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Full text of "The Union army; a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers"

NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES 






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THE 



UNION ARMY 



A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal 
States 1861-65 — Records of the Regi- 
ments IN THE Union Army — Cyclo- 
pedia OF Battles — Memoirs 
OF Commanders and 
Soldiers 



VOLUME I 



Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, 

Rhode Island, Connecticut, Pennsylvania 

and Delaware 



MADISON, WIS. 
Federal Publishing Company 

1908 



^n-s.T 



Copyright, 1908 

BY 

Federal Publishing Company 



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To the 
VETERANS OF THE CIVIL WAR, 
Who Left Their Shops, Fields 
and Firesides, 
to Preserve the Union Our Forefathers Established, 
and 
After a Bloody Contest of Four Years 
Gave to Their Posterity a Reunited Country, 
This Work is Respectfully Dedicated 
by the Publishers. 



j%. 



CONTENTS 



VOLUME I 



Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Con- 
necticut, Pennsylvania and Delaware. 

VOLUME II 

Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of New York, 
Maryland, West Virginia and Ohio. 

VOLUME HI 

Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of New Jersey, 
Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, 

VOLUME IV 

Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
California, Oregon, The Territories and 
District of Columbia. 

VOLUME V 

Cyclopedia of Battles — A to Helena. 

VOLUME VI 

Cyclopedia of Battles — Helena Road to Z. 

VOLUME VII 
The Navy. 

VOLUME VIII 

Biographical. 



%0I^ 








cr 




JOSHUA L. CHAMBERLAIN 



Joshua L. Chamberlain, major-general, was bom in Brewer, 
Me., Sept. 8, 1828. His father proposed an army career for him, 
and sent him at the age of fourteen to the military academy of 
Maj. Whiting at Ellsworth, Me., where one lasting benefit was 
the compulsory acquirement of some practical acquaintance 
with the French language. After some time spent in that insti- 
tution of learning, and in teaching country school and other 
remunerative employment, he decided to become a minister 
of the gospel ; and finally, having committed to memory Kuhner's 
unabridged Greek grammar from alphabet to appendix, he en- 
tered Bowdoin college with advanced standing at the age of 
nineteen. Graduating at the college in 1852, he entered Bangor 
theological seminary, where, besides conforming to all regula- 
tions, he read his theology in Latin and his church history in 
German, and took up the study of the Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic 
languages, to which he continued to devote not less than an 
hour a day for six years. Before his graduation, having written 
the four sermons required, and occasionally preached them, he 
received "calls" from three important churches; but the remark- 
able impression made by his "Master's Oration" at Bowdoin 
in 1855 on "Law and Liberty" led to his immediate appointment 
as instructor in the department of natural and revealed religion. 
The next year he was elected professor of rhetoric and oratory 
and held this place for five years. In July, 1862, leave of ab- 
sence for two years was granted him for the purpose of pursuing 
his studies in Europe, but the serious reverses of the Union army 
and the critical condition of the country at that time seemed to 
him a call to service in another field. On Aug. 8 he was made 
lieutenant-colonel of the 20th regiment of Maine volunteers. 
In twenty days he had the organization complete with full 
ranks, turned the command over to Col. Ames of the regular 
army, and set forth for the field. The regiment was assigned 
to Butterfield's division, Porter's corps. Army of the Potomac. 
Col. Chamberlain's qualities were tested in the sharp engagement 
at Shepherdstown ford immediately after the battle of Antietam, 
in September, and in the terrible experiences of his command 
in the disastrous battle of Fredericksburg in December he cer- 
tainly won the master's degree in his military education. He 
had an arduous part in all the trying operations of that winter 
Vol. 1—2 17 



on the Rappahannock. In May, 1863, he was made colonel 
of his regiment, having already acted in that capacity for three 
months. At Gettysburg, July 2, he held the extreme left of the 
Union line, and his conduct on that occasion in the memorable 
defense of Little Round Top won for him the admiration of the 
army and public fame, and he was recognized by the govern- 
ment in the bestowal of the Congressional medal of honor for 
"conspicuous personal gallantry and distinguished service." 
He was immediately placed in command of the famous "light 
brigade" of the division, which he handled with marked skill 
in the action at Rappahannock station. At Spottsylvania 
Court House in May, 1864, he was placed in command of a "for- 
lorn hope" of nine picked regiments to make a night assault on 
a hitherto impregnable point of the enemy's works. By remark- 
able judgment and skill he gained the position, but in the morn- 
ing it was found to be commanded on both flanks by the enemy 
in force, therefore utterly untenable, and the withdrawal ordered 
was more difficult than the advance had been. Shortly after- 
ward came the sharp engagements on the Totopotomy and the 
North Anna, and the terrible battles of Bethesda Church and 
Cold Harbor, in all of which his coolness of judgment and quick- 
ness of action drew special commendation. He was promoted 
to colonel of the 20th Maine on May 18, as stated above, and one 
month later, in command of a brigade, he made the desperate 
charge on Rives' salient in the Petersburg lines, where Gen. 
Grant promoted him on the field to the rank of brigadier-general 
"for gallant conduct in leading his brigade against a superior 
force of the enemy and for meritorious service" in that terrible 
campaign of 1864. In this assault he was seriously wounded 
and reported dead, but after two months of intense suffering he 
returned to his command. In the last campaign of the war, with 
two brigades he led the advance of the infantry with Sheridan, 
and made the brilliant opening fight on the Quaker road, March 
29, 1865, where he was twice wounded (in the left arm and 
breast), and his horse was shot under him. His conduct again 
drew attention of the government, and he was promoted to the 
brevet rank of major-general "for conspicuous gallantry" in 
this action. On the White Oak road, March 31, although much 
disabled by wounds, he distinguished himself by recovering a 
lost field; and in the battle of Five Forks, April i, his prompti- 
tude and skillful handling of troops received special official men- 
tion. In the final action at Appomattox Court House, April 
9, he was called by Gen. Sheridan to replace his leading division 
of cavalry, and the first flag of truce from Longstreet came to 
him. His corps commander says in an official report: "In the 
final action Gen. Chamberlain had the advance, and was driving 

18 



the enemy rapidly before him when the announcement of the 
surrender was made." At the formal surrender of Lee's army 
he was designated to command the parade before which that 
army laid down the arms and colors of the Confederacy. At the 
final grand review in Washington, his division had the honor 
of being placed at the head of the column of the Army of the 
Potomac, and his troops, fresh from the surrender at Appomat- 
tox, were received by the thronging spectators as might be 
imagined. In the reorganization of the regular army at the close 
of hostilities he was offered a colonelcy, with the privilege of 
retiring with the rank of brigadier-general, on account of wounds 
received in the service. Not caring to be a soldier in time of 
peace, he declined this offer, and was mustered out of military 
service Jan. 15, 1866. Returning to Maine he was offered the 
choice of several diplomatic offices abroad, but almost as soon 
as he was out of the army, he was elected governor of the state 
by the largest majority ever given in that commonwealth. His 
administration was very satisfactory and he was continued in 
that office for four terms. While popular with the people he 
was in some disfavor with his party because he did not approve 
the policy of conferring the privilege of the "suffrage" on the 
lately liberated slaves, holding that reconstruction could only 
be effected by and through the best minds of the south, a position 
that history has thoroughly vindicated. In 1871 Gen. Cham- 
berlain was elected president of Bowdoin college, and held that 
position until 1883, when he resigned, although continuing to 
lecture on public law and public economy until 1885. He was 
appointed major-general of Maine militia in 1876, was United 
States commissioner to the Paris exposition in 1878, and in 
1885 he went to Florida as president of a railroad construction 
company. In 1900 he was appointed by President McKinley 
surveyor of customs at the port of Portland, and is still the effi- 
cient occupant of that position. Thus it will be seen that Gen. 
Chamberlain is still an active man of affairs. He is in great 
request as a speaker on public occasions and as a writer he has 
an extended reputation. He has recently been engaged in writ- 
ing out his notes on the last campaign of the Army of the Poto- 
mac, which he contemplates publishing under the title, "The 
Passing of the Armies: Last Campaign of Grant and Lee." He 
also revised and edited the manuscript pertaining to the state 
military history of Maine, which appears as a part of this pub- 
lication. 



19 



Military Affairs in Maine 

1861-65 



No one of the loyal states can claim preeminence over the 
Pine Tree State in its conduct during the Civil war. The uni- 
versal sentiment of her people was that the Union must be pre- 
served and the supremacy of the law maintained at whatever cost 
of life and treasure. All the patriotism of their revolutionary 
ancestors showed forth in the prompt and energetic action taken 
by her citizens in support of the general government, and in the 
determination that our institutions should be preserved as handed 
down by the fathers. The excess of her devotion to the Union, 
and some of her enormous sacrifices in blood and treasure will 
be briefly recorded in the following pages. Unnumbered pages 
would not suffice to tell in detail the splendid history of individual 
sacrifice and heroism on the part of her citizens during the con- 
tinuance of the great struggle for the life of the nation. 

The distant mutterings of rebellion had been heard for many 
months, and four of the Southern States had already passed or- 
dinances of secession, while several others were threatening to 
pass similar ordinances, when the legislature of the State of 
Maine took steps to assure the government at Washington of its 
unswerving loyalty, and passed on Jan. i6, 1861, by a large ma- 
jority, the following joint resolutions : — 

"Whereas, By advices received from Washington, and by 
information received in marty other ways, it appears that an ex- 
tensive combination exists of evil-disposed persons to effect the 
dissolution of the Federal Union, and the overthrow of the Gov- 
ernment ; and whereas the people of the state are deeply attached 
to the Union and thoroughly loyal to the government, and are 
heartily devoted to their preservation and protection ; therefore, 

"Resolved, That the governor be, and hereby is, authorized and 
requested to assure the president of the United States of the 
loyalty of the people of Maine to the Union and the government 
thereof; and that the entire resources of the state in men and 
money are hereby pledged to the administration in defence and 
support of the Constitution and the Union." 

20 



Military Affairs in Maine 21 

When the news reached the people of Maine that the first gun 
of rebellion had been fired upon our national flag, and that the 
United States fort, Sumter, in Charleston Harbor, S. C, had 
been assaulted and reduced, April 12, 1861, a great wave of 
patriotic ardor swept over the whole state. Everywhere her sons 
and daughters were inspired by a spirit of determination to 
avenge the blow that had been struck, and to aid the government 
in crushing the treasonable movement. Men forgot their party 
affiliations, and patriotic assemblages gathered in all the princi- 
pal places in the state to voice their undying devotion to the 
Union. All were animated by the same spirit of sacrifice, and 
active steps were at once taken to form military organizations. 
The hills and valleys of Maine resounded with martial music 
and the gleam of bristling bayonets was seen throughout the 
land. In some towns, in less than twenty-four hours, full com- 
panies of volunteers were formed, ready to march. The pulpit 
and the press united in the demand that the state should do its 
full share in upholding the government. Banks and private citi- 
zens hastened to tender such material aid to the government for 
war purposes as might be found essential. Mr. Henry B. Hum- 
phrey, a wealthy gentleman of Thomaston, offered to arm and 
equip a company of artillery at an expense of $15,000. Mothers, 
wives and sisters were animated by the same loyal spirit, and 
some of the women of Skowhegan, eager to testify their devo- 
tion to the nation, got out a field piece and fired a salute of 34 
guns. The first companies to tender their services were the 
Lewiston Light Infantry, Auburn Artillery, and Portland Rifle 
Guards. The first named organization was the first to fill its 
ranks and be accepted and ordered into service by the governor. 
In Cherryfield, four hours after the enlistment roll was opened, 
fifty volunteers had entered their names. A poll of a volunteer 
company in China on the question of an immediate tender of 
their services to the state, showed no dissenting voice. Many 
other towns acted with almost equal zeal and promptitude. 

The long reigu of peace had rendered military organizations 
unnecessary, and the opening of hostilities found the militia of 
Maine in a neglected and unprepared condition. There was an 
enrolled but unarmed militia of about 60,000 men, and not more 
than 1,200 of these were in a condition to respond to any sudden 
call to arms in the emergencies contemplated by the constitution 
of the state. Nevertheless, within two weeks of the president's 
call for 75,000 volunteers, April 15, 1861, the ist regiment of 
infantry was organized under the command of the gallant Na- 
thaniel J. Jackson of Lewiston, and in less than a month the 2nd 



22 The Union Army 

regiment was also ready for service, commanded by the brave 
and lamented Charles D. Jameson of Bangor. Sickness some- 
what delayed the departure of the ist regiment from the state, 
and the 2nd was the first to start for the seat of war, armed and 
equipped so well that it received the warm encomiums of Mr. 
Cameron, the secretary of war. 

Maine was most fortunate in having, from the commencement 
of the war, able and incorruptible chief magistrates, imbued with 
the loftiest patriotism, and whose great ambition was to furnish 
men and means for the suppression of the rebellion as promptly 
and economically as it was possible to do. At the outbreak of 
hostilities, Israel Washburn, Jr., was in the gubernatorial chair, 
and labored under almost insurmountable difficulties in his ef- 
forts to organize an effective miltiary force from the crude and 
chaotic elements- of the state militia system. He found himself 
without sufficient authority of law to meet the requisition made 
on him by the president for a portion of the state militia to be 
used in suppressing the armed uprising against the Federal gov- 
ernment, and on April 16, the day following President Lincoln's 
first call for troops, he called the legislature in extra session, to 
convene on the 22nd. He used this language in his proclama- 
tion summoning the law-making body: — "The fact that the laws 
of the United States have been, and now are opposed, and their 
execution obstructed, in the States of South Carolina, Georgia, 
Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas, by a com- 
bination too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course 
of judicial proceedings, or by the power vested in the marshals 
by the laws that are ; the fact that a requisition has been made 
on me by the President of the United States for a portion of the 
militia of the state to aid in suppressing such combinations, and 
causing the laws to be duly executed ; the fact that I find myself 
without sufficient authority of law to enable me to respond thereto 
as the exigency of the case requires, — these facts present in my 
judgment, one of those extraordinary occasions contemplated in 
the constitution for the convening of the legislature. In consid- 
eration whereof, I, Israel Washburn, Jr., governor of the State 
of Maine, in virtue of the power vested in me by the constitution 
to convene the legislature of this state, hereby require the sena- 
tors and representatives to assemble in their respective chambers 
at the capitol in Augusta, on Monday, the 22nd day of April 
instant, at 12 o'clock noon, and then and there to consider and 
determine on such measures as the condition of the country and 
the obligation of the state may seem to demand." 

The legislature sat for only three and a half days, but during 



Military Affairs in Maine 23 

that time, enacted with commendable promptness and unanimity 
all laws necessary to enable the state to do its share in meeting 
the remarkable crisis of the country. An act was passed to 
receive, arm, and equip ten regiments of volunteers, not to exceed 
10,000 men, and authorizing a loan of $1,000,000 to meet this 
expense. A bill was also passed to raise a volunteer corps of 
militia of three regiments, not to exceed 3,000 men, who should 
be armed, equipped and drilled at the expense of the state, and 
subject to be called into actual service at the demand of the 
proper authorities. The volunteers in actual service were to 
receive two months bounty and the regular pay of $11 per month. 
Steps were also taken to place the whole militia force of the 
state in the most effective condition. The governor was author- 
ized, if in his discretion the public safety should demand it, to 
make provision for the organization of coast guards to protect 
the commerce and harbors of the state from privateers. It au- 
thorized a loan of $300,000, in case it was deemed necessary to 
provide this coast guard. This prompt and patriotic action of the 
legislature influenced all classes. The ship-builders and ship- 
owners of the state met and offered their vessels to the govern- 
ment ; lumbermen, fishermen, and men of all professions hastened 
to volunteer their services in the companies which were now 
being rapidly formed. A general order was at once promulgated 
calling for 10,000 volunteers, to be organized into ten regiments, 
without regard to military districts, to be immediately enlisted 
and mustered into the active militia service of the State. 

Strange as it may now seem, the general government believed 
that the rebellion would be quickly repressed, and the original 
call for troops on April 15, was for only three months service. 
The legislative act authorizing these troops to be raised in Maine, 
caused them to be enlisted for two years unless sooner discharged, 
and the 1st and 2nd regiments were so enlisted; the former was 
mustered into the service of the United States for three months, 
and the latter for two years. On May 3, 1861, the president 
issued another call for troops. Under this call, and under acts 
approved July 22 and 25, 1861, 500,000 men were required, orders 
were issued from the war department, requiring all state volun- 
teers to be mustered into government service for three years. 
Meanwhile the 3d, 4th, 5th and 6th regiments had been organ- 
ized and enlisted for two years under the above mentioned act of 
the legislature, when the three years requirement was issued from 
Washington, which necessitated an amendment in the state's mode 
of enlistment. The men in the four regiments above mentioned 
were asked to sign a contract to serve for an additional year, and 



24: The Union Army 

those who declined, with the exception of the ist and 2nd regi- 
ments, were discharged. 

Such was the zeal of the patriotic citizens of the state, that 
within a few weeks after the adjournment of the extra session of 
the legislature, companies had been organized far in excess of 
the needs of the hour. After sending forward the first six regi- 
ments, the last of which was mustered into the service of the 
United States on July 15, 1861, Gov. Washburn decided to 
discontinue enlistments in consequence of word received from 
Washington that no more troops from Maine would be accepted. 
The following organized companies were now required to dis- 
band, or, if they preferred, be placed upon such footing as to 
drill and compensation, as would measurably relieve them from 
the sacrifices entailed in keeping up a military organization, and 
yet secure their services when called for : 

Capt. West's, East Machias ; Capt. Sawyer's, Dixmont ; Capt. 
Roberts', Dexter ; Capt. Boynton's, Newport ; Capt. Carlisle's, 
Bangor ; Capt. Cass', Bangor ; Capt. Lawrence's, Gardi- 
ner ; Capt. Norris', Monmouth ; Capt. Duly's, Phipps- 
burg; Capt. Jones', Waldoboro' ; Capt. Crowell's, Winter- 
port ; Capt. Robinson's, Unity ; Capt. Jones', China ; Capt. 
Chase's, Fairfield ; Capt. McDonald's, Buckfield ; Capt. 
Houghton's, Woodstock ; Capt. McArthur's, Limington ; Capt. 
Andrews,' Biddeford. Four of these companies elected to main- 
tain their organizations, viz. : Duly's, Jones' of Waldoboro', Rob- 
inson's and Andrews, and to devote not less than two days per 
week to drill and instruction until otherwise ordered, and to be 
paid pro rata therefor, without quarters or rations. The other 
companies were given leave of absence, without pay or rations, 
until called for. Twelve of these commanding officers, together 
with large portions of their commands, as then existing, subse- 
quently entered the service of the United States in regiments 
which were later accepted, as was also true of Capt. Hutchin's 
company, of New Portland, which was also put upon leave of 
absence. 

About this time Brig.-Gen. Thomas W. Sherman visited the 
state and concerted measures with Gov. Washburn in regard to 
his naval expedition, when it was then learned that more regi- 
ments would be required. The work of organizing new regi- 
ments was accordingly recommenced with vigor, and four other 
regiments were speedily mustered into the United States service. 

In the first battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, the troops of 
Maine bore an honorable and conspicuous part, and despite the 
reverse suffered by the Union Army of McDowell, won fame 



Military Affairs in Maine 35 

for themselves and glory for their state. Of the Federal troops 
actually engaged in this fight, nearly one-fourth were from 
Maine. This disaster to the national forces led to an order by 
Gov. Washburn directing the enlistment of additional regiments 
of volunteers. This document recited: — "Whilst observing, with 
the most grateful pride and admiration, the brave conduct of our 
regiments already in the field, the governor and commander-in- 
chief calls upon the loyal men of the state to emulate the pa- 
triotic zeal and courage of their brothers who have gone before 
them. The issue involved is one on which there can be no divided 
opinion in Maine. It aflfects not only the integrity of our Union, 
but the very life of republican government. For the preserva- 
tion of these, Maine will pour out her best blood, and expend her 
richest treasure. Having already contributed generously of the 
flower of her youth and manhood, Maine must send yet more 
of her stalwart sons, to do battle for the preservation of the 
Union, and for the supremacy of law." 

The recruiting service of the state was again in active opera- 
tion from this time forward, until the general government re- 
lieved Maine from all further participation in the work early 
in the following year. Many of the states were ahead of Maine 
at this time in the quota of troops furnished the government, 
and were still rapidly forming new military organizations, so 
authority was given Maine by the war department to organize 
five more regiments of infantry (with power to increase the num- 
ber to eight), a regiment of cavalry, six batteries of light artillery, 
and a company of sharpshooters. Many voluntary organiza- 
tions of an informal nature for military service had been formed 
in various parts of the state since the outbreak of hostilities ; or- 
ganizations which not only took their rise without compulsion, 
but were maintained after repeated refusals to their applications 
for formal enlistment in the service of the state. Not in many 
years had there been seen such an array of citizen soldiery parad- 
ing for discipline and review, as was to be observed in the months 
of September and October, 1861. Little trouble was therefore 
found in raising these additional troops, together with four com- 
panies of coast guards, which served by authority of the war de- 
partment. All told, the State of Maine raised during the year 
1861 sixteen regiments (one of them one of the best cavalry 
regiments in the service), six batteries of artillery, and a company 
of sharpshooters, besides four companies of coast guards. This 
was 2,500 in excess of her quota, and those regiments which had 
gone forward to the seat of war gloriously maintained the high 
reputation of the state for bravery and self-possession in the 
numerous battles. 



26 The Union Army 

The elections for state officers and members of the legislature 
in 1861, on the issue of the vigorous prosecution of the war, 
sustained the government by a majority of nearly 60,000. Ar- 
rangements were made during this year for the erection of a 
fort at the mouth of the Kennebec river. An appropriation of 
$100,000 by Congress had been made for this purpose four years 
earlier, but Secretary Floyd had refused to take the necessary 
steps for procuring a title and domain over the land necessary 
for its location. It is only just to say that the movement to in- 
crease the defences of the seaboard cities and towns of the state, 
originated with Hon. John A. Poor of Portland. His attention 
was drawn to the subject, early in 1861, and when the official 
note of Oct. 14, 1861, addressed by Mr. Seward, secretary of 
state, to the governors of the loyal states on the sea-coasts and 
lakes, was issued, Mr. Poor laid certain papers before Gov. 
Washburn, who promptly responded, and sent Hannibal Hamlin, 
Reuel Williams and Mr. Poor to Washington, as commissioners. 
They brought the matter properly before the secretary of war, 
and secured the appropriation. The fort was called Fort Popham, 
in honor of Gov. Popham. who, in 1608, erected a fort on the 
same site. Mr. Poor was further employed by Gov. Washburn 
as commissioner in 1862, and his report of Dec. 12, of that 
year, was laid before the legislature early in 1863 and printed. 
At the close of this session, he secured the adoption of vigorous 
resolutions, addressed to the authorities at Washington, which 
at once led to the supplying of proper guns and needed arma- 
ment for the coast defences of the state, — a measure which had 
been neglected by the ordnance bureau of the United States year 
after year. 

As most of the active militia of the state had been absorbed 
into the Federal service, it was found necessary to form several 
companies of home guards for coast defence. Fort McClary, 
at Kittery, was garrisoned on April 30, 1861 ; Fort Scammel, 
in Portland Harbor, on July 22, and Fort Sullivan, at Eastport, 
on Dec. 4. These companies were organized under the author- 
ity of the act passed at the extra session of the legislature, pre- 
viously mentioned, and were recognized by the national govern- 
ment. Informal organizations of similar corps at Wiscasset and 
Boothbay were also recognized. Capt. R. H. Tucker, Jr., had 
command at the former place. Near the close of the year 1862, 
a patrol guard was detailed from Co. I, Capt. B. M. Flint, of 
Calais, for that city, to ward off a threatened lawless incursion 
across the eastern border of the state. 

An event of much interest to the people of the state, and to the 



Military Affairs in Maine 27 

nation at large as well, occurred at the beginning of the year 
1862, when Mr. Seward, secretary of state, granted permission 
for British troops to pass across the territory of Maine into 
Canada. As the movement of British troops to Canada at this 
time was in connection with the British demand for the release of 
Mason and Slidell, who had been taken from the British steamer 
Trent, the State of Maine was considerably agitated, and care- 
fully inquired into the matter. The government explained that 
the principle on which this concession was made to Great Britain 
was that, when humanity or even convenience, renders it desirable 
for one nation to have a passage for its troops and munitions 
through another, it is a customary act of comity to grant it, if 
it can be done consistently with its own safety and welfare. 
There was no thought that the State of Maine would feel ag- 
grieved ; but if so, the directions would be modified. 

During the progress of the war the Confederates made increas- 
ing efforts to acquire a navy, and already several powerful ves- 
sels flying their flag were inflicting much damage upon northern 
commerce. In the spring of 1863 rebel privateers appeared off 
the coast of Maine and attacked a number of vessels. On June 
26, 1863, the crew of the Confederate bark Tacony, under the 
command of Lieut. Reade, entered Portland Harbor in the dis- 
guise of fishermen, on board a fishing schooner they had recently 
captured. After the capture of the schooner, their commander 
had transferred to her his crew and effects, and then burned the 
Tacony. The night after their unsuspected arrival in the harbor, 
they succeeded in capturing the United States revenue cutter, 
Caleb Cushing, an armed vessel, as she lay at anchor. Inquiry 
the next morning soon disclosed the method of her disappearance, 
and a volunteer fleet was sent in pursuit. Being a sailing vessel, 
the cutter was soon overhauled in the outer harbor. After a 
brief resistance, the Confederates set the cutter on fire and took 
to their boats in an attempt to reach the fishing schooner. The 
magazine of the cutter was stored with 400 pounds of powder, 
which exploded at 2 p. m. with terrific force, in full view of thou- 
sands of citizens who were watching the proceedings from vantage 
points on the shore. The daring Confederates, 23 in number, were 
captured before they could reach the schooner, and proved to 
be from the man-of-war, Florida. Their leader held a regular 
commission from the Confederate government and they could 
not, therefore, be adjudged pirates. After a short confinement 
at Fort Preble, they were exchanged. This episode increased 
the demand for a further strengthening of the state's seaboard 
defences by the national government, which was induced to act 



28 The Union Army 

before the end of the year 1863, and Gov. Samuel Cony thus 
alluded to the work in his inaugural message: "Upon the call 
of this state by the resolves of the legislature touching the de- 
fenceless condition of her coast and northeastern frontier, and 
the urgent solicitation of my predecessor, the United States in 
addition to large expenditures upon the permanent fortifications 
in the harbor of Portland, at the mouth of the Kennebec river, 
and the narrows of the Penobscot, has constructed earthworks 
at Rockland, Belfast and Eastport, at each of which places two 
batteries of 5 guns each have been mounted, while both at Castine 
and Machiasport a single battery of 5 guns have been supplied." 

A succession of victories by the Union armies in the latter 
part of 1 86 1 and the earlier months of the following year, in 
both the east and west, led the North to believe that the Con- 
federacy would soon collapse, and inspired the following resolu- 
tion on the part of the Maine legislature, Feb. 18, 1862: "Re- 
solved, That the legislature, for ourselves and in behalf of the 
state, tender to the gallant officers and soldiers of the army, and 
to the officers and soldiers of the navy of the United States, our 
warmest thanks for the brilliant victories recently won by their 
valor and skill in the States of Georgia, South Carolina, Missouri^ 
North Carolina, Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee, and that the 
governor be requested to order a salute to be fired in testimony 
of our appreciation of the honor and glory which these signal 
successes reflect on the arms of the Union," 

In compliance with this resolve, a salute of 100 guns was fired 
at the capitol. On April 3, 1862, the adjutant-general of the 
United States ordered the volunteer recruiting service in Maine 
to cease and all enlistments were suspended until May 21. Brig.- 
Gen. Milroy having been defeated on May 8, at the battle of Bull 
Pasture mountain, W. Va., by the forces under "Stonewall" Jack- 
son, authority was given on the aforesaid date to raise the i6th 
regiment of infantry for three years service. No further call 
for troops was intimated. 

One of the kaleidoscopic changes incident to the war now en- 
sued. The army under Gen. Banks was routed at Winchester, 
May 25 ; Jackson's army escaped from Gens. Fremont and Shields 
and the genius of the wonderful Southern commander even in- 
flicted a severe defeat on Gen. Shields ; a few weeks later came 
the Seven Days' retreat of Gen. McClellan's army from the 
Chickahominy to the James, involving a series of terrible battles 
before Richmond. These events made it apparent that the war 
was far from ending, and that additional armies must be raised. 
July 2, 1862, the president issued a call for 300,000 men for 



Military Affairs in Maine 29 

three years, the quota assigned to Maine being 9,609. Within a 
few weeks a requisition was made upon Maine for her quota 
under this call, and the i6th regiment then ready, together with 
the 17th, i8th, 19th and 20th, authorized by General Orders, 
and numerous recruits for regiments in the field, furnished by 
cities, towns and plantations upon requirements based upon popu- 
lation, were accepted in satisfaction of the requisition. Mean- 
while, an inspiring appeal to the people of the state had been 
issued on July 4, 1862, by Gov. Washburn, in which he said : 
"An additional number of troops is required by the exigency of 
the public service, and if raised immediately, it is believed by 
those who have the best means of knowledge, that the war will 
be brought to a speedy and glorious issue. * * * That her 
natural interests may be protected and advanced ; that tranquil- 
ity and peace may be restored throughout the land ; that the 
Constitution and the Union, which have been to us all the source 
of unmeasured blessings, may be preserved ; that Liberty, of 
which they were the inspiration and are the selected guardians, 
may be saved ; and that the light of one great example may shine 
brighter and brighter, to guide, cheer and to bless the nations ; 
to aid in all these, I invoke the people of this state, a prompt and 
hearty response to this new demand upon their patriotism. And 
may they all unite in the work that is before them, each laboring 
in his own sphere, doing what he can by his example, influence 
and sympathy — proffering his treasure, his time, his strength, 
his heart and his highest hopes to the cause of his country. 

General orders will be issued immediately, giving authority 
for raising new regiments of infantry and calling into actual 
service a portion of the ununiformed militia of the state." 

Volunteering in all parts of the state was so prompt that the 
last of the above regiments, the 20th, was mustered into the 
service of the United States before the end of August. Before 
their organization was completed, the president, on Aug. 4, 
called for 300,000 militia, to be raised by draft, and to serve for 
nine months, unless sooner discharged. The quota of Maine, 
under this call, was 9,609, from which some deduction was made 
on account of the large number of enrolled militia in the mer- 
chant marine and the navy. Permission was also given to satisfy 
the requisition with volunteers, either in whole or in part. On 
Aug. 9 general orders were issued by the war department, which 
prescribed regulations for the enforcement of the draft, di- 
rected the selection of rendezvous for the troops, commandants 
for the encampments, and the enrolment of all able-bodied male 
citizens between the ages of eighteen and forty-five; it also di- 



30 The Union Army 

rected, provisionally, the appointment of a commissioner from 
each county to superintend the drafting and hear and determine 
the excuses of persons claiming exemption from military duty. 
Under a law enacted by the legislature at its last session, all 
citizens subject to military duty had been enrolled in June, and 
only a supplementary enrolment was now found necessary to 
fulfil the requirements, hence no commissioners were appointed 
at this time in Maine. The enforcement of the draft was finally 
ordered for Sept. lo, but it was only found necessary to com- 
mence proceedings in a few towns, which were then deficient in 
their quotas. Under this stimulus, the municipal authorities of 
these towns, made arrangements to supply their quotas by vol- 
untary enlistment, and without resort to the draft. 

Three places of rendezvous were deemed sufficient : — ''Camp 
Abraham Lincoln," at Portland, Col. John Lynch, commandant ; 
"Camp E. D. Keyes," Augusta, Col. George W. Ricker, com- 
mandant; "Camp John Pope," Bangor, Col. Gideon Mayo, com- 
mandant. At Portland and Augusta, three regiments of nine 
months' troops were rendezvoused and organized at each en- 
campment, and at Bangor, two regiments. As some of the towns 
were still deficient in their quotas at the close of October, a 
general order was issued, appointing a commissioner for each 
county to make a draft on Nov. 29, if any town should then be 
found wanting. These commissioners devoted their energies to 
such good purpose in facilitating enlistments for delinquent 
towns, that they found it unnecessary, in any instance, to resort 
to the harsh measures of the draft. 

Seventy-seven cities and towns in the state even exceeded 
their quotas under the calls of July 2 and Aug. 4, sending from 
one to twenty-five men in excess of the demand, thus relieving 
other parts of the state. The town of Portage Lake had only 
one able-bodied man left in it ; the town of Saco exceeded her 
quota under each call by no less than twenty-five men ; and the 
town of Machias not only furnished its full quota with splendid 
promptness, but declared a willingness to respond to any future 
calls in like manner. Many towns had more men in the service 
than were required of them, but these recruits were credited to 
and received the bounty of other places, their places of residence 
never receiving the credit they deserved. 

The citizens of Maine were divided into three parties at the 
election which took place on the second Monday of Sept., 1862 : 
viz, the Republican, the Democratic, and the "War Democrats." 
The Republicans placed in nomination Abner Coburn as their 



Military Affairs in Maine 31 

candidate for governor; the "War Democrats" nominated Col. 
Charles D. Jameson, colonel of the 2nd Maine regiment ; and the 
regular Democratic party nominated Bion Bradbury, who had 
previously failed to receive the nomination of the "War Demo- 
crats." The convention of the Republican party adopted a series 
of resolutions, in substance as follows: ist. — inviting the pa- 
triotic citizens of Maine to unite on a simple basis to support 
the policy and principles characterizing the administration of 
Abraham Lincoln; 2nd. — that the rebellion must be put down at 
any cost ; 3d. — expressing sympathy with, and praise of the 
American army and navy, and approving national and state 
measures for their relief and reward; 4th. — expressing respect 
for and confidence in the present governor, Mr. Washburn ; 
5th. — expressing confidence in Hon. Abner Coburn, the nominee 
for governor. The resolutions adopted by the "War Democrats," 
expressed "unwavering support to the government in all neces- 
sary and proper efforts to subdue the existing rebellion and vin- 
dicate the authority of the Constitution and Union over every 
inch of territory in the United States, and gratitude to our army 
and navy," but voiced resistance to "all measures and efforts to 
convert this war for the Union into a crusade for negro emanci- 
pation ;'' approved the "patriotic course of the brave Gen. Mc- 
Clellan," and "viewed with detestation and scorn the wicked at- 
tempts of scheming politicians to undermine and weaken him 
and his army in their brave efforts for the vindication of the 
Union." The resolutions of the regular Democrats declared 
among other things, "That the purpose of the Democratic party 
is the restoration of the Union as it was, and the preservation of 
the Constitution as it is; and to secure these objects we will 
stand shoulder to shoulder with Union men everywhere in sup- 
port of the Federal government in maintaining its safety, in- 
tegrity, and legitimate authority by all constitutional means." 
The platform recited certain of the Bill of Rights of the Federal 
constitution, and "condemned and denounced the repeated and 
gross violation by the executive of the United States, of the said 
rights thus secured by the constitution ; and also repudiated the 
monstrous dogma that in time of war the constitution is sus- 
pended, or its powers in any respect enlarged beyond the letter 
and true meaning of that instrument ;" etc. At the election held 
on Sept. 8, Coburn received 45,534 votes; Jameson, 7,178, and 
Bradbury, 32.331, a Republican majority over both the others 
of 6,025. Four Republican Congressmen, one Democratic Con- 
gressman, and a Republican majority of 81 in the state legis- 
lature were elected at the same time. 



32 The Union Army 

By the close of the year 1862, there had been sent into the 
field from the State of Maine, twenty-seven regiments of infantry, 
one regiment of cavalry, one regiment of heavy artillery, six 
batteries, and one company of sharpshooters, exceeding 30,000 
men. These were all volunteer troops, and were distributed in 
Virginia on the Peninsula ; southwest of Washington ; at Port 
Royal, S. C. ; Fernandina and Pensacola, Fla., and at New Or- 
leans. In addition to the troops above mentioned, a considerable 
number were also recruited for regiments in the field, which had 
become depleted from active service. 

The draft was enforced by the general government under the 
conscription law for the first time in the year 1863. In June of 
this year, Lee's great army of nearly 100,000 men had crossed 
the Potomac and his advanced corps under Ewell had entered 
Pennsylvania. The authorities at Washington were much alarmed 
by the presence of this army on their north and on June 29 
a draft of 100,000 men was ordered by the war department. The 
draft proceeded in Maine, during the summer months, in a gen- 
erally peaceable and orderly manner. Maj. J. W. T. Gardiner 
was appointed acting assistant provost-marshal-general of Maine, 
and boards of enrolment were organized by the United States in 
the five congressional districts of the state. The only resistance 
made to the enforcement of the draft was in the towns of King- 
field, Freeman and Salem, in the 2nd district, when, in July, the 
malcontents to the number of a few score of men rallied at Kings- 
ton and made some show of armed rebellion. This uprising was 
promptly subdued by a force of men made up of Co. G, 3d divi- 
sion of the state militia (composed chiefly of returned veterans), 
and a detail of United States regulars ; the whole under the com- 
mand of Post Adjt. Webber, on the staff of Maj. Gardiner. 
The number of men held for service or accepted as substitutes 
under the draft, was about 2,500. As many towns had voted in 
public meeting to pay the commutations of such of their citizens 
as might be drafted. Gov. Coburn, in view of the trouble which 
might result from this action, propounded the two following 
questions to the justices of the Supreme Court: i. — "Has a 
city or town any legal right to pledge its credit to raise money 
for the purpose of paying the commutations of such of its citizens 
as may be drafted into the service of the United States under the 
law aforesaid? 2. — Has a city or town any legal right to raise 
money by taxation to provide commutations for such of its 
citizens as may be drafted?" 

The court ruled that Congress had full power, under the con- 
stitution, "to command all the resources of the nation, the lives 



Military Affairs in Maine 33 

of its citizens, to prevent, by any and all proper means, that fear- 
ful anarchy which would be so imminent if its dissolution should 
become an accomplished fact ;" that the liability to serve, procure 
a substitute, or pay the commutation fee, as created by the En- 
rolment act of March 3 was of a purely personal nature ; that 
this was "an act to raise soldiers, not to raise money," etc. Each 
of the questions was answered in the negative. 

Following the draft, another call for troops was made by the 
president on Oct. 17, for 300,000 volunteers to serve for three 
years. This gave rise to an eloquent proclamation from Gov. 
Coburn which opened as follows: "Of this additional force 
Maine is expected to furnish her quota, and she will not dis- 
appoint that expectation. Now, as heretofore, her patriotic men 
will respond to the call, and promptly furnish her full share 
of the force necessary to vindicate the integrity of our govern- 
ment, and maintain the supremacy of the laws of the Union. 

"Our people, with almost entire unanimity, have determined 
that the present rebellion shall be suppressed, and that the 
Union which it was designed to destroy, shall be maintained. 
For this purpose they entered upon the contest, and to this end 
they will persevere until the object be accomplished, and until 
the world shall be satisfied that free men can endure more, and 
persevere longer for the preservation of free government, than 
can the most determined and desperate traitor for its destruction. 

"The length of the conflict is not to be measured by years, 
but by events. Treason is to be put down, and to that end should 
all the measures of the government be subservient." 

Pending the draft in 1863, Gov. Coburn received permission 
through a general order of the war department, to recruit the 
29th and 30th regiments of infantry, 2nd regiment of cavalry, 
and 7th battery of light artillery, which organizations were 
termed veteran volunteers, and furnished with "service chevrons" 
by the war department, to be worn as a badge of honorable 
distinction, as was done with all men who reenlisted. By the 
end of the year the above troops were nearly ready for the field 
and in addition a large number of men were enlisted for regi- 
ments already at the front. Ten Maine regiments were mustered 
out of the service of the United States during the year 1863, the 
terms of their enlistments having expired, and at the close of the 
year, there remained in active service sixteen regiments and one 
battalion of infantry, one regiment and one company of cavalry, 
one regiment of heavy and six batteries of light artillery, and 
one company of sharpshooters. In addition to the government 
bounty of $402 for veteran recruits and $302 for new recruits, 
Vol. 1—3 



34 The Union Army 

Maine oflFered in October, 1863, a bounty of $100 to all recruits 
entering incomplete organizations then in the state, and $55 to 
recruits entering regiments or corps in the field ; besides this, as 
in 1862, numerous cities and towns paid extra bounties to recruits 
enlisted within their limits, anticipating legislative grants for 
legal authority in such cases. It had been hoped in this manner 
to escape any resort to the draft in Maine. As in previous years, 
many of the seafaring population entered the naval service. 

When the war broke out, the bonded state debt was in round 
numbers about $700,000. This was increased by expenses in- 
cidental to the war to $1,472,000 on Jan. i, 1863, and during that 
year there was added a further war debt of $950,000, making 
the total debt of the state, on Jan. i, 1864, $2,422,000. The 
legislature of 1863 increased the state tax of that year over the 
tax of the previous year by the addition of a mill on the dollar 
of valuation. It also renewed the act of the previous year, 
exempting for another year the state banks from the severe 
penalties imposed by their charters in the event of their suspend- 
ing specie payments. This legislature also remitted one-half of 
the state tax imposed upon the banks by their charters, as Con- 
gress had imposed a tax upon the circulation and deposits of 
the local banks. 

The Republican state convention of 1863 voted unanimously 
to sustain the national administration in its efforts to subdue the 
rebellion, and placed in nomination for governor Samuel Cony, 
who had in the previous year been a prominent member of the 
party known as "War Democrats," and had made an active can- 
vass of the state in favor of Col. Jameson. The Republicans 
and the War Democrats united in the canvass this year under 
the name of the Union party. The Democrats renominated their 
candidate of the previous year, Bion Bradbury, and adopted 
resolutions announcing their devotion to the Constitution and 
the Union, but severely denouncing many of the war measures 
of the Government. They declared that in the opinion of the 
convention the war was conducted by the present administration 
"not for the restoration of the Union, but for the abolition of 
slavery and the destruction of the Union." In the election 
which followed on Sept. 14, Cony received 67,916 votes, and 
Bradbury 50,366 — a majority for Cony of 17,550. The Union 
party also had a majority of 118 on joint ballot in the legislature, 
elected at the same time. 

Among the more important war measures passed by the legis- 
lature of 1864 was an act authorizing Maine soldiers in the field 
to vote for electors of president and vice-president; also a re- 



Military Affairs in Maine 35 

solve by a two-thirds vote providing for an amendment to the 
constitution of the state, so as to allow soldiers absent from the 
state, except those in the regular army of the United States, to 
vote for governor and other state and county ofificers. This 
amendment was ratified by the people by a majority of 45,303. 
The whole number of votes cast by soldiers was reported to 
be 4,915. A law was also enacted for the payment by the state 
of a uniform bounty of $300 to any person enlisting under any 
calls except those made prior to Feb. i, 1864. This was done 
to correct the practice which had arisen in large cities and towns, 
which in their anxiety to avoid the draft outbid each other in 
the amount of bounties, thus depriving the poorer towns of the 
ability to fill their quotas. The law operated well until the call 
of July 18, 1864, under which recruits were taken for one year. 
The state offered only $100 for this class of recruits, which 
proved to be insufficient, and the old methods were again re- 
sorted to by the cities and towns. 

Under Gov. Cony's administration in 1864 six companies of 
cavalry were raised late in the winter for Baker's D. C. cavalry, 
in addition to one raised by his predecessor. The 31st and 
32nd regiments of infantry were also raised under the call of 
Feb. I, 1864. Ewell's daring raid up the Shenandoah Valley 
early in July, 1864, during which he invaded Maryland and the 
District of Columbia and severed the communications of Wash- 
ington with the North, so alarmed Gov. Cony that he issued a 
proclamation declaring the national capital in danger, and call- 
ing for volunteers for 100 days' service for its protection. A 
general response was made throughout the state ; but fortunately 
the danger proved of short duration, as the invading force was 
small and retired in a few days into Virginia, with a mass of 
plunder, without forcing Grant to release his hold upon Peters- 
burg. On July 18, the president issued his call for 500,000 
men to serve one, two and three years, and all further action 
upon the governor's proclamation was at once suspended. 

During the year 1864, Maine contributed to the military and 
naval service of the country an aggregate of 18,904 men, of 
whom 3,380 were enlisted under the call of Oct., 1863, and 
3,525 were veteran soldiers, who reenlisted. Enlistments for 
the navy numbered 1,846. Allowances of credits for naval en- 
listments anterior to 1864 were made to the number of 3,675. 
The term of their original enlistment having expired, the 3d, 
4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, I2th, 13th and 14th infantry regiments were 
mustered out of the service during the year. A large portion of 
these organizations had reenlisted, and these, together with others 



36 The Union Army 

whose terms of enlistment had not yet expired, were transferred 
to other regiments, so that only about 2,000 men all told were 
thus lost to the army. By the close of this year the state had fur- 
nished for the military and naval service more than 61,000 men, 
a number nearly equal to one-tenth of her whole population, 
and an excess of several hundred over all calls. By a resolve 
approved March 19, 1864, the treasurer of the state was author- 
ized to borrow $3,000,000 by the issue of six per cent, bonds 
payable in 25 years. He sold bonds to the amount of $2,765,000, 
which increased the funded debt of the state to $5,137,000 on 
Jan. I, 1865. At the same date the total ascertained funded and 
floating debt amounted to $5,714,625.31. 

Toward the close of the year 1864, so much of the territory 
of the Confederacy had fallen into Union hands, that a large 
number of troops were required to occupy and garrison it ef- 
fectively. Moreover, it was believed that the rebellion could 
be finally crushed with larger armies, and so President Lincoln 
called for 300,000 more men on Dec. 19. Maine did her share 
in meeting this demand, but, like most of the other states, did 
not complete her full quota, as the necessity for more men had 
ceased to exist. 

The Republican state convention assembled at Portland on 
June 29, and renominated Samuel Cony for governor by acclama- 
tion. The Democrats, in their convention at Bangor on Aug. 
16, unanimously nominated for governor, Joseph Howard of 
Portland. After a political campaign conducted with unusual 
earnestness until the presidential election in November, Gov. 
Cony was reelected on Sept. 12, by a majority of 15,913, and 
the legislature chosen at the same time showed a Republican 
majority of 118 on joint ballot. The vote for presidential elec- 
tors in November gave a Republican majority of 17,592, and 
the electors chosen cast the vote of the state for Abraham Lin- 
coln for president, and Andrew Johnson for vice-president. 
William P. Fessenden, having resigned as U. S. Senator from 
Maine to accept the ofiice of secretary of the treasury. Gov. 
Cony appointed Nathan A. Farwell in his place. 

An attempt was made to rob the bank at Calais, on July 18, 
by a small party of Confederate raiders from St. John, N. B., 
led by one Collins, a captain in a Mississippi regiment. The 
daring plan was frustrated, but led to an uneasy feeling along 
the northeastern and eastern frontier. Volunteer organiza- 
tions were formed in Eastport, Calais, Belfast, and other border 
towns to patrol the streets at night, and the regular police force 
was increased and armed. In view of the possible danger from 



Military Affairs in Maine 37 

this source, Gov. Cony ordered several companies of home 
guards to stand ready to move to any part of the state at a 
moment's warning. 

This brief narrative of the splendid part Maine took in the 
War of the RebelHon must now be brought to a close. Else- 
where in this work will be given in detail the splendid services 
of some of her noble sons, among them the gallant Gen. O. O. 
Howard, conspicuous at Gettysburg, and afterwards in the cam- 
paigns of the Southwest, where he rose to the command of one of 
the armies under Sherman ; Gen. Hiram G. Berry, whose military 
talents and substantial service brought him to high command, and 
whose death on the field of Chancellorsville was a sore loss to the 
army; Gen. Joshua L. Chamberlain, whose military experience 
and honors won were altogether remarkable ; and many others 
equally worthy of mention here did the limits of this sketch per- 
mit. It may be remarked that three sons of Senator Fessenden 
and two of Senator Hamlin served with distinction, one of each 
family giving his life for the cause. 

Soon after the capitulation of General Lee, the Maine troops 
began to return home to their families and friends. The regi- 
ments returned, sunburned, ragged and worn, sacred for their 
losses and crowned with honor. Many flags had been captured, 
but not one had been lost, by the gallant sons of Maine. 

The troops furnished by Maine to the Union army during 
the progress of the war comprised two regiments of cavalry; 
one regiment of heavy artillery; three companies of garrison 
artillery ; one battalion of seven batteries of light artillery ; one 
battalion of six companies of sharpshooters ; thirty regiments 
and sixteen companies of infantry, inclusive of the coast- 
guard battalion of seven companies, a total of 72,114; or, re- 
duced to a three years standard, 56,776. In addition to the 
above, the state was credited with a total of 6,750 men in the 
navy and marine corps, and also furnished about 800 men for 
the 1st D. C. cavalry, an independent organization under the 
command of Col. L. C. Baker. It will thus be seen that Maine 
contributed considerably more than one-tenth of her total popu- 
lation' to the service of the nation. Of the numbers above 
given, 2,801 were killed or died of wounds, according to the 
army list; 4,521 died of disease; and 6,642 were mustered out 
for disabilities resulting from casualties occurring in service 
or from sickness. 

The financial credit of the state was well sustained through- 
out the war, notwithstanding upwards of $15,000,000 were 
contributed in one way or another by her inhabitants to the 
national cause. The funded debt of the state on Jan. i, 1861, 



38 The Union Army 

was $699,500, as against $5,164,500 on Jan. i, 1866, the in- 
crease of $4,465,000 being due altogether to the extraordinary 
expenses growing out of the war. From Jan. i, 1861, to Jan. 
I, 1866, the state expended for war purposes a total of $7,357,- 
572, of which $4,578,636 were paid for bounties. The amount 
advanced by cities and towns for aid to families of soldiers to 
Jan. I, 1865, was $1,599,536. In addition to the above, the 
cities and towns of the state contracted a debt of not less than 
$6,556,183 for bounties. No one would have deemed it possible 
that the state of Maine could have sent so many troops into the 
field, or that she could raise such vast sums of money to meet 
the expenses of the war. 

Soon after the outbreak of the war, arrangements were made 
to transmit such portions of the pay of persons in service as 
they chose to allot for the benefit of their families or themselves. 
State and municipal authorities cordially cooperated with the 
war department in securing the acquiescence of soldiers in 
this wise arrangement for the welfare of themselves and fami- 
lies. 

Everything possible was done by the state authorities and 
by the better portion of the citizens of both sexes in aid of 
the sick and wounded soldiers, and to improve the sanitary 
conditions of Maine troops in the field. State agencies for 
the relief of the disabled and destitute soldiers of the state 
were maintained at New York, Philadelphia and Washington. 
Among the many who labored in this splendid work, were 
George R. Davis, agent of the U. S. Sanitary Commission, 
Portland; Cols. Frank E. Howe of the New England Soldier's 
Relief Association, New York; Robert R. Corson, Philadelphia; 
and Charles F. Mudge of the special relief department of the 
U. S. Sanitary Commission, Boston. The Washington Relief 
Association, composed of citizens of Maine residing in Wash- 
ington, was a potent agency for good in relieving the wants 
of wounded, sick and destitute soldiers in and near that city. 

In conclusion, it may be truly said that Maine gave unstint- 
edly of her treasure of her best blood to secure the perpetuation 
of the Union. Nearly every home had its martyr, a willing sac- 
rifice on the altar of country. The record of the Pine Tree 
State throughout the long four-years' struggle was indeed a 
glorious one, and will challenge comparison with that of any 
other of the loyal states. 



RECORD OF MAINE REGIMENTS 



First Infantry.^ — Col., Nathaniel J. Jackson; Lieut.-Col., Albion 
Witham; Maj., George G. Bailey. This regiment was organized for 
active service on April 28, 1861, and was mustered into the United States 
service for three months, May 3, at Portland. Its departure from the 
state was somewhat delayed by sickness and it did not leave for the seat 
of war until June i. It was raised at a time when Washington was in 
great danger, when a feeling of gloom pervaded the North, and every 
man who enlisted fully expected that the regiment would be called into 
active service at the front. It numbered 779 men. Eight of its compa- 
nies were highly esteemed organizations in the state militia before enter- 
ing the service of the United States. Two were of recent organization 
and enlisted to make up the quota of the regiment. Their camp was at 
Westbrook, near the marine hospital, and was called Camp Washburn, 
in honor of the governor. On their way to Washington, they were the 
recipients of marked attention at Newburyport, the birthplace of Col. 
Jackson, at New York, Philadelphia, and in fact all along the route. 
Both at Newburyport and New York they were presented with beautiful 
American flags. At Baltimore they marched over the same route as the 
6th Mass., but were not molested. Soon after their arrival in Wash- 
ington^ they went into camp on Meridian Hill. Though eager and ready, 
the regiment was not allowed to participate in the first battle of Bull Run, 
as it was not thought best to withdraw it from the defenses of Washing- 
ton. The 1st Me. was noted for its fine discipline and was regarded as 
a model regiment. After Bull Run it was stationed for a time to guard 
the Long Bridge, which was considered the post of honor. It performed 
necessary guard duty at exposed points in the immediate vicinity of the 
capital until Aug. i, when the term of enlistment having expired it re- 
turned to Portland, and was mustered out on the 5th. The men returned 
bronzed and healthy, not a single one missing. Though enlisted in the 
state service for two years, they could not be moved outside the state after 
the expiration of their three months' muster in, and they were disbanded. 
On the formation of new regiments, a large proportion of the officers and 
men reenlisted in other organizations. Col. Jackson was soon after placed 
in command of the 5th infantry and had a long and honorable record. He 
was subsequently promoted to brigadier-general, and later placed in com- 
mand of the rendezvous camp at Ricker's island. New York harbor. 

Second Infantry. — Col., Charles D. Jameson; Lieut.-Col., Charles W. 
Roberts; Maj., George Varney. Numerically the second, this was in fact 
the first regiment to leave the state for the front. It was raised within 
the limits of the first militia division of the state and was rendezvoused 
at Bangor. Companies A, B, C, D and I belonged to Col. Jameson's old 
command, and were reorganized for service in this regiment. The others 

39 



40 The Union Army 

were new companies. It completed its organization and left the state 
May 14, 1861. Like the ist, it originally enlisted for three months, but on 
May 28, was mustered into the United States service for two years. The 
2nd, during its two years' term of service, saw much hard service and 
participated in eleven bloody and hard-fought battles, besides numerous 
skirmishes and scouting expeditions. It never received a word of censure 
and invariably distinguished itself. A list of the important battles in 
which it was engaged includes the first and second Bull Run, Hall's Hill, 
Yorktown, Hanover Court House, Gaines' Mill, Malvern Hill, Antietam, 
Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. The magnificent fighting record of 
the 2nd was largely due to the efficiency of its officers. It showed the 
stuff it was made of in its first battle at Bull Run. Col. Keyes, \yho com- 
manded the brigade which included the 2nd Me., says in his official report 
of the battle: "The gallantry with which the 2nd regiment of Maine 
volunteers charged up the hill upon the enemy's artillery and infantry, 
was never in my opinion surpassed." Col. Jameson, the first volunteer 
and the first colonel in the field from Maine, was commissioned briga- 
dier-general of volunteers for gallantry displayed in this, his first battle. 
Lieut.-Col. Roberts succeeded to the command of the regiment, and after 
his resignation and honorable discharge, Jan. 10, 1863, Lieut.-Col. Var- 
ney was promoted to the colonelcy of the regiment, and Maj. Sargent was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel, the majorship being left vacant on ac- 
count of the reduced condition of the regiment. On July 18, 1862, Capt. 
Chaplin, who had succeeded Varney in that command, was discharged to 
enable him to accept the command of the i8th Me., then being raised, and 
Capt. Sargent of Co. G was promoted to fill the vacancy. Some of the 
men became discontented three months after leaving the state from seeing 
three months' men from other states returning home. Sixty-six claimed 
their time had expired, became insubordinate, and were sentenced to 
Tortugas ; but this sentence was later commuted to a transfer to the 2nd 
N. Y., where they served about a year and then returned and served 
faithfully with the regiment for the remainder of the term. Co. I became 
greatly reduced in numbers in Oct., 1861, and the officers having resigned, 
it was disbanded. Capt. Daniel White of Bangor raised a new company 
which took its place in December of that year. On July 28, 1862, the 
eflfective strength of the 2nd became reduced to 257 rifles and came out 
of the battle of Second Bull Run with but 137 men able to carry arms. 
This is most convincing evidence of the trying service to which they were 
subjected. The regiment was mustered out June 4, and 9, 1863. In all 
1,228 men were mustered in, of whom 275 returned and were mustered 
out; 120 were mustered in for three years and transferred to the 20th Me. 

Third Infantry Col., Oliver O. Howard; Lieut.-Col., Isaac N. 

Tucker; Maj., Henry G. Staples. This regiment responded to the first 
call for troops with promptness and alacrity. It was rendezvoused on 
the state house grounds at Augusta and was composed mainly of Ken- 
nebec lumbermen. The regiment was most fortunate in having for its 
colonel Oliver O. Howard, who rose rapidly to the rank of major-general 
and gained for himself a name distinguished among the nation's heroes. 
During the long three years' service the regiment was successively com- 
manded by Maj. Staples and Capt. Moses B. Lakeman of Co. I, Lieut.- 
Col. Tucker having resigned to become brigade quartermaster. On the 
resignation of Lieut.-Col. Tucker, Capt. Sampson of Co. D, Capt. Lake- 
man and Adjt. Burt served as lieutenant-colonel in the order named. 
Succeeding Henry G. Staples as major were Adjt. Burt and Capt. Will- 
iam C. Morgan. Of the original companies of the regiment Co. A (Bath 



Maine Regiments 41 

City Greys) had existed under former militia laws and the others were 
new organizations. The regiment was mustered into the United States 
service on June 4, 1861, and left the state for the front the next day. 
Perhaps no regiment from the state saw more fighting or rendered more 
distinguished service. From the first battle of Bull Run, until the battle 
of Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864, the regiment participated in most of the 
important battles and movements of the Army of the Potomac. The 
operations of the so-called "Stove-Pipe Artillery" commenced with this 
regiment. While encamped at Flag Hill, Va., they employed the ruse of 
mounting a stove-pipe on wheels, and drew 12 shots from the enemy at 
their cannon. The loss of the 3d in killed and wounded at the battle of 
Fair Oaks was nearly one-third of the men engaged. It was in this en- 
gagement that Sergt.-Maj. F. W. Haskell of Waterville so greatly dis- 
tinguished himself as to win the commendation of his colonel and of the 
entire regiment. The 3d gave an excellent account of itself in the battle 
of Gettysburg. At the close of the second day's fighting Gen. Sickles 
declared that, "The little 3d Me. saved the army today." Its loss at 
Gettysburg was 113 killed, wounded and missing. On the return of the 
regiment to Augusta, June 11, 1864, only 17 officers and 176 enlisted men 
were left to be mustered out. Sixty-four of these men reenlisted, and 
together with the recruits were transferred to the 17th Me. Not one of 
the original field and staff officers returned with the regiment and only 
one of the original captains — the veteran Moses B. Lakeman — who re- 
turned in command of the regiment. 

Fourth Infantry Col., Hiram G., Berry ; Lieut.-Col., Thomas H. 

Marshall; Maj., Frank S. Nickerson. This regiment was organized for 
active service May 8, 1861, and was mustered into the United States 
service on June 15 at Rockland. Co. A (Belfast Artillery), Co. K (Bel- 
fast City (Grays), and Co. F (Brooks Light Infantry), had formed part 
of the state militia, but the other companies were without previous expe- 
rience. The regiment left Rockland for Washington on June 17, and was 
armed with the Springfield smooth-bore musket. Passing through New 
York, it was presented with two beautiful flags. It participated in all the 
important battles of the Army of the Potomac during its three years' 
term of service. Gen. Kearney wrote as follows of the conduct of its 
gallant colonel at Bull Run : "Col. Berry manifested such a genius for 
war, and such a pertinacity in the fight, as proved him fit for high com- 
mand." It is stated that the 4th Me. saved the day at Williamsburg, 
while at Fair Oaks, White Oak Swamp, Gaines' Mill, Glendale, Gettys- 
burg, the Wilderness, and on many other bloody fields it rendered mag- 
nificent service. The heroic commander of the regiment, Hiram G. 
Berry, was killed amid the awful carnage of the battle of Chancellorsville, 
having attained to the rank of major-general and being esteemed one of 
the most brilliant officers in the service. On June 25, 1864, the regiment 
arrived in Rockland, its term of service having expired on the 15th, and 
after being furloughed were mustered out on July 19. It returned under 
the command of Elijah Walker, who had gone out as captain of Co. B. 
There were 46 officers in the regiment, including 10 recruits ; privates 
of the original organization, 966; recruits, 513; total, 1,525. Number of 
officers mustered out, 17; prisoners of war, 2; privates mustered out, 
224; prisoners, 37; officers discharged, 5; resigned, 41; privates dis- 
charged for disability, 366; privates transferred to other commands, 
435 ; officers died of wounds, 14 ; of disease, 2 ; privates died of wounds, 
139; of disease, 112; privates deserted, 131. Total, 1,525. The number 
of officers lost by casualties during the service of the regiment was 65; 



42 The Union Army 

mustered out July 19, 1864, 17; prisoners of war, 2. Total, 84. Thirty- 
eight officers were promoted from the ranks. 

Fifth Infantry. — Cols., Mark H. Dunnell, Nathaniel J. Jackson, Ed- 
ward A. Scammon, Clark S. Edwards ; Lieut.-Cols., Edwin Illsley, Will- 
iam S. Heath, Edward A. Scammon, Clark S. Edwards, Capt. Millett of 
Co. A; Majs., Samuel C. Hamilton, Edward A. Scammon, Clark S. Ed- 
wards, Capt. Millett, A. S. Daggett. This regiment was recruited from 
the third militia division of the state. It was mustered into the service 
of the United States on June 24, 1861, and numbered 1,046 men. It was 
made up entirely of new companies and was raised at a time when a 
spirit of intense patriotism prevailed throughout the state, so that little 
exertion was required to fill its ranks. It left Maine for Washington on 
June 26, fully equipped and armed with Springfield muskets and bayonets. 
On its way through New York city it was the recipient of a beautiful 
flag, presented by the loyal sons of Maine there resident. It remained 
in camp at Meridian Hill, Washington, until July 5, when it commenced 
its march to the battle-field of Bull Run. During its three years of severe 
service, it was engaged in eleven pitched battles and eight skirmishes, 
prior to its participation in the terrible campaign of the Wilderness under 
Grant. Its list of battles includes First Bull Run, West Point, Gaines' 
Mill, Charles City Cross-Roads, Crampton's Gap, Antietam, Fredericks- 
burg, Salem Heights, Gettysburg, Rappahannock Station, Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania Court House and Cold Harbor. In the battle of Gaines' 
Mill the 5th lost 10 killed, 69 wounded and 16 missing, its gallant Col. 
Jackson was carried wounded from the field and Lieut.-Col. Heath was 
among the killed. At Rappahannock Station, the regiment was conspicuous 
for its gallantry, and captured 4 standards of the enemy. The flags were 
presented to Gen. Meade, who said: "In the name of the army and the 
country I thank you for the services you have rendered, particularly for 
the example you have set and which I doubt not on future occasions will 
be followed and emulated." In a gallant charge on the enemy's works 
at Spottsylvania Court House, more than half of the regiment was lost 
in crossing an open field subject to a raking fire of canister, but it cap- 
tured the works, and took 2 flags and a large number of prisoners. In 
addition to the 6 captured flags, the Sth had the record of taking more 
men prisoners than it carried on its own rolls. It left the front near 
Petersburg, June 22, 1864, and started for home, arriving in Portland on 
the 28th with 216 men, who were mustered out of service, July 27, 1864, 
the veterans and recruits having been transferred to the 7th Me. During 
its term of service it had received some 500 recruits. 

Sixth Infantry. — Cols., Abner Knowles, Hiram Bumham, Benja- 
min F. Harris; Lieut.-Cols., Hiram Bumham, Charles H. Chandler, 
Benjamin F. Harris; Majs., George Fuller (commissioned, but never mus- 
tered in), Frank Pierce, Benjamin F. Harris, Joel A. Hancock, George 
Fuller, Theo. Lincoln, Jr. (commissioned, but never mustered in), Frank 
Pierce, Benjamin F. Harris, Joel A. Hancock, George Fuller, Theo. Lin- 
coln, Jr. This regiment was composed principally of the hardy lumber- 
men of the Penobscot valley and the eastern portion of the state, 
who were quick to respond to the first call to arms. Before its or- 
ganization it was made up of two battalions of five companies each, 
rendezvousing respectively at the state arsenal, Bangor, and Fort 
Sullivan, Eastport. Under a general order from Adjt.-Gen. Hods- 
don, June 28, 1861, both battalions were removed to Portland and or- 
ganized into a regiment for active service. On July 12-15, 1861, it 
was mustered into the service of the United States and on the 17th 



Maine Regiments 43 

left for Washington. En route through New York city, the regiment 
was presented with a handsome standard by the sons of Maine in 
that city. It arrived in Washing^ton on the igth and was stationed at 
Chain Bridge on the Potomac, where it remained until Sept. 3. 
Through the fall and winter of 1861-62 it occupied Fort Griffin, and 
in March, 1862, was put into Hancock's brigade, Smith's division, 
and joined in the advance on Manassas. A little later it was at- 
tached to the 4th corps under Gen. E. D. Keyes, and advanced with 
the rest of the army on Yorktown on April 4, 1862. For the remain- 
der of its three years the regiment saw the most arduous and active 
service. It participated in ten general engagements and in a great 
many skirmishes. On April 5-7, 1862, it was engaged in skirmishing 
and reconnaissances at the siege of Yorktown, and subsequently took 
part in the engagements at Lee's mills, Williamsburg, Garnett's farm. 
White Oak bridge, Antietam and Fredericksburg. From Feb. 2 to May 
II, 1863, it was with the "Light Division", and during this period 
took an honorable part in the battle of Chancellorsville, where it lost 128 
officers and men killed and wounded. Other important battles in which 
the 6th was engaged were Rappahannock Station, where it lost 16 
officers and 123 men ; Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court House, where 
it lost a few men, and two days later in an attack on the enemjr's 
works on the right, it lost 125 in killed, wounded and missing. On 
June 12, 1864, the regiment only numbered 70 men, and was under 
fire for eight hours, supporting Gen. Hancock's corps, losing 16 offi- 
cers and men. The original members of the regiment were mustered 
out on Aug. IS, 1864, and the veterans and recruits to the number of 238 
men, were transferred to the 7th Me. afterwards organized as the ist 
regiment veteran volunteers. 

Seventh Infanry. — Col., Edwin C. Mason; Lieut.-Cols., Thomas H. 
Marshall, Selden Connor, Thomas W. Hyde; Majs., Thomas W. Hyde, 
James P. Jones (known in the army as the "fighting Quaker"), 
Stephen C. Fletcher. This regiment was raised irrespective of di- 
visional limits, and was organized at Augusta, Aug. 21, 1861, to serve 
three years. It left the state Aug. 23, 1861 and arrived in Baltimore 
on the 25th. It remained here until Oct. 25, when it was moved to 
Washington. Nov. 7th, it crossed the Potomac into Virginia and went 
into camp near Lewinsville, Fairfax county, where it remained until 
March 10, 1862, engaged in picket duty, scouting and drilling. Sick- 
ness and death had been prevalent in its ranks, and Co. F became so 
reduced in numbers it was disbanded, a new company raised by CapL 
Fletcher of Skowhegan, being mustered into service Jan. 23, 1862, in 
its place. March 23, 1862, the regiment embarked for Fortress Monroe, 
preparatory to the Peninsular campaign. It was at this time in the 
3d brigade, 2nd division, 6th provisional corps, the division being under 
the command of Gen. Smith. On April 4, 1862, it joined in the ad- 
vance on Richmond, and led the advance on the Yorktown line of de- 
fenses on April 5. The next day it was under the fire of Fort Lee on 
Warwick creek, and afterwards participated in the siege of Yorktown, 
holding a position near Dam No. 3, "the key of the line", until the 
enemy evacuated. For its gallantry at the battle of Williamsburg, the 
7th received the personal thanks of Gen. McClellan. On May 24, 
it won more glory at the first battle at Mechanicsville and during 
June it was almost daily engaged with the enemy, who tried to shell 
it from its position on the left bank of the Chickahominy. On the 
withdrawal of the army from Richmond, the 7th participated in the 



44 The Union Army 

battles of Savage Station, White Oak Swamp and Malvern Hill. In 
the autumn it joined in the Maryland campaign, took part in the bat- 
tles of South Mountain and Antietam, losmg at the latter battle, ii 
officers and loo enlisted men out of 15 officers and 166 enlisted men 
present. In Oct., 1862, it became so reduced in numbers it was sent to 
Portland, Me., to recruit, and on Jan. 21, 1863, it left Portland with 
a battalion of five companies filled by consolidation and rejoined its old 
command, 3d brigade, 2nd division, 6th corps, at White Oak Church, 
Va. May 2, 1863, it was in the storming party which carried the en- 
emy's works on Cemetery and Marye's Heights near Fredericksburg, 
and engaged tne enemy on the 4th in a desperate struggle near Chan- 
cellorsville. On May 23, Co. F under Capt. Fletcher, having been re- 
organized at Portland, rejoined the battalion. It participated in the 
Pennsylvania campaign, taking part in the battles of Rappahannock 
Station, Locust Grove, Mine Run and numerous skirmishes. The follow- 
ing year it was with Grant in the relentless advance on Richmond, and 
was engaged in the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court House, 
Cold Harbor, and the attacks on the Weldon railroad. July 11, 1864, the 
regiment returned to Washington, and assisted in the defeat of the enemy 
on its nearest approach to the capital. On the 13th, it marched up the 
Potomac, through Snicker's gap to the Shenandoah, and was back in 
Washington on the 23d. On the 26th, it again started up the Potomac, 
crossed at Harper's Ferry on the 29th, and marched to the vicinity of 
Charlestown, where it remained until its original term of service expired 
on Aug. 21, 1864, when it returned to Maine and was mustered out of 
service Sept. 5, at Augusta. The reenlisted men and recruits of the regi- 
ment were consolidated with battalions of the 5th and 6th regiments to 
form the ist veteran infantry in Sept., 1864. 

Eighth Infantry. — Cols., Lee Strickland, John D. Rust, Henr>' Bojm- 
ton, William M. McArthur; Lieut.-Cols., John D. Rust, Ephraim W. 
Woodman, Joseph F. Twitchell, John Hemingway, Henry Boynton, 
William M. McArthur, Edward A. True; Majs., Joseph S. Rice, Ephraim 
W. Woodman, Joseph F. Twitchell, John Hemingway, Henry Boynton, 
William M. McArthur, Edward A. True. This regiment was made up of 
companies from different parts of the state, and was organized at Au- 
gusta, Sept. 7, 1861, to serve three years. It entered the service with 
770 enlisted men, and in bravery and efficiency was excelled by few, if 
any regiments in the service. It left the state Sept. 10, for Hemp- 
stead, Long Island, N. Y., and subsequently for Fortress Monroe, Va., 
where it formed a part of Gen. T. W. Sherman's expedition to Port 
Royal, S. C, which sailed on Oct. 29, and landed at Hilton Head Nov. 
8, 1861. For several months the men were engaged in throwing up 
breastworks and building fortifications. On May i, 1862, they moved 
to Tybee Island in the Savannah river, and took a prominent part in 
the attack on and capture of Fort Pulaski, one of the defenses of 
Savannah. From this time until the spring of 1864, the regiment 
was employed for the most part in doing guard duty at Hilton 
Head and Beaufort, S. C, and at Jacksonville, Fla. It suffered 
much sickness as the result of the exposures of the spring cam- 
paign in 1862, and from diseases contracted in a southern climate. In 
Nov., 1862, about 300 well drilled and disciplined recruits were sent 
to the regiment from Maine. In Nov., 1863, while at Beaufort, S. C, 
its ranks were again replenished by the addition of nearly 200 drafted 
men, who proved excellent soldiers. In March, 1864, 16 officers and 
330 enlisted men, who had reenlisted for a term of three years, re- 



Maine Regiments 45 

1 
ceived a furlough of 35 days and returned to their homes. In April, 
1864, the 8th was transferred to the Department of Virginia, and on 
May 4, moved to Bermuda Hundred, where it took part in all the ac- 
tive operations of the Army of the James. Sixty veterans, whose term 
of service had expired, returned to the state, and were mustered out 
of service on Sept. 15, 1864. The regiment was still large enough, 
however, to retain its organization as many men had reenlisted and it 
had received 570 recruits. Until the surrender of Lee at Appomattox, 
it was engaged in numerous skirmishes and arduous picket and guard 
duties, and took part in the following important engagements : Drewry's 
Bluff, losing 96 men, killed, wounded and prisoners; Cold Harbor, 
where it lost 79 men; the operations before Petersburg, losing 50 
men; Chaffin's Farm; Fair Oaks, where it again lost heavily. Spring 
Hill; capture of Forts Gregg and Baldwin, Rice's Station and Appo- 
mattox Court House. After Lee's surrender, it was at Richmond 
until Aug., 1865, at Manchester until the following November, and at 
Fortress Monroe until Jan. 18, 1866, when the men were mustered out 
and proceeded to Augusta, Me., where they were paid and finally 
discharged. 

Ninth Infantry. — Cols., Rishworth Rice, Jan. 2, 1863, Horatio Bis- 
bee, Jr., Sabine Emery, George F. Granger; Lieut. -Cols., Coleman 
Hardigg, Horatio Bisbee, Jr., Sabine Emery, Zina H. Robinson, 
George F. Granger, Joseph Noble; Majs., Sabine Emery, Zina H. 
Robinson, Geo. F. Granger, Joseph Noble, Geo. B. Dyer. This regi- 
ment was raised at large and was organized at Augusta, Sept. 22, 
1861, to serve three years.. In less than two weeks from the arrival 
of the first company at Augusta, the 9th was on its way to Washing- 
ton, with more than 1,000 men in its ranks. The original members 
(.except veterans) numbering 158 men were mustered out of service 
Sept. 27, 1864, and the regiment composed of veterans and recruits, 
retained in service until July 13, 1865, when it was mustered out under 
orders from the war department. The 3d company of unassigned 
infantry, organized Sept. 30, 1864, was assigned to this regiment as 
Co. K, and was mustered out June 30, 1865. Soon after its arrival 
in Washington (Sept. 26), the regiment was assigned to Gen. T. W. 
Sherman's expedition for the capture of Port Royal, S. C, and landed 
at Hilton Head, S. C, Nov. 8, 1861. On Feb. 7, 1862, it went to War- 
saw island, off the coast nf Georgia, and on the 21st, joined the 
expedition which captured Fernandina, Fla., being the first regiment 
to land from the transports and the first to take possession of the 
town. It remained here until Jan. 17, 1863, when it returned to 
Hilton Head, and on June 24th went to St. Helena island as part of 
a force under Gen. Strong for the assault on Morris island, S. C. 
July 4 it went to Folly island, and on the loth landed on Morris 
island, where it carried the enemy's rifle pits in front of their works. 
The regiment formed a part of the assaulting forces in the attacks on 
Fort Wagner, July 11 and 18, and Sept. 6. Its casualties in the 
several assaults were over 300 men in killed, wounded and missing. The 
9th continued at Black and Morris islands, S. C, until April 18, 1864. 
In the meantime 416 of the original members reenlisted for an addi- 
tional term of three years. In the spring of 1864 it was transferred to 
the Army of the Potomac and arrived at Gloucester Point, Va., April 
22, where the reenlisted men, who had been home on 30 day furlough, 
rejoined the regiment on the 28th. It sailed up the James river on 
May 4 to Bermuda Hundred, and from this time on saw much hard 



46 The Union Army 

service at the front, participating in the following engagements: 
Drewry's Bluff, Bermuda Hundred, losing 52 men; Cold Harbor, where 
its loss was over 70 men; the assaults on Petersburg; Deep Bottom, 
Fort Gilmer, Darbytown Road, losing 48 men. Oct. 28, it went to 
Chaffin's farm, and after the capture of Fort Fisher, N. C., in 1865, 
it was ordered there. Later it took possession of Wilmington, then 
joined Gen. Sherman's forces at Cox's bridge, after which it pro- 
ceeded to Magnolia and from there to Raleigh, N. C, which city it 
entered April 11, 1865. It remained at Raleigh until July 13, 1865, 
when it was mustered out and proceeded to Augusta, Me., where the 
men were paid and finally discharged. 

Tenth Infantry. — Col., George L. Beal; Lieut.-Col., James F. Fille- 
brown; Majs., Charles Walker, Charles S. Emerson. When the ist 
Me. was mustered out of service in the Union army the various corn- 
companies composing it, and which had enlisted in the State militia for 
two years and in the U. S. service for only three months, were 
ordered to rendezvous at Portland for the purpose of reorganizing 
the regiment to serve out the rest of their time. This was found to 
be partially impracticable, however, except by the employment of 
coercive measures.. All the companies were reorganized except A, C 
and D, but 697 out of the 881 men were paid bounty as newly enlisted 
troops. Co. C was formed by a fusion of the three companies not 
able to organize separately; Co. A was recruited in Saco, and Co. D 
was raised in Aroostook county. These companies were organized to 
form the new loth at Cape Elizabeth, Me., in Oct., 1861, and were 
mustered into the U. S. service as follows: Companies B, C, E, F, G, 
H, I, and K to serve two years from May 3, 1861, and A and D to 
serve three years from Oct. 4, 1861.. The two years men were mus- 
tered out of service May 7 and 8, 1863, and the remaining men con- 
solidated into a battalion of three companies, A, B and D, which was 
transferred to the 29th Me. on Nov. i, 1863, by a special order from 
the war department. The regiment left Portland Oct. 6, 1861, and 
arrived in Baltimore on the 9th, where it remained encamped at 
"Patterson Park" until Nov. 4, when it moved to Relay House, Md., 
and relieved the 4th Wis. as guard of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad 
until Feb. 27, 1862. It afterward guarded the main line of the same 
road leading to Harper's Ferry, and the railroads leading to Martins- 
burg and Charlestown, W. Va. The regiment was concentrated at 
Winchester on May 24, and the following day was given the danger- 
ous duty of rear-guard to the forces of Gen. Banks on his retreat to 
Williamsport, Md., during which it suffered a loss of 90 men. At 
Williamsport it was assigned to the ist brigade, ist division. Banks' 
corps. May 28, it made a reconnoissance towards Martinsburg, ad- 
vanced to Winchester on the 31st, occupied Front Royal June 22, and 
took part in the reconnoissance to Luray Court House on June 29. 
On July 6, it proceeded towards Culpeper Court House and arrived 
there on the 24th. Gen. Crawford, the brigade commander, often 
stated that the loth Me. contained more scouts than all other regi- 
ments in the brigade combined. It subsequently participated in the 
battle of Cedar mountain, where its losses were 173 men, and was in 
all the movements of Gen. Pope's army on his retreat toward Wash- 
ington. At the battle of Antietam the regiment lost 20 killed and 
48 wounded. From Sept. 19, 1862, to Sept. 28, 1863, it was at Mary- 
land heights, opposite Harper's Ferry, Berlin, Md., Fairfax Station 
and Stafford Court House, Va., leaving the latter place on April 28, 



Maine Regiments 47 

1863, for Maine, as the two years' term of service had expired. The 
original members were mustered nut at Portland on May 7-8, 1863. 
The three years' men were detached from the regiment on April 26, 
and organized into a battalion of three companies. On Sunday, April 
26, 1863, the following order was received from corps headquarters: 
"Special Order No. 100. (extract) The enlisted men of the loth Me. 
volunteers, whose term of service extends to three years or during the 
war, will be marched to these headquarters in charge of the following 
named officers: Capt. J. D. Beardsley, Lieut. Charles F. King, Lieut. 
Chandler Libbey, Lieut. Charles H. Haskell, and Ass't Surgeon H. 
N. Howard. These men will be constituted a provost guard, relieving 
the three companies of the 2nd Mass. volunteers now on duty at 
these headquarters. They will be allowed to retain their full pro- 
portion of camp and garrison equipage. By command of Maj.-Gen. 
Slocum." As soon as the battalion had reported, the officers and rnen 
referred to were immediately organized into three equal companies, 
and on April 29, with the rest of the 12th corps, crossed the Rappa- 
hannock and arrived at Chancellorsville on the 30th. It was not 
actively engaged in the battle which ensued here and lost only a few 
men. It next participated in every part of the campaign ending in 
the battle of Gettysburg, and was encamped along the Rappahannock 
and Rapidan rivers from Aug. i to Sept. 24, 1863, when it accompanied 
the I2th corps to Nashville, Tenn. From Nashville it went to War- 
trace, and remained there until Nov. i, 1863. when it was assigned to 
the 29th Me. infantry then being organized, and which the battalion joined 
at New Orleans, La. 

Eleventh Infantry. — Cols., John C. Caldwell, Harris M. Plaisted, 
Jonathan A. Hill; Lieut.-Cols., Harris M. Plaisted, William M. Shaw, 
Robert F. Campbell, Winslow P. Spofford, Jonathan A. Hill, Charles 
P. Baldwin; Majs., William M. Shaw, Robert F. Campbell, Winslow 
P. Spoflford, Jonathan A. Hill, Charles P. Baldwin, Henry C. Adams. 
The ten preceding regiments had been raised at the expense of the 
state, under the act of the legislature of April 25, 1861, and the cap- 
tains and subalterns of the organized companies elected the field 
officers. The nth was the first to be raised at the direct expense of 
the general government, and the colonel, lieutenant-colonel and major 
were chosen before the companies were organized. The regiment was 
organized for active service Oct. 11, 1861, and mustered into the U. S. 
service on Nov. 12, to serve for three years. It left the state the next 
day for Washington, where it remained encamped until March 28, 
1862, when, as part of Casey's division, it proceeded to Alexandria, 
thence to Newport News. Here on April 6 it was detached from its 
brigade (Naglee's), and went to the mouth of Warwick creek, where 
it was under the fire of the rebel gunboat Teazer. On the 17th, it 
rejoined the division and brigade and proceeded to Yorktown, where 
on the 29th it was in a sharp engagement with the enemy. Later it took 
a prominent part in the battles of Williamsburg, Seven Pines and 
White Oak swamp. From Aug. 16, to Dec. 26, 1862, it was at York- 
town, and on the latter date embarked with Naglee's brigade for Port 
Royal, S. C, where it landed on Feb. 10, 1863. Gen. Naglee, having 
been promoted to the command of a division, issued a spirited order 
on leaving the regiment, of which the following is a part : "Yours is 
the honor of having been the first to pass and the last to leave the 
Chickahominy. And, while you led the advance from this memorable 
place near Richmond, you were the last in the retreating column, 



48 The Union Army 

when, after seven days' constant fighting, it reached a place of 
security and rest at Harrison's Landing." The regiment remained 
in the South until April, 1864, during which time it participated 
in the unsuccessful attack on Charleston, and was engaged for 
a long time as artillerists, sheUing Sumter and the Confederate 
works on Sullivan and James' islands. In April, 1864, it joined Gen. 
Butler's command at Gloucester Point, Va., and during the remainder 
of the war saw almost contmuous fighting. On Nov. 2, 1864, about 130 
of the men left the field for Maine, as their term of service had ex- 
pired, and were mustered out at Augusta on Nov. 18. The next day, 
Nov., 3, the rest of the regiment went with Gen. Butler to New York 
to assist in maintaining order in that city at the presidential election, 
after which it returned to the front. The total casualties of the regi- 
ment during 1864 were 363. killed, wounded, missing and prisoners. 
If received 549 recruits, also a full company of volunteers — the 8th 
unassigned infantry. During the first three months of 1865, it 
formed a part of the 3d brigade, ist division, 24th corps, and was 
stationed near the New Market road, 10 miles from Richmond. On 
March 27, it crossed the James and Appomattox rivers, engaged the 
enemy at Hatcher's run on the 31st, and was almost constantly 
exposed to the fire until April 2, losing meanwhile 3 enlisted men 
killed, 2 officers and several enlisted men wounded, and i officer and 
15 enlisted men captured. It participated in the assault and capture 
of Forts Gregg and Baldwin, losing 25 enlisted men killed and 
wounded, and on the 3d moved with the army in pursuit of Lee's 
forces. At "Clover Hill" on the 9th, it lost 6 enlisted men killed, 2 
officers and 29 enlisted men wounded. It remained in the vicinity of 
Richmond until Nov. 24, and on the 26th, moved to Fredericksburg, 
where it remained, doing patrol and other duties until the middle of 
Jan., 1866, when it was ordered to City Point, Va., to be mustered 
out. It was mustered out on Feb. 2, 1866, in accordance witli orders 
of the war department, and left on the 3d for Augusta, Me., where 
the men were paid and finally discharged. The regiment saw an 
unusual amount of hard service, and left a splendid name for intrepid- 
ity and heroism. 

Twelfth Infantry. — Cols., George F. Shepley, William K. Kimball; 
Lieut. -Cols., William K. Kimball, Edwin Illsley; Majs., David R. 
Hastings, Gideon A. Hastings. This regiment was organized at Port- 
land, Nov. 16, 1861, to serve for three years, and was mustered out of 
service at the same place, Dec. 7, 1864, the recruits and reenlisted men, 
however, being organized into a battalion of four companies and re- 
maining in the field. This battalion was afterwards ordered to 
Savannah, Ga., and was raised to a full regiment by the assignment of 
the loth, nth, 15th, i8th, and i6th, companies of unassigned infantry, 
organized at Augusta, Me., in the early part of 1865, to serve, one, 
two and three years, and which were assigned as Companies E, F, G, 
H, I and K, respectively. The regiment was intended from the outset 
to form a part of Gen. Butler's New England division, designed for 
the capture of New Orleans. It left the state for Lowell Mass., on 
Nov. 24, 1861, and after a delay of several weeks at Lowell and 
Fortress Monroe, finally disembarked at Ship island. Miss. On May 
4, 1862, the regiment went to New Orleans, which city had fallen into 
Union hands, and where Col. Shepley, now commanding the 3d 
brigade of Gen. Butler's army was appointed military commandant of 
the city. The regiment saw much exciting and arduous service in 



Maine Regiments 49 

the South before it finally returned to the battlefields of Virginia, on 
July 20, 1864. Col. Kimball, who succeeded Col. Shepley in command 
of the regiment, aided by a gunboat, performed brilliant service at 
Manchac pass, where he captured two Confederate batteries of six 
32-pounders, with a stand of colors, a large amount of stores, and 
$8,000 of Confederate currency. The achievement was eulogized by 
the war department, which ordered the captured colors to be kept in 
the possession of the 12th and they were subsequently added to the 
trophies of the state. The 12th, during this period, also took an 
important part in the reduction of Port Hudson, accompanied the 
expedition of Gen. Grover up Grand lake, and engaged the enemy at 
Donaldsonville, La. On March 12, 1864, two-thirds of the regiment 
reenlisted as veterans, and went back to Maine on a short furlough. 
They rejoined the regiment at New Orleans on June 16. On the 
arrival of the regiment at Fortress Monroe on July 20, 1864, it reported 
to Gen. Butler at Bermuda Hundred. From this time until the 
muster out it was engaged in an almost incessant conflict.. It partici- 
pated in the battle of Winchester, where it lost 113 officers and men; 
at Cedar creek it lost 82 officers and men, and was in many smaller 
engagements. On Nov. 19, 1864, the term of service of about 80 of 
the officers and men having expired, they returned to Maine and were 
mustered out. The recruits and reenlisted men, augmented by un- 
assigned infantry, as above detailed, remained in the field to form a 
new regiment. The two and three years' men remained on duty, 
together with the battalion of veterans, at Savannah, Ga., until April 
18, 1866, when the whole battalion was mustered out of service at that 
place. 

Thirteenth Infantry. — Cols., Neal Dow, Henry Rust, Jr.; Lieut.- 
Cols., Henry Rust, Jr., Frank S. Hasseltine; Majs., Frank S. Hassel- 
tine, Abernethy Grover. The 13th regiment was raised at large, and 
rendezvoused at Augusta. It was mustered into service for three 
years on Dec. 13, 1861, and left Feb. 18, 1862, for Boston, where it 
embarked on board transports for Ship island. Miss., arriving there 
in March. During its long stay on Ship island, it suffered severely 
in health, though it excelled in drill and discipline. Detachments of 
the regiment were sent into the defenses of New Orleans, July 5, 
1862, and the entire regiment was ordered there on Sept. i. The 
T3th remained in the South until July i, 1864, when it was ordered 
north and arrived at Fortress Monroe on the 12th. While in the 
South it participated in the capture of Point Isabel, Tex., Mustang 
island, and of Fort Esperanza, commanding Pass Caballo, the entrance 
to Matagorda bay. In April, 1864, it formed part of the Red River 
expedition under Gen. Banks, and was in the battle of Pleasant Hill, 
La. Soon after its arrival in the North, it went to Harper's Ferry. 
On Aug. 3, 1864, the reenlisted men proceeded to Maine on furlough, 
and rejoined the regiment at Harper's Ferry on Oct. i. As communi- 
cation with the front was impossible at this time. Gen. Stephenson 
on the 5th ordered the regiment to Martinsburg, W. Va., to strengthen 
the defenses of that place, as it was the base of supplies for Sheridan's 
whole army. Here the regiment remained engaged in picket and 
patrol duty until the expiration of their original term of service. The 
original members who had not reenlisted arrived in Augusta, Dec. 
30, 1864, and were mustered out at that place on Jan. 6, 1865. Two 
hundred and fifty-two reenlisted men and 82 recruits, whose term of 
service had not expired, were transferred to and consolidated with the 
30th regiment of infantry, Maine volunteers. 

Vol. I — 4 



50 The Union Army 

Fourteenth Infantry. — Cols., Frank S. Nickerson, Thomas W. Por- 
ter, Albion K. Bolan ; Lieut.-Cols., Elias Milliken, Thomas W. Porter, 
Charles S. Bickmore, Albion K. Bolan, John K. Laing; Majs., Thomas 
W. Porter, Charles S. Bickmore, Albion K. Bolan, John K. Laing, Joseph 
M. Wiswell. This regiment, like all those raised in 1861 at the expense 
of the general government, was recruited from the state at large. It was 
organized at Augusta, from Dec. 3 to Dec. 17, 1861, to serve for three 
years, and left the state for Boston Feb. 5, 1862. It sailed at once from 
there for Ship island. Miss., where it arrived on March 8, and remained 
in the South until July 13, 1864, during which time it saw an unusual 
amount of trying and dangerous service. Its "first serious engagement 
was at Baton Rouge, Aug. 5, 1862, where it lost in killed, wounded and 
missing 126 men. Other engagements in which they participated were 
at St. Charles Court House, Civiques ferry, and the assaults on the forti- 
fications of Port Hudson, May 2T, and June 14, 1863. During the cam- 
paign from May 7 to Aug. 5 of this year, the regiment was without tents 
of any kind, and their only camp equipage was their camp-kettles. Both 
officers and men were forced to sleep in the open air, and they suffered 
much from chills and fever. In Jan., 1864, all but 40 of the available 
men of the regiment reenlisted for an additional term of three years, and 
on Feb. 10 they left New Orleans for Maine on a furlough of 30 days. 
They rejoined the regiment at New Orleans May 19, 1864. On the arrival 
of the 14th at Bermuda Hundred, Va., July 22, 1864, it was at once 
assigned to Gen. Butler's command. Joining Gen. Sheridan's forces at 
Berryville, Va., on the i8th, it took an important part in the battle of 
Winchester on Sept. 19, losing 60 killed, wounded and prisoners, or about 
one-third of the number engaged. Subsequently it participated in the 
assault and capture of Fisher's hill and joined in the pursuit of Gen. 
Early to Harrisonburg. At the battle of Cedar creek it again suffered 
severe losses. Of the 200 men in the 14th who entered this fight, 80 
were either killed, wounded or captured, Lieut.-Col. Bickmore being 
among the killed. Shortly after this battle the regiment moved to a 
position near Kernstown, where it remained until the expiration of its 
term of service, Dec. 23, 1864. The original members who had not reen- 
listed were mustered out at Augusta, Me., on Jan. 13, 1865. The reen- 
listed men and recruits whose term of service had not expired, were 
organized into a battalion of four companies. A, B, C and D. The 13th, 
14th, 17th, 20th, 22nd and 23d companies unassigned infantry, organized 
in Augusta in April, 1865, to serve one year, were assigned to this bat- 
talion as Companies E, F, G, H, I and K, thereby reorganizing the 
battalion into a full regiment. The new regiment was variously stationed 
at Savannah, Augusta and Darien, Ga., engaged in guard and patrol duty, 
until Aug. 28, 1865, when the entire regiment was mustered out. On 
Sept. I it embarked for Maine, and the men were finally paid and dis- 
charged at Augusta on Sept. 28. 

Fifteenth Infantry. — Cols., John McCluskey, Isaac Dyer; Lieut.-Cols., 
Isaac Dyer, Benjamin B. Murray, Jr., Pembroke; Majs., Benjamin Hawes, 
Franklin M. Drew, James H. Whitmore, John R. Coates. This regi- 
ment was raised principally in Aroostock county, and was organized at 
Augusta, Me., from Dec. 6 to 31, 1861, to serve for three years. It was 
mustered into the U. S. service on Jan. 23, 1862, and embarked from 
Portland March 6 for Ship island. Miss., at which date it numbered 962 
men, rank and file. The regiment remained encamped at Carrollton, La., 
from May 19 to Sept. 18, during which time it suffered much from mala- 
rial diseases. In September it went to Pensacola, Fla., where it remained 



Maine Regiments 51 

until June 21, 1863. Here the health of the men so improved that the 
number in hospital was reduced to less than one-quarter. During the 
first year of its service the isth lost by desertion, discharge and death 
329 men, although it had never been in battle. On its return to New 
Orleans in June, 1863, it joined Gen. Banks' expedition to Texas and 
rendered conspicuous service in the capture of Fort Esperanza, in Mata- 
gorda bay. While at Matagorda peninsula, from Jan. 17 to Feb. 28, 1864, 
three-fourths of the original members of the regiment reenlisted for 
another term of three years. Returning to New Orleans in March, the 
regiment formed a part of Gen. Banks' Red river expedition, during 
which it marched more than 700 miles in two months, and participated 
in the battles of Sabine cross-roads, Pleasant Hill, Cane river crossing 
and Mansura plains. In June, 1864, it was ordered to New Orleans, and 
on July 5 embarked on transports for Fortress Monroe, Va., where it 
arrived on the 17th. Six companies were then ordered to Bermuda Hun- 
dred, and the remaining companies participated in the campaign up the 
valley in pursuit of Early's army. The command was reunited at Mon- 
ocacy Junction, Md., Aug. 4, when the veterans of the regiment who had 
reenlisted received a 35 days' furlough, returning to the field Sept. 27. 
In October it went to Martinsburg, where it remained until Jan. 7, 1865. 
The original members of the regiment who had not reenlisted were mus- 
tered out on Jan. 18, 1865, but the reenlisted men, recruits, volunteers, 
drafted men and substitutes forwarded from Camp Berry, Portland, were 
sufficient to reorganize the regiment, which was ordered to Washington 
in April, and went to Savannah, Ga., on June 4. On the 13th, it em- 
barked on transports for Georgetown, S. C, where it was assigned to 
the 3d separate brigade. Department of South Carolina, and remained 
here until the date of muster out, July 5, 1866, whence the men went to 
New York, where they were finally paid and discharged. 

Sixteenth Infantry. — Cols., Asa W. Wildes, Charles W. Tilden; 
Lieut.-Cols., Charles W. Tilden, Augustus B. Farnham; Majs., Augustus 
B. Farnham, Archibald D. Leavitt, Abner R. Small. The recruits for 
this regiment were rendezvoused at Augusta during the months of May, 
June and July, and the regiment was mustered into the U. S. service on 
Aug. 14, 1862, to serve for three years. The regiment 'left for Washing- 
ton on the 19th with 38 commissioned officers and 944 enlisted men, and 
remained encamped there until Sept. 7, when it proceeded to Rappahan- 
nock Station as a part of Taylor's brigade, Hooker's corps. Here it was 
transferred to Duryea's brigade of Reynolds' corps. It had left camp at 
Fort Tillinghast, near Washington, in light marching order and during 
the next two months the men suffered terribly from the lack of sufficient 
clothing and camp equipage. By the middle of October the regiment had 
dwindled to less than 700 men, and of these 250 were at one time on the 
sick list. Even medicines for the sick were lacking and the hardships 
endured by these men, so recently taken from the peaceful walks of life, 
can never be told. Finally, at the end of October, they drew shoes and 
shelter tents, Nov. 27 (Thanksgiving day), their knapsacks and over- 
coats arrived from Washington. The self-respect of the men was now 
restored and a better feeling took the place of the old despondency. The 
loss the regiment suffered in its first serious battle tells the story of its 
valor. About 450 men were engaged at Fredericksburg on Dec. 13, 1862, 
and 226 of this number was either killed, wounded or missing. Said 
Gen. Burnside, who commanded that day: "Whatever honor we can 
claim in that contest was won by Maine men." The regiment again lost 
heavily at Gettysburg, when, at the close of the terrible three days' fight- 



58 The Union Army 

ing, all that remained of 248 officers and men, who entered the battle, 
were 2 officers and 15 enlisted men. Besides the battles above mentioned, 
the list of engagements in which this regiment bore an honorable part 
would include, Chancellorsville, Mine Run, Wilderness, Spottsylvania 
Court House, where it lost nearly 100 men, Laurel Hill, losing nearly 
50 men. North Anna river, Totopotomy, Bethesda Church, Petersburg, 
Weldon railroad, Hatcher's run, losing 3 killed, 60 wounded and 11 miss- 
ing, Gravelly run, losing 29 men, and the South Side railroad. It joined 
in the pursuit of Lee's forces to Appomattox Court House, after which it 
returned to Washington, D. C, where it was mustered out on June 5, 
1865, and the next day the men were en route for the state rendezvous 
at Augusta where they were finally paid and discharged. The regiment 
had received about 800 recruits and in addition the 2nd company of 
unassigned infantry, organized at Augusta, Me., Sept. 23, 1864, to serve 
for one year, joined the regiment and was assigned as Co. A. The offi- 
cers and men whose term of service did not expire before Oct. i, 1865, 
were transferred to the 20th Me. 

Seventeenth Infantry. — Cols., Thomas A. Roberts, George W. West, 
Charles P. Mattocks; Lieut.-Cols., Charles B. Merrill, William Hobson; 
Majs., George W. West, Charles P. Mattocks. This regiment was re- 
cruited chiefly from the counties of York, Cumberland, Androscoggin and 
Oxford, and was mustered into the U. S. service at Camp King, Cape 
Elizabeth, Aug. 18, 1862, to serve for three years. On June 4, 1864, 129 
of the recruits of the 3d Me., whose term of service had not expired on 
the date of the muster-out of that command, were transferred to the 
17th. The war department also directed on Feb. i, 1865, the transfer to 
this regiment of Co. D, 2nd U. S. sharpshooters. The members of the 
regiment whose term of service expired prior to Oct. i, 1865, were mus- 
tered out at Bailey's cross-roads, June 4, 1865, and the remaining men 
were transferred to the ist Me. heavy artillery. The 17th left the state 
for Washington Aug. 21, 1862, and occupied the line of forts on the east 
side of the Anacosta and north side of the Potomac rivers, until Oct. 7, 
engaged in both heavy artillery and infantry drill and garrison duty. It 
then joined the 3d brigade (Berry's), ist division (Bimey's), 3d corps, 
at Upton's hill, Va. On Dec. 13, 1862, it participated in the battle of 
Fredericksburg, losing 2 men killed and 19 wounded, and was compli- 
mented by Gen. Berry for the steadiness of the men, who were under 
fire for the first time. The regiment remained encamped at Falmouth, 
Va., until May i, 1863, when it took part in the Chancellorsville campaign, 
being hotly engaged at Chancellorsville on May 2-3, losing 113 men in 
killed, wounded and missing out of about 625 men in the action. The 
regiment was next engaged at Gettysburg, during the last two days of 
the battle, where it lost 132 in killed, wounded and missing. On Nov. 
27, it took a prominent part in the battle of Orange Grove, losing 52 
men. It wintered at Brandy Station until March 25, 1864, during which 
time its ranks were filled by returned convalescents and recruits, and 
numbered about 500 men for the spring campaign. It was now assigned 
to the 2nd brigade, 3d division, 2nd army corps, and participated in the 
battle of the Wilderness, losing 24 men killed, 147 wounded and 12 miss- 
ing. On the I2th, the corps made its famous charge upon the enemy's 
lines at the Po river, where the regiment lost 53 men, and on the 23d, in 
the charge which drove the enemy across the North Anna river, it lost 
23 men. It was under fire at Cold Harbor, and in two assaults on the 
enemy's works at Petersburg it lost 84 men. Subsequently it encamped 
near Fort Sedgwick, where it remained until Feb. 5, 1865, having mean- 



Maine Regiments 53 

while taken part in the attack on the Weldon railroad under Gen. War- 
ren. They subsequently participated in all the movements of the 2nd 
corps in the vicinity of Hatcher's run, until March 29, 1865. On May i, 
it left Burkesville, Va., for Washington, where it was mustered out on 
June 4. Its aggregate losses during the years 1862, 1863 and 1864 were 

745- 

Eighteenth Infantry, — Col., Daniel Chaplin; Lieut.-Col., Thomas H. 
Talbot; Maj., Charles Hamlin. The regiment was raised chiefly in the 
Penobscot valley, and was mustered into the U. S. service at Bangor, 
Aug. 21, 1862, to serve for three years. It left the state on Aug. 24 for 
Washington, where, after doing duty in the defenses of the capital on 
the Virginia side for nearly five months, the organization was changed 
to heavy artillery by order of the war department of Dec. 19, 1862, and 
was numbered the ist regiment heavy artillery, Maine volunteers. 

Nineteenth Infantry. — Cols., Frederick D. Sewell, Francis E. Heath, 
Selden Connor, James W. Welch, Isaac W. Starbird; Lieut.-Cols., Fran- 
cis E. Heath, Henry W. Cunningham, Isaac W. Starbird, Joseph W. 
Spaulding; Majs., Henry W. Cunningham, James W. Welch, Isaac W. 
Starbird, Joseph W. Spaulding, David E. Parsons. A large portion of 
the men in the 19th came from Sagadohoc, Waldo, Knox and Kennebec 
counties and the regiment was mustered into the U. S. service at Bath, 
Aug. 25, 1862, to serve for three years. On the 27th it left for Washing- 
ton, numbering 39 officers and 969 enlisted men, having been raised, or- 
ganized and equipped in less than four weeks. It remained in garrison 
at Washington until the end of September, when it went to Harper's 
Ferry, and was assigned to the ist brigade, 2nd division, 2nd corps. 
During a reconnaissance in force Oct. 16, to Charlestown, it was under 
fire for the first time, the men behaving with the coolness which ever 
afterwards characterized the regiment. During its term of service, it saw 
an unusual amount of active duty, and, in addition to innumerable skir- 
mishes, was engaged in the battles at Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, 
Bristoe Station, Gettysburg, the Wilderness, Mine run, Spottsylvania 
Court House, Po river, Totopotomy, North Anna river, Bethesda Church, 
Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Deep Bottom, Reams' station. Strawberry 
Plains, Hatcher's run, Boydton plank road. Fort Powell, Amelia Springs 
and High bridge. At Gettysburg it went into action with 440 officers and 
men and lost during two days 12 officers and 220 enlisted men. Its losses 
were also very severe at the battle of the Wilderness, on the Jerusalem 
plank road, and in front of Petersburg. It was exposed to the fire of 
artillery and sharpshooters in the immediate front of Petersburg both 
night and day, from Oct. 20 to 26, 1864. Its casualties during the year 
1864 were as follows : killed in action, 61 ; wounded, 16 officers, 283 men ; 
captured, i officer, 133 men. On June 18, 1864, 277 men were transferred 
to this regiment from the 4th Me. infantry, and on Oct. 22, 1864, the Sth 
unassigned Me. infantry, organized at Augusta, Oct. 4, 1864, to serve 
one, two and three years, joined this regiment. On May 2, 1865, it left 
Burkesville, Va., for Washington, and was mustered out on May 31 at 
Bailey's cross-roads. The officers and men whose term of service did 
not expire prior to Oct. I, 1865, were transferred to the ist Me. heavy 
artillery. 

Twentieth Infantry. — Cols., Adelbert Ames, Joshua L. Chamberlain, 
Charles D. Gilmore, Ellis Spear; Lieut.-Cols., Joshua L. Chamberlain, 
Charles D. Gilmore, Walter G. Morrill, Thomas D. Chamberlain; Majs., 
Charles D. Gilmore, Ellis Spear, Atherton W. Clark, George R. Abbott. 
This was the last of the three-year regiments raised in the state in the 



54 The Union Army 

summer of 1862. It was rendezvoused at Portland and mustered into 
the U. S. service Aug. 29, 1862. The original members whose term of 
service expired prior to Oct. i, 1865, were mustered out at Washington, 
D. C, June 5, 1865, and the enlisted men of the i6th Me. infantry and 
the 1st Me. sharpshooters were transferred to the 20th, June 5 and June 
21, 1865, respectively. The regiment as thus reorganized was finally mus- 
tered out near Washington, July 16, 1865. On Sept. 3, 1862, the 20th 
left the state, and on the 7th went into camp at the arsenal grounds, 
Washington, D. C. Attached to Butterfield's brigade. Porter's division, it 
formed a portion of the reserve at Antietam, and was under fire for 36 
hours at the battle of Fredericksburg, where the men acted with great 
gallantry in this, their first serious battle. A list of the important battles 
in which the 20th subsequently engaged includes Chancellorsville, Gettys- 
burg, Rappahannock Station, Mine Run, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Toto- 
potomy. North Anna river, Bethesda Church, Hatcher's run, Petersburg, 
Weldon railroad, Peebles' farm, Boydton road. Gravelly run and Five 
Forks. After the battle of Chancellorsville, Col. Ames was promoted to 
brigadier-general, and Lieut.-Col. Chamberlain assumed command. Under 
his command it formed the extreme left of the line at Gettysburg on the 
second day of that sanguinary contest and was hotly engaged for many 
hours. Its total loss was 3 officers and 134 enlisted men killed and 
wounded. At the opening of the spring campaign of 1864, recruits and 
returning convalescents augmented the numbers of the regiment about 
100 men, so that it numbered 347 muskets. It was still attached to the 
3d brigade, ist division, 5th corps. On June 6, 1864, Col. Chamberlain 
was assigned to the command of the ist brigade of the division and Maj. 
Spear assumed command of the regiment. In the gallant charge on the 
enemy's works at Peebles' farm on Sept. 30, 1864, it suffered a loss of 57 
men killed and wounded, out of 167 men taken into action, but captured 
6 commissioned officers, 70 men and a piece of artillery. Its whole num- 
ber of casualties during the year 1864 was 298; and it received 200 re- 
cruits. In Jan., 1865, it mustered 275 muskets for duty. On the comple- 
tion of negotiations for the surrender of Lee's army, the 20th was one of 
the regiments designated to receive the Confederate arms. 

Twenty-first Infantry. — Col., Elijah D. Johnson; Lieut.-Col, Nathan 
Stanley; Maj., Benjamin G. Merry. This regiment, like the seven suc- 
ceeding ones, was raised under the call of Aug. 4, 1862, for 300,000 militia 
for nine months' service. It was mustered into the U. S. service at 
Bangor, Oct. 14, 1862, and started for Washington, D. C, on the 21st. 
While en route it was ordered to report to Maj. -Gen. N. P. Banks, com- 
manding the Department of the Gulf, at New York city, then organizing 
his expedition for the opening of the Mississippi. It remained quartered 
at East New York for two months and then proceeded to New Orleans, 
where it arrived early in Feb., 1863. It went at once to Baton Rouge and 
was assigned to the ist brigade, 1st division, 19th corps. The men 
suffered from disease contracted in the low southern country, despite the 
utmost precautions taken. Baton Rouge was now an important Union 
"base," and the regiment was occupied in doing picket duty and protect- 
ing the city from guerrilla attacks. On March 14th, it advanced with 
the corps against Port Hudson, while Adm. Farragut's fleet was engaged 
in passing the enemy's works there on that memorable night. The army, 
however, made no attack in force at that time, but on May 21 it engaged 
the enemy at Plains Store. The regiment took part in the siege of Port 
Hudson and participated in the assaults on May 27 and June 14, losing 
in the two engagements 88 men killed and wounded. Though its term 



Maine Regiments 55 

of service had expired during the siege, the regiment volunteered to re- 
main until the capture of Port Hudson, which occurred on July 9, 1863. 
Preparations were then at once made to transport home those regiments 
that had already remained beyond their term of service. The 20th was 
assigned to the 2nd brigade of the post forces, and July 25 embarked for 
Maine. With other regiments, it was the first to pass up the Mississippi 
river and received a continuous ovation. It arrived in Augusta, Aug. 7, 
where the men were mustered out on Aug. 25th, by Lieut. F. E. Cross- 
man of the 17th U. S. infantry. 

Twenty-second Infantry. — Col., Simon G. Jerrard; Lieut.-Col., 
Olonzo G. Putnam; Maj., John O. Brackett. This regiment was ren- 
dezvoused at Camp John Pope, Bangor, and was mustered into service 
Oct. 18, 1862, to serve nine months. It left on the 21st for Washington, 
where it arrived on the 24th and remained encamped at Arlington Heights 
until Nov. 3, when it was temporarily assigned to the 3d brigade, Casey's 
division, commanded by Col. Fessenden, of the 25th Me. Having been 
ordered to Fortress Monroe to form a part of the projected expedition 
to New Orleans, it embarked Dec. 4 at Newport News and arrived at 
New Orleans on the 15th. On the 17th it occupied Baton Rouge and 
was assigned to the ist brigade, Grover's division. It participated in the 
reconnaissance in the rear of Port Hudson March 13 to 16, and on March 
26 formed a part of the expedition up the Atchafalaya to attack the 
enemy's works in the rear. It defeated the enemy in a sharp engage- 
ment at Irish bend on April 14, and garrisoned at Franklin until the 
25th, when it went to New Iberia. On May 6, it moved toward Port 
Hudson, where it arrived on June i, having marched over 500 miles 
during the campaign. It participated in two assaults on the works at 
Port Hudson, June 9 and 14, and after the surrender of that place was 
quartered inside the works until July 24, when it started for Maine, going 
by boat to Cairo, 111., thence by rail to Bangor, where it arrived on Aug. 
6, and was mustered out on the 15th. 

Twenty-third Infantry. — Col., William Wirt Virgin ; Lieut.-Col, 
Enos T. Luce; Maj., Alfred B. Soule. This regiment was entirely com- 
posed of men from the counties of Androscoggin and Oxford, except one 
company from Cumberland county. Many of its members were graduates 
of seminaries and colleges and the moral and intellectual qualities of the 
men were of an exceptionally high order. They went into camp at Port- 
land, and were there mustered in on Sept. 29, 1862, for nine months. The 
regiment left for Washington Oct. 18, arrived there on the 20th, and on 
the 25th received orders to report to Gen. Grover at Seneca, Md., where 
it was assigned the duty of guarding the several fords of the upper Po- 
tomac. It performed this duty with care and fidelity until May 24, 1863, 
when it was ordered to Alexandria, Va., and was there engaged for 
several weeks in digging rifle-pits, building barricades across the princi- 
pal streets and patrolling the town, in addition to sending out a large 
number of men daily for picket duty. On June 17, it moved back to 
Poolesville, Md., and to Maryland heights opposite Harper's Ferry on 
the 24th. On the 27th, it was ordered to Portland, Me., where the men 
were mustered out and discharged on July 15. During its ten months' 
service, it lost about 50 men by disease, and 2 by accident. By the for- 
tunes of war it was never under fire, but this was no fault of the officers 
or men, who established a good reputation among all with whom they 
came in contact for good order, sobriety and excellent discipline. 

Twenty-fourth Infantry. — Col, George M. Atwood; Lieut. -Cols., 
Charles T. Bean, Eben Hutchinson; Majs., Eben Hutchinson, William 



56 The Union Army 

Holbrook. This regiment was mustered into the U. S. service at Augusta, 
Oct. i6, 1862, to serve for nine months. On the 29th it left for New 
York and reported to Maj.-Gen. Banks. The regiment was detained at 
East New York by sickness until Jan. 12, 1863, when it embarked for 
New Orleans, arriving there Feb. 14. On the 26th it was ordered to 
Bonnet Carre, 40 miles above New Orleans, and was there assigned to 
the 3d brigade, 2nd division, under command of Gen. Nickerson. While 
at this place details from the regiment were variously engaged in active 
duties at different times and places. On May 21, it was ordered to Port 
Hudson and participated in the entire siege of that stronghold, including 
the desperate assaults of May 27 and June 14, but suffered few casualties. 
The southern climate, however, worked havoc in their ranks, as they lost 
184 men from disease and nearly 100 more were discharged for disability. 
Of the 900 men who went out with the regiment, 570 returned. It left 
Port Hudson for Maine, via Cairo, 111., July 24, arrived at Augusta on 
Aug. 6, and was mustered out on the 25th of the same month, after a 
term of service of nearly one year. None was killed in battle or died of 
wounds. 

Twenty-fifth Infantry. — Col., Francis Fessenden ; Lieut.-Col., Charles 
E. Shaw; Maj., Alexander M. Tolman. This regiment was mustered 
into the U. S. service at Portland, Sept. 29, 1862, to serve for nine months. 
It comprised 993 men, and left for Washington on Oct. 13, arriving in 
that city on the i8th. It was assigned to the 3d brigade, Casey's division, 
Reserve army corps, for the defense of the national capital, and remained 
encamped on Arlington Heights, on the north side of Columbia turnpike, 
in front of the line of defenses from Oct. 26, 1862, to March 24, 1863, 
continually engaged in guarding "Long Bridge" and constructing fortifi- 
cations. On March 24, 1863, it was ordered to Chantilly, Va., on the 
Little River turnpike, and remained on picket duty in that vicinity until 
June 26, when it was ordered back to Arlington Heights. On June 30, it 
started for Maine and arrived July 3 at Portland, where the men were 
mustered out of the U. S. service July 10. During its term of service 
the regiment participated in no engagements, but faithfully performed 
every duty assigned it. The losses were 25 men who died of disease; 5 
officers and 27 men discharged ; 13 deserted, and 9 were transferred. 

Twenty-sixth Infantry. — Col., Nathaniel H. Hubbard ; Lieut.-Col., 
Philo Hersey; Maj., James N. Fowler. This regiment was raised in the 
counties of Knox, Hancock and Waldo, and was rendezvoused at Camp 
John Pope, Bangor, where it was mustered into the U. S. service Oct. 

11, 1862, to serve for three years. It left the state Oct. 23, and arrived 
in Washington on the 27th. On Nov. 9 it embarked for Fortress Monroe, 
and on Dec. i reembarked at Newport News on the steamers Pocahontas 
and Matanzas for Ship island, where it arrived on the 12th, and at New 
Orleans on the i6th. It proceeded at once to Baton Rouge, where it was 
assigned to the 3d brigade, Grover's division, remaining here until March 

12, 1863, when it joined in the reconnaissance to Port Hudson, returning 
on the i6th, and on the 28th embarked on the river steamer St. Maurice 
for Donaldsonville, 60 miles below. Thence, with the other forces from 
Baton Rouge, it proceeded to Thibodeaux, thence by rail to Brashear City, 
and on April 11, together with Grover's division, it proceeded to Irish 
bend, near Franklin, La., where on the 14th it engaged the enemy and 
met with a loss of 68 men out of 300 engaged. On May 30 it arrived at 
Port Hudson and engaged in supporting a battery until June 14, when 
it participated in the assault of that day, afterward returning to its former 
position. On the surrender of Port Hudson, it remained on duty inside 



Maine Regiments 57 

the fortifications until July 26, when it embarked for Maine, and was 
mustered out of the U. S. service at Bangor on Aug. 9. The mortality 
of the regiment from all causes was about 200. 

Twenty-seventh Infantry. — Cols., Rufus P. Tapley, Mark F. Went- 
worth; Lieut.-Cols., Mark F. Wentworth, James M. Stone; Majs., James 
M. Stone, John D. Hill. Most of the members of this regiment came 
from York county and were rendezvoused at Portland, where the regi- 
ment was mustered into service Sept. 30, 1862, to serve for nine 
months. They left on Oct. 20 for Washington, arriving there on the 
22nd. On the 26th it marched to Arlington Heights, where it remained 
doing picket duty until Dec. 12th, when it was ordered to the south of 
Hunting creek. Here it relieved a Vermont brigade in the duty of 
guarding a picket line 8 miles long, extending from the Potomac near 
Mount Vernon to the Orange & Alexandria railroad, and remained here 
in the performance of that duty throughout a severe winter until March 
24, 1863. It then moved to Chantilly, Va., doing picket duty on the 
outermost line of infantry in the defenses of Washington. On June 25 
it returned to Arlington Heights. The term of service of the regiment 
had already expired, but 315 of the officers and men volunteered to re- 
main and if necessary assist in the defense of the capital against the 
forces of Gen. Lee, who had then commenced his great invasion of Penn- 
sylvania. On July 4, after the result of the battle of Gettysburg was 
announced, the regiment left for Maine and arrived at Portland on the 
6th, where the men were mustered out on the 17th. The 27th left the 
state with 949 men, and lost 82 men by death, discharge and resignation. 

Twenty-eighth Infantry. — Col., Ephraim W. Woodman ; Lieut.-Col., 
William E. Hadlock; Maj., Joseph D. Bullen. This regiment, number- 
ing 935 men, was organized on Oct. 6, 1862, and was mustered into the 
U. S. service at Augusta, Oct. 18, to serve for nine months. On the 26th 
it left the state for Washington, but stopped en route at New York, and 
was ordered to Fort Schuyler to report to Gen. Banks. On Nov. 26 it 
was ordered to East New York, and on Jan. 17, 1863, embarked for For- 
tress Monroe and New Orleans, arriving at the latter place on the 29th. 
It encamped at Chalmette, 7 miles below the city, until Feb. 15, when it 
was ordered to Pensacola, Fla. On March 29 it returned to New Orleans, 
and was at once ordered to Donaldsonville and Plaquemine. On May 
27, six companies under Col. Woodman were ordered to Port Hudson, 
and assigned to Gen. Nickerson's brigade of Dwight's division. They 
shared in the advance of June 14, and on June 22 assaulted a bastion of 
the Confederate works, losing 3 killed and 9 wounded. Meanwhile, the 
portion of the regiment which had remained at Donaldsonville to garrison 
Fort Butler, was attacked by a vastly superior force of the enemy, but 
repulsed them with heavy loss in one of the most gallant engagements 
of the war. The little garrison killed, captured and wounded more than 
three times its number, and was mentioned for gallantry in general orders 
read to the troops before Port Hudson. On July 4, the six companies 
at Port Hudson were ordered to Fort Butler, then besieged by the enemy, 
and arrived there on the 5th. The same evening, Maj. Bullen, who had 
so recently won distinction for his brilliant defense of the fort with his 
little command, was foully murdered by private Francis G. Scott of the 
1st La. infantry. Owing to a dearth of field officers. Col. Woodward 
had been retained at Port Hudson. After the surrender of that place on 
the 8th he again took command of the regiment on the loth and two 
days later took command of the post at Baton Rouge, where the regi- 
ment was stationed until Aug. 6, when it started for Maine via Cairo, 



58 The Union Army 

111., arrived at Augusta on the i8th, and on the 31st was mustered out 
at that point. Many of the men had reenlisted while in the South, but 
all the men captured had been paroled or exchanged, and were mustered 
out with the others. 

Twenty-ninth Infantry. — Cols., George L. Beal, George H. Nye; 
Lieut. -Col., Charles S. Emerson; Majs., William Knowlton, George H. 
Nye, John M. Gould. Col. Beal, formerly of the loth Me., was author- 
ized to recruit this regiment, which was one of the veteran volunteer 
organizations raised in Maine near the close of 1863. It was organized at 
Augusta, from Nov. 13, 1863, to Jan., 1864, to serve for three years, with the 
exception of Companies A and D, which were transferred from the loth 
Me. battalion and joined the regiment at New Orleans, La. Co. A was 
mustered out Oct. 18, 1864, its term of service having expired, and its place 
was filled by the ist company of unassigned infantry, organized at Au- 
gusta on Sept. I, 1864, to serve for one year. The new Co. A was mus- 
tered out June 5, 1865 ; the balance of the regiment was mustered out 
at Hilton Head, S. C, June 21, 1866, and arrived in New York harbor 
June 28, where the men were paid and discharged. The regiment left 
Augusta Jan. 31, 1864, and embarked at Portland on Feb. 2, on the steam- 
ship De Molay for New Orleans, where it arrived on the i6th. It par- 
ticipated in the Red River expedition under Gen. Banks, being assigned 
to the 1st brigade, ist division, 19th corps, and rendered brilliant service 
at the battles of Mansfield and Pleasant Hill, La. It assisted in building 
the dam which saved the gunboats of the fleet, and was at one time with- 
out sleep and very little to eat for 60 hours, marching 56 miles in the 
meantime and fighting two battles. On July 12, it returned to Fortress 
Monroe and subsequently took part in all the movements of the Army of 
the Shenandoah, including the battles of Winchester, Fisher's hill, and 
Cedar creek. Maj. Knowlton was fatally wounded at Winchester, and 
in the action at Cedar creek the regiment lost 18 killed and iii wounded. 
During the winter of 1864-65 it was in winter quarters in the neighbor- 
hood of Stephenson's depot, Va., attached to the ist brigade, ist division, 
19th corps. It did guard duty at Washington arsenal over the assassins 
of President Lincoln on May 4-5, 1865, and took part in the grand re- 
view of the Army of the Potomac on the 23d. On June 5 it arrived in 
Savannah, Ga., by boat, whence they went to Georgetown, S. C. on the 
14th and 15th. From this time until March 27, 1866, detachments of the 
regiment were occupied at various stations in South Carolina, with head- 
quarters at Darlington. On the last-named date the regiment was ordered 
to Hilton Head, S. C, which it occupied, with detachments at St. Helena 
island and at Seabrook, until it was mustered out. 

Thirtieth Infantry. — Cols., Francis Fessenden. Thomas H. Hubbard, 
Royal E. Whitman; Lieut.-Cols., Thomas H. Hubbard, Royal E. Whit- 
man, George W. Randall; Majs., Royal E. Whitman, George W. Randall, 
Horace C. Haskell. Like many of the regiments formed in the latter 
years of the war, the 30th had a large number of experienced soldiers 
among its officers and men, though it also had some who were attracted 
by the large bounties offered and some who were old and disabled. The 
regiment was mustered in at Augusta from Dec. 12, 1863, to Jan. 8, 1864, 
to serve for three years. On Jan. 8, 1865, it was joined by three compa- 
nies made up from the enlisted men of the 13th Me., whose term of serv- 
ice had not expired at the date of the muster out of that regiment, and 
were assigned to this organization on Nov. 18, 1864. The entire regiment 
was mustered out on Aug. 20, 1865, at Savannah, Ga. On Feb. 7, 1864, 
the 30th embarked at Portland on the steamer Merrimac for New Or- 



Maine Regiments 59 

leans, La., arriving there on the i6th. It participated in the Red River 
campaign as a part of the 3d brigade ist division, 19th corps, and took 
an honorable part in the battles of Sabine cross-roads and Pleasant Hill 
on April 8 and 9, respectively. It lost in the two engagements 11 killed, 
66 wounded and 71 missing, and during the retreat of the Union forces 
to the Mississippi river, it took the most prominent part in the dislodg- 
ment of the enemy at Cane river crossing, which was perhaps the most 
gallant action of the disastrous campaign. Its loss here was 2 officers 
and ID men killed, 2 officers and 67 men wounded, and 7 men missing. 
Soon after the close of this campaign, the regiment was sent north to 
Virginia. In August and the early part of September it moved with the 
Army of the Shenandoah, but did not share in the battles and victories 
of Gen. Sheridan in September and October, as the brigade was detached 
from its division until Oct. 26. On Nov. 9, 1864, it took up a position 
between Kernstown and Newton, and on Dec. 30 went into winter quar- 
ters at Stephenson's depot, 4 miles north of Winchester, but a few days 
later moved to Winchester. After the recruits from the 13th Me. joined 
the regiment at Winchester it was formed into seven companies and re- 
tained its field and staff officers without change. The new companies 
from the 13th were lettered B, H and K in the new organization. The 
30th remained at Winchester until April 10, 1865, when it went to Wash- 
ington, where it participated in the grand review of the Army of the Po- 
tomac on May 23, and on June 2 was transferred to the 2nd brigade, ist 
division, 19th corps, which it accompanied to Savannah, Ga., the place of 
their muster out. On Aug. 24 it arrived in Portland, where the men were 
finally paid and discharged. 

Thirty-first Infantry. — Cols., Thomas Hight, Daniel White; Lieut- 
Cols., Thomas Hight, Stephen C. Talbot, Edward L. Getchell; Majs., 
Stephen C. Talbot, Daniel White, George A. Bolton. This regiment was 
mustered into the U. S. service at Augusta, from March i to April 29, 
1864, to serve for three years. The 4th and 6th companies of unassigned 
infantry, organized at Augusta in Oct., 1864, to serve for one year, were 
assigned to this regiment as Companies L and M, the 32nd Me. was con- 
solidated with this regiment on Dec. 12, 1864, and the entire regiment 
was mustered out of service near Alexandria, Va._ July 15, 1865. The 
men returned to Bangor on the 19th of the same month, where they were 
finally paid and discharged on the 27th. The 31st left the state for Wash- 
ington April 18, 1864, and upon its arrival at Alexandria, Va., was as- 
signed to the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 9th corps. It at once marched to 
Bristoe Station, whence it was hastened to the front to aid in the conclu- 
ding scenes of the conflict. The regiment almost immediately took part 
in the battle of the Wilderness, where it lost heavily in killed and 
wounded. From this time on it saw continuous hard service until the 
close of the war. In addition to the Wilderness it participated in the 
battles of Spottsylvania Court House, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Weldon 
railroad. Poplar Spring Church and Hatcher's run. For its gallantry at 
the furious engagement of Bethesda Church on June 3, Gen. Griffin, com- 
manding the brigade, issued the following congratulatory order : "It also 
gives me pleasure to add my evidence to the well-known fact that the 
31st Me. has made for itself a most brilliant record, and won for itself 
imperishable renown." The casualties of the regiment were enormous, as 
it was so constantly engaged. It lost at Spottsylvania Court House 12 
killed, 75 wounded and 108 missing. In the great battle of July 30, when 
the mine was exploded at Petersburg, the regiment was assigned an im- 
portant position and was the first to enter the enemy's works. Its losses 



60 The Union Army 

were lo killed, 31 wounded and 47 captured. Again at the battle of 
Poplar Spring Church the regiment distinguished itself, and was the last 
to fall back when the enemy turned the right of the brigade and com- 
pelled a retreat. It lost here 5 killed, 15 wounded and 16 captured. Dur- 
ing the winter of 1864-65 it garrisoned Forts Fisher and Davis until 
Feb. II, when it was ordered to a point near Parke Station on the Army 
Line & City Point railroad, where it remained until April 2, when it 
assaulted the enemy's works and suffered severely. On the next day it 
participated in the pursuit of the enemy and on the 8th conducted a de- 
tachment of prisoners to Ford's station. On the 20th it embarked for 
Alexandria, Va., and was mustered out the following July. 

Thirty-second Infantry.— Col., Mark F. Wentworth; Lieut-Cols., 
John M. Brown, James L. Hunt; Maj., Arthur Deering. This regiment 
was raised in the counties of Androscoggin, Cumberland, Franklin, Lin- 
coln, Oxford, Sagadahoc and York, and was mustered in at Augusta, 
from March 3 to May 6, 1864, to serve for three years. Such was the 
urgent demand for troops in the field, that six companies which had com- 
pleted their organization left the state on April 20 for Washington, under 
the command of Maj. Deering. A few days later they were assigned to 
the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, gth corps, and at once hurried to the front. 
They overtook their corps, which had preceded them by three days, on 
May 6, and were continuously under fire during the battle of the Wilder- 
ness, while engaged in building fortifications and changing position. At 
Spottsylvania Court House, they were under fire for eight days and ren- 
dered most effective service throughout the whole action, holding an ex- 
posed part of the line and making numerous charges, losing heavily in 
men and officers. On the 25th they crossed the North Anna river under 
fire, and on the 26th were joined by the remaining four companies of the 
regiment, which had completed their organization on May 6th, and left 
for the front on the nth. The following is a list of battles in which this 
regiment, or a portion of it, bore an honorable part: Spottsylvania Court 
House, North Anna, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, June 17 to July 30; 
Weldon railroad, Poplar Spring Church, Pegram farm and Hatcher's 
run. The regiment charged most gallantly on July 30, when the Con- 
federate works in their immediate front were blown up by Burnside's 
mine, and was one of the first to enter the works. It came out of this 
sanguinary fight with but 27 men under Adjt. Hayes, the only officer left, 
the loss in this engagement being 11 officers and about 100 men killed, 
wounded and captured. It again met with fearful loss when it sharply 
engaged the enemy near the Pegram house on Sept. 30. The regiment 
remained at the Pegram house from Oct. 28 to Nov. 30, and then moved 
to near Fort Hayes, where it remained until Dec. 12, where, under 
orders from the war department, 15 of its officers and 470 enlisted men 
were consolidated with the 31st Me., on account of the reduced state of 
both regiments, and all surplus officers of the 32nd were mustered out. 

First Cavalry. — Cols., John Goddard, Samuel H. Allen, Calvin S. 
Douty, Charles H. Smith ; Lieut.-Cols., Thomas Hight, Calvin S. Douty, 
Charles H. Smith, Stephen Boothby, Jonathan P. Cilley; Majs., Samuel H. 
Allen, David P. Stowell, Calvin S. Douty, Warren L. Whitney, Jonathan P. 
Cilley, Charles H. Smith, Stephen Boothby, George M. Brown, Sidney W. 
Thaxter, Constantine Taylor, Benjamin F. Tucker, Paul Chadbourne, Dan- 
iel S. Curtis, Joel W. Cloudman. This regiment was raised at large, con- 
sisted of twelve companies, and was mustered in at Augusta, Nov. 5, 
1861, for three years. It was the equal of any in the service in the char- 
acter of its men and the quality of its horses. It remained encamped at 



Maine Regiments 61 

Augusta until the following spring. Companies A, D, E and F left the 
state for Washington on March 14, 1862, under command of Col. Allen, 
arriving there on the 19th. Companies B, I, H and M, under Maj. Douty, 
arrived on the 24th, and C, G, K and L, under Maj. Stowell, on the 28th. 
A, B, E, H and M, under Lieut.-Col. Douty, joined Gen. Banks' corps at 
Strasburg, Va., on May 11, and were attached to Gen. Hatch's cavalry 
brigade. The other seven companies were first assigned to Gen. Aber- 
crombie's brigade, and soon afterwards to Gen. Ord's division at Fred- 
ericksburg. The men participated in their first severe engagement on 
May 23, when Lieut.-Col. Douty with his command and two companies of 
the 1st Vt. cavalry, charged the enemy at Middletown, Va., covering 
Banks' retreat to Williamsport. The loss was 176 horses and equip- 
ments. The regiment was reunited at Warrenton, Va., on July 10, and 
attached to Bayard's brigade, with which it took part in the battle of 
Cedar mountain. It participated in the retreat of Gen. Pope's forces to 
Fairfax Court House, where it arrived on Sept. 3 and reported to Gen. 
Reno, having engaged the enemy at Brandy Station on Aug. 20, and been 
present at the second battle of Bull Run on the 30th, under Brig.-Gen. 
Elliott of Pope's staff. Arriving in Washington on Sept. 4, it was at- 
tached to Burnside's corps and engaged the enemy at Frederick, Md., 
on the I2th. Co. G, acting as Gen. Reno's body-guard, took part in the 
battle of South mountain, Cos. M and H, under Gen. Porter, in that of 
Antietam. The regiment (except Cos. G, M and H) remained at Fred- 
erick from Sept. 12 to Nov. 2, up to which period it had lost in action 
and worn out in service nearly 700 horses. The severity of the service 
to which the men of this regiment were subjected may be inferred from 
a bare recital of the battles in which they were subsequently engaged and 
from data showing some of their heaviest losses. The list of battles in- 
cludes, in addition to those above mentioned : Fredericksburg, Rappa- 
hannock Station, Brandy Station, Aldie, Middleburg, Upperville, Gettys- 
burg, Shepherdstown, Sulphur Springs, Mine Run, about Richmond, Old 
Church, Todd's tavern, Ground Squirrel Church, Hawes' shop, Cold Har- 
bor, Trevilian Station, St. Mary's Church, Deep Bottom, Reams' Sta- 
tion, Wyatt's farm, Boydton road and Bellefield. Col. Douty was killed 
at Aldie, Va., while leading a gallant charge, on June 17, 1863, as was 
Capt. Summatt while rallying his men under a murderous fire of grape 
and canister. Three hundred selected men from the regiment participated 
in the daring raid of Gen. Kilpatrick to the vicinity of Richmond, Feb. 
27 to March 12, 1864, the loss of the ist in this famous raid being 93 men 
killed, wounded or missing and over 200 horses. It also moved with the 
cavalry corps on Gen. Sheridan's first raid. May 9, 1864, until within 3 
miles of Richmond. In the engagement at Trevilian Station, June 24, 
1864, its loss was 10 officers and 58 enlisted men. During August of this 
year its loss in killed, wounded and missing was 49 men and 75 horses, 
and the total casualties during 1864 amounted to 295 officers and enlisted 
men. In Aug., 1864, seven companies of the ist D. C. cavalry were trans- 
ferred and assigned to the several companies of this regiment by a spe- 
cial order of the war department. The original members of the regi- 
ment whose term of service expired Nov. 4, 1864, were mustered out at 
Augusta, Me., on the 25th, while the regiment, now composed of veterans, 
recruits and members of the ist D. C. cavalry whose term had not ex- 
pired, participated in the closing battles of the war; was mustered out of 
the U. S. service at Petersburg, Va., Aug., i, 1865, and arrived in Augusta, 
Me., on the 9th. 

Second Cavalry. — Col, Ephraim W. Woodman; Lieut.-Cols., John F. 



62 The Union Army 

Godfrey, Andrew B. Spurling; Majs., Charles A. Miller, Eben Hutchin- 
son, Andrew B. Spurling, Nathan Cutler. This regiment was organized 
at Augusta at the close of the year 1863, and the men were mustered in 
between Nov. 30 and Jan. 2, 1864, to serve for three years. It numbered 
989 men, all of good physique and well armed and disciplined. It was 
assigned to the Department of the Gulf and arrived in five detachments 
at New Orleans, during April, 1864. Companies A and D, and a part of 
G, the first to arrive, were at once ordered to Alexandria, La., and as- 
signed to the 3d cavalry brigade, to participate in the Red River expedi- 
tion. They took part in the engagements at Cherryville cross-roads, 
Marksville, Avoyelles prairie and Yellow bayou, and rejoined the main 
body of the regiment at Thibodeaux on June i. In August the regiment 
went to Pensacola, Fla., arriving on the nth, and encamped near Bar- 
rancas. During the balance of this year it was engaged in fatigue duty, 
and participated in raids to Marianna, Fla., and Pollard, Ala. In each of 
these raids severe damage was inflicted on the enemy, many prisoners and 
large quantities of stores being captured. In the raid to Pollard four dis- 
tinct battles were fought, but Lieut. -Col. Spurling, on whom the com- 
mand of the expedition had devolved, succeeded in conducting his com- 
mand, encumbered with a train of 50 wagons, 60 miles through the en- 
emy's country, attacked constantly on front, rear and flanks by a superior 
force. The regiment suffered much during the summer of 1864, from 
sickness, induced by a sudden change to the excessive heat of southern 
Louisiana. At one time only 450 were able to report for duty, and during 
the year the regiment lost by deaths one officer and 278 enlisted men. 
On Feb. 2}^, 1865, Lieut.-Col. Spurling with 300 men routed the enemy at 
Milton, Fla. The regiment joined Gen. Steele's command at Pensacola 
on March 19, and participated in the campaign which resulted in the 
capture of Mobile, and opened up the State of Alabama to the Union forces. 
The regiment rendered highly efficient service, captured many prisoners, 
destroyed much railroad and other property, frequently engaged the 
enemy, and opened communication with Gen. Canby, who was besieging 
Spanish Fort. After the fall of Mobile, a detachment of the regiment 
accompanied the i6th corps on a 200-mile march to Montgomery, Ala. In 
Aug., 1865, detachments of the regiment were stationed at various points 
in western Florida to preserve the peace. On Dec. i, it was concentrated 
at Barrancas, and was mustered out on the 6th, though 25 officers and 116 
men remained in Florida, and 14 officers and 500 enlisted men returned 
to Augusta, where they were finally paid and discharged. 

First District of Columbia Cavalry. — This regiment, known as 
Baker's cavalry, was an independent organization and was originally de- 
signed for special service in the District of Columbia, subject only to the 
orders of the war department. It was commanded by Col. L. C. Baker. 
Eight companies were organized at Augusta, from Oct., 1863, to March, 
1864, to serve for three years, and assigned as Cos. D, F, G, H, I, K, L 
and M, rendering the regiment to all intents and purposes a Maine 
organization. Capt. Cloudman, whose company was the first to leave the 
state for Washington, was commissioned major by the president, during 
the seven months' service of the regiment, which was engaged in impor- 
tant service in and about Washington until May, when half of it was 
ordered to Portsmouth, Va., and dismounted for a short time. The other 
half was assigned to the army of Gen. Butler and participated in Gen. 
Kautz' cavalry raids about Petersburg, in May and June, 1864. In July 
this portion participated in the engagement at Malvern hill, and Aug. 2 
crossed the Appomattox river and established headquarters at Sycamore 



Maine Regiments 63 

Church, with four companies stationed at Cox's mills, 2 miles below. The 
regiment was engaged in skirmishing and doing picket duty on the Wel- 
don & Petersburg railroad, Aug. 8-23, and on the latter date engaged and 
drove the Hampton legion, inflicting a severe loss on the enemy. On the 
24th, it took part in the action at Reams' station, after which it returned 
to Sycamore Church, and on the 27th, by a special order of the war de- 
partment, all the Maine officers and men were transferred to the 1st Me. 
cavalry. They did not join the latter regiment at once, but remained 
doing duty on the extreme left of the army, on a line about 4 miles in 
length. On Sept. 15, the regiment was attacked simultaneously at three 
points on their extended line by an overwhelming force of the enemy, 
and after a heroic resistance was compelled to retreat. The loss was 
severe, 9 officers and over 150 privates being captured, in addition to sev- 
eral killed and wounded. Majs. Baker and Cloudman were captured, and 
the remaining men then joined the ist Me. cavalry, their history from 
this date being identical with that regiment. 

First Heavy Artillery. — Cols., Daniel Chaplin, Russell B. Shepherd; 
Lieut. -Cols., Thomas H. Talbot, Russell B. Shepherd, Zemro A. Smith; 
Majs., Charles Hamlin, Russell B. Shepherd, George W. Sabine, Christo- 
pher V. Crossman, Zemro A. Smith, Charles W. Nute, Harrison G. Smith. 
This regiment was originally organized as the i8th infantry (q. v.), but 
was changed to heavy artillery after five months' service, and by general 
order No. 62, from the adjutant-general's office of Maine, series of 1862, 
was designated as the ist regiment, heavy artillery, Maine volunteers. 
Two additional companies were organized — one in Jan., 1864, the other 
in Feb., 1864. The original members were mustered out on June 6, 1865, 
but the organization, composed of veterans and recruits of this regiment 
and accessions from the 17th and 19th Me. infantry, remained in service 
and was mustered out at Washington, D. C, Sept. 11, 1865. The men 
returned to Bangor, Me., on the 17th and were paid and discharged on 
the 20th. The several companies were stationed in the defenses of Wash- 
ington until 1864. The 3d battery of mounted artillery was temporarily 
attached to this regiment, and served as Co. M, from March 28, 1863, to 
Feb. 23, 1864. The maximum number of men required for the regiment 
(1,800), was secured in Feb., 1864, when two new majors were added and 
four lieutenants in each company instead of two. On May 15 1864, the 
regiment as thus organized joined the Army of the Potomac at Belle Plain 
landing and came under fire for the first time on the 19th, when it took 
a prominent part in repulsing a heavy attack of the enemy on the supply 
trains near the Fredericksburg pike. It suffered severely in the action, 
losing 476 men in killed, wounded and missing. It subsequently partici- 
pated in the battles of Totopotomy, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Deep Bot- 
tom, Boydton road, Weldon railroad, Hatcher's run. and in all the final 
movements resulting in the evacuation of Richmond and Petersburg and 
the surrender of Gen. Lee. On May 24, 1864, the regiment was assigned 
to the 3d brigade, 3d division, 2nd corps. In the heroic assaults on the 
enemy's works at Petersburg, between June 15-30, the regiment lost 30 
killed, 519 wounded and 31 missing, 6 of the killed being commissioned 
officers. Col. Chaplin was mortally .wouiided by a sharpshooter on Aug. 
18 at Deep Bottom, and in the action on the Boydton plank road, Oct. 
27, the regiment lost 3 commissioned officers and 29 men. In an engage- 
ment of a little more than an hour at Hatcher's run, March 25, 1865, 
it lost I officer and 3 men killed, and 23 wounded and captured. The 
regiment was at Bailey's cross-roads April 16, and later participated in 
the grand review at Washington. 



64 The Union Army 

First Mounted Artillery.— Col., Freeman McGilvery; Lieut.-Cols., 
Davis Tillson, George F. Leppien, Freeman McGilvery, James A. Hall; 
Majs., Davis Tillson, Freeman McGilvery, James A. Hall, Albert W. 
Bradbury. This organization was composed of seven batteries, serving 
in different commands, which were mustered into service for three years. 
The ist battery was organized at Portland, Dec. i8, 1861, and mustered 
out there on July i, 1865; the 2nd was organized at Augusta, Nov. 30, 

1861, and mustered out at the same city on June 6, 1865; the 3d was 
organized at Augusta, Dec. 11, 1861, and mustered out at Augusta on 
June 17, 1865; the 4th was organized at Augusta, Dec. 21, 1861, and 
mustered out there on June 17, 1865; the 5th was organized at Augusta, 
Dec. 4, 1861, and mustered out at Augusta, July 6, 1865; the 6th was 
organized at Augusta, Feb. 7, 1862, and mustered out at the same place 
on June 17, 1865; the 7th was organized at Augusta, Dec. 30, 1863, and 
mustered out there on June 21, 1865. The ist battery left the state for 
Camp Chase, Lowell, Mass., Dec. 19, 1861, and arrived at Ship island, 
Miss., March 10, 1862. It moved to New Orleans May 15, and did patrol 
and garrison duty until Oct. i, when it became a part of Gen. Weitzel's 
reserve brigade at Carrollton. The battery remained in the South until 
Feb. 10, 1864, during which period it was in the engagements at Labadie- 
ville. Bayou Teche, Fort Bisland, siege of Port Hudson and Donaldson- 
ville. Every man present for duty with the battery reenlisted for three 
years on Dec. 29, 1863, and was mustered in Jan. i, following. The men 
were furloughed for 30 days in Feb. and March, 1864, and the batterj' 
was assigned to Gen. Burnside's corps in April. On July 12 it assisted 
in repelling Gen. Early's forces at Fort Stevens. On the 30th it was 
assigned to the 19th corps. Gen. Emory commanding, and joined the ist 
division on Aug. 3. It remained with this division through the balance 
of the year, participating in the brilliant campaign of Gen. Sheridan in the 
Shenandoah valley. It was in the actions at Winchester, Strasburg and 
Cedar creek, in all of which it distinguished itself. On Nov. 9 it moved 
from Cedar creek to Winchester, and Jan. 14 to Manchester. On April 
14 returned to Winchester and on July 9 embarked for Portland. 

The 2nd battery garrisoned Fort Preble from March 10 to April i, 

1862, when it left for Washington. It participated in the action at Cross 
Keys, June 8, and in skirmishes at Strasburg, Woodstock, Mount Jack- 
son, Newmarket, Harrisonburg and Port Republic. On Aug. 5, it moved 
from Waterloo to Culpeper Court House and engaged the enemy near 
there on the 8th. It was also engaged in the second Bull Run, the battle 
of Cedar mountain, and was in the battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 
losing 2 killed and 14 wounded, and 31 horses. It then encamped at 
Fletcher's Chapel until May 3, 1863, when it engaged in the battle of 
Chancellorsville, after which it took part in the Pennsylvania campaign, 
and in the battle of Gettysburg. In Dec, 1863, most of the men reen- 
listed for three years, and were given furloughs of 30 days. The battery 
was at Camp Barry until April 26, 1864, and was then assigned to the 
9th corps. Army of the Potomac, taking part in the advance on Rich- 
mond and the battles of the Wilderness. Spottsylvania Court House 
(eight days' fighting). North Anna, Bethesda Church, Cold Harbor 
and Petersburg. From Oct. 13, 1864, to May 3, 1865, it occupied the 
outer defenses of City Point, Va., when it moved to Alexandria, and on 
May 31 left there for Maine. 

The 3d battery remained in barracks at Island Park, Portland, until 
April I, 1862, when it left for Washington. It served with Gen. Mc- 
Dowell as pontoniers from May 14 to Nov. 7; was then engaged in 
building battery "Maine" at Fort Lincoln until March 28, 1863, when it 



Maine Regiments 65 

was assigned to the ist Me. heavy artillery as Co. M, and remained in 
the defenses of Washington as part of that organization until it was re- 
organized on Feb. 22, 1864. Meanwhile, 72 of the men had reenlisted for 
three years, on Jan. 5, 1864, and returned home on a 30-days' furlough. 
The reorganized battery remained at Camp Barry, Washington, until July 
5, when it moved to City Point, Va., and was assigned to the 3d division, 
9th corps, then before Petersburg. It remained in the trenches before 
Petersburg from July 9 to Oct. 25, with three days exception, and was 
then in the defenses of City Point until May 3, 1865, when it went to 
Washington and left there for Maine on June 2. 

The 4th battery remained at Portland until April i, 1862, when it left 
for Washington. It was stationed in and about Washington until June 
28, when it joined Gen. Sigel's command in their march up the Shenan- 
doah valley and participated in the battle of Cedar mountain, losing i 
killed, 6 wounded and i missing. Later it returned to Culpeper with 
Gen. Banks' corps, and retreated to Washington with Gen. Pope's army. 
It was in the battle of Antietam, and spent the winter of 1862-63 at Shep- 
herdstown and Harper's Ferry. After the defeat of Gen. Milroy at Win- 
chester, it moved to Monocacy Junction, and on July 8 was assigned to 
the 3d corps. Gen. French commanding. It was engaged in the action 
at Wapping heights, Oct. 15, and at Kelly's ford, Nov. 7, and went into 
camp at Brandy Station on the iith. It was engaged on Nov. 30 at 
Mine Run, returned to Brandy Station and remained there until March 
31, 1864, where it was assigned to the artillery brigade of the 6th corps 
and participated in the battle of Cold Harbor. From June 17 to July 13, 
1864, it was in position in front of Petersburg and was then ordered to 
join the 6th corps at Washington. Finding the corps advanced to Har- 
per's Ferry, the battery returned to Petersburg, and was assigned tem- 
porarily to the 5th corps. It was in the action of July 30, losing 2 men. 
On Dec. 21, 1864, 21 of the original members were mustered out, but the 
battery remained in service until June 17, 1865. 

The 5th battery left for Washington April i, 1862. On May 19 it 
marched to Fredericksburg, thence to Front Royal and Cedar rnountain, 
where it took position under a heavy artillery fire. On Aug. 20 it moved 
to Rappahannock Station and covered the railroad crossing. It retreated 
with the army on Aug. 23, participating in the engagements at Thorough- 
fare gap, and at Manassas, where 4 of the guns were captured after the 
battery was deserted by its infantry supports. The battery then refitted 
at Washington, rejoined its division and took part in the battle of Fred- 
ericksburg, being highly complimented there for accuracy of aim and 
rapidity of fire. It wintered at Fletcher's Chapel until April 28, 1863, and 
on May 2 suffered severely in the battle of Chancellorsville, losing 31 
men killed and wounded and 40 horses killed and disabled. It was in 
winter quarters at Culpeper from Dec. 24, 1863, to April 15, 1864, when 
it was placed in the reserve corps and encamped at Rappahannock Sta- 
tion. It moved with the reserves to the Wilderness and Spottsylvania, 
and on May 17, 1864, was permanently assigned to the 6th corps. On 
June 2 it silenced the enemy's batteries in their front at Cold Harbor, and 
on the i8th moved to Petersburg, where it engaged the enemy on the 
2ist. Later it took part in the defensive operations of the 6th corps at 
Washington. On Sept. 30, at Harrisonburg, Va., one section of battery 
A, ist Mass., was assigned to this battery. It was heavily engaged at 
the battle of Cedar creek, Oct. 19, 1864, where it lost 29 men and 31 
horses ; was at Winchester, Nov. i ; moved to Frederick on Jan. lO, 
1865; returned to Winchester on April 4, and on June 21 was ordered 
to Maine. 
Vol. 1-5 



66 The Union Army 

The 6th battery left for Washington March 21, 1862, and served under 
Gens. Sigel, Banks and Heintzelman in Virginia, and Gens. Williams and 
Slocum in Maryland. It was engaged at Cedar mountain, losing 13 men; 
took part in all the fighting on the Rappahannock under Gen. Pope, and 
at the battles of Centerville and Manassas lost 13 men. The battery was 
assigned to the ist brigade, 2nd division, 12th corps, and remained at 
Dumfries, Va., from Dec, 1862, to May 27, 1863, when it was assigned 
to the reserve corps at Falmouth. It took a prominent part in the battle 
of Gettysburg and in the skirmishes of the ist corps on the retreat from 
Culpeper. It was. at Brandy Station from Dec. 3 to April 22, 1864. 
Meanwhile, more than two-thirds of the men had reenlisted for three 
years. The battery took part in the advance of the Army of the Potomac 
to Richmond, and saw much hard service during the campaign, partici- 
pating in the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, 
Petersburg, Opequan, Fisher's hill and Cedar creek. 

The 7th battery left for Washington Feb. i, 1864, and joined the 9th 
corps on April 25. It joined in the advance on Richmond and was en- 
gaged in the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court House, North 
Anna, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Reams' station and Poplar Spring 
Church. It held a position near the Taylor house, immediately in front 
of and 700 yards from the point where the mine was sprung on July 30, 
1864, for 47 consecutive days. From Dec. 2, 1864, to April i, 1865. it 
occupied Fort Sedgwick and participated in the general assault resulting 
in the capture of Petersburg. It returned to Washington April 20; was 
in the grand review. May 23, and on June 5 left for Maine. 

Company D, Second U. S. Sharpshooters.^ — This company was or- 
ganized at Augusta, Nov. 2, 1861, to serve for three years. The secretary 
of war had requested the governor to contribute a company of rifle sharp- 
shooters to the general government and the men were selected with great 
care. James D. Fessenden of Portland superintended the formation of 
the company, and went out as captain. It left the state for Washington 
Nov. 13, 1861, and was assigned to Col. Berdan's regiment, the 2nd U. S. 
sharpshooters, until Feb. 18, 1865, when the surviving reenlisted members 
thereof were transferred to the 17th Me. infantry (q. v.). During its 
term of service it shared in many important battles and skirmishes, in- 
cluding the second Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, 
Gettysburg and all the battles of the final campaign of the Army of the 
Potomac in 1864. 

First Sharpshooters. — Lieut.-Col., Jacob McClure. This regiment 
was composed of six companies, and was organized at Augusta, 
from Oct. 27 to Dec. 29, 1864, to serve one and three years, 
and was consolidated with the 20th Me. infantry, June 21, 1865. 
Cos. A and B left for the front Nov. 12, 1864, and were assigned 
to the defenses at City Point, Va. Cos. C, D, E and F left Augusta on 
Dec. 7 and Dec. 30 and proceeded to Galloupe's island in Boston harbor, 
where they remained until Jan. i, 1865, when they were ordered to City 
Point. They joined the two companies already there on the 5th, and 
remained until the 21st, when the war department decided there was no 
authority for such a regiment. The lieutenant-colonel commanding was 
mustered out of service, the command was ordered to report to the 5th 
army corps and joined the 20th Me. infantry on June 21. 

Coast Guards Artillery. — This organization, composed of three com- 
panies (A, B and C), commenced to organize in July, 1861, to serve for 
three years as garrison artillery in the state. This was the more neces- 
sary as most of the efficient, active militia of the state had already been 
absorbed into the U. S. service and left the state. The above companies 



Maine Regiments 67 

were stationed as follows : Co. A, Capt. Ira Andrews, at Fort McCIary, 
Kittery, relieving Capt. M. F. Wentworth's company of artillery, which 
had been doing duty since April 30, 1861 ; Co. B, Capt. James Staples, 
Fort Scammel_ Portland harbor; Co. C, composed of a detachment of 
40 men under Lieut. George W. Sabine, at Fort Sullivan, Eastport. They 
occupied these several stations until Sept. 13, 1862, when they were mus- 
tered out of service in accordance with orders from the war department. 

First Infantry Battalion. — This organization was composed of the 
21 st, 24th, 25th and 26th companies of unassigned infantry and was mus- 
tered into the U. S. servcie at Augusta, in Feb. and March, 1865, to serve 
for one year. It was designed for the 15th Me. infantry, but was organ- 
ized as the 1st battalion on May 25, 1865, as there was no vacancy in the 
iSth. The companies were lettered A, B, C and D, and were assigned 
to the 2nd brigade, Dwight's division, then in the Shenandoah valley, and 
subsequently moved to Washington, where it remained until June i. 
From there it moved to Savannah, Ga., and on July 6 was ordered to 
South Carolina, where it did duty at various places until April 5, 1866, 
when it was mustered out at Charleston, S. C. 

Unassigned Companies Thirty unassigned companies of infantry 

were organized at Augusta during the closing months of 1864 and in the 
early months of 1865, to serve for one, two and three years, of which 
twenty-three were assigned to different regiments of Maine infantry in 
the field. The 27th and 28th companies were never mustered finally into 
the U. S. service ; the 7th was assigned to garrison Fort Popham, on the 
Maine coast; the 9th was attached to the engineer brigade. Army of the 
James ; and the 19th, 29th and 30th remained at Augusta. 

Coast Guards Battalion. — This organization was composed of seven 
companies of infantry, and was mustered into the U. S. service at Bel- 
fast, Augusta and Eastport from March 18, 1864, to March 2, 1865, to 
serve for one, two and three years. Co. A, mustered in at Belfast, March 
18, 1864, for three years, left for Washington on May 2, and was assigned 
to garrison Fort Washington, Md. It was mustered out at Portland, Me., 
May 25, 1865. Co. B, mustered in at Augusta, April 27, 1864, to serve for 
three years, left Rockland May 5, 1864, for Washington and was sta- 
tioned at Fort Foote, Md. It was mustered out at Portland, Me., June 24, 
1865. Co. C, mustered in at Eastport, May 16, 1864, to serve for three years, 
was stationed at Fort Sullivan, Me., and was mustered out at Portland, 
Sept. 6, 1865. Co. D, mustered in at Augusta, Jan. 6, 1865, to serve for 
one, two and three years, was stationed at Machiasport, Me., and was mus- 
tered out Sept. 6, 1865, at Portland. Co. E, mustered in at Augusta, Jan. 
7, 1865, to serve for one, two and three years, was stationed at Rockland, 
and was mustered out July 7, 1865. Co. F, mustered in at Augusta, Jan. 
6, 1865, to serve for one year, was stationed at Belfast, Me., and was 
mustered out July 7, 1865. Co. G, mustered in March i, 1865, was sta- 
tioned first at Augusta, and afterwards at Calais, Me. It was mustered 
out at Augusta, July 6, 1865. 

Militia Companies. — Three militia companies were mustered into the 
U. S. service in 1864, to garrison the forts on the Maine coast; Co. A. 
1st State Guards, was mustered in at Bangor, July 7, 1864, and mustered 
out at Bangor, Sept. 8, 1864. after being stationed for 60 days at Fort 
McClary, Kittery, Me. Co. B, ist State Guards, was mustered in at Ban- 
gor, to serve for 60 days, and was stationed at Fort McClary. It was 
mustered out at Bangor, Nov. 7, 1864. Co. H, ist regiment light infantry, 
was consolidated with a detachment of Co. G, same regiment and mus- 
tered into the U. S. service at Fort McClary, April 2"], 1864, to serve for 
60 days. It was mustered out July 9, 1864, at Portland. 



JOAB NELSON PATTERSON 



Joab Nelson Patterson, associate editor for New Hampshire, 
is a native of that state, having been bom at Hopkinton, Jan. 
25, 1835. After due preparation at New Hampton, he entered 
Dartmouth college in 1856 and graduated in i860. He decided 
to adopt the law as his profession and had made arrangements 
for a course of legal study when the war broke out and changed 
the whole course of his career. On April 22, 1861, he enlisted 
as a private and received a warrant as a recruiting officer. As 
such he opened an office at Contoocook Village, where he enlisted 
a company of 72 men for the three months' service. On the re- 
organization of the 2nd regiment for the three years' service he 
was made first lieutenant of Co. H, and on May 23, 1862, was 
promoted to the captaincy. His military career appears fully in 
the history of the 2nd N. H. infantry elsewhere in this work, 
as he served with it from beginning to end, participating in 
every march and battle, and was with it at the final muster out 
in Dec, 1865, when he had the unique distinction of being the 
only one of the original commissioned officers. When Gen. 
Marston assumed command of the District of St. Mary's he named 
Capt. Patterson as provost marshal, a position which in that 
district demanded the highest capacity for work, combined 
with firmness and tact. He filled this difficult position to the 
entire satisfaction of Gen. Marston, with whom he was always 
a great favorite. In Gen. Butler's campaign on the James river, 
Capt. Patterson served with his regiment as acting major, and 
was afterward in the battle of Cold Harbor. When the original 
members of the regiment were mustered out in June, 1864, he 
was left in command of the remnant of the regiment and was 
for a time the only commissioned officer with the organization. 
On June 21, 1864, upon the recommendation of Gens. Smith 
and Marston, he was appointed lieutenant-colonel, and on Jan. 
10, 1865, was commissioned colonel, but was not mustered as 
such imtil the following June, when 300 men from the loth, 
12th and 13 th N. H. infantry regiments were consolidated with 
the 2nd, giving it the requisite number for a colonel. In Sept., 
1864, he was temporarily in command of the 3d brigade, 2nd 
division, i8th army corps, and led it into action on the Williams- 

69 



burg road on Oct. 27. He served with distinction and was mus- 
tered out with his regiment Dec. 19, 1865, having won the rank 
of brevet brigadier-general of volunteers, to date from March 
13, 1865, for "bravery in battle and good conduct throughout 
the war." After the war he returned to New Hampshire, set- 
tled in Concord, where in March, 1867, he married Miss Sarah C, 
one of the accomplished daughters of Rev. Nathaniel Bouton, 
one of New Hampshire's distinguished divines and historical 
writers. He was appointed U. S. marshal for New Hampshire 
and held the position until the inauguration of President Cleve- 
land. From the close of the war to the reorganization of the 
New Hampshire militia he held the commission of brigadier- 
general, but when the troops were reorganized he resigned and 
had no further connection with the militia until the organiza- 
tion of the 3d regiment on April 8, 1879, when he accepted a 
commission as its colonel. He was subsequently commissioned 
brigadier-general, commanding the New Hampshire National 
Guard, and held that rank for several years. Soon after Presi- 
dent Harrison was inaugurated he appointed Gen. Patterson 
second auditor of the treasury, which place he filled acceptably 
for four years, and upon retiring from it settled in Washington, 
where he engaged in the life insurance business, but after a 
few years returned to his old home at Concord. When the 
Spanish-American war came on he accepted a commission as 
captain in the regiment which New Hampshire sent forth in 
that conflict and remained in service until the regiment was 
mustered out in 1899, when he was appointed inspector of public 
buildings in the city of Havana, Cuba, which position he held 
until the administration of affairs was turned over to the Cubans 
in 1902. Gen. Patterson now holds a responsible position in 
the U. S. treasury department and resides in Washington, D. C. 



70 



Military Affairs in New Hampshire 

1861-65 



The attitude of New Hampshire throughout the continuance 
of the Civil war was one of unswerving loyalty to the general 
government. When the news reached the state of the assault 
upon Fort Sumter the feeling of indignation was intense 
throughout the length and breadth of the commonwealth. Men 
forgot party affiliations, and there was a prompt and patriotic 
response to the proclamation of President Lincoln calling on the 
states for assistance. It was sufficient that many of the South- 
ern States claimed the right to secede from the Union, that the 
insurgents of one of them, South Carolina, had fired upon the 
national flag, and that the capital of the nation was in danger of 
capture. Every patriotic instinct was aroused, and New Hamp- 
shire proceeded at once to perform her share of the work to be 
done. 

The state was without an organized militia that could be 
readily called into service, and the enrolment required under the 
law was so imperfect that it was impossible to make a fair and 
even draft upon her citizens liable to be called upon to repel in- 
surrection at home or invasion from abroad. Consequently, the 
governor called for volunteers to fill the state's quota of one regi- 
ment of 780 men, under the first call for 75,000 troops for three 
months' service. Ichabod Goodwin, then governor, issued the 
following proclamation: "Concord, April 16, 1861. Sir: The 
president of the United States having, in pursuance of the act 
of Congress approved. Feb. 28, 1795, called upon the State of 
New Hampshire for a regiment of militia, consisting of ten 
companies of infantry, to be held in readiness to be mustered into 
the service of the United States for the purpose of quelling an 
insurrection and supporting the government, I, Ichabod Good- 
win, governor of New Hampshire, command you to make procla- 
mation, calling for volunteers from the enrolled militia of the 
state to the number required, and to issue from time to time all 
necessary orders and instructions for enrolling and holding in 
readiness to be mustered into service said volunteer corps, agree- 

71 



72 The Union Army 

able to the aforesaid requisition." This was addressed to the 
adjutant-general of the state, and in compliance therewith Adjt.- 
Gen. Joseph C. Abbott issued an order calling for volunteers to 
fill one regiment of infantry. In order that the work of raising 
the regiment might be expedited as much as possible, twenty- 
eight recruiting stations were established in different parts of 
the state, and Henry O. Kent, Lancaster ; Frank S. Fiske, Keene, 
and Jeremiah C. Tilton, Sanbornton, were appointed special 
aides in the recruiting service. The greatest enthusiasm in the 
work of enlistment prevailed throughout the state, and nearly 
every farm, workshop and business establishment contributed a 
volunteer. 

Nor were the women lacking in patriotic zeal; they organized 
sanitary aid societies in nearly every considerable town and 
busied themselves in the work of making shirts, drawers, and 
other necessary comforts for the soldiers in the field, and pro- 
viding linen and bandages for the hospitals. Every citizen was 
impressed by the gravity of the situation which confronted the 
country. Innumerable public meetings were held in the larger 
towns and cities, attended by both men and women, where pa- 
triotic speeches were made and measures concerted to encourage 
enlistments. Both towns and individuals pledged funds for the 
support of families of those who entered the service of the gov- 
ernment. 

During the two weeks following April 17, the names of 2,004 
men were enrolled, many more than enough to fill the regiment 
called for. On April 24, the enlisted men were ordered into 
camp upon the fair grounds of the Merrimack county agricultu- 
ral society, about a mile east of the state house at Concord. Col. 
John H. Gage of Nashua was in command of the camp, which 
was called "Camp Union," until May 17. The first regiment 
was ready by May 8, and left Concord for the seat of war on the 
25th. As so many men had responded to the call for volunteers, 
the state authorities determined to organize two regiments. On 
April 27, Gov. Goodwin was authorized by Brig.-Gen. John E. 
Wool, U. S. Army, commanding the Department of the East, to 
place Portsmouth harbor in a defensive condition. The ist regi- 
ment had been partially organized, when the surplus men assem- 
bled at Concord were sent to Portsmouth early in May, with the 
view of placing them in Fort Constitution, at New Castle. By 
May 4, 400 men had assembled at Portsmouth, and Brig.-Gen. 
George Stark of Nashua assumed command. Henry O. Kent 
of Lancaster was appointed colonel and assistant adjutant-gen- 
eral on April 30, and proceeded to Portsmouth the same day to 



Military Affairs in New Hampvshire 73 

assist in organizing- the troops. As new companies arrived, 
some were placed in Fort Constitution, where Capt. Ichabod 
Pearl was given command May 7. When President Lincoln 
issued his call on May 3 for additional troops, to serve for three 
years, New Hampshire was required to furnish one regiment. 
EnHstment papers were distributed among the troops assembled 
at Portsmouth and Fort Constitution and the men were given 
the choice of enlisting in the 2nd regiment, or serving out their 
time of three months as garrison. The result was that 496 of the 
three months' men immediately reenlisted for three years, or dur- 
ing the war, and by the end of May 525 more three years' men 
had reported. The regiment was completely organized on June 
10, and left the state for the front on the 20th. 

The legislature convened at Concord in annual session June 5, 
1861. On the second Tuesday of March preceding, Nathaniel 
S. Berry, the Republican candidate, had been elected governor 
to succeed Gov. Goodwin. On June 6, Gov. Goodwin delivered 
a valedictory address, wherein he eloquently portrayed the stir- 
ring events of the closing months of his term, and detailed the 
energetic measures he had taken to meet the grave emergency 
which had arisen. Most of the state legislatures had been called 
in extra session, but Gov. Goodwin deemed he could best facili- 
tate the organization of troops by calling for volunteers, and was 
more readily induced to take this course by the nearness of the 
approaching session of the legislature. After referring to Presi- 
dent Lincoln's first call for troops, he said : "This requisition 
was followed by an intimation that another regiment might soon 
be required. The state of our militia organization was such that 
I could not, by a military order, fulfill the constitutional obliga- 
tions of the state. Upon reflection, I came to the conclusion that 
I could meet this call with less delay and less expense by a vol- 
untary enlistment, than by any other method, and this course was 
adopted. The prompt and energetic manner in which our banks 
and citizens placed a large amount of money at my disposal, re- 
moved the necessity of convening a special session of the legis- 
lature. So unanimous was our whole population in resisting 
this attempt to overthrow the constitution and liberties of the 
people, that the second regiment was filled as readily as the 
first." When Gov. Goodwin had concluded his address Gov. 
Berry was sworn in, and delivered his annual message. After 
reference to the action of the Southern States and a brilliant 
analysis of the principles on which the Union was founded, he 
urged upon the legislature the necessity of prompt action, saying : 
"The legislature being now assembled, there is a pressing neces- 



74 The Union Army 

sity for immediate attention to those measures that shall aid the 
general government in resisting the rebellion now waged against 
our institutions. No northern state has placed less than $i,ooo,- 
ooo at the command of the general government, in view of the 
present emergency of the country, and I trust New Hampshire 
will not be behind her sister states in this respect, and that what- 
ever we may do may be done with perfect unanimity." He also 
recommended the organization of at least one regiment in every 
county in the state, to be thoroughly drilled and equipped and 
subject to the call of the legislature. 

The legislature responded most cordially to these recommen- 
dations during a session which lasted for 30 days. Among the 
laws enacted was one entitled "An act to aid in defense of the 
country," which was finally passed after much discussion and 
strenuous opposition and provided in substance : That all pay- 
ments and expenditures made by the governor and council, or by 
their authority, in the work of raising and equipping troops for 
the national defense, were ratified and confirmed; that the gov- 
ernor and council be authorized to enlist and equip needed troops 
to satisfy any present or future calls by the national government, 
provided that not more than two regiments in addition to those 
already raised, be enlisted at any one time; and finally that the 
treasurer be authorized to issue bonds or certificates of debt, in 
the name of the state, to an amount not exceeding $1,000,000, to 
meet expenses already incurred or that might be incurred under 
this act to provide for the defense of the country, or for main- 
taining the military force of the state, while engaged therein. 
It also passed an act authorizing cities and towns to aid the fami- 
lies of volunteers, and providing means whereby said cities and 
towns should be reimbursed from the treasury of the state for 
any moneys so expended. Finally, resolutions were unanimously 
passed, declaring the war now in progress to be solely for the 
maintenance of the government and the suppression of rebellion ; 
asserting that neither the president nor Congress can constitu- 
tionally entertain any proposition which had for its object the 
dismemberment of the government or the dissolution of the 
Union ; and pledged the resources of the state for the integrity 
of the Union, the support of the constitution, and the enforce- 
ment of the laws of the general government. The sons of New 
Hampshire in New York and Boston were given a vote of thanks 
for their attentions to the ist and 2nd N. H. regiments. 

Ex-Gov. Anthony Colby of New London was appointed adju- 
tant and inspector-general in June, 186 1, after the resignation of 
Joseph C. Abbott. During the year 1861, the following organiza- 



Military Affairs in New Hampshire 



75 



tions were raised and sent to the front: The ist, 2nd, 3d, 4th, 
5th, 6th, 7th and 8th regiments of infantry ; Companies I, K, L 
and M of the ist New England volunteer cavalry; ist N. H. 
volunteer light battery; Co. E, ist U. S. volunteer sharpshoot- 
ers, and Cos. F and G, 2nd U. S. volunteer sharpshooters. All 
told 9,197 men had been enlisted since the first call for troops; 
the state had paid out $893,333.26 for equipping and recruiting 
the several regiments and companies. 

In March, 1862, Gov. Berry was reelected, receiving 32,150 
votes out of a total of 62,425, on a platform which ignored past 
political topics, and simply avowed the unreserved purpose of 
supporting the government, and advocated the vigorous prose- 
cution of the war. During the two years of Gov. Berry's admin- 
istration practically all the regiments and other organizations of 
New Hampshire were organized and put into the field, and it is 
only fair to state that no one of the states sent forth troops bet- 
ter armed, equipped and supplied with all the necessities for ac- 
tive military service than those of New Hampshire. Under the 
call in July, 1862, for three years' troops 5,053 men were re- 
quired from New Hampshire and she raised six regiments of 
volunteer infantry ; under the call for troops for nine months' 
service, Aug. 4, 1862, three regiments entered the service. By 
the close of the year 1862, the state had furnished to the general 
government 18,261 men, and up to June i, 1862, she had ex- 
pended for war purposes $953,649. Joseph A. Gilmore received 
29,035 votes out of a total of 66,240, in the election for governor 
in March, 1863. Failing of a majority, he was subsequently 
chosen by the legislature, June 3, which had a Republican ma- 
jority of 53 on joint ballot. His first and all succeeding mes- 
sages to the legislature were replete with patriotic suggestions ; 
during his two years as governor he promptly supplied the war 
department with all the troops demanded, and was untiring in 
his efforts to supply the necessities of New Hampshire men in 
the field, and in military hospitals. During the year 1863, addi- 
tional loans for military purposes to the amount of $482,300 
were negotiated. Up to June i, 1863, the state had paid out on 
account of the war, $1,305,835, part of which had been paid back 
by the Federal government. 

Some resistance in the state was offered this year against the 
enforcement of the draft. A number of towns had already fur- 
nished an excess of men above their quota, and considered the 
draft upon them as peculiarly burdensome. A mob burned the 
Forest Vale house, half way between the Crawford and Glen 
houses, and stoned the agents of the provost-marshal engaged 



76 The Union Army 

in notifying the drafted men. Altogether $8,000 worth of prop- 
erty was destroyed. Again, at Portsmouth, there was some 
trouble on the day of the draft. An excited throng of men, 
women and children gathered about the provost-marshal's office, 
which was in charge of volunteers from Fort Constitution and 
U. S. marines from the navy yard. A large force of police were 
also present to assist in dispersing the crowd. Two men who 
resisted were arrested and when a mob of 100 attacked the sta- 
tion house later in the evening, two of the police and four of the 
rioters were wounded, but none were killed. The mob was then 
dispersed by a squad of soldiers from the provost-marshal's office 
and the troube at Portsmouth ended. 

Gov. Gilmore was reelected in March, 1864, by a majority of 
5,666 over Edward W. Harrington, the Democratic candidate. 
In his annual message to the legislature, which assembled on 
June I, he stated that the state debt, including $600,000 paid to 
the families of volunteers, amounted to $1,900,000, an increase 
of $600,000 within the fiscal year, and recommended the funding 
of this debt by the issue of six per cent, bonds, payable in 15 or 
20 years. The action of the legislature on financial and military 
matters at this session was not satisfactory to the governor, and 
he summoned an extra session to meet on Aug. 9. In his mes- 
sage he recommended a forced loan from the banks to meet the 
immediate necessities of the state, and to preserve its credit in- 
tact; he also took exception to the military bill passed at the 
previous session, which had aimed to provide means to fill the 
New Hampshire quotas under the various calls for troops. Hav- 
ing shown that the state lacked 5,000 men to fill its quota and 
that only 23 working days remained to raise that number by vol- 
untary enlistments, he asked that the legislature authorize larger 
bounties and put a stop to the extravagant competition between 
cities and towns, some of which were offering $1,000 for a single 
one-year recruit. The legislature failed to meet the views of 
the executive on financial matters, and adopted a report that un- 
der existing laws, a necessary temporary loan could be secured 
at a reasonable rate of interest. However, it passed a new mili- 
tary bill, fixing bounties for recruits enlisted in insurgent states, 
and providing state bounties, ranging from $100 to $300, accord- 
ing to the term of the enlistment of the recruit. Town bounties 
were similarly limited, except where enrolled citizens enlisted 
and were credited to the localities where they resided, in which 
case no limit was placed on town bounties. This measure gave 
a great impulse to volunteering from among enrolled citizens, 
and the governor was requested to ask a few more days grace 



Military Affairs in New Hampshire 77 

from the war department, as the state's quota could probably be 
filled without resort to the draft. A bill was also passed, and 
became a law, in spite of the governor's veto, entitled the "Sol- 
dier's Voting Bill," under which New Hampshire soldiers in the 
field and absent from the state, voted at the ensuing election. A 
decision of the supreme court in favor of the constitutionality of 
the act was also obtained. 

Frederick Smyth was chosen governor in March, 1865, by a 
majority of 6,071 over Edward W. Harrington, his Democratic 
opponent. He was elected on a platform which expressed confi- 
dence in the administration of President Lincoln, and favored a 
vigorous prosecution of the war. The Democrats adopted as a 
platform of principles, "the Constitution and the Union." The 
inaugural address of Gov. Smyth to the legislature which con- 
vened on June 7, was an exceptionally able state paper, and 
awakened renewed confidence in the credit and resources of the 
state. After giving the number of troops sent to the field from 
New Hampshire, he paid a noble tribute to her soldier sons, say- 
ing: "Our state will never be unmindful of the heroic deeds of 
her sons in the great struggle for national life. They sprang to 
arms at the first call, and no considerable battle has been fought 
in which they have not participated. In the early days of the 
rebellion, they were at times cast down by temporary defeat, but 
in every instance only to rally with renewed vigor. * * * It 
will not be easy to pay our debt of gratitude to these brave men." 
The legislature adopted all the practical suggestions embodied 
in the message, and in less than three months loans to the 
amount of $1,200,000 were effected in such a manner as to im- 
prove rather than depreciate the credit of the state. On July i, 
1865, the finance committee of the house of representatives re- 
ported the actual debt of New Hampshire to be $3,793,625.82. 
To the proper funding and payment of this debt Gov. Smyth 
brought such rare ability that it was successfully funded and the 
credit of the state placed on a firm basis. Speaking of the two 
years' administration of Gov. Smyth, Maj. Otis F. R. Waite says 
in his work on New Hampshire in the Rebellion : "During the 
two years of his administration Gov. Smyth brought to the dis- 
charge of the duties of his office great energy, industry and 
financial skill. During the last year the state debt had been re- 
duced $254,313.18. When he retired from office all the claims 
of the state against the general government had been satisfacto- 
rily adjusted; the state debt had been funded on advantageous 
terms, the credit of the state stood at least equal to that of any 
other, and in his valedictory address — which like all his state 



78 The Union Army 

papers was a model for its directness and practical common 
sense suggestions — he congratulated his successor that he would 
be relieved from any labor or anxiety relating to financial mat- 
ters." 

After the surrender of Lee's army at Appomattox Court 
House, the New Hampshire men in the field were anxious to 
return to their home as speedily as possible. Influence was 
brought to bear on the war department by Gov. Smyth and many 
of the regiments from this state were among the first to be mus- 
tered out. All through the months of June and July, the streets 
of Concord were thronged with returning soldiers, who were 
most cordially welcomed by the state officials and citizens. They 
were promptly paid and discharged from the service and every 
effort was made to relieve individual cases of need. Gen. Natt 
Head, the state's efficient and patriotic adjutant-general, will be 
especially remembered by all the "boys in blue" for the careful 
solicitude he displayed in rendering individual assistance to the 
needy, and in giving good counsel. It was, moreover, due to 
his patriotic initiative that a memorial certificate, handsomely 
engraved on steel with appropriate devices, was prepared. Each 
surviving officer and soldier from the state, who could show a 
record of honorable service in the war, or his widow or nearest 
relative, in case of death, was entitled to receive a certificate, 
and have it filled up with the name, rank, regiment and company, 
and the nature and length of service of the recipient. He was 
indeed the "Soldiers' Friend." 

Throughout the war. New Hampshire was most fortunate in 
the character and ability displayed by her chief executives, as 
well as in the personnel of her adjutant-generals. The needs of 
her soldiers both in field and hospital were well attended to. 
Col. Frank E. Howe of New York city and Robert R. Corson 
of Philadelphia, were efficient state agents in each of those cities, 
charged with the duty of caring for sick and wounded soldiers 
there in hospital, or passing through those cities. They made 
monthly reports of names, disability and deaths in the various 
hospitals, together with any other important facts which might 
come under their observation. Many other agents were sent to 
army hospitals and battle-fields to care for the sick and bury 
the dead. The patriotic women of the state were especially active 
in the formation of sanitary aid societies, which were maintained 
with efficiency and system, and without interruption, throughout 
the war. They furnished comforts not supplied by the govern- 
ment to enlisted men ; sent clothing, delicacies, bandages and 
medicines to army hospitals, and cared for the families of soldiers 
during their absence in the field. At Washington the New 



Military Affairs in New Hampshire 79 

Hampshire soldier's relief rooms became a practical agency for 
the distribution of substantial aid and comfort to the soldiers, sent 
by the good people of the state. Among the names of many 
noble men and women who labored zealously for the welfare of 
the state's soldier's that of Miss Harriet P. Dame of Concord is 
worthy of especial mention. Her services, both in hospital and 
on the bloody battle-field, will never be forgotten. Said one who 
knew her well : "She was more than the Florence Nightingale 
of America, because she had not the secure protection of hospital, 
but stood with our soldiers beneath the rain and fire of bullets, 
undaunted. She knew no fear, and thought not for a moment 
of her personal safety, for God had called her, and she felt that 
His divine protection was over all." 

The total expenditures of New Hampshire for war purposes 
amounted to $6,852,678. Of this amount, $2,389,02^ were paid 
for bounties, and $1,835,985 went to reimburse towns for aid 
furnished families of soldiers. At the end of the fiscal year 
1867, the Federal government had reimbursed to the state for 
war expenses, the sum of $897,122. 

In 1895 there was prepared and published bv authority of the 
legislature a revised register of the soldiers and sailors of New 
Hampshire in the War of the Rebellion, compiled bv Adjt.-Gen. 
Augustus D. Ayling, in which it is shown that the state fur- 
nished the following troops during the war : Eighteen regiments 
of infantry, embracing 705 officers and 26,581 enlisted men, or a 
total of 27,286; a N. H. battahon, ist regiment New England 
volunteer cavalry ; one regiment of cavalry ; one battery of light 
artillery ; three companies of garrison artillery ; one regiment of 
heavy artillery ; three companies of U. S. sharpshooters, inclu- 
ding the field and staff of Co. F, 2d U. S. sharpshooters ; some 
unattached companies, and the 2nd brigade band. This gives 
a total of 836 officers, 31,650 enlisted men, or 32,486 men alto- 
gether. In addition to the above, there were 19 officers and 394 
enlisted men enrolled in the veteran reserve corps; 124 officers 
and 2,272 men in the U. S. colored troops ; 66 officers and 90 
men in the regular army; 71 officers in the U. S. volunteers; i 
officer and 11 men in the U. S. veteran volunteers; 309 officers 
and 2,851 men in the U. S. navy; 3 officers and 363 men in the 
U. S. marine corps; and 87 officers and 1,796 men who were 
citizens, or residents of New Hampshire, and served in the or- 
ganizations of other states. This gives a grand total of 1,516 
officers and 37,427 enlisted men furnished by the state. 

The number of officers killed, or died of wounds, 131 ; enlisted 
men, 1,803; total, 1,934. Three regiments, the ist. i6th and 17th, 
lost no men killed in battle. The 5th, 3d and 12th regiments, in 



80 The Union Army 

the order named, suffered the heaviest losses on the field in killed 
and wounded. At the head of all the infantry regfiments in the 
army stands the 5th N. H., with a loss of 295 in killed alone. 
The number who died of disease was: Officers, 36; enUsted 
men, 2,371 ; total, 2,407. The number who died from other 
causes, or causes unknown, officers, i ; enlisted men, 498 ; total, 
499. Only 102 officers and men were dishonorably discharged. 
Twelve New Hampshire men were awarded medals of honor, 
under the resolution of Congress, No. 43, approved July 12, 
1862, and section 6 of the act approved March 3, 1863. Twenty 
of the 3d regiment, 20 of the 4th, and 18 of the 7th were awarded 
"Gillmore Medals" by Maj.-Gen. Q. A. Gillmore for gallantry 
and meritorious conduct during operations before Charleston, 
S. C. 

With no thought of disparagement to the other loyal states, it 
may be truly said that the commonwealth of New Hampshire 
made an imperishable record for herself throughout the Civil 
war. The number of troops furnished in proportion to her popu- 
lation was exceeded by few if any of the other states, and by 
none in point of efficiency, equipment and braverv. The blood 
of the soldier sons of the Granite State crimsoned every battle- 
field of note throughout the great struggle. At home, her people 
in every walk of life made willing sacrifice that the Union of 
the Fathers might be preserved, and free institutions perpetuated. 



RECORD OF NEW HAMPSHIRE 
REGIMENTS 



First Infantry. — Col., Mason W. Tappan; Lieut. -Col., Thomas J. 
Whipple; Maj., Aaron F. Stevens. The ist regiment, which enlisted 
for the three months' service, was mustered in at Concord, from 
May. I to 7, 1861, and was mustered out at the same place Aug. 9, 
1861. It numbered 816 and lost by death 5 men. It was equipped 
at "Camp Union" and left the state for Washington on May 25. In 
New York it was received by 450 sons of New Hampshire and pre- 
sented with a beautiful silk flag. On its arrival in Washington the 
regiment was attached to the brigade commanded by Col. Stone, 
and ordered to take possession of Edwards' and Conrad's ferries. 
Its route was through Rockville, Point of Rocks and Sandy Hook 
and it arrived at Harper's Ferry, July 7. From there it proceeded 
to Martinsburg, W. Va., where it joined the Army of the Shenandoah. 
The brigade was expected to cut off Gen. Johnston from Bull Run, 
but, to the great disappointment of the New Hampshire men, it 
failed to receive orders to advance. Four companies were sent to 
Conrad's ferry, where they exchanged shots with the enemy across 
the river. This was their only fighting, but all the duties assigned 
to them were faithfully and carefully performed. Fully 500 men of 
the 1st reenlisted. 

Second Infantry. — Cols., Thomas P. Pierce, Oilman Marston, 
Edward L. Bailey, Joab N. Patterson; Lieut. -Cols., Frank S. Fiske, 
Edward L. Bailey, James W. Carr, Joab N. Patterson, John D. 
Cooper, Jr., Levi N. Converse (not mustered) ; Majs., Josiah Stevens, 
Edward L. Bailey, James W. Carr, Samuel P. Sayles, John D. Cooper, 
Jr., Levi N. Converse, George T. Carter (not mustered). The 2nd 
regiment, composed of volunteers from all parts of the state, was 
mustered into the service of the United States at Portsmouth, from 
May 31 to June 10, 1861, except its band, which was mustered in Aug. 
7, 1861, at Washington and mustered out Aug. 8, 1862, near Har- 
rison's landing, Va. The recruits transferred from the 17th N. H. 
infantry, April 16, 1863, were mustered out at Concord, June 21, 1864, 
the reenlisted men and recruits on Dec. 19, 1865, at City Point, 
Va. The regiment's original members numbered 1,022, transferred i, 
recruits 1,144, band recruits 22, recruits gained by transfer 366; 
making a total of 2,555. The losses include 159 killed or died of wounds, 
178 deaths from other causes, making a total loss of ■^^iJ- A large 
proportion of the members of the 2nd enlisted for three months in 
April, 1861, but reenlisted for three years when the second call for 
troops was sent out. The regiment left Portsmouth for Washington 
June 20, via Boston and New York, receiving ovations all along the 
route. On arriving in Washington it became a part of the 2nd 
brigade of Hunter's division and opened the fight at Bull Run, July 
21, 1861. The winter was spent at Budd's ferry, Md., and in the 
spring the regiment took part in the siege of Yorktown, after which 

Vol. 1-6 81 



82 The Union Army 

it pursued and attacked the Confederate rear-guard at Williamsburg. 
On May 3:, 1862, it was at Poplar hill and participated in the fight 
at Fair Oaks. Two days later they fought at Oak Grove. For 
bravery in action at Williamsburg and Oak Grove, Private Michael 
Dillon, Co. G, was awarded a medal by Congress. Skirmishes fol- 
lowed at Peach Orchard, Va., Glendale, Malvern hill and Kettle run 
and, on Aug. 29, the regiment was again at Bull Run. At Chantilly 
it was not brought into action and at Fredericksburg its duties were 
comparatively light. The 2nd wintered in New Hampshire. At 
Gettysburg, July 2, 1863, the 2nd made a historic defense at Sherfy's 
peach orchard. It joined Grant at Cold Harbor in June, 1864, hav- 
ing made a noble record at Front Royal, Warrenton, Point Lookout, 
Petersburg and Fort Darling, and finished its active service with the 
Army of the Potomac. 

Third Infantry. — Cols., Enoch Q. Fellows, John H. Jackson, John 
Bedell; Lieut.-Cols., John H. Jackson, John Bedell, Josiah Plimpton, 
James F. Randlett; Majs., John Bedell, Josiah Plimpton, James F. Rand- 
lett, William H. Trickey. The 3d regiment was mustered in at Concord 
from Aug. 22 to 26, 1861, for three years. The original members, not 
reenlisted, were mustered out Aug. 23, 1864, at Bermuda Hundred, 
Va., and the reenlisted men were mustered out at Goldsboro, N. C., in 
July, 1865. The total strength was 1,769 and there were 342 deaths, 
194 caused by wounds. The regiment was ordered first to Hunter's 
point, L. I., next to Washington, and in October to Annapolis, where 
it embarked for a coast exp.edition. Gen. T. W. Sherman was quar- 
tered with the 3d on the "Atlantic." In April, 1862, the regiment was 
ordered to Edisto island and in June to James island. Its first action 
was at Secessionville, where its loss was 105 killed, wounded or miss- 
ing. In July the regiment returned to Hilton Head and camped 
there. It was next divided, a detail being sent to Florida and another 
to Pinckney island. It united again in June at St. Helena island, 
proceeded to Folly island and aided in capturing part of Morris 
island. During the siege of Fort Wagner the 3d lost heavily, but had 
the post of honor the day of the surrender. Twenty members re- 
ceived Gillmore medals for bravery during this siege. Ordered to 
Florida and back again to Virginia, the troops were repeatedly in 
action. At Deep Bottom, Va., Aug. 16, 1864, the regiment was nearly 
annihilated. Then the men whose terms had expired were mustered 
out and the remainder of the troops were ordered to Petersburg. 
In September the 3d was repeatedly engaged on the south side of 
the James, and in Jan., 1865, it participated in an attack on Fort 
Fisher, N. C. Brave fighting followed at Sugar Loaf battery and Wilming- 
ton and after distinguished services, the remnant of the 3d was finally 
mustered out. 

Fourth Infantry. — Cols., Thomas J. Whipple, Louis Bell, William 
Badger (not mustered); Lieut.-Cols., Louis Bell, Gilman E. Sleeper, 
Jeremiah D. Drew, Francis W. Parker; Majs., Jeremiah D. Drew, 
Charles W. Sawyer, Richard O. Greenleaf (not mustered), George F. 
Towle. The 4th regiment was mustered in at Manchester for three 
years' service. The original members not reenlisted, were mustered 
out on Sept. 27, 1864, at Concord, and the reenlisted men and recruits 
at Raleigh, N. C, Aug. 23, 1865. The total strength was 1,025 and 
the total loss by death was 280, of which number 95 deaths were due 
to wounds. The 4th left the state for Washington, Sept. 27, 1861, 
and embarked on the "Baltic" for Port Royal, S. C, arriving there 



New Hampshire Regiments 83 

Nov. 4, after terrible storms. In Jan., 1862, it sailed on a southern 
expedition, which captured Fernandina, Jacksonville and St. August- 
ine, Fla., and garrisoned the last two places. It took an active part 
in the attacks on Morris and Folly islands and fought almost con- 
stantly until the capture of Fort Wagner. At the siege of Charleston 
a number of the men won Gillmore medals. At Drewry's bluflf, 
where the losses were very heavy, Bermuda Hundred, Cold Harbor, 
the first attack on Petersburg and in daily service the men showed 
their heroism. At Petersburg they did trench duty 36 days in one 
position, 20 feet from a Confederate outpost. Here 50 men were 
killed or wounded. At the Crater fight only 200 men remained and 
in this bloody engagement the regiment lost 50 more. Then followed 
the battle of Deep Bottom and the charge on New Market heights, 
when only 40 men under a lieutenant could be mustered. The 4th 
was then in the two expeditions against Fort Fisher and, after guard- 
ing for a time the railroad between Wilmington and Little Washing- 
ton, it was ordered to Raleigh, where the men were mustered out, 
having gloriously earned their home-coming after the hardest service. 
Fifth Infantry. — Cols., Edward E. Cross, Charles E. Hapgood, 
Richard E. Cross (not mustered), Welcome A. Crafts (not mustered); 
Lieut.-Cols., Samuel G. Langley, Charles E. Hapgood, Richard E. 
Cross, James E. Larkin, Welcome A. Crafts; Majs., William W. Cook, 
Edward E. Sturtevant, Richard E. Cross, James E. Larkin, Welcome 
A. Crafts, Thomas L. Livermore, John S. Ricker (not mustered). 
The 5th, composed of men from all parts of the state, was mustered 
in at Concord Oct. 12 to 26, 1861, for three years' service. The 
original members, not reenlisted, were mustered out at Concord, Oct 
29, 1864, the reenlisted men and recruits at Alexandria, Va., June 28, 
1865. The 5th was made a battalion of eight companies, original mem- 
bers 1,002, recruits and transferred men 1,560, total strength 2,562. 
The number killed or died of wounds was 295 and other deaths num- 
bered 176. The regiment left the state for Bladensburg, Md., Oct. 
29, 1861, and became at once a part of the Army of the Potomac, 
wintering near Alexandria, Va. It built the famous "Grapevine 
bridge" across the Chickahominy and met its first severe losses at 
Fair Oaks, June i, 1862; was engaged at Peach Orchard, Savage 
Station, White Oak swamp and Malvern hill; was in advance at 
Boonesboro and met with heavy losses at Antietam and Marye's 
heights, where its dead were found near the noted stone wall. Gen. 
Hancock reports their conduct as "heroic." The 5th soon won a 
reputation for hard fighting that caused it often to be assigned to 
some post of danger and it never failed to acquit itself with honor. 
A detail of picked troops supported the cavalry at Beverly ford and 
Brandy station, Va., and rejoined their regiment at Sangster's station. 
The 5th lost heavily at Gettysburg and on Aug. i, 1863, was ordered 
home to recruit. With other New Hampshire regiments it was pres- 
ent at Cold Harbor, again losing many men. In the actions at 
Petersburg and at Deep Bottom, Gen. Hancock mentions them in 
orders for "Gallantry in capture of an enemy's battery." The regi- 
ment was relieved and moved to the rear about Nov. 15, 1864, and on 
Dec. I it was ordered to Fort Welch. It met with slight losses at 
Fort Stedman, was in actions at Dinwiddle Court House and Sailor's 
creek, Va., and fought their final battle at Farmville, Va., April 7, 
1865. Few escaped death or capture, but on April 9 Lee surrendered 
and the remnant of the gallant 5th participated in the grand review 
of the Union army at Washington on May 23. 



84 The Union Army 

Sixth Infantry- — Cols., Nelson Converse, Simon G. Griffin, Phin P. 
Bixby; Lieut.-Cols., Nelson Converse, Simon G. Griffin, Charles Scott, 
Henry H. Pearson, Phin P. Bixby, Samuel D. Quarles; Majs., Charles 
Scott, Obed G. Dort, Phin P. Bixby, Samuel D. Quarles, Robert L. 
Ela. The 6th was composed of men from all parts of the state and 
was mustered in from Nov. 27 to 30, 1861, at Keene. The original 
members not reenlisted, were mustered out Nov. 27 and 28, 1864, 
near Petersburg, Va., and the reenlisted men and recruits were 
mustered out July 17, 1865, near Alexandria, Va. The number Ci 
members was 2,448. Of these, 158 were killed or died of wounds and 
230 died from other causes. The 6th camped at Bladensburg, Md., 
until Jan., 1862, when it left for Annapolis to join Burnside's expedi- 
tion to North Carolina. In February' the regiment was removed to 
Roanoke island, in March details were ordered to Columbia and 
Elizabeth City, N. C, and on April 19, under Gen. Reno, met the 
enemy in a sharp encounter at Camden. At Bull Run the 6th made a 
gallant attack and met with fearful losses. It was in action at 
Antietam, Amissville, White Sulphur springs and Marye's heights, 
after which it was ordered to join Gen. Grant's army before Vicks- 
burg. In 1864 the regiment was attached to the Army of the Potomac 
and participated in the battle of the Wilderness, where it made a 
heroic charge. For gallantry in this battle, Sergt.-Maj. Abraham 
Cohn was awarded a medal by Congress. Engagements followed at 
Totopotomoy creek, Bethesda Church, the Weldon railroad. Poplar 
Springs Church, Hatcher's run and near Forts Davis and Sedgwick. 

Seventh Infantry. — Cols., Haldimand S. Putnam, Joseph C. Abbott; 
Lieut.-Cols., Joseph C. Abbott, Thomas A. Henderson, Augustus W. 
Rollins; Majs., Daniel Smith, Thomas A. Henderson, Augustus W. 
Rollins, Jeremiah S. Durgin. The 7th, from the state at large, was 
mustered in for three years at Manchester, Oct. 29 to Dec. 15, 1861, 
and was mustered out at Concord, Dec. 27, 1864. The reenlisted men 
and recruits were mustered out July 20, 1865, at Goldsboro, N. C. 
The regiment numbered 1,762 members, of whom 152 were killed or 
died of wounds and 246 died from other causes. The first month 
was spent at Manchester, the second at New York, and on Feb. 13, 
1862, the regiment embarked for Fort Jefferson, Florida, where it 
remained till sent to St. Augustine Sept. i. Greatly reduced by 
sickness, it left there in June for Hilton Head, Folly and Morris 
islands, where it was actively engaged in the siege of Fort Wagner. 
A number of men of the 7th won Gillmore medals for bravery and in 
an attack on Fort Wagner the regimental loss was 18 officers killed 
or wounded. After camping at St. Helena island until Feb., 1864, 
the regiment participated in Gen. Seymour's campaign in Florida, 
afterward joining the Army of the James at Bermuda Hundred, Va. 
Through May and June it was in many engagements, including Drewry's 
bluflf, Deep Bottom, New Market heights, Laurel hill and along the 
Darbytown road. First Sergt. George P. Dow, Co. C, Sergt. Henry 
F. W. Little, Co. D, Sergt. George F Robie, Co. D, and Sergt. Will- 
iam Tilton, Co. C, all won medals of honor during this campaign. 
Ordered to New York during the presidential election of 1864, the 
regiment returned to Virginia and went into winter quarters at Laurel 
hill. In January it was ordered to Fort Fisher, N. C., in June to 
Goldsboro, after some time at Wilmington, and was mustered out in 
July after nearly four years of distinguished service. 

Eighth Infantry. — Col., Hawkes Fearing; Lieut.-Cols., Oliver W. 



New Hampshire Regiments 85 

Lull, George A. Flanders, William M. Barrett; Majs., Morrill B. 
Smith, Thomas Connolly, Henry H. Huse, John K. Stokes. The 8th 
regiment, from the state at large, was mustered in at Manchester 
Oct. 25 to Dec. 29, 1861, for three years' service. It was converted 
into a cavalry regiment between Dec. 16, 1863, and July 25, 1864, and 
was known first as the ist and later as the 2nd N. H. cavalry. The 
original members, not reenlisted, were mustered out on Jan. 18, 1865, 
at Concord and the reenlisted men and those whose term had not 
expired became the veteran battalion, 8th N. H. infantry, and were 
mustered out at Vicksburg, Miss., Oct. 28, 1865. The original mem- 
bers numbered 926, recruits 674, transferred 3, total strength 1,603. 
The 8th lost by death 99 men, of whom 81 were killed or died of 
wounds. The veteran battalion numbered 341, of whom 25 were 
recruits. Its loss by death was 13. The 8th was ordered to Fort 
Independence, Boston harbor, embarked from there Feb. 16 and 18, 
1862, for Ship island. Miss., where it arrived on Mar. 18 and 29, 
after a stormy passage. With Gen. Weitzel's brigade, the regiment 
sailed for Donaldsonville, La., landed, and engaged the Confederates 
at Labadieville, La., on Oct. 27; was then transferred to the 2nd 
brigade of Emory's division; was actively engaged at Fort Bisland, 
La., April 12-13, 1863, and participated in the siege of Port Hudson, 
La., from May 23 to July 9. On June 14 an assault was made, in 
which the 8th N. H. was sent in advance as skirmishers, a position 
requiring, according to orders, "The best troops." The losses were 
heavy but the attack was successful. In Sept., 1863, as part of 
McMillan's brigade, the regiment participated in the second Red 
River expedition and marched north. In Jan., 1864, it was made a 
cavalry regiment and ordered back to New Orleans, where it remained 
until March 2. Engagements followed at Henderson's hill, La 
Natchitoches, Crump's hili, Wilson's farm, Sabine cross-roads, Mo- 
nett's bluff. Cane river, near Alexandria, Snaggy Point, Gov. Moore's 
plantation, Moreauville, Bayou de Glaize and Yellow bayou, all 
between March 21 and May 18. The duties of the 8th were so severe 
that they called forth a protest from Gen. Arnold, but the regiment 
never flagged. On June 16, 1864, the regiment left New Orleans for 
Concord and spent the next two months on furlough, leaving for 
Natchez, Miss., Aug. 29, where it remained until mustered out. The 
veteran battalion, 8th N. H. infantry, was then organized as above 
described by special orders, and was assigned to Vidalia. In March 
it returned to Natchez and was mustered out in October. 

Ninth Infantry. — Cols., Enoch Q. Fellows, Herbert B. Titus; 
Lieut.-Cols., Josiah Stevens. Jr., Herbert B. Titus, John W. Babbitt, 
George H. Chandler; Majs., Herbert B. Titus, George W. Everett, 
George H. Chandler. This regiment .from' the state at large, was 
mustered in for three years from July 3, to Aug. 23, 1862, at Concord. 
The original members were mustered out June 10, 1865, near Alexan- 
dria, Va., the recruits having been transferred to the 6th N. H. 
infantry on June i. The number of original members was 990, of 
recruits 886, total strength 1,876. The losses were 143 killed or died 
of wounds and 243 who died from other causes. On Aug. 27, 1862, 
the regiment arrived in Washington and was assigned to Gen. Whip- 
ple's division, defenses of Washington. On Sept. 6 it became part of 
the 1st brigade, 2d division, under Gen. McClellan. At South moun- 
tain, Sept. 14, the 9th alone attacked a Confederate brigade and drove 
it from its position. At Antietam it was actively engaged and after 



86 The Union Army 

the battle the route of the regiment was throug^h White Sulphur 
Springs, Va., where it had a slight engagement, to Fredericksburg. 
For bravery in battle at Fredericksburg, Capt. Charles D. Copp, Co. 
C, was awarded a medal of honor. The regiment remained in this 
city until in Feb., 1863, when it was ordered to Newport News and 
there embarked on Mar. 25 for Baltimore, but immediately left there 
for Lexington, Ky. It arrived at Lexington on the 30th and was 
ordered to Vicksburg, where it took part in the siege. After the fall 
of Vicksburg it guarded for a time the Kentucky Central railroad 
and did some escort duty. On April 27, 1864, it became part of the 
2nd brigade, 2nd division , 9th corps, Army of the Potomac, 
and fought in the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court 
House, North Anna river, Totopotomoy, Bethesda Church, Cold 
Harbor and the siege of Petersburg, where Sergt. Leander A. Wilkins, 
Co. H, won a medal for recapture of the colors of the 21st Mass. 
On Aug. 19, 1864, the 9th was sent to the Weldon railroad. The next 
day it assisted in repulsing the enemy; was engaged at Poplar Springs 
Church, Sept. 30, and at Hatcher's run, Oct. 27. After wintering at 
Fort Alexander Hays, the regiment performed guard duty for several 
days in the spring of 1865. This closed the service of the 9th and 
after taking part in the grand review at Washington the regiment 
started for home. 

Tenth Infantry. — Col., ^Michael T. Donahue; Lieut.-Col., John 
Coughlin; Majs., Jesse F. Angell, Timothy B. Crowley. The loth regi- 
ment was organized from the state at large for three years' service, 
and was mustered in from Aug. 6 to Sept. 18, 1862, at Manchester. The 
original members were mustered out on June 21. 1865, at Richmond, 
Va., and the recruits were assigned to the 2nd N. H. infantry. The 
original members and recruits numbered 1,333 and its loss by death 
was 198 men. The loth left the state for Washington on Sept 22, 
1862, and saw its first fighting in the Army of the Potomac, Nov. 
15, while crossing the Rappahannock. On Dec. 11 it entered Fred- 
ericksburg and joined in an attack on Marye's heights with the 13th 
N. H. After three months at Fredericksburg and a month at Newport 
News, it was ordered to Suffolk, Va. At Hill's point a battery was 
captured, at Littlepage's bridge on the Pamunkey there was a sharp 
fight, and on July 30 the regiment went into camp at Julian's creek, 
where it spent the winter of 1863-64. In April it was assigned to the 
Army of the James and went to Bermuda Hundred. Active engage- 
ments followed at Port Walthall Junction, Va., Swift creek. Proctor's 
and Kingsland creeks, and Drewry's bluff. Lieut.-Col. Coughlin won 
a medal at Swift creek for distinguished gallantry in action. May 
9, 1864. At Cold Harbor the regiment was in the front line, June 1-12, 
when it was removed to the rear and returned to Bermuda Hundred. 
On June 15 it left camp for Petersburg and that day aided in the 
capture of Battery No. 5. The next day Cos. A, E and K made an 
assault in which the prisoners captured outnumbered the attacking 
party. The regiment was engaged in the siege of Petersburg until 
Aug. 27, and from Sept. 28 to Oct. i, was engaged in the capture and 
defense of Fort Harrison. Late in October it was withdrawn from 
that place and on the 27th participated in a bloody encounter near 
Fair Oaks, where it suffered heavy losses. Returning to Fort Harrison 
it spent the winter of 1864-65 there, when it was ordered to Rich- 
mond and remained there from April 3, 1865, to June 21, when it 
was mustered out and returned home. 



New Hampshire Regiments 87 

Eleventh Infantry. — Col., Walter Harriman; Lieut. -Cols., Moses 
N. Collins, Leander W. Cogswell; Majs., Moses N. Collins, Evarts 
W. Farr. The nth, composed of volunteers from the state at large 
for three years' service, v^^as mustered in at Concord, Aug. 21 to Sept. 
10, 1862. The original members were mustered out at Alexandria, 
Va., June 4, 1865, and the recruits were transferred to the 6th N. H. 
infantry on June i, 1865. The original members numbered 1,005, 
the recruits 649, transferred i, making a total of 1,655. The regiment 
lost by death 303 men, of whom 136 were killed or died of wounds. 
The nth left Concord Sept. 11, 1862, for Baltimore and on its arrival 
there was immediately ordered to Washington, where it became part 
of the 2nd brigade of the 2nd division of the 9th corps, in which it 
remained throughout its service. It participated in the battle of 
Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862, where First Sergt. Francis H. Goodall, 
Co. G, won a medal of honor for conspicuous gallantry, and then 
went into camp at Newport News, Va., until March, 1863. On June 
14, 1863, the regiment arrived at Vicksburg, having spent the months 
of April and May en route. It was engaged at Jackson, Miss., and 
then returned to the North by way of Cairo. On Oct. 15, 1863, it 
was at Knoxville Tenn., where it participated in the siege from Nov. 
17 to Dec. 5, and afterward aided in the pursuit of Gen. Longstreet 
through the mountains of East Tennessee. On April 7, 1864, the 
regiment arrived at Annapolis after marching across the mountains, 
175 miles in II days, and was engaged at the Battle of the Wilder- 
ness. It was then with the Army of the Potomac in the actions at 
Spottsylvania, North Anna river, Totopotomoy, Bethesda Church, Cold 
Harbor and the siege of Petersburg. On June 17, at Petersburg, 
Private Henry W. Rowe, Co. I, made a heroic capture of a flag, 
which won him a medal of honor. Having served constantly at 
Petersburg from Jime 16, 1864, to April 3, 1865, the nth on April 4 
went to City Point, Va., from there to Alexandria and Washington, 
where it participated in the grand review and was mustered out after 
nearly three years of hard service. 

Twelfth Infantry. — Cols., Joseph H. Potter, Thomas E. Barker; 
Lieut.-Cols., John F. Marsh, George D. Savage, Thomas E. Barker, 
Nathaniel Shackford; Majs., George D. Savage, John F. Langley, 
Nathaniel Shackford, Edwin E. Bedee. The 12th, from the state at 
large, was mustered in for three years at Concord, Aug. 28 to Sept. 
25, 1862. The original members were mustered out June 21, 1865, 
at Richmond and Manchester, Va., and the recruits were transferred 
to the 2nd N. H. infantry the same day. There were 1,019 original 
members and 444 recruits, in all 1,463. Of these 180 were killed or 
died of wounds and 146 died from other causes. The 12th left "Camp 
Belknap" Sept. 27, 1862, for Washington, where it was assigned to 
the Army of the Potomac and was first under fire at Fredericksburg, 
Dec. 12-15, 1862. The regiment spent the winter at Falmouth, Va., 
and in May, 1863, was in the battle of Chancellorsville, where it 
suffered heavy losses. At Gettysburg its loss was again fearful. 
In the pursuit of Gen. Lee the regiment reached Warrenton, Va., 
when it was ordered to Point Lookout, Md., and was on duty there 
until the spring of 1864. In April it was assigned to the Army of 
the James and took part in the battles of Swift creek. Relay house, 
Drewry's bluff, and Port Walthall Junction. On June i it joined the 
Army of the Potomac at Cold Harbor and was actively engaged in 
that battle. Leaving Cold Harbor on the nth, it reached Petersburg 
on the 15th, where it was constantly on duty until Aug. 25. The 



88 The Union Army 

winter of 1864-65 was spent at Bermuda Hundred, Chaffin's farm, 
and in the vicinity of Fort Harrison. On the memorable Apr. 3, 
1865, it entered Richmond and after a time spent at Danville, Va., 
was mustered out at Richmond. 

Thirteenth Infantry. — Col., Aaron F. Stevens; Lieut.-Cols., George 
Bowers, Jacob J. Storer, William Grantman, Norman Smith; Majs., 
Jacob J. Storer, William Grantman, Norman Smith, Nathan D. 
Stoodley. This regiment, composed of men from Rockingham Hills- 
boro, Strafford, Grafton, Merrimack, Carroll and Coos counties, was 
mustered into the service for three years, at Concord, Sept. 12 to 
Oct. 9, 1862. The original members were mustered out at Richmond, 
Va., June 21, 1865, and the same day the recruits were transferred to 
the 2nd N. H. infantry. The original members and those gained by 
transfer numbered 1,017, recruits 255, making a total of 1,272. The 
13th lost by death 180 members, of whom one-half were killed or died 
of wounds. The regiment arrived in Washington, Oct. 8, 1862, and 
was assigned to the ist brigade, defenses of Washington, until Dec. 
10, when it joined the Army of the Potomac and was first under fire 
at Stafford's heights. Entering Fredericksburg Dec. 11 it remained 
there until the 13th, when it made an assault on Marye's heights. 
After the battle of Fredericksburg it went into camp at the Phillips 
house and was there until in Feb., 1863, when it left for Newport 
News. It was ordered to Suffolk, Va., on March 13 and took part in 
raising the siege of that city. During this summer and the ensuing 
winter it performed many arduous and exacting duties but was 
not again actively engaged until May, 1864, when it was in the battles 
of Port Walthall Junction, Swift creek. Proctor's and Kingsland 
creeks, Drewry's bluff and Bermuda Hundred, all in the vicinity of 
Richmond, Va. The regiment lost heavily in the battle of Cold Har- 
bor and afterward moved toward Petersburg, where it made a daring 
assault on Battery No. 5, succeeding in its capture. It took part in 
the siege of Petersburg and on Aug. 26 was ordered to Bermuda 
Hundred, where it remained until Sept. 28, when it was ordered to 
Fort Harrison. It fought bravely in the capture and defense of that 
fort and suffered severe losses. Its next battle was at Fair Oaks late 
in Oct., 1864. The regiment and its colors were among the first 
to enter Richmond, April 3, 1865, and it was on duty here until the 
end of its service. 

Fourteenth Infantry. — Cols., Robert Wilson, Alexander Gardiner, 
Carroll D. Wright, Theodore A. Ripley; Lieut.-Cols., Tileston A. 
Barker, Oliver H. Marston; Majs., Samuel A. Duncan, Alexander 
Gardiner, Flavel L. Tolman. This regiment, mostly from the south- 
western part of the state, was mustered in for three years at Concord 
in Sept. and Oct., 1862. It was mustered out July 8, 1865, at Savan- 
nah, Ga. The original members numbered 968, transferred i, recruits 
417, total strength 1,386. It lost 66 of its number, w^ho were killed 
or died of wounds and 159 from other causes. The 14th was the 
last three years' regiment furnished by the state, many of its men 
having expected to join other regiments. It left the state for Wash- 
ington on Oct. 18, 1862, arrived there two days later and was assigned 
to defense duty. It remained near Washington, performing varied 
services until in Feb., 1864, when it was ordered to the upper Potomac 
and was encamped for a short time near Harper's Ferry. The men 
went home to vote and in March the regiment was ordered to Hilton 
Head, S. C, which was reached after terrible storms. From April 
to July, 1864, it was in or near New Orleans, then returned to Wash- 



New Hampshire Regiments 89 

ington, and soon entered into active field service. It was in the fights 
at Deep Bottom, Winchester, Halltown, Berryville, Lock's ford, 
Fisher's hill, Tom's brook, Strasburg and Cedar creek, and all proved 
the valor of the 14th. The late winter and spring were spent in 
Savannah, Ga., and in May, 1865, the regiment was ordered to Augusta. 
So much southern service was disastrous to the health of the troops and 
they lost heavily through sickness. 

Fifteenth Infantry. — Col., John W. Kingman ; Lieut.-Cols., William 
M. Weed, George W. Frost, Henry W. Blair; Majs., George W. 
Frost, Henry W. Blair, John Aldrich. This regiment was from the 
1st Congressional district and was the first in the state to respond to 
the call for nine months' men. It was mustered into the U. S. 
service at Concord, from Oct. 4 to Nov. 12, 1862, and was mustered 
out at Concord, Aug. 13, 1863. It numbered 919 men, of whom 30 
were killed or died of wounds and 115 from other causes. The regi- 
ment left the state for New York on Nov. 13 and embarked from 
Brooklyn two weeks later for New Orleans where it encamped on 
the Shell road at Carrollton. From May zj to July 9, 1863, the 15th 
took part in the siege of Port Hudson, La., engaging in active com- 
bat and in many laborious siege duties. After the surrender, it was 
ordered north and returned to Concord. 

Sixteenth Infantry. — Col., James Pike; Lieut.-Col., Henry W. Fuller; 
Majs., Henry W. Fuller, Samuel Davis, Jr. The i6th was made up 
in the 2nd Congressional district and was mustered in for nine months 
at Concord from Oct. 10 to Dec. 2, 1862. It numbered 914 men, of 
whom 210 died of disease and 3 were drowned. On Nov. 23 it left 
Concord for New York and was there ordered to sail south under 
sealed orders. Its destination proved to be New Orleans, which it 
reached on Dec 20 and remained near that city until March 5, 1863, 
when it proceeded to Port Hudson, where it joined in the siege from 
June 3 to July 9. This regiment suffered greatly from sickness, par- 
ticularly during a six weeks' stay at Fort Burton, which it captured 
April 20, 1863, and the percentage of deaths was very large. On 
Aug. I it started for Cairo, 111., and from there proceeded by rail to 
Concord, where it was mustered out on Aug. 20, 1863. 

Seventeenth Infantry. — Col., Henry O. Kent; Lieut.-Col, Charles H. 
Long; Maj., George H. Bellows. The 17th was nmstered into the U. S. 
service between Nov. 13, 1862, and Jan. 10, 1863, but the organization 
was not completed, the men were transferred to the 2nd N. H. in- 
fantry, and the officers were mustered out on April 16, 1863. The 
regiment numbered 216 and lost by death 4 men. Under the presi- 
dent's call for troops of Aug. 4, 1862, New Hampshire was required 
to furnish three regiments, one to be organized in each congressional 
district. 791 men from the 3d district volunteered, who should have 
been assigned to the 17th regiment, but the 15th and i6th regiments 
were not yet complete, and, as the call was urgent, men were trans- 
ferred from the 17th to fill these regiments. Other volunteers joined 
the 17th, but not enough to enable it to take the field as a separate 
organization and they were assigned to the 2nd infantry, as above 
stated. By Act of Congress in 1892, the 17th was recognized as a 
regiment and its status determined beyond question. 

Eighteenth Infantry. — Cols., Thomas L. Livermore, Joseph M. 
Clough; Lieut.-Cols., Joseph M. Clough, Willis G. C. Kimball; Majs., 
William I. Brown, Alvah K. Potter, Silas F. Learnard. This regiment 
was raised from the state at large, for one and three years, six com- 
panies under the call of July 18, and four under the call of Dec. 19, 



90 The Union Army 

1864. The organization was completed on April 6, 1865, and the 
troops were mustered into service at Concord. Co. K was mustered 
out on May 6, 1865, at Galloupe's island, Mass.; Cos. A, B, C, D, E 
and F on June 10, 1865, at the Delaney house in the District of Colum- 
bia ; and Cos. G, H, and I on July 29, 1865, at the Delaney house, with the 
field and staff officers. The regiment numbered 978, its loss by death 
being yj, of whom 3 were killed or died of wounds. The first six 
companies were ordered to City Point, Va., where they were joined 
in Feb., 1865, by companies G and H. In March, company I joined 
the command at Petersburg, but on account of Lee's surrender, Co. K 
was held at Galloupe's island. On March 25, the regiment aided in 
the capture of Fort Stedman, Va., and remained in that fort until the 
fall of Petersburg. On April 2, in an engagement with the enemy 
before Petersburg, it met with slight losses. It was placed on guard 
duty m Washington, during the court-martial which tried the con- 
spirators against President Lincoln, this closing their active service. 
First Cavalry Battalion. — Lieut. -Col., John L. Thompson; Majs., 
David B. Nelson, John L. Thompson, Stephen R. Swett. Cos. I, 
K, L and M of the ist New England volunteer cavalry, were from 
New Hampshire and were mustered into the U. S. service on Dec. 
17, Oct. 24, Dec. 24 and 27, 1861, respectively, for three years' service. 
Cos. I, L and M were mustered in at Concord and Co. K at Man- 
chester. These companies left the N. E. cavalry to become part of 
the 1st N. H. cavalry on Jan. 7, 1864. The battalion numbered 435 
and lost by death 33 members, of whom 15 were killed in battle. 
The N. H. battalion joined the two R. I. battalions at Pawtucket, 
R. I., Jan. 22, 1862, and left there for Washington on March 2 and 31, 
the name of the regiment being changed to the ist R. I. cavalry, which 
was considered an injustice by the men. The N. H. battalion was 
engaged alone at Front Royal, Va., and received complimentary men- 
tion in orders. It was in the battles of Cedar mountain, Groveton, 
second Bull Run, Chantilly, Mountsville and Fredericksburg. The 
winter of 1862-63 found the battalion on active duty with almost no 
rest, and it participated in the cavalry fight at Kelly's ford, March 17, 

1863. Stoneman's raid, from April 27 to May 8, required the services of 
the cavalry and the battles at Brandy Station, Thoroughfare gap, 
Middleburg, Rapidan Station, White Sulphur springs and Bristoe 
Station all show how nobly the cavalry performed every duty assigned 
to it, winning well-earned laurels. 

First Cavalry. — Col., John L. Thompson; Lieut. -Col., Benjamin T. 
Hutchins; Majs., Arnold Wyman, Joseph F. Andrews, John A. Cum- 
mings. Cos. A, B and C of the ist N. H. cavalry were mustered in 
from April 19 to 23, and D, E, F and G from June 25 to July 21, 

1864, at Concord, for three years' service. I, K, L and M were trans- 
ferred from the ist N. E. cavalry, as mentioned in the previous sketch. 
The regiment was mustered out July 15, 1865, at Cloud's mills, Va. 
It numbered 1,533 men, of whom 210 were transferred from the ist 
N. E. cavalry. It lost 23 killed, or died of wounds, and 106 from other 
causes. On May 17, 1864, the regiment joined the Army of the 
Potomac and took part in the battle of Cold Harbor on June 2. Dur- 
ing that month it was almost constantly in action, campaigning in 
Virginia. From June 30 to Aug. 8 it had a short rest at City Point. 
On Aug. 24 the companies recruited in June and July joined the 
regiment and all were engaged at Kearneysville the next day. Mov- 
ing then through Virginia, the regiment participated in ten different 
actions during September and October. The records show that the 
1st participated in engagements at twenty-seven places in Virginia. 



New Hampshire Regiments 91 

in which state most of its time was spent. In Wilson's raid on the 
Weldon railroad it was in action every day for a week. At Tom's 
brook, Va., Oct. 9, 1864, it made a gallant attack and was compli- 
mented by Gen. Custer, who sent an officer to tell Col. Thompson that 
his troops had "saved the day." Its history is of repeated brilliant 
charges, bravery on the part of officers and men and conscientious 
performance of duty. 

First Light Battery. — Capts., George A. Gerrish, Frederick M. 
Edgell. The ist light battery, the only one furnished by New Hamp- 
shire, was recruited at ^Manchester and mustered in there Sept. 25, 
1861. The original members, not reenlisted, were mustered out near 
Petersburg, Va., Sept. 25, 1864. The reenlisted men and recruits were 
mustered out June 9, 1865, at Concord. In Nov., 1864, it became Co. 
M, 1st N. H. heavy artillery, but was later continued as a separate 
light battery. It numbered 258 men and lost by death 12, of whom 
one-half were killed or died of wounds. On its arrival in Washington 
in Nov., 1861, it was assigned to the Army of the Potomac, with 
which it remained during its three years and nine months of service. 
Through all the important campaigns of that army the guns of the 
1st N. H. light battery sounded their defiance. At the battles of the 
second Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettys- 
burg, the Wilderness, Cold Harbor, the siege of Petersburg, Deep 
Bottom and many other engagements their well directed fire and 
steadfast endurance made them of the utmost value and service. 

First Company, Heavy Artillery. — Capt., Charles H. Long. This 
company was raised for the defense of Portsmouth harbor and spent 
all of its three years' term of service at Fort Constitution except the 
time between May 6 and Nov., 1864. It was mustered in at Concord 
and Portsmouth from May 26 to July 22, 1863, and was mustered out 
at Concord, Sept. 11, 1865. In the summer of 1864 it was ordered to 
Washington, where it formed part of the defenses of that city, and 
in September became Co. A, ist N. H. heavy artillery. 

Second Company, Heavy Artillery. — Capts., Ira McL. Barton, 
George P. Thyng. This company was raised for the defense of Ports- 
mouth harbor and was assigned to Fort McClary except from May, 
1864, to Feb., 1865, when it became part of the defenses of Washington. 
It was mustered in at Concord from Aug. 18 to Sept. 17, 1863, became 
Co. B, 1st N. H. heavy artillery in Oct., 1864, and was mustered out 
Sept. II, 1865, at Concord. 

First Heavy Artillery. — Col., Charles H. Long; Lieut.-Col., Ira 
McL. Barton; Majs., George A. Wainwright, Dexter G. Reed, Frederick 
M. Edgell. Cos. A, B and M of this regiment were organized as 
described in the three preceding sketches and the remaining companies 
were mustered in at Concord and Fort Constitution in Sept. and Oct., 
1864. Cos. A and B were mustered out at Concord, Sept. 11, 1865, Co. 
M, June 9, 1865, and the rest of the regiment at Washington, June 
15, 1865. The total strength of the regiment was 1,857 and the death 
losses 34. The troops as fast as mustered in were ordered to Wasli- 
ington to form part of the defenses of that city. 

Company E, First U. S. Sharpshooters. — This company was mus- 
tered in at Concord, Sept 9, 1861, having been recruited in different 
parts of the state for three years' service. The original members, 
not reenlisted, were mustered out near Petersburg, Va., Sept. 9, 1864, 
and the reenlisted men and recruits were assigned to Co. G, 2nd U. S. 
volunteer sharpshooters, on Dec. 23. 1864. The regiment became 
part of the army of the Potomac and took part in the siege of York- 
town, the battles of the second Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, 



92 The Union Army 

Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, the Wilderness, Cold Harbor, the siege 
of Petersburg and a large number of other engagements. At one 
time in the spring of 1864 it was in action 24 out of 31 days. It was 
the recipient of many compliments for gallant behavior and never 
failed in its duty. 

Companies F and G, Second U. S. Sharpshooters. — Cos. F and G 
were mustered in for three years' service, at Concord and Manchester, 
in Nov. and Dec, 1861, and were mustered out at Petersburg, Va., 
in Nov. and Dec. 1864, the reenlisted men and recruits being trans- 
ferred to the 5th N. H. infantry on Jan. 30, 1865. The regiment was 
assigned to the Army of Virginia and saw most of its fighting in that 
state, taking part in an unusual number of engagements, and often 
receiving special commendation. The records show thirty-seven en- 
gagements, some of them continuing through several days. Its 
losses were often heavy but it never flagged in zeal and one of its 
most brilliant performances was at Hatcher's run, after it had received 
orders to disband. 

Miscellaneous Organizations. — An unattached company in the ser- 
vice of the state was mustered into the U. S. service at Fort Constitu- 
tion May 15, 1862, and transferred to the 9th N. H. infantry on Aug. 
6, 1862. 

The Strafford Guards, of the state militia, were mustered into the 
U. S. service for 60 days on May 5, 1864, and were ordered to Fort 
Constitution. They were mustered out on July 28, 1864. About the 
same time (May, 1864) the National Guards were mustered into the 
U. S. service and served for 60 days at Fort Constitution. 

The Martin Guards were mustered into the U. S. service, July 25, 
1864, for 90 days, and served at Fort Constitution until mustered out 
on Sept. 16. 

The Lafayette Artillery, which aided in garrjsoning Fort Constitu- 
tion, were mustered in at Lyndeborough, Aug. i, 1864, and mustered 
out on Sept. 23, 1864, at Fort Constitution. 

The Veteran Reserve Corps, first known as the Invalid Corps, was 
organized in May, 1863, and served till the close of the war. It was 
mustered out at different times and places. 

State Service. — Capt. Josiah G. Hadley raised a company of Ports- 
mouth men for the garrison of Fort Constitution until the men en- 
listed for three months should arrive. Under President Lincoln's call 
of April 15, 1861, for three months' troops, the following companies 
were enlisted : Goodwin Guards, at Portsmouth ; Granite State Guards, at 
Great Falls; Abbott Guards, at Manchester; Claremont Volunteers, at 
Claremont; Laconia Volunteers, at Laconia; Manchester Mechanics' 
Phalanx, at Manchester; Cheshire Light Guard, at Keene; Milford 
Volunteers, at Milford; Concord Volunteers, at Concord; Littleton 
Volunteers, at Littleton; Capt. Joshua Chapman's company, at 
Plymouth and Conway ; Lancaster Volunteers, at Lancaster and North 
Stratford; Capt. Jonathan R. Bagley's company, at Fort Constitution, 
and made up of a number of the aforesaid companies ; Capt. George H. 
Gillis's company, at Fort Constitution, and composed mostly of mem- 
bers of the Milford Volunteers and the Granite State Guards. 

A great number of the members of these companies reenlisted. 
The Dover and Contocook volunteers enlisted for three years and 
were afterward part of the 2nd regiment. The Winnacunnet Guards, 
first enlisted for three months, most of the men later enlisting for 
three years, became finally Co. D, 3d N. H. infantry. Capt. James 
Davidson's company was organized for the garrison of Fort Constitu- 
tion after the discharge of the three months' men. 



Military Affairs in Vermont 

1861—65 



The little State of Vermont established an enviable record 
for loyalty and unswerving devotion to the Union during the four 
years of civil strife. The story of what it did and suffered dur- 
ing this fateful period needs little embellishment by the his- 
torian to command the respect of all. It ranks high among the 
other loyal states, in proportion to population, in the number and 
quality of men furnished to the army, the splendid fighting qual- 
ities of its soldiers, and the material sacrifices made to prevent 
the disruption of the Union. It was ever ready throughout the 
struggle to aid the government with both men and treasure, and 
no state displayed a higher degree of patriotism. At the out- 
break of the Civil war, Vermont was a small, rural common- 
wealth, devoid of any populous cities and almost stationary in 
population by reason of the constant stream of emigration to the 
West. In 1 86 1 the total population was 315,098, and the total 
number of men subject to military duty was 60,719. Out of 
this number it sent to the war 10 men for every 100 of its popula- 
tion, and of the able-bodied men between the ages of 18 and 
45 years, every other man enlisted in the service of his country. 
By reason of the character of its population it furnished a greater 
proportion of native-born citizens than any other state, and in 
proportion to the number of men furnished, it gave to the Union 
more lives lost from all causes than any other loyal state. Penn- 
sylvania sustained the greatest loss in killed of any state, its 
percentage being 7.1 ; Vermont ranks second with a loss of 6.8. 
The percentage of loss in the Union army, killed and mortally 
wounded, was 4.7, and it will thus be seen that Vermont troops 
saw their full share of the hard fighting. The first reconnois- 
sance in force made by United States troops upon the soil of 
Virginia, was that of the ist Vt., May 23, 1861. It is an interest- 
ing fact that the 2nd Vt. fired the last shot of the 6th army corps, 
April 6, 1865, at Sailor's creek, Va. The ist Vt. brigade and 
the loth regiment were among the first troops to enter Peters- 
burg on the morning of its capture, April 3, 1861 ; and the same 
morning, Capt. Abel E. Leavenworth, of the 9th Vt., assisted 

93 



94 The Union Army 

by Lieuts. Joel C. Baker and Burnham Cowdrey and a force of 
I20 men from the same regiment on the skirmish line, were the 
first organized troops to enter the Confederate capital of Rich- 
mond. In the final act of the bloody drama which took place at 
Appomattox Court House on the occasion of Lee's surrender, 
the 1st Vt. cavalry received and partly executed the last order 
given for a cavalry charge in the Army of the Potomac, when 
it received the order to halt, as a flag of truce announcing Lee's 
surrender had been displayed. 

Vermont recorded its verdict on the momentous issues in- 
volved in the presidential election of i860 in no uncertain manner, 
by giving President Lincoln a majority of 22,970 over the com- 
bined vote of Douglas, Breckenridge and Bell. The state elec- 
tion in September had resulted in an overwhelming majority for 
Erastus Fairbanks, of St. Johnsbury, the Republican candidate 
for governor. Gov. Fairbanks was a successful business man, 
a citizen of substantial worth, and held the respect of all as an 
able and patriotic public servant. During the year 1861, the 
state was represented in the U. S. Senate by Solomon Foot and 
Jacob Collamer, who were honored by all as men of sterling 
worth and the purest patriotism. In the lower branch of Con- 
gress her representatives were Justin S. Morrill, Eliakim P. Wal- 
ton and Homer E. Royce. 

Despite the almost feverish activity displayed by the slave- 
holding states during the months and even the years preceding 
the outbreak of the war, Vermont, in common with the other 
loyal states, remained strangely blind to the seriousness of the 
situation. When the year 1861 began, practically nothing had 
been done by the people of Vermont in anticipation of actual war. 
Everywhere in the North, and especially in Washington, an opti- 
mistic view prevailed, and it was believed that the gathering 
storm of war would blow over. All open preparations and demon- 
strations designed to give armed support to the national gov- 
ernment were even deprecated, lest such measures tend to widen 
the breach between the sections. Even after South Carolina, 
Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas 
had adopted formal ordinances of secession and withdrew their 
senators and representatives from Washington ; when the Federal 
forts and arsenals had been garrisoned by Southern state militia- 
men; when a provisional Confederate government had been or- 
ganized, few active steps were taken in the North to meet the 
threatened emergency. Many signs indicated, however, that 
the more far-seeing public men were at last beginning to appreci- 
ate the gravity of the situation. On Jan. 5, 1861, Gov. Fairbanks 
wrote to Gov. Buckingham of Connecticut as follows : "I am 



Military Affairs in Vermont 95 

desirous to learn your views as to the expediency of legislation 
in the Free States at the present time touching- the affairs of the 
general government and the action of certain Southern states. 
* * * Should the plans of the secessionists in South Caro- 
lina and other cotton states be persevered in and culminate in the 
design to seize upon the national capital, will it be prudent to 
delay a demonstration on the part of the Free States assuring the 
general government of their united support in putting down re- 
bellion and sustaining the constitution and the dignity of the 
United States Government ?" It is a curious fact that on the very 
day this letter was written, Gov. Andrew of Massachusetts sent 
confidential messengers to the governors of the several New 
England states, urging on them the necessity of military prepara- 
tion, and stating that he was preparing to put part of the Massa- 
chusetts militia in a condition for active service. Col. Wardrop 
of the 3d Mass militia was the Vermont messenger, and, not 
finding the governor at Montpelier, he drove to St. Johnsbury 
and held communication with him there. The nature of his er- 
rand leaked out and was commented on by the press of the day. 
Considerable excitement resulted, and it was deemed wise to con- 
tradict the rumor, which was formally denied by a Boston 
paper. The news that the secessionists were preparing to seize 
upon the national capital on or before the 4th of March was 
indeed startling, but Gov. Fairbanks was a cautious man and 
hesitated to follow the advice of Gov. Andrew to at once con- 
vene the legislature in special session, and put the state militia 
on a war footing. Instead, he sought the advice of the state's 
representatives at Washington and wrote the other New England 
governors, as well as Gov. Morgan of New York, asking for their 
views and suggesting that they act in concert to meet any pos- 
sible contingency threatening the safety of Washington. Gov. 
Andrew was informed that he deemed it wise that all the free 
states make provisional preparation to meet force with force, 
if necessary, and that he only awaited advices from Vermont's 
representatives in Congress, and from the governors of the 
other states. 

One suggestion of Gov. Andrew, that Jan. 8, the anniversary 
of Gen. Jackson's victory at New Orleans in 1815, be made an 
occasion to arouse the latent patriotism and loyalty of the people 
was cordially adopted by Gov. Fairbanks. He accordingly ar- 
ranged that salutes of 100 guns be fired at noon of the 8th in 
the cities of Montpelier, Burlington, St. Albans, Rutland, Brat- 
tleboro, Bennington, Woodstock, Windsor, and several other 
towns "in honor of the Union of the states, and of Maj. Ander- 
son, the gallant defender of the country's honor," who had occu- 



96 The Union Army 

pied Fort Sumter, two weeks before, and had thus asserted the 
supremacy of the national government in the heart of the secession 
movement. 

There was nothing in the advices received from Washington 
which, in the judgment of Gov. Fairbanks, warranted him in 
calHng the legislature together at this juncture. He took pains, 
however, to inform President Buchanan that Vermont stood 
ready to meet any requisition for troops that might be made upon 
it. 

None of the Northern states was in a condition of military 
preparedness at the beginning of the war, Vermont least of all. 
Disorganization and inefficiency characterized her whole militia 
system. The people of the state, indeed, cherished in song and 
story the glorious achievements of their forbears at Ticonderoga, 
Bennington, and other battles of the Revolution, but their ways 
had long been ways of peace, and her sturdy sons were quite un- 
versed in the arts of war. Even the laws on the statute books 
requiring the enrolled militia to do military duty, except in cases 
of insurrection, war, invasion, or to suppress riots, had been 
repealed before the year 1850. The effort to maintain a number 
of uniformed companies raised from the state at large had failed, 
the companies disbanded one by one, and in 1856, hardly a pre- 
tense of military organization was maintained. This condition 
of affairs was deplored by a number of able citizens, and between 
1856 and 1861 some effort was made to revive the militia. A law 
of 1856 gave $3 a year to each militiaman who should drill "not 
less than three days during the year ;" he was armed by the 
state, but was required to furnish his own uniform. A few 
companies were formed as a result, but there was no regimental 
organization. Gov. Fletcher, an old militia officer, succeeded in 
bringing about a state muster of nine companies in 1858, at 
Brandon, when 450 members assembled, and were quartered in 
the halls and private houses of the village, as no tents were to 
be had. Some additional interest was aroused at this time, and 
a number of new companies were formed. The following 3'ear 
a brigade of four regiments was formed, under the command of 
Gen. Alonzo Jackman, a professor in the Norwich military 
academy. By order of Gov. Hall, a brigade muster occurred at 
Montpelier on Aug. 30, i860, when fourteen of the seventeen 
organized companies, drawing pay from the state, assembled, 
numbering with the staff officers and bands, about 900 men. 
Under the command of Gen. Jackman, the men now received 
their first practical experience of military camp life in tents 
provided by the state. At the close of i860, according to the 
records of the adjutant-general's office, there were twenty-two 



Military Affairs in Vermont 97 

organized companies. Five of these had Httle more than a nom- 
inal existence, and the other seventeen were variously uniformed 
and armed. The majority of the companies possessed the 
smooth-bore percussion muskets, while some were armed with 
only the old flint-locks. Though nominally there were four 
regiments a brigade organization existed only on paper. 

Of the military material which had been furnished the state 
by the ordnance department at Washington, there remained in 
Jan., 1861, only 957 muskets, 7 6-pounder field pieces, (3 brass 
and 4 iron) 503 Colt's pistols, which were practically worthless, 
and 104 tents. In other words the state could barely arm a 
single regiment from the material on hand. 

On Jan. 26, 1861, Vermont took the first step towards open 
preparation to meet the threatened emergency, when the adju- 
tant and inspector-general was ordered to notify the town clerks 
and listers to comply with the law and make full returns of all 
persons liable for military service in their respective towns. 
General Order No. 10 immediately followed, wherein the officers 
of the several militia companies were directed to "ascertain at 
once whether any men in their commands are unable or in- 
disposed to respond to the orders of the commander-in-chief, 
made upon any requisition of the president of the Unites States 
to aid in the maintenance of the laws and the peace of the Union, 
in order that they may be discharged and their places filled by 
men ready for any public exigency that may arise." The various 
captains were also directed in the same order to make every 
effort to bring their companies up to the required standard in 
point of numbers, and to see that the men were properly drilled 
and uniformed. 

Despite this step, when the first call for troops came in April, 
many towns had wholly neglected to make returns of the number 
of men liable for military duty and no degree of accuracy in the 
total enrolment was ascertainable. Replies to General Order 
No. 10 from ten captains are to be found in the files of the 
adjutant-general's office, reporting 376 men armed, partially 
equipped and ready for active service. One company numbered 
75 men, but the average number of members was less than 50. 
There was some increased effort to promote discipline in the 
companies and a few enlistments were made, but little actual good 
resulted. 

Despite the active preparations for war which were taking 
place in the South, the spirit of compromise was still dominant 
in the North. This conciliatory spirit took concrete form in the 
well known Peace Conference called at Washington by the legis- 
lature of Virginia, to meet on Feb. 4, 1861. Gov. Fairbanks and 
Vol. 1-7 



98 The Union Army 

the people of Vermont generally were in active sympathy with 
this effort to adjust the differences between the sections. The 
governor appointed as Vermont's representatives to the confer- 
ence ex-Gov. Hiland Hall, Lieut.-Gov. Underwood, Hon. L. E. 
Chittenden, Adjt.-Gen. H. H. Baxter, and Hon. B. D. Harris. 
The conference sat for 24 days behind closed doors, but the only 
result of its protracted deliberations was a series of proposed 
amendments to the constitution, none of which received serious 
consideration by the Congress of the United States. President 
Lincoln was duly inaugurated in March and still the angry mut- 
terings of the South did not break forth into armed rebellion. 
The loyal people of the Green Mountain State still cherished the 
hope that milder counsels might prevail and an armed clash be 
averted, and little or no preparation was made for the great con- 
flict so soon to arise. 

When the news reached Vermont on April 14 that Fort 
Sumter had been captured, the most intense excitement pre- 
vailed throughout the commonwealth. On April 15, President 
Lincoln issued his proclamation for 75,000 militia for three 
months, or the emergency, under which Vermont was assigned 
one regiment of 780 men as its quota. All talk of compromise 
was now silenced, and the people of the state welcomed with 
inexpressible joy and satisfaction the firm determination to 
assert the national authority by force of arms. The response of 
the state was prompt and patriotic. The governor at once issued 
a proclamation apprising the people of the president's call for 
troops, and also the proper orders to Adjt. and Inspector-Gen. 
Baxter of Rutland to provide the necessary men. His next step 
was to call an extra session of the legislature to convene on the 
25th of the month to adopt the necessary measures to meet the exi- 
gencies of the hour, by organizing, arming and equipping the 
militia of the state, and to support the general government in 
the work of suppressing the insurrection. The legislature con- 
vened pursuant to this call and in a brief session of 42 hours,^ 
completed its work and adjourned. In his message the governor 
announced the preliminary steps he had already taken to comply 
with the requisition, reviewed the actions of the Southern States, 
explained the present emergency, urged the adoption of immedi- 
ate measures for a more efficient organization of the military arm 
of the state and the appropriation of money, "to be expended, 
under the direction of the executive, for the outfit of any addi- 
tional military forces which may be called for by the general 
government." He closed with the following patriotic utterance : 
"I feel assured, gentlemen, that you will best reflect the senti- 
ments and wishes of your constituents, by emulating in your 



Military Affairs in Vermont 99 

lej^islative action the patriotism and liberality of the noble states 
which have already responded to the call for the government. It 
is devoutly to be hoped that the mad ambition of the secession 
leaders may be restrained, and the impending sanguinary conflict 
averted. But a hesitating, half-way policy on the part of the 
administration of the loyal states will not avail to produce such 
a result. The United States government must be sustained, and 
the rebellion suppressed, at whatever cost of men and treasure." 
The prompt response of the people's representatives reflected the 
patriotic feeHng which prevailed among all the citizens regardless 
of party or sex. Within 24 hours $1,000,000 were appropriated 
for war expenses by a unanimous vote of both houses ; bills were 
also enacted, providing for the organization and placing upon a 
war footing, without delay, of two more regiments, in addition 
to the one already called for, and provision was made for drilling 
the same in barracks or encampment. The executive was author- 
ized to call out four more regiments, if needed, (making seven 
in all) for two years' service, and to the governor was committed 
the duty of organizing and appointing the field officers thereof. 
Other acts exempted militia men, in service, from arrest on civil 
process ; granted to each private $7 a month, in addition to the 
$13 offered by the government; provided for the relief of the 
families of volunteers at the cost of the state in cases of destitu- 
tion ; made provision for furnishing the uniforms of all volunteers 
after March 12, 1861 ; authorized banks to loan over ten per cent, 
of their capital stock to the state ; and levied a war tax of ten 
cents on the dollar of the grand list. No such sum of money had 
ever before been voted in the little state of Vermont. In propor- 
tion to population it exceeded the appropriation of any other 
state, and the levy of ten cents on the dollar had no parallel in 
the state's history. This action of the state in providing for six 
additional regiments to serve for two years, was evidence that the 
people did not believe the war would be a short one, or one of 
insignificant proportions. 

Meanwhile, pending the meeting of the legislature, and the 
enactment of the above legislation, public meetings were held in 
the various towns and villages to express the patriotism of the 
people, promote enlistments, raise money for the equipment 
of new companies, and to provide for the families of all who 
should enlist. The Stars and Stripes were everywhere in 
evidence, and the enthusiasm of the people was unbounded. 
Hundreds of thousands of dollars were freely offered. From 
every part of the state oflFers of men and money poured in on the 
governor and the adjutant-general. The hills and valleys re- 
sounded with the tramp of marching men and the strains of 



100 The Union Army 

martial music. Every man in the state capable of drilling a 
squad of recruits, was called into service; the students of the 
University of Vermont and of Middlebury college formed them- 
selves into companies and devoted themselves to the work of 
drilling; the Montpelier banks each placed $25,000 at the disposal 
of the governor for military purposes, while the banks of Bur- 
lington and St. Albans each tendered ten per cent, of their capital 
stock and more if needed, for the same purpose. The public 
service corporations offered the governor free transportation of 
troops and munitions of war. Individual offers were equally 
generous ; James R. Langdon, of Montpelier, tendered $20,000 
on private account; Thomas McDaniels, of Bennington, $10,000; 
the firm of E. & T. Fairbanks, of St. Johnsbury, pledged $2,000 
for the support of families of volunteers ; William C. Harding, of 
Winooski, $1,000, and $10,000 if needed; F. P. Fletcher, of 
Bridport, $1,000 a year during the war. The patriotism and zeal 
of the women of the state were equally strong. They freely 
offered their services as hospital nurses and busied themselves 
in preparing soldiers' garments and hospital supplies. A resolu- 
tion of the women of Burlington declared : "We further resolve 
that we will consider all our time and all our energies sacred to 
this object (the restoration of the authority of the government) 
until it shall be accomplished, and if need be until the end of the 
war." The above are only a few examples of the boundless 
enthusiasm, the generous spirit of self-sacrifice, and the intense 
patriotism which animated all classes in the old Green Mountain 
State, when the integrity of the Union was at stake. All dis- 
tinctions of party were obliterated for the time being and the 
people were practically a unit in support of the government. 

Very early in the war a state board of medical examiners, con- 
sisting of three eminent physicians, was appointed to pass upon 
candidates for appointment as surgeons and assistant surgeons 
of Vermont regiments. The board consisted of Dr. Samuel 
White Thayer, Jr., of Burlington, chairman and commissioned 
surgeon-general in 1864, Dr. Edward E. Phelps, of Windsor, 
and Dr. Charles L. Allen, of Rutland. In Feb., 1862, Dr. Phelps 
became brigade surgeon of volunteers, and his place on the board 
was taken by Dr. Hiram F. Stevens. A considerable number of 
recruits were allowed to enlist during the early part of the war, 
who were not properly examined as to their physical condition ; 
the same was true in the closing days of the war, when men were 
less eager to enlist, and the demand for more troops was inces- 
sant. Once enlisted, however, the troops of Vermont received 
superior medical care, and the sanitary condition of the regiments 
in the field was far above the average, a fact which was largely 
due to the character of the regimental surgeons. 



Military Affairs in Vermont 101 

The organization of the ist regiment proceeded rapidly. The 
militia companies of Brandon, Middlebury, Rutland, North- 
field, Woodstock, Bradford, Cavendish, Burlington, St. Albans 
and Swanton were designated by an executive order of April 27, 
1861, to form the regiment and it v^as mustered into the United 
States service for three months at Rutland, May 8. Before the 
regiment was mustered in, the work of organizing and equipping 
two more regiments was begun. Commissions to recruit these 
troops were issued by the governor on May 7, and within three 
days, the adjutant-general was tendered the services of fifty-six 
full companies, only twenty of which could then be accepted. 
On May 3 President Lincoln issued a second call for 42,000 
volunteers for three years' service, and all subsequent regiments 
were enlisted for that period. The ist regiment, admirably 
equipped, reached New York, May 10, commanded by Col. J. 
Wolcott Phelps of Brattleboro,' a graduate of West Point. In 
many respects it was the most remarkable of the three months' 
organization. The men were of superior education and social 
position and nearly one-tenth were graduates of New England 
colleges. Many others were from the professional ranks and 
practically all were of strictly temperate habits. The remarkable 
stature of many of the men commanded especial attention. It is 
related that ten men from one of the companies lay down upon 
the ground for measurement, and formed a line 67 feet, lo inches, 
in length. Their blankets, made by their wives and daughters, 
were also much admired, differing as they did from so many of 
the shoddy blankets furnished. A second regiment from Ver- 
mont arrived at New York June 25, and a third July 24. Two 
more followed in September and a sixth in October. Thus far 
all the regiments had been recruited by the state authorities. The 
1st cavalry regiment, the only regiment of this arm of the service 
furnished by the state, was raised under the direct authority of 
the United States, by Col. Lemuel B. Piatt, of Colchester, during 
the fall of the year, and was mustered into the United States 
service on Nov. 19 with 966 officers and men. 

The state election on the first Tuesday in September gave an 
overwhelming majority for the Republican and Union candidates. 
Frederick Holbrook, the Republican and Union candidate for 
governor, received 40,000 votes against 5,000 cast for the other 
two candidates. The administration of Gov. Holbrook covered 
the darkest period of the war — 1861-63. During this period 
Vermont furnished the United States government with more than 
20,000 troops, including two of the governor's own scms. All 
the regiments in the field were constantly recruited, and the fol- 
lowing organizations were enlisted: the 1st cavalry regiment, 



102 The Union Army 

above mentioned, the 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, loth, nth, 12th, 13th, 
14th, 15th, and i6th infantry regiments, three battaUons of light 
artillery, and three companies of sharpshooters. It was at the 
suggestion of Gov. Holbrook and in response to a document 
prepared and signed by him, and subsequently approved and 
signed by most of the governors of the loyal states, that President 
Lincoln issued his call for 300,000 volunteers after the Seven 
Days' battles. Under the call of July 2, 1862, for 300,000 men 
for three years, Vermont furnished 4,369 volunteers, and under 
the call of Aug. 4, 1862, for 300,000 militia for nine months' 
service, 4,781 men volunteered. The Republican convention 
which renominated Gov. Holbrook in the summer of 1862, de- 
clared itself "in favor of the confiscation of the slaves and prop- 
erty of rebels," urged "the speedy and effectual suppression of 
the rebellion," approved the general policy of the national 
administration, pledged Vermont to furnish men and money to 
the last extent of its ability, tendered thanks to the brave and 
patriotic soldiers in the field, and thanked Gov. Holbrook for the 
prompt manner in which he tendered to the president Vermont's 
quota of 300,000 additional soldiers. Still another resolution 
accepted certain special acts of President Lincoln as pledges that 
the government had cut itself free from all complicity with 
slavery; this was adopted with only a few dissenting votes. In 
the Democratic convention, subsequently held, resolutions were 
adopted which declared, "That while we regret the existence of 
four or five millions of negroes in this country as slaves, we are 
unwilling to sacrifice the constitution and the Union, or the 
interests of the white race, for the fancied or real grievances of 
the black race," and "that the abolition and radical opinions of 
a portion of the people of the North have been largely productive 
of the present war and national difficulties, and we record our 
hearty condemnation of the action of that class of our citizens 
in Congress or elsewhere." In the election in September the 
Republican vote for governor was 30,032 ; Democratic, 3,724, 
There was no party division in the legislature and Solomon Foot 
was again chosen U. S. Senator. 

The annual state election in 1863 caused considerable excite- 
ment as the Democrats had declared in convention assembled, 
that the administration had endangered the liberties of the people 
by establishing martial law in states where the laws are unob- 
structed, and was committing tyrannical acts on loyal and 
unoffending citizens. The Union state convention shortly after 
expressed strong approvstl of all the measures of the government, 
and declared that Northern traitors deserve greater reproach 
than Southern rebels. The Democrats nominated Hon. T,. P. 



Military Affairs in Vermont 103 

Redfield, and the Republicans, or the Union party, John Gregory 
Smith of St. Albans. In the election in September, Smith's 
majority was 17,651. Gov. Smith was the third and last of the 
able war governors of Vermont and served during the last two 
years of the great struggle, being triumphantly reelected in the 
fall of 1864 by a majority of 19,415 over his opponent of the 
previous election. He was the friend and frequent counsellor of 
Lincoln, and was often called to Washington in an advisory 
capacity. No governor was more solicitous of the welfare of the 
soldiers and he often visited the Vermont troops at the front. 
After the battle of the Wilderness, he went at once to Fred- 
ericksburg, Va., ordered there a dozen of the best surgeons in 
Vermont, and gave his personal supervision to the sick and 
wounded volunteers. His kindly face and cheerful voice are held 
in grateful remembrance by many of the old soldiers. During 
his administration the only new organizations raised in the state 
were the 17th infantry, the 3d battery of light artillery, and two 
companies, designated M and F, of the ist frontier cavalry. In 
addition to these new organizations, the old regiments were 
veteranized, large numbers of recruits were added to the organi- 
zations in the field, and a considerable number of men was fur- 
nished to the regular army of the United States, the U. S. navy, 
the U. S. colored troops, the signal corps, and to various state 
organizations. 

In the presidential election which took place in Nov., 1864, 
Vermont gave to the Lincoln and Johnson electors a majority of 
29,097 in a total vote of 55,741, and also returned substantial 
majorities for each of the states Union Republican candidates 
for Congress, F. E. Woodbridge, J. S. Morrill and P. Baxter. 

On Oct. 19, 1864, the northern part of the state was for a 
time filled with alarm, as the result of a successful raid, accom- 
panied by wanton bloodshed, by some 30 or 40 Southern refugees 
from Canada, on the town of St. Albans, 15 miles from the 
Canadian border. The raiders claimed to be acting under orders 
from Gen. Early, and in retaliation for acts committed by Federal 
troops in the Shenandoah Valley. They attacked simultaneously 
the St. Albans, Franklin county, and First national banks, and 
secured bank notes to the value of $211,150. With this sum in 
their possession, they seized all the horses they could find and 
"hurried across the Canadian frontier. Previous to their departure, 
they wantonly fired upon a number of unofiFending and unarmed 
citizens. An attempt to secretly fire the town fortunately failed. 
Eventually nearly the whole gang was captured in Canada. As a 
result of this raid the two companies of frontier cavalry above 
mentioned were raised in December, 1864, for the ist regiment of 



104 The Union Army 

frontier cavalry, together with a provisional militia force of 2,215 
men, to secure the protection of the northern frontier. 

An extraordinary session of the legislature was called in 
March, 1865, for the purpose of ratifying the anti-slavery amend- 
ment to the Federal constitution. The session only lasted one day, 
in which the amendment was ratified unanimously in the senate 
and with only two dissenting voices in the house. 

As soon as the Confederate armies had surrendered, the war 
department made prompt provision for reducing the number of 
troops in service. As a result, all the Vermont regiments, bat- 
teries, and detached companies, except the 7th and four companies 
of the 9th infantry, were sent home with praiseworthy prompt- 
ness and were mustered out of service at Burlington by the end 
of the summer. The 7th was finally mustered out of service at 
Brownsville, Tex., March 14, 1866, and the battalion of the 9th 
at Portsmouth, Va., Dec. i, 1865. 

According to the Statistical Record of the Armies of the 
United States, as compiled by Capt. Frederick Phisterer, the quota 
assigned to Vermont, under all calls for troops during the war, 
was 32,074; the number of men furnished by the state was 33,- 
288; the drafted men who paid commutation numbered i,974, 
making the total number of men with which the state was credited 
35,262, and giving it a surplus of 3,188 over all calls. 

The final summary of Vermont troops as shown upon the 
books of the adjutant-general gives the whole number of men 
furnished by the state during the war as 34,238; the aggregate 
quotas under all calls, 33,729 ; excess over quotas, 509. 

The war department credited the state with a total of 35,242 
men, or 1,004 more than the records of the state. This would 
give Vermont a surplus over all calls of 1,513 men. This dis- 
crepancy between the records is accounted for, to a large extent, 
by enlistments in other state organizations to the credit of Ver- 
mont, which appeared upon the muster in rolls of those organiza- 
tions and were not reported to Vermont. 

The report of Adj. -Gen. Peck for 1866 gives the following 
data in regard to Vermont troops : 

Original members, 18,530; recruits, 10,437; total in Vermont 
organizations, 28,967; veterans reenlisted, 1,961 ; enlisted in U. S. 
army, navy and marine corps, 1,339; drafted men who paid com- 
mutation, 1,971; whole number furnished by the state, 34,238. 
The total number of drafted men and substitutes was 3,800. 
In the admirable state roster of Vermont troops, as recently 
compiled by Adjt.-Gen. Theodore S. Peck, the earlier statistics of 
losses have been somewhat modified. It is here shown that the 
total number of deaths among Vermont troops during the war 



Military Affairs in Vermont 105 

from all causes was 5,237, made up of 1,832 killed in action and 
mortally wounded, and 3,405 died of disease, accident and as 
prisoners. 

When the war began the state was practically without debt; 
its taxable property was valued at $85,000,000; it expended for 
war purposes $9,887,353, of which amount $5,215,787 was ex- 
pended by the several towns and municipal corporations for 
bounties and other purposes and has never been repaid. Of the 
balance $4,671,566, by far the greater amount, or nearly $4,000,- 
000, was the result of the state bounty of $7 per month, paid to 
Vermont soldiers during their service in the United States army ; 
the unique provision for the families of the volunteers, men- 
tioned earlier in this history, absorbed a large part of the re- 
mainder. 

Admirable arrangements were perfected by the state long 
before the close of the war, whereby sick and disabled soldiers 
received special care and attention, and secured for them whenever 
practicable a speedy transmittal to their native state. Three 
hospitals were established in the state — the U. S. general hospital 
at Brattleboro, with a capacity of 893 beds ; the Sloan U. S. 
general hospital at MontpeHer, with a capacity of 496 beds ; and 
the Baxter U. S. general hospital at Burlington, with a capacity 
of 250 beds. The report of the adjutant-general for 1865 showed 
that 2,886 soldiers were admitted to these hospitals during the 
year, of whom 1,916, or nearly 75 per cent, were returned to 
duty. A total of nearly 6,000 wounded and sick Vermont soldiers 
were transferred to these hospitals, after their establishment, in 
addition to a large number from other states. Said Robert E. 
Corson, military agent for the state at Philadelphia: "Apart from 
the beneficial influence of a change of air, the associations of 
home, and the tender offices of friends who could thus reach and 
minister to those they loved (this transfer) was the undoubted 
means of hastening the recovery of very many and the state 
of Vermont was thus enabled to return to the government a much 
larger percentage of convalescent and well men than would have 
been the case had they been left in distant hospitals to receive those 
attentions which, with so vast a number to share them, can be 
bestowed but sparingly on individuals." 

Before the end of the first year of the war, the protracted 
nature of the struggle before the North was better realized. 
Most of the soldiers at the front were enlisted for long terms of 
service, and the lists of casualties from disease and battle began 
to swell to large proportions. The state authorities were always 
solicitous of the welfare of the Vermont soldiers after they left 
the borders of the commonwealth, and for this purpose state mil- 



106 The Union Army 

itary agencies were established and maintained throughout the 
war at Washington, Philadelphia and New York city. The ex- 
cellent and zealous commissioner from Vermont at Washington 
was Frank F. Holbrook; the military agent at Philadelphia was 
Robert R. Corson, and at New York City, Frank E. Howe. The 
business of the agency at Washington involved a great variety 
of work and a vast multitude of details. In addition to the labor 
of caring for the sick and wounded soldiers in the various general 
hospitals at Washington, Alexandria, Baltimore, AnnapoHs, Fred- 
erick, Point Lookout, Fortress Monroe, City Point, York, Chester, 
Wilmington, Whitehall, Newark, Philadelphia, New York City, 
etc., providing lists of the arrivals and changes at the various hos- 
pitals and making prompt arrangements for their transfer, as far 
as possible, to the general hospitals in the state, much was done 
to promote the comfort and efficiency of the Vermont troops at 
the front. Full and complete lists of paroled prisoners and of 
those in the hands of the enemy were obtained ; lists of the dead 
-were published for the information of friends ; the remains of many 
of those who perished were sent home for interment ; assistance 
was rendered in procuring furloughs, leaves of absence, dis- 
charges ; and in mustering men out of service in field and hos- 
pital as far as was consistent with the interests and regulations 
of the service. Soldiers were aided in obtaining claims for 
back pay, bounty, commutation of travel and subsistence, pen- 
sions, prize money, state pay, etc. Passes were obtained for 
•citizens of the state, enabling them to visit friends in the army, 
and the soldiers in hospital were provided with supplies of various 
kinds, by orders on the U. S. sanitary and Christian commissions. 
'After the date of his appointment, Dec. 15, 1862, Mr. Holbrook 
personally visited more than 10,000 Vermont soldiers in over 100 
different hospitals and reported on their condition. 

The New York agency was maintained at 194 Broadway, the 
home of the New England soldiers' relief association. At this 
'"midway home" of the soldiers a splendid work of love and mercy 
was carried on ; the rooms of the agency were always open to 
receive sick, wounded, and enfeebled soldiers and provide them 
with tender nursing ; to receive the regiments en route for the 
front or returning home ; and in general to give aid and comfort 
to the soldiers during their stay in the city. According to the 
report of Col. Howe for the period from Sept. i, 1864, to Sept. 
T, 1865, a total of 7,689 Vermont soldiers were visited, registered 
and aided in general hospitals, lodged and provided for at the 
rooms of the association, or given aid directly or indirectly while 
returning home to the state rendezvous for their final muster out. 

The admirable service rendered the state by its efficient 



Military Affairs in Vermont 107 

military agent at Philadelphia, Robert R. Corson, is deserving of 
all praise. He held his commission for more than three years, 
and, during that time his office was a general headquarters for 
the soldiers of Vermont and other states in the different hospitals 
in the city. The men were furnished with any desired informa- 
tion connected with their positions in the army, their private 
wants, such as for stationery, postage stamps, tobacco, money, 
car tickets to different parts of the city, etc., were supplied. Mr. 
Corson's most important duty, however, was that of visiting the 
soldiers in the twenty or more different hospitals in the city, 
where he inquired into the special wants of each man. He also 
visited numerous battle-fields, where he rendered to the soldiers 
every aid in his power. After the establishment of the U. S. 
sanitary and Christian commissions he procured from them what- 
ever thev had to give to the sick and wounded men. When some 
30,000 Union prisoners were exchanged near the close of the war, 
he visited the men on their arrival at Annapolis and reported on 
them to the state adjutant-general. He said: "Although long 
accustomed to the horrible scenes which are the necessary result 
of terrible battles; familiar as I am with the ghastly spectacles 
which cover every field of conflict ; acquainted with human suffer- 
ing in a thousand dreadful forms, I confess that I was not pre- 
pared for the horrible sight which I witnessed on the wharves and 
in the hospitals at Annapolis. Here, day after day, these floating 
charnel-houses poured forth their contents. Men, emaciated, 
hunger-stricken, worn away to skeletons by disease and starvation, 
trooped out from the ships in vast numbers, until the heart 
sickened at the fearful sum of human misery here presented. No 
pen can ever depict the awfulness of this scene, much less over- 
draw it." The three state agencies in Washington, New York and 
Philadelphia closed their labors in Sept., 1865. 

Vermont is one of the smallest states in the Union, and it 
furnished less than an eightieth part of the Union army, but the 
quality of the soldiers furnished was much above the average, 
while their fighting characteristics, and the brilliant service to the 
government rendered by the troops of the Green Mountain State 
is recognized by every impartial historian. Vermont soldiers 
shared in every decisive campaign and battle of the war and fre- 
quently performed a leading part. Every man called for by the 
Federal authorities was promptly furnished and every dollar 
necessary to raise and equip the men was as promptly expended. 
The sons of Vermont did their full duty in the hour of the Nation's 
peril, and have made for themselves an imperishable record of 
patriotism and bravery, unsurpassed in the story of bloody wars. 



RECORD OF VERMONT REGIMENTS 



First Infantry.— Col., J. Wolcott Phelps; Lieut.-Col., Peter T. Wash- 
burn; Maj., Harry N. Worthen. The ist regiment, composed of militia 
companies from Bradford, Brandon, Burlington, Cavendish, Middlebury, 
Northfield, Rutland, St. Albans, Swanton and Woodstock, ten in all, was 
mustered into the service of the United States at Rutland, May 8, 1861, 
for a term of three months. It proceeded at once to Fortress Monroe, re- 
ceiving along its route the greeting of the enthusiastic people. From Fort- 
ress Monroe, on May 23, the regiment marched 6 miles to Hampton, Va., 
making the first reconnaissance of Union troops in that state. On May 
26 it again left Fortress Monroe, this time for Newport News, which 
place it was for a time employed in fortifying. On June 9 an expedition 
was undertaken to Big Bethel which resulted in an encounter with 
the enemy, and on Aug. 4 the regfiment embarked for New Haven, the 
men being mustered out at Brattleboro soon after their arrival. The 
total number of men in the ist was 781, of whom many reenlisted in 
other organizations. Its loss by death in action was i man, by disease 
4, and by accident i. 

Second Infantry. — Cols., Henry Whiting, James H. Walbridge, New- 
ton Stone, John S. Tyler, Amasa S. Tracy; Lieut.-Cols., George J. Stannard, 
Charles H. Joyce, Newton Stone, John S. Tyler, Amasa S. Tracy, Enoch 
E. Johnson; Majs., Charles H. Joyce, James H. Walbridge, Newton 
Stone, John S. Tyler, Amasa S. Tracy, Enoch E. Johnson, Erastus G. 
Ballou. The 2nd regiment was organized at Burlington and there mus- 
tered into the U. S. service for three years on June 20, 1861. It left 
Burlington for Washington, June 24, and encamped on Capitol hill until 
July 10, when it was ordered to Bush hill, Va., where it was attached 
to Howard's brigade, Heintzelman's division, with which it fought at 
Bull Run on July 21. It was next sent to Chain bridge for guard duty 
along the Potomac, and assisted in the construction of Forts Marcy and 
Ethan Allen. In September it was formed with the 4th and 5th Ver- 
mont regiments into the Vermont brigade (later known on many battle- 
fields), the 2nd brigade of Smith's division. Winter quarters were estab- 
lished at Camp Griffin and occupied until March 10, 1862, when the regi- 
ment marched to Centerville, thence to Alexandria, where it was ordered 
to Newport News and participated in the Peninsular campaign. It was 
in action at Young's mills, Lee's mills and Williamsburg. In the organ- 
ization of the 6th corps, the Vermont brigade, to which had been added 
the 6th Vt., became the :?nd brigade, 2nd division. From April 13 to 
May 19, 1862, the brigade was posted at White House landing. On June 
26 it shared in the battle of Golding's farm and in the Seven Days' bat- 
tles it was repeatedly engaged. It was ordered to Alexandria and to 
Bull Run late in August. The corps was not ordered into the battle and 
was next in action at Crampton's gap and Antietam in September. It 
fought at Fredericksburg Dec. 13, 1862, after which winter quarters 
were established near Falmouth and broken for the Chancellorsville 
battles in May, where the 6th corps made a gallant charge upon the 
heights. It fought at Gettysburg, and from Aug. 14 to Sept. 13, 1863, the 

;i08 



Vermont Regiments 109 

brigade was stationed in New York to guard against rioting and then 
rejoined the corps. Winter quarters were occupied with the Army of 
the Potomac near the Rapidan and a large number of members of the 
regiment reenHsted. The command continued in the field as a veteran 
organization and broke camp May 4, 1864, for the Wilderness campaign. 
On the opening day of the fight at the Wilderness Col. Stone was killed 
and Lieut.-Col. Tyler fatally wounded. A number of the bravest officers 
and men perished in the month following, during which the Vermont 
brigade fought valiantly day after day with wonderful endurance, at 
the famous "bloody angle" at Spottsylvania, at Cold Harbor and in the 
early assaults on Petersburg. On July 10 it formed a part of the force 
ordered to hasten to Washington to defend the city against Gen. Early, 
and shared in the campaign in the Shenandoah valley which followed — 
the fatiguing marches and counter-marches and the battles of Charles- 
town, Fisher's hill, Winchester and Cedar creek. During the last named 
battle the brigade held its ground when it seemed no longer tenable and 
only withdrew when it was left alone. Returning with the 6th corps to 
Petersburg in December, it participated in the charge on March 25, 1865, 
and the final assault April 2, after which it joined in the pursuit of Lee's 
army and was active at the battle of Sailor's creek, April 6, where it is 
said to have fired the last shot of the 6th corps. The service of the 2nd 
closed with participation in the grand review of the Union armies at 
Washington, after which it returned to Burlington. The original mem- 
bers who did not reenlist were mustered out on June 29, 1864, the veterans 
and recruits at Washington, July 15, 1865. The total strength of the 
regiment was 1,858 and the loss by death 399, of which number 224 were 
killed or died of wounds and 175 from other causes. In his well-known 
work on 'Regimental Losses," Col. Fox mentions the 2nd Vt. infantry 
among the "three hundred fighting regiments" of the Union army. 

Third Infantry. — Cols., William F. Smith, Breed N. Hyde, Thomas 
O. Seaver, Horace W. Floyd ; Lieut. -Cols., Breed N. Hyde, Wheelock 
G. Veazey, Thomas O. Seaver, Samuel E. Pingree, Horace W. Floyd, 
William H. Hubbard; Majs., Walter W. Cochran, Wheelock G. Veazey, 
Thomas O. Seaver, Samuel E. Pingree, Thomas Nelson, Horace W. 
Floyd, John F. Cook, William W. Hubbard, Alonzo H. Newt. The 3d 
regiment was mustered into the U. S. service for three years at Camp 
Baxter, St. Johnsbury, July 16, 1861, and ordered to Washington on July 
24. It was assigned to the force on guard at the Chain bridge over the 
Potomac and became a part of the famous Vermont brigade, with which 
it served until the expiration of its service, as part of the 6th corps. It 
assisted in building Fort Ethan Allen and participated in its first engage- 
ment at Lewinsville, Va., Sept. 11, 1861, after which it was in winter quar- 
ters at Camp Griffin until March 10, 1862, when it moved to Alexandria 
and Fortress Monroe. The regiment shared in the Peninsular campaign of 
1862 and in all the difficult and arduous service of the Vermont brigade 
in the following years of the war. This brigade, according to Col. Fox, 
suffered the heaviest loss of life of any one brigade during the war. 
The engagements participated in by the brigade were as follows : Lee's 
mills, Va.. Williamsburg, Golding's farm. Savage Station, White Oak 
swamp, Crampton's gap, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, 
Gettysburg, Funkstown, Rappahannock Station, the Wilderness, Spott- 
sylvania, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Reams' Station, Fort Stevens, Charles- 
town, Opequan, Fisher's hill, Winchester, Cedar creek, and again at 
Petersburg at the end of the siege and at Sailor's creek. The 3d Vt. is 
also mentioned by Col. Fox in the list of the 'three hundred fighting regi- 
ments." The winter of 1862-63 was spent in camp near Falmouth and 



110 The Union Army 

in the Chancellorsville battles in May, 1863, the brigade was repeatedly 
in action, making a brilliant assault upon Marye's heights. At Gettys- 
burg the regiment participated in the battle with heavy loss and was then 
ordered to New York to preserve order in that city. Winter quarters 
of the 6th corps, of which the Vermont brigade was the 2nd brigade, 
2nd division, were established at Brandy Station, Va., where a large num- 
ber of the members of the 3d reenlisted. In the battles of the Wilder- 
ness and Cold Harbor the command suffered severely and when the 
original members not reenlisted were mustered out on July 27, 1864, the 
remainder of the regiment was consolidated into a battalion of six com- 
panies. It proceeded to Petersburg with the Army of the Potomac and 
in July was ordered to Washington, where it faced Gen. Early in the 
campaign which followed in the valley of the Shenandoah. Returning 
to Petersburg, it was employed in the operations of the siege from Dec, 
1864, to the fall of the city, April 2, 1865, and joined in the final assault on 
the works. After participating in the grand review at Washington, the 
regiment was mustered out there on July 11, 1865. The total strength 
of the regiment was 1,809, of whom 196 were killed or died of wounds 
and 166 from disease, imprisonment or accident. ' 

Fourth Infantry. — Cols., Edwin H. Stoughton, Charles B. Stoughton, 
George P. Foster ; Lieut.-Cols., Harry N. Worthen, Charles B. Stough- 
ton, George P. Foster, Stephen M. Pingree, John E. Pratt; Majs., John 
Curtis Tyler, Charles B. Stoughton, George P. Foster, Stephen M. Pin- 
gree, John E. Pratt, Charles W. Boutin. The 4th, composed of -members 
from the eastern part of the state, was mustered into the U. S. service 
for a term of three years at Brattleboro, Sept. 21, 1861, and ordered at 
once to Washington. Co. A was composed mainly of members from 
Bennington county, and Windsor, Orange, Orleans, Windham, Washing- 
ton and Caledonia '^onft'es were all represented. The regiment spent 
Imt a few days at Washington and moved on to join the other Vermont 
regiments, stationed at Camp Advance, Va. It was assigned to the Ver- 
mont brigade. Gen. W. T. Brooks, 2nd division. Gen. William F. Smith, 
6th corps, and remained with this corps during the entire war. The origi- 
nal members not reenlisted were mustered out, Sept. 30, 1864. and the 
1st, 2nd and 3d companies of sharpshooters were assigned to the regi- 
ment, Feb. 25, 1865. The losses of the regiment were so hea\y that in 
spite of the large numbers of reenlisted men and recruits, it was con- 
soHdated into eight companies on Feb. 25, 1865. The 4th is mentioned 
by Col. Fox in his "Regimental Losses" as one of the "three hundred 
fighting regiments." The active service of the command opened with 
the campaign on the Peninsula early in 1862, followed by the battles of 
Antietam and Fredericksburg of that year, the "Mud March," Chancel- 
lorsville, Gettysburg, the Mine Run campaign, the Wilderness, Spottsyl- 
vania. Cold Harbor, the siege of Petersburg, the campaign against Early 
in the valley of the Shenandoah in the summer of 1864, and the final 
capture of Petersburg. The first winter was spent near the Chain bridge 
over the Potomac ; the second near Falmouth, Va. ; the winter of 1863-64 
at Brandy Station, Va., and the final winter in the trenches before Peters- 
burg. In all of the varied services of the Vermont brigade, the 4th 
always played its part with steadiness and courage, meeting losses that 
were almost overwhelming. After the grand review at Washington in 
May, 1865, the regiment was mustered out (July 13), and received the 
welcome orders for the homeward journey. The total strength of the 
regiment was 1.690 members, of whom 159 were killed or died of wounds, 
201 from disease, 61 in Confederate prisons and 2 by accident. 

Fifth Infantry. — Cols., Henry A. Smalley, Lewis A. Grant, John R. 



Vermont Regiments 111 

Lewis, Ronald A. Kennedy; Lieut.-Cols., Nathan Lord, Jr., Lewis A. 
Grant, John R. Lewis, Charles P. Dudley, Addison Brown, Jr., Ronald 
A. Kennedy, Eugene O. Cole; Majs., Lewis A. Grant. Redfield Proctor, 
John R. Lewis, Charles P. Dudley, Eugene O. Cole, Thomas Kavaney. 
The 5th was composed of members from St. Albans, Middlebury, Swan- 
ton, Hyde Park, Manchester, Cornwall, Rutland, Brandon, Burlington, 
Poultney, Tinmouth and Richmond and was mustered into the U. S. 
service for three years at St. Albans, Sept. i6, 1861. It was ordered at 
once to Washington and joined the other Vermont troops at Camp Ad- 
vance, Va., near the Chain bridge, where it was assigned to the Vermont 
brigade, with which it served during the remainder of the war. The fort- 
unes of this brigade were many months of hard fighting and miles of 
weary marching, but at the end the attainment of lasting renown. The 
5th is one of the "three hundred fighting regiments" mentioned by Col. 
Fox. Co. E, from Manchester, is said to have sufifered the heaviest loss 
of any company from Vermont, and at the battle of Savage Station, Va., 
June 29, 1862, the regiment is said to have suffered the heaviest loss in 
killed and wounded of any one regiment in a single action. The story 
of the Vermont brigade has already been told and the 5th had its im- 
portant share in the engagements of the brigade throughout the Penin- 
sular and Maryland campaigns of 1862, both Fredericksburg campaigns, 
Gettysburg and the movements in the vicinity of the Rapidan and Rappa- 
hannock in the autumn of 1863. Early in December of that year a large 
number of the members of the 5th reenlisted, and on Sept. 15, 1864, the 
original members not reenlisted, were mustered out at Clifton, Va._ The 
5th was continued in service as a veteran organization and participated 
in the bloody month with the Army of the Potomac from the Wilderness 
to Cold Harbor, afterward taking part in the siege of Petersburg, where 
it was active in the operations. It moved to Washington with *^he 6th 
corps to confront Gen. Early, whose troops threatened the city. In the 
final assault on Petersburg, April 2, 1865, the Vermont brigade was in 
the front of the line, the 5th being the first regiment to reach the enemy's 
works and there plant its colors. It then joined in the pursuit and after 
Lee's surrender moved to Danville to cooperate with Gen. Sherman. The 
total strength of the regiment was 1,618, of whom 201 rnembers were 
killed or died of wounds, 112 from disease, 21 from imprisonment and 
4 by accident. The veterans and recruits were mustered out on June 
29, 1865. 

Sixth Infantry.— Cols., Nathan Lord, Jr., Oscar S. Tuttle, Elisl.a L. 
Barney, Sumner H. Lincoln; Lieut.-Cols., Asa P. Blunt, Oscar S. Tuttle, 
Elisha L. Barney, Oscar A. Hale, Frank G. Butterfield, Sumner H. Lin- 
coln, William J. Sperry; Majs., Oscar S. Tuttle, Elisha L Barney, Oscar 
A. Hale, Richard B. Crandall, Carlos W. Dwinell, Sumner H. Lincoln, 
William J. Sperry, Edwin R. Kinney. The 6th, recruited from the state 
at large, was mustered into the U. S. service for three years at Mont- 
pelier, Oct. 15, 1861, and immediately ordered to Washington, where it 
arrived on the 22nd. It proceeded at once to Camp Griffin, where it was 
attached to the Vermont brigade. The command remained at this post 
during the winter and broke camp on March 10, 1862, for the Peninsular 
campaign. On April 6, 1862, at Warwick creek, Va., the regiment was first 
in action, fortunately without loss. The brigade was first a part of the 
4th and later of the 6th corps, with which it was generally known. In 
the battle of Golding's farm the 6th won complimentary mention from 
Gen. Hancock. The loss at Savage Station was severe, and in the Mary- 
land campaign it bore an active part. It was active at Fredericksburg 
and soon after went into winter quarters at White Oak Church, where it 



112 The Union Army 

remained until camp was broken for the Chancellorsville movement in 
the spring of 1863. There and at Gettysburg and Funkstown later in the 
summer, the regiment proved its right to be known as a brave and gal- 
lant band. After sharing in the Mine Run campaign, the 6th went into 
winter camp at Brandy Station, Va., until the opening of the Wilderness 
campaign in the spring of 1864. In this memorable campaign the part of 
the Vermont brigade was both important and tragic. The work was 
arduous and the loss terrible. It joined in the famous assault at Spott- 
sylvania and was repeatedly in action at Cold Harbor. Soon after the ar- 
rival of the army at Petersburg the 6th corps was ordered to the defense 
of Washington and rejoined the Army of the Potomac in Dec, 1864, to 
remain with it during the remainder of the siege. In Oct., 1864, the orig- 
inal members not reenlisted were mustered out and the veterans and re- 
cruits consolidated into a battalion of six companies. After the surren- 
der of Lee at Appomattox the regiment was mustered out at Washing- 
ton, June 19, 1865, and ordered home. The total number of members of 
the 6th was 1,681, of whom 189 were killed or died of wounds, 189 from 
disease, 20 from imprisonment and 2 from accident. 

Seventh Infantry Cols., George T. Roberts. William C. Holbrook, 

David B. Peck, Henrv M. Porter; Lieut.-Cols., Volney S. Fullam, David 
B. Peck, Henry M. Porter, Edgar N. Bullard ; Majs., William C. Hol- 
brook, Henry M. Porter, Edgar N. Bullard. Darwin A. Smalley, George 
E. Croff. The 7th was mustered into the U. S. service at Rutland, Feb. 
12, 1862, for a three years' term. Greatly to the disappointment of its 
members, it was ordered to join Gen. Butler's southern expedition and 
sailed from New York March 10, landing at Ship island, Miss., two weeks 
later. When the army occupied New Orleans, the 7th was stationed at 
Fort Pike and Carrollton, and subsequently at Baton Rouge. Eight com- 
panies joined in the expedition from Baton Rouge to Vicksburg in June, 
1862, in whicli the men suffered much from diseases incident to the cli- 
mate. After a short period passed in the vicinity of New Orleans, the 
regiment was sent to Pensacola, where it remained until Aug. 10, 1864. 
The southern summers proved very difficult for troops from the climate 
of Vermont to endure, and the ranks were greatly depleted by yellow 
fever, malaria, etc. On Aug. 30, 1864, the original members not reen- 
listed were mustered out. All but 58, however, had enlisted for another 
term and, in spite of the great reduction of the regiment by disease, it 
was continued in the field as a veteran organization. It was engaged in 
the defense of important fortifications at Pensacola and skirmished with 
the enemy at a number of points in the vicinity. The regiment was ordered 
again to New Orleans in Aug., 1864, and remained there until Feb., 1865, 
when it was ordered to Mobile, which was then besieged by Gen. Canby, 
and from that time took an active part in the operations of the siege. 
After the fall of Mobile, the regiment was stationed at Clarksville and 
later at Brownsville, Tex., where it was mustered out on March 14, 1866. 
The total strength of the 7th was 1,572 members, of whom 11 were killed 
or died of wounds, 379 died of disease, 6 in prison and 15 by accident. 
It was longer in the service than any other Vermont regiment, lost more 
members from sickness and a larger number of its members reenlisted 
than any other Vermont organization. 

Eighth Infantry. — Cols.. Stephen Thomas. John B. Mead ; Lieut.- 
Cols., Edward M. Brown, Charles Dillingham, Henry F. Dutton, John B. 
Mead, Alvin B. Franklin; Majs., Charles Dillingham, Luman M. Grout, 
Henry F. Dutton, John L. Barstow, John B. Mead, Alvin B. Franklin, 
Henry M. Pollard. The 8th, recruited for Gvn. Butler's southern expedi- 
tion and rendezvoused at Camp Holbrook, Brattleboro. was mustered into 



Vermont Regiments 113 

the U. S. service for three years, Feb. i8, 1862. It remained in camp at 
Brattleboro until March 4, when it left for New York, there to embark 
for Ship island. Miss. From April 5 until early in May it encamped at 
Ship island and was then ordered to New Orleans, where it was quartered 
in the Mechanics' Institute building until the end of the month, when it 
crossed to Algiers and Col. Thomas was placed in command of the dis- 
trict of La Fourche. It opened the Opelousas railroad as far as La 
Fourche crossing, and was engaged for some months in guarding the 
road. On June 22, a detachment of 30 men from Co. H was ambushed 
at Raceland Station, losing 5 killed and 9 wounded, the first blood shed 
in the regiment. On Sept. 4, another detachment of 60 men was am- 
bushed at Boutte Station by a Confederate force of 1,500 men, and lost 
15 killed and 20 wounded. The same force of the enemy then moved 
on Bayou Des AUemands Station, and compelled the surrender of Capt. 
Hall, Lieuts. Sargent, Green and Mead, and 137 men. Among those 
surrendered were 7 Germans, who had enlisted at New Orleans, and who 
were promptly condemned and shot on the pretext that they were de- 
serters from the Confederate army. In October, as a part of Gen. 
Weitzel's brigade, the 8th began the work of opening the Opelousas rail- 
road to Brashear City, which was completed on Dec. 8. It was en- 
camped at Brashear City until Jan. 8, 1863, when it moved to Camp 
Stevens at Thibodeaux, but returned after two days, and shared in the 
expedition against the gunboat "John L. Cotton," located in the Bayou 
Teche, during which it performed excellent service, but suffered no loss. 
On April 12 it moved with the 19th corps in the advance to Port Hud- 
son, having a brisk engagement with the enemy at Fort Bisland on the 
same evening, which was resumed on the 13th. In the desperate assault 
on Port Hudson, May 27, Col. Thomas commanded the brigade, and the 
8th again distinguished itself for gallantry, losing in this battle 12 killed, 
and yd wounded, among the latter Col. Thomas, Capt. Foster and Lieut. 
Welch. It now shared in the siege operations and on June 14, led the 
assaulting column in the second attack on the Confederate works. Its 
loss on this occasion was 21 killed, and 75 wounded. After the surrender 
of Port Hudson it was ordered to Donaldsonville, thence to Thibodeaux, 
where it encamped until Sept. i, when it moved to Algiers and took part 
in the fruitless Sabine Pass expedition, returning on Sept. 11. On Jan. 
5, 1864, 321 men reenlisted for another three years' term and received 
the usual veteran furlough. The remainder of the regiment, including 
the recruits, remained in active service at Algiers and Thibodeaux, until 
June 6, when they returned to the state and were mustered out at BraC"- 
tleboro on the 22nd. The veteran portion of the regiment returned to 
New Orleans and after a number of scouting expeditions embarked for 
Fortress Monroe on the steamer St. Mary, July 5. On its arrival there 
it was at once ordered to Washington to assist in resisting Gen. Early's 
attempt upon the city, after which it was ordered to join the 6th corps 
at Tenallytown, Md. It then moved with the army in pursuit of the 
enemy as far as Berryville, Va., in the Shenandoah Valley, but imme- 
diately countermarched to the vicinity of Washington, whence they were 
ordered back into Maryland during the flurry caused by McCausland's 
raid into that state. The severe marching of this month on half rations, 
will never be forgotten by the men. In Aug., 1864, Gen. Sheridan took 
command of the Army of the Shenandoah, and the 8th was assigned to 
the 2nd brigade (McMillan's), ist division (Dwight's), 19th corps, un- 
der Gen. Emory. It did gallant service at the battle of the Opequan, 
Sept. 19, executing a splendid bayonet charge. Its casualties were 7 
killed and ZZ wounded, among the latter Lieut. -Col. Button, Capt. Ford, 
Vol. 1—8 



114 The Union Army 

and Lieuts. Livingston and Robie. It participated in the charge which 
routed the enemy at Fisher's hill on the 22nd, and then followed in pur- 
suit. On Oct. ID it encamped north of Cedar creek, where it remained 
until the battle on the 19th. Its loss during the fierce fighting at Cedar 
creek was 15 killed, 82 wounded and 27 missing, out of 350 men in action. 
Capt. Hall was mortally wounded, and among the wounded were Capts. 
Franklin, W. H. Smith, Ford and Howard and Maj. Mead. This battle 
ended the hard fighting of the regiment, though on Nov. 12 it was en- 
gaged at Newtown without loss. The command was encamped for five 
weeks at Newtown and on Dec. 20 moved to Summit Point, where it re- 
mained through the winter of 1864-65, on guard and picket duty along 
the railroad from Charlestown to Winchester. On Feb. 20, 1865, a de- 
tachment, while cutting wood, was attacked by guerrillas and 11 men were 
captured, but were soon exchanged and rejoined the regiment. At the 
beginning of 1865 the regiment mustered 675 men, of whom 470 were 
present for duty. Enough recruits were received during January and 
February to bring the total enrolment to 781, with 662 for duty. Lieut- 
Col. Mead was promoted colonel March 4, Col. Thomas having resigned 
Jan. 21, and been appointed brigadier-general Feb. i. On April 15 the 
regiment was part of the cordon of infantry about the city of Washing- 
ton to prevent the escape of the assassin Booth. It participated in the 
grand review May 23, and on June i, as part of Dwight's division, it em- 
barked for Savannah, Ga., but, at the last moment through the interces- 
sion of Gov. Smith, then in Washington, it was ordered to disembark. 
It now reported to Gen. Wright, commanding the 6th corps, and went 
into camp with the other Vermont troops on Munson's hill until June 28, 
when it was mustered out and arrived at Burlington, July 2, with 650 
officers and men. July 8 and 10 they were finally paid and discharged. 
The regiment had 1,016 original members, 752 recruits and 4 transfers, 
a total of 1,772. Its losses were 102 killed or mortally wounded; 214 
who died of disease, 7 by accident and 22 as prisoners — total, 345. It 
had 264 men wounded, 185 captured and 83 deserted. More of its mem- 
bers (viz.: 33) were promoted to be officers in other regiments than any 
other Vermont regiment, and more of its members reenlisted than in 
any other Vermont regiment except the 7th. 

Ninth Infantry. — Cols., George J. Stannard, Dudley K. Andross, Ed- 
ward H. Ripley; Lieut.-Cols., Dudley K. Andross, Edwin S. Stowell, 
Edward H. Ripley, Valentine G. Barney, Herman Seligson; Majs., Edwin 
S. Stowell, Edward H. Ripley, Charles Jarvis, Amasa Bartlett, Joseph C. 
Brooks. This regiment was organized at Brattleboro and there mustered 
into the U. S. service, July 9, 1862, for three years. It was ordered at 
once to Washington, left camp on July 15, and four days later was at- 
tached to Gen. Sturgis' division at Cloud's mills. On the 24th the com- 
mand moved to Winchester, where it was employed in the construction 
of fortifications, and other duties for several months. Early in Septem- 
ber it was withdrawn to Harper's Ferry on the approach of Stonewall 
Jackson's forces and with the other troops there posted was surrendered 
and sent on parole to Chicago. On Jan. 10, 1863, the prisoners were 
exchanged and the regiment was placed on guard duty over prisoners 
captured at Murfreesboro and Arkansas Post until April 1, when it re- 
turned to City Point, Va. It was at Suffolk during the siege in April 
and May, 1863 ; was next sent to Yorktown and occupied West Point 
during the Gettysburg campaign, when a futile attempt was made upon 
Richmond. July, August and September were spent at Yorktown, where 
the health of the men suffered from the climate and malaria was com- 
mon. For this reason the command was transferred in October to New- 



Vermont Regiments 115 

port barracks, between Morehead City and New Berne, N. C. Early in 
Feb., 1864, at the time of the attack upon New Berne, a detachment was 
sent by the Confederate leader. Gen. Pickett, to capture Newport bar- 
racks and in the battle which resulted 3 men of the 9th won medals 
for gallantry. The regiment was finally obliged to withdraw to More- 
head City, after a brave stand in defense of the post, and finally to Beau- 
fort. Three days later the old position at Newport barracks was re- 
occupied by the 9th Vt. and the 21st Conn, and held for some months 
without any break in the routine except several excursions into the sur- 
rounding country. During the summer various details near New Berne 
employed several detachments of the regiment, and in September, the 
entire command was ordered to Petersburg, Va., where it became a part 
of the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, i8th corps. Army of the James, with 
which it remained during the existence of the corps. A detachment of 
the regiment was posted at an earthwork known as Redoubt Dutton, 
sometimes called Butler's slaughter-pen, which exposed position it held 
and defended with honor, protecting the artillery, and the remainder of 
the regiment was stationed at Chaffin's farm, where it was joined by the 
detail from Redoubt Dutton. The regiment formed part of the force 
that engaged the enemy at Fort Harrison on Sept. 29 and carried Bat- 
tery Morris. On Oct. 27 it participated in the conflict at Fair Oaks, 
after which it was ordered to New York to guard against possible riot- 
ing during the presidential election. With the 3d division, 24th corps, 
it was again stationed before Petersburg and took part in the final as- 
sault on the city April 2, 1865. On June 13, the members of the regiment 
whose term would expire before Oct. i, 1865, were mustered out and the 
remainder consolidated into a battalion of four companies, which re- 
mained in service until Dec. i, 1865. The total strength of the 9th was 
1,878 members, of whom 23 were killed or died of wounds, 232 from dis- 
ease, 36 from imprisonment and 7 from other causes. 

Tenth Infantry. — Cols., Albert B. Jewett, William W. Henry, George 
B. Damon; Lieut.-Cols., John H. Edson, William W. Henry, Charles G. 
Chandler, Edwin Dillingham, Lucius T. Hunt, George B. Damon, Wyllys 
Lyman, John A. Salsbury. The loth, composed of members from all por- 
tions of the state, was mustered into the U. S. service at Brattleboro, 
Sept. I, 1862, for three years, and left camp on the 6th for Washington, 
where it spent a few days at Camp Chase, and was then posted along 
the Maryland side of the Potomac to guard the fords near Edwards' 
ferry. The winter was spent in the vicinity of Seneca creek and on June 
22, 1863, it was ordered to Harper's Ferry, where it was assigned to the 
1st brigade, 3d division, 3d corps, with which it served until the reor- 
ganization of the Army of the Potomac in March, 1864, when it became 
a part of the ist brigade, 3d division, 6th corps. The regiment was in 
action at Locust Grove, Nov. 27, 1863, and was quartered at Brandy Sta- 
tion, Va., during the winter of 1863-64. At the beginning of the Wil- 
derness campaign, it was not in the thick of the fight and it was not 
until the battle of Cold Harbor that it suffered heavily, when its services 
were especially complimented in orders. The 6th corps was sent to Ber- 
muda Hundred, while the army advanced to Petersburg but soon re- 
joined the main body. On July 6 the 3d division was ordered to Har- 
per's Ferry, but the loth and one regiment of the 2nd brigade was de- 
tained with the 1st brigade at Frederick City, Md., and under Gen. Wal- 
lace it engaged the enemy there on July 8 and at Monocacy on the 9th. 
The loth then became a part of the army under Gen. Sheridan in the 
Shenandoah Valley and participated in the battles of Winchester, Sept 
19, Fisher's hill, and Cedar creek. After a short rest at Cedar creek 



116 The Union Army 

and Kernstown it returned to Petersburg on Dec. 3 and was active at 
the time of the assault upon Fort Stedman in March, 1865, capturing 160 
prisoners. The regiment shared in the final assault on Petersburg, April 
2, and was among the first to enter the captured city. It then joined in 
the pursuit of Lee's army and after the surrender was sent to Burling- 
ton, where the men were mustered out on June 27, 1865. Fourteen offi- 
cers and 136 men were transferred on June 22 to the 5th Vt. infantry 
and were mustered out on the 29th. The total strength of the loth was 
1,306 members, of whom 149 were killed or died of wounds, 153 from 
disease, 32 in prison and 2 by accident. The regiment is included as one 
of the "three hundred fighting regiments" in Fox's "Regimental Losses." 
The following officers of this regiment were brevetted for gallant and 
meritorious service: Capt. and Lieut.-Col. George B. Davis, Lieut. Aus- 
tin W. Fuller, Col. and Brig.-Gen. William W. Henry, Capt. and Maj. 
John A. Hicks, Lieut, and Capt. Silas Lewis, Lieut, and Capt. James M. 
Read, and Maj. A. Salsbury. 

Eleventh Infantry — First Heavy Artillery. — Cols., James M. War- 
ner, Charles Hunsdson ; Lieut.-Cols., Reuben C. Benton, George E. Cham- 
berlin, Charles Hunsdon, Aldace F. Walker, Darius J. Safford; Majs., 
George E. Chamberlin, Charles Hundson, Charles K. Fleming, Aldace F. 
Walker, Charles Buxton, George D. Sowles, Robinson Templeton, Darius 
J. Safford, Henry R. Chase. The nth was the largest Vermont regiment 
sent to the war, both in original membership and in total enrolment. It 
was recruited as an infantry regiment at the same time as the loth, un- 
der the call of July 2, 1862, for 300,000 volunteers. By the middle of 
August ten companies had been organized, and rendezvoused at Camp 
Bradley, Brattleboro, where they were mustered into the U. S. service, 
Sept. I, 1862, for three years. It left the state on Sept. 7 for Washing- 
ton, where it arrived on the 9th and was assigned to duty in the chain 
of forts constituting the northern defenses of the capital. By order of 
the secretary of war, dated Dec. 10, 1862, it was made a heavy artillery 
regiment, and was designated the "ist artillery, nth Vt. volunteers." 
Authority was also given to increase its numbers to the regular heavy 
artillery standard of twelve companies of 150 men each, with three ma- 
jors and four heutenants to a company. This was accomplished in the 
course of the next few months. It remained in the defenses of Wash- 
ington for a period of 18 months, during which time it was chiefly em- 
ployed in strengthening the works and constructing and garrisoning Forts 
Slocum, Stevens and Totten. It assumed the red stripes and chevrons 
of the artillery and its companies were designated as batteries. A new 
flag was also added to the other colors of the regiment, bearing crossed 
cannons on a yellow field. During the latter part of its artillery service 
at Washington, it garrisoned four other forts and occupied a line of 
about 7 miles front, the works mounting upwards of 200 heavy guns and 
mortars. It experienced little of the real hardships of war during the 
year 1863 and the first three months of 1864. It had comfortable quar- 
ters, the men enjoyed excellent health and rations and even luxuries 
were abundant. It maintained an excellent state of discipline and was 
rated the best disciplined regiment in the defenses of the capital. After 
the terrible losses incurred at the battle of the Wilderness, it was or- 
dered to reinforce the army of the Potomac and reported for duty as 
infantry near Spottsylvania Court House with nearly 1,500 men in line. 
It was assigned to the Vermont brigade, 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 6th 
corps, and was divided into three battalions, each of which was manoeuvred 
as a regiment, and each of which exceeded in numbers any one of the 
older regiments of the brigade. The Vermont brigade at this time was 



Vermont Regiments 117 

reduced to about 1,200 muskets. During the severe campaigning which 
now ensued, the nth participated in every battle of the 6th corps from 
May, 1864, to April, 1865. It was engaged at Spottsylvania, Cold Har- 
bor, Petersburg, June 18, 1864, Weldon railroad. Fort Stevens, Charles- 
town, Gilbert's ford, Opequan, Fisher's hill. Cedar creek, Petersburg, 
March 25 and 27, 1865, and in the final assault which carried the works 
of Petersburg on April 2. In the affair on the Weldon railroad, June 23, 
1864, the regiment suffered the greatest loss sustained by any Vermont 
regiment in one action, its loss being 9 killed, 31 wounded, and 261 cap- 
tured. Among the prisoners were i field and 17 line officers. The regi- 
ment participated in the review of the brigade, June 7, and in the grand 
review of the 6th corps at Washington on the following day. Original 
members, recruits for one year, and recruits whose term of service expired 
before Oct. i, 1865, were mustered out of service on June 24, 1865, and 
the remainder of the regiment was consolidated into a battalion of four 
companies of heavy artillery, commanded by Maj. Safford, and stationed 
in the defenses of Washington until mustered out on Aug. 25, 1865. The 
following officers were brevetted for gallant and meritorious service : 
Col. James M. Warner, Maj. Aldace F. Walker, Capt. James E. Eldredge, 
Lieut. Henry C. Baxter, Capt. George G. Tilden, Lieuts. Henry J. Nich- 
ols, George A. Bailey, John H. Macomber and Charles H. Anson. The 
original members of the nth numbered 1,315, recruits and transferred 
men, 1,005 — total, 2,320. Its losses were 152 killed and mortally wounded, 
210 who died of disease, 175 who died in prison and 2 by accident, a total 
of 539. The total number wounded was 457, captured 339. 

Twelfth Infantry.— Col., Asa P. Blunt; Lieut.-Col, Roswell Fam- 
ham; Maj., Levi G. Kingsley. The 12th regiment was the first of the 
five regiments raised in response to the president's call of Aug. 4, 1862, 
for 300,000 militia for nine months' service, the quota of Vermont under 
this call being 4,898 men. Gov. Holbrook issued a general order for a 
new enrolment of the Vermont militia and all the militia companies of 
the state were called into active service. There were twenty-two such 
companies upon the state roster, but some had formally disbanded, and 
some existed only on paper, so that only thirteen companies were in a 
condition to respond to the call. General Order No. 13 calling for nine 
months men to fill the quota, stated that town officers and patriotic citi- 
zens would be expected to enlist the men and form the necessary com- 
panies. By Sept. 20, 1862, fifty companies were enlisted and organized 
into the 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th and i6th regiments of infantry. All were 
militia regiments, organized in accordance with the state constitution, 
the privates electing the company officers and the company officers nom- 
inating the field officers, who were then commissioned by the governor, 
the field of^cers in turn electing the regimental staff. The first ten com- 
panies which responded to the call comprised the 12th regiment. These 
were the West Windsor Guards (Co. A), Woodstock Light Infantry 
(Co. B), Howard Guards (Co. C), Tunbridge Light Infantry (Co. D), 
Ransom Guards (Co. E), New England Guards (Co. F), Allen Grays 
of Brandon (Co. G), Bradford Guards (Co. H), Saxton's River Light 
Infantry of Rockingham (Co. I), and Rutland Light Guard (Co. K). 
B, C, E, F, G, H, and K formerly formed part of the ist infantry, but 
under different officers and with many different members. The several 
companies rendezvoused at Brattleboro, Sept. 25, and were mustered into 
the U. S. service on Oct. 4, with a membership of 996 officers and men, 
many of the officers having seen previous service. Col. Blunt had served 
as adjutant in the 3d, and lieutenant-colonel in the 6th; Lieut.-Col. Farn- 
ham and Maj. Kingsley had held lieutenants' commissions in the ist and 



118 The Union Army 

more than a dozen of the line officers had served in the ranks of that 
organization. The personnel of the regiment comprised the best citizen- 
ship of the state, — men of property and high business and professional 
standing, who afterwards gave to the state two governors, a quarter- 
master-general, a railroad commissioner, a state librarian, a state his- 
torian and several state senators. The 12th left the state on Oct. 7 for 
Washington, and on its arrival there was assigned to Derrom's brigade, 
Casey's division. When the other four nine months regiments arrived 
on Oct. 30, the five organizations were united to form the 2nd Vermont 
brigade, — the 2nd brigade, Casey's division, reserve army corps for the 
defense of the capital. Col. Blunt was the ranking colonel and com- 
manded the brigade until Dec. 7, when Brig.-Gen. E. H. Stoughton took 
command. On the morning of Oct. 30, the brigade broke camp and 
moved to a point 2 miles south of Alexandria, on the Mt. Vernon rail- 
road, where it did picket and fatigue duty for 6 weeks. It then moved 
with the brigade to Fairfax Court House and performed picket duty for 
3 months along Bull run and Cub run. On Dec. 28 it assisted in repulsing 
Stuart's third cavalry raid, inflicting some loss on the enemy, but sus- 
taining none itself. It was afterwards employed in guarding the fords 
of the Occoquan river and picketing the outer line of defenses of Wash- 
ington. During May and part of June, 1863, it was engaged in railroad 
guard duty by detachments on the Orange & Alexandria railroad and on 
June 21, moved to Wolf Run shoals. At the beginning of the Gettys- 
burg campaign, the 2nd Vermont brigade was attached to the 3d division, 
1st corps, and formed the rear-guard of the army until it crossed the 
Potomac. During the battle of Gettysburg it was detached with the 15th 
Vt. to guard the corps trains. Cos. B and G were later detached as 
guard for a portion of the ammunition trains and were posted on the 
Taneytown road on the outskirts of the field, during the 3d day of the 
fight. After the battle it moved by railroad to Baltimore, as guard for 
2,500 Confederate prisoners. Its term of service having expired on July 
4, 1863, it returned to Brattleboro on the 9th and was mustered out on 
the 14th. It suflfered no losses in action, but willingly performed all that 
was asked of it, and was a well disciplined command. Many of its mem- 
bers subsequently reenlisted in other organizations. The total enrol- 
ment was 1,005; of whom 63 died of disease and only 4 deserted. 

Thirteenth Infantry. — Col., Francis V. Randall; Lieut.-Cols., Andrew 
C. Brown, William D. Munson; Majs., Lawrence D. Clark, Joseph J. 
Boynton. The 13th was recruited in the summer of 1862 in the counties 
of Washington, Chittenden, Lamoille and Franklin. It was organized 
on Sept. 24, rendezvoused at Brattleboro on the 29th, and was mustered 
into the U. S. service for nine months on Oct. 10, 1862. Two of its com- 
panies, the Emmett Guards of Burlington, and the Lafayette Artillery of 
Calais, belonged to the uniformed militia of the state, who responded to 
the order of Aug. 12, calling all the state militia into active service. The 
personnel of the regiment was of a high order, more than half of the 
members being young farmers and many of the others belonging to the 
learned professions. Col. Randall had seen 15 months' service as cap- 
tain of Co. F, 2nd infantry ; Lieut.-Col. Brown was a captain of the Mont- 
pelier militia company when elected, but was without previous military 
service; Maj. Clark had been a captain in the ist infantry throughout 
its term of service. The 13th left the state for Washington, Oct. 11, 
953 strong, and soon after its arrival there was united with the other 
nine months' Vermont regiments to form the 2nd Vermont brigade. On 
Oct. 30 it proceeded to the heights south of Alexandria, Va., where it 
engaged in picket and fatigue duty at "Camp Vermont" for a month. 



Vermont Regiments 119 

Late in November it moved to Fairfax Court House, thence to Union 
mills, Va., where it was occupied for 2 weeks in railroad guard duty, and 
then returned to Camp Vermont, Dec. 5. A week later it marched with 
the brigade to Fairfax Court House, was occupied for 5 weeks in hold- 
ing the fortifications at Centerville and picketing along Bull run, assist- 
ing in the repulse of Gen. Stuart's cavalry at Fairfax Court House Dec. 
28. It was posted at Wolf Run shoals from Jan. 20 to April 2, 1863, then 
established "Camp Carusi," on the Occoquan, guarded the fords of that 
stream until the latter part of June, when it joined the other regiments 
of the brigade at Union mills and started on the 7 days' march to Get- 
tysburg. It arrived on the battle-field on the evening of July i and went 
into position on the left of Buford's cavalry on Cemetery hill. On the 
second day of the battle five companies of the 13th, commanded by Lieut.- 
Col. Munson, supported a battery on the west side of Cemetery hill. 
The other companies under Col. Randall recovered a Union battery by 
a gallant charge, and advancing in the evening on the Emmitsburg road 
as far as the Rogers' house, captured 83 of the enemy who had taken 
refuge there. On the 3d day of the battle it was heavily engaged during 
Pickett's famous charge, capturing 243 officers and men. The loss of the 
13th at Gettysburg was 11 killed, 81 wounded and 23 missing. Its term 
of service having expired, it returned to Brattleboro shortly after the 
battle and was there mustered out on July 21, 1863. A large number of 
the members afterwards reenlisted in other organizations. The total 
enrolment of the regiment was q68, of whom 19 were killed in action or 
died of wounds, 53 died of disease, 7 deserted, 84 were wounded and 5 
were captured. 

Fourteenth Infantry. — Col., William T. Nichols; Lieut.-Col, Charles 
W. Rose; Maj., Nathaniel B. Hall. The 14th was one of the five Ver- 
mont regiments raised under the call of Aug. 4, 1862, for 300,000 militia 
to serve for nine months. It was recruited in the counties of Addison, 
Rutland and Bennington, and comprised the following companies : Co. 
A, from the town of Bennington; Co. B, Wallingford; Co. C, Shoreham; 
Co. E, Middlebury; Co. F, Castleton; Co. G, Bristol; Co. H, Rutland; 
Co. I, Vergennes ; and Co. K, Danby. The several companies rendezvoused 
at Brattleboro on Oct. 6, 1862, and were mustered into the U. S. service 
for nine months on the 21st. The following day it left for Washington 
with 952 officers and men. Col Nichols was a prominent young lawyer 
of Rutland; had been a member of the Rutland Light Guard, and had 
served with the ist regiment. Lieut.-Col. Rose had been a lieutenant of 
the Middlebury company of the ist regiment; was afterwards captain of 
Co. B of the sth, and was wounded at Savage Station. Maj. Hall was 
a son of Ex-Gov. Hiland Hall; a successful lawyer and state's attorney 
of Bennington county, when commissioned, but was without previous 
military experience. On its arrival in Washington on the 25th, the 14th 
was temporarily brigaded with some Maine troops, but a few days later 
was united with the other nine months' regiments to form the 2nd Ver- 
mont brigade. The command was assigned to duty in the outer defenses 
of Washington, serving first at Alexandria, Va., then in the vicinity of 
Fairfax Court House, where it assisted on Dec. 28, 1862, in repulsing 
Stuart's cavalry raid, and was posted at Wolf Run shoals on the Occo- 
quan river, from March to June, 1863. In addition to picket duty it per- 
formed arduous fatigue duty, digging rifle pits and building corduroy 
roads. On April 20, 1863, Brig.-Gen. George J. Stannard took command 
of the brigade, and on June 25 the brigade was assigned to the 3d division, 
1st corps, and began its march to Gettysburg. It marched 120 miles in 
6 days, reaching Emmitsburg, Md., on the 30th. It arrived on the bat- 
tle-field too late to share in the first day's fighting and encamped for the 



120 The Union Army 

night in a wheat field to the left of Cemetery hill. On the afternoon of 
the 2nd day it went into action on the left center, where it remained dur- 
ing the remainder of the battle. Its chief loss was sustained on the 3d 
day during the splendid charge of Pickett's men. The 14th behaved with 
the steadiness and gallantry of veteran troops, executing a number of 
difficult movements while under a heavy fire of artillery and musketry. 
Its casualties were 18 killed, g mortally and 65 severely wounded, the 
heaviest loss in killed and wounded sustained by any regiment in the 
brigade. After the battle it joined in the pursuit of Lee's army, making 
a number of hard marches. On July 18, its term of service having ex- 
pired, it started for home, and was mustered out at Brattleboro, July 30, 
1863. The total enrolment of the regiment was 964, of whom 27 were 
killed in action or mortally wounded; 39 died of disease; i died in prison 
and I was murdered — total deaths 68. It lost not a man by desertion; 65 
were wounded. 

Fifteenth Infantry.— Col., Redfield Proctor; Lieut.-Col., William W. 
Grout; Maj., Charles F. Spaulding. The isth was one of the five Ver- 
mont regiments enlisted under the President's call of Aug. 4, 1862, for 
nine months' service. It was recruited in the counties of Caledonia, 
Orleans, Orange and Windsor, one of its companies, the Frontier Guards 
of Coventry, being one of the thirteen existing companies of uniformed 
militia which first responded to the call. The companies perfected a 
regimental organization on Sept. 26, 1862; rendezvoused at Brattleboro 
Oct. 8; were mustered into the U. S. service for nine months on Oct. 22, 
and left the state for Washington on the 23d. Col. Proctor had seen 
previous service as quartermaster of the 3d Vt., and afterwards as major 
of the Sth. He was a fine type of the civilian soldier and was one of the 
best colonels in the service. His fine qualities later placed him in the 
highest office within the gift of the state. Lieut.-Col. Grout was a rising 
young lawyer of the Orleans county bar, and Maj. Spaulding was a busi- 
ness man of St. Johnsbury, though neither was experienced in military 
affairs. After the arrival of the 15th in Washington on the morning 
of the 26th, it was temporarily assigned to the 2nd brigade, Case/s 
division, and a few days later joined the other Vermont regiments to 
form the 2nd Vt. brigade. It was stationed at "Camp Vermont" near 
Hunting creek, engaged in drill, picket and fatigue duty, until Dec. 12. 
From that date until the following spring it was stationed one mile south 
of Fairfax Court House, occupied in drill and fatigue duty on rifle-pits. 
At the time of Gen. Stuart's raid in the rear of Fairfax Court House, 
Dec. 28, 1862, it picketed all the approaches to Centerville, and during 
May, 1863, it was on picket duty at Bealeton Station for a few days with 
Gen. Stoneman's cavalry, after which it returned to Bull run, with head- 
quarters at Union Mills. On May 30 a detachment of 15 men guarding 
a supply train, near Catlett's station, was overpowered by a superior 
force of Mosby's men and the train was partially burned. The regiment 
was employed during part of June in guarding the Orange & Alexandria 
railroad at Catlett's and Bristoe Stations. On June 25, with the rest of 
the brigade, it began its long forced march to join the ist corps at Get- 
tysburg. At Emmitsburg on the 30th, the 15th and 12th regiments were 
detailed to guard the corps train, which they escorted to within about 2 
miles of the battle-field on July i. That evening the 15th was ordered 
to join the 13th, 14th and i6th, and bivouacked in a wheat field to the 
left of Cemetery hill. At noon of July 2, while serving as support to the 
batteries on Cemetery hill, it was ordered to return again and assist the 
I2th in guarding the train. A detail of two companies, with two from 
the I2th, had charge of the ist corps ammunition train near the battle- 



Vermont Regiments 121 

field. The command overtook the train at Westminster, and moved with 
it via Frederick City and South mountain towards Hagerstown, Md., 
rejoining the brigade at Funkstown. During the pursuit of Lee it formed 
in hne of battle on the right of the ist corps in front of Hagerstown, 
200 men of the isth being thrown forward as skirmishers. When Lee 
effected his escape into Virginia the regiment was ordered home, ar- 
riving in New York City during the draft riots. Its term of service 
had expired, but it remained at the request of Gen. Canby until order 
was restored. It was mustered out of service at Brattleboro, Aug. 5, 
1863. The total enrolment of the 15th was 942, of whom 78 died by dis- 
ease, I committed suicide, i deserted, 69 were honorably discharged, i 
was transferred to veteran reserve corps and 5 were captured. 

Sixteenth Infantry. — Col., Wheelock G. Veazey; Lieut.-Col., Charles 
Cummings; Maj., William Rounds. This regiment, composed of men 
from Windsor and Windham counties, was organized Sept. 27, 1862, 
rendezvoused at Brattleboro Oct. 9, and was mustered into the United 
States service for nine months on the 23d. It was one of the five nine 
months' regiments recruited in Vermont under the call of Aug. 4, 1862, 
for 300,000 militia. Col. Veazey, a graduate of Dartmouth college, had 
received excellent training in military affairs as captain, major and lieu- 
tenant-colonel in the 3d Vt. infantry, and as commander of the 5th Vt., 
during part of the Peninsular campaign. He was an excellent officer 
and commanded the complete confidence of his regiment. Lieut.-Col. 
Cummings had served as first lieutenant of Co. E of the nth Vt., after- 
wards returned to the service as lieutenant-colonel of the 17th Vt., and 
was killed while commanding that regiment at the battle of Poplar 
Grove, near Petersburg, Va. Maj. Rounds was a well known lawyer of 
the Windsor county bar, but without previous experience in military af- 
fairs. The regiment had an unusually large number of intelligent and 
well educated men and contained some of the best blood of the state. 
It left Brattleboro on Oct. 24, 1862, with 949 officers and men, for Wash- 
ington, and on its arrival there was brigaded with the other Vermont 
troops to form the 2nd Vermont brigade. On Oct. 30, it moved with 
the brigade, to Ball's cross-roads, Va., and then to Hunting creek, where 
it established "Camp Vermont." On Dec. 11, it moved farther to the 
front and was stationed at Centerville and Fairfax Court House until 
Jan. 20, 1863. It was then at Fairfax Station on the Orange & Alex- 
andria railroad until March 24, when it moved to Bull run and was 
chiefly occupied in guard and picket duty. In the latter part of May it 
was stationed by detachments at various points on the railroad on guard 
duty. At Catlett's station, on May 30, Mosby's raiders attacked a sup- 
ply train and inflicted considerable damage. On June 11 it returned to 
Union mills and resumed picket duty along Bull run. Lee's great in- 
vasion into Pennsylvania was now under way, and on June 23 the brig- 
ade, commanded by Gen. Stannard, was assigned to the ist corps of the 
Army of the Potomac. Two days later it received orders to join the 
corps and started on its long forced march to Gettysburg. It reached 
Emmitsburg, Md., on the 30th and after a hurried march the following 
day reached the battle-field at the close of the first day's fight, going 
into position on the left on Cemetery hill. The regiment was engaged 
on the afternoon of the 2nd, Co. B, under Capt. Arms being detached to 
reinforce the skirmish line in the morning and rendering efficient service. 
While moving in the afternoon to the left along Cemetery ridge to rein- 
force the shattered Union lines, it was exposed to a heavy artillery fire, 
and finally halted in support of a battery. That night it was detailed for 
picket duty across the field of the afternoon and during the fierce fight- 



132 The Union Army 

ing of the 3d day, it held the same advanced position on the skirmish 
line. During the famous charge of Longstreet's three divisions the i6th 
was heavily engaged, twice changing front under a severe artillery and 
musketry fire and charging the enemy's flank. It captured prisoners 
several times in excess of its own numbers, together with 3 stands of 
colors, and after the battle followed in pursuit of Lee's retreating army 
until Lee crossed the Potomac into Virginia, when it was ordered home, 
its term of enlistment having expired. It arrived in New York during 
the draft riots and remained there until order was restored. It was 
finally mustered out at Brattleboro, Aug. 10, 1863. The total enrolment 
of the i6th was 968, of whom 24 were killed in action or mortally wounded ; 
48 died of disease and i died in prison — total deaths, "JZ- Eighty men 
were wounded, 4 were captured and 2 deserted. 

Seventeenth Infantry.— Col., Francis V. Randall; Lieut.-Cols., Charles 
Cummings, Lyman E. Knapp; Majs., William B. Reynolds, Henry A. 
Eaton, Lyman E. Knapp, James S. Peck. The 17th was recruited under 
an order issued by Gov. Holbrook on Aug. 3, 1863. The original inten- 
tion was to enlist a regiment of veterans. The five nine months' regi- 
ments had just been mustered out and it was expected that a large num- 
ber of these men would promptly reenlist in the new regiment. For 
business and other reasons this did not prove to be the case and the 
work of filling the regiment proceeded very slowly. At first the bounties 
offered were confined to men who had seen service, and when this re- 
striction was removed in September only $100 was offered for recruits 
for the new regiment, while $300 was offered for recruits for existing 
organizations. On Dec. 31 the government offered the same bounty to 
recruits for new regiments as was offered to those for the old, and men 
were then obtained more rapidly. Enlistments began on Aug. 21, 1863, 
and continued to Sept. 23, 1864. The first company was not filled until 
Jan. 5, 1864, and from that date until the following September the regi- 
ment was slowly mustered into service for a three years' term, mostly 
in small squads. Col. Randall, an experienced officer, who had served 
as captain in the 2nd and as colonel of the 13th Vt., was commissioned 
colonel Feb. 10, 1864, but could not be mustered until the full regiment 
was raised. He joined the 17th at the front on Oct. 27, but was never 
given the opportunity to lead the regiment into battle. The 17th ren- 
dezvoused at Burlington and when only partially organized, left the state, 
April 18, 1864, as a battalion of seven companies commanded by Lieut- 
Col. Cummings, who had served in that capacity with the i6th Vt. Maj. 
Rejmolds was also an experienced officer, having served as captain in 
the 6th Vt. Thus imperfectly organized the 17th had had little oppor- 
tunity for drill and discipline. It arrived at Alexandria on April 22, 
where it was assigned to the 2nd brigade (Col. Griffin), 2nd division (Gen, 
Potter), 9th corps (Gen. Burnside), and was at once hurried into the 
bloody campaign which began at the Wilderness. During its brief term 
of service it fought in the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North 
Anna river, Totopotomoy, Bethesda Church, Cold Harbor, Petersburg 
on June 17 and in the mine explosion of July 30, Weldon railroad. Pop- 
lar Spring Church, the first battle on Hatcher's run, and the fall of Pe- 
tersburg. Its first experience of the stern realities of war was in the 
battle of the Wilderness, where it gave evidence of the same fine quali- 
ties of courage and fighting ability which had already rendered the 1st 
Vt. brigade famous throughout the army, and gained an honorable name 
for the nine months' regiments of the 2nd Vt. brigade at Gettysburg. 
The command behaved with the steadiness and courage of veterans. Its 
loss in this battle was 80 killed, wounded and missing out of 313 engaged. 



Vermont Regiments 133 

It again lost heavily at Spottsylvania, where it added to its reputation 
for courage and coolness, its loss here being 72 killed, wounded and miss- 
ing out of about 250 engaged. From that time on the regiment was al- 
most constantly marching and fighting. Writing from Cold Harbor on 
June 8, Lieut. -Col. Cummings said in his official report : "During the last 
IS days we have been under fire every day but 3, and 2 of these days 
we were on the march." It was already sadly reduced in numbers by 
battle and sickness and was glad to welcome on June 8 Co. H, Capt. 
Corey, with 57 men, which gave it a total of 235 muskets. In the assault 
on the works of Petersburg, June 17, the regiment captured the colors, 
adjutant and about 70 men of the 17th Tenn. and 2 pieces of artillery. 
It went into action with 135 men and lost 6 killed and 20 wounded, 7 
fatally. In the disastrous action of the mine explosion, July 30, it was 
commanded by Maj. Reynolds. It mustered for the assault only 8 com- 
missioned officers and 120 men, and when the bloody affair was over, 
only I officer and less than half the men returned. Its casualties were 
10 killed, 46 wounded, 18 missing. Among the killed was the gallant 
Maj. Reynolds. Lieut. Needham, the only officer who escaped, was badly 
wounded and died a week later. Adjt. Peck, though sick, assumed com- 
mand, but was soon succeeded by Capt. Knapp, absent on detached serv- 
ice, and shortly after, Capt. Eaton, also on detached duty, was relieved 
and promoted to major. Lieut. -Col. Cummings went home on sick leave, 
and Maj. Eaton continued in command. In August Co. I, with 87 men, 
joined the regiment, which was further augmented by returning con- 
valescents and mustered 233 present for duty on Sept. i. Another heavy 
loss was sustained by the regiment in the action at Poplar Spring Church, 
when 8 were killed, 40 wounded, 2 mortally, and 27 captured. Among 
the killed were Lieut. -Col. Cummings and Maj. Eaton, both gallant offi- 
cers, and for a while after this disastrous action the command mustered 
only 84 men, with Capt. Knapp in command. On Oct. 27, Co. K, Capt. 
Yale, with 95 men and Col. Randall joined the regiment. It sustained 
no loss in the action at Hatcher's run, Oct. 27. During the period from 
Nov., 1864, to Feb. 11, 1865, the 9th corps was transferred to the extreme 
right of the army, and Griffin's brigade held the left of the corps line, 
which extended from the Appomattox to the left as far as the Jerusalem 
plank road. Col. Randall was placed in charge of Fort Davis on the 
brigade line, in command of his own regiment, the 31st Me., 56th Mass., 
and two batteries. On Feb. 11, 1865, the 17th was moved a mile to the 
left on the advance line and held this position until the final assault on 
Petersburg, April 2. Early in March Col. Randall went home on 30 
days' leave, and did not rejoin the regiment until after Lee's surrender. 
Lieut.-Col. Knapp commanded the regiment in the final assault, during 
which it displayed its customary gallantry, losing 10 killed and 35 
wounded, 5 mortally. It joined in the pursuit of Lee, and on the day of 
the final surrender was at Burkesville, where it was joined the next 
day by Col. Randall. It remained there on duty until the 20th, when it 
returned to Alexandria via City Point. It participated in the grand re- 
view at Washington, May 23, and was mustered out and started home on 
July 14. It arrived at Burlington on the i8th and the men were finally 
paid and discharged on the 24th. The 17th was one of the nine Vermont 
regiments in Fox's "three hundred fighting regiments" which sustained 
a loss of 119 to 174 men each. It lost 14 officers killed or mortally 
wounded, exceeding that of any other Vermont regiment ; had 6 com- 
missioned officers brevetted for gallant and meritorious services in the 
field ; was credited with 232 recruits, but of this number 120 enlisted as 
substitutes or were drafted and stand on the records as "deserted, never 



124 The Union Army 

joined company." The original members numbered 869, recruits, 232, 
transferred from other regiments, 5, total enrolment, 1,106; killed in 
action or died of wounds, 133, by accident, 3, in prison 33 — total 226; 
losses other than by death 386, viz: wounded, 314; captured, 72. 

Company F, First U. S. Sharpshooters, — Lieut-Col., William Y. 
W. Ripley; Capts., Edmund Weston, Jr., Charles W. Seaton, E. Witsey 
Hindes, Charles D. Merriman. Co. F, ist U. S. sharpshooters was organ- 
ized at West Randolph, Sept. 13, 1861. The following day it left the 
state for the regimental rendezvous at Weehawken, N. J., and a few days 
later went with the regiment to Washington, where it was mustered into 
the U. S. service for three years. It had left Vermont with 3 officers and 
113 men, but when mustered, its number was reduced to the service re- 
quirement of 100 men. Lieut.-Col. Ripley commanded the regiment until 
disabled by wounds. The regiment was encamped near Washington 
until March 22, 1862, when it was assigned to Gen. Porter's division and 
participated in the Peninsular campaign, Co. F losing 11 killed and 
wounded. It was then attached to Morell's division of the 5th corps 
and was active at Bull Run, losing several men. At Blackford's ford, 
W. Va., Co. F captured 2 guns and several prisoners. At Gettysburg the 
sharpshooters were actively engaged at various points on the line, serving 
with the 3d corps. Co. F led the advance of the 3d corps at Kelly's ford 
Nov. 7, 1863, when 406 of the enemy were surprised and captured. It 
was again heavily engaged at Locust Grove, during the Mine Run cam- 
paign. In the spring of 1864, the sharpshooters were attached to the 2nd 
brigade, 3d division, 2nd corps, and had an active part in the battles of 
the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, and those around Peters- 
burg. After the battle of Cold Harbor Co. F had only 15 men left of 
the 43 who crossed the Rapidan on May 4. Its term expired Sept. 12, 
1864, when it had but 25 men of the original members. Nineteen of 
these were honorably discharged and 6 reenlisted. On Dec. 23, 1864, the 
small remnant of veterans and recruits was transferred to Co. E, 2nd 
U. S. sharpshooters. Co. F participated in 37 important battles and 
skirmishes, besides numerous minor engagements. Its total enrolment 
was 190, of whom 30 were killed or died of wounds, 13 died of disease, 
2 died in prison, 7 were captured, 6 deserted and 50 were wounded. 

Company E, Second U. S. Sharpshooters. — Col., Homer R. Stough- 
ton; Capts., Homer R. Stoughton, Francis D. Sweetser, Seymour F. Nor- 
ton. The 2nd company of Vermont sharpshooters, designated as Co. E, 
2nd U. S. sharpshooters, was recruited by Homer R. Stoughton, of West 
Randolph, Vt. The conditions for enlistment required that each recruit 
must, in a public trial, shooting from the shoulder without telescopic 
sights, put 10 successive bullets into a lo-inch ring, 300 yards distant. 
The uniform of the sharpshooters was distinctive, being of green cloth 
to match the green of nature, with leather leggings and knapsacks tanned 
with the hair on. Co. E was mustered into the U. S. service Nov. 9, 
1861, with 91 officers and men, and left the state on Nov. 21 for Wash- 
ington, where it joined the 2nd U. S. sharpshooters. It remained in 
camp of instruction until March 18, 1862, when its regiment was assigned 
to the 1st brigade, ist division, ist corps, under Gen. McDowell. It fired 
its first shot at Falmouth April 17, 1862, and had its first man killed at 
the second battle of Bull run, Aug. 30. From its first important engage- 
ment at Rappahannock Station in Aug., 1862, to that of Hatcher's run 
in Feb., 1865, it was present in no less than 27 important engagements 
and skirmishes, besides a number of minor engagements. During the 
year 1862, out of 145 officers and men on its rolls, 2 were killed in 
action, 5 died of disease, 43 were discharged for wounds or disability, 



Vermont Regiments 125 

6 deserted, 3 were transferred, and i was promoted out of the com- 
pany, leaving 84 officers and men. In 1863, despite the hard service 
at Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and during the Mine Run campaign, 
its losses were not great. One died of disease, 2 were wounded, 6 
captured, 15 discharged for wounds or disability and 4 transferred, 
leaving 64 officers and men. In the severe campaign of 1864, which 
began at the Wilderness, the company was engaged in 11 pitched 
battles. On Dec. 23, 1864, it was joined by 32 men from Co. F, and 
on Feb. 25, 1865, the 2nd regiment of sharpshooters was so badly 
reduced in numbers, the original members, except veterans and 
recruits, having been mustered out of service on Nov. 9, 1864, it was 
transferred to the 4th Vt. infantry as Co. G. The total enrolment of 
the company, including 116 recruits, was 207, of whom 22 were killed 
in action or mortally wounded, 14 died by disease and accident, 3 
died in prison, 7 deserted, 8 were captured and 57 were wounded. 

Company H, Second U. S. Sharpshooters. — Capts., Gilbert Hart, 
Albert Buxton, William Newell, William H. Churchill, Walter W. 
Smith. This company, the third and last company raised in Vermont 
for this arm of the service, was recruited during the months of Nov. 
and Dec, 1861, rendezvoused at Brattleboro and was mustered into 
the U. S. service for three years, Dec. 31, 1861. The same day it left 
the state for Washington, and on its arrival there became Co. H, of 
the 2nd U. S. sharpshooters. An epidemic of measles made it neces- 
sary to leave behind a large number of men who rejoined the command 
at Washington the following February. On March 19, 1862, it took 
the field, the regiment having been assigned to Augur's brigade (ist), 
King's division (ist), ist corps, commanded by Gen. McDowell. Most 
of the summer was spent at Falmouth, Va., though the command 
shared in the various movements of McDowell's corps towards Rich- 
mond and afterwards towards Front Royal in the effort to cut off 
the retreat of Stonewall Jackson up the Shenandoah Valley. It 
also shared in the campaign of Pope, being engaged at Rappahannock 
Station, Sulphur springs, Groveton and the second Bull Run. In 
September, as part of Hooker's corps of the Army of the Potomac, 
it was active at Turner's gap and Antietam, losing a number of men, 
and Co. H was again active at Fredericksburg, but met with only 
slight loss. On June 16, 1862, it was armed with the Sharp breech- 
loading rifle instead of the unpopular Colt's rifle. At Chancellorsville, 
the company lost 3 wounded, and during the remainder of 1863, was 
engaged at Gettysburg, Wapping heights. Auburn, Kelly's ford. 
Brandy Station, Orange Grove, and Mine Run, besides numerous 
minor skirmishes. The winter of 1863-64 was spent at Brandy Sta- 
tion, where on Dec. 21, nearly all the members reenlisted and received 
the usual veteran furlough. In Feb., 1864, when the veterans returned, 
the ranks had been swelled by recruits and the company again num- 
bered 100 men. On the opening of the bloody campaign of 1864, the 
2nd sharpshooters were assigned to the ist brigade, 3d division, 2nd 
corps, under Gen. Hancock. Co. H lost at the Wilderness 8 killed, 
16 wounded and 2 missing, among the mortally wounded being the 
gallant Capt. Buxton. It was active in the engagements at the Po 
river, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Totopotomoy, Cold Harbor, Peters- 
burg, Deep Bottom, the capture of Fort Hell on the Jerusalem plank 
road, Boydton plank road, and the Weldon railroad. During the 
winter of 1864-65, the company's ranks were swelled by 17 recruits 
from Co. F, ist U. S. sharpshooters, whose organization was discon- 
tinued. Their last skirmish as sharpshooters was at Hatcher's run, 



126 The Union Army 

Feb. 5-7, 1865, and on the 25th the sharpshooters were disbanded, Co. 
H retaining its letter, became a part of the 4th Vt. infantry and with 
this organization was engaged at Fort Fisher, in the final assault on 
Petersburg, and in the pursuit of Lee to Appomattox. The total 
enrolment of the company was 191, of whom 18 were killed or mor- 
tally wounded, 19 died of disease, 3 in prison, 6 men deserted, 7 were 
captured and 44 were wounded. 

First Battery Light Artillery. — Capts., George W. Duncan, George 
T. Hebard. Vermont furnished three batteries of light artillery during 
the war. The ist owed its origin chiefly to the exertions of George 
T. Hebard, of Chelsea, who enlisted about 100 men at Montpelier near 
the close of the year 1861, and at the same time about 50 more were 
enlisted at South Shaftsbury by George W. Duncan. The battery 
was designed to form part of the New England division for service 
with Gen. Butler. The men rendezvoused at Camp Holbrook, Brat- 
tleboro, Jan. 21, 1862, where they were attached to the 8th Vt. infantry 
and mustered into the U. S. service for three years on Feb. 18, 1862. 
It left the state with the 8th on March 6 and embarked at New York 
for Ship island. Miss., on the loth. On its arrival at Ship island, 
April 5, it was detached from the regiment and assigned to Gen. 
Phelps' brigade as an independent command. Early in May two 
sections proceeded to Camp Parapet on the Mississippi river, where 
they were joined by the 3d section in June. Here it was equipped 
with 6 brass field pieces, caissons, battery wagons and forge, but had 
as yet no horses. After a time it was assigned to man some heavy 
barbette guns commanding the river. When the troops in the Depart- 
ment of the Gulf were reorganized by Gen. Banks in Dec, 1861, the 
battery was assigned to the ist division (Gen. T. W. Sherman) and 
was stationed at Metaire ridge race course, between New Orleans and 
Lake Pontchartrain. On Jan. 21, 1863, Capt. Duncan resigned, and 
Lieut. Hebard assumed command of the battery, which attained a fine 
reputation for discipline and efficiency under his skillful instruction. 
In May it moved to Port Hudson, where it was active throughout 
the siege as well as in the unsuccessful assaults in May and June. 
Many attempts were made by the enemy to drive it from its position 
at "Battery No. 4," but the gunners disabled or dismounted every 
gun within range. Upon the surrender of Port Hudson it was sta- 
tioned at various places along the Mississippi river, but principally at 
Baton Rouge. It shared in the Sabine Pass expedition, and during 
the winter and spring of 1864 was stationed at Brashear City, La., 
on garrison duty and also served by detachments on the steamers of 
the quartermaster's department. It was active in all the engagements 
and skirmishes of the Red River campaign except the battle of Mans- 
field. At the battle of Pleasant Hill it was charged by infantry and 
such was its danger of capture that Gen. Banks ordered the guns to 
be spiked and the men to retreat. Instead of obeying Capt. Hebard 
gave the order "Spike your guns with canister and — quick, too." 
The order was promptly obeyed, several volleys of canister at short 
range broke the enemy's lines and ended the action. The actions 
at Yellow bayou, Bayou de Glaize, and the crossing of the Atchalafaya 
river closed the active service of the battery. During the remainder 
of its service it was successively stationed at Morganza bend and 
Baton Rouge. At the latter place its equipment was turned over to 
the 13th Wis. battery, and on July 22 the original members returned 
home and were mustered out at Brattleboro, Aug. 10, 1864. The 
recruits were transferred on the same day to the 2nd Vt. battery. 



Vermont Regiments 127 

The total enrolment of the battery was 217, of whom 3 were killed or 
mortally wounded, 43 died of disease and accident, 3 deserted and 7 
were wounded. 

Second Battery Light Artillery. — Capts., Lensie R. Sayles, Pytha- 
goras E. Holcomb, John W. Chase. The 2nd battery, like the ist, 
was intended to form part of Gen. B. F. Butler's expeditionary force 
for service in the Department of the Gulf. A recruiting office was 
established at Leicester, afterwards removed to Brandon, in charge 
of Lensie R. Sayles, and 89 men were mustered into the U. S. service 
for three years Dec. 16, 1861, 20 more on the 24th, when the battery 
rendezvoused at Camp Chase, Lowell, Mass., where 14 more men were 
enlisted, the battery then numbering 128 officers and men. It was 
armed with four 6-pounder Sawyer rifled guns and two 20-pounder 
Parrotts. While at Lowell, Capt. Sayles resigned and Capt. P. E. 
Holcomb of the 17th U. S. infantry was appointed in his place. On 
Feb. 6, 1862, the battery embarked at Boston on the "Idaho," and 
on March 12 reached Ship island, Miss., where it was attached to 
Gen. Phelps' brigade. It landed at New Orleans on May 2, the 
first Union battery in the city. On the last day of May it was 
ordered to Camp Parapet, 7 miles up the river from New Orleans, 
and remained here for 5 months, when it returned to New Orleans, 
where it was fully mounted for the first time. On Dec. 29 it started 
on the fruitless expedition to Galveston, Tex., and on Jan. 25, 1862, 
moved up the river to Donaldsonville, on Feb. 24 to Baton Rouge, 
where it was attached to Gen. Augur's division. It shared in an expe- 
dition to the vicinity of Port Hudson in March and again on May 
18; was engaged for the first time at Plains Store, near Port Hudson, 
May 21 ; was active during the assaults on Port Hudson of May 27 
and June 14 and was constantly under fire after July 4. On the sur- 
render of Port Hudson it was the first battery inside the works. 
Early in August, the 2nd section under Lieut. Dyer moved on an 
expedition to Jackson, La., under the command of Maj. Hanham of 
the I2th, corps d'Afrique. The expedition as attacked by Forrest's 
cavalry on the 3d, and Dyer and 15 men were captured through the 
inefficiency of the major in command. Dyer was wounded in the 
leg and was paroled.. The other prisoners were taken to Anderson- 
ville, where 5 died. On July 28 the battery shared in a fruitless 
expedition to Clinton, La., after which it continued to serve on gar- 
rison duty at Port Hudson until July 7, 1865. It then moved to 
Baton Rouge, and on the 9th proceeded home via Cairo, 111. It 
arrived at Burlington July 20 and was here mustered out on the 31st. 
The original members, except veterans and recruits to the number 
of 20, were mustered out Sept. 20, 1864. The battery with recruits 
then numbered 136 officers and men. Additional recruits afterwards 
swelled its number to 260 officers and men, which was in excess of 
the regulation number, and on March i, 1865, the surplus men to the 
number of 118 were organized under orders from the department com- 
mander as the 1st company Vermont heavy artillery, for service in 
the works at Port Hudson. The total enrolment of the 2nd battery 
was 456 officers and men, of whom i died of wounds, 47 of disease, 
or in prison, 19 deserted, 7 were wounded, and 16 were captured. 

Third Battery Light Artillery.— Capt., Romeo H. Start. The 3d 
battery, one of the last two organizations sent by the state to the war, 
was recruited by its commanding officer, Capt. Romeo H. Start, during 
the closing months of 1863. It rendezvoused at Burlington, was 
mustered into the United States service for three years, Jan. i, 1864, 



128 The Union Army 

left for Washington Jan. 15, where it was attached to the 22d corps 
and went into winter quarters at Camp Barry, the artillery camp of 
instruction. On Feb. 20, 1864, it was fully equipped as a mounted 
battery of light artillery, and on April 2 was assigned to the gth 
corps. It was employed in railroad guard duty until May 4, when 
it was ordered to join the corps, overtaking it on the 6th in the Wilder- 
ness. It served as part of the guard for the base of supplies and for 
the provision and ammunition trains of the Army of the Potomac 
until the army reached Petersburg, where it remained upon the lines 
until Oct. 25, 1864, when it moved to City Point and garrisoned Fort 
McKean until Jan. 15, 1865. It then moved to the Weldon railroad 
and in February participated in the movement of the 6th corps to 
Hatcher's run. On Feb. 9, it occupied Fort Fisher, where it re- 
mained until the final assault on Petersburg, during which it was 
actively engaged. While upon the lines before Petersburg, prior to its 
removal to City Point, it served in Forts Morton, Michael, Battery 
27, Battery 16, and Fort Phillips ; participated in the movement of the 
2nd corps on Reams' station on the Weldon railroad, and was re- 
peatedly engaged in severe artillery duels with the enemy. Though 
often under heavy fire, it fortunately escaped with small loss. It 
had its full share of hardships and exposure and faithfully discharged 
every duty. At the final assault on Petersburg, April 2, 1865, it had 
the honor of firing the signal gun, which inaugurated the general 
movement upon the enemy's works south of the city, and after the 
fall this battery, with the reserve artillery brigade of the 6th corps, 
took charge of the captured artillery. Later it moved to City Point 
and on May 3 to Alexandria, where it turned over its guns to the 
ordnance department on the 5th and started for home. It was mus- 
tered out on June IS, at Burlington. The total enrolment of the 3d 
battery was 256 officers and men, of whom 21 died by disease and 
accident; 8 were honorably discharged, i was promoted, i transferred 
to veteran reserve corps, 5 deserted, and 3 were wounded. 

First Company Heavy Artillery. — Capt., Henry W. Fales of Lowell, 
Mass. This organization was formed on March i, 1865, from surplus 
recruits of the 2nd Vt. battery, light artillery, then stationed at Port 
Hudson, La., and remained on duty there during the remainder of 
its service. It was mustered out at Burlington, July 28, 1865. It 
numbered 188 officers and men, of whom 7 were discharged for dis- 
ability, 4 died of disease, i deserted, and i committed suicide. 

First Cavalry. — Cols., Lemuel B. Piatt, Jonas P. Holliday, Charles 
H. Tompkins, Edward B. Sawyer, Addison W. Preston, William 
Wells, Josiah Hall; Lieut. -Cols., George B. Kellogg, Addison W. 
Preston, John W. Bennett, Josiah Hall, William G. Cummings; Majs., 
William D. Collins, John D. Bartlett, Edward B. Sawyer, Josiah Hall, 
William Wells, John W. Bennett, Henry M. Paige, Andrew J. Grover, 
William G. Cummings, Robert Scofield, Jr., Charles A. Adams, John 
H. Hazelton. The ist cavalry, recruited in different parts of the 
state, was mustered into the U. S. service for three years, Nov. 19, 
1861, at Burlington. After a few weeks in camp it left for Washing- 
ton, Dec. 14, and was not in active service in the field until the spring 
of 1862, when, with the forces of Gen. Banks, it was engaged at Mid- 
dletown, Winchester, and in the campaign which terminated in the 
second battle of Bull run Aug. 30, 1862. The loss in the summer cam- 
paigns was heavy but the command was reinforced in the autumn by 
the addition of two new companies and many recruits. The regiment 
was stationed in the vicinity of Washington on various details during 



Vermont Regiments 129 

the winter of 1862-63 and frequent skirmishes with Mosby's guerrillas 
prevented any monotony. On June 28, 1863, it was. assigned to the 
cavalry corps, Army of the Potomac, with which it served from that 
time. In the battle of Gettysburg it won laurels; was active in the 
pursuit which followed, harassing the enemy from point to point, and 
finally halted for the winter at Stevensburg, Va. It shared in the raid 
upon Richmond under Gen. Kilpatrick and when the spring cam- 
paign opened in 1864 was attached to the 2nd brigade, 3d division, 
cavalry corps. In the battle of the Wilderness the ist lost many brave 
officers and men. It was active in the battles which followed at 
Yellow tavern and Meadow bridge, during Sheridan's raid on Rich- 
mond, and was also at Hanover Court House, Ashland, Haw's shop, 
Bottom's bridge, White Oak swamp. Riddle's shop and Malvern 
hill. The regiment was ordered to join the expedition for the 
destruction of the Weldon and South Side railroads, in which skir- 
mishes and engagements resulted at Reams' station, Nottoway Court 
House, Roanoke Station and Stony creek. In August it was ordered 
to join Sheridan who was confronting Gen. Early in the Shenandoah 
Valley and arrived at Winchester on Aug. 17, in time to participate in 
the engagements at Winchester, Charlestown, Summit Point, Kear- 
neysville, the Opequan, Newmarket, and Cedar creek. The original 
members who had not reenlisted, were mustered out on Nov. 18, 
1864. On Feb. 27, 1865, Sheridan's cavalry commenced the return to 
Petersburg where it arrived after a journey of three weeks. In the 
cavalry fight at Five Forks the 1st Vt. had a share and continued 
in the advance of the column through several minor affairs until the 
corps reached Appomattox Court House, where Gen. Lee surrendered. 
The regiment participated in the grand review of the armies at Wash- 
ington and returned to Vermont early in June. The men whose term 
of service would expire prior to Oct. I were mustered out at Bur- 
lington and the remainder were consolidated into a battalion of six 
companies which served in Vermont and northern New York until 
Aug. 9, 1865, when they were mustered out. Col. Fox mentions the 
1st Vt. Cavalry as one of the "three hundred fighting regiments," and 
also lists it fifth in an enumeration of nine regiments who lost over 
119 men. It was, however, second to none in the number of captures 
it made. At the battle of Cedar creek it won three of the eight 
medals awarded to the army for colors captured. The total strength 
of the regiment was 2,304 members, of whom 112 were killed or died 
of wounds, 114 died of disease, 159 in Confederate prisons and 7 by 
accident. 

Companies M and F, Frontier Cavalry. — Co. M, Capts., Josiah 
Grout, Jr., Edwin M. Baldwin; Co. F, Capt., George B. French. The 
frontier cavalry owed its origin to the fear created by the St. Albans 
raid of Oct. 19, 1864, when a few Southern refugees from Canada 
suddenly descended on the town of St. Albans, near the Canadian 
border, plundered the banks, wounded a number of unoffending citi- 
zens, seized a number of horses and hurriedly made their escape across 
the border. A provisional force of 2,215 militiamen was promptly 
placed in service by the state to guard the frontier, and this force was 
soon succeeded by veteran troops of the invalid corps and a cavalry 
organization composed of seven companies from New York, three 
from Massachusetts, and two from Vermont. The regiment was 
never united and the two Vermont companies served at Burlington 
and St. Albans. The two companies, consisting of loi officers and 
men each, were raised under authority granted by the president to 
Vol. 1—9 



130 The Union Army 

Gen. Dix, commanding the Department of the East, and their en- 
listment was provided for under General Order No. 6, dated Dec. 29, 
1864. The companies were mustered into the service of the United 
States Jan. 10, 1865, at Burlington, for one year, and remained quar- 
tered at Burlington in barracks until midwinter, when they moved 
to St. Albans, where they did guard and patrol duty until the latter 
part of June. The regiment was known as the 26th N. Y. cavalry and 
the governor of that state issued all commissions above the line.. The 
Vermont companies were denominated the ist and 2nd companies of 
Frontier cavalry. Though not called upon to do any actual fighting, 
they faithfully and promptly performed every required duty, and were 
a well equipped and disciplined body of troops. They were mustered 
out at Burlington, June 2.-J, 1865. The total enrolment of the two 
companies was 6 officers and 200 enlisted men. One officer was dis- 
charged and I enlisted man deserted, but no deaths occurred during 
the term of service. 

Miscellaneous. — During the year 1863 the state of Vermont fur- 
nished a total of 68 recruits for the well known 54th Mass. (colored). 
Of this number 2 were killed in action, 4 died of disease, 12 were 
discharged for disability, i deserted, i was transferred to the regular 
army and 4 were wounded. 

The final statement shows that 87 men were enlisted into the 
veteran reserve corps, of whom i was killed by accident, 3 died of 
disease, 14 deserted, 6 were transferred to other organizations, and 63 
were discharged. 

The whole number of unassigned recruits from Vermont was 325, 
of whom I was killed in action, 71 died of disease, i in prison, i by 
accident, 2 shot by sentence of general court-martial, 196 were honor- 
ably discharged, 8 dishonorably discharged, 4 transferred to the 
veteran reserve corps and navy, 20 unaccounted for, and 20 mustered 
out. 




fn^^ix^s^w y^Oyin' 



FRANCIS AUGUSTUS OSBORN 



Francis Augustus Osborn was bom Sept. 22, 1833, in that 
part of the town of Dan vers, Mass., which is now called Peabody. 
His parents were Augustus Kendall and Mary (Shove) Osborn* 
His ancestor, William Osborn, came from England to this coun- 
try before 1645 ^^^ settled in the locality named which was then 
a part of Salem, and William's descendants, in the direct line 
to the subject of this sketch, continued their residence in that 
town for over 200 years. He attended the public schools of his 
native town and a private school in Marlborough, and in 1845 
he entered the Public Latin school of Boston, one of the oldest 
and most famous public schools of the country, having been 
founded in 1635, ^^o years before Harvard college. When, in 
1849, he had finished the course there, his father had just died, 
so that instead of entering Harvard college, as had been intended, 
he went as a clerk into the counting room of William Ropes & 
Co., who were engaged in importing goods from Russia. He 
remained there for five years, and then became a partner in a 
firm in the ship chandlery business. In 1855 he joined a militia 
company in Boston called the New England Guards, an organi- 
zation of high character, dating from 181 2, in which he was 
afterward appointed sergeant, and later commissioned succes- 
sively second lieutenant, first lieutenant and captain, the last 
named commission being dated April 19, 1861. Just before 
that time the company was detached from the regiment with 
which it had been connected and was expanded into a battalion 
of two companies, the senior captain, Thomas G. Stevenson, 
being commissioned major. On the 25th of April the battalion 
was sent by the state authorities at the request of the United 
States government to garrison Fort Independence in Boston 
harbor, the only occupant then being an ordnance sergeant. 
There it remained until May 25th, during which time it was 
thoroughly exercised, not only in infantry drill, but also in the 
use of the heavy guns mounted on the fort. The devotion to 
their duty on the part of both officers and men was so cordial 
and persistent, and so efficient in its results, that the 4th bat- 
talion Mass. volunteer militia, which was its official name, was 
pronounced on its return to the City of Boston, when it marched 
through the streets and gave an exhibition drill upon the Com- 

131 



mon, the best drilled body of troops ever seen in the city. The 
value of the training received in the New England Guards is 
shown by the fact that over 150 of its members were given com- 
missions as officers in the volunteer service, many of them at- 
taining high rank, and all making themselves conspicuous wher- 
ever they served, for their thorough knowledge of their duties 
and their faithfulness and efficiency in performing them. Im- 
mediately after the close of their duty at the fort, Maj. Stevenson 
and Capt. Osborn offered their services to Gov. John A. Andrew, 
who, on Aug. 31, following, authorized them to raise a regiment, 
of which the former should be colonel and the latter lieutenant- 
colonel. This regiment was recruited upon different principles 
from those which had been up to that time adopted. In order 
to send troops promptly into the field it had been found neces- 
sary to take companies hastily formed in the several towns in 
certain sections of the state and aggregate them into regiments, 
a method which had some obvious disadvantages. As the state, 
however, had now sent forward the number of troops immediately 
requisite, and had a little breathing spell. Gov. Andrew per- 
mitted the newly appointed field officers to carry out the plan 
upon which they had set their hearts, namely, to establish a 
"cadre" of officers, consisting of young men well known to them 
as having high character, education and experience in the militia, 
and to allow them to secure their enlisted men by a system of 
recruiting similar to that of the regular army. Gov. Andrew 
cordially approved the plan and promised to commission the 
officers whom the colonel and lieutenant-colonel should recom- 
mend to him. The result of the experiment was most satis- 
factory and fully confirmed the wisdom of the method. The 
officers came to the service well instructed in their duties, hav- 
ing good executive ability and capacity for handling their men 
to the best advantage, while the enlisted men were a picked 
body gradually accumulated and compactly welded into a homo- 
geneous mass. The process was a little longer than the usual 
one but since it was possible to take the time its result fully 
compensated for the delay. The regiment, the 24th Mass. 
infantry, left the state on Dec. 9, 1861, joined the Bumside 
expedition at Annapolis, and later proceeded with it to Roanoke 
island. In the engagement there on Feb. 8, 1862, the Union 
forces captured about 2,800 Confederate prisoners. On Feb. 
16, Lieut. -Col. Osborn was sent by Gen. Burnside to Elizabeth 
City, N. C, with a flag of truce to Maj. -Gen. Huger of the Con- 
federate army, commanding the Department, as bearer of a 
letter relating to exchange of those prisoners. On his return 
with Gen. Huger's answer he was put in charge of five transports 
for conveyance to Elizabeth City of the prisoners whom he 

132 



delivered to Maj. Benjamin Allston of the Confederate army. 
In March, 1862 the 24th regiment was hotly engaged as a part 
of the force which gained the battle of New Berne and captured 
that city. Within a few days after the battle, Col. Stevenson 
was put in command of the brigade, so that Lieut. -Col. Osbom 
commanded the regiment continuously from that time on. The 
regiment remained in New Berne as a part of the garrison until 
the following June, when it was ordered to Washington, N. C, 
which had been occupied for a short time by two of its companies. 
The Confederate guerrillas had been numerous and active about 
the town and had become so threatening in their demonstra- 
tions that it was thought desirable to give them a lesson. In 
obedience, therefore, to such orders, Lieut. -Col. Osbom pro- 
ceeded to that place by transports with the other eight com- 
panies of his regiment and marched with them and a company 
of cavalry and a section of artillery about 10 miles out of the 
town to Tranter's creek, where he met the enemy and after a 
sharp engagement completely routed him. The effect of this 
defeat was so salutary that the enemy did not show himself in 
that vicinity for many months. Lieut. -Col. Osbom remained 
in command of the post of Washington until June 29th, when 
he was ordered with his regiment back to New Berne to take 
part in other operations. The plans of the military authorities, 
however, having shortly afterward been changed, the regiment 
remained in New Berne taking part in movements of minor 
importance within the department. On Dec. 28, 1862, Lieut. - 
Col. Osbom was promoted to colonel of his regiment to fill the 
vacancy caused by the promotion of Col. Stevenson to brigadier- 
general. On Jan. 22, 1863, the regiment, with nearly all the 
troops then at New Berne, was taken to Hilton Head by Gen. 
John G. Foster, who expected to be given command of the forces 
which were to attempt the reduction of Fort Sumter. This 
cherished hope on the part of Gen. Foster was a reasonable and 
laudable one, since he had been second in command at Fort 
Sumter in April, 1861, when it was taken by the Confederates, 
and was the officer from whom the defense of the fort derived 
the greater part of its energy and tenacity. Gen. Hunter, how- 
ever, who was then in command of the Department of the South, 
had influence enough to prevent the consummation of this very 
desirable arrangement. The result was that Gen. Foster was 
obliged to return to New Berne and leave his troops in the De- 
partment of the South. In the assault upon Fort Wagner on 
July 18, 1863, the regiment was in the third line, and though 
under a heavy fire did not participate in the actual assault. It 
did its regular tours of duty in the trenches and in fatigue work 
during the siege of Fort Wagner and^^Fort Sumter. On Aug. 

133 



26, 1863, Col. Osborn commanded his regiment in the charge 
upon the rifle-pits in front of Fort Wagner, capturing nearly 
the whole force of the enemy that had held the pits against three 
previous attacks by other regiments, and completely checked 
the advance of engineering work. On the night of Sept. 6, the 
regiment was selected to lead one of the columns of assault on 
Fort Wagner. The column had been formed and was about 
to march when the discovery was made that Wagner had been 
secretely evacuated, the enemy having recognized the hope- 
lessness of further defense. On Sept. 8 Col. Osborn was placed 
in command of a boat expedition consisting of the 24th Mass. 
and the loth Conn., intended to make a night assault upon Fort 
Sumter. The navy had also planned an assault for the same 
night, neither Gen. Gillmore, in command of the land forces, 
nor Adm. Dahlgren in command of the sea forces, being willing 
to yield to the other the right of priority, or on the other hand 
to cooperate with the other. The troops had to contend with 
great difficulties in embarking at a distance from the open har- 
bor in a shallow creek only wide enough to admit one boat at a 
time, and were consequently delayed until a very late hour. In 
the meantime the navy with its superior facilities attempted 
the assault, which was easily repulsed, with the loss or capture 
of nearly all the attacking party. No blame for this failure can 
be attributed to the navy, whose officers and men conducted 
themselves on that occasion with the gallantry and intrepidity 
which are the conspicuous characteristics of that service. Fort 
Sumter was not practicable for an assault. The engineer officers, 
who had believed it was, had been misled by deceptive appear- 
ances, caused by the great distance at which they were com- 
pelled to examine it through field glasses. If the true state of 
the case had been known the assault would never have been at- 
tempted. Further, it has since been learned that the enemy 
had read our signals, knew that an attack was to take place on 
that night and had made extraordinary preparations for meeting 
it. Under all the circumstances failure was inevitable. On 
Sept. 30, the regiment was sent to St. Augustine to recuperate, 
it having been so greatly reduced by losses and disease and by 
the exhausting work in the trenches and on fatigue service that 
it had only about 280 men fit for duty. Col. Osborn was put 
in command of the post of St. Augustine and remained there 
until Feb. 18, 1864, when he was ordered with his regiment to 
Jacksonville to take command of that post. Toward the last 
of April the loth army corps, with which the 24th regiment was 
incorporated, was transported to Virginia, where, in connection 
with the 1 8th corps, it formed the Army of the James, cooperat- 
ing with the Army of the Potomac. The 24th reached Glouces- 

134 



ter Point, Va., on May i, and on the 4th the Army of the 
James embarked in transports, proceeded up the James River 
and two days later landed at Bermuda Hundred, which had been 
chosen as the base of operations. During the summer of 1864 
the regiment went regularly on picket in its turn, the enemy 
lying close to the front of our troops, and was engaged in the 
following actions: Green Valley, Drewry's bluff. Proctor's 
creek, Richmond and Petersburg turnpike, Ware Bottom Church, 
besides skirmishes and minor affairs, all under the command of 
Col. Osborn. On Aug. 13 Col. Osborn was detached from his 
regiment and assigned, at the request of Gen. John W. Turner, 
commanding the 2nd division loth army corps, to the command 
of the 3d brigade of that division, whose commander was absent 
upon leave. That brigade marched under his command on 
Aug. 16 with the rest of the Corps to Deep Bottom on the north 
side of the James, where it was engaged. On that day Col. 
Osborn was struck by a spent ball but was not seriously injured, 
being able to return to duty in a few days. On Aug. 28 he moved 
with his brigade to Petersburg and put it into the trenches there. 
On Sept. 25 the commander of the brigade returned to duty and 
Col. Osborn was relieved and ordered back to his regiment. On 
Sept. 28 the 24th regiment marched under his command with 
the rest of the ist division, loth corps, to the north side of the 
James and was engaged in the actions of Newmarket heights, 
Newmarket road and Darby town road. On Oct. 13 Col. Osborn 
was given 30 days leave of absence for the purpose of using his 
influence to have the regiment recruited up to its standard 
before he should leave it at the expiration of his term of service. 
On Oct. 28 he was appointed by the president, brevet brigadier 
general of volunteers for distinguished services in the movements 
upon the enemy's works near New Market, Va. On Nov. 14, 
1864, he resigned and was mustered out of the service. His 
first business occupation after returning to civil life was that 
of cashier for one year of Blake Bros & Co., bankers of Boston. 
He was naval officer for the districts of Boston and Charlestown 
from March 19, 1867, to June 8, 1869. In partnership with 
Hubbard Bros. & Co., he then followed the business of stock 
broker for five years, having been previously on Oct. 30, 1866, 
elected a member of the Boston stock exchange. On Jan. i, 
1874, he was elected treasurer of the Corbin Banking Company 
of New York and Boston, where he remained actively engaged 
until March, 1888, when, the company having abandoned its 
New England business, he sold out his interest and in the fol- 
lowing June resigned the treasurership. In November of the 
same year he organized The Eastern Banking Company, which 
began business under his presidency as an association, and was 

135 



incorporated in 1887, and he has been its president ever since 
its organization. In the meantime he has had other business 
relations, having been president of several other corporations. 
He was the original treasurer of the New England Mortgage 
Security Company, having been elected thereto in 1875. He 
resigned this office June 14, 1879, but was afterward a director 
for several years. He was elected director of the Tremont 
national bank of Boston, Jan. 11, 1876, and was annually re- 
elected thereafter until the bank went into voluntary liquidation, 
Dec. 6, 1898. On March 9, 1891, he was elected president of 
the Boston real estate exchange and auction board. In 1892 
he declined reelection, and was then elected one of its vice- 
presidents. Politically, Gen. Osborn is an independent Repub- 
lican. He served in the common council of Boston in 1867-68- 
69; was appointed by the governor, chairman of the Massachu- 
setts civil service commission, June 23, 1886; and declined an 
offered reappointment in June 1889, for the reason of a great 
increase of work in his business caused by the death of an asso- 
ciate. He was one of the organizers of the Citizen's association 
of Boston in Dec, 1887, and was its president in the years 1888, 
to 1891, inclusive. In March, 1868, he was elected commander 
of the Massachusetts Commandery, Military Order of the Loyal 
Legion of the United States. On Jan. 20, 1869, he was elected 
grand commander of the Department of Massachusetts, G. A. R. 
In the preparation of this work Gen. Osborn carefully revised 
the manuscript pertaining to the "Military affairs in Massa- 
chusetts." Sept., 1867, he married Mary M. Mears, daughter of 
Granville Mears of Boston, by whom he had one daughter. 
In 1879 he married as his second wife, Emily T. Bouvd, 
daughter of Thomas T. Bouvd of Boston, by whom he has 
had two daughters and three sons. 



136 



Military Affairs in Massachusetts 

1861—65 



The outbreak of the Civil war found Massachusetts, as was 
true of the Eastern States generally, in an almost complete 
state of military unpreparedness. In the South men were drill- 
ing and active preparations for war were under way long 
before the optimistic Northerner could bring himself to believe 
that the inevitable conflict was at hand. Very few men in the 
North desired war and largely on this account few believed 
that war would come. It is also matter of common knowledge 
that still fewer men, either North or South, believed that the 
war would assume large proportions or be of long duration, 
after the actual outbreak of hostilities. 

Crude and incomplete as was the militia organization of the 
state when the war began, Massachusetts was, nevertheless, the 
first in the field with her troops, and should perhaps be credited, 
by reason of her promptness, with saving the national capital 
from capture. The separate militia companies of the state had 
been recently organized into regiments by the foresight of 
Gov. Banks, and on Jan. i6, 1861, eleven days after John Albion 
Andrew was inaugurated as governor, he issued an order re- 
quiring every company commander to revise his muster roll, 
with the view of determining whether all were fit for service 
in case of emergency. If any were unfit or unwilling to re- 
spond to the call of the commander-in-chief, such were to be 
discharged and their places filled by others. It was, moreover, 
due to Gov. Andrew, that the state armory, when the war 
broke out, contained overcoats, blankets, knapsacks and ball- 
cartridges for 2,000 troops, as well as 3,000 Springfield rifled 
muskets of the latest pattern. 

The following admirable word picture of the famous War 
governor brings the man vividly before the reader: "He stood 
before the people a figure of unique appearance and bearing — 
short, stout, blue-eyed, with closely curling brown hair, smooth 
cheeks, and a general effect that was feminine, though very 
sturdily so. He entered on his duties with universal popular 

137 



138 The Union Army 

confidence as to his intentions, but absolutely untried as to large 
executive duties. His personal habits were pacific and even 
sedentary; he had no taste for any pageantry, least of all for 
that of war; yet in his very inaugural address he showed that 
he had grasped the situation of the country, and from that day he 
was, emphatically and thoroughly, the war governor. Gov. 
Andrew was frank, outspoken, with no concealments and little 
solicitude for any reserve in others. * * * He was thin- 
skinned and felt keenly any personal attack; and when he met 
with a thoroughly unscrupulous and tormenting opponent it 
was not hard to keep him vexed and irritated, in spite of the 
unselfish nobleness of his aims." (Massachusetts in the Army 
and Navy, Higginson, vol. i, pp. 5-6.) 

It is a fact but little commented on, that Gov. Andrew im- 
mediately after his inauguration, sent confidential messengers 
to the governors of the rest of the New England States, im- 
pressing on them the necessity of military preparation. The 
number of enrolled militia in the state in i860, was 155,389; 
the number of active or volunteer militia, 5,593. Gov. Andrew 
was one of the few men in the North who believed that war 
was rapidly approaching. He made this plain in his inaugural 
address wherein he advised an inquiry whether the dormant 
militia, or at least a large part of it, as well as the active militia 
should not be put on a war footing, thus placing the state 
ready, "without inconvenient delay, to contribute her share of 
force in any exigency of public danger." To arouse the latent 
patriotism of the people, he caused a salute to be fired on 
Boston Common Jan. 8, 1861, in commemoration of the battle 
of New Orleans. Among the important acts of the session of 
the legislature which closed on April 11, 1861, were the act in 
relation to the volunteer militia, which gave the governor 
authority to organize as many companies and regiments as the 
public exigency might require in addition to the existing militia 
organization ; the act appropriating $100,000 as an emergency 
fund ; and one appropriating $25,000 to provide overcoats and 
equipage for 2,000 men. Meanwhile Gov. Andrew was engaged 
in correspondence with leading members of Congress, state 
governors, leading men, etc. Not only was the militia strength- 
ened, but a cipher key for sending secret messages was arranged, 
the defense of Boston harbor considered, and the best means 
of forwarding troops for the defense of Washington was fully 
discussed. Col. Ritchie, of the governor's staflF, was even de- 
spatched to Washington, to confer confidentially with the Mas- 
sachusetts senators and representatives, and Gen. Scott, on the 
subject of a possible requisition for troops, to learn from the 



Military Affairs in Massachusetts 139 

general what would be the best route for troops to take to 
Washington and whether they were to carry their field equipage 
with them. Arrangements were even made to charter transports 
for the troops. From the above and much more of the same 
tenor it will be seen that Massachusetts, during the four months 
prior to the outbreak of hostilities, was more or less alive to 
the approaching crisis, and that however inadequate her military 
preparation, she was at least better prepared than the rest of 
the loyal states. 

The time for actual fighting came with unexpected sudden- 
ness. On April 12 Fort Sumter was fired upon, and "the 
drum beat of the long roll was struck." On April 15 Massa- 
chusetts received the first call for troops in a telegram from 
Senator Wilson, asking that twenty companies be sent on to 
Washington separately. This was followed by telegraphic de- 
spatches the same day from the secretary of war and the adju- 
tant-general making formal requisition for two full regiments 
of militia. Four regiments were at once summoned in order 
that the two required might be filled to the maximum. Special 
Order, No. 14, being sent by mail and special messengers to Col. 
Wardrop of the 3d at New Bedford, Col. Jones of the 6th at 
Lowell, Col. Munroe of the 8th at Lynn, and Col. Packard of 
the 4th at Quincy, requiring them to muster their commands 
on Boston Common forthwith. Adjt.-Gen. Schouler is authority 
for the statement that the first companies to arrive were three 
from Marblehead (Cos. B, C, H, 8th regiment), though Thos. 
Wentworth Higginson, the state military and naval historian, 
says that Co. E, 4th regiment, from Abington, is possibly en- 
titled to this honor. The troops all arrived promptly on April 
16, in a driving storm of rain and sleet, and were marched 
directly to Faneuil Hall followed by an enthusiastic throng of 
people, who had gathered to receive them. A number of de- 
tached companies were also ordered to report at the same time 
and were assigned to different regiments. On the day of mus- 
ter, April 16, another message came from Senator Wilson 
stating that the original call had been modified to include four 
regiments with a brigadier-general in command. On April 19 
the 5th regiment was also ordered out and Brig.-Gen. Butler 
was placed in command of the first four regiments. Cos. B, E, F, 
G, H, of the 7th, together with Maj. A. F. Cook's company of 
light artillery, were added to the command of Col. Lawrence 
of the 5th. Co. F, above mentioned, became insubordinate, and 
a new company under Capt. Wardwell was substituted. On 
April 20, the 3d battalion of rifles of Worcester, under Maj. 
Devens, was ordered to report for duty, and on May i, Capt. 



140 The Union Army 

Albert Dodd's company of Boston was summoned, thus com- 
pleting the list of three months' volunteers. These troops num- 
bered 244 officers and 3,492 men, a total of 3,736. Col. Pack- 
ard's regiment was the first to leave the state, going via 
Fall River on the afternoon of April 17 to New York and 
thence by steamer to Fortress Monroe. An hour later the 6th, 
under Col. Jones, left by rail for Washington. The 3d, under 
Col. Wardrop, left for Fortress Monroe by steamer, on the 
morning of April 18, and the 8th, Col. Munroe, accompanied 
by Brig.-Gen. B. F. Butler, proceeded to Washington via Phila- 
delphia, New York and Annapolis, on the same day. To the 
6th regiment must be accorded the unique honor of being the 
first fully organized and equipped regiment to reach Washing- 
ton, under the call of the president. It had been preceded by 
a force of five militia companies from Pennsylvania, numbering 
400 or 500 men, totally unarmed with the exception of 34 men. 
These companies reached Washington at 7 P. M., April 18, and 
the 6th Mass. arrived at 9 P. M., April 19. This historic regi- 
ment was composed of four companies from Lowell, two from 
Lawrence, one from Groton, one from Acton, one from Boston, 
one from Worcester, and one from Stoneham, making 
eleven in all and mustering about 700 men. "Their hetero- 
geneous uniform was characteristic of the period. Seven of 
the companies wore blue uniform coats, dark or light, sorne- 
times with red trousers, and four wore gray, with 
bufif or yellow trimmings. Some companies had two lieutenants, 
some had four; some had learned the old Scott drill, others 
the Hardee tactics, then a novelty, afterwards universal." 
(Higginson's, Massachusetts in the Army and Navy, p. 18.) 
In passing through Boston, New York and Philadelphia, the 
regiment was received with enthusiastic ovations, but in Balti- 
more, Cos. C, D, I and L, under Capts. Follansbee, Hart, Picker- 
ing and Dike, and numbering about 220 men, were attacked by 
a mob while marching from the President street station to the 
Camden street station, a distance of a little more than a mile. The 
other seven companies, under Col. Jones, covered the distance in 
safety. These four companies found the track obstructed and were 
forced to march the distance. In the riot 4 of the Massachu- 
setts soldiers were killed, 36, including Capt. Dike of Stoneham, 
were wounded, and 12 of the rioters were killed. On their 
arrival in Washington the regiment was quartered in the senate 
chamber and constituted the chief defense of Washington until 
the arrival of the 8th and 5th, together with the 7th New York, 
by way of Annapolis. When this regiment continued in service 
after the expiration of its term of service, in order that it might 



Military Affairs in Massachusetts 141 

protect the capital, which was still in danger, they received a 
vote of thanks from the national house of representatives. Said 
Lincoln, wrought up by the anxieties of the hour, to the 
wounded men of the 6th Mass. at Washington: "I begin to 
believe that there is no North. The 7th regiment is a myth. 
Rhoc^e Island is a myth. You are the only reality." On the 
arrival of the 8th Mass. at Philadelphia, Gen. Butler was ordered 
by Ma j. -Gen. Scott, to go via Annapolis to Washington, where 
the regiment finally arrived on April 26, after a toilsome march 
from Annapolis in company with the 7th N. Y. Gen. Butler 
remained behind in command at Annapolis, and two companies 
of the 8th were put aboard the frigate Constitution, then the 
school ship at the academy, until she should sail for New York. 
The enthusiasm with which these first three months' troops 
were welcomed by the people is a tribute to their true instinct. 
These raw militia regiments were as yet untried and had been 
subjected to none of the real perils of war, yet they were recog- 
nized as the real saviors of the country during the first hours 
of peril. The spontaneity and zeal with which these men took 
up arms at the first call of country is worthy of all praise. 
While the regiments above mentioned were getting ready, scores 
of offers to raise companies poured in from all parts of the 
state. Says Adjt.-Gen. Schouler, in his report for 1861 : "From 
the 13th of April to the 20th of May, 159 applications were 
granted to responsible parties for leave to raise companies. In 
nearly every instance the application was signed for the requisite 
number of men for a company. These applications came from 
every part of the commonwealth, and represented all classes, 
creeds, and nationalities. The authorities of the several cities 
and towns acted with patriotic liberality toward these companies, 
furnishing good accommodations for drilling, and providing 
for the families of the men." There were fully 10,000 men in 
these companies, all anxious to be called into immediate service. 
Nearly all the new militia companies were organized between 
April 13 and May 4. While the work of enlistment was going 
on offers of pecuniary aid poured in on the governor and the adju- 
tant-general. William Gray of Boston sent his check for 
$10,000; Otis Norcross of Boston sent $500; Gardner Brewer 
of the same city offered the state $10,000, while many smaller 
amounts were received. The Boston banks proffered a loan of 
$3,600,000 without security and further offered to the secretary 
of the treasury to take their full share of an issue of $150,000,000 
in treasury notes. Secretary Chase credited Samuel Hooper of 
Boston with more valuable assistance in supporting the credit 
of the government than any other man in the country. He 



142 The Union Army 

further said : "I sent the first treasury note that ever was 
signed to Mr. Edward Wallace of Salisbury, Mass., in recogni- 
tion of his having been the first man in the country to offer a 
loan to the government without interest." The professional 
classes rallied to the support of the government with the same 
zeal. At the very inception of the war, an efficient medical 
department was organized through the efforts of Drs. George 
H. Lyman and William J. Dale. Dr. Lyman had shown wise 
foresight by preparing himself in advance for such service and 
immediately offered his services to the governor in the work 
of fitting out the regiments with medical supplies. Dr. Dale 
wrote: "On April i6, 1861, I was called from my professional 
pursuits, by Gov. Andrew, to assist Dr. George H. Lyman in 
furnishing medical supplies for the 6th regiment, and I con- 
tinued, under the direction of the governor, to perform, con- 
jointly with Dr. Lyman, such duties as were incidental to a 
medical bureau, until June 13, 1861, when I was commissioned 
surgeon-general of Massachusetts, with the rank of colonel." 
Many of the best physicians in the state gave their services 
gratuitously to the families of soldiers. The Boston bar voted 
to assume the business of any lawyers who might enlist and to 
make liberal provision for their families. Many of the clergy 
offered their services as chaplains. The Rev. W. H. Cudworth, 
of East Boston, not only volunteered as chaplain for the first 
three years' regiment, but also announced that, if his services 
were not accepted, he would devote a year's salary to the cause, 
and that the sexton and the organist would do the same. He 
also advised that the money raised to build a new church be 
devoted to the families of soldiers ; hoped the society would 
furnish at least one company to defend the flag; and recom- 
mended that the women of the parish form a society to make 
underclothing for the soldiers. Nor were the women lacking 
in zeal and patriotism. They freely offered their services as 
hospital nurses and busied, themselves in making soldiers' gar- 
ments and hospital supplies. On April 19 Mrs. Frances Wright, 
of Foxboro, wrote the governor, the letter being signed by 100 
young women of that town who offered their services in the 
above capacities, or in any other way possible. Gov. Andrew 
replied: "I accept it as one of the most earnest and sincere of 
the countless offers of devotion to our old commonwealth, and 
to the cause of the country," and asked them "to help those who 
are left behind and follow those who have gone before with your 
benedictions, your benefactions, and your prayers." The above 
are but limited examples of the boundless enthusiasm, the gen- 
erous spirit of sacrifice and the patriotic zeal displayed by all 



Military Affairs in Massachusetts 143 

classes in the Old Bay State, when the nation's integrity was 
assailed. Moreover, Massachusetts contributed her full share 
in the councils of the government at Washington, where she 
was represented by such men as Charles Sumner and Henry 
Wilson, while abroad she was represented at the Court of St. 
James by the brilliant Charles Francis Adams. 

From the first outbreak of hostilities the executive and mili- 
tary departments of the state were almost swamped with work. 
It was at once found necessary to relieve the adjutant-general of 
part of his duties, and on April 19 Col. John H. Reed, an experi- 
enced military man, was commissioned quartermaster-general of 
Massachusetts, with the rank of brigadier-general. Cols. Sargent, 
Ritchie, Lee and Wetherell, of the governor's personal staff, 
were almost constantly on duty, giving information, answering 
letters, and engaged with the many details of the executive office 
at this time. The executive council was also in session and on 
April 20 it authorized the treasurer to borrow $200,000, as an 
emergency fund for military purposes; and further directed that 
"an agent be sent to Europe with authority to purchase, on account 
of the commonwealth, 25,000 rifles and army pistols, to be im- 
ported as soon as may be, for the use of the militia in defense 
of the state and of the nation, and that the governor issue a letter 
of credit to such agent for the purpose of fulfilling this order." 
Hon. Francis B. Crowninshield was appointed as agent, given 
a letter of credit for £50,000 sterling, and sailed forthwith for 
England. 

Before the three months' levy was fairly in the field, men 
began to realize the need for longer enlistments, and that the war 
was to be a longer and much more serious affair than any one 
had at first thought. When, on May 3, Gov. Andrew stated 
among other things, in a letter to President Lincoln, "We have 
now enough additional men to furnish you with six more regi- 
ments to serve for the war, unless sooner discharged," he had 
in mind a three years' enlistment, which was believed by all, 
ample to cover any possible prolongation of the war. On May 
3, 1861, President Lincoln issued his proclamation calling for 
thirty-nine regiments of infantry and one of cavalry, but Mas- 
sachusetts was not assigned her quota under the call for more 
than two weeks. From the time the three months' troops left 
the state until the call for three years' volunteers communica- 
tions between the departments at Washington and the state 
authorities was slow and unsatisfactory. It was on this account 
that Gov. Andrew requested ex-Gov. Boutwell, Atty.-Gen. Fos- 
ter, Judge E. R. Hoar and William L. Burt to go forward and 
make every effort to keep him in touch with events at Wash- 



144 The Union Army 

ington, New York and elsewhere. He was admirably served 
by all these gentlemen, as will be seen from a study of their 
correspondence among the state papers. The following brief 
extracts from the correspondence of Judge Hoar at this period 
will show something of the valuable services rendered by them 
all. He writes from Washington on May 6, to Gov. Andrew : 
"Mr. Foster, I learn, has gone with Gen. Butler, and cannot 
be communicated with. Dr. Howe has not arrived. The 'Cam- 
bridge' arrived yesterday afternoon. I have therefore, as I wrote 
to you yesterday, 'taken the responsibility,' which I trust will meet 
your approbation, as there is no one here to attend to the busi- 
ness, and, unless instant attention be paid to it, in the present 
extreme confusion of affairs here, there would be even great 
delay in getting their private packages to our troops. I saw 
the president this morning the instant he left the breakfast table, 
presented your letter to him, and explained to him the whole 
business. I also saw Gen. Cameron, and he has agreed to take 
the stores, with the exception of such as we may retain for hos- 
pital use and for the reasonable comfort of our men, at the 
invoice price with the freight added at the price you named. 
The president sent for Mr. Seward, and I had a conference 
with them jointly as to the purchase or employment of the 
steamers, and also with Gen. Cameron. The strong inclination 
of the government is to purchase rather than to charter vessels, 
and I think the arrangement can be made to sell them. * * * 
The 6th Mass. regiment left Washington yesterday, under Gen. 
Butler's orders, for the Relay house, between Annapolis Junc- 
tion and Baltimore. Their future destination is not certain, but, 
if there should be a march for the occupation of Baltimore, it 
is felt that poetical justice requires that regiment to have first 
place." He thus describes a few of the early hardships of the 
5th regiment: "The regiment reached the junction (Annapolis) 
and took their first substantial sleep on the ground, without 
shelter or blankets. Our Concord company had nothing but 
their guns, and what they left home in, and their great-coats, 
and a number had not even the coats left behind at Annapolis. 
The baggage, left without charge, got mixed with general 
United States stores and distributed to Pennsylvania and other 
troops promiscuously. It is gone past redemption. Thirty men 
of the Concord company have not yet got a blanket and sleep 
on a hard floor. They had not a shirt in the company till last 
Friday, two weeks from home, except those they wore from 
home, nor a pair of stockings or drawers till Saturday, and then 
not enough to go around There is no complaint. * * * * 
They want what the enclosed list states — instantly. I know 



Military Affairs in Massachusetts 145 

you will send them if you can." May 2 Gov. Andrew appointed 
Dr. Samuel G. Howe of Boston to go into the field and make 
a personal report on the sanitary condition of Gen. Butler's bri- 
gade. He entered on his duties at once, and returning concluded 
his report with the pertinent suggestion : "If a tithe of the 
science, skill and care, which are so liberally given to improving 
all the means of killing the soldiers of other armies were devoted 
to the means of keeping our own soldiers in health, the present 
fearful mortality of war would be lessened." Judge Hoar left 
Washington about May 15. Charles Russell Lowell, Jr., later 
well known as a general of cavalry and mortally wounded at 
Cedar creek, Va., was appointed to take up the work of Judge 
Hoar. His duties as the semi-official agent of the state were 
explained to him by Judge Hoar, who thus summarized the 
matter: "The object of the whole arrangement is to have some 
one responsible, competent agent, who will know all that is 
done and sent from Massachusetts, and all that is wanted and 
received at Washington, or by the troops wherever stationed ; 
to take care of property, take vouchers, prevent waste, and to 
be the sole channel of communication between supply and de- 
mand." Mr. Lowell served as state agent until May 14, when 
he received from the president a captain's commission in the 
6th U. S. cavalry. He was succeeded in the work by Charles 
H. Dalton of Boston. 

After the president's call of May 3, 1861, every effort was 
made by the state authorities to induce the government to ac- 
cept all the regiments which Massachusetts was prepared to 
furnish. The whole state overflowed with martial ardor and 
companies were rapidly organized. These were drilled with 
care, and might be seen parading the streets of every consid- 
erable town in the state. Enlisted as militia, they were anxious 
to serve as three years' volunteers. On May 8 an offer was 
made to the secretary of war, by direction of the governor, to 
"furnish six regiments for three years, or for the war, per- 
fectly equipped, in addition to the quota which Massachusetts' 
might be called upon to furnish under the first call of the presi- 
dent." This was refused and the same day, by the secretary. 
Gov. Andrew telegraphed time and again for instructions to 
organize into regiments the various companies which had been 
formed, but could get no reply. Finally, on May 22, a letter 
was received from Sec'y Cameron, which gave, almost grudg- 
ingly, authority to raise six regiments, but added: "It is im- 
portant to reduce rather than enlarge this number, and in no 
event to exceed it. Let me earnestly recommend you, therefore, 
to call for no more than eight regiments, of which six only are 
Vol. I— 10 



146 The Union Army 

to serve for three years or during the war, and if more are 
already called for to reduce the number by discharge." This is 
strange language, in the light of after events, and clearly shows 
how little the authorities at Washington comprehended the grav- 
ity of the situation or the magnitude and length of the contest 
ahead. The masses of the people in city and hamlet seemed 
to have a far clearer insight into the future. The records of all 
the early town meetings in Massachusetts reflect this saner view 
on the part of the people. 

The organization of these three years' regiments was practi- 
cally the same as that which obtained in the regular army. Ma- 
terial for the formation of twice the number of regiments was 
at hand, but the war department had authorized only six addi- 
tional ones, which "were organized, armed, equipped, clothed 
and sent forward within four weeks after orders were received 
that they would be accepted." The following were the regi- 
ments: The 1st (Col. Cowdin) left for Washington June 15 
and was the first of the three years' regiments to reach the 
capital; the 2d (Col. Gordon) left for the front on July 8; the 7th 
(Col. Couch) left for Washington July 11 ; the 9th (Col. Cass), 
and the nth (Col. Clark) left for Washington on June 24; 
and the loth (Col. Briggs) on July 25. On June 17, through 
the vigorous efforts of Gov. Andrew, permission was accorded 
to raise ten more regiments. This met the governor's view 
that the war should be prosecuted with vigor and also dispelled 
some of the cares which had crowded thick upon him at this 
time. Orders were at once issued to organize and send forward 
these regiments and the work was accomplished with the same 
energy and despatch which had characterized Massachusetts 
since the inception of the war. It was impossible for the execu- 
tive department to satisfy many of the demands made upon it 
during this period. Replying to a letter from Senator Wilson, 
in Washington — who wrote that "the condition of the uniforms 
and equipments of the Massachusetts three months' troops was 
bad, as compared with those of other states," Gov. Andrew used 
this language: "I have sent and am sending forward large 
supplies both of provisions and clothing, but as I am not gifted 
by the Lord with omniscience, and as in no single case have I 
received any report from any of the regiments in and about 
Washington of what they need, I am sorry I am unable to sat- 
isfy everybody, and still more sorry that Massachusetts 
troops should be permitted to suffer. Although a month has 
now elapsed since they left the state, the muster-rolls of the 8th 
regiment are the only ones which have as yet been received." The 
officers failed to report fully and frequently on the needs of 



Military Affairs in Massachusetts 147 

their commands, but when authentic information was received 
on this head there was every effort made to satisfy all demands. 
"We have," he wrote, "not less than $50,000 worth of under- 
garments and other clothing now on hand. We are now manu- 
facturing no less than 6,000 summer unifonns, and we have spent 
not less than $50,000 in merely supplying subsistence to our 
troops on their way and in the field." If the troops were not 
properly equipped, it was due to their hurried departure, being 
assured by the secretary of war that the department would sup- 
ply all their needs at Washington on their arrival. He com- 
plained that he had never been advised what supplies the de- 
partment had furnished or expected to furnish; that no United 
States officer had been detailed to muster troops in Massachu- 
setts, and to advise with him, as was done in New York and 
other states; that in spite of his frequent communications on the 
subject, Boston harbor was then undefended by a single gun — 
his requests having been met with positive refusal or ignored; 
and that he was even refused permission to clean Fort Warren 
at the expense of the state, in order to put it into a sanitary 
condition for the reception of the volunteer troops ; and sug- 
gested finally "that the influence of all the agents of Massachu- 
setts at Washington is needed, and may be profitably exerted 
to extort from the national government, if it cannot be done 
by persuasion, at least some approach to the courtesy and atten- 
tion which have evidently been extended to other states in these 
respects, and which is preeminently due to Massachusetts, by 
reason of her constant loyalty, her prompt movement to the de- 
fense of the nation, her children dead at Baltimore, and the sac- 
rifice of money and men which she expects and is willing to 
make for the common cause." 

Believing that the war would be a long one, and that the state 
should be placed in a better position to meet the numerous prob- 
lems that had arisen since the close of the regular session of 
the legislature on April 13, it was deemed best to call an extra 
session, which convened on May 14. Gov, Andrew addressed 
them thus: "The occasion demands action, and it shall not be 
delayed by speech; nor do either the people or their representa- 
tives need or require to be stimulated by appeals or convinced 
by arguments. A grand era has dawned, inaugurated by the 
present great and critical exigency of the nation, through which 
it will providentially and triumphantly pass and soon, emerging 
from apparent gloom, will breathe a freer inspiration in the as- 
sured consciousness of vitality and power. Confident of our 
ultimate future, confident in the principles and ideas of demo- 
cratic-republican government, in the capacity, conviction and 



148 The Union Army 

manly purpose of the American people, wherever liberty exists 
and republican government is administered under the purifying 
and instructing power of free opinion and free debate — I per- 
ceive nothing now about us which ought to discourage the good 
or to alarm the brave." He then briefly reviewed the events of 
the last month ; stated that the state had expended up to date 
$267,645.18 in equipping and provisioning the regiments, ex- 
clusive of the £50,000 sterling drawn in favor of Mr. Crownin- 
shield for the purchase of arms abroad and of contracts which 
would call for the expenditure of $100,000 more ; said that 129 
new companies had been organized, and urged the following 
matters upon the attention of the legislative body: A state 
camp for military instruction ; a law forbidding the payment of 
bounties to men enlisting in local companies by the towns ; and 
prohibiting all costly and inefficient modes of organizing and 
disciplining troops. The legislature made a cordial response to 
these suggestions. Among the acts passed at this session was 
one "in aid of the families of volunteers," which empowered 
towns and cities to raise money for soldiers' families ; one or- 
ganizing the home guard ; and one "for the maintenance of 
the Union and the Constitution," which ratified what the gov- 
ernor had previously done, gave him power to arm, equip, and 
officer troops, fix their rank and pay, and adjust accounts with 
the United States. It also created the "Union Fund," and 
authorized the issue of $3,000,000 in scrip, bearing interest at 
six per cent. — coupons payable after 10 or at 30 years. A sup- 
plemental act empowered the governor to issue scrip for 
$7,000,000 at six per cent., to be loaned to the United States or 
expended in the -purchase of U. S. treasury notes. It also cre- 
ated a sinking fund to redeem the war debt ; passed an act which 
authorized the governor to pay from the Union Fund any troops 
of the commonwealth mustered into the U. S. service, from the 
time they reported up to the date of their muster in; and an act 
empowering the governor to establish one or more camps of 
military instruction and discipline. Many of the members do- 
nated their pay to the volunteer fund and the session concluded 
amid the singing of patriotic songs. 

After the six three years' regiments had left the state and 
the additional ten, before mentioned, had been accepted, there 
was a constant demand for troops until the close of the war. 
The state camp authorized by the legislature was never estab- 
lished, but the troops were rendezvoused at various temporary 
camps in different parts of the state to accommodate the local 
demand. In 1861, during a period of six months, a total of 
27,000 officers and men were organized, equipped and sent to 



Military Affairs in Massachusetts 149 

the front as three years' volunteers. Including the three months' 
men, the state furnished during the year an aggregate of 30,736 
ofhcers and enlisted men. The three years' organizations were the 
1st, 2d, 7th, and from the 9th to 29th regiments of infantry, 
inclusive, though the last two were not complete. In addition 
were one battalion of infantry, composed of five companies doing 
garrison duty at Fort Warren until the close of the year, which 
formed the nucleus of what was later the 32d infantry ; two 
companies of sharpshooters; the ist cavalry; ist, 2nd, 3d, 4th 
and 5th light batteries. Gen. Butler was also organizing two 
regiments in the state independently of the state authorities; six 
companies had gone to New York to join the "Mozart" regi- 
ment and the Excelsior brigade ; 300 had enlisted in the Union 
coast guard at Fortress Monroe, under Col. Wardrop, formerly 
of the 3d Mass. infantry, and 7,658 men had entered the naval 
service through enlistments at the Charlestown navy-yard. 

Despite the small pay of the volunteer soldier, every effort 
was made to induce him to save a part of it, both for the sake 
of those dependent upon him and for his own sake on return 
to civil life. On July 22, 1861, Congress provided for the allot- 
ment system to the vohmtecr soldiers. Frank H. Fay of Chelsea. 
Henry Edwards of Boston, and David Wilder, Jr., of Newton, 
were appointed allotment commissioners in Feb., 1862, and at 
once visited all the troops in the field. The work was so well 
done that forty-one regiments and batteries took advantage of 
the system, whereby a portion of the soldier's pay was deducted 
by the U. S. paymasters and sent directly to the state treasurer, 
who distributed it to the recipients named in the act of allot- 
ment through the several city and town treasurers, or retained 
it in the treasury at interest for the benefit of the soldier. More 
than $3,000,000 were sent home in this way by Massachusetts 
soldiers, in addition to sums sent directly by the men. 

Under the Massachusetts militia system the officers were 
elected and all the three months' regiments were organized in 
this manner. On account of the short term of their service, no 
question arose as to the method of filling vacancies which might 
result during their absence. With the three years', and other 
long service troops, the elective system was dropped and the 
officers of the regiments and companies were selected and com- 
missioned by the governor. The question of filling vacancies 
was unsettled until Aug., 1861, when it was determined that the 
adjutant-general of the United States should report any va- 
cancy to the governor, who thereupon issued the commission 
to such person as he might select. This practice, with some 
modifications for certain troops, prevailed during the war. 



150 The Union Army 

The work of organizing and sending off so many troops dur- 
ing the year 1861 entailed so much extra labor as to require 
the appointment of new staff officers, and the creation of more 
military departments. Mention has already been made of the 
appointment of a quartermaster-general of the state on April 
19, which appointment was later confirmed at the special session 
of the legislature. The organization of a medical bureau has 
also been detailed. On May 25, 1861, Gen, Ebenezer W. Stone 
was appointed master of ordnance with the rank of colonel and 
held, the position until October of the same year. On May 27, 
Albert G. Browne, Jr., of Salem, was appointed military secretary 
to the governor with the rank of lieutenant-colonel and held the 
position throughout the several administrations of Gov. Andrew. 
On June 13, 1861, Elijah D. Brigham of Boston was commis- 
sioned commissary-general of Massachusetts ; Charles H. Dalton, 
at Washington ; William P. Lee and Waldo Adams, of Boston, and 
Frank E. Howe, of New York, were appointed assistant quarter- 
master-generals during the summer of this year. 

Men had come to realize that the war was to be a bitter and 
protracted struggle. Most of the men in the field had enlisted 
for long terms of service and the casualties from battle and 
disease were growing in volume as the months rolled by. Every 
effort was made by the state authorities to supply the needs of 
the soldiers at the front and to relieve the sufferings of the 
sick and wounded. To this end various soldiers' relief asso- 
ciations and agencies were established early in the war. One 
such agency was established at Washington after the arrival 
of the wounded of the 6th regiment from Baltimore, April 19, 
1861. This agency enlarged its field of usefulness until it in- 
cluded not only the oversight of Massachusetts men in the 60 
hospitals in and near Washington, but reached out to the ac- 
cessible camps and battle-fields and took in the needs of both 
the sound and disabled soldiers. The scope of the work to be 
carried on is well set forth in the following preamble of the 
constitution, adopted at a meeting of Massachusetts residents 
of Washington, April 19: "The undersigned, now or formerly 
citizens of Massachusetts, in order to secure, by organization 
and mutual cooperation, proper care for the wounded and dis- 
abled and decent interment for the dead, of the Massachusetts 
troops which are now or may be on duty in this vicinity, do 
form ourselves into a society, to be called the Massachusetts 
association." The sick and wounded were returned in great 
numbers during the summer of 1862 from the Peninsular cam- 
paign, and Col. Gardner W. Tufts of Lynn was appointed the 
agent for Massachusetts in Washington. His instructions gov- 



Military Affsiirs in Massachusetts 151 

ered every service an agent could perform, or a soldier require. 
Mention should here be made of the devoted labors in this field of 
Miss Lander of Salem, sister of Gen. Frederick W. Lander, who 
"headed the advance guard of that corps of mercy." Another 
devoted co-worker was Mrs. Jennie L. Thomas of Dedham. 
appointed in Oct., 1862, to assist Col. Tufts. The names of 
35,151 sick or wounded men were recorded at the Washington 
agency, and the expense to the Massachusetts treasury was $35,- 
cxx). The total amount of the money transactions of the agency up 
to Jan. I, 1867, was $721,722.87. During the last year of the 
war a branch was established in Annapolis to care for the Mas- 
sachusetts soldiers who were or had been prisoners. 

Another important relief agency was early established in New 
York city, which came to be known as "the New England 
rooms." The originator of this noble relief work was Frank E. 
Howe, a former citizen of Massachusetts. It developed into a 
hospital and home for soldiers from all the New England states. 
The expenses were met by voluntary contributions from the lib- 
eral and patriotic citizens of the city. Col. Howe was made the 
accredited agent of the commonwealth in a letter written by the 
governor May 20, 1861, acknowledging Mr. Howe's liberal and 
patriotic tender of services. 

The need for similar agencies was early felt in the large cities 
of Baltimore and Philadelphia, where state agencies were estab- 
lished and became useful auxiliaries to the great agencies in New 
York and Washington. In consequence the soldiers of the state 
were sure of being cared for while en route through these cities. 
The Baltimore agency was established under the direction of the 
governor and was placed in charge of William Robinson of that 
city, who had won favorable notice through kindness extended 
to the wounded of the 6th regiment. At Philadelphia Robert C. 
Corson was placed in charge of the immediate interests of Mas- 
sachusetts soldiers passing through that city. In addition to the 
establishment of the above agencies, the governor gave personal 
attention to the wants of the Massachusetts regiments, and at 
various times sent members of his staff to the front to report on 
their condition. During the disastrous summer of 1862, Adj.-Gen. 
Schouler, Col. Ritchie, Col. John Q. Adams, and Dr. Bowditch 
were sent to the front and rendered full reports of the condition 
of the men. 

Among the numerous relief associations which were estab- 
lished in various parts of the state it is only possible to mention 
a few of the more important ones by reason of the limitations 
of this work. Two important and central organizations, which 
carried on relief work of a notable and highly praiseworthy char- 



152 The Union Army 

acter, were formed in Boston and its immediate vicinity. The 
"Ladies' Industrial aid association" had for its object the assist- 
ance of those women who performed sewing- and manual work 
for contractors to meet the urgent calls for military clothing and 
supplies. Mrs. Charles R. Lowell was the president of the asso- 
ciation and received the articles from the contractors. She was 
able to pay the women twice as much as the contractors and thus 
performed a two-fold service. The New England Women's 
auxiliary association, an efficient branch of the U. S. sanitary 
commission, was organized in Dec, 1861, and rendered impor- 
tant aid in the work of that noble institution. Its branches were 
everywhere throughout Massachusetts, and the three New Eng- 
land States on the north. One million garments and articles 
were forwarded to the hospitals and camps; $314,000 was con- 
tributed to the work; all services were done gratuitously. The 
Donation Committee originated in Boston early in the war and 
was another important relief association. It was under the man- 
agement of Mrs. Harrison Gray Otis and received and distrib- 
uted during the four years of the war an immense quantity of 
supplies to the soldiers. Nearly $1,000,000 in money and goods 
were donated and passed through the hands of the committee. 
The headquarters were originally at the home of Mrs. Otis, 
later at the Evans house, and finally at 126 Tremont street, op- 
posite Park street church. While these large and central meas- 
ures were being put into operation in and about Boston other 
parts of the state were equally patriotic and were doing efficient 
work along the same lines. Even the convicts in the state prison 
worked night and day preparing supplies for the outgoing vol- 
unteers. Space forbids more than passing mention of the Mas- 
sachusetts soldiers' fund, whereby the amount of nearly $75,000 
was raised and disbursed for the benefit of soldiers' families ; 
the Boston soldiers' fund, for the benefit of soldiers' families liv- 
ing in Boston ; and the considerable sums donated and disbursed 
through the medium of the surgeon-general of the state. The 
record of patriotic relief work carried on by the people of Mas- 
sachusetts during the war is an inspiring and noble one, and has 
never been surpassed. 

Gov. And,rew was nominated by acclamation at the Republi- 
can state convention which met at Worcester, Oct. i, 1861, and 
was elected to succeed himself by a large majority. The resolu- 
tions adopted by the convention recited that the maintenance of 
the constitution transcends any other question, and demands the 
life and property of all citizens; expressed a desire for the union 
of all friends of the coimtry against its pretended friends and 
open enemies; declared that no rights secured to loyal citizens 



Military Affairs in Massachusetts 153 

shall be endangered, and that disloyal citizens have no rights 
adverse to those who are loyal ; approved the acts of the admin- 
istration ; recognized the devotion of the volunteers and recom- 
mended, great care in the nomination of subordinate officers. An 
anti-slavery resolution was tabled. 

Near the close of 1861, after some correspondence between 
the states, the legislature of Maryland appropriated $7,000 for 
the benefit of the families of those who were killed and wounded 
in the Baltimore riot. The act was a gracious one and did much 
to promote good feeling between the two states. The legisla- 
ture, which assembled in Jan., 1862, duly acknowledged this act 
of Maryland. It also mad,e provision for the armament of the 
forts in Boston harbor and at New Bedford and caused plans 
to be prepared for the fortifications of other ports in the state. 
This subject of proper coast defenses was a matter of constant 
care and anxiety to the state authorities throughout the war. 
The matter never received the attention it deserved at Washing- 
ton, though it is probable that neither the navy nor war depart- 
ment had the means at their command to afford the needed pro- 
tection. As early as April 24, 186 1, the governor sent a detach- 
ment of the volunteer militia to garrison the forts in Boston har- 
bor. Though every effort was made to induce the United States 
government to remedy the defenseless condition of the coast as 
speedily as possible, so great was the pressure of other matters 
of moment requiring immediate attention, that little or nothing 
was done. In his message to the legislature in Jan.. 1863, the 
governor reviewed the history of his past efforts, and liberal pro- 
vision was made by the legislature at this session to effect the 
desired relief. Fortifications were thereupon erected at New- 
buryport, Marblehead, Plymouth, Salem, New Bedford and 
Gloucester, and Boston harbor was at the same time provided 
with an ingenious system of defenses. The greatest need — large 
and powerful guns — could only be satisfied by despatching 
agents to Europe, which was promptly done. In this way a 
number of powerful guns were contracted for and secured. The 
famous fight between the Merrimac and Monitor had demon- 
strated the absolute necessity of heavy ordnance in naval attack 
and coast defense. 

During the first six months of 1862, the following three years' 
organizations had been recruited and sent to the front : Three 
companies of unattached cavalry ; the 28th, 29th and 30th in- 
fantry regiments; the 6th battery; seven companies of the 31st 
regiment comprising the Fort Warren battalion and later reor- 
ganized as the 32nd infantry ; two companies for the 14th infantry, 
making a total of 4,587 men. Other new organizations created 



154 The Union Army 

during this period were a company of light artillery known as 
Cook's (8th) battery, mustered in for six months' service; the ist 
unattached company of heavy artillery, enlisted for three years for 
service in the Boston harbor forts; the ist company of Cadets, 
which took the place of the Fort Warren battalion ; the 2nd com- 
pany Cadets of Salem, on garrison duty in the forts of Boston 
harbor, and a company raised by Capt. E. H. Staten, also mus- 
tered in for garrison duty. Besides the above new organiza- 
tions 6,628 volunteers were recruited and sent forward to fill 
the depleted ranks of regiments in the field. Says Adjt.- 
Gen. Schouler: "It was the policy of Gov. Andrew to keep 
the regiments in service full, rather than to organize new regi- 
ments while the old regiments were wanting men. In pur- 
suance of this policy, 7,000 men were enlisted during the year 
1862, assigned to regiments in the field, and forwarded to their 
several destinations." Much criticism has been leveled at Mas- 
sachusetts for what was termed her "mistaken policy" in respect 
to recruiting. Such able military critics as J. C. Ropes at home 
and the Comte de Paris abroad have been especially severe in 
their strictures on the policy of forming new regiments, instead 
of filling up the old ones. What these and other critics say is 
probably true, but the procedure was rather a matter of neces- 
sity than one of choice. That it was not the policy of Gov. An- 
drew, as sometimes asserted, is refuted by the above statement 
of Adjt.-Gen. Schouler, as well as by an incident related by the 
state historian, T. W. Higginson. A local selectman in 1864 
offered the governor a company from his town for a new regi- 
ment if the officers named by the men could be commissioned. 
This was strongly opposed by the governor, but the selectman 
stated that not a man could be raised in his town for an old regi- 
ment. Said Bvt. Brig.-Gen. Walcott who described the scene : 
"Since new regiments were better than none and quotas 
must be fille^, Gov. Andrew had to yield, and wound up with 
this vehement commentary, 'Julius Caesar himself couldn't raise 
a company for an old regiment in Massachusetts, as long as there 
is a shoemaker left to make a captain of.' " It became easier to 
secure recruits for old organizations after July 21, 1862, when 
the secretary of war issued an order promising new recruits that 
they should be mustered out with the regiment to which they 
were assigned. "Most of our regiments in the field had two 
years yet to serve, and there was a general belief that before the 
expiration of the regiments' terms the war would be at an end. 
The effect of the order was to send nearly 5,000 men to fill up 
the depleted ranks." (Adjt.-General's Rep., Jan., 1865, p. 51.) 
In response to an order from the president May 28, 1862, for 



Military Affairs in Massachusetts 155 

thirty companies of infantry, recruiting was commenced for the 
33d and 34th infantry. Six of the remaining ten companies were 
recruited and assigned as a garrison for Fort Warren, and four 
to complete the organization of the 32nd. On July 2, 1862, the 
president called for 300,000 three years' men. General Order, 
No. 26, called for 15,000 volunteers from Massachusetts to form 
new regiments and to fill the ranks of old ones. Each town was 
now assigned its quota and recruiting proceeded rapidly. Within 
three months from the date of the receipt of this order, Massa- 
chusetts had furnished her contingent of 15,000 men, 4,000 of 
which went to recruit regiments in the field, and the 33d, 34th, 
35th, 36th, 37th, 38th, 39th, 40th and 41st infantry (afterwards 
reorganized as the 3d cavalry), together with the 9th and loth 
light batteries, were the new organizations formed under this 
order. Not a dollar of bounty was paid these or any of the pre- 
ceding men by the state. Before the work of recruiting the 
above mentioned 15,000 men was half completed the president 
issued, on Aug. 4. a call for 300,000 men for nine months' serv- 
ice. The proportion assigned to Massachusetts was 19,000 and 
the men were to be drafted. From the beginning to the end of 
the war, both the state and local authorities were strenuously 
opposed to the draft, and labored to avoid it. As Massachusetts 
furnished her quota at this period within a reasonable time by 
voluntary enlistment a draft was avoided. The new enrolment, 
however, which was made at this time, showing the credits to 
be allowed to the various cities for men already furnished, and 
the proportion required from each under this call, remained as a 
basis for all future apportionments among the cities and towns 
throughout the war. By December the quota of the state was 
practically filled. About 33,000 men had been recruited in less 
than 5 months, and the regiments, well organized and equipped, 
had gone forward. Und,er the call for nine months' troops, the 
following regiments were supplied: The 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, 8th, 
which had been in the three months' service at the beginning of 
the war, were each recruited to the full standard for the nine 
months' service, and new infantry regiments from the 42nd to 
the 53d, inclusive, were organized, together with the nth light 
battery, the only nine months' battery raised in the state. Mas- 
sachusetts had at the close of the year 1862 in active service up- 
wards of 60,000 men in the field, composed of fifty-three regi- 
ments of infantry, one regiment and three unattached companies 
of cavalry, twelve companies of light and three of heavy artil- 
lery, and two companies of sharpshooters. Moreover, recruiting 
for the old organizations in the field had gone forward briskly 
and several thousand men had been supplied. Massachusetts 



156 The Union Army 

troops had suffered heavy losses in the Peninsular campaign, un- 
der Gen. Pope, and at the battle of Antietam. 

In the Republican state convention which assembled at Wor- 
cester, Sept. lo, 1862, resolutions were adopted which stated 
in substance: that Massachusetts would support the government 
in the prosecution of the war; that, as slavery was a principal 
support of the rebellion, slavery should be exterminated. The 
valor of the soldiers was complimented and sympathy expressed 
for those who had fallen ; one complimentary to the senators in 
Congress, and favoring the reelection of Charles Sumner to the 
U. S. senate by the legislature to be elected in November, and 
one which indorsed the state administration. The convention 
renominated Gov. Andrew and the old state officers, with the 
exception of the lieutenant-governor, by acclamation. The 
Democratic party as such held no convention, but united with 
the conservative and dissatisfied Republicans to hold a "People's 
convention," which placed in nomination Brig.-Gen. Charles 
Devens, Jr., for governor; Thomas F. Plunkett for lieutenant- 
governor; Henry W. Paine for attorney-general, and indorsed 
the balance of the Republican ticket. Candidates for Congress 
in several districts were also nominated. The resolutions adopted 
favored a vigorous prosecution of the war and pointedly in- 
dorsed Gen. McClellan. Gov. Andrew received 80,835 votes at 
the election, and Devens 52,587. The legislature which met in 
Jan., 1863, reelected Charles Sumner as U. S. senator, thus sus- 
taining him in his fearless position as an opponent of the insti- 
tution of slavery. The legislature adjourned on April 29, after 
passing about 350 bills. Among the expenditures provided for 
were $1,000,000 for coast defenses, $500,000 for the purchase of 
arms and $5,500,000 for expenses connected with the war. It 
authorized the reimbursement to the cities and towns for the 
bounties paid by them to volunteers, in sums not to exceed $100 
to each volunteer; legalized the acts and doings of cities and 
towns in the payment of bounties to volunteers and taxes assessed 
to pay the same ; authorized the state aid to be paid to families of 
drafted men the same as families of volunteers ; provided for 
the payment by the state of the pay due to soldiers by the Fed,- 
eral government and for the encouragement of the allotment of 
pay by the soldiers ; authorized the governor to pay bounties not 
to exceed $50 each to volunteer, and provided that cities and 
towns might raise money by taxation for the support of the 
families of deceased soldiers and of soldiers discharged for disa- 
bility. The various municipalities were prohibited, from the fur- 
ther payment of bounties to volunteers. 

The state raised and equipped during the war five regiments 



Military Affairs in Massachusetts 157 

of cavalry, which were all the mounted troops furnished, except 
a battalion of frontier cavalry and a few unattached companies 
furnished near the close of the struggle. Reference has been 
made to the formation of the ist cavalry. Two more regiments 
of cavalr>' were formed in 1863. 

The Emancipation Proclamation of President Lincoln had 
gone into effect on Jan. i, 1863, and Congress had authorized 
the president by express terms to employ persons of African 
descent as he might deem best for the suppression of the rebel- 
lion. On Jan. 26 Gov. Andrew was authorized by the secretary 
of war to recruit a colored regiment in Massachusetts, the same 
to be officered by white men. On account of the strong preju- 
dices involved only five regiments of colored volunteers, the ist 
S. C, ist Kansas, and three regiments of free colored men 
recruited by Gen. Butler in New Orleans, had been organized 
up to this date. An effort had, indeed, been made in one eastern 
state, Rhode Island, to recruit a colored regiment, but it re- 
mained for Massachusetts, under the vigorous lead of Gov. An- 
drew, to take the first effective steps. The first authority to 
recruit for a colored regiment was issued by Gov. Andrew, Feb. 
7, 1863, and in less than 100 days the regiment was filled to the 
maximum. Such was the enthusiasm among the colored men to 
enlist the authorities decided to organize another colored regi- 
ment, which was also rapidly filled, the two regiments being 
numbered the 54th and the 55th. The report of the adjutant- 
general for 1863 thus sets forth the feeling which prevailed : 
"It required calm foresight, thorough knowledge of our condi- 
tion, earnest conviction, faith in men, faith in the cause, and 
undaunted courage, to stem the various currents which set in 
and flooded the land against employing the black man as a sol- 
dier. In the executive of Massachusetts was found a man who 
possessed the qualifications necessary to stem these currents, and 
to wisely inaugurate and peacefully carry out to a successful ter- 
mination the experiment of recruiting regiments of colored 
men." Many patriotic men in the North felt that there was 
imminent danger in this procedure lest the prime object of the 
war — the restoration of the national authority in the seceded 
states — give place to an anti-slavery crusade. Many worthy sol- 
diers protested against serving in an abolition crusade, and many 
desertions at this time may properly be attributed to this cause. 
Most men now realize that the employment of the blacks as sol- 
diers by the North was wise, both from a military standpoint and 
as a means of advancing the colored race. Col. Shaw, who was 
placed in command of the 54th, had been a captain in the 2nd 
Mass. infantry, a brilliant officer, a student of Harvard college 



158 The Union Army 

and belonged to one of the best families in the state. He fell 
while leading his men, on the parapet of Fort Wagner, S. C, and 
was buried with his men in a common trench by the Confeder- 
ates. Lieut.-Col. Hallowell organized the 55th and became its 
colonel. Both regiments rendered excellent service. In the 
winter of 1863-64, a third colored regiment was formed, known 
as the 5th Mass. cavalry, under the command of Col. Henry S. 
Russell. The men in these commands came from many different 
parts of the country. Massachusetts officers were especially 
prominent in the work of arming the blacks in other parts of 
the country. The pioneer regiment of the whole series of slave- 
regiments was the one raised in South Carolina in Aug., 1862, 
under authority of the war department, by Brig.-Gen. Rufus 
Saxton, military governor of the Department of the South. Gen. 
Saxton was a Massachusetts man, as was Col. T. W. Higginson, 
the commander of the regiment. Capt. R. J. Hinton, who re- 
cruited the 1st Kansas colored reg., Maj.-Gen. B. F. Butler, who 
recruited the three colored regiments of New Orleans, Maj.-Gen. 
G. L. Andrews, and Maj. G. L. Stearns, who had principal 
charge of the work of organizing the blacks in the slave states, 
Maj.-Gen. N. P. Banks, who organized the Corps d'Afrique at 
New Orleans, Maj.-Gen. Edward W. Hinks, who commanded 
a large body of the colored troops in the operations before 
Petersburg, and Brig.-Gen. Samuel M. Quincy, author of a 
special system of tactics for the colored troops, were all Massa- 
chusetts men. A matter which should also be borne in mind is 
that the white officers in command of these black men were ex- 
pressly denied the ordinary rights of war by the Confederate 
government, and "if captured, were to be put to death as in- 
citing servile insurrection." 

The only draft of any consequence which occurred in Massa- 
chusetts took place during the months of June and July, 1863. 
The law directing it, passed by Congress the previous winter, 
was put into operation at this time, when Maj. Clarke, of the 
U. S. Army, was appointed provost-marshal-general for the 
state, with headquarters at Boston, and assistant provost-mar- 
shals were appointed for the several congressional districts. All 
male persons in the state between 20 and 45 years of age were 
enrolled in two classes, the total number being 164,178. The 
number actually drafted was 32,079, of whom 6,690 were held 
to serve, though of these only 743 actually joined the service, 
2,325 provided substitutes, 22,343 were exempted, 3,044 failed 
to report, and 3,623 paid commutation, amounting to $1,085,800. 
The number of drafted men and substitutes actually mustered 
into service in 1863 was 2,944, of whom 2,720 were assigned to 



Military Affairs in Massachusetts 159 

regiments at the front, and 224 served as a provost guard at 
camp on Long Island. Of the above number, 73 were colored 
and were sent to the 54th infantry. By reason of the wise pre- 
cautions taken, the bloody scenes which occurred in the streets 
of New York were not repeated in Massachusetts. There was 
rioting and disorder in the streets of Boston and angry demon- 
strations in other places, but only one serious outbreak took 
place. This was in front of the armory of the nth battery of 
light artillery on Cooper street, Boston. A single volley was 
all that the soldiers of Massachusetts were called on to fire 
against a mob which sought to force an entrance to the armory 
building, the police being sufficient to quell the other disturb- 
snces. 

During the winter of 1863-64 every encouragement was given 
to the soldiers in the field whose terms of service were about to 
expire to reenlist for another term of three years. Each soldier 
who reenlisted was to receive a furlough of 30 days and the liberal 
bounty offered by the state and general government. Upward 
of 6,200 Massachusetts veterans accepted the terms, and were 
credited on the state's quota. While not increasing the number 
of soldiers in the service, they were the best troops possible and 
served to offset the weakness resulting from the inferior charac- 
ter of the troops recruited during the later months of the war, 
from which Massachusetts suffered in common with the other 
states. Four veteran regiments were raised during the fall and 
winter of 1863-64, composed of men who had not seen less than 
nine months' service. These were the 57th to the 59th, inclusive. 

In addition to the 2nd cavalry recruited in the early part of 
the year to which reference has been made, the 2nd heavy artil- 
lery was organized in the summer of 1863, while several com- 
panies of heavy artillery were organized for garrison duty in 
the coast forts of the state. During the year, 11,538 men were 
mastered in for three years, bringing the total of three years' 
men up to 63,359. Added to this were 16,837 ii^^e months' men 
and 3,736 three months' men, giving the state a grand total of 
83,932. Also 3,686 men who had enlisted in 1863 for the naval 
service and 17,304 since the beginning of the war, for whom the 
state had as yet been given no credit by the general government. 
If these be added to those furnished for the military service, 
Massachusetts had supplied for all arms of the service by the 
close of the year 1863, a total of loi, 236 men. 

Under the president's call of Oct. 17, 1863, for 300,000 volun- 
teers, the quota of Massachusetts was 15,126. The repeated 
calls had already drained the state of much of its active man- 
hood,. The high patriotic impulses which had moved men to 



160 The Union Army 

enlist by thousands during the early months of the war no longer 
stirred men's hearts, after more than two years of bitter struggle. 
The stay-at-homes were influenced by potent family and business 
considerations. In the face of the strong demand for labor at 
high wages, and the prevailing business prosperity, the small 
bounties offered and the meager pay of the soldier in the field 
provided no pecuniary temptation to embark in the more dan- 
gerous service. Volunteers in active service were receiving $13 
per month in money and $3 in clothing, the state was oiTering a 
bounty of $50 for a three years' enlistment, and the United 
States $100, while the recruits were given their choice between 
infantry, cavalry and artillery regiments. Recruiting progressed 
very slowly, and to avoid a resort to the unpopular draft the 
governor was importuned to call an extra session of the legis- 
lature, that measures might be devised to stimulate enlistments. 
The amount of state bounty could not be increased under exist- 
ing law and little added inducement could be offered by the cities 
and towns under the law as framed. He accordingly summoned 
the legislature to meet on Nov. 11, and in an elaborate message 
recommended that the state add to the monthly pay of the vol- 
unteers, rather than pay a large bounty at the date of their mus- 
ter into service. He also asked them to right the injustice done 
the colored troops by the general government, which paid these 
men only $7 per month and the usual allowance for clothing. 
The legislature remained in session for only a week and devoted 
itself to the matters urged on their attention by the governor. A 
bill to promote enlistments and recruiting was passed ; a bill 
which provided for the payment of a bounty of $325 on the date 
of muster, or, if the recruit should so elect, a bounty of $50, and 
a monthly wage of $20. In case a soldier should be honorably 
discharged after six months' service, the payment was to be con- 
tinued for six months longer, or, if he should die in the service, 
the money was to be paid to his legal representatives. It further 
extended the provisions of the state-aid act to the families of 
volunteers. Resolutions were passed urging on Congress an in- 
crease of the pay of the soldiers; expressing the injustice done 
the state by Congress in not allowing credits for men in the 
naval service, and in not allowing the colored troops the same 
pay as the whites. 

Considerable bitterness was shown in the political campaign 
of 1863. The Democratic party placed in nomination for gov- 
ernor a new man to the party, and a former Whig, Henry W. 
Paine of Cambridge, and a full state ticket. They made their 
canvass on a platform which declared that it is the duty of every 
citizen to sustain the national government; that the Democracy 



Military Affairs in Massachusetts 161 

will meet armed rebellion with the sword, and "unconstitutional 
acts of Congress and startling usurpations of power by the exec- 
utive" with the ballot; that obedience to the constitution is the 
only true test of loyalty to the government; that the attempt of 
the radicals to insist on their party platform as a condition of 
peace, tends, not merely to prolong the war, but to produce an- 
archy and despotism. They urged a speedy peace on honorable 
terms and condemned the unconstitutional assumption of various 
powers by the administration on the insidious plea of military 
necessity. The Republican convention again placed in nomina- 
tion Gov. Andrew and his official associates, on a platform which 
pledged the state to an unwavering and unconditional support 
of the national government ; thanked the soldiers and sailors for 
their heroic services for the preservation of the Union ; approved 
the emancipation policy of the president and the arming of the 
blacks, and gave unqualified indorsement to the policy of the 
state administration. At the election in November, Gov. Andrew 
and his party associates were elected by a large majority, An- 
drew receiving the largest majority he had yet received — 41,199. 

When the new legislature assembled in 1864, the annual mes- 
sage of the governor recommended that the various bounty acts 
and those extending state aid to families be modified to include 
soldiers enlisted in the regular army, and all such families irre- 
spective of their place of residence, and authorizing retroactive 
relief when the situation of the families demanded it. He urged 
the establishment of a military academy by the commonwealth, 
and argued at length in favor of recruiting the wasted regiments 
in the field from the population of the rebellious states. He 
showed also that the expenses of the year had been $6,728,000, 
about $5,1 16,032 of which had been expended in the payment of 
bounties, aid to families, etc. Most of the acts passed by the legisla- 
ture were of a local character, the others being chiefly amenda- 
tory of acts already passed relating to the soldiers. Towns were 
authorized to raise money by taxation for the purpose of erecting 
monuments "in memory of their soldiers who have died or may 
die in the service of our country in the present war." Another 
act was designed to give the right of suflFrage to those whose ab- 
sence prevented their assessment in the usual manner ; another 
made provision for the payment of the proportional expense of 
the state in the completion of the national cemetery at Gettys- 
burg and the reinterment of the dead there, while still another 
authorized the creation of a "Bounty Fund" by the issue of $10,- 
000,000 of scrip at five per cent, interest. 

At the beginning of the year 1864, the seventeen regiments 
enlisted for nine months had returned home, and the state had in 
Vol. I— 11 



162 The Union Army 

the field thirty-six regiments of infantry, three regiments of 
cavalry, two regiments of heavy artillery, one battalion and 
eight unattached companies of heavy artillery, twelve batteries 
of light artillery, and two companies of sharpshooters — all in 
the three years' service. In addition to the four veteran regi- 
ments recruited during the winter of 1863-64, the 4th and 5th 
cavalry were organized and sent to the front during the first six: 
months of 1864, and the following new organizations were also 
recruited within this period: a new battalion for the ist cavalry; 
the nth, 14th and i6th batteries of light artillery, which joined 
the Army of the Potomac ; four companies of heavy artillery, 
which were attached to the eight companies raised in 1863, and 
known as the 3d Mass. heavy artillery ; and several thousand 
men were sent forward as recruits to fill the old regiments. 

The final campaign of the war was now in progress and was 
soon to bring about the fall of the Confederacy. Every available 
man was now needed at the front, and an order from the secre- 
tary of war on July i, 1864, relieved veteran troops on garrison 
duty at various points and sent them into active service, and 
directed that militia regiments enlisted for 100 days take their 
places. Massachusetts responded with her usual promptness 
and furnished five regiments to serve for 100 days. These were 
the 5th, 6th, 8th, 42nd and 60th regiments of infantry, the last 
named being a new organization. Besides these regiments, nine 
companies of 100 days' men were recruited for garrison duty in 
the coast fortifications of the state. The total recruited under 
this call was 5,461, none of whom were credited on the quota of 
the state. During September the 4tli regiment of heavy artillery 
was recruited for one year's service and was assigned to duty in 
the defenses of Washington, where it was soon followed by two- 
unattached companies designed for the same service. A regi- 
ment of infantry, the 6ist, was also slowly recruited during the 
fall and winter, and left the state in detachments, to report to 
Gen. Grant at City Point. Near the close of December, the fron- 
tier cavalry was organized^, consisting of a battalion of five com- 
panies, which joined the 26th N. Y. cavalry and performed 
guard duty on the Canadian frontier. From the surplus men 
who had desired to enlist in this battalion, three companies were 
formed late in the year and attached to the 3d Mass. cavalry in 
the field, taking the places of three independent companies which 
were mustered out. In addition to the above, 1,247 men were 
mustered in for 90 days' service. On March 10, 1865, General 
Order, No. 5, was issued in accordance with a requisition of the 
war department to raise one regiment for one year's service, and 
for thirty infantry companies to recruit old regiments. The new 



Military Affairs in Massachusetts 163 

regiment was to be numbered the 62nd, but while these organi- 
zations were in process of formation the news of Gen. Lee's sur- 
render was received and they were never organized. 

According to the official statement from the adjutant-general's 
office, July 15, 1885, the total number of sailors and marines 
furnished by the various states to the U. S. Navy was 101,207. 
Of this large number, Massachusetts, being a seaside state, con- 
tributed a larger number than any other except New York. Her 
contribution in round numbers was 20,000, or nearly one-fifth 
of the whole number. A body of volunteer naval officers was 
also created during the war. A total of 7,500 were enrolled in 
this service, and out of this number, Higginson says that Massa- 
chusetts furnished at least 1,757. The state received no credit 
on her quotas for this large number of naval enlistments, until 
Congress passed the act of July 4, 1864, which allowed the 
same and was one of the most just deeds of Congress during 
the war. Much credit is due Gov. Andrew in securing its en- 
actment and he was at Washington when the bill passed. It 
afforded a method whereby all the discontented cities and towns 
of the state could be satisfied. The number of enlistments 
claimed by the several cities and towns was allowed them, and 
there was left a surplus of 7,605, which was distributed pro rata 
among them. The same act which allowed naval credits, also 
made it lawful for the executive to send recruiting agents into 
the rebellious states to obtain recruits for the Union armies. 
Col. Jos. M. Day of Barnstable was appointed provost-marshal 
of the state and given supervision over the matter of enlistments. 
Agents were appointed at Washington, Fortress Monroe, New- 
bern, Hilton Head, and Nashville. In this way 1,257 ^nen were 
secured for the quota of the state, but the measure proved of 
doubtful value. There resulted a sharp competition between the 
several states, who despatched their agents into the rebellious 
territory as to which could offer the highest bids for men willing 
to join the Union army. In addition to these enlistments secured 
without the borders of the state, it will have been noted that 
certain other outside elements contributed to fill her quota. Many 
came to the state to enlist in the 54th and 55th infantry (col- 
ored), the California battalion of the 2nd cavalry, but the great 
proportion of the men furnished by Massachusetts were her own 
sons. She even furnished considerable bodies of troops for out- 
side organizations, for which she is commonly given no credit 
in estimates of the total numbers furnished. Five companies 
joined the New York Mozart regiment in 1861, and some 600 
men enlisted in the 99th N. Y. infantry, commanded by Col. 
Wardrop, formerly of the 3d Mass. militia. 



164 The Union Army 

While the trying campaign of 1864 was in full progress and 
a heavy cloud of uncertainty hung over the country lest it should 
not be carried to a successful issue, the great battle of the ballots 
in both nation and state took place. President Lincoln was tri- 
umphantly reelected for a second term. In the state, the Re- 
publicans met in convention at Worcester, Sept. 15, and renomi- 
nated Gov. Andrew amid great enthusiasm. The old state ticket 
was again nominated with the exception of Atty.-Gen. Foster, 
who declined to make the race. The resolutions adopted con- 
formed to those of previous years and sustained the Baltimore 
platform and nominations of the national party. The Democratic 
state convention met on Sept. 21, at Faneuil Hall, Boston, and 
renominated their ticket of the previous year. Their platform 
indorsed the nomination of Gen. McClellan at Chicago and "the 
patriotic principles declared by the national convention" ; de- 
clared that the people demanded fulfillment of the pledges in 
the Crittenden resolution and a return to cooperative movements 
toward peace and union ; that the present deplorable civil war 
was fatal to the Union and constitution ; applauded Sheri- 
dan's great victory at Winchester, which had just taken place; 
and called for a better system for the exchange of prisoners of 
war The campaign was conducted vigorously, but in a con- 
ciliatory spirit. The gubernatorial vote was: Andrew, 125,281; 
Paine, 49,190, — majority for Andrew, 76,091, — slightly less than 
that of Lincoln, which was 77,997. 

When the legislature of the state assembled in Jan., 1865, it 
was evident that the war was drawing rapidly to a close. The 
message of the governor expressed this belief, and also that 
when the national authority was again restored slavery would 
have been abolished. In this, his fifth and last inaugural address, 
he exhaustively reviewed the services and sacrifices of Massa- 
chusetts in the war and stated that the war debt amounted to 
nearly $14,500,000, most of which was held by citizens of the state. 
Said he : "All the scrip issued by Massachusetts she is bound to 
pay, and she will pay, both interest and principal, in gold, to all 
holders, with the cheerfulness which becomes her spotless honor 
and the promptness of an industrious, economical, and thrifty 
commonwealth." He showed plainly that general prosperity had 
prevailed despite the war, as the great increase in savings de- 
posits well shows. 

On Feb. 2, 1865, the president signed the resolution abolishing 
slavery and the constitutional amendment was at once ratified 
by the legislature. The next day Gov. Andrew wired the presi- 
dent: "Massachusetts has today ratified the constitutional 
amendment abolishing slavery by a unanimous yea and nay vote 



Military Affairs in Massachusetts 165 

of both branches of the legislature, the Democrats voting- affirma- 
tively." 

On April 3 Gov. Andrew received a message from the secre- 
tary of war, announcing the evacuation of Petersburg and the 
fall of Richmond. He at once telegraphed in reply: "I give 
you joy on these triumphant victories. Our people, by a com- 
mon impulse, abandoned business today, for thanksgiving and 
rejoicing. The colored man received last got in first, and thus 
the scripture is fulfilled." The colored division of Weitzel's 
corps is said to have been the first infantry to enter the Confed- 
erate capital. From now on all was excitement and re- 
joicing, and with the final surrender of Lee on April 9 came the 
practical ending of the war. The surrender of the other armies 
of the Confederacy followed in quick succession, the work of dis- 
banding the soldiers was then taken up, and by the close of the 
.summer nearly all the survivors among the Massachusetts troops 
came home, only a few regiments being detached on special duty 
until the following year. 

A highly interesting ceremony took place after the close of 
the war, when on Dec. 22, 1865, the 245th anniversary of the 
landing of the pilgrims at Plymouth, the survivors of the various 
Massachusetts regiments, batteries and companies bore their re- 
spective flags in procession through the streets of Boston. The 
thoroughfares were crowed with spectators, and when the sol- 
diers finally returned to the state house, the flags were formally 
turned over to the governor by Gen. Couch, commanding the 
column, and were received by Gov. Andrew with eloquent words 
which touched the hearts of all. His address closed with the 
pledge : "I accept these relics in behalf of the people and the 
government. They will be preserved and cherished, amid all 
the vicissitudes of the future, as mementoes of brave men and 
noble actions." 

Only five states, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois and 
Indiana, surpassed Massachusetts in the total number of men 
furnished during the war. The report of the adjutant-general 
for January, 1866, states that the number of men supplied was 
159,165, including 26,163 i" the navy. Included in this estimate 
also, are the reenlisted veterans. Phisterer, an able statistician, 
estimates that the state supplied a total of 146,730 men, and that 
5,318 men paid commutation, making a grand total credited to 
the state of 152,048. The final report of the adjutant-general 
at Washington for the year 1885 credits Massachusetts with 
122,781 white troops, 3,966 colored troops, and 19,983 sailors, 
or 146,781 men in all. It would appear from the successive re- 
ports of the adjutant-general of the state that every city and 



166 The Union Army 

town filled its quota upon every call by the president, and that, 
with twelve minor exceptions, each furnished a surplus over all 
demands, amounting in all to 15,178. This number should be 
further increased by the addition of a large number of sailors 
now credited to Massachusetts, and also by the men recruited 
in the state and furnished to the two New York organizations. 
Deduct the imported Germans, and the colored troops as well as 
the men enlisted in the states in rebellion, and there would still 
remain a large balance in favor of Massachusetts. 

Mention has been made of the three colored regiments re- 
cruited in the state. There were two distinctively Irish regi- 
ments, the 9th and 28th infantry, besides Irish companies in 
several regiments. It has been estimated that there were 1,876 
Germans recruited in the state out of a total German population 
of 9,961. (Higginson, vol. I, p. 135.) These were scattered 
through the various regiments, but three companies were dis- 
tinctively German — B and C, in the 20th, and A in the 25th. 

Higginson is also authority for the statement that the total 
amount of bounty paid to all recruits by the state, up to Dec. i, 
1865, amounted to $11,685,987.60, and speaking of casualties, 
says : "There are in all forty-five infantry regiments which lost 
over 200 men each, killed or mortally wounded, during the Civil 
war. Six of these were Massachusetts regiments." 

The good sanitary condition of the Massachusetts regiments 
in the field was frequently commended and the condition of the 
camps was often such as to require no special preparation when 
an inspection was announced for a certain day. During the 
early part of the war many recruits were allowed to enlist who 
had not been properly inspected as to their physical condition, 
and the same was true to a certain extent in the latter days of 
the war. The men, however, once enlisted, were given fairly 
good surgical attendance throughout the war. The "contract 
surgeons" of the latter days were hardly the equals of their pre- 
decessors, but, on the whole, the Massachusetts surgeons ranked 
high in character. It has been well said that "nothing is more 
deceptive among military statistics than the mere number of 
killed in battle ; this may proceed from the superior daring of 
a commander or simply from his carelessness and incapacity; 
but a small death-roll from disease is pretty sure to be due to 
the care of the commander and the surgeons." The total num- 
ber of those who died from disease and accident in Massachu- 
setts organizations is stated by Higginson to be 5,799. The 13th 
infantry is said to have had the smallest percentage of loss from 
disease among the three years' regiments of the entire army. 



Military Affairs in Massachusetts 167 

The total losses from all causes among- Massachusetts troops 
was 13,498. 

The state expended a total of $27,705,109 in raising and equip- 
ping troops and it is estimated that the cities and towns spent 
as much more, so that the enormous sum of $50,000,000 was 
spent altogether. Besides the men in the military service, the 
state furnished many laborers employed at the Charlestown navy- 
yard and the Springfield armory. Many others were engaged 
on the fortifications. At the Springfield armory, during the five 
years beginning on July i, i860, a total of 805,636 muskets, with 
extra parts and repairs equal to 120,845 more, were manufac- 
tured. The musket here produced was the standard weapon of 
the service, and recognized as the best muzzle-loading military 
arm made. (Bowen, p. 82.) 

Massachusetts, as a single state, has been credited by her state 
historian with certain modest claims, which will hardly be called 
in question : She was promptly in the field ; she maintained a 
certain high standard in her regiments ; no regiment ever con- 
spicuously disgraced itself ; she provided soldiers and sailors not 
merely up to, but in excess of her quota; her governor was fully 
alive to the situation ; while she produced no soldier of the very 
highest rank, she brought out a number of brilliant young men, 
prominent among whom were Lowell, Bartlett and Miles, who 
exhibited both splendid courage and a certain marked genius for 
war. On the larger stage, in the great work of molding- public 
opinion, one of the brilliant speakers of Congress, speaking of 
the period from 1855 to 1875, said: "Whether it was for weal 
or woe, whether it was wisely or unwisely done, men may diflfer 
and historians may dispute — but as a matter of fact Massachusetts 
led America and led her with an audacity and an aggressive- 
ness, with a skill and an eloquence, with a power and force that 
have never been surpassed in all the tide of time in the leadership 
of a great people." (Speech of Breckenridge of Ky., in the house 
of representatives, Jan. 19, 1888.) 



RECORD OF MASSACHUSETTS 
REGIMENTS 



First Infantry, — Cols., Robert Cowdin, N. B. McLaughlin ; Lieut. -Cols., 
George D. Wells, Clark B. Baldwin; Majs., Charles P. Chandler, Gard- 
ner Walker. This was the first Massachusetts regiment enlisted for three 
years' service, having first responded to the call for militia regiments for 
three months. It was mustered in at Boston May 23 to 27, i86i, and 
mustered out on Boston Common, May 25, 1864. Co. B was composed 
of the Union Guards of East Boston ; Co. C, of the North End True 
Blues, of Boston ; Co. D, of the Roxbury City Guards ; Co. E, of the 
Pulaski Guards, of South Boston ; Co. F, of the National Guards of Bos- 
ton ; Co. G, of the Independent Boston Fusileers ; Co. H, of the Chelsea 
Volunteers ; Co. I, of the Schouler Guards, of Boston, and Co. K, of 
the Chadwick Light Infantry, of Roxbury. On June 15 it left Boston for 
Washington, where it was assigned to Richardson's brigade and encamped 
on the Potomac, 2 miles below the Chain bridge. Its first skirmish was 
at Blackburn's ford July 18, 1861, and later participated in the battle of 
Bull Run and the siege of Yorktown. It was on the skirmish line at 
Williamsburg and engaged at White Oak swamp, where it made two 
assaults, and in the Seven Days' battles fought at Savage Station and 
Glendale. The month of July was spent at Harrison's landing, where the 
men had a much-needed rest. The regiment was sent to Alexandria in 
Aug., 1862, and took part in the second battle of Bull Run. After the 
fight at Chantilly, when Gen. Hooker left the division, he insisted that the 
division should be relieved for a time, on account of its heroic and ardu- 
ous services. The ist took part in the battles of Fredericksburg, Chan- 
cellorsville, Gettysburg, where its loss was heavy, and Manassas gap. It 
was ordered to New York on Aug. 2, 1863, on account of the draft riots, 
and remained there till Oct. 15, when its returned south. It was engaged 
at Kelly's ford and in the Mine Run campaign, wintered at Brandy Sta- 
tion and met with severe losses in the battle of the Wilderness. Late in 
May, 1864, the regiment was mustered out and the reenlisted men and 
recruits transferred to the nth Mass. infantry. 

Second Infantry. — Cols., George H. Gordon, George L. Andrews, 
Samuel M. Quincy, William Cog'^well ; Lieut.-Cols., George L. Andrews, 
Wilder Dwight, Charles R. Mudge, Charles F. Morse; Majs., Wilder 
Dwight, James Savage, Jr., James Francis. The 2nd regiment, from the 
state at large, was mustered in for three years at Boston, the organization 
being completed May 25, 1861. It was mustered out at the same place, 
May 24, 1864, and the reenlisted men and recruits at Washington, July ir, 
1865. The Abbott Grays of Lowell formed Co. A, and the Andrew Light 
Guard of Salem, Co. C. Before leaving the state, a battle-flag was pre- 
sented to the regiment by the women of Boston and it also received its 
state flag. It joined Gen. Patterson's army at Martinsburg, W. Va.. July 
12, and moved to Harper's Ferry, which place it garrisoned till Aug. 2. 
Here it was honored with another flag by the women of Harper's Ferry. 
Two months were spent in camp at Hyattstown and marches followed ta 

168 



Massachusetts Regiments 169 

Edwards' ferry, by way of Conrad's ferry, back to Edwards' ferry and on 
to Darnestown. After camping near Frederick from Dec. 4, 1861, to 
Feb. 27, 1862, it was ordered to Harper's Ferry, then to Charlestown and 
to Berrjrville. On March 22, it moved to Snicker's ferry, then back 
to Winchester; pursued the enemy to Strasburg and Mount Jackson, 
where it was engaged; then proceeded to near Harrisonburg and back 
to Newmarket and Strasburg. It formed the rear-guard on the retreat 
to Newtown and repelled several attacks. As part of the Army of Vir- 
ginia the 2nd took part in the battle of Cedar mountain, where it suffered 
heavy loss. It was present at the second battle of Bull Run, but was 
held in reserve. In the battles of Chantilly, Antietam and Chancellors- 
ville its part was an honorable one, and at Gettysburg its charge was 
notable and its loss heavy. Advancing close up to the enemy's works, the 
regiment held its ground until cut off by a force in the rear, when it turned 
and charged through the line in the rear, thus escaping capture. It then 
moved into Virginia, but was sent to New York during the draft riots 
and remained two weeks, or until Sept. 5, 1863. It was next ordered to 
the Army of the Cumberland and guarded the railroad from Nashville 
for Gens. Rosecrans and Thomas. In the spring of 1864, the Army of 
the Cumberland joined Gen. Sherman, and from that time the 2nd formed 
a part of that army on the march to Atlanta and until it reached Wash- 
ington, where the men were mustered out after over four years' service. 

Third Infantry. — Cols., David W. Wardrop, Silas P. Richmond; 
Lieut.-Cols., Charles Raymond, James .Barton; Majs., John H. Jen- 
nings, John Morissey. The 3d regiment, Mass. militia, responded to the 
call for three months' troops, sailed for Fortress Monroe, where it was 
mustered into the U. S. service on April 23, 1861, and was mustered 
out at Boston, July 23, 1861. In May, four companies enlisted for three 
years and joined the 3d, but were afterward transferred to the 29th. 
The 3d again enlisted for nine months and was reorganized at Lakeville, 
Sept., 1862, when it numbered 1,000 men. On Oct. 26. it sailed for 
Beaufort, S. C, and took part in an expedition to Goldsboro, where it 
was in action on Dec. 17, 1862. Jan. and Feb., 1863, were spent at Camp 
Jourdan, near New Berne, N. C, and in March the regiment was en- 
gaged at Deep Gully, New Berne and Pollocksville. Going to the relief 
of Little Washington, April 5, several skirmishes ensued and the siege 
was raised. On its return the 3d reached Boston June 16, and was 
mustered out at Camp Joe Hooker on the 26th. 

Fourth Infantry. — Cols., Abner B. Packard, Henry Walker; Lieut.- 
Cols., Hawkes Fearing, Jr., Eben T. Colby; Majs., Horace O. Whitte- 
more, Charles F. Howard. The 4th regiment, Mass. militia, responded 
to the call for three months' troops and reported at Fortress Monroe, 
Va., where it was mustered into the U. S. service, April 22, 1861. It 
was employed in fortifying a camp at Newport News for the most part, 
but took part in an expedition against Big Bethel, where it was in an 
encounter with the enemy. On July 22, 1861, the 4th was mustered out, 
but in Aug., 1862, it again volunteered for duty and was mustered in 
for nine months at Lakeville, from September to December. The regi- 
ment embarked for Louisiana on Jan. 3, 1863, and landed at Carrollton 
on the 13th. After some skirmishing at Fort Bisland, it participated in 
the siege of Port Hudson and after the surrender garrisoned the place 
until Aug 4th, when it started for home. It was mustered out at Lake- 
ville. Aug. 28. 1863. 

Fifth Infantry. — Cols., Samuel C. Lawrence, George H. Pierson; 
Lieut.-Cols., J. Durell Greene, John T. Boyd, William E. C. Worcester; 
Majs., Hamlin W. Keyes, William E. C. Worcester, William T. Gram- 



170 The Union Army 

tner. The 5th regiment, Mass. militia, volunteered for three months, and 
with the addition of one company from the ist and four from the 7th 
militia, it reported for duty at Washington, where it was mustered into 
the U. S. service, May i, 1861. It fought nobly in the battle of Bull 
Run and on July 21, 1861, was mustered out at Boston. The regiment 
volunteered again for the nine months' service and was reorganized at 
Wenham, in Sept. and Oct., 1862, with 984 officers and men. It left 
Boston Oct. 22 for New Berne, N. C, and from there moved to Wash- 
ington, N. C, and Williamston. It took part in an expedition to Golds- 
boro and met the enemy in battles at Kinston, Whitehall and Goldsboro. 
On April 4, 1863, it went to the relief of Little Washington, but was 
obliged to return to New Berne. It was mustered out at Wenham, July 
2, 1863. In July, 1864, the 5th again took the field in response to the 
call for troops for 100 days. It proceeded to Baltimore, garrisoned Fort 
Marshall, was detailed for guard duty at different places in Maryland 
during the elections, and was mustered out at Readville, Nov. 16, 1864. 

Sixth Infantry. — Cols., Edward F. Jones, Albert S. Follansbee; Lieut.- 
Col., Melvin Beal; Majs., Benjamin F. Watson, Charles A. Stott, 
Thomas O. Allen. The 6th regiment, Mass. militia, offered its services 
in Jan., 1861, and when the call came in April was the first to arrive 
in Washington. Its passage through Baltimore is noted, where the 
bloodshed in an encounter with an agry mob was the first of the war. 
Four men were killed and 36 wounded. The term of service was from 
April 22 to Aug. 2, 1861. The 6th was again the first regiment to vol- 
unteer under the call for troops for nine months, and was mustered in 
from Aug. 31 to Sept. 8, 1862, ten companies strong. All along the 
route to Washington it was enthusiastically welcomed, even Baltimore 
joining in the demonstrations. After several expeditions into the enemy's 
country the regiment was under fire for the first time in Nov., 1862, on 
the Blackwater river, Va. During the winter it was quartered near 
Suffolk and was there through the siege in April and May, 1863. It 
left Suffolk for Boston, May 26, 1863, and was mustered out at Lowell 
on June 3. From July 14 to 19, 1864, the 6th was again mustered into 
the U. S. service at Readville and was mustered out at the same place, 
Oct. 27, 1864. It left for Washington a third time on July 20, 1864, and 
there performed garrison duty until the close of its term. 

Seventh Infantry. — Cols., Darius N. Couch, Nelson H. Davis, Joseph 
H. Wheelock, David A. Russell, Thomas D. Johns; Lieut.-Cols., Chester 
W. Greene, Charles Raymond, Franklin P. Harlow; Majs., David E. 
Holman, Franklin P. Harlow, Joseph B. Leonard. The 7th, composed 
mainly of Bristol county men, was mustered in for three years at Taun- 
ton, June IS, 1861, and was mustered out on June 27, 1864, when the 
recruits and reenlisted men were assigned to the 37th Mass. infantry. 
The regiment left for Washington July 11, 1861, and went into camp 
at Georgetown, where it remained till Aug. 6. It next occupied Camp 
Brightwood until the following spring, when it was assigned to the 
Army of the Potomac and left Brightwood in March. It was engaged 
in the battles of Williamsburg, Fair Oaks and Glendale, and on Aug. 16, 
1862, started for Yorktown. From there it moved into Maryland, but 
returned to Virginia in time to participate in the battle of Fredericks- 
burg. It wintered near Falmouth, Va., and left there for Chancellors- 
ville, April 28, 1863. In that campaign it made a brilliant assault at 
Marye's heights and joined in the battle at Salem Church. Its next 
battle was Gettysburg and it participated in the marches of the Army 
of the Potomac all summer and the Mine Run expedition in the early 



Massachusetts Regiments 171 

winter. From Dec. 2, 1863, to Feb. 27, 1864, the regiment was encamped 
at Brandy Station. On the latter date it left camp to support a cavalry 
movement, which march proved a very difficult one, owing to a severe 
storm. It returned in a few days to camp and there remained till May 3, 
when it started south and was soon in the thick of battle at the Wilder- 
ness. The 7th's final engagement was at Cold Harbor, the term of 
service expiring soon after. Its greeting on its return home showed 
the high value placed on its services to the Union. 

Eighth Infantry. — Cols., Timothy Munroe, Frederick J. Coffin, Ben- 
jamin F. Peach; Lieut. -Cols., Edward W. Hinks, James Hudson, Jr., 
Christopher T. Hanley; Majs., Andrew Elwell, Israel W. Wallis, David 
W. Low. The 8th Mass militia, with a company from the 7th militia 
and one from the loth regiment, volunteered for three months and left 
the state for Washington, April 18, 1861, its total strength being 705 
men. On April 30, it was mustered into the U. S. service at Washing- 
ton and Aug. i it was mustered out at Boston. At Wenham, from 
Sept. 15 to Oct. 30, 1862, the 8th militia was reorganized and mustered 
in for nine months. It arrived at New Berne, N. C, Nov. 30, encamped 
there and at Fort Totten, and sent out details on various duties. Late 
in May, 1863, it was ordered to Fort Thompson but returned to New 
Berne on June 12. Orders for muster out came in June, but on account 
of threatened danger to Baltimore the 8th was ordered there and was 
not mustered out till Aug. 7, 1863. It again took the field in July, 1864, 
for 100 days, when it was organized at Readville and proceeded at once 
to Baltimore. Details performed guard duty at Baltimore and in that 
vicinity until the regiment was mustered out on Nov. 10, 1864, after its 
return to Massachusetts. 

Ninth Infantry. — Cols., Thomas Cass, Patrick R. Guiney; Lieut.- 
Cols., Cromwell G. Rowell, Robert Peard, Patrick R. Guiney, Patrick T. 
Hanley; Majs., Robert Peard, Patrick R. Guiney, Patrick T. Hanley, 
George W. Dutton, John W. Mahan. The 9th was made up of Irish- 
men and was mustered in for three years at Boston, June 11, 1861. It 
was mustered out on Boston Common, June 21, 1864, the recruits and 
reenlisted men being then transferred to the 32nd Mass. infantry. Be- 
fore it left Boston, the regiment was presented by the Irish citizens of 
the city with a national flag and also a beautiful Irish banner. It left 
Boston on June 25 for Washington, in which vicinity it remained till 
the following March, when it was assigned to the Army of the Potomac 
for the Peninsular campaign. At the battle of Hanover Court House 
the 9th made a gallant assault and it lost heavily at Gaines' mill, where 
their brave leader, Col. Cass, was mortally wounded. It also suffered 
severely at Malvern hill. The regiment was in reserve at Antietam, the 
second Bull Run and Fredericksburg, and was engaged in skirmishing 
at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. It joined in the pursuit of Lee to 
Williamsport and in the different movements of the Army of the Po- 
tomac, including the battles at Rappahannock Station and the Mine Run 
campaign, after which it went into winter quarters at Bealeton, Va., 
until April 30, 1864, when it broke camp and May 4 found it at the 
Wilderness tavern. The following day it made a brave advance, fighting 
fiercely, and its record is a proud one in the engagements ensuing at 
Laurel hill. North Anna river, Bethesda Church and Cold Harbor. 
Massachusetts may well be proud of her Irish volunteers. 

Tenth Infantry. — Cols., Henry S. Briggs, Henry L. Eustis; Lieut.- 
Cols., Jefford M. Decker, Joseph B. Parsons; Majs., William R. Marsh, 
Ozro Miller, Dexter F. Parker. The loth was from the western part 



172 The Union Army 

of the state and was mustered in for three years at Springfield, June 21, 
1861. It was mainly composed of the loth militia, reorganized. Co. A 
came from Great Harrington; Co. B, from Adams; Co. C, Northamp- 
ton; Co. D, Pittsfield; Co. F, Springfield; Co. G, Greenfield; Co. H, 
Shelburne Falls, and Co. K, Westfield. At Springfield the women of 
the city presented it with beautiful flags, both state and national, a 
greatly appreciated honor. The regiment sailed from Boston, July 25, 
for Washington, and reached there on the 28th. The winter was spent 
at Camp Brightwood and in March, 1862, the loth proceeded to New- 
port News, thence toward Yorktown, the latter march being one of 
great hardship. Fair Oaks was their first sharp battle and the severe 
test was gallantly met. The battles of Gaines' mill, New Market road 
and Malvern hill soon followed and the loth became seasoned veterans. 
It was hurried to Antietam, but arrived too late for the battle. It then 
joined in the Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville campaigns and was held 
in reserve at Gettysburg. In Nov., 1863, it joined the Mine Run expedi- 
tion and then went into winter quarters at Brandy Station, Va., where 
it remained till May 4, 1864. Its next pitched battle was that of the 
Wilderness and it also participated in the battle at Spottsylvania Court 
House, fighting for 24 hours at the "bloody angle" without rest. The 
losses in this campaign were terrible, yet undaunted it joined in the 
battle of Cold Harbor and was not relieved till June 19, when the re- 
cruits and reenlisted men were assigned to the 37th Mass. infantry and 
the original members were mustered out July 1-6, 1864, at Springfield. 

Eleventh Infantry. — Cols., George Clark, Jr., William Blaisdell, 
Thomas H. Dunham; Lieut. -Cols., William Blaisdell, George F. Tile- 
ston, Porter D. Tripp, Charles C. Rivers, Thomas H. Dunham, James 
F. Mansfield; Majs., George F. Tileston, Porter D. Tripp, Charles C. 
Rivers, Richard T. Lombard, James W. McDonald, Thomas H. Dun- 
ham, James F. Mansfield, Frank McQuade. The nth infantry, the third 
Massachusetts regiment to enlist for three years, was composed mainly 
of Boston men and was called the Boston volunteers. It was mustered 
in at Fort Warren, June 13, 1861, and was mustered out June 12, 1864. 
The recruits and reenlisted men were made a battalion of five com- 
panies, to which a company of men, enlisted for one year, was added 
and the battalion, known as the nth regiment, was mustered out on 
July 14, 1865, at Readville. The total strength was 1,316 members. On 
June 27, 1861, the regiment left the state for Washington, where it ar- 
rived on July 3. At the first battle of Bull Run, the nth suffered a 
baptism of fire which it nobly withstood. It took part in the siege of 
Yorktown, and was later engaged at Williamsburg, Oak Grove, Malvern 
hill and Bristoe Station. In the second battle of Bull Run it drove the 
enemy from behind a railroad embankment, where they were very 
strongly intrenched. The nth was held in reserve at Fredericksburg, 
but was in action at Chancellorsville, on which occasion it was compli- 
mented by Gen. Hancock. At Gettysburg it suffered heavily and after 
that brittle was again ordered into Virginia, where it participated in the 
Mine Rin expedition. The remainder of the winter was spent at Brandy 
Station, which place was left on May 3, 1864, for the Wilderness. Here 
the resriment was in action and also in the bitter contest at the "bloody 
angle" at Spottsylvania, where its work was very brilliant. It then followed 
the forttinrs of the Army of the Potomac and after the battle of Cold 
Harbor became a battalion, which continued in the same command, being 
joined by two companies from the i6th Mass. infantry. Next, near 
Petersburg, it was in several engagements with the enemy, and in Feb., 



' Massachusetts Regiments 173 

1865, it joined the expedition to Hatcher's run, where it finished its 
active service. 

Twelfth Infantry. — Cols., Fletcher Webster, James L. Bates; Lieut- 
Cols., Timothy M. Bryan, Jr., David Allen, Jr., Benjamin F. Cook; 
Majs., Elisha M. Burbank, Daniel G. Handy, Benjamin F. Cook, Edward 
P. Reed. The 12th, recruited at Boston, was mustered in for three years 
from June 26 to July 11, 1861, at Fort Warren, and was mustered out 
on Boston Common, July 8, 1864. Co. A was composed of the Felton 
Guards ; Co. B, Dehon Guards ; Co. D, Latin School Guards ; Co. E, 
Emerson Guards ; and Co. K, Dale Guards. The regiment numbered 
1.575 men and its loss by death from wounds was 179. It received its 
colors from the women of Boston and left the state July 23, arriving at 
Sandy Hook, Md., on the 27th. In camp at Hyattstown and on guard 
duty along the Potomac, the summer passed, and the regiment went into 
winter quarters at Camp Hicks, near Frederick, Md. The first battle 
in which it took part was the battle of Cedar mountain. At Antietam 
the killed, wounded and missing numbered 283, which, following on a 
loss of 138 at the second Bull Run, where Col. Webster was fatally 
wounded, was well-nigh discouraging. Shortly after Antietam, at a 
review, the 12th showed only 119 men. It was with the Army of the 
Potomac at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville and its conduct was 
always brave and reliable. Again in the thick of the fight at Gettysburg, 
the loss was heavy. It then moved to Virginia with the Army of the 
Potomac, and was in the Mine Run campaign. During the winter it 
was shifted about and obtained but little relief, yet it marched bravely into 
the battle of the Wilderness. Through the remainder of its term of serv- 
ice, which expired while it was before Petersburg, it was repeatedly en- 
gaged and its endurance was severely tried. In July it was ordered 
home and mustered out, the recruits and reenlisted men being trans- 
ferred to the 39th infantry. 

Thirteenth Infantry Col., Samuel H. Leonard ; Lieut.-Cols., N. 

Walter Batchelder, Charles H. Hovey; Majs., Jacob Parker Gould, 
Elliott C. Pierce. The 13th was mustered into the U. S. service at 
Fort Independence, July 16, 1861, and was mustered out at Boston, Aug. 
I, 1864. It numbered 1,411 men, and its loss by death from wounds 
was 102. Co. A was made up of the Boston City Guard; Co. G, Grey 
Eagles; Co. H, Mechanic Riflemen, and Co. K, Westboro Rifles. The 
4th battalion of rifles, Mass. militia formed a large part of the regi- 
ment, which left the state July 30, 1861. for Hagerstown, Md., and from 
there was ordered to Sharpsburg. Various posts along the upper Po- 
tomac were held during the autumn and winter, and in the second battle 
of Bull Run the regiment suffered its first heavy losses. Its next en- 
gagement was Antietam, after which it was with the Army of the 
Potomac on its march south and at Fredericksburg, where the 13th 
was on the skirmish line. It took part in the Chancellorsville campaign 
and at Gettysburg made a gallant charge, in which it met with great 
loss. After the Mine Run campaign the regiment established winter 
quarters at Mitchell's station, which it occupied till April 26, 1864, when 
it rejoined the army and took part in the Wilderness campaign. At the 
Wilderness the position of the 13th was not especially exposed but, at 
Spottsylvania, May 8, it was in the front of the fight. During the re- 
mainder of the campaign it was in the engagements at North Anna 
river, Bethesda Church and Cold Harbor, generally on the skirmish line, 
and was occupied in siege duties at Petersburg when its term of service 
expired. The recruits and reenlisted men were transferred to the 39th 
Mass. infantry. 



174 The Union Army 

Fourteenth Infantry. — Col., William B. Greene; Lieut.-Col., Samuel 
C. Oliver; Maj., Levi P. Wright. The 14th, composed of Essex county 
men, was mustered in at oFrt Warren, July 5, 1861, and was ordered to 
Washington. After serving in the defenses of Washington for the re- 
mainder of the year, it became on Jan. i, 1862, the ist regiment Mass. 
heavy artillery, under which name its history will appear. Co. A was 
composed of the Heard Guards of Ipswich; Co. B came from Methuen; 
Co. C, Mechanic Phalanx of Lynn; Co. D, Essex Cadets; Co. E. from 
Amesbury ; Co. F, Scott Guards ; Co. G, from Marblehead ; Co. H, 
Andover Light Infantry ; Co. I, Putnam Guards of Danvers, and Co. K, 
Lawrence City Guards. 

Fifteenth Infantry. — Cols., Charles Devens, Jr., George H. Ward, 
George C. Joslin; Lieut.-Cols., George H. Ward, John W. Kimball, 
Chase Philbrick, George C. Joslin, I. Harris Hooper; Majs., John W. 
Kimball, Chase Philbrick, George C. Joslin, I. Harris Hooper, Lyman 
H. Ellingwood, Walter Gale. The 15th was organized at Worcester to 
serve for three years; was mustered in during the month of July, 1861, 
and mustered out at Worcester, July 28, 1864, when the recruits and reen- 
listed men were transferred to the 20th infantry. The 15th numbered 
1,521 men and its loss by death from wounds was 116. Co. A was com- 
posed of Leominster men ; Co. B, Fitchburg Fusileers ; Co. C, Clinton Light 
Guard; Co. D, from Worcester; Co. E, DeWitt Guards of Oxford; 
Co. F, from Brookfield ; Co. G, from Grafton ; Co. I, Slater Guards of 
Webster, and Co. K was from Blackstone. The regiment contained 
three companies of State militia. In Worcester, the women of the city 
presented the regiment with its standard and it left for Washington 
Aug. 8, 1861. At Ball's bluflf its losses were severe, but the men earned 
the praise of their general. The regiment joined in the campaign on 
the Peninsula and fought at Antietam and Fredericksburg. At Antie- 
tam the brigade to which the 15th was attached engaged a much superior 
force and was almost cut to pieces. It was more fortunate at Fred- 
ericksburg and was not in an especially exposed position at Chancellors- 
ville. At Gettysburg it became the victim of a sad error. While en- 
gaged in resisting a fierce attack of the enemy, the Union batteries fired 
through them from the rear. Here the brave Col. Ward fell, mortally 
wounded. Next followed the southward march of the Army of the 
Potomac, the Mine Run campaign late in the autumn, and the regiment 
finally went into camp near Stevensburg, Va., until May, 1864. At the 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania and Cold Harbor the 15th played its part 
bravely, and by the end of June had lost all of its officers and so many 
of its men that for the rest of its term it was attached to the 20th 
Mass. infantry. Its record is that of the severest duties nobly per- 
formed. 

Sixteenth Infantry. — Cols., Powell T. Wyman, Thomas R. Tannatt, 
Gardner Banks; Lieut.-Cols., George A. Meacham, Daniel S. Lamson, 
Gardner Banks, Waldo Merriam, Samuel W. Richardson; Majs., Daniel 
S. Lamson, Waldo Merriam, Samuel W. Richardson, Matthew Dono- 
van. The i6th was mustered in for three years at Camp Cameron, 
North Cambridge, from June 29 to Aug. i, 1861, and was mustered out 
on July 27, 1864, the reenlisted men and recruits being then transferred 
to the nth battalion. The regiment was composed mainly of men from 
Middlesex county. Co. A, was the Cambridge City Guard ; Co. B, the 
Winthrop Guard from Holliston ; Co. C, the Union Guard ; Co. D, the 
Hill Cadets from Lowell; Co. E, the Wiley Light Infantry; Co. G, the 
Butler Rifles; Co. I, the Newton Guards, and Co. K, the Watertown 



Massachusetts Regiments 175 

Volunteers. The i6th left the state on Aug. 17, 1861, and was ordered 
to Camp Hamilton near Hampton, Va., where it remained during the 
winter of 1861-62. In May, 1862, it was assigned to the Army of the 
Potomac and moved to Suffolk, where it fought its first battle. Its rec- 
ords show participation in the battles at Fair Oaks, Glendale, Malvern 
hill, Kettle run and Chantilly, but it was ordered to Washington at 
the time of the battle of Antietam. The year's work closed with the bat- 
tle of Fredericksburg. At Gettysburg the losses were very heavy. 
Then, with the Army of the Potomac, the regiment marched southward ;^ 
participated in the Mine Run campaign; went into winter quarters at 
Brandy Station ; continued with the same branch of the army through 
the next spring and early summer and fought in all the battles of its re- 
nowned campaigns. Out of a total strength of 1,220 men, 211 were killed 
or died of wounds. 

Seventeenth Infantry Cols., Thomas J. C. Amory, John F. Fel- 
lows, Henry Splaine; Lieut-Cols., John F. Fellows, Henry Splaine; Will- 
iam W. Smith; Majs., Jones Frankle, Luther Day, Henry Splaine, Will- 
iam W. Smith, John E. Mullaly. The 17th was mustered in at Lynnfield, 
July 21 and 22, 1861, and was mustered out on Aug. 3, 1864, when the 
reenlisted men and recruits were formed into a battalion of three compa- 
nies, which continued the same name and were reinforced by the addi- 
tion of several companies from the 2d Mass. heavy artillery. The bat- 
talion was mustered out July 11, 1865. The 17th originally was composed 
of eight companies from Essex county, one from Middlesex and one 
from Suffolk. Co. A was made up of the Newburjport City Grays; Co. 
B, the Foster Guards; Co. C, the Danvers Light Infantry; Co. D, the 
Wallace Guards ; Cos. E and F, from Haverhill ; Co. G, the Kimball 
Guard ; Co. H, the British Volunteers of Boston ; Co. I, the Saunders 
Guard, and Co. K, the Maiden Light Infantry. The total strength was 
1,411 men when the regiment left the state for Baltimore on Aug. 23, 
1861. It spent the winter near Baltimore, with the exception of an expe- 
dition into Virginia, and in the spring of 1862 was ordered to New Berne, 
N. C. It took part in an expedition to Goldsboro and met the Confed- 
erates at Kinston, Whitehall and Goldsboro. From Dec. 22, 1862, to July 
25, 1863, the headquarters were at New Berne, with several minor expe- 
ditions. On July 25 it embarked in support of a cavalry raid on W^eldon, 
but returned to duty again at or near New Berne. In Feb., 1864, a detail 
of the regiment had a sharp brush with the enemy at Batchelder's creek, 
and in April another detachment was sent to the relief of Little Wash- 
ington. The battalion spent the winter of 1864-65 near Beaufort, moved 
to Goldsboro in March, encountering the enemy along the route, and 
closed its term of service in July, 1865. 

Eighteenth Infantry. — Cols., James Barnes, Joseph Hayes ; Lieut.- 
Cols., Timothy Ingraham, Joseph Hayes, Stephen Thomas, William B. 
White, Fisher A. Baker; Majs., Joseph Hayes, Stephen Thomas, William 
B. White, Thomas Weston, Luther S. Bent. The i8th, composed mainly 
of men from Norfolk, Bristol and Plymouth counties, was mustered into 
the U. S. service from Aug., 1861, to Jan., 1862, and was mustered out 
on Sept. 2, 1864, when the recruits and reenlisted men were transferred 
to the 32d infantry. The original regiment numbered 1,152 men, of 
whom 247 were killed or died from wounds, disease or in prison. The 
regiment arrived in Washington on Sept. i, 1861, and spent the winter 
in camp near Hall's hill. It took part in the siege of Yorktown, the sec- 
ond battle of Bull Run, and the battles of Antietam and Fredericksburg. 
At the last engagement it made a gallant charge and left its dead lying 



176 The Union Army 

close to the enemy's works. The winter was uneventful, except for the 
famous "Mud March," and the next spring found the i8th at the battle 
of Chancellorsville, where its most important duty was after the action 
in forming a rear-guard for the retreating army. On June 14, 1863, it 
started north, arrived at Gettysburg on the second day of the battle, and 
was assigned to a position near Little Round Top. From Gettysburg it 
moved south again with the Army of the Potomac, was engaged at Rap- 
pahannock Station and in the Mine Run movement, and went into camp 
on Dec. 3, 1863, at Beverly ford. Early in May, 1864, the regiment broke 
camp and marched to Wilderness tavern, where it took part in the battle 
which followed and in the rest of the engagements of the Army of the 
Potomac until mustered out. 

Nineteenth Infantry. — Cols., Edward W. Hinks, Arthur F. Dever- 
eux, Ansel D. Wass, Edmund Rice; Lieut.-Cols., Arthur F. Devereux, 
Ansel D. Wass, Edmund Rice, Morcena Dunn; Majs., Henry J. Howe, 
Ansel D. Wass, Edmund Rice, Morcena Dunn, Isaac H. Boyd, William 
L. Palmer. The 19th was mustered in for three years at Lynnfield, in 
Aug., 1861, and was mustered out June 30, 1865, so large a number of its 
members having reenlisted that the organization was maintained. The 
regiment contained three companies of the ist battalion of rifles, the 
Tiger fire zouaves of Boston, four other Boston companies, one from 
Lowell and one from Maiden, and numbered 1,892 members. It lost by 
death from wounds 163, and 104 died from disease or imprisonment. It 
arrived in Washington on Aug. 30, 1861, and was assigned to picket duty 
on the upper Potomac. Its first engagement was at Ball's bluff, after 
which it joined the preceding Mass. regiments in the Army of the Poto- 
mac. Engagements followed at Yorktown, Oak Grove, Peach Orchard, 
Savage Station, White Oak swamp and Glendale. At Antietam its divi- 
sion was nearly surrounded but the 19th valiantly fought its way back 
with the 1st Minn. When the army attempted to cross the river before 
Fredericksburg, the 19th Mass. was one of the regiments that crossed 
the river in open boats and drove out the Confederate sharpshooters, who 
were blocking the approach. After this battle it was encamped at Fal- 
mouth during the winter of 1862-63 ^nd participated in the Chancellors- 
ville campaign the following spring. At Gettysburg the regiment, in a 
hand to hand fight, captured 4 flags. It next went south with the Army 
of the Potomac, took part in its operations of the autumn, and went into 
winter quarters at Brandy Station, Va., until May 3d, 1864, when it be- 
gan the advance with the army and was in action at the Wilderness. On 
May 10 it made two brilliant but unsuccessful charges and later joined 
in the successful assault on the "Angle" at Spottsylvania. At Cold Har- 
bor, Petersburg, Deep Bottom and along the Weldon railroad the regi- 
ment was repeatedly engaged, and while quartered for the winter of 
1864-65 at Fort Emory, on the Vaughan road, several engagements en- 
sued in that vicinity. It took part in the grand review at Washington, 
the end of a long and honorable service. 

Twentieth Infantry. — Cols., William R. Lee, Francis W. Palfrey, 
Paul J. Revere, George N. Macy; Lieut.-Cols., Francis W. Palfrey, Fer- 
dinand Dreher, George N. Macy, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Arthur R. 
Curtis, Rufus P. Lincoln; Majs., Paul J. Revere, Ferdinand Dreher, 
George N. Macy, Allen Shepard, Henry L. Abbott, Arthur R. Curtis, 
Henry L. Patten, William F. Perkins, John Keliher, Mason W. Tyler. 
This regiment was mustered into the U. S. service at Readville in July 
and Aug., 1861, and was mustered out at Washington July 15, 1865. The 
total strength of the regiment was 2,550 and its death losses numbered 



Massachusetts Regiments 177 

352. It left the state for Washington, Sept. 4, 1861, and was encamped 
near Edwards' ferry until the battle of Ball's bluff, its first engagement. 
During the next summer the regiment saw much hard service. It was 
in action before Yorktown, at West Point, Fair Oaks, Peach Orchard, 
Savage Station, Glendale and Malvern hill. At Antietam its losses were 
heavy, and before Fredericksburg it helped to clear the way for the pas- 
sage of the army across the river. On Jan. 25, 1863, it went into camp 
at Falmouth and remained there till the beginning of Chancellorsville 
movement. The next important battle was Gettysburg and then followed 
an encounter at Bristoe Station, Va., and the Mine Run campaign, with 
winter quarters at Stevensburg. On May 3, 1864, it left camp with the 
rest of the army for the Wilderness battle-field, where it was again in 
action, followed by the many engagements of that spring, the campaign 
culminating in the battle of Cold Harbor. The repeated losses had left 
but few of the regiment in active service, and at Reams' station, Aug. 25, 
the remaining men were nearly all captured. Reinforcements and recruits 
enabled the regiment to keep its organization, however, and after several 
sharp encounters near Hatcher's run it went into winter quarters near 
Fort Emory. The year of 1865 was not so disastrous as the preceding 
and, though it encountered the enemy at several places near Petersburg, 
the losses were not great. After participating in the grand review at 
Washington the regiment was ordered home, having for four years per- 
formed most important services for the Union. 

Twenty-first Infantry. — Cols., Augustus Morse, William S. Clark; 
Lieut-Cols., Albert C. Maggi, William S. Clark, Joseph P. Rice, Theo- 
dore S. Foster, George P. Hawkes, Henry H. Richardson, Solomon 
Hovey, Jr.; Majs., William S. Clark, Joseph P. Rice, Theodore S. Fos- 
ter, George P. Hawkes, Henry H. Richardson, Solomon Hovey, Jr. This 
regiment was mustered into the U. S. service for three years at Worces- 
ter from July 23 to Aug. 19, 1861, and was mustered out in Aug., 1864, 
the recruits and reenlisted men being then transferred to the 36th Mass. 
infantry. The total number of members was 989, of whom 138 were killed 
or died of wounds. A beautiful flag was presented to the regiment by 
the women of Worcester and on Aug. 23, 1861, the regiment left for the 
front. It was soon ordered to North Carolina and fought in the battles 
of Roanoke Island, New Berne and Camden. On July 6, 1862, it moved 
to Fortress Monroe and went into camp at Newport News. At the sec- 
ond battle of Bull Run it escaped with only slight loss but at Chantilly 
in an encounter with the enemy in a thick wood, and later in resisting a 
charge, it suffered severely. At South mountain, Antietam and Fred- 
ericksburg it had its share of fighting, after which it went into camp at 
Falmouth and remained there till Feb. 9, 1863, when it proceeded to Bal- 
timore, via Newport News, thence to Cincinnati, Covington, Ky., and 
Mount Sterling. The last place it garrisoned till July, when the news 
of Morgan's raid took it to Lexington. After two months spent at Camp 
Nelson it marched 185 miles to Knoxville, Tenn. It met the enemy at 
Blue springs but exposure more than fighting formed the hardship of 
that autumn. Constantly on the march, barefooted, with insufficient food 
and no tents, its lot was not enviable. In the siege of Knoxville the regi- 
ment was constantly on duty, and pursued the Confederates after the 
siege, repeating its experience of marching in the cold without sufficient 
food and clothing. Nevertheless at this trying time nearly all the mem- 
bers reenlisted for three years. Such was the devotion of the 21st to the 
Union cause. Feb., 1864, was spent in Massachusetts on furlough and 
the next active duty was in the Wilderness campaign. At the Wilder- 
Vol. 1—12 



178 The Union Army 

ness, Spottsylvania and Bethesda Church the regiment was in action and 
the rest of the term was spent at Petersburg. 

Twenty-second Infantry. — Cols., Henry Wilson, Jesse A. Gove, 
Charles E. Griswold, William S. Tilton ; Lieut-Cols., Charles E. Griswold, 
William S. Tilton, Thomas Sherwin, Jr.; Majs., Charles E. Griswold, 
William S. Tilton, Thomas Sherwin, Jr., Mason W. Burt. The 22nd was 
mustered in at Lynnfield for three years from Aug. 10 to Oct. i, 1861, 
and mustered out Oct. 20, 1864, when the reenlisted men and recruits 
were transferred to the 32nd Mass. infantry. The regiment had 1,438 mem- 
bers, of whom 218 were killed or died of wounds and 94 died from dis- 
ease or imprisonment. It reached Washington on Oct. 11, '61, and went 
into camp at Hall's hill for the winter. The next spring it took part 
in the siege of Yorktown and after its close embarked for West Point, 
Va., thence to White House Landing and encamped there for a few days. 
Its next camp was at Gaines' mill, from which point an expedition was 
made which resulted in the action at Hanover Court House. The battle 
of Gaines' mill followed, in which Col. Gove was killed. On Sept. i, 1862, 
the regiment was once more at Hall's hill, its previous camp, but not 
more than one-fifth of the men returned. At Antietam and Fredericks- 
burg it escaped with few losses, and from Fredericksburg to the Chancel- 
lorsville movement in the spring of 1863, it was in camp near Stoneman's 
switch, from which place several expeditions were made, one the famous 
"Mud March." On the march toward Chancellorsville the 22nd aided 
in the capture of the fords of the Rapidan. It was in action at Gettys- 
burg and Rappahannock Station, took part in the Mine Run campaign 
and camped for the rest of the winter near Rappahannock Station. The 
regiment had an important share in the work of the Army of the Poto- 
mac during the rest of its service, as is shown by its participation in the 
battles of the Wilderness, Laurel hill, Spottsylvania, Jericho ford. Little 
river, Totopotomoy, Bethesda Church and Shady Grove Church and the 
siege of Petersburg. In the words of Brig.-Gen. Griffin to the 22nd: 
"You leave the army with an enviable record, and with the regrets of 
your comrades at parting with you." 

Twenty-third Infantry. — Cols., John Kurtz, Andrew Elwell, John W. 
Raymond; Lieut. -Cols., John Kurtz, Henry Merritt, Andrew Elwell, John 
G. Chambers, John W. Raymond, Henry T. Woodbury; Majs., Henry 
Merritt, Andrew Elwell, John G. Chambers, Ethan A. P. Brewster, Dan- 
iel W. Hammond. This regiment was mustered in at Lynnfield for three 
years from Sept. 28 to Oct. 24, 1861, and was mustered out on Sept. 28, 

1864, the reenlisted men and recruits continuing in service under the 
same regimental name until mustered out at New Berne, N. C, June 25, 

1865. The total strength was 1,393. Co. C came from Gloucester ; Co. 
D, New Bedford ; Co. E was made up of Davis Guards ; Co. F, from 
Salem, and Co. G, Beverly. The 23d started on Nov. 11 for Annapolis 
and joined the "Burnside expedition." The first expedition was against 
Roanoke island in Feb., 1862, and was a success. Then followed the 
movement to New Berne, and several engagements in that vicinity. The 
Goldsboro expedition in December was next undertaken, in which the 
enemy was encountered at Southwest creek, Kinston, Whitehall and 
Goldsboro, where the railroad bridge was burned and parts of the Wil- 
mington railroad destroyed, the main objects of the expedition. It next 
moved to Carolina City, thence to Hilton Head, and went into camp at 
St. Helena island, where it remained until April 3, 1863, when it em- 
barked, expecting to go to Charleston, but was sent back to Hilton Head. 
Finally, however, it was ordered to the relief of Little Washington and 



Massachusetts Regiments 179 

arrived at New Berne after the siege was raised. The winter of 1863-64 
was spent at Fortress Monroe and Portsmouth, Va. On April 13 an ex- 
pedition was commenced which took the 23d up the James river to Smith- 
field. On April 26th it was sent to Yorktown and engaged the enemy at 
Port Walthall Junction, Hcckman's farm and Arrowfield Church. At 
the battle of Drewry's bluff the losses were heavy and the army fell back 
to Bermuda Hundred. At Cold Harbor the regiment again lost a sad 
number but its advance in the face of the enemy's fire was most gallant. 
From this time till late in August of the same year the regiment was on 
duty before Petersburg, but was then ordered to New Berne, where it 
remained until March 3, 1865. At New Berne it suffered from yellow 
fever which caused great mortality. In March the regiment moved to 
Kinston, in which vicinity it engaged the enemy several times and finally 
routed them. This closed its active service, of every part of which they 
might justly be proud, and for which they received well-earned praise. 

Twenty-fourth Infantry. — Cols., Thomas G. Stevenson, Francis A. 
Osborn, Charles H. Hooper, Albert Ordway; Lieut.-Cols., Francis A. Os- 
born, Robert H. Stevenson, Charles H. Hooper, Albert Ordway, Thomas 
F. Edmands; Majs., Robert H. Stevenson, Charles H. Hooper, Edward 
C. Richardson, Albert Ordway, Thomas F. Edmands, Davis Foster. The 
24th, of which the nucleus was the 4th battalion, state militia, was mus- 
tered in at Readville for three years during the autumn of 1861, and was 
mustered out at Richmond, Va., Jan. 20, 1866, the reenlisted men and re- 
cruits being sufficient in number to keep up the regimental organization 
until that time. The total strength was 1,438. It left the state for An- 
napolis, Dec. 9, 1861, joined the "Burnside expedition," took part in the 
expedition to Roanoke island and the battles at New Berne, Kinston and 
Goldsboro, as well as some minor engagements. Late in Jan., 1863, it 
embarked for St. Helena island and remained there till March 27, when 
it proceeded to Seabrook's island, Edisto inlet, S. C, where it was sta- 
tioned till July 6. At James island the enemy was encountered on the 
loth and then followed the siege of Fort Wagner, where important duties 
were assigned to the regiment, one the capture of some rifle-pits in a very 
exposed position. Malaria and other diseases resulting from the ener- 
vating climate had by this time told so severely on the men that after 
the siege the medical inspector recommended they be sent to a better cli- 
mate and in consequence the regiment was ordered to St. Augustine, Fla. 
From Feb. 18 to May i, 1864, the 24th was stationed at Jacksonville. On 
May 6 it landed at Bermuda Hundred and soon after participated in en- 
gagements at Drewry's bluff, along the Richmond & Petersburg railroad 
and at Deep Bottom. From Dec. 16, 1864, to April 8, 1865, the regiment 
garrisoned Bermuda Hundred and was next ordered to Richmond, where 
it guarded the military prisons until the end of its term of service. It 
was the last save one of the Massachusetts regiments to be mustered out. 

Twenty-fifth Infantry. — Cols., Edwin Upton, Josiah Pickett, James 
Tucker; Lieut.-Cols., Augustus B. R. Sprague, Orson Moulton, James 
Tucker, Samuel Harrington; Majs., Matthew J. McCafferty, Josiah Pick- 
ett, Cornelius G. Atwood, John W. Davis. This regiment, composed 
mainly of Worcester county men, was mustered in at Worcester for three 
years in the fall of 1861, and was mustered out at Worcester, Oct. 20, 
1864, when the recruits and reenlisted men were formed into a battalion 
of four companies, which was mustered out at Readville, July 28, 1865. 
The total strength of the command was 1,519, of whom 126 died from 
wounds and 169 from disease or imprisonment. Co. A was made up of 
Worcester men; Co. B, from Milford; Cos. D, E and G, from Worcester 



180 The Union Army 

and Co. F, from Fitchburg. In spite of the large number of deaths due 
to disease (126) the adjutant-general reports, in 1865, only 268 discharged 
for disability and only 13 deserters. The regiment was honored by the 
women of Worcester with a flag and left there Oct. 31 for Annapolis. 
With the two preceding regiments it joined the "Burnside expedition" 
into North Carolina, reached Roanoke island early in Feb., 1862, after 
severe storms, and remained there till March 6. In March the battle of 
New Berne was fought, after which the regiment remained on duty in 
the city till May g, when it was ordered to Red house. Headquarters 
remained at New Berne during the summer and autumn, and expeditions 
were made to Trenton, Plymouth and Tarboro. In Dec. the regiment 
joined in the Goldsboro expedition, which fought the battles of Kinston, 
Whitehall and Goldsboro. The year 1863 was spent at New Berne, with 
several excursions into the surrounding country, and it was not until De- 
cember that the troops were sent to Newport News and in Jan., 1864, to 
Yorktown, Va. The next camps were at Williamsburg and Getty's sta- 
tion and the last of April found the regiment at Yorktown. On May 4, 
1864, the 25th embarked for Bermuda Hundred and after its arrival there 
participated in the battles at Port Walthall Junction, Arrowfield Church 
and Drewry's bluff. At Cold Harbor it made a heroic charge and was 
able to hold the ground thus gained. On June 13 it moved to Petersburg 
and was occupied there until Sept. 4, when orders came to return to 
New Berne. Here it remained till March 3, 1865, when it was ordered 
to Kinston and encountered the enemy on the loth at Wise's forks. On 
March 22, it left Kinston for Goldsboro, then moved to Mosely hall, 
thence to Goldsboro, then to Raleigh and Charlotte, remaining in camp 
at the last place till orders came for muster out. 

Twenty-sixth Infantry. — Cols., Edward F. Jones, Alpha B. Farr, 
William H. Chapman; Lieut.-Cols., Alpha B. Farr, Josiah A. Sawtell, 
William H. Chapman, John S. Cooke; Majs., Josiah A. Sawtell, Eusebius 
S. Clark, William H. Chapman, Seth Bonney. This regiment contained 
a large number of the members of the 6th militia regiment, and was mus- 
tered in for three years at Lowell from Aug. 28 to Oct. 18, 1861. A 
larger number of its members reenlisted than of any other Massachusetts 
regiment and it was not mustered out till Aug. 28, 1865, at Savannah. Ga, 
It numbered 1,489 men and lost 64 by death from wounds and 171 from 
disease or imprisonment. It left Lowell on Nov. 19, 1861, and arrived at 
Ship island. Miss., on Dec. 3. Here it encamped for the winter and on 
April 15, 1862, started for New Orleans. It garrisoned the quarantine 
station. Forts St. Philip and Jackson till July, when it proceeded to New 
Orleans, which was headquarters until June 20, 1863. It was then as- 
signed to the Department of the Gulf and moved to La Fourche cross- 
ing and repulsed the enemy there, but was obliged to fall back to Jeffer- 
son Station, a more tenable position. Expeditions in the neighborhood 
of New Orleans followed and December found the regiment encamped 
at New Iberia. Jan., 1864, was spent at Franklin and then the regiment, 
except the veterans sent home on furlough, encamped at Carrollton, near 
New Orleans, till June. An expedition to Morganza was undertaken in 
June, after which the 26th, with other regiments, was ordered to Ber- 
muda Hundred, Va., where it arrived on July 21. It joined in the stra- 
tegic movements preceding the battle of Winchester and participated in 
that battle and those of Cedar creek and Fisher's hill. It was stationed 
for a short time at Washington and then ordered to Savannah, Ga., where 
it remained till mustered out. 

Twenty-seventh Infantry. — Cols., Horace C Lee, Walter G. Barthol- 



Massachusetts Regiments 181 

omew; Lieut.-Cols., Luke Lyman, Walter G. Bartholomew, Joseph H. 
Nutting, William M. Brown; Majs., William M. Brown, Walter G. Bar- 
tholomew, William A. Walker, John W. Moore, Joseph H. Nutting, Will- 
iam McKay. The 27th was composed of men from the four western 
counties and was mustered in at Springfield from Sept. 19 to 27, 1861, 
for three years. The original members, not reenlisted, were mustered out 
at Springfield, Sept. 29, 1864, and the reenlisted men and recruits re- 
mained in the service under the same name till mustered out at New 
Berne, N. C, June 26, 1865. The total strength was 1,629 and the loss 
by death from wounds 118, from disease or imprisonment 267. The regi- 
ment left the state on Nov. 2, 1861, and after more than a month at An- 
napolis joined the "Burnside expedition" to North Carolina. It took 
part in the battles at Roanoke island and New Berne and in December 
joined in the Goldsboro expedition. In April, 1863, it aided in the siege 
of Washington. After the return to New Berne an expedition to Gum 
swamp was undertaken and in an engagement there a number of pris- 
oners were captured. New Berne was the regiment's headquarters until 
Oct. 10, 1863, when it was ordered to Newport News and was for a time 
occupied with routine duties at Norfolk and Portsmouth. In April, 1864, 
as part of the Army of the James it embarked for Yorktown, thence to 
Williamsburg, Fortress Monroe and Bermuda Hundred, where it landed 
and marched to Cobb's hill. The battles of Dunn's farm and Port Wal- 
thall Junction followed and during one day the regiment had 5 wounded, 
while 50 were disabled by sunstroke. At Arrowfield Church the 27th was 
engaged and at Drewry's bluff, after a brave defense of their position, 
was surrounded and a large number captured, of whom 120 died in prison. 
The number of killed and wounded was also large on this disastrous day. 
On May 26 the regiment was transferred to the Army of the Potomac 
and fought at Cold Harbor. It was next ordered to Petersburg and the 
assault on June 18 left but few of the regiment, with no officer to lead 
them. The next day the remnant of it was relieved but, after a very 
short rest returned to active duty before Petersburg, which was the last 
service of those who had not reenlisted. The reenlisted men and recruits 
maintained the organization, which was sent to Beaufort, N. C, encamped 
at Carolina City, thence to Beaufort, Plymouth and Jamestown, where 
the enemy's skirmishers were encountered. The Confederates disputed 
the possession of the bridge at Foster's mills, but after the 27th crossed 
retreated and the regiment pushed forward and captured a Confederate 
force at Butler's bridge. It returned in Jan., 1865, to New Berne and 
•was assigned to duty at Red house and Rocky run. On March 8, it was 
attacked at Southwest creek, where the whole brigade, with a few excep- 
tions, was captured, after resisting for an hour, Hoke's entire division 
of 8,000 men. The captives were taken to Richmond, paroled and then 
furloughed. The few who escaped, reinforced by recruits and convales- 
cents, were assigned to guard duty at New Berne until mustered out. 
This closes the history of a regiment, whose services, if particularly un- 
fortunate, were of great importance to the Union cause. 

Twenty-eighth Infantry. — Cols., William Monteith, Richard Byrnes, 
George W. Cartwright; Lieut.-Cols., Maclelland Moore, George W. Cart- 
wright, Jeremiah W. Coveney, James Fleming; Majs., George W. Cart- 
wright, Andrew P. Caraher, Andrew J. Lawler, Jeremiah W. Coveney. 
James Fleming. The 28th was the second Irish regiment organized in 
Massachusetts and was mustered in for three years at Camp Cameron. 
Cambridge, from Oct. 8, 1861, to the end of the year. The original mem- 
bers, not reenlisted, were mustered out at Boston, Dec. 13, 1864, when 



183 The Union Army 

the recruits and reenlisted men were formed into a battalion of five com- 
panies, which remained in service under the same name until mustered 
out at Washington on June 30, 1865. The regiment numbered i,834 men, 
of whom 214 were killed or died of wounds, 86 died from disease and 
47 from imprisonment. It left the state, Jan. 11, 1862, and was stationed 
at Fort Columbus, New York harbor, until Feb. 14, when it embarked 
for Hilton Head, S. C. It was assigned to Gen. T. W. Sherman's expe- 
ditionary corps and details performed varied services until June i, when 
the whole command arrived at James Island and made an attack on Fort 
Johnson near Secessionville. Early in July it was transferred to the 
Army of the Potomac and set out for Fortress Monroe on the 12th. The 
battles of the second Bull Run, Chantilly, South Mountain and Antietam 
followed in rapid succession, after which the 28th enjoyed a short rest 
near Harper's Ferry. Nov. 19, 1862, found it at Fredericksburg, where 
it was assigned to the 2nd brigade, ist division, 2nd corps, known as the 
Irish brigade, commanded by Gen. Meagher. At the battle of Fredericks- 
burg, during a gallant advance, the regiment was nearly cut in two by 
the enemy's fire. From Dec. 15, 1862, to April 27, 1863, it was on picket 
duty along the Rappahannock and then moved to Chancellorsville, which 
was its next battle. After heavy losses at Gettysburg the 28th followed 
the fortunes of the Army of the Potomac southward, being engaged at 
Bristoe Station, in the Mine Run campaign and went into winter quarters 
at Stevensburg. On May 3, 1864, the regiment broke camp and marched 
through Chancellorsville to the Wilderness, where it took part in the bat- 
tle. It was subsequently engaged at the Po river, Spottsylvania, where 
its loss was heavy, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Deep Bottom and Reams' 
station. On the last occasion it was publicly commended by Brig.- 
Gen. Nelson A. Miles. The remainder of the year was spent in routine 
duties and at its close the regiment was mustered out. The 28th bat- 
talion, Mass. infantry, after an uneventful winter, was engaged at Fort 
Stedman, and on the Southside railroad near Sutherland Station. Fol- 
lowing the surrender of the Confederate army at Appomattox the bat- 
talion moved to Alexandria, participated in the grand review of the 
Union army at Washington and returned to Massachusetts to receive 
an enthusiastic welcome. 

Twenty-ninth Infantry. — Cols., Ebenezer W. Pierce, Thomas W. 
Clarke ; Lieut.-Cols., Joseph H. Barnes, Willard D. Tripp, Charles D. 
Browne; Majs., Charles Chipman, Charles T. Richardson, John M. Deane. 
This regiment was formed by the addition of three new companies, Dec. 
13, 1861, to Jan. 13, 1862, to the seven companies called the ist battalion, 
Mass. infantry, which was among the first three years' troops to leave 
the state and reinforced the 3d and 4th regiments. It was mustered out 
at Tenallytown, Md., July 29, 1865. The total membership was 919, of 
whom 30 were killed or died of wounds and 31 died of disease. The reg- 
iment was posted at Newport News until May 10, 1862, when it embarked 
for Ocean View and marched to Norfolk. Though an American regi- 
ment, it was assigned to the "Irish brigade," encamped at Fair Oaks and 
was engaged at that place, Gaines mill. Savage Station and Malvern hill, 
in all of which the conduct of the troops was praised by Gen. Meagher. 
The regiment then moved by way of Yorktown and Fredericksburg to 
the support of Gen. Pope at Centerville and was engaged at Fairfax 
Court House. At Antietam it made a gallant charge. It next moved 
south with the Army of the Potomac and encamped a short time at Fal- 
mouth, where it was transferred from the Irish brigade to the ist brig- 
ade, 1st division, 9th corps. At Fredericksburg it was held in reserve 



Massachusetts Regiments 183 

and it escaped the "Mud March.'' Ordered west in March, 1863, the 29th 
was located at Paris, Ky., during April. In May proceeded to Vicksburg, 
where it arrived at the end of the siege and joined in the pursuit of the 
Confederate forces at Jackson, Miss. The next field of action was in 
East Tennessee in the battles of Blue Springs, Campbell's station and 
the siege of Knoxville. The marches in East Tennessee were difficult 
and the men suffered from cold, insufficient clothing and lack of food, 
yet in Jan., 1864, a number of them reenlisted and became a veteran regi- 
ment. The remainder was attached to the 36th Mass. infantry. After 
a short furlough the veterans arrived in Washington on May 18, 1864, 
and were assigned to the Army of the Potomac. At Cold Harbor their 
duties were comparatively light, but at Petersburg 3 color-bearers were 
shot in quick succession during a gallant charge and volunteers rescued 
the flag. The winter of 1864-5 was spent at Battery No. 11, in the vicin- 
ity of Fort Stedman and in the battle there on March 25, 1865, the bat- 
tery was taken and retaken. Color-bearer Conrad Homan received a 
medal of honor because he was the first to enter when the battery was 
recaptured. On the journey home the regiment paraded in New York 
at the request of the New England society and was given a dinner and 
a complimentary address by Gen. Burnside. The seven original compa- 
nies served the Union cause in the field longer than any other regiment, 
always with honor to themselves and to their country. 

Thirtieth Infantry.— Cols., Nathan A. M. Dudley, Francis H. Whit- 
tier; Lieut.-Cols., William Warren Bullock, Horace O. Whittemore, Fran- 
cis H. Whittier, Samuel D. Shipley; Majs., Horace O. Whittemore, Will- 
iam F. Clark, Francis H. Whittier, Samuel D. Shipley, Edward A. Fiske, 
Brent Johnston. This regiment, known as the Eastern Bay State regi- 
ment, was mustered in at Lowell in the autumn and early winter of 
1861-62. Owing to a difference of opinion between Gov. Andrew and 
Gen. Butler, for whom the regiment was raised, it left the state, Jan. 2, 
1862, without officers having been commissioned but a satisfactory un- 
derstanding was soon reached. It enlisted for three years but remained 
in the service as a veteran battalion until July 5, 1866, when it was mus- 
tered out at Fort Sumter after four and one-half years' service and was 
the last Massachusetts regiment to return home. It embarked on Jan. 
13, 1862, for Fortress Monroe, where it reembarked for the south and 
arrived at Ship island. Miss., Feb. 12. It continued up the Mississippi 
river and landed at New Orleans, May 2, but soon reembarked for Baton 
Rouge. An expedition further up the river was undertaken and the 
troops landed at Vicksburg, where they endeavored to dig a canal to 
divert the river but failed. Returning to Baton Rouge, it engaged the 
enemy at that place on Aug. 5, and then moved to the vicinity of New 
Orleans. Much illness was the result of the hot climate and the duties 
of the regiment during the winter of 1862-63 were comparatively light. 
In May, 1863, it took part in the siege of Port Hudson and after the sur- 
render moved to Donaldsonville, La. It spent the month of August at 
Baton Rouge. After various minor duties the beginning of 1864 found 
the regiment in camp at New Iberia, La., where many of the men re- 
enlisted and the regiment became the 30th veteran volunteers. On July 
5 it sailed for Fortress Monroe, Va., proceeded to Washington, thence 
through Harper's Ferry to Bolivar heights. Various strategic move- 
ments in Virginia followed, including an engagement at Winchester, fol- 
lowed by constant skirmishing while in pursuit of the enemy and battles 
at Fisher's hill and Cedar creek. Winter quarters were built near Mid- 
dletown in the Shenandoah Valley but on Dec. 30, 1864, the regiment 



184 The Union Army 

was ordered to Winchester and posted at the Opequan crossing to guard 
two important bridges. Here camps were built and the regiment re- 
mained here until April i, 1865, when a movement up the Shenandoah 
Valley was commenced, but the surrender of Lee's army ended it. The 
30th participated in the grand review at Washington and was ordered to 
Savannah, Ga., thence to Georgetown, S. C., then to Sumter with various 
details for garrison duty in the district. The total number of members 
of the regiment was 1,472, of whom 50 were killed or died of wounds 
and 319 from disease or accident. 

Thirty-first Infantry. — Cols., Oliver P. Gooding, Edward P. Nettle- 
ton ; Lieut.-Cols., William S. B. Hopkins, Edward P. Nettleton, W. Irv- 
ing Allen; Majs., Robert Bache, Elbert H. Fordham, W. Irving Allen, 
L. Frederick Rice. This regiment, originally known as the Western Bay 
State regiment, was mustered in during the latter part of 1861 and the 
beginning of 1862 for three years. It was mustered out in Dec, 1864, 
when the reenlisted men and recruits were consolidated into a battalion 
of five companies, which was mustered out at Mobile, Ala., Sept. 9, 1865. 
The total strength of the regiment was 1,365, of whom 50 were killed or 
died of wounds and 130 from disease or accident. The 31st embarked 
for Fortress Monroe, Feb. 21, 1862, reembarked for the south and ar- 
rived at Ship island. Miss., March 20. It was ordered to New Orleans 
and was the first Union regiment to occupy the city. It was engaged in 
all the important battles of the Department of the Gulf during 1862 and 
1863 and joined in the Red River expedition, leaving Carrollton, Dec. 19, 
1863. At this time the regiment was converted into a cavalry regiment 
and moved to New Orleans, but was not in active service until March. 
As the 6th Mass. cavalry, it took part in the marches of the Red River 
expedition, leading up to the battles of Sabine cross roads, Pleasant Hill, 
Cane river, Alexandria and Yellow bayou. On May 3, 1864, in a repulse 
of the enemy at Gov. Moore's plantation, the conduct of the regiment 
was complimented by Gen. Mower, who said, "I have seldom seen cav- 
alry do as well, never better." Guard duty along the Mississippi river 
occupied the greater part of the winter and in Feb., 1865, the regiment 
was ordered to Carrollton to prepare for the Mobile expedition. After 
the fall of Mobile the regiment remained there until mustered out. 

Thirty-second Infantry. — Cols., Francis J. Parker, George L. Pres- 
cott, Joseph C. Edmands ; Lieut.-Cols., Francis J. Parker, Edward A. 
Wilde, George L. Prescott, Luther Stevenson, Jr., Joseph C. Edmands, 
James A. Cunningham; Majs., Edward A. Wilde, Luther Stevenson, Jr., 
Joseph C. Edmands, James A. Cunningham, Edward O. Shepard. The 
32nd, whose nucleus was the Fort Warren battalion, was organized for 
garrison duty at that place, and was sent to the front in May, 1862, where 
it was subsequently reinforced by the addition of four new companies. 
It was mustered out at Washington on June 28, 1865. Its total number 
of members was 2,393, of whom 134 were killed or died of wounds and 
117 died from accident or disease. It was first ordered to Washington, 
sailed for Fortress Monroe in July, and was assigned to the Army of the 
Potomac. The six weeks in camp at Harrison's landing which followed 
was a time of great suffering from sickness, and in August, on the first 
day of the march to Yorktown, only 30 were able to keep up. Nevertheless, 
at the second Bull Run, the regiment was ready to do its share, but for- 
tunately its duties on that occasion and during the battle of, Chantilly 
were comparatively light. After participating in the battle of Fredericks- 
burg, it went into winter quarters at Stoneman's switch. It shared in 
the "Mud March" and on April 27, 1863, started for Chancellorsville. 



Massachusetts Regiments 185 

Here and at Gettysburg the regiment fought bravely and then followed 
the fortunes of the Army of the Potomac through the Mine Run cam- 
paign, closing the year in winter quarters near Bealeton, Va. Early in 
1864 the reenlisted men were furloughed and returned in February to 
camp, being the ist Mass. veteran regiment. The 32d had its part in 
the battles of the Wilderness and Spottsylvania, and suffered heavy 
losses at Laurel hill. During this time the men had little rest and the 
engagements at the North Anna river, Totopotomoy and Bethesda Church 
followed in rapid succession. Next it was ordered to Petersburg and 
took part in the engagements there, on the Weldon railroad and at Poplar 
Grove Church. It finally went into winter quarters near the Jerusalem 
plank road, but was not destined to remain here long, for on Feb. 5, 
1865, it left camp under sealed orders, proceeded to Hatcher's run and 
on the 6th, fought the battle of Dabney's mill. It was then stationed on 
the Vaughan road until March, and was engaged at the battles of Grav- 
elly run and the White Oak road. On April 9, while engaged with the 
enemy at Ramplin's station on the Southside railroad, the news came of 
Lee's surrender, which abruptly ended the fighting. On the nth, the 
arms of the conquered were received and after guarding them until the 
13th, the homeward journey was commenced. 

Thirty-third Infantry Cols., Albert C. Maggi, Adin B. Underwood, 

Elisha Doane; Lieut.-Cols., Adin B. Underwood, Godfrey Ryder, Jr., 
Elisha Doane, Albion W. Tebbetts; Majs., Adin B. Underwood, James 
L. Bates, James Brown, William H. Lamson, Elisha Doane, Albion W. 
Tebbetts, Edward W. Blasland. The 33d was mustered in for three years 
in Aug., 1862, at Lynnfield, and was mustered out at Washington, June 
II, 1865. The total number of members was 1,280, of whom 102 were 
killed or died of wounds and 65 died from disease or accident. The regi- 
ment left the state on Aug. 14, 1862, for Washington, where it remained 
until Oct. 10. After several short marches undertaken upon rumors of 
the enemy's presence, it started for Fredericksburg, Dec. 10, but arrived 
too late to take part in the battle. It had, however, the experience of the 
"Mud March" and made winter quarters near Stafford Court House. On 
April 2"], 1863, the march to Chancellorsville was commenced. The regi- 
ment had no important part in this engagement, but in June at Beverly 
ford, it was in action all day. It lost heavily at Gettysburg and was com- 
plimented for gallant behavior. It was encamped at Bristoe Station until 
Sept. 24, when it was assigned to the Army of the Cumberland, moved 
to Bridgeport, Ala., where it arrived on Oct. i, and at Chattanooga on 
Oct. 25. It was in the battles at Lookout mountain and Chattanooga, and 
took part in the attack on Missionary ridge. It started for Knoxville, 
but upon hearing that the siege was over returned to Chattanooga. Win- 
ter quarters were built in Lookout valley and here the regiment remained 
until May, 1864. The first battle of this year was at Resaca, where the 
33d made a brilliant charge, and it was in the engagements at Dallas and 
Kennesaw mountain. On July 17th the regiment, having become greatly 
reduced in numbers, was detailed as train guard and remained in the rear 
while siege operations were carried on before Atlanta. It was ordered 
to Atlanta, on Sept. 5, where various duties in the city were assigned to 
it until Nov. 16, when the long march was commenced which brought 
the troops to Savannah, Dec. 10. After a short rest the weary army 
started northward at the beginning of 1865, with engagements at Averas- 
boro and Bentonville. Gen. Johnston's surrender closely followed that of 
Gen. Lee, and the army of Gen. Sherman, after its wonderful march, 
reached Washington and participated in the grand review, after which 
the men joyfully returned to their homes. 



186 The Union Army 

Thirty-fourth Infantry.— Cols., George D. Wells, William S. Lin- 
coln; Lieut.-Cols., William S. Lincoln, Andrew Potter; Majs., Henry 
Bowman, Harrison W. Pratt, Andrew Potter, Alonzo D. Pratt, Wells 
Willard. The 34th, composed of men from the western part of the state, 
was mustered in at Worcester, during July and Aug., 1862, for three years, 
and was mustered out at Richmond, June 16, 1865. The total number of 
members was 1,309, of whom 125 were killed or died of wounds and 76 
died from accident or disease. The regiment started for Washington on 
Aug. 15, 1862, and remained on duty in that vicinity until May 2, 1863, 
when it was sent to Upton hill. Here it remained until June 2, when it 
returned to Washington; was on duty there for over a month; was or- 
dered to Fort Duncan, July 9; crossed the river and fought the battle of 
Berryville, Va., on Oct. 18, 1863. In December an expedition was made 
to Harrisonburg which almost resulted disastrously, the Union troops be- 
ing pursued all the way back. The regiment was then in camp near Boli- 
var until Feb. i, 1864, when it was ordered to Cumberland, Md. Several 
difficult marches and the battles of New Market, Piedmont, and Lynch- 
burg followed, and then the hurried march in retreat to the Union lines. 
Without rest it was again on the march and took part in the battles at 
Snicker's gap, Winchester, and Martinsburg. It was in the engagements 
at Halltown, Berryville, Fisher's hill and Cedar creek and in December 
received orders to join the Army of the James before Richmond. In Jan., 
1865, the regiment joined Gen. Sheridan at the Chickahominy and moved 
toward Petersburg. It engaged the enemy at Hatcher's run, captured 
Battery Gregg at Petersburg, joined in the pursuit of Lee's army until 
the surrender and entered Richmond, April 25, 1865. Two members of 
the regiment received Congressional medals for bravery and throughout 
its term of service the 34th was noted for its discipline and steadiness. 
At the battle of Cedar creek, in resisting the enemy's charge, the regiment 
was the only one of the entire Army of West Virginia to preserve its 
formation entire. 

Thirty-fifth Infantry. — Cols., Edward A. Wild, Sumner Carruth; 
Lieut.-Cols., Sumner Carruth, William S. King, Burr Porter, John W. 
Hudson; Majs., Sumner Carruth, Sidney Willard, William S. King, Na- 
thaniel Wales, Edward G. Park, John W. Hudson, Franklin B. Mirick. 
This regiment was composed of men from the eastern part of the state, 
and in Aug., 1862, was mustered in for three years. It was mustered out 
at Washington, June 9, 1865, when the recruits and reenlisted men were 
transferred to the 29th Mass. infantry. The total number of members 
was 1,553, of whom 135 were killed or died of wounds and 64 died from 
disease or accident. The regiment left camp for Washington on Aug. 22, 
and Sept. 6, 1862, and was ordered to join the Army of the Potomac in 
Maryland. At South mountain it had a sharp fight with the enemy and 
made a brilliant assault at Antietam, the men behaving like seasoned vet- 
erans. After this battle, out of 1,000 men who had started from Massa- 
chusetts, less than 300 were able to report for duty. After a short rest 
the movement into Virginia was commenced and in December the regi- 
ment participated in the battle of Fredericksburg, where it again suffered 
heavy losses. On Feb. 9, 1863, it was transferred to Newport News, 
where it remained until March 25, when it was assigned to the Depart- 
ment of the Ohio, and reached Mt. Sterling, Ky., April 3. It was soon or- 
dered to the support of Gen. Grant at Vicksburg, and joined in the pur- 
suit of Gen. Johnston's army to Jackson, Miss. It was next actively en- 
gaged in the siege of Knoxville, after which it remained in the vicinity 
through the winter of 1863-64. In March, 1864, the regiment was ordered 



Massachusetts Regiments 187 

east and arrived in Annapolis, April 7, proceeding to Washington, thence 
to IBealeton Station, and joined the Army of the Potomac at the Wilder- 
ness on May 4. In this battle it was posted to guard the supply train, 
and was not actively engaged. At Cold Harbor, however, and at the 
siege of Petersburg, the Weldon railroad and Peebles' farm, it found op- 
portunity for heroism and lost many men. It followed Lee's army as far 
as Farmville in April, 1865, when it received the news of the surrender. 
After a short time in Washington, came the welcome order: "Home." 

Thirty-sixth Infantry. — Cols., John W. Kimball, Henry Bowman, 
Thaddeus L. Barker; Lieut.-Cols., John B. Norton, Arthur A. Goodell, 
William F. Draper, Thaddeus L. Barker, James B. Smith; Majs., James 
H. Barker, Arthur A. Goodell, William F. Draper, Thaddeus L. Barker, 
James B. Smith, Edward T. Raymond. This regiment, composed mostly 
of Worcester county men, was mustered in for three years at Worcester, 
in Aug. and Sept., 1862, and mustered out at Fort Lyon, near Alexandria, 
June 8, 1865. In Oct., 1864, the 21st battalion Mass. infantry was attached 
to the 36th and with the recruits was transferred to the 56th when the 
36th was mustered out. The total number of members was 1,275, oi 
whom 106 were killed or died of wounds, and Ii8 died from accident or 
disease. The regiment left camp for Washington Sept. 2, 1862, and was 
assigned to Gen. Burnside's command, which it joined near Sharpsburg, 
Md. Its part at Fredericksburg was not an important one; the winter 
was spent in that locality, and in the spring of 1863 it was ordered to the 
Department of the Ohio. It was posted for a time at Lexington, Ky., 
where several excursions were made into the surrounding country, and 
on June 4 it started for Vicksburg to reinforce Gen. Grant. Here it 
joined in the siege, pursued Gen. Johnston to Jackson and took part in 
the siege there. The men suffered much from sickness in the south and 
were in no condition to endure hardships. Nevertheless, in the campaign 
in East Tennessee, which was the next battle-ground, the regiment fought 
bravely at Blue Springs, Campbell's station and Knoxville. In April, 
1864, it returned to Annapolis, joined the Army of the Potomac and per- 
formed important services in the battles of the Wilderness and Spottsyl- 
vania, suffering severe loss. At Cold Harbor and Petersburg the 36th 
was engaged, meeting the enemy on the Weldon railroad, at Poplar Spring 
Church and Hatcher's run. After the fall of Petersburg, routine duties 
occupied the regiment until the order came for muster out and the men 
returned home after serving the Union cause for nearly three years in 
eastern, central and southern states. 

Thirty-seventh Infantry. — Cols., Oliver Edwards, Rufus P. Lincoln, 
Mason W. Tyler; Lieut.-Cols., Alonzo E. Goodrich, George L. Montague, 
Rufus P. Lincoln, Mason W. Tyler, Archibald Hopkins; Majs., Oliver Ed- 
wards, George L. Montague, Eugene J. Allen, Marcus T. Moody, Rufus 
P. Lincoln, Mason W. Tyler, Archibald Hopkins, Charles L. Edwards. 
This regiment, composed of men from the western part of the state, was 
mustered in at Pittsfield, Aug. 30 to Sept. 4, 1862, for three years, and 
mustered out on June 21, 1865, at Washington. The recruits and reen- 
listed men were transferred to the 20th Mass. infantry. The total num- 
ber of members was 1,344, of whom 157 were killed or died of wounds 
and 76 died from accident or disease. The regiment left the state for 
Washington, Sept. 7, 1862, and remained in that vicinity for about a month, 
when it was then assigned to the Army of the Potomac. It was present 
at Fredericksburg; took part in the famous "Mud March," spent the win- 
ter of 1862-63 in camp near White Oak Church; joined in the Chancel- 
lorsville campaign, and lost heavily at the battle of Gettysburg, where its 



188 The Union Army 

conduct was complimented by its commander. It started south after Get- 
tysburg and reached Warrenton, Va., where it was ordered to New York 
on account of the draft riots. On Oct. 14, it returned to the Army of the 
Potomac; was present at the battle of Rappahannock Station; joined in 
the Mine Run campaign, and went into winter quarters near Brandy 
Station. In May, 1864, the 37th lost heavily at the Wilderness, fought 
desperately at the Spottsylvania Court House, and moved on to the North 
Anna, Cold Harbor and Petersburg. At Petersburg on June 18, 1864, it 
made a gallant charge and early in July was sent to the defense of Wash- 
ington. It was engaged at Charlestown, W. Va., and at the Opequan in 
the Shenandoah Valley, and was then stationed at Winchester as provost 
guard. On Dec. 16 it rejoined the Army of the Potomac at Petersburg, 
took part in the Hatcher's run movement, the assault on Fort Stedman, 
and the final assault on Petersburg, April 2, 1865. Following the foe in 
their retreat, it was in the fight at Sailor's creek which was the last en- 
gagement in which the regiment participated. After guarding for a short 
time the Southside railroad, the men were reviewed at Richmond, also 
at Washington, and were then mustered out. The reenlisted men and re- 
cruits were transferred to the 20th Mass. June 21, 1865. 

Thirty-eighth Infantry. — Col., Timothy Ingraham; Lieut.-Cols., David 
K. Wardwell, William L. Rodman, James P. Richardson; Majs., David 
K. Wardwell, William L. Rodman, James P. Richardson, Charles F. Allen. 
Seven companies recruited at Camp Stanton, Lynnfield, were composed 
of men from Plymouth county for the most part, and were mustered in 
on Aug. 21, 1862, for three years. The remaining companies, A, B and F, 
recruited at Cambridge, were mustered in on Aug. 22, at Camp Day, 
North Cambridge. The regiment carried on its rolls a total of 80 officers^ 
and 1,036 enlisted men. Its losses during service were 4 officers, and 72 
enhsted men killed or died of wounds; 2 reported missing; 138 died by 
accident or disease; 9 as prisoners, and 42 deserted. It left Boston, Aug. 
26, 1862, and arrived at Baltimore the following day. Col. Ingraham was 
serving as lieutenant-colonel of the i8th Mass. infantry, when commis- 
sioned in the 38th, and did not assume command until Sept. 3. It moved 
out on the Liberty road on Sept. 9, and occupied Camp Cram for several 
weeks. On Oct. li marching orders were received, the regiment being 
called out on account of Stuart's cavalry raid, but it was re-called soon 
after starting, and occupied a position on the outskirts of Baltimore until 
Nov. 9. Moving then to Hampton Roads, it remained on transports for 
a month, when it sailed for Louisiana, arriving at Carrollton Jan. i, 1863. 
It was assigned to the 3d brigade, 3d division, 19th corps. Col. Ingraham 
was appointed to command the Tst brigade, same division, and did not 
again return to the regiment. While at Camp Kearny, where the regi- 
ment remained until March, the men suffered much from sickness. In 
March the 38th embarked for Baton Rouge, joined in the advance to Port 
Hudson and encountered the enemy at Fort Bisland April 12, 1863. On 
May 22 the regiment landed above Port Hudson, joined in the assault on 
the fortifications on the 27th, and shared in the subsequent siege opera- 
tions. After the surrender it embarked for Donaldsonville, but returned 
on Aug. I to Baton Rouge, where it spent the winter of 1863-64. It took 
part in the Red River expedition, garrisoned Alexandria for a time, par- 
ticipated in the engagement at Cane river, and late in the month of July, 
was ordered to Washington. It then joined Gen. Sheridan's Army of the 
Shenandoah and at the battle of the Opequan displayed great courage 
and coolness under conditions of unusual difficulty, as its brigade, through 
a mistake, had been deprived of its support. The battles of Fisher's hill 



Massachusetts Regiments 189 

and Cedar creek followed, and in Jan., 1865, the regiment was ordered to 
Savannah, Ga., where it remained for about five weeks. On March 5, 
orders came to move north to Kinston, N. C, via Hilton Head, Wilming- 
ton and New Berne, but as its services proved unnecessary at Kinston, 
it encamped at Morehead City until April 8. The rest of April was spent 
at Goldsboro on guard duty, and on May i, the regiment returned to Sa- 
vannah, where varied duties occupied the men until the close of their 
term of service. 

Thirty-ninth Infantry. — Cols., Timothy Ingraham, P. Stearns Davis, 
Charles L. Peirson, Henry M. Tremlett, Frederick R. Kinsley; LieuL- 
Cols., Charles L. Peirson, Henry M. Tremlett, John Hutchins; Majs., 
Henry M. Tremlett, Charles J. Payne, Frederick R. Kinsley, William W. 
Graham. The 39th was mustered in at Lynnfield in July and Aug., 1862, 
to serve for three years, and was mustered out at Washington, June 2, 
1865, when the recruits and reenlisted men were transferred to the 32nd 
Mass. infantry. The total number of members was 1,432, of whom 66 
were killed or died of wounds and 83 died by accident or disease. The 
command left Boxford Sept. 6 for Washington, and was immediately 
posted along the Potomac near Edwards' and Conrad's ferries, on guard 
duty. From Dec, 1862, to April, 1863, winter quarters were occupied at 
Poolesville, Md. It was stationed at Washington on guard duty from 
the middle of April to July 9, when it left the city and moved to join the 
Army of the Potomac, then at Funkstown, Md. It participated in the 
Mine Run campaign and spent the winter of 1863-64 at Mitchell's station. 
In the battle of the Wilderness its loss was light, but at Laurel hill, it 
was less fortunate. From the opening of the spring campaign of 1864, 
there was plenty of hard service for the 39th. Bethesda Church, Cold 
Harbor, the siege of Petersburg, the operations against the Weldon rail- 
road. Hatcher's run. Gravelly run, and Five Forks, all were tests of the 
mettle and endurance of the men, to which they responded nobly, per- 
forming every service required of them without faltering. On May i, 
1865, the regiment left the Southside railroad for Arlington heights, par- 
ticipated in the grand review at Washington and left for Boston, June 4. 
It is worthy of mention that the loss of the regiment by death in prison 
was two-thirds as great as its other death losses, viz: 102 men. 

Fortieth Infantry. — Cols., Burr Porter, Guy V. Henry; Lieut.-Cols., 
Joseph A. Dalton, Charles L. Chandler, George E. Marshall, Horatio Jen- 
kins, Jr., John Pollock; Majs., Joseph M. Day, A. Parker Browne, George 
E. Marshall, Horatio Jenkins, Jr., Charles G. Cox, John Pollock, Josiah 
L. Elder. This regiment was organized at Camp Stanton, Lynnfield, 
Mass., in the summer of 1862, and was mustered into service from Aug. 
22 to Sept. 5, to serve three years. The actual number of members dur- 
ing its term of service was 1,067. It lost in killed and died of wounds 
70; missing 4; died by accident or disease 113; died as prisoners 11; total 
losses 198. its record of desertions was highly creditable, losing but 13 
in this way during its varied service. The regiment left the state Sept. 
8, 1862, under Lieut. -Col. Joseph A. Dalton, Col. Porter taking command 
at Washington on the 14th. It was comparatively inactive for some time 
and remained on picket and guard duty in and around Washington until 
the spring of 1863. On April 15, 1863, it moved to Suffolk, Va., then un- 
der siege, where it was engaged in two reconnaissances on April 24 and 
May 3. It then moved to West Point, Va., Yorktown, Williamsburg, 
White House landing in succession, and was engaged with the enemy at 
Baltimore cross-roads, on July 2. It then passed through Washington on 
the nth, and went to Frederick, Md., where it joined the Army of the 



190 The Union Army 

Potomac in the pursuit of Lee's army after the battle of Gettysburg. On 
Aug. 6, it was ordered to Folly island, Charleston harbor, and occupied 
the trenches in front of Fort Wagner until the surrender of that strong- 
hold. Capt. Guy V. Henry, a graduate of West Point, assumed command 
of the regiment on Nov. lo, Col. Porter having resigned some months 
before. On account of its high repute for excellence in drill and dis- 
cipline, it was equipped as mounted infantry at Hilton Head in Jan., 1864, 
and moved on Feb. 4, to Jacksonville, Fla., where it formed part of the 
Light brigade composed of the 40th, the independent battalion Mass. cav- 
alry and Battery B, ist U. S. artillery, Col. Henry acting brigadier. It 
was engaged at Barber's ford and Olustee, losing in the latter engage- 
ments 5 killed, 23 wounded and 4 missing. A detachment of 52 men un- 
der Capt. Marshall was also engaged at Gainesville. In March the brig- 
ade was broken up, the 40th, again unmounted, reported to Gen. Butler 
at Gloucester Point, Va., on the 28th and was assigned to the ist brigade, 
2nd division, loth corps. It shared in the battles of Arrowfield Church and 
Drewry's bluff, suffering a loss of 10 killed, 42 wounded and 22 missing 
in the latter battle. As a part of the i8th corps under Gen. W. F. Smith, 
it joined the Army of the Potomac, and was heavily engaged at Cold 
Harbor. It then moved to the works before Petersburg, participated in 
the first attacks there and afterwards shared in the arduous work of the 
siege until Aug. 27. It had suffered heavily from exposure, disease and 
in action, and left the trenches with only 2 officers and 45 men present 
for duty. It was on provost duty at Bermuda Landing for a month, and 
later in the operations about that place. It left its winter quarters at 
Chaffin's farm on March 4, 1865, and shared in the expeditions to Fred- 
ericksburg and White House landing. On April 3, it started for Rich- 
mond and remained near the city until the 25th, when it crossed the 
James to Manchester, at which place it was mustered out on June 17, 
1865. It reached Mass. on the 21st and the men were paid and finally 
discharged the 30th. 

Forty-first Infantry. — Col., Thomas E. Chickering; Lieut.-Cols., Ansel 
D. Wass, Lorenzo D. Sargent; Majs., Lorenzo D. Sargent, John F. Vinal. 
This was the last of the ordinary three years' regiments sent out by the 
state, the 54th and 55th (colored), and the four veteran regiments of 
1863, being the only infantry regiments subsequently enlisted for that 
term. It was recruited at Lynnfield and Boxford, and was organized and 
mustered into service from Aug. 5 to Nov. i, 1862. It left for New York 
on Nov. 5, where it reported to Gen. Banks; embarked on the steamer 
North Star, which sailed for New Orleans Dec. 4, and reached Baton 
Rouge on the 15th. It landed at this place and was assigned to the 2nd 
brigade (Col. W. R. Kimball), 4th division (Gen. Cuvier Grover), 19th 
corps, with which it participated in the Bayou Teche expedition in April, 
1863, and reached Opelousas on the 20th, where Col. Chickering was ap- 
pointed military commander of the district. Here the men were provided 
with horses confiscated from the surrounding district, and on May 11 
moved to Barre's landing. The regiment was thenceforth known as the 
41st mounted rifles. In June it reported to Gen. Banks at Port Hudson 
and while engaged here in outpost, scout and train duty, an order was 
issued consolidating the command with the ist, 2nd, and 3d companies un- 
attached cavalry, to form what was henceforth known as the 3d Mass. 
cavalry, (q. v.) 

Forty-second Infantry. — Col, Isaac S. Burrell; Lieut.-Col., Joseph 
Stedman; Maj., Frederick G. Stiles. The nucleus of this regiment was 
the 2nd regiment of militia, which volunteered under the first call for nine- 



Massachusetts Regiments 191 

months' troops. It was recruited up to 41 officers and 900 enlisted men 
at Camp Meigs and mustered into service from Sept. 13 to Oct. 14, 1862. 
The field and staff were mustered Nov. 11; on the 19th the regiment was 
ordered to report to Gen. Banks and left the state on the 21st for the ren- 
dezvous at Long island, N. Y. Early in December it left for New Orleans 
in four detachments. Col. Burrell, with Cos. D, G and I, reached Car- 
rollton, La., on the 17th, and was at once ordered to Galveston to coop- 
erate with the naval force at that point. A post was established on the 
island, but after repulsing two or three assaults on Jan. i, 1863, the de- 
tachment was forced to capitulate. Most of the men were paroled on 
Feb. 18, and Chaplain George J. Sanger was unconditionally released. 
The paroled men occupied a parole camp at Bayou Gentilly until their 
term of service expired. The officers were held as prisoners until their 
exchange was effected on July 22, 1864, Surgeon Cummings and Lieut. 
Bartlett having meanwhile died. The other three detachments were de- 
layed, but finally reached New Orleans on Dec. 29, Jan. i and Jan. 14, 
and were assigned to the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 19th corps, with head- 
quarters on the Pontchartrain railroad, near Bayou Gentilly, under com- 
mand of Lieut.-Col. Stedman. In detachments of one or two companies, 
variously located, the regiment served until the following summer, when 
Cos. C and H under Capt. Leonard, and Co. K under Lieut. Harding 
received engineering details. Five of the companies were reunited at 
headquarters in June. Meanwhile Capt. Leonard had organized a colored 
regiment known as the ist La. engineers, largely officered by enlisted men 
from the 42d. A detachment under Lieut. Tinkham participated in the 
action at La Fourche crossing, meeting with a loss of i killed, 3 wounded 
and I captured. Forty-six members of the regiment, forming part of the 
garrison at Brashear City, were captured when that place was attacked 
and taken on June 23, 1863, 2 having been killed and 2 wounded during 
the unsuccessful resistance. About this time the regiment was transferred 
to New Orleans and spent the remainder of its service there and at Al- 
giers, embarking for New York on July 31. It reached Boston on Aug. 

10, and was mustered out at Readville on the 20th. This regiment was 
recruited and reorganized for the 100 days' service in the summer of 1864, 
retaining the same field officers, but with many changes among the staff 
and line officers, and embarked for Washington on July 24, under Lieut.- 
Col. Stedman. Col. Burrell was exchanged about this time and rejoined 
his regiment at Alexandria, where it passed its term of service in the 
performance of guard and patrol duty, a detachment serving for some 
time at Great Falls, Md., and large details serving as guard for supply 
trains to the Shenandoah Valley. It was mustered out of service Nov. 

11, 1864. 

Forty-third Infantry.— Col., Charles L. Holbrook; Lieut.-Col., John 
C. Whiton; Maj., Everett Lane. The basis of this regiment, known as 
the "Tiger regiment," was the 2nd battalion, ist brigade, ist division, Mass. 
volunteer militia. The battalion, which volunteered for the nine months' 
service, was recruited to a full regiment at Camp Meigs and mustered 
into service between Sept. 12 and Oct. 25, 1862. It numbered 40 officers 
and 908 enlisted men. Its total losses during service were 3 killed, 12 
died by accident or disease, total 15. suffering no casualties among its 
officers. It left the state Nov. 5, for Beaufort, N. C, where it arrived on 
the 15th and went into camp on the Trent river at "Camp Rogers." Co. 
C under Capt. William B. Fowle was soon sent to Beaufort, where it re- 
mained on detached duty until March 4, 1863, and the rest of the regi- 
ment formed part of Gen. Foster's forces in the Goldsboro expedition in 



192 The Union Army 

Dec, 1862. It was under fire for the first time at Kinston, but suffered 
no losses, and was engaged at the battles of Whitehall and Goldsboro. 
Its next service was in connection with the Trenton expedition. In April, 
1863, it was sent to the relief of a small force besieged at Washington, 
N. C., engaged in the skirmish at Blount's creek, and afterwards supplied 
a number of volunteers in the dangerous service of running the blockade 
below Washington. It was engaged in various duties in the vicinity of 
New Berne until June 24, when it was sent to Fortress Monroe, reported 
to Gen. Dix on the Pamunkey river, and went into camp at Hampton, 
Va., until July 2. Some complaints arose among the men at this time, 
as the term of service of most of them had expired. Thereupon Gen. 
Naglee, whose attention had been called to the matter, offered the men 
individually the option of returning home, or of joining the Army of the 
Potomac for a time, then engaged in the pursuit of the fleeing Lee. Offi- 
cers and men to the number of 203 volunteered to remain in service, and 
were engaged in provost duty at Sandy Hook, Md., till July 18, when they 
were relieved and ordered home. They were mustered out of service 
at Readville, July 30, 1863. 

Forty-fourth Infantry. — Col., Francis L. Lee; Lieut.-Col., Edward C. 
Cabot; Maj., Charles W. Dabney. The nucleus of this regiment was the 
4th battalion, Mass. volunteer militia, which had been organized at Bos- 
ton, May 27, 1862, to serve during the pleasure of the president, and had 
been mustered out May 31, 1862. The command volunteered almost as 
a unit when the call came for nine months' troops, and was recruited to 
a full regiment at Camp Meigs, Sept. 12. It numbered 43 officers and 
975 enlisted men. During its short term of service it lost 10 killed and 
died of wounds; 26 died by accident or disease; and one died as prisoner. 
It left the state Oct. 22, for New Berne, N. C, where it was brigaded 
with the 24th Mass., 5th R. I., and loth Conn, under Col. Stevenson of 
the 24th. At the end of October it engaged in the Tarboro expedition, 
and saw its first fighting at Rawle's mill, where it suffered a loss of 2 
killed and 6 wounded. This expedition occupied two weeks, and in De- 
cember it participated in the Goldsboro expedition, suffering a loss of 8 
killed and 14 wounded at Whitehall. It formed part of the reserve at 
Goldsboro, whence they returned to New Berne, and Cos. B and F were 
on detached picket duty at Batchelder's creek until May i. In March 
the rest of the regiment went to reinforce the small garrison at Wash- 
ington, N. C, and occupied the town during the siege. The regiment 
returned to New Berne on April 24, relieved the 45th and was engaged 
in provost duty until its term of service expired. It was relieved by the 
27th Mass. on June 6, returned to Boston, where it arrived on the loth, 
and was mustered out at Readville on the i8th. On July 13, on account 
of the danger of a draft riot, it was again called into service for a week. 

Forty-fifth Infantry. — Col, Charles R. Codman; Lieut.-Col, Oliver 
W. Peabody; Maj., Russell Sturgis, Jr. This organization was known 
as the "Cadet regiment," from the fact that its field officers, and several 
of its line officers, were taken from the ist corps cadets. It was recruited 
at Camp Meigs, Readville, and was mustered into the U. S. service for 
nine months on varying dates between Sept. 26 and Oct. 28, 1862. While 
the officers were from Boston and the immediate vicinity, the ranks were 
recruited from over 200 cities and towns in the state. It numbered 40 
officers and 918 men. Its loss during service was 20 killed and 27 who 
died by accident or disease. It embarked for New Berne, N. C, Nov. 5, 
and on its arrival there was assigned to Col. Amory's brigade, consisting 
of the 17th, 23d, 43d and 51st Mass. infantry. It remained inactive until 



Massachusetts Regiments 193 

Dec. 12, when all but Cos. C and G (on detached service) participated in 
the Goldsboro expedition. It was actively engaged at the battles of Kin- 
ston and Whitehall, winning praise for its gallantry and efficiency in 
both actions, and suffering a loss of 15 killed and 43 wounded at Kinston, 
and 4 killed and 16 wounded at Whitehall, but was not in action at 
Goldsboro. In Jan., 1863, it took part, with two other regiments, in a 
five days' reconnaissance to Trenton, N. C., and on the 26th was detailed 
for provost guard at New Berne, in which capacity it served until April 
25. With its brigade it took part in an expedition to Core creek, on the 
Atlantic & North Carolina railroad, on April 28, and engaged the enemy 
on the Dover road, where it met with a loss of i killed and 4 wounded. 
This ended its active campaigning, and it remained encamped in the 
neighborhood of Fort Spinola until June 24, when it broke camp and 
returned to Massachusetts, reaching Boston on the 30th. It was mus- 
tered out at Readville, July 8, 1863. 

Forty-sixth Infantry. — Cols., George Bowler, William S. Shurtleff; 
Lieut.-Cols., William S. Shurtleff, Lucius B. Walkley; Majs., Lucius B. 
Walkley, Samuel B. Spooner. The recruits of this regiment were ob- 
tained in Hampden county through the efforts of Rev. George Bowler 
of Westfield, the men rendezvoused at Camp N. P. Banks, Springfield, 
and were mustered in from Sept. 24 to Oct. 30, 1862, for the nine months' 
service. The total enrolment of the regiment was 43 officers and 954 
men. The casualties during service were i killed and 32 who died by 
accident or disease. It was ordered to New Berne, where it arrived on 
Nov. 15, and was attached to Col. Horace C. Lee's brigade, composed of 
the 3d, 5th, 25th, 27th and 46th Mass. infantry. Cos. A and K, under 
Capt. Spooner, were soon detached for duty at Newport barracks, and 
in December the rest of the regiment took part in the Goldsboro expedi- 
tion, under command of Lieut.-Col. Shurtleff. Col. Bowler, on account 
of illness, resigned his commission on Jan. 2;}, 1863. The regiment saw 
no more active service until March, remaining encamped near the junc- 
tion of the Neuse and Trent rivers. On March 13 it participated in the 
reconnaissance on the Trent road, and the following month six compa- 
nies formed part of the garrison at Plymouth, on the Roanoke river, 
while Cos. A and I, under Maj. Spooner, remained behind in the defenses 
of New Berne. In May, these two companies were sent to Batchelder's 
creek, and displayed commendable bravery in the defense of an advanced 
redoubt after the rest of the Union forces had been driven back in con- 
fusion during the attack on May 23. Sergt. A. S. Bryant of Co. A was 
rewarded for bravery on this occasion by promotion to sergeant-major 
and awarded a medal from congress. Shortly before the term of service 
expired, more than 100 members of the regiment enlisted in the 2nd 
Mass. heavy artillery, then being organized. The 46th was ordered to 
Fortress Monroe on June 23. Its term of service had nearly expired on 
their arrival at this point, and the regiment volunteered for further 
service during Lee's invasion of the North. It was assigned to Gen. 
Tyler's brigade in the defenses of Baltimore until July 6, when it was 
attached to Gen. Briggs' brigade, and performed outpost and picket duty 
on Maryland heights until July 11. It then joined the Army of the Po- 
tomac at Funkstown, and while marching south with it into Virginia in 
pursuit of Lee, was ordered to return to Massachusetts for muster out. 
It reached Springfield July 21, and was mustered out on the 28th at 
Hampden Park. 

Forty-seventh Infantry. — Col., Lucius B. Marsh ; Lieut.-Col., Albert 
Stickney; Maj., Austin S. Cushman. This organization, commonly known 

Vol. 1—13 



194 The Union Army 

as the "Merchants' Guard," rendezvoused at Camp Edwin M. Stanton, 
Boxford, and was raised through the efforts of Lucius B. Marsh, a promi- 
nent Boston merchant, who became its colonel. The several companies 
were gradually filled during the autumn of 1862 and were all mustered 
in for nine months' service by Nov. 7. On the nth the regiment moved to 
Camp Meigs, Readville. It suffered much from desertions before leaving 
the state, the records showing that it lost 225 men in this way. Its total 
enrolment was 897, consisting of 42 officers and 855 enlisted men. Its 
losses during service were i man killed and i officer and 33 enlisted men 
who died by accident or disease. On Nov. 29 it was ordered to New 
York to join the Banks expedition then being organized. After some 
delay at Long island, it embarked for New Orleans and reached there 
on Dec. 31. It was first ordered to CarroUton, where it remained until 
/an. II, 1863, when it returned to New Orleans and served until in 
March at the U. S. barracks and Louisiana lower cotton press. Several 
companies were detailed for special service, Co. B serving throughout 
its term as guard for commissary and ordnance stores at New Orleans, 
and Co. E being detailed for provost duty at Thibodeaux. The regiment 
was reunited on March 12 (with the exception of Co. B), when it was 
ordered to the Metaire race-course and on May 19 to Camp Parapet. Here 
Col. Marsh relieved Gen. Dorr in command of the post, made up of 
artillery detachments and other troops and guarding a line of defenses 
extending some 30 miles. This post was occupied by the regiment until 
the end of its term of service. While here. Col. Marsh recruited a com- 
pany of negroes for service in the swamps. This company was the 
nucleus of the 2nd La. engineers, recruited from the contraband camp 
and its officers were largely furnished by the 47th Mass. The regiment 
left CarroUton on Aug. 5, to return home, going by way of Cairo, 111., 
and reaching Boston on the i8th. It was mustered out at Readville, 
Sept. I, 1863. It was not once in action, and had only i man killed 
(June 28, by guerrillas). 

Forty-eighth Infantry. — Col., Eben F. Stone; Lieut.-Col., James 
O'Brien; Maj., George Wheatland. It was originally intended to recruit the 
48th as a nine months' regiment from Essex county. Eight companies had 
been already formed at Camp Lander, Wenham, Mass., when the plans 
were modified on account of the immediate demand for troops for the 
Banks expedition. Two companies were detached to complete the or- 
ganization of the 4th Mass. infantry (militia) which was being formed 
at Lakeville for the nine months' service, and four Irish companies which 
had been recruited by James O'Brien at Lakeville to form part of an 
Irish regiment, were consolidated with the six remaining companies to 
form the 48th infantry. Co. A was mustered on Sept. 16, 1862, six more 
by Oct. I, and Co. K was finally mustered on Dec. 9. The field and staff 
were mustered Dec. 8. The regiment numbered 47 officers and 780 en- 
listed men. The regiment left on Dec. 27, 1862, for New York, whence 
it sailed for Fortress Monroe, Jan. 4, 1864. After a delay of a week 
there it embarked again for New Orleans, arriving there Feb. i. Two daj'S 
later it arrived at Baton Rouge and became a part of the ist brigade, 
1st division, 19th corps. Its first active service was on March 13, when 
it participated in a reconnaissance to within a short distance of the Con- 
federate lines about Port Hudson. The next day it advanced with its 
division for a demonstration against the land defenses of that place, and 
on the 20th returned to Baton Rouge. The general advance on Port 
Hudson began on May 21, and the 48th, now attached to the 3d brigade 
under Col. Dudley, was engaged at Plains Store, where it lost 2 killed. 



Massachusetts Regiments 195 

7 wounded and ii captured. It furnished 93 men for the storming party 
of 200 which led the assault on the works of Port Hudson, among the 
volunteers being Lieut.-Col. O'Brien, who was killed, and 15 line officers. 
It lost here 7 men killed and 41 wounded. While temporarily attached 
to the 3d division under Gen. Dwight, it took part in the assault of June 
14, losing 2 killed and 11 wounded. It shared in the work of the siege, 
but without further loss in battle. It then moved with Augur's division, 
commanded by Gen. Weitzel, on the evening of July 9, against the 
enemy's works below Donaldsonville, La. ; was engaged at Bayou La 
Fourche on the 13th, where it met with a loss of 3 killed, 7 wounded 
and 23 captured; remained encamped near Donaldsonville until Aug. i, 
when it once more returned to Baton Rouge and occupied its former 
camp until Aug. 9. Its term of service having now expired, it left for 
Massachusetts by way of Cairo, 111., and reached Boston on Aug. 23. It 
was mustered out at Camp Lander Sept. 3, 1863. 

Forty-ninth Infantry. — Col., William F. Bartlett; Lieut.-Col., Samuel 
B. Sumner; Maj., Charles T. Plunkett. This regiment was entirely made 
up of Berkshire county men, who had enlisted under the call of Aug. 4, 
1862, for nine months. The several companies, having filled their ranks 
and elected their officers according to the prevailing militia system, ren- 
dezvoused at Camp Briggs, Pittsfield, where the men were mustered in 
from Sept. 18 to Oct. 28. On Nov. 7 the regiment moved to Camp Wool 
at Worcester, where it completed its organization by the election of field 
officers. It left the state on Nov. 29 for New York, whence it sailed to 
Louisiana, Jan. 23, 1863, as part of the Banks expedition. It arrived at 
Baton Rouge in the middle of February, where it was attached to the 
1st brigade, ist division, 19th corps, and remained here idle until March 
14, suffering much meanwhile from malarial and other fevers, incident 
to the sudden change of climate. It shared in the demonstration of 
March 14 in favor of Farragut's fleet; then joined in the general move- 
ment against Port Hudson in May, though 300 members of the regiment 
were off duty at this time by reason of sickness, and only 450 went with 
the colors. It was engaged at Plains Store, suffering a slight loss, and 
later participated in all the trials and hardships of the siege of Port 
Hudson. In the assault of May 27, it furnished a large number of officers 
and men for a forlorn hope, and lost altogether on that day 16 killed 
and 64 wounded out of a total in action of 233. Both Col. Bartlett and 
Lieut.-Col. Sumner were wounded, so that the command of the regiment 
devolved on Maj. Plunkett during the rest of its term of service. It 
moved to Donaldsonville, La., after the surrender of Port Hudson, and 
took part in the Bayou La Fourche expedition, during which it was nearly 
surrounded by a superior force from Gen. Taylor's army, and retired in 
confusion with a loss of 3 killed, 4 wounded and 16 captured. The regi- 
ment remained in camp near Donaldsonville until Aug. i, when it returned 
to Baton Rouge and was joined by Co. G, which had remained on provost 
duty in Baton Rouge during the ten weeks of active campaigning the 
regiment had undergone. Its term of service had now expired and it 
reached Pittsfield on Aug. 22, returning by way of Cairo, 111., Indianapolis, 
Cleveland, Buffalo and Albany. It was formally mustered out on Sept. 
1, 1863. 

Fiftieth Infantry. — Col., Carlos P. Messer; Lieut.-Col., John W. 
Locke; Maj., John Hodges, Jr. The nucleus of this regiment was the 
7th Mass. militia, composed of men from Essex and Middlesex counties. 
It was rapidly recruited to the required numbers at Camp Edwin 
Stanton, Boxford, between Sept. 15 and Sept. 30, 1862, was mustered into 



196 The Union Army 

service for nine months. It had 3Q officers and 904 enlisted men on its 
rolls. During its term of service it lost but i man in action, who was 
killed at Port Hudson. One officer and 87 enlisted men died by accident 
or disease. The 50th left on Nov. 19 for New York under orders to 
join Gen. Banks' forces in the Department of the Gulf. There was a 
great lack of adequate transportation facilities, so that the regiment was 
sent to Louisiana by detachments. Co. I departed on Dec. i and reached 
Baton Rouge on the i6th, far in advance of the others. A, E and K 
did not arrive until after Feb. 5, 1863; B, D and H arrived at New 
Orleans, Jan. 27, but were delayed in quarantine by reason of smallpox 
aboard their vessel and did not rejoin the regiment until April 2; C, F 
and G reached New Orleans, Feb. 9, and joined the regiment at Baton 
Rouge on the 14th. The 50th was assigned to the 3d brigade, ist division, 
19th corps, and shared in the demonstration of March 14 in the rear of 
Port Hudson, to enable Adm. Farragut to run the Confederate batteries. 
On April 9, four companies participated in an expedition to the Bayou 
Monticeno, on the Port Hudson road, and on May 12 the regiment 
moved with its brigade to White's bayou, 10 miles southeast of Port 
Hudson, where it remained on guard while the fortress was being in- 
vested. On the 26th it moved up within range, and shared in the assault 
of the next day, losing i killed and 4 wounded. It participated in the 
hardships of the siege until the surrender, when it was detailed for 
garrison duty within the fortifications, and remained there until ordered 
home by way of Cairo, 111., reaching Boston Aug. 11, and was mustered 
out at Wenham on the 24th. 

Fifty-first Infantry. — Col., Augustus B. R. Sprague; Lieut.-Col., John 
M. Studley; Maj., Elijah A. Harkness. The 51st was recruited from the 
southern part of Worcester county during the summer and autumn of 
1862. The men rendezvoused at Camp Wool, Worcester, and from Sept. 
25 to Nov. II were mustered into service for nine months. The regimen- 
tal rolls show a total of 42 officers and 879 enlisted men. It lost no men 
in action, but 40 died from disease, suffering especially from cerebro- 
spinal meningitis. The field officers were all taken from active service 
with other organizations. Col. Sprague having served previously as captain 
of the 3d battalion rifles, and as lieutenant-colonel of the 25th infantry. 
He had been in action at Roanoke island and New Berne. By request of 
Gen. Foster the regiment was ordered to North Carolina. It left the 
state on Nov. 25 and arrived at Beaufort Nov. 30, proceeding directly to 
New Berne, where it was assigned to Amory's brigade, composed of Mas- 
sachusetts troops. It took part in the Goldsboro expedition, in which it 
lost 2 men wounded. On Dec. 30 Co. G, under Capt. T. D. Kimball, was 
detailed for special service at Brice's ferry, where it continued through- 
out its term of service. In Jan., 1863, seven companies shared in the 
expedition to Pollocksville and Trenton, returning to New Berne on the 
2ist. Throughout March and April, it was distributed along the railroad 
between New Berne and Morehead City in the performance of garrison 
duty, having its headquarters at Beaufort. Meanwhile the health of the 
regiment had materially improved and it returned to New Berne on May 
4. On June 24 it was ordered to Fortress Monroe, and arrived there on 
the 27th, having left behind 183 men sick. Its term of service had now 
expired, but it volunteered for further service during the emergency cre- 
ated by the entrance of Lee's army into Maryland, and was first employed 
on special service in Baltimore until July 5. The next day it reported to 
Gen. H. S. Briggs, in command of a provisional brigade of Massachusetts 
troops, and was stationed on Marye's heights until the 12th, when it was 



Massachusetts Regiments 197 

ordered to join the Army of the Potomac at Funkstown. The regiment 
had suffered so much from disease contracted by exposure in the swamps 
of North Carolina, that it was now reduced to 275 men for duty. When 
Lee's army escaped into Virginia, it was ordered to return to Massa- 
chusetts, and reached Worcester on July 21. It was mustered out of 
service July 27, 1863, after serving almost ten months. 

Fifty-second Infantry. — Col., Halbert S. Greenleaf; Lieut.-Col., 
Samuel J. Storrs; Maj., Henry Winn. This regiment was recruited from 
the counties of Franklin and Hampshire, and was organized at Camp 
Miller, Greenfield. Two companies were mustered into the U. S. service 
on Oct. 2, 1862, for nine months, and the remaining eight on the nth, 
while the field and staff officers were mustered in Nov. 19. It left the 
state on Nov. 20, for New York to take part in the Banks expedition. 
On Dec. 2 it embarked for Louisiana, arrived at Baton Rouge Dec. 17, 
and was attached to the 2nd brigade, 4th division, 19th corps. It saw 
no active service during the winter, remaining encamped at Baton Rouge 
until March 13, 1863, when it joined in the reconnaissance in the rear of 
Port Hudson to assist the Union fleet under Adm. Farragut in its attempt 
to run the Confederate batteries. On March 27 it embarked for Donald- 
sonville, La., and on the 31st, as a part of Grover's division, it shared 
in the Bayou Teche expedition, forming part of the reserve at the battle 
of Indian ridge on April 14. Four companies were detached at New 
Iberia as provost guard, and the others proceeded to Opelousas and 
Barre's landing. The six companies and Nims' battery remained at this 
point engaged in various duties until May 21, when, having been joined 
by the four companies left at New Iberia, the regiment started on the 
long return march and finally rejoined its brigade before Port Hudson. 
It formed part of Gen. Paine's column in the march toward Clinton on 
June 5, returning on the 8th without having met the enemy. On June 
14 it was deployed as skirmishers on the right of Gen. Weitzel's attacking 
column during the assault of that day, and suffered a loss of 3 killed and 
7 wounded. During the remainder of the siege of Port Hudson, it occu- 
pied an advanced position in the trenches, and lost a number in killed and 
wounded by the fire of the sharpshooters. Soon after the surrender of 
Port Hudson, its term of service expired. It had the distinction of being 
the first regiment to return home by way of the Mississippi river, reach- 
ing Greenfield on Aug. 3, and on the 14th it was mustered out. During 
its term of service it had lost i officer and 10 enlisted men killed in action 
and 99 by accident and disease. Its loss by desertion was only 3. 

Fifty-third Infantry.— (Militia.) Col., John W. Kimball; Lieut.- 
Col., George H. Barrett; Maj., James A. Pratt. This regiment was re- 
cruited from the towns of northern Worcester and Middlesex counties, 
and rendezvoused at Camp Stevens, Groton Junction. The various com- 
panies were mustered into service from Oct. 17, 1862, to Nov. 6, for nine 
months, the field and staff officers being commissioned on Nov. 8, but 
were not mustered until the regiment reached New York in December. 
The number on the regimental rolls was 44 officers and 910 enlisted men. 
It lost during service 5 officers and 23 enlisted men killed in action; 140 
men by accident or disease; and 21 men deserted. It left for New York 
Nov. 29, to join the Banks expedition then forming in that city, and sailed 
for Louisiana, Jan. 18, 1863, reaching Carrollton on the 31st. It was 
assigned to the 3d brigade (Col. Gooding), 3d division (Gen. Emory), 
19th corps. After spending six weeks in camp it moved on March 6 to 
Baton Rouge and on the 12th participated in a reconnaissance 5 miles up 
the river along the Bayou Sara road. On the 14th it moved with its 



198 The Union Army 

division toward Port Hudson, returning to Baton Rouge the next day, 
after Adm. Farragut had run the batteries with a portion of his fleet. 
In April it took part in the Bayou Teche expedition; was actively en- 
gaged at Fort Bisland, where it lost 3 killed and 11 wounded, and was 
the first regiment to plant its colors over the fort. It followed in pur- 
suit of the enemy to Opelousas, where it halted until May 5, and then 
proceeded with the rest of the column to Alexandria, marching 100 miles 
in four days. On May 15 it started on the retrogade movement, and 
finally reached Port Hudson on the 23d. The following day it served 
as advance guard for the engineer corps, engaged in selecting a route 
through the forest. It participated in the assault on May 27, holding a 
position within 200 feet of the enemy's intrenchments for more than 24 
hours and meeting with some loss. On June 5-8 it was engaged in an 
expedition toward Clinton, and on the 14th formed part of the storming 
column of that day, making a gallant charge up to the enemy's works, 
and losing 18 killed and 68 wounded, out of 300 present. Resting until 
the 19th, it again went to the front and occupied an advanced position 
until the surrender of Port Hudson. It then served on picket duty for 
two days, moving to Baton Rouge on July 11 and to Donaldsonville on 
the 15th. It encamped here until Aug. 2, when it returned to Baton 
Rouge. Two companies had been on detached duty throughout the whole 
campaign. Co. B, detached April 8, 1863, and Co. K, March 10, served 
as division and corps pioneers during the Teche expedition and the siege 
of Port Hudson. These companies rejoined the regiment at Donaldson- 
ville and Baton Rouge. On Aug. 12 the command started home, going 
by way of Cairo, 111., and arrived at Fitchburg, Mass., Aug. 24. It was 
mustered out at Camp Stevens Sept. 2, 1863. No other short-term regi- 
ment lost so many men killed in action. 

Fifty-fourth Infantry. — Cols., Robert G. Shaw, Edward N. Hallowell; 
Lieut.-Cols., Norwood P. Hallowell, Edward N. Hallowell, George Pope; 
Majs., Edward N. Hallowell, H. Northey Hooper, John W. M. Appleton, 
George Pope, James M. Walton. This was the first colored regiment 
recruited in the Northern States east of the Mississippi river. On Jan. 
26, 1863, Gov. Andrew was granted authority by the secretary of war to 
enlist black recruits and to organize them into special corps, under the 
command of white officers. The first recruits were raised at Boston on 
Feb. 9, and by the end of the following month four companies had been 
organized and mustered into service at Camp Meigs, Readville. Three 
more were mustered on April 23, and the remaining three on May 13. 
The men were obtained, not only from every part of Massachusetts, but 
from many other states as well, recruiting stations having been estab- 
lished through the efforts of Gov. Andrew from Boston to St. Louis. No 
bounty was offered the men to enlist, though the state afterwards paid 
each man $50. More than enough men to fill the regiment had been re- 
cruited, and the surplus went to form the 55th. Much attention was given 
the matter of the selection of proper officers, Capt. Robert B. Shaw, of 
the 2nd Mass. infantry, being placed in charge of the regiment during 
its formation. Capt. N. P. Hallowell, of the 20th Mass. infantry, was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel at the same time, but was later placed 
in command of the 55th, and did not serve with the S4th. Some of the 
other officers were also assigned to the 55th, so that the regiment left 
the state with an incomplete roster of officers. The regimental rolls show 
a total of 78 officers and 1,369 enlisted men. During a term of service 
lasting more than two years, it lost 5 officers and 88 enlisted men killed 
or died of wounds; i officer and 106 enlisted men by accident or disease; 



Massachusetts Regiments 199 

34 died as prisoners, and 43 were reported missing. Only 39 men deserted. 
On May 28, 1863, the regiment left the state, under orders to report to 
Gen. Hunter, commanding the Department of the South. Col. Shaw re- 
ported his regiment at Hihon Head, S. C, on June 3, and the same day 
proceeded to Beaufort. A few days later the regiment was ordered to 
St. Simon's island, Ga., where it reported to Col. James Montgomery of 
the 2nd S. C. While here it took part in an expedition up the Altamaha 
river to Darien, in which the town was burned by order of Col. Mont- 
gomery against the wishes of the officers and men of the 54th. It re- 
turned to Hilton Head on June 25, and formed part of Gen. A. H. Terry's 
expedition to James island in July. It went into action for the first time 
at Secessionville, where it received the brunt of the enemy's attack and 
performed its duty gallantly. Its loss was 45 in killed, wounded and 
missing. It reached Morris island on the evening of July 18, exhausted 
by the hardships endured during the last few days, loss of sleep and lack 
of rations. It now numbered some 600 effective men, and was ordered 
to lead that night the assault on Fort Wagner. This duty it nobly per- 
formed, advancing to the outer works under a galling fire of artillery 
and musketry and planting the regimental colors on the parapet. Here, 
during a desperate hand-to-hand fight, Col. Shaw was slain and Lieut.- 
Col. Hallowell severely wounded. The struggle was soon seen to be 
hopeless and the attacking forces were withdrawn. The remnant of the 
regiment, together with a few of the fugitive men from the other commands, 
was rallied about 700 yards from the fort by Capt. Emilio, the only officer 
left above the grade of lieutenant not killed or wounded. This position 
was held throughout the night in expectation of a sortie by the enemy 
and in the morning the 54th was relieved by the loth Conn. Its total 
loss in killed, wounded and missing had been 261. It remained on duty 
in the trenches, and in fatigue duty, throughout the siege. When the 
fort was evacuated on Sept. 7, it was among the first to enter the fort. 
Col. E. N. Hallowell took active command of the regiment Oct. 17, hav- 
ing recovered from his wounds received during the assault of July 18. 
ThQ ranks of the regiment, at this time, had been augmented by 100 re- 
cruits from the North, and by the return of many of the convalescents. 
It was engaged in strengthening the works until January of the follow- 
ing year, when it formed part of the expedition to Florida under Gen. 
Seymour, participating in the battle of Olustee. By its gallant action, 
while serving as rear-guard during the withdrawal of Seymour's main 
"body, it did much to prevent an utter rout. Of about 500 men engaged, 
it lost 87 in killed, wounded and missing. It returned to Morris island 
on April 18 and remained there throughout the succeeding summer and 
autumn. Until Sept. 28, 1864, the men had steadily refused to accept the 
$10 a month offered them, and in consequence had not received a dollar 
of pay. At this time they were paid the full amount of $13 a month to 
which they were fairly entitled, receiving in gross $160,000, of which they 
are reported to have sent home two-thirds to their families. Eight com- 
panies, under Lieut. -Col. Hooper, moved to Hilton Head in November. 
and were assigned to Col. Hartwell's 2nd brigade, as part of the coast 
division under Gen. Hatch. Moving to Boyd's neck on Broad river with 
this division on the 29th, six companies were engaged at Honey hill on 
the 30th and formed part of the reserve at Deveaux neck, Dec. 9. The 
division then moved to Graham's neck and Pocotaligo and entered Charles- 
ton, Feb. 2."], 1865, where it found Cos. B and F, which had been left at 
Morris island. It is worthy of record that Sergt. Stephen A. Swails, of 
Elmira, N. Y., was mustered into his position of 2nd lieutenant, Jan. 25, 



200 The Union Army 

by order of the war department. He had received his commission long 
before from Gov. Andrew and was one of the first colored commissioned 
officers in the service. Four others were commissioned before the regi- 
ment was mustered out. The regiment moved to Savannah in March, 
and remained there until the 27th. It arrived in Georgetown, S. C, on 
the 31st, formed part of a provisional division under Gen. Potter for an 
expedition into central South Carolina in April, which was absent for 20 
days, constantly skirmishing and marching. On the 17th the enemy was 
met in some force at Boykin's mill, the 54th losing 2 killed and 20 
wounded. It returned to Georgetown on the 25th and to Charleston on 
May 6, and then served by detachments on guard and garrison duty in 
various parts of the state until Aug. 17. Three days later it was mustered 
out of service at Mount Pleasant and reached Boston in two detach- 
ments on the 26th and 28th. On Sept. i the men were paid and dis- 
charged on Galloupe's island, and after marching through the streets of 
Boston were finally disbanded on Boston Common. 

Fifty-fifth Infantry.— Cols., Norwood P. Hallowell, Alfred S. Hart- 
well; Lieut.-Cols., Alfred S. Hartwell, Charles B. Fox, WiUiam Nutt; 
Majs., Charles B. Fox, Sigourney Wales, William Nutt, Wheelock Pratt. 
Like the 54th, this regiment was composed of colored men with white 
officers and was recruited in the spring of 1863. The same recruiting 
committtee which provided most of the men for the 54th also furnished 
the men for the 55th. The men rendezvoused at Camp Meigs, Readville, 
and the first five companies were mustered into the U. S. service on May 
31, 1863, for three years, and the last three on June 22. By the end of 
June all the officers were commissioned. It carried a total of 82 officers 
and 1,144 enlisted men on its rolls. During its term of service it took 
part in the engagements at James island, S. C, Picket, James island. 
Honey hill, Deveaux neck, and Picket St. Stephen's, all in the vicinity of 
Charleston, S. C. Its losses were 3 officers, 59 enlisted men, killed and 
died of wounds; 2 officers and 118 men, died by accident or disease; i miss- 
ing; by desertion, 27. It left the state on July 21, 1863, embarking at 
Boston for New Berne, N. C, where it arrived on the 25th. As a part 
of Gen. Wild's brigade it was ordered to Charleston harbor on the 29th, 
and was assigned to Vogdes' division, loth corps, and remained at Folly 
island, engaged in the performance of fatigue duty and various details 
connected with the operations against Charleston until February of the 
following year. Like the 54th, a grave injustice was done the men of 
the S5th in the matter of pay, as the Federal paymasters offered the men 
but $10 a month. This, they consistently refused to accept, and serious 
trouble with the men was narrowly averted in consequence. After Nov. 
2, 1863, Col. Hartwell was in command of the regiment on account of 
the retirement of Col. Hallowell through disability, arising from a wound 
received at Antietam. On Feb. 13, 1864, the 55th was ordered to Jack- 
sonville, Fla., and while Co. F was detailed to garrison Fort Fribley, near 
Jacksonville, Cos. B, I, K and C, assisted by a squad of N. Y. engineers, 
were detailed to fortify and garrison Yellow bluff, the remainder of the 
command going up the river to Palatka. Here it built strong fortifica- 
tions and remained until April 18, when the regiment was ordered back 
to Charleston harbor. Here it once more engaged in arduous fatigue 
duty on Folly island and in various minor movements connected with the 
general operations against the city. On July 2, accompanied by the 103d 
N. Y. and the 33d colored infantry, it engaged the enemy on James island. 
It performed gallant service in charging a battery of the enemy under 
a brisk fire, capturing two 12-pounder Napoleon guns and driving the 



Massachusetts Regiments 201 

battery's support in disorder:. The command lost ii killed and l8 
wounded during this expedition. Col. Hartwell was now detailed to 
command the post on Folly island and Lieut.-Col. Fox commanded the 
regiment during the rest of its term of service. On Sept. i, the men 
finally received their pay, and expressed home more than $60,000 of the 
sum then paid them. Eight companies were despatched to Hilton Head, 
S. C, in November and assigned to a brigade commanded by Col. Hart- 
well in the coast division. On Nov. 30, this brigade was heavily engaged 
at Honey hill during the entire afternoon, Col. Hartwell being wounded, 
and the regiment losing 31 killed, 108 wounded and i taken prisoner. 
Thirteen of the wounded afterwards died. Returning to Boyd's neck on 
Dec. 7, it was engaged in fortifying and holding this position until Jan. 
II, 1865, when it embarked for Savannah, Ga., and remained on duty 
there until Feb. i, when it returned to Hilton Head. It took part in ex- 
peditions of Feb. 2, 9 and 11, and entered the city of Charleston on the 
morning of the 20th, being the first body of Union troops to enter that 
city after its evacuation. It was promptly sent with a column under Gen. 
Potter on an expedition into central South Carolina, to watch the move- 
ments of Gen. Hardee, in command of the retreating garrison, and re- 
turned to Charleston on March 10. A week later it moved to James island, 
served there by detachments until April 5, when it participated in an 
expedition to Eutaw springs, in support of a movement by Gen. Potter, 
and reached Charleston again on the 12th. On May 7, it moved to 
Summerville, and on the 19th to Orangeburg, where it served by detach- 
ments until its term of service expired. It was mustered out at Mount 
Pleasant Aug. 29, the men were finally paid and discharged at Galloupe's 
island, Sept. 22,, and disbanded on the 25th, after a reception and march 
through the streets of Boston. 

Fifty-sixth Infantry.— Cols., Charles E. Griswold, Stephen M. Weld, 
Jr.; Lieut. -Cols., Stephen M. Weld, Jr., Horatio D. Jarves; Majs., Ho- 
ratio D. Jarves, Wallace A. Putnam, Z. Boylston Adams. This was known 
as the "ist veteran volunteer infantry." The members of this and the 
other three veteran regiments must already have served for at least nine 
months in some other organization. The 56th, the first of the four veteran 
regiments, was organized at Readville, and mustered into service during 
Dec, 1863, and Jan. and Feb., 1864, for three years. Its total enrolment 
was 74 officers and 1,119 men. It lost in action 6 officers, 99 enlisted men; 
4 missing; 52 died by accident or disease; 48 died as prisoners. It left for 
Annapolis, Md., March 20, 1864, and was attached to Carruth's brigade, 
Stevenson's division, 9th corps. It left camp at Annapolis on April 23, when 
the corps embarked on its spring campaign, and on the 6th of May it went 
into action at the Wilderness, near the junction of the Brock and Plank 
roads. During the short time it was engaged, it lost heavily, Col. Gris- 
wold being killed, and the total casualties amounting to TJ. Moving to 
the left with its corps in support of Gen. Hancock, it was again heavily 
engaged at Spottsylvania Court House, losing 52 in killed, wounded and 
missing. It again shared in the assaults on the i8th, when it lost 5 killed 
and 40 wounded. With a portion of the corps, it crossed the North 
Anna river on the 24th, and another severe engagement followed at Ox 
ford. In this action the regiment lost 64 in killed, wounded and prisoners. 
It was again engaged with its corps at Bethesda Church and Cold Har- 
bor, after which it crossed the James river and went into position before 
Petersburg, taking an active part in the assault on June 17, capturing 
over 50 prisoners, but losing heavily itself. It shared in the general siege 
work until the end of July and formed a part of the division chosen to 



202 The Union Army 

lead the advance in the action at the Crater. Though already fearfully 
reduced in numbers, it lost in this fight lo killed, 25 wounded and 22 
prisoners. After serving in the trenches for two weeks longer, it took 
part in the expedition against the Weldon railroad, after which, on ac- 
count of the depletion through losses of the ist division, it was discon- 
tinued, and the 56th became a part of the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 9th 
corps, taking part with it in the battle of Peebles' farm. The regiment 
spent the winter in garrison at Fort Alexander Hays and on the resump- 
tion of the spring campaign it joined in the assault on the Confederate 
works on the Jerusalem plank road. Afterward, assisted only by the 
5th Mass. battery, it tenaciously held the key position of the captured 
works throughout the day. On the fall of Petersburg, it moved to Burkes- 
ville and after Lee's surrender, to Alexandria, where it was stationed 
until mustered out of service on July 12, when it returned to Massachu- 
setts. The men were paid and discharged at Readville, July 22, 1865. 

Fifty-seventh Infantry (Second Veteran). — Cols., William F. Bart- 
lett. Napoleon B. McLaughlen; Lieut. -Cols., Edward P. Hollister, Charles 
L. Chandler, Julius M. Tucker; Majs., William T. Harlow, James W. 
Cushing, Julius M. Tucker, Albert Prescott, James Doherty, Ezra P. 
Gould. This was the second of the four veteran regiments organized 
in the autumn and winter of 1863-64. It was recruited through the efforts 
of Col. WilHam F. Bartlett of the 49th infantry, Mass. volunteer militia, 
who became its colonel and later a brevet major-general. Most of the 
recruits came from the western counties and most of its officers were 
veterans. It completed its organization and was mustered into service 
for three years, April 6, 1864. On the i8th it left the state for Annapolis, 
where it arrived on the 20th and was assigned to the ist brigade, ist 
division, 9th corps. The decisive campaign of 1864 was now beginning, 
and the 9th corps was ordered to the front, marching through Washing- 
ton, Fairfax Court House, Centerville, Bristoe Station and Warrenton 
Junction to Rappahannock Station, where it arrived May 3. It then 
moved via Brandy Station and Germanna ford and took part in the 
bloody battle of the Wilderness. Here, despite its recent organization, 
its action was highly creditable and gained the warm commendation of 
Gen. Hancock. It went into action with 545 officers and men and lost 47 
killed, 161 wounded and 43 missing — a total of 251. Col. Bartlett was 
wounded early in the engagement, and Lieut. -Col. Chandler assumed 
command. Col. Bartlett never resumed command of the regiment, as he 
was commissioned brigadier-general on his recovery. It moved to Spott- 
sylvania Court House and in a reconnaissance on the loth, lost its divi- 
sion commander. Gen. Stevenson. The 57th again did gallant service 
on the I2th, advancing with its corps in support of Gen. Hancock's 
charge, again losing heavily, but held the advanced position gained on 
this day until the i8th, when it took part in a reconnaissance close to 
the enemy's works. When the line at Spottsylvania Court House was 
abandoned, it moved with its division to the North Anna river, where on 
the 24th its brigade was advanced without proper support and, being 
attacked on both flanks and raked by artillery fire, it fell back in disorder, 
the 57th losing 10 killed, 13 wounded and 14 missing. Its gallant com- 
mander, Lieut.-Col. Chandler, was among the killed. It was only slightly 
engaged at Cold Harbor, and crossing the James river on June 15, it 
shared in a desperate assault with the bayonet on the works at Peters- 
burg on the evening of the 17th. Its loss was 11 killed, 30 wounded and 
3 missing, its commander, Capt. Tucker, being wounded.' It did con- 
stant duty in the trenches until the assault at the Crater on July 30, 



Massachusetts Regiments 20ii 

when, as part of the ist division, 9th corps, it led in the attack, going 
into action with 7 officers and 91 men, and retiring from that fearful 
engagement with only i officer and 46 enlisted men, and without its col- 
ors. It was again engaged at the Weldon railroad in August, losing one- 
third of the little remnant of the regiment left. At the beginning of 
September, only four months after its organization, the regiment num- 
bered only I officer, Lieut. Doty, and 29 men, fit for active service. Soon 
after, however, it was augmented to 60 by returning convalescents and 
others on detached duty. It was engaged at Peebles' farm, where it lost 
I killed and 7 wounded, and in the reconnaissance to the Boydlon plank 
road lost 2 killed and 12 wounded. During the remainder of the autumn 
and succeeding winter, the 57th saw little severe fighting and occupied 
the works before Petersburg until the resumption of the final operations 
in the early spring of 1865. It took an honorable part in the action at 
Fort Stedman, March 25, when Sergt. Pinkham captured the colors of 
the 57th N. C. It was not again engaged except upon the skirmish line. 
When Petersburg fell, it encamped in the vicinity, and later move'd to 
the Southside railroad. When Gen. Lee surrendered, it moved to Wash- 
ington, encamping near Tenallytown. It was consolidated with the 59th 
regiment on June 20, but retained its name. The combined organization 
was mustered out of service July 30, 1865, and returned to Readville, 
where it was paid oflf and discharged on Aug. 9, 1865. The record of its 
casualties best tells the story of the heroic service performed by the regi- 
ment. Its actual membership during its term of service was 76 officers 
and 1,353 enlisted men. Its total loss was 285, made up of 11 officers 
and 165 enlisted men killed or died of wounds; 23 missing; 52 died of 
disease or accident and 34 as prisoners. 

Fifty-eighth Infantry. — Col., John C. Whiton (Silas P. Richmond was 
commissioned colonel Sept. 28, 1863, but resigned without being mustered, 
and the regiment served its whole term under Lieut. -Col. Whiton) ; Lieut.- 
Col., John C. Whiton (Everett C. Horton was commissioned lieutenant- 
colonel Aug. 31, 1864, but was discharged as major on expiration of 
service) ; Majs., Barnabas Ewer, Jr., Everett C. Horton (not mustered). 
The 58th was the last three years' infantry regiment mustered into the 
U. S. service to leave for the front. Recruiting for the regiment began 
in Sept., 1863, but only eight companies had been filled and mustered into 
service at Readville when the command was called upon to leave the 
state in April, 1864. Co. 1 joined the regiment in June while it was 
located in front of Cold Harbor, and Co. K joined the regiment Feb. 20, 
1865, while it was garrisoning Fort Meikle in front of Petersburg. Its 
total enrolment was 63 officers and 953 enlisted men. Its losses while 
in service were as follows : Killed and died of wounds, 10 officers and 99 
enlisted men ; missing, 14 ; died by accident or disease, i officer and 76 
enlisted men ; died as prisoners, i officer and 84 enlisted men ; total, 12 
officers and 273 enlisted men. Leaving the state on April 28, 1864, the 
regiment reached Alexandria, Va., on the 30th, and two days later arrived 
at Bristoe Station, where it was assigned to the ist brigade, 2nd division, 
9th corps. It was engaged at the battle of the Wilderness, suffering a 
loss of 34 killed, wounded and missing; shared with its corps in the as- 
sault of May 12 at Spottsylvania, losing on this hotly contested field 13 
killed, 90 wounded and 2 missing; was in frequent skirmishes until the 
21 St, when it moved toward the North Anna river and reached the Totop- 
otomoy on the 29th, skirmishing and maneuvering almost constantly and 
sustaining a number of casualties. It shared in the assault at Cold Har- 
bor, June 3, and held an advanced position throughout the day exposed 



204 The Union Army 

to a murderous fire. Its loss on this day was i8 killed and (i^ wounded. 
Maj. Ewer and Capts. McFarland and Upham were among the slain. 
It was continuously on duty before Cold Harbor until the 12th, when it 
moved with the army to Petersburg and shared in the assault of the 
17th. The following day it met with further loss in the attempt to cap- 
ture the Norfolk & Petersburg railroad. It remained in the trenches 
before Petersburg until the 30th, when it charged with its brigade into 
the chasm formed by the explosion of the mine, meeting with hea\^ loss 
when the Confederates made their counter-charge in overwhelming force. 
Only a remnant of the regiment escaped, its loss being 5 killed, 30 
wounded and 84 captured. The regiment, now much reduced in numbers, 
suffered another heavy loss on Sept. 30, when, in the battle of Poplar 
Spring Church, nearly the whole command was captured. Out of up- 
wards of 100 engaged, only i officer and about a dozen men escaped. Its 
numbers were soon increased by a small body of recruits from Massa- 
chusetts, and by convalescents and those returning from detached service. 
It Was not again engaged in active operations until the following year 
and spent the winter at Hancock Station, garrisoning Fort Meikle. On 
April 2, 1865, it shared in the assault on Petersburg, and after the sur- 
render was engaged in guarding the railroad at Burkesville and Farm- 
ville until the 20th. It returned to Alexandria on April 28, participated 
in the grand review in Washington, and on July 15 it broke camp. It 
reached Readville July 18, and on the 26th was finally paid and dis- 
charged. 

Fifty-ninth Infantry. — Col., Jacob P. Gould; Lieut.-Cols., John 
Hodges, Jr., Joseph Colburn; Majs., Joseph Colburn, Horace M. War- 
ren, Ezra P. Gould. This regiment, the 4th veteran, was recruited at 
Readville during the winter and spring of 1863-64. Though numerically 
the last of the four veteran regiments, it was organized and left the 
state on April 26 — two days in advance of the 58th. It was mustered in 
by companies during the months of Jan., Feb., March and April, 1864, 
for three years, with a total enrollment of 56 officers and 906 enlisted 
men. It reached Washington on April 28, 1864, moved by way of Alex- 
andria, Bealeton, Rappahannock and Brandy Stations to Germanna ford, 
where it was assigned to the ist brigade, ist division, 9th corps. On 
May 6, it engaged in the battle of the Wilderness, where its loss was 12 
killed, Z7 wounded and 5 missing. Col. Gould was soon after placed in 
command of the brigade and the regiment, commanded by Lieut.-Col. 
Hodges, moved to Spottsylvania Court House, where it participated in 
the general action, meeting with a loss of 11 killed, 45 wounded and 3 
missing. It was again in action with its division at the North Anna 
river, suffering a further loss of 38 in killed, wounded and missing. Mov- 
ing to Cold Harbor it joined in the general assault on June 3, again meet- 
ing with considerable loss. It arrived before Petersburg on the morning 
of the 17th, and in the afternoon engaged in an assault upon the enemy's 
works, where it finally effected a lodgment, after a loss of 13 killed, 49 
wounded and 8 missing. It was employed in strengthening its position 
and in picketing the front until July 30, when it participated in the fight 
at the Crater after the explosion of the mine. In common with the other 
troops engaged the 59th suffered severely, losing 8 killed, 25 wounded 
and 47 missing. It lost its 2 highest officers — Col. Gould, commanding 
a brigade, was wounded and died as a result on Aug. 22, and Lieut.-Col. 
Hodges was killed. The command of the regiment now devolved on the 
senior captain, Ezra P. Gould, who was commissioned major on Aug. 
20, Major Colburn being appointed lieutenant-colonel, and the colonelcy 



Massachusetts Regiments 205 

Temaining vacant by reason of the depleted state of the organization. It 
shared in the movement against the Weldon railroad and was again en- 
gaged in the battles of Peebles' farm and Poplar Spring Church. Through- 
out the autumn and winter, the regiment was in the trenches before 
Petersburg, occupying a position to the right of Fort Stedman. The 
position was close enough to the hostile lines to require underground 
bomb-proofs, and was besides so low and marshy as to require much 
effort before it could be rendered habitable. Lieut.-Col. Colburn went 
home on leave in Feb., 1865, and never returned, so that Maj. Gould 
was in command during the rest of the career of the regiment as a 
separate organization. It left the trenches on March 15, 1865, for a posi- 
tion in the rear of Fort Haskell, and bore an honorable part at Fort Sted- 
man on the 2Sth, when it occupied Battery No. 11 and narrowly escaped 
capture by leaping the breastworks and retreating to Fort Haskell between 
the opposing lines of intrenchments. It returned to the trenches immedi- 
ately after the engagement and was constantly under arms from this time 
on until the fall of Petersburg. Entering the captured stronghold on 
April 3, it remained encamped in the suburbs for a few days, but after 
Lee's surrender it was moved to the Southside railroad about 30 miles 
out, where it engaged in guard duty till the latter part of the month, 
when it was ordered to Washington, D. C, and encamped at Tenally- 
town during the remainder of its term of service. Both regiments being 
much depleted in numbers, it was consolidated with the 57th Mass. on 
June 20, to take efTect from June i, and was mustered out with that regi- 
ment on July 30. Like the other three veteran regiments, it had per- 
formed most gallant service throughout the closing and most bitterly 
contested campaign of the war. Like the others, too, only a pitiful rem- 
nant of the heroic band survived the trying ordeal. 

Sixtieth Infantry. — Col., Ansel D. Wass; Lieut-Col., David M. 
Woodward; Maj., Uriah McCoy. This was a volunteer militia regiment 
organized at Readville in the summer of 1864, for 100 days' service. The 
various companies were mustered in between July 14 and 23, 1864, It 
numbered 36 officers and 894 enlisted men, and lost 10 by disease during 
its short term of service. Leaving the state on Aug. i, under Lieut-Col. 
Woodward, it was joined at Baltimore by its colonel and remained en- 
camped at Relay house and Carroll hill for two weeks, awaiting orders. 
It was then ordered to Indianapolis, Ind., to avert a possible danger from 
certain disloyal elements. It was at first stationed at Camp Carrington, 
but soon moved to Burnside barracks, and with one of the veteran reserve 
regiments spent its term of service guarding a stockade containing a large 
number of Confederate prisoners. It was mustered out of service Nov. 
30, 1864. Before leaving for home, Col. Wass was complimented by 
Gov. Morton on the excellent discipline of his men. 

Sixty-first Infantry.— Col., Charles F. Walcott; Lieut.-Col., Ebenezer 
W. Stone; Maj., James G. C. Dodge. The 6ist Mass., the last regiment 
to leave the state, was recruited as a one-year regiment during the fall 
and winter of 1864-65. It was recruited at large and rendezvoused at 
Galloupe's island in Boston harbor. The men of Co. A were from Pitts- 
field and its vicinity, and those of Co. D came from Adams county. Cos. 
A, B, C, D and E were slowly filled and mustered into service between 
the latter part of August and the end of September, and left the state 
as a battalion on Oct. 7, 1864, the remaining companies being forwarded 
as soon as they reached the maximum number. The bittalion, commanded by 
Lieut.-Col. Walcott, arrived at West Point, Va., Oct 12, and was imme- 
diately attached to the engineer brigade under Gen. Benham. In addition 



206 The Union Army 

to their work as engineers, the men performed a great deal of routine 
camp and picket duty throughout the ensuing winter, and were employed 
at the front at Petersburg for two days in December, near Fort Sedg- 
wick. The battalion was increased during the month by the arrival of 
Co. F; Co. G reported on Jan. 5, 1865; Co. H, on Feb. 15; and Cos. 
I and K, on March 15. On Feb. 5 the battalion moved again to the 
front, and was engaged for a week in the movement which extended 
the lines beyond Hatcher's run. The regiment was transferred on 
March 17 to an independent brigade, under Col. C. H. T. CoUis, engaged 
in provost and guard duty at general headquarters. From March 29 until 
the surrender of Lee it was constantly under arms. It served with dis- 
tinction on April 2, when it charged and captured Fort Mahone in front 
of Fort Sedgwick. So rapid and fierce was the charge that their loss 
was comparatively small, considering the deadly fire through which they 
had advanced. The loss was 6 killed and 29 wounded. Second Lieut. 
Thomas B. Hart was among the slain. The regiment engaged in the 
pursuit of the Confederate army and on April 12 returned to City Point 
with its brigade in charge of several thousand prisoners from Evvell's 
corps, captured at Sailor's creek. It then moved to Burkesville and was 
assigned to the 5th corps, April 23. Moving to Washington by way of 
Richmond on May 12, it encamped near Fort Barnard, and on the 23d 
participated in the grand review. Cos. A, B, C, D and E left for Massa- 
chusetts on June 5, and arrived on the 8th at Readville, where they were 
finally discharged on the 17th. The remaining companies, as the 6ist 
battalion, served in the defenses of Washington as part of the provisional 
corps until July 22, when they returned to Readville and were there 
mustered out, Aug. r, 1865. The total enrollment of the regiment was 
41 officers and 977 enlisted men. It lost 6 killed (including i oflicer), and 
17 by accident or disease. For its gallant services preceding the fall of 
Richmond, it had been lionorcd with nine brevet promotions. 

Sixty-second Infantry. — This r^ginK-nl, like the 61 st, was intended 
for one year's service, and was bemg organized at Readvillj, Mass., 
when the information that Gen. Lee had surrendered stopped further 
enlistments. Only four companies had been mustered. Ansel D. Wass,. 
late colonel of the 60th infantry, would have commanded the regiment 
had it been sent forward. He was commissioned, but never mustered. 
The four companies organized remained in camp until May 5, when they 
were mustered out to the number of 8 officers and 381 enlisted men. Two 
men had died and 8 deserted. 

First Company Sharpshooters. — Capts., John Saunders, William 
Plumer, Isaac N. Mudgett. This organization numbered 11 officers and 257 
men. Three officers and 16 men were killed or fatally wounded; 2 men 
were reported missing; 16 died by accident or disease and 3 as prisoners. 
The 1st company of sharpshooters, called the Andrew Sharpshooters, 
recruited at Lynnfield, was mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 2, 
1861. It left the state the same day for Washington, and was there 
assigned to Gen. Lander's brigade, located at Poolesville, Md. Several 
skirmishes on the upper Potomac ensued, and the company remained 
on duty in that region until the opening of the Peninsular campaign in 
the spring of 1862, when it was attached to the 15th Mass infantry, ist 
brigade, 2nd division, 2nd corps, and took part in the siege of York- 
town. Its history is that of the 15th until April 17, 1863, when it was 
attached to the 2nd division, 2nd corps, and was active at Chancellorsville 
and Gettysburg. In August it joined the 20th Mass. infantry and was 
engaged at the battle of Bristoe Station, and in the Mine Run cam- 



Massachusetts Regiments 207 

paign. It remained with the 20th until June, 1864, and in the latter part 
of that month was transferred to the 19th Mass. infantry, with which 
organization it was identified until mustered out of service. 

Second Company Sharpshooters — Capts., Lewis E. Wentworth, Rob- 
ert Smith. This company numbered 8 officers and 144 men. It lost dur- 
ing service 12 men killed, and 9 by accident or disease. It was recruited 
at Lynnfield, Mass., the members being mustered at various times during 
Aug. and Sept., 1861. It left the state on Oct. 8 with the 22nd Mass. 
infantry, and remained with that organization during its entire term of 
service. Its original members, not reenlisted, were mustered out on Oct. 
17, 1864, the veterans and recruits being transferred to the 32nd Mass. 
infantry. 

Third Battalion Riflemen. — Maj., Charles Devens, Jr. This battalion 
carried on its rolls 25 officers and 297 enlisted men, of whom it lost 2 
by disease during service. It had its headquarters at Worcester when 
the war broke out, two companies being located there and the third at 
Holden. On April 20, 1861, Maj. Devens was ordered to report at 
Washington with his battalion. It arrived at Annapolis April 24, re- 
maining there until May 2, when it was ordered to garrison Fort Mc- 
Henry, near Baltimore. An additional company (D), recruited in Boston, 
joined the battalion here May 19, having spent 12 days in Washington, 
where it had gone from Boston by water on the steamer Cambridge, and 
having been the first organization to reach the capital by way of Fortress 
Monroe and the Potomac. The battalion was mustered into the U. S. 
service for three months on May 19, but remained at Fort McHenry 
two weeks beyond the expiration of its term of service, engaged in ar- 
tillery and infantry tactics. After the promotion of Maj. Devens to 
the colonelcy of the 15th Mass. infantry, the battalion was commanded 
by Capt. Sprague of Co. A. Returning to Mass. it was mustered out 
Aug. 3, 1861. 

Unattached Companies, Infantry. — In addition to the various or- 
ganizations previously described, Massachusetts furnished during the war 
thirty companies of infantry, the enlistments generally being for short 
terms of service. These companies served either in the coast forts of 
the state or at interior points where needed, and were known as un- 
attached companies unless otherwise designated. Occasionally a company 
served for more than one term. 

First Company. — Capt., Lewis J. Bird, numbered 3 officers and 97 men 
and had no fatalities during service. This company, from Boston, was 
mustered into service for 90 days, April 29, 1864, and was stationed dur- 
ing service at Fort Independence, Boston harbor. It was mustered out 
Aug. I, 1864. 

Second Company. — Capts., Francis E. Porter (90 days and 100 days) ; 
Leonard G. Dennis (one year). The 90 days' company numbered 3 offi- 
cers and 88 men and had no losses ; the 100 days' company numbered 3 
officers and 98 men, of whom 3 died by accident or disease ; the one-year 
company numbered 3 officers and 99 men, and served without loss. The 
2nd Co. from Beverly, was mustered into service for 90 days. May 3, 
1864. It was stationed at Gloucester until Aug. 6, when its term expired. 
It at once reenlisted and was mustered in Aug. 7, for 100 days' service, 
being again stationed at Gloucester. At the expiration of the 100 days 
it once more reenlisted, and was mustered in for one year, Nov. 16, 1864. 
Stationed at Galloupe's island, Boston harbor, it was mustered out July 
7, 1865. 

Third Company. — Capt., Luther Dame, numbered 3 officers and 84 



208 The Union Army 

men and had no fatalities. It was from Newburyport, and was mustered 
into service for 90 days, May 3, 1864. It was stationed during service 
at Fort Pickering, Salem, and was mustered out Aug. S, 1864. 

Fourth Company. — Capt., Alpheus J. Hilbourn, numbered 3 officers 
and 98 men and had no losses. It was from Chelsea, was organized at 
Readville and mustered in for 90 days' service. May 3, 1864. It was 
stationed at Fort Clark's Point, New Bedford, and was mustered out 
Aug. 6, 1864. 

Fifth Company. — Capt., David H. Dyer, numbered 3 officers and 98 
men and served without loss. It was from Fall River, was organized at 
Readville, mustered into service May 4, 1864, for 90 days, and stationed 
first at Camp Meigs, Readville, then at Beach Street barracks. It was 
mustered out Aug. 2, 1864. 

Sixth Company. — Capt., Charles P. Winslow, numbered 3 officers and 
80 men and served without loss. It was from Westboro, was organized 
at Readville and mustered into service for 90 days. May 4, 1864. It 
served at Readville and was mustered out on Aug. 2. 

Seventh Company. — Capt., Albert E. Proctor, numbered 3 officers and 
98 men and lost i man by disease during service. It was from Boston, 
was organized at Readville and mustered in for 90 days. Served at Gal- 
loupe's island, Boston harbor, until mustered out on Aug. 5, 1864. 

Eighth Company. — Capt., Augustine L. Hamilton, numbered 3 officers 
and 94 men and served without loss. It was from Lawrence, but was 
organized at Readville and mustered into service for 90 days May 10, 
1864. It served at Galloupe's island, and was mustered out Aug. 11, 1864. 

Ninth Company. — Capt., George H. Smith, numbered 3 officers and 97 
men and served without loss. It was stationed at Galloupe's island dur- 
ing its term of enlistment, being mustered out Aug. 11, 1864. 

Tenth Company. — Capt., George A. Perry, numbered 3 officers and 99 
men and served without loss. It came from Milbury and was mustered 
into service for 90 days. May 10, 1864. It was stationed during service 
at Fort Warren, Boston harbor, and was mustered out Aug. 8, 1864. 

Eleventh Company. — Capt., Jeremiah C. Bacheler, numbered 3 officers 
and 92 men and served without loss. It was from Lynn, was organized 
and mustered into service at Readville for 90 days. May 16, 1864, was 
stationed at Forts Sewall and Eastern Point, Gloucester, and at Marble- 
head, until it was mustered out on Aug. 15, 1864. 

Twelfth Company. — Capt., Charles F. Walcott, numbered 3 officers 
and 98 men and served without loss. It came from Cambridge, was or- 
ganized and mustered into service at Readville for 90 days. May 16, 1864, 
and was stationed at Long's Point, Provincetown, during service, being 
mustered out Aug. 15, 1864. 

Thirteenth Company. — Capt., Robert W. Reeves, with 3 officers and 
90 men, was from Salem ; was organized and mustered into service for 
90 days at Readville; served its term at Fort Clark's Point, New Bed- 
ford, and was mustered out Aug. 15, 1864, having suffered no loss. 

Fifteenth Company. — Capt., Isaac A. Jennings, numbered 3 officers and 
88 men and served without loss. It came from New Bedford, was organ- 
ized and mustered into service for 100 days at Readville, July 29, 1864, 
and was stationed during service at Fort Warren. It was mustered out 
Nov. 15, 1864. 

Sixteenth Company. — Capt., John F. Croff, numbered 3 officers and 
83 enlisted men. It was from Boston, was organized and mustered into 
service for 100 days at Readville on Aug. 6, 1864, and was stationed at 
Galloupe's island until mustered out on Nov. 14, 1864. 



Massachusetts Regiments 209 

Seventeenth Company.— Capt., John G. Barnes (lOO days and one 
year), numbered as a lOO-days' company 3 officers and 98 men and the 
enrollment was the same number for the one-year term. It served both 
terms without loss. It was organized and mustered into service for 100 
days at Readville, Aug. 5, 1864, was stationed during service at Fort 
Pickering, Salem, and was mustered out Nov. 12, 1864. It reenHsted at 
once for a one-year term, being organized and mustered into service at 
Salem, Nov. 13, 1864. It was credited to Haverhill and was mustered out 
June 30, 1865. 

Eighteenth Company.— Capt., Otis A. Baker (100 days and one year). 
As a 100 days' organization it numbered 3 officers and 81 men, serving 
without loss ; as a one-year company it numbered 3 officers and 98 men 
and lost i man by disease. It was organized and mustered into service 
at Readville for 100 days, Aug. 6, 1864, was stationed at Camp Meigs, 
Readville, during its term and was mustered out Nov. 14, 1864. It was 
reorganized for one year's service at Taunton, was mustered in Dec. 6-7, 
1864, again served at Readville, and was mustered out May 12, 1865. 

Nineteenth Company.— Capts., James M. Mason (100 days), Frank A. 
Johnson (one year). As a 100 days' organization it numbered 3 officers 
and 80 men ; as a one-year company it numbered 3 officers and 98 men. 
It was organized and mustered into service at Readville for 100 days, 
Aug. 9, 1864, was stationed at Fort Warren during service, and was 
mustered out Nov. 16, 1864. It reenlisted at once, was organized and 
mustered in at Fort Warren, Nov. 25, 1864, was stationed at Fort Win- 
throp during its one year's service, and was mustered out June 27, 1865, 
having served both terms without loss. 

Twentieth Company. — Capt. Lewis Soule (100 days and one year). 
numbered as a 100 days' company 3 officers and 87 men; as a one-year 
organization 3 officers and 98 men, and served both terms without loss. 
It was mustered in at Readville for the 100 days' service on Aug. li, 
1864, was stationed during this period at Fort Sewall, Marblehead, and 
was mustered out Nov. 18, 1864. The following day it reenlisted for a 
term of one year and served at the fort at Salisbury beach, until mustered 
out on June 29, 1865. 

Twenty-first Company. — Capts., David H. Dyer (100 days); Royal 
W. Thayer (one year). It numbered during both terms, 3 officers and 97 
men, and served without loss. It was first organized and mustered in for 
100 days at Readville, Aug. 11, 1864; served at Long's Point, Province- 
town, and was mustered out Nov. 18, 1864. It was at once mustered in 
at Fall River for one year's service, and was mustered out June 28, 1865. 

Twenty-second Company. — Capt., John W. Marble, numbered 3 officers 
and 85 men and served without loss. It was organized and mustered in 
at Readville for 100 days, Aug. 18, 1864 ; was stationed at Camp Meigs, and 
was mustered out on Nov. 25. 

Twenty-third Company. — Capt., Jabez M. Lyle, consisting of 3 officers 
and 98 men, was organized and mustered into service for 100 days at 
Readville, Aug. 18, 1864, served its term at Camp Meigs without loss, 
and was mustered out on Nov. 26. 

Twenty-fourth Company. — Capt., Joshua H. Wilkie, consisting of 3 
officers and 99 men, was organized at Plymouth and mustered in for one 
year Dec. 16-22, 1864. It was stationed during service at Camp Meigs 
and was mustered out on May 12, 1865. 

Twenty-fifth Company. — This company carried on its rolls 3 officers 
and 98 men ; was organized at Salem, where it was mustered into service 
for one year, Dec. 9, 1864; served its term at Fort Miller, Marblehead, 
without loss, and was mustered out June 29, 1865. 
Vol. I— 14 



210 The Union Army 

Twenty-sixth Company. — Capt., Walter D. Keith, numbered 4 officers 
and 98 men; was organized at New Bedford and mustered into service 
for one year, Dec. 13, 1864; served its term at Camp Meigs without loss, 
and was mustered out May 12, 1865. 

Twenty-seventh Company.— Capt., Samuel C. Graves, consisting of 3 
officers and 98 men, was organized at Salem and mustered in for one 
year, Dec. 30, 1864, to Jan. 9, 1865. It was stationed during service at 
Fort Warren, lost 2 men by disease, and was mustered out on June 30, 
1865. 

Boston Cadets. — Capt., Christopher C. Holmes, numbered 10 officers 
and 106 men and served without loss. It was mustered into service May 
26, 1862, served as garrison at Fort Warren, Boston harbor, and was 
mustered out July 2, 1862. 

Salem Cadets. — Maj., John L. Marks, consisted of 7 officers and 123 
enlisted men and was mustered into the U. S. service May 26, 1862, in 
order to garrison Fort Warren, Boston harbor. It served there with a 
loss of I man by disease until it was mustered out Oct. 11, 1862. 

Company B, 7th Mass. Infantry. — Capt., Edward H. Staten, numbered 
3 officers and 100 men and served without loss. It was from Salem, was 
mustered in for six months, July i, 1862, and relieved the Boston Cadets 
in garrisoning Fort Warren, until mustered out on Dec. 31, 1862. 

First Cavalry. — Cols., Robert Williams, Horace B. Sargent, Samuel 
E. Chamberlain; Lieut.-Cols., Horace B. Sargent, Greely S. Curtis, Sam- 
uel E. Chamberlain, Lucius M. Sargent, Jr., John Tewksbury; Majs., 
William F. White, John H. Edson, Greely S. Curtis, Henry Lee Higgin- 
son, Atherton H. Stevens, Jr., Samuel E. Chamberlain, Lucius M. Sar- 
gent, Jr., T. Lawrence Motley, Benjamin W. Crowninshield, John Tewks- 
bury, Charles G. Davis, Edward A. Flint, Amos L. Hopkins, George H. 
Teague. This regiment was largely composed of volunteers from exist- 
ing militia organizations and embraced men from the Boston Lancers, 
Waltham Dragoons, North Bridgewater Dragoons, and Springfield Horse- 
guards. It was rendezvoused at Camp Brigham, Readville, where the 
men began to arrive early in Sept., 1861. By Nov. i its ranks were filled, 
and it was mustered into service for three years. Col. Williams was a 
regular army officer and was recommended to the governor by Gen. Win- 
field Scott. The 1st battalion, composed of Cos. A. B, C and D, under 
Maj. Greely S. Curtis, left the state for Annapolis, Md., on Dec. 25. The 
2nd and 3d battalions left on Dec. 26 and 28, proceeding to Hilton Head, 
N. C, after a halt of 10 days en route in New York. They were joined 
here in Feb., 1862, by the ist battalion. The first active service of the 
regiment was on the Charleston expedition in May. On Aug. 19 the ist and 
2nd battalions joined the Army of the Potomac in Virginia, the 3d being 
left behind and never rejoined the regiment. Under command of Maj. 
Stevens it was engaged for several months in the performance of picket 
and patrol duty at Beaufort and Hilton Head, a detachment sharing in 
the reconnaissance to Pocotaligo Oct. 22, 1862. During the siege of Fort 
Sumter in April, 1863, part of the battalion was on duty on Folly and 
Morris islands. On Aug. 4, 1863, it was permanently detached from the 
regiment and was called the independent battalion, Mass. cavalry, under 
which name it engaged in the expedition to St. John's river, Fla. It con- 
tinued to serve as an independent battalion until Feb. 12, 1864, when it 
became the ist battalion, 4th Mass. cavalry, and its subsequent history 
will be given with that regiment. The ist and 2nd battalions, with the 
Army of the Potomac, took part in the marches and skirmishes which 
preceded the battles of Antietam and Fredericksburg, but was not actively 



Massachusetts Regiments 211 

engaged in either battle. Meanwhile, Col. Williams had returned to serv- 
ice in the regular army, and 238 recruits had been received from Massa- 
chusetts. After the battle of Fredericksburg, it went into winter quar- 
ters on Potomac creek. It shared in the action at Kelly's ford in March, 
1863, and was attached to the cavalry under Gen. Stoneman during the 
Chancellorsville campaign. It was engaged at Rapidan Station, and War- 
renton road, and Brandy Station, and served as rear-guard at the open- 
ing of the Gettysburg campaign. It was heavily engaged at Aldie Court 
House, losing 24 killed, 41 wounded and 89 missing, accompanied the 6th 
corps on its march to Gettysburg, and after the battle returned to West- 
minster with a body of Confederate prisoners. During the remainder 
of the year it was almost incessantly on the move, scouting, skirmishing, 
and engaging in the exacting and arduous duties demanded of this arm 
of the service. In September it met with some loss at Rapidan Station, 
where it was exposed to a severe artillery fire, and as a part of Gregg's 
division, it was active in the Mine Run campaign, engaging the enemy's 
cavalry at New Hope Church and at Parker's store. It covered the 
withdrawal of the infantry on the abandonment of this campaign and 
was on outpost duty at Warrenton until April 21, 1864. In March, 1864, 
a new battalion of four companies joined the regiment to take the place 
of the 3d battalion, which had been detached. The regiment was once 
more active throughout the trying campaign of 1864 as part of the cav- 
alry corps under Gen. Sheridan, being attached to the ist brigade, 2nd 
division. A list of its engagements during the year includes : Todd's tav- 
ern, Ashland, Salem Church, Trevilian Station, St. Mary's Church, New 
Market, Lee's mills, Malvern hill. Deep Bottom, Reams' station, Jeru- 
salem road, Vaughan road, and Bellefield Station. The term of enlist- 
ment of the original members expired in Sept., 1864, and on Oct. 25, all 
who had not reenlisted left for home to be mustered out. The veterans 
and recruits, including the new battalion, were reorganized and continued 
to serve with its old brigade and division. It spent the winter of 1864-65 
in winter quarters at Westbrook house, being detached March 17, 1865, 
for provost duty at City Point. On May 27, it reported for escort duty 
to Gen. Davies in command of the cavalry corps in the defenses of Wash- 
ing^ton, where it remained until mustered out on June 26, 1865. It reached 
Readville June 29, where the men were finally paid and discharged on 
July 24. The total enrolment of the regiment was 107 officers and 2,132 
enlisted men. Its losses during service were 7 officers and 92 enlisted 
men, killed or died of wounds; 2 missing; 88 died by accident or disease; 
57 died as prisoners. 

Second Cavalry. — Cols., Charles Russell Lowell, Caspar Crowinshield ; 
Lieut.-Cols., Henry S. Russell, Caspar Crowinshield, William H. Forbes, 
William H. Rumery; Majs., Caspar Crowninshield, DeWitt C. Thomp- 
son, William H. Forbes, George Blagden, Archibald McKendry, William 
M. Rumery, William C. Manning, John T. Richards, Henry E. Alvord. 
This regiment was organized during the winter of 1862-63, and was mus- 
tered into service at varying dates from Dec, 1862, to May, 1863. Co. A, 
the first organized, was raised in California by Capt. J. Sewell Read and 
was mustered in at San Francisco, Dec. 10. It reached Boston on Jan. 
3, and was applied on the quota of that city. Four more companies were 
mustered in at Readville during January and February and the five com- 
panies, under the command of Maj. Crowninshield, left the state on Feb. 
12, and went into camp at Gloucester Point, opposite Yorktown, Va. Of 
the remaining seven companies, three more were recruited at Camp Meigs, 
Readville, during March and April. A battalion of four companies was 



212 The Union Army 

furnished by California, being raised by Maj. Thompson, and reached the 
general rendezvous at Readville, April i6. The last of the regiment left 
for Washington on May ii, moved to Poolesville, Md., on June 23 and 
went into camp. The total number on the regimental rolls was 91 offi- 
cers, and 2,000 enlisted men. It lost during service by accident or dis- 
ease, 2 officers, 69 enlisted men; killed and died of wounds, 8 officers and 
66 enlisted men; died as prisoners, 66 — total 211. Pending the forma- 
tion of the remaining companies, the detachment at Gloucester Point saw 
considerable active service. Previous to the middle of May, portions of 
the command were engaged in several raids and reconnoissances and on 
the 15th, three companies reported to Gen. Gordon at West Point, re- 
maining under his command until June i. The five companies shared 
in a rapid raid on the 19th, started on the 24th on an expedition which 
took them to within 13 miles of Richmond, and in which a large number 
of prisoners, including Gen. W. H. F. Lee. and a large amount of sup- 
plies and stores were captured. After sharing in another raid of a sim- 
ilar nature during the first week in July, with the forces under Gen. Dix, 
the command finally returned to the old camp at Gloucester Point. On 
Aug. 6, this detachment joined the main body at Centerville, Va., and 
the 2nd was united with the 13th and i6th N. Y. cavalry to form a brig- 
ade under the command of Col. Lowell. On Sept. 15, the 3d battalion 
was detached under command of Maj. Thompson, and moved to Muddy 
brook, Md., where it remained until the following spring. During this 
time, the 2nd was kept busy guarding the Federal supply trains from the 
sudden attacks of the daring troopers of Mosby, the severest encounter 
taking place at Coyle tavern, where the regiment lost several in killed, 
wounded and prisoners. It then moved to Vienna, Va., and remained 
there during the succeeding autumn and winter. On Feb. 22, 1864, a 
scouting party of 125, under Capt. Read, was surprised at Dranesville 
and lost 10 killed, 7 wounded, and 57 prisoners, Capt. Read being among 
the slain. On July 6, it suffered another disaster at Mt. Zion Church, 
near Aldie, when a detachment of 100, under Maj. Forbes, was attacked 
by Mosby's forces and badly routed, 8 being killed. 9 wounded and 38 
captured. Capt. Stone was mortally wounded, and Maj. Forbes was 
among the prisoners. The Confederate Gen. Early was engaged at this 
time in his famous raid which threatened Washington and the 2nd was 
called to the defense of the capital. It was almost constantly in action 
during August as part of the 3d brigade, ist cavalry division, and on Sept. 
9 was transferred to the reserve brigade of the ist division, largely com- 
posed of regulars, the brigade being commanded by Col. Lowell. It was 
in numerous skirmishes prior to the battle of Winchester, Va., and was 
heavily engaged in this action, after which it moved then to the Luray 
valley, where it captured a battleflag and some prisoners. On Sept. 
28 it was again heavily engaged at Waynesboro and in the action near 
Round Top mountain, Oct. 8, and the following day near Woodstock it 
performed brilliantly. It won high commendation for its part in the bat- 
tle of Cedar creek, but met with a sad loss in the fatal wounding of Col. 
Lowell, who had just been commissioned a brigadier-general. Lieut.-Col. 
Crowninshield then assumed the command of the brigade, which fol- 
lowed in pursuit of the enemy as far as Mount Jackson. It was engaged 
in guard and scouting duty, until the close of the year, when it went into 
winter quarters at Winchester, Va., with 15 officers and about 500 men 
present for duty. Of the others 200 were in Southern prisons; 200 ab- 
sent, wounded or sick; and more than 100 absent on detached service. 
On Jan. 20, 1865, 175 recruits were added to the regiment, and on Feb. 



Massachusetts Regiments 213 

^, it left camp with the rest of the cavalry, under the personal lead of 
Gen. Sheridan, to join the Army of the Potomac before Petersburg. This 
move occupied 20 days and was full of exciting incidents for the 2nd. 
Following the evacuation of Richmond, it moved in pursuit of the enemy 
until the surrender at Appomattox, then returned to Petersburg and en- 
camped there until April 24, when it started on a movement against Gen. 
Johnston's army in North Carolina. News of Johnston's surrender was 
soon received and the regiment moved toward Washington, where, after 
taking part in the grand review in May, it went into camp in Fairfax 
county, Va., until July 20, 1865, when it was mustered out at Fairfax 
Court House. Two days later it left for home, and the men were finally 
paid and discharged at Readville on Aug. 3, after a period of 30 months 
spent in the most active and arduous service. 

Third Cavalry. — Cols., Thomas E. Chickering, Lorenzo D. Sargent, 
Burr Porter, Frederick G. Pope ; Lieut.-Cols., Ansel D. Wass, Lorenzo 

D. Sargent, John F. Vinal, Frederick G. Pope, David P. Muzzey; Majs., 
Lorenzo D. Sargent, John F. Vinal, James McGee, Jonathan E. Cowen, 
S. Tyler Read, David T. Bunker, Edward L. Noyes, Frederick G. Pope, 
David P. Muzzey, William M. Gifford, Charles Stone, John A. Comer- 
ford. This regiment was formed from four organizations already in the 
field, viz.: the 41st infantry, and the ist, 2nd, and 3d companies unattached 
cavalry. A sketch of the 41st infantry, prior to the period of its con- 
solidation to form the 3d cavalry, having been elsewhere given, it will be 
necessary to give only an outline of the previous history of the three un- 
attached companies. Plans having been made to enlist two carefully se- 
lected companies of "Mounted Rifle Rangers," the ist was recruited in 
Boston during Sept., 1861, by Capt. S. Tyler Read, and completed its or- 
ganization Nov. 15 ; the 2nd was filled before the close of the year, as 
was a 3d company of the same nature, the last two being finally organized 
on Dec. 27, 1861. The 2nd was commanded by Capt. James McGee of 
Lowell, and the 3d, by Capt. Henry A. Durivage of Boston. On Jan. 13, 

1862, the three companies sailed from Boston harbor for Ship island. 
Miss., where they arrived on Feb. 12, and were organized as a battalion, 
under Capt. Read, acting major. When Gen. Butler's division was formed 
into brigades, one company was attached to each brigade. The 1st, as 
part of the ist brigade, left Ship island, April 16, 1862, for New Orleans, 
and was stationed in its defense until May i, 1864. The 2nd left Ship 
island. May 21, joined the brigade at Baton Rouge, under Maj.-Gen. 
Williams, shared in the engagement there and when the city was evacu- 
ated, returned to New Orleans, where it remained until the spring of 

1863, forming most of the time a part of Weitzel's brigade. The 3d had 
the misfortune to lose its captain, who was drowned in the Mississippi, 
April 23, 1862, and his place was filled by the appointment of Jonathan 

E. Cowan of the ist company, but as he was on leave of absence, the or- 
ganization served under Lieut. Perkins. The 3d was attached to Weitzel's 
brigade in Sept., 1862, and was often in action, but met with slight loss. 
It was encamped at Thibodeaux, La., during the winter of 1862-63. After 
the consolidation of the four organizations, June 17, 1863, the companies 
of the 41st infantry retained their original letters, while the 2nd unat- 
tached company was designated L, the 3d M, the ist continued to be 
known as "Read's company," and received no letter, as the regiment had 
thirteen companies. The new organization remained under the command 
of Col. Chickering and took part in the siege of Port Hudson, remaining 
at that point until the close of the year 1863, engaged in the active duties 
falling to the cavalry arm of the service. In the spring of 1864, it took 



314 The Union Army 

an active part in the Red River expedition, during which it did its full 
duty, losing in the severe action at Sabine cross-roads, 9 men killed, 64 
wounded, and 157 of the horses. On June 25 the regiment was dis- 
mounted and armed as infantry and during the following rnonth was 
transferred to Maryland, where it became part of the 2nd brigade, 2nd 
division, 19th corps. After sharing in the various movements in the Shen- 
andoah Valley it was heavily engaged at the battle of Winchester, losing 
104 officers and men out of about 600 in action. It was again engaged at 
Fisher's hill, and Cedar creek, losing in the latter action TJ killed and 
wounded. On Dec. 28, 1864, it went into winter quarters at Pleasant Valley, 
Md., where it was again equipped as cavalry in Feb., 1865, and reporting 
to Gen. Chapman at Winchester on March i, engaged in scouting and 
other duties until April 20. Near the close of the year 1864, the three 
independent companies were mustered out of service, and their places 
were taken by one year troops from Mass. The original members of the 
41st infantry were mustered out on May 20. The regiment took part in 
the grand review with Sheridan's cavalry corps ; proceeded in June to 
Fort Leavenworth, Kan. ; served in the States of Kansas and Nebraska 
during the summer, and was mustered out at Fort Leavenworth, Sept. 
28, 1865. It reached Boston Oct. 5, and three days later the men were 
paid and discharged at Galloupe's island. The total number in the regi- 
ment was 98 officers, 2,090 enlisted men. Its losses were 5 officers and 
81 men killed or died of wounds; 3 missing; 2 officers, 135 men died by 
accident or disease, and 32 died as prisoners. Beginning with the muster 
in of the 41st regiment, it had served more than 35 months, traveled 
15,000 miles, and was in more than 30 engagements. 

Fourth Cavalry. — Cols.. Arnold A. Rand, Francis Washburn, Horatio 
Jenkins, Jr. ; Lieut.-Cols., Francis Washburn, Horatio Jenkins, Jr., Henry 
B. Scott; Majs., Atherton H. Stevens, David B Keith, Louis Cabot, Moses 
F. Webster, Henry B. Scott, Joseph I. Baker, Albert E. Ray, Edwin B. 
Staples. This regiment was organized on Feb. 12, 1864, The independent 
battalion Mass. cavalry, then serving in South Carolina and originally a 
part of the ist cavalry, constituted the ist battalion. The ist veteran bat- 
talion, recruited in February under Lieut.-Col. Arnold A. Rand, became 
the 2nd battalion, and was mustered in by the end of the month. Early 
in April the 3d battalion had been filled and mustered. The regiment 
carried on its rolls a total of 88 officers and 1,621 enlisted men. Its losses 
during service were 4 officers and 22 enlisted men killed or died of 
wounds; i officer and 92 enlisted men died by accident or disease; i offi- 
cer and 24 enlisted men as prisoners. The 2nd battalion under Maj. 
Keith, left the state on March 20, and arrived at Hilton Head, S. C, 
April I. The 3d under Maj. Cabot, with 150 recruits for the ist battalion, 
left the state April 23. The 2nd battalion, with headquarters at Hilton 
Head, took part in an expedition up the Ashepoo river in May. On June 
6, two companies under Capt. Morton moved to Jacksonville, Fla., and 
encamped there. In the early part of Aug., the detachment formed part 
of an expedition up the St. John's river to Palatka, engaging the enemy 
at Palatka, Magnolia and Gainesville, with a loss during the expedition 
of 6 killed and 50 captured, including 3 officers. On Oct. 17, Maj. 
Keith having resigned, Capt. Webster was promoted to the position. A 
detachment, under Capt. Staples, took part in an expedition to St. John's 
island, S. C, in July, suffering a small loss in the various skirmishes from 
the 2nd to the 9th. The battalion remained stationed at Hilton Head 
and Jacksonville by detachments until the close of the war, but no part 
of it was again heavily engaged after the battle of Gainesville. On reach- 



Massachusetts Regiments 215 

ing Hilton Head, the 3d battalion was ordered to Fortress Monroe, and 
reported to Gen. Butler, encamping at Newport News until May 23. It 
then moved to City Point, Va., and there established headquarters. The 
1st battalion, under command of Capt. Richmond, arrived from the south 
on May 8, and participated in the movements of the Army of the James 
during the rest of May. In June the command took part in the cavalry 
operations against Petersburg, being in action at Drewry's bluff and Ber- 
muda Hundred. Cos. E and H were on detached duty in June at the 
headquarters of the i8th corps. On Aug. 15 the ist and 3d battalions, 
under command of Col. Rand, became a part of the loth corps and took 
part in the operations before Petersburg. They were so engaged until 
the opening of the spring campaign in 1865. Meanwhile four companies 
had been detached for service with the 24th and 25th corps, remaining 
on this detail until their muster out. Cos. E and H with the 25th corps 
were the first troops to enter Richmond when it was evacuated on the 
morning of April 3. Cos. I, L and M under Col. Washburn were at the 
headquarters of the Army of the James, commanded by Gen. Ord. On 
April 6, 1865, this little force of 13 officers and 67 men were almost an- 
nihilated in the effort to hold High bridge over the Appomattox, where 
in three desperate charges against overwhelming odds, 8 of the officers 
were killed or wounded, among the mortally wounded being the gallant 
Col. Washburn. After the surrender of Gen. Lee, all the detachments 
of the regiment were united at Richmond and remained there on duty 
during the summer and autumn. On Nov. 14, 1865, the regiment was 
mustered out and the same month returned to Boston, the men being 
paid and finally discharged at Galloupe's island on the 26th. 

Fifth Cavalry. — Cols., Henry S. Russell, Charles F. Adams, Samuel 
E. Chamberlain; Lieut.-Cols., Charles F. Adams, Horace N. Weld; Majs., 
Horace N. Weld, Zabdiel B. Adams, Henry F. Bowditch, Albert R. 
Howe, Charles C. Parsons, Cyrus C. Emery. This was the only regi- 
ment of colored cavalry organized in Massachusetts. It was recruited 
during the autumn and winter of 1863-64, and was mustered into the U. 

5. service by companies at dates ranging from Jan. to May, 1864. The 
total enrolment of the regiment was 61 officers and 1,325 men. Its losses 
during service were 5 killed, 121 died by accident or disease, and 2 died 
as prisoners. The ist battalion, comprising Cos. A, B, C and D, having 
been mustered in Jan., 1864, left the state for Washington on May 5, 
under command of Maj. Horace N. Weld, and on the 13th, serving as 
infantry, reported at Camp Casey, where a provisional brigade of colored 
troops was being formed for purposes of instruction and discipline. The 
2nd battalion, comprising Cos. E, F, G and H, was mustered during Feb- 
ruary and March, and under Maj. Z. B. Adams left for Washington May 

6. The 3d battalion, composed of Cos. I, K, L and M, left the state May 
8, under command of Maj. Bowditch, and all three were united at Camp 
Casey by the middle of May. The regiment was immediately ordered 
to report to Gen. Butler at Fortress Monroe, where it was equipped as 
infantry and was assigned to the 3d division, i8th corps at West Point, 
Va., on the i6th. Here several weeks were spent in drill, gn^iard and 
picket duty, with occasional expeditions, and the regiment took part in 
its first serious engagement at Baylor's farm on the Petersburg road, 
June 15, meeting with a loss of 3 killed and 19 wounded. Among the 
wounded were Col. Russell and Maj. Adams, and Maj. Bowditch now 
assumed command of the regiment. It served before Petersburg as part 
of Wild's brigade, Hinks' division, i8th corps, until June 29, when it was 
assigned to the loth corps and served at Point Lookout, Md., as garrison 
for a camp of Confederate prisoners. It remained on this station until 



216 The Union Army 

the opening of the final campaign in Feb., 1865. Col. Russell resigned 
on Feb. 14, 1865, and Lieut.-Col. Adams was promoted to the vacancy. 
The regiment now had a full complement of officers for the first time and 
took part in the final siege of Petersburg. After the fall of that strong- 
hold it encamped near City Point until June, when it was ordered to 
Clarksville, Tex., where it remained until it was mustered out, Oct. 31, 
1865. Col. Adams, having resigned on Aug. i, on account of sickness, 
Lieut.-Col. Chamberlain, late of the ist Mass. cavalry, was commissioned 
to fill the vacancy and at once joined his new command. He did much 
to improve the sanitary condition of the regiment, as the command had 
suffered severely in health in the South. After its muster out, the regi- 
ment returned to Massachusetts, and was finally paid and discharged from 
the service in the latter part of November. 

First Battalion Frontier Cavalry. — This organization was composed 
of five companies which were recruited in Dec, 1864, and were mustered 
into service for one year on Dec. 30, 1864, and Jan. 2, 1865. The organiza- 
tion was designed to guard against raids across the Canadian frontier by 
the hostile elements in Canada. The battalion, under command of Maj. 
Burr Porter, left the state soon after its muster, and joined the 26th N. Y. 
cavalry, with which it served on the New York frontier until the end of 
the war, being mustered out on June 30, 1865. The total strength of the 
battalion was 20 officers and 502 enlisted men. Two of its members died 
of disease. 

First Regiment, Heavy Artillery. — Cols., William B. Greene, Thomas 
R. Tannatt; Lieut.-Cols., Samuel C. Oliver, Levi P. Wright, Nathaniel 
Shatswell, Horace Holt; Majs., Levi P. Wright, Andrew Washburn, 
Frank A. Rolfe, Seth S. Buxton, Nathaniel Shatswell, Alonzo G. Draper, 
Horace Holt, Edward A. Chandler, Frank Davis, Benjamin C. Atkinson, 
Charles H. Hayes. The ist Mass. heavy artillery was originally organ- 
ized as the 14th Mass. infantry, (q. v.) and on Jan. i, 1862, was trans- 
formed into an artillery regiment. Fifty recruits were added to each com- 
pany, two additional companies were formed, and as reorganized the total 
strength of the regiment was 135 officers, 2,495 enlisted men. The record 
of its losses during service was 9 officers and 202 enlisted men killed and 
died of wounds; 4 missing; 2 officers and 113 men died by accident or 
disease, and 156 died as prisoners. After the reorganization the regiment 
continued to serve in the defenses of Washington during the spring and 
early summer, but was ordered to the front during Gen. Pope's Virginia 
campaign. It was present but not in action at the second battle of Manas- 
sas, after which it returned to Washington and continued to serve in the 
various forts about the city. On Sept. 27, a battalion of two companies 
was detached and served at Maryland heights until in Dec, 1863. Co. I 
of this battalion met with loss at Winchester, June 14, 1863, when Capt. 
Martin and 44 men were made prisoners. A few weeks later Co. H was 
engaged in a sharp skirmish with the enemy across the river at Harper's 
Ferry. On Nov. 30. 1863, the battalion was relieved and reported to the 
regiment in front of Washington. When the Wilderness campaign opened 
in 1864, the regiment acting as infantry, joined the Army of the Potomac 
near Spottsylvania Court House, and was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 
Tyler's division — composed for the most part of heavy artillery regiments 
— 2nd corps. The regiment had its first severe engagement on the Fred- 
ericksburg road, near Spottsylvania, suffering a loss of 55 killed, 312 
wounded and 27 missing, but displaying good fighting qualities in its first 
hard battle. It was soon after assigned to the 2nd brigade, 3d division, 
2nd corps, and took part in the engagements at the North Anna river and 
Cold Harbor. Crossing the James River on June 14, it shared in the as- 



Massachusetts Regiments 217 

saults on the works in front of Petersburg on the i6th and i8th, after- 
ward moving to the Jerusalem plank road. It took part in the battle of 
Weldon railroad, losing 9 killed, 48 wounded, 185 captured. Among the 
killed was Capt. Jos. W. Kimball. During July, the original members of 
the regiment who had not reenlisted were mustered out of service and 
returned to Massachusetts. The others, maintaining the regimental or- 
ganization, were actively engaged during the remainder of the siege of 
Petersburg. After the fall of that stronghold it shared in the pursuit of 
the Confederates and on the surrender of Gen. Lee it returned once more 
to Washington, where it served as a garrison for the forts in the vicinity 
until its muster out in August. It returned to Boston, Aug. 20, 1865, and 
was finally paid and discharged there on the 25th. 

Second Regiment, Heavy Artillery. — Col., Jones Frankle; Lieut.-Col., 
Augustus B. R. Sprague; Majs., Samuel C. Oliver, William A. Amory, 
Henry T. Lawson, Nehemiah P. Fuller. The 2nd heavy artillery was or- 
ganized in the summer of 1863 for service in the department of Virginia 
and North Carolina. The total strength of the regiment was 102 officers, 
and 2,830 enlisted men. Its losses during service were 9 killed or died 
of wounds; 11 missing; 166 died by accident or disease; 172 as prisoners. 
The various companies were mustered in at different dates, viz. : A on 
July 28, 1863; B, July 29; C, Aug. 4; D, Aug. 22; E, Oct. S; F, Oct. 8; 
and G, H, I, K, L and M from Dec. 7 to 24. Massachusetts regiments 
in the field furnished all the original officers. Cos. A, B, C and D, form- 
ing the 1st battalion, left the state Sept. 5 for New Berne, N. C, gar- 
risoned the forts in that vicinity, until joined in November by Cos. E and 
F. The remaining six companies left the state on Jan. 8, 1864, and were 
stationed at first with the headquarters at Norfolk, Va., Cos. G and H, 
being soon afterwards detached for service at Plymouth, N. C. When 
the Confederates captured Plymouth April 20, 1864, these two companies 
under captains Sampson and Fiske, suffered a most disastrous loss. Dur- 
ing the three days' engagement 9 were killed or mortally wounded and 
about 275 were captured. Only 35 of these survived the terrible hard- 
ships of prison life, and were exchanged at the conclusion of the war. 
In May, 1864, the headquarters of the regiment were transferred to New 
Berne, N. C. During the months of August and September more than 
375 recruits were added, the surplus men being transferred to the 17th 
Mass. infantry. An epidemic of yellow fever carried off many of the 
men in the autumn. No cases occurred in camp, but the men on detail 
in the city were severely affected. When the year 1865 opened, two com- 
panies were stationed in Virginia, four in Plymouth, N. C., and the other 
six at New Berne. In March, 1865, five companies, under Lieut.-Col. 
Sprague, were engaged in the vicinity of Kinston, N. C., and afterwards 
served for a time as provost guard at Kinston. The regiment was united 
for a time at New Berne in June and July, and then served in detach- 
ments at Wilmington, N. C, Smithville and Fort Fisher until it returned 
to Massachusetts and was finally paid and discharged at Galloupe's island, 
Sept. 23, 1865. 

Third Regiment, Heavy Artillery. — Col., William S. Abert ; Lieut.- 
Col., John A. P. Allen; Majs., George S. Worcester, Lyman B. Whiton, 
James M. Richardson. This regiment was organized in the autumn of 
1864 and was composed of twelve companies previously known as the 3d 
and 6th to i6th unattached companies of heavy artillery. Eight of these 
companies had been mustered into service in 1863 ; the 3d on Jan. 10, the 
6th on May 19, and the others at various dates from Aug. to Nov., 1864. 
They had been used to garrison the forts on the Massachusetts coast. 
In the spring of 1864, they were ordered to Washington for service in 



218 The Union Army 

the defenses of the capital. At the request of Gov. Andrew, they were 
finally given a regimental organization, and four additional companies 
were raised during the summer to complete the regiment. The 13th com- 
pany was mustered in Jan., 1864, the 14th and 15th in May, and the i6th 
in August. The regiment continued to garrison the various forts about 
Washington (with the exception of Co. I, which was on detached duty), 
throughout its term of service. Co. I never actually joined the regiment. 
It was mainly composed of men from Springfield; was mustered into 
service Feb. 10, 1864; sailed for Fortress Monroe, March 7; and was as- 
signed to engineer duty under Capt. F. U. Farquhar, chief engineer, De- 
partment of Virginia. He placed it in charge of the pontoon trains of 
the Army of the James, and it was engaged throughout its term of service 
in the manifold duties of this branch of the service, building bridges, 
roads and wharves, having charge of the pontoon bridge across the James 
river during the siege of Petersburg and of the bridges at Farmville. It 
also built and maintained the pontoon bridge across the Appomattox 
uniting the Armies of the James and the Potomac. It was mustered out 
on Sept. 26, 1865. Part of the main regiment was mustered out on June 
17, 1865, and the remainder, Sept. 18, 1865. Its total strength was 94 offi- 
cers, 1,844 enlisted men. Its only losses were 2 officers and 39 enlisted 
men, who died by accident or disease. 

Fourth Regiment, Heavy Artillery. — Col., William S. King; Lieut.- 
Col., Samuel C. Hart; Majs., Francis E. Boyd, William N. Meserve, 
Joseph W. Gelray. The number on the regimental rolls of the 4th was 
72 officers, 1,769 enlisted men. One officer and 20 enlisted men died by 
accident or disease during its service. The regiment was recruited for 
one year's service, and was composed of the 17th to 28th unattached com- 
panies of heavy artillery, which were mustered into service in Aug., 1864. 
They were consolidated into a regiment by Special Order of the war de- 
partment, dated Nov. 12, 1864. The several companies left the state in 
three detachments about the middle of Sept., 1864, and were stationed on 
garrison duty in the defenses of Washington during their entire term of 
service. The regiment was mustered out of service June 17, 1865. 

First Battalion, Heavy Artillery. — Majs., Stephen Cabot, John W. 
M. Appleton. The total strength of the battalion was 39 officers, 1,285 
enlisted men, and its only loss during service was 15 men, who died by 
accident or disease. The organization was originally composed of the 
1st, 2nd, 4th, and 5th unattached companies of heavy artillery, but two 
companies of one year men were added in the summer of 1864. Co. A 
(ist unattached) was formed early in 1862 and was designed for service 
in the forts of Boston harbor. It was the first of the many companies 
raised for this purpose, nearly all of which were subsequently organized 
into regiments of heavy artillery and sent to the front. Co. B (2nd un- 
attached), was organized in the autumn of 1862, and with the preceding 
company served as heavy artillery organizations at Fort Warren, Boston 
harbor, until the spring of 1863. Co. C (4th unattached), was mustered 
into service April 22, 1863; Co. D (sth unattached), was mustered in on 
June 6, 1863. These four companies were at this time united to form the 
1st battalion, which was enlarged by the addition of Cos. E and F in 
Aug., 1864, and which were mustered in for one year's service. The bat- 
talion performed garrison duty at the forts in Boston harbor during its 
entire term of service, though it furnished many detachments for service 
in the other forts along the Massachusetts coast. Cos. B, E and F were 
mustered out in June, 1865, and the remaining three in September and 
October of the same year. 

Twenty-ninth Unattached Company, Heavy Artillery. — Capt., George 



Massachusetts Regiments 219 

W. Kenney. This organization numbered 5 officers and 152 enlisted men 
and was mustered into service in the latter part of Aug., 1864. It left 
the state for Washington on Oct. 29, and served on garrison duty in the 
forts of that city until it vi^as mustered out, June 16, 1865. Two men died 
of disease and constituted its sole loss. 

Thirtieth Unattached Company, Heavy Artillery.— Capt., Samuel 
R. Bingham. This organization numbered 4 officers and 146 enlisted men 
and had no losses during service. It was mustered into the U. S. service 
in the early part of Sept., 1864, and left on the 26th for Washington, 
where it was employed throughout its term of service, and was mustered 
out at the same time as the 29th company. 

First Battery, Light Artillery.— Maj., Asa M. Cook; Capts., Josiah 
Porter, William H. McCartney. Its total enrolment in the three months' 
service was 9 officers, 107 men ; in the three years' service, 8 officers, 261 
men. Its losses during service were 7 killed or died of wounds ; 12 died 
by accident or disease; i died in Confederate prison. At the outbreak 
of the war the ist battery was a militia organization called the Boston 
Light Artillery, or Cook's battery. It was the only artillery command 
sent from Mass. under the first call for troops and left the state April 
21, 1861, in company with the 5th infantry. It arrived at Annapolis on 
the 24th and moved to Relay house May 4, remaining here during most 
of its term. It was mustered into the U. S. service May 18, and was 
mustered out Aug. 2, 1861, reaching Boston the following day. It was 
almost immediately reorganized for the three years' service, with a new 
list of officers in conformity to the U. S. requirements. It left the state 
Oct. 3, 1861, for Washington, remained for a few weeks at Camp Dun- 
can, then joined Franklin's division and crossed into Virginia, and was 
stationed for the winter near Fairfax seminary. In the spring of 1862 
its division formed a part of the ist corps under Gen. McDowell, was 
present at the siege of Yorktown and later went into position at West 
Point for its first action. It took part in all the movements of Frank- 
lin's division until the organization of the 6th corps, when it entered 
upon the Peninsular campaign as a part of the ist division of this corps, 
and its subsequent history is identified with this command. During this 
campaign it took part in the battles of Mechanicsville and Gaines' mill, 
and was active at Glendale and Malvern hill. After the battle of Malvern 
hill, the battery remained in camp at Harrison's landing until the Army 
of the Potomac was called north to assist Gen. Pope. It was in action at 
Crampton's pass and Burkittsville, Md. ; shared in the march to Fred- 
ericksburg in November, and was heavily engaged in the battle there the 
following month. During the winter of 1862, it was encamped at White 
Oak Church, Va., and the ensuing year it was engaged in the Chancel- 
lorsville, Gettysburg and Mine Run campaigns. It was then in winter 
quarters — 1863-64 — at Brandy Station, where many of its members re- 
enlisted for an additional term of three years. It was not engaged at 
the battle of the Wilderness, but was active at the Po river, and at the 
battles of Spottsylvania Court House and Cold Harbor. It moved to 
Petersburg on June 17, 1864, and served in that vicinity until its corps 
was called to Washington July 9. It then shared in the various move- 
ments of its corps until the following September, taking an active part 
in the battles of Winchester and Fisher's hill. After the latter the vet- 
erans not reenlisted left the battery and the remaining men participated 
in the battle of Cedar creek, then, after a short term of service with the 
5th U. S. artillery, they were transferred to the 9th Mass. battery, with 
which they completed their term of service. It was mustered out Oct. 
19, 1864. 



220 The Union Army 

Second Battery, Light Artillery. — Capts., Ormand F. Nims, William 
Marland. The total strength of the battery was 12 officers, 351 men. Its 
losses during service were 2 killed, and 23 died of disease. This organi- 
zation was recruited in Boston during April and May, 1861, by Maj. Cobb 
and was the first battery sent forward for three years. It was mustered 
into the U. S. service, July 31, 1861, left the state on Aug. 8, arrived at 
Baltimore on the 12th, and remained in garrison there until Feb. 25, 1862, 
save for 41 days while on an expedition under Gen. Lockwood through 
the eastern counties of Maryland and Virginia. It was then ordered to 
join Gen. Butler's expedition against New Orleans, moved to Fortress 
Monroe Feb. 26, and left for New Orleans on April 19, 1862. On its ar- 
rival in Louisiana, it was assigned to Gen. Williams's brigade and en- 
camped at Baton Rouge, until it engaged in the Vicksburg expedition 
of June and July. Returning to Baton Rouge July 26, it could, on Aug. 
4, muster only 21 men fit for duty, out of 140 members, the others all 
being sick. Securing a detail of 30 men from the 9th Conn. infanti->-, 
they were hastily drilled and the battery won much praise for its efficient 
service the next day in the battle at Baton Rouge. It then moved to New 
Orleans and encamped there until Dec. 27. When Gen. Banks succeeded 
to the command of the Department of the South in December, Nims' 
battery was assigned to the 4th division, 19th corps, returned to Baton 
Rouge and remained in winter quarters there until March, 1863. On 
March 13 it joined the expedition to the rear of Port Hudson. On its 
return it shared in the Bayou Teche expedition — April-May, 1863 — and 
on May 25, was once more in position before Port Hudson. It rendered 
important service during the siege and after the surrender of the fortress, 
returned to Baton Rouge, July 11. It then moved to Donaldsonville, 
La., for two weeks ; to Carrollton for a week, arrived in New Orleans 
Aug. 6, remaining there until Sept. 17. It shared in an expedition into 
the interior of Louisiana in September, being engaged at Vermilion and 
Carrion Crow bayous. The battery remained encamped at Carrion Crow 
bayou, New Iberia, and Franklin until March, 1864, when it participated 
in the Red River campaign. It met with a serious disaster in the battle 
of Sabine cross-roads, when, after an heroic resistance, all its guns were 
captured, 2 men killed and 18 wounded, 5 of the wounded being captured, 
together with 7 unwounded men. In addition to the loss of the guns and 
caissons, 82 horses were either killed or wounded. When the routed 
Union forces reached Grand Ecore on the loth, the battery was ordered 
to New Orleans, as it was without equipment. At Carrollton it was sup- 
plied with light guns, but the ginis were transferred to the 6th Mass. 
battery, and early in July the 2nd was equipped with four 3-inch rifled 
guns and quartered at the Apollo stables. On Sept. 2 it moved to Mor- 
ganza, and encamped there for the winter. The original members of the 
battery, with the exception of 23 who had reenlisted, were mustered out 
on Aug. 16, 1864. The organization, however, was continued, being made 
up of the reenlisted men and recruits received from time to time. Capt. 
Nims resigned on Jan. 7, 1865, and Lieut. Marland was promoted to the 
vacancy. It was sent by ship to Florida, in March, 1865, then marched 
westward through the swamps to share in the operations about Mobile. 
After the surrender of Fort Blakely it moved with a column of infantry 
toward Claiborne, Ala. Its last serious engagement was at Daniels' plan- 
tation, April II. During the ensuing seven weeks it was engaged almost 
constantly in exhaustive marches and suflfered great losses in animals 
and equipment. On June 4 it reached Vicksburg, having traveled over 
1,600 miles since landing in Fla., and remained here until July 22, it left 
for Massachusetts. It was mustered out at Boston, Aug. 11, 1865. 



Massachusetts Regiments 221 

Third Battery, Light Artillery.— Capts., Dexter H. Follett, Augustus 
P. Martin. This battery carried on its rolls ii officers and 250 enlisted 
men. Its loss during service was i officer, 11 men killed or died of 
wounds, and 11 men by accident or disease. The battery was recruited 
in the summer of 1861, by Dexter H. Follett, from among the friends of 
Senator Henry Wilson, colonel of the 22nd infantry. It was mustered into 
the U. S. service Oct. 5, 1861, and left for Washington on the 8th, in 
company with the 22nd infantry. It passed the winter of 1861-62 in and 
around Washington and took part in the advance of the Army of the 
Potomac into Virginia in the spring of 1862. One-half of the battery was 
engaged on April 5 in front of Yorktown, and again at Hanover Court 
House, May 27. It was in reserve at the battle of Mechanicsville, took 
part at Gaines' mill, losing i gun and 3 caissons, and its next engagement 
was at Malvern hill, July i, where it suflfered no loss. During the re- 
mainder of the year it was in no serious engagement and was not again 
in action as a whole until the battle of Gettysburg. It accompanied the 
5th corps in all its movements ; a section under Lieut. Cargill shared in 
a reconnoissance to Leesburg, Va., reached Fredericksburg the day after 
the battle; took part in the "Mud March" in Jan., 1863, and was in posi- 
tion, but not actively engaged at Chancellorsville. After Gettysburg it 
shared the marches of the 5th corps during the summer and autumn but 
was not in action. It went into winter quarters at Bealeton Station, Va., 
remaining there from Dec, 1863, to May i, 1864, when it joined the 5th 
corps at Culpeper. and fought with it in the battle of the Wilderness, 
being one of the few batteries there engaged. On May 8 it went into 
position at Laurel hill, where it remained for 5 days, frequently in action. 
Its loss here was 9 wounded, including Capt. Martin. An order reduced 
all the batteries to 4 gims at this time and 2 of its gvms were turned in 
to the ordnance department. It was engaged at the North Anna river, 
and Shady Grove Church, Va., from May 30 to June 3, having 2 men 
and 13 horses killed and i man wounded. It sustained no loss at Cold 
Harbor, and moved to Petersburg on June 18, being almost continuously 
in action until Aug. 13, 1864, but suffering a loss of only 2 men killed. 
It accompanied the 2nd division, 5th corps, in the expedition against the 
Weldon railroad, and on Aug. 23, 1864, relieved the nth battery near 
Globe tavern, remaining there until the expiration of its term of service. 
At the end of that month the reenlisted men and recruits were trans- 
ferred to the 5th Mass. battery, and the remainder of the command, 3 
officers and 86 men reached Boston, Sept. 9. After a furlough of a week 
they were mustered out on the i6th. 

Fourth Battery, Light Artillery. — Capts., Charles H. Manning, George 
G. Trull. The total enrolment of this battery was 11 officers, 291 men. 
Its loss during service was i officer and i man killed and 46 by accident 
or disease. It was composed chiefly of men from Essex and Middlesex 
counties, Capt. Manning's artillery section of Salem forming the nucleus ; 
it was mustered in, Nov. 18, 1861, and on the 20th embarked for Ship 
island. Miss., the rendezvous of Gen. Butler's New Orleans expedition. 
It was among the troops present at the surrender of Forts Jackson and 
St. Philip ; debarked at New Orleans on May 2, and three days later pro- 
ceeded to Carrollton, where it remained until June 16, 1862. On that 
date one section under Lieut. Taylor reported to Lieut.-Col. Kimball of 
the I2th Me., crossed Lake Pontchartrain and went into action at Pass 
Manchac, La. The battery as a whole was not engaged until the battle 
of Baton Rouge, Aug. 5, 1862, where it lost i killed and 5 wounded in 
addition to many of the horses. It remained at Baton Rouge until the 
2 1 St, when it moved to Carrollton and occupied Camp Williams. On Oct. 



222 The Union Army 

5 one section reported at Algiers, and on the 28th, the rest of the com- 
mand moved to Fort Pike, where the heahh of the men materially im- 
proved. Oct. 20, Capt. Manning resigned, and was succeeded by Lieut. 
Trull of Nims' battery. The sections remaining at Fort Pike engaged 
in several expeditions by water, being engaged without loss at Bonfouca, 
Nov. 26, 1862, and again on Dec. 23. While the main portion of the bat- 
tery was thus engaged, the other section under Lieut Briggs accompanied 
Gen. Weitzel's brigade through the La Fourche district and was sharply 
engaged at Labadieville. In March, 1863, the battery, which had been re- 
united during the winter at New Orleans, was attached to the 3d division, 
19th corps. Gen. Emory commanding, and took part in the movement to 
the rear of Port Hudson. Later it took part in the siege of that place 
and after the surrender was attached to the 3d brigade, 3d division, 
which returned to Baton Rouge. On Sept. 19 it was ordered to Brashear 
City, and reached there on the 23d. With the 3d division, 19th corps, 
it engaged in the Bayou Teche expedition, being engaged at Vermilion 
bayou, Oct. 9, and again on Nov. 11. At the beginning of 1864, nearly 
all the members of the battery reenlisted and were on furlough of 30 
days from Feb. 11, 1864. On the return of the men to New Orleans the 
battery was quartered at the tobacco warehouse, where it was equipped 
as infantry and drilled until the end of June. It was then moved to the 
Apollo stables, provided with a light artillery equipment, and on Sept. 5 
was transferred to Morganza, where it took part in an expedition to 
Bayou Fordoche on the i6th, a section, under Lieut. Manning, being en- 
gaged in a skirmish all the following day as far as the Atchafalaya river. 
On Nov. 28 it was transferred to Memphis, Tenn., then encamped at 
Kennerville, La., and near Fort Gaines, Ala., until March 17, when it 
participated in the operations against Mobile attached to the 1st division, 
13th corps. Mobile was occupied by the Union forces on April 12, and 
after a march to Bellrose, the battery was transported to the captured 
city on the 15th, remaining there until July i, when it was ordered to 
Galveston, Tex., and remained in that vicinity until its return to Boston, 
where it was mustered out, Nov. 10, 1865. 

Fifth Battery, Light Artillery. — Capts., Max Eppendorff, George D. 
Allen, Charles A. Phillips. The total strength of the battalion was 14 
officers and 324 enlisted men. Its casualties during service were i officer, 
and IS men killed or died of wounds and 11 men died by accident or dis- 
ease. It was mustered into the U. S. service at various times during the 
months of Sept., Oct. and Nov., 1861, the muster being completed on Dec. 
10. It left Readville Dec. 25 for Washington, and remained there until 
Feb. 13, 1862, when it moved to Hall's hill, Va., where it encamped until 
the middle of March, attached to Gen. Fitz John Porter's division. It 
participated in the Peninsular campaign, was engaged April 4 at How- 
ard's mill and remained near there until the evacuation of Yorktown. 
The battles of Gaines' mill and Malvern hill followed, after which, owing 
to its heavy losses, the men were temporarily assigned to the 4th R. I., 
and the 3d Mass. batteries. In October the 5th battery, reorganized, was 
attached to the ist division, 5th corps, at Sharpsburg, Md. It partici- 
pated in the battle of Fredericksburg and the "Mud March" of Jan., 1863, 
and went into winter quarters near Stoneman's switch, where it remained 
until the opening of the Chancellorsville campaign, in which it was active, 
as it was also at Gettysburg. It shared in the strategic movements of 
the Army of the Potomac during the summer; was in action at Rappa- 
hannock Station ; moved with the army in the Mine Run campaign, and 
spent the winter of 1863-64 at Rappahannock Station. It was active at 
the battle of the Wilderness, but was not again engaged until May 12, 



Massachusetts Regiments 223 

at Spottsylvania. At Bethesda Church, it was attached to Griffin's divi- 
sion and took part in the battle. At Petersburg, it was engaged on June 
i8; was present at the battle of the Crater, and with the sth corps was 
engaged at the Weldon railroad, Aug. 21. It continued in service as a 
veteran organization going into winter quarters near the Jerusalem plank 
road. It participated in the assault on Petersburg, April 1-2, 1865, after 
which it moved to City Point and became a part of the 2nd brigade, artil- 
lery reserve. On June 12, 1865, the battery was mustered out at Read- 
ville. 

Sixth Battery, Light Artillery. — Capts., Charles Everett, William W. 
Carruth, John F. Phelps, Edward K. Russell. The total number of mem- 
bers was 12 officers and 350 men, of whom 6 men were killed or died of 
wounds, and i officer and 47 men met death by accident or disease. The 
6th battery recruited at Lowell, was mustered into the U. S. service dur- 
ing Dec, 1861, and Jan., 1862, for three years. It embarked at Boston 
harbor Feb. 8 for Ship island, Miss., where it went into camp on March 
8. It took part in the expedition against New Orleans; was divided for 
duty near the city; reunited at Baton Rouge; and engaged in the Vicks- 
burg expedition, leaving a detail to garrison Baton Rouge. The men 
suffered a great deal from malarial diseases, yet they defended the city 
of Baton Rouge heroically against the attack of Aug. 5, when the bat- 
tery's losses were so heavy that volunteers from the infantry were re- 
quired to man the g^ns. After this battle the battery moved to Carroll- 
ton. It joined in the expeditions to Donaldsonville and Bayou La Fourche 
under Gen. Weitzel and its winter quarters during 1862-63 were at Thibo- 
deaux. On April 12, 1863, it was attached to the ist division, loth corps, 
with which it was active at Fort Bisland, and in May it moved to Port 
Hudson, where it participated in the operations of the siege. After the 
surrender it was ordered to Donaldsonville; was engaged at Bayou La 
Fourche, and moved to Thibodeaux, where it encamped until Sept. 25. 
In October it was sent to Berwick bay, and in November, to New Iberia, 
where it spent the winter. On Jan. 5, 1864, 56 members reenlisted, but 
were not allowed their veteran furlough until April. On their return 
they arrived at New Orleans on June 8, and remained there the rest of 
the year. By order of the war department, Jan. 20, 1865, the original 
members were sent to Boston and mustered out, but with the addition 
of 46 transferred men and 75 recruits the organization was maintained, 
and remained in New Orleans. Against the desire of Gen. Canby, the 
war department ordered that all the volunteer Hght artillery in the de- 
partment of the Gulf should be mustered out, and the 6th was discharged 
at Readville, Aug. 10, 1865. 

Seventh Battery, Light Artillery. — Capts., Phineas Alonzo Davis, 
Newman W. Storer. The battery numbered 13 officers, and 349 men, of 
whom 5 men were killed or died of wounds, and i officer and 30 men 
died by accident or disease. It was recruited at Lowell as an infantry 
company, called the Richardson Light Infantry, and was mustered into 
the U. S. service for three years at Boston May 21, 1861. It embarked 
for Fortress Monroe May 22, and performed provost duty there until 
Dec. 25, when it engaged in artillery drill and was reorganized as the 
7th Mass. battery on March 17, 1862. As infantry it joined in the expe- 
dition to Norfolk May 10, returned to Fortress Monroe, and when com- 
pletely equipped as a battery, left for Newport News on June 19. The 
months of August and September were spent in camp at Yorktown, after 
which it was at Suffolk, until Jan., 1863. During an expedition to the 
Blackwater river the battery took part in a sharp engagement at Deserted 
house, Jan. 30. It was engaged at Franklin; in active duty during the 



224 The Union Army 

siege of Suffolk; took part in the engagements at Providence Church 
road, and the expedition to Carrsville ; was ordered to Washington in 
July, and on Aug. 21, to New York city to prevent further draft riots. 
In September it returned to Washington and remained at Camp Barry 
until the end of the year. Late in Jan., 1864 it embarked for New Or- 
leans, where it was assigned to the 2nd division, 19th corps, under Gen. 
Grover, and started for Brashear City, but returned to New Orleans. 
During April the battery was posted at Alexandria, with the exception 
of one section which was located at Pineville. On May 4 it went on an 
expedition to Wilson's plantation; with its division it took part in the 
engagement at Mansura; then proceeded to Morganza bend and went 
into camp, and no important action occurred during the remainder of 
the year. In Jan., 1865, the battery embarked for Kennerville, La., and 
on Feb. 9, for Dauphin island, Ala., to take part in the operations against 
Mobile. On March 18 it was assigned to the ist division, 13th corps; 
was engaged daily at Spanish Fort from March 27 to April 8; shared 
in the assault on Fort Blakely the following day, and entered Mobile on 
the 15th. After several expeditions in Alabapia, it embarked on June 30 
for Galveston; moved to Houston, but returned to Galveston and soon 
afterward to New Orleans. It sailed for Massachusetts on Oct. 14, and 
was mustered out at Galloupe's island, Nov. 10, 1865. 

Eighth Battery, Light Artillery.— Capt., Asa M. Cook. The 8th bat- 
tery (militia) numbered 6 officers and 148 men, of whom 6 met death 
from accident or disease, and i in action. It was recruited at Boston 
and was mustered in from May 26 to June 25, 1862, for six months. It 
left Boston on June 25 for Washington, where it was assigned to Cook's 
brigade, Sturgis's reserve corps, and went into camp near Fairfax sem- 
inary, until Aug. II, when it was attached to the ist division, 9th corps, 
which it joined at Falmouth. It was with the Army of Virginia, under 
Gen. Pope ; guarded Barnett's ford ; a detachment was engaged at Sul- 
phur Springs; it participated in the battles of the second Bull Run and 
Chantilly; was active at South mountain and Antietam, and was highly 
praised for its valor by Gen. Willcox. It was then ordered to Wash- 
ington, where it again joined the Army of the Potomac and remained 
in service until Nov. 29, when it was mustered out at Washington. 

Ninth Battery, Light Artillery. — Capts., Achille De Vecchi, John 
Bigelow, Richard S. Milton. The 9th battery numbered 11 officers and 
320 men, of whom 2 officers and 12 men were killed or died of wounds, 
and 7 men died by accident or disease. It entered the U. S. service for 
a three years' term, its muster being completed Aug. 10, 1862. Its mem- 
bers were mainly from Boston and vicinity. On Sept. 3 it left for Wash- 
ington and remained at or near that city until April 17, 1863, when it 
moved to Centerville, Va. At the opening of the Gettysburg campaign, 
with the 1st volunteer brigade, artillery reserve of the Army of the Po- 
tomac, it arrived at Taneytown, Md., on June 30. In the battle of Get- 
tysburg its loss was very severe on July 2, while protecting the rear of 
the artillery on the left of the Union lines. It followed the fortunes of 
the Army of the Potomac during the ensuing summer and autumn, in- 
cluding the Mine Run campaign, and went into winter quarters at Brandy 
Station. It was in reserve at the battle of the Wilderness ; was present 
at Spottsylvania and the North Anna river, and took part in the actions 
at Totopotomy creek and on the Mechanicsville road. It shared in the 
operations before Petersburg ; participated in several engagements ; pur- 
sued the Confederates to Nottaway Court House, and moved to Wash- 
ington via Petersburg and City Point. It was mustered out at Galloupe's 
island, June 6, 1865. 



Massachusetts Regiments 235 

Tenth Battery, Light Artillery. — Capts., Jacob Henry Sleeper, J. 
Webb Adams. The loth battery numbered 9 officers and 257 men, of 
whom 2 officers and 8 men were killed or died of wounds, 11 men died 
from accident or disease, and 3 in prison. It was recruited at Boston and 
was mustered into the U. S. service for three years, Sept. 9, 1862, at 
Boxford. It left Boston Oct. 14 for Washington, and remained near the 
city until the end of the year. On Dec. 27, it moved to Poolesville, Md., 
and was stationed there until June 24, 1863, when it joined the force 
under Gen. French at Harper's Ferry. This force was attached to the 
3d corps, Army of the Potomac, in July and was engaged at Auburn, 
Kelly's ford, and in the Mine Run campaign. The winter camp was at 
Brandy Station and in the spring of 1864 the battery was assigned to the 
2nd corps. It took part in the engagements at the Po river, Cold Har- 
bor, the siege of Petersburg and Deep Bottom. At Reams' station its 
losses were severe and 4 of its guns were captured after a desperate de- 
fense. On Oct. 2."], at Hatcher's run, Lieuts. Granger and Smith were 
fatally wounded, and at the same place, in Feb., 1865, it was twice in 
action and was highly complimented for its heroic resistance. After the 
surrender of Lee's army it moved to Washington and remained there 
for a fortnight, when it was ordered home. It was mustered out at Gal- 
loupe's island, June 9, 1865. 

Eleventh Battery, Light Artillery. — Capt., Edward Jenkins Jones. 
The nth numbered 5 officers and 147 men, of whom 2 men were mor- 
tally wounded, 11 died from accident or disease and i died in prison. 
The battery was composed mainly of Boston men, was the only nine 
months' battery from the state, and was mustered into the U. S. service 
at Readville, Aug. 25, 1862. It left Boston on Oct. 3 for Washington and 
was stationed at or near Centerville, Va., on picket duty, during its entire 
term. On Jan. 2, 1864, it was remustered for the three years' service, 
left for Washington Feb. 5, and remained there until April 9, when it 
was assigned to the 2nd division, 9th corps, of the Army of the Potomac. 
It was present at the Wilderness, engaged at the North Anna river with 
the 2nd corps, and at the Weldon railroad with the 5th corps. It shared 
in the operations before Petersburg, from June 17, 1864, to March 24, 
1865 ; was active in repelling the attack upon Fort Stedman, and after 
the fall of Petersburg, joined in the pursuit of the vanquished army to 
Appomattox. Returning to Washington, it was ordered home and mus- 
tered out at Readville, June 16, 1865. 

Twelfth Battery, Light Artillery.— Capt., Jacob Miller. The 12th 
numbered 7 officers and 261 men, and lost during service 24 men by acci- 
dent and disease. It was recruited late in the year 1862 at Camp Meigs, 
Readville, and was mustered in by detachments, the last on Dec. 26. It 
embarked at Boston Jan. 3, 1863, for New Orleans, and arrived there 
early in February. For about a month it was quartered at the Apollo 
stables, then moved to Baton Rouge, La., where it served during the 
month of March, and in April was mounted and equipped as cavalry for 
a short time. On April 17, the battery was ordered to Brashear City, 
where it was engaged in the defense of transports until May 23, when it 
returned to New Orleans and remained on duty at various stations 
throughout the remainder of the summer of 1863. A detachment which 
had been on duty at Port Hudson during the siege joined the main body 
at New Orleans in July. It was then stationed at Port Hudson from 
Oct. 15 until the end of its term of service, the long period being marked 
by no events of importance and the time chiefly occupied in foraging and 
reconnoitering expeditions by detachments, the most important of which 
occurred on May 6, 1864, when the battery, with a regiment of infantry 
Vol. 1—15 





^O/ 




ELISHA HUNT RHODES 



Elisha Hunt Rhodes is the eldest son of Capt. Elisha H. and 
Eliza A. Rhodes, and a lineal descendant in the ninth genera- 
tion from Roger Williams. He was bom in Pawtuxet, town of 
Cranston, R. I., March 21, 1842, and was educated in the village 
schools of Pawtuxet, the Fountain street grammar school of 
Providence, and Potter & Hammond's commercial college of 
the same city. His father was a sea-captain and was lost at 
sea on Lenyard's key, Abaco, Dec. 10, 1858, when the subject 
of this sketch was sixteen years old. The son left school about 
that time and went to work in the office of Frederick Miller, 
a manufacturer of mill supplies, of Providence, where he re- 
mained until the breaking out of the Civil war. On June 5, 1861, 
he was mustered in as a private in Co. D, 2nd R. I. infantry, 
with which he served throughout the war until July 28, 1865. 
He participated in every campaign of the Army of the Potomac 
from Bull Run to Appomattox, a period of 4 years and 52 days. 
He was made corporal on the day of his muster and promotions 
came to him as follows: sergeant-major, March i, 1862; second- 
lieutenant, July 24, 1862; first lieutenant, March 2, 1863; adju- 
tant, Nov. 7, 1863; captain,' May 5, 1864. On June 5, 1864, 
he assumed the command of the regiment and retained it until 
the close of the war. He was commissioned brevet-major, 
U. S. volunteers for gallant conduct at the battle of Winchester, 
Sept. 19, 1864; became lieutenant-colonel, Jan. 31, 1865, was 
brevetted colonel for gallant conduct at the battle of Petersburg, 
April 2, 1865; and on July 18 was commissioned colonel for 
gallant conduct during the war. On his return to his native 
state he became identified with its military affairs and rendered 
valuable services in connection therewith. On June 25, 1879, 
he was elected brigadier-general of the Rhode Island militia, 
and remained in command for a period of thirteen years. On 
relinquishing command of the brigade he was placed on the re- 
tired list with the rank of brigadier-general, and the legislature 
by joint resolutions of thanks further showed their appreciation 
of his services. These resolutions by order of the legislature 
were cast in bronze upon a tablet of original and artistic design, 
embodying the insignia of the state and emblematic of the serv- 
ices performed. Gen. Rhodes is a charter member of Pres- 
cott Post No. I, Grand Army of the Republic, Department of 
Rhode Island, having joined in the establishment of the post, 

229 



April 12, 1867. He was the first adjutant of the post, holding 
such position during the year 1867, and was post commander 
in 1868. He was assistant adjutant-general, Department of 
Rhode Island, G. A. R., in 187 1, and commander of the depart- 
ment during the years 1872-73. He was senior vice-commander- 
in-chief. Grand Army of the Republic, in 1877 and the same year 
held the office of vice-president of the Army of the Potomac 
society. He is also a member of the Massachusetts Commandery, 
Military Order of the Loyal Legion. He was the prime mover 
in organizing the Soldier's and Sailor's Historical society of 
Rhode Island; was the first president of the society, and con- 
tinued to hold that office for seven years. He has also held the 
position of president of the 2nd R. I. volunteer infantry and 
Battery A, veteran association; has been actively identified 
with other military and civil societies, and by such connection 
has exercised a large measure of wholesome influence. He has 
also been a working and honored member of several benevolent 
and fraternal organizations; has been at the head of the Golden 
Rule Lodge, Knights of Honor; and has also filled the position 
of grand dictator of that order in the state. In the Masonic 
fraternity he has received many honors at the hands of his breth- 
ren, and after filling other positions he was advanced to the 
highest office in the state — that of grand master — which he 
filled for two terms. He is also a member of the Masonic Vet- 
erans' association of Rhode Island. He served as a member of 
the school board of Providence for a number of years; was 
appointed collector of internal revenue for the district of Rhode 
Island in July, 1875, and continued to hold that office until 
June, 1885. In the last named year he was elected assessor of 
taxes in the city of Providence, an office which he has since 
held by repeated elections, and is now (1907) chairman of the 
board of assessors. He is president of the incorporation called 
"Home for the Aged Men" and is vice-president of the society 
for the prevention of cruelty to children, devoting a great deal 
of attention to these charitable institutions. He is a life-long 
member of the Central Baptist church of Providence, a member 
of the board of deacons and has served many years as superin- 
tendent of the Sabbath School. Gen. Rhodes has done a great 
deal of public speaking upon memorial occasions, and other 
gatherings of his old comrades in arms, and has also been the 
orator upon Masonic and other occasions. In the compilation 
of this work, devoted to the glorious record of the Union army, 
he revised and edited the manuscript pertaining to the military 
affairs in Rhode Island. Gen. Rhodes was married June 12, 
1866, to Caroline P. Hunt, daughter of Joshua Hunt of Provi- 
dence and their union has been blessed by two children. 

230 



Military Affairs in Rhode Island 

1861—65 



At the opening of the decade i860- 1870 Rhode Island was, in 
proportion to its population, the greatest manufacturing section 
of the country. Under the stimulus of the tariff, steam, and the 
power loom, the cotton and woolen industries, the manufacture 
of tools and implements, and the fabrication of jewelry, had grown 
to immense proportions. After 1820, when the slave trade was 
declared piracy, that profitable business rapidly lost its attraction 
for the men of Newport and Bristol and the sentiment for freedom 
had become almost universal throughout the state. The great 
industrial centers, like Providence, found a market for their 
products in every part of the Union and were dependent on the 
South for much of their raw material. It was with growing 
solicitude that the industrial and conservative people of Rhode 
Island saw the breach between the sections widen from month 
to month — a breach which attacked the vital interests of the 
state by threatening an interruption of all trade and the cutting 
off of supplies of raw material. Nevertheless, the spirit of freedom 
and sacrifice was present among the people as of old ; the martial 
spirit of their ancestors, which had gained for the state the name 
of a fighting commonwealth and had given her renown on land 
and sea in previous wars, needed only the stimulus of the threat- 
ened disruption of the Union to blaze forth again. Trade interests 
were secondary when the integrity and perpetuity of the govern- 
ment were at stake. The names of Hopkins, Lippitt, Angell, 
Greene and Perry were enshrined in the hearts of all and when 
the final crisis came with unexpected suddenness, the latent 
patriotism of the people was at once aroused. In the war of the 
Rebellion the state furnished many heroes worthy to rank with 
those of old — men like Burnside, Slocum, Ballou, Tower, Prescott, 
Pierce, Stevens, Rodman, Ives. Babbitt, Curtis, Sayles, Shaw, 
Turner, Kelly, Hunt, Nicolai, Chedell, Tillinghast, Church, Ains- 
worth, Gleason, Perry, Hamill, Duffie and many others. Like 
the other Northern states Rhode Island made every effort to 
appease the angry South and avert the impending rupture — an 
attitude which the Southern States mistook for an unwillingness 

231 



233 The Union Army 

to fight. In 1854 state officers of Rhode Island were forbidden 
to lend aid in the rendition of fugitive slaves — a policy which the 
slaveholding interests highly resented. In i860, when relations 
between the sections were strained to the breaking point, Gov. 
William Sprague took the initiative in proposing the repeal of 
the obnoxious personal liberty bills. In his message he de- 
clared the law should be rescinded "without hesitation, not from 
fear or cowardice, but from a brave determination, in the face of 
threats and sneers, to live up to the Constitution and all its 
guarantees, the better to testify their love for the Union, and the 
more firmly to exact allegiance to it from all others." The law 
was accordingly repealed. 

The sentiment to exhaust every honorable means of adjust- 
ment of the difficulties continued strong in the North, even after 
the failure of the Peace Conference called by Virginia. Rhode 
Island had given Lincoln a majority of 4,537 in i860, but it 
had also given the conservative Gov. Sprague a majority of 1,460, 
and the legislature was strongly conservative. The South was 
fully determined to secede unless its extreme demands were met, 
though this was doubted by a majority of the Northern people. 
It had long been arming and preparing for the great struggle 
and by Feb., 1861, South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, 
Georgia, Louisiana and Texas had passed ordinances of seces- 
sion. The Star of the West, flying the Stars and Stripes and 
conveying provisions and reinforcements to Fort Sumter, was 
fired upon Jan. 9, 1861, yet despite these ominous conditions, the 
North still temporized, being careful to make no move which 
might be construed as coercion, still hoping that actual war could 
in some way be averted, and that wiser counsels would yet 
prevail. In Jan., 1861, Gov. Sprague patriotically tendered 
President Buchanan the use of the Rhode Island militia for the 
defense of Washington and the maintenance of the Federal laws, 
but the offer was not accepted. The same offer was to be soon 
repeated after Lincoln's inauguration, when it was accepted with 
gratitude. Such had been the trend of affairs when, on April 
12, 1861, open treason boldly reared its head and assailed the 
sacred flag of the Union at Fort Sumter. The news was received 
in Rhode Island with profound indignation and the whole state 
was at once ablaze with loyalty. On April 15 came the first 
call for 75,000 militia to serve for three months, and the next day 
Gov. Sprague issued an order for the immediate organization of 
the 1st regiment and a battery of light artillery, and immediately 
convened the legislature in special session. From this time on 
the military efforts of the state never ceased until the final res- 
toration of peace in 1865. It was a remarkable sight to see a 



Military Affairs in Rhode Island 233 

happy, peaceful and productive people, like those of Rhode 
Island, voluntarily forsake their customary avocations and with 
the utmost enthusiasm gird themselves for a great war. The 
patriotism of the people is attested by the fact that, with perhaps 
one exception, Rhode Island sent more troops into the field in 
proportion to population than any other of the loyal states ; also 
by the fact that the number furnished was in excess of all calls 
upon the state for troops. Scant resort was ever made to the 
draft, to which the loyalty of the people was unalterably opposed, 
and to escape which Gov. Smith in the later period of the war 
devoted his best efforts to secure the necessary enlistments. 
Such was the eagerness of the authorities and people of the state 
to defend the government in its first hour of peril, that within 
five days after the first call for troops, one detachment of the ist 
regiment, under Col. Ambrose E. Bumside, was on its way to 
protect the national capital, then in imminent danger of capture ; 
the second detachment, under Lieut. -Col. Joseph S. Pitman, went 
forward on the 24th. When the special session of the legislature 
convened on the 17th, the senate passed a resolution of thanks 
to the governor for his prompt action in support of the general 
government. The house at once reported a bill to provide the 
.state's quota, and another appropriating $500,000 for military 
purposes. The banks of Providence immediately came forward 
with offers of money ; the Bank of Commerce offering $30,000, 
the State Bank $50,000, the Providence Bank $15,000. The 
governor also received many generous offers from private indi- 
viduals. Early in May came the call for 42,000 troops to serve 
for three years or during the war, and the 2nd regiment was 
promptly organized and went forward on June 19. The work 
of raising more troops went on vigorously and on the departure 
of the 2nd for the front the organization of the 3d regiment 
began. With the ist regiment, the ist light battery had also 
been organized and sent to the defense of VVashington ; and with 
the 2nd regiment had gone another battery of light artillery, 
afterwards known as Battery A, ist R. I. light artillery. The 
first two regiments, together with the two batteries, took a con- 
spicuous part in the first battle of Bull Run, where Col. Burnside 
earned his brigadier-general's commission. 

The intelligence of the disaster to the Union arms at Bull 
Run served to stimulate further the patriotic enthusiasm of the 
people. The following incident is related as taking place at Prov- 
idence : Lieut. -Gov. Arnold, in the absence of Gov. Sprague, 
appealed to the citizens for reinforcements for the front. Find- 
ing Hugh Hamill working on the engine of a steamer in the 
harbor, Arnold inquired if he could raise a company, and being 



234 The Union Army 

promptly answered in the affirmative promised Mr. Hamill the 
endorsement of the state. Hamill was so full of the spirit of 
the hour and of such true military fiber, that in an instant he 
slipped off his overalls, tossed both them and his dinner pail into 
the harbor, and started for the military depot. He was, of 
course, successful in raising a company. Lieut.-Gov. Arnold on 
July 23 issued a stirring proclamation, reciting the result of the 
battle of Bull Run, appealing for renewed efforts on the part of 
all loyal citizens to maintain the Federal government and to come 
forward and volunteer their services for three years or during 
the war, in defense of the constitution and the laws. Gov. 
Sprague convened the legislature and in his message declared: 
"When the action of this body was first taken, the state and the 
country felt that the war would, from the necessities of the case, 
be of short duration. Since that time events have transpired 
which have opened the eyes of the whole country to the magni- 
tude of the rebellion which they are called upon to crush. * * 
* * The war will, of necessity, be a long one. We have been 
in error as to the strength of the enemy, and as to the long and 
persistent course which has been pursued by the South, tending 
towards this point. While we have been occupied in our busi- 
ness they have been creating revolution. We were under the 
impression that they were lacking in all the resources which go 
to raise and maintain armies ; whereas, in almost every particular, 
Ave have found them superior to ourselves.* * * The prob- 
abilities are that in no case on the record of the world's history 
has an army been called into the field possessing so little knowl- 
edge of the strength and position of the enemy ; and, such being 
the case, it was impossible for any troops in the position ours 
found themselves, to have sustained themselves for any consider- 
able length of time. It has opened the eyes of the country to the 
immensity of this struggle, and in that view of the subject the re- 
sult may be bearable." The special session of the legislature lasted 
three days, yet in that short time acts were passed authorizing a $15 
bounty for each recruit enlisted ; authorizing the payment of 
bounties to the families of killed, wounded and disabled soldiers ; 
giving towns the power to pay bounties to soldiers and their 
families, and confirming their past action in this respect ; author- 
izing the treasurer to issue the bonds of the state to an amount 
not exceeding $500,000, payable in 10 years, with the privilege 
of redemption after 5 years ; also to hire $500,000 or less, at not 
over 6 per cent, and to renew the loans from time to time — the 
money to be expended in raising and equipping troops under the 
provisions of the general military act passed the previous April. 
The legislature also pledged the best exertions and the entire 



Military Affairs in Rhode Island 235 

resources of the state for the preservation of the Union ; thanked 
the governor for his vigorous services in camp and field; (He 
had accompanied the ist regiment to Washington as commander- 
in-chief of the state mihtia), by resolution, also thanked Col. 
Burnside for his gallant services ; expressed satisfaction that the 
government had rewarded those services by his promotion to 
brigadier-general, and signified its wish that he might be placed 
in command of the state's regiments. 

Under the first call for three months' troops, and under the 
succeeding calls of May and July, for 500,000 three years' troops, 
the total quotas of Rhode Island were 5,735, and the state fur- 
nished by the close of the year a total of 9,433 men. In addition 
to about 1,000 men enlisted in the regiments of other states and 
the navy, Rhode Island had organized and sent to the front five 
regiments of infantry and eight batteries. This very creditable 
showing was largely due to the untiring efforts of Gov. Sprague, 
vigorously aided by Adjt.-Gen. Mauran and Q. M. Gen. Stead. 
Such was the general satisfaction with the course of Gov. 
Sprague that he was renominated and reelected in 1862 without 
opposition. Under the various calls for troops in 1862, the quota 
of Rhode Island was 5,424, and she furnished a total of 4,801 
men. The whole number of troops furnished, however, since the 
beginning of the war, was still considerably in excess of all 
demands, there being a large surplus under the calls of 186 r. 
An efficient National Guard for home defense had been organ- 
ized, composed of 2,339 active militia, and 17,944 enrolled militia, 
This militia furnished an ample reserve from which to draw in 
May, 1862, when Stonewall Jackson made his sudden raid into 
the Shenandoah Valley and endangered the national capital. In 
obedience to a telegram from the secretary of war, received by 
the governor on May 25, calling for all the available troops in 
the state to serve in the defenses of Washington for three months, 
the 9th and loth regiments of infantry were promptly organized 
and sent to Washington. Meanwhile, the ist regiment cavalry, 
whose organization was begun in the fall of 1861, v/as fully 
recruited, and left the state for Washington in March, 1862. 
Two of the original battalions were from Rhode Island and one 
from New Hampshire. Another cavalry organization, desig- 
nated the 7th squadron R. I. cavalry, composed of two companies, 
Co. A, enlisted chiefly in Providence, and Co. B, composed of 
students from Dartmouth college, N. H., and from Norwich 
university, Vt. — was enlisted for three months' service and de- 
parted for Washington at the end of June, 1862. The 7th 
infantry (3 years), whose organization was begun the previous 
May, left for the front Sept. 10, 1862, with ranks filled nearly to 



236 The Union Army 

the maximum. The nth and 12th infantry were both organized 
in response to the call of Aug. 4, 1862, for 300,000 militia for 
nine months' service. Their ranks were rapidly filled despite 
the series of disasters which had overtaken the Union arms. 
The loth light battery, for three months' service, was raised 
simultaneously with the 9th and loth infantry. This completes 
the formation of short term organizations from Rhode Island. 
In addition to the above organizations formed in 1862, the ist 
battalion, 2nd cavalry, was fully recruited before the close of 
the year. 

In the war of the Revolution, the state had raised a regiment 
of colored troops, and in Aug., 1862, Gov. Sprague made an 
unsuccessful attempt to enlist such a regiment. In 1863, during 
the admmistration of Gov. Smith, a second attempt was made, 
which resulted in the formation of the 14th regiment heavy 
artillery, afterward known as the nth U. S. The wisdom dis- 
played in raising this regiment is questionable. It cost an enor- 
mous sum of money in bounties, something like $1,000,000, showed 
marked inferiority to the white troops in point of physical en- 
durance, and was the object of systematic frauds. 

At the second session of the legislature in 1862, Gov. Sprague 
was elected U. S. senator and resigned the executive chair on 
March 3, 1863, to take his seat. Hon. William C. Cozzens, of 
Newport, was elected by the general assembly, then in session, 
to fill the unexpired term. At the election for state officers held 
on the first Wednesday of April, 1863, Hon. James Y. Smith, 
Republican, was elected governor by a majority of 2,989, over 
his Democratic and Union opponent. Gov. Cozzens. Gov. Smith 
brought to the duties of his responsible ofifice the same energy 
and practical talent that had rendered him eminently successful 
in business life. As a private citizen he had been a loyal sup- 
porter of the government from the beginning of the war. The 
spirit with which he entered upon his duties is shown in the 
following extract from his first message : "This period in our 
history is full of interest. The eyes of the nations are upon us. 
Our national government has been attacked. The responsi- 
bility is great upon our people. Let us be firm although danger 
surrounds. Let us stand united before the world. The obliga- 
tion of the solemn oath I have taken, demands of me to be watch- 
ful and convey unimpaired to posterity all the blessings we are 
enjoying. We are admonished by the events surrounding us 
that united action should govern. Let every loyal man step for- 
ward to the rescue, lay aside all partisan feelings, and join in one 
grand cr}', 'Our country, the Union — it must be preserved.' Our 
country is the great object to which our efforts should be di- 



Military Affairs in Rhode Island 237 

reeled. Let us unite our strength, relying- upon the Supreme Ruler 
to direct our steps, and we shall prevail. We have but one 
alternative — war — as has been said by an able jurist — 'war 
without remission waged in all lawful modes and by all classes 
of citizens without prejudice to caste or color. A frightful pros- 
pect, indeed. But let him who shudders at it remember that the 
God of love is also the God of battles, and that blood is the price 
of progress.' My experience in public life confirms the opinion, 
long since advanced, that the destruction of our national gov- 
ernment would fasten upon us everlasting revolution. Impressed 
with these opinions, I shall ever be ready to advance such 
measures as will secure to us our fixed position under the national 
Union, jealously watching every vent, as without union our liberty 
can never be preserved." 

In the legislature elected at the same time as Gov. Smith, the 
Republicans had a majority of lo in the senate, and 36 in the 
house. In 1863 an amendment to the state constitution, so as to 
permit soldiers to vote, was submitted to the • people and was 
adopted by the requisite three-fifths vote. An effort was also 
made at this time to secure an extension of the suffrage to certain 
of the foreign born residents of the state, the following amend- 
ment to the constitution being submitted : "Alien residents of this 
state who have enlisted or volunteered, or who may enlist or vol- 
unteer in any of the regiments of this state, and shall be honor- 
ably discharged therefrom, and who are now or may become 
naturalized citizens of the United States, shall be admitted to vote 
at all the elections in this state on the same terms as native bom 
citizens of this state." The effort met with failure and was not 
finally successful imtil 1886. The principal draft of the war was 
undertaken in Rhode Island in July, 1863, in compliance with a 
law enacted by Congress, approved March 3, 1863. The draft 
was completed in August, and the final returns show that of the 
4,320 drafted, only 788 conscripts and substitutes were held to 
serve ; 463 commuted by paying $300 ; the others were discharged 
as aliens, or physically disqualified. The bounty system was now 
in full operation, and the state was paying a bounty of $300 to 
recruits for regiments in the field, in addition to the liberal 
bounties offered by the various towns and cities for volunteers. 
Under the calls of Oct. 17, 1863, and Feb. i, 1864, for an aggre- 
gate of 500,000 three years' men, the state's quota was 3469, 
and it furnished a total of 3,686, including the 463 who paid 
corpmutation. Under the subsequent calls for troops by the 
general government, Rhode Island furnished men as follows : 
March 14, 1864, quota 1,388, furnished 1,906; July 18, 1864, the 
.state was credited with a surplus under previous calls, and its 



238 The Union Army 

quota was only 1,423, to fill which it furnished 1,223 "^en for 
one year, 196 for two years, and 891 for three years, a total of 
2,310; Dec. 19, 1864, quota 1,469, furnished 739 men for one 
year, 92 for two years, and 732 for three years, a total of 1,563. 
Early in 1863 the 2nd cavalry regiment completed its organiza- 
tion, and left the state to join the Banks' expedition in Louisiana, 
under command of Lieut.-Col. Augustus W. Corliss. The 
organization of a third cavalry regiment was begun late in the 
summer of 1863, and the ist battalion with full ranks, under com- 
mand of Maj. Davis embarked for New Orleans, Dec. 31, 1863, 
for service in the Department of the Gulf under Gen. Banks. 

During the winter of 1863-64 every effort was made to induce 
the soldiers in the field to reenlist as veterans. Among Rhode 
Island organizations, 1,118 men so reenlisted, and were credited 
on the state's quota. 

The exposed coast of Rhode Island, particularly Narragansett 
bay, which left open the approaches to Newport and Providence, 
caused much anxiety to the people of the state from the beginning 
of the war. Gov. Sprague had brought the matter to the atten- 
tion of the legislature, but nothing was done. On June 27, 1863, 
in response to a telegram to the president, authority was granted 
Gov. Smith to at once proceed with the work of erecting suitable 
fortifications for the protection of the bay. Under the super- 
vision of a government engineer strong batteries were established 
on Dutch island, which commanded all the approaches. While 
the colored companies composing the 14th heavy artillery were 
being organized into a regiment, details of the men at "Camp 
Bailey," on the island, were employed in the work of fortification. 

Gov, Smith was reelected in March, 1864, by a majority of 
199 over his opponents, Geo. H. Brown, Democrat, and Amos C. 
Barstow, Conservative. The legislature chosen at the same time 
contained a Republican majority on joint ballot of 51. At the 
presidential election in the fall of this year the vote of Rhode 
Island stood as follows: Lincoln, 13,692; McClellan, 8,470, giving 
Lincoln a majority of 5,222. In the course of the year 1864, the 
organization of the 3d cavalry was completed, Cos. E, F, and L 
joining the regiment on April 25, G and H reporting for duty 
May 28, and Co. M, together with the staff and the regimental 
band, arriving at Camp Parapet Aug. i ; Cos. I and K of the ist 
La. cavalry, formerly the 2nd R. I., had been transferred to this 
regiment Jan. 14, 1864. The organization of the 14th heavy 
artillery was completed in 1864, which completes the list of 
separate organizations furnished by the state during the war. 

No change took place in the administration of the state in 
1865. By reason of the withdrawal of the Democratic candi- 



Military Affairs in Rhode Island 239 

dates, the election on April 5 resulted in the choice of Gov. Smith 
by a nearly unanimous vote. The legislature elected at the same 
time was largely Republican, scarcely a dozen Democrats having 
been chosen to both houses. The second session of the legisla- 
ture chosen in 1864 met in Providence in Jan., 1865, and ad- 
journed sine die on March 18. Among the measures passed 
was a joint resolution, nearly unanimous, ratifying the anti-slavery 
amendment to the Federal constitution ; and an act authorizing 
a loan of $1,000,000, payable in 30 years. At its session in May, 
1865, the legislature passed by an overwhelming vote the follow- 
ing resolution : "That it is the sense of the general assembly and 
people of this state, that in the reconstruction of the government 
of the states lately in rebellion against the government and 
authority of the United States, the usual power and legal 
authority vested in the Federal government should be executed 
to secure equal rights, without respect to color, to all citizens 
residing in those states, including herein the right of the elective 
franchise." 

Before the close of the year 1865, the various regiments and 
batteries were mustered out of the U. S. service and returned 
home. Each organization as it returned was accorded a be- 
coming welcome, salutes being fired, escorts detailed, and bounti- 
ful refreshments provided. The enthusiasm aroused by the ap- 
pearance of the war-worn veterans was a reminder that the 
people of the state had a warm appreciation of the services ren- 
dered throughout the war by her gallant sons. The men at 
once returned to their homes and, with few exceptions, resumed 
the ordinary duties of citizens. Says the report of the adjutant- 
general for 1865 : "That so many men as Rhode Island furnished 
for the war, surrounded for four years by unfavorable circum- 
stances, should return to civil life, and at once engage in their 
former occupations or in other business pursuits, is in the 
highest degree creditable to them, and happily illustrates the 
power of early formed habits." According to the report of Adj.- 
Gen. Le Favour, Rhode Island furnished a total of 24,042 men 
out of a population of 184,965 at the beginning of the war. Of 
this number 10,382 were infantry; 4.394, cavalry; 5,644, heavy 
artillery ; 2,977, light artillery ; and 645 in the navy. This force 
consisted of eight regiments of infantry, of whom three were for 
three months and two for nine months ; three regiments of 
cavalry for three years, and one squadron for three months ; 
three regiments of heavy artillery; one regiment of light artil- 
lery, composed of eight light batteries, and two light batteries 
for three months' service. In addition to the above, one com- 
pany of infantry was stationed at Portsmouth Grove as Hospital 



240 The Union Army 

Guards for the U. S. Lovell general hospital. This last named 
organization was recruited from those disabled in the field, yet 
fit for garrison duty. The above total of men furnished is, of 
course, in excess of the actual number of troops enlisted by the 
state, as many names appear several times on the record under 
the head of promotions or reenlistments after their discharge 
from their three months,' nine months,' or three years' terms of 
service. On the other hand the state was never credited with a 
very considerable number of men furnished to the organizations 
of other states. A statement of the troops furnished by Rhode 
Island as given in Fox's Regimental Losses, and identical with 
the summary given by the equally able statistician, Capt. Phis- 
terer, credits it with a total of 23,236 men. If we add 463 who 
paid commutation, the state's total was 23,699. These were di- 
vided into 19,521 whites; 1,878 sailors and marines; 1,837 colored 
troops. The same authority shows that during the war 18 offi- 
cers and 278 men were killed in action; 10 officers and 154 men 
died of wounds ; 16 officers and 716 men died of disease ; and 116 
men died from all other causes — total deaths, 1,321. According 
to the report of the adjutant-general for 1865, 66 officers and 
1,183 nien were wounded in action. 

The aggregate amount of money officially expended for war 
purposes by the state and thirty-three towns and cities of Rhode 
Island was $6,500,772.15. Of this amount the cities and towns 
expended $820,768 for bounties, $41,531.26 for enlisting volun- 
teers, and $757,357-93 for the support of soldiers' families — a 
total of $1,622,288.96. However, $465,690 of the above total was 
assumed and repaid by the state. The aggregate expenditure 
of the state was $5,344,173.19, inclusive of the $465,690 repaid 
the cities and towns, and $1,268,482 of claims against the United 
States. The general government reimbursed the state nearly 
the whole of the last named amount. In the figures above given 
no allowance is made for interest on loans subsequent to 1865 ; 
for assistance rendered to the families of soldiers after the close 
of the war ; nor for the thousands of dollars expended by the 
generous people of the state in the shape of provisions, clothing, 
hospital and sanitary supplies. 

The labor devolving on the office of the adjutant-general 
after the close of the war continued to be large for many months. 
Constant demands were made on the department for information 
and data which would enable the state's volunteers to obtain their 
back pay, bounties, pensions, etc. Says the report of 1866: "In 
addition to personal calls made to this office during the past year, 
for information (which have been from fifteen to twenty a day), 
743 letters have been written, 283 commissions filled out and for- 
warded, 736 certificates and 24 orders issued." 



Military Affairs in Rhode Island 341 

The generous solicitude of the state for the welfare of its 
soldier sons did not cease on their departure for the front. In 
passing through the cities of New York and Philadelphia to 
join the army, and in returning home on furlough, or to be 
mustered out of service, Rhode Island soldiers were the recipients 
of much care and attention on the part of Col. J. H. Almy, state 
military agent for Rhode Island in New York, and of Col. Rob- 
ert R. Corson, state military agent for Rhode Island in Phila- 
delphia. The names of both these men are held in grateful 
remembrance by all Rhode Island soldiers for the innumerable 
services rendered them in those cities. Both were indefatigable 
in their labors. Col. Almy was particularly successful in secur- 
ing the transfers of Rhode Island soldiers from the hospitals of 
New York and vicinity to Lovell general hospital, Portsmouth 
Grove, where their relatives could visit them and extend conso- 
laton and encouragement; also in the work of adjusting the 
claims of soldiers with the general government. In Philadelphia 
Col. Corson or his assistants visited each Rhode Island soldier 
scattered through the many hospitals, provided them with many 
small comforts, reported their condition to their friends and 
relatives at home, provided them with meal and car tickets, and 
aided them in the collection of their back pay, pensions, bounties, 
etc. Space forbids the mention of all the services rendered by 
these efficient agents. 

Of the many soldiers' relief associations, and aid societies, 
maintained by the patriotic and generous people of the state, 
and of the other official agencies, only brief mention can be made 
of a few. After the Seven Days' battles before Richmond, the 
capacities of the U. S. medical department, and of the U. S. 
sanitary commission were taxed to the utmost to care for the in- 
creased number of sick and wounded soldiers in the various 
hospitals in and around Washington. An association was then 
formed to assist the sick and wounded soldiers of Rhode Island, 
of which Hon. James F. Simmons was president; Prof. William 
E. Jillson, secretary and treasurer; and W. E. Jillson, A. T. 
Britton, and J. H. Brown, executive committee. A committee 
was also organized in Providence to cooperate with this association, 
of which Gen. Amos D. Smith was chairman ; Hon. Seth Padel- 
ford, treasurer ; and William P. Blodgett, secretary. Through 
this committee nearly lOO boxes of valuable supplies, which had 
been donated by private individuals, the Relief associations of the 
5th ward in Providence, Bristol, Pawtucket, and Pawtuxet, were 
received and forwarded. Over $800 in money was also for- 
warded. After the battle of Antietam, Lieut. Walker and Prof. 
Jillson, in behalf of the Washington association, visited the field 

Vol. 1—16 



242 The Union Army 

hospitals and gave valuable assistance. Weekly meetings were 
held by the association, and lists of the sick and wounded soldiers 
were sent to the state committee. Hon. Henry B. Anthony suc- 
ceeded Mr. Simmons as president of the association. The fre- 
quent appeals of the association to the citizens of Rhode Island 
always met with a generous response and the soldiers of the 
state were supplied with many comforts, especially those in the 
convalescent camp near Alexandria. Among those prominent in 
the work of the association were Maj. Potter, Lieut. Walker, 
W. E. Gardner, Capt. Bucklin and Messrs. Britton, Coleman, 
Tilley, Arnold, Sprague, Bowen, Sheffield, Battey and Benedict ; 
also Mrs. Arnold, Mrs. Jillson, Mrs. Chittenden and a number 
of other women, who devoted much of their time to visiting 
sick and wounded soldiers. During the year 1863 Mr. Battey 
of Providence, Asa Arnold and J. T. Benedict were successively 
agents of the association, and spent much time visiting the sol- 
diers in the field. Mr. Benedict was subsequently appointed state 
agent by Gov. Smith. In 1863 about 1,165 Rhode Island soldiers 
in the hospitals around Washington received the aid of the asso- 
ciation. As the U. S. sanitary and christian commissions became 
perfected the work of the association decreased in volume. 

In Dec, 1862, a commission consisting of Dr. Lloyd Morton 
of Pawtucket, and Mrs. Charlotte Dailey of Providence, were 
appointed to go to Washington and visit the various hospitals 
and convalescent camps. Dr. Morton visited the 2nd, 4th, 7th, 
nth and 12th R. I. infantry, the ist cavalry, some of the light 
batteries, 21 hospitals, and the convalescent camps about Alexan- 
dria. Mrs. Dailey visited 61 hospitals. As a result, complete 
and accurate reports of the condition of Rhode Island soldiers 
were made to the general assembly. Prior to the establishment 
of the Lovell general hospital at Portsmouth Grove by the United 
States, the state granted the use of the Marine hospital in Provi- 
dence as a soldiers' home. The sum of $2,000 was promptly 
raised for its maintenance, and its operations were conducted 
by a board of managers of which Mrs. Edward Carrington was 
president. Drs. Collins, Miller, Baker, Okie and McKnight 
gave their services gratuitously to the institution and during its 
year of operation the home cared for 750 persons, for periods 
varying from a single meal to several weeks. The state also 
cooperated generously in the work of the sanitary and Christian 
commissions. The agency of the sanitary commission was 
established in Providence in Oct., 1861, and many hundreds of 
cases of hospital supplies were forwarded to needed points. 
Russell M. Larned, Esq., donated his services to the agency 
almost from the beginning of its operations. In Nov., 1863, the 



Military Affairs in Rhode Island 243 

sum of $6,347 was contributed in Providence to the Christian 
commission. 

To the loyal women of the state, the mothers, wives, sisters 
and sweethearts of the boys in the field, is due a large share of 
the credit for the successful prosecution of the war. In num- 
berless ways they were the soldiers' mainstay ; they cheered and 
comforted him on his bed of pain ; his children became their 
wards ; his last moments were soothed by their tender ministra- 
tions and numberless comforts were sent him in tent and hos- 
pital through their untiring efforts. Their sacrifice was 
complete, not only in giving as they did their best beloved to the 
service of their country, but also in bestowing every possible 
comfort by word and deed. All honor to the heroic and patri- 
otic women of Rhode Island for their humane and self-sacrificing 
labors throughout the great struggle. From the very beginning 
of the war, ladies' relief associations, beginning with the "Flor- 
ence Nightingale" association in Providence, which took form 
on the day after the attack on Fort Sumter, were maintained in 
Providence, Newport, Bristol, Warren, Pawtucket, Woonsocket, 
and in every other town in the state. In the later years of the 
war they were helpful and efficient auxiliaries in the work of the 
sanitary and Christian commissions. 

As early as 1862 an allotment commission was established by 
the state, as a method of enabling Rhode Island volunteers safely 
to remit their pay to their famiHes. The first state commissioner 
was George B. Holmes, who served until July, 1863, when he 
was succeeded by Col. Amos D. Smith, III. The work of the 
commission was admirably done, nearly $1,000,000 being remitted 
through the visiting commissioners, by the Rhode Island troops, 
in the period from April, 1862, to the end of 1863. The state 
also made prompt arrangements to obtain pensions for wounded 
soldiers and for the widows and orphans of those who fell in 
the service. This work was done gratuitously, the state's com- 
missioner for this purpose being Col. Joseph S. Pitman. 

In the foregoing brief summary of the part taken by Rhode 
Island in the work of suppressing the greatest rebellion in his- 
tory, it is hoped that enough facts have been presented to show 
that the little commonwealth performed its full share, and met 
its due proportion of the terrible cost of the war of the Rebellion. 



RECORD OF RHODE ISLAND 
REGIMENTS 



First Infantry. — Col., Ambrose E. Burnside; Lieut.-CoL, Joseph S. 
Pitman; Majs., John S. Slocum, Joseph P. Balch, William Goddard. This 
regiment was organized at Providence early in April, 1861, from the state 
militia, whose services were accepted by Gen. Scott in Jan., 1861, having 
been previously rejected by Pres. Buchanan. In April Gov. Sprague was 
authorized to send to the front one regiment of infantry and a battery 
of light artillery. From the large number of volunteers 1,200 men were 
chosen, and the organization was completed as follows : Co. A, Provi- 
dence National Cadets ; B, Providence "Artillery" ; C and D, Providence 
1st Light Infantry; E, Pawtucket Light Guard; F, Newport Artillery; 
G and H, Providence Mechanics Rifles; I, Westerly Rifles and K, Woon- 
socket Guards. With Col. Burnside, already a man of broad military 
knowledge and experience, in command, the regiment left Providence 
in two detachments, embarking on transports for New York, amid scenes 
of the wildest enthusiasm. From New York it was ordered to Annapo- 
lis, Md., where it was quartered at the Naval academy for a few days 
and then marched to Washington, arriving there during the last week 
of April. It was quartered at the Patent Office until May 2, when it was 
mustered into the U. S. service for three months and ordered into camp 
near the Bladensburg road. The sanitary condition of the camp was 
excellent and the men were little affected by sickness. After a month of 
drill the ist was assigned to the forces gathering under Gen. Patterson 
to attack Harper's Ferry and joined his command at Chambersburg, 
leaving camp Sprague on June 8. Camp Duncan at Greencastle was oc- 
cupied on the I2th, and here it was learned that the enemy had with- 
drawn from Harper's Ferry. At Falling Waters orders were received 
for the return of the regiment to Washington and Camp Sprague was re- 
occupied on June 19. On July 8, the regiment was brigaded with the 2nd 
R. I., Reynolds' Battery, 2nd N. H. and 71st N. Y., under command of 
Col. Burnside and became a part of Hunter's division. The Bull Run 
movement commenced on July 16 and on the 21st the regiment was closely 
engaged. The 2nd R. I. was first thrown into action and other regiments 
of the brigade soon hurried to its support. The approach of a Confed- 
erate force under the Union flag gave the enemy opportunity to fire at 
close range with resulting heavy loss of life, when the brigade was re- 
lieved by Sherman's division. When the retreat was ordered, the ist 
returned to Washington and a few days later to Providence, where it 
was mustered out on Aug. 2, 1861. During the three months that the 
command was at the front, 12 members were killed, 33 wounded, 22 cap- 
tured, of whom 12 were wounded and i man was reported missing. 

Second Infantry. — Cols., John S. Slocum, Frank Wheaton, Nelson 
Viall, Horatio Rogers, Jr., Samuel B. M. Read, Elisha H. Rhodes; Lieut- 
Cols., Frank Wheaton, William H. P. Steere, Nelson Viall. Nathan Goff, 
Jr., Samuel B. M. Read, Henry C. Jenckes, Elisha H. Rhodes; Majs., 
Sullivan Ballou, Nelson Viall, Nathan Goff, Jr. Thorndike C. Jameson, 

244 



Rhode Island Regiments 245 

Henry C. Jenckes, Stephen H. Brown, Henry H. Young. The 2nd in- 
fantry was organized at Providence and was composed of one company 
from Bristol, one from East Greenwich, one from South Kingston, three 
from Providence and a battery of Hght artillery from Providence. It 
was mustered into the U. S. service at Providence June 5 and 6, 1861, 
for three years. The command, over 800 strong, went into camp at the 
Dexter training grounds until June 19, when it embarked for the front. 
Landing at Elizabeth, N. J., the troops proceeded by rail to Baltimore and 
on the 22nd arrived at Camp Sprague, Washington, where they were 
warmly greeted by their comrades of the ist. The 2nd was assigned to 
the 2nd brigade (Col. Burnside), 2nd division (Col. Hunter), and moved 
toward Manassas on July 16. In the battle which followed on the 21st 
the 2nd fired the opening volley and early showed its fighting qualities. 
Its loss in this engagement was 98 killed, wounded and missing, among 
the mortally wounded being Col. Slocum and Maj. Ballou. On the re- 
turn to Washington Camp Spragiie was occupied until Aug. 6, when the 
regiment moved to Brightwood and in the general reorganization of the 
army was brigaded with the 7th and loth Mass. and 36th N. Y., under 
Gen. Couch in Buell's division, whose command was later taken by Gen. 
Keyes. Camp' Brightwood was left on March 26, 1862, at which time the 
brigade, commanded by Col. Charles Devens, Jr., moved into Virginia 
for the Peninsular campaign. The regiment shared in the wearisome 
marches on the Peninsula, a number of sharp skirmishes, and was closely 
engaged at Malvern hill, after which it encamped at Harrison's Landing 
until the middle of August, when it moved to Yorktown. The troops 
suffered much from sickness during this campaign. On Aug. 31 the 2nd 
moved to Alexandria and the next day to Chantilly, where it was assigned 
to Robinson's brigade, Birney's division, 3d corps. During the Maryland 
campaign it was ordered from place to place in support of the army and 
finally was attached to the 6th corps, which became its permanent assig^n- 
ment. At Fredericksburg the regiment was in action and occupied winter 
quarters at Falmouth until late in April, 1863, when it participated in 
the Chancellorsville campaign. At Marye's heights, in the victorious dash 
of May 3, the regiment distinguished itself under Col. Rogers and lost 7 
killed, 68 wounded and 5 missing, receiving complimentary notice for 
gallantry in action. On June 6, it left camp at Falmouth and was present 
at Gettysburg, but was held in reserve. In the pursuit which followed 
and the movements of the Army of the Potomac during the autumn, the 
regiment participated and went into winter quarters at Brandy Station, 
Dec. 3, 1863, where it remained until May 4, 1864, when it broke camp 
for the Wilderness campaign, in which the entire regiment was active 
until June 11, when the original members not reenlisted were mustered 
out, the recruits and veterans making up the reorganized regiment, which, 
under command of Col. Rhodes, remained with the 6th corps. In the 
fall and winter five new companies were added to the regiment, which 
shared in the operations before Petersburg; was active at Winchester, 
Sept. 19, remaining there until Dec. i ; was engaged at Hatcher's run, in 
Dec, 1864, and Feb., 1865 ; was in action at Forts Fisher and Stedman, 
and in the final assault on April 2. The regiment joined in the pursuit 
of Lee's army and was engaged at Sailor's creek, where it lost 49 men in 
killed and wounded. Guard duty followed at Burkesville, Danville and 
Wells' station until May 16, when faces were turned homeward. After 
participation in the grand review at Washington, the 2nd was stationed 
at Hall's hill, Va., and there mustered out on July 13, 1865, having earned 
by long and effective service the warm welcome awaiting it at Providence. 
The total loss of the regiment was 9 officers and iii men killed or died 



246 The Union Army 

of wounds, and 76 deaths from accident or disease, in all 196. The regi- 
ment is mentioned by Col. Fox as one of the "three hundred fighting 
regiments." 

Third Heavy Artillery. — Cols., Nathaniel W. Brown, Edwin Metcalf, 
Charles R. Brayton ; Lieut.-Cols., Stephen R. Bucklin, John Frieze, Will- 
iam Ames; Majs., Christopher Blanding, Henry T. Sisson, Horatio Rog- 
ers, Jr., Charles W. H. Day, James E. Bailey, George Metcalf. The 3d 
regiment gathered at Camp .A.mes, Warwick, in Aug., 1861, and was com- 
posed of ten companies, though the number was later increased to twelve. 
It was mustered into the U. S. service in August for three years, embarked 
for New York on Sept. 7, and reached Camp Sprague, Washington, on 
the i6th, but returned to Fort Hamilton, L. I., on the 22nd, the urgent 
need for its presence in Washington having passed. On Oct. 12, the regi- 
ment sailed for Fortress Monroe and camped near Hampton, Va., where 
it remained imtil Oct. 29, when, with the 3d brigade of Gen. Sherman's 
forces, the expedition to Port Royal, S. C, was commenced. After the 
capture of Fort Walker, Nov. 7, headquarters were established there and 
the regiment shared in the work of fortifying the islands captured. Late 
in Jan., 1862, Cos. F and H were ordered to join an expedition against 
Fort Pulaski, Ga., and were joined on Tybee island by Co. B, Cos. E and 
G being stationed on Jones and Bird islands. April, 1862, found the 
various companies located as follows: A, at Fort Wells (old Fort 
Walker); B, F and H, on Tybee island; C, at Hilton Head and Edisto 
island ; D, at Bay Point ; E and G, on the Savannah river ; I, on Otter 
island; K, L and M, at Hilton Head. In the attack on Fort Pulaski in 
April, 1862, Cos. B, F and H were active, and after the fall of the fortress 
Co. B was there detailed for a month on garrison duty. In May seven 
companies were stationed on Edisto island and on June 16 were active 
at the battle of Secessionville with considerable loss. Embarking for 
Hilton Head on July i, the regiment was there reunited on the 4th, and was 
engaged in garrison duty with a few expeditions of minor importance 
until the battle of Pocotaligo on Oct. 22, in which it took an active part. 
At this time Cos. D, E and F were stationed at Bay Point, G, at Fort 
Pulaski, and the remainder of the regiment at Hilton Head. Early in 
April, 1863, a detachment of the 3d joined in the bombardment of Stone 
inlet. In June an expedition up the Combahee was undertaken and an- 
other to Darien, Ga., which place was captured and burned. In July the 
regiment was stationed at Hilton Head and Folly island in two main 
battalions and took a prominent part in the assault upon Fort Wagner, 
which was evacuated on Sept. 7, and immediately occupied by the Union 
forces. The 3d was prominent in the further operations against Charles- 
ton during the autumn and winter and in Feb., 1864, Co. C, which had been 
mounted as light artillery, was ordered to join the expedition into 
Florida, where it participated in the battle of Olustee. It remained in 
Florida, penetrated as far south as Palatka, and in April was ordered tp 
the support of Gen. Grant in Virginia. Moving by way of Hilton Head, 
it left there April 30 for Fortress Monroe, where Co. A was detailed to 
supply the necessary artillery detachment in Florida, equipped as a light 
battery and stationed at Jacksonville, whence it returned after a short 
time to Beaufort, S. C, after taking an active part in the battle of Gaines- 
ville, Fla. In April, 1864, the companies of the regiment were posted as 
follows : A at Jacksonville ; B at Hilton Head ; C in Virginia ; D, K 
and L at Fort Pulaski; E, F, H, I and M on Morris island, and G on 
Tybee island. Co. C remained with the Army of the Potomac until the 
close of the war. It participated in the operations before Petersburg 
and rendered important service in reducing the fortifications at various 



Rhode Island Regiments 247 

points. On June 12, 1865, the companj^ arrived in Providence where it 
was mustered out. During the winter of 1864-65 over 300 members of 
the command reenlisted and received their veteran furlough in April, 
returning to the regiment on April 26. The troops stationed on Morris 
island received their share of the Gillmore medals presented on June 
26, 1864, when 10 men were thus honored. On July i, 1864, the regi- 
ment was active in the attack on the south end of James island and on 
Fort Johnson at the north end of the island on the 2nd. In September 
the original members not reenlisted left for home and arrived in Provi- 
dence, where they were mustered out on the last day of the month. 
The veterans and recruits were consolidated into a battalion of five com- 
panies, viz.: A at Beaufort; B at Morris island; C in Virginia, and 
L and M at Morris island. Until the fall of Charleston in Feb., 1865, 
the guns of the 3d played an important part unceasingly, and in March 
Co. B occupied Sullivan island, D, Morris and Folly islands, and A and 
C remained at their former posts of duty. During the summer, details 
were occupied at several points in routine duties, and in August all were 
mustered out at Providence. The regiment numbered in all 2,374 mem- 
bers, and was in constant and glorious service for four years, in which 
time it lost 127 members by death in action and suffered a much larger 
loss of members wounded. 

Fourth Infantry. — Cols., Justus I. McCarty, Isaac P. Rodman, Will- 
iam H. P. Steere; Lieut. -Cols., George W. Tew, Isaac P. Rodman, Mar- 
tin P. Buflfum, Joseph B. Curtis; Majs., Levi E. Kent, George W. Tew, 
John A. Allen, Martin P. Buffum, James T. P. Bucklin. The 4th regi- 
ment was organized at Camp Greene near Providence by Col. J. I. Mc- 
Carty of the regular army in Sept., 1861, and left Providence for Wash- 
ingfton on the Commodore, Oct. 5. At Elizabeth, N. J., the troops landed 
and continued their journey by rail to Baltimore. Camp was established 
near Bladensburg and on Oct. 30, the 4th was mustered into the U. S. 
service for a three years' term. On Nov. 28, it was ordered into Vir- 
ginia and was stationed at Edsall's hill for about a month. It was 
selected to take part in a movement to North Carolina and was brigaded 
at Annapolis with the 5th R. I., 8th and nth Conn, to form the 3d bri- 
gade of the coast division, which embarked on Jan. 7, 1862, for Roan- 
oke. It was closely engaged in the battle of Roanoke island, and was 
active at the battle of New Berne in March. Cos. A and E were then 
posted at Morehead City, one company at Carolina City and the remain- 
ing seven companies in the trenches before Fort Macon, which fell on 
April 26. Camp was established at Beaufort, which became the head- 
quarters of the command until July i, when the regiment embarked for 
Newport News, where it arrived on July 8. It participated in the Mary- 
land campaign, fought at South mountain and Antietam, meeting heavy 
losses ; spent Oct., 1862, in camp at Pleasant Valley, Md., and early in 
November moved into Virginia. It was active at Fredericksburg as 
part of the 2nd brigade, 3d division, 9th corps, and was assigned soon 
after to the 3d brigade, with which it went into winter quarters. On 
Feb. 8, 1863, it was ordered to Fortress Monroe, encamped at New- 
port News until March 13, when it moved to Suffolk, was engaged at 
Hill's point, and participated in an expedition to King William Court 
House in June. In July the regiment was assigned to the 3d brigade, 
2nd division, 7th corps, and posted at Portsmouth, Va., where it re- 
mained until March i, 1864. It was then ordered to Norfolk, thence to 
Point Lookout, Md., and on July 3. rejoined the 9th corps before Peters- 
burg. Arduous duty in the trenches followed, and in the assault fol- 
lowing the mine explosion, July 30, its loss was 83 killed, wounded and 



248 The Union Army 

missing. The 4th was active at the Weldon railroad, and on Oct. 3 
left Petersburg for Providence, where it was mustered out Oct. IS, 1864. 
The reenhsted men and recruits were consolidated about a week later 
with the 7th R. I. infantry. The 4th lost T^ members killed or died of 
wounds, and suffered 67 deaths from other causes. 

Fifth Heavy Artillery, — Cols., Henry T. Sisson, George W. Tew; 
Lieut.-Cols., Job Arnold, George W. Tew; Majs., John Wright, George 
W. Tew, Thorndike C. Jameson. The 5th regiment rendezvoused at 
Camp Greene in Oct., 1861, was transferred to Camp Slocum at Provi- 
dence and mustered into the U. S. service for three years as a battalion 
of five companies on Dec. 27. The battalion left Providence for Annap- 
olis to join Burnside's expedition to North Carolina. At AnnapoHs it 
was assigned to the 3d brigade under Gen. Parke, embarked for Roanoke 
island, where it participated in the battle on Feb. 8, 1862, and was also 
in the battle of New Berne on March 14. It was then posted at New- 
port City until the siege of and assault on Fort Macon, in which it was 
active, after which it went into camp at Bogue banks and later at Beaufort, 
where many new recruits were received and regimental organization ef- 
fected. In April, 1863, the Sth went to the relief of Little Washington until 
April 14, when the enemy gave up the siege as hopeless and withdrew. Re- 
turning to New Berne the regiment reoccupied Camp Anthony and gar- 
risoned Forts Totten and Rowan. In the meantime, Co. A, which had 
been stationed at Croatan, N. C, was overpowered by the enemy and 
captured. Cos. C and E, which had remained at Little Washington, re- 
joined the regiment on May I, 1864, when the command was assigned 
in detachments to garrison duty at Forts Spinola, Gaston, Amory, An- 
derson and Chase. The remainder of the term of service was spent in 
the vicinity of New Berne, where the regiment was mustered out on 
June 26, 1865. The journey home was immediately undertaken, and the 
men were greeted by the citizens of Providence with enthusiastic demon- 
strations on July 4. 

Seventh Infantry, — Col., Zenas R. Bliss; Lieut.-Cols., Welcome B. 
Sayles, George E. Church, Percy Daniels; Majs., Jacob Babbitt, Thomas 
F. Tobey. The 7th was organized at Camp Bliss, South Providence, 
during the summer of 1862, was mustered into the U. S. service for 
three years and left Providence on Sept. 10 for Washington, where it 
was assigned to the 2nd brigade (Paul's), Casey's division, and ordered 
to Harper's Ferry. The first action in which it was engaged was the 
battle of Fredericksburg, in which it lost 11 men killed, 132 wounded 
and 15 missing. The regiment went into camp at Falmouth, but was 
ordered with the gth corps to Newport News on Feb. 9, 1863. and thence 
to Kentucky. During April and May it was quartered at different times 
at Winchester, Richmond, Paint Lick, Lancaster and Crab Orchard, and 
was then ordered to the support of Gen. Grant at Vicksburg. It joined 
in the pursuit of Johnston at the end of the siege, returned from Jackson 
to Vicksburg, July 24, and embarked on Aug. 8 for Cairo. So much 
sickness prevailed in the regiment that it was ordered to winter at Lex- 
ington, Ky., and escaped the hardships of the winter in Tennessee suf- 
fered by Gen. Burnside's forces. On April 2, 1864, the 7th again crossed 
the mountains, joined the Army of the Potomac, participated in the hard 
fighting at Spottsylvania, the North Anna river and Cold Harbor, the 
hardships of trench duty before Petersburg, and engagements at the Wel- 
don railroad and Poplar Spring Church. On Oct. 21, the veterans of the 
4th R. I., 17s in number, were consolidated with the 7th and the reor- 
ganized regiment garrisoned Fort Sedgwick until the fall of Peters- 
burg, when it joined in the pursuit of Lee's army. After a short en- 



Rhode Island Regiments 249 

campment at Farmville the troops were ordered to Alexandria, where 
on June 9 they were mustered out and reached Providence four days 
later. Cos. B, D and G of the 4th regiment and the recruits of the 7th 
whose term had not expired were consolidated into a battalion of three 
companies, which was mustered out at Alexandria July 13, 1865. The 
total loss of the regiment was 90 members killed or wounded, and 109 
deaths from other causes. 

Ninth Infantry.— Col., John T. Pitman; Lieut-Cols., John T. Pit- 
man, John H. Powell; Majs., John T. Pitman, John H. Powell, George 
Lewis Cooke. The 9th was organized at Providence in May, 1862, by 
Col. Charles T. Robbins, and was mustered into the U. S. service for a 
term of three months. It left Providence in two detachments: the ist, 
composed of four companies — the Lonsdale, Natic and Westerly National 
Guards and the Pawtucket BattaHon— on May 27, and the 2nd on May 
29 for Washington. The month of June was spent at Camp Frieze, 
Tenallytown, and the first two days of July at Fairfax seminary, Va. 
On July 4 it relieved the 99th Pa. at Washington and garrisoned forts 
there until the expiration of its term of service. Fort Baker, which was 
regimental headquarters, was occupied by Cos. E and K, Co. A was 
posted at Fort Greble, B at Fort Meigs, C at Fort Ricketts, D at Fort 
Snyder, F at Fort Carroll, G at Fort Dupont, H at Fort Wagner, I at 
Fort Stanton, and L at Fort Davis. On Aug. 31 the regiment was ordered 
to return to Providence, where it was mustered out, having lost 4 men 
by disease. 

Tenth Infantry. — Cols., Zenas R. Bliss, James Shaw, Jr.; Lieut.- 
Cols., James Shaw, Jr., William M. Hale; Maj., Jacob T. Babbitt. This 
regiment was organized at Providence, May 26-29, 1862, and was sent 
to Washington in two detachments, where it was mustered into the 
U. S. service on May 29, for a term of three months. It was composed 
of companies from the Providence National Guard, viz. : First Ward 
Light Guards, First Ward Drill Corps, What Cheer Guards, the Na- 
tional Guards from the 2nd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th wards, and the Burn- 
side Zouaves. The regiment camped at Tenallytown, where it was as- 
signed to Sturgis' brigade and ordered to Virginia, but upon arriving 
at Fairfax seminary it was ordered back to Washington and assigned to 
garrison duty in the forts along the Potomac and in guarding the roads 
to Rockville and Harper's Ferry. Co. A was stationed at Fort Frank- 
lin, B and K at Fort Pennsylvania, C at Fort Cameron, D at Fort De 
Russy, E and I at Fort Alexander, G at Fort Gaines, and H at Batteries 
Vermont and Martin Scott. Heavy artillery drill occupied the troops 
and considerable sickness prevailed. At the close of its term of service 
the regiment was relieved by the 113th N. Y. infantry and returned to 
Providence on Aug. 25, where it was mustered out of the service Sept. 
I, having lost by death 3 men. 

Eleventh Infantry.— Cols., Edwin Metcalf, Horatio Rogers, Jr., 
George E. Church; Lieut.-Col., J. Talbot Pitman; Maj., Nathan F. 
Moss. The nth infantry was organized at Camp Stevens, Providence, 
in Aug. and Sept., 1862, mustered into service for nine months on Oct. I, 
and left for Washington on the 6th. A week was spent in camp near 
Fort Ethan Allen, and the regiment was then ordered to Miner's hill, 
where it was assigned to Cowdin's brigade. Here it remained until Jan. 
14, 1863, when it was detailed to guard the convalescent camp between 
Washington and Alexandria. Cos. C and K were posted at Fairfax 
seminary from Feb. 3 to March 18, and on April 15 the entire command 
embarked for Norfolk, whence it proceeded to Suffolk, Va., where it was 
attached to Gen. Terry's brigade. On May 16, it moved to Deserted 



350 The Union Army 

House, where it was assigned to the 3d brigade under Gen. Farrar. It 
took part in the skirmishes on the Blackwater river, after which the brigade 
returned to Windsor. On June 12 another expedition to the Blackwater 
was undertaken and a week later the regiment started for Williamsburg, 
where it was left for garrison duty until June 30, when it returned to 
camp at Yorktown. On July 2 it embarked for Providence, where it ar- 
rived on the 6th and was there mustered out, having lost by death 8 men. 

Twelfth Infantry. — Col., George H. Browne; Lieut.-Col., James 
Shaw, Jr.; Maj., Cyrus G. Dyer. This regiment was organized at Provi- 
dence in Sept., 1862, and was mustered into the U. S. service for a term 
of nine months at Camp Stevens on Oct. 13. It left for Washington on 
the 2ist, and upon arriving there was assigned to Gen. Casey's command 
and went into camp near Fairfax seminary. Picket duty and drill occu- 
pied the men until Dec. i, when camp was broken and orders received 
to march towards Fredericksburg, where the regiment was warmly en- 
gaged in the battle on Dec. 13. Following the battle the 12th was again 
on picket duty near Falmouth until Feb. 8, 1863, when it was ordered to 
Newport News and encamped there until March 26. It was then sent west 
and on March 21 arrived in Lexington, Ky, where it was attached to the 
brigade under Gen. Naglee and joined the march through Paint Lick 
springs. Crab Orchard, Pleasant Valley and Lancaster, arriving at Gen. 
Burnside's headquarters at Hickman's bridge July 11. Here orders were 
received to proceed to Cincinnati, and on July 19 the regiment started 
for Providence, where it was mustered out on the 29th. The total loss 
of the I2th was 12 members killed or died of wounds, and 45 deaths 
from accident, imprisonment or disease. 

Fourteenth Heavy Artillery (Colored). — Col., Nelson Viall; Lieut.- 
Col., Richard Shaw; Majs., Joseph J. Comstock. Jr., Richard G. Shaw, 
Andrew J. Fitzwater. This regiment was organized at Providence, was 
mustered into the U. S. service at different times during Aug. and Sept., 

1863, for a term of three years. The ist battalion left Providence on 
Dec. 19, 1863, for New Orleans, the 2nd detachment followed on Jan. 8, 

1864, and the 3d on April 3. The ist battalion was posted at Fort Espe- 
ranza, the 2nd at Plaquemine. In May, the ist and 3d battalions were 
consolidated at New Orleans and moved to Fort Jackson, with the ex- 
ception of Co. I, which remained on duty on the Jackson & New Or- 
leans railroad throughout its term of service. In April, 1865, the ist 
battalion was transferred to Brashear City, where it completed its term 
of service. Oct. 2, 1865, the regiment was mustered out at New Orleans. 

Hospital Guards, Infantry. — Capt., Christopher Blanding. This 
company was mustered into the U. S. service on Dec. 6, 1862, at Provi- 
dence to serve as a guard for the Lovell general hospital at Portsmouth 
grove and perform such sentinel and police duty as was necessary to 
preserve military discipline in the hospital and surroundings. It was 
recruited from veterans who had been disabled in the field, but were 
still able to perform garrison duties efficiently, and continued in service 
until Aug 25, 1865. 

First Battery, Light Artillery.— Capt., Charles H. Tompkins. The 
1st light battery, composed of the Providence marine corps recruited to 
its full strength, was organized with the ist infantry — sometimes called 
the 1st R. I. detached militia — and left Providence on April 18, 1861, for 
Washington, where it was mustered into the U. S. service on May 7 for 
three months. Camp Sprague was established near Washington and oc- 
cupied until June 9, when the battery was ordered to join Gen. Patter- 
son's movement upon Harper's Ferry, but on arriving at Falling Waters 
orders were received to return to Washington and its former camp. 



Rhode Island Regiments 251 

Another month followed at Camp Sprague, and on July i, the battery 
advanced to Hagerstown and Martinsburg and thence to Harper's Ferry. 
The term of service having expired, the battery left for Providence, 
where it was mustered out Aug. 6, 1861. 

First Regiment, Light Artillery. — Col., Charles H. Tompkins ; Lieut.- 
Cols., William H. Reynolds, John A. Monroe; Majs., John A. Monroe, 
John A. Tompkins, John G. Hazard. The organization of this regiment 
was begun early in 1861, but was not completed until the fall of 1862. 

Battery A. — Capts., William H. Reynolds, John A. Tompkins, Will- 
iam A. Arnold, was organized in connection with the 2nd R. I. infantry. 
It was mustered into the U. S. service for three years on June 6, 1861, 
at Providence, and left for Washington on the 19th. It went into camp 
at Camp Sprague, and was attached to Burnside's brigade, Hunter's divi- 
sion, McDowell's corps. In the first battle of Bull Run it lost several 
men in killed and wounded, and had a number of its gims and horses 
captured by the enemy. The battery returned to Camp Sprague and on 
July 28, was ordered to Sandy Hook, Md., where it received the guns 
and equipment from the ist light battery, then about to be mustered out. 
Upon the organization of a battalion of light artillery in August and of 
an entire regiment in September this command became battery A of the 
1st R. I. light artillery, its captain being appointed lieutenant-colonel of 
the regiment. Winter quarters were established at Poolesville, Md., but 
camp was broken in March, 1862, for the Peninsular campaign, in which 
the battery took an active part. It was held in reserve at Chantilly; 
was active at Antietam, where 4 men were killed and 15 wounded ; par- 
ticipated in the battle of Fredericksburg; wintered at Falmouth; was 
active at Marye's heights and at Gettysburg, losing in the last battle 5 
killed and 23 wounded, besides .^o horses ; then moved southward with the 
Army of the Potomac; fought at Bristoe Station and in the Mine Run 
campaign, and went into winter quarters at Mountain run. On Feb. 6, 
1864, it was engaged at Morton's ford and on May 3, broke camp for 
the Wilderness campaign, during which it was active at the Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania, the North Anna river, Cold Harbor, etc., and became noted 
as a reliable command. On June 18, 1864, its term of service having 
expired, the battery was mustered out, but Lieut. Dwight immediately 
reorganized it and it continued in the field with the Army of the Po- 
tomac. On Sept. 30, 1864, it was consolidated with Battery B. During 
the entire term of service of the battery its casualty list numbered 1 
officer and 17 men killed in action, 90 wounded and 4 captured. Four 
years' hard fighting was the portion of its members and its history is 
that of arduous duties faithfully and efficiently performed. 

Battery B. — Capts., Thomas E. Vaughn, Walter O. Bartlett, John G. 
Hazard, T. F. Brown, was organized at Providence in Aug., 1861, and 
mustered into the U. S. service for three years. It left Providence Aug. 
13 for Washington, and was there assigned to Gen. Stone's command, 
afterwards Gen. Sedgwick's corps. It participated in the battle of Ball's 
bluff and in Feb., 1862, joined the Army of the Potomac and participated 
in the campriign of the spring and summer on the Peninsula. It was 
engaged at Yorktown; was present at Hanover Court House; active 
at Fair Oaks, and was also at Peach Orchard, Savage Station and Mal- 
vern hill. At the battle of Fredericksburg, 16 men were killed and 
wounded and 12 horses shot. After wintering at Falmouth it joined 
the Chancellorsville movement in the spring of 1863, and then proceeded 
to Gettysburg, where the losses were 4 men killed and 23 wounded. It 
engaged at Bristoe Station and Mine run ; wintered near Stevensburg, 
Va. ; broke camp May 4, 1864; joined the ist division, 2nd corps, with 



253 The Union Army 

which it fought at the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, the North Anna, To- 
topotomy, Cold Harbor and Petersburg. After its consolidation with 
Battery A it was engaged in a desperate encounter at Reams' station, 
where the combined batteries lost 52 men killed, wounded and missing, 
all the guns and 50 horses. It resisted three attacks, but finally with- 
drew its remnant of 72 men. New equipment was soon received and it 
continued in service before Petersburg until the end of the siege. On 
June 3, 1865, it left Washington for Providence, where it was mustered 
out of the service on the 13th. 

Battery C. — Capts., William B. Weeden, Richard Waterman. Battery 
C was recruited at Providence and mustered into the U. S. service on 
Aug. 25, 1861, for a three years' term. It left Providence Aug. 31 for 
Washington; was stationed at Camp Sprague until October; then suc- 
cessively at Fort Corcoran, Hall's hill and Miner's hill, where it was 
assigned to Morell's brigade. Porter's division, and participated in the 
Peninsular campaign. It was active at Yorktown; present at Hanover 
Court House; and took part in the Seven Days' battles, where its losses 
were 5 killed, 21 wounded and 5 missing, besides 3 guns, 2 caissons and 
so horses. It then participated in the second battle of Bull Run; was 
held in reserve at Antietam ; was active at Fredericksburg, and went 
into winter quarters with the Army of the Potomac. In April, 1863, it 
broke camp and joined in the Chancellorsville movement; was attached 
to the 6th corps in June and participated in the battle of Gettysburg; 
was then in the engagement at Rappahannock Station and the Mine Run 
campaign. The winter of 1863-64 was spent in camp at Hazel run, Va., 
and in the spring and summer of 1864 was active in the constant fight- 
ing which brought the Army of the Potomac to Petersburg. On July 
II, the command was ordered to Washington with the 6th corps to aid 
in repelling Gen. Early, and afterwards joined in the pursuit of Early 
in the Shenandoah Valley, taking part in the battles of Winchester, 
Fisher's hill and Cedar creek, where its losses were heavy. On Aug. 25, 
1864, the original members not reenlisted were mustered out at Harper's 
Ferry and returned to Providence. On Dec. 23, 1864, Battery C was 
consolidated with Battery G, with which it served until the close of the 
war. In total losses of killed and wounded, Battery C is ranked 4th 
of all the volunteer batteries in the war by Col. Fox in his "Regimental 
Losses," and its conduct was distinguished for bravery. It lost 19 men 
killed or died of wounds and 8 from other causes. 

Battery D. — Capts., John A. Monroe, William W. Buckley, Elmer L. 
Corthell. This battery was recruited at Providence, where it was mus- 
tered into the U. S. service for three years on Sept. 4, 1861, and left 
immediately for Washington. It was ordered to Hall's hill, Va., and 
there assigrned to Porter's division. In October it went into camp at 
Upton's hill until March 9, 1862, when it moved to Fairfax Court House 
and assigned to King's division, McDowell's corps, with which it 
moved to Bristoe, Catlett's station and Falmouth. In June it joined in 
the pursuit of Gen. Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley; spent July in 
camp at Falmouth ; in August it engaged at Rappahannock Station, 
Sulphur Springs, Groveton, and the second Bull Run, where it suffered 
a loss of 18 killed and wounded. At Antietam it had 39 men killed, 
wounded and missing; was active at Fredericksburg; was assigned to 
the 9th corps early in 1863 and on March 19 left Newport News for 
Lexington, Ky. It shared in the marches of the corps in Kentucky and 
Tennessee, being engaged at Campbell's station, and in the siege of 
Knoxville. Early in 1864 it returned to the Army of the Potomac and 
in April was stationed at Kernstown, Middletown and Winchester. In 



Rhode Island Regiments 253 

May it moved to Petersburg and was ordered to Washington, where its 
equipment was temporarily left at the arsenal, owing to a surplus of 
artillery in the field. When Gen. Early threatened the city in July, 1864, 
the battery was again equipped and with the 19th corps was engaged at 
Winchester, Fisher's hill and Cedar creek. It remained in the Shenan- 
doah Valley until July 10, 1865, when it left for Providence and was 
mustered out there on the 17th, having lost 10 men from wounds and 
17 from other causes. 

Battery E. — Capts., George E. Randolph, William B. Rhodes, Jacob 
H. Lamb. Battery E, recruited and organized at Providence, was there 
mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 30, 1861, for a three years' term, 
and left a few days later for Washington, where the first month was 
passed at Camp Sprague and the remainder of the winter in camp near 
Alexandria. In April, 1862, it was assigned to Hamilton's division 
(afterward Kearny's), with which it participated in the Peninsular cam- 
paign, being active at Yorktown and in the Seven Days' battles. Kearny 
then joined Gen. Pope; was engaged at Bristoe Station, the second Bull 
Run and Chantilly, after which Battery E returned to Washington for 
refitting and was attached to Birney's division, with which it fought at 
Fredericksburg. Winter quarters were occupied at Falmouth, and in the 
Chancellorsville movement the battery was again active, losing heavily, 
and four members receiving the "Kearny Cross" for bravery. At Gettys- 
burg the battery lost 29 men killed or wounded. It shared in the actions 
at Kelly's ford and Mine Run, and then went into winter quarters at 
Brandy Station. In the Wilderness campaign the battery performed 
heroic service and its guns were then trained on one point after another 
of the Petersburg fortifications until their fall in April, 1865. After a 
few weeks spent at City Point, Va., Battery E left for Providence, where 
it was mustered out on June 14, 1865. The battery saw much hard 
service and met with heavy loss, being ranked by Col. Fox loth in the 
list of batteries, according to total number killed or died of wounds, viz. : 
17 men. It also suffered 12 deaths from other causes. 

Battery F. — Capts., James Belger, Thomas Simpson, organized at 
Providence, was there mustered into the U. S. service for three years on 
Oct. 29, 1861, and left for Washington early in November. It joined 
the North Carolina expedition under Gen. Burnside; camped at Hatteras 
inlet from Dec, 1861, to Feb. 26, 1862; then moved to Roanoke island; 
thence to New Berne, where it performed picket duty as cavalry. Sev- 
eral expeditions into the surrounding country were undertaken during 
the following summer and winter, with actions at Whitehall Ferry, 
Goldsboro railroad bridge, and near Little Washington when the relief 
of that place was accomplished in April, 1863. New Berne continued 
to be the headquarters of the command during the summer of 1863; it 
embarked on Oct. 30 for Norfolk, Va. ; was stationed at Yorktown during 
the winter, and left there on May 4, 1864, for Bermuda Hundred ; engaged 
the enemy on the Richmond and Petersburg pike, at Drewry's bluff on May 
12 and 16, the last time with the loss of 3 men killed, 14 wounded and 4 
missing. It then proceeded to Petersburg, where it was engaged in the 
early assaults on the works ; was engaged in several skirmishes ; as- 
sisted in the capture of Fort Harrison ; and occupied batteries Nos. 3 
and 4 at Chaffin's farm during the winter of 1864-65. On April 7 it left 
camp for Richmond, and there remained until mustered out of the service, 
June 27, 1865, immediately after which the men returned to Providence. 
The total number of deaths in the battery was 27, of whom 10 men 
were killed in action or died of wounds and 17 from other causes. The 
record of the organization was always such as reflects credit on the state 
and upon its members. 



254 The Union Army 

Battery G. — Capts., Charles D. Owen, Horace S. Bloodgood, George 
W. Adams. Battery G. was organized at Providence, there mustered 
into the U. S. service for three years on Dec. 21, 1861, and sent to 
Camp Sprague, Washington, Dec. 7. It was stationed there for several 
weeks, then at Poolesville, Edwards' ferry and Bolivar heights, near 
Harper's Ferry. In April it joined Gen. McClellan's forces at York- 
town; was attached to Sedgwick's division; participated in the siege of 
Yorktown ; the Seven Days' battles, and all the movements of the Penin- 
sular campaign. It fought bravely at Antietam and Fredericksburg; 
went into winter quarters at Falmouth; joined in the Chancellorsville 
campaign, where the position of the battery was much exposed and 
bravely held with the loss of 5 men killed and 18 wounded. At Gettys- 
burg it was prominent during all three days, and it continued with the 
Army of the Potomac during the southward march, the Mine Run cam- 
paign and in winter quarters at Brandy Station. In Dec, 1863, 28 mem- 
bers reenlisted. It participated in the battles of the Army of the Po- 
tomac early in the summer of 1864 leading up to Petersburg; was ordered 
with the 6th corps to Washington at the time of Early's raid; fought 
at Winchester, Fisher's hill and Cedar creek, rendering effective service 
in the last named and losing 4 men killed and 23 wounded. It then re- 
turned to Washington, was refitted and moved to Petersburg, where on 
April 2, 1865, Capt. Adams with 17 picked men joined with the 6th corps 
in a daring assault on the enemy's works, in which the members of the 
battery captured the enemy's guns. In honor of this service the 17 men 
received special bronze medals issued by the war department to com- 
memorate the occasion, and Capt. Adams was brevetted Maj., Lieut.-Col. 
and Col. Sailor's creek, April 6, was the final engagement of the bat- 
tery and on June 16 it arrived in Providence, where it was mustered out 
on the 24th. The total loss was 2 officers and 8 men killed or died of 
wounds and 18 deaths from other causes. 

Battery H. — Capts., Jeffrey Hazard, Crawford Allen, Jr. Battery H 
was organized at Providence in the summer of 1862, and there mustered 
into the U. S. service on Oct. 14 for three years. On the 23d it left for 
Washington and was stationed at Camp Barry until Jan. 23, 1863, when 
it was assigned to Casey's division. On May i a section was ordered to 
Rappahannock Station and a week later the entire command was ordered 
to Chantilly. Returning to Washington, it occupied Camp Barry, Fort 
Ward, Fort Richardson and other posts in the immediate vicinity of the 
capital until May 6, 1864. It was then attached to the artillery reserve 
of the Army of the Potomac at Spottsylvania Court House, but on May 
31 returned to Washington. On Oct 25, it was again assigned to the 
artillery reserve of the Army of the Potomac and on Jan. 3, 1865, was 
attached to the 6th corps, with which it shared in the final assault upon 
Petersburg. It was again in action at Sailor's creek and was stationed 
at Danville until June 16, when it left for Providence and was there 
mustered out on the 28th. The battery lost 2 members by death from 
wounds and 10 from accident or disease. While not called upon to ren- 
der such difficult service as the other batteries of the regiment, the orders 
received by Battery H were always cheerfully and intelligently executed. 

Tenth Light Battery. — Capt., Edwin C. Gallup. The loth l-ght battery, 
organized at Providence with the 9th and loth infantry regiments, left 
for Washington in May, 1862, in three detachments and was mustered into 
the U. S. service for three months at Washington on the 26th. It was 
posted at Camp Frieze, Tennallytown, until June 23, when it moved to 
Cloud's mills, but received orders to return to Washington and spent the 
remainder of its term of service in camp near Fort Pennsylvania. On 



Rhode Island Regiments 255 

Aug. 30, 1862, it was mustered out at Providence, having lost i member 
by death from accident. 

First Cavalry.— Cols., Robert B. Lawton, Alfred N. Duffie; Lieut.- 
Cols., Willard Sayles, John L. Thompson; Majs., Willard Sayles, Will- 
iam Sanford, John L. Thompson, Robert C. Anthony, John Whipple, Jr., 
D. B. Nelson, Edmund C. Burt, Preston M. Farrington, Stephen R. 
Swett, William H. Turner, Jr., John Rogers. The ist cavalary was or- 
ganized as the New England cavalry, mentioned under the New Hamp- 
shire regiments, containing two battalions from Rhode Island and one 
battalion of four companies from New Hampshire. It rendezvoused at 
Cranston in the autumn of 1861 ; passed the winter at Camp Arnold, 
Pawtucket, where it was mustered in on Dec. 14, for three years; and 
left for Washington in two detachments, March 12 and 14, 1862. It 
numbered 1,000 members, and upon its arrival at Washington was assigned 
to the cavalry brigade under Gen. Hatch of the 5th corps, with which it 
camped at Warrenton Junction during the month of April. On May 5 
it moved to Catlett's station, and soon afterward joined the ist corps 
under Gen. McDowell on the way to Front Royal, where the 3d battalion, 
which was in the lead, had a sharp brush with the enemy, losing 10 men 
killed and wounded and recapturing a number of Union prisoners. On 
June 2 the regiment, with the exception of Cos. E and G, was attached 
to Ricketts' division and moved to Manassas. Cos. E and G, as the ad- 
vance guard of the force under Gen. Shields in pursuit of Jackson, ac- 
companied the column to Columbia bridge and returned to the regiment, 
on June 11. At Culpeper, the ist was united with Gen. Pope's army and 
participated in the fight at Cedar mountain, receiving complimentary 
mention for gallantry in action from Gen. Banks. The regiment was ac- 
tive at Groveton, the second Bull Run and Chantilly, after which it was 
assigned to Gen. Stoneman's corps of observation and took part in many 
scouting and reconnoitering expeditions, skirmishing with the enemy from 
time to time. The command bivouacked at Poolesville, Md., until Oct. 
27, when it moved to Falmouth, Va., and was then constantly in per- 
formance of picket duty, engaging at Montville with some loss. On 
Dec. I, the regiment was assigned to the 2nd cavalry brigade, under Gen. 
Averell, center grand division, Army of the Potomac, and during the 
battle of Fredericksburg was engaged in protecting supply and ammu- 
nition trains. The winter of 1862-63 was passed in camp at Falmouth, 
where the regiment became a part of the ist brigade, commanded by Col. 
Duffie. The women of Providence presented to the regiment by Gov. 
Sprague a handsome stand of colors, which was greatly appreciated. In 
Feb., 1863, the cavalry repulsed an attack from the rear and at Kelly's 
ford in March a general cavalry engagement occurred, in which the con- 
duct of the 1st was brilliant and the loss severe, 26 men being killed or 
wounded. In April the command participated in Gen. Stoneman's noted 
raid toward Richmond. It fought at Chancellorsville, and at Middle- 
burg the regiment was surrounded and had great difficulty making its 
escape, with the loss of 5 killed, 14 wounded and 200 captured. It was 
badly scattered and disorganized, but under command of Lieut.-Col. 
Thompson was refitted and rejoined the Army of the Potomac at Gettys- 
burg in time to participate in the many cavalry skirmishes and engage- 
ments of the autumn of 1863. The regiment formed a part of the ist 
brigade, 2nd cavalry division, and participated in the battles of Culpeper 
Court House, Rapidan Station, Pony mountain, Sulphur springs. Auburn, 
Bristoe Station, Wolf run and Rappahannock Station. On Nov. 20, it 
was ordered to report for duty to Gen. Kenly and ordered to guard the 
railroad communications with the ist corps, after which the ist battalion 



256 The Union Army 

was posted at Warrenton Junction, the 2nd at Bealeton and the 3d at 
Catlett's station. On Jan. 5, 1864, the New Hampshire battalion was 
detached from the regiment, 260 members of which reenlisted and upon 
their return from Providence April 14, the remainder was reorganized 
and assigned to the defenses of Washington. Here it was dismounted 
and attached to Lowell's cavalry brigade. On May 14, it was again 
equipped and mounted, when it was assigned to Abercrombie's brigade 
at Belle Plain and engaged in scouting and reconnoitering along the 
Rappahannock and Pamunkey rivers with occasional skirmishes with the 
enemy. In August, when the defenses of Washington were reinforced 
by the arrival of the 6th corps from Petersburg, the ist became part of 
Gen. Sheridan's army and shared in all the movements of the Shenan- 
doah Valley campaign. It was active at Charlestown, Kearneysville, 
Smithville, Berryville, Summit Point, Winchester, Fisher's hill, Milford 
creek. New Market, Waynesboro, Kernstown, Woodstock, Cedar creek 
and Rude's hill. Late in December the regiment was attached to the 
cavalry reserves and upon the expiration of the term of the original 
members not reenlisted it became necessary to consolidate the veterans 
into a battalion of four companies. This was done on Jan. i, 1865, and 
the battalion went into winter quarters with Sheridan's army near Win- 
chester. In Feb., 1865, it left camp to take part in the movement which 
led up to the battle of Five Forks, in which it was active as also at the 
second battle of Waynesboro, after which it returned to Winchester as 
escort for prisoners. It was present at the paroling of the Confederates 
at Mount Jackson and on June 22, was ordered to Baltimore, where it 
was mustered out on Aug. 3, 1865. The total strength of the regiment 
was 1,551 members, of whom i officer and 16 men were killed or died 
of wounds and 2 officers and "jy men from accident, imprisonment or dis- 
ease. The regiment participated in the grand review at Washington and 
arrived at Providence Aug. 5. 

Seventh Squadron, Cavalry. — Maj., Augustus W. Corliss. The 7th 
squadron was composed of two companies, one from Providence and 
one from Dartmouth university, N. H., and Norwich university, Vt. It 
rendezvoused at the Dexter training grounds, Providence, and was mus- 
tered into the U. S. service June 24, 1862, at Providence, for three 
months. It left for Washington on the 28th ; camped at Gales' wood and 
Camp Sprague; was ordered to Alexandria on July 25 under Gen. Stur- 
gis ; moved to Winchester and was there stationed until the expiration 
of its term of service early in September. The members volunteered, 
however, to remain during the campaign in Maryland ; camped at Mary- 
land heights, opposite Harper's Ferry, and then moved to Greencastle, 
returning to Providence Sept. 26, where they were mustered out. 

Second Cavalry. — Lieut.-Col, Augustus W. Corliss; Majs., Augustus 
W. Corliss, Robert C. Anthony, C. N. Manchester. This regiment, or- 
ganized at Providence during the autumn and early winter of 1862, was 
mustered into the U. S. service in two battalions, Nov. 21 and Dec. i, 
1862, for three years. The regiment was ordered to join the forces of 
Gen. Banks at New Orleans ; participated in the Port Hudson move- 
ment, the Bayou Teche expedition, the siege of Port Hudson, and in an 
expedition near Jackson, La., in which it was twice engaged, and was 
attacked at Brashear City, where it lost many prisoners. Sickness had 
also aided in reducing the number of effective men and on Aug. 24, 1863, 
the regiment was consolidated into a battalion of four companies and 
joined to the ist La. cavalry. This transfer roused great opposition 
among the Rhode Island men, who refused to obey the order until forced 
to do so. Their resistance was so determined that in order to enforce 



Rhode Island Regiments 257 

discipline 2 of their number were shot in the presence of their comrades. 
Protests from Gov. Smith of Rhode Island caused the final transfer of 
the battalion to the 3d R. I. cavalry, which was effected on Jan. 14, 1864. 
The 2nd lost 4 men by death from wounds and 31 by death from other 

CdUSCS 

Third Cavalry.— Col., Willard Sayles; Lieut.-Col., Charles H. Park- 
hurst; Majs., George R. Davis, Edmund C. Burt, Raymond H. Perry. 
The 3d cavalry, recruited at Mashapaug, Providence and Jamestown dur- 
ing the summer and autmn of 1863, was mustered into the U. S. service 
for a three years' term, the ist battalion in Sept., 1863, and the others 
during the winter of 1863-64. On Dec. 31, 1863, the regiment embarked 
for New Orleans, where it received in February two companies from the 
2nd R. I. cavalry and was assigned to the 5th cavalry brigade under 
Col. Gooding. It participated in the Red River expedition, being en- 
gaged at Pleasant Hill, Cane river and a number of minor affairs. Re- 
turning to Alexandria on April 25, it performed picket duty for a while 
and was engaged at Gov. Moore's plantation, Marksville and Yellow 
bayou. Owing to a scarcity of horses the regiment turned in its equip- 
ments on June 23 and served as infantry until Sept. 20. In the meantime 
other detachments had arrived from Rhode Island until the regiment 
numbered twelve companies, six of which were mounted on Sept. 27 and 
sent to Bayou La Fourche, followed soon after by the remainder of the 
regiment. Picket duty and reconnoitering expeditions engaged the regi- 
ment until it was mustered out at New Orleans, Nov. 29, 1865. The 
3d cavalry lost 8 men killed or died from wounds, and suffered 139 
deaths from other causes, chief among which were the diseases incident 
to the climate, to which the men from the northern states were particu- 
larly susceptible. 



Vol. 1—17 



Military Affairs in Connecticut 

1861—65 



The little State of Connecticut displayed in a striking manner 
the many sturdy qualities of her people throughout the period of 
the Civil war. Seldom, if ever, has any group of people found 
themselves more unprepared for the stern call of war than were 
the citizens of Connecticut when the final summons came. Prac- 
tically all her sons had been trained to the peaceful walks of life 
and were practiced only in the ways of commerce and agricul- 
ture. Yet in the four long years of bloody strife, they developed 
a readiness and aptitude for warfare which gave the regiments 
of the state an individuality all their own, and gained for them 
a reputation for discipline, cleanly behavior and splendid cour- 
age, kindly remembered by the veterans of all the states. Her 
people, as was generally true throughout the North, were slow 
to believe that the Southern States were about to take the bold 
and decisive steps that spelled disunion. They felt that in some 
way, by some means, the demands of the South would be satis- 
fied and war averted. But once the flag of the nation had been 
assailed by traitor hands and "Old Glory" trailed in the dust, the 
latent fires of patriotism leaped forth and no state gave a readier 
or more generous response to the call to arms. Without dispar- 
agement to the glorious services rendered by all the loyal states, 
it is proper to say that the record of her volunteer soldiery dur- 
ing the war will stand favorable comparison with that of any 
during the struggle. 

In the words of Croffut, the military historian of the state : 
"The first great martyrs of the war — Ellsworth, Winthrop, 
Ward, and Lyon — were of Connecticut stock. A Connecticut 
general, with Connecticut regiments, opened the battle of Bull 
Run, and closed it; and a Connecticut regiment was marshaled 
in front of the farmhouse at Appomattox, when Lee surrendered 
to a soldier of Connecticut blood. A Connecticut flag first dis- 
placed the palmetto upon the soil of South Carolina; a Connecti- 
cut flag was first planted in Mississippi ; a Connecticut flag was 
first unfurled before New Orleans. Upon the reclaimed walls 
of Pulaski, Donelson, Macon, Jackson, St. Philip, Morgan, Wag- 

258 



Military Affairs in Connecticut 259 

ner, Sumter, Fisher, our state left its ineffaceable mark. The sons 
of Connecticut followed the illustrious grandson of Connecticut, 
as he swung his army with amazing momentum, from the fast- 
nesses of Tennessee to the Confederacy's vital center. At An- 
tietam, Gettysburg, and in all the fierce campaigns of Virginia, 
our soldiers won crimson glories ; and at Port Hudson, they were 
the very first and readiest m that valiant little band — every man 
a Winicelreid, resolved to gather the shafts of flame into their 
bosoms to make a path for Liberty to tread. On the banks of 
every river of the South, and in the battle smoke of every con- 
tested ridge and mountain-peak, the sons of Connecticut have 
stood and patiently struggled. In every ransomed state we 
have a holy acre on which the storm has left its emerald waves." 
The state was most fortunate in keeping at the helm through- 
out the struggle her great "war-governor," William A. Buck- 
ingham, the friend of Lincoln. The best evidence of the disinter- 
ested nature of his services, is the fact that during his eight 
years' tenure of office, he never drew a dollar of salary — an ex- 
ample emulated by others. Gov. Buckingham's majority in the 
hotly contested election of i860 was 541, and placed the stamp of 
disapproval on the secession movement ; in the succeeding au- 
tumn, Lincoln's majority in the state was 10,292. Connecticut 
is a state where party majorities have long been small, and the 
result in both the state and national elections was significant as 
showing the trend of popular sentiment on the great issues of the 
hour. Sympathy for the South ruled strong, and many of the 
conservative and intelligent citizens of the state were willing to 
go to almost any length to avert the impending crisis and ap- 
pease the angry South. Among the prominent papers of the state 
which had opposed the election of Lincoln were the Hartford 
Times, the New Haven Register and the Bridgeport Farmer. 
The two former afterwards modified their views and the latter, 
which continued to serve as the organ of the "peace party" for 
some months after the beginning of hostilities, was silenced, its 
office being attacked and sacked by an indignant body of citizens 
and soldiers on Aug. 26, 186 1. Connecticut sent an able dele- 
gation to the 36th Congress, to wit, Senators, Lafayette S. Fos- 
ter and James B. Dixon; Representatives, Dwight Loomis, John 
Woodruff, Alfred A. Burnham, and Orrin S. Ferry. The con- 
servative sentiment of the state spoke through Senator Dixon 
when he declared, "My constituents are ready to make any sac- 
rifice which a reasonable man can ask or an honorable man can 
grant." But events were hurrying on to precipitate the crisis, 
and it is doubtful if any degree of forbearance, or any conces- 
sions, short of absolute surrender of all the North had contended 



260 The Union Army 

for and won in the elections of i860, would have satisfied the 
South. As early as Jan. 9, 1861, the Star of the West, carrying 
supplies to Maj. Anderson at Fort Sumter, was fired upon. 
Though active military preparations had been going on for some 
time in nearly all the Southern States, the North remained 
strangely apathetic. To the Peace Conference, the last great 
effort to adjust the strained relations between the sections, Con- 
necticut sent a distinguished delegation, including ex-Gov. 
Roger Sherman Baldwin, Hon. Charles J. McCurdy, and Hon. 
Robbins Battell. The story of that futile convention, called 
through the influence of Virginia, is now history, and the work 
it attempted is now seen to have been impossible. Throughout 
the war, Gideon Welles, a worthy son of Connecticut, served as 
Lincoln's secretary of the navy. His efficient services and wise 
counsel helped to efface the memory of his predecessor under 
Buchanan, Isaac Toucey, also a son of Connecticut, who was 
suspected of scattering the nation's warships in distant seas and 
of allowing officers and naval stores to slip from under his con- 
trol. 

In the spring election of 186 1, Gov. Buckingham received a 
majority of more than 2,000, and Washington could count on the 
loyal support of the state administration. But all else was now 
forgotten amid the excitement of greater events. Actual war 
was precipitated with unexpected suddenness. The news that 
Sumter had been fired upon reached Connecticut on Sunday 
morning, April 14, and the innate patriotism of her citizens was 
at once exhibited. All hesitation was put aside and a wave of 
spontaneous loyalty to the Union swept the state from border to 
border. Disapproval of coercive measures was silenced amid 
the excitement of great Union meetings and the active prepara- 
tions for war which at once begun. A volunteer company was 
started in New Britain and in West Winsted 100 men offered 
their services, $700 being promptly subscribed toward 
their proper equipment. Frank Stanley of New Britain, 
afterward killed at Irish bend, was the first man to volunteer his 
services. On the 15th was issued President Lincoln's call for 
75,000 militia for three months, of which Connecticut's quota 
was one regiment of 780 men. The governor found that the 
laws of the state were such that a militia regiment could not be 
ordered to leave the state and he assumed the responsibility of 
enlisting a regiment of volunteers. Such was the enthusiasm 
that three regiments were quickly recruited and within four days 
the 1st regiment was encamped at New Haven. It was followed 
by the 2nd within six days ; the 3d going into camp at Hartford 
two weeks later, and at the end of three weeks a total of fifty- 



Military Affairs in Connecticut 261 

four companies were formed, all eager to go to the front. New 
Britain and Danbury were the first to offer companies to the 
state, while the West Meriden company was the first to be ac- 
cepted by the governor. The first complete volunteer company 
was that of Capt. Burnham from Hartford. The first volunteer 
in Norwich, the governor's home, was James B. Coit, who organ- 
ized the "Buckingham Rifles" as soon as the news of the attack 
on Sumter was received, the company finally becoming a part of 
the 2nd regiment. The Wooster Guards of Danbury proffered 
their services two days before the governor issued his call and 
were the initial company to arrive at New Haven. Illustrations 
of the tremendous enthusiasm which everywhere prevailed and 
of the feverish bustle of war preparations might be multiplied 
almost indefinitely. Brooklyn, Windham county, raised 60 men 
within 30 minutes, and the record was almost equalled in numer- 
ous other towns. Five brothers, sons of Jared Dennis, enlisted 
in Norwich, and Capt. Dickerson, of the Mansfield company, had 
his men armed and equipped with full ranks over night. Much 
of this haste was inspired by news from Washington, which 
reported the town to be closely invested by the enemy and in 
imminent danger of capture. All rail and wire communication 
with the nation's capital was cut off, and the reception of the 
6th Mass. in Baltimore augured ill for its quick relief. The gov- 
ernor despatched William A. Aiken, quartermaster-general of 
the state, on April 22, to see if communication with the capital 
could be had, and to assure the president that help from Con- 
necticut was on the way. Gen. Aiken returned after a trip full 
of dangerous incident and afterward declared, "I believe there 
has been no hour since, when messages of sympathy, encourage- 
ment, and aid from the loyal government of a loyal state were 
more truly needed, or more effective in the mind of the late presi- 
dent, that these I had the honor to deliver." On the i8th the 
few companies of unarmed Pennsylvanians had reached Wash- 
ington, followed on the 19th by the 6th Mass., and on the 26th 
by the 8th Mass., and the 7th N. Y. Word came on the 25th 
that Washington was safe, and the next day the railroads adver- 
tised that they would run a few trains. 

During these trying days the state administration was con- 
fronted by a condition of almost complete military unprepared- 
ness. Through the wise foresight of Gov. Buckingham partial 
equipment for 5,000 men had been provided during the winter 
of 1860-61, but much was lacking. The state had only about 
1,000 muskets of the latest pattern, and the necessary money to 
properly arm and equip the men must be found. This was freely 
proffered by the banks of the state. The Elm City bank of New 



362 The Union Army 

Haven offered a loan of $50,000; the Thames bank, $100,000; 
each of the following- banks, Pahquioque bank of Danbury, the 
Danbury bank, and the Mechanics' bank of New Haven, tendered 
$50,000; the Fairfield County bank of Norwalk $25,000, and the 
banks of Hartford, $500,000, or one-tenth of their combined 
capital Nor was money alone needed ; all aided in the work of 
preparation. Everywhere the women were busy making uni- 
forms and other needed garments ; tailors gave their services 
without thought of compensation ; caterers served lunches ; out- 
fitters supplied underclothing, and in this way the work was done 
in an incredibly short space of time. It is recorded that the 
women of New Haven finished and distributed more than 500 
uniforms in ten days. Substantial encouragement was also of- 
fered by many towns in making provision for the families of 
those who enlisted, thus anticipating the later work of the state. 
Employers continued the pay of their employes and brother work- 
men did the work of absent comrades. 

By April 20 the ist regiment was assembled in New Haven, 
commanded by Col. Daniel Tyler, of Norwich, a graduate of 
West Point. The 2nd, under Col. Alfred H. Terry, rendezvoused 
at Brewster's park. Such was the scarcity of experienced offi- 
cers, that the cadets from Gen. Russell's military school at New 
Haven were employed in drilling the new recruits. The 3d regi- 
ment encamped on Albany avenue, Hartford, May 9th, and left 
for Washington a few days after the first two regiments. Noth- 
ing was too good for "the boys in blue," and equipment of all 
kinds was pressed upon them by an admiring and sympathetic 
public. Even after the process of elimination had taken place, 
the necessary accouterments, extra supplies of clothing, the Bible, 
the photograph album, etc., gave each raw recruit a pack of 
from 125 to 150 pounds. These early volunteers had little con- 
ception of the terrible hardships before them, or of the stem 
realities of war. Like the great majority of the people of the 
North they believed that the war would be of short duration — a 
campaign of a few months at most. Both North and South were 
soon to be cruelly undeceived on this score. The sight of men 
proudly marching forth full of buoyant health and enthusiasm, 
was ere long displaced by the spectacle of the returning regfi- 
ments, often mere shattered remnants, made up of haggard, 
weary and footsore men. On May loth the ist marched to the 
wharf and embarked for Washington on the "Bienville" by way 
of the Potomac, which was then open. It arrived on the 13th 
and is said to have been the first regiment to reach the capital 
fully equipped to take the field. Through the personal solicita- 
tion of Gov. Buckingham, who journeyed to Washington and 



Military Affairs in Connecticut 263 

saw the president, two more regiments were ordered to the front. 
The 2nd sailed on the steamer Cahawba on the nth, and arrived 
at Washington on the 14th. This regiment was fortunate in its 
officers, most of whom were experienced soldiers of the state 
militia, while three of its companies were old and popular militia 
organizations. The 3d embarked on the Cahawba for Wash- 
ington on the 23d, and all three regiments were brigaded under 
Gen. Tyler, who had been made a brigadier-general of volunteers 
on the day the ist left the state. (See Records of the Regi- 
ments.) 

The state legislature met on May i, and at once took up the 
work of providing for the public defense, by voting the needed 
supplies for the steady stream of troops which were to leave the 
state from this time forward. The message of Gov. Bucking- 
ham announced that forty-one volunteer companies had already 
been accepted, and that the 5th regiment would be ready in a 
few days. None would leave the state until it was fully equipped 
with camp and baggage trains, prepared to take the field. He 
also recommended the organization of an efficient state militia 
not to exceed 10,000 men. The legislature gave a prompt and 
cordial response to these recommendations. On May 3 an act 
to provide for the organization and equipment of a volunteer 
militia and for the public defense passed both houses. This 
volunteer force of not more than 10,000 men was to be in addition 
to the present military organization, and was to be liable at all 
times to be turned over by the governor to the service of the 
nation. An appropriation of $2,000,000 was made to defray the 
expenditures under the act, the treasurer being empowered to 
issue six per cent, coupon bonds to that amount. Provision was 
also made for the extra pay of the soldiers already departed, and 
for the payment of a bounty of $6 a month for the wife, and $2 
for each child, not exceeding two, under the age of 14 years, of 
all volunteers. This was paid quarterly, even after the death of 
the soldier, during his term of enlistment. The work of the 
legislature was admirably done and only an extension of the 
acts was needed during the rest of the war. 

Of the three months' troops is should be said, that practically 
all volunteered from motives of pure patriotism, and without 
hope of bounty or reward. It fell to their lot to do the cruel, 
pioneer work of the war, and to point the way for future im- 
provements in the service. They served also as a training school 
for the citizen soldiers, and provided many of the future officers 
of the war as well as many of the veterans. In order to secure 
the addition of two regiments to the quota of the state under the 
first call, the state had promised that the other volunteers organ- 



364 The Union Army 

ized should enHst for three years, and the president's call of May 
3 for 42,000 troops was for that length of time. Hence the men 
who had enthusiastically responded to the first call and had 
gathered at Hartford with the hope of being mustered in with 
the other three months' troops as the 4th infantry, were reorgan- 
ized as a three years' regiment and mustered in for that period 
on May 22-23. The men composing the 5th infantry had also 
enlisted for three years and were mustered in on July 23, 1861. 
The first great reverse of the war at Bull Run, in which the 
state's three months' troops had displayed conspicuous gallantry, 
brought renewed confidence to the advocates of the peace policy 
in the state. Peace meetings were numerous and many attempts 
made to raise white flags. However, the great body of the people 
were still enthusiastic for the war and the white flags were gen- 
erally lowered in response to the indignant protest of the 
majority. Frequent collisions took place between the two ele- 
ments, which finally caused Gov. Buckingham on Aug. 31 to issue 
a stirring proclamation, appealing to the patriotism of all and call- 
ing upon the officers of the law to arrest and punish those guilty 
of disturbing the public peace, sedition and treason, or of ob- 
structing the due execution of the laws. His opening words 
declared : "Eleven states of the Union are now armed and in open 
rebellion against Federal authority ; they have paralyzed the 
business of the nation, have involved us in civil war, and are now 
exerting their combined energies to rob us of the blessings of a 
free government. The greatness of their crime has no parallel 
In the history of human governments. At this critical juncture, 
our liberties are still further imperilled by the utterance of sedi- 
tious language ; by a traitorous press, which excuses or justifies 
the rebellion ; by secret organizations, which propose to resist 
the laws of this state by force ; by the public exhibition of 'peace 
flags' — falsely so called ; and by an effort to redress grievances 
regardless of the forms and officers of the law. The very exist- 
ence of our government, the future prosperity of this entire 
nation, and the hopes of universal freedom demand that these 
outrages be suppressed." Despite this sporadic opposition, the 
v/ork of enlistment in obedience to the call of the governor in 
August for four regiments of infantry for three years, or the 
war, went on briskly. The ranks of these organizations, desig- 
nated the 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th infantr>', were filled during the 
summer and all had been mustered into the U. S. service and left 
the state by the end of October. Under the call of April 15, the 
state had furnished a total of 2,402 men ; under the call of May 
3, and the acts of Congress approved July 22 and 25, 1861, the 
quota of the state was 13,057 men, so that there was urgent 



Military Affairs in Connecticut 265 

need to provide more soldiers. Consequently the legislature met 
in extra session on Oct. 9, 1861, to make liberal provision for 
more troops, to rectify errors in the militia laws recently passed, 
and to decide whether the state would assume its share of the 
direct national tax, or leave the Federal government to collect 
it. The governor stated in his message that the expense of 
raising and equipping volunteers to Oct. i was $943,939, which 
had been met by the sale of $800,000 worth of bonds and the 
money in the treasury. He said : "The calls made upon volun- 
teers for the national defense have met with a hearty response, 
and but for a hesitancy on the part of the general government 
to accept more troops, we might have had 12,000 or 15,000 men 
in the field today. We have, however, organized, equipped, sent 
into the field, and have now ready nine regiments of infantry. 
Their camp equipage was complete, and their appointments 
were highly respectable. About 5,000 Sharp's and Enfield rifles 
have been purchased, and contracts made for an equal number of 
the latter arms, which have not yet been delivered. Arrange- 
ments have also been made to arm, uniform, and furnish complete 
equipments for two other regiments now rendezvousing, and for 
one not yet organized." After a session of one week, the legis- 
lature gave the governor unlimited power to raise volunteers ; 
authorized another loan of $2,000,000 ; and assumed the collection 
of the national tax, thereby saving 15 per cent, to the state. 

The loth infantry was mustered in for three years on Sept. 
30, 1861 ; the nth was recruited in the fall and mustered in for 
three years on Oct. 24. The 12th, known as the "Charter Oak 
regiment," was recruited in the late autumn, as part of the "New 
England division;" and the 13th was also recruited in the late 
fall and early winter of 1861. In addition to the above organiza- 
tions, the 1st squadron of cavalry was recruited and mustered in 
in Aug., 1861. A battalion of cavalry composed of four com- 
panies, one from each Congressional district, was recruited in 
the fall, under a call issued on Oct. i, 1861, and was eventually 
recruited to a full regiment, designated the ist regiment Conn, 
volunteer cavalry. It will thus be seen that by the end of the 
year the state had raised and equipped thirteen full regiments, 
besides a considerable body of men organized as cavalry ; and in 
addition one battery of light artillery was recruited in the autumn. 

The year 1862 brought many reverses and disappointments 
to the Union arms. The authorities were vacillating in their 
plans, the South was full of confidence, and the friends of seces- 
sion in the North once mo^e raised their voices. Gov. Bucking- 
ham continued to exert himself to the utmost during this dark 
period and was one of the loyal governors who advised the presi- 



266 The Union Army 

dent to issue his call of July 2, 1862, for 300,000 more troops for 
three years. The quota assigned to Connecticut was 7,145. 
Meanwhile, the people had reelected Gov. Buckingham by a 
handsome majority in April, and chosen a legislature of which 
the senate was unanimously Republican, and the house was 
made up of 195 Republicans and 56 Democrats. During 1862 
the state expended for war purposes $1,866,097. By Nov. i, 
1862 it had furnished 28,551 men for the volunteer army, con- 
sisting of twenty-seven regiments of infantry, one regiment of 
heavy artillery, two batteries of light artillery, one squadron and 
one battalion of cavalry. At its regular session in May, 1862, 
the legislature revised and modified the militia law of the previous 
year, which now divided the able-bodied males of the state be- 
tween the ages of 18 and 45 years, save for the usual exemptions, 
into two classes — the active and the inactive militia — the former 
to consist of all the volunteer companies then organized, or to be 
organized, armed and equipped by the state and paid a per diem 
of $2 together with mileage ; the latter to be composed of all 
other able-bodied persons not exempt, to be enrolled and (except 
minors) to pay a commutation tax of $1 per annum, but to be 
called into service only in case of rebellion or invasion of the state, 
when they were liable to be drafted by the commander-in-chief 
(the governor) to fill up the ranks of the active militia. The 
law was by no means perfect and considerable complaint arose 
in regard to it. 

When the above mentioned call of July was issued, enthusias- 
tic war-meetings were again the order of the day. Each town 
was now called upon for its proper quota and under the liberal 
bounties oflFered recruiting went on very rapidly. The small 
towns exerted themselves to equal the liberality of the larger 
ones, Bloomfield and Watertown going so far as to offer $250 
per man. In the intense rivalry between the towns to fill their 
quotas under this call and the succeeding one in August, and 
thereby escape resort to the dreaded draft, the smaller and poorer 
towns were outmatched by the large, wealthy ones. In many 
particulars the whole bounty system resulted in great wrong and 
injustice, though it was deemed necessary under the imperious 
demands of the period. Connecticut was the first to fill its quota 
under the July call, furnishing 9,195 men. It thus had a large 
surplus to spare, which materially aided in the work of filling 
the quota under the call of August. While the state was strain- 
ing every nerve to promptly fill its July quota, came the call of 
Aug. 4, 1862, for 300,000 militia for nine months' service. Con- 
necticut's quota was again 7,145 and the men were to be drafted. 
From the beginning to the end of the war, both the state and local 



Military Affairs in Connecticut 367 

authorities labored strenuously to avoid the draft, and were in 
the main successful. Under these two calls of July and August, 
the state raised and equipped in less than five months, 14,797 
men. The 14th, 15th, i6th, 17th, i8th, 20th, 21st infantry, and 
the 2nd cavalry (originally recruited as the 19th infantry) were 
three years' regiments and all had left the state by the middle of 
September. The 22nd, 23d, 24th, 25th, 26th and 27th were nine 
months' regiments, all of which had been mustered into the U. S. 
service and left for the scene of war by Nov. 20, 1862. In addi- 
tion, a large number of recruits had been enlisted and gone 
forward to fill the depleted ranks of the regiments in the field. 
There had also been organized under the three years' call of 
July the 2nd light battery, which left the state for Washington on 
Oct. 15, 1862. The July regiments were of unusually fine mate- 
rial, and had on their rolls many of the finest names in the state. 
Did space permit it would be a pleasure to enumerate the names 
of many of those distinguished for their heroism and patriotic 
and disinterested services. The fame of one man — a private in 
the 17th — spread throughout the state. This was Elias Howe, 
Jr., of Fairfield county. One of the richest and most patriotic 
men in the state, prevented by chronic lameness from the per- 
formance of ordinary duties, he nevertheless served as the regi- 
mental postmaster and expressman throughout its term of service. 
When the regimental pay was in arrears for four months, he gave 
his personal check for $31,000 to the government, or for half 
the sum then due the regiment. This is but one of many noble 
instances of private generosity. With the exception of the State 
of Iowa, Connecticut was the first state to fill her full quota under 
the two calls of July and Aug., 1862. Some resort to the draft 
was made to fill the quota of nine months' men, but in most 
places it was escaped. Hartford drafted 421 men; but in New 
Haven, the deficiency was made up by volunteers, just before the 
dreaded moment arrived when the draft was to begin, $1,200 
having been collected from the patriotic citizens to aid in raising 
the full quota. Slight opposition was offered to the draft in 
Fairfield and Newtown, but the disorders were soon quelled. 
Altogether, 1,212 men were drafted, but of these only 218, of 
whom 142 were substitutes, were mustered into the U. S. service, 
81 deserted after reaching camp, 623 were exempted by the exam- 
iners, 10 had previously volunteered, 34 were not subject to 
military duty, and 166 were unaccounted for. Volunteers 
eventually made up the number needed, which, on the whole, was 
fortunate, as many of the conscripts made poor soldiers and were 
not popular in the ranks of the volunteers. Many of them be- 
longed to the despised class of "bounty- jumpers," enlisting only 
to secure the reward and then desert. 



268 The Union Army 

The cost of raising and equipping this large body of troops 
had drained the treasury and the governor called a special ses- 
sion of the legislature, which met in Hartford on Dec. 9, 1862. 
The governor's message stated the inefficiency of the draft; 
again called attention to the defects of the militia law ; advocated 
the extension of the suffrage to the soldiers in the field ; recom- 
mended that the state bonds be issued for a definite number of 
years; and that the towns be authorized to issue bonds. There 
was a total state indebtedness of $1,338,553 to be provided for 
and the legislature authorized a loan of $2,000,000, taken in 
Feb., 1863, at a premium of 12 per cent. The militia law 
was again modified and an act was passed authorizing the soldiers 
in the field to vote, a law which the state supreme court subse- 
quently declared to be unconstitutional. 

The vote for governor in the spring of 1863 gave Bucking- 
ham a majority of over 2,500 over his Democratic opponent, 
Thomas H. Seymour. The strength of the opposition to the 
war policy had been much increased by the disasters to the Union 
arms in 1862, and party lines, nearly obliterated at the beginning 
of the war, were again closely drawn. Many soldiers home on 
furlough at the time of the election strengthened the majority 
of the war party. The disastrous battle of Chancellorsville in- 
creased the outcry against the continuance of the war, and the 
spring of 1863 was the darkest period of the struggle. The 
gloom was soon to be dispelled, however, by the great victories 
achieved at Gettysburg and Vicksburg, both decisive events, and 
marking the turning point of the war. 

During the summer of 1863 occurred the principal draft of 
the war in Connecticut, in conformity to a law passed by Con- 
gress the previous winter. The final returns of this draft show 
that 2,276 conscripts and substitutes were held to serve, and 
1,252 paid commutation of $300 each — amounting in all to $375,- 
600. Every inducement was made to secure volunteers. The 
national government offered in July a bounty of $402 ; the state 
a bounty of $30 per annum, and if the volunteer was married, 
$6 a month to the wife, and $2 to each child under 14 years old; 
while liberal bounties were also paid by the several towns and 
cities. Under the calls of Oct. 17, 1863, and Feb. i, 1864, for 
500,000 men for three years, the quota of the state was 7,919, 
and she was credited with a total of 11,839 men, 1,513 of whom 
paid commutation. Under the liberal inducements offered the 
soldiers in the field to reenlist for another term of three years, 
both by bounty and furlough, 2,850 Connecticut men reenlisted. 

The legislature, which convened in extra session in Nov., 
1863, enacted that each colored volunteer should be paid out of 



Military Affairs in Connecticut 269 

lhe state treasury such sum as should make his monthly pay 
equal to the amount received from the United States by other 
volunteers from Connecticut, and gave him an allowance of $3.50 
per month in addition, for clothing. Every man securing a vol- 
unteer was to receive $10, and $200,000 was appropriated for 
this purpose. Another act provided for the payment of $300 
bounty to each volunteer, in addition to all previous sums ordered, 
and appropriated $1,800,000 for the purpose. 

Recruiting for the 29th (colored) infantry began in Aug., 
1863, but most of the men enlisted during the last three months 
of the year and the regiment was finally mustered in on March 
8; 1864. Recruiting for the 30th (colored) infantry began in 
Jan., 1864, but such was the need for men at the front, that when 
only four companies were organized, it was sent to the front on 
June 4, and consolidated with other companies to form the 31st 
regiment U. S. (colored) infantry. The last organization formed 
in the state was the 3d light battery, an independent body of 
artillerymen which embraced many veterans, and which was 
recruited during the summer and early fall of 1864. The state 
provided additional bounties for troops required in any future 
requisitions and an amendment to the constitution was adopted 
permitting soldiers in the field and absent from the state to vote. 

Connecticut was never called upon to furnish her assignment 
under the call of Dec. 19, 1864, for 300,000 men, as she then had 
a large surplus to her credit. According to the statistician, Phis- 
terer, the total quotas of the state during the war amounted to 
44,797, while she sent to the army a total of 54,349, and 1,515 
paid commutation. She thus furnished a surplus of 11,067 men. 
As there were only 80,000 voters in the state at this period, she 
contributed nearly seven-tenths of her voting strength. These 
54,000 men were distributed among twenty-eight regiments of 
infantry, two regiments and three batteries of artillery, and one 
regiment and one squadron of cavalry. As already noted, she 
also furnished one squadron of cavalry which was included, 
despite promises to the contrary, in the N. Y. Harris light cavalry 
and credited to that state. The above enumeration likewise fails 
to include over 2,000 men from Connecticut who enlisted in the 
U. S. navy, as well as large numbers who served in the regular 
army and in the regiments of other states. The total expenses 
of the war to the state, exclusive of private contributions and 
indirect losses, both very large, was $6,623,580. The largest 
expenditures among the cities were made by New Haven, and 
Hartford was second. The ist regiment heavy artillery was 
longest in service, 4 years and 4 months; the 13th infantry was 
second, 4 years and 3 months; and the 8th and nth next, with 



270 The Union Army 

4 years and 2 months, and 4 years and i month, respectively. 
Fifty-two of the generals in the several armies of the Union were 
actual residents of the state, and many others were Connecticut 
born. 

A revised list of the casualties of Connecticut troops during 
the war shows that the losses in killed, wounded, missing, cap- 
tured, and died of disease and in prison, amounted to 20,573, 
of whom 209 were officers. This was more than one-fourth of the 
voters of the state. The 14th infantry suffered the greatest loss, 
with a casualty list of 1,467, of whom 188 were killed or mortally 
wounded and 552 wounded. The total number of men killed or 
mortally wounded in battle in the volunteer organizations was 
1,981. The total number who died of disease was 2,801. The 
9th infantry, which was sent south as a part of Butler's expedi- 
tion for the capture of New Orleans, and was wretchedly equip- 
ped, suffered the greatest loss from disease — 218 men ; the 5th 
and 1 8th infantry show the smallest losses from this source, 
losing 63 and 48 men respectively. (See also Records of the 
Regiments.) 

As the war dragged its weary length along the ranks of the 
regiments in the field became sadly depleted and the labor of 
satisfying the constant demands of the government for more men 
became ever more and more difficult. Fortunately the state 
eventually secured credit, under the amendment to the enrollment 
act, approved July 4, 1864, for all men who had enlisted, or who 
should thereafter enlist in the navy, the men to be credited to the 
locality from which they enlisted. At the end of July a commis- 
sion was appointed, consisting of Col. F. D. Sewall, on behalf 
of the United States, and Robert Coit, Jr., of New London, on 
behalf of the state, to pass upon the claim of the state for credit 
for naval enlistments. After an exhaustive investigation Col. 
Sewall passed to the credit of the state 1,804 enlistments prior 
to the passage of the act by Congress, and 339 enlistments in the 
navy were subsequently credited. Some slight benefit was also 
derived from the act of Congress, approved July 4, 1864, pro- 
viding that the governors of the loyal states might send agents 
into the rebellious states to recruit troops. Six principal points 
of rendezvous for recruiting purposes were accordingly estab- 
lished by the war department: Camp Casey, Washington, D. C., 
"Fortress Monroe, Va., New Berne N. C, Hilton Head, S. C, 
Vicksburg, Miss., and Nashville, Tenn. Almost no results were 
secured at Washington, Vicksburg and Nashville, but a total of 
1,144 recruits were secured at the other stations. The act grant- 
ing authority to recruit in the South was repealed in Feb., 1865. 

Before the war had lasted many months it began to be 



Military Affairs in Connecticut 271 

realized that it would not be soon ended. The casualties from 
death and disease among the soldiers at the front grew in volume 
and the patriotic citizens of Connecticut exerted themselves 
to afford every aid and comfort possible to the soldier boys. 
To this end various relief associations and agencies were estab- 
lished and before long the habit of the people exerted itself in 
systematized effort to provide relief in every possible way. At 
the very outset, the sons of Connecticut residing in New York 
provided rooms where the soldiers could secure subsiantial 
meals and other needed comforts. Robert H. McCurdy was the 
president of the New York relief agency ; W. H. Oilman, treas- 
urer; and Charles Gould, secretary. This agency continued to 
exert itself throughout the war. From the very outset the patri- 
otic people at home, old and young, the women and the incapaci- 
tated, exerted themselves to supply necessaries and comforts for 
those who had gone to the front. Everything that could be trans- 
ported to the field was sent and there was scarcely a household 
that failed to do its share. Especially were efforts made to cheer 
the soldiers with bountiful supplies at Thanksgiving and Christ- 
mas time. During the early months, while the regiments were 
still stationed near Washington, supplies were forwarded semi- 
weekly by Craw & Martin, and later by J. M. Crofut, under the 
name of the Connecticut Troops Express. Afterward, when the 
U. S. sanitary and Christian commissions were organized, the 
State cooperated fully and gladly in their famous work of relief. 
Everything, from sheets, shirts and needle-books, to arm-slings, 
bandages, medicines, jellies, pickles and pies was contributed and 
a constant stream of gifts flowed out from the state. Great 
sanitary fairs were held, and money was thus raised to secure 
.stores of sanitary supplies, on which the many army hospitals 
might draw in times of need. 

One of the most noteworthy relief agencies was started in a 
small way, in Oct., 1861, by Alfred Walker of New Haven. 
Having announced through the newspapers that he would re- 
ceive, pack and forward any contributions for the sanitary 
commission, the work soon grew to such proportions that in a 
year the value of the boxes forwarded was estimated at $25,000. 
He had forwarded 371 boxes to the commission and 44 to Con- 
necticut regiments, the supplies having been secured from all 
parts of the state. Mr. Walker not only devoted his own time 
to the work, but also made use of his own store as an office, 
and donated the services of his clerks, assisted by a number of 
noble-minded ladies in keeping the accounts and packing the 
boxes. In order to minimize expenses in every possible way, 
he secured free transportation by boat to New York, where the 



272 The Union Army 

government took charge of the freight and sent it on to Wash- 
ington. This benevolent and well systematized agency, once 
started, was continued in perfect running order, and in all the 
large towns and cities the women organized soldiers' aid societies, 
which played an important part in supplying the soldiers with 
necessities and even luxuries. Individuals, churches and socie- 
ties obligated themselves for stated sums of money, in order that 
the good work might go on. The aid societies in the larger 
cities thoroughly systematized their work by means of committees 
and the relief work was carried on with the method of regular 
business. As an illustration of the volume of work done by the 
women of the state in aid of the sanitary commission, it is re- 
corded that "One lady in New Haven, Mrs. James D. Dana, 
during two years, superintended in her house the cutting out of 
7,000 shirts and pairs of drawers ; while Mrs. William A. Norton, 
the wife of Prof. Norton of the Sheffield scientific school, with 
his full consent, devoted all her time to the work of corresponding 
secretary, and was in communication with 100 places, including 
New Haven." Nor were the wants of the soldiers neglected in 
regard to reading matter, numerous regimental libraries being 
supplied. When the Rev. Edward Ashley Walker, chaplain of 
the 4th regiment wrote home for a chapel tent, he was provided 
with a fine, large one, used as a gathering place for the men to 
hold religious services until finally appropriated to the uses of an 
army hospital. Moreover, in the work of caring for the soldiers 
of the state, the unflagging zeal and interest of Gov. Buckingham 
and of Adjt.-Gen. Morse and their able staflf of assistants must 
not be forgotten. The judgment with which the officers of the 
various organizations of the state were selected and the knowl- 
edge displayed in sending forth the regiments equipped to take 
care of themselves in the field, is especially to be commended. 
The general records of the Connecticut volunteer force in the 
office of the adjutant-general was kept in admirable shape. Full 
records of the services of each man, as far as possible, were 
kept, including enlistment papers, muster-in and descriptive rolls, 
muster-out rolls, etc. Opposite each name was entered all in- 
formation to be obtained regarding him from regimental rolls 
and returns, from hospital and prison reports, or from any other 
official source. This office further rendered great assistance to 
discharged volunteers and the relatives of those deceased in ob- 
taining from the general government the arrears of bounty, back 
pay and pensions due them, and after the close of the war con- 
tinued the work to good advantage, thereby sawing them the 
fees of agents. 

After April 13, 1865, it was ordered that no more men be 



Military Affairs in Connecticut 273 

enlisted, and by proclamation of the governor on April 17, state 
bounties were ordered no longer paid. Immediately after the 
order stopping further enlistments, the work of disbanding the 
troops began. The men were mustered out of service, sent to 
their respective states, paid ofT and discharged with an ease, 
rapidity and facility second only to the promptness and zeal with 
which the volunteers first sprang to arms in behalf of their 
country. The torn and battle-stained flags borne by the brave 
sons of Connecticut are now in the cherished custody of the 
state, and the memory of the glorious deeds of the men will 
live forever. 

With many of her sons inured to a seafaring life and with 
her miles of exposed sea coast, it is but natural to expect a large 
degree of interest in the U. S. navy on the part of Connecticut. 
As she is justly proud of the record of her soldier sons, so may 
she point with pride to the honorable achievements of her 
sailors during the War of the Rebellion. Mention has already 
been made of the fact that one of her sturdiest and most honest 
citizens, Gideon Welles of Hartford, held the portfolio of the 
navy throughout the period of the war and was ever the trusted 
and able adviser of President Lincoln. So, too, it fell to the 
lot of Connecticut to furnish many naval officers of high rank, 
distinguished for their valor and services. Among others, the 
state gave to the navy Rear-Adm. Francis H. Gregory; Commo- 
dores John and C. R. P. Rodgers, R. B. Hitchcock and Andrew 
Hull Foote, the last named afterward an admiral ; Lieut.- 
Comdrs. Henry C. White, Edward Terry and Francis M. Bunce, 
the last named also to achieve the rank of admiral. The gallant 
and intrepid Foote, a native of New Haven and for a time com- 
mander of the famous Cumberland, was one of the lamented 
martyrs of the war. His honored name is indelibly associated 
with the first great Union success on inland waters — the capture 
of Forts Henry and Donelson — and his second great work, 
undertaken in conjunction with the army — the reduction of the 
strong works of Island No. 10 — was a highly important one in 
the great problem of opening the Mississippi. Promoted to 
admiral for his notable services, he was preparing to take com- 
mand of the South Atlantic squadron, when he died in New 
York, June 26, 1863, worn out by his labors and much enfeebled 
by a severe wound. Nor should the unique service rendered by 
another son of Connecticut, Cornelius S. Bushnell, be forgotten. 
It was largely due to his splendid enthusiasm and untiring efforts, 
to his ability to grasp the significance of a work of genius, to 
his fine zeal in enlisting the halting cooperation of the authorities 
at Washington, and finally to his patriotic assistance in the work 

Vol. 1—18 



274 The Union Army 

of private individuals, that gave to the inventor Ericsson his 
opportunity and secured for the government the Monitor. Only 
those who lived through that period of crisis when the great 
iron-clad Merrimac was performing its work of devastation, can 
adequately conceive the relief felt when the "little cheese-box on 
a raft" met and conquered the hope of the Confederacy. All 
honor to Ericsson, the man of genius, but all honor also to the 
man who devoted his best efforts to the work, and finally induced 
a reluctant naval board to give Ericsson a hearing. In the light 
of after events, the world speedily forgot that the wonder-working 
craft was built and launched in the face of the utmost discourage- 
ment and even under constant official protest. 



RECORD OF CONNECTICUT 
REGIMENTS 



First Infantry. — Cols., Daniel Tyler, George S. Burnham; Lieut. - 
Cols., John L. Chatfield, John Speidel; Maj., Theodore Byxbee. On 
April 15, 1861, President Lincoln issued his first call for 75,000 militia 
to serve for three months and the day following Gov. Buckingham 
issued his call in conformity therewith. Such was the prevailing 
enthusiasm that the call of the governor had been anticipated and on 
the i6th many companies were ready to report with ranks nearly full. 
One — Rifle Company A of Hartford, Capt. George S. Burnham — had 
its ranks full and was fully officered. This was the first volunteer 
company from Connecticut to complete its organization. The various 
companies rendezvoused at New Haven on April 20, and were at first 
quartered in the college buildings, then unoccupied on account of 
vacation. They later encamped in an open field in the western part of 
the town. The regiment was mustered into the U. S. service on 
April 22 and 23, and at once began the work of perfecting itself in 
company and regimental drill. It left for Washington on the steamer 
Bienville, May 10, arrived at its destination on the 13th, and went into 
camp at "Glenwood," 2 miles north of the capitol. As Col. Tyler, 
who was a West Point graduate and an experienced soldier, was 
appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, Lieut.-Col. Burnham suc- 
ceeded to the command of the regiment. On May 31, Lieut.-Col. 
Chatfield was made colonel of the 3d regiment, Maj. Speidel became 
lieutenant-colonel, and Capt. Byxbee of Co. B became major. Dur- 
ing the first half of June the regiment was stationed at Roach's mills 
on the Hampshire & Loudoun railroad. During a short reconnois- 
sance up the railroad at this time George H. Bugbee, of Co. A, was 
severely wounded at Vienna, the first Connecticut blood shed in the 
war, save that of the much lamented Theodore Winthrop, who was 
killed at Big Bethel on the loth. After being reviewed by the secre- 
tary of war, it moved to Falls Church, Va., and was brigaded with 



Connecticut Regiments 375 

the 2nd and 3d Conn., and 2nd Maine infantry, under command of 
Gen. E. D. Keyes. Gen. McDowell's movement on Manassas began 
on July 16, the Connecticut brigade, designated the ist brigade, 1st 
division, leading the advance. The command was active during the 
disastrous battle of Bull Run on the 21st, retiring from the field in 
good order, and Gen. Tyler reported: "At seven o'clock on Tuesday 
evening, I saw the three Connecticut regiments, with 2,000 bayonets, 
march under the guns of Fort Corcoran in good order, after having 
saved us not only a large amount of public property, but the morti- 
fication of seeing our standing camps fall into the hands of the 
enemy." The ist remained encamped at Washington until July 27, 
when its term of service having expired, it returned to New Haven 
and was mustered out on July 31. The command went out well 
armed and equipped. Eight companies had Springfield rifles and two 
Sharp's rifles. It performed its part well and is entitled to great 
credit for the motives of pure patriotism with which the members 
responded to their country's call to arms. Many of its members 
afterwards reenlisted in other Connecticut organizations and saw 
much arduous service. The ist carried on its rolls 780 men, and though 
it lost none killed, its casualty list shows 6 wounded, 6 captured and 
25 discharged for disability. 

Second Infantry. — Col., Alfred H. Terry; Lieut. -Col, David 
Young; Maj., Ledyard Colburn. This was the second of the three 
months' regiments which responded to the first call for troops. Co. 
A, "Buckingham Rifles," Capt. Chester, was recruited at Norwich, 
the governor's home, by James B. Coit, the first man in the town to 
volunteer, as soon as the news came that Sumter had fallen. Three 
other companies were well known militia organizations viz.: the 
Mansfield Guards, of Middletown, Capt. Dickinson; the New Haven 
Grays, Capt. Osborn; and the National Guard of Birmingham, Capt. 
Russell. The other companies were new organizations. All its field 
officers and many of the line officers were experienced militia men. 
The various companies assembled at New Haven by April 26, and 
were mustered into the U. S. service for three months on May 7, 
1861, at Brewster's park. The men were armed with Springfield 
and Sharp's rifles. The regiment, 798 strong, embarked on the 
steamer Cahawba on May 10 and arrived at Washington on the 14th, 
going into camp at Meridian hill. On June 16 it crossed the long 
bridge into Virginia and went into camp at Falls Church, where it 
was brigaded with the other Connecticut three months' regiments, 
under Gen. E. D. Keyes, and formed part of the ist brigade, ist divi- 
sion. Camp of instruction, picket and outpost duties occupied its 
time until Gen. McDowell began his advance to Bull Run, July 16. 
During the advance, the ist brigade was in the lead and throughout 
the battle of Bull Run it maintained its regimental formation, the men 
conducting themselves with great coolness under fire. Late in the 
afternoon it retreated in good order under orders, and halted for two 
days at Oak Hill, where it was engaged in striking the tents, loading 
and packing the arms, ammunition, equipage, miscellaneous stores 
and property of the standing camp at this point, thus preventing the 
capture of valuable property by the enemy, and with the other Con- 
necticut troops it escorted these supplies across the Potomac. The 
2nd remained at Washington until the expiration of its term of serv- 
ice, when it returned to New Haven and was mustered out there on 
Aug. 7. Many of its members afterwards reenlisted in the three years' 
regiments, and were exceedingly useful by reason of their previous 



276 The Union Army 

military experience and traininer. During its short term of service, 
the 2nd lost i killed, i wounded, and i6 captured; 3 died of disease, 
and 31 were discharged for disability, making a total casualty list of 
52. 

Third Infantry. — Cols., John Arnold, John Chatfield; Lieut.-Col., 
Allen G. Brady; Maj., Alexander Warner. Recruiting for the 3d 
regiment began simultaneously with that of the other two three 
months' regiments, its ranks being soon filled under the enthusiasm 
of the first few weeks of the war, and the men rendezvoused at the 
fair grounds, Hartford, May 9. Here they were mustered into the 
U. S. service on the 14th, and after receiving its colors from the 
hands of Gov. Buckingham, the regiment left for New Haven on the 
23d, whence it sailed for Washington on the steamer Cahawba. On 
its arrival it went into camp at Glenwood and was temporarily 
brigaded with the other two Connecticut regiments under the com- 
mand of Brig.-Gen. Tyler. Col. Arnold having resigned, Lieut.-Col. 
Chatfield of the ist regiment was appointed colonel. He was an 
experienced militia oflficer and a fine disciplinarian. Lieut.-Col. Brady, 
angered at the appointment of Col. Chatfield over his head, was de- 
prived of his sword, for insubordination, but was honorably mus- 
tered out with the regiment and afterwards achieved distinction in 
the 17th Conn, infantry and veteran reserve corps. On June 24 the 
3d crossed the long bridge into Virginia and moved to Falls Church, 
where it became a part of the ist brigade, ist division. Gen. Mc- 
Dowell's Army of the Potomac. It was brought to a high state of 
discipline and efficiency under Col. Chatfield and with its brigade 
led the advance of the army on Manassas, July 16. Meanwhile, Gen. 
Tyler was appointed to command the ist division and Col. E. D. 
Keyes, an experienced West Point graduate, was commissioned to 
command the brigade. The report of Col. Keyes on the battle of 
Bull Run says "The gallantry with which the 2nd regiment of 
Maine and the 3d regiment of Connecticut volunteers charged up the 
hill upon the enemy's artillery and infantry was never in my judg- 
ment surpassed." The command retired from the field in obedience 
to orders late in the afternoon, retreating in good order and main- 
taining its regimental formation. During the night it bivouacked on 
the ground it had left on the morning of the battle, then continued 
to Falls Church, where it, together with the other Connecticut troops, 
was kept busy for two days in packing, loading and saving the 
camp and garrison stores abandoned there by other troops. On the 
expiration of its term of service, it returned to Hartford, where it 
was mustered out on Aug. 12, 1861. A large proportion of its officers 
and men reenlisted in the three years' organizations, where their 
previous military experience proved especially valuable. The total 
casualty list of the 3d was 46, made up of 4 killed, i missing, 10 
wounded, 17 captured, and 14 discharged for disability. 

Fourth Infantry. — (See ist Heavy Artillery.) 

Fifth Infantry. — Cols., Orris S. Ferry, George D. Chapman, War- 
ren S. Packer, Henry W. Daboll; Lieut.-Cols., T. H. C. Kingsbury, 
George D. Chapman, Henry B. Stone, James A. Betts, Henry W. 
Daboll, William S. Coggswell; Majs., George D. Chapman, Henry 
B. Stone, Edward F. Blake, Warren W. Packer, David F. Lane, 
Henry W Daboll, William S. Coggswell. The 5th was originally 
recruited with the intention of forming part of the three months' 
troops under the first call. When the second call of May 3 was made 
for three years' troops the men reenlisted for the longer term, and 



Connecticut Regiments 277 

rendezvoused at Hartford. The regiment was at first organized as the 
1st regiment Colt's Revolving Rifles, with the inventor, Samuel Colt 
of Hartford, as colonel; was reorganized on June 20, 1861, as the 5th 
infantry, with O. S. Ferry of Norwalk as colonel; was mustered into 
the U. S. service for three years, July 22-23, and on the 29th pro- 
ceeded to Sandy Hook, Md., having on its rolls 1,102 officers and men. 
It was employed until March, 1862, in picket and out-post duty along 
the line of the Potomac from Sir John's run to Muddy branch, suffer- 
ing much from cold and exposure. A portion of the command par- 
ticipated in skirmishes with Jackson's forces at Dam No. 5, and 
Falling Waters, and the entire regiment entered Winchester, Va., as 
a part of Banks' forces, after a bloodless battle. Details from Cos. E 
and F participated in the surprise and capture of a company of 
Ashby's cavalry at Hudson's corners, Va.; H and I drove the enemy 
in a skirmish at Peaked mountain, having several men wounded, and 
on the Front Royal road in front of Winchester the regiment was 
sharply engaged with the enemy under Ewell, repulsing him with 
heavy loss. Jackson, however, had driven back the forces opposed 
to him and the 5th was forced to beat a rapid retreat and after 
56 hours of hard marching and fighting, crossed the Potomac at 
Sharpsburg into Maryland. It recrossed the Potomac into Vir- 
ginia on June 3; skirmished at Luray, where it drove the enemy; 
was soon afterward moved from the Department of the Shenandoah, 
and became a part of the Army of Virginia under Pope near Warren- 
ton. It was heavily engaged at Cedar mountain, where, assisted by 
the 28th N. Y. and 46th Penn., it drove and routed the enemy, but 
was not supported and withdrew before superior numbers. I,ts 
loss here was 38 killed, 10 mortally and 67 slightly wounded, and 64 
captured, out of 380 men in action, the severest loss of the regiment 
during service in any one day. It remained with Pope's army during 
the disheartening weeks that followed, being often under artillery 
fire, but suffering only slight loss. It was next assigned to provost 
duty at Fredericksburg, Md., and on Dec. 10, 1862, joined the Army 
of the Potomac going into winter quarters at Stafford Court House, 
Va. As a part of the ist brigade, ist division, 12th corps, it was 
active at Chancellorsville; reached the field of Gettysburg on the 
evening of July i, and though not heavily engaged during this battle, 
it suffered some loss. After sharing in the pursuit of Lee, the nth 
and I2th corps were consolidated as the 20th, under Gen. Hooker, and 
joined the Army of the Cumberland in Tenn., the Sth being employed 
for some time in railroad guard duty at Cowan. In Dec, 1863, 280 
members of the regiment reenlisted for another term of three years 
and received the usual veteran furlough. On their return in the 
spring of 1864, the regiment, as part of Knipe's brigade, Williams' 
division, 20th corps, shared in Sherman's Atlanta campaign, being 
engaged at Resaca, Cassville, Dallas, Lost mountain. Marietta, Kenne- 
saw mountain, Kolb's farm, Peachtree creek and the siege of Atlanta. 
It marched with Sherman to the sea; shared in the siege of Savannah; 
and then moved with the army up through the Carolinas; being 
engaged at Chesterfield Court House, S. C, Silver Run, Averasboro 
and Bentonville. After Gen. Johnston's surrender, it proceeded to 
Washington, where it participated in the grand review and was mus- 
tered out at Alexandria, July 19, 1865. It had seen four years of 
active service, fought in 23 battles, besides numerous skirmishes, and 
was never driven from its position in the battle line except at Cedar 
mountain, where it was unsupported. The regiment had a total en- 



278 The Union Army 

rollment of 1,781; its losses were Tz killed, 32 fatally wounded, 219 
wounded, 217 captured, 72 died of disease and in prison, 11 died from 
accident, and 248 were discharged for disability. 

Sixth Infantry. — Cols., John L. Chatfield, Redfield Duryee, Alfred 
P. Rockwell; Lieut. -Cols., William G. Ely, John Speidel, Lorenzo 
Meeker, Daniel Klein; Majs., John Speidel, Lorenzo Meeker, Daniel 
Klein, Hiram L. Grant. This regiment, composed of companies 
from Putnam, Hartford, New Haven, Stamford, Waterbury, New 
Britain, and Bridgeport, was the third of the three years' regiments 
organized in the summer of 1861. The men assembled at Oyster point, 
New Haven, and were mustered into the U. S. service during the first 
two weeks of Sept., 1861. The regiment left on the 17th for Wash- 
ington, having a total enrollment of 1,008 officers and men. It re- 
mained encamped at Meridian hill for 20 days and was brigaded with 
the 3d and 4th N. H., and 7th Conn., under the command of Brig.- 
Gen. H. G. Wright. The 6th was then assigned to the Department 
of the South and formed part of the land and naval expedition under 
Gen. T. W. Sherman and Adm. Dupont, for operations on the 
southern coast. Together with the 7th Conn, it landed and occupied 
Forts Walker and Beauregard, after the bombardment of Nov. 7, after 
which it was engaged for some months in fatigue duty, and forag- 
ing expeditions. In Jan., 1862, it shared in the abortive attempt to 
capture Savannah, Ga., and in the succeeding March was part of the 
force which finally forced the surrender of Fort Pulaski, at the mouth 
of the Savannah river. In June it moved with the expedition for 
the capture of Charleston, skirmishing at James island on the loth, 
and being active at the battle of Secessionville on the i6th. It was 
occupied with guard and picket duty at Beaufort until Oct. 22, 1862, 
when it was active at Pocotaligo, S. C, where it suffered its first 
severe loss in battle, losing 38 killed and wounded, among the latter 
being Col. Chatfield and Lieut. -Col. Speidel. After the battle the regi- 
ment returned to Beaufort and remained there until March 18, 1863, 
when it was ordered to Jacksonville, Fla. It returned to the neigh- 
borhood of Beaufort about April i, and in May was part of the 
force landed on Folly island, S. C, to assist in the second attempt to 
capture Charleston. In the engagement at Morris island it was hotly 
engaged in the work of carrying the fortifications, though its loss 
was small. It captured here 125 prisoners and 2 stands of colors. 
Its last engagement in 1863 was at Fort Wagner, S. C, where it suf- 
fered severely, going into action with 400 men and losing 140 in 
killed, wounded and captured. Among the fatally wounded was Col. 
Chatfield. The command behaved in this action with distinguished 
gallantry, and did much to earn its name of the "fighting 6th." By 
reason of its heavy losses it was sent to Hilton Head to recuperate. 
In Dec, 1863, 205 members reenlisted as veterans and it also received 
a considerable number of recruits. In the spring of 1864 it was trans- 
ferred to Virginia and on its arrival at Gloucester point, was assigned 
to the 2nd brigade, ist division, loth corps, with which it at once 
advanced to Bermuda Hundred. It skirmished at Chester Station 
and Proctor's creek; was active at the battle of Drewry's bluff; was 
engaged near Bermuda Hundred; was part of Gen. Gillmore's force 
in the attack on Petersburg June 9, and was again in action near 
Bermuda Hundred on the 17th, its casualties during this period num- 
bering 184 officers and men. From June 25 to Aug. 13 it was in the 
intrenchments at Bermuda Hundred. The Sixth was active at Deep 
Bottom, where it carried two lines of earthworks on Aug. 14, and in 



Connecticut Regiments 279 

the engagement two days later captured 200 prisoners and 2 stands 
of colors, its own losses being 5 killed, 69 wounded, 11 missing. It 
then shared in the siege of Petersburg until the following month when 
the members, except veterans and recruits, their term of enlistment 
having expired, were discharged before Petersburg on Sept. 11, 1864. 
The regiment was again active in the movement against Fort Harri- 
son on the 29th, and advanced to within 3 miles of Richmond on the 
Darbytown road. It was engaged in this vicinity on Oct. i, 7th, 13th, 
and 27th, when, during the fall elections of Nov., 1864, it was sent to 
New York to prevent rioting, but rejoined the army on the 14th. In 
December it was ordered to Wilmington N. C.; shared in the assault 
and capture of Fort Fisher and in the operations against Wilmington; 
was occupied in garrison and guard duty at Wilmington and at 
Goldsboro until it was ordered home, and was finally mustered out 
at New Haven, Aug. 21, 1865. The 6th was engaged in 25 battles and 
minor engagements and saw service in the States of Maryland, Vir- 
ginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. Counting 
recruits and reenlisted men, its total enrollment was 1,813. Its losses 
were 103 killed and fatally wounded, no captured, 310 wounded, 118 
died of disease, accident and in prison, 14 missing, 164 discharged for 
disability and 30 unaccounted for at muster out. 

Seventh Infantry. — Cols., Alfred H. Terry, Joseph R. Hawley, 
Seager S. Atwell; Lieut. -Cols., Joseph R. Hawley, George F. Gardiner, 
Daniel C. Rodman, Oliver S. Sanford, Seager S. Atwell, Jerome Tour- 
telotte; Majs, George F. Gardiner, Daniel C. Rodman, .Oliver S. San- 
ford, Benjamin T. Skinner, Jerome Tourtelotte. The 7th was re- 
cruited from the state at large under the first call for three years' 
men, and had among its members a large number of the discharged 
three months' men. The companies rendezvoused at New Haven and 
'vere mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 17, 1861. The follow- 
ing day, 1,018 strong, it left for Washington, where it was assigned to 
Gen. Horatio G. Wright's brigade with the 6th Conn, and 3d and 7th' 
N. H. Col. Terry had been in command of the 2nd Conn., and Lieut. - 
Col. Hawley had been captain of Co. A in the ist. In October the 
7th formed part of the Sherman-Dupont expedition to Port Royal, 
S. C, and after the reduction of Forts Walker and Beauregard it 
was the first regiment to land and plant its colors on the soil of South 
Carolina. It was engaged in arduous fatigue duty at Hilton Head 
for 6 weeks, then moved to Tybee island, Ga., where it spent the 
winter in preparations for the reduction of Fort Pulaski, and during 
the bombardment of this fort in April, 1862, it manned nine of the 
eleven batteries engaged, being under fire for more than 30 hours. 
The 7th continued in active service in the Department of the South 
until April, 1864, participating in the engagements at James island, 
Pocotaligo, Fort Wagner and Morris island S. C. and Olustee, Fla. 
During this period it won its name as a fighting regiment and suffered 
a total loss in killed, wounded and missing of 292 officers and men. 
In the bloody assault on Fort Wagner it lost 104 out of 191 engaged, 
and Gen. Strong declared that "The 7th Conn, has covered itself 
with glory." Only four companies — A, B, I and K — participated in 
this assault, but the regiment was soon strengthened by the return of 
the other six companies from Florida, and during the siege of Fort 
Wagner which followed it was in the trenches, constantly under fire 
for 98 days. Early in December its sadly thinned ranks were once more 
filled to the maximum by recruits and during the same month 333 of the 
original members reenlisted as veterans, going home on their 30 days' 



280 The Union Army 

furlough in Jan., 1864. On April 13, 1864, the regiment was ordered 
to Fortress Monroe, thence to Gloucester point, Va., and on May 5, 
started up the James river as part of the loth corps, Army of the 
James, under Gen. Butler. From this time the 7th saw almost con- 
stant service on the firing line until the^end of October. It was active 
at Chester Station, losing 9 men; on the Bermuda Hundred fronts 
meeting with a total loss in killed, wounded and captured of 320; 
was at Deep Bottom, where it lost 45 men ; was in the five engagements 
before Richmond in the operations against Fort Harrison; and fought 
at Fair Oaks, losing 79 men out of 200 engaged. On Nov. 2, 1864^ 
it was embarked on transports and sent to New York to assist in main- 
taining order during the presidential election, returning to the front 
on the 14th without having found it necessary to land. The succeed- 
ing two months were spent in the comparative quiet of camp and out- 
post duty. Early in Jan., 1865, as a part of Abbott's brigade, it 
formed part of Gen. Terry's force during the second Fort Fisher 
expedition, and led its brigade in the final and victorious charge which 
effected the capture of that formidable work, after which it partici- 
pated in the operations which resulted in the capture of Wilmington. 
With the surrender of Gen. Johnston, the war was virtually ended and 
on July 20, 1865, the 7th was mustered out of service at Goldsboro, 
N. C. It then returned home and the men were paid and discharged 
on Aug. II, after a service of nearly four years. A total of 2,090 
men had served in its ranks, including the 333 reenlisted veterans and 
739 recruits. The casualties of the regiment were 140 killed or fatally 
wounded, ^^^ wounded, 260 captured, 202 died of disease, accident and 
in prison, 3 missing (probably killed), 160 were discharged for dis- 
ability, and 16 were unaccounted for at muster out. 

Eighth Infantry. — Cols., Edward Harland, John E. Ward; Lieut- 
Cols., Peter L. Cunningham, Andrew Terry, Hiram Appelman, John 
E. Ward, Charles L. Upham, Martin B. Smith, William M. Pratt, 
Thomas D. Sheffield; Majs., Andrew Terry, Hiram Appelman, John 
E. Ward, Charles L. Upham, Charles M. Coit (declined com'n.), 
William M. Pratt, Andrew M. Morgan. This regiment, from the state 
at large, was recruited in the early fall of 1861, many of its officers 
and men having seen service with the three months' regiments. Col. 
Harland, whose subsequent record as brigadier-general of volunteers 
was a brilliant one, had served as captain in the 3d infantry. The 
members of the 8th rendezvoused at Camp Buckingham, Hartford, 
and were mustered into the U. S. service for three years, Oct. 5, 1861. 
Armed with the rifle musket and numbering 1,027 men, it left for 
Annapolis, Md., Oct. 17, stopping en route at the camp of instruction, 
Jamaica, L. I., for two weeks. Early in Jan. 1862, it sailed with the 
Burnside expedition; was in reserve at the battle of Roanoke island; 
and was first in action at New Berne, where Col. Harland distinguished 
himself for bravery and gained the implicit confidence of his men. 
Its loss here was 2 killed and 4 wounded. It was again engaged at 
the siege of Fort Macon, N. C, in April. After two months of rest 
at New Berne the 8th moved to Newport News, Va., in July, encamped 
there for a month and then, with the nth Conn., was ordered to Fred- 
ericksburg, where it encamped in front of the Lacey house during 
August. It next proceeded to Washington, remaining there until the 
Army of the Potomac moved against Gen. Lee in Maryland. It was 
heavily engaged at the battle of Antietam, where it lost 194 killed, 
wounded and missing, among the wounded being Lieut. -Col. Appel- 
man. November found the 8th again at its old camp in front of 



Connecticut Regiments 281 

Fredericksburg as part of the Army of the Potomac. During the 
disastrous battle of Fredericksburg the following month, it was not 
heavily engaged and its losses were slight. In Feb., 1863, it was 
transferred to southeast Virginia and excepting a skirmish at Battery 
Huger in April, was not again active during the year. In Dec, 1863, 
310 men reenlisted for three years and received the usual veteran 
furlough. It also received large additions to its ranks during the 
winter from new recruits. From March 13 to April 14, 1864, it was 
stationed at Deep creek, Va., on outpost and picket duty; was heavily 
engaged at Port Walthall Junction on the Petersburg railroad, losing 
74 men killed, wounded and missing. Col. Ward being among the 
wounded. It was complimented for its bravery by Gen. Burnham, 
brigade commander. It was now assigned to the ist division, i8th 
corps, which moved up the south side of the James; suffered a heavy 
loss in the battle of Fort Darling or Drewry's bluff, its casualties 
being 64 killed, wounded and missing; was with the corps at Cold 
Harbor, losing 38 killed and wounded; was again engaged before 
Petersburg with loss, June 15-17, and endured the hardships and casual- 
ties incident to life in the trenches until Aug. 27. It was then sta- 
tioned on the Bermuda Hundred front on picket duty until Sept. 26, 
when it moved with the i8th corps toward Richmond; shared in the 
successful charge on Fort Harrison, losing 8 killed and 65 wounded, 
this being the last general engagement of the regiment, whose ranks 
were now sadly decimated. It moved with the final advance on 
Richmond in April, 1865, and on the cessation of hostilities was sta- 
tioned for several months on provost duty at Lynchburg. It was 
finally mustered out Dec. 12, 1865, after 4 years and 2 months of 
service, having gloriously sustained the reputation of Connecticut 
soldiers for bravery and efficiency. Its total casualties were 99 killed 
and fatally wounded, 387 wounded, 81 captured. 153 died of disease, 
accident and in prison, 363 discharged for disability, 38 unaccounted 
for at muster out. 

Ninth Infantry. — Col., Thomas W. Cahill; Lieut.-Cols., Richard 
Fitzgibbons, John G. Healy; Maj., Frederick Frye. This regiment, 
mainly composed of men of Irish birth, was recruited during the fall 
of 1861 at Camp English, New Haven. Col. Cahill had been a 
popular militia officer, and both Lieut.-Col. Fitzgibbons and Maj. 
Frye had been captains in the three months' service. From the 
first the regiment was designed to form part of Butler's New England 
expedition, and was destined to see most of its service in the Depart- 
ment of the Gulf. It was mustered into the U. S. service Nov. i, 
1861, for three years, and three days later left for Lowell, Mass., 
without arms and poorly clothed. On Nov. 26, with the 26th Mass., 
it sailed on the Constitution for Ship island. Miss., where it arrived on 
Dec. 3. Here it received arms and tents and remained encamped until 
April 3, 1862, when it engaged in an expedition, with a section of the 6th 
Mass. battery, to Biloxi and Pass Christian. After the capture of New 
Orleans, it proceeded to that city, where it was the first Union 
regiment to make a public parade through the streets. It was then 
employed on provost duty in the city. Col. Cahill being assigned to 
command of the defenses, until June, when it was ordered to a point 
opposite Vicksburg, Miss., and employed for some days in cutting 
a canal to divert the Mississippi river from Vicksburg, but the work 
was finally abandoned. The first important engagement of the 9th 
was at Baton Rouge, Aug. 5, 1862, where its casualties numbered 14. 
Early in September it participated in an expedition to the vicinity 



282 The Union Army 

of St. Charles Court House, and then proceeded to New Orleans, 
which remained its headquarters during the whole of 1863, though 
the various companies were stationed at widely separated points. 
During the month of June, 1863, part of the regiment was engaged 
at La Fourche crossing and Chacahoula Station. Over 300 of the 
original members reenlisted in the winter of 1863-64 for a term of 
three years, and returned home on veteran furlough in April, 1864. 
On July 16 they rejoined the regiment, which arrived at Bermuda 
Hundred, Va., on the 24th and participated in a demonstration 
against the enemy at Deep Bottom on the 28th. It then embarked 
for Washington, whence it moved to Tenallytown, and on Aug. 14 
it crossed the Potomac and moved to Berryville. It shared from 
this time in Gen. Sheridan's campaign up the Shenandoah Valley, 
being actively engaged at Winchester and at Fisher's hill. At Cedar 
hill in October the officers and men who had not reenlisted were 
mustered out, the veterans and recruits were organized as a battalion 
of four companies, under command of Capt. Healy, and bore an 
honorable part in the desperate battle of Cedar creek, losing 30 
men killed and wounded. The battalion remained in Virginia until 
Jan. 7, 1865, when it was ordered to Baltimore, whence it sailed for 
Fortress Monroe and then for Savannah, Ga. While at Savannah 
it dispersed a force of guerrillas on Dawfuski island, after which it 
was ordered to Hilton Head, S. C, and there served under Gen. 
Gillmore until Aug. 3, 1865, when it embarked for New Haven, where 
it was finally mustered out and discharged. Including the service 
of the battalion, the regiment was in active service for 3 years and 
9 months. The original muster-in rolls of the regiment bore the 
names of 845 officers and men; it received about 440 recruits and 321 
veterans reenlisted, making a total enrolment of 1,606 names. Its 
casualties were 8 killed and mortally wounded; 18 wounded; 17 
captured; 240 died of disease, accident or in prison; 116 were dis- 
charged for disability and 73 were unaccounted for at muster out. 

Tenth Infantry Cols., Charles L. Russell, Albert W. Drake, Ira W. 

Pettibone, John L. Otis, Edwin S. Greeley; Lieut.-Cols., Albert W. 
Drake, Ira W. Pettibone, Benjamin S. Pardee, Robert Leggett, Edwin S. 
Greeley, E. D. S. Goodyear; Majs., Ira W. Pettibone, Benjamin S. 
Pardee, Daniel M. Mead, Robert Leggett, John L. Otis, Edwin S. 
Greeley, Henry W. Camp, E. D. S. Goodyear, Francis G. Hickerson. 
The loth was recruited in the late summer of 1861, rendezvoused at 
Camp Buckingham, Hartford, and was there mustered into the U. S. 
service for three years on Oct. 26, 1861. Five days later, under com- 
mand of Col. Russell, formerly adjutant of the 2nd Conn, infantry, 
and numbering 996 officers and men, it left the state for Annapolis, 
Md., where it was assigned to the ist brigade (Gen. J. G. Foster), 
Burnside's division. Early in Jan., 1862, it sailed as part of Burn- 
side's expedition for North Carolina and fought its first battle at 
Roanoke island, exhibiting great coolness and bravery, its loss 
being the heaviest of any regiment engaged, 56 ofiicers and men, 
killed and wounded. Col. Russell was killed while leading his regi- 
ment and was succeeded by Lieut. -Col. Drake. The loth was des- 
tined to remain in the Department of the South until the spring of 
1864. Its second engagement was at New Berne, where it main- 
tained its reputation for steadiness under fire, losing here 27 killed 
and wounded. Col. Drake died from exhaustion on June 5, 1862, and 
was succeeded by Col. Pettibone. During the summer it shared in 
all the movements of the 9th corps under Burnside, including the 



Connecticut Regiments 283 

Trenton and Tarboro expeditions; was sharply engaged at Kinston, 
N. C, during the Goldsboro expedition, where it charged and drove 
the enemy with great gallantry, capturing over 500 prisoners and 
II pieces of artillery, and losing 106 in killed and wounded. Under 
the brigade command of Col. Stevenson it was in action at White- 
hall and Goldsboro. On Dec. 24, 1862, the troops in North Carolina 
were organized into the i8th corps, Maj.-Gen. J. G. Foster command- 
ing. In Jan., 1863, the loth was ordered to South Carolina, and in 
February Maj. John L. Otis was commissioned colonel. The regi- 
ment was engaged at Seabrook island in April, and from the middle 
of July to the latter part of October, as part of Terry's division, 
loth corps, shared in the siege operations about Charleston. During 
its long service on Morris island, though the command suffered little 
in battle, its duties were arduous and trying and on its departure for 
St. Augustine, after the capture of Fort Wagner, 60 per cent, of the 
men were on the sick list. While stationed at St. Augustine, a 
small detail of 35 men from the regiment was ambushed by the 
enemy's cavalry, 21 being captured and 3 killed. On April 18, 1864, 
the loth, with Terry's division, was ordered to Virginia and on its 
arrival at Gloucester Point on the 25th, was assigned' to the Army 
of the James, commanded by Gen. Butler. During the previous 
winter nearly 300 of the original men reenlisted for three years and 
went home on the usual veteran furlough. The regiment was con- 
spicuous in the work of destruction on the Richmond & Petersburg 
railroad, which resulted in the affair at Port Walthall Junction, and 
won the warm commendation of its brigade commander and other 
officers for steadiness and fine behavior at Drewry's bluff, where it 
lost 36 killed and wounded. From this time on almost constant 
fighting was the lot of the loth. as it shared in all the engagements of 
the Army of the James throughout the summer. Space forbids more 
than a bare mention of the more important of these engagements. 
In the action near Ware Bottom Church it captured without loss the 
famous Howlett house battery; was active at Deep Bottom and 
Strawberry Plains; was ordered into the trenches at Petersburg, 
where, during the latter part of August and most of September, it 
suffered considerable loss from sharpshooters ; then returned to the 
north bank of the James ; was active at Chaffin's farm, and Laurel 
Hill Church, where it held in check for two liours a force of the 
enemy outnumbering it ten to one; was next in action on the New- 
market road, where Gen. Plaisted accorded it credit for saving the 
Army of the James from disaster; was twice engaged on the Darby- 
town road, where in the first fight it went into action with but 90 
men, charging well manned intrenchments, and meeting with its first 
repulse, losing 46 killed and wounded. It next skirmished with the 
enemy at Johnson's plantation, and early in November was one of 
the regiments selected to go to New York to preserve order during 
the elections. In Nov. and Dec, 1864, its ranks were recruited up 
to about 800 men. In the final campaign of 1865, the loth, com- 
manded by Lieut. -Col. Goodyear, Col. Greeley being absent on leave, 
was engaged at Hatcher's run, and the next day six companies 
shared in the bloody and desperate assault on Fort Gregg, being the 
first to plant their colors on the parapet. Out of 13 officers and 180 
men in action, 8 officers and 118 men were killed or wounded. Gen. 
Gibbon, corps commander, presented the regiment with a bronze 
eagle in recognition of its service in this action. Lieut. -Col. Good- 
year being among the severely wounded, Capt. Hickerson assumed 



284 The Union Army 

command, and the loth now joined in the pursuit of Lee's army, 
cooperating with Sheridan's cavalry to cut off the further retreat of 
the Confederates. The regiment saw its last active service at Appo- 
mattox April 9, 1865, but remained at Richmond until Aug. 26, when 
it was ordered home and was mustered out at Hartford, Sept. S» 
1865. The total enrollment of the regiment, including 996 original 
members, 848 recruits and 280 reenlisted men, was 2,124. Its casual- 
ties were 119 killed and mortally wounded; 382 wounded; 41 captured; 
147 died of disease, accident or in prison; 283 were discharged for 
disability, and 14 were unaccounted for at muster out. 

Eleventh Infantry. — Cols., Thomas H. C. Kingsbury, Henry W. 
Kingsbury, Griffin A. Stedman, Jr., Randall H. Rice; Lieut.-Cols., 
Charles Mathewson, Griffin A. Stedman, Jr., William Moegling, Ran- 
dall H. Rice, Charles Warren; Majs., Griffin A. Stedman, Jr., William 
Moegling, Joseph H. Converse, John Kies, Randall H. Rice, Charles 
Warren, Henry J. McDonald. This regiment was recruited in the 
fall of 1861 at Camp Lincoln, Hartford, and was mustered into the 
U. S. service for three years on Nov. 27, 1861. On Dec. 16 it left 
the state for Annapolis, Md., with a numerical strength of 927 officers 
and men. At New York, while en route, it was presented with a 
handsome set of regimental colors. It was assigned to Gen. Burn- 
side's expedition on its arrival at Annapolis; sailed from Fortress 
Monroe on Jan. 6, 1862; participated in its first action at New Berne, 
N. C, meeting with some losses and then encamped on the Trent 
river until July, when it was ordered to join the Army of the Poto- 
mac at Fredericksburg, Va. Col. Kingsbury having resigned on March 
26, Henry W. Kingsbury of the U. S. Army was commissioned 
colonel on April 25. On the evacuation of Fredericksburg in Aug- 
ust, the nth returned to Washington, where it was assigned to Har- 
land's brigade, 9th corps, and moved with McClellan in the Maryland 
campaign. It was under fire at South mountain and was heavily 
engaged at Antietam, suffering a loss of 181 killed, wounded and 
missing, including every field officer. The gallant Col. Kingsbury 
was among the mortally wounded, and Lieut. -Col. Stedman succeeded 
to the command. The regiment was encamped most of the time until 
the battle of Fredericksburg at Pleasant valley, Md., and at Stafford 
hills, Va. It was not heavily engaged at Fredericksburg, being on 
the picket line, and lost only 11 men. After the battle it returned to 
its old camp and on Feb. 6, 1863, moved to Newport News, where it 
remained until March 13, when it was ordered to Suffolk. It was 
there employed in fatigue duty for a month and took part in the 
defense when Longstreet invested the town, engaging in reconnois- 
sances in the latter part of April and early days of May. When the 
siege was raised the regiment moved to Portsmouth, where, with 
the exception of the advance on Richmond at the end of June and 
early in July, it remained until October, when it was ordered to 
Gloucester Point, Va., and performed garrison duty at Fort Keyes. 
During the winter 268 men reenlisted for three years and received 
the usual veteran furlough of 30 days. The nth moved to Williams- 
burg, Va., in March, 1864, and here was recruited up to 882 enlisted 
men. It was assigned to the i8th corps, and, embarking on trans- 
ports proceeded up the James river, landing at Bermuda Hundred on 
May 4. It was in action at Swift creek, where it lost 12 men, and at 
Drewry's bluff its loss was nearly 200. Joining Grant at Cold Har- 
bor, it was in the front of the grand bayonet charge of June 3, losing 
91 killed, wounded and missing. Among the killed was Maj. Con- 



Connecticut Regiments 385 

verse. It remained at Cold Harbor until the I2th, when it returned 
with the corps to Bermuda Hundred. It shared in the siege of 
Petersburg from June 15 to Aug. 27, being engaged on Aug. 5, 
when Col. Stedman was killed and Lieut. -Col. Moeglin wounded. 
While in front of Petersburg the regiment reported a total loss of 
85 officers and men, and since the beginning of the spring campaign, 
May I, it had lost one-half its officers and over 400 men in action. 
Maj. Rice now assumed command of the regiment, which moved 
north of the James, where it was assigned to the ist brigade, 3d 
division, 24th corps. It was part of the forces which entered Rich- 
mond April 3, 1865, and assisted in subduing the conflagration which 
threatened the Confederate capital with destruction. It served here 
for a time on provost duty and was then detailed for similar duty 
in Southwestern Virginia until November, when it was ordered home. 
It was mustered out at Hartford, Dec. 21, 1865. Inclusive of about 
1,200 recruits, and 268 veterans, the total enrollment of the regiment 
was nearly 2,400 men. Its casualties during service were 141 killed 
and mortally wounded; 319 wounded; 155 captured; 169 died of 
disease, accident or in prison; 307 were discharged for disability, and 
30 were unaccounted for at muster out. 

Twelfth Infantry. — Cols., Henry C. Deming, Ledyard Colburn, 
Frank H. Peck; Lieut. -Cols., Ledyard Colburn, Frank H. Peck, 
George N. Lewis; Majs., Frank H. Peck, George N. Lewis, Sidney 
E. Clark. Recruiting for the 12th, known at the "Charter Oak regi- 
ment," began at Camp Lyon, Hartford, in Nov., 1861, and it was mus- 
tered into the U. S. service on Dec. 31, 1861, for three years. It 
was organized under the authority given Gen. Butler by the war 
department in September to recruit "The New England division" for 
special service. Its colonel. Mayor Deming of Hartford, was chosen 
by Gen. Butler, as was Ledyard Colburn, formerly major in the 3d 
Conn, (three months' troops). It was a finely drilled and disciplined 
regiment, numbering 1,008 men, and left the state for New York on 
Feb. 24, 1862. On the 27th it sailed for Ship island. Miss., arriv- 
ing there on March 8 when it was assigned to Gen. John W. Phelps' 
brigade. After the capture of New Orleans, it was stationed there 
and in the immediate vicinity throughout the rest of the year and 
the spring of 1863. In July, 1862, it shared in an expedition into 
the interior of Mississippi. On Sept. 29, 1862, it became a part of 
Gen. Weitzel's reserve brigade and was stationed at Camp Kearney, 
Carrollton, La. Its first engagement was at Georgia landing. La., 
where its loss was 19 in killed, wounded and missing, and it was 
complimented by Gen. Weitzel for steadiness under fire. Col. Deming 
having been detached to act as mayor of New Orleans, and Lieut. -Col. 
Colburn being detached on special duty, Maj. Peck was in command 
of the regiment. Col. Deming resigned Jan. 31, 1863. The 12th was 
part of the force which destroyed the Confederate gunboat "Cotton." 
Co. A, under Lieut. Bulkley, with other troops, while engaged in a 
reconnoissance on board the gunboat Diana, were captured after a 
gallant resistance, near Pattersonville, La. The regiment formed 
part of the Banks Red River expedition in April, 1863, and was 
actively engaged at Fort Bisland, losing 15 killed and wounded. On 
its return from this expedition it shared in the siege of Port Hudson, 
taking part in the two general assaults and losing during the siege 
108 officers and men. It continued to serve in the Department of 
the Gulf, attached to the army under Gen. Banks in Louisiana, occupy- 
ing Brashear City in July and sharing in an expedition to Opelousas 



286 The Union Army 

in October. It went into winter quarters late in the fall at New 
Iberia, where 436 of the men reenlisted in Jan. and Feb., 1864, for 
another three years, and left for home in March on veteran furlough. 
They returned to New Orleans on May 8, and the 12th remained in 
that vicinity until July 6, when it embarked for Fortress Monroe. 
It then joined the army under Gen. Sheridan in the Shenandoah 
Valley, and had its full share in Sheridan's brilliant campaign, espe- 
cially distinguishing itself at Winchester and Cedar creek. Its losses 
at Winchester were 71 killed and wounded. Among the killed was 
the gallant Col. Peck. It occupied an important position at Fisher's 
hill, but sustained no loss, though in the bloody battle of Cedar 
creek its losses were 170 killed, wounded and missing. The severe 
losses of the regiment, together with the near expiration of the term 
of service of those who had not reenlisted, made it necessary to 
consolidate the regiment into a battalion of six companies, which was 
accordingly done Dec. 2, 1864. The battalion was known as the 12th 
battalion Conn, veteran volunteer infantry, and continued to serve in 
Virginia, under the command of Lieut. -Col. Lewis. It went into 
winter quarters at Summit Point and on April 30, 1865, proceeded to 
Washington, where it participated in the grand review on May 23. 
On June i it proceeded by transport to Savannah, Ga., where it 
remained until it was mustered out on Aug. 12, 1865. It was then 
sent home and the men were finally paid and discharged at Hartford, 
Aug. 22, having been in service for 3 years and 9 months. It had 
received about 400 recruits, and its casualties during service were 
73 killed and mortally wounded; 229 wounded; 144 captured; 180 
died of disease, accident or in prison; 188 were discharged for disa- 
bility, and 2 were unaccounted for at muster out. The large per- 
centage of loss from disease and disability is largely due to the long 
service of the regiment in the extreme South. 

Thirteenth Infantry. — Cols., Henry W. Birge, Charles D. Blinn; 
Lieut.-Cols., Alexander Warner, Charles D. Blinn, Homer B. Sprague; 
Majs., Richard E. Holcomb, Homer B. Sprague, Apollos Comstock. 
This regiment was organized at New Haven during the fall and winter 
of 1861, headquarters being established in Durham & Booth's ware- 
bouse on Chapel street, Nov. 25, where the men remained in barracks 
throughout the winter. The regiment was mustered into the U. S. 
service on Feb. 18, 1862, for three years, and was composed of excellent 
material. All the field officers had seen previous service — Col. Birge 
as major of the ist heavy artillery, Lieut.-Col. Warner as major, and 
Maj. Holcomb as quartermaster of the 3d infantry. It left March 
17, 1862, for Ship island. Miss., numbering 1,017 officers and men, 
and arrived at its destination on April 13. Entering New Orleans on 
May 12, it was stationed at the custom house and assigned to provost 
duty, while Col. Birge was placed in command of the defenses of 
the city. While here a number of recruits, principally Germans, were 
secured. In the fall it was assigned to the reserve brigade, con- 
sisting of the i2th and 13th Conn., ist La., 75th N. Y., 8th N. H., 
four companies of cavalry and two batteries, under command of Gen. 
Weitzel. With this brigade the 13th participated in its first battle 
at Georgia landing. La., losing i killed, 13 wounded, and i captured. 
It remained encamped at Camp Stevens, Thibodeaux, from Oct. 30 
to Dec. 27, and moved thence to Baton Rouge, where it went into 
camp for the remainder of the winter on the arsenal grounds. On 
March 13, 1863, it shared in the movement of Banks' army to the 
rear of Port Hudson, a diversion in favor of Farragut's fleet, which 



Connecticut Regiments 287 

was engaged in an efifort to run the batteries. On March 28 it 
started for the Red River country, Col. Birge in command of the 
brigade, and Lieut. -Col. Warner commanding the regiment. It 
skirmished at Sand beach; was heavily engaged at the battle of Irish 
bend, losing 53 killed and wounded ; fought at Vermilion bayou, and 
by May 11 had advanced within 13 miles of Alexandria. Return- 
ing by way of the Atchafalaya river and Bayou Sara, it shared in the 
long siege of Port Hudson, participating in the assaults of May 
27 and June 14, with an aggregate loss of 22 men. When, after the 
unsuccessful assault of June 14, Gen. Banks called for volunteers to 
form a storming column of 1,000 men, 16 officers and 225 men of the 
13th responded, but the fall of Vicksburg rendered the movement 
unnecessary, as Port Hudson surrendered on July 9. The regiment 
then moved to Donaldsonville, where it skirmished with Gen. Taylor's 
forces, after which it was ordered to Brashear City and remained on 
outpost duty there until Aug. 19, when it returned to Carrollton. 
On Aug. 30 it moved to Thibodeaux, on Bayou La Fourche, where it 
remained in permanent camp for six months. During the winter 
1863-64 about 300 of the original members reenlisted for an additional 
term of three years. The 13th, under the command of Col. Blinn, 
participated in the second Red River expedition in the spring of 1864; 
was engaged at Cane river, with a loss of 24 killed and wounded, and was 
constantly skirmishing during the retreat, but participated in no other 
pitched battles. From May 21 to July 2, 1864, it was stationed at 
Morganza, when it proceeded to New Orleans; on the 14th it em- 
barked under sealed orders on the steamer Columbia, and, when 
opened, the orders directed it to proceed to Fortress Monroe, from 
which point the veterans went home on 30 days furlough. In Sep- 
tember the regiment joined Molineux's brigade, 19th corps, which 
formed part of Gen. Sheridan's army operating in the Shenandoah 
Valley, and participated in the brilliant campaign which followed. 
It was engaged at Winchester, with an aggregate loss of 79. Among 
the captured was Lieut. -Col. Sprague, in command of the regiment. 
It was again engaged with the enemy at Fisher's hill, but with 
only slight loss; took part in the battle of Winchester, losing 28 
officers and men, Maj. Comstock being among the wounded; then 
went into winter quarters at Camp Russell near Winchester until 
Dec. I, when it moved to Martinsburg. Later in the month, the 
term of service of the regiment having expired, the non-veterans left 
for New Haven to be mustered out and the veterans and recruits 
were consolidated into a battalion of five companies. In Jan., 1865, 
this battalion was ordered to Savannah, Ga. ; arrived there on the 
19th, and remained there until March 12, when it moved to New 
Berne, N. C, remaining there until the war ended. In May it was 
ordered to proceed to Augusta, Ga., where it performed provost duty 
until Aug. 25, when it moved to Gainesville to operate against bush- 
whackers; moved to Athens, Ga., on Oct. 17, and performed provost 
duty in that vicinity during the balance of the year. From Jan. 3, 
1866, to the following April, it performed similar service in the dis- 
trict of Allatoona, with headquarters at Atlanta. On April 13, 1866, 
it proceeded to Fort Pulaski, Ga., where it was mustered out on the 
25th, but the men were finally paid and discharged at Hart island, 
N. Y., May 5-7, 1866, after a service of 4 years, 5 months and 8 days. 
Besides its reputation as a hard fighting regiment, it was especially 
commended for its fine appearance and high state of discipline — 
qualities which kept it in service on provost and guard duty long 



288 The Union Army 

after the war closed. During its term of service, 298 of the members 
reenlisted and it received about 475 recruits. Its list of casualties 
include 41 killed and mortally wounded; 139 wounded; 59 captured; 
143 died in prison, by accident or disease; 121 discharged for disabil- 
ity, and 6 unaccounted for at muster out. The 13th battalion had 3 
wounded; 13 died of disease, and 32 discharged for disability. 

Fourteenth Infantry. — Cols., Dwight Morris, Theodore G. Ellis; 
Lieut. -Cols., Sanford H. Perkins, Theodore G. Ellis, Samuel A. Moore; 
Majs., Cyrus C. Clark, Theodore G. Ellis, Samuel A. Moore, James B. 
Coit, John C. Broatch, William B. Hincks. This regiment, recruited 
from the state at large, was organized in the summer of 1862. Re- 
cruiting began in the latter part of May, but the ranks filled slowly 
until after McClellan's reverses on the Peninsula, and the president's 
call for 300,000 men on July 2, when the regiment filled up rapidly. 
The men rendezvoused at Camp Foote, Hartford, and were here mus- 
tered into the U. S. service for three years, Aug. 23, 1862. On the 
2Sth, with 1,015 officers and men, the 14th left the state for Wash- 
ington, and with almost no opportunity ifor drill, it was hurried into 
the Maryland campaign. It was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 3d 
division, 2nd corps, Army of the Potomac, and suffered severely in 
its first engagement, the bloody battle of Antietam, losing 137 
killed, wounded and missing, but "behaving like veterans." During 
the succeeding two months it was occupied in picket and guard duty 
at Bolivar heights and Belle Plain. It again suffered heavily at Fred- 
ericksburg, forming part of the first division that charged the stone 
wall at the foot of Marye's heights, its losses aggregating 122 killed, 
wounded and missing. Lieut. -Col. Perkins and Maj. Clark were 
among the severely wounded. The regiment was already terribly 
reduced in numbers, after less than four months' service, having less 
than 400 effective men. It remained throughout the winter of 1862-63 
near Falmouth, doing picket duty along the Rappahannock opposite 
Fredericksburg, and on April 28, 1863, it moved with the army on the 
Chancellorsville campaign. It was again actively engaged at Chan- 
cellorsville, losing 56 killed, wounded and missing; then returned once 
more to its camp near Falmouth until it moved on the Gettysburg 
campaign. It reached the field of Gettysburg on July i, and again 
demonstrated its splendid qualities as a fighting regiment on that 
sanguinary field. On the afternoon of the 3d, it ca2tured 5 battle- 
flags and over 200 prisoners. Though reduced to the size of a bat- 
talion, its losses aggregated 66. After the battle it joined with the 
army in the pursuit of Lee, skirmishing at Falling Waters. It then 
moved to Catlett's station, Va., and did picket duty along Elk run. 
Cedar run and near Bristoe Station until Sept. 12. It received its 
first instalment of recruits on Aug. 6, and during the next few months 
its ranks were swelled once more to the proportions of a full regi- 
ment. It participated in all the marching and countermarching of 
the fall campaign ; was engaged in a skirmish at Auburn and Bristoe 
Station, losing 26 men in the latter action; skirmished with the enemy 
at Blackburn's ford; took part in the Mine Run campaign, in which 
it lost 14 men; then returned to Stevensburg, and finally went into 
winter quarters at Stony mountain, near the Rapidan river. It lost 
heavily in the engagement at Morton's ford in Feb., 1864, which was 
partly a hand-to-hand fight in the dark, where the regiment displayed 
its usual splendid bravery, its losses amounting to 115 killed, wounded 
and missing, one-half that of the whole division engaged. When the 
army was reorganized for the campaign of 1864, the 14th was assigned 



Connecticut Regiments 289 

to the 3d brigade, 2nd division, 2nd corps, with which it fought at 
the Wilderness, Laurel hill, Spottsylvania, North Anna river Toto- 
potomy and Cold Harbor. Its losses were very heavy during this 
period, amounting to a total of 185 killed, wounded and missing. From 
June 15 to July 6 it was engaged in the siege operations before Peters- 
burg, losing 14 more men; was active at Deep Bottom, losing 7, and 
at Reams' station during the movement for the destruction of the 
Weldon railroad; was heavily engaged in the last named action and 
lost 50 officers and enlisted men, being under fire from three direc- 
tions at one time and fought part of the time from the reverse side 
of its own breastworks. After this battle it returned to the trenches 
before Petersburg, where it was exposed daily to the fire of the Con- 
federate sharpshooters and batteries. It was in the battle at Hatcher's 
run late in October, 1864, losing 29 men, and during the winter had 
only a few weeks of comparative rest while encamped near Fort 
Clark. On Feb. S, 1865, the 14th was ordered from its snug quarters 
to participate in the action at Hatcher's run, losing 6 men, and on 
March 25 it shared in a movement on the farther side of the run, 
intended as a diversion at the time the enemy attacked Fort Sted- 
man. Three days later it moved on the final campaign, which ended 
with Lee's surrender at Appomattox, the regiment being constantly 
marching and skirmishing. It fought at High bridge and Farmville; 
■was present at the final surrender, after which it moved to Alexandria, 
Va. It participated in the grand review at Washington on May 23, 
and on the 30th the recruits were transferred to the 2nd Conn, heavy 
artillery, and the original members were mustered out near Alexan- 
dria. On June 3 the regiment reached Hartford, where it was given 
a grand ovation. In proportion to its numbers and the length of 
service it had the largest percentage of losses in killed, wounded and 
died in the service of any Connecticut regiment. It also participated 
in more battles — 34 battles and skirmishes in all — and many of them 
among the greatest and bloodiest of the war. It has the record of 
never losing a color, but captured several from the enemy. Its list 
of casualties shows 188 killed and fatally wounded; 11 missing in 
action, probably killed; 552 wounded; 191 captured; 189 died of disease, 
in prison or by accident; 319 were discharged for disability and 15 
■were unaccounted for at muster out. 

Fifteenth Infantry.— Cols., Dexter R. Wright, Charles L. Upham; 
Lieut.-Col., Samuel Tolles; Maj., Eli W. Osborn. The 15th was 
recruited from New Haven county during July and Aug., 1862, and 
■was mustered into the U. S. service for three years, at Oyster point, 
New Haven, the place of rendezvous, Aug. 26, 1862. Mai. Osborn 
had been a captain in the three months' service, and Lieut.-Col. Tolles 
had some previous experience as a militia officer. On Aug. 28, 1862, 
with 1,022 officers and men, it left for Washington, where it received 
its arms and camp equipage and remained there on guard duty until 
Dec. I, when it was ordered to Falmouth, Va., and assigned to the 
3d brigade, ist division, 9th corps. The brigade (Harland's) was 
made up of the 8th, nth, 15th, i6th and 21st Conn, regiments, and as it 
was held in reserve at Fredericksburg, the 15th sustained a loss of 
only 10 killed and wounded. After the battle it remained encamped 
at Falmouth for two months, then moved to Newport News and a 
month later to Suffolk, Va., where Charles L. Upham took command 
after the resignation of Col. Wright. Fatigue, guard and picket duties 
■occupied the regiment during the siege of Suffolk, varied by two 
reconnoissances (April 24 and May 3) attended by slight loss. It 
Vo!. 1—19 



290 The Union Army 

shared in the expedition of Gen. Dix up the Peninsula in July, in 
the eflfort to draw Lee from his position, and returned to camp at 
Portsmouth much exhausted after its forced march of 120 miles in 
hot weather to the vicinity of Richmond. It remained encamped at 
Portsmouth and South mills until Jan. 21, 1864, when it was ordered 
to Plymouth, N. C, remaining on provost duty most of the time 
until the following March at New Berne, N. C. It suffered a heavy 
visitation of yellow fever during the summer and fall of 1864, losing 
over 70 men by death from the scourge and as many more disabled. 
During the winter it received a large number of recruits. On March 
2, 1865, it was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, District of 
Beaufort, Col. Upham being in command of the brigade, and ordered 
to join the expedition against Goldsboro. While h,otly engaged at 
Kinston, it was suddenly enveloped by a division of the enemy under 
Gen. Hoke and a large part of the brigade was captured. Its loss in 
killed, wounded and missing was 475, most of whom were taken 
prisoners, but were soon paroled and exchanged and rejoined the 
regiment, which was assigned to provost duty at Kinston, remaining 
there until June 6, when it moved to New Berne for muster out. By 
order of Gen. Schofield, commanding the department, all members 
whose term of service did not expire before Sept. 30, 1865, were 
transferred to the 7th Conn, infantry on June 24. The regiment, to 
the number of 815 officers and men, was mustered out on June 27 and 
on the 30th left for New Haven, where the men were finally paid and 
discharged on July 12, 1865. It had been in service 2 years and 10 
months and its total enrolment, including 595 recruits, was 1,617. 
Its losses during service were 40 killed, 68 wounded, 468 captured, 
150 died of disease, accident or in prison, 160 discharged for disability, 
and 9 unaccounted for at muster out. 

Sixteenth Infantry. — Col., Frank Beach; Lieut.-Cols., Frank W. 
Cheney, John M. Burnham; Majs., George A. Washburn, Henry L. 
Pasco. This was a Hartford county regiment, organized in Aug., 
1862, and mustered into the U. S. service for three years at Hartford on 
Aug. 24. Under command of Col. Beach of the regular army, it left 
for Washington on the 29th; was encamped for a few days at Arling- 
ton heights; was then hurried forward, with no opportunity to learn 
even the rudiments of military science, to join the Army of the Poto- 
mac, on the eve of the battle of Antietam. On the evening before 
the battle it was assigned to the 2nd brigade (Harland's), 3d division, 
9th corps, and despite its rawness, displayed creditable heroism on 
the field of Antietam, losing as many men as any other Connecticut 
regiment engaged, its loss in killed, wounded and missing, aggregating 
185, including 5 commissioned officers killed and 8 wounded. Among 
the severely wounded were Lieut. -Col. Cheney and Maj. Washburn, 
who were both compelled to resign their commissions. The i6th was 
not heavily engaged at Fredericksburg, being in reserve with the 
rest of its brigade. After two months in camp before Fredericksburg, 
it was ordered to Newport News and about five weeks later, moved, 
with its brigade, to Suflfolk, where it remained throughout the siege 
being twice engaged in skirmishes on the Edenton and Providence 
Church roads, with some loss. About the middle of June it moved 
to Portsmouth, where it joined the expedition of Gen. Dix up the 
Peninsula, known as the "Blackberry Raid," to the vicinity of Rich- 
mond, involving forced marches in hot weather of over 120 miles. 
Then followed some quiet months of camp life at Portsmouth, during 
which the regiment gained an enviable name for discipline, good order. 



Connecticut Regiments 291 

and fine soldierly behavior. On Jan. 21, 1864, it was ordered to 
Plymouth, N. C, from which point several raids were made into the 
interior, capturing a large amount of stores, burning cotton and to- 
bacco, and taking a number of prisoners. On March 3 it was ordered 
to New Berne, where it performed garrison duty until the 20th, when 
it returned to Plymouth. The garrison at Plymouth was attacked by 
the enemy in force on April 17, and after a desperate resistance, was 
forced to surrender on the 20th. The losses in the i6th, including 
the captured, were 436. Co. H, which was on detached service at 
Roanoke island, was not included in the surrender. During the long 
months of imprisonment which followed, at Andersonville, Charles- 
ton and Florence, the men endured untold hardships and privations 
and nearly one-half of them died in prison. The paroling of prisoners 
of war began in Nov., 1864, and continued throughout the winter. 
The wretched survivors, after being paroled and exchanged, rejoined 
their regiment at New Berne in April and May, 1865. A few had 
escaped from prison, a few were exchanged earlier, and these, with 
Co. H and some on detached service or sick leave, composed the 
regiment in actual service. The story of how the brave men of the 
i6th who were captured saved their colors, by tearing them in strips 
and concealing them about their persons all through the dreary days 
of their confinement, is one eloquent of devotion and patriotism. 
Such remnants as survived the ordeal are now sacredly preserved in 
the form of a shield sewn on a white silk banner, which was deposited 
with the other flags of the state at the capitol on "Battle Flag Day," 
Sept. 17, 1879. The sadly depleted regiment was stationed at Roanoke 
island, N. C., until March 4, 1865, engaging meanwhile in expeditions 
to Foster's mills, Hertford and up the Alligator river, and in several 
raids to Columbia, Edenton, etc. At New Berne the regiment re- 
mained in the performance of provost duty until the date of its mus- 
ter out, June 24, 1865. It had been in service for 2 years and 10 
months, and 83 recruits had been forwarded from Connecticut. Its 
losses during service were y6 killed and mortally wounded, 167 
wounded, 459 captured, 160 died in prison, 85 died of disease or from 
accident, 255 were discharged for disability, and 11 were unaccounted 
for at muster out. 

Seventeenth Infantry, — Col., William H. Noble; Lieut.-Cols., 
Charles Walter, Douglas Fowler, Albert W. Wilcoxson, Henry Allen; 
Majs., Allen G. Brady, Henry Allen. This regiment, recruited almost 
entirely from Fairfield county, was organized in Aug., 1862. It ren- 
dezvoused at Bridgeport, was mustered into the U. S. service for 
three years, Aug. 28, 1862, and left for Washington, 1,000 strong, on 
Sept. 3. It was stationed in the defenses of Baltimore and Wasli- 
ington until Nov. S, when it was ordered to report to Gen. Sigel at 
Gainesville, Va., where it was assigned to the 2nd brigade, ist division, 
Sigel's corps, the brigade being made up of the 25th, 5Sth, 7Sth and 
107th Ohio and 17th Conn. Later on the 157th N. Y. was added, and 
these regiments continued to serve together during the rest of the 
war. The nth corps (Sigel's) was held as a reserve to Gen. Burn- 
side's advance and after the battle of Fredericksburg spent the winter 
in camps at Stafford Court House, Belle Plain, and Brooke's station, 
Va. The first battle of the 17th was the disastrous one of Chancel- 
lorsville, where the nth corps, now commanded by Gen. Howard, 
was surprised and routed by Stonewall Jackson. In the midst of 
the confusion all about them, the 17th did all that brave men 
could do, but Col. Noble found it a hopeless task to rally the regi- 



292 The Union Army 

ment amid the prevailing rout. Its loss in the battle was 120 killed, 
wounded and missing. Lieut.-Col. Walter was among the killed. 
Col. Noble was severely wounded and had his horse shot under him. 
It then rested with its corps near Brooke's station until the movement 
began which resulted in the battle of Gettysburg. It arrived on that 
field during the midst of the first day's fighting and was posted on 
the extreme right at Oak hill. It was at this point that it suffered 
its greatest loss, when struck by an overwhelming force of the enemy 
under Gen. Gordon. Lieut.-Col. Fowler was killed and Maj. Brady 
was severely wounded by a piece of shell. The regiment's total loss 
was 198 killed, wounded and missing. During the last two days of 
the battle it was posted at the northern foot of Cemetery hill. With 
the army it followed Lee's retreating forces until they crossed the 
Potomac into Virginia, and in August, with its division, was ordered 
to Alexandria, there to take transports for Folly island, S. C. With 
its brigade, under Gen. Ames, it was soon ordered to Morris island, 
where it was often in the siege works approaching Fort Wagner and 
sustained some losses. After the fall of Fort Wagner it encamped 
on Folly island until the latter part of Feb., 1864, the monotony of 
camp life being broken only by a brief expedition to St. John's island. 
At the above date it embarked for Jacksonville, Fla., and after a month 
there, relieved the loth Conn, at St. Augustine, which remained its 
headquarters until the end of the war. On May 19, 1864, 39 men and 
2 officers, holding the picket posts at Welaka and Saunders, on the 
St. John's river, were captured by the enemy and sent to Anderson- 
ville. The regiment was engaged during the year in several success- 
ful raids, though none were of great military importance. On Dec. 
24, 1864, while returning from Jacksonville to St. Augustine, Col. 
Noble was captured by guerrillas and taken to Macon and Anderson- 
ville. While engaged in an expedition to Braddock's farm, south of 
Dunn's lake, early in Feb., 1865, the regiment, under Lieut.-Col. Wil- 
coxson was attacked on its return by Dixon's cavalry and in the 
light Adjt. Chatfield was killed and 32 rnen and 2 officers were captured. 
The prisoners were taken to Andersonville. On June 9, 1865, the 
regiment was ordered to rendezvous at Jacksonville, whence it pro- 
ceeded to Hilton Head and was there mustered out on July 19, having 
been in service for 2 years, 11 months. Its total enrollment, including 
175 recruits, was 1,175. Its losses were 47 killed and mortally 
wounded, 145 wounded, 253 captured, "jd died of disease, in prison or 
by accident, 209 were discharged for disability, and 9 were un- 
accounted for at muster out. 

Eighteenth Infantry. — Col., William G. Ely; Lieut.-Cols., Monroe 
Nichols, Henry Peale; Majs., Ephraim Keech, Jr., Henry Peale, 
Joseph Mathewson. The i8th was composed of men from New London 
and Windham counties and was rapidly recruited during Aug., 1862, 
under the supervision of Gen. Daniel Tyler. The men rendezvoused 
at Camp Aiken, Norwich. William G. Ely, promoted from the 
lieutenant-colonelcy of the 6th Conn., was commissioned colonel. It 
was mustered into the U. S. service on Aug. 22, 1862, for three years, 
and left for Washington the same day, with a numerical strength of 
998 officers and men. It was the first regiment to leave the state under 
the president's call of July 2 for 300,000 volunteers and was stationed 
at Baltimore in the performance of guard and garrison duty until 
May 22, 1863, when it was ordered to the Shenandoah Valley. Its 
first fighting was at the battle of_ Winchester, when Gen. Milroy's 
command of 7,000 men was overwhelmed by Gen. Early with a much 



Connecticut Regiments 293 

superior force. The regiment won praise from Milroy for the desperate 
valor it displayed. During its third and last charge, it disabled a 
battery of the enemy, but, charging into the center of Gen. Johnson's 
division, over 500 of its officers and men were captured. Its total 
loss in the engagement was 567. The regimental colors were saved 
by Color-Sergt. George Torrey. Most of the prisoners were soon 
paroled and exchanged. Co. D had escaped intact, as it was detailed 
for provost duty at Winchester. Nothing of moment occurred until 
April 26, 1864, when the i8th was ordered to Martinsburg, W. Va., 
to join the forces gathered there under Gen. Sigel. It shared in 
Sigel's defeat at Newmarket, where its casualties were 56; was again 
heavily engaged at Piedmont, with a loss of 122; had 12 men wounded 
in the engagement at Lynchburg; went into the engagement at 
Snicker's ford with only about 150 men and lost 32 in killed, wounded 
and missing; was again engaged at Winchester in July, but with small 
loss; arrived at Berryville after a long series of marches, and partici- 
pated in its last fight there Sept. 3, 1864. It continued to serve in 
the District of West Virginia until its final muster out on June 27, 
1865, at Harper's Ferry. The regiment had received about 200 re- 
cruits, so that its total enrollment was nearly 1,200. It served for 
2 years and 10 months, during which it participated in 20 general 
engagements and skirmishes. Its losses were 61 killed and fatally 
wounded, 235 wounded, 656 captured, 94 died of disease, accident or 
in prison, 102 were discharged for disability, and i was unaccounted 
for at muster out. 

Nineteenth Infantry. — (See 2nd Heavy Artillery.) 
Twentieth Infantry. — Col., Samuel Ross; Lieut. -Cols., William B. 
Wooster, Philo B. Buckingham; Majs., P. B. Buckingham, Henry 
C. Pardee. The 20th was one of the eight regiments furnished by the 
state in response to the president's call of July 2, 1862, for 300,000 
volunteers to serve for three years. It was recruited during Aug., 

1862, from the counties of New Haven and Hartford, rendezvoused at 
New Haven, and was mustered into the U. S. service for three years 
on Sept. 8, 1862. It left for Washington on the nth, with 981 officers 
and men, and on Oct. 2 reported to Gen. Williams at Harper's Ferry, 
where it was assigned to the 2nd brigade, ist division, 12th corps. 
Army of the Potomac. It reported at Stafford Court House, Va., 
April I, 1863, and on the 27th moved with the army, under Gen. 
Hooker, on the Chancellorsville campaign. In the battle there it was 
commanded by Lieut.-Col. Wooster, Col. Ross being in command of 
the 2nd brigade. The regiment was highly commended for its bravery 
during the engagement and was among the last to retreat. Its losses 
were 197 killed, wounded and prisoners. It participated in the battle 
of Gettysburg as part of the ist brigade, ist division, 12th corps. 
Gen. Williams commanding the corps, which on the 3d day of the 
battle was stationed on Gulp's hill, on the extreme right of the line, 
where the 20th distinguished itself. For 7 long hours the corps held 
Ewell's command at bay, and finally drove it back with heavy loss, 
the regiment losing during the engagement 5 men killed, and 23 
wounded. The 20th then joined in the pursuit of Lee and on July 
16, was once more at their old camp at Pleasant valley. In Sept., 

1863. it was transferred to the Army of the Cumberland and arrived 
at Bridgeport, Ala., on Oct. 3. The autumn months were taken up 
with fatigue and picket duties and some slight skirmishing. While 
a part of the regiment was on garrison duty at Tracy City, Tenn., it 
was attacked by the enemy's cavalry, but the attack was repulsed, 



294 The Union Army 

Capt. Upson being mortally wounded during the engagement. In 
April, 1864, the nth and 12th corps were united to form the 20th, 
with which the regiment remained until the close of the war. Early 
in May it moved with Sherman's army on the Atlanta campaign; was 
engaged at Boyd's trail, Resaca, and Cassville, which place it and the 
19th Mich, captured. It lost 17 men at Resaca, and at Peachtree creek, 
July 20, it lost 55 killed, wounded and missing, among the wounded 
being 6 commissioned officers. It participated in the siege of Atlanta 
in July and was among the first troops to enter the city, when it finally 
fell on Sept. 2. It remained at Atlanta doing fatigue duty and fur- 
nishing large details for work on the fortifications about the city 
until Nov. 15, when it moved with Sherman on the march to the sea, 
arriving at Savannah on Dec. 10. It was occupied in the siege opera- 
tions there until the 21st, when it entered the city with the 20th corps. 
Early in Jan., 1865, it started on the march through the Carolinas, 
being engaged with the enemy at Silver run, with a loss of 19 officers 
and men; at Bentonville, where it lost 36 men killed, wounded and 
missing; arrived at Raleigh, N. C, April 16, whence it proceeded 
north through Richmond to Washington, reaching there on May 20. 
It marched in the grand review and then encamped near Fort Lincoln 
until it was finally mustered out June 13, 1865, numbering 506 present 
and absent. During its 2 years and 9 months of arduous service it 
always maintained its reputation for valor, discipline and soldierly 
bearing, a credit to itself and an honor to its state. It received about 
300 recruits during service, giving it a total enrollment of nearly 
1,300 officers and men. Its list of casualties include 82 killed and 
mortally wounded, 209 wounded, 113 captured, 82 died of disease, 
accident or in prison, 203 were discharged for disability, and 5 were 
unaccounted for at muster out. 

Twenty-first Infantry. — Cols., Arthur H. Dutton, Thomas F. 
Burpee, Hiram B. Crosby; Lieut.-Cols., Thomas F. Burpee, Hiram 
B. Crosby, James F. Brown; Majs., Hiram B. Crosby, William Spittle, 
Charles T. Stanton, James F. Brown. This regiment, recruited from 
Hartford, New London and Windham counties during Aug., 1862, 
rendezvoused at Norwich, and was there mustered into the U. S. 
service for three years, Sept. 5, 1862. Col. Dutton was appointed to 
the command from the regular army and brought the regiment to a 
high state of efficiency before being appointed to the command of a 
brigade on Dec. 11, 1862. The 21st, numbering 966 officers and men, 
left for Washington on Sept. 11 and was assigned to the Army of 
the Potomac. Its long march of 175 miles — from Pleasant valley, 
Md., to Falmouth, Va., — in 12 days, and the hardships and exposure 
of that first winter on the plains of Falmouth will never be forgotten. 
It was brigaded with the 25th N. J.. 13th N. H., and 4th R. I., to 
form the 3d brigade, 3d division, 9th corps. Col. Dutton being in 
command of the brigade. Its first engagement was at Fredericks- 
burg, where it lost i commissioned officer, and 5 men wounded. It 
was one of the eighteen regiments from the 9th corps, selected by 
Gen. Burnside to lead the "forlorn hope" on the morning of the 14th, 
but fortunately the attack was abandoned at the last moment. In 
Feb., 1863, it joined the Army of the James at Fortress Monroe; was 
encamped at Newport News until March 13, when it was ordered to 
Suflfolk; shared in the defense of that place during the siege; sup- 
ported the Irish Legion on the Edenton road; was active at Reed's 
ferry on the Nansemond river, being commended for its services 
during that skirmish ; served as provost guard for Gen. Dix's com- 



Connecticut Regiments 295 

mand on the "Blackberry Raid" to Whitehouse Landing, and on the 
return of the expedition was on provost duty at Portsmouth and Nor- 
folk for about five months. It then returned to Newport News for 
about six weeks, a detachment of the regiment sharing in the raid 
on the Brandon farm. On Feb. 3, 1864, it embarked under sealed 
orders for Morehead City, N. C, a little later moved to Newport 
barracks and Little Washington, N. C. ; thence to New Berne, where 
it remained until April; then returned to Portsmouth, Va., whence it 
was ordered to proceed to Bermuda Hundred. It was heavily engaged 
at Drewry's bluff, where the members of the regiment displayed 
great individual coolness and judgment in action. Its loss was 107 
killed, wounded and missing. During a reconnoissance May 26, the 
gallant Col. Dutton was mortally wounded and Lieut.-Col. Burpee 
assumed command. Returning on May 29 to White House landing, 
it moved thence to Cold Harbor and was hotly engaged there June 3, 
losing 43 killed and wounded. On June 9 Col. Burpee was mortally 
wounded by a sharpshooter, while going his rounds as brigade officer 
of the day. The regiment remained in front of Petersburg until 
Sept. 3, and shared in the first assaults of the army on that city. 
At the explosion of "the mine," July 30, it was posted well forward 
among the supports, where it was exposed to a severe enfilading 
fire and lost 15 killed and wounded. While in the trenches before 
Petersburg its entire loss was 49 officers and men. It shared in the 
capture of Fort Harrison, losing 30 men, which was its last general 
engagement, and then went into winter quarters, performing the usual 
routine of camp and picket duty. On March 4, 1865, it shared in an 
expedition to Fredericksburg to prevent the smuggling of tobacco 
across the river in exchange for supplies, which movement resulted 
in the destruction of 28 car-loads of tobacco, valued at $1,300,000, and 
the capture of 30 prisoners. As a result of this raid it was chosen 
to occupy the intrenchments around Richmond, and it was among the 
first to enter that city on the occasion of its evacuation, April 3, 
1865. Nothing of importance occurred afterwards and the regiment 
was mustered out of the service, June 16, 1865, leaving an excellent 
record for bravery and good soldierly conduct. It had served for 2 
years and 9 months and had received during that time 80 recruits. 
Its losses were 59 killed and mortally wounded, 187 wounded, 41 
captured, 115 died of disease, accident or in prison, 206 were dis- 
charged for disability, and 3 were unaccounted for at muster out. 

Twenty-second Infantry. — Col., George S. Burnham; Lieut.-Col., 
Ellsworth N. Phelps; Maj., Herman Glafcke. This regiment was 
the first to respond to the call of Aug. 4, 1862, for 300,000 militia to 
serve for nine months. With the exception of Co. K, from Tolland 
county, the men were recruited from Hartford county and attracted 
by the short term of service, for which they felt they could absent 
themselves from their usual avocations, were of a high order of 
intelligence. The regiment was rapidly recruited and by Sept. 3, 
1862, had assembled, nearly 1,000 strong at the rendezvous, Camp 
Halleck, Hartford. Col. Burnham had previously served as colonel 
of the 1st Conn, infantry and was a skillful and experienced officer. 
The 22nd was mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 20, 1862, and 
embarked for New York on Oct. 2, proceeding thence by rail to 
Washington, where it was assigned to the Army of the Potomac, 
and stationed during the winter at Miner's hill, about 8 miles from 
the city. It was brigaded with the 40th Mass., nth R. I., and 141st 
N. Y., under the command of Gen. Robert Cowdin, and later Col. 



296 The Union Army 

Burr Porter of the 40th Mass. Gen. Abercrombie commanded the 
division, and Gen. Heintzelman was at this time in general command 
of the defenses of Washington. On April 15, 1863, it embarked for 
Norfolk; proceeded thence to Suffolk, sharing in the siege of that 
place until May 3; then moved to West Point, where it encamped for 
three weeks, and moved thence by transport to Yorktown Plains. 
After participating in the "Blackberry Raid," it returned to Yorktown 
and on June 26, its term of service having expired, it returned to 
Hartford, where it was mustered out July 7, 1863. The regiment was 
given no opportunity to show its mettle on the field of battle. Its 
casualties during service were, 18 died of disease, 2 by accident, 31 dis- 
charged for disability, and 1 unaccounted for at muster out. 

Twenty-third Infantry. — Col.. Charles E. L. Holmes; Lieut.-Col., 
Charles W. Woddin; Maj., David H. Miller. This regiment was re- 
cruited from the counties of Fairfield and New Haven during Aug. 
and Sept., 1862, rendezvoused at Camp Terry, New Haven, and was 
mustered into the U. S. service for nine months on Nov. 14. Cos. 
A, D, E, and G volunteered from the active state militia. The regiment 
was assigned to Gen. Banks' expedition, and with 848 officers and men 
left for Camp Buckingham, L. I., Nov. 17, 1862. Seven companies 
sailed for Ship island. Miss., on the 20th and proceeded thence to 
New Orleans, where they were assigned to Weitzel's brigade, 19th 
corps. On Jan. 11, 1863, they moved to Brashear City, and were 
detailed for railroad guard duty on the New Orleans & Opelousas 
railroad, Cos. B and E being stationed at headquarters. Camp Weitzel, 
La Fourche crossing. The remaining three companies sailed from 
New York on Dec. 30, 1862. They were wrecked en route on 
Stranger's key, Bahama islands, and finally arrived at New Orleans 
on March 4, 1863. The regiment was engaged in railroad guard duty 
along the above mentioned line until June 23, when it was ordered 
to fall back to New Orleans. On June i, four companies under Capt. 
Crofut drove off a force of the enemy who had attacked the hospital 
across the bay at Brashear and then covered the working parties 
while they removed the sick and the government property. A part 
of the regiment was engaged with the enemy under Gen. Dick Taylor 
at La Fourche crossing in June, other detachments being engaged 
with the same enemy at Brashear City, and Bayou Boeuf. During 
this raid of Taylor, the 23d had 7 captains and 7 lieutenants cap- 
tured, who were sent to Tyler, Tex., and held as prisoners for 14 
months. A number of privates were also captured, but were paroled 
and returned to the Union lines. After this the 23d was encamped in 
and near New Orleans until Aug. 7, when it left for New Haven, via 
Cairo, 111., arriving on Aug. 28. It was mustered out on Sept. i, 
1863, having lost during service 10 killed and mortally wounded, 17 
wounded, 17 captured, 43 who died of disease, 2 by accident, 3 dis- 
charged for disability, and 2 were unaccounted for at muster out. 

Twenty-fourth Infantry. — Col., Samuel B. Mansfield; Lieut.-Col., 
John D. Allison; Maj., Patrick Maher. The 24th was organized in 
Sept., 1862. Six companies were recruited from Middlesex county 
and the other four — three of them Irish — from Hartford, New Haven 
and Fairfield counties. It rendezvoused at Middletown and was there 
mustered into the U. S. service for nine months on Nov. 18, 1862. 
Col. Mansfield was a regular army officer and a son of Maj. -Gen. 
J. K. F. Mansfield. On the day of its muster in, the regiment with 
698 officers and men left for Camp Buckingham, Centerville, L. I., 
having been assigned to Gen. Banks' expedition. It sailed for Ship 



Connecticut Regiments 297 

island, Miss., Dec. 2, arriving there on the 12th. Thence it proceeded 
to New Orleans and then to Baton Rouge, where it was brigaded 
with the 9th Conn., 41st and 52nd Mass., to form the 2nd brigade (Col. 
Cahill), 4th division, 19th corps. A little later the 91st N. Y. was 
substituted for the 9th Conn., and Col. Van Zandt of that regiment 
was appointed to command the brigade. On March i, 1863, it was 
consolidated into a battalion of eight companies. It shared in the 
movement to the rear of Port Hudson in March, while Com. Farra- 
gut was running the batteries in front. On March 26, the 12th Me. 
was substituted in the brigade for the 91st N. Y., and Col. Kimball 
of the I2th Me. became commander of the brigade, which was in 
reserve at the battle of Irish bend, after which it moved with its 
division in pursuit of Taylor's forces toward the Red river, proceeding 
within 15 miles of Alexandria. It then returned by way of the 
Atchafalaya river and Bayou Sara, marching to the rear of Port 
Hudson, where, from May 2;^ to July 9, it was engaged in the siege 
operations, taking a conspicuous part in the assault of June 14, from 
which time it held an advanced position, one-half of the regiment 
being on duty each 24 hours, until the final surrender of Port Hudson. 
Its casualties during the siege were 66 killed and wounded. On July 
II, it embarked for Donaldsonville and on the 29th for Carrollton- 
On Aug. 6, it sailed for Ship island, where it remained until Sept. 
9, when it returned to New Orleans, and on the 15th it sailed for 
home. It was mustered out at Middletown, Conn., Sept. 30, 1863, 
having been in service nearly 13 months. Its casualties were 21 
killed and mortally wounded, 51 wounded, 53 died of disease or acci- 
dent, 19 discharged for disability, and 3 unaccounted for at muster out 

Twenty-fifth Infantry.— Col., George P. Bissell; Lieut.-Cols., Dan- 
iel H. Stevens, Mason C. Weld; Majs., Moses E. St. John, Thomas 
McManus. This regiment, from Hartford and Tolland counties, was 
recruited during the early fall of 1862. It was composed of excellent 
material and early gained a reputation for efficiency and good dis- 
cipline. It rendezvoused at Camp Halleck, Hartford, where on Nov. 
II, it was mustered into the U. S. service for nine months, with 811 
officers and men, and left on the 14th for Centerville, L. I., to join 
the Banks expedition. It sailed for Ship island, Miss., Nov. 29; 
arrived at New Orleans, Dec. 14; five companies under Col. Bissell 
proceeded thence to Baton Rouge; the other five companies under 
Lieut. -Col. Stevens were landed at Camp Parapet, above New Or- 
leans, and did not join the command at Baton Rouge for several 
weeks. The 2Sth was first assigned to Gen. Paine's brigade, and 
later to a brigade composed of the 13th Conn., 26th Maine, 159th N. 
Y., and 25th Conn., commanded by Col. Birge of the 13th Conn., 
with which it continued during the rest of its term of service. It 
shared in the movement to the rear of Port Hudson in March, 1863, 
while Farragut was trying to run the batteries with his fleet, and 
was a witness to the grand bombardment on the night of March 14. 
It then returned to Baton Rouge, whence it advanced up the west 
bank of the Mississippi and engaged in its first battle at Irish bend, 
with a loss of 95 killed and wounded, and i missing, out of about 
350 in action. It then marched nearly to the Red river, and returned 
— a distance of about 300 miles in 20 days. It was next engaged in 
the siege of Port Hudson, being almost constantly under fire in 
the trenches and sharing in the assaults on the works. Its losses 
during these assaults aggregated 46 killed, wounded and missing. 
Such had been the arduous nature of its services that on June 26 it 



298 The Union Army 

reported only 140 men fit for duty. After the fall of Port Hudson 
the regiment returned to Donaldsonville, La., and offered to remain 
longer, if needed, in the Department, but was ordered home on the 
expiration of its term. It was mustered out at Hartford Aug. 26, 
1863, after a service of over 9 months. Throughout its term of serv- 
ice the men had cheerfully submitted to the most rigorous discipline; 
had borne all hardships uncomplainingly, and were never known to 
falter in time of danger. The 25th was in every way a reliable and 
efficient regiment. Its total losses were 31 killed and fatally wounded, 
104 wounded, 17 captured, 55 died of disease, 20 discharged for dis- 
ability, and 3 unaccounted for at muster out. 

Twenty-sixth Infantry. — Col., Thomas G. Kingsley; Lieut.-Col., 
Joseph Selden; Maj., Henry Stoll. This regiment, from New London 
and Windham counties, was recruited between Aug. 20 and Sept. 10, 
1862, rendezvoused at Camp Russell, Norwich, where it was mustered 
into the U. S. service for nine months, Nov. 10 and 12, 1862, and on 
the 13th left for Camp Buckingham, Centerville, L. I., to join the 
Banks expedition. It sailed for Ship island. Miss., and New 
Orleans, Dec. 4, 1862, arriving at the latter place on the i6th. It 
encamped at Camp Parapet above the city, where it received its 
arms, and was assigned to the ist brigade (Gen. Neal Dow), 2nd 
division (Gen. T. W. Sherman), 19th corps (Maj. -Gen. N. P. Banks). 
On May 20, 1863, it started for Port Hudson and on the 24th joined the 
left wing of the corps investing that fortification. It took an active 
part in the bloody assault of May. 27, losing 107 in killed and 
wounded, among the latter being Col. Kingsley. The night after 
the assault, the regiment held the picket line in front of Dow's brigade 
and from this date until June 14, it was constantly exposed to fire. 
It was again engaged on June 13 and 14 during the second general 
assault, going into action with 235 men and fighting with great gallantry. 
Its losses on this date were 67 killed and wounded. The 26th was one 
of the ten regiments chosen to receive the capitulation of the garrison 
and performed provost and guard duty at Port Hudson until July 
25, when it was ordered home via Cairo, Chicago and New York. 
It was mustered out of service at Norwich on Aug. 17, the men 
being paid and finally discharged two days later, after a term of 
service of over nine months. Its casualties were 51 killed and mor- 
tally wounded, 142 wounded, 84 died of disease, 21 discharged for 
disability, and 2 unaccounted for at muster out. 

Twenty-seventh Infantry. — Col., Richard S. Bostwick; Lieut-Col., 
Henry C. Merwin; Majs., Theodore Byxbee, James H. Coburn. The 
27th came from New Haven county, was recruited in the early fall 
of 1862, and rendezvoused at New Haven, where it was mustered into 
the U. S. service on Oct. 22 for nine months. All its field officers 
had seen previous military service with the three months' troops. On 
the day of its muster in the regiment left the state for Washington, 
with 829 officers and men, and after a month spent in the defenses of 
Washington was ordered to Falmouth to join the Army of the 
Potomac. There it was assigned to the 3d brigade (Zook's), ist 
division (Hancock's), 2nd corps (Gen. Couch). The regiment, with 
the exception of the flank companies were wretchedly armed with 
the inferior Austrian rifle. On Dec. 13, all but 264 men on detached 
picket duty along the river, participated in the disastrous and bloody 
assault on Marye's heights at Fredericksburg, losing out of 37s 
men in action, 16 killed, 89 wounded and 3 missing, nearly one-third 
of its strength. On the night of Dec. 14, it withdrew with the army 



Connecticut Regiments 299 

across the river and went into winter quarters, where it was trans- 
ferred to the 4th brigade, commanded by Col. John R. Brooke. On 
April 15, 1863, it moved on the Chancellorsville campaign and was 
actively engaged during the battle, suffering its greatest loss on May 
3, when the regiment, except Cos. D and F, was surrounded and captured 
by a superior force of the enemy, while attempting to hold an advanced 
picket line, after the rest of the army had retired to the rear of the 
Chancellor house. The loss of the regiment during the battle was 
292, all but 9 of whom were captured. The prisoners were soon after 
paroled and exchanged, but were still subject to their parole at the 
time of the battle of Gettysburg. Cos. D and F, augmented to 
three companies by the addition of some 75 men of the other com- 
panies, returned from special service and sick leave, under the com- 
mand of Lieut. -Col. Merwin, were actively engaged at Gettysburg on 
July 2-3, and lost 39 killed, wounded and missing, among the killed 
being Lieut.-Col. Merwin. The little band of the 27th was highly 
commended by Gen. Hancock for its services in the "wheat field" on 
the 2nd. After the battle the remnant of the regiment moved with 
the army in pursuit of Lee and then moved with the 2nd corps to 
Harper's Ferry. On July 18, 1863, it severed its connection with 
the Army of the Potomac and was joined at Baltimore by the paroled 
prisoners of war. Four days later it arrived at New Haven, where 
it was mustered out on July 27. The following closing words of the 
order issued by Col. Brooke, commanding the 4th brigade, in parting 
with the men of the 27th, well attest the character of the regiment: 
"Side by side with the veterans of the Army of the Potomac it has 
fought, and by the gallantry of its conduct won for itself an enviable 
name and reputation, which may well in future years cause all who 
belong to it to feel a pardonable pride in having to say that they 
served with the Twenty-seventh Connecticut." The losses of the 27th 
during service were 47 killed and mortally wounded, 116 wounded, 
285 captured, 20 died of disease, i in prison, 54 were discharged for 
disability, and 5 were unaccounted for at muster out. 

Twenty-eighth Infantry. — Col., Samuel P. Ferris ; Lieut.-Col., W. 
T. Batcheller; Maj., William B. Wescome. This was the last regi- 
ment organized in the state under the call for nine months' volun- 
teers. It was recruited from the counties of Fairfield and Litchfield 
and rendezvoused at Camp Terry, New Haven, about the middle of 
Sept., 1862, where it was mustered into the U. S. service on Nov. 15. 
It was composed of only eight companies and was ably commanded by 
Col. Ferris, a graduate of West Point, and a regular army officer. It 
left the state for Centerville, L. I., on Nov. 16; was the fifth Connecti- 
cut regiment to be assigned to Banks' expedition; arrived at Camp 
Parapet, near Carrollton, La., Dec. 19, and was at once ordered to 
Pensacola, Fla. It remained here, pleasantly quartered, until March 
20, when it moved to Fort Barrancas, the routine of camp and guard 
duties being only varied by an occasional expedition until in May, 
when it joined the army before Port Hudson, and shared in all the 
siege operations until July 9. It was almost constantly under fire and 
had its full share in the assault on June 14, when it furnished 250 
men for the storming party. Its loss on this occasion was 2 commis- 
sioned ofificers and 7 enlisted men killed, 40 men wounded and 10 
missing. After the fall of Port Hudson it garrisoned the place until 
relieved and ordered home on Aug. 7, 1863, via Cairo, and was mus- 
tered out at New Haven, Aug. 28, 1863, after a service of nine months. 
Its total losses were 19 killed and mortally wounded, 39 wounded, 7 



300 The Union Army 

captured, 86 died of disease, i from accident, g were discharged for 
disability, and i was unaccounted for at muster out. 

Twenty-ninth Infantry (Colored). — Col., William B. Wooster; 
Lieut.-Cols., Henry C. Ward, David Torrance; Majs., Henry C. Ward,. 
David Torrance, Frederick E. Camp, William J. Ross. Authority to 
recruit a regiment of colored volunteers was obtained from the war 
department late in the summer of 1863, to be credited to the quota of 
the state. It was filled to the maximum by the middle of Jan., 1864, 
but was not mustered into the U. S. service until March 8, for lack 
of officers. Col. Wooster was formerly lieutenant-colonel of the 20th 
Conn. During organization and before muster-in, the regiment ren- 
dezvoused at Fair Haven, and on March 19, 1864, it embarked on 
transport for Annapolis, Md., where the men were armed with the 
best Springfield rifle. It was assigned to the 9th corps, then assem- 
bling at Annapolis; sailed for Hilton Head, S. C, where it arrived 
on April 13; proceeded thence to Beaufort, S. C, where it was occu- 
pied in drill and guard duty for about four months; and was then 
ordered to Bermuda Hundred, Va., arriving there on Aug. 14. A part 
of the regiment at once engaged in a reconnoissance with a detach- 
ment of the loth corps, and exhibited coolness and bravery under 
fire. It was assigned to Gen. William G. Birney's brigade, of Gen. 
Turner's division (3d), loth corps. After engaging in an advance at 
Deep Bottom, it returjied and encamped at Point of Rocks until Aug. 
24, when it relieved the i8th Conn, in front of Petersburg. It was 
ordered to the rear for rest on Sept 24; a few days later was engaged 
at New Market heights, and in October assisted in repelling an 
attempt of the enemy to turn the right of the loth corps on the Darby- 
town road. It next engaged in the reconnoissance up the Darbj'town 
road with some loss; met with a loss of 80 killed and wounded in the 
affair at the Kell house; soon after was assigned to the ist brigade 
and performed garrison duty in certain detached redoubts along the 
Newmarket road. Early in Dec, 1864, it moved to the left of Fort 
Harrison, where it was assigned to the 2nd brigade, ist division, 2Sth 
corps, and remained in this position during the rest of the winter, 
engaged in picketing, drilling and building roads and earthworks. 
Up to March, 1865, the regiment had met with losses amounting to 
143 killed, wounded and missing. Late in March it was assigned the 
duty of garrisoning Fort Harrison, one of the most important points 
on the whole line and the most probable point of attack by the enemy. 
From the magazine of this fort the men witnessed the last Confederate 
dress parade on April 2, 1865. On the following day, when the enemy 
were in full retreat, the 29th hurried on the exciting race to reach 
the burning Confederate capital, and it is believed that Cos. C and G, 
which were ordered forward as skirmishers, were the first infantry 
to enter the city. With its brigade it was stationed in Batteries No. 
S, 6, 7, and 8 of the interior line of defenses of Richmond until the 
13th, when it moved to Petersburg, thence to Point Lookout, Md., 
where it was employed in guarding prisoners until May 28, when 
it moved to City Point, and on June 10 it embarked with the 
loth corps for Texas. It remained at Brownsville, on the Rio Grande, 
until ordered home on Oct. 14, 1865. It arrived at Hartford Nov. 24, 
and the following day the men were paid and finally discharged from 
the service. It had been in service for i year and 8 months, and 
during this period had received 8 officers and 210 enlisted men as 
recruits. Its casualties were 42 killed and mortally wounded, 135 
wounded, 178 died of disease, 6 from accident, i was captured, 103 



Connecticut Regiments 301 

•were discharged for disability, and i was unaccounted for at muster 
out. The colored soldiers of the 29th had amply demonstrated that 
they could fight both willingly and bravely, and it is a fact to be 
remembered that both officers and men knew little quarter would be 
shown them if captured. 

Thirtieth Infantry, (Colored) — Col., Henry C. Ward. After the 
29th was completed it was discovered that more colored troops could 
be raised in the state and on Jan. 12, 1864, Gov. Buckingham author- 
ized the organization of the 30th infantry. So urgent was the dernand 
for men at the front, that as soon as four companies were recruited, 
they were sent to Virginia, where they were assigned to the 3d brigade, 
Ferrero's division, 9th corps. The ranks of the regiment were never 
filled to the maximum, and during its early service was commanded 
by Lieut. -Col. W. E. E. Ross. Subsequently it became the 31st U. 
S. Colored infantry, with three Connecticut men among the field and 
staff officers, viz.: Col. Ward, Adjt. George Freeman and Q. M. Dee 
Laroo Wilson. It was posted in the rear until June 14 to prevent 
attack by the enemy's cavalry, and then joined the army in front of 
Petersburg, holding different positions of the line until July 30. when 
it shared in the sanguinary charge after the mine explosion, losing 136 
killed, wounded and missing. Among the severely wounded were Lieut- 
Col. Ross and Maj. Wright. Said Maj. Wright in his official report of this 
engagement: "I cannot speak too highly of both officers and men in 
this engagement. More bravery and enthusiasm I never witnessed. 
Besides their patriotic ardor, they went into that action with a de- 
termination to command the respect of white troops, which they knew 
could only be obtained by hard fighting." The regiment next followed 
the movements of the army along the South Side railroad and partici- 
pated in a severe skirmish during the reconnoissance of the 5th and 
9th corps to the Boydtown plank road. It was again engaged at 
Hatcher's run in October and on Nov. 6, 1864, Col. Ward assumed 
command of the regiment, which was soon after increased from a 
battalion to a regiment of ten companies from new recruits received. 
On Nov. 18, it moved to the Bermuda Hundred front, and held the 
right of the line there until the end of December, constantly exposed 
to the fire of the enemy. On Christmas day, with the other colored 
troops, it joined the 25th corps and was assigned to the 3d brigade, 
2nd division, stationed near Fort Harrison. In March, 1865, a detach- 
ment was sent for duty at Dutch gap, but rejoined the regiment 
before it moved on the spring campaign. On March 2T, it crossed 
the James river, going into position on the left of the Army of the 
Potomac, and was then constantly under fire until April 3, sharing 
in the operations southwest of Petersburg, leading to the evacuation 
of that city and Richmond. It then joined in the pursuit of Lee's 
army for six days, averaging 16 hours marching in every 24; during 
the 30 hours ending 11 P. M., April 8, it covered 60 miles. On the 
9th, the day of the surrender, it was in position on the extreme left 
of the Union army and advanced in line of battle. It now rested until 
June 10, when it was ordered to Texas with the 25th corps, and per- 
formed garrison duty at Brownsville until Oct. 11, 1865. It was then 
ordered home for muster-out and was paid and finally discharged the 
service at Hartford, Dec. i, 1865, after a service of about i year and 
5 months. The casualties of the Connecticut men in the regiment 
were 24 killed and fatally wounded, 14 missing, probably killed, 44 
vvounded, 7 captured, 3 died in prison, 51 died of disease, 26 were 
•discharged for disability, and 10 were unaccounted for at muster out. 



302 The Union Army 

First Cavalry. — Cols., William S. Fish, Erastus Blakeslee, Brayton 
Ives; Lieut. -Cols., William S. Fish, Charles Farnsworth, Erastus 
Blakeslee, Brayton Ives, Edward W. Whitaker; Majs., Judson M. 
Lyon. William S. Fish, Charles Farnsworth, Erastus Blakeslee, Bray- 
ton Ives, George O. Marcy, Edward W. Whitaker, Leonard P. Good- 
win, John B. Morehouse. The ist cavalry began its service as a bat- 
talion of four companies, one from each Congressional district, in the 
fall of 1861. The men rendezvoused at Camp Tyler, West Meriden, 
Oct. 23, and were mustered into the U. S. service for three years on 
the 26th. On Feb. 20, 1862, with 346 officers and men, commanded by 
Maj. Lyon, it proceeded to Wheeling, W. Va., whence it moved to 
Moorefield and engaged in scouting up and down the South Potomac 
valley. As a part of Gen. Schenck's brigade it took part in the bat- 
tle at McDowell; repulsed Ashby's cavalry at Franklin; was again 
engaged at Wardensville and as part of the army under Gen. Fre- 
mont, made the forced march over the mountains into the Shenandoah 
Valley, to the relief of Gen. Banks. It was active during the pursuit 
at Strasburg; fought valiantly at Harrisonburg, Cross Keys and Port 
Republic, after which it retired with the army across the mountains 
to Sperryville. As part of Stahel's brigade, Sigel's corps, it fought at 
Cedar mountain, and then joined in the pursuit of Jackson to the 
Rapidan. It next fought through Pope's disastrous campaign, skir- 
mishing at Rappahannock Station, Waterloo Bridge, and Sulphur 
Springs. It was also active at Thoroughfare gap, Groveton, the sec- 
ond Bull Run and Chantilly, and covered the army on its retreat. 
It remained at Washington for about 3 months, receiving there about 
100 recruits and being entirely refitted and remounted. In December 
it moved to Stafford Court House, scouting and picketing, and was 
then assigned to duty as provost guard in Baltimore. While on 
duty there it was recruited to a full regiment of twelve companies, 
detachments were engaged in numerous scouting expeditions, and 
during the year the regiment took part in the engagements at Fred- 
erick City, Bolivar heights. Tunnel Hill, Waterford, Leesburg, Win- 
chester, Berryville Snickersville and Harrisonburg. In the early part 
of March 1864, under command of Col. Blakeslee and numbering 675 
men, it proceeded to Stevensburg, where it joined the Army of the 
Potomac and was assigned to the ist brigade, 3d division, Sheridan's 
cavalry corps, with which it served until the end of the war On 
May 4, 1864, it moved with the army on the Wilderness campaign, 
being active at Craig's Church, Todd's tavern, the Wilderness, Spottsyl- 
vania, and in Sheridan's daring raid toward Richmond. Rejoining the 
army on the 25th it was in the engagements that followed in rapid 
succession at Hanover Court House, Ashland, Haw's shop, Studley, 
and Ruffin's house, after which its division acted as rear-guard to the 
army during the movement across the James river. The regiment 
crossed the river on June 17 and on the 22nd moved on Wilson's raid 
against the South-Side railroad, engaging the enemy in rapid succes- 
sion at Ford's station, Nottoway Court House, Roanoke Station, Stony 
creek, and Reams' station, finally returning to Petersburg on July 2, com- 
pletely exhausted, having suffered almost incredible hardships. For 
its gallant services in covering the rear during the retreat, it received 
the special thanks of Gen. Wilson. After a month's rest in camp and 
on picket duty, it was ordered to the Shenandoah Valley, being re- 
mounted and entirely refitted en route at Washington. It had its 
full share in Sheridan's brilliant campaign in the valley; was active 
at Winchester, Summit Point, Charleston, and Kearneysville, where a 



Connecticut Regiments 303 

squadron under Capt. Rogers aided in the capture of the 8th S. C. 
infantry; opened the battle of Winchester on Sept. 19, and was in the 
skirmishes that followed at Front Royal, Spring Valley, New Market, 
Waynesboro, Bridgewater, Harrisonburg and Strasburg. While on 
picket duty at Cedar Run Church, Oct. 17, Maj. Marcy and 30 men 
were captured during a night raid of the enemy under Rosser. The 
regiment led the splendid charge of Gen. Custer around the left flank 
of the enemy after the battle of Cedar creek and was then engaged in 
the arduous duties incident to the cavalry service for several weeks, 
being constantly on the move. In a sharp skirmish with Rosser at 
Cedar creek in November, it met with a loss of 30 men, including 
Capt. Rogers, who was wounded. The winter of 1864-65 was a 
severe one, but the ist was not idle, marching with its division 120 
miles in 4 days — Dec. 19-22 — and engaging the enemy at Lacey's 
springs. In Feb., 1865, a detachment marched 140 miles in 48 hours 
and assisted in the capture of the noted Harry Gilmore while he was 
in bed. In the latter part of that month it moved with Sheridan on 
his great raid from Winchester to Petersburg, especially distinguish- 
ing itself at Waynesboro and Ashland. After its arrival before 
Petersburg it fought dismounted at Five Forks, where the regiment 
captured 2 guns, and during the next few days, while Sheridan was 
moving rapidly to cut off Lee's only avenue of escape, it was engaged 
at Sweat House creek, Harper's farm, and Sailor's creek. When Gen. 
Lee displayed the white flag at Appomattox, Lieut. -Col. Whitaker of 
the 1st Conn., Gen. Custer's chief of staff, began the negotiations 
which stopped the fighting, and a little later the regiment was detailed 
to escort Gen. Grant when he went to receive Lee's surrender. After 
the surrender it moved with Sheridan to Danville, and after Gen. 
Johnston's surrender on the 26th it moved back to Washington, where 
it participated in the grand review. It remained in Washington on 
provost duty until mustered out on Aug. 2, 1865, and was allowed to 
return home mounted. On Aug. 17-18 the men were paid and finally 
discharged, after a term of 3 years and nearly 10 months. The record 
of the I St regiment was a notable one; it had engaged the enemy over 
90 times ; had met with some loss in over 80 engagements ; had fought as 
cavalry, infantry and artillery; had captured many guns, wagons, 
colors and prisoners ; three of its oflficers became brevet brigadier- 
generals, and of the 12 medals of honor awarded Connecticut soldiers 
by Congress, three went to members of the ist cavalry. Its total 
enrolment includes 2,611 officers and men, and its casualties during 
service were 39 killed and mortally wounded, 10 missing, probably 
killed, 91 wounded, 304 captured, 89 died in prison, 74 died of disease, 
190 discharged for disability, and 4 unaccounted for at muster out. 

First Squadron Cavalry. — Capts., William H. Mallory, Co. A (Co. 
C, 2nd N. Y. cavalry) ; T. Bradlee Thornett and Marcus Coon, Co. 
B (Co. D, 2nd N. Y. cavalrjO- This squadron consisted of two com- 
panies recruited during Aug., 1861, under authority granted to Maj. 
William H. Mallory of Bridgeport, as part of a plan to raise a regi- 
ment of twelve companies — one squadron from each of six different 
states. The understanding was that this was to be a distinctly Con- 
necticut organization; to be officered by the governor of Connecticut; 
each of the volunteers to receive the usual state bounty; and the state 
to be credited on its quota for all enlistments made under this plan. 
Connecticut faithfully fulfilled her part of the agreement, but the war 
department ignored the right of the governor to appoint any officers 
after the acceptance of the squadron, which was soon consolidated 



304 The Union Army 

with the 2nd N. Y., otherwise known as the "Harris Light Cavalry." 
Besides this both officers and men were assigned to the quota of New 
York, the adjutant-general of Connecticut never receiving the muster 
rolls or reports of the two companies, and the records of the state 
are in consequence very meager. Co. A was mustered into the U. S. 
service on Aug. 13, 1861, for three years and Co. B on the 29th. As 
soon as the regiment reached Washington it went into camp of instruc- 
tion on Arlington heights, where it received the training which later 
n.ade it more than a match for the hard riding soldiers of the Con- 
federacy. The squadron remained in active service throughout the 
war and was finally mustered out on June 23, 1865. Forty-one of the 
original members of the squadron reenlisted as veterans on Dec. 23, 
1863, and were assigned to various companies without reference to 
the original squadron. A partial list of its engagements includes 
Falmouth, Rappahannock Station, Gainesville, Martinsburg, South 
mountain, Catlett's station, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville Aldie, 
New Baltimore, Gettysburg, Rapidan Station, Liberty Mills, White's 
ford. Brandy Station, Todd's tavern and Reams' station. A list of its 
casualties include 11 killed and fatally wounded, 4 wounded, 27 cap- 
tured, 32 died in prison, from disease or by accident, 24 discharged for 
disability, and 2 unaccounted for at muster out. 

First Heavy Artillery. — Cols., Levi Woodhouse, Robert O. Tyler, 
Henry L. Abbott; Lieut. -Cols., Nelson L. White, Thomas S Trumbull, 
George Ager; Majs., P. L. Cunningham, Henry W. Birge, L. G. Hem- 
ingway, Thos. S. Trumbull, Elisha S. Kellogg, George B. Cook, Al- 
bert F. Brooker, George Ager, Charles O. Brigham, Henry H. Pierce, 
Samuel P. Hatfield. This regiment was organized as the 4th infantry, 
in response to the first call for 75,000 men to serve for three months. 
Its companies rendezvoused at Hartford, expecting to be included 
among those accepted under that call, but the state's quota was already 
more than full. Three regiments instead of one had been accepted 
from the state under the first call, on condition that subsequent en- 
listments should be for three years. Consequently the 4th was re- 
organized for this period and was mustered into the U. S. service on 
May 23, 1861. It is believed to have been the first three years* regfi- 
ment of any state ready for service. It had been recruited from the 
state at large and left for Chambersburg on June 10, to join the com- 
mand of Gen. Patterson. It was brigaded with the ist Wis. and nth 
Pa., and stationed at Hagerstown, Frederick City, and Darnestown 
until Oct. 2, 1861, when it was ordered to Washington and there en- 
camped throughout the winter. On Jan. 2, 1862, its organization was 
changed to heavy artillery and was soon recruited to the artillery 
maximum by the addition of Cos. L and M. Col. Woodhouse having 
resigned in September, Col. Tyler was assigned the command on 
Sept. 26, 1862, and enforced the most rigid discipline throughout the 
winter. On April 3, 1862, it moved upon the Peninsular campaign; 
took an active part in the siege of Yorktown and the engagements at 
Hanover Court House, Chickahominy, Gaines' mill, and Malvern 
hill; was highly commended for its services during the campaign by 
Gen. McClellan in his official report. Out of 26 heavy guns brought 
up from Yorktown, 25 were safely brought to Harrison's landing, and 
at the close of the campaign it was ranked by competent military 
judges as the best volunteer regiment of heavy artillery in the field. 
On Aug. 12, 1862, the regiment was ordered into the defenses of Wash- 
ington, where it remained (except Cos. B and M) until the spring cam- 
paign of 1864. The above two companies were active at Fredericks- 



Connecticut Regiments 305 

burg, firing 357 rounds. Equipped as light batteries, they served with 
the Army of the Potomac during all its movements in 1863, finally 
rejoining the regiment in April, 1864. Col. Tyler was promoted to be 
brigadier general in Nov., 1862, and Capt. Henry L. Abbot of the U. S. 
topographical engineers was appointed to the command of the regi- 
ment. It reported to Gen. Butler near Bermuda Hundred on May 
13, 1864, with about 1,700 men; served as infantry until the arrival of 
its siege train in June; then continued to serve as siege artillery with 
the Armies of the Potomac and James until the final evacuation of 
Petersburg and Richmond. During this period the siege train was 
organized as a separate brigade under Col. Abbot, companies from 
other organizations being attached to it as needed. It sometimes ex- 
ceeded 3,500 men and embraced 127 guns and 73 mortars. It manned 
a line of batteries 17 miles long and fired 1,200 tons of ammunition 
or 63,940 rounds during the siege. Brig.-Gen. Abbot, in the concise 
and accurate history of the regiment prepared by him, states : "The 
depot, under command of Maj. Hatfield, was at Broadway landing 
on the Appomattox river, where the needful wharves and some strong 
earthworks for defense were built. The guns not in use were kept 
afloat and he was supplied with about 20 schooners and barges, a 
steam tug, and a permanent train of 50 government wagons, often 
largely increased. The guns were moved by 4 light artillery teams 
of Co. M, 1st Pa. artillery, attached to the depot. Ammunition was for- 
warded daily as needed, the amount being regulated by telegraph. 
For batteries serving on the lines of the Army of the Potomac, Col. 
Abbot reported to the chief of artillery. Gen. Hunt; and for those on 
the lines of the Army of the James, direct to its commanding general. 
Orders at times were received from Gen. Grant in person. The bat- 
teries, in groups, were commanded by the field officers of the regi- 
ment ; rations were supplied by the regimental commissary ; and the 
sick were cared for in a special field hospital at Broadway landing. This 
system worked admirably, and gave to the ist Conn, artillery an 
independent and responsible position." At the time of the mine ex- 
plosion, July 30, 1864, Cos. A, B, C, D, F, G, I, and M, of the ist 
Conn., and Cos. C, H, and K, 4th N. Y. served 81 guns and mortars 
and fired 16,062 rounds — about 300 tons of ammunition. From this 
time on, says Gen. Abbot: "The siege took the form of bombardment. 
The average weight of metal thrown daily was: 5.2 tons; Sept., 7.8 
tons; Oct., 4.5 tons; Nov., 2.7 tons; Dec, 2.1 tons; Jan., 1.6 tons; and 
Feb., I.I tons — aggregating 793 tons (37,264 rounds). Near Peters- 
burg sudden artillery battles occurred at all hours of the day and 
night, often involving the entire line. To check an annoying enfilade 
fire from the left bank of the Appomattox, a 13-inch sea-coast mortar 
was mounted on a reinforced platform car and served on a curve of the 
railroad track by Co. G. This novelty was widely known as the 
'Petersburg Express.' " Important services were also rendered by 
detachments of the regiment at Dutch gap and much damage was done 
the Confederate fleet lying in Graveyard bend. Another important 
service was rendered by the ist Conn., on the night of Jan. 23, 1865, 
when it drove back the enemy's fleet, attempting to pass down the 
river and destroy the Union base at City Point, for which it was highly 
commended by Gen. Grant. Three companies, B, G, and L, under 
Gen. Abbot went with Terry's expedition to Fort Fisher in Jan., 1865, 
carrying a siege train of sixteen 30-pounder Parrotts and 20 Coehorn 
mortars, but before their arrival the fort had been reduced and the 
detachment returned to the lines before Richmond. The regiment 
Vol.-^l— 20 



306 The Union Army 

was heavily engaged during the attack of the enemy on Fort Stedman, 
where Cos. K and L lost 65 men. Private G. E. McDonald of the 
latter company was awarded a medal of honor for capturing the flag 
of the 26th Ga. When the final assault was delivered upon the enemy's 
works, April 2, 1865, the ist Conn, occupied eleven forts and bat- 
teries, served 49 guns and fired 4,257 rounds, performing most effective 
service. A detachment of 100 men from Cos. E, I, K, L and M was 
in the assaulting column near Battery No. 20 and entered the works 
among the very first, immediately turning the enemy's guns upon 
their retreating masses. This ended the active participation of the 
1st in the war. It was occupied in the removal of the trains and the 
heaviest of the captured ordnance until July 13, when it again entered 
the defenses of Washington. It was mustered out on Sept. 25, 1865, 
after a service of 4 years and 4 months, and was finally discharged' 
on Oct. I. The high character and efficiency of the regiment was in 
a very great measure due to the policy of Gov. Buckingham in making 
all promotions as rewards of merit and not as personal favors. The 
regiment was thus characterized by Maj.-Gen. Barry in a letter to 
Col. Abbot : "As chief of artillery successively of the two principal 
armies of the United States during the four years of war now happily 
ended, I have enjoyed unusual opportunities for observation. You 
will on this account value my opinion when I assure you that the 
ist Conn, artillery, in intelligence and the acquirements and services 
of its special arm, stands unrivaled in the armies of the United States." 
On the muster out rolls of the regiment are the names of 3,367 officers 
and men, add to these 435 reenlistments and the total enrolment is 
3,802. Its casualties during service were 54 killed and fatally wounded, 
68 wounded, 34 captured, 160 died of disease, 4 in prison, 3 by drown- 
ing, 311 were discharged for disability, and 13 were unaccounted for at 
muster out; total casualties, 647. 

Second Heavy Artillery. — Cols., Leverett Wessels, Elisha S. Kel- 
logg, Ranald S. Mackenzie, James Hubbard; Lieut. -Cols., Elisha S. 
Kellogg, Nathaniel Smith, James Hubbard, Jeffrey Skinner; Majs., 
Nathaniel Smith, James Hubbard, William B. Ells, James Q. Rice, 
Jeffrey Skinner, Edward W. Jones, Augustus H. Fenn, Chester D. 
Cleveland. The 2nd heavy artillery was originally recruited from 
Litchfield county and designated as the 19th infantry in response to 
the call of July 2, 1862, for 300,000 volunteers to serve for three years. 
The several companies rendezvoused in August at Camp Button, 
Litchfield, where they w^ere mustered into the U. S. service Sept. 11, 
1862. Mrs. William Curtis Noyes presented the organization with a 
beautiful stand of colors and it left for Washington on the iSth, 
proceeding thence to Alexandria, Va., where it was equipped with 
tents and Enfield rifles and assigned to the Army of the Potomac. 
It performed provost duty in the city until Jan. 12, 1863; was then 
stationed at Fort Worth, near Fairfax Seminary, for four months, 
when it was assigned to garrison duty by detachments in Fort Ells- 
worth, redoubts A, B, C, and D, and the water battery on the Potomac 
below Alexandria. On Nov. 23, 1863, by order of the war department, 
the regiment was changed to an artillery organization and during 
the next three months was rapidly recruited to the maximum of an 
artillery regiment, numbering 1,800 men. In May, 1864, it joined the 
Army of the Potomac near Fredericksburg and was assigned to the 
2nd brigade, ist division, 6th corps. Hard marching and skirmishing, 
attended with some losses, brought it to Cold Harbor, where in the 
fierce fighting it attacked the earthworks defended by Longstreet's 



Connecticut Regiments 307 

veterans and lost 323 men, 129 of whom were killed or mortally- 
wounded — one of the heaviest losses sustained by any regiment dur- 
ing the war. Col. Kellogg was killed while leading the advance and 
Maj. Ells was severely wounded. The regiment was constantly under 
fire at Cold Harbor until June 12, and on the 19th it occupied the rifle pits 
in front of Petersburg, relieving the nth Conn, infantry. On the 
22nd it was actively engaged with Hill's division, losing 19 killed and 
wounded. In July, at the time Early's raid threatened Washington, 
it was ordered to that city and on its arrival engaged in the pursuit 
of the Confederates, crossing the Shenandoah on the 20th and going 
into camp near Berryville. It returned to Tenallytown on the 23d; 
rejoined the 6th corps on the 27th; was engaged in skirmishing with 
Early's army in the valley until Sept. 11; lost at Winchester on Sept. 
19, 14 officers and 122 enlisted men in killed and wounded, Maj. Rice 
being among the killed, and Col. Mackenzie and Maj. Skinner slightly 
wounded. In his report Gen. Sheridan says: "At Winchester for a 
moment the contest was uncertain, but the gallant attack of Gen. 
Upton's brigade (2nd Conn, artillery, 65th and 121st N. Y. and 95th 
Pa.) restored the line of battle until the turning column of Crook, 
Merritt and Averell's divisions of cavalry sent the enemy whirling 
through Winchester." It was again active at Fisher's hill, but its 
loss was small, and was again engaged with Early's forces at Cedar 
creek, losing 38 killed and 96 wounded, while Lieut. Henry Skinner 
and about 40 men of Cos. E and L, on picket duty at the time, were 
captured and were not released until the close of the war. During 
Nov., 1864, it was encamped at Kernstown and early in December 
rejoined Grant's army before Petersburg, going into winter quarters 
at Parke Station. Col. Mackenzie having been promoted brigadier- 
general, Lieut. -Col. Hubbard was advanced to the colonelcy. It 
participated in the movement to Hatcher's run in Feb., 1865, losing 
9 men wounded. In the engagement in front of Fort Fisher in March 
it lost 7 killed and 13 wounded. On April 2, it joined in the general 
and final assault on Petersburg, meeting with some loss. It then 
reported to Maj. -Gen. Parke, commanding the 9th corps and entered 
Petersburg on the 3d. Rejoining the 6th corps the next day it fol- 
lowed in pursuit of the fleeing enemy and fought its last engagement 
at Sailor's creek, losing 3 killed and 7 wounded, but capturing a 
battleflag, the headquarters train of Mahone's division and a number 
of prisoners. It was encamped near Clover hill when Lee surren- 
dered, and later in the month moved with its corps to Danville. 
Learning of Johnston's surrender, the force at Danville returned to 
Burkesville, thence to Manchester, Fredericksburg, Bailey's cross- 
roads, where the 2nd Conn, was augmented by the recruits of 
the 14th Conn., the original members of that regiment having been 
mustered out. It took part in a grand review at Washington on June 
8 and garrisoned forts near Washington until its final muster out at 
Fort Ethan Allen. Aug. 18, 1865. The men were paid and finally dis- 
charged at New Haven on Sept. 5. The whole number of men who 
had served with the organization, both as infantry and as artillery, 
was 2,719 and the regiment had been in service for 2 years and 11 
months. Its casualties while in service were 242 killed and mortally 
wounded, 476 wounded, 175 died of disease, in prison or by accident, 
II reported as missing, probably killed, 10 accidentally wounded, 285 
discharged for disability, and 14 were unaccounted for at muster out, 
a total of 1.306. Its loss in killed and fatally wounded exceeded that 
of any Connecticut regiment in the war and its loss in wounded was 
only exceeded by that of the 14th infantry. 



308 The Union Army 

First Light Battery. — Capts., Alfred P. Rockwell, James B. Clin- 
ton. This battery was organized in Oct., 1861, and was recruited 
from the state at large. The members rendezvoused at Meriden 
(Hanover village) and were mustered into the U. S. service on Oct. 
26, 1861, for three years. The battery, numbering 156 men, embarked 
for New York Jan. 13, 1862, and on the 21st left there for Port Royal, 
S. C, landing at Beaufort on Feb. 6. Here, during the next three 
months, it was thoroughly drilled in artillery tactics, and saw its first 
actual service at Pocotaligo. During Gen. Hunter's movement in 
June against Charleston, by way of James island, it took an active 
part and received honorable mention in General Orders for good 
conduct and well served guns. The left section of the battery shared 
in an expedition to Florida, in Sept. and Oct., 1862, and was active at 
Fort Finnegan. The battery was present, but not active, during the 
second movement against Charleston in April, 1863, and soon after 
returned to Beaufort. During an expedition to destroy the railroad 
bridge above Willstown, S. C, in June, a section commanded by Lieut. 
Clinton lost 2 of its guns through the grounding of the steamer, the 
guns being sunk in the river to prevent their capture. The battery 
was engaged in July on James island, during the third movement 
against Charleston, and was complimented by Gen. Terry. Soon 
after this it was ordered to Folly island, where for 9 months it 
formed part of the reserve under Gen. Gillmore. In Dec, 1863, while 
stationed here, 46 of the men reenlisted for another term of three 
years. On April 18, 1864, it embarked for Fortress Monroe, whence it 
proceeded to Gloucester Point, and on May 4 was ordered to join 
Gen. Butler's forces at Bermuda Hundred. It was actively engaged 
at Chester Station on the Richmond & Petersburg turnpike and at 
Proctor's creek, losing 2 killed and 10 wounded, among the former 
being Lieut. George Metcalf. It then returned to the intrenchments 
at Bermuda Hundred until June 27, taking an active part in the actions 
at Grovert's house and at Ware Bottom Church. After the affair at 
Deep Bottom in August it was in the intrenchments before Peters- 
burg to Sept. 23, almost constantly engaged. It then moved across 
the James river to a point near Fort Harrison and was assigned to 
the light artillery brigade, 25th corps, under Gen. Weitzel. It was 
active at Chaffin's bluff and Johnson's farm in October; was then 
ordered to City Point, where it exchanged its 6-pounder James rifles 
for i2-pounder Napoleons; was comparatively inactive during the winter 
1864-65, being located near the James river, in the rear of Fort Burn- 
ham, but on April 3, 1865, after the enemy had abandoned their 
defenses, it entered Richmond with the 25th corps, where the news 
of Lee's surrender was received. It continued to serve in the vicinity 
of Richmond until June 11, when it was mustered out at Manchester, 
starting for home the following day, and reaching New Haven on the 
14th, the first of the veteran troops to return to the state. It had 
been in service 3 years and 8 months, and participated in about 20 
engagements. It started out with 156 men, 46 of whom had reenlisted, 
and it received altogether about 140 recruits. Its casualties were 2 
killed, 18 wounded, 2 accidentally wounded, 20 died of disease, and 4 
discharged for disability. 

Second Light Battery.— Capts., John W. Sterling, Walter S. Hotch- 
kiss. The 2nd light battery was organized in Aug., 1862, in Bridge- 
port, and was mustered into the U. S. service for three years or the 
war, on Sept. 10. On Oct. 15, it left for Washington, via New York 
city, where it remained encamped until Dec. 12. It then moved to 



Connecticut Regiments 309 

Fairfax Court House, Va., and was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 
Casey's division, under command of Gen. Stoughton. Near the end 
of Jan., 1863, it moved to Wolf Run shoals, forming part of the 
defenses of Washington until June 25, when it reported to Gen. Tyler, 
commanding the artillery reserve, Army of the Potomac. At the 
battle of Gettysburg the battery was in position to the left of the 
center for 56 hours, but was fortunate in having only 3 men slightly 
wounded. After the battle it moved to Frederick City, and thence 
to Washington, where it arrived on Aug. 20. Two days later it 
embarked for New York and served in that state while the draft was 
taking place. It then returned to Washington and on Jan. 24, 1864, 
proceeded to Baltimore, where it embarked for New Orleans for 
service in the Department of the Gulf. It was stationed for a time 
at Brashear City, with one section at Thibodeaux; then proceeded to 
Algiers and on July 30 embarked on transport for Dauphin island. 
Mobile harbor. Here it was engaged in assisting the fleet under 
Farragut during the reduction of Forts Gaines and Morgan, after 
which it returned to Algiers, and soon after went into winter quar- 
ters in New Orleans. During the winter it was stationed at the mouth 
of the White river, Kennerville and Greenville, La., at Fort Morgan, 
Ala., and from March 11 to 20 at Barrancas and Pensacola, Fla. It 
then began its march through the Black swamp to Fort Blakely, Ala., 
and witnessed the fall of that stronghold on April 9, 1865. It con- 
tinued to serve in the Department of the Gulf until its return home 
in July, and was mustered out at New Haven, Aug., 9, 1865, after 
nearly 3 years of service, during which it had marched and traveled 
about 6,000 miles, and had used up 205 horses. Its losses were i 
killed, 3 wounded, 18 died of disease and accident, and 8 were dis- 
charged for disability — total 30. 

Third Light Battery.— Capt., Thomas S. Gilbert. The 3d light 
battery was organized at Fair Haven during the early fall of 1864, 
some of its members enlisting for one and some for two years' 
service. Many of the men had served in other organizations, particu- 
larly in the ist heavy artillery. The members were gradually mus- 
tered in from Sept. i to Oct. 27, and left for the front on Nov. 16, 
arriving at Broadway landing, on the James river, on the 19th, where 
Capt. Gilbert reported his command to Brig.-Gen. Abbot, commanding 
the 1st Conn, heavy artillery. The battery was assigned by detach- 
ments to garrison redoubts Nos. 2, 5, 7, and 8, defenses of City Point. 
As many of the men were previously inured to the service and the 
battery drilled constantly, the command was soon in an excellent 
state of discipline.. On Jan. 23, 1865, when the Confederate fleet 
tried to pass down the James river to destroy the Union base at 
City Point, one section of the battery, with four 4.5-inch siege guns, 
was posted in front of Gen. Grant's headquarters, where it could 
cover the wharves and storehouses, until the gunboats were driven 
back, when it returned to the redoubts. In the final advance on the 
works of Petersburg, the 3d battery was left to defend the entire line, 
the infantry and engineers having gone forward and while the grand 
assault was in progress they stood by their guns with the roar of 
battle in their ears, ready for action if the necessity presented. After 
Lee's surrender the battery was employed is dismantling the enemy's 
fortifications and removing the heavy ordnance near Chaffin's bluflf 
on the north side of the James. On June 23, 1865, 93 members of 
the battery whose terms expired prior to Oct. i, were mustered out 
of service, and returned to New Haven, where they were paid and 



310 The Union Army 

finally dischaged on July 3, — the 27 men, whose terms did not expire, 
were transferred by order of the war department to the ist Conn, 
heavy artillery. The battery had been in service about 9 months, 
though several of its members witnessed not only the inception of the 
war, but the final scenes which closed the great drama. Its total 
casualties while in service were only 7. Of these, 3 died of disease, 
2 were accidentally wounded, and 2 were discharged for disability. 




m 



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n 



DAVID McMURTRIE GREGG 



David McMurtrie Gregg was bom in Huntingdor- , Pa., 
April lo, 1833, the son of Matthew Duncan and Ellen (McMur- 
trie) Gregg. The Gregg, Potter, McMurtrie and Elliott fam- 
ilies, from whom Gen. Gregg is directly descended, all settled 
in the colony of Pennsylvania at a very early date, and had much 
to do with the development and improvement of the Keystone 
State. Gen. Gregg spent his earlier boyhood with his father's 
family in Bellefonte, Harrisburg and Hollidaysburg. In April, 
1845, the family removed to Potomac Furnace, Loudoun county, 
Va., where the father died in the following July, and the widowed 
mother with her nine children returned to Hollidaysburg, where 
her death occurred in Aug., 1847. The future general then 
became a member of the family of his uncle, David McMurtrie, 
living in Huntingdon, and for two years attended the school 
of that excellent teacher, John A. Hall. From that school he 
went to Milnwood academy, in the lower end of Huntingdon 
county, and a year later joined his elder brother, Andrew, at 
the university at Lewisburg. While at the university he re- 
ceived an appointment as cadet at the United States military 
academy at West Point, which he entered July i, 185 1. He 
was graduated in June, 1855, standing eighth in a class of thirty- 
four members. Among his class-mates were Gens. Averell, 
Webb, Ruggles and Comstock, all prominent officers in the 
Union army in the Civil war, and Gen. Nichols of the Confed- 
erate army. He was promoted in the army to brevet second 
lieutenant of dragoons, July i, 1855, ^-^^ served in garrison at 
Jefferson barracks. Mo., in 1855-56, being commissioned second 
lieutenant of first dragoons, Sept. 4, 1855. In 1856 he was 
assigned to frontier duty in the west and on the Pacific coast, 
and remained there until the outbreak of the Civil war recalled 
him to the east. He was stationed at Fort Main, N. M., in 1856; 
took part in the march to California in the same year; was at 
Fort Tejon, Cal., in 1856-57 ; Fort Vancouver, Wash., in 1857-58; 
and at Fort Walla Walla, Wash., in 1858. He took part in the 
Spokane expedition of 1858, being engaged in a desperate com- 
bat with the Indians at To-hots-nimme, Wash., May 17; was 
present at the combat of Four Lakes, Wash., Sept. i ; the com- 
bat on Spokane plain Sept. 5, and the skirmish on Spokane river 

311 



Sept. 8. He was on frontier duty at Fort Walla Walla in 1859; 
at Fort Dallas, Ore., in 1859-60; was scouting against the Snake 
Indians in i860, and was engaged in a skirmish near Hamoy 
lake, Ore., May 24. The winter of 1860-61 was spent in duty 
on the Warm Spring reservation. He became first lieutenant 
of the first dragoons on March 21, 1861, and was made captain 
in the 6th cavalry on May 14, 1861. During the first months 
of the war he saw duty in the defenses of Washington, D. C, 
and throughout the remainder of the war was connected with 
the Army of the Potomac. From Oct. 12, 1861, to Jan., 1862, 
he was on sick leave. He became colonel of the 8th Pa. cavalry 
on Jan. 24, 1862, and took part in the Peninsular campaign of 
that year. He was engaged in the battles of Seven Pines, or 
Fair Oaks, New Kent Court House, Savage Station, Bottom's 
bridge. White Oak swamp, Glendale and Malvern hill, and 
covered the movement from Harrison's landing to Yorktown in 
August. He was in the Maryland campaign of the Army of the 
Potomac, which extended from Sept. to Nov., 1862, being en- 
gaged in several skirmishes on the march to Falmouth, Va., in 
October and November. On Nov. 29, 1862, he was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general of volunteers. From Dec, 1862, to 
June, 1863, Gen. Gregg commanded a division of cavalry, being 
engaged in the skirmish at Rappahannock bridge and in "Stone- 
man's Raid" towards Richmond in April and May, 1863. He 
was in the Pennsylvania campaign of the Army of the Potomac 
in 1863 as a cavalry commander; was engaged in the combat 
at Brandy Station; the skirmishes at Aldie, Middleburg and 
Upperville in June; the battle of Gettysburg, a skirmish at Shep- 
herdstown and the pursuit of the Confederate army to Warren- 
ton, Va., in July; and participated in the actions at Rapidan 
Station, Beverly ford. Auburn and New Hope Church later in 
the year. He distinguished himself especially at Gettysburg, 
where, on the third day of the battle, he repulsed Stuart's cavalry 
charge. From March 26 to April 6, 1864, Gen. Gregg was in 
command of the cavalry corps of the Army of the Potomac, 
and in the Richmond campaign from April 6 to Aug. 1864, was 
in command of the second cavalry division of the Army of the 
Potomac. During this time he was engaged in the actions at 
Todd's tavern, where he was in command, Ground Squirrel 
Church, Meadow bridge, Haw's shop, Gaines' house, Trevilian 
Station, Tunstall's station, St. Mary's Church, where he was in 
command, Warwick swamp, Darby town and Lee's mills. On 
Aug. I, 1864, Gen. Gregg came into command of the cavalry 
of the Army of the Potomac, being bre vetted on that date 
major-general U. S. volunteers "for highly meritorious and dis- 
tinguished conduct throughout the campaign, particularly in 

312 



the reconnoissance on the Charles City road." From that time 
to the close of the war he fought at Deep Bottom, Reams' station, 
Peebles' farm, Vaughan road, where he was in command, Boyd- 
ton plank road, destruction of Stony creek Station and Belle- 
field, the last terminating Gen. Gregg's active work in the army. 
He resigned from the service Feb. 3, 1865. In Feb., 1874, Pres- 
ident Grant appointed Gen. Gregg United States consul at 
Prague, Bohemia, which position he resigned and returned to 
Reading, Pa., in the following August, at which place he has 
since made his home. In 1891 he was nominated by the Repub- 
lican party as its candidate for auditor-general of Pennsylvania, 
was elected, and made a splendid record in his three years of 
service. He was elected commander of the Pennsylvania Com- 
mandery. Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United 
States, in 1886, and was continued in office by successive elec- 
tions every year until 1894, when he resigned to accept the 
position of national commander, serving in the latter position 
two years and then declining reelection. He is president of 
the board of directors of the Charles Evans Cemetery Company 
of Reading, and is a member of the board of trustees of the state 
lunatic hospital at Harrisburg. He takes a deep interest in all 
matters pertaining to the veterans of 1861-65, and as the editor 
for Pennsylvania has carefully revised the Keystone State's 
department in this publication. On Oct. 6, 1862, Gen. Gregg 
married Ellen F. Sheaff of Reading, a great-granddaughter 
of Frederick A. Muhlenberg, as also of Gov. Joseph Hiester. 
They have two sons: George Sheaff, David McMurtrie, Jr. 



313 



Military Affairs in^Pennsylvania i 

1861—65 



At the outbreak of the Civil war the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania ranked second among the thirty-three states in 
population, and was surpassed by none in material resources. 
The 3,000,000 of people within her borders were sedulously de- 
voted to the arts of peace, and were animated by no sentiments 
of hostility towards the people of other sections. A great, con- 
tented and prosperous commonwealth had developed under the 
protection of the government as instituted by the fathers, and 
her people were slow to believe that the angry mutterings of the 
Southern States would eventuate in armed rebellion. That her 
peace loving people were quite unprepared when hostilities sud- 
denly commenced will be forcibly brought out later in this sketch. 
Nevertheless, when the flag of the nation was actually assailed, 
no state gave a readier and more hearty response to the sudden 
call to arms. Divided from the slave holding states only by an 
imaginary line, her territory was readily accessible and invited 
armed invasion. Her populous cities, her rich farms, and her 
great industrial establishments held out a tempting prize to her 
enemies in the South, and three times during the great conflict 
was her soil invaded by hostile armies. 

Perhaps none of the loyal states had incurred such bitter en- 
mity on the part of the South as Pennsylvania. She was re- 
peatedly charged with conniving at the escape of fugitive slaves. 
She had long before abolished slavery within her own borders, 
and during the years which had elapsed since the formation of 
the Union a strong anti-slavery sentiment had growm up among 
her citizens, which made it hard to enforce the harsh provisions 
of the fugitive slave laws. Her peculiar geographical position 
rendered it easy to "railroad" slaves across the state, and the 
historic "underground railroad" led from the slave States through 
her territory and that of New York to Gerrit Smith's well known 
colony, and thence across the Canadian border. Private persons, 
interested in the work of freeing the slaves from bondage and in 
evading the provisions of the fugitive slave laws, gave temporary 

314 



Military Affairs in Pennsylvania 315 

shelter and sustenance to the blacks and then quietly sent them on 
north. It is doubtless true that many thousands of escaping 
slaves found protection within the borders of the state, but there 
is no evidence that the state, or any of its officials, did aught 
to defy the provision of the Federal constitution or the fugitive 
law enactments of Congress. Indeed, Gov. Packer, a radical 
Democrat and a strong opponent of the extreme abolition senti- 
ment, in his retiring message to the legislature, Jan. 2, 1861, 
warmly denied the imputation that in the enforcement of these 
laws the state had been lax or wanting. And when the attempt 
was made to arraign the state and her people at the bar of pub- 
lic opinion for her so-called offenses, he declared : "Every attempt 
upon the part of individuals or of organized societies, to lead 
the people away from their government, to induce them to violate 
any of the provisions of the constitution, or to incite insurrec- 
tions in any of the states of this Union, ought to be prohibited 
by law as crimes of a treasonable nature. It is of the first im- 
portance to the perpetuity of this great Union that the hearts 
of the people and the action of their constituted authorities 
should be in unison in giving a faithful support to the constitu- 
tion of the United States. The people of Pennsylvania are de- 
voted to the Union. They will follow its stars and stripes through 
every peril. But, before assuming the high responsibilities now 
dimly foreshadowed, it is their solemn duty to remove every 
just cause of complaint against themselves, so that they may 
stand before High Heaven and the civilized world, without 
fear and without reproach, ready to devote their lives and their 
fortunes to the support of the best form of government that has 
ever been devised by the wisdom of man." It was Gov. Packer's 
suggestion that the differences between the North and the South 
be harmonized by constitutional amendment, or in a convention 
of the people called for that purpose. His retirement from office 
at this time, however, gave the stage to Andrew Gregg Curtin, 
Pennsylvania's great "War Governor," who was inaugurated on 
Jan. 15, 1861. He had been elected in Oct., i860, by a combina- 
tion of the various elements which then made up the Republican 
party, receiving a majority of 32,000 votes. This Republican 
victory was followed in November by the election of Abraham 
Lincoln, who received in the state 90,000 more votes than John 
C. Breckenridge, and 60,000 more votes than all the opposition 
candidates. The campaign, both state and national, had been 
feverish and excited, and the issues momentous. The decisive 
nature of the vote was felt to be most unusual in a state as con- 
servative and consistently Democratic as Pennsylvania and placed 
the state squarely in line with the policies of the new Federal 



316 The Union Army 

administration. Moreover, Gov. Curtin was the personal friend 
and adviser of Mr. Lincoln, and proved to be the right man in 
the right place during the troublous period which followed. 
Throughout the long struggle, the relations between the state's 
chief executive and the president were entirely cordial, and their 
views and actions on the many grave questions confronting the 
nation were quite harmonious. When Senator Cameron was 
appointed secretary of war, the cordial relationship of the two men 
was accentuated and the state was in a position to know and even 
anticipate the demands of the National Government. 

When Gov. Curtin was inaugurated, he was in his forty-sixth 
year, having been born at Belief onte, Penn., April 2.2^, 1815. 
He was a man of liberal education, a leader at the bar, and an 
effective public speaker. Of strong Whig antecedents, he had 
already demonstrated his fine executive talents in the office of 
the secretary of the commonwealth, during the administration 
of Gov. Pollock. His duties at that time embraced those of su- 
perintendent of common schools, and it was due to his efforts that 
the splendid common school system of the state, then in its forma- 
tive period, was placed on a strong and enduring basis. His 
was indeed a strong and vigorous personality, and the state 
was most fortunate at this critical period in having at the 
helm a statesman of lofty genius, inspired by motives of the 
purest patriotism. 

The impending struggle was at hand when Gov. Curtin as- 
sumed the reins of government. The state had a total popula- 
tion of 2,906,215, according to the census of i860. The treasury 
department reported a total state indebtedness in i860 of $37,- 
969,847.50. This large sum was not regarded with alarm by the 
state's officials, as the revenues were large and the resources of 
the state were almost boundless, and Gov. Curtin congratulated 
the legislature in his inaugural address upon the prosperity which 
prevailed everywhere in the state. Only the shadows of the 
approaching conflict darkened the bright outlook. 

Immediately after the popular will had been expressed in such 
unmistakable terms in the elections of i860 a wave of reaction 
swept over the state and the people seemed to be alarmed at 
the strong stand they had taken. The ordinance of secession was 
passed by South Carolina, only a few weeks after the presidential 
election and its action was soon followed by other Southern 
States. A strong disposition was now shown by the national 
government, which was reflected in Pennsylvania, and the other 
Northern States to apply the balm of compromise to the wounded 
feelings of the defeated South. Resolutions introduced into the 
Pennsylvania legislature declared it the duty of the state to give 



Military Affairs in Pennsylvania 317 

every possible aid in the restoration to their owners of fugitive 
slaves. A great mass meeting was held in Independence Square, 
Philadelphia, Dec. 13, i860, and the immense concourse of people 
seemed willing to go to almost any length in satisfying the de- 
mands of the South. It was even declared in the resolutions 
passed that "all denunciations of slavery as existing in the United 
States * * * are inconsistent with the spirit of brotherhood 
and kindness." This meeting in the Quaker City represented the 
extreme reactionary sentiment of the hour. It was the action of a 
peace-loving community averse to the very idea of war, and not 
yet aroused by any overt act of rebellion. Said Gov. Packer in 
his retiring message, "Let moderate counsels prevail ; let a spirit 
of harmony and good will, and a niuional and fraternal senti- 
ment be cultivated among the people, everywhere — North and 
South — and the disturbing elements which temporarily threaten 
the Union, will now, as they have always heretofore, assuredly 
pass away. Pennsylvania, in the past, has performed her part 
with unfaltering firmness. Let her now and in the future be 
ever ready to discharge her confederate duties with unflinching 
integrity." Said Gov. Curtin in his first address to the legisla- 
ture: "In the present unhappy condition of the country, it will 
be our duty to unite with the people of the states which remain 
loyal to the Union, in any just and honorable measures of con- 
ciliation and fraternal kindness. Let us invite them to join us in 
the fulfillment of all our obligations under the Federal constitu- 
tion and laws. Then we can cordially unite with them in 
claiming like obedience from those states which have renounced 
their allegiance. If the loyal states are just and moderate, with- 
out any sacrifice of right or self respect, the threatened danger 
may be averted." Such was the prevailing feeling of compromise, 
not only in Pennsylvania, but also in the other Northern States. 
Had the South heeded this burst of fraternal feeling and couched 
its demands in reasonable terms, the war would have been averted 
and its "peculiar institution" saved for many years to come. 

While Gov. Curtin, in common with many other enlightened 
men, was thus willing to extend the hand of good fellowship to 
the South, his first message, nevertheless, breathed a spirit of 
deep devotion to the Union and was imbued with the loftiest 
patriotism. He pledged himself to stand between the constitu- 
tion and all encroachments instigated by hatred, ambition, fa- 
naticism or folly. He declared that the last election had been 
used as a pretext for disturbing the peace of the country, and 
that it was sought to wrest from the Federal government its 
proper constitutional functions. There had been nothing in the 
life or acts of Mr. Lincoln to warrant the excitement caused by his 



318 The Union Army 

election, and that part of the people who were precipitating them- 
selves into a revolution were blinded in judgment. He advo- 
cated the repeal of the personal liberty bill, if it contravened any 
Federal law, and said: "It is the first duty of the Federal gov- 
ernment to stay the progress of anarchy and enforce the laws, 
and Pennsylvania will give it a united, honest and faithful sup- 
port. The people mean to preserve the Union at every hazard." 
Referring to the particular concern felt by Pennsylvania in the 
questions of the hour, both by reason of her location and because 
of the dominant position she occupied in the sisterhood of states 
in population and material resources, he said: "Occupying a 
geographical position between the North and the South, the East 
and the West, with the great avenues of travel and trade passing 
through her borders, carrying on an extensive commerce with her 
neighbors, in the vast and varied productions of her soil, her 
mines and her manufacturing industry, and bound to them by ties 
of kindred and social intercourse, the question of disunion in- 
volves momentous consequences to her people. The second of the 
thirty-three states in population, and the first in material re- 
sources, it is due both to ourselves and to the other states, that 
the position and sentiments of Pennsylvania on the question 
should be distinctly understood." 

In all he said and did during the early part of his adminis- 
tration, he spoke for the people of the state as a whole, and 
throughout the period of the war he worked in complete harmony 
with the legislative branch of the government. The legislature 
never called in question his motives, and recognizing that he was 
in close touch with the national government, gave prompt sup- 
port to all his suggestions pertaining to national affairs. 

On Jan. 17, 1861, the house of representatives passed a series 
of resolutions commending the course of Maj. Anderson, and 
Gov. Hicks of Maryland, and pledging to that state the fellow- 
ship and support of Pennsylvania. 

Two days later the legislature of Virginia passed resolutions 
calling upon the several states to appoint commissioners to meet 
in Washington on Feb. 4, in the effort to adjust "the present 
unhappy controversies in the spirit in which the constitution 
was originally formed and consistently with its principles, so as 
to afford to the people of the slaveholding states adequate guar- 
antees for the security of their rights." The resolutions further 
endorsed, with slight modifications, the propositions embraced 
in the resolutions presented to the U. S. senate by Senator Crit- 
tenden, and provided for the appointment of ex-President John 
Tyler as special commissioner to President Lincoln, and Judge 
John Robertson as a commissioner to the State of South Caro- 



Military Affairs in Pennsylvania 319 

lina and the other states that "have seceded or shall secede," with 
instructions to request the president and the authorities of such 
states to agree to abstain from any acts tending to bring about 
armed collision pending the action of the peace conference at 
Washington. President Buchanan hailed this movement on the 
part of Virginia with satisfaction, declaring that the convention, 
when assembled, "will constitute a body entitled, in an eminent 
degree, to the confidence of the country." Gov. Curtin was 
heartily in accord with the spirit of the proposition, and appointed 
as the representatives of Pennsylvania, James Pollock, William 
M. Meredith, David Wilmot, A. W. Loomis, Thomas E. Frank- 
lin, William McKennan and Thomas White. The delegates as- 
sembled as was proposed, men eminent for wisdom and justice, 
but their deliberations only resulted in recommending certain 
amendments to the constitution, which were promptly rejected 
by both branches of Congress, as were all other compromises 
offered. The North was unwilling to yield everything for which 
it had contended in the last election, and the South remained un- 
yielding in certain of its demands. 

The legislature, on June 24, 186 1, passed the following reso- 
lutions pertaining to the maintenance of the constitution and the 
Union, and the right of a State to secede : "Whereas, a conven- 
tion of delegates assembled in the city of Charleston, in the State 
of South Carolina, did, on the 20th day of December, in the year 
of our Lord i860, adopt an ordinance entitled, 'An ordinance to 
dissolve the Union between the State of South Carolina and other 
states united with her under the compact entitled The Constitu- 
tion of the United States of America.' 

"Resolved, That if the rights of the people of South Carolina 
under this constitution are disregarded, their tranquillity dis- 
turbed, their prosperity retarded, or their liberties imperilled, by 
the people of any other state, full and adequate redress can, and 
ought to be, provided for such grievances through the action 
of Congress, and other proper departments of the national gov- 
ernment. 

"That the people of Pennsylvania entertain and desire to 
cherish the most cordial sentiments for their brethren of other 
states, and are ready now, as they have ever been, to cooperate 
in all measures needful for their welfare, security and happiness, 
under the constitution which makes us one people. That while 
they cannot surrender their love of liberty inherited from the 
founders of their state, sealed with the blood of the Revolution 
and witnessed in the history of their legislation ; and while they 
claim the observance of all their rights under the constitution, 
they nevertheless maintain now, as they have ever done, the con- 



320 The Union Army 

stitutional rights of the people of the slaveholding states to the 
uninterrupted enjoyment of their own domestic institutions. 

"That we adopt the sentiment and language of President An- 
drew Jackson, expressed in his message to Congress, on the i6th 
day of Jan., 1833 : 'That the right of a people of a single 
state to absolve themselves at will, and without the consent of the 
other states, from their most solemn obligations and hazard the 
liberties and happiness of the millions composing this Union can- 
not be acknowledged ; and that such authority is utterly repug- 
nant both to the principles upon which the general govern- 
ment is constituted, and the objects which it was expressly formed 
to attain.' 

"That the constitution of the United States of America contains 
all the powers necessary to the maintenance of its authority, 
and it is the solemn and most imperative duty of the government 
to adopt and carry into effect whatever measures may be neces- 
sary to that end; and the faith and the power of Pennsylvania 
are hereby pledged to the support of such measures, in any man- 
ner and to any extent that may be required of her by the con- 
stituted authorities of the United States. 

"That all plots, conspiracies and warlike demonstrations against 
the United States, in any section of the country, are treasonable 
in their character; and whatever power of the government is 
necessary to their suppression should be applied to that purpose 
without hestitation or delay." 

The above resolutions voiced the sentiments of the people in 
no uncertain way. Regardless of previous party affiliations, all 
were at this time united in support of the Union, the laws and the 
constitution. The South had many sympathizing friends in the 
state who were now shocked at the action of the Southern States 
in seizing Federal property and boldly proclaiming their right 
to secede. The progress of events was closely watched, and the 
sentiments conveyed in the above resolutions were frequently 
proclaimed. While it was now believed that war was almost 
inevitable, few practical steps were being taken looking to that 
event, as it was hoped that some means might yet be found to 
avoid an actual resort to arms. 

Reference has already been made to the fact that Pennsylvania 
was in a condition of almost complete military unpreparedness at 
the outbreak of the Civil war. Military feeling in the state had 
been at low ebb since the first quarter of the 19th century. Many 
of the citizens had come to regard the state's militia laws, as 
generally enforced and observed, as tending to subvert true 
military science and discipline, rather than to promote the same. 
The military displays of the state were regarded by many as little 



Military Affairs in Pennsylvania 321 

better than a burlesque — its army a mere caricature — serving as 
a school for vice to the youth of the state who entered its ranks. 
Able officers, sincerely desirous of improving the character of 
the citizen soldiery, received scant courtesy at the hands of suc- 
cessive legislatures. Public indifference prevailed. There was 
some attempt to improve the militia system in 1858, under the 
spur of threats to dissolve the Union in certain contingencies, 
after the narrow defeat of the Republican candidate, John C. 
Fremont, in 1856. The legislature adopted a revised code, drawn 
up with much detail, and a real effort was then made to organize 
new companies as provided by law. Encampments were ordered 
and held at different points in the state, but that little good re- 
sulted is evidenced by the fact that at the close of that year, 
according to the report of the adjutant-general, the volunteer 
militia numbered only 13,000, out of 350.000 subject to military 
duty. Encampments were not ordered in 1859, and little in- 
crease in numbers was shown. The same report shows that while 
there had been issued to Pennsylvania by the Ordnance Depart- 
ment at Washington, from 1812 to 1857, "45,901 muskets, 10,202 
rifles, 12,602 pistols, 9,767 swords, 27,271 infantry accouterments, 
1,829 cavalry accouterments, ^j bronze 6-pound cannon, harness 
and carriages, 45 iron sixes, harness and carriages, 6 iron 12- 
pounders, harness and carriages, 4 iron howitzers, 14 caissons, 
two 6-pounders, two 12-pounders and two 24-pounders, with har- 
ness and carriages for each," there only remained in the hands 
of the militia, 8,477 rnuskets and 32 pieces, and in arsenal, 519 
muskets and 15 brass cannon. Said Adjt.-Gen. Edwin C. Wil- 
son : "It is a useless inquiry to ask now what has become of so 
large an amount of arms and accouterments. I am aware that 
many have been sold, but the bulk remains unaccounted for and 
no books nor papers remain in this office to tell of their existence." 
It is, moreover, matter of common knowledge that in the last 
year of Sec. Floyd's administration, there took place an extraor- 
dinary movement of arms from Northern to Southern arsenals. 

After the inauguration of President Lincoln, it became in- 
creasingly evident that war could not be averted. On April 9, 
the governor sent a special message to the legislature, recommend- 
ing that steps be at once taken to remedy the defects of the 
military system of the state, and suggesting the establishment 
of a military bureau. 

Only the spirit of the occasion, a natural desire to flatter state 
pride, and the ability to look beneath the clothes to the man 
within, could have prompted the "Great Emancipator" to say at 
Harrisburg on Feb, 23, 1861, in the presence of a great concourse 
of people, including the military' from all parts of the state as- 
Voi. 1—21 



322 The Union Army 

sembled to do him honor : "While I have been proud to see 
today the finest military array I think that I have ever seen, etc." 
Arms, equipment, organization and discipline were lacking in 
the state's militia system, though the state was rich in men and 
resources. The adjutant-general's report for i860 showed 355,- 
000 men subject to military service, of whom only 19,000 were 
members of organized companies. There were 476 companies with 
an average enrollment of about 40 men. Such arms and equip- 
ment as the state owned were in the hands of the companies, and 
comprised 12,080 muskets, 4,706 rifles, 2,809 cavalry swords and 
sabers, 3,149 pistols, 69 pieces of ordnance and 579 tents. About 
2,500 muskets and half as many rifles were of modern pattern, 
and these, together with the ordnance, constituted the only really 
serviceable equipment. Of the organized militia, fully three- 
fourths were without effective small arms and entered the serv- 
ice of the United States in the spring of 186 1 with arms of 
obsolete type, which were practically worthless. 

This wretched condition of the state's militia system and the 
critical condition of the nation's affairs in April impelled the 
governor to say in the special message to the legislature above 
referred to: "The militia system of the state, during a long 
period distinguished by the pursuits of peaceful industry ex- 
clusively, has become wholly inefficient, and the interference of 
the legislature is required to remove its defects and to render it 
available to the public service. * * * The most exalted public pol- 
icy and the clearest obligations of true patriotism admonish us in 
the existing deplorable and dangerous crisis of affairs, that our 
militia system should receive from the legislature that prompt 
attention which public exigencies, either of the state or of the 
nation, may appear to demand, and which may seem in your 
wisdom best adapted to preserve and secure to the people of 
Pennsylvania and the Union the blessings of peace and the in- 
tegrity of our unrivalled constitutional government." He sug- 
gested that a military bureau be established at Harrisburg, and 
that suitable arms be distributed to all volunteer militiamen. 

A bill embodying these recommendations of the governor was 
at once reported in the legislature, passed both houses without 
amendment and became a law on April 12, 1861. The legislature 
also appropriated $500,000 in order to properly arm and equip 
the militia. 

Prompt and patriotic as was this response of the legislature 
to the suggestions of the governor, there was no time to carry 
its provisions into effect before the thunder of Confederate guns 
trained on Fort Sumter proclaimed the opening of the rebellion 
April 12, 186 1. 



Military Affairs in Pennsylvania 323 

On the 13th, a bill which defined and punished treason was 
introduced and promptly passed the legislature. It forbade any 
citizen of the state to take any military commission from the 
enemies of the United States; to enter into any plot, conspiracy 
or traitorous correspondence ; to furnish arms, under a heavy 
penalty; anyone convicted of selling vessels to the enemy or fit- 
ting out privateers should be punished by five years' imprison- 
ment and a fine of $5,000; and in addition, every officer in the 
state's militia service was required to subscribe within 30 days 
to an oath of allegiance to the United States, or be deprived of his 
commission. After the passage of this bill the legislature ad- 
journed. 

When the news of the assault on Fort Sumter was received in- 
tense excitment prevailed throughout the state. All hesitation 
was now at an end and it was felt that the Nation had but 
one recourse consistent with the National honor. Men no longer 
talked of satisfying Southern demands and the few southern 
sympathizers kept well in the background. In Philadelphia, the 
principal city in the state, the excitement was particularly great 
and a riot was almost precipitated on the 15th by a mob assembled 
to hunt down secession sympathizers. Only the efforts of Mayor 
Henry and the liberal display of American flags prevented a se- 
rious breach of the peace. President Lincoln issued his proclama- 
tion calling out the militia of the several states to the number of 
75,000 men, for three months, or the emergency, and assigned 
fourteen regiments to Pennsylvania as her share. The response 
of the state to this call was prompt and patriotic. Not only were 
the fourteen regiments raised, but many additional ones were 
recruited and the Government was finally induced to accept 
eleven more. Said Adjt.-Gen. Russell : "Such was the patriotic 
ardor of the people that the services of about thirty regiments 
had to be refused, making in all more than one-half the requisi- 
tion of the president." At 7:30 p. m. of the i8th, only three 
days after the call for troops, five companies of Pennsylvanians, 
comprising 530 men, reached Washington and were quartered in 
the hall of the house of representatives. These troops were 
the first to arrive in Washington and for twenty-four hours con- 
stituted the sole defense of the nation's capital against an attack 
of the enemy, momentarily expected. True, the men, with the 
exception of 34 members of the Logan Guards, were totally un- 
armed, but their numbers were exaggerated and their presence 
caused great rejoicing. On the evening of the 19th, the 6th 
Mass. infantry, fully armed and equipped, reached Washington 
and was quartered in the senate chamber of the capitol. The 
five Pennsylvania companies deserve a further word of mention. 



324 The Union Army 

As soon as the president's call was received at Harrisburg, Gov. 
Curtin made haste to disseminate the infonnation throughout the 
state. There was an immediate tide of messages coming in from 
officers of companies tendering the services of their commands. 
By reason of their advanced state of organization and discipline, 
the first companies to respond were the Ringgold light artillery, 
of Reading, Capt. James McKnight; the Logan Guards of 
Lewistown, Capt. John B. Selheimer; the Washington artillery, 
Capt. James Wren, and the National light infantry. Capt. Edmund 
McDonald, both of Pottsville; and the Allen Rifles, of Allen- 
town, Capt. James Yeager. The Ringgold artillery arrived in 
Harrisburg at 8 p. m., on the i6th, 152 strong, and reported to 
Col. Slifer, secretary of state, in the absence of Gov. Curtin in 
Washington. On the morning of the 17th the other four com- 
panies arrived and on the morning of the i8th the five companies 
were joined by Co. H, 4th artillery, U. S. regulars, which had 
come in from the West under command of Lieut. Pemberton, 
later Gen. Pemberton of the Confederate army, with orders to 
garrison Fort McHenry, Baltimore. The six companies arrived 
in Baltimore at 3 130 on the afternoon of the 18th. By order of 
the secretary of war, the guns, caissons and equipments of the 
Ringgold light artillery, were left at Harrisburg; the regulars 
and a portion of the Logan Guards had their muskets, and the 
Ringgolds had their sabers ; otherwise none of the men were 
equipped to resist any act of aggression. At Baltimore it was 
necessary for the men to march a distance of nearly 2 miles in 
order to reach the Washington depot, and the troops had re- 
ceived no intimation that they would be molested at this point. 
In fact, the enthusiasm with which they had been received along 
the route of their journey, even at the wayside stations in Mary- 
land and in the very suburbs of Baltimore, led them to expect an 
equally cordial reception in the city itself. A large body of police 
met them on their arrival and escorted them in their march to 
the Washington railroad terminus. Hardly had the march be- 
gun when they were greeted by a mob, made up of all classes, 
whose loud cheers for Jeff. Davis and secession, and whose 
epithets of derision indicated trouble. The officers instructed the 
men to disregard the volume of abuse poured upon them, and 
the fine discipline and stoicism of the company of regulars 
served as an example to the raw Pennsylvania troops. It was in- 
deed a trying ordeal for the men, but they finally reached the 
Washington depot, where they were hurried into the cattle cars 
awaiting them and started for Washington amid the execra- 
tions of the hooting mob. 

On the day after these companies encountered their hostile 



Military Affairs in Pennsylvania 325 

reception in Baltimore, a body of troops which had been recruited 
early in the year at Philadelphia by Gen. William F. Small, 
known as the Washington brigade, endeavored to pass through 
the city, but was forced to turn back. The commander had been 
instructed by the war department to pass through Baltimore in 
the night in order to avoid any hostile demonstration, but through 
the treachery or negligence of the railroad officials, he was de- 
layed and did not arrive in the city until noon of the 19th. The 
6th Mass. reached Baltimore just ahead of the Pennsylvania bri- 
gade over the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore railroad. 
The track of the road extended through the city, but for more 
than a mile it was necessary to move the cars by means of horses. 
The 6th had been warned of threatened trouble and their muskets 
were loaded for any emergency which might arise. The first 
seven companies entered the cars and were drawn to the Wash- 
ington depot without being seriously molested. The remaining 
companies, which had been detained on the road, found a menac- 
ing crown awaiting them on their arrival, and the track torn up 
or obstructed. Forced to march the whole distance through the 
threatening mob which hemmed them in, they were repeatedly 
assailed by the crowd and had several members killed and a large 
number wounded. Ordered by their officers to fire into their 
assailants, they forced back the crowd of rioters, killing and 
wounding a number of them, and finally reached their destination. 
When the brigade of Gen. Small arrived soon after this episode, 
he saw that he, too, must march his men through the city. As 
the men were totally unarmed, this was no light task. The 
mob had tasted blood and showed an apparent determination to 
wreck its vengeance on the Pennsylvanians. Nevertheless, Gen. 
Small started his command over the dangerous route. As he ad- 
vanced, the disposition of the crowd became uglier and he decided 
to return with his unarmed force to Philadelphia. During the 
struggle one of his men was killed and several wounded, the 
rioters pursuing them with stones and other missiles until their 
train was out of reach. 

Within ten days after the president issued his first call for 
volunteers, more than enough men for twenty-five regiments had 
presented themselves. On April 18, Camp Curtin was established 
on the edge of Harrisburg, and it was made the principal point 
of rendezvous for troops from the northern, central and western 
counties of the state. Afterwards taken in charge by the author- 
ities at Washington, it was made an important distributing and 
convalescent center for soldiers, as well as a depot for military 
supplies. The above regiments were numbered i to 25 inclusive, 
and comprised a total of 20,175 men. All were enlisted and served 



336 The Union Army 

for three months, being mustered out at the end of that period, 
with the exception of a considerable number who reenHsted for 
three years. At the request of the war department all these 
troops were clothed, armed, equipped, subsisted and transported 
by the state, as the Federal government was not yet prepared to 
do this work. 

On April 20, the governor issued a proclamation convening a 
special session of the legislature. His reasons for this action 
were that "An armed rebellion exists in a portion of the states 
of the Union, threatening the destruction of the national govern- 
ment, periling public and private property, endangering the peace 
and security of this commonwealth, and inviting systematic 
piracy. * * * Adequate provision does not exist by law to enable 
the executive to make the military power of the state as available 
and efficient as it should be for the common defense of the state 
and the general government." The situation was already highly 
critical and military operatons had commenced in earnest. On 
the night of the 19th succeeding the assaults on the troops in the 
city of Baltimore, the bridges on the Philadelphia, Wilmington 
& Baltimore, and those on the Northern Central railroads were 
burned ; the telegraph wires leading north from Washington 
were cut and all communication with the North was severed. 
Until these bridges could be repaired and guarded the authorities 
were forced to make vise of the Perryville & Annapolis route, in 
order to send troops to the aid of Washington. Gov. Curtin had 
appointed on April 16, Maj.-Gens. Robert Patterson and William 
H. Keim to the command of the troops called out by the procla- 
mation of the president on the 15th. Gen. Patterson was soon 
after appointed by Lieut.-Gen. Scott to command the Department 
of Washington, including the States of Pennsylvania, Delaware 
and Maryland, and the District of Columbia, with headquarters 
at Philadelphia. Patterson at once took steps to secure the 
Annapolis route and then proceeded to open that by way of 
Baltimore, using for this purpose the 17th Pa., T. W. Sherman's 
light battery, and five companies of the 3d regulars, all com- 
manded by Col. Francis E. Patterson, the general's son. Union 
sentiment soon reasserted itself in Baltimore ; Col. Patterson's 
force entered the city without opposition and the movement of 
troops toward the capital was not again interrupted. 

The legislature convened in special session on April 30, and in 
his message at the opening of the session the governor said : 
"The insurrection must now be met by force of arms ; and to re- 
establish the government upon an enduring basis by asserting 
its entire supremacy, to repossess the forts and other govern- 
ment property so unlawfully seized and held, to ensure personal 



Military Affairs in Pennsylvania 337 

freedom and safety to the people and commerce of the Union, 
in every section, the people of the loyal states demand, as with 
one voice, and will contend for, as with one heart, and a quarter 
of a million of Pennsylvania's sons will answer the call to arms, 
if need be, to wrest us from a reign of anarchy and plunder and 
secure for themselves and their children, for ages to come, the 
perpetuity of this government and its beneficent institutions. 
* * * It is impossible to predict the lengths to which the 
madness that rules the hour in the rebellious states shall lead 
us, or when the calamities which threaten our hitherto happy 
country shall terminate. * * * To furnish ready support 
to those who have gone out and to protect our borders, we should 
have a well regulated military force. I, therefore, recommend 
the immediate organization, disciplining and arming of at least 
fifteen regiments of cavalry and infantry, exclusive of those 
called into the service of the United States. As we already have 
ample warning of the necessity of being prepared for any sudden 
exigency that may arise, I cannot too much impress this upon 
you." The wise and patriotic views of the executive met with a 
prompt response from the legislature. On May 15 it passed an 
act authorizing the organization of the "Reserve Volunteer 
Corps of the Commonwealth," to embrace thirteen regiments 
of infantry, one of cavalry and one of artillery. This reserve 
corps was to be armed, equipped, clothed, subsisted and paid by 
the state. It was placed under the command of Maj.-Gen. 
George A. McCall, and its proper drill and discipline were pro- 
vided for by placing its members in camps of instruction at 
Easton, West Chester, Pittsburg and Harrisburg. To defray the 
expense of this and other military organizations a loan of