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Full text of "The Union army; a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers"

NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES 



3 3433 07952641 8 






THE 



UNION ARMY 



A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal 
States 1861-65 — Records of the Regi- 
ments IN the Union Army — Cyclo- 
pedia OF Battles — Memoirs 
OF Commanders and 
Soldiers 



VOLUME IV 

Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Kentucky, 

Tennessee, California, Oregon, The Territories 

and District of Columbia 



MADISON, WIS. 
Federal Publishing Company 

1908 



'n 3.1 

Copyright, 1908 

BY 

Federal Publishing Company 










CONTENTS 



VOLUME I 



Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Con- 
necticut, Pennsylvania and Delaware. 

VOLUME II 

Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of New York, 
Maryland, West Virginia and Ohio. 

VOLUME m 

Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of New Jersey, 
Indiana, Illinois and Michigan. 

VOLUME IV 

Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
California, Oregon, The Territories and 
District of Columbia. 

VOLUME V 

Cyclopedia of Battles — A to Helena. 

VOLUME VI 

Cyclopedia of Battles — Helena Road to Z. 

VOLUME VII 

; The Navy. 

VOLUME VIII 
Biographical. 



JEROME A. WATROUS 



Lieut.-Col. Jerome A. Watrous, U. S. Army, was born in 
Conklin, Broome Co., N. Y., Sept. 6, 1840. When four years 
old his parents removed to Wisconsin. Four years later, his 
father, Capt. O. J. Watrous, died, and his mother and her chil- 
dren returned to York state. The subject of this sketch worked 
on a farm for his board and clothes and three months of school- 
ing each winter until he was fifteen. At sixteen he taught 
school one term in Pennsylvania, and in 1857 he returned to 
Calumet Co., Wis. He taught school the winters of 1858-59; 
attended Lawrence university part of a term, then began his 
career as a printer, and a few months later as an editor. He 
was an editor and publisher at Appleton when the Civil war 
broke out and he enlisted under President Lincoln's first call, 
but the company, like thirty others, was not ordered to camp. 
He again enlisted, under the next call, and was mustered in 
July 16, 1861, as a private of Co. E, 6th Wis. infantry. The 
following winter he was made ordnance-sergeant of a brigade, 
and after the battle of Antietam was advanced to ordnance- 
sergeant of a division. He reenlisted at the end of three years, 
was made sergeant-major of his regiment and a little later 
first lieutenant and adjutant, finishing his service as adjutant- 
general of the "Iron Brigade" on the staff of Gen. John A. 
Kellogg. His horse was shot under him at the battle of Grav- 
elly run, Va., March 31, 1865, and he was captured and taken 
to Libby prison. For service in the last named battle he was 
brevetted captain. Upon muster out May 15, 1865, the young 
officer returned to his calling as an editor, first on the Jackson 
County Banner. In 1866 he was county superintendent of 
schools and that fall he was elected to the state legislature from 
the counties of Jackson and Clark. He declined a renomination 
and in 1869 became one of the editors and proprietors of the 
Fond du Lac Commonwealth, and was one of the founders of 
the present daily Commonwealth. In 1870 he was the Repub- 
lican candidate for Congress for that district. In 1879 he be- 
came one of the editors and proprietors of the Milwaukee Tele- 
graph, and for fifteen years was its editor, during which time 
he served as collector of customs for the Milwaukee district, 
and also as department commander of the Grand Army of the 
Vol. IV— 2 17 



18 The Union Army 

Republic. He served as colonel and later as brigadier-general 
on the staff of Gen. J. M. Rusk. At the opening of the Spanish- 
American war Gen. Watrous tendered his services to both the 
governor of the state and the president. June 15, 1898, he was 
commissioned a major in the regular army and served on the 
Atlantic coast until June, 1899, when he was made chief pay- 
master of the Department of the Columbia on the staff of Gen. 
W. R. Shafter, with headquarters at Portland, Ore. The fol- 
lowing year he was assigned to duty at Manila. Six months 
later he was made chief paymaster. Department of the Visayas, 
and in Dec, 1901, when the four departments were consolidated 
into two, Maj. Watrous became chief paymaster, Department 
of the South Philippines, on the staff of Maj. -Gen. J. T. Wade. 
In Sept., 1904, he was promoted to lieutenant-colonel, U. S. 
army and retired for age. Since then he has followed his old 
calling as a writer and now resides at Whitewater, Wis. Col. 
Watrous is the associate-editor of this work for the state of 
Wisconsin. He has been a 33d degree Mason since i{ 



Military Affairs in Wisconsin 

1861—65 



Wisconsin was intensely loyal. Her position at the extreme 
northern boundary of the country rendered her people less sus- 
ceptible to the taint of treason, so pronounced in the states 
nearer the border. Traitors there were; and others whose lack 
of force and of comprehension of conditions made them half- 
hearted sympathizers; but their numbers were small, their 
influence limited. 

The various attempts to extend slavery, the scarce-concealed 
contempt" of the South for the North, and the constant encroach- 
ments of the slave-power had stirred the wrath of the people 
of Wisconsin as well as elsewhere. One act was particvdarly 
repugnant — that known as the "Fugitive Slave Law" — and 
its application was bitterly resented. The arrest of the former 
slave. Glover, at Racine; his incarceration at Milwaukee, pend- 
ing his delivery to his former master, by a United States com- 
missioner; his sensational release by a mob headed by Sherman 
M. Booth, editor of the Milwaukee Free Democrat; and the arrest^ 



Military Affairs in Wisconsin 19 

escape, and subsequent arrest and conviction of the latter, 
aroused the people of the state to a pitch of excitement and anger 
well nigh inconceivable at the present time. 

In effect the supeme court of the state held the fugitive slave 
law to be unconstitutional, and the people declared its enforce- 
ment an outrage. An application for a writ of habeas corpus 
made by Booth's attorney was granted. Justice A. D. Smith 
writing the opinion, which concurred in the claim of the applica- 
tion that Booth had been "unjustly restrained of his liberty; 
his detention was illegal because the fugitive slave act, under 
which he was committed, was unconstitutional." The supreme 
court afterwards — July 19, 1854 — aftirmed the decision, after 
considering an agreement on the writ of certiorari. Chief 
Justice Whiton, delivering the opinion, in closing said: 

"The states — the free states — will never consent that a slave 
owner, his agent, or an officer of the United States, armed with 
process to arrest a fugitive from service, is clothed with entire 
immunity from state authority; to commit whatever crime or 
outrage against the laws of the state; that their own high pre- 
rogative, writ of habeas corpus, shall be annulled, their authority 
defied, their officers resisted, the process of their own courts 
contemned, their territory invaded by Federal force, the houses 
of their citizens searched, the sanctuary of their homes invaded, 
their streets and public places made the scene of tumultuous 
and armed violence, and State sovereignty succumb, paralyzed 
and aghast, before the process of an officer unknown to the con- 
stitution and irresponsible to its sanctions. At least, such 
shall not be the degradation of Wisconsin, without meeting as 
stem remonstrance and resistance as I may be able to interpose, 
so long as her people impose upon me the duty of guarding their 
rights and liberties, and of maintaining the dignity and sover- 
eignty of this State." 

In passing, it may be noted that Booth was arrested the fol- 
lowing day upon a warrant issued by Andrew G. Miller, Federal 
judge, a proslaveryite, and after the trial jury had failed to agree, 
Judge Miller practically instructed it to convict him on the ground 
that he had drawn up resolutions to the effect that "every per- 
son has an indefensible right to a fair and impartial trial by jury 
on all questions pertaining to his liberty," invoking the aid of 
habeas corpus, and pledging the efforts of all to a fair trial for 
Glover. The jury found him guilty of aiding Glover to escape, 
but acquitted him of resisting an officer. Judge Miller sentenced 
the prisoner on both charges, to pay a fine of $1,000 and costs 
amounting to $461.01, and to stand imprisoned until fine and 
costs were paid. This set the country on fire and indignation 
meetings were held in every large city, at which large sums of 



20 The Union Army 

money were subscribed to pay the fine and costs. Booth was 
a.e^ain released by the supreme court, which reaffirmed its power 
of habeas corpus issuances in cases of illegal imprisonment, and 
declared that without such power the state would be "stripped 
of one of the most essential attributes of sovereignty," and 
unable to "protect its citizens in the enjoyment of their personal 
liberty upon its own soil." The court refused the request for 
a writ of error to the United States supreme court, whereupon 
the latter tribunal made a requisition for the record and papers, 
threatening the clerk of the court with arrest and deportation 
from the state if he refused. He refused and the United States 
supreme court, having secured a certified copy of the proceedings, 
sent a remittur to the Wisconsin court to reverse its decision 
and remand Booth into Federal custody. This was refused, 
and so hearty was the approval of the press and people that the 
case was some years later made the basis of a charge that Wis- 
consin was as steeped in the doctrine of state rights and contempt 
for the government as any state in the Union. But as the charge, 
in the form of a pamphlet used for campaign purposes, was of 
a partisan nature, with no attempt at an analysis of the con- 
ditions prevailing, it fell of its own weight. 

The case against Booth dragged its weary way through the 
courts in various phases for six years, he being reimprisoned in 
i860 upon the judgment of five years before, although released 
originally by a writ of habeas corpus; his request for release 
being denied by U. S. Atty. Gen. Jeremiah S. Black. Only 
after his successor, Edwin M. Stanton, had pointed out to 
Buchanan the disastrous effects of Black's decision did the 
president grudgingly grant the pardon sought. 

But the result of this remarkable controversy was to solidify a 
sentiment which had gradually formed in the northwest as a 
result of the Dred Scott decision, the Missouri Compromise 
and the Kansas-Nebraska bill, all serving to pave the way for 
the formation of a new party, destined to bring into line the 
scattered forces opposed to the states rights and pro-slavery 
contentions; and in Wisconsin the infant drew its first breath. 

When the Kansas-Nebraska bill was reported in Congress 
in the winter of 1853-54, Alvin E. Bovay, of Ripon, called a 
public meeting in that city on the evening of Feb. 28, 1854. It 
w^as there decided to organize a new party along the lines he 
suggested, with the non-extension of slavery as its most pro- 
nounced feature. At a subsequent meeting, held March 20, 
Mr. Bovay suggested the name "Republican" for the new party. 
The various parties were well represented at this meeting, and 
as a result the town committees of the Whig and Free-Soil par- 
ties in that place were dissolved and a committee of five chosen 



Military Affairs in Wisconsin 31 

to act for the new organization. The outcome was a state con- 
vention, held in Madison July 13, following, at which a state 
organization was perfected and the name "Republican" adopted. 
A majority of the next delegation in Congress was elected by 
this new party, and Charles Durkee, a former Free-Soiler, was 
elected United States senator the following year, as a Republican. 
Mr. Bovay first approached Mr. Greeley with reference to the 
formation of a new party in 1852, while dining with him during 
the convention which nominated Gen. Scott for the presidency. 
He predicted Scott's nomination and defeat, and declared that 
the impending campaign would be the last one for the Whigs as 
a national party. He proposed a new party and suggested the 
name "Republican." This suggestion he renewed when Greeley 
committed himself to the dissolution of the Whig party in 1854. 

The first Republican governor of Wisconsin was Coles Bash- 
ford, elected by a small majority in 1855, counted out by over- 
zealous partisans through improvised sets of supplemental re- 
turns of election, but seated by the supreme court on incontro- 
vertible evidence of his election. The same party gave the 
electoral vote of the state to Fremont in 1856, elected Alexander 
W. Randall governor in 1857 and again in 1859, building better 
than it realized. 

Gov. Randall was an able, patriotic man, of deep convictions 
and decisive in action. In his message to the legislature in 
Jan., 1861, recognizing more fully than most men the gravity 
of the situation, he urged the necessity for prompt measures 
to put the state in readiness "to respond to the call of the na- 
tional government for men and means to preserve the integrity of 
the union." "The signs of the times indicate that there may arise 
a contingency in the condition of the government, where it will 
become necessary to respond to a call of the national govern- 
ment * * * to thwart the designs of men engaged in an 
organized treason. * * * It is the part of wisdom to be 
prepared. The government must be sustained, the laws shall 
be enforced," he declared. Henceforth he made such prepara- 
tions as lay in his power to prepare for the worst, believing that 
nothing could prevent war, and a few far-seeing men, including 
the editors of some of the leading papers of the state, rendered 
valuable assistance in preparing the minds of the people for the 
gathering storm. The State Journal of Jan. 4, 1861, declared 
that "civil strife seems inevitable. * * * There ought not 
to be less than 20,000 men, out of our 152,000 voters, armed and 
equipped;" and on the following day urged that the arming and 
equipping of the soldiers in the north ought to be begun at once. 
It voiced the sentiment of the state when, in its issue of March 4 
it said: 



32 The Union Army 

"At 12 o'clock today the administration of James Buchanan 
ended. For eight years the country has struggled under unin- 
terrupted misrule. These eight years of misrule leave what 
was the happiest, the most prosperous, the most contented nation 
of the earth, divided into hostile sections, its treasury exhausted, 
and its very existence involved in peril and doubt. * * * 
Thank God his term is ended, while there is still a nucleus left 
around which the patriotism of the people may rally with a 
hope of yet preserving the Union and restoring it to its pristine 
prosperity." 

Notwithstanding the threatening signs, the people of the 
state had been so impressed with Lincoln's conciliatory inaugural 
address that the public mind was at ease. The news of Fort 
Sumter's fall was a shock, but it aroused every loyal citizen. 
Partisanship was forgotten. From every direction came ofTers 
of volunteers. Then it was that Gov. Randall displayed the 
real strength, the capacity, with which he was endowed. 

The legislature, just about to adjourn sine die, was recalled 
and its adjournment resolution was rescinded. The measure, 
passed on the 13th, providing for the acceptance of volunteers, 
authorizing the uniforming and equipping of such volunteers, 
appropriating $100,000 for carrying out the provisions of the 
act and providing for the issuance of bonds for the amount, was 
declared insufficient by the governor in a brief message. The 
legislature promptly doubled the amount to be raised by bonds 
and passed an act exempting from civil process all persons en- 
listing and mustering for service. During the session some one 
struck up "The Star Spangled Banner," and in an instant the 
strain was taken up, not only in the senate and assembly cham- 
ber but by the clerks in the offices, and by scores who rushed to 
the building, the scene being one never forgotten by those who 
witnessed it. When the president's call for troops was received 
Gov. Randall at once issued his call. The response was instan- 
taneous and overwhelming. In six days the ist regiment was 
ready to go into rendezvous and every day brought offers of 
service from would-be volunteers. The governor requested 
repeatedly that Wisconsin's quota be increased. 

At the ■ beginning of the year the adjutant-general's report 
showed 130,000 men subject to military duty; fifty-two com- 
panies organized uniformed and armed, numbering 1,992 men; 
applications on file for organization and equipment of twelve 
more companies, which would have increased the number of 
state militia to 2,473. Their armament was not of the best 
nor their work of a quality to commend them for instant serv- 
ice, but most of the members were patriotic and the organiza- 
tions formed a nucleus for the work in hand. Several independ- 



Military Affairs in Wisconsin 23 

€nt companies, which had taken pride in their work, tendered 
their services and were accepted. Eight of the ten companies 
composing the ist regiment had attained some proficiency in 
drill which went far to lighten the burdens so suddenly placed 
upon the executive. 

Company after company was organized and tendered the 
governor, despite the war department's declination of additional 
regiments. But Gov. Randall, realizing more clearly than many 
the magnitude of the contest, continued organizing and equip- 
ping troops, his military secretary having on the rolls enough 
companies for a dozen regiments. Contracts were immediately 
authorized for uniforms, shoes, caps, etc. Every effort was 
made to secure arms, but the government was unable to make 
immediate provision for them, and nothing suitable for the work 
in hand was obtainable. Camps were formed for the comfort 
of the regiments, suitable buildings erected, and the 2nd, 3d 
and 4th regiments were ordered formed in advance of a call. 
Departments of quartermaster, commissary and paymaster 
were created; 1,600 army blankets were purchased in May, and 
thousands of yards of cloth were ordered from Wisconsin fac- 
tories. On May 7th word was received that all further enlist- 
ments must be for three years and on the 15th two regiments 
were called for. About this time the secretary of war wrote 
Gov. Randall that it was "important to reduce rather than 
enlarge the number" preparing for war. In the face of con- 
tinued rebuffs of this nature. Gov. Randall kept his head and 
continued to organize and prepare regiments for the call he was 
certain would come. 

The legislature was convened in special session on May 15. 
The governor, briefly narrating what had been done, asked for 
authority to at once equip and drill six regiments, and for an 
appropriation of Si, 000, 000. These requests were promptly 
complied with; the governor was authorized to keep two regi- 
. ments in reserve at all times ; to organize new ones as soon as 
those in rendezvous were called to the front; to transport, quar- 
ter, subsist, clothe and pay them while in camp, purchase mili- 
tary stores, field and camp equipage; to provide two assistant 
surgeons and necessary medicine for each regiment ; to purchase 
2,000 stands of arms; to employ such assistance as was necessary, 
and counties, towns, cities and villages were authorized to levy 
taxes for the maintenance of the families of volunteers. 

The governor promptly organized efficient military depart- 
ments the result of their work afterwards being made apparent 
by the excellent field work of the Wisconsin soldiers, their pro- 
ficiency, and fine physical condition, as compared with those 
from some other sections. 



24 The Union Army 

Through the strenuous efforts of Gov. Randall and Gen. Rufus 
King, the war department at last signified its willingness to 
accept six Wisconsin regiments instead of three, on the condition 
that they could be placed in readiness to move in three weeks. 
As a result, the ist left the state June 9, the 2nd June 20, the 
3d July 12, the 4th July 15, the 5th July 24, and the 6th on the 
28th, all being in readiness at the appointed time. The defeat 
of the army at Bull Run opened the eyes of the secretary of war 
to the fact that the troops so freely offered were needed and 
the governor promptly assigned the necessary number of com- 
panies for the 7th and 8th regiments, but refrained from call- 
ing them into camp as long as possible, that the abundant har- 
vest might be secured. 

In the meantime the citizens had not been idle. The ist 
regiment was full before the distant parts of the state knev/ of 
the call. The country's flag flew from every conceivable place. 
War meetings were held nightly. Hundreds volunteered their 
services. A great wave of patriotism swept over the state. In 
seven days after the issuance of the governor's proclamation, 
thirty-six companies had tendered service. Sympathizers with 
the South wisely kept silent — the spectacle of these quiet men 
of the Badger State throwing ofif their lethargy and casting" 
themselves into the current that beat down all restraints was 
such as to inspire awe, dread and fear, and disloyalty dared not 
proclaim itself. The attack on Union troops at Baltimore 
April 19, intensified the feeling. At a meeting of the Milwaukee 
chamber of commerce on the 19th, with but one-half the mem- 
bers present, $11,175 was subscribed for the support of the 
families of volunteers. During the day the merchants of the 
city raised nearly $9,000, and at another meeting of the chamber 
of commerce in the evening over $3,000 was subscribed. In 
addition many subscribed from $5 to $25 per month as long as 
the war continued, and in a few days Milwaukee had raised 
$30,000. 

In Madison on the evening of the i8th $7,500 was raised for 
the same general purpose, and to this was subsequently added 
a considerable amount, Simeon Mills pledging $50 per month 
as long as the war should last. In Waupun a similar meeting- 
secured some $3,000. Kenosha raised $3,543 in one hour at a 
meeting April 19. Fond du Lac's meeting produced some $4,000, 
Janesville secured over $5,300, Beloit $2,400, Clinton $2,500, 
Palmyra $1,500 and $5 additional for each volunteer. These 
are but samples of w'hat was done all over the state. Some coxm- 
ties made a direct levy. Citizens pledged themselves to see that 
all needy families were cared for. The mayor of Oshkosh offered 
to equip a full company for the war. 



Military Affairs in Wisconsin 25 

In public meetings addresses were made which were inspiring 
and patriotic to the highest degree. Speaker Cobb, in bringing 
to a close the legislative session, said: "Though we may feel 
sad at heart, see that we show it not upon our faces. Let us 
meet this emergency * * * and master it as our fore- 
fathers met and mastered the troubles and dangers by which 
they were surrounded." On April 15 a public meeting was 
held at the capitol. Gov. Randall declared that Fort Sumter 
should be retaken and held and that whatever means should 
be placed at his disposal for equipping Wisconsin troops should 
be most faithfully employed in aiding to prosecute the war. 
Mayor Brown of Milwaukee said: "There is the flag of our coun- 
try. He who can gaze upon it as it floats in the free air without 
a thrill of reverence or affection is a traitor. * * * That 
flag has waved over every battle-field that has secured liberty 
to our country; and wherever, in any part of the world, it has 
floated in the breeze, it has heralded to the nations civil and 
religious liberty." Matthew H. Carpenter stirred the crowd 
to wildest enthusiasm by his eloquent, finished address, of which 
only brief extracts are here given: "With everything to fill 
the hearts of the American people with thanks to God, and love 
toward each other, God has been forgotten, and brother is in 
arms against brother. * * * Tq quiet this unholy rebellion, 
to avenge this unendurable insult to our national flag, our people 
are rising as one man and every man feels insulted by this insult 
to his country. * * * old, tottering Spain may now and 
then presume upon her imbecility, and slight our flag, and our 
careless and generous people will say with Berengaria, ' 'Tis 
but a silken banner neglected;' but when a whole state forgets 
her allegiance, when organized traitors levy war upon the na- 
tional government and our national colors are lowered to the 
rags of treason, we all feel this is a stain upon our honor which 
no man has a right to forgive, and which the state must punish." 

Senator James R. Doolittle, at the close of a remarkable 
arraignment of the Congress with which he had been associated, 
and of the leaders of secession, said: "I would hope and pray and 
labor still for a peaceful solution of this great national trouble: 
but if blood must flow, if it be His will that we must 'tread the 
winepress of the fierceness of his wrath' before we reach the 
end, be it so! In such a struggle, if true to ourselves, God the 
Almighty, must be with us." 

At its convention at Madison Sept. 25, 1861, the Republican 
party adopted resolutions to the effect that the war "must be 
prosecuted for the sole purpose of suppressing treason and main- 
taining the constitution," and that the party "should not be 
confined in the present crisis to its own party in making nomina- 



26 The Union Army 

tions for office, but loyal and unconditional Union men of other 
parties are equally entitled to its confidence and support." 

E. H. Brodhead, Democrat, was in favor of "taking the slaves 
of rebels, and using them in our army to perform labor, and, if 
thought best, to arm them." Jonathan E. Arnold, also a Demo- 
crat, would attack the enemy at every point and take their 
property, slaves and all. If necessary he would use the slaves 
as Jackson did the cotton — ^make ramparts of them and let the 
enemy destroy their property if they would. 

The above quotations are from a few of the many addresses 
made from time to time at public meetings. From pulpit and 
press came stirring words to further arouse and maintain the 
spirit of patriotism which had taken possession of the people. 
While opposed in principle to the sword, the clergy of the state 
realized that here was a time corresponding to that which called 
forth from the Savior the declaration that He came "not to send 
peace, but the sword." 

Rev. C. D. Helmer of Milwaukee, in a sermon a week after 
Sumter's fall, said: "It is vain to talk of holding back the popu- 
lar mind from thinking upon this subject. Only dead men, 
and such as are as good as dead — I mean such as are morally, 
politically and patriotically fast asleep — will remain without 
a touch of excitement amid this national tumult." And again, 
with reference to slavery in its relation to the coming war and 
as an institution, he said; "Let the gates be opened and the sea 
of freedom begin to flow with extinguishing stream.s into the 
crater of oppression." 

Rev. W. G. Miller of Milwaukee predicted a terrific struggle. 
"The war is inevitable. Its coming may be hastened or retarded 
by the shaping of events, but that civil war of a most frightful 
character is upon us is to my mind no longer a question. You 
can no more stay it than you can stay the leaping floods of Niag- 
ara. It is the legitimate offspring of an 'irresistible conflict' 
of ideas as antagonistic as light and darkness, as diametrically 
opposed to each other as right and wrong, truth and error. 
* * * Thg glove is thrown to us and we must accept it. If 
our principles are right, we would be unworthy of our noble pa- 
ternity if- we were to shrink from the issue. The battle is for 
human liberty and it were better that every man should go down 
and every dollar be sacrificed, than that we should transmit to 
the coming millions of this land other than a legacy of freedom." 

Rev. C. W. Camp of Sheboygan declared that "the Providence 
of God is summoning us to another work. We have looked back 
to the Revolution as our heroic age, and have hardly felt that 
the spirit of the fathers could be needed again. But we seem, 
to be in a graver crisis now. All that they left us is in peril, 



Military Affairs in Wisconsin 27 

and God and the interests of our children demand that we meet 
the peril bravely." 

Rev. C. Collie of Delavan, said: "The fact that the war now- 
forced upon us leads right in the direction of our true destiny, 
right in the line of work which God has given us to do, affords 
ground of hope that it is to be only an instrument to enable us 
to fulfill our heaven appointed service, and not a means of de- 
struction. * * * ^nd if in this mad attempt (to fasten 
slavery upon the whole land) the South shall insist on an appeal 
to the issues of war, then God grant us a brave heart, good 
cannon, and a speedy victory." 

Rev. W. W. Whitcomb : "It is God's war to purge away slavery. 
^The Lord reigneth — let the earth rejoice.' " 

These extracts might be multiplied by hundreds. But they 
serve to show the belief and the spirit of these "men of peace," 
many of whom, with a prayer-book in one hand and a musket 
in the other, went forth to fight the battles of the Union. 
Through all the troublous times that followed, the clergy of the 
state spoke and labored manfully for the success of the Union 
army, and so too did the press, which day by day sought to lift 
the drooping spirits of those who were left in the state to care 
for the weaker ones, the women and children, and to provide 
the "sinews of war." 

To illustrate briefly the general attitude of the press of the 
state, a few extracts from leading papers are given herewith: 

Daily Wisconsin, Milwaukee, April 13, 1861: "The rebels 
of Charleston have finally inaugurated civil war by commencing 
the bombardment of Fort Sumter. It is thus that the war is 
commenced against our country by the conspirators. We trust 
in God that the U. S. fleet will be able to relieve Maj. Anderson, 
and then give the South Carolina traitors such a lesson as will 
render their fate memorable in the history of great crimes." 

On Apr. 15, the day the president's call for 75,000 men was 
issued, the Madison State Journal said: "We entreat the legis- 
lature to show no niggardly or stinting spirit in responding to 
the president's call. The people of the state will not justify 
it. The bill which is now in course of preparation should reflect 
the public spirit and loyal generosity of Wisconsin. If our por- 
portion be only 1,500, let us treble or quadruple the number." 

The Milwaukeee Sentinel of Apr. 17 contains the following: 
"Animated by the infernal spirit which prompted the rebellion, 
the South has needlessly opened this war. Let this government 
now draw the sword and throw away the scabbard. Let us, 
hear no more of peace till it comes in the appeal of trembling 
lips of conquered traitors. What may be the duration of this 
strife we cannot tell. How many lives, how much sacrifice of 



28 The Union Army 

treasure it may involve, the future alone can reveal. But the 
man who doubts that the final result will be to crush out this 
treason and strengthen this government is weak of faith and 
judgment." 

The Beloit Journal and Courier of April i8: "The 
Star Spangled Banner has been humbled and traitors have 
mockingly trodden its folds in the dust. A voice from every 
patriot's grave in the land demands that its honor be retrieved. 
Let the patriots of this day vow to redeem the proud old banner 
from dishonor. Our national existence, indeed, is once more 
at stake. No man with a true American heart in his breast, 
will fail to respond to the call of arms." 

On April i8 the Waupun Times said: "Uncertainty has given 
place to reality — civil war has been inaugurated. The rebels 
have done an overt act — they have fired upon and captured, 
by force of arms a Federal fort, and there remains to the govern- 
ment no recourse but to maintain its rights and its power as a 
nation. There is no room for doubt and hesitation — ^men can 
no longer be Republican or Democrat — party is nowhere in this 
issue — every man must choose for himself between the proud 
title of patriot or the disgraceful name of traitor." 

The La Crosse Union and Democrat: "There is a grand old 
storm arising — there will be such fighting as this country has 
never yet seen, and that right soon. This is no time for waver- 
ing. The Star Spangled Banner forever! Under its sacred 
shadow its forefathers fought and watched all through oppres- 
sion's dark night. On its fair field of white, fair fingers toiled 
early and late, wrapped in its honored folds too many a brave 
and gallant man has gone to an honored grave, for it to be de- 
serted now. Wherever it floats, let America's sons gather, 
regardless of past differences, let it be protected with the blood 
of patriotic men, and may our arms seek not for rest until every 
insult given it be punished." 

The Madison Patriot: "Now that war has begun, take our 
advice and push it to its bitter end. Let nothing be left imdone. 
Strike your blows thick and fast and leave nothing to chance. 
The only parties we know are Unionists and disunionists. We 
belong to the former, thank God, and all who stand by us in that 
belong to 'our party.' All others are not only enemies of our 
common country, but our enemies." 

The Fond du Lac Commonwealth: "If we must fight to 
maintain the authority of the nation, to keep it from tumbling 
into anarchy, and from being swayed by the meanest oligarchs 
that ever drew a blade for despotism, then let liberty blaze 
brightly upon our banners; and if the falchion for freedom must 
glitter in the sunlight, when it falls let tyrants feel the blow." 



Military Affairs in Wisconsin 29 

The Dodge County Citizen: "The government must be sus- 
tained. It is the cause of justice and truth. It is the cause 
of God. Popular liberty, for this and future generations, on 
this and other continents, must stand or fall by the constitution 
of these United States. Let the war come. Let every man 
do his duty and may God defend the right." 

Departing from the policy of using infantry only, it was 
decided to form cavalry and artillery regiments, and in June 
Edward Daniels was given a special permit to raise a squadron 
of cavalry. This he did, and it proved a valuable adjunct and 
a credit to the state. About the same time a company of sharp- 
shooters was recruited to form a part of Berdan's famous regi- 
ment, and left the state Sept. 23, the finest body of marksmen 
sent out from Wisconsin, and destined to perform gallant work. 

On July 26, G. Von Deutsch was commissioned to raise a 
company of cavalry, which was speedily accomplished, the com- 
pany joining Fremont's forces in September. 

A message was received from the seretary of war on Aug. 13, 
requesting that all the available force in the state be sent to 
Gen. Fremont, together with "a full supply of field artillery 
and small arms." As the state had but six old, 6-pounder 
cannon, without caissons or harness, no arsenal or means of 
getting possession of guns, and possessing none except the 
1 ,600 stands of arms antiquated and worn out by years of drill 
work, the seeming hopelessness of the task is apparent. Never- 
theless, the 7th regiment was called into camp, its numbers com- 
ing from harvest fields, and the 9th, the German regiment was 
called into being. On the 19th a request was made for Wiscon- 
sin's home guards if they could be spared. To this the governor 
replied that the state had no home guards, but that if the gov- 
ernment would call for four, or six, or more regiments, agree 
to muster them into service at once, and to refund expenses on 
presentation of vouchers, the men would be forthcoming, and 
that a regiment of cavalry would be raised on the same under- 
standing, as well as men for the artillery service. This brought 
a speedy order for five regiments and five batteries, and an offer 
of all the cannon, as well as such other arms, as might be required. 
The work of organization was rushed, commissions being issued 
the same day for raising companies of artillery. Sec. Cameron, 
in a subsequent communication said: "Permit me to extend the 
acknowledgments of this department for your prompt and liberal 
response to all calls that have been made upon you for forces." 
On Aug. 22, the first regiment was mustered out, its time having 
expired, but it was reorganized on the agreement of the war 
department to accept it. The 8th, 9th, loth and nth were 
speedily organized and ordered into camp; the 7th left the state, 
Sept. 21, and the 8th on Oct. 12. 



30 The Union Army 

Up to and including the 8th, the regiments had been clothed 
in grey, but the enemy having adopted that color, the result 
was confusion and uncertainty in battle, especially in "hand-to- 
hand" fighting. The government ordered blue to be substituted 
and this was carried out, the soldiers in many cases being com- 
pelled to pay for both suits without being reimbursed for the cast- 
off suit of grey. 

Seven batteries were raised instead of five, and Fritz Anneke 
was appointed colonel. After much correspondence the addi- 
tional two were accepted, but guns and supplies were not forth- 
coming. 

A request for reimbursement for supplies and subsistence of 
the first six regiments amounting to $512,000, was met by the 
payment of but forty per cent of the amount. 

Military Secretary Watson was sent to Washington early in 
October to ascertain what attention would be paid to the gov- 
ernor's request for equipment. He secured an order for 5,000 
stands of arms and accouterments and the promise of horses 
for the artillery, if the state would furnish cannon. Also an 
order for organization of three additional batteries, five regiments 
of infantry, and six companies of cavalry in addition to the six 
already organized by Daniels. On Oct. 15, the governor tele- 
graphed to the secretary of war that "unless steps were taken 
immediately to reimburse the state to some extent, he must stop 
and disband regiments and companies." This brought prompt 
reply that the disbursing officer would soon have the ftmds to 
pay all accounts. An application made by C. C. Washburn to 
raise a second regiment of cavalry brought a favorable reply 
from Washington. 

On Oct. 25 the companies for the 12th regiment were called 
into camp and about the same time the 13 th was called for. 
The reorganized ist regiment was ordered away on the 28th, 
the loth on Nov. 9, and the nth on Nov. 20, the latter being the 
last regiment to leave the state in 1861. 

Ex-Gov. Barstow, with the sanction of the war department, 
had engaged in the meantime in the organization of the 3d 
cavalry, and though ordered to discontinue early in November 
was soon permitted to proceed with it. 

In early* November the 14th was ordered organized, also the 
15th (Scandinavian) and i6th. The 17th (Irish) was authorized 
and recruited during December and January, as was also the 
1 8th, the last named completing the quota of infantry called 
for during Gov. Randall's administration. On Nov. 27 two 
of the artillery companies were ordered sent to Baltimore. 

A general order was promulgated Dec. 3, ordering the recruit- 
ing service taken out of the hands of the state executives and 



Military Affairs in Wisconsin 31 

placed with the general government, the result being the dis- 
continuance of recruiting for some time, the government still 
seeming to cherish the delusion that the war was of a few months 
duration only. Co. K of the 2nd regiment was detached in 
December as a heavy artillery company, and a company under 
Capt. Stahel was sent late in December to take its place. 

Gov. Randall's term of office expired Jan. 6, 1862, and he 
retired from office after a strenuous year's work, having accom- 
plished an almost herculean task — that of placing the state on 
a war footing and keeping it up to the demands made upon it, 
under conditions that would have broken the spirit of a weaker 
man. Commencing without means, without military knowledge, 
or instructions from the government, he threw into the work 
all his tremendous energies and capacity. Offices made neces- 
sary were created and filled with capable men, state bonds dis- 
posed of and funds raised, regiment after regiment organized, 
clothed, fed and cared for, and without in any degree reflecting 
upon his successors, he left the impress of his work upon the 
state's military operations for lasting good. He retired only 
to be called upon to fill the post of minister to Rome. In 1863 
he was appointed assistant-postmaster-general, and upon the 
resignation of Postmaster-general William Dennison in 1865, 
was appointed his successor. He died at Elmira, N. Y., July 
26, 1872. 

The selection of a military staff seems to have been a happy 
one. Adjt.-Gen. W. L. Utley, Q. M. Gen. Treadway, Com. -Gen. 
Wadsworth, Paymaster Gen. Mills and Surg. -Gen. Wolcott 
were men of ability and of incalculable aid to their chief. Pri- 
vate and Military Sec, W. H. Watson, brought to his work a 
clear brain and tireless energy. State secretary, L. P. Harvey, 
and state treasurer, S. D. Hastings, whose duties were more 
than doubled, were unusually capable men, and the election 
of the former as governor and the re-election of the latter as 
treasurer to succeed himself were significant of the estimate of 
the people as to their qualifications. 

Though death brought Gov. Harvey's administration to a 
speedy close, he exhibited many qualities of executive ability 
in the few weeks covering the span of his official life. He reap- 
pointed all his predecessor's military staff, with the exception 
of adjutant-general, Augustus Gaylord being appointed to that 
position and retaining it until the close of the war. The gov- 
ernment having assumed the work of recruiting, Maj. R. S. 
Smith entered upon his duties as superintendent of that service, 
and all that was left for the quartermaster, commissary and 
paymaster-generals to do was to settle up the business of their 
offices, which was accomplished during the summer and the 
offices were abolished. 



32 The Union Army 

In his message to the new legislature, Jan. 8, 1862, Gov. Har- 
vey reported the war fund receipts to have been $957,368.79, 
of which amount there was on hand Jan. i, a balance of $50,227.- 
09. The state's total war expense to that date amounted to 
$1,656,659.98. 

Upon his recommendations the legislature during the session, 
passed several acts with special reference to the military depart- 
ment of the state. One of these defined the rights of families; 
others fixed penalties for the issue of false papers; imposed 
duties on military officers in the field to make certain reports; 
suspended the sale of lands mortgaged to the state or held by 
the volunteer; authorized the issue of bonds for war purposes 
to the amount of $200,000; defined the duties of allotment com- 
missioners; and authorized the appointment of surgeons to l)at- 
teries and assistant-surgeons to cavalry regiments. 

Some trouble was experienced by Gov. Harvey, as well as by 
his predecessor, in securing a settlement of the state's claims 
for money advanced for subsistence and payment of the troops, 
but after several months time over $300,000 was paid, leaving 
a few claims unsettled, which were laid aside because of irregu- 
larities for further consideration. 

An order was received discontinuing recruiting after Apr. 3, 
the war department still retaining the hallucination that the 
army was strong enough to cope with the rebellion, but this order 
was annulled June 6. 

On receipt of the news of the battle of Shiloh, knowing that 
several Wisconsin regiments were in that engagement, Gov. 
Harvey gathered supplies and necessaries for the wounded and 
sick and started for the scene with Surg. -Gen. Wolcott and a 
staff of medical assistants, calling en route at Mound City, Padu- 
cah and Savannah, where many of the wounded were in hospital. 
The wants of all were supplied, and the party prepared to return 
home. 

On Saturday evening, April 19, the party was on board the 
steamer Dunleith at Pittsburg landing, awaiting the arrival of 
the steamer Minnehaha. The latter reached there about 10 
o'clock and as it came alongside the Dunleith the governor, who 
was standing near the guards of the Dunleith, made a false step 
and fell overboard between the two boats. Dr. Clark jumped 
into the river, caught the wheel of the Minnehaha and reached 
for the governor, but missed him. Gov. Harvey was swept 
down stream and passed under a flatboat. The darkness of the 
night and the disaster being wholly unexpected all efforts to 
rescue the governor proved unavailing. The body was found 
April 27 about 60 miles below Savannah, and was sent home. 
At Chicago, as the funeral cortege passed along the streets, the 



Military Affairs in Wisconsin 33 

bells of the city were tolled and the flag on the city hall was 
placed at half-mast. Upon arriving at Madison the body was 
conveyed to the assembly chamber, where it lay in state for 24 
hours, with a military guard of honor stationed at the bier. 
The procession to the grave was one of the most notable ever 
witnessed in the state, including in its number a military detach- 
ment from the 19th regiment, state officers as pall-bearers, the 
United States officers, many members of the senate and assem- 
bly, judges, societies, members of the bar, and citizens of every 
rank, business and profession. Gov. Harvey's remains rest 
near the center of beautiful Forest Hill cemetery, at Madison. 
Although but 41 years of age, he had reached heights beyond 
those attained by most men of more mature years. Successively 
teacher, editor, business man, member of the first constitutional 
convention, state senator, secretary of state, and governor, 
he performed well the duties of each position and had won the 
confidence of the people, when death brought to an end the life 
so full of promise. 

Lieut. -Gov. Salomon at once entered upon the duties of the 
office and proceeded to the organization of the 20th regiment, 
a call having been made for more troops. The regiment was 
in readiness Aug. 23, and a week later was sent south. 

The legislature met June 3, having adjourned to that date in 
April. The governor reported in his message that with 24,000 
men sent from the state, the executive was embarrassed in caring 
for the sick and wounded, by reason of no adequate measures 
having been taken by the legislature. An act was at once passed 
appropriating $20,000 for the purpose indicated. 

On April 20 about 900 prisoners from the south were quartered 
at Camp Randall, remaining until the latter part of May, when 
they were sent to Camp Douglas, Chicago, and the 19th regiment, 
which had guarded them was sent to Virginia. 

About this time Gov. Salomon united with the governors of 
the loyal states in a memorial to the president, urging that a 
large force be called into the field without delay to crush out the 
rebellion. The response was the call for 300,000 men, Wiscon- 
sin's quota being five regiments. The regiments were promptly 
called for, camps assigned at Oshkosh, Milwaukee, Racine, 
Madison and La Crosse and recruits offered one month's pay, 
and $25 of the $100 state bounty, in advance. Circumstances 
afterwards compelled the abandonment of state bounty. The 
regiments were filled up rapidly and as fast as organized left 
the state for the front. Gen. Sigel having been authorized by 
the government to raise twelve regiments, called upon Gov. 
Salomon for one, the Germans of the state speedily filled its 
ranks and the 26th left the state Oct. 6. The governor called 

Vol. IV— 3 



34 The Union Army 

for seven more regiments, all of which were in the field by April 
I, 1863. 

An extra session of the legislature was called for Sept. 10, the 
governor deeming it best to in some measure forestall the oper- 
ations of the draft, which had been ordered. He recommended 
an "organization of the militia of the state, an enrollment of all 
able-bodied men between the ages of 18 and 45 years, to enable 
the state to respond promptly to any call which might be made, 
and, in case of draft, to make such exemptions as would cause 
the draft to fall lightly on those who would be distressed by its 
operations," recommending that those between 18 and 35 be 
called first and that class exhausted before the older men were 
called out. This recommendation was not heeded and the dis- 
graceful draft riots followed. A state tax of $275,000 was 
ordered levied for the w^ar fund to be used in the payment of 
warrants for state aid to families of volunteers; commissioned 
officers out of the state were authorized to administer oaths and 
take acknowledgments; soldiers in the field were given the right 
of suffrage ; and counties, towns, cities and incorporated villages 
were authorized to raise money for bounties. 

Under the draft for 300,000 nine-months men, ordered Aug. 
5, Wisconsin's quota was 11,904, and Gov. Salomon made the 
first and only draft made by the state authorities. By deter- 
mined, repeated efforts he succeeded in getting an extension of 
recruiting time and the suspension of the draft from Aug. 15 
to Nov. 10, and recruiting to fill old regiments was extended, 
bounty and advance pay to be continued. The war department 
had also failed to credit the state with the number of men ac- 
tually furnished, having to its credit only 22,263 up to July i, 
a surplus of only 510 to be applied on the state's quota 
under all calls. The state had actually furnished 24,653, mak- 
ing a surplus of 2,900 men, and after some correspondence this 
was credited. Unfortunately, volunteering in the new regiments 
was cut off in August, a grave error as it seems at this time, as 
the state's quota could have been filled without the application 
of the draft, the harvest being about completed and many being 
willing to enlist under the bounty and advance pay system. 

At Milwaukee, in the make-up of the rolls, grave errors, to 
speak mildly, were made, and where that city's quota was 
properly over 700, the returns on their face showed but 105. 
The draft was postponed until the 19th, the rolls corrected, and 
with militia posted at every point, the draft was made without 
demonstration. In Ozaukee county a mob seized and destroyed 
the rolls, attacked several citizens and destroyed their property. 
The commissioner, a Mr. Pors, was thrown down the steps of 
the court-house and severely injured. He escaped with his life 



Military Affairs in Wisconsin 35 

by hiding in a cellar and the interior of his handsome home was 
completely wrecked. Subsequently 130 of the rioters were 
arrested and imprisoned, the legislature settled for property 
destroyed and the state was afterward reimbursed by the gov- 
ernment. 

Riots at Port Washington made it necessary to send eight 
companies to that point. At Westbend a mob drove the draft 
commissioner out of town and broke up the draft. Four com- 
panies of militia restored and kept the peace at that place. 
Altogether 4,537 were drafted for the service, 1,739 were mus- 
tered in, 988 discharged, 19 deserted, 129 were furloughed, and 
1,662 failed to report. At the close of the year 1862 there were 
three incomplete regiments in the state — the 27th and 31st 
volunteers, and 34th drafted. Their ranks were filled and all 
were in service by March, 1863. 

When the legislature convened in Jan., 1863, the governor 
in his message reported the war fund as showing total receipts 
of $807,928.07 for the year and disbursements of $760,929.72. 
There was still due the sum of $105,803.48. He also reported 
that the enrollment showed 127,894 men liable to military duty, 
the state having furnished 38,51 1 men in the organization of new 
regiments, 2,155 recruits for old regiments, and 795 drafted men 
in camp. Total loss by deaths, discharges and desertion, 7,875. 

Numerous acts of a military nature were passed ; bonds to the 
amount of $300,000 were authorized for war purposes; a levy of 
$200,000 for aid to volunteers' families authorized; the soldiers 
granted the right to vote for county, circuit and supreme court 
judges; a special act establishing the process of commencing 
and prosecuting suits against those in the military service: 
amending the act suspending the sale of lands mortgaged to the 
state, or held by volunteers, extending the time to May 30, 1863 ; 
appropriating $15,000 for the care of sick and wounded soldiers; 
giving volunteers the right to redeem lands sold for taxes wuthin 
two years from April i, 1863; extending the volunteer aid to 
families for six months after the death of the soldier; special 
bounty acts, and numerous minor ones. 

No additional regiments were organized during 1863, the old 
ones being furnished with recruits. The 13th light battery was 
organized this year, but did not leave until Jan. 28, 1864. Cos. 
B, C and D, heavy artillery, were also recruited and sent for- 
ward, with Co. A as a base, the intention being to form a battalion. 

The conscription act was put into force Nov. 9. The enroll- 
ment numbered 121,202 and included all males between 20 and 
45 years of age, divided into two classes. The first was com- 
posed of those between 20 and 35 years and all unmarried men 
subject to military duty between 35 and 45 years. From their 



36 The Union Army 

numbers was to be made a draft of one-fifth the number enrolled 
with 50 per cent added. From the enrollment of 121,202 the 
draft called for 14,935. O^ ^^^ number 5,081 paid commutation, 
2,689 failed to report, 6,285 were discharged, 252 furnished sub- 
stitutes, and 628 mustered in person. 

A call for volunteers, made Oct. 17, gave the state's quota 
as 10,281. In making the district assignments care was exer- 
cised by Adjt.-Gen. Gaylord to give credits by towns and wards 
of volunteers enlisted, much injustice having been done in draft- 
ing by the failure of the provost marshal-general to give credit 
when making the assignments of quotas. Bounties of $402 were 
offered to veterans and $302 to new recruits. Premiums were 
also offered to persons bringing in recruits. The war depart- 
ment was given assurance of exempton from the general draft 
ordered for January in such states as should fill their quotas by 
volunteers and every effort was made to induce men to volun- 
tarily offer their services. The city of Madison led with an 
offer of $200 extra- bounty to each volunteer and its quota 
was filled in a week. Other communities adopted this plan and 
the work progressed rapidly. 

Gov. Salomon's term of office expired in Jan., 1864, and he 
gave way to his successor. Called into office under unusual 
conditions, through an unforeseen accident, he sustained well 
the reputation given the state by his predecessors. Whether 
engaged in the organization of regiments, the care of the suffer- 
ing in the field, the carrying on of the detested draft against his 
personal wishes, or in conducting the affairs of the state, he 
acted with energy, good judgment and tact, his mental poise 
holding him above the wiles of partisans or political intriguers 
and giving to the administration a character and standing unsur- 
passed by any during those stormy days. 

Gov. James T. Lewis was inducted into office on the first 
Monday in Jan., 1864, Wyman Spooner being lieutenant gover- 
nor, and Lucius Fairchild, secretary of state. S. D. Hastings 
succeeded himself as treasurer for his fourth term; Winfield 
Smith, attorney-general; J. L. Pickard, state superintendent 
for the third time; and William H. Ramsey bank comptroller 
for a second term. Augustus Gaylord was reappointed adju- 
tant-general; S. Nye Gibbs, assistant adjutant-general; N. F. 
Lund, quartermaster and commissary-general and chief of ord- 
nance; E. B. Wolcott, surgeon-general; Frank H. Firmin, mili- 
tary secretary. 

When the legislature met on the 13th Gov. Lewis reported 
in his message thirty-four regiments of infantry, three regiments 
and one company of cavalry, twelve batteries of light artillery, 
three batteries of heavy artillery, and one company of sharp- 



Military Affairs in Wisconsin 37 

shooters sent from Wisconsin, exclusive of three months men, 
an aggregate of 41,775 men, of whch number 16,963 had been 
lost to the service by death, discharge and desertion. The 
amount received into the war fund during the year, including 
the balance at the commencement of the year, was $818,032.44. 
The disbursements amounted to $786,892.85. For sick and 
wounded $13,999.91 had been disbursed. The state's indebted- 
ness was $1,775,000, the greater portion being for war purposes 
and chargeable against the general government. The amount 
paid to families of volunteers from the commencement of the 
war was $1,197,044.70. 

The legislature authorized towns, cities and villages to raise 
money by taxation for the payment of bounties; amended the 
laws relating to extra pay for soldiers in the service, providing 
for relief of families, etc., that the unintentional discrimination 
be obviated; provided for the entertainment of returning regi- 
ments; repealed the allotment commissioners act; made the law 
relative to the sale of lands apply to drafted men as well as vol- 
unteers; levied a tax of $200,000 for aid of families; appropriated 
$10,000 for relief of sick and wounded; and authorized the bor- 
rowing of $650,000 for war purposes. 

Under the bounty system the recruiting for new and old regi- 
ments progressed so rapidly that no draft was necessary for 
either the January call or the subsequent calls of Feb. i and 
March 14, those drawn by draft in November being credited to 
the proper localities in the last two calls The old regiments 
were fully recruited and three more regiments authorized. The 
government having authorized the reenlistment of men whose 
first term of service had not expired in the old regiments, as 
veterans, giving the regiment the right to the title of "veteran 
regiment," with 30 days furlough, on consideration of three- 
fourths reenlisting, three-fourths of the 3d reenlisted in Dec, 
1863, and came home, being the first veteran regiment that 
received this furlough. 

During 1864, besides the loo-day troops, the term of the three- 
years' service of non-veterans expired in the first twelve regiments 
of infantry, ist and 4th regiments and one company of cavalry, 
Co. G, Berdan's sharpshooters, the first ten batteries of light 
artillery and battery A, heavy artillery. The 3d, 6th, 7th, 8th, 
9th, nth, 12th, 13th and 14th infantry, 4th cavalry and 7th 
light artillery, constituted veteran organizations by reenlistment. 
On April 8 veteran regiments on furlough received orders to 
join their brigades without a moment's delay, at the expiration 
of their leave. 

In June, Gov. Lewis organized the 39th, 40th and 41st infantry 
regiments as loo-day men. On July 18 word was received that 



38 The Union Army 

the state's quota under the call of that date for 500,000 volun- 
teers was 19,032. Investigation showed that the enrollment 
lists had not been corrected, the names of men already furnished 
not having been stricken off, and the names of aliens and those 
physically disabled, still remaining on the lists. A corrected 
list being ordered, it was found that the quota was but 15,341. 
While investigating this, Adjt.-Gen. Gaylord also discovered 
that the excess of 4,352, found to be due the state in the settle- 
ment with the war department the previous October had never 
been credited, and this brought the quota down to less than 
11,000. 

Volunteers not coming forward rapidly enough a draft was 
made Sept. 19th, the number drawn being 17,534, of which num- 
ber 2,494 were mustered in, 945 furnished substitutes, 6,724 
were discharged, 7,367 failed to report, and 4 paid commutation. 

In 1865 Brig. -Gen. Lund, for so long the capable quarter- 
master-general, resigned, and James M. Lynch was appointed. 

Gov. Lewis' message to the legislature of 1865 showed that 
Wisconsin had furnished 75,133 men, with the further addition 
of three regiments of loo-day men. The amount of state indebt- 
edness was $2,005,000, all for war purposes (excepting the 
$100,000 used for the erection of the state capitol) and properly 
chargeable to the general government. The usual necessary 
enactments were made by the legislature for military purposes, 
including the authorization of a loan of $850,000. 

Under the call of Dec. 19, for more troops, the state's quota 
had been placed at 1 7,800. As usual it was found to be an error, 
Wisconsin having always furnished more than her share, and 
the number was reduced to 12,356. On April 10, 1865, Gov. 
Lewis formally notified the legislature of the surrender of Lee, 
saying: "Four years ago, on the day fixed for adjournment, the 
sad news of the fall of Fort Sumter was transmitted to the legis- 
ture. Today, thank God, and next to Him the brave officers 
and soldiers of our army and navy, I am permitted to transmit 
to you the official intelligence, just received, of the surrender of 
Gen. Lee and his army — the last prop of the rebellion. Let us 
rejoice and thank the Ruler of the Universe for victory, and the 
prospect of an honorable peace." 

Gov. Lewis was a worthy prototype of those who had held 
the reins in the earlier days of the war. Popular he must have 
been, receiving every vote cast in his home town of Columbus 
when a candidate for secretary of state, and receiving a majority 
of 25,000 in the state when a candidate for governor. During 
his term over 38,000 troops were raised, the sick well cared for, 
the interests of the state carefully guarded, its credits secured, 
quotas corrected, the draft evils mitigated, and the people at 
home given every possible consideration. 



Military Affairs in Wisconsin UD 

It is but just to say in conclusion, that one of the most capable 
aids in military operations in the state was Adjt.-Gen. Gaylord. 
With duties unusually arduous, the department became one of 
the most important in the state at a time when any position 
involved transactions of great moment, imposing burdens un- 
known in the history of the state up to that time. Through it 
all with a multitude of detail, constantly increasing with the 
years, Gen. Gaylord kept his head, his well trained mind grasp- 
ing the most intricate point, solving every problem, and preserv- 
ing an almost perfectly organized system throughout, when it 
seemed as though chaos ruled at Washington. 

This recognition of his services in no wise detracts from those 
of others equally faithful, and Wisconsin seems to have been 
fortunate in the possession of officials well qualified for their 
positions. 

With that keen foresight which marked his every act. Gov. 
Randall realized the necessity of caring for the sick and wounded. 
He appointed Dr. E. B. Wolcott, of Milwaukee, surgeon-general 
of the state, April 17, 1861, and from that time until the close 
of the war Dr. Wolcott superintended the medical department 
of Wisconsin. Formerly surgeon of the U. S. army, he knew 
the requirements and provided surgical appliances, medical 
supplies and invalids' stores for the regimental surgeons and 
their assistants, and visited many a hospital and battle-field in 
person to see that everything was done that could be. Two 
assistant surgeons were appointed to each regiment and paid by 
the state. 

On July 4, 1 86 1, Gov. Randall addressed a letter to the gov- 
ernors of the loyal states, in which he called attention to the 
lack of care for the soldiers from the time they left their respect- 
ive states, and urged united action that none might suffer unnec- 
essarily in camp, field or hospital, or that the disabled ones be 
not left to find their w^ay home, afoot and friendless. Agents 
were appointed to accompany the earlier regiments to the field 
and to attend to the distribution of supplies. Dr. Wolcott 
exercised such unremitting care that it came to be recognized 
that Wisconsin regiments were as well supplied as any, and 
better than many, of those of other states. 

The governor was in New York when the battle of Bull Run 
occured. Hurrying to the scene, he employed several to look 
after the sick and wounded, relieving hunger and suffering and 
furnishing needed clothing. 

An extra expenditure fund of $10,000 having been placed at 
his disposal May 25, 1861, the governor used it for alleviating 
conditions by engaging men to cook for and attend to the wants 
of the sick at Elmira, Harrisburg and other points, doubtless 



40 The Union Army 

saving many lives. Other states adopted the idea, and the 
secretary of war complimented Wisconsin for adopting the sys- 
tem. Gov. Randall did not approve of "the policy of experi- 
menting with soldiers to ascertain how little they could live on^ 
or how extreme privations they could endure and escape sick- 
ness or death." 

Gov. Harvey was equally solicitous and it was while on an 
errand of mercy that he lost his life. Within 24 hours of the 
receipt of the news of the battle of Pittsburg landing, he with 
Dr. Wolcott and a stafE of assistants, accompanied by Gen. 
E. H. Brodhead of Milwaukee, was on the way with supplies 
of every kind. Over 200 were found at Savannah alone, suffer- 
ing from neglect. They were promptly cared for, the regiments 
within reach were visited and their needs supplied. 

Gov. Salomon continued in the same manner to carry relief 
and see that everything was done of which the limited means 
at his disposal permitted. Invalid soldiers were brought home, 
and Surg. -Gen. Wolcott and Com. -Gen. Wadsworth, with assis- 
tants, visited the army before Corinth, where many were sick, 
provided proper care and greatly improved their condition. 

The legislature appropriated $20,000 for the work in 1863, 
and Dr. Wolcott was authorized to visit the battle-fields and 
hospitals to attend the sick and wounded. State agents were 
located at the principal military points east and west with excel- 
lent results. Regular information was furnished of the condition 
of those in hospitals, their needs supplied, many abuses remedied, 
and so far as possible they aided in securing the discharge of 
those unfit for service. Expeditions, headed by Dr. Wolcott, 
visited the battle fields at Perryville and Stone's river. 

In his message to the legislature in 1863 the governor reported 
an expenditure of $10,828.94 and a further appropriation of 
$15,000 was made for the work. 

From the beginning of his term Gov. Salomon and others had 
labored incessantly to secure the establishment of general gov- 
ernment hospitals in the state, to the end that those unfit for 
service might breathe their native air and be within reach of 
their friends. This persistency won the day and in Oct., 1863, 
a general hospital was established at Madison, the Gov. Farwell 
residence overlooking Lake Monona being selected. It was 
called the "Harvey United States Army General Hospital." 
Others were subsequently established at Milwaukee and Prairie 
du Chien. During 1863 the regiments on the Potomac, in 
Missouri and Arkansas, and at Vicksburg were visited. The 
amount expended during the year was $13,999.91. A further 
sum of $10,000 was appropriated in 1864, which Gov. Lewis,, 
used, as had his predecessors, with excellent results. The money 



Military Affairs in Wisconsin 41 

thus spent saved many a life and encouraged the soldiers 
to greater efforts and sacrifices. Gov. Lewis visited camps and 
hospitals from Washington to New Orleans, up the Mississippi, 
and east and west, attending to the physical welfare of the sol- 
diers; secured an order from the surgeon-general of the United 
States for the transfer of Wisconsin soldiers from hospitals 
south to those in their own state, and made it his special charge 
to see that they were sent home. 

So closely allied is the sanitary department with the soldiers' 
relief work noted above, that it is well-nigh impossible to refer 
to it as a work by itself. In addition to the medical supplies, 
books, hospital stores, bedding, dressings, extra blankets, etc., 
were sent with each regiment and shoes and other articles were 
often furnished. After the large battles, supplies of bandages, 
sheets, shirts and sometimes dainties were forwarded. After 
the battle of Shiloh, 90 boxes of such supplies were forwarded 
within a day or two and divided as needed. The surplus of 
these supplies, after all who were ill had been cared for, was 
left with the sanitary commission at St. Louis. After Perry- 
ville a large amount of summer supplies were forwarded and 
used to excellent advantage, not only for Wisconsin soldiers 
but for others who needed assistance. Ample supplies and $500 
worth of groceries were ordered to Murfreesboro. Supplies 
of vegetables were sent to the vicinity of Vicksburg in March, 
1863, where much suffering existed. Later in the year another 
visit was paid to Vicksburg, also to Chattanooga and Chicka- 
mauga. 

During 1864 large supplies were sent to Fredericksburg, 
mainly through the sanitary commission's Chicago headquarters, 
and to other points as rapidly as the needs and conditions per- 
mitted. Gov. Salomon appointed Hon. J. W. Beardsley as 
the state's sanitary agent at St. Louis; Mrs. Cordelia P. Harvey 
at St. Louis; Robert R. Corson at Philadelphia; Col. Frank E. 
Howe at New York; George W. Sturges at Keokuk; Godfrey 
Stamm agent in Kentucky and Tennessee; and George R. Stuntz 
agent in Tennessee. A Wisconsin's soldiers aid society had 
been established in Washington, and it acted as the agent of 
the state. The system of state sanitary agents was continued 
during the war, with changes in the personnel, acting in general 
with the United States sanitary commission, but with special 
reference to Wisconsin soldiers. Much was done, everything, 
indeed, which limited means would permit; but much more 
might have been accomplished, many little comforts given, had 
the state increased its appropriations by a few thousand dollars. 

A history of Wisconsin's part in the war would not be com- 
plete or accurate without giving some space to the work of the 



43 The Union Army 

wives, mothers and sisters during that time. The women of 
Wisconsin were early aroused to a realization of the part to be 
taken by them and were as quick to respond as were their sisters 
in other states. Almost from the first came a call for shirts, 
stockings and blankets, and without delay needles commenced 
to answer the call. Then lint and bandages were needed and 
delicacies for the sick asked for. Aid societies were formed 
in every community and when the United States sanitary com- 
mission was organized and branches established their assistance 
was invaluable. The Ladies Association for the Aid of Military 
Hospitals opened the way for organized, systematic efforts, and 
later the Wisconsin Soldiers' Aid Society was formed with over 
300 branches or auxiliaries and united with similar societies of 
the north in the work for which all were organized. 

Mrs. Cordelia P. Harvey, widow of Gov. Harvey, found her 
solace and comfort in working in the hospitals and on the field, 
giving nearly four years of her life to devoted eft'orts for the sick, 
alleviating their sufferings and bringing good cheer to those 
who grew weary with the long weeks of hospital life. Many 
of those whose condition rendered them unfit for further serv- 
ice, secured a discharge through her efforts and to the dying 
she brought peace through her own Christian character. She 
it was who made the application for a government hospital in 
Wisconsin, and although at first refused she persisted in her 
efforts, informing the president and the secretary of war of the 
real condition of the hospitals and the treatment of soldiers in 
many of them, how the hospitals were put in special order for 
inspection, and urging that the soldiers could be cared for much 
better in Wisconsin than in the southern hospitals. A telegram 
from Mr. Stanton Sept. 27, 1863, brought the glad news that 
he had ordered "the establishment of a hospital at the Farwell 
house in Madison, to be called the Harvey Hospital, in memory 
of your late lamented husband, the patriotic governor of Wis- 
consin, who lost his life while caring for the wounded soldiers 
of the state." 

When peace came the work of the sanitary commission and 
aid societies was apparently ended. But as scores of straggling, 
footsore, sick and destitute men appeared, the need of further 
relief became apparent and the women of Milwaukee secured 
rooms in a block in that city for a temporary home, where the 
hungry were fed, the weary refreshed, the wounded cared for 
and the penniless furnished with means to reach home. Con- 
tributions and supplies were sent from all over the state. The 
legislature appropriated $3,000 and private contributions up 
to April 15, 1865, were over $6, 000. The report of 1865 showed 
that up to that time 17,456 meals had been served; 2,842 enlisted 



Military Affairs in Wisconsin 43 

men entertained and aided at the home; 2,000 more fed in camps 
and depots; nearly 400 received medical or surgical treatment, 
and many more were carefully nursed. Afterwards many 
thousands were entertained at the home. 

The institution was incorporated and a state fair held in Mil- 
waukee, through which $101,000 was realized, forming the nu- 
cleus for the beautiful national home which is now so prominent 
a feature of Wisconsin's first city. 

A Bureau of Employment for Discharged Soldiers was also 
established in Milwaukee at the Y. M. C. A. rooms, and many 
a homeless wanderer was put in the v/ay of securing honorable 
employment. 

Writing of the work of the sanitary commission, the surgeon - 
general said: "In several of its important departments, be it 
remembered, this grand work is conducted mostly by the women 
of our country. When was there ever before a field of such 
unselfish, patriotic, useful labor, opened for the occupancy of 
woman, and when was ever an opportunity more gloriously 
embraced? Work on, ye women of America! In the history 
of this gigantic struggle, your deeds will add luster to the achieve- 
ments of our arms and go down in the memory of mankind 'to 
the last syllable of recorded time.' " 

From the first the patriotic husband and father had been as- 
sured that his helpless ones should be tenderly cared for. When, 
at the close of the war, it was found that there were 8,000 or- 
phaned children, the plan of a home for these little ones, which 
had been considered by a few led by Mrs. Harvey, met with 
ready cooperation. The owners of the Harvey hospital property 
offered it for $10,000 for the purposes of an orphans' home. 
Mrs. Harvey went to Washington and succeeded in securing a 
donation of the improvements made by the government, in the 
shape of extensive wings, originally costing $15,000. Residents 
of Madison and vicinity contributed $5,000. Repairs were made 
and by Jan. i, 1866, it was ready for occupancy. In March 
the legislature passed the necessary legislation for its official 
organization, appropriated $10,000 for its purchase and an addi- 
tional $25,000 for its support. Many children were cared for 
at this home, but the years brought all entitled to admittance 
within its walls to man's estate and its beautiful site on Lake 
Monona is occupied by modern homes. 

During Gov. Salomon's administration he was requested to 
cooperate with other states, led by Pennsylvania, in the purchase 
of ground for a cemetery for the burial of Union soldiers at 
Gettysburg, and signified his willingness to do so. An appro- 
priation of $3,523 was made by the legislature in 1864 in aid of 
the project. Seventeen acres were purchased and $63,500 



44 The Union Army 

determined upon as a sum required to enclose the grounds, 
bury the dead, beautify the place, erect a suitable monument 
and mark the graves. The bodies of Wisconsin soldiers were 
removed to the designated plat and appropriate headboards 
furnished. 

The total number of troops furnished to the ranks of the 
Union army by Wisconsin under all calls from the general gov- 
ernment during the war was 91,379. The following is a classi- 
fication of the terms of service in the several years of the rebel- 
lion: Volunteer enlistments in 1861, three years, 21,815; 1862, 
18,479; 1863, 2,943; 1864, 8,285; veteran reenlistments in 1864, 
5,782; volunteer reenlistments in 1865, 246; draft in 1863, three 
years, 5,961. Total, three years' service 63,511. 

Volunteer enlistments in 1864, one year, 9,102; draft of 1864, 
one year, 1,918; volunteer enlistments in 1865, one year, 9,678; 
draft of 1865, one year, 2,465. Total, one year's service, 23,163. 

Draft of 1862, nine months, 961; first three months regiment, 
1861, 810; 100-day service, 1864, 2,134; naval and southern 
recruits, terms of service not given, 743. Grand total 91,379. 



RECORD OF WISCONSIN REGIMENTS 



First Infantry. — Cols., John C. Starkweather, George B. Bingham; 
Lieut. -Cols., Charles L. Harris, David H. Lane, George B. Bingham, 
Henry A. Mitchell; Majs., David H. Lane, George B. Bingham, Henry 
A. Mitchell, Donald C. McVean, Thomas H. Green. This regiment 
was organized as a 90-day regiment under the proclamation of April 
16, 1861, with a numerical strength of 810, and left the state June 9. 
It led the advance on Martinsburg, participated in the battle of FaUing 
Waters, and was mustered out Aug. 22, 1861. It was reorganized as 
a three year regiment and mustered in Oct. 19, with a strength of 945. 
Col. Starkweather was placed in command of the 28th brigade, Sept. 
3, 1862, and Lieut. -Col. Bingham was advanced to colonel, Maj. Mitchell 
to lieutenant-colonel, and Capt. Donald C. McVean was appointed 
major. The regiment participated in the battles of Perryville, Stone's 
river, Chickamauga and Missionary ridge. It was mustered out Oct. 
21, 1864. The original organization of 810 lost 91 by death, desertion, 
transfer and discharge, and mustered out, 719. The reorganization, 
nvunbering 945, was increased by recruiting, drafting and reenlistment 
of veterans to 1,508; losses, by death, 235: by desertion, 57; by transfer, 
47; by discharge, 298; mustered out, 871. 

Second Infantry. — Cols., S. Park Coon, Edgar O'Conner, Lucius 
Fairchild, John Mansfield; Lieut. -Cols., Henry W. Peck, Duncan McDon- 
ald, Thomas S. Allen, George H. Stevens, William L. Parsons; Maj., 
George H. Otis. This regiment was organized in May, 1861, and was 
mustered in June 11, with a numerical strength of 1,051. It left the 
state on J\me 20 and was the first regiment of three years men to appear 



Wisconsin Regiments 45 

in Washington. It was brigaded with three New York regiments under 
command of Col. W. T. Sherman, Col. Coon being detached for staff 
duty. The regiment participated in the first battle of Bull Run, los- 
ing 30 killed,^ 125 wounded and 65 missing. It was transferred from 
Col. Sherman's command to that of Brig. Gen. Rufus King, command- 
ing a brigade consisting of the 5th and 6th Wis. and 19th Ind. infantry. 
Co. K was detached permanently and organized as heavy artillery, 
a new Co. K being mustered. Later Gen. King was succeeded by Col.' 
Lysander Cutler and from Dec, i86r, the history of the regiment is 
merged with that of the famovis "Iron Brigade" until it was detached 
in May, 1864, its loss being the greatest in proportion to numbers of any 
regiment engaged in the Civil war. The "Iron Brigade" consisted 
-of the 2nd, 6th and 7th Wis., 19th Ind. and 24th Mich. At Bull Run 
the 2nd regiment bore the brunt of a determined onset by "Stonewall" 
Jackson's entire division on the Warrenton pike until the brigade could 
be moved into position and the enemy repulsed. The brigade held 
the line of battle until the army had passed on the road to Centerville, 
and was in a later engagement on the Warrenton and Sudley roads. 
It stormed the enemy's position as South mountain, the 2nd leading 
on the left of the road and the 6th and 7th on the right, routing the 
enemy. At Antietam the brigade dislodged the enemv after a severe 
conflict. At Fredericksburg it held an exposed position, subject to 
heavy artillery fire. At Gettysburg the regiment led the marching 
column and was the first to meet the enemy, (Heth's division), advanc- 
ing upon it and receiving a volley that cut down over 30 per cent of 
the rank and file. Dashing upon the enemy's center, the 2nd held it 
in check until the brigade came into line, when the enemy was routed. 
At Chancellorsville, the Wilderness, Gaines' mill. Cold Harbor, Peters- 
burg, and in numerous skirmishes, the "Iron Brigade" added new luster 
to the Union army, the 2nd Wis. bearing well its part. The regiment 
became so reduced in numbers that it was permanently detached from 
the brigade May 11, 1864, and employed as provost guard of the 4th 
division, 5th army corps until June 11, when it was sent home, the last 
company being mustered out July 2, 1864. The members who joined sub- 
sequent to its original organization were organized into an independent 
battalion of two companies June 11, 1864, under command of Capt. 
Dennis B. Dailey. The battalion was assigned to provost duty; took 
part in the advance and assault on Petersburg and the skirmishes at 
Yellow house; was transferred to the ist brigade, 3d division for guard 
and picket duty; fought at Hatcher's run; and on Nov. 30 was trans- 
ferred as Cos. G and H to the 6th Wis., with which it remained until 
mustered out. To its original number was added by recruiting, draft- 
ing and reenlistment 215, making a total of 1,266. The death loss 
was 261; missing, 6; desertions, 51; transferred, 134; discharged, 466; 
leaving 348 to be mustered out. 

Third Infantry. — Cols., Charles S. Hamilton, Thomas H. Ruger, 
WiUiam Hawley; Lieut. -Cols., Thomas H. Ruger, Bertine Pinkney, 
Louis H. D. Crane, William Hawley, John W. Scott, Martin Flood, 
George W. Stevenson; Majs., Edwin L. Hubbard, Bertine Pinkney, 
Louis H. D. Crane, John W. Scott, William Hawley, Warham Parks. 
This regiment was organized in June, 1861, with a numerical strength 
of 979. It was mustered in June 29 and left the state July 12. It 
surrounded Frederick, Md., and arrested the "bogus" legislature; drove 
a superior force from Bolivar; was detailed as provost guard at Fred- 
erick in December; was attached to the 2nd brigade of Gen. Banks' 
army corps in Feb., 1862; took part in the advance on Manassas; acted 
as rear-guard in the retreat at Winchester; took part in the battle of 



46 The Union Army 

Winchester the following day; fought at Cedar mountain, eliciting high 
praise; was at Antietam, where of 335 men engaged 27 were killed and 
171 wounded; over one-half of it was at Chancellorsville where it lost 
heavily; it took a prominent part at Brandy Station; was at Gettys- 
burg; aided in the preservation of order in New York city during the 
draft riots; did guard duty in Tennessee; took part in the engagements 
at Resaca, Marietta, Pine knob, Kennesaw mountain, Peachtree creek- 
accompanied the victorious army in its march to the sea and to Rich- 
mond; participated in the grand review at Washington, and was mustered 
out at Louisville, Ky., July 18, 1865. The total enrollment of the regi- 
ment was 2,156; loss by death, 247; missing, 5; desertion, 51; transfer, 
98; discharged, 945; mustered out, 810. 

Fourth Infantry. — Cols., Halbert E. Paine, Sidney A. Bean, Frederick 
A. Boardman, Joseph Bailey, Webster P. Moore, Nelson F. Craigue; 
Lieut. -Cols., Sidney A. Bean, Frederick A. Boardman, Joseph Bailey, 
Webster P. Moore, Nelson F. Craigue, George W. Durgin, Horatio B. 
Baker; Majs., Frederick A. Boardman, Joseph Bailey, Webster P. Moore, 
Nelson F. Craigue, Guy C. Pierce, Edward A. Ramsey, Erastus J. Peck, 
James Keefe, Henry Brooks, George W. Durgin, Horatio B. Baker, 
James B. Farnsworth. This regiment was organized at Racine in June, 
1861, with a numerical strength of 1,047. It was mustered in July 
2, and was first used in suppressing bank riots in Milwaukee and Water- 
town. It left the state July 15 and on the refusal of the railroad com- 
pany to transfer it from Corning, N. Y., to Elmira, it seized the train 
and ran it to Elmira. It went into headquarters at the Relay house, Md., 
and later joined the "Eastern Shore" expedition, going to Baltimore 
in December. On Feb. 19, 1862, it left for Fortress Monroe to join 
the New Orleans expedition, but was sent to Ship island. Miss., until 
April 16. On the 28th Cos. E and G were landed 10 miles from Forts Jack- 
son and St. Philip, after rowing 5 miles and drawing 30 boats loaded 
with arms and ammunition a mile and a half, while wading in mud and 
water waist deep. The regiment, with the 31st Mass., was first landed 
in New Orleans and took forcible possession of the custom house. The 
4th Wis. was occupied in scouting duty in detachments until July 26. 
when it was sent to Baton Rouge, Col. Paine taking command of the 
troops there with orders to burn the city with the exception of the state 
library, paintings, statuary and charitable institutions. This order 
was afterwards revoked on Col. Paine's representation to Gen. Butler 
that the town "would be useful to our army for further military oper- 
ations." The town was fortified thoroughly by the regiment, which 
was later ordered to CarroUton, near New Orleans, Co. G being detached 
for service with the heavy artillery, and 40 men were also transferred 
to the 2nd U. S. artillery. The winter and spring were devoted to picket 
duty and small expeditions through Mississippi. The regiment took 
a prominent part in the battle of Fort Bisland near Brashear City in 
April. It was then sent to Opelousas, where it met and defeated a large 
mounted force of the enemy. By order of Gen. Banks the regiment 
was mounted and thereafter served as cavalry. It was in nvimerous 
skirmishes until ordered to Port Hudson in May as part of the invest- 
ing force. It took part in the first assault and reached the ditch sur- 
rounding the fortifications, having been temporarily dismounted. It 
was in the second assault on June 14, losing 140 of the 220 men engaged 
in the charge. It returned to Baton Rouge July 25, and passed the 
following year in picketing, foraging and preserving the peace in that 
section, occasionally capturing or dispersing small bands of cavalry 
and guerillas. On Nov. 27, 1864, it formed part of a cavalry force to 
keep the enemy near Mobile from advancing toward Gen. Sherman. 



Wisconsin Regiments 47 

The winter was passed at Baton Rouge and the regiment was sent to 
Mobile in April, 1865. After the surrender of the latter place, the 4th 
was sent on a 70-day expedition through Georgia, Alabama and Mis- 
sissippi. In July it was ordered to Texas and remained there until May, 
1866, to prevent smuggling, guard against the Indians and preserve 
the peace. It was mustered out May 28, 1866. Its original strength 
was 1,047. Gain by recruits, 982; substitutes, 16; reenlistments, 260; 
total, 2,305. Loss by death, 350; missing, 23; desertion, 74; trans- 
fer, 2; discharge, 474; mustered out, 754. 

Fifth Infantry. — Cols., Amasa Colsb, Thomas S. Allen; Lieut. -Cols., 
Harvey W. Emery, Theodore B. Catlin, James M. Bull; Majs., Charles 
H. Larrabee, William F. Behrens, Horace M. Wheeler, Enoch Totten, 
Charles W. Kempf. This regiment was organized in June, 1861, with 
a numerical strength of 1,057. ^^ ^^^ mustered in July 13 and left 
the state on the 24th, being assigned to Gen. King's brigade. In Sep- 
tember it was made a part of Hancock's brigade, 2nd division, 6th corps, 
with which it took a conspicuous part in the battle of Williamsburg 
and the Peninsular campaign. It was in reserve at Crampton's gap, 
but fought at Antietam, where Col. Cobb commanded the brigade. 
At Fredericksburg it was in Pratt's brigade, Howe's division, 6th corps. 
It was on duty in New York in Oct., 1863, during the enforcement of 
the draft; was one of the two regiments to carry the main fort and redoubts 
at Rappahannock Station; took part in the battle of Chancellorsville, 
and was engaged at the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor and 
Petersburg. It was then sent to assist in the defense of Washington 
and was mustered out Aug. 3, 1864. An independent battahon con- 
sisting of three companies, was formed July 13, 1864, by reenlisted 
veterans and recruits, under command of Capt. Chas. W. Kempf, and 
accompanied the 6th corps to the Shenandoah Valley, being in engage- 
ments at Snicker's gap, Charlestown and Cedar creek. The regiment 
was reorganized by Col. Thomas S. Allen, was mustered in Oct. i, 1864, 
and joined the three veteran companies at Winchester on the 26th. 
It participated in the three days' engagement as Hatcher's run, in the 
relief of Fort Stedman and in the final assault on Petersburg, and won 
warm encomiums for its work at Sailor's creek, where it advanced through 
a swamp, waist deep, in the face of a galling fire and compelled the 
enemy to surrender. The regiment was with the 6th corps in the pur- 
suit of Gen. Lee which resulted in his surrender at Appomattox. It 
was mustered out at Madison, Wis., July 11, 1865. The total enroll- 
ment during service was 2,256. Losses by death 285, missing 4, deser- 
tion 105, transfer ^^, discharged 405; mustered out 1,424. 

Sixth Infantry. — Cols., Lysander Cutler, Edward S. Bragg, John 
A. Kellogg; Lieut. -Cols., Julius P. Atwood, Benjamin J. Sweet, Rufus 
R. Dawes, Thomas Kerr; Majs., John F. Hauser, Philip W. Plummer, 
Dennis B. Dailey. This regiment was organized at Camp Randall, 
Madison, in July, 1861, mustered into the U. S. service on the i6th 
and left the state for Washington on the 28th. It arrived at Wash- 
ington on Aug. 7, was immediately assigned to King's brigade and went 
into camp on Meridian hill, where it remained until Sept. 3, when it 
marched, with the brigade, to Chain bridge and was employed in picket 
and guard duty at Camp Lyon until it was joined by the 2nd and 7th 
Wis. and the 19th Ind. The regiment remained in camp, engaged in 
various duties until March, 1862, when it took part in the advance on 
Manassas, encamping near Fairfax Court House. On Aug. 5 an expedi- 
tion was sent out to destroy the Virginia Central railroad and the regi- 
ment, with a small force of cavalry and artillery, was detached and 
marched to Frederick's hall Station, where they destroyed 2 miles of 
the track, the depot and other buildings, and rejoined the command 



48 The Union Army 

at Spottsylvania Court House. The regiment went into line at the 
battle of Gainesville and fought until darkness put an end to the con- 
test, losing 14 killed or mortally wounded and 46 wounded. The follow- 
ing day the regiment was present on the battle-field of Bull Run, where 
it lost 9 killed and 93 wounded. It participated in the battle of South 
mountain, fighting during the day and occupying the field all night. 
In this engagement the regiment lost 15 in killed and mortally wounded 
and 67 were wounded. It was vigorously engaged at Antietam, the 
story of which is best told by the casualties, 38 being killed or died of 
wounds and 106 were wounded. The regiment was in the advance 
of a storming party at Fitzhugh's crossing, where it crossed the river 
in pontoon boats and charged upon the intrenchments of the enemy. 
For its gallantry in this desperate charge the regiment received special 
inention in a complimentary order from Gen. Wadsworth. The list 
of casualties in this daring exploit show that the regiment lost 4 killed 
and 12 wovmded. During the early part of the first day's fighting at 
Gettysburg the regiment had been detached as a reserve, but later it 
participated in a charge under a terrible fire and captured a Confed- 
erate regiment. Reorganizing the shattered ranks, the 6th moved 
forward to the support of a battery in its front, which position it held 
until the enemy had pressed back the lines on the two flanks, when it 
fell back to the support of the brigade battery. During the day the 
regiment saved the 147th N. Y. volunteers from capture by charging 
down upon the enemy who was pursuing it and in conjunction with 
the 14th Brooklyn drove the Confederates from the field. The loss 
of the regiment at the battle of Gettysburg was 30 killed, 116 wounded 
and 22 missing. In November it took part in the operations at Mine 
Run, and the regiment was successful in preventing the breaking up 
of a train belonging to the 5th corps. In December, 227 of the regi- 
ment reenlisted as veterans. It was accordingly remustered into the 
service and in January the non-veterans were temporarily attached 
to other organizations and the regiment returned to Wisconsin on veteran 
furlough. The regiment participated in the battles of the Wilderness 
campaign in the spring of 1864. It lost from May 5 to June 10, 44 
killed and no wounded, and from June 11 to July i, 17 killed and 31 
wounded, which was increased during the following month by 7 killed 
and a number wounded. The regiment fought with its accustomed 
gallantry at Dabney's mill, in Feb., 1865, and lost 18 killed and a larger 
number wounded. It took a prominent part in the famous battle of 
Five Forks and a few days later had the proud satisfaction of assist- 
ing in the capture of the army of Gen. Lee at Appomattox Court House. 
In the short campaign, from March 29 to April 9, the casualties in the 
regiment were 16 killed and a number wounded. It moved to Black 
and White's Station, where it remained in camp until ordered to Wash- 
ington, arriving there in time to participate in the grand review, and 
thence was ordered to Louisville, where it was mustered out on July 
14. The original strength of the regiment was 1,108; gain by recruits, 
reenlistments, drafted men and substitutes, 1,035; total, 2,143. Losses 
by death, 322; missing, 7; desertions, 79; transfer, 75; discharged, 513; 
mustered out, 1,147. 

Seventh Infantry.— Cols., Joseph Van Dor, William W. Robinson; 
Lieut. -Cols., Charles A. Hamilton, John B. Callis, Mark Finnicum, 
Hollon Richardson; Majs., George Bill, George S. Hoyt. This regiment, 
organized in Aug., 1861, was mustered into the U. S. service by com- 
panies and left the state for Washington on Sept. 21. It reached Wash- 
ington on Sept. 26 and joined King's brigade at Camp Lyon on Oct. 
2. It participated in all the movements of its brigade during the follow- 
ing winter and spring and had its first skirmish with the enemy in July, 



Wisconsin Regiments 49 

1862. An expedition was sent out by Gen. King to destroy the Virginia 
Central railroad, of which expedition the regiment formed a part, and 
during the movement a skirmish occurred with the enemy's cavalry, 
but the troops suffered more from the excessive heat of the weather.' 
The regiment took part in the celebrated retreat of Gen. Pope, taking 
position at Beverly ford after crossing the Rappahannock, and for -5 
days skirmished with the enemy, losing 2 men wounded. But it had 
its first introduction to real warfare at Gainesville, where the fearful 
list of casualties proved the desperate nature of the contest. All the 
field officers of the regiment were wounded, and it lost 46 men killed 
or died of wounds. On the following day it was present at the battle 
field of Bull Run, where it was temporarily consolidated into six com- 
panies and took part in the contest. It acted as part of the rear-guard 
on the retreat and during these two days lost 5 killed and 135 wounded. 
The regiment was engaged throughout the battle of South mountain 
and held its ground until late in the night, when it was relieved. It 
lost during the day 20 killed and 105 wounded. At Antietam the regi- 
ment was hotly engaged and lost 17 killed and 25 wounded. It took 
part in the battle of Fredericksburg, but owing to the position it held 
it did not become very actively engaged and it lost but i man killed. 
At the opening of the Chancellorsville campaign in the spring of 1863 
the regiment was with the brigade when it crossed the river at Fitzhugh's 
crossing in pontoon boats and drove the enemy out at the point of the 
bayonet. In this affair the regiment lost 4 killed and 5 wounded. Early 
in June it took part in a cavalry reconnoissance towards Culpeper Court 
house and as infantry support in the battle of Brandy Station did 
very effective service. It bore its share in the battle of Gettysburg 
with characteristic gallantry and suffered severely, its loss being 32 
killed and 80 wounded. It was in the affair at Buckland mills in October, 
where it had the misfortune to lose 30 men captured. In December 
211 of the 7th reenlisted as veterans. This was sufficient to constitute 
a veteran regiment and in January the non-veterans were temporarily 
attached to other organizations, while the regiment returned to Wis- 
consin on veteran furlough. During the first day's fighting in the Wil- 
derness, the regiment suffered severely, but in the attack on the enemy's 
first line it captured the colors of the 48th Va. The battle was resumed 
at daylight the following morning, when the regiment participated 
in the grand charge upon the Confederates in front and was the only 
regiment that succeeded in holding for a short time the enemy's first 
line of breastworks. At Spottsylvania the enemy established a body 
of sharpshooters within 50 yards of the Federal breastworks, but they 
were driven out by a company of the 7th Wis. On the following day 
the brigade again advanced to charge the enemy's works in front, the 
regiment being on the left. The troops to the left of the brigade were 
repulsed, and the 7th was obliged to return to its breastworks, which 
it did in good order. It was the first regiment to relieve Hancock's 
corps at the "bloody angle" and took position in the enemy's first line 
of intrenchments, which had been captured by Hancock earlier in the 
day. The list of killed and those who died from wounds in this cam- 
paign from May 5 to June 10 show that the regiment lost q2, while 184 
were wounded. On June 18 the regiment advanced with its brigade 
across an open field, about 2 miles from Petersburg, against the heavy 
works of the enemy, through a galling and terrific fire. In this move- 
ment the regiment was left without any connecting line on its left, but 
the ground was held for an hour and a half, during which the regiment 
suffered terribly from the infantry and artillery fire of the enemy. The 
Federal batteries were firing over the heads of the men in order to pre- 
vent the Confederates from advancing from their works and having 

Vol. IV-4 



50 The Union Army 

to aim low many of the shells struck in close proximity to the regiment. 
Having a few shovels, earthworks on the left flank were commenced, 
the soldiers aiding the shovelers with their bayonets and tin plates^ 
Before they could finish their works, however, the Confederates advanced 
to within 75 yards, and after fighting them as long as there was a chance 
of holding the position, the regiment was compelled to fall back, through 
a more deadly fire than that through which it had advanced, return- 
ing to near the position from which it had moved in the morning. The 
casualties in the regiment were 21 killed and 37 wounded. On July 
30 the regiment took part in the operations connected with the explosion 
of the mine and had i man killed and i wounded. In the desperate 
fight on the Weldon railroad the 7th captured 26 prisoners without 
sustaining any loss. On Aug. 20 it rejoined the brigade on the west 
side of the railroad and assisted in the gallant repulse of the enemy 
on the 2ist, the regiment capturing the battleflag and all the field 
officers of the i6th Miss. The regiment fought with its accustomed 
gallantry at the battle of Dabney's mill in Feb., 1865, with a loss of 
4 killed and 19 wounded. It fought at Gravelly run in March, and took 
a prominent part in the famous battle of Five Forks, which immediately 
preceded the fall of Richmond. It then joined in the pursuit of the 
enemy and had the proud satisfaction of assisting in the capture of 
the army of Gen. Lee at Appomattox Court House. In this short cam- 
paign from March 29 to April 9 the casualties in the 7th regiment were 
18 killed and 52 wounded. After the surrender of the Confederate 
forces the regiment moved to Black and White's Station, where it remained 
until ordered to Washington, where it participated in the grand review.. 
On June 17 it was ordered to Louisville, where it was mustered out 
and started for Wisconsin on July 2. The original strength of the regi- 
ment was 1,029; gain by recruits in 1863, 74; in 1864, 343; in 1865, 12; 
by substitutes, 189; by draft, 67; by veteran regnlistments, 218; total, 
1,932. Losses by death, 385; missing, 12; by desertion, 44; by transfer, 
106; discharged, 473; mustered out, 912. 

Eighth Infantry .^ — Cols., Robert C. Murphy, George W. Robbins, 
John W. Jefferson, William B. Britton; Lieut. -Cols., George W. Robbins, 
John W. Jefferson, William B. Britton, James O. Bartlett, Duncan. 
A.Kennedy. This regiment, known as the "Eagle Regiment" was organ- 
ized Sept. 4, 1861, with a numerical strength of 973. It was mustered 
in Sept. 13 and left the state Oct. 12 for the lower Mississippi. It took 
part in the actions at Greenville, Island No. 10, Farmington, Corinth, 
luka, Henderson's hill, Pleasant Hill, Cloutierville, Bayou Lamourie, 
Atchafalaya river. Lake Chicot, Jackson, Haynes' bluff, Vicksburg, 
Richmond, La., and Nashville. The general commanding at Farm- 
ington, in general orders, said, "The Badger state may feel proud to 
have the honor of being represented by so gallant a regiment as the 
8th Wisconsin." Gen. Sherman highly complimented the regiment 
for doing "its whole duty in the camp, on the march and in battle," 
for "Pecular courage and gallantry at Jackson and throughout the 
siege of Vicksburg," and for other services. The original strength 
of 973 was augmented to a total enrollment of 1,643. Losses by death 
255, missing 3, desertion 60, transfer 41, discharge 320. It was mustered 
out at Demopolis, Ala., Sept. 5, 1865, with 964 men. 

Ninth Infantry. — Cols., Frederick Salomon, Arthur Jacobi; Lieut. - 
Cols., A. George Wriesberg, Henry Orff, Arthur Jacobi, Herman Schlueter, 
George Eckhardt. This was a German regiment and was organized in 
the fall of 1861, under general orders of Aug. 26. Its numerical strength 
was 870 and it was mustered in Oct. 26. It left the state Jan. 22, 1862, 
and first took part in the "Southwestern Expedition" into Kansas, 
Missouri and the Indian Territory. It routed two Confederate camps 



Wisconsin Regiments 51 

at Cowskin prairie, as well as a large cam]> of Confederate Indians en 
route, and took part in an engagement at Newtonia against a superior 
force pending the arrival of the main body. It fought at Cane Hill, 
Prairie Grove, Terre Noir, Miss., Poison springs and Jenkins' ferry. 
It was mustered out Jan. 30, 1866. The foregoing does not do this 
regiment full justice. Its membership included a large nuinber of 
veterans of the German army. It was a well disciplined body, organ- 
ized with Gen. Fremont's promise that it should be joined to Gen. Sigel's 
command, and it expected to be sent to the front at once. Instead 
it was sent on arduous, disheartening campaigns among scattered bands 
of guerrillas and Indians, sufTering great privations and being in sinall 
engagements. Through all, in the face of keen disappointment, it 
maintained the traditions of the army of the Fatherland, performed 
well its duty, and won praise for its gallantry. Its total enrollment 
was 1,422. Losses by death 175, desertion 25, transfer 7, discharge 191. 

Tenth Infantry. — Cols., Alfred R. Chapin, John G. McMynn, Duncan 
McKercher; Lieut. -Cols., Joshua J. Guppey, John G. McMynn, John 
H. Ely, Jacob W. Roby; Majs., John G. McMynn, Henry O. Johnson, 
John H. Ely, Duncan McKercher, Robert Harkness. This regiment 
was organized at Milwaukee and was mustered in Oct. 14, 1861, with 
a numerical strength of 916. It left the state Nov. 9, and the follow- 
ing spring made a march upon Bowling Green, dislodged the enemy 
at Huntsville, where it captured the military road, machine shops, 
engines and rolling stock, seized Stevenson, Decatur and Tuscumbia, 
and elicited high praise from Brig.-Gen. Mitchell. It defended and 
saved Paint Rock taridge, acted as rear-guard in the retrograde move- 
ment to the Ohio, in which it fought guerrillas at almost every step, 
brought trains safely from Huntsville to Stevenson, and assisted in 
repelling an attack at the latter place. It was under a heavy fire at 
Perryville, Ky., and at one time held its position with empty guns for 
20 minutes until the battery which it had been ordered to support was 
placed in a safe position. Of 276 men engaged 36 were killed, no wound- 
ed and I missing. Gen. Rousseau said in his report: "For this gallant 
conduct, these brave men are entitled to the gratitude of their country, 
and I thank them here as I did on the field of battle." The regiment 
was engaged at Stone's river, remaining on the field for 4 days; was 
at Hoover's gap, and took part at Chattanooga under a terrible fire, 
losing 18 killed, 56 wounded and 132 missing, of whom the greater number 
were prisoners. It supported Loomis' battery at Missionary ridge, 
and in the Atlanta campaign participated in the battles at Dallas, Kenne- 
saw mountain and Peachtree creek. On Oct. 16, 1864, the recruits 
and regnlisted veterans were transferred to the 21st regiment and the 
remainder were sent to Milwaukee where they were mustered out Oct. 
25. The original strength of the regiment was 916. Gain by recruits, 
105; veteran reenlistments, 13; total, 1,034. Losses by death, 219; deser- 
tion, 21; transfer, 23; discharge, 316; mustered out, 455. 

Eleventh Infantry. — Col., Charles L. Harris; Lieut. -Cols., Charles 
A. Wood, Luther H. Whittlesey; Majs., Arthur Piatt, Jesse S. Miller, 
Otis Remick. This regiment was organized at Camp Randall, Madison, 
and was mustered in Oct. 18, 1862, with a numerical strength of 1,029. 
It left the state Nov. 20, and i)erformed railroad guard duty until spring, 
when it was sent further south. It was in a skirmish with the enemy 
at Bayou Cache, Ark., and was then on duty along the river tmtil the 
spring of 1863, when it was sent to take part in the siege of Vicksburg. 
The regiment took part in the battle of Port Gibson and received a 
special compliment from Col. Stone, brigade commander, for its splendid 
work. It was engaged at Champion's hill, and at the Big Black river, 
led the charge which carried the enemy's works, and captured several 



52 The Union Army 

hundred prisoners. At Vicksburg its loss was heavy, the regiment 
occupying open ground which was swept by Confederate bullets. Several 
months were then spent in arduous though uneventful campaigning, 
but the regiment received Maj.-Gen. Dana's compliments in an order 
"for the perfection of instruction discovered in picket and guard lines." 
Over three-fourths of the nth reenlisted as a veteran organization 
and after a brief visit home it was sent on an invasion of western Tennessee 
and northern Mississippi, engaging Forrest's cavalry en route. It was 
given outpost duty at Brashear City, Co. D being detached to Bayou 
Louis and Co. E to Tigerville. Continued skirmishes with Confederate 
cavalry, as well as scattered bodies of infantry, prevented the massing 
of Confederate troops, and the smuggling trade was broken up. At 
Fort Blakely, Ala., its last engagement, the regiment held the record 
of 4 years by conspicuous work, being among the first to plant its colors 
on the enemy's parapet in the face of a murderous fire. It was mustered 
out at Mobile Sept. 4, 1865. Its original strength was 1,029. Gain 
by recruits 364; substitutes, 62; drafts, 147; veteran reenlistments, 
363; total 1,965. Losses by death, 348; desertion, 25; transfer, 9; dis- 
charge, 31 ; mustered out, 1,264. 

Twelfth Infantry. — Cols., George E. Bryant, James K. Proudfit; 
Lieut. -Cols., DeWitt C. Poole, James K. Proudfit, William E. Strong; 
Majs., William E. Strong, John M. Price, Carlton B. Wheelock. This 
regiment, known as the "Marching Twelfth," was organized in Oct., 
1861, at Camp Randall and left the state Jan. 11, 1862. The regiment 
was one of those selected for the New Mexico expedition, and did much 
hard marching for raw soldiers, but the expedition was abandoned. 
It was sent to Columbus, Ky., to repair railroads and rebuild bridges, 
and from there to Humboldt, Tenn., from which point it made numerous 
brilliant expeditions, clearing the country of guerrillas and bridge-burners. 
In the fall of 1862 it was sent south with the Army of the Mississippi, 
engaging in numerous skirmishes, notably at Hernando, Miss., and the 
Coldwater river. It was engaged in the investment of Vicksburg, with 
small loss; was at the second battle of Jackson, and at Big Shanty, 
where it charged 2 miles through the timber, capturing the first skirmish 
line of the enemy and dislodging a brigade from the rifle-pits, with only 
six companies. It was also engaged at Kennesaw mountain, at Bol- 
ton, Miss., in two fierce engagements before Atlanta, at Jonesboro and 
at Lovejoy's Station. Joining in the march to the sea, it assisted in 
the investment of Savannah and the Carolina campaign. It fought 
at Pocotaligo, tore up railroads, drove the enemy from Orangeburg, 
assisted in the capture of Columbia and Winnsboro, joined the triumphant 
march north through Petersburg, Richmond, Fredericksburg and Alex- 
andria, participated in the grand review at Washington, and was mustered 
out at Louisville, July 16, 1865. Its original strength was 1,045. Gain 
by recruits, 420; substitutes, 177; draft, 25; veteran reenlistments, 
519; total, 2,186. Losses by death, 294; desertion, 26; transfer, 64; 
discharge, 336; mustered out, 1,466. 

Thirteenth Infantry. — Cols., Maurice Maloney, William P. Lyon, 
Augustus H. Kummel; Lieut. -Cols., James F. Chapman, Thomas O. 
Bigney, Augustus H. Kummel, Charles S. Noyes; Majs., Thomas O. 
Bigney, Charles S. Noyes, Samuel C. Cobb. This regiment was organ- 
ized at Camp Treadway, janesville, and was mustered in Oct. 17, 1861. 
It left the state Jan. 18, 1862, for Leavenworth and moved from there 
to Fort Smith, Ark. to join the Southwestern expedition. Upon reach- 
ing Fort Scott it was ordered to Lawrence to join the New Mexico 
expedition, but this was abandoned and it was ordered back to Leaven- 
worth. It was sent to Columbus, Ky., where it was placed on rail- 
road guard duty, and later garrisoned Forts Henry and Donelson. It 



Wisconsin Regiments 03 

accompanied an expedition against Clarksville Tenn., where it routed 
the Confederates and captured a quantity of army stores. It was then 
employed in scouting and was engaged in a skirmish near Garretsburg, 
defeating the enemy. It drove Gen. Forrest's forces through west- 
ern Tennessee, then marched to Stevenson, Ala., where it captured a 
supply depot and held it until reenforced. It assisted in the success- 
ful defense of Huntsville against Forrest and of Decatur against Hood. 
A detachment of the regiment dispersed the 4th Ala. cavalry at New 
Market. The regiment fovight Hood in his attack on Nashville. Lieut. 
Wagoner and 35 men of Co. G were captured at Paint Rock river by 
a force of 400. After the fall of Richmond the regiment was ordered 
to Indianola, Tex., and afterwards to San Antonio, a march of 145 miles 
with the thermometer at 100 degrees and many broke down. Through 
all the seemingly aimless wanderings and hard marches, with few heavy 
engagements to compensate, the conduct of the men was admirable, 
and Adjt.-Gen. Gaylord says: "The tireless vigilance which relaxes 
not, day by day, and week after week although lacking the excite- 
ment which accompanies the movement of armies, cannot fail to com- 
mand our admiration and respect for the 13th Wis. volunteer infantry." 
It was mustered out Nov. 24, 1865. Its original strength was 970. 
Gain by recrviits, 414; substitutes, 83; draft, 72; veteran reenlistments, 
392; total, 1,931. Losses by death, 183; missing, 3; desertion, 71; trans- 
fer, 6; discharge, 321 ; mustered out, 797. 

Fourteenth Infantry. — Cols., David E. Wood, John Hancock, Lyman 
M. Ward; Lieut. -Cols Isaac E. Messmore, John Hancock, Lyman M. 
Ward, James W. Polleys, Eddy F. Ferris; Majs., John Hancock, Lyman 
M. Ward, James W. Polleys, Asa Worden, Eddy F. Ferris, Williain 
J. Henry. This regiment was organized in Nov., 1861, at Camp Wood, 
Fond du Lac, and was mustered in Jan. 30, 1862. It left the state 
on March 8 and went into barracks at St. Louis until ordered to Savan- 
nah, Tenn., on the 23d. It was in action at Shiloh, where it charged 
a Confederate battery and drove the enemy from the guns, but was 
compelled to fall back. It repeated this three times during the day, 
holding the guns the fourth time, and receiving the sobriquet of the 
"Wisconsin Regulars," for the determined bravery on this, its first 
field. It lost 14 killed, and 79 wounded and missing. It was made 
provost guard at Pittsburg landing during the siege of Corinth, and 
was ordered to reinforce Gen. Rosecrans in the advance on Price at 
luka. When within 2 miles of luka it was ordered back to Corinth 
which was threatened by the enemy and at the battle at that place 
it had the advance position in the line, the post of honor. In his official 
report. Col. Oliver, commanding the brigade, said of its work: "Col. 
Hancock and his regiment, the 14th Wis., there was no discount on; 
always steady, cool and vigorous. This regiment was the one to rely 
upon in any emergency. * * * They maintained their lines and 
delivered their fire with all the precision and coolness which could have 
been maintained upon drill." The regiment was at Champion's hill, 
the Big Black river, and took a conspicuous part at Vicksburg, losing 
107 men in killed, wounded and missing, out of 256, in an assault upon 
the enemy's works. It remained in the front line until the surrender 
and was given the position of honor in the brigade in the march into 
the city. Gen. Ransom said: "Every officer and man in the 14th is 
a hero." It was the first regiment to enter Natchez. Two-thirds 
of the regiment reenlisted in Dec, 1863, and joined the "Red River", 
expedition, being in the engagements at Pleasant Hill, Cloutierville, 
Marksville and Yellow bayou. It was also in action at Tupelo; assisted 
in driving Price out of Missouri; helped to defeat Hood in Tennessee 
in December; assisted in dislodging the enemy at Corinth in Jan., 1865; 



54 The Union Army 

and was a part of the force that reduced the forts at Mobile. Co. E 
and parts of other companies were detached in the spring of 1S64 and 
attached to the 17th corps, being known as Worden's battalion, which 
joined Shennan in the Atlanta campaign. The regiment was mustered 
out at Mobile, Oct. 9, 1865. Its original strength was 970. Gain by 
recruits, 540; substitutes, 85; draft, 315; veteran reenlistments, 272; 
total, 2,182. Losses by death, 287; missing, 13; desertion, 97; transfer, 
23; discharge, 407; mustered out, 1,355. 

Fifteenth Infantry. — Cols., Hans C. Heg, Ole C. Johnson; Lieut. - 
C-ols., Kiler K. Jones, David McKee, Ole C. Johnson; Majs., Charles 
M. Reese, Ole C. Johnson, George Wilson. Lieut. -Col. Jones' com- 
mission was revoked, March i, 1862, and David McKee was given the 
commission as his successor. This was a Scandinavian regiment and 
was organized at Camp Randall, Madison, in Dec, 1861, and Jan., 1862. 
It was mustered in Feb. 14, 1862, and left the state March 2, being ordered 
to Bird's point. Mo. Six companies were sent to take part in the siege 
of Island No. 10, and at the surrender the entire regiinent was used in 
garrisoning and strengthening the fortifications. Cos. G and I were left 
as a permanent garrison and the remaining eight companies were sent 
to Kentucky and thence to Mississippi. They joined the Army of the 
Cumberland and were sent to Nashville; then returned to Kentucky 
and participated in the battle of Perryville, being exposed to a heavy 
fire, but not losing a man. The regiment was sent in pursuit of Morgan's 
guerrillas and returned with 50 prisoners and many horses and wagons, 
having destroyed guerrilla premises, a distillery, whisky and grain, 
for which it received Gen. Rosecrans' compliments. The regiment 
was in a sharp fight at Nolensville pike in December losing 75 killed 
and wounded, and on the 30th and 31st was in the advance towards 
Murfreesboro. This brought it into action at Stone's river, where it 
made a name for itself for endurance and courage, losing in two days 
119 in killed, wounded and missing. In the battle of Chickamauga 
it was engaged in a terrific contest with the enemy's main line, being 
hurried into line on the double-quick to fill a gap, its accompanying 
regiment leaving it unsupported. An Illinois regiment was sent for- 
ward, but soon fell back, and believing the 15th to have done likewise, 
opened fire, bringing the 1 5th under fire from friends and foes and com- 
pelling it to break lines and escape as best it could. The next day it 
was ordered into a gap and twice repulsed the enemy, but being left 
without support and nearly surrounded, it was again compelled to 
break ranks and retire. It lost in the two days loi, leaving but 75 men 
on duty. At Missionary ridge the regiment was the first to occupy 
Orchard knob. It was in the advance at Buzzard Roost and Rocky 
Face ridge; in the engagement at Resaca, charging the first line of the 
enemy's intrenchments ; was in the engagements about Dallas, losing 
83 in killed, wounded and prisoners ; in the assault on Kennesaw mountain ; 
was in reserve at Peachtree creek, and was engaged in the battle of 
Jonesboro. The regiment then performed provost and guard duty 
until mustered out. Cos. A, B, C and E were mustered out in Dec, 
1864, and the others in Jan. and Feb., 1865, at Chattanooga. The 
recruits and reenlisted veterans were transferred to the 24th Wis. infantry 
and later to the 13th. The original strength of the regiment was 801. 
Gain by recruits, 97; substitutes, 1; veteran regnlistments, 7; total, 
906. Losses by death, 267; missing, 23; desertion, 46; transfer, 47; 
discharge, 204; mustered out, 320. 

Sixteenth Infantry. — Cols., Benjamin Allen, Cassius Fairchild; Lieut. - 
Cols., John Bracken, Cassius Fairchild, Thomas Reynolds; Majs., Cassius 
Fairchild, Thomas Reynolds, WiUiam F. Davis, John R. Wheeler, Joseph 
Craig. This regiment was organized at Camp Randall in Nov., i86i, 



Wisconsin Regiments 55 

was mustered in, Jan. 31, 1862, and left the state, March 13, for Pitts- 
burg landing. It participated in the battle of Shiloh, where it was 
exposed to a heavy fire for the greater part of two days and sustained 
a loss of 245 men killed and wounded. It took part in the siege of Corinth 
from April 15 to May 29; also in the second battle of Corinth in October. 
It was engaged in railroad guard duty from the latter part of Dec, 
1862, to the latter part of Jan., 1863, and was stationed at Lake Prov- 
idence, La., from Feb. i, to the beginning of August, when it went into 
camp at Vicksburg until Sept. 28. It was then stationed at Redbone, 
Miss., guarding fords on the Big Black river and engaging in skirmishes 
with bands of Confederate cavalry until Feb. 5, 1864, when it again 
became a part of the garrison at Vicksburg. Its next important service 
was in the Atlanta campaign, and it was before Kennesaw mountain, 
occupying trenches and skirmishing during the most of June, 1864. 
In the battles before Atlanta in July, it sustained a loss of 123 men, 
killed and wounded. It was occupied in duty at Atlanta until Aug. 
26, when it moved forward in pursuit of the enemy, engaged in skirmishes 
at^i'Jonesboro and Lovejoy's Station, and went into camp at Atlanta 
on Sept. 8. It was on the march to the sea, took part in the siege of 
Savannah and in the Carolina campaign was engaged at Beaufort, Whippy 
swamp, and at Orangeburg, where it crossed the North Edisto, waded 
through swamps and drove the enemy from his position. It partici- 
pated in the battle of Bentonville and took part in the grand review 
at ^Washington in May, 1865. Part of the regiment was mustered out 
on June 2, at Washington, and the remainder on July 16, at Louis- 
ville, Ky. Its original strength was 1,066. Gain by recruits, 629; 
substitutes, 88; draft, 174; veteran reenlistments, 243; total, 2,200. 
Losses by death, 363; missing, 46; desertion, 115; transfer, 38; discharge, 
386; mustered out, 1,252. 

Seventeenth Infantry. — Cols., John L. Doran, Adam G. Malloy; 
Lieut. -Cols., Adam G. Malloy, Thomas McMahon, Donald D. Scott; 
Majs., Thomas McMahon, William H. Plvmkett, Donald D. Scott, Patrick 
H. McCauley. This regiment, known as the "Irish Regiment," was 
organized at Camp Randall in the early part of 1862. It was ordered 
to St. Louis a few days after organization and on April 10 was sent to 
Pittsburg landing, Tenn., where it remained in camp until called upon 
to take part in the siege of Corinth. After the evacuation of that place 
by the enemy the regiment was stationed there for the summer and 
in October it participated in the second battle of Corinth. Its loss 
in this action was 41 in killed, wounded and missing. Gen. McArthur, 
the brigade commander, complimented the regiment, saying, "Boys 
of the 17th, you have made the most glorious charge of the campaign." 
An entire brigade was routed by this one Irish regiment. It took part 
in the battle of Port Gibson and the next day pursued the enemy toward 
Vicksburg. It was in the battles of Champion's hill and the Big Black 
river, and in the siege of Vicksburg its gallant services received special 
mention. On June 8, 1864, the regiment arrived at Acworth, Ga., 
where it joined the army under Gen. Sherman, and was engaged in 
heavy skirmishing until the 19th. It participated in the battle of 
Kennesaw mountain, sustaining a heavy fire from the enemy's artillery 
for more than 3 hours, with a loss of 2 killed and 1 1 wounded. It took 
part in the battles about Atlanta in July, and later was in action at 
Jonesboro, and Lovejoy's Station. It was with Sherman in his march 
from Atlanta to the sea, and performed gallant service at Savannah, 
Columbia and Bentonville. After Johnston's surrender the regiment 
participated in the grand review at Washington. It was mustered 
out July 14 and soon after disbanded in Wisconsin. Its original 
strength was 941. It gained by recruits during its service 385; sub- 



54 The Union Army 

and was a part of the force that reduced the forts at Mobile. Co. E 
and parts of other companies were detached in the spring of 1864 and 
attached to the 17th coq)s, being known as Worden's battalion, which 
joined Sherman in the Atlanta campaign. The regiment was mustered 
out at Mobile, Oct. 9, 1865. Its original strength was 970. Gain by 
recruits, 540; substitutes, 85; draft, 315; veteran regnlistments, 272; 
total, 2,182. Losses by death, 287; missing, 13; desertion, 97; transfer, 
23; discharge, 407; mustered out, 1,355. 

Fifteenth Infantry. — Cols., Hans C. Heg, Ole C. Johnson; Lieut. - 
C>d1s., Kiler K. Jones, David McKee, Ole C. Johnson; Majs., Charles 
M. Reese, Ole C. Johnson, George Wilson. Lieut. -Col. Jones' com- 
mission was revoked, March i, 1862, and David McKee was given the 
commission as his successor. This was a Scandinavian regiment and 
was organized at Camp Randall, Madison, in Dec, 1861, and Jan., 1862. 
It was mustered in Feb. 14, 1862, and left the state March 2, being ordered 
to Bird's point. Mo. Six companies were sent to take part in the siege 
of Island No. 10, and at the surrender the entire regiment was used in 
garrisoning and strengthening the fortifications. Cos. G and I were left 
as a permanent garrison and the remaining eight companies were sent 
to Kentucky and thence to Mississippi. They joined the Army of the 
Cumberland and were sent to Nashville; then returned to Kentucky 
and participated in the battle of Perryville, being exposed to a heavy 
fire, but not losing a man. The regiment was sent in pursuit of Morgan's 
guerrillas and returned with 50 prisoners and many horses and wagons, 
having destroyed guerrilla premises, a distillery, whisky and grain, 
for which it received Gen. Rosecrans' compliments. The regiment 
was in a sharp fight at Nolensville pike in December losing 75 killed 
and wounded, and on the 30th and 31st was in the advance towards 
Murfreesboro. This brought it into action at Stone's river, where it 
made a name for itself for endurance and courage, losing in two days 
119 in killed, wounded and missing. In the battle of Cliickamauga 
it was engaged in a terrific contest with the enemy's main line, being 
hurried into line on the double-quick to fill a gap, its accompanying 
regiment leaving it unsupported. An Illinois regiment was sent for- 
ward, but soon fell back, and believing the 15th to have done likewise, 
opened fire, bringing the 15th under fire from friends and foes and com- 
pelling it to break lines and escape as best it could. The next day it 
was ordered into a gap and twice repulsed the enemy, but being left 
without support and nearly surrounded, it was again compelled to 
break ranks and retire. It lost in the two days loi, leaving but 75 men 
on duty. At Missionary ridge the regiment was the first to occupy 
Orchard knob. It was in the advance at Buzzard Roost and Rocky 
Face ridge; in the engagement at Resaca, charging the first line of the 
enemy's intrenchments; was in the engagements about Dallas, losing 
83 in killed, wounded and prisoners; in the assault on Kennesaw mountain ; 
was in reserve at Peachtree creek, and was engaged in the battle of 
Jonesboro. The regiment then performed provost and guard duty 
until mustered out. Cos. A, B, C and E were mustered out in Dec, 
1864, and the others in Jan. and Feb., 1865, at Chattanooga. The 
recruits and refinlisted veterans were transferred to the 24th Wis. infantry 
and later to the 13th. The original strength of the regiment was 801. 
Gain by recruits, 97; substitutes, i; veteran regnlistments, 7; total, 
906. Losses by death, 267; missing, 23; desertion, 46; transfer, 47; 
discharge, 204; mustered out, 320. 

Sixteenth Infantry. — Cols., Benjamin Allen, Cassius Fairchild; Lieut. - 
Cols., John Bracken, Cassius Fairchild, Thomas Reynolds; Majs., Cassius 
Fairchild, Thomas Reynolds, William F. Davis, John R. Wheeler, Joseph 
Craig. This regiment was organized at Camp Randall in Nov., 1861, 



Wisconsin Regiments 55 

■was mustered in, Jan. 31, 1862, and left the state, March 13, for Pitts- 
burg landing. It participated in the battle of Shiloh, where it was 
exposed to a heavy fire for the greater part of two days and sustained 
a loss of 245 men killed and wounded. It took part in the siege of Corinth 
from April 15 to May 29; also in the second battle of Corinth in October. 
It was engaged in railroad guard duty from the latter part of Dec, 
1862, to the latter part of Jan., 1863, ''^^^ was stationed at Lake Prov- 
idence, La., from Feb. i, to the beginning of August, when it went into 
camp at Vicksburg tmtil Sept. 28. It was then stationed at Redbone, 
Miss., guarding fords on the Big Black river and engaging in skirmishes 
with bands of Confederate cavalry until Feb. 5, 1864, when it again 
became a part of the garrison at Vicksburg. Its next important service 
was in the Atlanta campaign, and it was before Kennesaw mountain, 
occupying trenches and skirmishing during the most of June, 1864. 
In the battles before Atlanta in July, it sustained a loss of 123 men, 
killed and wounded. It was occupied in duty at Atlanta until Aug. 
26, when it moved forward in pursuit of the enemy, engaged in skirmishes 
at^Jonesboro and Lovejoy's Station, and went into camp at Atlanta 
on Sept. 8. It was on the march to the sea, took part in the siege of 
Savannah and in the Carolina campaign was engaged at Beaufort, Whippy 
swamp, and at Orangeburg, where it crossed the North Edisto, waded 
through swamps and drove the enemy from his position. It partici- 
pated in the battle of Bentonville and took part in the grand review 
at ^Washington in May, 1865. Part of the regiment was mustered out 
on Jvme 2, at Washington, and the remainder on July 16, at Louis- 
ville, Ky. Its original strength was 1,066. Gain by recruits, 629; 
substitutes, 88; draft, 174; veteran reenlistments, 243; total, 2,200. 
Losses by death, 363; missing, 46; desertion, 115; transfer, 38; discharge, 
386; mustered out, 1,252. 

Seventeenth Infantry. — Cols., John L. Doran, Adam G. Malloy; 
Lieut. -Cols., Adam G. Malloy, Thomas McMahon, Donald D. Scott; 
Majs., Thomas McMahon, William H. Plimkett, Donald D. Scott, Patrick 
H. McCauley. This regiment, known as the "Irish Regiment," was 
organized at Camp Randall in the early part of 1862. It was ordered 
to St. Louis a few days after organization and on April 10 was sent to 
Pittsburg landing, Tenn., where it remained in camp vmtil called upon 
to take part in the siege of Corinth. After the evacuation of that place 
by the enemy the regiment was stationed there for the summer and 
in October it participated in the second battle of Corinth. Its loss 
in this action was 41 in killed, wounded and missing. Gen. McArthur, 
the brigade commander, complimented the regiment, saying, "Boys 
of the 17th, you have made the most glorious charge of the campaign." 
An entire brigade was routed by this one Irish regiment. It took part 
in the battle of Port Gibson and the next day pursued the enemy toward 
Vicksburg. It was in the battles of Champion's hill and the Big Black 
river, and in the siege of Vicksburg its gallant services received special 
mention. On June 8, 1864, the regiment arrived at Acworth, Ga., 
where it joined the army under Gen. Sherman, and was engaged in 
heavy skirmishing until the 19th. It participated in the battle of 
Kennesaw mountain, sustaining a heavy fire from the enemy's artillery 
for more than 3 hours, with a loss of 2 killed and 1 1 wounded. It took 
part in the battles about Atlanta in July, and later was in action at 
Jonesboro, and Lovejoy's Station. It was with Sherman in his march 
from Atlanta to the sea, and performed gallant service at Savannah, 
Columbia and Bentonville. After Johnston's surrender the regiment 
participated in the grand review at Washington. It was mustered 
out July 14 and soon after disbanded in Wisconsin. Its original 
strength was 941. It gained by recruits during its service 385; sub- 



56 The Union Army 

stitutes, 136; draft, 215; veteran reenlistments, 287; total, 1,964. Loss 
by death, 221; missing, 5; desertion, 157; transfer, 32; discharge, 448; 
mustered out, 1,101. 

Eighteenth Infantry. — Cols., James S. Alban, Gabriel Bouck, Charles 
H. Jackson; Lieut. -Cols., Samuel W. Beall, Charles H. Jackson, James 
P. Millard; Majs., Josiah W. Crane, Charles H. Jackson, James P. Millard, 
Joseph W. Roberts. This regiment was organized in Oct., 1861. It 
was mustered in and left the state March 30, 1862, for Pittsburg land- 
ing and reached there April 5. The next morning, with absolutely 
no instruction in the manual of arms and but little drill, it was ordered 
to check the enemy's advance at Shiloh. It fought bravely, losing 
24 killed, 82 wounded and 174 prisoners. "Many regiments may well 
covet the impressions which the i8th Wis. left of personal bravery, 
heroic daring and determined endurance," said Gov. Harvey. It took 
part in the siege of Corinth and then encamped at Corinth and Bolivar 
until Sept. 17, when it was ordered to luka to reinforce Rosecrans, 
but was immediately returned to the defense of Corinth which was 
threatened. On Oct. i it met the advance of Price and Van Dorn and 
fell back to the protection of Smith's bridge the following day. On 
the 3d, the enemy appearing in force, the regiment burned the bridge, 
rejoined its brigade at the railroad, and retained its position until over- 
whelming numbers compelled it to fall back. It joined in pursuit of 
the enemy after the battle of Corinth, and on Nov. 2 proceeded to Grand 
Junction. In the movement southward it went to Holly Springs, then 
back to Grand Junction, thence to Moscow, Tenn., and Memphis, and 
from there b}' boat to Young's point. La., where it reinained until Feb. 
9, 1863. In the advance upon Vicksburg it took position in the battle 
of Champion's hill, and reached Vicksburg on May 20. It deployed- 
as sharpshooters to cover the assault on the 22nd, and on June 4 went 
into the trenches where it remained until the surrender. It was then 
on guard duty until Sept. 11, when it was sent to Memphis, thence to 
Corinth and to Chattanooga, reaching the latter place Nov. 19. It 
joined in the attack on Missionary ridge and was on guard duty at Bridge- 
port, Ala., during the greater part of December. It went to Hunts- 
ville on Dec. 25, remained there until May i, 1864; then went to Whites- 
burg for guard duty until June 19, and was in camp, garrison and guard 
duty in Georgia and Tennessee until September. In October it aided 
in the defense of Allatoona against repeated assaults of a superior force. 
A furlough was granted reenlisted veterans on Nov. 12. and the recruits 
and non-veterans were tempororily assigned to the 93d 111., which accom- 
panied Sherman's army to Savannah. The veterans were ordered 
to Nashville, reaching there Jan. 11, 1865, and were then sent to New 
Berne, N. C, where they encamped vmtil the last of March, when they 
joined Sherman at Goldsboro and took part in the movement to Rich- 
mond. The regiment participated in the grand review^ at Washing- 
ton and was mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 18, 1865. Its original 
strength was 962. Gain by recruits, 226; draft, 271; veteran reenlist- 
ments, 178; total, 1,637. Losses by death, 220; missing 78; desertion, 
208; transfer, 23; discharge. 265; mustered out, 843. 

Nineteenth Infantry. — Cols., Horace T. Sanders, Samuel K. Vaughn; 
Lieut. -Cols., Charles Whipple, Rollin M. Strong, Samuel K. Vaughn; 
Majs., Alvin E. Bovay, Rollin M. Strong, Samuel K. Vaughn, Amos 
O. Rawley. This regiment was organized in the winter of 1861-62, 
at Camp LTtley, Racine, and was ordered to Camp Randall on April 
20 to guard Confederate prisoners sent from Fort Donelson. It was 
mustered in April 30, 1862, left the state June 2, and was on garrison 
duty at Norfolk, Va., until April 14, 1863. It was then on picket and 
guard duty at various points for about two weeks, when it was assigned 



Wisconsin Regiments 57 

to duty at West Point and Yorktown until the middle of August, and 
at Newport News until Oct. 8. It was then divided by companies for 
outpost and picket duty at points near New Berne, N. C, and was in 
several small engagements with the enemy. It was ordered to York- 
town, April 28, 1864, and on May 12 the right wing, acting as a skirmish 
line, covered the 3d brigade. It accompanied the general advance 
upon Fort Darling, carried the first line of the enemy's works, and occupied 
the road in the rear of Fort Jackson, where the next day the regiment 
was united. It was compelled to fall back by the furious assault of 
a heavy force, but it did so in good order. It took part in the opera- 
tions about Petersburg, doing siege and picket duty in the trenches. 
In August the veterans were sent home on furlough but returned in 
October, and participated in the engagement at Fair Oaks, a force of 
less than 200 men being engaged and suffering a loss of 136 wounded 
and captured. They were joined by the non-veterans and the regi- 
ment was kept on picket duty in front of Richmond until April 3, 1865, 
when it entered the city and planted the regimental colors upon the 
city hall. It was on provost duty at Richmond, Fredericksburg and 
Warrenton vintil Aug. 4, and was mustered out at Richmond Aug. 9, 
1865. Its original strength was 973. Gain by recruits, 187; substitutes, 
54; veteran reenlistments, 270; total, 1,484. Loss by death, 136; deser- 
tion, 46; transfer, 152; discharge, 345; mustered out, 805. 

Twentieth Infantry. — Cols., Bertine Pinkney, Henry Bertram; Lieut. 
Cols., Henry Bertram, Henry A. Starr; Majs., Henry A. Starr, Augustus 
H. Pettibone, Almerin Gillett. This regiment was organized at Camp 
Randall in Jime and July, 1862, and was mustered in Aug. 23. It left 
the state on Aug. 30, going first to Benton barracks, St. Louis, then to 
Rolla, Springfield and Cassville, Mo., and Cross Hollow, Ark., the enemy 
falling back at its approach. On Nov. 4 the regiment started for Wil- 
son's creek, joined Totten's command at Ozark on the nth and reached 
Wilson's creek on the 2 2d. In December it made a forced march of 100 
miles in three days to Fayetteville ; was in the battle of Prairie Grove, 
where it charged the heights through underbrush and captured a battery 
of 6 guns. The cross-fire of five regiments of the enemy compelled 
the 20th to retire with a loss of 209 in killed, wounded and missing. 
Gen. Herron wrote Gov. Salomon: "I congratulate you and the state 
on the glorious conduct of the 20th Wis. infantry in the great battle 
of Prairie Grove." The regiment wintered in Missouri, moved to Vicks- 
burg on June 3, 1863, and took position in the trenches, where it remained 
tintil the city's surrender. It then occupied Yazoo City as provost 
guard, was sent to Port Hudson July 21 and remained until Aug. 13, 
when it was ordered to Carrollton and Morganza. It was ambuscaded 
on the Simsport road to the Atchafalaya river, but lost only i man. 
It went to the Rio Grande on the steamer Thomas A. Scott, but encoun- 
tered a violent storm and had some difficulty in landing. It was em- 
ployed in fatigue, garrison and picket duty at Fort Brown, and was sent 
to Matamoras, Mex., Jan. 12, 1864, to protect the American consul 
and remove American goods. On July 28 it left for New Orleans, on 
Aug. 1 1 took position at Navy cove, and assisted in reducing Fort Mor- 
gan. On Dec. 14 it sailed for Pascagoula and started from there to- 
wards Mobile. It routed a body of the enemy at Franklin creek on 
the way, and was engaged in the vicinity of Mobile during the winter. 
On March 27th it went into action against Spanish Fort, being on duty 
and under fire several days and nights, and after the surrender of Mobile 
it remained in that section until June. It was then ordered to Gal- 
veston, Tex., and was mustered out July 14. Its original strength 
was 990. Gain by recruits, 138; .substitute, i; total, 1,129. Loss by 
death, 227; desertion, 4i;transfer, 1 1 5 ; discharge, 222; mustered out, 524. 



60 The Union Army 

123; total, 1,117. Loss by death, 289; missing, i; desertion 6; trans- 
fer, 124; discharge, 281; mustered out, 416. 

Twenty-fourth Infantry. — Cols., Charles H. Larrabee, Theodore S. 
West, Arthur McArthur. Jr.; Lieut. -Cols., Herman L. Page Edwin L. 
Buttrick, Elisha C. Hibbard, Theodore S. West, Arthur McArthur, 
Jr. ;Majs., Elisha C. Hibbard, Carl Von Baumbach, Arthur McArthur, Jr.. 
Alva Philbrook. William Kennedy. This regiment, known as the "Mil- 
waukee Regiment," was organized at Camp Sigel, Milwaukee, and was 
mustered in at various dates from Aug. 15 to 21, 1862. It left the state 
Sept. 5, and reached Covington, Ky., on the nth, whence it was sent 
to Louisville and assigned to the 37th brigade, nth division. It was 
first in action at the battle of Perryville, and of its conduct the brigade 
commander said: "The 24th Wis. went forward with cheers and soon 
engaged the enemy's right, pouring in and keeping up a cross-fire which 
made sad havoc among them. This was the first brigade to break. 
* * * Both officers and men behaved with coolness and delibera- 
tion, marching to the front with the steadiness of veterans." The 
regiment proceeded to Crab Orchard and Bowling Green, reached Edge- 
field, near Nashville, on Nov. 8, and moved to Mill creek on the 22nd. 
It was engaged in the battle of Stone's river, losing 175 in killed, wounded 
and prisoners, after which it encamped at Murfreesboro until June. 
In July and August it marched to Cowan, Tenn., and Bridgeport, Ala.; 
participated in the battle of Chickamauga, sustaining a loss of 105 in 
killed, wounded and missing; took an important part in the storming 
of Missionary ridge, making the ascent imder a heavy fire and carry- 
ing the enemy's position on the crest of the ridge; assisted in raising 
the siege of Knoxville, Tenn., and was then on guard duty until Jan. 
15, 1864. On the following day it dislodged the enemy from a piece 
of woods near Dandridge, and was then assigned to duty at division 
headquarters imtil May, when it joined the Atlanta movement. On 
this campaign it was in action at Resaca and near Adairsville; was under 
fire at Dallas for 1 1 days ; took part in the operations in front of Kennesaw 
mountain ; fought at Peachtree creek, and was then on railroad, guard 
and garrison duty until Nov. i. It was with Gen. Thomas through 
Tennessee and Alabama during the fall, fought valiantly at Franklin, 
one of the severest battles in which the regiment had been engaged, 
and Gen. Stanley said: "I will not absolutely say the 24th Wis. saved 
the battle of Franklin, but they had a great deal to do with saving it." 
It participated in the battle at Nashville in December and spent the 
remainder of the winter at Huntsville, Ala. It was mustered out at 
Nashville June 10, 1865. Its original strength was 1,003. Gain by 
recruits, 74; total, 1,077. Loss by death, 173; desertion, 71; transfer, 
138; discharge, 289; mustered out, 406. 

Twenty-fifth Infantry. — Col., Milton Montgomery; Lieut. -Cols., 
Samuel J. Na.smith, Jeremiah M. Rusk; Majs., Jeremiah M. Rusk, William. 
H. Joslyn. This regiment was organized at Camp Salomon, La Crosse, 
and was mustered in Sept. 14, 1862. It left the state Sept. 19 for Minne- 
sota to aid in restraining Indian outbreaks. This done it was ordered 
to Columbus, Ky., in Feb., 1863, and assigned to Montgomery's brigade. 
It was sent to Snyder's bluff near Vicksburg in June, and assigned to 
the district of eastern Arkansas in the latter part of the summer and 
fall. The winter and spring were employed in expeditions into Mississippi 
and Alabama, the regiment having an engagement at Decatur, and 
then joining Sherman's army for the Atlanta campaign. It was in 
action at Resaca in the front line and under heavy fire, holding a hill 
against three determined charges and receiving the approbation of 
Gen. Wood. It was in the three days' skirmish at Dallas and at Kennesaw 
mountain was under fire for over two weeks. It was ordered to Decatur 



Wisconsin Regiments Gl 

in July to guard a train, and part of the regiment, with part of an Ohio 
regiment, engaged in a hot contest with two divisions of Confederate 
cavalry, intent upon capturing the train. Though compelled to fall 
back to the reserves they fought to such effect that tlie enemy was held 
off. The regiment reached Atlanta July 26 and assisted its brigade 
in dislodging a force camped on a hill, after which it aided in fortify- 
ing it effectively. The regiment performed effective service during the 
siege; then accompanied the army to Savannah; proceeded north through 
the Carolinas; was in a spirited fight at the Salkehatchie river; supported 
the attacking forces at Goldsboro ; participated in the grand review at 
Washington, and was mustered out June 7, 1865. Its original strength 
was 1,018. Gain by recruits, 312; substitutes, 6; draft, 108; total, 
1,444. Loss by death, 422; desertion, 20; transfer, 65; discharge, 165; 
mustered out, 722. 

Twenty-sixth Infantry. — Cols., William H. Jacobs, Frederick C. 
Winkler; Lieut. -Cols., Charles Lehnian, Hans Boebel, Frederick C. 
Winkler, Francis Lackner; Majs., Philip Horwitz, Henry Baetz, Fred- 
erick C. Winkler, Francis Lackner, John W. Fuchs. This was a Ger- 
man regiment, organized at Camp Sigel, Milwaukee, mustered in, Sept. 
17, 1862, and left the state on Oct. 6. It joined the nth army corps 
at Fairfax Court House, Va., and was attached to the 2nd brigade, 
3d division. It joined the movement toward the Rappahannock in 
December, went into camp at Stafford Court House, and then was on 
drill, guard and picket duty until April. It participated at Chancellors- 
ville in May, 1863, being posted on a ridge in an open field with its right 
wholly uncovered, where it and the 119th N. Y., both under fire for 
the first time, were savagely attacked by superior numbers. The men 
fought like veterans until both flanks were doubled up and only fell 
back when destruction or capture was inevitable. The regiment lost 
177 in killed, wounded, and prisoners in the two days' contest. It was 
engaged at Gettysburg under the temporary command of Gen. Schurz. 
Ewell's corps, far out-numbering Schurz's command, bore down upon 
it with terrible fury, forcing it back, although the men fought 
like demons for every inch, until a point was reached where the line 
could be reformed. On the second day the regiment became hotly 
engaged and was compelled to fall back, which it did in good order, 
contesting the way as on the previous day, and later acted as rear-guard 
in the retreat to Cemetery hill. Its losses during the battle were 210 
killed, wounded, prisoners and missing. At Missionary ridge the regi- 
ment was in reserve the first day and in the front line against skirmishers 
on the second. In the beginning of the Atlanta campaign its brigade 
had the advance at Resaca; was engaged at Dallas; took position before 
Kennesaw mountain and had several sharp engagements in that vicinity. 
At Peachtree creek it was under a terrific enfilading fire from a body of 
the enemy concealed in a thick wood, and repelled at the same time 
an assault from the front. Col. Wood, commanding the brigade, said: 
"The brunt of the enemy's attack fell upon it; the brave, skillful and 
determined manner in which it met this attack * * * and drove 
back the enemy could not be excelled by the troops in this or any other 
army." The regiment was in the front line before Atlanta during the 
greater part of the siege and was in many skirmishes and reconnoissances. 
On the march to the sea it charged and carried the enemy's works 10 
miles from Savannah, for which it received the compliments of its com- 
manders. It was in the engagement at Averasboro, was in line of battle 
at Benton ville, supporting the 14th corps, and at the close of the campaign 
of the Carolinas marched to Richmond. It participated in the grand 
review at Washington. In an official communication, Gen. Coggs- 
well, brigade commander, stated that it was "one of the finest military 



r,2 The Union Army 

organizations in the service." It was mustered out at Washington 
June 13, 1865. Its original strength was 1,002; gain by recruits, 
86; substitutes, i; total, 1,089. Loss by death, 254; desertion, 31; 
transfer, 125; discharge, 232; mu.stered out, 447. 

Twenty-seventh Infantry. — Col., Conrad Krez; Lieut. -Cols., John 
J. Brown, Ten Eyck G. Olmsted; Majs., Ten Eyck G. Olmsted, Charles 
H. Cunningham. This regiment was organized at Camp Sigel, Mil- 
waukee, in the fall of 1862, was mustered in March 7, 1863, and left 
the state March 16 for Columbus, Ky., for garrison duty. It made 
an expedition to Cape Girardeau to expel Confederate raiders and was 
sent to Snyder's bluff in June, for the siege of Vicksburg. It was attached 
to the 2nd brigade, 3d division, i6th corps, and remained at Snyder's 
bluff until after the capitulation of Vicksburg. It then moved to Helena 
and on Aug. 13 was sent to Little Rock, where it remained until March, 
1864. It joined Gen. Steele's Camden expedition as part of the 3d 
brigade, 3d division, 7th corps; was in a skirmish near the little Missouri 
river on the march to Camden; took part in the action at Prairie d' Ane; 
fought at Jenkins' ferry; then returned to Little Rock until Oct. 3, 
when it was ordered to reinforce Gen. Clayton at Pine Bluff. It returned 
to Little Rock on the 22nd and was detailed for railroad guard duty, 
in which it was engaged until Feb., 1865, when it was ordered to New 
Orleans and assigned to the 3d brigade, 3d division, 13th army corps. 
It took position in the trenches before Spanish Fort March 2 7 and remained 
there until the evacuation, when it was then sent to Mcintosh bluff. 
After the surrender of the enemy there it was sent to Mobile and from 
there to Brazos Santiago, Tex., on June i. It was mustered out at 
Brownsville, Tex., Aug. 2, 1865. Its original strength was 865. Gain 
by recruits, 328; substitutes, 3; total, 1,196. Loss by death, 246; miss- 
ing, 4; desertion, 56; transfer, 57; discharge, 248; mustered out, 585. 

Twenty-eighth Infantry. — Cols., James M. Lewis, Edmund B. Gray; 
Lieut. -Cols., Charles Whittaker, Edmund B. Gray, Calvert C. White; 
Majs., Edmund B. Gray, Calvert C. White, John A. Williams. This 
regiment was organized at Milwaukee and was mustered in Oct., 14, 
1862. It left the state Dec. 20 for Columbus, Ky., from which point 
it was ordered out on several minor expeditions. It embarked for 
Helena, Ark., Jan. 5, 1863, and joined Gorman's expedition up the 
White river. It was detached and placed in charge of St. Charles, 
which place the enemy had deserted on Gorman's approach, the balance 
of the forces proceeding to Devall's Bluff. The regiment rejoined the 
expedition on the return march, was transferred to the ist brigade and 
sent on the Yazoo Pass expedition. It was engaged in the operations 
against Fort Pemberton, and in minor expeditions the remainder of 
the spring. It was on fortification and garrison duty at Helena from 
May 17 to July 4, when the enemy, 18,000 strong, attacked the garrison, 
numbering but 4,000. The regiment did its share in the defeat of the 
enemy in that brilliant engagement. On Aug. 6 the 28th was trans- 
ferred to the Army of Arkansas and marched to Little Rock, which 
place was reached Sept. 10. It was detached from the brigade Nov. 
7 and sent to Pine Bluff for the winter. On March 27, 1864, six com- 
panies were sent with an expedition to destroy the pontoon bridge at 
Longview, on the Sabine river, but were left at Mount Elba to guard 
a bridge where they held a force of 1,500 in check and with the assistance 
of a small reinforcement repelled a charge. The regiment was on guard 
and defense duty at Pine Bluff until winter, when it returned to Little 
Rock. On Feb. 22, 1865, it was ordered to Mobile and was assigned 
to the 3d brigade, 3d division, 13th corps. It was in the trenches before 
Spanish Fort from March 27 until April 8; was then sent to Mcintosh 
bluff; worked on fortifications until the middle of May, and was then 



Wisconsin Regiments 65 

ordered to Texas for guard and garrison duty at Clarksville. It was 
mustered out Aug. 3, 1865, at Brownsville. Its original strength was 
961. Gain by recruits, 144; substitutes, 32; total, 1,137. l-,oss by 
death, 231; desertion, 31; transfer, 81; discharge, 221; mustered out 
573- 

Twenty-ninth Infantry. — Cols., Charles R. Gill, William A. Greene, 
Bradford Hancock; Lieut. -Cols., Gerrit T. Thome, William A. Greene^ 
Bradford Hancock, Horace E. Connit; Majs., William A. Greene, Brad- 
ford Hancock, Horace E. Connit, Gustavus Bryant. This regiment 
was organized at Camp Randall, Madison, was mustered in Sept. 27 

1862, and left the state Nov. 2. Upon reaching a point on the east 
bank of the Mississippi river, opposite Helena, Ark., part of the regiment 
joined an expedition into the interior, after which it was engaged in 
picket duty and expeditions until Dec. 23, when it moved to Friar's 
Point and established a camp. Four hundred of the regiment marched 
into the interior and put to flight part of Forrest's force. On Jan. 11, 

1863, the regiment went to Devall's Bluff, Ark., where it captured artil- 
lery, arms, stores and prisoners. In February it took part in the Yazoo 
Pass expedition, returning March i, when it was assigned to the 13th 
corps and sent toward Vicksburg, reaching Port Gibson in time to con- 
tribute greatly to the successful results of that battle. It was assailed 
by a heavy fire from the enemy on the top of a ridge, and from some 
woods on the right, but it held its position and prevented a flank move- 
ment by keeping up a terrific fire on the enemy. In his report Gen. 
McGinnis, brigade commander, made special mention of the regiment 
for its gallantry in this, its first battle, saying the men "fought like 
veterans." The regiment lost 71, killed and wounded. At Champion's 
hill, the regiment advanced with its brigade across an open field to a 
thickly timbered hill where the enemy was posted, opened a concen- 
trated fire and carried the position by a bayonet charge, capturing some 
300 prisoners. The regiment lost 114 killed and wounded. It joined 
the besiegers at Vicksburg and remained during the siege in the advanced 
works. It was engaged at the second battle of Jackson in July; was 
then on expedition, guard and picket duty during the summer and fall; 
was in the Texas expedition with Gen. Washburn's division, which 
saved the 4th division from annihilation at Carrion Crow bayou; and 
it was at Cavallo pass, where a strongly fortified position was deserted 
by the enemy, who blew up the fort and fled, opening the Texas coast 
from Matagorda bay to the Rio Grande. The regiment was in action 
at Cloutierville, and the battle of Sabine cross-roads. It returned to 
Algiers in July, 1864, was attached to the ist brigade, provisional division, 
and was in a severe skirmish at Atchafalaya river. It was next attached 
to the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 19th corps; was ordered to Clinton, 
La., thence to Morganza via Port Hudson; and on Sept. 3 was sent to 
St. Charles, Ark., where it remained on guard and expedition diity 
until Oct. 23. The remainder of the year was spent in heavy fatigue 
and picket duty and expeditions along the rivers. Early in Jan., 1865, 
it went to Kennersville, near New Orleans, where it remained until Feb. 
5, when it joined the movement against Spanish Fort, and was in the 
trenches at that point until March 31. It was then ordered to Fort 
Blakely, and was present at its fall, and then served as provost guard 
at Mobile until May 26, when it was sent to Shreveport on the same 
duty. It was mustered out June 22, 1865. Its original strength was 
961. Gain by recruits, 127; substitutes, i; total, 1,089. Loss by death, 
296; desertion, 39; transfer, 103; discharge, 184; mustered out, 467. 

Thirtieth Infantry.— Col., Daniel J. Dill; Lieut.-Col., E. M. Bartlett; 
Maj., John Clowney. This regiment was organized at Camp Randall, 
Madison, and was mustered in Oct. 21, 1862. On May 2, 1863, Cos. 



64 The Union Army 

D, F, I and K were ordered to the upper Missouri as guards for trans- 
ports in the Indian expedition under Gen. Sully, from Sioux City, la., 
to Fort Pierre, Dakota. Cos. G and E were sent to Superior and Bay- 
field to keep close watch on the Chippewa Indians, who were stirred 
up by the Sioux outbreak in Minnesota. In August detached com- 
panies were used for maintaining order during the enrollment under 
the conscription act, furnishing guards for conscripts, recruits and desert- 
ers. The regiment spent the winter in the state. Detachments were 
ordered to various posts in northwestern Minnesota and Dakota in 
March, 1864, where they spent the spring and summer in campaign- 
ing under Gen. Sully against the Indians, guarding emigrants, mak- 
ing many diificult marches through wild country, and participating in 
a number of engagements. On Oct. i, Cos. A, C, F and H under Col. 
Dill were stationed at Fort Rice, Dak.; Cos. B, E, G and K under Maj. 
Clowney at Fort WadsWorth; Co. D under Capt. Fulton at Fort Sully, 
and Co. I under Capt. Grier at Fort Union. The companies were re- 
imited at Louisville, Ky., during the fall, with the exception of Co. I, 
which remained at Fort Union until the following summer. The regi- 
ment was attached to the 2nd brigade, 2nd division. Military District 
of Kentucky, and was used in prison guard duty, as provost guard 
at Louisville, and for garrison duty at Frankfort and Georgetown in 
detachments during the winter and spring. Col. Dill was appointed 
provost marshal-general of Kentucky, April 17, 1865. Co. I joined the 
regiment on June 22, and the organization was mustered out at Louis- 
ville Sept. 20, 1865. Its original strength was 906. Gain by recruits, 
312; substitutes, i ; total, 1,219. Loss by death, 69; desertion, 52; trans- 
fer, 46; discharge, 340; mustered out, 710. 

Thirty-first Infantry. — Cols., Isaac E. Messmore, Francis H. West, 
George D. Rogers; Lieut. -Cols., Francis H. West, George D. Rogers; 
Majs., John Clowney, William J. Gibson, George D. Rogers, R. B. Stephen- 
son, Farlin Q. Ball. This regiment was organized at Prairie du Chien 
in Aug., 1862, when six companies were recruited. It was ordered to 
Camp Utley, Racine, on Nov. 14, where the remaining companies were 
recruited, and the regiment was mustered in, Oct. 9. It left the state 
March i, 1863, for Columbus, Ky., and was assigned to the 6th division, 
1 6th corps. It remained there on picket, provost and reconnoissance 
duty during the spring and summer and was ordered to Murfreesboro in 
October. Cos. B, G and K were detached and stationed at Stone's river 
in guard and fortification work until April, 1864. The regiment was 
assigned to the 4th division, 20th corps, and divided into detachments 
for patrolling the Nashville & Chattanooga railroad, one detachment 
being mounted for dashes into the interior. The regiment was ordered 
to Nashville in June for provost guard duty, remaining there until July 3, 
when it was transferred to the 3d brigade, ist division, 20th corps, join- 
ing the brigade on the 21st before Atlanta and remaining in the siege 
until Aug. 25. It took a position on the Chattahoochee river until the 
evacuation of Atlanta and was then on guard and forage duty until it 
joined the march to the sea. When within 10 miles of Savannah, accom- 
panied by part of another regiment, it passed through a seemingly impas- 
sable swamp, charged the enemy in two redoubts commanding the road, 
and in the face of a severe fire carried the works. It accompanied the 
army in the campaign of the Carolinas, performing well its part in destroy- 
ing railroads, building corduroy roads and foraging. At the battle of 
Averasboro it was in the front line under heavy fire from noon until dark. 
At Bentonville it held an exposed position at the front and was attacked 
in front and on both flanks simultaneously. It was thrown back, but 
reformed behind a rail fence, where it was speedily reinforced and with- 
stood five determined charges, inflicting terrible punishment upon the 



Wisconsin Regiments G5 

enemy. This closed its active service. It participated in the grand 
review at Washington. Cos. A, B, C, D, E and F, were mustered out at 
Louisville June 20, 1865, and the remaining companies on July 15. The 
original strength of the regiment was 878. It gained by recruits, 200; 
total, 1,078. Loss by death, 114; missing, 2; desertion, 52; transfer 33; 
discharge, 167; mustered out, 710. 

Thirty-second Infantry. — Cols., James H. Howe, Charles H. De Groat; 
Lieut. -Cols., William A. Bugh, Abel B. Smedley, Charles H. De ('.roat, 
Joseph H. Carlton; Majs., Abel B. Smedley, Charles H. De Groat, Joseph 
H. Carlton, WiUiam S. Burrows. This regiment was organized at Camp 
Bragg, Oshkosh, was mustered in Sept. 25, 1862, and left the state Oct. 
30. It reached Memphis on Nov. 3, and joined Sherman's movement 
toward Vicksburg, but returned late in Jan., 1863, the surrender of Holly 
Springs defeating the object of the expedition. The regiment acted as 
provost guard at Memphis until November; then moved to LaGrange; 
reached Moscow Dec. 3, just in time to repulse the enemy's attack on 
Hatch's cavalry; was sent to Vicksburg in Jan., 1864, where it was at- 
tached to the 2nd brigade, 4th division, i6th corps, and took part in the 
Meridian expedition. It held a pontoon bridge at Jackson until the 
troops had passed and then destroyed it. The regiment was attacked 
in February by a brigade of Confederate cavalry, while destroying the 
Mobile & Ohio railroad, but it repulsed the attack handsomely. It re- 
turned to Vicksburg in March, thence to Memphis Tenn., Cairo, 111., and 
Paducah, Ky. ; up the Tennessee river, 200 miles, to Crump's landing; 
thence across Tennessee to Decatur, Ala., where it was attached to the 
3d brigade, and was engaged in guard duty and building fortifications. 
Cos. A, C, D and F, with a small additional force, engaged in a sharp 
skirmish with a large body of the enemy in May and was compelled to 
fall back. The following day the brigade, with artillery and cavalry, 
followed the enemy for 7 miles. The regiment, which was in the advance, 
met a portion of the enemy and drove them to their main force, where 
by an impetuous charge, the Federals completely routed them. The 
regiment also dispersed a small body near Courtland and then returned to 
camp. It was attacked by a superior force while guarding a wagon train 
at Courtland in July, but repulsed the enemy repeatedly, bringing the 
train safely into camp. The following day it was engaged in the action 
that forced the enemy from his works near Courtland. It then joined 
Sherman's army in the siege of Atlanta, was constantly under fire until 
Aug. 24, and it was in the battle of Jonesboro. It was transferred to the 
3d brigade, ist division, 17th corps, and was on picket and guard duty 
until October at East Point. It then moved to Atlanta and in Novem- 
ber joined the march toward Savannah, destroying railroads and public 
property and skirmishing at the Little Ogeechee and Marlow. It remained 
in the vicinity of Savannah until Jan. 3, 1865, when the campaign of the 
Carolinas was commenced. It forced the enemy from his works at Rivers' 
bridge after an all day's struggle, losing 51 men. It repeated this at 
Binnaker's bridge and on March 3 drove the enemy back to his main line 
at Cheraw. It was in the heavy skirmish work at the Cape Fear river, 
and at Bentonville it advanced through a swamp, charged with the ist 
division and captured the enemy's works. It was in the general move- 
ment to Richmond, participated in the grand review at Washington, and 
was mustered out at Crystal Springs June 12, 1865. Col. Tillson, brigade 
commander, said that since the war commenced he "had not seen a body 
of men that, in point of discipline and efficiency, excelled, and very few 
that equalled the 32d Wis." Its original strength was 993. Gain by 
recruits, 381 ; draft, 100; total, 1,474. Loss by death, 275; desertion, 58; 
transfer, 27 ; discharge, 189 ; mustered out, 925. 

Thirty-third Infantry.— Col., Jonathan B. Moore; Lieut. -Cols., Fred- 

Vol. IV— 5 



GQ The Union Army 

erick S. Lovell, Horatio H. Virgin; Majs., Horatio H. Virgin, George R. 
Frank. This regiment was organized at Camp Utley, Racine, in Sept., 
1862, was mustered in Oct. 18, and left the state Nov. 12. It was sent to 
Memphis and assigned to the 3d brigade of Gen. Lauman's division, in 
the right wing of the Army of the Tennessee, Col. Moore commanding 
the brigade. The regiment joined the movement toward Jackson and 
Vicksburg in November, building bridges enroute to replace those burned 
by the enemy in his retreat. It was transferred to the ist brigade, 4th 
division, and went into winter quarters at Moscow, Tenn., suffering 
greatly for want of suitable food. It was transferred to the i6th corps, 
and on March 9, 1863, was ordered to Memphis. In April it was in the 
advance on the enemy at the Coldwater river, driving his skirmishers 25 
miles one day and concluding with a sharp fight that night at Hernando. 
The following day the regiment had the advance and poured a destruc- 
tive fire upon the Confederates, driving them across the river. It took 
possession of the fortifications at Snyder's bluff in May, then moved to 
Vicksbiirg and took a position close to the works, where it was under 
constant fire until the surrender. It attacked the rifle-pits on the night 
of June 4 with such vigor that the enemy was driven back to the main 
works. On the night of the 13th Co. D charged a hill, drove the enemy 
from the rifle-pits in confusion, but not being supported was compelled to 
retire, though it retook them the following night, when the position was 
held. On the night of the 21st six companies drove in the enemy's pickets 
and dug rifle-pits within 85 yards of a large fort. The ground was lost 
the next day, but five companies of the regiment regained it at night in a 
15 minutes' fight and held it until the end of the siege. The regiment was 
ordered to Jackson and with the brigade drove in the enemy, capturing 
his ammunition train. The 33d made a reconnoissance towards the Pearl 
river, but met a heavy force and only escaped capture or annihilation 
through its steadiness and the coolness of its officers. It returned to 
Vicksburg and in August was ordered to Natchez, where it remained until 
December. It went into quarters at Milldale until Feb. 3, 1864, when it 
joined the Meridian expedition. In March it was ordered to join the 
Red River expedition, reached Fort De Russy on the 15th, and was en- 
gaged in guard duty for the transport fleet up the Red river in April, but 
was compelled to return because of the Sabine cross-roads disaster. It 
repulsed three attacks of a large force at Pleasant Hill landing, reached 
Grand Ecore, and repelled an attack at Cloutierville. It was in a severe 
engagement at Cane river the following day, defeating the enemy after a 
2 hours' fight and was in reserve at Alexandria. It participated in the 
successful engagement at Moore's plantation ; was in an engagement near 
Marksville; was in reserve at Yellow bayou, and was then sent to Vicks- 
burg and Memphis. It left Memphis late in June on an expedition through 
Mississippi and repulsed two attacks on a supply train near Carmargo 
cross-roads in July. It held the extreme right of the front line in the 
battle of Tupelo and was in the charge that drove the enemy from the 
field. It was attacked at Old Town creek, but formed in line, advanced 
under a severe fire across a long bridge and causeway, and drove the enemy 
from his position with terrible punishment. The official report says of 
the 33d: "Too much praise cannot be awarded to officers and men for 
their gallantry, and it is stated with pride that during these actions not 
a man straggled from the regiment." It was engaged in guard duty and 
building fortifications at St. Charles, Ark., until Sept. i, when it was 
ordered to Brownsville, and on the 1 7th set out in pursuit of Price. After 
severe marching tmder great difficulties, it reached Cape Girardeau, Mo., 
and proceeded to St. Louis, Jefiferson City, Lamine bridge and Warrens- 
burg. It was on guard duty at St. Louis, the greater part of November 
and was then ordered to Nashville, where it took part in the battle. It 



Wisconsin Regiments 07 

reached Clifton, Tenn., Jan. 2, 1865; was on train guard at Grand View, 
and rejoined the brigade at Eastport, Miss., on the 14th. It participated 
in skirmishes at Corinth and near luka, was sent to Vicksburg in Feb- 
ruary, thence to New Orleans, Dauphin island, Cedar point and Smith's 
mills, skirmishing at intervals. It arrived at Spanish Fort and was the 
first organized regiment to enter the main fort, having lx;en under fire 
much of the time during the siege. It was in reserve at Fort Blakely, 
reached Montgomery, Ala., Apr. 23, Tuskegee on the 25th, and remained 
on provost duty until July iq. It rejoined the brigade at Montgomery 
and was ordered to Vicksburg, where it was mustered out Aug. 8. Its 
original strength was 8q2. Gain by recruits, 174; substitutes, 2; total, 
1,066. Loss by death, 196; missing, 4; desertion, 22; transfer, 37; dis- 
charge, 170; mustered out, 637. 

Thirty-fourth Infantry. — ^Col., Fritz Anneke; Lieut. -Col., Henry OrlT; 
Maj., Geo. H. Walther. This regiment was organized at Camp Wash- 
bum, Milwaukee, was mustered in Dec. 31, 1862, and left the state Jan. 
31, 1863. It arrived at Columbus, Ky., Feb. 2, where it performed camp 
and guard duties at Fort Halleck. On March 3 Co. E was ordered to 
Paducah, Ky., and on April 25 Cos. I and G were sent to Cairo. On Apr. 
27 Co. A was detached and ordered to duty at Fort Quinby, three-quar- 
ters of a mile south of Fort Halleck, and on May 12, Cos. B, C, D, F, H 
and K were sent to Memphis. On June 1 Cos. I and G returned from 
Cairo to Columbus, on Aug. 14 the several detachments of the regiment 
united at Cairo, and on the i6th proceeded to Wisconsin. The regiment 
was mustered out at Milwaukee Sept. 8, 1863. Its original strength was 
961. Loss by death, 20; desertion, 283; discharge, 186; mustered out 472. 
Thirty-fifth Infantry. — Cols., Henry Orff, George H. Walther; Lieut. - 
Cols., Charles A. Smith, George H. Walther, Robert Strohman, Fred 
Von Baumbach. This regiment was organized at Camp Washburn, 
Milwaukee, in the fall of 1863, was mustered in Nov. 27, and left the 
state April 18, 1864, for Port Hudson, La., where it arrived May 7 and 
engaged in guard and picket duty until June 26, when it was ordered to 
Morganza and assigned to the ist brigade, 3d division, 19th anny corps, 
commanded by Brig.-Gen. A. L. Lee. The regiment was ordered to St. 
Charles, Ark., and was engaged there in scouting expeditions and guard 
duty imtil Aug. 7, when it returned to Morganza. On Oct. i the brigade 
set out on an expedition to Simsport, and during the expedition the regi- 
ment participated in several skirmishes. It returned to Morganza, pro- 
ceeded thence to Devall's Bluff, Ark., landing there Oct. 18, and on Nov. 
9 was sent to Brownsville, where it remained until Dec. i , when it was 
again ordered to Devall's Bluff. On Dec. 14, the regiment was assigned 
to the 4th brigade, reserve corps. Military Division of West Mississippi, 
and was employed until Feb. 7, 1865, when it embarked for the attack 
on Mobile. Landing at Mobile point on the 26th it was assigned to the 
ist brigade, 3d division, 13th corps, with which it engaged in the siege 
and remained until the enemy evacuated the place in April. It was then 
sent to Mcintosh bluff and there engaged in building fortifications until 
the close of the war east of the Mississippi river. In August it was as- 
signed to the command known as the separate brigade. Army of the Rio 
Grande, and during the rest of its term of service was engaged in guard 
duty and upon government steamers. It was mustered out Mar. 5, 1866. 
Its original strength was 1,066. Gain by recruits 22. Loss by death, 
256; desertion, 29 ; transfer, 1 1 ; discharge, 177. 

Thirty-sixth infantry. — Cols., Frank A. Haskell, John A. Savage, Jr., 
Harvey M. Brown, Clement E. Warner; Lieut. -Cols., John A. Savage, Jr., 
Harvey M. Brown, Clement E. Warner, William H. Hamilton; Majs., 
Harvey M. Brown, Clement E. Warner, William H. Hamilton, George A. 
Pisk. This regiment was organized at Camp Randall, Madison, and was 



68 The Union Army 

mustered in in April, 1864. It left the state May 10 and was sent at once 
to Spottsylvania where it was assigned to the ist V)rigade, 2nd division, 
2nd corps, and was held in reserve during the engagement there. It 
supported a battery at the North Anna river and was in line of battle, but 
not engaged, on the following day. Cos. H and K charged and captured 
a line of the enemy's works on May 26. The regiment advanced toward 
Richmond, and took part in the battle of Totopotomy. Cos. B, E, F and 
G moved forward as skirmishers across an open field and charged a strong 
line of works, unsupported, in the face of a savage fire of grape and mus- 
ketrv from the front and an oblique fire from right and left, driving in the 
enemy's skirmishers and losing 140 in killed, wounded and prisoners out 
of 240 engaged. But it accomplished the desired end by forcing the 
enem^'^ to concentrate on this point on the double-quick thus relieving 
the pressure at the left. At Cold Harbor the regiment led the advance 
across an open field under heavy fire and remained on the field all day, 
losing 73 men. During the siege of Petersburg, it was engaged in several 
severe skirmishes, including one on the Jerusalem plank road, within 
20 rods of the enemy's line, when one-half of the brigade was captured 
by a flank movement, the 36th saving itself by a quick change of front. 
It was engaged in skirmishing, short expeditions and picket dvity in and 
about Petersburg, including Malvern hill, Xew Market road and Reams' 
station where of the 186 officers and men engaged there was a loss of 138 
in killed, wounded and captured. At Hatcher's run, when separated 
from its division by a heavy force, the regiment faced to the rear, made a 
bayonet charge, doubled the enemy's line, captured a stand of colors and 
more prisoners than it had men engaged. This brought forth warm words 
of commendation from Brig. -Gen. Egan, who wrote: "It was a short 
fight; that rebel brigade was instantaneously crumbled and destroyed, 
being mostly captured with arms, colors and oificers, to a total number 
three times greater than the 36th * * * I now depend upon them with 
my veterans." The regiment repulsed a charge at the same point in 
Feb., 1865. With other forces it charged the enemy's line at Hatcher's 
run in April, 1865, taking the works at an important point, which resulted 
in the entire line giving way. It then pursued Lee's army and was pres- 
ent at the surrender at Appomattox. It participated in the grand review 
at Washington and was mustered out at Jeft'ersonville, Ind., July 12, 1865. 
Its original strength was 990. Gain by recruits, 24; total, 1,014. Loss 
by death, 296; desertion, 21 ; transfer, 38 ; discharge, 214; mustered out, 445. 
Thirty-seventh Infantry. — Col., Samuel Harriman; Lieut. -Cols., Anson 
O. Doolittle, John Green; Majs., William J. Kershaw, Robert C. Eden. 
This regiment was organized at Camp Randall, Madison, in the spring 
of 1864. The first six companies were mustered into service the latter 
part of March and left the state for Virginia April 28 to join the army of 
the Potomac. On May 17, Cos. H and L joined the first six and the 
regiment distinguished itself in the first assaults on Petersburg, when 
it lost 7 officers and 147 enlisted men, killed and wounded. On July 
30 it participated in the assault following the explosion of the mine, 
sustaining a loss of 7 officers and 148 men, killed and wounded. It 
was at the battle of Reams' station, acting as the reserve in the imsuc- 
cessful advance on the South Side railroad, and when the brigade was 
compelled to retreat the regiment poured so heavy a fire into the 
charging enemy as to completely check him, then repulsed a second 
assault and with reinforcements held the position until night. The 
regiment w'as in action at Hatcher's run in October and the winter was 
spent in and about Petersburg, often under fire. In the final assault it 
supported the brigade picket line against Fort Mahone, which was carried, 
three companies of the regiment being the first to enter the works. It 
participated in the grand review at Washington and was mustered out at 



Wisconsin Regiments 69 

Tenallytown July 26, 1865. Its original strength was 708. Gain by 
recruits, loi; substitutes, 64; draft, 271; total, 1,144. Loss by death 
211 ; desertion, 29 ; transfer, 29 ; discharge, 195 ; mustered out, 680. 

Thirty-eighth Infantry. — Cols., James Bintliff, Cohvert K. Pier; Lieut. - 
Cols., Colwert K. Pier, Charles L. Ballard; Majs., Courtland P. Larkin 
Robert N. Roberts, C'harles L. Ballard, Frank A. Hayward. This regi- 
ment was organized at Camp Randall, Madison, in March, 1864, and was 
mustered in April 15. Cos. A, B, C and D left the state on May 3, being 
ordered to Arlington heights and from there to White House, Va.,' where 
they were assigned to the 4th provisional brigade, for guard duty. On 
June 9, they were transferred to the Army of the Potomac and assigned 
to the 3d brigade, 1st division, 9th corjjs, but on the i ith they were trans- 
ferred to the 1st brigade. They were under fire in the trenches at Cold 
Harbor, took position in the extreme front before Petersburg on June 1 6, 
and the following afternoon charged the enemy's outer line of intrench- 
ments, capturing them at the bayonet's point. The same evening they 
accompanied the general advance, capturing and occupying a second line 
of the works. They then went back to the trenches, where Co. E joined 
them. Upon the explosion of the mine July 30, Cos. B and E took part 
in the advance upon the enemy's works, capturing a position and holding 
it until the afternoon, when they returned to the trenches. The regiment 
continued in the siege and on picket duty until Aug. 19, when it moved 
to aid in the capture of the Weldon railroad, repulsed an attack from three 
directions simultaneously and fortified its position. It returned to Peters- 
burg and in October was under fire for 22 hours at Hatchers' run, after 
which it took position opposite the "Crater" in the front line, remaining 
there imtil spring. It led the right wing of the victorious assaulting 
column at Fort Mahone on April i, its loss being over half that of the 
entire brigade, and entered Petersburg on the 3d. It was in the grand 
review at Washington. The one year men were mustered out at Tenally- 
town June 2, and the remainder on July 26. The original strength of 
the regiment was 913. Gain by recruits, 112. It lost by death, 108; 
desertion, 55; transfer, 21 ; discharge, 208; mustered out, 640. 

Thirty-ninth Infantry. — Col., Edwin L. Buttrick; Lieut. -Col., Jacob S. 
Crane; Majs., Martin Throup, George C. Ginty. This regiment was 
organized at Camp Washburn, Milwaukee, in May and June, 1864, was 
mustered in for 100 days' service, and left the state June 13. It reached 
Memphis on the 17th, and was assigned to the 3d brigade, Col. Buttrick 
commanding. Co. A was detached for train guard duty. The regiment 
had a brush with Forrest's cavalry near the Hernando road, the enemy 
5, 000 strong, breaking through the picket line and entering Memphis. 
The 39th was engaged in detachments, in guard and picket duty until 
its term of service expired and was mustered out at Milwaukee Sept. 22, 
1864. Its original strength was 780. Loss by death, 5; mustered out, 
775- 

Fortieth Infantry. — Col., W. Augustus Ray; Lieut. -Col., Samuel Fal- 
lows; Maj., James M. Bingham. This regiment was organized at Camp 
Randall, Madison, in May and June, 1864, for 100 days' service. It left 
the state June 14, reached Memphis on the 19th, was attached to the 2nd 
brigade, District of Memphis, and was assigned to train guard duty and 
in the defense of the city. It supported a battery, which was engaged 
with the enemy during Forrest's raid in August, having marched at the 
double-quick nearly 3 miles, and after the skirmish it pursued the enemy 
2 miles. It was mustered out at Madison, Sept. 16, 1864. Its original 
strength was 776. Loss by death, 13; mustered out, 763. 

Forty-first Infantry. — Lieut. -Col., George B. Goodwin; Majs., D. Gray 
Purman, Jesse D. Wheelock. This regiment was organized in Milwaukee 
in May and June, 1864, being the third and last of the 100-day regiments 



70 The Union Army 

sent from the state. It had no colonel, its numbers being insufficient. 
It left the state on June 15 for Memphis, where it participated in the fight 
with Forrest's cavalry, being posted with the 30th in the rear of the 40th. 
In common with those regiments it suffered much from disease. It was 
mustered out at Camp Washburn in September. Its original strength 
was 578. Loss by death, 6; desertion, 2; mustered out, 570. 

Forty-second Infantry. — Col., Ezra T. Sprague; Lieut. -Col., W. Wallace 
Botkins; Maj., John W. Blake. This regiment was organized at Camp 
Randall, Madison, in Aug., 1864, was mustered in Sept. 7, and left the 
state about Sept. 20. It went to Cairo, Col. Sprague being placed in 
command of that post, and Lieut. -C'ol. Botkin took coinmand of the regi- 
ment. On Oct. 15, Cos. A, F, D, I and C were sent to Columbus, Ky., 
to assist in the defense against guerrillas. Capt. George M. Humphrey 
of Co. C, was appointed chief of ordnance of that post and assistant in- 
spector-general in charge of Fort Defiance. On Oct. 25, Cos. B, G, K, E 
and H were ordered to Springfield, where Co. B was assigned to provost 
duty and Co. G was sent to Marshall. Cos. H and K were afterwards 
sent in search of deserters and to forward drafted men to the rendezvous. 
The regiment was reunited at Cairo in the early winter, perfonned pro- 
vost and guard duty until June, 1865, and was mustered out at Madison 
on June 20. Its original strength was 877. Gain by recruits, 130; sub- 
stitute, i; total, 1,008. Loss by death, 57; desertion, 18; transfer, 149; 
discharge, 138; mustered out, 646. 

Forty-third Infantry. — Col., Amasa Cobb; Lieut-Col., Byron Paine; 
Maj., Samuel B. Brightman. This regiment was organized at Milwaukee 
in the summer of 1864. The first company was mustered in Aug. 8, 
the last on Oct. 8, and the regiment left the state Oct. 9. It was sent to 
Nashville, Tenn., thence to Johnson ville for guard and garrison duty. 
Col. Cobb, member of Congress from the 5th district, was appointed com- 
mander of the post, and Lieut. -Col. Paine, who was chief justice of the 
supreme court, succeeded to the command of the regiment. The enemy 
opened fire on the place and gunboats early in November, but it being 
wholly an artillery engagement the 43d was compelled to lie in the trenches 
without action. It left Johnsonville Nov. 30, encainped at Decherd on 
the Chattanooga-road, and remained in that vicinity until the close of 
the war, engaged in guarding the railroad and dispersing guerrillas. It was 
mustered out June 24, 1865. Its original strength was 867. Gain by 
recruits, 38; substitutes, 8; total, 913. Loss by death, 70; desertion, 40; 
transfer, i; discharge, 39; mustered out, 763. 

Forty-fourth Infantry. — Col., George G. Symes; Lieut. -Col., Oliver C. 
Bissell; Maj., William Warner. This regiment was organized at Camp 
Randall, Madison, in the fall of 1864. Co. A left the state Oct. 10, and 
was followed by Cos. B, F, D and C, successively, the last reaching Nash- 
ville, Tenn., Nov. 30. The other companies reached Nashville in Feb., 
1865, and the regiment was employed in post and guard duty until March 
9, when it was ordered to Eastport, Miss., to escort the Union prisoners 
to be turned over by Forrest, but not getting them it returned to Nash- 
ville and left on April 3 for Paducah, Ky., where it remained on picket duty 
until Aug. 28, when it was mustered out. Its original strength was 877. 
Gain by recruits, 235; substitutes, 2; total, 1,114. Loss by death, 57; 
desertion, 48; transfer, 121; discharge, 92; mustered out, 796. 

Forty-fifth Infantry — Col., Henry F. Belitz; Lieut. -Col., Gumal Hesse; 
Maj., Charles A. Menges. This regiment was organized during the fall 
and winter of 1864, was sent by companies to Nashville at various times 
during the early spring of 1865, and was stationed at Nashville until 
mustered out July 17, 1865. Its original strength was 859. Gain by 
recruits, 142; total, 1,001. Loss by death. 26; desertion, 8; transfer, 85; 
discharge, 80; mustered out, 802. 



Wisconsin Regiments 71 

Forty-sixth Infantry. — Col., Frederick S. Lovell; Lieut. -Col., Abel 
B. Smedley; Maj., Charles H. Ford. This regiment was organized at 
Camp Randall, Madison, and was mustered in March 2, 1865. It left 
the state March 5 for Louisville, but was at once forwarded to Athens 
Ala., where it acted as railroad guard. Col. Lovell was placed in com- 
mand of the post, Lieut. -Col. Smedley assuming command of the regi- 
ment, and it passed the summer at that point. It was mustered out at 
Nashville Sept. 27, 1865. Col. Lovell was brevetted brigadier-general. 
The original strength of the regiment was 914. Gain by recruits, ^y, 
total, 947; Loss by death, 13; desertion, 8; transfer, 31; discharge', 41; 
mustered out, 854. 

Forty -seventh Infantry. — Col., George C. Ginty; Lieut. -Col., Robert H. 
Spencer; Maj., Kelsey M. Adams. This regiment was organized at Camp 
Randall in the winter of 1864 and left the state Feb. 27, 1865. It pro- 
ceeded to Louisville, Ky., Nashville and TuUahoma, Tenn., where it was 
assigned to guard duty until the close of August, and was mustered out 
Sept. 4. Its original strength was 927. Gain by recruits, 58; total, 985. 
Loss by death, 34; desertion, 23; transfer, 29; discharge, 87; mustered 
out, 812. 

Forty-eighth Infantry. — Cols., Uri B. Pearsall, Henry Shears; Lieut. - 
Cols., Henry Shears, Cyrus M. Butt; John B. Vosburgh. This regiment 
was organized at Camp Washburn, Milwaukee, in Feb. and March, 1865. 
Eight companies left the state March 22 and reported at Benton barracks, 
St. Louis, Mo. where they were ordered to Paola, Kan. Co. C was ordered 
to Lawrence, Co. H to Olathe, F and G were retained at Paola, and A, B, 
D and E were sent to Fort Scott. Cos. I and K left Wisconsin March 
28 and arrived at Fort Scott April 28. Col. Pearsall was placed in com- 
mand at Fort Scott early in May, and Maj. Butt was placed in command 
of all the troops in Miami and Johnson counties, with head-quarters at 
Paola. The regiment was employed by detachments in getting out tim- 
ber for fortifications, protecting the covmtry from guerrillas, constructing 
bridges, erecting new buildings, etc. On July 19 Col. Pearsall was as- 
signed to the command of all the troops in and west of Neosho Valley, 
Kan., with head-quarters at Humboldt, Lieut. -Col. Shears succeeding 
to the command of Fort Scott. Capt. C. W. Felker succeeded to the 
command of the regiment, and on Aug. 10 the 48th was ordered to Law- 
rence. It left that place Sept. 6, for Fort Zarah, Kan., where Cos. E and 
G were stationed, and the remainder of the regiment moved to Fort 
Lamed. On Oct. i, the regiment was divided into detachments and 
sent to various posts for the purpose of guarding mail and government 
trains against the Indians. Cos. A, H, E and G were mustered out at 
Leavenworth Dec. 30, 1865, Cos. B, D, F and I, on Feb. 19, 1866, and 
Cos. C and K on March 24. The original strength of the regiment was 
828. Gain by recruits, 4; total, 832. Loss by death, 9; desertion, 67; 
discharge, 36; mustered out, 720. 

Forty-ninth Infantry. — Col., Samuel Fallows; Lieut. -Col., Edward 
Coleman; Maj., D. K. Noyes. This regiment was organized at Camp 
Randall, Madison, and left the state March 8, 1865. It reached Benton 
barracks, St. Louis, two days later, and was ordered to Rolla, Mo., for 
guard and garrison duty. Co. K was placed at Fort Wyman, I at Fort 
Detty and B was sent 10 miles east of St. James. Co. A was stationed at 
Waynesville in June, D at Big and Little Piney. In July Co. H was sent 
to St. Louis for provost duty, and Cos. D and E to Benton barracks as 
permanent guard. Col. Fallows was placed in command of the post at 
Rolla in March, and later of the 3d sub-district of Missouri. Maj. Noyes 
was detailed on general court-martial at St. Louis, Lieut. -Col. Coleman 
taking command of the regiment and giving it a name for discipline which 
elicited high commendations from the department commander. The 



tZ The Union Army 

regiment was ordered to St. Louis Aug. 17, for prison guard duty, Col. 
Fallows being placed in command of the post there and of the first sub- 
district of Missouri. Cos. B, C, and D were inustered out Nov. i, and 
the remainder on Nov. 8. Col. Fallows was brevetted brigadier-general, 
Lieut. -Col. Coleman became colonel, Maj. Noyes, lieutenant-colonel, 
and Capt. Cheney was brevetted major. The original strength of the 
regiment was 086. Gain by recruits, 16; total, 1,002. Loss by death, 
48; desertion, 6; discharge, 173; mustered out, 775. 

Fiftieth Infantry. — Col., John G. Clark; Lieut. -Col., Edwin E. Bryant; 
Maj., Hugh McDermott. This regiment was organized at Camp Randall 
and left the state by companies in the latter part of March and beginning 
of April, 1865. It was sent to Benton barracks, St. Louis; thence to Fort 
Leavenworth, Kan., and in October to Fort Rice, Dak., where it remained 
until the spring of 1866. Co. E was mustered out April 19 at Madison. 
The remainder of the regiment returned in June and was mustered out 
on June 14. Its original strength was 942. Gain by recruits, 16; total, 
958. Loss by death, 28; desertion, 141; discharge, 127; mustered out, 
562. 

Fifty first Infantry. — Col., Leonard Martin; Lieut. -Col., John B. Vliet; 
Maj., Alfred Taggart. The six original companies of this regiment were 
organized at Camp Washburn, Milwaukee, in Feb., March and April, 1865, 
and were sent to Benton barracks, St. Louis. Co. B was placed on duty 
at St. Louis, the remaining companies being ordered to Warrensburg, 
Mo. for railroad guard duty, and were joined there by Co. B, on June 21. 
Co. A was stationed at Crawford's run, the others at Pleasant Hill. In 
June the four companies of the 53d regiment were consolidated with the 
51st. Cos. G, H, I and K, of the 51st, did not leave the state, but were 
discharged on May 6 under general orders for reduction of the army. The 
regiinent was mustered out by companies on various dates during Aug., 
1865. Its original strength was 841. Gain by recruits, 2; total, 843. 
Loss by death, 8; desertion, 87; discharge, 34; mustered out, 714. 

Fifty-second Infantry. — Lieut. -Col., Hiram J. Lewis. This regiment 
was organized in five companies during the spring of 1865 and left the 
state by companies in April. It was ordered to Holden, 248 miles from 
St. Louis, where it guarded workmen on the Pacific railway and furnished 
scouting parties for protection against bushwhackers. On June 21, it 
was assigned to duty at St. Louis and was mustered out Aug. 2. Its 
original strength was 486. Gain by recruits, 25; total, 511. Loss by 
death, 6; desertion, 42; transfer, 16; discharge, 41; mustered out, 406. 

Fifty-third Infantry. — Lieut.-Col., Robert T. Pugh. The four com- 
panies of this regiment were organized in the spring of 1865, when the 
government ordered all recrviits not mustered in to be discharged. They 
were sent to St. Louis and thence to Leavenworth, where the battahon 
was transferred to the 51st on June 10, 1865. Co. A became Co. G of the 
51st, B became Co. H; C became K, and D became I. They were mus- 
tered out with that regiment in Aug., 1865. The original strength of the 
four companies was 380. Gain by recruits, 9; total, 389. Loss by death, 
8; desertion, 14; discharge, 47; mustered out, 315. 

Company G, First U. S. Sharpshooters. — Capt., Frank E. Marble; 
First Lieuts., Charles F. Shepard, Charles A. Stephens; Second Lieuts., 
Charles A. Stevens, Ezzan H. Benson, Perrin C. Judkins. Col. Berdan, 
of New York, having been authorized by the government to recruit a 
company of sharpshooters from each loyal state, Co. G was raised in Wis- 
consin in Sept., 1 86 1. No applicant was accepted unless he could put 
ten consecutive shots within 5 inches from the center of the bull's eye 
at 200 yards, when firing at rest. The company was organized at Camp 
Randall, left the state Sept. 19, went into camp at Weehawken, N. Y., 
and was mustered in on the 23 d. The ist regiment U. S. sharpshooters 



Wisconsin Regiments 73 

was organized with ten companies and on March 21, 1862, was assigned 
to Gen. Fitz John Porter's division in the Army of the Potomac at For- 
tress Monroe. It was under fire at Big Bethel, Va., for the first time, and 
was next in a skirmish at Cockletown in April, while en route to York- 
town. It was in the rifle-pits before Yorktown until its evacuation, 5 
picked men of Co. G being the first to enter the works. It was engaged 
m the action at Hanover Court House in May, and assisted in the repulse 
of the enemy. Co. G was one of two companies sent to Gen. Slocum's 
division. It was engaged as skirmishers at Mechanicsville; took part 
at Gaines' mill; suffered severely at Charles City cross-roads from a flank 
fire caused by the retreat of a regiment in front, but it held its position; 
was in action at the battle of Malvern hill, and lost heavily during the 
spring and summer, in killed, wounded and sick. It was engaged in the 
skirmish near Manassas; was in the second battle at Bull Run; was present 
at Antietam, but not in action; was engaged in skirmishing and as guard 
at crossings in the march of the corps to Blackford's ford, on the Potomac; 
was at Sharpsburg, Md., until Oct. 30, when it joined the armv at Warren- 
ton; was ordered to Falmouth in November and went into camp, remain- 
ing there until Dec. 11. It participated in the battle of Fredericksburg 
and was selected to cover the retreat of all the forces across the Rappa- 
hannock. It was in winter quarters at Falmouth until Apr. 28, 1863, 
when the forward movement was begun with the 3d army corps, to which 
the 3d brigade, consisting of the ist and 2nd sharpshooters, was attached. 
Co. G was put forward as skirmishers in the battle of Chancellorsville 
and engaged in a hot fight with a body of the enemy, capturing 60 in one 
squad, and assisting in the capture of the 25th Ga. in a railroad cut. The 
company covered the movement of the troops in recrossing the river, 
maintaining one position for 17 hours without being relieved, even to 
obtain water. On June 1 1 the sharpshooters were assigned to the 2nd 
brigade, ist division, 3d corps, with which they were engaged at Gettys- 
burg, Co. G being posted on the picket line, where it checked an advance 
of the enemy on July 2. It also aided in repulsing a desperate charge 
and in the capture of a brigade on the 3d. As skirmishers it took part 
in the battle of Wapping Heights, and also took part in the action at 
Auburn, where it charged across an open space and dislodged a party 
of dismounted cavalry, forming a strong skirmish line. At Kelly's 
ford, the regiment formed a line of skirmishers, drove the enemy across 
the river, prevented his reinforcements from coming up, and captured 
the rifle-pits, together with 500 prisoners, Cos. G and B covering the 
advance. Co. G formed the extreme advance in the demonstration 
against the enemy's works at Mine run, and then was in camp until 
Jan. II, 1864. It was transferred to the 2nd brigade, 3d division, 2nd 
corps and was in camp near Brandy Station until May 3. In the battle 
of the Wilderness it was on the skirmish line and held an exposed posi- 
tion during the entire engagement. It was in the battle of Po river, 
and at Spottsylvania participated in the charge of the 2nd corps, which 
resulted in the capture of 4,000 prisoners, 20 cannon and the first line 
of works. The regiment was engaged at the North Anna, where Co. 
G supported a battery the first day and covered the passage of the 
river by the troops, a detail of 40 men capturing and holding several 
buildings close to the enemy's line. At Totopotomy creek, it was in 
continuous action and at Cold Harbor was sent with others to the front 
to protect the troops engaged in constructing earthworks. It took 
position before Petersburg on June 15 and was in the first assaults on 
the works. It was in the battle on the Jerusalem plank road, was also 
engaged at Deep Bottom, and remained before Petersburg on picket 
duty the remainder of the summer. Co. G was mustered out Sept. 
22, 1864, the reenlisted veterans and recruits being transferred to other 



74 The Union Army 

companies. Its original strength was 105. Gain by recruits, 80; veter- 
ans, reenlisted, 9; total, 194. Loss by death, 34: missing 8; desertion, 
4; transfer, 43; discharge, 58; mustered out, 47. 

First Cavalry. — Cols., Edward Daniels, Oscar H. LaGrange; Lieut. - 
Cols., Oscar H. LaGrange, Henry Pomeroy, William H. Torrey, Henry 
Hamden; Majs., Oscar H. LaGrange, Henry S. Eggleston, Thomas 
H. Mars, Nathan Paine, Stephen V. Shipman, Henry Pomeroy, Henry 
Hamden, Newton Jones, William H. Torrey, Levi Howland. This 
regiment was organized at Camp Fremont, Ripon, and Camp Harvey, 
Kenosha, in the summer and fall of 1861, 600 men having been enrolled 
at the former place up to the time of the change of location in November. 
It was mustered in March 8, 1862, and left the state on the 17th for 
Benton barracks, St. Louis, for equipment. On April 28 it moved 
to Cape Girardeau, thence to Bloomfield, where companies were detached 
to various points in Missouri and Arkansas for scout and train guard 
duty. The companies were in several engagements, frequently with 
superior forces, and were generally successful, though at Jonesboro 
in August a small detachment was compelled to surrender to greatly 
superior numbers. At L'Anguille ferry. Ark., occurred one of the fiercest 
engagements of the war, when Maj. Eggleston, with 130 men, was at- 
tacked by 500 Texas Rangers, the enemy overwhelming the little com- 
pany and only about 20 escaping. The regiment with the exception 
of detachments moved towards Helena and reached its destination early 
in August. It was ordered back to Cape Girardeau in September after 
terrible hardships, wading through swamps, without adequate supplies, 
drinking foul water, burdened by sick members, and being finally reduced 
to nearly half its original strength. It was ordered to Greenville in 
early October and on the 19th to Patterson, where it was stationed 
during November and December, engaged in dispersing guerrillas, pick- 
ing up small bodies of the enemy and foraging. On Dec. 28 a small 
party of foragers was picked up by 400 of the enemy, and 200 infan- 
try and 80 cavalry, including Cos. D and M, started in pursuit. The 
cavalry dashed into the Confederates and scattered their pickets in 
every direction. Co. D dismounted and drove the enemy for some 
distance. The regiment was stationed at West Plains, Pilot Knob, 
St. Genevieve and Cape Girardeau, successively, from Jan. 7 to May 
31, 1863, and was engaged with the enemy at Chalk bluff in March. 
At Whitewater bridge Capt. Shipman and 40 men on guard were sur- 
rounded by 300 of the enemy, but they cut their way out with a loss 
of 6 killed, 9 wounded and 10 taken prisoners. The regiment was in 
the battle of Cape Girardeau, where it supported a battery, and pur- 
sued the enemy in his retreat. In June it was ordered to join the cavalry 
corps of the Army of the Cumberland. It reached Nashville June 15, 
took part in the movement toward Chattanooga, and was stationed 
at various points during the summer. It participated at Chickamauga, 
where it was engaged with the cavalry in holding the extreme right 
on the second day, and covered the retreat of the army. It was in 
a lively engagement near Anderson's gap in October, routing Wheeler's 
command and taking numerous prisoners, and it was also in a skirmish 
at Maysville, Ala. It then marched to Winchester, Alexandria and 
New Market, Tenn., engaging the enemy at the last named place and 
driving him across Mossy creek. In this action the regiment carried 
the enemy's position and captured a number of prisoners. In December 
it again repulsed a force which had advanced on Mossy creek, and 
it participated in the battle at Dandridge in Jan., 1864. It was also 
in the engagement near Sevierville, and was then stationed at Marys- 
ville, Motley's ford, Madisonville and Cleveland until May 3. It was 
in a severe engagement near Varnell's station with Wheeler's forces. 



Wisconsin Regiments 75 

was in the advance on Dallas, and as skirmishers, was under a fierce 
fire from the enemy's batteries intrenched in a spur of the AUatoona 
hills, being forced to fall back. A detachment under Capt. Comstock 
routed a force at Burnt Hickory, and held its position against the attack 
of a body of cavalry until reinforced. A battalion under Capt. Harnden 
charged a heavy Confederate force guarding a supply train, and forced 
a way through the enemy's ranks, but was compelled to fall back to 
the reserves, where the enemy was checked. This dash has been referred 
to as the most brilliant of the campaign. A detachment defeated a 
force at Acworth and occupied the place. A few days later the regi- 
ment was in a skirmish at Big Shanty, and it was in frequent engage- 
ments about Lost mountain until the enemy's retreat across the Chatta- 
hoochee river. It acted as part of McCook's expedition to the rear 
of Atlanta; attacked Armstrong's forces, 2,000 strong, near Campbell- 
ton, but was forced to retire. It moved to Marietta and from there 
to Cartersville, Ga., reaching the latter place on Aug. 12 and remain- 
ing there imtil Oct. 17, when it moved to Calhoun, thence to St. Louis 
to be remounted, reaching there Nov. 9. It left St. Louis Dec. 4 for 
Nashville and assisted in driving 2,000 of the enemy from Hopkins- 
ville after a severe engagement. At Elizabethtown, Ky., Col. LaGrange 
with 20 men attacked a force of 400 and captured several prisoners. 
The regiments reached Nashville Jan. 5, 1865, then moved to Waterloo, 
Ala., and joined Wilson's cavalry expedition. The ist Wis. cavalry 
was in the front ranks in a desperate assault upon a fort overlooking 
West Point, which was captured in a hand-to-hand struggle. On May 
6 a detachment of the regiment under Lieut. -Col. Harnden set out to 
search for Jefferson Davis. At midnight of the 7th a negro gave a 
minute account of the whereabouts of Davis and at early dawn of 
the 8th Harnden set out, traveling 45 miles that day. Early on the 
9th the detachment resumed the march and at Abbeville met Col. Pritch- 
ard of the 4th Mich, cavalry, who had been ordered to camp there, guard 
the ferry and patrol the river. At 3 o'clock next morning Harnden 
went forward, believing Davis to be near. The advance guard came 
upon armed men, who ordered them to halt, and opened fire. Harnden 
advanced with a large force and the firing became general until a pris- 
oner captured by Sergt. Howe stated that the supposed enemy were 
Michigan troops under Col. Pritchard, who had selected his best mounted 
men after Harnden had frankly told him his mission and where Davis 
was supposed to be, and had proceeded at full speed to that point and 
surrounded the camp which held Davis, though the latter was not captured 
until after the regiments had fired upon each other. Many will ever 
believe the ist Wis. cavalry entitled to at least equal credit for the 
capture. The regiment was stationed at Macon, Ga., until May 24 
and was mustered out at Nashville July 19, 1865. Its original strength 
was 1,124. Gain by recruits, 1,056; substitutes, 83; draft, 278; veteran 
regnlistments, 61; total, 2,602. Loss by death, 366; desertion, 91; 
transfer, 67; discharge, 634; mustered out 1,444. 

Second Cavalry. — Cols., Cadwallader C. Washburn, Thomas Stephens, 
Nicholas H. Dale; Lieut. -Cols., Thomas Stephens, Levi Sterling, William 
H. Miller, H. Eugene Eastman, Nicholas H. Dale, William Woods, 
Newton De Forest; Majs., William H. Miller, Nicholas H. Dale, Myron 
W. Wood, H. Eugene Eastman, William Woods, John Whytock, Edwin 
Skewes, Levi Sterling, Edward D. Luxton, George N. Richmond, New- 
ton De Forest, George W. Ring. This regiment was organized at Camp 
Washburn, Milwaukee, between Dec. 3, 1861, and March 12, 1862. 
It left the state March 24 for Benton barracks, St. Louis, where it was 
mounted and equipped and was ordered to Springfield in May. The 
2nd and 3d battalions were sent to join Gen. Curtis' army at Augusta, 



76 The Union Army 

Ark., from there to Helena, where they remained until Jan., 1863, when 
they moved to Memphis, and in June to Snyder's bluflf, Miss., where 
they remained during the siege of Vicksburg. They joined Sherman's 
expedition to Jackson in July and then returned to Redbone, 10 miles 
from Vicksburg. The ist battalion was stationed at Springfield and 
Cassville, Mo., alternately until Oct., 1862, when it went to Osage 
Springs, Ark., and remained there until December. It was stationed 
at Forsyth, Mo., until the latter part of March, 1863, going from there 
to Lake Springs, and in Sept., 1864, joined the other battalions at Vicks- 
burg. The regiment was on picket duty until Nov. 6, when it joined 
an expedition to Gaines' landing, Ark. Subsequently it made a 300- 
mile expedition, destroying bridges, railroad track, cotton and supplies, 
and a detachment of 240 men engaged a considerable force of the enemy 
near Yazoo City. The regiment was ordered to Memphis on Dec. 10 
and joined an expedition under Gen. Grierson vinto Mississippi, destroy- 
ing much railroad property, bridges and stores, defeating the enemy 
in a severe action at Egypt Station and capturing 500 prisoners, who 
were placed in charge of the 2nd. The command then marched through 
to Vicksburg, destroying the enemy's line of communication, then returned 
to Memphis and soon after made two similar expeditions without notable 
incident. On May 9, 1865, a detachment of 330 was sent to Grenada, 
Miss., for garrison duty and remained vmtil June 24, when it rejoined 
the regiment at Alexandria, La. It was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 
2nd cavalry division. Department of the Gulf, and marched to Hem- 
stead, Tex., where it went into camp. It was mustered out at Austin, 
Tex., Nov. 15, 1865. Its original strength was 1,127. Gain by recruits, 
979; substitutes, 18; draft, i; veteran reenlistments, 385; total, 2,510. 
Loss by death, 271; missing, i; desertion, 103; transfer, 33; discharge, 
557; mustered out, 1,541. 

Third Cavalry. — Cols., William A. Barstow, Thomas Derry; Lieut. - 
Cols., Richard H. White, Ehas A. Calkins, David S. Vittam, Theodore 
Conkey; Majs., Elias A. Calkins, Thomas Derry, Lorenzo B. Reed, 
Benjamin S. Henning, William Culbertson, John C. Schroeling, James 
B. Pond. This regiment was organized at Camp Barstow, Janesville, and 
was mustered in at various dates from Nov. 30, 1861, to Jan. 31, 1862. 
It left the state March 26, 1862, for St. Louis, and 12 men were killed and 
28 injured in a railway accident near Chicago while en route. The 
regiment was sent to Leavenworth May 22, Col. Barstow being appointed 
provost marshal-general of Kansas. Cos. C, F, I and M were ordered 
to Fort Scott June 12, under the command of Maj. Henning, who took 
charge of the post. Bushwhackers and roving bands of guerrillas were 
speedily driven from that vicinity which was an outpost. Co. I was sent 
to Carthage, Mo., to protect loyalists, disperse guerrillas and keep watch 
on the enemy, and Co. C went to Trading Post for similar duty. Upon 
learning that a large force of the enemy was concentrating near Mon- 
tevallo. Mo., Co. I was ordered to march from Carthage to meet forces 
from Fort Scott in an attack. Reaching the point in advance of the 
troops from Fort Scott, Co. I, under Capt. Conkey, charged through 
the camp of the enemy, 2,000 strong, and pushed on, but missed Col. 
Barstow, who was leading the approaching troops by another road. 
The company proceeded to Montevallo, where it engaged in a skirmish, 
and then started for Fort Scott, but was attacked by a greatly superior 
body of the enemy and escaped with a loss of 4 men captured. Cos. 
F.-fand I accompanied an expedition in pursuit of the enemy in August 
and Co. I had the front at Taberville, being especially mentioned for 
gallantry in the official report. Cos. C and F were detached in September 
and employed until Jan., 1863, in scout and train guard duty, Cos. 
I and M replacing them at the fort. C and G made a part of the garri- 



Wisconsin Regiments 77 

son until July. In the assignment in June of the previous year, Co. 
D was sent to Atchison, Co. G to Shawnee, Co. L to Aubrey, Cos. B 
and H to post duty at Fort Leavenworth, and Cos. A, E and K to pro- 
vost duty in the city of Leavenworth. The last three were also engaged 
in scouting expeditions through the border counties of Missouri and 
on Sept. 13, six companies were attached to the ist brigade. Army of 
Missouri and sent to Indian creek in southwest Missouri. They took 
part in the battles of Cane Hill and Prairie Grove, were ordered to Fort 
Scott the following June, and reached there July 5. On May 30 Cos. 
B, G, H, I and M, while on escort duty, repulsed 1,500 Texans and In- 
dians with heavy loss to the enemy, and in June, as part of an escort 
of 1,000 men, they defeated a greatly superior force, driving it 50 miles 
across the country. Arriving at Fort Blunt, their destination, these 
companies were attached to the 3d brigade. Army of the Frontier, and 
took part in the battle of Honey Springs. They were engaged in scout- 
ing and skirmishing most of the summer and fall, were joined at Van 
Buren, Ark., in October by Cos. E and K and the detachment routed 
a superior force at Waldron. The following day it put a large force 
of Indians to flight and it defeated a force of 1,000 in the Mulberry moun- 
tains in November. These seven conipanies were stationed at Van 
Buren from Nov., 1863, to Feb., 1864, on escort and guard duty. Co. 
I, while serving as escort to Gen. Blunt in Oct., 1S63, was attacked by 
500 of Quantrill's band. It made a gallant resistance, which secured 
the safety of the commanding general, but it was compelled to retreat 
with a loss of 22 killed, and 4 wounded, the most serious loss any com- 
pany in the regiment sustained. In Jan., 1864, three-fourths of the 
regiment reenlisted and after a furlough were sent to Benton barracks. 
The regiment was ordered to Memphis in July and sent to Devall's 
Bluff, Ark. It engaged in picket duty and scouting service in the vicinity 
of Huntersville and Little Rock most of the time until Aug. 28. A 
detachment under Maj. Derry, with other mounted troops, numbering 
800 in all, routed a body of 1,200 cavalry, and 145 men under Maj. Derry 
took part in an expedition to Fort Smith in September. The remain- 
ing companies were stationed at various points in Missouri, except Co. 
M. which was sent to Pawnee, Kan. Most of the regiment remained 
near Little Rock during the winter, engaged in scout, guard, patrol 
and skirmish duty. The regiment was reorganized April 19, 1865, 
and that part which was stationed at Little Rock was consolidated 
into Cos. A, B, C, D and E, this battalion leaving for St. Louis on 
April 21. From there it went to Springfield, Mo., for post duty, 
and was mustered out at Fort Leavenworth, Sept. 8, 1865. The remain- 
ing companies performed the usual scout, guard and forage duty dur- 
ing the summer, F, H, I and K being mustered out Sept. 29, and G and 
L Oct. 27 and 23 respectively. The original strength of the regiment 
was 1,186. Gain by recruits, 962; substitutes, 18; veteran reenlist- 
ments, 357; total, 2,523. Loss by death, 215; missing, 9; desertion, 
126; transfer, 64; discharge, 418; mustered out, 1,691. 

Fourth Cavalry. — See the 4th Infantry, organized as such, but later 
mounted and attached to the cavalry service. 

Milwaukee Cavalry. — Capt., Gustav von Deutsch; First-Lieut., 
Charles Lehman; Second Lieuts., Louis Pelosi, Albert Galoskowsky. 
This company was organized at Milwaukee in July and Aug., 1861, 
and left the state in September, being mustered in at St. Louis Sept. 
23, as an independent body. It served for a short time as body-guard 
to Gen. Fremont, and was then incorporated as Co. M, with the 4th 
Mo. cavalry, with which it served until mustered out. Its original 
strength was S3. Gain by recruits, i; veteran regnlistments, 9; total, 93.' 

First Light Battery, — Capts., Jacob T. Foster, Daniel Webster. 



78 The Union Army 

First Lieuts., Alexander Cameron, Daniel Webster, Oscar F. Nutting, 
John D. Anderson, Charles B. Kimball; Second Lieuts., Albert W. Bishop, 
Charles B. Kimball, Oscar F. Nutting, Ephraim L. Hackett, Edward 
P. Aylmer, Edwin E. Stewart. This battery was organized at La Crosse 
in Sept., 1 86 1, and was mustered in Oct. lo. It rendezvoused at Racine 
from early October until Jan. 23, 1862, when it left the state. It en- 
camped at St. Louis until April 3 and then joined Gen. Morgan's expedi- 
tion to Cumberland gap, hauling the Parrott guns by hand over the 
steep passes. In August it assisted in repulsing the enemy in a fight 
at Tazewell; assisted in the defense of Cumberland gap until Sept. 17, 
and then joined the forces vmder Gen. Fo.x in Virginia. In Dec, 1862, 
it joined Sherman's forces at Memphis and started toward Vicksburg. 
It did effective work at Chickasaw bluffs and also in the reduction of 
Arkansas Post, where the work of the right section of the battery won 
from Gen. Osterhaus this praise: "The reduction of the lower case- 
mate (of the fort) and the silencing of 3 or 4 formidable guns are their 
exclusive merit." It remained at and about Vicksburg until spring 
and at the battle of Port Gibson it dismovmted 4 of the enemy's guns 
and cut to pieces the celebrated Virginia battery, its fire being most 
effective. It participated at Champion's hill; was engaged at the Big 
Black river the following day; bore a prominent part in the first assault 
at Vicksburg, doing terrible execution; and continued to perform excellent 
service during the entire siege. During the Vicksburg campaign the 
battery fired over 12,000 rounds, its 20-pounder Parrotts becoming 
so worn as to be unserviceable and were replaced with 30 -pounders. 
After the fall of Vicksburg it aided in the reduction of Jackson. The 
battery was attached to the 13th army corps, Department of the Gulf, 
and in December, joined the forces at New Orleans, where it was equipped 
as horse artillery. An inspecting committee said of it: "A more self- 
sustaining, self-reliant body of men cannot be found in the U. S. Army." 
It covered Banks' retreat in the Red River expedition in April, 1864, 
and was in the engagement at Alexandria in May. In October 80 of 
the battery, whose term of service had expired, left for home, their 
places being filled by reenlistments and recruits. Capt. Foster was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the ist Wis. heavy artillery, and 
Lieut. Webster was advanced to the captaincy. On Nov. 26 the battery 
accompanied a cavalry expedition to West Pascagoula, Miss., but returned 
to New Orleans and Baton Rouge and remained there until ordered 
home. It was mustered out at Milwaukee July 7, 1865. Its original 
strength was 155. Gain by recruits, 112; substitutes, 2; reenlistments, 
34; total, 303. Loss by death, 22; desertion, 7; transfer, 14; discharge, 
48; mustered out. 212. 

Second Light Battery. — Capts., Ernst F. Hersberg, Charles Berger; 
First Lieuts., J. C. Her von Schlen, Charles Berger, John Bulander, 
Charles Schulz, Charles Saupe, C. J. Emil Stephan, John Schabel, Lewis 
Rabe; Second Lieuts., John Schabel, Charles Schulz, August Buch- 
wald, Charles Saupe, Edward Hanson, Charles Berger, John Bulander, 
George Fischer. This battery, known as the "Washington Artillery," 
was organized at Camp Utley, Racine, in Sept. 1S61, and was mustered 
in Oct. 10. It left the statejan. 21, 1862 for Baltimore, thence to Wash- 
ington, and was ordered to Fortess Monroe as part of the garrison, remain- 
ing there until September. It then moved to Camp Hamilton. Va., 
for garrison duty and on Jan. 10, 1863, was sent to Suffolk, Va. In 
January 5 pieces of the battery engaged in the battle near South Mary 
bridge. During March and April, 3 pieces of the battery were stationed 
between Forts Dix and Union, and 2 pieces on the Nansemond river. 
On May 6 the battery was ordered to Portsmouth, from there to West 
Point and thence to Williamsburg, where it remained until July 20. 



Wisconsin Regiments 79 

It then moved to Yorktown, where it was retained until Jan. 20, TS64, 
and then proceeded to Point Lookout, Md., where it was employed prin- 
cipally as guard for prisoners until mustered out. Its original strength 
was 153. Gain by recruits, 42; reenlisted veterans, 48; total, 243. Loss 
by death, 12; desertion, 6; transfer, 7; discharge, 30; mustered out, 
188. 

Third Light Battery. — Capt., Lucius H. Drury; First Lieuts., Cort- 
land Livingston, Hiram F. Hubbard, James T. Purdy, Henry Currier; 
Second Lieuts., Albert Le Brun, Henry Currier, Webster J. Colbum, 
Joseph W. Wait, Hiram F. Hubbard. This battery, known as the 
"Badger Artillery," was organized at Camp Utley, Racine, in Sept. 
and Oct., 1861. It was mustered in Oct. 10, and left the state Jan. 
23, 1862, for Louisville, Ky., where it was armed with rifled 32-pounders. 
It went into camp at Nashville March 14, joined Grant at Savannah, 
Tenn., April 3, and moved to Pittsburg landing. It was on the march 
through Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee and Kentucky during the 
summer, and was present at Perryville, but not in action. It accom- 
panied the army in the southward movement, having several small 
engagements, and was stationed for a time at Mount Vernon, Ky. It 
was in camp at Nashville until Dec. 26 and then accompanied the 
army in the movement towards Murfreesboro. It was in action at 
Stone's river, where it guarded a ford and repelled a charge of cavalry 
upon a hospital. On New Year's day, 1863, with a brigade of infantry, 
it crossed the river, fired a few rounds at the enemy's skirmishers and 
cavalry, and received a strong fire in return. It advanced in the 
afternoon and developed the opposing army stationed in the woods, 
but was compelled to fall back across the river, when it was reinforced 
and the enemy was routed. In Jan., 1863, Capt. Drury was appointed 
chief of artillery on Gen. Van Cleve's staff. The battery encamped 
near Murfreesboro until July 5, then went to McMinnville and engaged 
in scout and picket duty. It participated at the battle of Chickamauga, 
where it was overwhelmed by numbers and driven from the field, los- 
ing 5 of its 6 guns, T,^ horses and 26 men killed, wounded and missing. 
It was stationed at Chattanooga during 1864, on guard and garrison 
duty, and was transferred to Murfreesboro in the spring of 1865. It 
was mustered out at Madison, July 20, 1865. Its original strength 
was 170. Gain by recruits, 100; total, 270. Loss by death, 26; deser- 
tion, 3; transfer, 4; discharge, 60; mustered out, 177. 

Fourth Light Battery, — Capts., John F. Vallee, George B. Easterly, 
Dorman L. Noggle; First Lieuts., John F. Valee, George B. Easterly, 
Martin H. McDevitt, William P. Powers, Burr Maxwell, Spencer S. 
Hillier, Dorman L. Noggle, Robert Campbell; Second Lieuts., Andrew 
H. Hunt, Charles A. Rathbun, George R. Wright, Dorman L. Noggle, 
Burr Maxwell, Delos H. Cady, Martin H. McDevitt, Alexander See, 
George R. Wright, Dorman L. Noggle, Levi Westinghouse, Robert 
Campbell, Benjamin Brown. This battery was organized at Beloit, 
Sept. 14, 1 861, and was sent to Camp Utley, Racine, Sept. 19. It was 
mustered in Oct. i and left the state Jan. 21, 1862, for Washington, 
but was sent at once to Fortress Monroe, where it was put in charge 
of the barbette guns and spent the summer. It had the honor of fir- 
ing the gun "Union" during the engagement between the Monitor and 
Merrimac. When fully equipped it was sent to Camp Hamilton near 
Hampton, Va., and was engaged there in garrison duty until Jan. 11, 
1863. It was then ordered to Suffolk and assisted in the defense against 
Longstreet during April. It was at West Point during May, construct- 
ing fortifications, and joined Keyes' expedition toward Richmond in 
June, a junction with Dix's forces being effected on the 2Qth. The 
battery went into camp at Yorktown July 10, was ordered to Gloucester 



80 The Union Army 

Point Aug. 25, and remained there until Oct. 11, when it was attached 
to Getty's command at Portsmouth for permanent duty. It engaged 
in small expeditions and reconnoissances until April 23, 1864, when 
it was assigned to the artillery brigade, ist division, i8th army corps, 
which moved up the James river and took part in the two days engage- 
ments about Fort Clinton on the Appomattox. It was under fire at 
Proctor's creek, near Drewry's bluff and covered the army's rear as 
it retired. It took position in the intrenchments on Bermuda Hundred, 
where it remained until June 4, when it was attached to Kautz's cavalry 
division, with which it participated in the early assaults on Peters- 
burg, at one time being exposed for 2 hours to a concentrated fire of 
14 guns. On July 8 the entire battery was converted into horse artillery 
and on the 27th the left section moved with the cavalry and partici- 
pated in the battle of Malvern hill. The right section made a short 
expedition at the same time to Lighthouse point on the James and 
on Aug. 4 went to Prince George Court House. The battery returned 
to Petersburg and was in numerous engagements with the Army of 
the Potomac in and about Richmond. It was mustered out July 3, 
1865. Its original strength was 151. Gain by recruits, 62; substitutes, 
38; regnlistments, 43; total, 294. Loss by death, 24; missing, i; deser- 
tion, 15; transfer, i; discharge, 82; mustered out, 171. 

Fifth Light Battery. — Capts., Oscar F. Pinney, Charles B. Humphrey, 
George Q. Gardner, Joseph McKnight; First Lieuts., Washington Hill, 
George Q. Gardner, Joseph McKnight, George Lafiferty, Daniel Titus, 
Charles B. Humphrey, Elijah Booth, Jr.; Second Lieuts., Almon Smith, 
Joseph McKnight, George Lafferty, Daniel Titus, Elijah Booth Jr., 
John Dickinson, George Q. Gardner, Charles M. Wyman. This battery 
was organized at Monroe, but afterwards rendezvoused at Camp Utley, 
Racine, and was mustered in Oct. i, 1861. It left the state March 15, 
1862, for St. Louis and was ordered to New Madrid, w^here it was engaged 
in building and guarding forts until the surrender of Island No. 10. 
It moved with Pope's army in April, took position near Corinth, and 
was in the battle of Farmington, where two sections of the battery 
took position in the extreme front and for three days defended a bridge, 
across which the enemy must advance. The battery passed through 
the siege of Corinth, was then on guard duty at Ripley from June 29 
tmtil Aug. 14, when it was transferred to the Army of the Tennessee 
and marched to Nashville, thence to Louisville, skirmished with the 
enemy at Bardstown and participated in the battle of Perryville. It 
supported McCook's corps, which was hard pressed, and repelled three 
attempts to take the battery. Gen. McCook thanked the battery, say- 
ing it had "saved the corps from disgraceful defeat." It was engaged 
at Stone's river, where it checked the enemy's advance and was again 
commended for its "gallant and distinguished" service. It encamped 
at Murfreesboro during the winter and spring of 1863, and joined the 
advance towards Chattanooga in June. It reached Crawfish springs 
at Chickamauga on the second day of the battle, but was not in action. 
It remained near Chickamauga until Nov. 20, going out on short expedi- 
tions. Most ^f the men reenlisted in Jan., 1864, and were furloughed 
home for a month. On their return the battery was assigned to the 
2nd division, 14th army corps, near Rossville, Ga. It was actively 
engaged at Resaca and was in a severe skirmish near Rome a few days 
later. It held several important positions in the operations about Dallas, 
and was in the front at Kennesaw mountain. Subsequently it took a 
new position from which it did such effective work as to compel the 
enemy's artillery to vacate its position. At the battle of Peachtree creek 
it shelled the enemy out of his works and was then in active service 
about Atlanta until Aug. 28. It was in the engagement at Jonesboro, 



Wisconsin Regiments 81 

and then remained in camp at Atlanta until Oct. 3, when it went on 
the expedition to repel Hood's threatened attack upon the railroad 
communications. It returned to Atlanta, moved from there to Savan- 
nah with the army, accompanied Sherman north, participated in the 
battle of Bentonville, and the review at Washington. It was mustered 
out at Madison June 14, 1865. Its original strength was 155. Gain 
by recruits, 70; reenlistments, 79; total, 304. Loss by death, 24; deser- 
tion, i; transfer, 5; discharge, 61; mustered out, 213. 

Sixth Light Battery. — Capts., Henry Dillon, Thomas R. Hood, James 
G. Simpson; First Lieuts., Henry Dillon, Samuel F. Clark, John Jenawein 
Thomas R. Hood, Alba S. Sweet; Second Lieuts., John W. Fancher, 
James G. Simpson Sylvester E. Sweet. Daniel T. Noyes, John Jenawein, 
Lucius N. Keller. This battery, known as the "Buena Vista Artillery," 
was organized at Lone Rock in Sept., 1861, but was transferred to Camp 
Utley, Racine, where it was mustered in Oct. 2, and left the state March 
15, 1862. It reported at St. Louis, was ordered to New Madrid, and 
placed in charge of a battery during the siege of Island No. 10. It 
was in reserve during the siege of Corinth, but took part in the battle 
in October. It spent the winter in Tennessee, joined the movement 
toward Vicksburg in the spring of 1863, went to Helena and was sent 
out on several minor expeditions. It participated at Port Gibson; 
was in a sharp skirmish at Jones' cross-roads; was at the battle of Ray- 
mond in reserve ; took part in the battle of Jackson ; was engaged at 
Champion's hill, and was in the trenches before Vicksburg from May 
19 until the surrender. It remained at Vicksburg until Sept. 12, then 
moved to Chattanooga and was in the battle at Missionary ridge. It was 
then on railroad guard duty until Jan. 7, 1864. It wintered at Huntsville, 
Ala., and spent the summer on the Etowah river near Cartersville, Ga., 
most of the time in Fort Etowah. On Nov. 10 it left for Nashville 
and joined the reserve battery at Fort Barry. On Jan. 7, 1865, it was 
transferred to the reserve garrison artillery. The men were armed 
with muskets on Jan. 16 and assigned to provost guard duty. On 
Feb. 1 7 it was sent to a permanent camp at Chattanooga and was mus- 
tered out at Madison July 18, 1865. Its original strength was 157. 
Gain by recruits, 82; substitutes, 2; reenlistments, 34; total, 275. Loss 
by death, 29; desertion, 5; transfer, g; discharge, 36; mustered out, 196. 

Seventh Light Battery. — Capts., Richard R. Griffith, Harry S. Lee, 
Arthur B. Wheelock; First Lieuts., Harry S. Lee, Galen E. Green, Arthur 
B. Wheelock, William E. Hearsey, James H. Bridgeman; Second Lieuts., 
Arthur B. Wheelock, William E. Hearsey, James H. Bridgeman, Moses 
Jerome, Samuel Hayes, Frank Fox, James H. Langworthy. This battery, 
called the "Badger State Flying Artillery," was organized at Milwaukee 
during the summer and fall of 1861, and was mustered in Oct. 4. It 
left the state March 15, 1862, for St. Louis and was sent to New Madrid, 
where it was placed in charge of heavy siege guns during the siege of 
Island No. 10. It was engaged in garrison duty on that island after 
its surrender and on June 11, left for Union City and Trenton, Tenn., 
for railroad guard duty. On July 20 it moved to Humboldt and remained 
there until Dec. i, when the battery was divided, 3 guns being sent 
to Trenton. About the middle of the month, a feint by Forrest's cavalry 
on Jackson led to a concentration of forces at that point, leaving a part 
of the battery, some horses, camp and garrison equipage, all of which 
was captured by the enemy two days later, as well as much of the camp 
equipage at Trenton. Half of the battery was sent as far as Lexington, 
Ky., after Forrest and the entire battery took part at Parker's cross- 
roads in December, but the enemy with 10 guns in concentric fire dis- 
abled the guns of one section and captured the men handling them. Most 
of those captured were released later by a charge of infantry. The 

Vol. IV— 6 



82 The Union Army 

battery was stationed at Jackson until June i, 1863, when it moved 
to Corinth, thence to Memphis, where it was attached to the 4th brigade, 
5th division, i6th army corps, for permanent garrison duty, and remained 
there, with the exception of a few short expeditions, until the close of 
the war. The regnlisted veterans took a furlough home in February, 
but returned early in April, and on May i the right section joined the 
pursuit of Forrest, a ten days hard trijj. The left section engaged in 
a similar expedition in June and in a severe engagement near Gimtown, 
Miss., lost its guns, and 5 men. The guns were soon retaken and used 
on the raiders with telUng effect. The battery was mustered out at 
Madison. Its original strength was 158. Gain by recruits, 93; sub- 
stitutes, i; reenlistments, 92; total, 344. Loss by death, 29; desertion, 
9; transfer, i; discharge, 68; mustered out, 237. 

Eighth Light Battery, — Capts., Stephen J. Carpenter, HenryJ E. 
Stiles; First Lieuts., James E. Armstrong, George L. Cross, Obadiah 
German, Henry E. Stiles, John D. McLean, Thomas B. McNair; Second 
Lieuts., John D. McLean, Henry L. Wheeler, Azro Mann, Samuel S. 
Armstrong, Thomas B. McNair, William O'D Reilly. This battery, 
known as "Lyon's Pinery Battery," was organized in the fairofi{i86i 
at Stevens Point. It rendezvoused at Camp Utley, Racine, was mus- 
tered in Jan. 8, 1862, and left the state March 18 for St. Louis. On 
April 4 it proceeded to Fort Leavenworth to join the Southwestern 
expedition. At Fort Riley it was ordered to Columbus, Ky., and thence 
to Humboldt, Tenn., for guard duty. In July it was ordered to Mississippi 
and reached Corinth on the 9th. It was next transferred to the army 
of the Tennessee, and two sections were sent to Nashville, the center 
section imder Lieut. McLean being left at Eastport, Miss. The other 
two sections were in the battle of Perryville, afterward joining in the 
pursuit of the enemy and shelling him from his position at Lancaster. 
They then returned to Nashville. The center section left Eastport 
for luka, but did not reach there in time for the battle. At Corinth 
it did excellent work and was ranked with those who greatly distinguished 
themselves. It joined the right and left sections at Nashville and at 
Stone's river the battery performed honorable service. It encamped 
at Murfreesboro during the winter and spring of 1863, and was in action 
at Chickamauga. It was also in action at Missionary ridge and Look- 
out mountain, and was ordered to Nashville in December, where it 
was assigned to the 2nd division, artillery reserve. The veterans were 
remustered, Jan. 26, 1864, and given a furlough. They rejoined the 
battery at Murfreesboro in April, and it was assigned to Fort Rosecrans 
for garrison duty. It was mustered out at Milwaukee, Aug. 10, 1865. 
Its original strength was 161. Gain by recruits, 102; refinlistments, 
66; total, 329. Loss by death, 25; missing, i; desertion, 13; transfer, 
14; discharge, 53; mustered out, 223. 

ITinth Light Battery. — Capts., Cyrus H. Johnson, James H. Dodge, 
Watson D. Crocker; First Lieuts., James H. Dodge, Watson D. Crocker, 
John A. Edington; Second Lieuts., John A. Edington, Henry A. Hicks, 
Albert Helliwell. This battery, known as the Randall Battery, was 
organized and mustered into service on Jan. 27, 1862. It remained 
at Racine until March 18, when it proceeded in company with the 8th 
and loth batteries to St. Louis. On April 3 it embarked for Leaven- 
worth, Kan., where it prepared for a march across the plains. On 
the 26th it proceeded by way of Fort Kearny and Julesburg, to Denver, 
reaching there on June 2 after a march of 700 miles. On June 4 it pro- 
ceeded to Fort Union, New Mex., and soon afterward Lieut. Crocker 
with the left section marched to Fort Lamed and remained there until' 
Dec, 1864. On July 5, the right section marched to Fort Lyon, where 



Wisconsin Regiments 83 

it joined the center section. These two sections remained in (.'olorado 
until April 26, 1864, either at the fort or at Denver, making frequent 
marches to the distant frontier. The most noteworthy of these was 
made by Lieut. Edington with one section in June, 1863. The march 
was a distance of 240 miles and it was made in three days — the quickest 
in the history of the war at that date. In April, 1864, the battery marched 
to Covmcil Grove, Kan., where it remained as garrison of the town, 
escorting trains and U. S. mail coaches over the road until August, when 
it went to Fort Riley. In July Lieut. Edington with one section joined 
in an expedition against the Indians at Fort Larned. Late in August he 
joined an expedition to Smoky Hill, where the Indians were defeated in a 
well contested engagement. In July, 1863, Lieut. Crocker and the 
left section held Fort Larned with its large and valuable government 
supplies against the combined forces of the Indians in that locality. 
In Oct., 1864, Capt. Dodge, with 4 guns, joined the command of Gen. 
Curtis and participated in the campaign against Price in Missouri and 
Arkansas. In the battle at Westport the battery broke the charge 
of a column, 6,000 strong, three successive times. In Dec. 1864, this 
portion of the battery proceeded to Fort Leavenworth, where soon 
afterward it was joined by the other detachments preparatory to reor- 
ganization of the veterans. The aggregate distance marched by the 
battery and detached section during these three years was nearly 15,000 
miles. The veteran battery was organized Jan. 27, 1865, with Lieut. 
Crocker as Captain. On March 26 Lieut. Edington with one section 
marched to Fort Scott and remained there until June 16, when he pro- 
ceeded to Fort Riley. This section left Fort Riley for western Kansas 
and was mustered out at Fort Leavenworth Sept. 30. The original 
strength of the battery was 155. Gain by recruits, 63; reenlistments, 
78; total, 296. Loss by death, 6; transfer, i; discharge, 56; mustered 
out, 233. 

Tenth Light Battery. — Capt., Yates V. Beebe; First Lieuts., David 
C. Pratt, Philip H. M. Groesbeck, Ebenezer W. Stetson; Second Lieuts., 
Philip H. M. Groesbeck, Elbert W. Fowler, Henry A. Hicks, Oscar 
A. Clark. This battery was organized at New Lisbon in the fall of 
1 861, and was mustered in Feb. 10, 1862. It rendezvoused at Camp 
Utley, Racine, and left the state March 18 for St. Louis. On April 
1, Lieut. Toner and 25 men were transferred to the 8th battery, and 
Lieut. Hicks and 45 men to the 9th, leaving but 47 men in the loth. 
These were joined in April by 25 recruits and the battery was assigned 
to the reserve artillery at Pittsburg landing. It was in action at the 
siege of Corinth and then encamped at Tuscumbia creek until July 
21, when it moved to luka and left there Aug. 12 to join the Army of 
the Tennessee near Nashville. One section, which had been left at 
Courtland, rejoined the battery at Decatur, Ala., in September. It 
routed a body of Van Dom's cavalry at Columbia, Tenn., and upon 
reaching Nashville engaged in train escort service. In November its 
ranks were augmented by 50 recruits and on Dec. 12 it was assigned 
to the 2nd brigade, 7th division, 14th corps. It escorted a train to 
Murfreesboro, where it was temporarily detached and participated 
in the battle of Stone's river. It was on garrison duty at Nashville until 
April 8; on railroad guard duty at Brentwood until June 3; in garrison 
at Murfreesboro until Aug. 19; in camp at Athens, Ala., until Sept. 1; 
on bridge guard duty at and near Bridgeport, Tenn., until Oct. 10; 
and then guarded the river at various points until Jan. i, 1864, when 
one section moved to Calhoun. It was joined by the other sections 
in February, and was employed as bridge guard until April 27, when 
it was ordered to Cleveland, Tenn., and assigned to the 3d cavalry division. 
Army of the Cumberland. It was heavily engaged at Resaca and Calhoun 



84 The Union Army 

ferry being praised for its "energy, prompt maneuvering and accurate 
firing." It was on guard duty in the vicinity of Adairsville, Kingston 
and Cartersville until Aug. 3, and at Red Oak it silenced the enemy's 
battery and destroyed 2 miles of railroad. It engaged a battery at 
Jonesboro with the same result, burned the depot, rolling stock and 
buildings, and destroyed 3 miles of track. It made a vigorous attack 
on the enemy at Lovejoy's Station and a few days later again silenced 
the battery at Red Oak. It was in lively engagements at Burnt bridge, 
Glass bridge. Salt Springs, Nose's creek and Rome, and then went 
into camp at Marietta. It participated in the march to the sea, taking 
part in engagements at Lovejoy's Station, Waynesboro, Buckhead 
Church and other points. It then joined in the campaign of the C'arolinas, 
and was actively engaged at Barnwell, Aiken, Gunter's bridge, Homsboro, 
Monroe's crossing and Averasboro. The non-veterans who were entitled 
to discharge, were mustered out at Madison, April 26, 1865, and the 
balance of the battery was temporarily attached to the 12th Wis. battery. 
The original strength of the loth was 47; recruits, 121; reenlistments, 
11; total, 179. Loss by death, 24; desertion, 4; discharge, 60; mustered 
out, 91. 

Eleventh Light Battery. — Capt., John Rourke; First Lieuts., John 
McAfee, Carles Bagley; Second Lieuts., William L. McKenzie, Michael 
Lantry, Michael Cminingham. This battery was known as the "Oconto 
Irish Guards," and was organized for the 17th regiment at Oconto early 
in 1862. It was transferred to Col. Milligan's "Irish Brigade," at Camp 
Douglas, Chicago, and left there on June 14, 1862. On the 23d it crossed 
the Potomac at Harpers Ferry and went into camp at New creek, W. 
Va. On Oct. 28 a section accompanied a cavalry force to intercept 
the enemy under Imboden at Greenland gap. Near Petersburg they 
overtook and skirmished with him. In November a large force with 
two sections of the battery engaged in a fight with the same enemy 
18 miles beyond Moorefield. In April, 1863, they again encoimtered 
and drove Imboden, near Philippi. In the same month one section 
held Rowlesburg and one Fairmount, but the whole battery was soon 
forced to retire to New creek. In July it changed its position to Hedge- 
ville, and thence to Petersburg and Moorefield, where in September 
one section repulsed two assaults of the enemy. In November the 
battery became associated with Gen. Averell's command and assisted 
in destroying the Virginia and Tennessee railroad. On Nov. 26, Lieut. 
McAfee and a detachment of 18 men participated in a march towards 
Moorefield, but encountered a superior force of the enemy and was 
forced to retreat. On Jan. 22, 1865, the battery reported at Harper's 
Ferry, where it remained till mustered out. Its original strength was 
87. Gain by recruits, 8; reenlistments, 39; total, 134. Loss by death, 
3; desertion, 20; transfer, 2; discharge, 17; mustered out, 92. 

Twelfth Light Battery. — Capts., WilHam A. Pile, WiUiam Zickerick; 
First Lieuts., William Zickerick, Edward G. Harlow, William Miles, 
Lorenzo D. Immel, Marcus Amsden, Sylvester C. Cheney, Philander 
H. Cody; Second Lieuts., William H. Hamilton, Marcus Amsden, Samuel 
E. Jones, Philander H. Cody, Henry Marks, Sylvester C. Cheney, Henry 
Turner. This battery was organized in the winter of 1862 and was 
mustered in by squads during March, 1863. It was sent to Jefferson 
barracks. Mo., as mustered, with the understanding that it was to be 
attached to the ist Mo. artillery as the 12th Wis. battery. Capt. Pile, 
a Missourian, who had been given special authority by Gov. Harvey 
to recruit the battery, refused to acknowledge Gov. Harvey's authority 
after leaving the state and proceeded to distribute the men according 
to his own pleasure. On July 18 the governor revoked his commission 
with the approval of the war department, William Zickerick succeed- 



Wisconsin Regiments So 

ing him. A number of the recruits were temporarily attached to a 
Missouri battery in March, pending the completion of the battery's 
organization, and were engaged in the siege of Island No. lo. In Nfay 
two sections of the battery joined Halleck's forces before Corinth, whither 
the other section had preceded them, and on the 29th one section, under 
Lieut. Zickerick, destroyed a redoubt commanding a railroad. The 
battery joined in pursuit of the enemy, then camped at Clear creek 
and remained in that vicinity until August. It was then at Jacinto, 
Miss., until Oct. i, though it took part in the battle of luka in Septem- 
ber, and in the meantime was reinforced by 71 recruits. It was engaged 
at Corinth in October and was on garrison duty there until Nov. 8. 
It was then in the movement through Mississippi and Tennessee until 
Jan. 4, 1863, when it was assigned to guard duty near Germantown. 
It was in camp at Memphis from Feb. 8 to March i, then moved toward 
Vicksburg and took part in the "Yazoo Pass" expedition. In the 
campaign in the rear of Vicksburg it was in action at Port Gibson, Ray- 
mond and Champion's hill, and was then engaged in the siege of Vicks- 
burg until the surrender. It then engaged in various movements through 
Mississippi, Tennessee and Alabama until Jan. 9, 1864, when it was 
placed on garrison duty at Huntsville. In June it was then ordered 
to Kingston, Ga., thence to AUatoona on garrison duty, and was active 
in the celebrated defense of AUatoona in October. It was with Sher- 
man on the march to the sea and on Jan. 14, 1865, moved to Beaufort, 
S. C, thence to Columbia, and on to Goldsboro. In April it went into 
camp, 4 miles from Raleigh, and left there on the 29th for Washing- 
ton, where it participated in the grand review. It was mustered out 
at Madison, June 26, 1865. Its original strength was 99. Gain by 
recruits, 209; substitutes, 3; reenlistments, 31; total, 342. Loss by 
death, 30; missing, i ; desertion, 2; transfer, 81 ; discharge, 105; mustered 
out, 123. 

Thirteenth Light Battery. — Capt., Richard R. Griffith; First Lieuts., 
George L. Cross, Alfred E. Chaffee, William W. Perrine, William M. 
Bristol; Second Lieuts., William W. Perrine, William M. Bristol, Frank 
Fox, David Kinder. This battery was organized in the fall of 1863 
at Milwaukee. One squad was mustered in Nov. 4 and the other Dec. 
29. The battery left the state Jan. 28, 1864, reached Memphis on Feb. 
I, and New Orleans on the 12th. It was ordered to Baton Rouge and 
assigned to duty in Fort Williams, where it was placed in charge of 
6 heavy guns. On June i 7 it was ordered to provost duty in the city 
of Baton Rouge, but returned to Fort Williams on July 8, taking charge 
of 7 barbette guns, and on the loth was completely equipped as light 
artillery, taking the entire equipment of the ist Vt. battery, whose term 
of service had expired. On the i 5th it went into camp at Baton Rouge 
and remained there until ordered home. It was mustered out at Mil- 
waukee, July 20, 1865. Its original strength was 156. Gain by recruits, 
32; total, 188. Loss by death, 14; missing, i; desertion, 25; transfer, 
3; discharge, 39; mustered out, 106. 

First Heavy Artillery. — Col., Charles C. Meservey; Lieut. -Col., 
Jacob T. Foster; Majs., Charles C. Meservey, L. H. Drury, Richard 
W. Hubbell, David C. Fulton. Three days after the first battle of 
Bull Run (July 25, 1861), Co. K, 2nd Wis. infantry, was detached for 

farrison duty at Fort Corcoran near Washington. On Aug. 28 it occupied 
'ort Marcy and on Sept. 12, one-half of the company was ordered to 
Fort Ethan Allen for garrison and instruction duty. On Oct. 10 it 
rejoined the regiment, but on Dec. 9 was permanently detached and organ- 
ized as an artillery company — the ist battery Wis. heavy artillery — 
and stationed at Fort Cass. This formed the nucleus for Wisconsin's 
heavy artillery and on Aug. 28, 1862, a detachment of 40 men, with 



86 The Union Army 

3 pieces of artillery, was sent to garrison Fort BvifFalo, an exposed post, 
where it repulsed an attack of the enemy. It returned to Fort Cass 
in September, moved to Fort Ellsworth in November, and was trans- 
ferred to Fort Worth in May, 1863. In June Capt. Meservey was au- 
thorized to recruit a battalion of four batteries of heavy artillery, using 
the first battery as a basis. On Aug. 22 part of battery B was mus- 
tered in and by Sept. 9 was fully recruited. Battery A moved in Octo- 
ber from Fort Worth to Battery Rodgers, where it remained until May, 

1864, and was then transferred to Fort Willard. It returned to Battery 
Rodgers in August and was mustered out at Washington Aug, 18, 

1865. Battery B left Milwaukee in Oct., 1863, was sent to Munford- 
ville, Ky., and on Jan. 4, 1864, to Lexington, Ky., where it garrisoned 
Fort Clay until Aug. 30, 1865, when it was mustered out. Battery 
C was mustered in Oct. i, 1863, left the state on the 30th, and was sent 
to Fort Wood, Chattanooga. In Jan., 1864, it was sent to Fort Creighton 
and in May moved to Fort Sherman. On March 29, 1865, it moved 
to Athens, Tenn., and on April 5, marched to Mouse creek. On July 
3 it was ordered to Strawberry plains, and was mustered out at Nash- 
ville Sept. 21, 1865. Battery D was mustered in Nov. 7, 1863; left the 
state Feb. i, 1864, for New Orleans and was sent to Fort Jackson on 
garrison duty. In July it moved, to Fort Berwick, Brashear City, 
La., where it remained until June, 1865. It was mustered out Aug. 
18, 1865. General orders No. 21, issued Sept. 14, 1864, called for the 
recruiting of eight additional companies to complete the regimental 
organization. Batteries L and M left the state, Sept. 30, E and F Oct. 
3, H Oct. 7, K Oct. 17, and G and I Nov. 12. They were assigned to 
duty in the defenses at Washington as a part of the 4th brigade, Da 
Russy's division, 22nd army corps, and remained at that point until 
mustered out Oct. i, 1865. It is due the entire regiment to say that 
in discipline and appearance under arms, it was equal to any in the serv- 
ice. Its original strength was 1,777. Gain by recruits, 407; draft, 
4; regnlistments, 29; total, 2,217. Loss by death, 73; desertion, 70; 
transfer, 28; discharge, 223; unaccounted for, 3; mustered out, 1,820. 

All Other Troops. — In addition to those previously enumerated, 
the records of the adjutant general for 1865 show the following credited 
to the state: Gibbon's brigade band, 15; Blunt's brigade band, ^^; 
Colored troops, 244; army and navy, 714; out of state, 52; unassigned, 
8,868. Quite a number of Indians were enrolled and performed valorous 
deeds. 



Military Affairs in Minnesota 

1861—65 



•The history of Minnesota in relation to the war is in many 
ways interesting, and in every way creditable. It was the 
first state to tender troops for putting down the rebellion. 
Gov. Ramsey was in Washington the day of Sumter's fall. 
The next morning he went to Sec. of War Cameron and tendered 
1,000 men for the defense of the government. The tender 
was accepted and the following day the call for 75,000 troops 
was made. Gov. Ramsey telegraphed Lieut. -Go v. Ignatius 
Donnelly of the offer and its acceptance. In the evening, 
at a meeting in the armory at St. Paul, several signed a paper 
agreeing to enlist, Josias R. King being the first to put down 
his name and therefore claimed to have been the first to volunteer 
for the Civil war. He was afterwards commissioned captain 
of Company G, ist Minn, infantry. 

Minnesota furnished the first three years regiment that 
reached the seat of hostilities. The ist Minn, lost the great- 
est number of men at Gettysburg, in proportion to the number 
engaged, of any regiment in any single battle fought during 
the war. With 262 officers and men engaged, this regiment 
lost 50 killed and 174 wounded, a total of 224, leaving but 
38 capable of duty. Of the wounded 25 died of their injuries, 
making over 28 percent. of those engaged, a percentage unequalled 
in military statistics, if massacres, where all or nearly all lose 
their lives, be excepted. 

With a population in i860 of but 172,023, Minnesota's offer 
ing was 26,717, including citizen soldiery during the Indian 
war, and after deducting reenlistments her contribution com- 
pared favorably with the number furnished by any state in 
the Union, being 22,970 net. Intense patriotism was felt, 
with none of the disaffection so prevalent in some states being 
apparent. 

There were a few within the state whose sympathies were 
with the South, but they made no trouble. Maj. Pemberton, 
who was in command at Fort Ridgely in 1861, was ordered to 
Washington for field service, but en route resigned his com- 
mission, took up arms for the South and surrendered Vicksburg 
to Grant. 

87 



88 The Union Army 

The work of recruiting was carried on under great disad- 
vantages at times, the population being largely agricultural, 
financial resources weak, communities poor, and a most dis- 
tressing Indian outbreak to contend with. 

The history of war times in this young commonwealth is 
so inextricably interwoven with the Indian massacres of 1862-63, 
that the latter must naturally become a part of it. Coming 
at a time so trying, the state was compelled to put forth her 
greatest eflForts to protect her citizens and perform her part 
in the affairs of the times. Fortunately Gov. Alexander Ramsey 
was a man of great capacity, closely connected with public 
men who ably assisted him, and he kept a firm hand at the 
helm of state. With such men as Ignatius Donnelly, then 
lieutenant-governor, Charles E. Flandrau, Ex-Gov. Henry H. 
Sibley, Col. John B. Sanborn (adjutant-general), and others 
equally capable, he met every emergency promptly and efficiently. 

The call for 75,000 men was made April 15, 1861. As noted 
above Gov. Ramsey had tendered 1,000 men the day before, 
the tender had been accepted, and several had enlisted on the 
evening of the 14th. The call did not include Minnesota, 
but having been authorized to muster a regiment, the gov- 
ernor pushed the work rapidly. A proclamation was issued 
by Lieut. -Gov. Donnelly on the i6th. Adjt.-Gen. William 
H. Acker resigned, and Col. John B. Sanborn was appointed 
in his place on the 24th. The regiment was in readiness for 
action on the 30th. 

The call had met with ready response; public meetings were 
addressed by men of all shades of political opinion; Fort Snell- 
ing, which had been in disuse for several years, was renovated; 
and the Stars and Stripes were run up on the 29th. The men 
of the regiment were fine specimens of physical manhood and 
of good education and ability in most cases. On May 4, two 
companies were ordered to Fort Ripley, two to Fort Ridgely 
and two to Fort Abercrombie, to relieve the regulars stationed 
there. This was not the service contemplated and served 
to dampen the ardor of the regiment. But to their credit 
be it said, they accepted the work assigned them gracefully 
and performed well their part. On May 7 the regiment was 
mustered in for three years, the senior three years regiment 
in the service. It was presented by the ladies of St. Paul 
with a state flag, which was carried through the war. On 
May 29 the ladies of Winona presented the regimental flag, 
which came back after the battle of Bull Run torn with bullets 
and shells. On June 14 came the longed-for word to go to the 
front and on the 22nd the regiment left to make for itself a 
record of which the state becam.e justly proud. 



Military Affairs in Minnesota 89 

Gov. Ramsey telegraphed the president on May 3, tender- 
ing a second regiment and proceeded to Washington to ascer- 
tain what could be expected in the way of equipment. The 
only arms in the state were a miscellaneous lot of Springfields, 
Mississippi rifles with sword bayonets, and a few each of several 
patterns at the state arsenal. These had been used for drill- 
ing the ist regiment, and those having the Springfield rifles 
were allowed to keep them, the others having been supplied 
with the 69-caliber musket. 

A telegram from the governor on May 10 suggested that 
all enlistments were desired for three years. The same day 
he requested the war department to send 1,000 stands of arms 
to the state at once. On May 23 he made a second tender of 
another regiment and also tendered a company of cavalry. 
On June 14 he received the desired order for forming the 2nd 
regiment and this was organized by companies which replaced 
those of the ist on garrison duty during June. The last com- 
pany was organized in August, the detached companies came 
together in September, and the regiment left for Washington 
Oct. 14. 

Considerable trouble was experienced with the question of 
clothing and general equipment, but by persistence it was 
secured from the government. Owing to unfortunate enact- 
ments just previous to the war, the state found itself burdened 
with a railroad debt of $2,000,000 and its credit was seriously 
impaired, so that the general government was forced to pro- 
vide for the care of these troops, though itself harassed for 
funds. The state arsenal contained some supplies and these 
were dealt out as long as any remained. Considerable com- 
plaint came from the individual members of the ist with refer- 
ence to their condition but this was speedily hushed by the 
appearance of full supplies of clothing and the regular army 
ration. 

Minnesota's part in the battle of Bull Run and at Ball's 
bluff had attracted the attention of Gen. H. S. Sanford, who 
had been a pioneer tourist in Minnesota, and who at that time 
was this country's minister to Brussels. He purchased a battery 
of 3 rifled 6-pounder cannon with suitable ammunition, and 
in the early summer of 1862 presented them to the ist regiment 
as a "tribute to patriotism and valor," a gift which was appre- 
ciated beyond expression. 

On Oct. 13, Governor Ramsey announced that the state had 
furnished more than the quota, but expressed the hope that 
she would "continue to offer to the nation company after com- 
pany of the best and bravest of her sons," and on the 23d he 
was authorized by the war department to organize the 5th 



90 The Union Army 

regiment, which was accomplished during the fall and win- 
ter. 

At the close of the year 1861 the state had furnished 4,400 
men in its own regiments and companies, as well as several 
hundred who had joined the regiments of other states. Her 
quota was 4,180. The aggregate amount of all expenditures, 
not including items of transportation and clerk hire during the 
year, was $108,621.91, of which $74,982.21 was paid or adjusted. 
Of the remainder, the amount of claims for goods purchased 
upon credit of the general government and not adjusted was 
$23,733.89, leaving the state's indebtedness to the amount of 
$9,875.89. Adjt.-Gen. John B. Sanborn, having accepted the 
appointment of colonel of the 4th regiment, resigned his office 
and he was succeeded by Col. Oscar Malmros. 

Word was received from the war department on May 21, 
requesting another regiment, and the call was at once issued 
for the organization of the 6th. On July 8 another regi- 
ment was called for and the 7th was quickly organized. In 
Jime came the first intimation of possible trouble with the 
Indians and a small detachment of troops was sent to the Indian 
agent at Yellow Medicine agency to remain during the dis- 
tribution of the annuity and goods. This was followed in August 
by news of the uprising and massacre. In 1862 several tribes 
of Indians roamed over the Minnesota prairies, the wildest 
and most savage being the Sioux. Of this tribe there were 
four bands — two known as the Upper and two as the Lower 
Sioux. They were thus designated for the reason that at 
the treaty with the tribe in 1851, a reservation was established, 
consisting of a strip of land 10 miles wide, on each side of the 
Minnesota river, beginning at a point a few miles below Fort 
Ridgely and extending to the head waters of the river. The 
reservation of the lower bands extended up to the Yellow 
Medicine river, that of the upper bands including all above 
that river. Agencies were established at Redwood for the 
lower, and at Yellow Medicine for the upper bands. The Indians 
subsisted largely upon the results of the chase visiting the 
agency only when their annuity was due. Frequently these 
payments were delayed, compelling the Indians to go into 
debt with the traders. This, together with the realization 
that they had given up a valuable territory to the white man, 
who was rapidly settling it and crowding them back, aroused 
bitter feelings which only required for them an excuse to take 
up arms. 

Payments in 1862 were delayed as usual. The Indians 
had learned that the whites of the nation were at war with 
each other and they had been informed that thousands of men 



Military Affairs in Minnesota 91 

were leaving the state. A company of half-breeds had been 
raised at the agency and sent with the white soldiers, and this 
was a sign of weakness in the eyes of the Indian, who argued 
that the government could not defeat its enemies without the 
assistance of the red man. The Sioux was a war-like race 
and some of their chiefs were ambitious. In early July the 
Indians had gathered at the upper agency to receive their 
annuity and goods, but the money did not arrive, and after 
waiting until Aug. 7, Agent Galbraith made a proposition to 
issue the annuity goods at once, the Indians to return to their 
homes and remain until advised of the arrival of the money. 
To this they agreed, but with bad grace. They had previously 
made threatening demonstrations, being restrained from whole- 
sale plunder only by the presence of Lieuts. Sheehan and Gere 
with 100 men of Cos. B and C of the 5th regiment, who stood 
in the midst of nearly 800 yelling red men on the 4th, with two 
howitzers trained on the angry savages. 

They were still angry when on the 1 7th a small party of Indians, 
in a controversy with a white man at Acton, killed him and 
three women. Returning to the agency they told what they 
had done and urged that the only way out of the trouble was 
to kill all the whites. A minority fought against it, but were 
voted down and fled from the camp, later surrendering to the 
troops. The following morning the massacre commenced. 
The whites at the agencies were killed, after which small bands 
attacked each house, killed the inmates, and continued their 
work until the following day, when they had murdered i,ooo 
men, women and children, and captured a large number of 
young women for their own purposes. 

The first news of the outbreak reached Fort Ridgely on the 
morning of the i8th, a number who had escaped from the Indi- 
ans flocking there for protection. Capt. Marsh in command, 
promptly despatched a messenger to Lieut. Sheehan, who 
with his command was on his way to Fort Ripley from the 
Yellow Medicine agency, where he had been during July. With 
45 men he started for the Lower agency, 13 miles distant. 
Capt. Marsh's party was caught in an ambuscade at the river 
some 10 miles distant and all but 15 were murdered. Marsh 
was drowned while attempting to escape. 

Maj. Thomas Galbraith, agent for the Sioux, had left for 
Fort Snelling with a company of enlisted men called the Ren- 
ville Rangers. Reaching St. Peter on the evening of the 
18th, he learned of the massacre and immediately retraced his 
steps, his company, 50 in number, reaching Fort Ridgely on 
the 19th. 

Lieut. Sheehan was overtaken near Glencoe by the messenger 



^3 The Union Army 

from Fort Ridgely, and with his command made a forced return 
march, covering the 42 miles in less than 10 hours. 

Lieut. Gere with 40 men had been left to garrison the fort 
when Capt. Marsh set out for the agency. The numbers had been 
increased by citizens and the arrival of the Sheehan and Gal- 
braith forces gave the fort about 175 men capable of defense. 

On receipt of the news at St. Peter, Judge Charles E. Flandrau 
organized a party of 116 men and started for New Ulm, being 
joined by a large number from Le Sueur under Capt. Townsley, 
and he reached there on the 19th, just in time to aid in repel- 
ling an attack after several citizens had been killed and a half 
dozen houses burned. A squad from Swan Lake under Samuel 
Coffin had reached there just ahead of the Flandrau party. 
On the 20th a full company commanded by Capt. William 
Bierbaur arrived from Mankato, another company from South 
Bend reached there the following day, and numerous squads 
of citizens arrived during the week. Judge Flandrau was 
placed in command, a provost guard established, and barricades 
thrown up. 

In the meantime there had been serious trouble at Fort 
Ridgely. It had been attacked by a large body of Indians 
on the 20th, but was bravely defended. Two attacks were 
made on the 21st and on the 22nd a force of almost 500 attacked 
the fort, determined to carry it at all hazards. But the deter- 
mined work of the infantry and the splendid handling of the 
six 12 and 20-pounder cannon, under the direction of Sergt. 
Jones, forced the assaulting party to retire with heavy loss. 
They endeavored repeatedly to rush the fort, but each time 
received shells from the big guns that scattered their forces 
in every direction. Defeated in every attempt, the Indians 
started for New Ulm, which was reached the following day. 

On the morning of the 23d they attacked New Ulm with 
a force of 650 well armed fighting men, drove in the line of 
defenders, surrounded the place, and set fire to both sides 
of the street in the lower part of the town. A squad of 50 
men charged and drove the Indians out beyond the houses. 
The defending force had been w^eakened to about 200. A 
company of 75 which had been sent to guard the ferry was cut 
off and forced to retreat towards St. Peter. On the way they 
met reinforcements under Capt. Cox and returned, but were 
too late to render assistance. The South Bend company had 
returned home to protect their families and a wagon load had 
gone down the river. The fighting continued all day and all 
night and in a desultory manner during the forenoon of the 
24th. About noon Capt. Cox with 50 men, and Lieut. Huey 
with part of his detachment, arrived and the Indians disappeared. 



Military Affairs in Minnesota 93 

The following day the entire party at New Ulm, r ,500 in number, 
proceeded to Mankato. 

The news of the outbreak reached Gov. Ramsey on the 19th. 
He at once placed cx-Gov. Henry H. Sibley in command of 
such forces as could be put into the field and gave him the rank 
of colonel. Sibley, with four companies of the 6th regiment, 
started on the 20th, accompanied by Lieut. -Col. William Crooks 
of the 7th regiment, then forming. Col. A. D. Nelson of the 
regular army, who had been appointed colonel of the 6th, 
on learning that he was to report to Col. Sibley, made the objec- 
tion that being of the regular army he could not report to an 
officer of state militia of the same rank and resigned his com- 
mand to Crooks, who was then appointed colonel of the 6th. 
On the 24th Sibley's force was augmented by 200 mounted 
men commanded by William J. CuUen, the remaining six com- 
panies of the 6th, 100 mounted citizens and a number on foot, 
his force thus numbering about 1,400. But they were poorly 
armed and equipped, though brave and commanded by good 
officers. Capt. Cox and a detachment was sent to New Ulm, 
as already noted. The mounted men were placed under the 
command of Col. Samuel McPhaill and the entire party started 
for Fort Ridgely, McPhaill's command reaching there on the 
27th. Fully half of Cullen's party returned home when they 
found the fort was safe, but the remainder under Capt. Ander- 
son remained. Sibley and the militia reached the fort on the 
morning of the 28th. Soon after 47 men under Capt. Sterritt 
joined them and on Sept. i, Lieut. -Col. William R. Marshall 
and a part of the 7th regiment arrived. 

On Aug. 31, Sibley detailed Capt. Grant's company of infan- 
try, 70 men of the Cullen guard under Capt. Anderson, and a 
few others, 150 in all, under Maj. Joseph R. Brown, as a burial 
and reconnoitering party. They buried many of the murdered 
settlers during the two days and not having seen any Indians, 
camped at Birch Coolie on the night of Sept. i, without refer- 
ence to its position as a point of defense. The Indians who 
had been defeated at New Ulm had gone toward the Upper 
agency, where they concentrated a large force and made arrange- 
ments to divide and attack St. Peter and Mankato simultane- 
ously. En route they discovered Brown's party at Birch 
Coolie, surrounded the Coolie camp and attacked early on the 
morning of the 2nd, sending a shower of bullets from all sides 
and yelling like demons. For two days, with little to eat or 
drink, their horses all killed but one, 23 men killed and 45 
severely wounded, many injured slightly, the little band held, 
off 400 Indians. 

The firing was heard at the fort on Wednesday morning and 



94 The Union Army 

Sibley sent Col. McPhaill forward with 50 mounted men, Maj. 
McLaren with 105 infantry, and Capt. Mark Hendricks with 
a mountain howitzer. The party was attacked within 3 miles 
of Birch Coolie and held back. Lieut. Sheehan, at the risk of 
his life, carried a message to the fort. Sibley's entire command 
was put in motion, joined McPhaill after dark and drove the 
Indians from the field at daylight. Terrible as was this experi- 
ence, it undoubtedly saved St. Peter and Mankato, both being 
unprotected. 

Everywhere preparations for defense were being made, 
Co. B, of the 9th regiment, was sent to Forest City to reinforce 
a local company of 53 men which had been hastily organized. 
A fortification of saw-logs was constructed at Glencoe and 
occupied by a company of volunteers, who were reinforced by 
Cos. F and H of the gth and also independent companies from 
Hennepin and Goodhue counties. Numerous reconnaissances 
were made from this point, refugees rescued, several skirmishes 
had with the Indians, and as a result of the operations much 
property and many lives saved. 

Judge Flandrau received a commission from Gov. Ramsey 
on Aug. 29, authorizing him to take command of the Blue 
Earth country, from New Ulm to the Iowa line and west. He 
located headquarters at South Bend, raised troops in addition 
to those sent him from the regiments, and stationed detach- 
ments at South Bend, Crisp's farm, Garden City, Chain lakes 
and at various points along the Blue Earth river, as well as 
at the Winnebago agency, covering a line of frontier of about 
100 miles and holding hostile Indians from anything but small 
skirmishes, except at Madelia, where a small body of Sioux 
attacked but were repulsed. In September the government 
ordered Maj. John Pope into the state to take charge of the 
Indian warfare. Five companies of the 25th Wis. infantry, 
and 500 cavalry from Iowa were also ordered to the scene of 
operations, thus relieving the citizens of much of their arduous 
labor. 

In the meantime Col. Sibley was negotiating with Little 
Crow, the leader of the Indians, for the surrender of captives 
at the Indian camp, and in the hope of bringing about a cessa- 
tion of hostilities. On Sept. 12, a council was held by the 
Indians. Some favored continuing the war, others were in 
favor of surrendering the prisoners and seeking peace. No 
conclusion was reached and on the i8th, Sibley determined 
to move against them. His force proceeded up the river with- 
out being opposed until the morning of the 23d, when it was 
attacked by a large force near Wood Lake. The Indians, 
though concealed in favorable locations in the ravines, were 
completely routed and demoralized in this battle. 



Military Affairs in Minnesota 9& 

In the meantime the little garrison at Fort Abercrombie 
had endured its share of trouble. Attacks had been made on 
Sept. 3, some property destroyed and a number of horses cap- 
tured, and on the 6th, a second attack was made, which lasted 
all day, but was finally repulsed. Several men were killed 
in the two engagements. But one company from the 5th Minn, 
under Capt. Vander Horck, had been sent to this point, and a 
detachment from it had been sent to Georgetown, 50 miles 
distant. This was called in on the fresh news of trouble. An 
expedition consisting of several government commissioners, 
accompanied by a train of 30 loaded wagons and a herd of 200 
cattle, on the way to make a treaty with the Chippewa Indians, 
sought the protection of the fort. Settlements were notified 
and the people gathered in. A relief party of about 400 from 
the 3d and 5th regiments reached Abercrombie on Sept. 23. 
An attack upon a company at the river on the 26th proved 
disastrous to the Indians and they were subsequently routed 
in a skirmish, which brought the siege to an end. 

At the conclusion of the battle at Wood Like, Sibley estab- 
lished Camp Release, at a point in the vicinity of an Indian 
camp of 150 tepees, composed of Upper and Lower Sioux,^ 
who had been engaged in all the massacres since the outbreak. 
The Indians held 250 prisoners. About Sept. 26, the Indians 
surrendered their entire camp, including the prisoners. Inquiry 
was at once instituted as to the participation of these Indians 
in the massacre and the terrible outrages attending, and an 
order for a court-marfial was issued on the 28th. From this 
time until Nov. 5, the court held sittings at Camp Release, 
the Lower agency, Mankato, and finally at Fort Snelling. It 
arraigned and tried 425 Indians and half-breeds, found 321 
guilty, sentenced 303 to death and the remainder to imprison- 
ment under heavy guard. 

In the meantime all sorts of stories were afloat in the east, 
and the outcry raised that Minnesota was about to enter into 
a wholesale massacre of Indians. The high standing of those 
composing the court makes such a charge seem uncalled for 
at this date, but at the time there was little known of the people 
of the frontier by the general eastern public. President Lincoln 
was besieged by well meaning people to put a stop to the execu- 
tions. The petitioners forgot the 1,000 men, women and children, 
who were butchered in cold blood, their bodies horribly mutilated, 
young women and girls brutally outraged and held for further 
ill treatment, the burned and ruined homes, and so tremendous 
was the pressure that finally the president commuted the 
sentences of all but 39 to imprisonment, subsequently pardon- 
ing I of these. 



96 The Union Army 

On Dec. 26, 1862, the 38 condemned Indians were hanged 
on one gallows, nearly square in form, with a drop platform 
extending around its four sides, the platform being suspended 
by ropes brought together in the center of the frame and united 
with a single rope. Each side was arranged for ten men, the 
cutting of the single rope released the entire platform, and 
dropped everyone of the condemned men at the same moment. 
They marched to the places assigned them without apparent 
fear, with the sound of the death song, chanted by their surviv- 
ing brethren, the last to fall upon their ears. The remainder 
were taken to Davenport, la., and confined for a time, but 
were later sent west of the Missouri, to continue their depre- 
dations. 

This practically terminated the Indian war in Minnesota, 
although during 1863-64 expeditions were made from within 
its borders to various points in Dakota in a determined effort 
to put a quietus on the threats of further massacre. The leader 
of the Sioux, Little Crow, had escaped capture, but on July 
3, 1863, he ventured near Hutchinson and was recognized by 
a farmer named Lampson, who shot him. His scalp is in the 
possession of the Historical society. 

This war is entitled to rank with any in the history of Indian 
warfare since America was settled. The number of Indians 
engaged, their fighting qualities, the number of settlers killed, 
the value of property destroyed, and the savagery shown, 
are not surpassed in importance by any Indian war recorded. 

Gov. Ramsey's term of ofhce expired with the close of 1863, 
and he retired only to receive promotion into the United States 
senate and later to become a cabinet officer. In every position 
he showed singular ability, and when he retired to private 
life it was with honors full upon him, returning to his adopted 
state of Minnesota, to pass his days among those with whom 
he had associated during most of his maturer years, and where 
he passed away in the summer of 1903, still the foremost figure 
in the commonwealth. 

Minnesota's new governor, Stephen Miller, had but just re- 
turned from the battle-field, having gone out as lieutenant- 
colonel of the ist regiment and fought his way up until he became 
a brigadier-general in Oct. 1863. Gov. Miller took up the work 
of his office with vigor and with full knowledge of conditions 
in the ranks gained through personal contact. Much was 
done to alleviate the condition of the soldiers, both in the field 
and in the hospitals. The general government did not find 
it expedient to establish a general hospital within the state, 
but Fort Snelling was made comfortable for many who were 
furloughed home, and the hospital at Prairie du Chien, Wis., 



Military Affairs in Minnesota 97 

gave shelter to many a sick Minnesotan, giving him a breath 
of air to which he had been accustomed and hastening his 
recovery. 

No regiments were organized during 1863, except that those 
that commenced organizing in the fall of 1862 completed fill- 
ing their ranks. The regiments longer in service were strength- 
ened by recruiting. The draft was also mildly applied, very 
little trouble resulting. Several of the regiments were repre- 
sented in the Indian campaigns and being in the climate to 
which they were acctistomed, the men enjoyed general good 
health. 

The year 1864 was largely a duplicate of 1863. The nth 
regiment was organized during the year and recruiting con- 
tinued. In addition to the regimental and battalion organiza- 
tions, there were many independent companies and squads 
organized, with their own leaders, that cooperated with the 
government in the suppression of the Indians. These did 
not come within the term "enlisted," but they rendered most 
effective service and were given full credit in the adjutant- 
general's reports and roster, so far as it was possible. 

Much sickness prevailed in the regiments stationed in Arkansas, 
and the state was forced to take action for relieving the suffer- 
ing. The government's medical service seemed inefficient or 
lacking in supplies, and Gov. Miller forwarded medicine and 
such medical service as could be supplied. Pressure was brought 
to bear and finally the regiments suffering the most were moved 
to more healthful points. The 3d, especially, had from 200 
to 300 on the sick list daily, and few of those not reported were 
able to perform anything in the nature of heavy duties, being 
unable at one time to properly bury their own dead. This 
regiment was moved to Devall's Bluff, supplied with vegetables, 
and finally recovered in time to perform good service before 
its muster out. (See Record of the Regiments.) 

In the meantime, despite the serious frontier troubles, the 
state had made material gain in population. Her broad prairies 
were being rapidly peopled as the fear of the red man subsided, 
and with the return of thousands from the war the state advanced 
rapidly in development and growth. 

While sorely tried, groaning under a burden of debt which 
forbade loans for war purposes, Minnesota willingly furnished 
more than her quota of men, joined in every movement for 
the relief of the sick and suffering soldiers at home and abroad 
and provided in many ways for the betterment of conditions 
for her invalid soldiers. 

Every regiment was provided with two surgeons on leaving 
the state and in time of exigency others were sent temporarily 
to such points as seemed to need their services. 

Vol. IV— 7 



RECORD OF MINNESOTA REGIMENTS 



First Infantry. — Cols., Willis A. Gorman, Napoleon J. T. Dana, Alfred 
Sully, George N. Morgan, William Colville; Lieut. -Cols., Stephen Miller, 
Charles Powell Adams; Majs., William H. Dike, Mark W. Downie. This 
regiment, organized at Fort Snelling in April, 1861, was mustered into 
the three months' service April 29, and the three years' .service May 10. 
On May 28 Cos. B and G, were ordered to Fort Ridgely to relieve the 
regulars at that point. Co. A was sent to Fort Ripley for similar service, 
for which point Co. E also started June 6. On June 10 Cos. C and D 
started for Fort Abercrombie. On the 14th the regiment was ordered to 
Washington, and the above si.x companies were recalled. The regiment 
left the state June 22 and went into camp at Washington on the 26th. 
It was ordered to Alexandria in July and brigaded with others in Heintzel- 
man's division. It fought like a veteran regiment at Bull Run, repulsed 
two charges unaided, but was compelled to fall back for want of support, 
losing 180 in killed, wounded and prisoners, the heaviest percentage of 
loss suffered by any regiment in that battle. It returned to Washington 
and on Aug. 2, marched for Camp Stone near Edwards' ferry, where it 
was engaged in picket duty and drill work. On Oct. i. Col. Gorman was 
appointed brigadier-general, being succeeded by N. J. T. Dana. The 
regiment engaged in some skirmishing near Edwards' ferry, was in the 
battle at Ball's bluff, and served as rear-guard in the night retreat across 
the river. On Jan. 16, 1862, Gen. Sedgwick assumed command of the 
division. Late in February the regiment left for Harper's Ferry, then 
moved to Charlestown and on March 10, to Berry ville, where Cos. B and 
K acted as skirmishers, aided to dislodge a body of cavalry and hoisted 
the flag on the court-house. Col. Dana was promoted to brigadier-gen- 
eral and Col. Sully took command on March 13. On the 15th the regiment 
camped on Bolivar heights, but returned to Washington a week later, 
thence to Alexandria and on the 29th moved toward Yorktown. It 
engaged in a skirmish at West Point and in the battle at Fair Oaks. It 
was joined by the 2nd Co. Minn, sharpshooters, Capt. W. F. Russell, 
on June 3, and was on picket duty during most of the month. It was 
engaged in the Seven Days' battles, after which it encamped at Harrison's 
landing. On July 22 it was reviewed by Gen. McClellan and pronounced 
to be one of the two model regiments. It moved to the rear of Malvern 
hill in August, its division driving the enemy from the field. It was then 
recalled from the Peninsula and formed the rear-guard at Chantilly, being 
under fire for some time. It fought at South mountain and at Antietam, 
formed the right line of the brigade at the opening of the action, but in 
the subsequent movements it was left without support on either flank. 
However, it held its position until ordered to retire, but lost 147 in killed 
and wounded. It then marched to Bolivar heights, where it went into 
camp, and in October joined in a reconnaissance to Charlestown, where 
a heavy force was dislodged. It then crossed the Shenandoah and moved 
towards Fredericksburg, where it held a steady line under heavy fire dur- 
ing the engagement. It was engaged at Chancellorsville and joined the 
movement toward Gettysburg in June. On July 2, while supporting a 
battery at Gettysburg, with but 262 men, it charged two brigades which 
had routed Sickles' forces, drove them back and held its position until 

98 



Minnesota Regiments 99 

reserves came up and relieved it. Nearly every officer was killed or 
wounded and of the gallant 262 who went into action 215 lay on the field, 
47 were in line, and not a man missing. Of this magnificent charge, 
Gen. Hancock said: "There is no more gallant deed recorded in history." 
The percentage of loss was without an equal in the records of modem 
warfare. The following day Cos. C and F which had been detached for 
other duties, rejoined the regiment and it charged a portion of the advanc- 
ing Confederate column, assisting in the capture of a large number of 
the enemy. It marched to Harper's Ferry, thence to Kelly's ford on 
the Rappahannock, and was sent to New York city in Avigust to assist 
in quelling the draft riots. It returned to Alexandria in September, and 
in October was in the hot engagement at Bristoe Station, where it cap- 
tured 322 prisoners, 5 cannon and 2 stands of colors. It was in the Mine 
Run campaign in November, was then in camp at Stevenburg until Feb. 
5, 1864, when it was ordered to Fort Snelling and was mustered out April 
29, 1864. Several having regnlisted as veterans, the time of recruits 
not having expired, and new recruits offering themselves, a battalion of 
two companies was formed, known as the ist battalion Minn, infantry. 
The battalion left the state May 16, 1864, for Washington and from there 
went to White House on the Pamunkey river, where it was assigned to 
the ist brigade, 2nd division, 2nd army corps. It moved to Petersburg; 
participated in the assault on June 18; drove the enemy's skirmishers 
from their lines; was in the skirmish as on the Jerusalem plank road, the 
assault at Deep Bottom, the battle at Reams' station, and the sharp en- 
counter at Hatcher's run in October. It was then in winter quarters 
until spring, being joined by recruits, forming Co. C. The new company 
joined in a successful charge on the enemy's rifle-pits the morning after 
its arrival, in the final assault at Petersburg, and in the various actions 
in which the 2nd corps was engaged up to the surrender of Lee at Appo- 
mattox, after which the battalion was sent to Louisville. It was mustered 
out at Fort Snelling July 15, 1865. 

Second Infantry. — Cols., H. P. VanCleve, James George, Judson W. 
Bishop; Lieut. -Cols., Alexander Wilkin, Calvin S. Uline; Majs., Simeon 
Smith, John B. Davis, John Moulton. This regiment was organized at 
Fort Snelling in June, July and Aug., 1861, and was mustered in by com- 
panies as organized. Co. A was ordered to Fort Ripley for garrison 
duty July 3, and was followed by Co. F, a few days later. B and C were 
ordered to Fort Abercrombie and D and E to Fort Ridgely. Maj. Smith 
having been appointed paymaster in the regular army, Capt. Alexander 
Wilkin, of the ist Minn, infantry, was appointed to succeed him in the 
regiment. The companies were recalled from the garrisons in September 
and left the state Oct. 14, under orders to report at Washington, but on 
reaching Pittsburg the regiment was directed to go to Louisville. From 
there it was sent to Lebanon Junction for guard and picket duty and in 
December was assigned to the 3d brigade, 1st division. Army of the Ohio, 
Gen. George H. Thomas commanding. On Jan. i, 1862, it moved to 
Lebanon, where it joined the Mill Springs campaign and was engaged in 
an almost hand-to-hand fight with a regiment of the enemy at that battle, 
driving it back in confusion and later taking possession of its tents and 
camp equipage, of which the 2nd stood in need. Returning to Louis- 
ville, it moved towards Shiloh and reached there April 9, too late to par- 
ticipate in the battle. It pursued the retreating Confederates and was 
in camp at Corinth until June 22. Thence it went to luka Springs and 
Tuscumbia, encamped for a month, then proceeded to Winchester, Pel- 
ham gap, Murfreesboro and Nashville. On Sept. 14 it started for Louis- 
ville, which place was reached on the 26th, and in October it was at the 
head of the column in pursuit of the retiring enemy, in a constant skir- 
mish with the latter's rear-guard. It was in reserve at the battle of Perry- 



100 The Union Army 

ville; was then on short expeditions and guard duty at various points until 
Nov. 25; then in camp near Gallatin, Tenn., until Jan. 2g. 1863, ^^id at 
Battle's farm until March 2. It participated in brushes with the enemy 
near Triune, and in June four companies were engaged in kee])!ng a body 
of the enemy's cavalry from cutting up the rear of the column. It as- 
sisted in driving the enemy out of Hoover's gap and on July i drove his 
picket line through Tullahoma. It occupied Winchester from July 18 
to Aug. 16; was under fire at Chickamauga, assisted in the repulse of 
Breckenridge's division, and stood with Thomas in the heroic defense of 
Horseshoe ridge. Its loss in this engagement was 162 in killed and 
wounded. It was in the trenches about Chattanooga for two months, 
captured the first breastworks at Missionary ridge, and was in the assault 
which carried the crest. In the battle the 2nd lost over 21 per cent, 
while that of the other regiments in the brigade was 8 per cent. The 
regiment was specially mentioned in the official report for the "gallant 
manner in which it carried the rifle-pits at the foot of the ridge." On 
Dec. 25, about four-fifths of the regiment reenlisted, being among the 
first in the Army of the Cumberland to do so, and on Jan. 8, 1864, the 
reenlisted men were furloughed home. They returned in March, joined 
the brigade at Ringgold, Ga., and the regiment took part in the Atlanta 
campaign. It was engaged in guard, garrison and picket duty, light 
skirmishing, maneuvering and intrenching at various points, until the 
battle of Jonesboro. It moved from Atlanta in November, marched to 
Savannah, thence north through the Carolinas, skinnishing as it went, 
participated in grand review at Washington, and was mustered out at 
Louisville, July 10, 1865. 

Third Infantry. — Cols., Henry C. Lester, Chauncey W. Griggs, Chris- 
topher C. Andrews, Hans Mattson; Lieut. -Cols., Benjamin F. Smith, 
Everett W. Foster, James B. Hoit; Majs., John A. Hadley, Benjamin F. 
Rice, William W. Webster. This regiment was organized during the 
summer and fall of 1861, and was inustered in Nov. 15. It left the state 
on the 17th for Louisville, w^here it went into camp. On Dec. 6 it left 
for Shepherdsville, where six companies were detailed to guard bridges, 
the other four being sent to Lebanon Junction for the same purpose. It 
was assigned to the i6th brigade. Army of the Ohio, went into camp near 
Nashville March 24, 1862, and on April 27 moved to Murfreesboro, from 
which place several expeditions were made. It was at Murfreesboro in 
July, supporting a battery, when Forrest's cavalry charged, and was 
finally surrendered to Forrest against the protests of most of the men in 
line. A camp guard of 20 men had repulsed four times that nuinber in 
two assaults, but was finally overcome in a third charge led by Forrest 
in person. All the officers who advocated the surrender, including the 
colonel, were later dismissed from the service. Lieut. -Col. Griggs and 
Capts. Andrews and Hoit w^ere the only officers present who voted against 
surrendering. Lieut. Vanstrum offered his ballot, but he arrived after 
the council was over. The regiment was sent to Madison, Ga., for three 
months, then to Libby prison, where it was paroled and sent to Nashville. 
An attempt was made to induce the men to break their parole and they 
were criticized for surrendering. They resented the injustice, declined 
to break their parole, and were sent to Benton barracks. Co. C, com- 
manded by Lieut. Grummons was at Shelbyville at the time of the sur- 
render and was sent to Tullahoma. It returned to Murfreesboro, 
where it joined the 2nd Minn, infantry and was ordered to Fort SneUing 
in October. There it joined the regiment, which had been exchanged 
in August, and remained in Minnesota to aid in putting down the Indian 
raids. The regiment joined Gen. Sibley at Fort Ridgely in September, 
after a forced march from Fort SneUing, and in the expedition from the 
fort it was always in the advance. On the 23d a small party left camp 



Minnesota Regiments 101 

to get a load of potatoes from Yellow Medicine agency and it was attacked 
by a force of several hundred Indians about a mile from camp. The 
3d was on the groimd in a few minutes and while falling back in order 
250 men repulsed 700 Indians, then with reinforcements routed them 
in a bayonet charge. This came to be known as the battle of Wood Lake. 
Camp was made at a point known later as Camp Release, and there the 
regiment remained in the field until Nov. 14, when it reported at Fort 
Snelling and was furlovighed until Dec. 3. About 70 members who were 
home on sick leave marched on Sept. 1 1 to the relief of Fort Abercrombie, 
reached there on the 23d and participated in several skirmishes. They 
joined the command at Camp Release in October. The regiment was 
reorganized in December, Lieut. -Col. Griggs being made colonel ; Capt. 
Andrews, lieutenant-colonel, and promotions were made from the ranks 
to fill the vacancies. This went far towards restoring the morale of the 
regiment, which had been affected by the unfortunate action at Murfrees- 
boro. The ranks were soon recruited and on Jan. 23, 1863, the regiment 
left the state a second time, going to Cairo, 111., and thence to Colu:nbus, 
Ky. In March it moved to Fort Heiman and remained there some time 
to break up Confederate conscription. In May it was ordered to Vicks- 
burg and on June 8, reached Haynes' bluff, where it was made a part of 
Kimball's provisional division of the i6th corps. It took part in intrench- 
ing the place and on the 15th took position at Snyder's bluff, remaining 
there until the surrender. On July 23 it made part of a force for the 
campaign in Arkansas, and was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 2nd division. 
It moved to Helena, thence to Brownsville, on to Bayou Fourche, being 
present at the engagement there in September, and made part of the 
force that occupied Little Rock during the fall and winter, being selected 
as one of the two infantry regiments for "its efficiency and discipline." 
Reenlistment of most of the men under the veteran order followed, and 
the old members, three companies, were furloughed home in Jan., 1864. 
On April i a detachment of the regiment participated in a sharp conflict 
at Fitzhugh's woods, repelling a cavalry charge by a counter charge with 
bayonets. The regiment took part in the inauguration of Isaac Murphy, 
first free-state governor of Arkansas, and then moved to Pine Bluff for 
the summer where it suffered much from malarial poison. Six companies 
were sent home on furlough in August, and in October the regiment 
quartered at Devall's Bluff for winter, performing picket and scouting 
duty. It moved to Batesville, May 13, 1865, ^nd on June i headquarters 
were estabHshed at Jacksonport. Cos. D and G were left at Batesville, 
A and F were sent to Searcy, E and H to Augusta, and later C and I to 
Powhatan. On June 3 Confederate Gen. Jeff Thompson surrendered 
his command to Col. Mattson and the regiment was mustered out at De- 
vall's Bluff Sept. 2, 1865. Gov. Isaac Murphy, the only man in the seces- 
sion convention of Arkansas to vote "no," steadfast in his allegiance to the 
Union, and the state's first free soil governor, said of the men of the regi- 
ment : "They have proved ready for any imdertaking and reliable in every 
emergency. Such men are an honor to the government. Their state 
may justly be proud of them." 

Fourth Infantry. — Cols., John B. Sanborn, John E. Tourlellotte ; 
Lieut. -Cols., Minor T. Thomas, James C. Edson; Majs., A. Edward Welch,' 
Luther L. Baxter, Leverett R. Wellman. This regiment was organized 
during the summer and fall of 1861 at Fort Snelling. Maj. Welch was 
at the time a prisoner of war, having been a lieutenant in the ist regiment 
and captured at Bull Rim. In the spring of 1862 Capt. Baxter was com- 
missioned major. The regiment was mustered in by companies, Co. A, 
Oct. 4, B Oct. 2, both being sent to Fort Ridgely for garrison duty. Co.' 
C was mustered in Oct. 7 and sent to Fort Ripley. D on Oct. 10, E on 
Nov. 27, F, Oct. 11; Co. G, Nov 22, and all sent to Fort Abercrombie, 



103 The Union Army 

Co. H, Nov. 20, Cos. I and K Dec. 23. In March the five companies on 
garrison duty were ordered to F'ort Snelling and the regiment left the 
state in April for Benton barracks, St. Louis. On May 2 it left there for 
Corinth and was assigned to the ist brigade, 3d division, Army of the 
Mississippi. It went into intrenchments near Corinth and remained there 
until the evacuation of the city, when it encamped at Clear creek near 
Corinth until the forepart of August, with occasional scouting expeditions. 
It then moved to Jacinto, was in the battle of luka, moved again towards 
Corinth in October and in the battle at that place dislodged a large force 
of the enemy in the face of a terrible fire. It was in the general engage- 
ment on the following day and remained at Corinth until November 
building fortifications. It joined the movement toward Vicksburg and 
was on railroad guard duty at White's Junction during Jan., 1863. It was 
at Memphis during February; in the Yazoo Pass expedition in March; 
was present at the battles of Port Gibson, Forty Hills, Raymond and 
Jackson; was in the advance at Champion's hill, where it captured 118 
prisoners, and on May 20 joined the investing line at Vicksburg. In 
an assault on the 22nd it took position in front of the enemy's works, 
where it remained unsupported until dark, Co. C, at Capt. Donaldson's 
order, bringing off a cannon left by some of the troops to prevent its cap- 
ture by the enemy. This regiment was actively engaged until the sur- 
render, marched into the city July 4, its brass band leading the troops, 
and became part of the army of occupation. From Sept. 12 to the last 
of the year it was engaged in scouting and on expeditions, and on Jan. i, 
1864, about three-fourths of the regiment reenlisted as veterans, but 
remained at Huntsville until March 5, when they took their furlough. 
Huntsville remained its camp until June 22 and it then started for Atlan- 
ta. It engaged in the battle of Allatoona, Oct. 5, where it lost 44 men, 
but captured the flags of the 35th and 39th Miss. It marched to Savan- 
nah, joined the campaign through the Carolinas, reached Columbia in 
February, was in reserve at Bentonville, marched through Richmond, 
and in the grand review at Washington it was at the head of the column 
of Sherman's army. It was mustered out at Louisville, July 19, 1865. 

Fifth Infantry. — Cols., Rudolph von Borgersode, Lucius F. Hubbard; 
Lieut. -Col., William B. Gere; Majs., Francis Hall, John C. Becht, John P. 
Houston. This regiment was organized at Fort Snelling during the winter 
of 1861-62 and was mustered in by detachments, the first on Dec. 19, 
1861. It was finally organized March 20, 1862, when Cos. B, C and D 
were detached for garrison duty at Forts Ridgely, Ripley and Abercrom- 
bie, respectively, under command of Lieut. N. K. Culver and Capts. 
Francis Hall and John Vander Horck. Capt. John S. Marsh joined his 
company (D) April 16. Lieut. Sheehan of Co. C, with a detachment of 
50 men, was ordered to Fort Ridgely and proceeded from there on the 
30th, with a reinforcement of 50 men from Co. B, to the Sioux agency on 
the Yellow Medicine river for the purpose of preserving order during pay- 
ment of the annuity. He reached the agency July 2 and preserved order 
during a threatening period, at a time when 779 lodges of Indians w^ere 
encamped there, nearly all of whom were entitled to annuities, and w^ho 
were joined on the 24th by 1,200 Sioux on the war path after a band of 
Chippewas. The annuity was late in arriving and 800 warriors made a 
demonstration of unusual nature on Aug. 4, only the greatest coolness 
avoiding a conflict and the stripping of two howitzers, trained on the 
principal points, proved inost salutary. The annuity goods were dis- 
tributed on the 9th and loth and the Indians agreed to wait for their 
money. The troops returned to Fort Ripley and on the 17th Lieut. 
Sheehan left with his detachment. News reached Fort Ridgely next 
morning of the massacre inaugurated at the Lower Sioux agency, when 
Capt. Marsh sent a mounted messenger to recall Sheehan 's command 



Minnesota Regiments lOJ 

and started with an interpreter and 46 men for the scene of trouble, leav- 
ing 29 men at the fort under Lieut. Gere. Marsh's command was ambushed 
at the river about 2 miles from the agency, and a fierce engagement fol- 
lowed, 23 men being killed, 5 wounded, and Marsh drowned while attempt- 
ing to cross the river. The others reached the fort in detachments. 
While this was going on the annuity, $71,000, reached the fort. Lieut. 
Gere on receipt of the news, despatched a messenger to the commander 
at Fort Snelling. The following morning Lieut. Sheehan reached Fort 
Ridgely, having made a forced march of 42 miles. Sheehan and his 
detachment rejoined Co. C at Fort Ripley the latter part of September 
and shortly after proceeded to Fort Snelling. Co. B, left Fort Ridgely 
for Fort Snelling Nov. 9, and the two companies joined their regiment 
near Oxford, Miss., Dec. 12, 1862. Co. D. reached Fort Abercrombie 
March 29 and Lieut. F. A. Carivean, with a detachment of 30 men, was 
ordered to Georgetown, 52 miles north. On Aug. 20 news was received 
of the Indian outbreak, and Carivean was ordered to return with his 
command. On Sept. 23 a relieving force of nearly 500 arrived and Co. 
D rejoined its regiment at Germantown, Tenn., Feb. 14, 1863. While 
not actually engaged that part of Co. C, left at Fort Ripley under Capt. 
Hall, escaped destruction only by promptly withdrawing its howitzers 
and field guns from their exposed positions, mounting them at the fort 
and taking unusual precautions. The remaining seven companies left 
the state in May, 1862, reached Corinth on the 24th and were assigned to 
the 2nd brigade, ist division. Army of the Mississippi. The regiment 
participated at Farmington, joined in pursuit of enemy, was in camp at 
Clear creek until August, and then moved to Tuscumbia, Ala., for rail- 
road guard duty. Threatened by large numbers, the brigade joined the 
movement towards Corinth, the 5th Minn, acting as rear-guard and it 
participated in the battle of luka. On Oct. 3 it held the crossing at Tus- 
cumbia creek near Corinth and was left at night in a dangerous position, 
but it succeeded in getting away. It closed a gap at Corinth the follow- 
ing day and after the enemy had forced his way into the city's streets the 
regiment drove him back and retook the captured batteries. Gen. 
Stanley, commanding the division, said this regiment saved the day at 
Corinth, and Gen. Rosecrans, in a letter written 27 years later, prac- 
tically confirmed the statement. The regiment was conspicuous in sev- 
eral campaigns and expeditions through central Mississippi and western 
Tennessee until Feb. i, 1863, then rejoined its command near Memphis, 
and took part in the advance on Vicksburg in the spring. It was deployed 
as skirmishers and was sharply engaged while approaching Jackson ; was 
in the assault on Vicksburg May 22, but not in the line of heaviest firing; 
was sent up the Yazoo in June, being in sharp skirmishes at Satartia, 
Mechanicsburg and Richmond; was then assigned to guard duty on the 
river, vmtil the fall of Vicksburg, when it joined in pursuit of Johnston's 
army. It was in camp at the Big Black river and participated in various 
expeditions during the fall; was in camp at La Grange from November 
until late in Jan., 1864, and was then ordered back to the Big Black. The 
members of the regiment reenlisted almost in a body Feb. 12, and became 
part of the 2nd brigade, ist division, i6th corps. The regiment joined 
the Red River expedition in March ; participated in the assault and cap- 
ture of Fort De Russy; was in a reconnaissance to Henderson's hill; took 
part in the engagement at Campti, when the Confederates were routed; 
acted as the rear-guard for the supply train when Banks was defeated 
at Sabine cross-roads; formed part of the corps which met Taylor's pur- 
suing columns at Pleasant Hill, and repulsed repeated assaults until 
Banks' broken lines could be reformed and the tables turned. It was 
part of the rear-guard in the retrograde movement, when Taylor beset 
the Federals at almost every step, and it was engaged daily until Alex- 



104 The Union Army 

andria was reached. The regiment was in the engagement at Mansura, 
and with its corps gave Taylor a sound drubbing at Bayou de Glaize. It 
reached Vicksburg on May 24 and was in a spirited engagement at Lake 
Chicot in June. The veterans were sent home on furlough in July and 
those who had not reenlisted were in the battle of Tupelo. The regiment 
returned to Holly Springs on Aug. 17 and was in an engagement near 
Abbeville on the 23d. It was in the Arkansas and Missouri campaign 
during the fall, and in the battle of Nashville in December its division 
captured two redoubts with their batteries, gunners and hundreds of 
prisoners. The following day it took part in the assault, in which it lost 
106 of its number, but carried the position, though its colors were shot 
down four times. It was in winter quarters at Eastport, Miss., from Jan. 
10 to Feb. 6, 1865 ; was in the siege of Mobile during the spring, and in the 
assault on Fort Blakely immediately preceding the surrender. It was 
at Demopolis, Ala., during the summer and was mustered out at Fort 
Snelling Sept. 6, 1865. Its total strength during service, including re- 
cruits was 1,163. Loss by death, 248, transfer, 2 8 ; resigned 2 6 ; discharged 
434; captured 6; deserted and missing 51 ; mustered out 370. 

Sixth Infantry. — Cols., William Crooks, John T. Averill; Lieut.-Cols., 
John T. Averill, Hiram P. Grant; Majs., Robert N. McLaren, Hiram S. 
Bailey. This regiment was organized at Fort Snelling in the summer of 
1862. Capt. A. D. Nelson was first selected as colonel of the regiment, 
but as he was a West Pointer and had been in the service 23 years, the 
conditions placing him under a civilian. Col. H. H. Sibley, was not to 
his taste and he resigned, William Crooks being appointed in his stead. 
The regiment was mustered in by companies. Four companies were 
ordered to Fort Ridgely on receipt of the news of the Indian uprising and 
Lieut. -Col. Averill took command. Col. Crooks went to St. Peter to 
complete the organization of the regiment. Such force as was ready, 
including several companies of the 6th regiment and such civilians as 
would join, was started for Fort Ridgely. Co. A was detached as a 
burial party, 2 volunteers from each of the other companies assisting, 
together with a detachment of citizen cavalry. The burial party went into 
camp at Birch Coolie and was attacked by 500 Indians about 4 o'clock 
next morning. The engagement was brisk until 10 o'clock, when the 
Indians ceased faring. The attack was renewed and on the following 
morning Col. Sibley and Col. McPhaill came to the rescue, using artillery 
with good effect in driving away the Indians. Twenty-three were killed, 
45 wounded, and all the horses (87) had been killed. The regiment was 
in the battle at Wood Lake, part being in reserve to defend the rear of 
the camp. Cos. A and F took position on a ridge overlooking a ravine 
in which many Indians were concealed and assisted materially in driving 
the enemy from the field with heavy loss. Cos. A, B, F and G were mus- 
tered in Oct. I, C, Oct. 3, D Sept. 29, E, Oct. 5, H, Nov. 20, I, Oct. 4, 
K, Oct. 10, all at Camp Release except H, which was mustered in at 
Fort Snelling. A force of Indians opposed to Little Crow having sur- 
rendered, Cos. D and F were detailed to guard them to Yellow Medicine 
and Co. G formed part of a detachment sent out to scour the country. 
Later Cos. A, B, G, H and K were stationed at Fort Snelling; C, F and I 
at Glencoe; D at Forest City and E at Kingston. In February A, G 
and K were sent to Glencoe: B to Forest City; C, D, F and I to Fort 
Snelling; E to Clearwater and H to Kingston. In April the regiment 
assembled at Camp Pope. In June it marched towards Devil's Lake, 
reached Camp Atchison July 18, where a temporary camp was established 
and Cos. C and G were left as guard, with the sick and feeble in their care. 
The remainder of the regiment was in the engagements at Big Hills, 
Dak., Stony Lake and at the Missouri river where the enemy's camp 
equipage was captured and destroyed. The regiment returned to Fort 



Minnesota Regiments 105 

Snelling Sept. 12, and was detached by companies for the winter of 1862- 
63 to various points. Cos. D, E, and H were designated to accompany 
an expedition to Fort Thompson, where the captured Indians were to 
be located and suppHes furnished. They reached the fort Dec. 2 and 
the return trip was made on half rations in bitter cold weather, through 
deep snow, the detachment reaching headquarters about Jan. i, 1864 
Capt. Whitney in command, was court martialed on a charge of disobe- 
dience of orders, preferred by Gen. Sully, because he declined to go into 
camp at Fort Randall, en route, but the captain was acquitted, being 
under Gen. Sibley's command at the time. After long and persistent 
efforts the regiment was ordered South. It left the state on June 14, 
1863, and went to Helena, Ark., after having been assigned to the ist 
brigade, ist division, 2nd army corps. The reason for the change is not 
known, but it was a bitter disappointment to be compelled to take up 
garrison duty after endeavoring for two years to get to the front. The 
results of forcing a regiment from the extreme north to such a disease- 
producing climate and keeping it there inactive was seen too late. The 
regiment landed June 23, 940 strong, and on July 31,17 officers and 445 
men were on the sick list; a month later 14 officers and 487 men were 
sick; by the last of September i6 officers and 638 men reported sick; 
and during these three months 54 died of disease. So the record con- 
tinued, the regiment diminishing in numbers as the ill were ordered north. 
At one time, for two weeks, but 26 men reported for duty, many being ill 
but not in hospital. Six hundred were sent north to hospitals and in 
October the regiment was ordered to St. Louis, where it performed pro- 
vost guard duty from Nov. 11, 1864, to Jan. 29, 1865. It then was sent 
to New Orleans and in March to Chalmette, where it was assigned to the 
2nd brigade, 2nd division, i6th army corps. It landed at Dauphin island 
on the 8th, was in sharp skirmishing about Fort Blakely, and with its 
corps captured the fort on the 9th, receiving high commendations for 
its conduct. It then moved to Montgomery, Ala., where it remained 
until July, and was mustered out at Fort Snelling Aug. 19, 1865. 

Seventh Infantry. — Cols., Stephen Miller, WilHam R. Marshall; Lieut. - 
Col., George Bradley; Maj., William H. Burt. This regiment was or- 
ganized in Aug., 1862, was mustered in by companies and sent in detach- 
ments on Indian campaigns the latter part of August and early part of 
September. Cos. A, B, F and G started for Fort Ridgely, Capt. Cutter 
in command, and reached there Sept. 2. The same evening they joined 
the relieving force for Birch Coolie, reaching Col. McPhaill 2 miles from 
the coolie at midnight and the besieged party soon after daylight; cared 
for the wounded and buried the dead, and then returned to the fort, 
where Co. H soon joined them. They took part in the expedition which 
left the fort on the i8th ; were in the engagement at Wood Lake ; and were 
at Camp Release from Sept. 28 to Oct. 24. They then moved to Camp 
Sibley, where Co. A joined them, having been detached for the burial 
of the dead about Yellow Medicine. They next moved for Camp Lincoln 
near Mankato, being joined by Co. K at that point. Co. A went to Fair- 
mont, Co. B, to Tivoli, near the Winnebago agency, and Co. E was 
stationed at Madelia. The rest of the regiment remained as guard over 
the prisoners during the winter, being present at the execution of the 
38 who had been found guilty of massacring whites, and moved to Camp 
Pope on Redwood river in May. It joined the movement towards Da- 
kota in June. Co. D joined the regiment at Fort Abercrombie July g 
and C and I were detailed to occupy Camp Atchison. The regiment was 
engaged at Big Mound and in several skirmishes during the following 
week. It started on its return trip Aug. i and reached Fort Snelling 
Sept. 9. It left the state Oct. 8 for St. Louis for guard duty and from 
there details were made from time to time. It was sent to Paducah, Ky., 



106 The Union Army 

April 20, 1864, moved to Memphis in June, and was assigned to the 3d 
brigade, ist division, i6th corps. It was in the campaign through Mis- 
sissippi and in the action at Tupelo, losing 10 killed and 52 wounded. It 
participated in the Oxford raid, the pursuit of Price through Arkansas 
and Missouri until late in the fall and reached Nashville Nov. 30. It 
was in the battle of Nashville, where it assisted in capturing several re- 
doubts. In the pursuit of Hood's army it reached Clifton, Tenn., Jan. 3, 
1865, moved from there to Eastport, Miss., to New Orleans in February, 
in March to Dauphin island, and participated in the siege and capture of 
Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. It was then sent to Montgomery, thence 
to Selma, where it remained until ordered hoine, and was mustered out 
Aug. 16, 1865. The original strength of the regiment was gi8; gain by 
recruits 217; total 1,135. Loss by death, 147; discharge, 314; transfer, 
45; desertion, 26, mustered out 603. 

Eighth Infantry. — Col., Minor T. Thomas; Lieut. -Col., Henry C. 
Rogers; Majs., George A. Camp, Edwin A. Folsom. This regiment was 
organized in the summer and fall of 1862 and was mustered in by com- 
panies. It was sent to the vicinity of the Indian raids, with headquarters 
at Fort Ripley. Co. A was sent to Anoka and Princeton and E to Monti- 
cello, both being on duty at the Chippewa agency in December. Head- 
quarters were established at St. Cloud in the spring of 1863, but a small 
garrison was left at Fort Ripley, under Lieut. -Col. Rogers and Co. F 
was detached to Princeton and Sunrise, the remainder of the regiment 
moving to the Sioux frontier. Co. A was stationed at Kingston and 
Manannah, E at Paynesville, B at Sauk Center, D at Pomme de Terre, 
K at Alexandria, C, G and H at Fort Abercrombie under Maj. Camp, and 
they were detailed in small squads for patrolling the frontier. They 
were in many slight skirmishes with the Indians, losing a number of men 
at Pomm.e de Terre, Kandiyohi Lake, Paynesville and other points. As 
mounted infantry the regiment joined Sully's expedition against the 
Sioux in May, 1864, the several companies coming together at Paynes- 
ville for the first time. The Indians had been driven west of the Missouri 
the previous summer and the expedition started June 5, joined Gen. 
Sully's command about July i, crossed the river July 9, was in the battle 
of Killdeer mountain, where the Indians were defeated and driven into 
the mountains. Cos. E, F, H and I followed them through the ravines 
and drove them from the hills. They then returned to the supply train 
on Heart river and moved at once on the Bad Lands, which were reached 
Aug. 5. On the 8th they were attacked just at the edge of the plain by 
5, 000 Indians, who were driven for 12 miles, with a loss in killed and 
wounded of nearly 1,000, the troops losing about 100, only g of whom 
were killed. This battle was called "Waps-Chon-choka" by the Indians. 
The troops reached the Yellowstone on the 12 th and Fort Union on the 
1 8th, turned towards home in September, when 20 men from each com- 
pany were detailed to go to the relief of Capt. Fisk, who with a party of 
emigrants, was surrounded by Indians. This was accomplished quickly, 
the regiment reached Fort Snelling Oct. 15, and left the state Oct. 26 
for Murfreesboro, Tenn., where it was joined by those who had been left 
in Dakota. It assisted in driving the enemy away from the blockhouse 
at Overall's creek, and in a reconnaissance a few days later was given the 
front, its reputation as an "Indian" regiment having preceded it. It 

E anticipated in the charge on the Wilkinson pike that routed the enemy, 
ut lost 90 in killed and wounded in 30 minutes. It was ordered to Colum- 
bia and assigned to the 3d brigade, 1st division, 23d corps, and followed 
Hood to the Tennessee river. It was then ordered to North Carolina and 
reached New Berne early in March, 1865. It participated in the battle 
of Kinston, where Bragg's force was repeatedly repulsed, occupied Golds- 
boro, March 22, joining Sherman's forces at that point. It then did 



Minnesota Regiments 107 

provost guard duty at Raleigh until May 12, when it moved to Charlotte, 
from which point it was ordered home and was mustered out July i r, 1865. 
Ninth Infantry. — Cols., Alexander Wilkin, Josiah F. Marsh; Lieut. - 
Cols., Josiah F. Marsh, William Markham; Majs., William Markham, 
Horace Strait. This regiment was organized during Aug. and Sept., 
1862. Co. A, mustered in Oct. 2; was attached to 6th regiment; par- 
ticipated in its movements during the fall ; was sent to Fort Ridgely for 
the winter; it joined the expedition to the Missouri in the spring, and 
returned to Fort Snelling in the fall of 1863. Co. B was ordered to Glen- 
coe, was attacked by a large war party of Indians near Acton and fought 
with them until Hutchinson was reached that night. It aided in the 
defense of Hutchinson the following day, when 300 Indians attacked, 
and remained there until spring. It was mustered in Nov. 10 and was 
sent to St. Peter the following spring, a detachment being sent to Hender- 
son. In June it was ordered to Hanska lake and a detachment was sent 
to Cottonwood river. Co. C was ordered to New Ulm, joined Sibley's 
command against the Indians, participated in the battle of Wood Lake, 
and then marched to Camp Release. It was mustered in Oct. 5 and 
attached to 7th regiment, serving with it through the fall campaign. 
It wintered at Fort Ridgely and performed garrison duty during the sum- 
mer of 1863. Co. D was sent to St. Peter in August and was mustered 
in Sept. 23. It was on garrison duty during the fall and winter and was 
present as guard at the execution of the 38 Indians at Mankato on Dec. 
26. It served on frontier garrison duty at Judson ferry, Fairmont, and 
Chanyaska lake, during the summer of 1863. Co. E was sent to Mankato 
about Aug. 22, thence to Lake Crystal and New Ulm. A detachment 
was sent out 25 miles to rescue 2 women and succeeded in the attempt, 
but had I man killed. The company was mustered in Nov. 14, wintered 
at Judson and was present at the Mankato execution as guard. It was 
on frontier post duty during the summer of 1863. Co. F was sent to 
Glencoe about Aug. 25 and was mustered in Sept. 24. In November 
it moved to Fort Ridgely and remained there until the following fall. 
Co. G, having a goodly number of Chippewa Indians and half-breeds 
was sent to Fort Abercrombie about Sept. 3. It found the fort besieged 
by Sioux Indians and joined in the attack which routed them. It was 
mustered in Oct. 30 and engaged in guard and outpost duty during the 
spring and summer of 1863, the Indians of the company proving valuable 
as scouts. It gained a reputation later as skirmishers and flankers, 
unequalled by any other company. Co. H was sent to Glencoe about 
Aug. 25 and was ordered to Lake Addie as frontier guard, being there 
divided into four squads. It was ordered to Hutchinson and arrived 
Sept. 4 to find the town surrounded by Indians. It charged and drove 
them across the prairie, then wintered at Glencoe, and was present as 
part of the guard at the Mankato execution in December. It was at- 
tached to the loth regiment in the spring and joined the Missouri expedi- 
tion. Co. I to the number of 40 was ordered to Glencoe about Aug. 20, 
and with Co. A of the 6th regiment moved to St. Peter and thence to 
Fort Ridgely, where it was joined by the remainder of the company early 
in October. It was inustered in Oct. 12 and remained at Fort Ridgely 
until spring, was then sent to Fort Pope for a month, returned to Fort 
Ridgely and in midsummer proceeded to St. Paul, where it did provost 
duty. Co. K was mustered in late in August and was on garrison duty 
at Fort Snelling until Nov. 3. It was then ordered to join Sibley's com- 
mand near South Bend, where it wintered, assisted in guarding Indian 
prisoners, and was on duty at Mankato at the execution. It occupied 
a stockade 20 miles from Madelia during the spring and summer of 1863. 
On Oct. 8, 1863, eight companies left the state for St. Louis, and were 
sent to Jefferson City. Cos. C and K were ordered to La Mine bridge. 



108 The Union Army 

G and H. which had been left at Fort Abercrombie, Minn., were ordered 
to Fort SnelHng. They left the state about Nov. 12 and were assigned 
to duty in St. Louis. Cos. A, B, E and I were sent to Rolla, Mo., and 
on Feb. 11, 1864. headquarters were moved to Warrensburg, Cos. D and 
F moving there and picking up C and K at La Mine bridge. March q 
headquarters were moved to Kansas City, Co. F being left at Independence. 
D moved to Kansas City, E to Waynesville, H to Rolla, G to Franklin. 
Headquarters were again moved April 14 to Rolla, the regiment was 
scattered for a distance of 250 miles along the Pacific road and along a 
branch road for 1 10 miles, on guard and garrison duty for several months. 
On Nov. 12, 1863, 41 men belonging to Cos. C and K held up a train and 
rescued the family of a colored man, which was being sent to Kentucky 
to be sold. For this, at the instigation of a Missouri officer, they were 
sent to the guard-house at Jefferson City, but after two months the United 
States senate was informed of the facts and adopted a resolution demand- 
ing of the secretary of war the reason for their detention, whereupon that 
oflfiicial ordered their release. The regiment came together for the first 
time at St. Louis May 26, 1864, and left on the 31st with Sturgis' expedi- 
tion for the campaign of Mississippi. At the battle of Guntown it charged 
and routed a body of the enemy. It covered the retirement in good 
order for 23 miles, when it became separated from the main column and 
succeeded in reaching Collierville, where it met a train with reinforcements. 
In this affair the regiment's loss was 286 in killed, wounded and missing, 
233 being captured, and of the number 119 died in southern prisons. 
The adjutant-general of the state, in his report of the affair, says: "That 
this disastrous undertaking did not result in the entire loss of the whole 
force, is mainly due to the gallantry of the officers and men of this (9th) 
regiment." It returned to Memphis, was attached to the 2nd brigade, ist 
division, i6th army corps, and was sent to Mississippi in June. It par- 
ticipated in the battle of Tupelo and in the Oxford raid; joined the Mis- 
souri campaign in September and October, and was in the battle of Nash- 
ville in December, where it was in a series of charges in which many pris- 
oners were taken, Co. K especially performing excellent work on the skir- 
mish line. In a charge the following day the colors of the 9th were the 
first planted on the enemy's works, the regiment capturing 2 battlefliags 
and 550 prisoners, to which it added 150 more during the day. It joined 
in the pursuit of Hood and went into quarters at Eastport, Jan. 9, 1865. 
It was in the campaign of Mobile and siege of Fort Blakely and Spanish 
Fort; was then ordered to Montgomery, Ala.; thence to Selma, and on 
May 19, to Marion. It was mustered out at Fort Snelling, Aug. 24, 1865. 
Its original strength was 919; it gained by recruits 157; total 1,076. 
Loss by death 263. 

Tenth Infantry. — Col., James H. Baker; Lieut. -Col., Samuel P. Jenni- 
son; Majs., Michael Cook, Edwin C. Sanders. This regiment was organ- 
ized in the summer of 1862 and mustered in by companies at different 
dates. A squad of Co. I, 18 men, under Lieut. Merrill, voluntarily assisted 
in the defense of New Ulm. Another squad of 45 on the way to Fort 
Snelling, faced about and marched to Fort Ridgely under Lieut. Gorman, 
taking part in the defense of that fort and in the battle of Wood Lake. 
Part of Co. G under Capt. Sanders also assisted in the defense of New 
Ulm. Co. C was mounted, sent to Yellow Medicine agency and employed 
as guard over prisoners, taking all the Indians to the lower agency, after 
which it was sent to Fort Ridgely for the winter. Co. F was also mounted, 
employed in scouting and burial of the dead, and was sent to the Winne- 
bago agency for the winter. Cos. B and F were assigned to the Winne- 
bago reservation. Headquarters were established at Le Sueur, with Co. 
G and part of Co. I in garrison. Co. A was located at Garden City, D 
and E at Henderson, H at Seven lakes and Vernon Center, K at Norwegian 



Minnesota Regiments 109 

lake, and I was not yet mustered in. Cos. A, B, F, G and H were at the 
Mankato execution on Dec. 26. In June, 1863, the regiment moved to 
Camp Pope and left there with the expedition to the Missouri river. Cos. 
A, F, C and K were in the engagement at Big Mound; the regiment bore 
the brunt of the attack at Dead Buffalo lake, when fully 4,000 Indians 
assaulted the troops, Hanking the regiment on both sides before the other 
regiments were in position. On the return of the expedition it was or- 
dered to Fort Snelling and furloughed. It left the state Oct. 7, for St. 
Louis, where it did provost and garrison duty. Col. Baker was appointed 
commanding officer of the post at St. Louis and finally appointed provost 
marshal-general, Department of the Missouri, which he held until the 
war closed. On April 22, 1864, the regiment was ordered to Columbus, 
Ky., Cos. E and D being detached for duty at Island No. 10. In June 
the regiment was ordered to Memphis and assigned to the ist brigade, 
1st division, i6th army corps. It participated in several expeditions and 
at the battle of Tupelo was in reserve. It joined in the pursuit of Forrest, 
was in the raid after Price, went into camp at Nashville Nov. 30, was in 
the battle at that place in December, when it participated in the charge 
upon the principal point, and forced the enemy out at the point of the 
bayonet. The regiment lost nearly 70 men in two days. Of the charge 
Gen. Thomas said, it was the handsomest feat of arms he ever saw. The 
regiment went into winter quarters at Eastport, and was later sent to 
take part in the siege of Mobile. After the fall of that city it was sent 
to Montgomery, Ala., and in May was ordered to Meridian, Miss. It was 
mustered out at Fort Snelling, Aug. 18, 1865. 

Eleventh Infantry. — Col., James GilfiUan; Lieut. -Col., John Ball; 
Maj., Martin Maginnis. This regiment was organized during Aug. and 
Sept. 1864, and was mustered in by companies at various dates. It left 
the state Sept. 20, was detained in Chicago a week, and reported at Nash- 
ville, where it was detailed by companies to guard the railroad against 
guerrillas. Headquarters were established at Gallatin, with Cos. E, G and 
I as guard at that point, A was located at Buck lodge, B at Edgefield 
Junction, C at Richland, D at Sandersville and Alexander's bridge, F 
and K at the tunnel, and H at Mitchellville. The regiment passed the 
time of its service in that region in the somewhat wearisome work imposed 
by guard, picket and patrol duty, and the life was spiced by an occasional 
chase after guerrillas. A herd of 1,500 cattle, captured by a band of 
mounted guerrillas, was recaptured and 2 men were killed by the guerrillas 
March 12, 1865, near Gallatin. In the early summer the guerrillas 
surrendered to Lieut. Hall, post provost marshal, and on June 26, the 
regiment started for home. It was mustered out July 11, 1865. 

First Company Sharpshooters. — Capts., Francis Peteler, Benedict 
Hippler, Dudley P. Chase, Abraham Wright, James E. Doughty, Owen 
Evans; First Lieuts., Benedict Hippler, Dudley P. Chase, James E. 
Doughty, Abraham Wright, Owen Evans, John T. Walker; Second Lieuts., 
Dudley P. Chase, Owen Evans, James Doughty. This company was 
organized in the summer of 1861 and was mustered in Oct. 5. It left 
the state the next day and reported to Col. Berdan at Washington, being 
made Co. A of the 2nd U. S. sharpshooters. The organization of the 
regiment was completed Feb. 10, 1862, Capt. Peteler of Co. A became 
lieutenant-colonel, Lieut. Hippler succeeded him as captain. The regi- 
ment was assigned to Auger's brigade. King's division, McDowell's coq)s. 
The history of Co. A is closely identified with that of the regiment and 
must be treated so in a general way, with special notations in reference 
to the company. The regiment moved to Fredericksburg in May and 
in a railroad collision near White Plains, several members of Co. A were 
among the injured. Cos. A and C made a reconnaissance toward Orange 
■Court House in July and broke a charge by their promptness in action. 



110 The Union Army 

The company participated in skirmishes near Rappahannock Station and 
Warren ton springs and at the second battle of Bull Run, in which 6 
men of the company were captured. It was at the battle of South moun- 
tain, and at the battle of Antietam Capt. Chase and lo men of Co. A were 
wounded. It fought at Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and in the bat.- 
tle of Gettysburg, where it aided in saving Little Round top and in break- 
ing Pickett's charge, and was ordered to the skirmish line in the advance 
on Culpeper Court House. Nearly all of Co. A reenlisted in Deceml:)er. 
It was engaged almost day and night during the first half of May, 1864, 
in skirmish and picket duty from Brandy Station toward Petersburg. It 
was in action at Spottsylvania Court House, the Po river, the North Anna, 
near Hanover Court House, Wilcox landing, and before Petersburg. 
When the regiment disbanded in Feb., 1865, Co. A was transferred to 
the ist Minn, battalion, with which it was mustered out. The original 
strength of company was 96; gain by recruits 12; total 108. Loss by 
.death 13, discharge 36, mustered out 59. 

Second Company Sharpshooters. — Capts., William F. Russell, Emil A. 
; Burger, Mahlon Black; First Lieuts., John A. W. Jones, Emil A. Burger, 

LMahlon Bl&,ck, Louis Fitzsimmons; Second Lieuts., John A. W. Jones, 
Mahlon Black, Daniel H. Priest. This company was organized at St. 
Paul fforfi Nov. 23, i86i,to March 17, 1862, and was mustered in March 
20. It left the state April 21 for Washington and was sent to Yorktown, 
reporting to Col. Berdan May 7. It was temporarily attached to ist U. S. 
sharpshooters as Co. L and moved to West Point with that regiment 
May 8. It participated in two engagements at Hanover Court House, 
after which the company — always known as "2nd company of Minnesota 
sharpshooters" — was assigned to duty with the ist Minn, infantry. It 
joined the regiment on the field at Fair Oaks June 2. The previous day 
in independent action it drove a body of the enemy's sharpshooters out 
of a piece of woods. It remained with the regiment through the war, 
being engaged before Richmond in the Seven Days' battles. In the bat- 
tle of Antietam it lost 20 men wounded within 10 minutes, and at Gettys- 
burg it supported Battery I, ist U. S. artillery, and was under heavy fire. 
It was on provost duty in September, October and November at division 
headquarters. The regiment was sent home in Feb., 1864, to be mustered 
out, but Co. L, as the sharpshooters were designated, was engaged in the 
battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court House, Cold Harbor, and 
numerous skirmishes during May and June, and in several actions about 
Petersburg. It was mustered out March 19, 1865. Its original strength 
was loi. Loss by death 1 1 ; missing 4 ; transfer 20; desertion 6; discharge 
42; promoted 5; enlisted in regular anny 6; discharged on expiration of 
term 7. 

First Cavalry. — Col., Samuel McPhaill; Lieut. -Col., William Pfaender; 
Majs., John H. Parker, Solomon S. Buell, Orrin T. Hayes. This regiment 
was made up of twelve companies, organized in the fall of 1862 and was 
composed largely of men who had lost their wives, children or relatives 
in the Sioux massacre the previous August and September. The first 
battalion of three companies was sent out as soon as organized for guard 
and patrol duty. In the spring of 1863 nine companies under Col. Mc- 
Phaill assembled at Camp Pope for the campaign of the Missouri, the 
other three companies remaining for patrol duty. The regiment was in 
the battle of Big Mound, where the ist battalion led the attack. It fought 
its way up the steep hill, put the Indians to flight and followed them for 
15 miles. The regiment was in the battle of Dead Buffalo lake, and was 
at Stony lake, when the Indians attacked in great force. It reached the 
Missouri July 29, and returned to Fort Abercrombie. Col. McPhaill, with 
several companies of cavalry, was sent to Fort Ridgely, which place he 
reached Sept. i. The ist battalion was sent to Fort Ripley and the van- 



Minnesota Regiments 111 

ous companies of the ist cavalry were mustered out during the fall and 
winter of 1863-64. 

Second Cavalry. — Col., Robert N. McLaren; Lieut. -Col. William Pfaen- 
der; Majs., Ebenezer A. Rice, John M. Thompson, Robert H. Rose. This 
regiment was organized during the fall and winter of 1863 and was mus- 
tered in during Jan., 1864. It was engaged in garrison duty, with occa- 
sional expeditions in ptirsuit of wandering bands of Indians tmtil late in 
May, when it left Fort Snelling for the campaign against the savages. 
The 8th Minn, infantry, eight companies of the 2nd cavalry, Brackett's 
cavalry battalion and Jones' infantry, formed the 2nd brigade of Sully's 
division, under command of Col. Minor T. Thomas these troops left Fort 
Ridgely Jvme 5, 1864, and effected a junction with the ist brigade at Fort 
Sully on the Missouri July i. The Indians were driven from their camp 
on Cannon Ball river and followed to the Little Heart river. The regi- 
ment participated and did effective work in the battle of Tahkahokuty 
mountain, where 5,000 Indians were strongly posted in the hills and 
ravines. Two men of Co. D were killed the following night, while on 
picket, Co. D and part of Co. A being detailed for that duty. It was in 
the two days' engagement in early August, known as the battle of the 
Little Missouri, reached the Yellowstone on Aug. 13. On the return trip 
it had several slight encounters with the enemy. A detachment accom- 
panied the expedition for the relief of Capt. Fisk and a party of 50 cavalry- 
men, who were escorting an emigrant train west. The regiment reached 
F'ort Ridgely Oct. 8 and the several companies were on garrison and 
patrol duty at Forts Wadsworth, Abercrombie, Ripley and Ridgely, and 
smaller posts. They were mustered out as fast as regulars could take 
their places in the fall of 1865, except Co. A, which was mustered out 
April 2, and L mustered out May 4, 1866. 

Brackett's Cavalry Battalion. — This battalion was organized in the 
fall of 1 861. It consisted originally of three companies, captained by 
Henning Von Minden, D. M. West and Alfred B. Brackett, and was known 
as the "Minnesota Light Cavalry." It was ordered to St. Louis, reached 
there Dec. 28, 1861, and was assigned to a regiment known as the "Curtis' 
Horse," named for Maj.-Gen. Curtis, in command of that department. 
The regiment was comprised of four companies from Iowa, three from 
Minnesota, three from Nebraska and two from Missouri, Col. W. W. Lowe 
commanding. The government afterwards changed the name to the 
5th la. cavalry, Capt. Brackett being made major, and it was ordered to 
Fort Henry Feb. 8, 1862. It participated in the battle of Fort Donelson, 
performing cavalry duty as wagon guard, patrolling, etc. It was con- 
stantly in the saddle during the year; furnished the bridges, roads and 
lines necessary for the successful issue of the battle of Shiloh ; was in the 
siege of Corinth; pursued the enemy for nearly 90 miles; hoisted the Stars 
and Stripes at Humboldt, and fought at Lockridge mills, where Capt. 
Von Minden and 28 of his company were taken prisoners and paroled. 
Being ordered on duty, these men refused imtil released from parole, 
and they were discharged in disgrace and turned out of camp because 
they kept their written word. This expulsion is resented by the survivors 
of the company to this day. The regiment was in action at Fort Donel- 
son in August, in the Clarksville fight in September, again at Fort Donel- 
son Feb. 5, 1863, s^nd in the Tullahoma campaign was engaged in several 
severe skirmishes. It completely routed the 6th Tex. cavalry in a saber 
charge at Wartrace in October and charged and routed two of Forrest's 
regiments at the Tennessee river. The Minnesota companies reenlisted 
and while on furlough organized Brackett's battalion, which was detached 
from the regiment and assigned to frontier duty in the northwest. Sub- 
sequently it was strengthened by the addition of Capt. A. Barton and 
86 men as a fourth company. The battalion was placed in the command 



112 The Union Army 

of Gen. Sully and joined the campaign up the Missouri in 1864. In the 
fight at Tahkahokuty mountain it charged the Indians and drove them, 
foot-by-foot across a ravine, up the hill, over the crest and down the slope, 
scattering them far and wide. It was congratulated for gallantry and 
coolness. The battalion went into Fort Ridgely for the winter and was 
on patrol duty during 1865, covering over 200 miles of frontier line. It 
was mustered out in May, 1866. 

Hatch's Cavalry Battalion. — Maj., E. A. C. Hatch. This battalion 
was organized during Aug. and Sept., 1863, and left for Pembina Oct. 5, 
for Indian duty, accompanied by one section of the 3d Minn, light battery. 
It acted as escort for a transportation train from St. Cloud, and from 
Pomme de Terre Oct. 24 the major portion of the troops were sent to Fort 
Abercrombie to obtain additional ordnance, the rest of the command 
under Lieut. Charles Mix, continuing with the train, a junction to be 
effected at Georgetown. A sudden thaw compelled the train to rest days 
and travel nights and the road was lost, the command being thus several 
days late in reaching Georgetown. Animals and men suffered greatly, 
owing to the failure of contractors to deliver hay and grain as agreed, and 
only by most determined work did the expedition continue. Two hun- 
dred and fifty horses, mules and oxen died between Georgetown and Pem- 
bina, and as much of the stores as could be spared were left at George- 
town. In December a small detachment surprised and captured a party 
of Indians and soon afterward some 200 of Little Crow's band surrendered. 
Others came in imtil Maj. Hatch had nearly 400, and early in Jan., 1864, 
the Sioux chiefs, Little Six and Medicine Bottle, were captured, sent to 
Fort Snelling and after trial were hung for their crimes in the massacre 
of 1862, Little Six confessing to having personally killed 50 people. In 
February the battalion was joined by Maj. Joseph R. Brown, with over 
40 friendly Indians. Maj. Brown left for Fort Snelling with the prisoners 
and on April 10, Lieut. Mix and party left for Fort Abercrombie. On May 
5, the entire command moved for Fort Abercrombie. Co. C was detailed 
to Alexandria and Pomme de Terre and Co. D to patrol duty from Fort 
Abercrombie to Pembina. Maj. Hatch resigned in June because of ill 
health, being succeeded by Lieut. -Col. C. Powell Adams, and Cos. E and 
F were mustered in during Aug. and Sept., 1864. Post and patrol duty 
was the order until 1866, when the regiment was mustered out by com- 
panies during April, May and June. 

First Heavy Artillery. — Col., William Colville; Lieut. -Col., Luther L. 
Baxter; Majs., Orlando Eddy, C. P. Haffelfinger, David Misner. This 
regiment was organized in the summer of 1864, mustered in by companies 
and ordered to Chattanooga in the winter of 1864-65. It was composed 
of twelve companies, each containing 140 men, besides the officers. It 
was placed in charge of the heavy guns and forts at Chattanooga, a re- 
sponsible position, as it was thought Hood would endeavor the retake 
the city. It remained there until the war closed and was mustered out 
by companies in June and Sept., 1865. 

First Light Battery. — Capts., Emil Mimch, William Z. Clayton; First 
Lieuts., William Pfaender, William Z. Claj'ton, Ferdinand E. Peebles, 
William Koethe, Henry S. Hurter. This battery was organized at Fort 
Snelling and was mustered in Nov. 21, 1861. It was ordered to St. Louis, 
where it first occupied Benton barracks, and was then transferred to the 
arsenal, receiving its armament there. It was sent to Pittsburg landing 
in February, and in the battle of Shiloh engaged in a stem contest, firing 
the first guns in the famous "Hornets' Nest" against which the enemy 
hurled his forces repeatedly. It was engaged in the siege and battle of 
Corinth, and in the siege of Vicksburg a section of the battery was the 
first to open fire, which continued until the surrender. It remained in 
camp near Vicksburg until ordered up the river in the spring of 1864 to 



Minnesota Regiments 113 

Cairo, 111., thence to Clifton, Tenn., and on to Alabama. It joined Sher- 
man at Big Shanty, Ga., on June 9 ; was in the battles of Atlanta and Ezra 
Church ; joined in the march to the sea, 2 guns and the sick men being 
left in Atlanta. It reached Savannah Dec. 10, embarked for Beaufort, 
S. C, on Jan. 13, 1865, and then continued with the army through the 
Carolinas. It silenced a Confederate battery at Cheraw so effectually 
that Gen. Blair presented it with one of the English Blakely guns, taken 
from the captured battery. It participated in the grand review at Wash- 
ington and was mustered out at St. Paul July i, 1865. 

Second Light Battery. — Capt., William A. Hotchkiss; First Lieuts., 
Gustave Rosenk, Albert Woodbury, Richard L. Dawley, Henry W. 
Harder, Alexander Kinkead, George W. Tilton (real name Gaylord) ; 
Second-Lieuts., Jackson Taylor, Richard L. Dawley, Henry W. Harder, 
Alexander Kinkead, Charles N. Earl, Lyman W. Ayer. This battery 
was organized during the winter of 1861-62, and was mustered in 
March 21, 1862. It left the state April 21 for Benton barracks, St. Louis, 
and on May 21 left to join the army in the investment of Corinth. It was 
in several campaigns during the summer and was ordered to Nashville 
in August to join Buell's army. It participated in the campaign against 
Bragg in Kentucky and Tennessee and was in the battle of Perryville, 
where it received great praise for its work. In the battle of Stone's 
river it won new laurels, and in an artillery duel near Murfreesboro in 
March it silenced the enemy's guns. It participated in the Tullahoma 
campaign and was in a charge at Winchester. In the battle of Chicka- 
mauga, "three successive times it prevented the enemy from forming," 
was engaged at Missionary ridge, and did very effective work in the pur- 
suit of the enemy. It was stationed at Rossville, Ga., from Dec. 26, 

1863, to March 21, 1864, one section being engaged at Tunnel Hill and 
Buzzard Roost in February. The battery reenlisted in March, was fur- 
loughed in April, and on return in June was mounted as cavalry and 
engaged in general duty until October, when it was sent to Fort Irwin, 
Chattanooga. On Dec. i, Capt. Hotchkiss organized a brigade of light 
batteries, which participated in the battles of Franklin and Nashville 
and then was at Chattanooga until March 30, 1865. The battery gar- 
risoned a fort at Philadelphia, Tenn., until the last of July and was mus- 
tered out at Fort Snelling Aug. 16, 1865. 

Third Light Battery. — Capt., John Jones; First- Lieuts., John C. Whip- 
ple, Horace H. Western; Second-Lieuts., Don A. Daniels, G. Merrill 
Dwelle. This battery was organized in Feb. and March, 1863, was 
ordered to Camp Pope in June, and participated in an Indian expedition 
under Sibley. The Indians having treacherously shot Dr. Wiser in the 
back July 23, while ostensibly talking over matters, the 4th section of the 
battery joined the pursuit, cleared the Indian camp with shells, and con- 
tinued to shell them in a running fight of 15 miles. The ist section joined 
in the fight of the 26th and on the 28th drove the Indians across the Mis- 
souri. On the return, when Sauk Center was reached, the 4th section 
under Lieut. Dwelle was ordered to return to Fort Abercrombie with Gov. 
Ramsey, who was on the way to make a treaty with the Chippewa Indians 
at Red Lake river crossing. The ist section wintered at Fort Snelling, 
the 2nd at Pembina, the 3d at Fort Ridgely, and the 4th at Fort Ripley. 
All but the 2nd section joined Sully's expedition to the Yellowstone in 

1864, and were at Tahkahokuty mountain, the ist section being in ad- 
vance, the 3d on the rear and left flank, and the 4th on the right flank. 
The 4th section dislodged a large body of Indians in ambush, killed 40 
or more, and the ist section drove them from the front. Continuous 
skirmishes were had with the Indians, while crossing the Bad Lands, and on 
the return the veterans were distributed among the garrisons on the fron- 
tier. In May, 1865, the 4th section accompanied an expedition to Wood 

Vol. IV-^ 



114 The Union Army 

Lake and in Jvtne the ist, and and 4th sections joined the expedition to 
Devil's Lake, Dak. On Oct. i, the battery was ordered into winter quar- 
ters — the ist section to Fort Abercrombie, the others at Fort Wadsworth. 
It was then ordered to Fort SneHing and was mustered out Feb. 27, 1866. 

Citizen Soldiery. — In addition to the troops mustered into the U. S. 
service a number of independent companies were organized for the sup- 
pression of the Indian outbreak. The following list of these companies 
is taken from the adjutant-general's reports. 

St. Peter Frontier Guards, Capt., Charles E. Flandrau; Mankato 
Volunteers, Capt. William Bierbauer; Brown Coxmty militia (three com- 
panies), Capts. Charles Roos, Ignatz Renartz and Louis Buggert; Co. A, 
Fort Abercrombie, Capt. T. D. Smith; Northern Rangers, Capt. Ambrose 
Freeman; Winnebago City Guards, Capt. H. W. Holley; Nicollet County 
Guards, Capt. A. M. Bean; Fillmore County Volunteers, Capt. C. L. Post; 
Co. A, Fillmore County Militia, Capt. N. P. Colbum ; Le Sueur Tigers 
(two companies), Capts. William Dellaughter and E. C. Saunders; St. 
Paul Cullen Guards, Capt. William J. Cullen ; Capt. Richard Strout's 
company; Sibley Guards, Capt. George Whitcomb; Lafayette company, 
Capt. Sidel Depolder; Goodhue County Rangers, Capt. D. L. Davis;. 
Frontier Avengers, Capt. E. St. J. Cox; Renville Rangers, Capt. James 
Gorman; Eureka Squad, Capt. Joseph F. Bean; Winona Rangers, Capt. 
C. F. Buck; Malmros Guards, Capt. F. A. Olds; Wabasha County Rangers, 
Capt. William Rummell; Carver Cotmty Rangers, Capt. Charles Rees; 
Capt. J. R. Serrett's mounted company from Lake City; the companies 
of Capts. John Belm, Joseph Anderson, David D. Lloyd, Calvin Potter 
(mounted), Charles Wagner, and Hendrick's battery of light artillery, 
Capt. Mark Hendrick. A company known as "Dole's Squad" was com- 
manded by Hon. William P. Dole, commissioner of Indian affairs, who 
was at that time in the state to negotiate a treaty. 



JAMES BAIRD WEAVER 



Brig.-Gen. James B. Weaver, to whom the manuscript pertain- 
ing to "MiHtary Affairs in Iowa" was referred for revision and 
correction, was born in Dayton, Ohio, June 12, 1833, the son of 
Abram and Susan (Imley) Weaver, natives respectively of Ham- 
ilton county, Ohio, and the state of New Jersey. The grand- 
father and great-grandfather of Gen. Weaver, on the paternal 
side, served in the Continental army during the war of the Revo- 
lution, the grandfather serving part of the time on a privateer. 
Gen. Weaver received his preliminary education in the common 
schools of what was then a frontier country, his father having 
removed with his family to Michigan and from there to Iowa 
in 1843, locating in Davis county, where he became quite prom- 
inent and served as clerk of the district court for a period of eight 
years. Later he removed to the state of Kansas and served four- 
teen years as clerk of the district court of Atchison county, dying 
there at the advanced age of eighty-three years. After receiving 
a common school education the son took up the study of law, and 
after reading a short time entered the Cincinnati law school, 
where he graduated in 1855, after which he began the practice 
of his profession at Bloomfield, la., where he was also the editor 
of a weekly paper for a few years before the Civil war. On April 
15, 1861, one day in advance of the call upon the governor for 
troops, he enlisted as a private in Co. G, 2nd la. infantry, the 
first three-years' regiment to take the field from Iowa. It was 
mustered in May 27-28, Mr. Weaver being commissioned first 
lieutenant of his company, and the command left the state June 
13 for St. Joseph, Mo., where it remained on railroad guard duty 
and aided in maintaining order until the latter part of July. Then 
moving to Bird's Point it remained there engaged in similar 
service until the latter part of October, when it moved to St. 
Louis and spent a portion of the winter there, engaged in the 
duty of guarding prisoners and recuperating. At Fort Donelson 
it conducted itself splendidly as a part of Lauman's brigade 
which stormed the enemy's works on the left, the regiment lead- 
ing the column, planting its flag within the outer works, pour- 
ing a murderous fire into the opposing lines and compelling the 
enemy to seek the shelter of the inner works. It participated at 
the battle of Shiloh, its brigade repulsing several assaults, and it 

115 



also took part in the siege of Corinth and in the pursuit of Beau- 
regard's forces. On the morning of the first day's engagement 
at Corinth, Miss., Lieut. Weaver was commissioned major of 
his regiment and at the close of the second day was promoted 
to colonel, the colonel and lieutenant-colonel both having been 
killed in the battle. Col. Weaver moved with his regiment to 
La Grange, Tenn., and later went into winter quarters at Pu- 
laski, but on Dec. 9 marched to Tuscumbia, Ala., in pursuit of 
raiders, returning on the 23d. The regiment remained in the 
vicinity of Pulaski, where Col. Weaver was post commander 
during the winter of 1863-64. On April 29, 1864, he joined Sher- 
man's army in the movement toward Atlanta ; participated in the 
battles of Resaca, Rome cross-roads, and numerous minor en- 
gagements, and upon May 27, 1864, his term of enlistment having 
expired, he was honorably mustered out of the service. On 
March 13, 1865, in recognition of his gallant and meritorious 
services in the field, President Lincoln conferred upon him the 
brevet title of brigadier-general of volunteers. Returning to 
his home in Iowa, Gen. Weaver resumed the practice of law, 
and in 1865 was one of the prominent candidates for the nom- 
ination for lieutenant-governor in the Republican state con- 
vention, receiving the second highest vote. In 1866 he was 
elected district attorney in the 2nd judicial district and served 
for four years. In 1867 he was appointed assessor of internal 
revenue for the ist district of Iowa by President Johnson and 
served in that position for six years. In 1875 ^^ ^^^ a candi- 
date for governor before the Republican state convention, and on 
the morning of the convention it was generally conceded that he 
would be nominated. He was an active and outspoken advocate 
of prohibition and the rigid enforcement of the prohibitory liquor 
law, and this aroused the bitter opposition of the license men. 
They saw that he was about to be nominated and secretly or- 
ganized a movement to bring out the name of Samuel J. Kirk- 
wood, the "old war governor," as the only way to defeat Gen. 
Weaver. The ex-governor was not present, and when communi- 
cated with declined to become a candidate ; but the license men 
presented his name in a dramatic manner, and by a prearranged 
plan had tremendous cheering started for Gov. Kirkwood, thus 
stampeding the convention at the last moment and bringing about 
his nomination. Soon thereafter, owing to his pronounced views 
upon certain questions of national importance, chief of which 
was the financial issue. Gen. Weaver left the Republican party 
and became one of the leaders of the National, or better known 
as the "Greenback" party. In 1878 he was nominated by the 
new party for representative in Congress in the 6th Iowa district 
and after a warm campaign was elected over the Republican 

116 



candidate. In 1880 he was nominated by the national convention 
of the new party for president and at the ensuing election re- 
ceived about 350,000 votes. In 1884 he was again elected to 
Congress from the same district and reelected in 1886 by a coali- 
tion of the Populists and Democrats in opposition to the Repub- 
lican candidate. In 1892 he was again nominated for president, 
this time by the People's party, and at the November election 
received 1,041,028 popular and 22 electoral votes, being the only 
third party candidate since i860 who has succeeded in forcing 
his name into the electoral college. In 1896, when the Demo- 
cratic party adopted the Chicago platform, embodying Gen. 
Weaver's views on the financial and other questions, he allied him- 
self with that organization and has since given it his loyal sup- 
port. He is an ardent supporter of William J. Bryan, and as a 
member of the Democratic national convention of 1904 served 
on the committee on platform, giving effective aid to his leader 
in that memorable contest. Gen. Weaver has given most of his 
time for many years to the advocacy of his political views and 
has long been recognized as one of the ablest among the national 
speakers and managers of his party, having made extensive speak- 
ing tours in all the states and territories, with the lone exception 
of Vermont. He is a fearless debater, and was the first man in 
modern times who, as a member of Congress, insisted on an 
amendment to the constitution providing for the election of Unit- 
ed States senators by direct vote of the people. Gen. Weaver 
was married on July 13, 1858, to Miss Clara Vinson, daughter 
of Cuthbert and Deborah (Sewers) Vinson, of Dorchester 
county, Md., and to this union there have been born eight chil- 
dren — Maud, James B. Jr., Paul, Susan, Abram, Laura, Ruth and 
Esther, all of whom are living except Paul, who died in infancy. 
Gen. Weaver is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
and fraternally he affiliates with the Masonic order and the In- 
dependent Order of Odd Fellows. 



117 



Military Affairs in Iowa 

1861—65 



According to the census of i860 the population of Iowa was 
674,948. The early spring of 1861 was a period of general 
unrest. Several of the Southern states had seceded from the 
Union before President Lincoln was inaugurated. Iowa watched 
the movement with interest and stood ready to check its prog- 
ress whenever the proper authorities should give the word. 
On April 16, the day following the president's call for 75,000 
troops, a telegram froni the war department called upon Gov. 
Kirkwood for a regiment of militia for immediate service. 
Col. Vandever carried the telegram from Davenport to the 
governor's farm near Iowa City. When the governor had 
read it, he expressed some doubt about being able to raise 
"a whole regiment of men." And, indeed, at the commence- 
ment of the war, although Gov. Kirkwood exerted himself 
to the utmost of his ability to raise troops for the defense of 
the state, and for the purpose of complying with the calls of 
the U. S. Government, the task seemed one of considerable 
difficulty; for Missouri, on the southern border of the state, 
was not then loyal, and Nebraska, at the west, though loyal, 
had too few inhabitants to be able to oppose much resistance 
to an armed invasion. But the work of recruiting was imme- 
diately begun, and Gov. Kirkwood soon discovered that his 
doubts were without foundation. It was easier to raise the 
men than to secure equipments for them. To provide for 
the necessary expenses he summoned the legislature of the 
state to meet in extra session on May 15. The day before 
the legislature met, the ist infantry was mustered into the 
service of the United States at Keokuk, and other regiments 
were in process of formation, but the queston of arming and 
equipping the men became a serious one. From all parts 
of the state came the demand for muskets. When the special 
session of the legislature met. Gov. Kirkwood delivered his 
message, in which he made use of the following language: 

"In this emergency, Iowa must not and does not occupy a 
doubtful position. For the Union, as our fathers formed it, 

118 



Military Affairs in Iowa 319 

and for the government they formed so wisely and so well, 
the people of Iowa are ready to pledge every fighting man in 
the state, and every dollar of her money and credit; and I 
have called you together in extraordinary session for the pur- 
pose of making that pledge formal and effective. 

"The procuring of a liberal supply of arms for the use of 
the state is a matter that I earnestly recommend to your early 
and serious consideration. The last four weeks have taught 
us a lesson which I trust we may never forget — that peace is 
the proper time in which to prepare for war. 

"I feel assured the state can readily raise the means necessary 
to place her in a position consistent alike with her honor and 
her safety. Her territory, of great extent and unsurpassed 
fertility, inviting and constantly receiving a desirable emigra- 
tion; her population of nearly three-quarters of a million of 
intelligent, industrious, energetic, and liberty-loving people; 
her very rapid past and prospective growth ; her present financial 
condition, having a debt of only about one-quarter of a million 
of dollars, unite to make her bonds among the most desirable 
investments that our country affords." 

No doubt about being able to raise "a whole regiment 
of men," now existed in Gov. Kirkwood's mind. Already 
enough companies to organize five regiments had been formed, 
and the recruiting still went on. From the experience of the 
last four weeks, he had learned the spirit of Iowa's sons; and 
it was no exaggeration when he said in his message that Iowa 
stood ready to pledge the last man and the last dollar to pre- 
serve the Union. 

On May 28 the legislature passed an act appointing the 
governor of the state, Charles Mason of Des Moines county, 
William Smyth of Linn, James Baker of Lucas, and C. W. 
Slagle of Jefferson, a commission to sell from time to time, 
as exigencies demanded, bonds to the amount of $800,000, 
the proceeds to constitute a "war and defense fund." In 
order to make the loan a popular one, one-fourth of the bonds 
was ordered to be printed in denominations of $100; one-fourth, 
of $500, and the remainder, of $1,000, each. But through 
the careful management of Gov. Kirkwood only about $300,000 
of this war and defense fund was used. 

On the same date the governor was empowered to purchase 
5,000 stands of arms and such quantities of ammunition as 
he might deem necessary, also tents, clothing and camp equip- 
age, all to be paid for from the war and defense fund. A joint 
resolution to uniform the ist regiment in the same manner 
as the 2nd and 3d regiments had been uniformed, had been 
passed four days before. A memorial to the president asking 



120 The Union Army 

permission to form an "Iowa Brigade" of the regiments then 
organized, and also to permit Iowa to furnish at least one com- 
pany of cavalry, was adopted during the session. 

These acts, resolutions, and memorials, were not passed 
without some opposition. Although a majority of the members 
were in favor of a vigorous prosecution of the war, there was 
a considerable minority that held the opposite view. They 
wanted a cessation of hostilities, to hold peace conventions, 
to compromise, etc. On July 22, about a month after the 
special session adjourned, this minority met and passed resolu- 
tions declaring the $800,000 loan unconstitutional. They 
based their opinion on a clause in the state constitution, w'hich 
provided that "the credit of the state shall not be given in 
any manner for any purpose. To meet casual deficits in the 
revenue, the state may borrow not exceeding $250,000 at any 
one time, and the state may contract debt to repel invasion 
or suppress insurrection." The money-loaners outside of the 
state took the same view of the constitutional provision, and 
the bonds were not sold. In this emergency Gov. Kirkwood 
appealed to the patriotic people of Iowa. The first regiments 
were clothed and equipped upon the personal security of Gov. 
Kirkwood, Hiram B. Price, Samuel Merrill and Ezekiel Clark. 
Cloth for uniforms could not be obtained in Chicago, because 
the supply had been exhausted. Samuel Merrill ordered enough 
from Boston for 1,500 uniforms. When it arrived the loyal 
women of Iowa set to work to make it up into garments. Early 
and late toiled the wives, mothers and sweethearts of Iowa's 
soldier boys, to send them to the front properly equipped. 
Perhaps a tear from the eye of some fair seamstress now and 
then fell upon the cloth as she thought that the wearer might 
fill a nameless grave in the enemy's country. 

Nor were the resolutions adopted by the "Mahoneyites," 
as they were called, the only expression of the "foes within." 
At Ossian a Confederate flag was raised amid the cheers of 
the assembled populace. In Marion county, on July 10, a 
meeting adopted resolutions to the effect that "Under the 
administration of President Lincoln we behold our beloved 
country distracted at home and disgraced abroad; commerce 
paralyzed; trade annihilated; coasts blockaded; rivers shut 
up; the constitution trampled under foot; citizens imprisoned; 
laws suspended; legislatures overawed by bayonets; debts 
repudiated, and states invaded and dismembered." Even 
in the capital of the state, the course of Gov. Kirkwood and 
the administration of President Lincoln were condemned in 
public meetings. 

Meantime the progress of secession was watched wdth much 



Military Affairs in Iowa 121 

solicitude in Iowa, and upon the call of the president for a 
military force, the troops of the state were among the earliest 
in the field. The organization of the regiments went steadily- 
forward. Soon after the ist had been mustered in, the 2nd 
was accepted by the governor. The 3d infantry and ist cavalry 
were also mustered into the service during the early summer. 
Cyrus Bussey of Bloomfield was colonel of the 3d cavalry, and 
when he began the organization he issued a call for each man 
to bring a good horse to sell to the government. He went 
to Chicago and personally contracted for all the necessary 
equipments. The result was that, within two weeks from the 
time the first man was enlisted, the regiment was complete 
and ready for service. (See Records of the Regiments.) 

Notwithstanding the work of recruiting volunteer troops, 
a lively interest was taken in the political campaign of 1861. 
On July 31, the Republicans held a state convention at Des 
Moines, at which Gov. Kirkwood was unanimously nominated 
for reelection. The platform adopted declared "unalterable 
de\"otion to the constitution and union of states;" condemned 
the doctrine of secession as an abomination and abhorrent to 
patriotism, and insisted that "government always means 
coercion when its lawful authority is resisted." The action 
of the general assembly in providing a war and defense fund 
was approved. The Democratic convention, which had been 
held at the capitol a week before, nominated William H. Merritt 
for governor. In the platform the condition of the country 
was regarded "as the legitimate result of the successful teach- 
ing of the doctrine and policy of the 'irrepressible conflict;' 
a doctrine and policy which arrayed northern sentiment in 
antagonism to the constitutional rights of the slave states, 
and which proclaimed an 'irrepressible' and unceasing hostility 
to the domestic institutions of our brethren of the South." 
The course of the Southern states "to obtain redress" was unequi- 
vocally condemned; the doctrine of secession was "heartily 
opposed;" the doctrine of state rights was proclaimed; all paper 
money was characterized as "system of legalized swindling;" 
and a tariff on imports for the purpose of protection was opposed. 
Gov. Kirkwood was re-elected by a majority of 16,608, in a 
total vote of 103,098. r v. > 

The legislature which met in Jan., 186 2, ''passed acts exempt- 
ing the property of soldiers from execution; authorizing the 
governor to employ army nurses and surgeons for sick and 
wounded Iowa soldiers, and providing transportation for sick 
and disabled soldiers discharged because of their disabilities 
or sent home on furlough. A second session was held in Septem- 
ber, of the same year, at which provisions were made to offer 



132 The Union Army 

inducements to volunteers to enlist; also a modification of 
the election laws, that volunteers might vote when absent; 
and increasing the resources of the executive department. 

Early in the year 1862, the 15 th regiment of infantry was 
mustered into the Federal service at Keokuk. The i6th 
infantry was mustered in a few days before the 15th. At the 
time the i6th was mustered in, it was generally thought 
that it was the last Iowa would be called on to furnish. But 
the war was not over, and before the close of 1862 the 
Hawkeye state had forty regiments of infantry in the field, 
of cavalry four, and three batteries of artillery. In addition, 
there were soldiers from the state in the ist Neb., 5th Kan., 
7th, loth, 2ist and 25th Mo. 

In Aug., 1862, occurred the Indian outbreak in western Minne- 
sota, and the citizens in the northwestern part of Iowa became 
alarmed through fear that the war would be carried into this 
state. With that promptness for which he was distinguished. 
Gov. Kirkwood sent S. R. Ingham to distribute arms and 
ammunition to the people of the northwestern counties. Ingham 
was authorized to draw on the state auditor for Si, 000 to defray 
the expenses of organizing the citizens for their defense. He 
visited Dickinson, Emmett, Palo Alto, Kossuth, Humboldt 
and Webster counties. A company of 40 men was soon organ- 
ized and placed under the command of Lieut. Sawyers, with 
instructions to increase the number to 80 if thought necessary. 
Arms and ammunition were distributed among the people 
of the border counties, but before the arrangements could be 
completed Little Crow and his band were fleeing toward the 
Missouri river and the scare was over. 

While the fight for possession of Missouri was going on, 
the Iowa coimties along the southern border were in a constant 
state of agitation, fearing an attack from the Confederate forces 
gathered at various points south of them. In Aug., 1861, a Con- 
federate detachment under Col. Mart. Green made an attempt to 
capture some government stores at Athens, a little town on the 
Missouri side of the Des Moines river, about 20 miles from Keokuk. 
Some of the shots fired from the Confederate cannon on that 
occasion flew wild and landed on the Iowa side of the river. 
Loyal citizens in these border counties appealed to Gov. Kirk- 
wood for arms, and for permission to organize companies for 
the defense of their homes. They did not appeal in vain. 
Under date of Sept. 11, 1862, the governor wrote a letter to 
one man in each of the southern tier of counties authorizing 
him to organize a company of from 80 to 100 men. The men 
selected for this purpose were Charles W. Lowrie of Lee county; 
Joseph Dickey of Van Buren; Hosea B. Horn of Davis; H. 



Military Affairs in Iowa 133 

Tannehill of Appanoose; W. W. Thomas of Wayne; James 
H. Summers of Decatur; Thomas Ayr of Ringgold; R. A. 
Moser of Taylor; John R. Morledge of Page; E. S. Hedges of 
Fremont, and D. W. Dixon of Wapello. In his letter of instruc- 
tions the governor recommended that a few men of each com- 
pany should be kept on duty as scouts, and that the remainder 
should stay at home, engaged in their usual avocations, but 
subject to call at any time. They were to be known as "minute 
men," because they were liable to be called into military ser- 
vice at a minute's warning. He also cautioned those com- 
missioned to organize companies to "accept none whose devotion 
to the government is doubtful." The troops thus organized 
were afterward known as the "Southern Border Brigade." 

In the political campaign of 1862 the Democrats adopted 
a long platform. It was declared therein that the constitution, 
the Union and the laws must be preserved and maintained; 
that rebellion against them must be suppressed; that the war 
was only for the purpose of suppressing the rebellion and vin- 
dicating the constitution and the laws; that the doctrines of 
secession and abolition were alike false to the constitution 
and irreconcilable with the unity and peace of the country; 
that the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus was a menace 
to civil liberty; that this is a government of white men, estab- 
lished exclusively for them, and negroes ought not to be admitted 
to political or social equality, and that the tariff bill recently 
passed by Congress imposed unfair and unjust burdens upon 
those least, able to bear them. The bravery of Iowa soldiers 
was extolled and sympathy extended to the families of those 
who had fallen in the struggle. The Republican platform set 
forth the principles that the constitution of the United States 
is the supreme law of the land; that, for the maintenance of 
the government in its hour of peril, it was the duty of every 
citizen to devote time, property and life ; that the party abhorred 
all sympathizers with secession ; that the confidence in the presi- 
dent of the United States was undiminished; that the valor of 
the soldiers of Iowa had earned for them the everlasting gratitude 
of the people of the state, and that Iowa stood ready to furnish 
her quota of troops in any call that might be made. In the 
convention were a number of men who had formerly acted 
with the Democratic party. They were welcomed in a resolu- 
tion which quoted the words of Stephen A. Douglas: "There 
are only two sides to this question: Every man must be for 
the United States or against it. There can be no neutrality 
in this war — only patriots or traitors." The legislature of 
1862 had made provisions by which soldiers in the field could 
vote. At home 116,823 votes were cast, and at the front 



124 The Union Army 

18,989 by Iowa soldiers. Of this combined vote the Repub- 
lican ticket received a majority of 25,874, and all six of the 
representatives in Congress were Republicans. 

While the Iowa regiments were winning victories at the 
front, the state was not without its troubles at home. On 
the south the roving bands of guerrillas were a constant menace 
to the border counties, and all over the state the "copper- 
heads," as the Confederate sympathizers were called, grew 
more open in their denunciations of the war and of those who 
favored its prosecution. The hot bed of this sentiment was 
in Keokuk county. On Saturday, Aug. i, 1863, a meeting 
of these so-called "Copperheads" was held on English river 
near the town of South English. Among the speakers was 
a Baptist minister by the name of George C. Tally, who was 
particularly venomous in his arraignment of the national and 
state administrations. Fired by his incendiary utterances, 
the crowd started for South English with the avowed deter- 
miination to "wipe it off the map." Such a demonstration was 
not unexpected, and the Union men of the town were ready 
to receive them. When they entered the town, wearing butter- 
nut colored clothing and decorated with butternut and copper 
pins, they were met with shouts of derision. The taunts were 
hurled back, and the oil and flame came together. In the 
melee which followed more than 100 shots were fired. Tally, 
who was the acknowledged leader of the "Copperheads," fell 
at the first fire with several bullets in his body, and several 
others were wounded. The invaders withdrew and went 
into camp in the western part of the county, where they began 
recruiting a force to avenge Tally's death. A committee of 
citizens, composed of Allen Hale, William Cocliran and Thomas 
Moorman, asked the governor to send troops for the protection 
of the town, or at least a supply of arms to be distributed among 
the citizens in case of necessity. Gov. Kirkwood sent 40 stands 
of arms to the committee in care of the sheriff of Washington 
county. At the same time he ordered James Adams, the 
sheriff of Keokuk county, to investigate and report, and ta 
maintain the peace at all hazards. By this tiine fully 1,000 
men had gathered at the "Copperhead" camp. To guard 
against any general insurrection, the governor ordered the 
Muscatine Rangers, the Washington Provost Guards, the 
Brighton Guards, the Richland, Abington and Sigourney 
Home Guards, the Fairfield Union, the Fairfield Prairie Guards, 
the Liberty ville Guards, and the Mount Pleasant infantry 
and artiller}% to march to South English, there "to remain 
until notified by the sheriff" of Keokuk county that they will 
be no longer needed." The command of these eleven com- 



Military Affairs in Iowa 135 

panics was given to Capt. Satterlee of the Muscatine Rangers. 
After remaining at South English for about two weeks, matters 
quieted down and the troops were withdrawn. 

Provost Marshal Van Eaton, of Fremont county, was killed 
by a band of guerrillas going toward Nebraska. Capt. Hoyt 
with a body of mounted men pursued the murderers to the 
Missouri river, but they made their escape. About g o'clock 
in the evening on Nov. lo. 1863, the court-house at Sidney, 
Fremont county, was wrecked by an explosion. It was not 
known whether it was the work of guerrillas bent on robbery, 
or was done by interested parties to destroy the records. A 
meeting in Davis county passed resolutions to resist the draft, 
to drive negroes out of the state, to expel the white men who 
brought them in, or to "welcome them with bloody hands 
to hospitable graves." These and similar ebullitions kept 
Iowa in a state of turmoil during the summer and fall of 1863. 

At the beginning of the political campaign of 1863, the consti- 
tutionality of the law permitting soldiers in the field to vote 
for state oflficers was called into question. A case was brought 
before Judge Isbell, of the 8th judicial district, where it was 
held that the law conflicted with that provision of the con- 
stitution requiring 60 days residence in the county, and that 
all votes cast outside the counties where the voters claimed 
residence were illegal and must be rejected. An appeal was 
taken from this decison to the supreme court, and with 
two other cases came before that body. The court held that: 
"The constitution, as applied to the legislative department 
of the government, is a restriction, and not a grant of power, 
and it is competent for the legislature to prescribe the quali- 
fications of electors, and the time, place, and manner of exercis- 
ing the elective franchise, when not expressly prohibited from 
so doing, or when the prohibition in not implied from some 
express prohibition of the constitution. 

"Sect. I, Art. 2, of the constitution of 1857, defines only 
the qualifications of an elector, and does not prescribe the 
place of exercising the elective franchise, as a test of qualifica- 
tion. The power to fix the place and manner of its exercise 
is left with the legislature. 

"The provisions of an act approved Sept. 11, 1862, entitled 
'An Act to amend Title 4, of the Revision of i860, so as to 
enable the qualified Electors of the State in the Military Serv- 
ice to vote at certain Elections,' are not inconsistent with 
Section i, Article 2, of the constitution of 1857, for the reason 
that they permit such electors to cast their votes at polls opened 
and conducted beyond the limits of the county and state 
of which they claim to be residents." 



126 The Union Army 

As soon as this decision was reached, and for the purpose 
of taking this vote, the governor appointed a number of com- 
missioners to proceed to the different camps in other states 
and hold the election. This measure induced the opposition 
central committee to address letters to Gens. Grant, Rose- 
crans, and Schofield, in command of the western armies, mak- 
ing the following inquiries: 

"ist — Whether the Iowa ofhcers and men of your command 
will be permitted to hold an untrammeled election under said 
law; and if so — 

"2nd — Whether a member of this committee or any com- 
petent agent of their selection will be furnished by you with 
the same safe conduct and facilities which may be granted 
to the governor's commissioners, for the purposes of distrib- 
uting ballots to the ofhcers and men, and exercising the legal 
right of challenge, as to any vote offered at such elections, 
which may be supposed to be illegal, and of promoting by other 
lawful means the fair and impartial holding and return of 
said elections?" 

Under date of Aug. 4, Gen. Grant replied from Vicksburg, 
as follows : 

"L. G. Byington: — Sir: Your letter of the 6th of Jul}^ 
asking if citizens of the state of Iowa will be allowed to visit 
this army, and distribute tickets when the election is held 
for soldiers to vote, &c., is just received. In reply, I will state, 
that loyal citizens of Northern states will be allowed to visit 
the troops from their state, at any time. Electioneering, 
or any course calculated to arouse discordant feeling, will 
be prohibited. The volunteer soldiers of this army will be 
allowed to hold an election, if the law gives them the right 
to vote; and no power shall prevent them from voting the 
ticket of their choice. 

"I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient 
servant, 

"U. S. Grant, Major-General." 

This letter was not regarded as particularly encouraging 
to the committee and the Iowa soldiers were left to hold their 
elections in their own way. 

On June 17 the Republicans held a convention at Des Moines 
and nominated William M. Stone for governor. Gov. Kirk- 
wood's administration, during his two terms, was endorsed; 
the soldiers of Iowa were lauded for their bravery, the act 
of the legislature giving soldiers the opportunity to vote was 
approved; and the national administration was commended, 
in the following resolution: 



Military Affairs in Iowa 127 

"That we fully and heartily endorse the policy of the admin- 
istration, and we will to the utmost continue to sustain the 
government in suppressing the rebellion, and to effect that 
object we pledge our fortunes and our lives." 

On July 8, the Democratic state convention met at the capital 
and nominated for governor Maturin L. Fisher. Shortly after 
the convention Fisher declined to make the race and the central 
committee substituted the name of Gen. James M. Tuttle. 
In the platform it was declared that the will of the people is 
the foundation of all free government; that free speech and 
a free press are absolutely indispensable; that the people have 
the right to discuss all measures of government and to approve 
or disapprove as seems right; that these and all other rights 
guaranteed to the people by the constitution are of more value 
in time of war than in time of peace, and that these rights 
would not be calmly surrendered. War for the purpose of 
carrying out the emancipation proclamation was opposed,, 
as was emancipation by compensating the slave-holders. The 
power of the president in suspending the writ of habeas corpus 
and declaring martial law in states where war did not actually 
exist, was declared unwarranted b)?^ the constitution. Gen. 
Tuttle, in his letter accepting the nomination, said: 

"For the present, let us all unite heartily in support of the 
government. If the administration adopts measures for the 
prosecution of the war that do not coincide with our peculiar 
views, let us m.ake no factious opposition to them, but yield 
to the constituted authority. Mr. Lincoln is the legally elected 
executive of this government, and during his presidential 
term we can have no other. The. fact that we did not vote 
for him renders us under no less obligation to support the 
government under his administration than if we had been 
his most ardent supporters." 

The election resulted in the choice of Mr. Stone for governor. 
The vote of the soldiers was: Stone, 16,791; Tuttle, 2,904. 
Total, 19,695. The whole number of votes cast for governor, 
including the army vote, was 142,314, of which Stone received 
86,107, Tuttle, 56,132, scattering, 75. The majority for Col. 
Stone was 29,975. The Republicans elected 42 members 
of the state senate and 87 members of the house of representa- 
tives, while the Democrats elected but 2 senators and 5 repre- 
sentatives. 

At the beginning of the legislative session in Jan., 1864, 
Gov. Stone was inaugurated. At this session of the legisla- 
ture a bill was passed requiring the several counties to levy a 
two-mill tax for the benefit of the families of persons in the 
military service. A general bill was also passed enabling the 



128 The Union Army 

inhabitants of any county to change its name. The object 
of the bill was to give the people of Buchanan county an oppor- 
tunity to change the name of their county. It was urged 
as an objection to the bill, that only one county in the state 
could take the name of "Lincoln," hence the danger that every 
county in the state would vote at the same time and all select 
the same name, and that "Lincoln." 

The quota of the state under the two calls of the president 
for 700,000 men at the close of 1863 and beginning of 1864 
was, 22,535 men. At the same time there was a credit due 
of 7,881 men. The balance was filled up by April i by new 
recruits and the reenlistment of veterans, and a surplus obtained. 
Among Gov. Stone's noted services to the state and nation 
in the early part of 1864 was his earnestness in urging on the 
government the 100 days volunteers. With two or three 
other governors of northwestern states, he believed that in 
the great campaigns about to be inaugurated for that summer, 
the hands of our generals could be strengthened by the use 
of several thousand men enlisted for short terms. These men, 
he maintained, could garrison posts, hold interior lines, guard 
railroads, care for the thousands of prisoners in our hands, 
and so release for duty at the front a whole army of veteran 
soldiers. It was a splendid conception, but the plan was not 
so readily adopted as would have been expected. It met, 
indeed, with extreme opposition at its very inception. S. H. 
M. Byers, in his "Iowa in War Times," gives in substance the 
following account of the meeting at Washington when the 
matter was under consideration: Gov. Stone was on intimate 
terms with President Lincoln, and at an interview between 
the president and the governors who wished to offer the troops, 
appealed to the president in deep earnestness for their accept- 
ance. Mr. Lincoln's whole cabinet was present. So, too, 
was Maj.-Gen. Halleck. "Let us have your opinion. Gen. 
Halleck," said Mr. Lincoln. "No faith in it at all! Volunteers 
won't earn their clothes in a hundred days," answered the gen- 
eral, emphatically. "But look at Wilson's creek," interrupted 
Gov. Stone; "Iowa's 100 days' men won that battle; look at 
Donelson, stormed by men who never fired a gun before." 
"You are right," cried the president, slapping his knee as he 
spoke. "Mr. Chase, can you raise the mone3^ and how much 
will the venture cost?" turning to the finance secretary. "Yes," 
was the quick answer, "the money can be had. The prop- 
osition is excellent, and there are the figures." Sec. Stanton 
also favored the proposition, and before the meeting closed, 
the governors were authorized to raise the regiments. 

Stone hurried home and in a stirring and patriotic appeal 



Military Affairs in Iowa 129 

asked young Iowa again for men. His letter to the people 
was one of the best expositions of the critical situation of pub- 
lic affairs that had appeared anywhere. In language burn- 
ing with eloquence and patriotism, he urged the immediate 
raising of the loo days regiments. All the young men in the 
stores and shops were begged to enroll themselves and con- 
nect their names with those of the heroes at the front. The 
young women of the state were urged to do as their sisters 
in Mt. Pleasant and Burlington — volunteer to supply the 
places of young men enlisting to be soldiers. Rapidly the 
regiments were filled up and in quick time Iowa had nearly 
4,000 more men marching toward Dixie. 

Just as Gov. Stone was hurrying to organize his 100 days 
men, the draft was proceeding in other states, and the war 
department also ordered a draft in certain derelict districts 
of Iowa, unless the governor should object. And he did object, 
until all other states should do as Iowa had done — fill their 
quotas — -and, in any event, until the state should have failed 
in raising the 100 days men. A few men in certain districts 
had been drafted in Iowa, but had the full number of volunteers 
been credited on the books of the war department, no draft 
at any time would have been necessary in the state. Indeed, 
so ready were the people to enter the army, that when the 
call for 300,000 men was made in Dec, 1864, the governor 
found upon a settlement with the war department that all 
previous demands had not only been filled, but the state was 
placed beyond the liability of a draft under that last call. Prob- 
ably Iowa is the only state that was always ready with her 
quota, and every one of her soldiers a volunteer. 

Some of the men enrolled from Poweshiek county failed 
to report for duty on Oct. i, and the provost marshal sent 
Capt. John L. Bashore and J. M. Woodruff to arrest the deserters 
and bring them in. About 14 miles south of Grinnell the 
two officers were fired upon from ambush. Woodruff was 
instantly killed and Bashore mortally wounded, but he managed 
to wound one of the waylaying party, a man by the name of 
Gleason, who was left behind while the others fled. The pro- 
vost marshal ordered out a company of militia at Grinnell. 
Bashore lived long enough to make a statement to the captain 
of this company as to what had taken place, and the man 
Gleason told who the parties were that had made the assault 
upon the officers. 

Some time before this incident occurred a company of militia 
had been organized in Poweshiek county. Most of the members 
of this company lived in Sugar Creek township, where the 
outrage occurred. The company was known as the "Democrat 

Vol. IV— 9 



130 The Union Army 

Rangers," and Robert C. Carpenter was the captain. Accord- 
ing to Gleason's. story it was members of this pretended mihtia 
company that resisted the attempt to arrest the deserters 
and committed the assault on Bashore and Woodrufif. Gov. 
Stone on Oct. 4, furnished a Hst of the "Rangers" to Capt. 
W. R. Lewis and ordered him to take his company, arrest 
every man whose name appeared on the Hst, and to take up 
his arms and equipments. On the 6th the men were all under 
arrest at Grinnell. Gov. Stone ordered the adjutant-general 
to go there and personally examine every man. All that he 
thought were guilty, and against whom there was evidence 
enough to secure conviction, were to be held for trial. The 
rest were to be discharged. Most of the men were liberated, 
several were held for trial and a few were convicted, but Capt. 
Carpenter's company was completely broken up. On Oct. 
12 a party of guerrillas wearing Federal uniforms and mounted 
on good horses crossed the southern border near the south- 
east comer of Davis county and began plundering the citizens. 
They first called upon Robert Gustin, from whom they took 
a good watch and $160 in mone}^ From Thomas Miller they 
took Si 10; they broke William Downing's gun, and even robbed 
a small boy of his few pennies and a pocket knife. At Bloom- 
field the county fair was in progress. A messenger rode into 
the fair grounds with the news that the guerrillas were raid- 
ing the southern part of the county. Instantly people lost 
all interest in the fair. A company of men v»^as quickly organ- 
ized and, at the suggestion of one of the citizens, was placed 
under the command of J. B. Weaver, late colonel of the 2nd 
la. With his command of raw recruits, well mounted but 
indifferently armed, Col. Weaver started in pursuit of the 
raiders. Ten miles west of Bloomfield the guerrillas killed a 
man named Thomas Hardy, took his team and $300. Here Wea- 
ver and his company struck the trail. The next outrage com- 
mitted was the capture of Capt. Philip Bence of the 30th la., 
who was at home on furlough, David Saunderson, Joseph and 
William Hill and Andrew Tannehill. They carried their prison- 
ers a few miles, when they compelled Capt. Bence to take 
off his uniform and give it to them, after which he was shot 
to death. The balance of the prisoners were released after 
losing all the money they possessed — about $500. At mid- 
night Col. Weaver came to the place where Bence had been 
killed and learning that he was 5 hours behind the gang, which 
was headed for Missouri, where they doubtless knew every 
bridle path, he gave up the chase. 

On June 7, the Republican party held a state convention 
at Des Moines. The platform was brief, the principal features 



Military Affairs in lov/a 131 

"being the endorsement of the work of the national convention 
as to platform and candidates and commending the Iowa soldiers 
and the women of the state for their patriotic labors. On 
the 1 6th of the same month the Democrats met at the capital. 
No resolutions were adopted by the convention, but on Aug. 
24, a "Peace Convention" met at Iowa City and promulgated 
the following: 

"Whereas, we believe that there is indisputable evidence 
existing that the Union may be restored on the basis of the 
Federal constitution; and, 

"Whereas, We further believe that a vigorous prosecution 
of this abolition war means the speedy bringing about of a 
division of the republic ; and being ourselves in favor of a restored 
Union and against the acknowledgment of a Southern con- 
federacy therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That the war now being prosecuted by the Lincoln 
administration is unconstitutional and oppressive, and is the 
prolific source of a multitude of usurpations, tyrannies and 
corruptions, to which no people can long submit, without 
becoming permanently enslaved. 

"Resolved. That we are opposed to the further prosecution 
of the war, believing that the Union can be preserved in its 
integrity by the president agreeing to an armistice, and by 
calling a national convention of the sovereign states, to con- 
sider the terms upon which all the people may again live together 
in peace and harmony. 

"Resolved, That believing war to be disunion, and desir- 
ing to stop the further flow of precious blood for a purpose 
so wicked as disunion, we respectfully urge the president to 
postpone the draft for 500,000 men 'to be driven like bullocks 
to the slaughter' until the result of an armistice and national 
convention of states is known. 

"Resolved, That in the coming election we will have a free 
ballot or a free fight. 

"Resolved, That should Abraham Lincoln owe his reelection 
to the electoral votes of the seceded states under the applica- 
tion of the president's 'one-tenth' system and military dicta- 
tion, and should he attempt to execute the duties of the president 
by virtue of such an election, it will become the solemn mission 
of the people to depose the usurper, or else be worthy of the 
slavish degredation, which submission under such circum- 
stances would seem to be their just desert. 

"Resolved, That if the nominee of the Chicago convention 
is fairly elected, he must be inaugurated, let it cost what it may. 

"Resolved, That the African negro is not our equal in political 
or social sense; and that every usurping attempt, by Federal 



132 The Union Army 

force, so to declare him, will meet with our determined resist- 
ance. 

"Resolved, That the foregoing preamble and resolutions 
be submitted to our delegation to the Chicago convention, 
for their consideration." 

At the election the combined citizen and soldier vote for 
president was 138,671. Lincoln received 89,075, and McClellan 
49,596. All the Republican candidates for representatives 
in Congress were elected. 

Altogether Iowa furnished 78,059 volunteers during the 
Civil war. That they were good soldiers may be seen from 
the list of casualties reported. The number reported killed 
in action was 2,127; wounded 7,741; died of disease 9,465; 
captured by the enemy, 4,573, and on that mysterious list, 
told in the one word "missing," 132. Thus it will be seen 
that more than one-fourth of Iowa's men suffered some of the 
contingencies of war. 

At Fort Donelson the 2nd la. occupied the post of honor, 
and its gallant colonel, Samuel R. Curtis, was promoted to 
the rank of brigadier-general for bravery and the skillful handling 
of his forces. Ten Iowa regiments were in the thick of the 
fight at Shiloh, the 8th and 12th being captured after 10 hours 
of hard fighting at the "Hornet's Nest." After some eight 
months in Confederate prisons the men were exchanged or 
paroled and afterward became part of the "Union Brigade," 
made up of those who never surrendered. Not long after 
the battle of Shiloh the nth, 13th, 15th and i6th regiments 
were united in one brigade, and Marcellus M. Crocker, as rank- 
ing colonel, became the commander. On Nov. 29, 1862, he 
was commissioned brigadier-general, and his brigade was 
soon known all through the army as "Crocker's Iowa Brigade." 

When Sherman started upon his famous march to the sea, 
it was the 9th la. that cut the railroad connecting the army 
with the North and changed the "base of supplies" to the 
enemy's country. This regiment traveled more than 4,000 
miles and was in every Confederate state except Florida and 
Texas. It was the loth la. that turned the tide of battle at 
Champion's hill, winning words of commendation from the 
commanding general, though half the regiment was reported 
among the killed, wounded and missing after the engagement. 
While other regiments very properly had emblazoned upon 
their battle-flags the names of engagements in which they 
had participated, that of the loth bore only the legend, "Tenth 
Iowa Veteran Volunteers;" but its deeds of valor are recorded 
in history and in the hearts of a grateful people. 

At Columbia, S. C, in Feb., 1865, the flag of the 13th la. 



Military Affairs in Iowa 133 

was the first to float from the old state-house, and at Savannah 
it was the i6th that struck the first blow at the enemy's works. 

Seventeen Iowa regiments marched with Sherman from 
Atlanta to the sea. They were all present at the fall of Savannah 
and afterward followed their victorious commander through 
the Carolinas to Richmond and Washington. More than 
half of Iowa's troops were at the fall of Vicksburg, and in one 
assault upon the Confederate works Sergt. Griffith and ii 
men of the 22nd were the only ones to gain the parapet. Of 
these only the sergeant and one man returned. 

Four colonels of Iowa regiments, Samuel R. Curtis of the 
2nd; Frederick Steele of the 8th; Frank J. Herron of the 9th 
and Grenville M. Dodge of the 4th, rose to the rank of major- 
general. Eighteen others were commissioned to wear the 
stars of the brigadier. From Wilson's creek to Appomattox, 
scarcely a field can be mentioned where Iowa troops were not 
present to render a good account to themselves. 

From what has been said in this sketch concerning the action 
of a few so-called Democrats in Iowa during the troublous days 
of the war, it must not be inferred that the Democrats of Iowa 
were, as a body, disloyal to their country. That party fur- 
nished its full share of the gallant men who sprang into line at 
their country's call. The supporters of Douglas were as patri- 
otic as the supporters of Lincoln. Exceptions were rare. Dem- 
ocrats and Republicans alike shed their blood in defense of the 
Union, for freedom and the flag. It was the united effort of the 
supporters of Lincoln and Douglas that saved the government 
and reconsecrated it as the champion of good will among the 
nations of the earth. 



RECORD OF IOWA REGIMENTS 



First Infantry.— Col., John F. Bates; Lieut. -Col., William H. Mer- 
ritt; Maj., Ashbury B. Porter. This regiment was organized at Keokuk 
in April and May, 1861, as a three months regiment and was mustered 
in May 14. It left the state June 13, moving to Hannibal, Mo., thence 
to Renick via Macon; from there to Boonville, joining Lyon's command 
June 19, just after the defeat of Gov. Jackson's forces. On July 3 the 
command moved to Camp Sigel near Springfield, thence to Camp Mc- 
Clellan, 12 miles distant. Six companies formed part of a detachment 
which marched to Forsyth and dispersed a band of the enemy, cap- 
turing 50 prisoners. On Aug. i the command moved and on the fol- 
lowing day defeated the enemy at Dug spring, the ist la. acting as 
skirmishers on the right wing. At Wilson's creek the regiment won 
the admiration of all by its splendid action in the face of overwhelm- 
ing numbers, repeatedly repulsing the most determined attacks, per- 
forming feats of valor and materially contributing to the rout of the 
enemy at a vital moment. Though not a victory for the Union forces, 
it was not a signal defeat, the opposing army, five times as great being 
in no condition to pursue the retiring Union forces. "No troops, reg- 
ular or volunteer, ever sustained their country's flag with more deter- 
mined valor or fortitude," declared an officer who participated in that 
aflfair. The regiment lost 21 killed and mortally wounded. 132 wound- 
ed and 2 missing. The following morning it moved to Rolla, where 
it took the train for home, and was mustered out at St. Louis en 
route. It returned to the state with about 800 men, of whom fully 600 
reenlisted in other regiments. Although but a three months organiza- 
tion, it had set the mark for future regiments and its members won 
their spurs on many a hard fought field in the years that foUov/ed. 
Capt. C. L. Matthies afterwards became a brigadier-general, and Capt. 
F. J. Herron a major-general. 

Second Infantry. — Cols., Samuel R. Curtis, James M. Tuttle, James 
Baker, Noah W. Mills, James B. Weaver, Noel B. Howard; Lieut.- 
Cols., James M. Tuttle, Marcellus M. Crocker, James Baker, Noah W. 
Mills, Henry R. Cowles, Noel B. Howard; Majs.. Marcellus M. Crock- 
er, Norton P. Chipman, James B. Weaver, Noel B. Howard, Mathew 
H. Hamill. This regiment was organized at Keokuk in April and May, 
1861, the first regiment of three-j'ears men organized in the state and 
the first to take the field from Iowa. It was mustered in May 27-28 
and left the state at daylight June 13 for St. Joseph, Mo., where it re- 
mained on railroad guard duty and aided in maintaining order until the 
latter part of July. Moving to Bird's Point, it remained there until the 
latter part of October on similar service. The climate was such that 
on its removal to St. Louis the number of men fit for duty was only 
about 400. Col. Curtis having been promoted to brigadier-general,, 
Lieut.-Col. Tuttle was commissioned colonel, Maj. Crocker was made 
lieutenant-colonel, but soon afterward was commissioned colonel of 
the 13th regiment and was succeeded by Lieut.-Col. Baker, promoted 
from the captaincy of Co. G. The regiment remained in St. Louis dur- 
ing the winter, engaged in the duty of guarding prisoners and recu- 

134 



Iowa Regiments 135 

perating. An unfortunate incident here led to an unjust order, the 
regiment being marched in public disgrace from its quarters to the 
levee for embarkation to Fort Donelson without music and with its 
colors furled; the reason being that some one had crept into the "mu- 
seum" of McDowell college, at that time used as a prison, and carried 
away some stuffed rabbits, etc. The culprit not being discovered the 
regiment was held to be guilty of the crime (?) under the peculiar 
canons then prevailing in military circles and suffered accordingly. At 
Fort Donelson it splendidly redeemed itself as a part of Lauman's bri- 
gade, which stormed the enemy's works on the left, the regiment lead- 
ing the column, planting its flag within the outer works, pouring a 
murderous fire into the opposing lines, and compelling the enemy to 
seek his inner lines. Even Halleck, who had approved the unmerited 
disgrace, telegraphed commendations. After the surrender the 2nd 
was awarded the post of honor and was first to enter Fort Donelson. 
But it had paid dearly with 41 killed and 157 wounded out of 630 in 
action. It participated at the battle of Shiloh, its brigade repulsing 
several assaults and the regiment losing about 80 in killed and wound- 
ed. It took part in the siege of Corinth and in the pursuit of Beaure- 
gard's forces; later marched to Juka, but did not take part in the bat- 
tle. Col. Tuttle was promoted brigadier-general, Lieut. -Col. Baker was 
commissioned colonel and was succeeded by Capt. N. W. Mills. James 
B. Weaver was appointed major. In the battle of Corinth in October 
it made a brave charge, Col. Baker falling mortally wounded on the 
first day and Lieut. -Col. Mills on the second day. The regiment's loss 
was 108 in killed, wounded and missing out of 346 engaged. The regi- 
ment moved to La Grange, Tenn., and to Pulaski in October, going 
into winter quarters. On Dec. 9 it marched to Tuscumbia, Ala., in pur- 
suit of raiders, but returned on the 23d after one of the hardest marches 
in its history. Maj. Weaver had been commissioned colonel rpon the 
death of his superior officers at Corinth. Capt. Henry R. Cowles suc- 
ceeding as lieutenant-colonel, and Capt. N. B. Howard was promoted 
to major. About the first of 1864 the regiment reenlisted as a veteran 
organization. Leaving Pulaski on April 29, 1864, it joined the army in 
the movement toward Atlanta, skirmished at Snake Creek gap, fought 
at Resaca, and other points, and took part in the siege and battle of 
Atlanta. At Jonesboro, with the 7th la. it cleared the way through a 
fortified position for the cavalry. The non-veterans having been mus- 
tered out on May 22 the regiment had but six companies during this 
campaign, Lieut. -Col. Howard commanding. Its numbers were aug- 
mented at Atlanta by the addition of the three remaining companies of 
the 3d la. and Lieut. -Col. Howard was promoted colonel. It moved 
with the armj' toward Savannah, was in a lively engagement at the 
Ogeechee river, in which the enemy were soon put to flight, and moved 
into Savannah two weeks later. In the march through the Carolinas 
it was engaged at Columbia and again at Lynch's creek, which closed 
its fighting history. After moving to Goldsboro, thence to Raleigh, 
Petersburg and Richmond, it proceeded to Washington City, where it 
took part in the grand review. It was mustered out at Louisville. The 
regiment's original strength was 998; gain by recruits 223; unassigned 
recruits 26; total 1,247. 

Third Infantry. — Cols., Nelson G. Williams, Aaron Brown; Lieut.- 
Cols., John Scott, Matthew M. Trumbull, James Tullis, Jacob Aber- 
nethy; Majs., William M. Stone, Aaron Brown, G. W. Crosly. This 
regiment was organized at Keokuk in May and June, 1861. and was 
mustered in June 8 and 10. It left the state June 29, without its field 
officers, going to Hannibal, Mo., thence west without knapsacks, haver- 



136 The Union Army 

sacks, canteens, cartridge-boxes or ammunition, its only equipment 
being empty muskets. Two companies stopped at Chillicothe, one at 
Grand River bridge and the others at Utica, where Col. Williams 
joined the regiment and the commissions arrived for the lieutenant- 
colonel and major. On July 8, three companies under Capt. Herron 
formed a junction at Monroe with a detachment of Col. Smith's com- 
mand and were engaged at Hager's woods, retreating to find the train 
in flames, the track destroyed and themselves surrounded. Reinforce- 
ments from Palmyra rescued the little command and soon after the 
whole regiment arrived. Headquarters were established at Chillicothe, 
where seven companies were stationed, the others engaging in railroad 
guard duty near. On Aug. 12 the regiment proceeded to Macon in 
command of Lieut. -Col. Scott, and from there to Kirksville, where it 
was joined in a few days by Gen. Hurlbut with the i6th 111. On the 
30th the column moved to Shelbina in pursuit of Green, and there took 
the train for Brookfield, which was reached on Sept. 3. In the mean- 
time Col. Williams received orders for a movement south of the road, 
and with the 50 well men of the 3d in camp, 60 who had been on duty at 
St. Joseph, and the convalescent invalids, he proceeded to Hannibal, 
secured the remnants of six companies of the 2nd Kan. (just returned 
from Wilson's creek) and a company of Missouri cavalry, the entire 
force numbering less than 700 men. Leaving the railroad at Shelbina, 
the command marched to Paris, from which Col. Williams ordered a 
retreat after one day's stay. Attacked at Shelbina on Sept. 4, he con- 
tinued the retreat by rail. Gen. Pope arrived at Brookfield at this time 
and took charge of affairs. Gen. Hurlbut, whose campaign had consist- 
ed chiefly of proclamations, and Col. Williams were ordered to St. 
Louis in arrest. The regiment was engaged at Blue Mills landing, 
where Lieut. -Col. Scott's command, consisting of 500 of the 3d, about 
70 home guards, and a squad of artillery with one 6-pounder gun, was 
ambushed, but retired in good order to Liberty at nightfall, with the 
gun which had been brought ofif by hand. It met at that point Col. 
Smith's command, which had been expected earlier in the day. The 
little force of about 600 had repulsed 4,000 of the enemy, but had lost 
118 in killed and wounded, of whom 94 were of the 3d la. Joining 
Sturgis' force at Wyandotte, it remained until Oct. 18, when it moved 
up the river to latan, thence across the state to Quincy, 111., then to 
St. Louis, and remained there until after Christmas, when it was or- 
dered out in detachments for railroad guard duty on the North Mis- 
souri railroad. Col. Williams was released from arrest, and about the 
last of February resumed command. On March 3, 1862, the regiment 
was assigned to Brig.-Gen. Hurlbut's command, moved with it to 
Pittsburg landing and participated in the battle of Shiloh. It was under 
terrific fire and after the other troops were cut off, when the enemy 
turned the flanks of the Iowa brigade on the first day, it cut its way 
through the enemy's lines, Maj. Stone in command being captured. 
It was engaged in the siege of Corinth and after the evacuation went 
into camp, engaged in the repair of the railway and made a march to 
Holly Springs. It remained at Memphis from July to Sept. 6, when 
it moved to Bolivar. It was engaged at the Hatchie river, carrying 
the bridge by a desperate charge at the crisis of the battle and losing 
nearly 60 out of 300 engaged. Returning to Bolivar, it joined the march 
south in November, but returned and went into camp at Moscow, 
where it remained from the middle of Jan., 1863. until in March when 
it moved to Memphis. Col. Williams and Lieut.-Col. Trumbull hav- 
ing resigned, Maj. Brown was commissioned colonel, Capt. James Tul- 
lis became lieutenant-colonel, and Lieut. G. W. Crosly was appointed 



Iowa Regiments 137' 

major. While on the way to Vicksburg the boat was fired on near 
Greenville, Miss., but the regiment speedily dislodged the enemy. It 
took position in the trenches on May 25 and was actively engaged until 
the capitulation of Vicksburg. It took part in the assault at Jackson, 
where it behaved with great gallantry and sustained heavy loss. It 
went into camp near Natchez but returned to Vicksburg in December 
and went into winter quarters near the Big Black. Here over 200 
reenlisted as veterans, wore furloughed home after the Meridian expe- 
dition, and the non-veterans under command of Lieut. -Col. Tullis, 
joined the Red River expedition. On their return they were ordered 
home for muster-out. The veterans returned to Cairo, III., where they 
joined the 17th corps and moved with it to join Sherman's command 
for the Atlanta campaign. Soon after, the officers whose term of 
service had expired left for home, and the veterans and recruits were 
consolidated into a battalion of three companies, Lieut. Jacob Aber- 
nethy of Co. F being recommended as lieutenant-colonel. At the bat- 
tle of Atlanta the battalion was destroyed, Abernethy was slain, Capt. 
Griffith mortally wounded, and a large proportion of the command 
killed, wounded or captured, though the men fought with the despera- 
tion of despair for the colors, and when almost wiped out, the few re- 
maining tore up the flag, divided the pieces and brought the shreds 
with them on their return. The survivors were assigned to the 2nd 
la. and served with it through the Carolina campaign. 

Fourth Infantry.— Cols., Grenville M. Dodge, James A. Williamson; 
Lieut.-Cols., John Galligan. James A. Williamson, George Burton; 
Maj., William R. English. This regiment was organized at Council 
Bluffs in the summer of 1861. Cos B and E were mustered in at Coun- 
cil Bluffs on Aug. 8; A, C, D, F, G and H at Jefferson barracks, St. 
Louis, Aug. 15, and I and K at St. Louis on the 31st. A threatened in- 
vasion across the border at the south led to the detaching of about 200 
men from amo-.i.c: the companies that had reached Council Bluffs and 
sending them to the scene of trouble. The determined appearance of 
this and similar bodies from other points drove the marauders from 
the state and the men returned to camp. The last week of August the 
regiment proceeded to St. Louis, thence to Rolla, where it remained 
until Jan., 1862, making an expedition to Licking, Texas county, where 
it dispersed a body of the enemy and captured a number of cattle, 
horses and mules. Gen. Curtis arrived in December to take command, 
and while receiving him in military style Col. Dodge's pistol was acci- 
dentally discharged, inflicting a painful wound in his thigh which in- 
capacitated him for some time. On Jan. 23, 1862, the regiment left 
Rolla for the purpose of giving battle to Price, then at Springfield. 
Col. Dodge commanded the brigade to which the regiment was at- 
tached, and Lieut. -Col. Galligan commanded the regiment. It was 
in a skirmish at Springfield on the evening of Feb. 12, but the enemy 
left during the night without offering battle. At Pea ridge a short 
time later the regiment won high praise for its valor, and lost in killed, 
wounded and captured nearly half the number taking part. Col. Dodge 
was promoted to brigadier-general and was succeeded by Adjt. James 
A. Williamson. Lieut. -Col. Galligan having resigned Capt. Burton of 
Co. D was appointed lieutenant-colonel. On April 5 the army marched 
to Batesville, thence toward Little Rock but was compelled to return 
on account of the shortage of supplies. In June it was at Jacksonport 
in a half starved condition, having lived on such scanty supplies as it 
could pick up in the country. A supply train reached there with only 
enough to give short rations for a week; and to escape actual starvation 
it marched 100 miles to Clarendon to find the troops and supplies gone,. 



138 The Union Army 

compelling it to march to Helena, which place was reached on July 14. 
While at this point the regiment engaged in several minor expeditions 
and brought in quantities of cotton, horses and supplies. On Dec. 20 
the regiment proceeded to Vicksburg with Sherman's army to join 
Grant's advance on that place, and was in the disastrous attack on 
Chickasaw bluffs where it moved without support upon an open point, 
carried the first line of works and held them under a murderous lire 
while waiting for help that never came. It fell back in perfect order 
but with sadly depleted ranks, losing 112 in killed and wounded out of 
480 engaged. Gen. Grant afterward ordered that "First at Chickasaw 
Bayou" be placed on its colors, an honor accorded, it is said to but one 
other regiment— the 13th regulars— during the war. Col. Williamson 
was wounded several times and Lieut. -Col. Burton led the regiment in 
the campaign against Arkansas Post, where it took an active part in 
the front line. On Jan. 23, 1863, it went into camp in the swamp below 
Vicksburg and spent two months there, then moved to Greenville, the 
enemy being met and driven several times, and large quantities of sup- 
plies picked up. It then returned to Milliken's bend; took part in the 
movement on Jackson; was one of the first regiments to enter that 
place; returned to Vicksburg and was engaged at Hajmes' bluff on 
May 18. In the siege of Vicksburg it was almost constantly under fire 
and lost about 80 in killed and wounded. It took part in the siege of 
Jackson and accompanied the pursuit of Johnston as far as Brandon. 
It then went into camp near the Big Black river, where it remained 
until the middle of September when it embarked for Memphis, moved 
thence to Corinth and marched to luka, from which point it was or- 
dered to Cherokee Station, Ala., where it was in repeated engagements 
with the enemy, until October. It then joined Sherman's army at 
Eastport and proceeded to Chattanooga, where it arrived Nov. 23 
and took position with Hooker at Lookout mountain. On the morning 
of the 25th it moved to Rossville gap with two other regiments, turned 
the enemy's left and took a strategic position, from which it took part 
in the battle that followed. It was engaged at Ringgold where it held 
an important position against heavy odds and saved two railroad 
bridges. It then moved to Bridgeport, Ala., and from there to Wood- 
ville, where it went into camp. The regiment reenlisted on Jan. i, 
1864, and visited Iowa on a furlough in March. Rejoining the army 
on May i, it joined in the Atlanta campaign, and was in nearly every 
battle and skirmish of that movement. At Atlanta July 22, its bri- 
gade made a gallant charge with other regiments, retaking De Gress' 
famous battery of 20-pounder Parrott guns, the skirmishers of the 4th 
being the first to reach it. The regiment having been reduced to less 
than 200 men it was put in the command of Maj. Nichols, who was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel. It took part in the pursuit of Hood, 
and later in the march to the sea. From Savannah it marched through 
the Carolinas; was heavily engaged at Bentonville; moved to Raleigh, 
thence to Washington, where it took part in the grand review; was 
then ordered to Louisville, where it remained on provost duty until 
mustered out in July, 1865. A correspondent of the New York Trib- 
une spoke of its brigade as "one of the bravest, truest, and most ten- 
acious fighting brigades" in the service. The regiment's original 
strength was 940; gain by recruits, 244; total, 1,184. 

Fifth Infantry. — Cols., William H. Worthington, Charles L. Mat- 
thies; Lieut-Cols., Charles L. Matthies, Ezekiel S. Sampson; Majs., 
William S. Robertson, Jabez Banbury. This regiment was organized 
in April and May, 1861, but was not ordered into camp until July. It 
was mustered in July 15-17 and took steamer the last of the month for 



Iowa Regiments 139 

Fort Madison, thence to Keokuk. A detachment under Lieut. -Col. 
Matthies made an expedition in pur.suit of Martin Green, who was 
operating in northeastern Missouri, but returned after a fruitless 
chase. In August it was ordered to Lexington, Mo., and embarked 
on the 14th, but met a regiment coming up stream whose mem- 
bers made such statements of the rashness of going there that a 
return was made to Jefferson City, where Gen. Fremont was ad- 
vised of the matter and the regiment was ordered to go into camp. 
On Aug. 25 a detachment moved to Boonvillc, seized and confis- 
cated the stock of a shot-tower, a tin-shop, a printing office, the 
specie of the Boonville bank, and took a number of the citizens 
prisoners. On Sept. i, the regiment proceeded to Rocheport, where 
five companies disembarked and marched for Columbia. The other 
companies landed 10 miles below and marched for the same point 
in hope of capturing a body of the enemy said to be at that place, 
but finding no one there it proceeded via Jefferson City to Boon- 
ville. From there it moved to Glasgow, assisted in preventing 
the passage of Price's force, and then returned to Boonville, from 
which place it moved with Fremont's command into southwestern 
Missouri. During the winter. Col. Worthington, in command of 
the brigade, had his headquarters at Otterville; Lieut. -Col. Matthies, 
with seven companies of the regiment, was at Boonville, the re- 
maining companies were encamped at Syracuse engaged in railroad 
patrol duty until Feb. i, when they joined the regiment at Boon- 
ville. After moving to F"ranklin, St. Charles, St. Louis, Cairo and 
Commerce, the regiment joined the army of the Mississippi at 
Benton and was assigned to the ist brigade, 2nd division. Gen. 
Schuyler Hamilton commanding. It took an active part in the 
operations against New Madrid and Island No. 10. It debarked at 
Flamburg landing and joined the advance on Corinth which place 
was occupied on Maj- 30. Col. Worthington was killed by a Union 
picket at Farmington, while visiting the grand guard of the divi- 
sion as general officer of the day. Lieut. -Col. Matthies was pro- 
moted to the colonelcy, Capt. Sampson to the lieutenant-colonelcy, 
and Capt. Banbury was made major. The regiment remained in 
camp near Booneville, Miss., until June 11 and then moved to Cor- 
inth until Aug. 5, with a few movements towards Ripley, Rienzi, 
and other points. It took part in the battle of luka where it won 
high honors by holding its ground against four times its numbers, 
making three charges with the bayonet, and driving back the ene- 
my in disorder, until its ammunition was exhausted and it was com- 
pelled to fall back. Col. Matthies was promoted to brigadier- 
general for his conduct and the regiment was accorded the highest 
praise. Out of 480 engaged the 5th lost 220 in killed and wounded. 
It remained at Jacinto until Oct. i, when it marched to Corinth, 
where it repulsed a charge upon the nth Ohio battery and drove 
the enemy in great disorder. In the pursuit the regiment marched 
to the Hatchie river, but returned to Corinth and went into camp 
until Nov. 2, when it marched to Grand Junction, Tenn., from which 
place it moved southward with the Army of the Mississippi, but 
retraced its steps on receipt of the news of the surrender of Holly 
Springs and reached Memphis on the 29th. At this time it became 
a part of the 7th division, 17th army corps. Gen. McPherson com- 
manding. It remained in the vicinity of Memphis until March 2, 
then moved to Helena by steamer, took part in expeditions to 
Yazoo Pass, up the Coldwater and the Tallahatchie. From Milli- 
ken's bend it marched to Jackson and took part in the battle there. 



140 The Union Army 

It was in the thick of the fight at Champion's hill, where it lost ig- 
killed and 75 wounded out of 350 in action, keeping the enemy 
back with bayonets after its ammunition was exhausted. At Vicks- 
burg it took part in the siege until the surrender, and with its bri- 
gade kept off Johnston's forces at the Big Black river. Col. Boomer 
was killed in the assault at Vicksburg May 22, and Maj. Banbury 
was promoted to colonel. The regiment joined the pursuit of 
Johnston's army, and then encamped at Vicksburg until Sept. 12 
when it moved to Helena, Ark., thence to Memphis and Corinth, 
and took part in the rebuilding of the railroad toward luka. At 
Missionary ridge it fought through the afternoon, being nearly 
overcome by an overwhelming force and many were captured. It 
moved via Bridgeport, Ala., to Larkinsville, where it remained 
until Jan. 7, 1864, and then moved to Huntsville for the balance 
of the winter. About 150 of the members reenlisted as veterans 
and were furloughed home in April. They rejoined the army at 
Decatur, Ala., in May. The regiment was on railroad guard duty 
at Madison until the last of the month when it moved to Hunts- 
ville. thence to Stevenson and Kingston, Ga., performing railroad 
guard duty until the last of July when the non-veterans were mus- 
tered out. The remainder of the regiment was transferred to the- 
5th la. cavalry. Its original strength was 918; gain by recruits 
119; total 1,037. 

Sixth Infantry. — Cols., John A. McDowell, John M. Corse, Al- 
exander J. Miller; Lieut.-Cols., Markoe Cummins, John M. Corse,. 
Alexander J. Miller, William H. Clune; Majs., John M. Corse, John 
Williams, Alexander J. Miller, Thomas J. Ennis, David J. McCoy. 
This regiment was organized at Burlington, and was mustered in 
July 15, 1861. It moved to Keokuk soon after and a detachment of 
the regiment was sent to the assistance of Col. Moore at Athens, 
Mo., but reached there too late to take part in the fight and re- 
turned to Keokuk. It then moved to Tipton, Mo., joined Fremont's 
forces and marched to Springfield with the army late in October. 
It was placed on railroad guard duty at Lamine bridge, but later 
was ordered to Tipton, where six companies were placed on garri- 
son duty, the others being sent to Syracuse for similar service. Col. 
McDowell was in command of the brigade in the meantime, leaving 
Lieut. -Col. Cummins in command of the regiment. It took part in 
the battle of Shiloh, where it held an advanced position with ten- 
acity until all support had been driven back, and retired under a 
terrible fire. Lieut. -Col. Cummins was retired from command dur- 
ing the battle and Capt. John Williams led the regiment through 
the most desperate part of the fight until wounded, when Capt. 
Walden took command. Out of 650 in action, 64 were killed, 100 
wounded, and 47 missing, most of them captured. Maj. Corse was 
lieutenant-colonel and took command of the regiment, Capt. John 
at the time on the staff of Gen. Pope, but was soon afterward made 
Williams being promoted to major. It was in the siege of Corinth, 
was present at the evacuation of that place, accompanied a detach- 
ment of the army to the interior of Mississippi, marched from 
Holly Springs to Memphis, where it remained during the summer 
and most of the fall. It accompanied Grant's army in the campaign 
against Vicksburg but retraced its steps and went into winter camp 
at Grand Junction. Tenn. Col. McDowell resigned and Lieut.-Col. 
Corse succeeded to the command, being succeeded by Maj. A. J. 
Miller, and the latter in turn by Adjt. Ennis. During the winter 
the regiment was mounted and made several raids into the enemy's 



Iowa Regiments 141 

:territory. In the early summer it took part in the investment of 
Vicksburg, was in position at Haynes' bluff; was engaged in the 
siege of Jackson, where it made a gallant charge through the tim- 
ber, across an open field, up a slope over the crest, driving the men 
from the guns of opposing field batteries and into two supporting 
regiments, but was compelled to lie down to escape the fearful 
fire, until retreat was ordered and it was made in an orderly man- 
ner. The entire move was made so bravely and with so much cool- 
ness, that the general commanding the division wrote Col. Corse 
a congratulatory note in which he said, "I cannot too highly com- 
mend the gallantry you have displayed in two successful charges. 
The valor of your noble regiment has been conspicuous." The 
operations here resulted in the appointment of Col. Corse to the 
position of brigadier-general of the 4th brigade, in which the rej^i- 
ment was then serving. This brigade was afterwards broken up, 
the 6th being assigned to the 2nd brigade, 4th division, 15th corps. 
Maj. Miller and Adjt. Ennis were made lieutenant-colonel and ma- 
jor respectively. Going into camp near the Big Black river, it re- 
mained until the general movement toward Chattanooga. It par- 
ticipated in the battle of Missionary ridge, losing 69 in killed and 
wounded. It then joined the memorable move for Knoxville to 
relieve Gen. Burnside. with two days' rations, without change of 
clothing, and with but a coat or blanket each. On its return it went 
to Chattanooga and early in 1864 proceeded to Scottsboro, Ala., 
where it went into camp. Most of the men reenlisted as veterans 
and passed the month of April at home on furlough. The regiment 
reached Chattanooga on May 5 and immediately joined Sherman's 
army in the Atlanta campaign. It was in action at Resaca, New 
Hope Church, Big Shanty, Kennesaw mountain, about Atlanta, at 
Jonesboro and Lovejoy's Station. At Dallas, Col. Miller was wound- 
ed. Maj. Ennis was mortally wounded at Atlanta, and Capt. W. H. 
Clune took command. The regiment lost 159 in killed and wound- 
ed from Resaca to Lovejoy's Station, nearly one half of the com- 
mand that left Chattanooga, and went into camp near Atlanta with 
but 120 fit for duty. It joined in the pursuit of Hood, but returned 
in time to take part in the march for Savannah, and was engaged 
at the battle of Griswoldville. At Savannah, Robert Barr, a mem- 
ber of the 6th on the skirmish line, was the first to discover the 
•evacuation by the enemy and was the first man of the Union army 
to enter the city, going in alone early the following morning. In 
the march through the Carolinas. the regiment took part in the 
battles at Columbia and Bentonville, went into camp at Goldsboro 
but soon moved to Raleigh, proceeded then to Washington via 
Richmond and participated in the grand review. It was greeted 
with a shout as its handful of men swung into view, its colors torn 
into shreds, and the applause grew into deafening cheers as its 
remarkable history was whispered about. It was then ordered to 
Louisville, where it remained until the latter part of July, when it 
was ordered home. Its original strength was 883; gain by recruits, 
130; total 1,013. 

Seventh Infantry. — Cols., Jacob G. Lauman, Elliott W. Rice; 
Lieut. -Cols., Augustus Wentz, James C. Parrott; Majs.. Elliott W. 
Rice, James W. McMullin, Samuel Mahon. This regiment was or- 
ganized in June and July, 1861. Most of the companies were mus- 
tered in July 23, the remainder on Aug. 2. On Aug. 6 the regiment 
moved to St. Louis and went into Jefferson barracks. Being armed 
in a few days it proceeded to Pilot Knob, thence to fronton to take 



142 The Union Army 

part in the movement against the forces in Missouri. From this 
point it moved via Jackson to Cape Girardeau, where it embarked 
f(jr Cairo, 111. After remaining at Fort Holt a short time it moved 
to Mayfield creek, near Columbus, Ky., where it was joined by 
Lieut. -Col. Wentz. It next proceeded to Fort Jefferson, near Nor- 
folk, Mo., thence to Bird's Point and to Norfolk. It accompanied 
the troops to Belmont, where it took part in an engagement with 
the enemy occupying that place, the conduct of the 7th being ad- 
mirable and winning the praise of Gen. Grant in the work of cut- 
ting a way through the enemy's lines after the cominand was shut 
off from the river, and losing in the affair 227 in killed, wounded 
and missing, Col. Lauman being severely wounded, Lieut. -Col. 
Wentz killed, and Maj. Rice receiving a bullet in the leg. The 
regiment passed two months at Benton barracks, Capt. Parrott of 
Co. E being prcjmoted to lieutenant-colonel. From St. Lotiis the 
regiment started for the south on Jan. 13. 1862. Twenty miles 
down the steamer was frozen up in the middle of the river, and 
after waiting two days for ice to break the regiment went ashore 
and moved back to St. Louis. Moving by rail to Cairo, it proceed- 
ed to Smithland, Ky., thence to Fort Henry, joined the movement 
on Fort Donelson, took part in the siege and assault of that place 
and remained until March, when it proceeded to Pittsburg landing 
and was in the battle of Shiloh. It fought gallantly in the "Iowa 
Brigade" commanded by Col. J. M. Tuttle, which repulsed four 
charges and held its position for 6 hours, but was compelled to fall 
back under a murderous fire. On the second day it charged and 
captured a battery. Col. Lauman was promoted to the command of 
a brigade and Maj. Rice was made colonel, being succeeded by 
Capt. James W. McMullin of Co. C as major. On April 27 the 
regiment joined in the movement on Corinth and on its evacuation 
took part in the pursuit as far as Booneville. It then went into 
camp at Corinth until the last of September, having been in re- 
serve at the battle of luka. At Corinth it was actively engaged in 
October, losing nearly one third of its numbers engaged. After 
a short period at Rienzi and Kossuth, it went into camp at Bone 
Yard, where it remained for a month, when it returned to Corinth 
for the winter. The summer of 186.3 was passed in the work of 
scouting, foraging and train guard service at Bethel, Tenn., and 
Corinth, and most of the summer and fall at Moscow and La- 
grange. The regiment went into winter quarters at Pulaski in 
November. Three-fourths of the men reenlisted in December and 
were given furlough on Jan. 20, 1864. Leaving Keokuk on Feb. 27, 
with 200 recruits, the regiment returned to Pulaski, but almost im- 
mediately moved to Prospect, Ala., and joined the anny in the At- 
lanta campaign April 27. It was heavily engaged at the Oosta- 
naula river where it was sent forward with an Indiana regiment to 
discover the enemy's left flank. The two regiments found the ene- 
my in position and charged his flank so fiercely that he was driven 
froin the field in confusion, the 7th losing 7 killed and 50 wounded, 
while the enemy lost 36 killed and about 250 wounded. The 7th 
took part in nearly every engagement in the march upon Atlanta, 
after which it went into camp at Rome imtil the forward movement 
for Savannah was begun. From Savannah the regiment made the 
wearisome march through the Carolinas, reaching Goldsboro March 
24, 1865. From Raleigh it marched thence to Richmond and Wash- 
ington, participated in the grand review, then went to Louisville, 
where it was mustered out soon afterward. Its original strength 



Iowa Regiments 143 

was 902; gain by recruits, 236, total 1,138. Col. Rice was made a 
brigadier-general, and James C. Parrott, who had been made lieu- 
tenant-colonel, commanded the regiment during the latter part of 
the war. 

Eighth Infantry. — Cols., Frederick Steele, James L. Geddes; Lieut. - 
Cols., James L. Geddes, John C. Ferguson; Majs., John C. Fergu- 
son, Joseph Andrews. This regiment was organized in the latter 
part of the summer of 1861, and was mustered in Sept. 5. Soon af- 
ter its organization it went to St. Louis, from which place it moved 
to Syracuse, where it joined Fremont's army in pursuit of Price's 
forces and operated in southwestern Missouri, losing heavily through 
sickness. It returned to Sedalia in November and remained there 
until ordered to join Grant's forces in Tennessee the following 
spring. Col. Steele was appointed brigadier-general and Lieut. - 
Col. Geddes succeeded to the command, Maj. Ferguson being com- 
missioned lieutenant-colonel, and Capt. Joseph Andrews of Co. F 
was made major. The regiment participated in the battle of Shi- 
loh, fighting 10 hours on the first day, repelling attack after attack, 
and, with the battery which it was supporting, inflicting terrible 
punishment upon the enemy. It was the last to leave the advanced 
line of the army, being surrounded as it attempted to withdraw 
and compelled to surrender. Out of 650 men engaged, it lost 64 
killed, 100 wounded, and 47 missing. The 8th, 12th and 14th la. 
formed four-fifths of the little force that held back ten times its 
numbers at the close of the first day at Shiloh, giving Buell time 
to bring up his forces and snatch victory from defeat. Entirely 
cut off, they fought until they could fight no longer, and threw 
down their arms only to see many of their number shot down in 
cold blood after they had surrendered as prisoners of war. The 
officers above the rank of lieutenant were sent to Selma, thence to 
Talladega, returned to Selma soon afterward, three months later 
to Atlanta, thence to Madison until Nov. 7, when they were sent to 
Libby prison. Richmond, and were paroled a week later at Aiken's 
landing. The lieutenants and enlisted men were sent to various 
prisons in Alabama and suffered the miseries and privations so com- 
mon to southern prisons. A few of the 8th who escaped capture 
went into the "Union Brigade." a consolidated regiment rather 
than a brigade, and took part in the Tennessee and Mississippi 
campaigns, distinguishing itself at Corinth. The regiment was re- 
organized at St. Louis early in 1863 and made an expedition to 
Rolla, after which it joined Grant's movement upon Vicksburg. It 
took part in the battle of Jackson, participated in the assault at 
Vicksburg on May 22 and also in the siege. It accompanied the 
army to Jackson, and after the evacuation there engaged in the 
pursuit of the enemy. It then went into camp at Vicksburg where 
Lieut. -Col. Ferguson died of disease. A short march to Browns- 
ville was the only movement of interest until early in November, 
when the regiment moved to Memphis, thence to Lagrange and 
Pocahontas, where it remained until ordered to Vicksburg to take 
part in the Meridian raid. Soon after that event most of the com- 
mand reenlisted and visited Iowa on veteran furlough. Return- 
ing to Memphis, it performed provost guard duty during 1864 and 
the early part of 1865, its most notable work being the repulse of 
Forrest, who made an attack on the city Aug. 21, 1864, the regi- 
ment being assisted by the "Gray-beard" regiment from Iowa. 
Early in March, 1865, the regiment moved to New Orleans and 
proceeded to Mobile bay, where it took part in the assault upon 



144 The Union Army 

Spanish Fort and captured several hundred prisoners. This as- 
sault was made by a brigade commanded by Col. Geddes. Maj.- 
Gen. Steele, the former colonel of the 8th, won high praise for the 
manner in which he conducted his part of the siege of Mobile, and 
Geddes' assault on Spanish Fort was conceded to be the most bril- 
liant performance of that campaign. The regiment moved to Mont- 
gomery shortly after and served until mustered out. The original 
strength of the regiment was 921; gain by recruits 106; total 1,027. 
Ninth Infantry. — Cols., William Vandever, David Carskaddon; 
Lieut. -Cols., Frank G. Herron, William H. Coyle, Alonzo Aber- 
nethy; Majs., William H. Coyle, Don A. Carpenter, George Gran- 
ger, Alonzo Abernethy, Joseph G. Inman. This regiment was or- 
ganized in July and Aug., 1861, and was mustered in at Dubuque 
Sept. 24. A few days later the regiment proceeded to Benton bar- 
racks, St. Louis, and remained until the middle of October, when 
it was assigned to railroad guard duty from Franklin to Rolla, in 
which it remained until Jan. 22, 1862. It then joined the Army of 
the Southwest, and was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 4th division, 
Col. E. A. Carr commanding. The regiment was engaged at Sugar 
creek where its division drove before it a force three times as 
strong in numbers as its own. On March 4 Col. Vandever was sent 
to Huntsville with a detachment, consisting of a picked portion of 
the 2nd brigade, of which he was then in command, including part 
of his regiment, and on his arrival was informed that the enemy, 
under Price and McCulloch, was approaching in great force. A 
courier arrived during the night, confirming the report and ordering 
him to join the command at Pea ridge, whither the army was has- 
tening. A determined march of 14 hours, through snow, over streams 
and in mud brought the little command to Pea ridge — 41 miles of 
as fine a movement as history records — and it took part in a pitched 
battle of two days without opportunity to recuperate. Lieut. -Col. 
Herron was captured, the major and adjutant were disabled, and 
its colonel was commanding a brigade. Tt lost nearly 200 in killed 
and wounded. On the following day, despite its lack of officers, 
it maintained its record and received the greatest praise. It moved 
with the army through part of Missouri and Arkansas, went into 
camp at Helena, where it remained for five months, and as a part 
of Thayer's brigade, Steele's division, was under fire at Shicka- 
saw bayou but not actively engaged. It began the new year by 
taking part in the campaign against Arkansas Post and moved 
from there to Young's point near Vicksburg. Col. Vandever was 
appointed brigadier-general and Capt. Carskaddon was commis- 
sioned colonel. On May 2 the regiment started for Grand Gulf. 
It took part in the battle of Jackson and on the i8th reached 
Vicksburg. The next day it lost a number of men in an assault 
on the enemy's works and on the 22nd lost nearly 100 in killed 
and wounded in a second assault. Immediately after the capitula- 
tion of the city the regiment moved on Jackson, and after the 
evacuation of that city went into camp near the Big Black river. 
On Sept. 22 it proceeded to Vicksburg, took a steamer to Mem- 
phis and moved from there to Corinth by rail. After repairing the 
railroad at that place and having a skirmish with Forrest's forces, 
it moved to Chattanooga, reached the base of Lookout mountain 
on the morning of Nov. 23, and took part in the "battle above the 
clouds" the following day. It joined in the pursuit following the 
battle of Missionary ridge as far as Ringgold and went into win- 
ter quarters at Woodville, Ala. Enough men reenlisted to consti- 



Iowa Regiments 145 

tute a veteran regiment and they were given a furlough home in 
Feb., 1864, but returned to Woodville in March with many recruits. 
The regiment moved to Chattanooga and joined Sherman's army 
for the Atlanta movement. It was engaged at Resaca, Dallas, New 
Hope Church, Big Shanty, Kennesaw mountain, the Chattahoochee 
river, Decatur, Atlanta, Jonesboro and Lovejoy's Station. After 
the evacuation of Atlanta it went into camp, but was sent in pur- 
suit of Hood in October. Soon after this the non-veterans were 
mustered out and the regiment took up the march for Savannah. 
From there it moved by steamer to Beaufort, S. C, at which point 
Col. Carskaddon was mustered out, his term of service having ex- 
pired. Maj. Alonzo Abernethy, who had been promoted from a 
captaincy on the death of Maj. Granger, took command. It partici- 
pated in the capture of Columbia and in various minor affairs, was 
in the grand review at Washington and was mustered out at Louis- 
ville July 18. 1865. 

Tenth Infantry, — Cols., Nicholas Perczel, Paris P. Henderson; 
Lieut.-Cols., William E. Small, Nathaniel McCalla, William H. 
Silsby; Majs., John C. Bennett, Nathaniel McCalla, Robert Lusby. 
This regiment was organized at Camp Fremont, near Iowa City, 
in the summer and fall of 1861. Eight companies were mustered 
in on Sept. 6 and 7, one was mustered in on the 28th, and one on 
Oct. 13. The regiment received its equipment at St. Louis and 
moved to Cape Girardeau, where it went into camp. In the early 
part of November it was ordered to Bloomfield to drive out Jeff 
Thompson's force, but found it gone on its arrival. Taking posses- 
sion of a large amount of property left by Thompson, it returned to 
Cape Girardeau, and in December went into winter quarters at 
Bird's Point. On Jan. 8, 1862, it marched by night toward Charles- 
ton for the purpose of capturing a body of the enemy said to be 
there. While passing through a dense forest it was surprised by 
an attack from ambush, but recovered from its confusion and dis- 
persed the enemy. It took part in the siege of New Madrid, then 
engaged in the operations about Island No. 10, accompanied the 
command to Corinth and took an important part in the engage- 
ments about that place. It was engaged at the battle of luka, and 
in the battle of Corinth in October it fought with Sullivan's bri- 
gade, winning golden opinions for its telling work. It moved to 
Oxford in November, intending to take part in the movement 
upon Vicksburg, but the surrender of Holly Springs with its stores 
compelled a change of plans, and it marched to Memphis where it 
spent the winter. A number of changes were made during the 
time between its service in Missouri and its arrival in Memphis; 
Maj. Bennett resigned near the close of 1861 and was succeeded 
by Capt. McCalla; Col. Perczel resigned in Nov., 1862, and Capt. 
Henderson was commissioned to succeed him; in 1863 Maj. Mc- 
Calla succeeded Lieut.-Col. Small, resigned, and Capt. Robert Lusby 
was made major. The regiment accompanied the Yazoo Pass ex- 
pedition in the spring of 1863 and after that moved to Milliken's 
bend. It was in the battle of Raymond and at Jackson its division 
bore the brunt of the fight. It was in Col. Boomer's brigade, which 
pushed in at a critical moment when Hovey's division was falling 
back, and by desperate fighting saved him from rout, thus gain- 
ing time for Crocker to advance other troops, turn the tide and save 
the day. The loss was terrible, the loth leaving its dead in pro- 
fusion and the brigade being cut to pieces. It took part in the as- 
sault on Vicksburg May 22, making two charges and losing heav- 
Vol. IV— 10 



146 The Union Army 

ily. Col. Boomer, commanding the brigade, was killed and Col. 
Matthies succeeded him. After the fall of Vicksburg the regiment 
took part in the siege of Jackson and then went into camp. It 
was ordered to Chattanooga in the latter part of September, was 
engaged at Missionary ridge with its brigade, being in some of 
the fiercest fighting in that battle and losing heavily. It went into 
winter quarters at Huntsville, Ala., and in Feb., 1864, reenlisted as 
a veteran organization. In the latter part of April the regiment 
relieved Dodge's division at Decatur, and in June it visited Iowa 
on veteran furlough. Upon its return in July it was stationed near 
Kingston, Ga., on railroad guard duty. It took part in two expe- 
ditions against Wheeler, the second through Tennessee and nor- 
thern Alabama, the entire movement taking the command on a 
march of nearly 1,000 miles. In October it aided in holding Res- 
aca against Hood's forces until Sherman's pursuing column came 
up. It joined the march to Savannah and took part in the cam- 
paign of the Carolinas. It crossed the Salkehatchie river in com- 
pany with the 56th 111., wading waist deep in the face of a body 
of the enemy posted behind earthworks, and drove them from 
their position. It was engaged at Columbia and again at Cox's 
bridge near Bentonville. It participated in the grand review at 
Washington, thence to Louisville and to Little Rock, Ark., where 
it was mustered out Aug. 15, 1865. Its original strength was 913; 
gain by recruits, 114; total 1,027. 

Eleventh Infantry. — Cols., Abraham M. Hare, William Hall; 
Lieut.-Cols., William Hall, John C. Abercrombie, Charles Foster, 
Benjamin Beach; Majs., John C. Abercrombie, Charles Foster 
John C. Marven. This regiment was organized at Camp McClel- 
lan, near Davenport, and was mustered in at different dates from 
Sept. 28 to Oct. 18, 1861. It left the state on Nov. 16 for St. Louis 
and was the first regiment to leave Iowa fully uniformed. It ac- 
companied an expedition to Boonville in December and captured 
a large amount of gunpowder. Two similar movements closed the 
season's work for the regiment. Five companies moved to the 
town of California, the others to Fulton and passed the winter at 
these places. On March 10, 1862, the regiment moved to Pitts- 
burg landing where it was brigaded with Col. Richard Oglesby's 
command. It took part at Shiloh and lost over 200 in killed and 
wounded, more than 30 being killed outright, and Maj. Aber- 
crombie was severely wounded. Its brigade at that battle was 
commanded by Col. Hare. It took part in the movement upon 
Corinth and formed part of the garrison there after its evacuation 
until ordered to Bolivar, Tenn., with its brigade some three months 
later, from which place it made several expeditions and participat- 
ed in a battle near there. Returning to Corinth it participated in 
the battle in October; afterward moved into central Mississippi 
with Grant; returned to Holly Springs; proceeded tiience to La- 
fayette, Memphis and Young'.s point; and in February to Lake 
Providence where it assisted in digging the canal between that 
point and the river. Col. Hall, who had succeeded Col. Hare on 
the latter's resignation, was placed in command of the brigade, and 
Lieut. -Col. Abercrombie took command of the regiment. After 
Vicksburg's surrender it went into camp. It accompanied the ex- 
pedition to Monroe, from the effects of which half the command 
were worn out, with little return for the hardships sustained. In 
Feb., 1864, the regiment joined in the Meridian raid. Nearly all 
of the men having reenlisted as veterans, they were given fur- 



Iowa Regiments 147 

lough home in the early spring. On the return the regiment joined 
Sherman's army at Acworth, Ga. It fought at Kennesaw moun- 
tain, took part in the operations at Nickajack creek, and from 
there to Atlanta was constantly engaged in skirmishing. At At- 
lanta it was heavily engaged in July and it fought at Jonesboro 
and Lovejoy's Station, losing during the campaign 218 in killed 
and wounded — one half of its available strength. Maj. Foster 
died from the effects of wounds received at Atlanta. It proceeded 
to Savannah with the army; sailed from there to Beaufort, S. C, 
in Jan., 1865; took part in the march through the Carolinas; was 
engaged in several minor affairs and at the battle of Bentonville; 
moved to Goldsboro and Raleigh; took part in the grand review 
at Washington, and was mustered out at Louisville in July, 1865. 
Its original strength was 931; gain by recruits, 91; total, 1,022. 

Twelfth Infantry.— Cols., Jackson J. Wood, John H. Stibbs; 
Lieut. -Cols., John P. Coulter, Samuel R. Edgington, John H. Stibbs; 
Majs., Samuel D. Brodtbeck, Samuel R. Edgington, John H. Stibbs, 
Edward M. Van Duzee, Samuel G. Knee. This regiment was or- 
ganized at Dubuque in Oct. and Nov., 1861, and was mustered in 
at intervals during those two months. It left the state late in 
November, went into quarters at Benton barracks, St. Louis, for 
two months, and like its predecessors, suffered greatly from dis- 
eases that seemed to be a part of the experience necessary to pre- 
pare them for the field work. Some 75 died of measles, pneumonia 
and typhoid. At Smithland, Ky., it joined Grant for the move- 
ment upon Fort Henry, was present at the capture of that place, 
then moved to Fort Donelson, where it took part in the fight and 
assault which resulted in victory. It won immortal glory for itself 
at Shiloh by fighting in the advance until sundown and holding 
back the enemy while the demoralized army withdrew to a new 
point and waited the arrival of Buell. The 8th, 12th and 14th la. 
comprised four-fifths of that advance line and surrendered only 
when surrounded by ten times their numbers. (In the history of 
the 8th will be found an account of the disposition of the prisoners 
until their parole and exchange.) Those who escaped capture 
were assigned to the "Union Brigade" and served with it until dis- 
banded, being sent to Davenport, la., and remaining there during 
the winter. The paroled men were declared exchanged Jan. i, 
1863, and soon after went to Rolla, which was threatened by Mar- 
maduke, but returned on the 15th to St. Louis, where they were 
stationed. Lieut. -Col. Coulter resigned and was succeeded by Maj. 
Edgington, and the latter as major by Capt. John H. Stibbs of Co. 
D. The regiment was reorganized about April i and became a 
part of Sherman's command, participating in the movements of 
that division during the Vicksburg campaign, though it was in 
reserve at the assault of May 22. After the surrender it was en- 
gaged at Jackson and was in the skirmish at and capture of Bran- 
don. It went into camp near Bear creek on July 23 and remained 
there until Oct. 10. Lieut. -Col. Edgington resigned, Maj. Stibbs 
became lieutenant-colonel, and was succeeded as major by Capt. 
Van Duzee. In October the regiment was in a skirmish at Browns- 
ville; proceeded thence to Vicksburg, Memphis, Lagrange and Che- 
walla, where it remained on railroad guard duty until near the 
close of Jan., 1864. While here it broke up the guerrilla bands that 
were pillaging the country, and built a strong fort. It was ordered 
to join the forces for the Meridian raid, but reached Vicksburg 
too late to take part and went into camp. Having been mustered 



148 The Union Army 

in as a veteran organization, the reenlisted men were sent home on 
a furlough in March. In their absence, the non-veterans, number- 
ing about 70, accompanied the 35th la. on the Red River campaign 
and was in battle at Lake Chicot. On their return from home the 
inen reached Memphis on May 2 and were joined by the detach- 
ment about the middle of June. In May six companies under 
Lieut.-Col. Stibbs, went to the mouth of the White river, estab- 
lished a military post and left Cos. A and F under Capt. Hunter. 
The coinmand proceeded to Tupelo, where it was engaged in 
July. The regiment while acting as a train guard, was attacked by 
a brigade, but repelled it in a handsome manner, and in the subse- 
quent fighting it occupied the most dangerous post and received 
special commendations of the general commanding. Returning to 
Memphis, the regiment moved to Lagrange, thence to Holly Springs, 
via Lumpkin's mills, remainmg on duty there for some time. The 
detachment at White river in the meantime had been busy, pro- 
tecting the loyal people of that section and building a stockade. 
The little force of but 47 was attacked before daybreak on the morn- 
ing of June 5 by a force of 400, the men being compelled to fight 
in their shirts only, so sudden was the attack. A number of the 
enemy gained the stockade at one side, but Sergt. Isaac Cottle and 
Corp. George Hunter, armed with revolvers, boldly attacked them 
and drove them out in confusion. Hunter was shot dead and Cot- 
tle was so severely wounded that he died soon after, but the entire 
besieging force was finally driven of? with a loss of over 50 in killed, 
wounded and prisoners, their commanding officer being among the 
slain. Joining the regiment at Holly Springs, this detachment ac- 
companied it to Oxford, then to Memphis, whence it proceeded to 
Devall's Bluflf and Brownsville in search of Price. With 10 days' 
rations it made the 350 miles march to Cape Girardeau via Jackson- 
port, Ark., and Jackson, Mo., in 19 days. From St. Louis it pro- 
ceeded to Jefferson City, Smithton, Sedalia, Lexington and Inde- 
pendence, into Kansas, and to Harrisonville, Mo., after Price but 
was unable to catch him and returned to St. Louis. The non-vet- 
erans and some of the officers were mustered out, Lieut.-Col. Stibbs 
remaining as commanding ofiicer. Moving to Nashville the regi- 
ment aided in the defense of that city and in the battle in Decem- 
ber captured 2 flags. It joined in the pursuit as far as Clinton, 
then proceeded to Eastport, Miss., where it assisted in building 
quarters and fortifications. Lieut.-Col. Stibbs was called to Wash- 
ington in Jan. 1865, to become a member of the military tribunal, 
the same, which later, tried the notorious Capt. Wirz, who was held 
responsible for the infamies of Andersonville prison, and Maj. Knee 
took command. The regiment was ordered to Mobile in February, 
was engaged at Spanish Fort in the front line and occupied an ex- 
posed position for 13 days and nights. At the conclusion of the 
siege of Mobile it moved to Montgomery, thence to Selma and re- 
mained in guard and garrison duty until the early part of 1866 when 
it was mustered out. Lieut.-Col. Stibbs received a merited promo- 
tion to a colonelcy. The original strength of the regiment was 
926; gain by recruits, 55, total, 981. 

Thirteenth Infantry. — Cols., Marcellus M. Crocker, John Shane, 
James C. Wilson; Lieut. -Cols., Milton M. Price, John Shane, James 
C. Wilson, Justin C. Kennedy; Majs., John Shane, George M. Van 
Hosen, James C. Wilson, William A. Walker. Thomas P. Marshall, 
A. J. Pope. This regiment was organized in the summer and fall 
of 1861 and was mustered in between Oct. 18 and Nov. 2, by com- 



Iowa Regiments 119 

panics. About Nov. 17 the regiment left for Benton barracks, 
where it remained until Dec. 20, then went to Jefferson City, Mo., 
where it spent the winter. On March 8 it left for Pittsburg land- 
ing, where it was assigned to the ist brigade, ist division, Gen. 
McClernand commanding. At the battle of Shiloh it was under 
fire for 10 hours the first day, losing 24 killed, 139 wounded and 9 
missing. After the battle it was placed in the 1st ("Iowa") bri- 
gade, Col. Crocker commanding, of the 6th division. Lieut. -Col. 
Price resigning Maj. Shane was promoted to that position, Capt. 
Van Hosen succeeding as major. It was in the siege of Corinth 
and became part of the garrison when the place was evacuated. At 
the end of July it marched to Bolivar in search of the enemy, but 
failed to come up with him and returned to Corinth, where it took 
part in the battle in October. The principal losses there were sus- 
tained by Cos. A and G, which were deployed as skirmishers in the 
first day's engagement. It returned to Memphis, Tenn., on the 
surrender of Holly Springs, the base of supplies for the contem- 
plated move on Vicksburg. About this time Maj. Van Hosen re- 
signed and was succeeded by Adjt. Wilson. The regiment assisted 
in digging Lake Providence canal. On the reorganization of the 
army Col. Crocker was made brigadier-general, being succeeded by 
Lieut.-Col. Shane as colonel, Maj. Wilson was promoted to the lat- 
ter position and Capt. Walker was appointed major. The regiment 
repaired the roads for the use of the army about Vicksburg, pro- 
ceeded to Grand Gulf, thence to Haynes' bluff, but soon returned 
and took place on the left of the line of investment. In the lat- 
ter part of May it was part of a force to make a reconnoissance 
toward Mechanicsburg, its brigade earning the sobriquet of "Crock- 
er's Greyhounds." On June 24 it moved out to take part in the 
work of holding Johnston's forces from attacking the army's rear, 
and was engaged in a skirmish on the day of the surrender of Vicks- 
burg. It escorted a supply train to Clinton, but returned on July 
28 and assisted in clearing Yazoo river of the torpedoes and wrecked 
gun-boats. It participated in the expedition to Monroe, La., after 
which it went into quarters at Vicksburg until Feb. 4, 1864, when 
it joined the movement towards Meridian. The veterans were given 
a furlough in March and reached Cairo on April 16, with many re- 
cruits. It proceeded via Clifton and Pulaski, Tenn., to Hunts- 
ville, Ala., and on May 20, joined Sherman's army at Acworth. Ga. 
It was engaged at Kennesaw mountain, was in a skirmish at Nick- 
ajack creek, and at Atlanta its brigade made a charge to within 50 
paces of the fort, being compelled to lie down and fire. It retired 
in good order having lost 113 in killed and wounded in less than 
30 minutes. On July 22 most of Co. A, part of G, and all of D and 
K, were captured while reinforcing the nth and i6th la. The regi- 
ment's loss in this battle was 149, Maj. Walker commanding, being 
killed. In the battle of the 28th the regiment fought with great 
bravery and joined with the remnant of the 3d la., in reinforcing 
a part of the line which was being hard pressed. The 13th was en- 
gaged at Jonesboro and Lovejoy's Station and joined in the pur- 
suit of Hood in October, going as far as Gaylesville, Ala. Its losses 
from the first day at Kennesaw until the close of the Atlanta cam- 
paign were 331 in killed, wounded and captured. At Marietta, on 
the return to Atlanta, Col. Shane and several line officers were mus- 
tered out, their time expiring. It was in the march to and siege of 
Savannah; took up the line of march through the Carolinas; was 
engaged at Pocotaligo; at Columbia a portion of the regiment crossed 



150 The Union Army 

the river opposite the city ahead of the army, and without orders 
hoisted the stars and stripes on the capitol while the remainder of 
the command engaged in laying pontoon bridges some 3 miles be- 
low the town. Previous to this the regiment on the skirn;ish line 
had crossed a burning bridge at the North Edisto river and driven 
the enemy out of Orangeburg. The regiment closed its righting 
career at Bentonville. At Goldsboro it was joined by a large num- 
ber of recruits and here Capt. Pope was made majfir in place of 
Maj. Marshall resigned. The regiment proceeded to Washington 
after Johnston's surrender, took part in the grand review, went 
into camp at Rock creek and later moved to Louisville, Ky., where 
it was mustered out in July, 1865. 

Fourteenth Infantry. — ^Col., William T. Shaw; Lieut. -Cols., Ed- 
ward W. Lucas, Joseph H. Newbold; Majs., Hiram Leonard, William 
H. Kirkwood, Edgar A. Warner. This regiment was organized in 
the fall of 1861, at Camp McClellan, near Davenport. The circum- 
stances surrounding the regiment's organization and history were 
somewhat peculiar. Three companies. A, B, and C, were sent to 
the western frontier on special service and were not identified 
with the regiment at any time, except technically, never being un- 
der command of an officer of the regiment. They were located 
at Fort Randall, Dak., and were afterwards ordered detached from 
the regiment. They constituted the ist battalion of the 41st regi- 
ment for a time, but the formation of that regiment was not com- 
pleted and they were finally made part of a cavalry regiment. The 
14th thus went into service with but seven companies and remained 
at that strength for the first year, the number aggregating some- 
thing over 600 when it left for St. Louis on Nov. 28. It remained 
at Benton barracks until Feb. 5, 1862, when it moved to Fort Hen- 
ry, thence to Fort Donelson and was a part of the brigade under 
Gen. Lauman. Three weeks later it proceeded to Pittsburg land- 
ing and in the battle of Shiloh formed a part of that famous bri- 
gade, composed of the 2nd, 7th, 12th and 14th la., which fought 
from morning until dark of the first day against ten times its num- 
bers, allowing the army to retire and take up new position, and at 
last, cut off and surrounded, gave up the unequal contest and sur- 
rendered to the enemy, many of them to be shot down without 
mercy after they had given themselves up as prisoners of war. The 
account of their imprisonment and eventual parole and exchange 
is given in the history of the 8th la. The few who escaped cap- 
ture became a part of the "Union Brigade" and joined their com- 
rades at Benton barracks, where the regiment spent the winter. It 
was also joined by Cos. A and B, two new companies raised to 
take the place of those sent west, and many recruits. Capt. Jo- 
seph Newbold was commissioned lieutenant-colonel and Capt. Edgar 
Warner was made major. On April, 10, 1863, it moved to Cairo, 
where it was joined by a newly organized Co. C, completing its 
numbers. While at Cairo, part of the regiment was sent into the 
interior of Illinois to quell some political disturbances and arrest 
the ringleaders who were inciting treason. Moving to Columbus, 
Ky., the latter part of June, it remained on garrison duty for seven 
months. It embarked for Vicksburg on Jan. 14, 1864, and was 
there assigned to the 2nd brigade. 3d division, i6th army corps. 
Col. Shaw commanding the brigade, and Lieut. -Col. Newbold, the 
regiment. After the Meridian raid it accompanied the Red River 
expedition with Gen. A. J. Smith's command; was engaged at Fort 
DeRussy, which was taken by storm in less than 30 minutes; and 



Iowa Regiments 151 

then joined Banks just in time to save his army, by its determined 
fighting at Pleasant Hill. The regiment was engaged at Cloutier- 
ville. Moore's plantation, Marksvillc and Yellow bayou, crossed 
the river to Morganza and returned to Vicksburg. It was in the 
affair at Lake Chicot; then moved to Memphis; took part in the 
battle of Tupelo; fought at Old Town creek soon after; went to 
camp at Memphis and enjoyed a brief rest, broken by a trip to Ox- 
ford, in which several skirmishes occurred. It was then ordered 
to Cairo, thence to Jefferson barracks, where four companies were 
detached and sent to reinforce Gen. Ewing at Pilot Knob. The 
da}^ after their arrival Ewing was attacked by a largely superior 
force, but the enemy was repelled several times with heavy loss. 
On the following day a direct assault was repulsed, but guns plant- 
ed on a hill near by compelled the Union forces to evacuate the 
place, after blowing up the fort. The little command retreated to 
Rolla after cutting its way through the enemy's lines and fought 
every foot of the way for four days with scarcely an hour's rest. 
The remainder of the regiment marched across Missouri in pur- 
suit of Price. It was reunited at St. Louis in November, and pro- 
ceeded to Davenport where it was mustered out Nov. i6, 1864. The 
recruits and reenlisted men were formed into a battalion of two 
companies, of which Capt. Hugo Hoffbauer had command. It re- 
mained on provost guard duty until the summer of 1865, detach- 
ments being used for escort and prisoners' guards at various times, 
and was mustered out in Aug., 1865. One thing which contributed 
to the feeling of dissatisfaction with many was the dismissal of 
Col. Shaw on the charge of violating regulations in regard to a 
publication over his own signature of things relating to the opera- 
tion of the armies. His offense consisted of having written a pri- 
vate letter, which got into print through the indiscretion of a 
friend, in which Shaw told the facts with regard to the fight at 
Pleasant Hill, during the disastrous Red River expedition. His 
force of less than one-tenth of those present suffered one-half of 
the loss sustained by the entire force, having been engaged over 7 
hours, or fully four times as long as any other on the field, repuls- 
ing a cavalry attack and a succeeding infantry attack before a gun 
was fired by any other troops. He named several officers as hav- 
ing been intoxicated and cowardly in that affair. When the order 
for dismissal came to Gen. A. J. Smith, commanding the corps, 
he refused to have it promulgated, but relieved Col. Shaw from the 
command of the division, and allowed him to proceed to Daven- 
port and be honorably mustered out with the regiment of which he 
was still colonel, commending him in the highest terms in orders. 
The officers of the division presented him with a handsome sword 
and parted from him with regret as he had proved himself one 
of the best officers that the west had produced. 

Fifteenth Infantry.— Cols., Hugh F. Reid. William W. Belknap; 
Lieut. -Cols., William Dewey, William W. Belknap, John M. Hen- 
drick, George Pomutz; Majs., William W. Belknap, William Cun- 
ningham, John M. Hendrick, George Pomutz, James S. Porter. This 
regiment was organized at Keokuk and was mustered in by com- 
panies at different dates between Nov., 1861, and the last of the 
following February. On March 19, 1862, it proceeded to Benton 
barracks, St. Louis, and reached Pittsburg landing shortly after 
the battle of Shiloh had commenced. It moved quickly to the 
front and took part in the fight; but having been assigned to a 
poor position it was ordered to fall back, which it did in some 



152 The Union Army 

confusion. It did not fight as an organization again that day, 
though portions of it were rallied and took part in the battle. The 
men fought bravely and well, losing i88 in killed, wounded and 
missing, Col. Reid being severely wounded. It became a part of 
the "Iowa" brigade upon the reorganization of the army and took 
part in the movement upon Corinth. At the close of that cam- 
paign it engaged in the performance of picket and guard duties 
along the railways west of Corinth and as provost guard during 
the month of July. About the first of August it moved to Bolivar 
and remained there until the middle of September. While at Bol- 
ivar Col. Reid was placed in command of the brigade and Lieut. - 
Col. Belknap assumed command of the regiment. It was in the 
battle of Chewalla, joined in the pursuit of the enemy at the close 
of the engagement, and returned to Corinth on Oct. 13. After 
taking part in various operations in Mississippi and Tennessee dur- 
ing the winter it joined the army for the Vicksburg campaign; 
was engaged in sharp skirmishes at Mechanicsburg and Messen- 
ger's ferry, and identified with all the movements of its brigade; 
remained in camp near the city after the surrender until Aug. 21, 
when it joined the expedition to Monroe, the most wearisome, ill- 
starred affair of its kind known in the annals of the war. In Sep- 
tember it returned and rested at Vicksburg until Feb., 1864; then 
reenlisted as a veteran organization; accompanied the Meridian 
expedition, and on its return proceeded to Iowa on furlough. The 
non-veterans of the brigade were organized into "The Iowa bat- 
talion of the 17th army corps," Maj. Pomutz commanding, and 
moved to Cairo, 111., about the first of April, in charge of a large 
quantity of arms, being ordered from there to garrison Mound 
City. In the latter part of April the battalion proceeded to Hunts- 
ville, where the men were returned to their regiments. The iSth 
returned to Cairo, moved thence to Bird's Point, Paducah and 
Huntsville, which was reached May 20. Here the brigade was 
officially designated as the 3d of the 4th division. The 15th took 
part in nearly every engagement from Kennesaw mountain to the 
battle before Atlanta, losing in that time nearly 100 in killed, wounded 
and missing. At the great battle of July 22 its brigade fought like 
demons against the savage assaults of the enemy and repelled seven 
charges during the day. The 15th captured 93 prisoners and lost 
10 killed, 40 wounded and 82 captured, Lieut. -Col. Hendrick being 
severely wounded. The regiment fought at Ezra Church. Col. 
Belknap was made brigadier-general and Lieut. -Col. Hendrick was 
commissioned to succeed to the command, but being unable to 
take active charge, the duties fell upon Lieut. -Col. Pomutz, who 
was advanced to that position. Col. Hendrick was brevetted briga- 
dier-general, and sent many recruits to the regiment, although his 
injuries never permitted him to take to the field again. The regi- 
ment was in the battles of Jonesboro and Lovejoy's Station, then 
went into camp at East Point, until the pursuit of Hood in Octo- 
ber, returning in time to proceed to Savannah, from which city 
it marched in Jan., 1865, through the Carolinas, and was engaged 
at Columbia and Bentonville. It moved to Goldsboro, Raleigh, 
Washington, and Louisville where it was mustered out July 24 
with 712 on the rolls. 

Sixteenth Infantry. — Col., Alexander Chambers; Lieut.-Cols., 
Addison H. Sanders, John H. Smith, Josiah T. Herbert; Majs., 
William Purcell, Peter Miller. This regiment was organized at 
Davenport and was mustered in at intervals between Dec. 10, 1861, 



Iowa Regiments 15. "5 

and March 24, 1862, seven companies at Davenport, one at Keo- 
kuk and the last at Benton barracks, St. Louis. The incomplete 
regiment left the state the first week in March for Benton barracks, 
from which point it moved on the completion of its organization 
to Pittsburg landing and was one of those regiments which were 
sent into the most exposed position at Shiloh without having had 
any experience in warfare and assigned a place without a brigade 
formation. Its loss was heavy but its action was excellent, de- 
spite some confusion. After the battle it was made a part of the 
"Iowa" brigade; took part in the move upon Corinth and at the 
close went into camp. Near the close of July it accompanied the 
army to Bolivar, Tenn., where it remained until the middle of Sep- 
tember, engaging in scouting, foraging and short expeditions hav- 
ing a few skirmishes. It participated at the battle of luka and 
received Gen. Rosecrans' highest praise for its performances. Again 
returning to Corinth, it was engaged in the battle there two weeks 
later, where Lieut.-Col. Sanders was severely wounded and Maj. 
Purcell took command. It joined in the pursuit but returned 10 
days later and remained until Nov. i, when it moved to Grand 
Junction to take part in the movement against Vicksburg, which 
failed through the loss of Holly Springs with its supplies. The 
regiment moved to Holly Springs, thence to Lafayette and Mem- 
phis, which place was reached on Jan. 3, 1863. A week later it 
embarked for Young's point, thence to Lake Providence where it 
remamed with its brigade until ordered to Vicksburg. While there 
Maj. William E. Strong, inspector-general of the 17th army corps, 
said of its brigade: "Iowa may well be proud of the 3d brigade. 
Since I have been a soldier it has happened that I have seen many 
brigades of many different army corps, both in eastern and west- 
ern arrnies, but never have I seen a brigade that could compete 
with this Iowa brigade." Moving to Vicksburg the regiment was 
constantly under fire during the siege, then went into camp until 
called to take part in the expedition to Monroe, from which it re- 
turned, worn out by the most fatiguing movement ever made with- 
out purpose or result. It took part in the Meridian raid in Feb., 
1864, and returned to Vicksburg, where it reenlisted as a veteran 
regiment. It was given a furlough home in April, returned in June, 
and accompanied Sherman's army through Georgia; was engaged 
at Acworth, Kennesaw mountain, Nickajack creek, before Atlanta, 
losing more than 50 in killed and wounded in less than 30 minutes 
July 21, and the next day it fought with great bravery; charged 
the batteries and lost 65 men; then held its position until com- 
pletely surrounded and being entirely without ammunition, was 
compelled to surrender, after killing or wounding a number of the 
enemy equal to its own numbers. Two companies of the 13th 
sent to reinforce it were also captured. The prisoners were sent 
to Andersonville, with the exception of the officers, who were sent 
to Macon, thence to Charleston and later to Columbia. The men 
were exchanged on Sept. 22, but the officers remained in prison 
much longer. A few escaped, among them Capt. J. H. Smith, who 
was afterwards appointed lieutenant-colonel in place of Lieut.-Col. 
Sanders, resigned. About 100 men and officers answered roll-call 
on July 23, but their numbers were increased by the return of the 
sick and wounded, the total force soon after numbering nearly 
200. The regiment moved in the march to Savannah, accompanied 
the army through the Carolinas, and was in a number of engage- 
ments connected with that campaign, the last being at Cheraw on 



154 The Union Army 

March 2, 1865. It then marched to Washington, was in the grand 
review, and was mustered out at Louisville in July, 1865. Its 
original strength was 910; gain by recruits, 9; total, 919. 

Seventeenth Infantry. — Cols., John W. Rankin, David B. Hillis, 
Clark R. Wever; Lieut.-Cols., David B. Hillis, Clark R. Wever, 
S. M. Archer; Majs., Samuel M. Wise, John F. Walden. This 
regiment was organized at Keokuk in March and April, 1862; moved 
to St. Louis where it remained for two weeks, when it embarked 
for Hamburg, Tenn.; reached there on May 7 and marched at once 
for Corinth, where it was engaged in the siege; joined in the pur- 
suit of the enemy on the evacuation, and on its return went into 
camp at Clear creek. On Aug. 15, with its division, it m.oved to 
Jacinto and established an outpost, from which it accompanied sev- 
eral short expeditions. It took part in the battle of luka, joined 
in the pursuit of the enemy, returned to Jacinto and remained in 
camp until Oct. 2, when it moved again to Corinth. Here during 
the following two days, smarting under an unmerited rebuke at 
luka, the 17th fought with bravery and determination unsurpassed 
by that of any regiment in the field; at first v/ith its brigade, but 
finally wherever it could find a force to oppose. At the crisis of 
the battle, when Davies' division had given way and the enemy 
had gained the town, threatening to sweep everything, the 17th 
made so fierce a charge that the victorious enemy was arrested in 
his forward movement, turned back and finally put to flight, the 
regiment capturing a stand of colors and putting out of action 
more of its opponents in killed and wounded, than it had in line. 
Gen. Rosecrans, who had censured the regiment at luka, issued 
orders, in which he said that he could not forbear "to give pleas- 
ure to many, besides the brave men iinmediately concerned, by 
announcing in advance of the regular orders, that the 17th la., by 
its gallantry in the battle of Corinth, charging the enemy and cap- 
turing the flag of the 40th Miss., has amply atoned for its misfor- 
tune at luka. and stands among the honored regiments of this 
command." The loss was slight, its movements being made with 
so much celerity that the enemy had no time to inflict serious 
damage. Early in November the regiment moved to Davis* mills; 
from there to Moscow, Tenn., and took charge of a forage train 
of nearly 200 wagons, which it filled with supplies from the enemy's 
country and brought into camp. On Dec. 24 it reached Lumpkin's 
mills and accompanied the division to Memphis in guard of a train 
of more than 600 wagons, constantly skirmishing with guerrilla 
bands. The regiment was next assigned to duty at Bray's station 
as railroad guard and remained until assigned to the 17th corps, 
which it accompanied to Memphis. On March 2 it moved to Grand 
lake but returned to Helena and accompanied Quinby's expedition 
against Fort Pemberton. In April it proceeded in the direction of 
Vicksburg; engaged in the work of building roads and preparing 
the way for the advance of the army; was in the battle of Ray- 
mond; in the front brigade of Crocker's division at Jackson, fight- 
ing bravely and losing one-fourth its numbers by an enfilading fire, 
•which it sustained without flinching; double-quicked 3 miles at 
Champion's hill, and threw itself into the fray with such vigor as 
to win the commendations of Grant himself. It captured nearly 
200 prisoners, a battery, a stand of colors, and with the lOth 
Mo. and the loth la. turned the balance in the favor of the Union 
arms. At Vicksburg it remained in the trenches until the capitula- 
tion. At the explosion of the mine at Fort hill on June 25, the 



Iowa Regiments 155 

17th was one of the regiments assigned to the duty of holding the 
works. It encamped at Vicksburg until Sept. 9, when it moved 
to Helena, thence to Memphis, and accompanied Sherman's army 
to Chattanooga. It was engaged at Missionary ridge, where it 
fought until nearly surrounded and lost 57 in killed, wounded and 
captured. It marched as far as Graysville, Ga., in pursuit, then 
to Chattanooga, and moved to Bridgeport, Ala., thence to Hunts- 
ville, where it remained until spring engaged in guarding forag- 
ing trains and scouting. Nearly every man reenlistcd April i, 
1864. The regiment joined the division at Stevenson on June 22 
and moved toward Atlanta, but was detailed for guard and patrol 
duty between Dalton and Resaca for the protection of the line of 
communications, and passed the summer in this dreary work. Cos. 
H and I were attacked at a water-tank 2 miles from Dalton by some 
of Wheeler's cavalry in August but defended themselves against a 
heavy force until 10 o'clock of the following day, when their ammu- 
nition gave out and artillery being brought into play against them 
they surrendered. The men were paroled and allowed to return 
to Tilton, the headquarters, two days later. The paroles were not 
recognized and the men were placed on duty at once. Dalton had 
been captured, and Tilton was threatened, but not attacked until 
Oct. 13, when a corps compelled the garrison to surrender after 
a determined defense, 270 men holding off this heavy force from 
early morning until almost 3 p. m. and only surrendered when 
their ammunition was almost gone. Col. Wever was in command 
of a brigade at Resaca, where he was attacked by a heavy force, 
but his 750 men held the place from noon till night. Some 1,200 men 
came in during the night as reinforcements and put up so vigor- 
ous a fight that Hood could not carry the place and was compelled 
to retire on the approach of Sherman's army in the afternoon. A 
force of 500 men, guarding bridge timbers 3 miles north, was at- 
tacked by a large force and compelled to surrender after a desper- 
ate fight. Some 30 men under Capt. Horner escaped capture at 
Tilton and were sent home on furlough, being accompanied by a 
few who made their escape from their captors. On their return 
they took part in the campaign of the Carolinas. Those captured 
were hurried off to southern prisons, but were exchanged toward 
the close of the war. The regiment was mustered out in 
the early part of Aug., 1865. Its original strength was 889; gain 
by recruits, 67; total, 956. 

Eighteenth Infantry.— Cols., John Edwards. Hugh J. Campbell; 
Lieut. -Cols., Thomas F. Cook, Hugh J. Campbell; Majs., Hugh J. 
Campbell, Joseph K. Morey. This regiment was mustered in Aug. 
5, 6 and 7, 1862. Soon after it moved to Springfield via St. Louis 
and Sedalia, joined the Army of the Southwest under Schofield, 
and marched through Missouri into Arkansas. Returning to Spring- 
field, it formed a part of the garrison there during the winter. On 
Jan. 8, 1863, Marmaduke's forces, numbering over 5.000 men, at- 
tacked the garrison, which consisted of not to exceed 1,500 men, 
the i8th being the only regular organization there, with detach- 
ments of several Missouri regiments, citizens and quite a number 
of convalescents in the hospitals. The fight commenced about 
noon and continued with varying success until almost night, the 
enemy gaining ground at times only to lose it by some daring 
charge, the tide being turned just before dark by the coming up 
■of five companies of the l8th, which had been stationed at an 
outpost. They entered into the fight with such energy that the 



156 The Union Army 

enemy was driven into a stockade at the outskirts of town and 
declined to give battle the following day, having lost more than 
200 in killed and wounded. The loss of the regiment was 56 in 
killed and wounded and the loss of the entire Union force was 
about 200. The regiment remained at Springfield about a year, 
being denied the privilege of participating in the stirring scenes that 
were bringing glory to its sister regiments, but performing well the 
duties so necessary in guarding the border at that time. Col. Ed- 
wards assumed command of the post in April, and in the fall was 
in temporary command of the district of southwestern Missouri, 
and later in command of his regiment, which formed part of the 
force that made Shelby throw aside his artillery and much of his 
baggage to escape his pursuers. Reaching Fort Smith, Ark., on 
Oct. 30, the regiment was assigned to garrison duty and spent the 
winter there. Col. Edwards being placed in command of the post. 
In March, 1864, the regiment moved with Steele's forces to Arka- 
delphia. Col. Edwards being in command of the brigade to which 
the i8th was assigned. The command joined Thayer's forces at 
Elkin's ferry, the intention being to effect a junction with Banks. 
When the retreat of Banks was learned the entire command moved 
to Camden. It was engaged at Prairie d'Ane and at Moscow, 
where Edwards' brigade stood the brunt of the attack and on being 
reinforced drove the enemy for several miles. After some ten 
days at Camden the regiment engaged in a severe battle. With one 
section of the 2nd Ind. battery, it was sent to reinforce Col. Will- 
iams of the 1st Kan. Colored regiment, guarding a forage train. 
The force was attacked by several thousand troopers, the Kansas 
regiment receiving the first shock, and giving way, crowded through 
the lines of the i8th and left it to take up the fight alone. Seven 
fierce charges were repelled, more than its own numbers were put 
out of action, but it was finally surrounded, when, with fixed bayo- 
nets, it cut its way out and reached Camden, having sustained a 
loss of TJ in killed, wounded and missing. The wretched three 
weeks' retreat to Little Rock followed. Col. Edwards holding the 
reserve and guarding the ordnance train at the battle of Jenkins' 
ferry. Resuming its duty as garrison at Fort Smith, the regiment 
moved on numerous minor expeditions and was often compelled to 
forage to keep from actual starvation, the river below being block- 
aded. Col. Edwards was promoted to brigadier-general and was 
succeeded as colonel by Lieut. -Col. Campbell. The regiment marched 
to Fort Gibson in November to meet a supply train from Fort 
Scott, but finding it had not arrived, set out on the evening of the 
27th with two ears of corn each and one tablespoonful of coflfee 
for each mess of four, as rations, and found the train over loa 
miles distant four days later. The regiment passed the winter 
and spring in alternate starvation and plenty, remaining on garri- 
son duty at Fort Smith until the latter part of the summer of 1865, 
when it was mustered out. Its original strength was 866; gain by 
recruits. 9; total, 875. 

Nineteenth Infantry. — Col., Benjamin Crabb; Lieut. -Cols., Sam- 
uel McFarland, Daniel Kent, John Bruce; Majs., Daniel Kent, John 
Bruce, Harry Jordan. This regiment was organized at Keokuk 
and was mustered in between Aug. 17 and 28. 1862. In the early 
part of September it proceeded to Benton barracks, St. Louis,, 
which it left a week later for Rolla with a brigade commanded by 
Gen. Herron. From there it moved to Springfield and three weeks 
later to Cassville. The command formed a junction with Gen.^ 



Iowa Regiments 157 

Blunt's forces at Sugar creek on Oct. i8, and two days later pro- 
ceeded to Bloomington, thence to Cross Hollow, where it remained 
ten days, when it retraced its steps without having met the ene- 
my, and went into camp at Twin springs. It fought at the battle 
of Prairie Grove, where Lieut. -Col. McFarland was killed and the 
regiment lost 198 in killed, wounded and missing out of 500 en- 
gaged. Cos. A, B and C were detached as skirmishers in the early 
part of the day and were engaged in as sharp fighting as any part 
of the command. Maj. Kent was appointed lieutenant-colonel, and 
Capt. John Bruce was commissioned major. The regiment ac- 
companied the army to Van Buren, that city being captured, to- 
gether with a large quantity of supplies, after which it returned 
to camp at Prairie Grove, but moved thence to Fayetteville and 
Huntsville. Soon after the command moved to Carrollton, thence 
to a point on the White river opposite Forsyth, Mo., finally cross- 
ing and going into camp at that place. The regiment was left with 
a squadron of the ist la. cavalry as garrison and the remainder of 
the force moved on. Some of Marmaduke's forces threatened For- 
syth and many buildings were torn down and used in construc- 
tion of fortifications. In April the regiment marched to Ozark, 
thence to Hartville, and reached Salem on May 2, where it was 
temporarily assigned to the ist division, Gen. Thomas Ewing, Jr., 
commanding. On June 11 it embarked for Young's point and on 
the 14th entered upon the siege of Vicksburg, remaining until its 
surrender. It took part in the Yazoo expedition soon after, then 
moved to Port Hudson, and finally to Carrollton. In September 
it went into camp at Morganza where it was almost constantly 
engaged in skirmishing. At the Stirling farm, 7 miles from Mor- 
ganza, the regiment with other detachments was attacked by large- 
ly superior numbers and pearly surrounded, but the defense was 
so determined that the enemy was compelled to fall back. He 
rallied and returned to the fight and finally overpowered the little 
band, the 19th losing 241 in killed, wounded, and missing or cap- 
tured. The prisoners were taken to Texas and kept there for nearly 
a year. At this time nearly two-thirds of the regiment were ab- 
sent on sick leave, consequently the organization of the regiment 
remained intact. It proceeded with the division to New Orleans 
in October; embarked with the expedition to Texas, and was part 
of the force to land on the island of Brazos Santiago. It remained 
at Brownsville on garrison duty until the latter part of July, 1864, 
when it sailed for New Orleans and was met there by 180 of those 
who had been captured at Stirling's farm the year previous. The 
regiment proceeded to Pensacola, Fla., and went into camp at Bar- 
rancas, where it was joined by three companies that had been left 
at Brazos Santiago. On Dec. 6 it sailed for Fort Gaines, Ala., 
proceeded thence in the direction of East Pascagoula, Miss., from 
where it made a foray toward Mobile, destroying much property. 
Its last work was before Mobile where it distinguished itself in the 
assault on Spanish Fort. It remained at Mobile until July, when 
it was mustered out and returned to Iowa. Its original strength 
was 932; gain, by recruits, 3; total, 985. 

Twentieth Infantry. — Col., William McE. Dye; Lieut. -Col., Jo- 
seph B. Leake; Maj., William G. Thompson. This regiment was 
organized at Clinton and was mustered in Aug. 25, 1862. It left 
the state on Sept. 5 for Benton barracks, St. Louis, and from there 
moved to Rolla and later to Springfield where it was put in a bri- 
gade with the 37th 111., 1st la. cavalry and a section of the ist Mo. 



158 The Union Army 

light artillery, Col. Dye commanding. The brigade was attached 
to Totten's division, moved via Pond springs on a forced march 
about Oct. I to Spring river; thence toward Newtonia; took part 
in the pursuit of the enemy who had been defeated near New- 
tonia; proceeded thence to Cassville; participated in various move- 
ments in the vicinity of Pea ridge; moved back into Missouri about 
the close of October and finally went into camp at Camp Lyon. 
After a forced march of over lOO miles the regiment was in line 
of battle at Prairie Grove where it made a splendid charge up the 
hill against the enemy but was repulsed. Its action throughout 
the entire engagement was of the bravest, its loss being nearly 50 
out of 270 engaged. It assisted in the capture of Van Buren, Ark., 
with a quantity of provisions, and returned to Prairie Grove. Gen. 
Schofield took command and the regiment moved with the troops 
to Fayetteville, participating in the marches and movements through 
Missouri and Arkansas until the following April when Rolla was 
reached. The regiment then moved to Pilot Knob, and in June to 
St. Genevieve, where it embarked for Vicksburg, disembarked at 
Young's point and took position on the 14th before the beleaguered 
city. It moved at the head of its division into Vicksburg on July 
4 and was the first on the left of the army to plant the flag on 
the battlements. It started for Port Hudson but changed its 
course to Yazoo City and returned to Vicksburg on the 22nd. Three 
days later it moved to Port Hudson, where much sickness followed, 
thence to Carrollton and on to the vicinity of Morganza. Lieut. - 
Col. Leake was captured with the detachment of the 19th la. and 
26th Ind., told in the history of the 19th la., in the engagement at 
Stirling's farm. Col. Dye was in command of the brigade and Maj. 
Thompson took charge of the regiment. On Oct. 10, the regiment 
returned to Carrollton and on the 24th moved for Brazos Santiago, 
Tex. A week later it moved to Mustang island where it remained 
for seven months on garrison duty, and engaged in minor expe- 
ditions. Maj. Thompson resigned and Capt. M. L. Thompson took 
command temporarily. On June 24, 1864, the regiment moved to 
Brazos Santiago, thence to Brownsville for garrison duty, and 
sailed Aug. 2 for New Orleans. It then moved to Fort Gaines,^ 
Ala., and took part in the siege of Fort Morgan. Returning to 
New Orleans it proceeded to Morganza, where it was rejoined by 
Lieut.-Col. Leake who had been exchanged. On Oct. 12, the regi- 
ment went to Devall's Bluff, Ark., passing the time there and at 
Brownsville until Jan. 8, 1865, when it embarked for Kennerville, 
La., and on Feb. 16. reached Pensacola, Fla. At the opening of the 
Mobile campaign it marched for that place and took a prominent 
part in the operations. In the siege of Fort Blakely it was a part 
of the assaulting column which carried the works; and was then as- 
signed to duty under Gen. Andrews, provost-marshal general, until 
mustered out July 8, 1865. Its original strength was 902, gain by 
recruits, 23; total, 925. 

Twenty-first Infantry.— Col., Samuel Merrill; Lieut.-Cols., Cor- 
nelius Dunlap. Salue G. Van Anda; Majs., Salue G. Van Anda, Will- 
iam D. Crooke. This regiment was organized at Camp Franklin, 
near Dubuque, and mustered in from Aug. 18 to 23. It left the 
state Sept. 19 for St. Louis and reached Rolla on the 23d. At Salem 
it was attached to a brigade consisting of the 33d Mo., 99th 111., 
and some artillery and cavalry, under command of Gen. Fitz-Henry 
Warren. The brigade train was surprised and captured on the night 
of Nov. 24, when 15 of the regiment, forming a part of the guard 



Iowa Regiments 159" 

were killed or captured. The enemy escaped without damage after 
burning the train, the regiment being at Hartville, i6 miles away. 
A detachment of the regiment formed a part of the force sent to 
Springfield under Col. Merrill in Jan., 1863, to reinforce Gen. Brown, 
who was threatened with attack, and in fact sustained one before 
the messenger had reached Hartville. The detachment returned to 
Hartville on the nth and found a large body of the enemy at that 
place. Less than 1,000 men under Merrill gave battle at once, 
fought from noon until night, repulsed every charge and inflicted a 
loss of 300 in killed and wounded. The detachment of the 21st 
did not receive the order to retire at the close of the day and fought 
until long after dark, sustaining alone three charges, which were 
repelled in fine form. This was the first time the regiment had 
been under fire and it received high praise for its coolness and 
excellent work. Two hundred and fifty of the regiment left at 
Houston formed a part of a force which moved for Hartville on 
the I2tli on learning of the engagement. It moved the 30 miles 
intervening, and returned to Houston, having made the distance of 
60 miles in a little over 24 hours. The remainder of the command 
reached there on the 17th. At West Plains the regiment was as- 
signed to the 2nd brigade, 2nd division. Army of Southeast Mis- 
souri. Without protection, Jialf starved and nearly frozen, the 
army concentrated at that point and remained until Feb. 8, by 
which time the commanding oflficer found it necessary to move in 
order to preserve his men. The command marched to Eminence, 
thence to Iron Mountain, many of the men being without shoes,, 
their feet wrapped in pieces of ragged clothing, with hardly a 
mouthful of food. From Iron Mountain it moved to St. Genevieve, 
which was reached on March 11. One wing of the regiment under 
Maj. Van Anda embarked on the 26th, the other on April ist, for 
Milliken's bend, where it was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 14th 
division, 13th army corps, commanded by Gen. McClernand. With 
its brigade it took part in the battle of Port Gibson, where it per- 
formed well its part, the division commander referring to it as 
being "first in battle and one of the last to leave the field." Its 
losses were light. It was in reserve at the battle of Champion's 
hill and at the Big Black river it accompanied the 23d la. on that 
terrible charge across the river bottoms and the bayou, over the 
enemy's works, and captured over 1,700 prisoners and 18 guns. 
Col. Merrill was severely wounded and the regiment lost 13 killed 
and 70 wounded out of less than 300 engaged. At Vicksburg it 
took part in the siege; and in the assault of May 22 lost 113 in 
killed and wounded out of 280 who took part. Lieut. -Col. Dunlap, 
who had been wounded at Port Gibson, was unable to lead, but 
was on field and was killed after the assault. Maj. Van Anda 
commanded and was wounded during the charge. At the conclu- 
sion of the siege, the regiment under the command of Capt. Crooke, 
took part in the siege of Jackson and in the destruction of the 
railways and public property at that place. On Aug. 13, it moved 
to Carrollton, La., from which point it proceeded to Brashear City 
and soon after to Berwick City, thence up Bayou Teche to Ver- 
million bayou, where it remained for a month, guarding a bridge 
and performing heavy picket duty. In November it moved to New 
Iberia, Berwick City and Brashear. reached Algiers on the 21st 
and embarked the following day for St. Joseph's island, Tex. On 
March 13 the regiment moved to Matagorda island, where it re- 
mained until June. On July 26 it moved to Morganza, where it 



160 The Union Army 

remained until Sept. 3, when it went to the mouth of the White 
river, thence to St. Charles, Devall's Bluff and Memphis. There it 
was assigned to the ist brigade, reserve corps, Division of West 
Mississippi. It took part in a march into the interior of Tennessee 
in December, embarked for Kennerville on Jan. i, 1865, and on 
Feb. S, sailed for Dauphin island, Ala. From there it proceeded to 
Fort Morgan, then moved to Mobile bay and took part in the siege 
of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. It was mustered out at Mobile 
in July. 

Twenty-second Infantry. — Cols., William M. Stone, Harvey Gra- 
ham; Lieut. -Cols., John A. Garrett, Harvey Graham, Ephraim G. 
White; Majs., Harvey Graham, Joseph B. Atherton, Ephraim G. 
White, John H. Gearkee. This regiment was organized in the sum- 
mer of 1862 and was mustered in Sept. 9. A few days later it pro- 
ceeded to Benton barracks, St. Louis, and reached RoUa on the 23d. 
It remained here about four months on garrison duty and train 
escort. At West Plains in the latter part of Jan., 1863. it was as- 
signed to the 1st brigade, ist division. Army of Southeast Missouri, 
moved to Iron Mountain, and in March to St. Genevieve, where 
it embarked for Vicksburg. Its brigade was in the advance at 
Port Gibson, where the regiment exhibited the same qualities that 
had been shown by the Iowa regiments that had preceded it. It 
then moved to Mississippi springs and halted on train guard duty; 
was in reserve at the battle of Champion's hill; took part in the 
pursuit which followed and was engaged at the Big Black river; 
led the column in the assault on Fort Beauregard on the 22nd, 
accompanied by the 21st la. and nth Wis., Gen. Lawler in com- 
mand of the brigade. Col. Stone fell severely wounded, Lieut. -Col. 
Graham took command and rallied the men who had broken in 
some disorder. With about 60 he pressed forward, reached the 
fort, and planted the colors. A number, including Sergt. Griffith, 
entered the fort and captured a number of prisoners; but the po- 
sition was untenable and the only ones to escape were Sergt. Grif- 
fith and Private Trine. Lieut. -Col. Graham and several men were 
captured, and the regiment lost 164 in killed, wounded and miss- 
ing. After the surrender of Vicksburg the regiment engaged in 
the siege of Jackson, being joined by Col. Stone. After the re- 
turn from the Jackson campaign Col. Stone resigned, returned to 
Iowa and was elected governor of the state that fall. The regi- 
ment moved to Carrollton. La., where it was joined by Lieut. -Col. 
Graham, who had been exchanged. It engaged in the Bayou Teche 
expedition; was in several skirmishes; returned to Algiers in No- 
vember, and embarked for Texas. In Jan., 1864, it reached India- 
nola and went into winter quarters. Returning to Matagorda island, 
the regiment remained until the last of April, making an expe- 
dition to Port Lavaca, 70 miles distant, where it captured a large 
quantity of property. It then returned to Louisiana and with the 
left wing of the regiment accompanied a force to Fort DeRussy. 
It joined the right wing at Baton Rouge in June, when Lieut. -Col. 
Graham was commissioned colonel, being succeeded by Maj. White 
as lieutenant-colonel, and the latter by Capt. Gearkee. At New 
Orleans the regiment was assigned to the 2nd brigade. 2nd division, 
19th corps, which joined the Army of the James, and remained on 
duty in the trenches until July 31, when it was ordered to Wash- 
ington City. From there it joined Sheridan in the Shenandoah 
Valley, took part in the battle of Winchester, in which the troops 
fought as long as it was possible to stand before such a fire as 



Iowa Regiments 161 

met them at every step, finally giving way in temporary confusion 
which swept away all organization. Quickly reforming, a second 
charge was made in which the lost position was regained, the 22nd 
with thinned ranks coming into formation and lighting with un- 
diminished vigor. Its loss was 109 in killed, wounded and cap- 
tured. In the pursuit, the regiment was engaged at the battle of 
Fisher's hill, marched as far as Mount Crawford in pursuit, went 
into camp on Cedar creek in October, where it took part in the 
battle which ended that campaign. In Jan., 1865, it embarked at 
Baltimore for Savannah, Ga.. remained there until the middle of 
March when it sailed to Morehead City, returned in April and moved 
on the nth for Augusta, where it performed garrison duty until 
the middle of June. It was mustered out July 20, 1865. Its orig- 
inal strength was 952; gain by recruits, 56; total. 1,008. 

Twenty-third Infantry. — Cols., William Dewey, William H. Kins- 
man, Samuel L. Glasgow ; Lieut. -Cols., William H. Kinsman, Sam- 
uel L. Glasgow, Charles J. Clark; Majs., Samuel L. Glasgow. Charles 
J. Clark, Leonard B. Houston. This regiment was organized at 
Des Moines and was mustered in Sept. 19, 1862. It moved to Mis- 
souri, where it was employed for several months on garrison, pro- 
vost and guard duty, and in minor expeditions. Much sickness 
prevailed, Col. Dewey died in November, Lieut. -Col. Kinsman was 
appointed his successor, Maj. Glasgow became lieutenant-colonel 
and Capt. Clark became major. The regiment moved for West 
Plains early in the spring, thence to Eminence and Iron Mountain, 
and finally to St. Genevieve, where it embarked for New Madrid. 
It was next ordered to Memphis and a short time after to Milli- 
ken's bend, where it was assigned to Carr's division of the 13th 
corps. It took part in the battle at Port Gibson, its brigade being 
the first in and the last out of the fight, the regiment losing 6 killed 
and 27 wounded. It was in reserve at Champion's hill, joined in 
the pursuit after the battle, and at the Black River bridge it formed 
a part of the force which made the fearless but terrible charge 
across the bottom and through the bayou, mentioned in the his- 
tory of the 2ist regiment. Col. Kinsman was killed and more than 
100 were killed or wounded. Gen. Grant pronounced it a brilliant 
and daring movement, and Gen. McClernand said it reflected "The 
highest credit upon the officers and men who achieved the victory." 
The 23d was given the duty of guarding the prisoners, and it 
marched to the Yazoo with several thousand captured at Cham- 
pion's hill and Black River bridge. On the return it was engaged 
in the battle of Milliken's bend. The only force at this point was 
the colored troops of the 9th La., the nth and part of the ist Miss., 
all without experience. The 23d, numbering about 200 men, and 
a small force of cavalry, were the only white soldiers present. Gen. 
Dennis, commandant of the post, said of the regiment: "Gen. 
Glasgow and his brave men deserve the highest praise." Return- 
ing to its brigade, the regiment engaged in the siege at Vicksburg, 
and at its close took part in the operations about Jackson. Its 
corps was transferred to the Department of the Gulf about the 
middle of August, and took part in the same general movements 
as the 22nd, making the trip to Texas, spending the winter at In- 
dianola, the spring at Matagorda island, Maj. Houston of the 23d 
commanding the 22nd for some time in the absence of its field offi- 
cers. Returning to New Orleans in the spring, it was part of the 
force to move up the Red River to the relief of Banks. From Fort 
De Russy it moved to the mouth of the Red river and went into 
Vol. IV— 11 



162 The Union Army 

camp. It reached Morganza on May 22. The 13th army corps 
was discontinued and the regiment moved into Arkansas, in a bri- 
gade comprised of the 20th la., a regiment from Wisconsin and 
one from Illinois, in the 3d division of the 19th corps. Early in 
1865 it moved to New Orleans, thence to Mobile, Col. Glasgow 
being in command of the brigade and Lieut. -Col. Clark of the regi- 
ment. The regiment took its full share of the work in the siege 
of and assault on Spanish Fort, losing about 40 wounded, i mor- 
tally. At the storming of the fort the regiment met and whipped 
the 23d Ala., the same regiment that it had met and whipped at 
the battle of Port Gibson. On June 22 it proceeded to Galveston, 
Tex., thence to Columbus where it went into camp. Col. Glas- 
gow and Lieut. -Col. Clark being in New Orleans, and Maj. Hous- 
ton in command of the post, the command of the regiment fell 
to Capt. J. J. Van Houten. It was mustered out July 26, 1865. Its 
original strength was 961, of which number 417 were disbanded at 
Davenport. 

Twenty-fourth Infantry. — Col., Eber C. Byam; Lieut. -Cols., John 
Q. Wilds, Edward Wright; Majs., Edward Wright, Leander Clark. 
This regiment was organized at Camp Strong, near Muscatine, in 
the summer of 1862. under a call for an "Iowa Temperance Regi- 
ment," which brought a quick response from the temperance peo- 
ple of the state, more men being offered than could be accepted. 
It was mustered in Sept. 18 and left the state Oct. 20 for St. Louis. 
It passed the winter at Helena, Ark., engaging in short expedi- 
tions at intervals, and in Jan., 1863, moved in the White River ex- 
pedition as far as Devall's Bluff. At St. Charles part of the troops 
were ordered to disembark, and no sooner had they unloaded the 
baggage than they were ordered on board again, the results of 
the movement being the capture of 2 abandoned siege guns, a squad 
of prisoners, and the destruction of an unfinished depot. Many of 
the men died from exposure during the trip and many more died 
subsequently from the effects. The expedition returned to Helena, 
to find the tents gone and the men dropped into the mud, too ex- 
hausted to care what the result might be. Rude quarters were 
constructed, in which a dreary existence was dragged out until 
Feb. 14, when the regiment was ordered to Yazoo pass to assist 
in removing the obstructions from the river. On April 11 the 
regiment proceeded to Milliken's bend, thence to Perkins' landing 
and Hard Times, where it landed in time to take part in the battle 
of Port Gibson. It was engaged in constant skirmishing from that 
time to the battle of Champion's hill, where it proved the equal 
of any regiment engaged. At one time it advanced unsupported, 
charged a battery of 5 guns that was creating havoc, fairly ran 
over the men at the guns, and drove the supporting infantry in 
wild confusion, but was compelled by overwhelming numbers to 
fall back. Forty-three were killed, 40 mortally wounded and nearly 
30 maimed for life, the total loss in killed, wounded and captured 
being 195 out of 417 engaged. At Vicksburg it engaged in the active 
operations and after the surrender left to engage in the siege of 
Jackson. At the conclusion the regiment was transferred to the 
Department of the Gulf, and put in m.uch of the fall and early 
winter in marches in various directions, without apparent aim or 
result. The opening of 1864 found the regiment encamped in the 
mud at Algiers. It moved in early March to join the Red River 
expedition and reached a point near Pleasant Hill on April 7. 
Five companies took part in the battle of Sabine cross-roads, keep- 



Iowa Regiments I'iS 

ing their position until ordered to retire, and losing 34 in killed, 
wounded and captured. In the retreat from Grand Ecore the regi- 
ment was in several skirmishes, and after reaching Morganza joined 
in a reconnoissance, in which it lost a number in wounded and 
Capt. Paul slain. In June it visited Greenville, Kennerville and 
Thibodeaux, and returned to Algiers, from which place it sailed 
for Alexandria. Va. It joined Sheridan's army at Harper's Ferry, 
was in the battle of Winchester, where it fought with courage, 
but in the general repulse was borne back in confusion, but the 
lines were reformed and again faced the enemy. The splendid work of 
the 24th received warm praise from all, its staff and line officers 
fighting with the regiment and leading at all times. The loss was 
71 killed and wounded and 3 captured. At Fisher's hill it moved 
from its position to the left in perfect order amid a storm of shot 
and shell, and at the signal to charge dashed forward with resist- 
less energy, having but 5 men wounded. After the pursuit it went 
into camp at Harrisonburg, then returned to Cedar creek, where 
it took part in the battle of Oct. 19. when the army's position was 
turned by Early's forces and a complete rout avoided only by Sher- 
idan's personal appearance on the scene after his wild ride from 
Winchester. The regiment bore a prominent part in this battle, 
losing nearly 100 in killed and wounded, Lieut. -Col. Wilds being 
mortally and Maj. Wright slightly wounded. After a period of 
escort duty it went into camp on the Opequan in the latter part of 
November, but soon moved to Winchester for post duty. On Jan. 
6, 1865, the regiment moved to Baltimore, thence to Savannah, Ga., 
and two months later to Morehead City, N. C. After Johnston's 
surrender it went back to Savannah and thence to Augusta for 
garrison duty. It was mustered out at Savannah in July, 1865. 

Twenty-fifth Infantry. — Col., George A. Stone; Lieut. -Cols., Fa- 
bian Drydolf, David J. Palmer; Majs., Calvin Taylor, John L. Per- 
kins. This regiment was organized at Mount Pleasant and was 
mustered in Sept. 27. 1862. It left the state early in November for 
Helena, Ark., where it remained four weeks. Then as a part of the 
2nd brigade, ist division, of the 15th army corps, it accompanied 
Sherman's forces to Vicksburg. It was engaged at Chickasaw 
bayou, but was not in the main charge and suffered light losses. 
As a part of McClernand's command, it took part in the capture of 
Arkansas Post where it lost about 60 and won for itself the favor- 
able opinion of its superior officers. With its division it took part 
in the expedition to Greenville in April, after which it was con- 
nected with the operations about Vicksburg and took part in the 
investment, losing about 30 men in the assault of May 22. After 
the surrender, it joined the second movement against Jackson, and 
went into camp at the Big Black river until September, when it 
embarked for Memphis. It next marched to the relief of Chatta- 
nooga; was in a sharp fight near Cherokee Station, Ala., and at 
Lookout mountain with Hooker's command supported a New York 
battery. It was engaged in the battle of Ringgold, losing 29 wound- 
ed. Col. Stone was placed in command of the brigade and Lieut. - 
Col. Palmer took command of the regiment, which moved back to 
Chattanooga, thence to Bridgeport, Ala., and went into winter 
quarters at Woodville on Dec. 23. It was in several expeditions 
into the interior, one of them being to Lebanon, where there were 
many loyal citizens, a number of whom joined Stone's command. 
It was then ordered to Cleveland, Tenn., and garrisoned that post 
until early in March, 1864, when it returned to Woodville. As 



164 The Union Army 

a part of the 2nd brigade (known as the "Iowa Brigade"), ist divi- 
sion, 15th corps, it was engaged at Rcsaca, Dallas, around Atlanta, 
Ezra Church, Jonesboro, Lovejoy's Station, and in many skirmishes. 
It then went into camp at East Point until Oct. 4, when it took up 
the pursuit of Hood's army, but returned in time to take up the 
move for Savannah. It had but little fighting on the way, but 
at the Ogeechee river two companies of the regiment whipped a 
regiment of cavalry without losing a man. At Savannah Col. Stone 
took command of the brigade, Lieut. -Col. Palmer having command 
of the regiment during the remainder of its service. In the cam- 
paign of the Carolinas the regiment was engaged at Little Conga- 
ree creek, Columbia, Cox's bridge and Bentonville. Proceeding to 
Goldsboro it moved thence to Raleigh and after the surrender of 
Johnston's army to Washington, where it took part in the grand 
review. It was mustered out in the early part of June, 1865. Its 
original strength was 972; gain by recruits, 23; total, 995. 

Twenty-sixth Infantry. — Col., Milo Smith; Lieut.-Cols., Samuel 
G. Magill, Thomas G. Ferreby; Majs., Samuel Clark, John Lub- 
bers. This regiment was organized at Camp Kirkwood, near Clin- 
ton, and was mustered in Sept. 30, 1862. It left on Oct. 23 for St. 
Louis, thence moved to Helena, Ark., where it was assigned to 
the 1st brigade, 4th division. Army of the Southwest. After the 
White River expedition it moved to Mississippi to take part in the 
Vicksburg campaign, and was assigned to the 3d brigade, ist di- 
vision, 15th army corps, which was under fire but not actively en- 
gaged at Chickasaw bayou. At Arkansas Post it was in the heav- 
iest of the fight and lost 120 in killed and wounded. Col. Smith 
was among the wounded and the regiment received encomiums for 
its valor. It went into camp on the peninsula opposite Vicksburg 
until April 2, when it accompanied the expedition to Greenville, be- 
ing in the skirmishes at Deer creek and Black bayou. It returned 
to the vicinity of Vicksburg; accompanied the column in the ad- 
vance upon Jackson; was in a skirmish at Walnut hills; and took 
part in the assault of Vicksburg on May 22, losing nearly one-fourth 
of the number engaged. After the fall of Vicksburg, the regiment 
accompanied the army in the movement for the investment of Jack- 
son, Col. Smith commanding the brigade, and Lieut. -Col. Ferreby, 
the regiment. In the pursuit of the enemy after the evacuation, it 
was in the skirmish at Brandon, and on the return went into camp 
at the Black River bridge, where it remained until the latter part 
of September. It was then in various movements, moved in No- 
vember to Chattanooga, where it was in the battles of Lookout 
mountain and Missionary ridge, but was principally engaged at 
Rossville gap. It was also engaged at Ringgold and after a few 
days' rest proceeded to Bridgeport, Ala., and later to Woodville, 
where it went into winter quarters until March 9, 1864. Detach- 
ments of the regiment were in a number of small skirmishes during 
the winter, and patrolled the Tennessee river between the mouths 
of the Flint and Rock rivers constantly. The regiment moved to 
Vienna in March and established an outpost; reached Chattanooga 
May 6, where it joined Sherman and commenced the advance on 
Atlanta. It was engaged at Resaca, Dallas, Kennesaw mountain, 
the various engagements in the vicinity of Atlanta; at Jonesboro 
and Lovejoy's Station, with a loss of about 80 during the campaign. 
It remained at East Point until called on to join the pursuit of Hood 
in October, was engaged at Taylor's ridge, and returned to At- 
lanta in November. It accompanied the army to Savannah but was 



Iowa Regiments 1G5 

on a foraging expedition the clay the advance entered the city. In 
Jan., 1865, the regiment marched with the army through the Caro- 
linas, being engaged in numerous skirmishes and present at the 
capture of Columbia. Its last engagement was at Bentonville in 
March, after which it marched to Goldsboro, Raleigh, and Wash- 
ington, where it was in the grand review, and was mustered out in 
July, 1865. Its original strength was 908; gain by recruits, 11, total 
919. 

Twenty-seventh Infantry, — Col., James Gilbert; Lieut. -Col., Jed 
Lake; Maj., George W. Howard. This regiment was organized in 
the summer of 1862 and was mustered in Oct. 3. A week later it 
reported to Maj. -Gen. Pope, commanding the Department of the 
Northwest, to take part in the campaign against the Indians, who 
were waging war against the settlers of Minnesota. Upon reaching 
St. Paul it went into quarters at Fort Snelling, and soon after Col. 
Gilbert, accompanied by six companies of the regiment, proceeded 
to Mille Lac, to superintend the payment of the annuity to the 
tribe at that point. In the meantime Maj. Howard had been or- 
dered to report at Cairo, 111., with the remaining four companies 
and had departed for that place. Col. Gilbert received similar or- 
ders on his return from Mille Lac and moved at once. The regi- 
ment went into camp at Memphis but soon moved on the expedi- 
tion into central Mississippi, marched to the Tallahatchie river, 
and was assigned to the duty of guarding the Mississippi Central 
railway between that point and the town of Waterford. In De- 
cember a small band of cavalry made a dash on the regimental 
hospital, captured 11 men and hurried them across the country 15 
miles, when, finding them unable to proceed, the officer in com- 
mand paroled them and turned them loose. The regiment went to 
Jackson and marched with the other forces to assist Gen. Sullivan, 
who was in a fight with Forrest beyond Lexington, but failed to 
reach him in time to take part in the fray or even to overtake the 
flying enemy, who was in retreat for Clinton. It spent the winter 
at Jackson, suffering greatly from sickness, the result of the last 
campaign which was made without blankets or rations. The regi- 
ment held the post at Corinth part of April, and was then posted 
in detachments at various points along the railway from Jackson, 
with Col. Gilbert in command of the post at that place. In June, 
it moved to Lagrange, thence to Moscow, and performed similar 
duties near that place for two months, having frequent skirmishes 
with guerrillas. In August it formed part of a detached brigade, 
which went to the support of Gen. Steele, then moving on Little 
Rock, and took part in the capture of that place. It remained 
there on guard and picket duty until Nov. 15, when it moved to 
Memphis and went into quarters until Jan. 26, 1864. It then pro- 
ceeded to Vicksburg and was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 3d divi- 
sion, i6th corps, with which it took part in the Meridian raid and 
returned March 4. It accompanied the Red River expedition a few 
days later and was in numerous skirmishes and battles of that 
movement. At Pleasant Hill it lost 88 in killed and wounded, and 
it formed a part of the force that covered the retreat from Grand 
Ecore to Alexandria, almost constantly skirmishing on the way. 
It was also engaged at Marksville and Yellow bayou. It accom- 
panied the forces under Smith, which dislodged Marmaduke from 
his position at Lake Chicot and then went into camp at Memphis. 
It was heavily engaged at Tupelo, and at the battle of Old Town 
creek on the following day it took a prominent part. Returning to 



1()6 The Union Army 

Memphis, it joined the Oxford expedition, after which it proceeded 
to Jefferson barracks, Mo. It accompanied an expedition through 
the state in the early part of October, in pursuit of Price, as far as 
Little Santa Fe on the Arkansas line, but returned without having 
had a fight. It accompanied Smith's forces to Nashville, where it 
took position in the line of defenses and was active in the battle in 
December. Col. Gilbert was in command of the brigade and its 
work was such as to win for him a commission as brigadier-gen- 
eral soon after. The regiment lost 6i but inflicted much greater 
damage on the enemy. In the pursuit it moved to Pulaski, thence 
to Clifton and Eastport and Feb. 9, embarked for Dauphin island, 
Ala. It took part in the operations about Mobile, aided in the 
siege of Fort Blakely, was in the final assault when its brigade 
captured 8 pieces of artillery and 600 prisoners. Gen. Gilbert was 
afterwards brevetted major-general for his skillful conduct in this 
affair. With its brigade the regiment was assigned duty in gar- 
rison work, but was soon after sent to Montgomery, where it re- 
mained for two months and was mustered out in July, 1865, when 
its recruits were transferred to the veteran I2th la. 

Twenty-eighth Infantry. — Cols., William E. Miller, John Con- 
nell; Lieut. -Cols., John Connell, Bartholomew W. Wilson; Majs., 
Hugh B. Lynch, John Meyer. This regiment was organized with 
Iowa City as a place of rendezvous and it was mustered in Oct. 
10, 1862. After a week at Davenport it moved to Helena, Ark., 
where a detachment of 500 accompanied a force in the direction of 
Oakland, Miss., for the aid of Grant in his effort to take Vicksburg. 
Smallpox kept the command in camp until Jan., 1863, when the 
regiment moved in the expedition up the White river as far as De- 
vall's Bluff and returned to find its tents gone, when the men sank 
down into the mud to rest as best they could until something could 
be provided to give them some shelter from the elements. The 
regiment spent a week at Yazoo pass in February, clearing the 
channel of the obstructions placed there, and then returned to 
Helena. Col. Miller resigned, being succeeded by Lieut. -Col. Con- 
nell and the latter by Capt. Wilson as lieutenant-colonel. Moving 
for Vicksburg on April 11, the regiment was first under fire at Port 
Gibson, where it went into battle after a 24 hours' march and fought 
with coolness and spirit. It was at this time a part of the 2nd bri- 
gade, I2th division, 13th army corps. It took part in all the move- 
ments, skirmishes and marches of that corps, and was engaged at 
Champion's hill, where it lost 22 killed, 65 wounded and 13 miss- 
ing, four companies coming out of the fight without a commissioned 
of^cer. Gen. Hovey said of the 24th and 25th la. regiments "scarce- 
ly more than six months in service, yet no troops ever showed more 
bravery or fought with more valor." The regiment went into the 
trenches before Vicksburg and remained until the fall of the city. 
At the conclusion of the siege it moved to Jackson and engaged 
in the siege of that place. At this time it was reduced to about 250 
men capable of duty, death, wounds and sickness having wrought 
havoc in its ranks. On its return to Vicksburg, it was assigned to 
the Department of the Gulf, and accompanied the expedition into 
western Louisiana as far as Opelousas. On the return it was in 
constant skirmish, making several marches toward the west on 
two or three occasions when the enemy became too aggressive. It 
•was next ordered to Texas, but transportation not being furnished 
the regiment went into camp at Madisonville. About March i, 1864, 
it proceeded to New Orleans, thence to Algiers, and a few days 



Iowa Regiments li)7 

later to Brashear City. It was with the Red River expedition, 
fought at Sabine cross-roads, where it lost about 80 in killed and 
wounded, Col. Connell, being severely wounded and captured, the 
command devolving upon Capt. Thomas Dillon in the absence of 
his ranking officers. The regiment was on train guard service when 
the battle of Pleasant Hill was fought. When Grand Ecore was 
reached the regiment was joined by Lieut. -Col. Wilson with a large 
number of recruits. From Morganza the regiment marched to the 
Atchafalaya, and on its return embarked for Carrollton, where 
Col. Connell joined the regiment, an armless sleeve at one side. 
After some minor movements it sailed for Alexandria, Va., from 
there to Washington, thence to Tennallytown, and went into camp. 
With the Army of the Shenandoah, it was in the battle of Winches- 
ter, losing nearly 90 in killed and wounded. In the pursuit it cap- 
tured 6 of the enemy's guns in battery, a large quantity of ammuni- 
tion and a number of prisoners in the battle of Fisher's hill. At 
Cedar creek, with the 4th brigade of Grover's division, it went into 
action as the 8th corps gave way, but being left in an exposed po- 
sition, through the failure of another regiment to come up on its 
right, it was driven back by overwhelming numbers, stubbornly 
contesting its ground for over half a mile. Lieut. -Col. Wilson was 
severely wounded, and the command fell to Maj. Meyer. The regi- 
ment recovered itself, pressed to the front in the charge that fol- 
lowed, and joined in the pursuit when the tide turned. Its losses 
for the day were nearly 100. It was engaged in many minor move- 
ments until the end of the year; sailed in Jan., 1865, to Savannah, 
Ga., for garrison duty; thence moved to New Berne, N. C., and 
back to Savannah; thence to Augusta and the last of June again to 
Savannah, where it was mustered out July 31, 1865. Its total 
strength was 956. 

Twenty-ninth Infantry. — Col., Thomas H. Benton, Jr.; Lieut. - 
Col., Robert E. Patterson; Majs., Charles Shoemaker, Joseph Ly- 
man. This regiment was organized at Council Bluffs in the fall of 
1862 and was mustered in Dec. i. Moving in detachments between 
Dec. 5 and 8 the regiment marched to St. Joseph, Mo.; thence to 
St. Louis, and engaged in the duty of guarding some of the prisons. 
It was speedily ordered to Helena, Ark., and at Columbus, Ky., it 
was assigned to the right wing, commanded by Gen. Tuttle. It 
remained there until Jan. 8, 1863, when it started for Helena 
again, but joined the White River expedition, of which, some sug- 
gestion has been made in the history of the 28th and other regi- 
ments. It returned with 400 sick, of whom it lost nearly 300 by 
death and disabled invalids. The regiment joined the Yazoo Pass 
expedition and on the return went on garrison duty, scouting at in- 
tervals. It bore itself grandly in the battle of Helena, where it 
whipped a brigade and captured many prisoners, with the loss to 
itself of 31 in killed and wounded. In the march to Little Rock in 
August it was in a brigade commanded by Col. Benton. The win- 
ter was passed at Little Rock with occasional movements wher- 
ever the enemy was heard from, but without coming to an engage- 
ment. It joined Steele's expedition to Camden in the spring of 1864, 
and at Terre Noir creek with a section of artillery was rear-guard 
for the day, covering the supply train of 400 wagons, 2 miles in the 
rear of the main column, when Shelby's cavalry brigade made a 
rush for the train. This was the same brigade the regiment had 
defeated the year before, and it now fought the enemy oflF, un- 
supported, against great odds, until the 50th Ind. came to its re- 



168 The Union Army 

lief. The enemy had been repulsed three times, but had succeeded 
in turning the regiment's left wing and was rolling it up in con- 
fusion, but it rallied quickly and with the reinforcements drove 
Shelby off. Later, with a larger force, the enemy made another 
attack, but found a larger opposing force and was again compelled 
to retire. The 29th lost 27 men. It was under fire at Elkin's fer- 
ry, but did not take part. It remained at Camden until April 26;. 
fought 6 hours at the severe engagement at Jenkins' ferry, where 
it made a magnificent bayonet charge and captured a section of 
artillery, and reached Little Rock on May 3. It lost 142 in killed, 
wounded and missing during this six weeks' campaign. The regi- 
ment remained at Little Rock until the latter part of July, spent 
August at Lewisburg, then returned to Little Rock, and was as- 
signed to duty as city guard in November. On the reorganization 
of the department of Arkansas, it was assigned to the "detached 
brigade" of the 7th army corps, commanded by Gen. Carr. On 
Feb. 9, 1865, it moved for Mobile bay, where it engaged in the 
operations preceding the assault on Spanish Fort, and entered the 
city on April 12. The next day it left for Mount Vernon arsenal, 
having a running fight with a body of the enemy a few miles out, 
but reached the arsenal and acted as garrison until May 12, when 
it returned to Mobile. It sailed for Texas on June i, was sent 
back the last of July, and was mustered out Sept. 10, 1865. Its 
original strength was 964; gain by recruits, 41; total 1,005. 

Thirtieth Infantry.— Cols., Charles H. Abbott; William M. G. 
Torrence; Lieut.-Cols., William M. G. Torrence, Aurelius Roberts; 
Majs., Lauren Dewey, Robert D. Creamer. This regiment was or- 
ganized at Keokuk and was mustered in Sept. 23, 1862. It left the 
state in October for Helena, from which point it took part in sever- 
al unimportant expeditions. With Gen. Thayer's brigade, Steele's 
division, 15th army corps, it accompanied that command in the 
movement of Sherman's army toward Vicksburg and was in the 
battle of Chickasaw bayou. It took part in the .campaign against 
Arkansas Post, participated in the battle at that place, won lau- 
rels by its admirable fighting and lost about 45 men. It then moved 
to Young's point and remained until early in April, when it ac- 
companied the Greenville expedition; was then in the movement 
upon Jackson; took part in the capture of that place and returned 
to Vicksburg, where it was in the early assaults, fighting with un- 
surpassed courage and suffering the loss of its colonel, who was 
killed while leading the command. It moved at once upon the 
siege of Jackson when Vicksburg surrendered, accompanied the 
pursuit and was in the engagement at Brandon. It was then in 
camp at the Black river until the latter part of September, when 
it moved to Vicksburg, thence to Memphis, Corinth and luka. It 
was in a lively engagement at Cherokee, Ala., on Oct. 21, where Col. 
Torrence and nearly 30 were killed and wounded. At Chattanooga 
it fought in Osterhaus's division in the "battle above the clouds" 
and on the following day at Missionary ridge, fortunately sustain- 
ing slight losses. In the spring of 1864 it accompanied Sherman 
on the Atlanta campaign, took part in various movements of the 
army, and went into camp at East Point after the engagements 
at Jonesboro and Lovejoy's Station. It took part in the pursuit of 
Hood, but returned in time to join in the Savannah campaign, and 
in the following January took up the march through the Carolinas. 
It was engaged at Columbia and Bentonville as well as in many 
minor engagements. At the close of the war it moved to Wash- 



Iowa Regiments lb9 

ington, joined in the grand review and proceeded to Davenport 
in June, where it was mustered out. The original strength of the 
regiment was 967; gain by recruits, 11; total 978. 

Thirty-first Infantry, — Cols., William Smyth, Jeremiah W. Jen- 
kins; Lieut. -Cols., Jeremiah W. Jenkins, Theodore Stimming; Majs., 
Ezekiel Cutler; Theodore Stimming, Sewell S. Farwell. This regi- 
ment was organized at Davenport in the fall of 1862 and was mus- 
tered in Oct. 13. It left the state in November, reached Helena, 
Ark., on the 20th, accompanied the expedition to Coldwater, Miss., 
a week later, and on its return proceeded to the vicinity of Vicks- 
burg. It was in the battle of Chickasaw bayou; in the movement 
against Arkansas Post; returned to the vicinity of Vicksburg; and 
accompanied the division on the Greenville expedition. On its re- 
turn it joined in the siege of Vicksburg; was under fire at Ray- 
mond; in the battle of Jackson two days later; and in the assault 
on Vicksburg May 22, where Lieut.-Col. Jenkins was wounded. 
It was with the command at Jackson after the fall of Vicksburg, and 
when the latter place was evacuated, pursued the enemy to Canton, 
after which it went into camp at the Big Black river. In Septem- 
ber it marched to Chattanooga, skirmishing and fighting through 
northern Mississippi, northern Alabama and across Tennessee. It 
took an active part with Osterhaus' division at the battles of Look- 
out mountain and Missionary ridge, passed the winter at Wood- 
ville, Ala., and on May 9, 1864, joined Sherman's army in northern 
Georgia. It was engaged at Resaca where its corps made a charge 
and drove the enemy from his rifle-pits. The regiment's losses 
were light but Lieut.-Col. Jenkins was wounded a second time. At 
Dallas its brigade came to a rescue at a time when the enemy had 
found a weak spot in the line and was threatening destruction. The 
regiment was engaged at Big Shanty and afterward in the rifle- 
pits about Kennesaw mountain was under fire for days. It was 
in the repeated skirmishes at Nickajack creek, moved with the de- 
tachment to Roswell, and was detailed on special duty, not joining 
the brigade until Aug. 2. It fought at Jonesboro and Lovejoy's 
Station, and after the evacuation of Atlanta went into camp. It 
was in the pursuit of Hood after which it joined in the march to 
Savannah and passed the holidays in that city. In Jan., 1865, it 
accompanied the army through the Carolinas, performed its share 
of the hard work, participated in the capture of Columbia and in 
the battle of Bentonville received much praise for its conduct. It 
then moved to Raleigh, Richmond and Washington; took part in 
the grand review; proceeded from there to Louisville, where it was 
mustered out a few days later and returned home with about 370 
of the number it had taken into service. Its original .strength was 
970; gain by recruits, 7; total 977. 

Thirty-second Infantry. — Cols., John Scott, Gustavus A. Eber- 
hart; Lieut. -Cols., Edward H. Mix, Gustavus A. Eberhart, Jona- 
than Hutchinson; Majs., Gustavus A. Eberhart, Jonathan Hutch- 
inson, John R. Jones. This regiment was mustered into the serv- 
ice at Dubuque, Oct. 6, 1862, and was sent to St. Louis. On Dec. 
17 Cos. C and I started on an expedition west of New Madrid, dur- 
ing which they captured from the enemy 5 commissioned officers, 
3 enlisted men, 35 horses and 50 head of cattle. Col. Scott, with 
20 men, examined the various points on the river between New 
Madrid and Cape Girardeau, where trade or smuggling was prac- 
ticable. On his return he brought a scouting party, 50 strong, 
from Cape Girardeau to Lane's landing, from which place it re- 



170 The Union Army 

turned to Cape Girardeau through the iiltcrior, making a success- 
ful reconnoissance. Co. C was attached to the 4th Mo. cavalry 
as mounted infantry and engaged in arduous duties. Co. E was 
placed on duty at Fort Quinby, near Columbus, Ky., and H and K 
were sent to Island No. 10. The duties at this place were largely 
in protecting the contraband colony and in guarding public stores, 
though there were expeditions to either shore and some lighting. 
In one of these affairs, Oct. 22, 1863. Private John D. Baker of Co. 
H was killed by guerrillas. A detachment of six companies of the 
32nd, B, C, E, H, I and K, participated with the 2nd brigade. 3d 
division, i6th army corps, in the famous and successful Meridian 
raid of Gen. Sherman, in which the railroads were torn up and de- 
stroyed. On Feb. 28, 1864, near Canton, Miss., a forage train of 
22 teams, guarded by 25 men of Co. C, was attacked by 300 mounted 
Confederates. A gallant resistance was made, the fight lasting over 
half an hour. Private Edward Flood was killed. The Confeder- 
ates admitted a loss of 25 killed and wounded. The train escaped 
with a loss of eight teams captured — due to a panic among the 
teamsters. A detachment of the 32nd, Cos. A, D, F and G, was 
attached to a cavalry division under Gen. Davidson and remained 
with it until ordered to Vicksburg in Jan., 1864, to rejoin the regi- 
ment. Gen. Davidson expressed his appreciation of the courage 
and fidelity of the detachment in a special order. On March 4 the 
regiment was reunited, and on the loth it entered on the Red River 
expedition. In Gen. Smith's division and Col. Shaw's brigade, it 
bore a gallant part in the marches and the battles of the campaign. 
At the storming of Fort De Russy the brigade played a brilliant 
role. In the battle of Pleasant Hill, Smitli's division was ordered 
to the front, and Shaw's brigade, in the advance, did the hardest 
fighting of the day. It seems almost incredible that the 32nd, cut 
off from its brigade and entirely surrounded, with nearly one-half 
of its numbers killed or wounded, not only held its own, but near 
dark fought its way through, joined the advanced troops, and in 
less than 30 minutes was ready to meet the enemy again. At the 
battle of Bayou de Glaize during the retreat the 32nd was actively 
engaged, its casualties being 5 wounded. At Lake Chicot, in a 
sharp engagement of only a few minutes, the regiment lost 4 killed 
and 4 wounded. The 32nd also participated in the Tupelo cam- 
paign, and was in the battle of Nashville with Col. Gilbert's bri- 
gade. Smith's division. In the final charge on the afternoon of 
Dec. 16, the regiment captured a battery of 5 guns with 50 pris- 
oners, losing I man killed and 25 wounded. The regiment was 
present at the siege and capture of Spanish Fort, and after the 
storming of Fort Blakely and the fall of Mobile it remained in 
Alabama until sent to Clinton, la., where it was mustered out on 
Aug. 24, 1865. During its term of service the regiment lost, in 
killed or died from wounds, 95; died from disease, 206; wounded, 
142; discharged, 173. 

Thirty-third Infantry. — Cols., Samuel A. Rice, Cyrus H. Mackey; 
Lieut.-Cols., Cyrus H. Mackey, John Lofland; Majs.. Hiram D. Gib- 
son, Cyrus B. Boydston. This regiment was mustered into the 
service at Oskaloosa Oct. 4, 1862, and on Nov. 20 set out for the 
front, being first placed on duty in St. Louis. On July 4, 1863, at 
the bravely won battle of Helena, Ark., the 33d fought its first 
fight and fought it valiantly. The regiment, in this baptismal bat- 
tle, lost heavily, and the regimental colors planted on the breast- 
works were cut by 2"] bullets. Cos. B and G were in a charge that 



Iowa Regiments 171 

captured three or four times as many prisoners as there were cap- 
tors. Sickness from malaria and loss in battle had reduced the num- 
bers of the regiment by this time to 285 effective men. On April 
4, 1864, the regiment was within hearing of the engagement at 
Elkin's ferry, and at Prairie d'Ane, it played its full part. On 
April 14 Gen. Rice's brigade, to which the 33d was attached, was 
ordered on a forced march to a cross road. There was advancing 
and fighting all day, in what is called the battle of Camden. The 
regiment also participated in the combats at Poison springs and 
Marks' mills. On the night of April 25 began the retreat — a re- 
treat fraught with danger and great suffering from cold, hunger 
and fatigue — interrupted on April 30, by the sanguinary battle of 
Jenkins' ferry. The 33d was in the hottest of that long fight and 
displayed unsurpassed bravery and endurance. On the further re- 
treat the 33d was train guard, and after almost incredible suffering 
reached Little Rock, where the regiment had its headquarters until 
Feb., 1865, when it was sent to participate in the Mobile campaign. 
After Spanish Fort was invested and taken the regiment moved 
with its command to Fort Blakely, arriving just as the assault had 
succeeded. The following day at Whistler's station there was a 
slight skirmish, and then the 33d was ordered to Texas. On July 
4 it reembarkcd for New Orleans, where on July 17, 1865, it was 
mustered out. It lost in killed in battle and died from wounds, 
67; in deaths from disease, 200; wounded, 177; discharged, 145. 

Thirty-fourth Infantry. — Col., George W. Clark; Lieut. -Col., 
Warren S. Dungan; Majs., Racine D. Kellogg, John Kern, Hinkley 
F. Beebe. This regiment was mustered into the service at Bur- 
lington Oct. 15, 1862. It was ordered to report to Gen. Steele at 
Helena, Ark., and arrived there Dec. 5, being placed in Thayer's 
brigade of Steele's division. In this command it participated in 
the disastrous battle of Chickasaw bayou under Gen. Sherman. It 
also took part in the capture of Arkansas Post, acquitting itself 
with honor. The regiment took its place on June 15, 1863, at the 
extreme left of Grant's investing line in the Vicksburg campaign, 
and though during the siege some were killed or wounded, the 
men stood the exposure better than most of the regiments, hold- 
ing their numbers and strength. The regiment in Gen. Vandever's 
division (2nd) and Gen. Herron's corps (13th) was designed to 
reinforce Gen. Banks, but diverted from that purpose, was with 
Herron in the capture of Yazoo City. The division was transferred 
to the Department of the Gulf, and in the combat of Stirling's farm 
the 34th lost 6 men captured and i mortally wounded. In October 
the division embarked for Texas, landing on St. Joseph's island, 
then crossing to Matagorda island, and after a preliminary en- 
gagement in which the 34th took a prominent part, captured Fort 
Esperanza. It remained in this vicinity until April 20, 1864, when 
it reembarked for New Orleans, and joined Banks' army at Alex- 
andria. After about three weeks of skirmishing in this vicinity 
the retreat was resumed to the Mississippi river. Col. Clark com- 
manded the brigade which formed the rear-guard most of the way, 
and the 34th, with the other regiments of the brigade, was fre- 
quently engaged with the enemy. The gallant regiment played a 
conspicuous part in the expedition against the forts at the mouth 
of Mobile bay. The troops disembarked at Dauphin island, and 
marched to within 2 miles of Fort Gaines, immediately commenc- 
ing the siege vigorously, in which the 34th lost i man killed. Oper- 
ations were then begun against Fort Morgan, and at the formal 



172 The Union Army 

surrender the 34th Ja. was assigned the place of honor. About the 
middle of September the regiment was ordered to report to New 
Orleans, whence it proceeded to Morganza, following which 2 men 
were severely wounded in a skirmish on the Atchafalaya. The 
varied experiences of the 34th had by this time reduced it to below 
one-half the maximum. It was formed into a battalion of five 
companies, and by Jan. i, 1865, there was consolidated with it an- 
other battalion of five companies, formed of the 38th la. In prep- 
aration for the Mobile campaign, it was made a part of the 3d bri- 
gade, 2nd division, 13th army corps, under Gen. Andrews. The 
regiment was engaged in the siege of Fort Blakely, and in the 
magnificent charge of Steele's armj' the 34th was among the first 
to plant its colors on the fort immediately in its front. Ordered 
to Texas, from Galveston it went to Houston, and on Aug. 15, 1865. 
was mustered out of the service. It lost in killed in battle and died 
from wounds, 13; deaths from disease. 244; wounded, 31; discharged, 

354- 

Thirty-fifth Infantry. — Col., Sylvester G. Hill; Lieut.-Cols., James 
H. Rothrock, William B. Keeler; Majs., Henry O'Connor, William 
B. Keeler, Abraham John. William Dill. This regiment was mus- 
tered into the service at Muscatine Sept. 18, 1862, and was sent to 
Cairo, 111., arriving Nov. 24, and there performed guard duty until 
in April, 1863, when by orders of Gen. Grant, it set out for the Vicks- 
burg campaign, reporting at Duckport, La., to Brig.-Gen. J. M. 
Tuttle, commanding the 3d division of the 15th army corps, under 
Gen. Sherman, and was assigned to the 3d brigade of this division. 
The regiment participated in the battle of Jackson, having i man 
killed and i severely wounded. It crossed the Big Black river on 
May 18 and arrived that evening in the rear of Vicksburg. There 
it engaged in the severest duties of the siege, at work in the 
trenches, sharpshooting and on picket, losing 2 killed and i wound- 
ed. When Vicksburg capitulated, it was ordered by a circuitous 
route to Jackson, where it lost i officer wounded and some men 
captured. In March, 1864. with Gen. A. J. Smith's column, it 
started to join Gen. Banks' Red River expedition. At the taking 
of Fort De Russy the regiment was in reserve, and at the battle of 
Pleasant Hill it fought valiantly, losing 64 men, out of seven com- 
panies, three being on picket duty in the rear. On the retreat of 
Banks' army the regiment had its share of the fighting constancy 
taking place. At Mansura, La., it lost 3 wounded, and at Bayou 
de Glaize, 3 killed, 17 wounded and i missing. After returning to 
Vicksburg, the regiment was in Gen. Smith's force which fought 
the battle of Lake Chicot to clear the river of Marmaduke's block- 
ade. In a few minutes the regiment lost about 20. It then pro- 
ceeded to Memphis, and with its command was engaged in the 
Tupelo campaign. With the 12th la. it formed a part of the bri- 
gade of Col. Woods and participated in the battle of Tupelo. It 
returned to Memphis and was engaged in the Oxford expedition. At 
the battle of Nashville its brigade fought with conspicuous gal- 
lantry and great loss, and the 35th engaged in pursuit of the Con- 
federates, afterward marching to Clifton. The regiment was soon 
transferred to the South, still in Gen. Smith's army, to enter upon 
the Mobile campaign, and at Spanish Fort it did its full share of 
duty in the siege. It was mustered out Aug. to. 1865. Losses: 
killed in battle or died of wounds. 48; deaths from disease, 188; 
wounded, 95 ; discharged, 190. 

Thirty-sixth Infantry, — Col., Charles W. Kittredge; Lieut.-Col.^ 



Iowa Regiments 173 

Francis M. Drake; Majs., Thomas C. Woodward, Augustus H. Ham- 
ilton. The 36th rendezvoused at Keokuk in Sept., 1862, and was 
regularly mustered into the U. S. service on Oct. 4. It left Keokuk 
about Nov. 10, going down the river on two steamers, and made 
its first landing at Columbus, Ky., in the night, to assist in repell- 
ing an expected attack of the enemy. It reached Helena, Ark.. 
Dec. 31 and remained there until the latter part of the following 
February, when it embarked on steamers in the Yazoo Pass expe- 
dition, returning to Helena, April 8, the expedition comprising just 
40 days and nights in the wilderness. The regiment remained 
here, making occasional forays into the country, until Aug. 11, 

1863, when it formed part of Gen. Steele's army in his march on 
Little Rock. That place was captured on Sept. 10, and the regi- 
ment entered the city two days afterward, encamping in the out- 
skirts on the north side. In March, 1864, it was in the expedition 
under command of Gen. Steele, the objective point being Camden, 
at the head of navigation on the Ouchita river, and the 36th bore 
the brunt of the battle on this march, at Elkin's ferry. It took part 
also in the battle of Prairie d'Ane, where the advance of the army 
skirmished for 12 miles and finally found the Confederates so 
strongly posted as to require three days to dislodge them. In April 
the regiment was in the brigade detailed to guard 240 wagons back 
to Pine Bluff, upon which expedition the battle of Marks' mills 
occurred and the regiment was captured. About 100 of the 36th 
left behind were in the battle of Jenkins' ferry. Those of the regi- 
ment who were not captured remained at Little Rock till early in 
March, 1865, when they were removed to St. Charles on the White 
river, and in May, to Devall's Bluff, where they were mustered 
out Aug. 24, 1865. The regiment received some 70 recruits in March, 

1864, at Little Rock, and had in it from first to last 1,205 officers 
•and men. Its losses were: deaths from battle, 70; deaths from dis- 
ease, 233; wounded, 146; discharged, igi. 

Thirty-seventh Infantry. — Col., George W. Kincaid; Lieut. -Col., 
George R. West; Maj., Lyman Allen. It was a wonderful expres- 
sion of loyalty and patriotism that Iowa furnished to the states in 
the going forth of this regiment, known as the "Graybeard regi- 
ment." composed of men who had already sent their sons and 
grandsons to the war. History furnishes no parallel — where the fath- 
ers of the soldiers, themselves too old to be received as volunteers, 
tuckled on their armor and asked the government to take them 
into the ranks of the army. They were all above 45 — some were 
over 60. In response to this appeal, a special order was issued by 
the secretary of war, to permit their entering the Federal service, 
and stipulating that they should serve in performing only guard 
and garrison duty. The regiment was organized at Camp Strong, 
Muscatine, and mustered in Dec. 15, 1862. Made up of sturdy, 
healthy and able-bodied men, the regiment made a fine appearance, 
and from its unusual history attracted much attention in St. Louis, 
where it arrived Jan. i, 1863. and was quartered in Benton barracks. 
In the following May it was ordered to guard bridges on the Pa- 
cific railroad west of St. Louis, with headquarters at Franklin. In 
July it was sent to Alton, 111., where it guarded prisoners until 
Jan.. 1864, and then was assigned to similar duty at Rock Island. 
In June it was ordered to Memphis, Tenn., and placed on picket 
and guard duty. It furnished the guard every other day for the 
provision train from Memphis to Lagrange, Tenn., and Holly Springs, 
Miss. While engaged on this duty, the train was fired into by 



174 The Union Army 

guerrillas in ambush and 2 men of the regiment were killed and 2 
slightly wounded. In Aug., 1864, the regiment was ordered to In- 
dianapolis, Ind., and from there five companies were sent to Cin- 
cinnati to guard prisoners. The remaining five companies guard- 
ed for a time the Confederate prisoners at Camp Morton, when 
three companies were sent to Columbus and the remaining two ta 
Gallipolis. About the middle of May, 1865, the regiment was re- 
united at Cincinnati, and on May 24, it was mustered out at Dav- 
enport, the first of those enlisted from Iowa for three years. Its 
losses during its term of service were as follows: deaths from bat- 
tle, 3; deaths from disease, 145; wounded, 2; discharged, 359. 

Thirty-eighth Infantry.— Col., D. Henry Hughes; Lieut.-Col., 
Joseph O. Hudnutt; Majs., Charles Chadwick, Hinkley F. Beebe. 
The story of this regiment is short and melancholy. As an or- 
ganization it never saw a battle, and yet no Iowa regiment in the 
service lost so many soldiers in so short a time. Out of a full 
strength of 910, not less than 311 were dead within a year and a 
half, and another no had been discharged as broken down too 
much to serve. This was well on to every other man, and without 
a battle. It is doubtful if any command in all the United States 
service suffered as this regiment did. It died at its post fighting 
the deadly malaria of Southern swamps. No regiment entered the 
service with higher hopes than did the 38th la., at Dubuque on 
Nov. 4, 1862. In two days it was at Benton barracks near St. Louis. 
On Dec. 28, on board the steamer Platte Valley, it started down 
the Mississippi river for Columbus, Ky., and in three days was be- 
ing led against the supposed enemy at Union City. In Jan., 1863, 
the command was ordered back to Columbus and down the river 
to New Madrid, where it guarded Fort Thompson for nearly six 
months, the duties being neither arduous nor dangerous. In June 
it went by steamer Daniel Taylor to Young's point, and by June 
15 had crossed the Mississippi and was under the guns of Vicks- 
burg, forming a part of Gen. Grant's extreme left line. The lo- 
cation where this particular regiment lay was extremely unhealthy. 
It was on the edge of a dismal cypress swamp, whose miasmatic 
vapors poisoned the blood of the whole command, sending to their 
graves hundreds of the noble men who had gone there willing to 
sacrifice life and limb in assaulting the works of a foeman, less 
to be dreaded, as it proved, than the sickly vapors of the swamp. 
In fact the guns of the Confederate forts killed but a single man 
of the 38th during the siege. On July 27 the regiment was at Port 
Hudson, La., where commenced the awful and fatal fevers inherit- 
ed by the men at that cypress swamp by Vicksburg. By Aug. 13 
so many men were down with fever that the morning report showed 
but 8 officers and 20 men of this big, fine regiment fit for duty. 
Those who survived took part in the Texas campaign and on Dec. 
12, 1864, were consolidated with the i*emnant of the 34th la. under 
the latter name.- The losses of the 38th were as follows: deaths 
from battle, i; deaths from disease, 314; wounded, 2; discharged, 
117. 

Thirty-ninth Infantry. — Cols., Henry J. B. Cummings, Joseph M.. 
Griffiths, James Redfield; Lieut. -Cols., James Redfield, Joseph M. 
Griffiths, George N. Elliott; Majs., Joseph M. Griffiths, George N. Elli- 
ott, Isaac D. Marsh. Most of the companies of this regiment rendez- 
voused at Des Moines, but were ordered to Davenport, where they 
were joined by the remainder, and the regiment was mustered into 
service Nov. 24, 1862. On Dec. 12 it started for Cairo to report tc* 



Iowa Regiments 175 

Brig.-Gen. Tuttle and arrived on the 14th. It was soon afterward 
ordered South, and on the 26th, it arrived at Trenton, Miss., suf- 
fering from exposure to rain and lack of sleep. The lirst march of 
the 39th was entered upon at dark on Dec. 27, each man with five 
days' rations and 100 rounds of ammunition. Upon the morning 
of the second day over 100 men, too worn out and footsore to pro- 
ceed, were left by the way. Attempting to make their way back, 
they were surrounded at Shady Grove by a regiment of Forrest's 
cavalry and loi made prisoners. It was October of 1863 before 
they were released from captivity and rejoined their regiment. On 
Dec. 31, 1862, the 2nd brigade, which included the 39th la. and num- 
bered 1,545 rnen, moved out alone toward Lexington, came in con- 
tact with Forrest's command, numbering from 6,000 to 7,000, and 
there resulted the battle of Parker's cross-roads, where the regi- 
ment, by its bravery in battle, proved itself worthy of the trust of 
its loyal state and its brave comrades in the field. On April 15, 
1863, Gen. Dodge's division, to which the regiment belonged, moved 
out to cover the raid of Col. Streight into Georgia. At Bear creek 
the enemy disputed the passage, but a pontoon was thrown over 
and the division moved to Tuscumbia, skirmishing constantly until 
arriving at Town creek, Ala. The enemy under Roddey was there 
reinforced by Forrest and contested the crossing, but after an ar- 
tillery duel, three bridges were built under fire and the enemy re- 
tired. On May 6 Co. H, while guarding a corral, was surrounded 
by 800 Confederate cavalry and mostly taken prisoners. The regi- 
ment was then on guard duty until March, 1864, when it took up a 
line of march for Athens, Ala., and April 30 moved for Chattanooga, 
where its division set out for Sherman's Atlanta campaign. In 
Dodge's command it was the first through Snake Creek gap. On 
May 9, with five companies of 9th 111. mounted infantry, it engaged 
in a skirmish with Confederate cavalry. It led the army in cross- 
ing the Oostanaula at Lay's ferry, where it had a severe engage- 
ment with the enemy and suffered considerable loss in killed and 
wounded. This movement resulted in the enemy's evacuating Re- 
saca. On Oct. 4 it was ordered to Allatoona, where it arrived at i 
a. m. on the 5th. That day. under Corse, in the battle of Alla- 
toona, it made its name glorious in history, by its heroism and 
sacrifices, but lost three-fifths of its number. On Oct. 13 it crossed 
to the south side of the Etowah river, skirmishing with Confederate 
cavalry and driving them from the neighborhood. On Nov. 16, 
in Corse's division, the regiment joined in the brilliant march to 
the sea. It engaged in the skirmishing with the enemy on nearing 
Savannah, and entered that city with the army. It joined in the 
march of Sherman's army northward through the Carolinas, its 
labors, its adventures and its fighting. The march concluded at 
Washington, it participated in the grand review, and remained there 
in camp until June 5, when it was mustered out and went home to 
Iowa, its loyal mission in the war fulfilled. Its losses during its 
service were: deaths from battle, 62; deaths from disease, 122; 
wounded, 113; discharged, 123. 

Fortieth Infantry. — Col., John A. Garrett; Lieut. -Col., Samuel 
F. Cooper; Majs., Sherman G. Smith, Lawson A. Duncan. The 
last of three years' regiments to fill its ranks and enter the field 
was the 40th, which was mustered into service at Iowa City Nov. 
15, 1862. On Dec. 17 it was ordered to Columbus, Ky., which was 
threatened by an attack from Forrest. It remained there and at 
Paducah until May 31, 1863, when it was ordered to join in the 



176 The Union Army 

Vicksburg campaign. It was stationed on the Yazoo river in the 
vicinity of Haynes' and Snyder's bluflfs, as a part of the army of 
observation, to prevent Johnston's reinforcing Pemberton in Vicks- 
burg. On July 23 the regiment was embarked for Helena and in 
a few days it marched with Gen. Steele's army on Little Rock. It 
remained at the latter place until March, 1864, when it marched out 
on the ill-fated expedition, designed to aid Gen. Banks in the un- 
fortunate Red River campaign. At Okalona, the regiment was en- 
gaged with the enemy, and it was also engaged at Prairie d'Ane, 
where 7 of the regiment were wounded. During the battle of Jen- 
kins' ferry, the 40th did not fight in a body, but all the companies 
fought bravely and well, four under Col. Garrett being in a position 
to lose more men in proportion to their number than any other 
regiment engaged. Out of less than 100 men, 45 were lost. On 
Nov. 29, thirty men of the 40th, on the steamer Alamo on the Ar- 
kansas river, were attacked and followed along the river near Dar- 
danelle by Confederate cavalry, and a sharp fight of an hour and a 
half ensued. The Federals fired from behind sacks of oats, which 
received the balls of the enemy, and 2 Confederates were killed and 
I wounded. In the early part of 1865, Col. Garrett was assigned to 
the command of the District of South Kansas, with headquarters 
at Fort Gibson, I. T., and his regiment remained with him till mus- 
tered out at Fort Gibson on Aug. 2, 1865. The losses of the regi- 
ment during its term of service were: deaths from battle, 15; deaths 
from disease, 186; wounded, 43; discharged. 133. 

Forty-first Infantry Battalion. — Maj., John Pattee. The organ- 
ization of this regiment was never fully completed and it was des- 
ignated as the 41st battalion of Iowa infantry. It was formed by 
Cos. A, B and C of the 14th la., now formally detached from that 
regiment, together with others already enlisted for the 41st. Be- 
fore the complete organization of the 14th, the first three compa- 
nies had been detached by order of Gen. Fremont and sent to Fort 
Randall, Dak., on special duty. Here they performed the various 
duties of protecting, scouting, garrisoning, etc., being nominally a 
part of the 14th infantry. On Sept. 18. 1862, they were officially 
separated from the 14th and designated as the 41st battalion of 
Iowa infantry. The battalion continued in the performance of the 
same duties as heretofore, making frequent and rapid marches to 
protect settlers and various scouting expeditions, such as pertain 
to a western outpost. In April, 1863, by order of the governor of 
Iowa, approved by the war department, the 41st battalion Iowa 
infantry was transferred as Cos. K, L and M, to the 7th la. cavalry 
then forming, and from that date, its history is embraced in that 
of its regiment. During its service as a battalion its loss was 2 
died from disease, and 13 discharged. 

The Hundred Days Men (The 44th, 45th, 46th and 47th Regi- 
ments, and the 48th Battalion of Iowa Infantry). — Cols., 44th, Ste- 
phen H. Henderson; 45th, Alvah H. Bereman; 46th, David B. Hen- 
derson; 47th, James P. Sanford; Lieut. -Cols., 44th, Henry Egbert; 
45th. Samuel A. Moore; 46th, Lorenzo D. Durbin; 47th, John Will- 
iams; 48th, Oliver H. P. Scott; Majs., 44th, Josiah Hopkins; 45th, 
James B. Hope; 46th, George L. Torbert; 47th, George J. North. 
These regiments were mustered into the service mostly in June, 
1864, and performed willing and loyal duty. The 44th, 45th and 
46th were held in Tennessee, garrisoning posts and guarding rail- 
ways. The 47th was sent to Helena, Ark., where it suffered much 
from the malaria of that unhealthful locality. The 48th battalion 



Iowa Regiments 177 

guarded prisoners at Rock island, in thq Mississippi river. Col. 
Henderson of the 46th reported an engagement between some of 
his men and the enemy at Collierville, Tenn., about the middle 
of August. Capt. Wolf and 16 men were sent to rescue, if possible, 
2 men of the 6th 111. cavalry, captured by the enemy, and in the at- 
tempt Wolf and 3 of his men were wounded — the captain and i man 
severely. At the end of the time for which they had enlisted, these 
four regiments and the battalion were honorably mustered out, 
having faithfully and with credit accomplished their mission. The 
loss of the 44th was i death from battle, and 15 from disease; of 
the 45th, 3 from battle, 18 from disease, and i wounded; of the 
46th, 3 from battle, 23 from disease, and 21 wounded; of the 47th, i 
death from battle, and 46 from disease; and of the 48th, 4 deaths 
from disease. 

Iowa Colored Regiment. — Col., John C. Hudson; Lieut.-Cols., 
Milton F. Collins. Gardiner A. A. Deane; Maj., John L. Murphy. 
Iowa had a regiment of colored soldiers in the service, though 
many of its members were enlisted from Missouri. It was thought 
impossible to rendezvous a regiment of ex-slaves in Missouri, and 
so Gov. Kirkwood permitted and directed the enlistments at Keo- 
kuk. It was 900 strong, and almost every single arms-bearing 
black man in the state shouldered his musket and joined the regi- 
ment. The command was known at first as the ist Iowa colored 
regiment, but later it was designated as the 60th U. S. regiment of 
African descent. It saw much garrison service at St. Louis, Hel- 
ena and elsewhere, though but little fighting. Its adjutant was 
killed in a battle back of Helena, July 26, 1864. The losses of the 
regiment during its term of service were as follows: deaths from 
battle, 7; deaths from disease, 337; wounded, i; discharged, 40. 

First Cavalry. — Cols., Fitz-Henry Warren, James O. Gower. 
Daniel Anderson, William Thompson; Lieut.-Cols., Charles E. Moss. 
P. Gad Bryan, Daniel Anderson, Joseph W. Caldwell, Alexander 
G. McQueen; Majs., E. W. Chamberlain, James O. Gower, William 
M. G. Torrence, P. Gad Bryan, Daniel Anderson, Joseph W. Cald- 
well, Levi Chase, William Thompson, Alexander G. McQueen, James 
D. Jenks, John McDermott, Thomas A. Bereman, William S. Whise- 
nand. This famous regiment was organized June 5, 1861, and ordered 
into quarters at Benton barracks near St. Louis about the middle of 
October in the same year. It was composed of twelve companies, 
aggregating 1,095 men, and by additional enlistments soon num- 
bered 1,245. The middle and western portion of Missouri was the 
highway to the so-called Southern Confederacy for recruits, sym- 
pathizers and bushwhackers, and during the entire winter of 1861- 
62 eight companies of the regiment were engaged in patrolling this 
region. Ever on the alert, their engagements and skirmishes were 
numerous. The first battle in which the regiment was engaged 
occurred on Black river (called Blackwater), where Cos. A, B, D, 
F, G and I, with about 60 of the 4th U. S. cavalry, attacked and 
captured about 1,300 Confederate recruits, 1,000 stands of arms 
and all the camp equipage. On Jan. 8, 1862, a Confederate camp 
was attacked and destroyed on Silver creek. Mo., and a week later 
the regiment was in a raid to Warsaw, where it attacked and cap- 
tured the Confederate pickets, charged into town and captured 
several prisoners. All of the early part of the following summer 
the regiment spent in scouts and raids, with here and there an im- 
portant skirmish. In July the notorious guerrilla chief Quantrill 
was encountered by a few companies of the ist cavalry on the 
Vol. IV— 12 



178 The Union Army 

wooded cliffs of Big creek in Cass county. The regiment swept 
down on him like a whirlwind and in less than 30 minutes Quan- 
trill and his band were scattered in all directions, the loss of the 
1st la. being 2 killed and 10 wounded. A small detachment, sent 
out to capture some beef cattle belonging to Confederates, en- 
countered a large band of guerrillas in the timber on Clear creek, 
about 2 miles from Taberville, and a short but spirited engagement 
ensued, in which the detachment was victorious, with a loss of 4 
killed and 14 wounded. In December the ist took part in an im- 
portant expedition to Van Buren, Ark., resulting in a defeat of 
some Confederates and the capture of immense stores. On Aug. 
18, 1862, the army crossed the White river at Clarendon, Ark., and 
on the 27th was fought the battle of Bayou Meto, in which the 
regiment took a prominent part, driving the enemy across the 
bayou and making a dashing charge to save the only bridge across that 
deep and miry stream from destruction. In this charge the regi- 
ment lost I killed and 36 wounded, i mortally. The regiment then 
took the advance of the cavalry in the move on Little Rock. On 
Dec. 8 a force of 260 men, with detachments of other regiments 
and a section of artillery, marched toward Arkadelphia. A few 
miles south of Princeton, Dallas county, they encountered a force 
of the enemy numbering 800. The ist la. cavalry being in the ad- 
vance, dismounted and drove them from their position, taking 39 
prisoners, together with arms and camp equipage. In Jan.. 1864, 
500 of the regiment reenlisted and on March 2;^. waiving their right 
to a veteran furlough at that time, joined the 7th army corps and 
took a prominent part in all the operations of the Camden expe- 
dition. In this movement the regiment engaged and routed Gen. 
Price's forces at Elkin's ferry, losing in killed and wounded 11 
men. It was again in the advance from this place to Prairie d'Ane, 
a distance of 12 miles, skirmishing with the enemy the entire dis- 
tance. Being on the right in the engagement which followed, it 
was the first to enter the Confederate works. It was again ordered 
to the front and engaged the enemy at Camden cross-roads, about 
15 miles from Camden, at 7 o'clock in the morning. The fight last- 
ed for six hours, when Brig.-Gen. Rice ordered up the dismounted 
men of the regiment to deploy as skirmishers, and the enemy, 
stubbornly contesting the ground, was driven back through the 
city of Camden on the evening of the same day. On the 17th a 
detachment of the regiment, with detachments of other regiments, 
marched about 20 miles down the Washita river and captured a 
steamboat laden with corn and other quartermaster and commis- 
sary supplies. The loss of the regiment during this whole cam- 
paign was 5 killed, 3 taken prisoners and 25 wounded, a number 
severely, who died a few days afterward. The campaign being 
now virtually ended, the veteran portion of the regiment, 520 strong, 
was relieved from duty and ordered home on veteran furlough. On 
their way to Pine Bluff they were attacked by a column of Con- 
federates at Moro creek. After a heroic resistance they fell back 
to Steele's main army on its way to Little Rock, and with him en- 
gaged in the battle of Saline river. On June 20 the regiment, its 
furlough expired, again left the state for the front and on July 
28 was at Macon, Mo. On Jan. 14, 1865, a detachment of the ist 
la. and other regiments, was ordered by boat about 100 miles up 
the Arkansas river to Dardanelle, at which place they engaged a 
Confederate force of 1,600 men under Gen. Cooper, killing and 
wounding 90. By Feb. 17 the regiment had gone to Memphis, in 



Iowa Regiments 179 

the vicinity of which city it remained, scouting occasionally, till 
June 15, when Gen. Grant ordered the command to march from 
Alexandria, La., to Texas. On Jan. 31, 1866, orders were received 
for muster-out, and after nearly five years of arduous and most 
faithful service in preserving the integrity of the nation, with not 
a single stain to dim the brightness of its escutcheon, it was mus- 
tered out, and returned home, where the patriot soldier became 
an honored citizen. Its total number of enlistments were 2,187, 
and the number of casualties 551. 

Second Cavalry. — Cols., Washington L. Elliott, Edward Hatch, 
Datus E. Coon; Lieut.-Cols., Edward Hatch. William P. Hepburn, 
Charles C. Horton; Majs., Edward Hatch, William P. Hepburn, 
Datus E. Coon, Hiram W. Love, Frank A. Kendrick, William W. 
Eaton, Charles C. Horton, Gustavus Schnitzer, Charles P. Moore, 
Samuel Foster. The 2nd cavalry was mustered in at Davenport 
Aug. 25, 1861, and March, 1862, found it aiding Gen. Pope in the 
reduction of New Madrid and Island No. 10, a squad of the regi- 
ment being the first Union soldiers to enter the works at the latter 
place. By May i Pope's army was assisting in the celebrated siege 
of Corinth, which followed the battle of Shiloh, and on May 9 the 
2nd made the famous charge at Farmington, in which 100 men were 
unhorsed and half as many killed or wounded. On May 28 the 
regiment with the 2nd Mich, cavalry, dashed around to the south 
of Corinth in the night, destroyed the railroad in the Confederate 
rear, together with large supplies, and captured many prisoners. 
On July I these same regiments fought the cavalry battle of Boone- 
ville. With September of 1862, hard riding, scouts and skirmishes 
commenced again. After a ride of 45 miles and skirmishing with 
the enemy, the regiment stood to horse all night at the battle of 
luka. Soon came the battle of Corinth, and the extent of that vic- 
tory was greatly added to by the extraordinary activity, by day and 
by night, of the 2nd la. cavalry. "It has been the eye of the army," 
said Rosecrans with truth, for it had guarded every road in the 
vicinity, scouted everywhere, and at last was present in the battle. 
In November and December, the regiment took a constant and im- 
portant part in Grant's great move through central Mississippi to- 
ward Vicksburg. It was present at the unnecessary defeat at Cof- 
feeville, where the Union troops engaged were barely saved from 
utter rout and the regiment lost 22 men killed and wounded. It 
then followed Grant's army as a rear-guard in its retreat toward 
Memphis and went into winter quarters at Lagrange. The early 
spring saw it riding all over northern Mississippi in little expedi- 
tions and scouts, and by April 16 it was ready to start on what was 
known as the Grierson raid. "This was one of the most brilliant 
cavalry exploits of the war," said Gen. Grant. The regiment then 
went to Memphis, where it remained in quiet till the end of Novem- 
ber. On March 28, 1864, many of the regiment reenlisted as vet- 
erans and in April went to Iowa on furlough. The following sum- 
mer was largely spent in raiding and scouting through Mississippi 
and middle Tennessee, without any engagements of great conse- 
quence, although it participated in the fight at Tupelo. But by 
the middle of November it was engaged in the hardest campaign of 
its history — resisting Hood's invasion of Tennessee. With head- 
quarters near Florence, Ala., it watched and fought his advance, 
step by step, formed with Coon's brigade the rear-guard of the 
Federal army as it fell back to Franklin, and in the battle there 
played an important part on the left. Then followed the battle of 



180 The Union Army 

Nashville, in which the gallant regiment, with the whole of Hatch's 
division, dismounted and fought as infantry, storming and captur- 
ing forts and driving the enemy in dismay. This was the regiment's 
last active campaign. The following spring and summer were 
passed in unimportant duties in Mississippi and in Oct., 1865, it 
was mustered out. Its losses during its term of service were as 
follows: deaths from battle, 69; deaths from disease, 196; wound- 
ed, 173; discharged, 171. 

Third Cavalry. — Cols., Cyrus Bussey, Henry C. Caldwell, John 
W. Noble; Lieut. -Cols., Henry H. Trim.ble, Henry C. Caldwell, 
John W. Noble, George Dufiield, Benjamin S. Jones; Majs., Carl- 
ton H. Perry, Henry C. Caldwell, William C. Drake, George Duf- 
field, Oliver H. P. Scott, John W. Noble, Gilman C. Mudgett, Ben- 
jamin S. Jones, John C. McCrary, Peter H. Walker, Cornelius A. 
Stanton, George Curkendall. This regiment, more than 1,000 strong, 
was raised, organized and ecjuipped by Col. Cyrus Bussey at the 
request of Maj.-Gen. Fremont. Col. Bussej' was a cavalry officer 
of the first order and his command was thoroughly drilled and dis- 
ciplined while at Benton barracks in the early winter of 1861. Cos. 
E, F, G and H were sent to Jefferson City on Dec. 12, and nearly 
two years passed away before the gallant command was again 
united. Early in Feb., 1862, the remainder of the regiment, eight 
companies, was ordered to Rolla, where another division occurred, 
Cos. I and K being sent to garrison the town of Salem. At Spring- 
field Co. L was detailed to garrison the town while the remainder 
of the regiment marched on through severe cold and without ra 
tions till it joined Gen. Curtis at Sugar creek. The regiment's first 
engagement was in beating off the Confederates who were attack- 
ing Sigel at Bentonville. Then came the ever memorable battle 
of Pea ridge, where out of 235 men engaged the regiment lost 25 
killed, 17 wounded and 9 missing. In the severe little battle of 
Salem, the two companies left to guard that place were engaged 
and rendered effective service. The summer of 1862 and the winter 
following were spent by the regiment in active service, although it par- 
ticipated in none of the more noted combats. During the siege of Vicks- 
burg it was prominent among the Federal forces and after the surren- 
der accompanied Gen. Sherman's army, then moving to attack Joe 
Johnston. In the disastrous fight at Guntown, Miss., the 3d and 4th la. 
cavalry not only fought bravely and splendidly, resisting desperate 
charges, but they saved the army on the disastrous retreat. They twice 
repulsed the enemy in the main conflict and fired the last gun in the 
retreat. For 54 hours the men were in the saddle, fighting the greater 
part of the time without forage for their horses or food for themselves. 
At Ripley, on the retreat, the 3d was again under severe fire and 
bravely resisted superior numbers of the victorious Confederate 
army, checking and defeating them. The regiment lost some 60 
or 70 men in the unfortunate expedition, the only feature of which 
that redeemed it from disgrace being the heroism of the cavalry 
brigade. Scarcely was the regiment in camp at Memphis before it 
was ordered to march against Forrest again, this time with the 
expedition of Gen. A. J. Smith to Tupelo, and at Oldtown, the 
day after the battle of Tupelo, in a splendid charge it won new 
laurels for itself and the state. In October, the regiment joined 
Gen. Pleasonton near Independence, Mo., just as an engagement 
was going on. It was at once led into the conflict and fought till 
10 o'clock that night, driving the enemy for several miles into 
Kansas. Early the next morning was fought the battle of the 



Iowa Regiments ISl 

Big Blue, in which the regiment participated in a magnificent charge 
that drove the enemy and resulted in the capture of several battle- 
flags, prisoners and other trophies of victory. The regiment lost 
about 20 men. A swift and terrible pursuit of the enemy was made, 
and on the morning of the 25th the cavalry charged on and routed 
a strong force from its chosen position, practically ending the ca- 
reer of Price's flying army. In this campaign the 3d cavalry lost 
nearly 50 men. By the first of the year 1865, the two parts of the 
regiment were united at Louisville, where they were at once re- 
mounted and newly equipped to take part in the last campaign of 
the war, the great raid of Gen. Wilson, in which it bore an hon- 
orable and conspicuous part. On April 21 the regiment reached 
Macon, Ga., with the rest of the expeditionary forces and there 
learned that the cruel war had come to an end. It was soon after 
mustered out and reached home on May 15. It lost during its 
service, in deaths from battle, 86; deaths from disease, 230; wound- 
ed, 163; discharged, 308. 

Fourth Cavalry. — Cols., Asbury Porter, Edward F. Winslow; 
Lieut.-Cols., T. Drummond, Simeon D. Swan, John H. Peters; Majs., 
Simeon D. Swan, John E. Jewett, George A. Stone, Benjamin Rec- 
tor, Alonzo B. Parkell, Edward F. Winslow, Cornelius F. Spearman, 
John H. Peters, Abial R. Pierce, William W. Woods, Edward W. 
Dee. The 4th Iowa was one of the distinguished cavalry regiments 
of the West. It was mustered in at its rendezvous of Camp Har- 
lan, Mt. Pleasant, in Nov., 1861, and spent the winter there learn- 
ing the art of war. It went to the front with the army of Curtis 
in Missouri in March, 1862. The following summer it made the ex- 
traordinarily hard march from southwestern Missouri through Ar- 
kansas against Little Rock, nearly to that capital, and thence to 
Helena on the Mississippi river. It remained at the latter place 
during the winter with no chance for war's excitements. But tlie 
early May days of 1863 saw the 4th la. cavalry taking a conspicu- 
ous part in Grant's great campaign against Vicksburg. From Port 
Gibson to Jackson it was the advance guard, holding a post of 
honor in the front of Sherman's corps, while from Jackson to Vicks- 
burg it was the rear-guard of the whole army, keeping back its 
pursuers. It was, until long after Vicksburg was invested, the only 
regiment of cavalry in that army, and was in a state of incessant 
activity under the daily urgent calls for cavalry service. The regi- 
ment took part in the second Jackson campaign, and until the close 
of the year 1863, engaged in numerous important expeditions and 
raids m Mississippi, notably the one from Vicksburg to Memphis 
in August, in which great loss of property and army transporta- 
tion was inflicted on the enemy. February of 1864 saw the regi- 
ment on the Meridian campaign with Gen. Sherman, being at that 
time a veteran command, having been the first from Iowa to reenlist. 
Enormous damage was done to railroads and property on this raid, 
and the cavalry skirmished with the enemy daily for 150 miles. Im- 
mediately after the Meridian raid the veterans of the regiment start- 
ed home on furlough. In May Lieut. -Col. Peters led the regiment 
on a raid from Memphis in search of Forrest, followed by the dis- 
astrous expedition under Gen. Sturgis to Guntown. In the bril- 
liant Federal victory at Tupelo the regiment did its full measure of 
duty and shared in the honors of that successful expedition of Gen. 
A. J. Smith. On Oct. 21, 1864, the regiment joined Gen. Pleason- 
ton, near Independence, Mo., and the following day fought the 
battle of the Big Blue river, driving the Confederates out on an 



182 The Union Army 

open prairie and routing them completely. Two days later the 
cavalry overtook the Confederates at the Marais des Cygnes river, 
when another victory was won, the 4th and 3d la. cavalry charg- 
ing a force having 5,000 men in the front line, and capturing 1,000 
prisoners, including Gens. Marmaduke and Cabell. Five cannon 
and several battleflags were among the trophies of victory. The 
pursuit was continued on through Missouri, Arkansas and the In- 
dian territory, the campaign being one of extraordinary marches 
and extreme hardships. The following March found the regiment 
concentrated with other troops at Eastport, Miss., for Wilson's 
great raid to Selma, Columbus and Macon. After some garrison 
duty near Atlanta, and some chasing over Georgia in search of the 
flying head of the Confederacy, the 4th la. cavalry was mustered 
out, Aug. 10, at Atlanta, Ga., and carried home with it a name and 
a fame of which not only its members, but all Iowa was proud. 
Its record of losses during its term of service was as follows: deaths 
from battle, 55; deaths from disease, 196; wounded, 119; discharged, 

239- 

Fifth Cavalry. — Cols., William W. Lowe, John M. Young; Lieut. - 
Cols., Matthewson T. Patrick, Harlan Baird, Erastus G. McNeely; 
Majs., Carl S. Boernstein, William Kelsay, Alfred B. Brackett, Har- 
lan Baird, John M. Young. Jeremiah C. Wilcox, Charles A. B. 
Langdon, J. M. Limbocker, William C. McBeath. The 5th cavalry 
was composed of companies from different states and can scarcely 
be called an Iowa regiment. It was originally known as the "Cur- 
tis Horse," organized by order of Gen. Fremont. Before the close 
of the war there were consolidated with it two companies of the 
5th la. infantry, the fragments that were left of that regiment after 
a glorious career. Nebraska, Minnesota, Iowa and Missouri all 
had companies in the regiment, and its colonel, W. W. Lowe, was 
a captain of the regular army. It did not get to the front till near 
the spring of 1862, and even then was kept for a whole year in the 
neighborhood of Forts Henry and Heiman, Tenn. Much guard 
duty, reconnoitering and scouting were done during the spring and 
summer. In one of the forays, made in Maj- by a part of the com- 
mand to the little town of Paris, it was surprised and half the men 
present were killed, wounded or captured. In June, the regiment, 
by order, gave up its title of the "Curtis Horse," and from then on 
was designated as the 5th la. cavalry. Late the following August 
Fort Donelson was attacked by 800 Confederate cavalry and in- 
fantry, but they were repulsed. The 5th pursued and had a spirit- 
ed fight with them at Cumberland iron works. The autumn was 
spent at Fort Heiman, with here and there a serious scout or raid. 
All the spring and early summer of 1863 the regiment spent in 
garrisoning Fort Donelson and scouting in the neighborhood. About 
midsummer the command was transferred to Murfreesboro, where 
it became a part of the force under Gen. Rosecrans, and all that 
autumn the men rode up and down Tennessee chasing and captur- 
ing guerrillas. On Oct. 9 the command rushed on to a retreating 
column of Wheeler at Sugar creek and charged it with such impet- 
uosity as to kill 30 of the Confederates, wound as many more, and 
capture 100. The regiment went into camp at Maysvillc and while 
there a picked force of 400 men made a rapid movement to the 
Tennessee river above Decatur, captured a lot of Confederate ferry 
boats, and cleared the river of Confederates and guerrillas for many 
miles. On New Year, 1864, the regiment had reenlisted, and short- 
ly after went home on furlough, but the early spring saw the men 



Iowa Regiments 183 

again in the saddle. In July they entered on the famous Rousseau 
raid, which was a great success and resulted in the destruction of 
immense amounts of Confederate war material, bridges, iron works, 
railroads, etc. Then after a little rest it took part in Gen. Mc- 
Cook's unfortunate raid to the Macon railroad, in which it fought 
well, but its losses were severe, 120 being killed, wounded or miss- 
ing. In all the severe operations about Atlanta, whether on horse 
or on foot, the regiment did its hard and varied duties nobly — in 
fact very nearly used itself up as a body of cavalry. Its horses 
were all done for, and the men, dismounted, fought in the trenches. 
By the end of November it was again mounted and equipped as 
cavalry and was at the front, disputing the march of Hood's army 
into Tennessee. Its first important conflict was at Duck river, after 
which the regiment fell back with the army to Nashville, and when 
the great battle before that city was fought it took part at the ex- 
treme right, where it suffered but little. In the pursuit of Hood, 
which nearly annihilated his whole army, the regiment was very 
active, repeatedly overtaking and engaging his cavalry, with some 
loss. The close of the year found the regiment encamped on Elk 
river, resting and preparing for the great raid under Wilson to Sel- 
ma and Macon, and in all that wonderful movement the 5th cav- 
alry was always at the front. It then joined in the search through 
Georgia for JeflFerson Davis, who was flying for his life, and when 
he was captured a company of the regiment guarded him from At- 
lanta to Augusta. On the way back from Augusta, the company 
captured the assets of the Bank of Tennessee, amounting to $8,000,- 
000 of Federal money, $1,000,000 of it in silver and gold. Early in 
August the brave regiment, after years of hardship, heroic battling 
and faithful service, went home and was mustered out at Clinton, 
la. Its losses were as follows: in deaths from battle, 56; deaths 
from disease, 132; wounded, 56; discharged. 224. 

Sixth Cavalry. — Cols., David S. Wilson, Samuel M. Pollock; Lieut. - 
Cols., Samuel M. Pollock, Edward P. Ten Broeck; Majs., Edward 
P. Ten Broeck, Thomas H. Shephard, Albert E. House, John Gal- 
ligan, De Witt C. Cram. This regiment was recruited in different 
parts of the state, in a wide belt of country extending from the 
northeastern to the southwestern parts of it. The regimental ren- 
dezvous was near the city of Davenport, where eight of the com- 
panies were mustered into the U. S. service on Jan. 31, 1863. Three 
of the companies were mustered a very few days afterward and 
the twelfth company on March 5. The regiment at this time had 
a few more than 1,100 names on its rolls, but they were constantlj'' 
being increased by additional enlistments, so that when it left the 
rendezvous for active service not long afterwards it was nearly up 
to the maximum standard of a cavalry regiment. The regiment 
served during its term of enlistment in the war against the In- 
dians, and its record in the field brought no discredit to the fair 
fame of Iowa soldiers. It had hard marches, far away from the 
comforts or advantages of civilization; fought barbarous foes, usu- 
ally in overwhelming numbers, and was always victorious. The 
regiment was nearly always more or less divided, garrisoning dif- 
ferent posts, scouting and marching in different directions, making 
a succinct history of its arduous services almost impossible. Dur- 
ing its term of service its losses were as follows: deaths from bat- 
tle, 25; deaths from disease, 66; wounded, 19; discharged, 87. 

Seventh Cavalry. — Cols., Samuel W. Summers, Herman H. Heath; 
Lieut. -Col., John Pattee; Majs., Herman H. Heath, George W. O'Brien, 



184 The Union Army 

John S. Wood, James B. David. The formation of the 7th cavalry 
proceeded slowly, and it was finally organized at Camp Hender- 
shott, Davenport, in the summer of 1863, by a consolidation of 
companies which had been previously assigned to other organiza- 
tions. Two companies were mustered into service on April 27, 
two more the day following, two more on June 3, one on the 16th, 
and one on July 13. Meanwhile, three companies of the 41st infan- 
try and a company of Sioux City independent cavalry, were trans- 
ferred to this regiment by orders of the war department. Nearly 
a month before the completion of the organization, Maj. Heath 
marched for Omaha, Neb., with six companies of the regiment, 
which were stationed at different posts in the territory. In Sep- 
tember Col. Summers, with the headquarters of the regiment, and 
the two companies which had been left at Davenport, marched also 
to Omaha, at which place headquarters remained until about the 
middle of July, 1864. But during the entire service of the regi- 
ment the different companies were scattered over ^ wide extent of 
territory, each actively engaged in the heavy duties required of 
troops at frontier posts, in a country constantly threatened and 
frequently invaded by a savage enemy. They garrisoned posts, 
escorted trains, protected emigrants, guarded lines of travel and 
telegraph, and had frequent combats with the Indians who had 
been induced by some means to unbury the tomahawk and wage 
savage warfare against the whites. The loss of the regiment dur- 
ing its term of service was as follows: deaths from battle, 49; 
deaths from disease, 99; wounded, 8; discharged, 246. 

Eighth Cavalry. — Cols., Joseph B. Dorr, Horatio G. Barner; 
Lieut. -Col., Horatio G. Barner; Majs., J. J. Brown, James D. Thomp- 
son, A. J. Price, Richard Root, John H. Isett, E. Shurtz, J. W. Moore, 
John Dance, George W. Burns. The 8th cavalry saw little of real 
war until the spring of 1864, when it started with Sherman in the 
celebrated campaign for Atlanta. The regiment had been organized 
late in the previous autumn at Davenport. It left Iowa in the mid- 
dle of October and by the middle of November was stationed at 
Waverly and other points west of Nashville, Tenn., where it re- 
mained on guard and garrison duty all the winter, with little op- 
portunity for showing the pluck of its soldiers and no chance at all 
for distinction. May-day, 1864, brought on the new campaign, and 
the 8th la. was made a part of the ist brigade of McCook's divi- 
sion of cavalry. In all that arduous campaign the regiment was 
constantly at the front, and when the Confederates, after weeks of 
constant skirmishing and battles, at last fell back behind the Chat- 
tahoochee, the 8th Iowa cavalry was the first troop across the 
river after them. So the fighting and the skirmishing went on 
around Atlanta, and then came that luckless raid of Gen. McCook's 
to the Macon railroad, in which the regiment was captured near 
Newnan, only a few escaping through the woods to tell how hero- 
ically the command had tried to save itself. The late autumn 
found Col. Dorr exchanged, and with his regiment, again ready 
for battle against Gen. Hood, who was then invading Tennessee. 
It was engaged near Franklin, but quietly fell back with the main 
army to take an important part in the great battle and victory of 
Nashville. It participated in a charge on the first day of the bat- 
tle and in the rapid pursuit of Hood, in which the whole Confed- 
erate army was nearly annihilated, the 8th cavalry did its full share 
of hard riding. Late in March, 1865, the regiment was at Chicka- 
saw, Ala., eager to join the other Iowa cavalry there in the grand- 



Iowa Regiments 185 

est raid of the war — the march of Wilson to Selma, Columbus and 
Macon. On Aug. 13, the regiment was mustered out at Macon and 
started for Iowa, its honorable and patriotic career complete. Its 
losses were as follows: deaths from battle, 16; deaths from disease, 
168; wounded, 15; discharged, 64. 

First Light Battery. — Capts., Charles H. Fletcher, Junius A. Jones, 
Henry H. Griffiths, William H. Gay; First Lieuts., Virgil J. David, 
Orrin W. Gambell, Thomas A. Ijams, James W. Williams. This bat- 
tery was raised in July and Aug., 1861, at Burlington, and remained 
in that city until the December following, when it was ordered to 
Benton barracks, St. Louis, Mo., where it received its armament of 
four 6-pounder guns and two 12-pounder howitzers, the battery 
numbering 141 men. It went by railroad to Rolla, Mo., and marched 
with the army commanded by Gen. Curtis to Cross Hollow, Ark. 
At the battle of Pea ridge it did good service, fired the first shot, 
suffered severely in loss of men and horses, had two caissons blown 
up, but through the gallantry of the men all the guns were saved 
from capture, and continued to fire through both days of the battle. 
The battery was honorably mentioned by brigade, division and army 
commanders. In June it marched to Helena, Ark., arriving in July, 
after a march of the greatest hardship to the entire army. On 
Dec. 22 it formed a part of Gen. Steele's division and took part in 
the action of Chickasaw bayou. It participated in the attack upon 
and capture of Arkansas Post and was presented with 2 fine cap- 
tured Parrott guns by special order of Maj.-Gen. McClernand. It 
then went down the Mississippi river to Sherman's landing, oppo- 
site Vicksburg, and debarked, after being 35 days on the trans- 
ports. The battery was distinguished in the campaigns of Vicks- 
burg and Atlanta, in both of which it won the kind mention of 
generals and the admiration of the armies with which it served. 
After an honorable career it was mustered out at Davenport July 
5, 1865. Its losses during service were: deaths from battle, 10; 
deaths from disease, 52; wounded, 31; discharged, 35. 

Second Light Battery. — Capts., Nelson T. Spoor, Joseph R. Reed, 
John W. Coons; First Lieuts., Joseph R. Reed, John W. Coons, 
John Burk, Daniel P. Walling; Second Lieuts., C. F. Reed, John 
Burk, J. E. Snyder. This battery was mustered into the service at 
Council Bluffs Aug. 18, 1861, and its first service was in the siege 
of New Madrid. It went next to Corinth and participated in the 
fight at Farmington. When Stanley's division was struck in flank 
by the Confederates and on the point of disaster, and when other 
batteries were flying from the front, the 2nd la. by boldly holding 
its post and pouring a destructive fire of grape and canister into 
the on-rushing column, checked it and drove it from the field. For 
its gallantry the battery received Stanley's special thanks. luka 
was the battery's next engagement, and then came Corinth, where 
it again saved the day. It next went with Grant toward Vicksburg, 
but as the expedition came to grief at Holly Springs, the battery 
returned to near Memphis for the winter. In the spring and sum- 
mer of 1863 it participated with the 15th corps in the Vicksburg 
campaign, then went to Jackson with Sherman and participated in 
the siege of that place. After the city fell the battery returned to 
the line of the Big Black, where it remained in camp until late in 
November, when it went on the line of the Memphis & Charleston 
railroad and remained at Lagrange, Tenn., until February. Its 
next most important operation was the battle of Tupelo, in which 
it rendered valiant service. In September it went up the White 



186 The Union Army 

river in Arkansas, and afterward marched north in pursuit of Price, 
but although it marched over 500 miles it never came up with the 
enemy. It then went to Nashville and participated in the battle 
there under Gen. Thomas. It fired the first shot in front of the i6th 
corps and when the final crash in Hood's line occurred it was the 
first battery across his line, firing the last artillery shot at the re- 
treating enemy. After the battle it joined in the pursuit of Hood 
to the Tennessee river, when it went into camp and remained until 
P'eb., 1865. Then it was transferred to the Department of the Gulf, 
went to New Orleans and afterward to Mobile bay, participating in 
the siege of Mobile. It was mustered out at Davenport Aug. 7, 
1865. Losses during service: from battle, 2; from disease, 29; 
wounded, 15; discharged, 16. 

Third Light Battery.— Capts., Mortimer M. Hayden, Melvil C. 
Wright, Orlo H. Lyon; Lieuts., W. H. McClure, H. H. Weaver, 
O. G. Day, J. J. Dengl. W. H. Gilford, W. H. Crozier, Jervine 
Bradley, Leroy S. House, Charles S. Martin, D. U. Lee, R. Mc- 
Fate. This battery was organized at Dubuque, in Sept., 1861. It 
was called the Dubuque battery, and for a time was attached to 
the 9th infantry. Its first active service was with Curtis in his 
campaign and battle of Pea ridge. Three days after the battle the 
army was moved southward, but after one day's march, took the 
back track and moved northward to Keithsville, where the battery 
remained until April, when the army commenced the march to 
Batesville, Ark., which point was reached about May 10. From 
Batesville Gen. Curtis commenced his celebrated march to Helena, 
at which place the battery remained until Gen. Steele's expedition 
against Little Rock was organized in Aug., 1863. Forming a por- 
tion of Gen. Steele's forces in that expedition, the battery took 
part in the capture of the place, without any loss, and it also took 
part in the expedition of Gen. Rice against Arkadelphia in October, 
1863. In Dec, 1863, and Jan., 1864, the men reenlisted as veterans 
and in February reenlisted men, with the officers, were sent north 
on furlough, from which they returned in May. At the expiration 
of the original term of service, Sept. 26, 1864, the non-veterans were 
sent north, where they were mustered out on Oct. 3. The veterans 
of a part of the battery next joined in an escort column, taking 
provisions from Little Rock to Fort Smith. Returning to Little 
Rock, the winter passed without noticeable events and the summer 
found the battery well equipped and ready for action. But no ac- 
tion came and it was mustered out Oct. 23. Its losses during its 
term of service were as follows: deaths from battle, 4; deaths from 
disease, 33; wounded, 18; discharged. 27. 

Fourth Light Battery. — Iowa had also a 4th battery of artillery, 
but it entered the service very late, saw little active field duty, 
and was in no battle. It was mustered in at Davenport in the 
autumn of 1863, with Philip H. Goode as captain, and Lieuts. Beat- 
ty, McClellan, Alexander, Ellsworth and Brown. It remained with 
Gen. Sully in the West till Feb. 22, 1864, when it arrived in New 
Orleans. It formed part of the guard of the city during the ab- 
sence of Banks' army in the Red river campaign and afterward 
marched to Thibodeaux, where it remained until mustered out July 
14, 1865. It was a splendidly equipped battery, and the men did 
the duty given them patriotically and well. The loss of the bat- 
tery was 6 who died from disease and 11 discharged. 



SAMUEL J. CRAWFORD 



Brig.-Gen. Samuel J. Crawford, third governor of Kansas 
after its admission into the Union and editor of the chapter on 
^'Military AflFairs in Kansas," was born in Lawrence county, Ind., 
April 10, 1835, and there spent his boyhood on the farm. While 
attending the Bedford academy he took up the study of law 
and in 1856 graduated in the Cincinnati law school. Two years 
later he located at Garnett, Kan., and began the practice of his 
profession. He was a member of the first state legislature, 
which met in March, 1861, and though only 26 years of age he 
soon demonstrated his ability to represent the district from 
•which he was elected. Upon the first call for troops he resigned 
his seat in the legislature, raised a company for the 2nd Kan. 
infantry, being in due season promoted to the colonelcy of the 
regiment and given the rank of brevet brigadier-general. In 
Sept., 1864, while still in the service, he was elected governor 
of the state and in 1866 was reelected, but resigned in Nov., 
1868, to take command of the 19th Kan. regiment in an expe- 
dition against the Indians on the frontier. His last service in 
the Union army during the Civil war was as colonel of the 83d 
U. S. colored infantry, to which he was commissioned on March 
13, 1865. After the war was over and the Indians had been 
subdued Gen. Crawford located in Topeka and resumed the 
practice of law, taking rank as one of the leading attorneys of 
the state. He now has a law office in Washington, D. C., though 
he still claims his residence in Kansas. 



ISi 



Military Affairs in Kansas 

1861-65 



The adoption of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in May, 1854, 
abrogated the agreement of the Missouri Compromise of 1820, 
prohibiting slavery north of the line 36° 30', and left the question 
of slavery or no slavery to the people of the respective terri- 
tories when they should come to frame their state constitu- 
tions. In this act Stephen A. Douglas gave concrete expression 
to the doctrine of popular sovereignty, declaring that his main 
desire was to take from Congress the decision of a local domestic 
question, and leave it to the people vitally interested. The 
act sowed the wind, and the whirlwind was not long in coming. 
It was regarded throughout the North as the very extravagance 
of aggression on the part of the slave interest, the ver}'- refine- 
ment of bad faith, the expression of a determined purpose 
to force slavery upon Kansas, and upon every, territory of 
the United States. Its direct result was to precipitate an 
even more violent and widespread discussion of the slavery 
question than had ever before been known in the country. 
In Kansas itself, the result was seven long years of bloody 
strife between the Free-state and the Pro-slavery settlers 
for the control of the new territory. Civil war in Kansas 
was but the angry prelude to the War of the Rebellion. With 
the admission of Kansas into the Union as a free state under 
the Wyandotte constitution, Jan. 29, 1861, the first decisive 
victory against the slave power within the nation was gained, 
but the state was not admitted until after seven states had 
seceded from the Union, and most of the other Southern senators 
had withdrawn (Jan. 21, 1861), from the United States senate. 

In Dec, 1859, at an election held under the Wyandotte 
constitution, a legislature, state officers and a representative 
in Congress had been chosen. When Kansas was admitted 
as a state in 1861, under the above constitution, the officers 
elected in 1859 became the first state officials. Gov. Charles 
Robinson, who had been so long and prominently identified 
with the Free-soil movement in Kansas, was at the head of 
the state ticket chosen in 1859, and assumed the duties of 
his office Feb. 9, 1861. He promptly asked the legislature 

188 



Military Affairs in Kansas 189 

to meet on March 26, and also appointed M. F. Conway, Thomas 
Ewing, Jr., Henry J. Adams and James C. Stone to represent 
Kansas in the "Peace Conference" at Washington. Both 
Ewing and Stone voted for peace and compromise. 

Kansas had thus barely begun her statehood at the out- 
break of the Civil war and she entered on the work of state 
organization amid the deep mutterings which betokened the 
near approach of the great conflict between the sections. As 
her own soil had been rent by factional strife since the beginning 
of her organization as a territory, and as the infant state was 
now destined to pass through four more years of bitter war- 
fare, Kansas may be said to have been conceived in bitter- 
ness and strife and cradled in war. She well earned her appella- 
tion of "bleeding Kansas." Moreover, in addition to the years 
of domestic embroilment and anxiety, Kansas had just passed 
through one of the greatest natural calamities recorded in 
the nation's history. From June, 1859, to the fall of i860, 
a period of over a year, not a shower fell to soak the parched 
earth. Almost every form of vegetation except the prairie 
grass perished and much suffering prevailed. It is estimated 
that 20,000 people left the territory during this awful time, 
while only the generous supplies of money, provisions, cloth- 
ing and seed wheat, received from the northern states, warded 
off still greater suffering among those who remained. Despite 
her own internal difficulties Kansas maintained an attitude 
of unswerving loyalty to the Federal government through- 
out the Civil war, and the first state message of her first great 
w^ar-govemor gave forth no uncertain sound. Gov. Robinson 
concluded an able and ringing message with the words: "The 
position of the Federal executive is a trying one. The govern- 
ment, when assumed by him, was rent in twain; the cry against 
coercion was heard in every quarter; his hands were tied, and 
he had neither men nor money, nor the authority to use either. 
While it is the duty of every loyal state to see that equal and 
exact justice is done to the citizens of every other state, it is 
equally its duty to sustain the chief executive of the nation in 
defending the government from foes, whether from within or 
without — and Kansas, though last and least of the states in the 
Union, will ever be ready to answer the call of her country." 
Gov. Robinson impressed one as having most of the qualifica- 
tions of a great leader. "He was tall, well-proportioned, 
commanding in appearance, yet winning in manner; with a 
clear, keen, blue eye; a coimtenance that denoted culture 
and intellect, and a will that few would care to run against. 
He would pass anywhere as a good-looking man, and in any 
crowd would command attention. With perfect control of 



190 The Union Army 

himself, he could rule in the midst of a storm. His magnetism 
would inspire men to do and to dare in the cause of human 
liberty and the establishment of the great principles of repub- 
lican government." Fortunate it was that the services of 
this remarkable man were appreciated, and an admiring con- 
stituency saw fit to elect him to the highest office within the 
gift of the people, that of the first governor of the state. In 
the period of crisis which ensued he took high rank among 
the war governors of the loyal states. 

The Federal census of i860 gave Kansas a population of 
143,643 inhabitants, including Indians, but this total was 
much diminished by reason of the drought of i860, from which 
the state had barely emerged when the war began. Con- 
sequently her population in 1861 numbered only a few over 
107,000. The total number of men called for by the president 
of the United States from Kansas during the war was 16,654; 
the state not only supplied her full quota under all calls, but 
furnished a surplus of 3,443 men, or 20,097 ^^n in all. The 
report of the provost-marshal-general is authority for the 
statement that Kansas lost 61.01 men killed in action and died 
from wounds out of each 1,000, which is in excess of the pro- 
portion furnished to the item of mortality by any of the other 
loyal states; Vermont ranking second with a loss per 1,000 
of 58.22. It is also worthy of note that that no bounty was 
ever offered by the state, nor did any city or county offer a 
bounty to secure recruits. The state's quotas were always 
promptly filled up to the end of the war. 

The first state legislature convened at Topeka, pursuant 
to call, March 26, 1861, and continued in session until June 4. 
The legislature had an overwhelming Republican majority 
on joint ballot and on April 4 elected as the first two U. S. 
senators from the state, James H. Lane and Samuel C. Pomeroy — 
Martin F. Conway then serving as her representative in Congress. 
Among the important acts passed was one authorizing the 
issue of $150,000 in bonds to provide for the running expenses 
of the state, and one providing for the organization of a state 
militia. Under the latter act, which was passed only a week 
after President Lincoln issued his first call for 75,000 soldiers, 
militia companies were rapidly formed in nearly every county 
in the state. Altogether 180 companies were organized, divided 
into two divisions, four brigades and eleven regiments. April 
17, five days after Sumter was fired upon, Capt. Samuel Walker 
of Lawrence tendered to Gov. Robinson a company of 100 
men. In fact many militia companies were immediately 
offered from all parts of the state. Although under the first 
call for troops by Lincoln, none were allotted to Kansas, she 



Military Affairs in Kansas l&l 

nevertheless furnished two regiments — the ist and 2nd Kansas 
infantry. Nowhere did the spirit of loyalty rule stronger 
than in the legislature itself. A company was formed of its 
members and officers, which drilled daily under the instruction 
of a member with some previous military training. But the 
sentiment for the Union and "coercion" was by no means 
universal throughout the state. This was only natural in 
view of the peculiar manner in which the state was settled, 
and the strength of the slaveholding interests within her borders. 
Besides, she was immediately adjacent to the great slave- 
holding state of Missouri, which tended strongly to the support 
of the Southern cause. When the first meeting was held in 
Atchison to form a military company, "coercion" was voted 
down and the Union company was organized with difficulty. 
On the other hand, when the steamboat "New Sam Gaty" 
arrived at Leavenworth from St. Louis April 13, with a Con- 
federate flag flying, an angry crowd gathered on the levee and 
compelled the captain to haul down the traitorous emblem 
and replace it with the Stars and Stripes. 

The fact was soon recognized that the war was not to be 
a short one, and the call for three months' militia was not long 
after followed by calls for volunteers for three years or during 
the war. Kansas responded to each of these early calls with 
twice as many men as were demanded. During the term 
of her first governor, or until Jan. 12, 1863, Kansas was called 
upon to provide 5,006 men, and 10,639 were furnished. Dur- 
ing the administration of her second governor, Thomas Carney, 
the quotas assigned to Kansas amounted to 11,654 men, but 
as the state was already credited with a large surplus, she 
was only required to furnish a total of 9,558 men. A complete 
list of the volunteer organizations sworn into the service of 
the United States includes the following: The ist, 2nd, 3d, 
4th, 8th, loth, 12th, 13th and 17th infantry; the ist and 2nd 
Colored infantry; the 2nd, 5th, 6th, 7th, 9th, nth, 14th, 15th 
and 1 6th cavalry; the ist, 2nd and 3d batteries of light artillery, 
and an independent Colored battery. Many of these citizen 
soldiers of Kansas had become inured to war during territorial 
days in their struggles with the "border ruffians" and were 
now only too glad to offer their services to the state and nation 
in the greater struggle which was at hand. But while the 
state as a whole was animated by a spirit of loyalty and patriot- 
ism to the Union and gave an eager response to the call to 
arms, many who had gained an unenviable notoriety during 
the border struggles now came to the surface once more and 
made of the war an occasion for a renewal of killing, bushwhack- 
ing and plundering in the border counties of Missouri and 



192 The Union Army 

Kansas. The secessionists were struggling to carry Missouri 
out of the Union, and the people of Kansas were much aroused. 
They remembered the wrongs and indignities sustained at 
the hands of the border ruffians, most of whom were inhabitants 
of Missouri, and some were now stimulated to acts of revenge, 
resulting in a guerrilla warfare all along the border. Armed 
bands of bushwhackers visited the towns, plundered the stores, 
laid the prominent citizens under contribution, or took them 
prisoners, and sometimes murdered them in cold blood. Of 
course the counties distant from the border were less disturbed, 
though occasional outrages were even perpetrated there. Says 
one who lived through these scenes: "For Kansas, the Civil 
war was but the continuation of the border troubles. The 
embers of that struggle had not been covered with the ashes 
of forgetfulness when they blazed again into direst flames. 
Along the border the war assumed the character of a vendetta; 
a war of revenge, and over all the wide field a war of com- 
bats; of ambushes and ambuscades, of swift advances and 
hurried retreats; of spies and scouts; of stealth, darkness and 
murder. All along the way men riding solitary were shot 
down; little companies killed by their camp fires; men fight- 
ing on both sides neither asking, giving, nor expecting mercy." 
The authorities in both states were desirous of protecting 
their citizens from spoliation, and indeed succeeded for a time, 
the governor of Kansas returning the spoils taken from Mis- 
souri, and authorities in Missouri reciprocating the favor to 
citizens of Kansas. It was this condition of aflEairs which tinged 
the war in the west with extreme bitterness and caused the 
Kansas troops proper, who were fighting gallantly in the field 
to be subjected to much harsh criticism. 

The ist and 2nd infantry left the state early in June, 1861, 
and on the 17th, Gov. Robinson called for more troops, under 
the second call of the president. The Confederate Gen. Price 
and a strong force was advancing on Fort Scott, and this 
news stimulated the formation of the new regiments. By 
the end of August there had been collected at Fort Scott a 
force which came to be known as Lane's brigade, made up of 
the 3d and 4th infantry, and the 5th, 6th and 7th cavalry, 
numbering in all some 2,500 men. The ist Kansas battery 
was also attached to the brigade. A part of this force, under 
Cols. Montgomery, Jennison and Johnson, and Capts. Moon- 
light, Ritchie, Williams and Stewart, had a sharp skirmish 
with the advance of Gen. Price, under Gen. Rains, at Dry Wood, 
Mo., 12 miles east of Fort Scott, Sept. 2. Later the Union 
forces retired from Fort Scott in the direction of the Little 
Osage and built Fort Lincoln. When Price abandoned his 



Military Affairs in Kansas 193 

first attempted invasion of Kansas, and moved to Lexington, 
Mo., Lane's brigade operated on his left flank and kept him 
out of Kansas. 

In Jan., 1862, between 6,000 and 7,000 Indians in the Indian 
Territory, chiefly belonging to the trilies of the Creeks, Seminoles 
and Cherokees, who had remained loyal to the Federal govern- 
ment, sought refuge across the border in southern Kansas. 
Large numbers of these refugees were encamped at Leroy, 
Coffey county, and suffered greatly during the winter. In 
the spring and summer there were organized from these Indians 
three mounted regiments, which were officered mostly from 
Kansas regiments. They were known as the ist, 2nd and 
3d Indian home guards and were formed into a brigade under 
the command of Col. William A. Phillips. 

When Maj.-Gen. David Hunter, who had been assigned 
to the command of the Department of Kansas, arrived at Fort 
Leavenworth, he found the companies comprising the 3d and 4th 
regiments below the maximum and recommended to the governor 
the consolidation of the two regiments into one, which was done; 
and the new organization was designated the loth infantry. 
The loth should have been numbered the 3d after the con- 
solidation, but the matter was not attended to and the numbers 
3d and 4th do not again make their appearance in the military 
history of the state. 

During the winter 1861-62 there was a great deal of talk 
about what the newspapers called Gen. Lane's "Southern 
Expedition." It was Senator Lane's purpose to organize 
and equip a large force under his own command for the purpose 
of conducting a campaign south to the Gulf. The proposed 
expedition seems to have never received the sympathy or 
cooperation of Gen. Hunter, and on Feb. 26, 1862, Lane wrote 
to the legislature that he had failed to make a satisfactory 
arrangement with Gen. Hunter; that he would not lead the 
expedition, and that he had resigned his commission as brigadier- 
general and would return to the senate. The expedition was 
finally abandoned. 

During the year 1862 the president commissioned the follow- 
ing Kansas officers brigadier-generals: Robert B. Mitchell, 
James G. Blunt, Albert L. Lee and G. W. Deitzler. Col. Thomas 
Ewing,Jr. was also commissioned a brigadier-general in 1863, 
and Col. Powell Clayton in 1864. On Nov. 29, 1862, Brig.-Gen. 
Blunt was promoted major-general, and rendered distinguished 
service to the state and nation during the year. On May 2 
1862, he was placed in command of the Department of Kansas, 
and on Aug. 8 left to assume personal command of the troops 
in the field. From Fort Scott he moved southward through 

Vol. IV— 13 



194 The Union Army 

Missouri and Arkansas and won victories at Newtonia, Old 
Fort Wayne, Cane Hill and Prairie Grove. In the last named 
action the combined forces of Gens. Blunt and Herron defeated 
and scattered a greatly superior force of the enemy under 
Gen. Hindman and won a notable victory. On this field were 
present the largest number of Kansas troops yet drawn together, 
there being with Blunt part of the 2nd, 6th, 9th, loth, nth and 
13th Kan. regiments, and three Kansas batteries, commanded 
by Smith, Tenney and Hopkins. 

At the second state election in Nov. 1862, state officers, 
a legislature and member of Congress were elected. Thomas 
Carney, the Republican candidate, was elected governor for 
two years, receiving a majority of 4,545 over his opponent 
W. R. Wagstaff, Union Democrat. A. C. Wilder, Republican, 
was chosen member of Congress and the legislature was again 
overwhelmingly Republican. On Jan. 14, 1863, the senate 
unanimously passed a resolution thanking the officers and 
soldiers of Blunt's command for their victories at Newtonia, 
Old Fort Wayne, Cane Hill, Prairie Grove and Van Buren. 

During 1863 the 14th and 15th regiments of cavalry were 
organized; the organization of the ist Colored Kan. was com- 
pleted and another colored regiment, the 83d U. S., was organ- 
ized and mustered into service Nov. i. Kansas troops had 
particularly distinguished themselves in the operations in 
Missouri, Arkansas and the Indian Territory. The state was 
exposed to attack and predatory raids on its eastern, southern 
and western borders, and was called upon to repel not only 
the regular forces of the Confederacy, but also Indians, and 
irregular bodies of guerrillas. Numerous minor raids by these 
predatory rangers occurred in the border counties in 1861 and 
1862, but the most disastrous visitation of this nature took 
place in 1863. This was the celebrated Quantrill massacre 
at Lawrence Aug. 21, wherein about 150 unarmed and defense- 
less men were cruelly slain, leaving some 80 widows and 250 
orphans. The Rev. Richard Cordley, pastor of the Lawrence 
Congregational church at the time, has left the following account 
of the raid: "On the 20th of August, a body of between 300 
and 400 crossed the state line at sundown. Riding all night, 
they reached Lawrence at daybreak. They dashed into the 
town with a yell, shooting at everybody they saw. The sur- 
prise was complete. The hotel, and every point where a rally 
would be possible, was seized at once, and the ruffians began 
the work of destruction. Some of the citizens escaped into 
the fields and ravines, and some into the woods, but the larger 
portion could not escape at all. Numbers of these were shot 
down as they were found, and often brutally mangled. In 



Military Affairs in Kansas 195 

many cases the bodies were left in the burning buildings and 
consumed. The rebels entered the place about five o'clock, 
and left between nine and ten. Troops for the relief of the 
town were within six miles when the rebels went out. One 
hundred and forty-three were left dead in the streets, and 
about 30 desperately wounded. The main street was all burned 
except two stores. Thus, about 75 business houses were des- 
troyed, and nearly 200 residences. They destroyed something 
near $2,000,000 of property, left 80 widows and 250 orphans, 
as the result of their four hours' work. Scenes of brutality 
were enacted, which have never been surpassed in savage 
warfare. The picture is redeemed only by the fact that 
women and children were in no case hurt." The first 
news of the massacre was brought to Leavenworth by 
James F. Legate. The town was without defenders, as the 
few recruits there in camp had not yet received their arms, and 
were practically wiped out by the first volley, while the militia 
company of the place was widely scattered, and their arms 
were stored in the armory. It took nearly a week to gather 
up and bury the dead, 53 bodies being laid in one trench. A 
memorial monument was raised to the victims in 1895, "Dedi- 
cated to the memory of the 150 citizens, who, defenseless, 
fell victims to the inhuman ferocity of border guerrillas, led 
by the infamous Quantrill in his raid upon Lawrence, Aug. 
21, 1863." Quantrill had at one time been a resident of Law- 
rence. Senator Lane was in the town at the time, but succeeded 
in avoiding the raiders, and as Quantrill's force drew off, he 
and Lieut. John K. Rankin hastily gathered together a small 
force and started in pursuit, but only succeeeded in keeping 
the enemy moving. Much indignation was felt by the citizens 
of Kansas at the alleged remissness of Gen. Ewing, then in 
command of the Department of Kansas and Western Missouri. 
The state, "though war-scourged and poor," came promptly 
to the relief of the stricken city, the citizens of Leavenworth 
alone raising a relief fund of $10,000. 

Only two days after the attack. Gen. Ewing issued General 
Order No. 11, which practically depopulated some of the border 
counties of Missouri, and forced both loyal and disloyal citizens 
to vacate and leave their homes. Those who could satisfy 
the military authorities of their loyalty were permitted to 
remove to any military station in the district, or to any part 
of Kansas except the counties on the eastern border of the 
state, while all others were required to remove from the district 
entirely. This was a harsh measure, but seemed to be necessary 
in order to clear the border region of its disaffected elements. 

Quantrill and his band of marauders still hovered around 



196 The Union Army 

the Kansas border, and on Oct. 6, 1863, about 250 of the guerrillas 
suddenly fell upon Gen. Blunt and his little cavalry escort 
of about 100 men, near Baxter Springs, and killed 80 of the 
party, including several civilians. Gen. Blunt rallied some 
15 of his men and by dint of great coolness and courage, held 
off the foe and escaped. Among the killed was Maj. H, Z. 
Curtis, son of Maj. -Gen. S. R. Curtis. The affair took place 
near the little post known as Fort Blair, which was next assailed, 
but the enemy was gallantly repelled with loss by Lieut. Pond 
of the 3d Wis. cavalry. 

On Oct. 6, 1863, the provost-marshal-general stated that 
Kansas had furnished for the United States service 4,440 men 
in excess of all calls. Her white soldiers numbered 9,613. 
This statement did not include the colored regiment, nor 2,262 
Indians enrolled in the three regiments in 1862. 

At the beginning of the year 1864 Kansas had contributed 
nearly 14,000 men to the Federal service, and this number 
was materially increased in response to the various calls made 
for troops during the year. Many of the men in the old organ- 
izations reenlisted as veterans, and the i6th cavalry and the 
17th infantry were added to the list of regiments already in 
the field. The state was also credited with a considerable num- 
ber of enlistments in the i8th U. S. Colored infantry, and in the 
8th U. S. Veteran Volunteers. The last military organization 
formed in the state during the war was the Independent Col- 
ored Kansas battery, which was mustered into the U. S. serv- 
ice Jan. I, 1865, but saw no active service. Speaking of 
the number of men furnished by Kansas Gov. Crawford said: 
"The state has furnished the Federal army more troops in 
proportion to her population than any other state in the Union; 
and the entire militia was always in readiness for immediate 
action in the field, and was all engaged in rendering efficient 
service in repelling the rebel army under Price from our border; 
and upon several occasions regiments and independent com- 
panies were in actual service, defending the border and fron- 
tier." 

On Jan. i, 1864, Kansas was made a military department 
with Maj. -Gen. Samuel R. Curtis in command, and on the 
29th Gen. Thayer succeeded Gen. McNeil in command of the 
District of the Frontier. 

In the fall of 1864 Kansas wes seriously menaced by one 
other raid, called the "Price raid." Price's army was estimated 
at from 18,000 to 20,000 men, and as it moved north and west 
through Arkansas and Missouri toward the Kansas border, 
energetic measures were taken to resist the advance. On 
Oct. 2 the concentration of Kansas militia began at Olathe; 



Military Affairs in Kansas 197 

on the 8th Gov. Carney issued his proclamation calling out 
the "men of Kansas," and appointed Maj.-Gen. Deitzler as 
commander-in-chief. There was a prompt response by the 
Kansas militia, and it is estimated that over 16,000 men offered 
their services at this time. Fortunately for the state, Gens., 
A. J, Smith and Alfred Pleasonton were close in Price's rear, 
while Gen. Deitzler, in command of the state militia, Gen. 
Curtis, Gen. Blunt, Cols. Blair, Moonlight, Cloud, Crawford, 
and others met him at the border. After fighting a series 
of bloody battles, he was finally forced, late in October, to 
beat a hasty retreat towards Arkansas, and Kansas was saved 
from the threatened invasion. Gen. Curtis, in parting with 
his troops, issued the following congratulatory order from 
the headquarters of the Army of the Border, Nov. 8, 1864: 
"The general tenders his thanks to the officers and soldiers 
for their generous support and prompt obedience to orders, 
and to his staff for their unceasing efforts to share the toil 
incident to the campaign. The pursuit of Price in 1864, and 
the battles of Lexington, Little Blue, Big Blue, Westport, 
Marais des Cygnes, Osage, Chariot and Newtonia, will be borne 
on the banners of the regiments who shared in them; and the 
states of Missouri, Iowa, Kansas, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, 
Wisconsin and Arkansas, may glory in the achievement of 
their sons in this short but eventful campaign." During this 
campaign Price's retreating army entered Linn county from 
the east and moved southward 6 miles to Mine creek, some- 
times called Osage, where a decisive battle was fought on Kansas 
soil. In this battle 500 prisoners and 8 pieces of artillery were 
captured. Among the prisoners were Gens. Marmaduke and 
Cabell. The Union losses were light. Gen. Curtis' order 
of Oct. 10, proclaiming martial law in Kansas, was revoked 
by him after the battle of Mine creek, and on the 27th, Gov. 
Carney ordered the militia to return to their homes. 

In this battle, as in nearly all the battles west of the Mis- 
sissippi, Col. Samuel J. Crawford bore a conspicuous part. When 
Fort Sumter was fired upon, he resigned his seat in the Kansas 
legislature, and entered the army as a captain in the 2d Kan. 
infantry. After the battle of Wilson's creek, his regiment, 
which had suffered heavy losses, was ordered to Fort Leaven- 
worth, to be reorganized into the 2d Kan. cavalry. By an 
order from the war department, Maj. Cloud and Capt. Craw- 
ford were retained in the service to perfect the new organiza- 
tion. With this regiment he served until Nov. i, 1863, when 
he was promoted to the colonelcy of the 83d U. S. Colored 
infantry, and subsequently he was brevetted a brigadier-gen- 
eral of volimteers. 



198 The Union Army 

On Nov. 8, 1864, while in the army, he was elected governor 
of Kansas. At this election the state recorded its first vote 
for president of the United States— Mr. Lincoln. On Jan. 
9, 1865, the new state ofhcers were sworn in, and on the follow- 
ing day the legislature convened. Immediately upon assum- 
ing his new duties, Gov. Crawford proceeded to reconstruct 
the adjutant-general's office, and organize the militia of the 
state, on a fighting basis. At that time the war was raging 
on three sides of Kansas — the Confederates on the south and 
east and hostile tribes of Indians in the service of the Con- 
federacy on the west. Gov. Crawford brought home with 
him from the field, tried and true soldiers, to take charge of 
military affairs in the state. He appointed Maj. T. J. Ander- 
son, adjutant-general; Capt. D. E. Ballard, quartermaster- 
general; Capt. J. K. Rankin, paymaster-general, and Col. 
W. F. Cloud, major-general of the state militia. Under Maj. 
Anderson, the adjutant-general's department was speedily 
put in working order; and under Col. Cloud, the militia of 
the state was soon placed on a fighting basis. On the south 
and east the state was protected from invasion, but on the 
west the hostile Indians were not so easily suppressed. As 
already stated, the state had furnished more than its full quota 
of volunteer troops to the United States, imder all calls from 
the president, but by an oversight on the part of a former 
adjutant-general, all the troops so furnished had not been re- 
ported to the war department, and in consequence a draft had 
been ordered by the secretary of war, prior to the election 
in 1864. Confident that the state was not delinquent, Gov. 
Crawford directed the adjutant-general to prepare a report 
for the war department, showing the number of troops which 
the state had furnished. This report was submitted to the 
secretary by Gov. Crawford in February, whereupon the draft 
was suspended and the drafted men were returned home and 
discharged. The three years term of enlistment of Kansas 
troops having expired, many of them reenlisted, and Gov. 
Crawford reorganized and consolidated most of the regiments 
into veteran battalions, which served until the close of the 
war, when the volunteers returned home and were honorably 
mustered out of service. 

The soldiers of no state of the Union, in proportion to their 
numbers, rendered better or more faithful service to the govern- 
ment than did the Kansas volunteers. From start to finish, 
they were in the fight, and they were always there to stay. 
No Kansas regiment, battery or battalion ever faltered in the 
face of the enemy. The war of the rebellion over. Gov. Craw- 
ford turned his attention to a more savage warfare on the 



Military Affairs in Kansas 19£> 

western border. The wild tribes of Indians that had been 
led into hostility on the frontier by agents of the Confederacy 
during the Civil war, were not so easily suppressed. From 
1865 to 1869, during Gov. Crawford's two administrations, 
a relentless Indian warfare raged along the border settlements 
of Kansas, Nebraska, and the Dakotas, Gens. Sheridan, 
Hancock, Terry, Custer, and other United States officers, 
were in the field, but their troops were so limited in numbers, 
and the field of operation so extensive, that they had difficulty 
in coping with the savages. From early spring until late in 
the fall they would sweep the plains — striking a settlement 
one day, emigrants the next, and overland trains laden with 
merchandise or government military supplies the next. Thus 
they kept up their savage warfare until Aug., 1868, when they 
raided and laid waste the frontier settlements of northwestern 
Kansas for a distance of 30 miles. In this raid they robbed 
and burned houses, killed and wounded a large number of 
settlers, stole many horses, and carried into captivity a number 
of women and children. Being notified of this raid, Gov. 
Crawford was soon on the ground with state troops, but the 
Jndians with their plunder and captives were far away before 
he arrived. 

After caring for the wounded and quieting the remnant 
of settlers who had escaped the scalping knife, he returned 
and communicated with the secretary of war and Gens. Sher- 
man and Sheridan, as to the best means for driving the hostiles 
from the state and preventing further depredations. In view 
of the atrocities which had been committed by the Indians, 
it was determined to organize and concentrate a force under 
the command of Gen. Sheridan for a campaign and follow the 
Indians to their winter haunts in the Indian Territory. Sher- 
idan not having troops sufficient in Kansas for such an expedi- 
tion, requested the secretary of war to call upon Gov. Craw- 
ford for a regiment of cavalry to accompany him. His request 
was promptly granted and the necessary authority given for 
raising, arming, equipping and mustering a regiment of 1,200 
men. In the pursuance of this authority. Gov. Crawford 
organized the 19th Kan. cavalry and joined Sheridan and 
his command at Camp Supply, in the western part of the Indian 
Territory, Nov. 26, 1868. 

On Dec. 6, with the 7th U. S. cavalry, commanded by Gen. 
Custer, and the 19th Kan., commanded by Col. Crawford, 
Sheridan moved southward to the Washita river and thence 
to the field where Custer had the week previous engaged the 
five wild tribes in battle. From the Washita the command 
moved in a south-easterly direction, in close pursuit of the 



200 The Union Army- 

Indians, to the Wichita mountains, a distance of 150 miles 
from Camp Supply, where the Indians, having become exhausted 
and unable to escape, surrendered and agreed to give up the 
women they had previously captured in Kansas. They also 
agreed to turn over their arms to the government and forever 
after stay on their reservation. Thus a savage Indian war 
with the five wild tribes — the Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Comanches, 
Kiowas and Apaches — which had roamed the plains and ravaged 
the border settlements of Kansas for four years, was brought 
to a close. Never afterwards did these Indians come into 
Kansas except as friends. 

At the close of this campaign, which was made in the dead 
of winter, through an untraveled country, in deep snow and 
bitter cold weather. Gov. Crawford returned home, and there- 
after engaged in the peaceful pursuits of life. 

Writing of the services rendered by the soldiers of Kansas 
in the Civil war, Noble L. Prentis says in his History of Kansas: 
"The soldiers of Kansas were called alternately to repel invasion 
and to penetrate the fastnesses of the enemy. The war was 
waged in a wild and almost wilderness country; a country of 
mountains, defiles, tangled woods and canebrakes, traversed 
by countless streams, rapid and roaring, or deep, winding 
and sluggish; but for the most part, without bridges or ferries. 
In the thousands of miles of marching, the Kansas soldiers 
often saw not a rod of smooth and settled highway. They 
moved by trails, by traces, over the hills and far away across 
the prairies, guided by the sun, the distant and random gun, 
the smoke of combat or vengeful burning. They were far 
from the region of great and decisive battles, of strategic com- 
binations and foreseen results. The columns came and went, 
making forced marches for days and nights together — fight- 
ing a battle and winning a dear-bought victory — to return 
whence they came. They fought, and marched, and camped 
in a region that was neither North nor South, and so possessed 
a climate with the evil features of both. They met the blind- 
ing sleet and snow, were drenched with tropical rainstorms, 
and braved alike the blazing fury of the sun, and the bitter 
malice of the frost. Far from their bases of supplies, food 
and powder must be brought a long, toilsome and dangerous 
way, guarded at every step, fought for at every ford and pass. 
It was a hard and desperate warfare." 

The soldiers of Kansas were, for the most part, of hardy 
physique and inured to outdoor life. A large proportion of 
them were excellent horsemen and it was therefore only natural 
that, of the seventeen white regiments furnished by the state, 
nine belonged to the cavalry arm of the service. 



Military Affairs in Kansas 20t 

By resolution of the legislature, approved Feb. 21, 1867^ 
the adjutant-general was required to make a full and com- 
plete report of his office, and the report prepared in conformity 
therewith by Adjt.-Gen. T. J. Anderson, contains the only 
printed record of the soldiers of Kansas who were mustered 
into the service of the United States during the war of the 
rebellion. This report, unfortunately, does not contain the 
names and history of the militia regiments, who performed 
gallant service during the dark days of the war in guarding 
the border. 

In an elaborate statement of casualties embodied in this, 
report, it is shown that the 20,097 "len furnished by the state 
sustained losses as follows: Officers killed, 34; died of wounds, 
12; died of disease, 26; deserted, 2; honorably discharged, 
88; discharged for disability, 8; dishonorably discharged, i; 
cashiered, 4; resigned, 281. Enlisted men killed, 762; died 
of wounds, 192; died of disease, 2,080; deserted, 1,988; dis- 
charged for disability, 1,849; honorably discharged, 999; dis- 
honorably discharged, 94; missing in action, 35. Aggregate 
casualties, 8,498. 

Of the white regiments, the ist infantry sustained the heaviest 
loss in killed and died of wounds, losing 11 officers and 120 
enlisted men. The ist Colored infantry met with the heaviest 
loss killed in action — 4 officers and 166 men. 

Kansas has done wisely in perpetuating the names of many of 
her soldier heroes in the names of her counties; such are Mitchell, 
Cloud, Trego, Norton, Clark, Harper, Rooks, Rush, Russell, 
Stafford, Cowley, Graham, Jewell, Osborne, Ellis, Gove, Pratt, 
Ness, Hodgeman, Crawford and Harvey, — the two last named 
commemorating the names of her two soldiers who later sur- 
vived as governors of the state. Alfred Gray and Dudley 
Haskell, two soldiers from other states, who saw service with 
Kansas troops, have also given their names to two counties. 

Though the machinery of government in the new state of 
Kansas was installed amid the strain and stress of war, it never- 
theless continued to work with regularity. Naturally the 
state made but slow advance in material prosperity during 
the progress of the war and her increase in population was 
correspondingly slow. A census of the state taken in May, 
1865, as a basis for a new apportionment, showed a gain in 
population of only 35,058 in five years, most of which 
took place after the war was practically over. With the return 
of Kansas soldiers to their homes, taking into account the 
natural increase and the great immigration during 1865, it 
is probable that at the close of that year, the population had 
received sufficient accessions to bring it up to 150,000, or a 



203 The Union Army 

gain of nearly fifty per cent over the population at the beginning 
of the war. After the year 1865 the prosperity of Kansas 
was unparalleled in population, wealth, production, internal 
improvements, education, charitable institutions and religion. 



RECORD OF KANSAS REGIMENTS 



NOTE. — The Kansas regiments were numbered consecutively, 
irrespective of whether they belonged to the infantry, cavalry, or 
artillery arm of service. The official report of the adjutant-general 
of the state, 1861-65, has grouped the regiments according to this 
numerical sequence, and the same arrangement will be found be- 
low. It is matter for regret that no adequate record could be found 
by the writer, covering the splendid services rendered by the state 
militia organizations, during the dark days in the autumn of 1864, 
when Kansas was threatened with invasion by Gen. Price's army; 
nor has it been possible to fmd any satisfactory account of the ist, 
2nd and 3d regiments, Indian Home Guards, which were almost 
entirely officered by soldiers from Kansas regiments. These In- 
dian regiments were mainly composed of refugee Indians from the 
Indian Territory, though many of their members were native to 
the soil of the state. 

First Infantry. — Cols., George W. Deitzler, William Y. Rob- 
erts; Lieut. -Cols., Oscar E. Learnard, Otto M. Tennison. Newell 
W. Spicer; Majs., John A. Halderman, William Y. Roberts, James 
Ketner. This regiment was raised under the call of President Lin- 
coln in May, 1861, for three years' volunteers. The men were re- 
cruited between May 20 and June 3, principally from the counties 
of Leavenworth, Douglas and Atchison, rendezvoused at Camp 
Lincoln, near Fort Leavenworth, and were there mustered 
into the U. S. service for three years June 3, 1861. The regiment 
left the state for Kansas City and Springfield, Mo., June 13, joined 
the forces under Gen. Lyon, and participated in a skirmish with 
the enemy under Gen. Price at Dug springs. Mo., in which a few 
men of the ist were wounded. It took part in its first important 
battle at Wilson's creek, where it established a reputation for dis- 
cipline and bravery excelled by none. It went into this bloody 
engagement with 644 men and officers, of whom TJ were killed and 
255 wounded, or 51 per cent, of those engaged. Said the veteran 
Maj. Sturgis to Gen. Lyon, during the progress of the 6 hours' bat- 
tle: "These Kansas boys are doing the best fighting that I have 
ever witnessed." Col. Deitzler, Maj. Halderman, and several other 
officers of the regiment were specially mentioned in the official re- 
port of the battle for gallant and meritorious conduct. The ist 
then retreated from Springfield to Rolla and thence to St. Louis 
with the rest of the Union forces, and was occupied in railroad 
guard duty along the lines of the Hannibal and St. Joseph, and 
the Missouri Pacific railroads during the remaining months of 1861. 
It was then stationed at Lexington for a month, when it was or- 
dered to Fort Leavenworth and was granted 10 days' furlough. It 



Kansas Regiments 303 

rendezvoused again at Lawrence, whence it moved to Fort Scott, 
to join the army under Gen. Curtis. At the time of the contem- 
plated expedition to Texas by way of New Mexico, it was ordered 
to Fort Riley, but on the abandonment of the expedition, it was in 
May ordered to Pittsburg landing, Tenn. Before reaching tliat point 
it was ordered to Columbus, Ky., and was employed during the sum- 
mer in guarding the Mobile & Ohio railroad, with headquarters at 
Trenton, Tenn., whence it moved to Jackson in the latter part of 
September. On Oct. 3 it was assigned to Gen. McPherson's bri- 
gade, joined Rosecrans just at the close of the battle of Corinth, 
Miss., pursued the enemy to Ripley, and was engaged at Chewalla 
and Tuscumbia. Returning to Corinth and thence to Grand Junc- 
tion, it participated in Grant's movement towards Jackson, Miss., 
forming a part of Col. Deitzler's brigade. It was engaged at Lump- 
kin's mill and Tallahatchie; marched with Grant's army to Mem- 
phis in December; and early in the following year embarked on 
transports for Young's point, opposite Vicksburg. From this time 
on until the fall of Vicksburg it shared in all the operations of the 
siege. From Feb. i, 1863, the regiment served as mounted infantry 
by order of Gen. Grant and was constantly employed in outpost and 
picket duty, frequently skirmishing with the enemy. On the fall 
of Vicksburg it moved to Natchez, where it crossed the Mississippi 
river, engaged and routed 2,000 of the enemy on the Louisiana side, 
and then occupied the post of Vandalia, La. During the ensuing 
winter it was employed in picket and outpost duty at Black River 
bridge in the rear of Vicksburg, and thoroughly scouted the coun- 
try toward Jackson, Benton, Yazoo City, etc. During this time 
the regiment was commanded by Lieut. -Col. Spicer, Col. Roberts 
being in command of a brigade. It formed part of Gen. McAr- 
thur's expedition up the Yazoo river, striking the Central Missis- 
sippi railroad at Benton, and engaging the enemy at Tallahatchie. On 
June I, 1864, its term of service having expired, the regiment, ex- 
cept recruits and two companies of veterans embarked on the trans- 
port Arthur for Fort Leavenworth, Kan., to be mustered out. In 
addition to about 300 men of the ist, there were on the boat an 
equal number of men, women and children as passengers. The 
Arthur was fired upon near Columbia, Ark., by an 8-gun battery 
of the enemy, several shots striking the boat, and three shells ex- 
ploding within her, but fortunately the hull and machinery of the 
boat escaped serious damage. One killed and another mortally 
wounded of the ist were the total casualties. The regiment was 
mustered out at Leavenworth June 17, 1864. The veteran com- 
panies continued in service in Mississippi, Louisiana. Arkansas and 
Texas until the end of the war, when they were honorably dis- 
charged at Little Rock, Ark., Aug. 30, 1865. The following is a 
list of the engagements in which the ist was in whole or in part 
engaged: Dug springs, Wilson's creek, Brownsville, Trenton, Che- 
walla, Tuscumbia, Lumpkin's mill, Tallahatchie, Old river. Hood's 
lane. Black bayou. Lake Providence, Caledonia, Pinhook, Bayou 
Tensas, Holly Brook, Baxter's bayou. Cross bayou, Alexandria, 
Big Black river, Columbia, Atchafalaya river, Salem, Richmond. 
La., Bayou Macon, Yazoo City and Benton. The regiment lost 131 
killed and mortally wounded, of which 11 were officers; 94 men 
died of disease and other causes. Its original strength was 986; 
aggregate strength during service, 1,192. 

Second Infantry.— -Col., Robert B. Mitchell; Lieut.-Col., Charles W. 
Blair; Maj., William F. Cloud. This regiment was recruited in 



204 The Union Army 

May, 1861, rendezvoused at Lawrence, and 650 strong started for Kan- 
sas City, Mo., June 13, being mustered into the U. S. service at the 
latter place, June 20, 1861, for three months. The regiment was 
ordered to join the forces under Maj. Sturgis, which formed a junc- 
tion with Gen. Lyon's command at Grand river July 7. The united 
forces then proceeded to Springfield and encamped. The ist and 
2nd Kan. regiments formed a brigade under the command of Col. 
Deitzler of the ist. A portion of the regiment first came under fire 
at Forsyth, Mo., in July and was again engaged in the skirmish at 
Dug springs. In the bloody battle of Wilson's creek the 2nd took 
a gallant and prominent part. During the early part of the en- 
gagement it was in reserve, supporting a section of Totten's bat- 
tery, but as the desperate nature of the battle developed, Gen. Lyon 
ordered it to the front, and as the regiment went into position on 
the crest of the hill on the front center a heavy ambuscaded fire 
was opened on the head of the column. Lyon had joined Col. 
Mitchell and was riding by his side. The general was instantly 
killed by the enemy's fire and Mitchell was severely wounded. The 
command now devolved on Lieut.-Col. Blair, who fought his regi- 
ment with the utmost gallantry throughout the remainder of the 
action. The 2nd was the last regiment to leave the field and main- 
tained its line and organization unbroken from the first to the last 
of the fight, which lasted about 6 hours. The day after the battle 
the 2nd retreated with the army to Rolla, whence it moved to St. 
Louis, where it was ordered to Kansas by Gen. Fremont for muster 
out and reorganization. On the way home the regiment was enr 
gaged at Paris, Mo., and drove the enemy from the town after a 
slight skirmish. Two days later it was attacked at Shelbina by 
3,500 men and a battery of artillery, under command of Col. Green, 
the Union force consisting of only about 600 men under command 
of Col. Williams of the 3d la. infantry. The little band of Union 
men finally made its escape from its precarious situation by seizing 
a locomotive and some freight cars, and running the gauntlet of 
the enemy's battery. The 2nd proceeded to Macon, Bloomfield, 
and thence by rail to St. Joseph, where it surprised and routed a 
force of the enemy and held the post until the arrival of troops to 
permanently garrison the place. Then taking boat, the regiment 
started for Leavenworth, attacking and dispersing a small force at 
latan. When it arrived at Leavenworth, Price's forces had cap- 
tured Lexington, Mo., and were threatening Kansas, so the 2nd was 
ordered to the defense of Wyandotte. When Price retreated the 
regiment again returned to Leavenworth, where it was mustered 
out and discharged Oct. 31, 1861, with instructions to reorganize. 
A large number of its members soon after reenlisted in the 2nd 
Kansas cavalry then being organized, Col. Mitchell becoming colonel 
of the new regiment, and Lieut.-Col. Blair and Maj. Cloud becom- 
ing majors. Its casualties during service were 2 officers and 11 
enlisted men killed, or died of wounds, and 2 men died of disease. 
Second Cavalry. — Cols., Robert B. Mitchell, William F. Cloud; 
Lieut.-Col.. Owen A. Bassett; Majs., Charles W. Blair, Julius G. 
Fisk, William F. Cloud, James M. Pomeroy, Thomas B. Eldridge, 
Henry Hopkins, John Johnston. The first steps taken toward the 
organization of this regiment were in Oct., 1861. when A. C. Davis 
of Wyandotte county was authorized by Maj. -Gen. Fremont, then 
commanding the Western Department, to raise a regiment of cav- 
alry in the state, to be designated the 12th Kan. volunteers. In 
December the organization, then consisting of nine companies, waa 



Kansas Regiments 205 

■designated by the governor the 9th Kan. volunteers, and a tenth 
company, K, was added to the regiment in Jan., 1862. On Feb. 
4, 1862, Cos. F, G, H and I, whose organization was irregular, were 
mustered out, and on Feb. 28 Cos. G, H and I, formerly belonging 
to the 2nd infantry (3 months) and now reorganized, were assigned 
to the regiment. On March 15 the number of the regiment was 
again changed by the governor to the 2nd Kan. volunteers, which 
has caused it to be confused by many with the three months' or- 
ganization of the same name, many of whose members were now 
in the new organization. On March 27, 1862, by order of the gov- 
ernor, the regimental designation was finally changed to the 2nd 
Kan. cavalry, by which it is properly known. The regiment was 
finally mustered on May 7, 1862, having been stationed at Leaven- 
worth, Quindaro, Shawneetown and Fort Riley, during the process 
of organization. In April Col. Mitchell relinquished the command 
of the regiment, having been promoted brigadier-general, and was 
succeeded June i by Col. Cloud of the loth infantry. On April 22 
a detail of 150 men was ordered to report at Fort Leavenworth 
for assignment to duty with a battery of six lo-pounder Parrott guns. 
Capt. Hopkins was detailed to command it, and it became known 
as Hopkins' battery. On May 16 squadrons A and D under Maj. 
Fisk were detached for special duty and ordered to Fort Lyon, 
Col. On June 9 the regiment was ordered to join the Indian expe- 
dition then concentrating at Humboldt, leaving a sufficient force 
to garrison Fort Riley. In obedience to the instructions squad- 
rons B and C were detached for garrison duty under command of 
Capt. D. S. Whittenhall. On the 22nd squadrons B and C were 
•ordered to the relief of Fort Larned, which was threatened by hos- 
tile Indians, and the four squadrons, A, B, C and D, did not re- 
join the regiment until Sept. 20, A and D having meanwhile marched 
a distance of 1,566 miles and B and C 566 miles. The men and 
horses returned in excellent condition and no time was required to 
again fit them for the field. The following is a list of battles and 
skirmishes in which all or a part of this regiment was engaged; 
Coon creek, Newtonia, Hazel Bottom, Elk Horn tavern, Sugar 
creek, Cross Hollow, Old Fort Wayne, Boonesboro; Cove creek, 
Pineville, Cane Hill, Carthage, Boston mountain. Reed's mountain, 
Prairie Grove, Dripping spring, twice at Bentonville, Carthage, 
Honey springs, Perryville, Devil's backbone, twice at Dardanelle, 
Choctaw Nation, four times at Roseville, Clarksville, three times 
at Caddo gap. Baker's spring, Little Missouri river. Sulphur springs, 
Dallas, twice at Waldron, Mountain fork, Caddo mountain, Scott's 
farm, Danville, Prairie d'Ane, Poison springs, Jenkins' ferry, twice 
at Fort Smith, Crawford county. Fort Gibson and Cabin creek. 
Hopkins' battery, was ordered to Columbus, Ky., the latter part of 
May, 1862, and served chiefly in Tennessee and Mississippi as cav- 
alry, returning to Fort Leavenworth, Kan., Oct. 26, 1862, where it 
was temporarily assigned to duty with the post battery. Most of 
the men returned to their regiment by Jan. i, 1863, but many never 
returned. The detail of these 150 men from the regiment materially 
lessened its efficiency and was always regarded as a great disaster. 
All told the 2nd cavalry saw as much hard service and did as much 
"fighting as any other cavalry organization west of the Mississippi. 
Its list of promotions from the ranks is in excess of any other Kan- 
sas organization, and it is the only cavalry organization in the West 
that captured a battery. This battery was captured at the battle 
■of Old Fort Wayne, and Co. B was detached to man the captured 



206 The Union Army 

guns, subsequent!}' becoming known as "Hopkins' Kansas battery"^ 
(see 3d Battery). Its casualties during service amounted to 2 
officers and 62 enlisted men, killed or died of wounds; i officer 
and 93 men died by disease and other causes. Jan. 10-26. 1865, 
Cos. C, D, E, F, G and I (except recruits and veterans reenlisted), 
were mustered out at Fort Leavenworth; Co. H was mustered out 
at Little Rock. Ark., March 18, 1865, and A at the same place April 
14, 1865; K, at Fort Leavenworth, April 17, 1865; and the remain- 
der of the regiment was mustered out June 22, 1865, at Fort Gibson, 
L T. The aggregate strength of the 2nd Cav. was 1,273. 

Third Infantry. — The organization thus numbered, was recruited 
in the summer of 1861 as a part of Lane's Kansas brigade, and was 
consolidated with the 4th infantry and a small number of the 5th 
cavalry, in March. 1862, to form the loth infantry (q. v.). 

Fourth Infantry. — -This regiment was also raised in the summer 
of 1861. as a part of Lane's Kansas brigade, and was consolidated 
as above to form the loth infantry. 

Fifth Cavalry. — Cols., Hampton P. Johnson, Powell Clayton; 
Lieut. -Cols., John Ritchie, Powell Clayton, Wilton A. Jenkins, Thomas 
W. Scudder; Majs., James H. Summers, Wilton A. Jenkins, S. E. 
Hofifman, Samuel Walker, Thomas W. Scudder, Stephen R. Har- 
rington. This regiment was mustered into the U. S. service at 
Camp Denver, near Barnesville, Dec. 31. 1861, for three years. 
Prior to its regular organization and muster in on the above date, 
portions of the command saw considerable active service. Cos. A 
and F formed part of the expedition to Harrisonville, Mo., under com- 
mand of Col. Weer of the 4th Kan. and upon returning to Kansas City 
escorted a supply train to Fort Scott, where Cos. B, C and E, and two 
infantry companies joined them and Col. Johnson took command of 
the regiment. It took part in a number of skirmishes around Fort 
Scott and lost a few men wounded. In a gallant charge at Morris- 
town, Mo., Sept. 17, Col. Johnson fell at the head of his men, pierced 
by nine bullets. Later the regiment was engaged with Price's force at 
Osceola and West Point, Mo., as a part of Lane's brigade, then joined 
the army imder Gen. Fremont for a time, but finally returned to Kan- 
sas and went into winter quarters at Barnesville. Col. Powell Clay- 
ton assumed command of the regiment in Feb., 1862. and the organiza- 
tion rapidly improved in discipline and efficiency under his able man- 
agement. From April 10 to May 25 it was stationed at Springfield, 
Mo., and became very proficient in drill. The regiment was then or- 
dered to join the Army of the Southwest near Helena, Ark. .A^ detach- 
ment of 150 men under Capt. Creitz, escorting the regimental train, 
engaged the enemy with loss at Salem, Ark., at the crossing of the 
Black river near Jacksonport, and received warm commendation from 
Gen. Osterhaus for their bravery and skill in bringing the train safely 
through. The regiment remained in the vicinity of Helena until Aug., 
1863, and while there was engaged in numerous expeditions, almost 
daily skirmishing with the enemy's cavalry. A list of its engagements 
during this period includes Trenton, Parkersville, Oakland, Little Rock 
road. Mount Vernon, Polk's plantation, and two actions at Helena. In 
the battle of Helena, July 4, the 5th fought from sunrise until 2 p. m. 
against Marmaduke's cavalry, finally routing it with great loss. On 
Aug. 15 the regiment started for Little Rock as a part of Gen. Steele's 
expedition and was engaged at Brownsville and Little Rock. On Sept. 
14, it was ordered to Pine Bluflf, fought a sharp engagement with Mar- 
maduke's outpost at Tulip early in October and gained a brilliant vie- 
tory. Col. Clayton had command of the post at Pine Bluff and with 



Kansas Regiments 207 

his force of about 600 men successfully defended the place against an 
attack by Gen. Marmaduke with 3,000 men and 12 pieces of artillery. 
The loss of the 5th was 27 killed, wounded and missing. The regiment 
was again engaged in Jan., 1864, with Shelby's forces at Branchville, 
skirmished at Mount Elba, and late in March participated in the en- 
gagements with the enemy under Gen. Dockery. at Monticello, Long 
View and Mount Elba, which resulted in driving the Confederates from 
the country between the Mississippi and Saline rivers and the capture 
of several hundred prisoners. After the disastrous ending of Gen. 
Banks' Red River expedition. Steele's army was forced to retreat and 
abandon the region south of the Arkansas river. In April, 1864, a por- 
tion of the 5th shared in the disaster at Marks' mills, where Steele's 
train was captured, the loss of the regiment being 5 killed, 7 wounded 
and 44 captured. The last important engagement of the 5th was at 
the Warren cross-roads with a brigade of Texas cavalry, where it lost 
I killed, 4 wounded and i missing. During the remainder of its active 
service the regiment was occupied in scouting, picketing and the usual 
arduous duties of a cavalry regiment, but sustained few additional 
losses. A part of the regiment was mustered out in Dec, 1864, at 
Leavenworth, and the rest at Devall's Blufif, Ark., in June, 1865. The 
services rendered by this gallant regiment were second to none sent 
into the field by Kansas. Its losses were 2 officers and 51 men, killed 
or mortally wounded; 2 officers, 219 men died of disease and other 
causes. It numbered 900 officers and men when it first took the field 
in 1862, and had a total strength during service of 1,320. 

Sixth Cavalry. — Col. William R. Judson; Lieut. -Cols., Lewis R. 
Jewell, William T. Campbell; Majs., William T. Campbell, Wyllis C. 
Ransom. George W. Veale, John A. Johnson, David Meflford. This 
regiment, like the other organizations composing what was known as 
Lane's Kansas brigade, was mostly recruited during the summer of 
1861 and while thus imperfectly and irregularly organized saw consid- 
erable service at Dry Wood. Fort Scott, and on Lane's Osceola expe- 
dition. During the winter 1861-62 the regiment was stationed at Fort 
Scott and in the spring it was completely reorganized under General 
Orders No. 26, issued by Gov. Robinson. In June. 1862, Co. I, Capt. 
Van Sickle, which had been irregularly mustered into the service, was 
mustered out, leaving the regiment with only nine companies, but in 
the spring of 1863 it was recruited to the standard required by the war 
department. The early part of its service was chiefly along the border 
counties of the state, in Missouri and the Indian Territory, serving 
mostly by detachments. On Nov. 13, 1863, it moved to Fort Smith, 
Ark, and was employed during the winter in scouting and on escort 
duty, moving thence to Roseville. On March 26, 1864, it joined the ist 
division. Army of the Frontier, then en route to join Gen. Steele's 
command, and took part in the Camden expedition. The regiment sus- 
tained its greatest disaster at Mazzard's prairie, near Fort Smith, Ark., 
where a battalion was surprised by some 600 Confederates. After a 
gallant resistance Capt. Meflford. Lieut. De Friese and 82 men were 
captured, and a considerable number were killed and wounded. A list 
of the engagements in which the regiment or some part of it partici- 
pated is as follows: Dry Wood, Morristown, Osceola, Carthage, Dia- 
mond Grove, Lost creek, Taberville, Clear creek. Hickory Grove, Coon 
creek, Granby, Newtonia, Old Fort Wayne, Boston mountain, Cane 
Hill, Prairie Grove. Webber's Falls, Fort Gibson, Cabin creek, Hone}'- 
Springs, Baker's springs, Roseville, Stone's farm, Prairie d'Ane, Mos- 
cow, Dutch mills, Camden, Poison springs, Princeton, Jenkins' ferry, 
Dardanelle, Clarksville, Fayetteville, Iron Bridge, Mazzard's prairie. 



208 The Union Army 

Lee's creek, Van Buren, Fort Smith, Fort Scott, Cow creek and Trad- 
ing Post. About Dec. i, 1864, Cos. A, B, C, D, E, F and K were mus- 
tered out at Fort Leavenworth. The remainder of the regiment, con- 
sisting of veterans and recruits, continued in service as a battalion and 
was mustered out July 18, 1865, at Devall's BluflF, Ark. The total loss 
of the regiment by death during service was, 4 officers and 91 enlisted 
men, killed in action or died of wounds; 3 officers and 120 enlisted men 
died by disease and other causes. The loss of the 6th in killed and 
died of wounds was the largest of any cavalry regiment of Kansas, and 
amounted to nearly 80 per thousand of the whole number enlisted. Its 
original strength was 851; recruits, 654; aggregate strength, 1.505. 

Seventh Cavalry. — Cols., Charles R. Jennison, Albert L. Lee, 
Thomas P. Herrick; Lieut.-Cols., Daniel R. Anthony, Thomas P. 
Herrick, David W. Houston, William S. Jenkins, Francis M. 
Malone; Majs., Daniel R. Anthony, Thomas P. Herrick, Al- 
bert L. Lee, John T. Snoddy, Clark S. Merriman, William S. Jen- 
kins, Francis M. Malone, Charles H. Gregory, Levi H. Utt. This 
regiment was recruited in the summer of 1861, and was mustered 
into the U. S. service, 902 strong, at Fort Leavenworth Oct. 28, 
1861, for three years. It was immediately ordered into the field and 
served during the fall and winter of 1861-62 in western Missouri. 
Its first battle was on the Little Blue river, where Cos. A, B and 
H were engaged with a force commanded by the notorious Upton 
Hays and lost 9 killed and 32 wounded. On Jan. 31, 1862, it moved 
to Humboldt, Kan., and on March 25 was ordered to Lawrence, 
where Col. Jennison resigned and was succeeded by Lieut. -Col. 
Anthony. In May the regiment embarked on transports for Co- 
lumbus, Ky., whence it shortly moved to Jacinto, Miss., and thence 
to Rienzi, Miss., where it remained until the evacuation of the post 
Sept. 30. 1862. It was assigned to Col. Philip H. Sheridan's cav- 
alry brigade, Army of the Mississippi, and while stationed at Rien- 
zi was constantly in the saddle, engaging in numerous severe cav- 
alry skirmishes. Cos. B and E participated in the battle of luka 
and received special notice from Gen. Rosecrans for bravery on 
the field and in the pursuit. The regiment was active during Van 
Dorn's raid upon Corinth, and was in the advance during the pur- 
suit to Ripley, Miss. Returning to Corinth, it next engaged in an 
expedition into Alabama under command of Col. Lee. routed Rod- 
dey's cavalry at Buzzard Roost station and took a number of pris- 
oners. On its return to Corinth it was ordered to join Grant's 
army at Grand Junction, and had a sharp engagement with the 
Confederate cavalry under Gen. Jackson near Lamar, Miss. On 
Nov. 28 it made a raid to Holly Springs and routed the enemy's 
garrison when it charged into the town. As Grant's army moved 
into Mississippi the 7th held the extreme advance during the great- 
er portion of the campaign. It was the first to cross the Talla- 
hatchie; led the advance into Oxford; was first into Water Valley; 
and was heavily engaged with the advance at CofTeeville. It then 
fell back with the cavalry to Water Valley and formed part of the 
force sent to intercept Van Dorn, when that general captured 
Holly Springs and burnt Grant's stores. After joining in the pur- 
suit of Van Dorn it moved to Moscow, Tenn., and was employed 
in guard duty along the line of the Memphis & Charleston rail- 
road until the middle of April, 1863. Col. Lee was promoted to 
brigadier-general and the command of the regiment devolved upon 
Lieut.-Col. Herrick. In the latter part of April, as a part of Gen. 
Dodge's cavalry, it was engaged with Roddey's and Forrest's cav- 



Kansas Regiments 209 

airy at Tuscumbia, Leighton and Town creek, and then moved 
south with the rest of the cavalry as a diversion in favor of Gen. 
Grierson. who was then engaged in his famous raid through Mis- 
sissippi. Attached to Col. Cornyn's brigade it had a sharp fight 
at Tupelo in May, where the enemy was driven from the field with 
heavy loss. The regiment was stationed at Corinth from May 9, 1863, 
to Jan. 8, 1864, during which time it was almost constantly in the saddle 
and participated in many severe battles and skirmishes, notably at 
Florence and Hamburg, Ala., luka, Swallow's bluff, Byhalia, Wyatt 
and Ripley, Miss., and Jack's creek, Tenn. In Jan., 1864, while 
bivouacked near La Grange, Tenn, 455 members of the 7th reenlisted 
as veterans and on the i8th the regiment was ordered to Memphis, 
where the veterans were remustered and then proceeded to Kansas 
on 30 days' furlough. On June 6, 1864, the regiment was again in 
Memphis. On July S it moved south from La Grange in advance 
of Gen. A. J. Smith's infantry column, which moved against For- 
rest's cavalry, and it acted as rear-guard when Smith turned east 
toward Tupelo. In the battle of Tupelo, the 7th was on the right 
flank and was only lightly engaged. It had a sharp skirmish at 
Ellistown, and in August, when Smith again moved against Gen. 
Forrest, it took a prominent part in the expedition, being engaged 
at the crossing of the Tallahatchie, Oxford and in the cavalry bat- 
tle of Hurricane creek. Returning to Memphis after this campaign, 
it was ordered to report to Gen. Rosecrans at St. Louis, where it 
arrived Sept. 17, 1864. Commanded by Lieut.-Col. Malone, it was 
active during the Missouri campaign against Gen. Price, took part 
in all the principal engagements, routed a superior force and cap- 
tured 2 pieces of artillery at Independence. Mo. After this cam- 
paign the regiment served by detachments in the St. Louis district, 
where it was employed against guerrillas until July 18, 1865. It 
was finally mustered out at Fort Leavenworth, Sept. 29, 1865, hav- 
ing served a term of 3 years and 11 months, during which it 
marched, exclusive of distance traveled on transports and by rail, 
12,050 miles. The regiment lost by death during service 3 officers 
and 61 enlisted men killed in action or mortally wounded; i officer and 
97 enlisted men died by disease and other causes. 

Eighth Infantry. — Cols., Henry W. Wessells, Robert H. Gra- 
ham, John A. Martin; Lieut. -Cols., John A. Martin, James L. Aber- 
nathy, Edward F. Schneider, James M. Graham, John Conover; 
Majs., Edward F. Schneider, James M. Graham, John Conover, Hen- 
ry C. Austin. This regiment, like most of the first Kansas organ- 
izations, was originally intended for service in the state and along 
the border, and, as was also true of many of the early regiments 
formed, it was at first a mixed organization, intended to have eight 
companies of infantry and two of cavalry. The first six companies 
were mustered into the U. S. service in Sept., 1861, for three years, 
two more companies were added in October, and the regimental 
headquarters were established at Lawrence. During Dec, 1861, 
and Jan., 1862, two more incomplete companies joined the regiment 
as Cos. I and K. On Feb. 7, 1862. Col. Wessells was ordered to 
rejoin his regiment in the regular army, and on the 28th, by order 
of Gen. Hunter, commanding the department, the regiment was 
thoroughly reorganized and consolidated with a battalion raised for 
service in New Mexico, and Col. Graham of the latter was assigned 
to the command. As finally reorganized the regiment had a total 
strength of 862 officers and men. Late in May, 1862, with other 
regiments, under command of Gen. Robert B. Mitchell, it was or- 
Vol. IV— 14 



210 The Union Army 

dered to Corinth, Miss., and a battalion of five companies left the 
state for that point May 27. After some delays at Columbus, Ky., 
Union City, Trenton and Humboldt, Tenn., it finally arrived at 
Corinth July 3 and was temporarily attached to Col. Fuller's bri- 
gade, Gen. JefT. C. Davis' division. Army of the Mississippi. On 
Feb. 22, 1863, Cos. A, C, D and F, and March 29 Co. G, compos- 
ing the battalion which had been left behind in Kansas, reported 
at Nashville and the regiment was there united for the first time 
since its organization. Meanwhile Co. G had been stationed at 
Fort Laramie, and the other companies had seen considerable serv- 
ice along the border of Kansas and in Missouri, fighting with Coffey, 
Cockrell, Quantrill and other guerrilla leaders. The battalion at 
Corinth left that point July 22, 1862, for Jacinto, where it was at- 
tached to the 1st brigade, 9th division, Army of the Mississippi, Gen. 
Davis commanding the division, and Gen. Mitchell the brigade. 
Col. Graham had been taken sick at St. Louis, and never rejoined 
his command, being succeeded by Lieut. -Col. Martin. The mili- 
tary historian of the regiment, in summarizing its services for the 
adjutant-general's report, says: "During its term of service the 
8th traveled 10,750 miles. It participated in 15 battles and 18 skir- 
mishes. It lost in battle, 3 commissioned officers and 62 enlisted 
men killed; 13 officers and 259 enlisted men wounded; and i officer and 
20 enlisted men missing; or a total of 64 killed, 272 wounded, and 21 
missing." In the above losses there are not included 5 men killed and 
17 wounded in slight skirmishes or by guerrillas while foraging and 
scouting. Hence, the aggregate loss of the regiment was 379, killed, 
wounded and missing. Three officers and 92 men died of disease, 
and the total loss by death was 212. The heaviest loss sustained by 
the regiment was at Chickamauga, where out of a total of 406 en- 
gaged it lost 243 officers and men killed, wounded and missing, or 
65 per cent, of those present. Says the same military historian: 
"The gleam of its bayonets was seen from Fort Laramie, Neb., to 
the Rio Grande; its banners fluttered in the sunlight from Kansas 
to North Carolina; the crack of its rifles startled the echoes in the 
valley of the Platte and along the hillsides of the Tennessee and 
Chattahoochee, and the tramp of its soldiers resounded in the 
dusty highways of twelve different states. * * * Jt hunted guer- 
rillas in Missouri, combatted Longstreet's Virginia veterans at 
Chickamauga, stormed the blazing heights of Missionary ridge, 
fought a continuous battle from Kennesaw mountain to Atlanta, 
and broke through Hood's lines at the battle which annihilated the 
rebel army of the West. At Nashville it did duty in white gloves, 
and at Knoxville it was shirtless, shoeless, hatless and in rags. It 
knew how to garrison a post or charge a line of intrenchments. At 
Fort Leavenworth it vied with the oldest and best trained soldiers 
of the regular army in the perfection of its discipline and drill, and 
in Georgia it lived on the country with Sherman's bummers." The 
regiment was the last of the Kansas troops to be discharged, being 
finally mustered out at Fort Leavenworth Jan. 9, 1866, when it 
mustered a total of 196 officers and men. 

Ninth Cavalry. — Col., Edward Lynde; Lieut.-Cols., Charles S. 
Clarke, Willoughby Doudna; Majs., James M. Pomeroy, Edwin P. 
Bancroft, Willoughby Doudna, Linn K. Thacher, J. Milton Had- 
ley. The organization of this regiment was completed by consol- 
idating independent battalions, squadrons and detachments origi- 
nally intended for other organizations. The permanent organization 
\vras effected March 27, 1862, in accordance with General Orders 



Kansas Regiments 311 

issued Feb. 28, 1862, by Gen. Hunter, commanding the department. 
Cos. A, B, C, D, E, F, G and I were recruited in the fall of 1861 
and were mustered into the U. S. service from Oct., 1861, to March, 
1862, for three years. Co. K was mustered into service July 11, 
1862, L, from May 2 to Sept. 21, 1863; M, Aug. 21. 1863. Soon after 
its permanent organization, the regiment then having nine com- 
panies, Cos. A, B, C, G and I were detached by order of Brig.-Gen. 
Blunt and sent to various points from the Missouri river to the 
Rocky mountains. In the summer of 1862, Cos. D, E, F and H 
participated in the fight at Locust Grove, Ind. Ter., and later in 
an eight days' running fight with the forces of Gen. Coffee, in 
which the endurance of the men was thoroughly tested. The 9th 
was scarcely ever united in a single organization, but was engaged, 
at widely scattered points, serving by detachments. During nearly 
its entire period of service it was employed in the irregular and 
hazardous warfare along the border, where it rendered valiant and 
faithful service against the various irregular forces of the enemy, 
but where it found little chance to make a great name for itself. 
Such was the fine character of the regiment, it is believed that it 
would have achieved distinction had it been attached to one of the 
larger armies and thus enabled to participate in the more impor- 
tant engagements of the war. In the latter part of Sept., 1862, Cos. 
D, E, F and H, commanded by Col. Lynde took part in the dis- 
astrous engagement at Newtonia, where they fought until their 
ranks were decimated and they were literally crowded from the 
field. They materially assisted in bringing oflt the artillery and 
enabled part of the infantry to escape. In the Cane Hill fight two 
squadrons of the 9th took part. It was next in the raid on Van 
Buren as a part of Gen. Blunt's forces and in Feb., 1863, it con- 
voyed an immense supply train to Fort Scott. During the remain- 
der of 1863 the regiment served by detachments along the eastern 
border of Kansas, employed in repelling the frequent and desper- 
ate raids of bushwhackers from western Missouri and on June 17 
had a bloody skirmish with the enemy near Westport. Guerrillas 
under Todd and Parker had ambushed and badly cut up Co. E 
under Capt. Flesher, while en route for Kansas City. Maj. Thach- 
er was ordered back with Cos. A and K to the assistance of their 
comrades and finally located the enemy resting in camp. A charge 
was immediately made, in which the enemy was severely punished 
and the booty taken on the previous day was recaptured. The 
headquarters of the regiment during the summer was at Trading 
Post, but the companies were posted along the border at Harrison- 
ville, Aubrey, Pleasant Hill and Westport. Co. C, which had been 
stationed at Fort Riley, joined the regiment at Trading Post and 
was active at Cabin creek against Cooper's forces, inflicting a loss 
on the enemy equal to the entire number of the company. After 
the Quantrill raid on Lawrence in August, nearly every squadron 
of the 9th participated in the pursuit. The last important service 
of the regiment on the border was in connection with the expul- 
sion of Shelby's raiders from Missouri, when a detachment was 
engaged in the exhausting pursuit for 26 days, and nights, and fol- 
lowed the retreating enemy into Arkansas, 150 miles south of Neo- 
sho. The various companies then returned to their several sta- 
tions along the border, where they remained until March, 1864, when 
by order of Gen. Schofield all Kansas troops in western Missouri 
were sent over the line into Kansas. Col. Lynde meanwhile had 
sought to have his command attached, either to the Army of the 



212 The Union Army 

Cumberland or to that of Gen. Steele, who was then preparing to 
cooperate with Gen. Banks in his Red River expedition. The regi- 
ment was assigned to the latter department and began the march 
to Little Rock April 3, via Harrisonville, Clinton and Springfield. 
Before reaching Little Rock, orders reached it to proceed to Fort 
Smith, where it encamped at Mazzard's prairie until July. Here 
Col. Lynde commanded the cavalry brigade and the 9th engaged 
in numerous skirmishes and scouting and foraging expeditions. 
Among others, raids were made to Dallas and Lane's bottom, 100 
miles down the river from Fort Smith. On July 2 it was ordered 
to Little Rock and arrived on the 14th. It participated in an expe- 
dition towards the White river; another to the vicinity of Clear 
Lake, in order to free that region from the presence of conscrip- 
tors; and a third one against the forces of Gen. Shelby. In this 
last expedition two battalions under Majs. Pomeroy and Thacher 
took an active part, dismounting and charging the enemy at Bull 
bayou and achieving a brilliant success. When Price started on 
his raid into Missouri, the Qth was sent to annoy him and act as a 
corps of observation. In September Capt. Coleman made a bril- 
liant scout south of Little Rock, defeated a force three times his num- 
ber, and shortly afterward Co. F, while engaged in a similar scout, was 
ambushed by a superior force, but rallied and put the enemy to 
flight. This practically closed the active service of the regiment. 
Its members were mustered out at Devall's Bluff, Ark., Jan. 16 
and July 17, 1865. Its casualties by death during service amounted 
to I officer, 55 enlisted men killed, or mortally wounded; 2 officers, 
199 men died of disease and other causes. It numbered 817 men 
in the spring of 1862, and received 710 recruits, giving it an aggre- 
gate strength of 1,527 officers and men. 

Tenth Infantry. — Cols., James Montgomery, William Weer, 
William F. Cloud; Lieut. -Cols., James G. Blunt, John T. Burris, 
Charles S. Hills; Majs., Otis B. Gunn, Henry H. Williams. This 
regiment was formed at Paola, April 3, 1862, by the consolidation 
of the 3d and 4th regiments, together with a few members of the 
5th (see 3d and 4th infantry). It numbered about 800 officers and 
men of exceptionally fine physique, as most of the physically unfit 
members had been culled out during the previous service of the 
several organizations of which it was made up. Its rolls disclose 
few deaths from diseases and but little sickness during the next 
two years. As soon as organized it was marched to Fort Scott, 
where it went into camp to await orders. Not long after four com 
panics were ordered to report to Col. Doubleday and moved on an 
expedition into Indian Territory against the notorious Col. Stand 
Watie of the ist Confederate Cherokee regiment. It was the only 
infantry accompanying the expedition and marched 30 miles a day 
to keep up with the cavalry and artillery. In June, 1862, Col. Cloud 
having been transferred to the 2nd cavalry. Col. Weer, formerly 
of the 4th, assumed command of the regiment. The first active 
service of the lOth was with the expedition commanded by Col. 
Weer into the Indian Territory in June, 1862, returning to Fort 
Scott Aug. 15. It was then assigned to the 2nd brigade (Col. Weer), 
Frontier division (Gen. Blunt), and marched into Missouri to as- 
sist in checking the advance of the enemy under Cols. Coffee and 
Cockrell. It was only lightly engaged at the battle of Newtonia 
in September, where the Union forces suffered a disastrous repulse 
in the first engagement, but received reinforcements and were vic- 
torious a little later at the same place. With the ist division. Army 



Kansas Regiments 21:3 

of the Frontier, under Gen. Blunt, it moved west into Indian Ter- 
ritory in October and arrived just too late to share in the fight at 
Old Fort Wayne. In November it was actively engaged in the 
battles of Cane Hill and Prairie Grove, losing in the latter action, 
6 killed and 67 wounded out of 387 engaged. It was engaged at 
Van Buren, where the remaining portion of Gen. Hindman's force 
was routed and finally driven south of the Arkansas river. In Jan., 
1863, it formed part of the force sent to the relief of Springfield, 
then besieged by Gen. Marmaduke. overtaking and driving the ene- 
my at Sand springs. Mo. In March, 1863, it moved into the White 
river country to check the enemy's cavalry under Gen. Shelby ad- 
vancing against Forsyth. The regiment then returned to the vi- 
cinity of Fort Scott and part of the command went home on 20 
days' furlough. On April 2^ it marched to Rolla, Mo., where it 
did provost duty until June 4, then moved to St. Louis, whence it 
was ordered into Indiana at the time of Gen. Morgan's raid. It was 
not needed there so it returned to St. Louis July 18, and moved to 
Kansas City in August. In September it marched into the Sni 
hills in pursuit of the guerrilla Quantrill, after his raid upon Law- 
rence, and after returning from the unsuccessful pursuit was sta- 
tioned at Kansas City until Jan., 1864. It then moved to St. Louis, 
whence it was ordered to Alton, 111., to take charge of the mili- 
tary prison. On May 5, it was again ordered to St. Louis and de- 
tailed for provost guard of the city. In July Col. Weer was ar- 
rested and tried under various charges, being sentenced to dishon- 
orable dismissal from the service, though the sentence of the court 
was set aside a year later. The regiment was then ordered to Fort 
Leavenworth, where it was mustered out Aug. 19-20, 1864. The 
veterans and recruits were organized at St. Louis, Aug. 15, 1864, 
into a battalion of four companies and continued in service until 
after the close of the war. The veteran organization was under 
the command of Maj. Williams until the end of August and was 
then successively commanded by Lieut. F. A. Smalley, Capt. George 
D. Brooke, Capt. William C. Jones and Lieut. -Col. Hills. In the 
latter part of November the battalion moved to Nashville and 
thence to Franklin, Tenn., where it took part in the battle with 
Hood's forces as a part of the 4th corps. It was then assigned to 
the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, i6th corps, and took a prominent 
and honorable part in the battle of Nashville. In Feb., 1865, it 
embarked on transports, went down the Mississippi to New Or- 
leans, and later took part in the campaign for the reduction of 
Mobile, Ala. Of its conduct at the battle of Fort Blakely Gen. 
Gilbert, commanding the brigade in which it served, said: "The 
10th Kansas, a little band of heroes, rushed forward as into the 
jaws of death, with a determination to conquer or die. * * * Too 
much praise cannot be bestowed upon them." The battalion was 
finally mustered out at Montgomery, Ala., Aug. 30, 1865, and was 
paid and discharged at Fort Leavenworth Sept. 20. The loth lost 
by death during service 2 officers and 22, enlisted men, killed or 
died of wounds; 4 officers and 118 enlisted men died of disease, 
accident and other causes. 

Eleventh Cavalry. — Cols., Thomas Ewing, Jr., Thomas Moon- 
light; Lieut. -Cols., Thomas Moonlight, Preston B. Plumb; Majs., 
Preston B. Plumb, Martin Anderson, Edmund G. Ross, Nathaniel 
A. Adams. This regiment was recruited, organized, mounted and 
equipped for active service in less than a month after recruiting 
began in Aug., 1862. It was raised under the call of July 2, 1862, 



214 The Union Army 

for three years' volunteers, and the rapidity witli wliich it was 
formed is due to the energetic efforts and admirable recruiting or- 
ganization perfected by Col. Ewing, who left his position of chief 
justice of the supreme court of the state to assume the work. The 
members of the regiment were recruited from the counties of Leav- 
enworth, Jefferson, Jackson, Shawnee, Wabaunsee, Pottawatomie, 
Riley, Davis, Morris, Lyon, Greenwood, Franklin and Anderson, 
rendezvoused at Camp Lyon near Fort Leavenworth, and were there 
mustered into the U. S. service Sept. 15, 1862, for a three years' 
term. A large proportion of the officers had seen previous mili- 
tary service and Lieut. -Col. Moonlight had been a soldier in the 
regular army, commanding a battery of artillery. At the time the 
regiment was formed he was serving on the staff of Gen. Blunt. 
On Oct. 4 the regiment moved on its first campaign, proceeding 
to Pea ridge, Ark., where it joined the Army of the Frontier un- 
der Gen. Schofield, and was assigned to Cloud's (3d) brigade, Blunt's 
(ist) division, serving as infantry. The first fight of its division at 
Old Fort Wayne, Ind. Ter., was won by the cavalry, though the 
nth arrived too late to participate in the action. It next moved 
to Little Osage with its division, thence to Flint creek on the west- 
ern border of Arkansas, where it remained for two weeks. Late 
in November it made a forced march of 40 miles south and en- 
gaged in its first fight with the forces of Gen. Marmaduke at Cane 
Hill, where it led the infantry advance and had a few men wound- 
ed. It was again engaged with Hindman's and Marmaduke's forces 
at Prairie Grove and sustained its full share of losses in that bloody 
and indecisive battle. Returning to Cane Hill after the fight, it 
moved on Dec. 27 to Van Buren on the Arkansas river, 50 miles 
south. This was a hard march through a gorge of the Boston 
mountains and many men died from exposure. On the 31st it re- 
turned with the army to Elm springs, remained there two weeks, 
and then moved to the vicinity of Springfield, where it spent the 
remainder of the winter. In the latter part of March all the Kan- 
sas troops were ordered to Fort Scott, whence most of them went 
home on 30 days' furlough. On the expiration of this leave the 
regiment rejoined the Army of the Frontier at Salem, Mo. On 
March 13, 1863, Col. Ewing was appointed brigadier-general and 
assigned to the command of the ist division. Shortly afterward 
the Army of the Frontier was broken up and scattered, and Ewing 
was sent to command the District of the Border, with headquarters 
at Kansas City, where the nth moved in April. It had now been 
in service nine months, had lost over 300 men, and was reduced 
below the minimum standard of an infantry regiment. Soon after 
its arrival at Kansas City the regiment was mounted, changed 
from infantry to cavalry, and given authority to recruit two new 
companies. It was not until the following spring that the old com- 
panies were recruited to the cavalry maximum and the new com- 
panies, L and M, fully recruited. During this time the regiment 
was occupied in the arduous and thankless border service at scat- 
tered points by detachments and often engaged with the enemy's 
bushwhackers. In the latter part of September most of the regi- 
ment was engaged in the pursuit and expulsion of Shelby's forces 
from central Missouri. In December a detachment under Maj. 
Plumb was sent to the southern border of Kansas, to resist a 
threatened raid by the Cherokee Stand Watie, and was there em- 
ployed until Aug., 1864, escorting trains to Fort Gibson, etc. The 
regiment, over 1,200 strong, was stationed in Kansas in the spring 



Kansas Regiments 215 

and summer of 1864, still serving by detachments. Col. Moonlight 
had command of a sub-district with headquarters at Paola. The 
regiment took a prominent and honorable part in all the marches 
and battles incident to the Price raid in the fall of 1864, Lieut. -Col. 
Plumb commanding the regiment and Col. Moonlight the 2nd bri- 
gade. After Price had been driven across the Arkansas, the nth 
returned to Paola, and not long after was ordered to Fort Riley 
to outfit and recruit. Cos. C and E were thence ordered to Fort 
Larned and the rest of the regiment to Fort Kearny, whence, after 
a halt of only two days, they marched to Fort Laramie, where news 
of the successes around Petersburg was received. From Fort Lara- 
mie the regiment marched 150 miles farther west to Platte bridge 
and remained in that vicinity for four months, guarding the over- 
land telegraph and campaigning against hostile Indians. From 
their distant station, i.ooo miles away the nth was ordered to Fort 
Leavenworth for muster out. This took place from Aug. 19 to 
Sept. 26, 1865. The loss of the nth by death during its term of 
service was 65 men killed and died of wounds; 2 officers and loi 
men died from disease, accident and other causes. It received 498 
recruits and had an aggregate strength during service of 1,414. 

Twelfth Infantry. — Col. Charles W. Adams; Lieut.-Col., Josiah 
E. Hayes; Maj., Thomas H. Kennedy. This regiment, recruited 
in the late summer of 1862 from the counties of Wyandotte, John- 
son, Douglas, Miami, Franklin, Coffey, Allen, Linn and Bourbon, 
rendezvoused at Paola and was there mustered into the U. S. 
service during September for three years. Throughout its first 
year of service the regiment was stationed at different points along 
the line between Kansas and Missouri, serving by detachments. 
Co. H was stationed at Fort Larned. A detachment of the regi- 
ment was engaged at Baxter Springs in Oct., 1863, and in the lat- 
ter part of the same month a detail of three companies escorted a 
supply train from Fort Gibson to Fort Smith, Ark. In Nov., 1863, 
the rest of the regiment, except Co. H at Fort Larned, was con- 
centrated at Fort Scott, and the following month marched a dis- 
tance of 215 miles in 15 days to Fort Smith, where in Feb., 1864, 
Co. H joined the regiment. In March, 1864, as part of the 2nd 
brigade, frontier division (Brig.-Gen. Thayer), 7th corps, it moved 
on Gen. Steele's Camden expedition, was engaged at Prairie d'Ane, 
and arrived with the army at Camden April 16. On the return the 
I2th took part in the action at Jenkins' ferry, and then moved with 
the army to Little Rock, Ark. Not long after this it moved with 
the frontier division on a forced march to Fort Smith, which was 
threatened by the enemy. During the 50 days between the time 
when it left Fort Smith, until its return to that post, it had marched 
550 miles over the worst possible roads, most of the time on half 
rations, and part of the time entirely destitute of provisions for 
men or animals. It then performed fatigue duty for some months 
at Fort Smith and the following winter, until Feb. 24, 1865, it was 
chiefly employed in escort duty. At the above date it embarked 
for Little Rock, Ark., where it was employed in fatigue and guard 
duty until it was mustered out June 30, 1865. Its loss by death 
during service was, 2 officers, 12 men, killed or died of wounds; 
2 officers, in men died from disease, accident and other causes. 
Its total strength was 1,013. 

Thirteenth Infantry. — Col. Thomas M. Bowen; Lieut.-Col., John 
B. Wheeler; Maj., Caleb A. Woodworth. This was the 3d Kansas 
regiment raised under the president's call of July 2, 1862, for 300,000 



216 The Union Army 

volunteers to serve for three years or during the war. It was re- 
cruited during the months of August and September from the coun- 
ties of Atchison, Brown, Doniphan, Marshall and Nemaha, rendez- 
voused at Camp Stanton, Atchison, and was there mustered into the 
U. S. service Sept. 20. The men were substantial citizens, princi- 
pally farmers. Early in Oct., 1862, it was ordered to take the lield, 
marched by way of Leavenworth and Fort Scott to join Gen. Blunt's 
command at Old Fort Wayne, Ind. Ter., and henceforth was a part 
of the Army of the Frontier. From Old Fort Wayne it moved to 
Camp Ewing, thence to Camp Bowen, Ark., and later to Camp 
Babcock on Lindsay's prairie. Ark. As a part of Weer's (2nd) 
brigade, Blunt's (ist) division, it participated in the engagement 
at Cane Hill, but sustained no loss. After the pursuit of Marma- 
duke's retreating force it returned to Cane Hill and encamped 
until it was called into action at the battle of Prairie Grove, where 
it was warmly commended by its brigade commander. Its loss 
m this action was 8 men killed, 3 officers and 40 men wounded, 
and 5 men missing. Returning once more to its old camp at Cane 
Hill, it remained there until Dec. 2^, when it moved with the army 
to Van Buren. This march was made in extremely cold weather 
and the command was forced to ford a rapid mountain stream sev- 
eral times, resulting in numerous deaths from exposure. It then 
moved with the army to Elm springs and encamped there until 
Jan. 7, 1863, when it made a forced march to Springfield, Mo., in 
order to resist a threatened attack. There it remained until spring, 
performing garrison and escort duty, though a part of the command 
engaged in a raid on the town of Forsyth. On May 19 it moved 
to Fort Scott, thence to Dry Wood and engaged in outpost duty 
for a period of two months, during which time most of the men 
went home on 20 days' furlough. The regiment again took the 
field Aug. 3, 1863, in Gen. Blunt's campaign against the irregular 
forces of Cooper, Cabell, Steele and Stand Watie, which resulted 
in driving the enemy to the Red river and the capture of Fort 
Smith. The 13th marched over 400 miles in August, 200 of which 
were during the last 10 days of the month. Finally abandoning 
the pursuit of the enemy, it was ordered to Webber's falls, Ind. 
Ter., remained there two weeks, and then moved to Scullyville, 
Ind. Ter., where it performed outpost and scout duty until Oct. 6. 
It next moved to Van Buren, Ark., where it went into winter quar- 
ters. In March, 1864, Cos. A, C, D, G, H and I were ordered to 
Fort Smith, Ark., for garrison duty, Cos. B, E and F remaining 
as a garrison for Van Buren. The regiment continued to garrison 
these two posts during the disastrous Camden expedition of Gen. 
Steele. Col. Bowen was captured by bushwhackers in Aug., 1864, 
but effected his release by a compromise on the same day. The 
year of 1864 passed in garrison and scout duty, numerous encoun- 
ters with guerrilla bands taking place, of which no official report 
was ever made. On March 3, 1865, the regiment was ordered to 
Little Rock, Ark., where it performed guard and provost duty until 
June 26, when it was mustered out and was finally discharged at 
Fort Leavenworth July 13. It lost by death during its term of 
service, 3 officers and 20 enlisted men killed or died of wounds; i 
officer and 104 enlisted men died from disease, accident and other 
causes. 

Fourteenth Cavalry.— Col. Charles W. Blair; Lieut.-Cols., Charles 
W. Blair, John G. Brown, J. Finn Hill; Majs., Daniel H. David, 
Charles Willetts, John G. Brown, J. Finn Hill, William O. Gould. 



Kansas Regiments 21 T 

This regiment was recruited during the summer and fall of 1863, 
under authority received by Gen. Blunt from the war department. 
It rendezvoused at Fort Scott, and was mustered into the U. S. 
service Nov. 20, 1863. On the same day it started for Fort Smith, 
Ark., under the command of Lieut.-Col. Moonlight of the nth cav- 
alry, and arrived at its destination on Dec. 3. It remained there 
until Feb. 23, 1864, performing picket, scout and forage duty, and 
then moved on an expedition into the Choctaw country. It was 
stationed at Ozark, Ark., from Feb. 28 to April 6, when it moved on 
the Camden expedition as part of Bassett's (3d cavalry) brigade, 
Thayer's frontier division, which formed a junction with the 7th 
corps, under Gen. Steele on the nth at the Little Missouri river. 
It participated in the skirmishes at Prairie d'Ane and Moscow and 
was complimented by Gen. Thayer for its coolness and bravery. A 
detachment of 92 officers and men from the 14th was engaged at 
Poison Springs, losing 9 men killed and captured. After the evac- 
uation of Camden, Cos. F and G took part in the engagement at 
Jenkins' ferry, being the only Federal cavalry present. In May the 
regiment returned to Fort Smith, where it was stationed for the 
balance of the year, performing guard, picket, scout and escort 
duty and sustaining some losses. During the campaign against 
Gen. Price in the fall of 1864, Co. E, Lieut. William B. Clark, served 
as personal escort to Maj.-Gen. Blunt, and distinguished itself at 
Cabin creek, Westport, Mine creek and Newtonia. On Jan. i, 1865, 
the 14th was ordered to Clarksville, Ark., where, with the rest of 
the 3d brigade, it guarded the navigation of the Arkansas river and 
was almost daily engaged with some of the irregular forces of the 
enemy with which the region swarmed. One of the important serv- 
ices rendered was to succor the wounded soldiers, passengers and 
crew of the steamer Annie Jacobs, which had been attacked and 
disabled by a force under Col. Brooks 15 miles above Clarksville. 
On another occasion a battalion of the 14th, led by Maj. Willetts, 
made a scout 125 miles northeast of Clarksville into the Bear creek 
country. In the latter part of Feb., 1865, the regiment was ordered 
to Pine Bluflf, having been assigned to the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 
7th corps. While there it was armed with the Spencer carbine, and 
served dismounted as infantry. Early in May it was ordered to 
Fort Gibson, Ind. Ter., where it was mustered out June 25, 1865. 
It will be observed that most of its two years' term of service was 
spent in the Department of Arkansas and in defending the line of 
the Arkansas river. Its loss by death during service was i officer 
and 50 enlisted men killed and died of wounds; 2 officers and 106 
enlisted men died from disease, accident and other causes. 

Fifteenth Cavalry. — Cols., Charles R. Jennison, William F. Cloud; 
Lieut. -Cols., George H. Hoyt, Henry C. Haas; Majs., Robert H. 
Hunt, John M. Laing, Henry C. Haas, Benjamin F. Simpson, Leroy 
J. Beam. Immediately after Quantrill's raid upon the defenseless 
city of Lawrence, Gov. Carney commissioned Col. C. R. Jennison, 
formerly of the 7th, to recruit a regiment of cavalry. Previous to 
the Lawrence massacre the governor had received authority from 
the war department to organize a cavalry force to be primarily de- 
voted to the protection of the exposed border of the state. The 
15th cavalry was the immediate result. It was recruited from the 
state at large, rendezvoused at Fort Leavenworth and was there 
mustered into the U. S. service Oct. 17, 1863, for three years. Col. 
Jennison remained in command at Fort Leavenworth until Aug., 
1864, during which time the several companies of the regiment were 



"218 The Union Army 

stationed along the eastern and southern border of the state at 
Olathe, Paola. Coldwater Grove, Trading Post, Fort Scott, Osage 
Mission, and Humboldt. Co. IT served out its term at Fort Riley in 
another district. In Feb., 1864, the regiment was armed with the 
improved Sharp's carbines in place of the wretched Hall's car- 
bines. Adjt.-Gen. Holliday, in his report for 1864, thus character- 
ized the regiment: "It was made up of men whose ardent attach- 
ment to the cause of freedom and the maintenance of the general 
government peculiarly qualified them as zealous and efficient guar- 
dians of the public welfare in the district of country where their 
duty called them. Always on the alert for bushwhackers and guer- 
rillas, they have frequently administered such good and whole- 
some admonition to them as to cause the name of the isth to be- 
come a terror to those 'enemies of the human race.' Patient of 
■endurance and fearless almost to desperation in the face of the 
enemy, they have added laurels to the memory of their slain, and 
converted the appellation of 'jayhawkers' into one of honor and 
fame. The 15th was almost constantly in the presence of the ene- 
my during the late invasion of Missouri (the Price raid), retarding 
his advance or hastening his retreat by following closely upon and 
striking terror and dismay into his broken and disordered hordes. 
Except the battles included in the invasion above referred to, the 
15th has not participated in many of importance, but from the haz- 
ardous and arduous duties it has been required to perform, its num- 
bers have been considerably reduced. The many outrages from 
which the sudden and unexpected presence of the iSth has saved 
the people of Kansas, will ever remind them of the gratitude they 
owe the soldiers of this gallant regiment." In Aug., 1864, Col. 
Jennison was placed in command of the ist sub-district of southern 
Kansas. Lieut. -Col. Hoyt commanded the troops in and west of 
Neosho valley, with headquarters at Humboldt, and Maj. Laing 
commanded in Linn and Anderson counties until the troops were 
concentrated at Fort Scott, after the capture by the enemy of the 
train at Cabin creek. As the enemy withdrew south of the Arkan- 
sas the troops returned to their various stations about Oct. i. 
Shortly after this, when Gen. Price invaded Missouri, Col. Jennison 
was placed in command of the ist brigade, ist division. Army of 
the Border, the iSth Kan., a battalion of the 3d Wis., and a battery 
of i2-pounder mountain howitzers, composing the brigade. A 
portion of the regiment being on detached service, the regi- 
ment only numbered about 600 men when it entered on the ardu- 
ous campaign against Price. It rendered gallant service in the en- 
gagements at Lexington. Little Blue. Independence, Big Blue, West- 
port, Santa Fe, Osage and Newtonia. In the last named engage- 
ment the first brigade was commanded by Lieut. -Col. Hoyt, who 
was recommended for promotion by Gen. Blunt on account of gal- 
lant and meritorious conduct, in consequence of which he was brevet- 
ted colonel and brigadier-general. The campaign against Price 
practically closed the active service of the iSth, though the regiment 
■was not mustered out at Fort Leavenworth until Oct. 19, 1865. Its 
casualties by death during service were 2 officers, 19 enlisted men, 
"killed or died of wounds; 2 officers, Tj enlisted men, died of dis- 
ease, accident and other causes. 

Sixteenth Cavalry. — Col. Werter R. Davis; Lieut. -Cols., Werter 
R. Davis. Samuel Walker; Majs.. James A. Price, Wilber F. Wood- 
worth, James Ketner, Clarkson Reynolds. This regiment was re- 
cruited from the state at large, rendezvoused at Fort Leavenworth, 



Kansas Regiments 2V.} 

and was there mustered into the U. S. service from Sept., 
1863, to Oct. 8, 1864. A large proportion of its members had seen 
previous mihtary service in other organizations and these veterans 
exerted a marked influence on the regiment in the matter of dis- 
cipline and soldierly conduct. Says the historian of the regiment 
in the adjutant-general's report for 1861-65: "The i6th did not see 
the hard service which it was the fortune of the older regiments 
to perform. At the battle of the Big Blue, in the vicinity of West- 
port, Mo., and in the pursuit of the retreating rebel army under 
Gen. Price, the i6th bore an honorable part and gave proof of the 
same soldierly qualities that characterized the Kansas troops under 
all circumstances of danger and peril. A part of the regiment was 
sent to the plains in pursuit of hostile Indians during the summer 
of its organization, and with this, and the exception before men- 
tioned, the regiment was performing post and escort duty during 
most of its term of service. The i6th was made up of men whose 
ardent attachment to the principles of freedom and the perpetuity 
of our institutions of justice and liberty peculiarly qualified them 
for the trust confided to them — guarding the defenseless homes of 
the citizens of Kansas on and near the border from the incursions 
of the numerous bands of bloodthirsty and unprincipled bushwhackers 
which at that time threatened that portion of the state. This duty, 
though onerous and fatiguing, requiring the greatest vigilance, watch- 
fulness and care, they performed well and faithfully, and the self- 
sacrificing exertions of the i6th, although called into the field at a 
late day, to protect their homes from the torch and themselves 
from the knife of brutal assassins, should ever be held in grateful 
remembrance by the people of Kansas." Like the 15th cavalry, 
this regiment had its inspiration in the infamous Quantrill raid in 
Aug., 1863, and its first companies were rapidly recruited after that 
event for service along the exposed border counties of the state. 
It was mustered out at Fort Leavenworth Dec. 6, 1865, having lost 
T)y death during its term of service, i officer, 13 enlisted men, killed 
or died of wounds; 94 enlisted men died of disease, accident and 
other causes. 

Seventeenth Infantry. — Lieut. -Col., Samuel A. Drake. This regi- 
ment was called into service for 100 days in July, 1864, but men 
enough for only five companies (455 in all) were recruited. These 
were organized into a battalion at Camp Deitzler, Leavenworth, where 
they were mustered into the U. S. service July 28, 1864. Troops were 
needed to garrison the western posts, in consequence of which the com- 
panies of this command were early separated. Co. A was ordered 
to Fort Riley, C to Cottonwood Falls, D to Lawrence, and B and 
E remained with regimental headquarters at Fort Leavenworth. 
When the forces of Gen. Price invaded Missouri and seriously 
threatened Kansas in the fall of 1864, Lieut. -Col. Drake's command 
was ordered to Paola where Drake relieved Capt. Huntoon of the 
nth, in command of the post. As Price's army advanced toward 
the Kansas border the utmost vigilance was required of the little 
force stationed at the exposed station of Paola. Only two com- 
panies of the 17th and one of the i6th were left to protect the 
place, together with its valuable public property. Everything was 
done by Drake's command to put the town in a complete condi- 
tion of defense and the men of the 17th built a fort on the site of 
their camp. Many of the state militia called out at the time of the 
Price raid rendezvoused at Paola and the several regiments and 
detachments as they reported, were supplied and forwarded by CoL 



220 The Union Army 

Drake to their respective destinations. When the retreating ene- 
my threatened Mound City, Drake's little command made a forced 
march to the relief of that point and assisted in preventing an at- 
tack on the town. During the cavalry engagement at Mine creek, 
the 17th formed in skirmishing order and brought in a number of 
prisoners from the cornfields surrounding the town. Its term of 
enlistment having now expired, the regiment was ordered back to 
Paola, thence to Fort Leavenworth, where it was mustered out 
Nov. 16, 1864. The fortunes of war gave the command little op- 
portunity to distinguish itself, but its reputation for discipline and 
soldierly conduct was good. There were no deaths and only 2 or 
3 desertions by professional bounty jumpers. 

First Colored Infantry. — Col., James M. Williams; Lieut. -Cols., 
James M. Williams, John Bowles, Richard G. Ward; Majs., John 
Bowles, Richard G. Ward. In the summer of 1862, Senator James 
H. Lane was authorized by the war department to recruit the troops 
which Kansas was called upon to furnish at that time, and under 
certain restrictions to officer the same when mustered into the U. S. 
service, thereby taking from the governor of the state the custo- 
mary right to commission the officers. Early in Aug., 1862, Lane 
appointed Capt. James H. Williams, of the 5th Kan. infantry, re- 
cruiting commissioner for the northern portion of Kansas, and 
Capt. H. C. Seaman, of the same regiment, recruiting commissioner 
for the southern portion, for the purpose of organizing a regiment 
of infantry to be composed of men of African descent. Much delay 
and a good deal of opposition were encountered in the work of re- 
cruiting, as a large element of the white population of the state, 
for various reasons, objected to the enlistment of colored soldiers. 
However, six companies were mustered in for three years at Fort 
Scott, Jan. 13, 1863, and the remaining four companies, between 
Jan. 13 and May 2. On Oct. 28, 1862, a detachment of 225 recruits 
for the regiment, encamped near Butler, was attacked by a force of 
several hundred men under Col. Cockrell. The enemy was defeated 
after a severe engagement, the loss of the ist being 10 killed and 
12 wounded, among the former being Capt. A. J. Crew. This is 
claimed to have been the first engagement of the war in which 
colored troops were engaged. As soon as it was organized in May, 
the regiment moved to Baxter Springs, where a detachment short- 
ly after made a diversion on Shawnee, Mo., dispersed a small force 
of the enemy and captured some prisoners. In May 25 men of the 
1st formed part of a small foraging party sent into Jasper county, 
Mo., which was attacked and defeated by a superior force under 
Maj. Livingston. Two of the 1st were captured, and Livingston 
refused to exchange his colored prisoners, one of them being sub- 
sequently murdered. In retaliation Col. Williams at once ordered 
one of his prisoners shot. The regiment remained at Baxter Springs 
until June 27, 1863, when it marched to Fort Gibson as part of the 
escort of a large supply train, engaging the enemy, under Gen. 
Cooper, en route at Cabin creek, where the Confederates were de- 
feated and driven with great loss. This is claimed to have been 
the first action during the war in which white and colored troops 
were joined, and it was the first battle in which the whole regiment 
was engaged. The colored troops evinced great coolness and brav- 
ery under fire. The regiment arrived at Fort Gibson July 5, and 
formed part of Blunt's forces in the battle of Honey springs, where 
it again fought gallantly, capturing 40 prisoners and a battlefiag 
Its loss in the engagement was 5 killed and 32 wounded. In Sep- 



Kansas Regiments 2'Zl 

tember it again moved with Blunt's division in pursuit of Cooper's 
forces as far as Perryville in the Choctaw Nation. Returning, it 
encamped at Fort Davis until October, when it moved to Fort 
Smith, to Waldron Dec. i, and thence to Roseville, Ark., where it 
went into winter quarters. In March, 1864, as part of Adams' 2nd 
brigade, Thayer's frontier division, 7th corps, it moved on Gen. 
Steele's Camden expedition. It was engaged at Prairie d'Ane, Mos- 
cow and Poison Springs, where it fought with the utmost gallantry 
against overwhelming odds from 10 a. m. to 2 p. m. and lost 187 offi- 
cers and men out of less than 500 engaged. The regiment returned 
with the army to Little Rock, where on May i. Col. Williams was 
given command of the 2nd brigade and did not again assume direct 
command of his regiment, though it continued to form part of his bri- 
gade. In the latter part of May the regiment moved to F"ort Smith, 
then threatened by the enemy, and remained on duty there until Jan. 
16, 1865, performing escort and fatigue duty. During this period a 
detachment of 42 men of Co. K under Lieut. D. M. Sutherland was 
surprised by a force of the enemy under Gen. Gano, and after a gal- 
lant resistance was defeated with a loss of 22 killed and 10 prisoners. 
On Jan. 16, the regiment moved to Little Rock and remained at this 
point until July, 1865. It then performed garrison and escort duty at 
Pine Bluff, Ark., until Oct. i, 1865, when it was mustered out and or- 
dered to Fort Leavenworth for final payment and discharge. The cas- 
ualites of the regiment by death during service were 4 officers and 166 
enlisted men, killed in action or died of wounds; i ofificer and 165 en- 
listed men died from disease, accident, and other causes. 

Second Colored Infantry. — Col., Samuel J. Crawford; Lieut.-Cols., 
Horatio Knowles, James H. Gillpatrick; Majs., James H. Gillpatrick, 
Jerome A. Soward. Authority to recruit a second regiment of colored 
infantry in Kansas was received in June, 1863, and the several com- 
panies were mustered into the U. S. service from Aug. 11 to Oct. 17 
at Fort Scott for three years. On Oct. 19 the regiment marched to 
Fort Smith, Ark., under command of Maj. Gillpatrick as escort to a 
supply train. The organization of the regiment was completed Nov. i, 
1863, at Fort Smith, by the muster in of the remaining field and 
staff officers. Here it became a part of the Army of the Frontier 
and attained a high degree of proficiency in drill and discipline, 
being employed until March, 1864, in escort, fatigue and garrison 
duties. It was assigned to the 2nd brigade, Thayer's frontier divi- 
sion, and moved on Steele's Camden expedition in March, 1864, 
fighting at Prairie d'Ane, and in the various skirmishes leading up 
to the occupation of Camden. During the retreat of the army 
to Little Rock the regiment was heavily engaged at Jenkins' ferry, 
where it behaved with the utmost gallantry, charging and captur- 
ing a battery of 3 guns, and materially aiding in holding the ene- 
my in check until the rear of the army could cross the river. Dur- 
ing the heroic charge Col. Crawford's, and every other field offi- 
cer's horse, was killed under him. Besides the battery, the regi- 
ment captured a large number of small arms and a number of 
prisoners, and inflicted a loss of about 150 killed and wounded on 
the enemy. Its own loss was i officer and 72 men killed and 
wounded, among the killed being the gallant Alexander Rush of 
Co. H, who fell leading his company into battle. The campaign 
had been a disastrous one for Steele's army, the 2nd returning to 
Little Rock without transportation and with the loss of all com- 
pany books and records. The half starved regiment only remained 
at Little Rock long enough to draw rations, when it was ordered 



222 The Union Army 

•with other troops to Fort Smith, then threatened by the enemy 
under Dockery, Fagan, Cooper and others, and after an absence 
of 54 days it returned to its old camp on the Poteau river near 
Fort Smith. About June i the regiment was ordered, in part, to 
garrison duty at Fort Smith, and from this time on was under the 
command of Lieut. -Col. Gillpatrick, Col. Crawford being absent 
on special duty. The regiment had become so reduced in num- 
bers by losses in action and from disease that it was below the 
minimum standard and Gillpatrick could not be mustered as colonel. 
During the six months the 2nd was stationed at Fort Smith it per- 
formed its full share of escort and fatigue duty, was frequently 
engaged with small bands of the enemy, and took part in several 
trying expeditions. About the middle of Jan., 1865, it was ordered 
to Little Rock, arrived there Feb. 4 and encamped on the north 
side of the river among the cypress swamps, where it suffered 
greatly from sickness by reason of its unsanitary location. Its 
last offensive movement was in the spring of 1865, when it pro- 
ceeded south some distance from Little Rock and operated against 
a large band of guerrillas on the Saline river, dispersing them with 
heavy loss. Early in Aug., 1865, the regiment moved to Camden, 
Ark., where it remained until mustered out Oct. 9, and was finally 
paid and discharged at Fort Leavenworth Nov. 27. The regiment 
lost by death during its term of service, 2 officers and zy enlisted 
men, killed in action and died of wounds; 187 enlisted men died 
from disease, accident and other causes. 

First Light Battery. — Capts., Thomas Bickerton, Norman Allen,. 
Marcus D. Tenney. This battery was mustered into the U. S. serv- 
ice at Mound City July 24, 1861, for three years, and during the 
first two years of its service was in action at Ball's mills, Dry 
Wood, Morristown, Osceola, Newtonia and Prairie Grove. In the 
early months of its service it was attached to Lane's Kansas bri- 
gade and in 1862 was assigned to Weer's 2nd brigade, Blunt's ist 
division, Army of the Frontier. In the bloody victorj' gained by 
the Union forces at Prairie Grove the ist battery gained new lau- 
rels for itself. Said the official report of Col. Weer, commanding 
the brigade: "The conduct of Lieut. Tenney and his battery was 
under the immediate eye of the general commanding. Their de- 
structive and rapid fire has even extorted high encomiums from the 
enemy," and Weer recommended that Lieut. Tenney, who had been 
long discharging the duties of captain, be promoted to that posi- 
tion. Gen. Blunt, who was in general command of the Union forces 
in this battle, said: "To Capts. Rabb and Hopkins, and Lieuts. Ten- 
ney and Stover, who served their artillery with such terrible and 
destructive efTect upon the enemy's ranks, too much praise cannot 
be awarded. All did their duty well and nobly." On three sepa- 
rate occasions during this fight the ist battery repulsed the enemy 
with terrible slaughter. On the last occasion it silenced a Confed- 
erate battery of 10 guns in less than 10 minutes and dismounted 2 
of their guns. Its loss in this action was 11 killed and wounded. 
In the history of the Kansas regiments embodied in the adjutant- 
general's report for 1861-65, it is stated: "About the 9th of July, 
1863, the gallant commander of this battery — Capt. Norman Allen 
— was stricken down with disease and died. The command then 
devolved upon Lieut. Taylor. Directly succeeding this it was ordered 
to Indiana and took an active part in capturing Morgan then on 
his celebrated raid through that state. After this it was ordered 
to St. Louis and subsequently to Columbus, Ky. It served with 



Kansas Regiments 223 

distinction in all the principal actions in which the armies of the 
Tennessee and the Mississippi were engaged, and its numbers were 
greatly reduced by the casualties of war and by disease." The 
battery was mustered out at Leavenworth, July 17, 1865. Forty- 
three of its members reenlisted as veterans in 1864. It lost by 
death during its term of service, 5 men killed and died of wounds; 
I officer and 20 men died of disease, accident, and other causes. 

Second Light Battery. — Capt., Edward A. Smith. This organ- 
ization was recruited in the late summer of 1862 by Maj. C. W. 
Blair, of the 2nd Kan. cavalry, and it was mustered into the U. S. 
service at Fort Scott Sept. 10, for three years. It numbered 123 
ofificers and men and was at once assigned to what was later known 
as the 1st brigade, ist division, Army of the Frontier. A section 
of the battery under Lieut. Clark was engaged without loss in the 
second engagement at Newtonia. During Gen. Blunt's movement 
against Marmaduke at Cane Hill in the latter part of November, 
two sections of the battery guarded the brigade and supply trains 
which were parked on Lindsay's prairie, and later moved with them 
to Rhea's mills. On Dec. 3, 1862, it was ordered back to Fort Scott 
to be paid and reorganized. The entire battery rem.ained at Fort 
Scott until May i, 1863, when one section under Lieut. Knowles 
was sent to Baxter Springs with the ist Colored infantry. On May 
18 a detachment of 25 artillerymen and some 50 or 60 colored sol- 
diers were surprised by a force of guerrillas under Livingston near 
Sherwood. Mo., when 3 of the battery were killed and 2 captured. 
In June the section at Baxter Springs returned to Fort Scott. An- 
other section of the battery under Lieut. Wilson formed part of 
the escort to a large supply train to Fort Gibson a little later and 
took part in the engagement with Stand Watie's force at Cabin 
creek, but sustained no loss. On April 3, 1863, Maj. Blair was as- 
signed to the command of Fort Scott and resigned the command 
of the battery. Lieut. Smith was mustered as captain on July 4, 
and on the 17th the battery took a prominent part in the action at 
Honey Springs, but escaped with a loss of only i man wounded, 
though it lost II of its horses. It then moved to Fort Gibson, Ind. 
Ter., where it encamped until Aug. 22, when it moved on the cam- 
paign to Perryville, Ind. Ter. In Nov., 1863, the two sections which 
had been engaged in the campaign in the Indian country were or- 
dered to Fort Smith, Ark., and remained there until July, 1865. 
The third section, under Lieut. Knowles, was left at Fort Scott, 
when Capt. Smith was ordered south in July, 1863, and did not 
rejoin the rest of the battery until the summer of 1865. During the 
Price raid in the fall of 1864, this section constituted a part of Col. 
Blair's brigade, with which it participated in the march to Kansas 
City, the battle of Westport, and in the subsequent pursuit of the 
enemy beyond Fort Scott. On July 21, 1865, the battery was or- 
dered home from Fort Smith, and after a journey of 1,700 miles by 
water, it arrived at Fort Leavenworth Aug. 8. On the nth it was 
mustered out and two days later the men were paid and finally dis- 
charged, just three years from the date of their first enlistment. It 
lost by death during service 5 men killed in action, and 15 died of 
disease, and other causes. 

Third Light Battery. — Capts., Henry Hopkins, John F. Aduddell. 
This organization, subsequently known as "Hopkins' Kansas Bat- 
tery," was originally recruited by Henry Hopkins and John F. 
Aduddell as a part of Lane's Indian or New Mexican brigade and 
was mustered into the U. S. service at Fort Leavenworth during 



224 The Union Army 

Oct. and Nov., 1861, for three years. It was originally organized 
as one of the companies of the 9th cavalry and in Feb., 1862, be- 
came Co. B of the newly formed 2nd cavalry (q. v.). After being 
stationed at Quindaro and Shawneetown until the latter part of 
April, 1862, it was ordered to I<"ort Riley, where it was under com- 
mand of Lieut. B. S. Bassett, Capt. Hopkins being absent on de- 
tached duty with a detail of 150 men forming a battery of light ar- 
tillery, and 1st Lieut. Aduddell being absent without leave. On 
June 20 the company marched to Fort Larned, where it remained 
until Aug. 20, 1862. when it rejoined the regiinent at Dry Wood 
creek near Fort Scott. A little later it moved south with the regi- 
ment to Sarcoxie, Mo., and took part in the engagement at New- 
tonia. From this point it pushed south rapidly in advance of the 
main army under Gen. Blunt, skirmishing at Hazel bottom. Shell's 
mills and other points, until the ist division reached Pea ridge, Ark., 
on the 20th. On the same day Co. B did heroic service at the bat- 
tle of Old Fort Wayne, where its regiment, numbering less than 
600 men, engaged a force more than ten times that number, drove 
them from the field in a brilliant charge and captured a battery of 
4 pieces — three 6-pounder smooth-bores and one 12-pounder how- 
itzer. Capt. Hopkins and Lieuts. Aduddell and Bassett were warm- 
ly commended for their gallantry in this action by Gen. Blunt, 
commanding the division, and by Lieut. -Col. Bassett, commanding 
the regiment. After this fight Co. B was detached from the regi- 
ment and ordered to man the captured battery, which became known 
as "Hopkins' Kansas Battery." They were engaged for the first 
time as artillerists at Cane Hill, Ark., where the enemy was driv- 
en across the Boston mountains. In this engagement the battery 
silenced one of the enemy's batteries and showed a good degree of 
proficiency, considering their comparative inexperience as artiller- 
ists. It was next active at the battle of Prairie Grove, where it 
performed excellent service, but fortunately sustained no loss. It 
took part in the expedition to Van Buren, where it was again en- 
gaged, and returned to Rhea's mills Jan. i. 1863. It had previously 
served in Cloud's (3d) brigade, ist division. Army of the Frontier, 
and was now assigned to Col. Phillips' Indian brigade, consisting 
of the 1st, 2nd and 3d Indian regiments, a battalion of the 6th 
Kan. cavalry, and Hopkins' battery. On March i it moved to Fort 
Gibson, and in April was active at Webber's falls. At Fort Gib- 
son about the middle of May, one section of the battery materially 
assisted in defeating the enemy under Gen. Cooper. It was again 
engaged with the same enemy May 26, after which it remained 
without especial incident at Fort Gibson until July 17, 1863. It 
was then assigned to Col. Bowen's brigade and was successively 
stationed at Webber's falls, Scullyville and Van Buren. On Oct. 
I, 1863, it was permanently detached from the 2nd cavalry and 
formed into a battery, ofificially designated as the 3d Kan. battery. 
In June, 1863, Lieut. Bassett, with a detachment of 60 men, was 
sent to Little Rock, Ark., to receive a new equipment of 3-inch 
rifles, and remained there until Sept. 13, 1864, when Bassett was dis- 
abled by an accident and the detachment was assigned to duty 
with Battery K, ist Mo. artillery, until Jan. i, 1865. On this date 
all the members of the battery whose term of enlistment had ex- 
pired were ordered to Fort Leavenworth and mustered out on the 
19th. The 45 remaining members of the battery were assigned to 
the 2nd Kan. battery and were discharged with that organization. 
The battery lost by death during service 5 men killed in action; 17 



Kansas Regiments 325 

died of disease, accident and other causes. The aggregate strength 
of the battery, including recruits, was 193 officers and men. 

Independent Colored Battery. — Capt., Hezekiah F. Douglass. 
This organization was largely recruited and mustered into the U. S. 
service during the months of July and Aug., 1864, but it was not 
completely organized until the latter part of Feb., 1865. It saw 
some service during the Price raid in the fall of 1864, but lost no 
men killed in action. It was mustered out at Fort Leavenworth 
July 22, i86§, having lost i officer and 9 men, died of disease and 
other causes. 



Vol. IV— 1.) 



LEO RASSIEUR 



Capt. Leo Rassieur, a prominent attorney of St. Louis, Mo., 
and associate editor for that state, was born in Wadern, Prus- 
sia, April 19, 1844, his parents being Theodore and Margaret 
(Klauck) Rassieur. The mother died in Prussia in 1848, and 
in 185 1 Leo came with his father to St. Louis. In i860 he grad- 
uated at the central high school there, his intention at that time 
being to become a civil engineer. In March, 1861, he made his 
maiden public speech at a meeting of German citizens in the 
southern part of the city, when he entered a vigorous protest 
against a series of resolutions (previously prepared) commit- 
ting the Germans to a neutral policy, and after a stormy scene 
succeeded by his impassioned eloquence in defeating the reso- 
lutions. Soon after this he enlisted as a private in Co. B, ist 
regiment, U. S. reserve corps, Missouri volunteer infantry, and 
was mustered in for three months. On May 7 he was made or- 
derly sergeant and served for a short time under Gen. Grant at 
Bird's Point. In Sept., 1861, he reenlisted for three years as 
a private in Co. E of the same regiment, but was immediately 
elected first lieutenant of his company and served in that ca- 
pacity through Gen. Fremont's campaign in southwestern Mis- 
souri. As assistant post adjutant at Warsaw, Mo., he found 
the money of the branch state bank, which had been hidden by 
the directors, and turned it over to the proper authorities. Ow- 
ing to a severe illness he was discharged April 20, 1862, but 
on Aug. 18 he reentered the service as captain of Co. K, 30th 
Mo. infantry, and also served as drill-master at Benton bar- 
racks. Later he was in command at Fort Curtis, Arcadia, where 
he received orders to join Gen. Sherman's army, then near Hel- 
ena, Ark. He fought at the battles of Chickasaw bayou and 
Arkansas Post ; took part in the Greenville expedition ; marched 
from Young's point to Hard Times landing; and participated 
in the siege of Vicksburg. Subsequently he was post adjutant 
at Vidalia, La. ; was tendered the position of ordnance officer 
by Gen. Slocum; served as judge-advocate of Gen. Dennis' di- 
vision of the 19th corps ; aided in the reduction of Spanish Fort 
and Fort Blakely, near Mobile, Ala. ; was placed in command 
of Fort Tracy there until June, 1865, when he accompanied his 
regiment to Texas. In Sept., 1864, he was commissioned major 

227 



228 The Union Army 

of the regiment, and was mustered out at Alley ton, Tex., Aug. 
21, 1865. After his return to St. Louis he studied law and was 
engaged in active practice until 1894, when he was elected judge 
of the probate court for a term of four years. For ten years 
he was attorney for the St. Louis school board, and was for 
four years vice-president of the board, Maj. Rassieur has al- 
ways taken a deep interest in the welfare of the Grand Army 
of the Republic and on Aug. 20, 1900, was elected commander- 
in-chief at Chicago. He is a member of several clubs and so- 
cieties in St. Louis, and has been honored with the degree of 
LL.D. by McKendree college. On July 9, 1872, Maj. Rassieur 
married Miss Mary C. Kammerer, a native of Wheeling, W. 
Va., and a daughter of Christian and Catharine Kammerer. 



Military Affairs in Missouri 

1861—65 



Probably none of the loyal states passed through more stormy 
scenes nor presents a more thrilling history in the early years 
of the war than Missouri. Her admission into the Union in 182 1 
was accompanied by acrimonious debate on the slavery question 
and gave to the line 36 degrees 30 minutes and the Missouri 
Compromise prominent places in the history of the republic. 
Closely identified with the Kansas troubles, and the only slave- 
holding border state west of the Mississippi, it may be truthfully 
said that the great conflict between the North and South was 
developed within her limits. According to the census of i860 
the population of the state was 1,182,012, of whom 114,931 were 
slaves. A majority of the white population were either emigrants 
or descendants of emigrants from the older slave states, and this 
fact, together with the attitude of Missouri during the Kansas 
imbroglio, led the advocates of secession to believe that she would 
promptly respond to the call of the older slave states and sever 
her connection with the Union. 

This belief was still further strengthened by the vote of the 
state in the elections of i860. In the campaign of that year the 
contest in Missouri was between the Democrats and the Consti- 
tutional Unionists, or American party. At the state election in 
August Claiborne F. Jackson, a strong southern sympathizer 
and states rights man, carried the state for governor by a plu- 



Military Affairs in Missouri 229 

rality of 9,8^3 over Sample Orr, the American candidate. At 
the beginning of the campaign Jackson announced his intention 
of supporting vStephcn A. Douglas for the presidency. Upon 
this the Breckenridge Democrats, the more radical wing of the 
party, nominated Hancock Jackson, who received 11,415 votes 
that would otherwise have gone to the regular Democratic nom- 
inee. James B. Gardenhire, the Republican candidate, received 
but 6,135 votes. At the presidential election in November Doug- 
las received 58,801 votes, Bell 58,372, Breckenridge 31,317, and 
Lincoln 17,028. Missouri was the only state in the Union car- 
ried by Douglas. 

The legislature elected in i860 met at Jefferson City on the last 
day of that year. Gov. Robert M. Stewart, in his farewell mes- 
sage, said : "Our people would feel more sympathy with the 
movement (secession), had it not originated amongst those who, 
like ourselves, have suffered severe losses and constant annoy- 
ances from the interference and depredations of outsiders. Mis- 
souri will hold to the Union so long as it is worth the effort to 
preserve it. She cannot be frightened by the past unfriendly 
legislation of the North, nor dragooned into secession by the re- 
strictive legislation of the extreme South." 

This message was delivered on Jan. 3, 1861. The next day 
Gov. Jackson was inaugurated. Notwithstanding he had sup- 
ported Douglas, who represented the ideas of the northern De- 
mocracy, he soon gave evidence of his fealty to the dogma of se- 
cession. In his inaugural message he insisted that "the destiny 
of the slaveholding states in this Union is one and the same ; that 
it will be impossible to separate Missouri's fate from that of 
her sister states who have the same social organization ; that in 
the event of a failure to reconcile the conflicting interests which 
now threaten the disruption of the existing Union, interest and 
sympathy alike combine to unite the fortunes of all the slave- 
holding states ; that Missouri will not shrink from the duty which 
her position on the border imposes, but determine her to stand 
by the South ; that the state was in favor of remaining in the 
Union so long as there was any hope of maintaining the guaran- 
tees of the constitution ; and that he was utterly opposed to the 
doctrine of coercion, in any event, as leading to consolidation 
and despotism." He closed his inaugural by saying that he be- 
lieved Missouri was entitled to a voice in the settlement of the 
questions then pending before the country, and recommended 
the immediate call of a state convention "that the will of the peo- 
ple may be ascertained and effectuated," significantly adding — 
"It may soon become necessary to send delegates to a convention 
of the southern states, or of all the states." 

Thus, while the retiring governor made an impassioned appeal 



2"0 The Union Army 

for the maintenance of the Union, Gov. Jackson made an equal- 
ly plausible and eloquent appeal for secession, and the issue was 
squarely before the people of Missouri. With ready acquies- 
cence the general assembly entered at once upon the considera- 
tion of a bill providing for a state convention. After considera- 
ble discussion such an act was passed on Jan. 17, and was ap- 
proved by the governor the next day. By its provisions delegates 
were to be elected on Feb. 18, the convention to meet at Jeffer- 
son City ten days later, "to consider the then existing relations 
between the government of the United States, the people and the 
governments of the different states, and the government and 
people of the State of Missouri ; and to adopt such measures for 
vindicating the sovereignty of the state and the protection of its 
institutions as shall appear to them to be demanded." 

The large vote given to Gov. Jackson and the overwhelming 
sentiment in favor of secession in the legislature made that ele- 
ment overconfident, as the disunionists agreed to an amendment 
to the bill, providing that: "No act, ordinance, or resolution of 
said convention shall be deemed to be valid to change or dissolve 
the political relations of this state to the government of the Unit- 
ed States, or any other state, until a majority of the qualified 
voters of this state, voting upon the question, shall ratify the 
same." 

In the meantime the secessionists outside of the legislature had 
begun the organization and equipment of troops. This move- 
ment had its origin in a meeting at St. Louis on Jan. 7, when 
Basil W. Duke, O. W. Barrett, J. R. Shaler, Colton Greene. 
Rock Champion and others were chosen as officers to enlist and 
muster companies of "Minute Men" for the defense of Missouri. 
The headquarters of the Minute Men were at the corner of Pine 
and Broadway, though the recruits were organized and drilled in 
various parts of the city. So far the movement toward secession 
had made favorable progress, and its advocates were correspond- 
ingly elated. 

But the Union men had not been idle. During the political 
campaign of i860 uniformed Lincoln marching clubs, called the 
"Wide Awakes," had been organized. Under the leadership of 
Francis P. Blair and others these clubs were transformed into 
Home Guards for the defense of the government. Blair also 
planned, and with the assistance of his coadjutors, held a series 
of Union meetings that crystallized the anti-secession sentiment 
and wielded an important influence in holding Missouri in the 
Union. Blair has been described as "forty years of age, daring, 
eloquent and resourceful, an ex-soldier of the Mexican war, a 
disciple of Andrew Jackson and Benton in Democratic politics, 
who fought for Benton in that chieftain's losing battle in and 



Military Affairs in Missouri 231 

out of the legislature, who became a Republican as soon as that 
party was organized in Missouri, who served several years in 
Congress and was then a member, and who was admirably fitted 
for the leadership which he assumed in Missouri's cyclonic days 
at the opening of 1861." 

The first of these Union meetings, sometimes called Blair's 
St. Louis rally, was held in Washington hall, at the corner of 
Third and Elm streets, Jan. 11, 1861. Two days before the 
steamer Star of the West, sent by the national government with 
supplies and reinforcements for Fort Sumter, was fired upon in 
Charleston harbor by South Carolina troops, and public excite- 
ment was at its height in St. Louis when the Washington hall 
meeting assembled. Blair was the principal speaker. In his ad- 
dress he insisted that only one great issue — Union or secession — 
was before the people ; that all political parties had been ab- 
sorbed by two great organizations, the one favoring the Union, 
the other disunion ; that it was the duty of every man who 
loved his country to join with every other man who favored the 
preservation of the Union, without regard to past political affilia- 
tions. Some of his Republican associates opposed the abandon- 
ment of their party organization. To these Blair replied: "Let 
us see that we have a country first before talking of parties." 

This was the first meeting in Missouri, and the first of any 
consequence anywhere in the United States, to openly combat 
the doctrine of secession. Its results were important and far- 
reaching. It temporarily disbanded the Republican party in 
Missouri and formed in its place a Union party, open to all who 
believed in the preservation of the Union as the first prerequisite 
to the settlement of the vexed questions then engaging the at- 
tention of the American people. It merged the Wide Awakes 
into a Central Union club, in which any good Union man was 
eligible to membership, no matter to what party he had previ- 
ously belonged. It led to the establishment of the Committee of 
Safety, composed of Oliver D. Filley, then mayor of St. Louis, 
Francis P. Blair, James O. Broadhead, Samuel T. Glover, John 
How and Julius J. Witzig, which upheld the cause of the Fed- 
eral government, and it gave intelligent direction to the senti- 
ment which finally defeated the secessionists and held Missouri 
steadfastly in the Union. 

At this time there were many men in Missouri who, while 
they were opposed to secession, held to the view that the national 
government had no constitutional right to coerce a state, the 
people of which wanted to withdraw from the Union. Most of 
these men had been supporters of Douglas and Bell in i860, and 
were known as conditional Union men. The day following the 
Washington hall meeting this element held a meeting at the 



232 The Union Army 

east front of the court-house in St. Louis, 15,000 to 20,000 peo- 
ple being present. Judge Hamilton R. Gamble and Lewis V. 
Bogy were among the speakers, and the addresses of all the 
speakers were noted for their conservative tone. These meet- 
ings, although held a week before the passage of the bill calling 
a state convention, paved the way for the short but exciting can- 
vass for the election of delegates to the convention. In that con- 
test there were three parties. The secessionists were led by Gov. 
Jackson, Lieut.-Gov. Thomas C. Reynolds, U. S. Senators James 
S. Green and Trusten Polk, Ex-Senator David R. Atchison, 
John B. Clark, John W. Reid and a majority of the members of 
the legislature. The unconditional Unionists marched under the 
leadership of Blair and the other members of the Committee of 
Safety, B. Gratz Brown, William McKee and Edward Bates, 
who afterward became attorney-general in Lincoln's cabinet. The 
conditional Unionists, who outnumbered both the other elements, 
were marshalled by Judge Gamble, Lewis V. Bogy, Nathaniel 
Paschall, Sterling Price, A. W. Doniphan, John S. Phelps, Will- 
iam A. Hall and a host of others throughout the state. In the 
election the Unionist side was overwhelmingly victorious, not a 
single avowed secessionist being elected as a delegate, while the 
majority in the entire state in favor of maintaining the Union 
was some 80,000 votes. 

The total number of delegates was 99, apportioned among the 
several senatorial districts in the proportion of three delegates 
for each member of the state senate. As this convention played 
an important part in shaping the destinies of Missouri, a com- 
plete list of the delegates may be of interest to the reader. They 
were as follows: ist District — R. B. Frayser, J. G. Waller and 
G. Y. Bast; 2nd — John B. Henderson, G. W. Zimmerman and 
Robert Calhoun ; 3d — Warren Woodson, Eli E. Bass and Joseph 
Flood ; 4th— W. J. Howell, John T. Redd and J. T. Matson ; 5th 
— E. K. Sayer, Henry M. Gorin and N. F. Givens ; 6th — William 
A. Hall, Sterling Price and Thomas Shackelford; 7th — Freder- 
ick Rowland, Joseph M. Irwin and John Foster; 8th — A. M. 
Woolfolk, Jacob Smith and William Jackson; 9th — J. T. Tin- 
dall, James McFerran and J. S. Allen ; loth — G. W. Dunn, R. D. 
Ray and J. H. Birch; nth — Robert Wilson, P. L. Hudgins and 
EUzy Van Buskirk; 12th W. P. Hall, Robert M. Stewart and 
R. W. Donnell; 13th— A. W. Doniphan, J. H. Moss and E. H. 
Norton ; 14th — J. K. Sheeley, Abram Comingo and R. A. Brown ; 
15th — Akeman Welch, A. C. Marvin and C. G. Kidd; i6th — 
J. F. Phillips, S. L. Sawyer and Vincent Marmaduke; 17th — ^J. 
J. Gravelly, Nelson McDowell and J. R. Chenault; i8th — A. S. 
Harbin, R. W. Crawford and M. H. Ritchie; 19th — Sample Orr, 
Littleberry Hendricks and R. W. Jamison; 20th — M. W. Tur- 



Military Affairs in Missouri 23o 

ner, J. W. Johnson and W. L. Morrow; 2ist — A. W. Maupin, 
C. D. Eitzen and Zachariah Isbell ; 22nd — W. G. Pomeroy, V. B. 
Hill and John Holt; 23d — C. L. Rankin, M. P. Cayse and Jo- 
seph Bogy ; 24th — S. C. Collier, Philip Pipkin and W. T. Lee- 
per; 25th — Harrison Hough, R. A. Hatcher and O. Bartlett; 
26th — N. W. Watkins, J. C. Noell and J. R. McCormick; 27th — 
J. Proctor Knott, J. W. McClurg and John Scott; 28th— Will- 
iam Douglass, J. P. Ross and Charles Drake; 29th — (St. Louis) 
S. M. Breckenridge, John How, M. L. Linton, Hudson E. 
Bridge, T. T. Gantt, Hamilton R. Gamble, John F. Long, Uriel 
Wright, Ferdinand Meyer, Henry Hitchcock, Robert Holmes, 
J. O. Broadhead, Solomon Smith, Isador Bush and John H. 
Shackelford. 

Pursuant to the provisions of the act calling it into existence, 
the convention met in the court-house at Jefferson City on Feb. 
28. The next day a permanent organization was effected by the 
election of Sterling Price president ; Robert Wilson, vice-presi- 
dent ; and Samuel A. Lowe, secretary, after which the conven- 
tion adjourned to meet in St. Louis on March 4. The first act 
of the convention, when it reassembled in Mercantile Library 
hall in St. Louis, was to appoint a committee on Federal rela- 
tions, with Judge Gamble as chairman, to which all matters 
touching Missouri's relations with the national government 
should be referred. Immediately following the appointment of 
the committee Luther J. Glenn, commissioner from the State of 
Georgia, was introduced. He read the ordinance of secession 
adopted by Georgia and strenuously urged the convention to pass 
a similar ordinance and thus have the State of Missouri unite 
with the other Southern states in the formation of a Confederacy. 
His speech was greeted with hoots, groans and hisses from the 
large number of citizens gathered in the lobby, with an occa- 
sional outburst of applause from the secessionists, the demon- 
strations being suppressed with great difficulty by the presid- 
ing officer. Mr. Glenn's communications were referred to a 
special committee of seven, with instructions "to report such 
action as you may deem respectful and a suitable response 
on the part of this state." 

Numerous resolutions were presented to this committee by 
members of the convention, and it was not until March 21 that 
Mr. Henderson, chairman of the committee, presented a report, 
containing a long and earnest argument against secession and 
in favor of the maintenance of the Union, concluding with a 
series of resolutions to the effect that "so far as the communica- 
tion made by Mr. Glenn asserts the constitutional right of seces- 
sion, it meets our disapproval ; that, while we reprobate, in com- 
mon with Georgia, the violation of constitutional duty by north- 



234 The Union Army 

ern fanatics, we cannot approve the secession of Georgia and her 
sister states, as a measure beneficial either to Missouri or to 
themselves ; that in our opinion a dissolution of the Union would 
be ruinous to the best interests of Missouri." 

A minority report set forth that "while denying the legal right 
of a state to secede from the Union, we recognize, in lieu there- 
of, the right of revolution, should sufficient reason arise therefor ; 
that while, in common with the State of Georgia, we deplore 
the sectional disregard of duty and fraternity so forcibly present- 
ed by her commissioner, we do not despair of future justice, nor 
will we despair until our complaints have been unavailingly sub- 
mitted to the northern people ; that the possession of slave prop- 
erty is a constitutional right, and as such, ought to be recognized 
by the Federal government; that if it shall invade or impair that 
right, the slave-holding states should be united in its defense, and 
that in such events as may legitimately follow, this state will 
share the danger and destiny of her sister slave states." 

Both reports were laid on the table and made a special order 
for the third Monday of the following December, but neither 
report was ever heard from afterward, because the action of the 
special committee had been anticipated by the committee on 
Federal relations, which reported on March 9 the following 
resolutions : 

I. — That at present there is no adequate cause to impel Mis- 
souri to dissolve her connection with the Federal Union, but on 
the contrary she will labor for such an adjustment of existing 
troubles as will secure peace, as well as the rights and equality 
of all the states. 

2. — That the people of this state are devotedly attached to the 
institutions of our country, and earnestly desire that by a fair 
and amicable adjustment, all the causes of disagreement that at 
present unfortunately distract us as a people, may be removed, 
to the end that our Union may be preserved and perpetuated, 
and peace and harmony be restored between the North and 
South. 

3. — That the people of this state deem the amendments to the 
constitution of the United States, proposed by the Hon. John J. 
Crittenden, of Kentucky, with the extension of the same to the 
territory hereafter to be acquired by treaty, or otherwise, a basis 
of adjustment which will successfully remove the causes of dif- 
ference forever from the arena of national politics. 

4. — That the people of Missouri believe the peace and quiet of 
the country will be promoted by a convention to propose amend- 
ments to the constitution of the United States, and this conven- 
tion therefore urges the legislature of this state to take the 
proper steps for calling such convention in pursuance of the fifth 



Military Affairs in Missouri 235 

article of the constitution, and for providing by law for an elec- 
tion of one delegate to such convention from each electoral dis- 
trict in this state. 

5 — That in the opinion of this convention, the employment 
of military force by the Federal government to coerce the sub- 
mission of the seceding states, or the employment of military 
force by the seceding states to assail the government of the Unit- 
ed States, will inevitably plunge this country into civil war, and 
thereby entirely extinguish all hope of an amicable settlement of 
the fearful issues now pending before the country; we there- 
fore earnestly entreat, as well the Federal government, as the 
seceding states, to withhold and stay the arm of military power, 
and on no pretence whatever bring upon the nation the horrors 
of civil war. 

6. — That when this convention adjourns its session in the city 
of St. Louis, it will adjourn to meet in the hall of the house of 
representatives at Jefferson City, on the third Monday of De- 
cember, i86i. 

7- — That there shall be a committee, consisting of the presi- 
dent of this convention, who shall be ex-officio chairman, and 
seven members, one from each Congressional district of the state, 
to be elected by this convention, a majority of which shall have 
power to call this convention together at such time prior to the 
third Monday in December next, and at such place as they may- 
think the public exigencies require ; and in case any vacancy shall 
happen in said committee by death, resignation, or otherwise 
during the recess of this convention, the remaining members or 
member of said committee shall have power to fill such vacancy. 

An amendment was offered by Mr. Moss to the 5th resolution 
as follows : ''Believing that the fate of Missouri depends upon 
a peaceable adjustment of our present difficulties, she will never 
countenance or aid a seceding state in making war on the gener- 
al government, nor will she furnish men or money for the pur- 
pose of aiding the general government in any attempts to coerce 
a seceding state." This amendment was rejected by the conven- 
tion by more than a two-thirds vote. After an able and exhaus- 
tive debate on the resolutions they were finally adopted, almost 
as they were reported by the committee, on the 19th, and the 
convention adjourned on the 22nd. 

Thus it happened that two separate committees of the conven- 
tion reported against secession, which course had been sanc- 
tioned in advance by the voters of the state in the election of del- 
egates to the convention. 

In the meantime the legislature had been doing all in its power 
to force the state into secession. On the evening of Jan. 18 — 
the day of the passage of the act calling the convention — Daniel 



236 The Union Army 

R. Russell, commissioner from Mississippi, addressed a large 
audience in the hall of the house of representatives. The State 
of Mississippi had seceded on Jan. 9, and there could be no mis- 
taking the object of Mr. Russell's visit. But the Missouri legis- 
lature had, only a few hours before, passed a bill with the express 
provision that no ordinance of secession should be valid until 
ratified by the voters of the state, and the Mississippi commis- 
sioner failed to accomplish anything, unless it was to strengthen 
the secession sentiment among the members of the general as- 
sembly. 

The so-called "Peace Congress," which was proposed to be 
held in the city of Washington, D. C, on Feb. 4, 1861, met with 
considerable favor in the Missouri legislature, and on Jan. 30 
that body selected the following delegates to the Congress : Wal- 
do P. Johnson, John D. Coalter, A. W. Doniphan, Harrison 
Hough and A. H. Buckner. These gentlemen left at once for 
Washington, but the Peace Congress failed to meet the hopes 
and expectations of its promoters. 

On March 9 — the same day the committee on Federal rela- 
tions reported the resolutions against secession to the state con- 
vention — Senator John Hyer, of Dent county, introduced the fol- 
lowing resolutions in the state senate, and they were adopted by 
an overwhelming vote : 

I. — That our senators in Congress be instructed, and our rep- 
resentatives be requested, to oppose the passage of all bills or 
acts granting supplies of men or money to coerce the seceded 
states into submission or subjugation. 

2. — That should any such acts or bills be passed by the Con- 
gress of the United States, our senators are instructed, and our 
representatives requested, to retire from the halls of Congress. 

3. — That the governor of this state is hereby requested to 
transmit to our senators and representatives in Congress, re- 
spectively, a copy of these resolutions. 

James S. Green's term as U. S. senator expired on March 4, 
1 86 1, and it became the duty of this session of the legislature to 
elect his successor. The contest was unusually interesting and 
exciting, owing to the general situation that prevailed through- 
out the country, and the political complexion of the legislature. 
In the general assembly four parties were represented. Of the 
33 senators 15 were Breckenridge Democrats, 10 Douglas Dem- 
ocrats, 7 Union or Bell-Everett men, and i Republican. In the 
house there were 47 Breckenridge Democrats, 36 Douglas Dem- 
ocrats, 37 Bell-Everett men and 12 Republicans. With a full 
vote on joint ballot 87 votes were necessary to a choice and, as 
none of the parties was strong enough of itself to control this 
number of votes, a great deal of log-rolling, attended by some 



Military Affairs in Missouri 237 

rancorous debate, was indulged in to secure a coalition of some 
of the discordant divisions. While the balloting was going on 
a large number of distinguished citizens were voted for, but 
without success. On the eighth ballot Mr. Green received 76 
votes, when Mr. Churchill, a state senator from St. Louis, hav- 
ing heard Green charged with being a secessionist, telegraphed 
to him at Washington to learn where he stood on the question. 
On Jan. 29 Green sent back the following reply : 

"You are right; my remarks in the Globe prove it. I am for 
every effort, even that of Crittenden, but when we fail to get 
justice and security, I am for separation. Let us now have per- 
manent adjustment or pacific division." 

This answer forever destroyed Mr. Green's chances of reelec- 
tion and after several days of fruitless balloting Waldo P. John- 
son, a Breckenridge Democrat, was chosen, receiving 87 votes. 
The general assembly adjourned on March 28, after a turbulent 
session, but it was soon to be called together again by a procla- 
mation of the governor "for the purpose of enacting such laws 
and adopting such measures as may be deemed necessary and 
proper for the more perfect organization and equipment of the 
militia of the state, and to raise money and such other means 
as may be required to place the state in a proper attitude of 
defense." 

While these things were occurring in the state convention and 
the general assembly, other and more stirring events were trans- 
piring outside of those two bodies. The St. Louis Committee 
of Safety felt confident that the ballots of the people would ulti- 
mately have to be reinforced by bullets, before the state could 
be permanently saved to the Union, and pressed forward with 
the utmost vigor the organization of the Home Guards. This 
was done as secretly as possible, while on the other hand the 
Minute Men, having the sanction of the state authorities, worked 
openly. Blair, at the head of the Home Guards, had great diffi- 
culty in securing arms and equipments for his men, though some 
were obtained from private sources and some from Gov. Yates 
of Illinois. 

In the U. S. arsenal at St. Louis were 60,000 stands of arms, 
a number of cannon and large stores of munitions of war. While 
the state convention was holding out a faint hope of an amicable 
adjustment of the differences between the North and South, 
both Blair and Gov. Jackson recognized that war was inevita- 
ble, and both looked with longing eyes upon the arsenal. Each 
realized that whichever side got possession of the arsenal would 
control St. Louis, and the side that controlled St. Louis would 
eventually control the state. Then began a struggle between 
Blair and the Committee of Safety on one side and Jackson and 



238 The Union Army 

the legislature on the other for the arsenal, located in the south- 
ern part of the city, which was occupied almost exclusively by 
a German population. 

In 1854, (luring the so-called "Know Nothing" movement, they 
had some unpleasant experiences with a mob which visited them, 
and which destroyed considerable property in that part of the 
city before the Germans were aroused to the necessity of self- 
defense. This experience was brought to the minds of some of 
the prominent Germans at this time, and they were told that if 
they would declare in favor of neutrality they could rest assured 
that, notwithstanding the dangerous outlook, their property 
would not be interfered with or put in jeopardy in case of a clash 
between the state and Federal troops in the matter of the taking 
of the arsenal. Thus these leading and wealthy citizens were 
induced by those who pretended to be friendly to their interests, 
to call a public meeting of Germans early in April at the St. 
George market house, on Carondelet avenue and Sidney street, 
in the vicinity of the arsenal, for the purpose of passing resolu- 
tions favoring neutrality. The meeting was largely attended,, 
the market house being filled. That the programme was prear- 
ranged seemed evident, from the fact that the committee of seven 
which, on motion, was duly appointed by the chairman. Dr. 
Adam Hammer, to prepare resolutions expressive of the sense 
of the meeting, in less than five minutes after such appointment 
presented resolutions, which could not have been prepared in 
less than an hour, recommending the adoption of a neutral course. 
When the outspoken condemnation of the resolutions by a speaker 
brought forth the patriotic sentiment of the audience, the speaker 
was declared out of order by the chairman, and thereupon the 
audience left the hall en masse at the suggestion of the speaker, 
organized a new meeting in front of the market house, unani- 
mously elected as chairman Roderick E. Rombauer, an uncom- 
promising Unionist (afterwards a captain in the three months' 
service, and later presiding justice of the St. Louis court of ap- 
peals), and passed resolutions expressive of an abiding devotion 
to the Union cause, regardless of all consequences. Thus was 
the peaceable taking of the arsenal by the state authorities made 
impossible. To the credit of these prominent Germans be it said 
that nearly all of them entered the service of the United States 
under the first call. 

At the beginning of 1861 the arsenal was occupied by a hand- 
ful of troops under command of Maj. W. H. Bell, a North Caro- 
linian, who was in sympathy with the secession movement. He 
entered into an agreement with Brig.-Gen. D. M. Frost, of the 
state militia, to turn the arsenal over to the state troops in the 
event any demonstration was made against it by the Unionists, 



Military Affairs in Missouri 239 

but events crowded upon each other so fast that the agreement 
could not be carried out. 

On Jan. 5, 1861, Isaac H. Sturgeon, assistant U. S. treasurer 
at St. Louis, had about $400,000 in his hands. Fearing for the 
safety of this fund, and also for the arsenal, he wrote to Presi- 
dent Buchanan for troops to protect the government property in 
the city. In response to this request the president ordered Lieut. 
Robinson, with 40 men from Newport barracks, to St. Louis. 
They arrived on the nth and were quartered in the sub-treasury 
and postoffice buildings. This aroused the indignation of the 
southern sympathizers, Jackson sent a special message on the 
subject to the legislature, and Gen. W. S. Harney, commanding 
the Department of the West with headquarters at St. Louis, in 
order to quell the demonstration, ordered Robinson and his men 
to the arsenal. About this time rumors of Bell's agreement with 
Frost reached Washington, and on the 24th he was superseded 
by Maj. Peter B. Hagner. Neither Hagner nor Harney was 
the kind of a man that Blair wanted in command at St. Louis. 
Hagner had married a Southern woman and was suspected of 
being inclined toward the cause of secession. Harney's loyalty 
was also distrusted, though unjustly. Besides he was past 60 
years of age and was too conservative to suit Blair's purpose. 
Just as the Union leaders were beginning to grow discouraged 
a new man appeared on the scene. On Feb. 6 Capt. Nathaniel 
Lyon marched into St. Louis at the head of his company from 
Kansas. Blair saw in Lyon a man at once prompt, sagacious, 
brave and resourceful, and apprized him of the situation. Lyon 
shared Blair's suspicion of Maj. Hagner and with perfect unan- 
imity the two went to work to have him removed and Lyon ap- 
pointed in his place. Fortunately for their scheme the Minute 
Men made a demonstration in St. Louis about the time that 
President Lincoln was inaugurated and on March 13 Lyon was 
placed in nominal command of the arsenal. 

This was the situation when on April 14 Fort Sumter fell be- 
fore the Confederate guns, and Lincoln issued his proclamation 
on the 15th, calling for 75,000 men to quell the rebellion. Mis- 
souri's quota was fixed at four regiments, which Gov. Jackson 
was requested to furnish. Instead of complying he sent the 
following reply to Secretary of War, Simon Cameron, on the 
17th: "Your despatch of the 15th inst., making a call on Mis- 
souri for four regiments of men for immediate service, has been 
received. There can be, I apprehend, no doubt but these men 
are intended to form a part of the president's army to make war 
upon the people of the seceded states. Your requisition, in my 
judgment, is illegal, unconstitutional, and revolutionary in its 
objects, inhuman and diabolical, and cannot be complied with. 



■240 The Union Army 

Not one man will the State of Missouri furnish to carry on such 
an unholy crusade." 

Jackson's refusal to furnish the troops called for by the na- 
tional administration gave Blair his opportunity. On the 19th 
he sent a telegram to Secretary Cameron, advising him to author- 
ize Capt. Lyon by telegraph to muster Missouri's quota into 
service. The suggestion was promptly acted upon by the war 
department, and thus the arms and munitions in the arsenal 
passed into Lyon's control and were used to equip the Home 
Guards, which were mustered into the service of the United 
States. In doing this Lyon was hampered by Harney, and Blair 
secured an order calling Harney to Washington to explain. He 
left St. Louis on April 23, and Lyon assumed temporary com- 
mand of the Department of the West. A week later (April 30) 
he received this order from Secretary Cameron : "The presi- 
dent of the United States directs that you enroll in the military 
service of the United States loyal citizens of St. Louis and vicin- 
ity, not exceeding, with those heretofore enlisted, 10,000 in num- 
ber, for the purpose of maintaining the authority of the United 
States and for the protection of the peaceable inhabitants of Mis- 
souri ; and you will, if deemed necessary for your purpose by 
yourself and Messrs. Oliver D. Filley, John How, James O. 
Broadhead, Samuel T. Glover, J. J. Witzig and Francis P. Blair. 
Jr., proclaim martial law in the city of St. Louis." 

The order bore the approval of President Lincoln and the fol- 
lowing indorsement from Winfield Scott, commanding general 
of the army: "It is revolutionary times, and therefore I do not 
object to the irregularity of this. W. S." It was the outgrowth 
of an act passed by the Missouri legislature in March, giving 
the governor the power to appoint a board of four commission- 
ers, who, in connection with the mayor, would have control of the 
St. Louis police, the volunteer and other peace officers. The pur- 
pose was to take control of the city's affairs out of the hands of 
the Committee of Safety. Under this act Jackson appointed Basil 
W. Duke, Charles McLaren, John A. Brownlee and James H. 
Carlisle. At the election on April i, John How was defeated 
for mayor by Daniel G. Taylor, and for the time being the civil 
affairs of the city were in the hands of the secessionists. But the 
order of April 30 changed all this and again the Union men were 
in the ascendancy. Under this order six more regiments were 
mustered into the service — the 5th Mo. infantry volunteers, and 
the ist, 2nd, 3d, 4th and 5th Mo. infantry, U. S. reserve corps. 
Tliese first regiments, to the extent of at least nine-tenths, were 
composed of Germans, many of whom had been members of the 
Wide Awakes of the year before. 

Ten days before this order was issued, the U. S. arsenal at 



Military Affairs in Missouri 241 

Liberty was seized and garrisoned by the state troops and 1,500 
muskets, 20 pieces of field artillery, 11,000 pounds of powder, 
and some other munitions of war were distributed among the 
militia. On April 22 the governor issued his proclamation call- 
ing the general assembly to meet in special session on May 2. At 
the same time he declared his policy to be in favor of peace, not- 
withstanding his troops had seized the Liberty arsenal two days 
before. He urged the committee of the state convention not to 
convene that body for the purpose of passing a secession ordi- 
nance, as he was in favor of leaving it to time and circumstances 
to determine the best course for the state to pursue. On the same 
day the governor issued his proclamation, Warwick Hough, ad- 
jutant-general of Missouri, sent out his "General Order No. 7," 
the principal provision of which was as follows : 

"To attain a greater degree of efficiency and perfection in or- 
ganization and discipline the commanding officers of the several 
military districts in this state, having four or more legally organ- 
ized companies therein, whose armories are within fifteen miles 
of each other, will assemble their respective commands at some 
place to be by them severally designated, on the 3d day of May, 
and to go into an encampment for the period of six days, as 
provided by law. Captains of companies not organized into 
battalions will report the strength of their companies immediately 
to these headquarters, and await further orders." 

The order further set forth that "The strength, organization 
and equipment of the several companies in the districts will be 
reported at once to these headquarters, and division inspectors 
will furnish all information which may be serviceable in ascer- 
taining the condition of the state forces." 

It is hardly probable that the adjutant-general would have 
promulgated such an order without the governor's direction, 
or at least without his official knowledge and approval. Coming, 
as it did, simultaneously with the executive proclamation con- 
vening the legislature "for the more perfect organization and 
equipment of the militia," the act could hardly be construed as 
being in harmony with the governor's declaration that he was 
in favor of peace. The Union leaders did not so construe it, 
and if Jackson's object was to lull them into a feeling of security 
and render them inactive he utterly failed to accomplish his 
purpose. Pursuant to General Order No. 7 the camp of the first 
district was established on May 3 at Lindell's grove, in the west- 
ern suburbs of St. Louis, and was named "Camp Jackson," in 
honor of the governor. It was under command of Daniel M. 
Frost, a graduate of West Point and a brigadier-general in the 
state militia. Nominally it was a camp of instruction, "to at- 
tain greater efficiency in organization and military drill," but 

Vol. IV— 16 



242 The Union Army 

with Lyon, Blair and their associates the conviction soon became 
fixed that behind this there were some ulterior purposes. It was 
strongly suspected that these purposes included the seizure of 
the arsenal and an attempt to secure the military control of the 
state, with a view to forcing it into the Confederacy. 

One thing that greatly strengthened these suspicions was the 
anomalous conditions presented by Camp Jackson. The Stars 
and Stripes floated over the camp, but its two principal avenues 
were named "Davis" and "Beauregard," in honor of the president 
of the Confederate States and the commander of the secession 
forces at Charleston. In addition to this it was known that 
some time before the camp was opened the governor had sent 
Basil W. Duke and Colton Greene to Montgomery, Ala., with a 
letter to Jefferson Davis, asking him to furnish siege guns and 
mortars for the reduction of the arsenal. About the time the 
camp was established Lyon received information that the cannon 
and mortars, in boxes labeled "marble," and shot and shell in 
barrels had come up the river on the steamer J. C. Swan, and 
had been taken to the camp. To verify this report he dressed in 
women's costume and rode in a carriage through the camp, un- 
der the guidance of Capt. J. J. Witzig. Finding his information 
correct he assembled his forces and on May lo marched to the 
camp, where he demanded and received the surrender of the state 
troops under Frost. (See Camp Jackson in the Cyclopedia of 
Battles.) 

The capture of Camp Jackson created a frenzy of excitement 
all over the state. When the news reached Jefferson City it 
produced a panic in the legislature, and within an hour the mili- 
tary bill, then pending, was passed by both houses and approved 
by the governor. About ii o'clock that night the people of the 
city were aroused by the ringing of bells and the cries of men 
on the streets calling the members of the general assembly to 
the capitol. The cause of this panic was the receipt of a tele- 
gram announcing that 2,000 LTnion troops were on their way to 
Jefferson City to capture the governor, state officers and mem- 
bers of the legislature. Both houses met in "extraordinary ses- 
sion" at 1 1 130 and remained in session until after 3 o'clock the 
next morning. To prevent the Federal troops from reaching the 
capital the railroad bridge over the Osage river, some 40 miles 
distant, was burned, presumably by order of the governor. On 
the nth 12,000 kegs of powder were sent out of the city and the 
money in the state treasury was also moved out of town to pre- 
vent its capture. 

While the legislature was in session it passed a number of acts, 
the most important of which were : to authorize counties to loan 
money, not exceeding $30,000 each, to the state ; giving the gov- 



Military Affairs in Missouri ^43 

ernor authority to purchase or lease Ballentine's foundry at 
Boonville for the manufacture of arms and munitions of war; 
to appoint a major-general to command the entire military force 
of the state in case of invasion or war ; to seize the railroad and 
telegraph lines of the state whenever in his opinion the security 
of the people required such action ; and to take such measures 
as in his judgment might be necessary or proper to repel inva- 
sion or suppress rebellion. The "Military Bill" — an act of over 
two hundred sections — provided for the organization, govern- 
ment and support of the "Missouri State Guard," and authorized 
the governor to borrow $1,000,000 to carry out its provisions. 
On May 15 the general assembly adjourned to the third Monday 
in September. 

Gen. Harney returned to St. Louis on May 12 and resumed 
command of the department. The first thing he did was to issue 
a proclamation deprecating "the existing state of things," and 
assuring the people that he would use "the military force sta- 
tioned in this district only in the last resort to preserve peace." 
Two days later he issued another proclamation denouncing the 
military bill and approving the capture of Camp Jackson. By 
virtue of the act of the legislature, the governor appointed Ster- 
ling Price major-general of the State Guard. On the 21st Har- 
ney and Price met in St. Louis and entered into an agreement, 
the principal clause of which was as follows : "Gen. Price, hav- 
ing by commission full authority over the militia of the state of 
Missouri, undertakes, with the sanction of the governor of the 
state, already declared, to direct the whole power of the state 
officers to maintain order within the state among the people 
thereof; and Gen. Harney publicly declares that this object be- 
ing thus assured, he can have no occasion, as he has no wish, to 
make military movements which might otherwise create excite- 
ments and jealousies, which he earnestly desires to avoid." 

While this agreement tied the hands of Harney, it left Price 
free scope to organize the state troops and place the state in ac- 
tive insurrection. Such an arrangement was disapproved at 
Washington and on the 30th Harney was superseded by Lyon, 
who was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general. On June 
II a conference of the leaders of the opposing sides was held at 
the Planters' hotel in St. Louis. The Unionists were repre- 
sented by Lyon, Blair and Maj. H. A. Conant, and the state by 
Gov. Jackson, Price and Col. T. L. Snead, the governor's private 
secretary. After six hours of fruitless endeavor to reach an un- 
derstanding, the conference was abruptly terminated by Lyon, 
who arose and said : "Rather than agree that my government 
shall concede to your government one iota of authority as to one 
man to be recruited, one inch of soil of this state to be divided 



344 The Union Army 

in allegiance or neutralized between my government and your 
government, I will see you, sir, and you, and you (pointing to 
each one present as he spoke) and myself and all of us, under 
the sod. This means war. In one hour one of my officers will 
call for you and conduct you out of my lines." 

The governor and his associates ate a hasty dinner and left 
for Jefiferson City on a fast train, burning the bridges behind 
them and cutting the telegraph wires. The next day Jackson 
called for 50,000 militia "to repel invasion." Lyon was right 
when he said "This means war," for he immediately took the 
field against Price and defeated the state troops at several places 
between that time and Aug. 10, when he fell at the battle of 
Wilson's creek. Concerning his campaign and death, Snead, in 
his "Fight for Missouri," says : "By wisely planning, by boldly 
doing, and by bravely dying, he had won the fight for Missouri." 

On July 22 the state convention assembled in Jefferson City 
upon the call of the committee. Gen. Price's seat as president 
was declared vacant and Robert Wilson was elected as his suc- 
cessor. On the 30th a resolution was adopted, declaring vacant 
the offices of Gov. Jackson, Lieut.-Gov. T. C. Reynolds, Sec. of 
State B. F. Massey and the members of the legislature, and the 
next day Hamilton R. Gamble was elected provisional governor, 
Willard P. Hall, lieutenant-governor, and Mordecai Oliver, sec- 
retary of state. Then, after adopting an address to the people of 
Missouri, the convention adjourned. These were somewhat high- 
handed proceedings, but they were justified by military neces- 
sity. From this time until its final adjournment the convention 
exercised both legislative and executive powers with rare abil- 
ity. Among its more important actions were the abolition of a 
number of state offices and the reduction of salaries ; the adop- 
tion of a test oath for citizens and civil officers ; and the amend- 
ment of the constitution of the state so as to abolish slavery. 

Gov. Gamble issued a proclamation on Aug. 3, ordering the 
State Guard to disband, and promising protection to all members 
thereof who would lay down their arms and live peaceable lives. 
But the insurrection could not be put down by proclamations, 
and on the 24th he issued a call for 32,000 troops "to protect 
the lives and property of the people of Missouri." 

On July 26 Maj.-Gen. John C. Fremont arrived in St. Louis 
and assumed command of the Western Department. He secured 
money from the sub-treasury there, with which he secured the 
reenlistment of many of the Home Guards whose terms had ex- 
pired, and erected extensive fortlfi.cations to place the 
city in a state of defense. On Aug. 31 he declared martial 
law, appointed Maj. McKinstry provost-marshal, defined the 
line of occupation as extending from Leavenworth, Kan., 



Military Affairs in Missouri 245 

through Jefferson City, Rolla and Ironton, to Cape Girardeau, 
and proclaimed that all persons taken within those limits with 
arms in their hands should be shot. His proclamation also de- 
clared that the property of those actually in arms against the 
United States, or of those who had in any way given aid to the 
secession cause, should be confiscated to the public use and their 
slaves set free. He made elaborate preparations to overcome 
Price's army, but failed to reinforce Lyon in time to prevent the 
defeat of the Union forces at Wilson's creek. On Nov. i he 
made an agreement with Price looking toward the breaking up 
of the guerrilla gangs that had already become active in the 
state. His course failed to meet the approbation of the authori- 
ties at Washington and on Nov. 2 he was superseded by Gen. 
David Hunter, who remained in command of the department 
until the i8th, when it was turned over to Gen. H. W. Halleck. 

The most important acts of Halleck, during the closing months 
of the year, were to levy an assessment upon certain wealthy 
southern sympathizers for the support of the Union refugees in 
the city of St. Louis ; to declare martial law in the city and over 
the railroads ; and to fix the penalty of death for the destruction 
of railroad property. 

After the action of the state convention in declaring the exec- 
utive and legislative offices of the state vacant, and the procla- 
mation of Gov. Gamble ordering the state troops to disband, 
Jackson retaliated by issuing a declaration of independence for 
Missouri and calling the legislature to meet at Neosho on Oct. 
21. When the general assembly convened only 10 members of 
the senate and 39 of the house were present, but a quorum in each 
branch was obtained by the appointment of proxies. About 
the only proceeding worthy of note was the passage of a seces- 
sion ordinance, which was done under a suspension of the rules, 
and an act notifying the provisional government of the Confed- 
erate States that Missouri had seceded. This doubtful ordinance 
was recognized by the Confederate authorities at Richmond, who 
went through the formality of admitting Missouri to the Confed- 
eracy. After electing John B. Clark, Sr., and R. L. Y. Peyton 
to represent Missouri in the Confederate senate, and seven mem- 
bers of the Confederate house of representatives, the legislature 
adjourned to meet at Cassville on Oct. 31. At Cassville a num- 
ber of bills and resolutions were passed, but they never became 
effective, and on Nov. 7 an adjournment was taken to New 
Madrid on the first Monday in March, 1862. That session was 
never held. 

At the beginning of 1862 the state was more quiet than it had 
been for several months previous, though both sides were busily 
engaged in warlike preparations. In St. Louis some dissatisfac- 



246 The Union Army 

tion prevailed over Halleck's assessment order, but this was qui- 
eted by the appointment of a new board of assessors and the ar- 
rest and deportation of some of the chief disturbers. On Jan. 
9 the provost-marshal-gencral sent out an order to the pubhsh- 
ers of all newspapers outside of St. Louis to furnish him with a 
copy of each issue, under penalty of having their papers sup- 
pressed in case of failure to comply. This act of censorship 
caused some grumbling, but few, if any, of the publishers re- 
fused to yield obedience. About the same time the secession 
members of the St. Louis chamber of commerce, being in the 
majority, refused to admit a number of Union applicants for 
membership, whereupon the Union members withdrew and estab- 
lished the Union chamber. On the 26th Halleck ordered that all 
members of the old organization be required to take the oath of 
allegiance prescribed by the state convention in the preceding 
October. Subsequently the faculty of the state university were 
required to take the oath of allegiance, or have their offices va- 
cated. "The institution," said Halleck. "having been endowed 
by the government of the United States, its funds should not be 
used to teach treason or instruct traitors." 

On Jan. 10 the U. S. senate expelled Waldo P. Johnson and 
Trusten Polk, the senators from Missouri, and Lieut.-Gov, Hall, 
in the absence of Gov. Gamble, appointed Robert Wilson and 
John P. Henderson to fill the vacancies. 

Several persons were apprehended in the northern part of the 
state for destroying the property of the Hannibal & St. Joseph 
railroad. Their arrest led to some spirited correspondence be- 
tween Price and Halleck. In one of his letters Price says : "I 
have obtained information that individuals and parties of men 
specially appointed and instructed by me to destroy railroad 
culverts and bridges, have been arrested and subjected to general 
court-martial, for alleged crimes, which all laws of warfare, 
heretofore recognized by the civilized world, have regarded as 
distinctly proper and lawful. * * - Do you regard the 
destruction of important roads for transportation facilities for 
military purposes as the legal right of a belligerent power? Do 
you intend to regard men whom I have especially despatched to 
destroy roads and burn bridges, tear up culverts, etc., as amena- 
ble to the enemy's court-martial, or will you have them tried as 
usual by the proper civil authorities according to the statutes of 
the states?" 

To this Halleck replied as follows : "Where individuals and 
parties of men violate the laws of war, they will be tried, and, 
if found guilty, will certainly be punished, whether acting under 
your special appointment and instructions or not. You must be 
aware, general, that no orders of yours can save from punish- 



Military Affairs in Missouri 247 

ment spies, marauders, robbers, incendiaries, guerrilla bands, 
etc., who violate the laws of war. You cannot give immunity 
to crimes. If you send armed forces, wearing the garb of sol- 
diers, and duly organized and enrolled as legitimate belligerents, 
to destroy railroad bridges, etc., as a military act, we shall kill, 
if possible, in open warfare, or if we capture them we will treat 
them as prisoners of war. But it is well known that you have 
sent numbers of your adherents in the garb of principal citi- 
zens, and under false pretences, through our lines into northern 
Missouri, to rob and destroy the property of Union men, and 
burn and destroy railroad bridges, thus endangering the lives 
of thousands ; and this, too, without any military necessity or 
possible military advantage. * * * You certainly will not 
pretend that men guilty of such crimes, although specially ap- 
pointed and instructed by you, are entitled to the rights and im- 
munities of ordinary prisoners of war." 

In the latter part of January eight of the offenders were tried 
by a military commission at Palmyra, found guilty and sen- 
tenced to death under Halleck's order of Nov., 1861. Halleck 
approved the sentence and ordered it to be carried out in the 
following month. The order was never executed, however, as 
by the latter part of February conditions were so much im- 
proved that Halleck felt justified in abating the stringent mili- 
tary regulations then in force, and suspending the sentence. 
The prisoners were kept confined in the military prison, with 
the understanding that if Confederate spies should again com- 
mit depredations upon the railroads or telegraph lines, the orig- 
inal sentence should be carried into effect. 

On April 8 Price resigned the command of the state troops, 
and about the same time Halleck was ordered to Mississippi, 
leaving Gen. John M. Schofield in command of the Union 
forces in the greater part of the state. People hoped for a con- 
tinued improvement of conditions, but they were doomed to dis- 
appointment. The disbanded troops of Price, emboldened by 
the absence of Federal soldiers, organized themselves into bands 
and by the middle of July the state was again overrun with 
guerrillas. Schofield issued an order holding "rebels and rebel 
sympathizers responsible in their property, and, if need be in 
their persons, for damages committed by the guerrillas," but it 
produced so little effect that on July 22 the governor ordered 
the organization of the militia into companies, etc., for the sup- 
pression of the irregular warfare then going on, and during the 
remainder of the year there were frequent encounters between 
the opposing forces. 

Missouri was one of the first states in the Union to take up 
the question of gradual emancipation of slaves. When the state 



218 The Union Army 

convention met in June a bill was introduced by Judge Breck- 
enridge of St. Louis, for gradual emancipation along the lines 
suggested in the president's message to Congress. After some 
discussion the bill was laid on the table, but a series of resolu- 
tions were finally adopted, declaring that "in the opinion of this 
convention the proposition contained in the joint resolution 
adopted by Congress, approved, 1862, is entitled as well from 
its source as from its intrinsic importance to the deliberate and 
respectful consideration of the people of Missouri." This ac- 
tion was not radical enough to suit the emancipationists, who 
called a mass convention at Jefferson City on June 16. In this 
convention 25 counties were represented by 195 delegates, the 
main object being to organize the party for the fall election. 
Resolutions were adopted setting forth that "we are in favor of 
initiating forthwith a system of emancipation for the State of 
Missouri, gradual in its character, and the operation of which 
shall be so adjusted as not to work injury to the pecuniary in- 
terests of any loyal citizens whose vested property rights may 
be involved, and not to disturb by any violent disruption present 
social relations in our community ; that it should be the duty of 
the next general assembly of this state to take measures for se- 
curing from the national government the aid pledged by the 
resolution of Congress to those states undertaking the estab- 
lishment of a system of gradual emancipation, and that the same 
should be so disposed of as to insure compensation to such as 
may be adjudged as entitled to compensation for any losses that 
may be sustained by the inauguration and consummation of such 
a policy." 

The political campaign of 1862, for the election of Congress- 
men and members of a state legislature, opened early in Octo- 
ber with emancipation as the leading issue. But the emancipa- 
tionists were divided in opinion, the more radical wing, under 
the leadership of B. Gratz Brown, favoring the immediate abo- 
lition of slavery, while the conservative element, led by Blair, 
advocated a gradual emancipation, as expressed in the resolu- 
tions of the Jefferson City convention. At the election on Nov. 
4 the following Congressmen were chosen in the different dis- 
tricts: 1st— F. P. Blair; 2nd— H. T. Blow; 3d— J. G. Scott; 
4th— S. H. Boyd; 5th— J. W. McClurg; 6th— A. H. King; 
7th— Benjamin Loan; 8th— W. A. Hall; 9th— J. S. Rollins. 
Of these representatives Rollins was a Union man, King and 
Hall were Democrats, and the others were emancipationists. 
The emancipationists also elected a majority in each branch of 
the legislature, which met at Jefferson City on Dec. 29. In his 
message Gov. Gamble congratulated the state upon the fact that 
a Union legislature had at last been convened ; that the treason- 



Military Affairs in Missouri 249 

able schemes of the last legislature had been thwarted by the 
state convention ; stated the number of Missouri volunteers then 
in the service of the United States at 27,491 ; the number of the 
state militia at 10,540, and the enrolled militia at 52,056, making 
a grand total of 90,087 men ; and devoted considerable attention 
to the subject of emancipation. According to the report of the 
treasurer of state the indebtedness at the close of the year was 
$27,370,000. 

Although the general assembly discussed the plan of eman- 
cipating the slaves by compensating the owners, it adjourned 
without any decided action on the subject. Agitation of the 
matter then stopped until the city election in St. Louis, which 
was carried by the radicals by a large majority. This gave rise 
to the apprehension that the feeling in favor of immediate eman- 
cipation might extend over the state, and Gov. Gamble issued a 
call for the state convention to meet in June to take action, as 
it was "of the highest importance for the rest of the state that 
some scheme should be adopted and the matter set at rest." The 
convention assembled on June 15, 1863, and on July i passed an 
ordinance decreeing emancipation on July 4, 1870. By the pro- 
visions of the ordinance "Slaves over forty years of age on that 
day should be subject to the control of their owners through 
life ; those under twelve until they were twenty-three, and those 
of all other ages until July 4, 1876." Immediately after the 
passage of this ordinance the convention adjourned sine die. 
Its power continued, however, through its regularly appointed 
officials until the inauguration of Gov. Fletcher in 1865. 

The radical emancipationists were not satisfied with the ordi- 
nance as it passed the convention, and a meeting was held in St. 
Louis to declare their opposition and to take steps to have the 
legislature call a new state convention. An active canvass fol- 
lowed the meeting, which resulted in a convention of the uncon- 
ditional Union men being called at Jefferson City on Sept. i. 

In the meantime other events occurred that served to increase 
the dissatisfaction of the unconditional Union men. The Mis- 
souri troops were divided into two classes known as the "Mis- 
souri state militia" and the "Enrolled Missouri militia." The 
former was enlisted in the United States service and supported 
by the national government, while the latter, which had been 
enrolled in the summer of 1862 by Gov. Gamble, was subject 
to the governor's orders and was maintained at the expense of 
the state when in active service. On Sept. 19, 1862, the Depart- 
ment of Missouri, consisting of the states of Missouri. Kansas 
and Arkansas, and part of the Indian Territory, was created by 
the war department, and Ma j .-Gen. Samuel R. Curtis placed in 
command, with headquarters in St. Louis. For some reason a 



2oO The Union Army 

lack of harmony soon arose between Curtis and Gamble and on 
Dec. 30, 1862, the governor issued his General Order No. 50, 
forbidding the enrolled militia to assist the United States of- 
ficers in making arrests, assessments, etc. This was followed 
on April 2^, 1863, by General Order No. 14, to-wit: "Here- 
after no enlistments will be allowed from any organization of 
the enrolled Missouri militia into the volunteer service of the 
United States, when such militia shall have been detailed for 
active service, and shall have been embodied as a force in the 
field." 

Under these orders the enrolled militia could not be used by 
the provost-marshal in enforcing his orders. News of the fac- 
tional fight finally reached President Lincoln, and on May 24, 
1863, he removed Curtis and assigned Gen. Schofield to the 
command of the department. In a letter to Schofield, under 
date of May 27, the president said : "I did not relieve Gen. Cur- 
tis because of my full conviction that he had done wrong by 
commission or omission. I did it because of a conviction in my 
mind that the Union men of Missouri constituting, when united, 
a vast majority of the whole people, have entered into a pesti- 
lent factional quarrel among themselves. Gen. Curtis, perhaps 
not of choice, being the head of one faction, and Gov. Gamble 
that of the other. After months of labor to reconcile the dif- 
ficulty, it seemed to grow worse and worse, until I felt it my 
duty to break it up somehow ; and as I could not remove Gov. 
Gamble, I had to remove Gen. Curtis. Now that you are in the 
position, I wish you to undo nothing merely because Gen. Cur- 
tis or Gov. Gamble did it, but to exercise your own judgment 
and do right for the public interest. * * * jf both factions, 
or neither, shall abuse you, you will probably be about right. 
Beware of being assailed by one and praised by the other." 

The removal of Curtis was not approved by the unconditional 
Union men, especially as on May 29, Gamble issued an order 
setting forth that "The command of the enrolled militia, now 
in active service within the state, including the provisional regi- 
ments, is conferred upon Maj-Gen. John M. Schofield, com- 
manding the Department of Missouri." The unconditional 
Union men saw in this order that they could not use the militia 
to suppress treason as they saw it, without the consent of Gam- 
ble and Schofield, and they appointed a delegation to visit Wash- 
ington and lay the matter before the president. The conserva- 
tives also sent a delegation to present their side of the case. To 
the representatives of the warring factions the president said : 
"The dissensions between the Union men in Missouri are due 
solely to a factious spirit which is exceedingly reprehensible. 
The two parties ought to have their heads knocked together. 



Military Affairs in Missouri 261 

Either would rather see the defeat of their adversary than that 
of Jefferson Davis." He also announced that the radical ele- 
ment had no right to consider themselves as the exponents of 
his views on the subject of emancipation, which was the bone of 
contention, as he was inclined to favor gradual rather than im- 
mediate manumission. 

The refusal of the president to take sides with either faction 
had a tendency to quiet affairs in the state until after the pass- 
age of the emancipation ordinance by the state convention as 
already noted, when the dissensions broke out afresh. When 
the radical convention assembled at Jefferson City on Sept. i, 
a large majority of the counties were represented, over 300 
delegates being present. The platform adopted denounced the 
military policy of the state government and the delegation by the 
general government of the military power to a provisional state 
organization, "the whole tendency of which is to throw back 
the people under the control of the pro-slavery party ;" declared 
in favor of sustaining the government in a vigorous prosecu- 
tion of the war ; endorsed the president's emancipation procla- 
mation and asked for its prompt execution ; demanded immedi- 
ate emancipation in Missouri ; favored a constitutional amend- 
ment to disfranchise all who had taken up arms against the na- 
tional government ; and demanded that the legislature call a 
new state convention to consider the grievances under which the 
state was laboring. 

Resolutions were also adopted requesting Gov. Gamble and 
Lieut.-Gov. Hall to resign ; asking the president to remove Gen. 
Schofield and assign Gen. Butler to the command of the depart- 
ment ; thanking the president for arming negroes to kill rebels ; 
requesting the radical members of the legislature to vote for 
B. Gratz Brown and Benjamin Loan for United States senators, 
after which a committee of seventy was appointed to visit Wash- 
ington and lay their grievances before the president, Henry A. 
Clover, Arnold Krekel and David Wagner were nominated for 
justices of the supreme court, and the convention adjourned. 

On the last day of September the committee of seventy laid 
before the president an address, making demands along the lines 
laid down in the platform, but the only thing in which he agreed 
with the convention was concerning the disfranchisement of 
those who had taken up arms against the government. His atti- 
tude dampened the enthusiasm of the unconditional Union men 
and correspondingly aroused the ardor of the conservatives. 
Old party lines had by this time been obliterated in the state, the 
sentiment being divided into the two classes known as 
radicals and conservatives. The latter held no state convention, 
but by mutual consent united in the support of Barton Bates, 



252 The Union Army 

William V. N. Bay and John D. S. Dryden as candidates for 
justices of the supreme court, and at the election in November 
the conservative candidates were elected by small majorities. 
On Nov. 13, the general assembly, being in adjourned session, 
elected B. (jratz Brown and John B. Henderson United States 
senators. 

During the early part of the year 1863 a large number of dis- 
loyal persons were sent south. Those having families were al- 
lowed to take property and money to the amount of $1,000, all 
other persons $200 each, the remainder of their possessions be- 
ing appropriated for the benefit of sick and wounded soldiers. 

Gov. Gamble died on Jan. 31, 1864, and Lieut.-Gov. Hall suc- 
ceeded to the office. The most interesting events of the year 
1864 were in connection with the presidential campaign, which 
Switzler, in his History of Missouri, says "was prosecuted in 
Missouri, by both sides, in the midst of the intolerance, intimi- 
dation and violence more or less incident to all civil wars. A 
general canvass was not attempted, for the prevalence of armed 
men, the raids and outrages of predatory bands of guerrillas, 
and the bitter feeling engendered by the war, tended to repress 
the ardor of political orators and the importunities of political 
candidates." 

An exciting feature of the campaign was the canvass for 
delegates to a constitutional convention, authorized by an act 
of the legislature, approved Feb. 13, 1864. The bill provided 
that delegates should be elected at the general election in No- 
vember, the people at the same time to vote on the question as 
to whether or not they desired such a convention. If a major- 
ity voted in the affirmative the convention was to assemble at 
St. Louis on Jan. 6, 1865 ; if the majority of the votes was in the 
negative the delegates were not to assemble. The vote for 
president was 72,991 for Lincoln and 31,026 for McClellan. 
P"or governor Thomas C. Fletcher, the radical candidate, was 
elected by about the same majority over Thomas L. Price, the 
conservative. On the question of the constitutional convention 
8(),2I5 votes were cast, of which the majority in favor of the 
convention was 37,793. Of the 66 delegates chosen, over three- 
fourths belonged to the radical or unconditional party. 

Although President Lincoln refused to remove Gen. Scho- 
field at the solicitation of the committee of seventy, sent to him 
in the fall of 1863, on Jan. 30, 1864, Maj. Gen. W. S. Rosecrans 
was assigned to the command of the department, Schofield be- 
ing transferred to the command of the Department of the Ohio. 
A few days before the election Rosecrans issued a lengthy or- 
der, regarding the rights of certain citizens to vote and the du- 
ties of the military on election day. It provided: "i — That 



Military Affairs in Missouri 253 

those, and only those, who have the qualifications, and who take 
the oath prescribed by the state, copies of which are hereunto 
annexed, shall vote. 2 — No one who has borne arms against 
the government of the United States, or voluntarily given aid 
and comfort to its enemies during the present rebellion, shall 
act as judge or clerk at an election. 3 — Outrages upon the free- 
dom of election by violence or intimidation ; attempting to hhi- 
der legal, or to procure or encourage illegal voting; interfering 
with the legal challenge of voters; acting as officers of election, 
in contravention of law or orders; wilful neglect to perform 
their duties, under the laws and these orders, by officers of elec- 
tions, and especially taking the voters' or officers' oath falsely ; 
and all other acts and words interfering with the purity and 
freedom of elections, are crimes against the liberties of the peo- 
ple, and are declared military offenses, and will be rigorously 
punished. 4 — The laws of the state provide that those of its 
citizens who are in the army shall not thereby lose the privi- 
lege of voting, provided the voting is done in the manner pre- 
scribed. The commanding general, therefore, directs that, on 
the day of election, every practicable facility be afforded for 
taking, in camp, or on the field, the vote of citizens of Missouri 
who may then be in any company of Missouri volunteers or 
militia, in the service of the United States or the state. 5 — ■ 
Wherever there is good reason to apprehend that rebel bush- 
whackers, or other evil disposed persons, will attempt to con- 
trol the election at any precinct by their acts, threats or pres- 
ence, a sufficient guard will be detailed to prevent any such 
control, and keep the peace. 6 — District and all subordinate 
commanders will strictly and carefully enforce this order at the 
approaching elections, and use all diligence to bring to speedy 
and condign punishment all civilians, officers or soldiers who 
violate any of its provisions." 

The legislature assembled on Dec. 26. In his message Gov. 
Hall stated the total number of troops furnished by the state for 
the United States service to Nov. 30, 1864, as 81,767, some 
io,cxx) more than her quota under the several calls for volun- 
teers. On Jan. i, 1864, there was due the militia nearly $1,000,- 
000, to provide for which the governor recommended a bond 
issue. In this connection it is pertinent to notice the method 
in which Missouri provided for the payment of her militia. The 
state convention at its session in Oct., 1861. passed an ordinance 
appropriating $1,000,000 in defense warrants, redeemable by 
the state for taxes. Warrants of this character to the amount 
of $1,370,480 were issued, and on March 9, 1863, the legisla- 
ture passed an act authorizing the issue of $3,000,000 in Union 
military bonds, receivable for one-half the taxes and debts due 



254 The Union Army 

the state. By Dec. i, 1864, defense warrants to the amount of 
$1,113,365 had been redeemed and destroyed, and Union mih- 
tary bonds amounting to $1,228,970 had been redeemed and can- 
celled. Thus out of a total military debt of $4,370,480 nearly 
one-half had been liquidated before the close of the year 1864, 
a tribute to the patriotism of the Missouri people and the probity 
of her officials. 

Gov. Fletcher was inaugurated at Jefferson City on Jan. 6, 
1865, and on the same day the constitutional convention met in 
St. Louis. It organized by the election of Arnold Krekel as 
president ; Charles D. Drake, vice-president ; and Amos Foster, 
secretary. Emancipation was the first subject to engross the 
attention of the delegates, several ordinances and resolutions 
relating to it being introduced before the appointment of the 
usual standing committees. Finally a special committee of five 
was appointed, to which all the ordinances and resolutions were re- 
ferred. On the nth the committee reported the following, which 
was adopted after some spirited debate: "Be it ordained by the 
people of the State of Missouri, in convention assembled : 
That hereafter, in this state, there shall be neither slavery nor 
involuntary servitude, except in punishment of crime, whereof 
the party shall have been duly convicted ; and all persons held 
to service or labor as slaves are hereby declared free." 

Of the 66 delegates to the convention ;^^ were natives of 
slave states, yet this ordinance passed by a vote of 60 to 4, two 
delegates being absent. A copy of it, duly signed and attested, 
was immediately sent to Gov. Fletcher, who, on the 12th, issued 
a proclamation setting forth that "henceforth and forever no 
person within the jurisdiction of the state shall be subject to any 
abridgement of liberty, except such as the law shall prescribe 
for the common good, or know any master but God." Con- 
cerning this action Harvey, in "The Province and the States," 
says: "This was a grand enactment. Jan. 11, 1865, is a great 
datemark in the history of Missouri and of human freedom. 
The fact that Missouri alone among the slave states voluntarily 
rid herself of the institution, and that she did this eleven months 
before the thirteenth amendment was proclaimed in operation 
throughout the country, is a distinction for their state which 
Missourians should remember." 

It soon became apparent that mere amendments to the old 
constitution would not suffice, and the convention turned its at- 
tention to the formation of a new organic law. Many of the 
provisions of the new constitution, especially those relating to 
corporations, education and the militia, were wise and judicious, 
but some reflected the intense sectional feeling rife at the time. 
This was particularly true of the article relating to the right 



Military Affairs in Missouri 255- 

of suffrage, which provided that no person should be allowed to 
vote or hold any state, county or municipal office, to teach, 
school, to practice law, to be competent as a bishop, priest, dea- 
con, minister, elder or other clergyman of any religious per- 
suasion, sect or denomination, to teach or to preach or to sol- 
emnize marriages, unless he should take a prescribed oath that 
he had never been in armed hostility to the United States or 
the state of Missouri ; that he had never given any aid, coun- 
tenance or sympathy to persons engaged in such hostility; that 
he had never in any manner adhered to the domestic or foreign 
enemies of the United States, or had given them money, let- 
ters, information or sympathy; that he had never committed any 
other one of a long list of prescribed offenses. Harvey says : 
"The list was so long, so minute and so sweeping in its scope 
that it would have excluded a large number of the Unionists of 
any prominence in the state, whether in private life or in the 
military or civil service of the government." 

The constitution provided for a system of registration of vot- 
ers, and each and every voter in the state was required to take 

the "Oath of Loyalty," which was as follows : *T 

do solemnly swear, that I am well acquainted with the terms 
of the third section of the second article of the constitution of 
the State of Missouri, adopted in the year 1865, and have care- 
fully considered the same ; that I have never, directly or indi- 
rectly, done any of the acts specified in said section ; that I have 
always been truly and loyally on the side of the United States, 
against all enemies thereof, foreign and domestic; that I will 
bear true faith and allegiance to the United States, and will 
support the constitution and laws thereof, as the supreme law 
of the land, any law or ordinance of any state to the contrary 
notwithstanding; that I will, to the best of my ability, protect 
and defend the Union of the United States, and not allow the 
government thereof to be destroyed or overthrown, under any 
circumstances, if in my power to prevent it ; that I will support 
the constitution of the State of Missouri ; and that I make this 
oath without any mental reservation or evasion, and hold it to 
be binding on me." 

On April 10 the convention adjourned, after ordering an elec- 
tion for June 6, at which the new constitution should be sub- 
mitted to the people for ratification or rejection, it being at the 
same time provided that no one should be allowed to vote "who 
would not be a voter according to the terms of this constitution, 
if the second article thereof were then in force." By this pro- 
vision thousands of citizens who had remained as non-combat- 
ants during the war were disfranchised, although the consti- 
tution then in issue was to govern them and their children after 



256 The Union Army 

them. On the other hand the extremists argued that citizens 
who had by actions, words or sympathy given aid to the rebel- 
Hon had forfeited the right to vote, and that their only remain- 
ing right was "to pay taxes, work the roads, and hold their 
peace." At the election 85,478 votes were cast; 43,670 for the 
constitution and 41,808 against it. As soon as the result of the 
election was made known Gov. Fletcher issued a proclamation 
declaring the new organic law would take effect on July 4, 
1865. The rigors of this constitution were abated by the de- 
cision of the U. S. supreme court in the case of Rev. John A. 
Cummings, a Catholic priest who refused to take the oath of 
loyalty, but continued to exercise the offices of clergyman and 
teacher in his parish at Louisiana, Mo., and by the amendments 
ratified at the general election of 1870, by majorities ranging 
from 105,000 to 130.000. In the Cummings case the court held 
that the requirement was "in violation of the Federal constitu- 
tion which prohibits any state from enacting a bill of attainder 
or ex post facto law," and was therefore null and void. 

Although the war was practically over at the time the con- 
stitutional convention adjourned, fragmentary bands of guer- 
rillas — remnants of Price's army of the preceding year — con- 
tinued to infest some portions of the state, and the militia was 
kept in service for some time after hostilities elsewhere had en- 
tirely ceased. Thus Missouri was one of the last as well as one 
of the first states to feel the curse of civil war. During the con- 
test she furnished to the Federal government a total of 109,111 
men, exclusive of the militia she maintained to keep peace with- 
in her borders and protect her people from the raids of the guer- 
rillas, jayhawkers and other predatory bands who were actu- 
ated more by the prospect of plunder than by principles or pa- 
triotism. 



RECORD OF MISSOURI REGIMENTS 



First Infantry. — Col., Frank P. Blair; Lieut. -Col., George L. An- 
drews; Maj., John M. Schofield. The first three companies of this regi- 
ment were organized in response to the president's call for volunteers, 
and were composed almost entirely of German Turners of St. Louis. 
The officers tendered their commands to Gen. Harney, who refused to ac- 
cept them, and they were mustered into service under the president's 
order to Capt. Nathaniel Lyon. (See state history.) They were the 
first U. S. troops to enter the St. Louis arsenal on April 22, 1861, and a 
few days later other companies came in, so that the regimental organiza- 
tion was completed on the 27th, with 1,020 officers and men. Part of 
the regiment, under Capt. Harry Stone, was engaged in guarding the 
removal of arms and ammunition to Springfield, 111., and on May 10 the 
entire regiment participated in the capture of Camp Jackson. On June 
10, a month before the expiration of its term of enlistment, it was mus- 
tered into the three years' service, and on Sept. 18, was made the ist 
artillery, under which its subsequent history will be found. 

Second Infantry. — Cols., Fred. Schaefer, Bernard Laibold; Lieut.- 
Cols., Bernard Laibold, Francis Ehler, Arnold Beck; Majs., Julius Wind- 
shuke, Francis Ehler, Arnold Beck, Matthias Kraemer, A. B. Carroll. 
The regiment was mustered into service for three years at St. Louis, 
Sept. 10, 1861, with 865 officers and men. It was engaged in the opera- 
tions in southwest Missouri; took part in the battle of Pea Ridge; thence 
marched to Cape Girardeau and from there to Corinth and Rienzi, 
Miss. In Sept., 1862, it moved northward to Columbus, Ky., Cincinnati, 
Ohio, and Louisville, where it rested a short time and was then ordered 
to Nashville, taking part in the battle of Perryville while on its way, 
and in several minor skirmishes. It was in the battle of Stone's River, 
and was later engaged at Chickamauga and in the battles about Chatta- 
nooga. It distinguished itself by bayonet charges at Chickamauga and 
Missionary Ridge, and in the summer of 1864 rendered valiant service 
in guarding Sherman's line of communications in the Atlanta campaign. 
It was mustered out on Sept. 27-29, 1864. There was also a 2nd infan- 
try in the three months' service, but no record of its organization or 
service is on file in the office of the adjutant-general of the state. 

Third Infantry (Three Months' Service). — Col., Fran?. Sigel; Lieut. - 
Col., Albert Auslein ; Maj., Henry Bishoff. This regiment was mus- 
tered in at the St. Louis arsenal on April 22, 1861, and was in the cap- 
ture of Camp Jackson on May 10. It then moved to southwest Mis- 
souri and participated in the battles of Carthage and Wilson's creek, af- 
ter which it returned to St. Louis and was discharged in the latter part 
of August and the early days of September. 

Third Infantry (Three Years' Service). — Cols., Isaac F. Shepard, 
Theo. Meumann; Lieut.-Cols., Henry Bishofif, Theo. Meumann, W. A. 
Hequembourg; Majs., Theo. Meumann, Joseph Conrad, W. A. Hequem- 
bourg. This regiment was formed by the consolidation of the 3d regi- 
ment and 19th battalion. Missouri volunteers, under an order from the 
adjutant-general, dated Jan. 18, 1862, with 816 officers and men. Four 
companies marched to southwest Missouri and were in the battle of Pea 
Ridge, two companies remaining at Alton, 111., and four at Benton bar- 

Vol. IV— 17 257 



358 The Union Army 

racks, St. Louis. The entire regiment formed pari of Gen. Curtis' army 
in his expedition to Helena, Ark. On Dec. 12, 1862, it was assigned to 
the Army of the Mississippi ; distinguished itself in the battle of Arkansas 
Post; was then in practically all the engagements of the Vicksburg cam- 
paign; was engaged in the expedition from luka to Tuscumbia; after- 
ward fought at Missionary Ridge, Ringgold and Lookout Mountain. 
After the battle of Missionary Ridge it was assigned to the 1st division, 
15th army corps, and with this command marched with Gen. Sherman's 
army to Atlanta. From the fall of Atlanta to the muster out the regi- 
ment was engaged in doing guard duty along the railroad. When the 
regiment was mustered out the veterans in it were assigned to the 15th 
I\lo. infantry, the last company being mustered out on Nov. 22, 1865. 

Fourth Infantry (Three Months' Service). — Col., Nich. Schittner; 
Lieut. -Col., A. Hamnien; Maj., F. Niegeman. The origin of this regi- 
ment was a company known as the "Black Jaeger," organized by Maj. 
Schittner in Jan., 1861, for the protection of the St. Louis arsenal. It 
was mustered into the U. S. service on April 22-23, 1861, with ten com- 
panies, each full number, and two companies of riflemen. It was with 
Capt. Lyon in the capture of Camp Jackson, after which it moved to 
Bird's Point, and still later was under Gen. Prentiss at Cairo, 111. From 
there it was ordered back to St. Louis by Lyon, and was then sent against 
the Confederates under Harrison along the line of the Pacific railroad. 
It was mustered out at St. Louis on July 30, 1861. 

Fourth Infantry (Three Years' Service). — Col., Robert Hundhausen; 
Lieut. -Col., Julius Hundhausen; Maj., Charles H. Warren. The regi- 
ment was organized under an order from the adjutant-general, dated 
Jan. 18, 1862, by the consolidation of the 3d regiment, U. S. reserve 
corps and Lieut.-Col. Julius Hundhausen's battalion. It was kept in serv- 
ice chiefly within the state and was mustered out under special orders 
on Feb. i, 1863. 

Fifth Infantry (Three Months' Service). — Col., Charles E. Solomon; 
Lieut.-Col., Chris. D. Wolf; Maj., F. W. Cronenbold. The regiment was 
mustered in on May 18, 1861. and remained at St. Louis until June 16, 
when it left for Springfield, Mo. One company was left at Lebanon, two 
at Springfield, and the rest of the regiment marched to Neosho and 
Carthage, taking part in the battle of Dry Forks. It then returned to^ 
Springfield and joined Gen. Lyon's expedition toward Fayetteville, Ark. 
Nine companies were in the battle of Wilson's creek, and the day fol- 
lowing the battle the regiment was ordered to St. Louis, where it was 
mustered out on Aug. 26. 

Fifth Infantry (Three Years' Service). — Cols., August H. Poten,, 
Samuel A. Foster ; Lieut.-Cols., John J. Fisher, Emil Stradtman, James 
A. Greason ; Majs., C. F. Koch, Charles Elliott. This regiment was or- 
ganized by the consolidation of Capt. J. D. Voister's company of sappers 
and miners ; the pioneer company of Capt. Anton Gerster ; Capt. Louis 
Winkelmaier's pontonier company; and the 5th regiment of the U. S. 
reserve corps, the adjutant-general's order for such consolidation being- 
dated March 18, 1862. On Nov. 12, 1862, an order from Gen. Curtis 
directed the reserve corps to be mustered out of .service, and as a large 
part of this regiment claimed to come within the provisions of the order, 
all making such claims were mustered out. Two companies were as- 
signed to the 3Sth Mo. infantry; the unassigned recruits to the 32nd; 
and the two remaining companies to the 27th. 

Sixth Infantry. — Cols., Peter E. Bland, James H. Blood, Delos Van 
Deusen ; Lieut.-Cols., James H. Blood, Ira Boutell, Delos Van Deusen, 
Patrick G. Galvin; Majs., Mahlon Weber, John W. Fletcher, William D. 
Coleman, James S. Temple, Ira Boutell, Joseph S. Gage, B. H. Peterson, 
James C. McGinnis, Fred A. Bragg. The regiment was raised at St. 



Missouri Regiments 259 

Louis during the months of May and June, 1861. On July 10 it was or- 
dered to Pilot Knob; was engaged on duty at various points within the 
state from that time until April, 1862, when it was ordered to Corinth, 
Miss., arriving there in time to take part in the battles about that place 
in June. At Corinth it was attached to Gen. Sherman's division and 
was engaged in the operations about Holly Springs, Miss. ; Lagrange and 
Moscow, Tenn., and in Oct., 1862, was attached to the 15th army corps. 
It was in the battle of Chickasaw Bluflfs, and suffered heavily in losses 
at Arkansas Post, where it distinguished itself by its bravery. It was 
then in the campaign against Vicksburg, and the actions with the Con- 
federates under Gen. Johnston after Pemberton's surrender. In Sept.. 
1863, it embarked at Vicksburg for Memphis, and from that place marched 
across Tennessee to reinforce Gen. Rosecrans at Chattanooga, arriving 
there in time to participate in the engagements of Lookout Mountain 
and Missionary Ridge. From Chattanooga it was ordered to Knoxville, 
but in the early part of the year 1864 returned to Larkinsville, Ala., where 
the majority of the men reenlisted and received their veteran furlough. 
Upon its return to the field it was with Sherman in his advance upon 
Atlanta, taking part in the engagements at Resaca, Dallas, Kennesaw 
Mountain, the battles in front of Atlanta and Jonesboro ; then followed 
Hood to the Little river, near Gadsden, Ala. ; returned to Atlanta and 
marched with Sherman to the sea. It was encamped near Fort McAl- 
lister until Jan., 1865. when it was moved on transports to Beaufort, 
S. C. It was then engaged in the march through the Carolinas, making 
a gallant charge in the battle of Bentonville, where it drove back the 
enemy and held the ground thus gained until it could be reinforced. 
After Johnston's surrender the regiment went to Washington and partici- 
pated in the grand review. In June it was ordered to Little Rock, Ark., 
where it remained until Aug. 17, 1865, when the order for muster out 
was received. It then returned to St. Louis and on the 23d the men were 
paid off and discharged, after four years and two months of service. 
The adjutant-general says of this regiment in his report for 1865: "None 
of the Missouri regiments has done more honor to the service, nor will 
any hold a higher place in the history of the war." 

Seventh Infantry. — Cols., John D. Stevenson, William S. Oliver ; 
Lieut.-Cols., Egbert B. Brown, Thomas Curley, William S. Oliver, Rol)- 
ert Buchanan; Majs., Thomas Curley, W. S. Oliver, Edwin Wakefield, 
William B. Collins. The 7th was organized in the month of June, 1861, 
and began its active service at Boonville, Mo., on July 4. It was then on 
duty at various places in the state until early in May, 1862, when it was 
ordered to Pittsburg landing, Tenn., where it arrived on the 14th. From 
August to October it was on post duty at Jackson, Tenn. ; took part in 
the engagements at Medon Station and Britton's lane; was then ordered 
to Corinth, Miss., where it arrived in time to attack the Confederate 
rear as they were assaulting the Union forces ; was attached to Gen. Mc- 
Pherson's division and was in the advance in the pursuit of the enemy 
from Corinth to Ripley. On Nov. 21 it was assigned to Gen. Logan's 
division and was engaged in the operations of that command about Holly 
Springs. Oxford and Water Valley, and along the Memphis & Charleston 
railroad. In the spring of 1863 it was engaged in Louisiana, and on April 
30 arrived at Bniinsburg, Miss., where it joined Gen. Grant's army for 
the advance on Vicksburg. It participated in the battles at Port Gibson 
and Bayou Pierre; suffered a heavy loss in killed and wounded at Ray- 
mond ; was detailed to destroy the railroad between Jackson and Clinton ; 
was engaged in guarding the transportation and as a reserve at the battle 
of Champion's Hill ; took part in the first assault on the Confederate 
worV:s at Vicksburg, and was then in the trenches in front of that place 
until it capitulated. It was then with Gen. Stevenson's expedition to 



360 The Union Army 

Monroe, La. ; then returned to Vicksburg and remained on guard duty 
until June 14, 1864, when those whose terms had expired were mustered 
out and tlic veterans were consohdatcd with the 11th Mo. infantry. 

Eighth Infantry, — Cols., Morgan L. Smith, Giles A. Smith, David 
C. Coleman; Lieut.-Cols., James Peckham, Ciiles .'\. Smith, David C. 
Coleman, Dennis T. Kirhy; Majs. John McDonald, Dennis T. Kirby. 
'I'his regiment was organized in June and July, 1861. Before its organiza- 
tion was complete it was called on to suppress the guerrillas engaged in 
committing depredations along the line of the North Missouri railroad, 
defeating them in the vicinity of St. Charles and Mexico. On July 29 
the regiment left St. Louis for Cape Girardeau, and on Sept. 7 landed 
at Paducah, Ky., wiierc it remained until the following February, when it 
joined the forces moving against Forts Henry and Donelson. Fort Henry 
liad surrendered before the regiment arrived, but at Donelson it proved 
Its fighting qualities, being under command of Gen. Lew Wallace in the 
repulse of the attempt of the enemy to cut liis way out. It was with 
Wallace in some of the heaviest fighting at Sliiloh on the second day of 
that battle ; in the engagements about Corinth, Miss. ; and the operations 
in that vicinity until November, when it was ordered to Memphis, Tenn. 
Here it joined Gen. Sherman's forces for the assault on the Confederate 
works at Chickasaw HlufTs, where it acquitted itself with credit, and a few 
days later was on the skirmish line in the assault on Arkansas Post. It 
was one of the regiments assigned to the Steele's bayou expedition in 
the early movements against Vicksburg; took part in the feint against 
Haynes' blufif, which enabled Gen. Grant to effect a landing at Grand 
Gulf, Miss. ; was then in the battles of Raymond and Champion's Hill, 
and in the advance on Vicksburg it was the first regiment to encounter 
and drive in the enemy's pickets. It took part in the assaults on the 
Vicksburg works and after the fall of that city was in the movement to 
drive Gen. Johnston from Jackson. In November the regiment marched 
with Sherman to Chattanooga, and was in the advance in the first as- 
sault on Missionary Ridge. After Bragg's defeat at Chattanooga it was 
one of the regiments that marched to the relief of Gen. Burnside at 
Knoxville, and the following spring joined Gen. Sherman's army for the 
advance upon Atlanta, taking part in all the principal engagements of 
that historic campaign until in July, 1864, when the main body of the 
regiment was ordered to St. Louis, where it was mustered out on July 
25. Two companies. A and B, were veteranized and served with the 2nd 
division, 17th corps, in the march to the sea and the campaign of the 
Carolinas. being mustered out at Little Rock, Ark., .A.ug. [4. 1865. 

Ninth Infantry. — Col.. John C. Kelton; Lieut. -Col., C. H. Frederick; 
Majs., D. M. McGibbon, Sidney P. Post. The regiment was organized 
and mustered into service on Sept. 18, 1861. As most of the men were 
from Illinois the command was transferred to that state by order of the 
adjutant-general on March 20, 1862. (See 59th Illinois infantry.) 

Tenth Infantry. — Cols., George R. Todd, Samuel A. Holmes. F. C. 
Deimling; Lieut. -Cols., S. A. Holmes, John D. Foster, Leonidas Homey, 
Christian Hoppel ; Majs., Aaron Brown. Leonidas Horney, F. C. Deim- 
ling, Joseph Walker. The regiment rendezvoused at the St. Louis arsenal 
on Aug. I, t86i, under command of Col. Chester Harding. While com- 
pleting the organization it was employed in guarding the southwest 
branch of the Pacific railroad from the attacks of guerrillas. On Nov. 
T9, 1861, three companies of the 21st regiment, also in process of forma- 
tion, was consolidated with the TOth, which was then mustered into serv- 
ice with 869 officers and men. In Dec, 1861, the regiment was engaged 
in the pursuit of the Confederate force engaged in destroying the North 
Missouri railroad, following them through Warren. Callaway. Boone and 
Audrain counties. It was then stationed at Warrenton and High Hill 



Missouri Regiments 261 

until April, 1862, when its strength was further augmented by the addition 
of part of Foster's battalion and ordered to report to Gen. Halleck at 
Pittsburg landing, Tenn. As a part of the 3d division, Army of the 
Mississippi, under Gen. Hamilton, it took part in the siege of Corinth and 
the battle of Farniington, Miss. ; was then in several minor engagements 
during the summer. It was present at the battles of luka and Corinth; 
with Grant's expedition into central Mississippi ; then moved to Memphis, 
Tenn., and durmg the winter was stationed at Germantown, Tenn., on 
the Memphis & Charleston railroad. In the spring of 1863 the division 
was made the 7th division, 17 corps, and under Gen. McPherson was 
engaged in all the principal actions in which that corps participated in 
the Vicksburg campaign. After the reduction of Vicksburg it joined the 
army at Chattanooga, Tenn., and fought with its customary valor at 
Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. Early in 1864 it was sent into 
Alabama to guard the Memphis & Charleston railroad, and there en- 
gaged in several skirmishes with detachments of the enemy. In June it 
was contentrated at Huntsvillc, Ala., transported to Kingston, Ga., and 
in July was ordered to Resaca to hold the works covering the railroad 
bridge at that point and a construction camp a few miles north, meeting 
and defeating the enemy several times while on this service. Owing to 
the method by which the regiment was organized, it was mustered out at 
different times, part in August and the last detachment in Oct., 1864. 

Eleventh Infantry. — Cols., Joseph B. Plummer, Joseph A. Mower, 
A. J. Weber, W. L. Barnum. Eli Bowyer; Lieut. -Cols., W. E. Panabaker, 
A. J. Weber, W. L. Barnum, Eli Bowyer, M. J. Green; Majs. B. F. Liv- 
ingston, A. J. Weber, Eli Bowyer, M. J. Green, W. W. Cleland. The 
regiment was raised in Missouri and Illinois in June and July, 1861, and 
was mustered on Aug. i, at the St. Louis arsenal. On the 7th it went 
into camp at Cape Girardeau, and the latter part of the month made an 
expedition to Perryville, Mo., being gone about a week and bringing in 
a number of prisoners. In October, by order of Gen. Grant, it was sent 
against the Confederate Gen. Jeff Thompson, and fought in the battle 
of Fredericktown, where the loss of the regiment was about 10 in killed 
and wounded. It was employed to make a demonstration on the White- 
water river while the forces under Grant attacked Belmont. In Feb., 
1862, it constituted a part of Gen. Pope's army and took part in the oper- 
ations about New Madrid and Island No. 10. After the defeat of the 
enemy at those points it embarked on transports (April 13) and dropped 
down the river to attack Fort Pillow. Before the reduction of tliat place 
Pope received orders to reinforce Grant at Shiloh, and joined the army 
there on April 22. The regiment was then in practically all the maneu- 
vers about Corinth, Rienzi. Booneville and Farmington, Miss., Tuscum- 
bia and Russellville, Ala., receiving the complimentary notice from Gen. 
Rosecrans as the best drilled and disciplined regiment in his army. On 
Aug. 16 it was in Mower's reconnaissance of Gen. Price's army, said to 
be one of the most daring reconnaissances on record. Three days later 
it was in the battle of luka, where it maintained its ground against su- 
perior numbers until after dark, losing 76 in killed and wounded, 
and again receiving the compliments of Rosecrans for its splendid con- 
duct on the field. It was in the pursuit of Price from Corinth to Ripley 
and during the fall and winter was active in the operations in Mississippi, 
western Tennessee, and in February was embarked on transports at 
Memphis to join Grant's army in the campaign against Vicksburg. Here 
it was assigned to Gen. Sherman's corps (15th) and remained with that 
corps until after the surrender of the city. On May 18 it was in the ad- 
vance in the charge of Mower's brigade on the enemy's works on Wal- 
nut hills, losing over 100 in killed and wounded. Failing to carry the 
works the regiment was compelled to remain in the ditches until after 



2(^2 The Union Army 

dark, in order to withdraw without drawing the concentrated fire of the 
enemy as it had done in the advance. It was the only regiment of the 
corps to reach the enemy's fortifications on this occasion. During the 
siege it was with Gen. Blair's expedition to Mechanicsville and later 
was in a second expedition up the Yazoo, which was the hottest march ol 
the campaign, if not of the war. It then fought at MiUiken's bend, 
Richmond, La., and in several minor engagements, vanquishing the Con- 
federate forces under Gen. Dick Taylor ; then was stationed at Big Black 
river bridge until Nov. 8, when it was ordered to Memphis. The his- 
tory of the regiment for 1864 is practically the history of the maneuvers 
in northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, Arkansas and Missouri, as 
it was in all those states and in a number of the principal battles in each. 
In November it was ordered to Nashville, where it joined Gen. Thomas' 
army in time to assist in the signal defeat of the Confederates under Gen. 
Hood, and was active in the pursuit which followed. In the spring of 
1865 it was engaged in the movements against Spanish Fort and Fort 
Blakely, near Mobile, Ala., and remained on duty in that state until Dec. 
24, when it was ordered to report to Gen. Smith at Memphis for muster 
out. During the year it traveled over 2,500 miles, nearly =;oo of which 
were on foot. 

Twelfth Infantry. — Cols., P. J. Osterhaus, Hugo Wangelin; Lieut- 
Cols., Otto Schadt, Jacob Karcher ; Majs., Hugo Wangelin, Jacob Karch- 
er, Gustavus Light foot, Fred Lederberger. The regiment was organized 
in St. Louis in Aug., 1861. Its first active service was as a part of Gen. 
Sigel s division in the Fremont expedition, moving successively to Jef- 
ferson City, Sedalia, Springfield, Wilson's creek and Rolla, where it went 
into quarters. Leaving Rolla in Jan., 1862, it marced with Gen. Curtis 
into Arkansas ; fought at the battles of Pea Ridge, Leetown and Benton- 
ville, pursuing the enemy from Pea Ridge through southern Mis- 
souri and northern Arkansas to Batesville. On Sept. i, 1862, it left 
Helena and made an expedition to Ste. Genevieve and Pilot Knob. Re- 
turning to Helena, it embarked on transports for the Yazoo river; fought 
at the battles of Chickasaw Bluffs and Arkansas Post; was then in the 
expedition through Y'azoo pass ; marched to Grand Gulf, where it joined 
Gen. Grant's army for the siege of Vicksburg, taking part in the various 
skirmishes and assaults incident to that movement. After the fall of 
Vicksburg it was part of the expedition to Canton, Miss., and with other 
troops went to Chattanooga, where it took part in the battles of Look- 
out Mountain and Missionary Ridge. The early part of 1864 was spent 
in Alabama, but about May i it joined Gen. Sherman for the Atlanta cam- 
paign, being assigned to the 3d brigade, ist division, 15th corps. It was 
on the skirmish line at Resaca ; took an active part in the battles at Dallas, 
Kennesaw Mountain and Ezra Church, and assisted in the siege of the 
city until August and September, when the men were mustered out and 
the regiment ceased to exist. 

Thirteenth Infantry.— Col, Crafts J. Wright; Lieut.-Cols., J. F. 
St. James, Benjamin F. Wright; Maj., C. W. Anderson. This regiment was 
organized at St. Louis in August and Sept.. 1861, and was transferred to 
Ohio by order of the war department, May 29, 1862. (See 22nd Ohio 
infantry.) 

Fourteenth Infantry. — Col., Patrick E. Burke; Lieut. -Col., Charles 
W. Smith; Maj.. George Pipe. This regiment was first known as Birge's 
sharpshooters, then as the Western sharpshooters. It was claimed by 
both Illinois and Missouri, and on April 22, 1862, was transferred to 
Illinois as the 66th Illinois infantry, under which title its subsequent 
history will be found. 

Fifteenth Infantry. — Cols., Francis J. Joliat, Joseph Conrad; Lieut.- 
Cols., William Jaquien, Joseph Conrad, John Weber, Theo. Meumann; 



Missouri Regiments 263 

Majs., George Landry, John Weber, H. F. Dietz, Francis Morhardt, 
George Ernst. The 15th was formed in Aug., 1861, but its early history 
is not made clear from the reports in the adjutant-general's othce. Soon 
after it was mustered in, it was assigned to the Army of the Cumberland 
and fought at Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge and a num- 
ber of lesser engagements during that campaign. It was in the lead in 
the celebrated charge on Missionary Ridge that routed Bragg's army and 
resulted in its ultimate defeat. In 1864 it joined Gen. Sherman's army for 
the march to Atlanta ; fought bravely at Resaca, Buzzard Roost, Adairs- 
ville, Dallas, Kennesaw Mountain, Peachtree creek, Jonesboro and Love- 
joy's Station. After the fall of Atlanta it returned northward and as 
part of the 3d brigade, 2nd division, 4th corps, took part in the battles 
of Franklin and Nashville. It was engaged in the pursuit of Hood through 
Tennessee and Mississippi ; was then stationed at Decatur, Ala., until 
April I, 1865, when it was sent to eastern Tennessee to assist in re- 
building the Knoxville & Lynchburg railroad ; it then marched or was 
moved by rail to Nashville, where it took boats for New Orleans, La., 
and in July was ordered to Texas. The last report of the colonel was 
made on Nov. 23, 1865, from Camp Conrad, Victoria, Tex., where the 
regiment was still in service. The exact date of its muster out cannot be 
ascertained from the reports of the adjutant-general, but it is a well es- 
tablished fact that it was one of the last regiments to be discharged 
from the service of the United States. 

Sixteenth Infantry. — Only one company of this regiment was ever or- 
ganized. It is mentioned in the official records of the war as being part 
of the 2nd brigade of Gen. C. F. Smith's division at Fort Donelson, Tenn., 
on Feb. 21, 1862, and by order of the adjutant-general of the state was 
transferred to the 27th Mo. infantry on Oct. 13, 1862. 

Seventeenth Infantry. — Cols., Francis Hassendeubel, John F. Cra- 
mer; Lieut. -Cols., John F. Cramer, Francis Romer; Majs.. August H. 
Poten, Ferd. Niegemann, Francis Romer, Francis Wilhelme. This regi- 
ment was organized by order of Gen. Fremont in Aug., 1861. It took 
part in the battles of Pea Ridge, Searcy Landing, Chickasaw Bluffs, Ar- 
kansas Post, Fourteen Mile creek, Jackson. Miss., the siege of Vicks- 
burg. Canton, Miss., Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Ringgold, 
Resaca. New Hope Church, Kennesaw Mountain, the battles before At- 
lanta, Jonesboro, and a number of skirmishes, but the reports of its 
oflficers are rather meager as to the part it played in any of the engage- 
ments in which it participated. In Sept. and Oct., 1864, those whose 
term of enlistment had expired were mustered out, and the veterans 
were consolidated with the 15th Mo. infantry. 

Eighteenth Infantry. — Cols., Madison Miller, Charles S. Sheldon ; 
Lieut.-Cols., I. V. Pratt, C. S. Sheldon, W. H. Minter, W. M. Edgar. 
In his report for 1863 the adjutant-general of Missouri says: "This regi- 
ment was formed in Aug., 1861, and has taken part in many of the most 
important engagements of the war in the West. The want of regimental 
reports prevents this office from giving that complete statement of its 
doings that is desired. It has lost largely in officers and men, especially 
at the battle of Shiloh, but has been steadily recruited, and now has a 
good aggregate for a regiment that has been so depleted." During the 
first two months of 1864 it was mounted and employed in scouting the 
country about Florence, Ala. It then joined the army of Gen. Sherman, 
where it was assigned to the 17th corps, and began the advance upon 
Atlanta, taking part in the engagements at Snake Creek gap, Resaca, 
Kingston, Dallas, Big Shanty, Kennesaw Mountain, along the Chatta- 
hoochee river in front of Atlanta and at Jonesboro. When Gen. Hood 
evacuated Atlanta and started north this regiment was one of those in 
pursuit, drove the rear-guard of the enemy through Snake Creek gap and 



264 The Union Army 

skirmished with him at various other points. It then rejoined the main 
body of the army and was in the famous march to the sea, participating 
in all the engagements in which the 17th corps was brought into action. 
In the early part of 1865 the regiment marched with Sherman across the 
Carolinas. It was the i8th Mo. that forced the crossing of Whippy's 
swamp and the Pedee river at Cheraw ; was present at the capture of 
Columbia and Fayetteville, S. C. ; fought with its customary valor in the 
battle of Bentonville, N. C, and was present when Gen. Johnston sur- 
rendered to Sherman at Goldsboro. It then moved to Washington, D. C, 
where it took part in the grand review in May, after which it went by 
rail and river via Louisville, Ky., to St. Louis, where it was mustered 
out on July 18, 1865. 

Nineteenth Infantry. — This regiment was consolidated with the 3d 
Mo. infantry, q. v. 

Twentieth Infantry. — Diligent search through the reports of the ad- 
jutant-general and the official war records fails to show any regiment 
by this number. 

Twenty-first Infantry. — Cols., David Moore, James J. Lyon, Joseph 
G. Best; Lieut.-Cois., H. M. Woodyard, Edwin Moore,. J. J. Lyon, J. G. 
Best, Henrv McGonigle; Majs., B. B. King, Edwin Moore, G. W. Ful- 
ton, C. W. "Tracy, J- J. Lyon, J. G. Best, Henry McGonigle. E. K. Black- 
burn. This regiment was formed by the consolidation of two battalions 
raised in northeast Missouri in July, 1861, the order for the consolidation 
being dated Dec. 31, 1861. The first mention of the regiment in the of- 
ficial records is at Shiloh, where it formed part of the reconnaissance 
sent out by Gen. Prentiss, and which opened the battle. During the first 
day's fighting the regiment occupied a prominent place in the line, which 
it held with such tenacity that it only fell back when ordered to do so. 
At Corinth it was in Gen. McKean's division, which met and repulsed 
the heaviest assault of the enemy. It fought at the battle of Tupelo and 
some of the less formidable engagements in Mississippi, where it remained 
until transferred to Gen. Thomas' army at Nashville, where it partici- 
pated in the defeat and pursuit of the Confederates under Gen. Hood. 
Early in Jan., 1865, it was ordered to Eastport, Miss., to guard the trans- 
portation of the 2nd division, i6th army corps, and remained there until 
March 22, when it was ordered to Alabama to assist in the reduction of 
Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, where it distinguished itself by its bravery 
and lost heavily in killed and wounded. The last report of its com- 
mander, dated Oct. 31, 1865, states that the regiment was tlien on de- 
tached duty at Mobile, Sparta, St. Stephen's and Claiborne, Ala., and the 
date of its muster out is not shown in the reports of the adjutant-gen- 
eral for that year. 

Twenty-second Infantry. — Five companies of this regiment were or- 
ganized in the latter part of the year 1861, but after performing some serv- 
ice, they were distributed to other regiments, viz : Companies A and B 
to the 7th Mo. cavalry, and C, D and E to the 10th Mo. infantry. 

Twenty-third Infantry. — Cols., Jacob T. Tindall, W. B. Robinson ; 
Lieut. -Col., Quin Morton; Majs., John McCulIough, Jacob A. Trumbo. 
The organization of this regiment was commenced in July, 1861. In 
August Col. Tindall succeeded in getting: authority from Gen. Fremont 
to raise a regiment for three years' service, and by Sept. i seven com- 
panies had been formed and rendezvoused near Brookfield, when orders 
were received to report at Benton barracks, St. Louis, for muster in. 
The regiment remained in St. Louis until about the middle of October, 
and was then ordered to Macon and later to Chillicothe, Mo., remaining 
there for the rest of the year, hunting and breaking up the guerrilla 
gangs in that locality. On April i, 1862, it started for Pittsburg landing, 
Tenn., where it fought with Prentiss' division in the bloody battle of 



Missouri Regiments 265 

Shiloh. After this engagement it was assigned to the ist brigade, 3d di- 
vision, 14th corps, participating in the battle of Stone's river and the va- 
rious engagements of the Atlanta campaign. It was with Gen. Sherman 
on the march to the sea and through the Carolinas, and was mustered out 
on July 18, 1865. 

Twenty-fourth Infantry. — Cols., S. 11. Boyd, James K. Mills; Lieut. - 
Cols., J. K. Mills, William H. Stark; Majs., Eli N. Weston, W. H. Stark, 
Robert W. hyan, James J. Lyon. Concerning this regiment the adju- 
tant-general of the state says in his report for 1863 : "For want of regi- 
mental reports this office is, with great reluctance, obliged to confine 
itself to the remark that, having been organized in Aug., 1861, the 24th 
infantry early entered the field, and has been unceasingly engaged in the 
important events of the war in the West ; proving itself, on all occa- 
sions, when it had the opportunity, worthy of its full share of the honor 
attributed to the volunteers of Missouri." In 1864 it served with Gen. 
A. J. Smith's corps in the Red River campaign, suffering considerable 
loss in the battle of Pleasant Hill, La., where it occupied a prominent 
place in the line of battle. In Sept. and Oct., 1864, Companies A, B, C, 
D, E, I and K were mustered out because of expiration of service, and 
the remainder of the regiment was consolidated with the 21st Mo. in- 
fantry. 

Twenty-fifth Infantry. — Cols., Everett Peabody, Chester Harding, 
Jr.; Lieut. -Col., Robert T. Van Horn; Majs., James E. Powell, Fred C. 
Nichols. This regiment was first organized in June, 1861, from the Home 
Guard battalions of Majs. Peabody, Van Horn and Berry, and was first 
known as the 13th Mo. infantry. Late in the fall it was reorganized and 
designated as the 25th. In the meantime it had been engaged in guard- 
ing the Hannibal & St. Joseph railroad, until a good portion of it was 
surrendered to Price's forces at Lexington by Col. Mulligan. After the 
exchange of prisoners the reorganization took place and it was ordered 
to Pittsburg landing, Tenn., arriving there in time to take part in the 
battle of Shiloh. It was in the campaign against Corinth, Miss., and in 
the fall of 1862 was sent home to recruit. It was then on duty in Mis- 
souri until the fall of 1863, when it was consolidated with the ist regi- 
ment, Missouri engineers, the order for the consolidation being dated 
Nov. 22, 1863. 

Twenty-sixth Infantry. — Cols., George B. Boomer, Benjamin D. 
Dean; Lieut.-Cols., John H. Holman. John McFall, Theron M. Rice; 
Majs., L. E. Kaniuszeski, Charles F. Brown, Richard C. Crowell, Theron 
M. Rice, John Recs. The 26th was organized in Dec, 1861, and soon 
after being mustered in joined the expedition under Gen. Pope against 
New Madrid. It then participated in the battles of Tiptonville, Farm- 
ington, Corinth, luka, Port Gibson, Raymond, Jackson, Champion's Hill, 
Black river, the siege of Vicksburg, Missionary Ridge, and the several 
engagements of the Atlanta campaign, after which it was with Gen. 
Sherman on his march to the sea and through the Carolinas. In Jan., 
1865. Companies A to G, inclusive, were mustered out at the expiration 
of their term of enlistment, and the veterans were continued in service 
until Aug. 13, following. 

Twenty-seventh Infantry. — Col., Thomas Curley; Lieut.-Cols., A. 
Jacobson, James F. How, Dennis T. Kirby; Majs., James F. How, Dennis 
O'Connor. Recruiting for this regiment was commenced in Aug., 1862. 
Toward the last of September four companies were mustered into serv- 
ice, and during the next month two more companies were filled and 
mustered in. The regiment was completed by the addition of the three 
companies, which in the 5th and i6th Mo. infantry had been in service 
and were already considered as veterans. The whole regiment was mus- 
tered in on Jan. 8, 1863, part of it having been on duty at Chillicothe and 



266 The Union Army 

St. Louis during the preceding months, and about March i, was ordered 
to join the army in front of Vicksburg. There it was assigned to Blair's 
brigade, ist division, 15th corps, which was commanded by Gen. W. T. 
Sherman. From that time until Jan., 1865, it shared the honors and hard- 
ships of that corps in the Atlanta and Savannah campaigns. On June 
13, 1865, Companies A, B, C, D, E, H and K were mustered out, and 
Companies G and I were united to the consolidated battalion known as 
the 31st and 32nd Mo. infantry. 

Twenty-eighth Infantry. — This regiment was raised during the sum- 
mer of 1862. On Sept. 24, 1862, the following order was issued from 
the adjutant-general's office. "By authority of the War Department, the 
28th regiment of infantry, Missouri volunteers. Col. F. M. Cornyn, will 
be organized as a cavalry regiment, to be known as the loth regiment of 
cavalry, Missouri volunteers." (See loth cavalry.) 

Twenty-ninth Infantry. — Cols., John S. Cavender, James Peckham, 
Joseph S. Gage; Lieut. -Cols., James Peckham, T. H. McVickers, Joseph 
S. Gage, P. H. Murphy; Majs., B. H. Peterson, Joseph S. Gage, P. H. 
Murphy, Christian Burkhardt. This regiment was raised under the call 
of July, 1862, Co. A being mustered in on Sept. 5, and Co. K, the last 
of the regiment, on Oct. 18. During the period of organization the com- 
panies rendezvoused at Cape Girardeau, and when the regiment was com- 
plete it was ordered to report to Gen. Davidson, at Patterson, Mo., which 
it did on Nov. 17, 1862. From Patterson it went by water to Helena, 
Ark., where it was assigned to Blair's brigade, and on Dec. 21 left Helena 
to join Gen. Sherman's expedition up the Yazoo river. It received its 
baptism of fire at Johnson's landing and Chickasaw Bluffs, where it lost 
heavily in killed and wounded, but sustained the reputation of the Mis- 
souri troops for bravery. It was in the battle of Arkansas Post; was on 
duty at Young's point and Milliken's bend. La., and was with Gen. Grant 
in the siege of Vicksburg. After Pemberton's surrender it took part in 
the pursuit of Gen. J. E. Johnston beyond Brandon, Miss. ; next en- 
gaged the enemy at Tuscumbia. Ala., while marching across the country 
to Chattanooga ; fought with Gen. Hooker's command in the battle of 
Lookout Mountain ; and was with Gen. Sherman in the Atlanta cam- 
paign, after which it joined Gen. Thomas at Nashville and was in the 
campaign against Gen. Hood. In Jan., 1865, it marched overlari.d to Poco- 
taligo, S. C, where it rejoined the army under Sherman, and was pres- 
ent at the surrender of Gen. Johnston at Goldsboro. The regiment, with 
the exception of Co. K, was mustered out at Washington, D. C, and ar- 
rived in St. Louis, June 9, 1865. Co. K was made a part of the con- 
solidated battalion. (See 31st Mo. infantry.) 

Thirtieth Infantry.— Col., B. G. Farrar ; Lieut.-Cols., John W. Fletch- 
er, Otto Schadt, W. T. Wilkinson; Majs., John W. Fletcher, James S. 
Farrar. W. T. Wilkinson. Under an order from the adjutant-general, 
dated Oct. 29, 1862, "Companies A to H, inclusive, of the 30th regirpent, 
and Companies A and B, 34th regiment, both in process of formation, 
are hereby consolidated as the 30th regiment of infantry, Missouri vol- 
imteers. Companies A and B, of the 34th regiment, will be hereafter 
designated as Companies I and K, of the 30th regiment." On Jan. i, 
1864, the regiment was stationed at Vidalia. La., where it was assigned 
to duty in the three principal arms of the service, 50 men being mount- 
ed as scouts, 16 men to handle two 12-pound howitzers, and the remain- 
der acting as infantry. From that time until about April i, it was in act- 
ive service in Louisiana, and on April 3 it turned over all cavalry equip- 
ments and embarked for Vicksburg, where it was assigned to the ist bri- 
gade, 1st division, 17th corps. It was then on duty in Mississippi until 
about Aug. I, when it was transferred to the ist brigade, 2nd division. 
19th corps, and took part in the military operations in Louisiana and 



Missouri Regiments 267 

Arkansas during the remainder of its service. Under special field orders, 
No. 23, Nov. 20, 1864, the regiment was consolidated into a battalion 
of four companies, A, B, C and D, under command of Lieut.-Col. Wil- 
kinson, and was mustered out on Aug. 21, 1865. 

Thirty-first Infantry. — Col., Thomas C. Fletcher ; Lieut.-Col., Samuel 
P. Simpson; Maj., Fred. Jaensch. This regiment was mustered in at St. 
Louis, Oct. 7, 1862. On the 21st it was ordered to Patterson, Mo., where 
it joined Gen. Davidson's command and remained with it until the latter 
part of November, when it was ordered to Helena, Ark. In December 
it joined Blair's brigade and took part in Gen. Sherman's Yazoo river 
expedition. It was in the van in the charge upon the Confederate works 
at Chickasaw Bluffs on Dec. 29; bore a part in the capture of Arkansas 
Post; and was employed as sharpshooters during the siege of Vicksburg. 
The regiment took part in the engagements at Jackson and Brandon, 
Miss., Cherokee and Tuscumbia, Ala., Lookout Mountain and Missionary 
Ridge, Tenn., and then joined Gen. Sherman's army for the advance upon 
Atlanta. In this campaign it fought at Ringgold, Buzzard Roost, Rocky 
Face Ridge, Resaca, Dallas, Kennesaw Mountain, Nickajack creek, At- 
lanta, Jonesboro and Lovejoy's Station. After the Confederates evac- 
uated Atlanta it was with the forces that pursued Gen. Hood northward, 
and was engaged at Taylor's ridge. Returning to Atlanta it marched 
with Sherman to the sea, taking a prominent part in the actions of Gris- 
woldville, Ogeechee river, and Savannah, Ga., Combahee river, Salke- 
hatchie and Columbia, S. C, and Bentonville and the Neuse river in 
North Carolina. By special order No. 164, dated Nov. 11, 1864, the regi- 
ment was consolidated into three companies and united with three com- 
panies of the 32nd Mo. infantry, the new organization being known as 
the "Consolidated battalion." That portion of the regiment that en- 
listed prior to Oct. i, 1862, was mustered out at Washington, D. C, June 
13, 1865, and the remainder, about one company, at Louisville, Ky., July 
18, 1865. During its term of service the regiment marched over 3,000 
miles on foot, traveled 1,200 miles by railroad, 2,500 miles by water, and 
was under fire 166 days. 

Thirty-second Infantry. — Col., F. H. Manter; Lieut.-Col.. H. C. 
Warmoth; Maj., A. J. Seay. The regiment was formed in Oct., 1862, and 
immediately entered the field. It was in the engagements at Chicka- 
saw Bluffs, Arkansas Post, Jackson, Brandon, the siege of Vicksburg, 
Cherokee and Tuscumbia. Ala., Lookout Mountain and Missionary 
Ridge, and the principal battles and skirmishes of the Atlanta cam- 
paign. In the fall of 1864 its ranks had been so depleted that it was con- 
solidated into three companies, D, E and F, and these were subsequently 
united with the remnant of the 31st Mo. infantry as the "Consolidated 
battalion" under command of Lieut.-Col. Simpson, of the 31st regiment. 
(See preceding regiment.) After the consolidation the battalion was on 
the march to the sea and in the campaign of the Carolinas. It then went 
to Washington, D. C, where it was reviewed by the president and Gen 
Grant on May 24, 1865, and on the last day of that month was ordered to 
Louisville, Ky. On June 20 the name of the organization was changed 
to the 32nd Mo. infantry, and under that designation was mustered out 
at the expiration of the term of enlistment. 

Thirty-third Infantry.— Cols., Clinton B. Fisk. William A. Pyle, 
William H. Heath ; Licut.-Cols., W. A. Pyle, W. H. Heath, W. J. McKee ; 
Majs., W. H. Heath, George W. Van Beck, W. J. McKee, A. J. Campbell. 
This regiment was recruited under the patronage of the Union Mer- 
chants' Exchange of St. Louis, and was known as the "Merchants' regi- 
ment." It was the first regiment mustered in under the call of 1862, and 
started for the front on Sept. 22. During the remainder of that year 
it was on duty at various places within the state, but on Jan. 5. 1863, it 



2G8 The Union Army 

reported at Helena, Ark., and took part in Gen. Gorman's White River 
expedition. In February it formed part of Gen. Ross' expedition against 
Fort I'embcrton, Miss., where it was for the ilrst time under lire. On 
April 8 it returned to Helena, where on May 5 it was placed in charge of 
the works. It remained at i4elena until Jan. 28, 1864, when it was or- 
dered to report to Gen. Sherman for the Meridian expedition. Here it 
was assigned to Veatch's division and remained in Mississippi until 
March 10, when Gen. Mower assumed command of the division, which 
was then ordered to join Gen. Banks in the Red River campaign. In 
this campaign it was in the engagements at Fort De Russy, Henderson's 
hill, Pleasant Hill, Marksville, Bayou de Glai/.e, and a number of minor 
skirmishes. On May 24 the 16th corps returned to Vicksburg, and in 
June the regiment formed part of an expedition against Lee and Forrest 
in Mississippi, having previously been in the light with Marmaduke at 
Old River lake, Ark. Subsequently it was in the battles at Tupelo, after 
which it was ordered to Memphis and then to St. Louis. On Nov. 24, 
it left St. Louis by water for Nashville, Tenn., where it arrived in time 
to assist in the decisive defeat and the subsequent pursuit of tlie Con- 
federate forces under Gen. Hood. It then was moved to Mobile, Ala., 
where it played an important part in the reduction of Spanish F^ort and 
Fort Blakely, after which it was on provost guard duty at Selma, Ala., 
until July 20, 1865, when it was ordered to St. Louis for muster out, and 
was discharged from the service on Aug. 10, 1865. 

Thirty-fourth Infantry. — Only two companies of this regiment were 
ever organized, and on Oct. 29, 1862, these were consolidated with the 
30th Mo. infantry. 

Thirty-fifth Infantry. — Col., Samuel A. Foster ; Lieut.-Cols., Thomas 
F. Kimball, James A. Greason, Horace F"itch ; Maj., Thomas H. Penny. 
The regiment was organized on Dec. 3, 1862, and on Jan. 10, following 
the muster in, arrived at Helena, Ark., where it remained for the greater 
part of that year. In the battle of Helena on July 4, 1863, it lost heavily. 
At Trenton, Ark., July 25, a detachment of the regiment was surrounded 
by some of Shelby's men, but Col. Brooks, who was in command, cut his 
way out three times before finally succeeding in getting out of his perilous 
position. In the last attempt Brooks was killed. In the latter part of 
the year the regiment was engaged in scouting the country about Helena 
and on the Mississippi side of the river, capturing a number of prisoners, 
horses, etc. It continued in this line of duty until April 3, 1865, when 
it embarked for Little Rock, where it was engaged in picket and camp 
duty until June 28, when it was mustered out. The men arrived at Ben- 
ton barracks, St. Louis, July 12, received their final pay and returned to 
their homes. 

Thirty-Sixth Infantry. — The reports of the adjutant-general of Mis- 
souri make no statement regarding an infantry regiment bearing this 
number, but in the official records of the war the regiment is mentioned 
as being brigaded with the 2nd and 15th Mo. and the 44th 111., under Gen. 
Alexander Asboth, and attached to Davis' (4th) division. Army of the 
Mississippi, on May 30, 1862, for an advance against the Confederate 
forces that had just evacuated Corinth, Miss. Asboth's brigade was de- 
tached from the division on June 6, and no subsequent history of the 
regiment can be found. 

Thirty-seventh Infantry. — The only mention of a regiment of this 
number is in Vol. 13, page 808, of the official records of the war, where 
the organization of the troops of the Department of Missouri on Nov. 
20, 1862, is given. In this table a detachment of the 37th Mo., with the 
23d, 27th and 32nd Mo., and part of the ist Ark., under Col. B. L. E. 
Bonneville, is reported as having been stationed at Benton barracks, St. 
Louis. The "detachment" referred to was probably merged with some 
other regiment. 



Missouri Regiments 2^9 

Thirty-eighth Infantry. — From official sources it does not appear 
that a rcgiinciit of this number was ever mustered into the United States 
service, thougli there was a 38th Enrolled militia that did good service 
within the state. 

Thirty-ninth Infantry. — Col., E. A. Kutzner ; Lieut. -Cols., E. A. Kutz- 
ner, Samuel M. Wirt; Majs., Samuel M. Wirt, Hiram Baxter. This 
regiment was recruited in accordance with general orders, No. 134, 
dated July 28, 1864. Dm-ing the months of September, October and 
November, the regiment was divided and on duty within the state, 
breaking up guerrilla gangs and guarding railroads. On Dec. 16 it left 
Macon for Nashville, Tenn., going via Indianapolis, Ind., and Louisville, 
Ky. Two companies, by command of Gen. Ewing, were stationed at 
Shepherdsvillc, Ky., two at Rolling Fork bridge, and the remainder of 
the regiment at Muldraugh's hill, to reinforce the garrisons at those places, 
remaining there for some time, and not reaching Nashville until Jan. 
I, 1865. Four days later it was ordered back to Missouri, arrived in St. 
Louis on the 9th, where it reported to Gen. Dodge and was ordered into 
quarters at Benton barracks. .On the way to Nashville small-pox broke 
out in the regiment and a large number of the men had to be left in 
hospitals in Indianapolis, Louisville and Nashville. The six months 
companies — C. I). F and I — were mustered out between March 19 and 25, 
(865. and the remainder of the regiment on July 19, following. 

Fortieth Infantry. — Col., Samuel A. Holmes ; Lieut. -Col., A. G. He- 
qucmbourg; Maj., Truman A. Post. This regiment was raised during 
the month of Aug., 1864. and was mustered into service at Benton bar- 
racks on Sept. 7. Toward the latter part of October four companies 
were ordered to report to Gen. Douglas at Mexico, Mo., to repair railroad 
track and telegraph lines. A few days later the rest of the regiment 
arrived at Mexico and Col. Holmes led an expedition against the enemy 
at Paris, Mo., but the bushwhackers there learned of the movement and 
evacuated. On Nov. 7 the regiment was ordered to Paducah, Ky., and 
about two weeks later to Nashville. Tenn., where it reported to Gen. 
Thomas and was ordered to Columbia to reinforce Gen. Schofield. It 
reached Columbia on Nov. 26, and was assigned to the 3d brigade, 3d 
division, 16th corps. It fought at the battle of Franklin and at the bat- 
tle of Nashville supported the 14th Ind. battery on the Charlotte and 
Hardin pikes. After the defeat of Hood at Nashville it joined in the 
pursuit of the Confederates and was then for a short time in camp at 
Eastport, Miss. Leaving Eastport on Feb. 3, 1865, it proceeded on trans- 
port to Vicksburg, where it remained but a short time, when it was or- 
dered to New Orleans. Here it remained until early in March, when it was 
ordered to Mobile and took part in the reduction of Spanish Fort and Fort 
Blakely, after which it was on duty at Montgomery, Ala., until it was or- 
dered to St. Louis for muster out. It was discharged from the service 
at Benton barracks on Aug. 8, 1865. 

Forty-first Infantry. — Col., Joseph Weydemeyer; Lieut. -Col., Gustav 
Heinrich; Maj., Henry F. Dietz. The 41st was organized in the months 
of August and .Sept., 1864. under a call of Gen. Rosecrans, and on Sept. 
t6 was mustered into the service of the United States for a period of 
(One year, unless sooner discharged. Officers and men were alike eager 
to be sent to the front, but the regiment was kept on duty at St. Louis 
for the entire term of its service. A portion of it was present at the 
paroling of Jeff Thomson and his men in Arkansas, which was the near- 
est approach to actual warfare any of the regiment experienced. The 
order for muster out came on June 28, 1865, and on July 12 the regiment 
was mustered out and discharged. 

Forty-second Infantrv. — Col., William Forbes ; Lieut. -Col., Thaddeus 
J. Stauber; Mnj.. .\. W. Billings. The organization of this regiment was 



270 The Union Army 

commenced early in Aug., 1864. By the middle of September it num- 
bered 900 men and was then for some time engaged in the guerrilla war- 
fare in Missouri and in Price's raid. Toward the latter part of Novem- 
ber the command was concentrated at Benton barracks, St. Louis, 
where the officers received their commissions and the regiment was 
mustered in, the last companies being mustered on the 29th. The same 
day the regiment embarked on transports for Paducah, where it re- 
ceived orders to report to Gen. Thomas at Nashville, Tenn. Before 
reaching Nashville it was sent to Fort Donelson, which place w^as then 
threatened by the Confederate Gen. Lyon, and remained there until 
Dec. 30, losing 150 men by small-pox, measles and incidental camp dis- 
eases. On the 31st the regiment arrived at Nashville and reported to 
Gen. Thomas, who sent it to garrison the post at Tullahoma, and there 
it remained until mustered out. Three companies were mustered out 
on March 22, and the remainder on June 28, 1865. 

Forty-third Infantry. — Col., Chester Harding, Jr. ; Lieut.-Col., John 
Finger; Maj., B. K. Davis. The regiment was mustered in on Sept. 22, 
1864, and was on duty in the state during its entire term of service. Six 
companies were in the battle of Glasgow, Oct. 15, 1864, and in the spring 
of 1865 the whole regiment was assigned to the District of Central Mis- 
souri, where it was actively engaged in the warfare with guerrillas until 
it was mustered out at Benton barracks, St. Louis, June 30, 1865. 

Forty-fourth Infantry. — Col, R. C. Bradshaw ; Lieut.-Col., A. J. 
Barr; Maj., R. A. De Bolt. This regiment was organized during the 
month of Aug., 1864, and rendezvoused at St. Joseph, where the most 
of it was mustered into the United States service. Before it was com- 
pleted it was ordered to Rolla, in order to intercept the advance of the 
Confederate forces under Gen. Price. On Nov. 6, 1864, it was ordered to 
Paducah, Kj'., where it arrived on the i6th and went into camp. Here 
it remained until the 24th, when it was ordered to Nashville, Tenn. On 
the 27th it reported to Gen. Thomas and was immediately ordered to 
join Gen. Schofield at Columbia, where it was assigned to Ruger's divi- 
sion of the 23d corps. With this command it fought at Spring Hill and 
Franklin, Tenn., losing in the latter engagement 157 in killed and 
wounded. At Nashville on Dec. 3, the regiment was transferred to 
Moore's division of the Army of the Tennessee, and remained with this 
command for the rest of its service. After the defeat of Gen. Hood at 
Nashville it was engaged in the pursuit of the retreating Confederates 
and on Jan. 9, 1865, went into camp at Eastport, Miss. Leaving Eastport 
in the early part of February it arrived at New Orleans on the 21st of 
that month and remained there until March 11, when it was ordered to 
Dauphin island. From Dauphin island it was moved to Cedar Point and 
Fish river, and on the 23d was ordered to Spanish Fort, in front of Mo- 
bile, Ala. After the surrender of Mobile it was on duty at Montgomery 
and Tuskegee, Ala., and Vicksburg, Miss., until July 28, when it was or- 
dered to St. Louis, where it was mustered out on Aug. 15, 1865. 

Forty-fifth Infantry.— Lieut.-Col., D. W. Wear; Maj., Louis H. 
Boutell. The organization of this regiment was commenced in Sept., 
1864. at Warrensburg, but was never completed. About Oct. i the men 
at Warrensburg were ordered to Jefferson City, where they constructed' 
rifle-pits, etc.. and when the Confederate Gen. Price attacked the city 
the 45th was one of the regiments that defended the works, losing 20 in 
killed and woimded. After this it was assigned to Gen. Fisk's command 
and took part in the pursuit of Price up the Missouri river. It was then 
ordered to Nashville, Tenn., where it was assigned to the 4th division, 
23d corps, and assisted in the defeat and pursuit of Gen. Hood. It was 
then on dut}' at Spring Hill and Johnsonville, Tenn., until Feb. 20, l86Sy 
when it was ordered to St. Louis, where the six months companies — A,. 



Missouri Regiments 271 

E, F and I — were mustered out on March 6, Cos. C and D were trans- 
ferred to the 48th Mo. infantry, and G and H to the 50th Mo. infantry. 

Forty-sixth Infantry. — Col., Robert W. Fyan ; Lieut.-Col., Thomas A. 
Reed; Maj., Thomas K. Paul. This regiment was mustered into the 
United States service in Sept., 1864, for a term of six months. The 
companies were mustered out at Springfield, Mo., as their terms of en- 
listment expired, the last company being mustered out on May 24, 1865. 

Forty-seventh Infantry. — Cols., Thomas C. Fletcher, Amos W. Mau- 
pin; Lieut. -Cols., Amos W. Maupin, John W. Fletcher; Maj., John W. 
Emerson. In Aug., 1864, Gen. Rosecrans authorized Col. Fletcher to or- 
ganize a regiment in southeast Missouri, for service in that part of the 
state. Through the efforts of Fletcher and his assistants more men were 
recruited than was necessary for the completion of the 47th, and the 
surplus was turned over to the soth Mo. infantry. The regiment was 
mustered in for six months, and until Dec. 12 was on duty in the state. 
It was then ordered to Nashville, Tenn., where it arrived three days after 
the Confederates under Gen. Hood had been so ingloriously defeated. 
It remained on duty at Columbia, Spring Hill and Pulaski, Tenn., until 
the latter part of March, 1865, when it was ordered to St. Louis, where 
it was mustered out on the 29th and 30th of that month. During its serv- 
ice in Tennessee it was under command of Col. Maupin, Fletcher hav- 
ing been elected governor of the state in the fall of 18164. 

Forty-eighth Infantry, — Col., Wells H. Blodgett; Lieut.-Col., Ellwood 
Kirby; Maj., Lewis P. Miller. The 48th was organized in July and Aug., 
1864, for one year. The companies were mustered in in different parts of 
the state, the recruiting going on until Nov. 22, when the regiment was 
completed. It then continued on post duty at Rolla until Dec. 9, when 
it was ordered to Nashville, Tenn., where it arrived on the 19th, too late 
to take part in the defeat of Gen. Hood. It was then stationed along the 
line of the Tennessee & Alabama railroad in the blockhouses, the regi- 
mental headquarters being at Columbia. On Feb. 18, 1865, it was ordered 
to Chicago, 111., and from the time of its arrival there (Feb. 22) to June 
16, it was engaged in escorting Confederate prisoners to City Point and 
New Orleans for exchange. On June 11 it arrived at Benton barracks, 
St. Louis, where it was mustered out on the 30th and discharged. Two 
companies had been mustered out on March 21-23, but they were replaced 
by G and H of the 45th Mo. infantry. 

Forty-ninth Infantry. — Col., David P. Dyer; Lieut.-Col., Edwin 
Smart; Maj., Israel W. Stewart. This regiment was organized in the 
months of Aug. and Sept., 1864. On Jan. i, 1865, the companies were 
scattered through several counties in northern Missouri, principally along 
the line of the North Missouri railroad. On Feb. i, 1865, it was ordered 
to report to Gen. Canby at New Orleans, La., where it arrived on the 
2ist. and was assigned to Carr's division of the i6th corps, Maj. -Gen. 
A. J. Smith commanding. On March 10 it embarked on steamers for 
Dauphin island, at the entrance to Mobile bay, and on the morning of 
March 27 it joined the Federal forces in front of Spanish Fort. After the 
fall of this fort and Fort Blakely the regiment marched to Montgomery, 
Ala., where it remained until July 14, when eight companies — A, B, C. 
D, E, F, G and I — were ordered to St. Louis, their term of enlistment 
having expired. These companies were mustered out at Benton bar- 
racks on Aug. 2. 1865, and the other two — H and K — were still in serv- 
ice at the close of the year. 

Fiftieth Infantry. — Col.. David Murphy: Lieut.-Col.. B. Montgom- 
ery; Maj., H. Hannahs. The origin of this regiment was in the sur- 
plus companies that were recruited for the 47th. Before the regiment 
was fully organized Gen. Price made his raid into Missouri, and the par- 
tially formed soth was sent against the raiders. After the battle of 



272 The Union Army 

Pilot Knob the organization was pushed forward, but part of the regi- 
ment was captured and paroled by Shelby at Potosi. Gen. Rosecrans 
refused to recognize the paroles and the regiment was mustered into the 
United States service. In April, 1865, Cos. C and D of the 45th 
Mo. infantry were added to the 50th, and the organization was com- 
pleted. It remained on duty in the state, and while it did not make as 
brilliant a record as some of the earlier Missouri regiments, it was 
always ready to discharge any duty assigned it. In April, 1865, the two 
six months companies (C and F) were mustered out, and the remainder 
of the regiment was mustered out between the 5th and iith of August 
following. 

Fifty-first Infantry.— Col., David Moore; Lieut.-Col, N. B. Gid- 
dings ; Maj., Louis Voneky. In the winter of 1864-5 the organization of 
si.x regiments was authorized by the provost marshal general, under an 
order dated Jan. 30, 1865. Of these regiments only the 51st, 52nd, S4th 
and 55th came anywhere near reaching the full complement of men and 
officers. On May i, 1865, Adjt.-Gen. S. P. Simpson issued the following: 
"Special Orders, No. 68. In compliance with the provisions of para- 
graphs 6 and 7, Special Orders, No. 61, current series, from this of- 
fice, directing the consolidation of the 51st, 52nd, 54th and 55th regi- 
ments infantry, Missouri volunteers. Company A, with its officers, and a 
detachment of Company B, 52nd infantry, Missouri volunteers, are hereby 
consolidated into one company, and transferred to the 51st infantry, Mis- 
souri volunteers, as Company E of that regiment. Companies E, F and 
G, of the 51st infantry, Missouri volunteers, will hereafter be known and 
designated as Companies F, G and H, respectively, of said regiment. 
Detachments of the 54th and 55th infantry, Missouri volunteers, are 
hereby consolidated into two companies, and transferred to the 51st in- 
fantry, Missouri volunteers, as Companies I and K of that regiment." 
This order gives the official record of the organization of the 51st, which 
was mustered in early in May, 1865. During its short service it was sta- 
tioned at St. Louis, doing guard and escort duty. It was mustered out 
on the last day of Aug., 1865. 

First Cavalry. — Cols.. Calvin A. Ellis, John F. Ritter, John J. Jos- 
lyn; Lieut. -Cols., Fred. W. Lewis, John T. Price, John J. Joslyn. M. H. 
Brawner; Majs., J. M. Hubbard, Henry Townsley, Alex. D. Mills, Charles 
Banzof, Henry J. Stierlin, John W. Toppass, John J. Joslyn, A. P. Pea- 
body. The organization of this regiment was begun about the middle 
of July, 1861, and on Aug. 6 it was mustered into service at Jefferson 
barracks, with twelve full companies. Col. Ellis, with 500 men was with 
Gen. Fremont, in the campaign against Price, the remainder of the regi- 
ment remaining at St. Louis on account of not having clothing, equip- 
ments, etc. This portion of the command, under Lieut.-Col. Lewis, joined 
the other detachment at Tipton on Oct. IQ, and from that time until 
about the middle of November was with Hunter's division in the vicin- 
ity of Springfield. When the order to evacuate Springfield was received, 
the regiment was broken up into detachments and sent to Rolla, Sedalia 
and Otterville. The ist battalion, under Maj. Banzof, marched from Se- 
dalia to Fort Leavenworth, Kan., in the latter part of November, de- 
feating a large force of guerrillas. It remained at Fort Leavenworth 
until in Dec, 1861, when it was ordered to Independence. Mo., where it 
was on duty until the following May, engaging in frequent skirmishes 
with guerrilla bands and some of Gen. Price's forces. In Sept., 1862, it 
joined Gen. Herron's army and took part in the battles of Fayetteville, 
Prairie Grove and Van Buren, Ark. It was then attached to Gen. Da- 
vidson's cavalry division for the advance on Little Rock and was pres- 
ent at the capture of that city. The 2nd battalion, under Maj. Hubbard, 
remained in the vicinity of Otterville all that winter, and was several 



Missouri Regiments 373 

times engaged with Poindcxtcr's guerrillas, signally defeating them at 
Silver creek on Jan. 8, 1862. On Feb. 9, 1862, it marched with Gen. Jeff 
C Davis' brigade to Lebanon, where it joined the 3d battalion, which, 
under Maj. Joslyn. had been engaged in doing scout duty and breaking 
up guerrilla gangs. Hoth battalions were attached to Gen Curtis' army 
and participated in the various engagements of that officer's campaign 
in southwestern Missouri and northwestern Arkansas. In March the 
regiment was sent in quest of the Cherokee chief, Stand Waitie, who 
had been committing depredations along the border of the Indian Terri- 
tory, and succeeded in breaking up his force. In June, 1863, the ist and 
2nd battalions were with Gen. Davidson in the campaign to Little Rock, 
the 3d battalion being with the Army of the Southwest. The several 
battalions were then on detached duty in Missouri and Arkansas, lighting 
at Searcy, Batesville, and along White river, Ark., and at Bloomfield 
and Pilot Knob, Mo., as well as numerous minor skirmishes with the 
guerrilla bands which infested the two states. On Jan. i. 1864, the ist 
and 2nd battalions were at Little Rock; Co. F, 3d battalion, was at de- 
partment headquarters in St. Louis; and Cos. G, K and M were 
at New Madrid. To follow in detail the movements of the diff'erent de- 
tachments of the regiment from this time until it was mustered out 
would require a volume. In 1863 the ist Mo. had won a high reputation 
as one of the lighting cavalry regiments, and this reputation was fully 
maintained during its entire service. Seldom was the whole command 
together, but each battalion or company, wherever it was employed, gave 
a good account of itself, whether fighting guerrillas ; with Gen. Steele's 
expedition to cooperate with Gen. Banks toward the Red river; chasing 
Forrest's cavalry in west Tennessee ; in the battles at Pine Bluff, Jenkins' 
ferry, and many lesser engagements, the ist Mo. was always where it 
was needed at the proper time. It has been said of this regiment that 
"The enemy never saw the buttons on the back of their coats, and many 
bands of guerrillas and professional bushwhackers, as well as organized 
bodies of rebels, had occasion to remember the ancient ist Mo." It was 
mustered out on Sept. i, 1865. 

Second Cavalry. — Col., Lewis Merrill ; Lieut.-Cols., W. F. Schaeffer, 
Charles B. Hunt, John Y. Clopper ; Majs.. George C. Marshall. J. Y. 
Clopper, J. B. Rogers, W. H. Williams, C. B. Hunt, Garrison Harker, 
C. W. McLean, George M. Houston. The regiment was organized in 
the months of Aug. and Sept., 1861. by Capt. Lewis Merrill, of the 2nd 
U. S. cavalry, acting under authority of Gen. Fremont. In September, 
before it was fully organized and equipped it was called into service in 
the southwestern part of Missouri, to repel the Confederate force that 
was invading the state. It was known as "Merrill's Horse," the name 
being conferred upon it by Fremont, and was in continuous service in 
Missouri until the fall of 1865. Lack of reports on the part of the regi- 
mental officers renders it impossible to give an authentic account of its 
brilliant services. It defeated Porter's men at Kirksville; took part in 
the battle of Silver creek; and, in connection with a detachment of the 
9th Mo. militia, under Col. Guitar, completely annihilated Poindcxtcr's 
gang of guerrillas. Under an order of Gen. Thomas the loth Mo. cav- 
alry was consolidated with this regiment in June, 1865, and the regi- 
ment was mustered out on Sept. ig, 1865, at the close of four years' 
arduous service. 

Third Cavalry.— Col., John M. Glover; Licut.-Cols., W. C. Gantt, 
Robert Carrick. Thomas G. Black, John H. Reed: Majs., Robert Carrick, 
T. T. Howland, H. A. Gallup, J. A. Lamon, T. J. Mitchell, J. H. Reed, 
George S. Avery. The regiment was organized in the fall of 1861, Col. 
Glover's commission being dated Sept. 4. During the months of Dec, 
1861, and Jan., 1862, it was engaged in the suppression of the guerrillas 

Vol. IV— 18 i 



274 The Union Army 

about Palmyra, defeating them at Mountain Store, Sinking creek, Wy- 
man's mill, Newtonia, Hartville and other places. It formed part of the 
Union forces that attacked and defeated Marmaduke at Hartville, and 
was active in the pursuit of that officer in his expedition into Missouri. 
In August and September it was in the 2nd brigade of Davidson's di- 
vision in the expedition against Little Rock, and participated in the en- 
gagements at Bayous Meto and Fourche, and Jacksonport. ^ In Dec, 1862, 
a detachment of the regiment was assigned to Gen. Carr's command in 
the St. Louis district, and in March, 1864, the regiment formed part of 
Anderson's brigade of Carr's division in Steele's Camden expedition. It 
remained in Arkansas the greater part of the year on scout duty. In 
Jan., 1865, it was stationed at Little Rock, very much reduced by cas- 
ualties and the muster out of the non-veterans at the expiration of their 
term of enlistment. Under an order of March 21, 1865, it was consoli- 
dated into five companies, and was subsequently consolidated with the 
nth Mo. cavalry. It was mustered out with that regiment July 27, 1865. 

Fourth Cavalry. — Col., G. E. Waring; Lieut. -Cols., Rudolph Blome, 
G. Von Helmrich; Majs., E. Kielmansegge. G. M. Elbert, Edward Lan- 
gen, Emeric Meszaros, J. F. Dwight, B. C. Ludlow, Gottleib C. Rose. 
This regiment was formed by the consolidation of two battalions, known 
as the Fremont Hussars and Benton Hussars, each having six full com- 
panies, the union being effected in Nov., 1862, though the two bat- 
talions had been in existence for about a year. During the fall of 1862, 
and the succeeding winter, the regiment was under command of Gen. 
Davidson in southeast Missouri, forming a part of the expedition to 
Batesville. In the spring of 1863 it was ordered to report to Gen. Rosc- 
crans in Tennessee, but before reaching its destination was stopped by 
Gen. Asboth at Columbus, Ky., where it was attached to the 6th division, 
i6th corps. For the rest of its service it was on duty in western Ten- 
nessee and Kentucky, detachments being sent into Arkansas and Missouri 
to break up roving bands of bushwhackers. Part of it was attached to 
Karge's brigade in Grierson's expedition against Guntown, Pontotoc, 
Verona, Okalona and Egypt, Miss., returning via Vicksburg to Mem- 
phis. In the early part of 1865 detachments were at Louisville. Ky.. 
Memphis. Tenn., and Vicksburg, Miss. On May 24 the regiment was 
ordered to New Orleans, where it was attached to the ist brigade. 2nd 
division, cavalry corps. Military Division Northern Mississippi, and re- 
mained with that command until mustered out. The non-veterans were 
mustered out in Oct., 1864, and the veterans and recruits were consoli- 
dated into a battalion of four companies, which was mustered out on 
Nov. 20, 1865. 

Fifth Cavalry. — Col., Joseph Nemitt: Lieut.-Cols., G. Von Deutsch. 
G. Von Helmrich: Majs., G. Heinrichs, J. W. Goflf. C. H. Warrens. On 
Feb. 14. 1862, Special Orders, No. 22, issued from the adjutant-general's 
office of the state, provided that "The battalion of cavalry known as the 
Benton Hussars, and Companies D, E and F of the Holland Hnrse are 
hereby consolidnted, and desienated the 5th regiment of cavalry. Missouri 
volunteers." On Nov. i, 1862, an order from the war department di- 
rected the consolidation of the 4th and 5th Mo. cavalry, which was then 
to be recruited to the standard authorized by law. The subsequent his- 
tory of the 5th will be found in the preceding .sketch of the 4th Mo. 
cavalry. 

Sixth C?v3lry.— Col., Clark Wrieht: Lieut.-Cols., S. N. Wood, T. A. 
Switzler: Majs., H. P. Hawkins, B. Montgomery. Most of the com- 
pnpies of this rep-iment pnrticip''ted ''n the bnttles of Carthage and Wil- 
son's creek as independent organizations. These companies were after- 
ward formed into battalions, and did valiant service in the engasrements 
at Copridge's mills, Wet Glaize, Salem and West Plains. The three 



Missouri Regiments 375 

battalions were organized as a regiment on Feb. 14, 1862. Inimediaiely 
after this part of the regiment marched from RoUa in advance of Gen. 
Curtis, upon Springfield, defeating the enemy at Marshtield, and drove 
the retreating Confederates into Arkansas. Another portion was on duty 
at Forsyth, Mo., until ordered to Springtield. As a regiment it was fore- 
most in the pursuit of the Confederate forces under Coffee through 
Pinevillc, Neosho, Carthage and Lone Jack, defeating them at Monte- 
vallo; was then ordered to reinforce Gen. Blunt at Newtonia, where it 
arrived during the battle, and covered the retreat of the Union troops 
back to Mount Vernon. On Dec. 25, 1862, it arrived at Milliken's bend, 
where it was ordered to Chickasaw Bluffs and bore a part in the three 
days' light at that place; was next in the engagement at Arkansas Post, 
and then joined Gen. Grant's army for the campaign against Vicksburg. 
It was in the battles of Champion's Hill, Big Black river and Bridge- 
port, and after the fall of Vicksburg was in the expedition to drive Gen. 
Johnston from Jackson, Miss., driving the enemy all the way from Black 
river to Jackson, where it charged the rifle-pits, but failed to carry them, 
suffering some loss in killed and wounded. It then returned to Vicks- 
burg, and was soon afterward ordered to New Orleans. In the opera- 
tions in Louisiana it participated in the actions at Morgan's bend, Atch- 
afalaya river. Bayou Teche, Vermillionville, Opelousas, and a number 
of minor skirmishes. During part of this period a battalion under Lieut. - 
Col. Wood was in Arkansas, where it took part in the battles of Oakland, 
Searcy, Cotton Plant, St. Charles Bluff, Smith's landing and several 
lesser affairs. Cos. B, C, F, G. H, I and K were mustered out at 
the expiration of term in Dec, 1S64, and Jan., 1865, and the remaining 
battalion, consisting of Cos. A, D. E and L, was mustered out on 
Sept. 12, 1865. 

Seventh Cavalry.— Col., Daniel Huston, Jr. ; Lieut.-Cols., William 
Bishop, J. T. Bncll, J. L. Chandler; Majs., A. H. Linden, M. H. Braw- 
ner, David McKee, Eliphalet Bredett, H. P. Spellman. This regiment 
was formed by the consolidation of the battalion known as the "Black 
Hawk Cavalry" and Capt. Louis' company, under an order from the 
adjutant-general's office, dated Feb. 20, 1862. Five days later Cos. 
A and B, mounted, and attached to the 22nd infantry, were transferred 
to the 7th cavalry. On March 7, 1862, two unattached companies were 
added to the regiment. During the spring of that year it operated in 
Johnson and adjoining counties, engaging the enemy in various places. 
Part of the regiment, under Lieut.-Col. Buell, was captured after a des- 
perate resistance at Independence and paroled. On Sept. 14, 1862, it was 
ordered to Springfield, where it was attached to Gen Totten's division of 
the Army of the Frontier. Maj. Bredett was killed at Cane Hill, Ark., 
and the regiment participated in the battle of Prairie Grove. It was 
then with the Union forces in pursuit of Gen. Marmaduke through Mis- 
souri, and formed part of Gen. Davidson's cavalry division for the ad- 
vance on Little Rock, fighting at Bayou Meto, Brownsville, and other 
places. Jan., 1864, found the regiment stationed at Pine Bluff, Ark., 
under Col. Powell Clayton, where it operated in connection with Gen. 
Steele's Camden expedition. It remained at Pine Bluff, and in the vicin- 
ity, during that whole year. Most of the men were mustered out in the 
fall of 1864, because their term of enlistment had expired, and under an 
order from the adjutant-general on Feb. 22, 1865, the recruits and vet- 
erans were formed into five squadrons and consolidated with the ist Mo. 
cavalrv. 

Eighth Cavalry.— Col., W. F. Geiger; Lieut.-Cols., E. P. Baldwin, 
J. W. Lisenby, George L. Childress: Majs., J. W. Lisenbv, G. L. Child- 
ress, W. F. Bodenhamer, John Hursh, W. J. Teed, J. G. Rich, J. H. Gar- 
rison. The 8th cavalry was raised by Col. Geiger under the call of July, 



are The union Army 

1862, for 300,000 volunteers. It was composed of the loyal and hardy 
men of southwest Missouri, and was one of the best regiments in the 
entire Union army so far as bravery and endurance were concerned. 
From the time of its muster in until the following summer it was on 
duty in the locality where it was recruited, and was then attached to 
Gen. Davidson's cavalry division for the Little Rock campaign. About 
this time the adjutant-general said of it in one of his reports: "A bet- 
ter and more united regiment does not exist in the volunteer service of 
the state. The national and state authorities may rely upon it whenever 
and wherever occasion may require." During its service it participated 
in the battles at Lamar, Mo. ; Van Buren, Brownsville, Little Rock, Pump- 
kin Bend, Prairie Grove, Chalk Bluff, Bayou Meto, Augusta, Clarendon 
and Long Prairie, Ark. ; and in numerous scouting expeditions, etc. On 
every field it was always at its post of duty, and the unerring marksman- 
ship of its men made it one of the most effective regiments in the army. 
It was mustered out at Little Rock, Ark., July 20, 1865. 

Ninth Cavalry. — This regiment was raised from Bowen's battalion, 
which was recruited in the fall of 1861 and the following winter. On 
Dec. 4, 1862, the following order was issued from the adjutant-general's 
office : "Six companies of the Qth cavalry and six companies of the lOth 
cavalry, are hereby consolidated, and will hereafter be known as the 
loth regiment of cavalry, Missouri volunteers." (See loth cavalry.) 

Tenth Cavalry. — Cols., F. M. Cornyn, A. J. Alexander; Lieut.-Cols., 
W. D. Bowcn, Thomas Hynes, F. W. Benteen ; Majs., F. R. Neet, Thomas 
Hynes, F. W. Benteen, M. H. Williams, W. H. Lusk. This regiment was 
originally recruited as the 28th Mo. infantry. It was changed to a cavalry 
regiment by order of the war department on Sept. 24, 1862, and on Dec. 
4, 1862, the 9th cavalry was added to it. Immediately after this con- 
solidation the regiment, numbering about 1,200 men, rank and file, left 
Camp Magazine, near Jefferson barracks, for the South. Owing to lack 
of transportation facilities it was moved by detachments, but was re- 
united at Memphis, Tenn., and left that city on Feb. 7, 1863, for Corinth, 
Miss., where it arrived on the iSth. Here Col. Cornyn was placed in 
command of a cavalry brigade, which was sent against Van Dorn at 
Tuscumbia. The Confederates were driven from the town in confusion 
and a lot of property was captured. This was the first successful cav- 
alry raid made by any body of Federal troops, and Ma j. -Gen. Hurlbut, 
to show his appreciation of it, sent the following despatch to Gen. Dodge 
at Corinth : "Return my thanks to Col. Cornyn and his command, for 
their gallant performance of severe duty." In the expedition of Dodge's 
command from Corinth to Tuscumbia in April, Cornyn's brigade had the 
advance and was almost constantly engaged with detachments of the 
enemy, defeating them at Bear creek, Cherokee, Lundy's lane, and other 
points. This movement of Dodge's was to cover Streight's raid into Ala- 
bama and Georgia. On the return to Corinth. Cornyn. with 1,220 men, 
met and defeated some 4,000 Confederates at Tupelo, the loth Mo. making 
one of the most dashing charges of the war. It remained on duty in 
Mississippi and Alabama for the greater part of its service, being kept 
almost constantly engaged in raiding the country and destroying property 
that could be used to the advantage of the enemy. It was one of the 
regiments with Gen. Wilson in his raid through Alabama and Georgia, 
and distinguished itself by its bravery at Montevallo and Selma, Ala., 
and Columbus, Ga. On June 26, 1865, all whose term of enlistment had 
expired were mustered out, the remainder of the regiment was consoli- 
dated with 2nd Mo. cavalry on June 26, by order of the war depart- 
ment, and was mustered out with that regiment on Sept. 19. 1865. 

Eleventh Cavalry.— Cols., W. D. Wood, J. F. Dwight ; Lieut.-Cols., 
J. W. Stephens, L. C. Pace, F. W. Lewis; Majs., J. W. Stephens, L. C. 



Missouri Regiments 277 

Pace, J. T. Ross, J. F. Dwight, F. W. Lewis, L. W. Brown, A. B. Kauff- 
man. The organization of this regiment was completed at Benton bar- 
racks, St. Louis, Dec. ii, 1863, by the muster in of Co. M. All the other 
companies had been previously mustered in and were already in the 
field: Cos. A and H in New Mexico and Arizona; B, C, E and G, 
at Springfield, Mo.; D, F, I and K, at Batesville, Ark. In Feb., 1864, 
the regiment, with the exception of Co. H, which remained in Arizona, 
was united at Batesville, where it remained until April, taking part in 
the battles of Spring Town, Waugh's farm. Little Red river and Jackson- 
port. It was then ordered to Devall's Bluff, where it remained until tlie 
following November, when it was ordered to Brownsville, and was at- 
tached to the 2nd brigade, cavalry division, 7th corps. In Feb., 1865, it 
was ordered to Little Rock, and it remained there until May, when it was 
ordered to New Orleans, with the expectation of being sent to the Rio 
Grande, but in July it was directed to report at Benton barracks, St. 
Louis, for muster out. On Aug. 11, 1865, it was discharged from the 
service, having marched over 10,000 miles in its various expeditions. 

Twelfth Cavalry.— Col.. Oliver Wells; Lieut.-Cols., Oliver Wells, 
R. H. Brown: Majs.. R. H. Brown, J. M. Hubbard, E. D. Nash, Levi 
Pritchard, A. J. Hughes. The organization of this regiment was com- 
pleted on March 23, 1864, and two days later was assigned to duty in 
the city of St. Louis by Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans, commrmding the depart- 
ment. On June i, 1864, it received orders to report to Gen. Washburne 
at Memphis, Tenn.. where it was assigned to the ist cavalry division, 
under Gen. Hatch. From that time until the following September it was 
engaged in the military operations in western Tennessee and northern 
Mississippi. On the last day of September it left camp at White's sta- 
tion, 9 miles from Memphis, to intercept Gen. Forrest at Lawrenceburg, 
but arrived there too late, though it pursued him until he crossed the 
Tennessee river. It then remained in camp at Clifton. Tenn.. until Oct. 
2"], when it was ordered to move to Pulaski, in order to engage the Con- 
federate forces under Gen. Hood. Hatch struck Hood's army on Nov. 
8, and from that time until the 19th, was engaged in daily skirmishing, 
in which the 12th Mo. bore an active part. Falling back to Nashville 
with Gen. Schofield's forces, it arrived in that city on Dec. 2. 1864, where 
it was furnished with new horses and uniforms and played a conspicu- 
ous part in the defense of the city and the defeat of Hood. After Hood 
had been driven from the state, the regiment was ordered to build winter 
quarters at Gravelly Springs, Ala., but the quarters were no sooner com- 
pleted than the regiment was mounted on mules and spent the winter 
in doing scout duty through northern Mississippi and Alabama. On May 
12, 1865, the brigade was ordered to report to Gen. Dodge, then in com- 
mand of the Department of Missouri, and it arrived at St. Louis on tlie 
T7th. The 12th Mo. was now detached from the brigade, ordered to Fort 
Leavenworth, and from there to Omaha, Neb., where it joined the expe- 
dition against the Indians on the Yellowstone river. The expedition 
left Omaha on July i. 1865. with 60 days' rations. This supply was about 
exhausted on Aug. 28, and about the same time the troops were attacked 
bv the Cheyenne Indians. A retreat was ordered down the Powder 
river, but it was found impassable for the wagons, which were aban- 
doned. The savages followed the expedition until Sept. 11, and the men 
reached Fort Conner on the 20th, having had no food except horse and 
mule meat for the ten days preceding. From Fort Conner the 12th Mo. 
was ordered to Fort Laramie and from there to Jtiicsbtirg, Col., where 
it remained on duty until some time in t866, though most of the originrd 
muster had been discharged from the service at the expiration of their 
term of enlistment. 

Thirteenth Cavalry. — Cols., E. C. Catherwood, Austin A. King; 



y78 The Union Army 

Lieut.-Cols., Austin A. King, W. C. Lcfever ; Alajs., C. B. McAfee, J. E. 
Mayo, W. C Lefever, Samuel Shibloy, J. M. Turlcy, \V. L. Parker. The 
basis of this regiment was a detachment of veterans who had formerly 
belonged to the 6th Mo. state militia cavalry. The organization was 
authorized by the general commanding the department on July Z2, 1864, 
but before it could be completed the detachment above referred to was 
ordered to the northwestern part of the state to suppress the guerrillas 
in Caldwell, Ray, Platte, Clay and Clinton counties. Col. Catherwood 
returned to St. Louis to push forward the work of organizing, leaving 
Maj. King in command. After the bushwhackers had been run out of 
the counties already mentioned. King marched to Glasgow to meet the 
notorious Bill Anderson and his gang. Some time was then spent in 
scouting through Howard, Randolph, Monroe, Chariton and Callaway 
counties, killing and dispersing guerrillas and capturing a large number 
of horses, etc. On Sept. 29, Capt. Mayo, with 20 men, was left at Glas- 
gow, while King, wath the rest of his command, moved to Jefferson City 
to assist in defending that place against Gen. Price. Mayo and his men 
were captured on Oct. 10. In the meantime the regiment had been com- 
pleted by reenlistments from the state niilitia, and on Oct. 29 was at 
Newtonia. It passed the winter at R0IL1, where it was engaged in doing 
scout duty and routing gangs of bushwhackers until May, 1865. ^t was 
then ordered to Fort Larned. Kan., except four companies, which were 
left at Rolla. Upon reaching Fort Riley, June 6, it was divided and sent 
to different parts of the state. Co. L was ordered to Republic county, B 
and D to Little Arkansas crossing; I, K and M to Cow Creek station; and 
E and G to Fort Zarah, all on the line of the Santa Fe road, the regi- 
mental headquarters being at Council Grove. On the last day of July 
nine companies were concentrated at Fort Zarah and marched from 
there to Fort Larned, where they reported to Gen. Sanborn for service 
in an expedition against the Indians. The expedition was abandoned 
and the regiment, after some further duty in Kansas, was ordered to 
Denver, Col. At the close of the year 1865 it was still on duty at Camp 
Wardwell, Col. 

Fourteenth Cavalry. — Lieut. -Col.. J. J. Gravelly; Majs., H. B. Milks, 
Robert W. Fyan, G. L. Robinson, John A. Paj'ne. This regiment was 
authorized by an order from the war department in the fall of 1864, 
and recruiting was at once commenced from the reenlisted men of the 
Missouri state militia. The organization was never cc-mpleted, how- 
ever, owing to the suspension of the recruiting office. Only about 200 of 
the militia were enrolled up to Feb. i, 1865, when the war department 
directed the enlistment of volunteers for one. two and three years, and 
Gen. Dodge, commanding the department, authorized Col. Gravelly to 
complete the regimental organization. In April nine companies had been 
mustered in and were stationed at St. Louis and Springfield on garrison 
duty. Subsequently these companies were ordered to report to Gen. 
Sanborn for service against the Indians along the Santa Fe road, but 
upon the abandonment of the expedition the regiment was returned to 
Fort Leavenworth, Kan., where it was mustered out on Oct. 26. 1865. 

Fifteenth Cavalry. — Col., John D. Allen; Lieut. -Col., Benjamin D. 
Smith; Majs., W. B. Mitchell, Wick Morgan, J. M. Moore. This regi- 
ment was originally the 7th provisional regiment Enrolled Missouri mili- 
tia, and was mustered into the L^. S. service for a period of 20 months, 
dating from Nov. i, 1863, the order for the muster coming from the war 
department on June 10, 1864. The first order for the organization of 
the regiment came from the governor's office on March 12, 1863, and it 
was mustered into the state service on April i. with 629 men. From that 
time imtil the following autumn it was on duty in the western part of the 
.state, clearing the country of guerrillas and protecting the property of 



Missouri Regiments 279 

loyal citizens. In the months of September and October another battalion 
was added and the regiment fully organized and equipped as a cavalry 
regiment. It was the first to start in pursuit of the Confederate Gen. 
Jo. Shelby, when he entered Missouri, following him as far north as the 
Osage river, and then back to the Arkansas line, signally defeating him 
in Barry county. After being mustered into the U. S. service it was at- 
tached to Sanborn's brigade and played a conspicuous part in the pur- 
suit of the Confederate forces under Gen. Price, during that officer's in- 
vasion of Missouri. Concerning the regiment the adjutant-general says 
in his report for 1865 : "While they have not had the same opportunities 
as other regiments to win laurels on the field in open combat, they are 
none the less deserving the praise and lasting gratitude of Southwest 
Missouri, from the fact that they have constantly had to meet not the open 
enemy but the subtle, wily and intriguing guerrilla and bushwhacker, who 
make their assaults from the brush thicket and dense grove, leaving them 
but little chance for defense, and subjecting them to greater danger than 
those who have to meet the enemy with something like equal chances." 
The regiment was mustered out on July i, 1865. 

Sixteenth Cavalry. — Col., John F. McMahan; Lieut. -Cols., John F. 
McMahan, Roswell K. Hart; Majs., John Small, John B. Waddill, R. K. 
Hart, J. L. Rush. This regiment, with twelve companies, aggregating 
over 1,100 men, was organized under the governor's order of March 12, 
1863, calling for two provisional regiments of Enrolled Missouri militia, 
and was first known as the 6th regiment of that body of troops. Pur- 
suant to the order of the war department of June 10, 1864, it was mus- 
tered into the U. S. service for a term of 20 months, dating from Nov. 
I, 1863. It was mustered in some time in August, 1864, and prior to that 
time had been on duty in Greene, Christian, Ozark, Douglas, Webster, 
Laclede and Texas counties, in the warfare against the guerrillas in 
that section. After being mustered into the Federal service it was at- 
tached to Gen. Sanborn's brigade and took part in the campaign against 
Gen. Price in his raid into Missouri. It was in the advance at Boon- 
ville and made a brilliant saber charge at the battle of the Big Blue. It 
was mustered out on July i. 1865. 

First Artillery. — Cols., John V. Dubois, Warren L. Lothrop; Lieut. - 
Cols.. W. L. Lothrop, A. M. Powell; Majs., G. H. Stone, Frederick Wel- 
ker. Nelson Cole. David Murphy, Charles Mann, A. M. Powell, Thomas 
D. Maurice. This regiment was first organized as the ist Mo. infantry 
in April, 1861. As an infantry regiment it took part in the capture of 
Camp Jackson, at St. Louis, and the battles of Boonville and Wilson's 
creek. On Sept. 18, 1861, it was reorganized as an artillery regiment. 
One battalion — Cos. E, F and G — participated in Gen. Fremont's 
campaign in southwest Missouri. The 2nd battalion — Cos. D, H 
and K— was ordered south on Feb. t, 1862, and fought with Gen. Grant's 
army at Fort Donelson and Shiloh and then followed that intrepid com- 
mander to Corinth. In the battle of that place on Oct. 3-4, 1862, it was 
charged several times, but these charges were repulsed or the battalion 
withdrew in good order, only to take a new position and renew the 
fight. The 3d battalion was also with Grant during the latter part of 
this campaign and distinguished itself by its accurate fire and stubborn 
resistance to the enemy. Meanwhile the ist battalion was not idle. In 
the numerous engagements with the guerrillas under Quantrill, Jack- 
man. Freeman, Reeves, CoflFee and others this portion of the ist Mo. 
artillery was always ready. Sometimes working as a battalion, often 
"by battery, still oftener by sections, and sometimes bv a single gun, it 
was a terror to the desperadoes. At the battle of Prairie Grove, Ark., the 
1st Mo. won the commendation of Gen. Blunt for its effective service. 
Soon after this the battalion was ordered to St. Louis, where its equip- 



280 The Union Army 

mcnts were renewed, after which it was sent to Vicksburg and remained 
there until after the surrender of that place. Soon after the battle of 
Corinth the 2nd and 3d battalions were broken up and the batteries sep- 
arated. During the year 1864 Cos. A and }> were with the Army 
of the Gulf, taking part in all the maneuvers of that army in Loui'^iana; 
Cos. C and H were sent to Gen. Sherman and fought in most of 
the engagements of the Atlanta campaign; Cos. D and G were 
stationed at Huntsville and Chattanooga; Co. E was mustered out at 
Brownsville, Tex.; Co. F spent the year in Texas and Louisiana; Co. 
I was mustered out at Kingston, Ga. ; Co. K was stationed at Little Rock, 
Ark., where it took part in several expeditions into the surrounding 
country ; Co. L was stationed at Springfield, Mo. ; and Co. M was in 
Mississippi, taking part in the Meridian, Red River and Tupelo expedi- 
tions. In i<S65 Co. H was with Sherman in the campaign of the Caro- 
linas, and Cos. A and F participated in the reduction of Mobile and 
Montgomery, Ala. From Wilson's creek, y\ug. 10, 1861. to Bentonville, 
N. C, March 21, 1865, the ist Mo. was represented in nearly ico battles, 
besides numerous skirmishes. The thunder of its guns was heard at Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth, Champion's Hill, Vicksburg, Lookout Moun- 
tain, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Dallas, Kennesaw Mountain, At- 
lanta, Jonesboro and Nashville and on every field it acquitted itself with 
credit and won the praise of the commanding officers under whom it served. 
It fought in nine different states, and when the call came for reenlist- 
nicnts its men were among the first to respond. The last of the regiment 
was mustered out on Aug. 23, 1865. 

Second Artillery. — Col.. Henry Almstedt; Lieut.-Col., Joseph Weyde- 
meyer ; Majs., Theodore Wilkins, Dominick Urban. This regiment was 
organized in the fall of 1861 and was on service within the state until it 
was reorganized in Feb. 1864. The officers vmder the reorganization were 
as follows: Col., Nelson Cole; Lieut.-Col., G. W. Schofield ; Majs., 
Frank Backof, C. Landgraeber, John W. Robb. Gustave Stange, John J. 
Sutter. In June, 1864, it was equipped and mounted as a regiment of 
light artillery, and the different batteries were soon afterward scattered 
over the country. Battery A was at Cape Girardeau until June 11, when 
it was ordered to St. Louis and remained there until October, when it 
took part in Price's raid, after which it was attached to the ist division, 
i6th corps, and with Gen. A. J. Smith proceeded to Nashville, where it 
assisted in the defeat and pursuit of Gen. Hood's army. Battery B acted 
as garrison at New Madrid until the latter part of April, when it was 
ordered to Springfield, Mo. In June it was moved to Rolla. thence to 
St. Louis, and participated in the pursuit of Price. It went into winter 
quarters at Franklin on Nov. 21, 1864. Battery C left Cape Girardeau 
on May 8 and went to St. Louis, where it received new equipments and 
from that time until the close of the year was on duty in various parts 
of the state. It also participated in the work of driving Price from Mis- 
souri. Battery D spent the year in the vicinity of Rolla, Pilot Knob, 
Batesville, Ark., Jacksonport and Devall's Bluff, and was engaged with 
the Confederates under Gen. Jo. Shelby at several points. Battery E 
was stationed at Little Rock, and formed part of the forces of Gen. 
Steele's Camden expedition. Battery F was assigned to the ist division, 
15th corps, about May i, and remained with that command during the At- 
lanta campaign, being in the engagements at Resaca, Kennesaw Moun- 
tain, Dallas, and about Atlanta. In October it marched back to Resaca, 
engaging the enemy at several points on the way, and was later ordered 
to Nashville, where it was attached to the artillery reserve. Battery G 
left Cape Girardeau in August and went to Memphis. Tenn., where it 
was attached to the ist brigade and participated in the repulse and pursuit 
of the Confederates under Gen. Forrest. It was then with an expeditior^ 



Missouri Regiments 281 

up the Tennessee river, after which it returned to Memphis, where it re- 
mained for the rest of the year. Battery H was on duty in Missouri and 
was one of the artillery organizations that was engaged in the pursuit of 
Price. During the raid it consumed 1,700 rounds of ammunition, which 
shows that it was not idle. Battery I was on duty at RoUa, New Madrid, 
St. Louis and Franklin until in November, when it was ordered to Pa- 
ducah, Ky., where it was attached to Gen. A. J. Smith's command and 
moved to Nashville, where it fought with the 16th corps in the defeat 
of Hood's army. Battery K was on duty all the year in Missouri and was 
not in any serious engagements with the enemy. Battery L remained 
about Sedalia and Warrensburg until Sept. 24, when it was ordered to 
Jefferson City, and participated on the campaign against Price. Battery 
M was stationed at Camp Gamble, near St. Louis, until Aug. 16, when 
it was ordered to Springfield, and remained on duty in that part of the 
state until Nov. 13, when it went into winter quarters at Franklin. Dur- 
ing the year 1865 Batteries B, C, D, E, H, K, L and M formed part of 
tlie Powder river expedition against the Indians, which left Omaha, Neb., 
July 2. Batteries A, F and I were on duty at Johnsonville, Tenn., until 
ordered to St. Louis for muster out in the latter part of August. The 
several batteries were mustered out at different times and places, M 
being the last to be discharged at St. Louis, Dec. 20, 1865. 

First Engineers. — Col.. Henry Flad ; Lieut.-Col., William Tweedale; 
Majs., Hamilton Dill, Fred C. Nichols, Eben M. Hill. The regiment was 
originally organized in the summer of 1861, and was known as Bissell's 
engineer regiment of the West, the first ofificers being as follows : Col., 
J. W. Bissell; Lieut.-Col., Charles E. Adams; Maj., M. S. Hasie. Under 
special orders. No. 520, of the war department, dated Nov. 22, 1863, the 
25th Mo. infantry and "Bissell's" regiment were consolidated into the 
1st Mo. engineers. The regiment was at Nashville, Tenn., during the 
early part of the year 1864, and in March and April completed about 20 
miles of the Nashville & Northwestern railroad, including several large 
bridges and trestles. It then constructed small forts at Johnsonville and 
Waverly and a line of blockhouses along the railroad. About the mid- 
dle of September it was ordered to report to Gen. Howard in front of 
Atlanta. It participated in the f^ank movement to Jonesboro and Love- 
joy's Station, and after the evacuation of Atlanta constructed an inner 
line of fortifications about that city. In October the number had been 
reduced from 1,360 to 600, and on the last day of that month it was con- 
solidated into a battalion of five companies. This battalion accompanied 
Gen. Sherman on the march to the sea, building fortifications at various 
places and looking after the pontoons of the army. In the campaign 
through the Carolinas it had charge of the pontoons of the Army of the 
Tennessee, often bridging the streams under the fire of the enemy's guns. 
The regiment was present at the destruction of Columbia, S. C, the bat- 
tles of Fayetteville, Bentonville, and Goldsboro, N. C, after which it 
went to Washington, D. C, where it took part in the grand review. From 
Washington the regiment went to Louisville. Ky., where it was inspected 
by Gen. Reace, inspector-general of the Army of the Tennessee, and on 
July 22, 1865, it was mustered out of the service of the United States and 
ordered to St. Louis, where it was finally discharged on the 24th. 

It will be remembered that Gov. Jackson refused to respond to the 
first call for troops, and that Capt. Lyon was authorized to not only 
muster the quota assigned to Missouri, but was subsequently directed to 
increase the enlistments to "not exceeding 10.000 men." Under this order 
five regiments, known as the "Reserve corps" were mustered into service. 
These regiments were as follows : 

First U. S. Reserve Corps.— Col, Henry Almstedt; Lieut.-Col., R. J. 
Rombauer; Maj., P. J. Brimmer. This regiment was mustered in on 



283 The Union Army- 

May 7, 1861 ; took part in the capture of Camp Jackson ; marched with 
Lyon to Jefferson City; part of it was engaged in guarding railroad prop- 
erty; part was in the battles of Boonville, Carthage and Wilson's creek, 
and a detachment was stationed for awhile at Bird's Point. It was mus- 
tered out on Aug. 20, 1861. 

Second U. S. Reserve Corps. — Col., Herman Kallmann; Lieut.-Col., 
J. T. Fiala ; Maj., Julius I'iapp. The 2nd was mustered in at St. Louis, 
May 7, 1861, was at the capture of Camp Jackson and then engaged in 
guarding the North Missouri and Iron Mountain railroads until its mus- 
ter out on Aug. 16, 1861. 

Third U. S. Reserve Corps.— Col., John McNeil; Lieut.-Col., C. A. 
Fritz; Maj., C. W. Marsh. This regiment was organized at Turner hall 
in the city of St. Louis early in the year 1861, and on May 8 was mustered 
into the U. S. service. It participated in the capture of Camp Jackson, 
and in July three companies were sent to southwest Missouri, the re- 
maining seven companies being sent to north Missouri to disperse a force 
under Gen. Harris. It was mustered out on Aug. 18, 1861. 

Fourth U. S. Reserve Corps. — Col., B. Gratz Brown ; Lieut.-Col, 
Rudolph Wesseling; Maj., S. B. Shaw. This regiment was organized by 
Col. Brown and was mustered into the service of the United States on 
May 8, 1861. After the capture of Camp Jackson it was ordered to Rolla, 
and later reinforced Gen. Sigel at Waynesville. On July 17 it returned 
to St. Louis and was immediately ordered to Pilot Knob to reinforce the 
troops under Gen. Grant. It was mustered out on Aug. 18, 1861. 

Fifth U. S. Reserve Corps.— Col., Charles G. Stifel; Lieut.-Col., Rob- 
ert White; Maj., John J. Fisher. This regiment was mustered in at the 
U. S. arsenal in St. Louis, by Capt. Lyon, May 11, 1861, and is the regi- 
ment that was fired on by the mob as it was returning to its quarters. 
It was on guard duty and drill at the barracks until June 15, when three 
companies were sent to Jefferson City to suppress an insurrection in the 
penitentiary, and the rest of the regiment was used to escort supplies to 
Gen. Lyon at Boonville. On July 9 it reached Lexington, where it or- 
ganized the home guards, imprisoned a number of the secession leaders 
and captured 5 cannon and a quantity of powder. It then skirmished 
with the enemy at various places and returned to St. Louis, where it was 
mustered out on Aug. 31, 1861. 

Besides the organizations above recorded there were fully as many 
men enlisted in the state service. Of the Missouri militia there were 84 
regiments and 7 battalions of infantry; 14 regiments and 2 battalions 
of cavalry, and a light battery. The Enrolled militia numbered 89 regi- 
ments, 7 battalions and several independent companies. Almost every 
county had its company of home guards, and these several bodies of 
troops worked together for the preservation of the Union, the protection 
of the property of loyal citizens, and the suppression of guerrilla war- 
fare. They were frequently under the command of United States officers, 
temporarily, but as they were never regularly mustered into the Federal 
service no detailed account of their organization and movements is given 
in this work. 



Military Affairs in Kentucky 

1861—65 



The first movement in Kentucky looking toward future events, 
consisted in a correspondence which took place at the close of 
the year i860, between Gov. Magoffin and the commissioners 
from Alabama, relating to the cooperation of Kentucky with the 
Southern states. The following extract expresses the views of 
the governor of the state at that time : 

"You ask the cooperation of the Southern states in order to 
redress our wrongs. So do we. You have no hope of a redress 
in the Union. We look hopefully to assurances that a powerful 
reaction is going on at the North. You seek a remedy in se- 
cession from the Union. We wish the united action of the slave 
states assembled in convention within the Union. You would 
act separately; we, unitedly. If Alabama and other slave states 
would meet us in convention, say at Nashville, or elsewhere, as 
early as the fifth day of February, I do not doubt but we would 
agree in forty-eight hours upon such reasonable guarantees, by 
way of amendments to the Constitution of the United States, as 
would command at least the approbation of our numerous 
friends in the free states, and by giving them time to make the 
question with the people there, such reaction in public opinion 
might take place as to secure our rights and save the govern- 
ment." 

On Jan. 8, 1861, a convention of the Union party and the 
friends of Senator Douglas was held for the purpose of express- 
ing their opinion on the difficulties of the country. Their res- 
olutions manifested a patriotic spirit of devotion to the Union, 
and a firm determination to have the rights of Kentucky re- 
pected and maintained in the Union. They declared in favor 
of a convention of the border slave and border free states, for 
the purpose of devising some basis of compromise by which the 
Union might be saved, and proposed contingently a confederacy 
of such states as were willing to accept the constitution as pro- 
posed to be amended by Senator Crittenden. They declared 
unalterable repugnance to a war with their brethren, North or 
South, and expressed a willingness to support Mr. Lincoln's 
government unless he undertook coercion or civil war. 

283 



284 ' The Union Army 

The governor, in his message to the adjourned session of the 
legislature, asked their approval of the Crittenden resolutions, 
and submitted the propriety of providing for the election of 
delegates to a convention to assemble at an early day to de- 
termine the future interstate and Federal relations of Kentuckj^ 
Meanwhile he would leave no experiment untried to restore fra- 
ternal relations between the states. He recommended a con- 
vention of the border slave states, to meet early in February at 
Baltimore. He said the hasty and inconsiderate action of the 
seceding states did not meet his approval, but objected to co- 
ercing them and asked the legislature to declare by a resolution 
the unconditional disapprobation by Kentucky of the employ- 
ment of force against them. 

On Jan. 22, resolutions were passed in the house declaring 
that in view of the tenders of men and money by several of the 
northern states, to the general government, the people of Ken- 
tucky, uniting with their brethren of the South, will resist such 
invasion of the soil of the South at all hazards and to the last 
extremity. Subsequently, resolutions were passed inviting the 
states to unite with Kentucky in an application to Congress to 
call a convention to amend the constitution. 

On Feb. i, a resolution was passed in the senate declaring it to 
be inexpedient at that time to take any action toward calling a 
state convention. The vote was, ayes 25, noes 14. On the next 
day resolutions were passed in the senate appealing to the 
southern states to stop the revolution, protesting against Fed- 
eral coercion, and providing that the legislature reassemble on 
April 24 to hear the responses from sister states; also, in favor of 
making an application to Congress to call a national convention. 
The house of representatives, on Feb. 5, passed another resolu- 
tion stating their action in favor of a national convention, and 
also the appointment of delegates to the Peace Conference at 
Washington, and therefore concluded that it "is unnecessary and 
inexpedient for this legislature to take any further action on this 
subject at the present time. As an evidence of the sincerity 
and good faith of our propositions for an adjustment, and an 
expression of devotion to the Union and desire for its preserva- 
tion, Kentucky awaits with deep solicitude the response from 
her sister states." 

The legislature adjourned on Feb. 11, to meet again on March 
20. With regard to the action of that body while in session, it 
may be said that the recommendation of the governor in favor 
of the call of a convention fell upon unheeding ears, while the 
bill to arm the state, when it was not proposed that Kentucky 
should make war upon any one, nor no one proposed to make 
war upon her, also failed to command the respect which its_ad- 



Military Affairs in Kentucky 285 

vocates claimed for it. Indeed, Kentucky, having shown that 
she intended to stand by the Union to the last, and the rash and 
precipitate policy of her southern seceding sisters not having 
met her sanction, now awaited to see if the North would but do 
justice, as she considered it. 

Under instructions from the treasury department of the Con- 
federate states, its revenue officers now^ required manifests to be 
delivered and entries to be made of all merchandise coming down 
the Mississippi from states beyond the limits of the Confederacy. 
The subject was brought up before the legislature of Kentucky 
at its session in March and the following resolutions were adopted : 

"Whereas this general assembly is informed that certain per- 
sons acting as a congress of the seceding states have assumed 
power to obstruct and regulate the free navigation of the Mis- 
sissippi river by the citizens of this Union, to whom it belongs: 
therefore be it 

"Resolved by the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of 
Kentucky, That Kentucky having as much right to the Missis- 
sippi river, to its free, unobstructed navigation, as Louisiana or 
any other state, and that right being of vital importance to her 
people, feels it her duty to herself and her sister states, at the 
earliest day, to make this her most solemn protest against any 
assumption of such power to control the navigation of that river 
as utterly without right or proper authority, and as what she 
can not and will not submit to. 

"Resolved further. That the states in the valley of the Missis- 
sippi be earnestly requested to unite with Kentucky in this pro- 
test against the violation of a mutual right so vitally important 
to them all, and which their permanent interests forbid should 
ever rest in the discretion of any government save that under 
which they live. 

"Resolved, That the governor be requested to transmit copies 
of these resolutions to the executives of the states aforesaid." 

The attack upon Fort Sumter and the call of President Lin- 
coln for 75,000 men, were turned to the utmost advantage by 
the friends of the seceded states to promote their cause. Ken- 
tucky, however, refused to take part either with the North or 
the South. Her governor issued a proclamation convening an 
extra session of the legislature on April 27, and after the fall of 
Fort Sumter Gov. Magoffin, in response to the president's call 
for troops, again voiced the sentiment of Kentucky, as it cer- 
tainly existed at that time, when he said, "Kentucky will furnish 
no troops for the wicked purpose of subduing her sister southern 
states." The state Union committee issued an address to the 
people on the condition of the country, declaring it to be the 
duty of the state to maintain neutrality and to take no part 



286 The Union Army 

either with the government or the Confederates. Kentucky,, 
the address said, could not comply with the appeal of the govern- 
ment without outraging her solemn convictions of duty, and 
without trampling upon that natural sympathy with the seced- 
ing states which neither their contempt for her interests nor 
their disloyalty to the Union had sufficed to extinguish. She 
could not comply with the appeal of the seditious leaders in her 
midst without sullying her unspotted loyalty, destroying her 
most vital interests, quenching in the blood of her own sons the 
last hope of reestablishing the Union, and lashing her free 
destiny amidst the clash and fury of arms to the chariot-wheels 
of the Gulf alliance. She ought clearly to comply with neither 
the one appeal nor the other. And, if she be not smitten with 
judicial blindness, she would not. The present duty of Ken- 
tucky was to maintain her present independent position, taking 
sides not with the government, and not with the seceding states, 
but with the Union against them both, declaring her soil to be 
sacred from the hostile tread of either, and, if necessary, making 
the declaration good with her strong right arm. To the end 
that she might be fully prepared for this last contingency, and 
all other possible contingencies, the authors of the address would 
have her arm. herself thoroughly at the earliest practicable mo- 
ment. 

At Louisville, on the evening of April 19, a Union meeting was 
held, at which Mr. Guthrie, once secretary of the United States 
treasury, and other prominent men, made speeches. Mr. Guthrie 
opposed the call of the president for volunteers for the purposes 
of coercion, or the raising of troops for the Confederacy, asserted 
that secession was no remedy for the pending evils and that Ken- 
tucky would not take part with either side, at the same time 
declaring her soil sacred against the hostile foot of either. Res- 
olutions were adopted that the Confederate states having com- 
menced the war, Kentucky assumed the right to choose her posi- 
tion, and that she would be loyal until the government became 
the aggressor. 

On May 3 the governor issued his proclamation ordering an 
election on June 30 for members to the extra session of Congress. 
This was made necessary by the fact that President Lincoln had 
called an extra session of Congress to meet on July 4. The terms 
of all Kentucky representatives had expired March 4 and the 
regular time for election was not until the first Monday in August. 
An extra session of the legislature was also called for May 6. 
On May 4 an election was held for delegates to the border state 
convention, at which the vote was overwhelmingly in favor of 
the Union, being nearly two-thirds of the entire vote at the elec- 
tion in Nov., i860. The vast majority of Kentuckians were 



Military Affairs in Kentucky 287 

manifestly more aroused than ever before to the absolute im- 
portance of the Union and to the indispensable necessity of its 
preservation for themselves and their posterity, as well as for 
the people of the whole country, and they were as manifestly de- 
termined to stand firm and quiet on their own soil, to keep the 
peace at home and along: the border, and steadily to strive for 
its restoration and establishment. The vote for Union dele- 
gates to the convention, in all the counties of the state except 
eighteen, was 98,561. The aggregate presidential vote in Nov., 
i860, was 146,216. 

On May 17 the legislature authorized the suspension of specie 
payments by the banks of the state. The house also passed a 
series of resolutions declaring that Kentucky should maintain a 
strict neutrality during the present contest, and approving of 
the refusal of the governor to furnish troops to the Federal 
government under the existing circumstances. Subsequently, 
the governor issued a proclamation with the following warning: 

"I hereby notify and warn all other states, separate or united, 
especially the United and Confederate states, that I solemnly 
forbid any movement upon Kentucky soil, or occupation of any 
post or place therein, for any purposes whatever, until author- 
ized by invitation or permission of the legislative and executive 
authorities. I especially forbid all citizens of Kentucky, whether 
incorporated in the state guard or otherwise, from making any 
hostile demonstrations against any of the aforesaid sovereign- 
ties, to be obedient to the orders of lawful authorities, to remain 
quietly and peaceably at home when oflf military duty, and re- 
frain from all words and acts likely to provoke a collision, and so 
otherwise to conduct themselves that the deplorable calamity of 
invasion may be averted ; but in the meanwhile to make prompt 
and efficient preparation to assume the paramount and supreme 
law of self defense, and strictly of self-defense alone." 

A resolution that this proclamation stated the position that 
Kentucky should occupy, was rejected in the house on May 22. 
The state guard was also required to take an oath to support the 
constitution of the United States. 

The border state convention assembled at Frankfort on May 
27. Kentucky and Missouri only were represented. An address 
was issued to the people of Kentucky declaring that the direct 
question before the people of the United States and of Kentucky, 
the grand and commanding question, was Union or no Union, 
government or no government, nationality or no nationality; 
that Kentucky had no cause of complaint with the general 
government, and no cause of quarrel with the Federal con- 
stitution ; that Kentucky would continue to be loyal to the Con- 
stitution, the government, and the flag of the United States,. 



288 The Union Army 

and to refuse alliance with any who would destroy the Union or 
commit the great wrong of deserting their posts in the national 
Congress; that Kentucky would remain true to herself and loyal 
to the constitutional administration of the general government, 
appear again in the Congress of the United States, insist upon her 
constitutional rights in the Union, not out of it, and insist on 
the integrity of the Union, its constitution, and its government. 

At the election on June 30 the Union representatives to Con- 
gress were chosen from all the districts of the state except the 
ist. In that district H. C. Burnett, State Rights, was chosen. 
With the exception of Boone county, the official return of the 
votes showed a total Union majority of 54,760. 

Volunteers from Kentucky entered both the Union and Con- 
federate armies. Those attached to the former were ordered to 
western Virginia, and there entered into active service. 

So stringent had the restrictions upon all intercourse between 
the North and the South now become that commerce was to a 
great degree cut off, except by the route of the Louisville & 
Nashville railroad. It had long become manifest that the block- 
ade of the South would not be complete unless the transit of 
supplies through Kentucky was stopped. But how this should 
be effected while Kentucky was herself in so doubtful a position, 
was a question not easily determined. The authorities of Ten- 
nessee solved it, however, by placing a complete embargo on the 
Tennessee end of the road. They forbade the exportation of cot- 
ton, tobacco, rice and turpentine to Kentucky. From their own 
point of view the act was one of folly, for the freight sent north 
was never one-fifth part of that sent south, and at that moment 
especially must have been vastly inferior in importance to the 
constant supply of provisions flowing into Tennessee from Louis- 
ville. They thought, however, that they could afford the step 
and therefore forbade all exports from Tennessee. That cut the 
knot as to the enforcement of the blockade at Louisville. It 
put an end to all scruples on the part of Kentucky, except among 
the open sympathizers with secession; placed the secessionists 
in the wrong in "neutral" eyes, and gave the government firm 
ground on which to stand. The blockade being undertaken 
with vigor, those who were forwarding supplies to the secession- 
ists attempted to break it by legal proceedings. They crowded 
the Louisville freight stations with merchandise consigned to 
Nashville, and sued the company as common carriers for refus- 
ing to receive and forward it. The decision of the court justi- 
fied the company in its course of obedience to the Federal gov- 
ernment and gave to the government the authority of legal 
approval, as well as the sympathy of right-minded citizens. It 
still remained, however, for the Tennessee secessionists, in their 



Military Affairs in Kentucky 289 

wisdom, to conceive one more plan for perfecting the work un- 
dertaken by the government. This scheme they carried out 
on July 4, by stopping the running of cars on the railroad alto- 
gether, and by doing this in such a manner as to seriously injure 
a great interest in Kentucky. Of this proceeding we have the 
following contemporaneous account : 

"The Louisville & Nashville railway is 286 miles in length, 
45 miles of it lying in Tennessee. These 45 miles cost $2,025,000, 
of which Tennessee contributed in all bonds to the amount of 
$1,160,500, the remaining $864,500 being raised by the Ken- 
tucky owners. On July i a Tennessee general, named Anderson, 
ordered the company to keep a larger amount of its rolling 
stock at Nashville. James Guthrie, president of the company, 
stated, however, that there was no provision in the charter to 
the effect that the company should be subject to the military 
orders of Tennessee and refused to comply. On July 4 Gen. 
Anderson seized two trains that were about to leave Nashville 
and one that came in, together with such machinery as could be 
found in Tennessee, and then called for a fair division of the 
rolling stock of the road. He agreed that while arrangements 
were in progress for this end the trains should be uninterrupted, 
but to this Mr. Guthrie astutely made answer that he could thus 
have no guarantee against the interference of others besides Gen. 
Anderson, who was supposed to be acting under orders. This 
brought out the governor of Tennessee as the real actor in the 
matter, for he at once replied to Mr. Guthrie with a proposition 
to continue the use of the road while a division of property was 
made. Mr. Guthrie at once rejoined, disproving the charge 
made by the Tennessee authorities, that their end of the road 
had not hitherto had its share of the rolling stock, and showing 
the impossibility of managing the road under Gov. Harris's 
proposition." 

The result was that the road was closed. The Kentucky 
stockholders declared that their chartered rights in Tennessee 
had been no protection to their property, and refused to risk any 
more property within the limits of that state. All questions as 
to the blockade upon this route were therefore disposed of by 
the breaking up of the route itself. The secessionists felt the 
extent of their error, for they urged Gov. Magoffin to seize the 
Kentucky end of the road and to run it in connection with Gov. 
Harris, but it was evident that such a step would only serve to 
remove the last scruple on the part of Union men as to forcible 
resistance to the bold plans of the secessionists in Kentuck}'. 

The question as to the transit of provisions to the South by 
this railroad was thus settled, and although it did not close 
other equally important routes through Kentucky, the contro- 

Vol. IV— 19 



290 The Union Army 

versy which had sprung up took such a turn as to have an im- 
portant effect throughout the state, stimulating the Union men 
everywhere to a more active support of the government. A 
small encampment of Federal troops was formed in Garrard 
county, which occasioned some excitement, as it was an in- 
fringement of the neutrality assumed by Kentucky. Letters 
were addressed to the commanding ofhcer, Gen. Nelson, asking 
the special object which the government had in view in the es- 
tablishment of the camp called "Camp Dick Robinson." In 
reply, the commanding ofhcer said, "The troops assembled here 
have been called together at the request of Union men of Ken- 
tucky. They are intended for no hostile or aggressive movement 
against any party or community whatever, but simply to de- 
fend Kentucky in case they are needed for that purpose, preserve 
its tranquillity, and protect the rights of all citizens of the state 
under the constitution and the laws; and the object of myself 
and all the officers in command will be, by all honorable means, 
to maintain that peace and tranquillity." Cominissioners were 
then sent by the governor to President Lincoln to insist on the 
neutrality of the state. Gov. Magofhn, in his letter to the pres- 
ident, said: 

"In a word, an army is now being organized and quartered in 
this state, supplied with all the appliances of war, without the 
consent or advice of the authorities of the state, and without con- 
sultation with those most prominently known and recognized 
as loyal citizens. This movement now imperils that peace and 
tranquillity which from the beginning of our pending difhcxilties 
have been the paramount desire of this people, and which, up 
to this time, they have so secured to the state. 

"Within Kentucky there has been, and is likely to be, no oc- 
casion for the presence of military force. The people are quiet 
and tranquil, feeling no apprehension of any occasion arising to 
invoke protection from the Federal arm. They have asked that 
their territory be left free from military occupation and the 
present tranquillity of their communication left uninvaded by 
soldiers. They do not desire that Kentucky shall be required to 
supply the battle-field for the contending armies, or become the 
theatre of the war. Now, therefore, as governor of the state of 
Kentucky, and in the name of the people I have the honor to 
represent, and with the single and earnest desire to avert from 
their peaceful homes the horrors of war, I urge the removal from 
the limits of Kentucky of the military force now organized and 
in camp within the state. If such action as is hereby urged be 
promptly taken, I firmly believe the peace of the people of Ken- 
tucky will be preserved, and the horrors of a bloody war will be 
averted from a people now peaceful and tranquil." 



Military Affairs in Kentucky 291 

To that the president replied: "In all I have done in the 
premises I have acted upon the urgent solicitation of many Ken- 
tuckians, and in accordance with what I believed, and still be- 
lieve, to be the wish of a majority of all the Union-loving people 
of Kentucky. While I have conversed on this subject with 
many eminent men of Kentucky, including a large majority of her 
members of Congress, I do not remember that any one of them, 
or any other person, except your excellency and the bearers of 
your excellency's letter, has urged me to remove the military 
force from Kentucky, or to disband it. One other very worthy 
citizen of Kentucky did solicit me to have the augmenting of 
the force suspended for a time. Taking all the means within my 
reach to form a judgment, I do not believe it is the popular wish 
of Kentucky that this force shall be removed beyond her limits; 
and, with this impression, I must respectfully decline to so 
remove it, 

"I most cordially sympathize with your excellency in the wish 
to preserve the peace of my own native state, Kentucky. It is 
with regret I search, and cannot find, in your not very short 
letter, any declaration or intimation that you entertain any desire 
for the preservation of the Federal Union." 

A similar letter was addressed by the governor to the Presi- 
ident of the Confederate States. In the reply, President Davis 
said: 

"The government of the Confederate States of America neither 
intends nor desires to disturb the neutrality of Kentucky. The 
assemblage of troops in Tennessee to which you refer had no 
other object than to repel the lawless invasion of that state by 
the forces of the United States, should their government approach 
it through Kentucky, without respect for its position of neu- 
trality. That such apprehensions were not groundless has been 
proved by the course of that government in Maryland and Mis- 
souri, and more recently in Kentucky itself, in which, as you 
inform me, 'a military force has been enlisted and quartered by 
the United States authorities.' The government of the Con- 
federate States has not only respected most scrupulously the 
neutrality of Kentucky, but has continued to maintain the friendly 
relations of trade and intercourse which it has suspended 
with the people of the United States generally. In view of the 
history of the past, it can scarcely be necessary to assure your 
excellency that the government of the Confederate States will 
continue to respect the neutrality of Kentucky so long as her 
people will maintain it themselves. But neutrality, to be en- 
titled to respect, must be strictly maintained between both 
parties, or if the door be opened on the one side for the aggres- 
sions of one of the belligerent parties upon the other, it ought 



292 The Union Army 

not to be shut to the assailed when they seek to enter it for the 
purpose of self-defense. I do not, however, for a moment be- 
lieve that your gallant state will suffer its soil to be used for the 
purpose of giving an advantage to those who violate its neutrality 
and disregard its rights, over those who respect them both." 

It should be stated that previous to this correspondence, Ken- 
tucky had been invaded by Tennessee forces, and 6 cannon and 
1,000 stands of arms taken. The Confederate congress on Aug. 
7 passed an act authorizing enlistments in Kentucky. The 
legislature assembled on Sept. 2 and on the 5th a large barbecue 
was to be held in Owen county, about 12 miles from the seat of 
government. The apprehensions of the Unionists were greatly 
excited on this occasion. The state guard was invited to attend. 
It consisted of an organized body of troops, about 15,000 strong, 
under the control of the friends of secession in the state. In- 
timidation of the legislature was feared. Happily, the affair 
passed over without any special interest. A peace convention 
was also to be held on the loth of the same month, which awak- 
ened apprehensions of an attempt to organize the secession force. 
But these likewise proved groundless. The legislature stood 27 
Union and 11 Southern Rights senators, and 76 Union and 24 
Southern Rights representatives. The message of the governor 
to the legislature on Sept. 5, asserted that Kentucky had a right 
to assume a neutral position in the war; that she had no agency 
in fostering a sectional party in the free states, and did not ap- 
prove of separate action and the secession of the southern states. 
Lawless raids had been suffered on both sides, private property 
seized, commerce interrupted, and trade destroyed. These 
wTongs had been borne with patience, but a military Federal 
force had been organized, equipped, and encamped in a central 
portion of Kentucky, without consultation with the state author- 
ities. If the people of Kentucky desired more troops, let them 
be obtained under the constitution of Kentucky. He recom- 
mended the passage of a law to enable the military board to 
borrow a sufficient sum to purchase arms and munitions for the 
defense of the state. He also recommended the passage of reso- 
lutions requesting the disbanding or removal from the state of 
all military bodies not under state authority. On the same day 
the legislature was notified that Confederate troops had invaded 
the state, occupied and fortified strong positions at Hickman 
and Chalk bluffs. Gov. Harris, of Tennessee, replied to a de- 
mand of the Kentucky authorities, that the troops "that landed 
at Hickman last night did so without my knowledge or consent, 
and I am confident without the consent of the president. I 
have telegraphed President Davis requesting their immediate 
withdrawal." 



Military Affairs in Kentucky 293 

Gen. Polk, in command of the secession forces, in reply to the 
governor of Kentucky, stated that he had occupied Columbus 
and Hickman on account of reliable information that the Federal 
forces were about to occupy the said points. He proposed sub- 
stantially that the Federal and Confederate forces should be 
simultaneously withdrawn from Kentucky and enter into stipu- 
lation to respect the neutrality of the state. In the proclamation 
issued on Sept. 4, Gen. Polk gave this reason for invading Ken- 
tucky : 

"The Federal government having, in defiance of the wishes of 
the people of Kentucky, disregarded their neutrality by estab- 
lishing camp depots for their armies, and by organizing military 
companies within the territory, and by constructing military 
works on the Missouri shore immediately opposite and command- 
ing Columbus, evidently intended to cover the landing of troops 
for the seizure of that town, it has become a military necessity 
for the defense of the territory of the Confederate states that a 
Confederate force should occupy Columbus in advance." 

On the 9th the governor communicated the following to the 
legislature: "The undersigned yesterday received a verbal mes- 
sage, through a messenger, from Gov. Harris. The message was 
that he (Gov. H.) had, by telegraphic despatch, requested Gen. 
Polk to withdraw the Confederate troops from Kentucky, and 
that Gen. Polk had declined to do so;that Gov. Harris then tele- 
graphed to Sec. Walker at Richmond, requesting that Gen. 
Polk be ordered to withdraw his troops from Kentucky, and that 
such order was issued from the war department of the Confed- 
eracy; that Gen. Polk replied to the war department that the 
retention of the post was a military necessity, and that the re- 
tiring from it would be attended by the loss of many lives. This 
embraces the message received." 

On the same day the governor also received the following by 
telegraph from Gen. Polk: "Gov. B. Magoffin: — A military 
necessity having required me to occupy this town, Columbus, I 
have taken possession of it by the forces under my command. 
The circumstances leading to this act were reported promptly 
to the President of the Confederate States. His reply was, the 
necessity justified the action." 

As a matter of course, the invasion of the state by the Ten- 
nessee troops brought in a Federal force under Gen. Grant from 
Cairo. Thus ended the neutrality of Kentucky. It was on 
Sept. 6 that Gen. Grant, with two regiments of infantry and a 
company of light artillery, with two gun-boats, took possession 
of Paducah. He found secession flags flying in different parts 
of the town, in expectation of greeting the arrival of the southern 
army, which was reported to be 3,800 strong and only 16 miles 



294 The Union Army 

distant. The loyal citizens tore down the secession flags on the 
arrival of the Federal troops. Gen. Grant took possession of 
the telegraph office, railroad depot and marine hospital. He 
found large quantities of complete rations, leather, etc., for the 
southern army. He issued a proclamation saying that he came 
solely for the purpose of defending the state from aggression and 
to enable the state laws to be executed. 

On Sept. 1 1 the lower house of the legislature adopted a reso- 
lution directing the governor to issue a proclamation ordering 
the Confederate troops to evacuate Kentucky soil. The vote was 
71 against 26. The house refused to suspend the rules to allow 
another resolution to be offered ordering the proclamation to be 
issued to both Federals and Confederates. The first resolution 
was subsequently passed by the senate, but was vetoed by the 
governor. It was then passed, notwithstanding the governor's 
objections, by a vote in the house of 68 to 26, and in the senate 
of 25 to 9. The governor then issued his proclamation. On the 
17th the senate passed a bill punishing by fine and imprisonment 
the refusal to give up the state's arms when ordered by the mil- 
itary board. The house concurred. This abolished the state 
guard. The house adopted resolutions in favor of paying the 
war tax, and against the recognition of the Southern Confeder- 
acy. 

Preparations were commenced in the state for different mili- 
tary movements. While Gen. Polk was thus invading the state 
on the west, Gen. Zollicoffer was operating on the east. With 
about 4,000 men he came to Cumberland ford, situated near the 
point where the corner of Virginia runs into Kentucky, and cap- 
tured a company of home guards. On the 17th the legislature 
received a message from Gov. Magoffin communicating a tele- 
graphic despatch from Gen. Zollicoffer, announcing that the 
safety of Tennessee demanded the occupation of Cumberland and 
the three long mountains in Kentucky ; that he had done so, and 
should retain his position until the Union forces were withdrawn 
and the Union camp broken up. On the i8th the committee on 
Federal relations reported a series of resolutions, requesting Maj. 
Anderson, the commander at Fort Sumter when it was captured, 
to take command of the forces of the state. They manifested 
very distinctly the sentiments of the people at that time, and were 
as follows : 

"Whereas Kentucky has been invaded by the forces of the so- 
called Confederate states, and the commanders of the forces so 
invading the state have insolently prescribed the conditions upon 
which they will withdraw, thus insulting the dignity of the state 
by demanding terms to which Kentucky cannot listen without 
dishonor, therefore, 



Military Affairs in Kentucky 295 

"Resolved, That the invaders must be expelled. 

"Inasmuch as there are now in Kentucky Federal troops as- 
sembled for the purpose of preserving the tranquillity of the state, 
and of defending and protecting the people of Kentucky in the 
peaceful enjoyment of their lives and property, it is 

"Resolved, That Gen. Robert Anderson, a native Kentuckian, 
who has been appointed to the command of the Department of 
Cumberland, be requested to take instant command, with author- 
ity and power from this commonwealth to call out a volunteer 
force in Kentucky for the purpose of repelling the invaders from 
our soil. 

"Resolved, That in using the means which duty and honor re- 
quire shall be used to expel the invaders from the soil of Ken- 
tucky, no citizen shall be molested on account of his political 
opinions ; that no citizen's property shall be taken or confiscated 
because of such opinions, nor shall any slave be set free by any 
military commander ; and that all peaceable citizens who remain 
at home and attend to their private business until legally called 
into the public service, as well as their families, are entitled to and 
shall receive the fullest protection of the government in the en- 
joyment of their lives, their liberties, and their property. 

"Resolved, That his excellency, the governor of the Common- 
wealth of Kentucky, be requested to give all the aid in his power 
to accomplish the end desired by these resolutions, that he issue 
his proclamation calling out the militia of the state, and that he 
place the same under the command of Gen. Thomas L. Critten- 
den. 

"Resolved, That the patriotism of every Kentuckian is invoked 
and is confidently relied upon to give active aid in the defense of 
the commonwealth." 

The decision expressed by these resolutions was hailed with 
great satisfaction by the friends of the Union. It is difficult to 
exaggerate the importance of this act on the part of that great 
state. Whether viewed in its relations to the material or moral 
aspects of the civil strife in the land, the active adhesion of Ken- 
tucky to the national cause was a momentous event. But it was 
specially valuable for the testimony it bore to the rightfulness and 
the necessity of the belligerent issue which the national govern- 
ment had been compelled to accept. These resolutions were ve- 
toed by the governor and then passed by the requisite vote over 
his veto. His objection to the resolutions was thus stated: 

"I cannot concede my constitutional right, as the commander- 
in-chief of the state, to designate the particular officer or officers 
to be employed in executing the will of the legislature. Gen. T. 
L. Crittenden, the officer designated by the resolution, has had 
many proofs of my confidence. He has my confidence now, and 



296 The Union Army 

in this service I would not hesitate to employ him, but at the 
same time I reserve the point that it is not within the province of 
the legislature to limit the constitutional right of the governor 
and commander-in-chief to choose such of his subordinate of- 
ficers as he may deem best fitted to enforce the execution of the 
laws of the state." 

Gen. Robert Anderson assumed command of the state and 
national forces and issued a proclamation calling upon Kcntuck- 
ians of all parties to assist in repelling the invaders of the state. 
Gov. Magofiin also issued a proclamation, directing Gen. Thomas 
L. Crittenden to call out the state troops to resist the invasion 
of the state, and Gen. Crittenden accordingly called out the mili- 
tia. Hamilton Pope, brigadier-general of the home guard, also 
called upon the people in each ward of Louisville to organize 
themselves into companies for the protection of the city. Thus 
was Kentucky launched with her whole soul into the bloody con- 
test for the maintenance of the government and the preservation 
of the Union. On the 23d the house passed a bill authorizing the 
military board to borrow $1,000,000, in addition to $1,000,000 
authorized May 24, on the state bonds, payable in ten years, and 
levied a tax to pay the bonds and interest. The above sum was 
to be appropriated to the defense of the state. On the next day, 
a bill .was passed calling out 40,000 volunteers for service from 
one to three years. The votes were, in the house, 67 to 13, and 
in the senate, 21 to 5. The senate also passed a bill providing 
that Kentuckians who voluntarily joined the Confederate forces 
invading the state, should be incapable of taking estate in Ken- 
tucky by devise, bequest, division or distribution, unless they re- 
turned to their allegiance within 60 days, or escaped from the in- 
vaders as soon as possible. A bill was also passed tendering the 
thanks of the legislature to Ohio, Illinois and Indiana, for having 
so promptly forwarded troops to aid in repelling the invasion of 
the state and the governor was instructed to communicate the 
same. On Oct. i a resolution requesting John C. Breckenridge 
and Lazarus W. Powell to resign their seats as senators in Con- 
gress, as they did not represent the will of the people of Ken- 
tucky ; and, if they declined to comply, the senate of the United 
States was respectfully requested to investigate their conduct 
and if found to be in opposition to the Federal government to 
expel them from their seats, passed the state senate by a vote 
of 20 yeas to 5 nays. It was then sent to the house and passed 
by a vote of 55 to 31. A bill for a loan of $2,000,000 was also 
passed. So soon after the first step was Kentucky brought fully 
into the field with arms and money for the cause of the Union. 
The legislature then took a recess until Nov. 27. Previous to 
this adjournment, an address was issued by that body to the peo- 



Military Affairs in Kentucky 297 

pie of the state, on "the condition of the state and the duties they 
had felt called upon to perform." The condition of the state was 
thus briefly related : 

"We have ardently desired peace and hoped to save Kentucky 
from the calamities of war. When the Federal authorities deemed 
it necessary to employ force in self-defense, and to execute the 
laws of the government, we assured our southern neighbors of 
our purpose not to take up arms voluntarily against them, not- 
withstanding their wicked attempt to destroy the government 
from which we and our fathers have received the greatest bene- 
fits. Every effort was made, both before and after the employ- 
ment of force, to effect some compromise and settlement that 
would restore the Union, and prevent the effusion of blood. 

"The Federal government did not insist upon our active aid 
in furnishing troops, seeming content if we obeyed the laws and 
executed them upon our own soil. Those engaged in rebellion, 
however, with hypocritical professions of friendship and respect, 
planted camps of soldiers all along our southern border; seized, 
by military power, the stock on our railroad within their reach, 
in defiance of chartered rights ; impudently enlisted soldiers upon 
our soil for their camps, whom they ostentatiously marched 
through their territory. They made constant raids into this state, 
robbed us of our property, insulted our people, seized some of 
our citizens and carried them away as prisoners into the Confed- 
erate states. Our military was demoralized by the treachery of 
its chief of^cer in command, and many of its subordinates, until 
it became more an arm of the Confederate states than a guard 
of the state of Kentucky. Thus exposed to wrongs and indigni- 
ties, with no power prepared to prevent or resent them, some of 
the citizens of this state formed camps under the Federal govern- 
ment for the defense and protection of the state of Kentucky. 
Whatever might have been thought of the policy once, recent 
events have proved that they were formed none too soon. 

"In this condition we found Kentucky when the legislature 
met on the first Monday in September. We still hoped to avoid 
war on our own soil. We were met by assurances from the 
president of the Confederate States that our position should be 
respected ; but the ink was scarcely dry with which the promise 
was written, when we were startled by the news that our soil 
was invaded and towns in the southwest of our state occupied by 
Confederate armies. The governor of Tennessee disavowed the 
act and protested his innocence of it. His commissioners at 
Frankfort professed the same innocence of the admitted wrong ; 
but our warnings to leave were only answered by another inva- 
sion in the southeast of the state, and a still more direct and dead- 
ly assault upon the very heart of the state by way of the Nash-; 



298 The Union Army 

ville road. These sudden irruptions of such magnitude, skilfully 
directed, show that the assault on Kentucky was preconcerted, 
prepared and intended long before. The excuses made for any of 
them but add insult to injury. We shall not repeat them. They 
are but excuses for acts intended, without any excuse. 

"The purpose is to remove the theatre of the war from the 
homes of those who wickedly originated it, to those of Kentucky, 
and to involve this state in the rebellion. This purpose appeared to 
be well understood in the seceded states. They need the territory 
of Kentucky, and are determined to have it. if it must be by blood 
and conquest. 

"Thus forced into war, we had no choice but to call on the 
strong arms and brave hearts of Kentucky to expel the invader 
from our soil, and to call for the aid of the Federal government, 
as we had a right to do under the Federal constitution. 

"Our foes would dictate terms to a brave people upon which 
we can have peace. We are required to join them in their un- 
warrantable rebellion, become accessory to their crimes, and con- 
sent to sacrifice the last hope of permanently upholding repub- 
lican institutions, or meet their invasions as becomes Kentuckians. 

"We believe we have done our duty to a chivalric people who 
have forborne long, but will never fail as a last resort to resent 
an injury and punish an insult. We should hold ourselves un- 
worthy to represent you if we had done less. The only error, 
we fear, is that we have not been as prompt, you may think, as 
the occasion demanded. 

"Thrice have the revolutionists appealed to the ballot-box in 
this state, and thrice have the people expressed, by overwhelming 
majorities, their determination to stand by the Union and its gov- 
ernment. They have not been active in this war, not from in- 
difference or want of loyalty, but in the hope of better promoting 
a restoration of the Union, and checking the rebellion by that 
course. Our hope of an amicable adjustment, and a desire for 
peace, led us to forbear, until forbearance has ceased to be a vir- 
tue. The attempt to destroy the union of these states we believe 
to be a crime, not only against Kentucky, but against all man- 
kind. But up to this time we have left to others to vindicate, by 
arms, the integrity of the government. The Union is not only 
assailed now, but Kentucky is herself threatened with subjuga- 
tion by a lawless usurpation. The invasion is carried on with a 
ruthless destruction of property, and the lives and liberties of our 
people, that belong only to savage warfare. 

"We have no choice but action, prompt and decided. Let us 
show the insolent invaders that Kentucky belongs to Kentuck- 
ians, and that Kentucky's valor will vindicate Kentucky's honor. 
We were unprepared because unsuspecting. An insolent and 



Military Affairs in Kentucky 299 

treacherous invader tells the people that their legislators have 
betrayed them ; and he comes with fire and sword to correct their 
error, by a crusade against property, liberty, and life." 

The position taken by the legislature was fully sustained by the 
people, and upon the reassembling of that body on Nov. 27, very 
emphatic resolutions were adopted. The following extract shows 
their character : 

"Resolved, by the General Assembly of the Commonwealth 
of Kentucky, That Kentucky has ever cherished and adhered 
to the Federal Union, and she will cling to it now, in this time 
of its extremest peril, with unfaltering devotion. While at the 
beginning of the mad and wicked war which is being waged by 
the rebellious states for the destruction of the government, she 
forbore to take part, in the hope that she might interpose her 
friendly offices in the interests of peace, she has, nevertheless, 
sternly repelled every movement which looked to a change of 
her political relations, and has never swerved from her full and 
fervid loyalty to the noblest and freest government in the world. 
And now, since her proffered mediation has been spurned and 
her soil invaded by the Confederate armies, she deems it fit that 
she should announce to the world that, standing firmly by her 
government, she will resist every effort to destroy it ; and she 
calls upon her true and heroic sons to rally around the standard 
of their country and put forth the whole energies of the com- 
monwealth till the rebellion shall be overthrown, and the just 
supremacy of the national government shall be restored and 
maintained everywhere within its limits. 

"Resolved, That the existing civil war, forced upon the na- 
tional government without cause by the disunionists, should not 
be waged upon the part of the government in any spirit of op- 
pression, or for any purpose of conquest or subjugation, or pur- 
pose of overthrowing or interfering with the rights or established 
institutions of any of the states, free or slave, but to defend and 
maintain the supremacy of the constitution, and to preserve the 
Union with all the dignity, equality and rights of the several 
states unimpaired ; and that as soon as these objects are accom- 
plished the war ought to cease. 

"Resolved, That in the adoption of the foregoing resolution 
by the national Congress, with unprecedented unanimity, at its 
late session, a rule of action was prescribed to the government 
from which it cannot depart without a disregard of the plighted 
faith of the national legislature, which we would be slow to be- 
lieve can be seriously entertained. Against any such departure 
we solemnly protest. 

"Resolved. That the purpose expressed in said resolution is 
the great end demanded, and that which inspires Kentucky with 



300 The Union Army 

patriotic ardor to seek their achievement with all her loyal ener- 
gies and means, in the confident hope of success, and belief that 
the country, saved, in our triumph, to us and to posterity, will still 
be glorious in the freedom of its people, in the unity of its govern- 
ment, and the security of society, and worth infinitely more than 
it cost to save it. 

"Resolved, That slavery is a state institution, guaranteed by 
the constitution of the United States, and we cannot agree that 
the national government, to which we are and intend to be loyal, 
shall undertake the emancipation of slaves against the will of 
the slave-holding states." 

Great honor should be given to the state of Kentucky for the 
course pursued by her during the first year of the war. Her po- 
sition of determined neutrality at first taken, was to some extent 
a consequence of her geographical situation. Refusing to take 
sides with either North or South, her coolness moderated the 
fiery impetuosity of both. At the same time she was an enviable 
acquisition to each. The Federal administration, desirous to se- 
cure her hearty cooperation, saw plainly that it could not be ob- 
tained on any other terms than that of the constitution and the 
rights of the states. And every position taken by the adminis- 
tration was of such a conservative character as to meet the ulti- 
mate approval of the people of that state. Amid all the efforts 
of extreme partisans in the northern states to press the president 
into measures looking to emancipation, nothing was effected. The 
certain loss of Kentucky, and with her western Virginia and Mis- 
souri, stayed the government, even if there had been an inclina- 
tion to, or conviction of the propriety of, such measures. As a 
consequence, Kentucky voluntarily entered the field for the 
Union, and by the end of the year approximately 26,000 men from 
that state were serving in Federal ranks. 

The position of Kentucky relative to the affairs of the Union, 
on the whole, remained unchanged during the year 1862. Her 
determination was to sustain the Federal government in all its 
measures designed for an honest restoration of the Union with- 
out interference with the institutions of the states. A very con- 
siderable portion of her citizens, however, sympathized with the 
government of the Confederate States, and made valuable con- 
tributions to its aid. 

There was not a cordial cooperation between the governor and 
the majority of the legislature. Several bills passed by the legis- 
lature were vetoed by him, such as an act to disfranchise all citi- 
zens who entered the Confederate service, and another requir- 
ing all clergymen to take an oath to sustain the constitution of 
the United States before performing the marriage ceremony, etc. 
These things, however, were soon lost sight of by the movements 



Military Affairs in Kentucky 301 

of the Federal troops, wliich engrossed attention. Kentucky was 
not only completely under their control, but the Confederate 
forces were driven beyond her limits. Even at this time the state 
had contributed more than its quota to the Federal army, and 
there was no military organization of the state but entirely ac- 
quiesced in this contribution. In August an extra session of the 
legislature was held on a call by Gov. Magoffin. The governor 
condemned the invasion of the state by guerrillas under Col. 
Morgan, expressed regret at the arrest of citizens without any 
legal process, and recommended the adoption of the resolutions 
proposed by Senator Crittenden at the last session of the 36th 
Congress, as a standing proposition for peace and the settlement 
of the war. Immediately afterward the governor resigned his 
office and James F. Robinson, secretary of state, was elected by 
the legislature to fill the unexpired term. The most important 
subject which came under the consideration of that body during 
that session was the resolution of President Lincoln proposing 
a system of gradual emancipation to be adopted by the border 
slaveholding states. The report of the committee on the subject 
stated that if a restoration of the Union, as it was, required the 
sacrifice of the value of their slaves, the people of Kentucky, in 
their opinion, would make it. It further says : 

"But devoted as we are to the Union, we do not feel that our 
loyalty demands at our hands the adoption of the measure pro- 
posed. We do not agree with the president that the gradual 
emancipation of the slaves in the border states would bring about 
a speedy termination of the war. Unhappily for our country, 
the dominant party in the Congress of the United States are bent 
on the destruction of the constitution and the Union. No curse 
which the direst enemy of our country could have imposed would, 
in our opinion, have borne tuore bitter fruits than the action of 
that party has produced. We have viewed with alarm the rapid 
strides which the dominant party in Congress has made toward 
the prostration of every guarantee which the constitution pro- 
vides for the dearest rights of the people. They have endeavored, 
through the instrumentality of the executive and Congress, to 
strip the people of the disaflFected states of their property : they 
have passed confiscation bills, in utter violation of the plain pro- 
visions of the constitution ; they have sought to take away from 
those people their state governments and reduce them to a state 
of territorial vassalage ; they have declared their purposes to free 
the slaves of the rebel states and elevate them to an equality with 
the white man ; they have declared that the war should be pros- 
ecuted until slavery shall be swept from the entire land ; they 
proclaim that they are against restoration of the Union unless 
slavery is abolished. 



302 The Union Army 

"The people of Kentucky justly feel horror and alarm at the 
enunciation of such doctrines. They will oppose them by all 
peaceable means, and if the time should come when the counsels 
of reason shall no longer be heeded, when the barriers erected 
by the constitution shall no longer afford protection, then will 
Kentucky rise up as one man and sacrifice the property, and, if 
need be, the lives of her children, in defense of that constitution 
under which alone we can ever hope to enjoy national liberty. 
We deny what has been so often asserted by that party, that the 
question of slavery is the cause of the war. Disappointed ambi- 
tion, grovelling lust of office and power produced it. Slavery 
was but the pretext for the execution of a purpose long nourished 
to overthrow the government." 

The report closed with a recommendation that a system of 
gradual emancipation of slaves be declined. This course was 
followed by the legislature, and no action taken on the subject. 
On other subjects its action was such as to sustain the Federal 
government in the great objects for which the war was originally 
declared to have been undertaken. The assembly, although ex- 
pressing a conviction that the quota of troops from the state, 
imder the calls of the president made in July and September, 
would be raised by voluntary enlistment, nevertheless passed an 
act by a vote of 64 to 9 authorizing a draft. On the approach 
of the Confederate force to Lexington in September the legisla- 
ture adjourned to Louisville. The archives of the state were also 
removed. 

The number of the enrolled militia of Kentucky was 119,577. 
Out of this number 37,444 entered the Federal service for three 
years; 11,911 for one year; 413 for nine months, and 1,770 for 
60 days; making an aggregate of 51,538, which was almost one- 
half of those between the military ages. From the beginning of 
the war to Nov. 30, 1863, the state had advanced on account of 
the United States government, in recruiting, arming, equipping, 
subsisting and paying volunteers, the sum of $2,196,611. Of 
this sum $861,221 was refunded and $605,000 credited as the pro- 
portion of taxes levied on the state, leaving a balance of $730,- 
390. Notwithstanding many counties of the state had been so 
overrun by invaders and desolated by guerrillas and mauraders 
that no revenue could be collected within them, the balance in 
the treasury on Oct. 10. 1863, was $808,387. 

The position of Kentucky as one of the border slave states 
imparted more than ordinary interest to the political proceedings 
in the state. The legislature elected in Aug., 1861, commenced its 
last session at Frankfort early in Jan., 1863. The measures pre- 
sented in this body represented the views of the people of the 
state. It was unequally divided, and the views of each division 



Military Affairs in Kentucky 303 

are to be found in the resolutions which they recommended for 
adoption. On Feb. 27 the assembly adopted the following series 
of resolutions. They were subsequently adopted in the senate, 
with the exception of the nth: 

"i. Resolved, That our institutions are assailed by an armed 
rebellion on one side, which can only be met by the sword ; and on 
the other by unconstitutional acts of Congress and startling usur- 
pations of power by the executive, which we have seen by experi- 
ment can be corrected by the ballot-box. Policy, as well as prin- 
ciple, requires that Kentucky shall await the process of reform, 
which is slow but sure, and refrain from all unlawful and un- 
constitutional acts which have already brought terrible calami- 
ties upon the country ; whilst we invoke the aid of all patriotic 
men to avert the evils that threaten our free institutions. 

"2. Resolved, That this general assembly declares, as before 
it has oftentimes declared, that the state of Kentucky hath ever 
been, and is, loyal to the government of the United States of 
America, and is determined to maintain that loyalty against both 
domestic and foreign foes. 

"3. Resolved, That this general assembly recognizes a mani- 
fest difference between the administration of the government and 
the government itself — the one is transitory, limited in duration 
only to that period of time for which the officers elected by the 
people are charged with the conduct of the same ; the other is 
permanent, intended by its founders to endure forever. 

"4. Resolved, That this general assembly now in the exercise 
of its right to differ in opinion with the national executive, en- 
ters its solemn protest against the proclamation of the president 
of the United States, dated Jan. i, 1863, by which he assumes 
to emancipate all slaves within certain states, holding the same 
to be unwise, unconstitutional and void. 

"5. Resolved, That this general assembly declares that the 
power which has recently been assumed by the president of the 
United States, whereby, under the guise of military necessity, 
he has proclaimed and extended martial law over states where 
war did not exist, and has suspended the writ of habeas corpus, 
is unwarranted by the constitution, and its tendency is to subor- 
dinate civil to military authority, and to subvert constitutional 
and free government. 

"6. Resolved, That this general assembly declines to accept 
the president's proposition for emancipation, as contained in his 
proclamation of the 19th of May, 1862. 

"7. Resolved, That this general assembly deems it proper 
further to declare that it, together with all the loyal people of the 
state, would hail with pleasure and delight any manifestation of 
a desire on the part of the seceded states to return to their al- 



304: The Union Army 

legiance to the government of the Union, and would, in such 
event, cordially and earnestly cooperate with them in the restora- 
tion of peace and the procurement of such guarantees as would 
give security to all their interests and rights. 

"8. Resolved, That Kentucky will adhere to the constitution 
and the Union, as the best, it may be the last, hope of popular 
freedom ; and for all the wrongs which may have been committed, 
or evils which may exist, will seek redress under the constitution, 
and within the Union, by the peaceful but powerful and irresist- 
ible agency of the suffrages of a free people. 

"g. Resolved, That this general assembly hails with pleasur- 
able hope the recent manifestations of conservative sentiment 
among the people of the non-slaveholding states in their late elec- 
tions, and regard the same as the earnest of a good purpose on 
their part to cooperate with all other loyal citizens — give security 
to the rights of every section, and maintain the Union and the 
constitution as they were ordained by the founders of the re- 
public. 

"lO. Resolved, That, in the judgment of this general assem- 
bly, a convention should be called for the purpose of proposing 
such amendments to the national constitution as experience has 
proved to be necessary to maintain that instrument in the spirit 
and meaning of its founders ; and to that end we reaffirm and 
adopt the resolutions recommending a call for a convention of 
the United States, approved Jan. 25th, 1861. 

"11. Resolved, That it is expedient for the Mississippi valley 
states, as soon as practicable, to hold a convention of advice and 
consultation, with a view to determine what is best to be done 
for the preservation of the whole government, and for the pur- 
pose of maintaining their integrity and union, and to prevent 
any one or more states from seizing and appropriating to them- 
selves the exclusive use of the mouths of the Mississippi river, 
and imposing export and import duties on the commerce and 
navigation of the other states. 

"12. Resolved, That the laws of this state must be maintained 
and enforced, and that it is the duty of the constituted authori- 
ties of the state to see to it, that by all constitutional means this 
indispensable end shall be attained. 

"13. Resolved, That the governor be requested to forward a 
copy of these resolutions to the president of the United States, 
and to the governor of each state, with a request that he lay the 
same before the legislature of his state, and to each of our sena- 
tors and representatives in Congress. Our senators are in- 
structed, and our representatives requested, to use their best ef- 
forts to accomplish the objects of these resolutions." 

The following preamble and resolutions expressing the views 



Military Affairs in Kentucky 306 

of the minority of the lep^islature, were offered in the senate and 
assembly, on Jan. 19, and although they failed to be adopted they 
acquired an importance in connection with subsequent events in 
the state. 

"In times of war, as in jieace, the constitution of the United 
States is the supreme law of the land. It prescribes the powers 
of the government in its executive no less than in other depart- 
ments, and it is the only bond of union between the states. The 
Federal government, as defined by the constitution, when exer- 
cising the powers granted to it is entitled to the allegiance of the 
people ; but loyalty to the government does not impose upon the 
citizen any obligation to support an administration in the enforce- 
ment of a policy unauthorized by the constitution or forbidden 
by its provisions ; but it is the duty of all good citizens to resist 
encroachments upon their rights, and to defend the constitution 
of their country from violence. He who upholds the executive 
or any other department of the government in the violation of 
its provisions is disloyal to the constitution and an enemy to the 
freedom of his country. The Federal government, deriving all 
its legitimate powers from the constitution, is, therefore, the 
creature of the constitution, and has no power in any depart- 
ment to suspend any of its provisions, or throw off its restric- 
tions under any pretense whatever. The maxim that 'govern- 
ments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed,' 
is one which we ought never to forget. It involves a fundamen- 
tal principle of freedom — one asserted by our ancestors, and for 
which they fought and won our independence of the British 
crown, and which we never can surrender. It should also be 
borne in mind that governments were instituted for the protec- 
tion of life, liberty and property, and that such as fail to perform 
this duty will, sooner or later, be overthrown by an intelligent, 
virtuous and courageous people. The history of the present ad- 
ministration of the Federal government is a history of repeated 
injuries and usurpations, tending directly to the overthrow of 
state authority and state institutions, and a consolidation in the 
Federal government of all political power, and the erection upon 
their ruins of a great military despotism as tyrannical and des- 
potic as the worst governments of Europe, to prove which we 
refer to the following facts : 

"The president has, without authority of Congress, suspended 
the writ of habeas corpus — thus striking a deadly blow at the lib- 
erties of the people. He has caused citizens to be arrested, trans- 
ported to distant states, and incarcerated in loathsome prisons, 
without charge or accusation against them. He has denied to cit- 
izens thus arrested and imprisoned a trial by jury, or indeed any 
trial, and has withheld from them all knowledge and information 
Vol. IV— 20 



306 The Union Army 

as to their accusers or the cause of iheir arrest. He has subjected 
his prisoners thus held to barbarous and inhuman treatment, en- 
dangering both hfe and health, and has required hundreds of 
them so held, as a condition upon, which they might be released^ 
to take illegal oaths arbitrarily prescribed by himself or his agents. 
He has attempted to destroy the freedom of the press by the forc- 
ible suppression of newspapers, because they saw proper to crit- 
icise the measures of his administration ; and such as have es- 
caped suppression have been subjected to a censorship wholly 
incompatible with freedom of thought or expression of opinion. 
He has attempted to destroy the freedom of speech, by arresting 
citizens who animadverted upon the measures of his administra- 
tion. He has caused to be arrested persons engaged in circulat- 
ing petitions for the signatures of the people ; thus interfering^ 
with the right of petition. He has wholly disregarded the right 
of the people to be 'secure in their persons, houses, papers and 
eflfects against unreasonable searches and seizures.' He has in- 
terfered with the administration of justice in the state courts by 
violently forcing the judges to adjourn, dispersing their grand 
juries, and by breaking open jails and releasing prisoners con- 
fined under regular judicial process for felonies and other crimes. 
He has in some of the states, among which is Kentucky, forcibly 
wrested from the citizen his right to be the candidate for office 
within the gift of the people, thus striking down the elective 
franchise ; and eminent citizens of this state are now in confine- 
ment beyond its borders for no other known reason than that they 
presented themselves as candidates for office before the people. 
He has quartered soldiers in the houses of citizens against their 
will, and not in the manner prescribed by law. He has permitted 
his troops to overrun this state, destroying houses, and fencings 
of farms and lots. They have sacked the houses of peaceful cit- 
izens, destroyed their furniture, family pictures, carpets, cloth- 
ing, and other articles of household goods, and robbed them of 
their silver ware, stock and provisions. He has permitted his 
wagon masters and others, with armed soldiers, to seize the corn,, 
oats, hay, etc., of our citizens for the use of the armies, without 
their consent, and without just discrimination as to whether the 
farmer could spare the articles or not — fixing their own price 
upon them, making their own estimate as to the value and the 
quantity taken, and giving no receipt or name whereby the owner 
could successfully seek his pay ; and often, when vouchers were- 
given, they were so informal that no money could be drawn upon 
them. 

"He has permitted his oflficers and soldiers to entice slaves in 
great numbers to leave their masters and owners, and to take 
them within their camps, and there, with bayonets, to protect 



Military Affairs in Kentucky 307 

them from reclamation ; and when civil suits have been brought 
for their recovery, in may instances the process of the court has 
been resisted by armed forces, and the owner of the slaves mal- 
treated and imprisoned, for no known cause other than his at- 
tempt thus to recover and protect his property. 

"He has permitted his officers and soldiers, without authority 
of law, to levy large contributions of money upon unoffending 
citizens, under the pretense of reimbursing other citizens for 
losses sustained by the casualties of war. He has permitted his 
officers and soldiers with impunity to murder peaceable citizens. 
He has given his assent and approval to acts of Congress appro- 
priating and proposing to appropriate enormous sums of public 
money to purchase the freedom of slaves and their deportation 
to some foreign country, and has invited the border slave states 
(including Kentucky) to liberate their slaves, with promises of 
compensation from the Federal treasury. He has set aside the 
constitution of the United States by giving his official sanction 
to an act of Congress creating a new state within the territory 
of Virginia without her consent. He has, without constitutional 
authority, aided in freeing the slaves of the District of Columbia. 
He has, in violation of the constitution, by proclamation, declared 
free all the slaves in many of the states, invited them to vindi- 
cate their freedom by force, and sought an alliance with them 
in a war waged against their masters — a monstrous and iniqui- 
tous act sanctioned by no law, human or divine, finding no par- 
allel in atrocity in the history of barbarous nations. He is spend- 
ing large sums of money, appropriated by Congress for the sup- 
port of the army, in feeding and clothing slaves stolen from their 
masters. 

"In view of the foregoing facts, the truth of which cannot be 
denied, we do firmly believe, and solemnly declare, that any as- 
sistance furnished the executive in the further prosecution of 
the war upon the basis of his present policy, tends immediately 
and directly to the overthrow of both the Federal and state gov- 
ernments : Wherefore, 

"i. Resolved by the General Assembly of the Commonwealth 
of Kentucky, That Kentucky will, by all constitutional means 
in her power, protect her citizens in the enjoyment of the elective 
franchise, the benefits of the writ of habeas corpus, the security 
of their persons and property against the unconstitutional edicts 
of the Federal executive, and their enforcement by the army un- 
der his control. 

"2. Resolved, That, by the constitution of the state of Ken- 
tucky, 'the right of the owner of the slave to such slave, and its 
increase, is the same and as inviolable as the right of the owner 
to any property whatever ;' that 'Kentucky understands her own 



308 The Union Army 

interests too well to be thankful for gratuitous advice as to the 
mode in which she should manage them ; and when she wants 
the assistance of any outside administration of her affairs, she 
claims the privilege of originating the suggestion ;' consequently 
the proposition made by Abraham Lincoln, for her to emancipate 
her slaves, is hereby rejected. 

"3. Resolved, That the object and purpose of the war having 
been perverted by the party now in control of the government, 
in violation of its oft-repeated and most solemn pledges, our sen- 
ators in Congress are instructed, and our representatives are re- 
quested, to oppose any further aid in its prosecution by furnish- 
ing either men or money. 

"4. Resolved, That the proclamations of the president, dated 
Sept. 22, 1862, and Jan. i, 1863, purporting to emancipate the 
slaves in certain states and parts of states, set forth therein, are 
unwarranted by any code, either civil or military, and of such 
character and tendency as not to be submitted to by a people 
jealous of their liberties. 

"5. Resolved. That the act of Congress, approved by the 
President, admitting Western Virginia as a state, without the 
consent of the state of Virginia, is such a palpable violation of 
the constitution as to warrant Kentucky in refusing to recognize 
the validity of such proceeding. 

"6. Resolved, That Kentucky will cordially unite with the 
Democracy of the northern states in an earnest endeavor to bring 
about a speedy termination of the existing war ; and to this end 
we insist upon a suspension of hostilities and an armistice to en- 
able the belligerents to agree upon terms of peace. 

"■7. Resolved. That commissioners from this state be appoint- 
ed, whose duty it shall be to visit the Federal and Confederate 
governments, at Washington and Richmond, and urge them re- 
spectfully to agree upon an armistice for the purposes therein 
contemplated. 

"8. Resolved, That the governor of Kentucky is hereby re- 
quested to forward a copy of the foregoing preamble and reso- 
lutions to the president of the United States, and to each of our 
senators and representatives in Congress." 

On Jan. 29, 1863, the minority members of the legislature, and 
a large number of persons from various counties of the state, met 
in the evening in the senate chamber in the capitol, organized a 
meeting, and adopted the preceding preamble and resolutions in 
the form in which they had been offered in both houses of the 
legislature. Various propositions were then discussed in refer- 
ence to calling a convention of the people, nominating candidates 
for state offices and members of Congress, to be chosen at the 
usual election in August, when the meeting adjourned to the 



Military Affairs in Kentucky 309 

next day. At the second meeting a state central committee was 
appointed, and instructed to call a state convention to nominate 
candidates for governor and other offices, to meet at Frankfort 
on Feb. i8. On the next day, Jan. 31, this committee issued a 
call for a convention. Previous to its meeting an application was 
made to the assembly of the legislature for the use of its hall, 
which was refused. At the appointed time the convention as- 
sembled at Frankfort, but was soon dispersed by Col. Gilbert, 
the commander of a regiment of Federal soldiers. Says the 
"Louisville Journal," in July : 

"The convention was dispersed, and the movement for the re- 
organization of the secession party of Kentucky, under the name 
of Democracy, as respects public and formal action, was sud- 
denly arrested. At this point two courses lay before the leaders 
of the movement. They were compelled to abandon the move- 
ment for the present election, or else to organize secretly, and 
selecting candidates in the main from the new recruits of the 
party, with but a comparative sprinkling of original secession- 
ists, quietly to put them in the field without the intervention of 
any public or formal action. In a word, they had either to throw 
up their scheme for the present, or to prosecute it by indirection. 
They unhesitatingly chose the latter course. It is not probable 
that they so much as seriously thought of the former. And the 
course they chose they have pursued with energy and with con- 
siderable skill. The result, with respect to organization, we are 
not able confidently to state, though secret societies under the 
style of 'Democratic Associations' have been established certainly 
in many parts of the commonwealth and probably in all ; but, 
with respect to candidates, the result is at last before the public 
in a complete 'Democratic ticket' for the state, the candidates 
having been required to steal out to their places in the ticket one 
by one or in little groups, as the stars appear to steal into their 
places in the twilight sky, the managers apparently considering 
that to allow the ticket all at once to burst forth in constellated 
splendor might challenge too forcibly the attention of the author- 
ities. But at last the ticket is out in full." 

Meanwhile the majority of members of the legislature, known 
as Union members, assembled in the hall of the assembly, on the 
evening of Feb. 16, and agreed to "recommend to the Union 
Democracy of Kentucky that they assemble by delegation in con- 
vention in Louisville on March 18, to nominate suitable persons 
as candidates for the various state offices." At the appointed 
time the convention assembled at Louisville. Delegates were 
present from 103 counties, and the convention contained more 
than 1,000 members. Joshua F. Bell was nominated for gover- 
nor and a series of resolutions were adopted. On April 24 Mr. 



310 The Union Army 

Bell declined the nomination for governor, for the reason that 
his private affairs, which had been much neglected during the 
two previous years of trouble, demanded his whole attention. 
The state central committee on May i tendered the nomination 
to Thomas E. Bramlette, who accepted it, and the platform was 
thus explained by him in a speech delivered in Louisville on July 
i8: 

"Its first resolution approved and endorsed the principles con- 
tained in the joint resolutions upon Federal affairs, adopted by 
our legislature. The spirit of these resolutions declared the loyal 
attachment of Kentucky to the government of the United States, 
and our determination to maintain it ; recognized the difference 
between a transitory administration of the government, limited 
to an official term, and the government itself, which is permanent, 
and was intended by its founders to endure forever; declared 
dissent from and entered its protest against the emancipation 
proclamation as unwise, unconstitutional, and void ; denounced 
the extension of martial law over states where war did not exist, 
and the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus as unwarranted 
by the constitution, tending to subordinate civil to military au- 
thority and to subvert constitutional and free government ; de- 
clared we would hail with delight any manifestation of a desire 
on the part of the seceded states to return to their allegiance, in 
which event we would cordially cooperate with them in the res- 
toration of peace and the security of such guarantees as would 
protect all their interests and rights ; hailed the triumph of con- 
servative sentiment in the non-slaveholding states as manifested 
by the then recent elections, and asserted that the laws of the 
state must be maintained and enforced, and that it v/as the duty 
of the constituted authorities to see that this indispensable end 
should be attained by all constitutional means. These points 
of undying devotion and loyalty to the government, and the de- 
termination to adhere to it and preserve it at all hazards ; the 
duty of the state government to see the law executed; the con- 
demnation of the radical measures of the Federal administration 
in power, and the pledge to correct them by peaceful and consti- 
tutional means through the ballot-box, all meet my most cordial 
approval and support. There is no issue made against them in 
Kentucky, and therefore there is no necessity to discuss them 
here, and I have not discussed them at length, because they are 
entertained in common by all the Union Democrats, and as our 
o])ponents say they hold the same sentiments, there is therefore 
no issue to be taken with them. But the second resolution of our 
convention declared that the present causeless and wicked rebel- 
lion should be crushed by the whole power of the Federal gov- 
ernment, and the national authority restored over all the revolted 



Military Affairs in Kentucky ,311 

states, and for the accoinplishment of that object we are willing" 
to devote our whole resources if necessary. On this resolution 
onr opponents take issue ; all the rest are unopposed." 

The election was held on the first Monday in August. A gen- 
eral act of the legislature and amendments thereto, passed in 1862, 
<:onstituted the laws of the state regulating elections. The stat- 
ute required that, so long as there are two political parties in 
the state, each should be represented in the officers of every elec- 
tion precinct. An amendment adopted March 15, 1862, declared 
that those who had engaged in rebellion for the overthrow of 
the government, or who had in any way aided, counselled, or ad- 
-vised the separation of Kentucky from the Federal Union by 
force of arms, or adhered to those engaged in the effort to sepa- 
rate her from the Federal Union by force of arms, should not be 
deemed one of the political parties of the state. They, therefore, 
could not be officers at any election. Another amendment, 
adopted March 11, 1862, declared that all citizens who should 
enter the service of the so-called Confederate States, in either a 
civil or military capacity, or into the service of the so-called pro- 
-visional government of Kentucky, and continue in such service 
after the passage of this amendment, or who shall take up or 
continue in arms against the military forces of the United States 
or the state, or shall give voluntary aid and assistance to those 
in arms against said forces, shall be deemed to have expatriated 
themselves, and shall no longer be citizens of Kentucky, nor may 
be again, except by permission of the legislature. Whenever any 
person attempted to exercise any legal right of a citizen of Ken- 
tucky, he might be required to negative on oath this expatriation. 
Persons who aided in attempting to break up or prevent any elec- 
tion from being held anywhere in the state were liable to be fined 
from $50 to $500, or imprisonment not more than one year. Of- 
ficers who failed to arrest such offenders might be punished by 
fine and imprisonment. Persons ofifering to vote, who should 
make false statements under oath, should be deemed to be guilty 
of perjury, and suffer the penalties for that offense. Previous to 
the election. Gov. Robinson issued a proclamation stating the 
law relative to elections, and the oath that a voter might be re- 
quired to take. It was called the "oath of loyalty," and, as ad- 
ministered in the city of Louisville, was as follows : 

'T, of county of 

state of do solemnly swear that I will bear true 

allegiance to the United States, and support and sustain the con- 
stitution and laws made in pursuance thereof as the supreme law 
of the land, anything in any state constitution or laws to the con- 
trary notwithstanding, and that I will not take up arms against 
the United States, nor give aid and comfort, by word or deed. 



312 The Union Army 

to the enemies thereof, or to those now in rebellion against the 
United States ; and that I disclaim all fellowship with the so- 
called Confederate States and Confederate armies ; and that I 
will faithfully keep and observe this my solenm oath of allegiance 
to the government of the United States of America, vvitli a fidl 
understanding that death or other punishment by the judgment 
of a military commission will be the penalty of its violation." 

Gen. Burnside, who was in command of the Department of the 
Ohio, which included the central and eastern part of the state, 
issued a proclamation previous to the election ; in the western part 
of the state and in Henderson county other military orders were 
also issued; and on July i6 Col. Johnston published an order at 
Smithland, directing the judges and clerks of the election in the 
adjacent counties "not to place the name of any person on the 
poll books, to be voted for at the election, who is not a Union 
man, or who is opposed to furnishing men and money for a vigor- 
ous prosecution of the war against the rebellion. Any person 
violating this order will be regarded as an enemy to the United 
States government, and will be arrested and punished accord- 
ingly." The effect of Gen. Burnside's proclamation on the result 
of the election was thus reported by the press : 

The "Cincinnati Commercial" said : "Tt had no more effect 
upon the election than would have been produced by a small boy 
whistling 'Yankee Doodle' at the state capitol, at 6 o'clock in the 
morning. It was unwise to issue such a proclamation, as the only 
effect it has produced is in giving a color of plausibility to the 
pretense made by the Wickliffe party, that they were defeated by 
bayonets. The proclamation didn't influence the election, but it 
has impaired, if not destroyed its moral force." 

The "Louisville Journal" said : "There never was more fair- 
ness, more justice, more freedom in the election, than was prac- 
ticed and accorded by the friends of the Union last Monday." 

In reply to this the "Louisville Democrat" said : "Below we 
continue further correspondence from different sections of the 
state, illustrating the 'fairness,' 'justice.' and 'freedom' of the 
election of Monday, Aug. 3, 1863." 

A memorial addressed to President Lincoln by Judge S. S. 
Nicholas, of Louisville. Ky., makes the following statement: 
"On Aug. I, Col. Mundy, commanding at Louisville, issued his 
proclamation, with generous assurances to the citizens that their 
election should be protected against the interference of raiders, 
of whom no man had the slightest fear, but giving no promise 
against his own soldiers, as to whom at least one-half of the 
voters stood in the greatest apprehension. On the contrary, he 
said there v;ould be a military guard at each voting place, accom- 
panied by detectives, who knew 'the record of each resident in 



Military Affairs in Kentucky 313 

the several precincts, to point out to the guard any who shall 
attempt to perpetrate a fraud against the election law ;' and that 
'all who shall present themselves at the polls, and fraudulently 
attempt to vote, will he immediately arrested by the guard, and 
confined in the military prison.' Accordingly, on the day of elec- 
tion, there were lo soldiers with muskets at each voting place, 
who with crossed bayonets stood in the doors, preventing all 
access of voters to the polls but by their permission, and who ar- 
rested and carried to the military prison all that they were told 
to arrest. But there were not very many arrested ; it is said 
not more than 30 or 40, all of whom, with a few exceptions, were 
released the next day, it becoming early apparent that there was 
no need for undue intimidation to secure the success of the Bram- 
lette ticket. Out of some 8,000 voters in the city, less than 5,000 
votes were taken. How many of the missing 3,000 were deterred 
from attempting to vote cannot be ascertained, nor is it neces- 
sary, for the intimidation of 3,000 voters is no greater outrage 
than the intimidation of only 500. The interpretation generally 
put by the opposition party upon the order of Col. Mundy was, 
that no man was to have the privilege of having his right of vot- 
ing tested by the judges if pointed out to the guard, as proper to 
be arrested by any one of the colonel's detectives. He not hav- 
ing the semblance of legal or rightful power to interfere with the 
election, the most sinister suspicions were naturally aroused, and 
very many deterred from going to the polls, for fear they should 
be victimized to personal or party malice. Indeed it is rather 
matter of surprise that so large a number of the opposition party 
did go to the polls. Similar intimidation was not only practised 
in other parts of the state, but, from published proof and reliable 
information, there is no doubt that in very many counties the 
judges were so dastardly infamous as to submit to the military 
order and not permit the Wickliffe ticket to be voted for. The 
result is that there was not only direct military interference with 
the election, but it was conducted in most of the state under the 
intimidation of Federal bayonets." 

The vote for governor was: Bramlette, 68,306; Wickliffe, 17,- 
389; the total vote being 85,695, while in i860 it was 146,216. 
All of the nine Congressmen elected were candidates of the Union 
Democratic party, and of the legislature, the senate consisted of 
38 members, entirely Union ; the house, 100 members, of which 
5 or 6 were on the Democratic ticket. The governor elect was 
inaugurated on Sept. 2. In his address, he thus stated the pub- 
lic sentiment of the state, as he regarded it to be expressed by 
the election : 

"The recent elections clearly and unmistakably define the pop- 
ular will and public judgment of Kentucky. It is settled that 



314 The Union Army 

Kentucky will, with unwavering faith, and unswerving purpose, 
stand by and support the government in every effort to suppress 
th'" rebellion and maintain the Union. That for this purpose she 
will 'devote the whole resources of our government to crush the 
present causeless and wicked rebellion, and restore the national 
authority over the revolted states.' Ikit whilst so devoting our 
whole resources to uphold and maintain the government against 
rebellion, the same devotion to constitutional liberty will equally 
impel her to oppose her will to all unconstitutional, all wicked, 
unwise or hurtful measures of policy, which may be suggested 
or adopted in the prosecution of our defensive war. This she 
will do through the peaceful medium of the ballot-box, by the 
persuasions of argument, and the legitimate force of our consti- 
tutional tribunals. We will make no factious opposition ; will 
adopt no mode of opposition which can in any manner check or 
retard those charged with the administration of the government 
in any legitimate effort to suppress the rebellion and restore the 
national authority over the revolted states. Kentucky will not 
afifiliate with those at home, or in other states, whose manifest 
object is, under pretense of opposition to war measures, to cover 
their real purpose of crippling the energies of our government, 
paralyzing its arm of just defense, and forwarding the aims of the 
rebellion. The recent vote of Kentucky proclaims that she will 
not fraternize with rebellion, either open or covert; and with 
equal emphasis that she will not fraternize with those who would 
pervert our just defense into a fanatical war upon the constitu- 
tional rights and liberties of the people of the southern states. 
But firmly and immovably poised upon her own just, loyal and 
proud constitutional center, Kentucky will maintain the right, 
and support the constitution of the Union by all the powers and 
modes sanctioned by the wisdom of a humane experience and a 
just and legal warfare. 'Men and money' to crush the rebellion ; 
votes and argument to correct legislative or executive policy, 
when erroneous. This is the proclaimed and deliberate will of 
Kentucky. This is her right and duty. She will maintain her 
right, and do her duty. 

"We aflfiliate with the loyal men north and south, whose ob- 
ject and policy is to preserve the Union and the constitution, un- 
changed and unbroken, and to restore the people to harmony 
and peace with the government as they were before the rebellion. 
It is not a restored Union — not a reconstructed Union — that 
Kentucky desires ; but a preserved Union, and a restored peace 
upon a constitutional basis." 

At the session of the legislature, which commenced at the be- 
ginning of the ensuing year, the governor recommended that the 
penal code of the state be so amended as to provide proper pre- 



Military Affairs in Kentucky 315 

ventive as well as punitive remedies for every form of treasonable 
action, whether it consisted in acts or words, which tended to 
promote or encourage rebellion. He also recommended that the 
laws be so amended as to give to any loyal man who suffered in 
person or property from invasions or raids, a right of action 
against any or all persons who, after the passage of such act, 
might aid, encourage, or promote rebellion, either by acts or 
words of encouragement, or by approval, or by manifesting an 
exultant and joyous sympathy upon the success of such raids. 

In the execution of the act of Congress for the enrollment and 
draft, the free negroes of Kentucky were not enrolled. The num- 
ber of able-bodied men of that class was estimated between 300 
and 500. A strong protest was made by the people to the en- 
rollment of those persons, and no return of them was made. 

The manifest purpose of the Federal government to bring the 
able-bodied negroes of Kentucky into the army, produced much 
excitement in the state early in 1864. On Dec. 10, 1863, the gov- 
ernor was notified by Capt. Edward Cahill, that he had been 
ordered to Kentucky to recruit free colored men for the army, 
and the assent of the governor to the necessary proceedings was 
requested. In a letter to Gen. Boyle on the subject, dated Jan. 
13. the governor said: "No such recruiting will be tolerated 
here. Summary justice will be inflicted upon any who attempts 
such unlawful purpose." But on Feb. 24 Congress passed an 
act directing that all able-bodied male colored persons between 
20 and 45, resident in the United States, should be enrolled and 
form a part of the national forces. Under this act the enroll- 
ment of colored men was commenced in the state, and on March 
22 the governor proceeded to Washington, the object of his mis- 
sion being to have the law modified, if possible, so far as it ef- 
fected the enrollment in Kentucky. He was quite successful in 
the object of his visit, and an agreement was entered into that 
allayed somewhat the intensity of the feeling among the people of 
Kentucky in regard to the enlistment of negro troops. 

The state continued its attitude of unswerving loyalty to the 
Union until peace had been restored. The closing year of the 
war was fraught with much suffering and privation on the part 
of the people of the state. Hostilities had degenerated into a 
■guerrilla warfare of direful intensity, destructive of both life 
and property, but through it all the gallant "Corncracker State" 
maintained consistently the position she had assumed from the 
first. No state in the Union has a record that equals hers in the 
matter of consistent loyalty to expressed ideals. Firm in her 
devotion to the Union she cheerfully furnished men and money 
to assist in preserving the same ; and to what she considered the 
unconstitutional acts of the administration she gave an emphatic 



316 The Union Army 

condemnation by an overwhelming majority at the ballot-box. 
The muster-rolls of the adjutant-generars office make the num- 
ber of men furnished by the state to the Federal armies to be 
63,975 white soldiers on an enrollment of 113,410. The rolls in 
the same office further show that 20,438 colored troops were mus- 
tered into the Federal service from the state. In addition, about 
5,000 were enlisted preparatory to being mustered in, making the 
aggregate of colored troops 25,438. Thus, with a white and 
black male population of 133,742 between 18 and 45 years of age, 
the state contributed to the Federal armies 89,413. Apart from 
this force, there were employed in the service of the state for 
various periods 13,526 militia, or state troops. During the prog- 
ress of the war, Kentucky expended in aid of the Federal govern- 
ment $3,268,224. Of this sum there had been refunded to the 
state by the close of 1865, the amount of $1,109,230, leaving a 
balance in favor of the state of $2,159,994. From this amount 
there was later deducted the sum of $713,695, being the state's 
proportion of the direct tax laid by act of Congress in 1861, 
thus making the final balance against the United States $1,553,- 
353. In addition to that sum, the state expended nearly $1,000,- 
000 in maintaining home troops for local and state defense. Could 
any showing be more potent than the above in illustrating the 
devotion of the state to the Federal Union and her earnest de- 
sire for the preservation of its integrity? 

Always maintaining that loyalty to the government was one 
thing, and that approval of the acts of an administration was dis- 
tinctly another, the people of the state registered their verdict 
upon the latter question at the presidential election of 1864, when 
they gave McClellan a vote of 64,301, and Lincoln 27,786, a ma- 
jority for McClellan of 36,515. 



RECORD OF KENTUCKY REGIMENTS 



First Infantry. — Cols., James V. Guthrie, David A. Enyart; Lieut. - 
Cols., Bart G. Leiper, Frank P. Cahill, Alva R. Hadlock; Maj., James 
W. Mitchell. This regiment was organized at Camp Clay, Pendleton, 
Ohio, in June, 1861, under Col. James V. Guthrie, and was mustered 
into the U. S. service on June 4, to serve three years, being composed 
almost entirely of Ohio men. After organization it was ordered to the 
department of West Virginia, where it performed much valuable serv- 
ice in the early engagements of the war. Col. Guthrie resigned Dec. 
21, i86i. Col. David A. Enyart was commissioned in his stead and com- 
manded the regiment until mustered out of service. In Jan., 1862, the 
regiment was ordered to the Department of the Cuinberland, took an 
active part in the advance on Nashville, Tenn., and participated in nu- 
merous battles in which loss was sustained. Co. E was detached as 
artillery in Jan., 1862, designated ist Kentucky independent, or Sim- 
monds* battery and also as the 23d independent battery, Ohio light 
artillery. The regiment was mustered out at Covington, Ky., by reason 
of expiration of term of service June 18, 1864. The men of this regi- 
ment who lost their lives in defense of the nation were 97 in number, 
42 of whom were killed in battle, 15 died of wounds and 40 of disease. 
The official list of battles in which it bore an honorable part is as follows : 
Boone Court House, Chapmansville, Gauley bridge. Red House, W. Va. ; 
Shiloh, Tenn.; Corinth, Miss.; Stone's river, Tenn.; Graysville and Chick- 
amauga, Ga. 

Second Infantry. — Cols., William E. Woodruff, Thomas D. Sedge- 
wick; Lieut. -Cols., George W. Neff, Warner Spencer, John R. Hurd; 
Majs., Oliver L. Baldwin, Fernando Cook. This regiment was organ- 
ized at Camp Clay, Pendleton, Ohio, under Col. Woodruff, and was 
mustered into the U. S. States service on June 13, 1861. The regiment 
which was composed almost entirely of Ohio men, left Cincinnati in 
July for Guyandotte, Va., marched to Barboursville and drove the Con- 
federates commanded by Jenkins from the bluff; marched to Camp Poco, 
near Scary creek, at which place Col. Woodruff, Lieut. -Col. Neff and 
Capts. Hurd and Austin were captured by the enemy; was engaged with 
Floyd at Gauley bridge, and from there went into winter quarters at 
Charleston, Jan. 25, 1862. It was ordered to Bardstown, Ky., arriving 
at that place Feb. 5, marched to Pittsburg landing, arriving there on 
the evening of April 6; participated in the siege of Corinth, Miss., after 
which it was quartered at Athens, Ala., moved thence to Murfreesboro, 
Tenn., to guard the railroad between that point and Nashville, and 
while detailed on that duty, Cos. E and G were captured by Forrest's 
cavalry in July, 1862. In September the regiment participated in the 
Bragg and Buell campaign through Kentucky. From Murfreesboro it 
moved to Chattanooga and took part in the battle of Chickamauga. 
On May 17, 1864, it left Ottawa Station, Tenn., 15 miles from Chatta- 
nooga, for Kingston, Ga., thence to Resaca, where it remained doing 
garrison duty until June 3, when it was ordered to Covington, Ky., to 
be mustered out. The following list of battles in which the regiment 
participated has been compiled during the preparation of this work: 

317 



318 The Union Army 

Barboursville, W. Va. ; Scary creek, Va. ; Gauley bridge, W. Va. ; Shiloh 
Tenn. ; Bridge creek. Miss.; Nashville, Tenn., Corinth, Miss.; Stone's 
river, Cripple creek, Tenn. ; Chickamauga, Ga. It was mustered out 
June 19, 1864. Loss during service 124, of whom 48 were killed in bat- 
tle, 27 died of wounds and 49 of disease. 

Third Infantry. — Cols., Thomas E. Bramlette, William T. Scott, 
Samuel McKee, William H. Spencer, Henry C. Dunlap; Lieut. -Cols., 
Daniel R. Collier, William A. BulUtt; Majs., Charles H. Buford, John 
Brennan. This was one of the regiments organized at Camp Dick Rob- 
inson in the summer of 1861. Government muskets having been brought 
to Lexington, and there being danger that the secessionists would seize 
them, a portion of the regiment moved to that place, with a detachment 
of the ist Ky. cavalry, in Aug., 1861. The regiment marched again 
to Lexington, Sept. 18, and on Oct. i returned to Camp Dick Robinson, 
where it was mustered into service Oct. 8. On March 18, 1862, it pro- 
ceeded by steamer to Nashville. It was then 900 strong. It was en- 
gaged in the movement upon Corinth, and when that place was evacu- 
ated, it marched by way of luka. Miss., to Tuscumbia, Ala.; thence by 
way of Courtland, Decatur, Mooresville and Huntsville, Ala., Fayette- 
ville, Shelby ville and Winchester, Tenn., to Decherd, where it arrived 
July 22. The movement of Bragg into Kentucky commenced soon 
thereafter and the regiment marched with Buell's forces through Galla- 
tin and Franklin to Bowling Green. It remained in Kentucky until 
Oct. 30, when it marched by way of Edmonton, and Scottsville, Ky., 
and Gallatin, Tenn., to Silver springs, where it arrived Nov. 10. On 
Dec. 27 it had an engagement with the enemy, at Stewart's creek near 
Lavergne, a report of which was made by Col. McKee, commanding 
the regiment. In the battle of Stone's river the regiment bore its part 
in the most heroic manner and lost 12 killed and 77 wounded. Col. 
Dunlap, in his report of the battle of Chickamauga and the movements 
immediately preceding, mentions the crossing of the Tennessee river 
at Shellmound, and that as Chattanooga was approached, Lieut. -Col. 
Bullitt and Maj. Brennan led the skirmish lines, occupied Chattanooga 
Sept. 9, marched next day toward Ringgold, speaks of bold skirmish- 
ing on the nth at Rossville, led by the "gallant Bullitt." On the 12th, 
Bullitt, with a detachment, made a reconnoissance across the Chicka- 
mauga; engaged in the battle on the 19th, losing heavily in killed and 
wounded, but captured 118 prisoners; slept on arms that night; fought 
again on the 20th, the losses being 1 officer killed, 8 wounded, 12 men 
killed, 70 wounded. Col. Harker, in his report of the charge on Mis- 
sionary ridge, describes the great charge in which the regiment partici- 
pated, especially complimenting Lieut. -Col. Bullitt. Col. Dunlap, in 
his report, says: "My loss was 4 enlisted men killed, 7 officers wounded, 
54 enlisted men wounded." At the beginning of the Atlanta cam- 
paign the regiment moved with Harker's brigade, by way of Blue springs, 
Red Clay and Catoosa springs to Rocky Face ridge and engaged in the 
battle there. Throughout the campaign the regiment continued fight- 
ing all the way to Atlanta, being engaged at Resaca, Pumpkin Vine 
creek, Cedar mountain. Muddy branch, Kennesaw mountain, Nancy's 
creek, Peachtree creek, Atlanta, Utoy creek, Jonesboro, and other places. 
On Sept. 9 the regiment started by rail for Nashville, where it arrived 
on the 1 2th. It remained there on duty until Oct. 6, when it proceeded 
by rail to Louisville, where it was mustered out Oct. 18, 1864. A por- 
tion of the regiment had reenlisted as veterans in March, 1864, and re- 
mained with the regiment until Sept. 15, 1864, when the survivors were 
transferred to the ist Ky. battery at Nashville. 

Fourth Infantry. — Cols., Speed S. Fry, John T. Croxton, Robert M. 
Kelly; Lieut. -Cols., P. Burgess Hunt, Josephus H. Tompkins; Maj., 



Kentucky Regiments 319» 

Joshua W. Jacobs. This regiment was one of the three which Presi- 
dent Lincoln authorized Lieut. William Nelson of the navy, a native 
of Mason county, Ky., to raise in Kentucky in the early summer of 1861. 
The day after the August election. Col. Fry with a detachment from 
Danville, the nucleus of what became Co. A, opened Camp Dick Rob- 
inson. The next day organized companies and parts of companies 
for the 4th and three other regiments began to pour in and within a 
few weeks enough men to fill the four regiments had assembled. The 
first active service performed by any portion of the regiment was when 
a detachment of several companies, with a similar detachment from 
the 3d, was sent to Nicholasville to escort a wagon train loaded with 
muskets and ammunition from Nicholasville to the camp. In the lat- 
ter part of October the regiment moved to Crab Orchard and became 
a part of the 2nd brigade, ist division, Army of the Ohio. Its first 
participation in actual hostiHties was at the battle of Mill Springs, Ky., 
in which action the regiment lost i officer (Lieut. J. M. Hall, Co. B,) 
and 8 men killed and 52 wounded, which was a pretty heavy percentage 
in a regiment depleted by sickness and detachments to less than 400 
for duty. From Mill Springs the regiment marched by Coffey's mill, 
Danville, Lebanon and Bardstown to Louisville and there embarked 
on boats for Nashville, where it arrived March 4, 1862. It took part 
in the advance on Corinth, frequently skirmishing and sometimes sus- 
taining loss. After the evacuation of Corinth it pursued the enemy 
as far as Booneville, Miss., and then returning to Corinth marched via 
luka to Tuscumbia. After a stay of some weeks at the latter place, 
it moved with the command on July 24, via Florence, Lawrenceburg, 
Pulaski, Fayetteville, Lynchburg and Winchester to Decherd. Leav- 
ing the latter place for "Nashville, it marched from there with Buell's ■ 
army to Louisville. After the battle of Perryville, where the regiment 
was present though not engaged, it moved with the command via Dan- 
ville to Crab Orchard, thence via Greensburg and Glasgow to Gallatin, 
Tenn., thence to Castalian Springs, half way between Gallatin and Harts- 
ville, and from there to Elizabethtown. It was joined at Munfordville 
by the 12th Ky. cavalry and 13th Ky. infantry and had a fight with 
Morgan's rear at Rolling fork; moved thence to Lebanon Junction and 
thence to Nashville. The regiment took part in the Tullahoma cam- 
paign and was in action at Hoover's gap. Concord church and near Tul- 
lahoma, but with slight loss. It went into action at the battle of Chick- 
amauga with 19 officers and 360 men and lost 13 officers wounded, and 
160 enlisted men killed and wounded. It took part in the action of 
Missionary ridge, ascending the hill on the extreme left of the Army of 
the Cumberland, but lost only 12 in killed and wounded. Early in Jan., 
1864, the regiment refinlisted, and on the 19th returned to Kentucky 
on veteran furlough. Having received orders to be motmted, the regi- 
ment on May 16 again marched to the front, with 25 officers and about 
550 well mounted men, armed, except Cos. A and K, which had Spencer 
carbines, with the Ballard breech loading rifle, which proved a failure 
in the first engagement. The regiment marched by way of Nashville 
to Chattanooga, arriving early in June, and leaving Chattanooga it 
camped about 10 miles from Lafayette, Ga. It participated in the 
fight at the latter place, losing only a few men wounded. The regi- 
ment was detained in Villanow valley and at Snake Creek gap for some 
weeks to protect the railroad, and had several slight skirmishes with 
raiding parties. It then joined the army advancing on Atlanta and had 
a sharp skirmish, with slight loss, at Mason's Church. It was attached 
to the ist brigade, ist cavalry division, and Col. Croxton was assigned 
to command the brigade consisting of the ist East Tenn., 8th la. and 
4th Ky. mounted infantry. Gen. Ed. McCook commanding the divi- 



330 The Union Army 

sion. The regiment suffered severely near Lovejoy's Station, where, 
after marching all night, at daylight, while holding the rear, it was at- 
tacked by overwhelming forces and Lieut. -Col. Kelly and nearly half 
the regiment were captured. The remainder broke through and caught 
up with the rest of the brigade near Newnan, where another sharp 
action occurred and the command was driven. After reaching camp 
Croxton with his brigade was ordered to Tennessee, where the regiment 
participated in the campaign against Forrest, having a sharp skirmish 
with loss, at Pulaski, being then commanded by Maj. Tompkins. When 
Hood crossed the Tennessee, it was in a sharp fight at Shoal creek, where 
it held a position enabling the command and artillery to fall back safely. 
The regiment moved with the cavalry in the battle before Nashville, 
took part in the pursuit of Hood and went into winter quarters at Water- 
loo, Ala. In the spring of 1865 the regiment captured the ferry over 
the Coosa river, had a skirmish in approaching Tallapoosa, Ala., and 
helped in the capture of the conscript camp at Blue mountain, one of 
the last fights of the war. It removed to Macon, Ga., and after some 
inarching in pursuit of the fugitive president of the Confederacy, re- 
mained in camp at that place till Aug. 17, when it was mustered out 
and ordered to Louisville for final discharge. 

Fifth Infantry. — Cols., Lovell H. Rousseau, Harvey M. Buckley, 
William W. Berry; Lieut. -Col., John L. Treanor; Maj., Charles L. Thom- 
asson. On July i, 1861, six companies of men, organized in Louisville 
as the "Louisville Legion," crossed the river and went into camp on 
the Indiana side, the camp being named Camp Jo Holt. It was under 
the leadership of Lovell H. Rousseau that this movement was made 
and he became the colonel of the regiment formed of these and other 
companies. On Sept. 9 the regiment was mustered into the U. S. serv- 
ice; on the 17th Rousseau led his men from Camp Holt, and proceeded 
under the command of Col. W. T. Sherman to Muldraugh's hill. The 
regiment remained for some time on duty along the railroad to Bowling 
Green and Nashville. It arrived at Pittsburg landing in time to take 
part in the second day's battle at that place. From Shiloh the regi- 
ment went to Corinth and thence with Buell's army to Huntsville, Ala. 
In the summer of 1862 it marched to Kentucky with Buell and on the 
way from Louisville to Perryville was engaged with the enemy at a place 
called Dog Walk near Lawrenceburg. After the battle at Perryville, 
in which although present it was not engaged, it went in pvirsuit of Bragg 
as far as Crab Orchard, thence to Bowling Green and Nashville, and camped 
on the road to Franklin. In the battle of Murfreesboro the regiment 
bore its part and lost a number of nien in killed and wounded. The 
regiment also took part in all the movements about Chattanooga, and 
was in the battle of Chickamauga, under Gen. Thomas, whose troops 
stood so bravely against superior numbers. The regiment was engaged 
at Orchard knob, where, among other casualties. Col. Berry was wound- 
ed, but refused to retire. In the great engagement at Missionary ridge 
Col. Berry was again wounded and rendered unable to walk. In that 
battle the regiment lost 47 killed and wounded. It engaged in the 
operations against Longstreet in East Tennessee during the winter, 
being about Knoxville, New Market, Strawberry plains, and Lenoir's 
station. While in East Tennessee a portion of the regiment went into 
the veteran organization and were transferred to the 2nd Ky. veteran 
cavalry. The 5th participated in much of the fighting in the Atlanta 
campaign, first at Rocky Face ridge. At Resaca, it lost a number in 
killed and wounded, among the killed being Capt. Ed. Miller of Co. 
G. Loss was also sustained at Pumpkin Vine creek, Dallas, Kenne- 
saw mountain, Chattahoochee river, Peachtree creek and other battles 



Kentucky Regiments 321 

around Atlanta. From Atlanta it returned to Nashville in Aug., 1864. 
The time of the regiment expired in September and it was mustered 
out at Louisville Sept. 14, 1864. A portion of the regiment entered 
the veteran organization — between 80 and 100 men. These proceeded 
under charge of Capt. John Baker from Louisville to Nashville and re- 
ported to Gen. Thomas for duty. They participated in the battle of 
Nashville and after that went on the pursuit of Hood's army as far as 
Athens, Ala. From Athens they returned to Nashville; were then 
taken by way of Louisville, Pittsburg and Philadelphia to New York; 
thence by ocean transport to Hilton Head, S. C, and from there pro- 
ceeded to Raleigh, N. C, where they joined Sherman's forces. After 
the surrender they returned to Louisville, where they were mustered 
out July 25, 1865. 

Sixth Infantry. — Cols., Walter C. Whitaker, George T. Shackelford; 
Lieut. -Cols., George T. Gotten, Richard C. Daw kins, Richard Rocking- 
ham; Majs., William N. Hailman, Alfred Martin, Richard T. Whitaker. 
This regiment was composed of three dififerent organizations, each of 
which had originally been intended to be a regiment. Two companies 
had organized at Camp Holt, under Maj. John R. Pirtle, in July, i86i, 
and accompanied the troops which went from that camp to Muldraugh's 
hill, in September. In the latter month Col. Walter C. Whitaker was 
commissioned to raise a regiment at Eminence, Ky., and about the 
same time William Elwang was authorized to raise a regiment at Louis- 
ville. The men recruited by Whitaker were brought by him to Louis- 
ville, where they united with those recruited by Elwang and went into 
Camp Sigel, on the Preston street road near the city. The two com- 
panies above mentioned were ordered to that camp from Muldraugh's 
hill, and the three contingents thus provided united in forming the 6th 
Ky. infantry. In December it was brigaded with the 41st Ohio, 9th 
Ind. and ist Ohio battery, under Col. William B. Hazen of the 41st 
Ohio. In Feb., 1862, the division to which the regiment belonged was 
ordered to the mouth of Salt river, whence it proceeded by transport 
to^^Paducah and up the Cumberland to Nashville. From that place 
it ^accompanied Buell's army to Pittsburg landing and was heavily en- 
gaged in the second day's battle of Shiloh, being employed during the 
whole day, skirmishing, resisting and making charges, supporting bat- 
teries and making reconnoissances. The service it performed is shown 
by its losses, 26 killed on the field, and 91 wounded, 19 of the latter 
dying, making a loss of 45 killed. From Shiloh the regiment proceeded 
to Corinth, thence to Athens, Ala., and in the summer and fall of 1862 
accompanied Buell in the march to Louisville. After the battle of 
Perryville it marched as far as Columbia, Ky., then to Nashville and 
Murfreesboro, and in the battle of Stone's river its total loss on Dec. 
31 was in killed and wounded 107. On Jan. 2 the regiment was again 
engaged, resisting an attack successfully and losing several killed and 
wounded. During the spring of 1863 the regiment was with the ex- 
treme left of Rosecrans' army and was twice engaged with the enemy — 
at Readyville and Woodbury, Tenn. In the Chattanooga campaign, 
preceding the battle of Chickamauga, the only engagement the regi- 
ment had was the result of a reconnoissance to Eigho ferry. The part 
it bore in the battle of Chickamauga was first as reserve, but soon it was 
taken into the heaviest fighting and its loss in the battle was very heavy. 
Volunteers from the regiment manned the fleet which made the sur- 
prise at Brown's ferry and captured the pickets. The regiment was 
in the charge at Orchard knob, in the great battle of Missionary ridge, 
and participated in the capture of the two oft-mentioned guns, "Lady 
Buckner" and "Lady Breckenridge." With its accustomed gallantry 
and devotion to duty it participated in the various battles of the At- 
Vol. IV— 21 



322 The Union Army 

lanta campaign, including Dalton, Buzzard Roost, Resaca, Rocky^Face 
ridge, Dallas, Kennesaw mountain, Peachtree creek, and other battles 
around Atlanta. The severe service of the regiment had reduced its 
strength, and the remaining members returned to Tennessee and gar- 
risoned the railroad near Cowan's station until Nov. 2, 1864, when it 
was taken to Nashville, where it was mustered out. A small nuniber 
of the regiment reenlisted and were transferred to the 4th Ky. n^'ounted 
infantry. Of nearly 1,000 men who left Louisville in Dec, 1861, only 
130 returned; of the 38 commissioned officers only 10 returned, and of 
these only 6 escaped wounds. 

Seventh Infantry. — Cols., Theophilus T. Garrard, Reuben May, 
George W. Monroe; Lieut. -Cols., Joel W. Ridgell, John Lucas, T. J. 
Daniel; Majs., Isaac H. Cardwell, Hugh W. Adams, Elisha B. Treadway. 
This regiment was one of the first recruited in the state. It was organ- 
ized at Camp Dick Robinson by Col. Garrard and mustered in the U. 
S. service by Gen. George H. Thomas, Sept. 22, 1861. The engagement 
at Wild Cat was the first battle in which the regiment engaged, and in 
the spring of 1862 it participated in the expedition which resulted in 
the capture of Cumberland gap. It was in the celebrated retreat across 
Kentucky, and upon arriving at the Ohio river crossed to the Ohio side 
at Oak Hill. It was then ordered to Gen. J. D. Cox in the Kanawha 
Valley and after remaining there a short time was ordered south to join the 
forces under Gen. Sherman, then advancing upon Vicksburg. In the 
late fall of 1862 it proceeded by river transport byway of Memphis to 
its destination and participated in the celebrated assault at Chickasaw 
bluffs, which was a failure and great loss was incurred. It remained 
with the forces under Gen. Sherman, and when Grant took charge of 
the Vicksburg expedition participated in all the movements, labors 
and service incident thereto — moving down the river beloM' the city, 
crossing to the east side, marching out to Jackson, Miss., then turning 
and fighting the various battles preceding the siege, and was in the 
siege until the surrender. In Dec, 1863, the regiment reenlisted, and 
in the veteran organization, received the veterans of the 19th and 22nd 
Ky. infantry. It remained on duty in the Department of the Gulf, 
and in May, 1864, was ordered to join the Red River expedition under 
command of Gen. Banks, in which campaign it suffered severely in killed, 
wounded and prisoners. It then remained at Baton Roxige doing gar- 
rison duty until May i, 1865, when it was ordered to Clinton, East Fe- 
liciana parish. La. It remained at Clinton until ordered to Baton Rouge, 
where it was mustered out on May 11, 1866, and embarked for Louis- 
ville, Ky., at which place it received final payment and discharge. 

Eighth Infantry. — Col., Sidney M. Barnes; Lieut. -Cols., Revil)en 
May, James D. Mayhew; Majs., Green B. Broaddus, John S. Clark. 
This regiment was organized in Estill county in the fall of 1861 under 
Col. Sidney M. Barnes, the men coming from Estill and adjoining coitn- 
ties. It engaged in the defense of eastern Kentucky some time before 
it was regularly mustered into the U. S. ser\ace. On Nov. 28, 1861, 
Gen. Thomas, commanding in that section of the state, ordered it to 
move from Irvine, the county seat of Estill county, to Lebanon. It 
was mustered into service Jan. 15, 1862, by Capt. C. C. Gilbert of the 
regular army and was at once attached to the i6th brigade. In April 
and May, 1862, the regiment, with other troops, was at Wartrace and 
Murfreesboro, Tenn., in Dumont's division, 23d brigade, Col. Duffield. 
It moved with Buell to Kentucky and on Oct. 19 was at Crab Orchard. 
On Dec. 9, with Matthews' brigade, it was engaged with the enemy 
near La Vergne, Tenn., with severe loss, a number of the regiment being 
killed or wounded. In the battle of Stone's river, or Murfreesboro, it 
was under command of Lieut. -Col. May, and the brigade was command- 



Kentucky Regiments 823 

ed by Col. S. W. Price of the 21st Ky. infantry. In Sept., 1863, it par- 
ticipated in the movements preceding and leading up to the great battle 
of Chickamauga, and most gallantly bore itself through that engage- 
ment, the 2ist army corps being at that time under command of Gen. 
Thomas L. Crittenden. The loss of the regiment in the battle of Chick- 
amauga was 79 in killed, wounded and prisoners, losing its gallant leader, 
Col. Mayhew. In that extraordinary assault, called "the battle above 
the clouds," the regiment, under its gallant colonel, Sidney M. Barnes, 
in Whitaker's brigade, led the way and planted its colors first on the 
top of the mountain. During the spring of 1864 it participated in the 
earlier movements of the Atlanta campaign, but was held at Chatta- 
nooga and vicinity doing guard duty. On Dec. 28, 1864, it was sent 
to Bridgeport, Ala., and in Jan., 1865, its term of enlistment having 
expired it was mustered out at Chattanooga, the veterans and recruits 
being transferred to the 4th Ky. infantry. 

Ninth Infantry. — Cols., Benjamin C. Grider, George H. Cram; Lieut. - 
Cols., Allen J. Roark, John H. Grider, Chesley D. Bailey; Majs., William 
J. Henson, William Starling. This regiment was recruited and organ- 
ized by Col. Grider in parts of the state contiguous to Columbia. It 
was mustered in Nov. 26, 1861, at Columbia, by Maj. W. H. Sidell. In 
Feb., 1862, it marched to Nashville, thence with Buell's army to Pitts- 
burg landing and participated in the second day's fighting at Shiloh. 
Col. Grider, in his report, says that 4 of his captains were wounded, 2 
dangerously; 3 lieutenants killed and 3 wounded, 14 men killed, 67 
wounded. After the battle of Shiloh Gen. Boyle was ordered to Ken- 
tucky and Col. Samuel Beatty of the 19th Ohio took command of the 
brigade, the regiment moving with the army to Corinth. On May 21 
while on outpost duty, it was in a fight that lasted the entire day. It 
was also engaged May 28 and 29. After the evacuation of Corinth the 
regiment marched to Rienzi and luka, Miss., thence to Tuscumbia, 
Florence, Athens, Huntsville and Stevenson, Ala. It was then sent to 
Battle creek, Tenn. Having spent the summer at those places it joined 
in the march of Buell's army to Kentucky, passing through Manchester, 
Murfreesboro, and Nashville, Tenn., Bowling Green, Elizabethtown, 
Louisville, Mt. Washington and Bardstown, Ky. After the battle of 
Perryville it marched through Somerset, Columbia and Scottsville, 
Ky., and Gallatin and Nashville to Murfreesboro, Tenn. In the battle 
of Stone's river the regiment was in Beatty's brigade, Van Cleve's di- 
vision. The loss on Dec. 31 was great and the courage and coolness 
of the men were put to a severe test, but well did they meet the trying 
emergency. The losses of the regiment at this battle show how des- 
perately it was engaged. Officers killed, i; wounded, 7; men killed, 
18; wounded, 80. It moved Sept. i, 1863, crossed the river at Battle 
creek ; was at Shellmound Sept. 5 ; from the 6th to the 9th about the 
base of Lookout mountain ; reached Gordon's mills S