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Full text of "The Union army; a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers"

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THE 



UNION ARMY 



A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal 
States 1861-65 — Records of the Regi- 
ments in the Union Army — Cyclo- 
pedia OF Battles — Memoirs 
of Commanders and 
Soldiers 



VOLUME II 

New York, Maryland, West Virginia and Ohio 



MADISON, WIS. 
Federal Publishing Company 

1908 



'A 15.1 

Copyright, 1908 

BY 

Federal Publishing Company 












US 

9 



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CONTENTS 



VOLUME I 

Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Con- 
necticut, Pennsylvania and Delaware. 

VOLUME[II 

Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of New York, 
Maryland, West Virginia and Ohio. 

VOLUME III 

Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of New Jersey, 
Indiana, Illinois and Michigan. 

VOLUME IV 

Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
California, Oregon, The Territories and 
District of Columbia. 

VOLUME V 

Cyclopedia of Battles — A to Helena. 

VOLUME VI 

Cyclopedia of Battles — Helena Road to Z. 

VOLUME VII 

The Navy. 

VOLUME VIII 

Biographical. 



^ 



DANIEL E. SICKLES 



Maj.-Gen. Daniel E. Sickles was born in the city of New 
York Oct. 20, 1825, his parents being George G. and Susan 
(Marsh) Sickles. He was educated in the University of New 
Yorkj after which he learned the printer's trade and followed 
that occupation for a few years. He then took up the study of 
law, was admitted to the bar in 1846, and began the practice of 
his profession in his native city. He soon became active in pol- 
itics and held a prominent place in the councils of Tammany 
Hall. In 1857 he was elected to the legislature and about the 
same time was commissioned major of the 12th regiment, 
N. G. S. N. Y. In 1853 he was made attorney for the city, but 
resigned to become secretary of the legation in London, In 
1855 he returned to New York; was elected to the state senate 
in 1856, and to Congress in 1857. When the Civil war broke 
out he raised the Excelsior brigade, which in the Peninsular 
campaign of 1862 was the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 3d army 
corps, and distinguished itself at Williamsburg, Fair Oaks and 
in the Seven Days' battles. Gen. Sickles took a prominent part 
in the battle of Antietam, soon after which he became com- 
mander of a division. In 1863 he was made a major-general 
and assigned to the command of the 3d corps. At Gettysburg 
he lost a leg but continued in active service until 1865. In 1865 
he was assigned to the command of the military department of 
the South and the same year went on a confidential mission to 
South America. In 1866 he was appointed colonel of the 42nd 
U. S. infantry and assigned to the command of the district 
composed of the Carolinas. In 1866 he was appointed minister 
to Holland, but declined. In 1869 he was retired with the full 
rank of major-general and the same year declined the mission 
to Mexico, but accepted an appointment to Spain, where he 
served as U. S. minister until 1873. For several years he was 
president of the state board of civil service commissioners; was 
elected sheriff of New York in 1890; served in the lower house 
of Congress from 1892 to 1894, and was active in the reorgan- 
ization of the New York, Lake Erie & Western Railroad Com- 
pany. He still lives in New York, practically retired from the 
active duties and cares of life, though he still takes a keen in- 
terest in all questions of public policy. Gen. Sickles has edited 
the chapter in this work pertaining to the "Military Affairs in 
New York." 

Vol II— 2 17 



Military Affairs in New York 

1861—65 



[This chapter has been critically examined and cordially approved by Capt. Frederick 
Phisterer, the eminent military statistician, now connected with the New York adjutant- 
general's ofiSce.] 

In the following pages it is proposed to set forth in brief com- 
pass the important part played by the great State of New York 
during the War of the Rebellion. Events occurring within the 
State, and reflecting its military activities, will be described in 
more or less detail, followed by a concise story of each military 
organization raised by the state. As the best authoritative work 
on New York in the War of the Rebellion is that of Capt. Fred- 
erick Phisterer, a liberal use of that record has been made, as 
well as of all available state and national records of an official 
nature ; also of the war histories of other states, and such stand- 
ard works as "Fox's Regimental Losses," and Townsend's "Hon- 
ors of the Empire State in the War of the Rebellion." 

New York was in i860, as now, the richest and most popu- 
lous State in the Union, It was, therefore, only natural that the 
attitude of her people and the action of her authorities should be 
watched with grave concern by the whole nation. To her ever- 
lasting credit be it said, the great Empire State failed not of her 
full duty toward the government in the hour of its darkest peril, 
but repeatedly gave an inspiring example to the people of the 
other loyal states. Though the vote of the state had been gen- 
erally Democratic in previous elections, in i860 it gave Lincoln 
353,804 votes, to 303,329 for Douglas. The total Republican 
vote for Lincoln and Hamlin was only 1,866,452 throughout the 
nation, while the total opposition vote was 2,823,741 — a majority 
of almost 1,000,000 in a total vote of a trifle over 4,500,000. 
While Lincoln's plurality was small, it was nevertheless decisive, 
and the result was promptly seized upon by the Southern leaders 
to hasten forward a movement for secession, predetermined upon 
in the event of a Republican victory. The State of South Caro- 
lina led in the movement and was shortly followed by Mississippi, 
Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas. As these 
states withdrew from the Union they seized upon the Federal 
forts, arsenals, etc., within their limits. 

18 



Military Affairs in New York 19 

Despite the threatening posture of affairs, the loyal people 
of New York were still strong in their belief that war could be 
averted, though many suspected political trickery in the con- 
ciliatory overtures of the Border States. The withdrawal of the 
southern men from Buchanan's cabinet made room for more 
loyal supporters of the government, but the president still ad- 
hered to his belief that the United States was without constitu- 
tional warrant to coerce a recalcitrant State, and was so advised 
by his attorney-general. 

New York had chosen a legislature which was overwhelmingly 
Republican in its membership, but which nevertheless displayed 
a remarkable unanimity in its counsels and action as threatening 
events rapidly multiplied. The legislature convened on Jan. i, 
1861, and in his message Gov. Morgan counseled moderation and 
conciliation. He said: "Let New York set an example in this 
respect ; let her oppose no barrier, but let her representatives in 
Congress give ready support to any just and honorable settle- 
ment ; let her stand in hostility to none, but extend the hand of 
friendship to all ; live up to the strict letter of the constitution, 
cordially unite with the other members of the Confederacy in 
proclaiming and enforcing a determination, that the constitution 
shall be honored and the Union of the states be preserved." He 
further proposed the repeal of the personal liberty bill — one 
source of bitter complaint in the South, and also suggested the 
propriety of similar action by other states. A resolution was 
promptly introduced in the senate by a leading Democratic mem- 
ber proclaiming the sacred nature of the Union, and asking the 
executive to tender the president, in behalf of the people, the 
services of the state militia as an aid in upholding the consti- 
tution and enforcing the laws. On Jan. 3, Mr. Robinson in the 
assembly introduced a series of resolutions to the effect that, 
after the admission of Kansas, all the remaining territories should 
be divided into two states, and that the disturbing question of 
slavery should be eliminated for the future by submitting it to a 
plebiscite of the people of the new states. These failed of pas- 
sage, but received considerable support. As the gloomy winter 
of 1860-61 progressed, the aspect of affairs became darker and 
more and more threatening. Still the people of the North did 
not lose all hope of a peaceable solution and in both state and 
nation compromise measures without number were brought for- 
ward in the effort to heal the widening breach. The New York 
legislature reflected the general sentiment of the state in its 
attitude of conciliation, but was by no means neglectful of even- 
tualities and united in passing many important measures to meet 
the existing situation. As was generally true in the North, the 
military spirit of the state was almost dead and general apathy, 



20 The Union Army 

if not actual hostility, toward things military prevailed. Ade- 
quate appropriation bills for the support of the militia had failed 
of passage for many years past, and the condition of military un- 
preparedness was almost complete. Measures to correct this 
situation were taken near the end of the session of the legisla- 
ture, while in the meantime bills were introduced and passed, 
providing for the more complete enrollment of the militia of 
the state and to prevent the sale of war materials or the loan of 
money to states in rebellion. When, on Jan. 9 the batteries in 
Charleston harbor fired on the merchant vessel, the "Star of the 
West," flying the Stars and Stripes and engaged in carrying sup- 
plies and reinforcements to Maj. Anderson at Fort Sumter, the 
North was aroused, and the legislature passed the following res- 
olution with only three dissenting votes : "Whereas the insurgent 
State of South Carolina, after seizing the post-offices, custom- 
house, moneys, and fortifications of the Federal government, 
has, by firing into a vessel ordered by the government to convey 
troops and provisions to Fort Sumter, virtually declared war ; 
and, whereas, the forts and property of the United States gov- 
ernment in Georgia, Alabama and Louisiana have been unlaw- 
fully seized, with hostile intentions ; and whereas, their sena- 
tors in congress avow and maintain their treasonable acts ; there- 
fore — Resolved, That the legislature of New York is profoundly 
impressed with the value of the Union, and determined to pre- 
serve it unimpaired ; that it greets with joy the recent firm, dig- 
nified, and patriotic special message of the president of the United 
States, and that we tender him, through the chief magistrate of 
our own state whatever aid in men and money may be required 
to enable him to enforce the laws and uphold the authority of the 
Federal government ; and that, in the defense of the Union, 
which has conferred happiness and prosperity upon the Ameri- 
can people, renewing the pledge given and redeemed by our 
fathers, we are ready to devote our fortunes, our lives, and our 
sacred honor." Thereupon the governor at once sent the fol- 
lowing despatch to President Buchanan : "In obedience to the 
request of the legislature of the state, I transmit herewith a copy 
of the concurrent resolutions of that body adopted this day, ten- 
dering the aid of the state to the president of the United States, 
to enable him to enforce the laws, and to uphold the authority 
of the Federal government." The resolutions were also com- 
municated to the governors of the several states and to the New 
York senators in Congress. The vigorous sentiments expressed 
in the resolutions met with a hostile reception in the South. In 
Virginia they were construed as a definite determination by New 
York to sustain the United States in an attempt to coerce a state ; 
in Georgia, a defiant resolution was passed approving all that 



Military Affairs in New York 21 

state had done, and recommending the governor to retain pos- 
session of Fort Pulaski until the relations between Georgia and 
the United States should be settled ; other governors returned 
the resolutions without comment. While these resolutions of 
New York expressed the overwhelming sentiment of the people 
of the state and were a credit to its patriotism, yet the lamentable 
weakness of the state's military organization at the time of this 
tender of troops is now a matter of record. New York had 
nominally a force of 19,000 militia, but it possessed only about 
8,000 muskets and rifles with which to arm this force, and the 
war department was in no condition to supply the deficiency, as 
Sec. Floyd had, with sinister motive, sent many thousands of 
muskets from the Watervliet arsenal to Southern points. More- 
over, the state was nearly as destitute of cannon as of small 
arms, as it could command only 150 smooth-bore field pieces of 
every caliber. To remedy this condition of affairs the legisla- 
ture, in response to the governor's request as embodied in his 
annual message, passed a bill during the closing days of the ses- 
sion appropriating $500,000 for the purchase of arms and equip- 
ments. The hostile reception accorded the foregoing resolutions 
of the legislature of New York by many of the Southern States 
caused a strong reaction in favor of measures of conciliation. 
The public mind was genuinely alarmed and a compromise memo- 
rial, bearing the signatures of many leading capitalists, was for- 
warded to Washington. The memorial suggested "an agreed ex- 
planation of any uncertain provisions of the constitution ; a clearer 
definition of the powers of the government on disputed questions 
and an adaptation of it in its original spirit to the enlarged di- 
mensions of the country ; an assurance, coupled with any required 
guarantees, of the rights of the states to regulate, without inter- 
ference from any quarter, the matter of slavery within their bor- 
ders ; of the rights secured by the constitution to the delivery of 
fugitives and the readjustment of the laws bearing on these sub- 
jects, which are in possible conflict with it; some adjustment of 
the rights of all the states of the Union in the new territory ac- 
quired by the blood and treasure of all, by an equitable division, 
in the immediate organization of it into States, with a suitable 
provision for the formation of new states in their limits." The 
memorialists prayed that these measures be brought about, either 
by direct legislation, or by constitutional amendment. Nor was 
this all ; many and earnest efforts were made to bring about an 
effective and lasting compromise of the questions in dispute at 
the seat of government. A comprehensive plan of compromise 
had been put forward by the Border States, through their sena- 
tors and representatives in Congress, and a large meeting of 
merchants at the New York Chamber of Commerce almost unan- 



23 The Union Army 

imously adopted a memorial in favor of mutual concession and 
compromise, stating that the people of the North would ap- 
prove of the general outline of compromise agreed upon by the 
Border States as above. This memorial was signed by 40,000 
people, after a thorough canvass of the state, and was carried to 
Washington by a respectable delegation. It was there placed in 
the hands of Mr. Seward, the Republican leader in Congress, 
who was urged to use his great influence to promote legislation 
by Congress which would satisfy every just demand of the South. 
To promote conciliation Mr. Seward conceded some of the chief 
points of Republican policy with reference to slavery in the ter- 
ritories, but all without avail. Late in January, when the with- 
drawal of the southern members had given the Republicans a 
majority in the senate, Kansas was admitted as a state under her 
latest free constitution, while the Territories of Nevada, Colo- 
rado and Dakota were organized without any reference to slav- 
ery. On Feb. 4, a Peace Congress, made up of delegates from 
all but the seceding states, met in Washington to propose meas- 
ures of accommodation. The Congress assembled in response 
to resolutions passed by the general assembly of Virginia, in- 
viting all states willing to "unite with her in the earnest effort 
to adjust the unhappy controversies, in the spirit in which the 
constitution was originally formed and consistently with its prin- 
ciples, so as to afford adequate guarantees to the slave states for 
the security of their rights." These resolutions were transmitted 
by Gov. Morgan to the legislature and that body hastened to 
appoint the following commissioners to represent New York: 
David Dudley Field, William Curtis Noyes, James S. Wads- 
worth, James C. Smith, Amaziah B. James, Erastus Corning, Ad- 
dison Gardiner, Greene C. Bronson, William E. Dodge, John E. 
Wool, John A. King. Francis Granger was later chosen in 
place of Mr. Gardiner, who declined to serve. The commission- 
ers sat until March 7 and drafted a plan of compromise, which 
was submitted to Congress to be embodied in formal legislation, 
but was there rejected after strenuous debate. The 36th Con- 
gress adjourned on March 4, having enacted but one measure 
bearing directly on the burning issue of the hour. This was a 
joint resolution proposing an amendment to the constitution of 
the United States as follows: "No amendment shall be made to 
the constitution which will authorize or give to Congress the 
power to abolish, or interfere, within any state, with the domes- 
tic institutions thereof, including that of persons held to labor 
or service by the laws of said state." This amendment failed 
of adoption by the states, and it is now patent to all that the pro- 
tracted sessions of the Peace Congress were necessarily barren 
of results. 



Military Affairs in New York 33 

When a meeting was called at Syracuse for Jan. 30, to denounce 
the institution of slavery, it was transformed into a Union meet- 
ing for the support of the constitution and government, and the 
view was freely expressed that by peace only could the Union be 
preserved. The Abolitionists were driven from the hall and men 
of that party were generally discountenanced, lest they be taken 
as representative of Northern sentiment. The disposition in New 
York, and in fact in the whole North, was to do nothing to fur- 
ther irritate the South. 

The people of the North had been much aroused over the con- 
tinual shipment of war material to the Southern States and an 
acrimonious correspondence over a question of this kind took 
place in February between the governors of New York and Geor- 
gia. The police of New York city were alert and had seized 38 
boxes of muskets about to be shipped on the steamer Monticello 
to Savannah, and deposited them in the state arsenal in New York 
city. Gov. Brown of Georgia, on complaint being made to him 
by the consignees, citizens of Macon, Ga., made formal demand 
on the mayor of the city, and on Gov. Morgan, for the immedi- 
ate delivery of the arms to G. B. Lamar, named as the agent of 
Georgia. There was some delay in adjusting the matter, and 
Gov. Brown, on Feb. 5, ordered the seizure of five vessels, owned 
in New York but then in the harbor of Savannah, by way of 
reprisal. Three days later they were released, but reprisals were 
again ordered on the 21st, when other shipping from New York 
was seized at Savannah, to be held pending the delivery of the 
invoice. Gov. Brown made renewed demands on Gov. Morgan 
for the arms and the New York executive replied : "I have no 
power whatever over the officer who made the seizure, and had 
no more knowledge of the fact, nor have I any more connection 
with the transaction, than any other citizen of this state ; but I 
do not hesitate to say that the arms will be delivered whenever 
application shall be made for them. Should such not be the case, 
however, redress is to be sought, not in an appeal to the execu- 
tive authority of New York to exercise a merely arbitrary power, • 
but in due form of law, through the regularly constituted tribunals 
of justice of the state or of the United States, as the parties ag- 
grieved may elect. It is but proper here to say, that the courts 
are at all times open to suitors, and no complaint has reached 
me of the inability or unwillingness of judicial officers to render 
exact justice to all. If, however, the fact be otherwise, what- 
ever authority the constitution and laws vest in me, for com- 
pelling a performance of their duty, will be promptly exercised. 
In conclusion permit me to say that, while differing widely with 
your excellency as to the right or policy of your acts and of the 
views expressed in your several communications, I have the honor 



34 The Union Army 

to be * * * etc." The matter was finally adjusted by the 
delivery of the arms on March i6 to the agent of Georgia. 

Throughout the period of the war, New York was represented 
by many able men in the 37th and 38th Congresses. A number 
of the members of the lower house served in the volunteer or- 
ganizations of the state and many were active in the work of 
recruiting volunteers. In the senate Ira Harris succeeded Sew- 
ard when the latter entered the cabinet ; his colleague until March, 
1863, was the Hon. Preston King, who had taken a leading part 
in the great constitutional debates in the months preceding the 
war. The latter was succeeded by Ex-Gov. Edwin D. Morgan, 
who had so ably served the state and nation during the first two 
years of the rebellion as the war governor of New York, 

Despite the grave aspect of affairs, the act which precipitated 
actual war came with unexpected suddenness. The new admin- 
istration at Washington had been in power for five weeks and 
had made no movement to coerce any one of the recalcitrant 
states. Early in April an expedition was fitted out in New York 
to succor Fort Sumter, whose supplies were nearly exhausted. 
The response to that expedition was the thunder of those guns 
from Charleston harbor, in the early dawn of April 12, 1861, 
which roused the whole North, and precipitated the bloodiest 
war of history. Maj. Anderson and his brave little garrison 
maintained the unequal contest for nearly 36 hours, when they 
surrendered and the Palmetto flag of South Carolina displaced 
the Stars and Stripes on the battered walls of the fortress. The 
news of the surrender reached New York on Sunday morning, 
the 14th, and aroused the most intense feeling everywhere. The 
authorities of the state at once instituted vigorous measures to 
meet the emergency. The legislature promptly passed a bill 
providing for the enrollment of 30,000 volunteer militia for two 
years and appropriated $3,000,000 to meet the expense. The 
work of raising and organizing these troops was entrusted to a 
militar}' board consisting of the governor, lieutenant-governor, 
secretary of state, comptroller, attorney-general, state engineer 
and surveyor, and state treasurer. On the 15th came President 
Lincoln's proclamation calling for 75,000 militia to serve for three 
months. The quota assigned to New York was seventeen regi- 
ments of 780 men each, or 13,280 men. The National Guard of 
the state responded to the call to arms with the utmost enthusiasm 
and were only animated by a rivalry as to which organization 
could first secure marching orders. And indeed there was urgent 
need of haste. Gov. Morgan had been advised by the war de- 
partment that the men were wanted for immediate service and 
that some of the troops were at once needed at the capital. In 
the hope of capturing Washington, the enemy had severed all 



Military Affairs in New York 25 

communication by telegraph and railroad between that city and 
the North, and were even attempting to prevent all supplies from 
reaching that city from the surrounding country. On the i6th 
Gov. Morgan issued orders for all the available organized mili- 
tia to march. As no communication with the capital was possi- 
ble, practically every arrangement for transportating and sup- 
plying the troops was left to the state authorities. The military 
departments of the state went to work with a will and the legis- 
lature remained in session to meet the emergency. In addition 
to the work of organizing the seventeen regiments, all the organ- 
ized militia must be prepared to take the field. Recruiting de- 
pots were established at New York, Albany and Elmira, with 
branch depots at Syracuse and Troy. The patriotism of the peo- 
ple throughout the state knew no bounds; political differences 
were forgotten ; the national emblem was everywhere to be seen ; 
the press voiced the loyalty of the people, and an industrious and 
peaceful commonwealth was suddenly transformed into a vast 
military camp. The state authorities were overwhelmed with 
applications for permission to raise troops. April i8 Gov. Mor- 
gan called for volunteers for the seventeen regiments under the 
president's call, and a week later called for volunteers for twenty- 
one additional regiments, all to be organized for two years' serv- 
ice, thus completing the total force provided for by the recent 
act of the legislature. 

The merchants of New York city were especially prompt in 
rallying to the support of the government. At a large meeting 
held on the 19th, they enthusiastically voted to sustain the au- 
thorities, and raised over $20,000 within ten minutes to assist in 
moving to Washington some of the regiments then organizing. 
The following day the largest meeting ever held on this conti- 
nent assembled at Union Square, and over 200,000 citizens, with- 
out distinction of party or nationality, pledged themselves to sup- 
port their common government with their fortunes and their 
lives. The sentiments of the nation's great metropolis here were 
voiced in no uncertain tones and were echoed in numerous other 
meetings elsewhere. The surging masses of people were ad- 
dressed by J. A. Dix, Buchanan's secretary of the treasury, D. S. 
Dickinson, Senator Baker of Oregon, Robert J. Walker, Mayor 
Wood, Ex-Gov. Hunt, James T. Brady, John Cochrane, Hiram 
Ketchum, D. S. Coddington, and a number of prominent Ger- 
man and Irish citizens and the Union Defense Committee was 
formed, composed of the leading men of the city. In every city, 
town and village of the state similar meetings voiced the prevail- 
ing patriotism, and devised ways and means of raising troops to 
meet the country's call. 

The news that the state's most famous militia regiment, the 



26 The Union Army 

7th, would leave for Washington on the 19th, created great ex- 
citement. The regiment was to form in Lafayette Place and from 
early morning the streets were filled with an expectant throng, 
while from every vantage point floated the national emblem. 
Before the arrival of the regiment, the waiting people were en- 
livened by the march through their midst of the 8th Mass., ac- 
companied by Gen. B. F. Butler, who had been placed in com- 
mand of the first four regiments of Massachusetts troops. Soon 
after the 7th regiment had formed in Lafayette Place in the 
afternoon, the great crowds were wrought up to a high pitch 
of excitement by the news of the attack upon the 6th Mass. in 
the streets of Baltimore. To each man of the 7th was served out 
48 rounds of ball cartridge, but when the regiment, commanded 
by Col. M. Leflferts, reached Philadelphia it received orders to 
deviate from the route through Baltimore, as it was highly im- 
portant that the troops should reach the capital with the least 
possible delay. Consequently, a steamer was chartered at Phila- 
delphia for Annapolis, and the regiment arrived at Washington 
on the 26th in company with the 8th Mass., after a toilsome 
march from Annapolis. The 7th was but the vanguard of other 
New York militia regiments soon to follow. The prompt arrival 
of these troops, together with the money and provisions supplied 
by New York, was of the first importance in relieving the situa- 
tion at Washington and brought forth the statement from Presi- 
dent Lincoln and Gen. Scott to the New York Union Defense 
Committee, that "The safety of the national capital and the pres- 
ervation of the archives of the government, at a moment when 
both were seriously menaced, may fairly be attributed to the 
prompt and efficient action of the state and city of New York." 
Other regiments of the organized militia were rapidly prepared 
to leave for Washington. The 6th, 12th and 71st departed on 
the 2ist ; the 25th left on the 22nd ; on the next day the 13th de- 
parted from Brooklyn, and the 8th and 69th from New York city ; 
the 5th left on the 27th ; the 20th on the 28th ; the Ellsworth 
Fire Zouaves, one of the first two years' regiments organized, lat- 
er known as the nth, left on the 29th ; the 28th on the 30th, and 
still other militia regiments were about to go forward when the 
state authorities received information from the war department 
that no more three months' regiments would be accepted. There- 
upon four companies of the 74th, of Buffalo, promptly volun- 
teered for three years and became the nucleus of the 21st infantry, 
then organizing at Elmira. 

As has been previously stated, the state was almost entirely de- 
pendent on its own resources for the means of raising, equipping 
and moving its troops and all classes of people and all nationali- 
ties vied with one another in the work. On April 23, the Union 



Military Affairs in New York 27 

Defense Committee opened its offices at 30 Pine street with Gen. 
John A. Dix, president; Simeon Draper, vice-president; and J. 
Depau, treasurer, most of the other committees being merged into 
it. The readiness with which vast sums of money were sub- 
scribed by all classes is a striking evidence of the prevailing patri- 
otism. At a large meeting of the Bench and Bar of New York 
city on the 22nd, many thousands of dollars were subscribed ; on 
the same day the common council appropriated $1,000,000 and 
placed it at the disposal of the Union Defense Committee. Dis- 
tinctive regiments of British, German, Irish, Scotch and French 
were being organized by those nationalities and large sums were 
subscribed for their equipment and transportation, and for the 
support of their families at home. While money and men were 
thus forthcoming there was a serious dearth of firearms. On 
April 24, an agent of the state left for Europe armed with a let- 
ter of credit for $500,000 with which to purchase 25,000 stands 
of the latest improved arms and a supply of ammunition. On 
his arrival in England he found that the British markets were 
crowded with other orders from this country and from Spain. 
He was able, however, to purchase 19,000 Enfield rifles at a cost 
of $335,000, which were duly landed in New York. 

Under the call of May 3, 186 r, for 42,000 men for three years, 
committees and individuals were authorized by the war depart- 
ment to recruit regiments while the state was engaged in raising 
the thirty-eight two years' regiments. Under this authority, 
chiefly through the efforts of the Union Defense Committee, 
there were organized the Garibaldi guard, the Mozart regiment, 
the De Kalb regiment, the Tammany Jackson guard, the 2nd, 
9th, 14th and 79th regiments of militia. Ultimately the thirty- 
eight regiments of state volunteers were also mustered into the 
U. S. service for two years and during July, at the request of 
the government for some cavalry, the state furnished two com- 
panies from the ist and 3d regiments of cavalry (militia), who 
served for three months. By the middle of July there had been 
organized and left the state 8,534 men for three months' service ; 
30,131 two years' volunteers and 7,557 three years' volunteers — 
a total of 46,224 officers and men. Many more men could easily 
have been supplied, as thousands were still eager to enlist, but 
the Federal government refused to accept any more men and all 
recruiting was temporarily suspended. 

The disastrous battle of Bull Run demonstrated that the war 
was to be a long one, and in July Congress authorized the presi- 
dent to accept the services of volunteers for three years in such 
numbers, not to exceed 1,000,000, as he might deem necessary. 
The legislature was not in session and Gov. Morgan, on his own 
authority, at the request of the president, called for 25,000 vol- 



28 The Union Army 

unteers to be organized into twenty-five regiments of infantry; 
also for two additional regiments of cavalry, and two of artillery. 
The first offer of colored troops was also made at this time, three 
regiments being tendered, but as authority to enroll negroes was 
then lacking, the governor was forced to decline the tender. The 
recruiting depots at New York city, Elmira and Albany were 
again opened, numerous branch depots were established, and once 
more the military department of the state was deluged with of- 
fers to recruit companies, so that the work of raising the new 
levy proceeded with despatch. Hitherto the state had borne most 
of the expense, but now the Federal government was to supply 
the money necessary to raise and equip the new troops, the of- 
ficers detailed from the regular army to muster in the men, being 
made disbursing officers. During the month of August the three 
months' troops returned to the state and were received with 
every mark of enthusiasm. While these men served only a short 
term, it should be remembered that they performed the arduous 
pioneer work and that they enlisted from motives of the purest 
patriotism at the first call of their country, without thought of 
personal benefit or pecuniary reward. Moreover, they served as a 
splendid training school for many future officers and soldiers 
and a large proportion of them reenlisted for a longer term of 
service in other organizations. When Col. Lefferts of the 7th 
begged that his regiment might be allowed to continue in the 
service after the expiration of its term, Gen. Scott said, "Colonel, 
yours in a regiment of officers." From the ranks of this regi- 
ment were subsequently taken 603 officers for the volunteer army. 
It was the "West Point of the New York volunteer service." In 
addition to the work of recruiting new regiments, the war de- 
partment in August authorized recruiting details for regiments in 
the field, and it is estimated that about 11,000 men were secured 
for this purpose by the end of the year. To prevent delays and 
interference Gov. Morgan was appointed a major-general of 
U. S. volunteers in charge of the military department of New 
York. All persons who had received authority to recruit and 
organize were ordered to report to him for orders and to com- 
plete their several organizations subject to his approval. Late 
in the fall orders were received from Washington to cease all 
further recruiting. By the end of the year there had been organ- 
ized and sent to the front, in addition to the troops previously 
mentioned, forty-two regiments of infantry, ten regiments of 
cavalry, one battalion of mounted rifles, nine batteries of artil- 
lery, and four companies of Berdan sharpshooters, and in addi- 
tion, regiments left in the state, complete and incomplete, num- 
bered 14,283 men — a total of 75,339 men. Since the beginning 
of the war the state had furnished upwards of 107,000 volun- 



Military Affairs in New York 29 

teers, this levy constituting about every sixth able-bodied man. 
Besides this great drain on the able-bodied male population, New- 
York capital had practically financed the war to date by advanc- 
ing $210,000,000 out of the $260,000,000 borrowed by the secre- 
tary of the treasury. 

The State of New York continued its tremendous exertions in 
support of the Federal government and continued to supply both 
men and money with a lavish hand. The record of troops fur- 
nished for the year 1862 or up to the close of Gov. Morgan's 
administration, is as follows : twelve regiments of infantry (mili- 
tia), for three months, 8,588 men; one regiment of volunteer in- 
fantry, for nine months, 830 men ; volunteers for three years, one 
regiment of cavalry, 1,461 men; two regiments, four battalions, 
and fourteen batteries of artillery, 5,708 men, and eighty-five 
regiments of infantry, 78,216 men; estimated number of recruits 
for regiments in the field, 20,000 ; incomplete organizations still in 
the state, 2,000 men; total for 1862, 116,803; total since the be- 
ginning of the war, 224,081. To obtain the full number of men 
furnished by the state, there should be added to the above, 5,679 
men enlisted in the regular army, and 24,734 in the U. S. navy 
and marine, making the total number furnished, 254,494. 

Among the important measures passed by the legislature which 
met early in Jan., 1862, were bills authorizing counties, cities, 
towns and villages to make appropriations for the purposes of 
raising troops and the relief of their families ; legalizing their 
previous ordinances and acts for such purposes ; providing for 
the pay of volunteers still in the state and for the payment to 
the families of soldiers of such sums as might be assigned from 
their pay; providing for the payment of the direct tax levied by 
the general government ; for expenses incurred in raising troops, 
and reimbursing the militia regiments for losses sustained while 
in the service of the United States ; a general law for the more 
complete enrollment of the militia, and for the organization of 
the National Guard, as the militia was now designated ; thanking 
the volunteers for recent victories achieved by the Union forces ; 
and finally, incorporating the Union home and school, under the 
management of the patriotic women of the state, where the chil- 
dren of volunteers could be cared for and educated. 

On Jan. i, 1862, the Federal authorities placed the recruiting 
service in the state, for regiments in the field, in charge of a 
general superintendent and assumed charge of the general depots 
at Elmira and Albany, Maj. John T. Sprague, of the regular army, 
being detailed for this purpose. The recruiting service for old 
organizations was discontinued on April 3, and was not again re- 
sumed until June 6, though the state authorities continued the 
work. On Jan. 25, Col. George Bliss displaced Gen. Yates in 



30 The Union Army 

charge of the recruiting depot at New York city. The authorities 
were busied until the end of April in completing the organizations 
of troops left in the state at the end of 1861 and then turned over 
to the general government a total of 19,003 men. They were fur- 
ther occupied during this period in putting the defenses of New 
York harbor in a better condition, as this matter had been a source 
of worry for many months past. Provision was also made to care 
for the increasing number of sick and wounded soldiers from 
the front; ample hospital accommodations were provided in and 
around New York city and at Albany ; competent surgeons were 
also sent to the front to assist in the work of transporting to the 
state the sick and wounded. On May 21 the general government 
asked for more three years' volunteers and the recruiting depots 
at New York city, Elmira and Albany were again opened. A 
few days later, after the serious reverse of Gen. Banks at Win- 
chester at the hands of Gens. Ewell, Johnson and Stonewall 
Jackson, when it was feared that an invasion of Pennsylvania 
and the North was contemplated by the enemy, and when the 
national capital was again endangered, Gov. Morgan was asked 
to immediately forward regiments of the National Guard. The 
response was prompt and patriotic and by June 4 twelve regi- 
ments, numbering 8,558 men had left for the point of danger, 
entering the U. S. service for three months. The advance of the 
Confederate column having been checked by Gens. McDowell and 
Fremont and the danger averted, no more regiments were des- 
patched, though others were preparing to follow when their 
marching orders were revoked. The secretary of war expressed 
his lively appreciation of the alacrity with which the state re- 
sponded to the call for its citizen soldiery during the crisis. 
Toward the end of June, Gov. Morgan joined with the governors 
of the other loyal states in an address to the president, urging 
him to call upon the states for such additional troops, as were in 
his judgment necessary to sustain the government and to speedily 
crush the existing rebellion. The response of the president was 
his call of July 2, 1862, for 300,000 more volunteers to serve 
three years, the quota of New York being fixed at 59,705 men. 
In his proclamation calling upon the people to give a loyal re- 
sponse to this call, the governor voiced his belief that the "insur- 
rection is in its death throes ; that a mighty blow will end its 
monstrous existence." He went on to say: "A languishing war 
entails vast losses of life, of property, the ruin of business pur- 
suits, and invites the interference of foreign powers. Present 
happiness and future greatness will be secured by responding to 
the present call. Let the answer go back to the president and to 
our brave soldiers in the field, that in New York the patriotic list 
of the country's defenders is augmented. It will strengthen the 



Military Affairs in New York 31 

hands of the one, and give hope and encouragement to the 
other." Regimental camps were promptly formed and about 3,000 
authorizations to recruit companies were given. To further stim- 
ulate enlistments, the governor on his own responsibility offered 
a bounty of $50 to each private soldier who volunteered, in ad- 
dition to the bounty paid by the United States. This bounty was 
discontinued at the end of September, and by Oct. 2 the gov- 
ernor was able to announce that the quota had not only been filled, 
but that there was a surplus of 29,000 men to the credit of the 
state. 

On the return of the militia regiments called out in May, Gov. 
Morgan warmly thanked them for their services. On Sept. 24,. 
at a meeting of the loyal governors at Altoona, Pa., attended by 
Gov. Morgan, the government was pledged the continued loyal 
support of the state ; it was recommended that a reserve army 
of 100,000 men be created, and that the slaves be emancipated. 

Under the call of Aug. 4, 1862, for 300,000 militia for nine 
months' service, the state's quota was again 59,705 men. The or- 
ganized militia of the state was limited to 20,000 men, of whom 
some 8,000 were already in the field. Hence it was deemed nec- 
essary to resort to a draft of the reserve militia. Delays ensued, 
and finally the draft was altogether suspended. The result was 
really beneficial, inasmuch as the number of three years' volun- 
teers was thereby increased, the surplus of three years' men, each 
of whom counted for four nine months' men in satisfying the 
quota, giving the state an actual surplus to its credit, and the 
country acquired a soldier of more value. One regiment of the 
National Guard, the loth, volunteered for nine months and was 
accepted, going into service as the 177th regiment of volunteer 
infantry. 

In Dec, 1862, the governor established a bureau of military 
statistics in the office of the adjutant-general. It received an ap- 
propriation from the legislature in 1863 and the following year 
was made an independent bureau. Its objects were declared to 
be: "To collect and preserve in permanent form an authentic 
sketch of every person from this state who has entered the service 
of the general government since April 15, 1861 ; a record of the 
services of the several regiments, including an account of their 
organization and subsequent history; an account of the aid af- 
forded by the several towns, cities and counties of the state." 
In 1865, its name was changed to that of "Bureau of Military 
Record." Hundreds of battleflags and many interesting war 
relics have been deposited with the bureau, which was discon- 
tinued as an independent office, and reincorporated with the ad- 
jutant-general's office in 1868. 

During the fall of 1862, the state elections resulted in the 



32 The Union Army 

choice of Horatio Seymour, the Democratic candidate, as gov- 
ernor, over his Republican opponent, Gen. James S. Wadsworth, 
by a small majority. The legislature elected at the same time 
contained 23 Republicans and 9 Democrats in the senate, and 64 
Republicans and 64 Democrats in the assembly. The change in 
administration brought about no diminution in the state's sup- 
port of the general government. Gov. Seymour was inaugurated 
Jan. I, 1863, and after complimenting his predecessor. Gov. Mor- 
gan said: "In your presence I have solemnly sworn to support 
the constitution of the United States, with all its grants, restric- 
tions, and guarantees, and I shall support it. I have also sworn 
to support another constitution — the constitution of the State of 
New York — with all its powers and rights. I shall uphold it. 
* * * These constitutions do not conflict; the line of separa- 
tion between the responsibilities and obligations which each im- 
poses is well defined. They do not embarrass us in the perform- 
ance of our duties as citizens or officials." He further expressed 
the hope that, before the end of two years, the nation would be 
again united and at peace. The new legislature met on Jan. 6, 
and in his message to that body the governor said: "While our 
soldiers are imperiling their lives to uphold the constitution and 
restore the Union, we owe it to them, who have shown an endur- 
ance and patriotism unsurpassed in the history of the world, 
that we emulate their devotion in our field of duty." Among the 
important measures passed by the legislature at this session were 
acts legalizing the ordinances and acts of cities, towns, villages 
and counties in aid of recruiting and to assist the families of 
volunteers ; giving them authority to pass similar measures in the 
future ; confirming the action of Gov. Morgan in offering a 
bounty in July, 1862, and making the necessary appropriation to 
carry out his contract; providing a bounty of $150 for each mem- 
ber of the two years' regiments, who reenlisted for another two 
years or more, and a bounty of $75 for each volunteer who had 
enlisted since Nov. i, 1862, or would hereafter enlist, for three 
years ; incorporating the "Soldiers' Home ;" giving the governor 
authority to appoint agents charged with the duty of transport- 
ing and caring for the sick, wounded, and dead soldiers of the 
state, and appropriating $200,000 for the purpose. The Soldiers' 
Home was designed "to provide a home and maintenance for 
officers and soldiers who have served, are now serving, or may 
hereafter serve, in the volunteer forces raised or furnished by, 
or from, the State of New York, who by reason of wounds or 
other disabilities received, or produced, in the service of the 
United States, or of the State of New York, shall be unable to 
support themselves, and all who, having been honorably dis- 
charged, shall be decrepit or homeless in their old age." Its 



Military Affairs in New York 33 

model was the Home of the regular army at Washington, and the 
present Soldiers' Home is the outgrowth. Under the last named 
act the governor appointed agents, who not only furnished much 
needed relief to the sick, wounded, furloughed and discharged 
soldiers of the state, and aided their return to the state, but aided 
the friends and relatives of dead soldiers in securing their bodies 
and served as an exceedingly useful bureau of information to 
all who sought information concerning the men in the service. 
It also assisted discharged soldiers in obtaining their arrearages 
of pay and bounty. A principal agency, known as the Soldiers' 
Depot, was established in New York city, where suitable quarters 
were provided, both for New York volunteers and for those of 
other states passing through the city. Over 110,000 volunteers 
received aid and comfort at this main agency, which did not 
close its doors until March 25, 1866. On April 27, an appropria- 
tion of $1,000,000 was made to put the harbor of New York and 
the state's frontiers in a better condition of defense. 

The first important draft of the war took place during July 
and Aug., 1863, when the state was virtually stripped of its 
militia, and proved to be one of the most exciting questions 
which the new administration of Gov. Seymour was called upon 
to meet. Under the act of Congress, approved March 3, 1863, 
prescribing a method of drafting men for the military service, 
whenever needed, all enlistments under the draft and also for 
volunteers after May i, were placed in the hands of a provost- 
marshal-general, assisted by an acting assistant provost-marshal- 
general, in each of the three districts, northern, southern, and 
western, into which the state was divided. The draft was com- 
menced in New York city on July 11, and was accompanied by 
a riot of very serious proportions on the 13th. To quell the riot, 
in which all the rowdy, turbulent elements of the city took part, 
all the available state troops were ordered to New York city. 
These, assisted by all the troops in the city and harbor and a few 
outside organizations, together with the city police force, suc- 
ceeded in dispersing the angry mobs and quiet was finally re- 
stored on the 17th. No serious disturbances occurred elsewhere, 
though violence was only prevented in one or two places by the 
presence of troops. In New York and Brooklyn the draft was 
suspended and finally took place in August without any further 
trouble, though in the meantime it went forward in other parts 
of the state. Among the specific objections to the application 
of the draft in New York city and Brooklyn, urged by Gov. Sey- 
mour in his correspondence with President Lincoln on the sub- 
ject, he contended that these two large cities did not get due 
credit for past enlistments and that the enrollments were exces- 
sive as compared with other parts of the state ; that the draft, as 

VoL II— 3 



34 The Union Army 

proposed, would throw upon the eastern part of the state, com- 
prising less than one-third of the Congressional districts, more 
than one-half the burdens of the conscription and presented fig- 
ures to sustain these objections. The result of the draft in the 
state was as follows : number of conscripts examined, 79,975 ; 
exempted for physical disability and other causes, 54,765 ; paid 
commutation, 15,912; procured substitutes, 6,998; conscripts held 
to service, 2,300. 

During the spring and early summer of 1863, the two years' 
regiments returned to the state and were mustered out. They 
had seen much hard service and of the 30,000 men who had left 
the state, less than half that number returned, over 4,000 officers 
and men having died in service. During the emergency created 
by Lee's invasion of Maryland and Pennsylvania in June, a large 
proportion of the National Guard of the state was again hurriedly 
summoned into the field and were mustered into the U. S. serv- 
ice for 30 days, twenty-six regiments responding to the call. 
Numerous detachments of volunteers in various parts of the state 
were also organized, equipped and moved to Harrisburg, Pa. The 
National Guard was warmly thanked by the president and war 
department for its prompt response during the crisis. In No- 
vember, the 74th regiment of the National Guard, from Bufifalo, 
was mustered into the U. S. service for 30 days and placed under 
the orders of Gen. Dix, commanding the Department of the East, 
to protect the northern frontier of the state from a threatened 
invasion by a traitorous force from Canada. 

Oct. 17, 1863, the president called for 300,000 more volunteers 
for three years, the quota assigned to New York being 81,993 
men. All recruiting work for the organizations in the field was 
in the hands of the general government, acting through the pro- 
vost-marshals ; the state could only recruit for new organizations 
which were sanctioned by the war department, but it received 
authority to reorganize the two years' regiments on their return, 
or to enlist the men in new organizations. A very large propor- 
tion of the two years' men reentered the service and their patri- 
otic action served to stimulate other enlistments. To further 
encourage enlistments the state bounty provided by the legisla- 
ture in the spring was paid to all who enlisted for three years 
and were credited to the state. From Jan. i, 1863, to Jan. 5, 
1864, the following volunteers were furnished by the state : vol- 
unteers raised by state authorities, 25,324; recruits sent to regi- 
ments in the field, 1,653; enlisted by provost-marshals, 11,060; 
reenlistments in the field (estimated), 10,000; substitutes, 6,619; 
enlisted by provost-marshals since Dec. 21, 1863, 1,500 — total, 
56,156. The organizations formed by the state authorities and 
turned over to the United States were as follows: cavalry — the 



Military Affairs in New York 35 

I2th, 14th, i6th, 20th, I St and 2nd veteran regiments of nine 
companies each, the 13th and 15th, ten companies each; i8th and 
2 1 St, six companies of the 24th, two companies of the 23d, and 
three companies of the 2nd mounted rifles ; artillery — four bat- 
teries of the nth regiment; five batteries each of the 13th and 
i6th; ten batteries of the 14th; eleven batteries of the 15th; one 
battery of the 3d, and the 33d independent battery; sharpshoot- 
ers — the 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th companies; engineers — one com- 
pany of the 15th regiment; infantry — the 17th veteran, the i68th 
and 178th regiments ; four companies of the 5th veteran ; three 
companies of the 63d regiment, and two companies of the inde- 
pendent battalion. The following nine months' organizations 
were mustered out during the year: The i68th on Oct. 31 ; the 
177th on Sept. 10; and the 9th company of sharpshooters on 
Aug. 5. 

At the annual elections held in Nov., 1863, for the choice of 
a secretary of state, comptroller, treasurer, attorney-general, 
state engineer, surveyor, judge of the court of appeals, and a 
legislature, the Union, or administration party was successful, 
and the 87th legislature then chosen contained an administration 
majority of 46 on joint ballot. During the year the arrest of 
Clement L. Vallindigham of Ohio had raised a storm of dis- 
approval. Responding to an invitation to attend a public meet- 
ing in Albany to consider this matter. Gov. Seymour said in part: 
'Tt is an act which has brought dishonor upon our country ; it 
is full of danger to our persons and to our homes ; it bears upon 
its front a conscious violation of law and justice. Acting upon 
the evidence of detailed informers, shrinking from the light of 
day in the darkness of night, armed men violated the home of an 
American citizen and furtively bore him away to a military trial, 
conducted without those safeguards known to the proceedings 
of our military tribunals. * * * The action of the adminis- 
tration will determine in the minds of more than one-half of the 
people of the loyal states, whether this war is waged to put down 
rebellion at the South, or to destroy free institutions at the North. 
We look for its decision with the most solemn solicitude." 

Among the acts passed by the legislature when it assembled in 
1864 were bills to promote reenlistments and to encourage re- 
cruiting for organizations in the field; further authorizing coun- 
ties and municipalities to levy taxes for certain purposes such 
as the payment of bounties, expenses incurred in securing en- 
listments, and in aid of the families of volunteers ; appropriating 
money to provide suitable burial and monuments for those who 
fell on the bloody fields of Antietam and Gettysburg; concurring 
in the amendment to the state constitution passed by the legis- 
lature of 1863, which permitted electors absent from the state 



36 The Union Army 

in the service of the United States to vote. This amendment was 
submitted to the people of the state and adopted at a special 
election in March, 1864. A law was thereupon drafted in con- 
formity to the constitutional provision, which enabled "the qual- 
ified electors of the state, absent therefrom in the military serv- 
ice of the United States, in the army or navy thereof, to vote." 
It was passed by the legislature and approved by Gov. Seymour 
on April 21. 

Portions of the National Guard were called out on several 
occasions during 1864 at the request of the war department. In 
April one or two regiments were asked for to guard deserters 
and stragglers being forwarded to the front ; also one or two regi- 
ments to serve in the defenses of New York harbor, to take the 
place of troops urgently needed at the front. In July, when the 
enemy invaded Maryland and threatened the capital. New York 
was asked for 12,000 men to serve for not less than 100 days. 
Under these special calls, the state furnished from the National 
Guard a total of 5,640 men for three months and 100 days, and 
791 men for 30 days. The following organizations were mus- 
tered into the U. S. service: for 100 days — the 28th, 54th, 56th, 
58th, 69th, 77th, 84th, gjA, 98th, 99th and 102nd regiments of 
infantry, the ist battalion of artillery, and Cos. A and B of the 
50th regiment; for 30 days — the 37th and 15th regiments of in- 
fantry. Under the threat of possible trouble along the northern 
frontier of the state in the fall, the National Guard was held in 
readiness for instant service and the 65th and 74th were placed 
on active duty for a few weeks, the general government then as- 
suming charge. The people of the state were given the oppor- 
tunity to greet many of their soldiers during the year, the terms 
of service of numerous volunteer organizations having expired 
and thousands of veterans returning to the state on veteran fur- 
lough. The veteran organizations invariably returned to active 
service with augmented ranks. Everywhere the home-coming 
soldiers were accorded enthusiastic receptions by an appreciative 
and grateful people. 

In preparation for the presidential election to be held in No- 
vember, extraordinary precautions were taken by the Federal 
military authorities to prevent disorders and the colonization of 
voters. Maj.-Gen. Dix, commanding the Department of the East, 
issued special instructions to the provost-marshals and their 
deputies in his department, to detect persons who had been in the 
service of the authorities of the insurgent states, who had de- 
serted from the service of the United States, or who had fled to 
escape the draft, and who might come into the state for the pur- 
pose of voting. In general orders, No. 80, issued Oct. 28, Gen. 
Dix strongly intimated that after voting there would be an or- 



Military Affairs in New York 37 

ganized effort on the part of the enemies of the government to 
commit outrages against the Hves and property of private citi- 
zens. The above order, by way of precaution, directed that "all 
persons from the insurgent states now within the department, or 
who may come within it on or before the 3d of November prox- 
imo, are hereby required to report themselves for registry on or 
before that day ; and all such persons coming within the depart- 
ment after that day will report immediately on their arrival. 
Those who fail to comply with this requirement will be regarded 
as spies or emissaries of the insurgent authorities at Richmond 
and will be treated accordingly." The place of registry for such 
persons was fixed at the headquarters of Maj.-Gen. John J. Peck, 
No. 37 Bleeker St., New York city, and several hundred persons 
from the Southern States appeared there and were registered. 
On the other hand. Gov. Seymour, in a proclamation issued Nov. 
2, declared "there are no well-grounded fears that the rights of 
the citizens of New York will be trampled on at the polls. The 
power of the state is ample to protect all classes in the free exer- 
cise of their political duties. There is no reason to doubt that 
the coming election will be conducted with the usual quiet and 
order." He directed that county sheriffs and all other peace of- 
ficers take every precaution to secure a free ballot to every voter, 
and prevent any intimidation by the military forces, or by other 
organizations. On the same day Mr. Seward, secretary of state 
at Washington, wired the mayors of New York, Albany, and 
other cities : "This department has received information from 
the British provinces, to the effect that there is a conspiracy on 
foot to set fire to the principal cities in the Northern States on 
the day of the presidential election. It is my duty to communi- 
cate this information to you." Mr. Gunther, the mayor of New 
York, replied : "I have no fears of such threats being carried out, 
or even attempted. However, I shall take all precautionary meas- 
ures, and am amply prepared. Should any Federal assistance be 
necessary, I shall invoke the same without delay." On Nov. 4, 
Maj.-Gen. Butler arrived at New York city, under orders of the 
president and by assignment of Maj.-Gen. Dix, and took com- 
mand in the city. On the day before the election about 7,000 Fed- 
eral troops arrived in New York bay as a precautionary measure 
to assist in preserving order, and on Nov. 8, the day of the elec- 
tion, were placed on board of steamers, which were stationed at 
various points opposite the Battery and in the North and East 
rivers. The troops were held within call until Thursday night, 
where they could have been marched to any part of the city with- 
in half an hour, but were not landed. Ample precautionary meas- 
ures were also taken by Gen. Peck on the northern frontier of the 
state, to prevent a threatened invasion from Canada or any in- 



38 The Union Army 

terference with the elections, and the election took place without 
any unusual disturbance. On Nov. 15 Gen, Butler issued an or- 
der taking leave of his command in New York, tendering his 
thanks to Brig.-Gen. Hawley, in command of the provisional 
Connecticut brigade from the Army of the James and the troops 
from the Army of the Potomac, who had been detailed for spe- 
cial duty at the time of the election. The result of the election 
gave Lincoln a majority of 6,749 over Gen. McClellan out of a 
total vote of 730,821. The state election resulted in the choice 
of Reuben E. Fenton as governor, by a majority of 8,293, over 
Gov. Seymour, his Democratic opponent. The legislature cho- 
sen at the same time had a Republican majority of 34 on joint 
ballot. 

During the year 1864, a voluminous correspondence took place 
between Gov. Seymour and the war department relative to the 
proper credits to be allowed the state under the calls of this year. 
The state and Federal accounts as to the number of men fur- 
nished by the state since the beginning of the war were har- 
monized after July, 1864, when the state was finally allowed 
credit, especially for the many thousands of patriotic men enlisted 
in the regular army and in the U. S. navy and marine service. 
During the year New York furnished a total of 162,867 men, 
divided as follows: militia for 100 days' service, 5,640; for 30 
days' service, 791 ; volunteers enlisted by the state authorities, 
17,261; reenlisted in the field, 10,518; drafted men, substitutes, 
enHstments and credits by provost-marshals, 128,657. During 
the two years of Gov. Seymour's administration, the Empire 
State furnished the government a total of 214.075 men. Included 
in the above number are three regiments of U. S. colored troops, 
designated the 20th, 26th and 31st regiments of infantry. All 
three regiments were organized in 1864 for three years' service 
under the auspices of the Union League club, the members con- 
tributing $18,000 for the purpose. The following organizations 
were formed in 1864 and turned over to the United States by the 
state authorities : cavalry — six companies for the 2nd ; three com- 
panies each for the 13th and 15th; two companies each for the 
i8th and 21st; nine companies for the 2nd mounted rifles; six 
companies for the 24th ; the 22nd and 25th regiments, complete ; 
artillery — one company each for the 3d and 6th ; seven compa- 
nies each for the 13th and i6th ; and two companies for the 14th 
regiments; engineers — one company for the 15th, and two com- 
panies for the 50th regiments ; infantry — one company each for 
the 57th, 63d 8oth, 124th, 137th, 142nd and 159th; three com- 
panies each for the 69th and 90th ; six companies for the 187th ; 
nine companies for the i88th, and the 7th veteran ; and the 
179th, 184th, 185th, i86th, and 189th regiments, entirely new 
organizations. 



Military Affairs in New York 39 

The enormous wealth and resources of the Empire State were 
strikingly shown as the war progressed ; the prosperity of the 
state was uninterrupted, despite the enormous drain upon its re- 
sources in men, money and material. The soldiers furnished to 
the general government by New York alone would have been 
sufficient to conduct military operations on a large scale. Gov. 
Fenton was duly inaugurated Jan. i, 1865, and the 88th session 
of the legislature convened on the 3d. In his message the gov- 
ernor said that the general government had credited the state 
with a surplus of 5,301 men under all calls prior to Dec. i, 1864. 
He suggested that the legislature fix a maximum bounty to be 
paid by each locality, and empower localities to raise and pay 
these bounties in advance of any future calls, so that men would 
be ready to meet all requirements. He closed his message with 
the following patriotic words : "The constitution of the Union 
makes it the duty of the national government to maintain for the 
people of all the states republican governments. It is no less the 
duty of each state to throw its whole weight and influence firmly 
on the side of this great fundamental requirement. This gov- 
ernment our fathers intended to establish and transmit as a leg- 
acy to posterity. Irrespective of the divisions into states, we are 
called upon to maintain and perpetuate the trust. Eighty years 
of enterprise, prosperity and progress have not lessened our ob- 
ligations, nor checked our devotion to the great cause of civil 
liberty. It is not a mistake to assume that, whatever exigency 
may follow, whether domestic or foreign, the great body of the 
people will go forward to meet and overcome it with the same 
firm and irresistible energy which characterized our ancestors, 
and has marked the subsequent course of our civilization. In 
this patriotic determination of the people for unity, liberty and 
the constitution, I shall, at all times, earnestly join." The legis- 
lature passed a number of important measures relating to the 
war. It provided for a uniform system of bounties throughout 
the state and ultimately took steps to reimburse the localities for 
all bounties paid. It thanked by concurrent resolution the vol- 
unteers of the state for their services in defense of the Union and 
the flag; and by resolutions passed on March 25, in behalf of the 
people of the state, it gave thanks to the New York officers and 
men for their gallant achievements at Fort Fisher, N. C. The 
national banking system had been created by Congress on Feb. 
^5, 1863, and thoroughly revised by act of June 4, 1864. It was 
the Federal intent that the state banks should take advantage of 
these acts to obtain national issues of currency, which they did 
in large numbers after the act of March 3, 1865, which placed a 
tax of ten per cent, on state bank circulation. The legislature 
of New York passed an "enabling act," March 9, 1865, which 



40 The Union Army 

permitted the state banks to come in under the national system 
without the long process of a formal dissolution. The result 
was that 173 state banks were converted into national banks by 
the end of the fiscal year. Twenty banks had previously taken 
advantage of the national banking law, so that 183 state banks 
were transferred with all their wealth and influence to the na- 
tional guardianship during the fiscal year. 

Under the last call for troops, Dec. 19, 1864, the president 
asked for 300,000 men to serve for three years and the quota 
assigned to New York was 61,076. The long war was now draw- 
ing to a close and all recruiting and drafting ceased April 14, 
1865. In order to fill its quota without resort to the draft, the 
state received authority from the war department to organize 
new regiments and independent companies. It supplied under 
this last call 9,150 men for one year's service; 1,645 m^" for two 
years' service; 23,321 men for three years' service; 67 men for 
four years' service, and 13 men paid commutation — total 34,196. 
The following new organizations were completed and turned over 
to the general government : cavalry — five companies for the 26th 
regiment; infantry — one company each for the 75th, and 190th; 
two companies for the 191st; the 192nd, 193d, 194th regiments,, 
complete ; also the 35th regiment and a number of independent 
companies of infantry incomplete. 

On April 3 word was received in New York announcing the 
evacuation of Petersburg and the fall of Richmond. Universal 
excitement and rejoicing prevailed from this time forward until 
the final surrender of Lee on the 9th, which practically terminated 
the war. On the 26th occurred Johnston's surrender and soon 
after the remaining forces of the Confederates laid down their 
arms. The work of disbanding the Union armies was then taken 
up and by the close of the summer nearly all the survivors of 
the New York troops came home, only a few regiments remaining 
in the service on special duty until the following year. The war- 
worn veterans were received on their return with every honor 
that a grateful people could bestow for their heroic services. On 
June 7 Gov. Fenton congratulated the soldiers of the state in an 
eloquent address which touched the hearts of all, saying: "Sol- 
diers of New York : Your constancy, your patriotism, your faith- 
ful services and your valor have culminated in the maintenance 
of the government, the vindication of the constitution and the 
laws and the perpetuity of the Union. You have elevated the 
dignity, brightened the renown, and enriched the history of your 
state. You have furnished to the world a grand illustration of 
our American manhood, of our devotion to liberty, and of the 
permanence and nobility of our institutions. Soldiers: your 
state thanks you and gives you the pledge of her lasting grati- 



Military Affairs in New York 41 

tude. She looks with pride upon your glorious achievements and 
consecrates to all time your unfaltering heroism. To you New- 
York willingly intrusted her honor, her fair name and her great 
destinies ; you have proved worthy of the confidence imposed in 
you and have returned these trusts with added luster and in- 
creased value. The coming home of all our organizations, it is 
hoped, is not far distant. We welcome you and rejoice with you 
upon the peace your valor has achieved. Your honorable scars 
we regard as the truest badges of your bravery and the highest 
evidences of the pride and patriotism which animated you. Sadly 
and yet proudly we receive as the emblems of heroic endurances 
your tattered and worn ensigns, and fondly deposit these relics 
of glory, with all their cherished memories and endearing asso- 
ciations, in our appointed repositories. With swelling hearts 
we bade Godspeed to the departing recruit ; with glowing pride 
and deepened fervor we say welcome to the returning veteran. 
We watched you all through the perilous period of your absence, 
rejoicing in your victories and mourning in your defeats. We 
will treasure your legends, your brave exploits, and the glorified 
memory of your dead comrades, in records more impressive than 
the monuments of the past and enduring as the liberties you have 
secured. The people will regard with jealous pride your welfare 
and honor, not forgetting the widow, the fatherless, and those 
who were dependent upon the fallen hero. The fame and glory 
you have won for the state and nation, shall be transmitted to 
our children as a most precious legacy, lovingly to be cherished 
and reverently to be preserved." 

The efiforts put forth by the great State of New York through- 
out the war were in every way worthy of her commanding posi- 
tion among the states of the Union, where she easily ranked first 
in population and material resources. New York furnished the 
most men and sustained the heaviest loss of any state in the war. 
The final report of the adjutant-general at Washington for the 
year 1885 credits New York with 467,047 troops, including 6,089 
men in the regular army, 42,155 sailors and marines; and 18,197 
who paid commutation. As the above report of the adjutant- 
general of the U. S. army shows that there were 2,865,028 men 
furnished during the war, under all calls, the enlistments credited 
to New York represent over 16 per cent, of the total. In an able 
analysis of the above, the statistician Phisterer brings out the 
facts that the state is justly entitled to an additional credit of 
15,266 enlistments for 30 days' men, omitted in the adjutant- 
general's report; of 11,671 more men enlisted in the regular 
army, and 8,781 more men enlisted in the navy and marine. In 
arriving at the number of men from New York serving in the 
regular army, and in the navy and marine corps, he says: "The 



42 The Union Army 

statement of the adjutant-general of the United States army, 
dated July 15, 1885, estimates the number of men in the regular 
army during the war at 67,000. As far as can be determined 
from the reports of the assistant provost-marshals-general of this 
state, as published in the reports of the adjutant-general of New 
York for the years 1863 to 1865, the number of men credited to 
this state, enlisting or reenlisting in the regular army, is 6,089, 
and covers only the period of the war from Dec, 1863, to April, 
1865, and no men were credited for such enlistments prior to 
Dec, 1863. There were in the regular army July i, 1861, as of- 
ficially reported, 16,422 officers and enlisted men ; up to this time 
the large cities of this state were the principal recruiting fields 
of that army, and taking therefore from this number but one-fifth 
(by no means an overestimate), as having been enlisted in this 
state, would entitle New York to a credit of 3,284. As already 
stated from Dec, 1863, to April, 1865 — seventeen months — there 
were credited to the state for enlistment in the regular army 
6,089 ^^^^ '> ^"d it is but fair to suppose that the state furnished 
from July i, 1861, to Nov., 1863 — twenty-nine months — a propor- 
tionate number and an additional credit is therefore claimed of 
10,387; total additional claim for credit for service in the reg- 
ular army, 13,671. Add to this additional credit the number of 
men found to have been credited, 6,089, ^"^ the total of 19,760 
will give the number of men. who it is claimed, served in the reg- 
ular army of the United States, and were enlisted in, or credited 
to. New York. Under orders of the war department the enlist- 
ment or transfer of volunteers into the regular army was per- 
mitted in 1862 and part of 1863, and it is estimated that proba- 
bly 2,000 volunteers of this state, a liberal estimate, were thus 
transferred ; to avoid all appearance of making excessive claims 
these two thousand men are deducted, and on the part of the state 
claim is made for additional credit, for service in the regular 
army, for 11,671 men only. 

"No men were credited to New York for service in the navy 
and marine until Feb., 1864, and then credit was received for 
28,427, as having been enlisted in the state since April 15, 1861. 
The adjutant-general of the United States army, under date of 
July 15, 1885, credits New York with 35,144 enlistments in the 
navy, which includes no doubt those enlisted in the marine corps, 
a few hundred only. From the statements of the assistant pro- 
vost-marshals-general it appears, however, that they credited the 
state with 41,380 such enlistments. The secretary of the navy, 
under date of April 10, 1884, in a communication to the United 
States senate, reported the number enlisted in the navy between 
April 15, 1861, and Feb. 24. 1864, to have been 67,200, of whom 
there were credited to this state 28,427 men ; that the number en- 



Military Affairs in New York 43 

listed between Feb. 24, 1864, and June 30, 1865, was Z7'S77j o^ 
whom were credited to this state, 13,728 ; that the number en- 
listed during the war, but not credited to any state was 20,177, 
of whom were enlisted in this state, 6,817, making the total num- 
ber of men, who served in the navy, not including those in serv- 
ice April 15, 1861, 124,954, of whom 39.192 per cent., or 48,972 
are due to New York. This report of the secretary of the navy, 
although it places the number credited to this state at a higher fig- 
ure than even the records of the assistant provost-marshals-gen- 
eral, is here accepted as the correct statement. But to it must be 
added the number of men in service April i, 1861, which an an- 
nual report of the navy places at 7,600 men ; and of this number 
there is claimed as due to this state the same percentage as has 
been found of those enlisted between April 15, 1861, and June 
30, 1865, namely 39.192 per cent., or 2,964. This would make 
the total number who served in the navy during the war, 132,554, 
of whom there came from this state, 51,936. As with the reg- 
ular army, so were for a time volunteers permitted to enlist in, 
or to be transferred to the navy, and it is estimated that at the 
most 1,000 men were thus transferred, and these require to be 
deducted from the claims made here for additional credit. It is 
accepted as a fact that 42,155 men were duly credited to New 
York, and the remainder, deducting those transferred from the 
volunteers, of 8,781 men is fairly due the state." 

Of the 502,765 men furnished by the state, 17,760 served in 
the regular army, and 50,936 in the United States navy and ma- 
rine corps, as above shown ; the remainder were distributed as 
follows: In the United States volunteers, 1,375, o^ whom 800 are 
estimated to have been transferred from the volunteers as gen- 
eral and staff officers, giving this branch of the service only 575 ; 
in the United States veteran volunteers, 1,770; in the veteran 
reserve corps, 9,862, but as most of these men are properly cred- 
ited to the volunteers, where they originally enlisted, the state 
only received credit for reenlistments in this branch of the serv- 
ice to the number of 222; in the United States colored troops, 
4,125; in the volunteers of other states (estimated), 500; in the 
militia and National Guard, 38,028; men who paid commuta- 
tion, for which the state was officially credited, 18,197; in the 
general volunteer service, 370,652. 

The enlisted men were divided according to their terms of 
service as follows: For 30 days, 15,266; for three months, 17,743; 
for 100 days, 5,019; for nine months, 1,781; for one year, 62,- 
500; for two years, 34,723; for three years, 347,395; for four 
years, 141 ; paid commutation, 18,197 — total, 502,765. As a large 
number of men enlisted in the service more than once, the actual 
number of individuals from New York who served during the 



44 The Union Army 

war has been estimated in round numbers at 400,000. The pop- 
ulation of the state in i860 was 3,880,735, of whom 1,933,532 
were males. The percentage of individuals in service to total 
population is therefore 10.30; of individuals to total male pop- 
ulation, 20.68. It has been found impossible to arrive at very 
accurate figures as to the nativity of the individual soldiers from 
the state, but Phisterer has arrived at the conclusion that of the 
400,000 individuals, 279,040 were natives of the United States, 
and 120,960 or 30.24 per cent, of foreign birth. The latter were 
divided according to nationality as follows: 42,095 Irish, 41,179 
German, 12,756 English, 11,525 British-American, 3,693 French, 
3,333 Scotch, 2,014 Welsh, 2,015 Swiss, and 2,350 of all other 
nationalities. 

The state furnished the following organizations during the 
war: Cavalry, 27 regiments, 10 companies; artillery, 15 regi- 
ments, 37 companies ; engineers, 3 regiments ; sharpshooters, 8 
companies ; infantry, 248 regiments, 10 companies. New York 
furnished the army with 20 major-generals, only 2 of whom — 
John A. Dix and Edwin D. Morgan — were appointed from civil 
life. It furnished 98 officers of the rank of brigadier-general, 
of whom 12 were appointed from civil life. Included in this long 
list of higher officers are the names of many who gained renown 
as among the most efficient commanders produced by the war. 

The enormous expenditures of the state, both in lives and 
money, has been frequently alluded to. It is estimated that the 
various counties, cities and towns of the state expended for every 
purpose connected with the war the sum of $114,404,055.35. The 
state expended the sum of $38,044,576.82, making a grand total 
of $152,448,632.17. In arriving at the total of state expenditures, 
the following items are included : In organizing, subsisting, equip- 
ping, uniforming and transporting volunteers, $5,101,873.79, less 
the amount reimbursed the state by the general government would 
leave in round numbers $900,000; amount of the direct tax al- 
lotted to New York, $2,213,332.86; expended by the state for 
bounties, $34,931,243.96. 

Of the total number of individuals from New York who served 
in the army and navy of the United States during the war, the 
state claims a loss by death while in service of 52,993. Of this 
number, there were killed in action, 866 officers, 13,344 enlisted 
men, aggregate 14,210; died of wounds received in action, 414 of- 
ficers, 7,143 enlisted men, aggregate 7,557; died of disease and 
other causes, 506 officers, 30,720 enlisted men, aggregate 31,226; 
total, 1,786 officers, 51,207 enlisted men. The adjutant-general 
of the United States in his report of 1885 only credits the state 
with the following loss: killed in action, 772 officers, 11,329 en- 
listed men, aggregate 12,101 ; died of wounds received in action. 



Military Affairs in New York 45 

371 officers, 6,613 enlisted men, aggregate 6,984; died of disease 
and other causes, 387 officers, 27,062 enlisted men, aggregate 
27,449; total, 1,530 officers, 45,004 enlisted men, aggregate 46,- 
534. Of these 5,546 officers and men died as prisoners. The 
above report, however, only includes losses in the militia, Na- 
tional Guard and volunteers of the state, and fails to include the 
losses in other branches of the service, including those who served 
in the navy and marine corps, and in the colored troops. Of the 
51,936 men furnished by the state to the navy, 706 were killed 
in battle, 997 died of disease, 36 died as prisoners, and 141 from 
all other causes — total, 1,880. 

Space forbids more than a brief reference to some of the more 
famous fighting organizations contributed by the State of New 
York. Perhaps the best known brigade organization in the 
service was the Irish Brigade, officially designated as the 2nd 
brigade, 1st division, 2nd corps. It was in Hancock's old di- 
vision, and was successively commanded by Gen. Thomas Fran- 
cis Meagher, Col. Patrick Kelly (killed), Gen. Thomas A. Smyth 
(killed). Col. Richard Byrnes (killed), and Gen. Robert Nugent. 
It was organized in 1861, and originally consisted of the 63d, 
69th and 88th N. Y. infantry regiments, to which were added 
in the fall of 1862 the 28th Mass. and the ii6th Pa. Its loss in 
killed and died of wounds was 961, and a total of 4,000 men 
were killed and wounded. Col. Fox in his "Regimental Losses 
in the Civil War," says of this brigade: "The remarkable pre- 
cision of its evolutions under fire, its desperate attack on the im- 
pregnable wall at Marye's heights ; its never failing promptness on 
every field ; and its long continuous service, made for it a name 
inseparable from the history of the war." Another famous bri- 
gade was the Excelsior Brigade (Sickles'), belonging to Hook- 
er's (2nd) division, 3d corps, and composed of the 70th, 71st, 
72nd, 73d, 74th and I20th N. Y. infantry. Its losses in killed 
and died of wounds were 876. In Harrow's (ist) brigade, Gib- 
bon's (2nd) division, 2nd corps, was the 82nd N. Y. regiment of 
infantry. This brigade suffered the greatest percentage of loss 
in any one action during the war, at Gettysburg, where its loss 
was 763 killed, wounded and missing out of a total of 1,246 in 
action, or 61 per cent. The loss of the 82nd was 45 killed, 132 
wounded, 15 missing — total, 192. There were forty-five infan- 
try regiments which lost over 200 men each, killed or mortally 
wounded in action during the war, and six of these were New- 
York regiments. At the head of the New York regiments, and 
standing sixth in the total list, is the 69th N. Y., which lost the 
most men in action, killed and wounded, of any infantry regi- 
ment in the state, to-wit: 13 officers and 246 enlisted men — total, 
■259. Coming next in the order named are the 40th, 48th, 121st, 



46 The Union Army 

I nth and 51st regiments. Of the three hundred fighting regi- 
ments enumerated by Col. Fox, fifty-nine are from New York. 
(See Records of the Regiments.) 

It has been shovv^n that of the 132,554 men who served in the 
navy of the United States during the war, 51,936 or considerably- 
more than one-third, came from New York. The maritime 
importance, of course, of a state like New York, accounts for its 
important contribution to this branch of the service. The sons 
of the Empire State were to be found in every important naval 
engagement throughout the war. That they paid the debt of 
patriotism and valor is attested by the fact that 1,880 perished 
m battle, from disease and from other causes incident to the 
service. When the government was in pressing need of more 
vessels, a son of New York, Commodore Vanderbilt, presented 
it with his magnificent ship, the Vanderbilt, costing $800,000. 
The names of John Ericsson, John A. Griswold and John F. Win- 
slow, all of New York, are inseparably linked with the most im- 
portant contribution to the navy during the war — the building of 
the Monitor — which worked a revolution in naval warfare. Capt. 
Mahan, in his "Navy in the Civil War," thus recounts the brav- 
ery of one of the famous commanders furnished by New York: 
"As the Tecumseh, T. A. Craven, commander, went into action 
at Mobile Bay, it struck a torpedo and sank instantly. The ves- 
sel went down head foremost, her screw plainly visible in the air 
for a moment to the enemy, that waited for her, not 200 yards 
ofif, on the other side of the fatal line. It was then that Craven 
did one of those deeds that should be always linked with 
the doer's name, as Sidney's is with the cup of cold water. The 
pilot and he instinctively made for the narrow opening leading to 
the turret below. Craven drew back; 'After you, pilot,' he said. 
There was no afterward for him ; the pilot was saved, but he went 
down with his ship." Other sons of New York, whose names 
adorn the records of the American navy are Capt. John L. Wor- 
den, w^ho commanded the Monitor in her historic engagement 
with the Merrimac ; Lieut. -Com. William B. Cushing, a man of 
extraordinary bravery and the hero of the Albemarle fight ; Capt. 
A, T. Mahan. who served as a lieutenant during the war, and 
ranks to-day as the greatest living authority on naval matters; 
Lieut.-Com. Pierre Gouraud, "the marksman of the Montauk;" 
Capt. Melancthon Smith, the hero of the attack on Port Hudson; 
Commander David Constable, whose steamer led the attacking" 
forces in the ascent of the James and the bombardment of Fort 
Darling, and who was the recipient of warm praise from Presi- 
dent Lincoln ; Commander William E. Le Roy, who distinguished 
himself at Mobile Bay ; Commanders Henry W. Morris, Homer 
C. Blake, Jonathan M. Wainwright — who lost his life in the de- 



Military Affairs in New York 47 

fense of his vessel, the Harriet Lane, at Galveston — William B. 
Renshaw, another of the heroes of Galveston, who laid down his 
life and sank his vessel, Jan. i, 1863. to prevent the capture of 
the same by the enemy ; Commodore Theodorus Bailey, second in 
command during the assaults on Forts Jackson and St. Philip, 
and a long list of other brilliant names. 

Instances of conspicuous gallantry on the part of New York 
organizations and soldiers might be multiplied almost indefinitely. 
More than a hint has already been given in the preceding pages 
of many of the more important services to which the state can 
lay especial claim. Suffice it to say in addition that upwards of 
15,000 names of those who received favorable mention in battle 
reports, and the names of 132 volunteers who received medals 
of honor from the United States for conspicuous bravery, should 
be added to the long Roll of Honor of the state. Some idea of 
the important part played by the soldiers of the Empire State 
in every important engagement of the war may be gained from 
the statement that, at Gettysburg, the decisive battle of the great 
struggle. New York contributed eighty-seven regiments and bat- 
teries of the two hundred and sixty engaged on the Union side. 
Of the nineteen infantry divisions six were led by New York 
officers, while of the seventy brigade organizations, twenty-one 
were commanded by New York officers ; of the total Union losses, 
23,049, New York contributed one-third, or 6,784 ; of the 246 
officers killed, New York claims 76, and 294 of the 1,145 officers 
wounded. New York organizations were prominent in every 
campaign, and with scarcely an exception reflected honor on 
their state. 

The excellent sanitary condition of most of the New York regi- 
ments in the field evoked many favorable comments. During 
the earlier period of the war, especially, the surgical staff with 
the volunteers was of the highest character and standing and 
medical men of the highest reputation offered their services freely. 
Said Dr. John Swinburne, of Albany, medical superintendent 
for the state troops in an official report for 1863, "New York has 
made the best selection of surgeons for her regiments of any 
state in the Union. For this judicious and extraordinary selec- 
tion, we are indebted to Surgeon-General Vanderpoel, of v/hom 
the medical profession of the state may well be proud." It is 
doubtless true that some of the "contract surgeons" during the 
latter period of the war suffered somewhat by comparison with 
their predecessors, but on the whole New York troops were given 
efficient medical supervision. A point to be remembered in an- 
alyzing the statistics of deaths from disease among the volun- 
teers from all the states is, that during the first months of the 
war many recruits were allowed to enter the service without a 



48 The Union Army 

proper inspection as to their physical condition ; and during the 
last months of the war when the demand for troops at the front 
was so continuous and pressing, the same condition of affairs 
prevailed to a certain extent. 

To the loyal and patriotic women of the state is largely due 
the final successful outcome of the war, and from the very be- 
ginning the mothers, wives, sisters and sweethearts of those who 
enlisted, exerted themselves in every way to alleviate the suffer- 
ings and hardships of the soldiers. Every city, town and vil- 
lage had its relief association, which labored unceasingly in 
making and forwarding comforts to the soldiers in the field, and 
in providing hospital supplies for the sick and wounded. At the 
very beginning of the struggle a society was organized in New 
York city to furnish hospital supplies and other needed comforts 
for the soldiers in field and hospital. The first meeting was held 
in the church of the Puritans, which later culminated in a great 
assemblage of 3,000 ladies in the Cooper Institute to adopt a 
plan of concerted action for bringing relief to suffering soldiers, 
and to their bereaved relatives and friends. This great Cooper 
Union meeting resulted in the formation of a Woman's central 
relief association, which then took charge of most of the active 
relief work. The headquarters of the association were in New 
York, and on its board of managers were the following well 
known women : Mesdames Hamilton Fish, Cyrus W. Field, 
Charles P. Kirkland, Bayard, Charles Abernethy, H. Bayles, N. 
D. Sewell, G. L. Schuyler, C. Griffin, Laura Doremieux, and V. 
Botta. It formed an efficient auxiliary to the general hospital 
service of the army, and it is no exaggeration to say that many 
thousands of sick and wounded soldiers owe their lives to the 
efforts of this splendid relief association. At a later date, when 
the great relief associations known as the United States sanitary 
and Christian commissions became perfected, the women of the 
state continued to act as active and efficient aids in the prosecu- 
tion of their great work, and these associations owe their very 
origin in a large measure to the philanthropic impulses of the 
women of New York. Another efficient agency in promoting 
the successful conduct of the war was the famous Union League 
Club of New York city, whose influence was manifested in many 
ways, such as raising and equipping regiments, aiding the gen- 
eral government in the floating of bond issues, and supporting the 
work of the Sanitary commission. Said the Rev. Henry Bellows, 
president of the Sanitary commission, in his history of the club: 
"It is the child of the Sanitary commission. Prof. Walcott Gibbs 
was the first to suggest that the idea on which the Sanitary com- 
mission was founded needed to take on the form of a club, which 
should be devoted to the social organization of the sentiment of 



Military Affairs in New York 49 

'unconditional loyalty' to the Union, and he chose Mr. Frederick 
Law Olmsted as the first person to be consulted and advised 
with, and the latter at length became the corner-stone of the 
Union League Club." The great Metropolitan fair, which raised 
over $1,000,000 for the treasury of the Sanitary commission, 
was another of the important labors of the club. 

Still another efficient adjunct in the work of the Sanitary com- 
mission was the "Allotment commission," the commissioners be- 
ing Theodore Roosevelt, William E. Dodge, Jr., and Theodore 
B. Bronson. It was the especial duty of this highly useful or- 
ganization to arrange the means whereby the soldiers in the field 
could safely and expeditiously transmit their pay to the women 
and children, and other dependents at home. It performed its 
work without compensation, and was the means whereby vast 
sums of money were forwarded to the families of soldiers. Its 
first annual report showed that it collected and paid over to the 
families and friends of soldiers more than $5,000,000 in a single 
year. Cooperating with this commission in all its extraordinary 
exertions, were the efficient paymaster-generals of the state. Col. 
George Bliss, Jr., John D. Van Buren, and Selden E. Marvin, 
and their assistants. It has been estimated that the efforts put 
forth by the Sanitary, Christian and Allotment commissions 
fully doubled the efficiency of the Union Army. It is believed 
enough facts have been set forth in the foregoing brief history 
of New York in the War of the Rebellion to substantiate the 
statement made earlier in this history, that the Empire State per- 
formed her full duty in the work of suppressing the greatest re- 
bellion in the history of mankind. 



Vol. II— 4 



RECORD OF NEW YORK REGIMENTS 



First Infantry. — Cols., William H. Allen, Garret Dyckman, J- 
Frederick Pierson; Lieut-Cols., Garrett Dyckman, J. Frederick 
Pierson, Francis A. Leland; Majs., James M. Turner, J. Frederick 
Pierson, James P. Clancy, Joseph Seamans. The ist regiment, re- 
cruited in New York city, was mustered into the U. S. service for 
a two years' term, at Staten island, April 22 to 24 and May 3 to 7, 
1861, and was the first regiment to be accepted for that length of 
time. On May 26 it embarked for Fortress Monroe; was there sta- 
tioned until June 10, when it received orders to move to the sup- 
port of the force at Big Bethel and was active at the battle of that 
name. Returning to camp until July 3, the regiment was then or- 
dered to Newport News and remained there until June 3, 1862, re- 
ceiving during the winter over 370 recruits. The most noteworthy 
incident of this period was the attack on the fortifications by the 
Merrimac on March 8, 1862. On June 6, 1862, the ist was assigned 
to the 3d brigade, 3d division, 3d corps, Army of the Potomac; was 
engaged at Peach Orchard and Glendale during the Seven Days' bat- 
tles, losing in the latter battle 230 members killed, wounded and 
missing; was active at Malvern hill, where it was transferred to the 
2nd brigade, ist division, 3d corps, and ordered to Yorktown, thence 
to Manassas, where it participated in the battle of Aug. 30. It 
fought at Chantilly and then remained in the defenses of Washing- 
ton until Oct. II, when it was attached to the 3d brigade, moved to 
Edwards' ferry, Middleburg and finally Falmouth, where it was sta- 
tioned until the battle of Fredericksburg, in which it took part. Win- 
ter quarters were established at Falmouth until May 2 and 3, 1863, 
when the ist was engaged at Chancellorsville, and on May 25, 1863, 
was mustered out at New York. During the two years' service, 
the regiment lost by death 113 members, 79 from wounds and 34 
from other causes. 

Second Infantry. — Cols., Joseph B. Carr, Sidney W. Park; Lieut.- 
Cols., R. Wells Kenyon, William A. Olmsted; Majs., Richard D. 
Bloss, George H. Otis, George W. Willson, William B. Tibbitts. 
The 2nd, known as the Troy regiment, was organized at Troy, and 
was mustered into the U. S. service on May 14, 1861, at Camp Wil- 
lard, Troy, nearly 800 strong, for a term of two years. It left Troy 
on the i8th for New York, there embarked for Fortress Monroe, 
encamped at Mill creek and participated in the battle of Big Bethel. 
On Aug. 5 the regiment was ordered to Newport News, where per- 
manent quarters were erected and the following winter was passed, 
during which time many new recruits were received. In Jan., 1862, 
it joined an expedition up the James river; became a part of the ist 
brigade, ist division of the Army of Virginia on March 7; from 
April 6 to 17 it was stationed at Young's mill, and on June 6 was 
assigned to the 3d brigade, 2nd division, 3d corps. The regiment 
took part in the campaign on the Peninsula, being engaged at Fair 
Oaks, in the Seven Days' battles and in August at Malvern hill. Dur- 
ing the campaign in Virginia, it was active at Bristoe Station, where 

50 



New York Regiments 51 

the loss was 70 in killed, wounded and missing; Groveton, the sec- 
ond Bull Run and Chantilly. After various marches and counter- 
marches in Virginia, the regiment took part in the battle of Fred- 
ericksburg, after which it went into winter quarters near Falmouth, 
which were occupied until the opening of the Chancellorsville move- 
ment in the spring of 1863. During this battle the loss of the regi- 
ment was 54. On May 11, 1863, 120 men enlisted for three years' 
service and were transferred to the 70th N. Y., the remainder of the 
regiment being mustered out at Troy on the 26th. The total loss of 
the regiment during its term of service was 26 deaths from wounds 
and 22 from other causes. 

Third Infantry. — Cols., Frederick Townsend, Samuel M. Alford, 
Eldridge G. Floyd, John E. Mulford; Lieut.-Cols., Samuel M. Alford, 
Henry P. Hubbell, Eldridge G. Floyd, John E. Mulford, George W. 
Warren; Majs., Abel Smith, Jr., John E. Mulford, Eldridge G. Floyd, 
George W. Warren, T. Ellery Lord. The 3d, organized at Albany, 
was known as the ist Albany regiment and was mustered into the U. S. 
service there on May 14, 1861, for two years. Four days later it 
left for New York and on June 3 arrived at Fortress Monroe. It 
shared in the engagement at Big Bethel, losing 2 men killed and 27 
wounded, and returned to Fortress Monroe. On July 30 it was or- 
dered to Baltimore and quartered at Fort McHenry until April i, 1862. 
The summer of 1862 was spent at Suffolk and on Sept. 12, the 3d 
was again ordered to Fortress Monroe. The original members 
not reenlisted were mustered out in May, 1863, but the regiment re- 
mained in the field, composed of 162 recruits, 200 veterans and the 
veterans and recruits of the 9th N. Y., and subsequently received 
many more recruits and the veterans of the 112th N. Y. Vols. The 
3d was present during the siege of Suffolk, after which it was or- 
dered to Folly island, where it took an active part in the operations 
against Fort Wagner, the bombardment of Fort Sumter and at- 
tacks on Charleston in the summer and autumn of 1863, as part of 
Alford's brigade of the i8th corps. In Oct., 1863, it was attached to 
the 3d brigade, 2nd division, loth corps and returned to Virginia, 
where it was active in the advance under Gen. Butler in May, 1864, 
losing 5 killed, 50 wounded and 7 missing. It fought in the battle 
of Drewry's bluff and was then transferred to the 3d brigade, 3d 
division, i8th corps, which moved to Cold Harbor, where it was act- 
ive until June 12, when it returned to Bermuda Hundred. The regi- 
ment rejoined the loth corps on June 15, and formed part of the ist 
brigade, 2nd division, with which it was engaged in the assaults at 
Petersburg in June, the mine explosion of July 30, Fort Harrison, 
and the Darbytown road. On Dec. 3, 1864, the 3d was attached to 
the 1st brigade, 2nd division, 24th corps and sent to North Carolina, 
where it was engaged at Fort Fisher, Sugar Loaf battery. Fort 
Anderson and Wilmington. It remained in North Carolina per- 
forming picket and garrison duty until Sherman's arrival and the 
close of the war, and was mustered out of the service at Raleigh, 
Aug. 28, 1865. During the term of service the total loss of the or- 
ganization was 37 deaths from wounds and 85 from other causes. 

Fourth Infantry. — Cols., Alfred W. Taylor, John D. MacGregor; 
Lieut.-Cols., John D. MacGregor, William Jamieson; Majs., Alfred 
W. Taylor, William Jamieson, Charles W. Kruger. The 4th, or the 
1st regiment. Scott's Life Guard, was recruited in New York city, 
except Co. E, recruited in Brooklyn, and was mustered into the U. 
S. service from May 2 to 9, 1861, for a two years' term. On June 
3 the 4th embarked for Newport News; was quartered there until 



52 The Union Army 

July 26; was then ordered to Baltimore and remained there until 
Aug. 31, when it was detailed to guard the railroad at and near 
Havre de Grace. From March 26 to June 6, 1862, it was stationed 
at Fort McHenry, Baltimore, and was then assigned to the 7th 
corps at Suffolk, Va. It was ordered to Washin_gton Sept. 6, to 
join the Army of the Potomac, and as part of the 3d brigade, 3d 
division, 2nd corps, fought bravely at Antietam, where its loss was 
44 killed, 142 wounded and i missing. It was posted at Harper's 
Ferry from Sept. 22 to Oct. 30, when it moved to Falmouth and par- 
ticipated in the battle of Fredericksburg, again losing heavily. Win- 
ter quarters were established at Falmouth until late in April, 1863, 
when the army began the movement which culminated in the battle 
of Chancellorsville, in which the 4th was actively engaged. In 
New York city, May 25, 1863, the regiment was mustered out, hav- 
ing lost by death from wounds 64 members and 24 by death from 
other causes. 

Fifth Infantry. — Cols., Abraham Duryee, Governeur K. Warren, 
Hiram Duryea, Cleveland Winslow, Frederick Winthrop, Henry W. 
Ryder, William F. Drum; Lieut. -Cols., Governeur K. Warren, Hiram 
Duryea, Harmon D. Hull, George Duryea, Henry W. Ryder, George 
L. Guthrie, William F. Drum; Majs., J. Mansfield Davis, Hiram 
Duryea, Harmon D. Hull, Cleveland Winslow, George Duryea, Henry 
W. Ryder, George L. Guthrie, Paul A. Oliver, Henry Shickhardt, 
Carlisle Boyd. The 5th known as the National or Duryee's Zouaves, 
was recruited in New York city and the immediate vicinity and mus- 
tered into the U. S. service for a term of two years, at Fort Schuyler, 
New York harbor. May 9, 1861. On the 23d it embarked for Fortress 
Monroe, camped for a few days near Hampton Bridge, then moved 
to Camp Butler, Newport News, and was attached to Pierce's bri- 
gade. The troops of the 5th led the force at the battle of Big Bethel 
and lost 5 killed, 16 wounded and 2 missing. In September the 
regiment was sent to Baltimore for garrison duty and remained 
there until May, 1862, when it was assigned to Sykes' brigade, re- 
serve infantry of the Army of the Potomac, and on May 17, to the 
3d brigade, 2nd division, Sth corps, with which it fought in the bat- 
tles of the campaign on the Peninsula. It participated in the siege of 
Yorktown, the fighting near Hanover Court House, the Seven Days' 
battles, losing at Gaines' mill 55 killed, 37 wounded and 15 missing, 
and winning notice by the coolness with which, after heavy loss, the 
regiment was reformed under fire in order to fill the places of the fallen 
men. At Malvern hill, the 5th was active, then spent a short time at 
Harrison's landing, and afterward took a prominent part in the bat- 
tle of the second Bull Run, where, of 490 members present, it lost 
117 killed or mortally wounded. 23 per cent, of those engaged, the 
greatest loss of life in any infantry regiment in any one battle. The 
remnant of the regiment served with the division through the battles 
of Antietam, Shepherdstown, Snicker's gap and Fredericksburg 
without serious loss, and went into winter quarters at Falmouth. 
It was also active at the battle of Chancellorsville and then returned 
to New York city, where it was mustered out on May 14, 1863. The 
total strength of the command was 1,508, of whom 117 were killed 
or died of wounds, 11.7 per cent., and 34 died from other causes. 
During almost the entire term of service, the regiment was attached 
to Gen. Sykes' famous division of regulars, which contained one 
brigade of volunteers, in which the 5th bore a prominent and worthy 
part. Col. Fox names the 5th as one of the "three hundred fighting 
regiments" and quotes Gen. Sykes as having said it was one of the 



New York Regiments 53 

best volunteer organizations he ever saw. The reenlisted men and 
recruits, besides a number of the members who originally enlisted 
for three years, were transferred to the 146th N. Y. Vols. 

Fifth Veteran Infantry. — Col. Winslow received authority to re- 
organize the 5th for three years' service and with the recruits enlist- 
ed for the 31st and 37th veteran infantry, a battalion of four com- 
panies — the veteran 5th left New York Oct. 26, 1863, and was assigned 
to the defenses of Washington, where it remained until May 31, 
1864. It was then assigned to the ist brigade, ist division, 5th corps. 
Army of the Potomac, and received at different times, the veterans 
and recruits of the 12th, 84th, 140th, 185th and 189th N. Y. The 
regiment participated in the battle of Cold Harbor; lost at Bethesda 
Church 87 killed, wounded and missing; proceeded with the 5th 
corps to Petersburg; was in an encounter at the Weldon railroad 
in August and lost 119 men; was also active at Poplar Spring Church, 
Hatcher's run. White Oak road, where the loss was 60 killed, wound- 
ed and missing; and shared in the final assault on Petersburg and 
the battle of Five Forks. Routine duties were performed by the 
regiment for some weeks and on Aug. 21, 1865, it was mustered out 
at Hart's island, N. Y. Harbor. The total strength of the 5th veter- 
an regiment was 1,138 and it lost by death from wounds 99 members, 
and 90 died from other causes. 

Sixth Infantry. — Col., William Wilson; Lieut. -Cols., John Creigh- 
ton, Michael Cassidy; Majs., William Newby, James W. Burgess. 
The 6th, recruited in New York city and known as Wilson's Zou- 
aves, was mustered into the U. S. service at Tompkinsville, April 30 
and May 25, 1861, for two years. It left New York city on June 15 
on the steamer Vanderbilt for Santa Rosa island, Fla., where it en- 
camped near Fort Pickens. Cos. A, B and C were stationed at Key 
West and Tortugas. and Cos. G and I at batteries Lincoln and Cam- 
eron. The companies remaining at the original camp were attacked 
in October and fell back to battery Totten. In Nov., 1861, and Jan., 
1862, the fortifications of Pensacola were bombarded, the regiment 
taking part in the attack, and upon the evacuation of the city in 
May the 6th was quartered in the town, Cos. G and I being sta- 
tioned at Fort Barrancas. It was ordered to New Orleans in Nov., 

1862, where it was attached to Sherman's division and later to Gro- 
ver's division, with which it moved to Baton Rouge. In March, 

1863, the 4th division (Grover's), of the 19th corps was ordered to 
Brashear City and took part in an expedition to Irish bend, where an 
engagement ensued in which the 6th was active, as also at Vermill- 
ion bayou. Upon returning it was ordered to Alexandria and there 
embarked for New York city, where it was mustered out on June 
25, 1863. The original members numbered 770, of whom 14 were 
killed or died of wounds, and 32 died from other causes. 

Seventh Infantry. — Cols., John E. Bendix. Edward Kapfif, George 
W. Von Schack; Lieut. -Cols., Edward Kapff, Casper Keller, Fred- 
erick A. H. Gaebel, Anton Pokomey; Majs., Casper Keller, George 
W. Von Schack, Frederick A. H. Gaebel. Charles Brestel, Gustavus 
Seidel, Jacob Scheu. The 7th, the "Steuben Rangers," was recruited 
in New York city, except Co. I from Brooklyn, and mustered into 
the U. S. service April 23, 1861, for a two years' term. It left New 
York for Fortress Monroe on May 24, and was quartered at Newport 
News. It took part in the engagement at Big Bethel and returned 
to camp at Newport News until in March, 1862, when it was assigned 
to the 1st brigade, ist division, Army of Virginia. In May it was 
transferred to the 1st brigade, ist division, 2nd corps. Army of the 



54 The Union Army 

Potomac, with which it served through the campaign on the Penin- 
sula, taking part in the Seven Days' battles with heavy loss. At An- 
tietam it lost 15 killed and 49 wounded, but its heaviest loss was at 
Fredericksburg, when 243 members were killed or wounded out of 
a total of 488 engaged. On April 25, 1863, the original two years' 
members were mustered out at New York city and the three years 
men were transferred to the 52nd N. Y. The 7th was active in the 
Chancellorsville campaign and at Gettysburg, after which the rem- 
nant of the 52nd and the 7th was consolidated with the 7th N. Y. 
veteran infantry. During the two years' campaign, the loss by death 
from wounds was 102 and 47 members died from other causes. 

Seventh Veteran Infantry. — Col. George W. Von Schack was 
authorized on May 6, 1863, to reorganize the 7th regiment and it was 
again mustered into the U. S. service early in the spring of 1864. 
For a time before the regimental organization was complete several 
companies were attached to the 52nd N. Y., a notable fighting regi- 
ment. It was assigned to the 3d brigade, ist division, 2nd corps and 
joined the Army of the Potomac before the Wilderness campaign 
in which it participated through all the weeks of constant fighting 
leading up to Petersburg. During the siege of Petersburg it saw 
much active service, being engaged in the assaults at Petersburg in 
June, at the Weldon railroad. Deep Bottom, Strawberry plains, 
Reams' station, Hatcher's run, Fort Stedman, White Oak road, the 
final assault and the closing battles of the pursuit. The regiment 
was mustered out at Harts island, N. Y., Aug. 4, 1865, having lost 
50 members by death fri^iu wounds, and 53 by death from other 
causes. 

Eighth Infantry. — Cols., Louis Blenker, Julius Stahel, Francis 
Wutschell, Felix P. Salm; Lieut.-Cols., Julius Stahel, Francis Wut- 
schell. Carl B. Hedterich; Majs., Andrew Lutz, Carl B. Hedterich, 
Anthony Pokorny. The 8th (the ist German Rifles) was recruited 
in New York city, there mustered into the U. S. service on April 
2Zy 1861, for two years, and left for Washington on May 27. At 
Aliller's farm the troops encamped and on July 10 were ordered to 
move toward Manassas as part of the 2nd brigade, 4th division of 
the Army of the Potomac. During the battle of Bull Run the 8th 
was held in reserve and assisted in covering the retreat. The fol- 
lowing winter it was quartered at Roach's mills and Hunter's Chapel, 
Va.; moved to Winchester in March, 1862, and in May joined Gen. 
Fremont at Petersburg, W. Va. It participated in the pursuit of 
Gen. Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley, and as part of Blenker's 
division fought at the battles of Cross Keys and New Market. In 
the battle of Cross Keys its killed, wounded and missing numbered 
220 out of a total of 550 engaged. At Middletown, the 8th was as- 
signed to the ist brigade, ist division, ist corps. Army of Virginia, 
under Gen. Pope, and with that army took part in the battles of Sul- 
phur springs and the second Bull Run. In September, it became a 
part of the nth corps and reached Fredericksburg immediately after 
the battle; camped during the winter at Stafford Court House and 
Brooks' station, and was mustered out of the service at the latter 
place on April 23, 1863. The members whose term of service had 
not expired were formed into one company, the independent com- 
pany 8th N. Y., and performed guard duty at the corps headquarters 
until April 5. 1864, when they were assigned to the 68th N. Y. The 
8th lost 93 members by death from wounds, and 40 from disease, 
accident and imprisonment. 

Ninth Infantry.— Col., Rush C. Hawkins; Lieut.-Cols., George F. 



New York Regiments 55 

Bctts, Edgar N. Kimball; Majs., Edgar A. Kimball, Edward Jardine. 
The 9th, Hawkins' Zouaves, recruited mainly in New York city 
and with i company from the i8th regiment state militia, was there 
mustered into the U. S. service on May 4, 1861, for a two years' 
term. It embarked for Fortress Monroe, 800 strong on June 6; was 
quartered at Newport News until Aug. 27, when 3 companies were 
sent to Hatteras Inlet, N. C, under Gen. Butler and there joined 
by the remainder of the regiment on Sept. 13. With Gen. Burnside's 
force, the regiment arrived at Roanoke island, early in Feb., 1862, 
and was actively engaged in the battle there, losing 17 members. It 
participated in an expedition to Winston; returned to Camp on Roan- 
oke island; was brigaded with the 89th N. Y. and 6th N. H. under 
Col. Hawkins; was in expeditions to Elizabeth City, and lost 75 men 
at South Mills. On July 10, the regiment was ordered to Norfolk, 
Va., with the 12th brigade, 3d division, 9th corps, camped at Newport 
News, until Sept. 4, when it moved to Washington, and to Freder- 
ick, Md., on the 12th. Here it became a part of the Army of the 
Potomac; was active at South mountain and Antietam, with a loss 
in the latter battle of 233 killed, wounded and missing. After camp- 
ing in detachments at various points, the regiment was concentrated 
at Fredericksburg, participated in the battle there in December; 
camped at Falmouth until Feb. i, 1863, except Co. F, which had re- 
mained as garrison at Plymouth, N. C., rejoining the regiment on 
Jan. 26. In February the 9th was ordered back to Suffolk, where it 
remained until May, the expiration of its term of service. It was 
mustered out at New York City, May 20, 1863, when the three years 
men were assigned to the 3d N. Y. infantry. The 9th numbered in 
all 1,380 members and lost 71 by death from wounds, and 29 by 
death from other causes. 

Tenth Infantry.— Cols., Walter W. McChesney. John E. Bendix, 
Joseph Yeamans, George F. Hopper; Lieut. -Cols., Alexander B. 
Elder, John W. Marshall, George F. Hopper, Anthony L. Woods; 
Majs., John W. Marshall, John Missing, George F. Hopper, Anthony 
L. Woods, Charles W. Cowtan. The loth, the National Zouaves, 
was recruited in New York city and Brooklyn and mustered into 
the U. S. service, April 27 and 30 and May 2 and 7, 1861, for two 
years. From Sandy Hook, where it was encamped, the regiment 
embarked for Fortress Monroe on June 5, and was ordered to join 
the reserve during the battle of Big Bethel. Headquarters were es- 
tablished at Camp Hamilton, near Fortress Monroe, and here the 
regiment was stationed until the opening of the campaign on the 
Peninsula the following year. In May. 1862, the loth moved to 
Norfolk and Portsmouth and on June 7. was attached to the 3d 
brigade, 2nd division, 5th corps, which it joined at Bottom's bridge 
on the Chickahominy. It was active in the Seven Days' battles, en- 
camped at Harrison's Landing until late in August, when it returned 
to Newport News, whence it was ordered to Manassas and fought 
bravely in the second Bull Run, losing 115 men in killed, wounded 
and missing. At South mountain and Antietam. it was held in re- 
serve; was in action at Shepherdstown, after which it was assigned 
to the 3d brigade, 3d division, 2nd corps, with which it fought at 
Fredericksburg, where almost one-half of the members of the reg^i- 
ment who went into action were killed, wounded or missing. A 
portion of the winter was spent in the performance of guard duty at 
headquarters and the original two years members not reenlisted 
were mustered out at New York on May 7, 1863. The remainder 
of the regiment was consolidated into a battalion of four companies. 



56 The Union Army 

to which were later added two companies of new recruits and the 
veterans of the 8th N. Y. artillery. The battalion was made provost 
guard of the 3d division, 2nd corps and in March, 1864, was attached 
to the 3d brigade, 2nd division, 2nd corps. It was active at the Wil- 
derness, where the loss was 95 members, at Spottsylvania, Laurel 
hill, the North Anna river, Totopotomy and Cold Harbor. It 
then served during the long siege of Petersburg, being engaged in 
the early assaults on the works there, at the Weldon railroad, Deep 
Bottom, Strawberry plains. Reams' station, the Boydton road, 
Hatcher's run. White Oak road, and in the final assault on the forti- 
fications, April 2, 1865. In the pursuit which followed the evacua- 
tion, the loth was in line with its brigade and performed guard duty 
near Richmond until the welcome orders to return home. The loth 
was mustered out at Munson's hill, Va., June 30, 1865. During its 
term of service, it lost 130 by death from wounds and 89 by death 
from accident, imprisonment or disease. 

Eleventh Infantry. — Cols., E. Elmer Ellsworth, Noah L. Farn- 
ham, Charles McK. Loeser; Lieut. -Cols., Noah L. Farnham, John 
A. Cregier, Spencer H. Stafford, Joseph E. McFarland; Majs., John 
A. Cregier, Charles McK. Loeser, Alexander McC. Stetson. This 
regiment, the ist Fire Zouaves, was recruited in New York city 
and left for Washington, 1,200 strong, April 29, 1861. At Washing- 
ton it was mustered into the U. S. service on May 7, for a two years* 
term and was quartered at the capitol until May 9, when it was sent 
to Camp Lincoln. On May 24, it was ordered to Camp Ellsworth, 
Alexandria, Va., where it became a part of Gen. Willcox's brigade. 
At the battle of Bull Run, July 21, it was with the 2nd brigade, 2nd 
division, Army of Northeastern Virginia, and engaged with severe 
loss. In September, it returned to New York for the purpose of re- 
organization; performed guard duty at Bedloe's island and returned 
to Fortress Monroe the same month, going into camp at Newport 
News. Efforts to reorganize the regiment proved futile and it re- 
turned to New York May 7, 1862, and was there mustered out on 
June 2. Other succeeding attempts to reorganize were likewise un- 
successful and the men enlisted for that purpose were assigned to 
the 17th N. Y. During its term of service the regiment suffered the 
loss of 51 members by death from wounds and 15 from accident or 
disease. 

Twelfth Infantry. — Cols., Ezra L. Walrath, George W. Snyder, 
Henry A. Weeks. Benjamin A. Willis; Lieut. -Cols., James L. Gra- 
ham, Robert M. Richardson, Augustus J. Root, William A. Olmstead; 
Majs., John Lewis, Henry A. Barnum, Augustus J. Root, Henry W. 
Ryder. The 12th, the "Onondaga regiment," six companies of which 
were recruited at Syracuse, and the others at Liverpool, Homer, Ba- 
tavia and Canastota, was mustered into the U. S. service for a three 
months' term at Elmira, May 13, 1861. It left for Washington on 
the 29th and upon its arrival encamped upon Capitol hill until July 
10, when it was assigned to the 4th brigade ist division of the Army 
of Northeastern Virginia. It was first under fire at Blackburn's ford 
with a loss of 34 men. It was in reserve at Bull Run, then returned 
to Washington, encamped at Arlington heights and was transferred 
to Wadsworth's brigade, McDowell's division. The 12th having been 
mustered into the state service for a two years' term was mustered 
into the U. S. service Aug. 13, 1861, for the remainder of the two 
years in spite of protest. In Jan., 1862, it was reorganized and made 
a battalion of five companies, which was stationed near Washington 
at Forts Ramsay, Tillinghast, Craig and Buffalo until March 21, 



New York Regiments 57 

having been joined early in February by five companies of the reorgan- 
ized I2th militia. With Butterfield's brigade, Porter's division, 3d 
corps, the completed regiment moved via Fortress Monroe to Hamp- 
ton and Yorktown; was active in the siege of Yorktown; in May was 
assigned to the 3d brigade, ist division, 5th corps, with which it 
fought through the Seven Days' battles; was in Gen. Pope's campaign 
in Virginia; lost 143 men at the second Bull Run in killed, wounded 
and missing; was in reserve at South mountain and Antietam; fought 
at Fredericksburg in December, and then went into camp at Fal- 
mouth. The original members not reenlisted were mustered out at 
Elmira May 17, 1863. The three years men were formed into two 
companies which were transferred on June 2, 1864, to the 5th N. Y. 
veteran infantry. From May, 1864, the battalion of two companies 
served as provost guard with the 5th corps and was present through 
the Wilderness campaign. The total loss of the 12th was 69 deaths 
from wounds and 68 from other causes. 

Thirteenth Infantry. — Cols., Isaac F. Quimby, John Pickell, Eli- 
sha G. Marshall; Lieut.-Cols., Carl Stephan, Francis A. Schoeffel; 
Majs., Oliver L. Terry, Francis A. Schoeffel, George Hyland, Jr. The 
13th, the "Rochester regiment," composed of eight companies from 
Rochester, one from Dansville and one from Brockport. was mus- 
tered into the U. S. service at Elmira for a term of three months. It 
left Elmira on May 29, 1861, for Washington with the 12th, and 
camped on Meridian hill until June 3, when it was ordered to Fort 
Corcoran, where it was employed in construction work until the 
opening of the Manassas movement. It then became a part of the 
3d brigade, ist division. Army of Northeastern Virginia; was en- 
gaged at Blackburn's ford, and was active at Bull Run, losing 58 
members. In August, under special orders, the regiment was mus- 
tered into the U. S. service for the remainder of the two years' term 
for which it had been accepted for state service. As in the case of the 
I2th the order was received with dissatisfaction, so openly expressed 
that some members of the 13th were sentenced to the Dry Tortugas 
for discipline, but afterward returned to the regiment. From Oct. i 
to March 10, 1862, the 13th performed guard and picket duty along 
the Potomac near Georgetown and was then assigned to Martindale's 
brigade. Porter's division, 3d corps, with which it participated in the 
Peninsular campaign. It had its share of the arduous duties in the 
siege of Yorktown, the tiresome marches on the Peninsula; and lost 
heavily in the Seven Days' battles. In May, 1862, it was assigned to 
the 1st brigade, ist division, 5th corps, and after the Peninsular cam- 
paign and a brief rest at Harrison's Landing moved to join Gen. 
Pope. In the second battle of Bull Run the regiment was closely 
engaged and out of 240 in action, suffered a loss of 45 killed and 
many wounded and missing. Withdrawing to Washington, the 
regiment proceeded from there to the front; was held in reserve at 
Antietam and went into camp at Sharpsburg, after a sharp encoun- 
ter with the enemy at Shepherdstown. It reached the vicinity of 
Fredericksburg on Nov 19 and lost heavily in the battle there 
the following month. Returning to its former camp, the 13th par- 
ticipated in the "Mud March" and thereafter remained in winter 
quarters until the end of April, 1863, when the term of enlistment 
expired. The original two years men were mustered out at Roches- 
ter, May 14, 1863, and the three years' men and recruits were consol- 
idated into two companies which were attached to the 140th N. Y. 
The total strength of the regiment was 1,300 men; its loss by death 
from wounds was 85 and from disease, accident or imprisonment 44. 



58 The Union Army 

Fourteenth Infantry. — Col., James McQuade. Lieut.-Cols., Charles 
A. Johnson, Charles H. Skillon, Thomas M. Davies; Majs., Charles 
H. Skillon, Charles B. Young, Thomas M. Davies, Lewis Michaels. 
The 14th, known as the ist Oneida county regiment, was organized 
at Utica and contained five companies from that city, one from Rome, 
one from Boonville, one from Syracuse, one from Lowville and one 
from Hudson. It was mustered into the U. S. service at Albany, 
May 17, 1861, for a two years' term, and left the state for Washing- 
ton on June 18. For a month it was stationed on Meridian hill and 
on July 22 was assigned to the ist brigade, 2nd division, Army of 
Northeastern Virginia, then encamped on Arlington heights. Win- 
ter quarters were established on Miner's hill and on March 13, 1862, 
the 14th was transferred to the 2nd brigade, ist division, 3d corps, 
Army of the Potomac, and served with that brigade in the Peninsu- 
lar campaign until May, when it became a part of the 2nd brigade, 
1st division, sth provisional corps. It bore a prominent part in the 
Seven Days* battles, 125 members being among the dead and wound- 
ed at Malvern hill. Camp at Harrison's landing followed and then 
the Maryland compaign, in which the regiment was held in reserve 
during the bloody battle of Antietam. It was again active at Fred- 
ericksburg, with a loss of 35 killed, wounded and missing, after 
which it spent a quiet winter in camp near Falmouth and upon the 
expiration of its term of service was mustered out at Utica, May 24, 
1863. The three years' men were transferred to the 44th and later 
to the 140th N. Y. The total loss of the regiment during its term 
of service was 85 by death from wounds, and 44 from other causes. 

Fifteenth Infantry, — Cols., John McLeod Murphy, Clinton G. Col- 
gate, Wesley Brainard; Lieut.-Cols., Richard J. Dodge, Francis B. 
O'Keefe, Clinton G. Colgate, James A. Magruder, William A. Ketch- 
um, Stephen Chester; Majs., Francis B. O'Keefe. Clinton G. Colgate, 
John A. Magruder, Walter L. Cassin, William A. Ketchum, Edward 
C. Perry, Sewall Sergeant, Henry V. Slosson, William Henderson, 
Timothy Lubey, Thomas Bogan. The 15th infantry, which subse- 
quently became the 15th regiment of engineers, known as the New 
York sappers and miners, was organized in New York city and mus- 
tered into the U. S. service at Willett's point, New York harbor, June 
17, 1861, for two years. It left for Washington on June 29, and 
there encamped until late in July, when it was assigned to McCunn's 
brigade. It was on picket and guard duty in the vicinity of Fairfax 
seminary until August, when it was transferred to Franklin's brigade; 
in September to Newton's brigade, and in November the original 
purpose of the organization was carried out and it was ordered to 
Alexandria to receive instruction in engineering. Here the regiment 
remained until March 19, 1862, at which time it was ordered to Fair- 
fax seminary in the ist corps under Gen. McDowell. It participated 
in the siege duties before Yorktown, rendering effective service in 
bridge building, etc. After the close of the campaign on the Penin- 
sula, the isth encamped at Harrison's landing and was then returned 
to Washington, joining the Army of the Potomac in the field Nov. 
17, 1862. Work on the bridges by which the army crossed to Fred- 
ericksburg was next undertaken; in Jan., 1863, ensued the "Mud 
March," when the men were engaged in the construction of roads; 
the remainder of the winter of 1862-63 was passed in camp at Fal- 
mouth, and during the Chancellorsville campaign the engineering 
brigade, of which the iSth formed a part, was instrumental in build- 
ing bridges. The regiment remained with this branch of the serv- 
ice until the middle of June, when the two years' men returned home 



New York Regiments 59 

and were mustered out at New York city, June 25, 1863. The re- 
mainder of the regiment was consolidated into a battaUon of three 
companies, to which was added in October a company recruited for 
tlie 2nd N. Y. engineers and another company in March, 1864. Seven 
additional companies were added in Nov., 1864, by means of which 
the regimental organization was completed and it remained in serv- 
ice as a veteran regiment until the close of the war. With the vol- 
unteer engineer brigade of the Army of the Potomac, it was present 
at Gettysburg, then joined in the southward movement of the army, 
shared in the Mine Run campaign and went into winter quarters near 
Brandy Station, Va. Until Jan., 1865, the 15th was engaged in siege 
duties before Petersburg, when three companies were detached and 
sent to North Carolina under Gen. Terry, where they were present 
at the fall of Fort Fisher, and in March, 1865, were sent to join the 
Army of the Ohio. The remainder of the regiment remained at 
Petersburg until the final surrender, engaged in trench digging, min- 
irg and other services incident to the siege. This portion of the 
regiment was mustered out at Washington June 13 and 14. 1865, and 
the other three companies on July 2. The regimental loss by death 
from wounds was but 5 during its term of service but it lost 124 by 
disease and other causes. 

Sixteenth Infantry. — Cols., Thomas A. Davies, Joseph Rowland, 
Joel J. Seaver; Lieut. -Cols., Samuel Marsh, Joel J. Seaver, Frank 
Palmer; Majs., Buel Palmer, Joel J. Seaver, Frank Palmer, John C. 
Gilmore. The i6th, the ist Northern New York regiment, was re- 
cruited mainly in St. Lawrence and Clinton counties, with one com- 
pany from Franklin county. It was mustered into the service of 
the United States at Albany, May 15, 1861, for two years, went into 
camp near Bethlehem and left the state for Washington on June 
26. Assigned to the 2nd brigade. 5th division. Army of Northeastern 
Virginia, it moved to Alexandria on July 11, from there to Manassas, 
where it was engaged but a very short time on the 21st and returned 
immediately after to Alexandria. On Sept. 15 it was ordered to 
Fort Lyon and attached to the 2nd brigade, ist division, ist corps, 
Army of the Potomac, which division later belonged with the same 
number to the 6th corps. The winter of 1861-62 was passed at Camp 
Franklin near Fairfax seminary, Va., where the regiment remained 
until April 6, when it was ordered to Catlett's station, but at once 
returned to camp and was then ordered to Yorktown, where it ar- 
rived on May 3. The regiment was in action at West Point, and at 
Gaines' mill, its loss being over 200 killed and wounded. It was pres- 
ent through the remainder of that week of battle, but was not close- 
ly engaged, then encamped at Harrison's landing until Aug. 16, when 
it returned for a brief period to Alexandria. In the battle at Cramp- 
ton's gap it was in advance and lost heavily in a brilliant dash; was 
held in reserve at Antietam; at Fredericksburg was posted on picket 
duty, and after the battle went into winter quarters near Falmouth. 
It shared the hardships and discomforts of the "Mud March" under 
Gen. Burnside and was active in the Chancellorsville campaign, with 
a loss at Salem Church of 20 killed, 87 wounded and 49 missing. A 
few days were next spent at Banks' ford, then a short time in the 
old camp at Falmouth, and on May 22, 1863, the regiment was mus- 
tered out at Albany. During its term of service its loss was 112 
men killed or mortally wounded and 84 deaths from other causes. 
The three years men were transferred to the I2rst N. Y. 

Seventeenth Infantry. — Cols., Henry S. Lansing, William T. C. 
Grower, Joel O. Martin, James Lake; Lieut. -Cols., Thomas Ford 



60 The Union Army 

Morris, Nelson B. Bartram, Edward Jardine, Joel O. Martin, James 
Lake, Alexander S. Marshall; Majs., Charles A. Johnson, Nelson B. 
Bartram, William T. C. Grower, Joel O. Martin, Charles Hilbert, 
Alexander S. Marshall, James B. Horner. The 17th regiment — the 
"Westchester Chasseurs" — contained four companies from Westches- 
ter countj^, two from New York city, one from each of the counties 
of Rockland, Chenango, Wayne and Wyoming, and was mustered 
into the U. S. service at New York city, May 28, 1861, for a two 
years' term. It went into camp at Camp Washington, Staten Island, 
until June 21, when it left for Washington and was stationed at Fort 
Ellsworth near Alexandria. With the 2nd brigade, 5th division, 
which was held in reserve, the regiment was present at Bull Run. 
In September it was posted at Fairfax seminary; in October was 
ordered to Hall's hill, where it was assigned to Butterfield's brigade, 
1st division, 3d corps, and established permanent winter quarters. 
In March, 1862, a company from the 53d N. Y. infantry was assigned 
to the 17th, and in May, the brigade became a part of the ist divi- 
sion of the 5th provisional corps. In March the command moved 
to Fortress Monroe and after several reconnoitering expeditions 
proceeded to Yorktown, where it participated in the siege opera- 
tions. It was not actively engaged in the ensuing battles of the 
Peninsular campaign and went into camp at Harrison's landing, 
whence it moved to Newport News and Manassas. At the second 
Bull Run the regiment made a valiant assault, in which it suffered 
the loss of 183 killed, wounded and missing, and after the battle the 
brigade was withdrawn to the vicinity of Washington, where it 
joined the army in the Maryland campaign, without being called 
into action. It reached Falmouth in Nov., 1862, where camp was 
established; the regiment was active at Fredericksburg and shared 
in the "Mud March," returning to complete the winter at Falmouth. 
It was held in reserve at Chancellorsville, the last engagement of the 
two years men, who were mustered out at New York city, May 22, 
1863. During the two years' service, the regiment lost 42 men by 
death from wounds and 48 by death from other causes. 

Seventeenth Veteran Infantry, — A large proportion of the mem- 
bers of the 17th reenlisted immediately after being mustered out at 
New York and with the addition of recruits for the 9th and 38th 
regiments and the "Union Sharpshooters," the 17th again took the 
field in Oct., 1863. It was immediately ordered to join the army 
under Gen. Sherman; was stationed during that autumn at Louis- 
ville, Ky., Eastport, Tenn., and Union City, Ky. ; reached Gen. Sher- 
man's force at Vicksburg, Jan. 24, 1864, where it was assigned to the 
2nd brigade, 4th division, i6th corps; participated in the Mississippi 
campaign, being active in sharp skirmishes at Decatur, Ala., Moulton, 
etc. In April the 17th was assigned to the 3d brigade, 4th division, 
i6th corps, and in August, at Atlanta, was transferred to the ist 
brigade, 2nd division, 14th corps, with which it participated in the 
siege operations, the Hood campaign and the march to the sea. It was 
engaged at Rockingham, Fayetteville, Averasboro, Bentonville, 
Goldsboro and Smithfield. N. C; was assigned June 9, 1865, to the 
1st brigade, 22nd corps; returned to Washington with Gen. Sherman; 
participated in the grand review and was mustered out at Alexan- 
dria, Va., July 13, 1865. The loss of the veteran regiment during 
its term of service was 56 deaths from wounds and 65 from accident, 
disease or imprisonment. 

Eighteenth Infantry. — Cols., William A. Jackson, William H. 
Young, George R. Myers; Lieut. -Cols., William H. Young, George 



New York Regiments 61 

R. Myers, John C. Maginnis; Majs., George R. Myers, John C. Ma- 
ginnis, William S. Gridley. The i8th, the "New York State Rifles," 
was composed of two companies from Schenectady'', four from Al- 
bany, one from Dutchess county, one from Orange county, one from 
Ontario county and one from St. Lawrence county. It was mustered 
into the U. S. service at Albany, May 17, 1861, for a period of two 
years, and left the state for Washington on June 18, after a month in 
camp near Albany. Camp on Meridian hill was occupied until July 
12, when the regiment was ordered to Alexandria and became a part 
of the 2nd brigade, 5th division. Army of Northeastern Virginia. It 
advanced with the army to Manassas, encountered the enemy on the 
Braddock road, at Fairfax Station and Blackburn's ford, and partici- 
pated in the Bull Run battle as support for artillery. It was then 
withdrawn to Alexandria; on Aug. 4, was assigned to Franklin's 
brigade, later commanded by Gen. Newton; and then went into camp 
near Fairfax seminary, where the construction of Fort Ward occu- 
pied the troops. On March 10, 1862, the regiment was ordered to 
Fairfax Court House, but immediately returned to camp, and in 
April, with the 3d brigade, ist division, 6th corps, Army of the Po- 
tomac, moved to Bristoe Station. Again the regiment was ordered 
to return to camp and it finally reached Yorktown at the time of its 
evacuation by the Confederate forces. It was active at West Point 
and in the Seven Days' battles, its loss being heaviest in the battle 
of Gaines' mill. It was then stationed at Harrison's landing until Aug. 
15, when it was ordered to Newport News and on the 244;h reached 
Alexandria. It was engaged at Crampton's gap, Antietam and Fred- 
ericksburg, after which it went into camp near Falmouth, until 
called upon to participate in the "Mud March" and in the Chancel- 
lorsville campaign. At Marye's heights and Salem Church the i8th 
was closely engaged and lost heavily. This was the last battle of 
the regiment, which was soon after ordered home and was mustered 
out at Albany, May 28, 1863, the three years men being assigned to 
the I2ist N. Y. The death loss during service was 39 from wounds 
and 36 from other causes. 

Nineteenth Infantry. — Cols., John S. Clarke. James H. Ledlie; 
Lieut. -Cols., Clarence A. Seward, James H. Ledlie, Charles H. Stew- 
art; Majs., James H. Ledlie, Charles H. Stewart, Henry M. Stone. 
The 19th, known as the Cayuga county regiment, contained nine 
companies from that county and one from Seneca, and was mustered 
into the U. S. service at Albany for a term of three months, May 
22, 1861. It left on June 5 for Washington and passed the following 
month at Kalorama heights; was then ordered to Martinsburg, W. 
Va. ; was attached to Gen. Sandford's brigade on July 12 and ordered 
to Harper's Ferry; on Aug. 20, it was stationed at Hyattstown, Md., 
and in the marches and countermarches of these two months several 
sharp skirmishes with the enemy took place, in which the troops 
acquitted themselves creditably. In August, the term of enlistment 
expired and special orders were issued providing for the remuster of 
the men for the remainder of the two years' period. These orders 
were received with open dissatisfaction and by refusal of obedience 
on the part of 206 members, 23 of the greatest offenders being sent 
to the Dry Tortugas and the others placed under arrest until they 
were ready to be remustered. The 23 were finally released on con- 
dition that they serve the remainder of the two years in the 2nd N. 
Y. infantry. From Sept. 6 to 25, 1861, the regiment was in camp 
near Darnestown; was then ordered to Muddy branch and assigned 
to Gen. Williams' brigade, with which it moved to Hancock, Md., 



62 The Union Army 

in December, and remained there until Feb. 17, 1862. At this time 
four new companies, recruited in New York city, Rome, Syracuse 
and Tompkins county, were added to the regiment and it was con- 
verted into a regiment of light artillery, officially designated as the 
3d light artillery. 

Third Light Artillery. — The portion of the regiment from Han- 
cock joined the new companies at Washington Feb. 21, 1862, and 
was ordered to Arlington heights, where it remained until March 
27, when it was assigned to Gen. Burnside's command and embarked 
for New Berne on the Carolina expedition, during which the bat- 
teries served detached a great part of the time. 

Battery A, Capt. John T. Baker, was one of the original two 
years companies and served during the North Carolina campaign 
as heavy artillery, first at Fort Rowan. It was assigned to the loth 
corps in Jan., 1863, and was mustered out at Auburn, N. Y.. on June 
2, 1863, the three years men being transferred to Cos. E, I and K. 
A new Co. A was mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 23, 1864, 
for one year and joined the regiment in North Carolina. It was 
active at Foster's mills, Gardiner's bridge and Butler's bridge and 
served in the campaign of March and April. 1865, in Carter's divi- 
sion, provisional corps, being engaged at Wise's Forks. It was 
mustered out at Syracuse, July 3, 1865. 

Battery B, Capt. Terrence J. Kennedy, was consolidated with 
Cos. C and E when reorganization took place in Feb., 1862, and a 
new Battery B, Capt. Joseph J. Morrison, was mustered in at New 
York city Dec. 19, 1861, for three years. This battery was equipped 
as light artillery; served in the i8th corps in North Carolina; took 
part in the expedition to Weldon; was engaged in Rawle's mill; 
returned to New Berne on Dec. 11 and joined the Goldsboro expe- 
dition, taking part in the actions at Southwest creek, Kinston bridge, 
Whitehall and Goldsboro. In Jan., 1863, the battery w^as ordered 
to Hilton Head. S. C, and attached to the loth corps. It shared 
in the operations against Fort Wagner and the reduction of the 
fortifications of Charleston harbor, remaining in that vicinity until 
the close of its term of service and gaining commendation in many 
encounters. It was mustered out at Syracuse, July 13, 1865. 

Battery C. Capt. James E. Ashcroft, was mustered into the U. 
S. service in 1861 and mustered out at Elmira June 2. 1863, when its 
three years' men were transferred to Cos. I and K. A new battery 
C, Capt. W. E. Mercer, was mustered into the U. S. service on Aug. 
31, 1863, for a three years' term, and joined the regiment in North 
Carolina. At New Berne it was equipped as heavy artillery and 
engaged in construction work at Fort Totten, participating in sev- 
eral expeditions into the surrounding country. It was active in the 
campaign of March and April. 1865, engaging the enemy at several 
different points, notably Southwest creek, Wise's Forks, and Ben- 
nett house, and was mustered out at Syracuse, July 14, 1865. 

Battery D, Capt. Owen Gavignan, was one of the original two 
years' companies and was mustered out at Elmira, June 2, 1863, 
the three years men being distributed among Cos. E, I and K. A 
new Battery D was mustered into the U. S. service at Syracuse in 
Feb., 1864, and joined the regiment in North Carolina, where it 
served as heavy artillery, being stationed at Fort Totten. It was 
active in the campaign in the Carolinas in March, 1865, engaging 
the enemy together with the preceding battery, and was mustered 
out at Syracuse, July 5, 1865. 

Battery E, Capt. Theodore Schenck, was one of the original two 



New York Regiments 63 

years' companies, but received the three years men of Cos. A, B, 
C and D and remained in service after its two years' men were mus- 
tered out. Equipped as light artillery at New Berne, it accompanied 
the Goldsboro expedition in Dec, 1862, engaging the enemy at 
Kinston, Whitehall bridge and Goldsboro and on its return occu- 
pied permanent winter quarters at New Berne. In the spring of 
1864, the battery was ordered to Virginia, where it served with the 
artillery brigade of the i8th corps until June, with the loth corps 
until September, again with the i8th until December and the re- 
mainder of its term of service with the 24th corps. It was sent to 
Petersburg and took part in engagements at Drewry's bluff, Ber- 
muda Hundred, Fort Harrison and Petersburg, participating in the 
final assault April 2, 1865. It was mustered out at Richmond, Va., 
June 23, 1865. 

Battery F, Capt. Nelson T. Stevens, was organized May 22, 1861, 
and transferred to Co. A in September. A new company, Capt. 
Edwin S. Jenny, was organized in Feb., 1862. and mustered in for 
three years. It joined the regiment at New Berne, N. C, where it 
was equipped as a light battery and accompanied the Goldsboro 
expedition, losing 32 members killed, wounded or missing. It next 
joined the expedition to Blount's creek, after which it was ordered 
to Morris island and took part in the bombardment of Fort Wag- 
ner in July, 1863, and the further operations about Charleston har- 
bor, serving with the loth corps. In the bombardment of Fort 
Sumter in Nov., 1863, at Seabrook, John's island and James island, 
the battery rendered effective service. Battery F was mustered 
out at Syracuse, July 24, 1865. 

Battery G, Capt. Charles H. Stewart, was organized in May, 1861, 
and in September received new members from Battery K. It was 
active at Washington, N. C, in July, 1862, and also in March, 1863. 
It was mustered out at Elmira June 2, 1863, the three years men 
having been transferred to the new Co. K in May. In March, 1864, 
a new Battery G, Capt. David L. Aberdeen, was mustered into the 
U. S. service for a three years' term and assigned to the i8th corps, 
Department of Virginia and to the provisional corps in North Caro- 
lina in March, 1865. It was active at Wise's Forks and Bennett house, 
and from April 5 served with the artillery reserve, 23d corps. It 
was mustered out at Syracuse, July 7, 1865. 

Battery H, Capt. Solomon Giles, was organized in May, 1861, 
and transferred in September to Cos. B and I. It was replaced by a 
new Battery H, Capt. William J. Riggs, Feb. 22, 1862, which was 
equipped as a light battery at New Berne and served in North Caro- 
lina during that year, sharing in the Goldsboro and Blount's creek 
expeditions and fighting at Swift creek, Tarboro and Dismal swamp. 
In Oct., 1863, it was ordered to Fortress Monroe; moved to New- 
port News in December; to Portsmouth, Va., in April, 1864; was 
assigned to the artillery brigade, i8th corps, in June, and to the 24th 
corps in December. It was active at Fort Harrison and in the final 
assault on Petersburg April 2, 1865, and was mustered out at Rich- 
mond, Va., June 24, 1865. 

Battery I, Capt. John H. Ammon, was organized at Elmira and 
on May 22, 1861, was mustered into the U. S. service for two years. 
It received recruits from Cos. H and K and in 1863 from Cos. A, C 
and D. It served in North and South Carolina; took part in the 
siege of Fort Macon; in the Goldsboro expedition; was stationed 
at New Berne in 1863; in March, 1865, was assigned to the provi- 
sional corps in North Carolina, with which it engaged at Wise's 



64 The Union Army 

Forks; was then transferred to the artillery reserve, 23d corps, and 
was mustered out of the service at Syracuse, July 8, 1865. 

Battery K, Capt. James R. Angell, was organized in May, 1861, 
and transferred to Cos. D and G in September. A new Co. K, 
Capt. Angell, was mustered into the U. S. service on Dec. 20, 1861, 
for a three years' term, and joined the regiment at New Berne, N. C, 
where it was equipped as a light battery. It was active in the 
Goldsboro expedition; was stationed at Free bridge in July, 1863, 
and at New Berne in 1864; was transferred in April, 1864, to the ist 
division, i8th corps. Army of the James. The two years men were 
mustered out at the expiration of their term of service and recruits 
received from Cos. D and G. In May, 1864, the battery was assigned 
to the 3d division, i8th corps, and in June to the artillery brigade, 
i8th corps. In Dec, 1864, it was transferred to the artillery bri- 
gade of the 24th corps. It was active at Bermuda Hundred, in the 
early assaults on Petersburg, and in the final assault April 2, 1865. 
It was mustered out at Richmond, June 30, 1865. 

Battery L, Capt. Terrence J. Kennedy, organized as an inde- 
pendent battery in 1861, continued as such and never joined the 
regiment. In March, 1865, the 24th Independent Battery (q. v.) 
was transferred to the regiment as Battery L and was mustered out 
July 7, 1865. 

Battery M, Capt. James V. White, was organized as Co. I of the 
76th N. Y. infantry and with two other companies was assigned to 
the regiment on Jan. 24, 1862. It was mustered into the U. S. 
service at Albany, Jan. 18, 1862, for a three years' term and joined 
the regiment in North Carolina. It served near New Berne, N. C, 
until Oct., 1863, and was then ordered to Fortress Monroe. In 
Jan., 1864, it was assigned to the i8th corps and to the ist division 
of that corps in March, being transferred to the 3d division the 
following May. In June it became a part of the artillery brigade, 
i8th corps, and in Dec, 1864, of the artillery brigade, 24th corps. 
It took part in the operations before Petersburg, joined in the final 
assault, and was mustered out of the service at Richmond, June 26, 
1865. During its term of service, the total loss of the entire regi- 
ment was 189 members killed, wounded or missing. 

Twentieth Infantry. — Cols., Max Weber, Francis Weiss, Baron 
Ernst Von Vegesack; Lieut.-Cols., Franz Weiss, Egbert Schnepf; 
Majs., Engleberth Schnepf, Lorenz Meyer. The 20th regiment, the 
"United Turner Rifles," was composed of volunteers from the Tur- 
ner societies of New York city and vicinity and was mustered into 
the U. S. service at New York city. May 6, 1861, for two years. 
For more than a month the regiment was quartered at the Turtle 
Bay brewery and on June 13, embarked for Fortress Monroe, where 
it encamped at Tyler's point for a month and then moved to Hamp- 
ton. At the time of the organization of the regiment, a portion 
of the men were mustered into the state service for two years and 
the U. S. service for three months and on Aug. 2, under special 
orders the three months men were mustered into the U. S. service 
for the remainder of the two years' term. On Aug. 26, the regiment 
embarked for Fort Hatteras, where it participated in the capture of 
the fortifications and remained quartered until Sept. 25, when it 
returned to Virginia. The entire regiment occupied Camp Ham- 
ilton until Oct. 7, when four companies were sent to Newport News, 
engaging the enemy at Sinclair's farm and New Market bridge and 
rejoined the regiment at Camp Hamilton on Feb. 20, 1862. On 
May 9 the 20th embarked for Norfolk; moved from there via Ports- 



New York Regiments 65 

mouth, White House landing and Savage Station and joined the 
Army of the Potomac at Camp Lincoln, where it was assigned to 
the 3d brigade, 2nd division, 6th corps. During the Seven Days' 
battles the loss of the command was 64 killed, wounded or missing, 
after which it was encamped at Harrison's landing from July 2 to 
Aug. 16, when it was ordered to Fortress Monroe and from there 
to Alexandria and Manassas. It participated in the battle of South 
mountain and suffered its heaviest loss at Antietam, when 145 of 
its number were killed, wounded or missing. From Nov. 18 to Dec. 
4, it was encamped at Acquia creek, then proceeded to Falmouth 
and was placed in support of artillery during the battle of Freder- 
icksburg. Winter quarters were established at White Oak Church 
and occupied, except during the "Mud March," until April 20, 1863. 
Toward the last of April 202 members of the command refused 
further service, claiming that the term of enlistment had expired. 
They were disciplined by arrest and the regiment was active in the 
Chancellorsville campaign. The term of service having expired, the 
regiment left for New York on May 6, and was there mustered out 
June I, 1863. During its service it lost 62 members by death from 
wounds and 59 died from other causes. 

Twenty-first Infantry. — Col., William F. Rogers; Lieut. -Cols., 
Adrian R. Root, William H. Drew, Horace G. Thomas, Chester W. 
Sternberg; Majs., William H. Drew, Horace G. Thomas, Chester 
W. Sternberg, Edward L. Lee. The 21st, the ist Buffalo regiment, 
was recruited in that city, and was the outgrowth of the 74th N. Y. 
militia. It was mustered into the U. S. service May 20, 1861, at 
Elniira, for three months and left there for Washington on June 
18. It was first quartered at the Union house, then at Kalorama 
heights and on July 14 moved to Fort Runyon, Va. As in the 
other regiments which were mustered for three months the order 
for remuster for the remainder of a two years' term, was received 
with ill feeling and 41 members were placed under arrest and sen- 
tenced to the Dry Tortugas, from which sentence they were re- 
leased on condition that they finish their term of service with the 
2nd N. Y. infantry. On Aug. 31, the regiment was attached to 
Wadsworth's brigade, McDowell's division, and ordered to Fort 
Cass, thence to Upton's hill. Here a fort was built, called Fort 
Buffalo, which became the winter quarters of the regiment until 
March 10, 1862, when it broke camp for the general advance move- 
ment. The regiment moved to Centerville, the brigade under com- 
mand of Gen. Patrick and the division under Gen. King. After 
various marches, countermarches and minor encounters with the 
enemy, it fought at the second battle of Bull Run and Chantilly. 
At Upton's hill, where the army rested for a short time, 
the 2ist was assigned to the 3d brigade, ist division, ist 
corps and with it fought at South mountain and Antietam, losing 
71 members in the latter engagement. During the battle of Fred- 
ericksburg the brigade was stationed on the extreme left of the 
army. The regiment was assigned to Patrick's provost guard bri- 
gade on Jan. 9, 1863, and was associated with it until the end of the 
term of enlistment. It was mustered out at Buffalo, May 18, 1863, 
having lost during its term of service 75 by death from wounds and 
42 by death from other causes. 

Twenty-second Infantry. — Col., Walter Phelps, Jr.; Lieut.-Cols., 

Gorton F. Thomas, John McKee, Jr., Thomas J. Strong; Majs., 

John McKee, Jr., George Clendon, Jr., Thomas J. Strong, Lyman 

Ormsby. The 22nd, known as the 2nd Northern New York regi- 

Vol. II— 5 



66 The Union Army 

ment, was composed of four companies from Washington county, 
three from Essex, two from Warren and one from Saratoga county 
and was mustered into the U. S. service at Camp Rathbone, Troy, 
on June 6, 1861, for two years. A fortnight later it moved to Al- 
bany, where it remained until June 28, when it left for Washington. 
It encamped on Meridian hill until July 24, when it moved to Ar- 
lington heights, where it was assigned to Gen. Keyes' brigade, which 
in March, 1862, became the 3d brigade, 3d division, ist corps. Win- 
ter quarters were occupied at Upton's hill until March 10, 1862, 
when the regiment joined in the movement to Centerville, but re- 
turned to Upton's hill immediately afterward, and proceeded to 
Falmouth in April. In June the regiment became a part of the ist 
brigade, ist division, 3d corps, Army of Virginia, and in Sept., 1862, 
the same brigade and division, was made part of the ist corps, Army 
of the Potomac. This brigade was known as the Iron Brigade be- 
fore the Iron Brigade of the West was formed. At Manassas the 
loss of the regiment was 180 killed, wounded or missing, out of 
379 engaged, of whom 46 were killed or mortally wounded, or over 
12 per cent. Of 24 officers present, 19 were killed or wounded, 9 
mortally, among them Lieut. -Col. Thomas. The first week of Sep- 
tember was spent in camp at Upton's hill and it next advanced to 
South mountain, where it was closely engaged, then to Antietam, 
where again the loss was heavy. About the middle of November, 
the command arrived at Falmouth and participated in the battle of 
Fredericksburg, being stationed on the extreme left of the army. 
It then returned to camp at Falmouth and joined in the "Mud 
March," after which it went into winter quarters at Belle Plain. 
On April 28, 1863, camp was broken for the Chancellorsville move- 
ment, during which the regiment was held in reserve and met its 
only loss at Pollock's Mill creek, where 10 men were wounded 
while acting as rear-guard. The regiment was mustered out at 
Albany, June 19, 1863, having lost T2 men by death from wounds 
and 28 by death from other causes. 

Twenty-third Infantry. — Col., Henry C. Hofifmann; Lieut.-Col., 
Nirom M. Crane; Maj., William M. Gregg. The 23d was composed 
of three companies from Steuben county, two from Tioga, two from 
Chemung, one from Alleghany, one from Cortland and one from 
Schuyler, and was known as the Southern Tier regiment. It was 
mustered into the U. S. service at Elmira on July 2, 1861, for a two 
years' term, and left the state for Washington on the Sth. For two 
weeks it was encamped at Meridian hill, but moved on July 23 to Fort 
Runyon and on Aug. 5, to Arlington heights, where it remained 
until Sept. 28. On Aug. 4, it was assigned to Hunter's brigade; on 
Oct. 15, to Wadsworth's brigade, McDowell's division, and in March, 
1862, to the 2nd brigade, 3d division, ist corps, Army of the Poto- 
mac. Its first encounters with the enemy were at Fall's Church, 
Ball's cross-roads, and Munson's hill, losing in these engagements 
I man killed and 7 wounded. On March 10, 1862, the regiment 
moved to Centerville, but returned after five days to Upton's hill, 
proceeded to Bristoe Station and Falmouth and undertook several 
expeditions with Falmouth as a base of operations. On June 26, 
1862, the regiment was attached to the 3d brigade, ist division, 3d 
corps. Army of Virginia, with which it shared in Gen. Pope's cam- 
paign, being in action at the Rappahannock, Sulphur Springs, 
Gainesville, and the second Bull Run. In September, the brigade 
and division became part of the ist corps. Army of the Potomac, 
and fought at South mountain and Antietam, with a loss to the 23d 



New York Regiments 67 

in the latter battle of 42 killed, wounded and missing. Until Oct. 
20, the regiment encamped at Sharpsburg, Md., then moved toward 
Fredericksburg and was closely engaged in the battle there in De- 
cember. Winter quarters were established at Belle Plain and on 
Jan. 9, the regiment was transferred to Patrick's provost guard 
brigade, with which it served until the expiration of its term, sta- 
tioned at Acquia creek in April and May, 1863. On June 26 the 
command was mustered out at New York city, having lost 17 by 
death from wounds and 55 by death from all other causes. 

Twenty-fourth Infantry. — Cols., Timothy Sullivan, Samuel R. 
Beardsley; Lieut. -Cols., Samuel R. Beardsley, Robert Oliver, Jr.; 
Majs., Jonathan Tarbell, Andrew J. Barney, Robert Oliver, Jr., 
Melzer Richards. The 24th, the Oswego County regiment, con- 
tained nine companies from Oswego county and one from Jefifer- 
son. It was mustered into the U. S. service for a two years' term, 
July 2, 1861, at Elmira, and left for Washington the same day. It 
first encamped on Meridian hill, but moved to Arlington mills on 
July 22, and late in September established winter quarters at Up- 
ton's hill. The regiment was first assigned to Keyes' brigade, 
which became on Oct. i, the ist brigade, ist division, and on March 
13, 1862, the ist brigade, ist division, ist corps, — the "Iron Brigade." 
In March, 1862, the brigade moved to Centerville, but returned at 
once to Alexandria, and in April proceeded to Bristoe Station and 
thence to Fredericksburg. During June and July it encamped at 
Falmouth after a sharp encounter with the enemy at that point in 
April. It was present during the actions at Rappahannock Station 
and Groveton and in the second battle of Bull Run lost 237 mem- 
bers in killed, wounded and missing. After a brief rest at Upton's 
hill, the brigade was again active at South mountain and Antietam, 
after which it went into camp at Sharpsburg until late in the au- 
tumn, when it moved to Fredericksburg, participated in the battle 
there, and then established winter quarters at Belle Plain. In the 
Chancellorsville movement the brigade was held in reserve and on 
May 29, 1863, the 24th was mustered out at Elmira, having lost 91 
men by death from wounds and 31 by death from other causes. 

Twenty-fifth Infantry. — Cols., James E. Kerrigan, Charles A. 
Johnson; Lieut. -Cols., Edmund C. Charles, Charles A. Johnson, 
Henry F. Savage, Edwin S. Gilbert, Sheppard Gleason; Majs., 
George Mountjoy, Henry F. Savage, Edwin S. Gilbert, Shep- 
pard Gleason, Patrick Connelly. The 25th, the "Kerrigan Rangers," 
was recruited in New York city and there mustered into the U. S. 
service on June 26, 1861, for a two years' term. It encamped at 
Staten Island until July 3, when it left for Washington and on July 
21 moved to Alexandria. It remained in this vicinity until October, 
when it was assigned to Martindale's brigade, Porter's division and 
stationed at Hall's hill, Va. In March, 1862, the brigade and division 
became a part of the 3d corps. Army of the Potomac, and moved to 
the Peninsula, where it participated in the siege of Yorktown and 
the battle of Hanover Court House. In the latter engagement the 
loss of the regiment was 158 killed, wounded and missing out of 
349 engaged, Col. Kerrigan being severely wounded. At Gaines 
mill the regiment again displayed its heroism. It was held in re- 
serve during the rest of that week, but was again active at Malvern 
hill, with a loss of i man killed and 17 wounded. The rest at Harri- 
son's landing was welcomed by the troops, who remained in camp 
there until Aug. 15. when the 25th was ordered to Newport News, 
thence to Falmouth and Manassas, where it was engaged with slight 



68 The Union Army 

loss. It was withdrawn to Hall's hill and soon joined in the Maryland 
campaign, but was held in reserve at Antietam, and camped at 
Sharpsburg until Oct. 30. It arrived in the vicinity of Fredericks- 
burg about the middle of November; participated in the battle there 
with a loss of 40 in killed, wounded and missing; joined in the 
"Mud March" fiasco, and established winter quarters on the Fred- 
ericksburg railroad near Potomac creek. The regiment was not 
closely engaged in the Chancellorsville campaign and was mustered 
out at New York city June 26, 1863. During its term of service it 
lost 61 members by death from wounds and 28 members by death 
from accident, disease or other causes. 

Twenty-sixth Infantry. — Cols., William H. Christian, Richard A. 
Richardson; Lieut. -Cols., Richard A. Richardson, Gilbert S. Jen- 
nings; Majs.. Gilbert S. Jennings, Ezra F. Wetmore. The 26th, the 
2nd Oneida regiment, was composed of six companies from Oneida 
county, two from Monroe, one from Tioga and one from Madison, 
and was mustered into the U. S. service May 21, 1861, at Elmira, 
for a three months' term. It left the state on June 19, for Wash- 
ington; camped for a month on Meridian hill; then moved to Alex- 
andria; was stationed in that vicinity at various points during the 
autumn, and established winter quarters at Fort Lyon, where it 
was attached to Wadsworth's brigade. When the advance of the 
army commenced in March, 1862, it was assigned to the ist brigade, 
2nd division. Department of the Rappahannock for a month, and 
it then became a part of the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 3d corps, 
Army of Virginia. Under special orders from the war department 
the regiment was remustered on Aug. 21, 1861. for the remainder 
of two years' service. The regiment was present at Cedar mountain 
and participated in the campaign in Virginia under Gen. Pope, los- 
ing in the second battle of Bull Run 169 in killed, wounded and 
missing. On Sept. 12, it was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 2nd divi- 
sion, 1st corps, Army of the Potomac, and was active at South 
mountain and Antietam. At the battle of Fredericksburg it met 
with its heaviest loss. Out of 300 members engaged 170 were killed, 
wounded or missing, of whom 51 were mortally wounded. After 
the battle winter quarters were established at Belle Plain and occu- 
pied, except during the "Mud March," until the Chancellorsville 
movement in the spring of 1863, during which the regiment per- 
formed advance picket duty. It was mustered out at Utica, May 
28, 1863, having lost 108 members by death from wounds and 42 
by death from other causes. 

Twenty-seventh Infantry. — Cols., Henry W. Slocum, Joseph J. 
Bartlett, Alexander D. Adams; Lieut. -Cols., Joseph J. Chambers, 
Alexander Duncan Adams, Joseph H. Bodine; Majs., Joseph J. 
Bartlett, Curtiss C. Gardiner, Joseph H. Bodine, George G. Wan- 
zer. The 27th, the "Union Regiment," was composed of three com- 
panies from Broome county, one company from each of the follow- 
ing counties: Westchester, Wayne, Monroe, Wyoming and Or- 
leans, and two companies from Livingston. It was mustered into 
the U. S. service for a two years' term at Elmira on July 9 and 10, 
1861, to date from May 21, and left the state for Washington on 
July 10. It was quartered at Franklin Square until July 17 and on 
that day advanced toward Manassas, assigned to the ist brigade, 
2nd division, and received its baptism of fire in the battle of Bull 
Run. where 130 members were killed, wounded or missing. Col. Slo- 
cum being among the wounded. The command was withdrawn to 
Washington after the battle and again occupied its old camp at 



New York Regiments 69 

Franklin Square until late in September, when it was ordered to 
Fort Lyon and there attached to Slocum's brigade, Franklin's divi- 
sion. On March 13, 1862, it became a part of the 2nd brigade, ist 
division, ist corps. Army of the Potomac, and in May the division 
was assigned to the 6th corps. The regiment left camp for the 
Peninsula in April, participated in the battle of West Point, the 
siege of Yorktown and the Seven Days' battles, suffering heavy 
losses at Gaines' mill and Malvern hill. It was more fortunate at 
the second Bull Run, where it was present but not closely engaged. 
The regiment then participated in the battles of South mountain, 
Antietam and Fredericksburg, established winter quarters at Belle 
Plain, shared the discomforts of the "Mud March," lost 19 mem- 
bers killed, wounded or missing in the Chancellorsville campaign 
in May, 1863, and soon after returned to New York. It was mus- 
tered out at Elmira May 31, 1863, having lost during its term of 
service 74 members by death from wounds and 74 by accident, im- 
prisonment or disease. 

Twenty-eighth Infantry. — Cols., Dudley Donnelly, Edwin F. 
Brown; Lieut. -Cols., Edwin F. Brown, Elliott W. Cook; Majs., 
James R. Mitchell, Elliott W. Cook, Theophilus Fitzgerald. The 
28th, the "Niagara Rifles," was composed of five companies from 
Niagara county, two from Orleans county, one from Ontario, one 
from Genesee and one from Sullivan, and was mustered into the 
U. S. service for two years on May 22, 1861, at Albany. A month 
was spent in camp at Camp Morgan and on June 25, the regiment 
left the state for Washington. It was assigned on July 7 to But- 
terfield's brigade, Keim's division of Gen. Patterson's force, which 
it joined at Martinsburg, W. Va. Camp was occupied at Berlin 
until Aug. 20, when the force moved to Darnestown and remained 
there until Oct. 20, when it was ordered to Ball's bluff but did not 
arrive in time to take part in the battle. From Dec. 5, 1861, to 
Jan. 6, 1862, the regiment encamped at Fredericksburg; was then 
at Hancock until March i, and then moved to Winchester with the 
1st brigade, ist division, 5th corps. Army of the Potomac. Co. E 
participated in the engagement near Columbia Furnace, Co. I in 
an encounter near Montevideo, and the entire regiment was trans- 
ferred to the Department of the Shenandoah in May. It marched 
to Front Royal, Middletown, Newton, Winchester and Bunker Hill 
in May; to Williamsport and Front Royal in June, and to Culpeper 
Court House and Cedar mountain in July. In the battle of Cedar 
mountain the loss of the 28th was 213 killed, wounded and missing 
out of 339 engaged, and of these 41 men were mortally wounded. 
On Aug. 21, the regiment was again in action at Rappahannock 
Station. On June 26 it was assigned to the ist brigade, ist division, 
2nd corps, Army of Virginia, and on Sept. 12, to the same brigade 
and division of the 12th corps, Army of the Potomac. During the 
battle of Bull Run (second) the command was posted at Manassas 
Junction and was then withdrawn to Centerville and Alexandria, 
leaving there Sept. 3 for Maryland. At Antietam the command 
was closely engaged and the commander of the corps. Gen. Mans- 
field, was mortally wounded. Gen. Williams succeeded him in com- 
mand and the corps went into camp at Harper's Ferry. On Dec. 
10, the regiment marched toward Dumfries, from there to Fairfax 
Station, then to Stafford Court House, where it established win- 
ter quarters. The last battle of the 28th was at Chancellorsville, 
in which the regiment lost 78 members killed, wounded or missing. 
Soon after it returned to New York and was mustered out at Al- 



70 The Union Army 

bany June 2, 1863. The total loss of the regiment during its term 
of service was 68 members killed or died of wounds and 49 died 
.from other causes. 

Twenty-ninth Infantry, — Cols., Adolph Von Steinwehr, Clemens 
Sorst, Lewis Hartmann; Lieut. -Cols., Clemens Sorst, Lewis Hart- 
mann, Alexander Von Schluembach; Majs., Louis Livingston, Will- 
iam P. Wainwright, Lewis Hartmann, Ulrich Gullmann, Alexander 
Von Schluembach, Daniel Metzger. The 29th, the "Astor Rifles," 
was recruited in New York city and there mustered into the U. S. 
service on June 4 and 6, 1861, for a two years' term, most of its 
members being of German nativity. On June 21, it left the state 
for Washington, where it occupied Camp Dorsheimer until July 
9, when it moved to Arlington Heights. It was assigned to Blen- 
ker's brigade and was present in the reserve at the first battle of 
Bull Run, returning after the action to Washington. One company 
of the regiment was detached to take charge of the guns of Capt. 
Varian's battery and was afterward organized as the ist independ- 
ent N. Y. battery. From July 26 to Oct. 13, the regiment was sta- 
tioned at Roach's mills and after several camps of a few days each 
it established winter quarters at Hunter's Chapel, where it arrived 
on Nov. 16. During its service here it was assigned to Steinwehr's 
brigade, which in April, 1862, was ordered to join the Mountain 
Department and after weeks of marching, participated in the bat- 
tle of Cross Keys. It was with the ist brigade, 2nd division, ist 
corps, Army of Virginia, from June 26, and was present through 
the ensuing campaign, being engaged at Sulphur Springs, and los- 
ing 20 killed, 95 wounded and 17 missing at the second battle of 
Bull Run. From the middle of September to December the com- 
mand encamped at Germantown. It then moved to Falmouth, 
where it was quartered until February, when permanent quarters 
were established at Stafford Court House. From September, 1862, 
it served with the ist brigade, 2nd division, nth corps, and in April, 
1863, was ordered to protect the passage of the Rappahannock, at 
the opening of the Chancellorsville campaign. In the battle of 
Chancellorsville it lost 96 killed, wounded or missing, then returned 
to camp at Stafford Court House, and on June 2, left for New York 
city, where it was mustered out on the 23d. The total strength of 
the regiment was 902 members, of whom 42 were killed or died of 
wounds, and 22 died from accident, imprisonment or disease. 

Thirtieth Infantry. — Cols., Edward Frisby, William M. Searing; 
Lieut. -Cols., Charles E. Brintnall, William M. Searing, Morgan H. 
Chrysler; Majs., William M. Searing, Morgan H. Chrysler, Albert 
J. Perry. The 30th regiment, organized at Troy, was composed of 
two companies recruited at Saratoga Springs, two at Troy, one 
each at Lansingburg, Schenectady. Poughkeepsie, Hoosick, Valatie 
and in Saratoga county, and was mustered into the U. S. service for 
two years at Troy, June i, 1861. It left the state for Washington 
on June 28; was stationed at Brightwood and Hunter's Chapel; es- 
tablished winter quarters at Upton's hill until March 10. 1862; left 
camp with the ist brigade, 3d division, ist corps, Army of the Poto- 
mac (the Iron Brigade) and marched to J^Ianassas; from there to 
Falmouth, then to Massaponax and Front Royal. Returning to 
Falmouth, reconnoitering expeditions were undertaken to Orange 
Court House and Hanover Court House, where skirmishes occurred. 
With the 1st brigade, ist division, 3d corps. Army of Virginia, the 
regiment fought at White Sulphur Springs, at Gainesville, at Grove- 
ton, and the second Bull Run, losing in the last battle 66 members 



New York Regiments 71 

killed or mortally wounded out of 341 engaged — over 19 per cent. 
The total loss of the command in this campaign was 183 killed, 
wounded or missing, Col. Frisby being among the wounded. After 
a short time in camp at Upton's hill, the regiment moved into Mary- 
land; was active at South mountain and at Antietam, after which it 
went into camp at Sharpsburg, where its sadly depleted ranks were 
reinforced by the addition of new recruits. On Oct. 30, 1862, the 
regiment moved to Warrenton; thence to Brooks' station, near Fal- 
mouth; participated in the battle of Fredericksburg; established 
winter quarters at Belle Plain, where in Dec, 1862, a new company, 
which became Co. F, was added to the regiment, the old Co. F 
being consolidated with other companies. The regiment took part 
in the Chancellorsville campaign, then returned for a short time to 
its camp at Belle Plain, which it left on May 28, 1863, for Albany, 
and was there mustered out on June 18. The total enrollment of the 
regiment was 1,154 members and it lost 78 by death from wounds 
during its term of service and s^ died from other causes. The 
three years men were transferred to the 76th N. Y. infantry on 
May 24, 1863. 

Thirty-first Infantry. — Cols., Calvin C. Pratt, Francis E. Pinto, 
Frank Jones; Lieut. -Cols., William H. Brown, Leopold C. Newman; 
Majs., Addison Dougherty, Alexander Raszewski, R. R. Daniells, J. 
Barnett Sloan. The 31st, the "Montezuma Regiment," contained 
one company from Williamsburg and the others were from New 
York city, where it was mustered into the U. S. service for two 
years on May 14 and 27 and June 13, 1861. It left the state for 
Washington on June 24; proceeded to Virginia in July with the 2nd 
brigade, Sth division. Army of Northeastern Virginia; encountered 
the enemy at Fairfax Court House and Bull Run; returned to Wash- 
ington and was attached to the 3d brigade of Franklin's division. 
On Sept. 28 it moved to Munson's hill, thence to Springfield Sta- 
tion and on the return passed the winter of 1861-62 at Fort Ward. 
With the 3d brigade, ist division, ist corps, Army of the Potomac, 
the regiment moved to Manassas and returned to Alexandria in 
March, 1862. At West Point it met with a loss of 83 killed, wound- 
ed or missing. The division became part of the 6th corps in May; 
engaged in the Seven Days' battles on the Peninsula; camped at 
Harrison's landing until Aug. 15; was then ordered to Newport 
News and guarded the Fairfax railroad at Burke's station. At 
Crampton's gap, Antietam, the regiment was closely engaged and 
was also in the battle of Fredericksburg in December. Winter 
quarters were established at White Oak Church, but were left tem- 
porarily in Jan., 1863, for the "Mud March," then reoccupied until 
the Chancellorsville movement in the following spring. In this bat- 
tle the regiment served with the light brigade of the 6th corps and 
lost 142 killed, wounded or missing at Marye's heights. Return- 
ing to the old camp until May 21, the regiment left at that time for 
New York city and was there mustered out on June 4, 1863, the 
three years' men being transferred to the 121st N. Y. infantry. The 
total strength of the regiment up to Jan., 1863, was 923 members 
and during its term of service it lost 68 who were killed or died of 
wounds and 30 who died from other causes. 

Thirty-second Infantry. — Cols.. Roderick Matheson, Francis E. 
Pinto; Lieut. -Cols., Francis E. Pinto, George F. Lemon, Charles 
Hubbs; Majs., George F. Lemon, Charles Hubbs, Russell Myers. 
The 32d, the First California regiment, composed of three compa- 
nies from New York city, two from Amsterdam, two from Ithaca, 



73 The Union Army 

one from Tarrytown, one from Johnstown and one from New York 
and Tompkins county, was organized at New York city and mus- 
tered into the U. S. service for two years on May 31, 1861, at New 
Dorp, Staten Island. It left the state for Washington on June 29; 
was quartered there for a week and then encamped near Alexan- 
dria, where it was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 5th division, Army 
of Northeastern Virginia; was engaged at Fairfax Court House, 
Bull Run, and at Munson's hill, and spent the winter at Fort Ward 
in Newton's brigade of Franklin's division. In March, 1862, with 
the 3d brigade, ist division, ist corps. Army of the Potomac, the 
regiment moved to Manassas; returned to Alexandria and em- 
barked for the Peninsula; was engaged at West Point, with a loss 
of 67 killed, wounded or missing, and soon after was assigned tO' 
the 3d brigade, ist division, 6th corps, with which it engaged in the 
Seven Days' battles; then went into camp at Harrison's landing 
until Aug. 16, when it returned to Alexandria. The regiment par- 
ticipated in the battles of Crampton's gap, Antietam and Freder- 
icksburg; went into winter quarters at Belle Plain; participated in 
the "Mud March," and on April 28, 1863, broke camp and joined 
the light brigade of the 6th corps for the Chancellorsville campaign, 
in which the 32nd lost 43 members killed, wounded or missing. It 
returned on May 8 to the camp at Belle Plain and on the 2Sth the 
three years' men were transferred to the 121st N. Y. infan- 
try. The two years men were mustered out at New York city on 
June 9, 1863. The total strength of the regiment up to Jan., 1863,. 
was 1,040 members and it lost during its term of service 45 by 
death from wounds and 54 by death from other causes. 

Thirty-third Infantry.— Col., Robert F. Taylor; Lieut.-Cols., Cal- 
vin Walker. Joseph W. Corning; Majs., Robert J. Mann, John S. 
Platner. The 33d, the "Ontario Regiment," was composed of com- 
panies from the northwestern part of the state and was mustered 
into the U. S. service at Elmira, July 3, 1861, for two years, to date 
from May 22, 1861. It left the state for Washington on July 8; 
was located at Camp Granger on 7th street until Aug. 6; then moved 
to Camp Lyon near Chain bridge on the Potomac; was there as- 
signed to Smith's brigade and was employed in construction work 
on Forts Ethan Allen and Marcy during September. At Camp 
Ethan Allen, Sept. 25, the regiment became a part of the brigade 
commanded by Col. Stevens in Gen. Smith's division. Four days 
later it was in a skirmish with the enemy near Lewinsville, and on 
Oct. II, went into winter quarters at Camp Griffin near Lewins- 
ville. The 3d brigade, under command of Gen. Davidson, Smith's 
division, 4th corps. Army of the Potomac, left camp March 10, 
1862, and moved to Manassas; then returned to Cloud's mills, 
where it embarked for the Peninsula on March 25. In the siege 
of Yorktown the regiment was active. It encountered the enemy at 
Lee's mill; participated in the battles of Williamsburg, Mechanics- 
ville, and the Seven Days' fighting from Gaines' mill to Malvern 
hill; encamped at Harrison's landing from July 2 to Aug. 16, and 
then left camp for Newport News. With Lieut. -Col. Corning tem- 
porarily in command of the brigade, the command moved to Hamp- 
ton on Aug. 21, then returned to Alexandria and took part in the 
Maryland campaign in September. At Crampton's gap and Antietam 
the regiment displayed its gallantry and lost in the latter battle 47 
in killed, wounded and missing. In October it was stationed along 
the Potomac near Hagerstown; passed the first two weeks of No- 
vember in camp at White Plains and the remainder of the month. 



New York Regiments 73 

at Stafford Court House; moved toward Fredericksburg on Dec. 
3; fought there with the 3d brigade, 2nd division, 6th corps, to which 
it had been assigned in May, 1862; camped at White Oak Church 
until it joined the "Mud March" in Jan., 1863, and returned to win- 
ter quarters at White Oak Church. In the battle of Chancellors- 
ville the regiment belonged to the light brigade and lost at Marye's 
heights 221 killed, wounded and missing. It returned to the old camp 
at White Oak Church, where on May 14 the three years' men were 
transferred to the 49th N. Y. infantry and the two years' men were 
mustered out at Geneva, June 2, 1863. The total enrollment of the 
regiment was 1,220 members, of whom 47 were killed or died of 
wounds during the term of service and 105 died from accident, im- 
prisonment or disease. 

Thirty-fourth Infantry. — Cols., William La Due, James A. 
Suiter, Byron Laflin; Lieut. -Cols., James A. Suiter, Byron Laflin, 
John Beverly; Majs., Byron Laflin, Charles L. Brown, John Bever- 
ly, Wells Sponables. The 34th, the "Herkimer Regiment,'" was 
composed of five companies from Herkimer county, two from Steu- 
ben, one from Albany, one from Clinton and one from Essex coun- 
ty, and was mustered into the U. S. service at Albany June 15, 1861, 
for two years. It left the state for Washington on July 3; was 
quartered at Kalorama heights until July 28, when it moved to 
Seneca mills and was there assigned to Gen. Stone's brigade. The 
regiment moved to Edwards ferry on Oct. 21, to Poolesville, Md., 
Oct. 23, and there established Camp McClellan, which was occupied 
until Feb. 24, 1862, when orders were received to move to Harper's 
Ferry. From Oct. 15, 1861, the regiment served in the 2nd brigade 
of Stone's division, which became in March, 1862. Sedgwick's divi- 
sion, 2nd corps. Army of the Potomac, and in May, 1862, the bri- 
gade became the ist brigade, 2nd division, 2nd corps. The early 
part of March, 1862, was spent in camp at Berryville, Va., and later 
in the month the regiment moved to Washington, where it was 
ordered to the Peninsula. It shared in the siege of Yorktown; lost 
97 members killed, wounded or missing at Fair Oaks, and again 
lost heavily during the Seven Days' battles. It was then in camp 
at Harrison's landing until Aug. 15, when it was ordered to New- 
port News, and there embarked for Acquia creek. Subsequently 
it returned to Alexandria and was again at the front during the 
Maryland campaign in September. At Antietam it lost 154 in killed, 
wounded and missing, of whom 41 were killed or mortally wound- 
ed — over 13 per cent, of the 311 engaged. On Nov. 21, 1862. the 
regiment arrived at Falmouth; participated in the battle of Fred- 
ericksburg; then went into winter quarters near Falmouth; shared 
in the "Mud March;" returned to camp and remained there until 
the Chancellorsville movement in the spring of 1863. In April the 
regiment moved to Banks' ford; was active at Chancellorsville; re- 
turned home on June 9, and was mustered out at Albany June 30, 
1863, the three years' men having been transferred to the 82nd N. 
Y. infantry on June 8. The total enrollment of the regiment was 
1,016 members, of whom 93 were killed in action or died of wounds 
during the term of service and 69 died from other causes. 

Thirty-fifth Infantry. — Cols., William C. Brown, Newton B. 
Lord. John G. Todd; Lieut. -Cols., Stephen L. Potter, Bradley Wins- 
low, John G. Todd, David M. Evans; Majs., Newton B. Lord, John 
G. Todd, David M. Evans, Sidney J. Wendell. The 35th, known as 
the Jefferson county regiment, was composed of six companies from 
Jefferson, one from Lewis, one from Steuben, one from Madison 



74 The Union Army 

county and one from New York city. Buffalo and Elmira, and was 
mustered into the U. S. service at Elmira, June ii, 1861, for two 
years. It left the state on July 11, for Washington; camped on 
Meridian hill until July 23; moved to Arlington House and was 
brigaded first under Col. Porter, then under Col. Keyes, and finally 
under Gen. Wadsworth in the ist brigade, ist division, ist corps; 
was engaged for a time in construction work on Forts Tillinghast 
and Craig, and moved on Sept. 27 to Fall's Church, where it passed 
the winter of 1861-62. In March, 1862, camp was broken for the 
Manassas movement and in April the 35th proceeded to Falmouth. 
During the latter part of August, the regiment was in action at 
Rappahannock Station, Sulphur Springs, Gainesville, and partici- 
pated in the second battle of Bull Run. It was present at Chantilly, 
but not closely engaged and then returned to Fall's Church. At 
South mountain the command lost 13 in killed, wounded and miss- 
ing, and at Antietam the loss was 67. Until Oct. 15, the regiment 
encamped at Sharpsburg, then moved to Brooks' station, and was 
held in reserve at Fredericksburg until the day of the battle, when 
the loss was 2^ killed, wounded and missing. In Jan., 1863, the 
regiment was assigned to the provost guard brigade, which was 
stationed at Falmouth, and also performed guard duty along the 
Acquia Creek railroad. On May 18 the three years men were trans- 
ferred to the 8oth N. Y. infantry, and the next day the regiment left 
Acquia Creek for Elmira, where it was mustered out on June 5, 
having lost 44 members by death from wounds and 56 from acci- 
dent, imprisonment or disease, out of a total enrollment of 1,250. 
Thirty-sixth Infantry. — Cols., Charles H. Innes, William H. 
Brown; Lieut.-Cols., Thomas J. Lord, Daniel E. Hungerford, James 
Walsh; Majs., Nathaniel Finch, James A. Raney, Elihu J. Faxon, 
J. Townsend Daniel. The 36th, the "Washington Volunteers," was 
organized at New York city and contained eight companies from 
that city, one from Bufifalo and one from Newburg. It was mus- 
tered into the U. S. service at New York city July 4, 1861, for two 
years, to date from June 11, and left the state July 12 for Washing- 
ton, where it went into camp at Meridian hill, until Aug. 6, when 
it was ordered to Brightwood, assigned to Couch's brigade and 
employed in construction work at Fort Massachusetts, in which 
vicinity it remained until March 13, 1862. It then became a part 
of the 3d brigade, ist division, 4th corps, with which it served until 
June, when it was attached to the ist brigade of the same division. 
It embarked for Fortress Monroe on March 26, 1862; participated in 
the siege of Yorktown; the battles of Lee's mill and Fair Oaks, los- 
ing in the latter 48 in killed, wounded and missing; and went through 
the Seven Days' battles. At Malvern hill the regiment was first 
ordered to support the ist N. Y. battery and later made a brilliant 
charge, capturing 65 prisoners and the colors of the 14th N. C, for 
which the command received high praise from the commanding 
officers. The loss during the battle of Malvern hill was 143 in 
killed, wounded and missing. Camp was occupied at Harrison's 
landing until Aug. 16, when the regiment was ordered to Alexan- 
dria and a detachment of the 36th sent to Chantilly, where it was in 
action Sept. i. The regiment was reunited at Antietam as part of 
Couch's division, and served with the ist brigade, 3d division, 6th 
corps, until December, when it became a part of the 2nd brigade 
of the same division. It was active during the battle of Freder- 
icksburg; then went into camp at Falmouth; joined in the "Mud 
March" in Jan., 1863; returned to Falmouth for the remainder of 



New York Regiments 75 

the winter; joined in the assault on Marye's heights in May, making 
a successful charge with the flying division on the 3d and engaging 
at Salem heights on the 4th. It again returned to camp at Falmouth, 
but in June proceeded by arduous marches to Poolesville, Md., from 
which place it started home early in July and was mustered out 
at New York city, July 15, 1863. The total loss of the regiment 
during its term of service was Z7 who died of wounds and 31 from 
other causes. 

Thirty-seventh Infantry. — Cols., John H. McCunn, Samuel B. 
Hayman; Lieut.-Cols., John Burke, Gilbert Riordan; Majs., Dennis 

C. Minton, Gilbert Riordan, Patrick H. Jones. William DeLacy. 
The 37th, the "Irish Rifles," was composed of seven companies from 
New York city, two from Cattaraugus county, one from Pulaski, 
and was mustered into the U. S. service on June 6 and 7, 1861, at 
New York city, for a two years' term. It left New York on June 23 for 
Washington; camped at the foot of East Capitol street; participated in 
the first movement to Manassas in Gen. McDowell's reserves and 
went into winter quarters near Bailey's cross-roads. After several 
temporary assignments the regiment finally became a part of the 
3d brigade, ist division, 3d corps, and in March, 1862, embarked for 
Fortress Monroe. It was active in the siege operations before 
Yorktown and at Williamsburg it won complimentary mention 
from Gen. Kearny for gallantry in action. The loss in this battle 
was 95 killed, wounded and missing. At Fair Oaks and in the Seven 
Days' battles the regiment was closely engaged, after which it went 
into camp at Harrison's landing; moved from there to Alexandria; 
was present at the battles of Bull Run and Chantilly; reached Fal- 
mouth Dec. 6, 1862; was active at Fredericksburg with a total loss 
of 35 members; and encamped near Falmouth during the rest of 
the winter. On Dec. 24, 1862, the regiment received the veterans 
of the loist N. Y. The heaviest loss was suffered in the Chancel- 
lorsville campaign in May, 1863, when 222 of the 37th were killed, 
wounded or missing. The three years men were transferred to the 
40th N. Y. on May 29, 1863, and on June 22, the regiment was mus- 
tered out at New York city, having lost 26 by death from wounds 
and 38 from accident, imprisonment or disease. 

Thirty-eighth Infantry.— Cols., J. H. Hobart Ward, James C. 
Strong, Regis De Trobriand; Lieut.-Cols., Addison Farnsworth, 
James C. Strong, James D. Potter, Robert F. Allison; Majs., James 

D. Potter, William H. Baird, Augustus Funk, George H. Starr, 
Francis Jehl. The 38th, the 2nd Scott's Life Guard, composed of 
seven companies from New York city, one from Geneva, one from 
Horseheads and one from Elizabethtown, was mustered into the U. 
S. service at New York city, June 3 and 8, 1861, for two years, and 
left the state for Washington on the 19th. It went into camp on 
Meridian hill until July 7, when it was ordered to Alexandria and 
assigned to the 2nd brigade, 3d division. Army of Northeastern 
Virginia, and was active at the first battle of Bull Run, where it 
lost 128 in killed, wounded and missing. During August and Sep- 
tember the regiment was employed in construction work at Forts 
Ward and Lyons in Howard's brigade, and in October was assigned 
to Sedgwick's brigade, Heintzelman's division. The winter camp 
was established in Oct., 1861, on the old Fairfax road and occupied 
until March, 1862, when, with the 2nd brigade, 3d division, 3d corps, 
the regiment embarked for Fortress Monroe. It participated in 
the siege of Yorktown; the battle of Williamsburg, where the loss 
of the command was 88 in killed, wounded and missing; shared 



76 The Union Army 

in the engagement at Fair Oaks, and in the Seven Days' battles, 
after which it encamped at Harrison's landing until Aug. 15. From 
there it moved to Yorktown and Alexandria; was active at the sec- 
ond Bull Run and Chantilly; reached Falmouth on Nov. 25, and at 
Fredericksburg, lost 133 members killed, wounded and missing. On 
Dec. 22, 1862, the regiment received the addition of four companies 
of the 55th N. Y., which were added to the six companies of the 38th 
formed by consolidation of the regiment on Dec. 21. It partici- 
pated in the "Mud March;" returned to camp near Falmouth; en- 
gaged in the Chancellorsville campaign; was then stationed at Ac- 
quia Creek until the troops started for New York on June 4 and 
was mustered out at New York city, on the 22nd. The three years 
men were transferred to the 40th N. Y. infantry, of which regiment 
they became Cos. A, E and H. The total strength of the regiment 
was 796 and it lost 75 by death from wounds and 46 from other 
causes. 

Thirty-ninth Infantry. — Cols., Frederick G. D'Utassy, Augustus 
Funk; Lieut.-Cols., Alexander Repetti, Charles Schwartz, James G. 
Hughes, John McE. Hyde, David A. Allen; Majs., Charles Wiegand, 
Anton Vekey, Charles Schwartz, Hugo Hillebrandt, Charles C. 
Baker, John McE. Hyde, David A. Allen, Charles H. Ballon. The 
39th, the "Garibaldi Guard," recruited in New York city, was com- 
posed of three Hungarian companies, three German, one Swiss, one 
Italian, one French, one Spanish and one Portuguese, most of whose 
members had already seen active service. It was mustered into 
the U. S. service at New York, May 28, 1861, for three years and 
left the state for Washington on the same day. Camp Grinnell 
was established near Alexandria and occupied until July 17, when 
the 39th participated in the movement of the army toward Manassas 
with the 1st brigade, 5th division, though in the battle of Bull Run 
the regiment was but slightly engaged. After a few weeks at Alex- 
andria much ill feeling prevailed over the failure to receive some 
expected privileges and 50 members of Co. G mutinied, but returned 
to the command after being disciplined by arrest and imprisonment. 
Until November it was encamped near Roach's mills, when winter 
quarters were established at Hunter's Chapel. The brigade, origi- 
nally commanded by Gen. Blenker, was in the spring of 1862 com- 
manded by Gen. Stahel and served in Blenker's division of Sumner's 
corps. In April, 1862, the division was assigned to Gen. Fremont's 
command and joined his forces May 11, taking part in the engage- 
ments near Strasburg and at Cross Keys. On June 26 the 39th 
was assigned to the ist brigade, 3d division, 2nd corps of the army 
under Gen. Pope, and encamped at Middletown, Va., during July 
and August. The regiment shared in the disaster at Harper's Fer- 
ry in Sept., 1862, and in the surrender 530 of its members fell into 
the hands of the enemy, but were paroled and proceeded to Camp 
Douglas, Chicago. They were exchanged in November, returned 
to Washington and established winter quarters at Centerville, where 
the regiment was assigned to the 3d brigade, Casey's division, 3d 
corps in Jan., 1863. In June, 1863, it became part of the 3d brigade, 
3d division, 2d corps, and moved to Gettysburg, where it fought 
valiantly in the front of the left center, with a loss of 95 killed and 
wounded, the brigade losing six field officers killed or seriously 
wounded. Three battle flags were captured by the 39th, a Mass. 
battery was recaptured, and the regiment received official com- 
mendation for its valor. Moving southward with the army, the 
regiment encountered the enemy at Auburn ford and Bristoe Sta- 



New York Regiments 77 

tion in October; participated in the Mine Run campaign; went into 
winter quarters at Brandy Station, where in Dec, 1863, four new 
companies were received; in Jan., 1864, two others were added to 
the regiment, which had been previously consolidated into a bat- 
talion of four companies. In February it was active at Morton's 
ford; was assigned in March to the 3d brigade, ist division, 2nd 
corps; shared in the Wilderness campaign, being active at the Wil- 
derness, at Todd's tavern, the Po river, Spottsylvania, the North 
Anna, Totopotomoy and Cold Harbor. On June 25, 1864, the origi- 
nal members not reenlisted were mustered out at New York city, 
the remainder of the regiment was left in the field and moved with 
the Army of the Potomac to Petersburg. Seven companies, known 
as the 39th battalion, were assigned to the consolidated brigade, 2nd 
corps, and were engaged at Petersburg, Deep Bottom, at Reams' 
station, Hatcher's run, White Oak ridge, and in the final assault on 
the Petersburg fortifications April 2, 1865. The battalion then 
joined in the pursuit of Lee's army and performed various routine 
duties in the vicinity of Richmond until July i, 1865, when it was 
mustered out at Alexandria. The 39th lost during its term of serv- 
ice 119 by death from wounds, and 159 by death from accident, im- 
prisonment or disease, of whom 94 died in prison. 

Fortieth Infantry. — Cols., Edward J. Riley, Thomas W. Eagan, 
Madison M. Cannon; Lieut.-Cols., Thomas W. Eagan, Nelson A. 
Gesner, P. Allen Lindsay, Augustus J. Warner, Madison M. Can- 
non, Thomas Crawford; Majs., Richard T. Halstead; Albert S. In- 
galls, P. Allen Lindsay, Augustus J. Warner, Emmons F. Fletcher, 
Madison M. Cannon, Thomas Crawford, Augustus W. Keene. The 
40th, the "Mozart Regiment," recruited in New York city, received 
four Massachusetts companies into its organization and went into 
camp at Yonkers, where it was mustered into the U. S. service 
June 14 to 27, 1861, for three years. On July 4 it left the state for 
Washington, numbering 1,000 members and after a short encamp- 
ment at Washington, was ordered to Alexandria, where during the 
summer it was engaged in the construction of Fort Ward and in 
guard duty along the Orange & Alexandria railroad. It was as- 
signed on Aug. 4, to Howard's brigade, Potomac division, but was 
later attached to Sedgwick's brigade, Heintzelman's division, and 
passed the winter near Alexandria. In March, 1862, with the 2nd 
brigade, 3d division, 3d corps. Army of the Potomac, it embarked 
for Yorktown and was there engaged in the duties of the siege. 
Tlie regiment was closely engaged at Williamsburg and during that 
month the brigade was assigned to the ist division, 3d corps, with 
which it participated in the battle of Fair Oaks, where the 40th lost 
24 in killed or mortally wounded out of five companies engaged. 
The regiment fought through the Seven Days' battles with a loss 
of 100 killed, wounded and missing and rested for a few weeks at 
Harrison's landing before entering upon the campaign in Virginia 
under Gen. Pope. At the second Bull Run 244 members of the regi- 
ment were engaged and 86 were reported among the lost. At Chan- 
tilly the total loss was 61, but the gallant conduct of the 40th and 
the 1st saved the day, and the regiment received the highest official 
praise. At Fredericksburg the total loss was 123. The regiment 
shared in the "Mud March" and then gathered its scattered heroes 
together to winter at Falmouth. The recruits for the 87th N. Y. 
had been added to the 40th in Sept., 1862, and after the battle of 
Chancellorsville, in which the loss was again severe, the regiment 
was consolidated into a battalion of five companies. On May 30, 



78 The Union Army 

1863, the three years men of the 37th and 38th N. Y. were assigned 
to the 40th, as were members of the 55th and loist. As part of the 
3d brigade, ist division, 3d corps, Army of the Potomac, from May, 
1863, the regiment proceeded from Chancellorsville to Gettysburg, 
where it again distinguished itself for bravery with a loss of 150 
killed, wounded or missing. It was active at Kelly's ford and in the 
Mine Run campaign, after which winter quarters were established 
near Brandy Station, where in December, the major portion of the 
members of the regiment reenlisted. Many new recruits were also 
received during the winter, and at the opening of the Wilderness 
campaign in the spring of 1864 the regiment took the field with 
greatly replenished ranks. In March of that year it was assigned 
to the 1st brigade, 3d division, 2nd corps; was active at the Wilder- 
ness with the loss of 213 killed, wounded and missing; and fought 
in the engagements at Spottsylvania, the Po river, the North Anna, 
Totopotomoy and Cold Harbor. In July, 1864, the original mem- 
bers not reenlisted were mustered out at New York city and the 
regiment was consolidated into six companies, which soon received 
additional reinforcement by the addition of the veterans of the 74th 
N. Y. The veteran regiment served before Petersburg until the 
fall of the city, being engaged at the Weldon railroad. Deep Bot- 
tom, Strawberry Plains, Poplar Spring Church, Boydton Road, 
the Hicksford raid. Hatcher's run. Fort Stedman, White Oak ridge, 
in the final assault on Petersburg, April 2, 1865, and the pursuit of 
Lee to Appomattox. The regiment was mustered out at Washing- 
ton, June 27, 1865, having gallantly acquitted itself through four 
years of almost constant fighting, and having well earned its right 
to be called a "Fighting Regiment" through the loss of more men 
killed and wounded than any other New York regiment save one — 
the 69th. Only through the addition of troop after troop of veter- 
ans was it able to preserve its organization, but its reputation for 
courage made assignment to its ranks a privilege. The total death 
loss of the command during its term of service was 238 killed or 
died of wounds and 172 from accident, imprisonment or disease. 

Forty-first Infantry. — Col., Leopold Von Gilsa; Lieut.-Cols* 
Emil Duysing, Ernst Von Holmstedt, Dettler Von Einsiedel; Majs., 
Ernst Von Holmstedt, Dettler Von Einsiedel, Frederick Menshau- 
sen. The 41st, known as the De Kalb regiment, was organized in 
New York city and was composed of German soldiers, mainly vet- 
erans of the war between Prussia and Denmark, 1848-51. It was 
mustered into the U. S. service at New York June 6-9, 1861, for 
three years, and left the state for Washington July 8, containing 
besides the New York companies, one company from Philadelphia 
and one from Newark, N. J. At Camp Runyon, near Washington, 
the regiment was assigned to the 4th division of the Army of North- 
eastern Virginia, with which it was present at the first battle of 
Bull Run, though held in reserve. On Aug. 4, it was assigned to 
Sherman's brigade, on Oct. 15, to Martindale's, and in March, 1862, 
to Blenker's brigade, Sedgwick's division, Sumner's corps, which in 
April, with Gen. Blenker in command of the division, was attached 
to Fremont's forces. In the consolidation under Gen. Pope in Aug., 
1862, the brigade became the ist brigade, ist division, ist corps, 
with which the 41st was engaged at Strasburg and Cross Keys, 
meeting with its first considerable loss. It was active at Rappa- 
hannock Station, Sulphur springs, Waterloo bridge, Groveton and 
the second Bull Run, losing in the last named 103 killed, wounded 
and missing. It was then assigned to the ist brigade, ist division, 



New York Regiments 7& 

nth corps; was held in reserve during the battle of Fredericks- 
burg; encamped at Falmouth for the winter and participated in the 
Chancellorsville campaign in May, 1863. Gettysburg was the next 
battle in which the command was engaged, with the loss of 75 in 
killed, wounded and missing. In Sept., 1863, the regiment was or- 
dered to join the Department of the South at Folly island, S. C, 
and was there assigned to the ist brigade, Gordon's division, loth 
corps. A year was spent in this division, during which tiine the 
regiment took part in the operations against Fort Wagner, and the 
further operations in Charleston harbor. The original members 
not reenlisted were mustered out at Hilton Head, S. C., June 9, 
1864, and the veterans and recruits consolidated into a battalion 
of six companies. For a considerable portion of the time the troops 
were stationed on John's island, but in August., 1864, were ordered 
to return to Virginia and on Sept. 27 the battalion joined the Army 
of the Shenandoah. In the winter of 1864-65 it formed part of the 
1st brigade, Ferrero's division, and was posted in the defenses of 
Bermuda Hundred. It was mustered out at City Point, Va., Dec. 
9, 1865. The regiment lost during its term of service T2 by death 
from wounds and y2> from other causes. 

Forty-second Infantry. — Cols., William D. Kennedy, Milton 
Cogswell, Edmund C. Charles, James E. Mallon, William A. Lynch; 
Lieut.-Cols., Michael Doheny, James I. Mooney, George M. Bom- 
ford, William A. Lynch, Robert C. Wright; Majs., Peter Bowe, 
James E. Mallon, Patrick J. Downing. The 42d, the "Tammany 
Regiment," was recruited in New York city; mustered into the U. S. 
service at Great Neck, L. I., June 22-28, 1861, for three years; was 
quartered on Long Island for nearly a month, embarking on July 
18 for Washington, where it remained in camp but a short time, 
when it was ordered to Poolville, Md., and assigned to Stone's brigade. 
On Oct. 15, the regiment became a part of Gorman's brigade. Stone's 
division. Army of the Potomac. It behaved gallantly in the battle of 
Ball's Bluff, but met with the heavy loss of 133 in killed, wounded 
and missing, including Col. Baker, Col. Cogswell and Capt. Garety. 
In Jan., 1862, the regiment was attached to Burns' brigade of its 
old division and in March, to the 3d brigade, 2nd division, 2nd 
corps, Army of the Potomac, with which it participated in the 
Peninsular campaign. It was active in the operations before York- 
town, the battle of West Point, and during the Seven Days' battles, 
losing at Glendale 56 in killed, wounded and missing. In the bat- 
tle of Antietam the regiment met with the heaviest loss of its en- 
tire service — 181 killed, wounded or missing, out of 345 engaged in 
the charge under Gen. Sedgwick which proved so fatal. At Fred- 
ericksburg the regiment was more fortunate, although 22 were 
killed or wounded. The winter was passed in camp near Falmouth 
and in May, 1863, broke camp for the Chancellorsville campaign, in 
which the regiment was active at Marye's heights and Salem Church. 
At Gettysburg, under command of Col. Mallon, the regiment re- 
ceived high commendation for heroic conduct but at the cost of a 
total loss of 74 members. On the southward march, the 42nd was 
engaged at Auburn, at Bristoe Station, where Col. Mallon was 
killed, shared in the operations about Mine Run, fought at Robert- 
son's tavern, and went into winter quarters at Brandy Station. A 
large number of the men reenlisted in Dec, 1864. Camp was broken 
May 3, 1864, for the Wilderness campaign, in which the regiment, 
assigned to the ist brigade, 2nd division, 2nd corps, conducted itself 
with courage and steadiness throughout the month of arduous 



80 The Union Army 

service which culminated at Cold Harbor, the Wilderness, Spottsyl- 
vania, Laurel Hill, the North Anna, Totopotomoy, all being fields 
of action for the 42nd. On July 13, 1864, the original members not 
reenlisted were mustered out at New York city and the veterans 
and recruits were transferred to the 82nd N. Y., which had also 
won an enviable reputation for fighting qualities. The total strength 
of the regiment was 1,210 members, of whom 718 were killed, wound- 
ed or captured, 152 being killed or dying of wounds and 106 dying of 
accident, disease or imprisonment. The regiment is numbered by 
Col. Fox among the "three hundred fighting regiments" and during 
its service always reflected credit on the state which sent it forth. 
Forty-third Infantry. — Cols., Francis L. Vinton, Benjamin F. 
Baker, John Wilson, Charles A. Milliken; Lieut. -Cols., Charles H. 
Pierson, Benjamin F. Baker, John Wilson, John Fryer. James D. 
Visscher, Volkert V. Van Patten, Charles A. Milliken, William H. 
Terrell; Majs., Benjamin F. Baker, John Wilson, John Fryer, Will- 
iam Wallace, John L. Newman, Volkert V. Van Patten, Charles 
A. Milliken, Samuel Davidson, William Russell. The 43d, the "Al- 
bany Rifles," contained five companies from Albany, two from New 
York city, one from Montgomery county, one from Washington 
county and one from Otsego county and was organized at Albany, 
where it was mustered into the U. S. service in Aug. and Sept., 
1861, for three years, and left the state for Washington, 700 strong, 
Sept. 21. It went into camp at Alexandria, Va., being first assigned 
to Hancock's brigade. Smith's division, 4th corps, Army of the 
Potomac, and in May, 1862, to the ist brigade, 2nd division, 6th 
corps, with which it participated in the siege of Yorktown, fought 
at Lee's mill, Williamsburg, and in the Seven Days' battles, losing 
in that week 71 killed, wounded and missing. Owing to reduction 
in numbers, the regiment was consolidated on July 18, 1862, into 
a battalion of five companies. The 43d took part in the battle of 
Antietam, went into camp at Sharpsburg, Md., where five new 
companies joined it in October, and was next actively engaged at 
Fredericksburg, after which it established winter quarters at Fal-* 
mouth. As part of the light brigade, 6th corps, it fought in the 
Chancellorsville campaign, losing 138 men at Salem Church, and 
66 in the assault upon Marye's heights. It again encountered the 
enemy at Deep Run crossing in June, when the loss of the light bri- 
gade was so severe that it was broken up and the 43d was assigned 
to the 3d brigade, 2nd division, 6th corps, with which it continued 
to serve during its term of enlistment. The brigade reached Get- 
tysburg on July 2, after a forced march, and went into action the 
next day. During the autumn of 1863, it encountered the enemy 
at Rappahannock Station, Locust Grove, Auburn and Mine Run, 
and finally established winter quarters at Brandy Station in De- 
cember, when 217 members reenlisted and immediately received 
their veteran furlough. Camp was broken on May 3, 1864, for the 
Wilderness campaign which proved to be the most fatal for the 
43d of any during its service. In the battle of the Wilderness the 
total loss was 198 members, including 3 field officers killed or mor- 
tally wounded. Although reduced to an effective force of 7 officers 
and 92 men, the regiment was active at Spottsylvania, the North 
Anna, Totopotomy and Cold Harbor and shared in the first as- 
sault on Petersburg. At the time of Early's raid, the 6th corps 
was hurried to Washington and repulsed the enemy at Port Ste- 
vens, where Col. Visscher, and 5 enlisted men were killed and 29 
wounded. Continuing the campaign in the Shenandoah Valley, the 



New York Regiments 81 

regiment was engaged at Charlestown, the Opequan, Fisher's hill, 
and Cedar Creek. The original members not reenlisted were mus- 
tered out at Albany, Sept. 29, 1864, and 15 officers and 400 veterans 
and recruits remained in the field, in camp at Winchester. On Dec. 
5, the regiment returned to Petersburg and was posted near Fort 
Stedman. It shared in the final assault April 2, 1865, in the battle 
of Sailor's creek, and was present at the surrender of Lee's Army 
at Appomattox. The 6th corps was then stationed for a short time 
at Danville, Va., after which it participated in the grand review of 
the Union armies at Washington, where the 43d was mustered out 
on June 27, 1865. The total strength of the regiment was 2,327 
members, of whom 692 were killed, wounded or captured, 94 died 
from accident or disease, and 27 perished in prison. The deserved 
reputation of the 43d as a crack fighting regiment is confirmed by 
Col. Fox, who names it one of the "three hundred fighting regi- 
ments." 

Forty-fourth Infantry. — Cols., Stephen W. Stryker, James C. 
Rice, Freeman Conner; Lieut. -Cols., James C. Rice, Edward P. 
Chapin, Freeman Conner, Edward B. Knox; Majs., Stephen W. 
Stryker, James McKown, Edward P. Chapin, Freeman Conner, Ed- 
ward B. Knox, Campbell Allen. The 44th regiment, known as Ells- 
worth's Avengers, was organized at Albany under the auspices of 
the Ellsworth association of the State of New York, which planned 
to raise a memorial regiment to be composed of one man from each 
town and ward, unmarried, not over 30 years of age or under 5 feet, 
8 inches in height, and of military experience. This plan was ad- 
hered to as far as possible and two companies from Albany coun- 
ty, two from Erie county, one from Herkimer county, and a large 
number of scattered squads reported at Albany in response to the 
request. These companies were mustered into the service of the 
United States at Albany in Aug. and Sept., 1861, for three years, 
and two new companies from Albany were mustered in Oct. 21, 
1862. The regiment, numbering 1,061 men, left Albany on Oct. 21, 
1861, for Washington and upon its arrival there was assigned to the 
3d brigade, ist division, later with the 5th corps. Camp was estab- 
lished on Oct. 28, at Hall's hill, Va., and the winter was passed 
there with routine duties. On March 10, 1862, the regiment led the 
advance to Centerville, but soon returned to Fairfax and proceeded 
thence to Yorktown, arriving on April i. From May 5 to 19, the 
44th garrisoned Fort Magruder; then moved to Gaines' mill; was 
engaged at Hanover Court House, with the loss of 86 killed, wound- 
ed and missing; participated in the Seven Days' battles with a total 
loss of 56 at Gaines' mill and 99 at Malvern Hill, out of 225 engaged 
in the last named battle. Returning to Alexandria, the regiment 
moved by way of Fortress Monroe to Manassas, and in the battle 
of Aug. 30 lost 71 killed, wounded or missing. It was in reserve 
at Antietam; was active at Shepherdstown, and Fredericksburg; 
shared in the hardships of Burnside's "Mud March," and returned 
to winter quarters at Stoneman's switch, near Falmouth. Camp 
was broken on April 27, 1863, for the Chancellorsville campaign, 
the 44th being in the lead during the general movement of the 
army and sharing in the fighting, after which it returned for a short 
rest to the camp at Stoneman's switch. In June, the veterans of 
the 14th and 25th N. Y. were added to the 44th. At Gettysburg the 
regiment was posted on the left of the line and joined in the defense 
of Little Round Top, where it met with its greatest loss — ill killed, 
wounded and missing. After spending some weeks in camp at 

Vol. II— 6 



82 The Union Army 

Emmitsburg, the command was present at the battle of Bristoe 
Station, active at Rappahannock Station and in the Mine Run cam- 
paign, and went into winter quarters at Brandy Station. In Dec.,. 

1863, a large number of the men reenlisted and rejoined the regi- 
ment in camp after their veteran furlough. May, 1864, was the 
month of the memorable Wilderness campaign, in which the regi- 
ment served faithfully, suffering most severely at the Wilderness 
and at Bethesda Church. By this time the regiment had become 
greatly reduced in numbers by hard service and the loss in this cam- 
paign, while not so large in numbers as in previous battles, was 
even greater in proportion to the number of men engaged. The 
regiment was active in the first assault on Petersburg in June, 

1864, at the Weldon railroad, and at Poplar Spring Church. On 
Oct. II, 1864, the 44th was mustered out at Albany and the veter- 
ans and recruits were consolidated into a battalion, of which 266 
men were transferred to the 140th and 183 to the 146th N. Y. The 
total strength of the regiment was 1,585, of whom 188 died during 
the term of service from wounds received in action, and 147 died 
from accident, imprisonment or disease. The total loss in killed, 
wounded and missing was 730. The men chosen for this command 
were of the flower of the state and displayed their heroism on many 
a desperately contested field, where they won laurels for themselves 
and for their state. Col. Fox numbers the 44th among the "three 
hundred fighting regiments." 

Forty-fifth Infantry. — Cols.. George Von Amsberg, Adolphus 
Dobke; Lieut. -Cols., Edward C. Wratislaw, Adolphus Dobke, 
Charles Koch, Joseph Sprangenburgh; Majs., Charles Sempsey, 
Adolphus Dobke, Charles Koch, Gustavus Korn. The 45th, the Sth 
German Rifles, recruited in New York city, was composed mainly 
of Germans and was mustered into the U. S. service at New York 
city Sept. 9, 1861, for a three years' term. A month was passed in 
camp at Jones' wood and Oct. 9, the regiment left for Washington, 
where it was assigned to the ist brigade, 5th division and encamped 
at Hunter's Chapel, Va.. for the winter. In April, 1862, the 45th 
was transferred to the Mountain Department under Gen. Fremont 
and arrived at Winchester on April 19, remaining there until May 
I. It participated in the battle of Cross Keys and then retired to 
Middletown, where many of the men were on the sick list, owing to 
the constant, severe marches with insufficient food to which the 
troops had been subjected. Attached to the ist brigade, ist divi- 
sion, 1st corps, Army of Virginia, the regiment was ordered to 
Sperryville, Madison Court House, Gordonsville, Cuylersville, Ce- 
dar mountain and White Sulphur springs, took part in the second 
battle of Bull Run, and then encamped at Lewinsville from Sept. 
3 to 21. It was next stationed until Nov. 3 at Centerville, where 
the brigade and division became a part of the nth corps. Army of 
the Potomac, and were successively posted at Thoroughfare gap, 
Aldie and Chantilly. On Dec. 11, as part of Gen. Sigel's reserves, 
the 45th arrived at Falmouth and after the battle of Fredericks- 
burg was withdrawn to Stafford Court House, where winter quar- 
ters were established. In the Chancellorsville movement in May, 
1863, the 45th was closely engaged with a loss of 76 in killed, 
wounded and missing, and in June it was assigned to the ist bri- 
gade, 3d division, nth corps and marched to Gettysburg, where it 
participated in the three days' battle with the loss of 224 in killed, 
wounded and missing. Gathering together its scattered ranks the 
regiment moved west and in October participated in the battle of 



New York Regiments 83 

Wauhatchie, Tenn. It then moved to Chattanooga, shared in the 
Rossville campaign, and was present at Missionary ridge in No- 
vember. At the opening of the Atlanta campaign in the spring of 

1864, the 4Sth was assigned to the 3d brigade, ist division, 20th 
corps, with which it served until July, being in action at Resaca, 
Dallas and Kennesaw mountain. In July it was attached to the 
Department of the Cumberland at Nashville and remained there 
until the close of the war. The original members not reenlisted 
were mustered out on Oct. 8, 1864, but the command was retained 
as a veteran regiment until June 30, 1865, when it was consolidated 
with the 58th N. Y. and with it mustered out at Nashville Oct. i, 

1865. During the term of service the regiment lost 53 by death 
from wounds and 108 by death from other causes. 

Forty-sixth Infantry. — Cols., Rudolph Rosa, Joseph Gerhardt, 
George W. Travers; Lieut.-Cols., Germain Metternich, Joseph Ger- 
hardt, George W. Travers, Ambrose Stevens, Adolph Becker; Majs., 
Joseph Gerhardt. Julius Parcus, Theodore Kohle, Ambrose Ste- 
vens, Peter French. The 46th, known as the Fremont Rifle regi- 
ment was composed of Germans, recruited in New York city, 
where the regiment was mustered into the U. S. service on July 29 
to Sept. 16, 1861, for a three years' term. It left on Sept. 16, 800 
strong, for Washington, where it was assigned to the ist brigade, 
Sherman's division and quartered at Annapolis. Early in Novem- 
ber it was assigned to the Department of the South, embarked for 
Hilton Head, where it arrived on the 7th after a stormy voyage, 
and was stationed there until the following month, when it was 
moved to Tybee island, Ga., remaining there during the winter of 
1861-62, and participating in the siege of Fort Pulaski. In June, 
1862 it was sent to James island, S. C, where it was engaged on 
the 8th. It next was in action at Secessionville, and in July was 
ordered to return to Newport News, where it was assigned to the 
2nd brigade, ist division, 9th corps, with which it took part in the 
battles of Sulphur springs. Bull Run (second), Chantilly, South 
mountain and Antietam. In September, it was assigned to the ist 
brigade, ist division, 9th corps and in November, to the 2nd bri- 
gade once more. It was held in reserve at Fredericksburg, and 
then went into winter quarters at Falmouth. About the middle of 
June, 1863, the corps joined Gen. Grant at Vicksburg. There the 
regiment participated in the siege operations, then in the pursuit to 
Jackson and the fighting in that vicinity in July. In June it was 
transferred to the 3d brigade, 2nd division, and in August, returned 
to the 2nd brigade, ist division. After the fall of Vicksburg the 
corps was ordered to Knoxville, being engaged on the march at 
Blue Springs and Campbell's station. The 46th was stationed at 
Knoxville during the siege, and during the winter the major portion 
of the regiment reenlisted and received veteran furlough. Upon 
the return of the 9th corps from Knoxville to Cincinnati, in April, 
1864, the original members of the 46th not reenlisted proceeded to 
New York and were there mustered out on April 12. The veteran 
regiment served with the 2nd brigade, 4th division, 5th corps. Army 
of the Potomac, from May 30 to June 11, 1864; was then attached 
to the 2nd brigade, 3d division, 9th corps, with which it served 
until September, and was then transferred to the 2nd bri- 
gade, 1st division, 9th corps. It was active at the Wil- 
derness, Spottsylvania, the North Anna, Totopotomy, and Cold 
Harbor; suffered heavy loss at Petersburg in the assaults of June 
16-19, and at the mine explosion in July; participated in the actions 



84 The Union Army 

at the Weldon railroad, Poplar Spring Church, Hatcher's run. Fort 
Stedman, and the final assault on April 2, 1865. Soon after the fall 
of Petersburg, the regiment was ordered to Washington, where it 
was mustered out July 28, 1865. The total loss of the regiment was 
327 killed, wounded and missing, 109 members dying from wounds 
during the term of service and 89 from other causes. 

Forty-seventh Infantry. — Cols., Henry Moore, James L. Frazer, 
Henry Wood, Christopher R. McDonald; Lieut.-Cols., James L. 
Frazer, Pierce C. Kane, George B. Van Brunt, Albert B. Nicholas, 
Christopher R, McDonald, Joseph McDonald; Majs., Daniel Lloyd, 
Pierce C. Kane, George B. Van Brunt, David Allen, Christopher 
R. McDonald, Edward Eddy, Jr., Charles A. Moore, Frank A. Butts. 
The 47th, the "Washington Grays," was recruited in New York and 
Brooklyn and mustered into the U. S. service at East New York, 
Sept. 14, 1861, for a three years' term. It left the state Sept. 15, 
with 678 members, for Washington, and with the ist brigade of Sher- 
man's division, embarked for Hilton Head in October, and arrived 
there on Nov. 3. It was stationed at Hilton Head until Jan. i, 1862, 
when it was ordered to Beaufort, S. C, to participate in the opera- 
tions against Port Royal ferry and then returned to Hilton Head. 
Early in February the regiment moved to Edisto island and re- 
mained there until ordered to James island in June, where it be- 
came a part of the ist brigade, ist division and was engaged at 
Secessionville. On July i it returned to Hilton Head, where it per- 
formed guard and picket duty during the ensuing fall and winter. 
It was active in the assault on Fort Wagner in July, 1863, and was 
stationed in that vicinity during the remainder of the year. In the 
Florida expedition in Feb., 1864, the regiment suffered a loss at 
Olustee of 313 in killed, wounded and missing. After proceeding 
up the St. John's river as far as Palatka, the expedition returned to 
Hilton Head. In April the 47th was ordered to Virginia and as- 
signed to the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, lOth corps, Army of the 
James, at Bermuda Hundred. On May 25, the division was assigned 
to the i8th corps and after several encounters near Bermuda Hun- 
dred, notably at Port Walthall Junction, the regiment joined the 
Army of the Potomac just before the battle of Cold Harbor, in 
which it bore an active part. On June 15, it was transferred to the 
2nd brigade, 2nd division,. loth corps; took part in the first assault 
on Petersburg; was present at the mine explosion, July 30; and 
was active in engagements at Strawberry Plains, Fort Harrison 
and on the Darbytown road. The original members not reenlisted 
were mustered out in July, 1864, but the veterans and recruits con- 
tinued as a regiment in the field. In Dec, 1864, in the 2nd brigade, 
2nd division, 24th corps the regiment was ordered to Fort Fisher, 
N. C, and played its part in the reduction of that stronghold. The 
47th passed the remaining months of its service in the Carolinas, 
being present at Smithfield, Fort Anderson, Wilmington, Cox's 
bridge and Bennett's house, and on April 2, 1865, was attached to 
the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, loth corps. It was mustered out at 
Raleigh, N. C, Aug. 30, 1865, after four years of faithful and effi- 
cient service to the Union Cause. During its term of service the 
regiment lost 93 by death from wounds and 157 from other causes. 

Forty-eighth Infantry. — Cols., James H. Perry, William B. Bar- 
ton, William B. Coan; Lieut.-Cols., William B. Barton, Oliver F. 
Beard, James F. Green, Dudley W. Strickland, William B. Coan, 
Nere A. Elfwing; Majs., Oliver F. Beard, James F. Greene, Dud- 
ley W. Strickland, William B. Coan, Samuel M. Swartwout, Nere 



New York Regiments 85 

A. Elfwing, Albert F. Miller, James A. Barrett. The 48th, the "Con- 
tinental Guard," contained seven Brooklyn companies, one from 
New York, one from Monmouth county, N. J., and one from Brook- 
lyn and Monmouth county. It was mustered into the U. S. service 
at Brooklyn Aug. 16 to Sept. 14, 1861, for three years; left the state 
for Washington Sept. 16; was attached to the ist brigade of Gen. 
Sherman's force; embarked for Port Royal late in October, 
and was active in the capture of the fortifications of Port 
Royal ferry Jan. i, 1862. In the siege operations against Fort Pu- 
laski, Ga., the 48th took a prominent part and after the fall of the 
fortress was assigned to garrison dutj^ there, with expeditions in 
September and October to Blufifton, Cranston's bluff and Mackay's 
point. In June, 1863, the regiment with the exception of Cos. G 
and I, left Fort Pulaski and proceeded to Hilton Head, where it 
was there attached to Strong's brigade, loth corps, with which it 
participated in the movement against Fort Wagner in July. In the 
assault of July 18, the loss of the 48th was 242 killed, wounded and 
rnissing, including Col. Barton wounded and Lieut. -Col. Green 
killed. The regiment received high praise from the commanding 
oiificers for its gallantry in this action. In August it formed a part 
of the Florida expedition; was posted for some time at St. Augus- 
tine; participated in the disastrous battle at Olustee, with a loss of 
44 in killed, wounded and missing; then retired to Jacksonville; 
proceeded up the river to Palatka on March 10, 1864, remained there 
until April when it was transferred to the Army of the James at 
Bermuda Hundred, and was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 2nd divi- 
sion, loth corps. In the engagement at Port Walthall Junction the 
regiment again showed its mettle by heroic conduct in spite of 
severe loss. On May 30 it was assigned to the ist brigade, 3d divi- 
sion, i8th corps, and on June 15, to the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 
loth corps. It took a prominent part in the battle of Cold Har- 
bor; was in the first assault on Petersburg and in action at the 
explosion of the mine; and was engaged at Strawberry Plains and 
Fort Harrison. The original members not reenlisted were mustered' 
out at New York city on Sept. 24, 1864, but 350 members having 
reenlisted in Dec, 1863, the regiment retained its organization. In 
Dec, 1864, with the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 24th corps, the 48th 
was ordered to Fort Fisher, N. C., was active in the capture of the 
fortifications there in Jan., 1865, and served for some months in that 
vicinity. In March it was attached to the provisional corps, in 
April to the loth corps and during the summer months performed 
various routine duties in the neighborhood of Raleigh, N. C, where 
it was finally mustered out on Sept. i, 1865. During its term of 
service 2,173 members were enrolled, and of these 236 or over 10 
per cent, were killed or mortally wounded in action, a loss exceeded 
among the regiments of the state only by the 69th and 40th. It was 
17th in the list of all of the regiments of the Union armies in total 
loss. In the battles of the regiment 868 men were reported killed, 
wounded or missing, and it earned by desperate fighting its right 
to be known as a crack fighting regiment. 

Forty-ninth Infantry. — Cols., Daniel D. Bidwell, Erastus D. Holt, 
George H. Selkirk; Lieut. -Cols., William C. Alberger, George W. 
Johnson, Erastus D. Holt, George H. Selkirk, Thomas Cluney; 
Majs., George W. Johnson, William Ellis, Andrew W. Brazee. 
George H. Selkirk, Solomon W. Russell, Jr. The 49th, the 2nd 
Buffalo regiment, contained four companies from Chautauqua 
county, four from Erie, one from Westchester and one from Niag- 



86 The Union Army 

ara county and was mustered into the U. S. service at Buffalo, Sept. 
i8, 1861, for a three years' term. It left Buffalo Sept. 20 for Wash- 
ington, was there assigned to the 3d brigade. Smith's division, with 
which it remained throughout its term of service. In March, 1862, 
the brigade and division were attached to the 4th corps and in May 
to the 6th corps. The regiment was first engaged at Lewinsville, 
Va., in Oct., 1861, after which it encamped near Lewinsville until 
March, 1862, when it was ordered to Alexandria and from there to 
the Peninsula. It performed trench duty at Yorktown; was in sup- 
port during the battles of Lee's mill and Williamsburg; participated 
in the Seven Days' battles, and went into camp at Harrison's land- 
ing until the middle of August, when it was withdrawn to Alexan- 
dria. In September the regiment joined the Army of the Potomac 
in Maryland; fought at Crampton's gap, Antietam, and Fredericks- 
burg; spent the winter near White Oak Church; took part in the 
Chancellorsville campaign in May, 1863, losing 35 members killed, 
wounded or missing, and left Virginia on June 13 for Gettysburg. 
The regiment was there in support of the artillery, and after the 
battle joined in the pursuit, reaching Warrenton, Va., late in the 
month of July. After a fortnight in camp there it proceeded to 
Culpeper, engaging the enemy at Rappahannock Station on the 
march. Winter quarters were established at Brandy Station in 
Dec, 1863, and during that month 175 members reenlisted, securing 
the continuance of the regiment in the field as a veteran organiza- 
tion. On May 4, 1864, it broke camp for the Wilderness campaign 
and during the next two days lost 89 in killed, wounded and miss- 
ing. At Spottsylvania the total loss was 121 members, and in these 
two battles 10 officers were killed, including Maj. Ellis, who fell at 
Spottsylvania. After the battle of Cold Harbor the regiment re- 
ported a loss of 61 killed, 155 wounded and 30 missing, out of 384 
who had left Brandy Station. It proceeded to Petersburg and par- 
ticipated in the first assault. In July, with the 6th corps, it was 
ordered to Washington and arrived in time to assist in the defense 
of Fort Stevens, where Lieut. -Col Johnson, the commander, was 
killed. Continuing its service in the Shenandoah valley the regi- 
ment was active at Charlestown, the Opequan, Fisher's hill, and 
Cedar creek, where Col. Bidwell was killed. The original members 
not reenlisted returned to New York in October and were there 
mustered out on the i8th. The veterans were consolidated into a 
battalion of five companies, which was ordered to Petersburg, 
where it participated in the siege operations until the fall of the city. 
In the final assault on April 2, 1865, Col. Holt was killed. The 
3d brigade, to which the 49th belonged, was remarkably unfortu- 
nate in the loss of "/i officers in the five regiments of which it was 
composed. The 49th was mustered out at Washington on June 27, 
1865, having lost 141 by death from wounds, and 180 by death from 
other causes, out of a total enrollment of 1,312. Col. Fox numbers 
it among the "three hundred fighting regiments." 

Fiftieth Infantry.— Cols., Charles B. Stuart, William. H. Pettes; 
Lieut. -Cols., William H. Pettes, Ira Spaulding; Majs., Frederick E. 
Embrick, Ira Spaulding, George W. Ford. Orrin E. Hine, Wesley 
Brainard. William W. Folwell, Edmund O. Beers, James H. Mc- 
Donald. The 50th, known as Stuart's regiment, and later as the 
Soth engineers, was organized at Elmira, of companies from the 
middle and western parts of the state, which were mustered into 
the U. S. service Sept. 18, 1861. for a three years' term. It left the 
state 850 strong, Sept. 21, for Washington; was ordered to Hall's 



New York Regiments 87 

hill, Va., and assigned to the 3d brigade of Gen. Porter's division. 
On Oct. 22, the regiment was converted by special orders from the 
war department into a regiment of engineers and ordered to Wash- 
ington, where instruction was received by the men in their new du- 
ties. In March, 1862, with the volunteer engineers' brigade, Army 
of the Potomac, the 50th moved to Yorktown and worked faithfully 
in digging trenches, constructing bridges and earthworks, etc., until 
the evacuation of that city. At White House the command was 
divided into several detachments, which were engaged in escort 
duty and bridge building until reunited at Dispatch Station on June 
I, when the regiment was employed in providing for the passage 
of the troops over the Chickahominy. It accompanied the army 
through the Seven Days' battles to Harrison's landing, where it 
was again separated, one detachment being sent to Hampton, Va. 
When the regimental headquarters was transferred to Hampton in 
August, a detachment was left behind at Harrison's landing, but on 
Sept. 3 the regiment was reunited at Washington. Four companies 
were detached on Sept 12 and ordered to Harper's Ferry, where they 
were engaged in constructing pontoons and later returned in charge 
of two of the pontoons to Washington, leaving a part of the detach- 
ment behind. Another detachment was sent to the vicinity of Fred- 
ericksburg with these boats, and the headquarters of the regiment 
were transferred to Acquia creek, leaving one company at Wash- 
ington. Great assistance was rendered bj^ the 50th in laying the 
bridges before the battle of Fredericksburg, when they were under 
continuous fire from the enemy's sharpshooters. Until July 17, 
1862, the 50th was enrolled on the state records as an infantry regi- 
ment, but an act of Congress of that date accepted it as a regiment 
of the volunteer engineer corps, of the same rank as the regular 
army engineer corps. After passing the winter in the neighbor- 
hood of Fredericksburg, the regiment joined in the Chancellorsville 
campaign, where it aided effectively in conveying the army across 
the river and was highly praised by Gen. Benham. At Deep run in 
June the soth suffered the loss of 11 in killed, wounded and missing, 
while engaged in laying a bridge. Cos. A, C, F, G, H and K re- 
mained in the field during the summer of 1863 and the others were 
stationed in Washington. In Dec, 1863, about three fourths of 
the regiment reenlisted and received their veteran furlough. At 
the opening of the Wilderness campaign in May, 1864. the 50th 
was again divided, one detachment assigned to the 2nd, one to the 
6th, and one to the 5th corps, one company remaining in Washing- 
ton. In the winter of 1863-64 two new companies were added to the 
regiment and the ranks filled with new recruits. During the opera- 
tions of the Army of the Potomac in May and June, 1864, the main 
work of the regiment was that of laying bridges at various points, 
notably one 2,010 feet long, across the James. At Petersburg the 
regiment was in demand at all points for work of construction and 
repair on the fortifications, and it also assisted in destroying rail- 
roads. During its long service the men became very proficient in 
engineering and through its steadiness under fire is said to have lost 
during the last year of its service no bridge material of any kind. 
The original members not reenlisted were mustered out at New 
York in Sept., 1864, and after participation in the grand review at 
Washington, the veteran organization was there mustered out on 
June 13-14, 1865. The loss of the regiment by death from wounds 
was 17 and by death from disease and other causes 214. 

Fifty-first Infantry. — Cols., Edward Ferrero, Robert B. Potter, 



88 The Union Army 

Charles W. LeGendre, Gilbert McKibben, John G. Wright; Lieut.- 
Cols., Robert B. Potter, Charles W. LeGendre, R. Charlton Mitchell, 
Samuel H. Benjamin, John G. Wright, Thomas B. Marsh; Majs., 
Robert B. Potter, Charles W. LeGendre, R. Charlton Mitchell, John 
G. Wright, Thomas B. Marsh, George W. Whitrnan. The 51st regi- 
ment contained six companies of the Shepard Rifles, two companies 
of the Scott Rifles and two companies of the Union Rifles and was 
organized in New York city, where it was mustered into the service 
of the United States July 27 to Oct. 23, 1861, for a three years' term. 
It left the state for Washington on Oct. 31, with 850 members, was 
assigned to the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, Gen. Burnside's North 
Carolina expedition, and embarked at Annapolis Jan. 6, 1862, for 
Roanoke island. The first active service of the regiment was at 
Roanoke island, where it fought with courage and steadiness. The 
battle of New Berne followed in March, in which the 51st suffered 
the most severely of any regiment engaged — 71 men being killed or 
wounded. Until July 6, 1862, the command was quartered at New 
Berne, when it was ordered to return to Virginia, and upon arriv- 
ing at Newport News was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 2nd divi- 
sion, 9th corps. It participated in Gen. Pope's campaign in August 
and September; was present at Kelly's ford; was closely engaged at 
Sulphur springs, the second Bull Run and Chantilly, with a loss in 
the campaign of 89 in killed, wounded and missing. The regiment 
was withdrawn to Washington, but soon took the field for the Mary- 
land campaign; was active at South mountain and Antietam, los- 
ing in the latter battle 87 killed or wounded in a most brilliant 
charge across the stone bridge, which alone would have made the 
fighting qualities of the regiment renowned. In November, the 
51st was engaged at Jefiferson, Va., and Warrenton springs and late 
in the month moved to Fredericksburg, where it took part in the 
battle in December with a loss of 73 members. After sharing the 
hardships of Burnside's "Mud March," the regiment established win- 
ter quarters near White Oak Church, but was soon transferred to 
the Department of the West and with the 9th corps arrived at 
Vicksburg in June. It participated in the siege operations and the 
pursuit to Jackson, Miss.; then proceeded to Tennessee, where it 
participated in the battle of Blue springs; was active at Campbell's 
station, and assisted in the defense of Knoxville during the siege. 
In Dec, 1863, a large proportion of the command reenlisted and 
received veteran furlough, rejoining the regiment with new re- 
cruits at Knoxville. In Feb., 1864. the 9th corps was ordered to 
join the Army of the Potomac at Brandy Station, where it arrived 
May I. In the Wilderness campaign the loss of the regiment was 
79 during the first two days, including Col. LeGendre, who was 
wounded in the eye. The command distinguished itself for heroism 
in the terrible month which followed; then proceeded to Peters- 
burg; was active at the mine explosion, the Weldon railroad. Poplar 
Spring Church, Hatcher's run, at Fort Stedman, and in the final 
assault on April 2, 1865. The original members not reenlisted were 
mustered out during the autumn of 1864 and the veterans at Alex- 
andria, July 25, 1865. The total enrollment of the regiment was 
3,050 and it received in June, 1865, the veterans and recruits of the 
109th N. Y. Its total loss in all its engagements was 925, while 
202 died from wounds and 385 from accident, disease or imprison- 
ment. At Peebles' farm, Va., the regiment was surrounded and 332 
members captured. Col. Fox in "Regimental Losses" says of the 
Sist, "Few regiments saw a more active service and none left a 
more honorable record." 



New York Regiments 89 

Fifty-second Infantry. — Cols., Paul Frank, Henry M. Karples; 
Lieut.-Cols., Philip J. Lichtenstein, Charles G. Fredenburg, George 
W. Von Schack, Henry M. Karples, James C. Bronson, Henry P. 
Ritzius; Majs., Charles G. Fredenburg, Edward Venuti, Henry M. 
Karples, Henry P. Ritzius, Charles Kronmeyer. The 52nd, known 
also as the Sigel Rifles, composed of six companies of the German 
Rangers and four companies of the Sigel Rifles, was recruited in 
New York city and there mustered into the U. S. service Nov. 5, 
1861, for a three years' term. It left the state for Washington on 
Nov. 12, with 950 men, went into camp at Bladensburg and was 
assigned to Sumner's division, in the brigade which later became 
the 3d brigade, ist division, 2nd corps. Army of the Potomac. Win- 
ter quarters were established at Camp California, Va., and there 
the regiment remained until March 10, 1862, when it moved to Man- 
assas, thence to Alexandria and on April 4 embarked for York- 
town. It participated in the siege of Yorktown, was closely en- 
gaged at Fair Oaks, with the loss of 122 in killed, wounded or miss- 
ing out of 320 engaged. It took part in the Seven Days' battles 
and when the army rested at Harrison's landing in July the regi- 
ment was able to present but 67 men for active duty, having suffered 
severely during the entire campaign both from wounds and sick- 
ness. In August the ranks were greatly strengthened, when the 
regiment, attached to the ist brigade, ist division, 2nd corps, moved 
to Alexandria and in September to Tennallytown, where it was 
transferred to the 3d brigade. It reached South mountain 
after the battle, was closely engaged at Antietam and then en- 
camped at Harper's Ferry until Oct. 29, when it moved to Snicker's 
gap and encountered the enemy. On Nov. 17, it arrived at Fal- 
mouth, participated in the battle of Fredericksburg, and then occu- 
pied winter quarters at Falmouth until April 28, 1863. The regi- 
ment was active in the Chancellorsville campaign, returned to camp 
at Falmouth until June 15, then moved to Gettysburg, where it ar- 
rived early in the morning of July 2 and was posted on Cemetery 
ridge, where it fought gallantly during the battle. Moving south- 
ward, the regiment was active in October at Bristoe Station, and 
Mitchell's ford; shared in the Mine run campaign in November 
and went into winter quarters at Stevensburg. On May 4, 1864, it 
broke camp for the Wilderness campaign and participated in the 
constant fighting of that month with heavy loss. At the Wilder- 
ness, Spottsylvania, the Po river, the North Anna river, Totopoto- 
moy and Cold Harbor it was prominent on the battle line, then 
moved to Petersburg, where it shared in the first assault and per- 
formed an active part in the arduous duties of the siege. It par- 
ticipated in engagements at the Weldon railroad. Deep Bottom, at 
Strawberry Plains, and at Hatcher's run. In July, 1864, the regi- 
ment was transferred to the consolidated brigade, ist division, 2nd 
corps and in November, to the 3d brigade, ist division, 2nd corps. 
In Sept. and Oct., 1864, the original members not reenlisted were 
mustered out at New York city. On March 29, 1865, the 52nd was 
engaged at White Oak ridge with heavy loss, and it was present at 
the final assault on Petersburg April 2. It was mustered out at 
Alexandria, July i, 1865. During the term of service the command 
lost 153 by death from wounds, 94 by death from accident or dis- 
ease, and 103 died in prison. In the battles in which the S2nd par- 
ticipated, it lost 752 members killed, wounded or missing. It is 
numbered among the "three hundred fighting regiments." 

Fifty-third Infantry. — Col., Lionel J. D'Epineuil; Lieut.-Cols., J. 



90 The Union Army 

A. Viginer de Manteil, George F. Chester. Maj., John Baptiste 
Cantel. The 53d, the "D'Epineuil Zouaves," was organized in New 
York city, but contained members, mainly of French origin, from 
all parts of the state and one company of Indians from the Tusca- 
rora reservation. It was mustered into the U. S. service at New 
York Aug. 2^ to Nov. 15, 1861, for three years and left for Wash- 
ington on the 18th. Stationed at Annapolis, the regiment was at- 
tached in Jan., 1862, to Burnside's expeditionary corps and a de- 
tachment of the command was active in the battle of Roanoke 
island. In March the regiment was discontinued, Co. A became Co. 
G of the 17th N. Y. infantry and the remainder of the regiment was 
mustered out at Washington, March 21, 1862. It lost during serv- 
ice 3 by death from wounds and 7 by death from other causes. Au- 
thority to organize another S3d regiment was issued and Maj. A. 
Buckingham was placed in command, but in Sept., 1862, the recruits 
enlisted for the regiment were transferred to the 132nd and 162nd 
N. Y. infantry. 

Fifty-fourth Infantry. — Col., Eugene A. Kozlay; Lieut.-Cols., 
Alexander Hock, William P. Wainwright, Stephen Kovacs, Charles 
Ashby, Bankson Taylor Morgan; Maj., Louis Von Litrow, Charles 
Ashby, Stephen Kovacs. The 54th, the "Barney Black Rifles," was 
composed of men of German origin, recruited in New York city 
and Brooklyn, and one company of the McClellan infantry. It was 
mustered into the U. S. service at Hudson City, N. J., Sept. 5 to 
Oct. 16, 1861, for a three years' term, and left for Washington Oct. 
29. It was assigned to the provisional brigade of Casey's division, 
with which it served until December, when it became a part of 
Steinwehr's brigade, Blenker's division. It served in the vicinity 
of Washington until April, 1862, when Blenker's division was or- 
dered to Virginia and assigned to Gen. Fremont's command. The 
54th belonged to the ist brigade and was employed in the region 
near Strasburg until June 8, when it took an active part in the bat- 
tle of Cross Keys. On June 26, 1862, the regiment became a part 
of the 2nd brigade, 3d division, ist corps. Army of Virginia, and 
on the 29th of the same month Gen. Sigel took command of the 
forces formerly commanded by Fremont. During Gen. Pope's cam- 
paign the regiment rendered effective service at Fox's ford. Sul- 
phur Springs, at Waterloo Bridge, Groveton and Manassas. The 
1st corps became the nth on Sept. 12, 1862, and the 54th was as- 
signed to the 1st brigade, ist division, with which it went into win- 
ter quarters at Stafford, Va. Camp was broken late in April, 1863, 
for the Chancellorsville campaign, in which the regiment lost 42 in 
killed, wounded and missing. After a short rest near Falmouth the 
march to Gettysburg was commenced. It was in action on July i, 
and on the 2nd was posted on Cemetery hill. The loss of the 54th 
was 102 killed, wounded or missing. Camp was occupied near Ha- 
gerstown, Md., until Aug. 7, when the division was ordered to 
Charleston harbor and there assigned to the loth corps, in which the 
54th served in the ist brigade of Gordon's division. It was stationed 
on Folly island; participated in the siege of Fort Wagner; the bom- 
bardment of Fort Sumter; and remained in that vicinity during the 
winter of 1863-64. At this time a sufficient number of the command 
reenlisted to secure its continuance in the field as a veteran organ- 
ization and in the summer of 1864 was posted on James island, 
where it was actively engaged in July with a loss of 20. In March, 
1865, it left this post to enter Charleston, where it received on 
June 22 the veterans and recruits of the 127th and 157th N. Y., and 



New York Regiments 91 

remained until April, 1866. It was mustered out at Charleston 
April 14, 1866, having served nearly five years and lost during this 
period 40 by death from wounds and 102 by death from accident, 
disease or imprisonment. 

Fifty-fifth Infantry. — Col., Baron Regis De Trobriand; Lieut. - 
Cols., Louis Thourot, William H. King; Maj., Francis Jehl. The 
55th, the "La Fayette Guard," composed mainly of members of 
French origin, was the outgrowth of the 5Sth militia, and was mus- 
tered into the U. S. service at New Dorp, Staten Island. Aug. 28, 
1861, for three years. It left for Washington on Aug. 31, was or- 
dered to Fort Gaines, Md., in September, and in October became a 
part of Peck's brigade, Buell's division. Army of the Potomac. In 
March, 1862, the regiment joined McClellan's army for the Penin- 
sular campaign; participated in the siege of Yorktown and the bat- 
tle of Williamsburg, serving with the ist brigade, ist division, 4th 
corps during the summer. In the battle of Fair Oaks, the loss of 
the regiment was 103 in killed and wounded, and during the Seven 
Days' battles it was employed in guarding trains. In the battle of 
Malvern hill the 5Sth was active and suffered considerable loss. In 
April, 1862, Co. B joined the regiment and in September, the regi- 
ment was consolidated into a battalion of four companies, which 
was assigned to the 3d brigade, ist division, 3d corps, and in No- 
vember, to the 2nd brigade of the same division. The command 
was actively engaged at Fredericksburg and on Dec. 21, 1862, was 
transferred to the 38th N. Y. infantry, with which the troops com- 
pleted their term. The regiment lost during its service, 36 by 
death from wounds and 29 from other causes. On June 3, 1863, the 
members of the 38th who had not completed their term of enlist- 
ment were transferred to the 40th N. Y. The members of the 55th 
who did not reenlist were mustered out at New York city at the 
end of their term. 

Fifty-sixth Infantry. — Cols., Charles H. Van Wyck, Rockwell 
Tyler; Lieut. -Cols., James Jordan, Frederic Decker, John J. Wheel- 
er, Rockwell Tyler, Eliphas Smith; Majs., Jacob Sharpe, John J. 
Wheeler, Rockwell Tyler, Eliphas Smith, James Dubois. The 56th 
regiment was organized at Newburgh and was composed of eleven 
companies, two light batteries and two cavalry troops. The bat- 
teries later became the 7th and 8th independent batteries and the 
cavalry part of the ist mounted rifles. Co. L was the 5th company 
of N. Y. sharpshooters. The men were mainly from Orange, Sul- 
livan and Ulster counties and were mustered into the U. S. service 
at Newburgh, Oct. 28, 1861, for three years. The regiment left for 
Washington on Nov. 7, 1861, was there assigned to the ist brigade, 
Casey's division, and served in the vicinity of Washington until 
March, 1862. In the opening of the spring campaign, the regiment, 
as part of the ist brigade, 2nd division, 4th corps, participated in 
the siege of Yorktown and was present without loss at Williams- 
"burg, Savage Station and Bottom's bridge. At Fair Oaks the loss 
of the command was heavy — 66 killed and wounded and 5 missing. 
In June the brigade, in Peck's division of the 4th corps, was present 
during the Seven Days' battles but not closely engaged, and after 
the battle of Malvern hill was withdrawn to Yorktown. In Decem- 
ber the brigade under Naglee was assigned to the i8th corps and 
reached South Carolina early in Jan., 1862. The regiment served 
about Charleston, was active in the siege of Fort Wagner in July, 
1863, and the subsequent operations in the vicinity. It was assigned 
to the ist brigade, 3d division, i8th corps, in March, 1863, and trans- 



92 The Union Army 

ferred to the loth corps in October. While with the i8th corps it 
was stationed on Folly island and at Beaufort. In the summer of 
1864, the regiment was stationed at James island; lost 50 men in an 
engagement at Honeyhill; was active at Coosawhatchie and Boyd's 
point in December, and shared in the operations at Deveaux neck, 
S. C, during the same month with considerable loss. The original 
members not reenlisted were mustered out at the expiration of the 
term of enlistment and the regiment remained in the Department 
of the South, serving in the coast division during the winter of 
1864-65 and at Charleston from March, 1865 to Oct. 17, 1865, when 
it was mustered out. The regiment lost during its term of service 
64 by death from wounds and 216 from other causes. 

Fifty-seventh Infantry. — Cols., Samuel K. Zook, Alford B. Chap- 
man, James W. Britt; Lieut. -Cols., John A. Page, Philip J. Parisen, 
Alford B. Chapman, James W. Britt, Augustus AI. Wright, George 
W. Jones, James C. Brcnson; Majs., Philip J. Parisen, Alford B. 
Chapman, N. Garrow Throop, John H. Bell, William A. Kirk, 
George W. Jones, James C. Bronson, George Mitchell. The 57th, 
the "National Guard Rifles," contained companies from the Na- 
tional guard Rifles, the Clinton Rifles, the United States Voltigeurs, 
the Washington Zouaves and the Manhattan Rifles, and was mustered 
into the U. S. service at New York city, Aug. 12 to Nov, 19, 1861, 
for three years. It left for Washington on Nov. 19, was assigned to 
French's brigade, Sumner's division. Army of the Potomac, and 
passed the winter in the vicinity of Washington. In March, 1862, 
it was attached to the 3d brigade, ist division, 2nd corps, and joined 
in the general advance to Manassas Junction. It then moved to the 
Peninsula, participated in the siege of Yorktown; was present at the 
battle of Fair Oaks; active in the Seven Days' battles, after which 
it proceeded to Harrison's landing. It went to the support of Gen. 
Pope at Bull Run and arrived just before the battle of Chantilly, but 
was not actively engaged. At Antietam the regiment lost 98 in killed 
and wounded and 3 missing. After the battle it moved to Halltown, 
Snicker's gap and Falmouth and suffered severely at Fredericksburg, 
where the division, under Gen. Hancock made a gallant but unsuccess- 
ful assault on Marye's heights. The regiment here lost 87 out of 192 
engaged. The winter was passed near Falmouth and in the Chancel- 
lorsville campaign in the spring of 1863 the regiment was active. At 
Gettysburg the loss of the depleted command was 34 and then moving 
southward with the army, the 57th was active at Auburn, Bristoe 
Station and in the Mine Run campaign. Winter quarters were estab- 
lished near Brandy Station and occupied until the opening of the 
Wilderness campaign, during which the regiment was repeatedly in 
action. In the battle at the Wilderness the loss was 58, and in the 
assault on Petersburg, June 15. the action at the Weldon railroad, 
and at Reams' station the loss was 63. Co. C was mustered out on 
July 14, 1864; Cos. F, D and I in August; Cos. K, A and B in Sep- 
tember; Co. H on Oct. 15; and the reenlisted men and recruits were 
transferred to the 6ist N. Y. infantry on Dec. 6. The regiment dur- 
ing its term of service lost 103 by death from wounds and 91 from 
other causes. 

Fifty-Eighth Infantry. — Col., Wladimir Kryzanowski; Lieut.-Cols., 
Frederick Gellman, August Otto, Adolphus Dobke; Majs., Theodore 
Lichtenstein, William Henkel, George N. Harvey, Adolph C. Warberg, 
Michael Esenbean. This regiment, known as the Morgan Rifles, 
was composed of the United States Rifles, Polish Legion, Gallatin 
Rifles, Morgan Rifles and Humboldt Yeagers, and was mustered 



New York Regiments 93 

into the U. S. service at New York city in Nov., 1861, for three 
years. It left the state for Washington, Nov. 7, 1861; was assigned 
to the 3d brigade, Blenker's division, Army of the Potomac, sta- 
tioned near Washington until April, 1862, when it was ordered to 
join the Mountain Department and reached Gen. Fremont in time 
to participate in the battle of Cross Keys. On June 26, 1862, the 
regiment was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 3d division, ist corps. 
Army of Virginia, which subsequently became the nth corps, and 
with it served through Gen. Pope's campaign, being present at 
Fox's ford. Sulphur springs, Waterloo bridge, Groveton and the 
second Bull Run, losing in the campaign 57 in killed, wounded and 
missing. The regiment was not engaged at Fredericksburg, al- 
though stationed in the vicinity. Winter quarters were established 
at Stafford and the regiment was active in the Chancellorsville 
movement in May, 1863. From there it moved to Gettysburg, was 
active in the battle, then southward through Boonsboro and Funks- 
town, and was ordered west on Sept. 24. It arrived at Bridgeport, 
Ala., early in October, was present at Wauhatchie and in the Chat- 
tanooga and Rossville campaigns and in March. 1864, was attached 
to the 4th division, 20th corps. A large number of the regiment 
reenlisted in Dec, 1863, received veteran furlough and rejoined the 
regiment in Tennessee. The veteran regiment completed its serv- 
ice in the Department of the Cumberland, being stationed from 
June, 1864, to September, 1865, at Nashville, where it was mustered 
out on Oct. I, 1865. During its term of service it lost 32 by death 
from wounds and 95 from other causes. 

Fifty-ninth Infantry.— Cols., William Linn Tidball, William 
Northedge, William Linn Tidball, Henry W. Hudson, William A. 
Olmstead; Lieut. -Cols., Philip I. Joachimsen, John L. Stetson, Will- 
iam Northedge, Max A. Thomain, William Linn Tidball, Horace 
P. Rugg, James A. Jewell, Thomas Huggins, James A. Jewell; 
Majs., William Northedge, Max A. Thomain, James H. Purdy, 
William McFadden, Michael H. Donovan, William T. Simms. The 
59th, the "Union Guards," was organized in New York city from 
the U. S. Vanguard, President's Life Guard, U. S. Volunteers, Union 
Guard, Cameron Highlanders, Kossuth Guards and Cameron Le- 
gion, and was mustered into the U. S. service from Aug. 2 to Oct. 
30, 1861, for a three years' term. The regiment left for Washing- 
ton on Nov. 19, was attached to Gen. Wadsworth's division and 
served in the vicinity of Washington until Aug. 1862. It was then 
successively attached to the 2nd brigade, Casey's division, 4th corps; 
Sturgis' brigade and the 4th brigade, Sigel's division, Department 
of the Shenandoah. In July, 1862, the regiment was assigned to 
the 3d brigade, 2nd division, 2nd corps. Army of the Potomac and 
was first sent to the front at Malvern hill. The troops showed 
their mettle at Antietam, where thev bravely stood their ground 
under a fire which reduced their ranks from 321 officers and men 
to 76. In the disaster of Sedgwick's division at the Dunker Church 
Lieut. -Col. Stetson and 8 other officers were wounded, an almost 
unprecedented loss among the army organizations. Proceeding 
next to Fredericksburg, the regiment arrived in time to play its 
part in the battle, in which its loss was 44 in killed, wounded and 
missing. The winter was spent in the vicinity of Falmouth, and in 
May, 1863, the command was active in the Chancellorsville cam- 
paign, returning to its old camp for a short time before the Gettys- 
burg movement began. On June 25, the 59th was consolidated into 
four companies, owing to the reduction in its numbers and on July 



94 The Union Army 

4 the veterans and recruits of the 82nd N. Y. infantry, forming five 
companies, were received, and also one company of new recruits. 
The regiment fought bravely at Gettysburg, Auburn, Bristoe Sta- 
tion and Blackburn's ford and shared in the Mine Run fiasco. A 
large number of its members reenlisted in the winter of 1863-64 
and as a veteran organization the regiment fought through the 
Wilderness campaign, attached to the ist brigade, 2nd division, 2nd 
corps. At the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, the North Anna, Toto- 
potomy, Cold Harbor and Petersburg, the reputation of the com- 
mand as a crack fighting regiment was nobly sustained. In actions 
before Petersburg, at the Weldon railroad, Deep Bottom, Straw- 
berry Plains, Reams' station, the Boydton road, and Hatcher's 
run, over 200 of the regiment were killed, wounded or reported 
missing. It was present at the final assault on the Petersburg for- 
tifications and was then stationed at Munson's hill, Va., where it 
was mustered out on June 30, 1865, having rendered such effective 
service to the Union cause as entitled it to rank among the "three 
hundred fighting regiments of the war." The regiment lost 141 by 
death from wounds and 130 from accident, imprisonment or disease, 
of whom 64 died in Confederate prisons. 

Sixtieth Infantry. — Cols., William B. Hayward, George S. Greene, 
William B. Goodrich, Abel Godard, Winslow M. Thomas, Lester 
S. Wilson; Lieut. -Cols., William B. Goodrich, Charles R. Brundage, 
John C. O. Reddington, Wins'low M. Thomas, Lester S. Wilson, 
Abner B. Shipman, Michael Nolan; Majs., Charles R. Brundage, 
Edward C. James, Abel Godard, Winslow M. Thomas, Thomas 
Elliott, Abner B. Shipman, Michael Nolan. This regiment, the ist 
St. Lawrence regiment, was organized at Ogdensburg and there 
mustered into the U. S. service for three years, on Oct. 30, 1861. 
It left for Washington on Nov. 4, was stationed in that vicinity 
during the winter and was in Gen. Dix's railroad brigade in the 
spring of 1862. In June, 1862, the regiment was attached to the 2nd 
brigade, of Sigel's division, Department of the Shenandoah and 
later to the 3d brigade, 2nd division, 2nd corps. Army of Virginia. 
It participated in Gen. Pope's Virginia campaign and on Sept. 12, 
was attached, with its brigade and division, to the 12th corps. At 
Antietam, Col. Goodrich, commanding the brigade, was killed and 
the regiment lost 22 in killed, wounded and missing. In October 
it was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 2nd division of the 12th corps, 
posted at Harper's Ferry until December, and then went into win- 
ter quarters at Stafiford Court House, Va. In the Chancellorsville 
movement the 12th corps led the advance and the loss of the 60th 
regiment was 66. At Gettysburg the loss was again heavy in the 
defense of Gulp's hill. Moving southward with the army as far as 
the Rappahannock, the regiment received orders to join the forces 
in the West and arrived at Bridgeport, Ala., the first week in Octo- 
ber. The 6oth was present at the battle of Wauhatchie, Tenn., and 
in the Chattanooga campaign. In Dec, 1863, a sufficiently large pro- 
portion of the regiment reenlisted to secure its continuance in the 
field as a veteran organization and became a part of the 3d brigade, 
2nd division, 20th corps, with which it shared in the Atlanta cam- 
paign, the march to the sea, and through the Carolinas. In June, 
1865, the regiment received by transfer the veterans and recruits 
of the 107th, 136th and 150th N. Y. infantry and was assigned to 
the 3d brigade, Bartlett's division, 22nd corps, with which it served 
until mustered out of the service at Alexandria, Va., July 17, 1865. 
The loss of the command during the service was 67 by death from 
wounds and loi from other causes. 



New York Regiments 95 

Sixty-first Infantry. — Cols., Spencer W. Cone, Francis C. Bar- 
low, Nelson A. Miles, K. Oscar Broady, George W. Scott; Lieut. - 
Cols., Francis C. Barlow, William C. Massett, Nelson A. Miles, K. 
Oscar Broady, George W. Scott, Richard A. Brown; Majs., William 
C. Massett, Arthur L. Brooks, Edward Z. Lawrence, William H. 
Spencer, George W. Scott, Henry B. Todd, Willard Keech, Richard 
A. Brown, George W. Schaflfer. This regiment, known as the Clin- 
ton Guards, contained one company from Madison university, Ham- 
ilton, one company from the vicinity of Albany, and the remainder 
from New York city. It was mustered into the U. S. service at 
New York city during Sept., Oct. and Nov., 1861, for three years, 
and left for Washington on Nov. 9. It was stationed for a short 
time at Washington, but moved on Nov. 28, with Howard's bri- 
gade, Sumner's division, to Manassas and with the same brigade 
became a part of the ist division, 2nd corps. Army of the Potomac, 
in March, 1862. It moved to the Peninsula early in the spring, took 
part in the operations of the siege of Yorktown and was first close- 
ly engaged in the battle of Fair Oaks, in which 106 were killed or 
wounded and 4 reported missing, out of 432 who went into action. 
There Lieut.-Col. Massett and many other gallant men lost their 
lives. The loss in the Seven Days' battles was still greater, and 
the ranks that gathered at Harrison's landing after the battle of 
Malvern hill were sadly depleted. In July, the regiment was assigned 
to the 3d brigade of its old division, in September to the ist bri- 
gade of the same division, in October to the 2nd brigade, and in 
November again to the ist brigade. In Sept., 1862, Co. I from 
Albany joined the regiment and took the place of a company con- 
solidated with the others. At Antietam the regiment was in the 
thick of the fight, and at Fredericksburg it served in Han- 
cock's division in the charge on Marye's heights and lost 36 in 
killed, wounded and missing. At Chancellorsville in May, 1863,. 
the troops under Col. Miles made a gallant defense which won them 
high praise, and at Gettysburg the loss was once more severe. 
There was little rest for the worn regiment during the autumn. 
At Auburn, Bristoe Station, Rappahannock Station and in the 
Mine Run campaign, it was active, and it was mid-winter when it 
finally established permanent quarters near Brandy Station. In 
December and January a large number of men reenlisted and re- 
ceived veteran furlough. The regiment was reunited in the spring 
of 1864 and served with honor through the severe fighting which 
led up to Cold Harbor and Petersburg, suffering most severely in 
the bloody angle at Spottsylvania. It joined in the first assault on 
Petersburg, June 15; was engaged at Deep Bottom, Strawberry 
Plains, Reams' station and Hatcher's run, and on Dec. 20, received 
the veterans and recruits of the 57th N. Y. infantry. It was pres- 
ent at the fall of Petersburg, joined in the pursuit to Appomattox, 
and was engaged at Sailor's creek and Farmville. On July 14, 1865,. 
the 6ist was mustered out at Alexandria, having lost 193 by death 
from wounds and 123 from other causes, of whom 46 died in pris- 
on. The total enrollment of the command was 1,526 members. 
Its record is a long and glorious one and it bravely earned its right 
to rank among the most gallant organizations of the Union army. 

Sixty-second Infantry. — Cols., J. Lafayette Ryker, David J. Nevin, 
Theodore B. Hamilton; Lieut.-Cols., David J. Nevin, Oscar V. 
Dayton, Theodore B. Hamilton. William H. Baker; Majs., Oscar 
V. Dayton, Wilson Hubbell, William H. Baker. The 62nd, "Ander- 
son's Zouaves," composed mainly of members from New York city^ 



96 The Union Army 

Brooklyn, Albany, Troy and Saltersville, N. J., was organized at 
Saltersville and there mustered into the U. S. service June 30 and 
July I, 1861, for three years. It left for Washington on Aug. 21, 
1861, and in October was assigned to Peck's brigade, Buell's divi- 
sion, Army of the Potomac, which in March, 1862, became the ist bri- 
gade, 1st division, 4th corps. Army of the Potomac, and reached the 
Peninsula in time to share in the operations before Yorktown, the bat- 
tle of Williamsburg and the battle of Fair Oaks. In the Seven Days' 
battles the 62nd was closely engaged and suffered heavy loss. It arrived 
with the corps at Falmouth in time to participate in the battle of Fred- 
ericksburg, after which winter quarters were established across the 
river. In the Chancellorsville campaign the regiment met with its 
greatest losses, having been transferred in the preceding October 
to the 6th corps, and the 2nd and 3d divisions of which carried 
Marye's heights in a brilliant assault. The regiment was at this 
time attached to the 3d brigade, 3d division, with which it served 
until the reorganization of the Army of the Potomac just preceding 
the Wilderness campaign. It fought at Gettysburg; moved with 
the 6th corps through Boonsboro, Funkstown and Rappahannock 
Station; engaged in the Mine Run campaign, and went into win- 
ter quarters near Brandy Station. The original members of the 
regiment not reenlisted were mustered out at the expiration of their 
term of service but nine companies of the regiment remained in the 
service and in March, 1864, were assigned to the ist brigade, 2nd 
division, 6th corps, where they served through the Wilderness cam- 
paign and the siege of Petersburg. In the opening of the fight in 
the Wilderness, the regiment lost 72 killed, wounded and missing. 
It also suflFered severely in the first assault on Petersburg and at 
the Weldon railroad in June, 1864. At the time of Early's raid in 
July, the 6th corps was ordered to Washington and left its position 
before Petersburg on July 10. It joined in the pursuit of Early in 
the Shenandoah valley and was active at Charlestown, the Ope- 
quan, at Fisher's hill, and Cedar creek, in all of which the 62nd 
bore an honorable part. Returning to Petersburg in December, 
the troops established camp near the Weldon railroad and partici- 
pated in the final assault on the fortifications and the pursuit of 
Lee's Army after the fall of the city, fighting their last battle at 
Sailor's creek, April 6, 1865. For a month the regiment was sta- 
tioned at Fort Schuyler, N. Y. harbor, where it was mustered out 
on Aug. 30, 1865, having lost during its term of service 98 by death 
from wounds and 84 from other causes. 

Sixty-third Infantry. — Cols., Richard C. Enright. John Burke, 
Henry Fowler, Richard C. Bentley, John H. Gleason, James D. 
Brady; Lieut. -Cols., Henry Fowler, Richard C. Bentley, John Stew- 
art, John H. Gleason, James D. Brady, William H. Terwilliger; 
Majs., Thomas F. Lynch, Richard C. Bentley, Joseph O'Neil, Thomas 
Touhey, Miles McDonald, John H. Gleason, James D. Brady, Will- 
iam H. Terwilliger. James McQuade. The 63d, the 3d Irish regi- 
ment, composed mainly of recruits from New York city, but con- 
taining a number from Boston and some from Albany, was mus- 
tered into the service of the United States at New York city from 
Sept. to Dec, 1861, for three years. It left New York Nov. 28, 
1861, for Washington and was assigned to the Irish brigade in 
Sumner's division, which became the 2nd brigade, ist division, 2nd 
corps, Army of the Potomac. The regiment remained in the vi- 
cinity of Washington during the winter but was early in motion 
in the general advance to the Peninsula. Trench duty and picket 



New York Regiments 97 

duty occupied the troops during the siege of Yorktown but the 
regiment was in action at Williamsburg, Fair Oaks and during the 
Seven Days' battles. At Antietam the Irish brigade showed its 
mettle, the 63d losing 6 officers mortally wounded and 202 killed 
or wounded out of 341 engaged. The regiment then moved into 
Virginia and arrived at Falmouth in November. It went into the 
battle at Fredericksburg with 162 men, of whom 44 were reported 
killed, wounded or missing. After spending the winter in camp 
near Falmouth the 63d participated in the Chancellorsville cam- 
paign, and in June, 1863, was consolidated into two companies. This 
little force lost 23 at Gettysburg, fought at Auburn and Bristoe 
Station, shared in the Mine Run campaign, and established winter 
quarters near Brandy Station. In Oct., 1863, a company of new 
recruits was added to the regiment, two more companies in April, 
1864, and in June, 1864, one company, which with the reenlisted 
men continued it in service as a veteran organization. At the Wil- 
derness 99 of the regiment fell, and 31 in the week following, 
among them Maj. Touhey. At Cold Harbor and in the first en- 
gagements before Petersburg the loss was severe. The regiment 
was active at Deep Bottom, Strawberry Plains, Reams' station, 
Hatcher's run. Fort Stedman, the final assault on April 2, 1865, and 
joined in the pursuit to Appomattox. It was mustered out at Al- 
exandria on June 30, 1865, having lost 157 by death from wounds 
and 95 from other causes, out of a total enrollment of 1,411. The 
Irish brigade, as well as the individual regiments composing it, 
became noted for bravery on many a hard-fought field, and the 
63d, which was one of the original regiments of the brigade, was 
one of New York's most gallant organizations. 

Sixty-fourth Infantry. — Cols., Thomas J. Parker, Daniel C. Bing- 
ham, Leman W. Bradley, William Glenny; Lieut. -Cols., Daniel G. Bing- 
ham, Enos C. Brooks, Leman W. Bradley, William Glenny. Theo- 
dore Tyrer; Majs., Enos C. Brooks, Leman W. Bradley, William 
Glenny, Lewis H. Fassett, Horatio N. Hunt, Theodore Tyrer, Al- 
bert F. Peterson. The 64th, the Cattaraugus regiment, was the out- 
growth of the 64th militia and was recruited at Gowanda, 
Randolph, Otto, Rushford, Ithaca, Little Valley, Wellsville, Owego, 
Olean and Leon. It was mustered into the U. S. service at Elmira, 
in Dec, 1861, for three years; left the state for Washington on 
Dec. 10; was quartered near the capitol; in Jan., 1862, was assigned 
to the provisional brigade of Casey's division; on March 13, it be- 
came a part of the ist brigade, ist division, 2nd corps, Army of the 
Potomac, and proceeded to the Peninsula with the general advance 
under McClellan. The regiment was present during the siege of 
Yorktown, but received its first real test at Fair Oaks, where it 
behaved with great steadiness under a fire which killed or wounded 
173 of its members. It was active in the Seven Days' battles; then 
went into camp at Harrison's landing; arrived at Manassas too late 
to participate in that battle; took a prominent part in the battle of 
Antietam, where Gen. Richardson was killed and Gen. Hancock 
succeeded to the command of the division. At Fredericksburg, in 
the famous assault of Hancock's division on Marye's heights, the 
loss of the regiment was 72 in killed and wounded and immediately 
afterward it went into camp near Falmouth. At Chancellorsville 
in May, 1863, the 64th was placed on the skirmish line under Col. 
Nelson A. Miles and shared in the stubborn defense made by the 
regiments under his command, for which they won the highest 
commendation. The regiment moved in June to Gettysburg, where 

Vol. II— 7 



98 The Union Army 

the division, under Caldwell, fought brilliantly on July 2 in the 
celebrated wheat-field and on the 3d defended its position stubborn- 
ly against Pickett's assault. It lost at Gettysburg 98 killed, wound- 
ed or missing out of 205 engaged. The 2nd corps fought in Octo- 
ber at Auburn and Bristoe Station, where the 64th suffered severe 
loss. It participated in the Mine Run movement and established 
winter quarters near Brandy Station. During the winter of 1863-64 
a sufficient number of the regiment reenlisted to secure its contin- 
uance in the field as a veteran organization, but after the original 
members not reenlisted were mustered out in the autumn of 1864 
it was necessary to consolidate it into a battalion of six companies. 
It served through the Wilderness campaign, throughout the siege 
of Petersburg and in the pursuit of Lee's Army to Appomattox, 
losing 16 in killed and wounded at Farmville. Out of a total en- 
rollment of 1,313, the regiment lost during service 182 by death 
from wounds and 129 from other causes. The division in which it 
served saw the hardest service and suffered the most heavy losses 
of any in the army and the 64th was one of the finest fighting regi- 
ments in the war. It bore without flinching the severest trials and 
won fame and glory for itself and the state. It was mustered out 
at Washington, July 14, 1865. 

Sixty-fifth Infantry. — Cols., John Cochrane, Alexander Shaler, 
Joseph E. Hamblin, Henry C. Fiske; Lieut.-Cols., Alexander Sha- 
ler, Joseph E. Hamblin, Henry J. Healy, Thomas H. Higginboth- 
am, Henry C. Fiske, David I. Miln; Majs., Henry J. Healey, Thomas 
H. Higginbotham, David I. Miln, Edmund K. Russell. The 65th, 
known as the U. S. Chausseurs, composed of members from East- 
ern New York and a number from Connecticut, Rhode Island and 
Maine, was mustered into the U. S. service at Willett's Point, L. I., 
in July and Aug., 1861, for three years. It left the state for Wash- 
ington on Aug. 27, was assigned to the 3d provisional brigade until 
Sept. 19, when it became a part of Graham's brigade, Buell's divi- 
sion, and in March, 1862, joined the advance to the Peninsula as 
a part of the 2nd brigade, ist division, 4th corps. It was present 
at the siege of Yorktown and active during the Seven Days' bat- 
tles, with a loss of 68 in killed, wounded and missing. At Antietam 
it was again engaged, but did not occupy an exposed position, and 
during the month of Sept., 1862, the division was transferred to the 
6th corps, in which it became the 3d division. The 65th served in 
the 3d brigade until December and was then assigned to the ist 
brigade. At Fredericksburg the regiment was present, but not 
closely engaged, and the winter was passed in that vicinity. In 
the Chancellorsville campaign the 6sth shared in the charge which 
captured Marye's heights. After returning for a brief period to its 
old camp it proceeded to Gettysburg, where it was held in support, 
then moved southward with the army, shared in the Mine Run 
campaign and went into winter quarters with the 6th corps. In 
Jan., 1864, the regiment was sent to Johnson's island in charge of 
prisoners, and upon its return to the Army of the Potomac was 
attached to the 4th brigade of its old division. A sufficiently large 
number of the men reenlisted to secure the continuance in the field 
of the 65th as a veteran organization and it fought through the 
Wilderness campaign with brilliancy, losing during the first week 
154 members killed, wounded or missing, many of whom fell in 
the assault on the angle at Spottsylvania. At Cold Harbor and 
Petersburg the regiment was active and when the 6th corps was 
sent to Washington to repel Gen. Early, the 6sth was assigned to 



New York Regiments 99 

the 2nd brigade of the same division with which it had previously 
served. It embarked for Washington July lo, 1864, encountered 
Early at Fort Stevens and pursued him through the Shenandoah 
Valley, fighting at Charlestown, the Opequan, Fisher's hill, and 
Cedar creek. In the last named action the regiment took a promi- 
nent part and suffered the loss of 90 in killed, wounded and missing. 
It returned to Petersburg in December; was engaged at Hatcher's 
run in Feb., 1865, at Fort Stedman, and the final assault on April 
2. In Sept., 1864, the original members not reenlisted were mus- 
tered out and the veterans and recruits consolidated into a battal- 
ion of four companies, which received the addition of four compa- 
nies of the 67th N. Y., and in March, 1865, two companies of new 
recruits. The regiment was mustered out at Washington, July 17, 
1865. having lost during its term of service 121 by death from 
wounds and 90 from other causes. 

Sixty-sixth Infantry. — Cols., Joseph C. Pinckney, Orlando H. 
Morris, John S. Hammell; Lieut.-Cols., James H. Bull, John S. 
Hammell; Majs., Orlando H. Morris, Peter Nelson. The 66th, the 
"Governor's Guard," was the outgrowth of the 6th militia, recruit- 
ed mainly in New York city, and was mustered into the U. S. 
service at New York, Nov. 4, 1861, for a three years' term. It 
left New York for Washington, Nov. 16, 1861, was assigned to Gra- 
ham's brigade, Buell's division, until Jan., 1862, when it became a 
part of French's brigade, Sumner's division, which became in March, 
the 3d brigade, ist division, 2nd corps. Army of the Potomac. It 
reached the Peninsula in time to be present during the latter part 
of the siege of Yorktown; was active at Fair Oaks and during the 
Seven Days' battles, but suffered its most severe loss at Antietam, 
where 103 were killed, wounded or captured, among them Chap- 
lain Dwight, who was in the midst of the fight. The 66th proceeded 
through Charlestown, W. Va., and Snicker's gap, to Fredericks- 
burg, where it lost 75 in killed, wounded and missing out of 238 
engaged. It was then in the 3d (Zook's) brigade of Hancock's di- 
vision, which also suffered severely at Chancellorsville, the loss of 
the 66th being 70 men. The 2nd corps continued to see arduous 
service through the hard fought field of Gettysburg and the actions 
at Auburn and Bristoe Station, the last being a 2nd corps engage- 
ment. After the Mine Run movement the regiment went into win- 
ter quarters with the Army of the Potomac and when the spring 
campaign opened, was assigned to the 4th brigade of its old divi- 
sion. In Grant's campaign in the Wilderness the heaviest losses 
of the 66th were suffered during the first week, but it continued 
in active service through Cold Harbor, where Col. Morris, com- 
manding the brigade was killed, and the siege of Petersburg, los- 
ing heavily in the first assault on the fortifications. In the autumn 
of 1864 the original members not reenlisted were mustered out and 
the reenlisted men and recruits remained at the front as a veteran 
organization. After the fall of Petersburg the regiment was or- 
dered to Fort Richmond, New York harbor, and there remained 
until Aug. 30, when it was mustered out, having lost 107 from 
wounds during the term of service and 124 from other causes. 

Sixty-seventh Infantry. — Cols., Julius W. Adams, Nelson Cross; 
Lieut.-Cols., Nelson Cross, George Foster, Henry L. Van Ness; 
Majs., P. Mark De Zeng, George Foster, Henry L. Van Ness, Charles 
O. Belden. The 67th, the ist Long Island regiment, from Brook- 
lyn, Allegany and Wayne counties and Rochester, was mustered 
into the U. S. service at Brooklyn, June 20 and 24, 1861, for three 



100 The Union Army 

years, and left Brooklyn Aug. 21, 1861, for Washington. It was 
assigned to Graham's brigade. Buell's division, which became in 
March, 1862, the 2nd brigade, ist division, 4th corps. The regiment 
was posted near Washington during the winter of 1861-62 and 
joined the general advance under McClellan to the Peninsula in 
March. It took part in the siege of Yorktown; was present at 
Williamsburg and at Fair Oaks, where 164 were killed or wounded 
and 6 reported missing. During the Seven Days' battles the divi- 
sion was employed in guarding trains until the battle of Malvern 
hill, when it was in the thick of the fight. In the battle of Antietam 
the regiment was not in an exposed position and in the reorganiza- 
tion in Sept., 1862, Couch's division became the 3d division, 6th 
corps, the regiment being assigned to the 3d brigade, with which 
it served until December, when it became a part of the ist brigade. 
It was active at Fredericksburg, with slight loss, went into winter 
quarters near Falmouth, was engaged at Chancellorsville and Get- 
tysburg, and continued south with the Army of the Potomac to 
Brandy Station. In Jan., 1864, the 67th was detached and sent to 
Johnson's island in charge of prisoners, but returned to the army 
in April, from which time it served in the 4th brigade of its old 
division, through Grant's spring campaign. At the Wilderness the 
loss of the command was 93 in killed, wounded and missing out of 
270 engaged, and the remnant participated in the constant fighting 
which led up to Petersburg. On June 20, the original members not 
reenlisted left for Brooklyn, where they were mustered out and 
the veterans and recruit- \.-ere consolidated into a battalion of five 
companies, which remained at the front bearing the regimental 
designation until Sept. i, when they were consolidated with the 
65th N. Y. With the 6th corps the battalion moved to Washington 
at the time of Early's raid; joined in the pursuit through the Shen- 
andoah Valley, returning to Petersburg for the last part of the 
siege. During its term of service the regiment lost 112 by death 
from wounds and "]"] from other causes. 

Sixty-eighth Infantry.— Cols., Robert J. Betge, Gotthils De B. D. 
Inemais, Felix Prince Salm; Lieut. -Cols., John H. Kleesisch, Carl 
Vogel, Albert Von Steinhausen; Majs.. Albert Von Steinhausen, 
Carl Von Vedell, Robert Rother, Adolph Haack, Arnold Kummer. 
The 68th, the 2nd German Rifles, was composed of members from 
New York city, New Jersey, Maryland and Pennsylvania, and was 
mustered into the U. S. service at New York Aug. i and 20, 1861, 
for a three years' term. It left for Washington on Aug. 24, was 
first attached to Blenker's brigade, but in October formed a part 
of Steinwehr's brigade. Blenker's division, and served in the vicin- 
ity of Washington until the spring of 1862, when it was ordered to 
the Mountain Department and became a part of Fremont's forces. 
At Warrenton Junction the regiment lost 2 missing, its first loss, 
and it was active at Cross Keys. On June 26, 1862, it was assigned 
to the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, ist corps, and served in the Vir- 
ginia campaign under Gen. Pope with a total loss of 92. On Sept. 
12 it was attached to the ist brigade 3d division, nth corps, which 
was posted near Centerville during the Maryland campaign, and 
there remained until December, when it was ordered to Fredericks- 
burg, but did not participate in the battle. Winter quarters were 
established near StaflFord, Va., and in April, 1863, the regiment was 
transferred to the ist brigade, ist division, with which it fought 
at Chancellorsville, losing 54 in killed, wounded and missing. At 
Gettysburg the total loss was 138 and the regiment won high 



New York Regiments lOl 

praise for its gallant work in the defense of Cemetery hill. In 
July the 68th was assigned to the 3d brigade, 3d division, with 
which it was ordered west. It was present at the battle of Wau- 
hatchie, Tenn., and in the Chattanooga campaign. During the 
winter of 1863-64 a large number of the men reenlisted and in 
April, the three years' men of the 8th and 29th N. Y. infantry were 
added to the ranks, the command remaining in service as a veteran 
regiment. During the summer of 1864 it served in the Districts 
of Nashville, Tenn., and Allatoona, Ga., and in November, was 
ordered to Savannah, Ga. The original members not reenlisted 
were mustered out at the expiration of their term of service and 
the remainder of the regiment at Fort Pulaski, Ga., Nov. 30, 1865. 
The 68th lost during service 46 by death from wounds and 75 from 
other causes. 

Sixty -ninth Infantry. — Cols., Robert Nugent, William Wilson; 
Lieut.-Cols., James Kelly, James E. McGee, John Garrett, James 
J. Smith; Majs., James Cavanagh, John Garrett, Richard Moro- 
ney. The 69th, the ist regiment of the Irish brigade, was the out- 
growth of the 69th militia (q. v.) and contained members from 
New York city, Chicago, 111., Brooklyn and Buffalo. It was mus- 
tered into the U. S. service at New York city Sept. 7 to Nov. 17, 
1861, for three years, and left for Washington on Nov. 18. It was 
stationed at Fort Corcoran near Washington and became a part 
of the Irish brigade under Gen. Meagher in December. At the 
time of the general advance under Gen. McClellan in March, 1862, 
the Irish brigade became the 2nd brigade, ist division, 2nd corps, 
and moved to the Peninsula in April after having its first encoun- 
ter with the enemy at Rappahannock Station, Va. The part taken 
by the brigade in the siege of Yorktown was not especially prom- 
inent, but its prompt action at Fair Oaks helped to save the day, 
and during the Seven Days' battles it was constantly in action, 
the 69th alone losing 208 in killed, wounded and missing. At the 
second Bull Run the division arrived too late for the battle but at 
Antietam the Irish brigade was m the midst of the fight at the 
"Bloody Lane," where the loss of the regiment was 196 in killed, 
wounded and missing out of 317 engaged. After the battle the 
regiment was withdrawn to Charlestown, W. Va., and then moved 
via Snicker's gap and Hartwood Church to Fredericksburg, where 
it again suffered severely in the desperate but unsuccessful assault 
on Marye's heights, the total loss being 128. The winter was passed 
in camp near Falmouth; the regiment was prominent in the Chan- 
cellorsville campaign and again at Gettysburg; then fought at 
Auburn and Bristoe Station; shared in the Mine Run campaign; 
and went into winter quarters near Brandy Station. The loss of 
the regiment was so severe that in June, 1863, it became necessary 
to consolidate it into two companies. In Dec. and Jan., 1863-64, 
a large number of these tried soldiers reenlisted and upon their 
return from veteran furlough received the addition of many new 
recruits, which insured the continuance of the regiment in the field 
as a veteran organization. The regiment bore a heavy part in the 
battles of the Wilderness and Cold Harbor; lost heavily in the 
first assault on Petersburg; remained in position before Peters- 
burg during the long siege; was active at the Weldon railroad. 
Strawberry Plains, Reams' station. Hatcher's run and the Appo- 
mattox campaign, and was finally mustered out at Alexandria, 
June 30, 1865. The 69th lost the greatest number of men killed 
or wounded of any of the New York regiments. It ranks 6th in 



103 The Union Army 

total loss among all the regiments in the Union army and 7th in 
percentage of loss to total enrollment. The total number enrolled 
was 1,513, of whom 261 died from wounds and 151 from other 
causes, 63 dying in prisons. 

Seventieth Infantry. — Cols., Daniel E. Sickles, William Dwight, 
Jr., J. Egbert Farnum; Lieut. -Cols., William Dwight, Jr., J. Egbert 
Farnum, Thomas Holt, Daniel Mahan; Majs., J. Egbert Farnum, 
Thomas Holt, Daniel Mahan, William H. Hugo. The 70th, the 
1st regiment of the Excelsior brigade, was composed of companies 
from New York city, Port Jervis, Paw Paw, Mich., Pittsburgh, Pa., 
Boston, Mass., Patterson and Newark, N. J., and was mustered 
into the U. S. service at Camp Scott, Staten island, June 20, 1861, for 
a three years' term. It left for Washington on July 23; was quar- 
tered in the city for a short time and then assigned to Sickles' bri- 
gade. Hooker's division, on guard duty at the forts along the Mary- 
land side of the Potomac. Co. G joined the regiment in October, 
being mustered in at Washington on Oct. 8. In the disposition 
of troops preparatory to the advance on the Peninsula. Sickles' 
brigade became the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 3d corps, and reached 
Yorktown in April. In the battle of Williamsburg, the first bat- 
tle of consequence in which the 70th took part it met with the 
heaviest loss of its service. Out of 700 engaged the loss was 330 
killed, wounded or missing. At Fair Oaks and in the Seven Days' 
battles the regiment was active and embarked at Yorktown, Aug. 
20, for Alexandria, whence it moved at once to the support of 
Gen. Pope at Manassas. In a sharp encounter at Bristoe Station, 
the 70th lost 5 men and at the second Bull Run 23. The regiment 
returned to Washington and was stationed in that vicinity until 
November, when it moved to Falmouth. It was present at the 
battle of Fredericksburg, returning immediately afterward to its 
camp at Falmouth, which became its winter quarters. It was next 
in the field at Chancellorsville, and at Gettysburg lost 113, 
killed or wounded, and 4 missing. In the southward movement, 
the brigade met the enemy in a brisk engagement at Wapping 
heights, fought at Kelly's ford, participated in the Mine Run cam- 
paign, and spent the winter at Brandy Station. In the reorganiza- 
tion of the corps, the regiment was assigned in April, 1864, to the 
2nd brigade, 4th division, 2nd corps, and on May 13, to the 4th 
brigade, 3d division, 2nd corps. It shared in the memorable cam- 
paign under Gen. Grant until July i, 1864, when it was mustered 
out at the close of its term of service, the veterans and recruits 
being transferred to the 86th N. Y. infantry. Although not in serv- 
ice as long as the preceding New York regiments, the 70th won its 
right to be known as one of the "three hundred fighting regiments" 
by many an instance of gallantry and the loss of 182 by death from 
wounds out of a total enrollment of 1,226. It also lost 70 by death 
from disease, etc. 

Seventy-first Infantry. — Cols., George B. Hall, Henry L. Pot- 
ter; Lieut. -Cols., Henry L. Potter. Thomas J. Leigh, Thomas Raf- 
ferty; Majs., Thomas Raflferty, Peter McDermott, John Taler. The 
71st, the 2nd regiment of the Excelsior brigade, composed of com- 
panies from New York city, Olean, Great Valley, Colchester and 
Kingston, N. Y., Newark and Orange, N. J., and Philadelphia, Pa., 
was mustered into the service of the United States at Camp Scott, 
Staten island, June 20 to July 18, 1861, for a three years' term. It 
left the state for Washington on July 23; served for a time in the 
vicinity of the city; was attached to Sickles' brigade, Hooker's di- 



New York Regiments 103 

vision; performed guard duty along the Potomac, and in the ad- 
vance under McClellan was part of the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 
3d corps. It was on trench and picket duty before Yorktown; was 
present at the battle of Fair Oaks, and lost 118 killed, wounded 
and missing during the Seven Days' battles. It left the Peninsula 
to go to the support of Gen. Pope at Manassas and at Kettle Run, 
Groveton and in the battle of Bull Run (second) lost 114 out of 
250 engaged. During the Maryland campaign the regiment was 
stationed in the vicinity of Washington and marched to Falmouth 
in November, arriving in time to participate in the battle of Fred- 
ericksburg, but did not occupy an exposed position. Winter quar- 
ters were established at Falmouth and camp was broken late in 
April, 1863, for the Chancellorsville campaign, in which the regi- 
ment took a prominent part. After returning to camp at Falmouth 
for a short time, it marched to Gettysburg and there participated 
in the thick of the fighting with a loss of 91 killed, wounded or 
missing. It was also engaged in the encounters at Wapping 
heights, Kelly's ford, in the Mine Run fiasco, and after a com- 
paratively uneventful winter in camp near Brandy Station, Va., 
entered upon the Wilderness campaign in the 2nd brigade, 4th di- 
vision, 2nd corps. It was transferred May 13, to the 4th brigade, 3d 
division, 2nd corps, with which it served until the expiration of its 
term of enlistment. The regiment was repeatedly in action through 
the month of May, at the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, the North 
Anna, Totopotomy, Cold Harbor and Petersburg, and was mus- 
tered out at New York city, July 30. 1864, the veterans and recruits 
being transferred to the 120th N. Y. infantry. It lost during serv- 
ice 94 by death from wounds and 74 from other causes. 

Seventy-second Infantry. — Cols., Nelson Taylor, William O. 
Stevens, John S. Austin; Lieut.-Cols., Israel Moses, John S. Aus- 
tin, John Leonard; Majs., William O. Stevens, John Leonard, Cas- 
per K. Abell. The 72nd, the 3d regiment of the Excelsior brigade, 
was composed mainly of members from New York city and Chau- 
tauqua county, and was mustered into the U. S. service at Camp 
Scott, Staten island, from June to Oct., 1861, for three years. It 
left there on July 24, 1861, for Washington, where it was joined 
by two of its companies late in October. After serving for a few 
months in the vicinity of Washington the regiment was assigned 
to Sickles' Excelsior brigade, Hooker's division, served along the 
Potomac in Maryland, near Stafford Court House, Va., and pro- 
ceeded to the Peninsula in April, 1862, with the 2nd brigade, 2nd 
division, 3d corps. It suffered its first severe loss at Williainsburg, 
where the Excelsior brigade bore the heaviest burden of the bat- 
tle, the loss of the 72nd being 195 killed, wounded or missing, TJ 
of whom were killed or mortally wounded. At Fair Oaks and in 
the Seven Days' battles the regiment was active and was then 
withdrawn from the Peninsula to join in the campaign under Gen. 
Pope in Virginia, during which it lost 37 men. It was withdrawn 
with the brigade to the vicinity of Washington for much needed 
rest and reinforcement, and remained there through the Mary- 
land campaign, leaving for Falmouth in November. It participat- 
ed in the battle of Fredericksburg; went into winter quarters at 
Falmouth; broke camp late in April, 1863, for the Chancellorsville 
miovement; took a prominent part in that battle. Col. Stevens and 
4 other officers being killed, the total loss of the regiment being 
101. At Gettysburg the regiment, which had by this time become 
noted for its fighting qualities, occupied an advanced position on 



104 The Union Army 

the Emmitsburg road, which was valiantly defended by the bri- 
gade, although finally forced to yield it. The loss of the 72nd 
here was 114, and the ranks, which later fought at Kelly's ford, 
Bristoe Station and in the Mine Run campaign, were sadly thinned. 
The winter camp was established at Brandy Station and in April, 
1864, the regiment was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 4th division, 
2nd corps, with which it served in the Wilderness campaign until 
May 13, when it was transferred to the 4th brigade, 3d division. It 
was active in the campaign until June 19, when seven companies 
were mustered out before Petersburg. The remaining three com- 
panies were mustered out July 2 and 20 and Oct. 31, 1864, the vet- 
erans and recruits being transferred to the 120th N. Y. infantry. 
During its term of service the regiment lost 184 by death from, 
wounds and 96 by death from other causes. It is ranked by Col. 
Fox as one of the "three hundred fighting regiments." 

Seventy-third Infantry. — Cols., William R. Brewster, Michael 
W. Burns, James Fairman; Lieut. -Cols., William McCanley, Mi- 
chael W. Burns, James McKenna, Lewis Benedict, Jr.; Majs., Michael 
W. Burns, John P. Lawrence, Lawrence H. Thompson, John D. 
Moriarty. The 73d, the 4th regiment of the Excelsior brigade, was 
sometimes known as the 2nd Fire Zouaves, having for its nucleus 
the New York fire department. It was recruited principally in 
New York city and mustered into the U. S. service at Staten island, 
July 8 to Oct. 8, 1861. It left New York for Washington Oct. 8; 
was assigned to Sickles' brigade. Hooker's division, which became 
in March, 1862, the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 3d corps of the Army 
of the Potomac, and served during the first winter at Good Hope, 
Md. It moved to the Peninsula with McClellan's army in April, 
1862; participated in the siege of Yorktown and the battle of Will- 
iamsburg, meeting with its first severe loss in the latter engage- 
ment, where 104 of the regiment were killed, wounded or reported 
missing and the troops displayed great courage and steadiness. At 
Fair Oaks and during the Seven Days' battles the 73d was con- 
stantly in action and was much in need of rest by the time it reached 
the camp at Harrison's landing. On its way from the Peninsula 
to join Pope's forces the brigade had a sharp engagement at Bris- 
toe Station, in which the regiment lost 46 killed or wounded. It 
was active at the second Bull Run, was then withdrawn to the de- 
fenses of Washington with the Excelsior brigade to recuperate, 
and left for Falmouth in November. In the autumn of 1862 a new 
company joined the regiment and in Jan.. 1863, it received the 
members of the 163d N. Y. infantry into its ranks. The 73d was 
active at Fredericksburg; returned to its quarters at Falmouth; 
engaged at Chancellorsville in May, 1863, but met its greatest losses 
at Gettysburg on the second day of the battle, where 51 were 
killed, 103 wounded and 8 missing out of 324 engaged, or 50 per 
cent. The loss of the regiment at Gettysburg included 4 oflficers 
killed and i wounded, and during its term of service it lost 18 offi- 
cers killed or mortally wounded, a loss only exceeded by four 
other regiments in the army. It was engaged at Wapping heights, 
Catlett's station. Brandy Station, at Kelly's ford and Locust Grove, 
and went into winter quarters at Brandy Station. During the win- 
ter of 1863-64 a sufficient number of men reenlisted to secure the 
continuance of the regiment in the field as a veteran organization 
and in April, 1864, camp was broken for the Wilderness campaign, 
in which the regiment served with the 2nd brigade, 4th division, 
2nd corps until May 13, when it was assigned to the 4th brigade. 



New York Regiments 105 

3d division, 2nd corps. It lost 66 in the first two days' fighting in 
the Wilderness, 30 at Spottsylvania, and continued in service dur- 
ing the battles leading up to Petersburg. At the expiration of their 
term of service the original members not reenlisted were mustered 
out and the veterans and recruits consolidated into seven compa- 
nies, which served from July in the ist brigade of the same divi- 
sion before Petersburg, where the regiinent participated in the 
various engagements of the brigade, the final assault and pursuit 
to Appomattox. The 73d was mustered out at Washington, June 
29, 1865, having received on June i, the veterans and recruits of 
the I20th N. Y. infantry. The total enrollment of the regiment 
was 1,326, of whom 153 died from wounds and 76 died from acci- 
dent, imprisonment or disease. The regiment sustained its part 
nobly in a brigade which became famous for its fighting qualities 
and well deserves its reputation as a crack fighting regiment. 

Seventy-fourth Infantry. — Cols., Charles K. Graham, Charles H. 
Burtis, Thomas Holt, William H. Lounsberry; Lieut. -Cols., Charles 
H. Burtis, John P. Glass, William H. Lounsberry; Majs., William 
B. Olmsted, Edward L. Price, George H. Quaterman, Henry M. 
Allis, Lovell Purdy, Jr. The 74th, the 5th regiment of the Excel- 
sior brigade, which contained many members of the 15th militia, 
was recruited at Pittsburg, New York city, Cambridgeport, Mass., 
Tidioute, Pa., and Long island and mustered into the U. S. service 
at Camp Scott, L. L, June 30 to Oct. 6, 1861, for a three years' 
term. It left New York Aug. 20, for Washington; was attached to 
Sickles' Excelsior brigade and stationed along the Lower Potomac 
in Maryland during the first winter; embarked in April, 1862, for 
the Peninsula with the brigade, as part of the 2nd division, 3d 
corps; shared in the siege operations before Yorktown; took a 
prominent part in the battle of Williamsburg, for which the bri- 
gade won the highest praises, the loss of the regiment in this bat- 
tle being 143 killed, wounded or missing, and in the ensuing en- 
gagements of Fair Oaks and the Seven Days' battles it was con- 
stantly in action. Upon its withdrawal from the Peninsula in Au- 
gust, the regiment was sent to the support of Gen. Pope at Manas- 
sas, after which it retired to the defenses of Washington. In No- 
vember it marched to Falmouth; participated in the battle of Fred- 
ericksburg; returned to its camp at Falmouth for the winter; was 
engaged at Chancellorsville in May, 1863; returned again to camp 
at Falmouth; marched in June to Gettysburg and there experienced 
the hard fighting of the second day on the Emmitsburg road, with 
a loss of 89 killed, wounded and missing. On the southward march 
it encountered the enemy at Wapping heights and Kelly's Ford; 
fought at Locust Grove during the Mine Run campaign, and went 
into winter quarters with the brigade. In April, 1864, the Excel- 
sior brigade became the 2nd brigade, 4th division, 2nd corps and 
in May the 4th brigade. 3d division, 2nd corps. With it the 74th 
fought through the Wilderness campaign and was mustered out be- 
fore Petersburg, from June 19 to Aug. 3, 1864. The reenlisted men 
and recruits were transferred to the 40th N. Y. infantry. The regi- 
ment lost during its term of service 124 by death from wounds and 
70 from other causes. It was noted for its courage and steadiness 
and is numbered among the "three hundred fighting regiments." 

Seventy-fifth Infantry. — Cols., John A. Dodge, Robert B. Mer- 
ritt, Robert P. York; Lieut.-Cols., Robert P. York, William M. 
Hosmer, Robert B. Merritt, Willoughby Babcock; Majs.. Willoughby 
Babcock, Lewis E. Carpenter, Benjamin F. Thurber, William M. Hos- 



106 The Union Army 

mer, Charles H. Cox. The 75th, known as the Auburn regiment, was 
composed mainly of members from Cayuga and Seneca counties, and 
was mustered into the service of the United States at Auburn, for a 
three years' term, Nov. 26, 1861. It embarked for the south on 
Dec. 6; was stationed at Santa Rosa island and Fort Pickens, Fla., 
during its first winter in the service, and formed part of the garri- 
son of Pensacola during the summer of 1862. While here Co. K 
joined the regiment, which was ordered to New Orleans in Sep- 
tember. It was assigned to Weitzel's reserve brigade, which had 
a brisk fight at Georgia landing. Upon the organization of the 
19th corps in Jan., 1863. the regiment became a part of the 2nd bri- 
gade, 1st division and moved to Bayou Teche, La. It lost 17 in an 
engagement at Fort Bisland in April, and in the assaults on Port 
Hudson, May 27 and June 14 it lost 107 in killed, wounded and miss- 
ing, the 1st division bearing the brunt of the fight. After the sur- 
render of Port Hudson, July 9, the troops performed garrison duty. 
From August to September, the regiment served with the reserve 
brigade of the ist division; in September it was assigned to the 3d 
brigade of the same division; in October it was mounted and at- 
tached to the 3d cavalry brigade, and during the winter a sufficient- 
ly large number of the men reenlisted to secure the continuance of 
the 75th as a veteran regiment. While the reenlisted men were 
on furlough, the remainder of the regiment served with the 14th 
N. Y. cavalry and rejoined the regiment June 28, 1864. At Sabine 
Pass, the regiment lost 85 killed, wounded or missing and during 
Nov., 1863, it was stationed near New Iberia and Camp Lewis, La. 
In March, 1864, the command entered upon the Red River campaign 
and in July it was ordered to New Orleans. After the regiment 
was reunited, in June, 1864, it served until the middle of July with 
the 1st brigade, 2nd division, 19th corps, and then embarked for 
Virginia, where it became a part of the Army of the James and 
joined in the pursuit of Gen. Early in the Shenandoah Valley. It 
was engaged at Halltown, the Opequan, where the loss was T2) 
killed, wounded and missing, at Fisher's hill and Cedar creek, where 
it also suffered severely. The original members not reenlisted were 
mustered out at Auburn, N. Y., Dec. 6, 1864, and the veterans and 
recruits consolidated into a battalion of five companies, which was 
ordered early in Jan., 1865. to Savannah, Ga., and assigned to the 
1st brigade, ist division, loth corps. The regiment served at Sa- 
vannah until August, and in April, received the veterans and re- 
cruits of the 31st independent company N. Y. infantry. It was 
mustered out at Savannah, Aug. 3, 1865, having lost 106 by death 
from wounds, and 109 from other causes. 

Seventy-sixth Infantry. — Cols., Nelson W. Green, W. P. Wain- 
wright, Charles E. Livingston; Lieut. -Cols., John D. Shaul, Charles 
E. Livingston, Andrew J. Grover, John E. Cook, Charles A. Wat- 
kins; Majs., Charles E. Livingston, Andrew J. Grover, John E. 
Cook, John W. Young. The 76th, the "Cortland Regiment," re- 
cruited principally in Cortland and Otsego counties, was mustered 
into the U. S. service at Albany, Jan. 16, 1862, for three years. It 
left the state the next day for Washington, was assigned to the 3d 
brigade of Casey's division and served in the vicinity of Washington 
during the first winter. It suffered its first severe loss at Manassas 
in Aug., 1862, when it served with the 2nd brigade, ist division, 3d 
corps. losing in the several engagements of Gen. Pope's campaign, 
147 in killed, wounded and missing. It was active at South moun- 
tain and Antietam, its brigade and division having been assigned 



New York Regiments 107 

to the ist corps, with which it accompanied the cavalry advance 
through Philomont, Union and Upperville, Va. It participated in 
the battle of Fredericksburg, went into winter quarters near Fal- 
mouth and during the Chancellorsville movement, lost 3 men while 
guarding bridges. At Gettysburg the regiment took a prominent 
part and suffered the loss of 234 in killed, wounded and missing. 
Previous to this battle the ranks had been reinforced by the addi- 
tion of the veterans and recruits of the 24th and 30th N. Y. infan- 
try, but after Gettysburg they were again sadly thinned. The regi- 
ment participated in the Mine Run fiasco, and at Brandy Station 
in Jan., 1864, was transferred to the ist brigade of the same divi- 
sion, returning to its old brigade in March, and was later assigned 
to the 2nd brigade, 4th division, 5th corps, and broke camp in April 
for the Wilderness carhpaign, in which it suffered its greatest loss 
during the first two days — 282 killed, wounded or missing. It con- 
tinued to see hard service at Spottsylvania, the North Anna, Toto- 
potomoy, Cold Harbor and Petersburg, where it took part in the 
siege operations until the end of its term of service. It v/as mus- 
tered out by companies, July i, Oct. 11 and 20, Nov. 8 and 18, Dec. 
I, 1864, and Jan. i, 1865, the veterans and recruits being trans- 
ferred to the 147th N. Y. infantry. The regiment lost during its 
term of service 175 by death from wounds and 166 by death from 
accident, imprisonment or disease, of whom 56 died in imprison- 
ment. It ranks among the "three hundred fighting regiments." 

Seventy-seventh Infantry. — Cols., James B. McKean, Winsor B. 
French, David J. Caw; Lieut. -Cols., Joseph C. Henderson, Samuel 
McKee, Winsor B. French, Nathan S. Babcock, David J. Caw, 
Isaac D. Clapp; Majs., Selden Hetzel, Winsor B. French, Nathan 
S. Babcock, David J. Caw, Isaac D. Clapp, Charles E. Stevens. The 
77th, known as the Saratoga regiment, was composed of companies 
from Westport, Ballston, Saratoga, Wilton, Keeseville and Glovers- 
ville, and was mustered into the service of the United States at 
Saratoga, Nov. 23, 1861, for three years. It left New York Nov. 
28, for Washington, was assigned to the 3d brigade of Casey's divi- 
sion; served in the defenses of Washington during the winter; in 
March, 1862, with the same brigade, became a part of Smith's divi- 
sion, 4th corps, and served on the Peninsula. It was active at York- 
town, Williamsburg, Mechanicsville and in the Seven Days' battles, 
and in May was assigned to the 3d brigade, 2nd division, 6th corps, 
with which it served throughout the war. After a short time in 
camp at Harrison's landing the regiment entered upon the TJary- 
land campaign; was present at Crampton's gap and met its first 
heavy loss at Antietam, where :i2 were killed, wounded or missing. 
Moving by slow stages the troops reached Fredericksburg in time 
for the battle but were not assigned to a prominent position. At 
Chancellorsville the regiment joined in the gallant and success- 
ful assault on Marye's heights and lost 83 in killed, wounded and 
missing. At Gettysburg it was not closely engaged and proceeded 
from that battlefield to Fairfield, Pa., Antietam, Marsh Run, Funks- 
town, Williamsport and Chantilly. It shared in the capture of 
prisoners made by the 6th corps at Rappahannock Station in No- 
vember, and participated in the Mine Run fiasco. During December 
and January a large number of the 77th reenlisted and the regiment 
took the field at the opening of the Wilderness campaign with 
many new recruits. At the Wilderness 66 were reported killed, 
wounded or missing, and in the remaining days of that week the 
loss of 107 was suffered by the regiment in the close fighting at 



108 The Union Army 

Spottsylvania and other points in the immediate vicinity. The regi- 
ment was also active at Cold Harbor, then moved with the 6th 
corps to Petersburg and served in the trenches until July, when 
the corps was hurried to Washington and met Gen. Early at Port 
Stevens, with a loss of 20 men. In the pursuit of Early in the 
Shenandoah Valley, and the battles of Charlestown, the Opequan, 
Fisher's hill, Cedar Creek and Winchester, the regiment took a 
prominent part, returning to Petersburg in December. The origi- 
nal members of the regiment not reenlisted were mustered out on 
Dec. 13, 1864, the remainder having been consolidated into a bat- 
talion of five companies on Nov. 19. In the action at Fort Sted- 
man, the final assault, April 2, 1865, and the Appomattox cam- 
paign, the battalion was active and, returning to Washington after 
Lee's surrender, was mustered out in that city, June 27, 1865. Dur- 
ing its term of service the regiment lost 108 by death from wounds 
and 176 by death from disease and other causes. 

Seventy-eighth Infantry. — Cols., Daniel UUman, Herbert Ham- 
merstein; Lieut. -Cols., Jonathan Austin, Henrj^ C. Blanchard, Henry 
R. Stagg, Herbert Hammerstein, William Chalmers; Majs., Henry 

C. Blanchard, Henry R. Stagg, William H. Randall. The 78th, 
known as the 78th Highlanders, was composed principally of mem- 
bers from New York city, Utica, Buffalo, Bath, China, Rochester 
and Suspension Bridge, with one company from Michigan. It was 
mustered into the U. S. service at New York city, Oct. i, 1861, to 
April 12, 1862, for a three years' term, and left for Washington on 
April 29. The regiment encamped for a short time at Washington 
and on May 25, was ordered to Harper's Ferry, where it was as- 
signed to the 2nd brigade, Sigel's division, Department of the Shen- 
andoah and on June 26 it became a part of the 3d brigade, 2nd di- 
vision, 2nd corps. Army of Virginia. The command was first 
closely engaged at Cedar mountain, where it lost 22 killed, wounded 
or missing. At Antietam the loss was 34, and the regiment moved 
from there to Hillsboro and Ripon, Va., and went into winter quar- 
ters with the I2th corps, to which it had been assigned on Sept. 12, 
with the same brigade and division as before. At Chancellorsville 
in May, 1863, the 12th corps bore an important part and the 78th 
suffered severely — 131 in killed, wounded and missing. In June the 
regiment moved to Gettysburg, where it was closely engaged in the 
battle and upon the arrival of the army in Virginia, was ordered 
to join the forces in Tennessee. It arrived at Bridgeport, Ala., Oct. 
i; was in action at Wauhatchie, Tenn.; shared in the ensuing en- 
gagements in the vicinity of Chattanooga, and passed the winter 
in that locality. In May, 1864, with the same brigade and division, 
20th corps, the regiment moved with Gen. Sherman on the advance 
toward Atlanta, being engaged at Mill Creek gap, Resaca, Dallas, 
and in the battles about Kennesaw mountain. On July 12, 1864, 
owing to depleted ranks the 78th was transferred to the 102nd N. Y. 
infantry, with which it completed its term of enlistment. During 
its service the regiment lost 58 by death from wounds and 75 from 
other causes. 

Seventy-ninth Infantry. — Cols., J. C. Cameron, Isaac I. Stevens, 
Addison Farnsworth, David Morrison; Lieut.-Cols., David Morri- 
son. John Morse, Henry G. Heffron; Majs., Francis L. Hagadorn, 
William St. George Elliott, John More, William Simpson, Andrew 

D. Baird. This regiment, called the Highlanders, was the original 
79th militia and was composed mainly of Scotchmen. It was mus- 
tered into the service of the United States at New York city, for 



New York Regiments 109 

a three years' term, May 29, 1861, and left for Washington on June 
2. It was stationed in the vicinity of Washington until the move- 
ment of the army to Manassas, when it was assigned to the 3d bri- 
gade, 1st division. Army of Northeastern Virginia and participated 
in the battle of Bull Run. This, the first battle of the regiment, 
was a severe initiation, for the command lost 198 in killed, wound- 
ed and missing. Col. Cameron being mortally wounded. During 
September the regiment was posted near Lewinsville. Va., where 
it several times encountered the enemy and was engaged in a sharp 
skirmish at Bailey's cross-roads. On Oct. 21, the 79th was attached 
to the 2nd brigade of Sherman's expeditionary corps, with which 
it embarked for Hilton Head, S. C, and served in that vicinity until 
June, 1862. It shared in the gallant attack of Stevens' division, at 
Secessionville, losing no out of 474 engaged. In July, the troops 
returned to Virginia and shared in Gen. Pope's campaign, with the 
3d brigade, ist division, 9th corps, losing 105 killed, wounded or 
missing during the engagements near Manassas. At Chantilly, 
Gen. Stevens, former colonel of the 79th, was killed. The regi- 
ment was active at South mountain, Antietam, and Fredericksburg, 
but was not closely engaged in the last named battle. It shared the 
discomforts of Burnside's "Mud March," returned to camp at Fal- 
mouth, and moved west with the 9th corps, to join Gen. Grant's 
forces before Vicksburg. The regiment took part in the siege and 
in the pursuit to Jackson. It then fought at Blue Springs, at Camp- 
bell's station, Tenn., and aided in the defense of Knoxville. The 
men bore uncomplainingly the hardships of the return of the 9th 
corps across the mountains to Virginia and in May, Cos. A and B 
were transferred to the i8th corps. The regiment shared the open- 
ing battles of the Wilderness campaign and was mustered out at 
the expiration of its term of enlistment. May 31, 1864. The veter- 
ans and recruits served as provost guard at corps headquarters and 
were reinforced in the autumn of 1864 by the addition of several 
companies of new recruits. This battalion served before Peters- 
burg until the fall of the city and was mustered out at Alexandria, 
Va., July 14, 1865. The total enrollment of the regiment was 1,385, 
exclusive of the battalion organized in 1864, and it lost during serv- 
ice 116 by death from wounds and 83 from other causes. Its rec- 
ord is one of unfailing heroism and devotion to the cause for which 
it fought and it is ranked by Col. Fox among the "three hundred 
fighting regiments." 

Eightieth Infantry. — Cols., Jacob B. Hardenberg, George W. 
Pratt, Theodore B. Gates; Lieut.-Cols., John McEntee, Theodore 
B. Gates, Jacob B. Hardenberg; Majs., John R. Leslie, Jacob B. 
Hardenberg, Walter A. Van Rensselaer. The 8oth, the "Ulster 
Guard," was formed by the reorganization of the 20th militia, one 
of the oldest militia regiments in the state, upon its return from 
three months' service. It was mustered into the U. S. service at 
Kingston, Sept. 20 to Oct. 20, 1861, for a three years' term, and 
was composed principally of men from Ulster county. The regi- 
ment left for Washington Oct. 26. was assigned to Wadsworth's 
brigade, McDowell's division, and performed picket duty along the 
Potomac, in the vicinity of Upton's hill, Va., during the first win- 
ter. In March, 1862, it was attached to the ist brigade, 3d division, 
1st corps. Army of the Potomac; in May to the 2nd brigade of the same 
division. Department of the Rappahannock, and in June, to the 3d bri- 
gade, 1st division, 3d corps, with which last assignment it fought in 
Gen. Pope's Virginia campaign. At the second Bull Run the 80th lost 



110 The Union Army 

279 in killed, wounded and missing, and Col. Pratt died a few weeks 
later of the wounds received in that battle. It was active at South 
mountain and Antietam, encamped at Sharpsburg for one week 
and marched through Crampton's gap, Leesburg, Warrenton and 
Stafford Court House to Fredericksburg, where it participated in 
the battle. Winter quarters were established soon after near Hall's 
landing and occupied until Jan. 7, 1863, when the 80th was assigned 
to the provost guard brigade, with headquarters at Brooks' station 
and remained on duty at army headquarters until after the battle 
of Chancellorsville. In June, 1863, the regiment was assigned to 
the 1st brigade, 3d division, ist corps, and was closely engaged at 
Gettysburg, where it lost 170 killed, wounded or missing out of 
287 engaged. It suffered most severely in the repulse of Pickett's 
charge on the last day. After the battle of Gettysburg, the Both 
was again ordered to headquarters for provost guard duty and con- 
tinued in this service until the end of the siege of Petersburg, when, 
it shared in the final assault, April 2, 1865. From April 22 to Nov. 
27, 1865, it was stationed at Richmond and then ordered to Nor- 
folk, where it remained until mustered out on Jan. 29, 1866. The 
total enrollment of the regiment was 2,103, of whom 128 died of 
wounds and 156 from accident, imprisonment or disease. The regi- 
ment early became known for its fine fighting qualities and sus- 
tained a reputation for courage and steadiness under fire through- 
out its long term of service, which lasted, including its militia serv- 
ice, from the spring of 1861 to Jan., 1866. The regiment is classed 
among the "three hundred fighting regiments." 

Eighty-first Infantry. — Cols., Edwin Rose, Jacob J. DeForest^ 
John B. Raulston, David B. White; Lieut. -Cols., Jacob J. DeForest, 
William C. Raulston, John B. Raulston, David B. White, Lucius 
V. S. Mattison; Majs., Byron B. Morris, John McAmbly, William 
C. Raulston, David B. White, Edward A. Stimson, Lucius V. S. 
Mattison- The 8ist, the 2nd Oswego regiment, was raised mainly 
in Oneida and Oswego counties and was mustered into the U. S. 
service at Oswego and Albany from Dec, 1861, to Feb. 20, 1862^ 
for three years. It left the state for Washington on March 5, 1862, 
was quartered for a short time at Kalorama heights and assigned 
to Palmer's brigade. Casey's division, 4th corps, with which it em- 
barked foj the Peninsula with the general advance of McClellan's 
army. It was present during the siege of Yorktown; in the battles 
of Williamsburg and Savage Station; was closely engaged at Fair 
Oaks, with the loss of 137 killed, wounded and missing, among whom 
Maj. McAmbly was killed and Lieut.-Col. DeForest wounded. Dur- 
ing the Seven Days' battles the regiment was employed in guard- 
ing trains, and after the evacuation of the Peninsula was stationed 
at Yorktown until December, from which point it undertook a num- 
ber of expeditions into the surrounding country. Assigned to the 
1st brigade. Peck's division, 4th corps, the 8ist embarked for North 
Carolina in Dec, 1862, and was stationed at Beaufort, and More- 
head, N. C, in the ist brigade, 2nd division, i8th corps. In Oct.^ 
1863, the regiment returned to Newport News and performed out- 
post duty along the Dismal Swamp canal. In December a suffi- 
cient number reenlisted to secure the continuance of the 8ist as a 
veteran regiment, and upon their return from veteran furlough the 
regiment was assigned to the ist brigade, ist division, i8th corps,, 
with which it fought at Swift creek, Drewry's bluff and Cold Har- 
bor. In the two assaults on Cold Harbor the regiment took a prom- 
inent part and suffered the heaviest loss in its history, 212 killed 



New York Regiments 111 

or wounded and 3 missing, half of the number engaged. It con- 
tinued in service before Petersburg; was sent to New York harbor 
in November; was attached to the 24th corps in December; was 
active in the assault on Fort Harrison, and was mustered out of the 
service at Fortress Monroe Aug. 31, 1865. It earned a well- deserved 
reputation for gallantry and courage for which it paid the penalty 
of loss during service of 107 by death from wounds and 99 from 
other causes. 

Eighty-second Infantry. — Cols., George W. B. Tompkins, Henry 
W. Hudson, James Huston; Lieut. -Cols., Henry W. Hudson, James 
Huston, John Darrow; Majs., Joseph J. Dimock, Thomas W. Baird. 
The 82nd, the 2nd militia, recruited principally in New York city, 
left the state for Washington, May 18, 1861, and was there mus- 
tered into the U. S. service May 20 to June 17, for three years. Co. 
D was detached and became the 3d battery of light artillery and a 
new company took its place in Sept., 1861. The regiment was quar- 
tered near the capitol until July 3, when it was assigned to the 2nd 
brigade, ist division, Army of Northeastern Virginia, crossed into 
Virginia and engaged at Bull Run, with a loss of 60 in killed, wound- 
ed and missing. In August the 82nd was attached to the brigade, 
which later became the ist brigade, 2nd division, 2nd corps, and 
after passing the winter in the defenses of Washington, moved to 
the Peninsula with the general advance under McClellan in March, 
1862. It participated in the siege of Yorktown; the battle of Fair 
Oaks; the Seven Days' fighting; was next active in the Maryland 
campaign and suffered severe losses at Antietam in the advance 
of Sedgwick's division, upon the Dunker Church. Out of 339 men 
engaged, 128 were reported killed, wounded or missing. The regi- 
ment arrived at Falmouth late in November; participated in the bat- 
tle of Fredericksburg; returned to its camp at Falmouth; was active 
at Chancellorsville in May, 1863; after a short rest at Falmouth 
marched to Gettysburg and there suffered fearful loss, 192 mem- 
bers out of 365 engaged. Col. Huston being numbered among the 
dead. It next participated in the engagements of the 2nd corps at 
Auburn and Bristoe Station in the autumn and in the Mine Run 
campaign, and went into winter quarters at Brandy Station. Camp 
was broken for the Wilderness campaign late in April, 1864, and 
the regiment was in action constantly until after the first assault 
on Petersburg, where it lost i man killed, 9 wounded and iii miss- 
ing. On June 25, 1864, the term of service expired and the origi- 
nal members not reenlisted were mustered out, the remainder of 
the regiment being consolidated into a battalion of five companies, 
to which the veterans of the 40th N. Y. were transferred on June 
28. On July 10, the battalion was consolidated with the 59th N. Y. 
infantry. The total enrollment was 1,452, of whom 178 died of 
wounds and 89 from other causes. The regiment was conspicuous 
for its dash and daring and became famous for its fighting quali- 
ties. 

Eighty-third Infantry. — Cols., John W. Stiles, John Hendrickson, 
Joseph A. Moesch; Lieut. -Cols., William H. Halleck, William At- 
terbury, Allen Rutherford, John Hendrickson, Joseph A. Moesch, 
William Chalmers; Majs., William Atterbury, Allen Rutherford, 
John Hendrickson, Dabney W. Diggs, Henry V. Williamson. The 
83d (the 9th militia), was recruited in New York city and left the 
state for Washington, May 27, 1861. It was there mustered into 
the service of the United States for a three years' term, June 8, 
and served in Col. Stone's command, in Hamilton's and Stiles' bri- 



112 The Union Army 

gades, along the Potomac in Maryland and at Harper's Ferry. In 
the spring of 1862 the regiment was stationed near Warrenton 
Junction and along the Rappahannock river with several different 
assignments and participated in Gen. Pope's Virginia campaign 
with the 3d brigade, 2nd division, 3d corps, suffering the loss of 75 
members at the second Bull Run. The brigade and division were 
transferred to the ist corps on Sept. 12, fought at South mountain 
and Antietam, the regiment being closely engaged in both battles 
and losing 114 at Antietam. The next battle was Fredericksburg, 
where the crippled command suffered even more severely — 125 
killed, wounded or missing — among whom was Col. Hendrickson, 
who was severely wounded. The regiment passed the winter at 
Falmouth; was not in an exposed position during the Chancellors- 
ville movement and battle of May, 1863, but played an important 
part at Gettysburg in the capture of Iverson's North Carolina bri- 
gade. On the southward niarch the regiment was stationed at Ha- 
gerstown, Md., and Liberty, Va.; then participated in the Mine Run 
campaign, and established camp near Brandy Station in the early 
winter. During the Wilderness campaign it served in the 2nd bri- 
gade, 2nd division, 5th corps, and the 2nd brigade, 3d division, 5th 
corps, until June 7, when the term of service expired. Col. Moesch 
was killed in the Wilderness and 128 men were reported killed, 
wounded or missing. The original members not reenlisted were 
mustered out at New York, June 23, 1864, and the veterans wer$ 
transferred to the 97th N. Y. infantry. The 83d is named by Col. 
Fox as one of the "three hundred fighting regiments." Out of a 
total enrollment of 1,413 it lost during service 164 by death from 
wounds and 91 from other causes. 

Eighty-fourth Infantry. — Cols., Alfred M. Wood, Edward B. 
Fowler; Lieut. -Cols., Edward B. Fowler, William H. DeBevoice, Rob- 
ert B. Jourdan; Majs., James Jourdan, William H. DeBevoice, Charles 
F. Baldwin, Robert B. Jourdan, Henry T. Head. The 84th (the 14th 
militia), recruited in Brooklyn, left the state for Washington, May 18, 
1861; was there joined by Cos. K and I in July, and between May and 
August was mustered into the U. S. service for three years. The regi- 
ment served in the vicinity of Washington until the battle of Bull Run, 
in which it fought gallantly in Porter's brigade, with a total loss of 
142 killed, wounded or missing. It then served near Ball's cross- 
roads and Upton's hill, Va., and in March, 1862, was assigned to the 
1st brigade. King's division, ist corps, with which it served in 
northern Virginia, while the campaign on the Peninsula was car- 
ried on under Gen. McClellan. Active in the fighting which culmi- 
nated in the battle of the second Bull Run, the regiment lost 129 
men. It was engaged at South mountain, Antietam and Fredericks- 
burg with the 1st brigade, ist division, ist corps, to which it was 
attached on Sept. 12, 1862. After passing the winter in camp near 
Falmouth, the regiment was active at Chancellorsville in May, 1863, 
and was prominently engaged in the battle of Gettysburg, where it 
received the highest official praise for its gallantry in action. It 
served during this battle with the 2nd brigade, ist division, ist 
corps, and suffered a total loss of 217. It then moved southward 
with the Army of the Potomac, shared in the Mine Run movement, 
wintered near Culpeper and at the opening of the Wilderness cam- 
paign, was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 4th division, 5th corps. On 
May 21 the term of service expired. It was mustered out at New 
York city, June 14, 1864, when the veterans and recruits were 
transferred to the 5th N. Y. veteran infantry. The total enrollment 



New York Regiments 113 

of the regiment was 1,365, of whom 153 died from wounds and 74 
from other causes. Few regiments could boast such a distinguished 
reputation as the 84th, which served with unfailing bravery through 
the most severe tests of courage. 

Eighty-fifth Infantry.— Cols., Uriah L. Davis, Robert B. Van 
Valkenburgh, Jonathan S. Belknap, Eurice Fardella, William W. 
Clark; Lieut. -Cols., Jonathan S. Belknap, Abijah I. Wellman, Will- 
iam W. Clark, Seneca Allen; Majs., Abijah J. Wellman, Reuben V. 
King, Walter Crandall, Chauncey S. Aldrich. This regiment, re- 
cruited in the southern part of the state, was mustered into the 
U. S. service at Elmira, from Aug. to Dec, 1861, for a three years' 
term, and left for Washington on Dec. 3. It served in the defenses 
of Washington until the advance of the army to the Peninsula in 
March, 1862, when it was assigned to the 3d brigade, 2nd division, 
4th corps. It performed trench duty before Yorktown and other 
duties incident to the siege, was active at the battle of Williams- 
burg and was closely engaged at Fair Oaks, where its total loss was 
79 in killed, wounded and missing. Upon the return from the Penin- 
sula, the regiment was stationed at Newport News and late in the 
autumn moved to Suffolk, where it was assigned in Dec, 1862, to 
the 1st brigade, ist division. Department of North Carolina, and 
ordered to New Berne. There it took part in the Goldsboro expe- 
dition, and in Jan., 1863, became a part of the ist brigade, 4th divi- 
sion, i8th corps, in the summer of 1863 it was located in the Dis- 
trict of Albemarle and undertook various expeditions into the sur- 
rounding country, meeting the enemy in several minor encounters. 
In Jan., 1864, the 85th was assigned to the 3d brigade, ist division, 
i8th corps, and ordered to Plymouth, N. C., where in April, it was 
obliged to surrender to a superior force of the enemy, almost the 
entire regiment being captured. As a result of this disaster the loss 
of life in Southern prisons was appalling — -222 deaths during im- 
prisonment being reported. The remnant of the regiment received 
by transfer the members of the i6th N. Y. cavalry and having pre- 
viously reenlisted, served throughout the war as the 85th regiment. 
It was posted at Roanoke island and was active in the Carolina 
campaign in March, 1865, after which it performed garrison duty 
at New Berne until June 27, 1865, when it was mustered out in that 
city. During its term of service the command lost 36 members by 
death from wounds. 103 from accident or disease, and the 222 who 
died in prison. 

Eighty-sixth Infantry. — Cols., Benijah P. Bailey. Benjamin L. 
Higgins, Jacob H. Lansing, Nathan H. Vincent; Lieut.-Cols., Bar- 
nard J. Chapin, Benjamin L. Higgins, Jacob H. Lansing, Michael 
B. Stafford, Nathan H. Vincent, Luzern Todd; Majs., Seyman G. 
Rheinvault, Benjamin L. Higgins, Jacob H. Lansing, Michael B. 
Stafford, Nathan H. Vincent, Frederick Van Tine, Luzern Todd, 
Samuel H. Leavitt. The 86th, known as the Steuben Rangers, was 
recruited in Steuben, Chemung and Onondaga counties, mustered 
into the U. S. service at Elmira, Nov. 20 to 23, 1861, and left for 
Washington on Nov. 23. It passed the first winter in the perform- 
ance of guard duty at or near Washington and was not ordered to 
the front until Aug., 1862, when it joined the forces under Gen. 
Pope and lost 118 in killed, wounded and missing at the second 
Bull Run. It then moved to Fredericksburg, participated in the bat- 
tle there with the ist brigade, 3d division, 3d corps, and then went 
into winter quarters near Falmouth. It bore a prominent part in 
the battle of Chancellorsville, was engaged at Brandy Station, and 
Vol. 11—8 



114 The Union Army 

was in the thick of the fight at Gettysburg. Moving southward 
via Wapping heights, Auburn and Kelly's ford, no further loss was 
met with until the Mine Run campaign, when the regiment lost 32 
in the action at Locust Grove. At Brandy Station, where the Army 
of the Potomac made its winter quarters, a large number of the 
regiment reenlisted and received their veteran furlough in Jan., 
1864, and the 86th continued in the field as a veteran regiment. 
Camp was broken in April for the Wilderness campaign, the regi- 
ment being assigned to the 1st brigade, 3d division, 2nd corps, with 
which it fought through all the battles of that memorable advance 
toward Richmond, meeting its heaviest loss at the Po river, where 
96 were killed, wounded or captured. It accompanied its brigade 
and division to Petersburg, shared in the first assault, the engage- 
ments at the Weldon railroad. Deep Bottom, Strawberr}'- Plains, 
Poplar Spring Church, the Boydton road, the Hicksford raid. 
Hatcher's run and in the Appomattox campaign, winning renown 
as a fighting regiment. It was commonly named "The fighting 
regiment of the Southern Tier." Out of a total enrollment of 1,318, 
the regiment lost 98 killed in action, 73 died from wounds, and 153 
from other causes during service. The loss in officers was also 
heavy. Lieut. -Col. Chapin was killed and Maj. Higgins severely 
wounded at Chancellorsville, and Lieut. -Col. Stafford fell before 
Petersburg. 

Eighty-seventh Infantry. — Col., Stephen A. Dodge; Lieut.-Col., 
Richard A. Bachia; Maj., George B. Bosworth. The 87th, the 13th' 
Brooklyn, recruited mainly in Brooklyn, New York city, Williams- 
burg and Poughkeepsie, was mustered into the U. S. service from 
Oct. to Dec, 1861, for three years, and left New York for Wash- 
ington on Dec. 2. It served at Washington and vicinity in the 3d 
brigade, Casey's division, until March, 1862, when, with the ist bri- 
gade, 3d division, 3d corps, it embarked for the Peninsula. It par- 
ticipated in siege duties before Yorktown; was present at the bat- 
tle of Williamsburg; suffered its first losses at Fair Oaks, where 76 
were killed, wounded or captured; was active during the Seven 
Days' battles, and upon the return of the army from the Peninsula, 
joined in Gen. Pope's Virginia campaign, where it suflfered a loss 
of 68. On Sept. 6, 1862, the regiment was consolidated with the 40th 
N. Y. infantry, in which organization its members completed their 
term of service. The 87th lost 29 by death from wounds and 26 
from other causes. 

Eighty-eighth Infantry. — Cols., Henry M. Baker, Patrick Kelly, 
Dennis F. Burke; Lieut.-Cols., Patrick Kelly, James Quinlan, John 
Smith, Dennis F. Burke, John W. Byron; Majs., James Quinlan, 
William Horgan, John Smith. William G. Hart, John W. Byron. 
The 88th, the 5th regiment of the Irish brigade, recruited in New 
York city, Brooklyn and Jersey City, was mustered into the service 
of the United States at Fort Schuyler, from Sept., 1861, to Jan., 
1862, for three years, and left New York for Washington Dec. 16, 
1861. Upon its arrival it was attached to Meagher's Irish brigade 
(for which it was recruited), Sumner's division, and continued in 
that brigade during its term of service. It served in the vicinity 
of Washington until the general advance of the army under Gen. 
McClellan to the Peninsula in March, 1862, when the brigade became 
a part of the ist division, 2nd corps. It was present at the siege 
of Yorktown and the battle of Fair Oaks; lost 129 in killed, wound- 
ed or missing during the Seven Days' battles; was next active in 
the Maryland campaign; was in the thick of the battle at Antietam: 



New York Regiments 115 

and 102 were killed or wounded; then proceeded to Charlestown, 
W. Va., and by short marches to Fredericksburg, where it arrived 
in time to bear an important part in the assault of the 2nd corps 
during the battle. At Fredericksburg Maj. Horgan and 23 of his 
comrades were killed, 97 were wounded and 6 missing out of 252 
engaged. At Chancellorsville in the spring of 1863, the loss of the 
regiment was again heavy and it became necessary to consolidate 
the remaining members into a battalion of two companies before 
the battle of Gettysburg, where the Irish brigade fought bravely 
m the wheat-field. The regiment shared in the action of the 2nd 
corps at Bristoe Station and in the Mine Run campaign, and during 
the winter a sufficient number of the men reenlisted to retain the 
88th in the field as a veteran organization. Three new companies 
joined the command in April, 1864, and throughout the memorable 
campaign under Gen. Grant from the Wilderness to Cold Harbor, 
the 88th continued to serve with unflinching courage. In the first 
assault on Petersburg, the regiment lost heavily, Col. Kelly, who 
had succeeded Gen. Meagher in command of the brigade, being 
killed. The regiment was posted at different points before Peters- 
burg during the siege and participated in siege duties until the fall 
of the fortifications. It was mustered out at Alexandria, June 30, 
1865, having lost 150 by death from wounds and 71 from other 
causes out of a total strength of 1,352, and having earned the right 
to be known as a crack fighting regiment. 

Eighty-ninth Infjuitry. — Col., Harrison S. Fairchild; Lieut.-Cols., 
Jacob C. Robie. Nathan Coryell, Theophilus L. England, Welling- 
ton M. Lewis, Henry C. Roome; Majs., Daniel T. Everts, Welling- 
ton M. Lewis, Henry C. Roome, Frank W. Tremain, Jeremiah 
Remington. The 89th, called the Dickinson Guard, and composed 
of companies from Havana, Binghamton, Mount Morris, Roches- 
ter, Norwich, Oxford, Whitney's Point, Delhi and Corbettsville, 
was mustered into the U. S. service at Elmira, Dec. 4 to 6, 1861, 
for three years. It left the state for Washington, Dec. 6, was sta- 
tioned for a few weeks in the defenses of the capital in the provi- 
sional brigade, Casey's division, and in Jan., 1862, became a part of 
Burnside's expeditionary corps, with which it embarked for Roan- 
oke, N. C. In July, 1862, the regiment returned from Roanoke 
and with the 1st brigade, 3d division, 9th corps, participated in the 
Maryland campaign. It was active at South mountain, and at An- 
tietam lost 103 in killed, wounded and missing. It participated in 
the battle of Fredericksburg, went into winter quarters near Fal- 
mouth, and in April, 1863, was transferred to the Department of 
Virginia at Suffolk, where it was attached in May, to Alford's bri- 
gade, Getty's division, 7th corps. It was active during the siege 
of Suffolk and remained in that vicinity until July, when it was 
transferred to the i8th corps, proceeded to North Carolina, where 
it was assigned to the loth corps and stationed at Folly island, 
S. C. The regiment was present at the siege of Fort Wagner and 
the following operations in Charleston harbor and returned to Vir- 
ginia early in 1864. A large number of the men reenlisted and the 
veteran regiment became a part of the loth corps, which was pres- 
ent during May, 1864, at Swift creek, Proctor's creek, Drewry's 
bluff and Bermuda Hundred. At the end of that month the 89th 
was assigned to the ist brigade, 2nd division, i8th corps and served 
in that corps until December. It lost heavily in the opening as- 
sault on Petersburg, where Lieut.-Col. England was killed, and also 
lost 139 in killed, wounded and missing at Fair Oaks in October. 



116 The Union Army 

In December, tlie command was transferred to the 2nd division, 
24th corps, with which it remained until the end of the war, shar- 
ing in the final assault on Petersburg and the pursuit of Lee's 
army to Appomattox. Maj. Tremain was mortally wounded April 
2, 1865, in the assault on Petersburg. The 89th was mustered out 
at Richmond, Aug. 3, 1865, having lost during its term of service, 
107 by death from wounds and 159 from other causes. 

Ninetieth Infantry. — Cols., Joseph S. Morgan, Nelson Shaurman; 
Lieut. -Cols., Lewis W. Tinelli, Nelson Shaurman, John C. Smart, 
Henry De La Paturelle; Majs., Joseph S. D. Agreda, Nelson Shaur- 
man, John C. Swart, Henry De La Paturelle. This regiment, known 
as the Hancock Guard, was recruited mainly in New York city 
and vicinity and was mustered into the U. S. service at New York 
from Sept. to Dec, 1861. for a three years' term. It embarked on 
Jan. 5, 1862, for Key West, Fla., where it performed garrison duty 
for some months. Early in 1863 it was ordered to join the 19th 
corps in Louisiana and was assigned to the ist brigade, 4th divi- 
sion. From New Orleans the regiment moved to Port Hudson, 
where it took an active part in the siege, losing 50 killed, wounded 
or missing. It was also closely engaged at Bayou La Fourche, 
with the loss of 71, and in March, 1864, shared in the Red River 
campaign. The reenlisted men received their veteran furlough ^n 
Aug. and Sept., 1864, and the remainder of the regiment served 
in their absence with the i6oth N. Y. infantry. The veteran regi- 
ment was ordered to Virginia early in September and joined the 
Army of the Shenandoah while it was conducting the campaign 
against Gen. Early. The 90th fought at the Opequan, Fisher's hill 
and Cedar creek, losing ^t, in killed, wounded and missing in the 
last named engagement. The original members not reenlisted were 
mustered out during Dec. 1864, and the regiment was consolidated 
into a battalion of six companies, which received in June, 1865, the 
members of the 114th, ii6th and 133d N. Y. infantry. The regi- 
ment served in the ist brigade of Dwight's division at Washington 
from April to June, 1865. and at Savannah, Ga., from June to July. 
It was then ordered to Hawkinsville, Ga., for a time and concluded 
its term of service at Savannah, where it was mustered out on Feb. 
9, 1866. It lost 60 by death from wounds and 190 from other causes. 

Ninety-first Infantry. — Cols., Jacob Van Zandt. Jonathan Tar- 
bell; Lieut-Cols., Jonathan Tarbell, William J. Denslow; Majs., 
Charles G. Clark. George W. Stackhouse. William J. Denslow, Al- 
fred Wagstafif, Jr. The 91st, the Albany regiment, was recruited 
mainly at Albany, Redford, Hudson, Schenectady, Hillsdale, Chat- 
ham and Castleton, and was mustered in at Albany from Sept. to 
Dec, 1861, for three years. It left the state for Washington Jan. 
9, 1862, was quartered there for a short time, then embarked for 
Fort Pickens, Fla., and was next ordered to Louisiana, where it 
served in the ist brigade. 4th division, 19th corps. It was stationed 
at Fort Jackson, La., in July, 1863, equipped as heavy artillery, and 
was active with heavy loss during the siege of Port Hudson. A 
sufficient number of the regiment reenlisted to secure its continu- 
ance in the field as a veteran regiment and in the autumn of 1864, 
it returned to Baltimore, where it was assigned to the 2nd separate 
brigade, 8th corps. In March, 1865. the regiment, with the excep- 
tion of one company which remained at Baltimore, was ordered to 
Petersburg, where it participated in the closing operations of the 
siege with the ist brigade, 3d division, 5th corps, and lost 230 in 
the Appomattox campaign. The regiment was mustered out near 



New York Regiments 117 

Washington, July 3, 1865, having lost during its term of service 
114 by death from wounds and 188 from other causes. 

Ninety-second Infantry. — Cols., Jonah Sanford, Lewis C. Hunt, 
Thomas S. Hall; Lieut. -Cols., LaFayette Bingham, Hiram Ander- 
son, Truman Adams Merriman; Majs., Thomas S. Hall, Truman A. 
Merriman. The 92nd, the 2nd St. Lawrence county regiment, re- 
cruited in St. Lawrence and Franklin counties, was mustered into 
the U. S. service at Potsdam, Jan. i, 1862, for three years. It left 
for Washington, March 5, 1862, was there assigned to Palmer's 
brigade, Casey's division, 4th corps, and embarked with Gen. Mc- 
Clellan's forces for the Peninsula. The regiment was present during 
the siege of Yorktown and the battle of Williamsburg; suffered the 
loss of 105 killed, wounded or missing at Fair Oaks; shared in the 
Seven Days' battles, and in August was stationed at Camp Hamil- 
ton, Va. In November it was ordered to Suffolk, Va., still with the 
4th corps, and in December, moved to New Berne, N. C, and par- 
ticipated in the Goldsboro expedition. Remaining near New Berne 
as part of the ist brigade, 4th division, i8th corps, until July, the 
regiment served for a short time at Fort Anderson, N. C, and re- 
turned to New Berne in August, where it performed garrison and 
other duties until recalled to Virginia in April, 1864. With the 
same corps the 92nd lost heavily at Cold Harbor and was present 
during the summer before Petersburg. In Nov., 1864. the command 
was ordered to New York harbor, but returned to Petersburg on 
Nov. 17, there to remain until the expiration of its term of service. 
On Jan. 7, 1865, the 92nd was mustered out at Albany, the veterans 
and recruits having been previously transferred to the 96th N. Y. 
infantrJ^ During its term of service the regiment lost 70 by death 
from wounds and 132 bj^ death from other causes. 

Ninety-third Infemtry. — Cols., John S. Crocker, Samuel McCon- 
ihe, Haviland Gifford; Lieut. -Cols., Benjamin C. Butler, Haviland 
Gifford, Jay H. Northrup; Majs., Ambrose S. Cassidy, Samuel Mc- 
Conihe. Henry P. Smith, Jay H. Northrup, George Bushnell. The 
93d, the "Morgan Rifles," recruited mainly in Washington county, 
was mustered into the service of the United States at Albany, from 
Oct., 1861, to Jan., 1862. It left Albany, Feb. 14, 1862, with 998 
members; camped at Riker's island. New York city; moved to 
Washington on March 7; was there attached to Palmer's brigade, 
Casey's division and proceeded to the Peninsula on March 30. It 
was present at the siege of Yorktown; fought at Lee's mills, Will- 
iamsburg and in the Seven Days' battles; and upon the return from 
the Peninsula was present at Antietam and Fredericksburg, but 
was not actively engaged, having been detailed to perform pro- 
vost guard duty at headquarters, a post occupied by the regiment 
for about two years. At the opening of the Wilderness campaign, 
the regiment, of which a large proportion had reenlisted, was as- 
signed to the 2nd brigade, 3d division, 2nd corps, and showed its 
fighting mettle at the Wilderness, where it lost 258 killed or wound- 
ed out of 433 engaged. It was constantly in action during the bat- 
tles of that month; at Cold Harbor in June, and upon the arrival 
of the army at Petersburg, joined in the first assault, followed by 
engagements at the Weldon railroad. Deep Bottom, Strawberry 
Plains, Poplar Spring Church, the Boydton road. Hatcher's run 
and in the Appomattox campaign. The regiment remained at 
Petersburg until the end of the siege and constantly displayed such 
gallantry in action and reliability in the performance of every duty 
that it well deserved the reputation won as an unusually well- 



118 The Union Army 

trained, efficient command and as a "fighting regiment." It lost 
during the term of service 128 by death from wounds and 143 by 
death from other causes. 

Ninety-fourth Infantry. — Cols., Henry K. Viele, Adrian R. Root; 
Lieut.-Cols., Colvin Littlefield, John A. Kress, Samuel Moflfatt; 
Majs., William R. Hanford, John A. Kress, D. C. Tomlinson, Sam- 
uel S. MofTatt, John A. McMahon, Henry P. Fish, Byron Parsons. 
The 94th, the "Bell Rifles," recruited in Jefferson county, was mustered 
into the U. S. service at Sacket's Harbor, March 10, 1862, 
and left the state for Washington on the i8th. It served in the 
defenses of Washington under Gen. Wadsworth, was assigned to 
the 1st brigade, 2nd division. Department of the Rappahannock in 
May, and to the 3d corps, Army of Virginia. June 26, with which it 
participated in Gen. Pope's Virginia campaign, losing 147 in killed, 
wounded and missing. On Sept. 12, with the same brigade and 
division, the regiment was attached to the ist corps, was active at 
South mountain and Antietam, and in December at Fredericksburg. 
The winter was passed in camp near Falmouth and in March, 1863, 
the regiment was consolidated into a battalion of five companies, 
to which were added five companies of the 105th N. Y. infantry. 
The regiment served for a month as provost guard and in June, 
1863, returned to the ist corps with its old brigade and division, 
and suffered the heaviest loss of its service at Gettysburg — 245 
killed, wounded or missing. It shared in the Mine Run fiasco and 
in December was ordered to Annapolis, where it became a part t>f 
the 8th corps. During tlv, winter a large number of its members 
reenlisted and the regiment continued in service as a veteran or- 
ganization. In the Wilderness campaign it served with the Sth 
corps, being engaged at Cold Harbor, Totopotomy and White 
Oak swamp. It moved with the Army of the Potomac to Peters- 
burg and was closely engaged at the Weldon railroad, losing 178 
killed, wounded or missing. On Aug. 10, 1864, the regiment was 
joined by the veterans and recruits of the 97th N. Y. infantry and 
remained on duty before Petersburg until the end of the siege, 
after which it was active at Five Forks, and was present at Lee's 
surrender. The 94th was mustered out at Washington, July 18, 
1865, having lost 116 by death from wounds and 138 from other 
causes, of whom yj died in imprisonment. Maj. Fish was killed in 
action at Five Forks. 

Ninety-fifth Infantry. — Cols., George H. Biddle, Edward Pye, 
James Creney; Lieut.-Cols.. James B. Post. James Creney. Robert 
W. Bard; Majs., Edward Pye, Robert W. Bard, Abram S. Gurnee. 
Henry M. Jennings, Samuel C. Timpson, George D. Knight. The 
95th, the "Warren Rifles," recruited mainly in New York city and 
vicinity, was mustered into the U. S. service at New York, from 
Nov., 1861, to March, 1862, for three years. It left for Washington, 
March 18, was attached to Gen. Wadsworth's forces in the defenses 
there and later to the Department of the Rappahannock at Acquia 
creek. With the 2nd brigade, ist division, 3d corps, it participated 
in the Virginia campaign, suffering a loss of 113 at Manassas and 
the engagements leading up to it. In September, the division was 
transferred to the ist corps; was active at South mountain and 
Antietam, and during the autumn took part in the operations at 
Philomont, Union and Upperville. Va. At Fredericksburg it was 
not placed in an exposed position, and at Chancellorsville and dur- 
ing the remainder of the war it served with the 5th corps, which 
was hotly engaged at Gettysburg, the 9Sth losing 115 in killed. 



New York Regiments 119 

wounded and missing. It was present at Rappahannock Station in 
October and shared in the Mine Run campaign. At Brandy Sta- 
tion, the winter quarters of the division, most of the members of 
the 95th reenlisted, securing its continuance as a veteran regiment. 
It was constantly engaged during the campaign under Gen. Grant 
in the spring and summer of 1864, lost 174 men at the Wilderness, 
and day by day thereafter suflfered depletion of its ranks. Col. 
Pye was mortally wounded at Cold Harbor. The regiment was 
active in different stations before Petersburg, at the Weldon rail- 
road, Poplar Spring Church, Hatcher's run, in the Hicksford raid, 
and in the Appomattox campaign. It was mustered out at Wash- 
ington, July 16, 1865, having lost 119 by death from wounds and 
136 from other causes, of whom 80 died in imprisonment. 

Ninety-sixth infantry. — Cols., James Fairman, Charles O. Gray, 
Edgar M. Cullen. Stephen Mofifitt; Lieut.-Cols., Charles O. Gray, 
Addis E. WoodhuU, Gerard L. McKenzie, Stephen MoflStt, George 
W. Hindes; Majs., John E. Kelly, Charles H. Burhaus, Henry I. 
Pierce, George W. Hindes, Courtland G. Babcock. The 96th, 
known as the Plattsburg regiment, was recruited mainly at Platts- 
burg and vicinity, and there mustered into the U. S. service on 
Feb. 20 and March 7, 1862, for three years. It left for Washington 
or March 11, was assigned to the ist brigade, 3d division, 4th corps, 
and embarked for the Peninsula; was present at the siege of York- 
town; fought in the battles of Williamsburg, Bottom's bridge and 
Savage Station; lost heavily at Fair Oaks; participated in the Sev- 
en Days' battles, and was stationed at Camp Hamilton, Va., until 
November, when it was ordered to Suffolk, where it remained for 
a month. With the ist brigade, ist division, it was then ordered to 
North Carolina and served in the i8th corps at New Berne and 
vicinity. It also participated in the Goldsboro expedition. Col. 
Gray being mortally wounded at Kinston. The 18th corps was 
transferred to the Army of the James in April, 1864, and the 96th 
formed a part of the ist brigade, ist division. During May it was 
present at Swift creek. Proctor's creek, Drewry's bluflf and Bermu- 
da Hundred, and joined the Army of the Potomac at Cold Harbor 
at the beginning of that battle. It then remained with the forces 
besieging Richmond until the end of the war, with the exception 
of the month of Nov., 1864, when it was ordered to New York 
harbor. Upon the organization of the 24th corps, the 96th became 
a part of the 3d division, remained in the field as a veteran regi- 
ment and received in Dec, 1864, the veterans and recruits of the 
92nd N. Y. infantry. The regiment was active at Fort Harrison, 
with a total loss of 103 killed, wounded or missing; at Fair Oaks, 
and in the general assault on the Petersburg works, April 2, 1865. 
On June 13, 1865, the Ii8th and 184th N. Y. infantry were assigned 
to the 96th, and the regiment mustered out at City Point, Va., Feb. 
6, 1866, having been retained in service in the vicinity of Richmond 
for the performance of various necessary police and garrison du- 
ties. During its term of service the regiment lost 70 by death from 
wounds and 160 from other causes, of whom 36 died in prison. 

Ninety-seventh Infantry. — ^Cols., Charles Wheelock, John P. 
Spoiford; Lieut.-Cols., John P. Spofford, Rouse S. Eggleston; Majs., 
Charles Northrup, Rouse S. Eggleston. Delos E. Hall. The 97th, 
called the Conkling Rifles, was recruited in Oneida and Herkimer 
counties and mustered into the U. S. service at Boonville, Feb. 19. 
1862, for a three years' term. It left for Washington on March 12; 
was quartered at Fort Corcoran as part of Gen. Wadsworth's com- 



130 The Union Army 

mand until May, when it was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 2nd di- 
vision. Department of the Rappahannock and moved into Virginia, 
where it occupied various posts in the neighborhood of the Rappa- 
hannock river; was engaged at Cedar mountain, and lost III in 
killed, wounded and missing in the Manassas campaign. On Sept. 
12, the regiment, which had served with the 3d corps, was assigned 
to the ist corps and fought in the ist brigade, 2nd division at South 
mountain and Antietam, suflfering in the latter battle the most 
severe loss of any battle of its service — 24 killed, 74 wounded and 
9 missing. At Fredericksburg the regiment was prominently en- 
gaged, but not at Chancellorsville in the following May. It marched 
with the corps to Gettysburg and distinguished itself by the bril- 
liantly executed capture of the colors of the 20th N. C. and 382 
prisoners. On the southward march it was present at Bristoe Sta- 
tion, and was in the Mine Run movement. While in camp at Brandy 
station, a sufficient number reenlisted to secure the continuance of 
the 97th in the field as a veteran regiment. In June, 1864, it was 
joined by the veterans and recruits of the 83d N. Y. infantry and in 
August, by the 94th, the 26th N. Y. having already been added to it 
in May, 1863. During Grant's famous campaign the 97th served in 
the 3d and 2nd divisions, 5th corps. Its heaviest losses during this 
campaign and subsequent operations were in the Wilderness, at 
Spottsjdvania and near the Weldon railroad, but it shared in other 
engagements of the brigade at the North Anna river. Totopotomy, 
Cold Harbor, White Oak Swamp, before Petersburg, in the Hick^ 
ford raid and th-e Appomattox campaign. It was mustered out near 
Washington, July 18, 1865, having lost during service 182 by death 
from wounds and 157 by death from accident, imprisonment or dis- 
ease, of whom 54 died in captivity. 

Ninety-eighth Infantry. — Cols., William Dutton, Charles Dur- 
kee, Frederick M. Wead, William Kreutzer; Lieut. -Cols., Charles Dur- 
kee, Frederick M. Wead, William Kreutzer, William H. Rogers; 
Majs., Albon Mann, George H. Clark, William Hunt Rogers, Al- 
bert C. Wells. The 98th, the Wayne county regiment, was re- 
cruited mainly in Wayne county and mustered into the U. S. serv- 
ice at Malone and Lyons in Feb., 1862, for a three years' term. It 
left for Washington on March 8; was assigned to the 3d brigade, 
3d division, 4th corps, with which it embarked for the Peninsula; 
was present at the siege of Yorktown and the battles of Williams- 
burg and Savage Station, but was not closely engaged until the 
battle of Fair Oaks, where the total loss of the regiment was 71 
killed, wounded or missing. It was held in reserve during the 
Seven Days' battles and stationed at Yorktown at the time of the 
second battle of Bull Run. Assigned to the Department of North Caro- 
lina in Dec, 1862, it became a part of the 1st brigade, 2nd division, i8th 
corps in Jan., 1863, and served until the following October at vari- 
ous posts held by that corps. Returning to Virginia, it served un- 
til April, 1864, at Newport News, Portsmouth and in the Currituck 
district, and was then attached to the ist brigade, ist division, i8th 
corps, until the organization of the 24th corps in December, when 
it became a part of the 3d division of that corps, with which it 
remained during the war. It was engaged at Swift creek and Proc- 
tor's creek, Drewry's blufif and Bermuda Hundred, in May, 1864; 
joined the Army of the Potomac before Cold Harbor and there lost 
114 in killed, wounded and missing; was active in the battles at 
Fort Harrison, Fair Oaks, and in the final assault on the Peters- 
burg works, April 2, 1865. The regiment was mustered out on 



New York Regiments 121 

Aug. 31, 1865, at Richmond, having lost 102 by death from wounds 
and 136 by death from accident, imprisonment or disease. From 
June 19, 1865, the 139th N. Y. served with the 98th. 

Ninety-ninth Infantry. — Col., David W. Wardrop; Lieut.-Cols., Gus- 
tave B. Helleday, Richard Nixon; Majs., Richard Nixon, John Frank- 
lin Bates, T. Edward Rawlings. The 99th known as the Union 
coast guard, or Bartlett's naval brigade, was organized early in the 
war in New York city, and was mustered into the state service (six 
companies) May 14, 1861. The brigade was to be provided with 
gunboats and cruise along the Atlantic coast. The organization 
left the state May 28, 1861, proceeding to Fortress Monroe, Va., 
where it reported to Maj.-Gen. Butler for duty, but was not ac- 
cepted by that officer. In Aug., 1861, it was reorganized as a regi- 
ment of infantry by order of the war department, and eight com- 
panies were mustered into the U. S. service between June 14 and 
Oct. 21, 1861, for three years. Two more companies were organized 
in Sept., 1861, and March. 1862, and on June 14, 1864, on the expi- 
ration of its term of service the original members (except veterans) 
were mustered out, the veterans and recruits being consolidated 
into a battalion of four companies, A, B, C and D. These were 
consolidated into three companies, Sept. 15, 1864; and finally into 
two companies in Feb., 1865. A detachment of the regiment, op- 
erating as a coast guard, participated in a skirmish near New Mar- 
ket bridge, Va., in July, 1861, losing 6 killed and wounded, Maj. 
Rawlings being killed in this action. Detachments also took part 
in the skirmishes at Fletcher's wharf, on the Pocomoco. and at 
Cherry Stone inlet, Va., the capture of Forts Clark and Hatteras, 
Hatteras inlet, and a skirmish at Beacon island, N. C. On the 
steamers Southfield and Hunchback, Co. B formed part of Burn- 
side's forces, and accompanied the expedition of that general to 
North Carolina in Feb., 1862, taking part in the battle of Roanoke 
island, and the action at Elizabeth City; Co. D, on the U. S. frig- 
ate Congress, took part in the naval engagement in Hampton Roads, 
in March, 1862, losing 2 killed and 5 wounded. Co. B was again 
in action at New Berne, where it lost 19 killed, wounded and miss- 
ing, and in April, 1862, assisted in the siege and capture of Fort 
Macon, N. C. A part of the regiment participated in the skirmish 
at Tranter's creek, and the occupation of Norfolk, Va., and Co. I, 
on the steamer C. P. Smith, skirmished near Windsor Shade, Chick- 
ahominy river, Va., and on the James river, near Harrison's land- 
ing. During the latter part of 1862, and until March, 1863, the regi- 
ment (except Co. I, on the gunboats West End and Smith Briggs) 
served by detachments at Fortress Monroe, Norfolk, Fort Wool 
and Sewall's point, Va. In the spring of 1863, it took an active 
part in the defense of Suffolk, during which Co. I suffered severely 
in the attack on the steamer Smith Briggs, and the regiment met 
with further losses in the skirmishes on the South Quay road and 
at South Quay bridge. The casualties during the siege aggregated 
71 killed and wounded. It was at this time attached to the re- 
serve brigade. Peck's division, 7th corps, and afterwards served in 
Wistar's brigade, Department of Virginia, at the White House, 
Yorktown and Gloucester. In May it skirmished at Antioch Church 
and Baker's cross-roads, Va., and in June at Franklin, Va. Detach- 
ments were also engaged at Walkerstown, Va., and at South Anna 
Bridge. In Oct., 1863, the regiment was ordered to New Berne, 
N. C, and attached to the i8th corps and from Jan. to April, 1864, 
was in Palmer's brigade, Peck's division, i8th corps. It sustained 



122 The Union Army 

a loss of sev^eral men captured in the affair at Smithfield, Va., in 
Jan., 1864, and met with a further loss of 34 men during the attack 
on New Berne, in February. The regiment, now consolidated into 
a veteran battalion, continued to serve in North Carolina, taking 
part in a skirmish at Beech Grove, and closed its active service by 
embarking on the campaign of the Carolinas in 1865, as a part of 
Carter's division, provisional corps, afterwards in the ist brigade, 
2nd division, 23d corps. It was present at Johnston's surrender, 
and was finally mustered out, July 15, 1865, at Salisbury, N. C. The 
regiment lost during its term of service, 2 officers, yj enlisted men, 
killed and mortally wounded; 3 ofificers, 161 enlisted men died of 
disease and other causes; total deaths, 203; of these, 71 enlisted 
men died in the hands of the enemy. 

One Hundredth Infantry. — Cols., James M. Brown. George F. B. 
Dandy; Lieut. -Cols., Phineas Stanton, Calvin N. Otis, Louis S. 
Payne, Warren Granger; Majs., Calvin N. Otis, Daniel D. Nash, 
James H. Dandy, George H. Stowitz, Frederick A. Sawyer. The 
looth, known as the 2nd regiment. Eagle brigade, or the 3d Buffalo 
regiment, was principally recruited at Buffalo, where it was organ- 
ized, and mustered into the U. S. service from Sept., 1861, to Jfan., 
1862, for three years. This regiment is included by Col. Fox among the 
"three hundred fighting regiments" of the war and earned its reputation 
for gallantry on many a hard fought field. It left the state for 
"Washington on March 10, 1862, 960 strong, and soon after its ar- 
rival was assigned to Naglee's (ist) brigade, Casey's (2nd) di-^- 
sion, 4th corps. It joined in McClellan's Peninsular campaign, its 
losses at Fair Oaks being particularly severe — 176 killed, wounded 
and missing. Col. Brown was killed here and Col. Dandy, of the 
regular army, was assigned to the command of the regiment. At 
the conclusion of this campaign it was stationed for several months 
at Gloucester point and Yorktown, and then moved with its bri- 
gade to North Carolina. The regiment was present at all the 
operations about Charleston harbor during the spring of 1863, and, 
under the command of Col. Dandy, engaged in the desperate as- 
sault on Fort Wagner in July. While the assault was unsuccess- 
ful the regiment behaved with signal gallantry, planting the flag 
presented to it by the board of trade of Buffalo, on the fort, though 
at a fearful cost of life. The brave color-sergeant fell dead beside 
the colors, and the regiment sustained a loss of 49 killed. 97 wound- 
ed and 29 missing — a total of 175 out of 478 engaged. Its loss 
here of 66 killed and mortally wounded amounts to over 13 per 
cent, of those in action. During the subsequent siege of Fort Wag- 
ner its losses were 11 killed, 31 wounded and 7 missing. It next 
took part in the operations in Charleston harbor from September 
to December, attached to Terry's division, loth corps, but sustained 
jio further losses in action. In Plaisted's brigade, Foster's (ist) 
division, loth corps, the regiment sailed up the James river in May, 
1864, with the Army of the James, under Gen. Butler, and took 
part during that month in the operations against Petersburg and 
Richmond, engaging the enemy at Port Walthall Junction, Chester 
Station, Swift creek, Procter's creek, Drewry's bluff and Bermuda 
Hundred. Its losses during this campaign were again very heavy, 
amounting to 280 in killed, wounded and missing. It was next 
engaged in the assault on the works of Petersburg, the battles of 
Deep Bottom. Strawberry Plains, Fort Harrison, Darbytown road 
and Fair Oaks. In the action at Strawberry Plains it lost 81 in 
killed, wounded and missing, at Fair Oaks, the loss was 17, and 



New York Regiments 13^3 

while in the trenches before Petersburg it met with frequent cas- 
ualties, aggregating 28 killed, wounded and missing. The loth 
corps was discontinued in Dec, 1864, and the regiment became 
a part of the 3d (Plaisted's) brigade, ist (Terry's) division, 24th 
corps. It was actively engaged at the fall of Petersburg, April 2, 
1865, when it made a gallant and successful assault on Fort Gregg, 
and sustained a loss of 59 in killed and wounded; among the for- 
mer was Maj. James H. Dandy, a brave and efficient officer. It then 
participated in the pursuit of Lee and was present at Appomattox. 
On the expiration of its term of enlistment the original members, 
except veterans, were mustered out, and the regiment, composed 
of veterans and recruits, continued in service. In July, 1865, it 
was consolidated with the 148th and 158th N. Y., and was finally 
mustered out of service, under Col. Dandy, Aug. 28, 1865, at Rich- 
mond, Va. Corp. John Kane was awarded a medal of honor for 
gallantry. Its loss during service was 12 officers and 182 enlisted 
men killed and mortally wounded; i officer and 131 enlisted men 
died of disease and other causes; 71 enlisted died in Confederate 
prisons — total, 397, out of a total strength of 1,491. 

One Hundred and First Infantry. — Cols., Enrico Fardella, George 
F. Chester; Lieut-Cols., Johnson B. Brown, Gustavus Sniper; Majs., 
Gustavus Sniper, Samuel L. Mitchell. This regiment, known as the 
Union brigade or Onondaga regiment, was organized at Hancock, 
Jan. 3, 1862, was recruited in the counties of Delaware, New York 
and Onondaga, and was mustered in from Sept. 2, 1861, to Feb. 28, 
1862. It left the state for Washington March 9, 1862, and in June 
was assigned to Kearny's famous division, 3d corps, with which it 
took part in the Seven Days' battles, fighting at Oak Grove, Glen- 
dale, and Malvern hill, with a loss during the campaign of 7 killed, 
15 wounded and 22 missing. On Aug. 14, the regiment marched 
with the 3d corps to Yorktown, whence it embarked for Alexandria, 
and proceeded from there to Warrenton Junction, where it was 
sent to reinforce Gen. Pope. It was engaged at Groveton, the 
second Bull Run and Chantilly, sustaining a loss at Bull Run of 6 
killed, loi wounded, and 17 missing, a total of 124 out of 168 en- 
gaged, or over "jz per cent. — a percentage only exceeded in any one 
battle by two other regiments in the Union Army. It was active 
at the battle of Fredericksburg in December, losing 13 killed and 
wounded. On Dec. 24, 1862, it was transferred to the 37th N. Y. 
infantry and the officers were mustered out. The regiment lost 
during service i officer and 25 enlisted men killed and mortally 
wounded; i officer and 48 enlisted men died of disease and other 
causes; total, 2 officers and T^ enlisted men. 

One Hundred and Second Infantry. — Cols.. Thomas B. Van 
Buren, James C. Lane. Herbert Hamimerstien. Harvey S. Chatfield; 
Lieut.-Cols., William B. Hayward, James C. Lane, Harvey S. Chat- 
field, Oscar J. Spaulding; Majs., James C. Lane, F. Eugene Trot- 
ter, Gilbert M. Elliott, Lewis R. Stegman. Oscar J. Spaulding, Reu- 
ben H. Wilber. This regiment, known as the Van Buren light in- 
fantry, was principally recruited at New York city, and was formed 
by the consolidation of the Von Beck rifles under Col. R. H. Shan- 
non, and part of the McClellan infantry under Col. S. Levy, with 
Col. Van Buren's command. The organization was completed later 
by the addition of two companies from the 78th Cameron High- 
landers and Co. A, 12th militia, and was mustered into the U. S. 
service from Nov., 1861, to April, 1862. In July, 1864, its ranks 
were filled by the transfer of the officers and men of the 78th N. Y. 



124 The Union Army 

infantry. On the expiration of its term of service the original 
members (except veterans) were mustered out, and the regiment, 
composed of veterans and recruits continued in service. Early in 
June, 1865, it received by transfer the remaining men of the 119th, 
154th, 137th, 149th, 134th, and 184th N. Y. Vols. The regiment, 
eight companies, left the state on March 10, 1862, followed by Cos. 
I and K on April 7. Assigned to the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 
2nd corps, Army of Virginia, it fought its first severe engagement 
at Cedar mountain, where its loss was 115 killed, wounded and 
missing. The regiment then moved with its corps to the support 
of Pope, fought at the second battle of Bull Run, and went into 
position at Chantilly, but was not engaged. In the same brigade 
and division. 12th corps, it was actively engaged at Antietam, los- 
ing 2)7 killed, wounded and missing, and was then successively en- 
gaged in the minor actions at Lovettsville, Ripon, Hillsboro, Win- 
chester, Wolf Run shoal, and Fairfax Station, going into winter 
quarters at Stafford Court House. At the battle of Chancellors- 
ville the 102nd. which fought in Geary's division of the 12th corps, 
lost 90 killed, wounded and missing. It was heavily engaged with 
the "White Star"' division at Gettysburg, where its total loss was 
29. It followed with its corps in pursuit of Lee's fleeing army, be- 
ing engaged at Ellis' ford and Stevensburg, and in the latter part 
of September moved with the corps to Tennessee to reinforce Ge«. 
Rosecrans. It engaged in the midnight battle of Wauhatchie; then 
started on the Chattanooga and Rossville campaign, fighting the 
famous "Battle above the clouds" on Lookout mountain, where the 
division led the advance; then fought at Missionary ridge and Ring- 
gold gap, its loss in the campaign being 14 killed, wounded and 
missing. In the same brigade and division, 20th corps, the 102nd 
was with Gen. Sherman all through his Atlanta campaign, fighting 
at Villanow, Mill Creek gap, Resaca, Calhoun, Cassville, Dallas, 
Acworth, Kennesaw mountain, Chattahoochee river, Peachtree 
creek, where its losses amounted to 53 in killed, wounded and miss- 
ing, and at Bald hill. It moved in November with Sherman's army 
on the march to the sea, shared in the siege of Savannah, its active 
service closing with the campaign in the Carolinas, during which it 
was engaged at Wadesboro, Averasboro, Bentonville, Goldsboro, 
Raleigh, and Bennett's house, losing 18 killed, wounded and miss- 
ing during this final campaign. It was mustered out under Col. 
Chatfield, July 21, 1865, at Alexandria, Va. During its long and 
honorable service the 102nd buried its dead in seven states, and 
participated in over 40 battles and minor engagements. It partici- 
pated in many a famous charge, one of the most gallant being at 
Lookout mountain, where the regiment, as part of Ireland's bri- 
gade, struck the enemy on the flank and drove him in confusion 
from the field. It belonged to the gallant White Star division, 
commanded by Gen. Geary, who complimented the regiment as 
follows: "It may safely be asserted that no organization in the 
army has a prouder record, or has passed through more arduous, 
varied and bloody campaigns." The loss of the regiment during 
service was 7 officers and 67 men killed and mortally wounded; 82 
men died of disease, accident, etc., a total of 7 officers and 149 en- 
listed men. The gallant Maj. Elliott was killed in action at Look- 
out mountain. 

One Hundred and Third Infantry. — Cols., Baron Fred W. Von 
Egloffstein, Benjamin Ringold, Wilhelm Heine; Lieut. -Cols., Kas- 
per Schneider, Julius C. Kretschmar, Julius E. Quentin, Andreas 



New York Regiments 125 

Wettstien; Majs., Julius C. Kretschmar, Julius E. Quentin, Benja- 
min Ringold, Joseph Morrison. This regiment, known as the Sew- 
ard infantry, recruited in the counties of New York and Chemung 
and organized at New York city, March i, 1862, was mustered into 
the U. S. service from Nov. 1861, to March, 1862, for three years. 
Co. C was mustered out May 8, 1862. On the expiration of its 
term of service the original members (except veterans) were mus- 
tered out at New York city, under Col. Heine, and the veterans 
and recruits were consolidated on March 4, 1865, into a battalion 
of three companies. This battalion was retained in service until 
Dec. 7, 1865, when it was mustered out, under Capt. William Red- 
lich, at City Point. Va. The regiment left the state on March 5, 
1862, and was stationed for a month at Washington and Norfolk, 
when it was assigned to the ist brigade, 2nd division. Department 
of North Carolina, and took part in the actions at Foy's plantation, 
Fort Macon, Gillett's farm, Haughton's mill and Dismal swamp, 
N. C. When the 9th corps was formed in July, 1862, the 103d was 
assigned to the ist brigade, 3d division, and moved with the corps, 
under Maj.-Gen. Reno, on McClellan's Maryland campaign in Sep- 
tember. It was heavily engaged at Antietam, losing 117 officers 
and men in killed, wounded and missing, its severest loss being 
incurred in the gallant charge at the stone bridge. Among the 
mortally wounded were Capts. Henry A. Sand and William 
Brandt. On Nov. 15 it was engaged at Fayetteville. and lost 25 in 
killed, wounded and missing at the battle of Fredericksburg in De- 
cember. With the /th corps it took part in the siege of Suffolk 
in the spring of 1863, and lost 20 in killed, wounded and missing 
at Providence Church road, Col. Ringold being among the killed. 
In August it was ordered to South Carolina, where it took part in 
the siege of Fort Wagner and the subsequent operations about 
Charleston harbor. During the actions on James island, in May, 
June and July, 1864, it lost 45 men in killed, wounded and miss- 
ing. In Dec, 1864, it was assigned to the ist brigade, Ferrero's 
division, Army of the James, at Bermuda Hundred, Va., and took 
part in the siege of Petersburg until its fall on April 2. 1865, but 
sustained no further losses in battle. During its term of service it 
lost 4 officers and 61 men killed and mortally wounded; 3 officers 
and 100 men died of disease and other causes, a total of 7 officers 
and 161 men. 

One Hundred and Fourth Infantry, — Cols., John Rohrbach, 
Lewis C. Skinner, Gilbert G. Prey, John R. Strang; Lieut.-Cols., 
R. Wells Kenyon, Lewis C. Skinner, Gilbert G. Prey, Henry G. 
Tuthill, John R. Strang. H. A. Wiley; Majs., Lewis C. Skinner, 
Gilbert G. Prey, John R. Strang, Henry V. Colt, Henry A. Wiley, 
William C. Wilson. This regiment, known as the Wadsworth 
Guards, or the Livingston county regiment, was recruited in the 
counties of Albany, Genesee, Livingston, Monroe, Rensselaer and 
Steuben. It was organized at Albany by the consolidation of the 
Morgan Guards, under Col. John J. Viele, with the Genesee regi- 
ment under Col. Rohrbach, and was mustered into the U. .S. service 
from September. 1861, to March, 1862, for three years. On the ex- 
piration of its term of service a sufficient number reenlisted to 
enable it to continue in service as a veteran organization. The 
regiment left the state on March 22, 1862, and served for some 
weeks in Gen. Wadsworth's command in the District of Washing- 
ton. As a part of the 3d corps, it was in action for the first time 
at Cedar mountain, but about a week later it was assigned to the ist 



126 The Union Army 

brigade, 2nd division, ist corps, and moved on Pope's Virginia 
campaign, being engaged at Rappahannock Station, Thoroughfare 
gap, Bull Run, and Little River turnpike, with a loss during the 
campaign of 89 killed, wounded and missing. Lieut. John P. Rudd, 
who fell at Bull Run, was the first man of the regiment to be killed. 
In September the 104th moved on the Maryland campaign under 
Gen. McClellan; fought at South mountain, and lost 82 in killed, 
wounded and missing at Antietam, where the ist corps, under Gen. 
Hooker, opened the battle. At Fredericksburg it lost 52 killed, 
wounded and missing; was in reserve at Chancellorsville; was heav- 
ily engaged at Gettysburg, where it lost 194 in killed, wounded and 
missing; engaged without loss in the Mine Run campaign, the last 
campaign of the old ist corps. In March, 1864, it was assigned to 
the 5th corps, with which it continued during the remainder of the 
war. It took part in all the bloody battles of the Wilderness cam- 
paign, losing heavily at Spottsylvania, the first assaults on Peters- 
burg, and at the Weldon railroad. After Aug., 1864, it performed 
provost guard duty with its corps, and served with slight loss through 
the final battles of the war, ending with Lee's surrender at Appo- 
mattox. It was mustered out under Col. Strang, at Washington, 
D. C., Julj"^ 17, 1865, having lost during its term of service 5 officers and 
85 enlisted men killed and mortally wounded; 2 officers and 145 enlist- 
ed men by disease and other causes, a total of 22,T. 

One Hundred and Fifth Infantry. — Cols., James M. Fuller, Howard 
Carroll, John W. Shedd; Lieut.-Cols., Henry L. Achilles, Howard Car- 
roll, Richard Whiteside; Majs., John W. Shedd, Daniel A. Sharp. This 
regiment, known as the Le Roy or Rochester regiment, was recruited 
in the counties of Cattaraugus, Genesee, Monroe and Niagara, and was 
organized March 15, 1862, by the consolidation of the regiment being 
recruited at Rochester under Col. Howard Carroll, with one being re- 
cruited at LeRoy under Col. James M. Fuller. The 105th was mustered 
into the U. S. service from Nov., 1861, to March, 1862, for three years; 
left the state on April 4, was stationed for a month at Washington; 
then as part of the ist brigade, 2nd division, 3d corps, Army of Vir- 
ginia, it participated in its first battle at Cedar mountain, where 8 were 
wounded. A week later it moved on Gen. Pope's Virginia campaign, 
culminating in the second battle of Bull Run, its loss in the campaign 
being 89 killed, wounded and missing. In the ensuing Maryland 
campaign under McClellan, it fought in the same brigade and divi- 
sion, but the corps was now called the ist and Hooker had suc- 
ceeded McDowell in command. The regiment had slight losses at 
South mountain, but suffered severely at Antietam, where the ist 
corps opened the battle, losing 74 killed, wounded and missing. It 
was prominently engaged at Fredericksburg, where Gen. Reynolds 
commanded the ist corps, the 105th losing 78 killed, wounded and 
missing. It had become much reduced in numbers, and in March, 
1863, was consolidated into five companies, F, G, H, I and K, and 
transferred to the 94th N. Y. infantry, (q. v.) It had lost during 
service 2 officers and 48 enlisted men killed and mortally wounded; 
45 enlisted men who died of disease and other causes, a total of 
95. Its gallant Lieut.-Col. Howard Carroll was among the mor- 
tally wounded at Antietam. 

One Hundred and Sixth Infantry. — Cols., Schuyler F. Judd, Ed- 
ward C. James, Frederick E. Embrick, Lewis F. Barney, Andrew 
N. McDonald; Lieut.-Cols., Edward C. James, Fred. E. Embrick, 
Charles Townsend, Andrew N. McDonald, Henry C. Allen, A. W. 
Briggs; Majs., Charles Townsend, Andrew N. McDonald, Edward 



New York Regiments 137 

M. Paine, Henry C. Allen, William P. Huxford. This was a St. 
Lawrence county regiment, organized at Ogdensburg, and there 
mustered into the U. S. service for three years Aug. 27, 1862. It 
left the state the following day and during its long period of serv- 
ice established a reputation for itself which entitles it to rank 
among the three hundred fighting regiments of the war. It took 
part in the following battles: Fairmount and Martinsburg, W. Va.; 
Culpeper, Mine Run, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna river, 
Totopotomoy, Cold Harbor, first assault on Petersburg, and the 
Weldon railroad, Va.; Monocacy, Md., Charlestown, W. Va., Opequan, 
Fisher's hill, Cedar Creek, Va.; fall of Petersburg, Sailor's 
creek, and was present at Wapping heights, siege of Petersburg, 
Hatcher's run and Appomattox. After leaving the state it served 
first in the railroad division, 8th corps, Middle Department, and 
was then ordered to New creek, W. Va. The following is quoted 
from Col. Fox's account of the regiment: "Companies D and F 
were captured, April 29, 1863, at Fairmount, W. Va., where they 
defended a railroad bridge for several hours against a large force 
of Confederates. The captured men were immediately released 
on parole. The regiment left North mountain, June 13, 1863, and, with 
the other troops in that vicinity, retired before the advance of Lee's 
army. It joined the Army of the Potomac, July 10, 1863, while 
near Frederick, Md., and with other new material was organized 
as the 3d division (Carr's) of the 3d corps. This division was 
transferred in March. 1864, to the 6th corps, and its command given 
to Gen. Ricketts. While in the 6th corps the regiment saw hard 
service and almost continuous fighting. At Cold Harbor it lost 23 
killed, 88 wounded, and 23 missing, — Lieut. -Col. Charles Townsend 
and 3 other officers being among the killed. The corps was ordered 
soon afterward to Maryland, where, at the battle of Monocacy, the 
regiment sustained another severe loss. It was actively engaged in the 
Shenandoah Valley, in all the battles of the corps, and then, re- 
turning to Petersburg, participated in the final campaign. At 
Spottsylvania the casualties in the regiment aggregated 6 killed and 
32 wounded; at the Opequan, 6 killed, 45 wounded, and 3 missing; 
and at Cedar creek, 8 killed and 45 wounded. Gen. Ricketts was 
wounded at Cedar creek, after which the division was commanded 
by Gen. Seymour." The regiment was mustered out at Washing- 
ton, D. C, June 22 and 27. 1865. During its term of service it lost 
10 officers and 127 men killed and died of wounds; 4 officers and 
166 men died of disease, accident, etc., a total of 307, of whom 52 
men died in prison. The total enrollment was 1,367, of whom 10 per 
cent, were killed in action. 

One Hundred and Seventh Infantry. — Cols., Robert B. Van Val- 
kenburgh, Alexander S. Diven. Nirom M. Crane; Lieut. -Cols., Al- 
exander S. Diven, Gabriel L. Smith, Newton T. Colby, William F. 
Fox, Lathrop Baldwin, Allen S. Sill; Majs., Gabriel L. Smith, New- 
ton T. Colby, William F. Fox, Lathrop Baldwin, Allen S. Sill,. 
Charles J. Fox. This regiment, known as the Campbell Guards, 
was recruited in the counties of Chemung, Schuyler and Steuben, 
rendezvoused at Elmira, and was there mustered into the U. S. 
service for three years, Aug. 13, 1862. It was a fine regiment, noted 
for its efficiency and discipline, the first regiment from the North 
organized under the second call, and the first to arrive at Wash- 
ington, in acknowledgment of which it received a banner from the 
state and a personal visit from the president. It was raised by two 
patriotic members of the legislature, Robert B. Van Valkenburg, 



128 The Union Army 

and Alexander S. Diven, who became colonel and lieutenant-colonel, 
respectively. It left the state on Aug. 13, 1862; was stationed in the 
defenses of Washington for a month; was then assigned to the 
1st division (Williams), 12th corps (Mansfield), and fought its first 
battle at Antietam, where it was heavily engaged, losing 63 in 
killed, wounded and missing. The veteran Gen. Mansfield fell, 
mortally wounded at Antietam, and Gen. Henry W. Slocum suc- 
ceeded to the command of the corps. The regiment was again 
heavily engaged at the disastrous battle of Chancellorsville, where 
the brunt of the fighting fell on the 3d and 12th corps, and lost in 
this action 83 killed, wounded and missing, among the killed being 
Capt. Nathaniel E. Rutter. The regiment was only slightly en- 
gaged at Gettysburg, and after the battle joined with its corps in 
pursuit of Lee into Virginia, engaging without loss at Jones' cross- 
roads and near Williamsport, Md. In September it was ordered 
with the corps to Tennessee to reinforce Rosecrans, and was sta- 
tioned along the railroad from Murfreesboro to Bridgeport. In 
April, 1864, the 12th corps was changed to the 20th, but Williams' 
division retained its red star. On Dec. 9, 1863, four cos. of the 
145th were transferred to the 107th, and in May the regiment moved 
on the Atlanta campaign. It fought at Resaca, Cassville, and Dal- 
las, and lost 26 killed and 141 wounded at New Hope Church. 
From June 9 to July 2 it was engaged about Kennesaw mountain; 
fought at Peachtree creek and took part in the siege of Atlanta; 
moved in November on Sherman's march to the sea; then took 
part in the final campaign of the Carolinas, being engaged at Rock- 
ingham, Fayetteville, Averasboro (where it lost 46 killed, wounded 
and missing), Bentonville, Raleigh and Bennett's house. It was 
mustered out near Washington, D. C., under Col. Crane, June 5, 
1865, having lost during its term of service 4 officers and 87 en- 
listed men, killed and died of wounds; 131 enlisted men died of 
disease, accidents, in prison, etc., total deaths, 222. 

One Hundred and Eighth Infantry. — Cols., Oliver H. Palmer, 
Charles J. Powers; Lieut. -Cols., Charles J. Powers, Francis E. 
Pierce; Majs., George B. Force, Francis E. Pierce, Harmon S. 
Hogaboom, William H. Andrews. The io8th regiment was re- 
cruited and organized at Rochester, where it was mustered into the 
U. S. service for three years, Aug. 16-18, 1862. It left the state the 
following day, and served in the defenses of Washington, until 
Sept. 6, when it was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 3d division 
(French's), 2nd corps, and engaged in its first battle at Antietam. 
The new regiment suffered a loss in the battle of 30 killed. 122 
wounded and 43 missing. Its next battle was at Fredericksburg, 
where Gen. Couch commanded the corps, and the regiment again 
suffered severely, losing 92 in killed, wounded and missing. Its 
loss at Chancellorsville was 52, Gen. Hancock being in command 
of the corps and Gen. Alex. Hays the division. At Gettysburg, 
where the regiment again met with a severe loss on the second 
and third days, its casualties amounted to 102 killed and wounded. 
In October it was engaged with some loss at Auburn and Bristoe 
Station, a 2nd corps affair; was active during the Mine Run cam- 
paign at the close of the year, and at the battle of Morton's ford 
in Feb., 1864. On the reorganization of the Army of the Potomac 
in March, 1864, the 3d division was consolidated with the ist and 
2nd, the io8th being assigned to the 3d brigade, 2nd division, 2nd 
corps, with which it crossed the Rapidan and engaged in the Wil- 
derness campaign. It lost 52 at the battle of the Wilderness, 53 



New York Regiments 139 

at Spottsylvania. suffered constant losses in the subsequent bat- 
tles leading up to Petersburg, and in the battles at the Weldon 
railroad, Deep Bottom, Strawberry Plains, Reams' station, Boyd- 
ton plank road, Hatcher's run, the final assault on Petersburg, and 
fought its last battle at Farmville, two days before Lee's surren- 
der. It was mustered out under Col. Powers, May 28, 1865, at 
Bailey's cross-roads, Va., and the men not then entitled to dis- 
charge were transferred to the 59th N. Y. Maj. Force was killed 
at Antietam, and both Col. Palmer and Col. Powers were promot- 
ed to the rank of brevet brigadier-general for faithful and meri- 
torious services. The regiment lost during service 9 officers and 
106 men killed and mortally wounded; 90 men died of disease and 
other causes, a total of 205. Among the many brilliant achieve- 
ments of the regiment, it is related that in the fight at Morton's 
ford the io8th advanced rapidly and without firing a shot to a 
stone wall occupied by the enemy, when they delivered a volley 
and with shouts leaped over the wall and were soon in possession 
of an important position which virtually decided the contest. 

One Hundred and Ninth Infantry. — Cols., Benjamin F. Tracy, 
Isaac S. Catlin; Lieut. -Cols., Isaac S. Catlin, Philo B. Stilson; Majs., 
Philo B. Stilson, George W. Dunn, Zelotus G. Gordon. This regi- 
ment was organized at Binghamton, where it was mustered into 
the U. S. service Aug. 28, 1862, for three years. The companies 
were recruited in the counties of Tomkins, Tioga and Broome — the 
24th senatorial district. The regiment gained a splendid reputation 
for hard fighting, discipline and efficiency, and is ranked by Col. 
Fox among the three hundred fighting regiments of the war. He 
says: "The regiment left Binghamton promptly, proceeding to 
Annapolis Junction, Md., where it was placed on guard duty along 
the line of railroad to Washington, a few of the companies being 
stationed at Laurel, Md. It remained there the rest of the year 
and during all of 1863. In the spring of 1864. the regiment was or- 
dered to join the 9th corps, then assembling at Annapolis, and it 
accordingly took the field in the ranks of that battle-tried com- 
mand. It was assigned to Hartranft's (ist) brigade, Willcox's (3d) 
division, — afterwards Harriman's brigade of Willcox's (ist) divi- 
sion. Col. Tracy resigned May 20, 1864, and Col. Catlin, a gallant 
and meritorious officer, succeeded to the command. The corps 
left Annapolis, April 23, 1864, and crossing the Rapidan on May 
5th, the 109th was engaged the next day at the Wilderness, in its 
first battle, where it lost 11 killed. 64 wounded, and i missing. In 
the charge of the 9th corps at Spottsylvania, the regiment lost 25 
killed, 86 wounded, and 29 missing; in the assault on Petersburg, 
June 17, 1864, 26 killed, 81 wounded, and 20 missing; at the mine 
explosion, July 30, 1864, 11 killed, 24 wounded, and 18 missing; and 
at the Weldon railroad, Aug. 19, 1864, 7 killed, 12 wounded, and i 
missing. The regiment was under fire at the battle on the Boyd- 
ton road, Oct. 27, 1864, with a slight loss in wounded and missing, 
but none killed. It suffered severely while in the trenches before 
Petersburg, where for several weeks it lost men daily, either killed 
or wounded. During its eleven months in the field the hard fight- 
ing cost the regiment 614 men in killed and wounded, aside from 
the missing or prisoners." Its loss by death during service was 5 
officers and 160 men; by disease and other causes, 164 men — total 
deaths, 329. The percentage of killed, 165, to the total enrollment, 
1^353. was 12. 1. It was mustered out of service June 4, 1865, at 
Delaney house, D. C. 

Vol. II— 9 



130 The Union Army 

One Hundred and Tenth Infantry.— Cois.. DeWitt C. Littlejohn, 
Clinton H. Sage, Charles Hamilton; Lieut.-Cols., Clinton H. Sage, 
Warren D. Smith; Majs., Charles Hamilton, Henry C. Devendorf. 
This was an Oswego county regiment, organized at Oswego, and 
there mustered into the U. S. service for three years, Aug. 25, 
1862. It left the state on the 29th, proceeding to Baltimore, where 
it was stationed until Nov., 1862, when it was ordered to New 
Orleans, and early in 1863 was assigned to Emory's division of the 
19th corps. Its first experience under fire was at Fort Bisland, and 
at Franklin it had 12 killed and wounded. It took part in the long 
siege of Port Hudson and shared in the grand assault of June 14. 
The total loss of the regiment during the siege was 37 killed, 
wounded and missing. Its last battle was at Vermillion bayou. 
La., in Nov. 1863, where it lost 6 killed and wounded. In Feb., 
1864, it was ordered to Fort Jefferson, Fla. The regiment was mus- 
tered out at Albany, under Col. Hamilton, Aug. 2S, 1865. It lost 
during service 2 officers and 14 men killed and mortally wounded; 
3 officers and 192 men died of disease and other causes — total 
deaths, 211. The high percentage of loss by disease was due to 
the long service of the regiment in the extreme South. 

One Hundred and Eleventh Infantry. — Cols., Jesse Segoine, C. 
Dugald McDougall, Lewis W. Husk; Lieut.-Cols., Clinton D. Mc- 
Dougall, Seneca B. Smith, Isaac M. Lusk. Aaron P. Seeley, Lewis 
W. Husk, Sidney Mead; Majs., Seneca B. Smith, Isaac M. Lusk, 
James H. Hinnian, Lewis W. Husk. Joseph W. Corning, SWney 
Mead, Reuben J. Meyers. No regiment sent out by the state saw 
harder service than the gallant iiith. It was organized at Auburn 
from companies recruited in the counties of Cayuga and Wayne, — 
the Twenty-fifth senatorial district — and was mustered into the 
U. S. service, Aug. 20. 1862. It left the city the following day for 
Harper's Ferry, where it had the misfortune to be surrendered 
with that ill-fated garrison the following month. The men were 
paroled at Camp Douglas, Chicago, and in Dec. 1862, were declared 
exchanged and went into winter quarters at Centerville, Va. Later 
the regiment was assigned to the 3d (Alex. Hays') brigade, Casey's 
division. 22nd corps, where it remained until June, 1863. Col. Fox, 
in his account of the three hundred fighting regiments, speaking 
of the I nth, says: "On June 25, 1863, the brigade joined the 2nd 
corps which was then marching by on its way to Gettysburg. The 
regiment left two companies on guard at Accotink bridge; with the 
remaining eight companies, numbering 390 men, it was engaged at 
Gettysburg on the second day of the battle, in the brilliant and suc- 
cessful charge of Willard's brigade, losing 58 killed, 177 wounded, 
and 14 missing; total, 249. The regiment did some more good 
fighting at the Wilderness, where it lost 42 killed, 119 wounded, 
and 17 missing; total, 178 — -over half of its effective strength. Its 
casualties in the fighting around Spottsylvania amounted to 22 
killed. S7 wounded, and 13 missing. From Gettysburg until the 
end, the regiment fought under Hancock in the 2nd corps, partici- 
pating in every battle of that command. While on the Gettys- 
burg campaign, and subsequently at Bristoe Station, Mine Run 
and Morton's ford, the regiment was attached to the 3d brigade, 
3d division (Alex. Hayes'). Just before the Wilderness campaign 
it was placed in Frank's (3d) brigade. Barlow's (ist) division. 
This brigade was composed entirely of New York troops, the 39th, 
iiith, 125th, and 126th. to which were added in April, 1864, the 
52nd and 57th, and later on, the 7th N. Y.; all crack fighting regi- 



New York Regiments 131 

merits." The regiment lost 8i killed and wounded during the final 
Appomattox campaign. It was mustered out near Alexandria, Va., 
June 3. 1865. The regiment bore an honorable part in 22 great bat- 
tles. Its total enrollment during service was 1,780, of whom 10 
officers and 210 men were killed and mortally wounded; its total 
of 220 killed and died of wounds is only exceeded by four other 
N. Y. regiments — the 69th, 40th, 48th and 121st — and is only ex- 
ceeded by 24 other regiments in the Union armies. It lost 2 offi- 
cers and 177 men by disease and other causes — total deaths, 404 — 
of whom 2 officers and 74 men died in Confederate prisons. 

One Hundred and Twelfth Infantry. — Cols., Jeremiah C. Drake, 
John F. Smith, Ephraim A. Ludwick; Lieut.-Cols., Frederick A. 
Redington, Elial F. Carpenter, John F. Smith, William H. Chad- 
dock, Ephraim A. Ludwick, Alfred Dunham; Majs., Elial F. Car- 
penter, John F. Smith, William H. Chaddock, Ephraim A. Lud- 
wick, Joseph S. Matthews. This regiment, known as the Chautauqua 
regiment, was raised in Chautauqua county — the 32nd senatorial 
district. The companies rendezvoused at Jamestown, and were 
mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 11, 1862, for three 
years. Col. Drake at the time of his appointment was a captain 
in the 49th N. Y. infantry, and was a graduate of Rochester uni- 
versity. He had left the pastorate of a Baptist church in West- 
field, N. Y., to respond to the first call for troops. The regiment 
left the state Sept. 12, embarking for Fortress Monroe, whence it 
proceeded to Suffolk, Va. It was engaged at Franklin, Zuni, and 
Deserted House, having i killed, and i wounded in the last named 
action. It shared with credit in the siege of Suffolk in the spring 
of 1863, where much sickness prevailed and it lost severely by dis- 
ease. In June, 1863, with Foster's brigade, 7th corps, it participat- 
ed in the campaign up the Peninsula, — a campaign, trying by rea- 
son of the heat and the rapid forced marches. It was ordered to 
Folly island, N. C, in Aug., 1863; shared in the operations about 
Charleston harbor, including the siege of Fort Wagner and the 
bombardments of Fort Sumter. In the latter part of Feb., 1864, it 
sailed for Florida, encamping at Jacksonville until April 21, when 
it embarked with its division for Yorktown, Va. Here it was placed 
in Gen. Butler's Army of the James, and assigned to Drake's (2nd) bri- 
gade, Ames' (3d) division, loth corps, with which it took part 
in the campaign in May against Richmond, via the James river. 
On May 6, it disembarked at Bermuda Hundred and was engaged 
during the month at Port Walthall Junction, and Chester Station, 
Swift creek. Proctor's creek, Drewry's bluff, and Bermuda Hun- 
dred, losing 35 in killed, wounded and missing, the gallant and 
popular Lieut. -Col. Carpenter being mortally wounded in the en- 
gagement at Drewry's bluff on May 16. In the first assault at Cold 
Harbor it suffered severely, losing 28 killed, 140 wounded and 12 
missing. It suffered some loss during the first assaults on Peters- 
burg, and at the mine explosion. At the battle of Fort Harrison 
it lost 6 killed, 38 wounded and 16 missing, and at the Darbytown 
road, 7 killed, 28 wounded. In Dec, 1864 it sailed with Ames' divi- 
sion to Fort Fisher, N. C., where in the final assault on the works 
it lost II killed and 36 wounded, Col. Smith being killed while 
bravely leading the regiment. Its subsequent active service was 
at the Cape Fear intrenchments. Fort Anderson. Wilmington, and 
the final campaign of the Carolinas, in which it was engaged at 
Cox's bridge, Faisson's and Bennett's house. It was mustered out 
under Col. Ludwick, June 13, 1865, at Raleigh, N. C. The total en- 



132 The Union Army 

rollment of the regiment during service was 1,481, of whom 9 offi- 
cers and 119 men were killed and mortally wounded; 3 officers and 
196 men died of disease and other causes — total deaths 327. The 
total number of killed and wounded was 541, and 22 died in Con- 
federate prisons. Col. Fox numbers the 112th among the three 
hundred fighting regiments. 

One Hundred and Thirteenth Infantry, — This regiment was con- 
verted into an artillery regiment, Dec. 19, 1862, and its record 
will be found under the "7th Artillery." 

One Hundred and Fourteenth Infantry. — Cols., Elisha B. Smith, 
Samuel R. Per Lee; Lieut.-Cols., Samuel R. Per Lee, Henry B. 
Morse; Majs., Henry B. Morse, Oscar H. Curtiss. Seven com- 
panies of this regiment were recruited in Chenango county and 
three in Madison. They rendezvoused at Norwich, where the regi- 
ment was organized, and mustered into the U. S. service for three 
years, Sept. 3, 1862. Three days later it started for the front, mov- 
ing to Binghamton by canal boats, and proceeding thence to Balti- 
more. In November it sailed for New Orleans as part of Banks' 
expedition, and on its arrival there was assigned to Weitzel's (2nd) 
brigade. Augur's (ist) division, 19th corps. It was stationed for a 
time at Brashear City and neighboring points, and was first en- 
gaged at Fort Bisland, where it had 11 men wounded, 3 mortally. 
It did not participate in the Bayou Teche campaign, but joined 
its corps before Port Hudson, May 30, 1863, where it was actively 
engaged for 40 days in the siege and suffered severely in th^ grand 
assault of June 14. The loss of the regiment during the siege was 
^2) in killed, wounded and missing. In March, 1864, in Dwight's 
(ist) brigade, Emory's (ist) division, 19th corps, it moved on 
Banks' Red River campaign, engaging at Sabine cross-roads, where 
Lieut.-Col. Morse, commanding the regiment, was wounded, at 
Pleasant Hill, Cane river crossing and Mansura. On July 15, it 
embarked for Washington, the corps having been ordered to Vir- 
ginia. On its arrival, it marched through Maryland, and then joined 
in Sheridan's famous Shenandoah campaign against Early. The 
regiment fought with the utmost gallantry at the battle of the 
Opequan, where it was subjected to a murderous fire, losing 188 
killed and wounded, or three-fifths of those engaged, and being 
complimented for gallantry by the division-general. It was pres- 
ent at Fisher's hill and Woodstock, and again showed its splendid 
fighting qualities at Cedar creek, with a loss of 21 killed, 86 wound- 
ed, and 8 missing. Col. Per Lee was among the wounded at the 
Opequan, and was promoted for gallantry to brevet brigadier-gen- 
eral. The regiment was mustered out, under Col. Per Lee, June 
8. 1865, at Bladensburgh, Md. Its total enrollment during service 
was 1,134, of whom 9 officers and 114 men were killed and mortally 
wounded; 2 officers and 192 men died of disease and other causes; 
total deaths 317. Its loss in killed and wounded was 422, or 10.6 
per cent. Its proud record entitles it to rank among the three 
hundred fighting regiments of the war. 

One Hundred and Fifteenth Infantry. — Cols., Simeon Sammons, 
Nathan J. Johnson; Lieut.-Cols., George S. Batcheller, Nathan J. 
Johnson, Ezra L. Walrath; Majs., Patrick H. Cowam, Ezra L. 
Walrath, Egbert B. Savage. The 115th, "Iron Hearts," was re- 
cruited during July and Aug., 1862, in the counties of Fulton, Ham- 
ilton, Montgomery and Saratoga. It was organized at Fonda, 
where it was mustered into the U. S. service on Aug. 26, 1862, for 
three years, and left the state on the 30th, proceeding to Sandy 



New York Regiments 133 

Hook, Md., where it received its arms and equipments. Two weeks 
later it was surrendered with other troops at Harper's Ferry, and 
after being paroled proceeded to Chicago, 111., to await exchange. 
During the year 1863 the regiment served at Hilton Head and Beau- 
fort, S. C, whence it was ordered to Florida, in the latter part of 
Jan., 1864. It fought gallantly at the battle of Olustee, losing 
nearly 300 in killed, wounded and missing; nearly all the color- 
guard being shot down. On April 15, 1864, it embarked for Vir- 
ginia with the loth corps, and on its arrival at Fortress Monroe, 
joined Gen. Butler's Army of the James, with which it participated 
in the campaign against Richmond in May, via the James river. 
It was assigned to Barton's (2nd) brigade. Turner's (2nd) division, 
loth corps. In the actions at Port Walthall Junction, Chester Sta- 
tion, Ware Bottom Church, Drewry's bluff and Bermuda Hundred, 
it lost 6 killed, 87 wounded, and 7 missing. While at Cold Harbor, 
where it lost 18 killed and wounded, it was temporarily attached to 
the i8th corps, but on its return to the James it rejoined the loth 
corps and took position before Petersburg, participating with some 
loss in the first assault on the works. It was active at the mine 
explosion, and then recrossing the James, was heavily engaged at 
Deep Bottom, losing 73 killed, wounded and missing. At Fort 
Harrison and Fort Gilmer, the 115th lost 33 killed, wounded and 
missing. During the advance on Richmond by the Darbytown 
road in October it met with considerable loss from a volley fired 
into it by the 9th Me. through mistake. When the loth corps was 
discontinued in Dec, 1864, the 115th was transferred to the newly 
formed 24th corps, in Ames' (2nd) division, with which it was or- 
dered to North Carolina. It participated in the capture of Fort 
Fisher, fighting with Bell's (3d) brigade, and sustaining a consider- 
able part of its loss there by the explosion of the magazine the 
day after the fort was taken. Subsequently it was present at Cape 
Fear, Fort Anderson, and Wilmington, and closed its active serv- 
ice in the campaign of the Carolinas. It was mustered out at Ral- 
eigh, N. C, under Col. Johnson, June 17, 1865. Out of a total en- 
rollment of 1,196, it lost 7 officers and 132 men; 191 men died of 
disease and other causes — total deaths, 330. The gallant 115th de- 
serves its place among the three hundred fighting regiments of the 
war, accorded it by Col. Fox. 

One Hundred and Sixteenth Infantry. — Cols., Edward P. Cha- 
pin, George M. Love; Lieut. -Cols., Robert Cottier, Albert J. Bar- 
nard, John Higgins, Hohn Mappa Sizer; Majs., George M. Love, 
John Higgins, Hohn Mappa Sizer, George W. Carpenter. This 
regiment was recruited in Erie county, organized at Buffalo, and 
there mustered into the U. S. service from Aug. 20 to Sept. 5, 
1862, for three years. Nine companies left the state the same day, 
Co. K following later in the month. It was stationed at Balti- 
more until November, when it sailed for Ship island. Miss., as part of 
Banks' expedition, arriving at its destination on Dec. 4. During 
March, 1863, it took part in the operations against Port Hudson, 
conducted as a diversion to enable Farragut's fleet to run the bat- 
teries. In the 1st brigade, ist (Augur's) division, 19th corps, it 
fought gallantly at Plains store, losing 56 killed, wounded and 
missing, and was complimented on the field by Gen. Augur. Dur- 
ing the long siege of Port Hudson, the regiment bore a conspicu- 
ous and glorious part, suffering in the assaults of May 27 and June 
14, a loss of 130 in killed, wounded and missing. Among the killed 
in the assault of May 27, was the gallant Col. Chapin and Maj. Love 



134 The Union Army 

succeeded to the command. It was heavily engaged at Donaldson- 
viile and Bayou La Fourche, losing 44 killed, wounded and miss- 
ing, and then moved with Franklin's expedition to Sabine pass, 
Tex., where 26 were captured. It was also present at Centerville, 
Vermillion baj'ou, and Carrion Crow bayou. La. In Dwight's 
(ist) brigade, Emory's (ist) division. 19th corps, it started on 
Banks' Red River expedition in March, 1864, engaging at Sabine 
cross-roads with a loss of 22; at Pleasant Hill, where the loss was 
14, and at Cane river, Alexandria and Mansura. In July, when the 
corps was ordered to Virginia, it embarked for Washington. Upon 
its arrival there it marched through Maryland and participated in 
Sheridan's brilliant campaign in the Shenandoah Valley against 
Gen. Early. It was heavily engaged at the battle of the Opequan, 
losing 48 killed and wounded; was present at Fisher's hill, where it 
sustained a loss of 10 killed and wounded; and at New Market and 
Cedar creek, it again fought gallantly, losing 59 killed, wounded 
and missing. Col. Love is said to have captured the first Confed- 
erate flag taken during the battle, that of the 2nd S. C, and was 
awarded a medal of honor. The regiment was mustered out, un- 
der Col. Love, at Washington, D. C, June 8, 1865. It lost by death 
during service, 5 officers and 94 enlisted men killed and mortally 
wounded; 2 officers, 124 enlisted men by disease and other causes 
— total deaths 7 officers and 218 enlisted men. « 

One Hundred and Seventeenth Infantry. — Cols., William R. 
Pease, Alvin White, Rufus Daggett; Lieut. -Cols., Alvin White, 
Rufus Daggett, Francis X. Meyer; Majs., Rufus Daggett. Francis 
X. Meyer, Egbert Bagg. This regiment, recruited in Oneida coun- 
ty in the summer of 1862, rendezvoused at Rome, where it was 
mustered into the U. S. service from Aug. 8 to 16. for three years, 
and left the state on Aug. 22, It was stationed at Tenallytown, 
Md.. until April, 1863, when it was ordered to Suflfolk, Va., in the 
1st brigade, Getty's division, 7th corps, and subsequently partici- 
pated in the Peninsular campaign of 1863. It was then ordered to 
join the i8th corps (the 7th corps having been discontinued). De- 
partment of the South; later joined Vogdes' division, loth corps, 
on Folly island, S. C; and took part in the siege of Fort Wagner 
and the operations about Charleston harbor. In April, 1864, the 
regiment was ordered to Virginia, where it joined Gen. Butler's 
Army of the James, being assigned to ist brigade, 2nd division, 
loth corps. Sailing up the James river, it disembarked at Bermu- 
da Hundred and was engaged at Swift creek, Drewry's bluff and 
Bermuda Hundred, losing 20 killed, 62 wounded, and 7 missing at 
Drewry's bluff. Col. White being among the wounded. While at 
Cold Harbor it was temporarily attached to the i8th corps, but 
on its return to the James rejoined the loth corps, and soon after 
took part in the initial assault on the works of Petersburg, losing 
54 in killed, wounded and missing. It was present at the mine ex- 
plosion, and then recrossing the James fought gallantly at the bat- 
tle of Fort Harrison, losing 15 killed, 76 wounded and' ^s missing. 
In the 1st (Curtis') brigade, 2nd (Foster's) division, it was heav- 
ily engaged on the Darbytown road, in October, losing 6 killed, 42 
wounded, and 4 missing. When the loth corps was discontinued 
in Dec, 1864, Curtis' brigade was placed in Ames' (2nd) division, 
24th corps, with which the regiment sailed in Butler's expedition 
to Fort Fisher, N. C.. where Cos. B and H captured 230 men of the 
4th N. C. reserves during a reconnoissance. Reembarking, the 
troops returned to Virginia, but were at once ordered back to Fort 



New York Regiments 135 

Fisher, the second expedition being commanded by Gen. Terry. 
The 117th took a conspicuous and highly honorable part in the final 
assault on Fort Fisher, sustaining a loss of 92 in killed and wound- 
ed. During February it was in the actions at Cape Fear river. 
Fort Anderson and Wilmington, and in March and April, as part 
of the provisional corps, it engaged in Gen. Terry's Carolina cam- 
paign, which closed at the Bennett house on April 26. The regi- 
ment remained on duty at Raleigh, N. C, until June 8, 1865, when 
it was mustered out under command of Col. Daggett. About 250 
recruits and reenlisted men were transferred to the 48th N. Y. 
During its term of service the regiment lost by death 9 officers and 
129 enlisted men killed and mortally wounded; i officer and 136 
enlisted men by disease and other causes, a total of 274, of whom 
21 died in the hands of the enemy. 

One Hundred and Eighteenth Infantry. — Cols., Samuel T. 
Richards, Oliver Keese, Jr.. George F. Nichols; Lieut. -Cols., Oliver 
Keese, Jr., George F. Nichols, Levi S. Dominey; Majs., George F. 
Nichols. Charles E. Pruyn, Levi S. Dominey, John S. Cunning- 
ham. The 118th, the "Adirondack Regiment," was recruited in the 
counties of Clinton, Essex and Warren, organized at Plattsburg, 
and there mustered into the U. S. service Aug. 18-20, 1862, for three 
years. It was composed of excellent m.aterial and left the state, 
1.040 strong on Sept. 3. It served in the defenses of Washington 
imtil April, 1863, when it was ordered to Suffolk, Va., in the re- 
serve brigade, 7th corps. In the ist brigade, Getty's division, same 
corps, it was present at Antioch Church and Baker's cross-roads; 
in Wistar's brigade. 4th corps, at Franklin; and in the provisional 
brigade, 7th corps, it was engaged at South Anna bridge, losing 
II killed, wounded and missing. It then performed garrison and 
guard duty for several months at Yorktown, Norfolk, Portsmouth, 
and Newport News. Va. As part of the 2nd brigade, ist division, 
i8th corps, it took part in the campaign against Richmond with 
Gen. Butler's Armj^ of the James, being engaged at Port Walthall 
Jimction, Chester Station, Swift creek. Proctor's creek, and Drew- 
ry's blufif. In the last named battle, it lost 199 in killed, wounded 
and missing. It fought gallantly at Cold Harbor in June, when it 
lost 32 in killed and wounded. In the first assaults on Petersburg 
it lost 21 killed and wounded. It was next severely engaged at 
Fort Harrison, where it lost 67 killed and wounded, and during 
the advance on Richmond by the Darbytown road in October its 
ranks were once more fearfully depleted, 11 1 being killed, wounded 
and missing. Then attached to the 2nd brigade, 3d division, 24th 
corps, it was engaged without loss at the fall of Petersburg. April 
2, 1865. During the long period it was in the trenches before Pe- 
tersburg it met with losses amounting to 43 in killed and wounded. 
It was on the skirmish line of the 3d division when Richmond was 
finally occupied, and claims to have been the first organized Feder- 
al infantry in that city. It was mustered out at Richmond, under 
Col. Nichols. June 13, 1865, having lost by death during service, 6 
officers and 98 enlisted men, killed and mortally wounded; 188 en- 
listed men by disease and other causes, a total of 292; of whom 45 
died in Confederate prisons. 

One Hundred and Nineteenth Infantry. — Cols., Elias Peissner, 
John T. Lockman; Lieut. -Cols.. John T. Lockman, Edward F. Lloyd, 
Isaac P. Lockman; Majs., Harvey Baldwin, Jr., Benjamin A. Wil- 
lis, Isaac P. Lockman, Charles F. Lewis, Chester H. Southworth. 
This regiment was recruited and organized at New York city in 



13G The Union Army 

the summer of 1862, and was mustered into the U. S. service on 
Sept. 4-5, for three years. On the 6th the regiment left for Wash- 
ington, where it was attached to the 2nd brigade, 3d (Schurz') di- 
vision, nth corps (Howard), and went into winter quarters at 
Stafford, Va. At the battle of Chancellorsville, Howard's corps 
was surprised and suffered severely, the ii8th losing 21 killed, 67 
wounded and 32 missing, Col. Peissner being killed while rally- 
ing his men. The regiment was commanded at Gettysburg by Col. 
Lockman, and was heavily engaged on the first two days of the 
battle, losing 140 in killed, wounded and missing. After returning 
with the army to Virginia, it was ordered with its corps on Sept. 
24, to Tennessee. It was present but not active at the midnight 
battle of Wauhatchie, fought valiantly at Missionary ridge, and 
was then ordered with the corps to the relief of Knoxville, en- 
during severe hardships and privations during the campaign. In 
April, 1864, when the nth corps was broken up, the regiment was 
assigned to the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, of the newly formed 20th 
corps, commanded by Gen. Hooker, the veteran Gen. Geary being 
in command of the division. It moved on the Atlanta cainpaign 
and took part in numerous battles in the next four months, includ- 
ing Rocky Face ridge, Resaca, where the brave Lieut.-Col. Lloyd 
was killed. New Hope Church, Kennesaw mountain, Peachtree 
creek, and the siege of Atlanta. After the fall of Atlanta, it re- 
mained with the corps to hold the city, while the rest of tke army 
went in pursuit of Hood. On Nov. 15, the regiment moved with Sher- 
man's army on the grand march through Georgia to the sea and took 
part in the siege of Savannah, Geary's division being the first to 
enter the city upon Hardee's evacuation. Early in the year 1865, 
it moved on the campaign of the Carolinas, fighting at Averasboro, 
Bentonville, Raleigh and Bennett's house, but sustaining a loss of 
only 4 missing. After Gen. Johnston's surrender, it marched on 
to Washington with the 20th corps, where it participated in the 
grand review, and was mustered out at Bladenburg, Md., June 7, 
1865, commanded by Col. Lockman. The total enrollment of the 
regiment was 69 officers, 981 men. It lost by death during service, 
6 officers and 71 men, killed and mortally wounded; 2 officers and 
92 men by disease and other causes, a total of 171. 

One Hundred and Twentieth Infantry, — Col., George H. Sharpe; 
Lieut.-Cols., Cornelius D. Westbrook, John R. Tappan, Abram L. 
Lockwood; Majs., John R. Tappan. Abram L. Lockwood, Walter 
F. Scott. The 120th, known as the Ulster regiment or Washington 
Guards, was recruited in the counties of Greene and Ulster and 
rendezvoused at Kingston, where it was mustered into the U. S. 
service on Aug. 22, 1862, for three years. In July, Aug. and Oct., 
1864, its ranks were augmented by the transfer of the veterans and 
recruits of the 71st and 72nd N. Y. The regiment left the state, 
900 strong, Aug. 24, 1862, and proceeded to Washington, where it 
encamped near the Chain bridge. Early in September it was at- 
tached to the famous Excelsior brigade, (Sickles') 2nd division, 
3d corps, and was under fire for the first time at Fredericksburg. 
Says Col. Fox in his account of the three hundred fighting regi- 
ments, among which he includes the 120th: "The regiment was 
actively engaged at Chancellorsville — then in Berry's division — 
exhibiting a commendable steadiness and efificiency. Its loss in that 
battle was 4 killed. 49 wounded and 13 missing. At Gettysburg — 
in Humphrey's division — it became involved in the disaster of the 
second day's battle, but like the rest of the 3d corps, it fell back in 



New York Regiments 137 

good order to the second line, fighting as it went. Its casualties 
in this battle aggregated 30 killed, 154 wounded and 19 missing; total, 
203. Eight officers were killed and 9 wounded in that battle. 
The 3d corps having been merged into the 2nd the 120th was placed 
in Brewster's brigade of Mott's division, and from that time fought 
under the 2nd corps flags, the men, however, retaining their old 3d 
corps badge. Mott's division having been discontinued, the Ex- 
celsior brigade was placed in Birney's (3d) division, becoming the 
4th brigade. Gen. Mott succeeded eventually to the command of 
this division, and Col. McAllister to that of the brigade. At the 
Wilderness the regiment lost 5 killed, 48 wounded and 8 missing; 
at the battle on the Boydton road. 8 killed, 30 wounded, and 21 
missing; at Hatcher's run, 6 killed, 32 wounded, 46 missing." Dur- 
ing the Virginia campaigns of 1863, subsequent to Gettysburg, the 
regiment lost 140 killed, wounded and missing, and it also lost 
heavily in the trenches before Petersburg, its casualties amounting 
to 51 killed, wounded and missing. During the final campaign, 
ending with the surrender of Lee at Appomattox, its losses aggre- 
gated 52 killed, wounded and missing. Few finer examples of 
bravery and discipline occurred during the war than when the 120th 
rallied three several times around its colors on the 2nd day's bat- 
tle of Gettysburg. The regiment was actively engaged in 17 im- 
portant battles, among them Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Mine 
Run, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Totopotomy, Cold Harbor, Pe- 
tersburg, Strawberry Plains, Poplar Spring Church, Boydton plank 
road. Hatcher's run and White Oak road. It was also present at 
Fredericksburg, Wapping heights, Kelly's ford, Po river. Deep 
Bottom, Sailor's creek, Farmville and Appomattox. It was mus- 
tered out near Washington, D. C, under Lieut. -Col. Lockwood, 
June 3, 1865. The total enrollment of the regiment during service 
was 1,626, of whom 51 died in Confederate prisons; 11 officers and 
140 men were killed and mortally wounded; 3 officers and 179 men 
died of disease and other causes. 

One Hundred and Twenty-first Infantry. — Cols., Richard Fran- 
chot, Emory Upton, Egbert Olcott; Lieut.-Cols., Charles H. Clark, 
Egbert Olcott, Henry M. Galpin, James W. Cronkhite, Johri S. 
Kidder; Majs., Egbert Olcott, Andrew E. Mather, Henry M. Gal- 
pin, James W. Cronkhite, John S. Kidder. This regiment, recruit- 
ed in the counties of Otsego and Herkimer, rendezvoused at Her- 
kimer and was there mustered into the U. S. service for three 
years on Aug. 23, 1862, and in May, 1863, the three years men of 
the i8th, 27th, 31st, i6th and 32nd N. Y. infantry were transferred 
to it. The regiment left the state Sept. 2, 1862, and was immedi- 
ately assigned to the 2nd (Bartlett's) brigade, ist (Brooks') divi- 
sion, 6th corps, with which command it continued during its entire 
term of service. It joined McClellan's army in Maryland and was 
present but not active at the battle of Crampton's gap. The 6th 
corps was only partially engaged at the battle of Fredericksburg, 
though the 121st lost a few killed and wounded by the artillery 
fire to which it was exposed. The regiment fought with great gal- 
lantry and was exposed to a deadly musketry fire at Salem Church, 
Va., where it lost 48 killed, 173 wounded and 55 missing, out of 
453 officially reported as present. All except 23 of those reported 
missing were killed, and the loss was the greatest sustained by 
any regiment in the battle. Col. Franchot resigned in Sept., 1862, 
and under his successor Col. Upton, an unusually efficient officer, 
the excellent material of the regiment was molded into a finely 



138 The Union Army 

disciplined organization. Col. Upton was promoted to Bvt. brig- 
adier-general in Oct., 1864, and achieved an enviable reputation in 
the war. The regiment viras in reserve at Gettysburg and w^as not 
again engaged with loss until the 6th corps returned to Virginia, 
when it lost 25 killed and wounded at the battle of Rappahannock 
Station in Nov., 1863. It was not heavily engaged during the Mine 
Run campaign, at the close of which it went into winter quarters 
at Brandy Station. In May, 1864, the regiment moved on the 
bloody campaign of Gen. Grant, crossing the Rapidan on the 5th, 
and plunging into the sanguinary struggle of the Wilderness, 
where it lost 'J'^ in killed, wounded and missing. In the battle of 
Spottsylvania Col. Upton commanded and led in person an as- 
saulting column of twelve picked regiments belonging to the 6th 
corps, the 121st being placed in the advance, an honor which cost 
it dear. The losses of the regiment at Spottsylvania amounted to 
49 Killed, , 106 wounded. In the magnificent charge of Upton's 
storming party, the strong works of the enemy were carried after 
a hand-to-hand struggle. Said Gen. Upton in a private letter; 
"Bayonet wounds and sabre cuts are very rare. But at Spottsyl- 
vania there were plenty of bayonet wounds, and no picture could 
give too exalted an idea of the gallantry of the 121st N. Y., 5th 
Me., and 96th Pa., as they led the assaulting column of twelve 
picked regiments over the formidable intrenchments v^iich con- 
fronted them." The regiment was successively engaged at North Anna, 
Totopotomy. Cold Harbor, the first assaults on Petersburg, and 
the Weldon railroad. When Early menaced Washington in July, 
the veterans of the 6th corps were ordered there to confront him, 
and the 121st was engaged at Fort Stevens with a loss of 26 in 
killed, wounded and missing. It followed with the corps in pur- 
suit of Early through Maryland, into Virginia, and up the Shenan- 
doah Valley, fighting at Charlestown. the Opequan, Fisher's hill, 
and Cedar creek, its loss in the last named battle amounting to 10 
killed, 42 wounded and 5 missing. The ist division was command- 
ed by Gen. Wright at the Wilderness; by Gen. Russell at the Ope- 
quan; and by Gen. Wheaton at Cedar creek. In Dec, 1864, the 
regiment returned to the Petersburg trenches and established win- 
ter quarters near the Weldon railroad. It took a prominent part 
in the final assault on the fortifications of Petersburg, April 2, 1865, 
and in the hot pursuit of Lee's army, during which it lost 34 killed 
and wounded, and fought its last battle at Sailor's creek. The 
regiment captured 4 flags at Rappahannock Station and 2 at Sail- 
or's creek. It was mustered out at Hall's hill, Va., under Col. Ol- 
cott, June 25, 1865. It took part in 25 great battles, and gloriously 
earned its title as an efficient and dashing fighting regiment. Its 
total enrollment during service was 1,897. of whom 14 ofiicers and 
212 enlisted men were killed and mortally wounded; 4 officers and 
117 enlisted men, died of disease and other causes. Its total of 
226 killed is 11.9 per cent, of its membership, and its total of 839 
killed and wounded was one of the largest sustained by any regi- 
ment 

One Hundred and Twenty-second Infantry — Cols., Silas Titus, 
Augustus W. Dwight, Horace H. Walpole; Lieut.-Cols., Augustus 
W. Dwight, Horace H. Walpole, James M. Gere; Majs., Joshua B. 
Davis, Jabez M. Brower, Alonzo H. Clapp, Morton B. Marke. This 
regiment, recruited in the county of Onondaga, rendezvoused at 
Syracuse and was there mustered into the U. S. service for three 
years on Aug. 28, 1862. The regiment left the state three days 



New York Regiments 139 

later and was assigned to the 3d brigade. 3d division, 6th corps. 
It was under fire for the first time at Antietam, but sustained no 
kisses. In the ist brigade of Newton's (3d) division, same corps, 
it was slightly engaged at Fredericksburg, where a few men were 
wounded. It was engaged on the same field again, in May, 1863, 
in the battle of Marye's heights, when the divisions of Newton 
and Howe carried the heights at the point of the bayonet. At Get- 
tysburg it went into action with Shaler's brigade as a support to 
the I2th corps and sustained a loss of 44 killed, wounded and miss- 
ing. It was sharply engaged in November at Rappahannock Sta- 
tion, when the 6th corps successfully stormed the enemy's in- 
trenchments, losing 13 killed and wounded in the battle. It then 
engaged in the Mine Run campaign, and during Jan. and Feb., 1864, 
it was stationed on Johnson's island in Lake Erie, rejoining its 
corps in March, when Shaler's brigade (ist), was assigned to 
Wright's (ist) division. It encountered the hardest fighting of its 
experience at the Wilderness, where it lost 119 killed, wounded and 
missing. At Spottsylvania its losses were 24 wounded and missing, 
and at Cold Harbor 67 killed and wounded. After taking part in 
the early assaults on Peter.sburg in June, it accompanied the vet- 
eran 6th corps to Washington, at the time Early threatened the 
capital. In the 3d brigade, 2nd division, it was there active at 
Fort Stevens, joined in the pursuit of Early into Virginia and up 
the Shenandoah Valley, fighting at Charlestown, the Opequan, 
Fisher's hill and Cedar creek. Its losses from July 12 to Oct. 20, 
1864, aggregated no killed and wounded. On Dec. 12, 1864, it 
was back in the trenches before Petersburg and established its 
winter quarters near the Weldon railroad. It was actively engaged 
at Petersburg with the 6th and 2nd corps, when the Confederates 
attacked Fort Stedman, losing 16 killed and wounded, and closed 
its active service with the Appomattox campaign, when it was 
active at the final assault on Petersburg. April 2, 1865, and at Sail- 
or's creek, where it fought its last battle. Maj. Jabez M. Brower 
was among the killed at Cedar creek, and Col. Augustus W. 
Dwight was killed in the action at Fort Stedman. The regiment 
commanded by Col. Walpole was mustered out near Washington, 
June 23, 1865. During its term of service it lost by death 6 offi- 
cers and 86 enlisted men killed and mortally wounded; 3 officers 
and 85 enlisted men by disease and other causes, a total of 180. 

One Hundred and Twenty-third Infantry.^Cols., Archibald L. 
McDougall, Ambrose Stevens, James C. Rogers; Lieut. -Cols., 
Franklin Norton, James C. Rogers, Adolph H. Tanner; Majs., James 
C. Rogers, A. H. Tanner, Henry Gray. This regiment, recruited 
in the countj^ of Washington, rendezvoused at Salem and was there 
mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 4, 1862, for three years. 
In Dec, 1863 a portion of the 145th N. Y. was transferred to it. 
The regiment left the state on Sept. S, 1862, and was assigned to 
Williams' (ist) division, 12th corps, with which it served through- 
out its term. It fought its first battle at Chancellorsville, where the 
I2th corps was heavily engaged, the regiment losing 148 killed, 
wounded and missing, Lieut.-Col. Norton being among the mor- 
tally wounded. The 123d was only slightly engaged at Gettysburg, 
where it lost 14. It joined in the pursuit of Lee into Virginia, 
fought without loss at Fair Play and Williamsport, Md., and at 
Robertson's ford, Va. On Sept. 23, 1863, it was ordered with its 
corps to Tennessee to reinforce Gen. Rosecrans and performed 
guard and picket duty for several months along the railroad be- 



140 The Union Army 

tween Murfreesboro and Bridgeport. When the 12th corps was. 
changed to the 20th in April, 1864, Williams' division was allowed 
to retain its distinctive badge, the red star. It started on the At- 
lanta campaign with Sherman's army early in May and was active 
during the battles of Resaca, Cassville and Dallas, where it lost 
23 killed and wounded, among the mortally wounded being Col. 
McDougall. Its losses at Kennesaw mountain aggregated 63 killed, 
wounded and missing, and at Peachtree creek, 53. From July 21 
to Aug. 26, it was engaged in the siege of Atlanta, and on Nov. 
15, it moved with Sherman's army on the march to the sea, tak- 
ing part in the final campaign of the Carolinas the following year. 
During this campaign it was engaged at Chesterfield, Averasboro, 
Bentonville, Aiken, Smithfield, Raleigh and Bennett's house, with 
a total loss of 21 killed, wounded and missing. After Gen. John- 
ston's surrender it marched to Washington with the army, partici- 
pated in the grand review, and was finally mustered out, under 
command of Col. Rogers, June 8, 1865, when the members of the 
regiment not entitled to be mustered out were transferred to the 
145th N. Y. The 123d lost during its term of service 6 officers and 
68 enlisted men, killed and fatally wounded; 95 enlisted men died 
of disease and other causes; total deaths, 169. * 

One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Infantry. — Cols., A. Van Horn 
Ellis, Francis M. Cummins, Charles H. Weygant; Lieut.-Cols., 
Francis M. Cummins, Charles H. Weygant, Henry S. Murray; 
Majs., James Cromwell, Charles H. Weygant, Henry S. Murray, 
James W. Benedict. This regiment, known as the "Orange Blos- 
soms," was recruited in the county of Orange, organized at Goshen, 
and there mustered into the U. S. service Sept. 5, 1862, for three 
years. A part of the 71st regiment national guard, on their return 
from their second three months' service in Sept., 1862, formed the 
nucleus of the 124th. It left the state on Sept. 6, 1862, 930 strong; 
served for several weeks in Virginia; then joined the Army of the 
Potomac at Harper's Ferry; was attached to the ist brigade, Whip- 
ple's (3d) division, 3d corps, in Nov. 1862; joined Burnside's army 
on its way to Fredericksburg and arrived at Falmouth Nov. 24. 
The corps was only lightly engaged at Fredericksburg and the loss 
of the 124th was small. It was hotly engaged at Chancellorsville, 
losing 28 killed, 161 wounded and 15 missing — a total of 204 out of 
550 engaged. The heroic efforts of Col. Ellis during the battle to 
redeem the fortunes of the day evoked general commendation. In 
the 2nd brigade, Birney's (ist) division, 3d corps, it marched on 
the field at Gettysburg with 290 officers and men, of whom 28 
were killed, 57 wounded and 5 reported missing, both Col. Ellis and 
Maj. Cromwell being killed while bravely cheering on their men. 
A beautiful monument has been erected by the regiment at Gettys- 
burg, surmounted by a life size marble statue of their heroic colonel. 
During the pursuit of Lee after the battle, the regiment was en- 
gaged at Jones' cross-roads and Wapping heights. In the subse- 
quent campaigns in Virginia it was under fire at Auburn and Kel- 
ly's ford, suffered a loss of 16 during the Mine Run campaign, and 
then went into winter quarters at Brandy Station. In April, 1864, 
the 3d corps was discontinued and Birney's division became the 3d 
division of the 2nd corps, but the men were allowed to retain the 
beloved diamond shaped badge on their caps and the piece of 
orange ribbon on their coats. Gen. Ward was still in command 
of the brigade. The regiment lost 58 killed, wounded and missing 
at the Wilderness, and 61 at Spottsylvania, where the regiment was 



New York Regiments 141 

in the front line during the celebrated charge of Gen. Hooker, both 
Col. Cummins and Lieut.-Col. Weygant being among the wounded. 
Continuous hard fighting followed at the North Anna river, Toto- 
potomy, Cold Harbor, Petersburg and the Weldon railroad. In 
July, 1864, Gen. Mott succeeded to the command of the division, 
and Gen. DeTrobriand to the command of Ward's old brigade. 
During the remainder of the year, while before Petersburg, it was 
engaged at Deep Bottom, Strawberry Plains, Poplar Spring Church, 
Boydton plank road, the Hicksford raid, and early in 1865 it was 
active at Hatcher's run. Fort Stedman and the final assault on Pe- 
tersburg. It then entered on the Appomattox campaign, being en- 
gaged at White Oak ridge, Deatonsville road, Farmville and Appo- 
mattox Station. In reporting the action of March 25, near Wat- 
kins' house, Lt.-Col. Weygant, commanding the regiment, says that 
his men charged in gallant style a force of the enemy composed of 
the 42nd, 59th and 6oth Ala. regiments, "capturing the battle flag 
of the SQth Alabama, 6 officers and 159 men, about 20 of whom 
were wounded, including Lieut.-Col. Troy of the 6oth Ala. The 
enemy being completely dispersed I returned to my former posi- 
tion, leaving between 20 and 30 of their dead upon the field. At 
11:30 p. m. I received orders to withdraw and return to camp, 
which I did, bringing with me about 75 stands of arms. All this, 
I am happy to say, was accomplished without the loss of a man, 
either in killed, wounded or missing." The regiment was mus- 
tered out, imder Col. Weygant, June 3, 1865, near Washington, 
D. C. The total enrollment during service was 1,320, of whom 11 
officers and 137 men, or 11.2 per cent., were killed and mortally 
wounded; i officer and 94 men died of disease and other causes; ir 
men died in Confed.erate prisons; 516 officers and men were killed 
and wounded. Private Archibald Freeman and Corp. George W. 
Tomkins were awarded medals of honor by Congress for the cap- 
ture of battle flags, at Spottsylvania and near Watkins' house, re- 
spectively. 

One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Infantry. — Cols., George L. Wil- 
lard, Levin Crandell, Joseph Hyde; Lieut. -Cols., Levin Crandell, 
Aaron B. Myer, Joseph Hyde; Majs., James C. Bush, Aaron B. 
Myer, Samuel C. Armstrong, Joseph Hyde, Joseph Egolf, Nelson 
Penfield, William H. H. Brainard. This regiment, recruited in the 
county of Rensselaer, was organized at Tro}% and there mustered 
into the U. S. service on Aug. 27-29, 1862, for three years. Two 
(lays later it left for Harper's Ferry, where it was captured on Sept. 
T5, at the surrender of that post. The regiment was immediately 
paroled and was stationed at a paroled camp at Chicago, 111., for 
two months, when the men were declared exchanged and returned 
to Virginia in December. It was encamped at Centerville during 
the winter and in the spring of 1863 was attached to Gen. Hays' 
brigade. In June. 1863, the brigade joined the 3d division, 2nd 
corps, then marching to Gettysburg, Gen. Hays taking command 
of the division. At the battle of Gettysburg Col. Willard was killed 
while in command of the brigade and the loss of the regiment 
amounted to 26 killed, 104 wounded and 9 missing. It distinguished 
itself at Bristoe Station in October, both officers and men fighting 
with dash and extreme gallantry. Its loss in this action was 36 
killed, wounded and missing. It was also present at the action 
of Mitchell's ford, and took part in the Mine Run campaign, with 
a loss of 41 men. Upon the reorganization of the Army of the 
Potomac in April, 1864, it was transferred to Barlow's (ist) divi- 



142 The Union Army 

sion, to which it was attached during the remainder of its service. 
It lost 28 in killed, wounded and missing at the battle of the Wil- 
derness, where Lieut. -Col. Myer fell mortally wounded. At the 
Po river and Spottsylvania its loss was 10 killed, 74 wounded and 
6 missing, while further severe losses were sustained at the North 
Anna, Cold Harbor, and the battles around Petersburg, where its 
losses aggregated 85 killed, wounded and missing. Recrossing the 
James it fought at Deep Bottom and Strawberry Plains, and upon 
returning to the lines around Petersburg it was engaged in the dis- 
aster at Reams' station, losing 9 wounded and 13 captured. It was 
present at Hatcher's run in December, but without loss. Its veter- 
an ranks had been sadly decimated bj'^ its hard service and when 
the final campaign of 1865 opened it could report only 12 officers 
and 219 men "present for duty," although it still carried 547 names 
on its rolls. In this campaign the regiment participated in the 
final assault on Petersburg and the engagements of Deatonsville 
road, High bridge and Farmville, where it fought its last battle. 
The loss during the campaign was 32 killed, wounded and missing. 
The total enrollment of the regiment during service was 1,248, of 
whom 15 officers and 112 enlisted men were killed and mortally 
wounded, or lo.i per cent.; i officer and 115 men diejj of disease 
and other causes; 3 officers and 61 men died in Confederate prisons; 
464 officers and men were killed and wounded. It was mustered 
out near Alexandria, Va., ttnder Col. Hj'de, June 5, 1865, having 
gloriously earned its title as a fighting regiment. 

One Hundred and Twenty-Sixth Infantry. — Cols., Eliakim Sher- 
rill, James M. Bull, William H. Baird, Ira Smith Brown; Lieut.- 
Cols., James M. Bull, William H. Baird, Ira Smith Brown, John 
B. Geddes; Majs., William H. Baird, Philo D. Phillips, Ira Smith 
Brown, Charles A. Richardson. This regiment, recruited in the 
counties of Ontario, Seneca and Yates, was organized at Geneva, 
and there mustered into the U. S. service for three years, Aug. 22, 
1862. At the close of 1864, when it had become much reduced in 
numbers by reason of its hard service, it was consolidated into a 
battalion of five companies, A to E. The regiment left the state 
on Aug. 26, 1862, and took part in its first fighting during the siege 
of Harper's Ferry, where it received the brunt of the enemy's at- 
tack and suffered a large share of the casualties at Maryland and 
Bolivar heights. It lost 16 killed and 42 wounded during the fight- 
ing, and was surrendered with the rest of the garrison on Sept. 
15. The men were immediate!}' paroled and spent two months 
in camp at Chicago. 111., awaiting notice of its exchange. As 
soon as notice of its exchange was received in December, it returned 
to Virginia, encamping during the winter at Union Mills. The fol- 
lowing extract is taken from Col. Fox's account of the regiment in 
his work on Regimental Losses in the Civil War: "In June, 1863, 
it joined the Army of the Potomac, and was placed in Willard's 
brigade, Alex. Hays' (3d) division, 2nd corps, with which it marched 
to Gettysburg, where the regiment won honorable distinction, cap- 
turing 5 stands of colors in that battle. Col. Willard, the brigade 
commander, being killed there, Col. Sherrill succeeded him, only 
to meet the same fate, while in the regiment the casualties 
amounted to 40 killed, 181 wounded and 10 missing. At Bristoe 
Station the regiment won additional honors by its conspicuous gal- 
lantry and sustained the heaviest loss in that action; casualties, 6 
killed, 33 wounded and 10 missing. The 126th having been trans- 
ferred to Barlow's (ist) division, entered the spring campaign of 



New York Regiments 143 

1864 with less than 300 men, of whom 100 were detailed at head- 
quarters as a provost-guard. Its casualties at the Wilderness were 
5 killed, 62 wounded and 9 missing; and at Po river and Spottsyl- 
vania, 6 killed, 'i'j wounded and 7 missing. Col. Baird was killed 
at Petersburg." The regiment took part in the following impor- 
tant battles: Siege of Harper's Ferry — including Maryland and 
Bolivar heights; Gettysburg. Auburn ford, Bristoe Station, Mor- 
ton's ford, Wilderness, Po river, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Toto- 
potomy, Cold Harbor. Petersburg, Weldon railroad, siege of Peters- 
burg, Deep Bottom, Reams' station. Hatcher's run, and Sutherland 
Station, and v/as also present in the Mine Run campaign, 
at Strawberry _ Plains, Boydton Road, Farmville and Apporpattox. 
Commanded by Col. Brown, it was mustered out at Washington, 
D. C, June 3, 1865. The total enrollment of the regiment during 
service was 1,036, of whom 16 ofificers and 138 men were killed and 
mortally wounded, or 14.7 per cent.; i officer and 121 men died of 
disease and other causes; total deaths, 17 officers and 259 men, 30 
of whom died in the hands of the enemy. The total of killed and 
wounded in the regiment amounted to 535. The percentage of 
killed and mortally wounded at Gettysburg amounted to over 15, 
and the total casualties to 57.4 per cent. 

One Hundred and Twenty-seventh Infantry. — Col. William 
Gurney; Lieut. -Cols., Stewart L. Woodford, Edward H. Little; 
Majs.. Edward H. Little, Frank K. Smith. This regiment, known 
as the National Volunteers or Monitors, was principally recruited 
on Long Island and in New York city, where it was mustered into 
the U. S. service for three years, Sept. 8. 1862, and left two days 
later for Washington. It served during the siege of Suffolk in the 
spring of 1863 in Hughston's (3d) brigade, Gurney's division, and 
in June was engaged in minor affairs at Diascund bridge and at 
Nine-mile Ordinary, Va. In August it was ordered to South Caro- 
lina, where it participated in the various operations about Charles- 
ton harbor in 1863, including the siege of Fort Wagner and the bom- 
bardment of Fort Sumter, attached to the ist brigade, Gordon's 
division, loth corps. It was present during the actions at Bull's 
island in March, 1864. and at Fort Johnson in July, sustaining its 
first severe loss at the battle of Honey Hill, S. C. in November, 
its casualties in this action amounting to 7 killed, 49 wounded and 
15 missing. It was then serving in Potter's (ist) brigade, Hatch's 
division, and was again warmly engaged at Deveaux neck in De- 
cember, losing 14 killed, 67 wounded, and 3 missing. Shortly after 
the evacuation of Charleston, the regiment was detailed hy order 
of Gen. Sherman for permanent city garrison, on account of its 
good reputation for discipline. Col. Gurney being appointed post 
commander. It was there mustered out on June 30, 1865. The 
regiment left for the war about 1,000 strong, and returned home 
with 25 officers and 530 men. It lost by death during service 35 
men killed in action; i officer and 94 men died of disease and other 
causes, a total of 130. 

One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Infantry. — Cols., David S. 
Cowles, James Smith, James P. Foster; Lieut.-Cols.. James Smith, 
James P. Foster, Francis S. Keese; Majs., James P. Foster, Ed- 
ward Gifford, Francis S. Keese, George M. Van Slyck, Robert F. 
Wilkinson. This regiment, recruited in the counties of Colum.bia 
and Dutchess, rendezvoused at Hudson, and was there mustered 
into the U. S. service for three years. Sept. 4, 1862. The following 
day it left for Baltimore, whence it sailed for New Orleans a few 



144 The Union Army 

weeks later. In Jan., 1863, it was assigned to Sherman's division, 
19th corps, and was complimented by Gen. Sherman for the success 
of its first achievement — the capture of a large quantity of prop- 
erty at Gainesville in April. The regiment took a gallant and con- 
spicuous part in the long siege of Port Hudson, fighting desperate- 
ly during the assaults of May 27 and June 14. The splendid service 
rendered by the 128th is well attested by its casualties during the 
siege, which amounted to 22 killed, 100 wounded and 6 missing, a 
total of 128. Col. Cowles fell while gallantly leading his regiment 
during the assault of May 27, the command suffering its heaviest 
losses on this occasion. After the fall of Port Hudson, the regi- 
ment was ordered to Baton Rouge, where it arrived on the 22nd 
after a fatiguing march, and the next 9 months were chiefly spent 
in post and garrison duty, with occasional reconnoissances and 
minor expeditions. On March 15, 1864, in the 3d brigade, 2nd 
(Grover's) division, 19th corps, it started on Banks' ill-fated Red 
River expedition. During the battle of Cane river crossing, the 
128th was the first to cross the river and plant a flag upon the hill. 
It also made a brilliant charge driving the enemy and takirig many pris- 
oners, its loss being 10 killed and wounded. It was also present 
at Alexandria and Mansura. In July it proceeded with the division 
to New Orleans, whence it sailed under sealed orders for Wash- 
ington. On its arrival it was ordered into Maryland to confront 
Early's invasion and took part in the subsequent famous campaign 
under Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley. At the battle of the 
Opequan the regiment lost 57 killed, wounded and missing, Maj. 
Keese and 4 other officers being among the wounded. At Fisher's 
hill its loss was 20 killed, wounded and missing, and the regiment 
was handsomely complimented by Gen. Emory for its services. At 
the battle of Cedar creek it lost 95 killed, wounded and missing. 
During the next two months it was engaged in garrison duty at 
Winchester and New Berne, and was ordered to Savannah with its 
division in Jan., 1865. In March it was ordered to North Carolina, 
where it was temporarily attached to the 3d brigade, ist division, 
loth corps, participating in the campaign of the Carolinas until 
Johnston's surrender in April. It returned to Savannah in May 
and was mustered out in Augusta, Ga., July 12, 1865. The regiment 
returned home with only 400 men of the original 960 and 173 re- 
cruits. It lost during service 2 officers and 61 men killed and mor- 
tally wounded; 3 officers and 203 men died of disease and other 
causes; total deaths, 269, of whom 41 died in the hands of the enemy. 

One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Infantry. — This regiment, organ- 
ized at Lockport in Aug., 1862, was changed to the 8th N. Y. ar- 
tillery on Dec. 19. 1862, and its record will be found under that 
designation. 

One Hundred and Thirtieth Infantry.— This regiment, organized 
at Portage in Aug. and Sept., 1862, was transferred to the mounted 
service on July 28, 1863. under the designation of the ist dragoons, 
and its record will be found under that title. 

One Hundred and Thirty-first Infantry. — Cols., Charles S. Turn- 
bull, Nicholas W. Day; Lieut. -Cols., Charles C. Nott, Nicholas W. 
Day, W. M. Rexford; Majs., Nicholas W. Day, W. M. Rexford, 
Aug. C. Tate, Albert Stearns. This regiment, known as the ist 
regiment. Metropolitan Guard, was recruited in New York city 
under the auspices of the Metropolitan police, and was mustered 
into the U. S. service for three years on Sept. 6, 1862. The 7th 
N. Y. militia furnished a large number of its officers. It left the 



New York Regiments 145 

state on Sept. 14, proceeded to Annapolis, Md., and shortly after 
sailed for Louisiana as part of the Banks expedition. On its arrival 
at New Orleans it was assigned to the ist brigade, Grover's divi- 
sion, Department of the Gulf, and after the formation of the 19th 
corps, to the ist brigade, 4th (Grover's) division, of that corps. 
It sustained its first loss — 3 wounded — in April, 1863, at Irish bend, 
and was engaged without loss at Vermillion bayou on the 17th. 
The following month the investment of Port Hudson was complet- 
ed and the 131st participated most honorably throughout the siege 
of that stronghold, in which its losses aggregated 21 killed, 88 
wounded and 10 missing, most of its losses being sustained in the 
assaults of May 27 and June 14. After the surrender of Port Hud- 
son it was engaged for several months in post and garrison duty, 
and in various expeditions and reconnoissances. It lost 55 men 
killed, wounded and missing at Bayou La Fourche, and was again 
engaged at Vermillion bayou in October, and at Carrion Crow 
bayou, but meeting with no loss. In the summer of 1864 it left 
the Department of the Gulf and joined Gen. Butler's Army of the 
James at Bermuda Hundred. Shortly after it joined the Army of 
the Shenandoah under Gen. Sheridan and participated in his bril- 
liant campaign in the Valley. In Grover's division, 19th corps, it 
lost heavily at the battle of the Opequan, where its casualties 
amounted to 10 killed and 64 wounded. It was only slightly en- 
gaged at Fisher's hill, but at Cedar creek it again suffered severely, 
losing 3S killed and wounded. It subsequently went to North Caro- 
lina, where it was attached to the loth corps, and in May, 1865, it 
was ordered to Augusta, Ga. The following month it moved to 
Savannah, Ga., and was there mustered out, under Col. Day, July 
26, 1865. The regiment traveled over 10,000 miles by land and 
water and returned to the state with only 240 out of 1,000 men with 
which it entered the service. It lost by death 2 officers and 82 en- 
listed men killed and mortally wounded; 3 ofificers and 107 enlist- 
ed men died of disease and other causes; total deaths, 194. 

One Hundred and Thirty-second Infantry. — Col., Peter J. Claas- 
sen; Lieut. -Cols., Charles E. Prescott, George H. Hitchcock; Majs., 
George H. Hitchcock, John Waller, Jr., John B. Houstain, Thomas 
B. Green. This regiment, known as the Hillhouse Light Guards, 
recruited in New York city, Brooklyn and the state at large, was 
organized at East New York and was mustered into the U. S. serv- 
ice for three years on Oct. 4, 1862, at Washington, D. C. The 
regiment left the state Sept. 27. 1862, about 900 strong, and spent 
nearly its entire term of service in North Carolina, engaged in 
outpost and garrison duty, part of the time unattached and part of 
the time attached to the i8th corps. A portion of Co. D was com- 
posed of Allegany, Cattaraugus and Tuscarora Indians, the ist 
lieutenant and ist sergeant being full-blooded redskins. The regi- 
ment took part in the engagements at Pollocksville, Trenton, 
Young's cross-roads. New Berne, Blount's creek, Sandy ridge, 
Batchelder's creek. Southwest creek, Jackson's mill, Gardner's 
bridge, Foster's mills, Butler's bridge, and in the campaign of the 
Carolinas at Wise's forks. Snow hill, and Bennett's house. The 
severest loss sustained by the regiment was at the battle of New 
Berne in Feb., 1864, when it lost 91 in killed, wounded and missing. 
During this battle, Cos. D, E and G defended the bridge on the 
Neuse river against three successive attacks of the enemy, but were 
finally forced to retire when the enemy was reinforced, after 4 hours 
of hard fighting. The 132nd is credited with saving New Berne from 

Vol. 11—10 



146 The Union Army 

capture on this occasion. Lieut. Arnold Zenette, the only 
commissioned officer killed, fell in this action. At the battle of 
Wise's forks the regiment lost 24 in killed, wounded and missing. 
It was mustered out under Col. Claassen, June 29, 1865, at Salis- 
bury, N. C, having lost by death during service, i officer and 13 
enlisted men killed and mortally wounded; i officer and 159 en- 
listed men died of disease and other causes, a total of 174, of whom 
71 died in the hands of the enemy. 

One Hundred and Thirty-third Infantry. — Cols., Leonard D. H. 
Currie; Lieut. -Cols., James A. P. Hopkins, Anthony J. Allaire; Majs., 
Abraham S. Relay, John H. Allcott, Anthony J. Allaire, George 
Washburn. The 133d, the 2nd "Metropolitan Guard,^' was recruit- 
ed principally in New York city under the auspices of the Metro- 
politan police of New York and was organized on Staten island, 
where it was mustered into the U. S. service for three j^ears on 
Sept. 24, 1862. It left for Washington on Oct. 8, 1862, and a few 
weeks later sailed for New Orleans as a part of Bar4:s' expedition. 
It was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 3d (Emory's) division, 19th 
corps, and was first under fire at Fort Bisland in April, 1863, when 
it sustained a loss of 25 killed and wounded. It was engaged with- 
out loss at Opelousas and Alexandria; took an honorable and con- 
spicuous part in the siege of Port Hudson, in which it sufifered a 
total loss of 23 killed, 90 wounded and 2 missing, its chief losses 
occurring in the assaults of May 27 and June 14. After the surren- 
der of Port Hudson, the ensuing 9 months were chiefly spent in 
post and garrison duty, and in some reconnoissances and expedi- 
tions into the enemy's country. It fought at Vermillion and Car- 
rion Crow bayous in Oct., 1863, after which it served in the de- 
fenses of New Orleans until March 15, 1864, when it joined the ist 
brigade, 2nd (Grover's) division, 19th corps, and started on Banks' 
Red River campaign, enduring much fatigue and hardship, but 
sustaining no further losses in battle. It rendered efficient service 
in building the dam on Red river, which enabled the fleet of iron- 
clads to pass the rapids in May. In July, 1864, it embarked at 
New Orleans for Washington with the ist and 2nd divisions of 
the corps, and participated without loss in the actions at Fort 
Stevens and Snicker's ferry, Va. It was attached to the 3d brigade, 
1st division. Army of the Shenandoah early in the spring of 1865, 
and after April served in the defenses of Washington, where it 
was mustered out on June 6, under command of Col. Currie. The 
regiment lost during service, 2 officers and 43 men killed and mor- 
tally wounded; i officer and 78 men died of disease and other 
causes; total deaths, 3 officers and 121 men. 

One Hundred and Thirty-fourth Infantry. — Cols., George E. 
Danforth, Charles E. Coster, Allan H. Jackson; Lieut.-Cols., Joseph 
S. DeAgreda, Allan H. Jackson, Reuben B. Heacock, Clinton C. 
Brown, William H. Hoyt; Majs., George W. B. Seelye, Allan H. 
Jackson, Edward W. Groot (declined), Gilbert H. Kennedy, Will- 
iam H. Hoyt, P. E. McMaster. This regiment, recruited in the 
counties of Schoharie, Schenectady and Delaware, was organized 
at Schoharie and there mustered into the U. S. service for three 
years on Sept. 22-23, 1862. It left the state on the 2Sth and was 
at once attached to the 2nd brigade, 2nd (Von Steinwehr's) divi- 
sion, nth corps, which in December marched to Fredericksburg 
in support of Burnside, but the 134th was not in the battle. It 
then went into winter quarters at Stafford, Va. As part of the 
1st brigade, same division and corps, it lost 8 wounded and missing 



New York Regiments 147 

at Chancellorsville. The regiment was heavily engaged at Gettys- 
burg, in the battle of the first day, and in the gallant defense of 
Cemetery hill on the second daj', meeting with a loss of 42 killed, 
151 wounded and 59 missing, a total of 252 out of 400 in action. 
After the battle it accompanied the army on its return to Virginia 
and in August was on detached service at Alexandria, Va. In 
Sept., 1863, it was ordered to Tennessee with the nth and 12th 
corps, and the following month was in reserve at the midnight 
battle of Wauhatchie, Tenn. During the Chattanooga-Ringgold 
campaign it was slightly engaged at Missionary ridge, losing 8 
wounded and missing. It was then ordered to the relief of Knox- 
ville. and in April, 1864, was attached to the 2nd brigade, 2nd 
(Geary's) division, of the newly formed 20th corps, with which it 
served in the Atlanta campaign. It fought its first battle of the 
campaign at Rocky Face ridge, where its casualties were 36 in 
killed and wounded. It was then in the battles of Resaca, Dallas, 
Kennesaw mountain. Pine mountain, Golgotha, Kolb's farm. Mari- 
etta, Chattahoochee river, Peachtree creek and Atlanta. At Peach- 
tree creek the regiment lost 44 killed, wounded and missing. After 
the fall of Atlanta it remained there until Nov., 1864, when it start- 
ed on the march to the sea, fighting at Sandersville and Greens- 
boro, and sharing with a loss of 13 in the siege of Savannah, 
Geary's division being the first to enter the city on its evacuation 
by Hardee. Early in 1865, it moved on its final campaign— through 
the Carolinas — -which ended with Johnston's surrender, then 
marched with the corps to Washington, where it took part in the 
grand review, and was mustered out at Bladensburg, Md., under 
Col. Jackson, June 10, 1865. The regiment lost during service, 5 
officers and 84 men killed and mortally wounded; 3 ofificers and 91 
men died of disease and other causes, a total of 183. 

One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Infantry. — This regiment was or- 
ganized in Aug., 1862, and was converted into an artillery regiment 
on Oct. 3. (See 6th Heavy Artillery.) 

One Hundred and Thirty-sixth Infantry. — Col., James Wood, Jr.; 
Lieut. -Cols., Lester B. Faulkner, Henry L. Arnold; Majs., David 
C. Hartshorn, Henry L. Arnold, Campbell H. Young. The 136th, 
the "Ironclads," was recruited in the counties of Allegany, Living- 
ston and Wyoming and rendezvoused at Portage, where it was 
mustered into the U. S. service for three years on Sept. 25-26, 1862. 
It left the state on Oct. 3; was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 2nd 
(Steinwehr's) division, nth corps; went into winter quarters with 
the corps at Stafford. Va.; fought its first battle at Chancellorsville, 
losing a few men killed, wounded and missing; and was heavily en- 
gaged at Gettysburg on the first two days of the battle, losing 109 
in killed, wounded and missing. In Sept., 1863, it was ordered to 
Tennessee with the nth and 12th corps and was engaged the fol- 
lowing month at the midnight battle of Wauhatchie, Tenn., losing 
6 killed and wounded. It was active at Missionary ridge in the 
Chattanooga-Ringgold campaign, losing 11 killed and wounded. 
When the 20th corps was formed in April, 1864, it was attached to 
the 3d brigade, 3d (Butterfield's) division of that corps, moving 
on the Atlanta campaign early in May. It was active at the battles 
of Rocky Face ridge, Resaca, Cassville, Dallas, Kennesaw moun- 
tain and in the siege of Atlanta. Its heaviest loss was incurred 
at Resaca, where the casualties amounted to 13 killed, 68 wounded 
and I missing. After the fall of Atlanta it remained there until No- 
vember, when it marched with Sherman to the sea, engaged in the 



148 The Union Army 

siege of Savannah, and closed its active service with the campaign 
through the CaroHnas, in which it was engaged at Fayetteville, 
Averasboro, Bentonville, Raleigh and Bennett's house, losing 45 
in killed and wounded in the battles of Averasboro and Bentonville. 
After the close of the war it marched with its corps to Washington, 
where it took part in the grand review, and was mustered out on 
June 13, 1865, under command of Col. Wood, who was later pro- 
moted to bvt. brigadier-general and major-general. The regiment 
lost by death during service, 2 officers and 74 men, killed and mor- 
tally wounded; i officer and 91 men, died of disease and other 
causes, a total deaths of 168. 

One Hundred and Thirty-seventh Infantry. — Cols., David Ire- 
land, Koert S. Van Voorhes; Lieut. -Cols., Koert S. Van Voorhes, 
Milo B. Eldridge: Majs., Wetsell Willoughby, Milo B. Eldridge, 
Frederick A. Stoddard. This regiment, recruited in the counties 
of Tompkins, Tioga and Broome — the 24th senatorial district — was 
organized at Binghamton, and was there mustered into the U. S. 
service for three years on Sept. 25-26, 1862. It left on the 27th, 
1,007 strong, for Harper's Ferry, and was there assigned to the 3d 
brigade, 2nd (Geary's) division, — the "White Star" division — 12th 
corps, to which it was attached throughout the whole period of its 
active service. The list of important battles in which the regiment 
took part includes Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Wauhatchie, Mis- 
sionary ridge, Lookout mountain, Ringgold, Rocky Face ridge, 
Resaca, Cassville, Lost mountain, Kennesaw mountain, Peachtree 
creek, the siege of Atlanta, and numerous minor actions on the 
march to the sea and in the campaign of the Carolinas. Col. W. F. 
Fox, in his account of this regiment, says: "It won special 
honors at Gettysburg, then in Greene's brigade, which, alone 
and unassisted, held Gulp's hill during a critical period of that 
battle against a desperate attack of vastly superior force. 
The casualties in the 137th at Gettysburg exceeded those of any 
other regiment in the corps, amounting to 40 killed, 87 wounded 
and 10 missing. The gallant defense of Gulp's hill by Greene's 
brigade, and the terrible execution inflicted by its musketry on the 
assaulting column of the enemy, form one of the most noteworthy 
incidents of the war. The 12th corps left Virginia in Sept., 1863, 
and went to Tennessee, joining Grant's army at Chattanooga. In 
the month following their arrival the regiment was engaged in the 
midnight battle at Wauhatchie, where it lost 15 killed and 75 
wounded; and, a few weeks later, fought with Hooker at Lookout 
mountain in the famous 'battle above the clouds;' casualties in that 
battle, 6 killed and 32 wounded. In April, 1864, the corps number 
was changed to the 20th, Gen. Hooker being placed in command. 
A large accession was received from the nth corps, but Col. Ire- 
land and Gen. Geary retained their respective commands. The 
137th shared in all the marches and battles of the Atlanta campaign, 
and then marched with Sherman to the sea." Col. Ireland suc- 
cumbed to disease at Atlanta, and Col. Van Voorhes succeeded to 
the command. When the campaign of the Carolinas closed with 
the surrender of Johnston, the regiment marched with the corps 
to Washington, where it participated in the grand review and was 
mustered out near Bladensburgh, Md., June 9, 1865. The total en- 
rollment of the regiment was 1,1 11, of whom 6 officers and 121 
men, were killed and mortally wounded — 11.4 per cent, of the en- 
rollment; 4 officers and 167 men died of disease, accidents, and all 
other causes, a total of 294. The total number of killed and wound- 
ed was 490. 



New York Regiments 149 

One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Infantry. — This regiment, or- 
ganized in the fall of 1862, was converted into a regiment of artil- 
lery in December. (See 9th Heavy Artillery.) 

One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Infantry. — Cols., Anthony Conk, 
Samuel H. Roberts; Lieut. -Cols., Samuel H. Roberts, Edgar Perry, 
Thomas Mulcahy; Majs., Andrew Morris, Thomas Mulcahy, Embre 
Rogers, Theo. Miller. This regiment, recruited in the counties of 
Kings and Queens, was organized at Brooklyn, and there mustered 
into the U. S. service on Sept. 9, 1862, for three years. It left on 
the nth, about 1,000 strong, and was stationed at Camp Hamilton, 
Department of Virginia during the ensuing winter. Throughout 
the year 1863, the regiment served in West's brigade, ist division, 
4th corps, at Yorktown, and in Wistar's brigade. Department of 
Virginia, taking part in the actions at Fort Magruder, Crump's 
cross-roads, where it lost 11 men wounded and missing, Chicka- 
hominy and Forge bridge. Early in Feb., 1864, it was engaged in 
the action at Bottom's bridge, but sustained no loss. In March it 
was assigned to the ist brigade, ist division (Brooks'), i8th corps, 
and participated with Gen. Butler's army in May in the campaign 
against Richmond and Petersburg by way of the James river, 
being engaged at Swift creek. Proctor's creek, Drewry's bluflf and 
Bermuda Hundred, with a loss of 19 wounded and missing. The 
i8th corps was then ordered by Gen. Grant to reinforce the Army of 
the Potomac, arriving in time to share in the bloody work at Cold 
Harbor, where the 139th fought with great gallantry, and sustaining 
casualties amounting to 33 killed, 118 wounded and 2 missing. Among 
the killed was the gallant young Lieut. -Col. Perry. On June 12 it 
withdrew from Cold Harbor, returned with the corps to Bermuda 
Hundred, and a few days later shared in the assault on the works 
of Petersburg, losing 9 killed and wounded. It then went into 
position in the trenches on the right of the line, where it lost men 
almost daily by reason of its proximity to the enemy's pickets and 
being exposed to incessant firing. In the latter part of August it 
was relieved and retired within the defenses of Bermuda Hundred. 
The 1st division, now commanded by Gen. Stannard, took part in 
the brilliant and successful assault on Fort Harrison, where the 139th 
lost 41 killed and wounded, and it was lightly engaged at Fair Oaks 
in October. In Dec, 1864, when the i8th corps was discontinued, 
the regiment was attached to the ist brigade, 3d division (Devens'), 
24th corps, remaining, however, in the Army of the James. The 
corps was posted throughout the winter on the north bank of the 
James in front of Richmond, where the regiment remained until 
the fall of Petersburg. It entered Richmond without opposition on 
April 3, 1865, being the third regiment to enter that city. Here it 
was mustered out June 19, 1865, commanded by Lieut. -Col. Mul- 
cahy. It lost during service 5 officers and 70 men, killed and mor- 
tally wounded; 2 officers and 78 men died of disease and other 
causes, a total of 155. 

One Hundred and Fortieth Infantry, — Cols., Patrick H. O'Rorke, 
George Ryan, Elwell S. Otis, William S. Grantsyne; Lieut.-Cols., 
Louis Ernest, Isaiah F. Force, Elwell S. Otis, William S. Grant- 
syne, W. James Clark; Majs., Milo L. Starks, Benjamin F. Harman, 
William J. Clark, Willard Abbott, Isaiah F. Force. The 140th, the 
"Rochester Racehorses," was recruited in Monroe county, organized 
at Rochester, and there mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 13, 
1862, for three years. In June, 1863, it received by transfer the 
three years men of the 13th N. Y., and in Oct., 1864, the veterans 



150 The Union Army 

and recruits of the 44th. The regiment left the state on Sept. 19, 
1862, proceeded to Washington and joined the Army of the Potomac 
in November, being assigned to the 3d (Warren's) brigade, 2nd 
(Sykes') division, 5th corps. With this command it was under fire 
for the first time at the battle of Fredericksburg, where it lost a 
few men wounded and missing. The 5th corps was only partially 
engaged at Chancellorsville, though the 140th lost 21 killed, wound- 
ed and missing in that disastrous battle. Describing this gallant, 
fighting regiment, Col. Fox says: "Col., O'Rorke was killed at 
Gettysburg while leading his men into action on Little Round Top, 
where their prompt action aided largely in seizing that important 
position, the regiment losing there 26 killed, 8q wounded and 18 
missing. The 140th was then in Ayres' division— the division of 
regulars. In 1864 the regulars were brigaded in one command under 
Ayres, and the 140th was placed in the same brigade; the division 
was commanded by Gen. Charles Grifiin. But in June, 1864, the 
regiment was transferred to the ist Brigade of Ayres' (2nd) divi- 
sion. This brigade was commanded in turn by Col. Gregory, Gen. 
Joseph Hayes, Col. Otis, and Gen. Winthrop. The latter officer 
fell mortally wounded at Five Forks. The regiment was in the 
hottest of the fighting at the Wilderness and suflFered severely there, 
losing 23 killed, 118 wounded and 114 captured or missing; total, 
255. Three days later it was engaged in the first of the series of 
battles at Spottsylvania, in which action Col. Ryan and Maj. Starks 
were killed. At Spottsylvania the casualties in the regiment were 
12 killed and 48 wounded; and at the Weldon railroad, 4 killed, 19 
wounded and 51 captured or missing. The regiment was composed 
of exceptionally good material; the men were a neat, clean lot, and 
in their handsome Zouave costume attracted favorable attention 
wherever they appeared." The 140th took part in nearly all the 
great engagements of the Army of the Potomac from Fredericks- 
burg to the close of the war. It was actively engaged at Chancel- 
lorsville, Gettysburg, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Bethesda Church, 
siege of Petersburg, Weldon railroad, Poplar Spring Church, Hatch- 
er's run. White Oak road and Five Forks. It was present at Fred- 
ericksburg, Bristoe Station, Rappahannock Station, in the Mine 
Run campaign, North Anna, Totopotomy, White Oak swamp and 
Appomattox. Other important losses incurred besides those above 
detailed were, 60 wounded and missing at Bethesda Church; 22 
killed, wounded and missing in the first assault on Petersburg; 23 
killed and wounded at Hatcher's run; and 57 killed, wounded and 
missing during the final Appomattox campaign. Col. O'Rorke, when 
he was killed at Gettysburg, was mounted on a rock at Little Round 
Top, cheering on his men. He graduated at the head of his class 
at West Point in 1861 and was only 25 years of age when killed. 
The regiment was mustered out June 3, 1865, near Alexandria, Va., 
under Col. Grantsyne. Its total enrollment during service was 1,707, 
of whom 533 were killed and wounded; 8 officers and 141 men were 
killed and died of wounds; 2 officers and 168 men died of disease 
and other causes; total deaths, 319, of whom ^]^ died in Confederate 
prisons. 

One Hundred and Forty-first Infantry. — Cols., Samuel G. Hath- 
away, John W. Dininy, William K. Logie, Andrew J. McNett; Lieut.- 
Cols., James C. Beecher, William K. Logie, Edward L. Patrick, 
Andrew J. McNett, Charles W. Clanharty; Majs., John W. Dininy, 
Edw. L. Patrick, Chas. W. Clanharty, Elisha G. Baldwin. This 
regiment, recruited in the counties of Chemung, Schuyler and Steu- 



New York Regiments 151 

ben — the 27th senatorial district— was organized at Elmira, and 
there mustered into the U. S. service for three years on Sept. 11, 

1862. The regiment left for Washington on the 15th, and in April, 

1863, was ordered to Suflfolk, Va., in the 3d (Potter's) brigade, Gur- 
ney's division. Department of Virginia. In June and July, following, 
it was engaged with slight loss at Diascund bridge, and Crump's 
cross-roads. In July, 1863, it joined the 2nd brigade (Krzyzanow- 
ski's), 3d division (Schurz's), nth corps, with which command it 
went to Tennessee in September and joined Grant's army at Chat- 
tanooga. In October it went to the support of the I2th corps at 
Wauhatchie, sustaining a few casualties, and the following month 
was present at the battle of Missionary ridge. When the nth and 
I2th corps were consolidated in April, 1864, to form the 20th, the 
141st was assigned to the ist (Knipe's) brigade, ist (Williams') di- 
vision of the new corps. It moved on the Atlanta campaign early 
in May and bore a conspicuous part in all the important battles 
which followed, including Resaca, Dallas, Acworth, Kennesaw 
mountain, Peachtree creek and the siege of Atlanta. The regiment 
was heavily engaged at the battle of Resaca, where it lost 15 killed 
and yj wounded; at Kennesaw mountain, including the engagement 
at Golgotha, Nose's creek and Kolb's farm, it lost 12 in killed, 
wounded and missing; and at Peachtree creek, it experienced the 
hardest fighting of the campaign, being under a severe front and 
flank fire for nearly 4 hours, and repulsing three charges of the 
enemy. The casualties here were 15 killed and 65 wounded. Among 
those killed was the gallant young Col. Logic, and among the se- 
verely wounded were Lieut. -Col. McNett and Maj. Clanharty. The 
regiment started on the campaign with 22 officers and 434 enlisted 
men. Its casualties in battle up to Sept. i amounted to 210. It 
remained at Atlanta until Nov. 15, when it started with Sherman on 
the march to the sea. It took part in the siege of Savannah and the 
following year closed its active service with the campaign through the 
Carolinas, losing a few men in the battle of Averasboro, N. C. After 
Johnston's surrender it marched on to Washington, took part in the 
grand review, and was there mustered out on June 8, 1865, under Col. 
McNett. It lost by death from wounds 4 ofificers and 71 men; by dis- 
ease and other causes. 2 officers and 172 men — total, 249. 

One Hundred and Forty-second Infantry. — Cols., Roscius W. Jud- 
son, Newton M. Curtis. Albert M. Barney; Lieut. -Cols., Newton M. 
Curtis, Albert M. Barney, William A. Jones; Majs., Nathan G. Axtell, 
William A. Jones, William S. P. Garvin. This regiment, recruited in 
the counties of St. Lawrence and Franklin, rendezvoused at Ogdens- 
burg, and was there mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 29, 1862, 
for three years. The regiment left for Washington on Oct. 6, where it 
was stationed until April of the following year, when it was ordered 
to Suffolk, Va. During its long period of active service the 142nd glori- 
ously earned its reputation as a fighting regiment. Col. Fox in his ac- 
count of this organization, says: "It participated in the campaign of 
Gordon's division, up the Peninsula in June (1863), and in the Mary- 
land march, soon after Gettysburg. From Warrenton, Va., the regi- 
ment went to Morris island, S. C, arriving there on Aug. 17, 1863. In 
the following May, the 142nd returned to Virginia and joined Butler's 
Army of the James, having been assigned to the ist brigade, 2nd divi- 
sion (Turner's), loth corps. While at Cold Harbor the division was 
attached for a short time to the i8th corps. The losses in the regi- 
ment at Drewry's bluff and Bermuda Hundred were 19 killed, 78 
wounded and 22 missing; at Fort Harrison, 6 killed, 51 wounded 



152 The Union Army 

and 10 missing; and at the Darby town road, 8 killed, 90 wounded 
and 5 missing. In Dec, 1864, the loth corps was merged in the 
newly-formed 24th corps, the regiment being placed in Curtis' (ist) 
brigade, Ames' (2nd) division. In the same month this division, 
including the 142nd, sailed with Butler on the first expedition against 
Fort Fisher, N. C. It landed there and when the brigade was re- 
called from its advance the regiment had secured a position near 
to and in rear of the fort^ — so near that Lieut. Walling had cap- 
tured a battleflag which had been shot down from the parapets. A 
battalion of the enemy were captured by the 117th New York, and 
the whole opposition of the Confederates was ^so weak that the 
officers believed that the fort could have been taken then with 
small loss. The statements of Gen. Curtis and other officers were 
so positive on this point, that Gen. Grant was largely influenced by 
them in his decision to order a second attempt. In this second 
affair, which was successful. Gen. Curtis led the assault and fell 
seriously wounded, but survived to enjoy his honors as the 'Hero 
of Fort Fisher.' " In recognition of his services on this occasion 
he was commissioned by the secretary of war a brigadier-general 
of U. S. volunteers, and was later thanked by the people of his state 
in a joint resolution of the legislature. In the engagement at Fort 
Fisher in Dec. 1864, the 142nd lost 20 killed and wounded; in the 
second attack, in Jan., 1865, it lost 79 killed and wounded. The 
regiment sustained no further losses in battle after Fort Fisher, 
but was present at the actions of Fort Anderson and Wilmington, 
N. C, and took part in the campaign of the Carolinas from March 
I to April 26. Under the command of Col. Barney, it was mustered 
out June 17, 1865, at Raleigh, N. C. and on the 27th the veterans 
and recruits were transferred to the 169th N. Y. Out of a total 
enrollment of 1,370 the 142nd lost during service 3 officers and 126 
men killed and died of wounds; 2 officers and 161 men died of dis- 
ease and other causes; total deaths, 292. 

One Hundred and Forty-third Infantry. — Cols., David P. De- 
Witt, Horace Boughton; Lieut.-Cols., Horace Boughton. Joseph 
B. Taft, Hezekiah Watkins; Majs., Joseph B. Taft, Hezekiah Wat- 
kins, John Higgins, Edward H. Pinney. This regiment, recruited 
in the counties of Sullivan and Tompkins, was organized at Mon- 
ticello. and there mustered into the U. S. service for a three years*^ 
term on Oct. 8, 1862. Col. DeWitt was formerly in command of 
the 3d Maryland regiment. The 143d left the state on Oct. 14, pro- 
ceeded to Washington and remained on duty in the defenses of the 
capital until April, 1863, when it was ordered to the Department of 
Virginia. Here it participated in the defense of Suffolk, in the 3d 
(Hughston's) brigade, Gurney's division, and then took part in 
the operations against Richmond with Gordon's division. After 
the battle of Gettysburg it was transferred to the Army of the Po- 
tomac, and placed in the ist brigade, 3d (Schurz's) division, Tith 
corps. It accompanied the nth and 12th corps to Tennessee in 
September, joined Grant's army at Chattanooga and the following 
month took part in the midnight battle at Wauhatchie, Tenn., los- 
ing 6 killed and wounded. Lieut.-Col. Taft was killed in the action 
at Missionary ridge in November, after which the regiment was 
ordered to the relief of Knoxville, a most trying and arduous cam- 
paign. When the new 20th corps was formed in April, 1864, the 
143d was assigned to 3d brigade (Robinson's), ist division (Will- 
iams') of that corps, and fought under Sherman in all the battles 
and campaigns in which the 20th corps was engaged from Chatta- 



New York Regiments 153 

nooga to Raleigh. During this period of almost a year the regi- 
ment sustained casualties amounting to 176 killed, wounded and 
missing, its heaviest losses being incurred at Kennesaw mountain, 
where 76 were killed, wounded and missing, and at Peachtree creek, 
where the loss was 48 killed and wounded. Lieut. Edward Car- 
rington, a splendid soldier, was killed March 6, 1865, at Natural 
Bridge, Fla., while serving on the staff of Gen. Newton. After 
Johnston's surrender the regiment marched to Washington, where 
it took part in the grand review, and was there mustered out on 
July 20, 1865. It returned home under command of Col. Bough- 
ton, who was soon after commissioned brigadier-general. The loss 
of the regiment during service was 5 officers and 38 men killed and 
mortally wounded; i officer and 177 men died of disease and other 
causes; 9 men were killed in a railroad accident March 20, 1863; 
total deaths, 221. 

One Hundred and Forty-fourth Infantry. — Cols., Robert S. 
Hughston, David E. Gregory, William J. Slidell, James Lewis; 
Lieut.-Cols., David Gregory, James Lewis, Calvin A. Rice; Majs., 
Robert T. Johnson, Calvin A. Rice, William Plaskett. This regi- 
ment, recruited in Delaware county, was organized at Delhi, and 
there mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 2."^, 1862. It left the 
state on Oct. 11, 956 strong, and was stationed in the defenses of 
Washington at tjpton's hill, Cloud's mills and Vienna until April, 
1863. It was then assigned to the Department of Virginia, and in 
Gurney's division assisted in the defense of Suffolk, during Long- 
street's siege of that place. In May it was placed in Gordon's divi- 
sion of the 7th corps at West Point, and shared in the demonstra- 
tion against Richmond. In July it joined the 2nd brigade, ist 
(Schimmelfennig's) division, nth corps. This division was detached 
from its corps on Aug. 7, and ordered to Charleston harbor, where 
during the fall and winter of 1863 the regiment was engaged at 
Folly and Morris islands, participating with Gillmore's forces in 
the siege of Fort Wagner and the bombardment of Fort Sumter 
and Charleston. In Feb., 1864. in the ist brigade, Ames' division, 
lOth corps, it was engaged at Seabrook and John's islands, S. C. 
It was then ordered to Florida, where it was chiefly engaged in 
raiding expeditions and was active in the action at Camp Finnegan. 
It returned to Hilton Head in June; was active at John's island in 
July, losing 13 killed, wounded and missing; in Potter's brigade of 
the Coast division it participated in the cooperative movements 
with Sherman, fighting at Honey Hill and Deveaux neck. Its 
casualties at Honey Hill were 108 and at Deveaux neck, 37 killed, 
wounded and missing. Lieut. James W. Mack, the only commis- 
sioned officer killed in action, fell at Honey Hill. Attached to the 
3d separate brigade, District of Hilton Head, it was severely en- 
gaged at James island in Feb., 1865, losing 44 killed, wounded and 
missing. In the fall of 1864 the ranks of the regiment were re- 
duced to between 300 and 400 men through battle and disease, and 
it was then recruited to normal standard by one year recruits from 
its home county. The regiment was mustered out at Hilton Head, 
S. C, June 25, 1865, under command of Col. Lewis. It lost by 
death during service 40 officers and men, killed and mortally wound- 
ed; 4 officers and 174 enlisted men died of disease and other causes; 
total, 218. 

One Hundred and Forty-fifth Infantry. — Col., Edward Livingston 
Price; Lieut.-Cols., Ole P. H. Balling, Roswell L. Van Wagenen; Majs., 
R. L. Van Wagenen, George W. Reid, James H. Brennan. The 145th, 



154 The Union Army 

the "Stanton Legion," recruited principally at New York city, Hemp- 
stead, Oyster Bay and Staten island, was organized at Staten island and 
there mustered into the U. S. service, Sept. ii, 1862, for a three years' 
term. It left the state on the 27th and was immediately assigned 
to the 2nd brigade, 2nd (Greene's) division, 12th corps, which was 
stationed in the vicinity of Harper's Ferry until December, when 
it moved into Virginia and made its winter quarters at Stafford 
Court House. The regiment was heavily engaged at the battle of 
Chancellorsville, then in Williams' (ist) division, 12th corps, losing 
95 killed, wounded and missing. Lieut. W. H. Poole, the only com- 
missioned officer killed in action, fell in tWs battle. Its loss at 
Gettysburg was 10 killed and wounded. It then followed with the 
corps in pursuit of Lee until the Rappahannock was reached, and 
was present at the battles of Williamsport, Md., and Robertson's 
ford, Va. The i4Sth was disbanded on Dec. 9, 1863, when the men 
were distributed to the 107th, 123d, and 150th regiments. During 
its service as a separate regiment it lost by death, i officer and 14 
enlisted men killed and mortally wounded; 35 enlisted men died 
of disease and other causes, a total of 50. 

One Hundred and Forty-sixth Infantry. — Cols., Kenner Garrard, 
David T. Jenkins, James Grindlay; Lieut. -Cols., David T. Jenkins, 
William S. Corning, Jesse J. Armstrong, Henry H. Curran, James 
Grindlay, Peter Claesgens; Majs., David T. Jenkins, William S. 
Corning, Henry H. Curran, James Grindlay, Peter Claesgens, Isaac 
P. Powell. The 146th, known as the 5th Oneida, or Garrard's 
Tigers, recruited in the county of Oneida, was organized at Rome, 
and there mustered into the U. S. service for three years on Oct. 
10, 1862. In May and June, 1863, it received by transfer the three 
years' men of the 5th (the famous Duryee Zouaves) and the 17th 
N. Y. infantry, and in 1864, a few additions from the 2nd, 9th, i6th, 
i8th, 30th, 34th, 37th and 44th N. Y. The regiment left the state 
on Oct. II, 1862, for Washington and in November, joined the 
Army of the Potomac at Snicker's gap. Va., where it was placed 
in Warren's (3d) brigade, Sykes' (2nd) division, 5th corps, a divi- 
sion chiefly composed of regulars. It marched with this 
command to Fredericksburg, where it fought its first bat- 
tle, losing I mortally wounded and 17 missing or captured. At 
Chancellorsville the regiment suffered heavily on the first day of 
the fight and acquitted itself with honor, losing 50 killed, wounded 
and missing, and at Gettysburg it again fought gallantly, losing 28 
killed and wounded. Col. Garrard was made brigadier-general for 
gallant conduct at Gettysburg. The regiment participated with lit- 
tle loss in the subsequent Virginia campaigns, ending with that of 
Mine Run, being present at Rappahannock and Bristoe Stations. 
Col. Fox in his account of this regiment says: "The regiment en- 
countered its severest fighting at the battle of the Wilderness, May 
5, 1864, where it suffered a terrible loss, not only in killed and 
■wounded, but in captured men. Col. Jenkins and Maj. Curran were 
killed in that bloody encounter, while the total loss of the regi- 
ment was 20 killed, 67 wounded and 225 captured or missing. In 
1865, the regiment was in Winthrop's (ist) brigade, Ayres' (2nd) 
division, and was prominently engaged in that command at the 
battles of White Oak road, and Five Forks, Gen. Winthrop being 
killed in the latter engagement while leading a successful charge 
of the brigade. The 146th was well drilled and at one time wore a 
conspicuous Zouave uniform. Gen. Joseph Hayes, its last brigade 
commander, in taking leave of the regiment wrote: 'associated for 



New York Regiments 155 

a long time with the infantry of the regular army, the 146th yields 
the palm to none.' " The regiment took part in a number of im- 
portant battles among which were Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, 
Gettysburg, Williamsport, Md., Wilderness. Spottsylvania (includ- 
ing the engagements at Piney Branch Church, Laurel Hill and 
Gayle's house). North Anna, Totopotomy, Cold Harbor, siege of 
Petersburg, Weldon railroad. White Oak ridge and Five Forks. It 
was also present at Rappahannock Station, Bristoe Station, White 
Oak swamp. Poplar Spring Church, Hatcher's run and Appomat- 
tox, the loss in the final Appomattox campaign, being 65 killed, 
wounded and missing. Commanded by Col. Grindlay, the regi- 
ment was mustered out near Washington, D. C, July 16, 1865. Its 
total enrollment during service was 1,707, of whom 7 officers and 
126 men were killed and mortally wounded; 2 officers and 187 men 
died of disease and other causes, a total of 324, of whom i officer 
and 87 men died in the hands of the enemy. 

One Hundred and Forty-seventh Infantry. — Cols., Andrew S. 
Warner, John G. Butler, Francis C. Miller; Lieut.-Cols., John G. 
Butler, Francis C. Miller, George Harney, James Coey; Majs., Fran- 
cis C. Miller, George Harney, Dudley Farling, Alex. R. Penfield, 
James Coey. This was an Oswego county regiment, organized at 
Oswego and there mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 23, 1862. 
It received by transfer on Jan. 25. 1865, the remnant of the 76th 
N. Y. The regiment left the state on Sept. 25, 1862, and after serv- 
ing for a time in the defenses of Washington, north of the Poto- 
mac and in the provisional brigade, provost guard, Army of the 
Potomac, it was placed in the ist division, ist corps. It was under 
fire for the first time at Fitzhugh's crossing below Fredericksburg, 
one of the preliminary movements of the Chancellorsville campaign, 
losing a few men killed and wounded. It was in reserve at Chan- 
cellorsville and sustained no losses. In the 2nd (Cutler's) brigade, 
1st (Wadsworth's) division ist corps, and commanded by Lieut.- 
Col. Miller, it marched on the field of Gettysburg. "The brigade — 
Cutler's — was the first infantry to arrive on that field and to it fell 
the honor of opening that famous battle, the first volley coming 
from the rifles of the 56th Pa. When Cutler's troops were forced 
back, the order to retire failed to reach the 147th, as Col. Miller 
fell wounded and senseless just as he received it, and so the gallant 
band, under Maj. Harney, continued to hold its ground. A tem- 
porary success near by enabled the regiment to retire in good order; 
but not all, for of the 380 who entered that fight, 76 were killed or 
mortally wounded, 146 were wounded, and 79 were missing; total, 
301." (Fox's, Regimental Losses in the Civil War.) The regiment 
took part in the Mine Run campaign — the last campaign of the ist 
corps — sustaining a few casualties, and then went into winter quar- 
ters at Brandy Station. In March, 1864, when the ist corps was 
broken up, it was assigned to the 3d brigade, 4th (Wadsworth's) 
division, 5th (Warren's) corps, and was actively engaged in all the 
battles of the corps during Grant's bloody campaign of 1864-65. 
While in the 5th corps it took part in the battle of the Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania, North Anna river. Totopotomy, Cold Harbor, first 
assault on Petersburg, siege of Petersburg. Weldon railroad. Pop- 
lar Spring Church, Boydton road. Hatcher's run. White Oak ridge, 
Five Forks and Appomattox. The total casualties of the regiment 
from the opening of the campaign in May, 1864, until Lee's surren- 
der, amounted to 477 killed, wounded and missing. It was mustered 
out near Washington, D. C, June 7, 1865, under Col. Miller. The 



156 The Union Army 

total enrollment of the regiment during service was 2,102, of whom 
581 were killed or wounded; 9 officers and 159 men were killed or 
mortally wounded; 2 officers and 177 men died of disease and other 
causes; total deaths, 11 officers and 336 men. 

One Hundred and Forty-eighth Infantry. — Cols., William John- 
son, George M. Guion, John B. Murray; Lieut.-Cols., George 
M. Guion, John B. Murray, E. Darwin Gage, Frederick L. 
Manning; Majs., John B. Murray, Henry T. Noyes, F. L. 
Manning, John Cooley. This regiment, recruited in the counties of 
Ontario, Seneca and Yates, was organized at Geneva and there 
mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 14, *i862, for three years. 
It left the state on the 22nd and was chiefly engaged in garrison 
duty at Suffolk, Norfolk and Yorktown, Va., until 1864, when it 
was placed in Wistar's division, i8th corps. In May, 1864, then in 
the 2nd (Stedman's) brigade, 2nd (Weitzel's) division, i8th corps, 
it took part in the short campaign of the Army of the James under 
Gen. Butler against Petersburg and Richmond by way of the James 
river, being engaged at Swift creek, Proctor's creek, Drewry's bluff 
and Bermuda Hundred. Its loss during this campaign was 78 in 
killed, wounded and missing. The i8th corps was then ordered to 
reinforce the Army of the Potomac and the 148th was heavily en- 
gaged at Cold Harbor, losing 124 killed, wounded and missing. Re- 
turning with the corps to Bermuda Hundred, it moved to Peters- 
burg and took part in the first bloody assault on the works, losing 
16 killed, 74 wounded and 26 missing. After the failure of the as- 
saults, the regiment went into position in the trenches on the right 
of the line, where it suffered daily from the incessant firing, its 
losses throughout the siege amounting to 124 killed, wounded and 
missing. In the latter part of August the i8th corps was relieved 
by the loth, and the former was ordered into the defenses of 
Bermuda Hundred. In the latter part of September the regiment 
was engaged at Fort Harrison with a loss of 24 killed and wound- 
ed, and in October it was heavily engaged on the old battlefield of 
Fair Oaks, where it lost 84 killed, wounded and missing. When 
the i8th corps was discontinued in Dec. 1864. the 148th became a 
part of the new 24th corps, with which it participated in the Appo- 
mattox campaign, sharing in the final assault on Petersburg and the 
engagements at Rice's station, Burke's station and Appomattox 
Court House. The regiment by its signal gallantry displayed on 
many occasions had gained a well earned reputation for courage 
and efficiency. Corp. E. Van Winkle and privates Henry S. Wells and 
George A. Buchanan distinguished themselves at Fort Harrison 
and were the recipients of medals of honor from the war depart- 
ment. The regiment was mustered out on June 22, 1865, at Rich- 
mond, Va., under command of Col. Murray. It lost by death during 
its term of service 4 officers and 95 men killed and mortally wound- 
ed; 2 officers and 156 men died of disease and other causes, a total 
of 267. 

One Hundred and Forty-ninth Infantry, — Cols., Henry A. Bar- 
num, Nicholas Grumbach; Lieut.-Cols., John M. Strong, Abel G. 
Cook, Charles B. Randall, Edward D. Murray, Jr., Nicholas Grum- 
bach, Henry W. Burhaus; Majs., Abel G. Cook, Charles B. Ran- 
dall, Robert E. Hopkins, Nicholas Grumbach, Henry W. Burhaus. 
This regiment, recruited in the county of Onondaga, was organ- 
ized at Syracuse and there mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 
18, 1862. for a three years' term. Col. Barnum was an experienced 
officer, having served with distinction as major of the 12th N. Y. 



New York Regiments 157 

infantry. The regiment left the state on Sept. 23d, 1862, for Wash- 
ington, where it was immediately ordered to join Gen. McClellan's 
army, and was assigned to the 3d brigade, 2nd (Geary's) division, 
i2th corps, "in which command it fought at Chancellorsville, los- 
ing there 15 killed, 68 wounded and 103 captured or missing. At 
Gettysburg the regiment participated in the famous defense of 
Gulp's hill, made by Greene's brigade, in which the 149th, fighting 
behind breastworks, lost 6 killed, 46 wounded and 3 missing, but 
inflicted many times that loss on its assailants. With the 12th 
corps, it was transferred to the Army of the Cumberland and the 
Onondaga boys fought as bravely in Tennessee as in Virginia or 
at Gettysburg. At Lookout mountain, they captured 5 flags while 
fighting under Hooker in that memorable affair, their casualties 
amounting to 10 killed and 64 wounded. Before starting on the 
Atlanta campaign the 12th corps was designated the 20th, its com- 
mand being given to Gen. Hooker. The regiment started on that 
campaign with 380 fighting men, of whom 136 were killed or wound- 
ed before reaching Atlanta. Lieut.-Col. Randall, a gallant and 
skillful ofiicer. was killed at Peachtree creek, in which action the 
regiment sustained its heaviest loss on that campaign, its casual- 
ties there aggregating 17 killed, 25 wounded and 10 missing. The 
regiment, after marching with Sherman to the sea was actively 
engaged in the siege of Savannah, and then marched through the 
Carolinas on the final campaign which ended in the surrender of 
Johnston." (Fox. "Regimental Losses in the Civil War.") A list of 
the important battles in which the regiment fought would include, 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Wauhatchie, Lookout mountain, Ring- 
gold gap, Resaca, New Hope Church, Lost mountain, Kennesaw 
mountain. Peachtree creek, Atlanta, Missionary ridge, Rocky Face 
ridge, Averasboro, Bentonville and Bennett's house. After the sur- 
render of Johnston, the regiment marched to Washington, where 
it took part in the grand review in May, and was mustered out on 
June 12, 1865, near Bladensburgh, Md., under Col. Grumbach. The 
149th had a total enrollment of 1,155, of whom 486 were killed and 
wounded. Of these 4 officers and 129 men — or 11.5 per cent. — were 
killed and mortally wounded; 78 died of disease and other causes; 
total deaths, 211. The following men were awarded medals of 
honor by the war department for the capture of battleflags at Look- 
out mountain: ist Sergt. Norman E. Potter, and privates Peter 
Kappesser and Phillip Goettel. 

One Hundred and Fiftieth Infantry. — -Cols.. John H. Ketcham, 
Alfred B. Smith; Lieut. -Cols., Charles G. Bartlett, Alfred B. Smith, 
Joseph H. Cogswell; Majs., Alfred B. Smith, Joseph H. Cogswell, 
Henry A. Gildersleeve. This regiment was from Dutchess county 
and was composed of excellent material. It was organized at 
Poughkeepsie, where it was mustered into the U. S. service on 
Oct. II, 1862, for three years, and when the 145th N. Y. volunteers was 
disbanded in Dec, 1863, a portion of the members was transferred to 
the 150th. The regiment left the state on Oct. 11, 1862, and performed 
garrison and guard duty at Baltimore until July, 1863, when it was as- 
signed to the 2nd brigade, ist (Williams') division, 12th corps, with 
which it marched to the field of Gettysburg, where it fought its first 
battle, losing 45 killed, wounded and missing. In Sept., 1863. the regi- 
ment went to Tennessee with the 12th corps to join the Army of 
the Cumberland, where Williams' division was stationed along the 
railroad between Murfreesboro and Bridgeport. In April, 1864, the 
I2th corps was designated the 20th. In the same brigade and divi- 



158 The Union Army 

sion, the 150th moved on Sherman's Atlanta campaign about the 
beginning of May and took an important and honorable part in 
many of the great battles of that memorable campaign, including 
Resaca, Cassville, Dallas, Kennesaw mountain, Peachtree creek and 
the siege of Atlanta. The casualties of the regiment aggregated 
100 killed and wounded during the 4 months' fighting from Tun- 
nel Hill to Atlanta. On Nov. 15, 1864, the regiment started on the 
march to the sea with Sherman, and in December was actively en- 
gaged in the siege of Savannah, losing 20 killed, wounded and 
missing. The following year it embarked on the campaign through 
the Carolinas, being sharply engaged at the battle of Averasboro 
and losing a few men at Bentonville. On rtie close of this cam- 
paign it marched on to Washington, where it took part in the grand 
review, and was mustered out there on June 8, 1865, under com- 
mand of Col. Smith. Cols., Ketcham and Smith were both promot- 
ed to brevet brigadier-general, the former receiving his brevet while 
suffering from a severe wound received at Atlanta, and he was sub- 
sequently advanced to the rank of major-general. The regiment 
had a total enrollment of about 1,300, of whom 2 officers and 49 
men were killed and mortally wounded; 3 officers and 78 men died 
of disease and other causes; total deaths, 132. 

One Hundred and Fifty-first Infantry. — Col., William Emerson; 
Lieut. -Cols., Ewen A. Bowen, Thomas M. Fay, Charles Bogardus; 
Majs., Thomas M. Fay, James A. Jewell. This regiment, recruited 
in the counties of Niagara and Monroe, was organized at Lockport, 
where it was mustered into the U. S. service Oct. 22, 1862, for three 
years. It received the men recruited for Col. Franklin Sidway's 
Buffalo regiment, which served to complete its organization. The 
regiment left the state on the 23d and was stationed at Baltimore 
until the following February, when it was ordered to West Vir- 
ginia, serving there and at South mountain, Md., until July 10, 1863, 
when it joined the 3d corps and was assigned to the 3d brigade, 3d 
(French's) division, in which it was present at the action of Wap- 
ping heights. In August it was placed in the ist brigade, same divi- 
sion and corps, and was present, but met with no loss, at McLean's 
ford, Catlett's station and Kelly's ford. During the Mine Run cam- 
paign it was sharply engaged at Locust Grove, losing 60 killed, 
wounded and missing, and upon returning from this campaign went 
into winter quarters at Brandy Station. When the 3d corps was 
discontinued in March, 1864, the 151st was placed in the ist bri- 
gade, 3d (Ricketts) division, 6th corps, with which it did its full 
share in the fighting from the Wilderness to Petersburg, being en- 
gaged at the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Totopotomy, 
and Cold Harbor. On July 6, during Early's invasion of Maryland, 
it moved with its division to Baltimore and was heavily engaged at 
Monocacy, losing 118 killed, wounded and missing. As a part of 
the Army of the Shenandoah it took part in Sheridan's brilliant 
campaign in the Valley, fighting at Charlestown, Leetown, Smith- 
field, Opequan, Fisher's hill and Cedar creek, with a loss of 38 in 
the campaign. In December it returned to the Petersburg trenches 
and was stationed near the Weldon railroad through the winter. 
On Dec. 21, 1864, its thinned ranks were consolidated into a battal- 
ion of five companies. In April, 1865, it took part in the final as- 
sault on the works of Petersburg and the ensuing hot pursuit of 
Lee's army, fighting its last battle at Sailor's creek. Its loss in the 
Appomattox campaign was 18 killed and wounded. The regiment 
was finally mustered out near Washington, D. C, June 26, 1865, 



New York Regiments 159 

under command of Lieut. -Col. Bogardus. It lost during service 5. 
officers and loi men killed and mortally wounded; i officer and 99 
men died of disease and other causes; total deaths, 206. 

One Hundred and Fifty-second Infantry. — Cols., Leonard Boyer, 
Alonzo Ferguson, George W. Thompson, James E. Curtis; Lieut. - 
Cols., Alonzo Ferguson, George W. Thompson, Timothy O'Brien^ 
James E. Curtis, Edmund G. Gilbert; Majs., George R. Spaulding, 
Timothy O'Brien, James E. Curtis, Edmund C. Gilbert, Charles H. 
Dygert. This regiment, recruited in the counties of Herkimer and 
Mohawk was organized at Mohawk and was there mustered into 
the U. S. service on Oct. 15, 1862. The regiment left on the 25th 
and was stationed in the defenses of Washington until the succeed- 
ing April, when it was ordered to Suffolk and assigned to Terry's 
brigade, Corcoran's division, 7th corps. After sharing in the de- 
fense of Suffolk, it served under Gen. Keyes on the Peninsula and 
in July was ordered to New York city during the draft riots, re- 
maining there until October, when it joined the Army of the Poto- 
mac and was assigned to the ist brigade, 2nd (Webb's) division, 
2nd corps. In this command it shared in the Mine Run campaign, 
being engaged at Robertson's tavern. In the Wilderness campaign 
it fought in Gibbon's division, 2nd corps and was active in all the 
series of battles ending with the surrender of Lee at Appomattox. 
Its heaviest losses occurred at the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North 
Anna river. Cold Harbor, first assault on Petersburg, Weldon rail- 
road. Strawberry Plains, Reams' station and Boydton plank road. 
Its losses during the whole campaign amounted to a total of 303 
killed, wounded and missing. Its last battle was at Farmville two 
days before Lee's surrender. Under the command of Col. Curtis 
it was mustered out near Washington, D. C, June 13, 1865, and re- 
turned home with only 256 men, having lost during service 4 offi- 
cers and 68 men, killed and died of wounds; i officer and 91 men 
died of disease and other causes; total deaths, 166. Private John 
Weeks was awarded a medal of honor for gallantry. 

One Hundred and Fifty-third Infantry. — Cols., Duncan McMar- 
tin, Edwin P. Davis; Lieut. -Cols., Thomas A. Armstrong, William 
H. Printup, Alexander Strain, George H. McLaughlin; Majs., Ed- 
win P. Davis, Alexander Strain, Stephen Simmons, Jacob C. Klock, 
George H. McLaughlin, C. F. Putnam, Abram V. Davis. This 
regiment, recruited in the counties of Fulton, Montgomery, Sara- 
toga, Clinton, Essex and Warren, was organized at Fonda and there 
mustered into the U. S. service on Oct. 18, 1862, for three years. It 
left the same day for Washington, was first stationed at Alexan- 
dria as provost guard, and during most of the year 1863, did garri- 
son and guard duty about the capital. It was then transferred to 
the Department of the Gulf, where it was assigned to the ist bri- 
gade, 1st (Emory's) division, 19th corps, with which it took part 
in the Red River campaign, meeting with severe loss at Pleasant 
Hill. It was active at Mansura and was warmly commended for 
its bravery in these battles by the commanding general. In July, 
1864, it returned to Virginia with the ist and 2nd divisions; on its 
arrival at Washington it was ordered into Maryland to confront 
Gen. Early; and then served with Sheridan in the Shenandoah Val- 
ley, taking part in the battles of the Opequan, Fisher's hill, Stras- 
burg and Cedar creek, besides numerous lesser skirmishes. Its loss 
at the Opequan was 69 killed and wounded, and at Cedar creek, 
81 killed, wounded and missing. The regiment continued to serve 
in the valley until April, 1865, when it moved with Dwight's divi- 



160 The Union Army 

sion to Washington, where it participated in the grand review in 
May. In July it sailed for Savannah, Ga., and while stationed there 
won the esteem and respect of the citizens by the gentlemanly con- 
duct of its officers and men. Col. Davis was brevetted brigadier- 
general for meritorious service. The regiment was mustered out at 
Savannah on Oct. 2, 1865, under command of Lieut.-Col. McLaugh- 
lin. It lost during service i officer and 40 men killed and died of 
wounds; i officer and 160 men died of disease and other causes; 
total deaths, 202. 

One Hundred and Fifty-fourth Infantry. — Cols., Patrick H. 
Jones, Lewis D. Warner; Lieut.-Cols., Henry C. Loomis, Daniel B. 
Allen, Lewis D. Warner, Harrison Cheifey; Majs., Samuel G. Love, 
Jacob H. Ten Eyck, Daniel B. Allen, Lewis D. Warner, Harrison 
Cheney, Alfred W. Benson. This regiment, recruited in the coun- 
ties of Chautauqua and Cattaraugus, was organized at Jamestown, 
where it was mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 24-26, 1862, 
for three years. Four days later it left the state and was assigned 
to the 1st brigade, 2nd (Steinwehr's) division, nth corps, which 
was stationed during the fall of 1862 in Northern Virginia in the vi- 
cinity of Centerville. The regiment went into winter quarters with 
the corps at Stafford, Va., and suffered severely in the disaster which 
befell the corps at Chancellorsville, losing 32 killed, 81 wounded 
and 115 captured and missing. The regiment met with another se- 
vere loss at Gettysburg, where it was heavily engaged in the battle 
of the first day, and in the gallant defense of Cemetery hill the sec- 
ond day, losing 6 killed, 21 wounded and 173 missing. It accom- 
panied the army on its return to Virginia and in September was 
ordered to Tennessee with the nth and 12th corps to reinforce 
Gen. Rosecrans. In October it was lightly engaged in the mid- 
night battle of Wauhatchie and had 6 men wounded at Missionary 
ridge. When the 20th corps was formed in April, 1864, the 154th 
was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 2nd division (Geary's "White 
Stars") with which it fought from Chattanooga to Atlanta, and 
then to the end of the Carolina campaign. At Rocky Face ridge, 
the first important battle of the Atlanta campaign, the regiment 
behaved with distinguished gallantry and sustained its heaviest loss 
— 13 killed and 37 wounded. It also lost heavily at Kennesaw 
mountain, where 36 were killed and wounded. At the conclusion 
of the campaign through the Carolinas it marched with the 20th 
corps to Washington and participated in the grand review. Com- 
manded by Col. Warner, it was mustered out at Bladensburgh, Md., 
June II, 1865. The regiment lost during service 2 officers and 84 
men killed and mortally wounded; 2 officers and 193 men died of 
disease and other causes, a total of 281 of whom i officer and 90 
men died in Confederate prisons. 

One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Infantry. — Cols., William Mc- 
Evily, Hugh C. Flood, John Byrne; Lieut.-Cols., James P. McMa- 
hon, Hugh C. Flood, John Byrne; Majs., Hugh C. Flood, John 
Byrne, John O. Dwyer, Michael Doran, James McConvey, Francis 
Paige. This was the second regiment of the famous Corcoran bri- 
gade. When Gen. Corcoran returned from his imprisonment in 
Richmond, he raised the brigade of Irish regiments known as the 
Corcoran Legion, composed of the 182nd (69th militia), 155th, 164th 
and 170th N. Y. infantry. The 155th was recruited principally in 
the counties of New York, Kings, Queens, Broome and Erie and 
was organized at New York city. The regiment left the state on 
Nov. 10, 1862, and proceeded to Newport News, where it was mus- 



New York Regiments 161 

tered into the U. S. service on the i8th for a term of three years. 
On Jan. 29, 1863, the brigade moved on the Blackwater expedition 
(Col. Murphy, of the 69th militia, commanding the brigade and 
Gen. Corcoran the division), and was under fire for the first time 
in the affair at the Deserted House, suffering a few casualties. In 
April it was engaged for nearly a month in the defense of Suffolk, 
where it again sustained some loss, and from July, 1863, to May, 
1864, it was stationed near Washington. It then joined Grant's 
army at Spottsylvania and was assigned to the 4th brigade, 2nd 
(Gibbon's) division, 2nd corps. The Legion, commanded since the 
death of Gen. Corcoran in Dec, 1863, by Col. Murphy, arrived in 
time to take part in the closing battles around Spottsylvania, where 
the iSSth lost 58 killed, wounded and missing. It met with its 
heaviest loss at Cold Harbor, where it was in the assaulting col- 
umn, the casualties being 154 killed, wounded and missing. In the 
battles around Petersburg in June, 1864, it met a loss of 83 killed 
and wounded. The regiment was only slightly engaged at Straw- 
berry Plains, but was in the hottest of the fight at Reams' station, 
losing 48 killed, wounded and missing. The heaviest subsequent 
losses of the regiment were sustained in the battles of Boydton 
plank road in October and in the assault on the Petersburg works 
in March, 1865, when its casualties were 20 and 12, respectively. 
It remained a part of the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 2nd corps un- 
til the end of the war, being present at Farmville and Appomattox 
Court House. The regiment was mustered out under Col. Byrne, 
June 15, 1865, near Washington, D. C. Out of a total enrollment 
of 830, it lost during service 9 officers and 106 enlisted men killed 
and mortally wounded — or 13.7 per cent.; 2 officers and "ji enlisted 
men died of disease and other causes; total deaths, 189, of whom 
2 officers and 35 men died in the hands of the enemy. 

One Hundred and Fifty-sixth Infantry. — Cols., Erastus Cooke, 
Jacob Sharpe; Lieut. -Cols., Jacob Sharpe, Thomas Fowler, Alfred 
Neafie; Majs., Louis Schaffner, Thomas Fowler, William Van Wa- 
genen, Matthias S. Ewan. This regiment, known as the "Moun- 
tain Legion," was recruited in the counties of Ulster, Greene and 
Richmond and was organized at Kingston, where it was mustered 
into the U. S. service for three years on Nov. 17, 1862. The New 
Paltz volunteers formed part of the regiment, as did three com- 
panies recruited by Col. Minthorn Thompson. It left the state on 
Dec. 4, 1862, and sailed for New Orleans, where it was assigned to 
the 3d brigade, 3d (Emory's) division, 19th corps, with which it 
participated in its first battle at Fort Bisland, losing 22 killed and 
wounded. It took an active part in the long siege of Port Hudson, 
including the assault of June 14, when Lieut.-Col. Fowler was mor- 
tally wounded while leading the regiment in a charge. The total 
loss of the regiment during the siege was 30 killed and wounded. 
After the fall of Port Hudson it spent the ensuing 9 months in post 
and garrison duties, with occasional reconnoissances into the ene- 
my's country. On March 15, 1864, in Grover's (2nd) division, it 
moved on Banks' Red River expedition and was engaged at Pleas- 
ant Hill, Alexandria and Mansura, but sustained slight loss. In 
July, 1864, when the first two divisions of the corps were ordered 
to Virginia, the 156th embarked for Washington and after march- 
ing through Maryland engaged in Sheridan's famous Shenandoah 
campaign against Early. At the battle of the Opequan the regi- 
ment lost 20 killed and 91 wounded, a total of iii. Col. Sharpe 
liad been promoted to brevet brigadier-general for gallantry and 

VoL 11—11 



162 The Union Army 

was in command of the brigade at Winchester, while Lieut. -Col. 
Neafie gallantly commanded the regiment. The 156th was also in 
the fights at Fisher's hill, and Cedar creek, losing in the latter ac- 
tion 92 killed, wounded and missing. In this fight, when several 
of the color-guard had fallen, the regimental colors were narrowly 
saved from capture by the bravery of Capt. Alfred Cooley, who 
stripped the colors from the staff and brought them safely off the 
field. The fighting in the valley had now ended and in Jan., 1865, 
the regiment proceeded with Grover's division to Savannah, Ga. 
Gen. H. W. Birge was now given command of the division, which 
joined in the final campaign in the Carolinas, temporarily attached 
to the loth corps as the ist division. In May it returned to Savan- 
nah, and the regiment continued to serve in that vicinity until final- 
ly mustered out under Col. Sharpe, at Augusta, Ga., Oct. 23, 1865. 
It lost during its term of service 4 officers and 60 men killed in ac- 
tion and mortally wounded; 4 officers and 163 men died of disease 
and other causes; total deaths, 231. 

One Hundred and Fifty-seventh Infantry. — Cols., Philip P. Brown, 
Jr., James C. Carmichael; Lieut.-Cols., George Arrowsmith, James 
C. Carmichael, Frank Place; Majs., James C. Carmichael, Frank 
Place. Leonard F. Briggs. This regiment, recruited in the counties 
of Madison and Cortland, was organized at Hamilton, and there 
mustered into the U. S. service for three years on Sept. 19, 1862. 
It left the state on the 25th and on reaching Washington was as- 
signed to the 1st brigade, 3d (Schurz's) division, nth corps, with 
which it went into winter quarters at Stafford, Va. Its first bat- 
tle was the disastrous one of Chancellorsville, where it lost 98 in 
killed, wounded and missing. The regiment sustained a fearful 
loss at Gettysburg, where it was heavily engaged on the first two 
days of the battle and was highly praised for its gallantry. Lieut.- 
Col. Arrowsmith was killed on the first day. The casualties of the 
157th amounted to 6 officers and 46 men killed and mortally wound- 
ed; 6 officers and 137 men wounded; 6 officers and 106 men, miss- 
ing, a total of 307. Soon after the battle it was assigned to the ist 
brigade of Schimmelfennig's (ist) division, same corps. This divi- 
sion was detached in August and ordered to Charleston harbor, 
where it became a part of the loth corps, and during the remainder 
of 1863, the regiment, in the 2nd brigade. Gordon's division, loth 
corps, was stationed on Folly and Morris islands, S. C. It partici- 
pated in the siege of Fort Wagner and the various operations about 
Charleston harbor; was engaged at Seabrook and John's Islands 
in Feb., 1864, meeting with some losses, and was then ordered to 
Florida, where it remained until June, when it returned to Beau- 
fort. During the remainder of its service it took part in the engage- 
ments at Honey Hill (loss, 32 killed and wounded), Boyd's point, 
Coosawhatchie, Deveaux neck (loss. 24), Tillafinny Station (loss, 
20), all in 1864; in 1865 it fought at Manningsville, Dingle's mill 
(loss. 28), Singleton's plantation. Big Rafting creek and Statesburg. 
On July 10, 1865, it was mustered out at Charleston, S. C, under 
Col. Carmichael. It lost by death during service, 7 officers and 90 
enlisted men killed and mortally wounded; 2 officers and 104 men 
died of disease and other causes; total deaths, 203; total casualties, 
killed, wounded and missing, 533. 

One Hundred and Fifty-eighth Infantry. — Cols., James Jourdan, 
William H. McNary; Lieut.-Cols., Wm. H. McNary, Hyron Kalt; 
Majs., William H. Burnett, John O'Connor, Silas A. Ilsley, Hyron 
Kalt, William A. Furrey. This was a Brooklyn regiment, all its 



New York Regiments 163 

members being recruited in that city except part of Co. C, which 
was raised in Jamaica and New York city. It was organized at 
Brooklyn as one of the regiments of the Empire (Spinola's) bri- 
gade, and went to the front under command of Col. James Jour- 
dan, afterwards promoted to brevet major-general. The regiment 
left the state on Sept. i8, 1862, about 700 strong, proceeded to Nor- 
folk, Va., where it was mustered into the U. S. service for three 
years on Nov. 11, and soon after moved to Suffolk. A few weeks 
later it was ordered to New Berne, N. C, and placed in the 2nd bri- 
gade, 5th division, i8th corps. It remained in North Carolina until 
the summer of 1864, when it rejoined the i8th corps at Bermuda 
Hundred, Va. During its long stay in North Carolina it performed 
garrison and outpost duty at New Berne, Beaufort and Morehead, and 
took part in several brilliant raids. It went to the relief of Gen. Fos- 
ter at Washington, N. C, when he was besieged there in the spring of 
1863, and in 1864 the regiment, led by Col. Jourdan, made a brilliant 
raid into Jones and Onslow counties, N. C. Lieut. -Col. McNary served 
as military governor of Beaufort. In Sept., 1864, soon after joining 
the Army of the James, the regiment was attached to the ist brigade, 
Heckman's (2nd) division, i8th corps and was heavily engaged at Fort 
Harrison, losing 78 killed, wounded and missing. Gen. Butler wired to 
Gen. Grant: "The 158th is with the Army of the James, and won its 
colors handsomely at Battery Harrison." When the 24th corps was 
formed in Dec, 1864, it was attached to the ist (Foster's) division of 
that corps, with which it took part in the assault on Forts Gregg and 
Whitworth at the time of the final attack on the works of Petersburg, 
April 2, 1865. After the fall of Petersburg it followed in the pursuit 
of Lee's army, being sharply engaged at Rice's station and at Clover 
hill, on the morning of Lee's surrender. On that occasion the troops 
of the 24th corps fired the last infantry-volley of the Army of the Poto- 
mac. The loss of the 158th in the Appomattox campaign amounted to 
55 killed, wounded and missing. During the assault on Fort Gregg, 
April 2, 1865, Lieut. Edward Reilly was killed, being the only commis- 
sioned officer killed in action during the war, though Lieut. James 
Crosbie was killed before Petersburg, Oct. 29, 1864, while serving 
with Co. D, 52nd N. Y. Four of the regiment were awarded med- 
als of honor by Congress for gallantry in action: Sergts. William 
Laing and James Howard, and privates John Schiller and George 
Grube. After Lee's surrender the regiment returned to Richmond 
and was there mustered out under Col. McNary, June 30, 1865. Its 
loss during service was 2 officers and 49 men killed and mortally 
wounded; 83 men died of disease and other causes; 4 men were ac- 
cidentally killed at Batchelder's creek, N. C, by an explosion of 
torpedoes; total deaths, 134. 

One Hundred and Fifty-ninth Infantry. — Cols., Homer A. Nel- 
son, Edward L. Molineaux; Lieut. -Cols., Edward L. Molineaux, 
Gilbert A. Draper, Charles A. Burt, Edward L. Gaul. William Wal- 
termire. Wells O. Pettit; Majs., Gilbert A. Draper, Charles A. 
Burt, Edward L. Gaul, William Waltermire, Robert McD. Hart, 
Joseph G. McNutt, Wells O. Pettit, William F. Tieman. The sev- 
eral companies of this regiment were raised in the counties of 
Dutchess, Kings and Columbia. Cos. B, F, H and K were recruit- 
ed at Hudson by Lieut. -Col. Molineaux and united with the others 
at East New York, and the remaining companies were formed from 
the men enlisted by Col. Nelson originally for the 167th N. Y. The 
regiment was mustered into the U. S. service at New York city 
Nov. I, 1862, for three years. In 1864, a new Co. G replaced the old 



164 The Union Army 

one, which was consolidated with the others. The 159th left the 
state on Dec. 4, 1862, and proceeded to New Orleans, where it was 
assigned to the 3d brigade, 4th (Grover's) division, 19th corps, 
Department of the Gulf. Its first serious engagement was at Irish 
bend, where it fought bravelj^ and sustained a loss of 117 killed, 
wounded and missing, Lieut. -Col. Draper and 4 other oflficers being 
among the killed and mortally wounded, and Col. Molineaux among 
the severely wounded. This was by far the severest loss sustained 
by any regiment in this fight. It was actively engaged throughout 
the long siege of Port Hudson, taking part in the first assault of 
May 27. Its loss during the siege was 7^ killed, wounded and miss- 
ing. After the surrender of Port Hudson the regiment was en- 
gaged until the following year in post and garrison duty. In March, 
1864, in the 2nd brigade. 2nd (Grover's) division, same corps, it 
moved on Banks' Red River expedition, being lightly engaged at 
Alexandria, Mansura and Morganza. In July it proceeded to New 
Orleans, where it embarked for Washington, the first two divisions 
of the corps having been ordered to Virginia. On its arrival it 
joined the loth corps before Richmond and Petersburg, and was 
engaged with some loss at Deep Bottom in August. It was active- 
ly engaged with the Army of the Shenandoah under Sheridan in the 
campaign against Early, losing 75 killed, wounded and missing at 
the Opequan, and 22, at Cedar creek, where the gallant Maj. Hart 
was among the killed. The fighting in the valley having ended, 
the regiment was ordered to Savannah, Ga., and in March, 1865, 
was ordered to North Carolina, where it was temporarily attached 
to the loth corps again. It was finally mustered out at Augusta, 
Ga., Oct. 12, 1865, under command of Col. Waltermire. The regi- 
ment lost by death during service 10 officers and 76 enlisted men 
killed and mortally wounded; I officer and 130 men died of disease 
and other causes; total deaths, 217. 

One Hundred and Sixtieth Infantry. — Cols., Charles C. Dwight, 
Henry P. Underbill; Lieut.-Cols., John B. Van Petten, Henry P. 
Underbill, John B. Burreed; Majs., William M. Sentell, Daniel L. 
Vaughan. This regiment was recruited by Col. Dwight in the 
counties of Cayuga, Seneca, Wayne, Ontario, Allegany, Erie and 
Wyoming. It rendezvoused at Auburn, and was mustered into the 
U. S. service at New York city Nov. 21. 1862, for three years. It 
left the state on Dec. 4, 1862, and proceeded to the Department of 
the Gulf, where it was assigned to the 2nd brigade, Augur's divi- 
sion, 19th corps. Its first loss was met in the action with the gun- 
boat Cotton in Jan., 1863, where i man was killed and 4 wounded; 
at Pattersonville in March, where Co. F, Capt. Josiah P. Jewett, 
was on board the gunboat Diana during the action with the Con- 
federate batteries, it lost 6 killed and 16 wounded, Capt. Jewett 
being mortally wounded. At Fort Bisland its loss was 7 killed and 
wounded. It was later engaged at Jeanerette and Plain Store, 
after which it participated with credit in the long siege of Port 
Hudson, taking part in the general assaults of May 27 and June 14. 
Its loss in killed and wounded during the siege was 41. A period 
of post and garrison duty followed the fall of Port Hudson, and 
in March, 1864, in the 2nd brigade, ist (Emory's) division, 19th 
corps, it started on Banks' Red River expedition, engaging with 
heavy loss at Pleasant Hill, where its casualties were 41 killed, 
wounded and missing, at Sabine cross-roads. Cane river crossing 
and Mansura. In July it returned to the north with the first two 
divisions of the 19th corps and in Dwight's (ist) division, fought 



New York Regiments 165 

under Sheridan in his campaign in the Shenandoah Valley against 
Early, sustaining severe losses in the battles of the Opequan and 
Cedar creek. In the former action its casualties were 15 killed, 
61 wounded and i missing, and in the latter 66 killed, wounded and 
missing. Lieut. -Col. Van Petten received a bullet through the thigh 
at Winchester, but continued to bravely lead his men until the bat- 
tle was over. He was subsequently promoted colonel of the 193d 
N. Y. infantry. The regiment left the valley in April, 1865; pro- 
ceeded to Washington, where it took part in the grand review in 
May; moved to Savannah, Ga., in June; and under command of Col. 
Underbill was mustered out at Savannah on Nov. i, 1865. The regi- 
ment lost by death during its term of service 6 officers and 47 en- 
listed men killed and died of wounds received in action; i officer 
and 159 enlisted men died of disease and other causes; total deaths, 
219. 

One Hundred and Sixty-first Infantry. — Cols., Gabriel P. nar- 
rower, Henry G. Harrower; Lieut. -Cols., Marvin D. Stillwell, Will- 
iam B. Kinsey; Majs., Charles Straun, Willis E. Craig. This regi- 
ment was recruited by Col. Gabriel P. Harrower in the fall of 1862 
in the counties of Chemung, Steuben, Schuyler, Chenango and 
Broome. It was organized at Elmira and was there mustered into 
the U. S. service for three years, Oct. 27, 1862. It left the state on 
Dec. 4, for the Department of the Gulf, where it was first assigned 
to Grover's division, and soon after, to the 3d brigade, ist (Augur's) 
division, 19th corps, with which it fought at Clinton plank road. 
Plains store, and in the long siege of Port Hudson. Its loss dur- 
ing the siege was 17 killed, wounded and missing. In July it was 
heavily engaged at Donaldsonville, La., with a loss of 7 killed, 39 
wounded and 7 missing, and in September it formed part of Frank- 
lin's unsuccessful Sabine Pass expedition to Texas, sustaining a 
loss of 30 killed, wounded and missing. As a part of Emory's (ist) 
division, 19th corps, it participated in Banks' Red River campaign 
in the spring of 1864, during which it fought at Sabine cross-roads. 
Pleasant Hill, Cane river crossing and Mansura. The regiment was 
very heavily engaged at Sabine cross-roads under command of Lieut. - 
Col. Kinsey, losing 13 killed, 64 wounded and 30 missing. When 
the first two divisions of the 19th corps were ordered to Virginia 
in July, 1864, the i6ist remained in the Department of the Gulf and 
was stationed successively at Columbus, Ky., Memphis, Tenn., and 
in western Mississippi. In the spring of 1865, as part of the 3d 
brigade, ist division, 13th corps, it took part in Gen. Canby's opera- 
tions against Fort Blakely, Spanish Fort and Mobile, Ala., after 
which it was ordered to Florida and was finally mustered out at 
Tallahassee on Nov. 12, 1865. Those whose terms were about to 
expire had been previously mustered out, under command of Maj. 
Craig, Sept. 10, 1865, at Fort Jefferson, Fla., after which the regi- 
ment was consolidated into a battalion of two companies. During 
its term of service, the i6ist lost by death, i officer (2nd Lieut. 
Lewis E. Fitch, killed at Sabine cross-roads) and 55 enlisted men 
killed and mortally wounded; 250 enlisted men died of disease and 
other causes, a total of 306. 

One Hundred and Sixty-second Infantry. — Cols., Lewis Bene- 
dict, Justus W. Blanchard; Lieut. -Cols., Justus W. Blanchard, James 
M. Vanderburgh; Majs., James M. Bogart, Robert W. Leonard, 
George W. Keating, F. W. Coleman, John W. Babcock, William 
P. Huxford. The 162nd, the "Third Metropolitan Guard," was a 
New York city regiment, recruited under the auspices of the Met- 



166 The Union Army 

ropolitan police. To complete its organization, the men enlisted 
for Cos. D and K, 53d N. Y. 2nd organization, were assigned to it 
as Co. F. In 1863 a new Co. H was recruited to take the place of 
the old company transferred and in Feb., 1864, the 174th N. Y. was 
consolidated with the 162nd. The regiment was organized at Riker's 
island, N. Y. harbor, and there mustered into the U. S. service 
from Aug. 22 to Oct. 18, 1862, for three years. It left the state on 
Oct. 24, proceeded to Washington, whence it was ordered to Hamp- 
ton Roads in November, and the following month embarked for 
New Orleans. It served for several weeks at New Orleans, Car- 
rollton and Donaldsonville, La., during which period it was twice 
engaged at Plaquemine with small loss. As a part of Emory's (3d) 
division, 19th corps, it shared in the operations leading up to the 
investment of Port Hudson, taking part in the skirmish on the Clin- 
ton plank road, and being present at Fort Bisland, but without loss. 
A detachment of Co. I, under Lieut. Neville, was in the skirmish 
in April at Bayou Courtableau. In the ist brigade, 2nd (Sher- 
man's) division, 19th corps, it was actively engaged during the 
siege of Port Hudson, losing heavily in the general assaults of 
May 27 and June 14, its loss in killed and wounded aggregating 59, 
among the former being Maj. Bogart. It was on detached serv- 
ice at Springfield landing in June and July, losing 10 killed and 
wounded in a skirmish on July 2. It was then assigned to the ist 
brigade, 3d division, 19th corps, and was twice engaged at Vermil- 
ion bayou in the fall of 1863. In March, 1864, attached to the 3d 
brigade, ist (Emory's) division, 19th corps, it started on Banks' 
Red River campaign, taking part in the battles of Sabine cross- 
roads, Pleasant Hill. Cane river crossing and Mansura. The regi- 
ment suffered severely at Pleasant Hill, where it lost 106 killed, 
wounded and missing. Col. Benedict, commanding the brigade, 
was killed here while bravely leading a charge. The loss at Cane 
river crossing was yj killed, wounded and missing. In July the 
regiment returned to Virginia with the divisions of Emory and 
Grover and while before Richmond, lost 49 killed, wounded and 
missing. It accompanied Dwight's division of the Army of the 
Shenandoah to Washington in April, 1865, and a few weeks later 
sailed with it to Savannah, Ga., where the regiment was mustered 
out, commanded by Col. Blanchard, Oct. 12. 1865. Its loss by death 
during service was 8 officers and 62 men killed and mortally wound- 
ed; 3 officers and 151 men died of disease and other causes, a total 
of 224. 

One Hundred and Sixty-third Infantry. — Lieut.-Col., John B. 
Leverick; Maj., James J. Byrne. The 163d, the 3d regiment of the 
Empire brigade, had only a brief independent existence, though 
long enough to establish itself as a brave organization. Its com- 
panies were recruited in the summer of 1862, principally in New 
York city, Brooklyn and Jamaica, and the regiment was organized 
at New York city, its ten companies being consolidated into six, 
under Col. F. H. Braulick. It left the state Oct. 5, 1862, and pro- 
ceeded to Washington, where it was mustered into the U. S. serv- 
ice for three years, Oct. 11, 1862. It remained at Washington until 
in November, when it was engaged in skirmishes at Cedar creek 
and Waterloo, and the following rnonth was attached to Carroll's 
(2nd) brigade, Whipple's (3d) division, 3d corps, with which it 
fought at Fredericksburg with a loss of 10 killed. 46 wounded and 
5 missing. Lieut. William Davis, Sergt.-Maj. Richard F. Tighe, 
Color-Sergt. Ernest Funk, and Orderly Sergt. Charles R. Near, 



New York Regiments 167 

were promoted on the field for bravery exhibited in the face of the 
enemy. On Jan. 20, 1863, under Lieut. -Col. John B. Leverick, it 
was transferred to the 73d N. Y. Gen. Whipple in announcing the 
order of consolidation said: "The general commanding desires to 
assure the officers and men of the gallant 163d regiment, that his 
separation from them is a most painful one. By uniform good con- 
duct in camp and on the march, and especially by bravery in battle, 
the regiment has won the approbation and confidence of all, and 
although it goes to add lustre to another organization, it has given 
renown to the colors and to the men of the 163d New York." It 
lost during service 3 officers and 15 men killed and mortally wound- 
ed, and 8 men died of disease. 

One Hundred and Sixty-fourth Infantry. — Cols., John E. McMa- 
hon, James P. McMahon, William DeLacey; Lieut.-Cols., James C. 
Burke, William DeLacey, John Beattie; Majs., Michael D. Smith, John 
Beattie, Bernard O'Reilly. This was one of the four regiments forming 
the brigade of Irish soldiers known as the Corcoran Legion. The 164th 
was recruited in New York, Brooklyn, Bufifalo, and the counties of 
Niagara and St. Lawrence, and was mustered into the U. S. service 
at Newport News, Va., Nov. 19, 1862, for three years. Col. John 
E. McMahon was one of three brothers, all of whom became colonels. 
He succumbed to disease in March, 1863, and was succeeded by his 
brother, James P. McMahon, who was killed in action at Cold Har- 
bor. Lieut.-Col. DeLacey had formerly rendered gallant service as 
major of the 37th N. Y. He was wounded several times and rose 
to the rank of brevet brigadier-general. Col. Fox, in his account 
of this splendid fighting regiment, says: "The Legion was ordered 
to the Peninsula soon after, where it was placed in the 7th corps. 
On Jan. 29, 1863. the brigade started on the Blackwater expedition 
(Gen. Corcoran commanding the division), during which it saw its 
first fighting, at the affair known as the Deserted House. The gal- 
lant behavior of the Legion in this engagement elicited a general 
order from department headquarters which was highly complimen- 
tary to the command. In April, 1863, it was actively engaged in 
the siege of Suffolk. Gen. Corcoran commanded the Legion up to the 
time of his death, which occurred at Fairfax, Va., Dec. 22, 1863. 
From July, 1863, until May, 1864, the Legion was stationed near 
Washington, after which it joined Grant's army at Spottsylvania, 
where it was assigned to Gibbon's (2nd) division, 2nd corps. At 
Cold Harbor it was in the assaulting column, and succeeded in car- 
rying the portion of the enemy's works in its immediate front, but 
with a heavy loss in men and officers. Seven officers of the regi- 
ment were killed in that assault, including Col. McMahon, who was 
shot down after having with his own hands planted the regimental 
colors on the Confederate works. The regiment, however, was 
obliged to fall back, owing to the failure at other points of the 
line, having lost 16 killed, 59 wounded and 82 missing. The Legion 
was commanded at Spottsylvania by Col. Murphy (182nd N. Y.), 
who afterwards fell mortally wounded at Dabney's mill. The cas- 
ualties in the regiment at Spottsylvania were 12 killed, 66 wound- 
ed and 44 missing." The regiment suffered severely in the first 
assaults at Petersburg, where its losses amounted to 63 killed and 
wounded, chiefly incurred during the assault of June 16. It was 
present at Deep Bottom and Strawberry Plains, and was again 
hotly engaged at Reams' station with a loss of 9 killed and mortally 
wounded, i wounded, 9 officers and 98 men missing or captured. 
From June 26, 1864, until the close of the war, the Legion, together 



168 The Union Army 

with the 8th N. Y. heavy artillery, made up the 2nd brigade, 2nd 
division, 2nd corps. It was in the action on the Boydton road, 
losing 7 men; at Hatcher's run in December, and closed its active 
service with the Appomattox campaign in 1865, fighting at White 
Oak ridge, fall of Petersburg, High bridge, Farmville and Appo- 
mattox. It was mustered out near Washington, under Col. DeLa- 
cey, July 15, 1865. The total enrollment of the regiment was 928, 
of whom 10 officers and 106 men — or 12.5 per cent. — were killed 
and mortally wounded; 3 officers and 126 men died of disease and 
other causes; total deaths, 245, of whom 2 officers and 84 men died 
in the hands of the enemy. 

One Hundred and Sixty-fifth Infantry. — Lieut.-Cols., Abel Smith, 
Jr., Governeur Carr, William R. French; Majs., Governeur Carr, 
Felix Angus, William W. Stephenson. The 165th, the 2nd battal- 
ion, Duryea's Zouaves, was originally recruited for a nine months' 
term, but was afterwards changed to three years. Only six com- 
panies were recruited, principally from New York city and Brook- 
lyn, and were mustered into the U. S. service between Aug. and 
Dec, 1862, for three years. In 1864, four new companies joined 
the battalion in the field and were consolidated with the original 
six companies. The battalion left the state Dec. 2, 1862, sailing 
for New Orleans, and on its arrival was assigned to the 3d bri- 
gade, 2nd (Sherman's) division, 19th corps, Department of the 
Gulf. It participated in skirmishes in March, 1863, at North pass, 
Ponchatoula and Berwick bay, sustaining a few casualties, and was 
actively engaged throughout the long siege of Port Hudson, los- 
ing heavily in the assault of May 27. Its losses during the siege 
amounted to 106 killed, wounded and missing, among the mortally 
wounded being the gallant Lieut. -Col. Abel, who fell in the assault 
of May 27. It accompanied Franklin's expedition to Sabine pass, 
Tex., in Sept., 1863, and was later twice engaged at Vermilion 
bayou. In the 3d brigade, Emory's division, it took part in Banks' 
Red River expedition in the spring of 1864, fighting at Sabine cross- 
roads. Pleasant Hill, Cane river crossing and Mansura. The loss 
at Sabine cross-roads was 48 killed, wounded and missing, and at 
Pleasant hill, 49. Returning north, the regiment was in action in 
September at Berryville, Va., but sustained no loss. When Dwight's 
1st division, Army of the Shenandoah, left the valley in April, 
1865, as a part of the 3d brigade, the regiment accompanied it to 
Washington and subsequently to Savannah, Ga. Under Maj. 
Stephenson it was mustered out at Charleston, S. C, Sept. i, 1865, 
having lost by death during its term of service 2 officers and 44 
men killed and mortally wounded; 2 officers and 79 men died of 
disease and other causes; total deaths, 127, of whom 18 men died 
in the hands of the enemy. 

One Hundred and Sixty-sixth Infantry. — This regiment failed 
to complete its organization and its number is accordingly vacant. 
The men enlisted were transferred to the 176th N. Y. infantry on 
Nov. 13, 1862. 

One Hundred and Sixty-seventh Infantry. — This regiment also- 
failed to complete its organization. On Oct. 28, 1862, the men en- 
listed for it were transferred to the 159th N. Y. infantry, forming Cos. 
A, C, D, E, G and I. 

One Hundred and Sixty-eighth Infantry.— Col., William R. 
Brown; Lieut.-Cols., James Low, James C. Rennison; Majs., George 
Walter, James C. Rennison, Daniel Torbush. The i68th, the 19th 
militia, was a nine months regiment from Newburg. On Sept. 18, 



New York Regiments 169 

1862, Col. Brown tendered the governor of the state the service of 
the 19th militia and was authorized to recruit the same to standard 
requirement for a service of nine months. It was mustered into 
the U. S. service on Jan. 23, 1863, with the exception of Co. K, 
which was mustered in on Feb. 11, 1863, and left the state Feb. 12, 

1863, for Yorktown, Va., and was assigned to Busteed's brigade, 
1st division, 4th corps. Subsequently it served in King's brigade,^ 
same division and corps until June, when it was assigned to the 
22nd corps, and the following month was placed in the 2nd brigade, 
2nd division, nth corps. It took part in a skirmish at Walkerton^ 
Va., in May, again skirmished there during the expedition to that 
place in June, and was engaged in a skirmish at Yorktown June 9. 
In addition it took part in a number of minor affairs. The regi- 
ment was mustered out and discharged at Newburg, N. Y. Oct. 
31, 1863. Its loss during service was i man killed in action; i 
officer and 36 men died of disease and other causes; total deaths, 38. 

One Hundred and Sixty-ninth Infantry. — Cols., Clarence Buell, 
John McConihe, Alonzo Alden; Lieut. -Cols., John McConihe, Alon- 
zo Alden, James A. Colvin; Majs., Alonzo Alden, James A. Col- 
vin, Joseph H. Allen. The 169th, known as the Troy regiment, was 
recruited in the counties of Rensselaer and Washington and or- 
ganized at Troy and Staten island. Cos. A to E were mustered 
into the U. S. service at Troy, Sept. 25, 1862, and the remaining 
companies at New Dorp, Staten island, Oct. 6, the term of enlist- 
ment being three years. The 169th left the state Oct. 9, 1862, for 
Washington. It achieved honorable distinction in the field, and is 
numbered by Col. Fox among the three hundred fighting regiments. 
He says: "The regiment was actively engaged in the defense of Suf- 
folk, Va., where it served in Foster's brigade, Corcoran's division. In 
the following summer it participated in the operations about Charles- 
ton harbor and in May, 1864, it moved with the Army of the James to 
Bermuda Hundred. The regiment disembarked there with Butler's 
army and hard fighting, with its consequent heavy losses, immediately 
ensued. At Cold Harbor it fought in Martindale's division, Col. Mc- 
Conihe being killed in that battle. The 169th held a perilous position 
in the trenches before Petersburg, losing men there, killed or wounded, 
almost every day. While there, on the evening of June 30, 1864, the bri- 
gade (Barton's) was ordered to charge the enemy's lines, so that, under 
cover of their fire, Curtis' brigade could throw up an advanced rifle-pit; 
but the regiment while going into position was prematurely discovered 
by the enemy and thereby drew upon themselves a severe fire, which 
not only frustrated the plan, but cost the regiment many lives." 
The regiment was one of those selected for the expedition against 
Fort Fisher, being then in Bell's (3d) brigade, Ames' division, loth 
corps, and took part in the desperate but victorious assault on 
that stronghold. A large proportion of its losses there, however, 
occurred at the explosion of the magazine, after the fort had been 
captured. After the fall of Fort Fisher, the regiment accompanied 
the loth corps in its advance on Wilmington. The following is a 
list of the engagements in which the 169th took part: siege of Suf- 
folk, Fort Wagner, S. C, Port Walthall Junction, Chester Station, 
Bermuda Hundred, Cold Harbor, around Petersburg, Dutch gap, 
Chaffin's farm, Va., and Fort Fisher, N. C. It was present at Eden- 
ton road, Carrsville, Blackwater, Zuni, Nansemond, South Anna, 
Drewry's bluflf, Darbytown road and Wilmington. On the conclu- 
sion of the war it remained as a garrison at Raleigh, N. C, which 
city it had entered with the advance of Sherman's army, and was 



170 The Union Army 

here mustered out on July 19, 1865, under command of Col. Alden. 
The regiment was fortunate in the personnel of its officers and in 
the ranks was some of the best blood sent forth by the Empire 
State. In all its numerous fights the regiment never faltered, both 
officers and men behaving in the most praiseworthy and gallant 
manner. The total enrollment of the regiment (not including the 
men transferred from the 142nd N. Y., on June 7, 1865, after the 
war had ended) was 1,467, of whom 10 officers and 147 men — or 
10.7 per cent. — ^were killed and mortally wounded; 3 officers and 125 
men died of disease and other causes; total deaths, 285. The total 
number killed and wounded was 618. 

One Hundred and Seventieth Infantry. — Cols., Peter McDermott, 
James P. Mclvor; Lieut. -Cols., James P. Mclvor, Michael C. Mur- 
phy, John B. Donnelly, Charles Hagan; Majs., George W. Warner, 
John B. Donnelly, John Connery, Charles Hagan. This was one 
of the four regiments forming the Corcoran Legion, a brigade 
composed almost entirely of Irish soldiers. Its companies were 
recruited principally in New York city and Brooklyn and it was 
organized at Staten island, where it was mustered into the U. S. 
service on Oct. 7, 1862. for three years. The regiment left the 
state on Oct. 16, served for a month in the defenses of Washing- 
ton, in Casey's division, and then embarked for Fortress Monroe. 
After a few weeks' service on the Peninsula, during which it par- 
ticipated in the Blackwater expedition and the skirmishes at the 
Deserted House and Union Mills, it went to Suffolk. Speaking of 
this splendid fighting regiment, Col. Fox says: "It was actively 
engaged in the defense of Suffolk, at which time the Legion was 
commanded by Col. Murphy, of the 69th militia, and the division 
by Gen. Corcoran — the ist division, 7th corps. It remained on duty 
in that vicinity until July, 1863, when the Legion (Gen. Corcoran 
commanding) was ordered to Washington, where it performed gar- 
rison and outpost duty. In May, 1864, it was transferred to the 
Army of the Potomac and placed in Gibbon's (2nd) division of the 
2nd corps, the Legion, under command of Col. Murphy, arriving 
just in time to take part in the closing battles around Spottsylvania. 
At the North Anna the 170th encountered a severe musketry fire, 
its casualty list there being the largest of any regiment in that 
battle: 22 killed, 55 wounded and 22 missing. It met with another 
heavy loss at Petersburg, June 16-22, where its casualties amounted 
to 22 killed. III wounded and 3 missing. Most of this loss occurred 
in the assault of June 16. The regiment was again hotly engaged 
at Reams' station, where Maj. Donnelly was killed. From June, 

1864, until the close of the war, the Legion, together with the 8th 
N. Y. heavy artillery, formed the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 2nd 
corps." The casualties of the regiment at Reams' station amounted 
to 85 killed, wounded and missing. It met with further losses at 
Boydton plank road in October, at the Petersburg works in March, 

1865, and then took part with the 2nd corps in the final Appomattox 
campaign, which ended with Lee's surrender. A list of the impor- 
tant battles in which the 170th was engaged includes the siege of 
Suffolk, Carrsville, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Cold Harbor, Pe- 
tersburg, Weldon railroad, Deep Bottom, Reams' station, Boydton 
plank road, Hatcher's run. Deserted House, Edenton road, Toto- 
potomy, Strawberry Plains, Vaughn road, Farmville and Appo- 
mattox. Col. McDermott resigned shortly after the regiment took 
the field and his successor. Col. Mclvor, commanded it during most 
of its active service. He was a gallant officer and rose to the rank 



New York Regiments 171 

of brevet major-general in 1865. The regiment was warmly com- 
mended by its brigade and division commanders for its conduct in 
battle and its efficiency. Its total enrollment was 1,002, of whom 
10 officers and 119 men — or 12.8 per cent. — were killed and mortally 
wounded; 2 officers and 96 men, died of disease and other causes; 
total deaths, 227. The total number killed and wounded was 481. 

One Hundred and Seventy-first Infantry. — This regiment failed 
to complete its organization, and its number is therefore vacant. 
On Nov. 19, 1862, the men enlisted were transferred to the 175th 
N. Y. and the organization was discontinued. 

One Hundred and Seventy-second Infantry. — This regiment also 
failed to complete its organization. In Dec, 1862, the men enlisted 
were transferred to the 6th N. Y. artillery, (q. v.) 

One Hundred and Seventy-third Infantry. — Cols., Charles B. 
Morton, Lewis M. Peck; Lieut. -Cols., Lewis M. Peck, William N. 
Green, Jr., Mellen T. Holbrook; Majs., A. Power Galloway, George 
W. Rogers. This regiment, known as the 4th Metropolitan Guard, 
and 4th National Guard, was recruited in the cities of New York 
and Brooklyn by the police departments of those cities, as one 
of the Metropolitan brigade. It was organized at Riker's island 
and there mustered into the U. S. service for three years on Nov. 
ID, 1862. On leaving the state, Dec. 9, the regiment sailed for 
Louisiana, where it was assigned to the 2nd brigade of Emory's 
(3d) division, 19th corps. It came under fire for the first time at 
Fort Bisland, losing 7 killed and wounded, and a detachment under 
Capt. Conrady skirmished at Breaux bridge, Bayou Teche. The 
regiment took an active part in the siege of Port Hudson, where its 
total loss was 92 killed and wounded. Among the mortally wound- 
ed in the second assault on June 14, was Maj. Galloway. It was 
engaged at Carrion Crow bayou in Nov., 1863, and the following 
spring, in the 3d brigade of Emory's division, 19th corps, it took 
part in Banks' Red River campaign, being engaged in the fights at 
Sabine cross-roads, Pleasant Hill and Mansura, its loss in the first 
two battles being 232 killed, wounded and missing. Lieut.-Col. 
Green was killed at Pleasant Hill. Though the regiment was not 
again engaged in battle after the close of this campaign, it con- 
tinued in active service. In July, 1864, it accompanied the ist and 
2nd divisions to Virginia and became a part of Sheridan's Army in 
the Shenandoah. It was on detached service with Currie's brigade 
at Harper's Ferry during the battle of Winchester, and at the time 
of the battle of Cedar creek was guarding wagon trains and was 
not engaged in the fight. The regiment remained with Dwight's 
(ist) division in the valley until April, 1865, and then moved to 
Washington for a number of weeks. The war was now over, and 
after taking part in the grand review it was ordered to Savannah, 
and was there mustered out under Col. Peck, Oct. 18, 1865. The 
regiment lost during service in killed and mortally wounded, 6 
officers and 45 enlisted men; died of disease and other causes, 2 
officers and 126 enlisted men, a total of 179. 

One Hundred and Seventy-fourth Infantry. — Cols., Theodore W. 
Parmelee, Benjamin F. Gott; Lieut.-Cols., Benjamin F. Gott, James 
M. Vanderburgh; Maj., Stephen D. Beekman. The 174th, or the 
Sth National Guard, was recruited in New York city under the 
auspices of the Metropolitan police; it was organized at Riker's 
island, and there mustered into the U. S. service for three years 
on Nov. 13, 1862. The regiment left the state on Dec. 7, sailing 
for Louisiana, where it was assigned to the 2nd brigade of Emory's 



172 The Union Army 

division. During the preliminary operations against Port Hudson, 
in the 3d brigade, Augur's division, 19th corps, it skirmished on 
the Clinton plank road, was engaged at Plains store, and then took 
part in the long siege of Port Hudson, during which it sustained a 
loss of 14 in killed, wounded and missing. After the fall of Port 
Hudson it was severely engaged at Cox's plantation, under com- 
mand of Maj. George Keating, losing 18 killed, 29 wounded and 7 
missing, the heaviest loss sustained by any regiment in the ac- 
tion. The remainder of the year was spent by the regiment in post 
and garrison duty at Baton Rouge, and on Feb. 8, 1864, it was con- 
solidated with the 162nd N. Y. (q. v.) During its independent ex- 
istence it lost by death, i officer and 22 men killed and mortally 
wounded; i officer and 59 men from disease and other causes — total 
deaths, 83. 

One Hundred and Seventy-fifth Infantry. — Cols., Michael K. 
Bryan, John A. Foster; Lieut. -Cols., John A. Foster, John Gray; 
Majs., John Gray, Charles McCarthy. The 175th, the 5th regi- 
ment of the Corcoran brigade, was recruited from the cities of 
New York, Albany, Castleton, Troy, Glens Falls, Knox and Water- 
vliet by Cols. Bryan, Maj'er and Minthorn Tompkins. It was or- 
ganized at New York city on Nov. 19, 1862, with Col. Bryan in 
command, and was mustered into the U. S. service from Sept. to 
Oct., 1862, for three years. In Oct., 1863, the regiment was con- 
solidated into three companies, A, B and C, and was increased to 
a battalion of five companies in Oct., 1864, by the addition of two 
new companies — D and E. The regiment left the state on Nov. 
21, 1862, proceeding first to Suffolk, Va., whence it shortly after, 
sailed for Louisiana. In the 3d (Gooding's) brigade, Emory's divi- 
sion, 19th corps, it was under fire for the first time at Fort Bisland, 
losing I killed and 6 wounded. It was engaged in a skirmish at 
Franklin, La., in May and from May 30 to July 8, took part in the 
siege of Port Hudson, suffering severely in the assault of June 14. 
Its loss during the siege was 53 killed, wounded and missing, the 
gallant Col. Bryan being killed in the assault of June 14, 
while bravely encouraging his men. During the remainder of the 
year the regiment was engaged in post and garrison duty, with 
occasional skirmishes with the enemy. In the spring of 1864, now 
in the 3d brigade of Grover's division, 19th corps, it moved on 
Banks' Red River expedition and was engaged at Alexandria and 
Mansura. It was also three times engaged at Atchafalaya in May 
and June. In July, the battalion returned north with the first two 
divisions of the 19th corps, and as a part of Grover's division, took 
part in Sheridan's campaign against Early in the Shenandoah Val- 
ley, being engaged at Opequan, Fisher's hill and Cedar creek, and 
after the close of the campaign it proceeded to Savannah with Gro- 
ver's division. In March, 1865, Gen. Birge now commanding the 
division, it was ordered to North Carolina, where it was tempo- 
rarily attached to the loth corps as a part of the ist division and 
accompanied the corps in its advance on Wilmington, afterward 
being present at Bennett's house at the surrender of Gen. John- 
ston. Cos. D and E were mustered out at Savannah, Ga., June 30, 
1865, and the other three companies under Maj. Charles McCar- 
thy, at Greensboro, Ga., Nov. 2y, 1865. Col. Foster was brevetted 
brigadier-general in 1865 in recognition of his gallant services dur- 
ing the war. The loss of the regiment during its term of service was 
I officer and 13 men killed and mortally wounded; 4 officers and 117 
men died of disease and other causes; total deaths, 135. 



New York Regiments 173 

One Hundred and Seventy-sixth Infantry. — Cols., Charles C. 
Nott, Ambrose Stevens, Charles Lewis; Lieut.-Cols., A. J. H. Du- 
ganne, Charles Lewis, William W. Badger; Majs., Morgan Mor- 
gan, Jr., Charles Lewis, James Entwistle. The 176th, the "Iron- 
sides," was recruited from the state at large and was originally 
intended to be a three years organization. Col. Charles Gould 
was authorized on Sept. 4, 1862, to recruit the Ironsides in the first 
seven senatorial districts of the state for three years' service. 
Neither he, nor his successor. Col. Mark Hoyt, succeeded in this 
and the regiment was finally organized in December at Brooklyn, 
by filling it up with recruits enlisted for nine months. The first 
nine companies were mustered into the U. S. service from Nov. 
20 to Dec. 22, 1862, and Co. K was mustered in on Jan. 10, 1863. 
After the discharge of the nine months men, Nov. 16, 1863, 
the organization was recruited to the normal standard by the addi- 
tion of drafted men, substitutes and volunteers enlisted for three 
years. The regiment was organized under the direction of the 
Young Men's Christian Association of New York city. It left the 
state under command of Col. Nott on Jan. 11, 1863, and embarked 
on transports for New Orleans. On its arrival it was stationed in 
the defenses of New Orleans for several weeks and was attached 
to Augur's division of the 19th corps, when that corps was organ- 
ized. It formed part of the garrison of New Orleans during the 
siege of Port Hudson, and took an active part in repelling the 
advance of the enemy under Gen. Taylor. During June, 1863, de- 
tachments of the regiment participated in the skirmishes at Pat- 
tersonville, La Fourche crossing, Thibodeaux, Fort Buchanan, Bayou 
Boeuff and Brashier City. In the action at La Fourche crossing, 
the regiment was commanded by Maj. Morgan and behaved most 
gallantly; in the actions at Fort Buchanan, on the Atchafalaya, and 
at Brashear City, the regiment met with serious disaster, over 400 
men being captured. This disaster was not due to lack of bravery 
on the part of the men. There was no one in command, but the 
men fought with all the bravery that could be expected. The loss 
of the regiment in the above actions amounted to 464 killed, wound- 
ed and captured or missing. In the spring of 1864, attached to the 
3d brigade, Grover's division, 19th corps, it took part in Banks' Red 
River campaign, being engaged at Mansura and Simsport. In July 
it returned to Virginia with the first two divisions of the 19th corps 
and took an active part in Sheridan's brilliant campaign in the 
Shenandoah Valley against Gen. Early, including the battles of Ber- 
ryville, the Opequan, Fisher's hill, and Cedar creek. Its loss at the 
Opequan was 47 killed, wounded and missing, and at Cedar creek, 
53. In the assault on Fisher's hill it captured 4 guns from the 
enemy. It remained in the valley until Jan., 1865, when it was or- 
dered to Savannah, Ga., with Grover's division. In March it was 
ordered with the division, now commanded by Gen. Birge, to North 
Carolina, where it was temporarily attached to the lOth corps and 
took part in the final campaign of the Carolinas, ending with the 
surrender of Gen. Johnston at Bennett's house. Soon after this it 
returned to Georgia and was finally mustered out at Savannah on 
April 27, 1866. The regiment lost during service 2 officers and 31 
men killed and mortally wounded; 4 officers and 177 men died of 
wounds and other causes — total deaths, 181, of whom i officer and 
17 men died in the hands of the enemy. 

One Hundred and Seventy-seventh Infantry. — Col., Ira W. Ains- 
worth; Lieut.-Cols., Frank Chamberlain, David M. Woodhall; Majs., 



174 The Union Army 

David M. Woodhall, Charles E. Davis. The nucleus of this regi- 
ment was the loth National Guard, under Col. Ainsworth, which 
volunteered for nine months' service and was accepted. It was re- 
cruited to the full number at Albany and vicinity, was organized 
at Albany, and there mustered into the U. S. service for nine months 
on Nov. 21, 1862. It left the state Dec. 16 for New Orleans, where 
it was assigned to the 3d brigade of Sherman's division, afterwards 
the 3d brigade, 2nd division, 19th corps. It took part in skirmishes 
at McGill's ferry, Pontchatoula, Civiques ferry and Amite river 
and was active throughout the siege of Port Hudson, where it 
fought gallantly in the general assault of May 27. Its loss during 
the siege was 23 killed and wounded. On the expiration of its 
term of service it returned to New York and was mustered out at 
Albany, Sept. 24, 1863. The regiment lost during service 2 officers 
and 6 men, killed and mortally wounded; 3 officers and 149 men 
died of disease and other causes. 

One Hundred and Seventy-eighth Infantry. — Col., Edward Weh- 
ler; Lieut. -Cols., Charles F. Smith, John B. Gandolfo, Majs., Selden 
Hetzel, Augustus B. Sage. The organization of this regiment was 
begun at Staten island June 20. 1863, by the consolidation of the 
Blair Rifles, Pratt Guards, Seymour Light Infantry, Burnside Rifles, 
Westchester Light Infantry and Defenders. Its organization was 
completed on Oct. 14. 1863, by the assignment to it of the men en- 
listed for the 7th, 8th and 31st veteran N. Y. infantry, all of which 
were then reorganizing. Co. A was recruited at Rochester, Bufifalo, 
Niagara and Kingston, and the remaining companies in New York 
city. The regiment was mustered into the U. S. service by com- 
panies, between June 18 and Oct. 17, 1863, for three years. It left 
the state by detachments from June 21 to Oct. 24, proceeding to 
Washington, D. C, where it served as provost guard for several 
months. On Oct. 31, 1863. it was ordered to Mississippi and sta- 
tioned at Eastport, in the vicinity of Corinth. It was placed in 
Mower's division of the i6th corps; was engaged at Camden, Jack- 
son, and on Sherman's Meridian expedition. Attached to the 3d 
brigade (Col. Risdon M. Moore), Mower's division, detachment of 
the i6th corps, it moved with Banks' expedition up the Red River, 
taking part in engagements at Fort De Russy, Pleasant Hill, Campti, 
Cloutierville, Moore's plantation, Bayou Rapides, Mansura and 
Simsport. The regiment under command of Col. Wehler was warm- 
ly engaged at Pleasant Hill, where it recaptured a battery in a spir- 
ited charge and drove the enemy in confusion. Its loss in this bat- 
tle amounted to 31 killed, wounded and missing. When the detach- 
ment of the i6th corps consisting of Mower's and A. J. Smith's divi- 
sions were "loaned" by Gen. Sherman to Gen. Banks during the Red 
River campaign, it was understood they would soon return. The 
Red River campaign proved so disastrous, however, that their re- 
turn was delayed and the}' were unable to join in Sherman's At- 
lanta campaign. Consequently the 178th remained with the detach- 
ment of the i6th corps under A. J. Smith in the Mississippi valley. 
On the conclusion of the Red River campaign, the regiment took 
part in the following engagements during the rest of the year 1864: 
Lake Chicot, Ark.; Colliersville, and La Grange, Tenn.; Ripley, 
Tupelo, Old Town creek and Hurricane creek. Miss.; Lexington, 
Independence, and Glasgow, Mo.; and Nashville, Tenn. In the ^d 
brigade. Garrard's division, i6th corps, it proceeded to Mobile in 
the spring of 1865, participating in the siege of that city, and the 
fighting at the fall of Fort Blakely. The regiment was consolidated 



New York Regiments 175 

into a battalion of five companies at Eastport, Miss., in Feb., 1865, 
and continued in service a year longer, being finally mustered out 
on April 20, 1866, at Montgomery, Ala., under command of Lieut.- 
Col. Gandolfo. During its term of service the 178th lost by death 
18 men killed and mortally wounded; by disease and other causes 2 
officers and 190 enlisted men, a total of 210, of whom 35 died in 
the hands of the enemy. Its long service in the South accounts for 
its large disease mortality. 

One Hundred and Seventy-ninth Infantry. — Col., William M. 
Gregg; Lieut. -Cols., Franklin B. Doty, Albert A. Terrill; Majs., J. 
Barnett Sloan, John Barton, Albert A. Terrill, Giles H. Holden. 
This regiment, recruited in the counties of Chemung, Erie, Steuben, 
Tioga and Tompkins, was organized at Elmira for one and three 
years' service. Cos. A, B. C, D, E, F and G were mustered into 
the U. S. service from May 11 to July 20, 1864, for three years; Co. 
H for one and three years, on Sept. 13, 1864; and I and K for one 
year on Sept. 13-15, 1864. Co. A, originally enlisted for Col. Lewis 
T. Barney's i8oth N. Y., did not join the regiment until Feb. 21, 
1865. The 179th left the state by detachments from May, 1864, pro- 
ceeding to Washington, D. C, where it served in the 22nd corps 
until the summer of 1864 in the performance of garrison duty. On 
June II, 1864, it joined Grant's army at Cold Harbor, where it was 
assigned to the 2nd brigade, ist division, 9th corps. In the ist bri- 
gade, same division and corps, it took an active part in the first as- 
saults on Petersburg in June, losing 11 killed, 70 wounded and 10 
missing. On the failure of the assaults the regiment went into the 
intrenchments occupied by the 9th corps, on a part of the 
line very near to the enemy's works, where the men were ex- 
posed to an almost incessant fire during the long siege, resulting 
in a daily loss of men. The casualties of the regiment from this 
source during the siege amounted to 62 killed, wounded and miss- 
ing. Among the killed during the assault of June 17 was Maj. 
Sloan. The famous mine which was exploded on July 30, 1864, was 
dug within and in front of the line of the 9th corps and the 179th 
was hotly engaged during the assault which followed the explosion. 
Its loss here was 56 killed, wounded and missing, among the mor- 
tally wounded being the gallant Maj. Barton. The regiment was 
again in action at the battle of the Weldon railroad, where it sus- 
tained some casualties. Both the regiment and the division were 
now much reduced in numbers by their severe losses, and a reor- 
ganization of the corps took place which placed the 179th in the 
2nd brigade of Potter's division, with which it was warmly en- 
gaged at Poplar Spring Church in September, losing 58 killed, wound- 
ed and missing. The regiment next took part in the action at 
Hatcher's run, and it rendered excellent service during the critical 
attack of Fort Stedman, March 25, 1865. It then entered on the 
final campaign and took a prominent part in the storming of Peters- 
burg, April 2, 1865, losing 60 killed, wounded and missing, including 
Lieut. -Col. Doty, mortally wounded. This was the last battle in 
which it was engaged, and on June 8, 1865. under Col. Gregg, it 
was mustered out at Alexandria. Va. The regiment lost during 
its term of service, 7 officers and 66 enlisted men killed and mortally 
wounded; 118 enlisted men from disease and other causes; a total 
of 191, of whom 25 died as prisoners. 

One Hundred and Eightieth Infantry. — This regiment failed to 
complete its organization and its number is accordingly vacant. 
The men enlisted by Col. Lewis T. Barney were transferred to the 



176 The Union Army 

179th N. Y. (q. V.) as Co. G, and joined that regiment on Feb. 21, 
1865. 

One Hundred and Eighty-first Infantry, — Col. John H. Coster 
was given authority on March 24, 1864, to recruit this regiment, but 
no men were recruited and its number is accordingly vacant. 

One Hundred and Eighty-second Infantry. — Cols., Matthew- 
Murphy, John Coonan; Lieut. -Cols., Thomas M. Reid, William 
Butler, John Coonan, Robert Heggart; Majs., Theodore Kelly, 
William Butler, Dennis L. Sullivan, Robert Heggart, Michael Mc- 
Guire. The 182nd, the 69th National Guard artillery, was one of 
the famous brigade of Irish regiments known as the Corcoran Le- 
gion, and was organized as the first regiment of the Corcoran bri- 
gade, in New York city late in the summer of 1862. Its nucleus 
was the old 69th regiment National Guard, just returned from three 
months' service in the defenses of Washington. It left the state on 
Nov. 10, 1862, for Newport News, Va., where its organization was 
completed by adding to it the men enlisted for the 6th regiment of 
the Corcoran Legion, except those of Co. D, and as thus reorgan- 
ized was mustered into the U. S. service on Nov. 17, 1862, for three 
years. The companies were recruited in New York city and the 
regiment was designated the 182nd volunteer infantry by the war 
department. On Jan. 29, 1863, with the rest of the brigade, com- 
manded by Col. Murphy, Gen. Corcoran commanding the division, 
it started on the Blackwater expedition and participated in its first 
fight at the affair of the Deserted House the following day, meeting 
with a loss of 17 killed, wounded and missing. After a few weeks' 
service on the . Peninsula it went to Suffolk and was actively en- 
gaged in the defense of that place in the spring of 1863. It was 
next engaged in the skirmish at Carrsville, and remained on duty 
in that vicinity until July, when the Legion (Gen. Corcoran com- 
manding) was ordered to Washington, where it performed garri- 
son and outpost duty until May, 1864. It was then ordered to join 
the Army of the Potomac and was placed in the 2nd division (Gib- 
bon's), 2nd corps, the Legion, under command of Col. Murphy, ar- 
riving just in time to share in the closing battles around Spottsyl- 
vania, where the loss was 30 killed, wounded and missing. It suffered 
severely at the North Anna river, where it encountered a severe 
fire, losing 40 killed, wounded and missing — one of the heaviest 
casualty lists incurred by any regiment in that fight. The regiment 
was actively engaged in the second assault at Cold Harbor, where 
it again lost heavily, its casualties amounting to 89 killed, wounded 
and missing. Capts. Edward K. Butler and John H. Nugent were 
both killed in that assault. Crossing the James river, the 182nd took 
part in various battles around Petersburg, including the first as- 
saults in June, and at the Weldon railroad. Its casualty list once 
more tells the story of frightful sacrifice, aggregating 19 killed, 75 
wounded and 10 missing, a total of 104. Maj. Butler fell mortally 
wounded during the assault of June 16. From June 26 to the close 
of the war the Legion, together with the 8th N. Y. heavy artillery, 
formed the 2nd brigade of the 2nd division. 2nd corps. A list of its 
engagements during this period includes Deep Bottom, Strawberry 
Plains, Reams' station, Boydton plank road, Hatcher's run, the 
assault on the Petersburg works, March 25, 1865, and in 
the Appomattox campaign. White Oak ridge, and Farmville. The regi- 
ment sustained a loss of 58 killed, wounded and missing at the battle 
of Reams' Station, where Capt. Francis Welpley and 2nd Lieut. Daniel 
Sweeney were both killed. Col. Murphy was mortally wounded 



New York Regiments 177 

during the engagement at Hatcher's run, Feb. 5, 1865, and Col. John 
Coonan succeeded to the command of the regiment. Under him, 
the 182nd was mustered out near Washington, D. C, July 15, 1865. 
It lost by death during service 8 officers and 79 enlisted men killed 
and mortally wounded; 53 enlisted men died of disease and other 
causes; total deaths, 140. 

One Hundred and Eighty-third Infantry. — This regiment failed 
to complete its organization and its number is accordingly vacant. 
The men enlisted in the counties of Cattaraugus and Chautauqua, 
100 in number, were transferred to the i88th N. Y. (q. v.) as Co. A. 

One Hundred and Eighty-fourth Infantry. — Col., Wardwell G. 
Robinson; Lieut. -Col., William P. McKinley; Maj., William D. Fer- 
guson. The 184th was recruited in the county of Oswego, the com- 
panies rendezvoused at Oswego, and the regiment was mustered 
into the U. S. service at Elmira on Sept. 12-16, 1864, for one year. 
When it was mustered out a few three years men with the organ- 
ization were transferred to the 96th N. Y. on June 27, 1865. Cos. 
A, B, D and F, under Maj. W. D. Ferguson, left the state on Sept. 
12, 1864, and joined the Army of the Shenandoah as part of the ist 
brigade. Ricketts' division, 6th corps, with which they participated 
in Sheridan's campaign in the valley. They fought gallantly at the 
battle of Cedar creek, losing 45 killed and wounded. First Lieut. 
Augustus Phillips, the only commissioned officer lost by the regi- 
ment, was killed in this action. The remaining companies under Col. 
Robinson, left the state on Sept. 16, 1864, and were stationed at 
Bermuda Hundred. In Dec, 1864, the regiment was assigned to 
the separate brigade, Army of the James, and stationed at Harri- 
son's landing, with the exception of Co. I, which was at Fort Poca- 
hontas. Under the command of Col. Robinson, it was mustered out 
at City Point, Va., June 29, 1865. It lost by death during its short 
term of service i officer and 10 enlisted men killed and mortally 
wounded; 27 enlisted men died of disease and other causes; total 
deaths. 38. 

One Hundred and Eighty-fifth Infantry. — Cols., Edwin S. Jenny, 
Gustavus Sniper; Lieut. -Cols., Gustavus Sniper, Theodore M. Bar- 
ber; Majs., John Leo, Robert P. Bush. The 185th, known as the 
6th Onondaga county regiment, the Onondaga and Cortland regi- 
ment, and the Otsego regiment, was recruited in the counties of 
Onondaga and Cortland and organized at Syracuse on Aug. 26, 1864. 
Shortly before that date a public meeting had been held at the city 
hall at Syracuse and a committee of leading citizens formed for 
the purpose of organizing the regiment. It was mustered into the 
U. S. service at Syracuse for one year — Cos. A, B, C, D, E, G, H 
and I on Sept. 19; Co. F on Sept. 25, and Co. K on Sept. 21. When 
the regiment was mustered out the few three years men in the or- 
ganization were transferred to the 5th veteran infantry. The regi- 
ment left the state on Sept. 2.'j . 1864, and at once proceeded to the 
front, joining Grant's army before Petersburg. On its arrival, Oct. 
I, it was assigned to the ist brigade. Griffin's division, 5th corps, 
with which it took part in its first battle at Burgess farm and sus- 
tained a few casualties. In December it participated in the Hicks- 
ford raid, during which it lost 6 men captured. It was in the sec- 
ond battle of Hatcher's run in Feb., 1865, losing t6 men killed, 
wounded and missing; was present without loss at Watkins' house 
in March; then moved with the corps on the final Appomattox cam- 
paign, fighting at Quaker road. Gravelly run. Five Forks and Ap- 
pomattox. In the battle at the Quaker road. Col. Sniper led the 
Vol. 11—12 



178 The Union Army 

regiment in a brilliant and successful charge, personally holding 
aloft the colors after 3 color-bearers had fallen and the conduct of 
both officers and men throughout the engagement was worthy of 
the highest commendation, though the loss of the regiment was 
severe, amounting to 203 killed and wounded, the brave Lieuts. E. F. 
Bauder and Daniel Miller both being killed. A pathetic incident 
was the killing of Lieut. Hiram Clark in the final skirmish at Appo- 
mattox, on the day of Lee's surrender. The regiment was honora- 
bly discharged and mustered out near Washington, D. C, May 30, 
1865, under Col. Sniper. It lost by death during its term of service 
3 officers and 59 enlisted men killed and mortally wounded; 3 offi- 
cers and 33 enlisted men died of disease and other causes, a total of 
98. Despite the fact that the regiment's period of service was com- 
paratively short it was able to establish a highly honorable record. 
It left for the seat of war with 923 officers and men and returned 
home with 22 officers and 544 enlisted men. 

One Hundred and Eighty-sixth Infantry. — Col., Bradley Wins- 
low; Lieut. -Col., E. J. Marsh; Maj., Abram D. Sternberg. This 
regiment was principally recruited in the counties of Jefferson and 
Lewis and was organized at Sacket's Harbor, where it was mustered 
into the U. S. service Sept. 5-29, 1864, for one year. Co. G was 
mustered in for one and three years at Hart's island on Sept. 28, 
and on the same day the regiment left the state for the front, being 
assigned to the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 9th corps. With this com- 
mand it was engaged at Hatcher's run in Oct., 1864; Fort Stedman 
in March, 1865; took a prominent part in the storming of Peters- 
burg, April 2, 1865, when it was among the first to enter the ene- 
my's works; and was highly complimented by its brigade and divi- 
sion commanders for its gallant charge on Fort Mahone, where 
Col. Winslow was wounded while leading a charge. Its loss here 
amounted to 180 killed, wounded and missing. Commanded by 
Lieut. -Col. Marsh, it was mustered out on June 2, 1865, at Alexan- 
dria, Va. The regiment lost by death during its term of service 
45 enlisted men killed and mortally wounded; i officer and 39 en- 
listed men died of wounds and other causes, a total of 88. 

One Hundred and Eighty-seventh Infantry. — Lieut. -Col., Daniel 
Myers; Maj,, Conrad Seeber. This regiment was recruited in the 
counties of Erie, Chautauqua and Cattaraugus and was organized at 
Buffalo. Only 9 companies were recruited, of which Cos. A, C, D, E, 
G and I were mustered into the U. S. service on Oct. 8-13, 1864, for 
one year; Co. B joined the regiment Feb. 14. 1865; F in May, 1865, 
and H in Nov., 1864. A large number of the men were from the 65th 
National Guard of the state. As a battalion of only six companies, 
the regiment left the state on Oct. 15, 1864, and joined Grant's army 
before Petersburg. On its arrival it was assigned to Gregory's bri- 
gade, Griffin's division, 5th corps, and took an honorable part in 
the battle at Hatcher's run, where its loss was 77 killed, wounded 
and missing. In December it took part in the Hicksford raid and 
was again engaged at Hatcher's run in Feb., 1865, with a loss of 8 
wounded and missing. In the final Appomattox campaign, it fought 
at White Oak ridge, Five Forks, the fall of Petersburg and Appo- 
mattox, having 5 men wounded during the campaign. Under Col. 
Myers, the regiment was honorably discharged and mustered out 
at Washington, D. C, July i. 1865, having lost by death during its 
term of service 15 enlisted men killed and mortally wounded; 32 en- 
listed men died of disease and other causes; total deaths, 47. 

One Hundred and Eighty-eighth Infantry. — Col., John E. McMa- 



New York Regiments 179 

hon; Lieut. -Col., Isaac Doolittle; Maj., Christopher C. Davis. This 
regiment, recruited in the counties of Monroe, Ontario, Livingston, 
Yates and Steuben, rendezvoused at Rochester, where it was mus- 
tered into the U. S. service for one year on Oct. 4-22, 1864, except 
Co. A, which was mustered in at Elmira on Sept. 24. Co. K did not 
join the regiment until some time in November. Under Maj. Davis 
it left the state on Oct. 13, and at once joined the army under Grant 
before Petersburg. On its arrival at the front it was placed in Greg- 
ory's brigade of Griffin's division, 5th corps, and was actively en- 
gaged with this command in the first of the battles at Hatcher's 
run, losing 7 killed, 46 wounded and i missing. In December it 
participated in the raid to Hicksford, Va., and in Feb., 1865, it was 
again engaged at Hatcher's run with a loss of 10 killed, 21 wounded 
and 3 missing. During the Appomattox campaign the regiment 
fought with its corps at White Oak ridge, Gravelly run and Five 
Forks, when its casualties aggregated 45 killed and wounded. It 
was also active in the final assault on Petersburg and was present 
on the 9th at Appomattox, when Lee surrendered. Under Col. 
McMahon, it was mustered out at Washington, D. C, July i, 1865. 
During its brief term of active service the regiment lost by death 
I officer and 36 enlisted men killed and mortally wounded; 53 en- 
listed men died from disease and other causes; total deaths, 90. 

One Hundred and Eighty-ninth Infantry. — Cols., William W. Hayt, 
Allen L. Burr; Lieut. -Cols., Allen L. Burr, Joseph G. Townsend; Majs., 
Joseph G. Townsend, William H. Withey. This regiment, recruited in 
the counties of Allegany, Steuben, Madison. Oneida and Oswego, was 
organized at Elmira and there mustered into the U. S. service during 
Aug. and Sept., 1864, for one year, four of the companies, A, C, G and 
H, were originally recruited for the 175th N. Y. infantry. When the 
regiment reached the front, Co. K was transferred to the 15th N. Y. 
engineers, and was replaced by a new company in Dec, 1864. The 
regiment left the state by detachments on Sept. 18 and Oct. 23, 
1864, and joined the 5th corps before Petersburg, just after the first 
battle of Hatcher's run. It was placed in Gregory's brigade of 
Griffin's division; took part in the raid to Hicksford, actively en- 
gaged in the second battle at Hatcher's run, where Col. Burr com- 
manded the brigade and Lieut.-Col. Townsend the regiment, its 
losses being 2 killed and 13 wounded. During the battles of the 
final campaign, the regiment was active at White Oak ridge and Five 
Forks, in which actions its casualties amounted to 22 killed and 
wounded. It was also present at the fall of Petersburg and at Ap- 
pomattox on the occasion of Lee's surrender. Col. Burr was un- 
fortunately sick during this campaign, and the regiment was com- 
manded by Lieut.-Col. Townsend. The only commissioned officer 
killed was Capt. Rice, who fell before Petersburg on Jan. 11, 1865. 
The regiment was honorably discharged and mustered out on June 
I, 1865, at Washington, under command of Col. Burr. It lost by 
death during its term of service i officer and 8 enlisted men killed 
and mortally wounded; i officer and 70 enlisted men from disease 
and other causes, a total of 80. 

One Hundred and Ninetieth Infantry. — The organization of this 
regiment was commenced in New York city in Feb.. 1865. Only one 
complete company — A, Capt. Christian S. Peterson — and part of a sec- 
ond company were recruited, when they were mustered out and dis- 
charged on May 3 and 4, 1865. One enlisted man had died of disease. 

One Hundred and Ninety-first Infantry. — The organization of this 
regiment was commenced at Hart's island, N. Y., in Feb., 1865. 



180 The Union Army 

Two companies only were recruited in New York and Richmond 
counties, A, Capt. Henry Arens, and B, Capt. Julius B. Brose. 
These were mustered into the U. S. service at Hart's island on 
March 30 and April 28, 1865, for one, two and three years, and were 
there mustered out and discharged the service May 3, 1865. 

One Hundred and Ninety-second Infantry. — Col., Nathan G. 
Axtell; Lieut. -Col., Barent Van Buren; Maj., Solyman G. Hamlin. 
This regiment was recruited during the last year of the war in the 
counties of Albany, Renssellaer, Clinton, Schenectady, Oneida and 
Ulster. It was organized at Albany and there mustered into the 
U. S. service from March 13 to April 8, 1865, for one, two and three 
years. Col. Nathan G. Axtell was formerly the famous "fighting 
chaplain" of the 30th New York. The regiment left the state in 
detachments during March and April, 1865, and served until its 
discharge in the 3d brigade, 3d division. Army of the Shenandoah. 
The war had practically closed when the 192nd took the field and 
it was not given the opportunity to participate in any engagements. 
Under Lieut.-Col. Van Buren, it was mustered out and discharged 
on Aug. 28, 1865, at Cumberland, Md. During its term of service 
the regiment lost from disease and other causes, 26 enlisted men. 

One Hundred and Ninety-third Infantry. — Col., John B. Van 
Petten; Lieut.-Col., John C. Gilmore; Maj., Alfred Morton. This 
regiment was recruited near the end of tlie war in the counties of 
Cayuga, Oswego, Onondaga, Oneida, Jefferson, St. Lawrence and 
Franklin. It was organized at Auburn and the companies were 
mustered into the U. S. service between March 6 and April 9, 1865, 
for one, two and three years. Col. Van Petten had previously 
rendered excellent service as lieutenant-colonel of the i6oth N. Y., 
and was subsequently brevetted brigadier-general for gallant and 
meritorious conduct. The regiment left the state by detachments 
during March and April, 1865, and was first assigned to the 3d 
brigade, 3d division. Army of the Shenandoah, but after July it 
served in the District of West Virginia, Middle Department. It was 
finally mustered out and discharged at Harper's Ferry, under Col. 
Van Petten. Twenty-five men died from disease and other causes 
during its term of service. 

One Hundred and Ninety-fourth Infantry. — Col, Joseph W. Corn- 
ing; Lieut.-Col., Lorenzo J. Jones; Maj., Lafayette Mumford. This 
was the last New York regiment organized for the war, quite a 
number of independent campanies then in process of organization 
being incorporated into the regiment. Most of the men were re- 
cruited in the counties of Chemung, Yates, Allegany, Seneca, On- 
tario, Onondaga, Cattaraugus and Niagara and the regiment was 
organized at Elmira, where Cos. A. B, C, D, E and F were mus- 
tered into the U. S. service from March 29 to April 27, 1865, for 
one and three years; Co. G, at Hart's island on April ly; Co. I 
was not mustered in as a company and K was not organized. With- 
out leaving the state, the companies were mustered out where they 
were mustered in, May 3 and 10, 1865. Seven enlisted men died 
from disease during the period it was in service. 

Independent Corps Light Infantry ("Enfans Perdus"). — Lieut. - 
Cols., Felix Comfort, Simon Levy; Majs., John Carter Brown, Mi- 
chael Schmidt. This regiment was recruited and organized in New 
York city during the winter 1861-62. Six companies, A to F, were 
mustered into the U. S. service on April 18, 1862, for three years. In 
Aug., 1862, another company, and in March, 1863, two more com- 
panies, joined it in the field. On Jan. 30, 1864, commanded by 



New York Regiments 181 

Lieut.-Col. Levy, the regiment was consolidated with the 1st N. Y. 
engineers, and the 47th and 48th N. Y. infantry, being discontin- 
ued as a separate organization. The regiment, consisting of six com- 
panies, left the state on April 18, 1862, and served on the Peninsula 
at Gloucester and Yorktown until the end of the year. Assigned 
to the 1st brigade of Peck's division, 4th corps, it was ordered to 
North Carolina in Dec, 1862, where it became a part of Naglee's 
brigade, ist division, i8th corps, and was later placed in Davis' 
brigade, Naglee's division, same corps. With this command, early 
in 1863, it was ordered to Beaufort, S. C, and then to Charleston 
harbor, becoming a part of the loth corps. During the summer and 
fall of 1863 it participated in the various operations about Charles- 
ton harbor, being stationed at St. Helena on Morris island, and on 
Folly island. It took part in the engagements on Morris island in 
July, siege of Fort Wagner, bombardment of Fort Sumter, and 
Olustee, Fla. During its term of service as a separate organization, 
the regiment lost by death 7 enlisted men killed in action, 2 en- 
listed men of wounds received in action, 52 enlisted men from dis- 
ease and other causes, a total of 61. 

First Cavalry. — Cols., Andrew T. McReynolds, Alonzo W. Adams; 
Lieut.-Cols., Frederick Van Schickfass, Alonzo W. Adams, Jenyns 
C. Battersby; Majs., Charles H. Agle, Timothy Quinn, Franklin G. 
Martindale, Alonzo W. Adams, William H. Boyd, Joseph K. Stearns, 
Franz Passager, August Haurand, Daniel H. Haskins, Jenyns C. 
Battersby, Ezra H. Bailey. This regiment, known as the Lincoln 
cavalry, was organized in New York city soon after the outbreak 
of the war and was mustered into the U. S. service from July 16 to 
Aug. 31, 1861, for a term of three years. The commission for the 
regiment was originally given to Col. Carl Schurz, who was soon 
thereafter appoined minister to Spain. The companies organized by 
him were thereupon turned over to his successor. Col. Andrew T. Mc- 
Reynolds, of Grand Rapids, Mich., who had held a captain's com- 
mission in the regular army. Nine of the companies, A, B, D, E, G, 
H, I, L and M, were from New York city, nearly one half the re- 
cruits being Germans, Hungarians and Poles. Co. C was recruited 
at Philadelphia, F at Syracuse, and K, a Michigan company, at 
Grand Rapids, Mich. The regiment, about 1,400 strong, left the 
state by detachments between July 21, 1861, and Sept. 10, 1861. 
During its four years of service the ist cavalry was stationed near 
Washington to Oct. 4, 1861; then in Franklin's and Heintzelman's 
divisions to March 24, 1862; in ist division, ist corps, Army of the 
Potomac, to May, 1862; with the 6th corps, to July 8, 1862; in ist 
cavalry brigade, to September; in 4th brigade, cavalry division, 
until October; in Averell's cavalry division, 8th corps about a 
month; with the forces for the defense of the Upper Potomac in 
various commands to June, 1863; then in the Department of the 
Susquehanna, until August; in the Department of West Virginia, in 
different commands to Oct., 1864; in the Army of the Shenandoah 
till March, 1865, and with the Army of the Potomac for the rest 
of its term. At the expiration of its original term of service those 
entitled thereto were mustered out and returned home, the remain- 
der of the regiment, composed of recruits with unexpired terms 
and veterans who had reenlisted, remaining in the field under the 
command of Col. Adams. It participated in the final campaign in 
1865 up to the surfender of Gen. Lee at Appomattox and was finally 
mustered out at Alexandria, Va., June 27, 1865. The regiment had 
served in many of the greatest battles of the war, and under such 



183 The Union Army 

cavalry commanders as Stoneman, Pleasonton, Sheridan, Kilpat- 
rick, Crook and Averell, had repeatedly distinguished itself. From 
its first engagement at Pohick Church, Va., in Aug., 1861, to the sur- 
render at Appomattox, all, or part of the regiment, participated in 
nearly 230 battles and skirmishes. Some of the heaviest casualties 
of the regiment were incurred at Strasburg, Va., where it lost 17 
killed, wounded and missing; at Winchester, where it lost 63 killed, 
wounded and missing; at New Market, where its loss was 99 killed, 
wounded and missing; and at Piedmont, where it lost 26 killed, 
wounded and missing. Among the many noteworthy services of 
the regiment, were the recapture by 100 men of the command, as- 
sisted by an equal number of the 12th Pa., at Greencastle, July 5, 
1863, of 700 prisoners, two 12-pounder howitzers and 108 wagons, 
taken by Lee in the Gettysburg campaign; the brilliant charge, led 
by Col. Adams, on the enemy under Maj.-Gen. Lomax, at the bat- 
tle of Nineveh in Nov., 1864, capturing many guns and battleflags, 
and some 200 prisoners; the charge of the regiment at Cacapon 
bridge, in Oct., 1862, under the command of Capt. William H. Boyd 
of Co. C, breaking Imboden's cavalry; the splendid charges at 
Piedmont and Lynchburg, in 1864. led lay the gallant Maj. Quinn; 
the magnificent charges at Mt. Crawford and Waynesboro, Va., 
commanded by Lieut.-Col. Battersby, which drove and dispersed 
the entire command of Gen. Early. At the engagement of Rude's 
hill. Col. Adams was complimented on the field by Gen. Powell 
for coolness and daring and for the discipline of the regiment when 
under fire. It is the boast of this regiment that it captured more 
prisoners (over 400) and property than any other cavalry regiment 
in the service. During its entire period of service the ist cavalry 
lost 5 officers and 41 enlisted men killed and died of wounds; i of- 
ficer and 119 enlisted men died of disease, accident, in prison, etc., 
a total of 166. 

Second Cavalry. — Cols., J. Mansfield Davies, Judson Kilpatrick, 
Henry E. Davies, Jr., Otto Harhaus, Walter C. Hull, x\lanson M. 
Randol; Lieut. -Cols., Judson Kilpatrick, Henry E. Davies, Jr., Otto 
Harhaus, Edwin M. Cook, Mortimer B. Birdseye; Majs., Henry E. 
Davies, jr., Edwin F. Cook, Henry Grinton, Alfred N. Duffie, Will- 
iam H. Mallory, John E. Naylor. Walter Clark Hull, Otto Har- 
haus, Samuel Mclrwin, Mortimer B. Birdseye, Joseph O'Keefe, 
William R. Mattison, John F. L. V. Danesi, Enos B. Parsons, An- 
drew S. Glover, William B. Shafer. This regiment was organized 
at Scarsdale in the summer of 1861 by Col. J. Mansfield Davies, 
under authority granted him by the war department on July 25. 
It was called the "Harris light cavalry," in honor of the Hon. Ira 
Harris, of Albany, then U. S. senator. It was mustered into the 
U. S. service from Aug. 9 to Oct. 8, 1861, for three years, being 
designated the 7th regiment of cavalry in the service of the United 
States, but when it was turned over to the state it was numbered 
the 2nd N. Y. volunteer cavalry. The 2nd was finely officered and 
became one of the most famous of the New York cavalry regi- 
ments. It was one of the three hundred fighting regiments men- 
tioned by Col. Fox in his '"Regimental Losses in the Civil War," 
and ranks eighth in the list of mounted regiments which lost the 
most men killed and fatally wounded in action during the war. Col. 
Hull was killed at Cedar creek, and Maj. O'Keefe met his death 
during the final campaign in 1865. The several companies of the 
2nd were recruited from New York city, Long island, Rensselaer 
and Washington counties, with two from Hartford, Conn., three 



New York Regiments 183 

from Indiana, and one (partly) from Pennsylvania and New Jer- 
sey. The eight companies raised in 1864, were recruited principally 
from Cortland and Onondaga counties and were enlisted for one 
year only. The term of service of the original members expired 
in Sept., 1864, and these were mustered out and returned home, ex- 
cept about 350 who remained in the field, composed of recruits and 
reenlisted veterans. They were consolidated into a battalion of 
four companies. A, B, C and D, and the eight companies raised in 
1864 were united with the battalion, raising it again to a full regi- 
ment. The regiment left the state in Sept. and Oct., 1861, and orig- 
inally served with McDowell's division. Army of the Potomac. 
While on Pope's campaign in Aug., 1862, the 2nd lost 11 killed, 19 
wounded and 45 captured or missing, a total of 83. It again suf- 
fered heavily in June, 1863, while serving with the 2nd brigade, 
2nd cavalry division (Gregg's), Army of the Potomac at Beverly 
ford, where its casualties were 39 killed, wounded and missing. In 
the cavalry action at Aldie, Va., the same month, it lost 50 in killed, 
wounded and missing; at Liberty mills in September, its casualties 
were 87 killed, wounded and missing, and at Buckland mills, in 
October it met with a loss of 59 killed, wounded and missing. As 
a part of Wilson's division, afterwards Custer's, it saw much hard 
service in 1863-64; it participated in Kilpatrick's daring raid in 
March. 1864, within the defenses of Richmond, when the regiment 
approached within a mile and a half of the city. Maj. Cook was 
captured at this time and put in irons. The regiment again lost 
heavily during Wilson's raid to the South Side and Danville rail- 
roads in June, 1864, when its casualties amounted to 47 killed, 
wounded and missing. The 2nd served with the cavalry in the 
Army of the Shenandoah from Oct., 1864, to March, 1865, and with 
the Army of the Potomac during the final campaign up to the sur- 
render of Lee at Appomattox. The regiment was mustered out 
June 23, 1865, at Alexandria, Va. Three of its six colonels rose to 
high rank for conspicuous gallantry. Col. Kilpatrick became a bvt. 
major-general; Col. Henry E. Davies. Jr., rose to be a major-gen- 
eral, and Col. Randol was appointed bvt. brigadier-general. Six 
members of the regiment were awarded medals of honor by Con- 
gress, viz.: Lieut. James H. Gribben, Sergt. Ivers S. Calkins, Corps. 
Irvin C. Payne and John F. Benjamin, and Pvts. William I. Brewer 
and Frank Miller. The total enrollment of the regiment was 2.528, 
of whom 9 ofiicers and 112 men were killed and died of wounds; 
2 officers and 234 men died of disease, accidents, in prison, etc.; 20 
officers and 22(i were wounded and recovered; and 14 officers and 
545 men were reported missing. The regiment served almost en- 
tirely in Virginia and Maryland and took part in about 175 battles 
and skirmishes. It was a credit to the state which sent it forth, 
and few regiments in the service displayed more conspicuous gal- 
lantry and efficiency. 

Third Cavalry. — Cols., James H. Van Alen, Simon H. Mix, 
George W. Lewis; Lieut. -Cols., Simon H. Mix, John Mix, George 
W. Lewis. Ferris Jacobs, Jr., Samuel C. Pierce; Majs.. John Mix, 
Charles Fitz Simmons, Ferris Jacobs, Jr., Alonzo Stearns. Israel 
H. Putnam, George W. Lewis, George W. Cole, John M. Wilson, 
Jeptha Garrard, Newton Hall, John Ebbs. The regiment was named 
in honor of its first colonel, James H. Van Alen, who received 
authority from the war department on July 26, 1861, to recruit a 
regiment of cavalry. As fast as organized the several companies 
left the state and proceeded to Meridian hill, Washington, where the 



184 The Union Army 

regiment was organized early in September, Col. Van Alen assum- 
ing command on the 9th. Cos. A, C and H were recruited at 
Rochester; B at Syracuse; D at Schoharie, Schenevus, Schaghti- 
coke, Albany, Cobleskill, Gallupville and Unadilla; E at Delhi, De- 
posit, Elmira, Margaretville, Middletown and Walton; F at Me- 
dina, Newstead and Newfane; G at Utica, Leyden, Boonville, Low- 
ville and Watson; I at Syracuse and North Hamburg; K at Elmira, 
Brockport and Rochester; L at Cincinnati and Xenia, Ohio. The 
original Co. M was a New Jersey company, which was transferred 
in April, 1862. to the ist N. J. cavalry and a new company M was 
raised at Rochester and Brockport in Sept., 1862, to take its place. 
The different companies were mustered into the U. S. service at 
various periods from May 14 to Sept. 13, 1861, at Syracuse, Albany, 
Elmira, Boonville and Cincinnati, Ohio, for three years. Before 
the expiration of its term of service in 1864, many of the original 
members reenlisted and with the recruits continued in the service. 
The regiment served in Banks' and Stone's divisions, Army of the 
Potomac, until April, 1862, when it was ordered South and served 
in the Department of North Carolina and the i8th corps during 
the remainder of 1862 and all of 1863. In April, 1864, it was as- 
signed to the 1st brigade, Kautz's cavalry division, Army of the 
James, and saw much hard service with that organization during 
the remainder of the war. In the operations against Petersburg 
in May, 1864, the 3d lost a total of 2i7 killed, wounded and missing; 
in the raid to the South Side and Danville railroads in June it met 
with a loss of 105 killed, wounded and missing; and in the action 
on the Darbytown road in October its loss amounted to 52. When 
Col. Van Alen resigned in April, 1862, he was succeeded by Col. 
Simon H. Mix, who developed into one of the most intrepid and 
efficient cavalry leaders in the service. He commanded the regi- 
ment with distinguished credit until June 15, 1864, when he fell in 
action before Petersburg and Lieut.-Col. George W. Lewis suc- 
ceeded to the colonelcy. In July, 1865, while stationed at Norfolk, 
Va., the regiment was reduced by consolidation to five companies, 
A, B, C, F and L, and on July 21 it was united with the ist mount- 
ed rifles to form the 4th provisional regiment volunteer cavalry 
(q. v.). During its entire term of service the 3d took part in about 
122 engagements, besides many minor affairs. The regiment lost 
3 officers and 48 men killed in action and mortally wounded; i 
officer and 155 men died of disease, accidents, etc.; total deaths, 
207, of whom 38 men died as prisoners. Five officers and 170 men 
are recorded as missing. 

Fourth Cavalry. — Cols., Christian F. Dickel, Louis P. Di Cesnola; 
Lieut. -Cols., Ferrier Nazer, Augustus Pruyn, William R. Parnell; Majs., 
Baron Anton Von Pueehelstein, August Haurand, Augustus Pruyn, 
William R. Parnell, Edward Schwartz. This regiment, known also 
as the 1st German cavalry, Dickel's Mounted Rifles and the Lin- 
coln Greens, was organized in New York city, and was mustered 
into the U. S. service from Aug. 10 to Nov. 15, 1861, for three 
years. Co. K was mustered in on Nov. 15, 1862; Co. L in Dec, 
1862; and Co. M Feb. 13, 1863. The regiment was recruited prin- 
cipally at New York city and Brooklyn, with one company from 
.Cleveland, Ohio, and one from Philadelphia, Pa. A considerable 
number of the original members reenlisted for three years in the 
winter of 1863-64, those whose terms had expired being discharged. The 
veterans and recruits were organized as a battalion of four com- 
panies, F, K, L and M, and continued in the service. March 29, 



New York Regiments 185 

1865, the battalion, commanded by Maj. Schwartz, was trans- 
ferred to the 9th cavalry as Cos. B, E and L. The regi- 
ment, consisting of only eight companies and numbering about 700 
men, left the state on Aug. 29, 1861, and was assigned to Blenker's 
division. During 1862 it was repeatedly engaged with the enemy, 
serving with the 5th corps, in the Mountain Department, in the 
cavalry brigade of the ist corps. Army of Virginia, and in the cav- 
alry brigade, ist division, nth corps, Army of the Potomac. It 
was active at Harrisonburg, Cross Keys, Port Republic, New Mar- 
ket, in Pope's Virginia campaign, fighting at the Rapidan river, 
Waterloo bridge, Bristoe Station, Salem and White Plains, Grove- 
ton, Bull Run, Centerville, Ashby's gap, Berryville, Snicker's gap, 
Charlestown and Kellysville. The regiment opened the battle of 
Cross Keys, successfully resisting several charges by the enemy, 
saving Schirmer's battery from capture, and killing the Confed- 
erate Gen. Ashby. Together with the 2nd Mich cavalry, it made 
the only cavalry charge during the second battle of Bull Run, 
checked the enemy's advance, and saved many from capture. Col. 
Dickel resigned on Sept. 10, 1862. and Col. Di Cesnola received his 
commission the next day. During 1863 it served in the ist and 2nd 
brigades, 2nd cavalry division, in the ist brigade, 3d cavalry divi- 
sion, and in the 2nd brigade. ist cavalry division, Army 
of the Potomac. It was heavily engaged during this period 
at Aldie, Upperville, Culpeper Court House and Raccoon 
ford, and participated in many other important battles during the 
year. It joined in the pursuit of Lee's army after the battle of 
Gettysburg, and shared in the subsequent campaigns in Virginia, 
ending with the fruitless Mine Run campaign. In 1864 it served 
with the Army of the Potomac, detached from the cavalry corps 
at the beginning of Grant's campaign in the spring, but rejoined 
the corps towards the end of May. In Oct., 1864, it became a part 
of the Army of the Shenandoah. During the year it took part in 
all the engagements of the Wilderness campaign; participated in 
Gen. Sheridan's Trevilian raid, meeting with a loss of 48 killed, 
wounded and missing at Trevilian Station; was active in the opera- 
tions before Petersburg; sustained a loss of 25 in killed, wounded 
and missing at Front Royal; and in Sheridan's campaign in the 
Shenandoah Valley in the autumn, was active at the Opequan, 
Fisher's hill and many other important battles. Altogether, the 
regiment took part in nearly 150 battles and skirmishes and was 
frequently praised by its commanding generals. After one of the 
brilliant charges of the regiment at Aldie, Gen. Kilpatrick took off 
his saber and presented it to the intrepid Col. Di Cesnola. In a 
third charge Di Cesnola's horse was shot from under him and he 
was captured. For gallantry displayed in the capture of the colors 
of the 3d Va., at Front Royal, Sergt. Harry J. Mandy and Pvt. 
Frank Leslie were awarded medals of honor by Congress. While 
in service the 4th lost 5 officers and 52 enlisted men killed in action 
and died of wounds; 3 officers and 54 men died of disease, accident 
and all other causes; a total loss by death of 8 officers and 106 men, 
14 of whom died in prison. The portion of the regiment still in 
service at the close of the war were mustered out as part of the 
9th cav., at Cloud's mills, Va., July 17, 1865. (See 9th N. Y. Cav.) 
Fifth Cavalry. — Cols., Othneil De Forest, John Hammond, Amos 
H. White; Lieut. -Cols., Robert Johnstone, John Hammond, Will- 
iam P. Bacon. Amos H. White, Theodore A. Boice; Majs., Philip 
G. Vaught, Washington Wheeler, John Hammond, Abram H. 



186 The Union Army 

Krom, Elmer J. Barker, James Davidson, William P. Pratt, Amos 
H. White, Theodore A. Boice, George H. Gardner, William P. Ba- 
con, James A. Penfield, Tiberly C. Abbott, Henry A. D. Merritt. 
Authority to recruit this regiment was received by Col. De For- 
est from the war department on July 26, 1861. The regiment, origi- 
nally known as the "Ira Harris cavalry," rendezvoused at Camp 
Scott, Staten island, where it was mustered into the U. S. service 
from Aug. 15 to Oct 31, 1861. The companies of which it was com- 
posed were principally recruited in the counties of New York, Kings, 
Allegany, Cattaraugus, Wyoming, Tioga, Essex and Greene. A 
part of Co. D came from Springfield, Mass., and part of Co. I 
from Princeton, Passaic and Plainfield, N. J. The original members 
were mustered out by detachments in 1864 and the regiment, com- 
posed of veterans and recruits, continued in service until July 19, 
1865, when it was mustered out and honorably discharged at Win- 
chester, Va. The regiment left the state, nearly 1,200 strong, Nov. 
18, 1861, and was stationed at Annapolis until the spring of 1862. 
That year it served in the 5th corps, Department of the Shenan- 
doah; in the 2nd corps. Army of Virginia; and in Stahel's division 
in the defenses of Washington. It started on its first campaign 
down the Shenandoah Valley in April, 1862, and at Front Royal, 
Strasburg and Middletown, sustained a loss of 75 killed, wounded 
and missing. As Gen. Banks fell back before Gen. Jackson, the 
regiment was cut off at Strasburg, but saved Banks' wagon train 
and Hampton's battery, and escorted them in safety by a circui- 
tous route through the mountains into Maryland. It lost 24 men 
at Barnett's ford, and 23 in an action near Orange Court House. 
In the latter engagement it distinguished itself by driving the 7th 
Va. cavalry and capturing 47 prisoners, incluring the commanding 
officer. Maj. Marshall. It took an active part in Gen. Pope's cam- 
paign, being selected as body-guard to that general. In 1863 the 
regiment served in the 3d brigade, 3d division, 22nd corps at Wash- 
ington; in the ist and 2nd brigades, 3d cavalry division. Army of 
the Potomac; and was repeatedly in action during the year, its 
heaviest losses being sustained at Little River turnpike, loss 42; 
at Hanover, Pa., loss 54; at Hagerstown, loss 91; at Brandy Sta- 
tion, loss 25; and in a second action there, loss 28; at Buckland 
mills, loss 22. It then served with the cavalry corps. Army of the 
Potomac, until Oct., 1864; in the Army of the Shenandoah until 
the opening of the final campaign in 1865; and in the Department 
of West Virginia from March. 1865. It participated in Kilpatrick's 
raid to Richmond in the spring of 1864, sustaining considerable 
loss, Maj. Merritt, being among the captured. It was heavily en- 
gaged at the battle of the Wilderness, where it opened the fight 
at Parker's store, and met with a loss of 63 killed, wounded and 
missing. Its losses at Spottsylvania Court House were 16; at 
North Anna 25; at Cold Harbor 43; in the raid to the South Side 
and Danville railroads in June 98; at Smithfield 19; and at the Ope- 
quan 17. The regiment returned home under command of Col. 
White, with only about 550 men out of a total enrollment of nearly 
2,500. It had participated in nearly 175 battles and skirmishes and 
established a well-earned reputation for gallantry and high sol- 
dierly conduct. Its total losses by death were 5 officers and 62 
men killed in action; 2 officers and 24 men died of wounds received 
in action; 4 officers and 222 men died of disease, accident and other 
causes; a total of 11 officers and 308 men, of whom 99 died in Con- 
federate prisons, a larger loss from this source than was sustained 



New York Regiments 187 

by any other cavalry regiment from the state. Medals of honor 
were conferred upon three of the regiment by the secretary of war 
for distinguished gallantry in action, viz.: Sergt. Thomas Burke, 
for capture of a battleflag at Hanover, Pa.; Sergt. David S. Sco- 
field, for the capture of a flag at Cedar creek, Va. ; and on Corp. 
John Walsh, for the capture of a flag at the same engagement. 

Sixth Cavalry. — Cols., Thomas C. Devin, Charles L. Fitzhugh; 
Lieut. -Cols., Duncan McVicar, William H. Crocker, William P. 
Hall, Harrison White; Majs., James P. Dailey, William H. Crocker, 
George M. Van Buren, John Carwardine, William E. Beardsley, 
Harrison White, George W. Goler, Floyd Clarkson, William P. 
Hall, George E. Farmer. This regiment was organized at New 
York city in the fall of 1861 as the 2nd Ira Harris Guard. The com- 
panies of which it was composed were recruited from the counties 
of New York, Dutchess, Columbia. Rensselaer, Washington, Jef- 
ferson, St. Lawrence, Allegany, Broome, Monroe and Steuben, 
and were mustered into the U. S. service from Sept. 12 to Dec. 19, 

1861, for three years. At the expiration of its term of service those 
entitled thereto were mustered out and the regiment, composed 
of veterans and recruits, remained in service. On June 17, 1865, 
commanded by Col. Fitzhugh, it was consolidated into eight com- 
panies, which with the 15th N. Y. cavalry, united to form the 2nd 
Provisional regiment, N. Y. cavalry, being designated Cos. A, B, 
C, D, E, I, L and M of the new organization. The regiment left 
the state on Dec. 23, 1861, commanded by Col. Devin, proceeding 
first to York, Pa., where it passed the winter in barracks, dis- 
mounted. In the spring of 1862 it was mounted and the 3d bat- 
talion, composed of Cos. D, K, F and H, took part in the Peninsular 
-campaign with the 2nd and 4th corps, rejoining the regiment in 
the summer of 1863. The ist and 2nd battalions were employed 
during 1862 in guard and scouting duty, attached first to Gen. 
Wadsworth's command, and afterward serving with the 9th corps, 
and Pleasonton's cavalry division, in the 2nd brigade. The regi- 
ment took an active part in the Maryland campaign, being the 
first regiment to enter Frederick City. It was active at South 
mountain and Antietam, the latter battle being opened by a squad- 
ron of the 6th. For a brilliant affair near Lovettsville, Va., in Oct., 

1862, it received the thanks of Gen. Burnside in a special order. 
In Feb., 1863, it was attached to the 2nd brigade, ist cavalry divi- 
sion, Army of the Potomac, a detachment serving with the 22nd 
corps in July and August, and in Oct., 1864, the regiment was or- 
dered to the Army of the Shenandoah. At Spottsylvania Court 
House, the day before the opening of the battle of Chancellors- 
ville, the regiment made a brilliant charge upon Fitz Hugh Lee's 
brigade, and sustained a loss of 51 in killed, wounded and missing, 
among the killed being its gallant commander, Lieut. -Col. Mc- 
Vicar. It was highly commended by Gen. Pleasonton, who said: 
"The heroism of the 6th N. Y. cavalry in cutting its way to our 
line through treble the force of the enemy's cavalry, created the 
greatest admiration." The reg'iment was active at Chancellors- 
ville, losing 21 killed, wounded and missing, and saw much hard 
^ghting from this time on. It took part in the Gettysburg cam- 
paign and in the subsequent operations in Virginia ending with the 
Mine Run campaign, though its losses were small for the amount 
of active duty performed, as Col. Devin knew how to take his 
men into action and also how to bring them out. Early in 1864, 
it shared in Kilpatrick's raid to Richmond; was active at the Wil- 



188 The Union Army 

derness; in Gen. Sheridan's raid to the James river; at Cold Har- 
bor; Sheridan's Trevilian raid, where its losses aggregated 63 in 
killed, wounded and missing; at Deep Bottom, Berryville, Cedar 
creek, the Opequan. Fisher's hill, the second Cedar creek, New- 
town, and numerous lesser engagements. In 1865, with the Army 
of the Potomac, it joined in the final campaign, being actively en- 
gaged at Dinwiddle Court House, Five Forks, the fall of Peters- 
burg, Deep creek, Amelia Court House, Sailor's creek and Appo- 
mattox. At Five Forks, where the 6th was among the first tO' 
enter the enemy's works, it was presented with a flag by Gen. 
Sheridan, emblazoned with the words "Five Forks." Both Cols. 
Devin and Fitzhugh were brevetted major-generals for gallant and 
meritorious conduct. The total loss of the 6th was 9 officers and 72- 
men, killed in action and died of wounds, 133 men died of disease^ 
accident and all other causes, of whom 36 died as prisoners. There 
were 24 officers and 186 men wounded, including the mortally 
wounded; 12 officers and 197 men were reported missing; aggre- 
gate of casualties, 472. Medals of honor for gallant conduct in 
the capture of the colors were awarded to Thomas Kelly, private; 
Patrick H. McEnroe, sergeant; George E. Meach, farrier, and 
Thomas M. Wells, chief bugler. The regiment participated in over 
150 battles and skirmishes and gained a splendid reputation for 
efficiency and discipline. 

Seventh Cavalry. — This regiment was organized at Troy, N. Y., 
in the fall of 1861, for three years. It was known as the "North- 
ern Black Horse Cavalry," and was designated by the state authori- 
ties as the 2nd cavalry, but by the war department as the 7th N. Y. 
volunteer cavalry and was so mustered out. Only eight companies 
were organized and these were mustered into the U. S. service for 
three years, Nov. 6-8. 1861, at Salem, Sandy creek, Troy and El- 
mira. The regiment left the state for Washington on Nov. 23, 
commanded by Col. Andrew J. Morrison, and served through the 
winter in the vicinity of Washington. It was never mounted and 
was mustered out and discharged the service March 31, 1862. It 
lost during service 7 enlisted men. who died of disease. (The ist 
regiment mounted rifles was frequently designated by the war de- 
partment as the 7th N. Y. cavalry, but will be found under its cor- 
rect designation.) 

Eighth Cavalry. — Cols., Samuel J. Crooks, Alfred Gibbs, Benja- 
min F. Davis, William L. Markell, William H. Benjamin, Edmund 
M. Pope; Lieut.-Cols., Charles R. Babbitt. William L. Markell, 
William H. Benjamin, Edmund M. Pope, James Bliss; Majs., Ed- 
mund M. Pope. William L. Markell, Caleb Moore, William Dow- 
ney. William H. Benjamin. James McNair. James Bliss, Harmon 
P. Burroughs, Albert L. Ford. Hartwell B. Compson. The 8th, 
known as the Rochester regiment, was recruited by Col. Crooks, 
and was organized in Rochester on Nov. 14. 1861. It is one of the 
famous three hundred fighting regiments enumerated by Col. Fox 
in his Regimental Losses in the Civil War. The members were 
principally recruited from the counties of Monroe, Ontario, Seneca, 
Wayne, Orleans, Niagara. Chenango and Oneida. Only ten com- 
panies were organized in 1861, and these were mustered into the 
U. S. service at Rochester, Nov. 23 and 28. 1861, for three years. 
The original Co. K was transferred to other organizations and a 
new Co. K was formed in 1862. as were the additional Cos., L and 
M, which were mustered into the U. S. service at Rochester from 
Sept. 29 to Oct. 14, for three years. The original members, who 



New York Regiments 189 

Tiad not reenlisted, were ordered to return to Rochester on Oct. 
29, 1864, and were there mustered out and discharged. The vet- 
erans and recruits were consolidated into a battalion of eight com- 
panies on Nov. I, 1864, and remained in service. Four new com- 
panies, I, K, L and M, formed of recruits mustered in for one and 
two years' service, in April, 1865, at the close of the war, increased 
the organization to the regimental standard once more. It was 
finally mustered out and honorably discharged on June 27, 1865, 
at Alexandria, Va., under command of Col. Pope. The regiment 
left the state, Nov. 29, 1861; was assigned to Banks' corps upon its 
arrival in Washington; served through the winter in the defenses 
of the capital; in 1862 it was in the Department of the Shenandoah; 
the Middle Department with the 8th corps; and from August to De- 
cember in the 5th brigade of Pleasonton's cavalry division. Army 
of the Potomac. In Dec, 1862, it was assigned to the ist brigade, 
same division; in Feb., 1863, to the ist brigade, ist division; in 
March, 1864, to the 2nd brigade, 3d division; joined the Army of 
the Shenandoah in Oct., 1864. and returned to the Army of the 
Potomac in March, 1865. The regiment first came under fire at 
Winchester in May, 1862, where five dismounted companies were 
engaged. It distinguished itself during the siege of Harper's Fer- 
ry in September by escaping through the besieging lines at night, 
capturing some of the enemy's trains while on the way. It fought 
under Pleasonton in the famous cavalry battle of Beverly ford in 
June, 1863, where it sustained the heaviest loss of any regiment in 
the field — 12 killed, 31 wounded and 7 missing. The gallant Col. 
Davis was here killed in a personal encounter. At Gettysburg it 
fought in Gamble's brigade, Buford's division, which opened that 
historic battle. Its casualties at Gettysburg amounted to 40 killed, 
wounded and missing. In the subsequent campaigns in Virginia 
it saw constant hard service, its list of casualties in Oct., 1863, 
amounting to 48 killed, wounded and missing. In Sheridan's raids 
and the Shenandoah campaign in 1864, it served in Wilson's divi- 
sion. It was with Wilson in the raid on the Weldon railroad in 
June, 1864, in which its losses were 117. of whom loi were reported 
missing. In the final Appomattox campaign it sustained a loss of 
31 in killed, wounded and missing, fighting under Gen. Custer. 
Altogether the 8th participated in over 130 battles and skirmishes 
and lost by death 13 officers and 92 men, killed in action and mor- 
tally wounded; 6 officers and 213 men died of disease, accident and 
other causes, a total of 19 officers and 305 men, of whom 3 officers 
and 70 men died in prison. Medals of honor were awarded for 
distinguished gallantry to Henry H. Bickford, corporal; Hartwell 
B. Compson, major; Charles A. Goheen, sergeant; William E. Hart, 
private; Daniel Kelly, sergeant; Andrew Kuder, 2nd lieutenant; 
John Miller, private; Robert Nevers, 2nd lieutenant; Mortimer A. 
Read, lieutenant; and Joseph E. Sova, saddler. 

Ninth Cavalry. — Cols., John Beardsley, William Sackett, George 
S. Nichols; Lieut. -Cols., William B. Hyde, William Sackett, George 
S. Nichols. Wilber G. Bentley, Timothy Hanley, Majs. William 
Sackett, William B. Martin, Wilber G. Bentley, Timothy Hanley, 
Henry W. Mason, Charles McL. Knox, James R. Dinnin, Joseph 
M. Kennedy. William B. Hyde, George S. Nichols, Emery A. An- 
derson. A. McQuinn Corrigan, Conway W. Ayres, Edward Schwartz. 
Col. Beardsley received authority from the state to recruit this regi- 
ment, which was organized at Albany to serve three years. The 
companies of which it was composed were recruited from the coun- 



190 The Union Army 

ties of Chautauqua, Cattaraugus, Wyoming, Rensselaer, Washing- 
ton, St. Lawrence and Clinton during the summer and fall of 1861, 
and were mustered into the U. S. service between Sept. 9 and Dec. 
13, 1861. Col. Beardsley was a graduate of West Point, who had 
seen service in Florida and Mexico, and the officers generally were 
well qualified for their positions. At the expiration of its term of 
service, the original members, except veterans, were mustered out 
and the regiment, composed of veterans and recruits, continued 
in the service. On March 29, 1865, it was consolidated into nine 
companies, the battalion of the 4th N. Y. cav., having been trans- 
ferred to this regiment as Cos. B, E and L. The regiment was 
finally mustered out and honorably discharged on July 17, 1865, at 
Cloud's mills, Va. The 9th left the state on Nov. 26, 1861, for 
Washington, where it served during the ensuing winter. In March, 
1862, four companies were detached for service with the reserve 
artillery, and the other eight companies did duty on the Peninsula 
as train-guard in the Army of the Potomac. Returning to Wash- 
ington, the regiment was mounted in June, 1862, and assigned to 
the cavalry brigade ist corps, Army of Virginia, with which it 
participated in Gen. Pope's campaign. It formed part of the cav- 
alry of the Army of the Potomac during the remainder of the year, 
being frequently in action, losing 26 at Thoroughfare gap in Octo- 
ber and 7 at Aldie in November. It served through the Chancel- 
lorsville campaign in the 1st brigade, ist cavalry division. Army of 
the Potomac, and through the Gettysburg compaign and the sub- 
sequent campaigns in Virginia, in the 2nd brigade, same division. 
It was repeatedly in action in 1863, sustaining its heaviest losses at 
Beverly ford, Brandy Station, and the operations in the vicinity of 
Culpeper, gaining a well earned reputation for gallantry and effi- 
ciency. On the opening of the campaign against Petersburg in 
1864, it was heavily engaged at the Wilderness and Spottsylvania 
and then took part in Sheridan's raid to the James river. Return- 
ing to the army it was active at Totopotomy and Cold Harbor and 
then shared in Sheridan's Trevilian raid, meeting with a loss of 50 
killed, wounded and missing at Trevilian Station, which was one 
of the severest losses in that action. The regiment was next en- 
gaged before Petersburg in June, and in July and August was ac- 
tive at Deep Bottom, Berryville, Newtown, Cedar creek, Cedar- 
ville. Summit Point, Kearneysville, Smithfield, and many minor 
skirmishes. In the fall, as part of the Army of the Shenandoah, 
it fought at the Opequan, Fisher's hill, Winchester, Cedar creek, 
Middletown, etc., sharing in all the brilliant campaign whereby 
Sheridan swept the valley clear of the enemy. It shared in the 
final Appomattox campaign, in which it met with an additional loss 
of 13 killed, wounded and missing. During its term of service the 
regiment lost 8 officers and 89 enlisted men killed and died of 
wounds; 4 officers and 135 enlisted men, missing; 304 officers and 
men wounded, including those fatally wounded; 5 officers and 122 
men died of accident, disease, in prison, etc., the deaths from all 
causes amounting to 224. Privates Jeremiah Park and George Rey- 
nolds were awarded medals of honor by the secretary of war. 

Tenth Cavalry, — Cols., John C. Lemmon, William Irvine, Math- 
ew H. Avery; Lieut. -Cols., William Irvine, M. H. Avery, Freder- 
ick L. Tremain, Benjamin F. Sceva; Majs., M. H. Avery, George 
W. Kennedy, James M. Reynolds, John H. Kemper, Theodore H. 
Weed, Martin H. Blynn, Alva D. Waters, William A. Snyder. This 
regiment, known also as the Porter Guard, is enumerated by Col. 



New York Regiments 191 

Fox as one of the three hundred fighting regiments of the war. It 
was organized at Elmira during the fall of 1861, from companies 
recruited in the counties of Chemung, Chenango, Cortland, Erie, 
Fulton, Onondaga and Steuben. Cos. A, B, C, D, E, F. G and H 
were mustered into the U. S. service from Sept. 27 to Dec. 28, 
1861, for three years; I, K and L were mustered in at Elmira on 
Oct. 29-30, 1862, and M in Nov. and Dec, 1862. Cos. I, K and L 
joined the regiment on Dec. 5, 1862, and M in Feb., 1863, complet- 
ing the regimental organization. At the expiration of their term 
of service in the fall of 1864, the original members of the first eight 
companies, except veterans and recruits, were mustered out, and 
the regiment was retained in service until July 10, 1865, when it 
was consolidated with the 24th N. Y. cavalry, the consolidated 
force being designated as the ist provisional regiment N. Y. cav- 
alry. The first eight companies left the state on Dec. 24, 1861, and 
were stationed at Gettysburg during the remainder of the winter. 
In the spring and summer of 1862, it did railroad guard duty and 
served in the defenses of Washington, where it was mounted. It 
saw its first active service in the Manassas campaign of 1862, and 
was in Bayard's brigade at Fredericksburg. It participated in the 
Stoneman raid at the time of the Chancellorsville campaign, with 
the 1st brigade, 3d cavalry division. On June 14, 1863, it was as- 
signed to the 3d brigade, 2nd division (Gen. D. McM. Gregg's), 
in which it served until the close of the war. Gen. Crook command- 
ing the division in the final campaign of 1865. Its brigade com- 
manders were Gens. J. I. Gregg and H. E. Davies, Jr. The regi- 
ment encountered its hardest fighting at Brandy Station in June, 
1863, where it lost 6 killed, 18 wounded and 61 missing. At Middle- 
burg its loss was 30; at Sulphur Springs, Auburn, Bristoe and Cat- 
lett's station in October, 53; at Haw's shop and Hanoverton, 42; 
at Trevilian Station, 21; at St. Mary's Church, 22; and at Boydton 
road, 17. In the final Appomattox campaign its losses aggregated 
72 killed, wounded and missing. Lieut.-Col. Tremain, a brilliant 
young officer, died of wounds received at Hatcher's run. The fol- 
lowing extract from the muster-out rolls of the regiment shows 
the sort of stuff of which the regiment was made: "Lieut. William 
J. Rabb (Co. D); killed at Brandy Station, by a saber-thrust through 
the body while lying under his horse; he would not surrender." 
Corp. Andrew Bringle, Corp. James L. Cary, Capt. N. D. Preston, 
and Sergt. Llewellyn P. Norton, were awarded medals of honor 
for gallantry in action by the secretary of war. The regiment lost 
while in service 9 ofificers and 97 men killed or died of wounds; i 
officer and 151 men died of disease, accident, in prison, etc., a total 
of 258, out of an enrollment of 2,029 ofificers and men. Among its 
important engagements were Leesburg, Beverly ford, Middleburg, 
Gettysburg, Shepherdstown, Sulphur Springs, Auburn, Bristoe Sta- 
tion, Morrisville, Todd's tavern, near Richmond, Haw's shop, Tre- 
vilian Station, King and Queen Court House, St. Mary's Church, 
Deep Bottom, Lee's mill. Reams' station. Poplar Spring Church, 
Boydton road. Prince George Court House, Disputanta Station, 
Stony Creek Station, Hatcher's run, Dinwiddie Court House, Sail- 
or's creek and Farmville. 

Eleventh Cavalry. — Cols., James B. Swain, John P. Sherburne, 
Samuel H. Wilkeson; Lieut.-Cols., L. P. Di Cesnola, William W. 
Bennett, Samuel H. Wilkeson, Michael A. McCallum; Majs., Will- 
iam W. Bennett, Seth P. Remington, Horace D. Ellsworth, George 
W. Richardson, Wilbur F. Raymond, Joseph C. Kenyon, Thomas 



192 The Union Army 

F. Gamble, George W. Smith, Augustus Pruyn. The nth cavalry, 
■"Scott's 900," recruited from the state at large, was organized at 
New York city, where the first ten companies were mustered into 
the U. S. service between Dec, 1861, and May, 1862, for three years. 
Cos. L and M were mustered in Aug. and Sept., 1862, and joined 
the regiment in October. On the expiration of their term of serv- 
ice the original members, except veterans, were mustered out and 
the veterans and recruits were consolidated on July 21, 1865, into a 
battalion of four companies, which remained in service until Sept. 
30, 1865. when it was mustered out at Memphis, Tenn. The regi- 
ment left the state on Maj^ 5, 1862. and served in the Military dis- 
trict of Washington, 22nd corps, a part of it being detached for 
service in the 8th corps. Middle Department, until March, 1864, 
when it was transferred to the Department of the Gulf. During 
this period it was active in engagements at the Blue ridge, Va.; 
Poolesville, Md., where it lost 4 wounded and 16 missing, among 
the latter being Lieut. William Smith; Fairfax Court House, Va., 
where a large part of a squadron under Maj. Remington was over- 
come by superior numbers and captured after a heroic resistance, 
the losses being 3 killed, 15 wounded and 55 captured, though Maj. 
Remington succeeded in cutting his way out with 18 men. It was 
also engaged at Bolivar Heights, Harper's Ferry, Halltown, Ed- 
wards' ferry, Leesburg and Rockville, but with slight casualties. 
While in the Department of the Gulf it was engaged at New river, 
Manning's plantation, Doyal's plantation, where it sustained a loss 
of 2 wounded and 98 captured. Bayou Sara, Jackson and Clinton, 
La., and at Brookhaven, Liberty. Franklin and Ocean Springs, Miss. 
Early in 1865, it was transferred to the Department of the Cum- 
berland and was engaged near Memphis. Tenn., in March, with a 
loss of 32 wounded, and at Germantown, Miss., in April, with a loss 
of 42 killed, wounded and missing. The regiment lost altogether 
I officer and 22 men killed in action and died of wounds; 2 officers 
and 319 enlisted men died of disease, accidents, in prison, etc.; total 
deaths, 344. It also lost a number of men by drowning, due to 
the foundering of the steamer North America off the coast of 
Florida on Dec. 22, 1864. 

Twelfth Cavalry. — Col.. James W. Savage; Lieut. -Col., Philip 

G. Vought; Majs., J. Ward Caspar, Rowland R. West, Floyd Clark- 
son, Rodney M. Taylor. The 12th cavalry, known as the 3d Ira 
Harris Guard, was organized at New York city to serve for three 
years. The companies of which it was composed were recruited 
in the counties of New York, Columbia, Albany, Rensselaer, Clin- 
ton, Franklin, Oswego, Onondaga and Erie, and were mustered into 
the U. S. service from Nov. 19 to 24, 1863. A howitzer section, 
manned by members of the regiment, was attached during the year 
1864. The regiment left the state by detachments from May to 
Dec, 1863, and proceeded to North Carolina, where it spent its 
entire term of service, forming part of the i8th corps under com- 
mand of Maj. -Gen. J. G. Foster. In the final campaign in 1865, 
it was assigned to the provisional corps, and from April, 1865, was 
with the 23d corps, commanded by Maj. -Gen. Schofield. In July, 

1863, it shared in Gen. Foster's raid to Tarboro, meeting with a 
loss of 4 killed, 14 wounded and 2S missing. It also sustained some 
losses in the engagements near Washington, N. C, in August. It 
assisted in repelling the enemy's attack on New Berne in Feb., 

1864, and participated in the defense of Plymouth in April, where 
it sustained its heaviest loss, 8 killed and mortally wounded, 11 



New York Regiments 193 

wounded and 102 captured. Many of the men captured subsequent- 
ly perished in the prison pen at Andersonville. During the remain- 
der of the year 1864 the regiment took part in numerous raids 
throughout the state and was often in action, meeting with some 
loss. In March, 1865, the 12th led the advance of Schofield's col- 
umn, which was moving to join the forces of Gen. Sherman and 
fought gallantly in the three days' battle at Wise's Forks, where it 
lost 62 men killed, wounded and missing. It skirmished almost 
continuously from Kinston to Goldsboro, its total losses in the 
campaign of the Carolinas being 134 killed, wounded and missing. 
After Johnston's surrender the regiment was employed in guard 
duty in the region about the Tar river until July 19, 1865, when it 
was mustered out at Raleigh, N. C. It lost while in service 3 offi- 
cers and 36 men killed and mortally wounded; 5 officers and 178 
men died of disease, accidents, in prison, etc., a total of 222. It 
sustained unusually heavy losses by death in Confederate pris- 
ons, I officer and 84 enlisted men dying in the hands of the enemy. 

Thirteenth Cavalry, — Cols., Henry E. Davies. Henry S. Ganse- 
voort; Lieut.-Cols., Henry S. Gansevoort, Nathaniel Coles; Majs., 
Nathaniel Coles, John Birdsall, Douglass Frazer, Charles H. Hatch, 
Augustus P. Green. The 13th cavalry, known also as the Seymour 
Light Cavalry, was formed in June, 1863, by the consolidation of 
several incomplete organizations, viz.: the Davies light cavalry, the 
Horatio Seymour cavalry, the Tompkins cavalry, the New York 
brigade, and the Seymour light infantry. The various companies 
were chiefly recruited in the counties of New York, Albany, St. 
Lawrence, Franklin and Erie. Cos. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I 
were mustered into the U. S. service at Staten island from Feb. 25 
to Nov. 23, 1863, for three years; K and L at Riker's island and M 
at Hart's island, in March, 1864. The first six companies left the 
state on June 23, 1863; G and H on Aug. 14, and the others during 
the following winter. The regiment (six companies) saw its first 
service during the Pennsylvania campaign in June and July, 1863, 
and first distinguished itself by the destruction of the enemy's pon- 
toon bridges and train at Falling Waters. It was then assigned 
to the 22nd corps, and served for the remainder of its term in the 
defenses of Washington. Its hardest fighting occurred at Aldie, 
Va., where it lost 24 killed, wounded and missing; at Piedmont, 
losing 42 killed, wounded and missing; and at Lewinsville, where the 
loss was 20 killed, wounded and missing. It was consolidated with 
the i6th N. Y. cavalry at Washington on Aug. 17, 1865, and the 
consolidated force was designated the 3d provisional regiment, N. Y. 
volunteer cavalry (q. v.). The regiment took part in more than 30 
engagements and skirmishes and sustained losses as follows: killed 
and died of wounds, 31 men; died of disease, accidents, in prison, 
etc., I officer and 98 men, a total of 130. Col. Gansevoort was bre- 
vetted major-general for gallant and meritorious service. 

Fourteenth Cavalry.— Cols., Thaddeus P. Mott, Abraham Bass- 
ford; Lieut.-Cols., John W. Cropsey, John Ennis; Majs., William 
D. Morton, John Ennis, Abraham Bassford, Collins Chesebrough, 
James A. Duffy. The 14th, known as the Metropolitan cavalry, was 
organized in New York city as part of the Metropolitan brigade. 
It was chiefly recruited in the counties of New York, Erie and 
Queens. The companies rendezvoused at Riker's island and were 
there mustered into the U. S. service from Nov. 24, 1862, to July 
18, 1863, for three years. On Aug. i, 1863, Cos. A to I were con- 
solidated into three companies — A, B and C — making the organ- 

Vol. 11—13 



194 The Union Army 

ization a battalion of six companies, which on June 12, 1865, com- 
manded by Col. Bassford, was transferred to the i8th N. Y. cav- 
alry. The regiment went out under command of Col. Mott, who 
had distinguished himself as captain of the 3d independent battery. 
Five companies left the state on Feb. 8, 1863, four more in April, 
and the remainder in October. A part of the regiment shared 
in the siege of Port Hudson, La., and a part was active during the 
draft riot in New York city. Most of the term of service was spent 
in the Department of the Gulf, as part of Arnold's division, 19th corps. 
In the Red River campaign it served part of the time with the i6th 
corps. Co. M was on detached service at Fort Barrancas, and District 
of Florida, from Sept., 1863, to March, 1865. The heaviest losses of 
the regiment were sustained during the Red River campaign — 62 
killed, wounded and missing. On its return from that expedition 
it was stationed at Baton Rouge, La., for several months and after 
Jan., 1865, formed part of the forces defending New Orleans, shar- 
ing during this period in a number of raids and scouting expedi- 
tions. In the engagement at Davis creek, near Mobile, Ala., in 
Dec, 1864, it met with a loss of 10 men, and at McCullom's point, 
La., in March, 1865, it lost 15. Altogether the 14th lost 2 officers 
and 18 men killed or mortally wounded; 3 officers and 140 men died 
of disease, accidents in prison, etc., a total of 163. It took part in 
about 50 battles and skirmishes, and lost a number of men drowned 
by the foundering of the steamer North America. Dec. 22, 1864. 
The portion of the regiment transferred to the i8th cavalry was 
mustered out on May 31, 1866, at Victoria, Tex. 

Fifteenth Cavalry. — Cols., Robert M. Richardson, John P. Cop- 
pinger; Lieut. -Cols., Augustus J. Root, Henry Roessle; Majs., Jo- 
seph H. Wood, Henry Roessle, Jeflferson C. Bigelow, Robert H. S. 
Hyde, Michael Auer, George M. Elicot. In the spring of 1863 
Col. Richardson was authorized to reorganize the 12th N. Y. infan- 
try, discharged on account of the expiration of its term of service, 
as a regiment of cavalry. The regiment was organized at Syra- 
cuse, for three years' service, and was there mustered in between 
Aug. 8, 1863, and Jan. 24, 1864, Cos. L and M being mustered in at 
Elmira, and Co. I at the cavalry depot, D. C. A large proportion of 
the men were from Syracuse, and the others were recruited in 
Onondaga, Ontario, Oneida, Chautauqua, Cattaraugus, Genesee, 
Tompkins and Erie counties. The regiment was consolidated with 
the 6th N. Y. cavalry on June 17, 1865, the new organization being 
designated the 2nd provisional regiment, N. Y. volunteer cavalry. 
The regiment left the state by detachments from Sept. 2, 1863, to 
Jan., 1864, and was assigned to the 22nd corps. Department of 
Washington, until Jan.. 1864, when it was assigned to the 2nd bri- 
gade, 1st division, cavalry of West Virginia, with which it was en- 
gaged at Hillsboro, Strasburg, Upperville, Franklin, Romney, 
Moorefield, Luraj-^ gap, Mt. Jackson, New Market, Front Royal, 
Newtown, Woodstock, Piedmont, Staunton, Waynesboro, Lexing- 
ton, New London, Diamond hill, Lynchburg (where its losses ag- 
gregated 32 men), Salem, Bunker Hill, Bolivar heights, Leetown, 
Martinsburg, Snicker's gap, Ashby's gap, Kernstown, Winchester 
and Charlestown. It was then ordered to the remount camp, 
Cumberland, Md., remaining there from Aug. 25 to Oct., 1864. 
While there it was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 3d cavalry division. 
Army of the Potomac, but soon after joined the Army of the Shen- 
andoah and was engaged at Green Springs, Va., with a loss of 46 
killed, wounded and missing; at Lacy Springs, with a loss of 29; 



New York Regiments 195 

and near Harrisonburg on the same day, without loss. As a part 
of the Army of the Potomac it took part in the Appomattox cam- 
paign, being engaged at Dinwiddie Court House, Five Forks, Pe- 
tersburg, Deep creek, Jetersville, Sailor's creek and Appomattox 
Station. In this closing campaign its losses aggregated 51 killed, 
wounded and missing. The brave Lieut. -Col. Root was among the 
killed, losing his life at Appomattox Court House, April 8, 1865, 
just as the final scenes of the war were being enacted. The only 
other officers lost in action by the regiment were ist Lieut. Will- 
iam P. Shearer, killed in a skirmish with guerrillas; and 2nd Lieut. 
Lorenzo W. Hatch, killed at Green Springs. The regiment lost 
during service 3 officers and 2)7 "len killed or mortally wounded; 4 
officers and 126 men died of disease, accidents, in prison, etc., a 
total of 7 officers and 163 enlisted men, of whom 44 died as pris- 
oners. 

Sixteenth Cavalry. — Cols., Henry M. Lazelle, Nelson B. Sweit- 
zer; Lieut. -Cols., Spencer H. Olmstead, George S. HoUister, John 
Nicholson; Majs., Morris Hazzard, George B. Bosworth, Giles G. 
Horton, John Nicholson. Lawrence Leahy. The i6th, known as 
the Sprague Light Cavalry, was organized at Plattsburg, the com- 
panies of which it was composed being recruited in the counties of 
Clinton, Erie, New York, Westchester, Monroe, Oswego, Rensse- 
laer and St. Lawrence. The first eight companies were mustered 
into the U. S. service at Plattsburg from June 19 to Aug. i, 1863, 
for three years; I, K, L and M were mustered in at Staten island 
from Sept. 2 to Oct. 18, 1863. On Aug. 17, 1865, the regiment com- 
manded by Col. Sweitzer, was consolidated with the 13th N. Y. 
cavalry, and the new organization was designated the 3d provisional 
regiment, N. Y. volunteer cavalry. Cos. A, B, C and D left the 
state on June 19, 1863, and took part in the Gettysburg campaign; 
E, F, G and H, under Lieut. -Col. Olmstead left on Aug. 19, 1863; 
I, K and L left in September, and M on Oct. 23. The regiment 
was assigned to the cavalry brigade, 22nd corps, defenses of Wash- 
ington, until the period of its consolidation with the 13th. In 1863 
it engaged with loss at Lewinsville; was active at Bristoe Station 
and near the Blue ridge. In 1864 it was repeatedly in action, its 
principal engagements and casualties being as follows: Center- 
ville, loss 39; Falls Church, 23; Rapidan Station, 13; Lewinsville, 
16. It saw its last fighting in March, 1865, at Warrenton, Fairfax 
Court House and Vienna. The regiment lost during service i offi- 
cer and 20 men killed and mortally wounded; 119 men died of dis- 
ease, accidents, in prison, etc. — total deaths 140. Capt. James H. 
Fleming was killed at Fairfax Station and was the only commis- 
sioned officer lost by the regiment. 

Seventeenth Cavalry. — This regiment was never fully organized. 
Col. Henry D. Townsend was authorized on June 30, 1863, to re- 
cruit it, but the authority was revoked on Sept. 17, and the two 
companies enlisted were transferred to the ist veteran cavalry, 
then being organized. 

Eighteenth Cavalry. — Col., James J. Byrne; Lieut. -Cols., Ste- 
phen W. Stryker, John Tracy, Jr., Edward Byrne; Majs., Gaza 
Haraszthy, Edward Byrne, John Tracy. Jr., William H. Davis, 
Brockholst L. Power, Albert A. Pitcher, John F. Porter, Jr., John 
Ennis. The i8th, known as the Corning Light Cavalry, was or- 
ganized in the summer of 1863 at New York city for three years' 
service. The companies of which it was composed were largely 
recruited in New York city, though the counties of Albany, Jeffer- 



196 The Union Army 

son, Lewis, Franklin, Herkimer and Erie also contributed men. 
The various companies were mustered into the U. S. service at 
Staten island, Fort Columbus in N. Y. harbor, and Elmira, between 
July i8, 1863, and Feb. 3, 1864. The regiment left the state by detach- 
ments from Sept., 1863, to Jan., 1864. It was stationed in the defenses 
of Washington until Feb., 1864, when it was ordered to the Department 
of the Gulf and was there assigned to the 5th cavalry brigade, Ar- 
nold's division, 19th corps. It took part in the Red River cam- 
paign, in which it was repeatedly in action, meeting with its se- 
verest losses at Sabine cross-roads and at Yellow bayou. At the 
battle of Sabine cross-roads a squadron under Capt. William Davis 
was warmly engaged, fighting bravely, and losing 12 in killed, 
wounded and missing, and at Yellow bayou the regiment sustained 
a loss of 40, of whom 33 were reported missing. On its return 
from this expedition the regiment was stationed at La Fourche, 
La., until the following spring. Cos. A and F were on detached 
duty in Texas part of the year 1864. The regiment was active dur- 
ing this period at Morganza, Centerville and Franklin, La.; Parish 
Vico, Pattersonville, Rancho San Pedro and Clarksville, Tex. It 
was dismounted in Jan., 1865, and in March was ordered to Bonnet 
Carre, La. After the close of hostilities the regiment was on duty 
in Mississippi and Texas until mustered out at Victoria, Tex., May 
31, 1866. Its losses during service were i officer and 14 men killed 
and died of wounds; 2 officers and 202 men died of disease, acci- 
dent, in prison, etc., the total number of deaths being 219. One 
officer and 23 men were drowned by the foundering of the steamer 
North America oflF the coast of Florida on Dec. 22, 1864. The only 
commissioned officer lost in action was ist Lieut. Alvaro Ham- 
mond, who was killed at the battle of Sabine cross-roads. 

Nineteenth Cavalry. — (See 130th Infantry and First Regiment of 
Dragoons.) 

Twentieth Cavalry. — Cols., Newton B. Lord, David M. Evans; 
Lieut.-Cols., David M. Evans, Jacob S. Gates; Majs., Charles F. 
Smith, John G. Cudworth, John Bower Preston, Hiram H. Car- 
penter, Jacob S. Gates, John O'Hara, Patrick Fitzpatrick. The 20th, 
called the McClellan cavalry, was organized in the summer of 
1863 at Sacket's Harbor, and was there mustered into the U. S. 
service during the month of September for three years. The com- 
panies of which it was composed were recruited in the counties of 
Jefferson, Lewis, St. Lawrence, Oswego, Onondaga and Albany. 
Col. Lord, who had been authorized on June 19, 1863, by Gov. Sey- 
mour to recruit this regiment, had previously commanded the 35th 
infantry throughout the bloody series of battles of 1862, and many 
of his men reenlisted in the 20th cavalry. The regiment left the 
state on Sept. 30, about 1,200 strong, and was stationed at Ports- 
mouth, Va., as part of the 22nd corps until Jan., 1864, when it was 
assigned to Heckman's division. i8th corps, remaining at Ports- 
mouth until April, when it was transferred to the District of East 
Virginia, Department of Virginia and North Carolina. In Dec, 
1864, it joined the ist brigade, Gen. Kautz's cavalry division. Army 
of the James, with which it remained until the close of the war. 
Part of this time, Co. D was on detached service at Fort Pocahon- 
tas; Co. F at Fort Powhatan; Co. G in the ist brigade, Macken- 
zie's division; and Co. I with the provisional and loth corps. The 
heaviest casualties sustained by the 20th were at Smithfield, Va., 
in Feb., 1864, when it lost 21 men captured. It was active at Suf- 
folk, Currituck, Chuckatuck, Wood's mills. South Quay, Winton, 



New York Regiments 197 

N. C, Guiam's ford, N. C., Jamestown island, Murfree's depot, 
siege of Petersburg, Darbytown road, campaign of the Carolinas, 
and in the Appomattox campaign. Its losses were not heavy, ow- 
ing to the fact that it was largely employed in garrison duty and 
siege operations. It was mustered out on July 31, 1865, Cos. E 
and H at Fortress Monroe, and the other companies at Manchester, 
Va. The regiment lost while in service 7 enlisted men killed and 
died of wounds; 2 ofificers and 121 men died of disease, accidents, 
in prison, etc., a total of 130. 

Twenty-first Cavalry. — Cols., William B. Tibbits, Charles Fitz 
Simmons; Lieut. -Col., Charles Fitz Simmons; Majs., Charles G. 
Otis, George V. Boutelle, John S. Jennings. The 21st, known as 
the Griswold Light Cavalry, was recruited in the summer of 1863, 
in the counties of Rensselaer, Albany, Tioga and Monroe. The 
companies rendezvoused at Troy, where they were mustered into 
the U. S. service from Aug. 28, 1863, to Jan., 1864. A large portion 
of this regiment was mustered out by detachments and the re- 
mainder was consolidated on Sept. 9, 1865, into a battalion of seven 
companies, which was mustered out by detachments at Denver, 
Col., and Fort Leavenworth, Kan., from June 23 to Aug. 31. 1866. 
Five companies left the state on Sept. 4, 1863; one on Sept. 19; 
three on Oct. 19; one in November, and the others in Feb., 1864. 
The advance of the regiment served in the Department of Wash- 
ington until Jan., 1864, when it was assigned to the ist brigade, ist 
cavalry division. Army of West Virginia. It was at Remount 
camp, Md., from Aug. to the close of Oct., 1864, then joined the 
Army of the Shenandoah and was assigned to the ist brigade, 2nd 
cavalry division. Its last active service was in the Department of 
West Virginia, from March, 1865. Throughout the year 1864, it 
was constantly employed in the arduous duties devolving on the 
cavalry arm of the service. Its greatest casualties were sustained 
at Lynchburg, loss 13; Buckton, loss 18; Purcellville, loss 21; Snick- 
er's gap, loss 'iT, Ashby's gap, loss 28; Winchester, loss 21; Cedar- 
ville, loss 10; White Post, Va., loss 25. In 1865 it took part in en- 
gagements near Paris, Loudoun county, Va., White Post and near 
Berryville, where it was in action for the last time. Altogether it 
lost 3 officers and 63 men killed and died of wounds; i officer and 
78 men died of disease, accidents, in prison, etc.; total deaths, 145. 
Capt. William H. Mitchell was killed in action at New Market, Va.; 
1st Lieut. Nelson B. Holcomb died of wounds received in action at 
White Post, and 2nd Lieut. Charles H. Cone was killed in action 
at Ashby's gap. 

Twenty-second Cavalry. — Cols., Samuel J. Crooks, George C. 
Cram, Horatio B. Reed; Lieut.-Cols., Johnson B. Brown, Horatio 
B. Reed, Peter McLennan; Majs., Peter McLennan, Benjamin Ben- 
nett, Charles C. Brown. Theodore Schlick, George R. French. The 
22nd, known as the Rochester Cavalry, was organized at Rochester 
and there mustered into the U. S. service between Dec. 20, 1863, and 
Feb. 23, 1864, for three years. The companies of which it was com- 
posed were recruited in the counties of Monroe, Erie, Chautau- 
qua, Livingston, Steuben, Onondaga, Orleans, Wayne, Chenango, 
Delaware and Otsego. Under command of Col. Reed it was hon- 
orably discharged and mustered out at Winchester, Va., Aug. i, 
1865. The regiment left the state in March, 1864, and, considering 
the short time in the field, saw much hard fighting and sustained 
heavy losses. Its first service was with the 9th corps, after which it 
joined the 2nd brigade, 3d cavalry division. Army of the Potomac, 



198 The Union Army 

for the Wilderness campaign. After Oct., 1864, it served with the 
Army of the Shenandoah in the campaigns in that valley, and from 
Feb., 1865, with the cavalry division. Army of West Virginia. It 
lost heavily at Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, on Wilson's raid to the 
South Side and Danville railroads, and at the battle of Nineveh. 
It fought its final engagements at Fort Holly, New Market and 
Rude's hill, Va. Its casualties included 3 officers and 22 men killed, 
or died of wounds; i officer and 178 men died of disease, accidents 
and all other causes; total, 204. Of this number, 87 men died in 
prison. The regiment especially distinguished itself at Kearneys- 
ville, Dinwiddle Court House and White Oak swamp. Capt. Chris- 
topher Bruton, Corp. Henry Harvey and Pvt. George Ladd, who 
captured battleflags at Waynesboro, were awarded medals of honor by 
the secretary of war for distinguished gallantry on the field. 

Twenty-third Cavalry. — This organization was never completed. 
Two companies were recruited from New York city, Lancaster, 
Tonawanda, Aurora, Leroy, Colden, Pavilion, Bethany, Newstead, 
and Chicktawauga. Under command of Capts. Emory Cummings 
and Alfred Spann respectively, they were mustered into the U. S. 
service between January and May, 1863. for three years, and left 
for the Department of North Carolina, 22nd corps, where they were 
attached to the 12th N. Y. cavalry, and were mustered out at Ral- 
eigh, N. C, July 22, 1865. They lost 14 enlisted by disease, acci- 
dent and other causes. The organization was known as the "Mix 
Cavalry." 

Twenty-fourth Cavalry. — Cols., William C. Raulston, Walter C. 
Newberry; Lieut. -Cols., Walter C. Newberry, Melzer Richards, 
Charles B. Coventry; Majs., Walter C. Newberry, George G. Wan- 
zer, Mark L. Scoville, Melzer Richards, Albert Taylor, Charles E. 
Martin. In the fall of 1863, Col. Raulston, formerly lieutenant- 
colonel of the 8ist N. Y. infantry, was authorized to reorganize the 
24th N. Y. infantry, which had been discharged by reason of the 
expiration of its term, as the 24th cavalry. It was accordingly or- 
ganized at Auburn and was mustered into the U. S. service between 
Dec. 28, 1863, and Jan. 26, 1864, for three years. The companies of 
which it was composed were raised in the counties of Oswego, 
Erie, Monroe, Chemung, Oneida, Otsego, Ontario, Onondaga, Liv- 
ingston and Albany. The regiment left the state on Feb. 23, 1864, 
and after a few months at Washington, dismounted, moved on the 
Wilderness campaign, with Marshall's provisional brigade, 9th 
corps, and later as part of the 2nd brigade, 3d division, same corps. 
It fought at the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, the North Anna. Toto- 
potomy. Cold Harbor and Bethesda Church. Its losses at Cold 
Harbor aggregated 84 killed, wounded and missing. It arrived be- 
fore Petersburg on June 16, and in the assault of that day met with 
one of the severest losses sustained by any regiment engaged, hav- 
ing 38 killed, 156 wounded and 3 missing, a total of 197. At the 
mine explosion, it lost 9 killed and wounded and was again active 
at the Weldon railroad in August, losing 13. It suffered a loss of 
60 in the engagement at Poplar Spring Church, and was ac- 
tive at Peebles' farm in October. It was then mounted and assigned 
to the 1st brigade, 2nd cavalry division, Army of the Potomac, which 
under Gen. Crook, participated in the actions at Hatcher's run, 
Prince George Court House. Stony Creek Station, Three creeks, 
Halifax road, Lee's mill and the final Appomattox campaign in 
■which the regiment lost y2i killed, wounded and missing. Col. 
Raulston was captured by the enemy on Sept. 29, 1864, and in at- 



New York Regiments 199 

tempting to escape, was shot on Dec. lo, by one of the sentinels 
at Danville, dying from the effects on the 15th. Commanded by 
Col. Newberry, the regiment was consolidated with the loth N. Y. 
cavalry on July 10, 1865, the consolidated force being known as 
the "ist provisional regiment N. Y. volunteer cavalry." The regi- 
ment saw less than a year of active service, but endured much hard 
service and suffered severely. It lost 7 officers and 113 men killed 
and mortally wounded; i officer and 133 men died of disease, acci- 
dents, in prison, etc., a total of 254. Private George Schmal was 
awarded a medal of honor for the capture of a flag at Paine's cross- 
roads in April. 

Twenty-fifth Cavalry. — Cols., Henry F. Liebenau, Gurden Cha- 
pin; Lieut. -Col., Aaron Seeley; Majs., Samuel W. McPherson, 
Charles J. Seymour, Clinton G. Townsley, John F. L. Danesi, Charles 
F. Willard. The 25th, known as the Sickles Cavalry, was organized 
at Saratoga Springs and Hart's island, under Col. Liebenau and 
his successor. Col. Chapin. The companies of which it was com- 
posed were recruited in the counties of New York, Delaware, Sara- 
toga and Sullivan. Cos. A, B, C. D, E and F were mustered into 
the U. S. service at Saratoga from Feb. 20 to April 23, 1864, for 
three years; G, H, I, K, L and M, at Hart's island, from April 
20 to Oct. 20, 1864. Throughout most of its term of service the 
regiment was commanded by Lieut-Col. Seeley, who was a popu- 
lar officer and received an honorable wound at the battle of Wood- 
stock, Va. The regiment left the state by detachments, going first 
to Washington and in June, 1864, served in the provost guard of the 
Army of the Potomac, returning to Washington in July. During 
this period it was engaged at White House landing, Charles City 
Court House, and Fort Stevens. In Aug., 1864, it was assigned to 
Merritt's cavalry division, with which organization it participated 
in Sheridan's brilliant campaign in the Shenandoah Valley, engag- 
ing at Halltown, Duffield Station, Leetown, Bunker Hill, Berry- 
ville, the Opequan, Fisher's hill, Front Royal, Luray, Port Repub- 
lic, Woodstock, Conrad's ferry, Newtown (sustaining here its greatest 
loss, 22 killed, wounded and missing), White Plains, Upperville, 
Snicker's gap, Flint hill and Madison Court House. In Jan., 1865, 
it was in action at Columbia Furnace and saw its last fighting in 
March at Mt. Jackson, Harrisonburg, Rude's hill and Staunton. 
In April, 1865, it was assigned to the cavalry division, Army of 
West Virginia, and was finally mustered out and discharged at 
Hart's island, N. Y. harbor, on June 27, 1865. Its losses by death 
during service were i officer and 16 men killed and mortally wound- 
ed; 49 men died of disease, accidents, in prison, etc., a total of 66. 
The only commissioned officer killed in action was Lieut. Charles N. 
Howard, who fell at White House landing, June 21, 1864. 

Twenty-sixth Cavalry. — Cols., Burr Porter, Ferris Jacobs, Jr.; 
Lieut.-Cols., Ferris Jacobs, Jr., William E. Beardsley; Majs., Will- 
iam E. Beardsley, Charles E. Rice, Josiah Grout, Jr., Edward T. 
Bouve. This regiment, known as the Frontier cavalry, was or- 
ganized in the states of New York, Massachusetts and Vermont 
under special authority from the war department, to serve on the 
northern frontier for one year. The five companies, G, H, I, K 
and L, composing the N. Y. battalion, were recruited in the coun- 
ties of St. Lawrence, Jefferson, Lewis. Franklin, Clinton, Essex 
and Erie, and were mustered into the U. S. service from Feb. Ii 
to 24, 1865. Gov. Fenton appointed the field officers of the regi- 
ment, under a ruling of the war department. The above com- 



200 The Union Army 

panics were mustered out under Col. Jacobs from June 29 to July 7,. 
1865, having lost 3 men who died of disease. 

First Dragoons. — Cols., Alfred Gibbs, Thomas J. Thorp; Lieut.- 
Cols., Thomas J. Thorp, Rufus Scott; Majs., Rufus Scott, Jacob W. 
Knapp, Howard M. Smith. This regiment was organized in the 
summer of 1862 at Portage, as the 130th infantry and served as such 
at Sufifolk, Va., and in Keyes' corps on the Peninsula. The com- 
panies of which it was composed were recruited in the counties of 
Allegany, Livingston and Wyoming. It was mustered into the 
U. S. service at Portage, Sept. 2, 1862, for three years. On July 
28, 1863, it was transferred to the mounted service, and designated 
the 19th cavalry on Aug. 11, but this designation was changed on 
Sept. 10, to ist regiment of dragoons. The regiment — ten compa- 
nies — left the state on Sept. 6, 1862, and served as above noted. 
During its entire mounted service it was in the ist cavalry division,, 
Army of the Potomac. It was drilled in its new duties by Col. 
Gibbs, who belonged to the U. S. cavalry service, and as a regi- 
ment of dragoons made its first fight near Manassas Junction in 
Oct., 1863, sustaining a loss of 10 killed, wounded and missing. The 
regiment moved on Grant's campaign of 1864 with about 400 car- 
bines and fought desperately in the Wilderness (at Todd's tavern), 
dismounted, sustaining a loss of 20 killed, 36 wounded and 35 miss- 
ing, the heaviest loss of any cavalry regiment in any one action 
during the war. It took part with loss in Gen. Sheridan's raid to 
the James river in May; at Cold Harbor the tired troopers were 
aroused from their sleep on the ground and ordered into the 
breastworks, which they gallantly defended throughout the night, 
inspired by the music of their band. The losses at Cold Harbor 
aggregated 35 killed, wounded and missing. Sadly reduced in num- 
bers, the gallant dragoons moved with Sheridan on the raid to 
Trevilian Station, where they were warmly engaged, their casual- 
ties in that action amounting to 16 killed, 61 wounded, and 8 missing. 
The regiment fought with Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley and 
shared in the glories of the final Appomattox campaign. It gained 
a high reputation among brigade and division generals for disci- 
pline and efficiency. Under command of Col. Thorp, it was mus- 
tered out and discharged on June 30, 1865, at Cloud's mills, Va., 
having participated in about 65 battles and skirmishes. It lost 4 
officers and 127 men killed and mortally wounded; i officer and 142 
men by disease, accident, in prison, etc.; a total of 274. Its loss in 
killed and mortally wounded was exceeded by only five cavalry 
regiments in the service. Corp. Chester B. Bowen; Com.-Sergt. 
Andrew J. Lorish and Lieut. William M. Winegar were awarded 
medals of honor for gallantry in action. 

First Mounted Rifles. — Cols., Charles C. Dodge, Benjamin F. 
Onderdonk, Edwin V. Sumner; Lieut.-Cols., Benjamin F. Onder- 
donk, Alexander G. Patton, James N. Wheelan; Majs., William H. 
Schiefifelon, Henry Terwilhger, James N. Wheelan, Minott A. Pruyn, 
Charles C. Dodge, Alexander G. Patton, Edgar A. Hamilton. This 
regiment from the state at large was organized at New York city. 
The companies were mustered into the U. S. service for three years 
as follows: A and B at Fort Monroe, Va.. July 30, 1861 ; C and D 
at Newburg, Sept. 18 and Oct. 16, 1861; E, F. G and H at New 
York city, in June. July and Aug., 1862; and I, K, L and M in Aug 
and Sept., 1862. On July 17, 1864, it received by transfer 270 men 
of the i6th N. Y. artillery. The original members, except veterans, 
were mustered out at the expiration of their term of service and ia 



New York Regiments 301 

July, 1865, the regiment was consolidated into a battalion of seven 
companies, commanded by Col. Sumner; to complete the reorgan- 
ization of the regiment, it was consolidated with the 3d N. Y. cav- 
alry, which constituted companies B, F, H, I and L of the new or- 
ganization. The first two companies left the state in July, 1861; 
C and D in Dec, 1861; E, F, G and H in Aug., 1862; and I, K, L 
and M in Sept., 1862. It served until 1864 with the 7th and 4th 
corps, principally at Fortress Monroe, Norfolk, Suffolk, Portsmouth, 
Williamsburg and Yorktown, Va., taking part in over 50 battles 
and skirmishes, but sustaining no severe losses, its heaviest cas- 
ualties being at Scott's mills, Va., in May, 1863, when 28 were 
killed, wounded and missing. The regiment was ordered to join 
Wistar's division, i8th corps in Jan., 1864, with which it was engaged 
at New Kent Court House and Bottom's bridge. During the rest 
of its active service it was principally with the cavalry division of 
the Army of the James, one detachment acting as escort at head- 
quarters, and Cos. H and D with the loth corps from June to Aug., 
1864. In the operations against Petersburg and Richmond in May, 
1864, it sustained a loss of 13, and during the siege was often in ac- 
tion, but met with no large losses, its total casualties amounting to 
43 killed, wounded and missing. It was active at the final assault 
on Petersburg, April 2, and saw its last fighting at Murfree's depot, 
Somerton and Jackson, N. C. The final record of the regiment will 
be found under the head of the 4th provisional cavalry. The losses 
of the regiment during service were 2 officers and 30 men killed 
and mortally wounded; 3 officers and 125 men died of disease and 
other causes, a total of 165. (See 7th Cavalry.) 

Second Mounted Rifles. — Cols., John Fisk, Louis Siebert; Lieut.- 
Cols., Jasper N. Raymond, Joseph H. Wood; Majs., William H. 
Mapes, John D. Numan, Joseph M. Rushmore, John H. Fralick, 
Henry Runyan, Henry G. Stebbins, Nahum Ward Cady, James M. 
Watson, Henry F. Pierce. This regiment, known as the Governor's 
Guard, was organized at Lockport and Buffalo in the summer and early 
fall of 1862. Col. Fisk had been authorized to recruit a regiment of in- 
fantry, but this authority was modified a month later, making the or- 
ganization a regiment of mounted rifles. The companies of which it was 
composed were principally raised in the counties of Erie, Niagara, 
Wyoming, Orleans, Allegany and Wayne, and were mustered into the 
U. S. service from Oct., 1863, to Feb., 1864, for three years. The 
regiment left the state in March. 1864; served as infantry attached 
to the 22nd corps at and near Washington until May; then joined 
the Army of the Potomac, engaged in the Richmond campaign, 
where it was first assigned to the provisional brigade, ist division, 
and later to the ist brigade, 2nd division, 9th corps; saw its first 
fighting at Spottsylvania Court House; lost heavily at Cold Harbor, 
where its casualties amounted to 64 killed, wounded and missing; 
and in the assaults on the Petersburg works in June it again suf- 
fered severely, having 18 killed, 82 wounded and 2 missing. At 
the mine explosion it was again in action with Potter's division, 
and sustained a loss of 48 killed, wounded and missing. In the ac- 
tion at Poplar Spring Church its casualties were 76. The regiment 
was now mounted and served with the 3d brigade, 2nd cavalry divi- 
sion (Crook's), Army of the Potomac, losing 33 killed, wounded and 
missing at Hatcher's run and Nottoway Station. It performed its 
full share during the campaign leading up to Lee's surrender at 
Appomattox, its casualties from March 28 to April 9, 1865, amount- 
ing to 62 killed, wounded and missing. After the close of the war 



202 The Union Army 

it served in the Department of Virginia until mustered out under 
the command of Lieut. -Col. Joseph H. Wood, at Petersburg on 
Aug. 10, 1865. Its losses by death during service were 8 officers 
and 97 men, killed and mortally wounded; i officer and 112 men died of 
disease, accidents, in prison, etc.; a total of 218. 

First Veteran Cavalry. — Cols., Robert F. Taylor, John S. Plat- 
ner; Lieut. -Cols., John S. Platner, Charles A. Wells; Majs., Charles A. 
Wells, Charles W. Ringer, James E. Williams, J. M. Guion, Jerry 
A. Sullivan, E. D. Comstock. This regiment was organized at Gene- 
va and was originally intended to become the 17th cavalry, but the des- 
ignation was changed before the organization had commenced. On 
Sept. 17, 1863, the men enlisted for Cos. A and B, 17th cavalry, were 
transferred to it. The various companies were principally recruited 
in the counties of Ontario, Seneca, Wayne, Monroe, Erie and Che- 
mung. A and B were mustered into the U. S. service at Elmira, 
July 31 and Sept. 8, respectively, for three years, and the others at 
Geneva from Oct. 10 to Nov. 19. In Oct., 1864, Co. M was consol- 
idated with Co. A, and a new Co. M was mustered in at Elmira 
for a service of one year. The regiment left the state by detach- 
ments from July to Nov., 1863, and served in the Department of 
Washington until Feb., 1864. It was composed of excellent mate- 
rial, chiefly veterans of the 27th and 33d infantry. Attached to the 
1st brigade, ist division, cavalry of West Virginia, its first battle oc- 
curred at Upperville, in Feb., 1864. It lost 35 men at Snickersville on 
March 6. and 38 on the loth at Kabletown, Maj. Sullivan being among 
the killed. It suffered severely at New Market in May, where it lost 
65 killed, wounded and missing. Continuous hard service followed, 
the regiment being actively engaged at Woodstock, Newtown, New 
Market, Harrisonburg, Piedmont, Waynesboro, Cheat mountain, 
Diamond hill, Lynchburg, White Sulphur Springs, Bunker Hill, 
and near Martinsburg, Leetown, Sharpsburg, Sandy Hook, Charles- 
town and Winchester. In Aug., 1864, attached to the 2nd cavalry 
division. Army of West Virginia, it fought at Duffield Station, Ce- 
dar creek, Berryville, Charlestown and Falling Waters, and was 
then ordered to remount camp, Md., where it remained until the 
end of Oct., 1864. In November it was engaged at Nineveh and 
Rude's hill without loss, as part of the Army of the Shenandoah. 
It participated in no more pitched battles. Under command of 
Col. Platner it was mustered out at Camp Piatt, W. Va., July 20, 
1865, having lost while in service 4 officers and 47 men killed and 
mortally wounded; 87 men who died of disease, accidents, in pris- 
on, etc., a total of 138. 

Second Veteran Cavalry. — Col.. Morgan H. Chrysler; Lieut. -Cols., 
Morgan H. Chrysler, Asa L. Gurney; Majs., Duncan Cameron, Ed- 
ward Van Voast, John S. Fassett. This regiment, known as the 
Empire Light Cavalry, was largely composed of veterans of the 
30th N. Y. infantry. Col. Chrysler having been authorized on June 
23, 1863, to reorganize the 30th, which had been discharged by rea- 
son of the expiration of its term of service, as a cavalry regiment. 
The veteran regiment was organized at Saratoga Springs, its com- 
panies being chiefly recruited in the counties of Saratoga, Schenec- 
tady, Montgomery, Clinton, Essex, Warren, Albany. Rensselaer 
and Columbia. It was mustered into the U. S. service at Saratoga 
from Aug. 15 to Dec. 30, 1863, for three years, and left the state by 
detachments from August to December. It was stationed at Wash- 
ington during the ensuing winter, whence it embarked for New Or- 
leans, and there joined the Department of the Gulf. Its entire term 



New York Regiments 203 

of service was spent in the South, where it formed part of Arnold's 
cavalry division, 19th corps. Assigned to the 5th cavalry brigade, 
it took part in Banks' Red River campaign, in which it was 18 times 
in action and suffered a loss of TJ killed, wounded and missing. 
It was assigned to the 4th cavalry brigade on its return and through 
June, July and August was engaged in a number of raids and scout- 
ing expeditions, meeting with some losses. In the fall, attached to 
the 1st cavalry brigade, it was active at St. Francisville, Bayou Sara 
and Fausse river. La., and in November, attached to the separate 
brigade, cavalry reserve, it skirmished at Clinton, Liberty creek 
and Pascagoula, Miss., at state line, and at McLeod's mills. La., 
where it lost 11 killed and wounded. Its last active service was 
with the 1st brigade, cavalry division, in March and April, 1865, at 
College Hill, Pine Barren creek, Cotton creek and Bluff Springs, 
Fla.; Pollard, Fort Blakely, Mt. Pleasant and Whistler's station, 
Ala. Under command of Col. Chrysler, it was mustered out and dis- 
charged at Talladega, Ala., Nov. 8, 1865, having lost 5 officers and 
30 men killed and mortally wounded; 3 officers and 215 men died of 
disease and other causes, the heavy mortality from disease being 
due to the long service of the regiment in the South. It lost in 
addition a number of men by the foundering of the steamer North 
America off the coast of Florida in Dec, 1864. 

Oneida Cavalry. — This independent company was raised and or- 
ganized at Oneida, Madison county, and was there mustered into 
the U. S. service for three years, Sept. 4, 1861, under the command 
of Capt. David P. Mann. It left the state the same month and served 
at the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac, performing escort 
and guard duty, furnishing couriers, etc. On the expiration of its 
term of service the original members, except veterans, were mus- 
tered out and the organization composed of veterans and recruits 
remained in service until June 13, 1865, when it was mustered out 
near Washington, under command of Capt. James E. Jenkins. Dur- 
ing its long period of service it was present at all the important 
battles fought by the Army of the Potomac, from the siege of York- 
town in 1862 to the surrender of Lee at Appomattox. Eleven en- 
listed men died of disease and other causes during its term of 
service. 

First Provisional Cavalry. — Col., Matthew H. Avery; Lieut.-Col., 
Benjamin F. Sceva; Majs., William A. Snyder, James M. Reynolds, 
Mark L. Scoville. This regiment was formed by the consolidation 
of the loth and 24th cavalry on June 17, 1865, company correspond- 
ing to company. It was mustered out of service July 19, 1865, at 
Cloud's mills, Va. 

Second Provisional Cavalry. — Col.. Charles L. Fitzhugh; Lieut.- 
Col., Harrison White; Majs., Robert H. S. Hyde, George W. Goler, 
George E. Farmer. This regiment was formed by the consolida- 
tion of the 6th and 15th regiments of cavalry on June 17, 1865. Un- 
der the command of Lieut.-Col. White, it was mustered out on Aug. 
9, 1865, at Louisville, Ky. Its loss from disease and other causes 
was 12 men. 

Third Provisional Cavalry. — Col., Nelson B. Sweitzer; Lieut.-Col., 
Nathaniel Coles; Majs., George B. Bosworth, John Birdsall, Charles 
H. Hatch. This regiment was formed by the consolidation of the 
13th and i6th regiments of cavalry on June 23, 1865. Col. Sweitzer 
was given the command of the new organization, which was mus- 
tered out of service on Sept. 21, 1865, at Camp Barry, near Wash- 
ington, D. C. Its loss from disease and other causes was 4 enlisted 
men. 



204 The Union Army 

Fourth Provisional Cavalry. — Col., Edwin V. Sumner; Lieut.-Col., 
James M. Wheelan; Majs., Henry Terwilliger, Edgar A. Hamilton^ 
Minott A. Pruyn. Under the orders of the war department of May 
8, 1865, this regiment was formed by the consolidation of the 3d 
cavalry and the ist mounted rifles, the consolidation taking place 
on July 21, 1865. Col. Sumner of the ist mounted rifles was given 
the command of the new organization, which was mustered out of 
service on Nov. 29, 1865, at City Point, Va. It lost 10 men by 
disease and other causes. 

First Artillery. — Cols., Guilford D. Bailey, Charles S. Wain- 
wright; Lieut. -Cols., Henry E. Turner, Charles S. Wainwright, Ed- 
ward R. Warner; Majs., Charles S. Wainwright, J. Watts De Pey- 
ster, Jr., Robert Fitzhugh, Luther Kieffer, John A. Reynolds, David 
H. Van Valkenburgh, Thomas W. Osborne. This regiment of light 
artillery was organized at Elmira in the fall of 1861 and was com- 
posed of companies recruited in the counties of Oswego, Oneida, 
Onondaga, Chemung, Steuben, Monroe, Wayne, Erie, Niagara, Jef- 
ferson, St. Lawrence, Lewis and Herkimer. It was mustered into 
the U. S. service from Aug. 30 to Nov. 20, 1861, for three years. 
Eight companies, under command of Col. Bailey, left the state on 
Oct. 31, and I, K, L and M on Nov. 21. Its service was by bat- 
teries in the Armies of the Potomac, Virginia, the Cumberland 
and Georgia. At the expiration of the term of service, the original 
members, except veterans, were mustered out and the organization 
composed of veterans and recruits remained in service. Both Col. 
Bailey and Maj. Van Valkenburgh were killed in action at Fair 
Oaks, Va., May 31, 1862. 

Battery A ("Empire Battery"), Capt. Thomas H. Bates, was 
mustered in at Utica, Sept. 12, 1861; served from Nov., 1861, to 
March, 1862, at and near Washington, for a portion of the time in 
the artillery reserve of the Army of the Potomac; was then as- 
signed to Casey's division, 4th corps, and moved on the Peninsular 
campaign; and took part in the siege of Yorktown, the battles of 
Williamsburg, Bottom's and Turkey Island bridges and Fair Oaks. 
On June 15, 1862, the enlisted men were transferred to Batteries 
D and H, ist artiller3% and the 7th and 8th independent batteries. 
Capt. Bates then returned to New York to reorganize a new bat- 
tery, which was recruited at Utica and served with the 22nd corps, 
at the artillery camp of instruction near Washington from Feb. i, 
1863, until June 4. It was then for a time in the Department of the 
Susquehanna, being stationed at Philadelphia, Harrisburg, Cham- 
bersburg. Allegheny City, Pa., etc. It was active at Chambers- 
burg at the time of the Confederate raid in July, and was mustered 
out under Capt. Bates, June 28, 1865, at Elmira. It lost during 
service 4 killed and 9 died of disease. 

Battery B, Capt. Rufus D. Pettit, was recruited at Elmira and 
Baldwinsville and was mustered into the U. S. service Aug. 30, 
1861. In November it received by transfer a number of men be- 
longing to Capt. Busteed's Chicago light battery (C) and in Sept., 1863, 
a number of men from the 14th N. Y. battery. Most of its service 
was with the 2nd corps, the reserve artillery and the artillery bri- 
gade, 5th corps. Army of the Potomac. It participated in the siege 
of Yorktown. the battles of Fair Oaks, Seven Days', Antietam, 
Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, the Mine Run cam- 
paign, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Totopotomy, Be- 
thesda Church, Petersburg, Weldon railroad, Poplar Grove Church, 
Hatcher's run, Hicksford raid, White Oak ridge, Five Forks, fall 



New York Regiments 205 

of Petersburg and Appomattox Court House. It was mustered out 
and discharged at Elmira, June i8, 1865, under Capt. Robert E. 
Rogers. It lost during service 16 killed and died of wounds; 10 
died of disease and other causes; total deaths, 26. It has the dis- 
tinction of ranking nth among all the light artillery batteries in 
the service, in point of loss in battle. Its loss at Gettysburg was 
particularly heavy, amounting to 10 killed, and 16 wounded. Capt. 
Hazard, commanding the artillery brigade, 2nd corps, speaking of 
the third day's fighting at Gettysburg, says in his report: "Battery 
B, 1st New York artillery, was entirely exhausted; its ammunition 
expended; its horses and men killed and disabled; its command- 
ing officer, Capt. J. M. Rorty, killed, and senior ist Lieut. A. S. 
Sheldon severely wounded. In the death of Capt. Rorty the bri- 
gade has lost a worthy officer, a gallant soldier, and an estimable 
man. He had enjoyed his new position but one day, having as- 
sumed command of Battery B, on July 2, as it was about to engage 
the enemy." 

Battery C, Capt. John W. Tamblin, recruited at Watertown, 
Leroy, Wilna, Philadelphia, Alexandria. Rutland and Champion, 
was mustered into the U. S. service at Elmira, Sept. 6, 1861. Capt. 
Almont Barnes succeeded to the command of the battery in Jan., 
1862, and David F. Ritchie in Sept., 1864. Most of the active serv- 
ice of the battery was with the 5th corps, in the engagements at 
Fredericksburg, Rappahannock Station, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, 
Williamsport, Md., Bristoe Station, Mine Run campaign. Wilder- 
ness, Spottsylvania, North Anna. Totopotomy, Cold Harbor, White 
Oak swamp, Petersburg assault in June, 1864, Weldon railroad. Fort 
Stedman and the fall of Petersburg. It was mustered out at Elmira, 
June 17, 1865, having lost 4 men killed, and 18 who died of disease and 
other causes. 

Battery D, Capt. Thomas W. Osborn, recruited at Watertown, 
Gouverneur, Russell, Antwerp, Cape Vincent, Diana, Stone Mills, 
Pitcairn, and Richville, was mustered into the U. S. service on 
Sept. 6, 1861, at Elmira. In June, 1862, it received by transfer some 
of the men of battery A. It was stationed at Washington through 
the winter and in the spring of 1862 moved on the Peninsular cam- 
paign, assigned to Hooker's division, 3d corps. It continued to 
serve with the 3d corps until 1864, after which it served with the 
artillery brigade, 5th corps. The battery took part in the engage- 
ments about Yorktown, Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Seven Days' bat- 
tles, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Wapping heights, 
Kelly's ford, Brandy Station, Mine Run campaign. Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania, North Anna, Totopotomy, Bethesda Church, White 
Oak swamp, first assaults on Petersburg, Weldon railroad, Poplar 
Grove Church, Hicksford raid, Hatcher's run. White Oak ridge, 
Five Forks, fall of Petersburg, and Appomattox Court House. The 
battery lost during service i officer and 12 men killed and died of 
wounds; 14 men died of disease and other causes. It was mustered 
out at Elmira. June 16, 1865, under command of Capt. James B. 
Hazelton. 

Battery E, Capt. John Stocum, recruited at Bath, Avon and 
Mitchellsville, was mustered in at Elmira, Sept. 13, 1861. Capt. 
Charles C. Wheeler succeeded to the command in Jan., 1862, and 
Capt. Angel Matthewson in May, 1864. It was stationed at Wash- 
ington during the winter of 1861-62, and served during the Penin- 
sular campaign with Smith's division, 4th corps, until May, and 
then in the 2nd division, 6th corps. In Aug., 1862, it was attached 



206 The Union Army 

to the 1st N. Y. battery; from June 20, 1863, to Battery L; in the 
Wilderness campaign it was attached to the artillery brigade, 5th 
corps; and then served as a mortar battery before Petersburg until 
1865, when it was in the artillery reserve, attached to the 9th 
corps until the end of the war. The battery took part in the en- 
gagements about Yorktown, at Lee's mill, Williamsburg, Mechan- 
icsville, Garnett's farm, White Oak Swamp, Glendale, Malvern hill, 
Centerville, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Robertson's tavern, Wil- 
derness, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Totopotomy, Bethesda Church, 
first assault on Petersburg, Fort Stedman and the fall of Peters- 
burg. It lost during service i officer and 4 men killed and mortally 
wounded; i officer and 12 men died of disease and other causes, a 
total of 18. It was mustered out of service, commanded by Capt. 
Matthewson, at Elmira, June 6, 1865. 

Battery F, Capt. W. R. Wilson, was recruited at Oswego, South- 
port and Elmira and there mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 
14, 1861. In Oct., 1863, some of its members were transferred ta 
the 2nd regiment of artillery. It was chiefly employed in garrison 
duty, being stationed at Washington during the winter of 1861-2, 
and the remainder of 1862 was with Franklin's division, ist corps, 
and the ist division, 6th corps. It was at the White House in June, 

1862, and at Yorktown, in the 4th corps, from July, 1862, to July, 

1863. The remainder of its term it was stationed in the Department 
of Washington with the 22nd corps. It was mustered out under 
Capt. Wilson, June 17, 1865, at Elmira. It had no casualties in ac- 
tion, but lost during service 14 men who died of disease and other 
causes. 

Battery G, Capt. John D. Frank, recruited at Mexico, was mus- 
tered into the U. S. service on Sept. 24, 1861, at Elmira. It re- 
ceived by transfer in Nov., 1861, some of Capt. Busteed's Chicago- 
light battery and in Sept., 1863, its ranks were filled by the trans- 
fer of part of the 14th N. Y. battery. It was stationed at Wash- 
ington with its regiment during the winter 1861-62, and its subse- 
quent service was chiefly with the 2nd corps. Army of the Poto- 
mac. In Jan., 1865, it was in the artillery reserve, attached to the 
9th corps. It took part in the following engagements: Warrenton 
Junction, siege of Yorktown, Lee's mill. Fair Oaks, Seven Days' 
Battles, Antietam, Leesburg, Charlestown, Fredericksburg, Chan- 
cellorsville, Gettysburg, Auburn, Bristoe Station, the Mine Run 
campaign, Morton's ford. Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna, 
Totopotomy, Cold Harbor, first assault on Petersburg, Weldon 
railroad, Deep Bottom, Strawberry Plains, Fort Stedman and the 
fall of Petersburg. Its loss during service was i officer and 11 
men killed and mortally wounded; 2 officers and 16 men died of 
disease and other causes. It was mustered out, under Capt. Sam- 
uel A. McClellan, June 19, 1865, at Elmira. 

Battery H, Capt. Joseph Spratt. recruited at Watertown and Low- 
ville, was mustered into the U. S. service on Oct. 10, 1861, at El- 
mira, and in June, 1862, received some of the members of battery 
A by transfer. It served at Washington with the regiment during 
the winter of 1861-62; in the Peninsular campaign with Casey's 
division, 4th corps; was stationed at Gloucester Point during Aug., 
1862; at Yorktown from Sept., 1862, to July, 1863; at Washington, 
in the 22nd corps, from July to Sept., 1863; during the remainder 
of 1863 it served with the artillery brigade, ist corps; and from 
March, 1864, with the artillery brigade. 5th corps. It took part in 
the siege of Yorktown and the battles of Williamsburg, Seven Pines, 



New York Regiments 207 

Seven Days' battles, Baltimore cross-roads, the Mine Run campaign. 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania, the North Anna, Totopotomy, Bethes- 
da Church, the assault on Petersburg in June, 1864, Weldon rail- 
road, Poplar Grove Church, Hatcher's run, Hicksford raid. Fort 
Stedman, White Oak ridge, Five Forks, the fall of Petersburg and 
Appomattox Court House. The battery had 7 men killed in action 
and lost 10 who died of disease and other causes, a total of 17. It 
was finally mustered out at Elmira, June 19, 1865, under Capt. 
Charles E. Mink. 

Battery I, Capt. Michael Wiedrich, recruited at Buffalo, Lan- 
caster, Amherst and Elmira, was mustered in at Buffalo, Oct. i, 
1861. The 65th militia contributed a number of its members, and 
on June 10, 1863, 40 men of the 2nd N. Y. battery were transferred 
to it. The battery first served in Blenker's division, Army of the 
Potomac, and in June, 1862, it was assigned to the ist corps. Army 
of Virginia, with which it was engaged at Strasburg, Union Church, 
Aldie, Cross Keys and Port Republic. In Gen. Pope's campaign 
in Virginia it served in the 3d division, nth corps, fighting at Free- 
man's ford, Rappahannock Station, Sulphur Springs, Waterloo 
bridge, Groveton and Bull Run. With the artillery brigade, nth 
corps, it fought at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, and continued 
to serve with that corps until the consolidation of the nth and 12th 
corps to form the 20th, when it formed part of the artillery brigade 
of the latter. Proceeding with its corps to Tennessee, it took part 
in the battles of Lookout valley and Wauhatchie; was active in 
the Chattanooga-Ringgold campaign, including the battle of Mis- 
sionary ridge, and in May, 1864, moved with Sherman on the At- 
lanta campaign, being engaged at Resaca, Dallas, Kennesaw moun- 
tain, Golgotha, Kolb's farm, Peachtree creek and the siege of At- 
lanta. On Nov. IS, 1864, it started on the march to the sea, fight- 
ing at Monteith swamp. Savannah, and opposite Argyle island, 
where it was engaged with Confederate gunboats. In Jan., 1865, 
it moved on the campaign of the Carolinas; was in action at Averas- 
boro, Bentonville and Raleigh; and saw its last fighting at Bennett's 
house in April. It was mustered out and discharged on June 23, 
1865, at Fort Porter, Buffalo, under command of Capt. Charles E. 
Winegar. It lost during service i officer and 12 men killed and 
died of wounds; i officer and 15 men died of disease, accidents, in 
prison, etc., a total of 29. 

Battery K ("Fort Plain Battery"), Capt. Lorenzo Crounze, re- 
cruited at Fort Plain, Stockbridge, Jasper, Elmira and Canandaigua, 
was mustered into the U. S. service on Nov. 20, and Dec. 15. 1861, 
its surplus men being transferred to the other batteries of the regi- 
ment. Capt. Crounse resigned on Sept. 9, 1862, and Capt. Robert 
H. Fitzhugh succeeded to the command. When the latter was 
promoted major, on Sept. 7, 1863, Capt. Solon W. Stocking assumed 
the command. It took part in Gen. Pope's Virginia campaign in the 
summer of 1862, being engaged at Rappahannock river, Beverly 
ford and the second Bull Run. Attached to the ist division, 12th corps 
it participated in the battle of Chancellorsville, and as part of the 
artillery reserve. Army of the Potomac, in the battle of Gettysburg 
and the Mine Run campaign. During the ist year of the war it 
was stationed in the defenses of Washington with the 22nd corps, 
and was mustered out at Elmira, June 20, 1865. Its losses were 2 
men killed and 15 who died of disease, etc. 

Battery L ("Rochester Union Greys"), Capt. John A. Reynolds, 
recruited at Rochester, Palmyra and Elmira, was mustered into the 



208 The Union Army 

U. S. service at Elmira, Nov. 17, 1861. The ist militia battalion of 
light artillery supplied many members of the battery. When Capt. 
John A. Reynolds was promoted major on May 9, 1863, Capt. Gil- 
bert H. Reynolds was given the command and on his resignation 
May 3, 1864, was succeeded by Lieut. George Breck. It was sta- 
tioned at Baltimore, Winchester and Harper's Ferry until the lat- 
ter part of May, 1862, and was engaged at Charlestown, W. Va., 
and Harper's Ferry. It fought with Pope at Cedar mountain and 
with the 1st division, 2nd corps, was engaged at Gainesville and the 
second Bull Run. It was then assigned to the ist division, ist corps, 
with which it took part in the battles of South mountain, Antietam, 
Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. As a part of the artillery 
brigade, ist corps, it did gallant service at Gettysburg, going into 
action under Capt. Gilbert Reynolds, who was severely wounded 
at the very beginning of the battle on the first day, when Lieut. 
Breck took command. Its loss in men was 2 killed and 16 wound- 
ed, and 22 horses were killed or disabled. In Nov., 1863, it partici- 
pated in the Mine Run campaign, and fought throughout Grant's 
campaign of 1864 in the artillery brigade of the 5th corps, at the 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania. the North Anna, Totopotomy, Bethesda 
Church, the assault on Petersburg in June, and the Weldon railroad. 
In the final campaign in 1865 it was in the artillery reserve, at- 
tached to the 9th corps, and was active at Hatcher's run. Fort Sted- 
man, and the final assault on Petersburg. It was mustered out on 
June 17, 1865, at Elmira, under Capt. Breck. It lost during service 
II men killed and mortally wounded; 12 men died of disease, acci- 
dents, in prison, etc., a total of 23. 

Battery M, Capt. George W. Cothran, recruited at Rochester, 
Albany and Lockport. was mustered into the U. S. service at Roch- 
ester Nov. 15, 1861. On the resignation of Capt. Cothran in April, 
1863, John D. Woodbury became captain, and on his resignation 
in the fall of 1864 Capt. Edward H. Underbill assumed command 
of the battery. It served with the regiment at Washington in the 
winter 1861-62; served until April, 1862, with Williams' division, 
5th corps; then in the Department of the Shenandoah until June 
26; in the ist division, 2nd corps. Army of Virginia, until Septem- 
ber; and in the ist division, I2th corps, until April, 1863, taking 
part in the engagements at Winchester, Edenburg, skirmish at 
McGaheysville, Middletown. Newtown, Falling Waters, Cedar moun- 
tain, Beverly ford. Sulphur Springs. Antietam and a skirmish near 
Ripon. Va. Commanded by Capt. Woodbury, and assigned to the 
artillery brigade, 12th corps, it performed gallant service at Chan- 
cellorsville, where it sustained one of the heaviest losses occur- 
ring in the light artillery in any one engagement — 5 killed, 13 
wounded and 4 missing. It fought gallantly and with severe loss 
at Gettysburg. In Maj-, 1864, attached to the ist division, 20th 
corps, it moved on Sherman's Atlanta campaign, being engaged 
at Resaca, Dallas, Kennesaw mountain. Golgotha, Nose's creek, 
Peachtree creek, and the siege of Atlanta. With the artillery bri- 
gade, same corps, it participated in the Savannah campaign and 
early in 1865 in the campaign of the Carolinas. In these move- 
ments it was engaged at Savannah, opposite Argyle island, Averas- 
boro, Bentonville, Raleigh and Bennett's house, where it had its 
last fight. It was mustered out under command of Capt. Under- 
bill, at Rochester, June 23, 1865. The battery suffered a loss during 
service of 13 men killed in action, and i officer and it men died of 
disease and other causes. 



New York Regiments 209 

The 1st artillery sustained a total loss of 6 officers and 95 en- 
listed men killed and died of wounds received in action. 

Second Artillery. — Cols., Jeremiah Palmer, Gustave Wagner, 
Milton Cogswell. Joseph N. G. Whistler; Lieut.-Cols., Oscar F. 
Hulser, Henry B. Burtnett, Henry P. Roche, Gustave Wagner, 
Jeremiah Palmer, George Hogg; Majs., Henry P. Roche, Albert 
Bronson, Thomas McGuire, George Hogg, Benjamin Van Raden, 
Alexander Doul, George S. Dawson. Edward A. Selkirk, Will- 
iam A. McKay, Pliny L. Joslyn, Thomas J. Clark, Oscar F. 
Hulser, Sullivan B. Lamoreaux, Francis R. Humphreys. This 
regiment was known as Gov. Morgan's 2nd regiment U. S. light 
artillery, or Palmer's artillery. Eight of its companies were re- 
cruited prior to Oct. 18, 1861, by Cols. John W. Latson and Jere- 
miah Palmer, and to these were added on Dec. 5, 1861, the Morgan 
and the Flushing artillery, completing the regimental organization. 
The companies were raised in the counties of New York, Oneida 
and Herkimer and the regiment was organized at Staten island, 
where it was mustered into the U. S. service by companies, between 
Aug. 22 and Dec. 12, 1861, for three years. Thirty-four Indians of 
the Oneida tribe, original members of Co. F, were discharged in 
June, 1862. Original Battery L, which had served detached as light 
artillery, became the 34th Battery (q. v.) in Nov., 1863, and was re- 
placed by a new battery in Jan., 1864. On the expiration of their 
term of service the original members were mustered out, and the 
regiment, composed of veterans and recruits, remained in service. 
On June 27, 1865, it was consolidated into eight companies, and 
four companies of the 9th N. Y. artillery were transferred to it as 
Cos. I, K, L and M. The first eight companies left the state on 
Nov. 7, 1861, and the remaining companies about a month later. 
Early in the war the regiment garrisoned Forts Ward, Worth and 
Blenker — the advanced line of Washington defenses on the Vir- 
ginia side of the Potomac. At the time of the enemy's raid upon 
Manassas in Aug., 1862, it did splendid service at Bull Run bridge 
and was the means of saving the remainder of Gen. Taylor's New 
Jersey brigade, holding the enemy in check while the New Jersey 
troops and the 12th Pa. cavalry made good their retreat. Its loss 
in this action was i killed, 6 wounded and 53 missing. The regi- 
ment fought bravely during Grant's campaign of 1864 and during 
the final Appomattox campaign. It was assigned to Tyler's artil- 
lery division, 2nd corps, on May 18, 1864, and afterwards served in 
Barlow's division of the same corps. It took part in the engage- 
ments at Spottsylvania, the North Anna, Totopotomy, Cold Har- 
bor, first assault on Petersburg, Weldon railroad. Deep Bottom, 
Strawberry Plains, Reams' station, Hatcher's run. Fort Stedman, 
White Oak ridge, fall of Petersburg, Deatonsville, High bridge, 
Farmville and Appomattox Court House. Its losses were partic- 
ularly heavy at Spottsylvania — 117 killed, wounded and missing. 
At the Totopotomy and North Anna it lost 95 killed, wounded and 
missing; at Cold Harbor 215; at the first assaults on Petersburg, 
306; at Strawberry Plains, 60; at Reams' Station, ^2; and during the 
final assault on Petersburg, 104. There were nine heavy artillery 
regiments whose loss in killed and died of wounds exceeded 200, 
among which the 2nd N. Y. ranked eighth. In the assault on Pe- 
tersburg, June 17. 1864, the 2nd lost 54 killed, which is one of the 
most remarkable losses sustained by a heavy artillery regiment in 
any one engagement during the war. Its total losses were 216 
killed and mortally wounded, 10 of whom were officers; 250 enlisted 
Vol. 11—14 



210 The Union Army 

men died of disease, accidents, in prison, etc.; total deaths, 466. 
There were 27 officers and 718 enlisted men wounded (including 
106 mortally wounded and 71 enlisted men died as prisoners. It 
was mustered out at Washington, Sept. 29, 1865, commanded by 
Col. Whistler. 

Third Artillery (Light). — For the record of the artillery service 
of this regiment, see 19th Infantry. 

Fourth Artillery (Heavy). — Cols., Thomas D. Doubleday, Gus- 
tavus A. De Russy, Henry H. Hall, John C. Tidball; Lieut.-Cols., 
Henry H. Hall, Thomas Allcock; Majs., Thomas AUcock, Thomas 
D. Sears, Seward F. Gould, Ulysses D. Doubleday, Edward F. 
Young, Frank Williams, Derrick F. Hamlink, William Arthur, Henry 
T. Lee, Henry E. Richmond. This regiment, from the state at 
large, and originally known as Doubleday's heavy artillery, was 
organized at New York city. Only eight companies were at first 
organized, which were mustered into the U. S. service at Port 
Richmond, L. I., between Nov., 1861, and Feb., 1862, for three 
years. Before it left the state Co. G was consolidated into Co. H, 
and a new Co. G joined the regiment at Washington, D. C, where 
it was mustered in on Oct. 25, 1862. The nth artillery battalion 
was assigned to this regiment on June 21, 1863, as Cos. I, K, L and 
M, completing the regimental organization. Companies G, H, I 
and K of the 8th artillery, 176 men of the 126th and 242 of the iiith 
infantry were transferred to this regiment in June, 1865. The mem- 
bers of the original seven companies, except veterans reenlisted, 
were discharged on the expiration of their term of service, and the 
companies consisting of veterans and recruits, were retained in serv- 
ice. The regiment — seven companies — left the state on Feb. 10, 
1862, and served as heavy artillery and infantry in the defenses of 
Washington until 1864. It then joined the Army of the Potomac 
at the beginning of the Wilderness campaign and took part in every 
important battle leading up to the final surrender at Appomattox, 
being attached most of the time to the 2nd corps. In Feb., 1865, 
it took the place of the 7th N. Y. heavy artillery, as a part of the 
famous Irish brigade. It gained a splendid reputation as a hard 
fighting organization, being actively engaged at the Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania, the North Anna, Totopotomy, Cold Harbor, assaults 
on Petersburg, Weldon railroad. Deep Bottom, Strawberry Plains, 
Reams' station, Amelia Springs, Deatonsville road, Farmville and 
Appomattox Court House. At Spottsylvania its casualties were 
81 killed, wounded and missing; in the first assault on Petersburg, it 
lost 104 killed and wounded, and at Reams' station it had 17 killed, 
2,2 wounded and 326 missing, the greatest loss of any regiment en- 
gaged. In the Appomattox campaign its losses in killed and wound- 
ed aggregated 102. It suffered a total loss by death during service 
of 8 officers and 117 men, killed and mortally wounded; 4 officers 
and 335 men died of disease and other causes; and 97 died in Con- 
federate prisons. After the close of the war the regiment served 
in De Russy's division, 22nd corps, in garrison duty, until finally 
mustered out at Washington, D. C, under Col. Tidball, Sept. 26, 
1865. 

Fifth Artillery (Heavy). — Cols., Samuel Graham, Edward Mur- 
ray; Lieut.-Cols., Edward Murray, Henry B. Mcllvaine; Majs., 
Henry B. Mcllvaine, Eugene McGrath, Frederick C. Wilkie, Cas- 
per Urban, Henry B. Wilder, Gustavus F. Merriam, John H. Gra- 
ham, William H. Boyle. This regiment, known as the 2nd regi- 
ment, Jackson heavy artillery, was organized in New York city, 



New York Regiments 211 

the first two battalions being recruited principally in the counties 
of New York and Kings by Cols. Graham and Murray, and the 70th 
militia contributing a number of men to the regiment. These bat- 
talions were mustered into the U. S. service in April, 1862, for 
three years. The regimental organization was completed on Dec. 
31, 1862, by the transfer of the 3d battalion of Black River artil- 
lery, forming Cos. K, L and M. These companies had been recruit- 
ed in the counties of Jefferson and Lewis, and mustered into the 
U. S. service at Sacket's Harbor, Sept. 11-12, for three years. The 
members of the original eight companies, except veterans, were 
mustered out on the expiration of their term of service, the vet- 
erans and recruits being continued in service. The first eight com- 
panies organized were employed for the first two months in gar- 
risoning the different fortifications in New York harbor. In the 
latter part of May, 1862, they went to Baltimore, Md. On June 
19, Cos. A and F were detached and under the command of Maj. 
Mcllvaine were sent to Harper's Ferry, where they were surren- 
dered in Sept., 1862, at the time of Stonewall Jackson's capture of 
that place. They subsequently rejoined the regiment at Balti- 
more, after being paroled. The 3d battalion was stationed in the 
defenses of Washington for nearly a year, but was ordered to 
Harper's Ferry, in Nov., 1863, where it was joined the following 
April by the other two battalions, the regiment being employed 
in guarding Maryland heights and in fatigue duties. The ist bat- 
talion — Cos. A, B, C and D — was detached in May, 1864, for serv- 
ice in the field with the ist brigade, ist division. Army of West Vir- 
ginia (8th corps), and fought at Piedmont, Lexington, Buchanan, 
Lynchburg, Liberty and Salem. On the occasion of Early's attack 
on Harper's Ferry in July, the regiment performed excellent serv- 
ice and sustained a considerable loss. On July 29, 1864, the ist 
battalion was relieved in the field by the 2nd — Cos. E, F, G and H 
— under command of Maj. Urban, and the latter took part in all 
the great battles of the valley under Gen. Sheridan, being active at 
Snicker's ferrj', where it lost 69 killed, wounded and missing, at 
Winchester, Martinsburg, Cedar creek, Charlestown, Halltown, Ber- 
ryville, the Opequan, where it lost 43, Fisher's hill, two actions at 
Cedar creek in October, loss 53, and 309 respectively, 301 being 
captured in the second engagement. On Oct. 28, the battalion re- 
turned to Harper's Ferry. The regiment served both as infantry 
and heavy artillery and was mustered out at Harper's Ferry, July 
19, 1865, under command of Col. Graham. It lost during service 
98 men killed and died of wounds; i officer and 293 enlisted men 
died of disease, accidents, and other causes; total deaths, 392, of 
whom 76 died as prisoners. 

Sixth Artillery (Heavy). — Cols., William H. Morris, J. Howard 
Kitching, George C. Kibbe, Stephen D. Baker; Lieut. -Cols., J. How- 
ard Kitching, Ralph E. Prime, Edward R. Travis, Edward B. Wil- 
liston, James B. Campbell, George C. Kibbe, Stephen D. Baker; 
Majs., J. H. Robinson, Edward R. Travis, Frederick Shonnard, 
James B. Campbell, Absalom A. Crookston, George C. Kibbe, Stephen 
D. Baker, Edmund Y. Morris, Ferd. R. Hassler, C. H. Palmer, Ed- 
ward Jones. This regiment, known as the Anthony Wayne Guard, 
was recruited in the summer of 1862 in the counties of Putnam, 
Rockland and Westchester. It was organized at Yonkers as the 
135th infantry and was there mustered into the U. S. service for 
three years, Sept. 2, 1862. It was converted into an artillery regi- 
ment in October and designated the 6th regiment of artillery, two 



212 The Union Army 

additional companies recruited for it being mustered in on Dec. 4. 
After the consolidation of Co. M and Co. A in Jan., 1864, a new 
Co. M, composed of men recruited by M. R. Pierce for the 14th 
N. Y. artillery, was transferred to it, and in Feb., 1864, about 400 
of the surplus men of the 14th and i6th artillery were also trans- 
ferred to this regiment. On June 28, 1865, the men whose terms 
would expire on Oct. i, were mustered out at Petersburg, under 
command of Col. Kibbe, the veterans and recruits being formed into 
a battalion of four companies. On July 19, 1865, the remaining 
members of the loth and 13th artillery were transferred to this bat- 
talion, and this consolidated force was mustered out on Aug. 24, 
near Washington, D. C, under command of Col. Baker. The regi- 
ment — ten companies — left the state on Sept. 5, 1862, and Cos. L 
and M joined it at Baltimore in December. It served with the 8th 
corps at Harper's Ferry and in the defenses of the Upper Potomac 
until July, 1863, when it was attached to the ist brigade, ist divi- 
sion, 3d corps, and in August, to the reserve artillery, Army of the 
Potomac, employed as ammunition guard. It took part in an ac- 
tion at Manassas gap in July, 1863, and in the Mine Run campaign 
in November. Then, as infantry and heavy artillery, it served 
until July, 1864, with the 5th corps. Army of the Potomac, being 
active in all the battles leading up to the investment of Petersburg, 
including the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, where its casualties amount- 
ed to 18 killed, 131 wounded and 6 missing, the North Anna, where 
it lost 17 killed, 99 wounded and 17 missing, Totopotomy, Cold 
Harbor, and the assault on Petersburg in June, with a loss of 92. 
In July it was attached to the ist brigade, Hardin's .division, 22nd 
corps, and in August was ordered to Washington for garrison duty, 
remaining there for five weeks, when it was ordered to join the 
Army of the Shenandoah, attached to the ist brigade, Kitching's 
provisional division, and later to the 2nd brigade, Ferrero's division. 
Army of the James, at Bermuda Hundred. In the battle of Cedar 
creek it was heavily engaged, losing 94 killed, wounded and missing, 
both Col. Kitching and Maj. Jones being mortally wounded. It 
was present at the fall of Petersburg on April 2, 1865. The regi- 
ment lost by death during service 6 oiftcers and 130 men killed and 
mortally wounded; 6 officers and 278 men died of disease, accident, 
in prison, etc., a total of 420. 

Seventh Artillery (Heavy), — Cols., Lewis O. Morris, Joseph S. 
Conrad, Edward A. Springsteed, Richard C. Duryea; Lieut. -Cols., 
John Hastings, Edward A. Springsteed, Joseph M. Murphy, John 
F. Mount; Majs., Edward A. Springsteed, Samuel A. Anable, E. 
Willard Smith, Francis Pruyn, John F. Mount, Joseph M. Murphy, 
Abram Sickles, Charles W. Hobbs. This regiment, known as the 
Albany county regiment, or Seymour Guard, was recruited in the 
summer of 1862 by Col. Morris and was first designated the 113th 
infantry. It rendezvoused at Albany and was there mustered into 
the U. S. service for three years, Aug. 18, 1862. It was changed to 
an artillery regiment on Dec. 19, and two new companies were or- 
ganized and attached to the regiment, one on Aug. 6, 1863, and the 
other on Jan. 19, 1864. The whole command was recruited in the 
county of Albany. On June 26, 1865, all members whose terms 
would expire Oct. i, 1865, were mustered out and the regiment was 
consolidated into a battalion of four companies under Col. Duryea. 
This battalion, commanded by Maj. Mount, was mustered out at 
Federal hill, Baltimore, Aug. i, 1865. This regiment is included 
by Col. Fox, "Regimental Losses in the Civil War," in his list of 



New York Regiments 213 

three hundred fighting regiments. He says: "It moved to Wash- 
ington, Aug. 19, 1862, where it was immediately assigned to duty 
in the forts near the city. * * * The 7th remained on garrison 
duty in various forts near Washington until May 15, 1864, when it 
was ordered to the front to serve as infantry. It marched out of 
Washington with 67 officers, 6 non-commissioned staff and 1,768 
muskets, joining Grant's army at Spottsylvania May 17th. It was 
assigned to Tyler's division, but was transferred a few days later 
to Barlow's splendid division, and at one time — in September, 1864, 
it was attached to the famous Irish brigade. It served with Barlow 
until Feb. 22, 1865, when it was withdrawn from the front and or- 
dered to Baltimore, where it garrisoned Fort McHenry until after 
the close of the war. During its first hundred days of service in the 
field — from Spottsylvania to Reams' station — the 7th lost 1,254 in 
killed, wounded and missing. The casualties at Cold Harbor, in- 
cluding the loss in the trenches, amounted to 45 killed, 259 wound- 
ed, and 114 missing, a total of 418. Col. Morris was killed there 
the day after the assault, while passing along the trenches. He 
was an officer of the regular army and a son of the Capt. Morris 
who was killed at Monterey." Among other extraordinary losses 
incurred by the regiment were 135 killed, wounded and missing at 
Totopotomy, 501 in the assaults on Petersburg in June, and 94 at 
Reams' station. It ranks third among the nine heavy artillery regi- 
ments which sustained the greatest loss in killed and mortally 
wounded in the war, having lost 14 officers and 277 men, or a total 
of 291; 4 officers and 378 men died of disease and other causes, a 
total of 677, of whom 2 officers and 214 men died as prisoners. 

Eighth Artillery (Heavy).— Cols.. Peter A. Porter, Willard W. 
Bates, James M. Willett, Joel B. Baker; Lieut. -Cols., Willard W. 
Bates. James M. Willett, Lawrence Kipp, Joel B. Baker, Joseph 
W. Holmes; Majs., James M. Willett, Joel B. Baker, S. Dexter 
Ludden, Edwin L. Blake, Joseph W. Holmes. James Low, Jr., Eras- 
tus M. Spaulding, Henry M. Starr. This regiment was recruited 
by Col. Porter in the summer of 1862, in the counties of Genesee, 
Niagara and Orleans. It was organized at Lockport as the 129th 
infantry and was there mustered into the U. S. service Aug 22, 
1862, for three years. It was changed to heavy artillery in De- 
cember, and two additional companies were organized at Lockport 
in Dec, 1863, and Jan., 1864, and mustered in for one and three 
years, respectively. These companies, designated L and M, joined 
the regiment in Feb., 1864. Few regiments in the service achieved 
a higher reputation for hard fighting and efficiency than this splen- 
did organization. Says Col. Fox, who includes it among the three 
hundred fighting regiments: "The regiment performed garrison 
duty until May, 1864, when it was sent with the other heavy artil- 
lery commands to the front to reinforce Gen. Grant. It was in 
action for the first time at Spottsylvania. Va., where it lost 8 
killed, 21 wounded and 4 missing. At Cold Harbor the 8th lost 
80 killed, 339 wounded and 86 missing; total, 505 — it having twelve 
large companies engaged there. In that battle Col. Porter led the 
regiment in its grand charge upon the enemy's works and fell dead 
in the extreme advance. Eight officers were killed in that action. 
In the assault on Petersburg the regiment made another gallant 
attack on the Confederate lines, in which Col. Bates and Maj. Blake 
fell mortally wounded. In the actions around Petersburg in June, 
1864, the regiment lost 42 killed, 261 wounded and 5 missing, a 
total of 308. Though known as an artillery regiment, the men 



214 The Union Army 

carried rifles and were drilled as infantry. When they took the 
field, their full ranks — twelve companies of 150 men each — made 
them a very efficient organization, but their heavy losses in action 
soon reduced their long lines, until but few were left to witness 
the last fight at Appomattox. During all its service in the field, 
in 1864-65, the regiment was attached to the 2nd division (Gib- 
bon's) of the 2nd corps." In addition to the severe losses enumer- 
ated above, the regiment lost 6 killed, 28 wounded and 210 missing 
at Reams' station; 5 killed, 32 wounded and 11 missing at Boyd- 
ton plank road, not to mention the constant losses sustained in the 
trenches before Petersburg. During its term of service it lost 19 
officers and 342 men killed and mortally wounded; 4 officers and 
298 men died of disease, accidents, in prison, etc., a total of 663. 
Including the mortally wounded, it had 37 officers and 707 men 
wounded. It also sustained an unusually heavy loss in prison, hav- 
ing I officer and 113 men die in the hands of the enemy. In killed 
and mortally wounded, the 8th suffered the most severely of any 
of the New York heavy artillery regiments, and ranks second in 
the whole list of such regiments in killed and mortally wounded. 
Its percentage of killed, 14.0, is only exceeded by that of one other 
New York organization, the 126th infantry, with a percentage of 
14.7. The total enrollment of the 8th was 2,575. On June 5, 1865, 
Cos. A to K were mustered out at Munson's hill, Va., under the 
command of Lieut. -Col. Holmes, and those not mustered out were 
transferred to the 4th N. Y. artillery and loth N. Y. infantry (q. v.). 
Ninth Artillery (Heavy). — Cols., Joseph Welling, William H. 
Seward, Jr., Edwin P. Taft, J. W. Snyder; Lieut. -Cols., William H. 
Seward, Jr. Edwin P. Taft, James W. Snyder, William Wood; Majs,. 
Edwin P. Taft, Truman Gregory, William Wood, Anson S. Wood, 
William R. Wasson, Charles Burgess, Sullivan B. Lamoreaux, James 
Snyder, Irwin Squyer. This was one of the most gallant regiments 
sent out by the Empire State. It was recruited in Aug., 1862, by 
Col. Welling as the 138th infantry in the counties of Cayuga and 
Wayne, Co. M, originally organized at Lockport as the 22nd light 
battery, being transferred to the 9th in Feb., 1863. The regiment 
was organized at Auburn and v/as there mustered into the U. S. 
service for three years, Sept. 8-9, 1862. Co. L was organized at 
Albany in 1863, and joined the regiment in December of that year. 
The regiment — ten companies — left the state on Sept. 12, 1862, and 
was stationed in the fortifications about Washington, where it was 
converted into an artillery regiment on Dec. 9, and designated the 
9th regiment of artillery ten days later. Its active service in the 
field commenced in May, 1864, after which it took part in the fol- 
lowing battles: Cold Harbor, Monocacy, the Opequan, Cedar 
creek, siege of Petersburg, fall of Petersburg, Sailor's creek. Fort 
Stevens, Snicker's gap, Charlestown, Halltown. Smithfield, Hatch- 
er's run and Appomattox. Col. Fox, in his "Regimental Losses in 
the Civil War," includes it in the list of three hundred fighting 
regiments, and says: "During its stay within the defenses of Wash- 
ington, the 9th built Forts Simmons, Mansfield, Bayard, Gaines 
and Foote. On May 18, 1864, the regiment left Alexandria, Va., 
for the front, where it was assigned soon after its arrival, to Col. 
B. F. Smith's (3d) brigade, Ricketts' (3d) division, 6th corps; with 
which it took part in the storming of the earthworks at Cold Har- 
bor, its first experience under fire. Only two battalions were en- 
gaged there, the 3d, under Maj. Snyder — Cos. C, I, L and F — hav- 
ing been ordered on detached service with the artillery brigade; 



New York Regiments ^215 

the other two battalions were armed and drilled as infantry — loss 
at Cold Harbor, i6 killed, 126 wounded and 6 missing. The 3d 
battalion did not rejoin the regiment until Oct. 3, 1864, the other 
eight companies, in the meanwhile, having fought in the bloody- 
battles of the Monocacy and the Opequan. At Cedar creek the 
three battalions were again united, the gallant bearing of the regi- 
ment in that battle evoking special mention in the official report of the 
division general. It lost in that action, 43 killed and 165 wounded, 
and at the Opequan it lost 6 killed and 36 wounded." The regiment 
sustained a total loss by death during service of 453, of whom 7 
officers and 196 men were killed and mortally wounded; 4 officers 
and 246 men died of disease and other causes, including 41 who 
died in Confederate prisons. Its total of killed and wounded amount- 
ed to 824, and it was one of the nine heavy artillery regiments in 
the war whose loss in killed exceeded 200. Its loss of 305 killed, 
wounded and missing was the greatest sustained by any regiment 
in the battle of Monocacy. The regiment was mustered out, under 
Col. James W. Snyder, at Washington, D. C, July 6, 1865, those 
not entitled to discharge having been consolidated into four com- 
panies and transferred to the 2nd N. Y. artillery on June 27. The 
total enrollment of the Ninth was 3,227. 

Tenth Artillery (Heavy). — Col., Alexander Piper; Lieut.-Cols., 
Joseph Spratt, G. De Peyster Arden; Majs., Joseph Spratt, James 
B. Campbell, Thomas W. Osborne, Charles C. Abell, G. De Peyster 
Arden, S. R. Cowles. This regiment, known as the Black River 
artillery, or the Jefferson county regiment, was organized on Dec. 
31, 1862, of the 1st, 2nd and 4th battalions, Black River artillery, 
the battalions having been organized at Sacket's Harbor in Sep- 
tember, and the consolidation took place on Dec. 27. The men 
were recruited in the counties of Jefferson and Lewis and were 
mustered into the U. S. service for three years as follows: Cos. A, 
B, C, D, E, F, G and M on Sept. 11, at Sacket's Harbor; H and I 
on Sept. 12; at Staten island; Co. K on Nov. 12, and Co. L on Dec. 
27, at Fort Schuyler. The 2nd and 4th battalions left the state on 
Sept. 17, 1862, and were at once assigned to garrison duty in the 
forts about Washington; the ist battalion garrisoned Fort Rich- 
mond and Sandy Hook, N. Y. harbor until June, 1863, when it 
joined the others at Washington. In the latter part of May, 1864, 
the regiment was sent to the front with the other heavy artillery 
commands to reinforce Gen. Grant and on its arrival was assigned, 
first to the 4th brigade, ist division, and on June 24 to the ist bri- 
gade, 2nd division, i8th corps. It was in action for the first time 
at Cold Harbor, where it lost 9 killed and wounded, and in the 
assault on Petersburg in June it sustained a loss of 43 killed and 
wounded. On Aug. 13, 1864, it was withdrawn from the front and 
assigned to the ist brigade, De Russy's division, 22nd corps; it 
joined the provisional division of the Army of the Shenandoah on 
Sept. 27; was engaged with small loss at Cedar creek; was assigned 
in December to the 2nd brigade, Ferrero's division. Army of the 
James, at Bermuda Hundred; and was actively engaged in the 
final assault on Petersburg, April 2, 1865, losing 90 killed, wounded 
and missing. While in the works before Petersburg, from June 
15 to Aug. 13, 1864, and from Dec, 1864, to April 2, 1865, it sus- 
tained losses, amounting in the aggregate to 11 killed, ^(> wounded 
and I missing, a total of 88. Though known as an artillery regi- 
ment, the men were armed and drilled as infantry. Under com- 
mand of Lieut.-Col. Arden, the loth was mustered out at Peters- 



216 The Union Army 

burg on June 23, 1865, except recruits, which were consolidated 
into three companies and transferred to the 6th N. Y. artillery on 
June 2y. The regiment lost during service 47 men killed and mortally 
wounded; 2 officers and 218 men died of disease, accidents, in pris- 
on, etc., a total of 267. 

Eleventh Artillery (Heavy). — Authority to recruit this regiment 
was given to Maj. William B. Barnes on Feb. 7, 1863, with head- 
quarters at Rochester. Only four companies were organized, how- 
ever, when the authority was revoked, July 25, 1863, and the com- 
panies were transferred to the 4th N. Y. artillery (q. v.). A number 
of recruits for the regiment not yet assigned to companies were 
transferred to the 13th N. Y. artillery. 

Twelfth Artillery (Heavy). — Col. Robert P. Gibson was author- 
ized on March 31, 1863, to recruit this regiment, but the authority 
was revoked on June 22 and the men enlisted were transferred to 
the 15th N. Y. artillery (q. v.). 

Thirteenth Artillery (Heavy). — Col., William A. Howard; Lieut.- 
Col., James J. Walsh; Majs., Oliver Wetmore, Jr., Ferdinand R. 
Hassler, Robert W. McLaughlin. This regiment was recruited 
from the state at large and organized at New York city, the vari- 
ous companies being mustered into the U. S. service for three 
years as follows: A, B and C at Staten island on Aug. 12 and 29, 
and Sept. 11, 1863; D at Elmira on Aug. 4, 1863; E, F, G and H 
at Fort Schuyler in Feb. and March, 1864; I at New York city, 
Nov. 10, 1863; K at Riker's island, Feb. 21, 1864; L at Norfolk, 
Va., June 11, 1864; and M in Dec. 1863. The men enlisted by Maj. 
H. B. Williams for the nth N. Y. artillery were transferred to this 
regiment on July 29, 1863, as were also the men enlisted for the 
29th N. Y. veteran infantry, and the members of the incomplete 
36th independent N. Y. battery, in October. The regiment left 
the state by detachments, the ist battalion, Cos. A, B, C and D, 
leaving on Oct. 5, 1863, and with the 2nd battalion garrisoned the 
defenses of Norfolk and Portsmouth, Va., and New Berne, N. C. 
From May, 1864, Cos. A and H served as siege artillery in the 3d 
division, i8th corps, Army of the James, forming part of the forces 
for the defense of Bermuda Hundred. The 3d battalion of the 
regiment, under command of Maj. Robert W. McLaughlin, con- 
sisting of Cos. I, K, L and M, and numbering about 500 men, after 
serving as a coast-guard on board vessels of war along the Atlan- 
tic coast, formed the celebrated naval brigade. Army of the James, 
from July, 1864. The battalion was made up of sailors enlisted for 
service on the light-draft gunboats built by Norman Wiard to 
penetrate otherwise inaccessible places. Portions of the regiment 
took part in engagements in the operations against Petersburg and 
Richmond; Swift creek, N. C; Day's Point, Va.; Fort Fisher, N. C; 
and the fall of Petersburg. Its losses during service were 3 killed 
and 12 wounded, 2 of the latter mortally; 3 officers and 144 men 
died of disease and other causes; total, 152. The only officer killed 
was Capt. John A. Gordon, who lost his life in the action at Swift 
creek. Cos. I, K, L and M, and the men of the other companies 
whose terms would expire Oct. i, 1865, were mustered out, under 
Col. Howard, June 28, 1865; those remaining in service were con- 
solidated into a battalion of five companies and transferred to the 
6th N. Y. artillery. Lieut. J. L. De Peyster raised the first flag 
over Richmond when the city surrendered in 1865. 

Fourteenth Artillery (Heavy).— Col., Elisha G. Marshall; Lieut.- 
Cols., Clarence H. Corning, William H. Reynolds, George M. Ran- 



New York Regiments 217 

dall; Majs., William H. Reynolds, Henry V. Pemberton, Job C. 
Hedges, George M. Randall, Joseph P. Cleary, William H. Trow- 
bridge, Lorenzo I. Jones, David Jones, Albion Howe. This regi- 
ment was organized at Rochester, and was chiefly recruited in the 
counties of Monroe, Yates, St. Lawrence and Jefferson. Its ranks 
contained many men who had served in the two years' organiza- 
tions. Although recruiting commenced in June, 1863, the organ- 
ization of the regiment" was not completed until Jan., 1864, the 
companies being mustered into the U. S. service between Aug. 29, 
1864, and Jan. 17, 1865, at Rochester, for three years. It is num- 
bered among the three hundred fighting regiments of the war by 
Col. Fox, who says: "It garrisoned the forts in New York harbor 
until April 23, 1864, when it was ordered to the front and was as- 
signed to the 9th corps, joining it at Warrenton, Va. On May 2, 
1864, it started for the Rapidan. The regiment was in line at the 
Wilderness, but was only partially engaged. It was actively en- 
gaged, however, the next week at Spottsylvania (then in Steven- 
son's division), and two weeks later suffered heavily at Cold Har- 
bor, where it lost 15 killed, 43 wounded and 16 missing. On June 
17, 1864, the 14th distinguished itself by its brilliant and successful 
charge on the works at Petersburg; loss 38 killed, 152 wounded, 
60 missing; total, 250. Maj. Job C. Hedges was killed in this charge 
while bravely leading his battalion. At the mine explosion the 
regiment was selected to lead the assault at the crater and was the 
first to plant its colors on the enemy's works, where it captured 
a Confederate flag. Its casualties in this action were 10 killed, 44 
wounded and 78 missing; total, 132. The 14th was on duty in the 
trenches, losing men daily in the constant and deadly firing which 
prevailed there. It also occupied Fort Stedman at the time of the 
Confederate sortie, March 25, 1865, and when surrounded there by 
the enemy, the men fought their way through the opposing lines 
until they reached Fort Haskell, where, in company with the re- 
mainder of the regiment which was on duty there, they succeeded 
in holding that important position. At the Weldon railroad the 
regiment was in White's division and sustained a loss of 6 killed, 
40 wounded and 3 missing; total, 49." The regiment took part in 
the following battles: Wilderness. Spottsylvania. the North Anna, 
Bethesda Church, Cold Harbor, first assault on Petersburg, mine 
explosion, Weldon railroad, Peebles' farm. Fort Stedman, and the 
fall of Petersburg. It was also present at Ny river, Totopotomy, 
Boydton road, and Hatcher's run. The total enrollment of the 
regiment was 2,506 officers and men; total of killed and wounded, 
861; killed and mortally wounded, 226; died of disease and other 
causes, 301; died in Confederate prisons, 84. It was one of the nine 
heavy artillery regiments whose loss in killed exceeded 200; its 
loss of 15 killed, 43 wounded, and 61 missing, June i, 1864, at Be- 
thesda Church, was one of the heaviest sustained in that battle. 
Under command of Col. Marshall, the regiment was mustered out 
on Aug. 26, 1865, at Washington, D. C. The gallant Col. Mar- 
shall was brevetted major-general, from March 13. 1865. 

Fifteenth Artillery (Heavy). — Cols., Louis Schirmer, Michael 
Weidrich; Lieut.-Cols., Michael Weidrich, Louis Eiche; Majs., Emil 
Duysing, William D. Dickey, Leander Shamberger, Louis Eiche, 
Calvin Shaffer. Julius Dieckman. This fine German regiment was 
organized at New York city, the members being principally re- 
cruited in the counties of New York, Orange, and Sullivan. The 
3d battalion of artillery, recruited in New York city in 1861, and 



218 The Union Army 

which had been performing garrison duty in the defenses of Wash- 
ington, was transferred to the isth as Cos. A, B, C, D and E on 
Sept. 30, 1863; on June 23, 1863, a company enlisted for the 12th 
N. Y. artillery was assigned to the regiment as Co. F; and Oct. 
14, 1863, the 2nd and 34th batteries were likewise transferred to it. 
The companies were mustered into the U. S. service for three 
years as follows: A, B, C, D and E at New York city, between 
Oct. 14 and Dec. 19, 1861; and the remaining companies from 
Aug. 2T, 1863, to Jan. 30, 1864. The original members of Co. A to 
E were mustered out on the expiration of their term of enlistment 
and the remainder of the regiment continued in service. When 
assigned to the regiment, Cos. A to E were on duty at Fort Lyon, 
Va., and the other companies joined them there as soon as organ- 
ized. The regiment performed garrison duty until March, 1864, 
when it joined the Army of the Potomac at the front, where it 
was assigned to the 5th corps, to which it was attached through- 
out the remainder of the war, most of the time assigned to Ayres' 
(2nd) division. The regiment took part in the engagements of 
the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, the North Anna, Totopotomy, Cold 
Harbor, White Oak swamp, first assault on Petersburg, Weldon 
railroad. Poplar Grove Church, Hicksford raid, Hatcher's run, and 
the Appomattox campaign, including actions at Five Forks, the 
fall of Petersburg and Appomattox Court House. Throughout this 
series of battles it was conspicuous for its steadiness and bravery, 
and sustained severe losses. At Spottsylvania its casualties were 
160 in killed, wounded and missing, among the mortally wounded 
being the gallant Maj. Shamberger. In the assault on the works 
of Petersburg in June, 1864, it lost 85 killed and wounded; at the 
Weldon railroad, 14 killed, 75 wounded and 5 missing; at White 
Oak road, 18 killed, 81 wounded and 11 missing, among the mor- 
tally wounded being Maj. Duysing. The regiment also lost heav- 
ily in the trenches before Petersburg from the constant and deadly 
firing which prevailed there, having 83 men killed, wounded and 
missing from this source. It lost by death during service 8 offi- 
cers and 148 men, killed and mortally wounded; 5 officers and 225 
men died of disease and other causes, a total of 13 officers and 373 
men, of whom 63 men died in the hands of the enemy. A number 
of men were accidentally killed by the explosion of a magazine at 
Fort Lyon, Va., June 9, 1863. Under the command of Maj. Dieck- 
man, the regiment was mustered out at Washington, D. C, Aug. 
22, 1865. 

Sixteenth Artillery (Heavy). — Col., Joseph J. Morrison; Lieut. - 
Cols., John H. Ammon, Thomas J. Strong, Frederick W. Prince; 
Majs., Alexander H. Davis, Charles E. Pearce, Thomas J. Strong, 
Julius C. Hicks, Frederick W. Prince, James C. Caryl. The i6th 
was raised by Col. Joseph J. Morrison, who had previouslj' distin- 
guished himself as captain of a light battery in the 3d N. Y. artil- 
lery. The regiment was organized at New York city, the men be- 
ing recruited from the state at large, and the companies were mus- 
tered into the U. S. service for three years as follows: A and B 
Sept. 28, C Oct. 21, and D Dec. 7, at Albany; E and G Dec. 16, 

1863, and Jan. 9, 1864, respectively, at Riker's island; F, H, I and 
K Jan. 19 to Feb. 2, 1864, at Elmira; L and M Jan. 26, 1864, at 
Auburn. It had a large number of surplus men, part of whom were 
transferred to the 6th N. Y. artillery in Feb., 1864, and others to the 
8ist and 148th N. Y. infantry and the ist mounted rifles in May, 

1864. The regiment left the state by detachments, between Oct. 



New York Regiments 219 

14, 1863, and Feb., 1864, and for several months performed garri- 
son duty at Fortress Monroe, Yorktown and Gloucester Point, 
serving as heavy artillery and infantry. In July, 1864, seven com- 
panies were assigned to the 2nd brigade, Terry's (ist) division, 
loth corps, and two companies to the ist brigade, 3d division, same 
corps. On Aug. 9, 1864, when Gen. B. F. Butler called for volun- 
teers to cut the Dutch gap canal through the peninsula in the James 
river near Farrar's island, with a view to outflanking the enemy's 
batteries and the obstructions in the river, Cos. A, B, C, F, G and 
K responded, and 600 men were selected from them to perform 
the perilous task. During the progress of the work, they were ex- 
posed to the enemy's fire, and only protected themselves by throw- 
ing up the dirt from the canal as fast as possible, living in "gopher 
holes" along the river bank. They were withdrawn after several 
of the men had been killed and wounded, though Maj. Strong still 
■continued in charge of the work and Maj. Prince in command of 
the battalion. In Oct., 1864, seven companies were heavily en- 
gaged with Terry's division at Darbytown road, sustaining a loss 
of II killed and 54 wounded, and in the action at the same place 
a few days later lost 13 killed and wounded. From July 27 to Dec, 
1864, when the regiment was before Petersburg and Richmond, it 
sustained constant small losses, aggregating 30 killed, wounded 
and missing. From Dec, 1864, Cos. A, B, C, F, G and K served 
in the ist division, 24th corps, and another detachment in the ar- 
tillery brigade, same corps, engaging with some loss at Fort Fisher, 
the Cape Fear intrenchments. Fort Anderson, and near Wilming- 
ton, N. C. In July, 1865, the various detachments of the regiment 
were united and on Aug. 21, 1865, commanded by Col. Morrison, 
it was mustered out at Washington, D. C. The i6th lost by death 
during service 42 men killed in action; 2 officers and 284 men died 
of disease and other causes, a total of 328. 

First Marine Artillery, — Col., William A. Howard; Lieut.-Col., 
Horace A. Manchester; Maj., Charles E. Mears. This regiment 
was raised and' organized at New York city by Col. Howard for 
service on gunboats, which were to be provided for it. Most of 
the men were recruited in New York city, some in Buffalo, New- 
ark, N. J., Chicago, 111., and Washington, D. C. They were mus- 
tered into the U. S. service from Nov. 12, 1861, to Aug. 18, 1862, 
for three years. The regiment — ten companies — left the state by 
detachments during 1861 and 1862; served at Annapolis, Md., and 
from Aug., 1862, in North Carolina, attached to the i8th and 
loth corps, portions of it taking part in the following engagements: 
Roanoke island, Elizabeth City, New Berne, Elizabeth, siege of 
Fort Macon, South Mills, Tranter's creek. Swift creek, Neuse river, 
Washington, near Shiloh, Rawle's mills, expedition to Goldsboro, 
Kinston and Folly island, and several minor affairs. The regi- 
ment was disbanded in March, 1863. It lost during service i offi- 
cer and 14 men killed in action; 2 men mortally wounded; i officer 
and 72 men died of disease and other causes, a total of 90. 

First Battalion Heavy Artillery. — Lieut. -Col., Andrew Brickell; 
Maj., Albert Arndt. This battalion was raised and organized in 
New York city in the summer of 1861 and was mustered into the 
U. S. service from Aug 12 to Sept. 20, for three years. The bat- 
talion — Cos. A, B, C and D — left the state on Oct. 20, and remained 
at Washington until the spring of 1862. In March, 1863, the bat- 
talion organization was discontinued, and the companies were des- 
ignated: A, the 29th; B, the 30th; C, the 31st; and D, the 32nd, 



220 The Union Army 

independent batteries of light artillery, respectivelJ^ Following is 
the record of these four batteries: 

Twenty-ninth Independent Battery. — Capts., Otto Diedrich, Bern- 
hard Wever. This battery took part in the siege of Yorktown and 
the Peninsular campaign attached to the artillery reserve of the 
5th corps, being engaged at Mechanicsville, Garnett's farm. Glen- 
dale and Malvern Hill. In reserve it was present at Antietam, 
Fredericksburg, Pollock's Mill creek, Marye's heights and Salem 
Church. In July, 1863, it was attached to the 32nd battery, with 
which it was engaged near Martinsburg, at Harper's Ferry and 
Maryland heights. On Aug. 15, 1864, the veterans and recruits 
were transferred to the 32nd battery. During its term of service 
the battalion lost 2 men killed in action, and i officer and 3 men 
died of disease and other causes. 

The 30th independent battery took part in the siege of York- 
town and the succeeding Peninsular campaign, attached to the ar- 
tillery reserve of the 5th corps. It fought at Mechanicsville, Gar- 
nett's farm. Glendale and Malvern hill with a loss of 9 killed and 
wounded. Still in the reserve it was present at Antietam, Freder- 
icksburg, Marye's heights and Salem Church. Attached to the 8th 
corps, Army of West Virginia after July, 1863, it fought at New 
Market, Piedmont, Lynchburg, Buford's gap, Salem, Harper's Fer- 
ry, Maryland heights, Charlestown, Bunker Hill and Martinsburg. 
In Oct., 1864, the veterans and recruits of the 31st battery were 
transferred to it, thus filling its ranks depleted by the muster-out 
of the original members (except veterans). Capt. Adolph Voegele 
was dismissed on Aug. 3, 1863, and was succeeded by Capt. Alfred 
Von Kleiser, who was discharged on May 15, 1865. The battery 
was mustered out at New York city, June 23, 1865, commanded by 
Lieut. Conrad Carrolin, having lost in service 8 men killed and 
mortally wounded, and 12 men who died of disease and other 
causes. 

Thirty-first Independent Battery. — Capts.. John Knierim, Charles 
Kusserow, Robert Langner, Gustav Von Blucher. As a part of 
the artillery reserve of the Army of the Potomac, it took part in 
the siege of Yorktown; was then attached to the 3d brigade, artil- 
lery reserve, 5th corps, and participated in the Peninsular campaign 
of Gen. McClellan, being engaged at Mechanicsville. Garnett's farm, 
Glendale and Malvern hill, with a loss of 4 wounded and 2 missing. 
It was present at Antietam. Boteler's ford and Fredericksburg, and 
at Franklin's crossing sustained a loss of 9 men captured. Attached 
to the 8th corps, Army of West Virginia it took part in the en- 
gagements at New Market, Piedmont. Lynchburg, Buford's gap, 
Salem, Harper's Ferry, Maryland heights, Charlestown, Bunker 
Hill and Martinsburg, during the summer of 1864, but sustained 
only slight loss. From Jan., 1864, it was attached to the 30th bat- 
terj', and on Oct. 25, 1864, the original members, except veterans, 
were mustered out, under command of Capt. Von Blucher, the vet- 
erans and recruits being transferred to the 30th. During its term 
of service it lost 5 enlisted men died of disease, and had 7 men 
wounded. 

Thirty-second Independent Battery. — Capts., Edward Grimm, 
Robert Langner. Charles Kusserow, Patrick Hart. Attached to the 
artillery reserve of the Army of the Potomac, it took part in the 
siege of Yorktown and then embarked on the Peninsular cam- 
paign, with the artillery reserve of the 5th corps, fighting at Gaines 
mill, Garnett's farm and Malvern hill. With the reserve it was 



New York Regiments S21 

present at Antietam, Boteler's ford, Shepherdstown, Fredericks- 
burg (where it lost 2 men mortally and one slightly wounded), 
Pollock's Mill creek, Marye's heights and Salem Church. Attached 
to the 8th corps. Army of West Virginia in the summer of 1864, 
it was engaged at Martinsburg and Harper's Ferry. On the expi- 
ration of its term of enlistment the original members were mus- 
tered out, and its ranks were filled by the transfer of the veterans 
and recruits from the 29th battery on Aug. 15, 1864, and the 15th 
battery on Feb. 4, 1865. The consolidated organization was mus- 
tered out on July 14, 1865, at New York city, commanded by Capt. 
Hart. During its term of service the battery lost 2 men mortally 
wounded, and 4 men died of disease and other causes. 

Second Battalion Light Artillery. — Maj., Thomas O'Neill; Capts., 
WilUam H. Hogan, Michael Mitchell, Henry J. McMahon, Will- 
iam O'Donoghue. This battalion, known as the Irish Brigade bat- 
teries, originally consisted of four batteries and was recruited in 
the fall of 1861, in New York city, where it was mustered into the 
U. S. service for three years on Dec. 9. The first plan was to raise 
an artillery company for each of the four regiments of the brigade. 
The battalion left the state on Dec. 16, and on reaching Washing- 
ton was consolidated into two batteries, designated A and B. In 
Oct., 1862, the battalion organization was discontinued. Battery A 
being constituted the 14th and Battery B, the 15th independent bat- 
teries. 

Fourteenth Independent Battery. — Capts., William H. Hogan, 
James McKay Rorty. The battery served with Richardson's divi- 
sion, 2nd corps from March to May 26, 1862, when the first section 
was attached to Battery C, 4th U. S. artillery; the second to Bat- 
tery G, and the third to Battery B, ist N. Y. artillery. On Jan. 16, 
1863, the first section was transferred to Battery G, ist N. Y., and 
in September these transfers were made permanent by order of the 
war department, the battery being discontinued. The battery took 
part in the siege of Yorktown, the Seven Days' battles, Antietam, 
Leesburg, Charlestown, Snicker's gap, Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 
ville and Gettysburg. It lost during service 2 officers and 3 men 
killed and mortally wounded, and 4 men died of disease. 

Fifteenth Independent Battery. — Capts., Henry J. McMahon, 
Patrick Hart. One officer and 18 men were transferred to this 
battery from the 4th in Dec. 1863. On the expiration of its term 
of service the original members (except veterans) were mustered 
out, and the veterans and recruits consolidated with the 32nd bat- 
tery on Feb. 4. 1865. The 15th took part in the engagements at 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Rappahannock Station, the Mine Run 
campaign, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, the North Anna, Totopotomy, 
Cold Harbor, first assault on Petersburg and the Weldon railroad. 
It was before Petersburg from June to Nov., 1864, when it was 
withdrawn from the front and returned to Washington, serving 
in the 22nd corps and the Department of West Virginia during the 
winter of 1864-65. It lost during service 9 men killed in action and 
3 men from disease and other causes. 

Third Battalion Heavy Artillery. — Lieut.-Cols., Adam Senges, 
Louis Schirmer. This battalion was composed oit five companies 
recruited in New York city and mustered into the U. S. service 
between Oct. 14 and Dec. 19, 1861, for three years. It left the state 
on Dec. 19, proceeded to Washington and garrisoned Fort Lyon, 
Va., until Sept. 30, 1863 — the date of its consolidation with the 15th 
N. Y. artillery (q. v.). 



222 The Union Army 

Fourth Battalion Heavy Artillery. — This battalion, known as the 
1st battalion Black River artillery, was organized at Sacket's Har- 
bor and served at Fort Richmond, N. Y. harbor until discontinued 
on Dec. 31, 1862, when its four companies were transferred to the 
loth N. Y. artillery as Cos. E, D, M and B, respectively. (See 
loth artillery.) 

Fifth Battalion Heavy Artillery. — This battalion, known as the 
2nd battalion Black River artillery, consisting of Cos. A, B, C and 
D, was also organized at Sacket's Harbor in the fall of 1862; left 
the state on Sept. 17, and served in the defenses of Washington until 
Dec, 1862, when it was discontinued and its companies assigned 
to the loth N. Y. artillery as Cos. A, G, C and F, respectively. 
(See loth artillery.) 

Sixth Battalion Heavy Artillery. — This battalion, known as the 
3d battalion Black River artillery, was also organized at Sacket's 
Harbor in the fall of 1862; left the state on Sept. 17, served in the 
defenses of Washington until Dec. 31, when it was discontinued 
and assigned to the 5th N. Y. artillery, as Cos. I, K, L and M, re- 
spectively. (See 5th artillery.) 

Seventh Battalion Heavy Artillery. — This battalion, known as 
the 4th battalion Black River artillery, was organized at Sacket's 
Harbor and left the state on Sept. 17, 1862, Cos. A, B and C serv- 
ing in the defenses of Washington and Co. D at Fort Schuyler> 
N. Y. harbor, until Dec. 31, when it was discontinued and assigned 
to the loth N. Y. artillery as Cos. H, I, K and L, respectively. (See 
loth artillery.) 

Rocket Battalion of Artillery. — This battalion, known as Gen. 
Barry's, consisting originally of three companies, was raised and 
organized at Albany in the early winter of 1861, and was there 
mustered into the U. S. service for three years. On Dec. 5, the 
three companies were consolidated into two and the battalion, com- 
manded by Maj. Thomas M. Lyon, left the state on the 9th. It 
served in the defenses of Washington and in North Carolina until 
Feb. II, 1863, when it was discontinued, its two companies being 
then officially designated the 23d and 24th batteries light artillery 
(q. v.). 

First Independent Battery. — Capts., Terrence J. Kennedy, An- 
drew Cowan. This battery was recruited and organized at Auburn 
by Capt. Kennedy in the fall of 1861. It was mustered into the 
U. S. service on Nov. 23, for three years, and left the state on Dec. 
4. On the expiration of its term of service the original members, 
except veterans, were mustered out and the battery, composed of 
veterans and recruits, continued in service until June 23, 1865, 
when it was mustered out at Syracuse, N. Y., commanded by Capt. 
Cowan. It was stationed during the winter of 1861-62 at Washing- 
ton and in the spring of 1862 was assigned to the 6th corps, with 
which it moved on the Peninsular campaign, taking part in the 
siege of Yorktown, the battles of Lee's mill, Williamsburg and the 
Seven Days. On its return from the Peninsula it was subsequent- 
ly engaged in the Maryland campaign, with small loss at Antietam 
and Fredericksburg. In the spring of 1863 it was assigned to the 
artillery brigade, 6th corps, and participated in the battles of Marye's 
heights, Salem Church, Deep Run crossing, Gettysburg (where it 
lost 12 killed and wounded), and in the subsequent Virginia cam- 
paigns, ending with that of Mine Run. Still with the 6th corps it 
fought through the bloody battles of the Wilderness campaign, 
leading up to the investment of Petersburg, where it was in the 



New York Regiments 223 

trenches from June i8 to July 9, 1864. It then took part in Sheri- 
dan's campaign in the Shenandoah, being engaged at the Opequan, 
Fisher's hill and Cedar creek besides numerous lesser engagements. 
At Cedar creek its loss was 23 killed and wounded. In Jan., 1865, 
it was again ordered to Petersburg, where it was engaged on March 
25 with a loss of 5, and then took part in the Appomattox cam- 
paign ending with the surrender of Lee. It lost during service 2 
officers and 18 men killed and mortally wounded; 38 men died of 
disease and other causes, a total of 58. 

Second Independent Battery. — Capts., Louis Schirmer, Hermann 
Jahn. This battery, known as Blenker's, or Light Battery A, ist 
artillery, was organized in Aug., 1861. Says Capt. Phisterer in his 
account of the batterj', "Varian's battery, the artillery company of 
the 8th militia, its term of service having expired, left the field on 
July 20, 1861, and its guns were left with the army of Northeastern 
Virginia. These guns were manned during the battle of Bull Run 
by detachments of the 8th and 29th N. Y. infantry, mainly of Co. 
H, of the latter regiment, under Capt. Charles Bookwood, of the 
29th N. Y. This battery was reorganized in the defenses of Wash- 
ington, D. C, in Aug., 1861, and known by its synonyms. The men 
of the 8th and 29th N. Y. serving with it were transferred to it 
and additional men from the regiments of Brig.-Gen. Blenker's di- 
vision were assigned to it. The battery, commanded by Capt. 
Louis Schirmer, was mustered into the service of the United States 
for two years on Aug. 16, 1861, and received from the state on Dec. 
7, 1861, its numerical designation." While serving with Blenker's 
division in the Mountain Department in June, 1862, it was en- 
gaged in the neighborhood of Strasburg, Woodstock, Mt. Jackson, 
Edenburg and Cross Keys, where it had 2 men killed. Soon after 
it was assigned to the nth corps, and took part in Gen. Pope's 
Virginia campaign ending with the battle of second Bull Run. It 
took part in the battle of Chancellorsville with the 2nd division, 
nth corps, sustaining no casualties, and was on detached service 
at Gettysburg, where Lieut. Theodore Blume was killed on the 
first day. On June 6, 1863, the members not entitled to discharge 
were attached to battery I, ist N. Y. artillery, and the others 
were mustered out on June 13, at New York citj'. Its loss was 5 
killed and 5 died of disease. 

Third Independent Battery. — Capts., Thaddeus P. Mott, William 
Stuart, William A. Harn. This battery was recruited and organ- 
ized in New York city soon after the outbreak of the war, leaving 
the state for Washington on May 19, 1861, commanded by Capt. 
Mott. It was originally Co. D — the howitzer company — of the 
2nd militia, later the 82nd N. Y. infantry, and served detached from 
the regiment until Dec, 1861. It was mustered into the U. S. serv- 
ice at Washington on June 17, 1861, for three years. As a part of 
the 82nd it participated in the first battle of Bull Run, and attached 
to W. T. Smith's brigade, Potomac division, it was twice in action 
at Lewinsville in Sept., 1861. The following spring it moved on 
the Peninsular campaign with the 2nd division, 6th corps, taking 
part in the siege of Yorktown, the battles of Lee's mill, Williams- 
burg, Chickahominy, and the Seven Days' battles, At Lee's mill 
it lost II men killed and wounded, and during the Seven Days' bat- 
tles it performed gallant service under the personal command of 
Capt. Mott, sustaining a loss of 10 men killed, wounded and miss- 
ing at White Oak swamp bridge. At the end of the Peninsular 
campaign, Capt. Mott resigned and was succeeded by Capt. Will- 



224 The Union Army 

iam Stuart. Attached to the ist division, 4th corps, it took part 
in the battle of Antietam, in the battle of Fredericksburg it was 
with the 6th corps, and was attached to this corps during the re- 
mainder of its active service. In the spring of 1863 it moved on 
the Chancellorsville campaign, being engaged at Franklin's cross- 
ing, Marye's heights and Salem Church; then took part in the bat- 
tle of Gettysburg, and the subsequent campaigns in Virginia, end- 
ing with that of Mine Run. In the spring of 1864, it took part in 
all the great battles of the Wilderness campaign, leading up to the 
siege of Petersburg. It remained before Petersburg from June, 
1864, to April 2, 1865, during which period it sustained a loss of i 
killed and 6 wounded. It then engaged in the Appomattox cam- 
paign, being active at the final assault on the works of Petersburg, 
Sailor's creek and Appomattox Court House. The original mem- 
bers (except veterans) had been mustered out on the expiration 
of their term of service and the battery, composed of veterans and 
recruits, was continued in service. On June 24, 1865, commanded 
by Capt. Harn, it was mustered out at New York city, having lost 
14 men killed and mortally wounded and 4 men who died of disease. 

Fourth Independent Battery. — Capt., James E. Smith. This bat- 
tery was variously known as Serrell's artillery, Parrott's battery, 
and Battery C (afterwards D), N. Y. artillery. A portion of the 
1st troop — Washington Greys — formed its nucleus and it was re- 
cruited and organized in New York city. It was mustered into 
the U. S. service at Staten island, Oct. 24, 1861, for a term of 
three years and the following day left the state commanded by 
Capt. Smith. It received its arms (Parrott guns) in October and 
in December some of the members of Busteed's Chicago battery 
were transferred to it. It served until July, 1863, with the 3d 
corps, and during the remainder of its term with the 2nd corps 
and the artillery reserve of the Army of the Potomac. It took part 
in the following engagements: Siege of Yorktown, Williamsburg, 
Fair Oaks, Seven Days' battles, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, 
Gettysburg, Auburn, Bristoe Station and the Mine Run campaign. 
It was discontinued on Dec. 4, 1863, commanded by ist Lieut. Will- 
iam T. McLean, and its members were transferred to the ist N. Y. 
engineers, the Sth and 15th N. Y. batteries, and Battery B, ist N. Y. 
artillery. The 4th lost during service 5 men killed and mortally 
wounded, and i officer and 11 men who died of disease and other 
causes. It especially distinguished itself at Gettysburg, where it 
materially aided in seizing and retaining Little Round Top, its loss 
during this battle being 2 killed, 10 wounded and i missing. 

Fifth Independent Battery. — Capt., Elijah D. Taft. This bat- 
tery, known as the First Excelsior Light Artillery, was organized 
in New York city and was originally intended to form part of the 
Excelsior brigade. Its members were recruited in the counties of 
New York, Kings and Westchester; it was mustered into the U. S. 
service Nov. 8, 1861. for three years, and left the state a week later 
commanded by Capt. Taft. On the expiration of its term of serv- 
ice the original members (except veterans) were mustered out and 
the battery, composed of veterans and recruits, continued in serv- 
ice. It was stationed at Washington during the winter 1861-62; 
served with the artillery reserve of the Army of the Potomac 
throughout the Peninsular campaign, taking part in the siege of 
Yorktown, the engagements at Fair Oaks, New bridge and the 
Seven Days' battles. Attached to the artillery reserve, 5th corps, 
it then embarked on the Maryland campaign, fighting at Antietam 



New York Regiments 225 

and Boteler's ford. In the artillery brigade, Army of the Potomac, 
it was active at Fredericksburg, Pollock's Mill creek, Marye's 
heights, Salem Church, Gettysburg (where it lost 3 killed), Rappa- 
hannock Station, and Mine Run. In May, 1864, it fought at the 
Wilderness and Spottsylvania, when it was ordered into the de- 
fenses of Washington until July. It then participated in Sheri- 
dan's campaign in the Shenandoah, being in action at Halltown, 
the Opequan, Fisher's hill, New Market and Cedar creek, where it 
saw its last fighting. Under command of Capt. Taft it was mus- 
tered out at Hart's island, N. Y. harbor, July 6, 1865. During its 
term of service it lost 6 men killed and died of wounds, and 13 men 
died of disease and other causes, a total of 19. 

Sixth Independent Battery. — Capts., Thomas W. Bunting, Wal- 
ter M. Bramhall, Joseph W. Martin, Moses P. Clark. This battery, 
recruited at Rahway, N. J., and organized in New York city as 
the artillery company (K) of the 9th militia, later 83d N. Y. infan- 
try, was mustered into the U. S. service June 15, 1861, for a term 
of three years. It left the state the next day and served with its 
regiment until Aug. 25, when it was detached, and in December, 
was designated the 6th battery. In July, 1864, the men of the loth 
battery were transferred to it. The 6th saw a large amount of 
active service, participating in over 40 battles and skirmishes. In 
1861 it was active at Pritchard's mill. Point of Rocks, Bolivar 
heights and Ball's bluflf; in 1862, with the 3d corps, it took part in 
the Peninsular campaign; in 1863, attached to the ist brigade. Horse 
artillery, 2nd cavalry division, it took part in the Chancellorsville, 
Gettysburg and Virginia campaigns, ending with Mine Run; in 
1864, with the same command, it fought through the Wilderness 
campaign and was then ordered into the defenses of Washington. 
In Oct., 1864, it was engaged with the Army of the Shenandoah 
at Tom's brook. Cedar creek, and near Newtown, Va. The bat- 
tery continued in the service as a veteran organization after its 
term expired and was finally mustered out on July 8, 1865, at Hart's 
island, N. Y. harbor, commanded by Capt. Clark. During its term 
of service it lost 8 men killed and mortally wounded, and 9 men 
who died of disease and other causes. 

Seventh Independent Battery. — Capt., Peter C. Regan. This battery 
was recruited principally in the counties of Orange and Ulster 
and was originally organized at Windsor as an artillery company 
of the loth Legion, 56th N. Y. infantry. It was mustered into the 
U. S. service Oct. 30, 1861, for three years, left the state command- 
ed by Capt. Regan on Nov. 7, and continued in service as a veter- 
an organization after the expiration of its term. It served with 
the 2nd division, 4th corps in the Peninsular campaign in 1862, 
losing II men killed, wounded and missing at the battle of Fair 
Oaks. It performed garrison service at Norfolk and Portsmouth, 
Va., until the spring of 1864, when it was attached to the i8th 
corps. Army of the James, and took part in the operations against 
Petersburg and Richmond in May. It was active at the first as- 
sault on Petersburg, and remained in the trenches there until the 
final assault on April 2, 1865, participating meanwhile in action at 
Chaffin's farm. From Jan., 1865, it served in Ferrero's division in 
the defenses of Bermuda Hundred until ordered home. It was 
mustered out under Capt. Regan, July 22, 1865, at Albany, N. Y., 
having lost 3 men killed and 28 by disease. 

Eighth Independent Battery. — Capts., E. Butler Fitch, Peter Mor- 
ton. This battery, recruited principally in the county of Delaware, 

Vol. II— 1.-) 



236 The Union Army 

was organized at Newburg as part of the loth Legion, 56th N. Y. 
infantry, and was designated the 8th battery on Dec. 7, 1861. It 
was mustered into the U. S. service for three years, Oct. 30, 1861; 
left the state commanded by Capt. Fitch on Nov. 7; proceeded to 
Washington, where it was assigned to Casey's division; and was 
with the 4th corps in the Peninsular campaign in 1862, sustaining 
a loss of 6 killed and wounded at Fair Oaks. It then performed 
garrison duty at Gloucester Point, Yorktown and Portsmouth, be- 
ing engaged at Gloucester Court House and Baltimore cross-roads. 
A section of the battery served with the cavalry division, Army of 
the James, in the operations against Petersburg and Richmond 
in May, 1864. It continued in service as a veteran organization 
and was mustered out at Norfolk, Va., June 30, 1865, under com- 
mand of Capt. Morton. It lost during service i enlisted man died 
of wounds, and 40 men died of disease and other causes. 

Ninth Independent Battery. — Capts., A. Von Morrozowitz, Emil 
Schubert. This battery was recruited and organized in New York 
city as Co. F, 41st N. Y. infantry, and was mustered into the U. S. 
service at Yorkville, June 6, 1861, for three years. It left the state 
on July 8, and was detached as an independent battery on Nov. 7, 
1861. It took part in no engagements, but served its term on gar- 
rison duty in the defenses of Washington. It was mustered out 
June 13, 1864, commanded by Capt. Schubert, having lost 5 men 
died of disease. 

Tenth Independent Battery. — Capt., John T. Bruen. A battery 
known under this designation was recruited by Capt. Edwin S. 
Jenny late in 1861, but it became Battery F, 3d N. Y. artillery, early 
in 1862. The 2nd Excelsior battery, recruited and organized for 
the Excelsior brigade, at New York city, under authority dated 
Oct. I, 1861, was designated by the state authorities the loth battery. 
It was mustered into the U. S. service for three years, April 9, 1862,^ 
and left the state the following day. Attached to the 2nd corps, Army 
of Virginia, it was active at Cedar mountain, and in Pope's Virginia 
campaign, righting at Rappahannock Station, Rappahannock river, Sul- 
phur Springs, Groveton and the second Bull Run. It was with the 12th 
corps at Antietam, and with the 3d corps at Fredericksburg and 
Chancellorsvillc, sustaining a loss of 13 wounded and 5 missing in 
the last named battle. It served by detachments in diflferent bat- 
teries at Gettysburg, where it lost 2 killed and 3 wounded, and the 
remainder of its term was spent at Washington in garrison duty. 
On June 21, 1864, commanded by Lieut. T. C. Bruen, it was trans- 
ferred to the 6th N. Y. battery. It lost 3 men killed and 9 men 
by disease. 

Eleventh Independent Battery. — Capts., Albert Von Putkammer, 
John E. Burton, James T. Wyatt, George W. Davy. The ilth, the 
Havelock battery, was formed on Jan. 15, 1862, by the consolida- 
tion of two incomplete organizations — the independent battery, 
Flying Artillery, recruited at Albany under the auspices of the 
Young Men's Christian Association, and there mustered into the 
U. S. service for three years, and the battery recruited about the 
same time by Capt. Robert C. Warmington at Ashtabula, Ohio, 
and Buffalo, N. Y. The battery continued in service after the ex- 
piration of its term as a veteran organization. It left the state 
Jan. 17, 1862, commanded by Capt. Von Putkammer, and was sta- 
tioned at Washington for a number of months. Attached to the 
reserve corps, Army of Virginia, it served in Pope's Virginia cam- 
paign, losing 2T, wounded and captured at Manassas and Bull Run 



New York Regiments 327 

bridge. In Nov., 1862, it moved with the 3d corps to Fahtiouth, 
where it joined Burnside's army, and later took part in the battle 
of Fredericksburg without loss. In the artillery brigade of the 
same corps it was heavily engaged at Chancellorsville, losing 11 
killed, wounded and missing; at Gettysburg, where it fought at- 
tached to Battery K, ist N. Y. artillery, it lost S men wounded. It 
was active in the Mine Run campaign, and in 1864 it was engaged 
in all the battles of Grant's campaign from the Wilderness to Pe- 
tersburg. It took part in the first assault on the works of Peters- 
burg, after which it was engaged at the Weldon railroad, Deep 
Bottom and Strawberry Plains. Its loss was 4 killed and wounded 
at Cold Harbor, 3 at the assault on Petersburg, and i at Straw- 
berry Plains. In 1865 it was engaged in the last demonstrations 
on Petersburg and in the Appomattox campaign was engaged at 
White Oak ridge, Deatonsville road, Farmville and Appomattox 
Court House, but sustained no losses. The battery was mustered 
out on June 13, 1865, at Albany, under command of Capt. Davy. 
Its loss during service was 6 killed, 2 died of wounds received in 
action, and 13 of disease and other causes. 

Twelfth Independent Battery. — Capts., William H. Ellis, George 
F. McKnight, Charles A. Clark. This battery was organized at 
Albany and was there mustered into the U. S. service for three 
years on Jan. 14, 1862. It continued in service after the expiration 
of its term as a veteran organization. Commanded by Capt. Ellis, 
it left the state on Jan. 17, 1862, and was stationed at Washington 
until the summer of 1863, when it was assigned to the artillery 
brigade of the 3d corps, with which it participated in the pursuit 
of Lee's army, after the battle of Gettysburg, being engaged at 
Wapping heights; was active in the minor engagement at Kelly's 
ford; took part in the futile Mine Run campaign; and in the same 
brigade, but attached to the 2nd corps, it fought through the battles 
from the Wilderness to Petersburg, losing 3 men at Spottsylvania, 4 
at the North Anna, i at Cold Harbor, 11 at the Weldon railroad 
and II at Reams' station. From Sept., 1864, it formed part of the 
artillery reserve. Army of the Potomac, and took part in the final 
assault on Petersburg, April 2, 1865. It was mustered out under 
command of Capt. Clark, at Albany, N. Y., June 14, 1865, having 
lost 19 killed and died of wounds, and b3' disease. 

Thirteenth Independent Battery. — Capts., Emil Stumpfels, Julius 
Dieckman, William Wheeler, Henry Bundy. This battery was re- 
cruited in the late summer of 1861 at New York city, as part of a 
battalion of artillery for E. D. Baker's brigade. Recruiting for the 
battalion was discontinued and all the men enlisted were united in 
Co. A, which was designated by the state as above in Dec, 1861. It 
was mustered into the U. S. service for three years, at New York 
city, Oct. 15, 1861, and left the state two days later. Upon the ex- 
piration of its term, the men reenlisted at Bridgeport, Ala., Jan. 
I, 1864, and the battery continued in service as a veteran organ- 
ization. It served in the Army of the Potomac until April, 1862, 
when it was ordered to the Mountain Department, under Gen. 
Fremont, and was active at the Rappahannock river. It was then 
assigned to the reserve artillerj^ ist corps, and was engaged in 
June at Cross Keys and White House ford; took part in Pope's 
Virginia campaign, culminating in the battles around Manassas, 
its loss in this campaign being i killed and 12 wounded; was then 
withdrawn from the front for a few months, and attached to the 
artiilerj' brigade of the nth corps. It was actively engaged at Chan- 



228 The Union Army 

cellorsville and Gettysburg, losing 15 killed, wounded and missing 
in the former battle, and 11 in the latter. On Sept. 24, 1863, it 
moved with the nth corps to Tennessee and formed part of the 
forces that drove the enemy from the vicinity of Chattanooga, be- 
ing engaged in Lookout valley and in the battle of Missionary 
ridge, after which it accompanied the troops sent to the relief of 
Knoxville. In April, 1864, when the nth and 12th corps were 
united to form the 20th corps, it was assigned to the 2nd division 
of the new corps, and took part in all the principal engagements 
of the corps from Chattanooga to Atlanta, including Resaca, Dal- 
las, Kennesaw mountain, Peachtree creek and the siege of Atlanta. 
It suffered severe losses and its ranks were twice filled by details 
of infantry. After the fall of Atlanta, these details were returned 
to their regiments and the battery was left with an effective strength 
of only 86 men. It was ordered to garrison duty in the Department of 
the Cumberland in September, and fought its last engagement at 
Overall's creek, Tenn., in Dec, 1864. The battery was mustered 
out at New York city, under command of Capt. Bundy, July 28, 
1865, having lost during its term of service i officer and 13 men 
killed and died of wounds; 16 men died of disease and other causes, 
a total of 29. 

Fourteenth Independent Battery. — (See 2nd Battalion Light Ar- 
tillery.) 

Fifteenth Independent Battery. — (See 2nd Battalion Light Ar- 
tillery.) 

Sixteenth Independent Battery. — Capts., Milo W. Locke, Fred- 
erick L. Hiller, Richard li. Lee. The i6th, "Dickinson's Light Ar- 
tillery," was recruited and organized at Binghamton, during the 
winter of 1861-62, left the state on March 10, 1862, and on the 27th 
was mustered into the U. S. service at Washington for a term of 
three years, to date from Dec. 10, 1861. It remained at Washington 
for a year and saw its first active service with the 7th corps during 
the siege of Suffolk in the spring of 1863. It was then stationed at 
Yorktown and Newport News until the summer of 1864, when it 
joined the army before Petersburg, as part of the i8th corps, par- 
ticipating in the first assault on the works in June. In the action 
at Chaffin's farm it had 4 men wounded; was again engaged on the 
Darby town road in October; then accompanied the 24th corps to 
North Carolina; was engaged in Jan. and Feb., 1865, at Fort Fisher, 
Cape Fear, Fort Anderson and Wilmington; was attached to the 
provisional corps, on March i, 1865, and moved on the campaign 
of the Carolinas. Its last active service was at Bennett's house, 
where Gen. Johnston surrendered. It was mustered out at Elm.ira, 
July 6, 1865, under command of Capt. Lee, having lost during its 
term of service 45 enlisted men who died of disease and other 
causes. 

Seventeenth Independent Battery. — Capt., George T. Anthony. 
The 17th, or "Orleans Battery," was recruited and organized at 
Lockport in Aug., 1862, and was there mustered into the U. S. 
service for a term of three years on Aug. 26. Three days later it 
left for Washington, where it remained for nearly two years en- 
gaged in garrison duty. On July 6, 1864, it joined the army before 
Petersburg, and was attached to the artillery brigade, i8th corps. 
It was in action at Chaflfin's farm and in 1865 took part in the final 
Appomattox campaign, being active in the final assault on Peters- 
burg, at Rice's station, Bush river and Appomattox Court House. 
It was mustered out at Richmond, Va., under Capt. Anthony, June 
12, 1865, having lost 17 men by disease and other causes. 



New York Regiments 229 

Eighteenth Independent Battery. — Capt., Albert G. Mack. This 
battery, known as the "Black Horse artillery," or "Billinghurst bat- 
tery," was recruited and organized by Capt. Mack at Rochester, 
where it was mustered into the U. S. service for three years on 
Sept. 13, 1862. At the close of the year 1864, 117 members of the 
battery were transferred to the 25th battery. The i8th left the 
state on Dec. 2, 1862, and joined Sherman's division. Department 
of the Gulf. Attached to the 19th corps, it was active at Fort Bis- 
land, the Amite river, Plains store, and the siege of Port Hudson, 
La., where it participated in the assaults of May 27 and June 14. 
After the surrender of Port Hudson it went into the defenses of 
New Orleans; was engaged at Bayou La Fourche in July, 1863; 
took part in the expedition to Clinton and Liberty creek, La., in 
Nov., 1864; and in the spring of 1865, participated with Gen. Can- 
by's forces in the siege of Mobile, engaging at Spanish Fort, and 
at Fort Blakely and Mobile. It was mustered out under Capt. 
Mack, at Rochester, N. Y., July 20, 1865, having lost during service 
4 men mortally wounded, and 23 men by disease and other causes, 
a total of 27. 

Nineteenth Independent Battery. — Capts., William H. Stahl, Ed- 
ward W. Rogers. This battery was recruited in the county of Ni- 
agara and was mustered into the U. S. service for three years, on 
Oct. 27, 1862, at Elmira. It left the state two days later; was sta- 
tioned at Washington through the succeeding winter; was engaged 
with the 7th corps in the siege of Suffolk in the spring of 1863, and 
then retired into the defenses of Washington. In March, 1864, it 
was ordered to the front, and as part of the 9th corps, participated 
in the Wilderness campaign. It was active at the battle of the Wil- 
derness; was heavily engaged at Spottsylvania, where it sustained 
a loss of 16 killed and wounded; in the succeeding battles at the 
North Anna, Totopotomy, Cold Harbor and the assault on the 
works of Petersburg, it did its full share of hard fighting and ac- 
quitted itself honorably, losing 6 more men in killed and wounded. 
It took place in the action of the crater, having 3 men wounded, 
and was subsequently engaged at the Weldon railroad. Poplar 
Grove Church and Hatcher's run. At Fort Stedman in March, 
1865, it lost I killed and 2 officers and 12 men missing, and was in 
the final assault on Petersburg on April 2. It was mustered out 
under Capt. Rogers, June 13, 1865, at Elmira, Capt. Stahl having 
died of disease in Washington, Sept. 15, 1863. The battery lost 
during its term of service 9 men killed in action; 5 men mortally 
wounded, and i officer and 17 men who died of disease, a total of 
32. 

Twentieth Independent Battery. — The 20th battery was origi- 
nally recruited in the counties of New York and Kings as one of 
the batteries of Anthon's battalion of artillery. It was organized 
at New York city and there mustered into the U. S. service for 
three years, Dec. 27, 1862. It was commanded by Capt. Gilbert S. 
Coddington until Aug. 31, 1863, when he resigned and was suc- 
ceeded by Capt. B. Franklin Ryer. Its term of service was spent 
in garrison duty at Forts Schuyler and Columbus, New York har- 
bor, and it was mustered out at New York city, July 31, 1865, hav- 
ing sustained a loss of 6 men by disease during its term of service. 
A section of the battery assisted in quelling the New York draft 
riots in July, 1863. 

Twenty-first Independent Battery. — Capt., James Barnes. This 
battery was raised and organized at Oswego and was mustered into 



230 The Union Army 

the U. S. service for three years, Dec. 12, 1862, at New York city. 
It left the state the same day for New Orleans and was engaged 
in May at the Armite river and Civiques ferry, and then took part 
in the siege of Port Hudson, participating in the assaults of May 
27 and June 14. It lost 7 men captured at Plains store; was active 
at Morganza, with the 19th corps in Jul}' and at Morgan's ferry, 
and Simsport in October. Attached to the reserve artillery, 13th 
corps, it was engaged at Spanish Fort and Mobile, Ala., in the 
spring of 1865, losing 2 killed and i wounded. It was mustered 
out at Syracuse, N. Y., Sept. 8, 1865. Its loss during service was 2 
killed, and i officer and 30 men died of disease and other causes, 
a total of 33. 

Twenty-second Independent Battery. — Capt.. John D. Newman. 
This batterj- was organized at Lockport and was mustered into the 
U. S. service Oct. 28, 1862, at Elmira, for three years. It left the 
state on Nov. 23, and was transferred to the 9th N. Y. artillery, on 
Feb. 5, 1863, as Co. M. 

Twenty-third Independent Battery. — Capts., Alfred Ransom, Sam- 
uel Kittinger, Jr. This batter\' (originally Battery A, Rocket bat- 
talion), was organized at Albany and was recruited in the counties 
of Niagara, Essex and Warren. It was mustered into the U. S. 
service at Albany, Dec. 6, 1861, for three years, and left the state 
three days later, for Washington. On the expiration of its term of 
service, m.any of the original members reenlisted and the battery 
continued in service as a veteran organization. In April. 1862, it 
was ordered to North Carolina to join the forces under Gen. Fos- 
ter; took part in the expedition to Goldsboro in December, being 
called into action at Kinston, Olive Station, Goshen swamp, White 
Hall bridge, Thompson's bridge and Goldsboro; was engaged at 
New Berne in March, 1863; then at Blount's creek and Greenville; 
and in April, 1865. was attached to the cavalry division of Gen. 
Sherman's army. It took part in the campaign of the Carolinas, 
being engaged at Washington and Bennett's house. The battery 
served its whole period of active service in North Carolina and 
sustained no losses in battle, though 46 men died of disease. It 
was mustered out, commanded by Capt. Kittinger, at Fort Porter, 
Buffalo, July 14, 1865. 

Twenty-fourth Independent Battery. — Capts., Jay E. Lee, A. Lester 
Cady, William W. Crooker. This battery (originally Battery B, 
Rocket battalion) was organized at Albany, and was principally re- 
cruited in the counties of Monroe and Wyoming. It was mustered 
into the U. S. service at Albany, Dec. 7, 1861, for three years, and 
on the expiration of its term many of the original members reen- 
listed, the battery being continued in service as a veteran organiza- 
tion. It left the state on Dec. 9, 1861, and was stationed at Wash- 
ington until in April. 1862, when it was ordered to North Carolina, 
in which state it continued to serve until the close of the war. It 
took part in the engagements at Young's cross-roads, the expedition 
from New Berne to Goldsboro, New Berne, Williamston, Chowan 
river and Plymouth, where it lost 2 killed, 5 wounded and 115 cap- 
tured). The battery was transferred to the 3d N. Y. artillery as 
Battery L, but did not join the regiment until after the close of the 
war. It lost during service 3 men killed and mortally wounded; 
85 died of disease and other causes, a total of 88. of whom 67 died 
in Confederate prisons. 

Twenty-fifth Independent Battery. — Capts., John A. Graw, Irving 
S. Southworth. The 2Sth battery, recruited from the counties of 



New York Regiments 231 

Niagara, Orleans, and Genesee, rendezvoused at Lockport and was 
there mustered into the U. S. service on Dec. 12, 1862. It left the 
state on the i8th, embarking on the transport "Sparkling Sea," en 
route to New Orleans and the Gulf, being wrecked on Jan. 9, 1863, 
while enroute, and finally reached New Orleans on Feb. 4. It served 
for a number of months in the defenses of New Orleans, afterwards 
with the 3d division, and in the artillery reserve of the 19th corps, 
fighting at La Fourche Crossing, and Vermillionville. In Jan., 1864, 
the battery received by transfer 117 men from the i8th battery 
and was then attached to the ist division, 19th corps, with which it 
took part in the Red River campaign, being active at Sabine cross- 
roads, Pleasant Hill (where it sustained a loss of 4 killed and i 
wounded), Cane river crossing and Mansura. On its return it again 
went into the defenses of New Orleans, serving there, in the dis- 
trict of La Fourche and in the Southern Division of Louisiana, un- 
til finally mustered out under command of Capt. Southworth, at 
Rochester, N. Y., Aug. i, 1865. During its term of service it lost 
4 men killed and mortally wounded, and 28 men who died of disease 
and other causes. 

Twenty-sixth Independent Battery. — Capts., J. Warren Barnes, 
George W. Fox. The 26th Battery, "Barnes' Rifle Battery," was 
recruited and organized at Rochester, and left the state on Dec. 4, 
1862, en route by transport to the Department of the Gulf. On 
the passage it was wrecked twice and was enroute 51 days, finally 
reaching New Orleans, where it was mustered into the U. S. serv- 
ice for three years, on Feb. 25. 1863. The battery was employed 
for a j'ear in garrison and guard duty at New Orleans and at Port 
Hudson, and in March, 1864, was attached to the ist division, 19th 
corps, with which it moved on the Red River campaign, engaging 
at Cane river crossing, Avoyelles prairie and Mansura. On its re- 
turn it served in the District of Morganza and then in the reserve — 
2nd division, Department of the Gulf. In the artillery brigade, 13th 
corps, it was engaged at Spanish Fort, Fort Blakely, and Mobile 
in the spring of 1865, and was mustered out at New Orleans, com- 
manded by Lieut. Adam Beattie, Sept. i, 1865. Its loss during 
service was 34 enlisted men who died of disease and other causes. 

Twenty-seventh Independent Battery. — Capt., John B. Eaton. This 
battery, the "Buffalo Light Artillery," was raised and organized 
at Buffalo, where it was mustered into the U. S. service for three 
years on Dec. 17, 1862. It performed garrison duty at Washington 
until the spring of 1864, save for a period in 1863 when it was or- 
dered to Philadelphia at the time of Lee's invasion of Pennsyl- 
vania. In 1864 it fought with the 9th corps, at the Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania, first assault on the works of Petersburg, and at the 
mine explosion. It was again active at Fort Stedman in March, 
1865, and in the final assault on Petersburg. Commanded by Capt. 
Eaton, it was mustered out at Fort Porter, Buffalo, June 22, 1865, 
having lost during service 2 men mortally wounded, 5 men wound- 
ed, 2 missing, and 17 who died of disease, etc. 

Twenty-eighth Independent Battery. — Capts., Cyprian H. Wil- 
lard, Josiah C. Hannum. This battery, originally recruited in the 
counties of New York, Jefferson and Steuben, as one of the two 
batteries of Anthon's battalion of artillery, was organized at Fort 
Schuyler, where it was mustered into the U. S. service for three 
years on Dec. 27, 1862. Its term of service was spent in garrison: 
duty at Fort Schuyler and Sandy Hook, and it was mustered out 
under command of Capt. Hannum, July 31, 1865, at New York 
city. It lost 3 men by disease during service. 



232 The Union Army 

Twenty-ninth Independent Battery. — (See ist Battalion Heavy- 
Artillery.) 

Thirtieth Independent Battery. — (See ist Battalion Heavy Ar- 
tillery.) 

Thirty-first Independent Battery. — (See ist battalion Heavy Ar- 
tillery.) 

Thirty-second Independent Battery. — (See ist Battalion Heavy 
Artillery.) 

Thirty-third Independent Battery. — Capt., Algar M. Wheeler. 
This battery was recruited at Buffalo, Rochester, Lockport and El- 
mira, and w^as mustered into the U. S. service at Elmira, Sept. 4, 

1863, for three years. It left the state the next day and was sta- 
tioned at Washington until the following April, when it was as- 
signed to the 1st brigade, 3d division, loth corps, with which it 
took part in the operations against Petersburg and Richmond, be- 
ing engaged at Drewry's bluff and at Bermuda Hundred in May. 
It participated with its corps in the assault on Petersburg in June 
and remained in the trenches there until the close of the war. In 
Aug., 1864, it was stationed at Fort Pocahontas, and from Jan., 
1865, was attached to Ferrero's division in the defenses of Ber- 
muda Hundred, but took part in the final assault on Petersburg,^ 
April 2, 1865. It was mustered out at Petersburg, June 25, 1865. Its 
loss during service was i officer and 12 enlisted men who died of 
disease, etc. 

Thirty-fourth Independent Battery. — Capts., Thomas L. Robin- 
son, Jacob L. Roemer. This organization, known as the "Hamil- 
ton" or "Flushing battery," was recruited at Flushing, L. I., by 
Capt. Robinson, the artillery company of the isth militia forming 
its nucleus. It was mustered into the U. S. service for three years 
on Nov. 28, 1861, and was assigned to the 2nd N. Y. artillery as Co. 
L on Dec. 5. It served as a light battery, detached from its regi- 
ment, being permanently detached and designated the 34th bat- 
tery on Nov. 19, 1863. Capt. Robinson was discharged on March 4, 
1862, and was succeeded by Capt. Roemer. A majority of the orig- 
inal members reenlisted as veterans and the battery was continued 
in service as a veteran organization. It left the state on Dec. 2, 
1861; was stationed at Washington until the following summer; 
was in action for the first time at Cedar mountain, with the 2nd 
brigade, 3d division, 2nd corps; took part in Gen. Pope's campaign 
and the battles about Manassas; and was then assigned to the 9th 
corps, with which it served for the remainder of its term. It was 
active at Jefferson, Sulphur Springs, Fayetteville and Fredericks- 
burg, and in 1863 accompanied its corps to Mississippi, where it took 
part in the siege of Vicksburg, and was then engaged at Jackson, 
Miss., Blue Springs, Lenoir Station, Campbell Station, Siege of 
Knoxville and Rutledge, Tenn. Returning to Virginia in the spring 
of 1864, it took part in Grant's Wilderness campaign, including the 
battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna, the Toto- 
potomy, Cold Harbor and the assault on the works of Petersburg 
in June, where it lost 7 men wounded. It was engaged without 
loss at the mine explosion and at Poplar Grove Church, but met 
with a loss of 3 killed and 3 wounded at Hatcher's run in Oct., 

1864. At Fort Stedman in March, 1865, its casualties were 5 killed 
and wounded. From June 16, 1864, to April 2, 1865, it was before 
Petersburg, where it sustained a loss of 13 wounded. The battery 
was mustered out at Hart's island, N. Y. harbor, June 21, 1865, 
having lost 7 killed and mortally wounded, and 15 men died of dis- 
ease and other causes; total, 22. 



New York Regiments 233 

Thirty-fifth Independent Battery. — Recruiting for this battery 
commenced in July, 1863, and on Sept. 25, the men enlisted were 
assigned as Co. A to the 16th N. Y. artillery (q. v.). 

Thirty-sixth Independent Battery. — Recruiting for this battery 
was begun in Aug., 1863, and on Oct. 14, the men enlisted were 
assigned to the 13th N. Y. artillery (q. v.). 

First Engineers. — Cols., Edward W. Serrell, James F. Hall; 
Lieut.-Cols., Edward W. Serrell, James F. Hall, James E. Place; 
Majs., James F. Hall, Richard Butts, Joseph Walker, James E. 
Place, Alfred F. Sears, Frederick E. Greaf, Frederick H. 
Cruso. This regiment, "Serrell's Engineers," recruited from the 
state at large, rendezvoused at New York city and was there 
mustered into the U. S. service from Oct. 11, 1861, to Feb 19, 1862, 
for three years. The original Co. L became the 4th N. Y. bat- 
tery in Oct., 1861, and in Jan., 1864, 205 men of the Enfants Perdus, 
and 2 officers and 40 of the 4th N. Y. battery were transferred to 
this regiment, Co. L being organized of the men of the 4th battery. 
Co. M was formed in April, 1864, from recruits in the field. The 
original members (except veterans) were mustered out by detach- 
ments as their term of service expired, and the regiment, composed 
of veterans and recruits, continued in the service as a veteran or- 
ganization. The regiment left the state by detachments from Oct., 
1861, to Feb., 1862, proceeding to Port Royal, S. C, where it served 
in the loth corps. Department of the South, until 1864, and took 
part in the following engagements: Port Royal ferry, with Com. 
Tatnall's flotilla, Battery Vulcan, S. C, Fort Pulaski, Ga. (its flag 
being the first to float over that fortress), James island, Secession- 
ville, Coosawhatchie river, Caston's and Frampton's plantations, 
Morris island, siege of Fort Wagner, bombardment of Fort Sum- 
ter, Seabrook, John's island, Olustee, Fla., and Morris island. Its 
heaviest casualties during this period were at Morris island, where 
it lost 25 killed and wounded, and at the siege of Fort Wagner, 
where the loss was 21 killed and wounded. From May, 1864, Cos. 
B, D, E, F, H, K, L and M served with the Army of the James. 
In the operations against Petersburg and Richmond in May, 1864, 
its services were particularly valuable at Bermuda Hundred, as also 
during the siege of Petersburg, where the regiment sustained a loss 
of 19 in killed and wounded. During the year 1864, portions of the 
regiment took part m engagements at Dutch gap and Chaffin's 
farm, Va., John's island. Honey Hill, Deveaux's neck and Tilla- 
finny Station, S. C. The last active service of the regiment was in 
the final assault on Petersburg, April 2, 1865. It was mustered out 
at Richmond, Va., June 30, 1865, under command of Col. Hall. It 
lost during its term of service 2 officers and 24 men killed and mor- 
tally wounded; 5 officers and 114 men by disease, accidents, in 
prison, etc., a total of 145 officers and men. 

Fifteenth Regiment of Engineers. — (See isth Infantry.) 
Fiftieth Regiment of Engineers. — (See 50th Infantry.) 
First Battalion Sharpshooters. — Majs., W. S. Rowland, Joseph 
S. Arnold; Capts., Abijah C. Gray, Volney J. Shipman, 6th com- 
pany; Joseph S. Arnold, Clinton Perry, 7th company; Edward G. 
Robinson, Alfred Perry, John B. McDonald, 8th company; Thomas 
S. Bradley, 9th company. This battalion as finally organized con- 
sisted of four companies, the 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th. A loth company 
was originally enlisted for nine months' service and was organized 
under Capt. Charles M. White, Jan. 13, 1863. In April, 1863, its 
term of service was changed to three years, but the company was 



234 The Union Army 

never completed, its members being transferred in June, 1863, 
to the gth company, the Enfants Perdus, and the 178th N. Y. infan- 
try. The 6th, the flank company, io8th N. Y. infantry, was recruit- 
ed and organized at Rochester, and there mustered into the U. S. 
service for three years. Sept. 13, 1862. It was mustered out under 
command of Lieut. Philip Hysner, June 3, 1865, at Washington, 
D. C. The 7th. Co. L, 112th N. Y. infantry, was organized at 
Jamestown, and there mustered into the U. S. service for three 
years on Sept. 12, 1862. It was mustered out under command of 
Capt. Clinton Perry, near Washington, June 3, 1865. The 8th 
company was recruited at Buflfalo, Hudson and Chatham and was 
mustered into the U. S. service for three years, Jan. 22, 1863, at 
New Dorp. Staten island. It was mustered out near Washington, 
D. C, commanded by Capt. McDonald, Jul}' 10, 1865. The 9th 
company was recruited at Albany, Hudson, Canaan, Hinsdale and 
New Lebanon, rendezvoused at New Dorp. Staten island, and was 
there mustered into the U. S. service for nine months. Command- 
ed by 1st Lieut. Warren Blinn, it was mustered out at Albany, Aug. 
5, 1863. The companies left the state on Feb. 3, 1863; served with 
the 7th corps during the siege of Suffolk; with the ist corps. Army 
of the Potomac, in the Mine Run campaign, sustaining a loss of 8 
men killed and wounded during the year; and in 1864 were attached 
to Cutler's division, Sth corps, with which they fought through 
Grant's Wilderness campaign leading up to the siege of Petersburg. 
The loss at the Wilderness was 35 killed, wounded and missing; 
at Spottsylvania, 14; at the North Anna, 9; at Cold Harbor, 6; in 
the first assault on Petersburg, 17; and at the Weldon railroad, 53, 
of whom 49 were captured. The battalion was again engaged at 
Hatcher's run, in October, but without loss. After Nov.. 1864, it 
served in the 3d division, 5th corps, but unattached, and took part 
in the final Appomattox campaign, being engaged at White Oak 
ridge. Five Forks, the final assault on Petersburg, and Appomat- 
tox Court House. The total losses of the battalion by companies 
were as follows: 6th Co. — 10 killed and mortally wounded, 9 died 
of disease, total, 19; 7th Co. — 12 killed and mortally wounded, 8 
died of disease, total, 20; Sth Co. — S killed and mortally wounded, 
14 died of disease, total, 19; 9th Co.— died of disease, i officer and 
5 men. 

First U. S. Sharpshooters. — Col., Hiram Berdan; Lieut. -Cols., 
Caspar Trepp, George G. Hastings; Majs., George G. Hastings, 
John Wilson, William S. Rowland. This regiment, known as Ber- 
dan's Sharpshooters, was recruited by Col. Berdan in the summer 
of 1861. New York furnished four of its companies — A, B, D 
and H — and afterward a large number of recruits. Co. A, recruited 
in New York city and commanded by Capt. Caspar Trepp, was 
there mustered into the \J. S. service Sept. 3 to Nov. 29, 1861, for 
three years; Co. B, Capt. Stephen Martin, was recruited at Albany, 
New York city, and Penn Yan, organized at Albany and there mus- 
tered into the U. S. service Nov. 29, 1861; Co. D, Capt. Geo. S. 
Tuckerman, recruited at New Berlin, Cherry Valley, Roseboom, 
Richfield Springs, Milford, Deerfield, Norway and Mexico, and Co. 
H, Capt. George G. Hastings, recruited at New York city, were 
both mustered in on Nov. 29, 1861. The regiment served with the 
Army of the Potomac, in detachments and also as one organiza- 
tion, in the 2nd, 3d, and 5th corps. Co. A was mustered out before 
Petersburg, Aug. 19, 1864; Co. D on Aug. 28 and Dec. 31. The regi- 
ment was consolidated with the 2nd U. S. sharpshooters, and in 



New York Regiments 335 

Feb., 1865, the men from New York were assigned to the 124th 
N. Y. infantry. Of the officers and men furnished by New York, 
3 officers and 33 men were killed and mortally wounded, and 30 
men died of disease and other causes, a total of 66. 

New York Militia and National Guard organizations in the United 
States service. 

First Cavalry. — Capt. Devin's company, '"Jackson Horse Guards." 
One hundred men of the ist cavalry, of New York city, under com- 
mand of Lieut.-Col. Devin as captain, volunteered for three months' 
service, when the general government early in July, 1861, request- 
ed some mounted troops. It left the state on July 3, and was mus- 
tered into the U. S. service for three months at Washington, July 
14, 1861. It was mustered out at New York city, Oct. 23, 1861. 

Third Cavalry. — Capt. Sauer's Company C, "Hussars." One 
hundred men of the 3d cavalry, mostly from Co. C, of New York 
city, entered the service of the United States for three months in 
July, 1861, in response to the request of the government for mount- 
ed troops. It left the state on July 23, and was mustered out at 
New York city, Nov. 2, 1861. 

Varian's Battery, Light Artillery. — Capt., Joshua M. Varian. This 
battery in 1861 formed the ist troop or Co. I of the 8th regiment, 
known as the Washington Grays (q. v.). It entered the service of 
the United States for three months, and left New York city on 
April 19, 1861. It was mustered out at New York city July 20, 
1861, and some of its members later formed the nucleus of the 4th 
light battery (q. v.). As part of the 8th regiment, it was again 
mustered into the U. S. service in June, 1863, for 30 days, and did 
duty during the campaign in Pennsylvania as cavalry and artillery. 
During its 3 months' enlistment in 1861. it was engaged at Smith's 
Point, Md.. and Fairfax Court House, Va. In 1863 it was active 
at Shippensburg, Kingston, Oyster Point, near Fort Washington, 
Sporting hill and Carlisle, Pa. 

First BattJilion Light Artillery. — Maj., William M. Lewis. The 
1st battalion, composed of Batteries A and B and known as the 
Rochester Union Grays, was located at Rochester and was mus- 
tered into the U. S. service for the term of 100 days, Aug. 31, 1864, 
for duty in guarding Confederate prisoners at Ehnira. It was 
mustered out at Rochester Nov. 22, 1864. 

Second Infantry. — (See 82nd Infantry and 3d Independent Battery.) 

Fourth Heavy Artillery.— Col., Daniel W. Teller; Lieut.-Col., John 
I. Diehl; Maj., Nason B. Collins. This was a New York city regiment. 
It entered the U. S. service for 30 days June 18, 1863, and served 
during its term in the Department of the Susquehanna, being mus- 
tered out of the U. S. service at New York city, July 24, 1863. 

Fifth Regiment. — Col.. Christian Schwarzwalder; Lieut.-Col., Louis 
Burger; Maj., George Van Amsberg. The 5th militia, the "Jeflfer- 
son Guard" of New York city, was largely composed of Germans 
and was one of the eleven uniformed regiments of militia called 
into the service of the United States between April 19 and May 7, 
1861. It left the state on April 28, 1861, and was mustered in at 
Washington, for three months' service. May i, 1861. It was as- 
signed to Gen. Patterson's command, and spent its term in the vi- 
cinity of Washington and Baltimore, being on duty at Washing- 
ton, Hagerstown, Martinsburg, Charlestown, Bolivar heights and 
Knoxville. It was then employed in guard, picket and scout duty 
at the "Relay House," near Baltimore, and in guarding the impor- 
tant railroad communications with the capital. On May 24 it took 



236 The Union Army 

part in the occupation of Arlington Heights. It returned to New 
York Aug. 2, 1861, and was mustered out there on the 7th. It had 
a total enrollment of 600 members. On June 18, 1863, it again en- 
tered the service of the United States, and was mustered in for a 
term of 30 days. It was then commanded by Louis Burger, Col., 
Jeremiah B. J. Dodge, Lieut.-Col., and Anton Meyer, Maj. Its term 
of service was spent at Harrisburg, Marysville, Carlisle and Cham- 
bersburg, Pa., under Gen. Yates, being assigned to the ist brigade, 
Dana's division, Department of the Susquehanna. It was mustered 
out at New York city. July 22, 1863. 

Sixth Regiment ("Governor's Guard"). — Col., Joseph C. Pinckney; 
Lieut.-Col., Samuel K. Zook; Maj., Milton G. Rathbun. The 6th militia, 
the "Governor's Guard," was a New York city organization, largely 
composed of Germans, and was one of the original eleven uniformed 
militia regiments called into the U. S. service at the outbreak of the 
war. The Union Defense Committee contributed $4,000 towards its 
equipment, the remainder of the necessary fund being provided by 
its friends and by the state Its original orders directed it to pro- 
ceed to Washington by rail, but on account of the attack on the 
6th Mass. in the streets of Baltimore it was directed to proceed by 
water. It left the state April 21, 600 strong, arrived at Annapolis, 
Md., two days later, and was there mustered in for three months, 
the term being spent in the vicinity of Annapolis, engaged in guard 
and garrison duty. Upon receipt of the news of the battle of Bull 
Run, the regiment unanimously requested to be sent to the front, 
but its request was not granted and on July 29 it returned to New 
York city, where it was mustered out on the 31st. When the 66th 
N. Y. infantry was organized a large portion of the 6th enlisted in 
that organization, under Col. Pinckney. On June 18, 1863, the 6th, 
then commanded by Col. Joel W. Mason, with Bernard Schwartz 
as lieut.-col., and Edward B. Kinney as major, again entered the 
U. S. service for a term of 30 daj^s. It left the state on June 22, 
for Baltimore, and served during its term in the 2nd and 3d bri- 
gades, 8th corps. Middle Department. It was mustered out at New 
York city, July 22, 1863. One man died of disease during its 30 
days' term. 

Seventh Regiment, N. G. — Col., Marshall Leflferts; Lieut.-Col., 
William A. Pond; Maj.. Alexander Shaler. This famous regiment 
of New York city dates its origin from April, 1806, when Cos. A, 
B, C and D, were organized at the time of the excitement created 
by the British firing on American vessels off Sandy Hook. At the 
beginning of 1861 it was known as one of the best appointed and 
drilled militia regiments then in existence. It was composed of 
excellent material, all its members being young men engaged in 
active business pursuits in the metropolis, and was the first New 
York regiment to leave for the front. Its departure for Washing- 
ton, April 19, 1861, was attended by scenes of great excitement and 
enthusiasm, its line of march through the streets of New York 
being a perfect ovation. Speaking of the National Guard regiments 
furnished by New York, Col. Fox, in his Regimental Losses in the 
Civil War, says: "Of these troops, the 7th regiment. National 
Guard — or 7th Militia, as it was called — was particularly conspic- 
uous by the surprising celerity with which it went to the front in 
time of need; by its superior drill and equipment; and by the high 
standard of personal character which marked its rank and file. 
When the war broke out it was among the very first to take the 
field, leaving New York with 991 officers and men, and by its time- 



New York Regiments 237 

ly arrival at Washington contributed largely to the relief of the 
threatened capital. This, its first enlistment, was for 30 days. It 
volunteered again in May, 1862, for three months; and again in June, 
1863, for one month. But the 7th rendered a far greater and more 
valuable service to the country by the large number of efficient and 
well-drilled soldiers, which went from its ranks to accept commis- 
sions in the new volunteer regiments. The volunteers were lacking 
in drill and military experience; the proficiency of the 7th was well 
known and membership in its ranks was a guarantee of character. 
Hence the volunteer service made such demands on it for officers 
that 603 men of this regiment were commissioned in other com- 
mands during the war. It was the West Point of the New York 
volunteer service. The 7th has no casualty list of its own, but of 
the officers which graduated from its ranks, 41 were killed in battle 
and 17 died of disease while in the service." News of the riot in 
Baltimore, in which some of the soldiers of the 6th Mass. were 
killed, was received before the regiment left New York, and the 
members were each provided with 48 rounds of ball-cartridge. On 
reaching Philadelphia orders were received to deviate from the 
route through Baltimore, as it was highly important that the regi- 
ment should reach Washington as soon as possible. It moved by 
rail as far as Perryville and thence by steamer to Annapolis, whence 
it made the toilsome march to Washington in company with the 
8th Mass. It reached the capital on the 26th, and was at once 
mustered into the U. S. service for 30 days. It crossed the Poto- 
mac with the first troops, when Alexandria and Arlington Heights 
were occupied; assisted in the construction of Fort Runyon; served 
at Washington until the expiration of its term, and was mustered 
out at New York city, June 3, 1861. On the day before it left the 
capital, an order was issued from the war department, of which 
the following is an extract: "It is the desire of the war depart- 
ment, in relinquishing the services of this gallant regiment, to make 
known the satisfaction that is felt at the prompt and patriotic man- 
ner in which it responded to the call for men to defend the capital, 
when it was believed to be in peril, and to acknowledge the impor- 
tant service which it rendered by appearing here in an hour of 
dark and trying necessity. The time for which it had engaged has 
now expired. The service which it was expected to perform has 
been handsomely accomplished, and its members may return to 
their native city with the assurance that its services are gratefully 
appreciated by all good and loyal citizens, whilst the government 
is equally confident that when the country again calls upon them, 
the appeal will not be made in vain to the young men of New York." 
On May 25, 1862, when Stonewall Jackson's strong column sud- 
denly invaded the Valley of the Shenandoah and again seriously 
endangered the national capital, the 7th, still commanded by Col. 
Lefferts, once more promptly tendered its services to the general 
government. As in 1861, it was the first of the militia regiments in 
readiness to leave for the front. On its arrival at Baltimore it was 
halted and ordered to report to Gen. Dix, commanding the Mid- 
dle Department, with headquarters at Baltimore, and on June 19, 
1862, it was mustered into the U. S. service for three months, to 
date from May 25. Most of this term was spent at and near Balti- 
more. It was mustered out at New York city, Sept. 9, 1862. On 
June 16, 1863, at the time of Lee's invasion of the north, the 7th 
once more entered the U. S. service, being mustered in at New 
York city for 30 days. It left the state on the 17th, under command 



238 The Union Army 

of Col. Lefferts, and served at Baltimore, and Frederick. Md., in 
the 2nd separate brigade, 8th corps, Middle Department, until as- 
signed on July 7, at Frederick, to the 3d division of the 3d corps, 
under command of Maj.-Gen. French. For several days after the 
battle of Gettj'sburg Col. Lefferts was in command of the city of 
Frederick. On July 14, the 7th received orders to report to Maj.- 
Gen. Wool during the draft riots in New York city, and arrived 
in New York on the i6th. It was mustered out on July 20. Dur- 
ing its service in 1861 it lost i man, accidentally killed. On the 
three occasions when it was called into service it had a unique 
record for the promptness and alacrity with which it responded to 
each call to arms. 

Eighth Regiment. — Col., George Lyons; Lieut.-Col., Charles G. 
Waterbury; Maj., O. F. Wentworth. This well known militia regi- 
ment, the "Washington Grays," dates its origin back to April 4, 
1786. It was one of the eleven uniformed and well disciplined 
militia regiments called out during the first days of the war to 
hurry to the defense of the endangered capital. It was a New 
York city organization, chiefly composed of hard working mechan- 
ics, with families to provide for and with no money to spare, yet 
the regiment left for Washington, 950 strong, on April 23, and was 
there mustered into the U. S. service for three months on the 25th. 
For some time before the battle of Bull Run it was encamped at 
Arlington House, where it served as guard to the headquarters of 
Gen. McDowell until the army moved to Bull Run, where the regi- 
ment took an honorable part in the battle, being assigned to the 
1st brigade (Col. Porter), 2nd division (Col. Hunter), Army of 
Northeastern Virginia. Its loss in this battle was 8 enlisted men 
killed, 17 enlisted men wounded, 4 officers and 9 enlisted men miss- 
ing, a total of 38. Two days after the battle its term of service ex- 
pired, and it returned to New York, where it was mustered out on 
Aug. 2. Many members of the 8th volunteered for service in other 
regiments, notably in the 47th infantry, and in the ist and 2nd 
Ira Harris cavalry. On May 29, 1862, the regiment, 895 strong, 
again left the state for Washington, under command of Col. Joshua 
M. Varian. It was mustered in the U. S. service for three months 
and was on duty at Yorktown. It was mustered out at New York 
city, Sept. 9, 1862, having suffered a loss of 6 men who died of dis- 
ease during this term of service. On June 17, 1863, the regiment 
again left the state, proceeding to Harrisburg, Pa., where it was 
mustered into the U. S. service for 30 days. Its field officers were 
Col. Varian, Lieut.-Col. Wentworth and Maj. Leander Buck. Dur- 
ing its term of service in Pennsylvania it marched 170 miles over 
rough roads in inclement weather; was in line of battle five times, 
and did excellent service in holding the enemy in check. It was 
attached to the ist brigade, ist division. Department of the Sus- 
quehanna, and was mustered out at New York city on July 23. 

Ninth Regiment. — (See 83d Infantry, and 6th Independent Bat- 
tery.) 

Tenth Regiment. — (See 177th Infantry.) 

Eleventh Regiment. — Col., Joachim Maidhof; Lieut.-Col., Will- 
iam B. Weinberger; Maj., George A. Raymond. This regiment, 
known as the "Washington Rifles," was a New York city organiza- 
tion. It left for the field on May 28, 1862; was mustered into the 
service of the United States for three months, at Harper's Ferry, 
W. Va. ; served in the 2nd brigade. Sigel's division, Department of 
the Shenandoah and at Harper's Ferry; and was mustered out at 



New York Regiments 239 

New York city, Sept. i6, 1861. On June 18, 1863, under command 
of Col. Maidhof, it again left the state, proceeding to Harrisburg, 
Pa. It was mustered into the U. S. service for 30 days and served 
its term in the 4th brigade,, ist division. Department of the Susque- 
hanna. During the greater part of this campaign, Col. Maidhof 
was in command of a brigade. It was in a skirmish at Oyster 
point, Pa., June 28, and was mustered out at New York city, July 
20, 1863, having lost i man by disease. 

Twelfth Regiment.— Col., Daniel Butterfield; Lieut.-Col., Will- 
iam G. Ward; Maj., Henry A. Bostwick. This was a New York 
city regiment and had on its rolls a number of men, who later dis- 
tinguished themselves as officers in the volunteer service. Col. 
Butterfield became one of the famous major-generals of the war 
and was the hero of Resaca; Adjt. Fred. T. Locke was promoted 
later in the war to the rank of brigadier-general for gallant and 
meritorious service; in the ranks marched Francis C. Barlow, later 
one of the best of the major-generals; Capt. Henry W. Ryder sub- 
sequently became a brigadier-general, and altogether, the 12th fur- 
nished about 75 officers to the volunteer army. The regiment, through 
Col. Butterfield, tendered its services to the government as soon 
as the war broke out, and its friends in the city contributed $10,000 
towards its equipment. On April 21, 1861, it left for Washington, 
nearly 1,000 strong, and was there mustered into the U. S. service 
for three months on May 2. On the night of May 23 it crossed the 
long bridge into Virginia, being the first regiment to invade the 
"sacred soil" of that state when Arlington Heights were occupied. 
On July 7 it was ordered to join the Army of the Shenandoah and 
reported to Maj. -Gen. Patterson at Martinsburg, W. Va., on the 
loth, Col. Butterfield being placed in command of a brigade con- 
sisting of the 5th and 12th N. Y. militia and the 19th and 28 N. Y. vol- 
unteer infantry. A detachment of the regiment was engaged in a 
slight skirmish with the enemy near Martinsburg on the 12th, and 
again skirmished lightly on the 15th at Bunker Hill. On the 21st 
it moved to Harper's Ferry, where it remained until the evacua- 
tion by Gen. Banks on the 28th, when it moved to Knoxville and 
remained there until ordered to New York, where it was mustered 
out on Aug. 5, 1861. During its term it lost 2 enlisted men, who 
died of disease. Many of its members were later identified with 
the I2th N. Y. infantry. On May 27, 1862, the regiment was again 
ordered to Washington and left the state on June 6. Its officers 
were. Col., William G. Ward; Lieut.-Col., Livingston Sutterlee; 
Maj., Henry A. Bostwick. It was mustered into the U. S. service 
for three months and served at Harper's Ferry in the 4th brigade. 
At the expiration of its term, it volunteered to remain until the 
threatened danger to Harper's Ferry was over and was among the 
troops surrendered to Stonewall Jackson at that place in Septem- 
ber. Thirty officers and 530 enlisted men were surrendered and 
paroled. It was mustered out at New York city, Oct. 12, 1862, and 
declared exchanged, Jan. 11, 1863. On June 18, 1863, at the time 
of Lee's invasion of the North, the 12th was again called into serv- 
ice of the general government and left for Harrisburg, Pa., on the 
20th, under command of Col. Ward. It was mustered into the U. S. 
service for 30 days and served under Gen. Yates at Fenwick, Pa., 
being assigned to the ist brigade, Dana's division, Department of 
the Susquehanna. It engaged in the performance of picket and 
outpost duty on the mountains, and was mustered out at New York 
city on July 20. 



240 The Union Army 

Thirteenth Heavy Artillery ("National Grays").— Col., Abel Smith; 
Lieut.-Col., Robert B. Clark; Maj., Elbert H. Willets. This was one of 
the eleven uniformed regiments of militia which promptly moved to the 
relief of Washington at the outbreak of the war. It was a Brooklyn 
regiment and left the state on April 23, 1861, 486 strong, proceeding by 
the steamer Marion to Annapolis, where it was mustered into the 
U. S. service for three months. Its strength was shortly increased 
to 793 men by recruits. It served at Annapolis under Gen. Butler 
until June 19, quartered in the buildings of the U. S. naval acade- 
my. It was engaged near the light-house at Smith's point, Chesa- 
peake Bay, Md., on May 18, and the engineer corps of the regi- 
ment rebuilt the railroad from the station at Annapolis to the pier 
of the naval academy. On June 19 it moved to Baltimore, where 
it passed the remainder of its term of service. It was mustered out 
at Brooklyn, Aug. 6, 1861, and many of its members subsequently 
entered the volunteer service in the 87th and 90th N. Y. infantry. 
On May 26, 1862, the 13th was again summoned to the defense of 
"Washington and left the state on the 30th, under command of Col. 
Robert B. Clark, with John B. Woodward, lieutenant-colonel, and 
Samuel K. Boyd, major. It was mustered into the U. S. service 
for three months and served nearly its entire term at Suffolk, Va., 
as part of the 7th corps. It was mustered out at Brooklyn, Sept. 
28. It went out a third time in 1863, when Lee invaded the North, 
leaving the state for Harrisburg, Pa., on June 20, for 30 days' serv- 
ice. Its field officers were Col., John B. Woodward; Lieut.-Col., 
William A. McKee; Maj., Joseph B. Leggett. It served at Fen- 
wick, Pa., in the 2nd brigade, ist division, Department of the Sus- 
quehanna, and was mustered out at Brooklyn on July 20. It was 
engaged during this campaign near Fort Washington, Pa. Its losses 
during service in 1861 were 5 men, died of disease; in 1863, one 
enlisted man, a total loss of 6. 

Fourteenth Regiment. — (See 84th Infantry.) 

Fifteenth Regiment. — Two companies of this regiment entered 
the U. S. service in 1861 as part of the 74th N. Y. infantry; a third 
company became Co. L, of the 2nd artillery, and later the 34th 
battery. The regiment was called into the service of the United 
States for 30 days, June 6, 1864, for duty in New York harbor, and 
was mustered out on July 7. Portions of the i6th, 17th and i8th 
regiments served with it, all under command of Col. Charles H. 
Burtiss of the 15th. 

Sixteenth Regiment. — This was a Suffolk county regiment, and 
five of its companies, organized as four, served with the iSth regi- 
ment in New York harbor in 1864. Col. Alfred Wagstaff served 
at this time as lieutenant-colonel of the 15th. 

Seventeenth Regiment. — This was a Westchester county regi- 
ment, and was ordered to Harrisburg, Pa., on June 18, 1863. It 
left the state July 3, under command of Lieut.-Col. John P. Jen- 
kins; proceeded to Baltimore by way of Philadelphia; reported at 
Baltimore to Gen. Schenck and was mustered into the U. S. service 
for 30 days on July 8, relieving the 8th N. Y. at Fort Marshall. It 
was assigned to the 2nd separate brigade, 8th corps. Middle Depart- 
ment, and was mustered out at New York city, Aug. 13, having 
lost during this term i enlisted man who died of disease. A de- 
tachment of the 17th served as part of the 15th regiment in New 
York harbor in 1864, Col. James G. Hyatt acting as major of the 
command. 

Eighteenth Regiment. — This regiment, from the counties of Put- 



New York Regiments 241 

nam and Westchester, furnished one company each to the Qth, 17th 
and 38th regiments N. Y. infantry in 1861. The 18th was ordered 
to Harrisburg on June 18, 1863, at the time of Lee's invasion of the 
North; left the state on July 3, under command of Col. James 
Ryder; was mustered into the U. S. service for 30 days at Balti- 
more, Md., on July 8; and was ordered by Gen. Schenck to occupy 
Fort Marshall, vacated by the 8th N. Y., Col. Ryder being placed 
in command of the post. The regiment was assigned to the 2nd 
separate brigade, 8th corps, Middle Department, and was mustered 
out at New York city on Aug. 13. In 1864 a portion of the regiment 
served as part of the 15th in N. Y. harbor, being mustered into the 
U. S. service for 30 days. 

Nineteenth Regiment. — This was an Orange county regiment and 
in 1861 furnished one company, Co. I — howitzer company — the "Par- 
menter Riflemen," to the 71st militia, in its three months' service. 
The 19th was ordered to Washington on May 2^, 1862, and left 
Newburg for the seat of war on June 4. Its field officers were, Col., 
William R. Brown; Lieut. -Col., James Low; Maj., David Jagger. 
It was mustered into the U. S. service at Baltimore for three months 
and served there and at Havre-de-Grace until mustered out at New- 
burg on Sept. 6. It lost during the campaign 3 enlisted men who 
died of disease. (For nine months' service in 1863, see i68th In- 
fantry.) 

Twentieth Regiment. — Col., George W. Pratt; Lieut. -Col., Hi- 
ram Schoonmaker; Maj., Theodore B. Gates. This regiment, the "Ulster 
Guard," was composed of hardy men from the hills of Ulster and 
Greene counties and saw much hard service throughout the war. 
On April 23, 1861, it was detailed for immediate service, with or- 
ders to report at Washington. It was, however, subjected to a 
number of vexatious delays before it was finally permitted to leave 
the state on May 7, when it went by rail to Perryville and thence 
by steamer to Annapolis, where it was mustered into the U. S. 
service for three months. May 11, 1861. The regiment numbered 
785 officers and men at the time of its departure from the state. 
Its term of service was spent at Annapolis and Baltimore, Md., and 
it was mustered out at Kingston on Aug. 2. Col. Pratt thereupon 
tendered the services of the regiment to the government for a pe- 
riod of three years which tender was accepted. (See record of 
8oth Infantry.) During its three months' service in 1861, it lost 2 
enlisted men who died of disease. 

Twenty-first Regiment. — ^Col., Joseph Wright; Lieut.-Col, James 
Kent; Maj., Charles H. Fitchett. This was a Dutchess county regi- 
ment and was ordered on June 18, 1863, to proceed to Harrisburg, 
Pa., at the time of Lee's invasion of the North. Eight companies 
left the state on June 26, and were mustered into the U. S. service 
at Baltimore for 30 days, to date from June 22. It was assigned 
to the 2nd separate brigade, 8th corps. Middle Department, and 
after the battle of Gettysburg, assisted the 7th N. Y. in guarding 
and transporting 16,000 prisoners captured by Grant at Vicksburg 
and sent to Baltimore. The regiment was mustered "out at Pough- 
keepsie. Aug. 6, 1863. 

Twenty-second Regiment. — Col., James Munroe; Lieut.-Col., Lloyd 
Aspinwall. This regiment was organized in New York city in 
April, 1861, and was called into the service of the government 
when the capital was endangered in the spring of 1862. It left the 
state. May 28, 1862. and was mustered into the U. S. service at 
Baltimore, Md., for three months. While in camp at Harper's Fer- 

Vol. 11—16 



242 The Union Army 

ry, Col. Munroe died of typhoid fever and the regiment was mus- 
tered out under the command of Lieut. -Col. Aspinwall on Sept. 5, 
1862, at New York city. On June 18, 1863, the regiment, under 
command of Col. Aspinwall was ordered to proceed to Harrisburg, 
Pa., and left the state the same day. It was mustered into the U. S. 
service at Harrisburg for 30 days and was assigned to the 4th bri- 
gade, 1st division (Gen. W. F. Smith), Department of the Susque- 
hanna. It participated in Gen. Smith's advance from Harrisburg to 
Waynesboro, being active in the fight with Fitzhugh Lee, at 
Sporting hill, and at Carlisle, where it lost 2 enlisted men wound- 
ed. From Carlisle the regiment moved to Waynesboro and assist- 
ed part of Sedgwick's (6th) corps in garrisoning the town, being 
assigned to the 3d brigade, 2nd division. It remained a week at 
Waynesboro and was then ordered to Harper's Ferry, but while on 
the march received orders to return home immediately on account 
of the draft riots in New York city. It was mustered out on July 
24, at New York city. 

Twenty-third Regiment. — Col., William Everdell, Jr.; Lieut.-Col., 
John A. Elwell. This regiment was organized in Brooklyn in the 
early part of 1862 and was the first regiment to leave that city when 
the call for troops was made in 1863 to repel Lee's invasion of the 
North. It was mustered into the U. S. service for 30 days at Har- 
risburg, Pa.; was assigned to the 3d brigade, ist division, Depart- 
ment of the Susquehanna; and was mustered out at Brooklyn, July 
22, having participated in engagements at Oyster point and at Car- 
lisle. 

Twenty-fifth Regiment. — Col., Michael K. Bryan; Lieut.-Col., 
James Swift; Maj., David Friedlander. The 25th, a fine Albany 
regiment, was ordered to prepare for immediate service at Wash- 
ington by special orders No. 52, of April 19, 1861. It left the state 
on the 23d, about 500 strong, and arrived in Washington on the 
morning of the 29th, being the fifth regiment to reach the endan- 
gered capital. Its numbers were considerably increased early in 
May by the arrival of Co. A, known as the "Burgesses Corps." It 
was mustered in the U. S. service on May 4 for three months; was 
quartered near the capitol, under the orders of Brig.-Gen. Mans- 
field, until May 23, when it crossed the long bridge into Virginia 
and occupied Arlington Heights on the morning of the 24th. The 
25th was the second regiment to reach the Virginia side and Fort 
Albany was built almost entirely by the men of this regiment. It 
was mustered out at Albany, Aug. 4. 1861, having lost 3 enlisted 
men, died of disease. Col. Bryan took the regiment into the field 
again in 1862, when it was mustered into the U. S. service at Albany 
for three months; left the state on June 5, 1862; performed picket 
duty at Suffolk, Va., in the 7th corps; and was mustered out at 
Albany, Sept. 8, 1862, having lost i enlisted man drowned during 
this term of service. Col. Bryan subsequently raised the i7Sth 
infantry, the 5th regiment of the Corcoran Legion, which had 
among its members a large number of the 25th militia. Col. Bryan 
was killed at Port Hudson. 

Twenty-eighth Regiment. — Col.. Michael Bennett; Lieut.-Col., Ed- 
ward Burns; Acting Lieut.-Col., W. R. Brewster. The 28th regiment 
of Brooklyn, composed of an excellent class of Germans, left the state 
on April 30, 1861, under orders to proceed to Washington. Its numeri- 
cal strength on leaving was 563 officers and men. Col. Bennett did 
not go out with the regiment, being temporarily disabled by an acci- 
dent, but joined it on his recovery. It was mustered into the U. S. 



New York Regiments 243 

service at Washington for three months, and served its term at and 
near that city, being encamped below Arlington Heights. Fort Ben- 
nett, a part of the chain of defensive works about the capital, was built 
by the 28th and named for its colonel. The regiment was mustered 
out at Brooklyn, Aug. 5, 1861. On June 20, 1863, it reentered the U. S. 
service for a term of 30 days, at the time of Lee's invasion of the 
North, and proceeded to Harrisburg. Pa., commanded by Col. Ben- 
nett. It served at Marysville, Carlisle and Gettysburg, attached to 
the 2nd brigade, ist division, Department of the Susquehanna, and 
was mustered out at Brooklyn on July 22. In 1864 it was ordered 
to Elmira. where it was mustered into the U. S. service for 100 
days, to date from Aug. 12, and was mustered out at Brooklyn on 
Nov. 13. During this term of service its field officers were Col. 
David A. Bokee; Lieut. -Col. Adam Schepper; Maj. Joseph Bur- 
ger. It lost I enlisted man who died of disease. In 1861 it par- 
ticipated in the occupation of Arlington Heights and skirmished 
near Chain bridge. In 1863, it skirmished near Fort Washington, 
Pa. 

Thirty-third Regiment. — (See 66th Infantry.) 

Thirty-fourth Regiment. — (See 98th Infantry.) 

Thirty-seventh Regiment. — Col., Charles Roome; Lieut.-Col., 
Claudius L. Monell; Maj., Ossian D. Ashley. This was a New York 
city regiment which was organized in the fall of 1861. It volun- 
teered its services in May, 1862, and was mustered into the U. S. 
service for three months. May 29. leaving the state the same day. 
It served in the Middle Department and was mustered out at New 
York city on Sept. 2. On June 18, 1863, it reentered the U. S. serv- 
ice for a period of 30 days and proceeded to Harrisburg, Pa., under 
the command of Col. Roome. It was assigned to the 4th brigade, 
1st division. Department of the Susquehanna; participated in skir- 
mishes at Sporting hill (losing i officer and 3 enlisted men wound- 
ed), and at Carlisle, Pa. (losing 3 men wounded and 3 captured), 
total losses, 10; and was mustered out at New York city on July 22. 
It was again mustered into the U. S. service May 6, 1864, under the 
command of Col. Ashley, for service in New York harbor, and was 
mustered out on June 6. 

Thirty-eighth Regiment. — (See 34th Infantry.) 

Thirty-ninth Regiment. — (See 76th Infantry.) 

Forty-seventh Regiment. — Col., J. V. Messerole; Lieut.-Col.. George 
Sangster; Maj., Jeremiah Johnson. The 47th was a Brooklyn regi- 
ment, organized in Jan. and May, 1862. It first left the state for 
the war on May 30, 1862, and was mustered into the U. S. service 
at Fort McHenry, Baltimore, for three months. Its term of serv- 
ice was spent in garrison duty at Fort McHenry and it was mus- 
tered out at Brooklyn on Sept i. It again entered the U. S. service 
on June 18, 1863; left the state for Harrisburg, Pa., on the 21st, 
under the command of Col. Messerole; served in the 3d brigade, 
defenses south of the Potomac, Department of Washington; was 
later on active duty in New York city during the draft riots in 
July; and was mustered out on July 23. Many members of the 
47th soon after reenlisted for three years in the 3d regiment of the 
Metropolitan brigade. 

Fiftieth Regiment. — Two companies of this regiment, Capts., 
Charles F. Blood, and Stephen Clough, served as Cos. L and M, 
58th militia, at Elmira in 1864, being mustered into the U. S. serv- 
ice for 100 days on Aug. 27, and mustered out on Dec. 3. 

Fifty-first Regiment. — (See 12th Infantry.) 



244 The Union Army 

Fifty-second Regiment. — This was a Brooklyn regiment, which 
furnished Cos. I and K of the 176th infantry in the fall of 1862. 
The regiment entered the U. S. service for 30 days in 1863, leaving 
the state for Harrisburg, Pa., on June 18, with Matthias W. Cole 
as colonel, and William C. Booth as lieutenant-colonel. It served 
in the 3d brigade, ist division, Department of the Susquehanna, 
and participated in the skirmish at Oyster point. It was mustered 
out on July 25, having lost i enlisted man killed by lightning dur- 
ing the campaign. 

Fifty-fourth Regiment. — (See 27th Infantry.) This regiment en- 
tered the service of the United States for 100 days, July 26, 1864, 
commanded by Col. Charles H. Clark, serving at Elmira until mus- 
tered out Nov. 10, 1864. It was a Rochester regiment. 

Fifty-fifth Regiment. — Col., Eugene Le Gal; Lieut.-Col., Louis 
Thourat; Maj., Francis Jehl. The 55th entered the U. S. service on 
June 18, 1863, for a 30 days' term; left the state on the 24th, pro- 
ceeding to Harrisburg, Pa.; served in the 2nd separate brigade, 8th 
corps. Middle Department, and was mustered out at New York 
city on July 2"]. It was a New York city organization. (See also 
55th Infantry.) 

Fifty-sixth Regiment. — This was a Brooklyn organization and 
furnished a number of nine months' volunteers in the fall of 1862. 
On June 18, 1863, it entered the U. S. service for 30 days and the 
following day left the state for Harrisburg, Pa., commanded by 
Col. David M. Tallmadge. It served in the 3d brigade, ist divi- 
sion. Department of the Susquehanna, and was mustered out at 
Brooklyn on July 24. It was again mustered into the U. S. serv- 
ice on Aug. 2, 1864, commanded by Col. John Q. Adams, with Thomas 
R. O'Neill as lieutenant-colonel and John H. Styles as major. It 
was on duty at Elmira until mustered out on Nov. 6. Two enlisted 
men died of disease during its last term of service. 

Fifty-eighth Regiment. — Col., Reuben P. Wisner; Lieut.-Col., 
William L. Alward; Maj., George M. Lackwood. With the fore- 
going field officers the 58th was mustered into the U. S. service 
for 100 days on Aug. 27, 1864; served at Elmira, and was mustered 
out on Dec. 3, having lost 2 enlisted men by disease. 

Sixty-fourth Regiment. — (See 64th Infantry.) 

Sixty-fifth Regiment. — -This was a Buffalo organization, which fur- 
nished parts of the 21st and 49th Infantry and of Battery I, ist 
artillery, in 1861, and supplied the nucleus of the 187th infantry in 
1864. It was ordered to Harrisburg, Pa., on June 18, 1863; left the 
state the following day, commanded by Col. Jacob Krettner, with 
Francis Fischer as lieutenant-colonel and Lorenz Gillig as major; 
was mustered into the U. S. service at Mount Union, Pa., for 30 
days; spent its term of service at that place; was mustered out at 
Buffalo on July 30; and was on duty at the time of the draft riots 
in New York city. 

Sixty-seventh Regiment. — This was an Erie county regiment and 
entered the service of the United States in June, 1863, for 30 days. 
It was on duty at Camp Curtin, Harrisburg, Pa., and was mustered 
out Aug. 3. It was commanded by Col. Chauncey Abbott, of East 
Hamburg. 

Sixty-eighth Regiment. — This was a Chautauqua county organ- 
ization, which left the state on June 24, 1863, for Harrisburg, Pa., 
for 30 days' service. Its field officers were Col., David S. Forbes; 
Lieut.-Col., O. Lee Swift; Maj., Wilford W. Barker. The regiment 
was assigned to the 5th brigade, ist division. Department of the 
Susquehanna, and was mustered out on July 25, 1863. 



New York Regiments 245 

Sixty-ninth Regiment. — Col., Michael Corcoran; Lieut.-Col., Rob- 
ert Nugent; Maj., James Bagley. This was a New York city regi- 
ment, composed of Irishmen, which responded with alacrity to the 
first call to arms at the outbreak of the war. The subsequent ca- 
reer of this regiment was highly honorable and its services of the 
most valuable character. The 69th received orders on April 20, 
1861, to proceed to Washington. Col. Corcoran at once issued a 
call for volunteers for his regiment and 48 hours later 6,500 names 
had been enrolled. It left the state 1,050 strong, April 23, 1861, 
amid scenes of great enthusiasm, and on its arrival in the capital 
was first stationed at Georgetown college. On May 9, 1861, it 
was mustered into the U. S. service for three months. On May 
21, Capt. Thomas F. Meagher, with a company of Zouaves and 
about 300 recruits started to join the regiment at Washington. On 
May 30 it moved to a new camp on Arlington Heights and raised 
the Stars and Stripes over the new Fort Corcoran. The 69th be- 
haved with great gallantry at the battle of Bull Run, where it 
served in the 3d brigade (Sherman's), ist division (Tyler's), and 
made one of the most efifective charges of that disastrous engage- 
ment. Its losses in killed, wounded and missing were 192, Col. 
Corcoran being captured. Shortly after the battle, its term of serv- 
ice having expired, the regiment returned to New York and was 
mustered out on Aug 3. Its total losses during the campaign were 
I officer and 2)7 enlisted men killed in action; 2 enlisted men mor- 
tally wounded; 5 enlisted men died of disease, a total of 45. The 
major portion of the regiment volunteered for three years on its 
return home, and formed the nucleus of the famous 69th volunteer 
infantry (q. v.). On May 29, 1862, the regiment again left the state 
for Washington and was mustered into the U. S. service for three 
months. Col. Corcoran being a prisoner at Richmond, the regi- 
ment went out under command of Maj. Bagley. It served its term 
in the defenses of Washington and was mustered out at New York 
city, Sept. 3, 1862. Once more on its return many of the members 
enliste/J in a volunteer organization, known as the 69th national 
guard artillery and organized as the ist regiment of the Corcoran 
brigade, later becoming the 182nd infantry. In the summer of 
1863, at the time of Lee's invasion of Pennsylvania, the 69th left 
the state for active service a third time. On June 22 it started for 
Harrisburg, Pa., for 30 days' service, commanded by Col. James 
Bagley, with James Cavanagh as lieutenant-colonel. The regiment 
served its term at Baltimore, attached to the 2nd separate brigade, 
8th corps. Middle Department, and was mustered out at New York 
city on July 25. The regiment was mustered into the U. S. serv- 
ice for a fourth time in 1864, serving in the harbor of New York 
from July 6 to Oct. 6. During this term it lost i officer and i 
enlisted man, who died of disease. 

Seventieth Regiment. — (See 5th Heavy Artillery.) 
Seventy-first Regiment. — Col., Abram S. Vosburgh; Lieut.-Col., 
Henry P. Martin; Maj., George A. Buckingham. This regiment, 
also known as the American Guard and Vosburgh Chasseurs, was 
a New York city organization and was one of the eleven uniformed 
militia regiments sent to the relief of Washington upon the out- 
break of the war. It left the state on April 21, 1861, 950 strong, 
reached the capital on the 27th; and was mustered into the U. S. 
service on May 3, for a term of three months. It was first quar- 
tered in the inauguration ball room, whence it was ordered to bar- 
racks in the navy yard. Co. I, armed with 2 howitzers, was orig- 



246 The Union Army 

inally Co. L, igtli militia, "Parmenter's Riflemen" from Newburg, 
and joined the 71st soon after its arrival in Washington. On May 
20. Col. Vosburgh succumbed to disease and the command devolved 
upon Lieut.-Col. Martin, who was commissioned colonel on June 
15, Charles H. Smith becoming lieutenant-colonel at the same time. 
The regiment participated in the occupation of Alexandria, Va., 
May 24, and first came under fire in the attack on the batteries at 
Acquia creek. It took part in the attack on Matthias point and 
rendered excellent service at the first battle of Bull Run, where it 
served in the 2nd brigade (Burnside's), 2nd division (Hunter's), 
Army of Northeastern Virginia, being among the last to leave the 
field and retiring in good order. It lost 10 enlisted men killed, 3 
officers and 2>7 rnen wounded, i officer and 11 men captured, a total 
loss of 62. Speaking of the service of the 71st, Col. Burnside re- 
ported: "I beg again to mention the bravery and steadiness mani- 
fested by Col. Martin and his entire regiment, both in the field and 
during the retreat." The regiment was mustered out on July 30, 
1861, at New York city. On May 28. 1862, the regiment was again 
mustered into the U. S. service for three months and left the state 
the same day, 820 strong. It was commanded by Col. Martin, with 
Charles H. Smith as lieutenant-colonel. Assigned to Sturgis' bri- 
gade it served in the defenses of Washington, and was mustered 
out in New York city on Sept. 2. A considerable number of the 
regiment at once reenlisted in the 124th infantry then being re- 
cruited. On June 17, 1863, the regiment entered the U. S. service 
for the third time, leaving the state for Harrisburg, Pa., for 30 
days' service. Its field officers were Col., Benjamin L. Trafiford; 
Lieut.-Col., William J. Coles; Maj., David C. Muschutt. It was as- 
signed to the 1st brigade, ist division. Department of the Susque- 
hanna, and saw a good deal of hard service during the short cam- 
paign, being almost constantly on the march. It participated in 
skirmishes at Kingston and near Harrisburg. and on its return to 
the state was on active duty during the draft riots in New York 
city in July. It was mustered out of service, July 22, 1863. The 
losses of the regiment during service in 1861 were 11 enlisted men 
killed in action; i enlisted man and i officer died of wounds; i offi- 
cer and 4 enlisted men died of disease, a total of 18. 

Seventy-fourth Regiment. — Col.. Watson A. Fox; Lieut. -Cols., 
Walker G. Seely; Maj., Charles I. Ring. This was a Buffalo regi- 
ment and four of its companies volunteered in a body in 1861 to 
assist in the formation of the ist Buffalo, or the 21st infantry. It 
entered the U. S. service for 30 days in 1863, at the time of Lee's 
invasion of Pennsylvania, leaving the state for Harrisburg on June 
19. It served at Mount Union, Pa.; took part in a skirmish near 
Clear Spring, Md.; and on its return to the state it was assigned to 
duty during the draft riots. It was mustered out on Aug. 3, 1863, 
having lost i enlisted man who died of disease. When the militia 
was called upon to protect the northern frontier of the state in the 
fall of 1863, it again entered the service for 30 days, serving at 
Buffalo, where it was mustered out on Dec. 16. 

Seventy-fifth Regiment. — (See 37th Infantry.) 

Seventy-seventh Regiment. — Col., Thomas Lynch; Lieut.-Col., 
Thomas Norton; Maj., Philip A. McMahan. This was a New York city 
regiment, mustered into the U. S. service for 100 days, Aug. 2, 
1864. served its term at Elmira and was mustered out on Nov. 19. 

Seventy-ninth Regiment. — This was one of the patriotic National 
Guard regiments, which, failing to be ordered to the front for three 



New York Regiments 247 

months at the outbreak of the war, gave the country the benefit of 
its previous drill and military experience by enlisting as volunteers 
for three years. It was known as the 79th "Highlanders" (q, v.). 

Eighty-fourth Regiment. — Col., Frederick A. Conkling; Lieut. - 
Col., Angus Cameron; Maj., Thomas Barclay. The 84th was a New 
York city regiment, and entered the U. S. service for 30 days in June. 
1863. It left the state on July 3 and proceeded to Baltimore; served 
in the 8th corps, Middle Department, for one month in the defenses 
of Baltimore; and was mustered out on Aug. 4. It was again mus- 
tered into the U. S. service, for a term of 100 days, July 12, 1864, 
and under command of Col. Conkling was on duty at and near Wash- 
ington, D. C, Great Falls, Md., and Winchester, Va. Part of the 
regiment participated in a skirmish with guerrillas near Muddy 
Branch, Md. The regiment was mustered out on Oct. 29, having 
lost by death from all causes during the campaign, i officer and 11 
enlisted men. 

Ninety-third Regiment. — This was a New York city regiment 
and was mustered into the U. S. service, for 100 days, July 20, 1864. 
It left the state the same day, commanded by Col. W. R. W. Cham- 
bers, and was mustered out on Nov. i, having lost 2 enlisted men 
who died of disease during the campaign. 

Ninety-eighth Regiment. — Col., George Abbott; Maj., William 
B. Church. This was an Erie county regiment, which was mustered 
into the U. S. service for 100 days, Aug. 10, 1864; served at the de- 
pot, Elmira, and was mustered out on Dec. 22, having suffered a loss 
of 2 enlisted men who died of disease during the term of service. 

Ninety-ninth Regiment. — Col., John O'Mahone; Lieut.-Col., Pat- 
rick Leonard; Maj., Patrick F. Hannon. This was a New York 
city regiment, mustered into the U. S. service for 100 days, Aug. 
2, 1864; served at the depot, Elmira, until mustered out on Nov. 9. 
It lost during service i officer who died of disease. 

One Hundred and Second Regiment. — A new York city regiment, 
commanded by Col. John N. Wilsey. was mustered into the U. S. 
service for 100 days, Aug. 6, 1864; served at the depot, Elmira, and 
was mustered out on Nov. 13. It lost during this term of service 2 
enlisted men who died of disease. 

U. S. Colored Troops. — The state of New York is credited by 
the war department with a total of 4,125 men furnished for the 
colored troops of the United States. Three regiments were organ- 
ized in New York under the auspices of the Union League Club, 
a fund of $18,000 being contributed by the members for that pur- 
pose. These regiments were organized in the early part of 1864, 
and were designated the 20th, 26th and 31st regiments of infantry, 
U. S. colored troops. 

Twentieth Infantry. — This regiment. Col. Nelson B. Bartram, 
was organized at Riker's island. New York harbor, Feb. 9, 1864, 
for three years' service. Its term of active service was spent in the 
Department of the East until March, 1864; in the District of New 
Orleans, Department of the Gulf, until Jan., 1865: and in the South- 
ern Division of Louisiana, Department of the Gulf, until the date 
of its muster out, Oct. 7, 1865. During its term of service the regi- 
ment lost by death, i enlisted man mortally wounded in action; 2 
officers and 282 enlisted men died of disease and other causes. 

Twenty-sixth Infantry. — This regiment, Col. William Silliman. 
was also organized at Riker's island, Feb. ^j, 1864, for three years' 
service, which was passed in the Department of the East until 
March. 1864; in the District of Beaufort, Department of the South, 



248 The Union Army 

until April, 1865; and at Port Royal. S. C, until the date of its dis- 
charge and muster out, under Col. William Guernsey, Aug. 28, 1865. 
The regiment lost during service 2 officers, 28 enlisted men killed 
and mortally wounded in action; from disease and other causes, 3 
officers and 112 enlisted men, a total of 145. 

Thirty-first Infantry. — This regiment. Col. Henry C. Ward, was 
partly organized at Hart's island. New York harbor, April 29, 1864, 
but completed its organization in the field, Nov. 14, 1864, the 30th 
Conn, colored infantry contributing to its membership. It was 
mustered into the U. S. service for three years, and became a part 
of Ferrero's division, 9th corps, with which it took a prominent 
part in the siege of Petersburg. Late in 1864, Ferrero's division 
was permanently detached from the 9th corps, and the 31st was 
assigned to the ist brigade, Kautz's division, of the newly formed 
25th corps, composed entirely of black regiments. Near the close 
of the war it was ordered to North Carolina, and placed in the 
1st brigade, Paine's (3d) division of colored troops, loth corps. 
It served in this command until Aug., 1865, when the loth corps 
was discontinued; and in the District of New Berne, N. C, until 
the date of its muster out, Nov. 7, 1865. The regiment lost by 
death, 3 officers, 54 enlisted men killed and mortally wounded; 
from disease and other causes, i officer and 123 enlisted men, a 
total of 181. 







€^^7>f^<t^r 



GEORGE WASHINGTON FAYETTE VERNON 



George Washington Fayette Vernon came of Revolutionary 
stock. His grandfather, Thomas Vernon, was a soldier in 
the Pennsylvania line in the war of the Revolution, and his 
father, Nathaniel Vernon, was a soldier in the war of 1812. 
The Vernons are of the Norman-French ancestry, who, under 
William the Norman, conquered England in the eleventh 
century and founded the present English dynasty. Col. 
Vernon was bom at Frederick City, Md., June 14, 1843. He 
was educated at Frederick college and was engaged in the 
study of law at the outbreak of the war. On Aug. 10, 1861, 
he entered the army as second lieutenant of Co. A. of the cavalry 
battalion, which at Col. Vernon's suggestion was called "Cole's 
Cavalry," in honor of Capt. Henry Cole, the senior captain 
and commander. In the spring of 1862, when Gen. Banks' 
army made its campaign in the Shenandoah Valley, Cole's 
cavalry was in the van, and at Bunker Hill, Va., the first blood 
of the campaign was shed by this command in a successful 
cavalry skirmish with Ashby's Confederate cavalry, not, how- 
ever, without serious loss. The brigade commander, Gen. 
Williams, commanding the 3d brigade. Banks' division, 8th 
army corps, issued a complimentary order, mentioning Capt. 
Cole and Lieut. Vernon by name. In all of the various campaigns 
in the Shenandoah Valley in 1862—63—64 Cole's cavalry was 
incessantly scouting and skirmishing with the enemy; in fact 
in all of the Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia campaigns 
it took an active part and suffered heavily. At Harper's 
Ferry, Va., in Sept., 1862, the cavalry refused to surrender, 
and led by Cole's cavalry, successfully cut their way through 
the enemy's lines, passed by Gen. Robert E. Lee's army, at 
Sharpsburg, Md., and captured Gen. Longstreet's amm\uiition 
train, which had its effect in the subsequent battle of Antietam, 
Lieut. Vernon was promoted first lieutenant May 10, 1862, 
and captain Oct. 25, 1862. At the midnight battle in the 
snow at Loudoun heights, Va., Jan. 10, 1864, Capt. Vernon 
was severely wounded, a bullet passing through the -left eye 
and shattering a portion of the skull. Capt. Vernon was pro- 
moted to major Mar. 5, 1864, and lieutenant-colonel April 
20, 1864, the battalion having been recruited to a full regi- 

249 



ment. Col. Vernon commanded a brigade of cavalry, and 
subsequently a brigade of infantry, in the Shenandoah Valley 
in the summer and fall of 1864. The repeated and successful 
raids of the enemy upon the Baltimore & Ohio railroad between 
Harper's Ferry and Martinsburg, Va., in the winter of 1864- 
65, caused the detail of Col. Vernon for its protection, in charge 
of detachments from the 195th Pa., i8th Conn., 14th W. Va. 
and 13th Md. infantry. There was no trouble from the time 
Col. Vernon assumed the command, and the close of the war 
found him in charge af a military district in the Shenandoah 
Valley. He was mustered out of service with his regiment 
at Harper's Ferry, Va., June 28, 1865, and in July returned 
to his home at Frederick City, Md., where he established a 
legal collection agency, but devoted a portion of his time to 
his farm a short distance from the city. On March 8, 1867, 
he was appointed postmaster at Frederick City and served 
until May 24, 1869, when he was appointed a special agent 
of the U. S. treasury department, which position he held until 
appointed surveyor of customs at Baltimore, Md., on Feb. 
13, 1878. He continued in this office until March 13, 1882, 
and upon the expiration of his commission established a real 
estate, brokerage and collection business at Baltimore, Md., 
where he ai; present resides. Col. Vernon took an active part 
in politics from 1865 to 1882, being frequently selected as 
delegate to Republican state and national conventions. He 
has been an active member of the Grand Army of the Republic, 
having been a post commander and department commander 
of the Department of Maryland. In the year 1896, Col. Vernon 
was instrumental in having a law passed by the legislature 
of Maryland, authorizing the publication of the roster and 
history of the 65,000 Union soldiers and sailors of Maryland, 
who fought for the preservation of the Federal Union. He 
was appointed a member of the commission, and upon him 
devolved the laborious supervisory work incident thereto. 
In the year 1906, Col. Vernon was again at the head of a move- 
ment to secure the passage of a law providing for the erection, 
in the city of Baltimore, of a suitable monument by the state 
of Maryland to commemorate the patriotism and heroic courage 
of the sons of Maryland, who on land and sea, fought for the 
preservation of the Union, and was appointed by the governor 
a member of the monument commission. In the prepara- 
tion of these volumes the manuscript of "Military Affairs in 
Maryland" passed through the hands of Col. Vernon, and 
he carefully edited and revised the same. 



250 



Military Affairs in Maryland 

1861—65 



At the beginning of the secession movement Maryland was a 
much coveted prize by the states that were determined to with- 
draw from the Union. Located between the great free state of 
Pennsylvania on the north and the great slave state of Virginia on 
the south, her secession meant the surrender of the national capital 
to the South and the extension of the Confederacy up to Mason 
and Dixon's line. The South had great hopes that such would be the 
case. In the election of i860 Maryland had cast her electoral vote 
for Breckenridge and Lane, the ticket that stood for Southern 
Rights, which was considered a strong indication that she would 
ultimately link her fortunes with the Confederacy. Although 
nominally a slave state, the slaves within her borders constituted 
only about 12 per cent, of the total population, and this percentage 
was gradually decreasing. According to the census of i860 the 
population of the state was made up of 515,918 whites, 83,942 free 
negroes, and 87,189 slaves. The ratio of increase during the pre- 
ceding ten years had been 23.49 for the whites and 12 for the free 
negroes, while the slaves had decreased nearly 4 per cent. A Con- 
federate writer, Bradley T. Johnson, in describing the situation in 
Maryland about this time, says : " She had no sympathy with 
slavery, for she had emancipated more than half her slaves and 
had established a negro state of Maryland in Africa, where she was 
training her emancipated servants to take control of their own 
destiny as free men. and this colony she supported by annual 
appropriations out of her public taxes. There was no involuntary 
servitude in Marv'land, for as soon as a servant became discon- 
tented he or she just walked over the line into Pennsylvania, where 
they were safely harbored and concealed." 

Notwithstanding this state of the public mind, there were many 
who believed that the state would readily pass an ordinance of 
secession if the proper authorities could only be induced to take 
action. Shortly after the election of President Lincoln, Gov. 
Thomas H. Hicks was importuned by a number of citizens, headed 
by Thomas G. Pratt and S. T. Wallis, to call an extra session of 
the legislature, that that body might take the legal steps to provide 
for a state convention which would express the sentiment of the 

251 



252 The Union Army 

people. To the petition of these gentlemen the governor replied 
in a long letter, under date of Nov, 27, i860, setting forth his 
views as follows: "I cannot but believe that the convening of 
the legislature in extra session at this time would only have the 
effect of increasing and reviving the excitement now pervading 
the country, and now apparently on the decline. It would at once 
be heralded by the sensitive newspapers and alarmists throughout 
the country as evidence that Maryland had abandoned all hope of 
the Union, and was preparing to join the traitors to destroy it." 

Gov. Hicks was something of a paradox. Although he declined 
to call a special session of the legislature, he wrote a letter on Dec. 
6, i860, to a Capt. Contee, of Prince George county, in which he 
said : "If the Union must be dissolved, let it be done calmly, delib- 
erately, and after full reflection on the part of a united South. 
* >f * After allowing a reasonable time for action on the 
part of the Northern States, if they shall neglect or refuse to 
observe the plain requirements of the constitution, then, in my 
judgment, we shall be fully warranted in demanding a division of 
the country. * * =k j shall be the last one to object to a 
withdrawal of our state from a Confederacy that denies to us 
the enjoyment of our undoubted rights ; but believing that neither 
her honor nor interests will suffer by a proper and just delay, I 
cannot assist in placing her in a position from which we may 
hereafter wish to recede. When she moves in the matter, I wish 
to be side by side with Virginia — our nearest neighbor — Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee." When the contents of this letter were 
made public, the secessionists took fresh courage, for they thought 
they saw in it that the governor was coming round to their views. 
Again he was urged to call a special session, but again he declined. 

The first decisive action came on Dec. IQ. i860, when a public 
meeting was called at Baltimore to listen to an address by Judge 
A. H. Handy, the commissioner sent by the state of Mississippi to 
the state of Maryland. In the course of his remarks Judge Handy 
said: "Secession is not intended to break up the present govern- 
ment, but to perpetuate it. Our plan is for the Southern states to 
withdraw from the Union for the present, to allow amendments to 
the constitution to be made, guaranteeing our just rights ; and 
if the Northern States will not make these amendments, by which 
these rights shall be secured to us, then we must secure them the 
best way we can. This question of slavery must be settled now or 
never. Many remedies have failed, we must try amputation to 
bring it to a healthy state. We must have amendments to the con- 
stitution, and if we cannot get them we must set up for ourselves." 

To this address the governor replied on behalf of Maryland 
declaring it to be his purpose to act in harmony with the other 
border states, with the governors of which he was then in corre- 



Military Affairs in Maryland 253 

spondence. expressing as his opinion that the people of Maryland, 
would sustain such a policy. He agreed as to the necessity for 
protection to southern rights, acknowledged his sympathy with the 
gallant sons of Mississippi, but hoped that they would act with 
prudence as well as courage. A few days later a Union meeting 
was held, which has been referred to as "one of the most impress- 
ive and influential assemblages ever convened in Baltimore for po- 
litical purposes." The spirit of the people may be seen in the 
resolutions adopted at this meeting, declaring "that the present 
condition of our country demands of all who love her a spirit of 
fairness, of candor, of conciliation, of concession, and of self- 
sacrifice; that we hail with thankful and hopeful hearts the patri- 
otic efforts now being made in Congress for the settlement, we 
trust forever, of the dangerous questions at issue, on some consti- 
tutional, just and equitable principle ; that such of our statesmen 
and states, whether North or South, as may contribute most to this 
holy end, will challenge the highest place in the affections of our 
country; that those who may refuse to lend their aid to this holy 
purpose may justly expect, as they will be sure to receive, the con- 
demnation and reprobation of the present, as well as of future 
ages." 

This meeting demonstrated that the Unionists were in a decisive 
majority, and about this time 5,000 representative citizens ad- 
dressed a letter to Gov. Hicks, approving his action in refusing to 
call the legislature together in the interests of the disunionists. 
Backed by this sentiment the governor grew more outspoken in 
favor of the Union. To the commissioner from Alabama he 
replied that he regarded the proposed cooperation of the slave 
states as an infraction of the constitution of the United States, which 
he, as governor of Maryland, had taken an oath to support ; that 
the people of the state were firm in their devotion to the Union ; 
that they had seen with mortification and regret the course taken 
by South Carolina ; and that it was better to use the union for the 
enforcement of their rights and the redress of their griev- 
ances than to break it up because of apprehensions that the provi- 
sions of the constitution would be disregarded. The seces- 
sionists, however, continued to urge a special session of the 
legislature, and on Jan. 3, 186 1, the governor issued an address to 
the people of the state in which he stated more fully his views, as 
the following extracts will show : "I firmly believe that a division 
of this government would inevitably produce civil war. The seces- 
sion leaders in South Carolina and the fanatical demagogues of 
the North have alike proclaimed that such would be the result, and 
no man of sense, in my opinion, can question it. What could the 
legislature do in this crisis, if convened, to remove the present 
troubles which beset the Union ? We are told by the leading spirits 



264 The Union Army 

of the South CaroHna convention that neither the election of Mr. 
Lincoln nor the non-execution of the Fugitive Slave Law, nor both 
combined,, constitute their grievances. They declare that the real 
cause of their discontent dates as far back as 1833. xMaryland and 
every other state in the Unicm, with a united voice, then declared 
the cause insufficient to justify the course of South Carolina. Can 
ic be that this people who then unanimously supported the cause 
of Gen. Jackson will now yield their opinions at the bidding of 
modern secessionists? * * * The people of Maryland, 
if left to themselves, would decide, with scarcely an exception, 
that there is nothing in the present causes of complaint to justify 
immediate secession; and yet against our judgments and solemn 
convictions of duty, we are to be precipitated into this revolution, 
because South Carolina thinks diflferently. Are we not equals? 
Or shall her opinion control our actions? x^fter we have solemnly 
d,eclared for ourselves, as every man must do, are we to be forced 
to yield our opinions to those of another state, and thus in effect 
obey her mandates? She refuses to wait for our counsels. Are 
we bound to obey her commands? * * * The whole plan 
of operations, in the event of the assembling of the legislature, 
is, as I have been informed, already marked out, the list of ambas- 
sadors who are to visit the other states is agreed on, and the reso- 
lutions which they hope will be passed by the legislature, fully 
committing this state to secession, are said to be already prepared. 
* * * In the course of nature, I cannot have long to live, 
and I fervently trust to be allowed to end my days a citizen of 
this glorious Union. But should I be compelled to witness the 
downfall of that government inherited from our fathers, estab- 
lished, as it were, by the special favor of God, I will at least have 
the consolation at my dying hour that I neither by word nor deed 
assisted in hastening its disruption." 

On Jan. 10, 1861, — the same date as the Union meeting 
already referred to — a "Conference Convention" met in the Law 
Building in Baltimore "for the purpose of conferring relative to 
the threatening condition of public affairs." Col. John Sellman 
was chosen president; D. M. Ferine and W. T. Goldsborough, 
vice-presidents ; Horace Resley and J. H. Stone, secretaries. The 
convention remained in session for two days, during which time 
resolutions were adopted declaring devotion to the Union and 
concurring in the wisdom and propriety of the Crittenden com- 
promise, then pending in the national Congress. R. B. Carmi- 
chael, W. T. Goldsborough, A. B. Davis, John Contee, A. B. Hag- 
ner and Ross Winans were appointed a committee to wait on the 
governor and solicit him to issue a proclamation calling on the 
people to vote, on the last Monday in January, on the proposition 
to call a convention, and in case the people indorsed the move- 



Military Affairs in Maryland 255 

ment to proclaim the second Monday in February as the date of 
electing delegates to such convention. Gov. Hicks received the 
committee with courtesy, but firmly refused to issue the proclama- 
tion. Finding their efforts to secure a special session of the legis- 
lature or a vote of the people for or against a convention, the se- 
cessionists began working by underhand methods. The center of 
their operations was at Baltimore, where they secretly established 
a recruiting office at which men were enlisted for the Confederate 
cause and sent to Charleston, S. C. They received some encour- 
agement to work more openly when the Virginia legislature, 
on Jan. 19, 1861, passed the resolution calling on the states to 
send delegates to a "Peace Conference" to be held in the City of 
Washington on Feb. 4. Gov. Hicks acquiesced in this move- 
ment and appointed as commissioners Reverdy Johnson, A. W. 
Bradford, W. T. Goldsborough, J. W. Crisfield and J. D. Roman. 
Nothing was accomplished by the conference, which recom- 
mended a substitute for the Crittenden amendment, but which 
was rejected by Congress. 

Meantime the advocates of a convention adopted another 
course. On Feb. i the citizens of Baltimore who were "in favor 
of restoring the constitutional Union of states, and who desire 
the position of Maryland in the existing crisis to be ascertained 
by a convention of the people," gathered in a town meeting in the 
Maryland Institute. Scharf says the meeting "was an immense 
one of citizens who regarded with anxiety and indignation the 
position of Maryland and the course of Gov. Hicks." Resolu- 
tions setting forth this view were adopted and the meeting ex- 
tended an invitation to the several counties of the state to send 
delegates to a convention to meet in Baltimore on Feb. 18, Pur- 
suant to this call the "State Conference Convention," as it was 
called, assembled in the Universalist church on the day appointed 
and organized by electing Judge E. F. Chambers, of Kent coun- 
ty, as president ; J. C. Groome, D. M. Ferine, H. G. S. Key, J. F. 
Dashiell and Andrew Rench, vice-presidents. The session lasted 
but two days. A series of resolutions were adopted, asserting 
that, as the governor had signified his intention of issuing a 
proclamation calling a convention, in the event of a failure on 
the part of the peace conference and Congress to reach some 
satisfactory plan of compromise ; and as this was the best method 
of securing a full and fair expression of the popular will, the 
convention approved a delay until the action of Congress and 
the conference could be definitely ascertained. An address to 
the people was also adopted and the convention adjourned to 
March 12, with the proviso that if the governor did not by that 
time issue his proclamation calling a convention the adjourned 
session should recommend to the people to proceed at once to 



256 The Union Army 

elect delegates to such a convention. When the convention re- 
assembled on March 12, it was in greatly reduced numbers. It 
declared in favor of a border states convention, and appointed 
Walter Mitchell, E. F. Chambers, W. H. Norris, E. L. Lowe, I. 
D. Jones and J. H. Thomas a committee to wait upon the Virginia 
convention, then in session, and urge that state to cooperate in 
such a movement. An effort was made by some of the more 
radical delegates to secure the passage of a resolution declaring 
that "all attempts upon the part of the Federal government to 
reoccupy, repossess or retake any forts or any other property 
within the limits of the seceded states, would be acts of war, and 
that such acts would absolve Maryland and the border states 
from all connection with the United States." This resolution 
was opopsed by the conservative members "as in reality opening 
the way to secession, and as initiating a program that would not 
be sanctioned by the people of Maryland," and in the end it was 
defeated. 

Some little excitement occurred in the latter part of Febru- 
ary, over the report of a conspiracy to assassinate President elect 
Lincoln, as he passed through Baltimore on his way to Washing- 
ton. According to the program Mr. Lincoln was to arrive in 
Baltimore by the Northern Central railroad from Harrisburg, 
Pa., about noon on Saturday, the 23d, take dinner at the Eutaw 
house and proceed to Washington in the afternoon. Instead of 
this arrangement being carried out the President elect left Har- 
risburg at 6 p. m. on the 22nd. on a special train for Philadelphia, 
passed through Baltimore in the night and arrived at Washing- 
ton at 6 o'clock Saturday morning. On Friday afternoon a com- 
mittee of prominent citizens left Baltimore to meet Mr. Lincoln 
at Harrisburg. Upon their arrival there they repaired to the 
Jones House and were informed that Mr. Lincoln had retired for 
the night. Early the next morning they renewed their demand 
to see him and were informed that he was "safe in Washington." 
Concerning the affair the Baltimore American of the 26th said 
editorially: "We were yesterday informed by Marshal Kane 
that the following statement, which appeared yesterday in the 
despatch of our Washington correspondent 'Special,' is literally 
correct, so far as it refers to himself : 

" Tt appears that a few hundred men, particularly obnoxious 
to the people and public sentiment of Baltimore, had determined 
to avail themselves of the opportunity to use Mr. Lincoln, and 
to accompany him in procession from the depot to his hotel. They 
applied to Marshal Kane for protection by the police. He ad- 
vised against the proceeding, assuring the parties that while 
Mr. Lincoln, in his passage through Baltimore, would be treated 
with the respect due to him personally and to his high official 



Military Affairs in Maryland 357 

position, there was no guaranty that the procession would be 
similarly respected. He thought, moreover, that the proceeding 
would be calculated to place the people of Baltimore in a false 
position, as neither they nor the citizens of Maryland sympathized 
with Mr. Lincoln's political views. He advised, therefore, that 
the idea of a procession should be abandoned, lest it might pro- 
voke some indignity which would involve the character of Balti- 
more and be very unpleasant to the president elect.' 

"Marshal Kane informed us that he did give the information to 
Mr. Corwin and other friends of Mr. Lincoln, so that the change 
of route and incognito entrance to Washington was caused by a 
desire to escape from his pretended friends here, and thus pre- 
vent a breach of the peace that would have been disgraceful to 
the city and derogatory to American character. We do not be- 
lieve there was any intention to assault or even insult the presi- 
dent elect on the part of our community, but it is a notorious 
fact that the Baltimore Republican committee, who proceeded 
to Harrisburg and declared their determination to escort Mr. 
Lincoln to his quarters, would have been assailed and pelted 
with eggs, if not otherwise maltreated. This would have in- 
volved Mr. Lincoln in the disturbance, and we cannot but think 
that he acted wisely under the information communicated by 
Col. Kane, in preventing the possibility of such an occurrence as 
was feared by our police authorities." 

This is doubtless the correct version of an affair which, owing 
to the intense excitement prevailing over the country at the time, 
was magnified into a conspiracy against the president's life. 

With the attack on Fort Sumter by the Confederates on April 
12, and its subsequent surrender, the excitement was increased. 
That event was quickly followed by a call for volunteers to sup- 
press the rebellion and the departure from New York of armed 
vessels to coerce the seceded states into obedience, which added 
fuel to the flames in Maryland. On the 17th Mayor George W. 
Brown, of Baltimore, issued a proclamation calling on all good 
citizens to refrain from every act which could possibly lead to an 
outbreak of any kind ; to avoid heated arguments and harsh 
words, and to render in all cases prompt and efficient aid to the 
authorities in maintaining peace and order. But the day of 
proclamations had passed and the mayor's good advice was un- 
heeded. The conditions were further intensified when on the 
same day Virginia passed an ordinance of secession and some 
young men, whose sympathies were with the South, determined 
to hoist the Confederate flag and fire a salute of 100 guns in 
honor of Virginia's action. About noon on the i8th they hoist- 
ed their flag on Federal hill, near the Marine observatory, and 
began firing their salute. Three rounds had been fired when they 

Vol. 11—17 



258 The Union Army 

were driven away, their flag torn in shreds, their powder thrown 
into the Basin, and the gun carriage broken to pieces. Later in 
the day another Confederate flag was raised in the northern 
part of the city and the salute of lOO guns was fired. 

When it became known that troops from the Northern states 
had been ordered to the defense of the national capital, and that 
these troops would pass through Maryland, the secession leaders 
asserted that the defense of Washington was but a pretense, the 
real object of the administration being the military occupation 
of Maryland in order to prevent its secession. This rumor still 
further inflamed the public mind, and when about 2 p. m. on the 
i8th six companies of Pennsylvania volunteers arrived in the 
city, their march from the corner of Howard and Cathedral 
streets to the Mount Clare station was made through an excited 
populace, who amused themselves with singing "Dixie," cheering 
for the Southern Confederacy and jeering the unarmed soldiers. 
No assault was made, but the troops were jostled about by the 
crowd and greeted by groans and hisses along the entire line 
of march. After the departure of the soldiers the situation be- 
came quieter, but that evening a meeting of the State-Rights con- 
vention was held at Taylor's hall, at which the following reso- 
lutions were adopted : "That, in the opinion of this convention, 
the prosecution of the design announced by the president, in his 
late proclamation, of recapturing the forts in the seceded states, 
will inevitably lead to a sanguinary war, the dissolution of the 
Union, and the irreconcilable estrangement of the people of the 
South from the people of the North. 

"That we protest in the name of the people of Maryland against 
the garrisoning of Southern forts by militia drawn from the 
free states ; or the quartering of militia from the free states in 
any of the towns or places of the slaveholding states. 

"That, in the opinion of this convention, the massing of large 
bodies of militia, exclusively from the free states, in the District 
of Columbia, is uncalled for by any public danger or exigency, 
is a standing menace to the State of Maryland, and an insult to 
her loyalty and good faith, and will, if persisted in, alienate her 
people from a government which thus attempts to overawe them 
by the presence of armed men, and treats them with contempt and 
disgust. 

"That the time has arrived when it becomes all good citizens 
to unite in a common effort to obliterate all the party lines which 
have heretofore unhappily divided us. and to present an unbroken 
front in the preservation and defense of our interests, our 
homes and our firesides — to avert the horrors of civil war, and to 
repel, if need be, any invader who may come to establish a mili- 
tary despotism over us." 



Military Affairs in Maryland 359 

In some of the speeches on the resolutions strong ground was 
taken against the passage of any more troops to Baltimore, and 
armed resistance to it was advised. At another meeting the fol- 
lowing morning in the same hall, under the auspices of the "Na- 
tional Volunteer Association," fiery speeches were made de- 
nouncing any attempt at coercion and recommending thorough 
preparation by Maryland to meet the crisis. These ill advised 
utterances, notwithstanding strong proclamations by Gov. Hicks 
and the mayor of Baltimore, bore fruit about noon on the 19th, 
when the 6th Mass. and Small's "Washington" brigade, of Phil- 
adelphia, arrived at Baltimore on their way to the national cap- 
ital. (See Baltimore in the Cyclopedia of Battles.) Following 
the riot a consultation was held by the board of police commis- 
sioners, Coleman Yellott, the state senator from Baltimore coun- 
ty, and some of the prominent secessionists, which resulted in 
Yellott's issuing a proclamation for the convening of the legis- 
lature at Baltimore. Yellott had no constitutional authority to 
issue such a call, and to have had the legislature assemble at 
Baltimore would have placed that body under the direct influ- 
ence of the most active secessionists in the state. In speaking 
subsequently of the state of affairs at this time, Gov. Hicks said : 
"I knew it was time for me to act. True, I might then have 
called upon the president of the United States to quell the insur- 
rection, but that would almost certainly have caused the destruc- 
tion of the city of Baltimore. I might have called out the militia 
to endeavor to restore quiet ; and, indeed, I did make an effort 
to that end. But I discovered that nearly all the officers were in 
league with the conspirators, and the volunteer corps of the city 
and vicinity which possessed arms were almost entirely in the 
same category. It is true, there was a considerable loyal mili- 
tary force in Baltimore, but it was undisciplined and entirely 
unarmed. So that if I had effectively called out the militia at 
that time, I should have actually assisted the conspirators in 
their designs. I concluded, therefore, after anxious deliberation, 
that there was but one course left to me. I summoned the legis- 
lature to assemble at Frederick City, in the midst of a loyal 
population, on the 26th day of April, believing that even the few 
days thus gained would be invaluable." 

In the meantime other and more stirring events were trans- 
piring. The excited people, immediately after the riot of the 
19th, became an uncontrolled and uncontrollable mob. Union 
citizens were maltreated, newspapers mobbed, and mercantile 
establishments, especially those handling guns and ammunition, 
were broken into and their contents appropriated. By sunset 
the national colors had disappeared and the Confederate flag 
could be seen on every hand. Toward evening the rumor became 



260 The Union Army 

current that more troops were coming in over the Northern Cen- 
tral railroad. A consultation of the mayor and police authorities 
was called, and about midnight an order was issued for the de- 
struction of the bridges on all the railroads leading into the city 
from the free states. At 2 130 a. m. on the 20th two parties left 
Baltimore — one under command of Capt. J. G. Johannes and the 
other under Marshal George P. Kane in person. (See Scharf's 
History of Maryland, vol. Ill, page 413.) The former 
moved out on the line of the Northern Central, the men being 
well provided with picks, crowbars and a good supply of turpen- 
tine, and by daylight the bridges at Melvale, Relay House and 
Cockeysville were in ruins. The other party, similarly equipped, 
took the Philadelphia railroad, destroyed the bridges over the 
Bush and Gunpowder rivers and Harris creek, thus completely 
severing railroad communications with the North. The order for 
the destruction of the bridges was issued secretly and it was 
charged that Gov. Hicks had given the order, but this he after- 
ward publicly and officially denied. 

Just before daylight on Sunday morning, April 21, Gen. B. F. 
Butler arrived at Annapolis with the 8th Mass. infantry, and 
was joined there 24 hours later by Col. LefTerts with the 7th 
N. Y. Here Butler was met by the governor, who sent a note to 
the two commanders, warning them not to land their troops. 
John G. Nicolay, Lincoln's private secretary, says : "With all 
his stubborn and ingrained loyalty, the governor was of a timid 
and somewhat vacillating nature, and for the moment the clamor 
of the Baltimore mob overawed his cooler judgment. In this 
conflict between lawful duty and popular pressure, he, too, 
caught at the flimsy plea of 'State' supremacy and, in addition 
to presuming to forbid the national flag on Maryland soil, wrote 
a letter to the president, asking that the troops be ordered else- 
where, and suggesting that Lord Lyons, the British minister, be 
requested to mediate between the government and the rebels, a 
proposal which was at once answered by a dignified rebuke from 
Mr. Seward." 

Butler made a suitable reply to the governor's request, but 
nevertheless went on with his arrangements to land his men. 
The frigate Constitution, fondly named "Old Ironsides," which 
for more than a generation had been used as a school ship at the 
naval academy, was in danger of being seized by the secession- 
ists, and Butler determined to take possession of it. Calling for 
volunteers from his command, he soon found enough mariners 
to man the vessel, when she was towed out into the stream by 
the Maryland, her guns shotted and trained on the shore. The 
troops were then landed and efforts pushed forward to reach 
Washington. The Annapolis & Elk Ridge railroad had been de- 



Military Affairs in Maryland 261 

stroyed by the mob, but Butler's men went to work to repair it, 
and on the 25th had it ready for the transportation of the com- 
mand to the national capital. 

The next day the legislature assembled at Frederick City. In 
his message the governor reviewed the riot of the 19th, his ef- 
forts to prevent the landing of troops at Annapolis, and added: 
"Notwithstanding the fact that our most learned and intelligent 
citizens admit the right of the government to transport its troops 
across our soil, it is evident that a portion of the people of Mary- 
land are opposed to the exercise of that right. I have done all in 
my power to protect the citizens of Maryland, and to preserve 
peace within our borders. Lawless occurrences will be repeated, 
I fear, unless prompt action be taken by you. It is my duty to 
advise you of my own convictions of the proper course to be 
pursued by Maryland in the emergency which is upon us. It is 
of no consequence now to discuss the causes which have induced 
our troubles. Let us look to our distressing present and to our 
portentous future. The fate of Maryland, and perhaps of her 
sister border slave states, will undoubtedly be seriously affected 
by the action of your honorable body. Therefore should every 
good citizen bend all his energies to the task before us, and 
therefore should the animosities and bickerings of the past be 
forgotten, and all strike hands in the bold cause of restoring 
peace to our state and to our country." 

Early in the session was presented a petition, signed by 216 
voters of Prince George county, praying the legislature, if in its 
judgment it possessed the power, to pass an ordinance of seces- 
sion. The petition was referred to the committee on Federal re- 
lations, consisting of S. T. Wallis, J. H. Gordon, G. W. Golds- 
borough, J. T, Briscoe and Barnes Compton, a majority of whom 
reported that in their opinion the legislature did not have the 
power to pass such an ordinance, while a minority reported in 
favor of granting the prayer of the petitioners. On the question 
to substitute the minority for the majority report, it was rejected 
by a vote of 53 to 13, thus settling the question of secession so far 
as the legislature was concerned. On May 9 the same committee 
reported against calling a state convention and against arming 
the militia, for the reason that such acts might be regarded as 
hostile demonstrations by the national authorities. With the 
report was a series of resolutions declaring the war unconstitu- 
tional in its origin, purposes and conduct ; that Maryland owed it 
to her own self respect to register solemn protest against the war 
and to announce her determination to have no part nor lot in its 
prosecution ; that the state desired the peaceful and immediate 
recognition of the independence of the Confederate States, and 
that the present military occupation of the State of Maryland 



262 The Union Army 

was in flagrant violation of the constitution. These resolutions 
passed the house by a vote of 43 to 12. On the 13th both houses 
united in the adoption of a resolution providing for a committee 
of eight — four from each house — to visit the presidents of the 
United and Confederate States, the committee to visit Jeffer- 
son Davis being instructed to convey the assurance that Maryland 
sympathized with the South, but desired reconciliation and peace, 
while those to President Lincoln were to protest against the mili- 
tary occupation of the state or the passage of any more troops 
over Maryland soil. On the 14th the legislature adjourned to 
meet again on June 4, at Frederick City, to hear the reports of 
these committees. Both reported they had been courteously re- 
ceived, but nothing definitely was accomplished in either case. 

When the "Conference Convention," at its adjourned session 
in March, failed to call a state convention, Bradley T. Johnson 
began the organization of companies of minute men to resist the 
invasion of Maryland by Federal troops. By the middle of April 
several such companies had been organized and equipped. On 
the night of the 19th, a few hours after the riot in Baltimore, 
Marshal Kane telegraphed to Johnson at Frederick City as 
follows: "Bring your men in by the first train and we will ar- 
range with the railroad afterward. Streets red with Maryland 
blood. Send expresses over the mountains and valleys of Mary- 
land and Virginia for the riflemen to come without delay. Fresh 
hordes will be down upon us tomorrow. We will fight and whip 
them or die." Johnson responded promptly on the 20th with one 
armed company of about fifty men. Early on that morn- 
ing the city council appropriated $500,000 for the defense 
of the city, the money to be used at the discretion of the mayor, 
who issued a notice calling on all citizens who possessed arms to 
deposit them with the police, and asking all who were willing to 
enroll themselves for military service. On May 2 the advisory 
council of Virginia recommended to the governor of that state 
to send a special agent to the Maryland legislature to assure 
that body of Virginia's sympathy, and ofifer to furnish arms for 
the troops enrolled at Baltimore under the mayor's call. These 
acts were looked upon as treasonable by President Lincoln, who 
authorized Gen. Scott to suspend the privilege of the writ of ha- 
beas corpus, and directed him to arrest or disperse the Maryland 
legislature in case it attempted any legislation favorable to the 
cause of secession. 

About the same time the military department of Annapolis 
was created and Gen. Butler was placed in command, the main 
object being to keep open the Annapolis & Elk Ridge railroad as 
a line of communication with the North. In the dusk of evening 
on May 13. Butler, with the 6th Mass. infantry, the same regi- 



Military Affairs in Maryland 263 

ment that had been attacked by the mob three weeks before, took 
possession of Federal hill, overlooking the city of Baltimore, 
and intrenched his position. The next morning he issued a proc- 
lamation, stating that this had been done "for the purpose, among 
other things, of enforcing obedience to the laws." Although 
Gen. Scott reprimanded the movement, Butler was reinforced 
and continued to hold the hill. On the 14th Gov. Hicks issued 
his proclamation calling for four regiments, in compliance with 
the president's call for volunteers for three months, "to serve 
within the Hmits of the State of Maryland or for defense of the 
capital of the United States." Under the suspension of the writ 
of habeas corpus, Mayor Brown, Marshal Kane, and several 
members of the legislature, among them Ross Winans and Cole- 
man Yellott, were arrested and confined in military prisons. The 
arrest of these men, the influence of the governor's proclamation 
calling for troops ; and the prompt and energetic action of But- 
ler saved Maryland to the Union. Nicolay says : "Open resist- 
ance to the government disappeared from the entire state ; a 
sweeping political reaction also set in, demonstrating that the Un- 
ion sentiment was largely predominant; between which and the 
presence of Union troops the legislative intrigue was blighted, 
and the persistent secession minority and almost irrepressible 
local conspiracy were eiTectually baffled, though not without con- 
stant vigilance and severe discipline throughout the remainder 
of the year." 

Soon after his inauguration, President Lincoln issued a call 
for Congress to meet in extra session on July 4. On June 13 a 
special election for Congressmen for this session was held in 
Maryland, which resulted in the selection of J. W. Crisfield, 
E. H. Webster, C. L. L. Leary, Henry May, Frank Thomas and 
C. B. Calvert, every one a stanch Union man. During the sum- 
mer a Union party was organized, which nominated Augustus 
W. Bradford for governor, and the "Peace" party nominated 
Benjamin C. Howard. At the election on Nov. 6, Bradford was 
elected by a majority of 31,438 votes and a large majority of 
the members of the new legislature were Union men. This 
sweeping victory dampened the ardor of the secessionists, and 
thereafter they made but little open disturbance in the state, 
though they still kept up their underhand practices. Gov. Hicks 
called the new legislature in extra session on Dec. 3, at Annap- 
olis. The old legislature had held short adjourned sittings in 
June, July and September, and its work was thus described by 
the governor in his message at the opening of the special ses- 
sion : "The history of that legislature is before the country. Not 
only did it fail to do its duty, as representing a loyal state, but it 
actually passed treasonable resolutions, and attempted to take. 



264 The Union Army 

unlawfully, into its hands both the purse and the sword, whereby 
it might plunge us into the vortex of secession. It was deterred 
from doing this only by the unmistakable threats of an aroused 
and indignant people. Restricted in the duration of its sessions 
by nothing but the will of the majority of its members, it met 
again and again ; squandered the people's money, and made itself 
a mockery before the country. This continued until the general 
government had ample reason to believe it was about to go 
through the farce of enacting an ordinance of secession, when the 
treason was summarily stopped by the dispersion of the traitors." 

Gov. Bradford was inaugurated on Jan. 8, 1862, at Annapo- 
lis, and the same day the legislature met in regular session. 
Among the acts passed was one appropriating $7,000 for the 
relief of the families of the Massachusetts soldiers who were 
killed or wounded in the Baltimore riot, and naming Gov. An- 
drew of that state as trustee for the distribution of the money, 
which was paid soon after the legislature adjourned. On March 
6 was passed the act known as the "Treason Bill," which pro- 
vided that the penalty of death should be inflicted on any one 
convicted of levying "war against this state, or shall adhere to 
the enemies thereof, whether foreign or domestic, giving them 
aid or comfort, within this state or elsewhere." Various degrees 
of punishment were fixed for such oflFenses as conspiring to burn 
bridges, destroy canals or other means of communication, hold- 
ing secret meetings, or belonging to any organization, secret or 
otherwise, which had for its object the promotion of the seces- 
sion cause. A number of resolutions were adopted, among them 
one declaring that "Maryland will cheerfully contribute her 
proportion of men and means to sustain the nation in its strug- 
gle for existence so long as the war is conducted in accordance 
with the principles of the constitution, and so long as the pur- 
pose of those in power is maintenance of the Union, with the 
rights guaranteed by the states unimpaired." 

Early in June a camp of instruction was established near An- 
napolis, under the command of Gen. Wool, and on July 2 Presi- 
dent Lincoln issued his call for 300,000 volunteers, Maryland's 
quota being four regiments of infantry. On the 4th Gov. Brad- 
ford appointed a committee of fifty citizens of Baltimore, with 
John P. Kennedy as chairman, to aid in the recruiting of troops. 
This committee appealed to the city council to make an appro- 
priation for bounties to those who would volunteer, and one 
branch of the council voted unanimously for an appropriation of 
$300,000, but it was rejected by the other. Indignation ran high 
and the councilmen who had voted against the ordinance were 
threatened with lynching. Through the influence of Gen. Wool 
they were persuaded to resign and Union men were appointed 



Military Affairs in Maryland 265 

to fill the vacancies. The ordinance was then passed, and an 
additional appropriation of $30,000 was made toward uniform- 
ing and equipping the first light division. 

On Aug. 4 the president ordered a draft of 300,000 militia, 
to serve for nine months, unless sooner discharged, and direct- 
ed that any state, whose quota under the call of July 2 had not 
been completed, should supply the deficiency by a draft from 
the militia. Bradford ordered an enrollment of all citizens of the 
state subject to military duty, preparatory to a draft. Some oppo- 
sition was made to the enrollment. In Harford and Anne Arun- 
del counties buildings belonging to the enrolling officers were 
burned, but Gen. R. C. Schenck, commanding the department, 
immediately ordered assessments amounting to about $5,000 to 
be made upon "persons known to be disaffected to the loyal 
government of the country and encouragers of rebellion who 
reside within 6 miles from the points where the barns were 
burnt." The enrollment then proceeded without further resist- 
ance, and when completed showed that the counties of Allegany, 
Cecil, Kent and Washington had already furnished more men 
than their apportionment, the excess being 924, which was duly 
credited to the other portions of the state. The southern coun- 
ties had not done so well, Calvert having furnished none, Charles 
but I, St. Mary's 4 and Montgomery 7. In these counties the 
draft, which was made on Oct. 15, fell heavily, but it was sus- 
tained by the people, and in this way the four infantry regiments 
were raised and a light battery (Alexander's) was organized. 

In July Col. William Birney was authorized by the war de- 
partment to enlist free negroes for military service, such troops 
to be credited to the state the same as white volunteers. Many 
slaves took advantage of this to run away, declare themselves 
as free negroes and enter the army. This occasioned much ex- 
citement and led to considerable correspondence between the 
state authorities and the war department, but the enrollment of 
negro troops went on, with the effect of increasing the anti- 
slavery sentiment, which had already made much headway in the 
state since the commencement of the war. During the summer 
a number of persons were arrested for treason or disloyalty, 
some of them being sent to prison, some took the oath of alle- 
giance and were released on parole, and others were sent within 
the Confederate lines. Among the last named ■ were Beale H. 
and Frank A. Richardson, proprietors, and S. J. Joice, editor, 
of the Baltimore Republican and Argus, their offense being the 
publication of a poem called the "Southern Cross," which had 
previously been published as sheet music and ordered suppressed. 
By Gen. Schenck's order the association known as the "Maryland 
Club," of Baltimore, was disbanded and its house, papers and 



266 The Union Army 

property taken possession of by the military, to be held subject 
to future orders. 

After the organization of the Union party in 1861 Union 
Leagues were organized in various parts of the state, represent- 
ed by the "Grand League." In the spring of 1863 an efifort was 
made to unite all these leagues into one general movement to 
"more effectually sustain the national administration in its great 
struggles." On April 30 a mass meeting was held at Cumber- 
land, at which resolutions were adopted asking for a conference 
of all who were in favor of maintaining the Union. In response 
to these resolutions the Grand League issued a call for a state 
convention to assemble in Baltimore on June 16, the call being 
addressed to "all who support the whole policy of the govern- 
ment in suppressing the rebellion." Before that convention met, 
a meeting of conservative Union men was held in Baltimore on 
May 14, which resulted in the state committee of the Union par- 
ty calling a state convention for June 23. The convention of the 
i6th met and passed resolutions that the Union men of Mary- 
land should vote for no candidate for Congress who did not avow 
himself in favor of supporting the whole policy of the adminis- 
tration, nor no candidate for the legislature who was not in favor 
of calling a constitutional convention, and that the policy of 
emancipation ought to be inaugurated in Maryland. After the 
adoption of these resolutions the convention adjourned to the 
23d, when both conventions met and a conference committee 
was appointed by each to agree upon some plan of coalition. 
This committee failed to unite on any proposition for the nomi- 
nation of candidates and declaration of a policy, and the division 
of the Union men in the state became complete. The convention 
called by the state committee of the Union party nominated S. 
P. Mafifitt for comptroller and W. L. W. Seabrook for commis- 
sioner of the land office, and the Grand League nominated H. H. 
Goldsborough for comptroller and endorsed the candidacy of 
Mr. Seabrook. The unconditional or league candidates for 
Congress in the five districts were John ,\. J. Cresswell, E. H. 
Webster, Henry W. Davis, Frank Thomas and John C. Holland. 
The other Union party nominated but three candidates — ^John 
W. Crisfield, Charles B. Calvert and Benjamin G. Harris. At 
the election Goldsborough and Seabrook were elected to the state 
offices and the Congressional delegation was composed of Cress- 
well, Webster, Davis, Thomas and Harris. The Unconditional 
party made emancipation the paramount issue of the campaign, 
and upon this question elected a majority of the legislative can- 
didates who favored a constitutional convention. 

The first expression of sentiment in favor of the emancipation 
of slaves was on May 14, 1862, when the Union convention of 



Military Affairs in Maryland 267 

Baltimore adopted a resolution recommending a constitutional 
convention, and approving the policy "proposed by the president 
in his message of March 6, 1862, and sanctioned by Congress, 
tendering pecuniary aid to such states as may choose to adopt a 
system of gradual emancipation." The invasion of Maryland 
by Lee in September following this declaration (see Antietam 
and South Mountain in the Cyclopedia of Battles), the presi- 
dent's emancipation proclamation and the enlistment of negro 
troops had a tendency to increase and crystallize this sentiment 
vuitil it became the winning issue in the campaign of 1863. The 
legislature met at Annapolis on Jan. 6, 1864, organized on the 
7th and elected ex-Gov. Hicks to the United States senate, and 
immediately took up the question of a constitutional convention. 
A bill calling a state convention with a view to the abolition of 
slavery passed both houses on Jan. 28 and was approved by the 
governor on Feb. 3. By the provisions of this act the people 
were called upon to vote on the first Wednesday in April for or 
against a convention, and at the same time were to elect dele- 
gates to the convention, said delegates to assemble at Annapolis 
on the last Wednesday in the month, provided a majority of the 
votes favored the convention. The election was held on April 
6, and a majority of 12,069. i" ^ total vote of 51,314, declared 
in favor of a convention, which assembled on April 27, elected 
H. H. Goldsborough permanent chairman, and remained in ses- 
sion until Sept. 6 before its labors were completed. The new 
constitution was submitted to a vote of the people on Oct. 12, 
and was ratified by the small majority of 375 in a vote of 59,973. 
The opponents of the new organic law immediately put up the 
plea that the election had been carried by illegal votes of soldiers 
who belonged to other states, and by the suppression of legal 
votes of citizens of the state, but Gov. Bradford issued his proc- 
lamation declaring the new constitution in effect on Nov. i, 1864. 
Article 24 of the constitution provided that "Hereafter, in this 
state, there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, 
except in punishment of crime, whereof the party shall have been 
duly convicted ; and all persons held to service or labor as slaves 
are hereby declared free." 

Early in June, 1863, the Confederate army under Gen. Lee 
began moving down the Shenandoah valley and it soon became 
evident that another invasion of Maryland was intended. On 
the 15th President Lincoln issued his proclamation calling for 
100,000 men, to be immediately mustered into the service of the 
United States for six months, unless sooner discharged. Of 
this levy Maryland was to raise 10,000 men. Accordingly on 
the 1 6th Gov. Bradford published an appeal to the people of the 
state to furnish the 10,000 by voluntary enlistments. The Bal- 



268 The Union Army 

timore city council, in extra session, appropriated $400,000 to 
be paid as bounties to those enlisting before June 26, $50 to be 
paid at the time of enlistment and $10 a month thereafter for 
five months. Under this stimulus all the uniformed military 
organizations of the city ofifered their services for the six months 
under the call, and other portions of the state were equally 
prompt in furnishing their proportion of the levy. Lee's inva- 
sion ended disastrously for the Confederates in the battle of Get- 
tysburg, and at the expiration of the term of enlistment these 
emergency troops, as they were called, were mustered out. 

Another invasion of Maryland came in the early part of July, 
1864, when the Confederates under Gen. Early suddenly and 
unexpectedly entered the Cumberland valley. The people of 
Hagerstown were forced to raise $20,000 to prevent the destruc- 
tion of the city, and a demand was made upon the merchants 
to furnish from their stocks of goods 1,500 suits of clothes, 
1,500 hats, 1,500 pairs of shoes, 1,500 shirts, 1,900 pairs of draw- 
ers and 1,500 pairs of socks within four hours. There were not 
enough articles in the city of the kind described to comply with 
the demand, but all that could be found were appropriated, after 
which Gen. McCausland gave the city authorities a written as- 
surance against any further tribute being levied against the town 
or its citizens. From Hagerstown Early moved on Frederick 
City, which was evacuated by the Union troops, and a demand 
was made for $200,000, in default of which payment the city 
would be burned. Mayor Cole called together the officials 
remaining in the city and after a short consultation decided to 
submit to the terms and ransom the city. The money was ac- 
cordingly paid in United States currency, Confederate money and 
bank notes being refused, and the Confederate soldiers visited the 
stores and "took what they wanted," sometimes offering Confeder- 
ate currency in payment, but more frequently without either offer 
of compensation or apology. Early's advance was checked by 
Gen. Wallace at Monocacy on the 9th and he made a precipi- 
tate retreat back to Virginia. 

At the elections in 1864 Lincoln carried the state by a major- 
ity of 7,432, and Thomas Swann, the Republican candidate for 
governor, was elected by a majority of 8,511 over Judge E. F. 
Chambers, Democrat. Each voter, before being permitted to 
cast his ballot, was required to take the test oath prescribed by the 
new constitution, viz.: "I do swear (or affirm) that I am a 
citizen of the United States, that I have never given any aid, 
countenance or support to those in armed hostility to the United 
States, that I have never expressed a desire for the triumph of 
said enemies over the arms of the United States, and that I will 
bear true faith and allegiance to the United States and support 



Military Affairs in Maryland 269 

the constitution and laws thereof as the supreme law of the land, 
any law or ordinance of any state to the contrary notwithstand- 
ing ; that I will in all respects demean myself as a loyal citizen of 
the United States, and I make this oath (or affirmation) without 
any reservation or evasion, and beheve it to be binding on me." 

The legislature met on Jan. 4, 1865, and on the nth Gov. 
Swann was inaugurated. The most important bill passed during 
the session was one in accordance with the new constitution, 
providing for a uniform registration of voters. This law ex- 
cluded from the right of suffrage all persons not white male 
citizens of the United States; persons not 21 years of age; those 
who had been in armed hostility to the United States, or in any 
manner in the Confederate service ; those who had left the state 
and gone within the Confederate lines with the intention of ad- 
hering to the cause of secession ; and all who had given aid, com- 
fort or countenance to the enemies of the United States. Every 
voter applying for registration was required to answer a long 
list of interrogatories, as to whether he had aided or abetted in 
any way the enemies of his country, and to take the oath above 
mentioned. The effect of this act was the disfranchisement of 
a large number of citizens. It was claimed by many to be uncon- 
stitutional, but in the case of Thomas Anderson vs. the board of 
registration in the fourth district of Montgomery county it was 
sustained by the supreme court. Judge Bartol dissenting. After 
the heat of passion had somewhat subsided, the rigors of the law 
were modified by the constitution of 1867. Maryland passed 
from the system of slave labor to that of free labor with less 
friction and inconvenience than any of her sister slave states, 
and during the reconstruction era suffered less, chiefly because 
of the patriotism and conservative course of her people. On 
the field her sons acquitted themselves with valor, and when the 
war was over returned to their occupations, happy in the thought 
that they had contributed their due proportion to the maintenance 
of the national government and its insitutions. 

Two incidents reflecting on the Baltimore riot are worthy of 
mention. On June 17, 1865, a monument was unveiled in Merri- 
mac square, Lowell, Mass., to the memory of Luther C. Ladd and 
Addison O. Whitney, two soldiers of the 6th Mass., who were 
killed in the riot, and on this occasion Lieut.-Col. T. J. Morris, 
of Gov. Bradford's staff, presented to Gov. Andrew, as the rep- 
resentative of Massachusetts, a fine silk flag, made by the women 
of Baltimore. On the staff was a silver plate bearing the inscrip- 
tion : "Maryland to Massachusetts, April 19, 1865. May the 
Union and Friendship of the Future obliterate the Anguish of 
the Past." The second incident occurred in the spring of 1898, 
when the 6th Mass. — a regiment bearing the same numerical 



270 The Union Army 

designation as the one assaulted on April 19, 1861, — marched 
through Baltimore on its way to take part in the Spanish-Ameri- 
can war. Instead of being greeted by a mob it was given an ova- 
tion by the patriotic citizens of the Monumental City, thus fully 
demonstrating that the hope expressed by the inscription on the 
flag-staff of 2,3 years before had found its fruition in a reunited 
country. 

From the beginning to the close of the war Maryland fur- 
nished twenty regiments and one independent company of in- 
fantry ; four regiments, one battalion and one independent com- 
pany of cavalry; and six light batteries — a total of 50,316 white 
troops — and six regiments of colored infantry, numbering 8,718 
men. In addition to these volunteers the state furnished her 
due proportion to the regular army of the United States and 
5,636 men to the navy and marine corps. 



RECORD OF MARYLAND REGIMENTS 



First Infantry. — Cols., John R. Kenly, Nathan T. Dushane, John W. 
Wilson, David L. Stanton ; Lieut.-Cols., Seth G. Reed, Thomas S. J. John- 
son; Majs., George Chorpening, B. F. Zimmerman, Benjamin H. Schley, 
Josiah B. Coloney, Robert Neely. The organization of this regiment was 
commenced on May 6, 1861, when a recruiting office was opened at 112 
West Baltimore street, in the city of Baltimore, and ten days later the 
first four companies (A, B, C, D,) were mustered into the service of 
the United States. The regiment was completed on the 27th and went 
into camp at the Relay House, where it remained until June 7, when it 
was ordered to proceed to Frederick City. From that time until Oct. 16 
it remained on the upper Potomac, guarding the fords and ferries, and 
then marched to Darnestown to take part in the campaign that ended in 
the battle of Ball's Bhiff. On Dec. 2 it returned to Frederick and went 
into winter quarters as part of Gen. Banks' army, but was 'soon afterward 
ordered to Williamsport to repel an invasion into Maryland. On Jan. 
7, 1862, six companies made a night march to Hancock, which place was 
then besieged by the Confederate forces under Stonewall Jackson. From 
Hancock it went to Winchester, Va., where it was attached to Gen. 
Wilhams' brigade, which afterward became the ist brigade, ist division, 
5th corps. It was then engaged in the operations in the Shenandoah Val- 
ley until May 23, when it suffered a loss of 14 killed, 43 wounded and 
535 captured at Front Roj'al and was ordered to Baltimore for reor- 
ganization. In the engagement at Front Royal the regiment was opposed 
by 18,000 of Jackson's men, but by its heroic resistance saved Banks' army. 
It remained at Baltimore until in September, when the celebrated Mary- 
land brigade was organized, consisting of the ist, 4th, 6th, 7th and 8th 
infantry regiments and Alexander's battery. On Sept. 18 it left Balti- 
more and joined the Army of the Potomac at Antietam. In November 
the prisoners captured at Front Royal were exchanged and rejoined the 
regiment, which was then attached to the 1st brigade, ist division. 8th 
corps, remaining with this command until the reorganization of the Army 
of the Potomac, when the Maryland brigade became the 3d brigade, 2nd 



Maryland Regiments 271 

division, 5th corps. From the time of its reorganization until the spring 
of 1864 it participated in all the campaigns of the Army of the Potomac, 
and on May 3, 1864, broke camp on the Rapidan to take part in the 
famous Wilderness campaign and the siege of Petersburg. It was in a 
number of the hottest engagements about Richmond and Petersburg; 
was present at Appomattox when Lee's army surrendered, and on April 
15 was ordered to Washington, where it participated in the grand re- 
view in May. It was mustered out at Arlington Heights, Va., July 2, 
1865, and proceeded to Baltimore, where the men drew their final pay 
and were discharged. During its service it lost 267 men, 118 of whom 
were killed in action and 149 died of wounds and disease. The regi- 
ment, or a portion of it, was engaged in the battles of Shepherdstown, 
Cherry Run, Fort Frederick, Kernstown, Front Royal, Maryland Heights, 
Funkstown, Haymarket, Wilderness, Laurel Hill, Spottsylvania, on the 
North Anna river, Shady Grove, Bethesda Church, Cold Harbor, Peters- 
burg, Poplar Grove Church, Peebles Farm, Hatcher's Run, Five Forks, 
Appomattox, and numerous skirmishes incident to the siege of Peters- 
burg. (See Cyclopedia of Battles.) 

Second Infantry. — Cols., John Sommer, Thomas B. Allard; Lieut.-Cols.. 
J. E. Duryee, Henrj' Howard, Jr., Benjamin F. Taylor; Majs., David P. 
De Witt, James H. Wilson, Andrew B. Brunner, John M. Santmyer. The 
2nd infantry was organized at Baltimore between the months of June 
and Sept., 1861, to serve for three years. From the time of its muster 
in in Sept., 1861, to March 26, 1862, it was a part of Gen. Dix's division, 
Army of the Potomac. It was then in the Department of North Caro- 
lina until July 22, when it was attached to the ist brigade, 2nd division 
9th corps, and served under Gen. Burnside in North Carolina and the 
Department of the Ohio until June, 1863. It then became a part of the 
1st division of the 23d corps until in September, when it returned to its 
old place in the 9th corps and remained with that command during the 
remainder of its service. On Jan. i, 1864, the regiment reenlisted and 
the men received the veteran furlough of 30 days. During its service 
the regiment was in the battles of the second Bull Run, Chantilly, South 
Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg. Blue Springs, Campbell Station, 
siege of Knoxville, Spottsylvania, Totopotomy, Cold Harbor, around 
Petersburg, being one of the regiments to engage in the assault on the 
Conferedate works at the time Burnside's mine was sprung, and was at 
the surrender of Gen. Lee's army at Appomattox. It was mustered out 
at Alexandria, Va., July 17, 1865, transported to Baltimore, where the 
men were paid and on the 25th the regiment disbanded. The total losses 
amounted to 226 men, 89 of whom were killed in battle and the others 
died in the hospitals. 

Third Infantry.— Cols., John C. McConnell, David P. De Witt, Joseph 
M. Sudsburg: Lieut.-Col., Gilbert P. Robinson; Majs., William B. Ken- 
nedy, Samuel Kramer. The organization of this regiment was com- 
menced on June 18, 1861, at Baltimore and Williamsport, but it was not 
completed until Feb. 17, 1862. The four companies enlisted in the summer 
of 1861 at Williamsport were composed largely of Union men and refu- 
gees from Jefferson and Berkeley counties, Va. Upon the organization 
of the regiment they became Companies A, B, C and I, and the Baltimore 
companies were designated as D, E, F and G. On May 11, 1862, Com- 
panies E, F, H and I were broken up and the men distributed among 
the other companies. The companies thus dissolved were replaced by 
four companies from the German Rifles, or 4th Maryland infantry and 
the Baltimore light infantry, both of these regiments having failed to 
complete their organization. On May 24, 1862, the regiment was ordered 
to Harper's Ferry and assigned to the army under Gen. Banks, after- 
ward known as the 12th corps. It took part in the battle of Cedar Moun- 



272 The Union Army 

tain, Aug. 9, 1862, and in the subsequent movements of the army under 
Gen. Pope. In the invasion of Maryland in the fall of that year it was 
with Gen. McClellan in the campaign which culminated in the battle of 
Antietam, where the 3d regiment distinguished itself by its bravery. 
After the battle of Antietam it remained in the Shenandoah Valley until 
about the beginning of the year 1863, when it marched to eastern Vir- 
ginia as a part of the 12th corps, and joined the Army of the Potomac. 
It was in the battle of Chancellorsville, after which it was transferred 
to the West and assisted in relieving the army at Chattanooga, Tenn. In 
Feb., 1864, the original members of the regiment, who had been in serv- 
ice for two years, were veteranized by reenlistment, and at the expira- 
tion of their 30 days' furlough the regiment was assigned to the 2nd bri- 
gade, 1st division, 9th corps, with which it continued until mustered out 
at Arlington Heights, Va., on July 31, 1865. In the official records of the 
war the regiment is reported as having participated in the battles of Ce- 
dar Mountain, Antietam, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Wilderness, Spott- 
sylvania, along the North Anna river, Cold Harbor, the siege of Peters- 
burg, Poplar Spring Church, and a number of minor engagements. It 
lost while in the service 225 men, 91 of whom were killed in battle. 
From the time of its muster in to the close of its service it traveled by 
rail 2,903 miles, by water 289 miles, and marched 1,771 miles. 

Fourth Infantry. — Cols., W. J. L. Nicodemus, R. N. Bowerman; 
Lieut. -Col., Gregory Barrett, Jr.; Majs., H. P. Brooks, Harrison Adreon. 
This regiment was organized at Baltimore during the months of July and 
August, 1862, with the exception of Co. E, which was raised in Carroll 
county. It consisted of nine companies and was assigned to the famous 
Marj'land brigade, which was commanded by Gen. John R. Kenly, the 
first colonel of the ist Md. infantry, and remained with the brigfade 
throughout the war. On Sept. 18, 1862, it received marching orders and 
hurried to join the Army of the Potomac, then at Antietam, and arrived 
there in time to assist in expelling Lee's army from Maryland. It spent 
the winter of 1862-63 on Maryland heights, opposite Harper's Ferry, 
where it remained until April, 1863, when it was sent to West Virginia to 
repel the raids of Gens. Imboden and Jones. The conduct of the Mary- 
land brigade in this campaign elicited a complimentary letter from Gen. 
B. F. Kelley, commanding the ist division, 8th corps, to Gen. Kenly. On 
June 30, 1863, the regiment, with the Maryland brigade, marched to 
Frederick City, where it was attached to Gen. French's division, which 
was engaged in keeping open the communications between Washington 
and the Army of the Potomac. After the battle of Gettysburg, the regi- 
ment, with the 1st and 8th Md. infantry, made a forced march to Har- 
per's Ferry and recaptured that place on July 6, after a sharp fight. Dur- 
ing the summer and fall of 1863 it was with Gen. Meade's army in eastern 
Virginia, taking part in a number of engagements. In March, 1864, the 
Maryland brigade became the 3d brigade, 2nd division, 5th corps, and 
with that command was in the campaign from the Rapidan to the James, 
participating in the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court House, 
the North Anna river, Totopotomy, Bethesda Church, the siege of Peters- 
burg, Hatcher's run, Weldon railroad, and various lesser engagements. 
The casualties of the regiment during its service were 35 killed in battle 
and Tz died of wounds and disease. While in service it marched 1,089 
miles and traveled by rail 649 miles. It was mustered out at Arlington 
Heights, Va., May 31. 1865. 

Fifth Infantry. — Cols., William L. Schley, William W. Bamberger; 
Lieut.-Cols., John C. Holland, Salome Marsh, S. P. Heath, Charles A. 
Holton; Majs., Leopold Blumenberg, William H. Irving. The 5th in- 
fantry was organized in the city of Baltimore in the month of Sept., 
1861, and mustered into the United States service for three years. Al- 



Maryland Regiments 273 

though organized at Baltimore all parts of the state were represented in 
the rank and file. It remained in camp at Lafayette square in the city of 
Baltimore until March ii, 1862, when it was ordered to Fortress Mon- 
roe, Va., where it became a part of Gen. Dix's command. After the fail- 
ure of Gen. McClellan's peninsular campaign, the regiment was attached 
to the main body of the Army of the Potomac as part of the 3d brigade, 
3d division, 2nd corps, and fought with that command in the battle of 
Antietam, being on that part of the field known as the "Bloody Lane," 
where the regiment lost 39 killed and 109 wounded. Some idea of the 
severity of this part of the battle may be gained from the fact that the 
commanding officers were all wounded and carried from the field, and 
that at the close of the action the regiment was under the command of 
Capt. Marsh, of Co. F, afterward major of the regiment. After the bat- 
tle of Antietam the 5th went into camp at Bolivar heights, overlooking 
Harper's Ferry, and remained there until the following month, when 
it was ordered to the upper Potomac. During the winter of 1862-63 it 
formed part of Gen. Milroy's command, which was besieged at Win- 
chester in June, 1863, by the entire Confederate army under Gen. Lee, 
then starting on the invasion of Maryland and Pennsylvania, a movement 
that ended so disastrously for Lee at Gettysburg. The battles officially 
credited to the 5th Maryland infantry were Antietam, Charlestown, Win- 
chester, siege of Petersburg, second battle of Fair Oaks, and the occupa- 
tion of Richmond. It was in the assault on the Confederate works at 
Petersburg when Gen. Burnside's mine was exploded. A large number 
of the original members reenlisted and late in 1864 and the early part of 
1865 some 100 "substitutes" were assigned to the regiment to take the 
places of those mustered out. Many of these men deserted as soon as 
they received their pay as substitutes, thus making it appear on the rec- 
ords that the 5th infantry was an unworthy regiment. But its record at 
Antietam, the Petersburg crater and Winchester refute any such impli- 
cation, for the 5th Md., as originally organized, was the equal of any 
regiment in the army for bravery and devotion to duty. During the serv- 
ice it lost 64 killed, while 97 died of wounds and disease. It traveled 
by rail 670 miles, marched on foot 567 miles, and traveled by boat 923 
miles. It was mustered out at Fredericksburg, Va., Sept. i, 1865, and dis- 
banded at Baltimore a few days later. 

Sixth Infantry. — Cols., George R. Howard, John W. Horn; Lieut- 
Cols., Joseph C. Hill, William A. McKelHp; Maj., Clifton K. Prentiss. 
The organization of this regiment was commenced at Baltimore on Aug. 
12, 1862, and was completed on Sept. 8, at which time it was mustered 
into the United States service for three years. It was made up as fol- 
lows : Companies A and C from Carroll county ; B, E and G from Cecil 
county: D from Frederick county; H from Washington county; K from 
Queen Anne's county, and F and I from the city of Baltimore. On Sept. 
20, 1862, it left Baltimore to join the Army of the Potomac, and was as- 
signed to the Maryland brigade, then a part of the 8th corps. Subse- 
quently it was with the ist and 3d brigades, 2nd division of the 8th corps, 
2nd brigade. 3d division, 3d corps, and 2nd brigade, 3d division, 6th 
corps, to which command it was transferred on March 23, 1864, and 
served with that corps until mustered out. During the operations in the 
Shenandoah Valley and on the upper Potomac it was constantly on duty, 
skirmishing almost daily with the enemy. It was in the battle of Win- 
chester, v^hen Lee's whole army tried to capture Milroy's division, and 
fought with valor at the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court House, Cold 
Harbor, Fisher's Hill, the Opequan, Cedar Creek, Wapping Heights, 
Petersburg and Sailor's creek, and was at Appomattox when Gen Lee 
surrendered. Immediately after that event the 6th corps and the cavalry 
commanded by Gen. Custer were ordered to Danville, Va., to intercept 
Vol. 11—18 



274 The Union Army 

Gen. Johnston, who was supposed to be marching to the relief of Lee^ 
This forced march was useless, for Johnston, upon hearing of Lee's sur- 
render, capitulated to Gen. Sherman at Goldsboro, N. C. The 6th 
corps then went to Washington, where it arrived too late to take part in 
the grand review and was reviewed separately by the president. While 
in the service the 6th Md. suffered a loss of 128 killed, 233 wounded, 
and 108 who died of disease. It marched 1,751 miles, traveled by rail 
575 miles and by water 577 miles. It was mustered out on June 20, 1865, 
and was disbanded at Baltimore a few days later. 

Seventh Infantry. — Cols., Edwin H. Webster, Charles E. Phelps; 
Lieut.-Col., David T. Bennett; Majs., E. M. Mobley, William H. Dallam. 
This regiment was recruited in the northern counties of the state under 
the call of July i, 1862, for "three years or during the war." Companies 
C and H were raised in Harford county, D in Baltimore, F in Carroll, 
B, E and G in Frederick, and A and I in Washington. These nine com- 
panies were mustered in about the close of August and were subsequently 
joined by Co. K, which was composed of young men from the city of 
Baltimore. Its first service was in guarding the city of Baltimore in 
anticipation of an attack by Gen. Stuart's cavalry at the beginning of 
Lee's invasion of Maryland about the beginning of Sept., 1862, and on 
the 8th of that month it became a part of the famous Maryland brigade, 
composed of the ist, 4th, 6th, 7th and 8th Maryland infantry and Alex- 
ander's battery. This brigade continued as part of the 8th corps, though 
it served under Gens. Franklin, Couch and French until July ir, 1863, 
when it became the 3d brigade, 3d division, ist corps. Subsequently it 
became the 2nd brigade of the same division and upon the reorganiza- 
tion of the Army of the Potomac in March, 1864, it was designated a& 
the 3d brigade, 2nd division, 5th corps, with which it served until after 
the battle of Spottsylvania, where the division suffered so severely it was 
broken up and assigned to other commands, the Maryland brigade serv- 
ing as an independent organization until in June, 1864, when it became 
the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 5th corps and continued as such until it was 
mustered out. During its service the regiment marched 1,137 miles and 
was transported by rail 803 miles. It lost in killed 79 officers and men, 
and no died of wounds and disease. It participated in the engagements 
at Funkstown, Haymarket, Wilderness, Laurel Hill, Spottsylvania, Har- 
ris' farm, on the North Anna river. Shady Grove, Bethesda Church, Cold 
Harbor, Poplar Spring Church, Peebles' farm, Hatcher's run, numerous 
actions incident to the siege of Richmond and Petersburg, including 
White Oak road and Five Forks, and was present at the surrender of 
Lee's army at Appomattox. This regiment claims the last man to be 
wounded in the Army of the Potomac, viz : Robert N. Weller, who was 
struck by a piece of shell, fired by a North Carolina battery on April 9, 
1865, just before Lee surrendered. The regiment was mustered out on 
May 31, 1865. 

Eighth Infantry. — Col., Andrew W. Denison; Lieut-Cols.. John G. Jo- 
hannes, E. F. M. Faehtz; Maj., E. F. M. Faehtz. Of this regiment Co. A 
was recruited in Cecil county ; B, C, D, F and G in Baltimore city ; E in 
Frederick county, and H, I and K were made up of drafted men and sub- 
stitutes. The organization was commenced in Aug., 1862, but it was not 
completed until the following April, though the companies were mustered 
in as they reported and in the early part of Sept., 1862, the regiment was 
attached to the Maryland brigade. (See 7th regiment.) It fought at Funks- 
town, the Wilderness. Spottsylvania, Harris' farm, along the North Anna 
river. Shady Grove, Bethesda Church, the engagements about Petersburg 
during the siege from June, 1864, to April, 1865, and was with the Army 
of the Potomac when Lee .surrendered at Appomattox on April 9, 1865. 
It was mustered out with the other regiments composing the Maryland 



Maryland Regiments 275 

brigade at Arlington Heights, Va., on the last day of May, 1865, having 
previously taken part in the grand review at Washington, D. C. During 
its terra of service it marched 1,170 miles and traveled by rail 604 miles. 
Its losses were 57 killed and 70 who died in hospitals from wounds and 
disease. 

Ninth Infantry. — Col., Benjamin L. Simpson; Lieut.-Col., Thomas 
Cloudsley; Maj., Royal W. Church. This regiment was organized under 
the call of June 15, 1863, for emergency troops to repel the Confederate 
forces then invading Maryland and Pennsylvania, and was mustered into 
the United States service for a period of six months. It consisted of nine 
companies, eight of which were raised in the city of Baltimore and the 
other in Baltimore county. On July 6, 1863, before the organization was 
completed, the regiment left Baltimore and joined Gen. French's divi- 
sion, which drove the Confederates from Maryland heights, after which 
it crossed the Potomac and occupied Loudoun heights. Companies A, 
B and C were later engaged in guarding the Baltimore & Ohio railroad 
and in doing guard duty at Harper's Ferry, and about the middle of 
August the remainder of the regiment was ordered to occupy Charles- 
town, W. Va., where it was attacked on Oct. 18 by the Confederates 
under Gen. Imboden. Although the 9th made a gallant stand it was over- 
powered by superior numbers and captured. Of the prisoners not more 
than one-half ever returned to their homes, the others dying in Southern 
prisons. Companies A, B and C remained on duty in Virginia until the 
expiration of their term of enlistment, and were mustered out at Balti- 
more on Feb. 24, 1864. 

Tenth Infantry.— Col., William H. Revere ; Lieut.-Col., William E. W. 
Ross; Maj., J. T. Daniel. This regiment was organized at Baltimore 
under the call of June 15, 1863, and was mustered into the service of the 
United States for a period of six months. Immediately after its or- 
ganization it was ordered to Harper's Ferry, where it was assigned to the 
duty of guarding the lines of communication on the upper Potomac On 
Oct. 18, 1863, after the capture of the 9th Md. infantry at Charlestown, 
W. Va., the loth, with some other troops, hurried to that place and drove 
the Confederates out of the town, pursuing them until orders were received 
to return to Harper's Ferry. The loth regiment was fortunate in having 
none of its members killed or wounded, though it lost 22 men from dis- 
ease. It was mustered out on Jan. 29, 1864, its term of service having 
expired. 

Eleventh Infantry.— Col, William T. Landstreet; Lieut.-Col., Thomas 
Sewell, Jr.; Maj., William E. George. The nth was mustered in on 
June 16, 1864, to serve for 100 days, and on July i left Baltimore for 
Monocacy, where it fought under Gen. Lew Wallace on the 9th, holding 
the Confederates under Gen. Early in check until reinforcements could 
come to Washington to save the national capital, which was threatened. 
After the battle of Monocacy the regiment was on guard duty at Monro- 
via and Mount Airey until Oct. i, when it was mustered out at the expi- 
ration of its term of enlistment. A large number of the men reenlisted 
before the expiration of their 100 days' term, for a period of one year, 
and these reenlisted men formed three companies — A, B and C — of a 
new nth infantry. In Jan., 1865, seven companies of the ist Eastern 
Shore regiment were added to the three already organized, and the new 
nth was mustered in with John G. Johannes as colonel; James C. Mulli- 
kin, lieutenant-colonel ; and Martin Suter, major. After the reorganiza- 
tion Co. C was assigned to duty at the Relay House, near Baltimore, on 
the Baltimore & Ohio railroad; Co. I was stationed in the city of Balti- 
more, and the remainder of the regiment was sent to Fort Delaware, 
where it was assigned to garrison duty. On June 15, 1865, all whose 
terms had expired were mustered out and those whose terms did not 
expire until Oct. i, 1865, were transferred to the 2nd Md. infantry. 



276 The Union Army 

Twelfth Infantry. — This regiment really consisted of a battalion of 
live companies — A, B, C, D and E — which was organized in June and 
July, 1864, and mustered in as emergency men for a term of 100 days 
with John L. Bishop as lieutenant-colonel. During its brief term of serv- 
ice it was engaged in guarding the Baltimore & Ohio railroad between 
the city of Baltimore and Kearneysville, Va. A number of the men re- 
enlisted for one year and were assigned to the ist Eastern Shore Mary- 
land infantry. The others were mustered out on Nov. 14, 1864, by rea- 
son of the expiration of the term of enlistment. 

Thirteenth Infantry. — Col., Roger E. Cook; Lieut.-Col., Charles J. 
Brown; Maj., Eugene C. Baugher. This regiment was composed of 
veterans who had served in the ist Md. Potomac home brigade, the or- 
ganization being completed on March i, 1865. It was assigned to duty 
along the line of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad between Martinsburg and 
Harper's Ferry, Va., where it served until mustered out on May 29, 1865. 

Purnell Legion Infantry. — Cols., William H. Purnell, William J. 
Leonard, Samuel A. Graham; Lieut.-Cols., John G. Johannes, Benjamin 
L. Simpson; Majs., E. R. Petherbridge, William I. Taylor, William T. 
Fulton, Robert G. King. The Purnell Legion really consisted of nine 
companies of infantry, two companies of cavalry and two batteries of 
light artillery, recruited during the months of Nov. and Dec, 1861, under 
the direction of Col. Purnell, who was then postmaster at Baltimore. The 
infantry legion was organized at Pikesville, near Baltimore, Companies 

A, B, C, H and K coming from the city of Baltimore, Co. E from Cecil 
county, F from Baltimore county, D and G from Somerset and Worces- 
ter counties. It was mustered in for three years about the close of the 
year and until March, 1862, was attached to Dix's division of the Army 
of the Potomac. It was then assigned to the middle department of the 
8th corps, where as part of Lockwood's brigade it assisted in driving 
the armed Confederate bands from the eastern shore of Virginia. When 
Gen. Banks was driven from the Shenandoah Valley in May the regi- 
ment was hurried to Harper's Ferry to check the advance of the Con- 
federate army, after which it was assigned to the 2nd division, 2nd 
corps, served under Gen. Pope in his campaigns in Virginia, and later 
was in the battle of Antietam. After that engagement it was made a 
part of the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 12th corps, with which it remained 
until in Dec, 1862, when it was returned to the 8th corps. In May, 1864, 
it was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 5th corps, with which it 
took part in the Wilderness and Petersburg campaigns under Gen. Grant. 
It fought at Harper's Ferry, Antietam, Shady Grove, Bethesda Church, 
Cold Harbor, the assaults on Petersburg, Weldon railroad, Peebles' farm. 
Poplar Spring church, and in a number of minor actions during the 
operations about Richmond and Petersburg. On Oct. 24, 1864, the orig- 
inal members, except those who reenlisted, were mustered out, and the 
veterans were consolidated with the 1st Md. infantry. While in service 
the legion marched 811 miles, traveled by rail 316 miles and by water 
653 miles. It lost 43 men killed in battle and 74 who died of disease. 

First Potomac Home Brigade Infantry.— Cols., William P. Maulsby. 
Roger E. Cook; Lieut.-Cols., George R. Dennis. John A. Steiner, Charles 
J. Brown; Majs., John I. Yellott, Eugene C. Baugher. The organization 
of this regiment was commenced at Frederick City on Aug. 15, 1861, and 
■on Dec. 13 it was mustered into service for three years. Companies A, 

B, D and I were recruited in Frederick county. C in the city of Baltimore, 
E, F and H in Washington county, G in Baltimore, Frederick and Carroll 
counties, and K in Frederick county and the city of Baltimore. During 
the winter of 1861-62 it served with Gen. Banks and in the following 
spring marched with that commander up the Shenandoah Valley as far 
as Winchester, when it was assigned to the duty of guarding the line of 



Maryland Regiments 277 

the Baltimore & Ohio railroad. When Banks was driven out of the 
valley the regiment was concentrated at Harper's Ferry, where it re- 
mained until the Union troops again occupied the valley, when it resumed 
the work of guarding the railroad. After Gen. Pope's defeat at the sec- 
ond battle of Bull Run the regiment opposed the passage of the Potomac 
river at the several fords and ferries near the mouth of the Monocacy, 
and was then concentrated at Harper's Ferry, where it was surrendered 
with the garrison on Sept. 15, 1862. The men were paroled and after 
being exchanged the regiment was assigned to duty along the Potomac 
in the southern part of the state. In the Gettysburg campaign it formed 
part of Lockwood's brigade, and on the second day of the battle of 
Gettysburg was in the thickest of the fighting on Gulp's hill and was one 
of the regiments that moved to the relief of Sickles' corps, where it as- 
sisted in the final repulse of the Confederates under Gen. Longstreet. 
After the battle of Gettysburg it marched with the Army of the Potomac 
in pursuit of Lee as far as the Potomac river, when it was assigned to 
the duty of guarding the line of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad. In July, 
1864, when Gen. Early invaded Maryland, this regiment took an active 
part in checking the Confederate advance, and part of it fought gal- 
lantly in the battle of Monocacy under Gen. Wallace. During its service 
the regiment lost 45 men killed in battle and 86 died of wounds and dis- 
ease. It was engaged at Loudoun heights, Poolesville, Monocacy Aque- 
duct, Maryland heights, Harper's Ferry, Gettysburg, Duflfield Station, 
Monocacy, and in several skirmishes along the line of the Baltimore & 
Ohio railroad. Those whose terms of enlistment expired in the fall of 
1864 were mustered out, and the veterans and recruits were assigned to 
the 13th Md. infantry. 

Second Potomac Home Brigade Infantry. — Cols., Thomas Johns, 
Robert Bruce; Lieut.-Cols., G. Ellis Porter, James C. Lynn; Majs., Alex- 
ander Shaw, John H. Huntley. The 2nd regiment of the Potomac home 
brigade was organized between Aug. 27 and Oct. 31, 1861, to serve three 
years. Companies A, B, C, E, G, H, I and K were recruited in Allegany 
county, F at Hancock, Washington county, and D at Piedmont, Va. Its 
first service was in West Virginia as part of Gen. B. F. Kelley's command, 
and it was for a short time under Gen. Lander. During Stonewall Jack- 
son's raid through Berkeley Springs to Hancock and Romney the regi- 
ment was several times engaged in skirmishes with the enemy. Co. F 
was mounted as a cavalry company and under the command of Capt. 
George D. Summers was sent into the Shenandoah Valley in the summer 
of 1863, where it rendered efficient service, and subsequently, as part of 
Capt. G. W. F. Vernon's squadron of Cole's cavalry took an active part 
in the Gettysburg campaign. In the fall and winter of 1863-64 the regi- 
ment was on constant duty in West Virginia and the following spring was 
assigned to the army uder Gen. David Hunter for the advance on Lynch- 
burg, afterward joining in the pursuit of the Confederate forces under 
Gen. Early, when they were driven from Maryland. The regiment, or a 
part of it, was engaged at Springfield, Blue House, South Branch bridge, 
Great Cacapon bridge, Vance's ford, Charlestown, Burlington, Ridgeville, 
Moorefield Junction, LjTichburg, Snicker's gap, Martinsburg, Hancock, 
Green Spring run, and in a number of smaller skirmishes. Although it 
was always ready to do its duty on the field it suffered but few casual- 
ties, losing 10 men killed in battle, while 84 died of wounds and disease. 
At the expiration of its term of service the original members were mus- 
tered out, and the veterans and recruits were formed into a battalion of 
three companies, to which was added another company in March, 1865. 
The organization as thus constituted was mustered out on May 29, 1865. 

Third Potomac Home Brigade Infantry. — Cols., Stephen W. Dow- 
ney, Charles Gilpin, Henry C. Rizer; Lieut.-Col., Crawford W. Shearer; 



278 The Union Army 

Majs., Michael Fallon, Charles L. Grafflin. Companies A, B, C, D and H 
of this regiment were recruited in Allegany county, Co. E at Hagers- 
town, F at Baltimore, G and K in Frederick county, and I in Howard 
county. The organization was commenced in the latter part of Oct., 
1861, and as soon as the ist battalion was mustered in it was assigned 
to Lander's division on the upper Potomac, where it served until March 
II, 1862. The organization of the regiment was not fully completed 
until May 20, 1862, its term of service being for three years. It was on 
duty in the Mountain department until June 26, 1862, when it was trans- 
ferred to the Middle department and participated in the defense of Harper's 
Ferry in September, where it was surrendered with the garrison. After 
the prisoners were exchanged the 3d was assigned to duty in guarding 
the line of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad. When Gen. Early invaded 
Maryland in July, 1864, this regiment formed a part of Gen. Lew Wal- 
lace's little army that so stubbornly resisted the Confederate advance at 
Monocacy, and after Early was driven back to Virginia it was with Geru 
Hunter in the advance up the Shenandoah Valley, taking part in the fight 
at Snicker's gap. It then became a part of Gen. Sheridan's Army of the 
Shenandoah and after the close of the Valley campaign it was assigned 
to the department of West Virginia, where it remained until mustered out 
on May 29, 1865. The regiment, or a detachment of it, fought valiantly 
at Franklin, Wardensville, Moorefield, Harper's Ferry, Frederick, Monoc- 
acy, Snicker's gap, Bolivar heights, Halltown, Charlestown, Berryville, 
and in several lesser engagements. Its loss during the entire term of serv- 
ice was 83 men, 9 of whom were killed in action. 

Fourth Potomac Home Brigade Infantry. — Companies A, B and C 
of this regiment were organized in the winter of 1861-62, and were mus- 
tered in for three years. Co. A was recruited in the vicinity of Hagers- 
town, B in the city of Baltimore and C in Frederick county. After the 
organization of these three companies all efforts to complete the regi- 
ment were abandoned, and the troops were engaged in guarding the line 
of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad until Aug. 11, 1862. when they were 
consolidated with the 3d regiment of the Potomac home brigade. 

First Eastern Shore Infantry. — Cols., James Wallace. John R. 
Keene; Lieut.-Col., William H. Comegys; Maj., William Kirby. Com- 
panies A, B and C of this regiment were recruited in Dorchester county. 
D, E, F, and G in Caroline county, H in Talbot county, I in the city of 
Baltimore, and K in Somerset county. The regiment was organized at 
Cambridge in Sept., 1861, and mustered into service for three years, but 
Co. A was mustered out on Aug. 16, 1862, by orders from the war de- 
partment. In Nov., 1861, it formed a part of Gen. Lockwood's brigade in 
the expedition into the eastern shore counties of Virginia, after which it 
remained on duty along the eastern shore vmtil Lee's invasion of Pennsyl- 
vania in the summer of 1863, when it asked to be permitted to join the 
Army of the Potomac. With Lockwood's brigade it was ordered to 
Baltimore, whence it proceeded to Gettysburg, where it arrived on the 
morning of July 3 and joined the 12th corps on Gulp's hill, where it gave 
a good account of itself during the fighting of that day. After Lee was 
driven back into Virginia the regiment returned to the eastern shore and 
continued in the performance of special duty until the expiration of 
its term of service, when the original members — except veterans — were 
mustered out, and the veterans and recruits were consolidated with the 
nth infantry. During its term of service the regiment marched 760 
miles, traveled by rail 283 miles, and by water 1.323 miles. Its loss was 
nine men killed in battle and 52 who died of wounds and disease. 

Second Eastern Shore Infantry. — Cols., Edward Wilkins. Robert S. 
Rogers; Lieut.-Col., Elijah E. Massey; Maj. Seth W. Herrick. This 
regiment was composed of eight companies. A. B. C. D and E were re- 



Maryland Regiments 279 

cruited in Kent county; F in the city of Baltimore; and G and H in Har- 
ford county. Its organization was commenced on Oct. 2, 1861, and on 
Dec. 28 it was completed and the regiment was mustered in for three 
years. From that time until the summer of 1863 it was on duty along 
the eastern shore of Maryland and Virginia, in the city of Baltimore and 
on the lower Potomac. When Lee began his invasion of Pennsylvania 
the regiment, as part of Lockwood's brigade, was ordered to reinforce 
the Army of the Potomac. After the battle of Gettysburg it was assigned 
to duty on the upper Potomac in Maryland and West Virginia, and was 
a part of Gen. Hunter's army in the expedition against Lynchburg. It 
remained in the department of West Virginia until Jan. 23, 1865, when it 
\vas consolidated with the ist Eastern Shore infantry. While in active 
service it marched 1,041 miles, was transported by rail 967 miles, and by 
water 915 miles. It was in the engagements at Falling Waters, Piedmont, 
Snicker's ford, Winchester, Berryville and numerous minor skirmishes 
incident to the Shenandoah Valley and Lynchburg campaigns. Nine 
men were killed in battle and 63 died of wounds or disease. 

Patapsco Guards. — This was an independent infantry company or- 
ganized at Ellicott's mills and mustered into service on Sept. 25, 1861, to 
serve for three years. It was commanded by Capt. Thomas S. McGowan 
and was chiefly engaged in guard and provost duty about York, Harris- 
burg and Chambersburg, Pa. It was engaged with the enemy at Wrights- 
ville, Pa., on June 28, 1863, during the Gettysburg campaign, and also 
participated in the operations about Chambersburg at the time of Mc- 
Causland's raid. It was mustered out on Aug. 17, 1865. 

Baltimore Light Infantry. — This command, also known as the "Dix 
light infantry," consisted of five companies and was organized at Balti- 
more in Nov. and Dec, 1861, to serve for three years. The purpose was 
to organize a full regiment, but the undertaking did not meet with suf- 
ficient encouragement, and on May 24, 1862, the five companies became 
a part of the 3d Md. infantry. 

First Potomac Home Brigade Cavalry. — Col., Henry A. Cole; 
Lieut-Col, George W. F. Vernon; Majs., A. M. Flory, J. T. Daniel, R. 
S. Mooney, O. A. Horner. This regiment is better known as "Cole's 
cavalry." Companies A, C and D were organized at Frederick City, and 
Co. B at Cumberland from Aug. 10 to Nov. 27, 1861, and were mustered 
in as a battalion for three years under the command of Maj. Henry A. 
Cole, from whom the regiment took its name. During the winter of 
1861-62 the battalion was on duty along the Maryland side of the Poto- 
mac, while the Confederate forces occupied the opposite bank, Co. B be- 
ing actively engaged for a portion of the winter in West Virginia. A 
part of the battalion was with Gen. Lander in the defense of Hancock, 
Md., when the surrender of the town was demanded bj^ Stonewall Jack- 
son in the early part of Jan., 1862, and the remainder of the command 
made a long night march to the relief of the place, resulting in the re- 
pulse of the Confederates. To follow the movements of Cole's cavalry 
in detail would require a whole volume. The battalion was composed of 
men well acquainted with the country along the upper Potomac and in 
the Shenandoah Valley, hence companies or squadrons were being con- 
stantly detached for the purpose of reconnoitering the enemy's positions. 
Frequent attempts were made by the Confederates to cut oflf and capture 
these scouting parties, but by their familiarity with the numerous by- 
roads and bridle paths through the mountains the Marylanders always 
made their escape. Early in March, 1862, the command crossed the Po- 
tomac at Williamsport with Williams' brigade of Banks' army, and re- 
mained in the Shenandoah Valley until the following September, when 
it fell back to Harper's Ferry. Between Bunker Hill and Winchester 
on March 7, 1862. it lost I man killed and 2 wounded, which was the 



280 The Union Army 

first bloodshed of the Valley campaign of that year. In Nov., 1862, the 
battalion was attached to the 12th corps, under Gen. Slocum, and re- 
mained with that command until the corps marched into eastern Virginia, 
when it was left in the Shenandoah Valley. Scouts from the battalion 
found their way through the enemy's lines in June, 1863, and notified 
Gen. Milroy at Winchester that he was about to be surrounded, and 
after Milroy had been overwhelmed by Lee's army, it was Cole's cavalry 
that covered the retreat of those who escaped from Winchester. On 
Feb. 13, 1864, the battalion reenlisted and the men were granted a thirty 
days' furlough. They marched to Frederick City, where they were re- 
ceived with great honors by the people, conducted to the city hall and 
formally welcomed home by Justice Nelson of the supreme court, after 
which they were tendered a banquet. Upon the reenlistment the war de- 
partment gave authority to recruit the battalion to a full regiment of 
twelve companies, and at the expiration of the furlough Cole's cavalry 
reentered the army as a regiment. It was with Gen. Hunter in his ad- 
vance upon Lynchburg, after which it was assigned to Merritt's division 
of Torbert's cavalry corps of the Army of the Shenandoah under Gen. 
Sheridan, where it was almost constantly engaged until Early was driven 
from the Shenandoah Valley. It was mustered out at Harper's Ferry on 
June 28, 1865, at the close of nearly four years of arduous srevice, pro- 
ceeded to Baltimore and was there finally discharged. Few regiments of 
the Union Army can show a larger list of engagements than Cole's cav- 
alry. Either by company, detachments, as a battalion or a regiment, it 
participated, according to official reports, in eighty battles or skirmishes, 
including five actions at Winchester, Va., four at Charlestown, two at 
Martinsburg, two at Kernstown. Antietam. Gettysburg, Catoctin Moun- 
tain, Romney, Crampton's gap, Hagerstown, Ashby's gap, two fights at 
Berryville, Shepherdstown, and in fact in almost all the engagements in 
the Shenandoah Valley and about Harper's Ferry. During its service 
the command marched over 7,000 miles and lost 169 men, 47 of whom 
were killed in battle and 122 died of wounds or in prison. The regi- 
ment was made up chiefl}' of young, unmarried men, active and brave, 
many of whom brought their own horses into the service. On several 
occasions the regiment, or some detachment of it, received letters of 
congratulation from the commanding officers of the army for gallant 
conduct on the field, or for invaluable services in reconnoitering the 
enemy's position. 

First Cavalry. — Cols.. Andrew G. Miller, Eugene Von Keilmansegge, 
Andrew W. Evans ; Lieut. -Cols., Charles Wetschky, James M. Deems, 
Jacob H. Counselman ; Majs., Charles H. Russell. Charles H. R. Shriber, 
George Thistleton, Vincent E. Von Koerber. The organization of this 
regiment began in Aug.. t86i, but was not completed until the following 
June, though some of the first companies were mustered in during the 
fall of 1861. Companies A, B, C, D and E were raised in the city of 
Baltimore, F at Cockeysville and in Baltimore, G and K at Pittsburg, 
Pa., H and I in Washington and Allegany counties, and L and M in 
Washington. D. C. Portions of the regiment were engaged during 
Stonewall Jackson's raid to Hancock. Md.. with Gen. Banks' armj' in 
the Shenandoah Valley, Companies A. B. C. G and I covering the retreat 
of the army from Winchester to Harper's Ferry. In June, 1862, it was 
attached to the Army of the Potomac, then commanded by Gen. Pope, 
with which it took part in the battles of Cedar Mountain and the second 
Bull Run. Companies H and I formed part of the garrison at Harper's 
Ferry which was surrendered to Stonewall Jackson just before the battle 
of Antietam. In the spring of 1863 the regiment was attached to the 
cavalry commanded by Gen. Stoneman during his raid through the Con- 
federate lines in Virginia, and distinguished itself in the battle at Brandy 



Maryland Regiments 281 

Station on June g, of that year. It was active in the defeat of the Con- 
federate cavalry under Gen. Stuart in the Gettysburg campaign, and was 
subsequently with the Army of the James for a short time, but when 
Gen. Sheridan rejoined the Army of the Potomac, after his defeat of 
the Confederate forces under Early in the Shenandoah Valley, the regi- 
ment formed a part of his famous cavalry command in the siege of Peters- 
burg and Richmond. It was present at Lee's surrender at Appomattox, 
which ended the war in the east, and was mustered out on Aug. 8. 1865. 
During its service the regiment was in about sixty engagements, including 
Ball's Bluff. Cedar Mountain, Gainesville, Groveton, Second Bull Run, 
Fredericksburg, Shepherdstown, the Bristoe and Mine Run campaigns, 
Bermuda Hundred, Deep Bottom, the siege of Petersburg, Hatcher's 
run. Five Forks, Farmville and Appomattox Court House. It lost 201 
men, 68 of whom were killed in action. 

Second Cavah-y. — Only five companies of this regiment were ever 
organized. Companies A, B and E were recruited in the city of Balti- 
more, C in Howard county and the city of Baltimore, and D in Wash- 
ington, D. C. Under command of Capt. William F. Bragg, the captain 
of Co. A, the command was on special duty in Anne Arundel and Cal- 
vert counties, and at Annapolis, during its entire service. Companies 
A and B were mustered out on Jan. 26, 1864, E on Jan. 31, and C and D 
on Feb. 6. 

Third Cavalry. — Col., C. Carroll Tevis; Lieut.-Col., Byron Kirby; 
Majs., William Kesley, Henry E. Clark, Adolph Berry. The 3d cavalry 
was otherwise known as the "Bradford Dragoons," having been so named 
in honor of Gov. Augustus W. Bradford. The regiment originally con- 
sisted of ten companies, mustered in for three years, but on Dec. 9, 1864, 
owing to the depletion of its ranks, it was consolidated into a battalion 
of six companies. As soon as the regimental organization was com- 
pleted the 3d was sent to Louisiana, where it entered upon active duty 
immediately. It was with Gen. Banks in the Red River campaign, and 
served under Gen. Canby in the operations about Mobile. During its serv- 
ice it traveled by water 3,285 miles, by rail 1,405 miles, and marched 
198 miles. It was engaged with the enemy at Mansura, Marksville, Yel- 
low Bayou and Morgan's ferry, La., and in the capture of Forts Gaines, 
Morgan and Blakely and Spanish Fort in Alabama. The regiment was 
mustered out at Vicksburg, Miss., Sept. 7, 1865. 

Purnell Legion Cavalry.— This was a battalion of three companies, 
two of which — A and B — were organized at Pikesville in the fall of 
1861, at the same time the Purnell Legion of infantry was formed, and 
Co. C was organized at Baltimore in Sept., 1862. Co. A was on duty 
on the eastern shore of Virginia and in St. Mary's county, Md., until the 
Gettysburg campaign, when it joined the cavalry of the Army of the Po- 
tomac and took part in the battle of Gettysburg. It was mustered out on 
July 28, 1865, having served as a cavalry company during its entire term 
of enlistment. Co. B was on special duty in various parts of Maryland 
and Delaware, under the immediate orders of Gov. Bradford, until May 
28, 1864, when it was dismounted and the following month joined the 
Purnell Legion infantry, and served with that regiment until mustered 
out. Co. C was on duty in Maryland and Delaware from the time of its 
organization until Oct. 26, 1864, when it was consolidated with the vet- 
erans and recruits of Co. B, and the consolidated company was made a 
part of the 8th infantry on Nov. 17, 1864. Of the three companies Co. 
B saw the most arduous service, taking part in the battles around Peters- 
burg, the Weldon railroad. Poplar Spring Church and Peebles' farm, as 
well as numerous minor skirmishes. 

Smith's Independent Cavalry. — This company was organized at Snow 
Hill, Worcester county, Oct. 15, 1862, and mustered into the United 



282 The Union Army 

States service for three years. It was used to prevent the recruiting of 
men for the Confederate service, and operated about Snow Hill, Newton, 
Point Lookout, etc. It was mustered out on June 30, 1865. 

Battery A, Light Artillery. — This battery, better known as "Rigby's," 
was originally a part of the Purnell Legion. It was organized at Pikes- 
ville in the months of Aug. and Sept., 1861, and mustered into the 
United States service for three years. John W. Wolcott was the first 
captain, and upon his resignation he was succeeded by James H. Rigby, 
from whom the organization took its name. It was with Gen. McClellan 
in the Peninsular campaign of 1862, performing splendid service in that 
campaign, especially at the battle of Malvern Hill, the last of the Seven 
Days' battles. In the fall of that year it was again with McClellan in 
driving Lee out of Maryland, and received the commendation of Gen. 
Slocum for its bravery and efficiency in the battle of Antietam. It was 
at Fredericksburg the following December and was an active partici- 
pant in the celebrated Gettysburg campaign. The principal engagements 
in which it took part were Malvern Hill, Crampton's gap, Fredericks- 
burg, Marye's heights, Salem heights, and Gettysburg. On March 11, 
1865, it was consolidated with Battery B, and was mustered out as part 
of that organization. 

Battery B, Light Artillery. — This battery was also a part of the Pur- 
nell Legion when it was first organized at Pikesville in the fall of 1861 
and mustered into service for three years. It was commanded by Capt. 
Alonzo Snow, and was generally referred to as "Snow's" battery. Its 
first service was along the eastern shore of Virginia, but in the sumrner 
of 1862 it joined the Army of the Potomac, then on the Chickahominy 
river. It played a considerable part in repulsing the Confederates at the 
battle of Malvern hill, and after the Peninsular campaign was with Mc- 
Clellan in the campaign against Lee in Maryland, distinguishing itself 
at the battle of Antietam. In the spring of 1863 it was assigned to the 
department of West Virginia, and was with Sigel in the Shenandoah 
Valley the following year, when it joined the army under Gen. Hunter 
for the advance upon Lynchburg. It participated in the following battles 
and skirmishes : New Bridge, Malvern Hill, Antietam, Fredericksburg, 
New Market, Piedmont, Lynchburg, Salem and some minor actions along 
the eastern shore during the early part of its service. It was mustered 
out on July 3, 1865. 

Battery D, Light Artillery. — This battery was mustered in at Balti- 
more on Nov. 29, 1864, to serve for three years. During its entire service 
it was used to garrison the defenses of Washington and was never ac- 
tually engaged with the enemy. It was mustered out on June 24, 1865. 

Baltimore Battery, Light Artillery. — In the summer of 1862 Capt. 
Frederick W. Alexander organized a battery at Baltimore under the 
president's call for 300,000 men to serve for three years. It soon became 
known as "Alexander's" battery and within a month after it was mus- 
tered in to service it was ordered to M^onocacy Junction, where it was 
assigned to the Maryland brigade, commanded by Brig.-Gen. John R. 
Kenly. It remained on the upper Potomac until the early part of Dec, 
1862, when it was ordered with the brigade to Maryland heights, where 
it went into winter quarters. Toward the last of April, 1863, it moved to 
Berryville, Va., to relieve two sections of Battery B, W. Va. artillery, 
and remained with Gen. Milroy until that officer was surrounded with 
his command at Winchester, where the battery lost 48 men captured. 
The battery was then reassembled at Baltimore, where it was furnished 
with new horses and equipments, including 3-inch rifled gims, soon after 
the battle of Gettysburg, and it remained there on garrison duty until 
the summer of 1864. When Early reached the Potomac on July 4, 1864, 
in his demonstration against Washington, Alexander's battery joined the 



Maryland Regiments 283 

Union forces under Gen. Lew Wallace at Monocacy, where on the gth 
Early was checked by a force about equal to one-third of his army, 
Alexander's battery being the only artillery on the Federal side. The 
battery was mentioned in complimentary terms by Gen. Tyler in his 
report. On July 30, 1864, the battery was dismounted at Halltown, Va.. 
its horses, which were in good condition, being taken to supply the bat- 
teries of the 6th corps by order of Gen. Wright, and broken down horses 
were supplied to the Maryland battery, which was then attached to the 
defenses of Harper's Ferry, where it remained until Jan., 1865. It then 
marched to Camp Barry, near Washington, D. C., and was mustered out 
on June 17, 1865. During its service the battery was engaged at Ber- 
ryville, Opequan creek, Winchester, Martinsburg pike, Middletown, Catoc- 
tin Mountain, Frederick and Monocacy. In these actions it lost i man 
killed and while in service 7 died from wounds or disease. 

Battery A, 2nd Light Artillery. — This battery, otherwise called the 
"Junior Artillery," was organized at Baltimore in July, 1863, under the 
president's call for six months' men. Its service was of a local nature 
in guarding the defenses of Baltimore, and it was mustered out on Jan. 
19, 1864, by reason of expiration of its term of enlistment. 

Battery B, 2nd Light Artillery. — Battery B was organized at the 
same time and under the same call as Battery A, above mentioned. It 
was engaged in guarding the city of Baltimore and was mustered out on 
Jan. 16, 1864, at the expiration of its six months' service. 

Fourth Infantry, U. S. Colored Troops. — Col, Samuel A. Duncan; 
Lieut.-Cols., George Rogers, A. S. Boernstein; Maj., Wareham C. Hill. 
This regiment was organized at Baltimore from July 15 to Sept. i, 1863. 
for three years' service. Soon after the organization was completed the 
regiment was moved to Yorktown, Va., where it was drilled and em- 
ployed in erecting fortifications. It was then on duty in various places 
until May, 1864, when it was attached to Gen. Butler's Army of the James. 
Upon arriving at Bermuda Hundred it was assigned to the i8th corps, 
with which it remained during the rest of its service until after the sur- 
render of Gen. Johnston in April, 1865. It was then employed in garrison 
duty in the Southern states until May 4, 1866, when it was mustered out. 
During its service the regiment was engaged at Bermuda Hundred, Peters- 
burg, Dutch gap, Chafifin's farm or Fort Harrison, Fort Fisher, Sugar 
Loaf hill and numerous skirmishes. The casualties amounted to 105 
killed in battle and 187 who died of wounds and disease. 

Seventh Infantry, U. S. Colored Troops. — Col., James Shaw, Jr. ; 
Lieut.-Cols., Oscar E. Pratt, Lewellyn F. Haskell; Majs., Edelmiro May- 
er, Marcellus Bailey. The 7th was one of the regiments recruited under 
the authority given to Col. William Birney by the war department, its 
history beginning on Sept. 26, 1863, when Companies A, B and C were 
mustered in at Birney barracks in the city of Baltimore. The organiza- 
tion was completed on Nov. 15, and the winter of 1861-62 was spent at 
Camp Stanton, Benedict, Md. On March 4, 1864, the regiment was moved 
by steamer to Portsmouth, Va., and three days later embarked for Hil- 
ton Head, S. C, where it arrived on the loth. On the 14th it left Hil- 
ton Head for Jacksonville. Fla. It remained on duty in Florida until 
June 27, when it returned to Hilton Head and formed part of Gen. Fos- 
ter's expedition to the North Edisto river. In this expedition it was 
engaged with the enemy every day for 17 days and suffered heavy cas- 
ualties. It then returned to Florida and remained on duty there until 
Aug. 5, 1864, when it embarked for Fortress Monroe, and on the nth 
was ordered to join the Army of the James at Bermuda Hundred. Here 
it became a part of the colored brigade, 3d division, TOth corps, and was 
with that command until after the surrender of Gen. Lee at Appomattox. 
On May 24, 1865, it embarked on steamers at City Point, Va., and pro- 



284 The Union Army 

ceeded via Mobile and the mouth of the Mississippi river to Indianola, 
Tex., where it arrived on June 23. It remained on garrison duty in Texas 
until Oct. 14, 1866, when it embarked for Bahimore, where it was finally 
disbanded on Nov. 15, 1866. It lost an aggregate of 393 men, 85 of whom 
were killed in battle or died of wounds. Among the engagements in 
which it participated were Cedar Creek, Fla., Baldwin, Kingland road, 
Fussell's mill, Fort Gilmer, Darbytown road, Armstrong's mill, Peters- 
burg, Appomattox and John's island. 

Ninth Infantry, U. S. Colored Troops. — Col., Thomas Bayley; Lieut- 
Cols., George E. Wagner, Samuel C. Armstrong, George M. Dennett ; 
Maj., Lewis S. Barnes. The 9th infantry was organized at Benedict dur- 
ing the latter half of Nov., 1863. During the following winter it was in 
camp at Camp Stanton, and on March 3, 1864, embarked for Port Royal, 
S. C. It was on duty at Port Royal, Hilton Head and in the Ashepoo 
expedition under Gen. Birney, after which it was at Beaufort and John's 
island until Aug. 4, when it embarked for Bermuda Hundred, where it 
arrived on the 8th. In the operations of the army about Petersburg it 
was engaged several times with the enemy, and always gave a good ac- 
count of itself. At Fussell's mill it was the last regiment to give up its 
position, and in the assault on Fort Gilmer it bore a conspicuous part. 
After the Confederates abandoned Petersburg and Richmond it remained 
in camp near those places until June 7, 1865. when it embarked for 
Brazos Santiago, Tex., and arrived there on July i. Soon afterward it 
marched to Brownsville, where it remained until Oct. 2. 1866, when it 
was ordered to New Orleans. On Nov. 10 it received orders for muster 
out and was transported to Baltimore, where it was finally disbanded. 
During its service the 9th lost 315 men. 47 of whom were killed in ac- 
tion and a number died of small-pox and cholera. It fought at John's 
island, S. C. Deep Bottom, Fussell's mill, Fort Gilmer, siege of Peters- 
burg, and in a number of minor engagements incident to the operations 
about the Confederate capital. 

Nineteenth Infantry, U. S. Colored Troops. — Cols., Henry G. 
Thomas, Joseph G. Perkins; Lieut. -Cols.. Samuel Knorr, William Welsh; 
Maj., Theo. H. Rockwood. This regiment was organized by Gen. Bir- 
ney at Benedict on Dec. 15. 1863, and was composed of negroes from the 
eastern shore and the southern part of Maryland. It remained in camp 
at Benedict until March i, 1864, when it was ordered to Baltimore. One 
battalion was engaged during the latter part of March and the early part 
of April around Winchester and Berryville, Va., the rest of the regiment 
remaining on provost duty at Baltimore. Toward the last of April the 
regiment was ordered to join the Army of the Potomac, where it was 
attached to the 9th corps, commanded by Gen. Burnside, and took part 
in the Wilderness campaign, participating in the battles of the Wilder- 
ness, Spottsylvania, Totopotomy, Cold Harbor, the siege of Petersburg. 
Weldon railroad. Hatcher's run, Bermuda Hundred and a number of 
lighter skirmishes. On June 5, 1865, it was ordered to Brazos, Tex., and 
from there to Brownsville. It remained in Texas until it was mus- 
tered out on Jan. 15, 1867, being one of the last volunteer regiments to 
be discharged from tlie United States service. Its loss was 293 men, 
50 of whom were killed in battle. 

Thirtieth Infantry, U. S. Colored Troops. — Col., Delavan Bates; 
Lieut. -Col., Hiram A. Oakman ; Majs.. .Arthur J. Smith, James C. Leeke. 
The 30th was organized at Camp Stanton, near Benedict, from Feb. 12 
to March t8, 1864. and was mustered in for three years. It was as- 
signed to Ferrero's division of the 9th corps, which took part in the 
Wilderness campaign, and in Dec. 1864, and Jan.. 1865, formed a part of 
the expeditions against Fort Fisher, N. C. After the fall of Fort Fisher 
it was with Gen. W. T. Sherman in the camapign of the Carolinas, which 



Maryland Regiments 285 

resulted in the surrender of Gen. Johnston's army, and was then on gar- 
rison duty until Dec. lo, 1865, when it was mustered out. The casualties 
suffered by the regiment were 225 men, 46 of whom were killed in battle, 
the rest dying of wounds and disease. 

Thirty-Ninth Infantry, U. S. Colored Troops.— Col., Ozora P. 
Stearns; Lieut. -Col., Charles J. Wright; Maj., Edward M. Fuller. This 
regiment was organized in the latter part of March, 1864, at Baltimore, 
most of the men composing it coming from that city. It was mustered 
in for three years and was assigned to Ferrero's division of the 9th 
corps, with which it served in the campaign from the Rapidan to the 
James, taking part in all the battles of that campaign and the actions 
incident to the siege of Petersburg. It formed part of the two expedi- 
tions against Fort Fisher, N. C, in the winter of 1864-65, and after the 
capitulation of that stronghold was with Gen. Sherman in North Caro- 
lina until Gen. Johnston's surrender. It was then on garrison duty at 
various points in the Southern states until Dec. 4, 1865, when it was mus- 
tered out and the men returned to their Maryland homes. The losses 
of the regiment amounted to 272 men, 30 of whom were killed in battle. 



THOMAS HUDSON McKEE 



Thomas Hudson McKee, secretary of the Whitney Land 
Company, of Washington, D. C, was associated with the early 
events of West Virginia, having made his home in Brooke 
county from early boyhood until the opening of the Civil war, 
when he enlisted in 1861, in the first loyal regiment of Virginia 
volunteer infantry. During the first sixteen months of her serv- 
ice he rose from private to first lieutenant, receiving his com- 
mission on the day he was twenty years old. He has served 
both houses of the national Congress in many ways as 
an official, having been journal clerk of the house for eight 
years. Capt. McKee, as he is known in the national capital, 
has earned a place among the political writers of the nation by 
his contributions to the literature of the Republican party, and 
his books on fiscal and historical questions are recognized as 
standard works. He has always taken a deep interest in the 
affairs of West Virginia, is thoroughly in touch with her his- 
tory, and has revised that portion of this work that pertains 
to "Military Affairs in West Virginia." 



287 



Military Affairs in West Virginia 

1861—65 



Although the war furnished the opportunity for the partition 
of Virginia, the real cause for the separation had existed from 
the earliest days of the Republic. In 1781, when the boundaries 
of the several states were being determined, there were some in 
Congress who contended that the Allegheny mountains should 
form the political as they did the natural western boundary of 
Virginia, and for more than half a century before the outbreak 
of the Civil war the question of a division had been agitated at 
intervals. The people west of the mountains had come chiefly 
from the northern and eastern states and had little in common 
with the aristocratic "First Families of Virginia" who inhabited 
the eastern portion of the state. In the system of taxation and 
internal improvements the tendency had been to discriminate 
against the west, partly through the selfishness of the eastern 
section, and partly because the mountains formed a natural bar- 
rier to the construction of canals and railroads into the western 
counties. Consequently there were no commercial relations be- 
tween the east and west. In addition to this the people of the 
west were not so firmly wedded to the institution of slavery as 
were their eastern brethren. In i860 the white population of the 
state was 1,097,393, and the slave population 490,887. In the 
forty-eight western counties, which later became the State of 
West Virginia, there were 334,921 whites and only 12,771 slaves. 
Thus it will be seen that, in the establishment of the new state, 
Virginia lost nearly one-third of her white population and less 
than one-thirtieth of her slaves. In the presidential election of 
i860 the electoral vote of the state was given to John Bell, the 
candidate of the American party, which represented the con- 
servative element of the country, and believed in dealing with 
the slavery question in accordance with the provisions of the con- 
stitution and the laws. In that election the combined vote of 
Lincoln, Douglas and Bell was nearly 20,000 greater than that of 
Breckenridge, the avowed slavery candidate, showing that a large 
majority of the people of Virginia was in favor of the Union, 
though there was also a strong sympathy with the slave states. 

288 



Military Affairs in West Virginia 289 

All watched with deepest interest the action of the Southern 
states with regard to the secession of South Carolina, and as 
events unfolded all seemed to realize that Virginia, as a border 
state, would be placed in a critical position if war should become 
inevitable. The prevailing opinion was that she should stand 
as a mediator between the North and the South, while an aggres- 
sive minority insisted that she should cast her destinies with the 
South and abide by the result. This minority brought a tremen- 
dous pressure to bear upon Gov. John Letcher to convene the 
legislature in extra session, as that body was the only one that 
had the authority to call a state convention to determine Vir- 
ginia's policy, and he issued a proclamation for the legislature 
to assemble at Richmond on Jan. 7, 1861. 

In his message at the opening of the session Gov. Letcher op- 
posed a state convention to consider the question of secession, 
and suggested measures that he thought would secure a peace- 
able adjustment of the differences between the North and South, 
though he declared : "A disruption is inevitable, and if new con- 
federations are to be formed, we must have the best guarantees 
before we can attach Virginia to either." He further declared 
that he would regard any attempt of the Federal troops to pass 
through Virginia for the purpose of coercing any Southern state 
as an act of invasion, which would be repelled. After a week 
of heated debate a bill was passed providing for a state conven- 
tion to assemble in Richmond on Feb. 13, delegates to which 
were to be elected on the 4th. The people were also to vote at 
this election on the proposition as to whether the work of the 
convention should be submitted to popular vote before it became 
effective. On this question the majority in favor of submission 
was overwhelming — 1 10,000 in favor of it to about 45,000 against 
it — thus showing that less than one-third of the electors were at 
that time secessionists. A still greater proportion of Union men 
was seen in the delegates to the convention. Out of the 152 
members. 85 had voted for Bell, 35 for Douglas, and 32 for 
Breckenridge, the last named probably representing the radical 
secession sentiment. 

John Janney, of Loudoun county, was chosen president of 
the convention, and upon taking the chair made a short address, 
of which the historian Willey says : "The spirit of patriotism and 
reverence for the old flag, which prompted the address, were as 
fervent before this 'Secession Convention' as if it were a Fourth 
of July audience. That it met with a cordial response from a 
majority of the delegates cannot be doubted, and that the senti- 
ments were sincere and earnest on the part of the speaker, his 
whole course during and after the convention, established." But, 
if the secessionists were in the minority, they were the better or- 

Vol. 11—19 



290 The Union Army 

ganized and worked with greater unity of purpose than did the 
Unionists. On the very first day of the convention a resolution 
was passed appointing a committee of five to invite John S. Pres- 
ton, commissioner from South CaroHna ; Henry L. Benning, 
commissioner from Georgia ; and Fuhon .Ajiderson, commissioner 
from Mississippi, to seats in the convention, or to deHver any 
messages they might have from their respective states. The com- 
missioners above named were all adroit and skillful orators, and 
their addresses to the convention crystallized the secession senti- 
ment, raised the enthusiasm of the lukewarm delegates, and car- 
ried a number of those who were hesitating over to their side. 
A single sentence from the address of Mr. Preston is sufficient 
to show the spirit that was moving the convention to join the 
Confederacy. He said, in part: "My people believe the Union 
unnatural and monstrous. There is no human force — no sanc- 
tity of human touch — that can reunite the people of the North 
with the people of the South. That can never be done unless 
the economy of God is changed." Copies of the addresses were 
printed and distributed broadcast for the purpose of arousing 
public opinion, which would in turn influence the action of the 
convention. The scheme was well conceived and worked to per- 
fection. The revolutionary element came to the surface ; speeches 
were made in favor of the new Confederacy ; bands of music 
paraded the streets and serenaded the champions of secession; 
United States flags were hauled down and Confederate colors 
hoisted in their places, and all possible means were employed to 
overcome the "submissionists," as the Union delegates were 
termed. 

Thus matters stood when Fort Sumter was fired upon, and on 
April i6 the convention went into secret session. Newspaper 
reporters and correspondents were excluded, additional door- 
keepers were appointed, and the delegates and officers of the con- 
vention were required to take a solemn oath not to make known 
to the public the action of the secret session. On the following 
day, still behind closed doors, the convention passed the ordinance 
that severed Virginia's connection with the Union by a vote of 
88 to 55, one excused and 8 not voting. The convention had been 
stampeded into doing a thing which none thought probable when 
it was first assembled. The injunction of secrecy has never been 
removed, but the papers belonging to George W. Brent, delegate 
from Fairfax county, which were made public after his death, 
disclose what was done and give the vote in full. Among the 55 
who voted against secession was found the names of John Jan- 
ney, president of the convention, and Jubal A. Early, afterward 
famous as a Confederate major-general. It is fortunate and im- 
portant to the truths of history that so much of the proceedings 



Military Affairs in West Virginia 291 

of this convention have been preserved. As soon as the ordinance 
was passed the Union delegates began to withdraw, leaving the 
secessionists to have their own way, a condition of which they 
were not slow to avail themselves. Notwithstanding the people 
had voted in favor of submitting the work of the convention to 
popular vote, and the time of such election had been fixed as the 
fourth Thursday in May, the convention on April 25 passed an 
ordinance ratifying a temporary union with the Confederacy, 
and on the same day formally adopted and ratified the constitution 
of the Confederate States. 

All pretense of a fair submission of the question to popular 
vote was finally abandoned. On May 16, ten days in advance of 
the time for the election. Senator James M. Mason published a 
letter, which was copied in nearly all the newspapers, and which 
clearly indicated the spirit of intolerance by which the people of 
Virginia were controlled. One short paragraph from this letter 
will be conclusive : "If it be asked what those shall do who 
cannot in conscience vote to separate Virginia from the United 
States, the answer is simple and plain. Honor and duty alike 
require that they should not vote on the question, and if they 
retain such opinions they must leave the state." 

But 92 delegates signed the secession ordinance, and of these 
only two or three were from west of the mountains. The western 
delegates left Richmond on April 21. Although under a bond of 
secrecy some of them had written to their constituents, appris- 
ing them in a general way of the gravity of the situation, and 
their arrival home was the signal for a general uprising. Public 
meetings were held in almost every county, at all of which a sol- 
emn protest was made against the secession of the state. On 
April 17, immediately upon the passage of the so-called ordinance 
of secession, Gov. Letcher addressed a letter to Andrew Sweeney, 
mayor of Wheeling, the largest city in the western part of the 
state, informing him of the fact and ordering him to seize the 
custom house, postoffice, and all public buildings and records in 
the name of the "sovereign state of Virginia." Mayor Sweeney 
replied that he had "seized upon the public buildings and records 
in the name of Abraham Lincoln, president of the United States, 
whose property they are." On the 22nd, the day after the west- 
ern delegates left the capital, a meeting was held at Clarksburg. 
It was convened through the influence of Francis H. Pierpont 
of Morgantown, John S. Carlile, the delegate from Harrison 
county, and many other prominent men, and at this meeting the 
first steps were taken toward the formation of a new state, 
though it was not so expressed at the time. A series of resolutions, 
denouncing and repudiating the action of the state convention, 
were adopted, and the people were recommended to "appoint 



292 The Union Army 

five delegates from among their wisest men, to meet in Mass 
Convention at Wheehng on May 13, to consult and determine 
upon such action as the people of Northwestern Virginia should 
take in the present fearful emergency." Before the date set for 
the mass convention Henry A. Wise was sent by the Confederate 
government with an armed force into the western counties for 
the purpose of overawing them into submission and holding that 
section for the Confederacy. As his army marched down the 
Kanawha valley it created great alarm and many of the Union 
men of that region fled to Ohio for safety. Preparations for the 
convention went on, however, and when the delegates assembled 
at Washington hall in the city of Wheeling on May 13, it was 
found that 26 counties were fully represented. As the convention 
had been called without the sanction of any legally constituted 
authority it was powerless to act in a way that would bind the 
people to any course it might adopt. The affirmative policy of 
the delegates was therefore not very well defined, but on the 
negative side all were a unit in one thing they would not do, and 
that was to ratify the action of the Richmond convention commit- 
ting the state to the Confederacy. 

As soon as the convention was organized a committee on State 
and Federal relations, consisting of one delegate from each 
county, was appointed. This committee was deluged with various 
plans and resolutions oflFering solutions to the vexed problem 
that then confronted the country, but the one that seemed to meet 
with the most favor was the resolution offered by Mr. Carlile, 
and which was as follows : "Resolved, That the committee on State 
and Federal relations be instructed to report an ordinance de- 
claring that the connection of the counties of this state, composing 
the loth and nth Congressional districts, to which shall be 
added the county of Wayne, with the other portion of this state 
is hereby dissolved, and that the people of the said counties are 
in the possession and exercise of all the rights of sovereignty 
which belong and appertain to a free and independent state in 
the United States and subject to the constitution thereof ; and that 
said committee be instructed to report a constitution and form of 
government for the said state, to be called the State of New Vir- 
ginia ; and also that they report a declaration of causes which 
have impelled the people of said counties thus to dissolve their 
connection with the rest of the state, together with an ordinance 
declaring that said constitution and form of government shall 
take effect and be an act of this day when the consent of the 
Congress of the United States and of the legislature of the State 
of Virginia are obtained as is provided for by section 3 article 
4 of the constitution of the United States." 

A long chapter might be written concerning the debate that 



Military Affairs in West Virginia 393 

followed the introduction of this resolution, but in the present 
instance it is sufficient to say that Mr. Carlile's plan was finally 
rejected as being too radical and revolutionary. After recom- 
mending that another convention be assembled in Wheeling on 
June 1 1 , and the appointment of a committee of five to make the 
necessary arrangements therefor, the mass convention adjourned 
"amidst a blaze of enthusiasm, cheers for the Union, and the 
singing of the Star Spangled Banner." 

The June convention assembled in the same hall in which the 
mass convention had been held, 35 of the western counties being 
represented by jy delegates, and was organized by the election 
of Arthur I. Boreman, of Wood county, as president, and George 
Cranmer, of Ohio county, as secretary. As soon as the organi- 
zation was completed each county delegation came forward and 
took the following oath : "We solemnly declare that we will sup- 
port the constitution of the United States and the laws made in 
pursuance thereof, as the supreme law of the land, anything in 
the ordinance of the convention that assembled in Richmond on 
Feb. 13 last to the contrary notwithstanding, so help us God." 
Two schemes were immediately proposed — one providing for the 
formation of a new state after the Carlile plan, and the other 
of reorganizing the state government of Virginia, the loyal coun- 
ties assuming that they constituted the state. The latter plan 
prevailed, and on June 13 the convention issued an address sat- 
ing forth the objects to be attained. As this address forms the 
basis for the establishment of the State of West Virginia it is 
given in full. 

"A Declaration of the People of Virginia, Represented in Con- 
vention, at the City of Wheeling, Thursday, June 13, 1861. 

"The true purpose of all government is to promote the welfare 
and provide for the protection and security of the governed ; and 
when any form of organization of government proves inade- 
quate for, or subversive of this purpose, it is the right, it is the 
duty of the latter, to alter or abolish it. The Bill of Rights of 
Virginia, framed in 1776, reaffirmed in 1830, and again in 1851, 
expressly reserves this right to a majority of her people. The 
act of the general assembly, calling the convention which as- 
sembled in Richmond in February last, without the previously 
expressed consent of such a majority, was therefore a usurpation ; 
and the convention thus called has not only abused the powers 
nominally intrusted to it, but, with the connivance and active aid 
of the executive, has usurped and exercised other powers, to the 
manifest injury of the people, which, if permitted, will inevitably 
subject them to a military despotism. 

"The convention, by its pretended ordinances, has required the 
people of Virginia to separate from and wage war against the 



294 The Union Army 

government of the United States, and against the citizens of 
neighboring states, with whom they have heretofore maintained 
friendly social and business relations. 

"It has attempted to subvert the Union founded by Washing- 
ton and his copatriots, in the former days of the republic, which 
has conferred unexampled prosperity upon every class of citi- 
zens, and upon every section of the country. 

"It has attempted to transfer the allegiance of the people to 
an illegal confederacy of rebellious states, and required their 
submission to its pretended edicts and decrees. 

"It has attempted to place the whole military force and mili- 
tary operations of the Commonwealth under the control and di- 
rection of such confederacy, for offensive as well as defensive 
purposes. 

"It has, in conjunction with the state executive, instituted, 
wherever their usurped power extends, a reign of terror intended 
to suppress the free expression of the will of the people, making 
elections a mockery and a fraud. 

"The same combination, even before the passage of the pre- 
tended ordinance of secession, instituted war by seizure and ap- 
propriation of the property of the Federal government, and by 
organizing and mobilizing armies, with the avowed purpose of 
capturing or destroying the capital of the Union. 

"They have attempted to bring the allegiance of the people of 
the United States in direct conflict with their subordinate alle- 
giance to the state, thereby making obedience to their pretended 
ordinances treason against the former. 

"We, therefore, the delegates here assembled in convention to 
devise such measures and take such action as the safety and wel- 
fare of the loyal citizens of Virginia may demand, having ma- 
turely considered the premises, and viewing with great concern 
the deplorable conditions to which this once happy Common- 
wealth must be reduced unless some regular adequate remedy is 
speedily adopted, and appealing to the Supreme Ruler of the uni- 
verse for the rectitude of our intentions, do hereby, in the name 
and on behalf of the good people of Virginia, solemnly declare 
that the preservation of their dearest rights and liberties, and 
their security in person and property, imperatively demand the 
reorganization of the government of the Commonwealth, and all 
acts of said convention and executive, tending to separate this 
Commonwealth from the United States, or to levy and carry on 
war against them, are without authority and void ; and that the 
offices of all who adheie to the said convention and executive, 
whether legislative, executive or judicial, are vacated." 

On the 19th the convention passed an ordinance providing 
for the election of a governor, lieutenant-governor and attorney 



Military Affairs in West Virginia 295 

general by the convention, as well as a council of five members 
"to consult with and advise the governor respecting such mat- 
ters pertaining to his official duties as he shall submit for consid- 
eration, and to aid in the execution of his official orders." Mem- 
bers of the legislature elected the previous year were to retain 
their seats, provided they took the oath prescribed by the conven- 
tion, and the general assembly was directed to meet in Wheeling 
on July I. The next day the convention completed its work by 
the election of Francis H. Pierpont, of Marion county, governor; 
Daniel Polsley, of Mason, lieutenant-governor; and James S. 
Wheat, of Ohio county, attorney-general. The governor's coun- 
cil was composed of Peter G. Van Winkle, of Wood; Daniel 
Lamb, of Ohio ; William Lazier, of Monongalia ; William A. 
Harrison, of Harrison ; and J. T. Paxton, of Ohio. When these 
appointments were made the convention adjourned to meet again 
Aug. 6, following. 

On July I the legislature met pursuant to the call of the con- 
vention. Gov. Pierpont, in his message, announced that he had 
informed President Lincoln of the acts and aims of the people 
of West Virginia, and had received the assurance of such sup- 
port from the Federal government as could be given within the 
limit of constitutional authority. On the 9th the general assem- 
bly completed the reorganization of the state government by the 
election of L. A. Hagans, secretary of state, Samuel Crane, audi- 
tor, and Campbell Tarr, treasurer. R. M. T. Hunter and James 
M. Mason, United States senators from Virginia, having re- 
signed their seats upon the passage of the secession ordinance, 
Waitman T. Willey and John S. Carlile were chosen to fill the 
vacancies. Their credentials were presented in the senate on the 
13th by Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, and after some debate 
they were duly admitted, the upper house of Congress thus rec- 
ognizing the reorganized government of Virginia. So far the 
plan of reorganizing the state government had worked admir- 
ably, but it was soon to be changed by the adjourned session of 
the state convention which met at Wheeling on Aug. 6. Of this 
session Willey says : "It was tacitly understood that the primary 
object of the second session was the formation of a new state. 
The adjournment was to afford time to mature the plans, stimu- 
late public sentiment in its favor, and provide for complying 
with all the formal requirements of law." On the 20th an ordi- 
nance was passed, creating the "State of Kanawha," fixing its 
boundaries, and providing for an election upon the fourth Thurs- 
day of October, at which the people should vote upon the ques- 
tion. At the same time delegates were to be elected to a consti- 
tutional convention. If the majority of the voters favored the 
establishment of a new state the constitutional convention was 



296 The Union Army 

to meet in Wheeling on Nov. 20, but if the majority should be 
against the formation of a new state the delegates elected were 
not to assemble. This ordinance passed the convention by a 
vote of 50 to 28, and at the election in October the new state 
proposition received 18,408 votes in the affirmative, only 781 
being cast in the negative. 

The constitutional convention met at Wheeling on Nov. 26 
and continued in session until the new constitution was com- 
pleted. By the provisions of this organic law the following coun- 
ties became unconditionally parts of the new state : Barbour, 
Boone, Braxton, Brooke, Cabell, Calhoun, Clay, Doddridge, Fay- 
ette, Gilmer, Greenbrier, Hancock, Harrison, Jackson, Kanawha, 
Lewis, Logan, McDowell, Marion, Marshall, Mason, Mercer, 
Monongalia, Monroe, Nicholas, Ohio, Pleasants, Pocahontas, 
Preston, Putnam, Raleigh, Randolph, Ritchie, Roane, Taylor, 
Tucker, Tyler, Upshur, Wayne, Webster, Wetzel. Wirt, Wood 
and Wyoming. In addition to the above 44 counties Berkeley, 
Frederick, Hampshire, Hardy, Jefferson, Morgan and Pendleton 
were to become a part of the new state when the people of those 
counties ratified the constitution by a popular vote. All except 
Frederick did this, and subsequently became attached to West 
Virginia. 

The first movement of troops in West Virginia, as confirmed 
by the statement of Gen. McClellan, was as follows : "On the 
afternoon of May 20, 1861, I received at Camp Dennison, Ohio, 
confirmation of the movement of the secessionists to destroy the 
Baltimore & Ohio railroad. I at once ordered by telegraph Col. 
B. F. Kelley, ist Virginia volunteer infantry, then in camp at 
Wheeling, and other regiments to move from Parkersburg. The 
regiment commanded by Col. Kelley was the first to march to the 
defense of the state." Gen. T. A. Morris entered western Vir- 
ginia with a body of Union troops from Ohio and Indiana, de- 
feated the Confederates at Philippi on June 3, and drove them 
back toward the mountains. This was the first battle of the 
Civil war, and it drew forth an address from Gov. Letcher to 
the people of northwestern Virginia, under date of June 14, in 
which he said in part : "Virginia has asserted her independence. 
She will maintain it at every hazard. She is sustained by the 
power of ten of her sister Southern states, ready and willing to 
uphold her cause. Can any true Virginian refuse to render as- 
sistance? Men of the northwest, I appeal to you. by all the con- 
siderations which have drawn us together as one people hereto- 
fore, to rally to the standard of the Old Dominion. * * * i 
have sent for your protection such troops as the emergency en- 
abled me to collect, in charge of a competent commander. I have 
ordered a large force to go to your aid, but I rely with the ut- 



Military Affairs in West Virginia 297 

most confidence upon your own strong arms to rescue your fire- 
sides and altars from the pollution of a reckless and ruthless 
enemy. The state is invaded at several points, but ample forces 
have been collected to defend her. * * * "phe troops are 
posted at Huttonsville. Come with your own good weapons and 
meet them as brothers." This appeal met with but slight favor 
in the western section of the state, most of those able to bear 
arms flocking to the Union standard. In July Gen. McClellan 
defeated the Confederates at Rich mountain and Carrick's ford ; 
Gen. Rosecrans defeated Floyd on the Gauley river in August ; 
Wise abandoned the Kanawha valley ; and the victory over Gen. 
R. E. Lee at Cheat mountain in September restored the Federal 
authority in western Virginia. 

The constitution as framed by the Wheeling convention was 
submitted to a vote of the people on April 3, 1862, and resulted 
in its adoption by a vote of 18,862 to 514. The legislature of the 
reorganized state government met on May 6, and gave its formal 
consent to the establishment of the new state as required by sec- 
tion 3, article 4, of the Federal constitution. The name Kanawha, 
suggested by the convention, was dropped, and on May 29 Sena- 
tors Willey and Carlile presented in the senate of the United 
States the application for the admission of the State of West Vir- 
ginia. Considerable debate followed. The constitution submit- 
ted to Congress as the basis of admission was silent on the sub- 
ject of slavery, and an efifort was made to have the state admitted 
as a free state. An amendment, proposed by Senator Willey, pro- 
viding that from and after July 4, 1863, all slave children born in 
the state should be free, and that all slaves within the state, "who 
shall at the time aforesaid be under 21 years of age, shall be free 
when they arrive at the age of 21," was adopted, subject to the 
approval of the people of the state, and in this amended form the 
bill passed the senate on July 14. It did not pass the house until 
Dec. 9, 1862, and then a heavy pressure was brought to bear upon 
President Lincoln to have him veto it, but after carefully weigh- 
ing the arguments on both sides he gave it his official approval 
on the last day of the year. The constitutional convention was 
reassembled on Feb. 12, 1863, and indorsed the Willey amend- 
ment, which was submitted to the people at a popular election 
on March 26 and ratified by' a vote of 28.321 to 572. On April 
20 President Lincoln issued his proclamation declaring West 
Virginia admitted after 60 days from that date. 

The constitutional convention had made provision that, if a 
majority of the people voted in favor of the Willey amendment, 
an election should be held on May 28, for state officers and mem- 
bers of both branches of the legislature. The office of lieutenant- 
governor was abolished by the new constitution, and the election 



298 The Union Army 

in May resulted in the choice of the following state officers with- 
out opposition : governor, Arthur I. Boreman ; secretary of state, 
J. E. Boyers ; auditor, Samuel Crane ; treasurer, Campbell Tarr ; 
attorney-general, A. B. Caldwell ; judges of the supreme court, 
R. L. Berkshire, W. A. Harrison and J. H. Brown. The inau- 
guration of these officers took place at Wheeling on June 20, with 
imposing ceremonies, and West Virginia on that date assumed 
her station in the galaxy of American Commonwealths. The leg- 
islature assembled on the same date to grapple with a number 
of important problems that presented themselves for consider- 
ation. Senator Willey was reelected and P. G. Van Winkle was 
chosen to succeed John S. Carlile. The legislature of the restored 
government of Virginia had provided the new state with revenue 
by enacting that all fines, forfeitures, confiscations, uncollected 
taxes, etc., within the counties composing West Virginia, should 
belong to that state. Gov. Boreman remained the governor of 
the state during the remainder of the war, being reelected in Oct., 
1864, without opposition. 

Of all the loyal people of the North none are more deserving 
of eulogy than the rugged mountaineers of West Virginia. With 
the spirit of patriotism of the Revolutionary fathers they braved 
the contumely of the First Families of the Old Dominion and 
cast their destinies with the Federal government. Born amid 
the stirring scenes of internecine strife, the state weathered the 
storm, and after a lapse of nearly half a century of peace and 
progress it can be safely said that her founders builded better 
than they knew. In the several calls for troops during the war 
the total quota of West Virginia was 34,463 men. In response 
to these calls she furnished 17 regiments and 2 companies of in- 
fantry; 7 regiments and 2 companies of cavalry, and 8 batteries 
of artillery — a total of 32,068 men who were mustered into the 
United States service, besides several organizations controlled 
by the state authorities and employed wholly within her borders. 
On every field where the West Virginians met the enemy they 
rendered a good account of themselves, and the names of Kelley, 
Thoburn, Capehart, Wells, Duval, Powell, McGee, Showalter, 
Daum, Graham, Carlin, and a host of others, are indelibly en- 
rolled among the heroes of the Republic. 



RECORD OF WEST VIRGINIA 
REGIMENTS 



NOTE. — Owing to a lack of reliable data, the names of the offi- 
cers and date of muster out of some of the West Virginia regi- 
ments could not be accurately ascertained. Where it was possible 
this information has been supplied, but in several cases the list of 
officers is no doubt incomplete. 

First Infantry. — Cols., Benjamin F. Kelley, Joseph Thoburn, 
Isaac H. Duval; Lieut. -Cols., Henry B. Hubbard, Jacob Weddle; 
Majs., Isaac H. Duval, Jacob Weddle, Edward W. Stephens. This 
regiment was organized at Wheeling under the first call for vol- 
unteers and was mustered in May 24, 1861, for three months. It 
was composed of men from Hancock, Brooke, Ohio and Marshall 
counties and was probably the only regiment organized during the 
war where the government deemed it unsafe to send arms and 
equipments. Some of the Brooke county men, well known for 
their loyalty, secured through Gov. Andrew of Massachusetts the 
arms, which were delivered at Wellsburg under a personal bond 
and afterward turned over to the regiment at Wheeling. The regi- 
ment went to the front without cartridge boxes, knapsacks, haver- 
sacks or uniforms, opening the Baltimore & Ohio railroad from 
Wheeling to Grafton, where it joined the forces under Gen. Morris. 
It fought at Philippi, the first battle of the war, where Col. Kelley 
was wounded; was engaged in several minor skirmishes; five com- 
panies were with Gen. McClellan on the Rich mountain campaign; 
another detachment was with Col. Tyler in the operations against 
Gen. Wise, and the remainder of the three months' service was 
occupied in railroad guard duty. It was mustered out Aug. 28, 1861, 
but was reorganized for three years by Col. Thoburn and mustered 
in Nov. 14, 1861. It fought at Blue's gap, under Gen. Lander, and 
after his death at Paw-paw tunnel was transferred to the 3d bri- 
gade, Shields' division, with which it served in the Shenandoah 
Valley in the spring of 1862. In July it became a part of the 4th 
brigade, Ricketts' division, McDowell's corps, and fought at Ce- 
dar mountain, in the operations along the Rappahannock river, at 
Thoroughfare gap and in the second battle of Bull Run. In Oct., 
1862. it was sent to Wheeling to recruit, after which it was sent 
to North mountain, and in March, 1863, was attached to the 2nd 
brigade, ist division, 8th corps. In July it joined Gen. Kelley's 
command and operated against the Confederates in Maryland and 
West Virginia until Jan., 1864. In Feb., 1864, it was sent to Wheel- 
ing on veteran furlough, afterward taking part in Gen. Sigel's Shen- 
andoah Valley campaign. Subsequently it was with Gens. Hunter 
and Crook in the movements against Lynchburg and in the Shen- 
andoah Valley and in the summer and fall of 1864 was with Gen. 
Sheridan's Army of West Virginia, with which it fought at Win- 
chester, Cedar creek, Berryville, Charlestown, Halltown, the Ope- 

299 



300 The Union Army 

quan, Fisher's hill and again at Cedar creek in October, where Col. 
Thoburn, then commanding the ist division of the Army of West 
Virginia, was mortally wounded. On Oct. 29, the regiment was 
sent to Cumberland, Md., whence the non-veterans were sent to 
Wheeling to be mustered out and the remaining portion was con- 
solidated into a battalion of four companies under Lieut.-Col. Wed- 
dle. On Dec. 10, 1864, this battalion, by order of the war depart- 
ment was consolidated with the 4th W. Va. infantry, forming the 
2nd W. Va. veteran infantry, which was stationed at Cumberland, 
Md. 

The I St veteran infantry was formed Nov. 9, 1864, by the con- 
solidation of the 5th and 9th infantry, with William H. Enochs, 
colonel; John S. P. Carroll, lieutenant-colonel; James P. Waymer, 
major, and served in Virginia until mustered out July 21, 1865. 

Second Infantry.— Cols., George R. Latham, John W. Moss; 
Lieut.-Col., Robert Moran; Majs., James D. Owens, Thomas Gib- 
son, Henry C. Flesher. This regiment was organized in July, 1861, 
the companies being mustered in as they were formed and hur- 
ried to the front. Cos. A, B, C, D, E, F and G took part in the 
three months' campaign in West Virginia and about Aug. i were 
concentrated at Beverly. It was engaged by detachments, scouting 
in the counties of Barbour, Tucker, Randolph and Pendleton, en- 
gaging in numerous skirmishes with the guerrilla bands that in- 
fested the country, and always with success. From Beverly it was 
sent to reinforce Gen. J. J. Reynolds at Elk Water in May, 1862, 
and arrived just in time to defeat the enemy, who had Reynolds 
almost surrounded. It next served under Gen. Milroy about Cheat 
mountain, Monterey and Bull Pasture mountain, where it fought 
with its accustomed valor and aided materially in the defeat of the 
Confederates. With Gen. Fremont it was engaged at Cross Keys 
and Port Republic, and afterward with Pope's army at Cedar rnoun- 
tain. The winter of 1862-63 was passed at Beverly, the regiment 
having been separated from Milroy's command, and it was there 
attacked by Gen Imboden in April, 1863. After a stubborn resist- 
ance against overwhelming odds for several hours it fell back to 
Buckhannon. During the remainder of 1863 it was engaged in vari- 
ous expeditions and on Jan. 26, 1864, was changed to the Sth W. 
Va. cavalry by order of the war department. 

The 2nd veteran infantry was formed Dec. 21, 1864, by the con- 
solidation of the 1st and 4th regiments, with Jacob Weddle, lieu- 
tenant-colonel and Benjamin D. Boswell, major. It was mustered 
out July 16 and 18, 1865, in accordance with orders from the war 
department. 

Third Infantry. — Cols., David T. Hewes, George R. Latham; 
Lieut. -Cols., Francis W. Thompson, Rufus E. Fleming; Majs., Charles 
E. Swearingen, Theodore F. Lang, Harrison W. Hunter, Peter J. 
Potts, Andrew J. Squires, Thomas E. Day. This regiment was 
organized at Wheeling. Clarksburg and Newburg in June and July, 
1861, and was mustered in for three years. It was engaged in the 
operations in western Virginia; was concentrated at Elk Water 
under Gen. Milroy; fought at McDowell; was with Gen. Fremont 
at Cross Keys and Port Republic; joined the army under Gen. 
Pope and was engaged at Cedar mountain, Kelly's ford, Lee's springs, 
Waterloo bridge, and the second battle of Bull Run; was divided 
into detachments in Oct., 1862, and was not again concentrated 
until April, 1863. In June, 1863, it was changed to mounted infantry, 
and served on various expeditions until Jan. 26, 1864, when it was 
changed to the 6th cavalry (q. v.). 



West Virginia Regiments 301 

Fourth Infantry.— Cols., Joseph A. J. Lightburn, James H. Day- 
ton; Lieut.-Cols., William H. H. Russell, John L. Vance; Majs., 
John T. Hall, Henry Grayum. The 4th infantry was organized at 
Point Pleasant from June to Sept., 1861, and was mustered in for 
three years. Its early service was in Wayne county, where it 
passed the winter, and the summer of 1862 was spent in the Ka- 
nawha valley in numerous skirmishes. Col. Lightburn having com- 
mand of the district. On Dec. 29, 1862, it was brigaded with the 
30th, 37th and 47th Ohio infantry and ordered south to join the 
Army of the Tennessee. At Young's point, La., Jan. 21, 1863, _ it 
was assigned to the 2nd division, 15th corps, with which it contin- 
ued until after the fall of Vicksburg. In the assault of May 18, on 
the Vicksburg fortifications, its colors were "torn to rags by bullets, 
both color sergeants killed, and all the color guard but one killed 
or wounded." It continued with the 15th corps (Sherman's) in the 
siege of Jackson; then moved to Chattanooga; fought at Missionary 
ridge; was with the expedition to relieve Gen. Burnside at Knox- 
ville; was ordered back and on Jan. 7, 1864, reached Larkinsville, 
Ala. In Feb., 1864, it took part in a raid into Alabama and marched 
175 miles. In March the veterans received their furloughs and when 
they reported for duty on May i, were ordered to join Gen. Hun- 
ter for the movement against Lynchburg. With the Army of West 
Virginia it took part in the Shenandoah Valley campaign, being 
engaged at Winchester and Cedar creek in July and August, and 
was highly complimented by the division commander. It also 
fought at Snicker's ferry and Berryville. At the expiration of the 
original term of enlistment the non-veterans were mustered out and 
the veterans and recruits were consolidated with the ist W. Va. 
infantry in December to form the 2nd veteran infantry. 

Fifth Infantry. — Cols., John L. Zeigler, Abia A. Tomlinson; Lieut.- 
Cols., Stephen P. Calvin, William H. Enochs; Majs., Ralph Ormstead, 
Lorenzo A. Phelps. This regiment was organized at Ceredo dur- 
ing the first half of Sept., 1861, and was mustered in for three years. 
No detailed account of its services is available, but it is known that 
it served in West Virginia and Virginia until the expiration of the 
term of enlistment, the non-veterans being mustered out in Sept., 
and Oct., 1864, and the veterans and recruits consolidated with the 
9th infantry to form the ist veteran regiment, under Special Or- 
ders No. 391, dated Nov. 9, 1864. 

Sixth Infantry. — Col., Nathan Wilkinson; Lieut.-Cols., John F. 
Hoy, Larkin Peirpont; Majs.. John B. Frothingham, John H. Sho- 
walter, Larkin Peirpont, Edward A. Bennett. The 6th infantry 
was organized by authority of the war department and was mus- 
tered into the U. S. service from Aug. to Dec. 1861, for the pur- 
pose of guarding the Baltimore & Ohio railroad in the state. Dur- 
ing the years 1862 the companies were moved about from place 
to place as their services were needed. Cos. A and G were attacked 
at Weston in August by Gen. Jenkins and compelled to retire with 
a loss of 6 men wounded; part of the regiment under command of 
Capt. Mattingly of Co. G — 124 officers and men — was attacked by 
Col. Jackson with 700 infantry, 75 cavalry and a piece of artillery 
at Bulltown in October, but the enemy was repulsed after a fight 
which lasted for several hours; in McCausland's attack on the 
Union forces at New creek in August Cos. A, G and L were en- 
gaged, and the report says they "behaved with conspicuous gal- 
lantry, losing 2 men killed and 4 wounded." The non-veterans 
were mustered out at the expiration of the original term of en- 



302 The Union Army 

listment and the veterans and recruits were retained in service un- 
til June 10, 1865, when they were mustered out by order of the war 
department. 

Seventh Infantry. — Cols., James Evans, Joseph Snyder; Lieut- 
Cols., John G. Kelley, Jonathan H. Lockwood, Isaac B. Fisher, 
Francis W. H. Baldwin; Majs., Isaac B. Fisher, James B. Morris, 
Marcus Fetty. This regiment was organized at Wheeling and 
Grafton from July to Oct.. 1861, and was mustered in for three 
years. Its early service was in Virginia and "VVest Virginia, dis- 
persing wandering bands of the enemy, guarding the railroads, 
etc. It fought at Romney, Bloomery gap, and in numerous minor 
skirmishes, and on April 2, 1862, was relieved from railroad duty 
and ordered to Winchester, where it was assigned to provost duty 
under Maj. Lockwood. It was next engaged in several tiresome 
marches in the Shenandoah Valley, and on July 2 reached Harri- 
son's landing on the James river in time to cover the rear of Mc- 
Clellan's army as it fell back from Malvern hill. It remained with 
the Army of the Potomac; covered Pope's retreat from Centerville 
to Chain bridge; distinguished itself at Antietam and Fredericks- 
burg, in both of which actions it was in the first line of battle; par- 
ticipated in the battle of Chancellorsville; arrived at Gettysburg 
on the evening of July i, 1863, and played a prominent part in the 
two days' engagement that followed. In all these actions it lost 
severely, but was always at its post of duty. After Gettysburg it 
rested at Elk run, Va., until in September, when it moved on the 
Bristoe campaign and the Mine Run fiasco. In Feb., 1864, it fought 
at Morton's ford, immediately after which the veterans went horne 
on furlough. The regiment rejoined the Army of the Potomac in 
time for the campaign from the Rapidan to the James, in which 
it was engaged at the Wilderness, Po river. Ny river, Spottsylvania, 
the North Anna river, Totopotomy, and Cold Harbor, losing heav- 
ily during the campaign. It was in the first assaults on the works 
at Petersburg; was engaged at Deep Bottom; at the explosion of 
Burnside's mine; and as a compliment to the gallantry of the mem- 
bers at Reams' station the regiment was furnished with the Henry 
repeating rifle. It was in action at Hatcher's run and on the Boyd- 
ton plank road; was present at the fall of Petersburg; pursued Lee's 
army to Appomattox, and was present at the surrender. During 
these later movements the regiment consisted of a battalion of 
four companies under Lieut.-Col. Baldwin, the non-veterans having 
been mustered out at the expiration of the term of enlistment. The 
battalion was mustered out July I, 1865. 

Eighth Infantry, — Col, John H. Oley; Lieut. -Cols., Lucien 
Loeser, John J. Polsley; Majs., Hedgeman Slack, William Gramm, 
Edgar B. Blundon. This regiment was organized in the Kanawha 
valley in the fall of 1861, with Charleston as the headquarters, and 
was mustered in for three years. It was assigned to Gen. Fre- 
mont's army in April, 1862, was brigaded with the 60th Ohio and 
placed under the command of Col. Cluseret. In the pursuit of 
Stonewall Jackson up the Shenandoah Valley the brigade had the 
advance and at the battle of Cross Keys occupied the center of the 
line. The regiment was complimented by Gen. Fremont in special 
orders for gallantry during the action. It next moved with Gen. 
Sigel to the relief of Gen. Banks at Cedar mountain, and was with 
Gen. Pope in his campaign in eastern Virginia. It was then as- 
signed to Gen. Milroy's command and returned to West Virginia. 
In Nov., 1862, it was cut up into detachments and posted at vari- 



West Virginia Regiments 303 

ous places until June, 1863, when it was ordered to Bridgeport to 
be drilled as mounted infantry. It was assigned to Averell's bri- 
gade and operated against "Mudwall" Jackson around Strasburg, 
Franklin, Monterey, Huntsville, etc., losing heavily in the engage- 
ment at Rocky gap in August. It fought with Averell in the sev- 
eral engagements about Huntersville, Hillsboro and Droop moun- 
tain, after which it participated in the raid to Salem. On Jan. 2^, 
1864, the designation of the regiment was changed to the 7th cav- 
alry and its subsequent history will be found under that head. 

Ninth Infantry. — Cols., Leonard Skinner, Isaac H. Duval; Lieut.- 
Cols., William C. Starr, John S. P. Carroll; Majs., Isaac H. Duval, 
Benjamin M. Skinner, Leonard Skinner. The formation of this 
regiment was commenced in Sept., 1861, by K. V. Whaley. The 
first company organized was stationed at Guyandotte, Va., where 
it was attacked by the Confederates under Jenkins in November 
and all were killed, wounded or captured except 3 or 4 men. Soon 
after this other companies were formed and the regiment was com- 
pleted about the last of Feb., 1862, when it was mustered in for 
three years. From that time until the following September it was 
stationed at various places in the Kanawha valley. It was then 
assigned to Gen. Milroy's command, with which it remained until 
May, 1863, when it was ordered to the Kanawha valley. It fought 
at Cloyd's mountain and in May, 1864, joined Gen. Crook, with 
whom it took part in the Shenandoah Valley campaign until Nov. 
9, 1864, when it was consolidated with the 5th regiment to form 
the 1st veteran infantry. A list of the battles in which it took part 
eludes Cloyd's mountain, New River bridge, Lexington, Lynch- 
burg, Carter's farm, Winchester (2), Martinsburg, Halltown, Berry- 
ville, Fisher's hill and Cedar creek. 

Tenth Infantry. — Cols., Thomas M. Harris, Morgan A. Darnall; 
Lieut.-Cols., Moses S. Hall, Lewis M. Marsh; Majs., Daniel Cur- 
ran, Henry H. Withers. The loth regiment was recruited in the 
latter part of 1861. the first companies being assigned to duty under 
Gen. Rosecrans, then in command of the Frontier Department. Its 
organization was not completed until May, 1862, when it was at- 
tached to the command of Gen. Milroy, and took part in the opera- 
tions of that army during the remainder of the year. In May, 
1863, it was ordered back to West Virginia and attached to the 
brigade commanded by Gen. Averell. The first action of the regi- 
ment as a body was at Beverly, in July, 1863, where it was attacked 
by the enemy under Col. W. L. Jackson, and notwithstanding the 
regiment was greatly outnumbered it held Jackson at bay for two 
days, when reinforcements arrived and the Confederates were rout- 
ed. It fought at Cloyd's mountain, where it was highly compli- 
mented by Gen. Averell for its gallantry, and afterward was with 
that officer in several raids and expeditions. In the campaign 
against Gen. Early in the Shenandoah Valley in 1864, it was in ac- 
tion at Snicker's ferry, Winchester, Berryville, the Opequan, Fish- 
er's hill and Cedar creek. After Sheridan's victories in the Valley 
it joined the Army of the James and continued in the operations 
about Petersburg and Richmond until the close of the war. It was 
mustered out Aug. 9, 1865. 

Eleventh Infantry. — Cols., John C. Rathbone, Daniel Frost, Van 
HI Bukey; Lieut.-Cols., John C. Rathbone, Van H. Bukey, William 
H. H. King, James L. Simpson; Majs., George C. Trimble, James 
L. Simpson, Michael A. Ayres. The organization of the nth regi- 
ment was commenced in Oct., 1861, and toward the latter part of 



304 The Union Army 

December Cos. B and C, organized in Wirt county, were armed 
and placed on duty against guerrillas in that part of the state. 
About 200 men of the regiment were attacked at Spencer in Sep- 
tember by 1,000 Confederates under Gen. Jenkins and all, including 
Col. Rathbone, were captured and paroled. In October a part of 
the regiment took part in the signal repulse of Col. Jackson's forces 
at Bulltown, and various other engagements occurred in which a 
portion of the nth participated. It was then with Averell in sev- 
eral of his raids and expeditions; was with Gen. Hunter in his 
march to and retreat from Lynchburg; and then joined the Army 
of West Virginia for the Shenandoah Valley campaign of 1864. 
Col. Frost was killed at Snicker's ferry in July, and Col. Bukey 
took command. A list of battles in which the nth took part in- 
cludes Cloyd's mountain, New River bridge, Lexington, Lynch- 
burg, Snicker's ferry, Winchester, Martinsburg, Berryville, the 
Opequan, Fisher's hill, Strasburg and Cedar creek. The original 
members who did not reenlist were mustered out as their terms 
expired and the regiment, composed of veterans and recruits, was 
retained in service until June 17, 1865, when it was mustered out 
pursuant to orders from the war department. 

Twelfth Infantry.— Cols., John B. Klunk, William B. Curtis; 
Lieut.-Cols., Robert S. Northcott, Richard H. Brown; Majs., Will- 
iam B. Curtis, Francis H. Pierpont, William Burley, Richard H. 
Brown. This regiment was organized at Camp Willey, Wheeling, 
Aug. 30, 1862, and was mustered in for three years. The next day 
it was ordered to Clarksburg, then threatened by Gen. Jenkins. 
It then operated by detachments until November, when seven com- 
panies under Col. Klunk accompanied Gen. Milroy's expedition 
through Pocahontas, Pendleton and Highland counties. They were 
joined at Monterey. Va., later in the month by the other three com- 
panies under Maj. Pierpont, which had been engaged against guer- 
rillas about Elk Water and Huntersville. The regiment returned 
to Beverly, but was soon ordered to Petersburg, W. Va., where it 
joined Cluseret's brigade of Milroy's army, and continued with that 
brigade until after Milroy's defeat at Winchester in June, 1863, 
where the regiment lost heavily in killed, wounded and captured. 
From August to Oct., 1863, the regiment was at Martinsburg and 
in November moved to Maryland heights. It took part in Wells' 
expedition up the Shenandoah Valley in December, after which it 
was stationed at Cumberland, Md., until April, 1864. It moved 
with Gen. Sigel's army up the Valley again and fought at the bat- 
tle of New Market in May. In July and August it was with Gen. 
Crook in the campaign against Early; fought at Snicker's ferry, 
Winchester, and Cedar creek; and with the ist division. Army of 
West Virginia, joined the Army of the Potomac in Dec, 1864, 
where it continued until mustered out June 16, 1865. 

Thirteenth Infantry. — Col., William R. Brown; Lieut.-Cols., 
James R. Hall, Milton Stewart; Majs., William P. Rucker, Albert 
F. McCown, Lemuel Harpold. Eight companies of this regiment 
were organized at Point Pleasant, Oct. 10, 1862, and were mustered 
in for three years. Just a month later Cos. A, B, D and G were 
ordered to Winfield. Va., where they remained until Jan. 28, 1863, 
when they were sent to Coalsmouth, W. Va. In March, 1863, four 
companies — A, B, D and H — were attacked by Gen. Jenkins at 
Hurricane bridge. A demand for surrender was refused and after 
a fight of 5 hours Jenkins withdrew his force of 1,000 men, leav- 
ing a number of dead and wounded on the field. The regiment re- 



West Virginia Regiments 305 

mained in the Kanawha valley until the Morgan raid in July, when 
it was ordered to Gallipolis, Ohio, thence to Pomeroy. It fought 
some of Morgan's men at Buffington island, and then continued 
the pursuit until Morgan surrendered. In the latter part of 1864 
Co. K was organized and joined the regiment, and soon after Co. 
I, which completed the organization. The 13th was with Gen. 
Hunter in his movement on Lynchburg; took part in the Shenan- 
doah Valley campaign in 1864; fought valiantly at Winchester, 
Fisher's hill and Cedar creek, where Lieut. -Col. Hall was killed 
while leading the regiment into action. The regiment was mus- 
tered out June 22, 1865. During its term of service it marched 
1,437 miles and traveled by rail and steamboat 538 miles. 

Fourteenth Infantry. — Cols., Andrew S. Core, Daniel D. John- 
son; Lieut. -Cols., Chapman J. Stuart, George W. Taggart; Maj., 
Shriver Moore. The 14th was organized at Camp Willey, Wheel- 
ing, in Aug. and Sept., 1862. and was mustered in Sept. 16. The regi- 
ment was concentrated at Clarksburg on the i8th and in November 
moved to New creek, where it was assigned to the Sth brigade, ist 
division, 8th army corps. Co. A and a company of the 23d 111. in- 
fantry fought and defeated a superior force under the Confederate 
Gen. Jones at Greenland gap in April, 1863, inflicting terrible pun- 
ishment upon the enemy, who finallj^ surrendered. In Dec, 1863, 
it was in the movement to McDowell, Va., the object being to cre- 
ate a diversion in favor of Gen. Averell, then on his Salem raid. 
It was next in the expedition of Gen. Crook against the Virginia 
& Tennessee railroad; fought at Cloyd's mountain, Dublin depot 
and New River bridge; defeated Col. Jackson in Montgomery 
county; returned to Meadow bluffs, and there joined Gen. Hunter 
for the movement against Lynchburg. In July, 1864, it reached 
Parkersburg, where Hunter received orders to proceed at once to 
the Shenandoah Valley. In the Valley campaign it was in action 
at Winchester, Carter's farm, Kernstown, Martinsburg, second bat- 
tle of Winchester, Fisher's hill and Cedar creek. In Dec, 1864, 
the regiment was ordered to Martinsburg for duty along the line 
of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad. It was mustered out June 28, 
1865. 

Fifteenth Infantry. — Cols., Maxwell McCaslin, Milton Wells; Lieut.- 
Cols., Milton Wells, Thomas Morris, John W. Holliday; Majs., 
John W. Holliday, Fenelon Howes. This regiment, consisting of 
nine companies, was organized at Wheeling and was ordered to 
the front Oct. 16, 1862. The remainder of the year was passed in 
guarding the line of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad. In Feb., 1864, 
the tenth company was organized and joined the regiment, which 
in April was ordered to join Gen. Crook in the Kanawha valley for 
the expedition against the Virginia & Tennessee railroad. After this 
expedition it moved with Gen. Hunter against Lynchburg, re- 
turning to the Kanawha valle}^ and was then ordered to the Shen- 
andoah Valley, where it became a part of the Army of West Vir- 
ginia in the operations against Gen. Early. A list of the battles in 
which it was engaged up to the close of the year 1864 includes 
Cloj'd's mountain. New River bridge, Middlebrook, Lynchburg, Snick- 
er's ferry (where Lieut. -Col. Morris was killed while leading the 
regiment), Winchester (2), Halltown, Berryville, Fisher's hill. Ce- 
dar creek, and some minor engagements. In Dec, 1864, it joined 
the Army of the James, in front of Richmond and Petersburg, and 
completed its service with that organization. It was mustered out 
June 14, 1865. 

Vol. 11—20 



306 The Union Army 

Sixteenth Infantry. — -Col., James T. Close; Lieut. -Col., Samuel 
W. Snider; Maj., Barnet C. Armstrong. This regiment was organ- 
ized at Washington, D. C, in Aug. and Sept., 1862, to serve for 
three years. Co. A was captured on the night of Aug. 27, while on 
railroad guard duty between Alexandria and Manassas. In the 
spring of 1863 the regiment was assigned to the 2nd brigade, Aber- 
crombie's division, defenses of Washington, where it served until 
mustered out June 10, 1863, by order of the war department. 

Seventeenth Infantry. — Col.. Charles H. Day; Lieut.-Cols., John 
S. McDonald, William T. Head; Majs., Charles H. Day, Frank L. 
Hicks. This regiment was organized at Wheeling in Aug. and 
Sept., 1864, to serve for one, two and three years. It was ordered 
to join Gen. Crook in the latter part of September, but was stopped 
at Grafton and sent to the forces under Gen. Kelley, when it oper- 
ated in the region west of Hancock, Md., and Sleepy creek. In 
Feb., 1865, it was assigned to the ist brigade, 2nd division, Depart- 
ment of West Virginia, where it served until mustered out June 
30, 1865. 

Independent Infantry Battalion. — Capt. Perry G. West. This 
battalion of two companies was organized at Wheeling between 
Oct. I, 1862, and Jan. 9, 1863. It served in West Virginia during 
the term of enlistment and was mustered out in April and May, 
1865. 

Miscellaneous Infantry. — In addition to the organizations given 
above, several companies were organized for service in their re- 
spective localities. The most notable of these were Boggs' scouts. 
Bond's and Brown's companies, Gould's, Mann's and Ramsey's mili- 
tia, Wilkinson's state guards, Martin's loyal company, Exempts' 
battalion, Boothsville, Pendleton county and Swamper's home guards, 
and Ziegler's militia. Each and all of these rendered efficient serv- 
ice in guarding the state against forays of the enemy, thus allow- 
ing the regularly enlisted troops to go to the front. 

First Cavalry. — Cols., Henry Anishansel, Nathaniel P. Richmond, 
Henry Capehart; Lieut.-Cols., Nathaniel P. Richmond, John S. 
Krepps, Joseph Darr, Charles E. Capeheart; Majs., John S. 
Krepps, Josiah Steele, Benjamin F. Chamberlain, William C. Car- 
man, Harrison H. Hagans, Harvey Farabee. The formation of this 
regiment was begun at Clarksburg and Morgantown in July, 1861, 
and was completed on Nov. 25, when it was mustered in for three 
years. As soon as it was mustered in it started for the front. Its 
history is identical with the histories of the Army of West Virginia 
and the Army of the Potomac. Up to the close of 1864 it had 
taken part in 75 battles, including Cross Keys, Port Republic, Cedar 
mountain, the second Bull Run. Chantill3% South mountain, Antie- 
tam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville. Gettysburg, Brandy Station, 
the cavalry fight at Stevensburg. Lynchburg, Carter's farm. Kerns- 
town, Winchester, Fisher's hill, Rude's hill, Cedar creek and Gor- 
donsville. In the Shenandoah Valley campaign it was in the 2nd 
brigade, Averell's cavalry division. Col. Capehart commanding the 
brigade and Maj. Farabee the regiment. It was with Gen. Sheridan in 
the raid to Petersburg in Feb., 1865. after which it served in the 
Army of the Shenandoah under Gen. Merritt until mustered out 
July 8, 1865. the non-veterans having been mustered out some time 
before as their terms expired. 

Second Cavalry. — Cols., William M. Bolles, John C. Paxton, 
William H. Powell; Lieut.-Cols., Rollin S. Curtis, David Dove, John 
J. Hoffman, James Allen; Majs., Henry Steinback, James Allen, 



West Virginia Regiments 307 

John McMahan, Charles E. Hambleton, Charles Anderson, Patrick 
McNally, Edwin S. Morgan. The 2nd cavalry was mustered in 
Nov. 8, 1861, for three years and spent the winter fighting the guer- 
rillas in the border counties of the state and in the Kanawha val- 
ley. Early in Jan., 1862, it joined Gen. Garfield in Kentucky, and 
the regiment fought together for the first time at Paint creek, 
where Humphrey Marshall was so signally defeated. It then re- 
turned to Virginia, where part of the regiment reported to Gen. 
Cox at Flat-top mountain and the remainder joined Gen. Duffie 
for the Lewisburg expedition. During the summer and fall of 
1862 and all of 1863 the regiment was on duty in the state, and in 
May, 1864, was attached to the 3d brigade of Averell's cavalry 
division for the raid on the Virginia & Tennessee railroad. It was 
then with Gen. Hunter on the Lynchburg campaign, after which 
it served in the Shenandoah Valley, taking part in the actions at 
Bunker Hill, Stephenson's depot, the Opequan, Fisher's hill, Mount 
Jackson, Brown's gap and Weyer's cave. During this campaign 
Col. Powell was promoted to brigadier-general "for conspicuous 
gallantry and ability as an officer." After the defeat of Gen. Early 
in the Valley campaign it joined the Army of the Shenandoah in 
front of Petersburg and Richmond, where it continued until the 
close of hostilities as a part of Capehart's brigade, Averell's divi- 
sion. It was mustered out June 30, 1865. 

Third Cavalry.— Cols., David H. Strother, John L. McGee; Lieut.- 
Cols., John L. McGee, John S. Witcher; Majs., Seymour B. Con- 
ger, Lot Bowen, John L. McGee, John S. Witcher, Charles E. An- 
derson, Charles W. White, John S. Hurst. The organization of 
this regiment was commenced in Dec, 1861, and was not complet- 
ed until April, 1865. The companies composing it did not serve 
together until early in the summer of 1864. The regiment or some 
portion of it was engaged at Gainesville, Aldie, Catlett's station, 
Dumfries, Beverly ford, Kelly's ford, along the Rapidan river, Chan- 
cellorsville, Middleburg, Upperville, the first and second days at 
Gettysburg, Williamsport, Boonsboro, Falling Waters, Brandy Sta- 
tion, Culpeper, on the Mine Run campaign, and numerous skirmishes 
arising out of scouting expeditions. At Moorefield the gallant Maj. 
Conger was killed while leading the regiment into action. The 
men were mustered in for periods of one, two and three years, and 
were mustered out as their terms expired, the last of the regiment 
being mustered out June 30, 1865. 

Fourth Cavalry. — Cols., Joseph Snider, James H. Dayton; Lieut.- 
Col., Samuel W. Snider; Majs., Charles F. Howes, Nathan GofT, 
Jr., Arza M. Goodspeed, James A. Smith. This regiment was or- 
ganized at Parkersburg and Wheeling in July and Aug., 1863, and 
was mustered in for six months. From August to December it 
was in the 3d brigade, 2nd division, Department of West Virginia, 
stationed at Clarksburg, Parkersburg and Grafton. In Oct., 1863. 
one battalion under Maj. Howes had a skirmish at Salt Lick bridge. 
In Jan., 1864, it was ordered to New creek and temporarily at- 
tached to Col. Thoburn's brigade. It was in action at Medley, 
where Maj. Goflf was captured. From April 4, 1864, it was with the 
1st and 2nd W. Va. cavalry, 15th W. Va. infantry and Carlin's bat- 
tery in Thoburn's brigade until it was transferred to the forces 
under Gen. Kelley and stationed in the district west of Sleepy 
creek. It was mustered out at different dates from March 6 to 
June 23, 1864, by reason of expiration of service. 

Fifth Cavalry. — This regiment was originally organized as the 



308 The Union Army 

2nd infantry, and was changed to cavalry Jan. 26, 1864. (For ros- 
ter of officers, etc., see 2nd infantry.) After it was changed to a 
cavalry regiment it was quartered at Martinsburg, W. Va., until 
April, 1864, when it joined Gen. Crook for the expedition, which 
resulted in the victory at Cloyd's mountain and the destruction of 
the Virginia & Tennessee railroad. It was next in Hunter's move- 
ment against Lynchburg, after which the original members who 
had not reenlisted were mustered out, and on Nov. 28, 1864, the 
veterans were consolidated with the 6th cavalry. 

Sixth Cavalry. — This regiment was first formed as the 3d infan- 
try, under which the early history of the organization, roster of 
officers, etc., will be found. It was changed to the 6th cavalry on Jan. 
26, 1864, after which it was engaged in the Salem raid, and 
was then stationed at Martinsburg until April, when it moved to 
Beverly. In the meantime a new company had been added to the 
regiment under Capt. J. S. Hyde. Some time in Aug., 1864, the non- 
veterans were mustered out and the remaining members were con- 
solidated into a battalion of six companies, with which the 5th 
regiment was afterward consolidated under the designation of the 
6th cavalry. For lack of arms and equipments it was not very 
active in the field, almost the entire com.mand being captured by 
the Confederate Gen. Rosser at New creek for that reason. It was 
mustered out June 10, 1865. 

Seventh Cavalry. — The early history and roster of officers of this 
regiment will be found under the title of the 8th infantry, by which 
designation it was first known, the change to the cavalry arm of the 
service being made Jan. 27, 1864. About the time the change was 
made 400 of the regiment reenlisted and were granted the usual 
veteran furlough of 30 days. They reassembled again on April 20. 
with about 250 recruits, and the regiment joined Gen. Crook's raid 
on the Virginia & Tennessee railroad in May. It fought at Cloyd's 
mountain and New River bridge, after which it joined Gen. Hun- 
ter for the movement against Lynchburg. The remainder of its 
service was in Virginia, chiefly in the Shenandoah Valley, and it 
was mustered out Aug. i, 1865. 

Battery A. — Capts., Philip Daum, George Furst, John Jenks. This 
battery was organized at Wheeling, June 28, 1861. to serve for 
three years. Its service was chiefly in Virginia and West Virginia, 
though no official list of the engagements in which it took part has 
been published in orders. Capt. Daum was promoted to lieuten- 
ant-colonel, and "Daum's battery," as it was generally known was 
always ready to do its part toward winning a victory, whenever 
and wherever it was called into action. It was mustered out July 
2.T, 1865. 

Battery B. — Capts., Samuel Davey, Ernst M. Rosafy, John V. 
Keeper. This battery was organized at Ceredo, Oct. i, 1861, and 
was mustered in for three years. Like Battery A, no official list 
of its engagements has been published in orders, but it is known 
that it served chiefly in Virginia and West Virginia during its term 
of service, and is frequently mentioned in the official reports with 
commendation. It was transferred to Battery E, Feb. 13, 1865, and 
was mustered out with that organization. 

Battery C— Capts., Frank Buell. Wallace Hill. No official list 
of the battles in which this battery participated has been published 
in orders. It was organized at Wheeling March 30, 1862, and mus- 
tered in for three years. Under Lieut. Hill, afterward captain, the 
battery rendered efficient service at the second battle of Bull Run 



West Virginia Regiments 309 

and at Gettysburg, as well as a large number of engagements in 
Virginia and West Virginia. It was mustered out June 28, 1865, 
by order of the war department. 

Battery D. — Capts., John Carlin, Ephraim Chalfant. This bat- 
tery was organized at Wheeling by Capt. Carlin, and was mustered 
into the U. S. service Aug. 20, 1862. It joined the forces under 
Gen. Milroy, and one section was in action at Moorefield in Jan., 

1863. In June the entire battery was engaged at Winchester, where 
2 men were wounded and 83 captured. In April, 1864, it joined 
Gen. Sigel and took part in the battles of New Market and Pied- 
mont, after which it moved with Gen. Hunter on the Lynchburg 
campaign. The reports of its subsequent service are somewhat 
meager, though it continued to serve in Virginia and West Vir- 
ginia until mustered out June 27, 1865, by order of the war de- 
partment. 

Battery E. — Capt., Alexander C. Moore. This battery, known 
as the "Upshur artillery," was organized at Buckhannon, Upshur 
county, in Aug., 1862, to serve for three years. While at Buckhan- 
non it was engaged against the Confederates under Gen. Jenkins 
before it was mustered into the U. S. service. With Gen. Kelley's 
division it was at Williamsport and North mountain in the summer 
of 1863, and participated in the engagements at Snicker's gap. Kerns- 
town, Winchester, Bunker Hill, Berryville, and Martinsburg in 

1864. It was mustered out June 28, 1865. 

Battery F, — Capts., Thomas A. Maulsby, George W. Graham. 
Battery F was originally organized as Co. C, 6th W. Va. infantry 
in Aug., 1861, and was changed to the artillery arm of the service 
in March, 1863, by order of the secretary of war, when it was re- 
cruited to the maximum of an artillery company and placed in 
charge of a 6-gun battery. It fought at Martinsburg in July, 1863, 
where Capt. Maulsby was wounded. Under Capt. Graham it took 
part in the operations of Gens. Sheridan and Crook in the Shenan- 
doah Valley, fighting valiantly at Bunker Hill, Winchester, and 
several minor actions. On Sept. 14, 1864, it was consolidated with 
Battery A. 

Battery G. — Capts., James D. Owens, Chatham T. Ewing. This 
battery was organized at Wheeling June 13, 1861, to serve for three 
years. No ofificial list of its engagements has been published in 
orders, though its service was chiefly in Virginia and West Vir- 
ginia. It was mustered out June 22, 1864, by reason of expiration 
of service. 

Battery H. — Capt., James H. Holmes. This battery was organ- 
ized at Maryland heights Jan. 4, 1864, and was mustered in for 
three years or during the war. During the summer it was active 
in Virginia, and in November a large part of the battery was cap- 
tured at New creek. No official list of the battles in which it took 
part is to be found in orders. It was mustered out July 11, 1865. 



JOSEPH WARREN KEIFER 



Maj.-Gen. Joseph Warren Keifer, associate editor for Ohio, 
is a native of that state, having been born in Clark county Jan. 
30, 1836. He was educated at Antioch college; began the 
study of law at Springfield in 1856, and two years later was 
admitted to the bar. Five days after the fall of Fort Sumter 
he enlisted in the 3d Ohio volunteer infantry, and on April 27, 

1861, was commissioned major of the regiment. On Feb. 12, 

1862, he was promoted lieutenant-colonel, and on Sept. 30 fol- 
lowing was commissioned colonel of the iioth Ohio infantry. 
He served with marked ability and bravery in the campaigns 
in West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, and 
with the army of the Potomac. No better testimony to his 
intrepidity is needed than the statement that he was four times 
wounded during his service. At the close of the Shenandoah 
Valley campaign of 1864 he was brevetted brigadier-general. 
In the operations about Petersburg, Va., and on the Appomat- 
tox campaign he commanded the 2nd brigade, 3d division, 6th 
army corps, which distinguished itself at the battle of Sailor's 
creek by the capture of Tucker's marine brigade, 2,000 strong. 
For his gallantry in these campaigns he was brevetted major- 
general July I, 1865. Declining a lieutenant-colonel's commis- 
sion in the regular army. Gen. Keifer returned to his law prac- 
tice, which had been so rudely interrupted in 1861. In 1867 
he was elected to the Ohio state senate. In 1876 he was a dele- 
gate to the Republican national convention, and that autumn 
was elected to Congress, where he served for four successive 
terms, being speaker of the house in the 47th Congress. In the 
autumn of 1904, twenty years after his retirement from that 
body, Gen. Keifer was again elected to Congress, and 
was reelected in 1906. In 1873 he was elected pres- 
ident of the Lagonda national bank at Springfield, which 
position he held for over thirty years. When the Span- 
ish-American war broke out Gen. Keifer's old military 
spirit was aroused. He offered his services to the government, 
was appointed major-general of volunteers, and served as such 
until the close of hostilities. Gen. Keifer has been honored on 
many occasions by invitations to deliver public addresses, and 

311 



312 The Union Army 

was the orator at the unveiHng of the Garfield statue in Wash- 
ington in May, 1887. He is a prominent figure in the Grand 
Army of the RepubHc and takes a keen interest in promoting 
the welfare of the order. In 1868-70 he was commander of 
the Ohio department, and in 1871-72 was vice-commander-in- 
chief. Gen. Keifer is the author of a work entitled "Slavery 
and Four Years of War." 



Military Affairs in Ohio 

1861-65 



In common with her sister states of the north, Ohio was to a 
great extent unprepared for the shock of the Civil war, when the 
re