, 111 

Highwood, 111 

Hillsboro, 111 

Hinsdale, 111. 

Homewood, 111 

Hoopeston, 111... 

Johnston City, 111 

Kenilworth, El 



Number of 
employees 



8 
6 
5 
5 
6 
5 
6 
3 
9 
11 
6 
8 
5 
4 
3 
4 
3 
4 
5 
4 
5 
2 

15 

10 
2 
6 

10 
3 
3 
3 
3 

11 
3 
3 
3 
7 
4 
4 
7 
6 
7 
3 
3 
5 
3 
3 
2 
4 
3 
4 
9 
4 
8 

11 
8 
6 
8 
5 
3 
4 

10 
5 
6 
3 
7 
4 

11 

15 
5 
5 
3 
7 
3 

11 
4 
3 
4 
9 




La Grange Park, 111 

Lake Forest, 111 

Lansing, 111 .V 

Lemont, 111 

Liberty ville, 111... 

Litchfield, 111 V.V.'.V 

Loekport, 111 

Lombard, 111 ___'_ 

Lyons, 111 

Macomb, 111 

Madison, 111 

Marseilles, 111 

Mendota, 111 

Metropolis, 111 

Monmouth, 111 

Morris, 111 

Morrison, 111 

Mount Carmel, 111. 

Mount Olive, 111 

Murphysboro, 111 

Naperville, 111 

Niles Center, 111 

Normal, 111... 

North Chicago, 111 

Oglesby, 111 

Pana, 111... 

Paris,Ill 

Peoria Heights, lU 

Peru, 111 

Pheonix, 111 

Pinckney ville, III 

Pontiac, 111 

Princeton, 111 

Riverdale, 111 

River Forest, 111 

River Grove, 111 

Riverside, 111 

Robinson, IlL 

Rochelle, 111 ..___ 

Roodhouse, 111 

St. Charles, 111 '_.___ 

Sandwich, 111 

Savanna, III . 

Shelbyville, lU. 

Silvis, III 

Sparta, 111 ....... 

Spring Valley, 111... 

Staunton, 111 ........... 

Steger, 111... 

Summit, 111.. ....... 

Taylorville, 111 

Venice, 111 ......... 

Villa Park, HI 

Virden, 111 

Watseka, 111 

West Chicago, 111 

Western Springs, 111 

Westmon t, 111 

Westville, 111 

Wheaton, 111.. 

White Hall, 111 

Wood River, 111 

Woodstock, 111 

Zeigler, 111 

Zion, 111 . 

Alexandria, Ind 

Angola, Ind 

Attica, Ind 

Auburn, Ind 

Batesville, Ind 

Beech Grove, Ind 

Bicknell, Ind. 

Bluffton, Ind 

Boon ville, Ind 

Clinton, Ind 

Columbia City, Ind 

Crown Point, Ind 



4 

17 

1 

2 

3 

4 

3 

6 

10 

10 

10 

3 

7 

5 

10 

5 

5 

4 

3 

3 

7 

17 
7 
6 
3 
4 
8 
5 
6 
2 
2 
5 
5 
5 
16 
4 
11 
7 
5 
5 
4 
1 
5 
4 
4 
2 
4 
3 
4 
6 
5 
7 
6 
2 
4 
2 
5 
5 
4 
9 
3 
5 
3 
2 
3 
5 
2 
4 
3 
2 
4 
4 
6 
2 
5 
5 
2 



98 



Table 58. — Number of police department employees, 1938; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Dunkirk, Ind 

Franklin, Ind 

Garrett, Ind 

Gas City, Ind 

Greencastle, Ind _ . 

Greonsburg, Ind 

Hartford City, Ind 

Uobart, Ind 

Huntingburg, Ind 

Jasonville, Ind 

Kendallville, Ind 

Lawrenceburg, Ind 

Lebanon, Ind 

Linton, Ind 

Madison, Ind 

Martinsville, Ind 

Mitchell, Ind 

Mount Vernon, Ind 

Nappance, Ind 

North Vernon, Ind 

Oakland City, Ind 

Petersburg, Ind 

Plymouth, Ind 

Princeton, Ind 

Rensselaer, Ind 

Salem, Ind . 

Seymour, Ind 

Sullivan, Ind 

Valparaiso, Ind 

Wabash, Ind 

Warsaw, Ind 

West Lafayette, Ind 

West Terra Haute, Ind. 

Winchester, Ind 

Albia, Iowa 

Algona, Iowa 

Anamosa, Iowa 

Atlantic, Iowa 

Belle Plaine, Iowa 

Bettendorf) Iowa 

Carroll, Iowa 

Cedar Falls, Iowa 

Centerville, Iowa 

Chariton, Iowa 

Charles City, Iowa 

Clarinda, Iowa 

Clarion, Iowa 

Clear Lake, Iowa 

Creston, Iowa 

Decorah, Iowa 

Denison, Iowa 

Eagle Grove, Iowa 

Eldora, Iowa 

Emmetsburg, Iowa 

Estherville, Iowa 

Fairfield, Iowa 

Grinnell, Iowa 

Hampton, Iowa 

Iowa Falls, Iowa 

Jefferson, Iowa 

Knoxville, Iowa 

Le Mars, Iowa 

Maquoketa, Iowa 

Marion, Iowa 

Missouri Valley, Iowa.. 
Mount Pleasant, Iowa- 
Nevada, Iowa 

Oelwein, Iowa 

Onawa, Iowa 

Osage, Iowa 

Pella, Iowa 

Perry, Iowa 

Sheldon, Iowa 

Shenandoah, Iowa 

Spencer, Iowa 

Storm Lake, Iowa 

Tama, Iowa 

Vinton, Iowa 



Number of 
employees 



2 
4 
4 
2 
3 
3 
3 
3 
2 
2 
4 
5 
4 
4 
4 
4 
3 
3 
2 
4 
1 
2 
3 
5 
2 
2 
6 
3 
11 
8 
4 
4 
3 
3 
2 
4 
2 
3 
2 
1 
4 
6 
6 
3 
5 
4 
2 
3 
7 
4 
4 
3 
2 
2 
5 
3 
4 
2 
4 
2 
4 
4 
3 
4 
3 
4 
3 
4 
2 
2 
2 
4 
3 
4 
5 
3 
3 
3 




Washington, Iowa 

Waukon, Iowa 

Waverly, Iowa 

Webster City, Iowa. . 

Abilene, Kans _ 

Augusta, Kans 

Baxter Springs, Kans. 

Caney, Kans 

Cherry vale, Kans 

Clay Center, Kans 

Concordia, Kans 

Council Grove, Kans. 

Eureka, Kans 

Fredonia, Kans 

Galena, Kans 

Garden City, Kans... 

Garnett, Kans 

Great Bend, Kans 

Hays, Kans 

Herington, Kans 

Hiawatha, Kans 

Hoisington, Kans 

Holton, Kans 

Horton, Kans 

Humboldt, Kans 

lola, Kans 

Junction City, Kans.. 

Kingman, Kans 

Liberal, Kans 

Lyons, Kans 

Marysvile, Kans 

McPhcrson, Kans 

Neodesha, Kans 

Olathe, Kans 

Osawatomie, Kans 

Ottawa, Kans 

Paola, Kans 

Wellington, Kans 

Winfield, Kans 

Catlettsburg, Ky 

Corbin, Ky 

Cumberland, Ky 

Cynthiana, Ky 

Danville, Ky 

Dayton, Ky 

Earlington, Ky 

Elsmere, Ky 

Fulton, Ky 

Georgetown, Ky 

Glasgow, Ky 

Harlan, Ky... .- 

Irvine, Ky 

Jenkins, Ky 

Lebanon, Ky 

Ludlow, Ky 

Mount Sterling, Ky- 

Nicholasville, Ky 

Pikeville, Ky 

Providence, Ky 

Russellville, Ky 

Winchester, Ky 

Aioite, La 

Bastrop, La 

De Quincy, La 

Donaldson ville, La_... 

Eunice, La 

Franklin, La 

Haynesville, La 

Houma, La 

Jennings, La 

Leesville, La 

Mindeu, La 

Natchitoches, La 

New Iberia, La 

Oakdale, La 

Opelousas, La 



99 



Table 58. — Number of 'police department employees, 1938; cities with population 

from 2,500 to ^5,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Pineville, La 

Plaquemine, La 

Ravne, La 

Slidell, La 

Tallulah, La 

West Monroe, La 

Westwego, La 

Bath, Maine 

Belfast, Maine 

Brewer, Maine 

Brunswick, Maine 

Calais, Maine 

Fort Fairfield, Maine... 

Gardiner, Maine 

Hallowell, Maine 

Madison, Maine 

Old Town, Maine 

Presquelsle, Maine 

Rockland, Maine 

Saco, Maine 

Cambridge, Md... 

Frostburg, Md 

Laurel, Md 

Mount Rainier, Md 

Takoma Park, Md 

Westernport, Md. 

Abington, Mass 

Amherst, Mass. _.. 

Andover, Mass 

Auburn, Mass 

Ayer, Mass 

Barnstable, Mass 

Bridgewater, Mass 

Canton, Mass 

Concord, Mass 

Dalton, Mass 

Dartmouth, Mass 

Dracut, Mass 

Dudley, Mass 

Franklin, Mass -.. 

Great Barrington, Mass 

Hingham, Mass 

Hudson, Mass _.. 

Ipswich, Mass 

Lexington, Mass 

Longmeadow, Mass 

Ludlow, Mass.-. 

Marblehead, Mass 

Middleborough, Mass.. 

Montague, Mass 

Nantucket, Mass 

North Andover, Mass... 

Northbridge, Mass 

Orange, Mass 

Palmer, Mass 

Provincetown, Mass 

Randolph, Mass 

Reading, Mass 

Rockport, Mass 

Somerset, Mass 

South Hadley, Mass 

Spencer, Mass 

Uxbridge, Mass 

Walpole, Mass 

Ware, Mass 

Winchendon, Mass 

Albion, Mich 

Allegan, Mich 

Alma, Mich 

Belding, Mich 

Berkley, Mich 

Bessemer, Mich.. 

Big Rapids, Mich 

Birmingham, Mich 

Boyne City, Mich 

Buchanan, Mich 

Cadillac, Mich 

Caro, Mich. 



Number of 
employees 




2 
5 
3 
3 
4 
6 
1 
9 
3 
6 

15 
7 
3 
7 
3 
2 

17 
3 
8 
6 
7 
4 
2 



1 

6 
4 

12 

10 
3 

16 
9 
7 

10 
2 
6 
3 

28 
6 
7 

11 
9 

10 

17 

10 
9 

20 
8 
4 
7 
5 

14 
4 

12 
4 
4 

18 
6 
3 
5 

13 
6 
9 
4 
9 
5 
3 
6 
1 
6 
4 
6 

18 
2 
3 
6 



Centerline, Mich 

Charlotte, Mich . 

Cheboygan, Mich 

Clawson, Mich 

Coldwater, Mich 

Crystal Falls, Mich 

Dowagiac, Mich 

East Detroit, Mich 

East Grand Rapids, Mich.. 

East Lansing, Mich.. 

Eaton Rapids, Mich 

Gladstone, Mich _ 

Grand Haven, Mich 

Grand Ledge, Mich 

Greenville, Mich 

Grosse Pointe, Mich 

Grosse Pointe Farms, Mich 

Hancock, Mich 

Hastings, Mich 

Hillsdale, Mich 

Houghton, Mich 

Howell, Mich 

Inkster, Mich. 

lona, Mich 

Iron River, Mich 

Ishpeming, Mich 

Kingsford, Mich 

Ludington, Mich 

Manistee, Mich 

Manistique, Mich 

Marine City, Mich 

Marshall, Mich 

Melvindale, Mich 

Midland, Mich 

Mount Pleasant, Mich 

Munising, Mich 

Negaunee, Mich 

Northville, Mich 

Norway, Mich 

Otsego, Mich 

Petosky, Mich 

Pleasant Ridge, Mich 

Plymouth, Mich 

Rochester, Mich 

Rogers City, Mich 

Roseville, Mich 

St. Clair, Mich 

St. Clair Shores, Mich 

St. Joseph, Mich 

South Haven, Mich. 

Sturgis, Mich 

Three Rivers, Mich 

Trenton, Mich 

Wakefield, Mich 

Wayne, Mich 

Zeeland, Mich 

Alexandria, Minn 

Anoka, Minn 

Bayport, Minn 

Bemidji, Minn 

Blue Earth, Minn 

Chisholm, Minn 

Cloquet, Minn 

Columbia Heights, Minn. _ 

Crookston, Minn 

Crosby, Minn 

Detroit Lakes, Minn 

East Grand Forks, Minn.. 

Edina, Minn. 

Ely, Minn 

Eveleth, Minn. 

Fairmont, Minn 

Fergus Falls, Minn 

Gilbert, Minn 

Grand Rapids, Minn 

Hastings, Minn 

Hopkins, Minn 

Hutchinson, Minn 



5 
3 
3 
3 

7 
3 
5 
7 
5 
5 
5 
4 
5 
3 

e 

16 

21 
7 
3 
1 
4 
3 
4 
1 
4 
9 
3 
5 
6 
4 
3 
4 
6 
6 
5 
3 

10 
6 
3 
3 
5 
6 
7 
4 
1 
8 
3 

10 
8 
5 
8 
9 
8 
6 
5 
2 
4 
3 
2 
6 
3 

15 
8 
3 
6 
3 
4 
7 
3 

12 

19 
5 
5 
5 
4 
4 
3 
2 



100 



Table 58. — Number of police department employees, 1938; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



International Falls, Minn. 

Lake City, Minn 

Litchfield, Minn 

Little Falls, Minn 

Luverne, Minn 

Marshall, Minn 

Moorhead, Minn 

Nashwauk, Minn 

New Ulm, Minn 

Northfleld, Minn 

North Mankato, Minn — 

North St. Paul, Minn 

Owatonna, Minn 

Pipestone, Minn 

Proctorknott, Minn 

Red Wing, Minn 

Redwood Falls, Minn 

Robbinsdale, Minn 

St. James, Minn 

St. Louis Park, Minn 

St. Peter, Minn 

Sauk Center, Minn 

Sauk Rapids, Minn 

Sleepy Eye, Minn 

Staples, Minn 

Stillwater, Minn 

Thief River Falls, Minn. 

Tracy, Minn 

Two Harbors, Minn 

Wadena, Minn_. ._. 

Waseca, Minn 

West St. Paul, Minn 

White Bear Lake, Minn. 

Willmar, Minn 

WorthinRton, Minn 

Cleveland, Miss 

Columbia, Miss 

Indianola, Miss 

Lexington, Miss 

New Albany, Miss 

Oxford, Miss 

Starkville, Miss 

Water Valley, Miss 

West Point, Miss 

Yazoo City, Miss 

Aurora, Mo 

Boonville, Mo 

Brentwood, Mo 

Cameron, Mo 

Carrollton, Mo 

Carthage, Mo 

Chillicothe, Mo 

Clayton, Mo 

Clinton, Mo 

DeSoto, Mo 

Excelsiior Springs, Mo 

Farmington. Mo._ 

Ferguson, Mo 

Higginsville, Mo 

Kirksville, Mo 

Kirkwood, Mo 

Mareeline, Mo 

Marshall, Mo 

Maryville, Mo 

Mexico, Mo 

Monett, Mo 

Nevada, Mo 

Richmond Heights, Mo.. 

Sikeston, Mo 

Slater, Mo 

Trenton, Mo 

Washington, Mo 

West Plains, Mo 

Bozeman, Mont.. 

Qlendive, Mont 

Havre, Mont 

Kalispell, Mont 

Laurel, Mont 



Number of 
employees 



5 
3 
3 

5 

3 

4 

8 

4 

6 

3 

3 

1 

8 

3 

1 

9 

3 

4 

3 

3 

3 

2 

1 

3 

3 

8 

5 

2 

5 

3 

3 

3 
6 
5 

3 
4 
4 
4 
2 
5 
2 
3 
5 
5 
7 
3 
5 
5 
3 
2 
6 
7 

20 
4 
2 
5 
2 
3 
3 
5 

10 
4 
6 
4 
.5 
6 
8 

10 
4 
2 
3 
4 
4 
7 
3 
7 
6 
3 



City 



Lewiston, Mont 

Livingston, Mont 

Whitefish, Mont 

Alliance, Nebr 

Auburn, Nebr 

Aurora, Nebr 

Blair, Nebr 

Chadron, Nebr 

Columbus, Nebr 

Crete, Nebr 

Fairburv, Nebr 

Falls City, Nebr 

Goring, Nebr 

Holdrege, Nebr 

Kearney, Nebr 

Lexington, Nebr 

McCook, Nebr 

Nebraska City, Nebr 

Schuyler, Nebr 

Scottsbluff, Nebr 

Seward, Nebr 

South Sioux City, Nebr 

Wahoo, Nebr 

Wymore, Nebr 

York, Nebr 

Boulder City, Nev 

Ely, Nev 

Las Vegas, Nev 

Sparks, Nev 

Derry Town, N. H 

Exeter, N. H 

Franklin, N. H 

Littleton, N. H 

Newport N. H 

Somersworth, N. H 

Audubon, N. J 

Belmar, N. J 

Bergenfield, N. J 

Bernardsville, N. J 

Bogota, N.J 

Boonton, N. J 

Bound Brook, N. J 

Bradley Beach, N. J 

Butler, N.J 

Caldwell, N.J 

Cape May, N. J 

Carlstadt, N. J 

Chatham, N. J 

Clementon, N. J 

Closter, N. J 

Dunellen, N.J 

East Newark, N. J 

East Paterson, N. J 

Edgewatpr, N. J 

Egg Harbor, N.J 

Fairlawn, N. J 

Fairview, N. J 

Flemineton, N. J 

Fort Lee, N.J 

Franklin, N. J 

Freehold, N. J 

Garwood, N. J 

Qlassboro, N. J 

Glen Ridge, N. J 

Glen Rock, N. J 

Guttenberg, N. J 

Hackettstown, N. J 

Haddonfield, N.J 

Haddon Heights, N. J 

Haledon, N. J 

Hammonton, N. J 

Hasbrouck Heights, N. J. 

Highland Park, N.J 

Hightstown, N. J 

Hillsdale, N.J 

Keyport, N. J .-.. 

Lambertville, N. J.. 

Leonia, N. J 



Number of 
employees 



5 
7 
3 
7 
4 
2 
3 
3 
4 
3 
5 
6 
3 
3 
7 
3 
4 
4 
3 
8 
3 
3 
2 
2 
.") 
8 
5 
11 
5 
4 
9 
5 
8 



14 

13 

14 
5 

10 
7 
9 

11 
T, 

10 
9 

10 
8 
2 
5 
5 
5 
6 

26 
1 
9 

12 
2 

23 
S 
4 
3 
4 

21 
9 

11 
3 

20 

10 
3 
6 

12 

11 
5 
6 
9 
5 

13 



101 



Table 58. — Number of police department employees, 1938; cities with population 

from 2,500 to ^5,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Little Ferry, N. J 

Madison, N. J 

Manville, N. J. 

Margate City, N. J... 

Maywood, N. J 

Merchantville, N. J-.- 

Metuchen, N. J 

Middlesex, N. J 

New Milford, N.J 

Newton, N. J 

Northfield, N. J 

North Plainfield, N. J 

Ocean City, N.J 

Paramus, N. J--. 

Paulsboro, N. J 

Penns Grove, N. J 

Pitman, N. J 

Pompton Lakes, N. J- 

Princeton, N. J 

Prospect Park, N. J... 

Ramsey, N. J 

Raritan, N. J 

Ridgefield, N.J 

Roselle Park, N. J 

Salem, N.J 

Sayreville, N.J- - 

Secaucus, N. J 

Somerville, N. J 

South Plainfield, N. J- 

Tenafly, N.J 

Ventnor City, N. J---. 

Verona, N. J 

Vineland, N. J 

Wallington, N. J 

Washington, N. J 

West Caldwell, N. J.. 

Westwood, N. J 

W^harton, N. J 

Wildwood, N. J 

Woodbury, N. J 

Wood Ridge, N. J 

Alamogordo, N. Mex_. 

Carlsbad. N. Mcx 

Clayton, N. Mex 

Clovis, N. Mex 

Gallup, N. Mex 

Portales, N. Mex 

Raton, N. Mex 

Silver City, N. Mex_. 

Albion, N.Y 

Amityville, N. Y 

Bablyon, N. Y 

Baldwinsville. N. Y_. . 
BallstonSpa, N-Y.- 
Bath, N. Y 

Bronxville, N. Y 

Canajoharie, N. Y 

Canadaigua, N. Y 

Canastota, N. Y _ 

Canisteo, N. Y 

Canton, N.Y 

Carthage. N.Y 

Catskill, N. Y 

Cobleskill. N. Y 

Cooperstown, N. Y 

Corinth, N.Y 

Dansville, N. Y 

Depew, N. Y 

Dobbs Ferry, N. Y.^._ 

Dolgeville, N. Y 

East Rochester, N. Y. 

Ellenville, N. Y 

Elmira Heights, N. Y. 

Elmsford, N. Y 

Falconer, N. Y 

Farmingdale, N. Y 

Port Edward, N.Y_.. 
Fort Plain, N. Y 



Number of 
employees 



8 

10 

3 

10 

9 

9 

8 

2 

5 

11 

3 

10 

31 

4 

6 

6 

6 

4 

14 

3 

6 

3 

11 

10 

8 

10 

15 

12 

6 

16 

18 

14 

11 

12 

4 

4 

11 

1 

21 

12 

10 

3 

5 

2 

7 

6 

3 

4 

3 

6 

10 

12 

3 

7 

9 

21 

2 

10 
5 
3 
4 
4 
6 
3 
2 
1 
5 
6 
10 
4 
4 
7 
5 
6 
3 
8 
4 
4 




Frankfort, N. Y 

Fredonia, N. Y 

Garden City, N. Y ___ 

Goshen, N. Y 

Qou verneur, N . Y 

Gowanda, N. Y 

Granville, N. Y. 

Green Island, N. Y 

Greenport, N. Y 

Hamburg, N. Y 

Hasting.s-on-Hudson, N. Y 

Haverstraw, N. Y 

Highland Falls, N. Y 

Homer, N. Y 

Hoosick Falls, N. Y 

Hudson Falls, N. Y 

Ilion, N. Y 

Irvington, N. Y 

Lake Placid, N. Y 

Lancaster, N. Y 

Larchmont, N. Y 

Le Roy, N.Y 

Liberty, N. Y _._ 

Lindenhurst, N. Y 

Lowville, N. Y 

Lyons, N. Y 

Malone, N. Y 

Mechanicville, N. Y 

Medina, N. Y 

Mohawk, N.Y _■ 

Monticello, N. Y.. 

Mount Kisco, N. Y 

Mount Morris, N. Y 

Newark, N.Y 

New York Mills, N.Y.-.. 

North Pelham, N. Y 

Northport, N. Y 

North Tarrytown, N. Y_ _ 

Norwich, N. Y 

Nyack, N. Y 

Owego, N. Y 

Palmyra, N. Y 

Patchogue, N. Y 

Pelham Manor, N.Y 

Penn Yan, N. Y 

Perry, N. Y 

Pleasantville, N. Y 

Potsdam, N. Y 

Rye, N.Y 

Sag Harbor, N. Y 

Salamanca, N. Y 

Saranae Lake, N. Y 

Saugerties, N. Y 

Scarsdale, N. Y 

Scotia, N. Y 

Senec^ Falls, N. Y 

Silver Creek, N.Y 

Solvay, N. Y 

Southampton, N. Y 

Spring Valley, N. Y 

Springville, N. Y 

Suflern, N. Y 

Tarrytown, N. Y 

Ticonderoga, N. Y 

Tuckahoe, N. Y 

Tupper Lake, N. Y 

Walden, N. Y 

Walton, N.Y 

Wappingers Falls, N. Y... 

Warsaw, N. Y 

Waterford, N. Y 

Waterloo, N.Y 

Waverly, N. Y 

Wellsville, N. Y 

Westfleld, N. Y 

West Haverstraw, N. Y... 

Whitehall, N. Y 

Whitesboro, N. Y 



Number of 
employees 



3 
5 

29 
5 
5 
5 
4 
5 
6 
5 

14 
9 
2 
1 
4 
5 

10 
9 
6 
5 

18 
5 
6 
8 
3 
4 
8 
7 
7 
3 
7 

11 
2 

15 
1 

13 
4 

16 
8 

12 
3 
6 

13 

22 
5 
5 

11 
6 

33 
2 

14 
8 
5 

23 
8 
6 
5 

14 
8 
5 
4 
8 

17 
9 

15 
4 
5 
3 
4 
3 
5 
3 
4 
5 
4 
1 
3 
1 



102 



Table 58. — Number of -police department employees, 1938; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Yorkville, N. Y 

Asheboro, N. C 

Belmont, N. C 

Canton, N. C 

Chapel Hill, N. C 

Cherryville, N. C 

Edenton, N. C 

Forest City, N.C 

Greenville, N. C 

Hendersonville, N. C 

Hickory, N. C 

Lenoir, N. C 

Lexington, N. C 

Lincolnton, N. C 

Lumberton, N. C 

Morganton, N. C 

Mount Airy, N. C 

Oxford, N.C 

Reidsville, N. C 

Roanoke Rapids, N. C 

Sanford, N. C 

Smithfield, N. C 

Southern Pines, N. C. 

Tarboro, N. C 

Devils Lake, N. Dak 

Dickinson, N. Dak 

Jamicstown, N. Dak 

Mandan, N. Dak_._ _. 

Valley City, N. Dak 

Wahpeton, N. Dak 

Williston, N. Dak 

Amherst, Ohio 

Athens, Ohio 

Barnesville, Ohio 

Bedford, Ohio 

Bellefontaine, Ohio 

Belle vue, Ohio 

Berea, Ohio 

Bridgeport, Ohio 

Bryan, Ohio 

Carey, Ohio 

Celina, Ohio 

Chagrin Falls, Ohio 

Cheviot, Ohio 

Circleville, Ohio 

Clyde, Ohio 

Conneaut, Ohio 

Crestline, Ohio 

Crooksville, Ohio 

Defiance, Ohio 

Delaware. Ohio 

Delphos, Ohio 

Dennison, Ohio 

Dover, Ohio 

East Palestine, Ohio 

Eaton, Ohio 

Elmwood Place, Ohio 

Fairport Harbor, Ohio 

Fairview, Ohio_- 

Franklin, Ohio 

Gallon, Ohio 

Geneva, Ohio 

Oirard, Ohio 

Glouster, Ohio 

Grandview Heights. Ohio- 

GreenvOle, Ohio 

Hillsboro, Ohio 

Hubbard, Ohio 

Jackson, Ohio 

Kent, Ohio 

Kenton, Ohio 

Lebanon, Ohio 

Lisbon, Ohio 

Lockland, Ohio 

Logan, Ohio 

London, Ohio 

Louisville, Ohio 

Lowellville, Ohio... 



Number of 
employees 



1 
6 
8 
7 
5 
4 
3 
4 

13 
6 

15 
9 
8 
4 
7 
6 
9 
4 

12 
7 
6 
5 
3 
6 
4 
3 
7 
4 
6 
3 
4 
5 
4 
3 
4 
4 
7 
6 
4 
3 
3 
2 
4 
8 
6 
3 
5 
6 
1 
4 
5 
4 
5 
7 
3 
3 
5 

10 
4 
3 
6 
4 
6 
1 
8 
6 
6 
3 
3 
9 
6 
3 
2 
8 
3 
6 
2 
3 




Number of 
employees 



Maple Heights, Ohio. 

Marysville Heights, Ohio 

Maumee, Ohio 

Mayfield Heights, Ohio 

Medina, Ohio 

Miamisburg, Ohio 

Minerva, Ohio 

Mingo Junction, Ohio 

Montpelier, Ohio 

Mount Healthy, Ohio 

Mount Vernon, Ohio 

New Boston, Ohio 

Newton Falls, Ohio 

North Canton, Ohio 

North College Hill, Ohio 

Norwalk, Ohio 

Oakwood, Ohio 

Oberlin, Ohio 

Orrville, Ohio 

Oxford, Ohio 

Perrysburg, Ohio 

Pomerov, Ohio 

Port Clinton, Ohio 

Ravenna, Ohio 

Reading, Ohio 

Rittman, Ohio 

Rocky River, Ohio 

St. Bernard, Ohio 

St. Marys, Ohio 

Sebring, Ohio 

Shadvside, Ohio 

Shelby, Ohio 

Sidney, Ohio 

South Euclid, Ohio 

Tippecanoe City, Ohio 

Toronto, Ohio 

Troy, Ohio 

Uhrichsville, Ohio ._ 

Upper Arlington, Ohio 

Urbana, Ohio 

Van Wert, Ohio 

Wadsworth, Ohio 

Wapakonetd, Ohio 

Washington Court House, Ohio. 

Wellston, Ohio 

Westerville, Ohio 

Willoughby, Ohio 

Wilmington, Ohio 

Wyoming, Ohio 

Alva, Okla 

Blaekwell, Okla 

Bristow, Okla 

Chandler, Okla 

Claremore, Okla 

Cleveland. Okla 

Clinton, Okla 

Commerce, Okla 

Cordell, Okla 

Gushing, Okla 

Drumright, Okla 

Duncan, Okla 

Durant, Okla 

Edmond, Okla 

Elk City, Okla 

El Reno, Okla 

Frederick, Okla 

Guthrie, Okla 

Henryetta, Okla 

Hobart, Okla 

Holdenville, Okla 

Hollis, Okla 

Hominy, Okla 

Hugo, Okla 

Kingfisher, Okla 

Mangum, Okla 

Marlow, Okla 

Maud, Okla... 

Miami, Okla 



103 



Table 58. — Number of police department employees, 1938; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 25,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Norman, Okla 

Nowata, Okla_... 

Pawhuska, Okla 

Pawnee, Okla 

Perry, Okla 

Poteau, Okla 

Purcell, Okla 

Sandsprings, Okla 

Stillwater, Okla 

Sulphur, Okla 

Tonkawa, Okla 

Wilson, Okla._ 

Albany, Oreg 

Ashland, Oreg 

Baker, Oreg 

Bend, Oreg 

Burns, Oreg 

Corvallis, Oreg 

Dallas, Oreg 

Grants Pass, Oreg 

Hood River, Oreg 

La Grande, Oreg 

Marshfleld, Oreg 

McMinnville, Oreg 

Oregon City, Oreg 

Pendleton, Oreg 

Roseburg, Oreg 

The Dalles, Oreg 

Ambler, Pa 

Apollo, Pa 

Archbald, Pa 

Ashley, Pa 

Aspinwall, Pa 

Avalon, Pa 

Bangor, Pa 

Barnesboro, Pa 

Beaver, Pa 

Bedford, Pa 

Bellefonte, Pa 

Bellwood, Pa 

Bentleyville, Pa 

Birdsboro, Pa 

Blairsville, Pa .-_ 

Boyertown, Pa 

Bloomsburg, Pa 

Brackenridge, Pa 

Brentwood, Pa 

Bridgeport, Pa 

Broekway, Pa 

Brookville, Pa 

Brownsville, Pa 

Burnham, Pa 

Camp Hill, Pa 

Castle Shannon, Pa 

Catasququa, Pa 

Clarks Summit, Pa 

Clearfield, Pa 

Clifton Heights, Pa 

Clymer, Pa 

Coaldale, Pa 

Collingdale, Pa 

Coplay, Pa 

Corry, Pa 

Crafton, Pa 

CurwensviDe, Pa 

Dale, Pa 

Dallastown, Pa 

Danville, Pa 

Derry, Pa 

Downingtown, Pa 

Dupont, Pa 

East Conemaugh, Pa 

East Lansdowne, Pa 

East McKeesport, Pa 

East Pittsburgh, Pa 

East Stroudsburg, Pa- 

Ebensburg, Pa 

Edwardsviile, Pa 

167972°— 39 4 



Number of 
employees 



10 
8 

7 
3 
4 
2 
2 
2 
7 
3 
5 
2 
5 
5 
7 
5 
3 
5 
4 
5 
5 
7 
8 
3 
7 
5 
3 
7 
3 
4 
5 
4 
5 

12 
3 
4 
8 
2 
3 
1 
1 
6 
4 
3 
9 
4 
8 
4 
2 
2 
8 
1 
2 
1 
5 
1 
3 
5 
2 
3 
6 
6 
6 

11 
2 
3 
1 
3 
3 
3 
4 
5 
3 
5 

11 
4 
2 
6 




Elizabeth town, Pa 

Emaus, Pa.. 

Emporium, Pa 

Ephrata, Pa 

Etna, Pa 

Ford City, Pa 

Forest City, Pa 

Forest Hills, Pa 

Fountain Hill, Pa 

Freedom , Pa 

Freeport, Pa 

Gallitzin, Pa 

Gettysburg, Pa 

Glassport, Pa 

Glenolden, Pa 

Greenville, Pa 

Grove City, Pa 

Hamburg, Pa 

Hatboro, Pa 

Hellertown, Pa 

Hollidaysburg, Pa 

Honesdale, Pa 

Huntingdon, Pa 

Indiana, Pa.- 

Ingram, Pa 

Irwin, Pa 

Jenkintown, Pa 

Jermyn, Pa. 

Jersey Shore, Pa 

Kane, Pa 

Kittanning, Pa 

Kutztown, Pa 

Lansdale, Pa 

Lansdowne, Pa 

Larksville, Pa 

Leechburg, Pa 

Leetsdale, Pa 

Lemoyne. Pa 

Lewisburg, Pa 

Lititz, Pa- 

Lock Haven, Pa 

Luzerne, Pa 

McAdoo, Pa 

McDonald, Pa 

Marcus Hook, Pa 

Masontown, Pa 

Mauch Chunk, Pa 

Mechanicsburg, Pa 

Media, Pa 

Meversdale, Pa 

Midland, Pa- _... 

Millvale, Pa 

Milton, Pa 

Miners ville. Pa 

Monaca, Pa 

Monongahela City, Pa. 

Montoursville, Pa 

Morrisville, Pa 

Mount Joy, Pa 

Mount Penn, Pa 

Mount Pleasant, Pa. .. 

Mount Union, Pa 

Myerstown, Pa 

Nanty Glo, Pa 

Nazareth, Pa 

New Cumberland, Pa. 
New Philadelphia, Pa. 

Northampton, Pa 

North Bellevernon, Pa 
North Charleroi, Pa_ _ . 

North East, Pa 

Northumberland, Pa.. 

Norwood, Pa 

Oakmont, Pa 

Palmerton, Pa 

Palmyra, Pa 

Patton, Pa 

Pen Argyl, Pa 



Number of 

employees 



1 

15 
1 
4 
7 
3 

12 
5 
4 
1 
2 
2 
3 
5 
5 
5 
3 
3 
3 
4 
3 
5 
3 
7 



1 
5 
5 
5 
2 
4 
11 
9 
3 
2 
2 
1 
3 
9 
4 
3 
2 
6 
2 
2 
5 
6 
2 
8 
6 
3 
3 
3 
4 
2 
4 
2 
5 
3 
2 
1 
2 
4 
1 
3 
3 
2 
1 
3 
2 
4 
6 
9 
2 
1 
3 



104 



Table 58. — Number of -police department employees, 1938; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Penbrook, Pa 

PortaKP, Pa.- 

Port Carbon, Pa _. 

Port Vue, Pa 

Punxsutawney, Pa 

Quakerto wn, Pa 

Rankin, Pa 

Reynoldsville, Pa 

Ridgway, Pa 

Roaring Spring, Pa 

Rochester, Pa.. 

Royersford, Pa 

St. Clair, Pa 

St. Marys, Pa ..- 

Sayre, Pa 

Schuylkill Haven, Pa 

Scottdale, Pa 

Sewickley, Pa _. 

Sharpsburg, Pa 

Sharpsville, Pa 

Shillington, Pa 

Shippensburg, Pa 

Slatington, Pa 

Somerset, Pa 

South Connellsville, Pa 

South Fork, Pa 

South Oreensburg, Pa 

Southwest Oreensburg, Pa. 

Spangler, Pa 

Spring City, Pa 

State College, Pa 

Stroudsburg, Pa 

Summit Hill, Pa 

Swarthmore, Pa 

Swoyerville, Pa 

Tarentum, Pa 

Throop, Pa_- 

Titusville, Pa._ 

Traflord, Pa 

Tyrone, Pa 

Upland, Pa... 

Verona, Pa 

Waynesburg, Pa 

Weatherly, Pa 

Wellsboro, Pa 

West Conshohocken, Pa — 

West Homestead, Pa 

Westmont, Pa 

West Newton, Pa 

West Pittston, Pa 

West Reading, Pa 

Westview, Pa 

West Wyoming, Pa 

West York, Pa 

Wilmerding, Pa 

Windber, Pa 

Wyomissing, Pa 

Yeadon, Pa 

Youngwood, Pa 

Harrington, R.I 

Burrillvillc, R.I --..- 

East Greenwich, R. I 

Johnston, R. I 

Warren, R. I 

Abbeville, S. C 

Aiken, S. C 

Chester, S. C 

Clinton, S. C.._ 

Darlington, S. C 

Dillon, S. C.. 

Gaflney, S. C 

Georgetown, S. C 

Hartsville, S. C 

Lancaster, S. C 

Newberry, S. C 

Summerville, S. C 

Union, S. C... 

York, S. C 



Number of 
employees 



6 
2 
3 
1 
7 
4 

12 
2 
2 
1 
8 
3 
5 
4 
4 
4 
3 
S 
9 
5 
3 
3 
6 
3 
2 
1 
3 
2 
1 
1 
3 
2 
5 
8 

14 
7 
6 
7 
3 
4 
3 
4 
4 
1 
2 
4 

13 
5 
1 
9 
8 
5 
2 
3 
6 
5 
6 

14 
2 
4 
4 
2 
7 
6 
6 

10 
7 
7 
6 
4 

11 
8 
6 
7 

10 
2 

13 
3 




Brookings, S. Dak 

Hot Springs, S. Dak 

Lead, S. Dak 

Madison, S. Dak 

Mobridge, S. Dak 

Pierre, S. Dak 

Redfleld, S. Dak 

Vermillion, S. Dak 

Yankton, S. Dak 

Alcoa, Tenn 

Athens, Tenn. 

Cleveland, Tenn__ 

Dyersburg, Tenn 

Elizabethton, Tenn 

Erwin, Tenn 

Fayetteville, Tenn 

Oreeneville, Tenn 

Lenoir C ity , Tenn 

Lewisburg, Tenn 

Loudon, Tenn 

Norris, Tenn 

Paris, Tenn. 

Pulaski, Tenn 

Tullahoma, Tenn 

Union City, Tenn 

Alpine, Tex 

Arlington, Tex 

Athens, Tex 

Borger, TeiX 

Bryan, Tex. 

Burkburnett, Tex 

Cisco, Tex 

Clarendon, Tex 

Coleman, Tex 

Commerce, Tex 

Denton, Tex 

Eastland, Tex 

Fort Stockton, Tex 

Gatesville, Tex 

Gainesville, Tex 

Highland Park, Tex 

Hillsboro, Tex 

Jacksonville, Tex 

Jasper, Tex 

Kerrville, Tex 

Longview, Tex — 

Lufkin, Tex 

McAllen, Tex 

McCamey, Tex 

McKinney, Tex 

Memphis, Tex 

Mexia, Tex 

Mineola, Tex 

Mineral Wells, Tex 

01ney,Tex 

Orange, Tex 

Paducah, Tex 

Pecos, Tex 

Perryton, Tex 

Pharr, Tex 

Plainview, Tex 

Quanah, Tex 

Ranger, Tex 

Smithville, Tex 

Stamford. Tex 

Teague, Tex 

University Park, Tex. . . 

Uvalde, Tex 

Weatherford, Tex 

Weslaco, Tex 

Wink, Tex 

American Fork, Utah... 
Bingham Canyon, Utah 

Brigham Citv, Utah 

Cedar City, Utah 

Eureka, Utah... 

Helper, Utah 



105 



Table 58. — Number of police department employees, 19S8; cities with population 

from 2,500 to ^5,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Logan, Utah 

Murray, Utah 

Nephi, tftah 

Park City, Utah 

Price, Utah. 

Spanish Fork, Utah 

Springville, Utah 

Tooele, Utah 

Bellows Falls, Vt 

Bennington Village, Vt. 

Brattleboro, Vt 

Montpelier, Vt 

Newport, Vt 

Proctor, Vt 

St. Albans, Vt 

St. Johnsbury, Vt 

Springfield, Vt 

Windsor, Vt 

Winooski, Vt 

Abingdon, Va. 

Appalachia, Va 

Big Stone Gap, Va. 

Blueflield, Va 

Buena Vista, Va 

Covington, Va 

Farm ville, Va 

Franklin, Va 

Fredericksburg, Va 

Galax, Va 

Hampton, Va.. 

Harrisonburg, Va 

Lexington, Va 

Martinsville, Va. 

Norton, Va _.. 

Phoebus, Va 

Radford, Va 

Salem, Va. 

Vinton, Va 

Waynesboro, Va 

Williamsburg, Va 

Anacortes, Wash 

Auburn, Wash 

Camas, Wash 

Centralia, Wash 

Chehalis, Wash 

Clarkston, Wash. 

CleElum, Wash 

Colfax, Wash 

Dayton, Wash 

Ellensburg, Wash 

Kelso, Wash 

Mount Vernon, Wash... 

Pasco, Wash 

Port Townsend, Wash.. 

Pullman, Wash 

Puyallup, Wash 

Raymond, Wash 

Renton, Wash 

Sedro Wooley, Wash 

Shelton, Wash... 

Snohomish, Wash 

Toppenish, Wash 

Benwood, W. Va 

Buckhannon, W. Va. . 

Chester, W. Va. 

Dunbar, W. Va 

Elkins, W. Va 

Grafton, W.Va 

Hinton, W. Va. 



Number of 
employees 



9 
4 
3 
2 
4 
3 
3 
3 
6 
6 
7 

12 
9 
2 
3 

10 
7 
5 
3 
3 
4 
4 
5 
4 
6 
5 
5 

10 
4 
9 

U 
5 

14 
2 
5 

4 

8 

6 

7 

4 

4 

3 

3 

8 

5 

5 

4 

3 

2 

5 

6 

3 

3 

3 

5 

7 

3 

5 

4 

4 

4 

4 

7 

8 

2 

2 

5 

7 

5 



City 



Kenova, W. Va 

Keyser, W. Va 

Logan, W. Va 

McMechen, W. Va 

Mannington, W. Va 

Princeton, W. Va 

Richwood, W. Va_. 

St. Albans, W.Va. 

Salem, W.Va 

Sisterville, W. Va. .. 
South Charleston, W. Va 
Welch, W. Va . . 

Wellsburg, W. Va 

Weston, W. Va 

Williamson, W. Va 

Antigo, Wis 

Beaver Dam, Wis 

Berlin, Wis 

Burlington, Wis 

Chippewa Falls, Wis 

Clintonville, Wis 

Columbus, Wis 

Delavan, Wis 

Edgerton, Wis 

Fort Atkinson, Wis 

Hartford, Wis 

Jefferson, Wis 

Kaukauna, Wis 

Ladysmith, Wis 

Lake Geneva, Wis 

Little Chute, Wis 

Marshfield, Wis 

Mayville, Wis 

Menasha, Wis 

Menomonie, Wis 

Merrill, Wis 

Monroe, Wis 

Neenah, Wis 

New London, Wis 

Oconomowoc, Wis 

Park Falls, Wis 

Platteville, Wis 

Plymouth, Wis 

Portage, Wis 

Port Washington, Wis 

Reedsburg, Wis 

Rhinelander, Wis 

Richland Center, Wis 

Ripon, Wis 

Sheboygan Falls, Wis 

Sparta, Wis 

Stoughton, Wis 

Sturgeon Bay, Wis 

Tomah, Wis 

Tomahawk, Wis 

Viroqua, Wis. 

Waupaca, Wis 

Waupun, Wis. 

West Bend, Wis 

West Milwaukee, Wis 

Whitefish Bay, Wis 

Whitewater, Wis 

Wisconsin Rapids, Wis 

Evanston, Wyo 

Green River, Wyo 

Laramie, Wyo 

Rock Springs, Wyo 

Sheridan, Wyo 



Number of 
employees 



4 
3 
4 
2 
2 
6 
2 
3 
3 
1 
5 
8 
3 
5 

10 
8 
12 
4 
5 
10 
6 
6 
4 
3 
4 
3 
2 
6 
2 
6 
3 
9 
2 
14 
6 
8 
7 
14 
4 
5 
4 
4 
4 
3 
5 
2 
8 
4 
6 
3 
5 
4 
4 
4 
4 
2 
4 
4 
7 
10 
13 
6 
12 
4 
2 
8 
8 
7 



106 

DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

During the first 6 months of 1939 the F B I examined 288,107 
arrest records, as evidenced by fingerprint cards, in order to obtain 
data concerning the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of 
the persons represented. The compihxtion has been Hmited to in- 
stances of arrests for violation of State laws and municipal ordinances. 
In other words, fingerprint cards representing arrests for violations of 
Federal laws or representing commitments to any type of penal 
institution have been excluded from this tabulation. 

The tabulation of data from fingerprint cards obviously does not 
include all persons arrested, since there are individuals taken into 
custody for whom no fingerprint cards are forwarded to Washington. 
Furthermore, data pertaining to persons arrested should not be treated 
as information regarding the number of offenses committed, since two 
or more persons may be involved in the joint commission of a single 
offense, and on the other hand one person may be arrested and charged 
with the commission of several separate crimes. 

More than 29 percent of the arrest records examined during the first 
half of 1939 represented persons taken into custody for murder, rob- 
bery, assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft. Arrests for major 
violations are reflected by the following figures: 

Criminal homicide 3, 156 

Robbery 6, 915 

Assault 15, 465 

Burglary 18,858 

Larceny (except auto theft) 32, 865 

Auto theft 6, 501 

Embezzlement and fraud 9, 133 

Stolen property (receiving, etc.) 2, 130 

Arson 471 

Forgery and counterfeiting 3, 866 

Rape 3,276 

Narcotic drug laws ______^ 2, 322 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) _-_-"_- 3,258 

Driving while intoxicated 11, 527 

Gamblihg 5,795 

Total 125,538 

Sex. — Of the 288,107 arrest records examined, 267,592 (92.9 percent) 
represented men and 20,515 (7.1 percent) represented women. For 
all types of crime except commercialized vice the number of men 
arrested was larger than the number of women. However, a compari- 
son of the figures representing an average group of 100_men arrested 
with those for an average group of 100 women arrested indicates that 
there were more women than men charged with miu"der, assault, and 
violation of narcotic drug laws. For types of crimes against property, 
such as robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto theft, men predominate. 
The comparison further reveals that 12 of each 1,000 women arrested 
and fingerprinted were charged with drivmg while intoxicated, whereas 
42 of each 1,000 men arrested were charged with that type of viola- 
tion. Data for individual types of crimes may be found in the follow- 
ing table. 



107 



Table 59. — Distribution of arrests by sex Jan. 1-June 30, 1939 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc. 

Arson — 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice_. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children. _. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws. . . 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling ' 

Suspicion 

Not stated _. 

All other offenses 

Total 



Number 



Total Male Female 



3,156 

6,915 

15, 465 

18, 858 

32, 865 

6,501 

9,133 

2,130 

471 

3,866 

3,276 

3,630 

4,392 

2,322 

3,258 

3,569 

5,035 

11,527 

2,382 

15 

4,433 

13, 897 

43, 776 

24,589 

5,795 

31,213 

3,925 

21, 713 



288, 107 



2,837 

6,619 

14, 232 

18, 596 

30, 613 

6,360 

8,684 

1,946 

439 

3,637 

3,276 

726 

3,671 

1,575 

3,149 

3,485 

4,244 

11,275 

2,344 

15 

4,365 

12, 392 

41,623 

23,004 

5,477 

28, 747 

3,661 

20,600 



267, 592 



319 
296 

1,233 
262 

2,252 
141 
449 
184 
32 
229 



2,904 
721 
747 
109 

84 
791 
252 

38 



68 
1,505 
2,153 
1,585 

318 
2,466 

264 
1,113 



20, 515 



Percent 



Total Male Female 



1.1 
2.4 
5.4 
6.6 

11.4 

2.3 

3.2 

. 7 

.2 

1.3 

1.1 

1.3 

1.5 

.8 

1.1 

1.2 

1.8 

4.0 

.8 

(') 
1.5 
4.8 

15.2 
8.6 
2.0 

10.8 
1.4 
7.5 



100.0 



1.1 
2.5 
5.3 
6.9 
11.4 
2.4 
3.2 

.7 

.2 
1.4 
1.2 

.3 
1.4 

.6 
1.2 
1.3 
1.6 
4.2 

.9 

(') 

1.6 

4.6 

15.6 

8.6 

2.0 

10.7 

1.4 

7.7 



100.0 



1.6 

1.4 

6.0 

1.3 

11.0 

.7 

2.2 

.9 

.2 

1.1 



4.2 

3.5 

3.6 

.5 

.4 

3.9 

1.2 

.2 



.3 
7.3 

10.5 
7.7 
1.6 

12.0 
1.3 
5.4 



100.0 



> Less than Ho of 1 percent. 



Age. — From 1932 until the middle of 1935 there were more arrests 
for age 19 than for any other single age group. From the middle of 
1935 through 1938, ages 21, 22, and 23 were most frequently repre- 
sented. However, during the first 6 months of 1939, once again age 
19 predominated in the number of arrests. During this same period 
arrests for ages 18 and 22 exceeded the number arrested for ages 21 
and 23. Arrests for outstanding age groups during the period of 
January to June 30, 1939, were as follows: 

Number of 
Age : arrests 

19 12,503 

18 12,302 

22 12, 300 

21 11,974 

23 11,785 

The compilation for 1938 reflected that 18.9 percent of the persons 
arrested were less than 21 years old, but during the first half of 1939 
the proportion was 19.3 percent. In addition to the 55,517 persons 
less than 21 years old arrested during the first 6 months of 1939, there 
were 47,611 (16.5 percent) between the ages of 21 and 24, making a 
total of 103,128 (35.8 percent) less than 25 years old. Persons arrested 
who were between the ages of 25 and 29 numbered 48,537 (16.8 per- 
cent). This makes a total of 151,665 (52.6 percent) less than 30 years 
old. (With reference to the ages of persons represented by fingerprint 
cards received at the F B I, it should be borne in mind that the num- 
ber of arrest records is doubtless incomplete in the lower age groups, 
because in some jurisdictions the practice is not to fingerprint youthful 
individuals.) 



108 






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109 



Youths less than 21 years old were frequently charged with offenses 
agamst property, particularly robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto 
theft. This is clearly indicated by the following tabulation: 

Percentage distribution of arrests by age groups 



Age group 


All offenses 


Criminal 
homicide 


Robbery 


Burglary 


Larceny 


Auto theft 


Under 21 .... 


19.3 
33.4 
24.9 
13.9 
8.4 
.1 


12. 1 
37.1 
2fi. 8 
14.3 
9.6 
.1 


29.6 

46.1 

17.7 

5.1 

1.5 

.0 


46.3 

32.5 

14.4 

4.5 

2.2 

.1 


33.4 

32.4 

19.4 

9.7 

5.0 

.1 


54.0 


21-29 


32.1 


30-39 - - 


10.5 


40-49 


2.6 


50 and over - - 


.7 


Unknown 


.1 


Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100. 


100.0 


100,0 



The predominance of youthful persons among those charged with 
offenses against property is further indicated by the fact that 80,739 
persons of all ages were arrested for crimes against property (robbery, 
burglary, larceny, auto theft, embezzlement and fraud, forgery and 
counterfeiting, receiving stolen property, and arson). During the 
first 6 months of 1939, 27,070 (33.5 percent) of the persons arrested 
for such crimes were less than 21 years old. 

Further indication of the large part played by youthful persons in 
the commission of crimes against property is seen in the figures showing 
that 35.8 percent of all persons arrested were less than 25 years of age. 
However, persons less than 25 years old numbered 55.2 percent of 
those charged with robbery, 65.3 percent of those charged with bur- 
glary, 51.0 percent of those charged with larceny, and 74.0 percent of 
those charged with auto theft. More than one-half of all crimes 
against property during the first half of 1939 were committed by 
persons under 25 years of age. 

Table 61. — Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, 

Jan. 1-June SO, 1939 



Oflense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larcen y— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting. . 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice. 

other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons ; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children.. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while into.xicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws_ _ 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy ___ 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated '._ 

All other offenses 

Total 



Total num- 
ber of per- 
sons ar- 
rested 



3,156 

6,915 

15,465 

18, 858 

32. 865 

6,501 

9,133 

2,130 

471 

3,866 

3,276 

3,630 

4,392 

2,322 

3, 258 

3, 569 

5,035 

11,527 

2,382 

15 

4,433 

13, 897 

43, 776 

24, 589 

5,795 

31,213 

3,925 

21, 713 



288, 107 



Number 

under 21 

years of 

age 



383 

2,046 

1,781 

8,741 

10, 999 

3,508 

644 

388 

74 

670 

832 

213 

617 

166 

598 

150 

387 

518 

412 



819 
2,080 
1,995 
3.980 

365 
6,856 

722 
5,573 



55, 517 



Total num- 
ber under 
25 years 
of age 



939 

3,815 

4,337 

12, 309 

16,747 

4,809 

1,927 

769 

136 

1,324 

1,544 

1,266 

1,319 

564 

,193 

646 

1,005 

,931 

979 

3 

,830 

4,529 

6,329 

8,256 

1,077 

12, 697 

1,359 

9,489 



1, 



1, 



1, 



103, 128 



Percentage 

under 21 

years of 

age 



12.1 
29.6 
11.5 
46.4 
33.5 
54.0 

7.1 
18.2 
15.7 
17.3 
25.4 

5.9 
14.0 

7.1 
18.4 

4.2 

7.7 

4.5 

17.3 

.0 

18.5 

15.0 

4.6 
16.2 

6.3 
22.0 
18.4 
25.7 



Total per- 
centage 
under 25 

years of age 



29.8 
55.2 
28.0 
65.3 
51.0 
74.0 



21. 

36. 

28. 

34. 

47. 

34.9 

30.0 

24.3 

36.6 

18.1 

20.0 

16.8 

41.1 

20.0 

41.3 

32.6 

14.5 

33.6 

18.6 

40.7 

34.6 

43.7 



19.3 



35.8 



110 

Recidivism. — There were 128,741 (44.7 percent) of the 288,107 
persons arrested during the first half of 1939 who already had prior 
fingerprint cards on file in the Identification Division of the FBI. 
In addition, there were 3,548 current records bearing notations 
relative to prior criminal activities of persons arrested during the 
first 6 months of 1939, although their fingerprints had not previously- 
been on file. This makes a total of 132,289 persons arrested during 
the first half of 1939 concerning whom there was information on file 
dealing with prior criminal activities, and the records showed that 
79,626 had been convicted previously of one or more crimes. This 
number is 60.2 percent of the 132,289 records containing data con- 
cerning prior criminal activities, and 27.6 percent of the 288,107 
arrest records examined. 

In more than one-half of the cases the previous convictions were 
based on major violations, as indicated by the following figures: 

Criminal homicide 833 

Robbery 3, 306 

Assault 3, 946 

Burglary 8, 754 

Larceny (and related offenses) 18, 785 

Arson 96 

Forgery and counterfeiting 2, 399 

Rape 646 

Narcotic drug laws 1, 424 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 848 

Driving while intoxicated 1, 886 

Total . 42, 923 



Table 62. — Number of cases in which fingerprint records show one or more prior 
convictions, and the total of prior convictions disclosed by the records, Jan. 1—June 
30, 1939 



Oflense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault .- 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice. . 

other sex ofTenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children.. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws... 

Disorderly conduct _ 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Number of 

records 

showing 1 or 

more prior 

convictions 



1, 



528 
2,262 
3,691 
4,946 
8,384 
1,571 
2,394 

398 
87 
,265 

605 

838 

773 
1,068 

751 

601 
1,136 
1,929 

296 
4 

802 

3,908 

16, 046 

8,890 

732 
8,190 
1,412 
6,119 



79, 626 



Number of 
prior con- 
victions of 
major 
offenses 



651 
3,332 
4,306 
8,058 
14,641 
2,335 
3,919 

584 

90 

2,206 

679 
1,067 

910 
2,786 
1,005 

574 

933 
1,640 

264 
3 

826 
3,653 
9,755 
9,069 

796 

10, 481 

1,462 

7,047 



93,072 



Number of 
prior con- 
victions of 
minor 
offenses 



482 

2,452 

4,353 

4,841 

11.885 

1,355 

2,236 

385 

102 

902 

499 

941 

853 

1, 368 

755 

576 

1,674 

2,196 

293 

10 

924 

7,686 

50,614 

18,677 

644 

11,349 

1,284 

8,607 



137, 943 



Total num- 
ber of prior 
convictions 
disclosed 



1,133 

5,784 

8,659 

12, 899 

26, 526 
3,690 
6,155 

969 

192 

3,108 

1,178 

2,008 

1,763 

4,154 

1,760 

1,150 

2,607 

3,836 

557 

13 

1,750 

11,339 

60, 369 

27, 746 
1,440 

21,830 

2,746 

15,654 



231, 015 



Ill 

There were 30 persons arrested for murder or manslaughter during 
the first 6 months of 1939 whose criminal history revealed that they 
had on a prior occasion been convicted of criminal homicide in some 
degree. As already indicated, more than one-half of all persons whose 
records reflected prior convictions had been convicted of major crimes, 
and the tabulation further indicated a general tendency for recidivists 
to repeat the same type of crime. 

The 79,626 persons whose records revealed one or more prior con- 
victions were found to have been convicted of a total of 231,015 
offenses. In 93,072 instances the convictions were of major crimes, 
and in 137,943 cases the convictions were of less serious violations of 
the law. 

Race. — Whites were represented by 215,528 of the records examined 
and Negroes by 61,539. The remaining races were represented as 
follows: Indian, 1,317; Chinese, 478; Japanese, 175; Mexican, 8,237; 
all others, 833. 

The significance of the figures showing the number of Negroes 
arrested as compared with the number of wliites can best be indicated 
in terms of the number of each in the general population of the 
country. Exclusive of those under 15 years of age, there were 
according to the 1930 decennial census, 8,041,014 Negroes, 13,069,192 
foreign-born wliites, and 64,365,193 native wliites in the United 
States. Of each 100,000 Negroes 765 were arrested and fingerprinted 
during the first 6 months of 1939, whereas the corresponding figure 
for native whites was 306 and for foreign-born whites, 103. It should 
be observed in connection with the foregoing data that the figure for 
native whites includes the immediate descendants of foreign-born 
individuals. Persons desiring to make a thorough study of the com- 
parative amounts of crime committed by native whites and foreign- 
born whites should employ available compilations showing the number 
of instances in which offenders are of foreign or mixed parentage. 

At the end of June 1939, there were 10,771,163 fingerprint records 
and 12,026,576 index cards containing the names and aliases of indi- 
viduals on file in the Identification Division of the FBI. Of each 
100 fingerprint cards received during the first 6 months of 1939, 
more than 60 were identified with those on file in the Bureau. Fugi- 
tives numbering 4,303 were identified through fingerprint records 
during the first 6 months of 1939, and interested law enforcement 
officials were immediately notified of the whereabouts of those fugi- 
tives. As of June 30, 1939, there were 10,528 police departments, 
peace officers, and law enforcement agencies throughout the United 
States and foreign countries voluntarily contributing fingerprints to 
the FBI. 



OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in part I and 
part II offenses, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 

Part I Offenses. 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter includes 
all felonious homicides except those caused by negligence. Does not include 
attempts to kill, assaults to kill, justifiable homicides, suicides, or accidental 
deaths. (6) Manslaughter by negligence includes only those cases in which 
death is caused by culpable negligence which is so clearly evident that if the 
person responsible for the death were apprehended he would be prosecuted for 
manslaughter. ' 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape, assault to rape, and attempted 
rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as highway robbery, stick-ups, robbery 
armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or theft. Includes attempted 
burglary and assault to commit a burglary. Burglary followed by a larceny is 
entered here and is not counted again under larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value. 
(b) Under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of property stolen, pocket-picking, purse-snatching, shoplifting, 
or any stealing of property or thing of value which is not taken by force and vio- 
lence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" games, forgery, passing 
worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven 
away and abandoned, including the so-called "joy-riding" thefts. Does not 
include taking for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unau- 
thorized use by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses. 

8. Other assatdts. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which is 
made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false pretenses. 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those offenses. 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.- — Includes all violations of regulations 
or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing, and manufactur- 
ing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes or 
regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commer- 
cialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as, prostitution, keeping 
bawdy house, procuring, transporting, or detaining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice). — In- 
cludes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

15. Offenses against the family and children. — Includes offenses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, sale, or use. Exclude Federal offenses. 

(112) 



113 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "Drunkenness" (class 18) and "Driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations, State or local, are placed in 
this class. Exclude Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage; begging; loitering; etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regulations with 
respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to trafhc and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters but not in connection with any specific offense and who are released 
without formal charges being placed against them. 

o 



^-^S^ 5" A3 



U N I F O R M 



C R I M £ 
REPORT 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 







ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1939 



VOLUME X 



NUMBER 3 



THIRD QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1939 



U. S. bUl'Liili^lhNi.iLNT Ql- UUUU' 

DEC 11 1938 

ADVISORY 



Committee on Uniform Crime Records of the International 
Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department of 

Justice, Washington, D. C. 

Volume 10 October 1939 Number 3 

CONTENTS 

Summary. 

Classification of offenses. 
Justifiable homicide. 
Extent of reporting area. 
Monthlj^ returns: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population (table 
63). 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1931-39 (table 64). 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location (tables 
65-66). 

Offenses in individual cities over 100,000 in population (table 67). 

Offenses known to sheriffs and State police (table 68). 

Offenses known in territories and possessions (talkie 69). 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 70-72). 
Supplementary automotive patrol data, 1938 (tables 73-76). 
Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1939: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 77) . 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 78-80) . 

Number with records showing previous convictions (table 81). 
Definitions of part I and part II offense classifications. 

SUMMARY 

Offenses Against Persons. 

Reports from 67 cities in the United States, each with over 100,000 
inhabitants, durmg the first 9 months of this year reflect an increase 
in offenses of rape of 3.6 percent, and the number of these offenses 
was higher durmg 1939 than during any of the preceding 8 years. 

Offenses of murder, mansLaughter by negUgence, and aggravated 
assault decreased 1.3 percent, 1.6 percent, and 1.9 percent, respectively. 
The number of these oftenses during the first 3 quarters of 1939 was 
lower than during the correspondmg period of any of the preceding 8 
years. 

Offenses Against Property. 

Offenses of burglary and larceny showed increases during the first 
9 months of 1939 as compared with last year. Larcenies occurred with 
more frequency during the period of January-September, inclusive, 
1939, than during the corresponding period of any of the years 1931-38. 

Robbery offenses showed a decrease of 6.5 percent during the first 
9 months of 1939, and the number of offenses of auto theft was 6.1 
percent lower than during the corresponding period of last year. 
Crimes of auto theft were fewer during the first 9 months of 1939 than 
during the corresponding period of any of the preceding 8 years. 

(115) 



116 

Distribution of Crimes. 

Offenses of larceny constituted 57.7 percent of all the crimes re- 
ported. Twenty-three percent of the offenses were burglaries; 11.4 
percent were auto thefts ; and 3.6 percent were robberies. The remain- 
ing 4.3 percent of the crimes were offenses against persons, including 
criminal homicides, rapes, and other felonious assaults. 

More than one-half of the places burglarized were structures other 
than residences, and 81 percent of all burglaries occurred during the 
night. The percentage of nonresidence burglaries occurring during 
the night, however, was considerably higher than the percentage of 
residence burglaries occurring after nightfall. 

More than half of the robberies occurred on city streets and highways, 
and 34.6 percent of the larceny offenses were thefts of personal articles 
from automobiles and thefts of auto accessories. 

Geographic Division of Crime Rates. 

Crime rates for the first 9 months of this year are presented for six 
different groups of cities divided according to size, and this information 
is also presented for the nine geograpliic divisions in order to make 
possible comparisons between local crime data and average figures for 
cities of the same size located in the same section of the country; 

Supplementary Automotive Equipment Data. 

Based on reports received from police departments of cities with 
over 25,000 inhabitants, the 1938 figures are presented for four differ- 
ent groups of cities according to size, showing the number of automo- 
biles on patrol duty operated by one man each, by two men each, and 
by three or more men each. The compilation also shows the number 
of motorcycles on patrol duty during an average day. Data are also 
presented with reference to the number of police departments operating 
on two shifts and the number on three shifts. 

Persons Arrested. 

Fingerprint cards representing 437,432 arrests during the first 9 
months of 1939 reveal that more persons were arrested for age 19 than 
for any other single age group, and 19.2 percent of all those arrested 
were under 21 years of age. Only 7.5 percent of the arrest records 
examined represented women. 

There was already on file information dealing with prior criminal 
activities of 201,507 of the 437,432 persons arrested durmg the first 9 
months of 1939. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "offenses known to the poUce" is designed to include 
those crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification 
occurring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known 
to the police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecut- 
ing or court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following 
group of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be 
those most generally and completely reported to the pohce: Criminal 
homicide, including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (b) 



117 

manslaughter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; 
burglary — breaking or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The 
figures contained herein include also the number of attempted crimes 
of the designated classes. Attempted murders, however, are reported 
as aggravated assaults. In other words, an attempted burglary or 
robbery, for example, is reported in the same manner as if the crime 
had been completed, 

"Offenses known to the police" mclude, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the police depart- 
ments of contributing cities and not merely arrests or cleared cases. 
Complaints which upon investigation are learned to be groundless are 
not included in the tabulations which follow. 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in 
both the part I and part II classes of the uniform classification of 
offenses, there is presented on pages 157 and 158 of this issue of the 
bulletin a brief definition of each classification. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

JUSTIFIABLE HOMICIDE 

As indicated in the definition of offenses, willful homicides which are 
clearly justifiable or excusable are not included as actual offenses of 
murder and nonnegligent manslaughter under the system of uniform 
crime reporting. In the interest of obtaining the highest degree of 
uniformity a specific interpretation has been adopted of what types of 
homicides should be treated as justifiable. Homicides to be classed 
as justifiable or excusable are thereby limited to the following types of 
cases: 

(1) The killing of a felon by a peace officer in line of duty. 

(2) The killing of a felon by a private citizen to prevent the com- 
mission of a felony (i. e., the killing of a holdup man by a storekeeper 
who was his intended victim). 

It is recognized that there are many additional types of cases in 
which mitigating circumstances are present and in which the killer 
claims he acted in necessary self-defense. This situation arises most 
frequently perhaps in connection with Idllings which grow out of 
quarrels. Regardless of the claim of self-defense in such cases, and 
irrespective of the action taken by the prosecutor, grand juiy, or 
trial court, all wilful homicides except those falling within the two 
types of situations outlined above are to be treated as actual offenses 
of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter on the uniform crime 
reports. 

In September of this year an announcement with reference to justi- 
fiable homicides was forwarded to all law enforcement agencies par- 
ticipating in the uniform crime reporting project. 



118 



EXTENT OF REPORTING AREA 

In the table which follows there is shown the number of police 
departments from which one or more crime reports have been re- 
ceived during the first 9 months of 1939. Information is presented 
for the cities divided according to size. The population figures em- 
ployed are estimates as of July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census 
for cities with population in excess of 10,000. No estimates were 
available, however, for those with a smaller number of inhabitants 
and, accordingly, for them the figures listed in the 1930 decennial 
census were used. 



Population group 


Total 

number 

of 

cities 
or towns 


Cities filing 
returns 


Total 
population 


Population repre- 
sented in returns 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total. - 


982 


919 


93.6 


60, 265, 719 


59, 070, 406 


98.0 






1 Cities over 250,000 . 


37 

57 

104 

191 

593 


37 

57 

103 

181 

541 


100.0 

100.0 

99.0 

94.8 

91.2 


29, 695, 500 
7,850,312 
6, 980, 407 
6, 638, 544 
9, 100, 956 


29, 695, 500 
7, 850, 312 
6, 889, 307 
6, 278, 844 
8, 356, 443 


100.0 


2 Cities 100,000 to 250,000 


100.0 


3 Cities 50 000 to 100,000 


98.7 


4 Cities 25,000 to 50,000 


94.6 


5 Cities 10,000 to 25,000 _ .. 


91.8 







Note. — The above table does not include 1,743 cities and rural townships aggregating a total population 
of 8,665,359. The cities included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 population filing returns, whereas 
the rural townships are of varying population groups. 

The growth in the crime-reporting area is evidenced by the following 
figures for the first 9 months of 1932-39: 



Year 



1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 



Number of 
cities 



1,546 
1,638 
1,727 
2,050 



Population 



52, 802, 362 
62, 041, 342 
62, 391, 056 
64, 012, 9.59 



Year 



1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 



Number of 
cities 



2,271 
2,358 
2,617 
2,662 



Population 



65, 319, 548 
65,811,861 
67. 262, 788 
67, 735, 765 



The foregoing comparison shows that during the first 9 months of 
1939 there was an increase of 45 cities as compared with the corre- 
sponding period of 1938, the population represented for those cities 
being 472,977. 

In addition to the 2,662 city and village police departments which 
contributed crime reports during 1939, one or more reports were 
received during that period from 1,639 sheriffs and State police 
organizations and from 11 agencies in possessions of the United States. 
This makes a grand total of 4,312 agencies contributing crime reports 
during 1939. 



MONTHLY RETURNS 



In table 63 there is presented the number of offenses known to the 
police during the first 9 months of 1939 as reported by 1,964 cities 
with an aggregate population of 62,271,928. These data are also pre- 
sented in the form of crime rates (number of offenses per 100,000 in- 
habitants) in order that police executives may compare their local 
crime rates with the national average for cities of approximately the 
same size. 

Table 66 presents the information with the cities divided according 
to size within the nine geographic divisions of the country, thus 
making it possible to compare local crime data with average figures 
for cities of the same size similarly situated geographically. 

Table 63 indicates that 57.7 percent of the crimes were larcenies, 
23 percent burglaries, 11.4 percent auto thefts, and 3.6 percent 
robberies. From the foregoing it will be seen that offenses against 
property constituted 95.7 percent of all the crimes reported, and only 
4.3 percent of the crimes consisted of homicides, rapes, and assaults. 

Table 63. — Offenses known to the police, January to September, inclusive, 1939; 
number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 

36 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 29,375,600: 

Number of oflenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP II 

57 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,850,312: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP III 

96 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 6,455,461: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP IV 

155 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 5,367,401: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP V 

472 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 7,341,780: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP VI 

1,148 cities under 10,000; total popu- 
lation, 5,881,374: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

Total 1,964 cities; total population, 
62,271,928: 

Number of oflenses known 

Rate per 100,000. 



Criminal hom- 
icide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



1,329 
4.5 



350 
4.5 



276 
4.3 



161 
3.0 



200 
2.7 



148 
2.5 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



1 1, 119 2, 406 

4. 8. 2 



1 246 
3.2 



138 
2. 1 



78 
1.5 



106 
1.4 



88 
1.5 



2, 464 11, 775 
4. 2. 9 



445 
5.7 



327 
5.1 



303 
5.6 



365 
5.0 



386 
6.6 



4,232 

6.8 



16, 594 
56.5 



3,076 
39.2 



2,086 
32.3 



1,250 
23.3 



1.389 

18.9 



962 
16.4 



25, 357 

40.7 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
break - 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



10, 635 
36.2 



« 3, 108 
40.1 



2,983 
46.2 



1,614 
30.1 



1,933 
26.3 



1,020 
17.3 



4 21,293 
34.3 



2 56, 992 
281.5 



25, 452 
324.2 



17.304 
268.1 



13, 592 
253.2 



14, 380 
19.5. 9 



10, 125 
172.2 



2 137,845 2 346,576 
259. 4 652. 1 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



2 144, 493 
713.6 



58. 969 
751.2 



43, 532 
674.3 



37, 159 
692.3 



40, 228 
547.9 



22, 195 
377.4 



Auto 
theft 



3 35. 054 
157.7 



12, 257 
156.1 



7,889 
122.2 



6,125 
114.1 



6,066 
82.6 



3,589 
61.0 



3 70, 980 

128.8 



1 The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports as follows: Group 
I, 34 cities, total population, 27,647,400; group II, 56 cities, total population, 7,742,112; groups I-VI, 1,961 
cities, total population, 60,435,528. 

2 The number of offenses and rate for burglary and larceny— theft are based on reports as follows: Group I, 
34 cities, total population, 20,248,600; groups I-VI, 1,962 cities, total population, 53,144,928. 

' The number of oflenses and rate for auto theft are based on reports as follows: Group I, 35 cities, total 
population, 22,221,300; groups I-VI, 1,963 cities, total population, 55,117,628. 

< The number of offenses and rate for aggravated assault are based on reports as follows: Group II, 56 
cities, total population, 7,742,112; groups I-VI, 1,963 cities, total population, 62.163,728. 

(119) 



120 

Annual Trends, Offenses Known to the Police, 1931-39. 

Annual variations in the number of offenses known to have been 
committed during the first 9 months of the years 1931-39 are pre- 
sented in table 64. The compilation is based on the reports of 67 
cities, each with a population in excess of 100,000 inhabitants. The 
total population represented by these cities is 19,018,502. There is 
also shown the average number of crimes committed daily during 
the 9-month period in each of the years noted in the tabulation. 
The data presented in table 64 make it possible for interested persons 
to compare crime trends in an individual community with the annual 
variations throughout the country. 

During the first 9 months of 1939 the number of offenses of rape 
and larceny increased 3.6 and 5.3 percent respectively over last year, 
and the number of these offenses for 1939 was higher than for any of 
the other years shown in the compilation. Burglaries were lowest in 
1936 but have shown a rather steady increase in subsequent years. 

On the other hand, decreases are reflected during 1939 as compared 
with 1938 in the crimes of criminal homicide, robbery, aggravated 
assault, and auto theft. The largest of these decreases are noted in 
the reported offenses of robbery and auto theft, which decreased 6.5 
and 6.1 percent respectively. Crimes of murder, manslaughter by 
negligence, aggravated assault, and auto theft were fewer during the 
first 9 months of 1939 than in any of the other years shown. 

The information presented in table 64 is also reflected in figure 5. 



Table 64. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 67 cities over 100,000 in 
population, January to September, inclusive, 1931-39 

[Total population, 19,018,502. as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or 

entering 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Year 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Number of offenses known: 
1931 -- . 


1,128 

1, 167 

1,233 

1,108 

971 

937 

947 

852 

841 

4.1 
4.3 
4.5 
4.1 
3.6 
3.4 
3.5 
3.1 
3.1 


1,001 
771 
872 
595 
554 
564 
705 
515 
507 

3.7 
2.8 
3.2 
2.2 
2.0 
2.1 
2.6 
1.9 
1.9 


905 

941 

983 

959 

1,218 

1,164 

1,315 

1,296 

1,343 

3.3 
3.4 
3.6 
3.5 
4.5 
4.2 
4.8 
4.7 
4.9 


14, 430 

13, 8.59 

13, 433 

11,059 

9,437 

8,131 

9,207 

9, 359 

8,747 

,52.9 
50.6 
49.2 
40.5 
34.6 
29.7 
33.7 
34.3 
32.0 


7,689 
6,864 
8,384 
7,582 
7, 256 
7.226 
7,298 
6,572 
6,445 

28.2 
25.1 
30.7 
27.8 
26.6 
26.4 
26.7 
24.1 
23.6 


50, 921 

55, 816 

56, 690 
53, 519 
51,014 
43, 746 
46, 773 
48, 362 
48, 872 

186.5 
203.7 
207.7 
196.0 
186. 9 
159. 7 
171.3 
177.2 
179.0 


112,776 
116,357 
122, 394 
120, 166 
122, 435 
111,237 
126, 665 
130, 092 
136, 978 

413.1 
424.7 
448.3 
440.2 
448.5 
406.0 
464,0 
476. 5 
501.8 


64, 143 


1932 

1933 

1934 


54, 274 
51, 527 
47,644 


1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 

1939 

Daily average: 

1931 

1932 

1933 


41,178 
34, 092 
35,800 
29, 832 
28, 004 

235.0 
198.1 
188.7 


1934 


174.5 


1935 

1936 

1937 


150.8 
124.4 
131.1 


1938 -- -- 


109.3 


1939 


102.6 







121 



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188797°— 39- 



122 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location. 

The data presented in tables 63 and 66 are supplemented by the 
information shown in table 65. In this latter tabulation there is indi- 
cated the number of contributors whose reports were employed in 
preparing the crime rates for each of the population groups within 
each of the nme geographic divisions. 

The information presented in table 66 has been made available in 
order to make it possible for the police executive to compare the local 
crime rates not only with the general average for the entire country 
as shown in table 63, but also with the average crime rates for cities of 
approximately the same size in the same section of the United States. 



Table 65. — Number of cities included in the tabulation of uniform crime reports, 
January to September, inclusive, 1939 



Division 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England: 169 cities; total population, 
5,567,144. 

Middle Atlantic: 502 cities; total population, 
18,585,496 

East North Central: 489 cities; total popula- 
tion, 16,181,462 

West North Central: 228 cities; total popula- 
tion, 5,005,251 

South Atlantic: » 162 cities; total population, 
4,802,073 

East South Central: 69 cities; total popula- 
tion, 2,149,663 

West South Central: 107 cities; total popula- 
tion, 3,361,789 

Mountain: 77 cities; total population, 1,195,172_ 

Pacific: 161 cities; total population, 5,423,878 _ 

Total: 1,964 cities; total population, 
62,271,928 --- 



Population 



Group 
I 



Over 
250,000 



36 



Group 
II 



100,000 

to 
250,000 



12 

11 

10 

5 

6 

3 

5 
1 

4 



57 



Group 
III 



50,000 

to 
100,000 



12 
20 
25 
7 
13 



96 



Group 
IV 



25,000 

to 
50,000 



22 

27 

50 

9 

17 

5 



5 
12 



155 



Group 
V 



10,000 

to 
25,000 



61 

129 

99 

53 

34 

19 

20 
14 
37 



472 



Group 
VI 



Less 
than 
10,000 



60 

309 

296 

150 

89 

35 

58 
54 
97 



1,148 



Total 



169 

502 

489 

228 

162 

69 

107 

77 

161 



1,964 



I Includes report of District of Columbia. 



123 

In order that the information may be readily available, there are 
listed below the States included in the nine geographic divisions. 

States Divided by Geographic Divisions 

New England: Middle Atlantic: East North Central: 

Connecticut. New Jersey. Illinois. 

Maine. New York. Indiana. 

Massachusetts. Pennsylvania. Michigan. 

New Hampshire. Ohio. 

Rhode Island. Wisconsin. 

Vermont. 

West North Central: South Atlantic :' East South Central: 

Iowa. Delaware. Alabama. 

Kansas. Florida. Kentucky. 

Minnesota. Georgia. Mississippi. 

Missouri. Maryland. Tennessee. 

Nebraska. North Carolina. 

North Dakota. South Carolina. 

South Dakota. Virginia. 

West Virginia. 

West South Central: Mountain: Pacific: 

Arkansas. Arizona. California. 

Louisiana. Colorado. Oregon. 

Oklahoma. Idaho. Washington. 

Texas. Montana. 

Nevada. 

New Mexico. 

Utah. 

Wyoming. 

1 Includes District of Columbia. 



124 



Table 66. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, Jan- 
uary to September, inclusive, 1939, by geographic divisions and population 
groups 



Geographic division and population 
group 



New England: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI. 

Middle Atlantic: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI. 

East North Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V__. _ 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI. 

West North Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI. 

South Atlantic: 

Group I 6 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI. 

East South Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III ... 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI.. 

West South Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI.. 

Mountain: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V- _-. 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI.. 

Pacific: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI.. 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burglary- 
breaking or 
entering 


Larceny — 

theft 


0.6 


28.5 


15.7 


121.7 


288.5 


.7 


16.7 


10.3 


295.5 


524.9 


.3 


8.8 


3.9 


188.9 


430.7 


.8 


10.2 


4.4 


200.8 


464.3 


1.2 


7.0 


5.1 


150.1 


313.9 




4.9 


3 3 


124 8 


196 4 


. 7 


14.4 


8.2 


197.2 


399.6 


3.5 


20.3 


32.3 


I 159. 1 


1 374. 9 


1.0 


14.9 


16.7 


210.5 


379.3 


1.7 


21.1 


25.5 


222.7 


384.5 


.5 


11.8 


18.3 


167.7 


388.7 


1.1 


11.5 


12.6 


132.5 


253.5 


1.3 


10.3 


9.6 


117.4 


194.1 


2.6 


17.7 


25.8 


3 164. 7 


3 322. 2 


3.8 


94.9 


29.3 


252.4 


645.4 


2.8 


43.5 


44.2 


290.8 


765.9 


1.2 


36. 1 


17.1 


225.6 


561.6 


2.1 


23.9 


9.7 


212.1 


611.3 


1.6 


25.0 


9.3 


205.8 


508.9 


1.6 


16.1 


10.1 


142.8 


256.8 


2.8 


62.9 


23.5 


233.9 


593.9 


4.1 


55.8 


11.7 


204.4 


763.6 


3.5 


41.1 


19.4 


244.5 


724.2 


1.8 


28.3 


8.0 


308.1 


846.2 


1.6 


17.1 


8.4 


219.5 


694.9 


1.8 


14.7 


9.9 


218.9 


656. 7 


1.5 


11.5 


5.6 


165.8 


350.3 


2.9 


35.8 


11.1 


217.9 


686.1 


9.2 


72.3 


75.8 


326.5 


768.5 


14.1 


63.5 


M15.2 


536.5 


1, 267. 7 


13.5 


46.2 


162.5 


334.8 


942.3 


9.5 


35.8 


137.7 


381.9 


962.6 


9.1 


26.8 


172. 8 


236.4 


757.2 


7.4 


24.2 


71.6 


228.7 


507.4 


10.6 


52.2 


M15.6 


349.5 


878.0 


14.3 


94.7 


167.3 


568.2 


845.0 


21.8 


52.5 


113.2 


295.2 


620.0 


14.8 


33.8 


85.9 


377.6 


539.2 


12.2 


36.6 


104.9 


377.7 


963.6 


10.8 


28.6 


60.9 


204.2 


527.1 


16.5 


20.8 


84.3 


235.3 


259.1 


15.2 


59.9 


121.2 


403.4 


689.4 


14.5 


39.8 


59.1 


290.3 


1, 139. 6 


6.7 


77.2 


72.5 


458.7 


1, 179. 6 


10.3 


39.0 


120.7 


314.4 


1.011.2 


8.0 


36.8 


49.6 


324.3 


1, 224. 7 


7.5 


35.3 


56.5 


264.3 


776.9 


4.9 


24.9 


29.1 


265.1 


500.5 


9.7 


47.2 


67.0 


333.9 


1, 035. 3 


2.4 


28.0 


11.9 


158.6 


927.4 


2.8 


53.4 


9.0 


401.5 


654.0 


2.9 


62.6 


20.5 


363.0 


1, 163. 4 


2.8 


61.9 


20.4 


447.4 


1, 376. 8 


4.6 


38.4 


13.8 


268.5 


1, 618. 9 


1.4 


25.7 


14.8 


244.1 


666.0 


2.7 


40.2 


14.6 


286.2 


1,031.8 


3.4 


83.6 


29.4 


456.8 


1,011.2 


.9 


47.6 


18.8 


385.5 


1, 108. 1 


3.5 


57.7 


15.8 


397.8 


1, 332. 1 


1.6 


28.9 


14.2 


395.9 


1, 073. 5 


1.2 


25.3 


11.2 


330.2 


1,261.2 


2.4 


32. 1 


13.1 


307.9 


1, 178. 


2.7 


63.3 


22.8 


413.7 


1, 093. 4 



' The rates for burglary and larceny— theft are based on the reports of 4 cities. 

2 The rate for auto theft is based on the reports of 5 cities. 

3 The rates for burglary and larceny— theft are based on the reports of .TOO cities. 

4 The rate for auto theft is based on the reports of 501 cities. 
' Includes the District of Columbia. 

« The rate for aggiavated assault is based on the reports of 5 cities. 
' The rate for aggravated assault is based on the reports of 161 cities. 



125 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 100,000 Inhabitants, 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the third quarter of 1939 is shown in table 67. The compilation 
includes the reports received from pohce departments in cities with 
more than 100,000 inhabitants. Such data are included here in order 
that interested individuals and organizations may have readily 
available up-to-date mformation concerning the amount of crime 
committed in their communities. Police administrators and other 
interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare the 
crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in tables 63 
and 66 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire to 
make comparisons with the figures for their communities for prior 
periods, in order to determine whether there has been an increase or 
a decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

With reference to the possibility of comparing the amount of crime 
in one city with the amount of reported crime in other individual 
communities, it is suggested that such comparisons be made with a 
great deal- of caution, because differences in the figures may be due to 
a great variety of factors. The amount of crime committed in a 
community is not chargeable to the police but is rather a charge 
against the entire community. The following is a list of some of the 
factors which might aft'ect the amount of crime in a community: 

The composition of the population with reference particularly to 

age, sex, and race. 
The economic status and activities of the population. 
Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 
The number of police employees per unit of population. 
The standards governing appointments to the police force. 
The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 
The attitude of the public toward law enforcement problems. 

Comparisons between the crime rates of individual cities should 
not be made without giving consideration to the above-mentioned 
factors. It should be noted that it is more important to determine 
whether the figures for a given community show increases or decreases 
in the amount of crime committed than to ascertain whether the 
figures are above or below those of some other community. 

In exarrdning a compilation of crime figures for individual com- 
munities it should be borne in mind that in view of the fact the data 
are compiled by different record departments operating under sepa- 
rate and distinct administrative systems, it is entirely possible there 
may be variations in the practices employed in classifymg complaints 
of offenses. On the other hand, the crime reporting manual has been 
distributed to all contributors of crime reports, and the figures received 
are included in tliis bulletin only if they apparently have been com- 
piled in accordance with the provisions of the manual, and the ir.di- 
vidual department has so indicated. 



126 

Table 67. — Number of offenses known to the police, July to September, inclusive, 

1939, cities over 100,000 in population 



City 



Akron, Ohio .._ 

Albany, N.Y 

Atlanta, Qa 

Baltimore, Md 

Birmingham, Ala 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Buffalo, N.Y 

Cambridge, Mass 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 

Chattanooga, Tenn_ _ _ 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Columbus, Ohio 

Dallas, Tex 

Dayton, Ohio 

Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Detroit, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 

Ehzabeth, N.J __ 

El Paso, Tex 

Erie, Pa 

Evansville, Ind 

Fall River, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Gary, Ind 

Grand Rapids, Mich.. 

Hartford, Conn 

Honolulu, T. H 

Houston, Tex 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Jersey City, N. J 

Kansas City, Kans 

Kansas City, Mo 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Long Beach, Calif 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn _ 

Miami, Fla 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Nashville, Tenn 

Newark, N. J 

New Bedford, Mass... 

New Haven, Conn 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N. Y 

Norfolk, Va 

Oakland, Calif 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha, Ncbr 

Paterson, N. J 

Peoria, 111 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Oreg 

Providence, R. I 

Reading, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif.. . 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



3 
1 

17 

11 

27 

1 



11 

57 

17 

18 

2 

17 

7 

5 

3 

14 



19 
2 
8 

3 

7 
7 
2 
21 
4 



Robbery 



16 
5 



1 

16 
4 



1 

18 
72 
4 
3 
2 
3 
1 



37 

11 

4 



9 

1 

22 



35 

8 
95 
99 

9 
71 
16 
15 

5 

11 

27 

21 

1.618 

160 

197 

100 

21 

21 

39 

22 

269 

6 

1 
23 

8 
12 

5 
18 

4 
17 
29 

9 
12 

3 

73 

143 

29 

40 

98 

7 

35 

476 

105 

2 

6 

109 

24 

22 

53 

57 

72 

4 

6 

19 

341 

19 

44 

48 

20 

4 

12 

144 

109 

91 

2 

3 

53 

4 

109 

24 

26 

93 

14 

155 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



34 
14 
77 

236 
50 
60 
1 
43 
3 
22 
36 
52 

438 
67 
29 
23 
61 
24 
13 
9 

183 



13 

5 



7 

2 

38 

6 

7 

69 

1 

40 

8 

67 

46 

42 

Complete 
8 
24 
73 
16 
169 
189 
2 
5 
375 

25 

24 

116 

141 

3 

3 

84 

821 

58 

45 

71 

24 

11 

6 

162 

81 

13 

8 

6 

119 

10 

41 

10 

7 

145 

8 

90 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



(') 



294 

72 
698 
456 
354 
269 
107 
160 
110 

70 

97 
179 
2,727 
442 
559 
506 
427 
128 
162 
215 
1,096 

51 
111 
126 

69 
157 
109 
158 

88 
268 

83 
141 
229 
215 
509 
673 
283 

data not received 

165 

394 

67 

321 

2,156 

846 

54 
138 
443 
291 
139 
363 
165 
347 
178 
225 
112 
1,533 
294 
354 
273 
100 
123 

91 
498 
479 
535 

91 
121 
281 
125 
341 
252 
217 
249 
136 
629 



49 

16 

104 

151 

52 

184 

45 

77 

22 

37 

18 
964 
162 
67 
70 
38 
17 
98 
40 
192 
42 
31 
14 
22 
25 
8 
38 
23 
28 
12 
19 
29 
45 
68 
191 
90 



(') 



(') 



(') 



(') 



Under 
$50 



439 

158 

965 

567 

454 

741 

392 

466 

151 

116 

227 

302 

3,374 

1,271 

2,914 

733 

1,683 

570 

865 

430 

5,004 

384 

199 

350 

160 

363 

91 

514 

616 

763 

93 

435 

439 

444 

1,561 

1,701 

595 



) 


227 


38 


148 


842 


125 


44 


197 


74 


80 


709 


121 


966 


3,942 


1,890 


131 


939 


167 


5 


68 


46 


14 


235 


34 


75 


527 


79 


33 


280 


50 


78 


1,146 


123 


160 


1,086 


314 


) 


265 


108 


108 


972 


256 


21 


273 


29 


39 


298 


85 


147 


375 


160 


) 


4,356 


2, 266 


43 


453 


98 


44 


860 


142 


41 


689 


81 


15 


162 


69 


10 


61 


37 


16 


196 


78 


227 


459 


599 


101 


344 


431 


170 


1,071 


185 


16 


98 


33 


19 


138 


29 


58 


947 


178 


49 


652 


78 




2,438 


277 


65 


673 


67 


12 


277 


115 


87 


609 


138 


23 


521 


134 


203 


1, 514 


635 



Auto 
theft 



96 

62 

?96 

692 

87 

698 

101 

182 

64 

34 

24 

60 

906 

152 

206 

118 

124 

121 

106 

149 

766 

42 

38 

65 

61 

80 

16 

60 

90 

68 

41 

67 

94 

62 

213 

337 

87 



' Larcenies not separately reported. 
2 Complete figure not received. 



Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



127 

Table 67. — Number of offenses known to the police, July to September, inclusive, 
1939, cities over 100,000 in population- — Continued 



City 



Scran ton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Somerville, Mass._. 
South Bend. Ind._. 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, Mass... 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo, Ohio. 

Trenton, N.J 

Tulsa, Okla 

Utica, N. Y 

Washington, D. C. 
Waterbury, Conn.. 

Wichita, Kans 

Wilmington, Del... 
Worcester, Mass. . . 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, Ohio. 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



12 



Robbery 



8 

49 

3 

4 

33 

5 

4 

5 

14 

82 

11 

71 



152 

3 

5 

4 

20 



37 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



12 

24 
1 
2 

16 
5 
2 

4 

38 

24 

19 

27 

4 

181 

1 

9 

49 

3 

9 

49 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



77 
623 

32 

95 
208 
146 
123 
145 

95 
258 
168 
350 

29 
614 

71 

91 
103 
224 

56 
132 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



16 

67 

10 

25 

21 

25 

29 

14 

17 

74 

17 

40 

14 

184 

8 

7 

48 

44 

3 

8 



Under 
$50 



121 
692 

51 
290 
559 
323 
279 
309 
254 
864 
231 
586 
158 
1,944 

77 
415 
354 
239 

92 
357 



Auto 
theft 



58 
331 
36 
42 
84 
40 
65 
63 
26 
114 
37 
97 
11 
525 
47 
24 
47 
99 
34 
67 



Offenses Known to Sheriffs, State Police, and Other Rural Officers, 1939. 

National police statistics as compiled by the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation are tabulated and published separately in this bulletin 
as to offenses occurring in cities and towns of more than 2,500 inhab- 
itants, and those occurring in strictly rural areas. Comprehensive 
data of this type are not yet available with reference to rural crimes. 
However, in table 68 there is shown the number of offenses know^l to 
have been committed, as reported by 942 sheriffs, 8 State police or- 
ganizations, and 82 village officers, for the period of January-Septem-. 
ber 1939. 

Table 68. — Offenses known, January to September, inclusive, 1939, as reported by 
942 sheriffs, 8 State police organizations, and 82 village officers 



Oflenses known. 



Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


837 


684 


1. 773 


2,547 


4,427 


20, 689 


34, 639 



Auto 
theft 



5, 840 



128 

Offenses Known in Territories and Possessions of the United States. 

Crime reports are received from various Territories and possessions 
of the United States. In table 69 there is shown the number of offenses 
known to have been committed during the first 9 months of 1939 as 
reported by law enforcement agencies in Alaska, Hawaii, the Isthmus 
of Panama, and Puerto Rico. For Hawaii the figures are separately 
tabulated as to offenses occurring in Honolulu City and those occurring 
in the Counties of Honolulu and Kauai. 

Table 69. — Number of offenses known in United States Territories and possessions, 

January to September, inclusive, 1939 



[Population 


figures from Federal 


census, Apr. 1, 1930] 










Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny— theft 


Auto 
theft 


Jurisdiction reporting 


Over 

$50 


Under 

$50 


Alaska: 

First judicial division (Juneau), 

population, 19,304; number of 

offenses known 

Second judicial division (Nome), 

population, 10,127; number of 

offenses known. 


2 
2 

8 
1 


2 

8 
2 


7 
2 

16 

7 

1 

5 
1,470 


22 
2 

712 

96 

12 

44 
702 


26 
5 

119 
18 

1 

23 

65 


38 
6 

1,490 

200 

12 

250 
2,686 


1 


Hawaii: 

Honolulu City, population, 
137,582; number of offenses 
known ._ . 


154 


Honolulu County, population, 
65,341; number of offenses 
known. 

Kauai County, population, 
35,942; number of offenses 
known _ , ... 


44 
3 


Isthmus of Panama: Canal Zone, 
population, 39,467; number of of- 
fenses known 


2 

177 


2 
30 


22 


Puerto Rico: Population, 1,543,913; 
number of offenses known 


46 







Data From Supplementary Offense Reports. 

In tables 70-72 there are presented the more detailed data com- 
piled from supplementary offense reports received from the police 
departments of 49 cities with an aggregate population of 17,426,838. 
The period covered is the first 9 months of 1939. 

Reports from these 49 cities listed a total of 1,189 offenses of rape 
during the first three quarters of this year, and more than half (53.1 
percent) of these cases were forcible in nature. 

A comparatively small percentage of offenses of robbery involved 
oil stations, chain stores, and banks. The majority of robberies 
occurred on the city streets and highways, and 28.8 percent were 
committed in some type of commercial house other than those men- 
tioned above. 

The cities represented in these tabulations reported 45,486 offenses 
of burglary — breaking or entering. Of these offenses, 54.6 percent 
occurred in some sort of nonresidence structure such as stores, office 
buildings, warehouses, etc. Only 19 percent of all the burglaries were 
committed during the day. However, of the residence burglaries, 33 
percent were committed during daytime. On the other hand, only 7 
percent of the nonresidence burglaries were committed by daylight. 



129 



An analysis of the 104,673 offenses of larceny reported discloses that 
64.9 percent involved property between $5 and $50 in value; 23.3 per- 
cent involved property less than $5 in value; and 11.8 percent repre- 
sented thefts of $50 and over. With reference to the manner in 
which the larceny was committed the tabulation reveals that 18.5 per- 
cent were thefts of personal property from automobiles; 16.1 percent 
w&re thefts of auto accessories; and 13.6 percent were thefts of bicy- 
cles. Comparatively few of the thefts consisted of purse-snatcliing, 
shoplifting, and pocket-picking, which constituted only 3.3, 2.9, and 
1.2 percent, respectively, of the total larcenies reported. 

Table 70. — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission, and value of property stolen, January to Sep- 
tember, inclusive, 1939; 49 cities over 100,000 in population 



[Total population, 17,426,838, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 




Classification 


Number 
of actual 
offenses 


Classification 


Number 
of actual 
oflenses 


Rape: 

Forcible .- 


631 

558 


Larceny— theft (except auto theft) 
(grouped according to value of article 
stolen): 
$50 and over.--- 

$5 to $50 - . 




Statutory 


12, 372 
67, 911 


Total 


1,189 




Under $5 


24, 390 


Robbery: 

Highway . _ . - - 


6,293 
3,286 
958 
113 
354 
34 
356 


Total-- 

Larceny— theft (grouped as to type of 
offense) : 

Pocket-picking _ 

Purse-snatching 

Shoplifting 

Thefts from autos (exclusive of auto 

accessories) 

Auto accessories 

Bicycles -- 

All other 

Total 


104, 673 


Commercial house 

Oil station 






Chain store --. 




Residence 

Bank 

Miscellaneous 


1,287 
3,473 
3,067 


Total 


11,394 


19, 365 
16,814 
14, 200 
46, 467 


Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Residence (dwelling): 

Committed during night 

Committed during day 


13, 801 
6,850 

23, 064 
1,771 


104, 673 


Nonresidence (store, office, etc.): 

Committed during night 

Committed during day 








Total.-- -- 


45, 486 





In table 71 there are presented figures relative to the number of 
automobiles stolen and the number of automobiles recovered in the 
49 cities represented in the preceding table. It will be seen that of 
the 27,625 cars stolen during the first 9 months of 1939, 96.0 percent 
were recovered. 

Table 71. — Recoveries of stolen automobiles, January to September, inclusive, 1939; 

49 cities over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 17,426,838, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 

Number of automobiles stolen 27, 625 

Number of automobiles recovered 26, 514 

Percentage recovered 96. 

An analysis of the value of property stolen and recovered, grouped 
according to type of property, is presented in table 72. It will be seen 
that the property stolen in the cities represented was valued at 
$18,640,110.97. The total value of property recovered, $12,517,- 
141.23, was 67.2 percent of that stolen during the same period. 

188797°— 39 3 



130 



Sixty-one percent of the value of property stolen represented auto- 
mobiles. Likewise, 86.9 percent of the value of property recovered 
represented automobiles. 

Table 72. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered with divisions 
as to type of property involved, January to September, inclusive, 1939; 49 cities 
over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 17,426,838, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Type of property 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Miscellaneous 

Total 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



$1,838,521.78 

1, 733, 001. 76 
348, 158. 18 
917,811.31 

11,374,679.75 

2. 427, 938. 19 



18,640,110.97 



Value of prop- 
erty recovered 



$206, 414. 67 

398, 225. 42 

57, 726. 84 

194, 071. 34 

10,881,931.70 

778, 771. 26 



12, 517, 141. 23 



Percent 
recov- 
ered 



11.2 
23.0 
16.6 
21.1 
95.7 
32. 1 



67.2 



SUPPLEMENTARY AUTOMOTIVE EQUIPMENT DATA, 1938 

There are presented in tables 73-76 figures relative to the auto- 
motive equipment used on patrol duty during 1938 in cities with over 
25,000 inhabitants. The data are presented for four different groups 
of cities divided according to population. In volume X, No. 2 of this 
bulletin there were presented data with reference to automotive 
equipment owned by police departments of cities with over 25,000 
population throughout the United States during 1938, and the infor- 
mation presented in tables 73-76 of this issue of the bulletin is intended 
to supplement that previously published. The supplementary data 
with reference to automotive equipment presented in this issue of the 
bulletin refer only to the number of automobiles and motorcycles 
which were operated on patrol duty during 1938. 

In table 73 there are presented figures showing the total number of 
cars operated hourly on patrol duty by one man, by two men, and by 
three (or more) men during an average day. There is also presented 
information concerning the total number of automobiles and motor- 
cycles used for patrol duty in the cities represented. 

With reference to the data presented in table 73 it may be noted 
that the reports received from 371 cities disclosed that most of the 
automobile patrol cars operated by one man each were on duty between 
7 a. m. and 8 p. m., the peak period being between 9 a. m. and 3 p. m. 
However, with reference to patrol cars operated by two men each, it is 
noted that most of them were generally operated between the hours of 

7 p. m. and 4 a. m., the peak period being between 10 and 11 o'clock 
at night. The hourly variation in the number of patrol cars operated 
by three (or more) men each was similar to the two-men cars, it being 
noted that most of the three (or more) men cars were on duty between 

8 p. m. and 4 a. m. 

In the 371 cities represented in table 73 most of the motorcycles 
were operated between 8 a. m. and 1 1 p. m. This is due, undoubtedly, 
to the fact that most of this type of equipment is used by officers as- 
signed primarily to traffic patrol duties. In this connection, it is 
noted that 1,618 motorcycles were operated between the hours of 
1 p. m. and 2 p. m., while in the same cities only 268 were operated 
between 3 and 4 o'clock in the morning. 



131 

The information contained in table 73 has been reduced to com- 
parable averages and presented in table 74. This latter compilation 
shows the average number of automobiles and motorcycles on patrol 
duty per million inhabitants in each of the four different groups of 
cities. It will be seen that generally the smaller cities used more 
one-man cars for patrol duty per unit of population than did the 
police departments in larger cities. The average number of two-men 
cars used varies only slightly in the four different groups of cities. 
However, it is noted that the police departments in the larger cities 
had more automobiles operated by three (or more) men each than 
did the poHce departments in the cities with fewer inhabitants. The 
average number of motorcycles per milhon inhabitants varies only 
slightly in the four groups of cities divided according to population. 

In table 75 figures are presented showing the number of cities 
operating on two shifts, the number operating on three shifts, and the 
number of cities using various types of automotive patrol. As indi- 
cated in the tabulation, 20 of the 373 cities over 25,000 in population 
operated on a 2-shift basis during 1938; for example, from 6 a. m. to 
6 p. m. and from 6 p. m. to 6 a. m. The 353 cities classed as operating 
on a 3-shift basis include some cities utilizing overlapping shifts. 
In some instances pohce departments were considered for the pur- 
poses of this tabulation as 3-shift departments, even though the 
reports indicated that the men worked on a 10-hour basis. 

It is interesting to note that in 28 of the cities represented in table 
75, all patrol cars were operated by 1 man each. The patrol cars 
in 182 of the police departments were manned entirely by 2 men each. 
Less than half of the cities represented used both 1-man and 2-men 
cars as part of their routine patrol procedure. 

Nineteen of the police departments in the cities represented in 
table 75 supplemented their other automotive patrols by automobiles 
manned by three or more men. Generally such cars were operated by 
plain-clothes officers who cruised about the city well armed and avail- 
able to act in the event of major crimes. 

All but 40 of the police departments in the 373 cities represented in 
table 75 used motorcycles for some sort of patrol duty during 1938. 

In table 76 there are presented figures for individual cities with over 
25,000 inhabitants. The data were obtained by means of special 
reports forwarded to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. These 
reports provided for the hsting of the hours of the various shifts 
under which the police departments operated, and in examining the 
data presented in table 76 it should be borne in mind that the hours 
shown under the headings of first, second, and third shifts pertain 
primarily to the hours of the automotive patrols of the police depart- 
ments listed. From a limited number of police departments addi- 
tional specific information was received relative to the hours worked 
by other units in the department, and in such cases these data are 
presented in the tabulation. It is probable, however, that in many 
of the remaining cases the figures regarding shifts shown in table 76 
reflect not only the hours of work of personnel assigned to automotive 
patrol, but also the remainder of the department. 

Some of the police departments forwarding reports listed more than 
three shifts, some of them overlapping. However, as indicated here- 
tofore, this tabulation is intended to reflect the hours that the various 
types of automotive equipment were used on patrol, and for that 



132 

reason all of the sliifts listed were allocated to one of three major 
divisions. 

The special reports from which the data in tables 73-76 were com- 
piled provided for the listing of all automobiles and motorcycles used 
in connection with patrol duties, regardless of whether these duties 
pertained to traffic or general patrol work. In some cases automobiles 
assigned to detectives or plain-clothes men were included, unless 
information was available indicating that the primary function of the 
employees operating these cars was criminal investigation rather than 
patrol work. 

Some of the police departments forwarding the information pre- 
sented in table 76 indicated the exact hours of the various shifts 
throughout the department. Others listed average figures, although 
in fact the police department operated on a somewhat complicated 
overlapping-shift basis. 

Likewise in some cities the number of automobiles and motorcycles 
used for patrol duty changed from time to time throughout 1938, and 
average figures were furnished. This is particularly true with refer- 
ence to motorcycles. In many of the cities, especially in the northern 
part of the country, motorcycles are replaced by automobiles during 
bad weather and the winter months. 

In connection with the listing of motorcycles it may be noted that 
no distinction was made between motorcycles and motor-tricycles. 
In some cases this latter type of equipment was used for traffic patrol, 
and for the checking of parking meters, etc. 



133 







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135 



Table 74.- — Average automotive equipment used per 1,000,000 inhabitants, 1938, 
cities over 25,000 'inhabitants, by population groups 





Average number of cars and motorc voles 
on patrol duty per 1,000,000 inhabitants 




1-man 
cars 


2-men 

cars 


3 (or 
more) 

men 
per car 


Total 
cars 


Motor- 
cycles 


Group I: 34 cities over 250,000; total population, 21,461,800 

Group II: 57 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total population, 7,850,312. 
Group III: 99 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total population, 6,678,574 
Group IV: 181 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total population, 6,374,889. 
Total, 371 cities: total population, 42,365,575 . 


9.9 
10.8 
17.5 
18.9 
12.6 


49.1 

44.8 
46.9 
49.0 
48.0 


7.6 

1.2 

.9 

.4 

4.3 


66.7 
56.8 
65.4 
68.3 
64 9 


22.6 
26.8 
30.4 
28.6 
25 5 







Table 75. — 
automotive 
population 



Number of cities operating on two or three shifts, and number using 
patrols, 1938, cities over 25,000 inhabitants, grouped according to 





Number of cities 

operating on 2 

or 3 shifts 


Number of cities using automotive patrols 




2 shifts 


3 shifts 


Number using 1-man and 
2-men cars 


Number 

also using 

3 (or 

more) 

men per 

car 


Number 


- 


1-man 
cars 
only 


2-men 
cars 
only 


1-man 
and 

2-men 
cars 


using 
motor- 
cycles 


Group I: 35 cities over 250,000 




35 

57 

97 

164 


1 

1 

6 

20 


21 
27 
47 
87 


13 
29 
46 
73 


9 
3 
5 
2 


35 


Group II: 57 cities 100,000 to 250,000 




55 


Group III: 99 cities 50,000 to 100,000. 
Group IV:i 182 cities 25,000 to 50,000. 


li 


93 
150 


Total: 373 cities over 25,000.. 


20 


353 


28 


182 


161 


19 


333 



' 2 cities use no automobiles. 



136 



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150 

DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

During the first 9 months of 1939 the FBI exammed 437,432 
arrest records, as evidenced by fingerprint cards, in order to obtain 
data concerning the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of the 
persons represented. The compilation has been limited to instances 
of arrests for violation of State laws and municipal ordinances. In 
other words, fingerprint cards representing arrests for violations of 
Federal laws or representing commitments to any type of penal 
institution have been excluded from this tabulation. 

The number of fingerprint records examined was larger than for 
the corresponding portion of prior years, which were as follows: 1938, 
432,527; 1937, 389,077; 1936, 343,132. The increase in the number 
of arrest records examined should not necessarily be construed as 
reflecting an increase in the amount of crime, nor as an increase in 
the number of persons arrested, since it quite probably is at least 
partially the result of an increase in the number of local agencies 
contributing fingerprint records to the Identification Division of the 
FBI. The tabulation of data from fingerprint cards obviously does 
not include all persons arrested, since there are indi\aduals taken 
into custody for whom no fingerprint cards are forwarded to Wash- 
ington. Furthermore, data pertaining to persons arrested should not 
be treated as information regarding the number of offenses committed, 
since two or more persons may be involved in the joint commission of 
a single offense, and on the other hand one person may be arrested 
and charged with the commission of several separate crimes. 

More than 28 percent of the arrest records examined during the 
first 9 months of 1939 represented persons taken into custody for 
murder, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft. Arrests 
for major violations are reflected by the following figures: 

Criminal homicide 4, 779 

Robbery 10, 084 

Assault 24, 951 

Burglary 27, 730 

Larceny (except auto theft) 48,242 

Auto theft 9, 564 

Embezzlement and fraud 13, 457 

Stolen property (receiving, etc.) 2, 961 

Arson 718 

Forgerv and counterfeiting 5, 719 

Rape^r 5,010 

Narcotic drug laws 3, 417 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 4,726 

Driving while intoxicated 17, 674 

Gambling 8, 535 

Total 187,567 

Sex. — Of the 437,432 arrest records examined, 404,834 (92.5 per- 
cent) represented men and 32,598 (7.5 percent) represented women. 
For all types of crime except commercialized vice the number of men 
arrested was larger than the number of women. However, in an 
average group of 100 women arrested, more were charged with murder, 
assault, violation of narcotic drug laws, and prostitution, commer- 
cialized vice, and other sex offenses than in an average group of 100 
men arrested. For types of crimes against property, such as robbery, 
burglary, larceny, and auto theft, men predominate. In such average 
groups, 13 of each 1,000 women arrested and fingerprinted were 
charged with driving while intoxicated, whereas 43 of each 1,000 men 



151 



arrested were charged with that type of violation. Data for indi- 
vidual types of crimes may be found in the following table: 

Table 77. — Distribution of arrests by sex, Jan. 1-Sept. 30, 1939 



O Sense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc. 

Arson ..._.__ 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice, . 

other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children. .. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated... 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

other traffic and motor vehicle laws. . . 

Disorder! y conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion . 

Not stated 

All other offenses 



Number 



Total 



Total : 437,432 



4,779 

10, 084 

24, 951 

27, 730 

48, 242 

9,564 

13, 457 

2,961 

718 

5,719 

5,010 

5,267 

7,056 

3,417 

4,726 

5,395 

7,322 

17, 674 

3,818 

18 

6,665 

21, 770 

07, 594 

37, 873 

8,535 

47, 354 

5,778 

33, 955 



Male 



4,264 

9,651 

22, 790 

27, 326 

44, 754 

9,354 

12, 803 

2,708 

666 

5, 381 

5,010 

1, 055 

5, 992 
2,295 
4,550 
5,255 
6,104 

17, 250 

3,754 

17 

6, 539 
19, 244 
64, 035 
35, 190 

8,049 
43, 170 

5,369 
32, 259 



Female 



Percent 



515 
433 

2,161 
404 

3,488 

210 

654 

253 

52 

. 338 



404, 834 



4,212 
1,064 
1, 122 

176 

140 
1,218 

424 

64 

1 

126 
2,526 
3,559 
2,683 

486 
4,184 

409 
1,696 



Total 



32, 598 



1. 1 
2.3 
5.7 
6.3 
11.0 
2.2 
3.1 

. 7 

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1.3 
1.1 
1.2 
1.6 

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1.2 
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2.4 
5.6 
6.7 
11.0 
2.3 
3.2 

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1.3 
1.2 

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1.1 
1.3 
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4.3 

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2.0 

10.7 
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1.2 

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.6 

2.0 

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1.1 



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10, 



100. I 100. 



4 
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9 
8.2 
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1 Less than Ho of 1 percent. 

Age. — From 1932 to the middle of 1935, age 19 was the group in 
which the largest number of arrests occurred. From the middle of 
1935 through 1938 there were more arrests for ages 21, 22, and 23 than 
for any other groups. However, during the first 9 months of 1939 
there were more arrests for age 19 than for any other single age group. 
During this period the arrests for ages 18 and 22 exceeded the number 
arrested for ages 21 and 23. The groups for which the largest number 
of arrests occurred during the first 9 months of 1939 are as follows: 

Age : Number of arrests 

19 19,235 

18 18, 569 

22 18, 372 

21 18, 165 

23 1 7, 603 

The compilation for 1938 reflected that 18.8 percent of the persons 
arrested were less than 21 years old, but during the first 9 months of 
1939 the proportion was 19.2 percent. In addition to the 83,836 per- 
sons less than 21 years old arrested during the first 9 months of 1939, 
there were 71,455 (16.3 percent) between the ages of 21 and 24, making 
a total of 155,291 (35.5 percent) less than 25 years old. Persons ar- 
rested who were between the ages of 25 and 29 numbered 73,496 
(16.8 percent). This makes a total of 228,787 (52.3 percent) less than 
30 years old. (With reference to the ages of persons represented by 
fingerprint cards received at the F B I, it should be borne in mind that 
the number of arrest records is doubtless incomplete in the lower age 
groups, because in some jurisdictions the practice is not to fingerprint 
youthful individuals.) The number of arrests for ages 16-24 is shown 
in figure 6. 



152 






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154 



Youths less than 21 years old were frequently charged with offenses 
against property, particularly robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto 
theft. This is clearly indicated by the following tabulation: 

Table 79. — Percentage distribution of arrests by age groups 



Age group 


All 
offenses 


Criminal 
homicide 


Robbery 


Burglary 


Larceny 


Auto 

theft 


Under 21 


19.2 
33.1 
25.0 
14.0 
8.6 
.1 


12.7 
36.8 
26.7 
14.2 
9.5 
.1 


29.3 

46.4 

17.7 

5.1 

1.5 

.0 


46.4 
32.1 

14.5 
4.7 
'^ 2 
"'.1 


33.5 

32.2 

19.3 

9.8 

5.1 

.1 


52. 9 


21-29 

30-39 

40-49 

SO and over 

Unknown 


32.5 

11.0 

2.7 

.8 

.1 


Total .. 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



The predominance of youthful persons among those charged with 
offenses against property is further indicated by the fact that 118,475 
persons of all ages were arrested for crimes against property (robbery, 
burglary, larceny, auto theft, embezzlement and fraud, forgery and 
counterfeiting, receiving stolen property, and arson) during the first 
9 months of 1939, and 39,559 (33.4 percent) of those persons were less 
than 21 years old. 

Further indication of the large part played by youthful persons in 
the commission of crimes against property is seen in the figures 
showing that 35.5 percent of all persons arrested were less than 25 
years of age. However, persons less than 25 years old numbered 55 
percent of those charged with robbery, 64.9 percent of those charged 
with burglary, 50.9 percent of those charged with larceny, and 72.9 
percent of those charged with auto theft. More than one-half of all 
crimes against property during the first 9 months of 1939 were com- 
mitted by persons under 25 years of age. 

Table 80. — Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, 

Jan. 1-Sept. SO, 1939 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery. - 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Autotheft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children... 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws. . . 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Total 

number of 

persons 

arrested 



4,779 

10, 084 

24, 951 

27, 730 

48, 242 

9,564 

13, 457 

2,961 

718 

5,719 

5,010 

5,267 

7,056 

3,417 

4,726 

5,395 

7,322 

17, 674 

3,818 

18 

6,665 

21, 770 

67, 594 

37, 873 

8,535 

47, 354 

5,778 

33, 955 



437, 432 



Number 

under 21 

years of 

age 



607 

2,953 

2,808 

12, 855 

16, 153 

5,058 

949 

520 

103 

968 

1,249 

332 

920 

258 

872 

228 

552 

755 

665 

1 

1,243 

3,275 

3,022 

6,499 

537 

10, 547 

1,045 

8,862 



83, 836 



Total 

number 

under 25 

years of 

age 



1,434 
5,551 
6,928 

17, 994 

24, 653 
6,974 
2,838 
1,043 
201 
1,943 
2,323 
1,818 
2,010 
824 
1,755 
1,018 
1,457 
2,885 
1,592 
5 
2,761 
7,094 
9,617 

12, 961 
1,546 

19. 169 
2,003 

14, 994 



155, 291 



Percent- 
age under 
21 years of 
of age 



12.7 
29.3 
11.3 
46.4 
33.5 
52.9 

7.1 
17.6 
14.3 
16.9 
24.9 

6.3 
13.0 

7.6 
18.5 

4.2 

7.5 

4.3 
17.4 

5.6 
18.6 
15.0 

4.5 
17.2 

6.3 
22.3 
18.1 
26.1 



19.2 



Total 

percentage 

under 25 

years of 

age 



30.0 
55.0 
27.8 
64.9 
50.9 
72.9 
21.1 
35.2 
28.0 
34.0 
46.4 
34.5 
28.5 
24.1 
37.1 
18.9 
19.9 
16.3 
41.7 
27.8 
41.4 
32.6 
14.2 
34.2 
18.1 
40.5 
34.7 
44.2 



35.5 



155 

Race. — Whites were represented by 324,446 of the records examined 
and Negroes by 95,404. The remaining races were represented as 
follows: Indian, 2,209; Chinese, 690; Japanese, 248; Mexican, 13,121; 
all others, 1,314. 

The significance of the figures showing the number of Negroes 
arrested as compared with the number of whites can best be indicated 
in terms of the number of each in the general population of the 
country. Exclusive of those under 15 years of age, there were ac- 
cording to the 1930 decennial census, 8,041,014 Negroes, 13,069,192 
foreign-born whites, and 64,365,193 native whites in the United 
States. Of each 100,000 Negroes 1,187 were arrested and finger- 
printed during the first 9 months of 1939, whereas the corresponding 
figure for native whites was 462 and for foreign-born whites, 154. 
It should be observed in connection with the foregoing data that the 
figure for native whites includes the immediate descendants of foreign- 
born individuals. Persons desiring to make a thorough study of the 
comparative amounts of crime committed by native whites and for- 
eign-born whites should employ available compilations showing the 
number of instances in which offenders are of foreign or mixed 
parentage. 

Recidivism. — There were 195,875 (44.8 percent) of the 437,432 
persons arrested during the first 9 months of 1939 who already had 
prior fingerprint cards on file in the Identification Division of the 
FBI. In addition, there were 5,632 current records bearing nota- 
tions relative to prior criminal activities of persons arrested during the 
first 9 months of 1939, although their fingerprints had not previously 
been on file. This makes a total of 201,507 persons arrested during 
the first 9 months of 1939 concerning whom there was information on 
file dealing with prior criminal activities, and the records showed that 
121,388 had been convicted previously of one or more crimes. This 
number is 60.2 percent of the 201,507 records containing data con- 
cerning prior criminal activities, and 27.8 percent of the 437,432 
arrest records examined. 

In more than one-half of the cases the previous convictions were 
based on major violations, as indicated by the following figures: 

Criminal homicide 1, 220 

Robbery 1 4, 857 

Assault 6,112 

Burglary 13, 126 

Larceny (and related offenses) 27, 916 

Arson 159 

Forgery and counterfeiting 3, 586 

Rape 935 

Narcotic drug laws , 2, 200 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 1, 269 

Driving while intoxicated 2, 979 

Total 64,359 



156 



Table 81. — Number of cases in which fingerprint records show one or more prior 
convictions, and the total of prior convictions disclosed by the records, Jan. l-Sept. 
30, 1939 



OfEense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery J 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcot ic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children... 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws... 

Disorderly conduct J 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Number of 
records 

showing 1 
or more 

prior con- 
victions 



810 
3,378 
5.956 
7,481 

12, 361 
2,409 
3. 563 

560 

140 
1.912 

964 
1,248 
1,294 
1,546 
1,105 

924 
1,654 
3.128 

538 

5 

1,257 

5, 958 

24, 998 

13, 413 
1,177 

12, 1,30 
1,869 
9,610 



121, 388 



Number of 
prior con- 
victions of 
major 
offenses 



962 
4,973 
6. 925 
12,017 
20, 748 
3,432 
5. 633 

802 

137 
3,278 
1,080 
1,555 
1,418 
4.013 
1.429 

911 
1,356 
2,626 

481 

5 

1,317 

5,508 

14, 382 
13. 082 

1,251 

15, 121 
1,976 

10,713 



137, 131 



Number of 
prior con- 
victions of 
minor 
offenses 



757 

3,535 

6,909 

7,024 

16, 580 

2,093 

3.402 

557 

143 

1,320 

766 

1,363 

1,583 

1,974 

1,114 

837 

2,341 

3,457 

537 

11 

1,435 

10, 826 

69, 43] 

26, 532 

1,016 

15, 944 

1,743 

13, 154 



196, 384 



Total num- 
ber of 
prior con- 
victions 
disclosed 



1,719 

8,508 

13, 834 

19, 041 

37, 328 

5, 525 

9,035 

1,359 

280 

4,598 

1,846 

2,918 

3,001 

5,987 

2,543 

1,748 

3,697 

6,083 

1,018 

16 

2,752 

16, 334 

83, 813 

39, 614 

2,267 

31, 065 

3,719 

23, 867 



333, 515 



There were 46 persons arrested for murder or manslaughter during 
the first 9 months of 1939 whose criminal history revealed that 
they had on a prior occasion been convicted of criminal homicide in 
some degree. As already indicated, more than one-half of all persons 
whose records reflected prior convictions had been convicted of major 
crimes, and the tabulation further indicated a general tendency for 
recidivists to repeat the same type of crime. 

The 121,388 persons whose records revealed one or more prior 
convictions were found to have been convicted of a total of 333,515 
offenses. In 137,131 instances the convictions were of major crimes, 
and in 196,384 cases the convictions were of less serious violations 
of the law. 

At the end of September 1939, there were 11,312,567 fingerprint 
records and 12,507,731 index cards containing the names and aliases 
of individuals on file in the Identification Division of the FBI. 
Of each 100 fingerprint cards received during the first 9 months of 
1939, more than 59 were identified with those on file in the Bureau. 
Fugitives numbering 6,300 were identified through fingerprint records 
during the first 9 months of 1939, and interested law enforcement 
officials were immediately notified of the whereabouts of those fugi- 
tives. As of September 30, 1939, there were 10,548 police depart- 
ments, peace officers, and law enforcement agencies throughout the 
United States and foreign countries voluntarily contributing finger- 
prints to the FBI. 



OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in part I and 
part II offenses, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 

Part I Offenses. 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter includes 
all felonious homicides except those caused by negligence. Does not include 
attempts to kill, assaults to kill, justifiable homicides, suicides, or accidental 
deaths. (6) Manslaughter by negligence includes only those cases in which 
death is caused by culpable negligence which is so clearly evident that if the 
person responsible for the death were apprehended he would be prosecuted for 
manslaughter. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape, assault to rape, and attempted 
rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as highway robbery, stick-ups, robbery 
armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or theft. Includes attempted 
burglary and assault to commit a burglary. Burglary followed by a larceny is 
entered here and is not counted again under larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value. 
(b) Under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of property stolen, pocket-picking, purse-snatching, shoplifting, 
or any stealing of property or thing of value which is not taken by force and vio- 
lence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" games, forgery, passing 
worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven 
away and abandoned, including the so-called "joy-riding" thefts. Does not 
include taking for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unau- 
thorized use by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses. 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which is 
made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false pretenses. 

11. Stolen property; b^iying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those offenses. 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of regulations 
or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing, and manufactur- 
ing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes or 
regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commer- 
cialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as prostitution, keeping 
bawdy house, procuring, transporting, or detaining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice). — In- 
cludes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

15. Offenses against the family and children.— Includes offenses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, sale, or use. Exclude Federal offenses. 

(157) 



158 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "Drunkenness" (class 18) and "Driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations, State or local, ared place in 
this class. Exclude Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regulations with 
respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters but not in connection with any specific offense and who are released 
without formal charges being placed against them, 

o 





^-1 


UNIFORM 


CRIME 


REPORTS 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 




/SSUfD fiy THf 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Volume X 



Number 4 



FOURTH QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1939 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume X — Number 4 
FOURTH QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1939 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON: 1940 



U. S. SUPERINT'^NOFNT OF IX' 



.■■4-ij 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Ten years of uniform crime reporting 159 

Summary of volume 10, No. 4 160-161 

Classification of offenses 162 

Extent of reporting area 162-165 

Monthly reports: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population 

(table 82) 166-167 

Monthly trends, offenses known to the police, 1939 (table 83) 167-169 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1931-39 (tables 84-85) - 170-174 
Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location 

(tables 86-88) 175-178 

Offenses in individual cities over 25,000 in population (table 89) 183-189 

Offenses known to sheriffs and State police (table 90) 190-1 91 

Offenses known in Territories and possessions (table 91) 192 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 92-94) 192-198 

Estimated number of major crimes, 1938-39 (table 95) 199-201 

Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1939: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 96) 202-203 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 97-101) 204-211 

Number and percentage with previous fingerprint records (tables 

102-103) 212-213 

Number with records showing previous convictions (tables 104-107) — 212, 

214-220 

Race distribution of persons arrested (tables 108-1 1 1) 220-222 

Index to volume 10 226-227 

(II) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 

of Justice, Washington, D. C. 



Volume 10 January 1940 Number 4 



TEN YEARS OF UNIFORM CRIME REPORTING, 1930-39 

The past 10 years have seen a vast improvement in law enforcement 
in the United States. Factors contributing prominently to this 
advancement have been the application of the principles of business 
efficiency and modern science to law-enforcement administration and 
criminal investigation. Coupled with those factors has been a favor- 
able shift in public opinion, which now positively is demanding con- 
stantly higher standards in law enforcement. 

This issue of the bulletin marks the completion of the tenth year 
of the collection of Nation-wide police statistics concerning crime, and 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation has been happy to serve as a 
national clearing house for sucli data. There has been a gratifying 
expansion in the crime-reporting area and in the scope of the informa- 
tion reported by local officials, whose willingness to cooperate in this 
endeavor is a clear indication of a growing professional spirit. 

With the initiation of the uniform crime reporting project in 1930, 
Nation-wide statistics concerning the extent of crime were made 
available for the first time. The compilations presented in the 
bulletin have served as a measuring stick for police executives and 
have stimulated both law-enforcement groups and citizen groups to 
greater efforts in combating crime on the local front. The wide 
distribution of information concerning the nature and extent of the 
crime problem in the United States has resulted in much greater 
support of public officials in their efforts to curb crime. 

The Federal Bureau of Investigation has prepared a report reviewing 
the problems and accomplishments during the first 10 years of Nation- 
wide police reporting of crimes. The report constitutes a rather 
comprehensive explanation of the manner in which the project has 
been conducted. In view of the fact that the report will undoubtedly 
be of value to persons interested in a thorough study of crime sta- 
tistics for the United States, it has been made available for free 
distribution. Requests should be addressed to the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation, 

(159) 



SUMMARY 

VOLUME X— NUMBER 4 

Estimated Number of Major Crimes, 1938-39. 

During 1939 the estimated number of serious crimes in the United 
States was 1,484,554. The corresponding estimate for 1938 was 
1,433,812. The increase in 1939 amounted to 50,742 (3.5 percent). 

Increases were shown during 1939 as follows: Murder, 1.0 percent; 
rape, 6.4 percent; aggravated assault, 4.4 percent; burglary, 4.7 per- 
cent; larceny, 5.9 percent. On the other hand, the following decreases 
were shown during 1939: Negligent manslaughter, 3.5 percent; robbery, 
6.8 percent; auto theft, 5.4 percent. 

Annual Crime Trends, 1931-39. 

The average number of offenses annually during 1935-39 was in 
most instances substantially lower than the average annual number of 
offenses during 1931-34. Comparison of those two sets of figures shows 
the following decreases: Murder, 15.4 percent; negligent manslaughter, 
15.1 percent; robbery, 29.5 percent; burglary, 11.2 percent; auto theft, 
34.4 percent. On the other hand, the following increases were shown: 
Rape, 31.8 percent; aggravated assault, 1.2 percent; larceny, 8.1 
percent. 

Monthly Variations in Crimes. 

During 1939, robberies, burglaries, larcenies, and auto thefts 
showed decided seasonal trends, with the highest points in the first 
and fourth quarters and the lowest points in the second and third 
quarters of the year. This indicates the need of preventive measures 
by law-enforcement agencies and private citizens during the months 
when the incidence of such crimes is likely to be highest. 

Monthly variations in crimes against persons were more irregular 
than among property crimes, but aggravated assaults were generally 
most frequent during the second and third quarters of the year. 

Distribution of Crimes by Type. 

Most of the crimes reported were for the purpose of obtaining 
property. More than one-half (58.1 percent) were larcenies, 22.6 
percent burglaries, 11.5 percent auto thefts, and 3.6 percent robberies. 
The remaining 4.2 percent were murders, negligent manslaughters, 
rapes, and other felonious assaults. 

More than one-third of the larcenies involved thefts from auto- 
mobiles. The majority (65.6 percent) of the larcenies reported, 
involved property ranging in value from $5 to $50; m 24.2 percent 
the property was valued at less than $5; and in 10.2 percent of the 
cases the property involved was valued at more than $50. Eighty- 
one percent of all burglaries occurred during the night, but 
the proportion of night-time burglaries was not the same in residence 
and nonresidence structures. Only 69 percent of the residence 
burglaries occurred after nightfall as compared with 92.6 percent in 
nonresidence structures, such as stores, office buildmgs, and warehouses. 

(160) 



161 

More than 56 percent of the robberies reported were committed 
on streets and highways. An additional 36 percent occurred in vari- 
ous types of business and commercial houses, and the remainder were 
residence robberies and others of a miscellaneous nature. 

The average value of property stolen per offense was robbery, 
$102.75; burglary, $57.10; larceny, $27.14; auto theft, $406.3^1. 
Ninety-five percent of the automobiles stolen and 23 percent of all 
other types of stolen property were recovered. 

Crime Rates. 

Large cities generally have higher crime rates than smaller com- 
munities. With few exceptions, the average city with more than 100,000 
mhabitants has more crime per unit of population than the average 
city with population under 100,000. The bulletin includes crime 
rates for cities divided by location and size so that police executives 
and interested individuals may compare local crime figures with 
national and regional averages. Crime rates for individual States 
and figures for individual cities with over 25,000 inhabitants are also 
included. 

Crime rates vary in the several sections of the United States, the 
difl^erences bemg most pronounced in the figures for murder and 
aggravated assault. These variations reflect the fact that the amount 
of crime in a community is influenced by many factors. 

Persons Arrested. 

The Federal Bureau of Investigation examined 576,920 fingerprmt 
arrest cards during 1939, of which 246,828 (more than 42 percent) 
were arrests for major violations. 

There were more arrests for age 19 than for any other single age 
group. In frequency of arrests, age 19 was followed by ages 18, 22, 
21, and 23, in the order mentioned. This differs from the situation 
in 1938 when arrests for ages 18 and 19 were less frequent than for 
ages 21-23. The percentage of the total persons arrested who were 
less than 21 years old was 17.4 in 1936; 18.0 in 1937; 18.8 in 1938; and 
18.9 in 1939. 

Durmg 1939, 29.1 percent of the robbery arrests, 45.9 percent of the 
burglary arrests, 32.8 percent of the larceny arrests, and 52.6 percent 
of the auto theft arrests involved persons less than 21 years old. 

More women were arrested in 1939 than 1938. In 1939, 7.6 percent 
of the total records represented women, whereas in 1938 the corre- 
sponding figure was 6.8 percent. There are distinct differences in the 
criminal tendencies of males and females. Comparing average groups 
of 1,000 men and 1,000 women arrested discloses 15 women and 11 
men charged with criminal homicide, 65 women and 56 men with 
assault, and 34 women and 6 men with narcotic drug violations. 

The seriousness and extent of the problem of the criminal repeater 
are again revealed by the figures for 1939. There were 269,102 per- 
sons arrested during the year concerning whom there were data on 
file deahng with prior criminal activities and 162,424 had previously 
been convicted of one or more crimes. The total prior convictions 
shown by their records was 422,748. 

.During 1939, whites arrested and fingerprinted numbered 427,158 
and Negroes 126,001. The figures for other racial groups were as 
follows: Indian, 3,029; Chinese, 942; Japanese, 330; Mexican, 17,638; 
all other, 1,822. 



162 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term ''offenses known to the pohce" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to 
the police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting 
or court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following 
group of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be 
those most generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal 
homicide, including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (b) 
manslaughter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; bur- 
glary — breaking or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The 
figures contained herein inchide also the number of attempted crimes 
of the designated classes. Attempted murders, however, are reported 
as aggravated assaults. In other words, an attempted burglary or 
robbery, for example, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner 
as if the crime had been completed. 

"Oft'enses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the police depart- 
ments of contributing cities and not merely arrests or cleared cases. 
Complaints which upon investigation are learned to be groundless 
are not included in the tabulations which follow. 

In publishing the data sent m by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions 
of part I and part II offense classifications. 

EXTENT OF REPORTING AREA 

In the table which follows there is shown the number of police 
departments from which one or more crime reports were received 
during the calendar year 1939. Information is presented for the 
cities divided according to size. The population figures employed 
are estimates as of July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census for 
cities with population in excess of 10,000. No estimates were avail- 
able, however, for those with a smaller number of inhabitants, and, 
accordingly, for them the figures listed in the 1930 decennial census 
were used. 



Population group 


Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 


Cities filing returns 


Total pop- 
ulation 


Population repre- 
sented in returns 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


982 


923 


94.0 


00. 265, 719 


59, 176,206 


98.2 






1. Cities over 250,000 . .. 


37 

57 

104 

191 

593 


37 

57 

103 

183 

543 


100.0 

100.0 

99.0 

95.8 

91.6 


29, 695, 500 
7,850,312 
6, 980, 407 
6, 638, 544 
9, 100, 956 


29, 695, 500 

7, 850, 312 
6, 889, 307 
6, 359, 744 

8, 381, 343 


100.0 


2. Cities 100,000 to 250,000 


100.0 


3. Cities .'',0,000 to 100,000 


98.7 


4. Cities 25,000 to 50,000 


95.8 


5. Cities 10.000 to 25,000 


92.1 







Note.— The above table does not include 1,775 cities and rural townships aggregating a total population 
of 8,788,282. The cities included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 population filing returns, whereas 
the rural townships are of varying population srouDS. 



163 



The growth in the crime-reportmg area is evidenced by the following 
figures for 1930-39: 



Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


1930 


1,127 
1,611 
1,578 
1,658 
1,799 


45, 929, 965 
51, 145, 734 
53, 212, 230 
62, 357, 262 
62, 757, 643 


1935 


2,156 
2,318 
2,429 
2,662 
2,698 


64,615,330 
65, 639, 430 
66, 279, 987 
67,555,972 
67,964,488 


1931 — - 


1936 . 


1932 .- 


1937 


1933 


1938 


1934 


1939 







The foregoing comparison shows that during 1939 there was an 
increase of 36 cities as compared with 1938, the population repre- 
sented by those cities being 408,516. 

In addition to the 2,698 city and village police departments which 
submitted crime reports during 1939, one or more reports were re- 
ceived during that year from 1 ,658 sheriffs and State police organiza- 
tions and from 1 1 agencies in Territories and possessions of the United 
States. Tliis makes a grand total of 4,367 agencies contributing 
crime reports during 1939. 



164 




165 



Status of reporting area, Uniform Crime Reports, 1939, by States 



State 



Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 2 

Delaware ' 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 3 

Michigan 2 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 2, _.. 

New Mexico 

New York 2 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania ' 

Rhode Island 3 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 3 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Total 



Urban police departments i 



Number 
of cities 



63 

14 
49 

154 
27 
33 
5 
1 
58 
64 
21 

192 
95 
81 
62 
53 
48 
26 
21 

122 

114 
73 
39 
72 
18 
34 
6 
18 

169 
16 

196 
68 
12 

174 
68 
28 

353 
19 
40 
16 
48 

159 
21 
14 
43 
38 
39 
83 



3, 165 



Number 
cities con- 
tributing 



28 
13 
30 

140 
25 
29 
5 
1 
44 
33 
19 

171 
84 
70 
56 
33 
31 
23 
14 

109 

109 
73 
22 
45 
16 
31 
5 
15 

138 
12 

189 
45 
11 

159 
53 
24 

294 
19 
21 
14 
25 
77 
18 
14 
38 
36 
31 
72 
8 



i 2, 572 



Percent 
contribut- 
ing 



52.8 
92.9 
61.2 
90.9 
92.6 
87.9 
100.0 
100.0 
75.9 
51.6 
90. 



86. 

90. 

62.3 

64.6 

88.5 

66.7 

89.3 

95.6 

100.0 
56.4 
62.5 
88.9 
91.2 
83.3 
83.3 
81.7 
75.0 
96.4 
66.2 
91.7 
91.4 
77.9 
85.7 
83.3 

100.0 
52.5 
87.5 
52.1 
48.4 
85.7 

100.0 
88.4 
94.7 
79.5 
86.7 

100.0 



81.3 



County sheriffs 



Number 
of counties 



67 
14 
75 
58 
63 



67 

161 
44 

102 
92 
99 

105 

120 
64 
16 
23 
14 
83 
87 
82 

114 
56 
93 
17 
10 
21 
31 
62 

100 
53 
88 
77 
36 
67 
5 
46 
69 
95 

254 
29 
14 

100 
39 
55 
71 
23 



Number 
counties 
contribut- 
ing 



22 
11 
25 
45 
51 
1 
3 



3,072 



33 

51 
43 
72 
53 
81 
85 
33 
43 
11 

9 
14 
73 
85 
20 
42 
45 
73 
14 

2 

4 
16 
55 
32 
43 
65 
48 
24 
67 

5 
10 
46 
30 
89 
25 

7 
35 
31 
55 
41 
21 



5 1,789 



Percent 
contribut- 
ing 



32.8 
78.6 
33.3 
77.6 
81.0 
12.5 
100.0 



49.3 
31.7 
97.7 
70.6 
57.6 
81.8 
81.0 
27.5 
67.2 
68.8 
39.1 

100.0 
88.0 
97.7 
24.4 
36.8 
80.4 
78.5 
82.4 
20.0 
19.0 
51.6 
88.7 
32.0 
81.1 
73.9 
62.3 
66.7 

100.0 

100.0 
21.7 
66.7 
31.6 
35.0 
86.2 
50.0 
35.0 
79.5 

100.0 
57.7 
91.3 



58.2 



1 The Census Bureau's classification of communities as urban and rural has been followed. Generally, 
incorporated places with populations of 2,500 or more are classified as urban. 

2 State police also contribute. 

3 All counties were counted as contributors because the State police contribute complete data for rural 
places. 

* Does not include 126 rural village police departments. 

5 Includes 140 counties for which State police submit crime reports. Sheriffs of those counties do not 
contribute reports. Does not include 9 State police organizations contributing reports. 



209621°- 



MONTHLY REPORTS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population. 

Large cities generally have higher crime rates than smaller com- 
munities. This is indicated by the figures in table 82, which show that 
with few exceptions the average city with more than 100,000 inhab- 
itants has more crime per unit of population than the average city 
with less than 100,000 inhabitants. 

Group I cities (over 250,000 in population) experienced the highest 
rates for negligent manslaughter, rape, and robbery, while group II 
cities (100,000 to 250,000 inhabitants) reported slightly higher rates 
than group I for murder and auto theft, and substantially higher 
burglary and larceny rates. Group III cities (50,000 to 100,000 inhab- 
itants) experienced the largest number of aggravated assault cases per 
unit of population, followed by group II and group I, respectively. 

The figures in table 82 have been presented for six groups of cities, 
divided by size, so that police administrators and other interested 
individuals may compare local crime rates with national averages for 
cities of the same size. Similar figures divided further on a regional 
basis may be found in table 88. 

Crimes against property (larceny, burglary, auto theft, and 
robbery) constituted 95.8 percent of the total crimes listed in table 82, 
and the remaining 4.2 percent consisted of murders, manslaughters, 
rapes, and other felonious assaults. For convenience, a percentage 
distribution of the crimes is presented. 



Offense 



Total 

Larceny — 
Burglary. _ 
Auto theft - 



Rate per 
100,000 



1, 547. 



899.1 
349.6 
178.0 



Percent 



100.0 



58. 1 
22.6 
11.5 



Offense 



Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Rape 

Murder 

Manslaughter 



Rate per 
100,000 



55.2 
46.5 

8.8 
5.4 
4.4 



Percent 



3.6 

3.0 

.6 

.3 

.3 



Although the percentage of offenses against the person is low, it will 
be noted that the cities represented in table 82 reported 3,467 murders, 
2,725 negligent manslaughters, 5,640 rapes, and 29,683 aggravated 
assaults. In addition, there were 35,276 robberies (thefts from the 
person accompanied by the element of threat or force). The estimated 
total of such crimes in the entire United States is presented in table 95. 

(166) 



167 



Table 82. — Offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 19S9; 
number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 

36 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 29,375,600: 

Number of oSenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP 11 

57 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,850,312: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP m 

100 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 6,706,274: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP IV 

170 cities, 25,000 to 50.000; total pop- 
ulation, 5,894,068: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP V 

489 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total pop- 
ulation, 7,578,413: 
Number of offenses known __. 
Rate per 100,000 

GROUP VI 

1,253 cities under 10,000; total pop- 
ulation, 6,453,029: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

TOTAL, GROUP!? I-VI 

2,105 cities; total population, 
63,857,696: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Murder 
nonncg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



1,850 
6.3 



505 
6.4 



350 
5.2 



266 

4.5 



272 
3.6 



224 
3.5 



3.467 
5.4 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



1 1, 696 
6.1 



1 367 
4.7 



202 
3.0 



125 
2.1 



181 
2.4 



154 
2.4 



1 2. 725 
4.4 



Rape 



3,192 
10.9 



567 
7.2 



421 
6.3 



427 
7.2 



477 
6.3 



556 



5,640 
8.8 



Rob- 
bery 



22, 784 

77.6 



4,173 
53.2 



2,822 
42.1 



1,976 
33.5 



2,031 
26.8 



1,490 
23.1 



35, 276 
55.2 



Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 



14,011 

47.7 



4,556 
58.0 



4,124 
61.5 



2,567 
43.6 



2,535 
33.5 



1,890 
29.3 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



2 78, 498 
387.7 



33,601 
428.0 



24, 169 
360.4 



20,461 
347.1 



19, 632 
259.1 



14, 955 
231.8 



29,683 2191,316 
46. 5 349. 6 

I 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



2 200,463 
990.0 



82, 012 
1,044.7 



62, 216 
927.7 



57, 501 
975.6 



56, 502 
745.6 



33, 379 
517.3 



492,073 
899.1 



Auto 
theft 



3 48, 483 

218.2 



17, 140 
218.3 



11,055 
164.8 



9,813 
166.5 



8,798 
116.1 



5,641 

87.4 



3 100,930 
178.0 



1 The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports as follows: Group I, 
34 cities, total population, 27,647.400; group II, 56 cities, total population. 7,742,112; groups I-VI, 2,102 cities, 
total population, 62,021,296. 

2 The number of offenses and rate for burglary and larceny — theft are based on reports as follows: Qroup 1, 
34 cities, total population, 20,248,600; groups I-VI, 2,103 cities, total population, 54,7.30,696. 

3 The number of offenses and rate for auto theft are based on reports as follows: Group I, 35 cit.ies. total 
population, 22,221,300; groups I-VI, 2,104 cities, total population, 56,703,396. 

Monthly Trends, Offenses Known to the Police {Daily Average), 1939. 

During 1939, there were definite monthly variations in the number 
of offenses against property. Robberies, burglaries, larcenies, and 
auto thefts all showed decided seasonal trends, with the highest 
points in the first and fourth quarters and the low points in the 
second and third quarters of the year. 

Monthly variations in the number of offenses against the person 



168 

were more irregular than the variations among property crimes, 
although aggravated assaults displayed a rather definite upward 
trend during the second and third quarters of the year. In most 
preceding years the figures for wilful homicides (murder and non- 
negligent manslaughter) have shown a trend very similar to that of 
the aggravated assault figures. However, during 1939, wilful homi- 
cide figures failed to show any clear-cut monthly trend. 

The figures for negligent manslaughters were definitely higher during 
the first and fourth quarters of 1939 than during the second and third 
quarters of the year. Inasmuch as violations of this type consist 
mainly of automobile fatalities resulting from the gross negligence of 
the operator of the vehicle, it is probable that the higher figures 
during the first and fourth quarters of the year are at least partially 
the result of fewer hours of daylight and comparatively poor driving 
conditions in many sections of the United States during winter 
months. 

The figures in table 83 show substantial monthly dift'erences in the 
figures for robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto theft. This is signifi- 
cant in that it points out the need for increased preventive activities 
on the part of law-enforcement officers and private citizens during 
the months when the incidence of property crimes is likely to be 
highest. 

Private citizens can participate in preventive measures by making 
certain that doors and windows are adequately locked, and generally 
by eliminating all carelessness which may make the successful 
operations of thieves more easy. Law-enforcement administrators 
naturally will desire to have maximum police patrol strength during 
the periods when and in the sections of the community where prior 
records show the incidence of crime to be highest. 



Table 83. — Monthly trends, offenses known to the police {daily average), 19S9, 
93 cities over 100,000 in population, January to December, inclusive, 1939 

[Total population, 37,225,912, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Month 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence ' 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Burglary, 
break- 
ing or 

entering ^ 



Larceny, 

theft 2 



Auto 
theft 3 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January to March 

April to June.. 

July to September 

October to December. 
January to December 



6.2 
5.8 
6.8 
6.3 
6.3 
6.2 
6.7 
6.8 
6.9 
6.5 
6.3 



5.9 
5.6 
5.0 
5.1 
5.0 
3.9 
4.6 
4.3 
6.2 
6.9 
7.9 
7.5 



10.5 

9.1 

12.4 

9.5 

10.4 

11.1 

10.1 

12.3 

8.9 

9.1 

11.2 

9.0 



86.8 
84.2 
78.4 
73.3 
64.4 
59.6 
65.9 



43.8 
46.3 
44.2 
51.8 
52.3 
49.1 
57.1 
56.6 
61.6 
52.0 
46.2 
49.2 



327.1 
313.5 
326.1 
325.8 
272.6 
280.8 
285.8 
293.4 
295.2 
300.9 
323.4 
341.1 



6.2 
6.5 
6.6 
6.6 
6.5 



5.5 
4.7 
5.0 
7.4 
5.7 



10.7 
10.3 
10.4 
9.8 
10.3 



83.1 
65.7 
67.5 
79.2 
73.9 



44.7 
51.1 
58.4 
49.2 
50.9 



322.6 
292.9 
291.4 
321. 8 
307.1 



752.2 
723.5 
759.6 
759.8 
737.3 
737.5 
716.6 
767.9 
762.3 
835.3 
866.9 
864.0 



745.8 
744.8 
748.8 
855. 3 
773.9 



188.6 
186.2 
192.6 
177.4 
161.9 
159.3 
155. 3 
160.5 
181.8 
195.2 
200.8 
198.5 



189.3 
166. 1 
165.7 
198.1 
179.8 



' Daily averag es for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports of 90 cities with a total population 
of 35,389,512. 

2 Daily averages for burglary and larceny are based on reports of 91 cities with a total population of 
28,098,912. 

' Daily averages for auto theft are based on reports of 92 cities with a total population of 30,071,612. 



169 






ixl 

2 



O I 



o 



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to 
ca 
oa 

CO 
o 

*» 

,2 

p. 
o 

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« 
O 

CO 
0) 



3 9 V a 3 A V 



A "1 I V a 



0> 
CO 



CO 

I 

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^ 
u 



Si 



OoO o 

o o o o 
O <ji OD r- 



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o o o o o 

<o m ^ fO cvj 




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80 o o o o 
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A n I w a 



170 

Annual Crime Trends, Offenses Known to the Police, 193139. 

During 1931-39 decreases were reflected in most of the classifications 
on which monthly reports are made by police departments throughout 
the United States. Murder, negligent manslaughter, robbery, 
burglary, and auto theft showed substantial decreases, whereas sig- 
nificant increases were reflected in rapes and larcenies. The aggra- 
vated assault classification has failed to show a distinct trend upwards 
or downwards, but the 1939 figure for this type of crime was lower 
than for any other year represented except 1932. 

The compilation presented in table 85 is based on monthly reports 
received from the police departments of 223 cities having more than 
25,000 inhabitants. The same cities are of course represented for all 
9 years. 

The largest reductions occurred in robberies and auto thefts. 
Robbery decreased from 26,984 in 1931 to 15,961 in 1939, a decrease 
of 40.9 percent. Similarly auto theft decreased from 119,400 in 1931 
to 56,274 in 1939, a reduction of 52.9 percent. The rape figures reveal 
a marked increase of 50.1 percent, from 1,657 in 1931 to 2,487 in 1939. 
This is in contrast to the data for other types of offenses against the 
person, which generally reflect decreases. 

Among the crimes against property, larceny is the only classifica- 
tion to show increases during 1931-39, and here the upward swing is 
quite marked, from 217,954 in 1931 to 274,786 in 1939, an increW 
amounting to 26.1 percent. 

In order to summarize the trends reflected by the yearly figures for 
1931-39, they are presented below in the form of two sets of averages. 
The first column represents the average of the four yearly figures for 
1931-34, and the second column represents the average of the five 
yearly figures for 1935-39. 



Offense 



Average yearly number 
of oflEenses 



1931-34 



1935-39 



Change 



Number 



Percent 



Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 



2,002 

1,416 

1.690 

24, 193 

13, 651 

107, 392 

232, 261 

100, 051 



1,693 

1,202 

2,227 

17, 068 

13,810 

95, 390 

250, 975 

65, 677 



-309 

-214 

+537 

-7, 125 

+ 159 

-12,002 

+18, 714 

-34, 374 



-15.4 
-15. 1 
+31. S 
-29.5 

+ 1.2 
-11.2 

+8.1 
-34.4 



The preceding tabulation confirms the statements concerning 
trends during 1931-39 which have already been mentioned. 

As indicated in table 84 the population of the 223 cities represented 
is 27,907,962, based on estimates for individual cities prepared by the 
Bureau of the Census as of July 1, 1933. Undoubtedly there have 
been changes in the population of the individual cities represented. 
However, no attempt has been made to allow for population changes 
in presenting annual crime trends for 1931-39, due to the unavaila- 
bility at this time of more recent census figures. 

Although montlily crime reports were first collected from police 
departments in 1930, that year is not included in table 84, because 
many of the 223 cities represented did not submit a complete set of 
monthly reports during 1930. This is attributable largely to the 



171 



fact that 1930 was the initial year of the collection of Nation-wide 
police crime statistics. 

Table 84 inchides data for the cities divided into 4 groups according 
to size, and table 85 is composed of compilations for the 223 cities 
divided into 9 groups according to location. These compilations 
have been prepared to enable interested individuals to study crime 
trends for each of the various groups. 

Table 84. — Annual trends, offenses known to the -police, cities over 25,000 in 
poptdation, January to December, inclusive, 1931-39, by population groups 



Population group and year 



GROUP I 

25 cities over 250,000; total 
population, 14,193,400: 
1931.,. 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 

1939 

GROUP n 

48 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; 
total population, 6,719,312: 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 

1939 

GROUP m 

54 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; 
total population, 3,673,590: 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 

1939 

GROUP IV 

96 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; 
total population, 3,321,660: 

1931_ 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 : 

1939 

TOTAL, GROUPS I-IV 

223 cities; total population, 
27,907,962: 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 

1939 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 

non- 
negligent 

man- 
slaughter 



1,132 

1,115 

1,205 

1,077 

962 

986 

1,019 

831 

950 



483 
501 
467 
497 
454 
430 
436 
459 
400 



233 
217 
196 
222 
197 
192 
190 
187 
164 



197 
138 
169 
158 
139 
123 
125 
96 
124 



2,045 
1,971 
2,037 
1,954 
1,752 
1,731 
1,770 
1,573 
1,638 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



,107 
922 
942 
671 
709 
672 
771 
524 
556 



369 
236 
259 
271 
328 
316 
422 
312 
312 



137 
114 
102 
107 
123 
153 
131 
87 
82 



101 
80 
107 
137 
113 
110 
112 
104 
71 



1,714 
1,352 
1,410 
1,186 
1,273 
1,251 
1,436 
1,027 
1,021 



Rape 



926 

986 

942 

997 

1, 143 

1,256 

1,429 

1,468 

1,548 



376 
330 
378 
443 
461 
432 
464 
411 
482 



196 
199 
171 
182 
172 
189 
255 
238 
223 



159 
156 
148 
170 
163 
194 
195 
180 
234 



1,657 
1,671 
1,639 
1,792 
1,939 
2,071 
2,343 
2,297 
2,487 



Rob- 
bery 



16, 173 
15, 526 
14, 229 
12, 173 

10, 076 
9,612 

11, 597 
10, 804 

9,841 



5,719 
5,339 
4,644 
4,844 
4,091 
3,581 
3,785 
3,622 
3,507 



3,121 

2,807 
2,789 
2,344 
2,039 
1,871 
1,805 
1,873 
1,561 



1,971 
1,917 
1,697 
1,478 
1,361 
1,092 
1,109 
1,062 
1, 052 



26, 984 
25, 589 
23,359 
20, 839 

17, 567 
16, 156 

18, 296 
17, 361 
15, 961 



Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 



7,237 
6,604 
6,945 
6,945 
6,687 
6,812 
6,698 
7,142 
6,653 



3,652 
3,237 
4,491 
4,257 
4,076 
4,775 
4,353 
3,908 
3,833 



1,543 
1,315 
1,413 
1,584 
1,480 
1,634 
1,612 
1,630 
1,813 



1,469 
1,190 
1,294 
1,429 
1,348 
1.391 
1,238 
979 
989 



Bur- 
glary — 
breaking 

or 
entering 



13, 901 

12, 346 
14, 143 
14, 215 

13, 591 

14, 612 
13, 901 
13, 659 
13, 288 



51, 526 
54, 170 
53, 692 
53, 687 
46, 725 
40, 409 
44, 474 
43, 496 
45, 041 



28,660 
30, 560 
29, 609 
29, 056 
28, 729 

26, 531 

27, 517 

27, 152 

28, 284 



13, 692 

14, 665 
13, 822 
13, 225 
13, 061 
11,902 

12, 909 

13, 065 
13, 139 



10, 040 
11,202 
11,027 
10, 934 
10, 507 

10, 220 

11, 170 
11,2.56 
11, 361 



103, 918 

110, 597 

108, 150 

106, 902 

99, 022 

89,062 

96, 070 

94, 969 

97, 825 



Larceny- 
theft 



107, 139 
113, 186 
121, 191 
122, 207 
118,321 
109, 712 

125, 211 

126, 562 
132, 926 



57, 619 
56, 397 

59, 079 

60, 055 
61,228 
60, 034 
64, 686 
67, 447 
71,015 



29, 290 

31, 799 
34, 235 
34, 773 

32, 529 
30, 981 

33, 237 
37, 083 
36, 885 



23, 906 

24, 768 

26, 312 

27, 089 
26, 628 
26, 225 
29, 013 
31, 192 
33, 960 



217, 954 
226, 150 
240, 817 
244, 124 
238, 706 
226, 952 
252, 147 
262, 284 
274, 786 



Auto 
theft 



64, 479 
54,780 
50, 398 
48, 576 
41, 667 
36, 266 
37,504 
31,944 
30, 265 



31, 649 

26, 885 
24,520 
23, 617 
20, 404 
17, 298 
17, 290 
14, 829 
14, 718 



12, 681 

10, 987 

9,217 

9,473 

8,242 
7,501 
8,154 
6,559 
6,110 



10, 591 
8,357 
6,967 
7,026 
6,280 
6,144 
6,561 
5,467 
5,181 



119,400 
101, 009 
91, 102 
88, 692 
76, 593 
67, 209 
69, 509 
58, 799 
56, 274 



172 



Table 85. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, cities over 25,000 in popu- 
lation, January to December, inclusive, 1931-S9, by geographic divisions 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Geographic division and 
year 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


NEW ENGLAND 

QrouDS I-IV: 

1931 


55 
39 
67 
40 
43 
34 
37 
50 
33 

279 
262 
248 
197 
239 
206 
195 
178 
196 

494 
466 
470 
467 
422 
404 
395 
324 
340 

186 
186 
202 
194 
145 
117 
115 
101 
134 

366 
391 
377 
386 
323 
358 
395 
370 
407 


185 
151 
104 

77 
101 

90 
127 

76 

86 

639 
572 
626 
287 
302 
278 
323 
195 
183 

331 
199 
216 
271 
304 
273 
336 
216 
234 

60 
30 
33 

51 
81 
91 
75 
58 
56 

166 
123 
140 
140 
113 
100 
114 
94 
121 


254 
193 
180 
255 
241 
176 
252 
226 
255 

392 
334 
323 
368 
325 
365 
388 
396 
405 

441 
553 
555 
524 
750 
807 
918 
833 
960 

117 
137 
110 
182 
145 
131 
123 
184 
148 

138 
146 
190 
167 
162 
• 241 
245 
242 
267 


943 

1, 109 
1,011 
1,147 

700 
537 
754 
734 
803 

2,951 
2,325 

2, 122 
1,964 
1,438 
1,437 
1,651 
1,771 
1,580 

9,237 
8,754 
7,833 
6,901 
6,444 
5,862 
6,967 
6,293 
5,546 

3,976 
3,404 

3, 160 
2, 558 
2,124 
1.479 
1, S.TO 
1,359 
1,393 

2,325 
2.610 
2,676 
2,376 
2,158 
2,597 
3,142 
2,446 
2,223 


841 
559 
597 
535 
496 
390 
486 
431 
495 

3,492 
2,688 
2,826 
2,581 

2, 125 
2,311 
2.260 
2,162 
1,938 

3,257 
2,974 
3,175 

3, 585 
3,346 
3,257 
3, 386 
3,001 
2,689 

819 

837 
779 
665 
665 
677 
432 
375 
405 

2,133 

2. 050 
2,989 
3,102 
3.041 

3. 894 
3.531 
3,837 
3,772 


9,502 

10, 636 

10, 818 

10, 401 

9,638 

8.414 

9. 169 
9,727 
9, 834 

15, 496 

15. 508 

14, 445 

14, 627 

12, 922 

9.797 

9.933 

9,902 

10, 842 

25, 952 
27, 267 

26, 020 

25. 747 
24. 888 
23. 204 

26. 777 

27. 919 
27. 944 

8,806 
9,584 

10. 126 
9. 525 
9, 146 
7,936 
7, 115 
6,553 
7,268 

11, 062 

12, 633 
12, 609 
12, 1.58 
12, 324 

12, 782 

13. 929 
12, 544 
12, 410 


21, 818 
21, 241 
21, 421 

20, 122 
17, 325 

16, 313 

17, 822 
19, 953 
19, 825 

23, 319 

21, 329 

21, 027 

22, 851 
22, 144 
20,583 

22, 286 

23, 727 
23,836 

71, 252 

77. 697 

84, 005 
80, 931 

78, 384 
71, 237 
83, 085 

85, 671 
87, 488 

18, 890 

19, 946 
22, 554 
22, 719 
22, 850 
22,611 

24, 351 

25, 547 
27, 817 

25, 397 
23,397 
24, 982 

26, 946 
31,036 
30, 618 

32, 794 

33, 002 
32, 926 


12, 915 


1932 


12, 050 


1933 - - 


11,406 


1934 


11,033 


1935 


9,317 


1936 


7,704 


1937 


8, 100 


1938 


7,773 


1939 


7, 445 


MIDDLE ATLANTIC 

Groups I-IV: 

1931 


13. 297 


1932 


11, .501 


1933 


10, 138 


1934 - 


11. 073 


1935 


9.762 


1936 


8.788 


1937 


9,722 


1938 


8,599 


1939 


8,162 


EAST NORTH CENTRAL 

Groups I-IV: 

1931 - 


31, 291 


1932 


24. 319 


1933 


21, 273 


1934 - ... 


21, 293 


1935 


18. 691 


1936 


17, 239 


1937 . . 


18, 422 


1938 


14, 452 


1939. 


13, 938 


WEST NORTH CENTRAL 

Groups I-IV: 

1931 . 


13, 743 


1932 


12, 450 


1933 


12, 146 


1934 


10, 090 


1935 


8,557 


1936 


6.283 


1937 


5,746 


1938 


4,710 


1939 


4,446 


SOUTH ATLANTIC 

Groups I-IV: 

1931 

1932 


12. 990 
12, 199 


1933- 


9,926 


1934 


9,741 


1935 


8,947 


1936 


8,386 


1937 

1938.. 


8,305 
7, 536 


1939.. 


7.746 



173 



Table 85. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, cities over 25,000 in popula- 
tion, January to December, inclusive, 1931-39, by geographic divisions — Cont. 



Geographic division and 
year 



EAST SOUTH CENTRAL 

Groups I-IV: 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 

1939 

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL 

Groups I-IV: 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 

1939 

MOUNTAEN 

Groups I-IV: 

1931--. 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 

1939 

PAcmc 

Groups I-IV: 

1931- 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 .._ 

1937-.. 

1938.- 

1939 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



215 
199 
236 
259 
219 
194 
232 
202 
185 



309 
297 
309 
280 
253 
300 
271 
254 
244 



40 
39 
32 
32 
40 
50 
31 
25 
24 



101 
92 
96 



69 

75 



Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 



96 

85 

68 

81 

107 

135 

121 

65 

84 



108 
52 
86 

115 
93 

107 
96 

107 
94 



11 
6 
11 
17 
13 
13 
23 
21 



118 
134 
126 
147 
159 
164 
221 
195 
154 



Rape 



30 
26 
42 
32 
37 
47 
61 
50 
40 



136 
115 
109 
101 
76 
114 
127 
141 
141 



11 
27 
26 
34 
45 
50 
71 
27 
45 



138 
140 
104 
129 
158 
140 
158 
198 
226 



Rob- 
bery 



873 
1,155 
1,059 



185 
969 
899 
920 
928 
870 



2,106 
2,183 
1,845 
1,725 
1,443 
1,280 
1,183 
1,170 
1,168 



1,193 
991 
851 
928 
723 
389 
422 
439 
326 



3,380 
3,058 
2,802 
2,055 
1,568 
1,676 
1,907 
2,221 
2,052 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



1,507 
1,524 
1,970 
1,565 
1,489 
1,415 
1,396 
1,303 
1,249 



1,127 
1,025 
1,047 
1,221 
1,443 
1,676 
1,488 
1,587 
1,800 



100 
139 
108 
151 
159 
158 
137 
129 
97 



625 
550 
652 
810 
827 
834 
785 
834 
843 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



5,117 
5,771 
5,473 
6,207 
5,589 
5,231 
5,237 
5,094 
5,497 



8,938 
9,443 
9,977 
9,359 
8,492 
7,914 
7,745 
7,193 
7,774 



4,412 
4,448 
4,780 
4,845 
3,994 
2, 795 
3,285 
2,812 
2,661 



14, 633 

15, 307 
13, 902 
14, 033 
12, 029 
10, 989 

12, 880 

13, 225 
13, 595 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



6, 147 
6, 559 
7,257 
8,624 
8,164 
9,844 
9,658 
8,128 
9,320 



17, 508 
18, 106 
19, 484 
20,444 
19, 582 
19, 860 
20, 939 
21,612 
25, 676 



5,843 
6,283 
7,074 
8,438 
7,352 
6,063 
6,641 
7,703 
9,048 



27, 780 
31. 592 
33, 013 

33, 049 
31,869 
29, 823 

34, 571 
36, 941 
38,850 



Auto 
theft 



4,759 
3,895 
3,316 
3,398 
2,998 
2,598 
2,949 
2.316 
1,943 



10, 537 
8,923 

8,677 
8,061 
5,862 
4,464 
3,721 
3,449 
3,477 



4,363 
2,717 
2,866 
3,082 
2,007 
1,936 
2,091 
1,815 
1,601 



15, 505 

12,955 

11, 354 

10, 921 

10, 452 

9,811 

10, 453 

8,149 

7,516 



209621°— 40- 



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175 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location. 

The nature and amount of crime vary among cities, States, and 
regional subdivisions of the United States. This has been apparent 
during the 10 years that Nation-wide police statistics have been com- 
piled. 

The irregular distribution of crime among the various portions of the 
United States is not surprising in view of the fact that such common 
occurrences as births, deaths, automobile accidents, marriages, 
divorces, and similar matters per unit of population vary throughout 
the United States. In other words, differences in crime rates for 
cities, States, and regional subdivsions are to be expected. 

In order that local officials and other interested individuals may 
compare local crime data with State and regional averages, such 
figures are presented in tables 87 and 88. 

Table 87 reveals substantial differences in the crime rates for the 
nine geographic divisions, the largest amount of variation being shown 
in the figures for min-der and aggravated assault. 

Table 88 presents crime rates for cities divided into six groups, by 
size within each geographic division. This makes it possible for local 
officials to compare their crime rates with the average figures for 
cities of the same size located in the same section of the United States. 

The States represented in each geographic division in table 88 are 
of course the same as indicated in table 87. The population groups 
shown in table 88 are the same as those shown in table 82, and are 
set out here again for convenience: 

Group I. Over 250,000 uihabitants. 
Group 11.^100,000 to 250,000 uihabitants. 
Group III. 50,000 to 100,000 inhabitants. 
Group IV. 25,000 to 50,000 inhabitants. 
Group V. 10.000 to 25,000 hihabitants. 
Group VI. Under 10,000 inhabitants. 

In table 86 is shown the number of cities whose reports were used 
in preparing crime rates shown in tables 87 and 88. 



176 



Table 86. — Number of cities in each State included in the tabulation of uniform 
crime reports, January to December, inclusive, 1939 





Population 




Division and State 


Over 
250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


Total 


GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England: 179 cities; total population, 
5,720,872 


2 

6 

9 

4 

3 

3 

3 

1 
5 


12 

11 

10 

5 

6 

3 

5 

1 
4 


12 
23 
26 

7 

13 

4 

7 

2 
6 


25 

29 

52 

11 

17 

6 

11 

6 
13 


61 

136 

106 

55 

34 

21 

26 

16 
34 


67 

321 

322 

170 

95 

38 

66 

60 
114 


179 


Middle Atlantic: 526 cities; total population, 
18,987,649 


526 


East North Central: 525 cities; total popula- 
tion, 16,597,211. _ . 


525 


West North Central: 252 cities; total popula- 
tion, 5,188,696 . 


252 


South Atlantic: i 168 cities; total population, 
4,847,721 


168 


East South Central: 75 cities; total popula- 
tion, 2,221,405 


75 


West South Central: 118 cities; total popula- 
tion, 3,511,347. ._ . .. . 


118 


Mountain: 86 cities; total population, 

1,281,852 .- 


86 


Pacific: 176 cities; total population, 5,500,943.. 


176 


New England: 






1 
1 


1 
2 
1 
10 
4 
7 

11 
9 
9 

15 

9 

13 

7 
8 


6 
3 

1 

38 

6 

7 

45 
32 
59 

30 
14 
30 
• 19 
13 

10 
9 
9 
3 
5 
5 

14 


10 
6 

8 
33 

4 
6 

113 

68 

140 

86 
41 
92 
59 
44 

51 
37 
20 
6 
6 
20 
30 

4 

5 
17 
18 
18 
7 
8 
18 

12 
14 
11 

1 

12 
8 

23 
23 

5 
12 

4 
10 

6 

8 
11 

4 

20 
15 
79 


18 


New Hampshire 






12 


Vermont 






10 


Massachusetts 

Rhode Island. ... ... .. 


1 
1 


8 
4 

4 
4 
3 

3 
4 
1 
2 

1 

1 


7 
2 
1 

6 

7 

10 

4 
3 
8 
8 
3 


97 
17 


Connecticut. . _ _ _ 


25 


Middle Atlantic: 

New York . _ 


3 

1 
2 

5 
1 

1 
1 
1 

2 


182 


New Jersey .. . .. 


121 


Pennsylvania . . 


223 


East North Central: 

Ohio 


143 


Indiana . 


72 


Illinois -- -- ... 


145 


Michigan . .. . . 


96 


Wisconsin... 

West North Central: 
Minnesota 


69 
64 




3 
2 


6 
2 
1 
1 
-. 


56 


Missouri. 


2 


35 


North Dakota 


10 


South Dakota 








12 


Nebraska 




1 

2 

1 


1 
1 


27 


Kansas 




48 


South Atlantic: 




5 


Maryland 


1 




2 

5 
1 
3 
1 

1 
4 

4 


3 
6 
3 
9 
4 
4 
5 

5 

3 

3 

10 

4 

4 

7 

11 

3 
2 
2 
5 
2 

r 
1 

8 
4 

22 


11 


Virginia 


2 


1 
3 
5 
1 
3 

1 


31 


West Virginia 




25 


North Carolina 






35 








13 


Georgia .. _ . . 


1 


3 

3' 


17 


Florida 


30 


East South Central: 

Kentucky. . _ .. 


1 
1 
1 


23 




21 


Alabama, -_ _. . 


2 
1 

1 
1 

-- 


1 
1 

1 
2 
2 
6 

2 


18 


Mississinni 


13 


West South Central: 
Arkansas 






18 


Louisiana . . . 


1 


_. 
3 


16 




34 


Texas . ... ... ... ... 


2 


50 


Mountain: 


10 










14 


Wvomine^ 










6 


Colorado. _-. _._ -- 


1 




1 


1 

1 
1 

1 


18 




9 








1 


10 


Utah 




1 


14 






5 


Pacific: 

Washington . - - 


1 
1 
3 


2 




2 

1 
10 


33 


Oregon 


21 


California 


2 


6 


122 



1 Includes District of Columhia. 



177 



Table 87. — Number of offenses known to the police -per 100,000 inhabitants, 
January to December, inclusive, 1939, by States 



Division and State 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



GEOGEAPmC DIVISION 



New England 

Middle Atlantic 

East North CentraL. 
West North Central. 

South Atlantic 3 

East South Central.. 
West South Central. 

Mountain 

Pacific 



New England: 

Maine 

New Hampshire. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

Middle Atlantic; 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

East North Central: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

West North Central: 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri... 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

South Atlantic: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina... 
South Carolina... 

Georgia. 

Florida 

East South Central: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

West South Central: 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma 

Texas 

Mountain: 

Montana 

Idaho 

Wyoming..-. 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Pacific: 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



0.9 

3.3 

4.2 

3.9 

15.9 

20.3 

12.2 

3.7 

3.6 



1.0 



.6 

1.6 

3.1 
2.1 
4.0 

5.0 
4.7 
5.1 
2.8 
1.1 

1.6 
1.6 
6.9 
1.9 
3.3 
2.8 
4.9 

4.9 
8.5 
18.7 
7.7 
18.8 
18.0 
25.8 
20.9 

13.8 
23.3 
25.7 
15.9 

11.4 

16.2 

5.9 

13.1 

2. 1 
6.3 
6.3 
3.7 
3.7 
4.5 
3.2 



Robbery 




Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



18.5 



24. 
85. 
49. 
73. 
82. 
59. 
50. 
85. 



12.9 

4.4 
17.0 
22.3 

4.3 

18.8 

16.8 
28.2 
36.6 

69.4 
64.1 
142. 6 
56.9 
12.8 

40.7 
29.0 
77.6 
28.5 
11.7 
25.9 
46.3 



28.4 
56.3 
74.6 
50.2 
55.9 
73.7 
85.1 
84.2 

95.2 

117.2 

36.7 

41.5 

76.0 
34.0 
77.6 
61.3 

38.3 
46. 5 
47.1 
36.5 
72. 1 
J04. 2 
49.7 
58.1 

59.4 
80.4 
91.6 



10.8 
32.8 
31.2 
15.0 
166.3 
160.2 
92.1 
20.0 
32.2 



3.2 
4.9 

2.1 

9.5 

10.0 

19.6 

32.7 
49.1 

25.7 

29. 1 
44.2 
35.5 
30.6 

8.2 

9.9 
9.2 
20.8 
11.4 
5.8 
17.3 
17.8 

83.6 
87.7 
207.1 
84.6 
395.1 
215.2 
102.9 
152. 2 

129.6 

242.6 

109.7 

95. 1 

83.3 

106. 1 

70.4 

95.6 

24.4 
11.3 

4.7 
16.1 
36.1 
50.6 

7.6 
36.3 

21.3 
12.5 
36.7 



Burglary- 
breaking 
or entering 



263.9 
1 221. 8 
316.9 
295.0 
465. 1 
524.8 
452. 
403.8 
567. 4 



296.2 

187.0 
182.4 
253. 5 
194.9 
355. 8 

< 180. 1 

296.2 

5 211. 

358.5 
398.7 
310.5 
302.4 
157.9 



279. 
274. 
300. 
309. 
220. 
226. 
394. 



351.6 
223.3 
529.3 
275.8 
526.6 
373.5 
564.5 
71.5. 

634.9 
501.0 
482.4 
398.4 

421.5 
178.0 
557.7 
522.8 

321.5 
576.6 
255.6 
310.8 
574,4 
480.9 
493.6 
568.8 

600.3 
740. 1 
540.8 



Larceny — 
theft 



551.1 
> 435. 

830.5 

937.2 
1, 200. 2 

952.8 
1, 432. 2 
1, 458. 9 
1, 506. 4 



606.0 
405.7 
633.0 
518.4 
487.4 
709.0 

* 483. 1 

544.7 

5 312. 5 

967.5 
1,071.4 

502.7 
1, 123. 8 

706.7 

809.2 

800.6 
1, 100. 3 

888.3 
1, 081. 2 

581.3 
1, 163. 9 



981.8 
431.9 
1. 439. 6 
660.8 
1, 209. 5 
1, 397. 4 
1, 445. 
1, 735. 



1, 144. 
914. 
818. 
863. 



1,312.2 

620.8 

1, 49S. 9 

1,731.8 

1, 305. 5 
1. 970. 8 
1.372.3 
1,419,3 
1, 976. 8 
1, 830. 7 
1,028.0 
2,013.7 

1, 349. 2 
1, 722. 6 
1, 514. 7 



Auto 
theft 



164.9 
2 131. 4 
136.0 
160.8 
244.2 
173.0 
172.8 
240.9 
368.9 



123.5 

.57.6 
70.0 

180.3 
74.8 

207.5 

4 104. 7 
141.7 
141.9 

131.4 
243.8 

96.8 
171. 6 

92.7 

196.3 

184.4 
130.1 
204.3 
170.8 
153.4 
139.2 

154.3 
318.7 
263.6 
101.6 
191.5 
150.2 
235.4 
206.3 

243.1 

181.8 

122.6 

69.1 

141.5 
125.1 
164.5 
197.9 

239.4 
324.1 
125.5 
166.6 
276.0 
409.9 
273.6 
338.8 

288.9 
283.6 
395.4 



1 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 524 cities with a total population of 9,855,335. 

2 The rate for auto theft is based on the reports of 525 cities with a total population of 11,828,035. 
5 Includes report of District of Columbia. 

* The rates for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on reports of 181 cities. 
» The rates for burglary and larceny are based on reports of 222 cities. 



178 



Table 88. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to December, inclusive, 1939, by geographic divisions and population groups 



Geographic division and population 
group 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Burglary- 
breaking 
or entering 



Larceny- 
theft 



Auto 
theft 



New England: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III --. 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Middle Atlantic: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

East North Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

West North Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

South Atlantic: 

Group 1 3 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

East South Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

West South Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Mountain: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Pacific: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 



0.8 

1.1 

.4 

.9 

1.5 
.2 

4.4 
1.6 
2.1 
1.2 
1.3 
1.6 

5.7 
4.3 
1.5 
3.0 
2.1 
2.4 

6.0 
4.4 
2.7 
1.6 
2.1 
2.1 

14.4 
20.8 
17.2 
16.8 
13.0 
13.0 

20.1 
30.2 
17.9 



15.5 


14.9 


18.9 


18.7 


9.4 


12.1 


9.5 


9.9 


5.3 


3.4 


3.5 


6.8 


3.9 


5.5 


1.6 


4.7 


1.5 


3.7 


1.9 


1.7 


3.0 



36.0 
22.2 
11.4 
14.0 

8.7 
7.8 

28.3 
20.5 
^22. 9 
19.3 

15.8 
15.0 

131.5 
57.2 
47.8 
33.7 
37.2 
22.9 

77.4 
53.3 
38.2 
35.4 
22.8 
17.1 

95.8 
94.5 
65.6 
55.5 
40.1 
36.5 

130.1 
85.8 
43.5 
48.3 
38.9 
24.4 

54.7 
96.1 
53.1 
38.3 
46.1 
32.6 

38.9 
64.5 
85.1 
64.1 
55.8 
30.7 

112.4 
67.0 
78.5 
47.9 
32.5 
44.2 



19.5 
13.8 
5.8 
8.7 
5.7 
4.3 

41.4 
23.8 
30.4 
22.9 
15.5 
13.0 

39.5 
55.1 
2,3.0 
13.7 

12.8 
15.1 

17.5 
24.4 

9.6 
11.3 
12.4 

8.1 

97.8 
•175. 1 
222.4 
216.2 
220.1 
157.5 

215.5 
162.4 
123.5 
129.3 
95.1 
99.4 

77.9 
105.3 
171.8 
73.9 
69.0 
48.3 

16.0 
11.8 
25.4 
21.4 
24.0 
21.9 

41.9 
24.7 
21.7 
20.2 
11.3 
25.2 



157.0 
388.9 
262.8 
287.2 
192.0 
181.5 

1233.2 
280.7 
284.3 
225.0 
173.5 
154.5 

348.9 
378.2 
305.9 
284.6 
268.9 
199.8 

280.2 
331.0 
428.3 
334. 3 
286.5 
211.0 

418.2 
7)3.9 
453.4 
534.2 
336.4 
296.8 

746.9 
383.3 
492.6 
473.0 
296.9 
296.6 

409.8 
597.1 
452.6 
426.8 
354.8 
363.3 

230.9 
538,1 
507.8 
549.5 
429.5 
357.2 

642.9 
516.7 
548.9 
549.9 
421.3 
381.0 



386.9 
712.9 
617.0 
629.7 
451.1 
296.4 

1509.3 
522.7 
489.5 
529.2 
344.1 
269.8 

907.3 
1, 056. 6 
828.1 
858.6 
696.1 
362.8 



052.3 
972.5 
176.4 
037.8 
905.7 
468.9 



1, 043. 1 
1, 747. 
1, 291. 5 
1, 383. 6 
1, 053. 2 
617.9 

1, 157. 5 
898.0 
761.8 

1, 272. 4 
763.2 
324.9 

1. 569. 2 
1,713.8 

1, 424. 4 
1,493.7 
1, 075. 2 

703.9 

1,256.5 

893.2 

1,674.2 

1,916.6 

2, 284. 7 
976.3 

1,410.1 
1, 555. 6 
1,-838. 3 
1, 584. 7 
1, 660. 3 
1,500.3 



312.2 
212.3 

124.0 

118.6 

58.4 

48.4 

2 178. 9 

145.9 

141,8 

111.5 

86.5 

55.8 

131.7 
225.7 
151.6 
151.0 
113.9 
72.9 

170.1 
196.2 
217.6 
178,8 
140,5 
85,5 

365,0 
280,5 
166,4 
183,3 
131,6 
126.7 

179.9 
258.8 
157,0 
208,0 
95.8 
72.2 

186.1 
224.4 
154.5 
202.4 
113,4 
70.6 

166.1 
314,8 
411.0 
364,4 
242,7 
141,1 

461,8 
287,9 
265,4 
281,8 
264,5 
202,0 



1 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 4 cities. 

2 The rate for auto theft is based on the reports of 5 cities. 

3 Includes the District of Columbia. 



179 

Police Employees and Motorized Equipment, 1938. 

Figures concerning the number and functional distribution of 
police-department employees and motorized equipment for the calen- 
dar year 1938 were presented in volume X, Nos. 2 and 3 of the Uni- 
form Crime Reports bulletin. Figures 10-12 on the following pages 
graphically present summaries relative to some of the more interesting 
facts relating to this subject. 

The information dealing with the functional distribution of police 
employees presented in figure 10 was obtained from reports forwarded 
from 377 cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants, and the detailed 
figures relative thereto may be found in table 55, in volume X, No. 2. 

Summary figures relative to the motorized equipment operated 
during 1938 by 376 cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants are pre- 
sented in figure 11. The upper portion of this figure indicates that 
for every 21 police employees the average department operated 
2 automobiles and 1 motorcycle. The lower portion of the figure 
relates to the radio equipment maintained, and it will be seen that 
57.1 percent of the cars were equipped with one-way radio, and 22.4 
percent with two-way radio. Likewise, 31.7 percent of the motor- 
cycles were radio equipped. The detailed tabulation upon which 
figure 11 is based may be found in table 56 of volume X, No. 2, of 
this bulletin. 

The information presented in figure 12 is supplemented by table 75 
in volume X, No. 3, and is presented to indicate the number of cities 
using one-man cars only, the number usmg two-men cars only, and 
the number using both one-man and two-men cars. The figure also 
indicates the number of those police departments which operated, in 
addition to their other motorized equipment, automobiles manned by 
three or more men. 



180 



CO 
CO 



M 

H 






CO 
M 

o 



to 

CO 



HI 


n| 


Htai 


HI 


Hi 









181 



CO 

CO 



»? *£ 




C5 



209621°— 40- 



182 




183 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 25,000 Inhabitants, 

The number of oflFenses reported as having been committed during 
the calendar year 1939 is shown in table 89. The compilation includes 
the reports received from police departments in cities with more than 
25,000 inhabitants. Such data are included here in order that inter- 
ested individuals and organizations may have readily available up-to- 
date information concerning the amount of crime committed in their 
communities. Police administrators and other interested individuals 
will probably find it desirable to compare the crime rates of their 
cities with the average rates shown in tables 82 and 88 of this publica- 
tion. Similarly, they will doubtless desire to make comparisons with 
the figures for their communities for prior periods, in order to determine 
whether there has been an increase or a decrease in the amount of 
crime committed. 

A great deal of caution should be exercised in comparing crime data 
for individual cities, because differences in the figures may be due to a 
variety of factors. The amount of crime committed in a community 
is not solely chargeable to the police but is rather a charge against the 
entire community. The following is a list of some of the factors which 
might afl'ect the amount of crime in a community: 

The composition of the population with reference particularly to 

age, sex, and race. 
The economic status and activities of the population. 
Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 
The number of police employees per unit of population. 
The standards governing appointments to the police force. 
The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 
The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement probleins. 
The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 

Comparisons between the crime rates of individual cities should not 
be made without giving consideration to the above-mentioned factors. 
It is more important to determine whether the figures for a given 
community show increases or decreases in the amount of crime 
committed than to ascertain whether the figures are above or below 
those of some other commmiity. 

In examining a compilation of crime figures for individual com- 
munities it should be borne in mind that in view of the fact that the 
data are compiled by dift'erent record departments operating under 
separate and distinct administrative systems, it is entirely possible 
that there may be variations in the practices employed in classifying 
complaints of offenses. On the other hand, the crime-reporting hand- 
book has been distributed to all contributors of crime reports, and the 
figures received are included in this bulletin only if they apparently 
have been compiled in accordance with the provisions of the hand- 
book, and the individual department has so indicated. 



184 



Table 89. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 

1939, cities over 25,000 in -population 



City 



Abilene, Tex 

Akron, Ohio 

Alameda, Calif 

Albany, N. Y 

Albuquerque, N. Mex 

Alhambra, Calif 

Aliquippa, Pa 

Allentown, Pa 

Alton, 111 

Altoona, Pa 

Amarillo, Tex 

Amsterdam, N. Y 

Anderson, Ind 

Ann Arbor, Mich 

Appleton, Wis 

Arlington, Mass 

Asheville, N. C 

Ashland, Ky 

Atlanta, Ga 

Atlantic City, N. J 

Auburn, N. Y 

Augusta, Ga 

Aurora, 111 

Austin, Tex__-- 

Bakersfield, Calif 

Baltimore, Md 

Bancor, Maine 

Barberton, Ohio 

Baton Rouge, La 

Battle Creek, Mich 

Bay City, Mich 

Bayonne, N. J 

Beaumont, Tex 

Belleville, 111 --- 

Belleville, N. J 

Bellinghani, Wash 

Belvedere Township, Calif- 
Berkeley, Calif 

Berwyn, 111 

Bethlehem, Pa 

Beverly, Mass 

Binghamton, N. Y 

Birmingham, Ala 

Bloomfield, N. J 

Bloomington, 111 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Bristol, Conn 

Brockton, Mass 

Brookline, Mass 

Brownsville, Tex 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Burlington, Iowa 

Burlington, Vt 

Butte, Mont 

Cambridge, Mass 

Camden, N.J 

Canton, Ohio 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

Central Falls, R. I 

Charleston, S. O 

Charleston, W. Va 

Charlotte, N. C 

Chattanooga, Tenn 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chester, Pa 

Chicago, 111 

Chicopee, Mass 

Cicero, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Clarksburg, W. Va 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio-. 

Clifton, N. J 

Clinton, Iowa 

Colorado Springs, Colo 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



1 

12 
2 
1 



Robbery 



2 
5 

99 
2 



9 
■ 1 
15 



74 



2 
79 



3 

17 



12 
14 
35 
50 



12 
239 



1 
45 

66 



6 

169 

2 

24 

18 

17 

4 

12 

9 

18 

3 

9 

3 

1 

6 
42 

7 

406 

29 



34 
16 
44 
17 
492 
4 

20 

9 

17 

13 



2 
1 

111 

5 

31 

362 

39 

2 

9 

4 



73 
4 
4 

31 

23 

63 

95 

14 

3 

98 

73 

80 

101 

17 

36 

6,854 

2 

50 

531 

808 

30 

6 

3 

5 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



21 
128 



25 



10 
1 

8 

5 

77 

3 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



Larceny — theft 



92 
1,236 

63 
259 
256 
252 

73 
210 

82 
263 
130 

66 
133 
106 . 
No reports receive d 

61 



$50 and 
over 



352 

23 

240 

107 

1 

88 

7 

55 

9 

773 



49 



315 

98 

2,353 

526 

29 
327 

78 

528 

166 

1,795 

91 

78 
135 
1.55 
157 



No reports received 



25 


61 


4 




4 


1 


1 




25 


25 


17 


7 


12 


1 



173 
72 
91 
65 
212 
256 
82 



Only 11 months received 



27 
186 

5 
69 
28 
21 
10 
37 

4 
17 
58 
28 
34 
62 

4 

113 

15 

536 

234 

29 

51 

31 

40 

52 

626 

27 

9 

42 
13 
19 

6 
3 
12 
21 
24 
29 
11 



Under 
$50 



2 

4 

117 



6 

171 

6 



2 
142 



1 

16 
15 
72 
83 

5 



244 

165 

347 

210 

7 

22 

1,517 



2 
261 



40 

69 

1,570 

112 

73 

1, 186 

444 

110 

189 

239 

30 

814 

50 

86 

160 

412 

286 

387 

91 

52 

241 

126 

670 

688 

239 

193 

12, 084 

46 

145 

2,082 



Only 6 months received 



146 
1 
5 
2 
3 



2, 505 

173 

130 

61 

166 



271 
25 
27 
30 
32 



Auto 
theft 



447 
1,857 
277 
646 
818 
281 
177 
421 
164 
188 
573 
137 
92 
438 

78 
545 
190 

4,422 
860 
256 
735 
160 

1,706 
903 

2,593 
187 
77 
337 
,542 
463 

214 
97 
159 
214 
208 
808 
126 



18 


132 


30 


370 


300 


2,058 


20 


231 


23 


355 


751 


2,580 


181 


1,449 


6 


80 


37 


349 


85 


288 


3 


65 


290 


1,671 


3 


172 


28 


419 


20 


251 


74 


639 


134 


471 


0) 


965 


33 


659 


10 


168 


137 


911 


128 


295 


97 


1,585 


64 


1,407 


39 


199 


26 


185 


3,722 


12, 245 


18 


209 


30 


198 


690 


5, 190 



11,595 
348 
103 
100 
568 



36 

341 
45 

188 

144 
91 
22 

132 
43 
64 

105 
26 
91 
60 

10 

74 

35 

1,134 

257 

22 

50 

58 

106 

104 

2,825 

56 

13 

44 

102 

109 

73 
19 
22 
40 
243 
56 
30 

15 

115 

353 

53 

117 

2,999 

417 

12 

38 

165 

6 

699 

19 

32 

175 

428 

178 

89 

80 

20 

112 

99 

275 

234 

88 

86 

2,955 

25 

58 

678 

946 
75 
29 
18 
56 



See footnotes at end of table. 



185 

Table 89. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
19S9, cities over 25,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Columbia, S. C 

Columbus, Ga 

Columbus, Ohio 

Concord, N. H 

Corpus Christi, Tex.._ 
Council Bluffs, Iowa_. 

Covington, Ky 

Cranston, R. I 

Cumberland, Md 

Dallas, Tex 

Danville, 111 

Danville, Va 

Davenport, Iowa 

Dayton, Ohio 

Dearborn, Mich 

Decatur, IlL 

Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Detroit, Mich 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Duluth, Minn 

Durham, N. C 

East Chicago, Ind 

East Cleveland, Ohlo_ 

Easton, Pa 

East Orange, N. J 

East Providence, R. !_ 

East St. Louis, 111 

Eau Claire, Wis 

Elgin, 111 

Elizabeth, N. J 

Elkhart, Ind 

Elmira, N. Y 

El Paso, Tex 

Elyria, Ohio 

Enid, Okla 

Erie, Pa 

Evanston, 111 

Evansville, Ind 

Everett, Mass 

Everett, Wash 

Fall River, Mass 

Fargo, N. Dak 

Fitchburg, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Fond du Lac, Wis 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Fresno, Calif 

Gadsden, Ala 

Qalesburg, 111 

Galveston, Tex 

Garfield, N.J 

Gary, Ind 

Glendale, Calif 

Grand Rapids, Mich.. 

Granite City, 111 

Great Falls, Mont 

Green Bay, Wis 

Greensboro, N. C 

Greenville, S. C 

Hackensack, N. J 

Hagerstown, Md 

HamUton, Ohio 

Hammond, Ind 

Hamtramck, Mich 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Hartford, Conn 

HaverhUl, Mass 

Hazelton, Pa 

Highland Park, Mich. 

High Point, N. C 

Hoboken, N. J 

Holyoke, Mass 

Honolulu, T. H 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



7 
20 



54 

2 

10 



15 
2 



10 
4 

79 
3 



4 
2 
16 
5 
4 



13 
2 
2 
1 
2 
3 

13 
9 



12 



15 
374 



14 
37 
27 

1 

5 

142 

23 

22 

21 

113 

26 

39 

114 

79 

1,421 

1 
17 
36 
26 

8 



117 

25 

25 

7 

3 



20 
21 
7 
14 
15 
31 
65 
37 
43 
17 

55 

11 

8 

2 

13 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or 

entering 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



Only 8 months received 



29 
83 



30 

1 

22 



2 
211 

5 

114 

3 

89 

20 

4 

47 

29 

743 



1 
77 
69 



166 
2,323 

66 
296 
176 
275 

45 

75 
1,798 
138 
145 
285 
770 
134 
204 
677 
661 
4,823 

51 
255 
326 
203 
146 
No reports received 
248 
123 
254 

63 

49 
363 
113 

92 
511 

65 
143 
346 
151 
490 
147 
142 
386 

90 
118 
786 

27 
120 
378 
,141 
390 
108 

93 
352 
No reports received 



8 


10 


3 


3 


32 


124 


4 


1 


3 


3 


16 


36 


14 


1 


8 


1 


85 


19 


4 


4 


9 


7 


28 


7 


23 


32 


54 


21 


12 


7 


8 


1 


21 


2 


11 


7 


1 




79 


133 


5 


1 


24 


18 


44 


16 


94 


15 


86 


30 


8 


71 


16 


1 


79 


274 



220 

3 

11 

3 

1 

3 

22 

44 

29 



4 
12 

4 

52 

109 



303 
393 
540 

87 



69 

364 

235 

83 

95 

35 

224 

199 

296 

945 

114 

No reports received 



4 

192 

4 

1 

24 



366 
186 
67 
140 
995 



39 

388 

8 

51 

28 

25 

40 

17 

168 

3 

30 

33 

69 

69 

27 

328 

182 

800 

15 

125 

110 

31 

14 

41 
14 
49 
21 
9 
78 
20 
22 
47 
10 
11 
70 

110 
75 
22 
8 
26 
23 
9 

156 
14 
27 

108 
94 

122 
41 
13 
46 

51 
69 
73 
1 
21 
14 

110 
69 
10 
27 
41 
50 

102 
86 

115 
30 

65 
66 
29 
35 
155 



Under 
$50 



621 

3,042 

142 

609 

475 

282 

210 

157 

7,872 

265 

350 

832 

2,205 

673 

475 

3,356 

1,634 

20, 847 

359 

1,240 

694 

242 

276 

289 
225 
365 
214 
215 
713 
539 
306 

1,443 
117 
291 
612 
712 

1,287 
217 
519 
339 
223 
266 

2,011 
102 
530 

1,814 

3,462 
999 
235 
146 
476 

383 
1,141 
2,004 
105 
531 
320 
711 
624 
123 
267 
336 
523 
577 
660 
1,653 
187 

661 

222 

67 

433 

2,016 



Auto 
theft 



51 

587 

21 

298 

129 

148 

31 

34 

530 

34 

42 

97 

511 

142 

70 

487 

539 

3,009 

105 

174 

103 

28 

17 

61 
9 

111 
45 
19 

127 
40 
72 

250 
13 
30 

291 
58 

394 
25 
50 
76 
62 
35 

305 
53 
41 

534 

251 

237 
44 
67 

103 

168 

195 

318 

27 

75 

36 

184 

89 

48 

86 

38 

84 

138 

152 

545 

50 

106 
71 
43 
82 

220 



See footnotes at end of table. 



186 

Table 89. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1939, cities over 25,000 in popiilation — Continued 



City 



Houston, Tex 

Huntington, W. Va 

Huntington Park, Calif 

Hutchinson, Kans 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Inglewood, Calif 

Irvington, N. J 

Jackson, Mich 

Jackson, Miss 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Jamestown, N. Y 

Jersey City, N. J 

Johnstown, Pa^.- 

Joliet, 111 

Joplin, Mo 

Kalamazoo, Mich 

Kansas City, Kans 

Kansas City, Mo 

Kearny, N. J 

Kenosha, Wis 

Kingston, N. Y 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Kokomo, Ind 

Lackawanna, N. Y 

La Crosse, Wis 

La Fayette, Ind 

Lakewood, Ohio 

Lancaster, Pa 

Lansing, Mich 

Laredo, Tex 

Lawrence, Mass 

Lebanon, Pa 

Lewiston, Maine 

Lexington, Ky__ 

Lima, Ohio 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Little Rock, Ark 

Long Beach, Calif 

Lorain, Ohio 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky ..- 

Lowell, Mass 

Lower Merion Township, Pa.. 

Lynchburg, Va 

Lynn, Mass" 

Macon, Ga 

Madison, Wis 

Maiden, Mass 

Manchester, N. H 

Mansfield, Ohio 

Marion, Ohio.. 

Massillon, Ohio 

Maywood, 111 

McKeesport, Pa 

Mcdford, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn 

Meriden, Conn 

Meridian, Miss 

Miami, Fla 

Michigan City, Ind 

Middletown, Conn 

Middle town, Ohio 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Mishawaka, Ind 

Mobile, Ala.- 

Moline, 111 

Monroe, La 

Montclair, N. J 

Montgomery, Ala 

Mount Vernon, N. Y 

Muncie, Ind 

Muskegon, Mich 

Muskogee, Okla 

Nanticoke, Pa 

Nashua, N. H 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



67 
4 



20 



2 

4 

38 

1 

1 
2 



Robbery 



14 
23 



28 
1 



311 

53 

31 

7 

511 

9 

18 

7 

20 

151 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



220 

106 

1 

2 

263 

2 



30 

164 

1 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



2,056 
466 
275 
127 

2, 569 
154 
266 
222 
282 

1,292 
97 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



Complete data not received 
103 



299 

116 
34 
10 

780 

36 

28 

9 

31 

449 
20 



3 




30 


6 


46 


9 


9 


4 


164 


43 


488 


183 



172 
250 
215 

641 
1,574 



Only 9 months received 



4 


2 


1 


6 


30 


166 


9 


5 


10 


16 


4 




10 


1 


10 


1 


12 


13 


20 


9 



65 

56 

307 

143 

62 

78 

87 

139 

164 

117 



No reports received 
13 I 3 1 113 I 

19 I I 36 I 

Only 5 months received 



13 
17 
45 
35 
111 
1,355 

11 

9 

169 

19 

8 

12 

33 

25 

20 

55 




No reports received 



41 
18 

91 
36 
34 

(') 

271 

36 

3,866 

631 
30 
31 
31 
98 
40 
89 
25 
25 
30 
16 
10 
16 
69 
12 

447 
15 
20 

297 
16 
16 
31 

265 

589 

2 

52 

23 

12 



446 51 

83 33 

296 22 

80 49 

205 7 
Only 10 months received 

71 I 5 



Under 
$50 



6,558 

1,075 
467 
616 

6, 188 
330 
256 
466 
633 

2,875 
142 



163 
103 
681 
346 
56 
295 
432 
305 
404 
533 

173 



1,097 
470 
399 

1,480 

2,491 

274 

16, 650 

3,838 
274 
98 
237 
885 
620 
441 
416 
426 
363 
307 
110 
134 
123 
263 

2,591 
126 
281 

1,277 
233 
115 
462 

4,127 

3,468 
156 
252 
244 
357 

635 
212 
265 
488 
522 



Auto 
theft 



822 

118 
96 
41 
1,513 
40 
44 

131 
57 

330 
34 



143 


75 


212 


90 


574 


99 


1,016 


127 


1,001 


171 


2,572 


654 



97 



43 

22 

250 

114 

15 

48 

24 

31 

39 

168 

125 
34 

159 

118 

200 

162 

396 

52 

8,278 

892 

147 

64 

72 

167 

101 

93 

102 

45 

66 

39 

26 

18 

105 

60 

288 

54 

25 

265 

19 

24 

31 

509 

1,453 

37 

115 

49 

21 

84 
24 
97 
76 
47 

32 



See footnotes at end of table. 



187 



Table 89. — Number of offenses known to the -police, January to December, inclusive, 
1939, cities over 25,000 in population — Continued 





Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 


Larceny— theft 


Auto 
theft 


City 


$50 and 
over 


Under 

$50 


Nashville, Tenn 

New Albany, Ind -. 


53 

1 

24 


204 

2 

275 

9 

18 

18 

15 

1 

19 

47 

3 

131 

15 

1 

22 

2 

2 

1,427 

11 

130 

2 

3 

15 
220 
65 
20 
146 
90 
11 
12 

5 

7 
14 

3 
26 
25 
35 

1 
42 
58 

10 

818 

69 

537 

5 

7 
17 

2 
11 
13 
306 
18 
43 

3 

13 
18 
34 

12 

42 

18 

12 

U 

210 

6 

28 

35 

22 

20 

2 

7 

171 

23 

43 


258 
4 

595 
5 
9 
4 
5 
6 
2 
9 
13 

400 

15 

2 

65 

42 

""2,'946' 

35 

154 

10 

2 

Only 5 n 

1 

168 

1 

2 

283 

71 

51 

46 

1 

17 

15 

7 

6 

30 

40 

21 

59 

38 

No repo 

83 

590 

21 

313 

4 

8 

11 

19 

5 

1 

46 

16 

178 

18 

32 

5 

31 


501 

76 
1,399 
113 
685 
176 
126 

80 
122 
900 

76 
518 
144 

81 
261 

68 

136 

4,997 

408 

1,026 

48 

132 

lonths rece 

105 

1,473 

265 

227 

1,079 

441 

79 
131 

86 

45 
133 

78 

386 

309 

521 

156 

171 

503 

rts receivec 

123 

2,351 

282 

1,979 

118 

75 
255 

46 

90 

433 

2,831 

218 

271 

92 
451 
237 

54 


11 

416 
16 
73 
23 
24 
22 
18 

264 
12 

505 
25 
25 
32 
49 
(') 
(') 
56 

135 
11 
20 
ived 

9 

218 
54 
37 

213 
71 
16 
45 
27 
6 
38 
13 

165 
37 
57 
54 

100 
59 
i 

13 

903 
86 

476 
25 
26 
40 
7 
2 
59 

720 
47 
49 
24 

112 
16 
82 
ived 

34 
89 
77 
22 
26 

303 
13 
78 

170 

37 

34 

4 

6 

359 
49 
83 


1,001 
255 

3,770 
580 

1,047 
333 
246 
180 
243 

1,230 
223 

1,340 
283 
266 
129 
136 
413 
16, 268 
556 

1,815 

78 

117 

124 

3,935 

355 

788 

3,086 

874 

98 

356 

417 

119 

479 

227 

1,464 

268 

268 

713 

733 

856 

527 

2,038 

1,223 

1,433 

224 

153 

342 

331 

218 

672 

4,963 

725 

696 

378 

590 

386 

201 

446 

673 

542 

302 

97 

3,951 

365 

567 

2,182 

483 

459 

129 

160 

2,344 

1,088 

1,004 


424 

51 


Newark, N. J 

Newark, Ohio .. .._ _ 


1,241 
72 


New Bedford, Mass 

New Britain, Conn __..__ _ 


1 


141 
115 


New Brunswick, N. J . 


2 


87 


Newburgh. N. Y_- 


23 


New Castle, Pa 




80 


New Haven, Conn 

New London, Conn 


4 


496 

44 


New Orleans, La 

Newport, Ky _.. 


79 

1 


633 
69 


Newport, R. I _. 


22 


Newport News, Va - 


6 

1 

1 

291 

1 

19 
1 


47 


New Rochelle, N. Y.._ 


80 


Newton, Mass 

New York, N. Y 


105 
8, 195 


Niagara Falls, N. Y 

Norfolk, Va 


149 
657 


Norristown, Pa 


31 


North Bergen, N. J 


19 


Norwalk, Conn 

Norwood, Ohio -.. 


1 
12 


56 


Oakland, Calif 


727 


Oak Park, 111 


48 


Ogden, Utah 


3 
6 
10 
1 
3 


153 


Oklahoma City, Okla 


334 


Omaha, Nebr 

Orange, N. J_ 

Orlando, Fla. 


372 
52 
89 


Oshkosh, Wis 


27 


Ottumwa, Iowa-. 


1 
8 
2 

1 


23 


Paducah, Ky . 


125 


Parkersburg, W. Va 

Pasadena, Calif. 


24 
200 


Passaic, N. J- ___ 


118 


Paterson, N. J 

Pawtucket, R. I 


7 


210 

78 


Pensacola, Fla 

Peoria, 111 

Perth Amboy, N. J 

Petersburg, Va_ __ . 


1 
1 

6 

129 

5 

29 


93 
252 

31 


Philadelphia, Pa . ... 


2, 813 


Phoenix, Ariz . 


335 


Pittsburgh, Pa 


2,051 


Pittsfield, Mass 


56 


Plainfield, N. J 




42 


Pontiac, Mich . ... ... 


1 

1 


154 


Port Arthur, Tex 


67 


Port Huron, Mich 


75 


Portland, Maine. 




162 


Portland, Oreg 


12 

3 

17 


839 


Portsmouth, Ohio. ... 


80 


Portsmouth, Va 


93 


Poughkeepsie, N. Y 


28 


Providence, R. I 

Pueblo, Colo 

Quiney, 111. . . . 


2 
2 


256 
85 
17 


Quincy, Mass . 


1 
5 
2 
1 
1 
41 


Only 8 months rece 




Racine, Wis 

Raleigh, N. C 

Reading, Pa 

Revere, Mass 

Richmond, Ind .. . 


5 

323 

30 

1 

8 

446 

8 

69 

45 

7 

5 

1 

1 

42 

10 

22 


189 

444 

555 

234 

50 

1,186 

208 

136 

574 

167 

104 

24 

63 

766 

435 

475 


66 

105 

137 

56 

44 


Richmond, Va 

Riverside, Calif 


613 
37 


Roanoke, Va 


7 
2 


104 


Rochester, N. Y 


382 


Rockford, 111 


111 


Rock Island, IlL. 




85 


Rome, N. Y 




29 


Royal Oak, Mich. 




57 


Sacramento, Calif ..... 


7 
3 
4 


340 


Saginaw, Mich_. . 


157 


St. Joseph, Mo 


133 



See footnotes at end of table. 



188 



Table 89. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1939, cities over 25,000 in population' — Continued 



City 



St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

St. Petersburg, Fla 

Salem, Mass 

Salem, Oreg 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Angelo, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Bernardino, Calif. 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif... 

San Jose, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif.., 
Santa Monica, Calif.... 

Savannah, Ga 

Schenectady, N. Y 

Scranton, Pa_ _ 

Seattle, Wash 

Sharon, Pa 

Sheboygan, Wis 

Shreveport, La 

Sioux City, lowa.. 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak 

Somervillc, Mass _ 

South Bend, Ind 

Spartanburg, S. C 

Spokane. Wash 

Springfield, 111 

Springfield, Mass 

Springfield, Mo 

Springfield, Ohio 

Stamford. Conn 

Steubenville, Ohio 

Stockton, Calif 

Superior, Wis 

Syracuse. N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Taunton, Mass 

Tcrre Haute, Ind 

Toledo, Ohio 

Topeka, Kans 

Torrinijton, Conn 
Trenton, N. J... 

Troy, N. Y 

Tucson, Ariz _ 

Tulsa. Okla 

Union City, N. J 

University City, Mo... 
Upper Darby, Pa... 
Utica, N. Y. 

Waco, Tex 

Waltham, Mass 

Warren, Ohio 

Washington, D. C 

Washington, Pa 

Waterbury, Conn 

Waterloo, Iowa 

Watertown, Mass 

Watertown, N. Y 

Waukegan, 111 

West Allis, Wis 

West Hartford, Conn.. 
West Haven, Conn.. 
West New York, N. J_. 

West Orange, N. J 

West Palm Beach, Fla 
Wheeling, W. Va 
White Plains, N. Y._._ 

Wichita, Kans 

Wichita Falls, Tex 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa 

Wilkinsburg, Pa 

Williamsport, Pa 

Wilmington, Del 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



80 
8 
4 



Robbery 



5 
2 

34 
2 
5 

24 
2 
1 
1 
1 

13 



2 
12 



(2) 



17 



11 
5 

2 

2 

1 

20 



2 

56 



540 

162 

20 

16 

6 
93 
12 
256 
33 
81 
704 
33 

5 
13 
46 
31 
12 
45 
269 

6 

2 
36 
38 

4 
22 
52 

6 
123 
55 
19 
25 
18 

6 
14 



36 

269 

40 

35 

23 

55 

253 

5 

6 

5 

4 

6 

8 

21 

628 

7 

11 

S 

2 



17 
3 
1 
4 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



121 

32 

9 

2 

1 

17 

15 

487 

5 

25 

362 

11 

3 

18 

12 

17 

18 

36 

84 

1 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



(') 



122 
3 

1 

5 

13 

67 
17 
21 

3 
18 

5 
10 



1,389 
927 
379 
80 
192 
776 
77 

1,170 
263 
500 

2,660 
312 
109 
165 
304 
299 
419 
402 

2,885 
58 
105 
238 
221 
60 
121 
430 
137 
824 
249 
462 
354 
318 
103 
92 



(') 



Only 1 month received 
130 
456 
537 
441 

Only 2 months received 



182 

109 

34 

23 

59 

36 

387 

II 

126 

882 

25 

31 

42 

146 

344 



339 
11 
11 
41 
7 
33 
33 
91 
29 

106 
73 

111 
59 
40 
51 
10 



8 




23 


6 


49 


10 


51 


111 



18 

89 

6 



208 

1,090 

504 



No reports received 



« 



Only 9 months received 



Under 
$50 



10, 217 

2,463 
943 
253 
249 

1,229 
307 

3, 172 
548 

1, 892 

7,115 
857 
601 
644 
909 

1,343 
383 
546 

3,462 

96 

329 

1,174 
601 
458 
163 

1,032 
356 

2,303 
957 

1,073 
933 
687 
280 
139 



24 


367 


105 


1,101 


52 


1,190 


97 


1,176 


15 


401 


318 


3,405 




1,058 



52 


593 


87 


919 


18 


145 


52 


455 


22 


234 


102 


749 


110 


1,281 


239 


2,731 


2 


86 


21 


96 


2 


155 


37 


251 


5 


25 


14 


29 


10 


156 


61 


628 


122 


197 


11 


828 


3 


131 


23 


387 


8 


201 


20 


321 


544 


2,512 


816 


7,619 


2 


56 


11 


122 


6 


296 


55 


295 


3 


177 


20 


246 


2 


55 


3 


42 


4 


86 


16 


408 


12 


100 


63 


198 


1 


45 


10 


372 


27 


69 


15 


64 


3 


84 


13 


99 



1 


1 


36 


16 


64 


12 


9 


232 


31 


443 


16 


6 


168 


46 


338 


4 


10 


47 


29 


74 


26 


28 


339 


43 


1,585 


7 


29 


219 


57 


1,175 


20 


12 


257 


59 


306 


17 


30 


121 


11 


109 


7 


3 


69 


14 


250 


24 


91 


394 


141 


1,020 



Auto 
theft 



955 

338 

54 

53 

107 

454 

40 

716 

102 

484 

2,623 

182 

76 

60 

188 

93 

140 

265 

1,337 

44 

26 

141 

240 

83 

148 

184 

78 

334 

293 

204 

93 

92 

92 

61 

62 
313 
346 
130 

129 

482 
219 

191 

137 

147 

397 

86 

21 

134 

86 

38 

51 

59 

1,854 

55 

192 

61 

16 

29 

46 

20 

17 

35 

19 
52 
59 
45 

131 
81 
99 
22 
52 

178 



See footnotes at end of table. 



189 

Table 89. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1939, cities over 25,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Wilmington, N. C... 
Winston-Salem, N. C 

Woodbridge, N. J 

Woonsocket, R. I 

Worcester, Mass 

Wyandotte, Mich 

Yonkers, N. Y 

York, Pa 

Youngstown, Ohio-.- 
Zanesville, Ohio 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



5 
14 
2 
1 
4 
2 
1 
1 
9 
1 



Robbery 



27 

26 
4 
1 

63 
4 
8 

16 
153 

11 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



76 
301 

5 



17 

2 

34 

9 

137 



Bur- 
glary — 
breaking 

or 
entering 



81 
321 

89 
167 
724 

48 
167 

93 
635 

60 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



32 
38 

6 

17 

145 

19 

26 

7 
54 
23 



Under 

$50 



318 
488 
169 
139 

1,029 
151 
343 
356 

1,267 
178 



Auto 
theft 



59 
86 
24 
18 

399 
31 

147 
76 

362 
71 



1 Larcenies not separately reported. 

2 Complete figures not received. 



Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



209621°— 10- 



190 

Offenses Known to Sheriffs, State Police, and Other Rural Officers, 1939. 

Under the system of uniform crime reporting, urban crimes are 
compiled separately from rural crimes. The figures presented in the 
preceding tables are based on reports received from police departments 
in urban communities (places with 2,500 or more inhabitants). Com- 
prehensive data regarding rural crimes are not yet available, but the 
information on hand is shown in table 90. 

The following tabulation sets forth a percentage distribution of 100 
urban crimes in comparison with an average group of 100 rural crimes. 



Offense 


Percent 


Offense 


Percent 


Urban 


Rural 


Urban 


Rural 


Total 


100.0 


100.0 


Robbery __. 


3.6 

3.0 

.6 

.3 

.3 


3.5 






6.4 


TiRrcenv 


58.1 
22.6 

11.5 


48.7 

28.6 

7.9 


Rape .- - -.- 


2.5 




Murder- .__ -_ 


1.3 




Manslaughter 


1.1 









The foregoing comparison discloses that 11.3 percent of the rural 
crimes are offenses against the person (criminal homicide, rape, and 
aggravated assault) while only 4.2 percent of the urban crimes fall 
within those classes. This does not mean that the total of crimes 
against the person committed in rural areas is greater than in urban 
communities, because the figures represent only average groups of 
100 urban crimes and 100 rural crimes. The higher percentage of 
rural crimes involving offenses against the person may be due to the 
fact that some of the reports representing rural crimes indicate the 
possibility that they were limited to instances in which arrests were 
made. Incompleteness of this sort in the reports will tend to in- 
crease the percentage of rural crimes against the person, inasmuch 
as such crimes are more generally followed by arrests than are the 
less serious offenses against property. 

Table 90. — Offenses known, January to December, inclusive, 1939, as re-ported by 
937 sheriffs, 8 State police organizations, and 80 village officers 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or en- 
tering 


Larceny — 
theft 






Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Offenses known 


1,100 


918 


2,209 


3,070 


5,555 


24, 696 


42, 026 


6,801 







191 



CO 




CO 

1— I 

s 
a 

o 

Hi 



192 



Offenses Known in Territories and Possessions of the United States. 

Available crime data for the Territories and possessions of the 
United States are presented in table 91, which includes reports from 
the four judicial divisions in Alaska; Honolulu City and the counties 
of Hawaii, Honolulu, Kauai, and Maui, in the Territory of Hawaii; 
Isthmus of Panama, C. Z., and Puerto Rico. The tabulation is based 
upon the number of offenses known to law-enforcement officials of 
both urban and rural areas, with the exception that the data for 
Honolulu City have been segregated from the figures for Honolulu 
County. 

Table 91.- — Number of offenses known in United States Territories and possessions, 

January to December, inclusive, 1939 

[Population figures from Federal census, Apr. 1, 1930] 



Jurisdiction reporting 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burgla- 
ry— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 


Larceny- 
theft 


Auto 


Over 

$50 


Under 
$50 


theft 


A 1 R.sk^ ' 

First judicial division (Juneau), 
population, 19,304; number of 
offenses known 


2 

2 

10 

2 

12 
4 
2 


3 

2 

13 
3 
2 


7 

2 

8 

4 

24 

10 

8 

3 

10 

8 

1,979 


23 

12 

9 

6 

995 
96 

134 
12 
97 
69 

952 


34 

6 

2 

7 

155 
15 
21 
3 
7 
27 
97 


44 
10 
43 

27 

2,016 
280 
269 
21 
181 
355 

3,699 




Second judicial division (Nome), 
population, 10,127; number of 
offenses known 

Third judicial division (Valdez), 
population, 16,309; number of 
oflenses known. . 


1 


Fourth judicial division (Fairbanks), 
population, 13,538; number of 
offenses k nown 

Hawaii: 

Honolulu City, population, 137,582; 
number of offenses known _. . _ 


1 

220 


Hawaii County, population, 73,325; 
number of offenses known 


38 


Honolulu County, population. 65,341; 

number of offenses known . 

Kauai County, population, 35,942; 

number of offenses known 


55 
4 


Maui County, population, 56,146; 
number of offenses known _ 






23 


Isthmus of Panama: Canal Zone, popula- 
tion, 39,467; number of offenses known . 

Puerto Rico: Population, 1,543,913; num- 
ber of offenses known - _ 


2 
224 


2 

47 


33 

87 







Data From Supplementary Offense Reports. 

Inasmuch as more than 95 percent of the offenses reported monthly 
by local agencies are crimes against property and included in only 
four classifications (robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto theft), the 
desirability of further analyzing these crimes is apparent. Such an 
analysis is made possible with the use of supplementary oft'ense 
reports forwarded to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. With 
the exception of a break-down of crimes of rape into forcible and 
statutory violations, the supplementary reports deal entirely with 
crimes against property and provide for recording additional data 
concerning them with reference to the time and place of commission 
and the value of property stolen and recovered. Tables 92-94 
present this type of information. 

More than 58 percent of the total crimes reported (see table 82) 
are classified as larceny. The 207 cities represented in table 92 



193 

reported 226,710 larcenies. More than 18 percent of such crimes 
involved thefts of personal property from automobiles. This does 
not include thefts of auto accessories, which constituted over 16 
percent of the total larcenies. Bicycle thefts, too, present a problem, 
inasmuch as this type of theft numbered nearly 16 percent of all 
larcenies reported. The remaining larcenies reported were cases of 
pocket-picking, purse-snatching, shoplifting, and others of a mis- 
cellaneous nature. 

The analysis of larceny offenses presented in table 92 is shown for 
four different groups of cities divided according to size. In exam- 
ining these data it is noted that the percentage of thefts of property 
from automobiles is higher in the larger cities than in the smaller 
communities. It is noted, on the other hand, that in the larger 
cities the percentage of larceny offenses involving bicycles is smaller. 

When all larcenies reported are grouped according to the value of 
the property stolen, it is found that 65.6 percent involved property 
valued at from $5 to $50; 24.2 percent involved property valued at 
less than $5; and in only 10.2 percent of the cases was the value more 
than $50. 

Paitial answers to the questions of where and when the burglaries 
occur, may be found by examining the data presented in table 92. 
Of the 91,623 offenses of this type reported by the cities represented, 
45.7 percent were perpetrated in residences and 54.3 percent in non- 
residence structures. Eighty-one percent of all burglaries occurred 
during the night. However, only 69 percent of the residence bur- 
glaries occurred after nightfall, as compared with 92.6 percent in 
nonresidence structures, such as stores, oflBce buildings, and ware- 
houses. The smaller percentage of nonresidence daytime burglaries 
may be explained by the fact that such structures are usually occu- 
pied during the day, whereas many residences are unoccupied during 
the daytime. 

Of the 17,831 robbery offenses, 10,112 (56.7 percent) were classified 
as highway robbery. This includes not only armed robbery, but also 
the so-called strong-arm robberies involving thefts of property from 
the person, accompanied by the element of force or threat of force, 
but without the use of weapons. It is observed that 8.4 percent of 
the robbery offenses involved oil stations; 1.4 percent were robberies 
of chain stores; and 0.3 percent were bank robberies. An additional 
26.1 percent were committed in other types of commercial houses. 
The remaining 7.1 percent of the total robberies consisted of residence 
robberies (3.4 percent), and others of a miscellaneous character (3.7 
percent). 

Of the 2,036 offenses of rape reported, 53.1 percent were classified 
as forcible rapes and the remainder as statutory offenses. 



194 



Table 92.- — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission, and value of property stolen, January to Decem- 
ber, inclusive, 1939; cities over 25,000 in population, grouped by size 





Number of actual oflenses 




Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Total 


Classification 


18 cities 

over 

250,000; 

population 

11,730,800 


34 cities 
100,000 to 

250,000; 
population 

4,766,138 


59 cities 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
population ! 
3,995.771 


96 cities 

25,000 to 

50,000; 

population 

3.309,525 


207 cities; 

total 

population 

23,802,234 


Rape: 

Forcible 


630 
521 


190 

207 


146 
113 


115 
114 


1,081 


Statutory- 


955 






Total 


1,151 


397 


259 


229 


2,036 






Robbery: 

Hichwav - 


7,139 

3,848 

1,054 

127 

423 

43 

356 


1,387 

379 

162 

34 

86 

2 

108 


1,072 

246 

158 

53 

55 


514 

176 

125 

35 

45 

1 

100 


10, 112 


Commercial house . 


4,649 


Oil station . -- 


1,499 


Chain store 


249 


Residence 


609 


Bank 


46 


Miscellaneous 


103 


667 






Total -- 


12, 990 


2,158 


1,687 


996 


17, 831 






Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Residence (dwelling): 

Committed durinc night - 


15,015 
7,572 

21,068 
2,166 


6,759 
2,615 

10, 955 
598 


4,724 
1,564 

7,872 
536 


3,358 
1,238 

6,187 
396 


28,856 


Committed during day 


12, 989 


Nonresidence (store, office, etc.): 
Committed durine nisht 


40,082 


Committed during day 


3,696 


Total 


45, 821 


19, 927 


14, 696 


11, 179 


91,623 






Larceny— theft (except auto theft) 
(grouped according to value of article 
stolen): 
$50 and over 


13, 679 
67, 822 
22, 294 


4,136 
34, 370 
13, 734 


2,873 

23, 926 

9,687 


2,510 

22, 634 

9,045 


23, 198 


$5 to $50 - 


148, 752 




54, 760 






Total -- 


103, 795 


52, 240 


36, 486 


34, 189 


226, 710 


Larceny— theft (grouped as to type of of- 
fense) : 
Pocket-picking . . - 




1,218 
4,371 
2,982 

21, 426 
18, 920 
12,035 
42, 843 


888 
1,046 
1, 657 

8.519 

6,491 

9,352 

24, 287 


545 

793 

1,512 

6,176 

6,015 

6,941 

14, 504 


442 

578 

1,226 

4,879 

5,375 

7,512 

14, 177 


3,093 


Purse-snatching - 


6,788 


Shoplifting _ _-- 


7,377 


Thefts from autos (exclusive of auto 

accessories) 

Auto accessories .- -- 


41,000 
36, 801 


Bicycles _ - - 


35, 840 


All other 


95,811 






Total 


103, 795 


52, 240 


36, 486 


34, 189 


22fi, 710 







The cities represented in table 92 A reported 48,475 thefts of motor 
vehicles during 1939. The supplementary reports from these cities 
indicate that 46,041 (95.0 percent) were recovered during the same 
period. 

It is interesting to observe that in group I cities (over 250,000 
inhabitants) 97.1 percent of the stolen cars were recovered, while in 
groups II and III the percentage of recoveries of motor vehicles was 
91.9. Cities with between 25,000 and 50,000 inhabitants made 
recoveries in 94 percent of the auto-theft cases. 



195 



Table 92A. — Number of automobiles stolen and recovered, January to December, 
inclusive, 1939; cities over 26,000 in population, grouped by size 



Population group 


Number of 

automobiles 

stolen 


Number of 

automobiles 

recovered 


Percent 
recovered 


Group I: 18 cities over 250,000; total population, 11,730,800 

Group II: 34 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total population, 4,766,138_ . 
Group III: 59 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total population, 3,995,771. . 
Group IV: 96 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total population, 3,309,525, . . 


26, 703 

10, 400 

6,218 

5,154 


25, 919 
9,560 
5,715 
4,847 


97.1 
91.9 
91.9 
94.0 


Total, groups I-IV: 207 cities; total population, 23,802,234_ 


48, 475 


46, 041 


95.0 



The police departments in 207 cities with over 25,000 inhabitants, 
representing a population of 23,802,234, reported property stolen 
amounting to $32,610,971.33. During 1939 the recoveries of stolen 
property totaled $21,490,877.45, or 65.9 percent of the amount stolen. 
In examining the information presented in table 93 it will be seen that 
$19,483,345.42 represented the value of locally stolen automobiles. 
Likewise, the value of locally stolen automobiles recovered was higher 
than for any other type of property listed, amounting to 94.8 percent. 
Exclusive of automobiles, property stolen amounted to $13,127,625.91, 
and the value of property recovered was $3,019,719.66 (23 percent). 

Table 93. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered with divisions 
as to type of property involved, January to December, inclusive, 1939; cities over 
25,000 in population, grouped by size 



■ Population group 


Type of property 


Value of prop- 
erty stolen 


Value of prop- 
erty recovered 


Percent 

recov- 
ered 


Group I: 18 cities over 
250,000; total population, 
11,730,800. 


Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs .-.- 


$2, 003, 143. 02 

1, 959, 702. 54 
459, 279. 98 

1.002,132.03 
11, 517, 113. 46 

2, 803, 358. 93 


$168, 435. 83 

328, 513. 88 

56, 698. 92 

161, 552. 45 

10, 929, 513. 33 

765, 386. 87 


8.4 
16.8 
12.3 


Clothing _..- 

Locally stolen automobiles 

Miscellaneous 


16.1 
94.9 

27.3 


Total - - 


19, 744, 729. 96 


12, 410, 101. 28 


62.9 




Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles 

Miscellaneous 




Group II: 34 cities, 100,000 to 
250,000; total population, 
4,766,138. 


583, 635. 36 
440, 024. 97 
46, 868. 67 
270, 309. 16 
■ 3,613,480.10 
725, 426. 05 


126, 430. 48 

171, 104. 57 

9, 586. 90 

94, 356. 95 

3, 450, 678. 45 

328, 612. 34 


21.7 
38.9 
20.5 
34.9 
95.5 
45.3 


Total 


5, 679, 744. 31 


4, 180, 769. 69 


73.6 




Currency, notes, etc 




Group III: 59 cities, 50,000 
to 100,000; total popula- 
tion, 3,995,771. 


384. 597. 00 
284, 569. 97 
34, 163. 09 
186, 159. 19 
2,338. 121. 26 
614, 475. 88 


57, 765. 08 

82, 963. 04 

4, 198. 00 

44, 632. 74 

2, 178, 899. 01 

222, 132. 45 


15 


Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 


29.2 
12.3 




Clothing 


24.0 




Locally stolen automobiles 

Miscellaneous 


93.2 
36.1 


Total 


3, 842, 086. 39 


2, 590, 590. 32 


67.4 




Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs _. 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles 

Miscellaneous 




Group IV: 96 cities, 25,000 
to 50,000; total population, 
3,309,525. 


312, 667. 34 
271, 372. 01 
30, 115. 70 
127, 052. 61 
2, 014, 630. 60 
588, 572. 41 

3, 344, 410. 67 


51, 980. 54 

83, 770. 52 

6, 290. 50 

33, 605. 21 

1, 912, 067. 00 

221, 702. 39 


16.6 
30.9 
20.9 
26.4 
94.9 
37.7 


Total 


2, 309, 416. 16 


69.1 




Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles 

Miscellaneous 




Total, groups I-IV: 207 cities; 
total population, 23,802,234. 


3, 284, 042. 72 
2, 955, 669. 49 

570, 427. 44 

1, 585, 652. 99 

19, 483, 345. 42 

4, 731, 833. 27 


404,611.93 

666,352.01 

76, 774. 32 

334, 147, 35 

18, 471, 157. 79 

1, 537, 834. 05 


12.3 
22.5 
13.5 
21.1 
94.8 
32.6 


Total 


32, 610, 971. 33 


21, 490, 877. 45 


65.9 









196 



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197 

In the average offense of robbery during 1939 the property stolen 
was valued at $102.75, accordmg to the supplementary offense reports 
forwarded to the Federal Bureau of Investigation by the police 
departments of 206 cities with over 25,000 inhabitants. 

The average value of property stolen per oft'ense of burglary was 
$57.10 and for larceny $27.14. However, the number of burglaries 
was so much larger than the number of robberies committed that the 
total value of the property stolen in connection with burglaries was 
greatly in excess of the corresponding total for robbery. Similarly, 
the number of larcenies exceeded the number of burglaries to such an 
extent that the total value of property stolen in larceny cases was 
substantially in excess of the property stolen in burglary cases. 

In auto-theft cases the average value per offense was $406.31, but 
it should be noted in this connection that 95 percent of the stolen 
automobiles were recovered, whereas in other types of property the 
average proportion of property recovered was 23 percent. 

In examuiing the data presented m table 94 it should be borne in 
mind that the number of crimes listed includes attempts to commit 
offenses, and inasmuch as the thefts were not consummated, the value 
of the property sought was not included. This would naturally tend 
to reduce the figure with reference to the average value of property 
stolen per offense. 



Table 94. — Value of property stolen, by type of crime, January to December, 
inclusive, 1939; 206 cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 23,528,934, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Classification 



Robbery 

Burglary 

Larceny — theft 
Auto theft 

Total 



Number of 

actual 

offenses 



17, 713 

90, 052 

224, 352 

48, 115 



380, 232 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



$1, 819, 994. 50 
5, 142, 076. 32 
6, 088, 526. 22 

19, 549, 713. 41 



32,600,310.45 



Average 

value per 

offense 



$102. 75 

57.10 

27.14 

406. 31 



85.74 



198 




199 

Estimated Number of Major Crimes in the United States, 1938-39. 

It is estimated that 1,484,554 serious crimes were committed 
throughout the continental United States during 1939. This estimate 
includes offenses of criminal homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated 
assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft. In comparing the figures 
with the 1938 estimates, increases are seen in all types of offenses with 
the exception of manslaughter by negligence, robbery, and auto theft. 

These estimates were based on the monthly crime reports for- 
warded to the Federal Bureau of Investigation by police departments 
of cities with a combined population in excess of 62,000,000. 

It is recognized that the larceny classification includes many thefts 
involving property of small value. However, it is also noted that 
the estimated total of major crimes does not include miscellaneous 
crimes of a serious nature, such as embezzlement, fraud, forgery, 
counterfeiting, arson, receiving stolen property, drug violations, carry- 
ing concealed weapons, etc. It is therefore believed that the estimated 
totals set out in table 95 are conservative. 

To indicate the frequency with which offenses are committed, a 
study of the data presented in table 95 reveals that every 7.8 minutes 
during 1939 there was an offense of criminal homicide, rape, or aggra- 
vated assault. Based on the estimated total of 1,484,554, a serious 
crime was committed every 21 seconds during 1939. 

Table 95 shows an increase of 50,742 (3.5 percent) in the total esti- 
mated major crimes during 1939 as compared with 1938. Burglary 
and larcenv are mainly responsible for the 3.5 percent increase shown 
in the total for 1939. 



Table 95. — Estimated number of majoi- crimes in the United States, 1938-39 



Offense 



Number of offenses 



1938 



1939 



Change 



Number Percent 



Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary 

Larceny 

Auto theft 

Total 



7,438 

4,554 

8,302 

59, 273 

44, 529 

297, 208 

824, 305 

188, 203 



7,514 

4,394 

8,832 

55, 242 

46, 483 

311, 104 

872, 988 

177, 997 



+76 

-160 

+530 

-4,031 

+1, 954 

+13, 896 

+48, 683 

-10,206 



1, 433, 812 



1, 484, 554 



+50, 742 



+1.0 
-3.5 
+6.4 
-6.8 
+4.4 
+4.7 
+5.9 
-5.4 



+3.5 



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202 
DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

Source of Data. 

During the calendar year 1939 the FBI examined 576,920 arrest 
records, as evidenced by fingerprint cards, in order to obtain data 
concerning the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of the 
persons represented. The compilation has been limited to instances 
of arrests for violation of State laws and municipal ordinances. In 
other words, fingerprint cards representing arrests for violations of 
Federal laws or representing commitments to any type of penal 
institution have been excluded from this tabulation. 

The number of fingerprint records examined was considerably 
larger than for prior years, which were as follows: 1938, 554,376; 
1937, 520,153; 1936, 461,589. The increase in the number of arrest 
records examined should not necessarily be construed as reflecting an 
increase in the amount of crime, nor as an increase in the number of 
persons arrested, since it quite probably is at least partially the result 
of an increased tendency on the part of local agencies to contribute 
fingerprint records to the Identification Division of the FBI. The 
tabulation of data from fingerprint cards obviously does not include 
all persons arrested, since there are individuals taken into custody 
for whom no fingerprint cards are forwarded to Washington. 
Furthermore, data pertaining to persons arrested should not be treated 
as information regarding the number of offenses committed, since two 
or more persons may be involved in the joint commission of a single 
offense, and on the other hand one person may be arrested and 
charged with the commission of several separate crimes. 

Offense Charged. 

More than 42 percent (246,828) of the records examined during 
1939 represented arrests for major violations as follows: 

Criminal homicide 6, 311 

Robbery 13, 302 

Assault 32, 472 

Burglary 35, 827 

Larceny (except auto theft) 63, 947 

Auto theft 12, 498 

Embezzlement and fraud 17, 586 

Stolen property (receiving, etc.) 3, 786 

Arson 957 

Forgery and counterfeiting 7, 513 

Rape_: 6, 380 

Narcotic drug laws 4, 599 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 6, 127 

Driving while intoxicated 24, 309 

Gambling 11, 214 

Total 246, 828 

Persons charged with murder, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, 
or auto theft numbered 164,357, which is more than 28 percent of 
the total arrest records examined. 
Sex. 

During 1939, 7.6 percent (43,818) of the records represented women. 
This is an increase over the corresponding figures for prior years, 
which are as follows: 1938, 6.8 percent; 1937, 6.9 percent; 1936, 
7.3 percent; 1935, 6.9 percent; 1934, 6.9 percent; 1933, 7.2 percent. 



203 

Males arrested outnumbered females arrested for all types of crimes 
except commercialized vice. However, there are significant dift'erences 
in the criminal tendencies of males and females which are revealed 
when a study is made of the figures representing an average group of 
1,000 men arrested in comparison with an average group of 1,000 
women arrested. Such a comparison indicates there were more 
women than men charged with murder, assault, commercialized vice, 
and narcotic drug violations. In the average group of 1,000 men 
arrested and the average group of 1,000 women arrested, 15 women 
and 11 men were charged with criminal homicide; 65 women and 56 
men with assault; 34 women and 6 men with narcotic drug violations. 
On the other hand, men predominated in most of the remaining types 
of crimes, particularly in robberies, burglaries, and auto thefts. 



Table 96. — Distribution of arrests by sex, Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1939 



OfEense charged 



Nuinber 



Total Male Female 



Percent 



Total Male Female 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice. 

other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Ofienses against family and children,. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

other traffic and motor-vehicle laws.. 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunlienness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



6,311 

13, 302 

32, 472 

35, 827 

63, 947 

12, 498 

17, 586 

3,786 

957 

7,513 

6,380 

6,928 

9,049 

4,599 

6,127 

7,201 

9,526 

24, 309 

5,137 

23 

8,925 

27, 996 

90, 989 

51.233 

11,214 

62, 791 

7.645 

42, 649 



5,639 

12, 729 

29, 628 

35, 241 

59, 113 

12, 229 

16,713 

3,460 

881 

7,074 

6,380 

1,427 

7,704 

3, 110 

5,878 

7,007 

7,937 

23, 716 
6, 058 

22 
8,752 

24, 704 
86, 008 
47, 613 
10, 569 
56, 993 

7. 103 
40, 414 



672 
573 

2,844 
586 

4,834 
269 
873 
326 
76 
439 



5, 501 
1,345 
1,489 

249 

194 
1,589 

593 

79 

1 

173 
3,292 
4,981 
3,620 

645 
5, 798 

542 
2,235 



1.1 
2.3 
5.6 
6.2 

11.1 

2.2 

3.0 

.7 

.2 

1.3 

1.1 

1.2 

1.6 

.8 

1.1 

1.2 

1.6 

4.2 

.9 

(') 
1.5 
4.9 

15.8 
8.9 
1.9 

10.9 
1.3 
7.4 



1. 1 

2.4 

5.6 

6.6 

11.1 

2.3 

3.1 

.7 

.2 

1.3 

1.2 

.3 

1.4 



1. 
1. 
1. 
4. 
1. 

(') 
1.6 
4.6 

16.1 
8.9 
2.0 

10.7 
1.3 
7.6 



1.5 

1.3 

6.5 

1.3 

11.0 

.6 

2.0 

.7 

.2 

1.0 



12. 
3. 
3. 



(') 

7. 

11 
8 
1, 

13 
1 
5, 



576, 920 



533, 102 



43, 818 



100.0 



100.0 



100.0 



1 Less than Mo of 1 percent. 



204 

Age. 

During 1939 age 19 predominated in the frequency of arrests and 
was followed by age 18. This differs from the situation in 1938 when 
arrests for ages 18 and 19 were less frequent than for ages 21-23. 

From 1932 to the middle of 1935, there were more arrests for age 
19 than for other groups. From the middle of 1935 through 1938 
arrests occurred most frequently among persons age 21, 22, and 23. 

Figures for the groups in which the largest number of arrests 
occurred during 1939 are as follows: 

Number of 
Age : arrests 

19 25, 191 

18 24, 225 

22. 24,007 

21 23, 788 

23 23, 092 

The percentage of the total persons arrested who were less than 21 
years old was 17.4 in 1936; 18.0 in 1937; 18.8 in 1938; and 18.9 in 1939. 

There were 108,857 persons less than 21 years old arrested and 
fingerprinted during 1939. In addition, there were 93,351 (16.2 
percent) between the ages of 21 and 24, making a total of 202,208 
(35.0 percent) less than 25 years old. Arrests in age group 25-29 
numbered 96,506 (16.7 percent) resulting in a total of 298,714 (51.8 
percent) less than 30 years of age. (With reference to the ages of 
persons represented by fingerprint cards received at the F B I, it 
should be borne in mind that the number of arrest records is doubtless 
incomplete in the lower age groups because in some jurisdictions the 
practice is not to fingerprint youthful individuals.) 



205 




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207 

Confirming tabulations for prior years, the 1939 figures indicate 
that oft'enses against property were frequently committed by youths. 
This is particularly true with reference to robbery, burglary, larceny, 
and auto theft, as revealed by the following tabulation: 

Table 98. — Percentage distribution of arrests by age groups 



Age group 


All offenses 


Criminal 
homicide 


Robbery 


Burglary 


Larceny 


Auto theft 


Under 21 


18.9 
32.9 

25.2 

14.1 

8.8 

. 1 


12.2 

36.6 

27.4 

. 14.2 

9.5 

.1 


29.1 

46.2 

18.1 

5.0 

1.6 

.0 


45.9 

32.2 

14.6 

4.9 

2.3 

.1 


32.8 

32.2 

19.8 

9.9 

5.2 

. 1 


"19 fi 


21-29 

30-39 

40-49 

50 and over 

Unknown 


33.0 

10.7 

2.9 

.7 
.1 




100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



Note. — The data in the preceding compilation are also shown in fig. 19. 

The prominent part played by youthful offenders in committing 
crunes against property is further revealed by an examination of the 
age distribution of all persons arrested for such crimes. During 1939 
there were 155,416 persons of all ages arrested for robbery, burglary, 
larceny, auto theft, embezzlement and fraud, forgery and counter- 
feiting, receiving stolen property, and arson; and 51,186 (32.9 percent) 
of those persons were less than 21 years old. The corresponding per- 
centages for prior years are as follows: 1938, 31.5; 1937, 31.0; 1936, 
28.5. 

The large part played by youthful persons in the commission of 
crimes against property is further indicated by the following figures. 
During 1939, 35.0 percent of all persons arrested were less than 25 
years of age. However, persons less than 25 years old numbered 
54.7 percent of those charged with robbery, 64.4 percent of those 
charged with burglary, 50.2 percent of those charged with larceny, 
and 73.0 percent of those charged with auto theft. More than one- 
half of all crmies against property during 1939 were committed by 
persons under 25 years of age. 



208 




209 



Table 99. — Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, 

male and female, Jan. 1-Dec. SI, 1939 



Offense charged 



Total num- 
ber of 
persons 
arrested 



Number 

under 21 

years of 

age 



Total num- 
ber under 
25 years 
of age 



Percentage 
under 21 
years of 



Total per- 
centage 
under 25 
years of 
age 



Criminal homicide _- 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws __. 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Oflenses against family and children, _. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor-vehicle laws__. 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



6,311 

13, 302 

32, 472 

35, 827 

63, 947 

12, 498 

17, 586 

3,786 

957 

7, 513 

6,380 

6, 928 

9,049 

4, 599 

6, 127 
7,201 
9, 526 

24, 309 

5. 137 

23 
8,925 
27, 996 
90, 989 
51, 233 
11,214 
62, 791 

7, 645 
42, 649 



768 
3,871 
3,705 
16, 446 
21, 000 
6,574 
1,217 

668 

148 
1,262 
1. 607 

441 
1, 198 

322 
1, 129 

316 

728 
1,011 

918 
1 
1.660 
4,167 
4,001 
8,649 

724 

13, 821 

1,401 

11, 104 



1,856 
7,270 
9,025 
23, 080 
32, 086 
9, 122 
3,672 
1,295 
271 
2,539 
2,977 
2,349 
2,626 
1,048 
2, 204 
1,371 
1.895 
3,915 

2, 1.59 

6 

3, 695 
9,013 

12, 775 

17, 266 
2, 066 

25. 260 
2, 669 

18, 638 



12.2 
29.1 
11.4 
45.9 
32.8 
52.6 

6.9 
17.6 
15.5 
16.8 
25.2 

6.4 
13.2 

7.0 
18.4 

4.4 

7.6 

4.2 
17.9 

4.3 
18.6 
14.9 

4.4 
16.9 

6.5 
22. 
18.3 
26.0 



29.4 

54.7 
27.8 
64.4 
50.2 
73.0 
20.9 
34.2 
28.3 
33.8 
46.7 
33.9 
29.0 
22.8 
37.0 
19.0 
19.9 
16.1 
42.0 
26.1 
41.4 
32.2 
14.0 
33.7 
18.4 
40.2 
34.9 
43.7 



576, 920 



108, 857 



202, 208 



18.9 



35.0 



The age distribution of males arrested during 1939 is almost identical 
with the age distribution of all persons arrested, the only difference 
being that for males arrested age 21 exceeded age 22. 

On the other hand the age distribution of the females arrested 
differs generally from the age distribution of all arrests. For females, 
the largest number of arrests occurred in ages 22, 23, and 24. 

To facilitate comparison, data for separate sexes for selected in- 
dividual age groups are presented herewith: 





Number of arrests 


Age 


Number of arrests 


Age 


Male and 
female 


Male 


Female 


Male and 
female 


Male 


Female 


19 


25, 191 
24, 225 
24, 007 
23, 788 


23, 275 
22, 535 
21, 390 
21, 629 


1,916 
1,690 
2,617 
2,159 


23 

24 


23, 092 
22, 464 
21, 398 


20, 515 
20, 069 
19, 697 


2,577 


18 


2,395 


22 


20 


1,701 


21 







210 






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7,704 
3,110 


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laws 

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212 

Criminal Repeaters. 

The seriousness and extent of the problem of the criminal repeater 
are again revealed by the figures for 1939. During the calendar year, 
there were 55 persons arrested for criminal homicide whose records 
showed prior convictions of murder or manslaughter. Similarly, the 
figures listed hereafter indicate instances of persons charged with 
crimes during 1939 whose criminal histories contained prior convic- 
tions of the same type of offense: 

Robberv 674 

Burglary 2, 986 

Larceny 5, 306 

Auto theft 465 

Embezzlement and fraud 985 

Forgery and counterfeiting 670 

Rape 70 

Narcotic drug laws 1, 025 

Driving while intoxicated 826 

The compilation generally reflects a tendency on the part of re- 
cidivists to repeat the same type of offense. This is particularly true 
with reference to crimes against property. 

More than one-half of the total prior convictions disclosed by the 
records of the persons arrested and fingerprinted during 1939 resulted 
from major violations. Prior convictions for the more serious types 
of crimes were revealed as follows: 

Criminal homicide 1, 568 

Robberv 6, 281 

Assault 8, 008 

Burglary 17,009 

Larceny (and related offenses) 36, 464 

Arson 206 

Forgery and counterfeiting 4, 629 

Rape 1, 191 

Narcotic drug laws 2, 986 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 1, 687 

Driving while intoxicated 4, 195 

Total 84, 224 

Of the 576,920 arrest records examined during 1939, there were 
261,634 (45.4 percent) representing individuals who already had 
fingerprint cards on file in the Identification Division of the FBI. 
There were, in addition, 7,468 current records bearing notations relative 
to previous criminal activities of persons arrested during 1939 al- 
though their fingerprmts had not been on file prior to 1939. This 
makes a total of 269,102 persons arrested during the year concerning 
whom there was information on file dealing with prior criminal ac- 
tivities, and the records showed that 162,424 of them had been 
convicted previously of one or more crimes. This number is 60.4 
percent of the 269,102 records containing data concernmg prior 
criminal activities, and 28.2 of the 576,920 arrest records examined. 

The records of the 162,424 persons reveal a total of 422,748 con- 
victions prior to 1939. In 177,486 mstances the convictions were of 
major offenses, whereas in 245,262 cases the convictions were based 
on violations less serious in nature. 

As previously indicated, women represented 7.6 percent of the 
total persons arrested and fingerprinted during 1939. However, only 
4.7 percent of the 162,424 previous convictions revealed by the records 



213 

represented women. Of the total males arrested and fingerprinted 
during the year, 46.4 percent had previous fingerprint records on file, 
whereas the corresponding percentage for females was 32.1. 

Table 102. — Number with previous fingerprint records, arrests, Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1939 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etC- 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice-- 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children-, - 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor -vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Total 



Number 
arrested 



6,311 

13, 302 

32, 472 

35, 827 

63, 947 

12,498 

17, 586 

3,786 

957 

7,513 

6,380 

6,928 

9, 049 

4, 599 

6,127 

7,201 

9, 526 

24, 309 

5, 137 

23 

8,925 

27, 996 

90, 989 

51, 233 

11,214 

62, 791 

7, 645 

42, 649 



576, 920 



Previous 
finger- 
print 
record 



1,821 

6,973 

12, 658 

15, 508 

26, 694 

5.423 

8,251 

1, 275 
283 

3,966 
2,054 
3,253 

2, 785 
2,969 
2,228 
2,544 
3,666 
7,792 
1,421 

8 

3,058 

12, 276 

48, 329 

31,080 

3,256 

29, 852 

2,777 

19, 434 



261, 634 



Male 



Number 
arrested 



5, 639 

12, 729 

29,628 

35, 241 

59, 1 13 

12, 229 

16, 713 

3,460 

881 

7,074 

6,380 

1,427 

7,704 

3,110 

5,878 

7,007 

7,937 

23, 716 
5, 058 

22 
8, 752 

24, 704 
86, 008 
47,613 
10, 569 
56, 993 

7, 103 
40, 414 



533, 102 



Previous 
finger- 
print 
record 



1,707 

6,769 

12, 086 

15, 370 

25, 434 

5,371 

8,032 

1,220 

274 

3, 858 

2, 054 
568 

2,516 
2,265 
2,192 
2,520 

3, 333 
7,677 
1,403 

8 

3,026 

11,330 

46, 400 

29, 522 

3,166 

27, 893 

2.669 

18.917 



247, 580 



Female 



Number 
arrested 



672 
573 

2,844 
586 

4,834 
269 
873 
326 
76 
439 



5, 501 
1,345 
1,489 

249 

194 
1, ,589 

593 

79 

1 

173 
3, 292 
4,981 
3,620 

645 
5,798 

542 
2,235 



43, 818 



Previous 
finger- 
print 
record 



114 
204 
572 
138 
,260 

52 
219 

55 

9 

108 



2,685 

269 

704 

36 

24 

333 

115 

18 



32 

946 

1,929 

1, 558 

90 

1,959 

108 

517 



14, 054 



Table 103. — Percentage with previoxis fingerprint records, arrests, male and female, 

Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1939 



Offense 



Narcotic drug laws 

Vagrancy 

Drunkenness 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Robbery 

Suspicion 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Embezzlement and fraud 

All other offenses •. 

Disorderly conduct 

Auto theft 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Assault 




Offense 



Liquor laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

Parking violations ' 

Other trafHc and motor-vehicle laws 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc. 

Rape 

Driving while intoxicated 

Other sex offenses 

Arson 

Gambling 

Criminal homicide 

Road and driving laws... 



Percent 



38. 

36. 

35. 

34. 

34. 

33. 

32.2 

32.1 

30.8 

29.6 

29.0 

28.9 

27.7 



1 Only 23 fingerprint cards were received representing arrests for violation of parking regulations. 



214 



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Table 107. — Number of cases m which fingerprint records show one or more prior 
convictions, and the total of prior convictions disclosed by the records, male and 
female, Jan. l~Dec. 31, 1939 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft __ 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children.. _ 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor-vehicle laws... 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Number of 

records show 

ing one or 

more prior 

convictions 



1,079 
4,524 
7,876 
9,885 

16, 686 

3, 185 

4,663 

753 

178 

2,519 

1,243 

1, 736 

1,668 

2,125 

1, 459 

1,289 

2,211 

4,441 

777 

5 

1,728 

7,784 

34, 043 

18, 292 
1,614 

16, 086 
2,342 

12, 233 



162, 424 



Number of 
prior convic- 
tions of major 
offenses 



1,272 
6,601 
9,007 

15, 583 
26, 937 

4,418 

7,079 

1,055 

165 

4,249 

1,394 

2,139 

1,812 

5,415 

1,841 

1,244 

1,742 

3,648 

679 

5 

1,735 

6,875 

18,512 

16, 758 
1,714 

19, 674 

2,536 

13, 397 



177, 486 



Number of 

prior convic 

tions of minor 

offenses 



1,019 

4,520 

8,766 

8,939 

20,918 

2,677 

4,203 

711 

189 

1,733 

942 

1,783 

1,921 

2,509 

1,463 

1, 131 

3,016 

4,773 

771 

11 

1,876 

13, 543 

84, 480 

33, 674 

1,293 

20,068 

2,181 

16, 152 



245, 262 



Total num- 
ber of prior 
convictions 
disclosed 



2,291 

11,121 

17,773 

24,522 

47, 855 

7,095 

11, 282 

1,766 

354 

5,982 

2,336 

3,922 

3,733 

7,924 

3,304 

2,375 

4,758 

8, 421 

1,450 

16 

3,611 

20,418 

102, 992 

50, 432 

3,007 

39, 742 

4,717 

29,549 



422, 748 



Race. 

Most of the persons represented in tliis study were members of 
the white and Negro races. Whites numbered 427,158 and Negroes 
126,001. Other racial groups were much less frequently represented, 
as indicated in the following figures: Indian, 3,029; Chinese, 942; 
Japanese, 330; Mexican, 17,638; all other, 1,822. 

Inasmuch as whites greatly outnumber Negroes in the general 
population of the United States, it is significant to express the figures 
representing whites and Negroes arrested in terms of the number of 
each in the general population. According to the 1930 decennial 
census, there were, exclusive of those under 15 years of age, 8,041,014 
Negroes, 13,069,192 foreign-born w^hites, and 64,365,193 native whites 
in the United States. 

Of each 100,000 Negroes in the general population of the United 
States, 1,567 were arrested and fingerprinted during 1939, whereas 
the corresponding figure for native whites was 608 and for foreign- 
born whites 204. The relationship between the three figures will of 
course vary considerably for individual types of violations. Data for 
individual offense classes may be found in the following tabulations. 

In connection with the foregoing data, it is of some significance to 
point out that the figure for native whites includes the immediate 
descendants of foreign-born individuals. Persons desiring to make a 
thorough study of the comparative amounts of crime committed by 
native whites and foreign-born whites should refer to existing compila- 
tions showing the number of instances in which offenders are of foreign 
or mixed parentage. Such information cannot be presented here for 
the reason that fingerprint arrest records do not provide for the 
recording of such data. 



221 



Table 108. — Distribution of arrests according to race, male and female, Jan. 1— 

Dec. 31, 1939 



Offense charged 



Race 



White 


Negro 


ladian 


Chi- 


Jap- 


Mexi- 


All 


Total 








nese 


anese 


can 


others 


all races 


3,553 


2,536 


21 


2 


10 


152 


37 


6,311 


9,098 


3,667 


40 


3 


2 


409 


83 


13, 302 


17, 538 


13, 504 


133 


31 


11 


1,028 


227 


32, 472 


26, 073 


8,098 


122 


21 


7 


827 


79 


35, 827 


45, 112 


16, 692 


245 


21 


21 


1,717 


139 


63, 947 


10, 403 


1,638 


63 


5 


7 


362 


20 


12, 498 


15, 318 


1,948 


42 


7 


6 


242 


23 


17, 586 


2,689 


1,005 


6 


1 




74 


11 


3.786 


754 


177 


2 


2 




19 


3 


957 


6,678 


659 


39 


4 


12 


111 


10 


7,513 


4, 671 


1,388 


28 


9 


1 


222 


61 


6,380 


4,901 


1,861 


21 


3 


5 


115 


22 


6,928 


7,584 


1,205 


36 


13 


3 


178 


30 


9,049 


2,940 


856 


18 


457 


14 


263 


51 


4, 599 


3,206 


2,649 


18 


11 


9 


178 


56 


6,127 


5,871 


1,043 


10 


2 


1 


259 


15 


7,201 


4,928 


4,435 


40 


6 


3 


106 


8 


9,526 


21, 192 


1,673 


211 


1 


30 


1,157 


45 


24, 309 


3,734 


1,172 


26 


2 


2 


170 


31 


5,137 


18 


4 

1,695 








1 
368 


70' 


23 


6,729 


55 


2 


6 


8,925 


19, 191 


7,501 


170 


4 


7 


1,058 


65 


27, 996 


74, 342 


11,320 


990 


10 


41 


4,180 


106 


90, 989 


39, 380 


9,346 


222 


45 


19 


2,032 


189 


51, 233 


6,241 


4,436 


5 


208 


75 


135 


115 


11,214 


45, 730 


15, 294 


254 


34 


17 


1,303 


159 


62, 791 


5,980 


1,405 


44 


5 


3 


183 


25 


7,645 


32, 704 


8,795 


168 


33 


18 


789 


142 


42, 649 


427, 158 


126, 001 


3,029 


942 


330 


17, 638 


1,822 


576, 920 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice- 
Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor- vehicle laws.. 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Table 109. — Distribution of arrests according to race, male, Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1939 











Race 








Offense charged 


White 


Negro 


Indian 


Chi- 
nese 


Jap- 
anese 


Mexi- 
can 


All 

others 


Total, 
all races 


Criminal homicide 


3,344 

8,784 

16, 872 
26, 305 
42, 440 
10, 190 
14, 632 

2,539 

715 

6,323 

4,671 

932 

6,548 

1,769 

3,141 

5,711 

4,485 

20,659 

3,674 

18 

6,594 

17, 381 
70, 778 
36, 727 

6,012 
41,621 

5,602 
31, 175 


2,078 

3,416 

11,356 

7,892 

14, 628 

1,591 

1,765 

831 

143 

580 

1,388 

436 

920 

604 

2,466 

1,010 

3,300 

1,626 

1,155 

1,660 
6,064 

10, 042 
8,528 
4,025 

13, 718 
1,260 
8,145 


20 

38 

123 

118 

228 

58 

39 

6 

2 

36 

28 

2 

28 

9 

18 

10 

37 

201 

26 


2 

3 

31 

21 

19 

5 

7 

1 

2 

4 

9 

3 

13 

454 

11 

2 

5 

1 

2 


10 
2 

11 
6 

20 
7 
6 

"12' 
1 
4 
2 

13 
9 
1 
2 

30 
2 


148 
403 

1,013 
820 

1,643 

358 

241 

72 

16 

109 

222 

32 

164 

214 

177 

258 

100 

1, 154 
168 


37 
83 

222 
79 

135 

20 

23 

11 

3 

10 
61 
18 
29 
47 
56 
15 
8 
45 
31 


5,639 


Robberv 


12, 729 


Assault - 


29, 628 


Burglary— breaking or entering 

Laroenv — theft 


35, 241 
59, 113 


Autotheft - - 


12, 229 


Embezzlement and fraud. _. . -- 


16, 713 


Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc. 
Arson . . . _ 


3,460 
881 


Forgery and counterfeiting _ 


7,074 


Rape 


6,380 


Prostitution and commercialized vice. . 
Other sex offenses _- 


1,427 

7,704 


Narcotic drug laws 


3,110 


Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children. .. 
Liquor laws 


5,878 
7,007 
7,937 


Driving while intoxicated 


23,716 


Road and driving laws 


5,058 


Parking violations 


22 


Other traffic and motor-vehicle laws.. 
Disorderly conduct 


52 
161 
917 
190 
4 
217 

36 
152 


2 
4 

10 

45 
206 

33 
5 

33 


6 

7 
39 
18 
75 
17 

3 
17 


368 
1,022 
4,122 
1,921 

132 
1,238 

174 

754 


70 
65 
100 
184 
115 
149 
23 
138 


8,752 
24, 704 


Drunkenness . 


86, 008 


Vagrancy 


47, 613 


Gambling 


10, 569 


Suspicion 


56, 993 


Not stated . _ 


7,103 


All other offenses 


40, 414 






Total 


399, 642 


110,631 


2,756 


933 


320 


17, 043 


1,777 


533, 102 







222 

Table 110. — Distribution of arrests according to race, female, Jan. 1-Dec. SI, 1939 





Race 


Offense charged 


White 

• 


Negro 


In- 
dian 


Chi- 
nese 


Jap- 
anese 


Mexi- 
can 


All 
others 


Total 
all races 


Criminal homicide . 


209 
314 
666 
368 
2. 672 
213 
686 
150 
39 
355 


458 

251 

2,148 

206 

2.064 

47 

183 

174 

34 

79 


1 
2 

10 
4 

17 
5 
3 






4 
6 

15 
7 

74 
4 
1 
2 
3 
2 




672 


Robbery . .. 






573 


Assault __ 






2,844 
586 

4,834 
269 


Burglary— brealcing or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft - - - - 


-- 


1 
1 


Embezzlement and fraud 






87» 


Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 






326 


Arson 








76 


Forgery and counterfeiting 


3 






439 


Rape.^- -^ - _ 









Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 
Other sex offenses 


3,969 

1,036 

1,171 

65 

160 

443 

•533 

60 


1,425 

285 

252 

183 

33 

1,135 

47 

17 


19 

8 
9 


3- 


1 
1 
1 


83 
14 
49 
1 
1 
6 
3 
2 
1 


4 
1 
4 


5,501 
1,345 


Narcotic drug laws .. _ _ 


1,489 


Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc .. . 


249 


Offenses against family and children. 








194 


Liquor laws.. ._ 


3 
10 


1 


1 


1,589 


Driving while intoxicated.- ._ 


593 


Road and driving laws 






79 


Parking violations 








1 


Other traffic and motor-vehicle laws 


135 
1,810 
3,564 
2,653 

229 
4,109 

378 
1,529 


35 
1,437 

1,278 
818 
410 

1,576 
145 
650 


3 

9 
73 
32 

1 
37 

8 
16 






173 


Disorderly conduct 






36 

58 

111 

3 
65 

9 
35 


5 

io" 

2 

4 


3,292 


Drunkenness _ _ 


-- 
1 


2 

1 


4,981 


Vagrancy 


3,620 


Gambling 


645 


Suspicion . . 


5,798 


Not stated 


542 


All other offenses . 




1 


2,235 






Total -- 


27, 516 


15, 370 


273 


9 


10 


595 


45 


43, 818 





Table 111. — Number of arrests of Negroes and whites in proportion to the number of 
each in the general population of the country, male and female, Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 
1939, rate per 100,000 of population 

[Excluding those under 15 years of age] 



Offense charged 



Native white 



Foreign-born 

white 



Negro 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children.. 

Liquor la ws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor-vehicle laws. . 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



4.7 

12.8 

23.3 

38.9 

65.4 

15.4 

20.9 

3.5 

1.0 

9.6 

6.4 

7.0 

10.1 

4. 

4. 



6, 
30, 

5, 



(0 



27.0 

107.2 

56.1 

7.2 
66.7 

8.4 
46.9 



607.8 



3.4 
2.8 

16.8 
7.4 

17.7 
1.8 
8.1 
3.2 
.9 
2.2 
3.1 
1.1 
6.4 
.9 
2.5 
3.9 
4.2 
9.3 
1.3 



2.5 
12.5 
35.8 
17.2 

5.9 
13.9 

3.0 
15.9 



203.7 



(') 



31.5 

45.6 

167.9 

100.7 

207.6 

20.4 

24.2 

12.5 

2.2 

8.2 

17.3 

23.1 

15.0 

10.6 

32.9 

13.0 

55.2 

20.8 

14.6 

21.1 

93.3 
140.8 
116.2 

55.2 
190.2 

17.5 
109.4 



1, 567. 



1 Less than Ho of 1 per 100,000. 



223 

Size of Fingerprint File. 

At the end of December 1939, there were 11,893,128 fingerprint 
records and 13,045,878 index cards containing the names and ahases 
of individuals on file m the Identification Division of the FBI. 
Of each 100 fingerprint cards received during 1939, more than 59 were 
identified with those on file in the Bureau. Fugitives numbering 8,254 
were identified through fingerprhit records during 1939, and interested 
law-enforcement officials were immediately notified of the whereabouts 
of those fugitives. As of December 31, 1939, there were 10,667 pohce 
departments, peace officers, and law-enforcement agencies throughout 
the United States and foreign countries voluntarily contributing 
fingerprints to the FBI. 



OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in part I and 
part II offenses, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 

Part I Offenses. 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter includes 
all felonious homicides except those caused by negligence. Does not include 
attempts to kill, assaults to kill, justifiable homicides, suicides, or accidental 
deaths. (6) Manslaughter by negligence includes only those cases in which 
death is caused by culpable negligence which is so clearly evident that if the 
person responsible for the death were apprehended he would be prosecuted for 
inanslaughter. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape, assault to rape, and attempted 
rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as highway robbery, stick-ups, robbery 
armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or theft. Includes attempted 
burglary and assault to commit a burglary. Burglary followed by a larceny is 
entered here and is not counted again under larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (o) Fifty dollars and over in value. 
(6) Under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depend- 
ing upon the value of property stolen, pocket-picking, purse-snatching, shoplifting, 
or any stealing of property or thing of value which is not taken by force and 
violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" games, forgery, 
passing worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven 
away and abandoned, including the so-called "joy-riding" thefts. Does not 
include taking for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unau- 
thorized use by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses. 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which is 
made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false pretenses. 

11. Stolen 'properly; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those offenses. 

12. Weapons: carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of regulations 
or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing and manufactur- 
ing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes or 
regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commer- 
cialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as, prostitution, keeping 
bawdy house, procuring, transporting or detaining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice). — In- 
cludes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

15. Offenses against the family and children. — Includes offenses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

(224) 



225 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes oflFenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, sale, or use. Exclude Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "Drunkenness" (class 18) and "Driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations. State or local, are placed in 
this class. Exclude Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage; begging; loitering; etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes oflFenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regulations with 
respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor-vehicle laws. — Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters but not in connection with any s{:)ecific oflfense and who are released 
without formal charges being placed against them. 



INDEX TO VOLUME X, UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

[All references are to page numbers] 

Age of offenders. (See Arrests.) 

Annual crime trends: P^'se 

Cities grouped by size 6-7, 60-61, 120-121, 170-171, 174 

Cities grouped by location 170-173 

Estimated total number of major crimes, 1938-39 199-201 

Arrests— based on fingerprint records 106-111, 150-156, 202-223 

Age of offenders 107-109, 151-155, 204-211 

Race of offenders 111, 155, 220-222 

Recidivism 110-111, 155-156,212-220 

Sex of offenders 106-107, 150-151, 202-203 

Automotive equipment of police departments 76-91, 130-149, 179, 181-182 

Classification of offenses 2, 52-53, 56-57, 112-113, 116, 157-158, 224-225 

Cleared by arrest, offenses 16-19, 24-25, 30 

By geographic divisions 30-51 

Convictions, previous. (See Arrests — recidivism.) 

Crimes. (See Arrests, estimated number, offenses, persons charged, per- 
sons found guilty, and persons released.) 

Crime rates, relation to number of police employees , 70-71 

Criminal repeaters. (See Arrests — recidivism.) 

Employees, number of police 72-105, 179-180 

Number of, and relation to crime rates 70-71 

Fingerprint records 106-111, 150-156, 202-223 

Hours of automotive patrol shifts 130-149 

Justifiable homicide 117 

Offenses known to the police: 

Annual variations 6-7, 60-61, 120-121, 170-174, 199-201 

Cities grouoed bv location 175-177 

Cities grouped bv location and size 8-9,62-63, 122-124, 178 

Cities grouped bv size 4-5, 58-59, 119, 166-167 

Cleared by arrest 16-19, 24-25, 30 

Cleared by arrest, by geographic divisions 30-5 1 

Divided as to time and place and value of property stolen 13-14, 

67-68, 128-129, 192-194 
Individual cities over 100,000 in population- 10-12, 64-66, 125-127, 183-189 

Individual cities over 25,000 in population 183-189 

Monthly variations 167-169 

Percentage distribution 4, 58, 119, 166, 190 

Rural areas 12, 66, 127, 190-191 

Territories and possessions of the United States 12-13, 66-67, 128, 192 

Persons charged (held for prosecution) 19-24 

By geographic divisions 30-51 

Persons found guilty 24-25 

Persons released (not held for prosecution) 27-29 

Police department employees 70-105, 179-180 

Functional distribution of 72-91 

Police officers killed by criminals, 1938 69 

Possessions and territories of the United States, offenses in 12-13, 

66-67, 128, 192 

Property, value stolen and recovered 14, 69, 130, 195-197 

Prosecution, persons held for. (See Persons charged and persons found 
guilty.) 

Race of offenders. (See Arrests.) 

Recidivism. (See Arrests.) 

Reporting area, extent of 2-3, 57, 1 18, 162-165 

Contributors by States 165 

(226) 



227 

Page 

Rural crime data 12, 66, 127, 190-191 

Sex of offenders. {See Arrests.) 

Sheriffs' reports 12, 66, 127, 190-191 

Shifts, hours of automotive patrol 130-149 

State crime rates. {See Offenses known — cities grouped by location.) 

State police reports 12, 66, 127, 190-191 

Ten years of Uniform Crime Reporting 159 

Territories and possessions of the United States, offenses in 12-13, 

66-67, 128, 192 
Trends, annual crime: 

Cities grouped by location 175-177 

Cities grouped by size 6-7, 60-61, 120-121, 170-174 

Estimated total number of major crimes, 1938-39 199-201 

Trends, monthly crime 167-169 

Value of property stolen and recovered 14, 69, 130, 195-197 

o 



9 ^ ir-^ A /f - 3 



''V\ 



UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Volume XI Number f 

FIRST QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1940 



r. 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume XI— Number 1 
FIRST QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1940 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Polr 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON: 1940 



■jurLh'iHTc! 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Summary of volume 11, No. 1 1-2 

Classification of offenses 2 

Extent of reporting area 2-3 

Monthly reports: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population 

(table 1) 4-5 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1931-40 (table 2) 5-7 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location 

(tables 3,4) 8-10 

Offenses in individual cities over 100,000 in population (table 5) 11-13 

Offenses known to sheriffs and State police (table 6) 13 

Offenses known in Territories and possessions (table 7) 14 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 8-10) 14-16 

Annual reports: 

Offenses known and offenses cleared by arrest, 1939 — cities divided 

according to population (tables 11, 12') 1 7-22 

Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1939, cities divided according 

to population (tables 13-15) 23-26 

Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and persons found guilty, 

1939 (tables 16, 17) 26-29 

Persons released (not held for prosecution), 1939 — cities divided ac- 
cording to population (tables 18, 19) 30-33 

Percentage of offenses cleared by arrest, 1934-39 (table 20) 33-34 

Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and persons charged, 1939, 

by geographic divisions (tables 21-38) 35-53 

Definitions of part I and part II offense classifications 54-55 

(II) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department of 

Justice, Washington, D. C. 

Volume XI April 1940 Number 1 

SUMMARY 

Annual Crime Trends, January-March, 1939-40. 

Reports from 69 of the larger cities in the United States for the 
first 3 months of 1939 and 1940 reveal that with the exception of 
negligent manslaughter substantial decreases were seen in the number 
of offenses against the person. The decrease in murder (including 
nonnegligent manslaughter) amounted to 20.2 percent; rape, 6.5 
percent; and aggravated assault, 3.9 percent. The increase in 
negligent manslaughter amounted to 7.2 percent. 

The trend for property crimes was somewhat different, robbery 
being the only one to show a decrease, which amounted to 5.9 percent. 
However, auto thefts showed a 6-percent increase, while burglaries 
and larcenies increased only slightly, less than 1 percent in each case. 

Crime Rates, 1940. 

With few exceptions, the average city with over 100,000 inhabi- 
tants experienced more crime per unit of population during the first 
quarter of this year than the average smaller community. The bul- 
letin contains crime rates for cities divided by location and size in 
order that interested persons may compare local crime data with 
average figures for cities of the same size throughout the country or 
for those similarly situated geographically. Figures for individual 
cities with over 100,000 inhabitants are presented, showing the num- 
ber of offenses committed during the first quarter of this year. 

Distribution of Crimes by Type, 1940. 

Offenses of larceny represented 56.9 percent of the total crimes 
reported; 23.8 percent were burglaries; 11.8 percent were auto thefts; 
and 3.8 percent were robberies. The remaining 3.7 percent of the 
crimes reported consisted of criminal homicides, rapes, and aggravated 
assaults. Residences were involved in 45.7 percent of the burglaries, 
and 52.7 percent of the robberies were classified as highway robberies. 
Of the larcency cases, 88.5 percent involved property valued at less 
than $50. Less than half (45.6 percent) of the offenses of rape were 
forcible in nature. Ninety-seven percent of the stolen automobiles 
and 22.1 percent of other types of stolen property were recovered. 

Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1939. 

Annual reports covering the calendar year 1939 forwarded by 1,214 
cities indicated the followmg proportion of oft'enses cleared by arrest: 
Murder, 87.4 percent; manslaughter by negligence, 87.7 percent; 
rape, 81.8 percent; aggravated assault, 76.5 percent; robbery, 41.9 
percent; burglary, 34.0 percent; larcency, 25.1 percent; and auto 
theft, 24.4 percent. 

(1) 



Persons Charged, 1939. 

For offenses against the person (criminal homicide, rape, and 
aggravated assault) the number of persons charged in most instances 
was equal to or in excess of the number of offenses cleared by arrest. 
However, for offenses against property (robbery, burglary, larceny, 
and auto theft) the number of offenses cleared last year was generally 
considerably in excess of the number of persons charged with those 
crimes. 

Of the persons charged by the police during 1939, the following 
figures represent those found guilty: Auto theft, 81.9 percent; 
larceny, 81.1 percent; robber}^ 79.6 percent; burglary, 77.9 percent; 
rape, 62.6 percent; murder, 62 percent; aggravated assault, 59.8 
percent; and manslaughter by negligence, 35.5 percent. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "oft"enses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to 
the police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting 
or court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following 
group of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be 
those most generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal 
homicide, including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (6) 
manslaughter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; bur- 
glary — breaking or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The 
figures contained herein include also the number of attempted crimes 
of the designated classes. Attempted murders, however, are reported 
as aggravated assaults. In other words, an attempted burglary or 
robbery, for example, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner 
as if the crime had been completed. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the police depart- 
ments of contributing cities and not merely arrests or cleared cases. 
Complaints which upon investigation are learned to be groundless are 
not included in the tabulations which follow. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of crime 
and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions of 
part I and part II oft'ense classifications. 

EXTENT OF REPORTING AREA 

The number of police departments from which one or more crime 
reports were received during the first quarter of 1940 is contained in 
the following table. The cities represented are classed according to 
size, and the population figures for cities in excess of 10,000 are esti- 
mates prepared by the Bureau of the Census as of July 1, 1933. How- 
ever, since no estimates were available for the smaller cities, the 1930 
decennial census figures were used for places under 10,000 in 
population . 



Population croup 


Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 


Cities filing returns 


Total pop- 
ulation 


Population repre- 
sented in returns 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


982 


903 


92.0 


60, 406, 254 


58, 949, 803 


97.6 


1. Cities over 250,000 _.. .. 


37 

57 

104 

191 

593 


37 

57 

101 

184 

524 


100.0 

100.0 

97.1 

96.3 

88.4 


29, 695, 500 
7, 850, 312 
7, 045, 274 
6,714,212 
9, 100, 956 


29, 695, 600 

7, 850, 312 
6, 844, 174 
6,459,112 

8, 100, 705 


100.0 
100 


2. Cities 100,000 to 250,000 


3. Cities 50,000 to 100.000 .._ 


Q7 r 


4. Cities 25,000 to 50.000 


96.2 
89.0 


5. Cities 10,000 to 25,000 . _ . 





Note.— The above table does not include 1,652 cities and rural townships aggregating a total population 
of 8,244,584. The cities included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 population filing returns, whereas 
the rural townships are of varying population groups. 

The growth of the uniform crime reporting area is indicated by the 
following tabulation. These figures were compiled for the first 3 
months of 1932-40. 



Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


1932 

1983 

1934 

1935 

1936 


1,476 
1,561 
1,593 
1,833 
2,111 


49, 368, 231 
53, 295, 629 
61,715,079 

62, 304, 616 

63, 766. 619 


1937 

1938 

1939 

1940 


2,166 
2,342 
2,541 

2,555 


64, 196, 843 

65, 497, 026 

66, 588, 280 

67, 194, 387 



The additional 14 cities shown in the above tabulation for the first 
quarter of 1940, as compared with the corresponding period of 1939, 
increased the population represented in the uniform crime reporting 
project by 606,107, bringing the aggregate population to 67,194,387. 

There were 4,030 contributors of one or more crime reports during 
the first quarter of 1940. These consisted of 2,555 city and village 
law-enforcement agencies, 1,454 sheriffs, 8 State police units, and 13 
agencies in Territories and possessions of the United States. 



MONTHLY REPORTS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population. 

Generally the larger cities experience the higher crime rates. Dur- 
ing the first 3 months of 1940 offenses of criminal homicide, robbery, 
burglary, larceny, and auto theft occurred with more frequency in 
the cities with over 100,000 inhabitants than in the smaller communi- 
ties. The crime rate for offenses of rape was highest in the cities with 
over 250,000 inhabitants, and the next highest rate for this crime is 
seen in the cities with between 2,500 and 10,000 inhabitants. Aggra- 
vated assaults occurred with greatest frequency in group III cities 
(50,000 to 100,000 inhabitants), followed by group II cities (100,000 
to 250,000 inhabitants), and group I cities (over 250,000 inhabitants), 
respectively. 

More than half (56.9 percent) of all the offenses reported were cases 
of larceny, 23.8 percent were burglaries, 3.8 percent were robberies, 
and 11.8 percent were auto thefts. Thus, it will be seen that these 
crimes against property constituted 96.3 percent of all the offenses 
listed in table 1, while crimes classified as offenses against the person 
(criminal homicide, rape, and aggravated assault) represented 3.7 
percent of the total offenses. 

These figures are based on reports received by the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation from 2,046 cities with over 2,500 inhabitants, repre- 
senting a total population of 62,925,042. The information is presented 
in table 1 in such a manner that interested persons may compare 
crime conditions in a particular community with average figures for 
all cities in the United States of approximately the same size. The 
number of offenses per 100,000 inhabitants for cities grouped not only 
as to size but also by geographic divisions is presented in table 4. 

(4) 



Table 1. — Offenses known to the police, January to March, inclusive, 1940; number 
and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 

36 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 29,375,600: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP II 

57 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,850,312: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP ni 

94 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 6,315,171: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 - 

GROUP IV 

168 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 5,817,505: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP y 

474 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 7,356,879: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP VI 

1,217 cities under 10,000; total 
population, 6,209,575: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

Total 2,046 cities; total population, 
62,925,042: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Murder, 
nonneg 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



370 
1.3 



99 
1.3 



76 
1.2 



52 
0.9 



71 
1.0 



69 
1. 1 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



' 414 
1.5 



190 
1.2 



51 
0.8 



40 
0.7 



39 
0.5 



42 
0.7 



737 
1.2 



1676 
1.1 



Rape 



800 
2.7 



126 
1.6 



79 
1.3 



91 
1.6 



103 
1.4 



107 
1.7 



1,306 
2.1 



Rob- 
bery 



5,994 
20.4 



1,185 
15.1 



600 
9.5 



495 

8.5 



468 
6.4 



357 

5.7 



9,099 
14.5 



Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 



3,096 
10.5 



874 
11.1 



921 
14.6 



463 
8.0 



509 
6.9 



423 

6.8 



6,286 
10.0 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



2 20, 948 
103.5 



7.975 
101.6 



6.058 
95.9 



4,652 
80.0 



4,823 
65.6 



3,974 
64.0 



2 49, 137 
91.3 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



2 48, 110 
237.6 



20, 437 
260.3 



14, 597 
231.1 



12, 726 
218.8 



12, 610 
171.4 



8,285 
133.4 



2 117, 528 
218.5 



Auto 
theft 



15, 009 
51.1 



4,124 

52.5 



2,456 
38.9 



2,481 
42.6 



2,015 
27.4 



1,595 
25.7 



27, 680 
44.0 



' The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports as follows: Group 
I, 35 cHies, total population, 28,021,500; group II, 56 cities, total population, 7,742,112; groups I-VI, 2,044 
cities, total population, 61,462,742. 

2 The number of offenses and rate for burglary and larceny— theft are based on reports as follows: Group 
I, 34 cities, total population, 20,248,600; groups I-VI, 2,044 cities, total population, 53,798,042. 



Annual Trends, Offenses Known to tfie Police, 1931-40. 

In comparing the reports from 69 of the larger cities in the United 
States for the first 3 months of 1939 and 1940, it was found that 
with the exception of manshxughter by neghgence substantial decreases 
were seen in the number of offenses against the person. The decrease 
in murder (including nonnegligent manslaughter) amounted to 20.2 
percent; rape, 6.5 percent; and aggravated assault, 3.9 percent. The 
increase in negligent manslaughter amounted to 7.2 percent. 



6 



With reference to offenses against property, robbery is the only 
one in which a decrease is shown. These offenses during the first 3 
months of tliis year showed a decrease of 5.9 percent from the figure 
for the first quarter of 1939. Burglaries and larcenies increased only 
slightly, less than 1 percent in each case. However, auto thefts 
showed a 6-percent increase. This is interesting in view of the fact 
that auto thefts have generally shown a rather steady decrease during 

1931-39. 

The figures reflecting annual trends in crime are presented in 
table 2 and are based on the reports of 69 cities each with more than 
100,000 inhabitants representing a total population of 19,237,302. 
These cities forwarded a complete set of reports during the first 3 
months of each of the years 1931-40. 

As already indicated, the reports from the 69 cities showed an 
increase in auto theft amounting to 6 percent. However, in examining 
the 1939 and 1940 crime rates for all urban communities, regardless 
of size, it is noted that a slight decrease in auto thefts occurred in 
1940. A similar comparison of the crime rates for aggravated assault 
discloses an increase for the larger group of cities, whereas a decrease 
in these crimes is reflected in the reports of the 69 cities over 100,000 
included in table 2. (See table 1 of this issue and the corresponding 
table in vol. X, No. 1 of this bulletin.) 

Table 2. — Anmial trends, offenses known to the police, 69 cities over 100,000 in 
population, January to March, inclusive, 1931-40 



[Total population, 


19,237,302, 


as estimated July 1 


1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 






Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny — 
theft 




Year 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Number of offenses known: 
1931 


359 
367 
382 
317 
334 
293 
324 
301 
312 
249 

4.0 
4.0 
4.2 
3.5 
3.7 
3.2 
3.6 
3.3 
3.5 
2.7 


352 
303 
229 
216 
230 
188 
293 
202 
194 
208 

3.9 
3.3 
2.5 
2.4 
2.6 
2.1 
3.3 
2.2 
2.2 
2.3 


280 
288 
305 
303 
333 
312 
407 
409 
432 
404 

3.1 
3.2 
3.4 
3.4 
3.7 
3.4 
4.5 
4.5 
4.8 
4.4 


5,811 
5,320 
5,217 
3,985 
3,660 
3,193 
3,643 
4,034 
3,518 
3,309 

64.6 
58.5 
58.0 
44.3 
40.7 
35.1 
40.5 
44.8 
39.1 
36.4 


2,254 
1,977 
2,304 
2,183 
2,162 
2,218 
2,282 
2,069 
1,921 
1,846 

25.0 
21.7 
25.6 
24.3 
24.0 
24.4 
25.4 
23.0 
21.3 
20.3 


17, 786 
19, 512 
19, 275 

18, 860 
18, 785 

16, 183 

17, 349 

18, 782 
17, 481 
17, 495 

197.6 
214.4 
214.2 
209.6 
208.7 
177.8 
192.8 
208.7 
194.2 
192.3 


36,429 
37,001 
39, 017 
39, 951 

41, 164 
36, 907 

42, 317 
45, 516 
45, 105 
45, 483 

404.8 
406.6 
433.5 
443.9 
457.4 
405.6 
470.2 
505.7 
501.2 
499.8 


21, 909 


1932 


18, 728 


1933 


17, 181 


1934 


15, 440 


1935 


14, 578 


1936 


11,687 


1937 


12, 861 


1938 


11,172 


1939 


9,854 


1940 


10. 443 


Daily average: 

1931 


243.4 


1932 


205.8 


1933 -- 


190.9 


1934 


171.6 


1935 


162.0 


1936 . 


128.4 


1937 -- 


142.9 


1938 

1939 


124.1 
109.5 


1940 


114.8 








229255° — 40- 



8 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location. 

Marked variances are found in crime rates in the different sections 
of the United States. This is only to be expected in view of the many 
factors affecting the extent of crime. Comments concerning this 
subject may be found in the text preceding table 5 of this bulletin. 
Individuals interested in comparing local crime conditions with aver- 
ages of other cities of the same size in the same section of the country 
may refer to the figures presented in table 4. 

The data presented in tables 1 and 4 are supplemented by the infor- 
mation shown in table 3 wherein there is indicated the number of police 
departments whose reports were employed in preparing the crime rates 
for each of the subgroups shown in tables 1 and 4. 

Table 3. — Number of cities included in the tabulatioyi of uniform crime reports, 

January to March, inclusive, 1940 



Division 



Population 



Group 
I 



Over 
250,000 



Group 
II 



100,000 

to 
250,000 



Group 
III 



50,000 

to 
100,000 



Group 
IV 



25,000 

to 
50,000 



Group 
V 



10,000 

to 
25,000 



Group 
VI 



Less 
than 
10,000 



Total 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England: 172 cities; total population, 
5,613,972 

Middle Atlantic: 508 cities; total population, 
18,786,581 

East North Central: 498 cities; total popula- 
tion, 16,140,619 

West North Central: 234 cities; total popula- 
tion, 5, 023,861 

South Atlantic: ' 167 cities; total population, 
4,785,837 

East South Central: 75 cities; total popula- 
tion, 2,205,745 

West South Central: 129 cities; total popula- 
tion, 3,582,691 

Mountain: 85 cities; total population, 1,283,- 
719 

Pacific: 178 cities; total population, 5,502,017. 

Total: 2,046 cities; total population, 
62,925,042 



12 

11 

10 

5 

6 

3 

5 

1 
4 



10 

22 

23 

7 

13 

4 

7 

2 
6 



26 

30 

49 

10 

18 

5 

11 

6 
13 



61 

128 

104 

52 

31 

23 

26 

15 
34 



61 

311 

303 

156 

96 

37 

77 

60 
116 



36 



57 



94 



168 



474 



1,217 



172 
508 
498 
234 

167 

75 

129 

85 
178 



2,046 



Includes report of District of Columbia. 



9 



In order that the information may be readily available, there are 
listed below the States included in the nine geographic divisions. 

States Divided by Geographic Divisions 



New England: 
Connecticut. 
Maine. 

Massachusetts. 
New Hanisphire. 
Rhode Island. 
Vermont. 



Middle Atlantic: 
New Jersey. 
New York. 
Pennsylvania. 



East North Central: 
Illinois. 
Indiana. 
Michigan. 
Ohio. 
Wisconsin. 



West North Central: 
Iowa. 
Kansas. 
Minnesota. 
Missouri. 
Nebraska. 
North Dakota. 
South Dakota. 



West South Central: 
Arkansas. 
Louisiana. 
Oklahoma. 
Texas. 



1 Includes District of Columbia. 



South Atlantic :' 
Delaware. 
Florida. 
Georgia. 
Maryland. 
North Carolina. 
South Carolina. 
Virginia. 
West Virginia. 

Mountain: 
Arizona. 
Colorado. 
Idaho. 
Montana. 
Nevada. 
New Mexico. 
Utah. 
Wyoming. 



East South Central: 
Alabama. 
Kentucky. 
Mississippi. 
Tennessee. 



Pacific: 

California. 

Oregon. 

Washington. 



Table 4. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to March, inclusive, lOJfO, by geographic divisions and population groups 



Geographic division and population 
group 



New England: 
Group I--- 
Qroup II--. 
Group III-. 
Group IV-. 
Group V-.- 
Group VI- 



Total, groups I-VI. 

Middle Atlantic: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 



Total, groups I-VI. 

East North Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 



Total, groups I-VI- 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



0.4 
.1 
.1 
.2 
.4 



1.2 
.9 
.5 
.4 
.8 
.3 

.9 



Robbery 



9.6 
6.2 
2.8 
2.7 
1.7 



4.7 



8.9 
5.3 
7.0 
5.1 
3.9 
3.7 



8.0 



31.0 
14.6 
10.2 

7.8 
9.1 
5.7 



20.6 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



5.1 
3.2 
2.2 
2.8 
.2 
3.1 



2.8 



8.5 
4.4 
6.1 
4.0 
3.7 
3.5 



5.6 



8.3 
10.4 
4. 1 
3.2 
2.9 
2.9 



6.5 



Burglary — 

breaking or 

entering 



41.3 
89.3 
78.5 
63.1 
45.4 
49.9 



64.4 



1 78.7 
62.4 
69.8 
52. 1 
49.7 
41. 1 



259.8 



89.5 
82.0 
69.2 
61.5 
57.4 
55.9 



77.5 



Larceny- 
theft 



86.4 
158.1 

99.8 
113.3 
106.0 

64.5 



Auto 
theft 



114.6 



1 101. 

116.4 

108.9 

102.9 

79.0 

58.1 



293.2 



200.7 
242.5 
161.7 
164.8 
144.8 
87.4 



180.2 



1 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 4 cities. 

2 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 506 cities. 



92.8 
48.6 
29.1 
26.0 
12.3 
11.5 



41.8 



40.1 
36.5 
35.5 
29.7 
23.0 
15.9 



35.0 



34.6 
54.0 
30.6 
39.5 
26.8 
24.2 



34.6 



10 

Table 4. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to March, inclusive, 1940, by geographic divisions and population groups — Contd. 



Geographic division and population 
group 



West North Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 



Total, groups I-VI. 



South Atlantic: 
Group I '... 
Group II-- 
Group III- 
Group IV-- 

Group V 

Group VI- 



Total, groups I-VI. 

East South Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 



Total, groups I-VI_ 

West South Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 



Total, groups I-VI- 



Mountain: 
Group I--- 
Oroup II-- 
Group III- 
Group IV. 
Group v.. 
Group VI_ 



Total, groups I-VI. 



Pacific: 

Group I--. 
Group II-- 
Group III- 
Group IV- 
Qroup V - . 
Group VI- 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Total, groups I-VI- 



1.1 
.3 

1.2 
.3 
.3 
.6 



2.9 
3.6 
4.0 
3.4 
3.2 
3.0 



3.3 



3.9 
5.1 
3.1 
5.3 
6.3 
4.2 



4.5 



5.2 



2.8 



1.7 

.7 

2.0 



Robbery 



16.1 
10.6 
6.6 
4.5 
4.0 
3.9 



10.0 



31.0 
35.5 
18.8 
19.1 
8.9 
10.0 



23.8 



40.1 
29.5 
18.3 
12.2 
13.4 
8.5 



26.7 



20.8 
24.8 
13.9 

9.1 
10.9 

9.5 



17.2 



9.5 

18.7 

16.6 

7.8 

7.8 

8.4 



10.3 



30.0 
18.6 
18.2 
18.5 
8.7 
8.1 



22.7 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



3.0 
4.8 
1.6 
2.1 
3.5 
2.8 



3.1 



18.5 
31.9 
47.4 
28.4 
40.3 
32.1 



30.6 



64. 
33. 
54. 
37. 
24. 
29. 



46.4 



IS. 1 
21.0 
35.2 
15.0 
15.9 
11.2 



18.6 



2.7 

1.4 

10.8 

8.7 
4.1 
4.4 



4.8 



10.7 
3.9 
6.6 
4.0 
1.6 
5.0 



7.7 



Burglary — 

breaking or 

entering 



57.8 
75.2 
101.3 
80.2 
56.5 
53.0 



65.1 



116.9 
177.9 
145.8 
135.8 
94.1 
94.4 



129.9 



198.6 
84.6 
127.8 
121.3 
107.7 
87.8 



140.8 



115.8 

147.8 

109.1 

99.5 

99.2 

88.3 



115.9 



61.4 
126.2 
146.8 
103.0 
108.3 

84.7 



95.9 



177.0 
150.0 
155.3 
131.9 
105.8 
109.9 



155.4 



Larceny- 
theft 



235.6 
182.9 
276.9 
195.5 
195.0 
104.4 



204.3 



243.5 
527.4 
352. 3 
363.3 
240.1 
209.4 



320.7 



300.0 
241.1 
290.2 
361.8 
214.6 
104.8 



265.5 



433.7 
463.4 
420.6 
331.4 
275.3 
181.8 



380.9 



304.6 
240.6 
569.5 
584.5 
492.1 
252. 5 



382.0 



391.0 
405.6 
494.1 
421.5 
401.9 
386.9 



403.9 



Auto 
theft 



33.5 
41.1 
48.6 
55.0 
27.9 
16.7 



34.2 



88.4 
82.2 
43.0 
51.6 
30.5 
35.5 



63.6 



55.1 
50.7 
38.9 
63.6 
29.0 
26.0 



46.8 



49.4 
52.0 

41.7 
36.0 
26.8 
22.4 



41.9 



39.2 
70.7 
63.6 
63.2 
61.3 
33.6 



50.9 



116.4 
73.6 
65.8 
87.0 
57.4 
66.3 



95.0 



3 Includes the District of Columbia. 



11 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 100,000 Inhabitants. 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the first 3 months of 1940 is shown in table 5. The compilation in- 
cludes the reports received from police departments in cities with 
more than 100,000 inhabitants. Such data are included here in 
order that interested individuals and organizations may have readily 
available up-to-date information concerning the amount of crime 
committed in their communities. Police administrators and other 
interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare the 
crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in tables 1 and 4 
of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire to make 
comparisons with the figures for their communities for prior periods, in 
order to determine whether there has been an increase or a decrease in 
the amount of crime committed. 

A great deal of caution should be exercised in comparing crime data 
for individual cities, because differences in the figures may be due to a 
variety of factors. The amount of crime committed in a community 
is not solely chargeable to the police but is rather a charge against the 
entire community. The following is a list of some of the factors which 
might affect the amount of crime in a community: 

The composition of the population with reference particularly to 

age, sex, and race. 
The economic status and activities of the population. 
Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 
The number of police employees per unit of population. 
The standards governing appointments to the police force. 
The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 
The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 
The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 

Comparisons between the crime rates of individual cities should not 
be made without giving consideration to the above-mentioned factors. 
It is more important to determine whether the figures for a given com- 
munity show increases or decreases in the amount of crime committed 
than to ascertain whether the figures are above or below those of some 
other community. 

In examining a compilation of crime figures for individual com- 
munities it should be borne in mind that in view of the fact that the 
data are compiled by different record departments operating under 
separate and distinct administrative systems, it is enthely possible 
that there may be variations in the practices employed in classifying 
complaints of offenses. On the other hand, the crime-reporting hand- 
book has been distributed to all contributors of crime reports, and the 
figures received are included in this bulletin only if they apparently 
have been compiled in accordance with the provisions of the handbook, 
and the individual department has so indicated. 



12 



Table 5. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to March, inclusive, 

1940, cities over 100,000 in population 



City 



Akron, Ohio 

Albany, N. Y 

Atlanta, Ga 

Baltimore, Md.. _ 

Birmingham, Ala 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Cambridge, Mass 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 

Chattanooga, Tenn 

Chicago, IlL 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Columbus, Ohio 

Dallas, Tex 

Dayton, Ohio 

Denver, Colo 

Des Moines. Iowa 

Detroit, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 

Elizabeth, N. J 

El Paso, Tex 

Erie, Pa 

Evansville, Ind 

Fall River, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Gary, Ind 

Grand Rapids, Mich.. 

Hartford, Conn 

Honolulu, T. H 

Houston, Tex 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Jersey City, N. J 

Kansas City, Kans 

Kansas City, Mo 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Long Beach, Calif 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn 

Miami, Fla 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn... 

Nashville. Teno 

Newark, N. J 

New Bedford, Mass... 

New Haven, Conn 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N. Y 

Norfolk, Va 

Oakland, Calif 

Oklahoma City, Okla_ 

Omaha, Nebr 

Paterson, N. J 

Peoria, 111 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Oreg 

Providence, R. I 

Reading, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif... 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



3 
1 

19 

16 

11 

3 

1 

1 



6 
4G 

5 
14 

6 
13 

2 

5 



21 



4 

17 
1 
9 

2 

7 

7 

1 

15 



Robbery 



13 

11 

2 

2 

7 
3 



54 
2 
6 
5 



2 
1 
24 
7 
1 
1 



12 
1 
1 
7 
3 
6 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



32 

2 

110 

139 

40 

96 

8 

29 

13 

15 

17 

36 

,616 

97 

241 

86 

62 

21 

28 

21 

381 

7 

9 

22 

10 

10 

5 

16 

13 

27 

39 

6 

12 

3 

103 

97 

75 

Com 

27 

116 

1 

34 

577 

102 

1 

7 

200 

83 

10 

56 

78 

90 

10 

20 

57 

437 

41 

28 

34 

17 

4 

15 

280 

148 

87 

4 

9 

61 

7 

119 

31 

27 

67 

29 

139 

7 

66 



34 
3 

74 

138 

82 

45 



36 

6 
19 
20 
50 
313 
43 
26 
15 
39 

4 

8 

5 
181 

2 

2 

6 

2 
12 

2 
27 

2 

5 
34 

2 
17 

4 

35 

52 

44 

plete data 



31 

21 

If 

177 
101 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



255 

68 
648 
564 
463 
315 
106 
177 
130 

18 

46 
140 
2,716 
538 
782 
648 
477 
150 
180 
129 
1,389 

85 

63 

92 

68 

88 
164 
150 
102 
267 
141 
142 
199 
274 
629 
665 
310 
not received 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



0) 



49 

14 

178 

139 

70 

161 

41 

65 

13 

54 

25 

928 

146 

70 

101 

49 

15 

83 

38 

223 

18 

19 

5 

10 
12 
11 
62 
32 
19 
31 
19 
49 
41 
57 
186 
132 



Under 
$50 



9 

367 

53 

12 

9 

59 

104 

2 

2 
87 
634 
26 
31 
31 
16 
15 

9 

121 

52 

7 

8 

3 
77 

6 
16 

3 

2 
129 

5 
91 

6 
13 



406 

132 

1,242 

627 

554 

566 

284 

240 

119 

143 

208 

400 

2,303 

1,202 

2,458 

806 

2,291 

499 

810 

281 

4,676 

249 

130 

265 

124 

305 

61 

424 

356 

925 

246 

451 

469 

542 

1,741 

1,451 

826 



Auto 
theft 



171 


0) 


244 


38 


365 


131 


857 


148 


55 


42 


223 


44 


318 


67 


711 


108 


2,656 


1,115 


5,172 


2,159 


689 


277 


706 


302 


77 


7 


52 


37 


88 


44 


156 


22 


541 


123 


827 


79 


374 


191 


730 


111 


160 


61 


821 


134 


286 


180 


562 


272 


13.5 


0) 


251 


96 


686 


91 


918 


273 


171 


19 


208 


28 


201 


70 


261 


107 


130 


151 


338 


196 


2,131 


0) 


4.710 


2,393 


189 


36 


507 


152 


343 


61 


1,050 


163 


365 


56 


698 


96 


100 


19 


203 


108 


162 


9 


75 


58 


68 


10 


166 


32 


707 


281 


482 


1,115 


607 


88 


285 


463 


753 


172 


1,245 


226 


116 


29 


145 


102 


134 


18 


159 


22 


235 


75 


795 


142 


139 


33 


343 


92 


329 


(') 


2,516 


179 


176 


46 


416 


71 


182 


16 


331 


102 


305 


76 


1,117 


168 


170 


31 


646 


117 


704 


198 


1.694 


622 


133 


.30 


137 


60 


835 


75 


904 


310 



117 

43 

281 

664 

89 

865 

77 

139 

HI 

58 

14 

58 

740 

150 

234 

178 

110 

71 

115 

72 

825 

44 

35 

47 

75 

81 

21 

111 

135 

56 

46 

93 

122 

56 

214 

367 

81 



' Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



13 



Table 5. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to March, inclusive, 
1940, cities over 100,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Somerville, Mass_ _ 
South Bend, Ind.._ 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, Mass.- 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo, Ohio 

Trenton, N. J 

Tulsa, Ok'.a 

Utica, N. Y 

Washington, D. C_ 
Waterbury, Conn.. 

Wichita, Kans 

Wilmington, Del..- 
Worcester, Mass-., 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, Ohio. 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



4 
1 
5 
1 
11 



Robbery 



3 

12 
25 

1 

2 

13 

9 

38 

14 

65 

2 

245 

1 

3 

6 

17 

3 

53 



Aggra- 
vated 

assault 



7 
2 

1 
28 
22 
10 
II 



83 



19 
3 
3 

33 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



28 

89 

207 

87 

93 

118 

165 

338 

121 

254 

32 

649 

67 

46 

105 

95 

21 

156 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



12 
19 
23 
16 
19 
10 
33 
72 
27 
80 
14 
150 
18 

3 

28 
33 

6 
28 



Under 
$50 



42 

212 
505 
199 
189 
205 
487 
838 
234 
781 

no 

1,542 
76 
236 
246 
242 
49 
253 



Auto 
theft 



28 
37 
75 
66 
66 
99 
92 

152 
61 
84 
19 

463 
67 
28 
59 
83 
36 

125 



Offenses Known to Sheriffs, State Police, and Other Rural Officers, 1940. 
In compiling national crime statistics, the FBI distinguishes 
between crimes committed in urban communities and those occurring 
in rural areas. The preceding tables in this bulletin have dealt with 
urban crimes. In table 6, there is presented information compiled 
from the reports received during the first 3 months of 1940 from 
1,037 sheriffs, 7 State police organizations, and 99 village officers. 



Table 6. — Offenses known, January to March, inclusive, 1940, as reported by 1 ,031 
sheriffs, 7 State police organizations, and 99 village officers 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny- 
theft 






Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Offenses known 


295 


198 


443 


883 


1,271 


6.976 


10,941 


2.161 



14 



Offenses Known in Territories and Possessions of the United States. 

Available crime data for the Territories and possessions of the 
United States are presented in table 7, which includes reports from 
three judicial divisions in Alaska; Honolulu City and the counties 
of Honolulu, Kauai, and Maui, in the Territory of Hawaii; Isthmus 
of Panama, C. Z. ; and Puerto Rico. The tabulation is based upon 
the number of offenses known to law-enforcement officials of both 
urban and rural areas, with the exception that the data for Honolulu 
City have been segregated from the figures for Honolulu County. 

Table 7. — Number of offenses known in United States Territories and possessions, 

January to March, inclusive, 1940 

[Population figures from Federal census, Apr. 1, 1930] 





Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny— theft 


Auto 
theft 


Jurisdiction reporting 


Over 

$50 


Under 
$50 


Alaska: 

First judicial division (Juneau), pop- 
ulation, 19,304; number of offenses 
known 






3 


10 


9 
3 

41 
5 

3 

6 

39 


U 

1 

10 

542 
61 

16 

52 

108 

716 




Second judicial division (Nome), 
population, 10,127; number of of- 
fenses known , 








Third judicial division (Valdez), pop- 
ulation, 16,309; number of offenses 
known 






3 

4 
4 
8 
3 
1 
539 


1 

274 

32 

2 

23 

11 

248 




Hawaii: 

Honolulu City, population, 137,582; 

number of offenses known 

Honolulu County, population, 65,341; 

number of offenses known. ._ 


4 

1 


3 


56 

8 


Kauai County, population, 35,942; 
number of offenses known. _ . 


2 


Maui County, population, 56,146; 
number of offenses known , 




1 

1 

12 


1 


Isthmus of Panama: Canal Zone, popula- 
tion, 39,467; number of offenses known . 




1 


Puerto Rico: Population, 1,543,913; num- 
ber of offenses known.. .. .- 


73 


20 







Data From Supplementary Offense Reports. 

During the first 3 months of this year, 45.7 percent of the burglaries 
involved residences, and the balance occurred in offices, stores, ware- 
houses, and other business places. The great majority of all bur- 
glaries (78.3 percent) were committed during the night. However, 
of the residence burglaries, only 64.1 percent were committed during 
the night as compared with 90.2 percent of the burglaries perpetrated 
in nonresidence structures. 

Highway robberies constituted 52.7 percent of all the robbery 
offenses. Less than one-fifth of 1 percent were bank robberies; 9.4 
percent involved oil stations; 1.1 percent, chain stores; and 29.2 
percent, other types of commercial houses. 

In 63.8 percent of the larceny cases the value of the property 
stolen was between $5 and $50; in 24.7 percent, the property was 
valued at less than $5; and only 11.5 percent of the thefts involved 
property valued in excess of $50. Thefts of automobile accessories 
and other types of personal property from automobiles parked in 
public places represented 39.6 percent of the larcenies reported, and 
bicycle thefts constituted 9.8 percent. 

More than half (54.4 percent) of the offenses of rape were classified 
as statutory (not forcible — victim under age of consent) in character. 



15 

These figures represent an analysis of supplementary offense reports 
forwarded to the FBI during the first 3 months of 1940 by 52 police 
departments in cities with populations in excess of 100,000, and the 
figures upon which the percentages are based are presented in table 8. 

Table 8. — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the natvre of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission, and value of property stolen, January to March, 
inclusive, 1940; 62 cities over 100,000 in populatioji. 

[Total population, 16,543,138, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Classification 



Rape: 

Forcible 

Statutory 

Total.- 

Robbery: 

Highway 

Commercial house 

Oil station 

Chain store 

Residence 

Bank 

Miscellaneous 

Total 

Burglary — breaking or entering: 
Residence (dwelling): 

Committed during night. _. 

Committed during day 

Nonresidence (store, office, etc.) 
Committed during night. __ 
Committed during day 

Total 



Number 
of actual 
offenses 



155 
185 



340 



2, 155 

1,193 

386 

44 

1.58 

8 

142 



4,086 



5,210 
2,923 

8,721 
948 



17, 802 



Classification 



Larceny — theft (except auto theft) 
(grouped according to value of article 
stolen) : 

Over .$50 

$5 to $50 

Under .$5 

Total 

Larceny — theft (grouped as to type of 
offense) : 

Pocket-picking 

Purse-snatching 

Shoplifting 

Thefts from autos (exclusive of auto 

accessories) 

Auto accessories 

Bicycles 

Another 

Total 



Number 
of actual 
offenses 



4, 845 
26, 814 
10, 364 



42, 023 


5.59 
1,632 
1,262 


8,804 

7,828 

4,129 

17, 809 



42, 023 



The large majority (97.3 percent) of automobiles stolen are recov- 
ered, according to the offense reports received during the first 3 months 
of this year from the 52 cities represented in table 8. As will be seen 
in the following tabulation, 8,795 automobiles were stolen, and during 
the same period 8,560 were recovered. 

Table 9. — Recoveries of stolen automobiles, January to March, inclusive, 1940; 52 

cities over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 16,543,138, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 

Number o-f automobiles stolen 8, 795 

Number of automobiles recovered 8,560 

Percentage recovered 97. 3 

Exclusive of automobiles, property stolen in the 52 cities represented 
in table 8 was valued at $2,762,029.88, and the value of recovered 
property was $610,287.65, or 22.1 percent. Stolen automobiles were 
valued at $3,830,051.40, and during the first quarter of the year 
recoveries of this type of property amounted to $3,704,526.25, or 96.7 
percent. In table 10 there are presented figures relative to the value 
of property stolen and recovered, divided by types of property, which 
show that for all types of property stolen, including automobiles, 
65.5 percent was recovered. 



22925.5°— 40- 



16 

Table 10. — Value of 'property stolen and value of property recovered loith divisions 
as to type of properly involved, January to March, inclusive, 1940; 52 cities over 
100,000 in popxdation 

[Total population, 16,543,138, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Type of property 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 
Furs 

Clothing _ - - 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Miscellaneous. - _ 

Total 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



$635, 128. 16 
686, 462. 51 
153, 486. 70 
361, 379. 49 
3, 830, 051. 40 
925, 573. 02 



6, 592, 081. 28 



Value of prop- 
erty recovered 



$65, 140. 70 

133, 750. 41 

17, 130. 63 

76, 919. 77 

, 704, 526. 25 

317, 346. 14 



4, 314, 813. 90 



Percent 
recovered 



10.3 
19.5 
11.2 
21.3 
96.7 
34.3 



65.5 



ANNUAL REPORTS, 1939 

During 1939, 79.1 percent of the offenses committed against persons 
were cleared by the arrest of the offenders. Likewise, in 27.7 percent 
of the offenses against property, one or more of the offenders were 
arrested. The highest percentage of clearances was seen in cases of 
criminal homicide (manslaughter by negligence, 87.7 percent, murder 
and nonnegligent manslaughter, 87.4 percent). On an average, 81.8 
percent of the offenses of rape, and 76.5 percent of other felonious 
assaults were cleared by arrest. The individual figures for the 
predatory crimes against property cleared were as follows: Robbery, 
41.9 percent; burglary, 34.0 percent; larceny, 25.1 percent; and auto 
theft, 24.4 percent. 

Offenses of the types referred to in the first paragraph occurring in 
1,214 cities in the United States (total population, 39,147,097) last 
year totaled 562,616. Of the 20,066 offenses against the person, 
15,872 were cleared by the arrest of 17,276 individuals; and of the 
542,553 offenses against property, 150,373 were cleared by the arrest 
of 115,568 persons. 

Monthly and annual crime reports are received from police agencies 
throughout the country by the Federal Bureau of Investigation under 
the system of uniform crime reporting. Information concerning the 
number of crimes known to have been committed during 1939, based 
on the monthly reports, has been presented in volume X, No. 4, of 
this publication. Supplementing this type of information, the annual 
crime reports include data concerning the number of offenses disposed 
of by arrest, and the number of persons arrested, as well as figures 
indicating the number of persons found guilty. 

The annual reports received by the Federal Bureau of Investigation 
were all scrutinized, and only those reports were included in the 
following tables which apparently had been compiled according to 
the uniform crime reporting system. For record purposes, it is noted 
here that letters were written to police departments whose reports 
were included in the tabulations in this issue of the bulletin in a 
large number of instances in an effort to obtain the highest possible 
degree of accuracy and uniformity in the reports used. Letters were 
written to the police departments in 18 of the 25 cities having a popu- 
lation in excess of 250,000; in 24 of the 38 cities with a population of 
100,000 to 250,000; in 45 of the 69 cities between 50,000 and 100,000; 
and in 77 of the 106 cities with from 25,000 to 50,000 inhabitants. 
In addition, a questionnaire accompanied the annual return forms, 
and in practically all instances the questionnaire bore appropriate 
entries. In some instances the nature of the entries on the question- 
naire was responsible for the communications subsequently forwarded 
to the contributing agency. The questionnaire related to the several 
phases of the annual returns and was found of considerable assistance 
in obtaining uniformly compiled figures. 

(17) 



18 

All of the agencies whose reports are mcluded m the following 
tabulations indicated that the figures concerning ofl^enses known to 
the police were based on records of crimes and complaints of crimes, 
and included all cases brought to the attention of the police. Similarly, 
all of the law-enforcement agencies indicated that figures concerning 
offenses cleared by arrest represented the number of crimes disposed 
of by arrests, or through other specified exceptional circumstances, 
and did not represent the number of persons arrested. 

With reference to the compilations showing persons charged 
(held for prosecution) all but 5 of the police departments in cities with 
populations in excess of 25,000 represented in the following tables 
stated that the figures reflected the number of persons arrested rather 
than the number of charges placed against the persons arrested. 
In other words, if on the occasion of a single arrest a person was 
charged with robbery and auto theft, he was counted as only 1 person 
arrested, the entry being made opposite robbery. Of course, if the 
same person was arrested on different occasions, each case was counted 
as a separate arrest. 

In connection with reports dealing with persons arrested perhaps 
the greatest lack of uniformity appeared in connection with the policy 
as to the inclusion of juveniles taken into custody. The replies re- 
ceived from the police departments of cities with more than 25,000 
inhabitants indicated that 91 percent of the reports forwarded included 
all or part of the juveniles taken into custody. All juveniles were 
said to be included in the reports of 79 percent of the cities. 

A further problem with reference to juveniles is whether juveniles 
listed in the reports were shown opposite the classification embracing 
the violation (i. e., burglary, larceny, etc.) for which they were taken 
into custody, regardless of the nature of the technical charge (i. e., 
''juvenile delinquent," etc.) placed against the juvenile at the time of 
arrest. The response to this item indicated that 95 percent of the 
departments including juveniles in their reports properly listed them 
opposite the classification embracing the violation involved. The 
remaining departments listed arrests of juveniles opposite "All other 
offenses." 

An additional problem with reference to the tabulation concerning 
persons arrested appeared in connection with the figures relative to 
the number found guilty. A careful examination of the reports 
indicated in a large number of instances that entries which purported 
to represent the final disposition of the charges placed against per- 
sons arrested in fact merely represented disposition at preliminary 
hearing. Accordingly, there have been included in tables 16 and 17 
only the reports from a limited number of police departments which 
appeared to have been properly compiled with reference to persons 
found guilty. 



19 

Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1939. 

In examining the data presented in the tabulations which follow, it 
should be borne in mind that there is a distinct difference, under the 
system of uniform crime reporting, between offenses cleared by arrest 
and persons arrested. An offense is considered cleared by arrest 
generally when one or more of the offenders involved in its commission 
have been taken into custody and made available for prosecution. 
It is not necessary that all persons involved be arrested. There are 
certain other exceptional circumstances by which an offense is con- 
sidered cleared, such as the suicide of the offender, responsible person 
m custody m another jurisdiction and not available for local prosecu- 
tion, etc. The general requisites of an "exceptional clearance" are 
that the identity and whereabouts of the offender are known to the 
police, but for some reason beyond their control it is not possible to 
make him available for prosecution in the local jurisdiction. 

An examination of the individual reports revealed a considerable 
range of variation in the percentage of offenses listed as cleared by 
individual police departments. This is, of course, entirely reasonable, 
inasmuch as some cities have more police per unit of population, 
better record practices, etc., than other cities. It is probably true 
that more crunes are cleared by arrest than are shown in table 11, 
because of instances wherein an offender is arrested and charged with 
a single crime, although in fact he had committed two or more crimes, 
but this was not known to the police. 

There are presented in table 11 figures concerning the number of 
offenses committed, the number cleared by arrest, and the percentage 
of offenses cleared by arrest as reflected in the annual returns of all the 
cities represented. The data are presented for six different groups of 
cities divided according to size, in order that interested individuals may 
compare available local data of this type with national averages for 
cities of any population group, as well as with averages for cities of 
all sizes. 

The figures for the groups of smaller cities reveal that the percentage 
of offenses of auto theft listed as cleared by arrest is somewhat higher 
than for the groups of larger cities. This may accurately represent 
the relative proportion of auto thefts cleared by arrest, but on the 
other hand, it is possible that the reports received from police depart- 
ments in the smaller cities are less accurate in this regard than those 
representing the larger communities. In a very limited number of 
instances it has been detected that in cases where the automobiles 
have been recovered the offenses have been listed as cleared by arrest 
even though the offenders have not been taken into custody. The 
recovery of property does not render an offense cleared under the 
system of uniform crime reporting, and efforts have been made to 
eliminate all such instances from the reports used in the tabulations. 

It will be seen generally that the smallest percentage of offenses 
cleared by arrest is reflected in connection with auto thefts. This is to 
a large extent undoubtedly due to the many so-called "joy-riding" 
cases, the circumstances of which make it extremely difficult to effect 
arrests. However, the reports received from police departments for 
several years have consistently reflected that more than 90 percent 
of all stolen automobiles have been recovered by the police. Detailed 
tabulations concerning the recovery of stolen property for last year 
may be found in volume X, No. 4, of this publication. 



20 



Table 11. — Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and percentage of offenses 
cleared by arrest, 1939, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 

25 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 17,055,000: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest _.- 

GROUP II 

38 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 5,382,215: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest... 

GROUP in 

69 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 4,716,590: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest... 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



GROUP IV 



total 



106 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; 
population, 3,623,552: 
Number of offenses known. . 
Number cleared by arrest. _ 
Percentage cleared by arrest 



GROUP V 



total 



310 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; 
population, 4,835,725: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest.. 

GROUP VI 

666 cities under 10,000; total popu- 
lation, 3,534,015: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest. . 

TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

1,214 cities; total population, 
39,147,097: 

Number of offenses known 

Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest.. 



1,172 

1,005 

85.8 



237 

216 

91.1 



232 

211 
90.9 



159 

147 

92.5 



Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 



134 

120 

39.6 



68 
77.3 



2,022 

1,767 

87.4 



479 

407 

85.0 



265 

224 

84.5 



134 

126 

94.0 



82 

79 

96.3 



117 

102 

87.2 



90 

85 
94.4 



Rape 



1,167 
1,023 

87.7 



1,627 

1,239 

76.2 



.394 
329 

83.5 



351 
335 

95.4 



267 
233 

87.3 



289 
253 

87.5 



298 

251 
84.2 



Rob- 
bery 



15, 589 

6, 664 

42.7 



2, 255 

834 

37.0 



1,777 

684 

38.5 



1,090 

459 

42.1 



1,134 

466 

41.1 



748 

354 

47.3 



3,226 

2,640 

81.8 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



22, 593 

9,461 

41.9 



6,759 

4.798 

71.0 



2,158 

1,542 

71.5 



1,824 

1,524 

83.6 



1,144 

1,032 

90.2 



1,113 

986 

88.6 



650 

560 

86.2 



13, 648 

10, 442 

76.5 



50, 884 

19, 171 

37.7 



22, 051 
6,274 

28.5 



17, 256 

5,107 

29.6 



12, 107 

3,971 

32.8 



13, 051 

4,352 

33.3 



8,634 

3,231 

37.4 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



140. 767 

32, 307 

23.0 



53, 270 

13,546 

25.4 



44, 253 

11,337 

25.6 



35, 595 

9,241 

26.0 



38, 970 

10, 783 

27.7 



20, 467 

6,292 

30.7 



123, 983 

42, 106 

34.0 



333, 322 

83, 506 

25.1 



Auto 
theft 



28, 769 

6,574 

22.9 



11,837 

2,767 

23.4 



7,330 

1,569 

21.4 



5,595 

1,362 

24.3 



5,887 

1,810 

30.7 



3,237 

1,218 
37.6 



62, 655 

15, 300 

24.4 



In table 12 there are presented data showing the relationship be- 
tween offenses committed, offenses cleared by arrest, and persons 
arrested and held for prosecution. To mdicate the manner in which 
the data in the table should be interpreted, it may be noted that for 
group I cities, in examining an average group of 100 offenses of rape, 
76 were found to have been cleared by the arrest of 75 persons. Like- 
wise, of each 100 offenses of burglary — breaking or entering, 37 were 
cleared by the arrest of 23 persons. 

For offenses against persons (criminal homicide, rape, and aggra- 
vated assault) the number of persons charged generally equals or 
exceeds the number of offenses cleared by arrest. For manslaughter 
by negligence it is seen that in several instances the number of persons 
arrested exceeds the number of crimes committed. This is undoubt- 
edly due in part to the practice of some police departments to arrest 



21 

and formally charge all drivers of vehicles involved in traffic fatalities. 
This would include some cases in which the police investigation later 
determined the death was the result of negligence on the part of the 
victim, rather than the driver, and was therefore not scored as an 
actual offense of negligent manslaughter. 

For offenses against property (robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto 
theft) the number of offenses cleared is generally considerably in 
excess of the number of persons charged with the crimes. Quite often 
the police department will arrest one individual, and by questioning 
him and through investigation of his activities, clear a number of 
previously unsolved cases. 

Table 12. — Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and persons charged (held for 

prosecution) , 1939, by population groups — number per 100 known offenses 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 

25 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 17,055,000; 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP II 

38 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 5,382,215: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP III 

69 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 4,716,590: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP IV 

106 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 3,623, 552: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP V 

310 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 4,835,725: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP VI 

666 cities under 10,000; total popu- 
lation, 3,534,015: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

1 214 cities; total population, 
39,147,097: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



100.0 

85.8 
83.4 



100.0 

91.1 

101.3 



100.0 
90.9 
94.0 



100.0 
92.5 
95.6 



100.0 
89.6 
95.5 



100.0 
77.3 
77.3 



100.0 
87.4 
88.2 



Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 



100.0 
85.0 

158.7 



100.0 

84.5 
75.5 



100.0 

94.0 

101.5 



100.0 
96.3 
90.2 



100.0 
87.2 
84.6 



100.0 
94.4 
93.3 



100.0 

87.7 
115.9 



Rape 



100.0 
76.2 

75.2 



100.0 

83.5 
97.0 



100.0 
95.4 
98.6 



100.0 

87.3 
96.6 



100.0 

87.5 
99.3 



100.0 
84.2 
79.5 



100.0 
81.8 
84.7 



Rob- 
bery 



100.0 
42.7 
33.4 



100.0 
37.0 
41. 1 



100.0 
38.5 
33.2 



100.0 
42.1 
52. 1 



100.0 
41. 1 
53.4 



100.0 
47.3 
55.7 



100.0 
41.9 
36.8 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



100.0 
71.0 

77.1 



100.0 
71.5 
76.3 



100.0 

83.6 

101.3 



100.0 
90.2 
86.1 



100.0 

88.6 
101.3 



100.0 
86.2 
91.4 



100.0 
76.5 
83.6 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



100.0 
37.7 
23.0 



100.0 
28.5 
18.9 



100.0 
29.6 
20.2 



100.0 
32.8 
23.0 



100.0 
33.3 

26.5 



100.0 
37.4 
32.2 



100.0 
34.0 
22.9 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



100.0 
23.0 
18.5 



100.0 
25.4 
19.3 



100.0 
25.6 
21.3 



100.0 
26.0 
21.6 



100.0 

27.7 
21.2 



100.0 
30.7 
24.2 



100.0 
25.1 
20.0 



Auto 
theft 



100.0 
22.9 
19.2 



100.0 
23.4 
14.1 



100.0 
21.4 
16.3 



100.0 
24.3 
19.4 



100.0 
30.7 

27.6 



100.0 
37.6 
36.0 



100.0 
24.4 
19.6 



22 




o 



23 

Persons Charged (Held for Prosecution), 1939. 

More than 69 percent of all persons formally charged by the police 
in 1939 were held because of a violation of some motor-vehicle or 
traffic law. This includes persons who were issued parking tickets 
or police summonses and responded thereto. Over 13 percent of all 
persons taken into custody were charged with drunkenness. 

One section of the annual returns forwarded to the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation deals with persons arrested by the police, and there 
is presented in tables 13 and 14 information concerning the number 
of persons formally charged and the rate per 100,000 inhabitants for 
6 groups of cities divided according to size. These tables make it 
possible for interested persons to compare local figures concerning 
persons arrested with national averages for cities of the same size. 
In addition, the tabulation furnishes some basis for estimating the 
number of minor crimes committed; however, it should be borne in 
mind that the rules for scoring the number of items to be recorded 
concerning persons charged are not the same as for scoring the num- 
ber of offenses known to have been committed. To illustrate: If two 
persons acting jointly rob a business place and both of the offenders 
are arrested and charged with robbery, the offense report (annual 
return B) will show 1 robbery committed and 1 robbery cleared by 
arrest, while the arrest report (annual return C) will show 2 persons 
arrested and charged with robbery. Similarly, if 1 person steals 4 
automobiles, 4 offenses of this type will be reported on the annual 
offense report; and if he is taken into custody, the offense report will 
show 4 auto thefts cleared by arrest, and the arrest report will reflect 
1 person arrested and held for prosecution opposite the auto-theft 
classification. 

Although a large majority of the 4,364,420 persons arrested (in- 
cluding persons who responded to traffic tickets) by the police depart- 
ments represented in table 14 were proceeded against for compara- 
tively minor violations, it may be noted that many arrests were for 
serious crimes, as reflected in the following figures: 

Murder 1, 783 Emliezzlement and fraud 8, 952 

Manslaughter by negligence 1,353 Stolen property (receiving, etc.)- 3,945 

Robbery 8,311 Forgery and counterfeiting 4,606 

Aggravated assault 11,407 Rape 2,733 

Burglary 28,410 Narcotic drug lavi^s 2,472 

Larceny 66,586 Weapons (carrying, etc.) 5,495 

Auto theft 12, 261 

As indicated in table 14 these figures are based on the reports 
received from the police departments in only 1,214 cities with a 
combined population of 39,147,097. 

In a very small number of the reports received from police agencies, 
the data for two or more classifications were presented in a single 
figure. In such instances the arrests were distributed among the 
several classifications in the ratio in which they appeared in the 
reports received from the remaining police agencies in the same 
population group. 

As previously shown, 9 to 21 percent of the police departments in 
cities with a population in excess of 25,000 indicated that their annual 
arrest reports did not include all or part of the juveniles arrested. 
Since youthful offenders were frequently involved in offenses against 
property, it is apparent that the figures in table 13 showing arrests 
for those violations are quite conservative, 

229255° — 40 4 



24 

Table 13. — Percentage distrihxdion of persons charged {held for prosecution), 1939 
{1,214 cities; total population, 39,147,097) 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man 
slaughter 

(6) Manslaughter by negligence 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

ther assaults 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, pos 

sessing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 



Percent 



0.04 
.03 
.18 
.25 

1.16 
.63 

1.48 
.27 
.20 

.09 
.10 
.06 



Offense charged 



Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against the family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Traffic and motor-vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

All other offenses 

Total 



Percent 



0.71 

.25 

.05 

.12 

.46 

.49 

.92 

69.08 

3.52 

13.06 

1.75 

1.37 

3.73 



100.00 



Table 14. — Persons charged {held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 

100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Group I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 




Offense charged 


25 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
17,055,000 


38 
cities, 
100,000 

to 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
5,382,215 


69 
cities, 
50,000 

to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
4,716,590 


106 
cities, 
25,000 

to 
50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
3,623,552 


310 
cities, 
10,000 

to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
4,835,725 


666 
cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
3,534,015 


Total, 
1,214 
cities; 
total pop- 
ulation, 
39,147,097 


Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegli- 
gent manslaughter: 
Number of persons 
charged 


977 
5.7 

760 
4.5 

5,204 
30.5 

5,208 
30.5 

22, 233 
130.4 

11.723 
68,7 

25, 972 
152.3 

5,520 
32.4 

4,769 
28.0 

1,762 
10.3 

1,269 
7.4 

1,223 
7.2 


240 
4.5 

200 
3.7 

926 
17.2 

1,646 
30.6 

8,308 
154.4 

4, 173 

77.5 

1 10, 294 
202.6 

1,670 
31.0 

1,208 
22.4 

608 
11.3 

815 
15.1 

382 
7.1 


218 
4.6 

136 
2.9 

590 

12.5 

1,847 
39.2 

0,823 
144.7 

3,486 
73.9 

9,418 
199.7 

1,195 
25.3 

3 1, 053 
22.0 

5 511 

11.0 

741 
15.7 

346 
7.3 


152 
4.2 

74 
2.0 

568 
15.7 

985 
27.2 

6,409 
176.9 

2,790 
77.0 

7,675 
211.8 

1,087 
30.0 

629 
17.4 

336 
9.3 

524 
14.5 

258 
7.1 


128 
2.6 

99 
2.0 

606 
12.5 

1,127 
23.3 

6,179 

127.8 

3,458 
71.5 

8,276 
171. 1 

1,623 
33.6 

866 
17.9 

469 
9.7 

698 
14.4 

287 
5.9 


68 
1.9 

84 
2.4 

417 
11.8 

594 
16.8 

2,814 
79.6 

2,780 
78.7 

4,951 
140. 1 

1, 166 
33.0 

427 
12.1 

259 
7.3 

559 
l."). 8 

237 
6.7 


1,783 


Rate per 100,000 


4.6 


(6) Manslaughter by negli- 
gence: 

Number of persons 
charged 

Rate per 100,000 


1, 353 
3.5 


Robbery: 

Number of persons charged, . 
Rate per 100,000 


8,311 
2L2 


Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged- _ 
Rate per 100,000 


11, 407 
29.1 


Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged- _ 
Rate per 100,000 


52, 766 
134.8 


Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Number of persons charged, - 
Rate per 100,000 


28, 410 

72.6 


Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged. _ 
Rate per 100,000 


3 66, 586 
171.4 


Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged. _ 
Rate per 100,000 - 


12, 261 
31.3 


Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged. _ 
Rate per 100,000. 


1 8, 952 
22.9 


Stolen property; buying, receiv- 
ing, possessing: 
Number of persons charged . . 
Rate per 100,000 


3,945 
10.1 


Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged . . 
Rate per 100,000 


4,606 
11.8 


Rape: 

Number of persons charged. - 
Rate per 100,000 


2,733 
7.0 



For footnotes, see end of table. 



25 

Table 14. — Persons charged {held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 



per 




i-is The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports from the number of cities indi- 
cated below: 



Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


1 

2 

3 


36 
1,212 

68 
1,213 

68 


5, 079, 915 

38, 844, 797 
4, 657, 090 

39, 087, 597 
4, 650, 890 


6 

7_-__ 

8 


1,213 
24 

1,213 
37 

1,212 


39, 081, 397 
16,737,100 
38, 829, 197 
5, 264, 615 
38, 963, 797 


11 

12 

13 

14 

15.. 


24 

36 

68 

104 

1,208 


15, 388, 900 
5, 052, 415 
4, 645, 490 


4 

5 


9 

10... 


3, 563, 852 
37. 020, 397 







Of the persons formally charged by police departments with traffic 
violations, 59 percent had violated some parking regulation. Thirty- 
one percent of the persons charged with traffic infractions were pro- 
ceeded against for violations of road and driving laws with respect to 
the proper handling of a motor vehicle in order to avoid accidents, 
such as failure to obey traffic signal, improper speed, recldess driving, 
and operating with unsafe equipment. The remaining 10 percent were 



26 



charged with violating some other type of traffic or motor-vehicle law, 
including failure to secure proper license for car or driver, leaving scene 
of an accident, lack of title, and obscured or defective markers. 

Figures concerning persons charged with traffic violations and the 
rate per 100,000 inhabitants for 6 different groups of cities divided 
according to size are presented in table 15. 

Table 15. — Persons charged {held for prosecution), traffic violations, except driving 

lohile intoxicated, 1939; number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by popidation 

groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons charged 
Rate per 100,000 

Parking violations: 

Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 

Other traffic and motor-vehicle 
laws: 
Number of persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 



Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 
508 cities 


18 cities 


24 cities, 


48 cities. 


73 cities. 


218 cities, 


over 


100,000 to 


50,000 to 


25,000 to 


10,000 to 


under 


250,000; 


250,000; 


100.000; 


50,000; 


25,000; 


10,000; 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


popula- 


tion, 


tion, 


tion. 


tion. 


tion, 


tion. 


11,234,800 


3,358,107 


3,278,034 


2,509,833 


3,456,110 


2,758,675 


376, 179 


55, 343 


61, 493 


29, 505 


47, 707 


39, 561 


3, 348. 3 


1,648.0 


1, 875. 9 


1.175.6 


1, 380. 4 


1, 434. 1 


493, 659 


262, 392 


141. 293 


lOfl. 783 


110, 335 


44, 095 


4. 394. 


7,813.7 


4, 310. 3 


4, 2.54. 6 


3. 192. 5 


1, 598. 4 


125. 488 


18,010 


19, 417 


10. 779 


9,958 


12, 322 


1,117.0 


536.5 


592.3 


429.5 


288.1 


446.7 



Total, 
889 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
26,595,559 



609, 788 
2, 292, 8 

1, 158, 557 
4, 356. 2 



195, 980 
736.9 



Offenses Known, Offenses Cleared by Arrest, and Persons Found Guilty. 

Last year 76.9 percent of the persons held for prosecution for 
part I classes of offenses (homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, 
burglary, larceny, and auto theft) were found guilty by the courts, 
according to the reports received from 78 police departments in 
cities over 25,000 in population. These reports showed that of the 
36,222 persons formally charged, 23,755 (65.6 percent) were found 
guilty as charged, and 4,096 (11.3 percent) were found guilty of a 
lesser offense. 

The detailed figures for the individual offenses are presented in 
table 16 and show not only the offenses known and the offenses 
cleared by arrest for the cities represented, but also the number of 
persons formally charged by the police and the number that were 
found guilty. 

For the part II offense classes, 79.0 percent of the persons held for 
prosecution were found guilty. The police departments in the 
cities represented charged 1,173,642 persons with the violations 
shown in table 17. Of these, 921,718, or 78.6 percent, were found 
guilty of the offense charged, and 4,969, or 0.4 percent, were found 
guilty of lesser offenses. 

The figures for the part II offense classes presented in table 17 
indicate only the number of persons arrested and the number of 
persons found guilty, inasmuch as the annual reports provide for the 
listing of offenses committed only for the part I classes. 

In several instances the offense classes shown in table 17 are not 
identical with those shown in table 14. This is due to the fact that 
some of the reports did not include separate figures for the offense 
classes which have been consolidated in table 17. 



27 

The figures in tables 16 and 17 are limited to the reports received 
from 78 police departments, inasmuch as a careful examination of 
them indicated that they had been properly compiled with reference 
to this particular type of information. For record purposes, it may 
be noted that if all persons listed as found guilty were indicated as 
having been found guilty of the offense charged, the report was not 
included in the tabulation. Similarly the reports showing an un- 
usually low or exceedingly high proportion of persons found guilty 
were excluded, on the assumption that they were probably not 
correct. An additional requirement for inclusion of the report in 
these compilations was that it be accompanied by a statement in- 
dicating affirmatively that the figures concerning persons found 
guilty represented the final disposition of the charge as distinguished 
from the disposition at some intermediate judicial stage. 



Table 16. — Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and number of persons found 
guilty, 1939; 78 cities over 25,000 in pop.ulation 

[Total population, 12,801,421, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense (Part I classes) 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent 
manslaughter 

(6) Manslaughter by negli- 
gence 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft (except auto theft) . 
Auto theft 



Number 

of offenses 

known 

to the 

police 



771 

379 

1,335 

12, 185 

5,197 

40,587 

115, 785 

17, 475 



Number 

of offenses 

cleared 

by arrest 



667 

305 

958 

4,629 

3,335 

14, 084 

25, 849 

3,717 



Number 
of persons 
charged 
(held for 
prosecu- 
tion) 



635 

465 
834 
3,034 
3,688 
7,061 
18, 018 
2,487 



Number 
found 

guilty of 
offense 

charged 



315 

144 
355 
1,597 
1,792 
4,061 
13, 719 
1,772 



Number 
found 

guilty of 
lesser 

offense 



79 

21 
167 
819 
412 
1,438 
894 
266 



Total 
found 
guilty (of 
offense 
charged 
or lesser 
offense) 



394 

165 
522 
2,416 
2,204 
5,499 
14, 613 
2,038 



Per- 
cent- 
age 
found 
guilty 



62.0 

35.5 
62.6 
79.6 
59.8 
77.9 
81.1 
81.9 



Tablk 17. — Number of persons charged {held for prosecution) and number found 
guilty, 1939; 78 cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 12,801,421, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census! 



Offense (Part H classes) 



Other assaults 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Sex offenses (including prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice) 

Offenses against the family and children 

Narcotic drug laws 

Liquor laws 

Drunkenness; disorderly conduct and vagrancy 

Gambling 

Driving while intoxicated 

Traffic and motor-vehicle laws 

All other offenses 



Number 

of persons 

charged 

(held for 


Number 


Number 


Total 
found 


found 


found 


guilty (of 


guilty of 


guilty of 


offense 


offense 


lesser 


charged or 


tion) 


charged 


offense 


of lesser 
offense) 


14, 022 


8,667 


242 


8,909 


988 


695 


104 


799 


3,985 


2,164 


267 


2,431 


1,309 


709 


111 


820 


1,604 


1,191 


76 


1,267 


17, 755 


7,528 


156 


7,684 


1 8, 205 


1 4, 424 


1 192 


1 4. 616 


804 


495 


14 


509 


6,516 


5,113 


148 


5,261 


206, 475 


133, 785 


938 


134, 723 


17, 531 


8,702 


233 


8,935 


8,533 


6,522 


813 


7,335 


2 843, 054 


2 718, 379 


2 915 


2 719, 294 


42, 861 


23, 344 


760 


24, 104 



Percent- 
age 
found 
guilty 



63.5 
80.9 
61.0 
62.6 
79.0 

43.3 
156.3 
63.3 
80.7 
65.2 
51.0 
86.0 
2 85.3 
56.2 



1 Based on reports of 77 cities with a total population of 12,683,821. 

2 Based on reports of 77 cities with a total population of 11,135,321. 



28 




CO 

a 
o 



29 




p 
o 



30 

Persons Released (Not Held for Prosecution) , 1939. 

The annual report concerning persons dealt with by the police 
provides for a listing of the number of persons taken into custody who 
were released without any formal charge having been placed against 
them. Information of this type based on reports received from 
police departments of 872 cities with a total population of 23,955,440 
is presented in table 18. The number of cities represented is sub- 
stantially less than in table 14 because the reports were excluded if 
there were no entries in the column devoted to persons released, or if 
the entries appeared to be incomplete, or otherwise incorrect. Reports 
listing persons released opposite only the classification ''suspicion" 
were included in the compilation. 

The figures in the following table include persons who were taken 
into custody because it was thought they had been involved in the 
commission of crimes and who were later released either because it 
was found that they were innocent or because of insufficient evidence. 
Also, the table includes instances in which youthful persons were 
taken into custody but were released because the complaining wit- 
nesses refused to prosecute when they learned of the youth of the 
offender. Likewise, the compilation includes individuals who were 
taken into custody and released with a reprimand or on the "golden 
rule" principle. Persons summoned, notified, or cited to appear in 
court or at a police traffic bureau because of alleged violations, who 
failed to appear in response thereto, and who were not subsequently 
arrested, are also represented in table 18. Warning tags issued in 
some cities for minor violations of traffic regulations are also repre- 
sented in the following tabulation. 

With reference to the classification "suspicion," it should be noted 
that if a person was taken into custody because it was suspected 
that he had been involved in the commission of a specific offense, 
his arrest and subsequent release without being held for prosecution 
should be listed opposite the offense class involved. Entries in table 
18 opposite "suspicion" should be limited to instances in which 
persons were taken into custody because of circumstances which 
caused the police to believe that they had been involved in criminal 
activities of some nature, although they were not taken into custody 
in connection with some specific offense. From an examination of 
the reports received, it appears probable that in some instances the 
entries were placed opposite "suspicion" when they would have been 
more properly listed opposite some other offense class in accordance 
with the foregoing explanation. 



31 



Table 18. — Persons released without being held for prosecution, 1939; number and 
rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



O flense 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent 
manslaughter: 
Number of persons released _ 
Rate per 100,000 

(6) Manslaughter by negligence: 
Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons released. . 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary— breaking or entering: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny— theft : 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, 
possessing: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons released . . 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized 
vice: 

Number of i)ersons released. . . 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prosti- 
tution) : 

Number of persons released. . 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons released . . 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Numberof persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons released.. .. 

Rate per 100,000 

Trafflc and motor- vehicle laws: 

Numberof persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

For footnotes, see end of table. 



Group 
I 



16 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

8,982,500 



115 
1.3 

90 
1.0 

745 
8.3 

615 

6.8 

2.309 
2.5.7 

1,321 
14.7 

3,249 
36.2 

471 
5.2 

347 
3.9 



161 

1.8 

78 
.9 

202 
2.2 



5,389 
60.0 



192 
2.1 

200 
2.2 

166 

1.8 

184 
2.0 

532 
5.9 

63 
.7 

5 128, 727 
1, 864. 6 

2, 587 
28.8 



Group 
II 



21 cities, 
100, 000 to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,957,797 



6 
.2 

12 
.4 

135 
4.6 

139 
4.7 

271 
9.2 

453 
15.3 

673 

22.8 

204 
6.9 

73 
2.5 



38 
1.3 

37 
1.3 

39 
1.3 



346 

11.7 



77 
2.6 

38 
1.3 

34 
1.1 

3 13 

.5 

254 
8.6 

48 
1.6 

8 87,515 
3, 330. 1 

600 
20.3 



Group 
III 



46cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
3,113,258 



21 
.7 

24 

.8 

126 
4.0 

115 
3.7 

304 

9.8 

486 
15.6 

1,435 
46.1 



Group 
IV 



74 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,620,064 



23 
.9 

10 
.4 

84 
3.2 

22 



149 

5.7 

317 
12.1 

677 
25.8 



Group 
V 



234cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
3,646,611 



136 
4.4 


123 

4.7 


117 
3.8 


18 
.7 


' 80 
2.6 


27 
1.0 


82 
2.6 


32 
1.2 


63 
2.0 


16 
.6 


91 
2.9 


17 
.6 


138 
4.4 


77 
2.9 


37 
1.2 


3 
.1 


47 
1.5 


4 
.2 


'95 
3.1 


57 
2.2 


198 
6.4 


46 
1.8 


86 

2.8 


67 
2.6 


26, 276 

858.5 


« 50, 131 
1, 935. 6 


967 
31.1 


555 
21.2 



12 
.3 

9 
.2 

173 

4.7 

83 
2.3 

539 
14.8 

802 
22.0 

1,650 
45.2 

248 
6.8 

138 
3.8 



105 
2.9 

93 

2.6 



Group 
VI 



481 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

2,635,210 



35 
1.0 



45 
1.2 



91 
2.5 



27 
.7 

306 
8.4 

95 
2.6 

143 
3.9 

59, 956 
1, 644. 2 

1,560 
42.8 



9 
.3 

12 

.5 

139 
5.3 

79 
3.0 

367 
13.9 

838 
31.8 

1,321 
50.1 

259 
9.8 

68 
2.6 



105 
4.0 

83 
3.1 

45 
1.7 



Total, 
872 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
23,955,440 



82 
3.1 



74 

2.8 

23 



35 
1.3 

230 

8.7 

100 
3.8 

233 

8.8 

33, 818 
1, 283. 3 

1,515 
57.5 



186 
.8 

157 

.7 

1,402 
5.9 

1,053 
4.4 

3,939 
16.4 

4,217 
17.6 

9,005 
37.6 

1,441 
6.0 

761 
3.2 



3 516 
2.2 

405 
1.7 

400 
1.7 



5,970 
24.9 



649 

2,7 

320 
1.3 

313 
1.3 

*885 
3.7 

1,225 
5.1 

640 
2.7 

' 386, 423 
1, 800. 3 

7,784 
32.5 



32 

Table 18. — Persons released without being held for prosecution, 1939; number and 
rale per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups- — Continued 



Offense 



Drunkenness: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons released. 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Suspicion: 

Number of persons released . 

Rate per 100,000 

All other oflenses: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 
I 



16 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

8,982,500 



37, 396 
416.3 

205 
2.3 

12, 869 
143.3 

66, 437 
739.6 

7,304 
81.3 



Group 
II 



21 cities, 
100,000 to 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
2,957,797 



4,871 
164.7 

1,251 
42.3 

141 

4.8 

12, 4(50 
421.3 

2,999 
101.4 



Group 
III 



46 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
3,113,258 



Group 
IV 



15, 454 

496.4 

1,012 
32.5 

283 
9. 1 

20, 040 
643.7 

2,789 
89.6 



74 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,620,064 



3,090 
117.9 

1,746 
66.6 

29 
1.1 

7,909 
301.9 

2,592 
98.9 



Group 
V 



234cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
3,646,611 



5,664 
155.3 

2,449 
67.2 

171 
4.7 

13, 401 
367.5 

4,447 
121.9 



Group 
VI 



481 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

2,635,210 



6,960 
264. 1 

5,358 
203.3 

182 
6.9 

6,960 
264.1 

2, 394 
90.8 



Total, 
872 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
23,955,440 



73. 435 

306.5 

12,021 
50.2 

13, 675 
57.1 

127, 207 
531.0 

22,525 
94.0 



'-» The number of persons released and the rate are based on the reports from the number of cities indicated 
below: 



Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


1 

2 


45 

871 
20 


3, 047, 558 

23. 889, 740 

2, 840, 197 


4 

5____ 

6-- 


870 
14 
19 


23, 772, 140 
6, 903, 800 
2, 627, 997 


7 

8 


45 

73 

866 


3, 060, 758 
2. 589. 964 


3 


9 


21, 464, 340 









The figures in table 18 opposite the classification traffic and motor- 
vehicle laws include all types of violations of traflTic laws, inasmuch as 
more detailed information was not included on many of the reports 
used. The reports of 605 cities, however, did present detailed figures 
of this type, and the available data are shown in table 19 for 6 different 
groups of cities. 

It -is noted that 74.6 percent of the persons released were shown 
opposite the classification parking violations, and the corresponding 
percentages for road and driving laws and other traffic and motor- 
vehicle laws were 17.7 and 7.7 percent, respectively. The high per- 
centage of "persons released" for parking violations undoubtedly is the 
result of the issuance of parking tickets without the subsequent re- 
sponse of the oft'ender or his arrest by the police, and the practice 
employed in some jurisdictions of issuing warning tags. 



33 



Table 19. — Persons released without being held for prosecution, traffic violations, 
except driving while intoxicated, 1939; number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, 
by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense 



Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Parking violations: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Other traffic and motor-vehicle laws: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 



Group I 



9 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
3,801,600 



22. 633 

595.4 

22, 443 
590.4 

3,158 
83.1 



Group 
II 



15 cities, 
100,000 

to 
2.50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,968,397 



11, 707 
594.7 

68,364 
3, 473. 1 

7,444 
378.2 



Group 
III 



30 cities. 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,125,058 



2,047 
96.3 

22, 327 
1, 050. 7 

2,978 
140.1 



Group 
IV 



47 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,661,068 



2,696 
162.3 

19, 474 

1, 172. 4 

3,479 
209.4 



Group 

V 



167 cit- 
ies, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
2,507,609 



2,842 
113. 3 

46, 746 
1, 864. 2 



1,312 
52.3 



Group 
VI 



337 Pit- 
ies un- 
der 
10,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,874,380 



5,665 
302. 2 

21, 035 
1,122.2 

2,183 
116.5 



Total, 
605 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
13,938,112 



47, 590 
341.4 

200,389 
1, 437. 7 

20,554 
147.5 



Percentage of Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1934-39. 

Annual trends in the percentage of offenses cleared by arrest are 
shown m table 20. With the exception of auto theft the compilation 
does not show for any of the types of crimes a regular annual improve- 
ment in the proportion of cases cleared. It is interesting to note, 
however, that the reports of the 47 cities representing a total popula- 
tion of 16,490,615 have shown a rather steady increase over the period 
of 1934-39 in the percentage of auto thefts cleared by arrest. The 
proportion of offenses of auto theft cleared increased from 13.4 percent 
in 1934 to 22.5 percent in 1939. For all the other crimes except 
larceny slight decreases were seen in the percentage of offenses cleared 
during 1939 as compared with 1938 in the cities represented. 



Table 20. — Percentage of offenses cleared by arrest, 1934-39 
[47 cities over 100,000, total population 16,490,615, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the ^Census] 



Year 



1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 



Criminal homicide 


















Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 


Bur- 
glary— 


Lar- 






Murder, 


Man- 


Rape 


vated 


break- 


ceny- 


nonnegli- 


slaughter 




assault 


mg or 


theft 1 


gent man- 


by negli- 








entering 




slaughter 


gence 












80.0 


80.8 


77.7 


35.6 


64.5 


29.0 


24.0 


84.7 


74.3 


69.7 


47.6 


60.8 


33.6 


24.8 


81.0 


80.7 


71.2 


44.8 


62.7 


37.6 


23.9 


80.0 


81.3 


72.1 


35.8 


65.0 


32.8 


22.7 


89.3 


81.9 


76.3 


42.9 


70.2 


36.7 


21.2 


86.6 


81.4 


75.1 


41.0 


69.2 


35.6 


21.4 



Auto 
theft 2 



13.4 
17.2 
19.2 
23.5 
21.4 
22.5 



1 The data for larceny — theft are based on reports of 45 cities with a total population of 16,091,481. 
' The data for auto theft are based on reports of 43 cities with a total population of 12,099,915. 



34 



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35 

Offenses Known, Offenses Cleared by Arrest, and Persons Charged, by 
Geographic Divisions, 1939. 

Many persons studying average figures concernnig offenses com- 
mitted, offenses cleared by arrest, and persons charged, will undoubt- 
edly be interested in such data for a particular locality or geographic 
division. In the preceding tables, the figures are for the various 
groups of cities divided according to size only; and the information 
presented in tables 21-38 is based on the same reports. However, the 
cities have been divided into nine geographic divisions, and within 
each division the cities have been further subdivided according to size. 
This makes it possible to compare local figures concerning offenses 
cleared by arrest and persons charged with average figures for cities 
of the same size in the same section of the United States. 

In tables such as those which follow, where the cities are divided 
according to size within each geographic division, in some of the 
groups the total number of cities represented is necessarily small. 
Under such circumstances considerable variation in the proportion of 
offenses cleared by arrest is to be expected. Unusually low figures 
may be partially attributable to a failure to maintain a complete 
record of offenses cleared. Likewise, inadequate personnel would 
cause a tendency toward low figures. On the other hand, figures 
showing an unusually high proportion of offenses cleared may indicate 
a failure to maintain a complete record of all crimes committed, par- 
ticularly thefts involving property of comparatively small value. 
Such incompleteness in the record of offenses committed would tend to 
result in an artificially high figure concerning the percentage of offenses 
cleared by arrest. 

Figures for prostitution and commercialized vice may be considered 
conservative, inasmuch as in many jurisdictions, persons taken into 
custody for such violations are charged with vagrancy or disorderly 
conduct, and such arrests would of course be listed opposite those 
offense classes. 

For a list of the States included in the nine geographic divisions, 
reference may be made to the data immediately preceding table 4 of 
this issue of the bulletin. 



36 



Table 21.- 



-Number of offenses known, nu?nber and percentage of offenses cleared by 
arrest^ 1939, by population groups 

NEW ENGLAND STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 


Lar- 
ceny- 




Population group 


Murder, 


Man- 


Auto 
theft 




nonnegli- 


slaughter 




assault 


mgor 


theft 




gent man- 


by negli- 








entering 








slaughter 


gence 














Group I.— 2 cities over 250,000; 


















total population, 1,042,500: 


















Number of offenses known. 


8 


51 


127 


375 


201 


1,637 


4,033 


3,255 


Number cleared by arrest 


7 


50 


125 


258 


195 


983 


2,680 


795 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


87.5 


98.0 


98.4 


68.8 


97.0 


60.0 


66.5 


24.4 


Group II.— 10 cities, 100,000 to 


















250,000; total population, 1,378,105: 


















Number of offenses known 


15 


24 


74 


302 


197 


5.320 


9,959 


2,998 


Number cleared by arrest 


13 


24 


73 


112 


153 


1,387 


2,209 


627 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


86.7 


100.0 


98.6 


37.1 


77.7 


26.1 


22.2 


20.9 


Group III.— 7 cities, 50,000 to 100,- 


















000, total population, 479,699: 


















Number of offenses known 


2 


10 


38 


55 


19 


1,260 


2,719 


575 


Number cleared by arrest 


2 


10 


33 


28 


20 


337 


645 


115 


Percentage cleared by arrest. .- 


100.0 


100.0 


86.8 


50.9 


105.3 


26.7 


23.7 


20.0 


Group IV.— 19 cities, 25,000 to 50,- 


















000; total population, 680,892: 


















Number of offenses known 


4 


10 


32 


99 


70 


2,017 


4,439 


766 


Number cleared by arrest 


4 


10 


30 


59 


53 


651 


1,332 


211 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


100.0 


100.0 


93.8 


59.0 


75.7 


32.3 


30.0 


27.5 


Group v.— 45 cities, 10,000 to 25,- 


















000; total population, 722,606: 


















Number of offenses known 


3 


18 


39 


66 


41 


1,479 


3,443 


4,32 


Number cleared by arrest 


1 


16 


37 


39 


35 


437 


930 


144 


Percentage cleared by arrest. .. 


33.3 


88.9 


94.9 


59.1 


85.4 


29.5 


27.0 


33.3 


Group VI.— 36 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 232,255: 


















Number of offenses known 




5 
5 


25 
23 


14 
6 


4 
3 


502 
234 


789 
258 


117 


Number cleared by arrest 




60 


Percentage cleared by arrest. 




100.0 


92.0 


42.9 


75.0 


46.6 


32.7 


51.3 


Total, 119 cities; total population, 


















4,542,057: 


















Number of offenses known 


32 


118 


335 


911 


532 


12,215 


25,382 


8,143 


. Number cleared by arrest 


27 


115 


321 


502 


459 


4,029 


8.054 


1.952 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


84.4 


97.5 


95.8 


55.1 


86.3 


33.0 


31.7 


24.0 



Table 22. — Persons charged {held for prosecution) , 1939, number and rate per 100,000 

inhabitants, by population groups 

NEW ENGLAND STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Group I 


Group II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


Total, 


Offense charged 


2 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

1,042,500 


10 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,378,105 


7 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
479,699 


19 cities, 
25,000 to 

50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 

686,892 


45 cities, 
10,000 to 

25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 

722,606 


36 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

232,255 


119 cities; 
total 

popula- 
tion, 

4,542,057 


Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent 
manslaughter: 
Number of persons charged 


9 
.9 

83 
8.0 

399 
38.3 

193 
18.5 


9 

.7 

27 
2.0 

142 
10.3 

163 
11.8 


1 
.2 

10 

2.1 

37 

7.7 

27 
5.6 


3 
.4 

7 
1.0 

66 
9.6 

68 
9.9 


1 
.1 

16 
2.2 

49 

6.8 

44 
6.1 




23 


Rate per 100,000 . 




0.5 


(6) Manslaughter by negligence: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


5 
2.2 

11 

4.7 

5 
2.2 


148 
3.3 


Robbery: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


704 
15.5 


Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


500 
11.0 



37 

Table 22. — Persons charged (held for prosecution) , 1939, number and rate per 100,000 
inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

NEW ENGLAND STATES— Continued 



Offense charged 



Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100.000 

Burglary— breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny — thoft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged j _ 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, 
possessing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitu- 
tion): 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,060 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor-vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100.000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 _._ 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group I 



2 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

1,042,500 



1, .386 
132.9 

1,606 
154.1 

2,580 
247.5 

779 
74.7 

149 
14.3 



240 
23.0 

65 
6.2 

127 
12.2 

221 
21.2 



1,496 
143.5 

202 
19.4 

171 
16.4 

903 
86.6 

179 

17.2 

543 
52.1 

60, 982 
5, 849. 6 

408 
39.1 

43. 893 

4,210.4 

164 
15.7 

1,487 
142.6 

6,798 
652.1 



Group II 



10 cities. 
100,000 to 
2.50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,378,105 



1,319 

95.7 

1,095 
79.5 

2,115 
153. 5 

449 
32.6 

164 
11.9 



138 
10.0 

83 
6.0 

85 
6.2 

186 
13.5 



842 
61.1 

41 
3.0 

73 
5.3 

1,471 
106.7 

283 
20.5 

838 
60.8 

70, 792 
5,136.9 

2,164 
157.0 

25, 262 
1, 833. 1 

1,027 

74.5 

932 
67.6 

6,866 
498.2 



Group 
III 



7 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000: 
popula- 
tion, 
479,699 



426 

88.8 

237 
49.4 

534 
111.3 

99 
20.6 

24 
5.0 



28 
5.8 

13 
2.7 

35 
7.3 



1.7 



240 
50.0 



16 
3.3 

341 
71.1 

23 

4.8 

283 
59.0 

■ 3, 795 

928.8 

314 
65.5 

8,899 
1, 855. 1 

202 
42.1 

297 
61.9 

1,025 
213.7 



Group 
IV 



19 cities, 
25,000 to 

50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 

686,892 



638 
92.9 

452 
6.5.8 

1, 165 
169.6 

167 
24.3 

36 
5.2 



41 
6.0 

22 
3.2 

2.3 
3.3 

46 
6.7 



259 
37.7 



1.2 

27 
3.9 

564 
82.1 

92 
13.4 

560 
81.5 

16, 786 
2, 443. 8 

529 
77.0 

7,745 
1, 127. 5 

388 
56.5 

363 

52.8 

1,949 
283.7 



Group 
V 



45 cities, 
10,000 to 

25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 

722,606 



535 
74.0 

373 
51.6 

818 
113.2 

170 
2.3.5 

52 
7.2 



49 
6.8 

13 



41 

5.7 



1.1 



221 
30.6 

1 
.1 

25 
3.5 

465 
64.4 

58 
8.0 

883 
122.2 

9,771 
1, 352. 2 

382 
52.9 

7,617 
1,054.1 

538 
74.5 

212 
29.3 

2,210 
305.8 



Group 
VI 



36 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
2.32,255 



232 
99.9 

166 

71.5 

236 
101.6 

54 
23.3 

22 
9.5 



24 
10.3 

12 

5.2 

22 
9.5 



83 
35.7 



10 
4.3 

149 
64.2 

28 
12.1 

389 
167.5 

2,361 
1,016.6 

140 
60.3 

2,090 
899.9 

66 

28.4 

47 
20.2 

652 
280.7 



Total, 
119 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
4,542,057 



4,536 
99.9 

3,929 
86.5 

7.448 
164.0 

1,718 
37.8 

447 



520 
11.4 

208 
4.6 

333 
7.3 

469 
10.3 



3,141 
69.2 

252 
5.5 

322 

7.1 

3,893 

85.7 

663 
14.6 

3,496 
77.0 

a 164, 487 
3, 679. 

3,937 

86.7 

95,506 
2, 102. 7 

2,385 
52.5 

3,338 

73. 5 

19,500 
429.3 



'-' The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports of the number of cities as fol- 
lows: (1) 6 cities, 408,599 population; (2) 118 cities, 4,470,957 population. 



Table 23.- 



38 

-Numher of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared 
by arrest, 1939, by population groups 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 






















Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 


Bur- 
glary- 


Lar- 










Auto 


Population group 


Murder, 


Man- 


Rape 


vated 


break- 


ceny- 


theft 




non negli- 


slaughter 




assault 


ing or 


theft 






gent man- 


by negli- 








entering 








slaughter 


gence 














Group I.— 3 cities over 250,000; 


















total population, 2,890,600: 


















Number of offenses known 


148 


48 


154 


926 


777 


3,872 


7,121 


3,914 


Number cleared by arrest 


137 


46 


147 


546 


680 


1,893 


2,922 


589 


Percentage cleared by arrest. .- 


92.6 


95.8 


95.5 


59.0 


87.5 


48.9 


41.0 


15.0 


Group II.— 7 cities, 100,000 to 250,- 


















000; total population, 968,000: 


















Number of offenses known 


9 


46 


62 


151 


154 


2,158 


5,127 


1,415 


Number cleared by arrest 


9 


43 


58 


68 


128 


790 


1,759 


243 


Percentage cleared by arrest- . . 


100.0 


93.5 


90.3 


45.0 


83.1 


36.6 


34.3 


17.2 


Group III.— 15 cities, 50,000 to 100,- 


















000; total population, 1,098,800: 


















Number of offenses known 


28 


9 


77 


237 


337 


3.435 


6,341 


1,536 


Number cleared by arrest 


27 


6 


81 


127 


291 


950 


1,575 


269 


Percentage cleared by arrest- ._ 


96.4 


66.7 


105.2 


53.6 


86.4 


27.7 


24.8 


17.5 


Group IV.— 20 cities, 25,000 to 50,- 


















000; total population, 660,700: 


















Number of offenses known 


9 


26 


75 


121 


154 


1,479 


3,451 


695 


Number cleared by arrest 


5 


25 


62 


55 


146 


504 


884 


146 


Percentage cleared by arrest-.. 


55.6 


96.2 


82.7 


45.5 


94.8 


34.1 


25.6 


21.0 


Group v.— 78 cities, 10,000 to 25,- 


















000; total population, 1,260,063: 


















Number of offenses known 


20 


43 


68 


154 


235 


2,529 


5,702 


1,126 


Number cleared by arrest 


19 


35 


63 


68 


195 


843 


1,534 


349 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


95.0 


81.4 


92.6 


44.2 


83.0 


33.3 


26.9 


31.0 


Group VI.— 202 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 1,036,114: 


















Number of offenses known 


15 


39 


75 


110 


122 


1,598 


3,060 


547 


Number cleared by arrest 


12 


38 


65 


66 


120 


635 


996 


236 


Percentage cleared by arrest. -_ 


80.0 


97.4 


86.7 


60.0 


98.4 


39.7 


32.5 


43.1 


Total, 325 cities; total population, 
7,914,277: 
Number of offenses known 


















229 


211 


511 


1,699 


1,779 


15,071' 


30,802 


9,233 


Number cleared by arrest 


209 


193 


474 


930 


1,560 


5,615 


9,670 


1,832 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


91.3 


91.5 


92.8 


54.7 


87.7 


37.3 


31.4 


19.8 



Table 24. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1939, numher and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent 
manslaughter: 
Number of persons charged... 

Rate per 100,000 

(6) Manslaughter by negligence: 
Number of persons charged. -- 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons charged - 

Rate per 100,000 



Group I 



3 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
2, 890, 600 



136 
4.7 

43 

1.5 

431 
14.9 



Group II 



7 cities, 
100,000 

to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
968,000 



49 
5.1 

71 
7.3 



Group 
III 



15 cities, 
50,000 to 

100,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
1, 098, 800 



26 
2.4 

17 
1.5 

130 
11.8 



Group 
IV 



20 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
660,700 



27 
4.1 

76 
11.5 



Group V 



78 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1, 260, 063 



20 
1.6 

39 
3.1 

82 
6.5 



Group 
VI 



202 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

1,036,114 



11 
1.1 

37 
3.6 



9.5 



Total, 
325 cities, 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
7, 914, 277 



206 
2.6 

212 
2.7 



11.2 



39 



Table 24. — Persons charged {held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate -per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES— Continued 



Offense charged 



Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary — breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny — theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, 
possessing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitu- 
tion) : 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number o f persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor-vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number o f persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per lfX),000 



Group I 



3 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
2, 890, 600 



740 
25.6 

4,414 
152.7 

1,861 
64.4 

2,780 
96.2 

1,011 
35.0 

150 
5.2 



292 
10.1 

98 
3.4 

151 
5.2 

5,721 
197.9 



435 
15.0 

167 
5.8 

420 
14.5 

1,153 
39.9 

972 
33.6 

1,020 
35.3 

123, 552 
4, 274. 3 

10, 782 
373.0 

38, 694 
1, 338. 6 

3,563 
123.3 

1,763 
61.0 

14, 256 
493.2 



Group II 



7 cities, 
100,000 

to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
968,000 



159 
16.4 

1,288 
133.1 

466 

48.1 

997 
103.0 

153 
15.8 

112 

n.6 



28 
2.9 

61 
6.3 

65 
6.7 

436 
45.0 



90 
9.3 

17 
1.8 

51 
5.3 

293 
30.3 

93 
9.6 

318 
32.9 

74, 801 

7, 727. 4 

2,449 
253.0 

10,976 
1, 133. 9 

822 
84.9 

286 
29.5 

2,179 
225.1 



Group 
III 



15 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1, 098, 800 



307 
27.9 

852 
77.5 

664 
60.4 

1,502 
136.7 

256 
23.3 

189 
17.2 



78 
7.1 

66 
6.0 

92 
8.4 

432 
39.3 



191 
17.4 

24 
2.2 

105 
9.6 

343 
31.2 

169 
15.4 

465 
42.3 

48, 861 
4, 446. 8 

3,328 
302.9 

10, 204 
928.6 

1,475 
134.2 

387 
35.2 

3,712 
337.8 



Group 
IV 



20 cities, 
25,000 to 

50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 

660,700 



153 
23.2 

1,296 
196.2 

420 
6,3.6 

977 
147.9 

131 
19.8 

152 
23.0 



40 
6.1 

38 
5.8 

66 
10.0 

91 
13.8 



121 

18.3 

4 
0.6 

50 
7.6 

386 
58.4 

97 
14.7 

341 
51.6 

46,298 
7, 007. 4 

2,862 
433.2 

5,743 
869.2 

485 
73.4 

290 
43.9 

2,530 
382.9 



GroupV 



78 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1, 260, 063 



234 

18.6 

1,439 
114.2 

664 
52.7 

1,347 
106.9 

272 
21.6 

199 
15.8 



59 
4.7 



7.8 

72 
5.7 



7.0 



221 
17.5 

14 
1.1 

79 
6.3 

407 
32.3 

128 
10.2 

643 
51.0 

56, 223 
4, 461. 9 

5,138 
407.8 

8,404 
667.0 

1,094 
86.8 

348 
27.6 

3,406 
270.3 



Group 
VI 



202 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

1, 036, 114 



129 
12.5 

700 
67.6 

589 
56.8 

1,012 
97.7 

234 
22.6 

171 
16.5 



48 
4.6 

53 
6.1 

64 
6.2 

6 
0.6 



110 
10.6 



0.9 

38 
3.7 

217 
20.9 

68 
6.6 

494 
47.7 

34, 465 
3, 326. 4 

4,145 
400.1 

4,624 
446.3 

1,135 
109.5 

244 
23.5 

2,338 
225.7 



Total, 
325 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
7, 914, 277 



1,722 
21.8 

9,989 
126.2 

4,664 
58.9 

8,615 
108.9 

2,057 
26.0 

973 
12.3 



545 
6.9 

414 
5.2 

510 
6.4 

6,774 
85.6 



1,168 
14.8 

235 
3.0 

743 
9.4 

2,799 
35.4 

1,527 
19.3 

3,281 
41.5 

.384, 200 
4, 854. 5 

28, 704 
362.7 

78, 645 
993. 7 

8,574 
108.3 

3,318 
41.9 

28,421 
359.1 



40 



Table 25. — Number of offenses l~nown, number and percentage of offenses cleared 

by arrest, 1939, by poptilation groups 

EAST NORTH CENTRAL STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census! 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Population group 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 


Auto 

theft 


Group 1— 9 cities over 250,000; total 


















population, 8,370,200: 


















Number of offenses known 


499 


234 


953 


11,010 


3,315 


29,252 


76,017 


11,026 


Number cleared by arrest 


409 


175 


629 


4,116 


1,688 


9,015 


12,754 


2.108 


Percentage cleared by arrest. _. 


82.0 


74.8 


66.0 


37.4 


50.9 


30.8 


16.8 


19.1 


Group II.— 6 cities, 100,000 to 250,- 


















000; total population, 871,100: 


















Number of offenses known 


37 


52 


89 


381 


305 


3, 529 


9, 905 


1,965 


Number cleared by arrest 


35 


28 


67 


142 


201 


1,158 


1,994 


457 


Percentage cleared by arrest-.. 


94.6 


53.8 


75.3 


37.3 


65.9 


32.8 


20.1 


23.3 


Group III.— 21 cities, 50,000 to 100,- 


















000; total population, 1.383,300: 


















Number of offenses known 


24 


33 


109 


664 


245 


4,148 


11,024 


1,952 


Number cleared by arrest 


22 


33 


95 


215 


205 


1,388 


2,842 


538 


Percentage cleared by .arrest... 


91.7 


100.0 


87.2 


32.4 


83.7 


33.5 


25.8 


27.6 


Group IV.— 32 cities, 25,000 to 50,- 


















000; total population, 1,088,668: 


















Number of offenses known 


40 


19 


72 


340 


137 


3,224 


9,478 


1,673 


Number cleared by arrest 


38 


17 


64 


112 


12*5 


1,019 


2,509 


452 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


95.0 


89.5 


88.9 


32,9 


92.0 


31.6 


26.5 


27.0 


Group v.— 75 cities, 10,000 to 25,- 


















000; total population, 1,156,068: 


















Number of offenses known 


22 


10 


74 


366 


119 


3,120 


8,348 


1,319 


Number cleared by arrest 


19 


9 


58 


117 


108 


929 


2.048 


370 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


86.4 


90.0 


78.4 


32.0 


90.8 


29.8 


24.5 


28.1 


Group VI.— 174 cities under 10.000; 


















total population, 954,670: 


















Number of offenses known 


22 


15 


70 


245 


122 


2,243 


4,435 


812 


Number cleared by arrest 


13 


12 


51 


107 


99 


840 


1,366 


296 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


59.1 


80.0 


72.9 


43.7 


81.1 


37.4 


30.8 


36.5 


Total, 317 cities; total population, 
13,824,006: 
Number of offenses known 


















644 


363 


1,367 


13,006 


4,243 


45, 516 


119, 207 


18, 747 


Number cleared by arrest 


536 


274 


964 


4,809 


2,427 


14, 349 


23, 513 


4,221 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


83.2 


75.5 


70.5 


37.0 


57.2 


31.5 


19.7 


22.5 



Table 26. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

EAST NORTH CENTRAL STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent 
manslaughter: 
Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

(6) Manslaughter by negligence: 
Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 
I 



9 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

i, 370, 200 



379 
4.5 

318 
3.8 

2,430 
29.0 

1,895 
22.6 

8,114 
98.9 



Group 
II 



6 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
871, 100 



35 
4.0 

23 
2.6 

141 
16.2 

181 
20.8 

1, 125 
129.1 



Group 
III 



21 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,383,300 



19 
1.4 

32 
2.3 

139 
10.0 

229 

16.6 

1,081 
78. 1 



Group 
IV 



32 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,088,668 



32 

2.9 

14 
1.3 

132 
12. 1 

126 
11.6 

1,051 
96.5 



Group 
V 



75 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1, 156, 068 



30 

2.6 

6 

0.5 

148 
12.8 

131 

11.3 

727 
62.9 



Group 
VI 



174 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

964, 670 



12 
1.3 

13 
1.4 

99 
10.4 

85 



561 
58.8 



Total, 
317 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
13, 824, 006 



507 
3.7 

406 

2.9 

3,089 
22.3 

2,647 
19.1 

12, 659 
91.6 



41 

Table 26. — Persons charged {held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by pop^dation groups — Continued 

EAST NORTH CENTRAL STATES— Continued 



Offense charged 



Burglary— breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny — theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000... 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, 
possessing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prosti- 
tution) : 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

OSenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 -.. 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor-vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 
I 



9 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
8, 370. 200 



4,090 
48.9 

9,758 
116.6 

1,246 
14.9 

3,291 
39.3 



708 
8.5 

420 
5.0 

568 
6.8 

9,731 
116.3 



1,832 
21.9 

582 
7.0 

889 
10.6 

5,643 
67.4 

2,057 
24.6 

4,765 
56.9 

1 597, 557 
8,913.3 

22, 061 
263.6 

89, 924 
1, 074. 3 

7,125 
85.1 

24, 393 

291.4 

23, 049 

275.4 



Group 
II 



6 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
871, 100 



672 
77. 1 

1,245 
142.9 

251 
28.8 

231 
26.5 



76 
8.7 

115 
13.2 

76 
8.7 

303 
34.8 



160 

18.4 

15 

1.7 

57 
6.5 

330 
37.9 

434 

49.8 

730 
83.8 

2 91,563 
13,112.3 

2,072 
237.9 

7,208 
827. 5 

1,767 
202.8 

286 
32.8 

2,309 
265. 1 



Group 
III 



21 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1, 383, 300 



594 
42.9 

1,701 
123.0 

282 
20.4 

270 
19.5 



98 
7.1 

164 
11.9 

94 

6.8 

426 
30.8 



312 
22.6 

7 
0.5 

118 
8.5 

479 
34.6 

267 
19.3 

1,929 
139.4 

108, 959 
7, 876. 7 

3,912 

282.8 

10, 956 
792.0 

1,946 
140.7 

1,090 

78.8 

7,065 
510.7 



Group 
IV 



32 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,088,668 



561 
51.5 

1,682 
154. 5 

336 
30.9 

212 
19.5 



85 
7.8 

154 
14.1 

81 
7.4 

252 
23.1 



281 
25.8 

5 

0.5 



Group 
V 



75 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
1,156,068 



769 
66.5 

1,364 
118.0 

335 
29.0 

187 
16.2 



7.7 

108 
9.3 

67 
5.8 

157 
13.6 



230 
19.9 

4 
0.3 



Group 
VI 



174 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

954, 670 



71 
6.5 


73 
6.3 


533 
49.0 


353 
30.5 


427 
39.2 


141 

12.2 


1,668 
153. 2 


1,742 
150. 7 


3 50, 679 
4, 925. 2 


41,044 
3, 550. 3 


2,851 
261.9 


3,336 

288.6 


11,850 
1, 088. 5 


9,720 
840.8 


953 

87.5 


749 
64.8 


586 
53.8 


407 
35.2 


4,173 
383.3 


3, 260 
282.0 



649 
68.0 

992 
103.9 

260 
27.2 

77 
8.1 



51 
5.3 

109 
11.4 

49 
5.1 

35 
3.7 



151 
15.8 

9 
0.9 

58 
6.1 

189 
19.8 

85 
8.9 

1,962 
205.5 

31, 275 
3, 276. 

2,411 
252.5 

7,142 
748.1 

484 
50.7 

273 
28.6 

2,411 

252.5 



Total, 
317 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
13, 824, 006 



7,335 
53.1 

16, 742 
121.1 

2,710 
19.6 

4,268 
30.9 



1,107 
8.0 

1,070 

7.7 

935 
6.8 

10,904 
78.9 



2,966 
21.5 

622 
4.5 

1,266 
9.2 

7,527 
54.4 

3,411 
24.7 

12, 796 
92.6 

* 921, 077 
7, 723. 7 

36, 643 
265.1 

136, 800 
989.6 

13,024 
94.2 

27, 035 
195.6 

42, 267 
305.8 



i-< The number of persons charged and the rate are based on thereportsof the number of cities as follows: 



Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


1 


8 
5 


6, 704, 100 
698, 300 


3 


30 
313 


1, 028, 968 


2 


4 


11,925,406 



42 



Table 27. — Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared 

by arrest, 1939, by population groups 

WEST NORTH CENTRAL STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Population group 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 


Auto 
theft 




slaughter 


gence 








entering 






Group I.— 4 cities over 250,000; 


















total population, 1,998,500: 


















Number of olTenses known 


122 


43 


130 


1,458 


407 


5,414 


20, 846 


3,390 


Number cleared by arrest 


106 


39 


113 


861 


372 


2,915 


6,433 


1,310 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


86.9 


90.7 


86.9 


59.1 


91.4 


53.8 


30.9 


38.6 


Group II.— 4 cities, 100,000 to 250,- 


















000; total population, 582,600: 


















Number of oflenses known 


17 


31 


15 


211 


119 


1,695 


3,887 


1,215 


Number cleared by arrest 


18 


30 


12 


70 


104 


479 


1,342 


386 


Percentage cleared by arrest — 


105.9 


96.8 


80.0 


33.2 


87.4 


28.3 


34.5 


31.8 


Group III.— 6 cities, 50,000 to 100,- 


















000; total population, 405,600: 


















Number of oflenses known 


13 


6 


22 


179 


40 


1,934 


5,292 


861 


Number cleared by arrest 


13 


6 


22 


57 


30 


465 


1,052 


188 


Percentage cleared by arrest — 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


31.8 


75.0 


24.0 


19.9 


21.8 


Group IV.— 6 cities, 25,000 to 50,- 


















000; total population, 202,900: 


















Number of oflenses known 


5 




9 


58 


9 


621 


2,406 


388 


Number cleared by arrest 


5 




9 


31 


8 


180 


711 


152 


Percentage cleared by arrest — 
Group v.— 40 cities, 10,000 to 


100.0 




100.0 


53.4 


88.9 


29.0 


29.6 


39.2 


















25,000; total population, 560,023: 


















Number of oflenses known 


11 


11 


36 


126 


61 


1,592 


5,093 


836 


Number cleared by arrest 


9 


9 


33 


47 


56 


610 


1,381 


345 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


81.8 


81.8 


91.7 


37.3 


91.8 


38.3 


27.1 


41.3 


Group VI.— 88 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 422,140: 


















Number of oflenses known 


9 


8 


32 


85 


31 


995 


2,055 


373 


Number cleared by arrest 


8 


7 


28 


38 


25 


315 


690 


140 


Percentage cleared by arrest 


88.9 


87.5 


87.5 


44.7 


80.6 


31.7 


33.6 


37.5 


Total, 148 cities; total population, 
4,171,763: 
Number of oflenses k now n 


















177 


99 


244 


2,117 


667 


12, 251 


39, 579 


7,063 


Number cleared by arrest 


159 


91 


217 


1,104 


595 


4.964 


11,609 


2,521 


Percentage cleared by arrest — 


89.8 


91.9 


88.9 


52.1 


89.2 


40.5 


29.3 


35.7 



Table 28. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 

100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

WEST NORTH CENTRAL STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man 

slaughter: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

(b) Manslaughter by negligence: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000^^ 

Robbery: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000__, 



Group 


Group 
11 


Group 
III 


4 cities 
over 
2.50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
1,998,500 


4 cities, 
100,000 

to 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
582,600 


6 cities, 
50,000 

to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
405,600 

10 

2.5 

5 
1.2 

34 
8.4 

24 

5.9 

205 
50.5 


110 

5.5 

69 
3.5 

910 

45.5 

556 
27.8 

2,903 
145.3 


19 
3.3 

4 
0.7 

66 
11.3 

59 
10.1 

553 
94.9 



Group 
IV 



6 cities, 
25,000 

to 
50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
202,-900 



2 
1.0 



24 
11.8 

9 

4.4 

65 
32.0 



Group 

V 



40 
cities, 
10,000 

to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
560,023 



10 

1.8 

9 
1.6 

68 
12.1 

54 
9.6 

367 

65.5 



Group 
VI 



cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
422,140 



6 
1.4 

8 
1.9 

50 
11.8 

26 
6.2 

177 
41.9 



Total, 

148 
cities; 
total 
popu- 
lation, 
4,171,763 



157 
3.8 

95 
2.3 

1,152 
27.6 

728 
17.5 

4,270 
102.4 



43 



Table 28. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

WEST NORTH CENTRAL STATES— Continued 



Oflense charged 



possess- 



Burglary — breaking or entering: 
Number of persons charged- . 
Rate per 100.000 

Larceny — theft: 

Number of persons charged. - 
Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number per persons charged. 
Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged _ _ 
Rate per 100.000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, 
ing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100.000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

, Rate per 100.000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged.- 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged — 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution) : 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. _ 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000._ 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged... 

Rate per 100.000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor-vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100.000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100.000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other ofTenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 
I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


4 cities 
over 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
1,998,.500 


4 cities, 
100,000 

to 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
582,600 


6 cities, 
50,000 

to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
405,600 


6 cities, 
25,000 

to 
50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
202,900 


40 
cities. 
10,000 

to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
560,023 


88 
cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
422,140 

293 
69.4 


1,476 
73.9 


334 

57.3 


281 
69.3 


134 
06.0 


439 

78.4 


3,399 
170.1 


1 1, 192 
272. 


585 
144.2 


372 
183.3 


1,137 
203.0 


529 
125.3 


1,064 
53.2 


152 
26.1 


101 
24.9 


76 
37.5 


230 
41.1 


132 
31.3 


610 
30.5 


151 

25.9 


3 111 

32.1 


12 

5.9 


79 
14.1 


35 
8.3 


149 

7.5 


61 
10.5 


'9 
2.6 


21 
10.3 


54 
9.6 


26 
6.2 


199 
10.0 


114 

19.6 


91 
22.4 


20 
9.9 


105 
18.7 


70 
16.6 


114 

5.7 


13 
2.2 


20 
4.9 


8 
3.9 


34 
6.1 


25 
5.9 


4,780 
239.2 


199 
34.2 


79 
19.5 


7 
3.4 


33 

5.9 


40 
9.5 


381 
19.1 


138 
23.7 


300 
74.0 


30 

14.8 


65 
11.6 


25 
5.9 


399 
20.0 


7 
1.2 


46 
11.3 


7 
3.4 


19 
3.4 


21 
5.0 


184 
9.2 


72 
12.4 


29 
7.1 


5 
2.5 


32 
5.7 


19 

4.5 


1.354 

67.8 


'32 
6.9 


»103 
30.3 


54 
26.6 


74 
13.2 


84 
19.9 


1,120 
56.0 


694 
119.1 


108 
26.6 


85 
41.9 


408 
72.9 


205 
48.6 


1,345 
67.3 


754 
129.4 


218 
53.7 


218 
107.4 


877 
156.6 


623 
147.6 


252, 296 
12, 624. 3 


47, 183 
8, 098. 7 


16, 263 
4, 009. 6 


9,012 
4,441.6 


22, 270 
3, 976. 6 


11, 124 
2, 635. 1 


10,915 
546.2 


1,092 
187.4 


817 
201.4 


320 

157.7 


1,328 
237.1 


898 
212.7 


18, 320 
916.7 


12, 688 
2, 177. 8 


5,744 
1,416.2 


2,396 
1,180.9 


7,938 
1.417.4 


4,920 
1, 165. 5 


5,910 
295.7 


3,061 
525.4 


880 
217.0 


615 
303.1 


1,107 
197.7 


391 
92.6 


2,764 
138.3 


612 
105.0 


1,157 
285.3 


89 
43.9 


250 
44.6 


100 
23.7 


8,269 
413.8 


1,377 
236.4 


538 
132.6 


387 
190.7 


1,185 
211.6 


1,021 
241.9 



Total, 

148 
cities; 
total 
popu- 
lation, 
4,171,763 



2,957 
70.9 

2 7, 214 
179.2 

1, 755 
42.1 



24.3 



6 320 
7.8 

599 
14.4 

214 
5.1 

5,138 
123.2 

939 
22.5 

499 
12.0 

341 
8.2 

» 1, 701 
42.6 

2.620 
62.8 

4,035 
96.7 

358, 148 
8, 585. 1 

15. 370 
368.4 

52,006 
1,246.6 

11,964 
286.8 

4,972 
119.2 

12, 777 
306.3 



-» The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports of the number of cities, as follows: 



Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


1 


3 
147 

5 
147 

5 


437, 300 
4, 026, 463 

346, 100 
4,112,263 

339, 900 


6 


147 
3 
5 

146 


4, 106, 063 


2 


7 


465, 000 


3. 


8 ... .. -. 


339,900 


4 


9 


3, 988, 463 


5 





44 



Table 29. — Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared 

by arrest, 1939, by population groups 

SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 






















Rnb- 


Aggra- 


Bur- 
glary— 


Lar- 










Auto 
theft 


Population group 


Murder, 


Man- 


Rape 


xvuu 

bery 


vated 


break- 


ceny- 




nonnegli- 


slaughter 




assault 


ing or 


theft 




gent man- 


by negli- 








entering 








slaughter 


gence 














Group 1—2 cities over 250,000; total 


















population, 1,097,500: 


















Number nf offenses known 


173 


28 


120 


898 


1,013 


4,148 


8,177 


3,959 


Number cleared by arrest 


147 


2fi 


107 


375 


981 


1.468 


2,544 


441 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


85.0 


92.9 


89.2 


41.8 


96.8 


35.4 


31.1 


11.1 


Group 11.-3 cities, 100,000 to 


















250,000; total population, 453,510: 


















Number of offenses known 


98 


52 


88 


491 


766 


3,504 


9,528 


1, 599 


Number cleared by arrest 


81 


49 


75 


186 


572 


732 


1,669 


263 


Percentage cleared by arrest. .. 


82.7 


94.2 


85.2 


37.9 


74.7 


20.9 


17.5 


16.4 


Group III.— 6 cities, 50,000 to 


















100,000; total population, 396,524: 


















Number of offenses known 


70 


32 


43 


167 


577 


1.692 


4,926 


622 


Number cleared by arrest 


69 


29 


41 


71 


499 


521 


1,444 


124 


Percentage cleared by arrest.. 


98.6 


90.6 


95.3 


42.5 


86.5 


30.8 


29.3 


19.9 


Group IV.- 10 cities, 25,000 to 


















50,000; total population, 350,368: 
















• 


Number of offenses known 


70 


14 


38 


182 


578 


1,690 


5,165 


617 


Number cleared by arrest 


65 


16 


39 


82 


512 


653 


1.844 


125 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


92.9 


107.1 


102.6 


45.1 


88.6 


38.6 


35.7 


20.3 


Group v.— 15 cities, 10,000 to 


















25,000; total population, 237,759: 


















Number of offenses known 


27 


7 


8 


80 


296 


619 


2,128 


300 


Number cleared by arrest 


24 


8 


7 


47 


256 


316 


1,087 


118 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


88.9 


114.3 


87.5 


58.8 


86.5 


51.1 


51.1 


39.3 


Group VI.— 29 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 164,842: 


















Number of offenses known 


19 


3 


10 


41 


111 


605 


1,145 


224 


Number cleared by arrest 


16 


3 


8 


27 


93 


191 


371 


75 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


84.2 


100.0 


80.0 


65.9 


83.8 


31.6 


32,4 


33.5 


Total. 65 cities; total population, 


















2,700,503: 


















Number of offenses known 


457 


136 


307 


1,859 


3,341 


12,258 


31. 069 


7,321 


Number cleared by arrest 


402 


130 


277 


788 


2,913 


3,881 


8,959 


1.146 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


88.0 


95.6 


90.2 


42.4 


87.2 


31.7 


28.8 


15.7 



Table 30.— Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Group I 


Group II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


Total, 
















65 cities; 


Offense charged 


2 cities 


3 cities. 


6 cities. 


lOcities, 


15cities, 


29 cities 


total 


over 


100,000 to 


50,000 to 


25,000 to 


10,000 to 


under 


popu- 




250,000; 


250,000; 


100,000; 


50,000; 


25,000; 


10,000; 


lation. 




popu- 


popu- 


popu- 


popu- 


popu- 


popu- 


2,700,503 




lation. 


lation. 


lation. 


lation, 


lation, 


lation, 






1,097,500 


453,510 


396,524 


350,368 


237,759 


164,842 




Criminal homicide: 
















(a) Murder and nonnegligent man- 
















slaughter: 
















Number of persons charged 


161 


108 


79 


82 


19 


17 


466 


Rate per 100,000 . .. 


14.7 


23.8 


19.9 


23.4 


8.0 


10.3 


17.3 


(6) Manslaughter by negligence: 
















Number of persons charged 


197 


59 


31 


14 


9 


3 


313 


Rate per 100,000_ .... 


17.9 


13.0 


7.8 


4.0 


3.8 


1.8 


11.6 



45 

Table 30. — Persons charged {held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES— Continued 



Offense charged 



Robbery: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary — breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny — theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, pos- 
sessing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution) : 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor-vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000___ 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000__ 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group I 



2 cities 

over 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
1,097,500 



526 
47.9 

1,054 
96.0 

3,887 
3.54. 2 

1,361 
124.0 

3,277 
298.6 

628 
57.2 

137 
12.5 



158 
14.4 

152 
13.8 

130 
11.8 

574 
52.3 

161 
14.7 

17 
1.5 

504 
45.9 

1,071 
97.6 

1,506 
137.2 

2,330 
212.3 

163, 349 

14, 883. 7 

20,401 

1, 858. 9 

28,672 

2, 612. 5 

1,276 
116.3 

2,511 
228.8 

16,004 
1, 458. 2 



Group II 



3 cities, 
100,000 to 
2.50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
453,510 



262 

57.8 

789 
171.0 

3,370 
743.1 

751 
165. 6 

2,290 
505.0 

221 

48.7 

423 
93.3 



183 
40.4 

86 
19.0 

103 
22.7 

1,197 
263.9 

486 
107.2 

15 
3.3 

217 

47.8 

1,299 
286. 4 

1,849 
407.7 

484 
106.7 

49, 073 
10, 820. 7 

7,644 
1, 685. 5 

14, 967 
3, 300. 3 

2,107 
464.6 

3,010 
663.7 

3,529 

778.2 



Group 
III 



6 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
396,.524 



82 
20.7 

744 
187.6 

2,957 

745.7 

555 
140.0 

1,662 
419.1 

124 
31.3 

187 
47.2 



103 
26.0 

160 
40.4 

43 
10.8 

679 

171.2 

215 
54.2 

17 
4.3 

266 
67.1 

507 
127.9 

3,489 
879.9 

855 
215.6 

22, 525 
5, 680. 6 

4,944 

1, 246. 8 

10, 393 

2, 621. 

460 
116.0 

2,426 
611.8 

4,661 
1, 175. 5 



Group 
IV 



lOcities 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
350,368 



28.0 

438 
125.0 

2,282 
651.3 

548 
1.56. 4 

1,665 

475.2 

123 
3.5.1 

147 
42.0 



83 
23.7 

53 
15.1 

37 
10.6 

124 
3.5.4 

386 
110.2 

11 
3.1 

261 

74.5 

638 
182.1 

1,467 
418.7 

941 
268.6 

27, 169 
7, 754. 4 

3,729 
1, 064. 3 

14, 571 
4, 158. 8 

792 
226.0 

1,728 
493.2 

4,546 
1, 297. 5 



Group 
V 



IScities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
237,759 



57 
24.0 

302 
127.0 

1,709 
718.8 

354 
148.9 

984 
413.9 

161 
67.7 

128 
53.8 



62 
26.1 

45 
18.9 

12 
5.0 

85 
35.8 

136 
57.2 

1 
0.4 

138 
58.0 

205 
86.2 

541 
227.5 

773 
325.1 

15,961 
6, 713. 1 

2,765 
1, 162. 9 

10, 671 
4, 488. 2 

659 
277.2 

975 
410.1 

1,687 
709.5 



Group 
VI 



29 cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
164.842 



31 

18.8 

109 
66.1 

631 

382.8 

231 
140.1 

416 
252.4 

76 

46.1 

19 
11.5 



34 
20.6 

38 
23.1 



5.5 

15 
9.1 

76 
46.1 



101 
61.3 

66 
40.0 

428 
259.6 

667 
404.6 

5,984 
3, 630. 1 

3,022 
1, 833. 3 

7,107 
4,311.4 

110 
66.7 

364 
220.8 

702 
425.9 



Total, 
65 cities; 

total 
popu- 
lation, 
2,700,503 



1.056 
39.1 

3,436 
127.2 

14. 836 
549.4 

3,800 
140.7 

10, 294 
381.2 

1,333 
49.4 

1,041 
38.5 



623 
23.1 

534 
19.8 

334 
12.4 

2,674 
99.0 

1,460 
54.1 

61 
2.3 

1,487 
55.1 

3,786 
140.2 

9,280 
343.6 

6,050 
224.0 

284, 061 
10, 518. 8 

42, 505 
1, 574. 

86, 381 
3, 198. 7 

5,404 
200. 1 

11,014 
407.8 

31. 129 
1. 152. 7 



46 



Table 31.- 



-Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared 
by arrest, 1939, by population groups 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 


Lar- 
ceny- 




Population group 


Murder, 


Man- 


Auto 
theft 




nonnegli- 


slaughter 




assault 


mg or 


theft 




gent man- 


by negli- 








entering 








slaughter 


gence 














Group I.i 


















Group II.— 1 city, 100,000 to 250,000; 


















population, 110,600: 


















Number of offenses known 


26 


21 


1 


30 


166 


307 


850 


250 


Number cleared by arrest 


26 


20 


1 


24 


117 


173 


409 


121 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


100.0 


95.2 


100.0 


80.0 


70.5 


56.4 


48.1 


48.4 


Group III.— 3 cities, 50,000 to 100- 


















000; total population, 186,900: 


















Number of offenses known 


37 


17 


6 


64 


161 


1,004 


1,647 


279 


Number cleared by arrest 


29 


16 


6 


26 


112 


278 


083 


34 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


78.4 


94.1 


100.0 


40.6 


69.6 


27.7 


41.5 


12.2 


Group IV.— 1 city, 25,000 to 50,000; 


















population, 32,824: 


















Number of offenses known 


1 




3 


15 


15 


144 


308 


69 


Number cleared by arrest 

Percentage cleared by arrest.. _ 
Group v.— 6 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; 


1 




2 


10 


14 


63 


74 


18 


100.0 




66.7 


66.7 


93.3 


43.8 


24.0 


26.1 


















total population, 96,800: 


















Number of offenses known 


12 


9 


3 


27 


70 


321 


882 


130 


Number cleared by arrest 


12 


9 


3 


15 


64 


111 


331 


33 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


55.6 


91.4 


34.6 


37.5 


25.4 


Group VI.— 8 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 35,651: 


















Number of offenses known 


5 


3 


3 


13 


33 


114 


116 


30 


Number cleared by arrest 


5 


4 


3 


6 


31 


44 


66 


19 


Percentage cleared by arrest ... 


100.0 


133.3 


100.0 


46.2 


93.9 


38.6 


56.9 


63.3 


Total, 19 cities; total population, 
462,775: 
Number of offenses known 


















81 


50 


16 


149 


445 


1,890 


3,803 


758 


Number cleared by arrest 


73 


49 


15 


81 


338 


669 


1.563 


225 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


90.1 


98.0 


93.8 


54.4 


76.0 


35.4 


41.1 


29.7 



1 No cities in this population group represented. 

Table 32. — Persons charged {held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Ofiense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man- 

slaughter: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

(b) Manslaughter by negligence: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 
I 



(0 



Group 
II 



1 city, 
100,000 

to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
110,600 



28 
25.3 

20 
18.1 

22 
19.9 

117 
105. 8 



Group 
III 



3 cities, 
50,000 

to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
186,900 



34 

18.2 

17 
9.1 

27 
14.4 

154 
82.4 

505 
270.2 



Group 
IV 



1 city, 
25,000 

to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
32,824 



1 
3.0 



24 

73.1 

17 
51.8 

37 
112.7 



Group 
V 



6 cities, 
10,000 

to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
96,800 



13 
13.4 

6 

6.2 

33 

34.1 

85 
87.8 

379 
391.5 



Group 
VI 



8 cities 
under 
10,000; 

popula- 
tion, 
35,651 



5 
14.0 

3 
8.4 

7 
19.6 

39 
109.4 

53 
148.7 



Total, 

19 cities; 
total 

popula- 
tion, 

462,775 



81 
17.5 

46 



113 
24.4 

412 
89.0 

974 
210.5 



See footnote at end of table. 



47 

Table 32. — Persons charged {held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES— Continued 



Offense charged 



Burglary— breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100.000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possess- 
ing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of pe rsons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000_._ 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution): 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged.-. 

Rate per 100,000... 

Traffic and motor-vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 
I 



(') 



Group 
II 



1 city, 
100,000 

to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
110,600 



171 
154.6 

408 
368.9 

118 
106.7 

2 

1.8 



21 
19.0 

58 
52.4 

1 
0.9 

304 
274.9 



129 
116.6 

215 
194.4 

682 
616.6 

198 
179.0 

5,079 
, 592. 2 

560 
506.3 

3,963 
,583.2 

784 
708.9 

206 
186.3 



Group 
III 



3 cities, 
50,000 

to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
186,900 



224 
119.9 

968 
517.9 

18 
9.6 

83 
44.4 



67 
35.8 

32 

17.1 

10 
5.4 



3.7 

6 
3.2 

5 

2.7 

69 
36.9 

6 
3.2 

529 
283.0 

394 
210.8 

13, 362 
7, 149. 3 

1,134 
606.7 

3,756 
2, 009. 6 

521 
278.8 

457 
244.5 

2,296 
1, 228. 5 



Group 
IV 



1 city, 
25,000 

to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
32,824 



89 
271.1 

67 
204. 1 

25 
76.2 



24.4 



29 
88.3 

18 
54.8 

3 

9.1 

67 
204.1 

6 

18.3 



12 
36.6 

32 
97.5 

20 
60.9 

13 
39.6 

153 
466.1 

264 
804.3 

13 
39.6 

94 
286.4 

12 
36.6 

252 
767.7 



Group 
V 



6 cities, 
10,000 

to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion. 
96,800 



145 
149.8 

396 
409.1 

43 
44.4 

15 
15.5 



84 
86.8 

27 
27.9 

6 
6.2 

3 
3.1 

10 
10.3 

5 
5.2 

61 
63.0 

6 
6.2 

379 
391.5 

229 
236.6 

2,310 
2, 386. 4 

1, 165 
1, 203. 5 

4,051 
4, 184. 9 

322 
332. 6 

173 

178.7 

536 
553.7 



Group 
VI 



8 cities 
under 
10,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
35,651 



53 
148.7 

62 
173.9 

19 
53.3 



22.4 



7 
19.6 

9 
25.2 

3 

8.4 

6 

16.8 

12 
33.7 

2 
5.6 

19 
53.3 

3 

8.4 

93 
260.9 

73 
204.8 

399 
1,119.2 

304 
852. 7 

1,702 
4, 774. 1 

45 
126.2 

62 
173.9 

128 
359.0 



Total. 

19 cities; 

total 

popula- 
tion, 

462,775 



682 
147.4 

1,901 
410.8 

223 

48.2 

116 
25.1 



208 
44.9 

144 
31.1 

23 
5.0 

387 
83.6 

34 
7.3 

12 
2.6 

290 
62.7 

262 
56.6 

1,703 
368.0 

907 
196.0 

21, 303 
4, 603. 3 

3,427 
740.5 

13, 485 
2,913.9 

1,766 
381.6 

910 
196.6 

3,212 
694.1 



1 No cities in this population group represented. 



48 



Table 33. 



-Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared 
by arrest, 1939, by population groups 

WEST SOUTH CENTKAL STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census]* 





Criminal homicide 






















Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 


Bur- 
glary— 


Lar- 










Auto 
theft 


Population group 


Murder, 


Man- 


Rape 


vated 


break- 


ceny- 




nonnegli- 


slaughter 




assault 


mg or 


theft 




gent man- 


by negli- 








entering 








slaughter 


gence 














Group I.— 3 cities over 250,000; total 


















population, 1,006,900: 


















Number of offenses known 


200 


54 


78 


588 


831 


4,406 


16, 730 


2, 006 


Number cleared by arrest 


181 


53 


70 


322 


699 


1,696 


3,222 


823 


Percentage cleared by arrest-.. 


90.5 


98.1 


89.7 


54.8 


84.1 


38.5 


19.3 


41.0 


Group II.— 3 cities, 100,000 to 250,- 


















000; total population, 476,100: 


















Number of offenses known 


28 


18 


25 


325 


317 


2,731 


8,345 


835 


Number cleared by arrest 


27 


16 


19 


116 


185 


1,010 


2,810 


356 


Percentage cleared by arrest..- 


96.4 


88.9 


76.0 


35.7 


58.4 


37.0 


33.7 


42.6 


Group III.— 5 cities, 50,000 to 100,- 


















000; total population, 311,100: 


















Number of offenses known 


44 


15 


20 


121 


371 


1,433 


4,629 


447 


Number cleared by arrest 


39 


14 


19 


37 


297 


569 


1,252 


115 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


88.6 


93.3 


95.0 


30.6 


80.1 


39.7 


27.0 


25.7 


Group IV.— 4 cities, 25,000 to 50,- 


















000; total population, 137,900: 


















Number of offenses known 


19 


7 


10 


61 


117 


420 


1, 899 


207 


Number cleared by arrest 


18 


7 


9 


29 


112 


136 


447 


48 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


94.7 


100.0 


90.0 


47.5 


95.7 


32.4 


23.5 


23.2 


Group v.— 18 cities, 10,000 to 25,- 


















000; total population, 293,230: 


















Number of offenses known 


21 


9 


15 


125 


217 


1,220 


3,576 


413 


Number cleared by arrest 


18 


7 


12 


56 


210 


353 


1,158 


162 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


85.7 


77.7 


80.0 


44.8 


96.8 


28.9 


32.4 


39.2 


Group VI.— 21 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 127,483: 


















Number of offenses known 


6 


3 


10 


30 


41 


356 


911 


109 


Number cleared by arrest 


6 


3 


10 


8 


36 


163 


403 


67 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


26.7 


87.8 


45.8 


44.2 


61.5 


Total, 54 cities; total population, 
2,413,013: 
Number of offenses known 


















318 


106 


158 


1,250 


1,894 


10, 566 


36, 096 


4,017 


Number cleared by arrest 


289 


100 


139 


508 


1,539 


3,927 


9,292 


1,571 


Percentage cleared by arrest— . 


90.9 


94.3 


88.0 


45.4 


81.3 


37.2 


2.5.7 


39.1 



Table 34. 



-Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES 
[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man 
slaughter: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

(6) Manslaughter by negligence: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Robbery: 

Number o f perso ns charged 

Rate per 100,000... 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group I 



3 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

1,066,900 



168 
15.7 

31 
2.9 

395 
37.0 

723 
67.8 



Group II 



3 cities, 
100,000 

t© 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
476,400 



29 
6.1 

9 
1.9 

157 
33.0 

117 
24.6 



Group 
III 



5 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
311,100 



40 
12.9 

14 
4.5 

46 
14.8 

306 
98.4 



Group 
IV 



4 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
137,900 



17 
12.3 

5 
3.6 

34 
24.7 

103 

74.7 



Group 
V 



18 
cities, 
10,000 

to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
293,230 



Group 
VI 



17 

5.8 

3 
1.0 

79 
26.9 

204 
69.6 



21 
cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
127,483 



4.7 

2 
1.6 



6.3 

33 
25.9 



Total, 
54 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
2,413,013 



277 
11.5 

64 
2.7 

719 
29.8 

1.486 
61.6 



49 



Table 34. — Persons charged {held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES— Continued 



Oflense charged 



Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000, 

Burglary— breaiving or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged.. 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, pos 
sessing: 

Numberof persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 ■... 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitu- 
tion): 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged . 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000.. . 

Traffic and motor-vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other oflenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group I 



3 cities 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

1,066,900 



1,014 
95.0 

972 
91.1 

3,064 

287.2 

536 
50.2 

303 

28.4 



165 
15.5 

244 
22.9 



8.3 

'577 
77.0 



174 
16.3 

396 
37.1 

330 
30.9 

205 
19.2 

154 
14.4 

667 
62.5 

343, 221 
32, 169. 9 

12,618 
1, 182. 7 

20, 480 
1,919.6 

5,784 
542.1 

4,802 
450.1 

8,488 
795.6 



Group II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


3 cities, 
100,000 

to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
476,400 


5 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
311,100 


4 cities, 
25,000 to 

50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 

137,900 


18 
cities, 
10,000 

to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
293,230 


21 
cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
127,483 


433 
90.9 


434 
139.5 


681 
493. 8 


723 
246.6 


146 
114.5 


453 
95.1 


596 
191.6 


117 

84.8 


271 
92.4 


144 
113.0 


1,470 
308.6 


1,341 
431.1 


400 
290.1 


919 
313.4 


233 

182.8 


135 
28.3 


138 
44.4 


47 
34.1 


158 
53.9 


59 
46.3 


108 
22.7 


83 
26.7 


21 
15.2 


90 
30.7 


3 
2.4 


74 
15.5 


102 
32.8 


9 
6.5 


55 
18.8 


28 
22.0 


150 
31.5 


100 
32.1 


29 
21.0 


101 
34.4 


16 
12.6 


24 
5.0 


20 
6.4 


12 

8.7 


11 
3.8 


9 
7.1 


1,364 
286.3 


40 
12.9 


308 
223.4 


135 
46.0 


45 
35.3 


56 
11.8 


338 
108.6 


96 
69.6 


90 
30.7 


13 
10.2 


143 
30.0 


16 
5.1 


4 
2.9 


39 
13.3 


1 

0.8 


117 
24.6 


76 
24.4 


53 

38.4 


92 
31.4 


19 
14.9 


11 
2.3 


3 
1.0 


2 
1.5 


62 
21.1 


4 
3.1 


852 
178.8 


218 
70.1 


37 
26.8 


322 
109.8 


65 
51.0 


386 
81.0 


180 
57.9 


222 
161.0 


440 
150.1 


163 
127.9 


78, 083 
16, 390. 2 


49, 910 
16, 043. 1 


13, 807 
10. 012. 3 


11,885 
4, 053. 1 


4,158 
3,261.6 


1,898 
398.4 


1,122 
360.7 


584 
423.5 


2,285 
779.3 


437 
342.8 


12, 139 
2, 548. 1 


7,205 
2, 316. 


4,227 
3, 065. 3 


10, 437 
3, 559. 3 


2,883 
2, 261. 5 


3,559 
747.1 


1,039 
334.0 


652 

472.8 


992 
338.3 


97 
76.1 


1,735 
364.2 


979 
314.7 


231 
167.5 


578 
197.1 


191 
149.8 


3,434 
720.8 


1,076 
345.9 


357 
258.9 


2,110 
719.6 


348 
273.0 



Total, 
54 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
2,413,013 



3,431 
142.2 

2,553 
105.8 

7,427 
307.8 

1,073 
44.5 

608 
25.2 



433 
17.9 

640 
26.5 

165 
6.8 

2 2, 469 
117.8 



767 
31.8 

599 
24.8 

687 
28.5 

287 
11.9 

1,648 
68.3 

2,058 
85.3 

501,064 
20,765.1 

18, 944 
785. 1 

57, 371 
2, 377. 6 

12, 123 
502.4 

8,516 
352.9 

15,813 
655.3 



1-2 The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports of the number of cities as follows: 
(') 2 cities, 749,000 population; (2) 53 cities, 2,095,113 population. 



50 

Table 35. — Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses cleared 

by arrest, 1939, by population groups 

MOUNTAIN STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 


















Man- 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 


Lar- 
ceny- 




Population group 


Murder, 


Auto 
theft 




nonnegli- 


slaughter 




assault 


mg or 


theft 




gent man- 


by negli- 








entering 








slaughter 


gence 














Group I.— 1 city over 250,000; pop- 


















ulation, 293, 200: 


















Number of offenses known 


10 


4 


21 


114 


47 


677 


3,684 


487 


Number cleared by arrest 


10 


4 


16 


72 


45 


535 


564 


330 


Percentage cleared by arrest.. - 


100.0 


100.0 


76.2 


63.2 


95.7 


79.0 


15.3 


67.8 


Group II ' 


















Group III.— 1 city, 50,000 to 100,000; 


















population, 51,300: 


















Number of ofTenses known 


2 


2 




18 


5 


237 


402 


85 


Number cleared by arrest 


2 


2 




3 


4 


51 


96 


5 


Percentage cleared by arrest. -. 


100.0 


100.0 




16.7 


80.0 


21.5 


23.9 


5.9 


Group IV— 3 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; 


















total Dopulation, 102,500: 


















Number of offenses known 


4 


2 


7 


43 


5 


639 


2, 272 


354 


Number cleared by arrest 


4 


2 


3 


17 


5 


172 


424 


46 


Percentage cleared by arrest. -. 


100.0 


100.0 


42.9 


39.5 


100. 


26.9 


18.7 


13.0 


Group v.— 8 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; 


















total population, 120,500: 


















Number of offenses known 


8 


4 


5 


67 


19 


544 


2,496 


323 


Number cleared by arrest 


8 


3 


5 


33 


18 


236 


846 


43 


Percentage cleared by arrest... 


100. 


75.0 


100.0 


49.3 


94.7 


43.4 


33.9 


13.3 


Group VI.— 32 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 159,241: 


















Number of offenses known 


1 


4 


17 


50 


41 


591 


1.786 


243 


Number cleared by arrest 


1 


4 


15 


25 


33 


210 


461 


77 


Percentage cleared by arrest. .. 


100.0 


100.0 


88.2 


50.0 


80.5 


35.5 


26.8 


31.7 


Total, 45 cities; total population. 


















726,741: 


















Number of offenses known 


25 


16 


50 


292 


117 


2,688 


10, 640 


1,492 


Number cleared by arrest 


25 


15 


39 


150 


105 


1,204 


2,391 


501 


Percentage cleared by arrest. .. 


100.0 


93.8 


78.0 


51.4 


89.7 


44.8 


22.5 


33.6 



• No cities in this population group represented. 



Table 36. — Persons charged {held for prosecution) , 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

MOUNTAIN STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census! 



OSense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man- 

slaughter: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

(b) Manslaughter by negligence: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 
Num ber of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged '.~'-':'..'. 

Rate per 100,000 

See footnotes at end of table. 



Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


1 city 
over 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
293,200 


(') 


1 city, 
50,000 

to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
51,300 


3 cities, 
25,000 

to 
50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
102,500 


8 cities, 
10,000 

to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
120,500 


32 cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
159,241 


6 




1 


3 


8 


2 


2.0 
9 




1.9 

2 


2.9 
2 


6.6 
5 


1.3 
3 


3.1 




3.9 


2.0 


4.1 


1.9 


47 




2 


21 


33 


40 


16.0 




3.9 


20.5 


27.4 


25.1 


18 




4 


8 


19 


43 


6.1 




7.8 


7.8 


15.8 


27.0 



Total, 

45 
cities; 
total 
popu- 
lation, 
726,741 



20 

2.8 

21 
2.9 

143 
19.7 

92 
12.7 



51 

Table 36. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 

100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

MOUNTAIN STATES— Continued 



Offense charged 



Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary— breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possess- 
ing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100.000 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 ^ 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution) : 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number nf persons charged... 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Num ber of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor-vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000. 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 
I 



1 city 
over 
250,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
293,200 



10 
3.4 

163 

55.6 

(') 

157 
53.5 

67 
22.9 



(2) 
(2) 



2.7 

19 
6.5 

0) 

(n 

12 
4. 1 

21 
7.2 

59 
20.1 

4 
1.4 

42 
14.3 

301 
102.7 

21, 835 
7, 447. 1 

1,742 
594.1 

4.741 
1,617.0 

(*) 
(<) 

209 
71.3 

581 
198.2 



Group 
II 



0) 



Group 
III 



1 city, 
50,000 

to 
100,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
51,300 



24 
46.8 

32 
62.4 

85 
165.7 

5 
9.7 

1 
1.9 



2 
3.9 

17 
33. 1 



41 
79.9 

10 
19.5 

3 
5.8 

18 
35.1 

2 
3.9 

3 
5.8 

70 
136.5 

1,827 
, 561. 4 

319 
621.8 

727 
. 417. 2 

373 
727.1 

20 
39.0 

238 
463.9 



Group 
IV 



3 cities, 
25,000 

to 
50,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
102,500 



9.5.6 

109 
106.3 

474 
462.4 

27 
26.3 

16 
15.6 



15 
14.6 

20 
19.5 

3 
2.9 

149 
14,5. 4 

26 
25.4 

5 
4.9 

14 
13.7 

44 
42.9 

28 
27.3 

197 
192.2 

11,576 
11,293.7 

456 
444.9 

2,083 
2, 032. 2 

519 
506.3 

32 
31.2 

1,370 
1, 336. 6 



Group 
V. 



8 cities, 
10,000 

to 
25,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
120,500 



87 
72.2. 

135 
112.0 

469 
389.2 

51 
42.3 

49 
40.7 



6.6 

47 
39.0 

6 
5.0 

46 
38.2 

4 
3.3 

15 
12.4 

28 
23.2 

11 



23 
19.1 

273 
226.6 

10, 945 
9, 083. 

760 
630.7 

2,412 
2, 001. 7 

2,119 
1, 758. 5 

45 
37.3 

781 
648.1 



Group 
VI 



32 cities 
under 
10,000; 
popu- 
lation, 
159,241 



76 
47.7 

242 
152.0 

421 
264.4 

81 
50.9 

40 
25. 1 



12 

7.5 

55 
34.5 

15 
9.4 

96 
60.3 

18 
11.3 



4.4 

30 

18.8 

18 
11.3 

57 
35.8 

289 
181.5 

4,927 
3, 094. 1 

754 
473.5 

3,453 
2, 168. 4 

782 
491.1 

51 
32.0 

295 
185.3 



Total, 

45 
cities; 
total 
popu- 
lation, 
726,741 



295 
40.6 

681 
93.7 

3 1,449 
334.2 

321 
44.2 

173 
23.8 



3 37 

8.5 

147 
20.2 

43 
5.9 

3332 

76.6 

70 
9.6 

51 
7.0 

149 
20.5 

79 
10.9 

153 
21.1 

1,130 
155. 5 

51, HO 
7, 032. 8 

4,031 
5.54. 7 

13, 416 
1, 846. 

3 3, 793 

874.9 

357 
49. 1 

3,265 
449.3 



' No cities in this population group represented. 

2 Figures for larceny — theft and stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing, were not separately listed 
on the report for this city. The combined figure for those classes is 617. 

3 The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports of 44 cities with a total population 
of433,.541. 

* Figures for prostitution and commercialized vice and vagrancy were not separately listed on the report 
for this city. The combined figure for those classes is 2,394. 



52 



Table 37. — Number of offenses known, number and percentage of offenses- cleared by 

arrest, 1939, by population groups 

PACIFIC STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 




















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 


Lar- 
ceny- 




Population group 


Murder, 




Man- 


Auto 
theft 




nonnegli- 


slaughter 




assault 


ing or 


theft 




gent man- 


by negli- 








entering 








slaughter 


gence 














GEOUP I.— 1 city over 250,000; popu- 


















lation, 295,600: 


















Number of offenses known 


12 


17 


44 


220 


168 


1,478 


4,153 


732 


Number cleared by arrest 


8 


14 


32 


114 


138 


666 


1,188 


178 


Percentage cleared by arrest..- 


66.7 


82.4 


72.7 


51.8 


82.1 


45.1 


28.6 


24.3 


GROUP II.— 4 cities, 100,000 to 250,- 


















000; total population, 541,900: 


















Number of oflenses known 


7 


21 


40 


364 


134 


2,807 


5,669 


1,560 


Number cleared by arrest 


7 


14 


26 


116 


82 


545 


1,354 


314 


Percentage cleared by arrest. __ 


100.0 


66.7 


6.5.0 


31.9 


61.2 


19.4 


23.9 


20.1 


GROUP III.— 5 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; 


















total population, 403,367: 


















Number of oflenses known 


12 


10 


36 


272 


69 


2,113 


7,273 


973 


• Number cleared by arrest 


8 


10 


38 


120 


66 


548 


1,748 


181 


Percentage cleared by arrest- -. 


66.7 


100.0 


105.6 


44.1 


95.7 


25.9 


24.0 


18.6 


GROUP IV.— 11 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; 


















total population, 360,800: 


















Number of oflenses known 


7 


4 


21 


171 


59 


1,873 


6,177 


826 


Number cleared by arrest 


7 


3 


15 


64 


56 


593 


1,016 


164 


Percentage cleared by arrest. __ 


100.0 


75.0 


71.4 


37.4 


94.9 


31.7 


16.4 


19.9 


GROUP v.— 25 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; 


















total population, 388,676: 


















Number of oflenses known 


10 


6 


41 


123 


55 


1,627 


7,302 


1,008 


Number cleared by arrest 


10 


6 


35 


44 


44 


517 


1,468 


246 


Percentage cleared by arrest.. . 


100.0 


100.0 


85.4 


35.8 


80.0 


31.8 


20.1 


24.4 


GROUP VI.— 76 cities under 10,000; 


















total population, 401,619: 


















Number of oflenses known 


11 


10 


56 


160 


145 


1,630 


6,170 


782 


Number cleared by arrest 


7 


9 


48 


71 


120 


599 


1,681 


248 


Percentage cleared by arrest. .. 


63.6 


90.0 


85.7 


44.4 


82.8 


36.7 


27.2 


31.7 


Total, 122 cities; total population, 


















2,391,962: 


















Number of oflenses known 


59 


68 


238 


1,310 


630 


11, 528 


36, 744 


5,881 


Num ber cleared by arrest 


47 


56 


194 


529 


506 


3,468 


8,455 


1,331 


Percentage cleared by arrest. .. 


79.7 


82.4 


81.5 


40.4 


80.3 


30.1 


23.0 


22.6 



Table 38. — Persons charged {held for prosecution) , 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

PACIFIC STATES 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man 
slaughter: 
Number of persons charged... 

Rate per 100,000 _. 

(6) Manslaughter by negligence: 
Number of persons charged.. 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 

I 


Group 
II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


1 city 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

295,600 


4 cities, 
100,000 to 
250,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
541,900 


5 cities, 
50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
403,367 


11 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
360,800 


25 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
388,676 


76 cities 
under 
10,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
401,619 


8 
2.7 


4 
0.7 


8 
2.0 


7 
1.9 


10 
2.6 


9 
2.2 


10 
3.4 


9 

1.7 


8 
2.0 


5 
1.4 


6 
1.5 


10 
2.5 


66 
22.3 


65 
12.0 


93 
23.1 


93 
25.8 


57 
14.7 


73 
18.2 



Total, 
122 cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
2,391,962 



46 
1.9 

48 
2.0 

447 
18.7 



53 

Table 38. — Persons charged {held for prosecution), 1939, number and rate per 
100,000 inhabitants, by population groups — Continued 

PACIFIC STATES— Continued 



Offense charged 



Aggravated assault; 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults; 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary — breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny — theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, 
possessing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 _ 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate perlOO.OOO 

Rape: 

Number of persons charged ._ 

Rate per 100,000 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Sqx offenses (except rape and prosti- 
tution): 
Number of persons charged. _ 
Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 
Number of persons charged. _ _ 
Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Driving while into.xicated: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Traffic and motor- vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 
I 



1 city 
over 

250,000; 

popula- 
tion, 

295,600 



29 



505 
170.8 

194 
65.6 

537 
181.7 

99 
33. S 

62 
21.0 



10 
3.4 

83 

28.1 

25 

8.5 

210 

71.0 



67 
22.7 

46 
15.6 

14 

4.7 

112 
37.9 

7 
2.4 

518 
175.2 

52, 037 
17, 603. 9 

228 
77.1 

9,354 
3, 164. 4 

752 
254.4 

974 
329.5 

604 
204.3 



Group 
II 



4 cities, 
100,000 to 
2.50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
541,900 



61 
11.3 

220 

40.6 

231 
42.6 

1 577 
149.9 

191 
35.2 

17 
3.1 



27 
5.0 

148 
27.3 

15 

2.8 

566 
104.4 



66 
12.2 

18 
3.3 

37 

6.8 

58 
10.7 

651 
120.1 

1,149 
212.0 

1 32, 250 
8, 378. 8 

1,600 
295. 3 

14,947 
2, 7.58. 3 

3, 352 
618.6 

692 
127.7 

4,529 
835.8 



Group 
III 



5 cities, 
.50,000 to 
100,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
403,367 



52 
12.9 

339 
84.0 

303 

75.1 

1,040 
257.8 

172 
42.6 

105 
26.0 



24 
5.9 



24.3 

32 
7.9 

321 

79.6 



197 
48.8 



2.0 

42 
10.4 

94 
23.3 

01 
15.1 

9.54 
236, 5 

61, 798 
15,320.5 

614 
152.2 

3,785 
938. 4 

6, 625 
1,642.4 

234 
.58.0 

2,192 
543.4 



Group Group 
IV V 



11 cities, 
25,000 to 
50,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
360,800 



63 

17.5 

261 
72.3 

360 
99.8 

873 
242.0 

155 
43.0 

25 
6.9 



13 
3.6 

170 

47.1 

25 
6.9 

216 
59.9 



90 
24.9 

22 
6.1 

26 
7.2 

143 
39.6 

65 
18.0 

1,3.50 
374.2 

35, 851 
9, 936. 5 

616 
170.7 

8,605 
2, 385. 

2,638 
731.2 

312 

86.5 

1,428 
395.8 



25 cities, 
10,000 to 
25,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
388,676 



Group 
VI 



54 
13.9 

213 

54.8 

308 
79.2 

842 
216.6 

203 
52.2 

67 
17.2 



9 
2.3 

154 
39.6 



38 



259 
66.6 



121 
31.1 

13 
3.3 

25 
6.4 

55 
14.2 

222 
57.1 

1,311 
337.3 

52, 443 
13, 492. 7 

1,073 
276.1 

9,538 
2. 454. 

2,847 
732.5 

218 
56.1 

1,107 
284.8 



76 cities 
under 
10,000; 
popula- 
tion, 
401,619 



125 
31.1 

238 
59.3 

413 
102.8 

1, 0.50 
261 . 4 

251 
62.5 

52 
12.9 



29 
7.2 

197 
49.1 

41 
10.2 



21.9 



63 
15.7 

34 
8.5 

66 
16.4 

98 
24.4 

105 
26.1 

2,461 
612.8 

43, 307 
10, 783. 1 

1,725 
429.5 

12, 671 
3,1.55.0 

3.046 

758.4 

220 

54.8 

2,774 
I 690. 7 



Total, 
122cities; 

total 
popula- 
tion, 
2,391.962 



384 
16.1 

1,776 
74.2 

1,809 
75.6 

2 4,919 
220.1 

1,071 
44.8 

328 
13.7 



112 

4.7 

850 
.35.5 

176 
7.4 

1,660 

69.4 



604 
25.3 

141 
5.9 

210 



560 
23.4 

1,111 
46.4 

7,743 
323.7 

2 277, 686 
12, 424. 6 

5,856 
244.8 

58,900 
2, 462. 4 

19, 260 
805. 2 

2, 6,50 
110.8 

12, 634 

528.2 



'-2 The number of persons charged and the rate are based on the reports of the number of cities as follows: 
(') 3 cities, 384,900 population; (2) 121 cities. 2,234,962 population. 



OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in part I and 
part II offenses, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 

Part I Offenses. 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter ■ includes 
all felonious homicides except those caused by negligence. Does not include 
attempts to kill, assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, or justifiable homi- 
cides. Justifiable homicides excluded from this classification are limited to the 
following types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon by a peace officer in line of 
duty; (2) the killing of a hold-up man by a private citizen who was his intended 
victim. (6) Manslaughter by negligence includes only those cases in which death 
is caused by culpable negligence which is so clearly evident that if the person 
responsible for the death were apprehended he would be prosecuted for man- 
slaughter. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape, assault to rape, and attempted 
rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as highway robbery, stick-ups, robbery 
armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by use of acids. Does not 
include simple assaidt, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or theft. Includes attempted 
burglary and assault to commit a burglary. Burglary followed by a larceny is 
entered here and is not counted again under larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value. 
(b) Under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depend- 
ing upon the value of property stolen, pocket-picking, purse-snatching, shoplifting, 
or any stealing of property or thing of value which is not taken by force and 
violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" games, forgery, 
passing worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven 
away and abandoned, including the so-called "joy-riding" thefts. Does not 
include taking for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unau- 
thorized use by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses. 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which is 
made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud.- — Includes all offenses of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false pretenses. 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those offenses. 

12. Weapons: carrying, possessing, etc. — Includes all violations of regulations 
or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing, and manufactur- 
ing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes or 
regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commer- 
cialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as, prostitution, keeping 
bawdy house, procuring, transporting or detaining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Se.r offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice). — In- 
cludes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

(54) 



55 

15. Offenses against the family and children. — Includes offenses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful jjossession, sale, or use. Exclude Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "Drunkenness" (class 18) and "Driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations, State or local, are placed in 
this class. Exclude Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regulations with 
respect to the proj^er handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and, motor-vehicle laws. — Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for m classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision lias been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters but not in connection with any specific offense and who are released 
without formal charges being placed against them. 

o 



'2, cr*' , -5'^o 



UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C 



Volume XI 



Number 2 



SECOND QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1940 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume XI — Number 2 
SECOND QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1940 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1940 



" - '"'P'^RINTFNDENT OF OOCUMENTb 



SEP 5 1940 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Summary of volume XI, No. 2 61-62 

Classification of offenses 62-63 

Extent of reporting area 63 

Monthly reports: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population 

(table 39) 64-65 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1939-40 (table 40) 65-67 

OfTenses known to the police — cities divided according to location 

(tables 41, 42) 68-72 

Offenses in individual cities over 100,000 in population (table 43) 73-75 

Offenses known to sheriffs and kState police (table 44) 75 

Urban and rural crime rates, 1939 (table 45) 76-77 

Offenses known in Territories and possessions (table 46) 78 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 47-49) 79-84 

Police employee data: 

Police killed by criminals, 1939 (table 50) 85 

Number of police employees, 1939 (tables 51-54) 86-108 

Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1940: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 55) 109-110 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 56-58) 110-112 

Number with records showing previous convictions (table 59) 113-114 

Definitions of part I and part II offense classifications 115-116 

(H) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 

of Justice, Washington, D. C. 



Volume XI July, 1940 Number 2 



SUMMARY 

Annual Crime Trends, January-June, 1939-40. 

Offenses of aggravated assault and negligent manslaughter showed 
increases of 6.5 and 4.2 percent respectively during the first half of 
1940 over the corresponding period of 1939 according to crime reports 
received from 342 cities of 25,000 inhabitants or more. Other crimes 
against the person showed decreases as follows: Murder, 6.4 percent; 
rape, 5.4 percent. 

Robbery showed a decrease of 3.3 percent. Other crimes against 
property showed increases as follows: Larceny, 5.2 percent; auto theft, 
1.2 percent; and burglary, 0.6 percent. 

Crime Rates, 1940. 

During the first half of this year cities over 100,000 in population 
experienced the highest crime rates, except for rapes and other feloni- 
ous assaults. The highest rate for rape was seen in cities over 250,000, 
followed by cities between 2,500 and 10,000. Aggravated assaults 
occurred with most frequency in cities with populations from 50,000 to 
100,000, followed by cities over 100,000. Tables are included in this 
issue of the bulletin presenting crime rates for cities grouped according 
to size and also by location. The number of offenses reported durmg 
the second quarter by individual cities with over 100,000 inhabitants 
is also presented. 
Distribution of Crimes by Type, 1940. 

The majority (58.5 percent) of the offenses reported during the 
first half of this year were classified as larcenies, and more than half 
of these were thefts of some type of property from automobiles or 
thefts of bicycles. Burglary offenses made up 22.9 percent of the 
crimes reported and more than half of such cases involved nonresi- 
dence structures. Twenty-one percent of the burglaries were perpe- 
trated during daytime. Auto thefts represented 11.1 percent, and 
robberies, 3.5 percent of the total crimes reported. The remaining 
4.0 percent consisted of criminal homicides, rapes, and other felonious 
assaults. 

Recoveries were eff'ected in 97 percent of the auto thefts; and recov- 
eries of other types of stolen property amounted to 23 percent. 

Urban and Rural Crime Rates, 1939. 

In studying the urban and rural crime rates for 1939 in several 
selected States it was found that the number of offenses per 100,000 

(61) 



62 

inhabitants occurring in the cities and towns was generally higher 
than the crime rates for the rural sections of the States. This is 
particularly true with reference to crimes against property. In sev- 
eral of the States included in this study it was found that the crime 
rates for offenses against the person were noticeably higher in the 
rural areas than in the urban communities. 

Police Employees, 1939. 

Last year the police departments in cities in the eastern geographic 
divisions (Middle Atlantic, New England, and South Atlantic) had 
more police employees per unit of population than the departments 
in other sections of the country. It was generally found, throughout 
the Nation, that the police departments in the larger cities had more 
employees per 1 ,000 inhabitants than those in the smaller communities. 

During 1939 there were 18 police officers killed in 374 cities with 
more than 25,000 inhabitants. This represents a rate of 1.8 for every 
5,000,000 inhabitants in the general population. 

In this issue of the bulletin tabulations are presented showing the 
average number of police employees for cities grouped according to 
size and by location. Figures for individual cities are likewise in- 
cluded. 

Persons Arrested. 

Of the 298,423 arrest records examined by the FBI during the 
first half of this year, more represontcd arrests of persons aged 19 
than any other single age group. Persons under 25 years of age 
represented 33.3 percent of the total. Persons less than 25 years of 
age numbered 53.7 percent of those charged with robbery, 63.3 percent 
of those charged with burglary, 49.1 percent of those charged with 
larceny, and 73.0 percent of those charged with auto theft. 

In examining the 298,423 arrest records received during the period 
of January-June 1940 it was found that 102,589 of these persons had 
previously been convicted of at least 296,510 violations. 

Women were represented by 8.2 percent (24,362) of the 298,423 
arrest records examined. During the comparable portion of 1939, 
women were represented by only 7.1 percent of the records. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "offenses known to the poHce" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to 
the police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting 
or court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following 
group of seven classes of grave oft"enses, shown by experience to be 
those most generally and completely reported to the police : Criminal 
homicide, including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (b) 
manslaughter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; 
burglary— breaking or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The 
figures contained herein include also the number of attempted crimes 
of the designated classes. Attempted murders, however, are reported 
as aggravated assaults. In other words, an attempted burglary or 
robbery, for example, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner 
as if the crime had been completed. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the police depart- 



63 

ments of contributing cities and not merely arrests or cleared cases. 
Complaints which upon investigation are learned to be groundless are 
not included in the tabulations which follow. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of crime 
and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions of 
part I and part II offense classifications. 

EXTENT OF REPORTING AREA 

The number of police departments from which one or more crime 
reports were received during the first half of 1940 is contained in the 
following table. The cities represented are classed according to size, 
and the population figures for cities in excess of 10,000 are estimates 
prepared by the Bureau of the Census as of July 1, 1933. However, 
since no estimates were available for the smaller cities, the 1930 
decennial census figures were used for places under 10,000 in popu- 
lation. 



Population group 



Total 

1. Cities over 250,000 

2. Cities 100,000 to 250,000 

3. Cities 50,000 to 100,000-. 

4. Cities 25,000 to 50,000... 
£. Cities 10,000 to 25,000... 



Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 



982 



37 

57 

104 

191 

693 



Cities filing returns 



Number Percent 



922 



37 

67 

102 

186 

540 



93.9 



100.0 

100.0 

98.1 

97.4 

91.1 



Total pop- 
ulation 



60, 406, 254 



29, 695, 500 
7, 850, 312 
7, 045, 274 
6,714,212 
9, 100, 956 



Population repre- 
sented in returns 



Number Percent 



59, 331, 103 



29, 695, 500 
7, 850, 312 
6, 894, 674 
6, 531, 112 
8, 359, 605 



100.0 

100.0 

97.9 

97.3 

91.9 



Note.— The above table does not include 1,722 cities and rural townships aggregating a total population 
of 8,563,142. The cities included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 population filing returns, whereas 
the rural townships are of varying population groups. 

The growth of the uniform crime reporting area is indicated by the 
following tabulation. These figures were compiled for the first 6 
months of 1932-40. 



Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


1932 


1,536 
1,606 
1,646 
1,949 
2,189 


52, 692. 749 
54, 208, 740 

62, 319, 945 

63, 270, 683 

64, 648, 798 


1937 


2,278 
2,512 
2,615 
2,644 


65, 241, 398 

66, 659, 040 

67, 293, 028 
67, 894, 245 


1933 


1938 


1534 


1939 


1935 

1936 _ 


1940 



The additional 29 cities shown in the above tabulation for the first 
half of 1940, as compared with the corresponding period of 1939, 
increased the population represented in the uniform crime reporting 
project by 601,217, bringing the aggregate population to 67,894,245. 

There were 4,197 contributors of one or more crime reports during 
the first half of 1940. These consisted of 2,644 city and village law 
enforcement agencies, 1,532 sheriff's, 8 State police units, and 13 
agencies in Territories and possessions of the United States. 



MONTHLY REPORTS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population. 

With few exceptions, during the first 6 months of 1940 the average 
city with over 100,000 inhabitants experienced more crime per unit 
of population than the average smaller community. These larger 
cities, during the first half of 1940, showed the highest crime rates 
for offenses of criminal homicide, robberv, burglary, larceny, and auto 
theft. 

More offenses of rape per unit of population occurred during the 
first 6 months in cities with populations in excess of 250,000, and the 
next highest rate was seen in cities with populations between 2,500 
and 10,000. Aggravated assaults occurred with greatest frequency in 
cities with populations ranging from 50,000 to 100,000, followed by 
cities between 100,000 and 250,000 and cities over 250,000, respectively. 

Most of the offenses listed on the monthly reports received at the 
FBI were classified as larcenies. These cases constituted 58.5 per- 
cent of all offenses reported during the first 6 months of this year. 
Burglary offenses made up 22.9 percent of the total; auto thefts, 11. 1 
percent; and robberies, 3.5 percent. Thus, 96.0 percent of the total 
crimes reported consisted of offenses against property. Offenses 
against the person, aggravated assault, rape, and criminal homicide 
represented only 4.0 percent of the total crimes. 

These data are based on crime reports received by the Federal Bu- 
reau of Investigation from 1,953 cities with over 2,500 inhabitants, 
representing a total population of 61,780,182. The information is 
presented in table 39 in such a manner that interested persons may 
compare crime conditions in a particular community with average 
figures for other cities in the United States of approximately the same 
size. The number of offenses per 100,000 inhabitants for cities grouped 
not only as to size but also by geographic division is presented in table 

42. 

(64) 



65 



Table 39. — Offenses known to the police, January to June, inclusive, 1940; number 
and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 

35 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 28,697,100: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP 11 

57 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,850,312: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP III 

93 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 6,293,713: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP IV 

164 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total pop- 
ulation, 5,740,860: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP V 

470 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total pop- 
ulation, 7,302,403: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP VI 

1,134 cities under 10,000; total pop- 
ulation, 5,895,794: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

Total 1,953 cities; total population, 
61,780,182: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligcnt 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



830 
2.9 



214 
2.7 



144 
2.3 



107 
1.9 



138 
1.9 



121 

2.1 



1,554 
2.5 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



I 799 
2.9 



173 
2.2 



91 
1.4 



76 
1.3 



65 
0.9 



64 
1.1 



1 1, 268 
2.1 



Rape 



1,594 

,5.6 



266 
3.4 



185 
2.9 



172 
3.0 



249 
3.4 



238 
4.0 



2,704 
4.4 



Rob- 
bery 



10, 788 
37.6 



2,119 
27.0 



1,206 
19.2 



866 
15.1 



893 
12.2 



669 
11.3 



16, 541 
26.8 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



6,810 
23.7 



1,924 
24.5 



1,828 
29.0 



1,112 
19.4 



1,070 
14.7 



834 
14.1 



13, 578 
22.0 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or en- 
tering 



2 39,818 
203.5 



15, 990 
203.7 



11, 705 
186.0 



9,369 
163.2 



9,410 
128.9 



7,356 
124.8 



2 93, 648 
177.9 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



2 99. 497 
508.4 



41, 125 
523.9 



29, 475 
468.3 



27, 370 
476.8 



26,411 
361.7 



15,608 
264.7 



2 239,486 
454.8 



Auto 
theft 



28, 400 
99.0 



8,169 
104.1 



4,967 
78.9 



4, C62 
81. 2 



4,085 
55.9 



2.998 
50.8 



53, 281 
86.2 



1 The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports as follows: Group I, 
34 cities, total population, 27,343,000; groups I-VI, 1,952 cities, total population, 60,426,082. 

2 The number of offenses and rate for burglary and larcenv-thcft are based on reports as follows: Group I, 
33 cities, total population, 19,570,100; groups I-VI, 1,951 cities, total population, 52,653,182. 

Annual Trends, Offenses Known to the Police, 1939-40. 

According to the monthly reports received from the country's larger 
cities during the first 6 months of 1939 and 1940 the following increases 
in crimes were noted: Aggravated assault, 6.5 percent; larceny, 5.2 
percent; manslaughter by negligence, 4.2 percent; auto theft, 1.2 per- 
cent. A slight increase of 0.6 percent was seen in offenses of burglary. 

On the other hand, some offenses showed marked decreases during 
the first 6 months of this year in comparison with the corresponding 
period of last year. Murders decreased 6.4 percent, rapes, 5.4 percent, 
and robberies, 3.3 percent. There is presented in table 40 the number 



66 



of offenses known to have been committed during the period of Janu- 
ary-June, inclusive, 1939-40, as reported by 342 cities over 25,000 
in population. The total population represented is 41,201,385. The 
data are presented separately for the first and second quarters of each 
year, as well as for the entire first half of 1939 and 1940. 

It is interesting to note that in each instance where an increase in 
offenses was seen over the 6-month period during 1940 as compared 
with 1939 the increase was more pronounced during the second quarter 
of this year. For example, aggravated assaults, which showed an 
increase of 6.5 percent in comparing the two 6-month periods, in- 
creased only 2.8 percent during the first quarter of 1940, but showed 
an upward trend amounting to 9.6 percent during the second quarter 
in comparison with the corresponding periods of last year. 

On the other hand, in each instance where a decrease was seen in 
the 6-month period of 1940 in comparison with last year, the decrease 
was most pronounced during the first quarter. To illustrate, it will 
be seen that rape offenses during the 6-month period decreased 5.4 
percent. However, in comparing the first quarter of 1940 with the 
first quarter of 1939 a decrease in this offense is seen of 10.5 percent, 
while offenses of rape during the period of April-June of 1940 showed 
a decrease of only 0.3 percent when compared with the same period 
of last year. In other words it appears that, compared with 1939, the 
second quarter of 1940 was not as favorable as the first quarter of 
this year. 

Table 40. — Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 342 cities over 25,000 in 
•population, January to June, inclusive, 1939-40 

[Total population, 41,201,385, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homi- 
cide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or en- 
tering 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 






Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


January-March 1939 


609 

525 

644 

648 

1, 253 
1,173 


1354 
1366 

1 309 
1325 

1 663 
1691 


912 

816 

905 
902 

1,817 
1,718 


8,094 
7,7U 

6,554 
6,454 

14, 648 
14, 165 


4,468 
4,594 

5,209 
5,710 

9,677 
10, 304 


2 39, 267 
2 38,911 

2 36, 764 

2 37, 582 

2 76,031 
2 76, 493 


2 93,053 
2 94, 998 

2 93, 857 
2 101,578 

2 186,910 
2 196, 576 


21, 301 


January-March 1940... . 


21,122 


April-June 1939 


19, 312 


April-June 1940 


19, 974 


January-June 1939 . ... .. 


40.613 


January-June 1940 


41,096 







1 The number of offenses of manslaughter by negligence is based on reports of 340 cities with a total popula- 
tion of 39,473,185. 

2 The number of offenses of burglary and larceny is based on reports of 341 cities with a total population 

of 39,228,685. 



67 




Figure 6. 



251951°— 40- 



68 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location. 

In order that there may be available to mterested mdividuals data 
concerning crime conditions in specific sections of the country there 
is presented in table 42 the number of offenses known to the police 
per 100,000 inhabitants during the first 6 months of 1940 for cities 
grouped not only according to size but also by geographic divisions. 
In examining the crime rates presented in this table marked variances 
will be seen in the rates for different sections of the country. Some 
of the factors affecting the extent of crime in local communities are 
dealt with in the text preceding table 43. 

The information presented in tables 39 and 42 is supplemented by 
that shown in table 41, wherein may be found the number of police 
departments whose reports were employed in preparing crime rates 
for each of the subgroups shown in tables 39 and 42. 

Table 41. — Number of cities included in the tahidation of uniform crime reports, 

January to June, inclusive, 1940 



Division 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England: 173 cities; total population, 
5,700,610 

Middle Atlantic: 492 cities; total population, 
18,068,927 ---. 

East North Central: 473 cities; total popula- 
tion, 16.036,960 

West North Central: 226 cities; total popula- 
tion. 4,976,607 

South Atlantic:' 156 cities; total population, 
4,775,757 

East South Central: 70 cities; total popula- 
tion, 2,151,591 

West South Central: 113 cities; total popula- 
tion, 3,343.396 

Mountain: 78 cities; total population, 1,221,578 

Pacific: 172 cities; total population, 5,504,756. 

Total: 1,953 cities; total population, 
61.780,182 



Population 



Group 
I 



Over 
250,000 



35 



Group 
II 



100,000 

to 
250.000 



12 

11 

10 

5 

6 

3 

5 
1 
4 



57 



Group 
III 



50,000 

to 
100,000 



11 
22 
23 

7 
13 

4 

5 
2 
6 



93 



Group 
IV 



25,000 

to 
50.000 



26 
29 
49 
9 
18 



10 

6 

13 



164 



Group 
V 



10,000 

to 
25,000 



62 

128 

100 

53 

32 

22 

25 
13 
35 



470 



Group 
VI 



Less 
than 
10,000 



60 

297 

282 

148 

84 

34 

65 

55 

109 



1,134 



Total 



173 
492 
473 
226 
156 
70 

113 

78 
172 



1,953 



1 Includes report of District of Columbia. 



69 




Figure 7. 



70 

In order that the information may be readily available, there are 
listed below the States included in the nine geographic divisions. 

States Divided by Geographic Division 



New England: 
Connecticut. 
Maine. 

Massachusetts. 
New Hampshire. 
Rhode Island. 
Vermont. 

West North Central: 
Iowa. 

Kansas. 
Minnesota. 
Missouri. 
Nebraska. 
North Dakota. 
South Dakota. 



West Sout^ Central: 
Arkansas. 
Louisiana. 
Oklahoma. 
Texas. 



Middle Atlantic: 
New Jersey. 
New York. 
Pennsylvania. 



South Atlantic :• 
Delaware. 
Florida. 
Georgia. 
Maryland. 
North Carolina. 
South Carolina. 
Virginia. 
West Virginia. 

Mountain : 
Arizona. 
Colorado. 
Idaho. 
Montana. 
Nevada. 
New Mexico. 
Utah. 
Wyoming. 



East North Central: 
Illinois. 
Indiana. 
Michigan. 
Ohio. 
Wisconsin. 



East South Central: 
Alal)ama. 
Kentucky. 
Mississippi. 
Tennessee. 



Pacific : 

California. 

Oregon. 

Washington. 



' Includes Distriot of Columbia. 



Table 42. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to June, inclusive, 19^0, by geographic divisions and population groups 



Oeographic division and population 
group 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Burglary- 
breaking or 
entering 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


New England: 

Group I .... 


0.8 
.2 
.1 
.3 
.6 


16.5 
9.7 
5.3 
4.3 
2.9 
2.1 


8.8 
6.3 
5.4 
4.5 
3.0 
4.2 


87.7 
180.8 
162.1 
121.3 
103.0 
101.2 


175.8 
345.3 
300.5 
277.7 
224.2 
146.8 


182.6 


Group II 


104.2 


Group III 


63.8 


Group IV. 


55.6 


Group V , 


27. 1 


Group VI 


22.4 








Total, groups I-VI 


.4 


7.8 


5.6 


132.5 


262.7 


86.2 






Middle Atlantic: 
Group I .. 


1.8 
1.1 
.4 
.7 
1.1 
1.2 


14.3 

10.7 

14.4 

8.5 

9.0 

7.7 


18.6 

10.3 

13.0 

9.3 

8.2 
6.5 


1 194. 3 
129.7 
146.2 
119.2 
100.6 
83.5 


' 327.8 
243.5 
237.9 
255.0 
174.5 
123.6 


74.7 


Group II.. . 


72.5 


Group Iir 


70.5 


Group IV. . . 


58.9 


Group V 

Group VI 


44.5 
30.0 






Total, groups I-VI. 


1.4 


12.5 


14.7 


a 126. 7 


3 220.5 


66.1 






East North Central: 

Group I. 


2.7 
2.0 
1.0 
1.1 
1.4 
.8 


58.3 
28.2 
21.1 
13.8 
16.6 
11.3 


19.0 

22.1 

10.5 

6.9 

7.1 

7.0 


179.5 
181.3 
140.6 
136.2 
116.8 
108.8 


448.7 
547.6 
379.2 
377.2 
320.5 
178.9 


70.3 


Group II.- - 


115.1 


Group III 


67.3 


Group IV 


76.5 


Group V__. 


58.8 


Group VI 


46.4 






Total, groups I-VI .,. 


2.0 


39.0 


14.9 


158.7 


405.6 


71.2 







See footnotes at end of table. 



71 



Table 42. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, January 
to June, inclusive, 1940, by geographic divisions and population groups — Con. 



Geosraphie division and population 
group 



West North Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III-- -.. 

Group IV_-_ 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI 

South Atlantic: 

Group 1 3 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI. 

East South Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI 

West South Central: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III- - 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI. 

Mountain: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III-.- 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI 

Pacific: 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



2.6 

.4 

1.2 

.6 

.9 

.7 



1.5 



7.3 
8.5 
7.5 
7.7 
6.2 
5.9 



7.4 



10.9 

11.8 

7.8 

8.5 

7.9 

10.2 



10.0 



7.2 
4.5 
6.8 
2.4 
3.0 
8.9 



5.7 



2.4 
1.4 
3.9 
1.5 
1. 1 
1.7 



1.9 



2.2 
2.0 
1.1 
.9 
1.9 
1.4 



1.9 



Robbery 



31.2 

22. 1 

12.3 

9.0 

8.2 

7.8 



19.8 



52.2 

59.5 
29.6 
34.5 
16.3 
15.3 



40.0 



74.0 
52.3 
26.8 
27.3 
20.5 
30.0 



49.4 



34.4 
44.0 
18.6 
17.1 
21.4 
18.6 



30.4 



22.9 
27.0 
39.1 
20.4 
24.0 
16.4 



22.9 



57.3 
32.8 
30.5 
27.0 
15.1 
16.9 



42 1 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



8.8 
10.1 
3.5 
4.5 
6.1 
6.5 



7.4 



40.4 
73.8 
100.4 
83.4 
86.5 
58.8 



68.7 



152.2 
69.4 

107.2 
91.7 
44.3 
72.7 



104.6 



36.1 
46.2 
59.8 
31.7 
28.1 
29.9 



38.9 



5.8 

4.2 

18.6 

14.6 

5.4 

11.6 



9.5 



22 
8.7 

11.6 

10.1 
4.4 

11.3 



16.1 



Burglary- 
breaking or 
entering 



123.0 
151.8 
197.5 
160.3 
119.6 
101.7 



133. 2 



212.5 
345.2 
254.2 
269.9 
172 
172 3 



241.5 



364. 1 
178. 3 
266.5 
234.1 
203.2 
159.4 



269.0 



227.0 

282.2 
222.4 
205.9 
177.8 
188.8 



228.7 



106.8 
263. 5 
313.1 
192 9 
198.7 
171.7 



186.4 



319.5 
268.9 
267.8 
241.7 
187.4 
212 1 



280.6 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



507.9 
422 5 
598.8 
466.7 
435. 3 
225.7 

450. 8 



493.2 
945.5 
671.6 
755.4 
511. 1 
372.7 



624.7 



605.3 
455.3 
509.3 
708.2 
426.4 
190.0 



515.3 



780.9 
841.1 
803.0 
710.3 
532 2 
364.2 



716.6 



699.2 

513.9 

1, 007. 8 

1,119.4 

1, 020. 1 

512 2 



777.4 



739.0 
814.2 
913. 9 
868.7 
826.3 
745. 4 



779.9 



Auto 
theft 



65-0 
86.7 
111.2 
91.5 
57.1 
37.6 

69.2 



165.7 
145.5 
86.6 
90.9 
62.4 
77.4 



119.8 



104.9 
90.4 
73.0 
98.9 
53.4 
54.2 



86.2 



94.1 
92. 1 
74.3 
65.5 
59.1 
39.9 



93.8 
134.5 
132 1 
143.8 
109.4 

69.8 



106.8 



223. 
145. 
116.5 
163. 6 
120.0 
130.7 



182 6 



1 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 3 cities. 

2 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 490 cities. 

3 Includes the District of Columbia. 



72 




Figure 8. 



73 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 100,000 Inhabitants, 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the period of April-June 1940 is shown in table 43. The compilation 
includes the reports received from police departments in cities with 
more than 100,000 inhabitants. Such data are included here in 
order that interested individuals and organizations may have readily 
available up-to-date information concerning the amount of crime 
committed in their communities. Police administrators and other 
interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare the 
crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in tables 39 
and 42 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire to 
make comparisons with the figures for their communities for prior 
periods, in order to determine whether there has been an increase or a 
decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

A great deal of caution should be exercised in comparing crime 
data for individual cities, because differences in the figures may be 
due to a variety of factors. The amount of crime committed in a com- 
munity is not solely chargeable to the police but is rather a charge 
against the entire community. The following is a list of some of the 
factors which might affect the amount of crime in a community: 

The composition of the population with reference particularly to 

age, sex, and race. 
The economic status and activities of the population. 
Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 
The number of police employees per unit of population. 
The standards governing appointments to the police force. 
The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 
The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 
The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 

Comparisons between the crime rates of individual cities should not 
be made without giving consideration to the above-mentioned factors. 
It is more important to determine whether the figures for a given com- 
munity show increases or decreases in the amount of crime committed 
than to ascertain whether the figures are above or below those of some 
other community. 

In examining a compilation of crime figures for individual com- 
munities it should be borne in mind that in view of the fact that the 
data are compiled by different record departments operating under 
separate and distinct administrative systems, it is entirely possible 
that there may be variations in the practices employed in classifying 
complaints of offenses. On the other hand, the crime-reporting 
handbook has been distributed to all contributors of crime reports, 
and the figures received are included in this bulletin only if they 
apparently have been compiled in accordance with the provisions of 
the handbook, and the individual department has so indicated. 



74 



Table 43.— Number of offenses known to the police, April to June, inclusive 19 LQ 

cities over 100,000 in population ' 



City 



Akron, Ohio 

Albany, N. Y 

Atlanta, Ga 

Baltimore, Md 

Birmingham, Ala 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn . 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Cambridge, Mass 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 

Chattanooga, Tenn.. 

Chicago, IlL 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio. 

Columbus, Ohio. .. 

Dallas, Tex 

Dayton, Ohio 

Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Detroit, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 
Elizabeth, N. J.. .. 

El Paso, Tex 

Erie, Pa 

Evansville, Ind 

Fall River. Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Fort Wavne, Ind... 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Gary, Ind 

Grand Rapids, Mjch. 

Hartford, Conn 

Honolulu, T. H 

Houston, Tex 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Jersey City, N. J 

Kansas City, Kans 

Kansas City, Mo 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Long Beach. Calif 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell. Mass - 

Lynn. Mass 

Memphis. Tenn 

Miami. Fla 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis. Minn... 

Nashville. Tenn 

Newark, N. J 

New Bedford, Mass .. 

New Haven, Conn 

New Orleans, La 
New York, N. Y 
Norfolk, Va 

Oakland, Calif 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha, Nebr 

Paterson, N.J 

Peoria, 111 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Oreg 

Providence, R. I 

Reading, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn. . ... 
Salt Lake. City, Utah.. 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



3 

1 

30 

22 

19 

4 



10 

57 

20 

15 

1 

17 

3 

2 



21 
... 



10 

4 

12 

1 
13 

7 



24 
10 



25 
10 
2 
3 
9 
6 



12 

61 

6 

1 

2 



27 



7 
1 
12 
2 
1 
7 



Robbery 



33 

8 
80 
94 
47 
70 

5 
17 

3 

22 

17 

24 

1, 235 

101 

215 

.59 

46 

9 

39 

16 

440 

5 

7 
19 

6 
12 

4 
15 
15 
21 
34 
15 

4 

4 

79 

118 

45 

37 
135 
5 
30 
498 
98 
1 
8 
144 
56 
27 
39 
60 
89 
5 
14 
20 
351 
21 
37 
47 
21 
10 
10 
197 
140 
67 
2 
2 
43 
4 
97 
30 
12 
57 
18 
148 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



23 

10 

90 

188 

157 

32 

1 

34 

2 

12 

16 

66 

403 

55 

38 

19 

67 

7 

9 

9 

252 

1 

5 

19 

2 

23 



Burglary 
— break- 
ing or 
entering 



32 

3 

9 
29 

5 
31 

6 

52 

55 

40 

Complete 

5 
66 
35 

5 
197 
151 



439 
77 
15 
16 
40 

159 
1 
3 

105 

673 
38 
25 
50 
17 



14 

171 

83 

9 

7 

3 

93 

16 

21 

13 

4 

113 

7 

83 



255 
53 
549 
403 
390 
.342 
92 
204 
93 
57 
93 
147 
2.681 
500 
780 
563 
415 
203 
133 
122 
1.444 
67 
66 
90 
100 
107 
125 
181 
67 
240 
175 
127 
217 
245 
642 
739 
241 
data not 
184 
334 
84 
235 
2,221 
598 
77 
105 
422 
310 
162 
332 
135 
714 
205 
214 
129 
1.964 
232 
333 
243 
114 
105 
113 
603 
676 
465 
141 
93 
259 
129 
345 
292 
198 
3.30 
132 
739 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



(') 



52 

23 

108 

190 

65 

167 

51 

66 

21 

49 



14 

894 

177 

43 

97 

31 

20 

62 

60 

267 

25 

14 

9 

10 



49 
19 
21 
27 
29 
37 
27 
61 

153 
70 
received 
(') 

151 
54 
65 

913 

249 

9 

53 

109 
73 
88 

141 

105 

16 



(') 



133 



(') 



40 

35 

31 

22 

21 

12 

209 

110 

161 

48 

16 

62 

34 

45 
11 
77 
34 
167 



Under 

$50 



1 Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



486 

138 

1.030 

753 

406 

541 

359 

398 

189 

86 

223 

362 

2,929 

1.297 

2, 803 

9.52 

1,704 

781 

1,095 

417 

7,156 

307 

156 

340 

186 

350 

80 

459 

524 

791 

202 

594 

479 

524 

1,405 

1,353 

630 



324 
1.042 
188 
789 
4. 332 
1.090 
47 
219 
6S3 
356 
,213 
879 
218 
968 
281 
334 
370 
1.792 
473 
1.065 
443 
233 
62 
187 
483 
523 
,178 
176 
113 
835 
.521 
,476 
709 
383 
900 
547 
1,634 



1. 



Auto 
theft 



105 

55 

251 

519 

88 

830 

82 

142 

94 

76 

11 

54 

728 

171 

261 

219 

121 

82 

160 

124 

754 

45 

39 

42 

61 

69 

49 

116 

206 

64 

61 

80 

166 

56 

195 

441 

66 

33 
147 
38 
116 
1.888 
263 
34 
43 
73 
80 
142 
211 
63 
327 
43 
97 
168 
2. 573 
124 
147 
87 
100 
35 
66 
645 
594 
183 
107 
28 
1.36 
1.38 
216 
56 
92 
85 
150 
679 



75 

Table 43. — Number of offenses known to the police, April to June, inclusive, 1940, 
cities over 100,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Scranton, Pa _ 

Seattle, Wash 

Somerville, Mass___ 
South Bend, Ind... 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, Mass.. 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo, Ohio 

Trenton, N. J 

Tulsa, Okla 

Utica, N. Y 

Washington, D. C. 
Water bury. Conn.. 

Wichita, Kans 

Wilmington, Del... 
Worcester, Mass... 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, Ohio, 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



2 
2 
2 
1 
2 
1 
19 



Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 


Burglary 
— break- 


Larceny — theft 








assault 


entering 


$50 and 
over 


Under 
$50 


5 


10 


154 


21 


176 


66 


26 


501 


67 


852 


5 


1 


33 


8 


49 


7 


2 


111 


21 


361 


20 


11 


170 


16 


571 


1 


4 


95 


22 


268 


2 


3 


85 


31 


226 


9 


3 


107 


11 


181 


7 


18 


168 


19 


341 


57 


30 


406 


92 


706 


17 


33 


220 


22 


253 


27 


31 


263 


61 


602 


1 


2 


19 


14 


175 


163 


70 


671 


191 


1,704 


1 


1 


91 


9 


71 


o 


5 


54 


7 


297 


14 


33 


87 


31 


310 


4 


6 


101 


30 


253 




6 


31 


6 


60 


63 


31 


197 


23 


324 



Auto 
theft 



45 
288 
35 
£6 
76 
94 
73 
45 
36 
164 
46 
69 
28 
461 
58 
20 
48 
84 
41 
98 



Offenses Known to Sheriffs, State Police, and Other Rural Officers, 1940. 

In compiling national police statistics under the system of uniform 
crime reporting a distinction is made between offenses committed in 
urban communities and those occurring in rural sections of the coun- 
try. The preceding tables in this issue of the bulletin have dealt en- 
tirely with urban offenses. Comprehensive data regarding rural 
crimes are not yet available. However, there is presented in table 44 
the number of rural offenses reported by 1,014 sheriffs, 8 State police 
organizations, and 88 village officers. 

Table 44. — Offenses known, January to June, inclusive, 1940, as reported by 1,014 
sheriffs, 8 State police organizations, and 88 village officers 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 






Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Offenses known _ . 


561 


411 


1.081 


1,766 


2,999 


14, 144 


22, 544 


4 680 







251951°— 40 3 



76 



Urban and Rural Crime Rates, 1939. 

Generally, it is found that crime rates for offenses against property 
(robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto theft) are lower in the rural 
sections of the Nation than in the urban communities. However, it 
is quite frequently found that the rural crime rates for offenses against 
the person (criminal homicide, rape, and aggravated assault) exceed 
the rates in the cities and towns. These observations were made from 
an examination of crime reports received during the calendar year 
1939 from law-enforcement agencies policing the urban and rural areas 
of seven selected States. 

In selecting the States to be used for this study an effort was made 
to have different sections of the Nation represented. Other factors 
taken into consideration in the selection of the States to be used in 
this study were (1) the number of cities represented by a complete 
set of monthly reports during last year; (2) the number of counties 
represented by a complete set of reports; (3) the percentage of urban 
and rural populations represented; and (4) the uniformity with which 
the urban and rural crime reports had apparently been prepared. 

The results of the study are presented in table 45, which shows the 
number of offenses known per 100,000 inhabitants for the urban and 
rural sections of the States indicated. The following tabulation shows 
for each State involved the proportion of the total urban and rural 
population represented in table 45. 



state 


Percentage 

of urban 
population 
represented 


Percentage 

of rural 
population 
represented 


State 


Percentage 

of urban 
population 
represented 


Percentage 

of rural 
population 
represented 


California 


93.8 
61.5 
95.2 
96.8 


76.5 

61.1 

100.0 

71.4 


Minnesota 

Rhode Island 


100.0 
96.9 
96.5 


100.0 


Idaho 


100.0 


Massachusetts 


Washington ... 


64.2 


Michigan.. _. 











The classification of communities as urban or rural by the Bureau 
of the Census has been employed in preparing the following tabula- 
tion. Generally communities classed as urban are incorporated places 
with populations of 2,500 or more. 

Table 45. — Urban and rural offenses known, January to December, inclusive, 1939; 
number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, in selected States 

[Both urban and rural population data are from the 1930 census] 



State 



CALIFORNIA. 

Urban (population repre- 
sented, 3,904,212): 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000... 

Rural (population repre- 
sented, 1,159,571): 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000 



Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 

assault 


Burgla- 
ry- 
break - 
ing or 

entering 


Larce- 
ny- 
theft 


Murder, 
nonueg- 
ligent 
man- ^ 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


104 
4.2 

79 
6.8 


155 
4.0 

79 
6.8 


642 
16.4 

271 
23.4 


3,807 
97.5 

479 
41.3 


1,528 
39.1 

445 
38.4 


22, 489 
576. 

4,582 
395. 1 


62, 984 
1, 613. 2 

7,648 
659.6 



Auto 
theft 



16, 440 
421.1 



1,606 
138.5 



77 

Table 45. — Urban and rural offenses known, January to December, inclusive, 1939; 
number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, in selected States — Continued 



state 



IDAHO 

Urban (population repre- 
sented, 79,611): 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000 

Rural (population repre- 
sented, 192,782): 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000 



MASSACHUSETTS 

Urban (population repre- 
sented, 3,649,391): 
Number of oflenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000 

Rural (population repre- 
sented, 418,188): 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000 



MICHIGAN 

Urban (population repre- 
sented, 3,197,439): 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000 

Rural (population repre- 
sented, 1,099,055): 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000 



MINNESOTA 

Urban (population repre- 
sented, 1,254,272):! 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000. 

Rural (population repre- 
sented, 1,309,681):! 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000 _.- 



RHODE ISLAND 

Urban (population repre- 
sented, 615,651): 
Number of offenses 

known.. 

Rate per 100,000 

Rural (population repre- 
sented, 52,068): 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000 



WASHINGTON 

Urban (population repre- 
sented, 853,443): 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000 

Rural (population repre- 
sented , 436, 010) : 
Number of offenses 

known 

Rate per 100,000 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



5 
6.3 



7 
3.6 



34 
0.9 



6 
1.4 



93 
2.9 



20 
1.8 



25 
2.0 



32 
2.4 



4 
0.6 



21 

2.5 



6 
1.4 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



2.5 



6 
2.6 



93 

2.5 



1.9 



80 

2.5 



30 
2.7 



20 
1.6 



10 
0.8 



11 

1.8 



1 
1.9 



15 
1.8 



13 

3.0 



Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


8 
10.0 


37 

46.5 


9 
11.3 


26 
13.5 


26 
13.5 


34 
17.6 


318 

8.7 


832 
22.8 


341 
9.3 


40 
9.6 


26 
6.2 


29 
6.9 


661 
20.? 


1,914 
59.9 


1,030 
32.2 


128 
11.6 


137 
12.5 


96 
8.7 


50 
4.0 


520 
41.5 


128 
10.2 


82 
6.3 


133 
10.2 


86 
6.6 


23 
. 3.7 


27 
4.4 


60 
9.7 


1 
1.9 


1 
1.9 


2 
3.8 


48 
5.6 


517 
60.6 


185 
21.7 


68 
15.6 


72 
16.5 


118 
27.1 



Burgla- 
ry— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



459 

576.6 



344 

178.4 



9,323 
255.5 



520 
124.3 



10, 168 
318.0 



1,606 
146.1 



3, 483 

277.7 



1,275 
97.4 



1,228 
199.5 



162 
311.1 



5,224 
612.1 



873 
200.2 



Larce- 
ny- 
theft 



1,569 
1,970.8 



778 
403.6 



18, 863 
516.9 



750 
179.3 



37, 786 
1.181.8 



2,965 
269.8 



10, 195 
812.8 



1,626 
124. 2 



3,071 

498. 8 



119 

228.5 



11,741 
1, 375. 7 



2,073 

475.4 



Auto 
theft 



258 
324.1 



118 
61.2 



6, 441 
176.5 



109 
26.1 



5,768 
180.4 



535 
48.7 



2,436 
194.2 



386 
29.5 



467 
75.9 



12 
2.3.0 



2, 514 
294.6 



214 
49.1 



1 Richfield, population 3,344 (including Fort Snelling), treated as rural. 



78 

Offenses Known in Territories and Possessions of tfie United States, 

There are presented in table 46 the available crime data for the 
Territories and possessions of the United States. The figures are 
based on reports received from the first three judicial divisions of 
Alaska; Honolulu City and the Counties of Hawaii, Honolulu, and 
Maui, in the Territory of Hawaii; Isthmus of Panama, C. Z., and 
Puerto Rico. The tabulation is based on the number of offenses 
known to law-enforcement officials of both urban and rural areas with 
the exception that the data for Honolulu City have been segregated 
from the figures for Honolulu County. 



Table 46. — Number of offenses known in United States Territories and possessions, 

January to June, inclusive, 1940 

[Population figures from Federal census, Apr. 1, 1930] 





Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Larceny— theft 




Jurisdiction reporting 


Over 

$50 


Under 

$50 


Auto 
theft 


Alaska: 

First judicial division (Juneau), 
population, 19,304; number of of- 
fenses known,. 






5 

3 

10 
3 
4 
6 

6 
1,040 


22 

3 

3 

519 

107 

78 

53 

32 

666 


13 

3 

3 

68 

8 

10 

4 

17 
62 


17 

1 

11 

1,066 
212 
137 
115 

217 
1,587 




Second judicial division (Nome), 
population, 10,127; number of of- 
fenses known 




1 




Third judicial division (Valdez), 
population, 10,309; number of of- 
fenses known 






Hawaii: 

Honolulu City, population, 137,582; 

number of offenses known 

Hawaii County, population, 73,325; 
number of offenses known 


4 
2 

1 


7 
2 

1 

3 
33 


112 

11 


Honolulu County, population, 65,341; 
number of offenses known _ . 


19 


Maui County, population, 56,146; 
number of offenses known 


5 


Isthmus of Panama: Canal Zone, popu- 
lation, 39,467; number of offenses 
known - . - - 


1 
126 


18 


Puerto Rico: Population, 1,543,913; num- 
ber of offenses known . 


45 







79 

Data From Supple inentary Offense Reports. 

The majority (53.3 percent) of the robberies committed during 
the first 6 months of 1940 were classified as highway robberies, and 
40 percent were robberies of some type of commercial house. Only 
4 percent were residence robberies, and 2.7 percent classed as miscel- 
laneous. 

More than half (53.9 percent) of the burglaries were perpetrated 
in nonresidence structures, and 46.1 percent were burglaries of resi- 
dences. During the first 6 months of this year 21 percent of the 
burglaries committed were perpetrated during the day. However, 
the proportion of daytime burglaries is noticeably different when 
considering only residence burglaries. Only 9.6 percent of the non- 
residence burglaries were perpetrated during the day, while a study 
of the residence burglaries discloses that 34 percent were committed 
during the day. 

Most of the larcenies involved property valued between $5 and 
$50. During the period January-June 1940, 64.1 percent of the 
larcenies reported involved property from $5 to $50 in value; 24.9 
percent involved property valued at less than $5; and only in 11 
percent of the thefts was the property valued in excess of $50. Thefts 
of automobile accessories and other articles from automobiles rep- 
resented 37.1 percent of the larcenies reported, and bicycles consti- 
tuted 13 percent of the total. Thus, thefts of articles from auto- 
mobiles, and thefts of bicycles constituted one-half of all the larcenies 
reported during the first 6 months of this year. 

More than half (51.3 percent) of the offenses of rape reported were 
classified as statutory (not forcible — victim under age of consent) in 
character. 

The preceding analysis of offenses committed was made possible 
by supplementary offense reports forwarded to the FBI by 52 
police departments in cities with populations in excess of 100,000, 
and the figures upon which the percentages are based are presented 
in table 47. 



80 




Figure 9. 



81 



Table 47. — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the crim- 
inal act, time and place of commission,' and value of property stolen, January to 
June, inclusive, 1940; 52 cities over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 18,252,038, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Classification 


Number 
of actual 
offenses 


Rape: 

Forcible 


391 


Statutory.. - 


412 






Total- 


803 






Robbery: 

Highway .. . . 


4, 190 


Commercial house 


2,357 


Oil station. 


691 


Chain store 


90 


Residence- 


312 


Bank . --_ - 


16 


Miscellaneous 


210 


Total 


7,866 






Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Residence (dwelling) : 

Committed during night 

Committed during day - 


10, 595 

5,568 


Nonresidence (store, office, etc.) : 

Committed during night 

Committed during day 


17, 116 
1,809 






Total 


35. 088 



Classification 



Larceny— theft (except auto theft) 
(grouped according to value of article 
stolen)- 

Over .$50 

$5 to $50 

Under .$5 

Total 

Larceny— theft (grouped as to type of 
offense) : 

Pocket-picking 

Purse-snatching 

Shoplifting 

Thefts from autos (exclusive of auto 

accessories) 

Auto accessories 

Bicycles 

All other 

Total 



Number 
of actual 
offenses 



9,290 
54,012 
20, 957 


84, 259 


1,086 
2,707 
2,553 

16, 268 
14, 980 
10, 933 
35, 732 



H, 259 



In further examining the supplementary offense reports forwarded 
to the Bureau this year it is found that during the first 6 months 97.2 
percent of stolen automobiles were recovered. The 52 cities referred 
to in table 48 reported the theft of 18,631 automobiles and 18,113 
were reported recovered. 

Table 48. — Recoveries of stolen automobiles, January to June, inclusive, 1940; 

52 cities over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 18,252,038, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 

Number of automobiles stolen 18, 631 

Number of automobiles recovered 18, 113 

Percentage recovered 97. 2 

Recovered property amounted to 67.1 percent of the value of 
property reported stolen. Excluding automobiles, the value of 
property recovered during the first 6 months of 1940 was equal to 
23 percent of that stolen during the same period. In table 49 there 
are presented data taken from the supplementary offense reports 
received from 52 police departments in cities with populations in 
excess of 100,000 concerning the value of property stolen and recov- 
ered, subdivided by type of property. Exclusive of automobiles, 
there was stolen in these cities property valued at $5,539,762.57, 
and during the same period property recovered was valued at $1,274,- 
614.40. Stolen automobiles were valued at $8,214,319.89 and 
recovered automobiles amounted to $7,949,905.25. 



82 



Table 49. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered with divisions 
as to type of property involved, January to June, inclusive, 1940; 53 cities over 
100,000 in population 

[Total population, 18,252,038, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Type of property 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Miscellaneous 

Total 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



$1, 352, 362. 81 

1. 249, 202. 13 

274, 638. IS 

694, 766. 69 

8,214,319.89 

1, 968, 792. 76 



13, 754, 082. 46 



Value of prop- 
erty recovered 



$187, 130. 44 

249, 771. 26 

33, 432. 23 

126, 640. 73 

7, 949, 905. 25 

677, 639. 74 



9, 224, 519. 65 



Percent 
recovered 



13.8 
20.0 
12.2 
18.2 
96.8 
34.4 



67.1 



83 




Figure 10. 



251951°— 40 4 



84 




Figure 11. 



POLICE EMPLOYEE DATA 

Police Officers Killed by Criminals, 1939. 

There were 18 police officers killed in line of duty last year in 374 
cities, with over 25,000 inhabitants, representing a total population 
of 50,199,054. This constitutes a rate of 1.8 for every 5 million 
inhabitants. 

This information was made available by means of special reports 
forwarded to the Federal Bureau of Investigation covering the calen- 
dar year 1939 and in examining similar data for the 2 preceding years, 
it is noted that the number of police officers killed by criminals per 
5 million inhabitants during 1937 and 1938 was in each instance more 
than double the rate for 1939. The rate for each of the years 1937 
and 1938 was 3.9. 

The 1939 data are shown in table 50, with the cities divided into 
four groups according to size. The data in this tabulation may be 
compared with similar information presented in table 51 of volume X, 
No. 2 and table 68 of volume IX, No. 3 of this bulletin for 1938 and 
1937 respectively. 



Table 50. — Number of pol 


icemen killed by 


criminal 


S, 19S9 






Population group 


Number 
per 

5,000,000 
inhabi- 
tants 


Geographic division 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Total 




Over 
250,000 


100,000 to 
250,000 


50,000 to 
100,000 


25,000 to 
50,000 


Groups 
I-IV 


New England: 56 cities; total popula- 
tion, 4,529,663; number of policemen 
killed 














Middle Atlantic: 78 cities; total popu- 
lation, 15,884,872; number of police- 


3 

6 


1 


1 




4 

7 


1.3 


East North Central: 98 cities; total pop- 
ulation, 13,174,178; number of police- 
men killed 


1 


2.7 


West North Central: 27 cities; total 
population, 3,562,300; number of 
po icemen killed 




South Atlantic: ' 36 cities; total popu- 
lation, 3,586,451; number of police- 
men killed 








1 


1 
3 
2 


1.4 


East South Central: 14 cities; total pop- 
ulation, 1,531,468; number of police- 
men killed 


2 

1 


1 




9.8 


West South Central: 27 cities; total 
population, 2,772,900; number of 
policemen killed 

Mountain: 9 cities; total population, 
715 732* number of Dolicemen killed 


1 




3.6 






Pacific: 29 cities; total population, 
4,441,490; number of policemen killed. 


1 








1 


1. 1 










Total: 

Number of policemen killed 

Number kil ed per 5,000,000 inhabi- 


12 

2.0 

37 

29, 695, 500 


2 

1.3 

54 

7,413,412 


2 

1.6 

100 

6, 728, 174 


2 

1.6 

183 

6, 361, 968 


18 

1.8 

374 

50, 199, 054 




Number of cities -- - 




Total population of cities 









1 Includes the District of Columbia. 



(85) 



86 

Number of Police Employees, 1939. 

On an average the police departments in cities in the eastern geo- 
graphic divisions (Middle Atlantic, New England, and South Atlantic) 
have more police employees per unit of population than do the police 
departments in other sections of the coimtry, according to reports 
covering the calendar year 1939 forwarded to the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation by 2,750 cities in the United States. This is particularly 
true with reference to cities with over 250,000 inhabitants. 

It is found generally that the police departments in the larger cities 
throughout the country have more police employees per 1,000 inhabi- 
tants than those in the smaller communities. This is true in each 
geographic division with the exception of the East South Central 
States where more employees per unit of population will be found in 
the police departments in cities between 50,000 and 100,000, followed 
by cities from 100,000 to 250,000 and those over 250,000 respectively. 

In table 52 there is presented the average number of police-depart- 
ment employees per 1,000 inhabitants for the calendar year 1939. 
The data are shown for the cities grouped according to population 
and geographic location. The information presented in table 52 is 
supplemented by that shown in table 51, which indicates the number 
of cities in each group whose reports showing the number of police 
employees were used in preparing the summary tabulations. 

In examining the data presented in table 52, it will be noted that 
in several instances there seems to be only a slight difference in the 
average number of police employees between some of the groups of 
cities. The significance of the difference is more evident when pre- 
sented in terms of the number of inhabitants per police officer. The 
following tabulation shows these data for the six groups of cities 
divided according to size: 

Average number of 
inhahilmits per 
Population group: police officer 

I 457 

II 680 

III 737 

IV 826 

V 923 

VI 898 

The population figures used in preparing the data presented in table 
52 were estimates as of July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census for 
all cities over 10,000 in population. No similar estimates were avail- 
able, however, for cities with a smaller number of inhabitants, and for 
them the figures listed in the 1930 decennial census were used. 



87 

Table 51. — Number of cities included in the tabulation showing the average number 
of police-department employees, 1939, by geographic divisions and population 
groups 









Population 








Division 


Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Group V 


Group VI 






Over 
250,000 


100,000 to 
250,000 


50,000 to 
100,000 


26.000 to 
50,000 


10,000 to 
25,000 


Less than 
10,000 


Total 


New England: 214 cities; total 
population, 6,292,471 

Middle Atlantic: 645 cities; 
total population, 20,387,261 _. 

East North Central: 616 cities; 
total population, 17,163,284_. 

West North Central : 312 cities; 
total population, 5,513,535. _. 

South Atlantic:' 255 cities; 
total population, 5,423,508.-- 

East South Central: 130 cities; 
total population, 2,541,818... 

West South Central: 21 8 cities; 
total population, 4, 126,823. ._ 

Mountain: 123 cities; total 
population, 1,461,785 

Pacific: 237 cities; total popu- 
lation, 5,782,400 


2 

7 
9 
4 
3 
3 
3 
1 


12 
11 
10 
6 
6 
3 
6 
1 
4 


13 

24 
26 
7 
14 
4 
7 
2 
6 


31 
37 
54 
11 
19 

6 
12 

6 
15 


72 
151 
117 
62 
44 
28 
38 
17 
39 


84 
415 
400 
223 
169 

86 
153 

96 
168 


214 
G45 
616 
312 
255 
130 
218 
123 
237 






Total; 

Cities 

Population 


37 
29, 695, 500 


57 
7, 850, 312 


103 
6, 893, 474 


191 
6, 650, 168 


568 
8, 765, 546 


1,794 
8, 837, 885 


2,750 
68, 692, 885 



1 Includes report of District of Columbia. 



88 

Table 52. — Average number of police-deparhnent em-ployees, 1939, by geographic 

divisions and population groups 



Population 



Division 



New England: 

Number of police 
Average number 

inhabitants 

Middle Atlantic: 
Number of police 
Average number 

inhabitants 

East North Central: 
Number of police 
Average number 

inhabitants 

West North Central: 
Number of police 
Average number 

inhabitants 

South Atlantic: • 
Number of police 
Average number 

inhabitants 

East South Central: 
Number of police 
Average number 

inhabitants 

West South Central: 
Number of police 
Average number 

inhabitants 

Mountain: 

Number of police 
Average number 

inhabitants 

Pacific: 

Number of police 

Average number 

inhabitants 



employees 

of employees per 1,000 



employees 

of employees per 1,000 



employees 

of employees per 1,000 



employees 

of employees per 1,000 



employees- 

of employees per 1,000 



employees 

of employees per 1,000 



employees 

of employees per 1,000 



employees 

of employees per 1,000 



employees 

of employees per 1,000 



Total: 

Number of police employees 

Average number of employees per 
1,000 inhabitants 



Group 
I 



Over 
250,000 



2,920 

2.80 
30, 098 

2.62 
15, 673 

1.87 
3,760 

1.88 
3.903 

2.45 
1,009 

1.18 
1,582 

1.48 
411 

1.40 
5,574 

1.86 



Group 
II 



64,930 
2.19 



100,000 

to 
250,000 



3.016 

1.91 

2,517 

1.72 

1,511 

1.09 

812 

1. 15 

1,267 

1.64 

527 

1.35 

1.008 

1.16 

166 

1. 15 

722 

1.33 



11, 546 
1.47 



Group 
III 



50,000 

to 
100,000 



1,391 

1.00 

2,514 

1.53 

2,017 

1. 19 

529 

1.09 

1, 310 

1.41 

368 

1.43 

497 

1. 11 

138 

1.35 

593 

1.30 



Group 
IV 



25,000 

to 
50,000 



9,357 
1.36 



1. .591 

1.44 

1,816 

1.40 

1,904 

1.00 

371 
1.00 

881 
1.34 

255 
1.16 

410 
1.05 

217 
1.05 

605 
1.20 



Group 
V 



10,000 

to 
25,000 



8,050 
1.21 



1,392 

1.21 

2,884 

1.20 

1, 658 

0. 93 

886 

0.97 

772 

1.18 

451 

1.05 

521 

0.88 

254 

1.03 

682 

1.14 



Group 
VI 



Less 
than 
10,000 



616 

1.16 

2,591 

1.24 

2, 058 

1.01 

955 

0.92 

1,039 

1.27 

416 
1.06 

693 
0.91 

4.56 

0.97 

1.019 

1.46 



9.500 
1.08 



9.843 
1.11 



Total 



10, 926 

1.74 

42,420 

2.08 

24, 821 

1.45 

7,313 

1.33 

9, 172 

1.69 

3,026 

1.19 

4,711 

1. 14 

1,642 

1. 12 

9. 195 

1.59 



113,226 

1.65 



I Includes Washington, D. C. 



89 



m 



c3 



^ 



m 



z 
< 



!l=3 » 



(S)0 






(HI 



1^ 

m 



in 



-IsiNVXISVHNI OOO'I «3d S33A.01dN3 JO HBSWnNl- 
lO o "'J 

- - d 



CO 



^ 



(A 



O 



in 
6 



-^SlNVliayHWI OOO'I M3d S33A01d>il3 JO M3awnNp 






«n o 



Figure 12. 



90 

Figures for individual cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants are 
presented in table 53. The cities are divided into groups according to 
size, and for each group the cities are listed alphabetically, first by 
State and then by name of city. For each city separate figures are 
shown for the number of police officers and the number of civilians 
employed in the police department. It is observed that 7 percent of 
the police employees in table 53 were classified as civilians. 

Although information concerning the number of police employees 
is included in the montlily crime reports received from police depart- 
ments, this item was made the subject of a separate detailed inquiry 
in order to obtain the highest possible degree of accuracy and uni- 
formity in the figures published. 

Table 54 includes figures for individual police departments of cities 
ranging from 2,500 to 25,000 inhabitants. 

In connection with the possibility of making a comparison between 
the police personnel figures of individual cities, it should be noted that 
there are several variable factors to be considered which are not in any 
way represented in the tables which follow. Reference is made to the 
following facts: 

(1) In some cities, when regular police officers are absent due to 
vacations, days off, sickness, or otherwise, their places are taken by 
special or reserve officers who are paid only for the time they actually 
work. This means that the effective strength of the department is 
not lowered by absences for the reasons mentioned. On the other 
hand, in many cities, absences due to vacations, days oft*, sickness, etc., 
result in a lowering of the effective strength of the department, due to 
the fact that no reserve officers are used for replacements. 

(2) Some police departments operate on two shifts, whereas in 
other departments the men are distributed among three shifts. 
Obviously the practice followed in any individual community would 
have a substantial influence upon the effective strength of the de- 
partment. 

(3) Dift'erences in automobile equipment, radio-communication 
facilities, and the like are significant and should be considered in 
any careful comparison of law-enforcement facilities in individual 
communities. 

(4) Some cities use special school-crossing guards to make it un- 
necessary to detail regular police officers to guide children and regulate 
traffic at school crossings during houre when children are going to or 
returning from school. In some instances, the reporting departments 
had apparently calculated the equivalent number of full-time em- 
ployees represented by the school-crossing guards and included them 
in the figure representing the total number of employees. In other 
cases, it was not clear whether this had been done, and this is pointed 
out as an item to be considered when comparing figures for individual 
communities. 

(5) In some cities, a heavy volume of traffic requires a larger than 
average proportion of the force on traffic duty, with a resultant de- 
crease in the number of men available to handle criminal cases. 

(6) Differences in police salaries and standards for appointment to 
the force and their influence on the quality and morale of personnel 
are significant. 

(7) Communities vary also as to the number of private police 
employed by individuals and organizations. 



91 



(8) There is a great variance in cities throughout the United States 
with reference to the number of inhabitants per square mile. 

Table 53. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities over 25,000 in 

popvlation 
CITIES WITH OVER 250,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Birmingham, Ala 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Oakland, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif. 

TJenver, Colo 

Washington, I). G__. 

Atlanta, Ga 

Chicago, 111 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Louisville, Ky 

New Orleans, La 

Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass 

Detroit, Mich 

Minneapolis, Minn _ 

St. Paul, Minn 

Kansas City, Mo 

St. Louis, Mo 

Jersey City, N. J 



Num- 


Num- 


Total 


ber of 
police 
officers 


ber of 
civil- 
ians 


ber of 
em- 
ployees 


237 


11 


248 


2,410 


360 


2,770 


395 


11 


408 


1,.303 


70 


1,373 


406 


5 


411 


1.422 


100 


1, .522 


398 


64 


462 


6.329 


293 


6,622 


520 


55 


575 


410 


18 


428 


844 




844 


1,708 


211 


1,919 


2,183 


184 


2, 367 


3,674 


279 


3, 953 


471 


33 


504 


330 


22 


.352 


485 


177 


662 


1,802 


440 


2,242 


832 


109 


941 



City 



Newark, N. J 

Buffalo, N. Y 

New York, N. Y. 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Akron, Ohio 

Cincinnati, Oliio. 
Cleveland, Ohio.. 
Columbus, Ohio- 

Toledo, Ohio 

Portland, Oreg-. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pittsburgh, Pa... 
Providence, R. I. 
Memphis, Tenn. 

Dallas, Tex 

Houston, Tex 

Seattle, Wash 

Milwaukee, Wis. 



Num- 


Num- 


ber of 


ber of 


police 


civil- 


officers 


ians 


1,111 


106 


1,139 


137 


18,766 


1,134 


430 


34 


194 


23 


704 


28 


1,420 


213 


318 




352 


50 


378 


72 


5.037 


225 


982 


56 


485 


68 


271 


62 


270 


55 


367 


46 


526 


49 


1,104 


117 



Total 
num- 
ber of 
em- 
ployees 



1. 



1,217 

1,276 

19,900 

464 

217 

732 

.633 

318 

402 

4.50 

5,262 

1,038 

553 

333 

325 

413 

575 

1.221 



CITIES WITH 100,000 TO 250,000 INHABITANTS 



Long Beach, Calif 

San Diego, Calif 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Hartford, Conn 

New Haven, Conn 

Waterbury, Conn 

Wilmington, Del 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Miami, Fla 

Tampa, Fla 

Peoria, 111 

Evansville, Ind 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Gary, Ind 

South Bend, Ind 

Des Moines, Iowa 

fvansas City, Kans... 

Wichita, Kans 

Cambridge, Ma,ss 

Fall River, Mass 

Lowell, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

New Bedford, Mass.. 

Somcrville, Mass 

Springfield, Mass 

Worcester, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Duluth, Minn 



205 


38 


243 


201 


26 


227 


264 


2 


266 


339 


22 


361 


339 


26 


365 


202 


8 


210 


167 


3 


170 


200 


17 


217 


208 


44 


252 


83 


15 


98 


117 


16 


133 


128 


13 


141 


123 


1 


124 


148 


11 


1.59 


99 


5 


104 


1.56 


18 


174 


87 


6 


93 


98 


11 


109 


232 


3 


235 


187 


12 


199 


170 


15 


185 


148 


5 


1.53 


212 


8 


220 


1.50 


2 


152 


283 


18 


301 


348 


21 


369 


1.52 


25 


177 


181 


24 


205 


134 


4 


138 



Omaha, Nebr 

Camden, N. J 

Elizabeth, N. J 

Paterson, N. J 

Trenton, N. J 

Albany, N. Y 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Utica, N. Y 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Canton, Ohio 

Dayton, Ohio 

Youngstown, Ohio 

Oklahoma City. Okla. 

Tulsa. Okla 

Erie, Pa 

Reading, Pa 

Scranton, Pa 

Chattanooga, Tenn... 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Nashville, Tenn 

El Paso. Tex 

Fort Worth. Tex 

San Antonio. Tex 

Salt Lake City. Utah. 

Norfolk. Va 

Richmond. Va 

Spokane. Wash 

Tacoma. Wash 



253 


45 


187 


19 


199 


14 


241 


1 


221 


17 


332 


28 


299 


17 


153 


12 


290 


11 


100 




185 


20 


158 


5 


241 


18 


127 


29 


129 


3 


159 


4 


167 


14 


137 




148 


32 


179 


31 


86 


11 


219 


10 


208 


59 


164 


2 


225 


18 


255 


32 


136 


4 


111 


1 



298 
206 
213 
242 
238 
360 
316 
165 
301 
100 
205 
163 
259 
156 
132 
163 
.181 
137 
180 
210 
97 
229 
267 
166 
243 
287 
140 
112 



CITIES WITH 50.000 TO 100.000 INHABITANTS 



Mobile. Ala 

Montgomery, Ala... 

Phoenix, Ariz 

Little Rock, Ark 

Berkeley. Calif 

Fresno. Calif 

Glendale. Calif 

Pasadena, Calif 

Sacramento, Calif... 

San Jose, Calif 

Pueblo, Colo 

New Britain, Conn- 
Augusta, Ga 

Macon, Oa 

Savannah. Ga 

Berwyn, 111 

Cicero, 111 

Decatur, 111 ,_.. 



100 


14 


114 


114 




114 


81 


8 


89 


81 




81 


80 


2 


82 


79 


17 


96 


97 


1 


98 


94 


15 


109 


125 


22 


147 


60 


1 


61 


48 


1 


49 


97 




97 


102 


6 


108 


67 


3 


70 


139 


10 


149 


36 


3 


39 


75 


1 


76 


50 


3 


53 



East St. Louis. III... 
Evanston, III 

Oak Park. Ill 

Rockford, 111 

Springfield, 111 

East Chicago, Ind... 

Hammond, Ind 

Terre Haute. Ind 

Cedar Rapids. Iowa. 

Davenport, Iowa 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Topeka. Kans 

Covington. Ky 

Shreveport. La 

Portland. Maine 

Brockton. Mass 

Holyoke, Mass 

Lawrence, Mass 



67 


9 


82 


17 


69 


2 


84 


6 


83 


19 


70 




83 


5 


77 




59 




68 




78 


5 


65 


7 


67 


3 


0) 


(') 


102 


5 


100 


4 


95 


3 


128 


2 



76 

99 

71 

90 

102 

70 

88 

77 

59 

68 

83 

72 

70 

120 

107 

104 

98 

130 



See footnotes at end of table. 
251951°— 40 5 



92 

Table 53. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities over 25,000 in 

population — Continued 

CITIES WITH 50,000 TO 100,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Maiden, Mass 

Medford, Mass 

Newton, Mass 

Pittsfield, Mass 

Quincy, Mass 

Dearborn, Mich 

Hamtramcls, Mieh_. 
Highland Park, Mich 

Jackson, Mich 

Kalamazoo, Mich 

Lansing, Mich 

Pontiac, Mich 

Saginaw, Mich 

Jackson, Miss 

St. Joseph, Mo 

Springfleki, Mo 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Manchester, N. H 

Atlantic City, N. J... 
Bayonne, N. J 

Clifton, N.J 

East Orange, N. J 

Hoboken, N. J 

Irvington, N. J 

Passaic, N. J 

Union City, N. J 

Binghamton, N. Y.._ 
Mount Vernon, N. Y 
New Rochelle, N. Y_ 
Niagara Falls, N. Y.. 
Schenectady, N. Y__. 

Troy, N. Y 

Asheville, N. C 

Charlotte, N. C 



Num- 


Num- 


ber of 


ber of 


police 


civil- 


officers 


ians 


113 


2 


98 


1 


139 


5 


56 




126 


1 


130 


11 


87 


6 


99 


6 


60 


2 


68 


7 


85 


4 


59 


9 


81 


11 


57 


13 


94 


9 


61 


3 


70 


10 


103 


4 


131 


10 



Complete data 
received 



Total 
num- 
ber of 
em- 
ployees 



115 
99 

144 
56 

127 

141 
93 

105 
62 
75 
89 
68 
92 
70 

103 
64 
80 

107 

141 



not 



51 




111 




157 




71 


7 


105 


8 


118 




114 


7 


129 


3 


140 


3 


120 


10 


150 


14 


166 


3 


65 


2 


101 


4 



51 
111 
157 

78 
113 
118 
121 
132 
143 
130 
164 
169 

67 
105 



City 



Durham, N. C 

Greensboro, N. C 

Winston-Salem, N. C 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio. 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Lakewood, Ohio 

Springfield, Ohio 

Allentown, Pa 

Altoona, Pa 

Bethlehem, Pa 

Chester, Pa 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Johnstown, Pa 

Lancaster, Pa 

McKeesport, Pa 

Upper Darby Township, 

Pa 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa 

York, Pa 

Pawtucket, R. I_ 

Woonsocket, R. I 

Charleston, S. C 

Columbia, S. C 

Austin, Tex 

Beaumont, Tex 

Galveston, Tex 

Port Arthur, Tex 

Waco, Tex 

Roanoke, Va 

Charleston, W. Va 

Huntington, W. Va 

Wheeling, W. Va 

Kenosha, Wis 

Madison, Wis 

Racine, Wis 



Num- 


Num- 


ber of 


ber of 


police 


civil- 


officers 


ians 


72 


18 


73 


3 


102 


3 


51 


14 


53 




58 


7 


54 


3 


92 


8 


63 




58 


1 


62 


4 


131 


11 


60 


1 


59 


5 


74 




86 


8 


105 


2 


55 


1 


124 


7 


73 


3 


126 


14 


81 




82 


8 


60 




65 


2 


25 




54 




90 


1 


75 


3 


71 


6 


71 


2 


66 


2 


71 


4 


66 


2 



Total 
num- 
ber of 
em- 
ployees 



CITIES WITH 25,000 TO 50,000 INHABITANTS 



Gadsden, Ala 

Tticson, Ariz 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Alameda, Calif 

Alhambra, Calif 

Bakersfield, Calif 

Belvedere Township, 

Calif.a 

Huntington Park, Calif.- 

Inglewood, Calif 

Riverside, Calif 

San Bernardino, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif 

Santa Monica, Calif 

Stockton, Calif 

Colorado Springs, Colo.. 

Bristol, Conn 

Meriden, Conn 

Middletown, Conn 

New London, Conn 

Norwalk, Conn 

Stamford, Conn 

Torrington, Conn 

West Hartford, Conn 

West Haven, Conn 

Orlando, Fla... _. 

Pensacola, Fla 

St. Petersburg, Fla 

West Palm Beach, Fla... 

Columbus, Ga 

Alton, 111 

Aurora, 111 

Belleville, 111 

Bloomington, 111 

Danville, 111 

See footnotes at end of table. 



28 


2 


30 


41 


1 


42 


26 




26 


37 


i 


38 


36 




36 


54 


2 


56 


12 




12 


31 




31 


34 




34 


34 


2 


36 


40 


1 


41 


44 




44 


42 


4 


46 


63 


16 


79 


61 


1 


62 


36 




36 


19 


1 


20 


41 




41 


22 




22 


53 


3 


56 


60 




50 


92 


2 


94 


31 


1 


32 


40 


1 


41 


28 




28 


43 


10 


53 


44 


4 


48 


59 


4 


63 


34 




34 


69 


2 


71 


31 




31 


42 




42 


22 


1 


23 


35 


3 


38 


30 


1 


31 



Elgin, 111 

Galesburg, 111 

Granite City, 111 

Joliet,Ill 

Maywood, 111 

Moline, 111 

Quincy, 111 

Rock Island, 111 

Waukegan, 111 

Anderson, Ind 

Elkhart, Ind 

Kokomo, Ind 

Lafayette, Ind 

Michigan City, Ind_. 

Mishawaka, Ind 

Muncie, Ind 

New .'^^Ibany, Ind 

Richmond, Ind 

Burlington, Iowa 

Clinton, Iowa 

Council Blufis, Iowa 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Ottumwa, Iowa 

Waterloo, Iowa 

Hutchinson, Kans... 

Ashland, Ky 

Lexington, Ky 

Newport, Ky 

Padueah, Ky 

Baton Rouge, La 

Monroe, La 

Bangor, Maine 

Lewiston, Maine 

Cumberland, Md 

Hagerstown, Md 

Arlington, Mass 



38 
33 
13 
50 
19 
23 
44 
29 
25 



(') 



37 
35 
37 
33 
26 
54 
15 
30 
24 
20 
30 
40 
21 
46 
30 
25 
74 
43 
32 
36 
35 
46 
44 
46 
31 
51 



(') 



93 

Table 53. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities over 26,000 in 

population — Continued 



CITIES WITH 25,000 TO 50.000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Beverly, Mass 

Brookline, Mass _-_ 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chicopee, Mass 

Everett, Mass 

Fitchburg, Mass 

Haverhill, Mass 

Revere, Mass 

Salem, Mass 

Taunton, Mass 

Waltham, Mass 

Watertown, Mass 

Ann Arbor, Mich 

Battle Creek, Mich 

Bay City, Mich 

Muskegon, Mich. 

Port Huron, Mich 

Royal Oak, Mich 

Wyandotte, Mich 

Meridian, Miss 

Joplin, Mo 

University City, Mo 

Butte, Mont 

Great Falls, Mont 

Concord, N. H 

Nashua, N. H 

Belleville, N. J 

Bloomfleld, N.J 

Garfield, N.J 

Hackensack, N. J 

Kearny, N. J 

Montclair, N.J 

New Brunswick, N. J-_- 
North Bergen Town- 
ship, N. J 

Orange, N. J 

Perth Ambov, N. J 

Plainfleld, N.J 

West New York, N. J_ . _ 

West Orange, N. J 

Woodbridge Township, 

N.J 

Albuquerque, N. Mex__ 

Amsterdam, N. Y 

Auburn, N. Y 

Elmira, N. Y 

Jamestown, N. Y 

Kingston, N. Y 

Lackawanna, N. Y 

Newburgh, N. Y 

Poughkccpsie, N. Y 

Rome, N. Y. . 

Watertown, N. Y 

White Plains, N. Y 

High Point, N. C 

Raleigh, N. C 

Wilmington, N. C 

Fargo, N. Dak 

Barberton, Ohio 

East Cleveland, Ohio^- 

Elyria, Ohio 

Lima, Ohio 



Num- 


Num- 


Total 


ber of 
police 


ber of 
civil- 


ber of 
em- 
ployees 


officers 


ians 


46 


1 


47 


126 


4 


1.30 


68 


4 


72 


54 


4 


58 


80 




80 


41 


5 


46 


64 




64 


44 




44 


73 


4 


77 


48 


4 


52 


56 


4 


60 


52 


5 


57 


37 




37 


49 


3 


52 


65 


11 


76 


50 




50 


37 


1 


38 


25 




25 


36 


6 


42 


36 




36 


36 


5 


4] 


37 




37 


31 




31 


31 




31 


27 




27 


35 




35 


35 




35 


61 


2 


63 


34 




34 


41 


1 


42 


76 


2 


78 


76 


1 


77 


45 


1 


46 


65 


2 


67 


60 


1 


61 


67 




67 


59 


5 


64 


(■) 


(') 


80 


45 




45 


35 




35 


41 




41 


35 




35 


46 




46 


80 




80 


54 


2 


56 


34 




34 


45 




45 


47 


2 


49 


61 


3 


64 


30 


2 


32 


38 




38 


105 


1 


106 


41 




41 


57 


3 


60 


45 




45 


38 




38 


17 




17 


37 


11 


48 


27 




27 


30 




30 



City 



Lorain, Ohio 

Mansfield, Ohio 

Marion, Ohio 

Massillon, Ohio 

Middletown, Ohio 

Newark, Ohio 

Norwood, Ohio 

Portsmouth, Ohio 

Steubenville, Ohio 

Warren, Ohio 

Zanesville, Ohio 

Enid, Okla 

Muskogee, Okla 

Salem, Oreg 

Aliquippa, Pa 

Easton, Pa 

Hazleton, Pa 

Lebanon, Pa 

Lower Merion Town 

ship. Pa 

Nanticoke, Pa 

New Castle, Pa 

Norristown, Pa 

Sharon, Pa 

Washington, Pa 

Wilkinsburg, Pa 

Williamsport, Pa 

Central Falls, R. I. 

Cranston, R. I 

East Providence, R. I.. 

Newport, R. I 

Greenville, S. C 

Spartanburg, S. O 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak 

Abilene, Tex 

Amarillo, Tex 

Brownsville, Tex 

Corpus Christi, Tex 

Laredo, Tex 

San Angelo, Tex 

Wichita Falls, Tex 

Ogden, Utah 

Burlington, Vt 

Danville, Va 

Lynchburg, Va «.. 

Newport News, Va 

Petersburg, Va 

Portsmouth, Va 

Bellingham, Wash 

Everett, Wash 

Clarksburg, W. Va 

Parkersburg, W. Va 

Appletou, Wis 

Eau Claire, Wis 

Fond du Lac, Wis 

Green Bay, Wis 

LaCrosse, Wis 

Oshkosh, Wis 

Sheboygan, Wis 

Superior, Wis 

West Allis, Wis 



Num- 
ber of 
police 
ofllcers 



35 
28 
16 
19 
33 
27 
32 
35 
37 
33 
25 
20 
30 
21 
21 
36 
27 
26 

112 
17 
42 
37 
23 
23 
27 
33 
34 
48 
30 
61 
58 
54 
41 
25 
42 
17 
45 
36 
24 
45 
36 
31 
40 
53 
48 
37 
43 
30 
34 
(■) 
17 
28 
26 
31 
50 
47 
49 
43 
52 
41 



Num- 
ber of 
civil- 
ians 



1 

13 



0) 



Total 
num- 
ber of 
em- 
ployees 



36 
29 
16 
19 
34 
27 
32 
36 
37 
33 
25 
20 
32 
26 
21 
37 
27 
26 

119 
19 
44 
37 
23 
23 
27 
34 
36 
48 
36 
61 
60 
55 
43 
28 
42 
18 
58 
36 
24 
49 
36 
32 
40 
53 
48 
40 
43 
30 
34 
24 
17 
28 
26 
32 
54 
48 
49 
43 
53 
43 



' Not separately reported. 

2 Belvidere Township, Calif., is under the jurisdiction of Los Angeles sheriff's office, 
represent employees of the sheriff's office generally assigned to this city. 



Figures listed 



94 



Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 25,000 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS 




Anniston, Ala 

Bessemer, Ala 

Fairfield, Ala 

Florence, Ala 

Huntsville, Ala 

Phenix City, Ala 

Selma, Ala 

Tuscaloosa, Ala 

El Dorado, Ark 

Hot Springs, Ark 

Jonesboro, Ark 

North Little Rock, Ark_ 

Pine Bluff, Ark 

Texarkana, Ark 

Anaheim, Calif 

Beverly Hills, Calif 

Brawley, Calif 

Burbank, Calif 

Burlingame, Calif 

Compton, Calif.- 

Eureka, Calif 

Fullerton, Calif 

Modesto, Calif 

Monrovia, Calif 

Ontario, Calif 

Palo Alto, Calif 

Pomona, Calif 

Redlands, Calif 

Richmond, Calif 

Salinas, Calif 

San Leandro, Calif 

San Mateo, Calif 

Santa Cruz, Calif 

Santa Rosa, Calif 

South Gate, Calif 

South Pasadena, Calif_.. 

Vallejo, Calif 

Ventura, Calif 

Whittier, Calif 

Boulder, Colo 

Fort Collins, Colo 

Grand Junction, Co]o._. 

Greeley, Colo 

Trinidad, Colo 

Ansonia, Conn 

Danbury, Conn 

Derby, Conn 

East Hartford, Conn 

Naugatuck, Conn 

Norwich, Conn 

Stratford Town, Conn.. 

Wallingford, Conn 

Willimantic, Conn 

Daytona Beach, Fla 

Gainesville, Fla 

Key West, Fla 

Lakeland, Fla 

St. Augustine, Fla 

Sanford, Fla.. 

Tallahassee, Fla 

Albany, Qa 

Athens, Ga 

Brunswick, Ga 

Decatur, Ga 

La Grange, Qa 

Rome, Qa 

Waycross, Ga 

Boise, Idaho 

Pocatello, Idaho 

Blue Island, 111. --. 

Brookfleld, 111 

Cairo, 111 

Calumet City, 111 

Canton, 111 

Centralia, 111 

Champaign, 111 

Chicago Heights, 111 

East Moline, 111... 

Elmhurst, Il'l 



20 
16 
9 
8 
20 
10 
21 
20 
10 
24 
10 
26 
12 

9 
12 
62 
12 
26 
15 
16 
16 
11 
22 
17 
19 
22 
18 
15 
35 
19 
13 
21 
17 
13 
18 
12 
17 
16 
18 

8 

8 
14 
12 
10 
11 
22 
10 
21 
29 
38 
19 
13 
23 
26 
14 
12 
24 
13 

8 
17 
18 
24 
17 
10 
18 
25 
13 
30 
23 
15 

8 
12 

9 

8 
14 
17 
22 

9 
12 



Elmwood Park, 111 

Forest Park, 111 

Freeport, 111 

Harrisburg, 111 

Harvey, 111 

Highland Park, 111.. .. 

Jacksonville, 111 

Kankakee, 111 

Kewanee, 111 

La Grange, 111 

La Salle, 111 

Lincoln, 111 

Mattoon, 111 

Melrose Park, 111 

Mount Vernon, 111 

Ottawa, 111 

Park Ridge, 111 

Pekin, 111 

Streator, 111 

Urbana, 111 

West Frankfort, 111.... 

Wilmette, 111 

Winnetka, 111 

Bedford, Ind 

Bloomington, Ind 

Connersville, Ind 

Crawfordsville, Ind... 

Elwood, Ind 

Frankfort, Ind 

Goshen, Ind 

Huntington, Ind 

Jefferson ville, Ind 

La Porte, Ind 

Logansport, Ind 

Marion, Ind 

New Castle, Ind 

Peru, Ind 

Shelbyville, Ind 

Vincennes, Ind 

Whiting, Ind 

Ames, Iowa. 

Boone, Iowa 

Fort Dodge, Iowa 

Fort Madison, Iowa.. 

Iowa City, Iowa 

Keokuk, Iowa 

Marshalltown, Iowa.. 

Mason City, Iowa 

Muscatine, Iowa 

Newton, Iowa 

Oskaloosa, Iowa 

Arkansas City, Kans. 

Atchison, Kans 

Chanute, Kans 

Coffey ville, Kans 

Dodge City, Kans 

El Dorado, Kans 

Emporia, Kans 

Fort Scott, Kans 

Independence, Kans., 

Lawrence, Kans 

Leavenworth, Kans.. 

Manhattan, Kans 

Newton, Kans 

Parsons, Kans 

Pittsburg, Kans 

Salina, Kans 

Bowling Green, Ky.. 

Fort Thomas, Ky 

Frankfort, Ky 

Henderson, Ky 

Hopkinsville, Ky 

Owensboro, Ky 

Alexandria, La 

Bogalusa La 

La Fayette, La 

Lake Charles, La 

Auburn, Maine 

Augusta, Maine 



95 



Table 54. — Number of -police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 25 ,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Biddeford, Maine 

South Portland, Maine 

Water ville, Maine- . 

Wcstbronk, Maine 

Annapolis, Md 

Frederick, Md. 

Salisbury, Md 

Adams Town, Mass 

Amesbury Town, Mass 

Athol Town, Mass 

Attleboro, Mass 

Belmont Town, Mass 

Braintree Town, Mass 

Clinton, Mass 

Danvers Town, Mass 

Dedham Town, Mass 

Easthampton Town, Mass 

Fairhaven Town, Mass 

Framingham Town, Mass 

Gardner, Mass 

Gloucester, Mass ^ 

Greenfield Town, Mass 

Leominster, Mass 

Marlborough, Mass 

Melrose, Mass 

Methuen Town, Mass 

Milford Town, Mass 

Milton Town, Mass 

Natick Town, Mass._. 

Needham Town, Mass 

Newburyport, Mass-. 

North Adams, Mass 

Northampton, Mass 

North Attleboro Town, Mass. 

Norwood, Mass 

Peabody, Mass 

Plymouth, Mass 

Saugus Town, Mass.- 

Southbridge Town, Mass 

Stoneham Town, Mass 

Swampscott Town, Mass 

Wakefield Town, Mass 

Webster Town, Mass 

Wellesley Town, Mass 

Westfleld, Mass 1 

West Springfield Town, Mass 

Winchester Town, Mass 

Winthrop, Mass 

Woburn, Mass 

Adrian, Mich 

Alpena, Mich 

Benton Harbor, Mich 

Ecorse, Mich 

Escanaba, Mich 

Ferndale, Mich 

Grosse Pointe Park, Mich 

Holland, Mich 

Iron Mountain, Mich 

Ironwood, Mich 

Lincoln Park, Mich 

Marfiuette, Mich 

Menominee, Mich 

Monroe, Mich 

Mount Clemens, Mich 

Muskegon Heights, Mich 

Niles, Mich 

Owosso, Mich 

River Rouge, Mich' 

Sault Ste. Marie, Mich 

Traverse City, Mich 

Ypsilanti, Mich 

Albert Lea, Minn 

Austin, Minn 

Brainerd, Minn 

Faribault, Minn 

Hibbing, Minn 

Mankato, Minn 

Rochester, Minn 

St. Cloud, Minn 

South St. Paul. Minn 



Number of 
employees 



14 
13 
12 
16 
15 
20 
16 
12 

9 
16 
28 
44 
19 

9 
10 
19 
13 

9 
25 
21 
48 
16 
26 
19 
41 
28 
12 
35 
18 
18 
18 
24 
29 
19 
27 
45 
14 
26 
15 
12 
17 
21 
11 
25 
24 
24 
23 
21 
21 
12 

9 
15 
23 
14 
24 
36 
11 

6 
17 
13 
12 

7 

18 
15 
39 
12 
11' 
24 
12 
10 
16 

8 
16 

7 
10 
30 
16 
25 
21 
13 




Virginia, Minn 

Winona, Minn 

Biloxi, Miss 

Clarksdale, Miss 

Columbus, Miss 

Greenville, Miss 

Greenwood, Miss 

Gulfport, Miss 

Hattiesburg, Miss 

Laurel, Miss 

McComb, Miss 

Natchez, Miss 

Vicksburg, Miss 

Cape Girardeau, Mo 

Columbia, Mo 

Hannibal, Mo 

Independence, Mo 

Jefferson City, Mo 

Maplewood, Mo 

Moberly, Mo 

St. Charles, Mo 

Sedalia, Mo 

Webster Groves, Mo 

.\naconda, Mont 

Billings, Mont 

Helena, Mont 

Missoula, Mont 

Beatrice, Nebr 

Fremont, Nebr 

Grand Island, Nebr 

Hastings, Nebr 

Norfolk, Nebr 

North Platte, Nebr 

Reno, Nev 

Berlin, N. H 

Claremont, N. H 

Dover, N. H 

Keene, N. H 

Laconia, N. H 

Portsmouth, N. H 

Rochester, N. H 

Bridgeton, N. J 

Burlington, N. J_ 

Carteret, N. J 

ClifEside Park, N. J 

Collingswood, N. J 

Cranford Township, N. J... 

Dover, N. J 

Englewood, N. J 

Gloucester, N. J 

Harrison, N.J 

Hawthorne, N. J 

Hillside Township, N. J 

Linden, N. J .._ _.. . 

Lodi, N.J 

Long Branch, N. J 

Lyndhurst Township, N. J. 
Maplewood Township, N. J. 

Millville, N.J 

Morristown, N. J 

Neptune Township, N. J... 

Nutley, N. J 

Pensauken Township, N. J. 

Phillipsburg, N. J 

Pleasantville, N. J 

Rahway, N. J 

Red Bank, N. J 

Ridgefield Park, N. J 

Ridgewood, N. J 

Roselle, N. J 

South Orange, N. J 

South River, N. J 

Summit, N.J 

Teaneck Township, N. J 

Union Township, N. J 

Weehawken Township, N. J 

Westfield, N. J 

Roswell, N. Mex _. 

Sante Fe, N. Mex 



Number of 
employees 



29 
20 
13 
19 
12 
15 
13 
15 
16 
13 

6 
17 
30 
13 
20 
22 
14 
14 
35 
12 
12 
13 
16 

7 
18 
14 
14 

8 
10 
21 
15 

n 

14 

36 
24 

6 
16 
15 
20 
19 

9 
12 
11 
22 
26 
17 
17 

9 
39 
19 
51 
12 
28 
59 
27 
38 
24 
41 
17 
25 
19 
30 
15 
15 
14 
24 
19 
13 
27 
16 
34 
13 
29 
33 
30 
55 
25 

9 
12 



96 



Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 193.9; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS 




Batavia, N. Y 

Beacon, N. Y 

Cohoes, N. Y 

Corning, N. Y 

Cortland, N. Y 

Dunkirk, N. Y 

Endicott, N. Y 

Floral Park, N. Y 

Frceport, N. Y 

Fulton, N. Y 

Geneva, N. Y 

Glen Cove, N. Y 

Glens Falls, N.Y 

Gloversville, N. Y 

Hempstead, N. Y 

Herkimer, N.Y 

Hornell, N. Y 

Hudson, N. Y 

Irondequoit Town, N. Y_ 

Ithaca, N.Y 

Johnson City, N. Y 

Johnstown, N. Y 

Kenmore, N. Y 

Little Falls, N. Y 

Lockport, N. Y 

Lynbrook, N. Y 

Mamaroneck, N. Y 

Massena, N. Y 

Middletown, N. Y 

North Tonawanda, N. Y. 

Ogdensburg, N. Y 

Clean, N.Y 

Oneida, N.Y 

Oneonta, N. Y 

Ossining, N. Y 

Oswego, N. Y.__ 

Peekskill, N. Y 

Plattsburg, N. Y 

Port Chester, N. Y 

Port Jervis, N. Y 

Rensselaer, N. Y 

Roekville Centre, N. Y.. 
Saratoga Springs, N. Y.. 

Tonawanda, N. Y 

Watervliet, N. Y 

Concord, N. C 

Elizabeth City, N. G 

Fayetteville, N. C 

Gastonia, N. C 

Goldsboro, N. C 

Kinston, N. C 

Rocky Mount, N. C 

Salisbury N. C 

Shelby, N. C 

Statesville, N. C 

Thomasville, N. C. 

Wilson, N.C.. 

Bismarck, N. Dak 

Grand Forks, N. Dak.__. 

Minot, N. Dak 

Alliance, Ohio 

Ashland, Ohio 

Ashtabula, Ohio 

Bellaire, Ohio.. 

Bucyrus, Ohio 

Cambridge, Ohio 

Campbell, Ohio 

Chillicothe, Ohio 

Coshocton, Ohio 

Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio 

East Liverpool, Ohio 

Euclid, Ohio 

Ffndlay, Ohio 

Fostoria, Ohio. 

Fremont, Ohio 

Garfield Heights, Ohio.. 

Irouton, Ohio 

Lancaster, Ohio 

Marietta, Ohio 

Martins Ferry, Ohio 



29 
20 
29 
16 
15 
17 
23 
18 
32 
20 
20 
32 
28 
20 
44 
17 
22 
19 
9 

23 

13 

11 

18 

8 

32 

31 

28 

12 

26 

25 

16 

25 

14 

14 

20 

23 

23 

12 

43 

18 

15 

38 

26 

19 

22 

16 

12 

24 

28 

15 

18 

27 

18 

12 

11 

10 

21 

11 

20 

14 

8 

9 

19 

9 

7 

9 

12 

12 

8 

11 

9 

22 

16 

9 

10 

14 

14 

15 

13 

11 



New Philadelphia, Ohio 

Niles, Ohio 

Painesville, Ohio 

Parma Village, Ohio 

Piqua, Ohio 

Salem, Ohio 

Sandusky, Ohio 

Shaker Heights, Ohio 

Struthers, Ohio 

Tiffin, Ohio 

Wooster, Ohio 

Xenia, Ohio 

Ada, Okla 

Ardmore. Okla 

Bartlesville, Okla 

Chickasha, Okla 

Lawton, Okla 

McAlester, Okla 

Okmulgee, Okla. 

Ponca City, Okla 

Sapulpa, Okla 

Shawnee, Okla 

Wewoka, Okla 

Astoria, Oreg 

Eugene, Oreg 

Klamath Falls, Oreg 

Medford, Oreg 

.\bington Township, Pa 

Ambridge, Pa 

Arnold, Pa 

Beaver Falls, Pa 

Bellevue, Pa 

Berwick, Pa 

Braddock, Pa 

Bradford, Pa 

Bristol, Pa 

Butler, Pa 

Cannonsburg, Pa 

Carbondale, Pa 

Carlisle, Pa 

Carnegie, Pa 

Chainbersburg, Pa 

Charleroi, Pa 

Cheltenham Township, Pa 

Clairton, Pa 

Coa tesville, Pa 

Columbia, Pa 

Connellsville, Pa 

Conshohocken, Pa 

Donora, Pa 

Dormont, Pa 

DuBois, Pa 

Dunmore, Pa 

Duquesne, Pa 

Ellwood City, Pa 

Farrell. Pa 

Franklin, Pa 

Greensburg, Pa 

Hanover, Pa 

Harrison Township, Pa 

Haverford Township, Pa 

Homestead, Pa 

Jeannette, Pa 

Kingston, Pa. 

Latrobe, Pa 

Lewistown, Pa 

Mahanoy City, Pa 

McKees Rocks, Pa 

Meadville, Pa 

Monessen, Pa 

Mount Carmel, Pa 

Mount Lebanon Township, Pa. 

Munhall, Pa 

New Kensington, Pa 

North Braddock, Pa 

Oil City, Pa -. 

Olyphant, Pa 

Phoenixville, Pa 

Pittston, Pa 

Plains Township, Pa 



6 

10 

9 

12 

10 

6 

17 

35 

10 

14 

7 

10 
11 
17 
15 
12 
14 
11 
11 
16 
9 
22 
6 
10 
16 
17 
10 
24 
14 

7 

14 
12 

5 
25 
22 

8 

20 
12 
il 

9 
10 
12 
10 
32 
19 
16 
13 
11 

6 

9 
11 

6 
17 
18 
13 
13 
10 
20 

5 

5 
36 
26 

8 
16 

9 

8 

6 

20 
15 
19 

8 
19 
32 
23 
19 
15 

6 

9 
24 

7 



97 

Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to ^5,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Plymouth, Pa 

Pottstown, Pa 

Pottsville, Pa 

Shamokin, Pa 

Shfiuandoah, Pa 

Steolton, Pa 

Stowe Township, Pa 

Sunbury, Pa 

Swissvale, Pa 

Tamaqua, Pa 

Taylor, Pa 

Turtle Creek, Pa 

Uniontown, Pa 

Vandergrift, Pa 

Warren, Pa 

Waynesboro, Pa 

West Chester, Pa 

Bristol Town, R. I 

Cumberland Town, R. I 

Lincoln Town, R. I 

North Providence Town, R. I 

Warwick, R. I 

Westerly Town, R. I 

West Warwick Town, R. I 

Anderson, S. C 

Florence, S. C 

Greenwood, S. C 

Rock Hill, S. C 

Sumter, S. C 

Aberdeen, S. Dak 

Huron, S. Dak 

Mitchell, S. Dak 

Rapid City, S. Dak 

Watertown, S. Dak_ 

Bristol, Tenn 

Johnson City, Tenn 

Kingsport, Tenn _. 

Big Spring, Tex 

Brownwood, Tex 

Corsicana, Tex 

Del Rio, Tex 

Denison, Tex 

Harlingen, Tex 

Lubbock, Tex 

Marshall, Tex 

Palestine, Tex 



Number of 
employees 



15 

17 

35 

10 

12 

8 

17 

5 

25 

16 

6 

12 

28 

4 

9 

6 

14 



3 
31 
11 

12 
26 
16 
20 
21 
15 
19 

9 
10 
11 

9 
12 
21 
16 
14 
10 
13 

7 
12 

7 
22 
15 
10 



City 



Number of 
employees 



Pampa, Tex 

Paris, Tex 

San Benito, Tex 

Sherman, Tex 

Sweetwater, Tex 

Temple, Tex 

Texarkaua, Tex 

Tyler, Tex 

Provo, Utah 

Rutland, Vt 

Alexandria, Va 

Charlottesville, Va 

Hopewell, Va 

Staunton, Va 

Suffolk, Va 

Winchester, Va 

Aberdeen, Wash 

Bremerton, Wash 

Hoquiam, Wash 

Long view. Wash 

Olympia, Wash 

Port Angeles, Wash 

Vancouver, Wash 

Walla Walla, Wash 

Wenatchee, Wash 

Yakima, Wash 

Bluefield, W. Va 

Fairmont, W. Va 

Morgantown, W. Va... 
Moundsville, W. Va... 

Ashland, Wis 

Beloit, Wis 

Cudahy, Wis 

Janesville, Wis 

Manitowoc, Wis 

Shorewood Village Wis 
South Milwaukee, Wis. 

Stevens Point, Wis 

Two Rivers, Wis 

Watertown, Wis 

Waukesha, Wis 

Wausau, Wis 

Wauwatosa, Wis 

Casper, Wyo __ 

Cheyenne, Wyo 



12 
4 

13 
12 
12 
14 
26 
9 
14 
38 
23 
14 
15 
19 
12 
19 
14 
10 
5 
11 
10 
10 
17 
15 
30 
18 
17 
9 
7 
10 
27 
12 
22 
27 
15 
11 
15 
10 
11 
21 
36 
35 
16 
14 



CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



Attalla, Ala 


5 
4 
4 
5 
3 
3 
4 
2 
5 
4 
5 
5 
9 
2 
7 
2 
4 
8 
4 
3 
7 
5 
5 
5 
7 
4 
7 
11 


Flagstaff, Ariz. _ . . 


6 


Auburn, Ala.. ._ . 


Glendale, Ariz 


3 


Carbon Hill, Ala 


Globe, Ariz . .. 


6 


Cullman, Ala 


Jerome, Ariz 


4 


Demopolis, Ala 


Miami, Ariz 


5 


Enterprise, Ala _ 


Nogales, iVriz 


6 


Eufaula, Ala 


Prescott, Ariz 


9 


Florala, Ala 


Winslow, Ariz _ _ 


g 


Fort Payne, Ala.. .. . . 


Yuma, Ariz 


5 


Greenville, Ala 


Batesville, Ark 


4 


Guntersville, Ala . . 


Brinkley, Ark .... 


3 


Homewood, Ala 


Camden, Ark 


5 


Jasper, Ala 


Crossett, Ark 


3 


Jacksonville, Ala _ 


Dermott, \rk 


3 


Lanett, Ala 


Favetteville, Ark 


4 


Leeds, Ala 


Forrest City, Ark 


4 


Piedmont, Ala 


Helena, Ark 


7 


Prichard, Ala... 


Hope, Ark 




Roanoke, Ala 


Malvern, Ark 


3 


Russellville, Ala . 


McGehee, Ark 


3 


Sheffield, AIa__. . 


Marianna, Ark 


6 


Svlacauga, Ala 


Mena, Ark 

Monticello, Ark 

Morrilton, Ark 


5 


Talladega, Ala 


3 


Tarrant City, Ala 


3 


Trov, Ala 


Newport, Ark 


7 


Tuscumbia, Ala . 

Bisbee, Ariz__. 


Rogers, Ark 

Russellville, Ark 

Searcy, .\rk 


3 
4 


Douglas, Ariz 


3 



98 



Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 193.9; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 25 ,000— Contmxxed 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 




Stamps, Ark 

Stuttgart, Ark 

Trumann, Ark 

Van Buren, Ark 

West Helena, Ark 

Wynne, Ark 

Albany, Calif 

Antioeh, Calif 

Arcadia, Calif 

Auburn, Calif 

Azusa, Calif 

Bell, Calif 

Calexieo, Calif 

Chico, Calif 

Chino, Calif 

Chula Vista, Calif 

Claremont, Calif 

Coalinga, Calif..- 

Colton, Calif. 

Corona, Calif 

Coronado, Calif 

Covina, Calif 

Culver City, Calif.. 

Daly City, Calif 

Delano, Calif 

Dinuba, Calif 

Dunsmuir, Calif 

El Centro, Calif 

El Cerrito, Calif 

El Monte, Calif 

El Segundo, Calif 

Escondido, Calif 

Exeter, Calif 

Fillmore, Calif 

Fort Bragg, Calif 

Gardena, Calif 

Gilroy, Calif 

Glendora, Calif 

Grass Valley, Calif 

Hanford, Calif 

Hawthorne, Calif 

Hay ward, Calif 

Hermosa Beach, Calif 

Hollister, Calif 

Huntington Beach, Calif 

La Alesa, Calif 

La Verne, Calif 

Livermore, Calif 

Lodi, Calif 

Lompoc, Calif 

Los Gatos, Calif 

Lynwood, Calif 

Madera, Calif 

Martinez, Calif 

Marysville, Calif 

Maywood, Calif 

Merced, Calif 

Mill Valley, Calif 

Montebello, Calif 

Monterey, Calif 

Monterey Park, Calif..., 

Mountain View, Calif 

Napa, Calif 

National City, Calif 

Needles, Calif 

Oeeanside, Calif 

Orange, Calif 

Oroville, Calif 

Oxnard, Calif 

Pacific Grove, Calif 

Petaluma, Calif 

Piedmont, Calif.. 

Pittsburg, Calif 

Porterville, Calif 

Redding, Calif 

Redondo Beach, Calif 

Redwood City, Calif 

Reedley, Calif 

Roseville, Calif 



1 

3 

4 

3 

3 

5 

8 

5 
14 

2 

9 
10 

7 

3 

7 

12 

7 

15 

6 

18 

4 

20 

12 

4 

4 

3 

14 

6 

9 

18 

4 

4 

3 

5 

5 

5 

3 

11 

8 

11 

6 

11 

6 

9 

5 

4 

4 

7 

3 

4 

13 

6 

6 

14 

10 

10 

8 

12 

11 

11 

3 

8 

10 

3 

7 

9 

7 

6 

5 

9 

28 

11 

6 

12 

18 

13 

4 

8 



San Anselmo, Calif 

San Bruno, Calif 

San Fernando, Calif 

San Gabriel, Calif 

San Luis Obispo, Calif 

San Marino, Calif 

San Rafael, Calif 

Santa Clara, Calif 

Santa Maria, Calif 

Santa Paula, Calif 

Sausalito, Calif 

Selma, Calif 

Sierra Madre, Calif 

Signal Hill, Calif 

South San Francisco, Calif 

Sunnyvale, Calif 

Taft, Calif 

Torrence, Calif 

Tracy, Calif 

Tulare, Calif 

Turlock, Calif 

Upland, Calif 

Visalia, Calif 

Watsonville, Calif 

Woodland, Calif 

Yuba City, Calif 

Alamosa, Colo 

Brighton, Colo 

Canon City, Colo 

Delta, Colo 

Durango, Colo 

Englewood, Colo 

Fort Morgan, Colo 

La Junta, Colo 

Lamar, Colo 

Leadville, Colo 

Longmont, Colo 

Loveland, Colo 

Monte Vista, Colo 

Montrose, Colo 

Rocky Ford, Colo 

Salida, Colo 

Sterling, Colo 

Walsenburg, Colo 

Danielson, Conn 

Groton Borough, Conn 

Putnam, Conn 

Rockville, Conn 

Southington, Conn 

Stafford Springs, Conn 

Winsted, Conn 

Dover, Del 

Milford, Del 

Newark, Del 

New Castle, Del 

Arcadia, Fla 

Avon Park, Fla 

Bartow, Fla 

Bradenton, Fla 

Clearwater, Fla 

Coral Gables, Fla 

De Funiak Springs, Fla... 

Eustis, Fla 

Fort Lauderdale, Fla 

Fort Pierce, Fla 

Hialeah, Fla 

Hollywood, Fla 

Kissimmee, Fla 

Lake City, Fla 

Lake Wales, Fla 

Lake Worth, Fla 

Leesburg, Fla 

Marianna, Fla 

Melbourne, Fla 

Miami Beach, Fla 

New Smyrna, Fla 

Ocala, Fla 

Palatka, Fla 

Palmetto, Fla 



99 



Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to M.OOO— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 




Panama City, Fla 

Perry, Fla 

Plant City, Fla 

Pompano, Fla 

Quincy, Fla 

River Junction, Fla.. 

Sarasota, Fla 

Sebring, Fla 

Tarpon Springs, Fla. 

Wauchula. Fla 

Winter Haven, Fla... 

Winter Park, Fla 

Americus, Ga 

Bainbridge, Oa 

Barnesvilie, Oa 

Cairo, Ga 

Carrollton, Ga 

Cartersville, Oa 

Cedartown, Oa 

Commerce, Oa 

Cordele, Ga 

Cuthbert, Oa 

Dalton, Ga 

Dawson, Ga 

East Point, Ga 

Elberton, Ga 

Marietta, Ga 

Millen, Ga 

Newnan, Ga 

Pelham, Ga 

Porterdale, Ga 

Quitman, Ga 

Rossville, Ga 

Statesljoro, Ga 

Vidalia, Ga 

Blaekfoot, Idaho 

Burlpy, Idaho 

Caldwell, Idaho 

Coeur d'Alene, Idaho 

Emmett, Idaho 

Idaho Falls, Idaho.. _ 

Le wiston, Idaho 

Malad, Idaho 

Moscow, Idaho 

Nampa, Idaho 

Payette, Idaho 

Preston, Idaho 

St. Anthony, Idaho. . 

Sandpoint, Idaho 

Twin Falls, Idaho 

Wallace, Idaho 

Weiser, Idaho 

Abingdon, 111 

Anna, 111 

Arlington Heights, 111 

Barrington, 111 

Batavia, 111 

Beardstown, 111 

Bellwood, 111 

Belvidere, III 

Benld, 111 

Benton, 111 

Bradley, 111 

Bushnell, 111 

Carlinville, 111 

Carbondale, 111 

Carmi, 111 

Carterville, 111 

Charleston, HI 

Chester, III 

Christopher, 111 

Clinton, 111 

Collinsville, 111 

Crystal Lake, 111 

De Kalb, 111 

Des Plaines, 111 

Dixon, 111 

Dolton, 111 

Downers Grove, 111.. 



5 
2 
5 
3 

11 
2 
4 
3 
7 
5 
9 
6 
5 
4 
6 
6 
9 
6 
7 
3 

10 
4 

12 
6 

U 
2 
7 
4 
4 
4 
2 
5 
4 
4 
4 
4 
6 
2 

l5 
9 
2 
4 

lO 
3 
3 
3 
3 

12 
3 
3 
2 
2 
7 
3 
4 
7 
7 
7 
3 
3 
2 
3 
3 
5 
3 
2 
4 
5 
3 
5 

10 



11 
8 
6 
8 



Duquoin, 111 

Dwight, IlL. _ 

East Alton, 111 

East Peoria, 111 

Edwardsville, 111... 

Effingham, 111 

Flora. Ill 

Galva, 111 

Geneva, 111 

Gillespie, 111 

Glencoe, 111 

Glen Ellyn, 111 

Greenville, 111 

Harvard, 111 

Havana, 111 

Herrin, 111 

Highland, 111 

Highwood, III 

Hillsboro, 111 

Hinsdale, 111 

Homewood, 111 

Hoopeston, 111 

Johnston City, 111.. 

Kenilworth, 111 

La Grange Park, 111 

Lake Forest, 111 

Lansing, 111 

Lawrence villa, 111.. 

Lemont, 111 

Libertyville, 111 

Litchfield, 111 

Lockport, 111 

Lombard, 111 

Lyons, 111 

Macomb, 111 

Madison, 111 

Marseilles, 111 

Mendota, 111 

Metropolis, 111 

Monmouth, 111 

Morris, 111 

Morrison. Ill 

Mount Carmel, 111.. 
Mount Olive, IlL... 
Murphysboro, IlL.. 

Naperville, 111 

Niles Center, 111 

Normal, 111 

North Chicago, 111.. 

Oglesbv, 111 

Olnev, 111 

Pana, 111 

Paris, IlL. 

Peoria Heights, 111.. 

Peru, 111 

Phoenix, 111 

Pinckneyville, 111... 

Princeton, 111 

Pontiac, 111 

Riverdale, 111 

River Forest, 111 

River Grove, 111 

Riverside, 111 

Robinson, 111 

Rochelle, III 

Roodhouse, III 

St. Charles. Ill 

Salem, 111 

Sandwich, 111 .. 

Savanna, III 

Shelbyville. Ill 

Silvis, III 

Sparta, III 

Spring Valley, HI... 

Staunton, III 

Steger, III 

Summit, 111 

Taylor ville. 111 

Tuscola. Ill 



6 
3 
4 

10 
5 
5 
6 
3 
7 
4 

11 

11 
7 
2 
6 
5 
3 
7 
4 

12 
4 
3 
4 
9 
4 

17 
3 
5 
3 
3 
4 
3 
6 

10 
7 

10 
4 
6 
6 

10 
5 
2 
4 
3 
4 
7 

18 
7 
6 
5 
4 
4 
8 
5 
6 
2 
3 
5 
5 
3 

17 
6 

11 
7 
5 
3 
4 
7 
1 
5 
3 
4 
3 
4 
3 
4 
8 
5 
3 



100 



Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 25,000— Conimned 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 




Vandalia, 111 

Venice, I1L-. 

Villa Park, 111 

Virden, 111 

Watseka, 111 

West Chicago, 111 

Western Springs, 111 

Westmont, 111 

Westville, 111 

Wheaton, 111 

White Hall, 111 

Wood River, 111 .. 

Woodstock, 111 

Zeigler, 111 _. 

Zion, 111 

Alexandria, Ind . . 

Angola, Ind 

Attica, Ind 

Auburn, Ind.. .. 

Aurora, Ind .. 

Beech Grove, Ind 

Bicknell, Ind 

Bluffton, Ind 

Boonville, Ind 

Brazil, Ind .. 

Clinton, Ind _. 

Columbia City, Ind__... 

Columbus, Ind _ . 

Crown Point, Ind _. 

Decatur, Ind .. 

Dunkirk, Ind .. 

Franklin, Ind _. 

Garrett, Ind 

Gas City, Ind _. 

Greencastle, Ind 

Greenfield, Ind .. 

Greensburg, Ind .. 

Hartford City, Ind _. 

Hobart, Ind 

Huntingburg, Ind .. 

Jasonville, Ind _ . 

Jasper, Ind _. 

Kendall ville, Ind .. 

Lawrenceburg, Ind — _. 

Lebanon, Ind _ . 

Linton, Ind .. 

Madison, Ind .. 

Martinsville, Ind _. 

Mitchell, Ind .. 

Mount Vernon, Ind..._. 

Nappanee, Ind 

Noblesville, Ind 

North Vernon, Ind. 

Oakland City, Ind 

Petersburg, Ind.. 

Plymouth, Ind 

Portland, Ind 

Princeton, Ind 

Rensselaer, Ind 

Rochester, Ind 

Rush ville, Ind 

Salem, Ind 

Seymour, Ind 

Sullivan, Ind 

Tipton, Ind 

Valparaiso, Ind 

Wabash, Ind 

Warsaw, Ind 

Washington, Ind 

West Lafayette, Ind 

West Terre Haute, Ind„ 

Winchester, Ind 

Albia, Iowa.- _ 

Algona, Iowa 

Anamosa, Iowa 

Atlantic, Iowa 

Belle Plaine, Iowa 

Bettendorf, Iowa 

Carroll, Iowa 



6 
2 
4 
2 
5 
8 
4 

10 
3 
6 
3 
2 
4 
5 
2 
4 
3 
4 
6 
4 
6 
2 
7 
6 
5 
10 
2 
4 
2 
4 
3 
2 
4 
4 
3 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 
4 
4 
4 
4 
5 
3 
4 
3 
3 
5 
4 
1 
2 
5 
4 
6 
3 
4 
5 
4 
6 
3 
4 
11 
8 
10 
6 
4 
3 
4 
2 
3 
2 
3 
2 
2 
4 



Cedar Falls, Iowa 

Centerville, Iowa 

Chariton, Iowa 

Charles City, Iowa 

Cherokee, Iowa 

Clarinda, Iowa 

Clarion, Iowa 

Clear Lake, Iowa 

Cresco, Iowa 

Creston, Iowa 

Decorah, Iowa 

Denison, Iowa 

Eagle Grove, Iowa 

Eldora, Iowa 

Emmetsburg, Iowa 

Estherville, Iowa 

Fairfield, Iowa 

Glenwood, Iowa 

Grinnell, Iowa 

Hampton, Iowa 

Iowa Falls, Iowa 

Jefferson, Iowa 

Knoxville, Iowa 

Le Mars, Iowa 

Maquoketa, Iowa 

Marion, Iowa 

Missouri Valley, Iowa 
Mount Pleasant, Iowa 

Nevada, Iowa 

Oelwein, Iowa 

Onawa, Iowa 

Osage, Iowa 

Osceola, Iowa 

Pella, Iowa 

Perry, Iowa 

Red Oak, Iowa 

Sac City, Iowa 

Sheldon, Iowa 

Shenandoah, Iowa 

Spencer, Iowa 

Storm Lake, Iowa 

Tama, Iowa 

Vinton, Iowa 

Washington, Iowa 

Waukon, Iowa 

Waverly, Iowa 

Webster City, lowa... 

Winterset, Iowa 

Abilene, Kans 

Anthony, Kans 

Augusta, Kans 

Baxter Springs, Kans. 

Caney, Kans 

Cherry vale, Kans 

Clay Center, Kans 

Concordia, Kans 

Council Grove, Kans.. 

Eureka, Kans 

Fredonia, Kans 

Galena, Kans 

Garden City, Kans,.. 

Garnett, Kans 

Goodland, Kans 

Great Bend, Kans 

Hays, Kans 

Herington, Kans 

Hiawatha, Kans 

Hoisington, Kans 

Holton, Kans 

Horton, Kans 

Humboldt, Kans 

lola, Kans 

Junction City, Kans.. 

Kingman, Kans 

Larned, Kans 

Liberal, Kans 

Lyons, Kans 

Marysville, Kans 

McPherson, Kans 



101 



Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to ^5,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10.000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Neodesha, Kans 

Norton, Kans 

Olathe, Kans 

Osawatomie, Kans,__ 

Ottawa, Kans 

Paola, Kans 

Pratt, Kans 

Wellington, Kans 

Winfleld, Kans 

Catlettsburg, Ky 

Corbin, Ky 

Cumberland, Ky 

Cynthiana, Ky 

Danville, Ky 

Dayton, Ky 

Elsmere, Ky 

Fulton, Ky 

Georgetown, Ky 

Glasgow, Ky 

Harlan, Ky 

Harrodsburg, Ky 

Irvine, Ky 

Jenkins, Ky 

Lebanon, Ky 

Ludlow, Ky 

Mount Sterling, Ky.. 

Murray, Ky 

Nicholasville, Ky 

Pikeville, Ky 

Pineville, Ky 

Providence, Ky 

Richmond, Ky 

Russellville, Ky 

Winchester, Ky 

Amite, La 

Bastrop, La 

Bossier City, La 

De Quincy, La 

Donaldsonville, La 

Eunice, La 

Franklin, La 

Hammond, La 

Haynesville, La 

Houma, La 

Jennings, La 

Lake Providence, La. 

Leesville, La 

Mansfield, La 

Minden. La 

Natchitoches, La 

New Iberia, La 

Oakdale, La 

Opelousas, La 

Pineville, La 

Plaquemine, La 

Rayne, La 

Ruston, La 

Slidell, La 

Tallulah, La 

Thibodaux, La 

West Monroe, La 

Westwego, La 

Bath, Maine 

Belfast, Maine 

Brunswick, Maine 

Calais, Maine 

Fort Fairfield, Maine. 

Gardiner, Maine 

Hallowell, Maine 

Madison, Maine 

Old Town, Maine 

Presque Isle, Maine... 

Rockland, Maine 

Saco, Maine 

Cambridge, Md 

Easton, Md 

Frostburg, Md 

Laurel, Md 



Number of 
employees 



3 
2 
3 
4 
7 
3 
4 
4 
8 
4 
6 
4 
5 
6 
5 
6 
4 
6 
8 
5 
5 
3 
10 
4 
5 
5 
4 
4 
5 
3 
3 
7 
4 



7 
6 
6 
4 
3 
2 

6 
2 
6 
2 
2 
4 
2 
4 
8 

12 
2 
7 
2 
5 
3 
5 
3 
4 
5 
6 
1 
9 
4 
3 
7 
2 
6 
3 
1 

17 
3 
8 

12 
8 
5 
5 
2 



City 


Number of 
employees 


Mount Rainier, Md . 


Q 


Pocomoke City, Md . . 


5 


Takoma Park, Md 


s 


Westernport, Md . 


1 


Westminster, Md... . . 


3 


Amherst, Mass 


4 


Andover, Mass 


12 


Auburn, Mass . ... 


10 


Ayer, Mass . 


3 


Barnstable, Mass 


16 


Bridgewater, Mass . 


9 


Canton, Mass. ... 


8 


Concord, Mass.. ...... 


10 


Dalton, Mass. . . 


2 


Dartmouth, Mass _ 


g 


Dracut, Mass . . 


2 


Franklin, Mass .. . 


6 


Great Barrington, Mass. 


7 


Hingham, Mass.. 


12 


Hudson, Mass . 


g 


Ipswich, Mass. . 


9 


Lexington, Mass 


17 


Longmeadow, Mass . 


g 


Ludlow, Mass .. 


9 


Marblehead, Mass. 


24 


Maynard, Mass .. . 


g 


Middleborough, Mass. . . . 


g 


Millbury, Mass ... . 


5 


Montague, Mass ... ... 


4 


Nantucket, Mass 


7 


North Andover, Mass 


10 


Northbridge, Mass.. ....... 


14 


Orange, Mass . 


4 


Palmer, Mass. ... . 


12 


Provincetown, Mass 


g 


Randolph, Mass.. .... 


4 


Reading, Mass . . . 


18 


Rockland, Mass ... 


t; 


Rockport, Mass . . . 


7 


Somerset, Mass. .. .. . 


3 


South Hadley, Mass . 


A 


Spencer, Mass . . 


13 


Stoughton, Mass .. _. 


g 


Uxbridge, Mass. ...... 


g 


Walpole, Mass . . 


10 


Ware, Mass ... . 


4. 


Winchendon, Mass. . 


9 


Albion, Mich ._ ... _ 


R 


Allegan, Mich 


4 


Alma, Mich _ 


5 


Belding, Mich . 


\ 


Berkley, Mich. .. . . 


g 


Bessemer, Mich .. 


4 


Big Rapids, Mich 


g 


Birmingham, Mich .. 


18 


Boyne City, Mich 


2 


Buchanan, Mich 


3 


Cadillac, Mich . ... . 


g 


Caro, Mich _ 


g 


Centerline, Mich 


>; 


Charlotte, Mich 


2 


Cheboygan, Mich ... . 


% 


Clawson, Mich. . . . 


3 


Coldwater, Mich 


7 


Crystal Falls, Mich 


3 


Dowagiac, Mich 


5 


Durand, Mich 


1 


East Detroit, Mich 


7 


East Grand Rapids, Mich 


5 


East Lansing, Mich . 


5 


Eaton Rapids, Mich 


g 


Gladstone, Mich . . 


4 


Grand Haven, Mich 


•5 


Grand Ledge, Mich 


5 


Greenville, Mich 


5 


Grosse Pointe, Mich.. 


16 


Grosse Pointe Farms, Mich... 


21 


Hancock, Mich 


7 


Hastings, Mich 


3 



102 



Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 




Hillsdale, Mich... — 

Howell, Mich 

Inkster, Mich 

Ionia, Mich 

Iron River, Mich 

Ishpeming, Mich 

Kingsford, Mich 

Lapeer, Mich 

Laurium, Mich 

Ludington, Mich 

Manistee, Mich 

Manistique, Mich 

Marine City, Mich 

Marshall, Mich 

Mason, Mich 

Melvindale, Mich 

Midland, Mich 

Mount Pleasant, Mich 

Munising, Mich 

Negaunee, Mich 

Northville, Mich 

Norway, Mich 

Otsego, Mich 

Petosky, Mich 

Pleasant Ridge, Mich 

Plymouth, Mich 

Rochester, Mich 

Rogers City, Mich 

Roseville, Mich 

St. Clair, Mich 

St. Clair Shores, Mich 

St. Joseph, Mich 

South Haven, Mich 

Sturgis, Mich 

Three Rivers, Mich 

Trenton, Mich 

Wakefield, Mich 

Wayne, Mich 

Zeeland, Mich 

Alexandria, Minn 

Anoka, Minn 

Bayport, Minn 

Bemidji, Minn 

Blue Earth, Minn 

Chisholm, Minn 

Cloquet, Minn 

Columbia Heights, Minn.. 

Crookston, Minn 

Crosby, Minn 

Detroit Lakes, Minn 

East Grand Forks, Minn.. 

Edina, Minn 

Ely, Minn 

Eveleth, Minn 

Fairmont, Minn 

Fergus Falls, Minn 

Gilbert, Minn 

Grand Rapids, Minn 

Hastings, Minn 

Hopkins, Minn 

Hutchinson, Minn 

International Falls, Minn_ 

Lake City, Minn 

Litchfield, Minn 

Little Falls, Minn 

Luverne, Minn 

Marshall, Minn 

Montevideo, Minn 

Moorhead, Minn 

Nashwauk, Minn 

New Ulm, Minn 

Northfield, Minn 

North Mankato, Minn 

North St. Paul, Minn 

Owatonna, Minn 

Pipestone, Minn 

Proctorknott, Minn. 

Red Wing, Minn 

Redwood Falls, Minn 



2 
3 
5 
1 
4 
9 
4 
2 
3 
5 
7 
4 
3 
4 
2 
6 
6 
5 
3 
11 
5 
3 
3 
5 
6 
7 
4 
1 
8 
3 
11 
s 

4 
7 
7 

9 
6 
5 
2 
4 
3 
2 
6 
3 

15 
8 
7 
7 
3 
4 
7 
4 

13 

16 
5 
5 
5 
4 
4 
2 
3 
5 
3 
3 
5 
3 
4 
4 
8 
4 
6 
3 



Robbinsdale, Minn 

St. James, Minn 

St. Louis Park, Minn 

St. Peter, Minn 

Sauk Center, Minn 

Sauk Rapids, Minn 

Sleepy Eye, Minn 

Staples, Minn 

Stillwater, Minn 

Thief River Falls, Minn. 

Tracy, Minn 

Two Harbors, Minn 

Wadena, Minn 

Waseca, Minn 

West St. Paul, Minn 

White Bear Lake, Minn. 

Willmar, Minn 

Worthington, Minn 

Canton, Miss 

Columbia, Miss 

Indianola, Miss 

Lexington, Miss 

Louisville, Miss 

New Albany, Miss 

Oxford, Miss 

Philadelphia, Miss 

Picayune, Miss 

Starkville, Miss 

Water Valley, Miss 

West Point, Miss 

Winona, Miss 

Yazoo City, Miss 

Aurora, Mo 

Bonne Terre, Mo 

Boonville, Mo 

Brentwood, Mo 

Cameron, Mo 

Carrollton, Mo 

Carthage, Mo 

Chillicothe, Mo 

Clayton, Mo 

Clinton, Mo 

DeSoto, Mo 

Excelsior Springs, Mo — 

Farmington, Mo 

Fulton, Mo 

Higginsville, Mo 

Kirksville, Mo 

Kirkwood, Mo 

Marceline, Mo 

Marshall, Mo 

Maryville, Mo 

Mexico, Mo 

Monett, Mo 

Nevada, Mo 

Richmond Heights, Mo. 

Ste. Genevieve, Mo 

Sikeston, Mo 

Slater, Mo 

Trenton, Mo 

Washington, Mo 

West Plains, Mo 

Bozeman, Mont 

Deer Lodge, Mont 

Glendive, Mont 

Havre, Mont 

Kalispell, Mont 

Laurel, Mont 

Lewistown, Mont 

Livingston, Mont 

Miles City, Mont 

Roundup, Mont 

Whitefish, Mont 

Alliance, Nebr 

Auburn, Nebr 

Aurora. Nebr 

Blair, Nebr 

Chadron, Nebr 

Columbus, Nebr 



4 
2 
4 
3 
2 
1 
3 
3 
8 
5 
2 
5 
3 
3 
3 
5 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
2 
2 
.5 
3 
1 
3 
3 
3 
6 
2 
7 
3 
1 
5 
9 
3 
2 
7 
9 
20 
4 
2 
6 
2 
6 
3 
5 
11 
3 
5 
4 
6 
5 
6 
13 
2 
4 
2 
3 
4 
4 
7 
1 
3 
7 
7 
3 
5 
7 
7 
1 
3 
7 
4 
2 
3 
3 
5 



103 



Table 54. — Number of police-department etnployees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to ^.5,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10.000 INHABITANTS 




Crete, Nebr 

Fairbury, Nebr 

Falls City, Nebr 

Gering, Nebr 

Holdrege, Nebr 

Kearney, Nebr 

Lexington, Nebr 

MeCook, Nebr 

Nebraska City, Nebr 

ScottsbluS, Nebr 

Schuyler, Nebr 

Seward, Nebr 

Sidney, Nebr 

South Sioux City, Nebr.. 

Wahoo, Nebr 

Wymore, Nebr. 

York, Nebr 

Boulder City, Nev 

Elko, Nev 

Ely, Nev 

Las Vegas, Nev 

Sparks, Nev 

Derry Town, N. H 

Exeter, N. H 

Franklin, N. H 

Littleton, N. H 

Milford, N. H 

Newport, N. H 

Somersworth, N. H 

Audubon, N. J 

Bergenfield, N.J 

Bernardsville, N. J 

Beverly, N. J 

Bogota, N. J 

Boonton, N. J 

Bound Brook, N. J 

Bradley Beach, N. J 

Butler, N.J 

Caldwell, N.J 

Cape May, N. J 

Carlstadt, N.J 

Chatham, N.J 

Clementon, N. J 

Closter, N.J 

Dunellen, N.J 

East Newark, N. J 

East Paterson, N. J 

Edgewater, N. J 

Egg Harbor, N. J 

Fairlawn, N. J 

Fairview, N.J 

Flemington, N. J 

Fort Lee, N.J 

Freehold, N.J 

Garwood, N. J 

Glassboro, N. J 

Glen Ridge, N. J 

Glen Rock, N.J 

Guttenborg, N. J 

Hackettstown, N. J 

Haddonfleld, N.J 

Haddon Heights, N. J... 

Haledon, N. J 

Hammonton, N. J 

Hasbrouck Heights, N. J 

Highland Park, N. J 

Hightstown, N. J 

Hillsdale, N.J 

Keyport, N. J 

Lambertville, N. J 

Leonia, N.J 

Little Ferry, N.J 

Madison, N. J 

Manville, N. J 

Margate City, N. J 

Maywood, N. J 

Merchantville, N. J 

Metuchen, N. J 

Middlesex, N. J 



3 
5 
6 
3 
3 
7 
3 
4 
4 
8 
4 
3 
3 
3 
2 
2 
5 
9 
4 
5 

11 
5 
4 
9 
6 
8 
2 
8 
6 

14 

12 
5 
6 

11 



11 
4 

11 
8 

10 
7 
2 
5 
5 
5 
6 

25 
5 
9 

13 
2 

23 
4 
9 
4 

21 
9 

11 
3 

22 

10 
6 
5 

11 

11 
4 
7 
4 
3 

13 
8 

10 
4 

11 

10 



2 



Midland Park, N. J... 
New Milford, N. J__.. 

Newton, N. J 

Northfield, N.J 

North Plainfield, N. J 

Ocean City, N. J 

Paramus, N.J 

Paulsboro, N.J 

Penns Grove, N. J 

Pitman, N. J 

Pompton Lakes, N. J. 

Princeton, N. J 

Prospect Park, N. J.._ 

Ramsey, N. J 

Raritan, N. J 

Ridgefield, N.J 

Rockaway, N. J 

RosellePark, N.J 

Salem, N. J 

Sayreville, N. J 

Secaucus, N. J 

Somerville, N. J 

South Plainfield, N. J. 

Tenafiy, N.J 

Ventnor City, N. J.... 

Verona, N. J 

Vineland, N.J 

Wallington, N. J 

Washington, N. J 

West Caldwell, N. J.. 

Westwood, N. J 

Wharton, N.J 

Wildwood, N.J 

Woodbury, N. J 

Woodlynne, N. J 

Wood Ridge, N. J 

Alamogordo, N. Mex.. 

Carlsbad, N. Mex 

Clayton, N. Mex 

Clevis, N. Mex 

Deming, N. Mex 

Gallup, N. Mex 

Las Cruces, N. Mex... 

Portales, N. Mex 

Raton, N. Mex 

Silver City, N. Mex... 

Albion, N. Y 

Amity ville, N. Y 

Babylon, N. Y 

Baldwinsville, N. Y._ 

Ballston Spa, N. Y 

Bath, N. Y 

Brockport, N. Y 

Bronxville, N. Y 

Canajoharie, N. Y 

Canadaigua, N. Y 

Canastota, N. Y 

Canisteo, N. Y 

Canton, N. Y 

Carthage, N. Y 

Catskill, N. Y 

Cobleskill, N. Y 

Cooperstown, N. Y... 

Corinth, N. Y__ 

Dansville, N. Y 

Depew, N. Y 

Dobbs Ferry, N. Y... 

Dolgeville, N. Y 

East Aurora, N. Y 

East Rochester, N. Y. 
East Syracuse, N. Y.. 

EUenville, N. Y 

Elmira Heights, N. Y. 

Elmsford, N. Y _. 

Fairport, N. Y 

Falconer, N. Y 

Farmingdale, N. Y 

Fort Edward. N. Y... 
Fort Plain, N. Y 



4 

6 

10 

3 

10 

32 

4 

.8 

6 

6 

4 

15 

13 

6 

3 

12 

1 

10 

8 

10 

15 

12 

7 

17 

22 

16 

13 

12 

4 

5 

14 

1 

20 

13 

3 

10 

2 

5 

3 

12 

3 

6 

4 

3 

5 

3 

6 

11 

12 

3 

9 

9 

3 

19 

2 

10 

7 

3 

4 

6 

6 

3 

2 

1 

5 

6 

11 

4 

6 

4 

6 

7 

5 

6 

4 

3 

8 

4 

3 



104 



Table 54. — Nutnber of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to ^5,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Frankfort, N. Y 

Fredonia, N. Y 

Garden City, N. Y 

Goshen, N. Y 

Gouverneur, N. Y 

Gowanda, N. Y 

Granville, N. Y 

Green Island, N. Y 

Greenport, N. Y 

Hamburg. N. Y 

Hastings-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

Haverstraw, N. Y 

Highland Falls, N. Y 

Homer, N. Y 

Hoosick Falls, N. Y 

Hudson Falls, N. Y 

Ilion, N. Y 

Irvington, N. Y 

Lake Placid, N. Y 

Lancaster, N. Y 

Larchmont, N. Y 

Le Roy, N. Y 

Liberty, N.Y 

Lindenhurst, N. Y_ ..- 

Long Beach, N. Y 

Lowville, N.Y 

Lyons, N. Y 

Malone, N. Y 

Mechanicville, N. Y 

Medina, N. Y 

Mohawk, N. Y 

Monticello, N. Y 

Mount Kisco, N. Y 

Mount Morris, N. Y 

Newark, N.Y 

New York Mills, N. Y 

North Pelham, N. Y 

Northport, N. Y 

North Tarrytown, N. Y... 

Norwich, N. Y 

Nyack, N.Y 

Owego, N. Y 

Palmyra, N. Y 

Patchogue, N. Y 

Pelham Manor, N. Y 

Penn Yan, N. Y 

Perry, N. Y 

Pleasantville, N. Y 

Potsdam, N. Y 

Rye, N.Y 

Sag Harbor, N. Y 

Salamanca, N. Y 

Saranac Lake, N. Y 

Saugerties, N. Y 

Scarsdale, N. Y 

Scotia, N. Y 

Senaca Falls, N. Y_ 

Silver Creek, N. Y 

Sloan, N. Y 

Solvay, N. Y 

Southampton, N. Y 

Spring Valley, N. Y 

Springville, N. Y 

Suffern, N.Y 

Tarrytown, N. Y 

Ticonderoga, N. Y 

Tuckahoe, N. Y 

Tupper Lake, N. Y 

Walden, N. Y 

Walton, N.Y 

Wappingers Falls, N. Y— 

Warsaw, N. Y 

Watcrford, N. Y 

Waterloo, N.Y 

Watkins Glen, N. Y 

Waverly, N. Y 

Wellsville, N.Y 

Westfield, N. Y 

West Haverstraw, N. Y... 



Number of 
employees 



4 

5 
29 

5 

4 

5 

4 

5 

6 

5 
14 

9 

2 

1 

3 

5 
11 

9 

6 

5 
18 

5 

7 

8 
49 

3 
11 

9 

7 

7 

3 

10 

11 

12 

15 
1 

13 

4 

16 
8 

12 
3 
6 

17 

23 
5 
3 

13 
6 

34 
3 

14 
7 
5 

26 
8 
6 
5 
4 

14 
7 
5 
4 

11 

17 
9 

15 
4 
5 
2 
3 
3 
5 
3 
1 
4 
5 
4 



City 



Whitehall, N. Y 

Whitesboro, N. Y 

Yorkville, N.Y 

Albemarle, N. C 

Asheboro, N. C 

Belmont, N. C 

Canton, N. C 

Chapel Hill, N. C 

Cherryville, N. C 

Dunn, N. C 

Edenton, N. C 

Forest City, N. C 

Greenville, N. C 

Hamlet, N. C 

Hendersonville, N. C 

Hickory, N. C 

Lenoir, N. C 

Lexington, N. C 

Lincolnton, N. C 

Lumberton, N. C 

Morganton, N. C 

Mount Airy, N. C 

North Wilkesboro, N. C... 

Oxford, N. C 

Reidsville, N. C 

Roanoke Rapids, N. C 

Sanford, N. C 

Smithfield, N. C 

Southern Pines, N. C 

Spencer, N. C 

Spindale, N. C 

Tarboro, N. C 

Washington, N. C 

Devils Lake, N. Dak 

Dickinson, N. Dak 

Jamestown, N. Dak 

Mandan, N. Dak 

Valley City, N. Dak 

Wahpeton, N. Dak 

Wilhston, N. Dak 

Amherst, Ohio 

Athens, Ohio 

Barnesville, Ohio 

Bedford, Ohio 

Bellefontaine, Ohio 

Bellevue, Ohio 

Berea, Ohio 

Bexley, Ohio 

Bridgeport, Ohio 

Bryan, Ohio 

Carey, Ohio 

Celina, Ohio 

Chagrin Falls, Ohio 

Chevoit, Ohio 

Circleville, Ohio 

Clyde, Ohio 

Conneaut, Ohio 

Crestline, Ohio 

Crooksville, Ohio 

Defiance, Ohio 

Delaware, Ohio 

Delphos, Ohio 

Dennison, Ohio 

Dover, Ohio 

East Palestine, Ohio 

Eaton, Ohio 

Elmwood Place, Ohio 

Fairport Harbor, Ohio 

Fairview, Ohio 

Franklin, Ohio 

Gallon, Ohio 

Gallipolis, Ohio 

Geneva, Ohio 

Qirard, Ohio 

Glouster, Ohio 

Qrandview Heights, Ohio. 

Greenville, Ohio 

Hillsboro, Ohio 

Hubbard, Ohio 



Number of 
employees 



3 
1 

10 
6 
7 
8 
6 
6 
2 
5 
3 
5 

15 
4 
8 

18 
9 
9 
4 
7 
7 

11 
5 
4 

13 
7 
6 
4 
4 
2 
2 
7 
8 
5 
3 
7 
4 
6 
3 
4 
5 
7 
3 
4 
5 
7 
5 
8 
5 
3 
3 
2 
4 
8 
6 
3 
5 
6 
1 
4 
6 
4 
5 
9 
3 
2 
5 
8 
5 
3 
7 
6 
4 
6 
1 
8 
6 
6 
3 



105 



Table 54. — Number of 'police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Jackson, Ohio 

Kent, Ohio 

Kenton, Ohio 

Lebanon, Ohio 

Lisbon, Ohio.. 

Logan, Ohio 

London, Ohio 

Louisville, Ohio 

Lowell ville, Ohio 

Maple Heights, Ohio 

Marys ville Heights, Ohio 

Maumee, Ohio 

Mayfleld Heights, Ohio 

Medina, Ohio 

Miamisburg, Ohio 

Middleport , Ohio 

Minerva, Ohio 

Mingo Junction, Ohio 

Montpclier, Ohio 

Mount Healthy, Ohio 

Mount Vernon, Ohio 

New Boston, Ohio 

New Lexington, Ohio 

Newton Falls, Ohio 

North Canton, Ohio 

North College Hill, Ohio 

North Olmsted, Ohio 

Norwalk, Ohio 

Oakwood, Ohio 

Oborlin, Ohio 

Orrville, Ohio 

Oxford, Ohio 

Perrysburg, Ohio 

Pomeroy, Ohio 

Port Clinton, Ohio 

Ravenna, Ohio 

Reading, Ohio 

Rittman, Ohio 

Rocky River, Ohio 

St. Bernard, Ohio 

St. Marys, Ohio 

Sobring, Ohio 

Shadyside, Ohio 

Shelby, Ohio 

Sidney, Ohio 

South Euclid, Ohio 

Tipp City, Ohio 

Toronto, Ohio 

Troy, Ohio 

Uhriehsville, Ohio 

Upper Arlington, Ohio 

Urbana, Ohio 

Van Wert, Ohio 

Wadsworth, Ohio 

Wapakoneta, Ohio 

Washington Court House, Ohio. 

Wauseon, Ohio 

Wollston, Ohio 

Westerville, Ohio 

Willoughby, Ohio 

Wilmington, Ohio 

Wyoming, Ohio 

Altus, Okla 

Alva, Okla 

Anadarko, Okla 

Blackwell, Okla 

Bristow, Okla 

Chandler, Okla 

Claremore, Okla 

Cleveland, Okla 

Clinton, Okla 

Cordell, Okla 

Cushing, Okla 

Drumright, Okla 

Duncan, Okla 

Durant, Okla 

Edmond, Okla 

Elk City, Okla 



Number of 
employees 



6 
3 
2 
3 
3 
3 
3 
6 
3 
6 
4 
5 
6 
2 
3 
6 
3 
3 
7 

11 
3 
2 
3 
4 
3 
5 

19 
3 
2 
3 
3 
6 
3 
4 

10 
1 
7 

13 
4 
1 
3 
7 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
5 
4 
6 
5 
5 
4 
6 
1 
4 
2 
6 
5 

12 
6 
3 
4 

11 
5 
2 
6 
2 
5 
3 
7 
2 
9 
4 
4 
3 




El Reno, Okla 

Frederick, Okla 

Guthrie, Okla 

Henryetta, Okla... 

Hobart, Okla 

Holdenville, Okla_. 

Hollis, Okla 

Hominy, Okla 

Hugo, Okla 

Kingfisher, Okla... 

Marlow, Okla 

Maud, Okla 

Miami, Okla 

Norman, Okla 

Nowata, Okla 

Pawhuska, Okla... 

Pawnee, Okla 

Perry, Okla 

Poteau, Okla 

Purcell, Okla 

Sandsprings, Okla.. 

Sayre, Okla 

Stillwater, Okla.___ 

Sulphur, Okla 

Tonkawa, Okla 

Wagoner, Okla 

Wilson, Okla 

Woodward, Okla... 

Albany, Oreg 

Ashland, Oreg 

Baker, Oreg 

Bend, Oreg 

Burns, Oreg 

Corvallis, Oreg 

Dallas, Oreg 

Grants Pass, Oreg.. 

Hillsboro, Oreg 

Hood River, Oreg-. 
La Grande, Oreg -. 
Marshfield, Oreg-. 
McMinnville, Oreg 
Oregon City, Oreg. 

Pendleton, Oreg 

Roseburg, Oreg 

St. Helens, Oreg... 
The Dalles, Oreg... 

Ambler, Pa 

Apollo, Pa 

Archbald, Pa 

Ashley, Pa 

Aspinwall, Pa 

Avalon, Pa 

Avoca, Pa 

Bangor, Pa 

Barnesboro, Pa 

Beaver, Pa 

Bedford, Pa 

Bellefonte, Pa 

Bellwood, Pa 

Bentleyville, Pa 

Birdsboro, Pa 

Blairsville, Pa 

Blakely, Pa 

Boyertown, Pa 

Bloomsburg, Pa 

Brackenridgc, Pa.. 

Brentwood, Pa 

Bridgeport, Pa 

Brockway, Pa 

Brookville, Pa 

Brownsville, Pa 

Burnham, Pa 

Camp Hill, Pa 

Castle Shannon, Pa 

Catasququa, Pa 

Clarks Summit, Pa 

Clearfield, Pa 

Clifton Heights, Pa 



Number of 
employees 



9 
5 
9 
6 
6 
5 
3 
3 
8 
5 
3 
1 
8 

11 
3 
7 
4 
4 
2 
4 
2 
2 
9 
4 
5 
2 
2 
3 
5 
5 
7 
6 
3 
5 
4 
5 
3 
5 
8 
7 
3 
7 
5 
3 
2 
8 
4 
4 
5 
4 
6 

12 
3 
3 
4 

10 
2 
3 
2 
1 
3 
4 
4 
7 

16 
3 
9 
4 
2 
3 
8 
1 
2 
1 
5 
1 
2 
6 



106 



Table 54 Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to 25,000 — Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Clymer, Pa 

Coaldale, Pa 

Collingdale, Pa 

Coplay, Pa 

Corry, Pa 

Crafton, Pa 

Curwensville, Pa 

Dale, Pa 

Dallastown, Pa 

Danville, Pa 

Darby, Pa..: 

Derry, Pa- 

Downingtown, Pa 

Doylestown, Pa 

Dupont, Pa 

Duryea, Pa 

East Conemaugh, Pa- 
East Lansdowne, Pa.. 
East McKcesport, Pa. 
East Pittsburgh, Pa..- 
East Stroudsburg, Pa. 

Ebensburg, Pa 

Edgewood, Pa 

Edwardsville, Pa 

Elizabeth, Pa 

Elizabethtown, Pa 

Emmaus, Pa 

Emporium, Pa 

Ephrata, Pa 

Etna, Pa 

Exeter, Pa 

Ferndale, Pa. 

Ford City, Pa 

Forest City, Pa 

Forest Hills, Pa 

Forty Fort, Pa 

Fountain Hill, Pa 

Freedom, Pa 

Freeland, Pa .... 

Freeport, Pa. 

Oallitzin, Pa: 

Gettysburg, Pa 

Girardville, Pa 

Glassport, Pa 

Glenolden, Pa 

Greencastle, Pa 

Greenville, Pa 

Grove City, Pa 

Hamburg, Pa 

Hatboro, Pa 

Hcllertown, Pa 

Hollidaysburg, Pa — 

Honesdale, Pa 

Huntingdon, Pa 

Indiana, Pa 

Ingram, Pa 

Irwin, Pa..-.- 

Jenkintown, Pa 

Jermyn, Pa 

Jersey Shore, Pa 

Kane, Pa __ 

Kennett Square, Pa.. 

Kittanning, Pa 

Kutztown, Pa 

Lansdale, Pa 

Lansdowne, Pa 

Lansford, Pa 

Larksville, Pa 

Leechburg, Pa 

Leetsdale, Pa 

Lehighton, Pa 

Lemoyne, Pa 

Lewisijurg, Pa 

Lititz, Pa 

Lock Haven, Pa 

Luzerne, Pa 

Lykens, Pa 

McAdoo, Pa 



Number of 
employees 



City 



2 

3 

7 

6 

7 

9 

2 

2 

1 

3 
11 

3 

3 

5 

4 

3 

5 

3 

2 
12 

5 

2 

10 

15 
2 
1 
3 
1 
4 
7 
5 
3 
3 

13 
6 
5 
4 
1 
3 
1 
2 
3 
2 
5 
5 
2 
5 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
5 
3 
8 
8 
3 

11 
2 
5 
5 
2 
5 
4 
5 
11 
2 
9 
1 
2 
3 
2 
2 
3 
9 
4 
1 
3 



McDonald, Pa 

Marcus Hook, Pa 

Masontown, Pa 

Mauch Chunk, Pa 

Mayflcld, Pa 

Mechanicsburg, Pa 

Media, Pa 

Meyersdale, Pa 

Middletown, Pa 

Midland, Pa 

Millvale, Pa 

Milton, Pa 

Minersville, Pa 

Monaca, Pa 

Monongahela City, Pa 

Montoursville, Pa 

Moosic, Pa 

Morrisville, Pa 

Mount Joy, Pa 

Mount Penn, Pa 

Mount Pleasant, Pa 

Mount Union, Pa 

Myerstown, Pa 

Nanty Glo, Pa 

Nazareth, Pa 

New Cumberland, Pa 

New Philadelphia, Pa 

Northampton, Pa 

North Bellevernon, Pa 

North Charleroi, Pa 

North East, Pa 

Northumberland, Pa 

Norwood, Pa 

Oakmont, Pa 

Palmerton, Pa 

Palmyra, Pa 

Patton, Pa 

Pen Argyl, Pa 

Penbrook, Pa 

Philipsburg, Pa 

Portage, Pa 

Port Carbon, Pa 

Port Vue, Pa 

Prospect Park, Pa 

Punxsutawney, Pa 

Quakertown, Pa 

Rankin, Pa 

Renovo, Pa 

Reynoldsville, Pa 

Ridgway, Pa 

Roaring Springs, Pa 

Rochester, Pa 

Royersford, Pa 

St. Clair, Pa 

St. Marys, Pa I 

Sayre, Pa 

Schuylkill Haven, Pa 

Scottdale, Pa 

Selingsgrove, Pa 

Sewickley, Pa 

Sharpsburg, Pa 

Sharpsville, Pa 

Shillington, Pa 

Shippensburg, Pa 

Slatington, Pa 

Somerset, Pa 

South Connellsville, Pa 

South Fork, Pa 

South Greensburg, Pa 

Southwest Greensburg, Pa_ 

Spangler, Pa 

Spring City, Pa 

Springdale, Pa 

State College, Pa 

Stroudsburg, Pa 

Summit Hill, Pa 

Susquehanna Depot, Pa — 
Swarthmore, Pa 



Number of 
employees 



2 
6 
2 
2 
4 
5 
6 
2 
4 
8 
6 

3 

3 

3 

4 

1 

3 

3 

1 

4 

3 

2 

2 

2 

4 

1 

4 

3 

2 

1 

3 

2 

4 

6 

6 

2 

1 

3 

4 

2 

2 

4 
1 

4 

7 
4 

12 
3 
2 
2 
1 
8 
3 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
1 
9 
9 
5 
3 
3 
6 
3 
3 
1 
2 
2 
2 
1 
4 
4 
2 
5 
2 
8 



107 



Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to ^,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Swoyerville, Pa 

Tarentum, Pa 

Throop, Pa 

Titusville, Pa 

Towanda, Pa 

Trafford, Pa 

Tyrone, Pa 

Upland, Pa 

Verona, Pa 

Waynesburgr, Pa 

Weatherly, Pa 

Wesleyville, Pa 

West Conshohocken, Pa 

West Homestead, Pa 

Westmont, Pa 

West Newton, Pa 

West Pittston, Pa 

West Reading, Pa 

Westview, Pa 

West Wyoming, Pa 

West York, Pa 

Wilmerding, Pa 

Windber, Pa 

Wyomissing, Pa. - 

Yeadon, Pa 

Youngwood, Pa 

Harrington, R. I 

Burrillville, R. I 

East Greenwich, R. I... 

Johnston, R. I 

Warren, R. I 

Abbeville, S. O 

Aiken, S. C 

Batesburg, S. C 

Chester, S. O 

Clinton, S. C 

Darlington, S. C 

Dillon, S. C 

Eau Claire, S. O 

Praffney, S. C 

Georgetown, S. O 

Hartsville, S. C 

Lancaster, S. O 

Laurens, S. O 

Marion, S. O 

Newberry, S. C 

Siimmerville, S. O 

Union. S. C 

York, S. C 

Brookings, S. Dak 

Deadwood, S. Dak 

Hot Springs, S. Dak 

Lead, S. Dak 

Madison, S. Dak 

Mobridge, S. Dak 

Pierre, S. Dak 

Redfield, S. Dak 

Vermillion, S. Dak 

Yankton, S. Dak 

Alcoa, Tenn 

Athens, Tenn 

Cleveland, Tenn 

Cookeville, Tenn 

Dyersburg, Tenn 

Elizabethton, Tenn 

Erwin, Tenn 

Fayetteville, Tenn 

Franklin, Tenn 

Greeneville, Tenn 

La Follette, Tenn 

Lenoir City, Tenn 

Lewisburg, Tenn 

Loudon, Tenn 

McMinnville, Tenn 

Murfreesboro, Tenn 

Norris, Tenn 

Paris, Tenn 

Pulaski, Tenn 



Number of 
employees 



14 
7 
6 
7 
4 
3 
4 
3 
4 
4 
1 
1 
2 

12 
5 
1 
9 

10 
7 
1 
2 
6 
5 
6 

15 
4 
4 
3 
3 
7 
6 
6 

11 
3 
8 
7 
7 
4 
3 

10 
7 
7 
6 

10 
4 



3 

4 
7 
4 
3 
6 
3 
5 
2 
3 
9 
3 
2 

10 
4 
9 
7 
3 
4 
4 
7 
4 
2 
3 
3 
3 
8 

20 
6 
4 




Tuilahoma, Tenn 

Union City, Tenn 

Alpine, Tex 

Arlington, Tex 

Athens, Tex 

Bonham, Tex 

Borger, Tex 

Bowie, Tex 

Brady, Tex 

Breckenridge, Tex 

Bryan, Tex 

Burkburnett, Tex 

Canyon, Tex 

Center, Tex 

Cisco, Tex 

Coleman, Tex 

Commerce, Tex 

Denton, Tex 

Eastland, Tex 

Electra, Tex 

Fort Stockton, Tex 

Qatesville, Tex 

Gainesville, Tex 

Highland Park, Tex 

Hillsboro, Tex 

Jacksonville, Tex 

Kerrville, Tex 

Kingsville, Tex 

Longview, Tex 

Lufkin, Tex 

McAUen, Tex 

McCamey, Tex 

McKinney, Tex 

Memphis, Tex 

Mexia, Tex 

Midland, Tex 

Mineral Wells, Tex 

Mineola, Tex 

New Braunfels, Tex 

Olney, Tex 

Orange, Tex 

Paducah, Tex 

Pecos, Tex 

Perryton, Tex 

Pharr, Tex 

Plainview, Tex 

Quanah, Tex 

Ranger, Tex 

Robstown, Tex 

Smithville. Tex 

Stamford, Tex 

Teague, Tex 

University Park, Tex... 

Uvalde, Tex 

Victoria, Tex 

Weatherford, Tex 

Weslaco, Tex 

Wink, Tex 

American Fork, Utah... 
Bingham Canyon, Utah 

Bountiful, Utah 

Brigham City, Utah 

Cedar City, Utah 

Eureka, Utah 

Helper, Utah 

Lehi, Utah 

Logan, Utah 

Murray, Utah 

Nephi, Utah 

Park City, Utah 

Payson, Utah 

Price, Utah 

Richfield, Utah 

Spanish Fork, Utah 

Springville, Utah 

Tooele, Utah 

Bellows Falls, Vt 

Bennington Village, Vt. 



Number of 
employees 



4 
7 
3 
5 
3 
4 
6 
5 
5 
2 
9 
3 
2 
1 
6 
5 
3 

10 
4 
4 
2 
2 
10 
13 
5 
5 
7 
2 



1 
14 
3 
4 
4 
6 
2 
5 
2 
4 
1 
2 
3 
2 
8 
1 
5 
2 
1 
■4 
2 
19 
3 
■7 
5 
3 
1 
2 
2 
2 
5 
3 
2 
3 
2 
9 
4 
3 
2 
4 
4 
2 
3 
3 
3 
6 
6 



108 

Table 54. — Number of police-department employees, 1939; cities with population 

from 2,500 to ^5,000— Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Brattleboro, Vt 

Montpelier, Vt 

Newport, Vt 

Proctor, Vt 

St. Albans, Vt 

St. Johnsbury, Vt 

Springfield, Vt 

Windsor, Vt 

Winooski, Vt 

Abingdon, Va 

Appalaehia, Va 

Big Stone Gap, Va 

Bluefleld, Va 

Cape Charles, Va 

Clifton Forge, Va 

Covington, Va 

Franklin, Va 

Fredericksburg, Va 

Galax, Va 

Hampton, Va 

Harrisonburg, Va 

Lexington, Va 

Martinsville, Va 

Norton, Va 

Phoebus, Va 

Radford, Va 

Salem, Va -- 

South Norfolk, Va 

Vinton, Va 

Waynesboro, Va 

Williamsburg, Va 

Anacortes, Wash 

Auburn, Wash 

Camas, Wash 

Centralia, Wash 

Chehalis, Wash 

Clarkston, Wash 

Cle Elum, Wash 

Colfax, Wash_.. 

Dayton, Wash 

Ellensburg, Wash 

Mount Vernon, Wash 

Pasco, Wash 

Port Townsend, Wash 

Pullman, Wash 

Puyallup, Wash 

Raymond, Wash 

Renton, Wash 

Sedro-Wooley, Wash 

Shelton, Wash 

Snohomish, Wash 

Toppenish, Wash 

Beckley, W. Va 

Benwood, W. Va 

Buckhannon, W. Va 

Chester, W. Va 

Dunbar, W. Va 

Elkins, W. Va 

Follansbee, W. Va 

Grafton, W. Va 

Hinton, W. Va 

Hollidays Cove, W. Va... 

Kenova, W. Va 

Keyser, W. Va 

Logan, W. Va 

McMechen, W. Va 

Mannington, W. Va 

New Martinsville, W. Va. 



Number of 
employees 



14 
12 

8 
2 
3 

10 
7 
5 
3 
3 
4 
3 
3 
2 
8 
6 
4 

10 

4 

9 

11 

5 

15 
2 
5 
5 
8 
8 

7 
4 
4 
3 
4 
8 
5 
3 
4 
4 
2 
6 
4 
4 
3 
4 
6 
3 
5 
3 
4 
4 
4 
8 
7 
6 
2 
3 
5 
2 
7 
5 
4 
5 
3 
5 
2 
2 
3 



City 



Point Pleasant, W. Va 

Princeton, W. Va 

Richwood, W. Va 

St. Albans, W. Va 

Salem, W. Va 

Sisterville, W. Va 

South Charleston, W. Va. 

Welch, W. Va 

Wellsburg, W. Va 

Weston, W. Va 

Williamson, W. Va 

Antigo, Wis 

Beaver Dam, Wis 

Berlin, Wis 

Burlington, Wis 

Chippewa Falls, Wis 

Clintonville, Wis 

Columbus, Wis 

Delavan, Wis 

Edgerton, Wis 

Fort .\tkinson, Wis 

Hartford, Wis 

Hudson, Wis 

Jefferson, Wis 

Kaukauna, Wis 

Ladysmith, Wis 

Lake Geneva, Wis 

Little Chute, Wis 

Marshfield, Wis 

Mayville, Wis 

Menasha, Wis 

Menomonie, Wis 

Merrill, Wis 

Monroe, Wis 

Neenah, Wis 

New London, Wis 

Oconomowoc, Wis 

Oconto, Wis 

Park Falls, Wis 

Platteville, Wis 

Plymouth, Wis 

Portage, Wis 

Port Washington, Wis-.. 

Reedsburg, Wis 

Rhinelander, Wis 

Richland Center, Wis 

Ripon, Wis 

Sheboygan Falls, Wis 

Sparta, Wis 

Stoughton, Wis 

Sturgeon Bay, Wis 

Tomah, Wis 

Tomahawk, Wis 

Viroqua, Wis 

Waupaca, Wis 

Waupun, Wis 

West Bend, Wis 

West Milwaukee, Wis... 

Whitefish Bay, Wis 

Whitewater, Wis 

Wisconsin Rapids, Wis_. 

Evanston, Wyo 

Green River, Wyo 

Laramie, Wyo 

Rawlins, Wyo 

Rock Springs, Wyo 

Sheridan, Wyo 



Number of 
employees 



4 

7 

2 

3 

3 

1 

5 

7 

5 

5 
10 

8 
11 

4 

5 
11 

5 

5 

4 

3 

4 

3 

3 

2 

6 

2 
•■i 
2 

9 
4 

14 
6 
9 
7 

14 
4 
f> 
3 
4 
4 
4 
5 
4 
3 
8 
4 
6 
3 
6 
4 
4 
4 
4 
2 
8 
4 
7 

10 

13 

,■; 

12 
4 
2 

9 
4 



DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

Source of Data. 

There were 298,423 arrest records (fingerprint cards) examined 
by the Federal Bureau of Investigation during the first 6 months of 
1940. Through this examination it was possible to obtain information 
relative to the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of the 
persons who were arrested for violation of State laws and municipal 
ordinances. All fingerprint cards relating to persons arrested for 
violation of Federal statutes, as well as those representing persons 
committed to penal institutions, both Federal and State, were excluded. 

The data presented do not purport to represent all persons arrested, 
since the Federal Bureau of Investigation does not receive a finger- 
print card for each individual taken into custody. Likewise, the 
number of persons arrested should not be interpreted as determining 
the quantity of offenses committed, as the arrest of one person may 
solve several cases while, on the other hand, two or more individuals 
may be responsible for the commission of only one offense. 

Offense Charged. 

Persons arrested during the first half of 1940 for murder, robbery, 
assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft represented more than 27 
percent of the fingerprint cards examined. The following tabulation 
sets forth the arrests for major violations during this period: 

Criminal homicide 3, 054 

Robbery 6, 837 

Assault 15, 499 

Burglary — breaking or entering 18, 543 

Larceny — theft (excluding auto theft) 31, 885 

Auto theft 6, 670 

Embezzlement and fraud 10, 183 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing 1, 913 

Arson 527 

Forgery and counterfeiting 3, 250 

Rape 2, 849 

Narcotic drug laws 2, 629 

Weapons (carrying, possessing, etc.) 2, 794 

Driving while intoxicated 13, 604 

Gambling 6, 981 

Total 127, 218 

Sex. 

The number of males arrested during the first 6 months of 1940 
exceeded the number of females in all types of crime, with the 
exception of commercialized vice. This is shown by further study of 
298,423 arrest records. Of this total, 274,061 (9r.8 percent) repre- 
sented males arrested*, while 24,362 (8.2 percent) were females taken 
into custody. The number of females arrested is an increase over the 
same period in 1939, when the percentage of females was 7.1. 

A comparison of an average group of 1,000 males arrested with 
1,000 females arrested, disclosed that females were charged more 
frequently with murder, assault, use of narcotic drugs, and liquor 
violations than males. However, males exceeded females in crimes 
against property, such as robbery, burglary, and auto theft. 

(109) 



no 



Table 55. — Distribution of arrests by sex Jan. 1-June 30, 1940 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud _ 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children... 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traflBc and motor-vehicle laws... 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Number 


Percent 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Male 


3,054 


2,745 


309 


1.0 


1.0 


6,837 


6,537 


300 


2.3 


2.4 


15, 499 


14, 155 


1,344 


5.2 


5.2 


18,543 


18, 247 


296 


6.2 


6.7 


31, 885 


29, 301 


2,584 


10.7 


10. 7 


6,670 


6,572 


98 


2.2 


2.4 


10, 183 


9,640 


543 


3.4 


3.5 


1,913 


1,774 


139 


.6 


.6 


527 


483 


44 


.2 


.2 


3, 250 


3,038 


212 


1.1 


1.1 


2,849 


2,849 




.9 


1.0 


4,361 


1,147 


3,214 


1.5 


.4 


4,426 


3,826 


600 


1.5 


1.4 


2,629 


1,710 


919 


.9 


.6 


2,794 


2,686 


108 


.9 


1.0 


3,790 


3, 669 


121 


1.3 


1.3 


4,905 


4,014 


891 


1.6 


1.5 


13, 604 


13, 262 


342 


4.6 


4.8 


2,854 


2,808 


46 


1.0 


1.0 


14 


14 




(') 


(■) 


4,485 


4,386 


99 


1.5 


1.6 


13, 781 


12, 104 


1,677 


4.6 


4.4 


52, 554 


49, 285 


3,269 


17.6 


18.0 


27, 922 


25,681 


2,241 


9.4 


9.4 


6,981 


6,541 


440 


2.3 


2.4 


31, 222 


27, 941 


3,281 


10.5 


10.2 


2,516 


2,362 


154 


.8 


.9 


18, 375 


17, 284 


1, 091 


6.2 


6.3 


298, 423 


274, 061 


24, 362 


100.0 


100.0 



1.3 

1.2 

5.5 

1.2 

10.6 

.4 

2.2 

.6 

.2 

.9 



13.2 

2.5 

3.8 

.4 

.5 

3.6 

1.4 

.2 



.4 

6.9 

13.4 

9.2 

1.8 

13.5 

.6 

4.5 



100.0 



' Less than Mo of 1 percent. 

Age. 

The arrest records reviewed during the first half of 1940 indicate 
that persons of 19 years were most frequently taken into custody. 
This group was followed by those of 21, 22, 23, and 18 years, 
respectively. While fluctuations are to be expected, it is interesting 
to note that age 19 has led in the majority of the compilations of this 
nature since 1932. 

The following tabulation sets forth the number of arrests in the five 
most prominent age groups: 

Aee; Number of arrests 

19 12, 327 

21 12,008 

22 11,905 

23 11,801 

18 11, 555 

There were 52,534 (17.6 percent) youthful offenders arrested during 
the first 6 months of 1940 under 21 years of age. Those between 
21-24 years old increased this sum by 46,797 (15.7 percent), making a 
total of 99,331 persons arrested under 25 years df age. 

Extending the analysis to the age group 25-29 enlarged the number 
of arrests made by 49,631 (16.6 percent), making an aggregate of 
148,962 (49.9 percent) persons arrested less than 30 years old. (It 
must be remembered that the number of fingerprint cards received 
by the Federal Bureau of Investigation representing those arrested 
under 21 years of age is incomplete, as some communities do not 
fingerprint youthful offenders.) 



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112 



Youths less than 21 years old were frequently charged with offenses 
against property, particularly robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto 
theft. This is clearly indicated by the following tabulation: 

Table 57. — Percentage distribution of arrests by age groups, Jan. 1-June SO, 1940 



Age group 


All 
offenses 


Criminal 
homicide 


Robbery 


Burglary 


Larceny 


Auto theft 


Under 21 

21-29 

30-39 


17.6 
32.3 
25.6 
15.1 
9.3 
.1 


12.3 
36.8 
26.0 
14.8 
10.0 
.1 


28.7 
44.9 
18.9 

5.8 

1.7 

.0 


44.4 

33.0 

15.3 

5.2 

2.0 

.1 


31.7 
32.7 
19.9 
10.2 
5.4 
.1 


52. 5 
33.0 
10 9 


40-49 

50 and over 


2.8 
7 


Unknown 


.1 


Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100. 


100.0 



The predominance of youthfid persons among those charged with 
offenses against property is further indicated by the fact that 79,808 
persons of all ages were arrested for crimes against property (robbery, 
burglary, larceny, auto theft, embezzlement and fraud, forgery and 
counterfeiting, receiving stolen property, and arson). During the 
first 6 months of 1940, 25,459 (31.9 percent) of the persons arrested for 
such crimes were less than 21 years old. 

Further indication of the large part played by youthful persons in 
the commission of crimes against property is seen in the figures show- 
ing that 33.3 percent of all persons arrested were less than 25 years of 
age. However, persons less than 25 years old numbered 53.7 percent 
of those charged with robbery, 63.3 percent of those charged with bur- 
glary, 49.1 percent of those charged with larceny, and 73.0 percentof 
those charged with auto theft. More than one-half of all crimes 
against property during the first half of 1940 were committed by per- 
sons under 25 years of age. 

Table 58. — Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, 

Jan. 1-June 30, 1940 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws.. 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children-.. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while into.xicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor-vehicle laws... 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Total 

number of 

persons 

arrested 



3,054 

6,837 

15, 499 

18, 543 

31,885 

6,670 

10, 183 

1, 913 
527 

3,250 
2,849 
4,361 
4,426 

2, 629 
2,794 
3,790 
4,905 

13, 604 

2, 854 
14 

4,485 
13, 781 
52,554 
27, 922 

6,981 
31,222 

2,516 
18, 375 



298, 423 



Number 

under 21 

years of age 



375 

1,964 

1,796 

8,228 

10, 092 

3,505 

708 

380 

95 

487 

761 

280 

599 

226 

498 

183 

365 

549 

472 

1 

836 

1,924 

2,116 

4,284 

354 

6,553 

348 

4,555 



52, 534 



Total 

number 

under 25 

years of age 



874 

3,671 

4,253 

11,746 

15, 655 

4,872 

2,211 

702 

162 

1,082 

1,398 

1,366 

1,307 

626 

998 

710 

995 

2,132 

1,167 

5 

1,814 

4,290 

6,828 

8,775 

1,130 

12, 205 

695 

7,662 



99, 331 



Percentage 

under 21 

years of age 



12.3 
28.7 
11.6 
44.4 
31.7 
52.5 
7.0 
19.9 
18.0 
15.0 



26 

6 
13 

8, 
17 

4 

7.4 

4.0 
16.5 

7.1 
18.6 
14. n 

4.0 
15.3 

5.1 
21.0 
13.8 
24.8 



17.6 



Total per- 
centage 
under 25 

years of age 



28.6 
53.7 
27.4 
63.3 
49. 1 
73.0 
21.7 
36.7 
30.7 
33.3 
49.1 
31.3 
29.5 
23.8 
35.7 
18.7 
20.3 
15.7 
40.9 
35.7 
40.4 
31.1 
13.0 
31.4 
16.2 
39.1 
27.6 
41.7 



33.3 



113 

Criminal Repeaters. 

The extent to which persons with criminal tendencies continue to 
violate the law is indicated by the fact that 148,201 (almost one-half) 
of the persons arrested during the first half of 1940 had previously 
been fingerprinted and cards covering them were on file in the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation. In addition, there were 3,492 current 
records received containing reference to past criminal activities, 
although no fingerprint cards were on file prior to 1940. This in- 
creases the total to 151,693 arrested persons during the first 6 months 
of 1940 who have previously been engaged in various criminal 
activities. 

The examination disclosed that of the 298,423 arrest records 
received, 102,589 persons had been convicted of at least 296,510 
crimes, of which 176,496 constituted minor violations. 

Of those persons with previous convictions, more than 52 percent 
were based on major violations as indicated by the following tabu- 
lation : 

Criminal homicide 816 

Robbery 3, 879 

Assault 5^ 218 

Burglary 1 0,' 680 

Larceny (and related offenses) 23, 866 

Arson 110 

Forgery and counterfeiting 2, 397 

Rape 659 

Narcotic drug laws 2, 021 

Weapons (carrying, possessing, etc.) 1, 086 

Driving while intoxicated 3,134 

Total 53.866 

The study revealed that in many instances criminals repeat the 
type of offense for which they had previously been arrested or 
convicted. 



114 



Table 

convictions 
SO, 1940 



59. — Number of cases in which fingerprint records show one or more prior 

ictions, and the total of prior convictions disclosed by the records, Jan. 1-June 
in in 



Ofiense charged 



Number of 
records show- 
ing one or 
more prior 
convictions 



etc. 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving. 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. _ _ 
Offenses against family and children. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor-vehicle laws.. 

Disorderly conduct . 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 



Total. 



589 
2,662 
4,510 
6,327 
10, 333 
2,004 
3,401 

458 

108 
1,212 

681 
1,571 

997 
1,268 

768 

845 
1,566 
2,977 

548 



1,081 

4,615 

22, 348 

12, 892 

1,386 

10, 024 

1,088 

6,330 



Number of 
prior convic- 
tions of major 
offenses 



717 
4,360 
5,483 
10, 689 
17, 621 
2, 996 
5,447 

672 

108 
2,070 

800 
2,491 
1,276 
3,135 
1,073 

863 
1,075 
2,581 

456 



1,006 

4,336 

14, 546 

12,715 

1,547 

13, 137 

1,547 

7,267 



Number of 
prior convic- 
tions of minor 

offenses 



497 
2, 636 
4,881 
5,708 
13, 442 
1,590 
2,939 

391 
84 

833 

545 
1,358 

982 
1,359 

708 

756 
2,513 
3,143 

486 



102, 589 



120, 014 



1,268 

9,331 

66, 337 

29, 136 

1,183 

14, 061 

1,272 

9,057 



176, 496 



Total num- 
ber of prior 
convictions 
disclosed 



1,214 

6.996 

10,364 

16, 397 

31,063 

4, 586 

8,386 

1,063 

192 

2,903 

1,345 

3,849 

2,258 

4,494 

1,781 

1,619 

3,588 

5,724 

942 



2,274 
13, 667 
80, 883 
41,851 

2,730 
27, 198 

2,819 
16, 324 



296, 510 



Race. 

Members of the white race represent 218,650 of the 298,423 arrest 
records received, while 65,358 were Negroes, 10,871 Mexicans, 1,704 
Indians, 539 Chinese, 220 Japanese, and 1,081 all others. 

In order to properly study the relationship between the number 
of whites arrested as compared with the number of Negroes, it becomes 
necessary to employ the 1930 decennial census, which reflects that 
there were 8,041,014 Negroes, 13,069,192 foreign-born whites, and 
64,365,193 native-born whites in the United States. All persons 
under 15 years of age were excluded from the above population figures. 
However, the immediate descendants of foreign-born whites have 
been treated as native whites. 

There were 813 Negroes arrested and fingerprinted during the 
first half of 1940 of each 100,000 Negroes in the general population 
of the United States, while the corresponding figure for native whites 
was 312, and for foreign-born whites, 98. 

Size of Fingerprint File. 

At the end of June 1940, there were 13,205,855 fingerprint records 
and 14,267,994 index cards containing the names and aliases of indi- 
viduals on file in the Identification Division of the FBI. Of each 
100 fingerprint cards received during the first 6 months of 1940, more 
than 61 were identified with those on file in the Bureau. Fugitives 
numbering 3,858 were identified through fingerprint records during 
the first 6 months of 1940, and interested law-enforcement officials 
were immediately notified of the whereabouts of those fugitives. As 
of June 30, 1940, there were 10,885 police departments, peace officers, 
and law-enforcement agencies throughout the United States and 
foreign countries voluntarily contributing fingerprints to the FBI. 



OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in part I and 
part II offenses, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 

Part I Offenses. 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter includes 
all felonious homicides except those caused by negligence. Does not include 
attempts to kill, assaults to kill, justifiable homicides, suicides, or accidental 
deaths. (6) Manslaughter by negligence includes only those cases in which 
death is caused by culpable negligence which is so clearly evident that if the 
person responsible for the death were apprehended he would be prosecuted for 
manslaughter. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape, assault to rape, and attempted 
rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as highway robbery, stick-ups, robbery 
armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe- 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or theft. Includes attempted 
burglary and assault to commit a burglar3^ Burglary followed by a larceny is 
entered here and is not counted again under larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (o) Fifty dollars and over in value. 
(6) Under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of property stolen, pocket-picking, purse-snatching, shoplifting, 
or any stealing of propertj' or thing of value which is not taken by force and vio- 
lence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" games, forgery, passing 
worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven 
away and abandoned, including the so-called "joy-riding" thefts. Does not 
include taking for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unau- 
thorized use by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses. 

8. Other assatdts. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which is 
made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent conversion,- 
eml^ezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false pretenses. 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those offenses. 

12. Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc — Includes all violations of regulations 
or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing, and manufactur- 
ing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes or 
regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commer- 
cialized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as, prostitution, keeping 
bawdy house, procuring, transporting, or detaining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice). — In- 
cludes offenses againsf chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

15. Offenses against the family and children. — Includes offenses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws. — Includes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, sale, or use. Excludes Federal offenses. 

(115) 



116 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of "Drunkenness" (class 18) and "Driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations, State or local, are placed in 
this class. Excludes Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or intoxication. 

19. Disorderly conduct. — Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage; begging; loitering; etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regulations with 
respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters but not in connection with any specific offense who are released without 
formal charges being placed against them. 

o 



UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Volume XI 



Number 3 



THIRD QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1940 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume XI — Number 3 
THIRD QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1940 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1940 



CONTENTS Page 

Summary of volume XI, No. 3 117-118 

Classificati .1 of offenses 118 

Extent of reporting area 119 

Monthly reports: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population 

(table 60) 120-121 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1939-40 (table 61) 122-123 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location 

(tables 62, 63) 124-128, 132 

Offenses in individual cities over 100,000 in population (table 64) __ 129-131 

Offenses known to sheriffs and State police (table 65) 133 

Offenses kno\\ai in Territories and possessions (table 66) 133 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 67-69) 134-135 

Persons Charged, 1939: 

Persons charged in individual cities over 25,000 in population (table 70).136-140 

Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1940: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 71) 141-142 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 72-74) 142-146 

Number with records showing previous convictions (table 75) 147-148 

Definitions of part I and part II offense classifications 150-151 

(n) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 

of Justice, Washington, D. C. 

Volume XI October 1940 Number 3 

SUMMARY 

Annual Crime Trends, January-September 1939 40. 

Increases were seen in the first 9 months of f 940 over the correspond- 
ing period of 1939 in all oft'enses except murder, rape, m-A robbery. 
Negligent manslaughter increased 8.8 percent; larceny, 6.3 percent; 
aggravated assault, 3.4 percent; burglary, 1.6 percent; and auto 
theft, 1.0 percent. The decreases were as follows: robbery, 4.5 
percent; murder, 4.1 percent; and rape, 2.0 percent. 

Crime Rates, 1940. 

Cities with over 100,000 inhabitants continue to experience the 
highest crime rates, except for aggravated assault. Felonious assaults 
(other than rape) occur v/ith greatest frequency in cities with popula- 
tion from 50,000 to 100,000. Communities ranging in population 
from 2,500 to 10,000 reported more ofTenses of rape in proportion to 
population than other cities, except those with more than 100,000 
inhabitants. 

Distribution of Crimes by Type, 1940. 

Offenses against the person (criminal homicide, rape, and aggravated 
assault) constitute only 4.2 percent of the total offenses reported dur- 
ing the first 9 months of this year. The majority (59.0 percent) 
were larcenies; burglaries constituted 22.5 percent of the total crimes 
reported; auto thefts, 11.0 percent; and robberies, 3.3 percent. 

Less than half of the burglaries involved residences. That parked 
automobiles are frequently attacked by thieves is shown by the fact 
that over 36 percent of all reported larcenies consisted of some type 
of theft from automobiles. 

Stolen Property Recovered, 1940. 

Exclusive of automobiles, 22.2 percent of the property stolen was 
recovered. Over 97 percent of the stolen automobiles were recovered. 

Persons Arrested, 1940. 

Fingerprint cards of 459,167 persons arrested during the first 9 
months of this year W6re examined. The examination indicated that 
191,844 6f these individuals were arrested for the commission of some 
"major crime. Women arrested represented 8.4 percent of the total, 
being an increase over the comparable period of 1939, when the 
percentage of females was 7.5. 

(117) 



118 

More persons aged 19 were arrested than any other shigk' age group, 
followed by ages 21, 22, 18, and 23, respectively. Persons under 
21 years of age made up 12.2 percent of those charged with criminal 
homicide, 28.9 percent of those charged with robbery, 44.9 percent 
of those charged with burglary, 32.3 percent of those charged with 
larceny, and 52.6 percent of the persons charged with auto theft. 

More than one-half of the persons fingerprinted during January- 
September 1940, had previous criminal records on file in the FBI, 
and 158,121 had previously been convicted. More than one-half of 
the persons with previous conviction records had been found guilty 
of some major violation. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to 
the police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting 
or court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following 
group of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be 
those most generally and completely reported to the police: Crimmal 
homicide, including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (6) 
manslaughter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; 
burglary — breaking or entering ; larceny — theft ; and auto theft. The 
figures contained herein include also the number of attempted crimes 
of the designated classes. In other words, an attempted burglary 
or robbery, for example, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner 
as if the crime had been completed. Attempted murders, however, 
are reported as aggravated assaults. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
oft'enses, including attempts, which are reported by the law-enforce- 
ment agencies of contributing communities and not merely arrests 
or cleared cases. Complaints which upon investigation are learned 
to be groundless are not included in the tabulations which follow. 

In publishing the data sent m by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out 
as current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions of 
part I and part II offense classifications. 



119 

EXTENT OF REPORTING AREA 

The number of police departments from which one or more crime 
reports were received during the first 9 months of 1940 is contained in 
the following table. The cities represented are classed according to 
size, and the population figures for cities in excess of 10,000 are esti- 
mates prepared by the Bureau of the Census as of July 1 , 1933. How- 
ever, since no estimates were available for the smaller cities, the 
1930 decennial census figures were used for places under 10,000 in 
population. 



Population group 


Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 


Cities filing returns 


Total pop- 
ulation 


Population repre- 
sented in returns 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


982 


924 


94.1 


60, 265, 719 


59, 244, 459 


98.3 




1. Cities over 250,000 


37 

57 

104 

191 

593 


37 

57 

102 

187 

541 


100.0 

100.0 

98.1 

97.9 

91.2 


29. 695, 500 
7,850,312 
6, 980, 407 
6. 638, 544 
9, 100, 956 


29, 695, oOO 

7, 850, 312 
6, 833, 874 
6, 493, 268 

8, 371, 505 


100.0 

100.0 

97.9 

97.8 

92.0 


2. Cities 100,000 to 250,000. 


3. Cities 50,000 to 100,000 


4. Cities 25,000 to 50,000 


5. Cities 10,000 to 25,000 





Note. — The above tablo does not include 1,744 cities and rural townships aggregating a total population of 
8,667,131. The cities included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 population filing returns, whereas 
the rural townships are of varying population groups. 

The growth of the uniform crime reporting area is indicated by the 
following tabulation. These figures are compiled for the first 9 months 
of 1932-40. 



Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


1932 


1,546 
1,638 
1,727 
2,050 
2,271 


52, 802, 362 
62,041,342 
62, 391, 056 
64, 012, 959 
65, 319, 548 


1937 


2,358 
2,617 
2,662 
2,668 


65,811,861 
67 262 788 


1933 


1938 


1934 


1939 . 


67 735 765 


1935 


1940... 


67,911,590 


1936 





The additional 6 cities shown in the above tabulation for the first 
9 months of 1940, as compared with the corresponding period of 1939, 
increased the population represented in the uniform crime reporting 
project by 175,825, bringing the aggregate population to 67,911,590. 

There were 4,256 contributors of one or more crime reports during 
the first 9 months of 1940. These consisted of 2,668 city and village 
law-enforcement agencies, 1,566 sheriffs, 9 State police units, and 
13 agencies in Territories and possessions of the United States. 



MONTHLY REPORTS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population, 

Generally, the largest cities experience the highest crime rates. For 
all offenses except aggravated assault, more crimes per unit of popu- 
lation occurred in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants than in the 
smaller communities, according to a study made of the monthly crime 
reports received for the first 9 months of the year from 2,025 cities 
with population in excess of 2,500. 

The highest crime rate for aggravated assault was experienced in 
cities with population between 50,000 and 100,000, followed by cities 
from 100,000 to 250,000, and those over 250,000 respectively. Cities 
with population from 100,000 to 250,000 reported fewer rapes per unit 
of population than communities with from 2,500 to 10,000 inhabitants; 
but the highest rape figures were reported by cities over 250,000 in 
population, with the result that, considered as a single group, cities 
over 100,000 in population reported the highest frequency of rape 
offenses. 

The majority (59.0 percent) of all oft'enses reported were classified 
as larcenies. Burglaries made up 22.5 percent of the total; auto thefts, 
11.0 percent; and robberies, 3.3 percent. Only 4.2 percent of the 
crimes reported were offenses against the person, such as criminal 
homicide, rape, and aggravated assault. 

The total population of the 2,025 cities whose reports were used in 
compiling the data published in this issue of the bulletin was 62,288,351. 
The crime rates for cities of 6 different population groups are shown in 
table 60 in order that interested persons may compare crime conditions 
of a particular community with average figures for other cities in the 
United States of approximately the same size. Crime rates for 
cities grouped not onh^ according to size but also by location are 
presented in table 63. 

(120) 



121 

Table 60. — Offenses known to the police, January to September, inclusive, 1.940; 
number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 

36 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 29,375,600: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP II 

57 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total pop- 
ulation, 7,850,312: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP ni 

90 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total pop- 
ulation, 6,047,883: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP IV 

160 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total pop- 
ulation, 5,545,213: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP V 

466 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total popu- 
lation, 7,221,264: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP VI 

1,216 cities under 10,000; total pop- 
ulation, 6,248,079: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Total 2,025 cities; total popu- 
lation, 62,288,351: 
Number of offenses known. 
Rate per 100,000 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



1,337 
4.6 



346 

4.4 



237 
3.9 



161 
2.9 



215 
3.0 



226 
3.6 



2,522 
4.0 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



1 1, 185 
4.0 



254 
.3.2 



163 
2.7 



1 143 

2.6 



103 
1.4 



110 
1.8 



Rape 



2,518 
8.6 



409 
5.2 



291 

4.8 



271 
4.9 



387 
5.4 



387 
6.2 



1 1, 958 
3.1 



4,263 
6.8 



Rob- 
bery 



15, 910 
54.2 



1,791 
29.6 



1,271 
22.9 



1,339 

18.5 



1.097 
17.6 



24, 347 
39.1 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



10, 986 
37.4 



2, 939 3, 233 

37. 4 41. 2 



2,744 
45.4 



1,640 
29.6 



1,726 
23.9 



1,322 
21.2 



21,651 
34.8 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



2 60, 038 
296.5 



23, 951 
305. 1 



16, 572 
274.0 



13, 473 
243. 



14,151 
196.0 



12,079 
193. 3 



•i 140,264 
263.8 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



2 153, 965 
760.4 



61, 825 

787. 5 



43, 844 
724.9 



39, 887 
719.3 



40, 942 
567.0 



26, 497 
424. 1 



2 366,960 
690.3 



Auto 
theft 



43,909 
149.5 



11,906 
151.7 



7,167 
118.5 



6,482 
116.9 



6,045 
8.3.7 



4,821 
77.2 



80, 330 
129.0 



1 The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports as follows: Group 
1, 35 cities, total population, 28,021,.500; group IV, 159 cities, total population, 5,.506,113; groups I-VI, 2,023 
cities, total population, 60,895,151. 

2 The number of offenses and rate for burglary and larceny — theft are based on reports as follows: Group 
I, 34 cities, total population, 20,248,600; groups I-VI, 2,023 cities, total population, 53,161,351. 



122 



Annual Trends, Offenses Known to the Police, 1939-40. 

In examining the monthly reports received during the first 9 
months of 1939 and 1940 from the pohce departments of 336 cities 
with population in excess of 25,000, increases were seen in all offenses 
except murder, rape, and robbery. The more pronounced increases 
were noted in offenses of manslaughter by negligence and larceny, 
which increased 8.8 percent and 6.3 percent, respectively. Aggravated 
assaults showed a 3.4 percent increase; burglaries, 1.6 percent; and 
auto thefts, which during recent years have shown a general down- 
ward trend, increased 1.0 percent. 

In examining the other side of the picture, we find that the number 
of robbery offenses committed during the first 9 months of 1940 was 
4.5 percent less than the number committed during the same period 
of last year. Murders and rapes decreased 4.1 percent and 2.0 
percent, respectively. 

The number of offenses reported during the first three quarters of 
1939 and 1940 by pohce departments in 336 cities with population 
of 25,000 or more is shown in table 61. The total population reported 
is 41,435,908, and the data are presented for each 3-month period in 
order to make possible comparisons of individual quarters. 

Table 61. ■ — Anmml trends, offenses known to the police, 336 cities over 25,000 in 
-population, January to September, inclusive, 1939-40 

[Total population, 41,435,908, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 


Burg- 
lary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny- 
theft 






Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


January to March 1939 

January to March 1940 

April to June 1939 


607 
539 

650 
665 

692 
665 

1,949 
1,869 


1367 
1421 

1317 
1371 

1319 
1 299 

1 1, 003 
1 1, 091 


907 
832 

915 
914 

1,007 
1,027 

2,829 
2.773 


8,232 

7,798 

6,596 
6,555 

6,907 
6,400 

21,735 
20, 753 


4,520 
4,586 

5, 183 
5,744 

6,234 
6,153 

15, 937 

16, 483 


2 39, 204 
2 38, 936 

2 35, 721 
2 37, 159 

2 36, 615 
2 37, 221 

2 111, 540 
2 113,316 


2 92, 243 
2 94, 261 

2 93, 139 
2 100, 776 

2 95, 099 
2 103, 133 

2 280, 481 
2 298, 170 


21,700 
21, 366 

19, 606 


April to June 1940 -- -.. 


20, 407 


July to September 1939 

July to September 1940 

January to September 1939. . 
January to September 1940.. 


19, 547 
19,660 

60, 853 
61, 433 



1 The number of offenses of manslaughter by negligence is based on reports of 332 cities with a total popu- 
lation of 39,560,408. 

2 The number of offenses of burglary and larceny is based on reports of 335 cities with a total population 
Of 39,463,208. 



123 




CO 
1 — I 

« 
O 

M 



273359°— 40- 



124 



Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location. 

Marked variances are seen in the crime rates for different sections 
of the country. This is only to be expected, inasmuch as the frequency 
of crime is affected by many factors, which vary greatly in the extent 
to which they are present in individual communities. For a list of 
some of the factors affecting the amount of crime in a community, 
reference may be made to the comments immediately preceding 
table 64. 

There is presented in table 63 the number of offenses known to the 
police per 100,000 inhabitants for cities grouped not only according to 
size, but also by geograpliic divisions. Many persons will undoubtedly 
be interested in comparing local crime conditions with the averages 
shown in this tabulation. 

Figures indicating the number of police departments whose reports 
were employed in preparing the rates for each of the subgroups in 
tables 60 and 63 are shown in table 62. 

Table 62. — Number of cities included in the tabulation of uniform crime reports, 

January to September, inclusive, 1940 



Division 



Population 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England: 180 cities; total population, 
5,717,431 

Middle Atlantic: 497 cities; total population, 
18,549,050 

East North Central: 501 cities; total popula- 
tion, 16,124,725 

West North Central: 233 cities; total popula- 
tion, 5,052,825 

South Atlantic: 160 cities; total population, 
4,743,292 

East South Central: 70 cities; total popula- 
tion, 2,087,797 

West South Central: 118 cities; total popula- 
tion, 3,345,136 

Mountain: 88cities; total population, 1,292,827 

Pacific: 178 cities; total population, 5,375,268_ 

Total: 2,025 cities; total population, 
62,288,351-_ 



Group 
I 



Over 

250,000 



36 



Group 
II 



100,000 

to 
250,000 



12 

11 

10 

5 

6 

3 

5 
1 
4 



57 



Group 
III 



50,000 

to 
100,000 



11 

20 
25 

7 
13 

3 

4 
2 
5 



90 



Group 
IV 



25,000 

to 
50,000 



25 

30 

47 

10 

17 

4 

10 

6 

11 



160 



Group 
V 



10,000 

to 
25,000 



63 

122 

100 

53 

30 

22 

27 
15 
34 



466 



Group 
VI 



Less 
than 
10,000 



67 

308 

310 

154 

91 

36 

69 

63 

119 



1,216 



Total 



180 

497 

501 

233 

160 

70 

118 

88 

178 



2,025 



125 



In order that the information may be readily available, there are 
listed below the States included in the nine geographic divisions. 

States Divided by Geographic Division 



New England: 
Connecticut. 
Maine. 

Massachusetts. 
New Hampshire. 
Rhode Island. 
Vermont. 

West North Central: 
Iowa. 
Kansas. 
Minnesota. 
Missouri. 
Nebraska. 
North Dakota. 
South Dakota. 



West South Central: 
Arkansas. 
Louisiana. 
Oklahoma. 
Texas. 



Middle Atlantic: 
New Jersey. 
New York. 
Pennsvlvania. 



South Atlantic: 
Delaware. 

District of Columbia. 
Florida. 
Georgia. 
Maryland. 
North Carolina. 
South Carolina. 
Virginia. 
West Virginia. 

Mountain : 
Arizona. 
Colorado. 
Idaho. 
Montana. 
Nevada. 
New Mexico. 
Utah. 
Wyoming. 



East North Central: 
Illinois. 
Indiana. 
Michigan. 
Ohio. 
Wisconsin. 



East South Central: 
Alabama. 
Kentucky. 
Mississippi. 
Tennessee. 



Pacific: 

California. 

Oregon. 

Washington. 



126 







127 



Table 63. — Nvmber of offerises known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, Janu- 
ary to September, inclusi ve, 1940, by geographic divisions and population groups 



Geographic division and population j 
group 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


.\ggra- ! 
vated 
assault 


Burglary- 
breaking or 
entering 


Larceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


New England: 

GrouD I . . --- 


1.0 
.6 

.7 

.6 

1.1 

.5 


22.9 
12.9 
7.8 
8.3 
6.0 
4.4 


] 

12.7 
10.4 

6.8 

5.8 

4.4 

6.1 


119.4 
270.5 
236.4 
193.4 
154.9 
169.8 


262.2 
537.3 
431.5 
428 8 
353.0 
255.5 


268.4 


Groun II - 


150.0 


Groun III ^ . . .. 


88.9 


Group IV . 


75.7 


Group V._ 

Group VI_ - 


41.5 
43.4 


Total, groups I- VI. 


.7 


11.0 


8.2 


198.3 


402.3 


124.6 


Middle Atlantic- 
Group I - - 


3.0 
1.4 
1.2 
.8 
1.6 
1.8 


22.4 
16.1 
22.8 
13.6 
15.2 
10.4 


29.7 
15.9 
25.3 
16.5 
13.3 
9.5 


' 240. 2 
196.7 
208.9 
177. 3 
148.1 
125. 8 


' 355. 4 
372.8 
388.7 
390.2 
283.0 
209.6 


119.7 


GrouD II - -- - 


106.6 


Group III 


105.7 


Group IV 

Group V - 


85.5 
66.1 


Group VI 


44.6 


Total, groups I-VI 


2.4 


19.7 


24.1 


a 184. 1 


2 327. 9 


103.8 


Group I - 


4.3 
2.9 
1.3 

1.7 
1.8 
1.3 


85.5 
43.4 
32.8 
21.6 
22.2 
18.7 


30.1 
35.3 
18.6 
9.9 
12.6 
10.1 


261.2 
286.6 
217.3 
217.4 
182.3 
172.1 


703.5 
836.5 
617.7 
622.8 
513.1 
305.4 


103.6 




163.2 


Group III -.- 


102.5 




110.4 


GrouD V 


85.3 




68.3 




3.1 


57.5 


23.7 


238.3 


640.9 


104.1 






West North Central: 


4.0 

1.7 

1.8 

.9 

.8 
1.6 


43.9 
29.5 
19.1 
11.9 
16.8 
16.5 


12.0 

15.6 

5.1 

6.2 

7.4 

10.0 


188,7 
228.3 
282. 5 
234.7 
187.7 
172.6 


763.8 
656.9 
921.0 
722.5 
690.7 
384.6 


98.4 


Group II-- 


125.4 


Group III . 


162. 1 


Group IV - 


127.2 


Group V - - - 


86.9 


Group VI 


59.8 


Total, groups I-VI 


2.4 


29.1 


10.4 


203.8 


694. 2 


102.8 


Group I 


11.2 
12.5 
12.8 
10.9 
9.2 
13.3 


74.1 
80.9 
45.6 
57.5 
23.3 
26.0 


65.4 
117.3 
164.8 
135.7 
143.6 

92.7 


317.9 
509.5 
393.6 
393.8 
255.1 
264.3 


773.1 

1,355.8 

1,114.1 

1,118.0 

766.7 

586.0 


251.7 
208.6 


Group III 


144.7 




138.6 


Group V - 


101.6 


Group VI 


119.4 


Total, groups I-VI 


11.7 


.■^8.4 


111. 1 


361.6 


955.9 


183.8 


East South Central: 


16.7 
21.0 
16.6 

17.2 
17.1 
20.3 


98.8 
67.9 
31.0 
31.9 
27.8 
33.1 


252.6 
121.7 
145.0 
105.9 
73.5 
84.7 


550.5 
283.4 
459.1 
293.4 
264.3 
238.7 


894.8 
702. 8 
892.5 
1, 126. 5 
591.9 
265. 1 


152.3 


Group II 


153.0 


Group III 


91.0 


Group IV - 


179.2 


Group V 

Group VI 


74.4 

85.3 


Total, groups I-VI___ 


17.9 


65.3 


165.3 


402.3 


777.8 


131.1 






Group I - 


11.8 
7.4 
9.8 
3.6 
5.7 

13.1 


44.1 
60.6 
27.8 
23.9 
33.1 
27.4 


56.1 
89.4 
74.3 
49.7 
52.8 
46.7 


332.2 
403.2 
327.9 
289.1 
290.9 
275. 4 


1, 123. 5 
1,191.0 
1, 111. 1 
1, 022. 7 
854.2 
549.5 


136.4 




135.0 


Group III . 


114.2 


Group IV . 


101.8 


Group V 


88.7 




63.2 


Total, groups I-VI 


9.0 


41.8 


64.0 


334.1 


1, 029. ! 


116.3 






Mountain: 


3.1 
2.8 
6.8 
3.9 
1.4 
2.4 


50.5 
36.8 
75.3 
36.0 
34.9 
24.9 


14.3 

7.6 

29.4 

17.5 
11.0 
16.4 


253.4 
389.7 
426.6 
296.8 
302.5 
275.5 


1, 105. 
850.2 
1,384.5 
1,636.8 
1,481.3 
791.7 


131.3 


Group II - . 


199.0 


Group III 


184.0 


Group IV -- -- - 


231.7 


Group V 


196.0 


Group VI 


101.4 


Total, groups I-VI 


3.0 


39.4 


15.2 


303.1 


1, 166. 9 


162.3 


Pacific: 

Group I - 


3.2 
3.3 
2.9 
1.4 
2.4 
1.8 


83.4 
40.6 
49.1 
32.8 
18.2 
22.8 


31.5 
12.4 
22.4 

15.5 

5.1 

19.7 


475.3 
389.4 
375.7 
334.9 
290.5 
300.8 


1,159.3 
1,268.5 
1, 329. 6 
1, 186. 9 
1, 224. 9 
1, 089. 1 


333.2 


Group II 


214.6 


Group III- . 


175.8 


Group IV 

Group V - 


216.6 
164.4 


Group VI 


189.7 


Total, groups I-VI 


2.8 


60.4 


24. 1 


1 413.3 


1, 182. 3 


270.4 



1 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 4 cities. 
• The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 495 cities. 



128 




129 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 100,000 Inhabitants. 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
tile period of July-September 1940 is sliown in table 64. The com- 
pilation includes the reports received from police departments in 
cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. Such data are included 
here in order that mterested individuals and organizations may have 
readily available up-to-date information concerning the amount of 
crime committed m their communities. Police adrmnistrators and 
other interested individuals will probably find it desirable to com- 
pare the crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in 
tables 60 and 63 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless 
desire to make comparisons with the figures for their communities 
for prior periods, in order to determine whether there has been an 
increase or a decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

A great deal of caution should be exercised in comparing crime 
data for individual cities, because differences in the figures may be 
due to a variety of factors. The amount of crime committed in a 
community is not solely chargeable to the police but is rather a 
charge against the entire community. The following is a list of some 
of the factors wliich might aff"ect the amount of crime in a community: 

The composition of the population with reference particularly 

to age, sex, and race. 
The economic status and activities of the population. 
Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 
The number of police employees per unit of population. 
The standards governing appointments to the police force. 
The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 
The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 
The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 

Comparisons between the crime rates of individual cities should 
not be made without giving consideration to the above-mentioned 
factors. It is more important to determine whether the figures for 
a given community show increases or decreases in the amount of 
crime committed than to ascertain whether the figures are above or 
below those of some other community. 

In examining a compilation of crime figures for individual com- 
munities it should be borne in mind that in view of the fact that the 
data are compiled by different record departments operating under 
separate and distinct administrative systems, it is entirely possible 
that there may be variations in the practices employed in classifying 
complaints of off'enses. On the other hand, the crime-reporting 
handbook has been distributed to all contributors of crime reports, 
and the figures received are included in this bulletin only if they 
apparently have been compiled in accordance with the provisions of 
the handbook, and the individual department has so indicated. 



130 



Table M.—N^imber of offenses known to the police, July to September, inclusive, 

1940, cities over 100,000 in population 





Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gcnt man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny 


—theft 




City 


$50 and 
over 


Under 
$50 


Auto 
theft 


Akron, Ohio 

Albany, N. Y_ 

Atlanta, Ga 

Baltimore, Md 

Birmingham, Ala 

Boston, Mass 


2 

1 

25 

24 

17 

1 


30 
10 
59 
88 
29 
62 

1 

8 

8 

16 

27 

21 

1,240 

105 

157 

59 

28 

26 

81 

10 

469 

1 

11 
13 

8 
13 

1 

14 
10 
11 
45 
12 

9 

10 

53 

156 

49 

28 
88 
11 
18 
506 
72 


38 

5 

91 

246 

226 

33 

3 

33 

8 

20 

24 

77 

409 

66 

24 

26 

59 

8 

25 

11 

297 

2 

6 

17 

12 

15 


263 

49 

558 

450 

448 

210 

105 

156 

100 

100 

88 

99 

2,474 

565 

497 

605 

357 

182 

430 

98 

1,478 

78 

92 

76 

124 

111 

114 

144 

79 

210 

157 

172 

179 

288 

624 

558 

287 

data not r 

164 

318 

63 

255 

2,487 

562 

85 

105 

579 

309 


73 
23 

110 
146 
70 
143 
60 
59 
11 
24 

8 
990 
194 
67 
150 
36 
17 
89 
37 
295 
32 
12 
14 
18 
13 
14 
33 
20 
23 
38 
25 
36 
47 
54 
38 
95 
eceived 

24 

125 

43 

57 

1,139 

227 

9 

43 

96 

45 


511 

148 

1,141 

1,016 

439 

527 

309 

365 

184 

149 

228 

352 

3, 443 

1,446 

2,793 

914 

1.697 

648 

1,101 

417 

7,388 

289 

127 

326 

209 

331 

108 

443 

554 

767 

286 

497 

552 

493 

1,375 

716 

671 

263 
895 
192 
795 
6.107 
938 
fiO 
247 
697 
289 


92 
36 
217 
585 
127 
822 


Bridgeport, Conn. 


80 


Buffalo, N. Y 


3 


98 


Cambridge, Mass 


88 


Camden, N. J 




60 


Canton, Ohio 




32 


Chattanooga, Tenn 

Chicago, 111 . 


21 
73 

9 
13 

5 
13 

2 
2 

17 


85 
692 


Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 


135 
264 


Columbus, Ohio _ 


218 


Dallas, Tex 


116 


Dayton, Ohio . 


82 


Denver, f'olo 


110 


Des Moines, Iowa 


110 


Detroit, Mich _. ._ 


737 


Duluth, Minn _ . . 


24 


Elizabeth, N. J 




31 


El Paso, Tex . .. 


3 


30 


Erie, Pa 


67 


Evansville, Ind. .. . 


2 


59 


Fall River Mass 


26 


Flint Mich 




26 

6 
64 
45 

4 
25 

4 

54 

29 

52 

Complete 

9 
17 
71 

5 
147 
141 


67 


Fort Wayne, Ind 




101 


Fort Worth, Tex 


8 


87 


Garv Ind 


49 


Grand Rapids, Mich 


1 
2 

1 

17 
7 
9 

4 

8 
6 

1 

18 

9 


85 


Hartford, Conn 

Honolulu, T. H 

Houston, Tex 


103 

85 

213 


Indianapolis, Ind - 


316 


Jacksonville, Fla. 


72 


Jersev Citv. N. J 




Kansas City, Kans 

Kansas City, Mo 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Long Beach, Calif . 


28 

129 

75 

74 


Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky . . 


2,017 
211 


T<ovvp11 Mass 


21 


Lynn, Mass . 




12 

110 

41 


5 

489 

60 


40 


Memphis, Tenn .- - 


23 
3 


66 


Miami, Fla 


60 



1 Larcenies not .separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



131 

Table 64. — Nuviber of offenses known to the police, July to September, inclusive, 
1940, cities over 100,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Nashville, Tenn 

Newark, N. J 

New Bedford, Mass... 

New Haven, Conn 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N.Y 

Norfolk, Va 

Oakland, Calif 

Oklahoma City, Okla- 

Omaha, Nebr 

Paterson, N. J 

Peoria, 111 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Oreg 

Providence, R. I 

Reading, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y 

St. Louis. Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif_._ 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Somerville, Mass 

South Bend, Ind 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, Mass 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo, Ohio 

Trenton, N. J 

Tulsa, Okla 

Utica, N. Y 

Washington, D. C 

Waterbury, Conn 

Wichita, Kans 

Wilmington, Del 

Worcester, Mass 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, Ohio 



Murder, 
nonncgli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



2 
19 
89 
3 
2 
6 
2 



33 
5 



1 

"lb 

26 



5 
13' 

.... 



Robbery 



6 
35 
29 
78 

1 

7 
23 
320 
31 
24 
36 
12 

7 

12 

206 

100 

76 

5 

2 
23 

5 

106 

25 

14 

34 

6 
129 

3 
45 

4 
12 
II 

5 

4 

7 
10 
49 
17 
46 



202 
1 
1 

12 
2 
1 

40 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



12 
11 

56 

145 

3 

8 

101 

715 

39 

39 

49 

14 



14 

198 

128 

7 

7 

5 

141 

6 

17 

20 

5 

135 

9 

83 



24 
33 
13 
36 



62 



3 

21 

11 

8 

41 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



128 
409 
248 
613 
168 
170 
141 
1,958 
196 
297 
262 
137 
114 
137 
1, 125 
655 
550 
121 

73 
282 
153 
316 
270 
182 
185 
119 
657 

90 
666 

38 
163 
177 

77 
115 
102 
121 
275 
158 
317 

41 
670 

53 

63 

78 
225 

24 
221 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



(') 



0) 



71 
135 

34 
120 

25 

54 
106 

55 

42 

21 

14 

12 

7 

280 

114 

185 

57 

15 

64 

40 



57 
24 
68 
48 

170 
36 

134 
8 
29 
32 
28 
33 
25 
16 

101 
25 
49 
12 

206 
13 
14 
25 
34 
6 
14 



Under 
$50 



1,305 
833 
337 
844 
282 
279 
388 

4, .5.55 
455 
992 
472 
242 
59 
166 
857 
345 

1,119 
173 
151 
860 
588 

2,398 
670 
461 
749 
605 

1,586 
132 

1,090 
48 
281 
640 
250 
244 
260 
328 
837 
225 
551 
169 

1,838 
57 
323 
276 
266 
61 
359 



Auto 

theft 



119 

242 
84 

314 
28 
79 

122 
2,872 

112 

152 
84 
90 
57 
63 

651 

453 

202 
72 
24 

136 
84 

219 
77 
93 
86 

140 

650 
38 

274 
47 
46 
93 
67 
73 
70 
43 

217 
64 
87 
23 

567 
48 
21 
66 
99 
25 
80 



' Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



273359°— 40- 



132 




OS 
P 
O 



133 

Offenses Known to Sheriffs, State Police, and Other Rural Officers, 1940. 

In compiling and publishing national police statistics under the 
system of uniform crime reporting the FBI distinguishes between 
urban and rural crimes. The figures presented in the preceding tables 
are based on reports received from the large majority of the agencies 
policing urban communities (places with 2,500 or more inhabitants, 
according to the U. S. Bureau of the Census). Comprehensive data 
regarding rural crimes are not yet available, but the information on 
hand is shown in table 65, Mdiicli is based on the reports from 987 
sheriffs, 87 police agencies in rural villages, and 9 State police organiza- 
tions. 

Table 65. — Offenses known, January to September, inclusive, 1940, as reported 
by 9S7 sheriffs, 9 State police organizations, and 87 village officers 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or entering 


Larceny — 
theft 






Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Offenses known 


792 


601 


1,636 


2,488 


3,824 


20, 828 


35, 877 


6 999 











Offenses Known in Territories and Possessions of the United States. 

There are presented in table 66 the available crime data for the 
Territories and possessions of the United States. The figures are based 
on reports received from the first and second judicial divisions of 
Alaska; Honolulu City and the Counties of Honolulu and Maui, in 
the Territory of Hawaii; Isthmus of Panama, Canal Zone, and Puerto 
Rico. The tabulation is based on the number of offenses known to 
law-enforcement officials of both urban and rural areas, with the 
exception that the data for Honolulu City have been segregated from 
the figures for the remainder of Honolulu County. 



Table 66. — Number of offenses known in United States Territories and possessions, 

January to September, inclusive, 1940 

[Population figures from Federal census, Apr. 1, 1930] 



Jurisdiction reporting 



Alaska: 

First judicial division (Juneau), population, 

19,304; number of offenses known 

Second judicial division (Nome), popula- 
tion, 10,127; number of offenses known. -- 
Hawaii: 

Honolulu City, population, 137,582; num- 
ber of offenses known 

Honolulu County, population, 65,341; 

number of offenses known 

Maui County, population, 56,146; number 

of offenses known 

Isthmus of Panama: Canal Zone, population, 

39,467; number of offenses known 

Puerto Rico: Population, 1,543,913; number of 
offenses known 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



5 
1 
3 
1 
203 



Rob- 
bery 



17 



3 

4 
47 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



1 

14 

4 

16 

7 

1,618 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



25 
16 

807 
109 
101 
68 
850 



Larceny- 
theft 



Over 

$50 



24 
3 

115 
14 

6 
26 
87 



Under 
$50 



29 

1 

1,559 
192 

179 

367 

2,487 



Auto 
theft 



197 
26 

12 
30 
64 



134 



Data From Supplementary Offense Reports. 

The need for the adoption of more adequate measures to protect 
nonresidence structures against burglary continues to be apparent 
when it is seen that during the first 9 months of this year more 
than half (52.9 percent) of all burglaries involved a store, warehouse, 
office building, or some other type of nonresidence structure, and 89.4 
percent of such cases occurred during the night. On the other hand, 
only 63.4 percent of the residence burglaries occurred after nightfall. 

The majority (56.9 percent) of the robberies during the period of 
January-September of this year were classified as highway robberies. 
On the other extreme, only 0.2 percent were bank robberies. The 
classification of other robberies is as follows: commercial houses, 26.5 
percent; oil stations, 8.7 percent; chain stores, 1.2 percent; residences, 
3.9 percent; and miscellaneous, 2.6 percent. 

An analysis of larcenies committed during the first 9 months of 
1940 discloses that parked automobiles probably constitute the 
greatest single problem in combating these offenses. During this 
period, thefts of auto accessories represented 17.8 percent, and thefts 
of other types of property from automobiles, 18.7 percent of all 
larcenies. Bicycle thefts made up 15.3 percent of the total. In 
studying the value of property stolen in larceny cases it was found 
that 65 percent of the thefts involved property valued between $5 
and $50. In 24.1 percent of the cases the property was valued at less 
than $5, and the value of the property involved in the remaining 10.9 
percent of the thefts was in excess of $50. 

More than half (55.1 percent) of the offenses of rape reported were 
classified as forcible in character. 

The preceding analysis of offenses committed during the first 9 
months of 1940 was made from supplementary offense reports for- 
warded to the FB I by 54 cities with population in excess of 100,000, 
and the figures upon which the percentages were based are presented 
in table 67. 

Table 67. — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission , and value of_ propertij stolen, January to Sep- 
tember, inclusive, 1940; 54 cities over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 17,484,638, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Classification 


Number 
of actual 
offenses 


Classification 


Number 
of actual 
offenses 


Rape: 

Forcible 


646 
527 


Larceny — theft (except auto theft) 
(grouped according to value of article 
stolen): 
Over $50 




Statutory - - 






14,690 


Total 


1,173 


$5 to $50 - . 


87, 673 






32,458 


Robbery: 


6,402 
2,988 
986 
132 
436 
24 
293 


Tnt«l 




Highway 


134 821 


Commercial house _ - 


Larceny— theft (grouped as to type of 

offense) : 




Oil station . _ -- 




Chain store _ _ _ 




Residence 


1 Rnit 


Bank 




3,876 
3,732 


Miscellaneous 


Shoplif ti ng _ - . 


Total 


11,261 


Thefts from autos (exclusive of auto 

accessories) _ 


25, 188 


Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Residence (dwelling): 

Committed during night 

Committed during day . _. . 


16,016 
9,237 

25, 371 
3,002 


\nto accessories 


23, 968 


Bicvcles 


20, 649 


Another 


55, 608 


Total 






Nonresidence (store, office, etc.) : 

Committed during night 

Committed during day 


134, 821 










Total 


53, 626 





135 

The reports from 54 cities with population in excess of 100,000 
received during the period of January-September, 1940 showed 27,796 
automobiles stolen. The police departments in these cities, however, 
effected recoveries m 27,178 (97.8 percent) of the cases as shown in 
table 68. 



Table 68. — Recoveries of stolen automobiles, January to September, inclusive, 1940; 

54 cities over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 17,484,638, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 

Number of automobiles stolen 27, 796 

Number of automobiles recovered 27, 178 

Percentage recovered 97. 8 

Property stolen amounted to $20,371,856.10 during the first 9 
months of this year in 54 cities with over 100,000 inhabitants (total 
population, 17,484,638), while recoveries during the same period 
amounted to $13,549,753.29, or 66.5 percent of that stolen. Exclusive 
of automobiles, propertv stolen in these cities was valued at $8,301,- 
586.71, with 22.2 percent ($1,841,859.39) recovered. Automobiles 
stolen were valued at $12,070,269.39, and recovered cars at $11,707,- 
893.90. There are presented in table 69 figures indicating the value 
of various types of property stolen and recovered in these 54 cities 
with over 100,000 inhabitants. 

Table 69. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered with divisions 
as to type of property involved, January to September, inclusive, 1940; 54 cities 
over 100,000 in population 

[Total population, 17,484,638, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Type of property 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



Value of prop- 
erty recovered 



Percent 
recovered 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Miscellaneous 

Total 



$2, 121, 536. 91 

1, 954, 920. 44 

350, 320. 38 

979,981.72 

12, 070, 269. 39 

2, 894, 827. 26 



$264, 184. 28 

425, 268. 62 

37, 064. 08 

185, 700. 63 

11, 707, 893. 90 

929,641.78 



12.5 
21.8 
10.6 
18.9 
97.0 
32.1 



20, 371, 856. 10 



13, 549, 753. 29 



66.5 



PERSONS CHARGED, 1939 

Persons Charged (Held for Prosecution), 1939, in Individual Cities With 
More Than 25,000 Inhabitants. 

The number of offenses reported during 1939 by individual cities 
with population m excess of 25,000 was presented m volume X, 
No. 4, table 89, of this publication. In table 70 of the current issue 
of the bulletin all available figures are shown concerning persons 
arrested and held for prosecution during 1939 for murder, robbery, 
aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft, as reported by 
police departments in cities with population in excess of 25,000. 

It should be observed that the data in table 70 represent the 
number of individuals arrested and held for prosecution, and should 
not be treated as an index of the number of offenses committed, since 
it is generally agreed that the most accurate index to the amount of 
crime is a record of offenses known to the police. Tables 60 and 63 
of this issue of the bulletin present crime rates based on this type of 
information. 

Table 70. — Number of persons charged (held for prosecvtion) , January to December, 
inclusive, 1939, cities over 25,000 in population 



City 



Akron, Ohio 

Alameda, Calif 

Albany, N. Y 

Albuquerque,. N. Mex. 

Allentown, Pa 

Altoona, Pa 

Amarillo, Tex 

Arlington, Mass 

Atlanta, Ga _ 

Atlantic City, N. J 

Auburn, N. Y 

Austin, Tex 

Bakersfield, Calif 

Baltimore, Md 

Bangor, Maine 

Battle Creek, Mich._-_ 

Bay City, Mich 

Beaumont, Tex 

Belleville, 111 

Belleville, N.J 

Bellingham, Wash 

Berkeley, Calif 

Berwyn, 111 

Beverly, Mass 

Binghamton, N. Y 

Bloomington, 111 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn _ 

Bristol, Conn 

Brockton, Mass 

Brookline, Mass 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Burlington, Vt 

Cambridge, Mass 

Canton, Ohio 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa... 
Central Falls, R. I 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



87 
3 



16 

____ 



13 

r 



Robbery 



42 



11 

5 
1 
7 
1 
6 
172 
28 



14 

23 

354 

4 

5 

15 

17 

2 

4 



. 2 

1 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



84 



17 
2 
1 
5 

70 
2 

277 

86 

1 

54 

15 

777 



5 

2 

65 



393 


163 


19 


6 


1 




9 


10 


5 




64 


138 


2 




24 


16 


10 


12 


2 


3 



I Bur- 
glary— 
I breaking 
or entering 



178 

4 

41 

38 
47 
63 
26 
10 

462 
96 
12 

208 
61 

899 

27 

23 

15 

64 

8 

17 

6 

40 

25 

8 

68 

14 

1,500 

49 

17 

39 

39 

358 
22 

110 
32 
17 
17 



Larceny- 
theft 



340 
25 

55 

287 
59 
68 

109 

37 

1,224 

324 
58 

302 

180 
2, 053 
53 
61 
81 
38 
16 
12 
29 
68 
41 
13 

198 
45 
2,352 
81 
14 
64 
89 

989 
47 

211 
56 
66 
53 



Auto 
theft 



51 

3 

30 

14 
16 
18 
17 

214 

26 

2 

34 

29 

414 

5 

17 

13 

6 

2 

4 

2 

14 

3 

10 

9 

21 

720 

19 

2 

9 

16 

169 

12 

76 

11 

14 

4 



(136) 



137 



Table 70. — Number of persons charged {held for prcsecution), January to December, 
inclusive, 1939, cities over 25,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— Larceny- 
breaking theft 
or entering 



Auto 
theft 



Charleston, S. C 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chester, Pa 

Chicago, Ill.i 

Chicopee, Mass 

Cicero, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio. 

Clifton, N.J 

Clinton, Iowa 

Colorado Springs, Colo-. 

Columbus, Ga 

Columbus, Ohio 2 

Concord, X. H 

Council Bluffs, Iowa 

Covington, Ky.2 

Cranston, R. I 

Cumberland, Md 

Dallas, Tex 

Danville, 111 

Danville, Va 

Davenport, Iowa 

Dayton, Ohio 

Dearborn, Mich 

Decatur, 111 

Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Detroit, Mich 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Duluth, Minn 

Durham, N. C 

East Cleveland, Ohio 

East Providence, R. I 

East St. Louis, 111 

Eau Claire, Wis 

Elgin, 111 

Elizabeth, N. J.i 

Elkhart, Ind.' * 

Elmira, N. Y 

El Paso, Tex 

Elyria, Ohio 2 

Erie, Pa 

Evanston, 111 

Evansville, Ind 

Everett, Mass 

Everett, Wash 

Fall River, Mass 

Fargo, N. Dak 

Fitchburg, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Fond du Lac, Wis 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Fresno, Calif 

Gary, Ind 

Qlendale, Calif 

Grand Rapids, Mich 

Granite City, Dl 

Green Bay, Wis 

Greensboro, N. C 

Greenville, S. C 

Hackensack, N. J 

Hagerstown, Md 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Hammond, Ind 

Hamtramck, Mich 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Hartford, Conn 

Highland Park, Mich 

High Point, N. C 

Hoboken, N. J.* 

Houston, Tex 

Huntington Park, Calif-_ 

Hutchinson, Kans 

Indianapolis, Ind.' 

Inglewood, Calif 



12 



12 
176 



1 
41 
55 



1 

7 

19 



1 
46 

2 
15 



14 



6 
6 
47 
1 
1 
6 



6 

16 

6 

34 

2 

3 

1 

2 

20 



8 
'47' 



15 



29 

16 

22 

1,284 



272 

255 

2 

5 

3 

6 

11 

61 



19 

4 



1 
69 

1 
12 

6 
48 

8 

16 

47 

20 

296 



3 
22 
11 

1 
25 

3 



9 

1 

3 

39 



12 

1 



1 
29 

2 
15 
58 
20 
31 
22 
15 

2 



16 
10 

6 

3 
11 

3 

4 
31 
23 

9 
10 

6 
196 

6 



100 
1 



153 

6 

26 

1,084 



3 

170 

78 



7 

4 

3 

24 

66 



1 

27 



1 
206 

3 
48 

3 
73 

2 

3 

18 

35 

173 



3 
56 



2 
124 

3 
3 

37 
3 
1 

43 
4 
6 

26 

19 
5 
1 
4 
7 



33 
1 

14 

19 

30 

32 

2 

9 

2 

2 

22 

31 

29 

6 

4 

7 

4 

39 

87 

4 

198 

4 

268 

1 

2 

144 

2 



130 

57 

86 

1,060 

10 

11 

619 

624 

22 

16 

9 

14 

88 

151 

10 

74 

35 

34 

30 

288 

11 

29 

29 

235 

17 

41 

163 

124 

374 

15 

22 

67 

9 

21 

71 



75 
16 
15 

139 

1 

56 

37 

101 
35 
23 
80 
13 
24 

125 
17 
23 

229 

102 
48 
43 
78 
10 
33 

118 
42 
37 
17 
31 
12 
24 
48 

125 
52 

250 
45 

436 
29 
14 

341 
29 



329 

127 

185 

3,455 

26 

40 

1,328 

760 

22 

16 

7 

31 

179 

333 

39 

182 

28 

70 

47 

1,037 

18 

162 

182 

403 

95 

93 

3 617 

289 

795 

36 

178 

316 

18 

39 

109 

23 

27 

126 

44 

38 

479 

17 

106 

176 

64 

78 

121 

152 

57 

35 

158 

35 

110 

661 

270 

170 

71 

262 

4 

134 

298 

185 

29 

73 

98 

113 

32 

120 

362 

110 

262 

58 

1,080 

53 

83 

501 

61 



31 

20 

80 

186 

3 

3 

181 

219 

7 

5 

1 

6 

8 

64 

13 

50 

11 



22 

4 

12 

31 

67 

22 

18 

157 

96 

120 

19 

15 

19 

3 

2 

2 

6 

5 

12 

3 

12 

33 

1 

20 

8 

40 

2 

8 

34 

12 

11 

57 

16 

6 

66 

47 

21 

32 

50 

7 

13 

44 

6 

3 

2 

23 

10 

9 

18 

78 

28 

36 

8 

450 

17 

2 

144 

23 



See footnotes at end of table. 



138 



Table 70. — Number of -persons charged {held for prosecution) , January to December ^ 
inclusive, 1939, cities over 25,000 in population — Continued 



City 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


1 
Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or entering 


Larceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


Irvington, N. J.' . 






5 

23 

222 

1 

61 

6 

2 

381 

-. 

117 

2 

10 


20 

90 

277 

21 

123 

36 

18 

858 

27 

15 

171 

31 

13 

27 

17 

15 

22 

16 

48 

11 

18 

29 

233 

61 

712 

41 

60 

31 

67 

17 

34 

23 

17 

10 

3 

14 

253 

12 

4 

13 

539 

167 

16 

4 

39 

99 

17 

35 

10 

285 

32 

89 

15 

21 

100 

20 

248 

89 

106 

18 

38 

38 

143 

31 

13 

1 

194 

20 

57 

85 

95 

45 

5 

16 

39 

104 

174 


16 

305 

925 

58 

67 

39 

71 

1,518 

111 

8 

408 

127 

36 

106 

70 

13 

46 

56 

62 

73 

98 

76 

486 

201 

722 

106 

109 

112 

197 

77 

116 

71 

85 

35 

13 

8 38 

767 

147 

4 

70 

1,551 

595 

59 

52 

149 

635 

23 

102 

40 

562 

5 

181 

36 

37 

212 

176 

947 

67 

222 

49 

50 

78 

435 

47 

4 

10 

537 

44 

156 

330 

474 

174 

12 

61 

55 

335 

175 


7 


Jackson, Miss 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Jamestown, N. Y 


4 
52 


13 
78 

2 
34 

8 


5 
63 
12 


Jersey City, N. J 


10 
1 


37 


Joliet, 111 


25 


Kalamazoo, Mich _ _ 


6 


Kansas City, Mo. 


48 


672 
3 


582 


Kenosha, Wis . 


9 


Kingston, N. Y . _ . 




6 


Knowille, Tenn 


28 

1 


22 

7 
7 


118 


Kokonio, Ind _ 


28 


lyackawanna, N. Y. . _ 


3 


La Crosse, Wis. 2 


2 
1 
1 
1 


7 


La Fayette, Ind - . 




1 

1 

11 

8 

3 

1 

1 

16 

47 

12 

204 

5 

2 

57 

116 

3 

5 

8 

9 

9 

1 


9 


Lakewood, Ohio - 




3 


Lancaster, Pa ________ 


4 

12 

9 

19 


3 


Lansing, Mich -- 


18 






22 


Lebanon, Pa - ~ .- .. 




6 


Lewiston, Maine 2 _ . . _ 




12 


Lincoln, Nebr.^ 






9 


Little Rock, Ark.* 


12 

1 
42 

i 

16 
24 


9 

12 

514 

3 

7 

4 

10 

1 

1 

9 

7 

11 

2 


72 


Long Beach, Calif - - 


34 


Los Angeles, Calif - 


392 


Lowell, Mass . . 


17 


Lower Merion Township, Pa 


20 


Lynchburg, Va 


29 




9 


Madison, Wis 


25 


Manchester, N. H 




8 


Mansfield, Ohio 


1 


8 


Marion, Ohio 


10 


Massillon, Ohio _ _- 


2 

1 


16 


Mavwood, 111.2 


6 


Medford, Mass _ 


7 


Memphis, Tenn .._ 


50 


117 

3 

2 

6 

66 

61 

7 

5 

10 

10 

2 

2 

1 

105 

3 

2 

5 


151 

2 

6 

13 

46 

23 


54 


Michigan Citv, Ind -- 


18 


Middletown, Conn 


2 
2 

8 
5 
2 


11 


Middletown, Ohio_. .__ _ 


5 




192 


Minneapolis, Minn .. ___ 


273 


Mishawaka, Ind.i - 


18 


Moline, 111 


5 

6 

104 

3 

10 

5 

233 

6 

6 

4 

6 

6 

9 

249 

17 

64 

43 


2 


Monroe, La. . - 


7 
28 
1 
3 
1 
22 


6 


Montgomery, Ala.' 


2 


Mount Vernon, N. Y . 


3 


Muncie, Ind- _ .- 


6 


New Albany, Ind __ 


8 


Newark, N. J _ ... _ . 


98 


Newark, Ohio 


11 


New Bedford, Mass . ... 




16 


New Brunswick. N. J 




J 


Newburgh, N. Y.. ....... 




^ 


New Haven, Conn 


2 


21 

1 

130 

24 

4 

6' 
8 
54 
2 


55 


New London, Conn 


10 


New Orleans, La . .. 


75 
1 

5 

1 

1 

1 

22 


64 


Newport, Ky __. 


25 


Newport News, Va ... . . 


4 


New Rochelle, N. Y 


16 


Newton, Mass 


6 


Niagara Falls, N. Y . .. .. . 


32 

145 

10 

3 

1 

29 

2 

3 

55 

14 

38 


18 


Norfolk, Va. 1 . 


22 


Norristown, Pa 


13 


North Bergen, N. J ...... 




1 


Norwood, Ohio' . . -. 




5 
66 

7 
10 
60 
30 

3 


4 


Oakland, Calif 


8 


9£ 


Oak Park, 111 . 


IC 


Ogden, Utah 


2 

8 

10 

3 


( 


Oklahoma City, Okla .- .. 


3C 


Omaha, Nebr . ..... 


2S 


Orlando, Fla . 


2J 


Oshkosh Wis 


11 


Paducah, Ky . .. 


6 
1 

1 
2 


10 
2 
2 

21 


14 

9 

11 

44 


i 






Pasadena, Calif . . 


5C 


Pensacola, Fla 


11 



See footnotes at end of table. 



139 



Table 70. — Number of feraons charged (held for prosecution) , January to Deer tuba . 
inclusive, 1939, cities over 25,000 in population — Continued 



City 



^Murder, itrgra 

slaughter assault 



Peoria, 111.. 

Petersburg. Va 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsfleld, Mass 

Plainfleld, N. J 

Pontiac, Mich 

Port Arthur, Tex 

Portland, Maine 

Portland, Oreg 

Portsmouth, Va 

Poughkci'psie, N. Y.. 

Providence, R. I.' 

Pueblo, Colo 

Quincy, 111 

Racine, Wis 

Revere, Mass 

Richmond, Va 

Riverside, Calif 

Rochester, N. Y 

Rockford, 111 

Rome, N. Y 

Royal Oak, Mich 

Sacramento, Calif 

Saginaw, Mich. 2 

St. Joseph, Mo.i 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

St. Petersburg, Fla 

Salem, Mass 

Salem, Oreg 

San Angelo, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Bernardino, Calif. 

San Diego, Calif.' 

San Francisco, Calif... 

San Jose, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif.. 
Santa Monica, Calif... 

Savannah, Ga 

Schenectady, N. Y 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash.. _.. 

Sheboygan, Wis 

Sioux "Citv, Iowa 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak.'.. 

Somerville, Mass 

South Bend, Ind 

Spokane, Wash.2 

Springfield, 111 

Springfield, Mass 

Springfield, Mo _. 

Springfield, Ohio 

Steubenville, Ohio 

Superior, Wis 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 

Terre Haute, Ind.' 

Toledo, Ohio 

Topeka, Kans 

Trenton, N. J.2 

Troy, N. Y 

Tucson, Ariz 

University City, Mo.. 

Utica, N. Y 

Waco, Tex 

Waltham. Mass 

Warren, Ohio 

Washington, D. C 

Washington, Pa 

Watertown. N. Y 

West Allis, Wis 

West Hartford, Conn.. 
West Orange, N. J... . 
Wheeling, W.Va... . 



121 



Bur- ' 
glary— [Larceny — Auto 
breaking ' theft I theft 
or entering 1 



9 
13 



34 

'2 



4 
3 
3 
52 
5 
3 



2 

19 

3 

3 

18 

1 

1 

1 

2 

13 



10 
3 
2 
2 
1 



3 
49 



31 
3 
344 
2 
6 
9 



10 

70 

47 

2 

6 
2 

14 

2 

5 

130 

1 

23 



47 

9 

7 

141 

36 

3 

7 

2 

8 

63 

16 

19 

178 

22 

1 

11 

34 

9 

3 

12 

30 



3 

2 

12 

9 

20 

10 

9 

7 

7 

7 

5 

13 

14 

12 

54 

9 



17 



6 
6 
7 
7 
534 
7 



37 

83 

562 

4 

11 

26 

18 

5 

28 

135 

18 

30 

4 

4 

4 

10 

422 

11 

40 

7 

1 

1 

25 

7 

7 

149 

3 

7 

2 

1 

13 

668 

8 

19 

218 

13 

6 

13 

6 

17 

15 

54 

2 



5 

10 

25 

11 

18 

3 

15 

10 

7 

5 

5 

18 

50 

5 

48 

18 

14 

2 

8 

122 

4 

9 

479 

3 

4 



18 
1 
6 



66 

31 

1,400 

15 

9 

22 
17 
49 

337 

126 
22 

106 
32 
23 
44 
44 

331 
11 

103 
26 
13 
9 
63 
29 
34 

364 
87 

100 
26 
18 
29 

169 
64 
50 

498 
53 
33 
50 
50 
97 
77 
89 

125 
27 
24 
5 
51 
67 
45 
72 

273 

101 
54 
29 
49 

111 
75 
71 

204 
76 
61 
20 
36 
17 
61 
74 
15 
15 
1,279 
6 
26 
9 
22 
15 
30 



212 

226 

1,503 

48 

41 

57 

150 

160 

573 

322 

58 

228 

85 

145 

90 

83 

930 

23 

288 

138 

63 

19 

406 

54 

42 

826 

460 

219 

139 

33 

32 

771 

138 

169 

1,019 

160 

46 

141 

56 

323 

152 

183 

270 

72 

57 

27 

120 

146 

163 

173 

421 

184 

236 

4 

104 

320 

245 

162 

695 

54 

115 

82 

130 

37 

131 

365 

59 

95 

2,376 

33 

90 

60 

23 

13 

51 



11 
14 
771 
22 
18 
13 

5 
25 
94 

3 

9 
59 

5 



(«) 



1 
12 

136 

8 

71 

27 

1 

11 
35 
13 
15 
74 

135 
19 
22 
10 
18 

23 

90 

232 

41 

10 

19 

13 

13 

13 

46 

41 

6 

15 

2 

21 

26 

11 

1 

86 

14 

32 

9 

35 

31 

56 

55 

89 

12 

7 

1 

9 

2 

7 

21 



1 
294 
8 
2 
1 
2 
3 
17 



See footnotes at end of table. 



140 

Table 70. — Number of persons charged {held for prosecidion) , January to December, 
inclusive, 1939, cities over 25,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



Bobbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- [ Lar- 

glary— I ceny— 

breaking > theft 
or entering I 



Auto 
theft 



White Plains, N. Y... 

Wichita, Kans 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa.i.,.. 

Wilkinsburg, Pa_ 

Wilmington, Del 

Winston-Salem, N. C. 

Woodbridge, N. J 

Worcester, Mass 

Wyandotte, Mich 

Yonkers, N. Y.i 

Zanesville, Ohio 



4 

15 
2 
1 
1 
2 



4 
13 
10 

6 
23 
20 

2 
25 

2 



11 
7 

12 

27 

50 

527 

4 

10 

2 

32 



19 

93 

28 

51 

177 

176 

10 

177 

26 

33 

22 



109 

340 

86 

50 

541 

477 

25 

269 

27 

76 

14 



1 

13 
23 
13 
31 
22 

3 
47 

7 

7 
22 



1 Juveniles not included. 

■ Complete data for juveniles not included. ^ 

3 Includes persons charged with buying, receiving or possessing stolen property. 

< Figures represent the number of charges placed against persons arrested. 

5 Includes persons charged with embezzlement and fraud. 

' Complete data not available. 



DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

Source of Data, 

There were 459,167 arrest records (fingerprint cards) examined by 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation during the first 9 months of 
1940. Through this examination it was possible to obtain informa- 
tion relative to the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of the 
persons who were arrested for violation of State laws and municipal 
ordinances. All fingerprint cards relating to persons arrested for vio- 
lation of Federal statutes were excluded. Similarly, all records re- 
ceived from penal institutions were excluded for the reason that in 
most instances fingerprint cards had previously been received from the 
arresting agency. 

The data presented do not purport to represent all persons arrested, 
since the Federal Bureau of Investigation does not receive a finger- 
print card for each individual taken into custody. Likewise, the 
number of persons arrested should not be interpreted as determining 
the quantity of oft'enses committed, as the arrest of one person may 
solve several cases while, on the other hand, two or more individuals 
may be responsible for the commission of only one offense. 

Offense Charged. 

Persons arrested during the first 9 months of 1940 for murder, 
robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft represented more 
than 27 percent of the fingerprint cards examined. 

In this respect, the following tabulation sets forth the arrests for 
major violations during this period: 

Criminal homicide 4, 727 

Robbery 9, 956 

Assault 25,291 

Burglary — breaking or entering 27, 020 

Larceny — theft (excluding auto theft) 47, 428 

Auto theft 10, 089 

Embezzlement and fraud 14, 991 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing 2, 749 

Arson 823 

Forgery and counterfeiting 5, 197 

Rape 4,490 

Narcotic drug laws 3, 800 

Weapons (carrying, possessing, etc.) 4, 220 

Driving while intoxicated 20, 953 

Gambhng 10, 110 

Total 191,844 

Sex. 

The number of males arrested during the first 9 months of 1940 
exceeded the number of females in all types of crime, with the excep- 
tion of commercialized vice. This is shown by further study of the 
459,167 arrest records. Of this total, 420,621 (91.6 percent) repre- 
sented males arrested, while 38,546 (8.4 percent) were females taken 
into custody. The number of females arrested is an increase over the 
same period in 1939, when the percentage of females was 7.5. 

A comparison of an average group of 1,000 males arrested with 
1,000 females arrested, disclosed that females were charged more 
frequently with murder, assault, use of narcotic drugs, and liquor 

(141) 



142 



violations than males. However, males exceeded females in crimes 
against propert}^, snch as robbery, burglary, and auto theft. 

Table 71. — Distribution of arrests by sex Jan. 1-Sept. 30, 1940 



Oflense charged 



Numbe.r 



Total 



Male I Female 



Percent 



Total I Male i Female 



Criminal homicide. 

Robbery _ 

Assault . -- 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc- 

Arson . _ _ 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape. 



Prostitution and commercialized vice- 
Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children.. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

other traffic and motor vehicle laws. . 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 



Total. 



4,727 

9, 956 

25, 291 

27, 020 

47, 428 

10, 089 

14, 991 

2,749 

823 

5,197 

4,490 

6,942 

7,195 

3,800 

4,220 

5,853 

7.514 

20, 953 

4,421 

33 

7,097 

22, 209 

83, 377 

41,673 

10.110 

47,812 

3,308 

29. 889 



4,205 

9,510 

22, 904 

26, 549 

43, 587 

9,941 

14, 182 

2,546 

760 

4,871 

4,490 

1,923 

6,212 

2,414 

4,032 

5,668 

6,151 

20, 380 

4,348 

33 

6, 930 

19,418 

77, 982 

38, 1C5 

9,491 

42, 751 

3,076 

28,162 



459, 167 



420, 621 



522 
446 

2. :}87 
471 

3.841 
148 
809 
203 
63 
326 



5,019 
983 

1,386 
188 
185 

1,363 

573 

73 



167 
2,791 
5, 395 
3,568 

619 
5. 061 

232 
1,727 



38, 546 



1.0 

2.2 

5.5 

5.9 

10.3 

2.2 

3.3 

.6 

.2 

1.1 

1.0 

1.5 

1.6 



1.3 

1.6 
4.6 
1.0 

(') 
1.5 
4.8 

18.2 
9.1 
2.2 

10.4 

6^5 



100.0 



1.0 
2.3 

5.4 
6.3 
10.4 
2.4 
3.4 

.6 

.2 
1.2 
1.1 

.4 
1.5 

.6 

1.0 

1.3 

1.5 

4.8 

1.0 

(') 

1.6 

4.6 

18.5 

9,1 

2.2 

10.2 

.7 
6.7 



100.0 



1.4 

1.2 

6.2 

1.2 

10.0 

.4 

2. 1 

.5 

.2 

.8 



13.0 

2.5 

3.6 

.5 

.5 

3.5 

1.5 

.2 



.4 

7.2 

14.0 

9.3 

1.6 

13.1 

.6 

4.5 



100.0 



1 Less than Ho of 1 percent. 

Age. 

The arrest records reviewed during the first 9 months of 1940 
indicate that persons of 19 years were most frequently taken into 
custody. This group was followed by those of 21, 22, 18, and 23 
years, respectively. While fluctuations are to be expected, it is 
interesting to note that age 19 has led in the majority of the compila- 
tions of this nature since 1932. 

The tabulation below sets forth the number of arrests in the five 
age groups mentioned above: 

Aee: Number of arrests 

19 18,990 

21 18, 302 

22 18, 299 

18 17, 877 

23 17,843 

There were 81,031 (17.6 percent) youthful offenders arrested during 
the first 9 months of 1940 under 21 years of age. Those between 
21-24 years old increased this sum by 71,183 (15.5 percent), making 
a total of 152,214 persons arrested under 25 years of age. 

Extending the analysis to the age group 25-29 enlarged the number 
of arrests made by another 75,613 (16.5 percent), making an aggregate 
of 227,827 (49.6 percent) persons arrested less than 30 years old. (It 
must be remembered that the number of fingerprint cards received 
by the Federal Bureau of Investigation representing those arrested 
under 21 years of age is incomplete, as some communities do not 
fingerprint youthful offenders.) 



143 



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144 



Youths less than 21 years old were frequently charged with offenses 
against property, particularly robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto 
theft. This is clearly indicated by the following tabulation: 

Table 73. — Percentage distribution of arrests by age groups 



Age group 


AU 
ofEenses 


Criminal 
homicide 


Robbery 


Burglary 


1 
Larceny Auto theft 


Under 21 


17.6 
32.0 
25.6 
15.2 
9.5 
0.1 


12.2 
36.1 
26.9 
14.8 
9.9 
0.1 


28.9 

44.4 

19.1 

5.8 

1.8 

0.0 


44.9 

32.7 

14.9 

5.3 

2.1 

0.1 


32.3 
32.5 
19.7 
10.1 
5.3 
0.1 


52.6 


21-29 


33.0 


30-39 

40-49 


10.9 

2.8 


50 and over . - . . 


0.7 


Unknown . 


0.0 






Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 







The predominance of youthful persons among those charged with 
offenses against property is further indicated by the fact that 118,253 
persons of all ages were arrested for crimes against propert}^ (robbery, 
burglary, larceny, auto theft, embezzlement and fraud, forgery and 
counterfeiting, receiving stolen property, and arson) during the first 
9 months of 1940, and 38,185 (32.3 percent) of those persons were 
less than 21 years old. 

Further indication of the large part played by youthful persons in 
the commission of crimes against property is seen in the figures show- 
ing that 33.2 percent of all persons arrested were less than 25 years 
of age. However, persons less than 25 years old numbered 53.6 
percent of those charged with robbery, 63.9 percent of those charged 
with burglary, 49.8 percent of those charged with larceny, and 
72.7 percent of those charged with auto theft. More than one-half 
of all crimes against property during the first 9 months of 1940 were 
committed by persons under 25 years of age. 



145 




IT 



146 



Table 74. 



-Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, 
Jan. 1-Sept. 30, 1940 



Offense charged 


Total num- 
ber of 
persons 
arrested 


Number 

under 21 

years of 

age 


Total num- 
ber under 
25 years 
of age 


Percentage 

under 21 

years of 

age 


Total per- 
centage un- 
der 25 years 
of age 


Criminal homicide 


4,727 

9,956 

25, 291 

27, 020 

47, 428 

10, 089 

14, 991 

2,749 

823 

5,197 

4,490 

6,942 

7. 195 

3,800 

4,220 

5,853 

7,514 

20, 953 

4,421 

33 

7,097 

22, 209 

83, 377 

41, 673 

10, 110 

47, 812 

3,308 

29,889 


576 

2,874 

2,914 

12, 146 

15,313 

5,306 

1,056 

546 

163 

781 

1,187 

474 

995 

335 

767 

298 

574 

834 

744 

3 

1,333 

3,085 

3,253 

6,740 

544 

10, 249 

462 

7,479 


1,366 
5,337 
6,891 

17, 253 
23, 606 

7,339 

3,264 

998 

273 

1,717 

2,186 

2,167 

2,080 

962 

1,532 

1,131 

1.553 

3,190 

1.820 

10 

2,905 

6,796 

10, 447 

13, 471 

1,612 

18, 786 
941 

12, 581 


12.2 
28.9 
11.5 
45.0 
32.3 
52.6 

7.0 
19.9 
19.8 
15.0 
26.4 

6.8 
13.8 

8.8 
18.2 

5.1 

7.6 

4.0 
16.8 

9.1 
18.8 
13.9 

3.9 
16.2 

5.4 
21.4 
14.0 
25.0 


28.9 


Robberv .. , 


53.6 


Assault 


27.2 


Burglary— breaking or entering. 

Larceny — theft _ 


63.9 
49.8 
72.7 


Embezzlement and fraud __ - 


21.8 


Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

\rson ~ -. - - 


36.3 
33.2 


For^erv and counterfeiting 


33.0 


R,ape 


48.7 


Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex ofTenses - 


31.2 
28.9 




25.3 


Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

Tjinuor laws - 


36.3 
19.3 
20.7 


Drivine while intoxicated 


15.2 


Road and drivinc laws 


41.2 


Parkins: violations - - 


30.3 


Other traiTicand motor vehicle laws 


40.9 
30.6 


Drunkenness _ 


12.5 




32.3 


Gambling . - - 


15.9 


Susnicion . - 


39.3 


Notstated - 


28.4 


All other offenses - 


42.1 






Total 


459, 167 


81,031 


162, 214 


17.6 


33.2 







147 

Criminal Repeaters. 

The extent to which persons with known criminal tendencies con- 
tinue to violate the law is indicated by the fact that 230,423 (more 
than one-half) of the persons arrested during the first 9 months of 
1940 had previously been fingerprinted and cards covering them were 
on file in the Federal Bureau of Investigation. In addition, there were 
5,101 current records received containing reference to past criminal 
activities, although no fingerprint cards were on file prior to 1940. 
This increases the total to 235,524 persons arrested during the first 9 
months of 1940 concerning whom there was on file mformation dealing 
with prior arrests, and the records showed that 158,121 of these persons 
had previously been convicted one or more times. Convictions of 
51 percent of these individuals were based on major violations, as 
indicated in the following tabulation: 

Criminal homicide 1, 239 

Robbery 5, 778 

Assault 8, 175 

Burglary 15, 944 

Larceny and related offenses 35, 538 

Arson 172 

Forgery and counterfeiting 3, 761 

Rape 1,029 

Narcotic drug laws 2,917 

Weapons (carrying, possessing, etc.) 1, 656 

Driving while intoxicated 4, 973 

Total 81, 182 

Many of the 158,121 persons with prior conviction records had been 
convicted more than once. The records for them showed a total of 
425,654 prior convictions, 177,381 of which were for the commission of 
major crimes. 



148 



Table_75. — Number of cases in which fingerprint records show one or more prior 
convictions, and the total of prior convictions disclosed 6?/ the records. Jan 1- 
Sept. 30, 1940 J , . 



Oflense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering. 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children... 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws. 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws... 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses... 

Total... 



Number of 
records show- 
ing one or 
more prior 
convictions 



937 
3,951 
7,446 
9,228 

15, 435 

3,108 

5,003 

675 

171 

1,991 

1,087 

2,450 

1,661 

1,793 

1,187 

1,358 

2,406 

4,830 

845 

6 

1,778 

7,467 

35, 446 

18, 888 
2,063 

15, 106 
1,392 

10, 413 



158, 121 



Number of 

prior convic 

tlons of major 

offenses 



1,142 

6,368 

8,972 

15,346 

25,365 

4,631 

7,764 

958 

179 

3,411 

1,337 

3,750 

2, 106 

4. 331 

1,048 

1,401 

1,583 

4,246 

700 

8 

1,681 

6,634 

21, 372 

17, 608 

2,289 

19,247 

1,910 

11, 394 



177, 381 



Number of 
prior convic- 
tions of minor 
offenses 



765 
3,747 
7,693 
8,043 
18, 394 
2,374 
4,114 

564 

118 
1,263 

816 
1,991 
1,555 
1,787 
1,053 
1,202 
3,649 
4,943 

795 

8 

1,971 

13, 908 
91, 150 
39, 468 

1,743 

19,540 

1,549 

14, 070 



248, 273 



Total number 
of prior con- 
victions dis- 
closed 



1,907 

10, 115 

16, 665 

23, 389 

43, 759 

7,005 

11, 878 

1,522 

297 

4,674 

2,153 

5,741 

3,661 

6,118 

2,701 

2,603 

5,232 

9,189 

1, 495 

16 

3, 652 

20, 542 

112, 522 

57, 076 

4,032 

38, 787 

3,459 

25, 464 



425, 654 



149 

Race. 

Excluding Mexicans, who numbered 17,115, members of the wliite 
race represent 332,852 of the 459,167 arrest records received, while 
103,760 were Negroes, 2,650 Indians, 766 Chinese, 325 Japanese, and 
1,699 all others. 

In order to properly study the relationship between the number of 
whites arrested as compared with the number of Negroes, it becomes 
necessary to employ the 1930 decennial census, which reflects that 
there were 8,041,014 Negroes, 13,069,192 foreign-born whites, and 
64,365,193 native whites in the United States. All persons under 15 
years of age were excluded from the preceding population figures. 
However, the immediate descendants of foreign-born whites have been 
treated as native whites. 

There were 1,290 Negroes arrested and fuagerprinted during the 
first 9 months of 1940 of each 100,000 Negroes in the general popula- 
tion of the United States, while the corresponding figure for native 
whites was 474, and for foreign-born whites, 151. 

Size of Fingerprint File. 

At the end of September 1940, there were 14,031,423 fingerprint 
records and 14,938,314 index cards containing the names and aliases 
of individuals on file in the Identification Division of the FBI. Of 
each 100 fingerprint cards received during the first 9 months of 1940, 
more than 61 were identified with those on file in the Bureau. Fugi- 
tives numbering 5,741 were identified through fingerprint records dur- 
ing the first 9 months of 1940, and interested law-enforcement officials 
were immediately notified of the whereabouts of those fugitives. As 
of September 30, 1940, there were 11,036 police departments, peace 
ofiicers, and law-enforcement agencies throughout the United States 
and foreign countries voluntarily contributing fingerprints to the 
FBI. 



OFFENSE CLASSIFICATIONS 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in part I and 
part II offenses, there follows a brief definition of each classification: 

Part I Offenses. 

1. Criminal homicide.- — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter includes all 
wilful felonious homicides as distinguished from deaths caused by negligence. 
Does not include attempts to kill, assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, or 
justifiable homicides. Justifiable homicides excluded from this classification are 
limited to the following types of cases: (1) The killing of a felon by a peace officer 
in line of duty. (2) The killing of a hold-up man by a private citizen, (b) Man- 
slaughter by negligence includes any death which the police investigation estab- 
lishes was primarily attributable to gross negligence on the part of some individual 
other than the victim. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape (no force used — victim under 
age of consent), assault to rape, and attempted rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as strong-arm robbery, stick-ups, 
robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by the use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary- — breaking or eiitering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safecrack- 
ing, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or a theft, even though no force was 
used to gain entrance. Includes attempted burglary. Burglary followed by 
larceny is included in this classification and not counted again as larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value. (&) 
Under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of the property stolen, thefts of bicycles, automobile accessories, 
shoplifting, pocket-picking, or any stealing of property or article of value which 
is not taken by force and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, 

con" games, forgery, worthless checks, etc. 

7. A\tto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven 
away and abandoned, including the so-called joy-riding thefts. Does not include 
taking for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unauthorized use 
by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

Part II Offenses. 

8. Other assaults. — Includes all assaults and attempted assaults which are not 
of an aggravated nature and which do not belong in class 4. 

9. Forgery and counterfeiting. — Includes offenses dealing with the making, 
altering, uttering, or possessing, with intent to defraud, anything false which is 
made to appear true. Includes attempts. 

10. Embezzlement and fraud. — Includes all offenses of fraudulent conversion, 
embezzlement, and obtaining money or property by false pretenses. 

11. Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. — Includes buying, receiving, 
and possessing stolen property as well as attempts to commit any of those offenses. 

12. Weapons: carrying, possessing, efc— Includes all violations of regulations 
or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing, and manufactur- 
ing of deadly weapons or silencers and all attempts to violate such statutes or 
regulations. 

13. Prostitution and commercialized vice. — Includes sex offenses of a commercial- 
ized nature, or attempts to commit the same, such as, prostitution, keeping bawdy 
house, procuring, transporting, or detaining women for immoral purposes. 

14. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice). — In- 
cludes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Includes 
attempts. 

(150) 



(I 



151 

15. Offenses against the family and children. — Includes offenses of nonsupport, 
neglect, desertion, or abuse of family and children. 

16. Narcotic drug laws .—Indudes offenses relating to narcotic drugs, such as 
unlawful possession, sale, or use. Exclude Federal offenses. 

17. Liquor laws. — With the exception of ''Drunkenness" (class 18) and "Driving 
while intoxicated" (class 22), liquor law violations. State or local, are placed in 
this class. Exclude Federal violations. 

18. Drunkenness. — Includes all offenses of drunkenness or Intoxication. 

19. Disorderhj condiict. — Includes all charges of committing a breach of the 
peace. 

20. Vagrancy. — Includes such offenses as vagabondage, begging, loitering, etc. 

21. Gambling. — Includes offenses of promoting, permitting, or engaging in 
gambling. 

22. Driving while intoxicated. — Includes driving or operating any motor vehicle 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. 

23. Violation of road and driving laws. — Includes violations of regulations with 
respect to the proper handling of a motor vehicle to prevent accidents. 

24. Parking violations. — Includes violations of parking ordinances. 

25. Other violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws. — Includes violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances with regard to traffic and motor vehicles 
not otherwise provided for in classes 22-24. 

26. All other offenses. — Includes all violations of State or local laws for which 
no provision has been made above in classes 1-25. 

27. Suspicion. — This classification includes all persons arrested as suspicious 
characters, but not in connection with any specific offense, who are released with- 
out formal charges being placed against them. 

o 



13S5, ^/f^ 



UNIFORM 

CRIME 
REPORTS 



FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 




ISSUED BY THE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Volume XI 



Number 4 



FOURTH QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1940 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume XI — Number 4 
FOURTH QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1940 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




ADVISORY 



International Association of Chiefs of Police 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1941 






CONTENTS 

Page 

Summary of volume XI, No. 4 153-155 

Classification of offenses 156 

Extent of reporting area 156-159 

Monthly reports: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population 

(table 76) 160-161 

Monthly trends, offenses known to the police, 1940 (tables 77-78). 161-169 

Annual trends, offenses known to the police, 1931-40 (table 79) 170-171 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location 

(tables 80-82) 172-177 

Offenses in individual cities over 25,000 in population (table 83) 178-185 

Offenses known to sheriffs and State police (tables 84-85) 186 

Offenses known in Territories and possessions (table 86) 187 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 87-90) 188-197 

Traffic deaths and offenses of manslaughter by negligence (table 90a) _ 197-199 
P^stimated number of major crimes, 1939-40 (table 91) 200-202 

Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1940: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 92) 204 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 93 97) 205-2 12 

Number and percentage with previous fingerprint records (tables 

98-99) - 213-215 

Number with records showing previous convictions (tables 100-103) _ 216-222 
Race distribution of persons arrested (tables 104-107) 222-225 

Index to volume XI 228-229 

(II) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 

of Justice, Washington, D. C. 

Volume XI January 1941 Number 4 

SUMMARY 

Estimated Number of Major Crimes, 1939-40. 

The estimated number of serious crimes in the United States during 
1940 was 1,517,026. This represents an increase over the 1939 figm-e 
of 32,472 (2.2 percent). 

For individual offense classes increases were shown during 1940 as 
follows: Murder, 0.3 percent; negligent manslaughter, 0.7 percent; 
rape, 2.5 percent; aggravated assault, 0.1 percent; burglary, 1,7 
percent; larceny, 3.3 percent. Decreases were shown as follows 
during 1940: Robbery, 3.3 percent; auto theft, 0.3 percent. 

Crime Trends, 193140. 

The average number of crimes annually during 1936-40 was in 
many instances substantially lower than the average annual number 
of offenses during 1931-35. Comparison of the two sets of 5-year 
averages reveals the following decreases: Murder, 15.2 percent; 
negligent manslaughter, 14.6 percent; robbery, 26.8 percent; burglary, 
9.5 percent; auto theft, 35.3 percent. On the other hand, increases 
were shown in the following classes: Rape, 35.9 percent; aggravated 
assault, 1.5 percent; larceny, 11.4 percent. 

Although the comparison of the two sets of 5-year averages reveals 
decreases in many classes, it should be noted that the 1940 figures 
showed increases in all offense classes except robbery and auto theft, 
continuing an upward trend which was also reflected by the 1939 
figures as compared with 1938. There is definite evidence of an 
upward trend during 1939 and 1940 which is particularly noticeable in 
offenses of rape, burglary, and larceny. Robbery and auto theft 
figures, however, continued to decline. 
Monthly Variations in Crimes. 

Crime is generally found to vary with the seasons. Robberies, 
burglaries, and auto thefts reached their peaks during the fall and 
winter months. The daily average for robbery was lowest in July 
and highest in December. Similarly the daily average for auto thefts 
was lowest in July and highest in November. Burglaries occurred 
with least frequency in June and were most numerous in December. 

(153) 



154 

The seasonal variation in crimes against property during the past 
several years has been most marked in the case of robberies and least 
noticeable with reference to larcenies. . 

The monthly figures for 1940 reflect a rather general upward trend 
in offenses of murder, rape, and aggravated assault during the second 
and third quarters of the year, with a tendency to drop somewhat 
during the last quarter. However, the daily average for murder 
during the fourth quarter was higher than for the preceding portions 
of the year. 

The factors contributing to the commission of various types of 
crimes are subject to constant change, and for this reason many law 
enforcement agencies study not only seasonal crime variations but 
also monthly, weekly, daily, hourly, and geogi'aphical variations in 
the incidence of crime within their jurisdiction. 

The monthly larceny figures for 1940 show an upward trend through- 
out the year. These figures indicate the possibility of a continued 
increase in larcenies during 1941. 

Distribution of Crimes by Type. 

Almost 96 percent of the crimes reported were for the purpose of 
obtaining property. More than one-half (59.1 percent) were larce- 
nies, 22.3 percent burglaries, 11.1 percent auto thefts, and 3.4 percent 
robberies. The remaining 4.1 percent were murders, negligent man- 
slaughters, rapes, and other felonious assaults. 

Owners of automobiles and bicycles might well take greater pre- 
cautions to protect their property against thieves, for half of all 
larcenies reported were thefts of bicycles or thefts of some type of 
property from automobiles. 

The majority (65.3 percent) of larceny offenses involved property 
valued from $5 to $50; in 25.3 percent of the cases the property was 
valued at less than $5 ; and the property was valued in excess of $50 
in 9.4 percent of the cases. 

More than one-half (58.4 percent) of the robberies were classed 
as highway robberies. Gasoline filling stations, chain stores, and other 
commercial houses, were the scenes of 34.7 percent of the robberies. 

Burglaries of nonresidence structures constituted 54.5 percent of 
the total burglaries reported; 91 percent of the nonresidence burglaries 
occurred during the night, whereas 65.2 percent of the residence 
burglaries were conmiitted at night. 

Property stolen from the victim in an average robbery durmg 1940 
was valued at $102.89. The average value of the loot stolen in bur- 
glaries was $54.43, and the average larceny, unaccompanied by the 
elements of robbery or burglary, involved property valued at $26.33. 
The average automobile stolen was valued at $421.19. Ninety-six 
percent of the automobiles stolen and 26 percent of all other types of 
stolen property were recovered. 



155 

Crime Rates. 

With few exceptions, the average city with more than 100,000 
inhabitants has more crime per unit of population than the average 
city with population under 100,000. The bulletin includes crime 
rates for cities divided by location and size so that police executives 
and interested individuals may compare local crime figures with 
national and regional averages. Crime rates for individual states 
and figures for individual cities with over 25,000 inhabitants are 
also presented. 

The amoimt of crime varies among the several States and larger 
geographic divisions. Burglary, larceny, and auto theft rates for the 
Pacific states are somewhat higher than those in other sections of the 
nation. On the other hand, murder and felonious assault rates are 
highest in the South Atlantic, East South Central, and West South 
Central states. These variations reflect the fact that the amount of 
crime in a community, like other social phenomena, is affected by 
many factors. 

Persons Arrested. 

During 1940 the Federal Bureau of Investigation examined 609,013 
fingerprint arrest records of which 240,680 were arrests for major 
violations. 

The proportion of women represented by fingerprint arrest cards 
has been increasing. During 1940 women were represented by 8.5 
percent of the total records, whereas the corresponding figure for 1939 
was 7.6 percent, and for 1938 it was 6.8 percent. 

For males and females combined, age 19 predominated in the fre- 
quency of arrests and was followed by ages 21 and 22, respectively. 
For males alone age 19 predominates and is followed by ages 18, 21, 
and 22 in frequency of arrests. For females, however, the largest 
number of arrests was for age 22, followed by ages 23 and 24. 

The percentage of the total persons arrested who were less than 
21 years old was 17.4 in 1936, 18.0 m 1937, 18.8 in 1938, 18.9 in 1939, 
and 17.5 in 1940. 

During 1940, 28.8 percent of the robbery arrests, 44.8 percent of 
the burglaiy arrests, 32.0 percent of the larceny arrests, and 53.3 
percent of the auto theft arrests involved persons less than 21 years old. 

The presence of the problem of the criminal repeater was indicated 
by the following figures : 50 persons arrested for criminal homicide dur- 
ing 1940 had records of prior convictions of murder or manslaughter; 
311,222 of the persons arrested and fingerprinted during the year had 
prior records on file showing that 206,484 of them had been convicted 
previously of one or more crimes. The total of such prior convictions 
was 540,847. 



156 



CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES 

The term "offenses known to the pohce" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to the 
police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting or 
court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following group 
of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be those 
most generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal homi- 
cide, including (a) mm'der, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (6) man- 
slaughter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; burglary — 
breaking or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The figures 
contained herein include also the number of attempted crimes of the 
designated classes. In other words, an attempted burglary or robbery, 
for example, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner as if the 
crime had been completed. Attempted mm-ders, however, are 
reported as aggravated assaults. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the law-enforce- 
ment agencies of contributing communities and not merely arrests or 
cleared cases. Complaints which upon investigation are learned to be 
groundless are not included in the tabulations which follow. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

In the last section of this bulletin may be found brief definitions of 
part I and part II offense classifications. 

EXTENT OF REPORTING AREA 

In the table which follows there is shown the number of police de- 
partments from which one or more crime reports were received during 
the calendar year 1940. Information is presented for the cities divided 
according to size, and the population figures employed are from the 
1940 decennial census. 





Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 


Cities filing returns 


Total pop- 
ulation 


Population repre- 
sented in returns 


Population group 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


1,077 


1,005 


93.3 


62, 715, 897 


61, 542, 171 


98.1 






1. Cities over 250,000 , _ 


37 

55 

107 

213 

665 


37 

55 

104 

210 

599 


100.0 

100.0 

97.2 

98.6 

90.1 


30, 195, 339 
7, 792. 650 
7,343,917 
7, 417, 093 
9, 966, 898 


30, 195, 339 
7, 792, 650 
7, 152, 965 
7, 321, 370 
9, 079, 847 


100.0 


2. Cities 100,000 to 250,000 


100.0 


3. Cities 50,000 to 100,000 


97.4 


4. Cities 25,000 to 50,000 


98.7 


5. Cities 10,000 to 25,000 


91.1 







Note.— The above table does not include 1,742 cities and rural townships aggregating a total population 
of 9,021,169. The cities included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 population filing returns, whereas 
the rural townships are of varying population groups. 



157 




158 



The growth in the crime-reporting area is evidenced by the following 
figures for 1930-40: 



Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


Year 


Number of 
cities 


Population 


1930 

1931 


1,127 
1,511 
1,578 
1,658 
1,799 
2,156 


45, 929, 965 
51, 145, 734 
53, 212, 230 
62, 357, 262 
62, 757, 643 
64, 615, 330 


1936 

1937 

1938 

1939 

1940 


2,318 
2,429 
2,662 
2,698 
2,747 


65, 639, 430 

66, 279, 987 

67, 555, 972 
67, 964, 488 
70, 563, 340 


1932 

1933 

1934 


1935 









The foregoing comparison shows that during 1940 there was an 
increase of 49 cities contributing as compared with 1939. The increase 
in the population represented by contributing police departments 
during 1940 over 1939 amounted to 2,598,852. However, this increase 
in population resulted only in part from the 49 cities whose police 
departments joined the uniform crime reportmg program last year; 
the major portion of the increase is attributable to the use of 1940 
population figures in showing the aggregate population of the 2,747 
cities. For years prior to 1940, the aggregate population of the cities 
represented is shown in terms of the 1930 decennial census, with the 
exception that for cities over 10,000 in population the 1933 estimates 
of the Bureau of the Census were used. 

In addition to the 2,747 city and village police departments which 
forwarded crime reports during 1940, one or more reports were received 
during that year from 1,609 sherift's and State police organizations 
and from 13 agencies in Territories and possessions of the United 
States. This makes a grand total of 4,369 agencies contributing 
crime reports during 1940. 

The following tabulation indicates the status of the reporting area 
last year by States. Although 49 more police departments contributed 
crime reports during 1940 than during 1939, this tabulation indicates 
that the percentage of urban police departments contributing last 
year was smaller than the percentage for 1939. The same is true for 
many of the individual States. This is due to the fact that as a result 
of the 1940 decennial census there was a substantial increase in the 
number of communities classed as urban, and the police departments 
in many of these new urban communities have not had an opportunity 
to become fully acquainted with the procedure to be followed in the 
preparation of the monthly crime reports. Inasmuch as the informa- 
tion concerning the reclassification of the cities as urban was not 
available in most instances until January 11, 1941, it was not feasible 
to enroll as contributors durmg 1940 the communities newly classed 
as urban. 



159 



Status of reporting area, Uniform Crime Reports, 1940, by States 



State 



Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut ^ 

Delaware 2 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana i-_ 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts ' 

Michigan ' 

Minnesota 

M ississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey ' 

New Mexico 

New York ^ 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania ^ 

Rhode Island 2 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas .-- 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia- 

Washington 

West Virginia ^ 

W isconsin 

Wyoming 

Total 



Urban police departments > 



Number 
of cities 



59 
16 
53 

167 
30 
32 
8 
1 
70 
78 
26 

208 
98 
89 
64 
56 
54 
26 
24 

122 

125 
78 
48 
87 
23 
36 
5 
18 

178 
22 

203 
76 
12 

186 
74 
34 

355 
19 
50 
19 
57 

196 
25 
14 
53 
40 
45 
93 
12 



3,464 



Number 
cities 

contrib- 
uting 



28 
10 
30 

152 
26 
28 
5 
1 
46 
32 
21 

176 
82 
72 
59 
36 
28 
22 
16 

111 

115 
73 
23 
47 
18 
31 
4 
14 

148 
12 

191 
47 
12 

160 
47 
24 

291 
18 
23 
16 
28 
79 
20 
14 
36 
36 
30 
73 



* 2, 620 



Percent 
contrib- 
uting 



47.5 
62.5 
56.6 
91.0 
86.7 
87.5 
62.5 

100.0 
65.7 
41.0 
80.8 
84.6 
83.7 
80.9 
92.2 
64.3 
51.9 
84.6 
66.7 
91.0 
92.0 
93.6 
47.9 
54.0 
78.3 
86. 1 
80.0 
77.8 
83.1 
54.5 
94. 1 
61.8 

100. 
86.0 
63.5 
70.6 
82.0 
94.7 
46.0 
84.2 
49.1 
40.3 
80.0 

100.0 
67.9 
90.0 
66.7 
78.5 
75.0 



County sheriffs 



Number 
of counties 



75.6 



67 
14 
75 
58 
63 
8 
3 



67 

161 
44 

102 
92 
99 

105 

120 
64 
16 
23 
14 
83 
87 
82 

114 
56 
93 
17 
10 
21 
31 
62 

100 
53 
88 
77 
36 
67 
5 
46 
69 
95 

2.54 
29 
14 

100 
39 
55 
71 
23 



3,072 



Number 
counties 
contrib- 
uting 



Percent 
contrib- 
uting 



22 

8 

29 
44 
49 



28 
51 
40 
69 
52 
77 
85 
36 
44 
12 
7 

14 
69 
78 
28 
43 
46 
70 
14 
2 
4 
14 
47 
28 
47 
66 
46 
26 
67 
5 
9 
44 
25 
82 
26 
7 
39 
30 
55 
39 
18 



s 1, 752 



32.8 
57.1 
38.7 
75.9 

77.8 
100.0 
100. 



41.8 
31.7 
90.9 
67.6 
56.5 
77.8 
81.0 
30.0 
68.8 
75.0 
30.4 
100.0 
83. 1 
89.7 
34.1 
37.7 
82.1 
75.3 
82.4 
20.0 
19.0 
45.2 
75.8 
28.0 
88.7 
75.0 
59.7 
72. 2 

100. 

100. 
19.6 
63.8 
26.3 
32.3 
89.7 
50.0 
39.0 
76.9 

100. 
54.!) 
78.3 



57.0 



' The Census Bureau's 1940 cla-ssification of communities as urban and rural has been followed. Gener- 
ally, incorporated i)laees with populations of 2,, 500 or more are classified as urban. 

2 \l] counties were counted as contributors because the State police contribute data for rural jiortions 
of the State. 

3 State police also contribute. 

* Does not include 127 rural village police departments. 

5 Includes 152 counties for which State police submit crime reports. Sheriffs of those counties do not 
contribute reports. Does not include 9 State police organizations contributing reports. 



294316° 41 2 



MONTHLY REPORTS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population. 

Since the collection and tabulation of police statistics on a national 
scale first began over 10 years ago, the monthly reports received at 
the FBI during each year have generally shown more crimes per miit 
of population in the large cities than in the smaller places. The year 
1940 followed this precedent. 

Again last year the one usual exception was noted. The highest rate 
for aggravated assaults was not for the largest cities but for those with 
population from 50,000 to 100,000. This is probably due, at least to 
some extent, to the large number of such crimes committed in cities 
of that population range in the South Atlantic, East South Central, 
and West South Central States. 

Although the highest rate for offenses of rape was experienced in 
cities with population in excess of 250,000, the next highest rate was 
noted in the reports received from cities with population from 2,500 
to 10,000. 

The number of offenses reported during 1940 and the rate per 100,000 
inhabitants for all population groups are presented in table 76. The 
table is based on reports received from 2,001 cities with a total popu- 
lation of 65,128,946, according to the 1940 decennial census. The 
cities have been grouped into six classes according to size in order 
that interested individuals may compare local crime rates with national 
averages for cities of approximately the same size. Table 82 lists 
similar figures divided further on a regional basis. 

Of all the crimes tabulated in table 76, crimes against property 
(larceny, burglary, auto theft, and robbery) total 95.9 percent. The 
remainder are murders, manslaughters, rapes, and other felonious 
assaults. Below appears a percentage distribution of the crimes: 



OfEense 


Rate per 
100,000 


Percent 


Offense 


Rate per 
100,000 


Percent 


Total 


1,566.3 


100.0 


Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Rape.-- - - - 


52.5 

45.8 

8.9 

5.4 

4.4 


3.4 




2 9 




926.3 
348.4 
174.6 


59.1 
22.3 
11.1 


.6 




Murder . _ 


.3 


Autotheft -.- 


Manslaughter 


.3 







In order that the low percentage of offenses committed against 
the person may not be misleading, attention is directed to the fact 
that the cities represented in table 76 reported 3,509 murders, 2,768 
negligent manslaughters, 5,799 rapes, and 29,803 aggravated assaults. 

Although only 3.4 percent of the crimes reported were classed as 
robberies, these cities reported 34,220 such offenses (thefts from the 
person accompanied by the element of force or threat of force). 

The estimated total of serious crimes committed in the United 
States last year is presented in table 91, 

(160) 



161 

Table 76. — Offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 1940; 
number and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Population group 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



Auto 
theft 



OROUP I 

36 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 29,894,166: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP II 

55 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,792,650: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP III 

100 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 6,929,998: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP IV 

191 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 6,666,956: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP V 

516 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 7,820,022: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100.000 

GROUP VI 

1,103 cities under 10,000; total pop- 
ulation, 6,025,154: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

2,001 cities; total population, 
65,128,946: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



1,816 
6. 1 



510 
6.5 



396 
5.7 



230 
3.4 



308 
3.9 



249 
4. 1 



1 1,611 

5.7 



383 
4.9 



254 
3.7 



240 
3.6 



140 
1.9 



134 
2.2 



3,407 
11.4 



555 
7.1 



461 
6.7 



.395 

5.9 



.531 

6.8 



4.50 



22, 336 
74.7 



3.960 
50.8 



2,618 
37.8 



2.145 
32.2 



1.823 
23.3 



1.338 
22.2 



15. 036 
50.3 



4,187 
53.7 



4.419 
63.8 



2,383 

35.7 



2,128 
27.2 



1.650 
27.4 



2 81, 482 
397.3 



32, 604 
418.4 



25. 284 
364.8 



20,899 
313.5 



19, 840 
253.7 



14, 107 
234. 1 



2 213, 073 
1, 039. 



83,314 
I. 069. 1 



68, 839 
993.3 



63, 556 
953.3 



55, 566 
710.6 



32,008 
531.2 



3,509 
5.4 



1 2, 768 
4.4 



5,799 



34,220 
52.5 



29, 803 

45.8 



a 194, 216 
348.4 



516, 356 
926.3 



60, 842 
203.5 



16, 281 
208.9 



11,651 
168.1 



10, 546 
158.2 



8,681 
111.0 



5,703 
94.7 



113, 704 
174.6 



' The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports as follows: Group 
I, 35 cities, total population, 28,389,889; groups I-VI, 2,000 cities, total population, 63,624,669. 

2 The number of offenses and rate for burglary and larceny— theft are based on reports as follows: Group I, 
34 cities, total population, 20,507,837; groups I-VI, 1,999 cities, total population, 55,742,617. 



Monthly Trends, Offenses Known to the Police {Daily Average), 1940. 

Crime is generally found to vary with the seasons. This is reflected 
in the monthly reports received during 1940 from cities with more 
than 25,000 inhabitants. A study of these reports indicates a rather 
general upward trend in offenses of murder, rape, and aggravated 
assault during the second and third quarters of the year, with a tend- 
ency to drop somewhat during the last quarter. However, the daily 



152 








® 
® 
® 
® 

t 

o 

5 








\ 










( 




















/ 


/^ 






/ 


> 


















> S >0 « M 

OOO'OOI U3d 31VH 



Oi 

1 — I 

« 

o 

fa 




163 

average for murder during the fourtli quarter was higher than for the 
preceding portions of the year. 

During 1940 offenses of manslaughter by neghgence showed a 
marked seasonal variation with the high points in the first and fourth 
quarters of the year. This confirms the experience of prior years and 
is to be expected inasmuch as the frequency of automobile fatalities 
has generally been highest during the first and fourth quarters of the 
year as the result of less favorable driving conditions. The large 
majority of negligent manslaughters consists of automobile fatalities. 

Robberies, burglaries, and auto thefts reached their peaks during 
the fall and winter months. The daily average for robberies was 
lowest in July and highest during December. Similarly, the daily 
average for auto thefts was lowest in July and highest in November. 
Burglaries occurred with less frequency in June than in any other 
month and were most numerous in December. 

The larceny figures show a rather consistent upward trend through- 
out the year. This is somewhat at variance with the larceny data for 
most of the preceding years, which have on the whole reflected a 
lower number of larcenies during the summer months of the year. 

The seasonal variation in the number of crimes against property 
(robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto theft) has during the past several 
years always been most marked in the case of robberies and least 
noticeable with reference to larcenies. 

In tables 77 and 78 figures are presented representing the daily 
average of offenses committed each month in the cities represented. 
The data are presented in table 77 for the cities divided into four 
gi-oups according to size, and in table 78 for the same cities divided 
into nine groups according to location without regard to size. 

Although there are rather definite seasonal trends in most types of 
crimes, there are sufficient differences in the patterns of the variations 
reflected by the data for the different groups of cities to indicate that 
many factors influence the amount of crime in a community. (For a 
list of some of these items see the text preceding table 83.) 

The foregoing facts point to the need for each law enforcement 
agency to compile and study its own figures regarding not only seasonal 
crime variations but also montlily, weekly, daily, hourly, and geo- 
graphical variations in the incidence of crime within its jurisdiction. 
The many forces contributing to the commission of crimes are not 
static but are, on the other hand, subject to constant change, with the 
result that those charged with the responsibility of combating crime 
must persistently study its various manifestations in order to most 
efficiently carry out a remedial program. It may be noted that many 
police departments do regularly prepare and use the types of tabula- 
tions mentioned for the purposes indicated. 



164 

In table 77 the larceny figures for all four population groups show 
an upward trend throughout the year. These figures may indicate 
the likelihood of a continued increase in larcenies during 1941. In a 
somewhat similar manner, the fact that the fourth quarter figures for 
robbery and auto theft are higher than for any other three-month 
period of 1940 indicates the possibility of general increases in robber- 
ies and auto thefts during 1941 unless the factors causing the present 
up-swing are curbed. 



Table 77. -Monthly trends, offenses known to the police, January to December, 
inclusive, 1940, S82 cities over 25,000 in population, by population groups 





[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 










Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Population group and 
month 


Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


GROUP I 1 

36 cities over 250,000; total 
population, 29,894,166: 

January -. 

February 


3.7 
4.4 
4.2 
4.5 
4.8 
6.5 
5.2 
5.6 
5.2 
6.2 
4.1 
5.0 


5.0 
4.3 
4.2 
5.7 
3.8 
4.2 
3.2 
3.8 
4.5 
4.0 
4.6 
5.6 


7.5 
9.9 
9.2 
8.3 
9.2 
9.7 
9.7 
9.5 
9.1 
11.1 
9.7 
8.8 


65.2 
68.4 
65.3 
57.4 
56.0 
55.0 
51.2 
51.1 
55.6 
61.6 
70.2 
75.7 


32.5 
34.2 
38.4 
42.3 
43.4 
44.1 
43.2 
46.2 
45.6 
44.6 
38.7 
39.5 


217.7 
242.4 
232.9 
228.4 
211.7 
207.0 
205.4 
216.1 
213.2 
214.5 
234.2 
249.1 


499.9 
542.6 
568.3 
574.0 
574.5 
570.3 
575. 4 
604.4 
593.7 
633.5 
636.6 
611.8 


159.0 
169.1 


March 


168. 5 


April - 


162.3 


May 


157.7 


.Tune. - 


155.9 


July 


154.4 


August 


154.5 


September 


162.4 


October _ 


178.7 


November 


184.9 


December 


187.7 






January to March 

April to June 


4.1 
5.3 
5.3 
5.1 
' 5.0 


4.5 
4.5 
3.8 
4.7 
4.4 


8.8 
9.1 
9.4 
9.9 
9.3 


66.3 
56.1 
52.6 
69.2 
61.0 


35.1 
43.3 
45.0 
41.0 
41.1 


230.7 
215.7 
211.5 
232.6 
222.6 


536.8 
573.0 
591.1 
627.2 
582.2 


165.4 
158.6 


July to September 

October to December 

January to December 


157.0 
183.8 
166.2 


GROUP II 

55 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; 
total population, 7,792,650: 
January 


1.2 
1.0 
1.4 
1.1 
1.3 
1.5 
1.5 
1.5 
1.5 
1.5 
1.4 
1.8 


1.4 
.8 

1.1 
.7 
.9 
.9 
.4 

, / 

1.2 
1.2 
2.0 
1.3 


1.1 
1.3 
1.6 
1.5 
1.3 
1.5 
1.7 
1.7 
1.4 
1.4 
2.2 
1.5 


12.5 

14.5 

12.1 

10.7 

10.8 

9.1 

7.8 

10.5 

8.8 

8.7 

10.9 

13.5 


9.3 
10.3 

9.7 
10.2 
10.5 
12.9 
12.8 
13.7 
13.0 
11.4 
11.4 
12.2 


83.5 
93.6 
91.3 
91.6 
89.6 
82.1 
86.7 
90.0 
90.3 
87.4 
92.5 
90.7 


205.7 
224.5 
229.2 
230.5 
224.4 
217.0 
226.3 
225. 2 
226.9 
247.6 
239.5 
234.9 


41.4 


February 

March . 


46.6 

44.8 


April -- 


45.6 


May_ - 


43.2 


June 


43.1 


July _ 


35.9 


August . 


41.4 


September 


45.0 


October . 


46.8 


November 


51.5 


December __ 


48.7 






January to March 

April to June 


1.2 
1.3 
1.5 
1.6 

1.4 


1.1 

.9 

.8 

1.5 

1.0 


1.3 
1.4 
1.6 
1.7 
1.5 


13.0 
10.2 
9.1 
11.0 
10.8 


9.8 
11.2 
13.2 
11.7 
11.4 


89.4 
87.8 
89.0 
90.2 
89.1 


219.7 
224.0 
226.1 
240.7 
227.6 


44.2 
44.0 


July to September 

October to December 

January to December 


40.7 
49.0 
44.5 



See footnote at end of table. 



165 



Table 77. -Monthly trends, offenses knoivn to the police, January to December, 
inclusive, 1940, 382 cities over 25,000 in -population, by population groups — Con. 



Population group and 
month 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man- 
slaughter 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



Rape 



Rob- 
bery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



Auto 
theft 



GROUP III 

100 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; 
total population, 6,929,998: 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January to March 

April to June 

July to September 

October to December 

January to December. _. 

GROUP IV 

191 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; 
total population, 6,666,956: 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January to March 

April to June 

July to September 

October to December 

January to December 

TOTAL, GROUPS I-IV 1 

382 cities, total population, 
51,283,770: 

January 

February-. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January to March 

April to June 

July to September 

October to December 

January to December 



0.8 
.8 
.9 

1.0 



1.4 
1.1 

1.5 
1.2 
1.0 
1.5 



1.3 
1.2 
1.1 



.7 
.6 
.5 
.6 
.9 
.7 
.6 
.4 
.3 
.8 
.4 
1.0 



.6 
.7 
.5 
.7 
.6 



6.5 
6.8 
7.1 
7.2 
7.9 
9.5 
8.6 
8.7 
8.5 
9.8 
6.9 
9.3 

6.8 
8.2 
8.6 
8.7 
8.1 



0.8 
.7 
.8 
.8 
.7 
.8 
.5 
.5 
.6 
.5 
.7 

1.0 



0.8 
1.5 

.9 
1.7 
1.7 
1.1 
1.5 
1.6 
1.1 

.8 
1.2 
1.2 



7.5 
7.3 
7.1 
6.7 
6.0 
6.9 
7.3 
7.5 
6.3 
6.1 
7.5 
9.8 



9.6 
9.7 
11.4 
12.8 
12.3 
13.9 
12.7 
13.5 
13.1 
12.8 
10.4 
12.6 



62.6 
73.0 
80.3 
74.2 
70.5 
61.5 
70.5 
67.5 
65.8 
61.5 
69.1 
72.5 



160.3 
181.4 
189.7 
195.0 
191.0 
183.2 
189.9 
188.2 
186.6 
199.2 
199.3 
193.1 



.5 
.7 

.7 



1.1 
1.5 
1.4 
1.0 
1.3 



7.3 
6.5 
7.0 

7.8 
7.2 



10.2 
13.0 
13.1 
12.0 
12.1 



72.0 
68.8 
68.0 
67.7 
69.1 



177.1 
189.8 
188.3 
197.2 

188. 1 



.6 
.6 

1.0 
.7 
.6 
.6 
.5 
.4 
.7 
.5 
.6 

1.0 



1.1 

.8 

1.1 

.9 

1.0 

1.0 

1.2 

1.6 

1.4 

1.2 

1.0 

.7 



5.8 
5.9 
6.5 
5.1 
4.4 



8.6 



.7 
.6 
.5 

.7 
.7 



1.0 
1.0 
1.4 
1.0 
1.1 



6.1 
4.6 
6.0 
6.7 
5.9 



7.9 
6.3 
7.0 
7.9 
6.0 
6.6 
4.7 
5.4 
6.9 
6.2 
7.9 
8.8 



10.5 
13.5 
12.8 
12.5 
13.2 
13.4 
14.1 
14.4 
13.0 
14.5 
14.0 
12.2 



91.1 
96.0 
91.0 

79.8 
77. 
75. 
71. 
75. 
77. 
82.0 
94.6 
107.6 



7.1 
6.8 
5.7 
7.7 
6.8 



12.2 
13.0 
13.8 
13.6 
13.2 



92.6 

77.5 
74.6 
94.7 
84.9 



5.5 
6.0 
5.5 
6.2 
5.5 
8.3 
7.4 
6.6 
7.2 
6.6 
7.4 
6.0 



50.5 
61.3 
59.3 
61.7 
54.5 
52.8 
56.7 
57.6 
58.5 
54.7 
56.9 
60.9 



146.5 

155.6 
169.9 
176.3 
179.3 
166.5 
165.9 
168.9 
183.1 
190.3 
190.4 
190.6 



5.7 
6.6 
7.1 
6.7 
6.5 



56.9 
56.3 
57.6 
57.5 
57.1 



157.4 
174.1 
172.5 
190.4 
173.7 



56.9 
60.3 
64.9 
71.5 
71.6 
79.1 
76.1 
80.1 
78.9 
75.4 
67.9 
70.3 



60.7 
74.0 
78.3 
71.2 
71.1 



414.3 
470.4 
463.8 
455.9 
426.4 
403.4 
419.4 
431.2 
427.8 
418.0 
452.7 
473.3 



1,012.4 
1, 104. 1 
1, 157. 1 
1,175.8 
1, 169. 2 
1, 137. 1 
1,157.5 
1, 186. 7 
1, 190. 3 
1,270.5 
1, 265. 7 
1, 230. 4 



28.2 
32.1 
33.1 
33.1 
30.2 
29.7 
26.5 
27.9 
32.0 
36.2 
37.1 
35.9 



31. 1 
31.0 

28.8 
36.4 
31.8 



27.6 
29.1 
31.5 
27.0 
29.2 
25.8 
25.1 
26.8 
28.5 
30.2 
32.7 
32.2 



29.4 
27.4 
26.8 
31.7 
28.8 



449.0 
428.5 
426.1 
447.9 
437.9 



1, 090. 9 
1,160.8 
1, 178. 
1,255.^ 
1,171.5 



256.2 
276.9 
277.8 
268.1 
260.3 
254.5 
241.9 
250.7 
267.9 
292.0 
306.2 
304.6 

270.2 
261.0 
253.3 
300.9 
271.4 



• Daily averages for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports as follows: Group I, 35 cities, total 
population, 28,389,889; Groups I-IV, 381 cities, total population, 49,779,493. Daily averages for burglary 
and larceny are based on reports as follows: Group I, 34 cities, total population, 20,507,837; Groups I-IV, 
380 cities, total population, 41,897,441. 



160 







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167 

Table 78. — Monthly trends, offenses known to the police, January to December, in- 
clusive, 1940, 382 cities over 25,000 in population, by geographic divisions 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary- 
break - 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Geographic division and 
month 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


NEW ENGLAND 

54 cities over 25,000; total 
population, 4,380,313: 
January 

February . 


0.2 
.1 
(') 
.1 
.1 
.1 
.2 
.1 
.2 
.2 
.2 
.2 


0.6 
.3 
.3 
.4 
.3 
.3 
.2 
.2 
.1 
.2 
.8 
.5 


0.6 
.7 

1.0 
.5 

1.0 

1.1 
.8 
.9 

1.1 
.8 

1.0 
.5 


2.2 
3.0 
2.8 
2.0 
2.1 
1.7 
2.3 
1.8 
2.0 
1.9 
2.2 
1.9 


1.5 
1.9 
1.5 
1.3 
1.4 
1.6 
1.5 
1.4 
1.5 
1.5 
.9 
1.3 


32.8 
37.6 
36.8 
40.4 
34.4 
34.2 
34.6 
35.8 
35.4 
33.4 
30.6 
32.5 


60.0 

56.7 
65.2 
74.8 
83.7 
77.0 
75.9 
74.1 
79.0 
84.4 
81.0 
75.4 


24.5 
23 5 


March 

April 


26.4 
27 1 


May.. . 


25 1 


June 


25 7 


July 


21 7 


August 


20 3 


September 


26 7 


October. . 


25 9 


November 

December. 


26.5 
26 7 






January to March 

April to June 


.1 
.1 
.1 
.2 
.1 


.4 
.3 
.2 
.5 
.3 


.8 
.8 
.9 

.8 
.8 


2.7 
2.0 
2.0 
2.0 
2.2 


1.6 
1.5 
1.5 
1.2 
1.4 


35.7 
36.3 
35.3 
32.2 
34.9 


60.7 
78.5 
76.3 
80.2 
74.0 


24.8 
26 


July to September 

October to December 

January to December 


22.8 
26.4 
2.5.0 


MIDDLE ATLANTIC 2 

72 cities over 25,000; total 
population, 15,450,932: 
January . 


.9 
1.4 
1.1 
1.1 
1.5 
1.5 
1.8 
1.6 
1.6 
1.7 
1.2 
1.5 


.3.1 
3.1 
3.3 
4.5 
3.2 
3.2 
2.3 
2.8 
3.6 
2.5 
3.3 
2.9 


3.4 
5.9 
4.3 
4.6 
4.1 
4.1 
4.7 
3.7 
3.7 
5.3 
5.1 
4.2 


12.3 
14.6 
14.3 
11.7 
12.2 
10.2 
9.0 
11.2 
10.7 
10.9 
13.0 
13.7 


12.7 
14.1 
11.3 
13.9 
16.4 
15.3 
16.8 
16.6 
17.4 
14.9 
12.8 
12.5 


41.5 
48.3 
52.4 
53.2 
51.7 
44.7 
47.6 
49.7 
45.3 
48.6 
54.4 
53.5 


72.9 
72.1 
77.0 
85.9 
94.6 
88.8 
91.9 
88.4 
87.3 
101.7 
95.7 
93.0 


63 


February 

March 


63.8 
67 6 


April 


63 6 


May 


62 5 


June 


65 6 


July 


61 3 


August. -. 


60 5 


September 

October 


68. 1 
73 7 


November ... . . 


80 3 


December 


83.2 


January to March 

April to June 


1.1 
1.4 
1.7 
1.4 
1.4 


3.2 
3.6 
2.9 
2.9 
3.2 


4.5 
4.3 
4.1 
4.8 
4.4 


13.7 
11.4 
10.3 
12.5 
12.0 


12.7 
15.2 
16.9 
13.4 
14.6 


47.4 
49.9 
47.6 
52.2 
49.3 


74. 1 
89.8 
89.2 
96.8 
87.5 


64.8 
63 9 


July to September 

October to December 

January to December 


63.3 
79.1 
67.8 


EAST NORTH CENTRAL 

99 cities over 25,000; total 
population, 13,050,945: 

January 

February 

March . . . 


1.3 
1.4 
1.7 
1.6 
1.4 
2.5 
1.6 
1.9 
1.5 
1.8 
1.4 
1.7 


1.5 

1.1 

1.1 

1.0 

.9 

1.0 

.9 

.6 

.9 

1.1 

1.2 

1.4 


3.0 
2.8 
2.6 
2.7 
3.5 
3.7 
3.5 
4.2 
3.6 
3.6 
3.6 
3.6 


33.9 
35.7 
33.4 
29.7 
31.3 
30.0 
29.7 
31.8 
31.4 
35.3 
39.6 
44.3 


10.0 
10.8 
10.9 
13.9 
13.4 
13.7 
14.0 
15.5 
13.8 
14.6 
10.9 
13.6 


107.8 
123.3 
130.0 
133.9 
125.7 
120.0 
119.7 
120.3 
119. 1 
119.5 
131.5 
139.3 


259.3 
286.4 
315.1 
356.3 
363.1 
363.8 
358.9 
374.2 
372.0 
414.8 
364.8 
346.4 


49.6 
54.4 
57 2 


April... . . 


55 7 


May. ._ - . 


59 4 


June. 


53 3 


July 

August. - -. 


49.8 
53 


September 

October . . 


51.1 
60 2 


November 

December 


58.9 
58.4 


January to March 

April to June 


1.5 
1.8 
1.7 
1.6 
1.7 


1.2 
1.0 
.8 
1.2 
1.1 


2.8 
3.3 
3.7 
3.6 
3.4 


34.3 
30.5 
30.9 
39.7 
33.9 


10.6 
13.7 
14.4 
13.1 
12.9 


120.3 
126.5 
119.7 
130. 1 
124.2 


286.9 
361. 1 
368.3 
375.4 
348.1 


53.7 
56 2 


July to September 

October to December 

January to December 


51.3 
59.2 
55.1 



See footnotes at end of table. 



294316°— 41- 



168 



Table 78. — Monthly trends, offenses known to the police, January to December, in- 
clusive, 1940, S82 cities over 25,000 in population, by geographic divisions — CJoii. 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Geographic division and 
month 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


WEST NORTH CENTRAL 

28 cities over 25,000; total 
population, 3,624,359: 
January 


0.3 
.3 
.4 
.3 
.4 
.4 
.5 
.5 
.2 
.4 
.2 
.4 


0.2 
.2 
.4 
.2 
.2 
.2 
.2 
.1 
.2 
.1 
.2 
.4 


0.3 
.8 
.6 
.4 
.8 
.6 
.6 
.6 
.8 
.8 
.6 
.5 


4.2 
5.2 
5.3 
4.4 
4.8 
4.7 
4.1 
3.7 
3.7 
4.1 
5.1 
4.9 


0.9 
1.3 
1.4 
2.0 
1.8 
1.8 
1.5 
1.2 
1.2 
1.7 
.9 
2.6 


20.5 
30.1 
30.6 
29.8 
28.8 
26.3 
24.7 
30.1 
28.9 
29.6 
28.9 
31.6 


71.3 

94.8. 
100.7 
108.0 
110.5 
100.1 

98. 5 
101.7 
106. 1 
110.4 
103.1 

97.8 


13.9 


Fobruarv 


16.1 


March 


15.9 


April - 


16.0 


May -- 


14.0 


June 


14.9 


July 


13.3 


August .. .. 


15.5 


September 


14.5 


October . . . 


17.3 


November 

December - 


18.8 
16.9 






January to March 

April to June 


.3 
.4 
.4 
.3 
.4 


.3 
.2 
.2 
.3 
.2 


.6 
.6 
.7 
.7 
.6 


4.9 
4.7 
3.8 
4.7 
4.5 


1.2 
1.9 
1.3 
1.7 
1.5 


27.0 
28.3 
27.9 
30.1 
28.3 


88.8 
106.3 
102.1 
103.8 
100.2 


15.3 
15.2 


July to September 

October to December 

January to December 


14.4 
17.7 
15.6 


SOUTH ATLANTIC 3 

44 cities over 25,000; total 
population, 4,495,808: 
January 


1.3 
1.5 
1.8 
1.6 
2.0 
2.2 
1.9 
1.6 
1.9 
2.7 
1.9 
2.7 


.7 
.6 
.7 
.7 
.5 
.6 
.3 
.4 
.5 
.4 
.6 
1.0 


1.0 
.9 
1.3 
1.0 
1.1 
1.3 
1.5 
1.4 
.8 
1.2 
1.1 
1.1 


11.7 

11.8 

11.8 

10.0 

7.7 

7.1 

8.0 

8.6 

9.5 

9.0 

10.7 

14.2 


13.4 
12.9 
15.2 
17.4 
16.2 
18.6 
17.4 
17.7 
18.7 
18.2 
16.9 
18.1 


55.5 
70.5 
58.5 
54.2 
52.5 
49.7 
51.7 
54.5 
54.5 
52.7 
59.1 
60.8 


143.6 
166.6 
164.7 
154.3 
142.4 
139.1 
141.6 
147.2 
150.1 
155.3 
180.9 
183.2 


26.3 


February 


36.5 


March .. 


31.8 


April - 


31.3 


May 


25.5 


June - 


25.7 


July 


25.8 


August 


28.5 


September . - 


30.9 


October . 


31.9 


November 


33.3 


December 


32.9 






January to March 

April to June 


1.5 
1.9 
1.8 
2.5 
1.9 


.7 
.6 
.4 
.7 
.6 


1.0 
1.1 
1.2 
1.1 
1.1 


11.8 

8.3 

8.7 

11.3 

10.0 


13.8 
17.4 
17.9 

17.7 
16.7 


61.3 
52.2 
53.6 
57.5 
56.1 


158.1 
145.3 
146.3 
173.0 
155.7 


31.4 
27.5 


July to September 

October to December — 
January to December 


28.4 
32.7 
30.0 


EAST SOUTH CENTRAL 

18 cities over 25,000; total 
population, 1,838,946: 

January 

February 


.9 

.7 

. 7 

.9 

1.3 

1.4 

1.1 

1.2 

1.5 

1.0 

.8 

1.2 


.5 
.3 
.3 

.4 
.3 
.5 
.3 
.5 
.5 
.6 
.4 
.7 


.4 
.1 
.2 
.5 
.5 
.3 
.4 
.8 
.6 
.5 
.3 
.5 


6.5 
5.8 
5.4 
5.6 
4.3 
4.2 
3.3 
3.4 
4.3 
4.4 
5.6 
6.0 


7.3 
9.2 
13.2 
10.8 
11.8 
14.0 
12.0 
15.8 
13.9 
13.2 
13.4 
10.8 


25.8 
30.9 
31.9 
28.1 
26.3 
25.0 
27.5 
27.7 
32.3 
27.3 
30.7 
31.4 


44.5 
58.9 
64.6 
54.1 
53.2 
53.1 
52.9 
51.6 
55.0 
56.1 
61.4 
62.2 


8.7 
11.2 


March 


10.5 


April 


8.8 


May 


8.8 


June 


9.1 


July 


8.0 


August 


9. 3 


September 


11.2 


October 


11.5 


November 


14.1 


Decem ber 


12.1 






January to March 

April to June . -- 


.8 
1.2 
1.2 
1.0 
1.1 


.4 
.4 
.4 
.6 

.4 


.2 

.4 
.6 
.4 
.4 


5.9 
4.7 
3.7 
5.3 
4.9 


9.9 
12.2 
13.9 
12.4 
12.1 


29.5 

26.4 
29.1 
29.8 
28.7 


56.0 
53.5 
53.2 
59.9 

55.6 


10.1 

8.9 


July to September 

October to December 

January to December. _ . 


9.5 
12. 6 
10.3 



See footnote.s at end of table. 



169 



Table 78. — Monthly trends, offenses known to the police, January to December, in- 
clusive, 1940, S82 cities over 25,000 in popiilation, by geographic divisions — Con. 



Geographic division and 
month 



WEST SOUTH CENTRAL 

25 cities over 25,000; total 
population, 2,889,823: 

.January 

, February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January to March 

April to June 

July to September 

October to December 

January to December. _. 

MOUNTAIN 

11 cities over 25,000; total 
population, 835,805: 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January to March 

April to June 

July to September 

October to December 

January to December 

PACIFIC * 

31 cities over 25,000; total 
population, 4, 715, 839: 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June ._ 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January to March 

April to June 

July to September 

October to December 

January to December 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



1.0 
.9 

.7 

.7 

.9 

.9 

1.1 

.9 

1.0 

1.0 



.9 

.9 

1.0 

.9 



(') 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



Rape 



.3 
.3 
.2 
.5 
.3 



0) 



.1 
.1 
,1 

.1 



.1 
.1 

.1 

.3 
.3 



.1 
.1 
.1 
.2 
.1 



.7 
.3 
.5 
.4 
.4 
.5 
.3 
.4 
.7 
.6 
.7 
1.2 



.5 
.4 
.4 



0.4 
.8 
.5 
.9 
.7 
.9 
.7 

1.0 
.5 
.5 
.6 
.5 



.6 
.9 
.7 
.5 
.7 



Rob- 
bery 



.5.8 
6.6 
4.8 
3.5 
3.9 
.5.0 
3.1 
2.9 
3.8 
3.3 
4.3 
5.9 



Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 



5.7 
4. 1 
3.3 
4.5 
4.4 



(') 



(') 



.2 
.2 
.1 
.1 
.2 
,1 

.3 
,1 
,1 
,1 



.1 
.1 
.1 
.1 
.1 



1.4 
1.4 
2.1 
1.8 
1.5 
1.3 
1.6 
1.7 
1.6 
1.7 
1.6 
1.3 



1.6 
1.5 
1.7 
1.5 
1.6 



.9 
1.2 

.9 
1.6 

.8 
1.1 
1.5 
2.3 
1.7 
1.0 
1.5 
1.9 



1.0 
1.1 
1.8 
1.5 
1.4 



13.5 
12.3 
12.4 
11.2 
10.1 
11.3 
10.5 
9.6 
10.2 
12.2 
12.7 
14.8 



12.7 
10.9 
10.1 
13.2 
11.7 



5.7 
6.0 
6.8 
8.1 
6.1 
8.2 
8.0 
8.1 
7.5 
7.2 
7.8 
6.5 



6.2 

7.4 
7.9 
7.2 
7.2 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



35.3 
38.9 
37.2 
37.1 
35.6 
32.8 
34.2 
32.5 
29.0 
27.3 
27.8 
33.1 



37.1 
35. 1 
31.9 
29.4 
33.4 



4.8 
3.6 
4.3 
3.8 
4.4 
5.4 
4.1 
3.4 
4.4 
4.0 
3.7 
4.4 



4.3 
4.5 
4.0 
4.0 
4.2 



9.3 

8.3 

7.8 

9.1 

7.0 

7.9 

9.7 

11.7 

10.5 

9.7 

9.6 

11.0 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



8.5 

8.0 

10.6 

10.1 

9.3 



85.7 
82.6 
78.5 
70.0 
64.4 
62.9 
69.7 
68.9 
72.8 
69.8 
80.2 
79.9 



82.3 
65.7 
70.4 
76.6 
73.8 



124.3 
136.1 
130.9 
120.7 
104.8 

99.9 
100.1 
101.8 

97.7 
108.2 
123.9 
133.5 



130.3 
108.4 
99.9 
121.8 
115.1 



31.1 
36.0 
37.2 
36.0 
38.3 
32.2 
35.6 
35.7 
33.6 
37.3 
39.1 
37.3 



34.7 
35.5 
35.0 
37.8 
35.8 



205. 4 
196.3 
201.7 
185.7 
178.6 
183.1 
202.0 
212.0 
209.6 
202.5 
215.9 
201.8 



Auto 

theft 



14.6 
15.0 
14.1 
12.3 
12.8 
11.6 
13.7 
11.4 
11.8 
13.8 
1.5.2 
18.0 



14.6 
12.2 
12.3 
15.7 
13.7 



5.5 
4.9 
4.0 
5.7 



6. 

4 

4 

4 

5. 

4.9 

5.4 

5.1 



4.8 
5.7 
4.9 
5.1 
5.1 



50. 1 
51.4 
50. 3 
47.5 
44.6 
44.3 
43.9 
47.4 
48.2 
52.7 
53.7 
51.3 



201.2 


50.6 


182.4 


45.5 


207.8 


46.5 


206.6 


52.5 


199.6 


48.8 



' Less than 0.1. 

2 Burglary and larceny— theft figures arc based on reports from 70 cities with a total population of 
6,064,603. 
' Includes reports from District of Columbia. 
' Manslaughter by negligence figures are based on reports from 30 cities with a total population of 



170 

Average Yearly Number of Offenses Known to the Police, 1931-40. 

The past 5 years have seen increases in offenses of rape, other 
felonious assaults, and larcenies, while substantial decreases were 
experienced in offenses of criminal homicide, robbery, burglary, and 
auto theft. 

Of the increases, rape was the most substantial. The average yearly 
number of offenses of this type committed during the past 5 years 
was 35.9 percent larger than the corresponding figure for 1931-35. 
Larcenies continued to show a steady increase, and in examining the 
average yearly number of offenses committed during 1936^0 an in- 
crease of 11.4 percent was seen over the preceding 5 years. The 
increase in aggravated assaults was slight, amounting to 1.5 percent. 

The average annual murder figure during the past 5 years was 15.2 
percent lower than the corresponding figure for the 5-year period 
1931-35. Negligent manslaughters, too, showed a decrease of 14.6 
percent. 

Except for the increase in larcenies, property crimes showed 
significant decreases as follows: Auto theft, 35.3 percent; robbery, 
26.8 percent; and burglary, 9.5 percent. 

The preceding statements are based on data presented in table 79 
which includes average annual figures for two 5-year periods, 1931-35, 
1936-40, based on reports received from 219 cities with population 
in excess of 25,000. In addition the figures are presented for nine 
subgroups, the cities being divided by location. 

In evaluating the figures in table 79, reference should also be made 
to table 91 which presents figures representing the estimated number 
of major crimes in the United States during 1939 and 1940. Table 
91 reflects increases during 1940 in all offense classes except robbery 
and auto theft, and a similar upward trend was reflected during 
1939 as compared with 1938. In other words, although the yearly 
average number of crimes during 1936-40 was in many instances 
considerably below the yearly average during 1931-35, there is 
definite evidence of an upward trend during 1939 and 1940 which is 
particularly noticeable in offenses of rape, burglary, and larceny. 
Robbery and auto theft figures, however, continue to decline. 



171 



Table 79. — Average yearly number of offenses known to the police, for the periods 
1931-85 and 1936-40; cities over 25,000 in population, by geographic division 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Geographic division 



NEW ENGLAND 

32 cities, total population, 

3,281,694: 

Yearly average: 1931-35^. 

Yearly average: 1936-40_, 

Percent change 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC 

35 cities, total population, 

5,449,163: 

Yearly average: 1931-35- 

Yearly average: 1936-40-. 

Percentchange 



EAST NORTH CENTRAL 

) cities, total population, 

7,624,214: 
Yearly average: 1931-35-- 
Yearly average: 1936-40-. 
Percent change 



WEST NORTH CENTRAL 

16 cities, total population, 

2,652,339: 

Yearly average: 1931-35.. 

Yearly average: 1936-40.- 

Percent change 



SOUTH ATLANTIC 

18 cities, total population, 

3,003,349: 

Yearly average: 1931-35. . 

Yearly average: 1936-40.. 

Percent change 



EAST SOUTH CENTRAL 

5 cities, total population, 

882,086: 

Yearly average: 1931-35. 

Yearly average: 1936-40- 

Percent change 



WEST SOUTH CENTRAL 

15 cities, total population, 

1,998,727: 

Yearly average: 1931-35.. 

Yearly average: 1936-40.. 

Percent change 



MOUNTAIN 

8 cities, total population, 

707,180: 

Yearly average: 1931-35. 

Yearly average: 1936-40.. 

Percent change 



PACIFIC 

21 cities, total population, 

2,579,573: 

Yearly average: 1931-35.. 

Yearly average: 1936-40.. 

Percent change 



219 cities, total population, 

28,178,325: 

Yearly average: 1931-35.. 

Yearly average: 1936-40.. 

Percent change 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



49 

38 

-22.4 



243 
190 

-21.8 



463 

357 

-22.9 



183 

111 

-39.3 



369 
393 

-1-6.5 



226 

195 

-1.3.7 



289 

256 

-11.4 



37 

31 

-16.2 



91 

81 

-11.0 



1,948 

1,652 

-15.2 



Man- 
slaughter 
by neg- 
ligence 



123 

99 

-19.5 



485 

247 

-49. 1 



263 

264 

-fO. 4 



51 

67 

-f31.4 



136 

112 

-17.6 



87 

94 

-f8. 



90 
97 

-t-7.8 



12 

21 

-(-75.0 



137 

183 

-1-33.6 



1,385 

1,183 

-14.6 



Rape 



222 
235 

-f-5.9 



343 

398 

-1-16.0 



564 

885 

-1-56.9 



138 

152 

-1-10. 1 



161 
254 

-1-57. 8 



33 

54 

-(-63.6 



107 

139 

-1-29.9 



29 
45 

-f55. 2 



134 

190 

-1-41.8 



1,731 

2,352 

-1-35. 9 



Rob- 
bery 



973 

691 

-29. 



2, 152 

1,638 

-23.9 



7,824 

6,099 

-22.0 



3,044 

1,326 

-56. 4 



2, 429 
2, 593 
-1-6.8 



1,048 

897 

-14.4 



1,859 

1,173 

-36. 9 



937 
392 

-58.2 



2,573 

1,916 

-25. 5 



22, 839 
16, 725 
-26.8 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



601 

476 
-20.8 



2,708 

2,093 

-22.7 



3,267 
3,014 



753 

450 

-40.2 



2, 663 

3,718 

-1-39. 6 



1,611 

1,428 
-11.4 



1,170 

1,682 

-1-43.8 



131 
130 



693 

806 

-fl6.3 



13, 597 

13, 797 

-1-1.5 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



10,015 
9, 233 

-7.8 



14, 557 
10,613 
-27.1 



25, 938 

26, 981 
-t-4.0 



9,437 

7,198 

-23. 7 



12, 157 
12, 847 

-h5.7 



5,631 
5, 344 

-5. 1 



9,178 

7,602 

-17.2 



4,496 

2,878 

-36.0 



13, 981 

12, 728 

-9.0 



105, 391 

95, 424 

-9.5 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



20, 168 

18, 681 

-7.4 



21, 995 

22, 776 
-f-3.6 



78, 432 

84, 142 

-f7.3 



21,392 
25, 390 

-f-18. 7 



26, 352 
33, 097 
-f 25. 6 



7,350 
9,390 

-1-27.8 



18,914 
22, 395 
-1-18.4 



6,998 

8,085 

-1-15. 5 



31,461 
35, 741 
-hl3. 6 



233, 061 

259, 697 

-l-U. 4 



Auto 
theft 



11,303 

7.720 

-31. 7 



11,137 

8,788 
-21. 1 



23, 355 
15, 630 
-33.1 



11,397 

4,994 

-.5.5.3 



10, 761 

7,942 

-26.2 



3,673 

2,391 

-34.9 



8,406 

3,689 

-56.1 



3,007 

1,769 

-41.2 



12, 237 

8,689 
-29.0 



95, 276 
61,611 
-.35. 3 



172 

Offenses Known to the Police— Cities Divided According to Location. 

The frequency with which crimes are committed varies among the 
several States and larger geographic divisions. This is more noticeable 
in some types of crimes than in others. For example, the burglary, 
larceny, and auto theft rates for cities in the Pacific States are some- 
what higher than those in some of the other States. 

Murder and felonious assault rates, on the other hand, are highest 
in the South Atlantic, East South Central, and West South Central 
States. 

To the student of criminal statistics the irregular distribution of 
crimes among the various portions of the country is not surprising, 
as it is well-recognized that the frequency of crimes, as well as other 
social phenomena, including births, deaths, diseases, marriages, di- 
vorces, automobile accidents, et cetera, is affected by a large variety 
of factors. 

For a discussion of some of the factors affecting the extent of crime, 
reference may be made to the text preceding table 83. 

In order that local officials and other interested individuals may 
compare the local crime data with State and regional averages, such 
figures are presented in tables 81 and 82. The number of cities used 
in preparing the crime rates refiected in those tables is shown in table 

80. 

The States represented in each geographic division in table 82 are 
of course the same as indicated in table 81. The population groups 
shown in table 82 are the same as those shown in table 76, but are set 
out here again for convenience: 

Group I. Over 250,000 inhabitants. 

Group II. 100,000 to 250,000 inhabitants. 

Group III. 50,000 to 100,000 inhabitants. 

Group IV. 25,000 to 50,000 inhabitants. 

Group V. 10,000 to 25,000 inhabitants. 

Group VI. Under 10,000 inhabitants. 



173 



Table 80. — Number of cities in each State included in the tabulation of uniform 
crime reports, January to December, inclusive, 1940 



Division and State 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England: 178 cities; total population, 
5,797,660 

Middle Atlantic: 488 cities; total population, 
19,001,711 

East North Central: 492 cities; total popula- 
tion, 16,271,722 

West North Central: 243 cities; total popula- 
tion, 5,324.328 

South Atlantic:' 158 cities; total population, 
5,465,573 

East South Central: 70 cities; total popula- 
tion, 2,294,258 .__ 

West South Central: 108 cities; total popula- 
tion, 3,640,172 

Mountain: 84 cities; total population, 1,436,- 
889 



Pacific: 180 cities; total population, 5,896,633- 

New England: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

Middle Atlantic: 

New York _. 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

East North Central: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

West North Central: 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

South Atlantic: 

District of Columbia 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

East South Central: 

Kentucky. , 

Tennessee _v.-.._ 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

West South Central: 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma 

Texas 

Mountain: 

Montana 

Idaho 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Pacific: 

Washington 

Oregon 

C alif ornia 



Population 



Over 

250,000 



100,000 

to 
250,000 



10 
11 
10 
5 
7 
3 
3 

] 

5 



50,000 

to 
100,000 



13 
21 
23 

8 
16 

4 



8 
1 
2 

6 

5 

10 

4 
4 

7 
6 
2 



25,000 

to 
50,000 



10,000 

to 
25,000 



29 

34 

58 

11 

18 

8 

10 

7 
16 



2 
2 

1 

12 

6 

6 

10 
13 
11 

14 
10 
14 
8 
12 

1 
6 
1 
1 
1 



3 

1 
12 



66 

128 

110 

61 

39 

19 

31 

23 
39 



7 
4 
1 
41 
6 
7 

47 
31 
50 

28 
14 
33 
20 

15 

10 
7 

14 
3 
5 
7 

15 



Less 
than 
10,000 



4 
6 
4 
11 
4 
4 
6 

5 
3 
3 



3 

3 

11 

14 

2 
6 
4 
5 
3 



2 
29 



58 

288 

283 

154 

75 

33 

52 

50 
110 



5 
9 
27 
3 
6 

102 

69 

117 

74 
36 
88 
52 
33 

48 
36 
16 
6 
6 
16 
26 



3 

5 
17 

8 
14 

6 

7 
15 

11 

10 

9 

3 

12 

7 
17 
16 

6 
10 
3 
13 
2 
7 
5 
4 

18 
16 
76 



Total 



178 

488 

492 

243 

158 

70 

108 

84 
180 



18 
12 
11 
96 
17 
24 

172 
123 
193 

128 
68 

144 
89 
63 

62 
54 
35 
10 
12 
25 
45 

1 
4 
12 
32 
16 
34 
13 
17 
29 

23 
18 
16 
13 

17 
14 
32 
45 

10 
17 
7 
21 
6 
9 
9 
5 

32 

20 

128 



' Includes District of Columbia. 



174 




175 

Table 81. — Number of offenses known to the police per 100,000 inhabitants, Janu- 
ary to December, inclusive, 1940, by States 



Division and State 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 



New England... 

Middle Atlantic 

East North Central . 
West North Central. 

South Atlantic 2 

East South Central,. 
West South Central- 
Mountain 

Pacific 



New England: 

Maine 

New Hampshire.. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

Middle Atlantic: 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

East North Central: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

West North Central: 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

South .\.t]antic: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina... 
South Carolina... 

Georgia 

Florida 

East South Central: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

West South Central: 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma 

Texas 

Mountain: 

Montana 

Idaho 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah., 

Nevada 

Pacific: 

Washington 

Oregon ., 

California 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



1.2 

3.1 

4. 1 

3.1 

15.2 

21.6 

11.4 

3.7 

3.7 



1.4 



1.0 
1.3 
2.1 



4.8 
4.0 
5.0 
3.2 
1.3 

1.1 
1.0 
6.5 

.8 
2.3 

.8 
3.0 

1.6 
8.6 
13.6 
10.7 
21.5 
16.6 
28.8 
14.6 

15.9 
25.8 
25.6 
14.2 



5.2 
2.0 
6.2 
3.1 
3.2 
4.9 
4.5 



3.1 
1.6 
4.1 



Robbery 



15.5 
26.3 
81.6 
37.7 
72.0 
85.6 
50.9 
46.8 
78.1 



11.6 
7.2 
6.9 

18.4 
8.3 

13.9 

16.3 
37.3 
41.3 

66.8 
63.6 
123.1 
73.6 
10.9 

26.6 
21.3 
61.6 
19.3 
14.3 
21.0 
40.8 

33. 1 
46.0 
64.8 
44.4 
51.4 
69.6 
82.8 
92.2 



83.3 

120.8 

53.1 

50.0 

65.5 
28.9 
63.4 
53.2 

47.4 
28.4 
33.5 
51.6 
30.0 
71.1 
39.4 
68.4 

50.4 
83.8 
83.0 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



10.5 
31.1 
32. 1 
14. 1 
135.6 
210. 7 
83.5 
19.3 
29.5 



9.3 
9.9 



9.1 

9.9 

17.2 

28.4 
45. 3 
.30.2 

28.2 
35.1 
36.6 
40.7 
5.6 

11.6 
7.6 

20.5 
6.7 
1.5 

14.5 

15.4 

69.4 
81.2 
171.1 
107.6 
318.2 
203.9 
108.9 
101.9 

128.6 
300.4 
212.7 
132.9 

58.2 
86.9 
56.5 
94.2 

24.5 



12. 
18. 
34. 
31. 
10. 
42. 



14.7 
10.3 
34.3 



Burglary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



269.3 
' 259. 
326.5 
267.0 
430. 
519. 
405, 
372 
522, 



310.9 
172.1 
195. 4 
267. 2 
246.4 
307.6 

3 179. 8 

362. 1 

*265.9 

379.2 

406.7 
296.7 
348. 
149.4 

276.1 

218. 5 
256. K 
217.5 
226. 3 
197.3 
407.9 

319.6 
220. 
451.7 
324.9 
467.2 
524.0 
523.8 
622.6 

585.1 
489.9 
549.3 
367.4 

327.1 
189.3 
509.2 
461.8 

252.7 
400.2 
269.4 
344.1 
341.3 
489.4 
459.3 
401.0 

534.2 
654.2 

507.7 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



571.5 
1 471. 
891.7 
912.2 
1,175.7 
1, 009. 4 
1,316.9 
1.429.3 
1, 499. 1 



717. 
434. 



640.4 
527.4 
494.8 
753.2 

3 474. 9 

560. 2 

* 404. 3 

1,024.9 
1, 006. 6 

513. 3 
1,3,59.2 

761.0 

749.8 
823.6 

1,074..'! 

1,066.7 

!, 164.8 
611.4 

1, 076. 4 

1, 083. 3 
544.0 
1, 428. 3 
986.7 
1, 129.8 
1, 354. 6 
1, 487. 4 
1,516.0 

1,23,5.4 
962.3 
780.7 

1, 072. 8 

1, 101. 4 

595. 

1,283.0 

1, 625. 1 

1, 195. 5 
1, 458. 6 
1, 080. 
1, 385. 5 
1, 759. 8 
2, 152. 6 
1, 139. 3 
1, 818. 5 

1, 367. 
1, 660. 1 
1, 509. 2 



Auto 
theft 



172.3 
145.7 
144.0 
140.2 
222.6 
182.4 
155.4 
197.6 
344.2 



133.0 
58.7 
75.6 
191.7 
116.3 
186.0 

136.8 

157.5 
158.1 

146.1 
247.0 

99.7 
187.6 

90.0 

140.9 
178.3 
117.7 
176.4 
148. 1 
1.53.2 
126.6 

207.5 
263.1 
227.2 
145.6 
171.6 
187,3 
222.8 
182.0 

262.0 

167.0 

157.4 

73.1 

104.6 
137.7 
152.6 
169.2 

243.9 
188.2 
140.3 
147.3 
212.9 
238.7 
237.1 
450.5 

256.3 
254.5 
370.2 



' The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 486 cities with a total population of 9,615,382. 

2 Includes report of District of Columbia. 

3 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on reports of 171 cities. 
* The rates for burglary and larceny are based on reports of 192 cities. 



294:il6' 



176 




177 

Table 82.- — Number of offenses known to the -police per 100,000 inhabitants, Jan- 
uary to December, inclusive, 1940, by geographic divisions and population 
groups 



Geographic division and population 
group 



Group I.. 
Group II _ 
Group in_ 
Group IV 
Group V--. 
Group VI. 



NEW ENGLAND 



Group I- 
Group II. . 
Group III- 
Group IV_ 
Group V-- 
Group VI- 



MIDDLE ATLANTIC 



Group I_ 
Group II-- 
Group III. 
Group IV- 
Group V-.. 
Group VI. 



EAST NORTH CENTRAL 



WEST NORTH CENTRAL 



Group I--- 
Group II- _ 
Group III. 
Group IV- 
Group V__ 
Group VI. 



Group 1 2- 
Group II.. 
Group III. 
Group IV_ 
Group V.- 
Group VI- 



SOUTH ATLANTIC 



EAST SOUTH CENTRAL 
Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 



WEST SOUTH CENTRAL 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 



Group I 

Group II.. 
Group III- 
Group IV- 
Group V-- 
Group VI- 



MOUNTAIN 



Group I--. 
Group II- - 
Group III- 
Group IV_ 
Group v. - 
Group VL 



PACIFIC 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



1.6 
1.3 
.6 
.7 
1.6 
1.3 



3.9 
1.9 
2.1 
1.1 
1.8 
2.4 



5.9 
3.7 
2.3 
2.2 
2.3 
2.0 



5.2 
2.2 
1.6 
1.1 
1.2 
2.4 



14.6 
18.8 
16.9 
12.1 
13.2 
11.9 



20.2 
29.2 

17.8 
15.9 
22.4 
24.6 



13.2 
10.1 
11.3 

5.8 

9.2 

15.2 



3.1 
3.3 
6.8 
5.7 
2.4 
3.0 



4.5 
4.0 
3.4 
1.5 
3.2 
2.5 



Robbery 



30.4 
17.5 
14,3 
10.1 
7.2 
9.0 



30. 1 
21.1 
28.0 
20.6 
17.3 
17.7 



127.7 
59.4 
44.2 
33.6 
31.5 
24.1 



57.9 


42.2 


26.0 


13.4 


21.5 


20.3 


90.7 


93.5 


59.7 


71.9 


24.3 


32.8 


135.1 


81.5 


49. S 


48.3 


42.0 


31.5 


58.0 


77.4 


42.0 


35.6 


39.6 


21.9 


62.0 


48.7 


92.7 


47.2 


31.1 


26.3 


111.1 


68.5 


32.2 


44.5 


25.4 


27.4 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



17.1 
15.2 
8.1 
6.6 
5.2 
6.9 



38.0 
20.8 
31.4 
20.5 
17.9 
15.0 



17.2 

21.2 

6.6 

7.0 

9.6 

13.4 



77.3 
147.6 
204.0 
175.4 
134.1 
132.6 



329.2 
169.2 

189.4 

118.7 

90.1 

80.8 



92.0 
92.1 
103.7 
60.9 
48.6 
66.8 



18.6 
12.0 
31.5 
17.5 
14.2 
27.0 



39.8 
21.8 
15.8 
16.2 
12.4 
20.7 



Burglary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



165. 6 
392.0 
327.8 
250.1 
203. 2 
195.9 



1 341. 5 
279.7 
295. 1 
246.1 
206. 4 
176.2 



362.9 
401.8 
305.3 
286.4 
253.9 
222.0 



263.4 
308. 1 
351.7 
266.4 
255.0 
195.0 



372.8 
609.4 
471.8 
431.9 
296.6 
321.9 



709.9 
396.2 
529.7 
429.1 
319. 2 
290.4 



392.3 

574.9 
416. 5 
328.0 
353.5 
313.1 



353.6 
506.2 
487.3 
380.3 
327. 4 
319.0 



61.5. 7 
505.7 
452. 1 
491.6 
316.7 
330.7 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



375.4 

780.8 
672. 1 
594.7 
464.0 
327.5 



1 521. 1 
525. 6 
536.8 
532.7 
407.8 
327.0 



, 108. 
918.5 
878.9 
663.6 
427.3 



1, 030. 4 
885.3 

1, 184. 6 
903.5 
900.3 
473.8 



962.7 

1, 648. 5 

1,414.9 

1, 295. 8 

811.0 

667.5 



1,191.1 
958. 9 
926.6 

1, 244. 5 
759.2 
382.6 



1, 424. 2 
1, 673. 3 

1,457.5 

1,266.9 

899.1 

570.7 



Auto 
theft 



1, 340. 5 
1,165.8 
1, 609. 2 
2, 086. 
1,554.9 
851.8 



1,518. 1 
1, 608. 8 
1,548.8 
1.6^3.0 
1,3-18.6 
1, 259. 7 



358.3 
219.6 
149.3 
102.5 
60.9 
54.2 



166.6 
154.4 
155. 4 
115.3 
91.7 
66.3 



142.6 
214.2 
155.7 
1.56. 3 
114.3 
88.2 



136.2 
171.7 
234.0 
134.3 
123.3 
78.9 



306. 7 
246.9 
160.3 
196.8 
126.3 
117.9 



210.5 

224.5 
155.2 
206.4 
79.8 
113.4 



180.2 
173.4 
188.1 
120. 1 
96.7 
67.5 



157.3 
252. I 
213.5 
303.0 
195.3 
115. & 



438.6 
280.7 
205.7 
276.2 
211.3 
203.8. 



1 The rates for burglary and larceny are based on the reports of 4 cities. 

2 Includes the District of Columbia. 



178 

Offenses in Individual Cities With More Than 25,000 Inhabitants. 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the calendar year 1940 is shown in table 83. The compilation in- 
cludes the reports received from police departments in cities with 
more than 25,000 inhabitants according to the 1940 decennial census. 
Such data are included here in order that interested individuals and 
organizations may have readily available up-to-date information 
concerning the amount of crime committed in their communities. 
Police administrators and other interested individuals will probably 
find it desirable to compare the crime rates of their cities with the 
average rates shown in tables 76 and 82 of this publication. Simi- 
larly, they will doubtless desire to make comparisons with the figures 
for their communities for prior periods, in order to determine whether 
there has been an increase or a decrease in the amount of crime 
committed. 

A great deal of caution should be exercised in comparing crime data 
for individual cities, because dift'erences in the figures may be due to a 
variety of factors. The amount of crime committed in a community 
is not solely chargeable to the police but is rather a charge against 
the entire community. The following is a list of some of the factors 
which might aft'ect the amount of crime in a community: 

The composition of the population with reference particularly 
to age, sex, and race. 

The economic status and activities of the population. 

Climate. 

Educational, recreational, and religious facilities. 

The number of police employees per unit of population. 

The standards governing appointments to the police force. 

The policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts. 

The attitude of the public toward law-enforcement problems. 

The degree of efficiency of the local law-enforcement agency. 
Comparisons between the crime rates of individual cities should 
not be made without giving consideration to the above-mentioned 
factors. It is more important to determine whether the figures for a 
given community show increases or decreases in the amount of crime 
committed than to ascertain whether the figures are above or below 
those of some other community. 

In examining a compilation of crime figures for individual com- 
munities it should be borne in mind that in view of the fact that the 
data are compiled by dift'erent record departments operating under 
separate and distinct administrative systems, it is entirely possible 
that there may be variations in the practices employed in. classifying 
complaints of offenses. On the other hand, the crime-reporting hand- 
book has been distributed to all contributors of crime reports, and the 



179 

figures received are included in this bulletin only if they apparently 
have been compiled in accordance with the provisions of the handbook, 
and the individual department has so indicated. 

Table 83. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1940, cities over 25,000 in population {based on 1940 decennial census) 



City 



Abilene, Tex 

Akron, Ohio 

Alameda, Calif 

Albany, N. Y 

Albuquerque, N. Mex. 



Alexandria, La.. 
Alexandria, Va..- 
Alhambra, Calif- 

Aliquippa, Pa 

Allentown, Pa. . . 



Alton, 111 

Altoona, Pa 

Amarillo, Tex 

Amsterdam, N. Y. 
Anderson, Ind 



Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Anniston, Ala 

Appleton, Wis 

Arlington, Mass.- 
Arlington, Va 



Asheville, N. C 

Ashland, Ky 

Atlanta, Ga 

Atlantic City, N. J_ 
Auburn, N. Y 



Augusta, Ga 

Aurora, 111 

Austin, Tex 

Bakersfield, Calif- 
Baltimore, Md 



Bangor, Maine 

Baton Rouge, La 

Battle Creek, Mich. 

Bay City, Mich 

Bayonne, N. J 



Beaumont, Tex 

Belleville, 111 

Belleville, N.J 

Bellingham, Wash, 
Belmont, Mass 



Beloit, Wis 

Belvedere Township, Calif- 
Berkeley, Calif 

Berwyn, 111 

Bethlehem, Pa 



Beverly, Mass 

Beverly Hills, Calif. 
Binghamton, N. Y-. 
Birmingham, Ala.-- 
Bloomfleld, N.J 



Bloomington, 111.- 

Boise, Idaho 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn- 
Bristol, Conn 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



9 
4 
111 
2 
1 

12 



9 

1 

83 



60 



13 
2 
1 



2 

121 

1 

30 

12 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



38 
122 

1 
22 

2 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



110 

1, 0.58 

50 

236 

137 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



19 

242 

5 

C8 

30 



Only 11 months received 



Under 
$50 



48 


393 


12 


18 


383 


336 


49 


104 




1 
54 


29 


11 


5 


25 


99 


22 


8 


415 


781 


6 


7 


11 


40 


27 


5 


6 


2 



Only 10 months received 
Only 5 months received 

_^--| 85 I 13 

No reports received 



10 


19 


1 


1 


1 


7 


1 


5 




2 
1 


1 


1 


30 


1 


6 


1 


33 



No reports received 



70 



Only 10 months received 



386 
1,803 
218 
535 
949 



24 


70 


94 


41 


379 


14 

1 




258 
57 


34 
12 


420 
119 


18 


41 


2 


143 


46 


322 


7 


14 


77 


9 


179 


25 


7 


225 


23 


195 


19 


36 


222 


92 


626 


4 


2 


79 


16 


101 


15 


13 


326 


13 


348 


3 


2 


61 


50 


380 



138 



208 


82 


421 


85 


15 


264 


2,354 


585 


4,806 


351 


190 


979 


13 


23 


214 


423 


24 


713 


76 


32 


161 


515 


48 


1,994 


93 


52 


834 


1,895 


671 


3,697 


55 


22 


250 


145 


44 


373 


222 


8 


501 


123 


15 


528 



129 


10 


331 


56 


15 


141 


84 


2 


149 


111 


12 


171 


43 


8 


158 


66 


7 


354 


247 


25 


221 


268 


26 


891 


97 


8 


121 



2 




46 


14 


149 


22 




177 


88 


352 


1 


4 


122 


18 


284 


170 


665 


1,698 


297 


2,015 


3 


1 


97 


17 


101 


23 


10 


100 


44 


296 


13 


1 


140 


35 


460 


293 


146 


1.117 


638 


2,197 


19 


4 


360 


200 


1,336 


2 


3 


82 


5 


90 



Auto 
theft 



30 
409 

12 
177 
132 



55 

92 

14 

154 

33 
75 

114 
25 

115 

58 



12 



71 

52 

1,047 

263 

36 

63 

47 

135 

170 

2,434 

58 

33 

107 

132 



83 
27 
28 
29 



42 

222 

47 

12 



14 

71 

115 

487 

41 

136 

95 

3,245 

300 

22 



180 



Table 83. — Number of offenses known to the 'police, January to December, inclusive 
1940, cities over 25,000 in population (based on I94O decennial census) — Con. * 



Oity 



Brockton, Mass__ . 
Brookline, Mass__ 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Burbank, Calif 

Burlington, Iowa. 



Burlington, Vt 

Butte, Mont 

Cambridge, Mass, 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 



Cedar Rapids, Iowa- 
Central Falls, R. I,.. 

Charleston, S. C 

Charleston, W. Va.. . 
Charlotte, N. C 



Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chester, Pa 

Chicago, 111 

Chicopee, Mass 



Cicero, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Clarksburg, W. Va 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 



Clifton, N.J 

Clinton, Iowa 

Colorado Springs, Colo. 
Columbia, S. C 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Columbus, Ga 

Columbus, Ohio 

Concord, N. H 

Corpus Christi, Tex_. 
Council BluSs, Iowa- 



Covington, Ky 

Cranston, R. I 

Cumberland, Md. 

Dallas, Tex 

Danville, 111 



Danville, Va 

Davenport, Iowa. 

Dayton, Ohio 

Dearborn, Mich.. 
Decatur, 111 



Denver, Colo. 

Des Moines, Iowa- 
Detroit, Mich 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Duluth, Minn 



Durham, N. C 

East Chicago, Ind 

East Cleveland, Ohio. 

Easton, Pa. 

East Orange, N. J 



East Providence, R. I. 

East St. Louis, 111 

Eau Claire, Wis 

Elgin, 111 

Elizabeth, N.J 



Elkhart, Ind.. 
Elniira, N. Y. 
El Paso, Tex.. 
Elyria, Ohio.. 
Enid, Okla.... 



13 
1 



Robbery 



1 

7 

21 

47 

54 

2 

11 

231 



43 

'58' 



1 
12 

10 
14 



59 



4 

1 

16 



10 

4 

80 



5 
11 
72 



1 
42 
34 
65 
73 

12 

2 

103 

60 

98 

111 

10 

34 

5,803 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



63 

494 

4 

898 

18 

14 
2 
5 

39 

32 

276 

2 

11 

13 

28 

2 

8 

179 

24 

23 
29 
78 
34 
28 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



5 289 44 

1 277 89 

134 677 258 

Only 5 months received 

5 26 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



15 
21 
72 
79 



313 
220 
318 

254 

6 

26 

1,500 

3 

2 

209 

10 

112 

1 



91 

27 

82 



55 
3 

31 



261 
18 

68 
2 
29 
22 
20 



200 


60 


64 


34 


,887 


1,040 


4 




17 


5 


36 


101 


36 


58 


5 


1 



88 

61 

431 

281 
279 

75 

58 

328 

211 

721 

555 

146 

108 

10, 939 

79 

97 
2, 173 

50 

2,735 

162 

115 
68 
85 

541 

159 

2,426 

54 

343 

150 

254 

65 

110 

1,637 

136 

150 
152 
748 
215 
149 



1,140 
440 

6,012 

47 

340 

456 
145 
162 
Only 5 months received 



28 

30 

56 

150 

(') 

64 

3 

108 

(') 

237 

66 
25 
33 
3,840 
16 

30 
737 

11 
249 

23 

31 
37 

15 
115 

52 

483 

3 

105 

26 

24 

37 

41 

167 



27 
12 
71 
94 
44 

315 

187 

1,105 

18 

111 

58 

42 

8 



Under 
$50 



372 

325 

1,390 

124 



1,489 

208 

171 

11,989 

149 

196 

5,493 

128 

10, 999 

276 

128 

114 

661 

1,015 

678 
3, 706 

117 
1,117 

413 

394 
216 
238 
7,911 
328 

404 

816 

2,686 

1,042 



4,007 

1, 515 

26, 490 

277 

1,144 

613 
262 
224 



15 


3 


430 


14 


174 


3 


2 


121 


11 


208 


104 


132 


215 


57 


420 


7 




52 


16 


304 


4 


1 


71 


11 


183 


32 


20 


297 


71 


588 


9 


4 


80 


26 


494 


7 


1 


67 


26 


311 


73 


45 


395 


34 


1,332 


5 
5 




72 
92 


11 
9 


116 
305 


7 



Auto 
theft 



71 
124 
556 

26 



385 


31 


185 


199 


659 


408 


479 


266 


890 


90 


528 


98 


144 


24 


809 


111 


1,339 


230 


1,766 


310 



294 
108 

88 

2,878 

24 

41 
643 

38 
908 

33 

20 

32 

53 

162 

86 
843 

19 
221 

74 

100 
40 
71 

509 
75 

48 
141 
319 
148 

64 

507 

406 

3, 157 

71 

156 

83 
59 
22 

60 

28 

190 

56 

25 

152 

45 
81 
212 
16 
15 



See footnotes at end of table. 



181 

Table 83. — Number of offenses known to the -police, January to December, inclusive, 
1940, cities over 25,000 in population (based on I94O decennial census) — Con. 



City 



Erie, Pa 

Evanston, 111 

Evansville, Ind_ 
Everett, Mass__. 
Everett, Wash.. 



Fall River, Mass... 

Farso, N. Dak 

Fitchburg, Mass... 

Flint, Mich 

Fond du Lac, Wis. 



Fort Smith, Ark.. 
Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Fort Worth, Tex. 

Fresno, Calif 

Gadsden, Ala 



Galesburg, 111... 
Galveston, Tex. 
Garfield, N. J... 

Gary, Ind 

Glendale, Calif.. 



Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Great Falls, Mont... 

Green Bay, Wis 

Greensboro, N. C 

Greenville, S. C 



Hackensack, N. J.. 
Hagerstown, Md... 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Hammond, Ind 

Hamtramck, Mich. 



Harrisburg, Pa 

Hartford, Conn 

Haverford Township, Pa. 

Haverhill, Mass 

Hazelton, Pa 



Highland Park, Mich. 

High Point, N. C 

Hobokeu, N. J 

Holyoke, Mass 

Honolulu, T. H 



Houston, Tex 

Huntington, W. Va 

Huntington Park, Calif. 

Hutchinson, Kans 

Indianapolis, Ind 



Inglewood, Calif. 
Irvington, N. J.. 
Jackson, Mich... 

Jackson, Miss 

Jacksonville, Fla. 



Jamestown, N. Y... 

Jersey City, N.J 

Johnson City, Tenn. 

Johnstown, Pa 

Joliet, 111 



Joplin, Mo .• 

Kalamazoo, Mich,. 
Kansas City, Kans. 
Kansas City, Mo_. 
Kearny, N. J 



Kenosha, Wis 

Kingston, N. Y.. 
Knoxville, Tenn. 

Kokomo, Ind 

La Crosse, Wis... 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



2 
23 

6 
14 



9 
1 

1 

2 

2 

11 

14 



1 
6 

1 

7 

55 
5 



1 
24 



1 
1 

11 
43 



40 



25 



Robbery 



30 
20 
40 



178 
25 

37 
6 



17 
17 

7 
16 
10 
22 
67 

44 
30 
2 
13 
31 

39 
18 



18 

313 

62 

24 

4 

501 

10 

29 

16 

23 

242 



46 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



20 396 

23 172 

73 390 

Only 2 months received 

90 

570 
106 
107 
689 

27 

116 
341 

882 
303 
103 

119 
Only 3 months received 



3 


2 


18 


6 


9 


6 


"?. 




51 


106 


3 


1 


12 


4 


48 


14 


84 


196 


49 


24 


10 


42 


9 


1 



66 
88 
55 



48 
21 
10 
194 
19 

25 
107 
85 
88 
13 



6 

148 

4 

11 

3 

3 

18 

23 

23 

4 

4 

15 

4 

48 

101 

2 

3 

6 



76 
617 
397 

559 
114 
62 
383 
214 

90 

76 

56 

200 

171 

316 
786 
76 
135 
119 



9 432 

173 i 147 

Only 8 months received 



3 
19 

176 
111 



3 
153 

4 

4 

15 

149 

185 



212 
1,072 

2,371 

375 

207 

168 

2,580 

183 
236 
160 
280 
1,179 



Under 
$50 



10 

130 

92 

97 
30 
10 
108 
60 

11 
17 
46 
40 
114 

65 

168 

7 

29 

23 

59 
21 

37 

161 

231 
82 
28 
11 

421 

31 
33 
27 
60 
409 



1 78 28 

Complete data not received 



27 
3 

6 



114 
169 
175 



10 
36 
27 



Only 2 months received 



13 


4 


138 


36 


453 


133 


11 




1? 




1 


6 


23 


211 


6 


1 


6 


1 



227 

700 

1,344 

75 

57 

37 

287 

253 

106 



(') 



42 

548 
26 

9 

20 

207 

18 

12 



718 

623 

1,311 

528 

536 
276 
196 
1,821 
120 

542 
1.998 
3,310 

942 

277 

112 

84 

962 

1,342 

2,078 
636 
295 
724 
598 

114 

284 
289 
609 
543 

619 
2,016 
106 
174 
134 

668 
199 

411 
2,084 

6,292 
972 
636 
433 

4,162 

471 

251 

569 

1,201 

2,939 

208 

198 
159 
219 



724 
1,217 
3,775 

111 

207 
164 
886 
415 
434 



Auto 
theft 



297 

40 

295 

65 

130 
74 
24 

409 
32 

38 
544 
275 
212 

54 

82 

13 
209 
161 

357 

42 

42 

169 

113 

62 
37 
42 
98 
126 

135 

523 

9 

60 
27 

109 

71 



270 

895 

114 

171 

37 

1,528 

61 
75 

163 
73 

303 

46 

29 
97 

71 



91 
139 
562 

20 

22 

30 

292 

102 

44 



See footnotes at end of table. 



182 

Table 83. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1940, cities over 25,000 in 'population {based on 1940 decennial cens^is) — Con. 



City 



La Fayette, Ind, 
Lakewood, OhiO- 

Lancaster, Pa 

Lansing, Mich__. 
Laredo, Tex 



Lawrence, Mass . 

Lebanon, Pa 

Lewiston, Maine- 
Lexington, Ky.__ 
Lima, Ohio 



Lincoln, Nebr 

Little Rock, Ark_. 
Long Beach, Calif 

Lorain, Ohio 

Los Angeles, Calif- 



Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lower Merion Township, Pa. 

Lubbock, Tex 

Lynchburg, Va 



Lynn, Mass 

Macon, Ga 

Madison, Wis 

Maiden, Mass 

Manchester, N. H- 

Mansfleld, Ohio 

Marion, Ind 

Marion, Ohio 

Mason City, Iowa. 
Massillon, Ohio 



May wood. 111 

McKeesport, Pa- 
Medford, Mass,. 
Melrose, Mass--- 
Memphis, Tenu- 



Meriden, Conn 

Meridian, Miss 

Miami, Fla 

Miami Beach, Fla-- 
Michigan City, Ind- 

Middletown, Conu- 
Middletown, Ohio-. 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
Mishawaka, Ind 



Mobile, Ala 

Moline, 111 

Monroe, La 

Montclair, N. J.-. 
Montgomery, Ala- 



Mount Vernon, N. Y. 

Muncie, Ind 

Muskegon, Mich 

Muskogee, Okla 

Nashua, N. H 



Nashville, Tenn 

New Albany, Ind 

Newark, N. J 

Newark, Ohio 

New Bedford, Mass- 



New Britain, Conn 

New Brunswick, N. J- 

Newburgh, N. Y 

New Castle, Pa 

New Haven, Conn 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



8 
2 
3 

86 

46 



3 
4 

1 
27 



1 

"72 



1 
32 



3 

11 

7 
1 



•3 

7 
27 

1 
4 
1 
2 



40 

1 

21 



Robbery 



4 
12 
15 

5 
6 

10 
19 
6 
31 
16 

10 

56 

105 

16 

2,169 

405 
8 

17 
9 

10 

34 

54 
9 

19 
1 

21 
4 
5 
1 

12 

12 
3'7 

8 

3 

613 

1 

32 

226 



1 
6 

57 

166 

3 

65 

10 
13 

7 
24 

5 
8 
9 
21 
1 

198 
3 

331 
21 
18 

9 
15 

2 
11 
49 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



2 
2 

15 
8 

31 

1 



1 
152 

7 

2 

60 

26 

11 

684 

531 

2 

7 

22 

41 

14 

193 

3 



10 



3 

1 

13 



3 

1 

1,700 



55 
281 



2 
10 

53 

47 

1 

207 

10 

5 

27 

145 

11 
22 

4 
7 
4 

224 

6 

528 

33 



4 

21 

5 

6 

15 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



90 
131 
125 
184 
163 

169 

32 

91 

301 

186 

73 

332 

1.015 

103 

10, 022 

2,542 
327 
192 
138 
129 

413 
201 
154 
210 
76 

205 
70 
99 
36 
70 

59 
125 
157 

57 
2,004 

96 

206 

1,324 

116 

35 

51 
104 

592 

1,557 

25 

349 

82 

85 

45 

605 

112 
119 
161 
213 
57 

771 

35 

2,596 

80 

657 

216 

180 

80 

91 

719 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



25 
16 
29 
35 
14 

43 
15 
14 
107 
35 

21 
(0 
247 

25 
4,437 

949 
41 
56 
49 
23 

182 
53 

57 
48 
17 

50 
14 
14 
27 
29 

12 
61 
21 
11 
423 

10 

25 

379 

204 

15 

7 

24 

299 

648 

6 

71 
31 
17 
5 
35 

35 

27 

56 

4 



(') 



5 
450 
33 

77 

23 
19 
25 
26 
255 



Under 
$50 



443 
307 
434 
569 
398 

429 
135 
264 
1,152 
462 

561 
1,055 
2,816 

287 
21, 497 

3,844 
321 
333 
680 
300 

857 
684 
436 
356 
421 

317 
283 
311 
178 
126 

125 

151 

277 

83 

2,949 

156 
285 
1,765 
422 
174 

99 

447 
4,517 
3,076 

144 

308 
262 
293 
50 
510 

184 
353 
569 
469 
139 

1,256 
197 

3,541 
491 

1,000 

330 
268 
184 
155 
1,220 



gee footnotes at end of table. 



183 



Table 83. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive^ 
1940, cities over 25,000 in population {based on 1940 decennial census) — Con. 



City 



New London, Conn. 

New Orleans, La 

Newport, Ky 

Newport, R. I 

Newport News, Va.. 



New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Newton, Mass 

New York, N. Y 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
Norfolk, Va 



Norristown, Pa 

North Bergen, N. J. 

Norwalk, Conn 

Norwood, Ohio 

Oakland, Calif 



Oak Park. Ill 

Opden, Utah 

Oklahoma City, Okla_ 

Omaha, Nebr 

Orange, N. J 



Orlando, Fla 

Oshkosh, Wis--- 
Ottumwa, Iowa- 
Owensboro, Ky_ 
Paducah, Ky 



Parkersburg, W. Va. 

Pasadena, Calif 

Passaic, N. J 

Paterson, N. J 

Pawtucket, R. I 



Pensacola, Fla 

Peoria, 111 

Perth Amboy, N. J_ 

Petersburg, Va 

Philadelphia, Pa 



Phoenix, Ariz__. 
Pittsburgh, Pa.. 
Pittsfield, Mass. 
Plainfleld, N.J. 
Pontiae, Mich . . 



Port Arthur, Tex.. 
Port Huron, Mich. 
Portland, Maine... 

Portland, Oreg 

Portsmouth, Ohio.. 



Portsmouth, Va 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Providence, R. I 

Pueblo, Colo 

Quincy, 111 



Quincy, Mass. 
Racine, Wis... 
Raleigh, N. C. 
Reading, Pa.. 
Revere, Mass. 



Richmond, Ind. . 
Richmond, Va... 
Riverside, Calif.. 

Roanoke, Va 

Rochester, Minn. 



Rochester, N. Y 

Rockford, 111 

Rock Island, 111 

Rocky Mount, N. C. 
Rome, Ga 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



56 
5 



275 

1 

18 



1 
"2 

'u 

1 



18 
4 
1 



2 
2 

2 
110 

6 
25 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



6 
5 

12 



1 
15 



1 

39 

2 

4 



3 

140 

18 

3 
35 

6 

1 

1,497 

10 

135 

5 

4 

6 

11 

127 

50 
19 
146 
67 
12 

15 



3 
11 
11 

2 
24 
16 
29 
11 

145 
55 



6 

402 

19 

3 
103 

39 

3 

622 

24 

128 

9 
1 
9 
2 
120 

1 

9 

190 

61 

53 

18 



3 

4 

5 

1 

9 

38 

15 

27 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



80 
570 
133 
.96 
284 

111 

169 

8,240 

369 

871 

68 

132 

153 

127 

1,430 

269 

197 

1,098 

482 

99 

190 
105 
52 
118 
104 

87 
420 
240 
524 
289 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 

$50 



109 150 

50 402 

No reports received 

103 

3,592 

371 
2,985 
108 
136 
228 

50 

88 

476 

2,385 

203 

243 

98 

579 

202 

54 

195 
121 
253 
413 
151 

66 

1,057 

166 

140 

24 

579 

155 

120 

94 

85 



16 


61 


958 


691 


59 


15 


550 


323 


2 




3 


2 


21 


12 


3 


25 


6 


2 


16 


8 


332 


33 


20 


5 


37 


176 


6 


9 


18 


29 


50 


22 


39 


34 


20 




12 


3 


35 


137 


14 


15 


17 


21 


14 


7 


165 


401 


10 


14 


12 


70 


1 




19 


35 


27 


4 


28 


1 


15 


77 


9 


23 



28 

563 

29 

19 

78 

51 
(') 
(') 

54 
206 

20 
15 
14 
13 
173 

60 

32 

132 

87 
12 

49 
21 

14 
19 
18 

18 
139 
35 
52 
45 

125 

45 

22 

1,148 

47 
498 
15 
26 
56 

» 
1 

78 

702 

41 

39 

46 

214 

13 

68 

13 
31 
109 
65 
19 

57 
279 
11 
90 
25 

141 
41 
34 
15 
10 



201 
1,469 
242 
234 
350 

171 
410 

18, 697 

448 

2,058 

66 
160 
333 
140 

4,088 

344 
726 

2,387 
927 
142 

408 
361 
96 
167 
555 

201 
1,457 
311 
252 
595 

470 
726 

498 
2,780 

1,365 

2,114 

186 

232 

458 

291 
352 
808 
4,691 
650 

883 
351 
796 
467 
180 

311 
543 
792 
596 
244 

186 
3,666 
373 
674 
212 

2,041 
548 
389 
462 
134 



Auto 
theft 



34 

724 

50 

22 

101 

72 

87 

11,332 

177 
5.30 

36 
32 

48 

25 

598 

36 
1.30 
340 
442 

48 

64 
IS 
52 
67 
140 

26 
199 
106 
215 
112 

131 
225 

28 
3,297 

186 

2,091 

31 

76 

166 

52 

78 

189 

828 

71 

74 
26 
425 
65 
30 

69 
61 
68 
100 
85 

50 
556 

43 
100 

22 

395 
87 
61 
32 
37 



See footnotes at end of table. 
294316°— 41 5 



184 

Table 83. — Number of offenses known to the police, Jannary to December, inchtsive, 
1940, cities over 25,000 in population {based on 1940 decennial census) — Con. 



City 



Rome, N. Y 

Royal Oak, Mich. 
Sacramento, Calif_ 

Saginaw, Mich 

St. Joseph, Mo 



St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

St. Petersburg, Fla. 

Salem, Mass 

Salem, Oreg 



Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Angelo, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Bernardino, Calif. 
San Diego, Calif 



San Francisco, Calif.. 

San Jose, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif. 
Santa Monica, Calif.. 



Savannah, Oa 

Schenectady, N. Y_ 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Sharon, Pa 



Sheboygan, Wis 

Shreveport, La 

Sioux City, Iowa — 
Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 
Somerville, Mass 



South Bend, Ind.. 
South Gate, Calif. 
Spartanburg, S. C. 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, 111 



Springfield, Mass.. 

Springfield, Mo 

Springfield, Ohio .. 
Stamford, Conn ._. 
Steubenville, Ohio. 



Stockton, Calif. 
Superior, Wis.. 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
Tacoma, Wash. 
Tampa, Fla 



Taunton, Mass... 

Teaneck, N. J 

Terre Haute, Ind. 

Toledo, Ohio 

Topeka, Kans 



Torrington, Conn. 

Trenton, N. J 

Troy, N. Y 

Tucson, Ariz 

Tulsa, Okla 



Tuscaloosa, Ala 

Tyler, Tex 

Union City, N.J 

University City, Mo. 
Upper Darby, Pa 



Utica, N. Y 

Waco, Tpx 

Waltham, Mass. 
Warren, Ohio... 
Warwick, R. I.. 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



7 
3 
4 

55 
4 
9 



5 
1 

19 
1 



26 

5 



« 



1 
1 

22 



16 
1 



Robbery 



5 

11 

2 



1 
13 




10 

168 

25 

26 

421 

116 

19 

14 

5 

73 

6 

196 

59 

74 

574 

18 

2 

9 

39 

54 

5 

17 

259 

4 

1 
35 
26 

2 
22 

49 

9 

11 

87 
41 

10 
10 
23 
6 
28 



7 
15 
49 
32 

1 

2 

33 

191 

22 



65 
7 

19 
176 



4 

7 

21 

3 
12 

1 
29 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



52 
25 
19 

119 
45 
21 



1 

18 
18 
475 
21 
36 

339 

15 
3 

8 
4 

38 
10 
35 
64 
3 



120 
3 



(2) 



5 
2 

35 
17 

15 
3 

31 
3 

22 



34 
103 
842 
376 
384 

1. 3.54 
1.000 

436 
89 

165 

759 

56 

1.022 

235 

574 

2.675 
266 
111 
134 
311 

235 

359 

510 

2,667 

43 

41 
325 
290 
105 
512 

487 
182 
119 
734 
281 

339 
265 
216 
98 
136 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



6 

4 

295 

52 

78 



0) 



No reports received 



1 


86 


9 


372 


5 


400 


86 


588 


1 


56 


2 


63 


5 


170 


117 


1.304 


5 


525 



No reports received 

66 I 673 



15 
15 
96 



157 

201 

1.034 



187 

116 

18 

31 

64 
13 

279 
62 

158 

684 
23 
28 
39 

117 

269 

81 

110 

407 



14 
50 
17 
40 
29 

92 
21 
54 
95 
75 

92 
48 
26 
62 
10 



22 

102 

61 

99 

23 

6 

10 

362 

39 



112 
55 
83 

238 



No reports received 
Only 11 months received 



1 
3 
2 

3 

132 

3 

13 



101 
174 
197 

116 
217 
113 
209 
17 



27 
36 
49 

56 
8 

20 
21 
43 



Under 
.$50 



128 

192 

2,264 

1,049 

1,051 

9.941 
2,384 
1,029 

278 
736 

1,684 
231 

3,420 
654 

2,332 

6,494 
872 
612 
573 

1,290 

2,117 
445 
597 

4,110 
74 

235 
1.282 
895 
603 
423 

1,182 
489 
335 

2,141 
855 

1,011 

854 
785 
244 
174 



373 

947 

933 

1,530 

152 
39 

348 
3,318 

1.0!4 



958 

445 

1,257 

2,620 



74 
255 
286 

644 
588 
421 
407 
111 



Auto 
theft 



30 

54 

364 

156 

156 

812 

285 

41 

73 

121 

378 

54 

445 

111 

584 

2,625 

160 

75 

43 

257 

145 

116 

179 

1,187 

52 

26 
190 

286 

51 

186 

200 

98 

92 

329 

247 

314 

115 

89 

83 

72 



44 
332 
278 
218 

24 

16 

139 

765 

229 



244 

115 

94 

294 



125 
18 
61 

99 
24 
31 
85 
25 



See footnotes at end of table. 



185 

Table 83. — Number of offenses knoivn to the police, January' to December, inclusive, 
1940, cities over 25,000 in population (based on 1940 decennial census) — Con. 



City 



Murder, 
nomieg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



Robbery 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and 
over 



Under 
$50 



Auto 
theft 



Washington, D. C, 
Washington, Pa — 
Waterbury, Conn.. 

Waterloo, Iowa 

Watertown, Mass.. 



Watertown, N. Y. 

Waukegan, 111 

Wausau, Wis 

Wauwatosa, Wis— 
West Allis, Wis_.. 



W^est Hartford, Conn.. 

W^est Haven, Conn 

West New York, N. J__ 

West Orange, N. J 

West Palm Beach, Fla. 



Wheeling, W. Va... 
White Plains, N. Y. 

Wichita, Kans 

Wichita Falls, Tex.. 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa... 



Wilkinsburg, Pa 

Williamsport, Pa 

Wilmington, Del 

Wilmington, N. C 

Winston-Salem, N. C. 



W'oodbridge, N. J. 
Woonsocket, R. I. 
Worcester, Mass,. 
■\Vyandotte, Mich. 
Yakima. Wash 



Yonkers, N. Y 

York, Pa 

Youngstown, Ohio. 
Zanesville, Ohio 



3 

9 

10 



12 
2 



856 
1 
3 
8 
5 

2 
4 
1 
2 

1 1 

1 
2 



293 
1 
2 
2 
2 

2 

5 



2,552 

45 

304 

167 

61 

40 
72 
27 
52 

82 



786 

14 

55 

28 

5 

14 
65 
11 
3 
22 



18 68 27 

4 71 10 

Only 5 months received 



6 


1 


16 


27 


10 


4 


4 


5 


14 


15 


13 


48 


21 


13 


16 


16 


10 


7 


41 


83 


34 


154 


13 


304 


5 


1 


3 




30 


... ...^^. 


6 




5 




6 


18 


12 


1 


92 


138 


22 


1 



55 
326 

269 
74 
242 
206 
197 

118 
160 
381 
77 
327 

75 
164 
662 

33 
133 

229 

94 

782 

218 



13 
81 

45 
49 
68 
32 
55 

9 

10 

117 

26 

26 

11 

16 

149 

17 
48 

30 
19 
76 
46 



7,019 

143 

276 

478 

61 

429 
1.39 
219 
133 
398 

142 
143 

53 
589 

396 

135 

1,132 

1,162 

315 

126 
303 

1.208 
355 
467 

90 

145 

1.062 

165 

794 

359 

381 

1,242 

405 



2,114 

53 

209 

150 

18 

33 
30 
19 
15 
27 

30 
13 

35 
63 

57 
62 
95 
97 
94 

26 

87 

251 

61 

93 

10 
23 
374 
30 
44 

162 
90 

416 
62 



1 Larcenies not separately reported. 

2 Complete figures not received. 



Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



186 

Offenses Known to Sheriffs, State Police, and Other Rural Officers, 1940. 

Under the system of uniform crime reporting, urban crimes are 
compiled separately from rural ciimes. The figures presented in the 
preceding tables are based on reports received from police depart- 
ments in urban communities (places with 2,500 or more inhabitants). 
Comprehensive data regarding rural crimes are not yet available 
but the information on hand is shown in table 85. 

A percentage distribution of offenses committed in rural places 
during 1940 is generally similar to a percentage distribution of urban 
crimes. The two sets of figures are shown in table 84. 

Table 84. — Comparison of average groups of 100 urban crimes and 100 

rural crimes 



Ofiense 



Total 

Larceny 

Burglary . . 
Auto theft. 



Percent 



Urban Rural 



100.0 



59.1 
22.3 
11.1 



100.0 



48.4 

28.7 

9.7 



O flense 



Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Rape 

Murder 

Manslaughter 



Percent 



Urban Rural 



3.4 

2.9 

.6 

.3 

.3 



3.3 
5.6 
2.3 
1.1 
.9 



The preceding comparison shows that 9.9 percent of the rural 
crimes were offenses against the person (criminal homicide, rape, and 
aggravated assault) while the corresponding urban figure was 4.1 
percent. This does not mean that the total of crimes against the 
person committed in rural areas is greater than in urban communities, 
because the figures in table 84 represent only average groups of 100 
urban crimes and 100 rural crimes. The higher proportion of rural 
crimes against the person may be due to the fact that some of the 
reports representing rural crimes indicate that possibly they were 
limited to instances in which arrests were made. Incompleteness of 
this sort would tend to increase the percentage of rural crimes against 
the person, since such crimes are more often followed by arrests than 
are the less serious offenses against property. 

Table 85. — Offenses known, January to December, inclusive, 1940, as reported by 
1,016 sheriffs, 9 State police organizations, and 66 village officers 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


T,a,r- 

ceny— 

theft 






Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Offenses known .-- 


1,080 


937 


2,246 


3,331 


5,544 


28, 700 


48, 374 


9,660 









187 

Offenses Known in Territories and Possessions of the United States. 

There are presented in table 86 the available data concerning crimes 
committed in Territories and possessions of the United States. In- 
cluded are the figures taken from reports received from the first and 
second judicial divisions of Alaska; Honolulu City, and the counties 
of Honolulu and Maui in the Territory of Hawaii; the Isthmus of 
Panama, C. Z. ; and Puerto Rico. The tabulation is based on oft'enses 
reported by law enforcement officials policing both the urban and 
rural areas, except that the data for Honolulu City have been segre- 
gated from the figures for Honolulu County. 



Table 86. — Number of offenses known in United States Territories and possessions, 

January to December, inclusive, 1940 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Jurisdiction reporting 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny- 
theft 


Auto 


Over 
$50 


Under 
$50 


theft 


Alaska: 

First judicial division (Juneau), 
population, 25,241; number of of- 
fenses known 

Second judicial division (Nome), 
population, 11,877; number of of- 
fenses known 


1 


1 

IS 

3 

6 

62 


11 

1 

19 
5 

18 

8 

2,190 


29 

18 

1,072 
152 

142 

86 

1,065 


33 

6 

161 
21 

10 

38 

104 


42 
3 

2,084 
250 
233 
559 

3.366 


4 


Hawaii: 

Honolulu City, population, 179,358; 
number of offenses known 


7 

1 

4 

1 

273 


270 


Honolulu County, population, 78,898; 
number of offenses known , ^ 


38 


Maui County, population, 55,534; 
number of offenses known 


12 


Isthmus of Panama: Canal Zone, popu- 
lation, 51.827; number of offenses known_ 

Puerto Rico: population, 1,869,255; num- 
ber of offenses known . . _ ... 


55 
90 







188 




CO 

K 
« 

C 



189 

Data From Supplementary Offense Reports. 

Stores, office buildings, warehouses, and other nonresidence struc- 
tures continued, during 1940, to be the places most frequently attacked 
by burglars, particularly during the night. This is evident in analyz- 
ing the reports received from 215 cities with population in excess of 
25,000. The police departments in these cities last year reported a 
total of 95,101 burglaries, 54.5 percent of which involved nonresidence 
structures. It was also observed that 91 percent of the nonresidence 
burglaries occurred during the night as compared with 65.2 percent 
of the burglaries involving residences. 

Owners of automobiles and bicycles might do well to note how 
vulnerable such property is to the attacks of thieves, for the figures of 
last year reflect that 50.9 percent of all the larcenies reported were 
thefts of some type of property from automobiles or thefts of bicycles. 
Thefts of automobile accessories represented 14.2 percent; other thefts 
from automobiles, 18.5 percent; and thefts of bicycles, 18.2 percent 
of the total larcenies. 

As indicated in the text immediately preceding table 76, automobile 
thefts — so important in the crime classification they merit a category 
independent of larcenies in general — represent more than 11 percent 
of all the crimes committed. 

Exclusive of auto thefts, the majority (65.3 percent) of the larceny 
oft'enses involved property valued from $5 to $50; in 25.3 percent of 
the cases the property was valued at less than $5; and the property 
was valued in excess of $50 in 9.4 percent of the cases. 

The 215 cities represented in table 87 reported 17,536 robberies, 
the majority (58.4 percent) being classed as highway robberies. 
Gasoline filling stations, chain stores, and other commercial houses 
were the scenes of 34.7 percent of the robberies. 

Of the 2,031 offenses of rape reported, more than half (51.1 percent) 
were classed as forcible rapes, and the remainder as statutory offenses 
(no force used — victim under age of consent) . 



190 



Table 87. — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission, and value of property stolen, January to 
December, inclusive, 1940; cities over 25,000 in population, grouped by size 



[Population figures from 1940 decennial 


census] 








Number of actual offenses 




Group I 


Group II 


Group III 


Group IV 


Total 


Classification 


22 cities, 
over 

2,50,000; 

population 

14,479,273 


34 cities. 

100,000 

to 250,000; 

population 

4,729,452 


60 cities, 

50,000 
to 100,000; 
population 

4,193,219 


99 cities, 

25,000 

to 50,000; 

population 

3,472,671 


215 cities; 

total 
population 
26,874.615 


Rape: 

Forcible 

Statutory 


622 
561 


179 

211 


155 
119 


82 
102 


1,038 
993 






Total 


1,183 


390 


274 


184 


2,031 






Robbery: 

Highway 


7,551 

3,611 

1,009 

154 

453 

19 

319 


1,281 
290 

178 

39 

74 

1 

62 


928 

245 

192 

50 

80 

1 

111 


479 

131 

117 

34 

33 

1 

93 


10, 239 


Commercial house . 


4,277 


Oil Station 


1,496 


Chain store 


277 


Residence - 


640 


Bank 


22 


Miscellaneous - - 


585 






Total -- 


13,116 


1,925 


•1,607 


888 


17, 536 






Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Residence (dwelling): 

Committed during night 


14,623 
9.476 

22, 147 
3,010 


5,228 
2,276 

10, 984 

579 


4,991 
2,034 

8,035 
634 


3,363 
1,264 

6,039 
418 


28, 205 


Committed during dav 


15, 050 


Nonresidence (store, office, etc.): 

Committed during night 


47, 205 


Committed during day. . 


4,641 






Total 


49, 256 


19, 067 


15, 694 


11, 084 


95, 101 






Larceny— theft (except auto theft) (grouped 
according to value of article stolen) : 
$50 and over 


13, 172 
73,205 
28,920 


4,412 
34, 437 
12, 970 


3,335 
30, 473 
12,073 


2,463 
23,977 

8,647 


23, 382 


$5 to $50 - . - 


162, 092 


Under$5. _ _ 


62, 610 






Total 


115, 297 


51, 819 


45, 881 


35, 087 


248, 084 


Larceny— theft (grouped as to type of of- 
fense): 
Pocket-picking 


1,198 
4,319 
3,993 

24, 542 
15. 974 
17, 594 
47, 677 


819 
1,035 
2,021 

8,855 

7,119 

9,112 

22, 858 


654 
759 

1,887 

7.118 

7,061 

10. 006 

18,396 


397 

603 

1,052 

5,258 

5,106 

8,348 

14, 323 


3,068 


Purse-snatching 

Shoplifting 

Thefts from autos (exclusive of auto 

accessories) 

Auto accessories 

Bicycles - -- - -- 


6,716 
8,953 

45, 773 
35. 260 
45. 060 


All other ... 


103. 254 






Total 


115,297 


51, 819 


45, 881 


35, 087 


248, 084 







191 










192 




o 



193 



In 215 cities in the United States with population in excess of 25,000 
the pohce departments reported the theft of 47,800 automobiles. 
During the same period 46,154 (96.6 percent) were recovered. 

In examining the data relative to automobiles stolen and recovered 
in table 88 it is noted that the proportion of stolen cars recovered is 
generally higher in the larger cities than in the smaller communities. 
However, as indicated in table 76 of this issue of the bulletin the 
larger cities show a substantially higher number of offenses of auto 
theft committed per unit of population. 

Table 88. — Number of automobiles stolen and recovered, January to December, 
inclusive, 1940; cities over 25,000 in population, grouped by size 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Population group 



Group I: 22 cities over 250,000; total population, 14,479,273 ^ 
Group II: 34 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total population, 4, 729,452 
Group III: 60 cities, 50,000 to 100.000; total population, 4,193.219 
Group IV: 99 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total population, 3,472,671.. 

Total, Groups I-IV: 215 cities; total population, 26,874,615.. 



Number of 

automobiles 

stolen 



25, 733 
9.735 
6,903 
5,429 



47, 800 



Number of 

automobiles 

recovered 



25, 411 
9,408 
6.290 
5,045 



46, 154 



Percent re- 
covered 



96.6 
91.1 
92.9 



96.6 



The aggregate value of property stolen in the 215 cities was $33,441,- 
858.95. The value of recovered property was $22,863,659.51, or 
68.4 percent of the amount stolen. The percentage is affected to a 
large extent, however, by the value of automobiles stolen and recov- 
ered. Of all the property stolen in these cities, automobiles repre- 
sented $20,057,956.85, and as indicated in table 89, recovered cars 
were valued at $19,330,357.68, representing a 96.4 percentage of 
recovery. 

Excluding automobiles, the money, jewehy, furs, clothing, and 
other property stolen during 1940 amounted to $13,383,902.10, and 
recoveries were valued at $3,533,301.83 (26.4 percent). The corre- 
sponding figure for 1939 was 23 percent. 



194 



Table 89 Value of property stolen and value of property recovered with divisions 

as to type of property involved, January to December, inclusive, 1940: cities over 
25,000 in population, grouped by size 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 



Population group 



Group I: 22 cities over 250,000; 
total population, 14,479,273. 



Type of property 



Total - 



Group II: 34 cities, 100,000 to 
250.000; total population, 
4,729,452. 



Total - 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals - 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles, _ 
Miscellaneous 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals. 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles. 
Miscellaneous 



Group III: 60 cities, 50,000 to 
100,000; total population, 
4,193,219. 



Total - 



Group IV: 99 cities, 25,000 to 
50,000; total population, 
3,472,671. 



Total. 



Total, groups I-IV: 215 cities; 
total population, 26,874.615. 



Total - 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals. 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Miscellaneous. 



Currency, notes, etc... 

Jewelry and precious metals. 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Miscellaneous 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals. 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Miscellaneous 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



$2, 119, 744. 51 

1, 813, 926. 49 
344, 522. 33 

1,017,818.26 
11,466,514.39 

2, 794, 485. 71 



19,557,011.69 



560, 408. 02 
369, 237. 59 
42, 736. 63 
260, 570. 69 
, 727, 968. 90 
833, 004. 29 



Value of prop- 
erty recovered 



Percent 
recov- 
ered 



$231,506.90 

454, 162. 17 

41,606.73 

206, 263. 36 

11, 179, 423. 27 

956, 437. 91 



10.9 
25.0 
12.1 
20.3 
97.5 
34.2 



13, 069, 400. 34 



66. 



5, 793, 926. 12 



461, 825. 69 
385,971.60 
47, 864. 82 
188, 021. 19 
2, 701, 023. 41 
751,294.08 



4, 536, 000. 79 



325, 194. 94 
302,591.51 
34, 169. 10 
122, 640. 29 
2, 162, 450. 15 
607, 874. 36 



112,237.38 

156, 026. 63 

13, 002. 95 

79, 518. 73 

3, 632, 818. 25 

321, 700. 63 



20.0 
42.3 
30.4 
30.5 
97.4 
38.6 



4, 315, 304. 57 



94, 012. 48 

125, 624. 49 

9, 725. 65 

54, 213. 69 

2, 515, 107. 57 

270, 424. 36 



3, 069, 108. 24 



3, 554, 920. 35 



3, 467, 173. 16 
2,871,727.19 
469, 292. 88 
1, 589, 050. 43 
20, 057, 956. 85 
4, 986, 658. 44 



33, 441, 858. 95 



45, 423. 18 

101,504.13 

5, 686. 00 

33, 079. 67 

2, 003, 008. 59 

221, 144. 79 



2, 409, 846. 36 



483, 179. 94 

837, 317. 42 

70,021.33 

373, 075. 45 

19, 330, 357. 68 

1, 769, 707. 69 



22, 863, 6.59. 51 



74.5 



20.4 
32.5 
20.3 
28.8 
93.1 
36.0 



14.0 
33.5 
16.6 
27.0 
92.6 
36.4 

67.8 



13.9 
29.2 
14.9 
23.5 
96.4 
35.5 



68.4 



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197 

Property stolen from the victim iii an average robbery last j^ear was 
valued at $102.89 according to the reports of 214 cities with popula- 
tion in excess of 25,000. 

The average value of the loot stolen in burglaries was $54.43; and 
in larcenies, unaccompanied by the elements of robbery or burglary, 
the average value of property stolen was $26.33 per offense. 

However, inasmuch as the larceny offenses made up over 59 per- 
cent of all the crimes committed, the total value of property stolen 
in such cases exceeded that for either burglary or robbery. Similarly, 
more than 22 percent of the offenses committed were burglaries as 
compared with 3.4 percent for robberies, and consequently the total 
value of property stolen in burglary cases exceeded by far that taken 
in robberies. 

The 214 cities whose reports were studied listed 46,753 automobiles 
stolen valued at $19,691,769.43, or an average of $421.19 per car. 
However, the police were successful in recovering more than 96 per- 
cent of the stolen cars, whereas for other types of property the re- 
coveries represented only 26 percent of the property stolen. 

In examining the figures presented in table 90 it should be remem- 
bered that the number of offenses listed includes attempts to commit 
offenses, and inasmuch as the thefts were not consummated, the 
value of the property sought was not reported. This would naturally 
tend to reduce the figure with reference to the average value of the 
property stolen per offense. 



Table 90. — Value of property stolen, by type oj crime, January to December, 
inclusive, 1940; 214 cities over 25,000 in population 

[Total population, 26,o72,327. based on 1940 decennial census] 



Classification 



Robbery 

Burglary 

Larceny — theft 
Auto theft 

Total.-.. 



Number of 
actual of- 
fenses 



17, 153 

92, 747 

242, 693 

46, 753 



399, 346 



Value of i)rop- 
erty stolen 



$1, 764, 806. 59 

5, 047, 967. 34 

6, 389, 279. .59 
19, 691, 769. 43 



32, 893, 822. 95 



Average 

value per 

offense 



$102. 89 

54.43 

26.33 

421. 19 



82.37 



The police departments in 236 cities with population in excess of 
25,000 listed 4,346 traffic fatalities on their supplementary homicide 
reports for 1940. Of these traffic deaths, 1,281 (29.5 percent) were 
classified as actual offenses of manslaughter by negligence. In other 
words, the police investigation of 29.5 percent of the traffic deaths 
indicated that they were primarily attributable to the gross negligence 
of persons other than the victims. The remaining 70.5 percent 
of the traffic deaths were classed as accidental or due primarily to the 
negligence of the victims. 



198 

Under the system of uniform crime reporting, any traffic death 
which the pohce investigation discloses was primarily attributable to 
the gross negligence of some person other than the victim should be 
classed as an oft'ense of manslaughter by negligence. This is true, 
regardless of the charge placed against the offender or the findings of 
the court or a semijudicial body. In other words, the classification is 
based upon the facts set out in the investigating officer's report. 



Table 90a. — Number of traffic fatalities and number of offenses of manslaughter by 
negligence, January to December, inclusive, 1940, cities over 25,000 inhabitants 
by population groups 

[Population figures from 1940 decennial census] 





Number of 
traffic deaths 


Manslaughter by negligence 


Population group 


Number of 
offenses 


Percentage 

of traffic 

deaths 


Group 1 : 29 cities over 250,000; total population, 17,665,486 

Group II: 40 cities, 100,000 to 250,000: total population, 5,771,837_ 
Group III: 57 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total population, 3,919,127. 
Group IV: 110 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total population, 3,950,409. 


2,632 

841 
446 
427 


660 
331 
164 
126 


25.1 
39.4 
36.8 
29.5 


Total, groups I-IV: 236 cities; total population, 31,306,859. 


4,346 


1,281 


29.5 



199 










200 

Estimated Number of Major Crim.es in the United States, 1939-40. 

The estimated number of major crimes in the United States during 
1940 was 1,517,026. This is an increase of 32,472 (2.2 percent) over 
1939. 

Increases were reflected during 1940 in all offense classes represented 
in the tabulation with the exception of robbery and auto theft, which 
showed decreases of 3.3 percent and 0.3 percent, respectively. The 
increases in criminal homicide and aggravated assault were slight 
(less than 1 percent). Kape increased 2.5 percent, burglary 1.7 per- 
cent, and larceny 3.3 percent. 

The estimates presented in table 91 were based on the monthly 
crime reports forwarded to the Federal Bureau of Investigation by 
police departments of cities with an aggregate population in excess of 
65 million. 

It is recognized that the larceny classification includes many thefts 
involving property of small value. However, it is also noted that the 
estimated total of major crimes does not include miscellaneous crimes 
of a serious nature, such as embezzlement, fraud, forgery, counter- 
feiting, arson, receiving stolen property, drug violations, carrying 
concealed weapons, etc. It is therefore believed that the estimated 
totals set out in table 91 are conservative. 

Table 91. — Estimated number of major crimes in the United States, 1939-40 



Offense 



Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter 

Manslaughter by negligence 

Rape 

Bobbery . 

Aggravated assault 

Burglary 

Larceny 

Auto theft ,.-,, 

Total __J.j 



Number of offenses 



1939 



7,514 

4,394 

8,832 

55, 242 

46, 483 

311, 104 

872, 988 

177, 997 



1, 484, 554 



1940 



7,540 

4,425 

9,055 

53, 435 

46, 538 

316, 369 

902, 113 

177, 551 



1,517,026 



Change 



Number 



+26 

+31 

+223 

-1,807 

+55 

+5, 265 

+29, 125 

-446 



+32, 472 



Percent 



+0.3 

+.7 

+2.5 

-3.3 

+.1 

+1.7 

+3.3 

-.3 



+2.2 



201 




202 




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203 
DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

Source of Data. 

During the calendar year 1940 the FBI exammcd 609,013 arrest 
records, as evidenced by fingerprint cards, in order to obtain data 
concerning the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of the 
persons represented. The compilation has been limited to instances 
of arrests for violation of State laws and municipal ordinances. In 
other words, fingerprint cards representing arrests for violations of 
Federal laws or representing commitments to any type of penal 
mstitution have been excluded from this tabulation. 

The number of fingerprint records examined was considerably 
larger than for prior years, which were as follows: 1939, 576,920; 
1938, 554,376; 1937, 520,153; 1936, 461,589. The increase in the 
number of arrest records examined should not necessarily be con- 
strued as reflecting an increase in the amount of crime, nor as an 
increase in the number of persons arrested, since it quite probably is 
at least partially the result of an increased tendency on the part of 
local agencies to contribute fingerprint records to the Identification 
Division of the FBI. The tabulation of data from fingerprint cards 
obviously does not include all persons arrested, since there are in- 
dividuals taken into custody for whom no fingerprint cards are 
forwarded to Washington. Furthermore, data pertaining to persons 
arrested should not be treated as information regarding the number of 
offenses committed, since two or more persons may be involved in 
the joint commission of a single offense, and on the other hand one 
person may be arrested and charged with the commission of several 
separate crimes. 

Offense Charged. 

More than 39 percent (240,680) of the records examined during 
1940 represented arrests for major violations as follows: 

Criminal homicide 6, 351 

Robbery 13, 251 

Assault 34,018 

Burglary i 34, 829 

Larceny (except auto theft) 62, 440 

Autotheft 13,364 

Embezzlement and fraud 19, 132 

Stolen property (receiving, etc.) 3, 577 

Arson 1, 081 

Forgery and counterfeiting 7, 105 

Rape., 6,031 

Narcotic drug laws 5, 014 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 5, 684 

Driving while intoxicated 28, 803 

Total 240, 680 



204 

Persons charged with murder, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, 
or auto theft numbered 164,253 which represents 27 percent of the 
total arrest records examined. 



Sex. 

Males arrested outnumbered females arrested for all types of crimes 
except commercialized vice. However, there are significant differ- 
ences in the criminal tendencies of males and females which are re- 
vealed when a study is made of the figures representing an average 
group of 1,000 men arrested in comparison with an average group of 
1,000 women arrested. Such a comparison indicates there were more 
women than men charged with murder, assault, commercialized vice, 
and narcotic drug violations. In the average group of 1,000 men 
arrested and the average group of 1,000 women arrested, 13 women 
and 10 men were charged with criminal homicide; 63 women and 55 
men with assault; 38 women and 5 men with narcotic drug violations. 
On the other hand, men predominated in most of the remaining types 
of crimes, particularly in robberies, burglaries, and auto thefts. 

During 1940, 8.5 percent (51,950) of the records represented women. 
This is an increase over the corresponding figures for prior years, 
which are as follows: 1939, 7.6 percent; 1938, 6.8 percent; 1937, 6.9 
percent; 1936, 7.3 percent; 1935, 6.9 percent; 1934, 6.9 percent; 
1933, 7.2 percent. 

Table 92.- — Distribution of arrests by sex, Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1940 



Offense charged 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Criminal homicide -_ 


6,351 

. 13,251 

34, 018 

34,829 

62,440 

13, 364 

19, 132 

3,577 

1,081 

7,105 

6,031 

8,987 

9,548 

5,014 

5,684 

7,978 

9,957 

28,803 

5,953 

49 

9,498 

29,403 

115, 848 

53,664 

13, 283 

62,090 

4,286 

37, 789 


5,671 
12, 662 
30, 769 

34, 204 
57,094 
13, 156 
18, 067 

3,313 

987 

6,654 

6,031 

2,494 

8,154 

3,051 

5,423 

7,730 

8,140 

28,001 

5,851 

49 

9,295 

25,739 

108, 292 

48, 952 

12, 488 

55. 361 

3,966 

35, 469 


680 

589 
3,249 

625 
5,346 

208 
1,065 

264 
94 

451 


1.0 

2.2 

5.6 

5.7 

10.3 

2.2 

3.1 

.6 

.2 

1.2 

1.0 

1.5 

1.6 

.8 

.9 

1.3 

1.6 

4.7 

1.0 

(') 
1.6 
4.8 

19.0 
8.8 
2.2 

10.2 

.7 

6.2 


1.0 
2.3 
5.5 
6.1 
10.2 
2.4 
3.2 

.6 

.2 
1.2 
1.1 

.4 
1.5 

.5 
1.0 
1.4 
1.5 
5.0 
1. 1 

(■) 
1.7 
4.6 

19.4 
8.8 
2.3 
9.9 
. 7 
6.4 


1.3 


Robbery _. 


1.1 


Assault - - 


6.3 


Burglary — breaking or entering 


1. 1 


Larceny — theft 


10.3 


Autotheft - . - - . 


.4 


Embezzlement and fraud 


2.1 


Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 


.5 


Arson .- 


.2 


Foreerv and counterfeitinff 


.9 


Rape - 




Prostitution and commercialized vice 


6,493 

1,394 

1,963 

261 

248 

1,817 

802 

102 


12.5 


Other sex offenses . - 


2.7 


Narcotic drug laws - - 


3.8 


Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 


.5 


Oflenses against family and children 


.5 


Liquor laws - - 


3.5 


Driving while intoxicated 


1.5 


Road and driving laws.-- 


.2 


Parking violations 




Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 


203 
3,664 
7.556 
4,712 

795 
6,729 

320 
2,320 


.4 


Disorderly conduct 


7.0 


Drunkenness . -- 


14.5 


Vacrancv 


9.1 


Gambling . _ - 


1.5 


Suspicion .. - - 


13.0 


Not stated - - 


.6 


All other offenses 


4.5 






Total . 


609, 013 

r-s 


557, 063 


51, 950 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 







' Less than Mo of 1 percent. 



205 

Age. 

During 1940 age 19 predominated in the frequency of arrests and 
was followed by ages 21 and 22, respectively. This differs from the 
situation in 1939 when arrests for age 21 were less frequent than for 
age 18 or 22. 

During 5 of the past 9 years age 19 has predominated in the fre- 
quency of arrests, 1932-34 and 1939-40. Arrests for ages 21, 22, and 
23 exceeded arrests for age 19 in 1935-38. Figures for the groups in 
which the largest number of arrests occm-red during 1940 are as 
follows : 

Age : Number of arrests 

19 24,870 

21 23,957 

22 23, 878 

18 23,505 

23 23, 208 

The percentage of the total persons arrested who were less than 21 
years old was 17.4 m 1936; 18.0 in 1937; 18.8 in 1938; 18.9 in 1939; 
and 17.5 in 1940. 

There were 106,298 persons less than 21 years old arrested and 
fingerprinted during 1940. In addition, there were 92,913 (15.3 
percent) between the ages of 21 and 24, making a total of 199,211 
(32,7 percent) less than 25 years old. Arrests in age group 25-29 
numbered 99,556 (16.3 percent) resulting in a total of 298,767 (49.1 
percent) less than 30 years of age. (With reference to the ages of 
persons represented by fingerprint cards received at the FBI, it 
should be borne in mind that the number of arrest records is doubtless 
incomplete in the lower age groups because in some jurisdictions the 
practice is not to fingerprint youthful individuals.) 



206 




207 



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208 



Confirming studies made in prior years, the 1940 figures indicate 
that youths commit a large proportion of the total ofl^enses against 
property. This is particularly true with reference to robbery, bur- 
glary, larceny, and auto theft, as revealed by the following tabulation: 

Table 94. — Percentage distribution of arrests by age groups 



Age group 


All 
offenses ' 


Criminal 
homicide 


Robbery 


Burglary 


Larceny 


Auto theft 


Under 21 


17.5 
31.6 
25.7 
15.5 
9.6 
.1 


12.5 
37.2 
26.5 
13.9 
9.8 
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28.8 

44.5 

19.0 

5.8 

1.8 

.1 


44.8 

32.5 

14.9 

5.6 

2.1 

.1 


32.0 
32.3 
19.8 
10.3 
5.5 
.1 


53.3 


21-29 


32.2 


30-39 


10.8 


40-49 


2.9 


50 and over -- 


.7 


Unknown 


.1 






Total 


100.0 


100. 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 







1 Not limited to specific crimes listed in the table. 

The extent to which youthful offenders committed crimes against 
property is further revealed by an examination of the age distribution 
of all persons arrested for such crimes. Durmg 1940, there were 
154,779 persons of all ages arrested for robbery, burglary, larceny, 
auto theft, embezzlement and fraud, forgery and counterfeiting, 
receiving stolen property, and arson; and 49,866 (32.2 percent) of 
those persons were less than 21 years old. The corresponding per- 
centages for prior years are as follows: 1939, 32.9; 1938, 31.5; 1937, 
31.0; 1936, 28.5. 

The extent of the participation of youth in the commission of crimes 
against property is further indicated by the following figures. During 
1940, 32.7 percent of all persons arrested were less than 25 years of 
age. However, persons less than 25 years old numbered 53.5 percent 
of those charged with robbery, 63,6 percent of those charged with 
burglary, 49.3 percent of those charged with larceny, and 73.1 percent 
of those charged with auto theft. More than one-half of all crimes 
against property durmg 1940 were committed by persons under 25 
years of age. 



209 



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Table 95. 



210 

-Number and 'percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, male 
and female, Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1940 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault. 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, etc 

Arson 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice . 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children.. . 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traflic and motor-vehicle laws... 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Total num- 
ber of per- 
sons ar- 
rested 



6, 351 
13, 251 
34. 018 
34. 829 
62, 440 
13, 364 
19, 132 

3,577 
1,081 

7, 105 
6,031 
8,987 
9,548 
5,014 
5,684 
7.978 
9,957 

28. 803 
5.953 

49 
9,498 

29, 403 
115,848 

53, 664 
13, 283 
62, 090 
4.286 
37, 789 



609, 013 



Number 

under 21 

years of age 



797 

3,813 

3, 906 

15, 620 

20, 008 

7,117 

1,339 

686 

205 

1,078 

1,592 

638 

1. 327 

466 

,014 

393 

761 

134 

.028 

5 

.803 

,082 

4,492 

8.811 

738 

13,310 

592 

9,543 



1. 



106, 298 



Total num- 
ber under 
25 years of 



1,878 

7.090 

9,228 

22. 141 

30. 793 

9,768 

4,098 

1,281 

357 

2,341 

2,895 

2. 857 

2, 803 

1, 342 

2.034 

1, 532 

2,073 

4.378 

2,466 

15 

3.881 

8.883 

14,214 

17. 323 

2,119 

24, 278 

1,205 

15. 938 



199,211 



Percentage 

under 21 
years of age 



12.5 
28.8 
11.5 
44.8 
32.0 
,53. 3 

7.0 
19.2 
19.0 
15.2 
26. 4 

7. 1 
13.9 

9.3 
17.8 

4.9 

7.6 

3.9 
17.3 
10.2 
19.0 
13.9 

3.9 
16.4 

,5.6 
21.4 
13.8 
25.3 



17.5 



Total per- 
centage 
under 25 

years of age 



29.6 
53.5 
27.1 
63.6 
49.3 
73.1 
21.4 
35.8 
33.0 
32.9 
48.0 
31.8 
29.4 
26.8 
35.8 
19.2 
20.8 
15.2 
41.4 
30.6 
40.9 
30.2 
12.3 
32.3 
16.0 
39.1 
28.1 
42.2 



32.7 



In examining the percentage distribution of arrests by age for males 
alone, it is found that in the frequency of arrests age 19 is followed 
by ages 18, 21, and 22, respectively. This differs from the figures for 
all persons arrested, which showed more arrests for ages 21 and 22 
than for age 18. 

The age distribution of females arrested differs substantially from 
the corresponding figures for males and those for both sexes combined. 
For females the largest number of arrests was for ages 22, 23, and 24. 

To facilitate comparison, data for separate sexes for selected indi- 
vidual age groups are presented herewith: 





1 
Number of arrests 


Age 


Number of arrests 


Age 


Male and 
female 


Male 


Female 


Male and 
female 


Male 


Female 


19 

21 


24, 870 
23, 957 
23, 878 
23,505 


22, 659 
21, 525 
20,814 
21, 634 


2,211 
2,432 
3,064 
1,871 


23 

20 


23,208 
22, 591 
21, 870 


20,175 
20,517 
19, 252 


3,033 
2,074 


22 


24 


2,618 


18 











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