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Full text of "The Union army; a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers"



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THE 



UNION ARMY 



A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal 
States 1861-65 — Records of the Regi- 
ments in the Union Army — Cyclo- 
pedia of Battles — Memoirs 
OF Commanders and 
Soldiers 



VOLUME V 
Cyclopedia of Battles — A to Helena 



MADISON, WIS. 
Federal Publishing Company 

1908 



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Copyright, 1908 

BY 

Federal Publishing Company 



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CONTENTS 



VOLUME I 



Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Con- 
necticut, Pennsylvania and Delaware. 

VOLUME II 

Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of New York, 
Maryland, West Virginia and Ohio. 

VOLUME III 

Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of New Jersey, 
Indiana, Illinois and Michigan. 

VOLUME IV 

Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
California, Oregon, The Territories and 
District of Columbia. 

VOLUME V 

Cyclopedia of Battles — A to Helena. 

VOLUME VI 

Cyclopedia of Battles — Helena Road to Z. 

VOLUME VII 

The Navy. 

VOLUME VIII 

Biographical. 



CYCLOPEDIA OF BATTLES 



Abbeville, Miss., Aug. 23, 1864. Detachment of the i6th Army Corps. 
A part of the 2nd brigade, ist division, under command of Col. McClure, 
was opposed by a part of the 2nd brigade of Forrest's cavalry, commanded 
by Col. Wade. At noon the Federals encamped near Abbeville, and a 
picket in the rear, on the Oxford road, was attacked by the Confederate 
advance guard, which for some hours had been following the Federal 
column. A line of skirmishers was deployed, supported by the 5th Minn., 
and the skirmishing soon became general, the Confederates having de- 
veloped a considerable force. The Union skirmishers were reinforced by 
four companies of the 5th Minn., the 8th Mo., the 47th 111., and a section of 
the 2nd la. battery. A line of battle was formed, the enemy was charged 
and forced to retreat in confusion. The Union loss was 15 killed; that 
of the enemy 19 killed and 15 wounded. 

Abb's Valley, Va., May 8, 1864. Averell's Cavalry Division. The 
only official mention of a skirmish in Abb's valley on this date is in the 
report of Brig.-Gen. W. W. Averell, in the expedition against the Virginia 
& Tennessee railroad, and is as follows : "The division found its way over 
pathless mountains and up tortuous streams to Abb's valley, in Tazewell 
county, where it arrived on the evening of the 7th, capturing scouts of the 
enemy and one company of the 8th Va. (rebel) cavalry on picket. The 
march was resumed on the 8th, and some Kentucky troops of the enemy 
driven, with a loss to them of 4 killed and 5 wounded, to Tazewell Court 
House, a distance of 15 miles." (It is probable that some of this skirmish- 
ing occurred near Jeffersonville, where the official records of the war 
mention an engagement on the 8th, but of which no detailed report is 
given.) 

Aberdeen, Ala,, Nov. 17-19, 1864. 6th and 9th Illinois and 2nd Iowa 
Cavalry. In the North Alabama and Middle Tennessee campaign, Col. 
Coon of the 2nd la. cavalry, then commanding the 2nd brigade, 5th division, 
cavalry corps. Military Division of the Mississippi, scouted across Shoal 
creek with the brigade, sent the 2nd la. to patrol the Florence and Waynes- 
boro road, and on the i8th, camped at Cowpen Mills. Next day the 
brigade moved across Shoal creek at Cowpen ford to camp on Butler 
creek and at the Butler creek road drove in the Confederate picket. Coon 
sent Capt. Mock, with part of the 9th 111., to patrol the Waynesboro road, 
and left the remainder of that regiment under Capt. Harper to picket the 
road to Florence. The main column turned north to Butler creek. The 
train and artillery escorted by the 6th 111., under Maj. Whitsit, was sent 
down the little Butler valley instructed to cross Shoal creek at all hazards. 
The 2nd la. was attacked in front by superior numbers under the Confed- 
erate Gen. Buford and the 9th 111. was heavily pressed in the rear by a 
Vol. V— 2 17 



18 The Union Army 

force from the south. Mock was warned that unless he could return soon 
his escape would inevitably be cut off. The regiment formed a line in a 
naturally protected place and dismounted, supported by the 2nd la., but 
it was compelled to fall back. The regiments then fell back alternately 
and formed lines for two miles, protecting the train and its escort until 
they were over Shoal creek. Federal troops dismounted to cover the cross- 
ing and a skirmish was kept up while the command descended the bank- 
Mock and his detachment, after a night of marching and fighting, rejoined 
the command on the 19th. No casualties reported. 

Aberdeen, Ark., July 5-6, 1862. Fitch's White River Expedition. At 
8:30 a. m. on the 5th Col. Fitch, commanding the expedition, anchored 
his fleet off Aberdeen, where he bivouacked his men. At 6 -.30 p. m. of the 
same day a guerrilla attack was made, from the woods on the shore, on 
the Lexington, killing i and wounding i. The Federal artillerj' poured a 
fire of grape, shell and canister into the woods and the attack was not 
renewed. The next morning Fitch, with 2,000 men of the 24th, 34th, 43d 
and 46th Ind. infantry, scouted toward Devall's bluff. About 9 a. m. his 
advance, about 200 men of the 24th Ind., routed some 400 Confederate 
cavalry, killing and wounding 84, and after a pursuit of 3 miles returned 
to Aberdeen with 6 prisoners. The Union loss was i killed and 21 wounded. 

Aberdeen, Miss., Feb. 18, 1864. 9th Illinois Cavalry. Incidental to 
Sherman's Meridian expedition, the 9tli 111. cavalry, Col. Burgh command- 
ing, by order of Gen. B. H. Grierson, moved upon Aberdeen. There it 
found and drove back two companies of state militia, killing and wounding 
several and taking 18 prisoners. It destroyed a lo-pounder cannon, about 
3,500 bushels of corn, a saddle-tree factory, 300 saddle-trees and a quantity 
of leather, whisky, beans and other products and commodities. 

Abingdon, Va., Dec. 15, 1864. Stoneman's raid. Starting from Knox- 
ville, Tenn., on Dec. 9, with two mounted brigades under Gens. Bur- 
bridge and Gillem, Gen. Stoneman drove out of East Tennessee the forces 
with which Gen. Breckenridge had made a diversion in favor of Hood. Irr 
following up his advantage he went up the Holston valley to Abingdon, 
Wytheville and Saltville, Va. After the capture of Bristol, Tenn., Bur- 
bridge learned that Gen. Vaughan was at Zollicoffer, 10 miles distant, with 
2,000 men. Asking Stoneman to support him with Gillem's brigade. Bur- 
bridge with 4.000 men marched to attack Vaughan, but the latter eluded 
him in a dense fog and attempted to join Breckenridge at Saltville, going 
via Abingdon where Burbridge headed him off, capturing the town, i 
piece of artillerv-. a locomotive, 12 cars and valuable stores. 

Abraham's Creek, Va., Sept. 13-17, 1864. ist Brigade. 3d Cavalry 
Division. Incidental to Sheridan's Shenandoah campaign, Brig.-Gen. Mc- 
intosh of this brigade, was ordered to make a strong reconnaissance to- 
ward Winchester to determine the enemy's position. Crossing the Opequan 
by the Winchester pike he attacked the enemy's pickets on the other side, 
capturing 2 officers and 37 men. On Abraham's creek, within two miles of 
Winchester, he broke tlirough a line of infantry, parted in force to cover 
the town, captured the entire 8th S. C. infantry and its colors. On the 
17th, he burned a mill on Abraham's creek, on the Winchester pike, and 
Jones mill, near the Opequan. 

Accotink, Va., Oct. 17, 1863. 

Accotink, Va., Jan. 12, 1864. Four of the force of Provost-Marshal, 
Gen. Wells, at Alexandria and some members of the Accotink home-guard 
had an encounter near Accotink with six cavalrymen of Gordon's brigade, 
Hampton's diyision. The Confederates about sunrise had captured 2.- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 19 

citizens and a number of horses near Accotink. Wells' force pursued 
them, retook the citizens and horses, captured 2 Confederate prisoners and 
the horses and equipment of the whole party. 

Accotink, Va., July 15, 1864. The home-guard was attacked by about 
200 of Mosby's men. Loss, i killed on each side. 

Acton, Minn., Sept. 2, 1862. 

Acworth, Ga., June 3, 1864. Cavalry of the 2nd Division, Army of the 
Cumberland. This was a point of some importance to Gen. J. E. Johnston 
so long as he held the line in front of New Hope church. Forced to 
abandon that line by the extension of Geary's and Buttertield's divisions 
along the Acworth road, McCook's cavalry menacing him from the east, he 
removed his troops from Acworth preparatory to a general retreat to new 
positions between Lost mountain and Brush mountain near Kennesaw. 
McCook's and Stoneman's cavalry made prisoners of a few videttes and 
found the place abandoned. 

Acworth, Ga., Oct. 4, 1864. The Federal garrison here was attacked 
about 9 o'clock in the evening by Loring's division, Stewart's corps, Hood's 
army, and after exchange of a few shots capitulated to the overwhelming 
numbers of the Confederates, 250 officers and men surrendering as prison- 
ers of war. That night Stewart tore up the railroad from near Harrison 
Station to beyond Acwortli. 

Adairsville, Ga., May 16-18, 1864. 4th Corps, Army of the Cumber- 
land. Gen. Walker's division of Hardee's (Confederate) corps, consisting 
of the brigades of Gist, Mercer, Jackson and Stevens, had been at Cal- 
houn for several days. On the morning of the i6th, the 4th corps, Army 
of the Cumberland, Maj.-Gen. O. O. Howard commanding, crossed the 
Oostanaula river over a bridge that had been burned, but which members 
of the organization had repaired, and after driving in the Confederate 
skirmishers, encamped near Calhoun. In the afternoon Hardee's skirmish 
line was strengthened and an advance, with a view to developing the 
Federal strength, was made by Walker and Cleburne. About i a. m., May 
17, Hardee's corps retired slowly, holding the Federals in check with 
cavalry, and reached Adairsville, 7 miles from Calhoun, about noon. 
Newton's division was in the Federal advance. Until late in the afternoon 
there was heavy skirmishing with the cavalry of Cheatham and Wheeler, 
who intrenched themselves in several strong positions along the road, from 
each of which they were dislodged. That day Johnston's army at Adairs- 
ville was reinforced by French's division of Polk's corps and William H. 
Jackson's division. On the morning of the i8th, the Federals at Adairs- 
ville found that Johnston had gone. Hardee's corps had marched to 
Kingston, Polk's and Hood's to Cassville. Johnston had intended to turn 
back and meet the column following him from Adairsville. On the 19th, 
Polk started back on the Adairsville road and Hood on a road parallel 
with it. Learning that Federals were approaching in the rear and right 
of the position that he had just vacated, Hood fell back and took position 
beyond the Canton road. The Confederates, according to Gen. Thomas' 
report had "fallen back in echelon of divisions steadily and in superb order 
into Cassville." 

Adams, U. S. S., Attack on June 2, 1864. (See Columbia, Ark.) 

Adams' Bluff, Ark., July 4, 1862. Portion of the U. S. Fleet on the 
White River. Incidental to the expedition planned by Flag-Officer Davis 
to pursue Confederate gunboats and support Gen. Curtis, Lieut. Shirk, with 
boats protecting troops and transports, went up the river from Crockett's 
blufT. While passing Adams' bluflf, he was fired on by guerrillas from the 
east bank of the river. He returned their fire with shot and shell and 
destroyed a ferry boat. 

Adamstown, Md., Oct. 14, 1864. 

Adamsville, Tenn., March 31, 1862. Detachment 5th Ohio Cavalry. 



20 The Union Army 

A detachment of 28 men from Co. I, under command of Lieut. Murray, 
was sent down to the Purdy road from Adamsville, to relieve a temporary 
cavalry picket commanded by Lieut. Rossman, was defeated in a skirmish 
with Confederate cavalry, with a loss of i wounded and 2 or 3 ciiptured. 

Adobe Fort, New Mex., Nov. 25, 1864. Detachment of California 
and New Mexico Volunteers and Friendly Indians. The detachment, con- 
sisting of three companies of the ist Cal. cavalry, two companies of the 
1st N. Mex. cavalry, and two companies of infantry, with 2 mountain 
howitzers, numbering 335 white men and 75 Ute and Apache Indians, the 
whole commanded by Col. Christopher ("Kit") Carson, engaged about 
1,000 well mounted Indians about four miles from Adobe Fort. The 
hostile force consisted of Kiowas and Comanches, with a few Apaches and 
Arapahoes. The fight lasted from 8 :30 in the morning until sunset, during 
which time the Indians fought bravely, charging many times from different 
points, but in the end they were defeated and compelled to witness the 
destruction of their village of 150 fine lodges, with large quantities of dried 
meats, buffalo robes, powder, cooking utensils, a buggy belonging to the 
Kiowa chief, Sierrito or Little Mountain, and other property. The battle 
was hot all over the ground from the village to Fort Adobe. Carson's 
loss was 2 whites and i Indian killed, and 10 whites and 5 Indians wounded. 
The enemy lost over 60 in killed and wounded. 

Aenon Church, Va., May 28, 1864. ist Brigade, ist Division, and 2nd 
Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac. This engagement was an in- 
cident of the campaign from the Rapidan to the James river. The ist brigade, 
consisting of the ist, 5th, 6th and 7th Mich, cavalry, and commanded 
by Brig.-Gen. George A. Custer, after driving the enemy from Haw's shop 
and Crump creek, was ordered to the support of the 2nd division (Gregg's) 
which was engaged with a large force at Aenon church. From Haw's shop 
Custer moved down the Richmond road until near the church, when the 
dense growth of timber and underbrush rendered the cavalry useless. Dis- 
mounting his men he formed a line at right angles with the road, the ist 
and 6th regiments on the right and the 5th and 7th on the left. In this 
formation the brigade advanced until an opening was made in Gregg's line 
to receive it. By this time there was heavy fighting along the whole line, 
and several losses had been inflicted on both sides without material ad- 
vantage to either. As the ist brigade moved forward and engaged the 
enemy the 5th and 7th regiments were exposed to a well directed cross 
fire and to a heavy fire in front. More than once they had to give ground 
temporarily, but each time they advanced again with courage and de- 
termination. Believing that it was within the power of the ist and 6th 
regiments to dislodge that portion of the enemy whose destructive fire 
enfiladed the other two, Custer ordered them to advance their line. The 
men moved forward with a cheer and drove the enemy in confusion from 
his position, his dead and wounded remaining on the field. Simultaneously 
the 5th and 7th advanced on the left of the road, inflicted terrible loss on 
the enemy in front and drove him back. The pursuit was kept up until 
the Confederates had found safety beyond the range of the Federal guns. 
The brigade held its position until dark, when it was relieved by infantry, 
and encamped on the Pamunkey, about a mile from the mouth of the Toto- 
potomy river. "Our loss in this battle," reported Custer, "was greater 
than in any other engagement of the campaign." Official reports include 
it with losses in other nearly contemporaneous engagements. The Con- 
federate forces here engaged were those of Gens. Hampton and Fitz- 
hugh Lee. 

Aiken, S. C, Feb. 11, 1865. 3d Cavalry Division, Sherman's Army. 
Early in the morning, the 2nd brigade, 3d cavalry division, Military division 
of the Mississippi, imder command of Gen. Atkins, accompanied by Gen. 
Kilpatrick, moved toward Aiken, the advance driving the Confederates to 



Cyclopedia of Battles 21 

the east side of the town. The 92nd 111., under Lieut.-Col. Van Buskirk, 
charged into Aiken, which appeared to have been vacated, only to find it 
held in force by the enemy under Hampton and Wheeler. A Confederate 
division in the woods on the Federal right charged in the rear of the 92nd 
and formed in line. Leaving a skirmish line to hold the enemy in front, 
Van Buskirk faced the regiment to the rear, charged through the Con- 
federates and rejoined his brigade, which had formed a line of battle with 
the 9th Mich, on the left of the road and railroad, the 9th Ohio on the 
right, supporting Lieut. Clark's section of artillery some distance in the 
rear, and the loth Ohio in reserve. The 92nd came up to this line so mixed 
up with the enemy as to make it impossible for the remainder of the 
brigade to fire. Federals and Confederates alike were claiming their 
enemies as prisoners and pulling them off their horses. Neither side was 
armed with sabers. Two Confederates were killed and another was 
knocked off his horse by Van Buskirk, who used his empty pistol as a club. 
As soon as firing was possible the Confederate advance was checked by a 
volley from the Federal line. The 9th Ohio under Col. Hamilton charged 
the enemy on the right of the road and most of the 92nd 111. charged back 
with it. Maj. IMcBride of the 9th jMich. charged with his battalion on 
the left, and the Confederates were driven back into Aiken. The Federals 
then fell back to their fortified position at Johnson's station and, though 
pursued and attacked on their flanks, repeatedly repelled the enemy's 
charges by a well directed fire. The Federal loss was 53 killed, wounded 
and missing; Confederate loss yz killed. 

Alamo, Steamer, Nov. 29, 1864. (See Dardanelle, Ark., same date.) 

Albany, Ky., Sept. 22^, 1S61. The exact date of this affair is uncertain. 
According to Gen. Zollicoffer (Confederate) a Federal force of about 400 
men, which had made prisoners of Confederate soldiers and citizens sympa- 
thizing with the cause of secession, at and near Albany, was about this 
time routed by a detachment of Confederate troops under Capt. Bledsoe 
and about 60 muskets captured. 

Albany, Ky., Sept. 29, 1861. Shortly before this date the Confed- 
erates at Albany withdrew to an encampment about 20 miles away, taking 
much private and public property, including more than 30 home-guard 
muskets and 3,000 rounds of cartridges. In the presence of a foe out- 
numbering them ten to one, the Russell home-guards (Federal) occupied 
the place, replanting and standing by the colors and defiantly inviting an 
attack. About 300 Federals, of the 12th Ky. infantry under Col. Haskins, 
arrived on the 28th and were soon reinforced by 500 to 600 cavalry and 
home-guards. On the 29th, Haskins ordered Capt. Morrison to attack a 
new Confederate camp at Travisville, 13 miles distant. About 100 troops 
were surprised there, 2 were killed, 2 taken prisoners and the others 
escaped. Maj. Brents, with 45 men, was sent to reinforce Morrison, but 
arrived too late to participate in the attack. 

Albany, Ky., Aug. 18, 1863. Detachment of the 23d Army Corps. 
The monthly return of the corps' itinerary, during the East Tennessee 
campaign, says : "On the i8th Lieut. Carr fell in with Champ Ferguson 
at Albany. Killed 2, wounded 3, among whom was Ferguson himself." 
This is the only official mention of the affair. 

Albany, Mo., Oct. 26, 1864. 33d Inf'antry Enrolled Missouri Alilitia. 
This regiment commanded by Lieut.-Col. S. P. Cox attacked Bill Anderson 
and his guerrillas at Albany, Ray county, and gained a signal victory. 
Anderson and one of his men supposed to have been Capt. Rains, son of 
Gen. Rains of Price's army, charged through the Federal lines and Ander- 
son was killed. Rains escaped from the town with his routed followers. 
On Anderson's body were found orders from Gen. Price. 

Albee's Ranch, Cal., July 29. 1862. Two express riders of Co. E, 
2nd Cal. infantry, were fired upon by Indians in ambush about 2 miles 



22 The Union Army 

from Albee's ranch. One was shot through the body and the other's horse 
was wounded, but he exchanged iire with an Indian at close range, without 
injury to either. The two men managed to get to Albee's, and later to 
Fort Anderson. 

Albemarle County, Va., Feb. 28-March i, 1864. Custer's Expedition. 
Brig.-Gen. George A. Custer, commanding the 3d cavalry division, with 
1,500 men and a section of artillery, left Pony mountain on tlic afternoon 
of Feb. 28 for a raid into Albemarle county. That night lie bivouacked at 
Madison Court House, Init at 2 a. m. on the 2yth resumed his march on 
the road leading to Stanardsville. A small picket of the enemy was en- 
countered a few miles north of Banks' ford on the Rapidan river, but it 
was quickly dispersed. About 8 o'clock the advance reached Stanardsville, 
where shots were exchanged with a small detachment of Confederate 
cavalr}', which fled rapidly toward Orange Court House. From prisoners 
taken at Stanardsville, Custer learned that Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry was 
foraging in the neighborhood of Charlottesville and turned in that direc- 
tion. Some 6 miles from Charlottesville the Confederate pickets were met 
and driven rapidly back 2 miles beyond the Rivanna river and 3 miles 
from Charlottesville, where the enemy was found in force, supported by 
four batteries of artillery. Capt. Ash, with two squadrons of the 5th U. 
S. cavalry, was sent to charge the right flank and succeeded in capturing 
6 caissons filled with ammunition, 2 forges and several sets of good 
harness, besides destroying the camp of the enemy's artillery. The demon- 
stration developed the fact, however, that the Confederates were superior 
in numbers and too strong to attack, so Custer withdrew in good order, 
recrossed the Rivanna, destroying the bridge behind him and returned to 
Stanardsville. Upon reaching that place on the morning of March i, he 
found it again occupied by the enemy's pickets, who were driven out and 
the stores, consisting of clothing, saddles, provisions and whisky, were 
destroyed. From Stanardsville Custer started on the return to Madison 
Court House, but after proceeding a few miles he found three brigades of 
Confederate cavalry — two under Gen. Stuart and one under Gen. Wickham 
— drawn up at the forks of the road leading to Burton's and Banks' fords. 
Capt. Lieb, who was in advance with one squadron of the 5th U. S. 
cavalry, charged the whole force, and for a short time the enemy was 
thrown into confusion by the sudden and unexpected action. Stuart 
rallied his men and countercharged, forcing Lieb back upon the main body. 
The entire 5th regiment under Capt. Arnold then charged, driving the 
enemy back and capturing over 20 prisoners, besides recapturing some of 
Lieb's men who had fallen into the hands of the enemy. As the Confed- 
erates retreated Lieut. Porter hurried his guns in position and fired a 
few shots after them to accelerate their movements. Part of the Confed- 
erates moved toward Banks' ford and the remainder toward ■ Burton's. 
The latter was pursued across the South river and driven to the Rapidan, 
where Custer placed his artillery in position as though he intended to force 
a passage at Burton's ford, which caused Stuart to concentrate his forces 
there, when Custer faced about and moved quickly to the upper fords, 
crossing the Rapidan before the enemy could prevent the movement. Be- 
sides the bridge over the Rivanna river and the stores at Stanardsville, 
the expedition destroyed 3 large flour mills filled with grain; captured 
2 wagons, one of which was loaded with bacon; 50 prisoners, a stand of 
colors and 500 horses and brought in 100 negroes. Custer's casualties 
amounted to 6 men slightly wounded. He was complimented by the major- 
general commanding for the success of the expedition. 

Albemarle Sound, N. C, May 5. 1864. United States Gunboats. In 
the afternoon, the side-wheel boats Mattabesett, Sassacus and Wyalusing 
lay at anchor in Albemarle sound, 20 miles below the mouth of the 
Roanoke river. They were charged with an encounter with, and if pos- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 23 

sible the destruction of, the Albemarle, a Confederate iron-clad ram, whose 
presence in the waters was, in view of her past achievements, a menace to 
l^'ederal occupancy. The Miami, with four or five of the smaller boats of 
the I'cderal fleet, had been sent down to the mouth of the Roanoke to 
decoy the Albemarle from under the protecting batteries of Plymouth, 
into the open waters of the sound. At 3 o'clock, falling back before the 
ram, they drew it and its consorts, the Bombshell and the Cotton Plant, 
into a position favorable for an attack. The last named, manned by 200 
sharpshooters and boarders, put back toward Plymouth on the approach of 
the Federal gunboats. The Bombshell closed up on the ram's quarter in 
position for the impending action. The Mattabesett, Sassacus and 
Wyalusing came on in the order named, under command of Capt. Smith, 
senior naval officer. The Miami, some distance in the rear of these vessels, 
fired over them, striking but not harming the Albemarle, which im- 
mediately responded. The Mattabesett passed the ram and delivered a 
harmless broadside. The Albemarle tried and failed to ram the Sas- 
sacus, now passing in her turn. The latter sent a broadside of solid shot 
against the ram's iron armor without making any impression. Then sweep- 
ing around the stern of the Albemarle, the Sassacus poured a disabling 
broadside into the hull of the Bombshell, which brought the latter's Con- 
federate flag down and her white flag up and the conquered steamer 
anchored out of fire. Meantime the Mattabesett had again passed the ram, 
delivering a well directed fire; and the Wyalusing, which had previously 
passed, serving its guns skillfully, was now astern of the Sassacus, divert- 
ing the attention of the Albemarle from the latter, to which her whole 
side presented a fair mark. The Sassacus dashed furiously upon the ram 
and received a loo-pound shot through her, but succeeded in penetrating 
a vulnerable part of the side of the Albemarle. A duel of ponderous 
ordnance ensued, but the Albemarle gave way as the prow of the Sassacus 
pressed deeper and deeper into her side. It was a fight with cannon almost 
muzzle to muzzle; with musketry and hand grenades, the latter hurled 
from the foretop of the Sassacus into the enemy's hatches. The other 
Federal vessels helped all they could, but most of their missiles glanced 
from the iron-clad sides of the Albemarle. The machinery of the Sassacus 
was disabled, its penetrating stem gave way and the two vessels swung side 
by side. Blackened, scalded, sightless, the engineer of the Sassacus kept 
his post and rallied the scalded, pain-maddened and fleeing men to prevent 
the explosion of the boilers by putting out the fires under them. The 
Sassacus poured shell and solid shot into the Albemarle's port-holes. 
One shot from a loo-pounder Parrott gun was shattered on the port-side 
of the ram and pieces of it rebounded to the Federal deck whence it had 
come. The Albemarle was finally repulsed and driven into the mouth of 
the Roanoke river, somewhat damaged, but with its machinery not dis- 
abled. The Sassacus was disabled in guns, hull and machinery, but the 
Bombshell was a prize of war, her 2)7 officers and men were prisoners and 
the Federals were in undisputed possession of the sound. 

Albuquerque, N. Mex., April 8-9, 1862. Gen. Canby wanted to make 
a junction with another command below the Confederates at Albuquerque 
and Santa Fe in order to cut off their r,etreat, but an insufficient force 
and lack of supplies rendered such a movement inexpedient. He left 
Fort Craig on the ist, with 800 regulars and 350 volunteers, and on the 
8th, by his order, Capt. Graydon's spy company, supported by regular 
cavalry, made a demonstration before Albuquerque, to develop the position 
of the Confederate batteries. Maj. Duncan of the 3d U. S. cavalry was 
wounded. The demonstration was during the night of the gth, the object 
being to draw the Confederate forces from Santa Fe, Canby hoping thus 
to effect a junction without opposition to his own or the other Federal 
column. Events proved the wisdom of his plan, for on the succeeding 
night he marched to San Antonio. 



24 The Union Army 

Alcorn's Distillery, Ky., May 9, 1863. Detachment 9th Kentucky, 20th 
Michigan Cavalry and Henry Rifles. On the 8th Capt. Wiltsie, under 
orders from Col. Jacob, post commander at Gran's Ferry, proceeded with 
the detachment, numbering 100 men, dismounted, toward Monticello to 
attempt the breaking up of Champ Ferguson's band of guerrillas. Next 
day, without having met any armed force, he took prisoners 12 men sup- 
posed to be of Ferguson's band, captured 5 horses and burned Alcorn's 
distillery, a reputed lurking place for bushwhackers. Then, with some 
detachments out, he rested with the main body of his force at Alcorn's. 
There he was attacked by about 300 dismounted men, said to be Alorgan's 
advance guard. Although he resisted desperately he was driven to a 
wood, where he repeatedly charged the Confederates and ultimately drove 
them back. As they retired to remount, the Federals gained a good posi- 
tion and the fight was not renewed. That afternoon Wiltsie returned to 
camp. At the beginning of the fight 4 of his prisoners and 3 of his captured 
horses escaped. His loss was 12 killed, wounded and missing. In attempt- 
ing to reinforce Wiltsie, Capt. Carpenter of one of the detachments met 
and repulsed a detachment of Confederate cavalry. He then fell back 
until he met Capts. Barnes and Allen with other detachments of the com- 
mand. Barnes fell back rapidly, with the avowed intention of holding a 
narrows, and Allen fell back leisurely. Before the latter reached the 
reserve post Confederate cavalry attacked him in force. He retired in 
good order, with a loss of 3 men, and the enemy did not pursue. 

Alderson's Ferry, W. Va., July 12, 1862. Detachment of Crook's 
Cavalry. Two companies, commanded by Capt. Harrison, skirmished with 
a body of Confederate cavalry, killing and wounding 7 of them and cap- 
turing about a dozen horses. 

Aldie, Va., Oct. 9, 1862. Detachments of Sigel's Cavalry. Incidental 
to a reconnaissance from Fairfax Court House, Federal cavalry entered 
Aldie on the 8th, captured 4 prisoners, several wagon loads of bacon and 
an ambulance. At noon the next day Lieut. S. B. Conger, of the 3d Va. 
cavalry, with 60 men, made an attack on the Confederate force at Aldie, 
and in a sharp skirmish killed i and wounded 3 of the enemy without loss. 
Finding the force too strong to overcome he fell back 7 miles to a toll- 
gate, pursued all the way. 

Aldie, Va., Oct. 31, 1862. Cavalry of Bayard's and Karge's Brigades, 
Army of the Potomac. Confederates pursued Gen. Stoneman's pickets 
from Mountville into Aldie, where they were driven out of the town and 
pursued 2 miles by a detachment of cavalry under Maj. Falls and Capt. 
Sawyer, until confronted by the enemy's reserves. The detachment then 
fell back, but Col. Karge, with his brigade and 2 pieces of artillery, held 
the hill beyond the town. The Confederates also had 2 cannon and there 
was a short artillery fight. The Federals held the camp for an hour after 
the skirmish. Sawyer was wounded and 8 men were lost. 

Aldie, Va., March 2, 1863. Detachment ist Vermont Cavalry. About 
50 or 60 men of Companies H and M formed the rear squadron of a 
Federal force of about 400, returning from Middleburg. At Aldie. where 
a stop was made to water horses, the rear-guard was surprised by a de- 
tachment of Mosby's command, under the personal command of Mosby, 
and both its captains, with 15 to 17 men, were captured. The ist Vt. was 
included in the cavalry brigade of Col. Johnstone, who stated the Federal 
force to be 50, besides the 2 captains, the Confederate force about 70. 
Mosby gave the Federal strength as 59 besides the 2 captains and his own 
as only 17. 

Aldie, Va., June 17, 1863. 2nd and 4th New York, 6th Ohio, ist Massa- 
chusetts, 1st Main and ist Rhode Island Cavalry. At 4:30 p. m. Gen. 
Pleasonton arrived at Aldie and learned that a brigade of Fitzhugh Lee's 
command had just entered the town. He immediately attacked the Con- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 25 

federates and by a determined charge drove them from the place toward 
Snicker's gap. Gregg's division only was present and Kilpatrick's brigade 
did the fighting. The Confederates brought 4 cannon into action. Their 
loss was heavy ; 9 commissioned officers and 54 privates were captured in 
the charge. The Federal loss in killed, wounded and missing aggre- 
gated 305. 

Aldie, Va., June 18, 1863. (See Middleburg, same date.) 
Aldie, Va., June 22, 1863. Detachment of the 14th U. S. and 17th 
Pennsylvania Infantry. With 100 men and 3 officers of the 14th U. S. 
and 30 men and 3 officers of the 17th Pa., Capt. Brown was ordered 
to attempt the capture of guerrillas who frequented the house of a Dr. 
Ewell near the Thoroughfare Gap road, 4 miles from the Federal camp 
near Aldie. In partial concealment near the house the detachment awaited 
the approach of the guerrillas. They came within pistol shot, but fled 
after an exchange of shots, soon getting behind rolling ground out of 
range of the guns, and were not pursued. Federal loss, i killed. 

Aldie, Va., Feb. 5, 1864. Detachment of the 2nd Massachusetts Cav- 
alry. Eight of Mosby's men attacked some of the 2nd Mass. cavalry, 
forming the rear-guard of a scouting party of Gen. Tyler's command, as 
it was returning in the afternoon from Aldie and Middleburg. The Con- 
federates were soon dispersed and their leader was captured. He proved 
to be William E. Ormsby, a deserter from the 2nd Mass. cavalry, was tried 
by drum head court-marshal, convicted and executed. In this affray 
2 Union men and 3 Confederates were wounded. 

Aldie, Va., July 6, 1864. (See Mount Zion Church.) 
Aldie, Va., Feb. 15-16, 1865. Squadron of the 8th Illinois Cavalry. 
The squadron, commanded by Capt. G. W. Corbit, left Fairfax Court 
House on the 15th to scout in the direction of Aldie and Middleburg. 
Near Middleburg he surprised and captured a party of 11 Confederates, 
including a colonel, a captain and a lieutenant, with their horses and 
equipments, without the loss of a man. As he was returning he was 
pursued by about 60 Confederate cavalry to near Aldie, but without 
casualties. 

Alexander's Bridge, Ga., Sept. 18, 1863. (See Chickamauga.) 
Alexander's Creek, La., Oct. 5, 1864. A feeble stand was made on 
this stream, a mile from St. Francisville, by Federal troops to cover their 
retreat to their boats, after they had unsuccessfully engaged a portion of 
the 1st La. cavalry at Thompson's creek, a mile from Jackson, and at 
an intermediate point. 

Alexandria, La., April 26 to May 13, 1864. Portions of the 13th, 14th, 
i6th, 17th and 19th Army Corps; Banks' Red River Expedition. Alex- 
andria, on the Red river, had a population of about 600. The forces of 
Gen. Banks reached that point and camped there in line of battle on April 
26. They remained there until May 13, getting gunboats of Admiral 
Porter's Mississippi river squadron from above the falls, where they had 
been caught by low water, to the navigable channel below. The last gun- 
boat passed the falls on May 12 and the next day the town was evacuated 
and burned. No authoritative statement as to the origin of the fire has 
ever been made. During this period ther^ was almost constant skirmish- 
ing in the vicinity of Alexandria, between Banks' army and the Con- 
federate forces under Gen. Dick Taylor. On May i, a Federal force 
attacked Gen. Liddell above Pineville, but was repulsed with severe loss 
in killed and prisoners. The force in Alexandria had been increased by a 
brigade from Matagorda under Gen. McClernand, and members of it 
were among prisoners taken by Liddell. Gen. Steele (Confederate) 
attacked the Federals on the Rapides road and forced their pickets back 
to within 3 miles of Alexandria. On the evening of the 3d, on the Bayou 
Robert road, Federals were attacked and driven back bevond the Gov. 



26 The Union Army 

Moore plantation. That night near David's ferry, the transport Coving- 
ton, bringing the 120th Ohio up the river, was captured by Gen. Major. 
More than 270 prisoners were taken, among them all the regimental held 
officers, and many were killed and wounded. The boat was sunk across 
the channel of the river. A Federal gunboat and another transport were 
damaged in this encounter. At this time the Federals still had nine gun- 
boats above the falls as a part of a dam to deepen the channel. During 
the night of the 4th and 5th, the Federal gunboats Signal and Covington, 
each mounting 8 guns, and a transport were attacked near Fort Russy 
by Major's division, consisting of Hardeman's and Lane's cavalry brigades 
and West's battery. One gunboat and the transport were captured and 
the other gunboat was blown up to prevent its capture. Major sunk the 
captured vessels across the channel. The Confederates raised the guns of 
one boat and planned to get close to the other. At daybreak on the 5th, 
an attack was made on the Confederate advance on the Rapides road 4 
miles from Alexandria by 3,000 to 4,000 infantry and two batteries. 
Steele, with Carter's and Parson's cavalry and Moseley's battery, con- 
tested every inch of the ground, but by 5 130 had retreated 5 miles, when 
the attack was abandoned and Steele retired toward Alexandria. Federal 
losses not reported. Confederate loss about 50 killed and wounded. On 
the same day at Chambers' on the Bayou Robert road, 11 miles from 
Alexandria, hghting began at dawn and was continued hotly for several 
hours, when the Federals retreated toward Alexandria. The Confederate 
force engaged was Bee's division, consisting of Bagby's, Debray's and 
Vincent's cavalry brigades, with Nettles' and Benton's batteries. Next 
morning Confederates attacked the Federals near Lamaurie bridge and 
drove their rear-guard to Gov. Moore's lower plantation. On the 6th 
and 7th there was brisk skirmishing on the Rapides road and hard fight- 
ing on the Robert and Boeuf roads. On the Boeuf the Lamaurie separated 
the two forces. After heavy cannonading for some hours, the Federals 
advanced on General Polignac's Confederate line, throwing both flanks 
into confusion. Then, before a charge by Bagby's men, they retreated 
back across the river. Members of the 17th corps fell into the hands of 
the enemy. For sixteen successive days the Federals had kept the Con- 
federates busy around Alexandria, while the Union fleet was being gotten 
over the falls. 

Allatoona, Ga., Oct. 5, 1864. 3d and 4th Divisions, 15th Army Corps. 
This was one of the most sanguinary battles of the war. Gen. Sherman 
had about 1,000,000 rations stored at Allatoona, guarded by a garrison of 
890 infantry and a battery of 6 guns, under the command of Lieut-Col. 
John F. Tourtelotte, of the 4th I\Tinn. The fortifications, located on a 
ridge, consisted of three redoubts west of a deep railroad cut and a star 
fort on the east, with outer works, abatis, stockades, etc. The stores were 
collected on a tract of flat land south of the hill. On the 4th Hood sent 
Gen. French's division, about 3,000 strong, to reduce the garrison and 
capture the stores. French made a night march and about 3 o'clock on 
the morning of the ?th encountered the Federal pickets. In the meantime 
Sherman had sent Gen. Corse, with Rowett's brigade, to the relief of 
the garrison. Corse arrived from Rome about two hours in advance of 
French, who knew nothing of the reinforcements. As soon as it was light 
Corse disposed his forces to resist the attack. The 7th Til. and 39th la. 
were placed in line of battle, facing west, on a spur that covered the 
redoubt on the hill immediately over the railroad cut; one battery of the 
93d 111. was held in reserve, the other being placed in the line of skirm- 
ishers moving westwardly along the ridge; the 4th Minn.. 12th and 50th 
111. in the works on the hill east of the cut, and the rest of the command 
out on skirmish and picket duty. A little before 8 o'clock the head of 
French's column occupied the ridge overlooking the Federal works. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 27 

Corse refused to surrender and the fight commenced. French disposed 
his forces to attack from three directions. Under a brisk artillery fire he 
pushed Sears' brigade of infantry around to the north of the works, and 
destroyed the railroad and telegraphic communication with Rome and 
Cartersville. Young's Texas brigade, 1,900 strong, reached the west end 
of the ridge and moved along the crest until checked by the 7th III. 
and 39th la. under Rowett. They rallied again and again, attacking each 
time with apparently greater determination, making it necessary to send 
the 93d 111. to Rowett's assistance. Meantime Sears had moved up from 
the north, his left extending across the railroad, where two companies of 
the 93d 111. were stationed on the brink of the cut, on a spur running 
north from the redoubt. These companies were reinforced by pickets that 
had been driven in and, urged by Corse, tried vainly to hold on to the 
spur. The Confederate fine of battle swept the Federals before it as wind 
sweeps chaff, until Tourtelotte's fire caught Sears on the flank, breaking 
his line so badly that Corse was able to send a staff ofiicer over the cut 
with orders to the 50th 111. to reinforce Rowett. Before the movement 
could be executed Sears and Young rallied in force and made such a 
desperate assault in front and on the flank that Rowett's line was broken. 
F'or two hours and a half he had held the greater part of the Confederate 
force in check, though attacked on three sides. As he fell back to the fort 
a detachment of the 39th la. commanded by Maj. Redfield, fought with 
such stubbornness that the main body was enabled to reach the redoubt. 
Had it not been for this determined stand it is probable that few, if any, 
would ever have gained the shelter of the fort. But by a hand-to-hand 
struggle, with forces that outnumbered them more than ten to one, they 
compelled the enemy to halt and reform before assaulting the fort, thus 
giving Corse time to readjust his forces to meet the attack when it came. 
This feature of the fight saved Allatoona, though it was not realised at 
the time. The gallant Redfield fell, shot in four places. It was now 
II o'clock. Sherman had reached Kennesaw mountain about an hour 
before and had signaled to Corse to hold the fort, as reinforcements were 
on the way. This news was communicated to the men and gave them 
courage to continue the fight. With alacrity they obeyed the orders of 
their commander, and by the time the enemy was ready to attack the 
fort the ditches were filled and the parapets lined with men, giving the 
Federals a firing line that would make the fort impregnable as long as 
the ammunition lasted. For some time the Confederates kept up an in- 
cessant fire from low places in the ground, from behind logs, trees and 
stumps, picking off nearly every man that showed his head. Finding this 
method of warfare useless they determined to carry the w^orks b}' assault. 
They advanced in a solid phalanx, with a steadiness that made even the 
bravest in the trenches wonder as to the result. But the 12th Wis. 
battery began to pour a merciless fire into the advancing lines at short 
range. Human nature could not stand the test, and when within 300 
feet of the w-orks the lines broke, all efforts of the officers to rally 
the men proving in vain. The Confederates were becoming discouraged. 
About 150 yards from the fort was a ridge, on the top of which was a 
small house. Finding it impossible to cha/ge and carry the works the 
Confederates massed a force here and began a destructive fire on the 
fort. The Federals cleared an embrasure commanding the ridge, dragged 
a piece of artillery to it and fired a few shots that scattered the enemy 
in all directions. About the time the charge was made Corse was severely 
wounded in the face and was unconscious for nearly an hour. The other 
officer, having faith in Sherman's signals, encouraged the men to hold out, 
as reinforcements were on the way. They were right, for Gen. J. D. Cox's 
corps was then hurrying westward to gain French's rear and either 
capture or destroy his entire division. About 4 o'clock French got wind 



28 The Union Army 

of this movement and hurriedly withdrew from the field to save his com- 
mand. Before beginning his retreat he captured the blockhouse at Alla- 
toona creek and burned the bridge. Allatoona was saved, but at a fear- 
ful cost. The Federal loss was 142 killed, 352 wounded and 212 missing; 
that of the enemy was 134 killed, 499 wounded and 300 missing. 

Allatoona Hills, Ga., May 25-June 4, 1864. (See Dallas.) 

Alien, Mo., July 2^, 1864. Detachment 17th Illinois Cavalry. While 
at this place in Randolph county, in command of a detachment of 40 men 
of the 17th 111. cavalry from the post at Glasgow, Lieut. Knapp was 
attacked by about 75 guerrillas commanded by Bill Anderson. The attack 
was repelled without the loss of men, but 9 government horses and 7 
horses that had been pressed for service in the expedition, and which 
belonged to citizens in the neighborhood, were either killed or captured. 

Allen's Farm, Va., June 29, 1862. For a detailed account of the action 
at Allen's farm on this date see Seven Days' Battles. 

Alpine, Ga., Sept. 5-12, 1863. Cavalry, Army of the Cumberland. 
Early in September Gen. Stanley, chief of cavalry, was directed to make a 
reconnaissance into Broomtown valley, where Alpine is situated. A slight 
skirmish occurred on the 5th and on the 8th Minty's brigade of Crook's 
division engaged four regiments of Confederate cavalry, driving them back 
with a loss to his command of 4 killed and 8 wounded. The next day 
Crook's advance again met the enemy at Alpine and in the skirmish 
which ensued lost 3 killed and ii wounded. On the 12th McCook's division 
marched from the camp at Alpine, encountered Wheeler's cavalry on the 
Lafayette road and drove it some distance. The enemy's casualties during 
these operations were not ascertained. 

Alpine Depot, W. Va., Jan. 4, 1862. 

Alsop's Farm, Va., Alay 8, 1864. The battle of Alsop's farm was a 
part of the operations about Spottsylvania Court House (q. v.). 

Altamont, Md., April 26, 1863. A squadron of the nth Va. cavalry 
(Confederate), under Capt. McDonald, went to Altamont, on the Balti- 
more & Ohio railroad, captured an engine and train and burned some 
small bridges. It is not reported to have met armed opposition. 

Altamont, Tenn., Aug. 30, 1862. A detachment of the ist Ala. and 
1st Ky. Confederate cavalry, according to Gen. Wheeler's report, attacked 
Federal pickets near Altamont on three sides, driving them back on their 
camp and killing i colonel, i captain and 2 privates. 

Alvarado, Aug. 5, 1861. The bark, Alvarado, Capt. Wliiting, owned in 
Boston, left Cape Town, South Africa, June 3, with a cargo of wool, 
sheep skins, goat skins, old iron and copper and crude medicines, valued 
at $70,000. She was taken by the privateer Jeff Davis on July 21, on the 
high seas and sent to the Florida coast. The privateer purstied by the 
United States steamer, Vincennes, attempted to enter Fernandina harbor, 
but stranded a mile and a half from shore. Her crew landed taking 
ashore Capt. and Mrs. Whiting and a negro steward, whom they had 
brought with the prize. The Vincennes, failing to save the bark, burned 
her. 

Amelia Court House, Va., April 4, 1865. Cavalr}-, Army of the James. 
Incidental to the Appomattox campaign Gen. MacKenzie's division of 
cavalry went into camp near Amelia Court House on the 4th, after having 
two slight skirmishes with the enemy, in which the nth Pa., 1st District 
of Columbia and ist Md. were principally engaged. After going into 
camp Companies A and B, ist N. J., under Capt. Craig, reconnoitered the 
road to Amelia Springs, captured 22 prisoners, 38 horses and a number of 
mules, which they turned over to Gen. Davies, commanding ist brigade, 
2nd cavalry division. From these prisoners it was learned that Lee's 
army was concentrating at Amelia Court House, where a supply of rations 
was expected. This information proved to be erroneous, as Lee was 



Cyclopedia of Battles 29 

moving north of the Court House to strike the Lynchburg railroad. (See 
Ameha Springs.) 

Amelia Springs, Va., April 5, 1865. ist Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, 
Army of the Potomac. On the 4th, this brigade commanded by Gen. 
Davies, expecting an engagement, took up a position at Jetersville and 
camped for the night. Next morning it broke camp to reconnoiter on the 
enemy's rear and learn the position of his trains. From prisoners taken 
the day before it was learned that his wagon train was passing a point 
about 4 miles from Paineville. The ist Pa. cavalry, Davies' advance, was 
hurried to the place and came upon the train just as a gun was being 
placed in position to defend it. By a charge through a swamp the train 
guard of about 400 men was routed and the battery and train were 
captured. About 200 ammunition and headquarters wagons, caissons and 
ambulances were tired, after which Davies started toward Jetersville with 
5 pieces of artillery, 11 flags, 320 white prisoners, about as many negro 
teamsters and more than 400 captured animals. After he had passed 
through Paineville Gary's brigade of the Confederate cavalry, which had 
been an escort to the train, attacked his rear-guard and a running fight 
was maintained to Amelia Springs. There Davies formed his brigade and 
held the enemy in check until the 2nd brigade of the 2nd division came 
to his relief. At the junction of the Amelia Springs and Jetersville road 
and the road to Amelia Court House, Davies was confronted by Con- 
federates who were quickly repulsed by a regiment of the 3d brigade, the 
1st Pa., and a part of the loth N. Y. cavalry. The brigade reached camp 
with all that it had captured and in the afternoon again went into action 
to prevent the enemy from reaching Jetersville from Amelia Springs. 
Though many of its men had been detailed to guard the prisoners and 
captured property, it successfully resisted every attack and made several 
gallant mounted charges. 

American Ranch, Colo. Ter., Jan. 15, 1865. (See Valley Station, 
same date.) 

Amherst Court House, Va., June 12, 1864. ist Cavalry Division. De- 
partment of West Virginia. The division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. A. 
N. Duffie, was ordered to join Gen. Hunter at Lexington, Ky. When it 
arrived near the point where the road toward White's gap crosses Piney 
river the advance was attacked by about 300 Confederate cavalry. Duffie 
supported the advance with two squadrons of the 20th Pa. cavalry, Wyn- 
koop's brigade, which charged the enemy, drove him back in confusion 
beyond Piney river to within 3 miles of Amherst Court House, capturing 
10 commissioned officers and 30 other prisoners. 

Amissville, Va., Nov. 10, 1862. Gen. Robert E. Lee reported that. 
Federals having apparently halted in his advance, he directed Gen. Stuart 
to penetrate their picket-lines at Corbin's cross-roads and learn as much as 
possible of their plans. On the morning of the loth, with Fitzhugh Lee's 
brigade and two infantry regiments, Stuart forced the Federals to fall 
back to Amissville, to withdraw from Washington, and to recall a force 
apparently bound down the river below Rappahannock Station. At Amiss- 
ville the Federals with three brigades of infantry drove Stuart back. 

Amissville, Va., June 6, 1863. Detachment, 4th New York Cavalry. 
A squadron of this regiment, commanded -by Col. Duffie, made a recon- 
naissance to Amissville, where they found a small force of Confederates, 
of whom one was captured. 

Amissville, Va., Aug. 4. 1863. 

Amite River, La., June 28, 1862. (See Williams' Bridge.) 

Amite River, La., July 24, 1862. Col. McMillan sent out a reconnoiter- 
ing party to the Amite river, about daylight, which attacked and routed 
Capt. Kemp's company of rangers, taking 20 to 25 horses and all the camp 
equipage. Another part of Federal scouts crossed the river at Curtis' 



30 The Union Army 

ferry, 4 miles above the camp, and defeated there a body of Confederates 
under command of Capt. Wilson. All the Confederate troops here men- 
tioned were of the 9th battalion, Louisiana Partisan Rangers, under Licut.- 
Col. J. li. Wingtiela. 

Amite River, La., March 28, 1863. 14th and 24th Maine Infantry. 

Amite River, La., April 7, 1863. U. S. Steamer Barataria. Corp. 
Davidson, with 8 men of Capt. Herren's squadron, ist Miss. (Confed- 
erate) cavalry, set out to scout from Camp Ruggles to Rome on the 
Tickfaw river, and if practicable thence to Duck Bill on the lake shore, 
near the mouth of the Amite river. Leaving a picket guard at the Rome 
ferry, he went with his other men to within a mile of the mouth of the Amite, 
where he found the U. S. gimboat Barataria aground, but manned and other- 
wise capable of resistance. From the cover of timber on shore he attacked 
and by his men's good marksmanship drove the gunners to the protection 
of the casemates. Two of the vessel's men were shot as they attempted 
to climb on board with some spars with which they had tried to get it 
afloat. Unable to draw the crew from the iron protection of the Barataria, 
and boarding it being out of the question, Davidson left men to watch it 
and returned to Camp Ruggles for aid and instructions. Herren, with his 
entire squadron, hastened to the spot under orders to capture or destroy 
the gunboat, but found that it had been set on fire and abandoned. The 
only thing available for capture was a brass cannon. 

Amite River, La., April 12, 1863. Capt. Herren, with Co. H, ist 
^liss. and Co. C, 2nd Ark. cavalry, under orders from Col. Simonton, 
on April 9 went to the mouth of the Amite river to remove a cannon and 
other valuables from the wreck of a gunboat. After two days' labor he 
got the cannon on board a schooner and started back with a lieutenant 
and 20 men, sending the remainder of his command to camp by land. The 
schooner was sighted and pursued by Federals. Herren landed 14 men in 
ambush on the east bank of the river, directed the lieutenant to conceal 
the others on the boat and make for the w'est shore. The Federals in a 
yawl passed Herren and his men, who fired on them at a distance of 200 
yards or more. They effected a landing on the west shore, but the lieu- 
tenant on the boat cut off their retreat, killing i and capturing 8, with a 
yawl and another small boat. Fearing further pursuit, Herren cast the 
cannon overboard and hurried up the river. 

Amite River, La., April 17, 1863. 

Amite River, La., May 9-18, 1863. Troops of Department of the Gulf 
under Col. Edmund J. Davis. During the operations of certain cavalry 
and infantry regiments under Davis on the Amite river skirmishes occurred 
at Tickfaw bridge and near Ponchatoula and Independence. In these 
affairs Davis' command suffered a loss of i killed and 3 wounded, while 
the Confederates had between 10 and 15 killed and 44 taken prisoners. 

Amite River, La., July 25, 1864. Maj. Moore, of the 2nd 111. cavalry, 
with 135 men of that organization and the i8th 111. mounted infantry, 
marched at nightfall, July 24, to the Amite river and crossed at daylight 
next morning. About a mile and a half from the river he came upon 
Confederate pickets, whom he drove in 7 miles to their camp. There he 
routed 300 men, captured and destroyed 150 stands of arms, 15,000 rounds 
of ammunition and took 4 prisoners. He fell back to the Amite, pressed 
by the enemy and contested every inch of the ground. Near Benton's 
ferry he made a stand, killing 20 Confederates, without loss and returned 
to camp next day. 

Amite River, La., Dec. 12. 1864. 

Amite River, La., March 18, 1865. 

Anderson's Cross Roads, Tenn., Oct. 2-3, 1863. Near this place the 
morning of the 2nd, Wheeler's Confederate cavalry captured a Federal 
wagon train of 800 six-mule wagons and many sutler wagons, dispersing 



Cyclopedia of Battles 31 

a guard consisting of two cavalry brigades and two infantry regiments. 
Selecting such wagons and mules as they needed, they set tire to the remaining 
wagons and killed 200 to 300 mules. During this work Wheeler's pickets 
were driven in on both flanks and rear, but he maintained his position 
for eight hours, retiring just before dark. Gen. Edward McCook, with 
part of the ist cavalry division. Army of the Cumberland, and a section 
of a battery, was approaching at i p. m., and was informed of this occur- 
rence. He hurried his command forward to a point 4 miles from the 
cross-roads, where he left the 4th Ind. to anticipate a possible movement 
from the direction of Dunlap, and led the rest of his command along a 
by-road toward the enemy. Two miles south of the cross-roads, the ist 
Wis. encountered a portion of the enemy's force and immediately charged, 
captured a lieutenant and 10 men and liberated a Federal surgeon and 4 
others, who had been captured. He then drove the Confederates past 
the burning train, upon their main force, which was in a line of battle 
a mile north of the cross-roads. McCook placed the 2nd Ind. with its 
right resting on the base of the mountain, and the ist Wis. on the left. 
The two regiments charged simultaneously, driving the Confederates 2 
miles across a small creek, where, in a strong position, they barricaded 
themselves with rails. The ist Wis. moved to the left to enfilade the 
enemy's line, and the 2nd Ind. dismounted and charged on his right and 
he was driven back with considerable loss. The Wisconsin regiment then 
charged on the Confederates' left, driving them in confusion, killing and 
wounding several and capturing 40 to 50. The Indianians remounted, 
after which both regiments pursued the Confederates and by saber charges 
drove them from position after position, until at dark they crossed the 
Sequatchie. There the victorious Unionists bivouacked for the night. At 
2 o'clock next morning the 4th Ind., sent to reconnoiter the front, crossed 
the Sequatchie, and on the mountain-top, 4 miles beyond Dunlap, attacked 
the enemy's rear, taking 6 prisoners and recapturing 200 mules. The result 
of this engagement was the capture of 12 commissioned officers and 93 
enlisted men, the recapture of numerous prisoners, about 800 mules and 
a part of the wagon train that had not been burned. By a Confederate 
officer captured four days later, the Confederate loss was estimated at 
250 in killed and wounded. 

Anderson's Gap, Tenn., Oct. i. 1863. 2nd Indiana Cavalry. On this 
date Maj. Briggs, commanding the 2nd Ind. cavalry, which belonged to 
the 2nd brigade, ist cavalry division, moved his regiment from Bridge- 
port in pursuit of Wheeler, a part of whose command he overtook at 
Anderson's gap. He ordered companies A, C and M to the front as 
skirmishers, and companies I, K and L to the right and rear. In that 
order the regiment fought until the approach of night. No casualties were 
reported. Next morning the pursuit was renewed. 

Anderson's Hill, Miss., May i, 1863. (See Port Gibson.) 
Andrews' Plantation, Miss., May 11, 1865. (See Brown's Plantation.) 
Andricita, Jan. 20, 1862. The Andricita was a British schooner, which 
was captured by Federal troops on this date near Fort Morgan, Ala. 
(See Fort Morgan, same date.) 

Angel's Ranch, Cal., May 14, 1862. Detachment of the 2nd Cali- 
fornia Infantry. Lieut. Flynn, with 15 men, approached a band of 150 
Indians about 7 a. m., near Angel's ranch on Mad river. The Indians 
saw them coming and crossed the river on a fish dam, which they then 
cut away, hoping to prevent pursuit. Flynn attacked them and the savages 
stood their ground for about an hour, when they retreated, leaving 6 of 
their number dead on the field. The soldiers then destroyed the camp, 
provisions, clothing, etc. No casualties were reported in Flynn's party. 

Ann, Steamer, June 30, 1862. The Ann was an English blockade 
runner, which was captured by Federal troops off Fort Morgan, Ala., on 
this date, while trying to land a cargo. (See Fort Morgan, same date.) 



32 The Union Army 

Annandale, Va., Dec. 2, 1861. 45th New York Infantry. At i p. m. 
about 200 Confederate cavalry attacked the several pickets of the 45th 
N. Y. at a barricade on an unfinished railroad and elsewhere between 
Annandale Station and the Alexandria and Fairfax Court House turn- 
pike. No resistance was made, for the reason that the pickets believed 
the cavalrymen to be United States troops, who usually made their rounds 
about that time of day. Gen. Blenker said in his report that, "they were 
overpowered and had to fall back into the woods, where, under command 
of Capt. Weller, they made a stand, firing on the enemy." The Confed- 
erates in three detachments passed the barricade, surprised two men of the 
32nd N. Y. and made them prisoners, but not before the batteries had 
fired at them. The enemy then turned and retreated at full speed, again 
passing the barricade without molestation from the pickets, some of whom 
they captured. Blenker adds that two companies at Cox's farm and a 
small squad of mounted rifles were despatched to the vicinity of the 
barricade, charged on the Confederates and drove them back toward 
Centerville, following them 2 miles. Federal loss, i killed, 14 prisoners; 
Confederate loss, 3 killed, 2 prisoners. 

Annandale, Va., Oct. 18, 1863. Under date Oct. 19, Maj. Mosby re- 
ported to Gen. Stuart that near Annandale the day before he had, without 
loss to his own command, been involved in a sharp skirmish with double 
the number of his own cavalry, in which he had routed the Federals, 
capturing their captain in command and 6 or 7 men and horses. No 
Federal report of the affair is to be found. 

Annandale, Va., near, Oct. 22, 1863. A detachment of Col. L. C. 
Baker's battalion, F^irst District cavalry, and a detachment of the Cali- 
fornia battalion, encountered a squad of Mosby's men near the Little 
River turnpike, 3 miles from Fairfax Court House, between that point 
and Annandale, and killed I and captured 3 of them. 

Annandale, Va., March 16, 1864. Some cavalry stragglers from Kil- 
patrick's command were captured by a small band of guerrillas below this 
town. Two of them guarded by a like number of guerrillas killed their 
guards and escaped. 

Annandale, Va., Aug. 24, 1864. 26th Michigan Infantry and i6th New 
York Cavalry. Col. Mosby with about 250 men attacked the stockade 
at Annandale shortly after 5 a. m. Posting 2 pieces of artillery on the 
right and left of the road beyond carbine range, he sent a flag of truce 
to demand surrender. Under cover of this flag he advanced his 2 field- 
pieces to within 400 yards of the stockade, one menacing its southwest, 
the other at its northwest corner. Surrender was decisively refused. 
Then a detachment of about 100 of his men charged up toward the entrance 
of the stockade, but meeting a volley they swerved to the south and were 
deployed south and east of the stockade. Twice more a surrender was 
demanded and refused, the last time with the threat from Capt. Mickles, 
commanding the garrison, that another" flag of truce would be fired on. 
Mosby's artillery firing was so wild that though it was continued over 
an hour no Federal was wounded. Probably fearing Federal reinforce- 
ment, Mosby sent his field-pieces up the Fairfax Court House road and his 
entire force retreated slowly. A sergeant and two men on picket were 
captured. Confederate loss, i killed, 3 wounded. 

Anthony's Bridge, Gai, Aug. 31, 1864. (See Tonesboro. same date.) 

Anthony's Hill, Tenn., Dec. 25. 1864. (See King's Hill.) 

Antietam, Md., Sept. 16-17. 1862. Army of the Potomac. In his 
report of the battle of South Mountain, which was fought on the 14th, 
Gen. Meade says : "The command rested on their arms during the night. 
The ammunition train was brought up and the men's cartridge-boxes 
were filled, and every preparation made to renew the contest at daylight 
the next morning should the enemy be in force. Unfortunately, the 



Cyclopedia of Battles 33 

morning opened with a heavy mist, which prevented any view being ob- 
tained, so that it was not until 7 a. m. that it was ascertained that the 
enemy had retired from the mountain." As soon as this discovery 
was made the whole Union army began pouring through the passes of 
South Mountain in pursuit. At Boonsboro Pleasonton's cavalry came 
up with the Confederate rear guard. The 8th 111., which was in the 
advance, immediately charged and then pursued the retreating enemy 
for a distance of 2 miles. There the Illinois regiment was joined 
by a section of Tidball's battery, which threw a few shells into the 
Confederate lines, completely routing the enemy from the field. The 
Union loss in this skirmish was i killed and 15 wounded, while the 
Confederates left 30 killed and 50 wounded on the field, and a number 
of prisoners were taken. About the time this engagement commenced 
another was taking place on the Sharpsburg road, between the Con- 
federate rear and the 5th N. H. infantry. This skirmish lasted until 9 
p. m., when the New Hampshire troops were relieved, after losing 4 
men in killed and wounded. The enemy's loss here was 12 killed and 
wounded and 60 prisoners. The 2nd Del. and 52nd N. Y. also skirmished 
with the rear guard at other points, and in the afternoon the Confederates 
opened a heavy artillery fire on the Federal advance near Antietam 
creek, keeping it up until after dark. This was replied to by Tidball's 
horse artillery and Battery B, ist N. Y. light artillery, from the heights 
east of the creek. 

McClellan's hope was to bring on an engagement before the Con- 
federate forces could be united. Lee, on the other hand, was bending 
every efifort to concentrate his army in time to resist the general at- 
tack which he now realized was imminent. Stonewall Jackson, with his 
own division and those of Ewell and A. P. Hill, was at Harper's Ferry. 
McLaws, after his defeat at Crampton's pass on the 14th, formed his 
forces across the lower end of Pleasant Valley, while the Union forces 
under Gen. Franklin confronted him at the upper end of the valley, 
about 2 miles distant. Here the two lay all day on the 15th, each sup- 
posing the other to be superior in strength and neither daring to attack. 
The morning of the i6th found Longstreet and D. H. Hill occupying a 
position on the west side of the Antietam, between that stream and the 
little town of Sharpsburg. Here Lee personally directed the movements 
of his army, selecting the strongest possible ground to withstand an 
attack until the detachments under Jackson and McLaws could be united 
with the main body. Soon after crossing the Antietam Lee learned 
that the Federal garrison at Harper's Ferry had surrendered, and sent 
orders for the whole force near the ferry to move at once to Sharps- 
burg. The Army of the Potomac at this time was organized as follows : 
The 1st army corps, commanded by Maj.-Gen. Joseph Hooker, consisted 
of the divisions of Doubleday, Ricketts and Meade; the 2nd corps, Maj.- 
Gen. Edwin V. Sumner, included Richardson's, Sedgwick's and French's 
divisions; Couch's division of the 4th corps; the 5th corps, Maj.-Gen. 
Fitz John Porter, was composed of the divisions of Morell, Sykes and 
Humphreys; the 6th corps, Maj.-Gen. William B. Franklin, embraced 
the divisions of Slocum and W. F. Smith; the gth corps, Maj.-Gen. 
Ambrose E. Burnside consisted of the divis'ions of Willcox, Sturgis and 
Rodman, and the Kanawha division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. Jacob D. 
Cox; the 12th corps, Maj.-Gen. Joseph K. F. Mansfield, included the 
divisions of Williams and Greene; the cavalry division numbering five 
brigades and commanded by Brig.-Gen. Alfred Pleasonton, and over 
50 batteries of artillery. In his report of the campaign McClellan gives 
the number of his forces at 87,164. Lee, in his official report on the 
battle of Antietam, says : "This great battle was fought by less than 
40,000 men on our side." 

Vol. V-3 



34 The Union Army 

The Confederate line of battle on the i6th extended from the Poto- 
mac, at a point a little below Mercersville, to the Antietam about a 
mile below Sharpsburg. It was nearly four miles long and occupied a 
broken country, the low hills being separated by narrow valleys, while 
almost everywhere the limestone cropped out above the surface, afford- 
ing a natural shelter for the troops. In front the line was protected 
by the Antietam, which was crossed by three bridges and several fords, 
though the latter were all too difficult to attempt a crossing with 
artillery. Near the south end of Lee's line was the bridge afterward 
known as the "Burnside bridge;" on the Sharpsburg and Boonsboro 
road, near the center of the line, was the second bridge, while the third 
was the stone bridge on the Williamsport road still further north. Near 
the mouth of the stream was a fourth bridge, but it was not used 
during the operations, except b)^ A. P. Hill in bringing up his division 
from Harper's Ferry. On the Hagerstown pike, about a mile from 
Sharpsburg, stood the Dunker church in the edge of a patch of timber, 
since known as the "West woods." At the church the Smoketown 
road leaves the pike, and about half a mile north on this road were 
some more timber patches called the "East woods." In forming his 
line Lee posted Longstreet on the right, so as to cover the Burnside 
bridge, and D. H. Hill on the left, covering the bridge on the Boons- 
boro road. On the opposite side of the Antietam lay the Union army 
with the 1st corps op the extreme right and the 9th on the left. Mc- 
Clellan established his headquarters at the Pry house, a short distance 
northwest of the Boonsboro road and near the center of his line. Lee's 
headquarters were at the west side of Sharpsburg on the road leading 
to Shepherdstown. 

Shortly after i p. m. on the i6th Hooker received orders to cross 
the Antietam and attack the Confederate left. Meade's and Ricketts' 
divisions crossed at the stone bridge and Doubleday's at the ford just 
below. Once across the stream he turned to the right in order to gain 
the watershed between the Antietam and Potomac, intending to follow 
the ridge until he gained the enemy's left flank. Some skirmishing oc- 
curred along the line of march, and information of Hooker's movements 
was at once carried to Lee. At the time the messenger arrived Lee 
was in council with Longstreet and Jackson, who had arrived from 
Harper's Ferry that morning. Lee immediately ordered Jackson to the 
command of the left wing and Hood's command was moved from the 
center to a position near the Dunker church. A little while before sun- 
set Hooker pushed forward a battery and opened fire on Jackson's left. 
The fire was promptly returned and the artillery duel was continued 
until after dark, when the corps went into bivouac a short distance north 
of the East woods, where the men rested on their arms during the night, 
ready to begin the attack the next morning. All that night there was 
desultory firing between the pickets, who were so close to each other that 
at times their footsteps could be heard. During the night Mansfield's 
corps w^as sent over to the assistance of Hooker and about 2 a. m. 
on the 17th took up a position on the Poffenberger farm, about a mile 
in Hooker's rear. As soon as it was light enough to distinguish objects 
on the morning of the 17th the Federal skirmishers began their %vork in 
the East woods. Soon afterward the entire corps was thrown into line 
with Doubleday on the right, Ricketts on the left, and Meade in re- 
serve in tlie center, with instructions to reinforce either of the other di- 
visions as circumstances might require. Thus formed the whole line 
moved forward and the real battle of Antietam was begim. In the 
triangular space between the Hagerstown and Smoketown roads, and 
directly in front of Hooker, was a 30-acre field of corn in which the 
enemy had stationed a large force of infantry during the night. Before 



Cyclopedia of Battles 35 

this force fired a shot its presence was discovered by the sun's rays 
on the bayonets, and in his report Hooker says : "Instructions were 
immediately given for the assemblage of all my spare batteries, near 
at hand, of which I think there were five or six, to spring into battery, 
on the right of this field, and to open with canister at once. In the 
time I am writing every stalk of corn in the northern and greater 
part of the field was cut as closely as could have been done with a 
knife, and the slain lay in rows precisely as they had stood in their ranks 
a few moments before, it was never my fortune to witness a more 
bloody, dismal battle-field." The survivors beat a rapid retreat toward 
the church and there sought shelter behind rocks, trees and stone fences. 
The Union men pressed forward in close pursuit for some distance, 
but the Confederates were rallied and reinforced, when the Federals 
were in turn forced to fall back. 

At this juncture Mansfield arrived, but while deploying his men 
he fell mortally wounded and the command of the corps fell on Gen. 
Williams, who had barely time to receive a few general instructions 
from Hooker before he was forced to go into the fight. Not knowing 
the exact position of the ist corps there was some lack of unity in the 
movements of the various division commanders, but after nearly two 
hours of hard fighting the enemy was driven back to the West woods. 
Greene's division succeeded in turning Jackson's right and in gaining a 
position in the edge of the woods near the Dunker church, where he 
hung on tenaciously, repulsing several attempts to dislodge him. In this 
part of the engagement the Confederates suiTered severely. J. .R Jones, 
who was in command of Jackson's division, was wounded. Starke, who 
succeeded him, was soon afterward killed. Lawton then took command 
of the division and was wounded and borne from the field. Nearly 
one-half the entire force on the Confederate left were killled or wounded, 
and it is probable that if Sumner had arrived at this time the entire 
Confederate army could have been crushed. It was nearly lo o'clock, 
however, before Sumner's corps, some 18,000 strong, reached the field, 
coming on in three columns. Sedgwick on the right occupied the 
position from which Hooker had been driven earlier in the action. Next 
came the divisions of French and Richardson, the Union line now being 
extended well down toward the Boonsboro road. Sedgwick's division went in- 
to battle in three lines. The first had hardly become engaged when the 
Confederates made a desperate rush, broke through the Union line 
and turned Sedgwick's left. The third line was quickly faced about to 
repel an attack from the rear, but the Confederate fire on the left was 
so effective that the entire division was forced to retire. Here Sedg- 
wick was wounded, but he remained in the saddle until his command 
was rallied and placed in a strong position, where, under the command 
of Gen. Howard, it remained throughout the rest of the battle. 

The battle was gradually moving southward and after ten o'clock 
there was no more serious fighting north of the church. About half a 
mile south of the church a road leaves the pike and, following a zigzag 
course, strikes the Boonsboro road about half-way between Sharps- 
burg and the Antietam. For some distance after leaving the pike this 
road was lower than the ground on either side, forming a natural 
breastwork, and was known as the sunken road. It was toward this 
road that French and Richardson directed their movements. When 
Lee saw that his left was defeated and his center in danger of being 
broken, he brought up every available man from his right. In quick 
succession the divisions of Walker, Anderson and AIcLaws were hurled 
against Sumner's veterans. Sumner was reinforced by part of Mans- 
field's corps and the Confederates were slowly forced back, every foot 
of the ground being stubbornly contested, until their final stand was 



36 The Union Army 

made at the sunken road. In this part of the engagement the heavy 
guns of the Union batteries east of the Antietam rendered important 
service by preventing the enemy from using his artillery. D. H. Hill, 
who commanded this part of the Confederate line, says : "Our artillery 
could not cope with the superior weight, caliber, range and number of 
the Yankee gims. They were smashed up or withdrawn before they 
could be turned against the massive columns of attack." At last Col. 
Barlow, commanding the ist brigade of Richardson's division, made a 
successful flank movement on the road and captured about 300 men who 
still clung to it, more as a place of shelter than in the hope of checking 
the Federal advance. The road was filled with Confederate dead and is 
referred to in all descriptions of the battle as the "Bloody Lane." 

In his report of the battle of Antietam McClellan says : "My plan 
for the impending general engagement was to attack the enemy's left 
with the corps of Hooker and Mansfield, supported by Sumner's, and 
if necessary by Franklin's and as soon as matters looked favorably there to 
move the corps of Burnside against the enemy's extreme right upon the 
ridge running to the south and rear of Sharpsburg, and having carried 
their position, to press along the crest toward our right, and whenever 
either of these flank movements should be successful, to advance our 
center with all the forces then disposable." In pursuance of this plan 
the 9th corps was stationed on the Federal left, with instructions to 
assault and carry the Burnside bridge whenever an order to that efiFect 
should be issued from headquarters. McClellan says that this order was 
sent to Burnside at 8 a. m. on the 17th, while the latter says he received it 
"about ten o'clock." The bridge was guarded by Toombs' brigade, 
which occupied a strong position among the rocks and trees on the 
bluff commanding the west end of the bridge, while the bridge, the ford 
below, and in fact, the entire valley, were all effectually covered by the 
Confederate batteries. The first attempt to carry the bridge was made by 
Crook's brigade of the Kanawha division, with the nth Conn, deployed 
as skirmishers to cover the advance. The plan was to move the brigade 
across the bridge in two columns of fours, which were to turn to the 
right and left as soon as they reached the opposite bank, Rodman's 
division meanwhile to try to cross at a ford about a third of a mile 
farther down the creek. This plan failed because Crook missed his 
way and reached the stream some distance above the bridge, where he 
became engaged with the enemy on the west bank. A second effort, made 
by the 2nd Md. and 6th N. H. infantry, likewise proved a failure. 
The two regiments charged across the bridge with fixed bayonets, but 
were met by a withering fire of artillery and musketry and forced to 
fall back. Gen. Cox, to whom Burnside had entrusted the work of 
carrying the bridge, then directed Gen. Sturgis to select two regiments 
from Ferrero's brigade and push them across the bridge in accordance 
with the first plan. Sturgis selected the 51st N. Y. and the 51st Penn. 
A howitzer from Simmonds' battery was brought forward and placed 
where it covered the west end of the bridge. When everything was in 
readiness the strong skirmish line opened fire, the howitzer was operated 
rapidly, throwing double charges of canister into the ranks of Toombs' 
men, and under this protection the two regiments advanced at the double- 
quick with fixed bayonets and dashed across the bridge, the Confederates 
hastily retreating before the impetuous charge. The remainder of 
Sturgis' division and Crook's brigade were hurried over to the sup- 
port of the two gallant regiments, and these were soon further strength- 
ened by Rodman's division and Scammon's brigade, which had succeeded 
in crossing at the ford. Here another delay ensued. Sturgis' and 
Crook's men had almost exhausted their ammunition and a halt was 
made necessary until their cartridge-boxes were replenished. During 



Cyclopedia of Battles 37 

the pause Willcox's division and several light batteries were brought 
over, the remaining batteries being planted on the hills east of the 
creek, and at 3 p. m. the left wing began its advance on Sharpsburg. 
The Confederates under D. R. Jones were soon encountered, drawn up 
diagonally across the ridge, screened by stone fences, etc., and well sup- 
ported by artillery. Welsh's and Christ's brigades, which were in ad- 
vance, drove them back after some sharp fighting, until near the edge 
of the village, where Jones made his final stand in an old orchard. 
From this position he was routed by the batteries with Willcox's 
division and the orchard was occupied by the infantry. In the advance 
Rodman's division formed the extreme left, and as the movement was 
made in the form of a right wheel he became separated from Willcox, 
causing a break in the line and throwing Rodman's brigades en echelon. 
To the south was a field of tall corn, through which A. P. Hill's division, 
just up from Harper's Ferry, was advancing in line of battle to strike 
the left flank. They wore the blue uniforms captured at the ferry 
and it was thought they were part of the Union forces until they 
opened fire. Scammon quickly faced his brigade to the left and held 
Hill in check until the line could be reformed. In order to do this it was 
necessary for Willcox and Crook to retire somewhat from their ad- 
vanced position, while Sturgis came up with his command to fill the 
break in the line. This gave Jones an opportunity to retire beyond 
Sharpsburg and take a position on the high ground where the national 
cemetery is now located, but it no doubt saved Rodman's division from 
being cut to pieces. This virtually ended the battle of Antietam, and at 
the close the two armies held the same relative positions they occupied 
at the commencement of the fight. 

The Union loss was 2,108 killed, 9,549 wounded and 753 captured or 
missing. According to Confederate reports Lee's army lost 1,512 killed, 
7,816 wounded and 1,844 captured or missing, a much greater loss in 
proportion to the number of troops engaged than that inflicted on the 
Federal forces. Both sides claimed a victory and the engagement might 
well be designated as a drawn battle. The i8th was spent by both armies, 
in resting the tired troops and in caring for the dead and wounded. 
McClellan's intention was to renew the fight on the 19th, but when the 
sun rose that morning it was discovered that the enemy had evacuated 
his position during the night, crossed the Potomac at a ford some dis- 
tance below the Shepherdstown road, and retired into Virginia. Lee's^ 
invasion of Maryland was ended. 
Antietam, Md., July 6. 1864. 

Antietam Bridge, Md., July 8, 1864. Detachment, West Virginia. 
Cavalry. Edwin Frey, captain and assistant commissary of musters, with, 
40 men of the 2nd cavalry division. Department of West Virginia, en- 
gaged the enemy's rear guard of cavalry and gained control of the bridge. 
The Confederate main force took the Boonsboro road, to the right of 
John Brown's school house. 

Antietam Creek, Md., Sept. 15, 1862. (See Antietam.) 
Antietam Ford, Md., Aug. 4, 1864. At 4:30 p. m. Federal pickets were 
driven from Antietam Ford and the enemy crossed at Shepherdstown and 
Dam No. 4, with infantry, cavalry and artillery, on his advance into 
Loudoun county. Va. 

Antietam Iron-Works, Md., Aug. 2^, 1861. 

Antioch, Tenn., Jan. 25, 1863. The only official mention of this affair 
is in the report of Confederate Gen. Joseph Wheeler, who states that his 
cavalry attacked and captured a small wagon train, but gives no detailed 
report of the engagement nor the extent of the casualties. 

Antioch Church, Ala., Aug. 18-19, 1864. Detachments, ist Brigade, 
4th Division, Army of the Cumberland. Lieut. -Col. Prosser of the 2nd 



38 The Union Army 

Tenn. cavalry, in command of several detachments, while returning from a 
scout to Moulton, was attacked in the rear by a portion of Patterson's 
Confederate cavalry late on the afternoon of the i8th. He went into 
camp near Antioch Church and his pursuers annoyed his pickets until 
after midnight. Early on the morning of the 19th, the Confederate force, 
augmented to more than 500 men, massed at a single point and furiously 
attacked Prosser's force, but was repulsed with considerable loss in killed, 
wounded and prisoners. Among the latter were represented 6 different 
regiments and battalions. Federal loss, i wounded, i missing. 

Antioch Church, Va., May 23, 1863. 9th Vermont and Ii8th New 
York Infantry. Ihe two regiments were sent by Maj.-Gen. Peck, com- 
manding at Suffolk, to assist in the protection of working parties engaged 
in tearing up railway tracks between Suffolk and the Blackwater river. 
These troops, under command of Brig.-Gen. Dodge, were attacked at 
Antioch Church at 6:15 p. m. Loss i wounded, i prisoner. Some prisoners 
were taken from the enemy. 

Antioch Station, Tenn., April 10, 1863. Detachment of the loth 
Michigan Infantry. Lieut. -Col. Ferrill of the Texas rangers (Confed- 
erate) with about 500 men of different regiments of Gen. Wharton's 
brigade, attacked a passenger train guarded by Federal soldiers on the 
Murfreesboro & Nashville railroad near Antioch Station. He spread the 
track and placed his men in ambush. The train approached at full speed, 
the guards on the tops of the cars and on the platform car. Several 
gTiards were killed and wounded. Those who were unhurt leaped to the 
ground, took shelter behind the cars and kept up a fire for some minutes, 
until overpowered by superior numbers, when they abandoned the train 
and falling back to a position behind a fence, repulsed a pursuing party 
of Confederates. Here Lieut. Vanderburgh, who had been twice wounded, 
was wounded again and disabled. Lieut. Nichols retreated with the men 
to a stockade near LaVergne, and was reinforced by 15 men stationed 
there. Returning with his full force to the scene of the attack, he found 
that the Confederates had captured the mail and express matter and set 
fire to the train. He saved the engine and cared for the wounded. Federal 
loss, 6 killed, 12 wounded. Confederate, 6 killed, several wounded. 

Antoine, Ark., April 2. 1864. (See Camden, Ark., Expedition to.) 

Anxvois, River, Mo., Oct. 20, 1862. loth Missouri Militia Cavalry. 

Apache Canon, New Mex., March 26, 1862. Detachment ist Colorado, 
1st and 3d U. S. Cavalry, and ist Colorado Infantry. The detachment, 
numbering 418 men and commanded by Col. Chivington of the ist Col- 
orado infantry, left Bernal Springs and moved toward Santa Fe, with a 
view to capturing or dispersing a Confederate force reported to be 
stationed there. The enemy, 250 to 300 strong, was engaged near Johnson's 
ranch in the Apache caiion, about 15 miles from Santa Fe, and was de- 
feated with a loss, according to Confederate accounts, of 32 killed, 43 
wounded and 71 captured. The Union loss was 3 killed, 8 wounded, two 
of the latter dying soon after the fight. 

Apache Canon, N. Mex., July 15, 1862. 

Apache Pass, Ariz., July 15, 1862. Detachment, ist California Cavalry. 
In the summer of 1862, this pass, nearly 4 miles long, through a spur of 
the Chiricahua mountains, was the scene of some noteworthy events in 
connection with army operations. A fine spring of water made it a 
favorite resort of Indians. The Apaches occupied the whole country be- 
tween the Rio Grande and the Colorado river and made it next to im- 
possible for any small party of whites to pass through that great stretch 
of country. Three men who tried to convey an express from Gen. Carle- 
ton, at Tucson to Gen. Canby were attacked near the pass and 2 of them killed. 
The third escaped only after being pursued 40 miles and near Mesilla was 
captured by Texans, his despatches, detailing (3arleton's plans, falling into 



Cyclopedia of Battles 39 

their hands. On June 22, Carleton sent forward Lieut.-Col. Eyre, of the 
1st Cal. cavalry, with an advance guard of 140 men. At the spring in 
the pass, a company of infantry and a part of a company of cavalry with 
2 mountain howitzers, fought the Indians for four hours, killing several 
and sustaining a loss of 3 killed and several wounded. On June 25, Eyre 
held a conference with an Apache chief, who had a party of 75 to 100 
braves, all mounted on good horses and armed with rifles and six- 
shooters, and gave him food and tobacco and was assured of the Indians* 
friendship. That day 3 of his soldiers who had been separated from the 
troop were shot through thoir breasts, lanced through their necks, stripped 
of their clothing and 2 of them were scalped. The Apaches got away with 
one horse. The Indians were pursued but were, not overtaken. 

Apache Pass, N. Mex., April 25, 1863. 5th California Infantry. Capt 
Harrover with a detachment of his regiment attacked about 200 Apache 
Indians, 30 of them mounted and several of them armed with guns. They 
fell back at the first fire, but fought nearly two hours, llie Federals lost 
I wounded ; the Indians, 3 killed and several wounded. 

Apalachicola, River, Fla., Oct. 15, 1862. Naval expedition. 

Appomattox Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. Army of the Potomac; 
Army of the James. Appomattox Court House was the county seat of 
Appomattox county, and is about 65 miles nearly due west of Peters- 
burg. On the night of April 2 the Confederate army under Gen. R. E. 
Lee evacuated the intrenchments about Richmond and Petersburg and 
started for Danville. Lee's object was to effect a junction with the 
Confederate forces under Gen. J. E. Johnston in North Carolina, but 
Gen. Grant, commanding the Union armies, divined the enemy's in- 
tentions and disposed his forces to intercept the retreat, thus forcing Lee 
to change his course toward Lynchburg. The crying need of the Con- 
federate army was rations. For several days the men had nothing to 
eat but parched corn, and some had not even that. Early on the 
morning of the 7th seven trains, loaded with supplies for the Con- 
federate army, arrived at Farmville, where the Petersburg & Lynchburg 
railroad crossed the Appomattox river, and the work of distributing 
rations was commenced. Before the work of unloading the trains could 
be completed Gen. Ord was so close upon Farmville that Lee ordered 
the remaining trains to Appomattox Court House, 20 miles farther 
west, and moved his army toward that point by the roads on the north 
side of the river. Lee was detained by the 2nd corps, under Gen. 
Humphreys, within 4 miles of Farmville all day on the 7th, which gave 
Gen. Sheridan an opportunity to push the Federal cavalry around to 
Appomattox Station and capture the trains, and again the Confederate 
army was without food or forage. From Farmville, on the evening of 
the 7th, Grant wrote the following letter to the Confederate com- 
mander: 

"General : The result of the last week must convince you of the hope- 
lessness of further resistance on the part of the Army of Northern 
VSrginia in this struggle. I feel that it is so, and regard it as my duty 
to shift the responsibility of any further effusion of blood by asking 
of you the surrender of that portion of the C. S. Army known as the 
Army of Northern Virginia." 

Before this letter was received several of Lee's own generals had 
proposed to him to surrender. They saw that in the end defeat was 
certain, and realized that the longer the surrender was postponed the 
greater would be the suffering of their unfortunate soldiers. Concerning 
the condition of the Confederate army at this time, Badeau says : "Lee 
had himself no idea of the strength of his command. The officers 
were involved in the demoralization of the men ; they made no effort to 
prevent straggling, and shut their eyes on the hourly reduction of their 



40 The Union Army 

force, riding, dogged and indifferent, in advance of their commands. 
Only' when the national columns caught up and attacked the- rear did 
some of the old spirit seem to reanimate these jaded veterans. Whenever 
they were summoned to resist, they faced boldly around, and then, like 
wounded beasts, they struck out terrible blows. The fighting at Sailor's 
creek was as desperate for awhile as in any battle of the war ; and the 
repulse of Miles on the 7th, the capture of a portion of Crook's cavalry 
with Gregg himself at their head, showed like the expiring flashes of a 
nearly burnt out fire." 

To Grant's letter Lee replied the same night : "General : I have 
received your note of this date. Though not entertaining the opinion 
you express of the hopelessness of further resistance on the part of 
the Army of Northern Virginia, I reciprocate your desire to avoid 
useless effusion of blood, and therefore, before considering your propo- 
sition, ask the terms you will offer on condition of its surrender.'' 

Although the way for negotiations looking to a surrender was thus 
opened neither side remained idle. During the night of the 7th Lee 
withdrew from his position in front of the 2nd corps and hurried on 
toward Appomattox Court House, Humphreys following and Gen. 
Wright with the 6th corps moving on a parallel road in an effort to 
cut off the line of retreat. The rations received at Farmville improved 
the spirits and physical condition of the Confederate soldiers, and, 
though Humphreys and Wright strained every nerve to overtake the 
enemy, at midnight on the 8th it looked as if Lee might reach Lynch- 
burg. On the 8th letters were again exchanged between Grant and Lee. 
The former wrote : 

"General : Your note of last evening, in reply to mine, of same 
date, asking the condition on which I will accept the surrender of the 
Army of Northern Virginia, is just received. In reply I would say 
that, peace being my great desire, there is but one condition I would 
insist upon, viz., that the men and officers surrendered shall be disqualified 
for taking up arms again against the government of the United States 
until properly exchanged. I will meet you, or will designate officers 
to meet any officers you may name for the same purpose, at any point 
agreeable to you, for the purpose of arranging definitely the terms upon 
which the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia will be re- 
ceived." 

Lee wrote : "General : I received at a late hour your note of today. 
In mine of yesterday I did not intend to propose the surrender of the 
Army of Northern Virginia, but to ask the terms of your proposition. 
To be frank, I do not think the emergency has arisen to call for the 
surrender of this army; but as the restoration of peace should be the 
sole object of all, I desired to know whether your proposals would lead 
to that end. I cannot, therefore, meet you with a view to surrender 
the Army of Northern Virginia; jjut as far as your proposal may affect 
the C. S. forces under my command, and tend to the restoration of 
peace, I should be pleased to meet you at 10 a. m. tomorrow, on the 
old stage road to Richmond, between the picket-lines of the two armies." 

In the meantime Ord, with Griffin's (5th) corps. Gibbon's (24th), 
and a division of the 25th, had been rapidly moving westward and 
about daylight of the 9th joined Sheridan at Appomattox Station, 5 
miles south of the Court House. Lee was now between two strong 
forces, though that fact was not known to him until a few hours later. 
He had reasons to believe that Sheridan was between him and Lynch- 
burg and ordered Fitzhugh Lee, supported by Gordon's corps, to attack 
the Federal cavalry early on the morning of the 9th and open a way 
for the remainder of the army. Sheridan dismounted and advanced a 
part of his command, with instructions to fall back gradually when at- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 41 

tacked, thus drawing the enemy upon Ord's line of battle. This move- 
ment was successfully executed, but as soon as the enemy discovered 
the infantry he stopped his pursuit of the cavalry and began to fall 
back toward the Court House. Sheridan mounted his men and moved 
quickly around to the enemy's left, while Ord advanced in front. Custer, 
whose division was in advance, was about to charge the trains and the 
confused mass of Confederates in his front, when a white flag was 
displayed and hostilities were ordered to be suspended. A similar order 
was also sent to Humphreys and Wright, who at ii a. m. had come up 
with the enemy's skirmishers, 3 miles from Appomattox Court House. 
To Lee's letter of the 8th Grant had replied as follows : "General : 
Your note of yesterday is received. As I have no authority to treat on 
the subject of peace the meeting proposed for 10 a. m. today could 
lead to no good. I will state, however. General, that I am equally 
anxious for peace with yourself, and the whole North entertain the 
same feeling. The terms upon which peace can be had are well under- 
stood. By the South laying down their arms they will hasten that 
most desirable event, save thousands of human lives, and hundreds of 
millions of property not yet destroyed." 

This was written and despatched early on Sunday morning, April 9, 
and immediately afterward Grant started for the head of the column. 
At 10 a. m. Lee rode out to the picket-line on the stage road, where he 
hoped to meet Grant in accordance with his request of the day before. 
There he was handed Grant's communication. Knowing that a large 
force was between him and Lynchburg and another close upon his 
rear, Lee evidently changed his mind regarding the "emergency" that 
called for the surrender of his army. Writing in duplicate a request 
for an interview and asking a suspension of hostilities, several couriers 
were sent in different directions in search of the Federal general. One 
of these communications reached Grant about noon and he immediately 
replied as follows: "Your note of this date is but this moment (11:50 
a. m.) received, in consequence of my having passed from the Rich- 
mond and Lynchburg road to the Farmville and Lynchburg road. I am 
at this writing about four miles west of Walker's church and will 
push forward to the front for the purpose of meeting you. Notice 
sent to me on this road where you wish the interview to take place will 
meet me." 

Grant was then conducted to Sheridan's line of battle. In his 
Memoirs he says he found the troops very much excited, believing that 
Johnston was coming up from North Carolina and that Lee's action 
was all a ruse to gain time. He says the men declared that they 
would whip Lee's army in five minutes if he would let them go in. 
Grant, however, knew more about the location of Johnston's army than 
did the men, and besides he had no doubt that the Confederate general 
was acting in good faith. Lee was found at the house of a Mr. McLean 
in the village, his army being drawn up on Clover hill, just outside the 
town. After some friendly conversation, Lee suggested that Grant re- 
duce his terms to writing, in order that they might be more carefully 
gone over and considered. In response to this request Grant wrote 
the following: 

"General : In accordance with the substance of my letter to you 
of the 8th instant, I propose to receive the surrender' of the Army of 
Northern Virginia on the following terms, to wit : Rolls of all the 
officers and men to be made in duplicate — one copy to be given to an 
officer to be designated by me, the other to be retained by such officer 
or officers as you may designate, the officers to give their individual 
paroles not to take up arms against the government of the United 
States until properly exchanged, and each company or regimental com- 



'42 The Union Army 

mander sign a like parole for the men of their commands. The arms, 
artillery, and public property to be packed and stacked, and turned 
over to the officers appointed by me to receive them. This will not 
embrace the side-arms of the officers, nor their private horses or bag- 
gage. This done, each officer and man will be allowed to return to 
their homes, not to be disturbed by United States authority as long as 
they observe their paroles, and the laws in force where they may 
reside." 

In discussing the terms Lee said that the artillerists and cavalrymen 
of the Confederate army owned their own horses, and asked if it was 
to be understood that these men were to be permitted to retain them. 
Grant told him that it was not so stipulated in the written proposition, 
but that as most of the men were probably farmers, and would need 
their horses in the cultivation of their crops, the horses might be re- 
tained by the men, and that he would so instruct the officers left behind 
to receive the paroles of the troops. This verbal promise of the Union 
general was sacredly kept, thus leaving every Confederate soldier who 
claimed to own a horse or mule in full possession of the same. Lee 
then sat down and wrote the following reply to Grant's proposal: 
"General: I have received your letter of this date containing the terms 
of surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia as proposed by you. As 
they are substantially the same as those expressed in your letter of 
the 8th instant, they are accepted. I will proceed to designate the proper 
officers to carry the stipulations into effect." 

Grant appointed Maj.-Gen. John Gibbon, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. Charles Griffin, 
and Bvt. Maj.-Gen. Wesley Merritt to carry into effect the terms of 
the agreement, and Bvt. Brig.-Gen. George H. Sharpe, assistant provost- 
marshal-general, to take charge of the rolls and paroles. Lee appointed 
Lieut.-Gen. James Longstreet, Maj.-Gen. John B. Gordon, and Brig.- 
Gen. W. N. Pendleton. The commands of Gibbon and Griffin and 
Mackenzie's cavalry were left at Appomattox until the paroling of the sur- 
rendered army was completed, and to take charge of the public property. 
The remainder of the army was directed to move to Burkeville. As Lee's 
army was without rations. Grant directed that the trains captured by 
Custer at Appomattox Station on the 8th should be run back to that 
point and the Confederates supplied from their captured stores. Ac- 
cording to the official reports the Union losses from March 29, the 
beginning of the Appomattox campaign, until April 9 aggregated 1,316 
killed, 7,750 wounded and 1.714 missing. During the same period the 
Confederates lost not less than 5,000 in killed and wounded, and 46,495 
were captured. In the final surrender 27,516 men were paroled, 22,633 
stand of small arms and all the munitions of war belonging to the 
Army of Northern Virginia were turned over to the Federal authorities. 
The four years' war was at an end. 

Appomattox Station, Va., April 8, 1865. 3rd Cavalry Division, Army 
of the Potomac. In the morning Gens. Merritt and Mackenzie marched 
toward Prospect Station, from which point Merritt's and Crook's com- 
mands moved on to Appomattox Depot on the Lynchburg railroad, 5 miles 
south of Appomattox Court House. Shortly after the march began, Gen. 
Sheridan was notified that there were at Appomattox Station four trains 
of cars loaded with supplies for Lee's army. Merritt and Crook were at 
once notified and pressed forward rapidly for 28 miles. Gen. Custer, who 
had the advance with the 3d division, surprised the enemy, skillfully threw 
a force in the rear of the trains and captured them. Without halting a 
moment he then pushed on, driving the enemy in the direction of Appo- 
mattox Court House, capturing many prisoners, 24 pieces of artillery, a 
hospital train and several battle-flags. The train was guarded by about 
two divisions of infantry and more than 30 pieces of artillery, all under 



Cyclopedia of Battles 43 

command of Maj.-Gen. Walker, who repulsed several attacks, but at 9 
p. m. Custer's perseverance won the train. It is impossible to over- 
estimate the value of this day's work. The Confederates' supplies were 
taken almost literally out of their mouths. On their line of retreat, at a 
point where they had not looked for opposition a strong force was posted. 
iSlight was upon them, it was their last night under the flag of the 
Confederacy. 

Aquia Creek, Va., May 29-June i, 1861. Union Gunboats. Aquia 
Creek, on a small, navigable stream of the same name flowing into the 
Potomac 55 miles below Washington, with which it had steamboat con- 
nections, was an important point on the through route from New Orleans 
and Mobile to New York. Batteries planted there by Virginia troops 
were attacked on these dates by the Federal gunboats Freeborn, Anacostia, 
Resolute and Pawnee. After the tirst attack Col. Ruggles moved 700 men 
across from Fredericksburg, with some 6-pounder riHed guns, established 
Col. Bate's Tennessee regiment at Brooke Station and returned the rest 
of his force to Fredericksburg. These brief and indecisive affairs marked 
the beginning of hostilities on the waters of the Potomac. They were 
almost bloodless. 

Aransas Bay, Tex., Feb. 22, 1862. At 3 -.30 p. m. two launches manned 
by Federal troops, came within 3 miles of Camp Aransas, captured a 
sloop, bound for Corpus Christi and took from her medicines and other 
property presumably intended for Confederate use. Capt. Neal (Con- 
federate) with his men pursued in boats, but made no captures. Shots 
were exchanged without inflicting any known damage. 

Aransas Bay, Tex., April 22, 1862. Two sloops with 32 men com- 
manded by Capt. Neal and Lieut. Canfield, from Camp Aransas, captured 
two Federal launches, which had come into Aransas bay and taken three 
sloops. One of them, the Democrat, after being stripped of her sails was 
left to its captain and mate, who had to pole their way to land. With 
the other two the Federals bore down toward Shell Banks, evidently ex- 
pecting to pass the fort unchallenged and, once out of Aransas Pass, to 
have the protection of a blockading vessel. When pursued by the two 
sloops, having no safe egress from the bay, they abandoned their prizes, 
took to their launches and soon entered Blind Bayou. Headed off on land 
by Neal and Canfield, they left their launches and ran to the sand-hills. 
There were 22 of them and before they disappeared they exchanged a 
few shots with their pursuers. 

Aransas Pass, Tex., Nov. 17, 1863. Detachment 3rd Brigade, 2nd 
Division, Department of the Gulf, and Gunboat Monongahela. At sunset 
on the i6th Gen. Ransom, who was leading an expedition against Fort 
Esperanza, landed the 13th and 15th Me., part of the 20th la. and two 
boat howitzers at the south end of Mustang island and marched up the 
beach toward the north end, where the Confederates had a garrison of 
about 100 men. with 3 pieces of heavy artillery. At 4 o'clock the next 
morning he had marched 18 miles, when he halted to r'est his men and 
wait for daylight. Resuming his march a little after 6 o'clock he en- 
countered the enemy's pickets about a mile from the garrison, and after a 
slight skirmish drove them into their camp. About this time the Mononga- 
hela steamed up and threw a few 11 -inch shells into the enemy's lines, 
causing consternation among them. The garrison surrendered uncon- 
ditionally and Col. Isaac Dyer, with the 15th Me., was' left in charge of 
the post. 

Arcadia, Mo., Sept. 26-27, 1864. (See Fort Davidson.) 

Areata, Cal., April 8, 1862. This was an attack by Indians on a Federal 
train loaded with military supplies, about 8 miles from Areata. The 
packers were fired upon and several mules were captured. 

Areata, Cal., June 6-7, 1862. (See Daley's Ferry.) 



44 The Union Army 

Areata, Cal., Aug. 21, 1862. (See Light Prairie.) 

Arkadelphia, Ark., Feb. 15, 1863. Near Arkadelphia Capt. Brown's 
command, consisting of 83 men, was attacked in the mountains bordering 
the Ouachita river, by 300 Confederates. There was lighting from sunrise 
until noon, when the Confederates were routed. Federal loss, 2 killed, 
4 wounded ; Confederate loss, 16 killed, 12 wounded. 

Arkadelphia, Ark., March 29-April i, 1864. (See Camden, Ark., Ex- 
pedition to.; 

Arkansas (Confederate Ram), July 15, 1862. Union Gunboats on the 
Mississippi. The construction of the iron-clad rams, Arkansas and Tennes- 
see, was begun at Memphis. Upon the fall of Memphis the Tennessee was 
burned and the Arkansas was taken by her commander, Capt. McBlair, to 
the Yazoo river. Capt. Brown succeeded McBlair and got the Arkansas 
ready for service by July, 1862. She was indifferently armored with 
railroad iron, but was admirably officered and carried two 8-inch 
columbiads, two 9-inch Dahlgren guns, four 6-inch rifles and 2 smooth bore 
32-pounders. Brown determined after 'consultation with Gen. Van Dorn, 
at Vicksburg, 50 miles distant, to take the Arkansas down to that city, 
though he knew that he must pass Farragut's and Davis' vessels and 
Ellet's rams. Among these vessels, all at anchor in the Mississippi 3 miles 
below the mouth of the Yazoo, were 6 iron-clads, 7 rams and 10 large ships 
of war. He started on the morning of July 5, 1862. Six miles from the 
mouth of the Yazoo river, she was met by the United States iron-clad 
Carondelet, the gunboat Tyler, and the ram. Queen of the West. The three 
vessels turned and there was a running fight. The Federal ram got 
away. The Tyler was too weak to harm the Arkansas. The Carondelet 
fought gallantly, suffering a heavy loss in killed and wounded, and was 
driven into shoal water. Whether or not she would have surrendered is 
a question that has been many times discussed. The Arkansas was too 
busy to take prizes. The fire from the Carondelet had wounded Brown 
and killed two of his pilots. She had riddled the smokestack of the 
Arkansas until the latter, when she entered the Mississippi, could not make 
more than one knot an hour; but this speed with the current of the river 
enabled her to run through the Federal fleets. Though the three vessels 
had been sent up the Yazoo to reconnoiter, the Federal naval officers had 
not believed that the Arkansas would come down at that time, and had not 
prepared their vessels for an attack. Only one — the ram General Bragg — 
had steam and her commander deferred action while awaiting orders. 
Most of the Federal projectiles bounded harmlessly from the Arkansas' 
iron-ribbed sides, but two ii-inch shells penetrated her armor and fired 
her cotton backing, killing and maiming many on board. The Federal 
ram, Lancaster, menaced her with a forward movement and got a disabling 
shot in its mud-receiver, scalding several men. two of whom afterward 
died. After a few minutes of such strenuous experience, the Arkansas ran 
beyond the range of the Federal guns and into the protection of the Con- 
federate batteries at Vicksburg. The loss in the Federal fleet was, accord- 
ing to Capt. A. T. Mahan, 13 killed, 34 wounded and 10 missing. Brown 
reported the Confederate loss, 10 killed, 15 wounded. 

Arkansas, C. S. S., July 22, 1862. U. S. Ram Fleet off Vicksburg. 
In accordance with an understanding with Flag-Officers Farragut and 
Davis, Lieut.-Col. Ellet, commanding the U. S. ram fleet, with the Queen 
of the West, attacked the Confederate ram and gunboat Arkansas. Lack 
of expected cooperation prevented Ellet from destroying the craft, but it 
is believed that he inflicted severe injury upon her. He could not reach 
her vulnerable side without rounding about, thus losing much headway and 
failing to make the blow as effective as it would otherwise have been. 
The absence of Federal gunboats as he retired, made the Queen of the 
West a target for all the enemy's batteries and sharpshooters on the river 



Cyclopedia of Battles 45 

bank, so that she was riddled with balls and very much damaged. The 
crew had been reduced to the smallest number necessary to handle the 
boat and only a few of the men were wounded. 

Arkansas, C. S. S., Aug. 6, 18O2. The Arkansas, with the Webb and 
the Music, started toward Baton Rouge, to support the attack of Brecken- 
ridge on the Federal forces there. When she left the wharf at Vicksburg 
she was deemed as formidable as when she came out of the Yazoo through 
the Federal fleets. When she arrived within a few miles of Baton Rouge 
her machinery gave out, she became unmanageable and Lieut. Stevens, her 
commander, moored her to the shore. The U. S. gunboat Essex steamed 
up to the little fleet and the Webb and the Music fled. Stevens landed his 
crew, cut the Arkansas from her moorings, fired her and turned her adrift 
down the river. "With every gun shotted," reported Gen. Van Dorn, 
"our Confederate flag floating from her bow, and not a man on board, 
the Arkansas bore down upon the enemy and gave him battle. The guns 
were discharged as the flames reached them and when the last shot was 
fired the explosion of her magazine ended the brief but glorious career 
of the Arkansas." 

Arkansas Post, Ark., Jan. lo-ii, 1863. 13th and 15th Army Corps, 
and Part of the Mississippi Squadron. After the defeat of Sherman at 
Chickasaw bluff's, in the last days of Dec, 1862, he was superseded in com- 
mand of the river expedition by Maj.-Gen. J. A. McClernand. One of the 
first acts of the new commander was to carry out the orders of the war 
department and divide the army into two corps, designated the 13th and 
iSth. The former, commanded by Brig.-Gen. George W. Morgan, con- 
sisted of Steele's and Stuart's (formerly M. L. Smith's) divisions. The 
latter, under Sherman, was composed of the divisions of A. J. Smith and 
Osterhaus. On the 5th the entire force left Milliken's Bend, on board 
the transports, accompanied by the gunboats DeKalb, Cincinnati, Louis- 
ville, Glide, Rattler, Lexington and Black Hawk, and the ram Monarch, 
for the reduction of Fort Hindman, at Arkansas Post, on the Arkansas 
river. McClernand's principal reason for this move was that armed de- 
tachments from the fort could easily descend to the mouth of the Arkansas, 
where they could seriously interfere with the opening of the Mississippi. 

The village of Arkansas Post occupies the first high ground to be found 
on ascending the river, and the fort stood on the bluff, where it commanded 
an unobstructed view of the river for a mile each way. It was a square, 
full-bastioned work, about 100 yards on a side. It had a parapet 18 feet 
across, was surrounded by a ditch 20 feet wide and 8 feet deep, was pro- 
vided by strong casemates, and well protected by outlying lines of rifle- 
pits. The armament included one 8-inch and two 9-inch columbiads and 
14 field guns, and the garrison numbered about S,ooo men under the com- 
mand of Brig.-Gen. T. J. Churchill. The gunboats, followed by the trans- 
ports, proceeded up the Arkansas river and late on the afternoon of the 
9th halted about 3 miles below the fort. During the night and the morn- 
ing of the loth the troops were disembarked, and at 11 o'clock Sherman's 
corps began the advance on the fort. Steele's division, after skirmishing 
with the enemy's pickets a while, encountered a swamp, and in passing 
around it lost the road and did not rejoin the corps until the following 
morning. Stuart moved up the river road to the first line of rifle-pits, 
reaching that point in time to see the Confederates in full retreat toward 
the fort, the line of defenses having been subjected to an enfilading fire 
from the gunboats. Lindsey's brigade of Osterhaus' division, with four 
lo-pounder Parrott guns and a company of cavalry, was landed at Fletch- 
er's and moved across the bend to a position oppo.site the fort, to cut off 
retreat in that direction. De Courcy's brigade was left to guard the 
transports at the landing, and the rest of Morgan's corps was united with 
that of Sherman for the general assault on the fort. 



46 The Union Army 

The iiiglit was passed without fires or tents and by 10:30 a. m. on the 
lith everything was ready for the attack. The gunboats moved up to 
within a few hundred yards of the fort and opened lire with the entire 
armament of 66 guns. As soon as the sound of firing from the boats was 
heard by the land forces the 45 pieces of field artillery were also brought 
into action, and for the next half hour the roar of cannon was almost 
deafening. At the end of tliat time the guns of the fort were silenced, 
the infantry advanced with Steele on the right, then Stuart, next A. J. 
Smith, and Sheldon's brigade of Ostcrhaus' division on the extreme left. 
By 1 130 p. m. four brigades had made their way across a narrow space 
of cleared ground and found a lodgment in a ravine, within short musket 
range of the Confederate lines. The artillery was then pushed forward, 
Lindsey's guns on the opposite side of the river getting a position from 
which an oblique fire could be poured into the rifle pits, carrying away a 
battle flag and killing a number of men. About 3 o'clock the lines were 
reformed to some extent and preparations made for a general and final 
assault, when suddenly white flags appeared at several places above the 
ramparts. Orders were at once given to cease firing, though the Union 
troops were so disposed as to preclude all possibilities of escape, after 
which Sherman and Morgan rode into the fort and demanded a sur- 
render. One of the Confederate brigade commanders refused the demand 
and asseverated that the white flags had been displayed without authority. 
Churchill, however, took a more philosophical view of the situation and, 
as the Federals were already practically in possession of the fort, told his 
subordinate that there was nothing left but to comply with the demand. 
He then sullenly ordered his men to stack arms, and at 4:30 formally 
turned over the fort to McClernand. The Confederate loss was about 200 
in killed and wounded, 4,791 were sent north as prisoners, while the fort, 
with all its stores of arms and ammunition, 17 pieces of artillery, 7 stand 
of colors, including the garrison flag, 563 horses and mules, and a large 
number of wagons fell into the hands of the victorious assailants. The 
Union loss was 134 killed, 8g8 wounded and 29 missing. 

Arkansas River, April 6-7, 1864. About 500 Missouri troops of the 
Confederate army crossed the Arkansas on the 6th and 7tli. Col. Judson, 
commanding the district of the frontier. Department of Arkansas, lost 
6 men in skirmishing with them. Reports do not indicate the place of 
crossing. 

Arkansas River, Aug. 17, 1864. The steamer Miller was captured and 
burned by Confederates 10 miles below Pine Blufif. The attack came from 
the soutli bank of the river. 

Arlington Mills. Va., June i, i8Gr. 

Armstrong's Creek, W. Va., Sept. 11, 1862. (See Kanawha Valley 
Campaign.) 

Armstrong's Farm, Va., May 30, 1864. Troops not Stated. During 
the operations along the Xorth Anna river in the campaign from the 
Rapidan to the James, a skirmish occurred on this date at Armstrong's 
farm, though no detailed report of the aftair appears in the official records 
of the war. 

Armstrong's Ferry, Tenn., Jan. 22, 1864. 9th and 23d Army Corps. 
On this date as the army was marching upon Knoxville, the Qth corps 
constituted the rear of the column, immediately preceded by Gen. ^Tanson's 
division of the 23d. About an hour after noon a body of Confederate 
cavalry appeared in the rear, but made no demonstration until near the 
intersection of the Knoxville and Armstrong's Ferry roads. Here the 
column was halted and Gen. Willcox, commanding the 2nd division of the 
9th corps, threw out skirmishers toward the enemy. The Confederate 
skirmish line was soon encountered and driven back, the Union troops 
carrying two wooded knolls which had been seized by the enemy on the 



Cyclopedia of Battles 47 

Federal right and rear. The corps then went into bivouac for the night. 
Later in the evening the Confederates made a demonstration on Manson's 
pickets, but they were again repulsed and their whole force then returned 
toward Strawberry Plains. 

Armstrong's Mill, Va., Feb. 5-7, 1865. (See Hatcher's Run.) 

Armuchee Creek, Ga., May 15, 1864. 2nd Cavalry Division, Army of 
the Cumberland. Brig.-Gen. Garrard, commanding the 2nd division, was 
ordered to make a reconnaisance toward Rome and if possible cross the 
Oostanaula river. He detailed Col. Minty, commanding the ist brigade, 
to make a demonstration on Rome to cover an attempted crossing of the 
Oostanaula by the 3d brigade. Minty met the enemy strongly posted 
at Farmer's bridge, over Armuchee creek, and after a sharp skirmish the 
4th Mich, carried the position by a charge, killing 10 and wounding 6 men. 
The Confederates were driven to within 2 miles of Rome. There Jack- 
son's division of cavalry was in position, supported by a division of in- 
fantry. Minty fell back before an artillery lire, and at Farmer's bridge 
rejoined Garrard, who had failed to make the crossing. 

Arnoldsburg, W. Va., May 6, 1862. 

Arnoldsville, Mo., June i, 1864. Detachment of Missouri Militia. The 
militia were surprised by a party of bushwhackers greatly outnumbering 
them and 3 of them were killed. Gen. Fisk at St. Joseph, commander of 
the Department of Missouri, who sent a force in pursuit of the marauders, 
believed the assailants to be a part of Quantrill's original band. 

Arrow, Steamer, Capture of, May 15, 1863. (See Currituck Canal.) 

Arrowfield Church, Va., May 9, 1864. (See Swift Creek.) 

Arrow Rock, Mo., July 29, 1862. 

Arrow Rock, Mo., Oct. 12, 1862. Enrolled Missouri Militia. Learn- 
ing that the command of Col. Wilson was menaced. Gen. Vaughan with 
150 of Col. McNeil's command, scouted near Arrow Rock, where he had 
an encounter with guerrillas in which i of his men was killed and 4 
were wounded. 

Arrow Rock, Mo., July 20, 1864. ist Missouri State Militia Cavalry. 
Lieut. Woodruff, with a detachment of this regiment, was attacked by 
about 200 guerrillas. He fought them for three-quarters of an hour, losing 
3 men missing and all his horses. 

Arrow Rock, Mo., Aug. 7, 1864. ist Missouri State Militia Cavalry. 
A detachment of this regiment under Lieut.-Col. Lazear, after scouting 
about Miami and Marshall, went to Arrow Rock. It was twice engaged 
by guerrillas, first with a party of 15 then with a party of 20. One of the 
parties fired quite a number of rounds before scattering, the other fired 
but twice. Just before the arrival of the cavalry, guerrillas had killed a 
negro at Arrow Rock. The day before 10 guerrillas had burned the court- 
house at Marshall and shot 9 negroes in and near that town. Twenty 
guerillas encamped on the farm of Marshall Piper on the night of the 
7th. Piper gave the Federal authorities no notice of their presence and 
being a notorious Confederate sympathizer under bond, he was shot by 
soldiers, probably of Lazear's command. 

Arrow Rock Road, Mo., Sept. 23, 1864. 7th Missouri State Militia 
Cavalry. On the road the advance guard of a detachment of this regiment, 
under Lieut.-Col. Crittenden, dispersed 50 of Bill Jackson's guerrillas, 
killing I of them. 

Arthur's Swamp, Va., Aug. 29-30, 1864. 2nd Cavalry Division, Army 
of the Potomac. 

Arthur's Swamp, Va., Sept. 30-Oct. i, 1864. 2nd Cavalry Di-vision, 
Army of the Potomac. On Sept. 29, the division, except the i6th Pa., 
which remained on picket duty, marched to the Yellow Tavern on the 
Weldon railroad, under command of Gen. Gregg. It proceeded up the 
Wyatt road and across Arthur's swamp to the Davis house on the Vaughan 



48 The Union Army 

road, but the ist brigade halted at the junction of the Hahfax and VVyatt 
roads. At Arthur's swamp the 2nd brigade met the enemy's pickets and 
captured several of them. A strong reconnaissance toward Armstrong's 
mill, on Hatcher's run, drove the Confederate pickets, but as the enemy's 
numbers seemed to augment pursuit was not maintained. The Confed- 
erates followed the brigade in the afternoon as far as Arthur's swamp, 
employing artillery and blow^ing up a limber chest of one of its guns, 
killing I and seriously wounding 2 men. Skirmishing continued until 
nightfall, but the Federals held their position. 

Arundel's Farm, Va., April 10, 1865. (See Burke's Station.) 

Ashbysburg, Ky., Sept. 25, 1862. 

Ashby's Gap, Va., Sept. 22, 1862. Detachment Cavalry Brigade, 3d 
Army Corps. In conformity with orders from the corps commander Col. 
Price, commanding the brigade, left camp near Fort Blenker on the 20th 
with 800 men and one section of the 3d U. S. artillery, for Ashby's gap, 
his object being the capture or destruction of a wagon train, reported to 
be in that vicinity. At Bull Run gap he encountered the Confederate 
pickets and for the next 10 or 12 miles there was constant skirmishing, 
when the advance guard, supported by the ist Vt. and closely followed by 
about 60 men, came suddenly upon some 600 of the 6th Va. cavalry, under 
Lieut.-Col. Green. Before the enemy had time to form. Price ordered a 
charge and the Confederates fled in disorder from the field, some taking 
to the woods and others escaping through the gap. All of them rode 
fresh horses and could not be overtaken. Under instructions not to go 
through the gap. Price halted his men and after a brief rest returned to 
camp, the wagon train having been moved over the ridge the night before, 
defeating the object of his expedition. One wagon, empty and without 
horses, was found in Paris and burned. Two others, containing little of 
value, were captured. The Federal loss in this affair was 9 killed and 
wounded ; the Confederate loss was 18 killed, wounded and captured. The 
Confederate commander received three saber cuts on the head. Being too 
severely injured to bring in he was paroled. 

Ashby's Gap, Va., July 12-20, 1863. Detachment 2nd Massachusetts 
and 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Col. Lovell, with 364 men, while on the way 
to Alexandria, found at Ashby's gap two companies of Robertson's North 
Carolina cavalry. A picket of 20 to 25 men was maintained at this camp 
on the west bank of the Shenandoah and there was a small commissary 
store. A skiff was one of the conveniences of the camp. For some time 
Lovell's advance guard was subjected to a fire from the Confederates here 
without damage. He left there at 4 p. m. and passed through Union to 
Philomont, where he camped. After slight skirmishing the 5th and 6th 
Mich, cavalry occupied Ashby's gap on July 20. 

Ashby's Gap, Va., July 19, 1864. The action at Ashby's gap on this 
date was a preliminary skirmish to the heavier engagement at Berry's 
ford (q. v.). 

Ashby's Gap, Va., Feb. 19, 1865. Detachment of the 14th Pa. and 21st 
N. Y. Cavalry. Maj. Thomas Gibson, with 225 men of the two regiments, 
was ordered to scout from Camp Averell near Winchester into Loudoun 
county. He left camp on the evening of the i8th and after crossing the 
Shenandoah the detachment divided to meet again at Piedmont — one party 
being under the command of Capt. Snow, of the 21st N. Y., and the other 
under Gibson himself, the object being to search all the houses in the 
vicinity for Mosby's men and stores of the enemy's supplies. In this work 
the expedition was aided by deserters from Mosby's command. When 
Gibson reached Upperville he learned that Snow had already been there 
and had left about 5 a. m. on the 19th. He then pushed on toward Paris, 
his rear and flanks being continually harassed by small parties of the 
enemy. Gibson had captured 18 prisoners, among them Mosby's quarter- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 49 

master and a lieutenant, and about 50 horses. At Paris he was iired on by 
a considerable force of infantry stationed behind a stone wall, but suc- 
ceeded in getting his command through the town without loss. While 
passing through Ashby's gap he was compelled to march his men in single 
iile, owing to the narrow detile through the rocks. Here his rear guard, 
under Capt. Duff, was vigorously attacked and driven back on the main 
body. Gibson ordered a charge, but because of the uneven nature of the 
ground and the lack of room it could not be successfully made and the 
men broke in confusion. All attempts to rally them were vain, each one 
being intent on saving himself. In this affair Gibson lost 2 men wounded 
and 8<S missing, 10 of whom afterward reached camp. The prisoners he 
had taken were recaptured by the enemj-, who made the assault in over- 
whelming luimbers. 

Ash Creek, Kan., Nov. 13, 1864. On the night of this day a train of 
five wagons loaded with corn and enroute for Fort Larned was attacked 
by about 30 Indians. Of the 5 men accompanying the train, i was mortally 
wounded and the others escaped. 

Ashepoo River, S. C, May 16, 1864. 34th U. S. Colored Troops. 

Ash Hills, Mo., Aug. 13, 1863. ist Battalion, 2nd Missouri State Militia 
Cavalr\-. This detachment wss commanded by Maj. Poole, who was 
ordered by Col. Rogers to scout from Cape Girardeau as far south as the 
Ash Hills and return via Greenville. The battalion entered the Ash Hill 
country about 5 p. m. on the 13th. With Capt. McClanahan and 2 men, 
Poole went some 200 yards in advance to select a camping site and met 
about 80 armed guerrillas. The 4 charged this force with sabers and 
revolvers, killing 6 and wounding several. The guerrillas sought safety 
in a swamp, abandoning several horses, which were taken by the victors. 
Poole was wounded ; there were no other Federal casualties. 

Ashland, Tenn., Jan. 12, 1863. 

Ashland, Va., June 25, 1862. Detachment of the 8th Illinois Cavalry. 
Lieut.-Col. Martin, commanding the Jeff Davis Legion (Miss.) and the 
4th Va. cavalry, had a line of pickets from Wooding's shop on the Ash- 
land road, along that road to Ashland and thence toward Hanover Court 
House, to the residence of Col. Wickham. In the afternoon after Gen. 
Jackson's advance guard had reached the neighborhood of Ashland, a 
company of the 8th 111. cavalry drove in Martin's videttes from the inter- 
section of the Ashcake and Telegraph roads and cut the telegraph line. 
Under orders from Martin, Lieut. Smith, with 17 men of the 4th Va., 
charged on the Federals, driving them back with a loss of i man killed 
and I wounded, after which the telegraph line was repaired. The Con- 
federate loss was 2 men wounded. 

Ashland, Va., May 3, 1863. 

Ashland, Va., March i, 1864. The affair at Ashland on this date was 
an incident of Kilpatrick's raid to Richmond, and was in the nature of a 
diversion to cover the main body of the expedition. (See Richmond, 
Kilpatrick's raid to.) 

Ashland, Va., May 11, 1864. Sheridan's Cavalry. In the campaign 
from the Rapidan to the James, Sheridan reached Ashland about 2 o'clock 
on the morning of the nth and commenced tearing up the tracks of the 
Fredericksburg railroad. The ist Mass. charged into the place, losing 19 
men in killed,' wounded and missing. Sheridan destroyed the government 
buildings, containing a large amount of stores, a locomotive, a train of 
cars, the engine-house, 6 miles of railroad, including 6 culverts and 2 
trestle bridges, and tore down the telegraph line for a similar distance. 

Ashland, Va., June i, 1864. ist Brigade, 3d Division, Cavalry Corps, 
Army of the Potomac. This brigade, commanded by Col. J. B. Mcintosh, 
of the 3d Pa. cavalry, drove the Confederates out of Hanover Court 
House on May 31, and camped there for the night. At day-break, June i. 

Vol. V— 4 



50 The Union Army 

one regiment of the brigade, supported by Chapman's brigade, departed to 
destroy the railroad bridge over the Pamunkey. Mcintosh with the 5th 
N. Y., 2nd Ohio and ist Conn., pushed on to Ashland and was destroying 
the raih'oad there when his force was attacked by two divisions of Con- 
federate cavalry. After three hours' tierce resistance to a superior force, 
Mcintosh withdrew, retired down the railroad and joined the 2nd brigade. 

Ashland, Va., March 15, 1865. ist Brigade, 3d Cavalry Division, 
Army of the Potomac, Sheridan's Raid. Gen. Custer reached Ashland 
early in the day and learned that Gens. Longstreet and Pickett were ad- 
vancing upon that point with a heavy force composed of all arms. The 1st 
brigade commanded by Col. Pennington and consisting of the 2nd Ohio, 
2nd N. Y., 3d N. J. and ist Conn., was sent forward to hold the enemy 
in check until the rest of the command could pass toward the railroad 
bridge over the South Anna. The enemy made several attempts to force 
Pennington back, but was repulsed each time. The ist Conn, sent out a 
reconnaissance of one squadron, under Lieut. -Col. E. W. Whitaker, from 
the right of Pennington's line toward the enemy, while a battalion of the 
2nd N. Y. moved down the telegraph road. Whitaker's squadron was 
ambushed by infantry and cavalry and lost a lieutenant killed and 2 men 
missing. The most determined movement of the enemy, made just 
before dark, \*hen Pennington was about to obey orders and retire, was 
a complete failure. A spirited attack was made on the line of the 2nd 
N. Y. by infantry, but it was resisted eflfectively till the regiment, which 
was to bring up the rear, retired. The Confederates did not follow as 
Pennington fell back. The 2nd N. Y. lost i man killed, 3 wounded, and 
had 22 horses so badly wounded that it was necessary to abandon them 
on the march. 

Ashland Church, Va., May 4. 1863. Detachment of the 12th Illinois 
Cavalry. As an incident of the Stoneman raid Lieut. -Col. Davis was sent 
with the regiment to destroy the railroad in the vicinity of Ashland. 
Learning that a train of 18 wagons was encamped in the woods not far 
from Ashland Church, Davis sent Capt. Roden, with Cos. B and C, to 
destroy it. This was successfully accomplished, the guard being routed 
and the wagons burned. No casualties reported. 

Ashley, Mo., Aug. 28. 1862. 30 Men of the Missouri Militia. The de- 
tachment under Capt. Pierce, early in the morning was attacked by 150 
Confederates under a Capt. Beck, whose object was to capture the arms 
of two companies, most of the men of which had gone under orders to 
Paris. After an hour's fight the Confederates retreated. Federal loss, i 
killed, 5 wounded ; Confederate, 2 or more killed, including Beck, and 
several wounded. 

Ashley's Mills, Ark., Sept. 7, 1863. Davidson's Cavalry Division, De- 
partment of the Missouri. During Steele's movement on Little Rock, 
Davidson's cavalrj^ which was in advance, had a sharp skirmish here with 
troops of Walker's division of Price's army, which division had the day 
before been placed in command of Col. Dobbin. In the morning David- 
son advanced on the enemy's troops encamped at Ashle3-'s ]\Iills and drove 
them back to the river, inflicting a loss of i killed, 3 wounded and 2 
captured. 

Ashley's Station, Ark., Aug. 24, 1864. (See Devall's Bluff, same date.) 

Ashton, La., May 1, 1864. 

Ashwood, Miss., June 25, 1864. 

Ashwood Landing. La., May 1-4, 1864. 64th U. S. Colored Troops. 

Atchafalaya, La., July 21, 1864. 

Atchafalaya, La., Oct. 5, 1864. 

Atchafalaya River, La., June 4, 1863. 

Atchafalaya River, La., Sept. 7, 1863. (See Morgan's Ferry.) 

Atchafalaya River, La., Sept. 20, 1863. 



■ Cyclopedia of Battles 51 

Atchafalaya River, La., Expedition to. May 30 to June 5, 1864. Troops 
of the 13th and 19th Army Corps. On the 29th, Brig.-Gen. W. H. Emory, 
commanding the two corps, while at Morganza, learned that Confederates 
were crossing the Atchafalaya. On the morning of the 30lh he despatched 
a detachment of the 13th corps, and a battery from the 19th corps, about 
7,000 men, under Gen. M. K. Lawler and about 1,700 cavalry under Col. 
Davis, to disperse them and destroy their means of crossing. He also 
asked a naval ofificer at Morganza to send two gunboats into the Atchafalaya 
if he deemed it prudent to do so. Tlie enemy was reported to have 
crossed at Morgan's ferry, the day before, with 3,000 to 7,000 men and two 
pieces of artillery. Lawler was instructed to move to the junction of the 
Fordoche and Morgan's ferry roads and to attack the enemy if he should 
be found there. Only 300 or 400 Confederates were there and at Lawler's 
approach they retreated toward Livonia. On the Morgan's ferry road at 
the Fordoche, Davis dispersed a party of 50, taking i prisoner. Chrysler's; 
cavalry brigade reconnoitered on the Morgan's ferry road and found no 
foe on that side of the river, but found a sawmill in operation on the 
opposite side and at a ferry 3 miles above it 5 fiat-boats, each large enough 
to carry 8 to 10 men and horses. He met with no opposition in approach- 
ing the ferry, but in leaving it received an ineffective running fire from a 
small force of the enemy, concealed by the levee on the other shore. 
Lawler determined to return to Morganza via Livonia and the False river 
road. At the Fordoche bridge about 200 Confederates, mostly Texans, 
were found apparently in position and threw three or four shells at Davis' 
cavalry skirmishers. A section of Norris' battery silenced their gun, and 
a cavalry advance, immediately afterward, put them to flight down 
the road toward Livonia, leaving a lieutenant and 3 soldiers dead 
and several men wounded. The Federals camped at Livonia at 9 
p. m. On the way there after dark. Gen. McGinnis' command was 
fired on by Confederates concealed in the brush beyond Bayou For- 
doche. Capt. Pan of the 24th la. was killed and 8 men were 
wounded. One return volley dispersed the attacking party. The 
False river road was bridgeless and partially inundated and Lawler 
had to retrace his steps. On the 31st Davis moved forward 4 or 
S miles on the Rosedale road and at 5 a. m. marched to the Morgan's 
ferry road, where he encamped at 10 o'clock. With the ist La., 2nd 
N. Y., and 87th 111., he followed the enemy down Grossetete and 
Maringouin bayous to a camp in a dense canebrake, where the Con- 
federates were routed and a quantity of clothing and commissary 
stores captured. On the morning of the ist Col. Sharpe with his 
brigade, 500 cavalry under Davis, and 4 pieces of artillery de- 
stroyed the sawmill above mentioned. As he returned he destroyed 
the bridges between Morgan's ferry and the Fordoche. Ne.xt morning 
about 10 o'clock Davis started down the Fordoche and Grosse.tete 
bayous. That night he camped at Woolfolk's plantation, driving 
off a small Confederate picket. On the morning of the 3d he 
crossed the Rosedale drawbridge over the Grossetete. foilowed 
the plank road and arrived near Lobdell's landing on the Mississippi 
at 2 p. m. He camped that night on Ihe Mississippi 
4 or 5 miles below False river. Reaching the latter stream about 
8 a. m. on the 4th. he sent Lieut.-Col. Crebs with qbout 300 men 
to reconnoiter one side of the river, and Col. Chrysler with an equal 
force to reconnoiter the other. The latter had gone some 6 or 8 
miles when he encountered and charged on 50 to 60 of McNelly's 
scouts. His loss in killed and wounded was 3; Confederates 11. 
Davis' command returned to headquarters on the morning of the 
5th. 

Atchafalaya River, La., July 28, 1864. (See Morgan's Ferry 
Road.) 



52 The Union Army 

Atchafalaya River, La., Aug. 25, 1864. (See Morgan's Ferry- 
Road.) 

Atchafalaya River, La., Sept. 17, 1864. Col. Terrell, commanding 
a body of Texas cavalry, reported that he fought a force of Federals, 
estimated at 4,000 strong, with Nim's battery of 6 pieces, and drove 
it back with considerable loss. No further mention of the affair is 
to be found in the official records of the war. 

Atchison, Kas., Jan. 24. 1862. Detachment of the ist Missouri 
Cavalry. On this date Capt. Fuller of the ist Mo. cavalry, stationed 
at Atchison, was notified by one Irving of Missouri that Chandler's 
jayhawkers had robbed his farm, taking horses, mules and negroes, 
dragged several women and other members of his family from bed, 
brutally insulted them, robbed them of their jewelry and had then 
gone toward Elwood. Irving and some of his neighbors were sent 
after the jayhawkers as guides and Fuller and a detachment of 
soldiers followed. Upon overtaking Irving's party Fuller found 
that they had engaged the jayhawkers, captured 2 of their number 
and killed their leader. Some of the marauders were captured in 
the direction of Elwood, others in the direction of White Cloud and 
Irving's property was recovered. 

Athens, Ala., May i, 1862. 3d Division, Army of the Ohio. Col. 
Stanley's regiment of Gen. Mitchell's command, while guarding bridges 
on the Athens & Decatur road, was attacked by 112 men of the ist 
La. cavalry, with a mountain howitzer battery, under Col. Scott. An 
onslaught was made on guards at one or two bridges, then on 
pickets of the main body at Athens. Two companies were sent out 
and skirmished with the Confederate cavalry for an hour or two, 
when the latter retreated. Suddenly fire from the battery was 
opened on the Federals. Stanley ordered his wagon train to leave 
at once and followed with what force he had at Athens, abandoning 
his tents and camp equipage to the enemy. At this juncture Mitchell, 
who was approaching on a locomotive, learning of the attack, sent 
word to Stanley that he should be immediatelj^ reinforced. Running 
his engine to a telegraph station, he ordered a force to go at once 
to Stanley's aid. Two trains were on the track at Athens, with 
steam up, ready to leave for Huntsville. One of them was under 
Stanley's control, the other had just come from Elk river bringing 
supplies that had been brought by a train of 50 wagons from Colum- 
bia. Both followed Mitchell's engine, but were delayed an hour at 
Mooresville, 15 miles from Athens. Mitchell's engine and Stanley's 
train passed safely on to Athens. The guard at a bridge 4 miles from 
Mooresville had been driven off by Confederates and Confederate 
sympathizers, with a loss of 2 killed and 4 wounded. Then the 
string-pieces of the bridge were nearly severed with saws. The 
supply train broke through the bridge and was wrecked. A brake- 
man was killed, but fortunately Mitchell had ordered most of the men 
on the train to leave it at Mooresville and join the detachment sent 
to reinforce Stanley. The train was fired and plundered, but about 
70 Federal soldiers from Mooresville. led by Capt. Crittenden, at- 
tacked the Confederates and drove them off. Meantime Stanley's 
reinforcements arrived, but the enemy had retreated and the coming 
•of night rendered impossible further operations that day. 

Athens, Ala., Jan. 26, 1864. Detachment of the 9th 111. Mounted 
Infantry. Capt. Emil Adam, with 75 men of the 9th 111. mounted in- 
fantry, was attacked at Athens at 4 a. m. by Gen. Roddey, with 2 
regiments and 2 pieces of artillery, his force estimated at 600 men. 
After 2 hours' hard fighting the Confederates were repulsed with 
heavy loss in killed and wounded. The Union loss was about 20 in 



Cyclopedia of Battles 53 

killed, wounded and missing. Roddey opened on the town with 
his artillery without warning, his object evidently being to create a 
stampede and capture the train and stores at Athens, but the coolness 
and bravery of Adam and his men defeated his purpose. 

Athens, Ala., Sept. 23-24, 1864. io6th, iioth, and iiith U. S. Col- 
ored Infantry; 2nd and 3d Tennessee Cavalry. About 4 p. m. on the 
23d Col. Wallace Campbell of the iioth U. S. infantry commanding 
the post at Athens learned that the enemy were destroying the rail- 
way track 5 miles south of the town. Maj. Pickens, of the 3d Tenn. 
cavalry, with 100 men. went by the Decatur road, and Campbell, with 
150 men, went by train to the scene of action. The combined forces 
drove off the Confederates and saved a trestle that they had set on 
fire. Returning to Athens toward nightfall the Federals became in- 
volved in a sharp skirmish. Their pickets on the Brown's ferry and 
on the Buck Island road were driven in and just before dark their 
artillery at the fort fired a few rounds. The quartermaster's building 
was set on fire. Forrest's command, which had invested the town on 
all sides, consisted of Bell's and Lyon's brigades of Buford's division; 
Rucker's brigade, some of Roddey's troops, Biffle's brigade, the 4th 
Tenn.. and Col. Nixon's regiment. The Confederates made several 
attempts to get possession of the town and were repulsed with 
considerable loss. About 11 p. m. they captured the railroad depot. 
The 2nd Tenn. cavalry, just returned from a scouting expedition, drove 
them away, wounding and capturing several. At midnight the com- 
missary building was burned and during the latter part of the night 
all Federal troops were removed to the fort, which was an earth 
work. 180 by 450 feet, 1,350 feet in circumference, surrounded by an 
abatis of felled trees, a palisade 4 feet high and a ditch 12 feet wide 
with its bottom 17 feet below the parapet. The garrison consisted of 
about 450 men. About 7 a. m., on the 24th the enemy opened on the 
fort with i2-pounder batteries on the north and west. During the 
ensuing 2 hours about 60 well directed shells were thrown and ex- 
ploded in and about the fort, doing no damage to the works and kill- 
ing only one man, a non-combatant. The fort, which inspecting offi- 
cers considered the best between Nashville and Decatur, was strong 
enough to resist any field battery. The Federals answered with two 
12-pound howitzers. About 9 o'clock an unsigned demand for sur- 
render was sent in under a flag of truce and was returned unanswered. 
A second demand signed "Major General Forrest" was refused. For- 
rest asked for a personal interview with Campbell, showed him that 
the Confederate force numbered 8,000 to 10,000 men, and again de- 
manded a surrender "in the interests of humanity." Campbell sur- 
rendered the fort and its garrison at noon. In the morning, Gen. 
Granger, commanding at Decatur, sent by railroad, detachments of 
the i8th Mich, and 102nd Ohio, 350 men in all, under command of 
Lieut-Col. Elliot of the 102nd, to reinforce the garrison at Athens. 
When they arrived at the break in the railroad, they were attacked 
by the whole of Buford's division, but pressed on toward Athens, 
bestrewing the woods with the enemy's dead. They charged two or 
three heavy lines of battle, drove them back in disorder and advanced 
to within 300 yards of the fort, which had surrendered not more 
than half an hour before. The surrender allowed Forrest to inter- 
pose a portion of his force between the fort and the rescuing party, 
thus compelling them to surrender after a hard fi.ght of 3 hours' dura- 
tion in which they had lost one-third of their number in killed and 
wounded. Had Campbell held out they might have saved the day. 
The officers whom Campbell surrendered joined in a statement over 
their signatures that on the night of the 23d and 24th, Campbell 



54 The Union Army 

caused most of the commissary stores of the post to be moved into 
the fortifications and that they were ample for a ten days' siege; that 
a well in the fort afforded plenty of water; that there were 70,000 
rounds elongated ball cartridges, an ample supply of cavalry carbines, 
120 rounds for each of the howitzers; and that the surrender was un- 
called for by the circumstances, was against their wislies and ought 
not to have been made. The Federal loss was 106 killed and wounded; 
Confederate loss, equal to the Federal force engaged. 

Athens, Ala., Oct. 1-2, 1864. Lieut. -Col. Wade of the 73d Ind., 
with detachments from that regiment, and the loth Ind. cavalry (dis- 
mounted), and a section of Battery A, ist Tenn. artillery, held the 
Federal works at Athens. About the time the engagement began 
he was reinforced by a portion of the 2nd Tenn. cavalry, making a 
total force of about 500 effective men. Opposed to the garrison was 
Gen. Buford's division of Confederate cavalry, aggregating nearly 
4,000 men. The results of recent attacks on this fort and the one at 
Sulphur Trestle had convinced Wade that the fatal defect in both of 
these works was a want of protection for the garrison against artillery, 
and for two days before the attack his men were busy constructing a 
temporary bomb-proof work entirely outside the fort. The ditch, 6 feet 
deep and 15 feet wide, was roofed with logs over which was laid a 
covering of earth. The entrance to the underground strong-hold, a 
covered passageway under the gate of the fort, was not ready for 
use until 12 o'clock on the night of Oct. i, and the delay of the 
enemy in making the main attack proved the salvation of the garrison. 
The pickets on the Huntsville road were driven in at 3 p. m. on the 
1st and the enemy took position behind the railroad. One company 
was deployed as skirmishers to engage him and delay his move- 
m.ents as long as possible. A rain aided the purpose. Firing was 
kept up on the skirmish line until dark when Wade reinforced his skir- 
mishers with another company to prevent the Confederates from 
taking some buildings near the fort. A scattering, irregular fight 
with small arms was maintained from daybreak until 6 a. m. on the 
2nd, chiefly to the west of the fort where a wood stretched down 
within short range, aflfording the enemy cover. At 6 o'clock the 
Confederates got a gun in action on the Brown's ferry road, south- 
west from the fort. So far Wade had reserved his artillery fire, but 
now his response was prompt. Ten minutes later 3 rifled guns, on a 
slight elevation, half a mile north, began to throw missiles into the 
fort. Under this cross fire scarcely a spot in the fort was safe and 
Wade moved his troops into the new bomb-proof, leaving sentinels 
to watch for signs of assault. In half an hour the enemy's artillery- 
men had obtained the range and were throwing shell into the fort 
with great accuracy. About 60 rounds were fired, 22 of which fell 
inside the fort or struck it, the rest bursting over or beyond it. Two 
shots tattered the regimental flag of the 73d Ind., another toppled 
over a tall chimney, another disabled a caisson and others killed or 
wounded about 30 horses. With his battery section, Lieut. Tobin 
returned this fire coolly and deliberately and ambulances were seen 
in motion near the Confederate guns, showing that his shots were 
effective. At 8 a. m. there was a cessation in the attack. Buford 
then demanded a surrender of the fort, but Wade refused his demand. 
Under cover of their flag of truce, Buford unfairly advanced a portion 
of his troops to within 200 yards of the fort and took 6 wagons and 
4 ambulances from under the Federal guns. Respect for the usages 
of war prevented Wade from resenting this baseness so long as the 
white flag was in sight, but as soon as it disappeared he opened on 
this body of troops and drove it from its new position with a loss 



Cyclopedia of Battles 55 

of 4 killed and several wounded. The latter were carried away 
in the wagons. In similar attacks the Confederates' cannon had 
prevailed; here and now they were ineffectual. Buford immediately 
began to withdraw his troops, leaving sharpshooters to distract the 
Federal attention from his real purpose. It was penetrated, however, 
and as early as 9:30 Wade pushed out skirmishers in every direction 
and with the help of his artillery drove the Confederates from the 
field. Maj. McBath with the 2nd Tenn. pursued them for some dis- 
tance on the Florence road. The Federal loss was 2 wounded. 

Athens, Ky., Feb. 23, 1863. Troops not stated. 

Athens, Mo., Aug. 5, 1861. Home Guards and 21st Missouri In- 
fantry. 

Athens, Ohio, July 24, 1863. This afifair was an incident of the 
Morgan raid, and, like numerous other slight skirmishes with roving 
detachments of the guerrillas, was not reported in detail. 

Athens, Tenn., Sept. 25, 1863. ist Brigade, 4th Division, 23d Army 
Corps. On this date the brigade, commanded by Col. R. K. Byrd, 
became engaged with a superior force of the enemy at Calhoun and 
was forced to fall back toward Athens. When within 2 miles of that 
place Byrd was reinforced by Col. Wolford's mounted brigade and 
the two commands took up a strong position to resist the further 
advance of the Confederates. As soon as the enemy appeared Byrd's 
battery, and Law's battery of mountain howitzers, which was with 
Wolford's brigade, both opened upon him, temporarily checking his 
progress. The 8th Mich, cavalry, armed with Spencer rifles, was 
then pushed well to the front and joined with the batteries in the 
action. After an engagement of an hour the Confederates withdrew. 
Casualties not reported. 

Athens, Tenn., Aug. i, 1864. Detachment of 3d Brigade, 4th 
Division, 23d Army Corps. About 8 a. m. some 60 or 70 men be- 
longing to Vaughan's Confederate cavalry attacked a Union outpost 
of 8 men near Athens. A prolonged fight occurred, notwithstanding 
the great odds in numbers, the Confederates losing 2 killed, 3 
wounded and i captured. Lieut.-Col. M. L. Patterson, commanding 
the brigade, stationed at Loudon, sent about 90 men of the ist Ohio 
heavy artillery, under Capts. Bivens and Preble, in pursuit. The 
Confederates were overtaken at Murphy. N. C., about 11 a. m. of the 
2nd. The Federal advance charged and routed the enemy, killing 
10, and capturing 18 horses, 6 inules. 20 guns, 4 revolvers, 2 pistols 
and other stores and equipments. One of the pursuing party was 
killed. 

Athens, Tenn., Jan. 28, 1865. About 300 Confederates of Vaughan's 
and Wheeler's cavalry, with some bush-whackers, attacked the Fed- 
eral garrison at Athens and got away with about 20 prisoners of the 
7th Tenn. mounted infantry with a loss of about 50 in killed and 
wounded. Tlie Federal loss was 6 wounded. The fort and court-house were 
guarded, but the Confederates most of the time kept well out of 
musket range. The Federals were without cannon, with which they 
might have fought them at longer range and with greater success, 
and also without horses with which to pursue them when they re- 
tired. 

Athens, Tenn., Feb. 16. 1865. A detachment of 75 men of 
Vaughan's Confederate cavalry defeated and captured the Federal 
garrisons at Sweetwater and Athens, commanded by Lieuts. Wiley 
and Smith, taking 60 men of the 2nd Ohio heavy artillery', with their 
horses and equipments. 

Athens, Tenn., March 2-4, 1865. Detachment of 7th Tennessee 
Mounted Infantry. Capt. W. A. Cochran reporting from Athens 



56 The Union Army 

under date of March 4, 1865, says: "The guerrillas made a raid into 
this country the night of the 2nd. We pursued them within fourteen 
miles of Murphy, and killed 5 of them, captured 15 horses. 2 
Spencer rifles, 2 carbines. 2 fine pistols, and other property. * * *" 

Atkins' Mill, Tenn., April 26, 1862. 2nd Michigan Cavalry. Four 
companies of this regiment, Maj. Shaw commandmg, drove in the 
Confederate pickets at Atkins' Mill with a loss of l man killed. Con- 
federate loss not reported. 

Atlanta (Fingal), C. S. S., June 17, 1863. Early in the morning 
this vessel proceeded to Warsaw sound to attack 2 Federal monitors 
which had been there some days. She fired only four shots, then 
surrendered. Capt. Kennard. C. S. N., a witness of the affair, re- 
ported that to him the Atlanta (Fingal) appeared to have run aground 
before the encounter. 

Atlanta, Ga., Siege of, July 20 to Sept. 2, 1864. Army of the Cum- 
berland, Army of the Tennessee, and Army of the Ohio. The ob- 
jective points for the year 1864 were Richmond and Atlanta — the 
head and heart of the Confederacy. Early in March Gen. U. S. Grant 
was made lieutenant-general and transferred to the immediate com- 
mand of the Army of the Potomac, Maj. -Gen. W. T. Sherman being 
at the same time placed in command of the forces in the West. 
Sherman's new command consisted of four departments: the Army 
of the Cumberland, at Chattanooga, commanded by Maj. -Gen. George 
H. Thomas; the Army of the Tennessee, at Huntsville, Ala., com- 
manded by Maj. -Gen. James B. McPherson; the Army of the Ohio, in 
East Tennessee, commanded by Maj. -Gen. John M. Schofield; and 
the Army of Arkansas, under the command of Alaj.-Gen. Frederick 
Steele. The last named was subsequently transferred to Canby's 
trans-Mississippi division, and took no part in the Atlanta campaign. 
The Army of the Cumberland was composed of the 4th, 14th and 20th 
army corps, respectively commanded by Maj. -Gens. O. O. Howard, 
John M. Palmer and Joseph Hooker; the cavalry corps of Brig.-Gen. 
Washington L. Elliott, and some unattached troops. The 4th corps 
was made up of three divisions, commanded by Maj. -Gen. David S. 
Stanley, Brig.-Gen. John Newton and Brig.-Gen Thomas J. Wood, 
and later in the campaign an artillery brigade was organized and 
placed under the command of Maj. Thomas W. Osborn. In the 
14th corps were three divisions, the ist commanded by Brig.-Gen. 
R. W. Johnson, the 2nd by Brig.-Gen. Jefferson C. Davis, and the 3d 
by Brig.-Gen. Absalom Baird. In this corps was also an artillery 
brigade, commanded by Maj. Charles Houghtaling. The 20th corps 
comprised three divisions, the ist commanded by Brig.-Gen. Alpheus 
S. Williams, the 2nd by Brig.-Gen. John W. Geary, and the 3d by 
Maj. -Gen. Daniel Butterfield. Maj. John A. Reynolds commanded 
the artillery brigade of the 20th corps after it was organized in July. 
The cavalry corps included the three divisions commanded by Brig.- 
Gens. Edward McCook, Kenner Garrard and Judson Kilpatrick. The 
Army of the Tennessee embraced the 15th, i6th and 17th army corps, 
commanded by Maj. -Gens. John A. Logan, Grenville M. Dodge and 
Frank P. Blair. Logan's corps included the divisions of Brig.-Gens. 
Peter J. Osterhaus, Morgan L. Smith and William Harrow. In Dodge's 
corps were the divisions of Brig.-Gens. Thomas W. Sweeny and 
James C. Veatch. The 17th corps was made up of the two divisions 
commanded by Brig.-Gen. Mortimer D. Leggett and Brig.-Gen. Wal- 
ter Q. Gresham. The Army of the Ohio consisted of the 23d corps, 
which was composed of the three divisions of infantry commanded 
by Brig.-Gens. Alvin P. Hovey, Henry M. Judah and Jacob D. Cox, 
and the cavalry division of Maj. -Gen. George Stoneman The ef- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 57 

fective strength of the army on May i, 1864, was 98,797 men, with 
254 pieces of artillery. At that time the 17th corps was not with 
the main body. After it joined on June 8 the effective strength was 
112,819 men. 

Opposed to this force was the Confederate army under the com- 
mand of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. It was made up of Hardee's corps, 
consisting of Cheatham's, Cleburne's and Walker's divisions and the 
artillery under Col. Melancthon Smith; Hood's (or Lee's) corps, 
consisting of the divisions of Hindman, Stevenson and Stewart and 
the artillery under Col. R. F. Beckham; Wheeler's cavalry corps, 
embracing Martin's, Kelly's and Hume's divisions and Roddey' com- 
mand, with the artillery under Col. F. H. Robertson; Polk's corps, 
which included Loring's, French's and Cantey's (or Walthall's) di- 
visions; the cavalry division of Brig.-Gen. W. H. Jackson, and the 
1st division of the Georgia state militia. In his article in "Battles 
and Leaders,'' Johnston states his effective forces as being 42,856 
men, with 112 guns, but Maj. E. C. Dawes, of the 53d Ohio, who 
made an extended investigation into the subject, estimates the Con- 
federate strength at Resaca as being at least 67.000 men with 168 
cannon, and figures that Johnston had under his command something 
over 84.000 men later in the campaign. 

With a view of preventing Johnston from sending reinforcements 
to Longstreet in East Tennessee, and also to assist Sherman's expedi- 
tion to Meridian, Miss., Thomas made a demonstration against Dal- 
ton, Ga., in the latter part of February, but the campaign against 
Atlanta really began with the occupation of Tunnel Hill by the Union 
forces on the 7th of May. Then followed engagements at Rocky 
Face Ridge, Mill Creek Gap, Dug Gap, Dalton, Resaca, Lay's Ferry, 
Adairsville, Cassville, New Hope Church, Pickett's Mills, Big Shanty, 
Brush ^Mountain, Kolb's Farm, Kennesaw Mountain, Ruff's Station, 
Smyrna and the Chattahoochee river, with almost constant skirmish- 
ing as Johnston retired toward Atlanta. On July 17th Sherman's 
entire army crossed the Chattahoochee, his advance being within 8 miles 
of the city. Up to this time Johnston had acted on the defensive 
and so well had he conducted his campaign that it had taken Sher- 
man nearly two and a half months to advance a distance of 100 
miles. During the winter of 1863-64 Gen. Gilmer, Confederate chief 
engineer, had strengthened Atlanta as a base for Johnston's army 
by intrenching the city. About the middle of June Capt. Grant of the 
engineers was instructed to strengthen these fortifications, especially 
on the northern side, toward Peachtree creek. Johnston had been 
promised by Gen. Maury at Mobile a number of rifled guns for this 
portion of the works, and Gov. Brown had promised 10,000 state 
troops to aid in the defense of the city. Johnston's plan was to 
engage the Union army while it was divided in crossing Peachtree 
creek. If he failed there he would fall back to the line of works 
constructed by Grant, where he could hold on until the arrival of 
the state troops, when he could sally out and attack either flank of 
the Federal forces as opportunity offered. But he was not per- 
mitted to carry out his plans. His defensive campaign had not 
found favor with the Confederate authorities, and on the very day 
the Union forces crossed the Chattahoochee he received the following 
telegram from Adjt.-Gen. Cooper at Richmond: "I am directed by 
the Secretary of War to inform you that, as you have failed to arrest 
the advance of the enemy to the vicinity of Atlanta, and express no 
confidence that j-ou can defeat or repel him, you are hereby relieved 
from the command of the Army and Department of Tennessee, which 
you will immediately turn over to General Hood." 



58 The Union Army 

The news of the change soon reached the Federal lines, where 
it was received with general satisfaction. Knowing the feeling of 
the Confederate government toward Johnston's course, the new com- 
mander determined upon an aggressive policy. His opportunity soon 
came. Schofield had crossed the Chattahoochee at Phillips' ferry, 
near the mouth of Soap creek, and moved against the Georgia rail- 
road in the vicinity of Decatur. McPherson had effected a crossing 
at Roswell and moved to Schofield's left, striking the railroad be- 
tween Decatur and Stone Mountain, where Garrard's cavalry and M. 
L. Smith's division destroyed several miles of track. He then ef- 
fected a junction with Schofield and moved toward the city. On the 
19th Sherman ordered Thomas to hold his right near Howell's mill 
on Peachtree creek and swing his left across the stream to connect 
with Schofield. Davis' division made an attempt to cross at the mill, 
but finding the enemy too strong on the opposite bank moved far- 
ther down the stream, where he crossed without serious resistance, 
though Dilworth's brigade had a sharp skirmish with and repulsed a 
Confederate detachment. Geary succeeded in crossing about half 
a mile above the mill. Wood moved forward on the Buckhead road, 
but found the bridge destroyed and a force strongly intrenched on 
the high bank opposite. By resorting to a flank movement he suc- 
ceeded, after a stubborn fight, in gaining a footing on the south side 
of the creek below the road. At dark that evening Thomas had the 
heads of three columns on the south side of the Peachtree and the 
remainder of his army in position to follow early on the 20th. There 
was still a considerable gap between Thomas and Schofield, and to 
remedy this Sherman ordered Howard to extend his line to the left 
to connect with Schofield. Stanley's division crossed the north fork 
of the Peachtree above the Buckhead road and went into camp for 
the night between the forks of the creek, ready to move toward 
Schofield's line early on the following morning. Baird's division of 
Palmer's corps crossed during the night and took position on the left 
of Davis, who occupied the extreme right of the line, and early 
the next morning Johnson crossed and moved into position on the 
left of Baird. Hooker sent over Williams' division to form on Geary's 
right, and Ward's (formerly Butterfield's) was ordered to Geary's 
left. Wood's division made a detour to join Stanley and Newton 
moved up on the Buckhead road into the position vacated by Wood. 
The general course of Peachtree creek is westwardly. Howell's mill 
stood at the point where the Marietta road crossed the creek and 
from there to Buckhead bridge the distance was about a mile and 
a half up the stream. About half-way between the two roads a 
small stream called Shoal creek flowed into the Peachtree from the 
south, and a short distance east of the Buckhead road was another 
stream known as Clear creek. On the bank of Shoal creek, about a 
quarter of a mile from the mouth, stood Collier's mill. Newton, 
after relieving Wood, moved forward to a position about half a mile 
south of the Peachtree, his left thrown out toward Clear creek, with 
his line commanding the cross road running to Collier's mill, and 
threw up a barricade of rails and logs. In a hollow to his right 
and rear lay Ward's division, while still farther to the right beyond 
Shoal creek was Geary. 

Hood was aware of the gap in the Federal line and planned an 
assault on Thomas before Schofield and McPherson could come to 
his support. The attack was ordered for i p. m. on the 20th, with 
Stewart's corps on the left, Hardee's in the center and Cheatham's 
on the right. Wheeler's cavalry was sent to hold Schofield and INIc- 
Pherson in check, Cheatham was instructed to hold his left on the 



Cyclopedia of Battles 59 

creek in order to keep between Thomas and Schofield, and the other 
two corps were to be hurled against Thomas. The advance was to 
be made by divisions in echelon, beginning on Hardee's right, and 
when the Union lines were forced back to the creek the Confederates 
were to turn to the left and press down the creek toward the west, 
sweeping everything before them. At the last minute it became 
necessary to change the plan of battle to meet certain contingencies. 
Schofield and McPherson had moved faster than Hood had expected, 
notwithstanding Wheeler's efforts to hold them back. On the night 
of the 19th Schofield crossed the south fork of the Peachtree and took 
.up a position along Peavine creek, almost parallel to Cheatham's line 
of intrenchments. To prevent Schofield from forming a junction 
with Thomas, Cheatham was directed to withdraw a division from his 
left to meet Schofield, and Hardee and Stewart were ordered to move 
to the right to close the space thus vacated. This movement caused 
a delay, so that it was about 4 o'clock before the attack was begun. 
The movement of the Confederates to the right brought Hardee in 
front of Newton, who bore the brunt of the first assault. Without 
skirmishers Hardee advanced with Bate on the right. Walker in the 
center, Maney on the left and Cleburne in reserve. His first division 
passed Newton's left flank near Clear creek and for a little while 
it looked as though Newton would be swept from his position. But 
Bradley's brigade, which was in reserve, quickly formed and with the 
assistance of a well manned battery repulsed the attack. Kimball's 
brigade, on the right of the road, was forced to change front to ineet 
a force that was outflanking it. The movement was successfully exe- 
cuted and just at this juncture the brigades of Wood, Harrison and 
Coburn, of Ward's division, came up on Kimball's right. The sudden 
appearance of these fresh troops threw the enemy into confusion 
and he beat a precipitate retreat. In the meantime the attack had 
been extended beyond Shoal creek toward the Union right. Near 
Collier's mill was an angle between Ward and Geary. When the 
enemy had advanced into this angle Geary's batteries opened with 
canister at short range and at the same time a fierce infantry fire 
was maintained both in front and on the flank. The slaughter here 
was terrific. After the fight Geary's fatigue parties buried over 
400 of the Confederate dead. Stewart sent in the divisions of Loring 
and Walthall, holding French within easy supporting distance. This 
part of the Confederate line was subjected to a heavy enfilading fire 
and forced to retire with heavy losses. Loring lost 1,062 men in a 
few minutes. Again and again the Confederates rallied and advanced 
to the assault. But Thomas — "The Rock of Chickamauga" — was 
there in person, directing the movements of his men. all of whom had 
the utmost confidence in their general and presented a front that 
was invincible. Ward's batteries were placed in a position to sweep 
the Clear creek valley, driving back Bate's column that was trying 
to gain Newton's rear. The enemy's losses in the subsequent at- 
tacks were not so great as in the first charge, but their repulse was 
none the less decisive. The efforts to reform the lines for another 
assault were continued until sunset, when the attempt ,was abandoned 
and the enemy retired within his works. The Federal loss at the 
battle of Peachtree creek in killed, wounded and missing was 1,707. 
No official report of the Confederate casualties was made. General 
Hooker's estimate of their losses in front of the 20th corps was 4,400 
in killed and wounded, and the total loss in killed, wounded and 
missing was not far from 6,000. While the battle of Peachtree creek 
was in progress Gresham's division forced Wheeler's cavalry back 
across the Augusta road toward Bald Hill. In this movement Gres- 



60 The Union Army 

ham was severely wounded and Brig.-Gcn. Giles A. Smith was as- 
signed to the command of the division. 

The 21 St was spent by Thomas and Schofield in the readjustment 
of their lines. Skirmish lines were advanced and intrenched within 
a short distance of the enemy's works, and the space between Howard 
and Logan was filled by Schofield's troops. On the Union left Mc- 
Pherson was more aggressive. Seeing that Bald Hill was the key 
point to the situation on that part of the line he determined to 
possess it. The hill was held by Cleburne's division, which had oc- 
cupied and intrenched it the night before. McPherson sent Force's 
brigade of Leggett's division, supported by Giles A. Smith, against 
Cleburne. Force advanced under cover of the hill itself until within 
a short distance of the enemy's lines and then made a dashing charge 
across the intervening open space against the slight intrenchment 
before him. Cleburne's men were veterans and met the charge with 
that bravery which had distinguished them on other fields, but after 
a sharp combat they were forced to yield. The hill, afterward known 
as Leggett's hill, was promptly manned by artillery, well supported 
by infantry, and a few shells were thrown into the city. 

Having failed in his attempt against Thomas, Hood now turned his 
attention to McPherson. In his report he says: "The position and 
demonstration of McPherson's army on the right threatening my 
communications made it necessary to abandon Atlanta or check his 
movements. Unwilling to abandon, the following instructions were 
given on the morning of the 2ist: The chief engineer was instructed 
to select a line of defense immediately about Atlanta, the works al- 
ready constructed for the defense of the place being wholly useless from 
their position; Stewart's and Cheatham's corps to take position and con- 
struct works to defend the city, the former on the left, the latter 
on the right. The artillery, under the command of Brig.-Gen. Shoup, 
was massed on the extreme right. Hardee was ordered to move 
with his corps during the night of the 2ist south on the McDonough 
road, crossing Intrenchment creek at Cobb's mills, and to completely 
turn the left of McPherson's army. This he was to do, even should 
it be necessarj' to go to or beyond Decatur. Wheeler, with his 
cavalry, was ordered to move on Hardee's right, both to attack at 
daylight, or as soon thereafter as possible. As soon as Hardee suc- 
ceeded in forcing back the enemy's left, Cheatham was to take up 
the movement from his right and continue to force the whole from 
right to left down Peachtree creek, Stewart in like manner to engage 
the enemy as soon as the movement became general." 

Such were Hood's plans for his sortie of the 22nd, but again the 
unforeseen interposed to prevent its success. Blair's corps, its right 
at Bald Hill, had a line of intrenchments along the McDonough road, 
which made it necessary for Hardee to take a different route from 
the one laid down by Hood, so that he was not in position to begin 
his attack until about noon. At daybreak that morning the Con- 
federate v/orks in front of Thomas and Schofield were found aban- 
doned. Of this situation Sherman says in his report : "I confess I 
thought the enemy had resolved to give us Atlanta without further 
contest, but General Johnston had been relieved of his command 
and General Hood substituted. A new policy seemed resolved 
on, of which the bold attack on our right was the index. Our ad- 
vancing ranks swept across the strong and well finished parapets of 
the enemy and closed in upon Atlanta until we occupied a line in the 
form of a general circle of about 2 miles radius, when we again found 
him occupying in force a line of finished redoubts which had. been 
prepared for more than a year, covering all the roads leading into 



Cyclopedia of Battles 61 

Atlanta, and we found him also busy in connecting those redoubts 
with curtains, strengthened by rifle-trench, abatis and chevaux-de- 
frise." 

In conti acting the lines about the city Dodge's corps (the i6th) 
was thrown somewhat to the rear by the 15th corps connecting with 
Schotield's right near the Howard house where Sherman had his head- 
quarters. Dodge was therefore ordered to move to McPherson's left 
flank to strengthen and extend the line in that direction. About 
noon the two divisions of Dodge's corps were marching by fours 
in a long column to the new position. Their line of march was 
nearly parallel to Hardee's line of battle, consisting of Bate's and 
Walker's divisions, concealed in the timber on the left. The first 
intimation Dodge had of the presence of an enemy came with a 
few straggling shots from the Confederate skirmishers. All Dodge 
had to do was to face his veterans to the left and they were in good 
line of battle on ground well calculated for defense. Thus the en- 
gagement was begun on different ground and with a different body 
of troops from what Hood intended or Hardee expected. When the 
corps halted and faced to the left Fuller's (formerly Veatch's) di- 
vision was on the right and Sweeny's on the left. In front was an 
open field over which the enemy must advance. Fuller received 
the brunt of the first attack, but it was handsomely repulsed. Walk- 
er's and the 14th Ohio batteries were wheeled into position and 
these, with the unerring infantry fire, checked every attempt to cross 
the field, each time driving back the enemy with heavy losses. Some 
idea of the carnage at this part of the field may be gained from the 
statement that 13 of Walker's men were found dead in one corner 
of a rail fence behind which the line was formed. In one of these 
charges Gen. Walker rode out of the woods, swinging his hat to 
cheer forward his men, and a moment later was shot from his horse, 
dying almost instantly. While the line was in some confusion Fuller 
made a headlong charge and captured a number of prisoners, in- 
cluding the colonel and adjutant of the 66th Ga. 

McPherson was in consultation with Blair and Logan near the 
railroad when the sound of the firing was heard, and hurried to the 
scene of action. Noticing that a considerable gap existed between 
Dodge's right and Blair's left, he sent orders to Logan to push for- 
ward a brigade to close up the line. A short time served to satisfy 
McPherson that Dodge could hold his position and he started back 
to Blair. Just at this juncture Cleburne's skirmishers were advancing 
into the gap above mentioned. They called to McPherson to sur- 
render, but instead of obeying the summons he lifted his hat, as if 
in salute, and wheeled his horse to gallop away. His action drew 
forth a volley and he fell mortally wounded. As soon as the news 
reached Sherman he assigned Logan to the temporary command of 
the Army of the Tennessee. The sound of the volley that killed 
McPherson told Fuller that the enemy was advancing on his right, 
and he threw forward the 64th 111., armed with the Henry repeating 
rifles, to protect his flank. This regiment met Cleburne's skirmishers 
vv^ith such a galling fire that they fell back with a loss of several in 
killed and wounded and some 40 prisoners. Upon one, of the prisoners 
was found McPherson's eflfects, including an important despatch to 
Sherman, and the body of the dead general was soon afterward re- 
covered. 

Almost immediately after the fall of McPherson the divisions of 
Cleburne and Maney emerged from the timber on the right of Dodge 
and under the protection of a heavy artillery fire from the ridge 
in their rear advanced in three columns against the left and rear of the 



62 The Union Army 

17th corps. They struck Blair's left flank, fronting west, then swung 
through the gap and seized the works constructed by Leggett and 
Smith in their advance on Bald Hill the day before. In this move- 
ment the 16th Iowa, 245 men, on Blair's extreme left was cut off and 
captured. On moved the Confederate advance until it reached the 
foot of the hill and even began the ascent to attack Leggett's works 
on the summit. Here the tide of battle was turned. Smith's division 
leaped over their works and began to pour in a deadly fire from the 
other side. Wangelin's brigade, which Logan had sent in response 
to McPherson's last order to occupy the gap, arrived and opened fire 
on the enemy's flank. This gave Blair an opportunity to change front 
and form a new line, by which arrangement the Confederates were 
forced back. Hood watched the movement from a salient in the 
city's fortifications, and about 3 p. m., when he saw Hardee's attack 
had driven Blair's left back far enough to attack the hill from the 
south, ordered Cheatham's corps and the state troops under G. W. 
Smith to move against the Union position from the Atlanta side. 
Here Col. Jones, of the 53d Ohio, with two regiments of M. L. 
Smith's division and two guns of Battery A, ist 111. artillery, occupied 
a position on a hill about half a mile in advance of the main line. 
Near his position the railroad ran through a deep cut and close by 
stood a large house of which the enemy could take advantage to 
cover his advance along the railroad. Jones wanted to burn the 
house but failed to get permission to do so. Cheatham sent forward 
Manigault's brigade to occupy it, while the main body of the corps 
poured through the cut and struck Jones on the flank, throwing his 
line into disorder. The two guns were spiked, however, before they 
fell into the hands of the enemy. 

About 800 yards in advance of the 15th corps was Battery H 
(De Gress'), ist 111. light artillery, composed of 20-pounder Parrott 
guns and occupying the works evacuated by the enemy on the night 
of the 21 St. The battery, practically unsupported, was charged about 
4 o'clock. The attack in front was repulsed, but the enemy gained the 
rear, and De Gress, seeing that capture was imminent, spiked the 
guns and withdrew his men. The guns were soon afterward recap- 
tured, unspiked and fired a few rounds after the retreating enemy. 
This part of the engagement was witnessed by Sherman from his 
position near the Howard house and he ordered Schofield to mass 
his artillery there and open a cross fire on Cheatham as he advanced 
toward the hill. At the same time the ist division of the 15th corps, 
commanded by Brig.-Gen. C. R. Woods, and Mersey's brigade of 
Sweeny's division moved forward and attacked Cheatham on flank 
and rear, checking his advance. The whole 15th corps now rallied 
and by a counter charge drove Cheatham in confusion from the field, 
recapturing De Gress' guns. This virtually ended the battle. Though 
several subsequent attacks were made they only served to increase 
the Confederate losses without giving them any advantage. Hardee 
and Cheatham were operating on lines nearly at a right angle and 
several miles apart. Had they attacked with vigor at the same mo- 
ment the result might have been different. Fortunately for Blair, 
who occupied the hill for which the enemy was contending, the as- 
saults were so disconnected that he always had time to change front 
to meet each one when it came. 

One thing that made it comparatively easy for Hardee to gain 
Blair's flank and rear was the fact that Sherman had sent Garrard's 
cavalry on the 2ist to Covington to destroy the Georgia railroad. 
Had the cavalry been with the left wing it is quite probable that 
some scouting party would have discovered the movement in time 
to check it, or at least to have given a different turn to the battle. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 63 

At Decatur was Sprague's brigade of Fuller's division guarding 
a train. About the time that Hardee began his attack two divisions 
of Wheeler's cavalry made a descent upon Sprague in an endeavor 
to capture the train. Sprague disposed his force in such a way as to 
cover the withdrawal of the train and put up a gallant resistance to 
a vastly superior force. Reilly's brigade of Sweeny's division came 
to his assistance and Wheeler was repulsed with a loss estimated at 
from 500 to 600. Sprague lost 242 men, most of whom were evidently 
captured, as Wheeler reported about 225 prisoners. 

Gen. J. D. Cox reports the Union losses in the battle of the 22nd 
at 3,521 in killed, wounded and missing. Full returns of the Confed- 
erate casualties are not available, but Logan estimated them at 
10,000. His command captured 5,000 stand of small arms, 18 stand of 
colors and 1,017 prisoners. The total number of prisoners taken by 
the Union army was about 2,000. Walker's division lost so heavily 
that the remnants of its brigades were assigned to other commands. 

Hood made another sortie on July 28, at Ezra Church (q. v.). 
After that Sherman settled down to a siege, with occasional cavalry 
raids against the railroad communications south of the city. (See 
McCook's, Stoneman's and Kilpatrick's Raids.) These expeditions 
having failed to destroy the railroads, Sherman decided to intrench 
the 2oth corps, now commanded by Maj.-Gen. H. W. Slocum, at the 
railroad bridge over the Chattahoochee and at Pace's and Turner's 
ferries, and move the rest of his army to the south of Atlanta. This 
movement began on Aug. 25. The 4th corps was relieved by Gar- 
rard's cavalry, dismounted, and covered the withdrawal of the 20th 
corps to the river. The next day the 4th and 14th corps were massed 
on Utoy creek, and by the evening of the 27th the entire army ex- 
cept Slocum's corps was between Atlanta and Sandtown. Hood had 
unconsciously played into Sherman's hands by sending Wheeler with 
about 10,000 cavalry to cut the Western & Atlantic railroad in the 
rear of the Union army, thus weakening the Confederate forces in 
the field where Sherman was now operating. On the night of the 
28th Thomas was at Red Oak, a station on the West Point railroad, 
Howard, with the Army of the Tennessee, was at Fairburn, and 
Schofield was near Mt. Gilead church, about 4 miles east of Thomas. 
Hood sent out Hardee's and S. D. Lee's corps on the 30th to check 
Sherman's movements and save the railroads if possible. During the 
next few days skirmishes occurred at Red Oak, Rough and Ready, 
Morrow's mill. Mud creek and some other places; the battle of Jones- 
boro was fought on Aug. 31 and Sept. i, and the fighting continued 
around Lovejoy's Station until Sept. 5. In the end the enemy was 
beaten at every point, for on the night of the 31st the Federals were 
in full possession of the railroads. Upon learning this Hood realized 
that further resistance was useless, and at 5 p. m. on Sept. I the 
evacuation of the city was begun. During the night heavy explosions 
were heard by Sherman's army, 20 miles south, caused by blowing up 
their stores and magazines, and the next morning it was discovered 
that the Confederate force at Jonesboro had been withdrawn during 
the night. 

In the meantime Slocum's command had been engaged in con- 
structing works at the railroad bridge and ferries, Jthe ist division 
being at the bridge, the 2nd at Pace's ferry and the 3d at Turner's. 
On Aug. 27 French's division, with 4 pieces of artillery, came out 
and made a spirited attack on Slocum's position, but it was hand- 
somely repulsed with considerable loss to the enemy and very slight 
loss tothe Union forces. The explosions on the night of Sept. i were 
heard in Slocum's camp, and early the next morning he sent out a 



G-t The Union Army 

detachment of the 2nd brigade, Ward's division, under Col. John Co- 
burn, to make a reconnaissance in the direction of the city and learn 
the cause of the explosions. Coburn reached the old line of the Con- 
federate works and found it abandoned. In the suburbs of the city he was 
met by Mayor Calhoun, with a committee of citizens bearing a flag of 
truce. The mayor formally surrendered the city and about lo a. m. 
Ward's division marched in and took possession, the remainder of 
Slocum's corps following later. The Army of the Cumberland reached 
the city on the 8th and took position in the works around it to guard 
against any attempt to retake it. Sherman ordered all families of 
Confederate soldiers to move southward within five days, and all citi- 
zens of the north, not connected with the army, to move northward, 
as the city w^as required purely for m.ilitary purposes. When the 
march to the sea was commenced the torch was applied to all build- 
ings except churches and dwellings, but as the work was somewhat 
indiscriminately done many buildings of the exempted classes were 
consumed. 

Atlanta, Ga., Nov. 6, 1864. (See McDonough Road.) 

Atlanta, Ga., Nov. 9, 1864. 2nd Division, 20th Army Corps. This 
affair was an attack of a Confederate force under Gen. Iverson upon 
the pickets of the city. It commenced before daylight and lasted 
until 8:15 p. m. The enemy's line of skirmishers advanced at one time 
to within 150 yards of the outer works and planted a battery within 
400 yards. The attack was finally repulsed by the bringing up of 
Federal artillery and the advance of the 2nd division skirmishers, 
when the Confederates fell back, leaving 2 dead and 3 wounded on 
the field. 

Atlee's Station, Va., March 2, 1S64. Kilpatrick's Raid. Col. Dahl- 
gren's command consisted of detachments of the ist Me., ist, 2nd 
and 5th Vt. and 5th Mich, cavalry, aggregating about 500 men. About 
400 of this command under Capt. Mitchell reached Atlee's station 
on this date and drove in a Confederate picket of 35 men. Its column, 
more especially the rear-guard of the ist Vt., was fired on by a 
number of mounted Confederates, probably of Wade Hampton's 
forces. 

Atlee's Station, Va., June 26, 1862. The action at Atlee's station on 
this date was on account of the Federal and Confederate armies ma- 
neuvering for position, just before the beginning of the battle of 
Mechanicsville, which marked the commencement of the Seven Days' 
Battles (q. v.). 

Aubrey, Kas., near, March 12, 1862. Detachment 8th Kansas In- 
fantry. First Lieut. Rose, with 30 men of Co. E, had a skirmish with 
a portion of Quantrill's band of guerrillas. The latter were repulsed 
with a loss of 2 killed and several wounded. On their retreat the 
guerrillas drove a family from their home and burned their house. 

Auburn, Ala., July 18, 1864. 9th Ohio Cavalry; Rousseau's raid. 
Gen. Rousseau ordered the destruction of the railroad running through 
Opelika, Auburn and West Point. The order was executed by Col. 
Hamilton and his regiment with great energy and perseverance. His 
command was fired on by parties of the enemy, but drove them oft 
and continued the work, destroying some 6 miles of the road extend- 
ing 3 miles north of Auburn, at which station a large amount of 
lumber and other material and supplies were burned. A locomotive 
running from Opelika toward Auburn was captured and destroyed. 

Auburn, Tenn., near, Feb. 15, 1863. 2nd Michigan Cavalry. Lieut. - 
Col. Fowler was attacked by Confederates at 8 p. m. He repulsed 
them, drove them 3 miles beyond Auburn, where he charged on them 
and routed them from a bridge, which they were trying to destroy 
on the road toward Liberty. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 65 

Auburn, Va., near, Oct. i, 1863. ist Pennsylvania Cavalry. A de- 
tachment of about 100 men under Capt. McNitt, scouted through the 
country about VVarrenton. Near Auburn, 4 miles from headquarters 
and I mile beyond the Federal picket-line, McNitt was attacked by 
100 to 150 Confederate cavalry. After a short skirmish in which 2 
Union men were wounded and i Confederate was captured, the enemy 
retired on the Greenwich road. 

Auburn, Va., Oct. 13, 1863. ist Division, 3d Army Corps. At 
Three-Mile Station, on the Warrenton branch railroad, Maj.-Gen. Da- 
vid B. Birney, commanding the division, was ordered from corps 
headquarters to precede the Federal column. At the head of the 
column he was joined by Maj.-Gen. French and escort. Before reach- 
ing the woods immediately in front of the bridge at Auburn, dis- 
mounted cavalry of the enemy poured a volley into the advance 
guard and the head of the column. A section of Sleeper's battery 
was opened upon the enemy, the ist and part of the 3d brigade 
were formed on the right and left of the road, a charge was made 
into the woods and the Confederate force was speedily dislodged. 
By command of Gen. French, Birney immediately advanced and took 
possession of the heights on which the enemy had their battery, left 
there the 3d Mich, and a section of battery and marched to Green- 
wich. He reported a loss of ^3 killed, wounded and missing. 

Auburn, Va., Oct. 14, 1863. ist Division. 2nd Corps, Army of the Poto- 
mac. Early in the morning a sudden and furious attack was made on the 
rear-guard of the Army of the Potomac, while it was moving north- 
ward along the line of the Orange & Alexandria railroad, between 
Catlett's station and Warrenton. The ist division commanded by 
Brig.-Gen. Caldwell and forming the advance of the 2nd corps, under 
Maj.-Gen. Warren, had reached Cedar run near Auburn at dark the 
day before and bivouacked there. At daybreak the division forded 
the run and Caldwell's orders were to hold this point against any at- 
tack from the direction of Warrenton, until the rest of the corps with 
the artillery and wagons had passed on toward Catlett's station. He 
must remain until his line could be relieved by cavalry, the battery 
by horse artillery. Suddenly the enemy opened fire from a battery 
on a hill about 800 yards in his rear. Caldwell ordered each of his 
brigade commanders to take his troops rapidly round the hill under 
cover. Ricketts' battery, immediately in the rear of the division, was 
quickly reversed and soon silenced the Confederate guns. Then the 
division again changed front and faced toward Warrenton. for the 
enemy's skirmishers had appeared in its rear. Since daylight there 
had been skirmishing to the left and in front. Now skirmishers were 
coming in across the field. Caldwell ordered the S7th N. Y. of the 
3d brigade to report to Col. Brooke and directed him to cover the 
Federal front. Brooke deployed the 57th Penn., 2nd Del., and 57th N. 
Y. as skirmishers and kept the 145th Penn. and the 64th N. Y. as 
support. The 2nd and 3d divisions, and the batteries, except Arnold's 
and .Ames', had gone toward Bristoe Station. The ist division and 
Arnold's and Ames' batteries remained. The enemy opened on the 
Federal left and Arnold's battery, first with one battery, then with 
2 others further to the left. His aim was accurate, but the Federal 
artillery and infantry were so well covered that he did little damage. 
About 200 rounds of ammunition were fired. On a crest across Cedar 
run, Carroll's brigade, its front covered by a picket-line, commanded 
by Col. Beaver of the 148th Penn., was menaced by the enemy, and 
by order of Warren, Caldwell sent the Irish brigade to reinforce it. 
By 8 o'clock Gregg's cavalry was in line across the run. At length 
the horse artillery arrived and Ames' battery and the Irish brigade 
Vol. V— 5 



66 The Union Army 

were sent to an elevated position in the rear beside the road. Cald- 
well withdrew the division, detailing Brooke's brigade with a section 
of artillery as rear-guard. The cavalry which was to have covered 
Brooke's rear preceded his skirmishers. A quarter of a mile from 
his first position he was vigorously attacked on the right and rear. 
The enemy, with a column of infantry thrown across the road, cut 
oflf the 57th N. Y., which was in the rear, but by a detour the regiment 
regained the column. Brooke withdrew in perfect order, fighting and 
repelling the attacks of two lines of battle, the first consisting of 5 
regiments. Before reaching the railroad the division took up two 
defensive positions, and though the Confederates approached they did 
not attack. 

Augusta, Ark., April i, 1864. (See Fitzhugh's Woods.) 
Augusta, Ark., Aug. 10, 1864. Brig.-Gen. West, commanding an 
expedition from Little Rock against the Confederate forces under 
Gen. Shelby, was informed that the latter was at Augusta and would 
there cross White river to form a junction with McCray. On Aug. 
9, to prevent such a movement, West advanced to a point opposite 
Augusta, hoping to intercept Shelby in the act of crossing, but Shelby 
had gone toward Jacksonport two days before. On the loth West 
stationed the 3d Mich, across the river from Augusta and sent 7 
men over on a ferry boat half a mile below. This small party came 
up to Augusta and drove out a few Confederate pickets. In the 
evening West and brought the boat up the river and landed the 3d Mich., 
with 2 mountain howitzers of the loth JU. cavalry in Augusta. The 
approaches to Augusta were strongly picketed, and strong detach- 
ments from the 2nd brigade were sent toward Grand Glaize and Den- 
mark to develop the Confederate strength to the northward, with 
orders to return no later than 10 a. m. next day. 

Augusta, Ky., Sept. 27, 1862. Kentucky Home Guards and Militia. 
A Confederate force of 400 to 500 of Morgan's raiders, under com- 
mand of Col. Duke, started to make a demonstration against Cincin- 
natti, Ohio. About 100 men under Col. Bradford were stationed at 
Augusta and the gunboat Belfast, Capt. Sedam, was an auxiliary to 
the Federal forces. Before the attack the gunboats Allen Collyer and 
Florence Miller anchored in front of the town. Bradford requested 
the help of the vessels in case of an attack and then posted his men 
in the houses along Front street and up Pine street to Second. By 
the time he had done this the Confederate cavalry, with 2 small can- 
non, took position on a hill overlooking the town. They were greeted 
by a shell from the Belfast that killed 2 or 3 and caused them to 
move their canon. They then opened fire, doing little damage, and 
the Belfast fired twice effectively. Then the 3 gunboats hurried from 
the town, 2 of them not having fired a shot. Emboldened by this 
withdrawal of the vessels, the Confederates rushed down into the 
town, though many of them fell before the determined defense from 
the houses. They planted their guns in the street and regardless of 
women and children bombarded the houses, setting fire to several of 
them. The beleaguered and desperate Unionists fought for some time 
after they knew that their valor could avail nothing, when Bradford 
surrendered and the town was looted, much of it having already been 
destroyed. The Confederates took horses, buggies, wagons and other 
available means of carrying oflf their wounded, leaving some of their 
dead to be buried by the people of the town. Some of their prisoners 
were marched from the town; others were paroled. The Federal loss 
in killed was 12 or 15; Confederate 75 to 100, including Capt. Samuel 
D. Morgan, a cousin of Col. John H. Morgan, and William Courtland 
Prentice, son of George D. Prentice, editor of the Louisville Courier. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 67 

Austin, Ark., Aug. 31, 1863. Davidson's Cavalry Division, Depart- 
ment of the Missouri. 

Austin, Miss., Aug. 2, 1862. 8th Indiana Infantry. 

Austin, Miss,, May 24, 1863. Mississippi Marine Brigade. On the 
evening of the 23d, as Brig.-Gen. Ellet, with his command, the 
marine brigade, was being taken down the Mississippi from Memphis, 
his commissary and quartermaster boat was lired upon about 6 
miles above Austin, from the Mississippi side of the river, by Confed- 
erates with 2 pieces of artillery. Next morning he returned to Austin 
and landed his force. The enemy a few hours before had captured 
and burned a small trading steamer, appropriating its freight and 
taking its crew prisoners. Ellet's cavalry, 200 strong, under com- 
mand of Maj. Hubbard, when 8 miles from Austin overtook 1,000 
mounted Confederates under command of Col. Slemons, and a 2 hours' 
engagement ensued. From the shelter of a bottom Hubbard repulsed 
the enemy. Federal loss, 2 killed, 19 wounded; Confederate, 5 killed, 
several wounded. Hubbard took 22 stands of arms and at Augusta 
destroyed hidden arms by burning the town. 

Austin, Miss., May 28, 1863. 

Austin, Nev., May 29, 1865. ist Nevada Infantry. Lieut. Tolles, 
with a detachment of about 20 men, pursued and fired at a small 
party of Indians, who were making away with some stolen cattle. 
No casualties reported. 

Auxvasse Creek, Mo., Oct. 16, 1862. loth Missouri Militia Cavalry. 
Maj. Woodson with a portion of this regiment attacked 150 bush- 
whackers camping on this creek, killed i, wounded 2 and took 3 
prisoners. His loss was 2 men wounded. 

Averasboro, N. C, March 16, 1865. 14th and 20th Army Corps and 
Kilpatrick's Cavalry. Gen. Sherman left Fayetteville on March 14. 
Gens. Schofield and Terry with their columns were to join him at 
Goldsboro, where he had planned to end his immediate campaign 
in order to the establishment of his position with New Berne for a 
base. Johnston had disposed his troops along the Raleigh roads 
and Sherman understood that the Confederate general would try 
to turn the Federal left flank in the march to Goldsboro. To meet 
this movement he threw out Gen. Slocum's left wing, without trains 
and in light marching order, to cover the advance of the main army 
and its wagons. A light column embracing Gen. Kilpatrick's cavalry 
in strong force, the divisions of Gens. Ward and Jackson of the 20th 
corps, and the divisions of Gens. Carlin and Morgan of the 14th 
corps, was sent up the Raleigh road in a direct demonstration against 
Raleigh. The right wing moved on the direct road to Goldsboro. 
Between it and the light column was the remainder of Slocum's 
wing. On the evening of the 15th the Federal cavalry advance en- 
countered that of the enemy 5 miles from Fayetteville and forced 
it to fall back to Kyle's landing, midway between Fayetteville and 
Averasboro. Reinforced by an infantry brigade, Kilpatrick camped 
during the night within easy range of the Confederate pickets and 
at daylight on the i6th he moved out in line of battle, the infantry 
having the center. The enemy's pickets were driven in and his 
skirmish line forced back to his main line of battle.. Doubting the 
prudence of an attack, Kilpatrick sent back for infantry reinforcements 
and the entire 14th and 20th corps were hurried forward. In the 
meantime the enemy moved out of his works and furiously attacked 
Col. Jones' cavalry on the right. Jones gallantly held his position 
until reinforced by the brigades of Jordan and Atkins, when he re- 
pulsed three determined attacks, then charged in turn and drove 
the Confederates back behind their works. The 14th and 20th corps 



68 The Union Army 

having gone into position, Kilpatrick's cavalry operated on the right 
throughout the day, and mounted or dismounted fought side by side 
with the infantry. Gen. Howard was ordered to send his trains, under 
good escort, well to the right, toward Fairon's depot and Goldsboro 
and to hold 4 divisions in light marching order to go to the aid 
of the left wing if that should be attacked while in motion. The 
weather was bad and the roads were a mere quagmire, passable for 
wheels only after being corduroyed. Sherman accompanied Slocum, 
who went up the river road on the 15th, following Kilpatrick to 
Kyle's landing, Kilpatrick skirmishing heavily with the enemy's rear- 
guard at Taylor's Hole creek, 3 miles beyond. On the morning of 
the i6th, the column advanced in the same order and developed the 
enemy with artillery, cavalry and infantry intrenched a mile and a 
half in front of Moore's cross-roads, the junction of the Smithfield 
and Raleigh road with the one toward Goldsboro through Bentonville. 
Hardee, in retreating from Fayetteville, had halted in the narrow 
swampy neck between Cape Fear and South rivers, hoping to impede 
Sherman's advance and enable Johnston to concentrate his forces 
at Raleigh, Smithfield or Goldsboro in Hardee's rear. To keep the 
Goldsboro road clear and to prolong the feint on Raleigh, Sherman 
had to dislodge Hardee. Slocum was ordered to press forward and 
carry the position, a difficult undertaking, because horses sank in 
the swampy ground and men could scarcely walk on it. Hawley's 
brigade began skirmishing early in the morning. It was 10 o'clock 
before other troops could reach the field. The 20th corps under Gen. 
Williams had the lead and Ward's division the advance. This di- 
vision was deployed to the left of the road, its right connecting 
with Hawley's left, and developed Rhett's brigade of heavy artillery 
armed as infantry, posted across the road behind a light parapet, 
with a battery enfilading the approach across a cleared field. Will- 
iams sent Case's brigade by a circuitous advance to turn this line. 
Case charged on and broke Rhett's brigade, which retreated to a 
second line of barricades, better built and more strongly held. The 
advantage was promptly followed up by a destructive fire from three 
batteries, under Maj. Reynolds, chief of artillery of the 20th corps. 
Ward's division advanced and developed a third and still stronger line. 
Jackson's division was deployed forward on the right of Ward and two 
divisions of the 14th corps under Davis on the left, well toward the 
Cape Fear river. Kilpatrick, acting in concert with Williams, now 
massed his cavalry on the extreme right and with Jackson felt for- 
ward for the Goldsboro road. He reached that road with one brigade, 
which was driven back by McLaws' division to the flank of the 
infantry. Late in the afternoon the whole Federal line drove the 
enemy well within his intrenchments, pressing him so hard that in 
the stormy night which followed he retreated over almost impassable 
roads, leaving his dead and wounded. Ward's division followed him 
to and through Averasboro, developing the fact that Hardee had 
retreated, not on the Raleigh but on the Smithfield road. The Fed- 
eral loss in killed, wounded and missing was 682. The enemy's loss 
may be inferred from his dead, 108 of whom were buried on the 
field by Federals. 

Averasboro, N, C, March 17, 1865. Portion of the 20th Army 
Corps. The battle of Averasboro had been fought the day before 
and Wheeler, with his cavalry, covered Hardee's retreat. At daylight 
the Federals advanced and pushed Wheeler through Averasboro, 
after which they turned toward Goldsboro. No report of casualties. 

Averell's Raid, Aug. 5-31, 1863. 4th Separate Brigade. 8th Army 
Corps. On Aug. 5 the brigade, commanded by Brig.-Gen. W. W. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 69 

Averell. left Winchester for an expedition through Bath and High- 
land counties, Va., and the counties of Pocahontas, Pendleton, Green- 
brier and Hardy in W. Va. During the movement Averell met and 
engaged the enemy at several places.. Accounts of the principal 
skirmishes— Cold Spring gap. Big Sewcll mountain and Rocky gap — 
are gi-ven under those titles, but no detailed reports were made of the 
minor actions at Moorefield on the 6th. Huntcrsville on the 22nd, and 
Warm Springs on the 24th. The saltpeter works near Franklin and 
on Jackson's river were destroyed; Camp Northwest was burned and 
a large amount of arms, equipments and stores there were either 
captured or destroyed; the court officials at Monterey were arrested 
and the court broken up; many arms, saddles and other stores were 
taken at Millboro; the enemy under Jackson was driven from Poca- 
hontas county; and several wagons were captured near Covington. 
On the 31st Averell reached Beverly, bringing in over 30 prisoners, a 
large number of horses, cattle, etc. He reported his casualties for 
the entire expedition as 26 killed. 125 wounded and d"] missing. 

Avoyelles Prairie, La., May 15, 1864. 13th, i6th, 17th and 19th 
Corps. The Federal boats had passed the falls at Alexandria and the 
army had resumed its retreat, with Gen. Smith's command constitut- 
ing the rear of the column. On the 15th, while crossing Avoyelles 
Prairie, Bagby's Confederate division, part of the time reinforced by 
troops under Major, several times beat back the head of the column, 
using masked artillery at short range. Brig.-Gen. Steele, with Par- 
son's brigade, attacked the Federals at Marksville, captured a wagon 
and about 30 prisoners. Smith's command was ordered forward late 
in the day, and Gen. Dwight, Maj.-Gen. Banks' chief of staff, ordered 
the 13th corps to press the Confederate right. Smith to attack the 
left and the 19th corps to pierce the center. As the several commands 
moved forward in line the Confederate cavalry galloped away, taking 
their artillery with them. 

A. W. Baker (Steamer), Feb. 3. 1863. Queen of the West. Fifteen 
miles below the mouth of the Red River, the Queen of the West, com- 
manded b}' Col. Ellet, met the Confederate steamer A. W. Baker, as- 
cending the Mississippi. Supposing the Queen to be a southern boat, 
the Baker's pilot whistled for her to take the starboard side. Re- 
ceiving no reply and not liking the ram's looks, as she drove straight 
at the Baker, the pilot ran the latter ashore. Numerous Confederates 
escaped by leaping into the water and swimm.ing, but several officers 
and civilians, among whom were several ladies, were captured. The 
Baker had just discharged her cargo at Port Hudson and was return- 
ing for another. Scarcely had Ellet put the Baker under guard, when 
the Moro. laden with 110,000 pounds of pork, nearly 500 hogs and a 
large quantity of salt, destined for Confederate use at Port Hudson, 
came down the river and was brought into captivity by a shot across 
her bows. 

Aylett's, Va., May 5, 1863. 12th Illinois and Harris Light Cavalry. 
A section of the 12th 111. burned all the stores at Aylett's station on 
the Mattapony river. This was incidental to Kilpatrick's raid over 
the Chickahominy, a movement which Kilpatrick commanded in per- 
son, and within the Confederate lines at Richmond. , 

Backbone Mountain, Ark., Sept. i, 186^. (See Devil's Backbone.) 

Back Creek Bridge. W. "Va., July 27, 1864. 

Back River Road, Va., July 19, 1861. Federal troops surprised Con- 
federate pickets guarding horses. The pickets fled and the horses were 
taken by the Unionists. 

Back Road, Va., Oct. 7, 1864. ist Brigade. 3d Division, Sheridan's 
Army. The brigade, consisting of the 2nd and 5th N. Y., the i8th Pa. and 



70 The Union Army 

the 2nd Oliio cavalry and commanded by Col. Pennington, marched from 
Dayton on the Back road, burning houses and collecting all the cattle that 
could be found. The enemy under Gen. Rosser followed, but without 
attacking until the Federals were going into camp. Then near Brock's 
gap Rosser attacked the 5th N. Y. and i8th Pa., and with the help of 
Gen. Lomax cut off about 75 of the former, who came into camp later. 

Bacon Creek, Ky., Dec. 26, 1862. 2nd Michigan and 12th Kentucky 
Cavalry; 25th Michigan and 36th Indiana Infantry. Incidental to Morgan's 
second Kentucky raid, scouts at 9 p. m. on the 25th informed Col. Hobson, 
commanding the Federal post at Munfordville, that Confederates in force 
were crossing Green river at Burnt Bridge ford and moving toward Ham- 
mondsville. Hobson ordered Capt. Dickey of the 2nd Mich, cavalry to 
Bacon creek stockade and Col. Shanks of the 12th Ky. cavalry toward 
Hammondsville. Early next morning, Morgan sent Duke's regiment, 
Gano's 7th Ky. cavalry and a section of Palmer's battery, under command 
of Lieut.-Col. Hutcheson, to attack the stockade while he proceeded with 
the main body of his troops to Upton. About 11 a. m. Dickey was attacked 
and flanked. Having less than 80 effective men, he had to fall back on 
Munfordville, but fought all the way. Hobson covered Dickey's retreat 
with all but two companies of the 12th Ky., which after attacking the 
enemy, gradually fell back on Munfordville to draw him in and give play 
to the Federal skirmishers, consisting of the 25th Mich, infantry (Col. 
Moore) on the right; the 36th Ind. (Lieut.-Col. Carey) in the center; the 
convalescent battalion and the 13th Ky. (Maj. Hobson) on the left. This 
strategic disposition of the troops did not succeed. A few shots were 
fired by the 12th Ky., when the enemy fell back to Bacon creek. Plobson 
kept the 12th Ky. in line of battle between that stream and Munfordville 
until after dark, when believing that an attack next morning would result 
in the destruction of the depot, he doubled his line of pickets and removed 
his stores within the fortifications. 

Bagdad, Ky., Dec. 12, 1861. 6th Kentucky Volunteers. 

Bailey's, Ark., Jan. 21, 1864. Detachment of the 2nd Arkansas Cav- 
alry. Lieut. Phelps of the 3d U. S. cavalry, commanding the Arkansas 
regiment with 166 men, camped on the 21st at Rolling's farm, some 30 
miles from Carrollton, where he was joined by 34 men of Companies A 
and B. At Bailey's, Co. C, under command of Lieut. Orr, surprised a 
guerrilla chief and 3 of his gang, killed 2 of the latter and left the other 
for dead. 

Bailey's Corners, Va., Aug. 28-30, 1861. 2nd and 3d Michigan In- 
fantry. On Aug. 28, Capt. Dillman, with a detachment of 250 men of the 
2nd Mich, infantry, marched from Hunter's chapel to Bailey's cross-roads 
to occupy and hold that point against Confederate encroachments. He 
reached there at 10 a. m. and at once threw out pickets. The enemy's 
pickets maintained a fire until 10 p. m. and at daybreak on the 29th the 
firing was resumed, but was not returned by the Federals. Emboldened 
by the latter's silence, the enemy sent out a detachment of 80 to 100 men. 
apparently with the intention of driving in the pickets on the right of 
Dillman's Hne, thus cutting off his communication with his regiment. This 
movement was partially successful, but the pickets rallied and reinforced 
by 40 skirmishers under Capt. Humphrey, drove back the Confederates, 
while Maj. Champlin of the 3d Mich, engaged the enemy's front with 
troops of Lieut. Morris and Capt. Judd. The Federal pickets were re- 
established and the forces of both sides were in the positions they had 
occupied in the morning. The Federal loss was i mortally wounded; 
Confederate loss greater. 

Col. Stuart (Confederate) informed Gen. Longstreet of an "affair" 
here on the 27th, of which he related that at daylight on the 28th he had 
a piece of rifled cannon, Washington batter^', brought clandestinely in 



Cyclopedia of Battles 71 

position to bear on Bailey's cross-roads and fired 4 shots, distance being 
by the shots 1,350 yards, which dispersed the Federals at that point and 
developed the jfact that they had no artillery there, and added : "The fire 
of artillery dispersed also a long line of skirmishers." His loss was i 
killed, 6 wounded and he took some prisoners. He concluded with the 
information that the Federals at Bailey's cross-roads had reassembled. 
Connection of this affair with others reported above is not clearly apparent. 

Bailey's Creek, Va., Aug. 16, 1864. The action at Bailey's creek on 
this date was a part of the operations about Deep Bottom, a full account 
of which is given under that head under date of Aug. 13-20, 1864. 

Bainbridge, Tenn., Oct. 30, 1864. 

Bainbridge Ferry, Ala., Jan. 25, 1864. Johnson's brigade of Roddey's 
Confederate command crossed the Tennessee river at Bainbridge, 3 miles 
above Florence, and at Newport ferry, 6 miles below I^"lorence, intending 
to make a junction with a brigade of infantry that was expected to cross 
the river at Lamb's and Brown's ferries and to proceed thence to Athens 
to capture the Federal troops there. A Federal force of Maj.-Gen. 
Thomas' command, under Col. Miller of the i8th Mo. infantry, engaged 
them near Florence and routed them, killing 15 and wounding and 
capturing others. Federal loss, 15 killed, 25 wounded. 

Baker's Creek, Miss., May 16, 1863. (See Champion's Hill.) 

Baker's Creek, Miss., July 7, 1863. pth Division, 13th Army Corps. 
As the division commanded by Brig.-Gen. Osterhaus was preparing to 
camp for the night, after a day's marching and skirmishing from camp 
near Vicksburg to Baker's creek, the Confederate cavalry formed again 
on a plantation about a mile beyond the Baker's creek bridge and dashed 
toward Osterhaus' pickets at the bridge. They fell back, however, with- 
out inflicting harm and that night the Federal cavalry occupied the planta- 
tion, establishing a line of patrols to Raymond. 

Baker's Creek, Miss., P>b. 4, 1864. (See Champion's Hill.) 

Baker Springs, Ark., Jan. 24, 1864. 2nd and 6th Kansas Cavalry. 
A detachment of 100 men under Capt. E. A. Barker marched from 
Waldron, Ark., toward Baker's Springs near Caddo gap and surprised 
WiUiamson's guerrillas, killing Williamson and 5 of his men, wounding 
2 and taking 2 lieutenants and 25 men prisoners. On his return Barker 
captured i lieutenant and i man. Federal loss, I killed, I wounded. 

Bald Hill, Ga., July 22, 1864. (See Atlanta.) 

Bald Spring Cafion, Cal., March 22, 1864. (See Red Mountain.) 

Baldvirin, Fla., Aug. 10-12, 1864. 75th Ohio, 102nd United States 
Colored Infantr3^ The 102nd regiment U. S. colored troops, engaged in 
destroying the railroad near Baldwin on the loth, was involved in 
skirmishes with the enemy's cavalry. On the I2tli two Confederate cavalry 
companies, with a piece of artillery, advanced to a point within 3 miles 
of Baldwin, where, under the protection of a small detachment of the 
75th Ohio, the 102nd regiment was again tearing up the railroad track. 
The Ohio troops charged the Confederates and 2 men who passed through 
the latter's line were cut oflf. Col. Beecher, the Federal commander, fell 
back fighting. Gen. Hatch, commanding the District of Florida, sent 100 
cavalry and 2 pieces of artillery to Beecher's aid and the Confederates 
were driven back to St. Mary's Union. Loss, i killed, 4 captured. 

Baldwin's Ferry, Miss., May 13, 1863. Detachment ist Brigade, ist 
Division, 13th Army Corps. Col. McMillen, commanding'the brigade, was 
ordered with the QSth Ohio to Hall's ferry, on the Black river, to guard 
that crossing, but was misdirected and marched to Baldwin's ferry, where 
he drove a few of the enemy's pickets across the river. The regiment 
rejoined its brigade on the evening of the 13th. Loss, 4 missing. 

Baldv^in's Ferry, Miss., Sept. 11, 1863. 

Baldwyn, Miss., June 14, 1862. (See Clear Creek.) 



72 The Union Army 

Baldwyn, Miss., Oct. 2, 1862. Cavalry of the Army of the Mississippi. 

Ballahock, Va., Feb. 29-March i, 1864. Feb. 29, 8 men patrolhng the 
road from Ballahock Station to South Mills were driven back to Balla- 
hock by Confederates. A detachment of 40 of the 5th Pa. cavalry under 
Capt. Lompe was sent from Deep creek by Lieut. -Col. Smith to recon- 
noiter. He reported having seen about 30 Confederate cavalry on the 
South Mills road, 4 miles from the Ballahock post. Gen. Heckman, 
commanding the U. S. troops near Portsmouth, ordered Smith to make 
a cavalry reconnaissance to South Mills. At 4 a. m. on March i, Lompe 
went toward South Mills, but early in the day was repulsed at the 16- 
mile stone and pursued by Confederates. He fell back over the northwest 
canal bridge and tore up parts of its roadway and after trying to make a 
stand there fell back toward Deep creek. About 2 miles from Ballahock 
Station he met Smith, in obedience to whose orders he halted and formed 
his men in line of battle, the enemy being then about a mile distant. 
Heckman sent forward 100 men of the 9th N. J., under Lieut. Burnett, 
but before this reinforcement arrived, the enemy fell back and Smith with 
his force followed him. At a point on the Bear Quarter road the Con- 
federates made a stand and fired on the Federal advance guard from a 
thicket on the left. The Federals returned the fire and entered the 
thicket, but discovered some 300 Confederates moving toward their rear, 
evidently bent on cutting them off. They retired by the left flank, firing 
as they went, and the Confederates relinquished their design. Later, with 
2 pieces of artillery and his force augmented by 100 men of the loth 
N. H. under Capt. Simpson, Smith again engaged the enemy, but it was 
too late to fight effectively. He therefore retired a mile from the place of 
his last stand and bivouacked for the night. Loss, i killed, i wounded, 
8 missing. Heckman assumed personal command the next day. 

Ball's Bluff, Va., Oct. 21, 1861. Part of Stone's Division, Army of the 
Potomac. After the battle of Bull Run, Gen. Patterson was superseded 
by Gen. Banks, who took position at Harper's Ferry. From that point 
down the Potomac to Washington the Federal pickets lined the river to 
guard against any invasion of Maryland or an attempt to turn the right 
flank of the army which Gen. McClellan was organizing at Washington. 
About half-way between Harper's Ferry and the national capital was 
Edwards' ferry. Five miles farther up was Conrad's ferry, at the head of 
Harrison's island. In front of these ferries, on the Virginia side of the 
Potomac, lay the town of Leesburg, some 4 or 5 miles from the river. 
Gen. Beauregard stationed Brig. -Gen. N. G. Evans, with his brigade of 
four regiments, at Leesburg to keep watch on the ferries and guard against 
a flank attack on the Confederate left. Ball's bluff lay along the Virginia 
side of the river opposite Harrison's island, from which it was separated 
by a channel about 100 yards wide. The bluff varied in height, rising 
in some places to over 100 feet, and the front next to the river was dif- 
ficult of ascent, being steep and covered with a thick growth of bushes. 
Almost opposite Edwards' ferry Goose creek flowed into the Potomac from 
Virginia and across this stream ran the Gum Spring road from Leesburg 
to Manassas. Toward the middle of October Banks' division was stationed 
at various points along the Potomac; Geary was at Sugar Loaf mountain 
on the Maryland side of the river, a short distance below the Point of 
Rocks, from which position he could observe the movements of the enemy ; 
Stone's division was at Poolesville, Md., from which place a road ran to 
Leesburg, crossing the river at Edwards' ferry. These troops were all in 
favorable positions for cutting off Evans' brigade, but the Federal com- 
manders were misled as to the strength of the enemy through a ruse to 
which Evans resorted of showing his men suddenly at various places at 
short intervals to give the impression that his force was greater than it 
really was. On the 19th McClellan ordered Gen. McCall to occupy 



Cyclopedia of Battles T3 

Dranesville with his division. This move was successfully executed and 
the Gum Spring road thus fell into the hands of the Federals. Early 
the next morning the signal officer at Sugar Loaf mountain sent word 
that the enemy was moving out of Leesburg, and the following telegram 
was sent to Stone : "Gen. McCall occupied Dranesville yesterday and is 
still there. Will send out heavy reconnaissances to-day in all directions 
from that point. The general desires that you keep a good lookout upon 
Leesburg to see if this movement has the efifect to drive them away. 
Perhaps a slight demonstration on your part would have the eflfect to 
move them." 

Stone immediately moved Gorman's brigade, the 7th Mich, and part of 
his cavalry to Edwards' ferry ; ordered Col. Devens to occupy Harrison's 
island with live companies of the 15th Mass.; and sent Col. Lee, with 
part of the 20th Mass., the 20th N. Y. (the Tammany regiment) and a 
section of Battery B, ist R. L artillery, to Conrad's ferry. A section of 
Bunting's battery was already at Conrad's ferry, and Ricketts' battery, 
commanded by Lieut. Woodruff, was posted at Edwards' ferry. On 
Sunday afternoon (the 20th) three flatboats were brought from the canal 
to the river; Gorman displayed his brigade in view of the enemy, while 
shells and spherical case shot were thrown into the woods on the opposite 
side of the river, Stone's object being to create the impression that a 
crossing was to be made. The three boats, each loaded with 35 men 
from the ist Minn., crossed and recrossed the river and at dusk Gorman's 
troops returned to camp. Stone has been criticised by some writers for 
not stopping his demonstration at this time, as McClellan's order had 
been carried out and the object of the movement had been accomplished. 
Instead of ceasing operations, however, he directed Devens to send Capt. 
Philbrick, with 20 men, across the river at Harrison's island soon after 
dark, with instructions to move by a bridle path through the woods to- 
ward Leesburg and ascertain the position of the enemy. Toward mid- 
night Philbrick returned with the information that he had discovered a 
camp of some 30 tents about a mile from Leesburg and had approached 
close to it without being challenged. When this was imparted to Stone 
he ordered Devens to cross over with four companies and take position 
to destroy the camp at daybreak, pursue the enemy as far as would be 
prudent and returned to the island, his withdrawal to be covered by part 
of the 20th Mass. In order to cover Devens" movement. Stone ordered 
Gorman to send over two companies of the ist Minn, at Edwards' ferry, 
and sent Maj. Mix with a small detachment of the 3d N. Y. cavalry 
along the Leesburg road until he should come to the vicinity of a battery 
known to be there and then turn to the left and reconnoiter toward Goose 
creek. Baker was directed to have his brigade in readiness to move from 
Conrad's ferry at daybreak, and the 15th Mass. was to be at Harrison's 
island at that hour ready to cross and support Devens if necessary. 
Devens made his reconnaissance and discovered that in the uncertain 
light Philbrick's scouts had mistaken openings in the woods for white 
tents. He therefore sent back word to Stone that no enemy was in sight 
in the vicinity of Leesburg. The reason he found no Confederates there 
was because Evans had withdrawn his brigade to a line of intrenchments 
along Goose creek to meet an attack from the direction of Dranesville. 

After reconnoitering in the direction of Leesburg and failing to find 
anything of the enemy, Devens concealed his force in a' wood and took 
steps to hold his position. In the meantime Stone had directed Baker to 
use his judgment about withdrawing Devens or sending over reinforce- 
ments. Baker decided on sending over more troops, but the transporta- 
tion was so inadequate that it was nearly noon before all of the 15th 
Mass. was on the Virginia shore. From the redoubt called "Fort Evans," 
to the eastward of Leesburg, the Confederate commander could see the 



74 The Union Army 

movement of the P'edcral troops and sent a detachment under Col. 
Jenifer to hold them in check until his plan of attack could be fully de- 
veloped. About 10 a. m. he sent the 8th Va. under Col. llunton 
to the support of Jenifer, and a sharp skirmish occurred between these 
two Confederate detachments and the advance companies of the 15th 
Mass. A little after 12 o'clock the enemy appeared in force in front of 
Devens, who retired to prevent being outtlanked, taking place in line with 
the troops brought over by Baker. By 2 130 the musketry firing became 
very brisk and Baker ordered 4 pieces of artillery to be sent over the 
river. One gun and 2 small howitzers were crossed and did effective 
service until Lieuts. Bramhall and French were both wounded, when the 
guns were dragged to the rear by hand to prevent their falling into the 
hands of the enemy. About 4 o'clock Baker fell while cheering on his men 
and the command devolved on Col. Coggswell of the Tammany regiment, 
who ordered dispositions to be made to cut a way through to Edwards' 
ferry. Concerning this movement Coggswell says in his report : "I was 
followed by the remnants of my two companies and a portion of the 
California regiment, but, for some reasons unknown to me, was not 
joined by either the istli or 20th Mass. regiments. We were overpowered 
and forced back to our original position, and again driven from that 
position to the river bank by overwhelming numbers. On the river bank 
I found the whole force in a state of great disorder. As I arrived, two 
companies of my own regiment, under Capts. Gerety and O'Meara, landed 
from the large boat. I ordered these fresh companies up the bluff, and 
they instantly ascended and deployed as skirmishers to cover the passage 
to the island, while I took about a dozen men and moved to the left to 
check a heavy fire of the enemy which had opened on us from the mouth 
of a ravine near. We were almost immediately surrounded and captured." 

On the river bank the Union troops maintained for nearly half an 
hour a hopeless contest rather than to surrender. The smaller boat had 
gone, no one seemed to know where, and the larger boat swamped within 
15 feet of the shore on account of being too heavily loaded. There was 
nothing left but to surrender, swim or die. Many of the men, while 
negotiations were being conducted, threw their arms and cartridge-boxes 
into the Potomac to prevent them from falling into the hands of the enemy. 
Some plunged into the swift current, others saved themselves on floating 
logs, and still others concealed themselves in the brush along the face of 
the bluff and after dark made their way to the Union lines. The Federal 
loss at Ball's bluff was 49 killed, 158 wounded and 714 missing. Evans 
reported his loss as 36 killed, 117 wounded and 2 missing. He claimed the 
capture of 710 prisoners, 1,500 stands of arms. 3 cannon and a flag. 

Ball's Bridge, Va., March 4, 1865. Detachment 2nd N. C. Mounted 
Infantry. Lieut. -Col. Bartlett with 103 men, reconnoitering from Cumber- 
land gap. Tenn., toward Jonesville, Va., was attacked in the morning at 
Ball's bridge, by 250 Confederates, but drove them back up the valley. 
High water made pursuit impracticable beyond 2 miles. 

Ball's Cross Roads, Va., Aug. 27, 1861. Two companies of the 23d 
New York Infantry. 

Ball's Ferry, Ga., Nov. 23-25, 1864. 17th Army Corps. Incidental to 
that part of the operations of the corps which had to do with its marching 
along the railroad to the Oconee river, in the campaign from Atlanta to 
Savannah, the 4th division commanded by Gen. Giles A. Smith, with 
Col. Spencer's battalion of the ist Ala. cavalry, w-as sent to the railroad 
bridge between stations 14 and 15. The cavalry in advance crossed the 
river and drove the enemy's skirmishers from a stockade about 2 miles 
from the bridge. The ground near the bridge was so swampy that the 
latter could be approached only by railroad. McLaws' troops in strong 
force, commanded by Maj. Hartridge of the 27th Ga. battahon and the 



Cyclopedia o£ Battles 75 

Cobb Guards, infantry and artillery, were posted behind a second stockade. 
Col. Potts, commanding the ist brigade, was ordered to detach 2 regiments 
and drive the Confederates across the river. A piece of artillery from the 
1st Minn, battery was taken down the track by hand to assist. Two miles 
of trestle and three miles of track were destroyed, but the enemy could 
not be dislodged from the opposite side on account of the swamp. The 
Federal loss was 21 killed and wounded. On the morning of the 24th 
Gen. Blair moved his entire command and found the enemy entrenched 
at Ball's ferry. Effecting a crossing above the road, he sent over during 
the night about 200 men. This force reached the road about daylight on 
the 25th to find tlie enemy retiring. 

Ball's Mill, Mo., Aug. 28, 1861. 

Ball's Mill, W. Va., Aug. 27, 1863. 

Ball Town, Mo., Aug. 8, 1863. (See Clear Creek.) 

Baltimore, Md., April 19, 1861. 6th Massachusetts Infantry. The 
authorities at Washington had become alarmed for the safety of the 
national capital. It was flanked on one side by Virginia, on the other 
by Maryland. Richmond was the heart of the secession movement and 
Baltimore was a volcano under which smouldered the fires of revolt. 
Washington was the objective point of newly organized U. S. forces. To 
reach it, Baltimore must be passed. On this date the 6th Mass. regiment, 
about 1,000 men, commanded by Col. Jones, passed through the city. 
Accompanying the train that brought it were about 1,200 unarmed soldiers 
from Philadelphia under Col. Small. The want of precaution for the 
latter's safety showed how slight was the apprehension of danger. 
Singularly enough, it was on the anniversary of the battle of Lexington 
that the stones which had echoed to the feet of the brave defenders of 
Washington in 1814 were to resound to the tread of Americans attacked 
and killed by Americans as they hastened to the defense of their national 
capital. After leaving Philadelphia, Jones received an intimation that there 
would be trouble in Baltimore. He immediately provided for the distribu- 
tion of ammunition, the loading of arms, and issued the following order: 
"The regiment will march through Baltimore in column of sections, arms 
at will. You will undoubtedly be insulted, abused and perhaps assaulted, 
to which you must pay no attention whatever, but march with your faces 
square to the front and pay no attention to the mob, even if they throw 
stones, bricks or other missiles ; but if you are fired upon and anyone of 
you is hit, your officers will order you to fire. Do not fire into any 
promiscuous crowds, but select anj' man whom you may see aiming at 
you and be sure you drop him." But Jones was proposing and Balti- 
moreans were disposing. They had decided that his men should not 
march through the open streets. As soon as the train reached Baltimore 
the cars were uncoupled, horses were hitched to them and singly, each 
with its human freight, they were driven rapidly across the city. After 
the cars containing 7 companies had reached the Washington depot, the 
track behind them was barricaded. Cars containing companies C, D, I 
and L, and the musicians were vacated. The band dispersed, the troops 
formed and began their march through the mob. They were immediately 
attacked by a shower of missiles that came faster as they proceeded. Their 
officers urged them to a double quick, and their evident haste was accepted 
by the mob as evidence either that they w^ere afraid or that they were 
without ammunition. Pistol shots were fired into their_ ranks and one 
soldier fell dead. The order to fire was now given and it was promptly 
obeyed. Several of the mob fell and the soldiers hastened their advance. 
Mayor Brown of Baltimore placed himself at the head of the column be- 
side Capt. Follansbee. who had been chosen to lead it, assured that officer 
that he would protect the troops and besought him to keep them from 
firing. Before he had marched far, however, other missiles fell and his 



76 The Union Army 

patience with the mob gave out. Seizing a musket from the grasp of a 
soldier, he fired at and brought down one of the rioters, and a policeman 
who was at the head of the column shot another. There the mayor's per- 
sonal participation in the melee began and ended. Police marshal (Chief) 
Kane with about 50 policemen at this juncture rushed to the rear of the 
column, formed a line across the street, and with drawn revolvers checked 
the mob while the troops got to the depot. About 130, including the band 
and field musicians, were missing. As the men went into the cars Jones 
caused the blinds at the windows to be closed and took precautions to 
prevent even seeming offence to the people of Baltimore, but still the mis- 
siles came thick and fast into the train and it was only with the utmost 
difficulty that he prevented the soldiers from leaving it and avenging the 
death of their comrades. After a volley of stones a soldier fired and 
killed a man who had been seen to hurl a missile into the car. Obstruc- 
tions were placed on the track to delay the departure of the train, but 
they were removed by the police. Meantime the city authorities learned 
that the Pennsylvania troops had arrived at the Philadelphia depot, un- 
aware of what had occurred and intending to march through the streets. 
The marshal of police hastened thither and as it was impossible for the 
troops, unarmed though they were, to cross the town without a general 
and bloody conflict he protected them with a force of police until they were 
sent back by rail to Havre de Grace. But they were not permitted to 
leave without a hostile demonstration by a part of the exultant mob as it 
returned from the pursuit of the Massachusetts regiment. These scenes 
were enacted between 10 a. m. and 12 noon. Five of the 6th Massachusetts 
were killed, 7 were too severely wounded for removal, about 30 wounded 
were taken to Washington. The city of Baltimore sent to claimants the 
bodies of the soldiers who were killed and cared for the wounded who 
were left there. 

Baltimore Cross-Roads, Va., May 13, 1862. 

Baltimore Cross-Roads, Va., July 1-2, 1863. Part of the 4th Army 
Corps. Alaj.-Gen. Keyes commanding the corps left White House on the 
morning of July i, with nearly 6,000 infantr3% cavalry and artillery to 
engage and detain the enemy near Bottom's bridge over the Chickahominy 
river, while Gen. Getty, with another column, would attempt to destroy 
the bridges across the South Anna and cut the railroads above Richmond. 
Col. West with 3 regiments of infantry, 150 cavalry and a 4-gun battery 
started well in advance at 5 o'clock. Keyes followed later with Terry's 
and Porter's brigades, 2 of McKnight's batteries and detachments of the 
5th Pa. and 6th N. Y. cavalry. The lo-mile march over muddy roads to 
Baltimore Cross-roads was fatiguing. The force was halted in line of 
battle, with videttes and skirmishers throw-n out a mile in advance of the 
main line. As soon as his men were refreshed. West pushed forward his 
advance and at night bivouacked about a mile from Bottom's bridge, where 
his skirmishers became involved with those of the enemy. Keyes threw 
forward 2 batteries and 3 infantry regiments and advanced his skirmishers 
to develop the enemy's position and strength, at the same time changing 
the line of a portion of Terry's brigade. Finding the enemy stubbornly 
maintaining a strong position in advance, he ordered his command to 
take up its position for the night at and in advance of the cross-roads, 
his outposts holding to within about 3 miles of Bottom's bridge. Early 
in the morning of the 2nd, to guard against a flank or rear attack, he 
withdrew his main line 3 miles to Baltimore Store, leaving West to hold 
his position for 2 hours if possible after the departure of the last of the 
principal column. Later, under orders from Gen. Dix, department com- 
mander, to hold his ground, he halted and ordered West to stay as long 
as he could. Col. Grimshaw, with the 4th Del. and a section of artillery 
was at a cross-roads a mile beyond Baltimore Store. At sunset West was 



Cyclopedia of Battles 77 

attacked by a greatly superior force at and in front of Baltimore Cross- 
roads. Learning that he was retiring, Keyes ordered Col. Porter and his 
2 regiments to Quail's to cooperate with Grimshaw, with instructions to 
resist the enemy's advance step by step, and if forced to retire to fall 
back down the New Kent road. Keyes' main line was formed nearly 
parallel with that road and about 600 yards from it. The Confederates 
followed West up and attacked Porter determinedly. While the latter 
kept near enough to the enemy to hear his officers urging on their men, 
he met with no loss. Not a shot was fired from Keyes' line of battle 
and the Confederates, fighting for five hours just out of range of it, were 
not aware of its presence and retired without coming onto the field where 
Keyes reported he had planned to fall on them in full force. (Also called 
Crump's Cross-roads.) 

Baltimore Store, Va., July 2, 1863. (See Baltimore Cross-roads.) 

Baltimore Store, Va., Feb. 7, 1864. Gen. Wistar's Expedition. Brig.- 
Gen. Wistar, having been checkmated in an attempt on Richmond, was 
falling back. His command consisted of three white regiments, brigaded 
under Col. West of the ist Pa., some light artillery, three colored regiments 
under Col. Duncan of the 4th U. S. colored troops, and a cavalry de- 
tachment of five regiments under Col. Spear. At Baltimore Store the 
enemy overtook and attacked his rear guard, but was repulsed with the 
help of Belger's battery of 2 pieces, the guns being fired alternately and 
retired to new positions. 

Banks' Ford, Va., May 4, 1863. (See Chancellorsville.) 

Banks' Ford, Va., Feb. 29, 1864. (See Albemarle County, Custer's 
Expedition.) 

Banshee (Blockade-runner), Nov. 20, 1863. Maj. Bailey of the 3d 
R. I. artillery, with a conscript guard of 6 officers and 25 enlisted men, 
was returning on the steamer Fulton from Hilton Head to New York, 
when about 7 130 a. m. on the 20th the pilot at the masthead sighted the 
steamer Banshee, a Confederate blockade-runner, with a general cargo, 
bound for Wilmington, Del., that being her fifth trip that season. Capt. 
Watton of the Fulton ordered chase. The Banshee got up steam and 
tried to escape. At 9 a. m. the Fulton was gaining on her and when 
within range her gunners opened fire. The first shot missed the Banshee, 
the second struck her forward, the third struck her aft. She rounded 
to and was put in charge of a prize crew. 

Barataria (U. S. Steamer), April 7, 1863. For the destruction of the 
steamer Barataria on this date see Amite River, La. 

Barbee's Cross-Roads, Va., Nov. 5. 1862. Pleasonton's Cavalry 
Brigade, Army of the Potomac. At Upperville and in its vicinity. Gen. 
Pleasonton, with his brigade, had for several days been skirmishing, al- 
most constantly, with the enemy's cavalry, which at times was supported 
by infantry. At Barbee's cross-roads about noon on the 5th, with about 
1,500 men, he met and attacked a portion of Gen. Stuart's command, under 
Gen. Hampton, consisting of some 3,000 cavalry, with 4 pieces of artillery. 
Col. Gregg, of the 8th Pa., with that regiment and the 6th regular cavalry, 
moved on the right of the enemy and turned his position. Col. Davis of 
the 8th N. Y., with his regiment, attacked the enemy's left, and Col. 
Farnsworth. with the 8th 111., moved against his center. In the meantime 
Pennington's battery engaged him by sections. The 8th N. Y. gallantly 
repulsed a greatly superior force, and a section of artillery opened on 
the fugitives. The Federal loss was 5 killed, 8 wounded; Confederate 
loss, 10 killed, 20 captured. 

Barbee's Cross-Roads, Va., July 25, 1863. ist Michigan Cavalry. 
Maj. Brewer, with a portion of this regiment, which belonged to Custer's 
brigade of Kilpatrick's cavalry division, had a slight brush here on this 
date with a small body of Confederates. The affair is barely mentioned 
in the official reports of the war. 



78 The Union Army 

Barbee's Cross-Roads, Va., Sept. i, 1863. Detachment of the 6th 
Ohio Cavalry. The detachment, numbering 50 men, under Maj. Cryer, 
was attacked by about 150 men of the 35th Va. battahon, under Lieut.-Col. 
White, on the Barbee and Orleans road, a mile and a half from Barbee's 
cross-roads. The Confederates were deployed in ambush the whole length 
of the column and attacked from both sides of the road simultaneously. 
On falling back, the Federals were attacked by another force, who tried 
to cut off their retreat. They cut their way through, however, with a loss 
of 31 killed, wounded and missing. 

Barber's Creek, Va., Dec. 19, 1863. (See Scott's.) 

Barber's Cross-Roads, Va., May 23, 1863. At the moment of the 
attack on the Federal advance at Antioch church, a demonstration was 
made at Barber's cross-roads. The approaches to this point were watched 
by a Federal regiment, a part of the reserve brigade, Department of 
Virginia, under Brig.-Gen. Wistar, sent by Maj. -Gen. Peck, commanding 
at Suffolk, to assist in the protection of working parties engaged in tear- 
ing up railway tracks between Suffold and Blackwater. 

Barber's Ford, Fla., Feb. 9-10, 1864. 40th Massachusetts Mounted 
Infantry and Independent Battalion Massachusetts Cavalry. The Federal 
troops under command of Col. Henry, after having captured and destroyed 
at Baldwin & Johnson's Station much property belonging to or likely to 
become useful to Confederates, continued their advance. At Barber's 
ford, on the south fork of the St. Mary's, their passage was disputed_ by 
2 companies of cavalry, dismounted and occupying a strong position. 
Henry forced the crossing with a loss of 3 killed and 10 wounded. The 
Confederates were completely disorganized and their loss was much 
greater. 

Barboursville, Ky., Sept. 18, 1861. Camp Andrew Johnson, at Bar- 
boursville, was attacked and destroyed and the Federal force of 300 there 
v^fas dispersed by a detachment of 800 men from Gen. Zollicoffer's brigade 
at Camp Buckner, under command of Col. Battle. Some Federals were 
wounded and about 25 weapons were taken by the enemy. The Confed- 
erates lost a lieutenant killed and 3 men wounded, one fatally. 

Barboursville, Ky., Sept. 8, 1862. 

Barboursville, Ky., April 27, 1863. 

Barboursville, Ky., Feb. 8, 1864. 

Barboursville, W. Va., July 16. 1861. 2nd Kentucky Volunteers. 
This regiment belonging to Gen. Cox's command defeated and drove 600 
of Gen. Wise's men out of Barboursville. This was in furtherance of 
McClellan's plan to occupy and restore order, establish the provisional 
government and quell the secession feeling in a portion of West Virginia. 

Bardstown, Ky., Oct. 4, 1862. Advance Guard, Army of the Ohio. 
It had been Gen. Thomas' intention to camp on Cox's creek, 4 miles 
from Bardstown, but cavalry of his command under Maj. Foster were 
drawn into a fight with that portion of Gen. Polk's command known as 
Wharton's brigade of Wheeler's cavalry. It became necessary for Thomas 
to send Foster reinforcements and upon their arrival Wharton retired 
and yielded the town, Thomas then established his temporary head- 
quarters there. 

Bardstown, Ky., Oct. 19, 1862. 

Bardstown, Ky., July 5, 1863. Detachment 4th U. S. Cavalry. Lieut. 
Sullivan, with 25 men, struck the enemy's advance guard within 6 miles 
of Bardstown at 6 :30 a. m. Unaware that Confederates were there in 
force, he pursued the guard through Bardstown and bej-ond until his 
horses began to fall from fatigue. Upon returning to the town he learned 
that it was surrounded by Morgan's men, some 300 or 400 strong. He 
quickly fortified himself in a livery stable, threw out pickets and awaited 
attack which came at 11:30 a. m. by three distinct columns, but was met 



Cyclopedia of Battles 79 

and repulsed. One Federal and 2 Confederates were killed. Surrender 
was demanded and refused. The attack then was resumed and was con- 
tinued more or less determinedly till almost daylight the next morning. 
The Confederates obstructed the streets with ropes to prevent the be- 
leaguered Unionists from mounting their horses and making a dash 
through their lines. They tried to set fire to the stable, but desisted when 
the attempt had cost them 2 white men and a negro killed. At daylight 
another demand for surrender brought a defiant answer. The attack was 
again renewed and the Federals repelled it gallantly until they saw 4 
pieces of artillery made ready to play upon them. Then under a flag of 
truce Sullivan offered surrender. Col. R. C. Morgan denied his right to 
claim for himself and his men privileges as prisoners of war after having 
twice refused them and ordered him driven back within his own lines. 
While returning, still under the white flag, he was several times fired at 
but was not hit. On his arrival at the stable, he received a demand for 
unconditional surrender and accepted it. For nearly 24 hours that little 
band, imprisoned in that small place, had defended it against over- 
whelming odds. 

Bardstown, Ky., Aug. i, 1864. ist Brigade, ist Division, District of 
Kentucky. The 35th Ky. mounted infantry, commanded by Col. Starling, 
arrived at Bardstown and learned that a band of guerrillas had just cut 
the telegraph wires, robbed the operator and committed other depreda- 
tions in the town. Lieut. Good, with Co. A, pursued and overtook the 
guerrillas about 5 miles from Bardstown, killed 2 and wounded 4 of them. 
The guerrillas fired 2 volleys at the Federals without injuring a man. 

Bardstown Pike, Ky., Oct. i, 1862. Tlie only official mention of 
actions on the Bardstown pike on this date is in Confederate corres- 
pondence. Gen. Hardee, writing from Bardstown to Col. Wheeler under 
date of Oct. 2, said : "Col. Wharton, writing from Mount Washington 
at 9 p. m. yesterday, states that he was attacked in force at Wilsonville, 
Shepherdsville, and in front of IMount Washington ; that the force on his 
left flank was forced back, thereby rendering his position at Mount Wash- 
ington hazardous. Maj.-Gen. Polk has instructed him to fall back on 
the Bardstown pike to such position as he might deem advisable." As no 
Federal reports mention the affairs referred to in Hardee's letter, it is 
not known what Union troops were engaged. 

Bardstown Road, Ky., Oct. 9, 1862. In the morning Gen. Wheeler 
was ordered to hold the Federals in check until the Confederate army 
had withdrawn from the field of operations of the previous day and then 
follow toward Danville, obstructing the Federal advance as much as 
possible. In complying with that order his forces that day and the next 
frequently engaged the Federals at Bardstown and other points, besides 
keeping a detachment watching the road from Perryville to Harrodsburg. 
It does not appear that detailed reports of these several slight engage- 
ments were made. 

Barhamsville, Va., Mav 7, 1862. (See West Point.) 

Barker's Mill, S. C, Feb. 1-2, 1865. 17th Army Corps. On the ist, 
the corps commanded by Maj.-Gen. Frank P. Blair moved in the direction 
of Rivers' bridge, the 9th 111. mounted infantry in advance, skirmishing 
heavily with Confederate cavalry. Whippy swamp was badly obstructed 
with fallen timber, its 5 bridges had been destroyed and at each end of the 
causeway was about 200 yards of water. The main body of the Confed- 
erate cavalry fell back toward Whippy swamp postoffice. followed by the 
9th 111., which was supported by the 3d division, under Gen. Force. This 
division took the road to the left of the swamp and crossed several 
smaller swamps. Corker's being the most formidable it had yet encountered. 
While getting his wagons through Corker's swamp. Force sent Capt. 
Munson forward, with King's mounted 20th 111., pushing the Confederates 



80 The Union Army 

back to and over the bridge across Whippy swamp at Barker's mill. When 
the greater part of the train was over he ordered the advance guard to 
follow as swiftly as possible. Leaving the I2th Wis. and 45th 111. to bring 
on the rest of the train, he urged the division forward with all dispatch. 
The 20th 111. covered with its tire the bridge which the enemy had been 
kept too busy to destroy. On its arrival the advance guard was deployed 
as sharpshooters under cover along the stream above and below the bridge. 
The 2nd brigade under Col. Wiles, found the stream not fordable. Force 
placed 2 guns of the 15th Ohio battery, commanded by Lieut. Bailey, on an 
elevation overlooking the bridge, from which position their fire could be 
directed to the enemy on the other side, over the heads of the Federal 
infantry. It was now nearly dark. Confederates in some force fled 
from the farther end of the bridge, a small Federal column under cover 
of the sharpshooters and the 2 guns dashed over and the 2nd brigade fol- 
lowed. Force encamped one brigade at one end of the bridge and one at 
the other, to wait for morning. His objective point was Angley's post- 
office, plainly enough marked on the map, but unknown to anyone he had 
questioned. When, at length, an old negro told him that postoffice had 
been discontinued 30 or 40 years before, he shrewdly guessed that the real 
object of the movement was to control the bridge for the use of the 15th 
corps. Meanwhile the balance of Blair's command, the ist and 4th 
divisions, had gone skirmishing up the river road, driving the Confederate 
cavalry up to Broxton's bridge. 

Barncsville, Ga., April 19, 1865. Detachment of the 4th Indiana 
Cavalry. The only official mention of a skirmish at Barnesville on this 
date is in the reports of Gen. J. H. Wilson and Col. O. H. La Grange, 
commanding the 2nd brigade of J^IcCook's division during Wilson's raid, 
in both of which it is stated that the flag of the Dixie Rangers was 
captured by a detachment of the 4th Ind. in a skirmish near Barnesville. 

Barnesville, Md., Sept. 8-9, 1862. Detachments of Pleasonton's Cavalry. 
On the 8th, the 2nd brigade, commanded by Col. Farnsworth and consist- 
ing of the 8th III, 3d Ind. and a section of the horse artillery of company 
M, 2nd artillery, under Lieut. Chapin, occupied Poolesville and picketed 
the roads to Conrad's and Edwards' ferries, Barnesville and the Monocacy. 
As Poolesville was approached the enemy's cavalry retreated on the road 
to Barnesville and a portion of the 3d Ind. followed. The enemy opened 
lire on the pursuers with guns posted on the right of the town. These 
guns were soon silenced, however, by Chapin's artillery, and were moved 
toward Barnesville. The 3d Ind. gallantly charged the Confederate battery 
and drove it and the Confederate cavalry more than 3 miles. Then they 
were joined by the 8th 111., under Maj. Medill, and the chase was kept up 
until after dark. Union loss, i killed, 12 wounded; Confederate loss, 
8 killed, 16 wounded, 6 prisoners. Next day Farnsworth with his com- 
mand advanced toward Barnesville. Noting a squadron of the enemy's 
cavalry near Monocacy church, he directed Capt. Farnsworth's squadron 
of the 8th 111. to gain its rear and cut it off. By this movement the 
enemy's force was divided and several prisoners and the battle flag of 
the i2th Va. (Ashby's) cavalry were captured. The march was con- 
tinued toward Barnesville, and, at the edge of the village, the advance, 
Capt. Kelly's squadron of the 8th 111., encountered the enemy's videttes, 
routed them and pursued them 2 miles beyond the town, engaging in 
two hand-to-hand fights. Confederate loss, 4 killed, 5 wounded, 27 
prisoners ; no Federal loss. 

Harnett's Corners, Miss., Sept. 19, 1862. 

Barnett's Ford, Va., Aug. i, 1862. Bayard's Cavalry Brigade. 3d 
Army Corps. Brig.-Gen. Bayard was ordered by Brig.-Gen. Crawford, 
commanding the U. S. forces about Culpeper Court House, to make a 
demonstration at Barnett's ford, during the preparation of operations 



Cyclopedia of Battles 81 

against Orange Court House. There was a brisk skirmish in which a 
battaHon of the ist N. J. cavalry under Maj. Beaumont, drove the advance 
picket of the enemy from its headquarters in a mill at the ford. After 
some hours' fighting, at too long range to inflict much injury on either side, 
the Confederates learned of Crawford's success at Orange Court House 
and withdrew from the field. 

Barnett's Ford, Va., Feb. 7, 1864. ist Cavalry Division, Army of the 
Potomac. Brig.-Gen. Merritt, commanding the division, crossed the 
Robertson river on the morning of the 6th and drove in the enemy's 
cavalry pickets, which retired with but little resistance to the Rapidan, 
where they arrived about 4 p. m. The Federal reserve brigade and battery 
could not be brought up in time to do anything that day. Col. Chapman's 
command, parts of the ist and 2nd brigades, in approaching the ford 
were opposed only by Lomax's cavalry brigade of 3 regiments. That was 
driven across the river, and that night the banks were picketed by Federal 
troops. Early on the morning of the 7th the Federal artillery and a greater 
part of the cavalry moved on Barnett's ford. Skirmishing with small arms 
and lively practice between the artillery of Gibbs' brigade and that of the 
enemy were kept up until after noon. Not much Confederate infantry was 
developed until the Federals made a movement to cross the river, when a 
brigade estimated at five regiments moved down to the ford to support 
the skirmishers occupying the defenses on the south bank. Another camp 
of about a brigade, to the Federal right and looking toward the ford, did 
not display any infantry. Until forced into activity by the Federal artillery, 
the enemy made no unnecessary noise or demonstration ; then with 2 bat- 
teries about a mile apart, one of them of heavy artillery, he fired rapidly. 
The demonstration continued for some time, when Merritt received orders 
to return and recrossed the Robertson. Five prisoners were taken. Federal 
loss, 3 killed, 12 wounded. 

Barnum and Fawn (U. S. Steamers), Nov. 5, 1864. (See Buffalo 
Shoals, W. Va.) 

Barnwell, S. C, Feb. 6, 1865. Kilpatrick's Carolina Campaign. Gen. 
Kilpatrick with 3 brigades of cavalry, 6 pieces of horse artillery of the loth 
Wis. battery, and a small brigade of dismounted men under Lieut.-Col. 
Way, in all about 5,000 men, struck the Salkehatchie river just below Barn- 
well, where he found the enemy about 300 strong, occupying a well-chosen 
position on the opposite side behind earthworks commanding the bridge. 
The bridge was on fire, but the 9th Ohio cavalry and the 92nd 111. mounted 
infantry dismounted and gallantly dashed through the swamp, the men 
wading in the water up to their armpits, crossed the stream on trees 
felled by pioneers, and under cover of a rapid fire of artillery, carried the 
works, driving the enemy in confusion toward Barnwell. Only a portion 
of the bridge had been destroyed. It was quickly repaired and after a 
march of 21 miles and a hard, galling fight, Kilpatrick's men rode into 
Barnwell at 4 p. m. 

Barnwell's Island, S. C, Feb. 10. 1862. Detachment 2nd Brigade 
Expedionary Corps. From the headquarters of the brigade, at Beaufort, 
S. C, Brig.-Gen. Stevens reported that a party of the enemy landed on 
Barnwell's island and made a night attack on the Federal pickets. Lieut. 
Foot of the 50th Pa. infantry, who was in command of the pickets, held 
his ground until reinforced by Capt. Dimock of the same regiment, with 
a portion of his command from Seabrook, when the whole force pushed 
forward and drove the enemy to his boats. 

Barnwell's Island, S. C, July 30, 1863. Capt. Kirk of the South Caro- 
lina Partisan Rangers, was ordered by Brig.-Gen. Walker, commanding the 
Third Military District, to attack the Federal pickets and penetrate the 
lines at some point near the Confederate outpost at Cunningham's bluff. 
With 40 of his own company, 25 of the Beaufort artillery and 25 of the 

Vol. V— € 



82 The Union Army 

nth S. C. infantry, he landed on Barnwell's island, and without resist- 
ance advanced half a mile toward its interior to the settlement of one 
Trescott, where he captured 31 negroes, 3 of whom were men, the others 
women and children. In retreating with his prisoners he was fired on by 
Federals from Hall's island. All of the negroes except one man were 
held subject to the order of their owners. 

Barren Fork, Ind. Ter., Dec. 18, 1863. (See Sheldon's Place.) 
Barren Mound, Ky., Oct. 15, 1862. 19th Brigade, Army of the Ohio. 
In the pursuit of the Confederates after the battle of Perryville, Hazen's 
brigade encountered Wheeler's cavalry near Barren Mound and drove it 
slowly back toward Crab Orchard, keeping up the pursuit to within 2 miles 
of Mount Vernon. No casualties reported. 

Barre's Landing, La., May 22, 1863. U. S. Steamer Louisiana Belle. 
The steamer, loaded with cotton, was descending Bayou Teche, and when 
near Barre's landing was fired upon from the thick underbrush lining the 
banks. The pilot was obliged to abandon the pilot-house and for 4 or 5 
miles the boat drifted helplessly, the guard of the vessel — 50 men of the 
4th Mass. infantry — replying with spirit to the constant fire from the 
banks. The captain of the steamer was killed and 11 men of the guard 
were wounded. The enemy's loss was not ascertained. After this chase 
of about 5 miles a place was reached where the low ground along the 
banks was overflowed, and this stopped the pursuit. The pilot then re- 
turned to his station and the vessel proceeded on her way without further 
molestation. 

Barre's Landing, La., Oct. 21, 1863. (See Opelousas, same date.) 
Barry, Mo., Aug. 14, 1862. Missouri State Troops. Having learned 
of a camp of guerrillas, numbering 75 or 100 men, at the house of a Mrs. 
Elliott, about 3 miles south of Barry, Col. Penick, with about 50 men of 
his regiment, the 5th militia cavalrj', 150 Andrew county militia, under 
Col. Heron and Lieut. -Col. Hobson, and i piece of artillery from Johnson's 
battery, descended on the gang, arriving near Mrs. Elliott's about daybreak. 
A man whom he arrested 2 miles from Barry served as a guide. Three 
men in Mrs. Elliott's house, one of them her son, denied knowledge of 
any camp or gathering of armed men within 3 miles of there. The ground 
round about was so rough and densely wooded that Penick failed to 
surround the camp, but by dismounting his men and deploying them as 
skirmishers he scouted the vicinity, routed and scattered the guerrillas. 
By his order, a squad of men took out and shot Zack Elliott and James 
H. Rollins, 2 of the 3 men at the house. The bedding in the house was 
confiscated and the house and stables were burned, with 2 neighboring 
houses belonging to one of the Elliotts and another guerrilla. Four 
negroes and some horses, the property of Mrs. Elliott, were also taken. 
Barry County, Mo., Oct. 8, 1864. 

Barry County, Mo., Oct. 29, 1864. (See Upshaw's Farm.) 
Barton Station, Ala., April 17, 1863. (See Courtland, Expedition to.) 
Barton Station, Ala., Oct. 20, 1863. (See Barton's and Dickson's 
Stations.) 

Barton's and Dickson's Stations, Ala., Oct. 20. 1863. ist Division, 
15th Army Corps. The division commanded by Brig.-Gen. Osterhaus in 
its advance found Confederate pickets near Dickson's station and drove 
them several miles to open fields at Barton's station. There Forrest's 
cavalry, 400 strong, under Forrest's personal command, was in position 
awaiting attack. Two companies of the 5th Ohio had made a brilliant 
saber charge upon it but had not been able to dislodge it. Osterhaus 
brought forward his cavalry and a section of horse artillery. As soon as 
these reinforcements were deployed, the 5th Ohio advanced gallantly, 
driving the Confederates to a second position on the east side of Cane 
creek and then from that. Posting his artillery, supported by the 3d 



Cyclopedia of Battles 83 

regulars, on a slight elevation commanding the road, Osterhaus pushed 
forward the 5th Ohio and scattered the enemy completely. This regiment 
was commanded by Col. lieatli and Maj. Smith. Osterhaus' cavalry and 
one section of artdlery encamped in the enemy's abandoned camp. The 
Federal loss was 4 wounded, and 5 prisoners fell into Federal hands. (See 
Cane Creek.) 

Batchelder's Creek, N. C, April 29, 1862. 23d Massachusetts In- 
fantry. A detachment of this regiment, deployed as pickets for about a 
quarter of a mile on either side of the railroad at Batchelder's creek, was 
attacked at noon on the right flank by about 70 Confederate cavalry who 
passed between the extreme right group and the rest of the picket, thus 
cutting off a few men on the right and making them prisoners. The pickets 
opened hre on the enemy's advance and the Confederates replied with a 
volley of 20 or 30 shots, killing i man; 3 others were missing when the 
affair was over. 

Batchelder's Creek, N. C, Feb. 10, 1863. 

Batchelder's Creek, N. C, May 23, 1863. Troops of the iSth Army 
Corps. In the afternoon the Confederates attacked the outpost line of the 
corps, on Batchelder's creek, commanded by Col. Jones of the 58th Pa. 
infantry. Maj. -Gen. Foster reinforced Jones with the 45th Mass., and the 
Confederates were repulsed at every point, but with great loss to the 
corps in the death of Col. Jones, who was shot through the heart as he 
was leading a detachment of his regiment to dislodge the enemy from a 
position that he had taken. 

Batchelder's Creek, N. C, Feb. i, 1864. (See New Berne, same date.) 

Bates' Ferry, S. C, Feb. 15, 1865. iSth Army Corps. Incidental to 
the advance on Columbia, S. C, the 15th corps passed Sandy run on the 
14th and went into camp in the following order and position: ist division 
under Bvt. Maj. -Gen. Woods, near Wolf's plantation, with the 2nd division 
under Gen. Hazen, in support; the 3d and 4th divisions under Bvt. Maj.- 
Gen. Smith and Bvt. Maj. -Gen. Corse, respectively, some 2 miles in the 
rear. The enemy having been reported in force and intrenched on Congaree 
creek these dispositions were made to force the passage and at the same 
time to demonstrate upon the Congaree river with a part of the corps. 
The demonstration was entrusted to Woods and the movement was begun 
at 7 a. m. on the 15th, the ist division having the advance, supported by 
the 2nd and 4th. On the opposite side of the stream, at Bates' ferry 
25 to 30 Confederate pickets were discovered in line. Tlie Federal skirm- 
ishers opened fire on them about i p. m. and they replied, evidently de- 
termined to hold their ground. Smith got a section of Battery B, ist 
Mich, artillery, in action and disposed his command as to make it look 
larger than it was. This caused the Confederate pickets to fall back and 
they did not again appear. The crossing at the point was practicable, 
but was scarcely desirable. At 7 :30 p. m. Smith withdrew his command 
and marched forward to Tom's creek. The demonstration also extended 
to other points in the vicinity. Woods marched toward Columbia, but 
was stubbornly opposed through the day and was obliged to cover his 
advance with a skirmish line. In the afternoon the division had advanced 
only 5 miles to Congaree creek, where the enemy was developed in con- 
siderable force, his position being protected by 3 pieces of artillerj^ The 
2nd brigade under Col. Catterson, was deployed to the ri^ht of the road, 
to feel toward the left flank of the enemy's line and if possible to cross 
the creek below him. The 3d brigade commanded by Col. Stone, w-as 
moved to the left of the road to feel toward the right flank of the enemy 
and effect a crossing above. Both brigades moved under cover of a strong 
connected line of skirmishers and the ist brigade was held in reserve in 
the center. Hazen and Corse moved their divisions in support of Woods. 
Stone's skirmishers turned the enemy's left flank and drove his skirmishers 



Si The Union Army 

back beyond the creek. The 4th la. infantry, moving still further to the 
enemy's right and rear, crossed the stream above him, while Catterson 
obtained a foothold belovir. Skirmishers pressed the enemy hard in front 
and he fell back from his works along the creek to an inner line near the 
Congaree river, firing the bridge in his flight. The fire was extinguished 
and the bridge repaired. The works abandoned were strongly constructed 
and admirably adapted to the defense of the crossing. As the Confed- 
erates left this position, the 2nd brigade and the 12th Wis. battery moved 
over the partially burned bridge and pursued the enemy a mile beyond it. 
The remainder of the division was delayed in crossing until darkness pre- 
vented a further advance, when it encamped on a ridge, its left resting on 
the river bank, its right connecting with the 2nd division which also had 
crossed. During the night the Confederates shelled the Federal camps 
from beyond the river, but with little effect. On the advance of the 
Federal skirmish line next morning it was found that the enemy had 
abandoned its second line and the corps moved on Columbia. 

Bates Township, Ark,, Nov. 2, 1863. 

Batesville, Ark., May 3, 1862. Army of the Southwest. Gen. Curtis' 
army reached Batesville at 5 a. m. and Col. Coleman's Confederate cavalry 
fired on the Federal pickets from across the White river. The fire was 
returned with artillery and the cavalry was driven off. Several of the 
enemy were seen carried from the field. Curtis took a number of prisoners, 
about 100 stands of arms and considerable contraband property. 

Batesville, Ark., July 14, 1862. 4th Iowa Cavalry. 

Batesville, Ark., Feb. 4, 1863. Waring's Brigade, Davidson's Cavalry 
Division. Incidental to a foraging and reconnoitering expedition, the 
brigade reached Batesville in the night and with a charge led by Capt. 
Rose of the 4th Mo. cavalry drove Gen. Marmaduke's forces out of the 
town, killing and wounding many and taking some prisoners, among 
them Col. Adams. In the flight such of the enemy as could not crowd 
upon the ferry boats swam the White river. 

Bath, W. Va., Jan. 3-5, 1862. 39th Illinois, 84th Pennsylvania, and 
13th Indiana Infantry. During the movement of troops from Frederick, 
Md., to Williamsport, Capt. Linton, commanding Co. D, 39th III, divided 
his company at Bath on the 3d to scout the roads in order to learn the 
strength and position of the enemy. About a mile and a half from the 
town some of his men routed the Confederate advance guard of 8 mounted 
men. A little later two of the squads of Co. D, one of them Linton's, 
under the partial protection of a fence, advanced up a bare hill and fought 
a formidable body of Confederate infantry and cavalry. An attempt was 
made to cut them off, but it was thwarted by an attack on a battalion of 
the enemy concealed in a ravine by a squad of Co. D under Sergt. Snowden. 
After holding the enemy at the top of the hill as long as there was any- 
thing to be gained by so doing, Linton and his party retreated toward 
Warm Springs mountain and thence made their way by mountain paths 
to Bath, where they arrived about midnight. Sergt. Snowden and his 
men were hemmed in, but managed to escape in the darkness. A squad 
under Lieut. Towner went up the west side of Warm Springs mountain 
and exchanged shots with a greatly superior force, reaching Bath at 
lip. m. About 3 a. m. on the 4th Linton and his men took position on the 
summit of Warm Springs mountain. The night before the attack on Bath 
Lieut. Whipple, Co. E, with 25 men. was detailed to go to Great Cacapon 
to the assistance of Capt. Slaughter. The rest of the company was 
stationed at Sir John's run to guard the Baltimore & Ohio railroad. The 
attack on Bath was expected and the Federals planned to occupy a posi- 
tion on a commanding hill and put out a strong picket line. About noon 
some 10,000 Confederates attacked the town. Co. D, Capt. Linton, Co. K, 
Capt. Woodruff, and Co. I, Capt. Phillips, under command of Maj. Mann, 



Cyclopedia of Battles 85 

became engaged in a sharp skirmish, in which they fought gallantly but 
were forced back by large numbers, losing several prisoners. The 84th 
Pa., under Col. Murray, came to their support, but its arms were new and 
unfit for service and Murray ordered a retreat to Sir John's run. There 
the troops crossed the river in boats en route for Hancock, where they 
arrived on the evening of the 4th. Meantime the 13th Ind. left the cars 
at Sir John's run and advanced toward Bath only to fall back upon warn- 
ing of the Federal retreat from that place. The regiment then went by 
rail to Great Cacapon. All of the several companies of the 30th 111., 
except about a dozen men of Co. E, under Capt. Hooker, went to Hancock. 
Hooker with his little band skirmished all through that night and next 
day with Confederates who wanted to tear up the railroad track, killing 
8 of them and preventing them from damaging the road. Meanwhile 
Gen. Jackson had routed the Federal cavalry that had remained at Bath 
and sent Col. Rust to destroy the railroad bridge. A portion of the 
Federal force there was seen and the Confederates started to charge 
upon it but fell back under a terrible fire from an ambuscade. Later 
Jackson ordered McLaughlin's battery to fire a few shells into Hancock. 
Rust with his own and Col. Fulkerson's regiments, and a section of 
Shumaker's battery, engaged the Federals near the railroad bridge over 
the Big Cacapon and sustained some loss. On the morning of the 5th 
Gen. Loring with his artillery, drove off the Union troops that had de- 
fended the railroad bridge against Rust, destroyed the bridge and rail- 
road buildings and a considerable stretch of telegraph wire. Jackson 
menaced Hancock with an artillery attack and demanded its surrender, 
but his demand was refused. He cannonaded the town a short time with- 
out efifect and then proceeded to construct a bridge for crossing the 
Potomac about 2 miles further up. He had already been joined by 
Lieut.-Col. Ashby, Maj. Paxton and Capt. Colston and the force with 
which they had enlarged the break in Dam No. 5 at Bath. Having com- 
pleted his work of destruction on the railway, Loring, with Gilham's and 
Rust's commands, rejoined Jackson at Hancock. On the 6th Federal re- 
inforcements rendered an attack on that town impracticable. 

Bath, W. Va., Sept. 6, 1863. 20th Pennsylvania Cavalry. On the night 
of Sept. 6 two companies of the 20th Pa. cavalry, 6-months' men, under 
Capt. Hebble, were attacked by 26 of Gen. Imboden's men under Capts. 
Burke and Blackford. Hebble and several of his men were killed and 23 
prisoners and 50 horses were taken by the Confederates. 

Bath County, Ky., March 26, 1865. Detachment of 185th Ohio In- 
fantry. Capt. Robert W. Wilson and 60 men of his regiment sent out 
from Mount Sterling to arrest 2 Confederate sympathizers were attacked 
by 125 of the enemy. Wilson was compelled to fall back, losing i killed 
and 4 wounded in doing so. The Confederate casualties were estimated 
at 4 killed and 7 wounded. 

Bath Springs, Miss., Jan. i, 1863. 

Baton Rouge, La., Aug. S, 1862. Detached Forces under Brig.-Gen. 
Thomas Williams. In pursuance of a plan of the Confederate leaders at 
Vicksburg. Maj. -Gen. John C. Breckenridge, with a force variously esti- 
mated at from 3,000 to 6,000 men, moved on Baton Rouge, while the newly 
built ram Arkansas was to go down the river and engage the Federal 
gunboats at the same time the fight was going on between the land forces. 
Williams learned of the movement and disposed his troops to meet it. 
The 4th Wis. was on the extreme left, on the right bank of Bayou Gross, 
on the opposite bank of which were 2 pieces of Manning's battery so 
placed as to sweep the ground on the left of the Badger regiment. To 
the right of the 4th Wis. was the gth Conn., with 2 guns in the rear of 
the center and 2 more in rear of the right. Then came the 14th Me., 
posted behind the Bayou Sara road and to the left of the Greenwell 



86 The Union Army 

Springs road; then the 2ist Ind. in the woods behind MagnoHa cemetery 
with 4 pieces of Everett's battery on the Greenwell Springs road ; then 
the 6th Mich, across the road to the right of Magnoha cemetery and the 
Clay Cut road, on the former of which were 2 pieces of Everett's battery ; 
the 7th Vt. was posted in rear of the 2ist Ind. and 6th Mich, on the right 
of the Cathohc cemetery; and the 30th Mass., supporting Xim's battery 
on the extreme right. The tight began at dayhght. Breckenridge formed 
line of battle on the open ground near the Greenwell Springs road and 
attempted to draw Williams out. Failing in this the Confederates ad- 
vanced on the ground between the Clinton and Clay Cut roads, thus 
throwing the brunt of the attack against the 14th Me., the 21st Ind. and 
the 6th Mich. Williams ordered the 9th Conn, and the 4th Wis. with a 
section of artillery to support the left of the center and the 30th Mass. 
with a portion of Nim's battery to aid the right of the center, but the 
effort was unavailing. The Federals put up a desperate resistance but 
were slowly forced back and the Confederates captured the camps of the 
advanced regiments. Williams was killed just as the regiments commenced 
to fall back, and for a little time there was some confusion in the Union 
ranks. When the Confederates had forced the garrison back beyond 
Magnolia cemetery they were within range of the Federal gunboats in 
the river and the galling fire of the infantry, which was soon raUied, and 
the gunboats compelled Breckinridge to fall back. When he had destroyed 
the Federal encampment and had ascertained that the ram Arkansas was 
hard aground with her machinery disabled he hastily withdrew, leaving 
his dead and wounded on the field. The Union loss in this affair was 84 
killed, 266 wounded and ^2 captured or missing; Confederate reports 
make their losses 44 killed, 152 wounded and 6 missing, but a despatch 
from Lieut. G. Weitzel, chief engineer of the Department of the Gulf, 
states that by the 8th the garrison at Baton Rouge had buried 250 of the 
enemy's dead. 

Baton Rouge, La., Aug. 20-21, 1862. U. S. Troops under Col. Paine. 
Victory in the battle at Baton Rouge on Aug. 5, had been claimed by 
both Federals and Confederates, and the latter have since reasoned that 
the Federal evacuation of Baton Rouge about 2 weeks later was a justifi- 
cation of their claim. On Aug. 21, 1862, Maj. DeBaun (Confederate) 
reported to Brig.-Gen. Ruggles, commander of the ist division department 
of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana : "On yesterday morning 
I drove in the Federal pickets and caused a general stampede of the 
forces in Baton Rouge, who, with the exception of those in the barracks, 
fled to the gunboats. They fired upon me with one company and after- 
ward their gunboats shelled me for 2 hours." On the i6th, Maj. -Gen. 
Butler, commanding Department of the Gulf, reported to Secretary of 
War Stanton : 'T have ordered the evacuation and destruction of Baton 
Rouge, which will be effected unless an attack is made on it by Van Dorn 
before we can get away. In that case, we shall fight." On the 19th he 
wrote to Col. Paine commanding at Baton Rouge : "Upon your repre- 
sentation, through Mr. Bates, of the state of the public, charitable and 
penal institutions at Baton Rouge, wherein the orphan, the insane and the 
helpless are confined and housed, so that the innocent and helpless must 
be so greatly the sufferers, I am inclined to countermand my order for 
burning the town. You will leave it as whole as you can. unless you are 
obliged to burn it as a matter of defensive action. I have not changed my 
opinion as to the great military advantage it will be to the enemy to have 
it, but I am impelled by a sense of just humanity to overlook that ad- 
vantage. Its importance is not such as to justify that destruction upon 
the unoffending." On Aug. 23, Brig.-Gen. Ruggles reported to Maj .-Gen. 
Van Dorn : "The town was evacuated by the enemy on the 21st. The 
Essex and No. 7 remain before it. I expect to be in possession this 



Cyclopedia of Battles 87 

morning." On Aug. 27, Butler reported from New Orleans to Maj.-Gen. 
Halleck : "As indicated in my dispatch to the secretary of war of the 
i6th inst., iinding a concentration of troops by the enemy, 1 withdrew at 
my leisure the troops at Baton Rouge and have them now encamped be- 
hind my lines at Carrollton. As the town of Baton Rouge is now held 
by 2 gunboats stationed in the river and if the enemy attempt to build 
batteries there it will be necessary to drive them out by shells I ordered 
the state library to be brought away, and Powers' statue of Washington 
from the state house. This has been safely accomplished. The library is 
stored with the city library here. I have sent the statue of Washington 
to the mayor of New York, to be held in trust for the people of Louis- 
iana until they shall have returned to their senses. I deem the evacua- 
tion of Baton Rouge a matter of prudence, as the entire force at Vicksburg 
had been brought down to Jackson and Tangipahoa for the avowed 
purpose of an, attack on New Orleans." The Federal gunboats commanded 
Baton Rouge, but the defense of the military position was not desirable. 
The enemy captured cattle and horses, no prisoners. The Confederate 
attack was not necessary as some writers have asserted it to have been, 
to save the town from destruction. 

Baton Rouge, La., Sept. 8, 1863. 4th Wisconsin Cavalry. 

Baton Rouge, La., Sept. 19, 1863. 

Baton Rouge, La., ]\Iarch 3, 1864. ii8th Illinois Mounted Infantry. 
The record of events on the return of the 2nd brigade, cavalry division, 
Department of the Gulf, for March 1864, discloses the fact that on the 
3d Lieut-Col. Logan, ii8th 111. mounted infantry, went to Baton Rouge 
and was involved with his command in a skirmish, killing i Confederate 
and taking 3 prisoners. 

Baton Rouge, La., April 15, 1864. On this date Confederates ap- 
proached to attack Baton Rouge. A Federal scouting detachment of 50 
drove an equal number of the enemy 20 miles or further. Reports do not 
contain further details. 

Baton Rouge, La., July 29, 1864. Picket of the 14th New York 
Cavalry. Three men and a corporal of this regiment were attacked in 
the forenoon of this day, while on picket duty at Highland Stockade. Two 
of the men escaped unharmed ; the corporal and the other man were 
severely wounded. 

Battery Huger, Ala., April 9-1 1, 1865. Army of West Mississippi. 
After the fall of Spanish fort and Fort Blakely Batteries Huger and 
Tracy on the opposite shore of Blakely river still held out. It was neces- 
sary to reduce these posts in order that the navy might operate success- 
fully in Blakely river. Spurling's cavalry was sent up the river to cut off 
communication between the forts and Mobile, and Lucas' cavalry was 
ordered to block the navigation of the Alabama river. On the loth 
additional guns were brought to bear upon the batteries and a boat ex- 
pedition for a night attack on Tracy was organized, but at 10 p. m. the 
Confederates evacuated both works, blowing up the magazines. Before 
daylight also Mobile had been evacuated. The casualties in the 2 days' 
bombardment of Batteries Huger and Tracy were not reported. 

Battery Huger, Va., April 19. 1863. Detachments of the 89th New 
York and 8th Connecticut Volunteers. This was an incident of the siege 
of Suffolk. About dusk Brig.-Gen. Getty, commanding the U. S. naval 
flotilla, executed successfully a plan for crossing the Nansemond river 
and capturing Battery Huger on Hill's point at the mouth of the west 
branch. Shortly before sunset gunboats on the river and 4 rifled guns, 
two 20-pounder Parrotts and two 3-inch ordnance guns, opened a terrific 
fire on the battery. Meantime the detachments mentioned embarked at 
Dr. Council's landing about a mile above the battery on the gunboat 
Stepping-Stones, commanded by Lieut. Lamson. A canvas screen around 



88 The Union Army 

the deck effectually concealed the men as the boat steamed rapidly down 
stream and ran close to the shore about 300 yards above the battery. 
The vessel was headed inshore, but striking a pile she glanced off, and 
borne on the ebb-tide would have glided in front of the battery had not 
Lieut. Lamson reversed her propelling works and backed her aground. 
From both ends of the boat the men jumped in mud and water up to their 
waists, scrambled hastily ashore and with cheers dashed upon the battery. 
By this time the gunboat's crew had landed 4 boat howitzers, placed them 
in position and opened with them on the works. The enemy opened a hot 
fire of musketry, and reversed and fired one of their guns. But, cut off 
and terrorized by discharges of canister from Lamson's batteries, they 
finally surrendered. The results of this brilliant achievement included the 
capture of 7 ofificers, 130 men and 5 guns, the liberation of 5 gunboats 
above the battery and the occupation of a point of vital importance to the 
enemy and of much value to the Federals. 

Battery Island, S. C, May 21, 1862. About 11 a. m. on this date a 
Federal gunboat came up the river, took a position where it could enfilade 
the bridge and causeway leading to James island. About the same time 
a detachment of troops was landed in small boats and moved to the rear 
of the Confederate pickets on Battery island. The gunboat opened on 
a causeway with grape and shrapnel, cutting off the retreat of the pickets, 
and the men who had gone ashore succeeded in capturing a sergeant, a 
corporal and 4 men near the old magazine on the north end of the island. 
The other picket posts managed to make their escape. 

Battery Island, S. C, Sept. 7, 1863. Brig.-Gen. Taliaferro, of the Con- 
federate army, reported that he "attacked the enemy's pickets on Battery 
Island," and "drove them off and destroyed the bridge and landing." 
There is no mention of the affair in the Federal reports. 

Battery Simkins, S. C, Feb. 11, 1865. 52nd Pennsylvania Volunteers. 
This regiment lead by Maj. Hennesey, made a demonstration in boats 
against Battery Simkins and Fort Sumter. Tlie Confederates opened a 
lively artillery fire from Battery Simkins and Sullivan's island and a 
musketry fire from Simkins and Sumter. Gen. Hardee designated this as 
a "barge attack" and reported that it was repulsed. 

Battery Tracy, Ala., April 9-1 1, 1865. (See Battery Huger, same 
dates.) 

Battery Wagner, S. C, July lo-ii, 1863. (See Fort Wagner.) 

Battle Creek, Tenn., June 21, 1862. 2nd and 33d Ohio, loth Wis- 
consin, and 24th Illinois Volunteers, 4th Ohio and 4th Kentucky Cavalry, 
and Edgarton's Battery. 

Battle Creek, Tenn., Aug. 27, 1862. Part of the 9th Brigade. 3d 
Division, ist Army Corps. On the 21st, Col. Harris of the 2nd Ohio 
infantry, occupied Fort McCook at the mouth of Battle creek, with his 
regiment, the 33d Ohio, Edgarton's Ohio battery, and no men of the 
4th Ohio cavalry. Next day he sent four companies to Bridgeport to 
replace an infantry ro'^inr^nt withdrawn from there, and one regiment and 
the battery to Gen. McCook. Six companies of the 33d Ohio and the 
cavalry remained at the fort. Early on the morning of the 27th, Brig.- 
Gen. Maxey, commanding Confederate forces in that vicinity, ordered part 
of his cavalry to ford the Tennessee river 2 or 3 miles below Bridgeport, 
cautiously approach the town and attack the Federals. When it became 
apparent that the Federal force there had been withdrawn the night before 
Maxey ordered the 32nd Ala. infantry, which was concealed on the bank 
of the river, to cross and Capt. Rice was ordered to throw the cavalry 
well out on the Battle creek and Stevenson roads. That morning Harris 
learned that the enemy was crossing at Bridgeport. He ordered his cavalry 
to that point with instructions to attack the enemy at once if he had 
crossed and if possible to drive him into the Tennessee river. He also 
directed his cavalry on picket on the Jasper road to push forward as far 



Cyclopedia of Battles 89 

as Jasper and report promptly any advance of the enemy in that direc- 
tion. Observing the approach of the Federal troops Maxey formed the 
32nd Ala. in line of battle near the crest of the hill in the town and soon 
the Federal cavalry under Maj. Pugh, dashed up at full speed. When 
within 50 yards of tlic Confederate line it received a galling tire and fell 
back. Twice the Federals reformed and charged, first on the Confederate 
left and then on the center. A company of the 32nd Ala. under Lieut. 
Sellers, ambushed in the center, arose as the Federals came up the hill 
and delivered a deadly volley at close range simultaneously with that of 
the wings, which were separated for cover, causing the Federals to fall 
back in confusion. While this portion of the fight was in progress, the 
Confederate artillery, consisting of Freeman's and Dure's batteries and 
one 24-pounder rifle gun, opened on the Federal fort and camp from the 
opposite bank of the Tennessee river about 800 yards distant, and shelled 
them for 12 hours without intermission except to let their guns cool. 
After taking precautions to protect his retreat, Harris ordered his wagons 
loaded with the most valuable stores at the fort and the balance were 
piled up ready to be burned. The tents were cut up and the wagon wheels 
were muffled with them. As soon as it was dark he began the withdrawal 
of the forces and the stores for which he had transportation. "This," 
he reported, "I succeeded in doing without loss. An hour after the last 
of the forces had been withdrawn, Capt. Mathews, of the 4th Ohio cavalry, 
applied the torch to the stores, which w^ere left behind, completely destroy- 
ing them. I arrived with the command at Decherd on the 29th and reported 
to Maj. -Gen. Buell." 

Battle Mountain, Va., July 24, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 3d Division, 
Cavalry Corps. Army of the Potomac. In the morning Brig. -Gen. Custer 
commanding the brigade moved from camp at Amissville, with the ist, 
Sth and 6th Mich cavalry and Battery M, 2nd U. S. artillery, toward 
Newby's cross-roads, where he expected to strike the enemy's column. 
His advance guard, the 5th Mich., encountered Hill's 3d army corps, and 
Benning's brigade of Longstreet's corps. Custer attacked with both cavalry 
and artillery, compelling the enemy to halt his column and form in line 
of battle, when he became aware of the overwhelming force of the enemy 
and prepared to withdraw his command. An unlooked-for delay occurred 
in relieving his skirmishers and the enemy pushed 2 brigades of infantry 
to Custer's left and rear. By that movement the 5th and 6th Mich, and 
2 guns of the battery were cut off, but bravely and skillfully extricated 
themselves with slight loss„ Loss, 30 killed, wounded and missing. 

Baxter Springs, Kan., Oct. 6, 1863. Gen. Blunt and escort, and a 
Detachment of the 3d Wisconsin Cavalry. On the 4th. Gen. Blunt left 
Fort Scott for Fort Smith, accompanied by a part of his staff and his 
clerks, orderlies and the brigade band, taking records and other property 
belonging to the headquarters of the District of the Frontier. His escort 
consisted of about 100 men of the 3d Wis. and 14th Kan. cavalry under 
command of Lieut. Cavert. The train consisted of 8 wagons, carrying 
the band, the district headquarters property and company effects. At noon 
on the 3d day, Blunt and the advance guard halted near Baxter Springs. 
The garrison there consisted of parts of two companies of the 3d Wis. 
cavalry and one company of the 2nd Kan. colored regiment under command 
of Lieut. Pond. The position was fortified and was provided with one 
howitzer, but was on low ground behind a slight intervening elevation 
which hid the fort from Blunt's view. In fact, he was not aware of his 
nearness to Pond's command, nor was the latter aware of Blunt's prox- 
imity. Col. Quantrill, with a Confederate force variously estimated at 
from 600 to 1,000, was passing south on the Kansas-Missouri border, 
and had made a detour to attack Pond's camp. At the hour of the attack 
all the cavalry was absent with a forage train. The attack of the Confed- 



90 The Union Army 

erates was so sudden and impetuous that they were inside the rude breast- 
works firing pistol shots into the tents before the garrison rcahzed its 
situation. Pond's men were at dinner and were obliged to break through 
the enemy's lines to secure arms. Pond fought his way in, rallied his men 
as best he could, and finally succeeded in dragging the howitzer outside 
the breastworks and getting it in action. With 3 murderous shots he re- 
pulsed the enemy's main force, which retreated over tlie hill north of the 
camp, where they first saw Blunt's little column. From the fact that 
they wore Federal uniforms, Blunt at first supposed the Confederates to 
be Pond's cavalrymen on drill, but formed 65 of his men in line of battle 
to be ready for any emergency and sent the wagons, with the band, 
clerks, orderlies, cooks and other non-combatants to the rear. Then ac- 
companied by his staff, he made forward about 50 paces to learn definitely 
what the approaching force was. Not 200 yards separated the lines. The 
Confederates came slowly forward firing irregularly. Part of Blunt's 
force broke and fled and Quantrill's men charged along the whole line. 
A second line of about 200, which had been formed in the edge of the 
timber, dashed forward after the first. The Kansas troops broke and 
would not be rallied. The Wisconsin company fired a staggering volley 
into the enemy's right, but the left advanced and the right soon rallied 
and came forward unsteadil3^ The second line of Confederates, better 
mounted than the escort, soon closed in and when Blunt would have led 
his men in stubborn resistance he saw most of them in flight, after having 
emptied their revolvers at the advancing enemy until the latter had come 
within 20 feet. Pond, who had heard the firing when Blunt's men had 
been attacked, thought that his own cavalry had returned and engaged the 
Confederates. Shortly afterward he learned that Blunt's escort and 
brigade band had been massacred, that many of the bodies had been 
stripped, those of some of the musicians and others shamefully mutilated 
and some burned with the wagons. The Union loss was 80 killed and 18 
wounded. Quantrill reported his casualties as "3 men wounded," though 
they were doubtless much greater. 

Baxter Springs, Kan., Aug. i, 1864. Detachment of the 7th Provisional 
Regiment, Enrolled Missouri Militia. Col. John D. Allen, commanding 
at Mount Vernon, Mo., sent out 80 men under Capts. Sutherland, Roberts 
and Ritchey, to scout in the direction of Baxter Springs. When about 
10 miles from the springs they came upon a small party of Confederates 
under Capts. Taylor and Marchbanks. A slight skirmish ensued, in which 
the enemy was completely routed with a loss of 5 or 6 men killed and 
several wounded. Union loss nothing. 

Bayles' Cross-Roads, La., Oct. 12, 1861. 79th New York Volunteers. 

Baylor's Farm, Va., June 15, 1864. (See Petersburg, same date.) 

Bayou Alabama, La., Sept. 20, 1864. 2nd New York Veteran Cavalry. 
A detachment of 225 of this regiment, under command of Lieut. -Col. 
Gurney, after a hard all-night march, reached and crossed Bayou Ala- 
bama at 7 :3o a. m., on the 20th, and after a short skirmish captured the 
camp of a Capt. Ratliff, taking 3 prisoners of war, 15 horses, i piece of 
artillery, some small arms and ammunition, a quantity of clothing, a large 
mail and other valuables. The gun was spiked, filled with shells and sunk 
in 50 feet of water. Gurney then marched to Fausse river, arriving there 
at I p. m. This movement was a part of the operations of Gen. Lawler's 
command in the vicinity of Morganza. 

Bayou Bernard, Ind. Ter., July 27, 1862. ist Regiment Kansas Indian 
Home Guards. This regiment, commanded by Maj. Phillips, was in- 
cluded in the ist Indian brigade and attached to the expedition of Col. 
Salomon. By forced and night marches Phillips proceeded some 40 miles 
to Tahlequah and Park Hill. He sent forward his command in three 
lines along three roads, forming a cross-roads at Baj-ou Bernard, 7 miles 



Cyclopedia of Battles 91 

from Fort Gibson. At the cross-roads Lieut. Hancway's command, which 
formed the right, met the enemy moving toward Park Hill and fell back 
on the Park Hill road. The enemy pushing forward, encountered the 
Federal center but after a brief fight was utterly routed and Hed to Fort 
Gibson. Lieut. -Col. Taylor, of Stand Waitie's regiment, Capt. Hicks, a 
Cherokee, and 2 Choctaw captains were killed. The entire Confederate 
loss was about 125 in killed and wounded and 25 captured. Federal loss 

1 wounded. "I was very much pleased with the conduct of the whole 
Indian force," said Phillips in his report. "The only difficulty was in 
restraining their impetuous charge and in keeping back a reserve and guard 
for the wagons." 

Bayou Black, La., March 19, 1864. 

Bayou Black, La., May 4, 1865. Capt. Barker, with a detachment of 
the 75th L^. S. colored infantry and ist La. cavalry under orders from head- 
quarters, District of La Fourche, left Bayou Boeuf station to proceed to 
Bayou Chene to reconnoiter at the mouth of Bayou Black. In a little 
cut-off above the entrance of the bayou they fired on a skiff-load of negroes 
employed near by, mistaking them for a party of the enemy, and wounded 

2 of them. (See also Black Bayou.) 

Bayou Boeuf, La., April 22, 1863. ist Brigade, Grover's Division. In 
Banks' operations in West Louisiana, Brig.-Gen. Dwight, commanding this 
brigade, was delayed at bridges over Bayous Cocodrie and Boeuf. Unfore- 
seen difficulties in bridge construction arose. He crossed some cavalry at 
noon on April 22, and they went forward on the Bayou Boeuf road over 
2 miles, when they were ambushed near Washington by about 200 Con- 
feredates, losing i man killed and i captured. 

Bayou Boeuf, La., May 7, 1864. Portion of the 17th Army Corps. 
Incidental to the Red river campaign. The Federal line extending on the 
south side of Bayou Rapides from Gordon's to the Bayou Boeuf timber 
and appearing formidable from the north side of the stream, was much 
longer than the thin cavalry formation of the Confederates under Maj.-Gen. 
Dick Taylor. The chief struggle was for the river, which was important 
to the Federals. Taylor had been massing his forces on the Bayou Boeuf 
and on the river below Alexandria. After several hours of heavy cannon- 
ading the Federals advanced. Their attack brought confusion to both 
flanks of the Confederate line, but they were charged by Gen. Bagby 
and riven across the Lamourie. The Confederate artillery was used 
with great effect, one battery covering the movements of another, and 
finally the short range pieces of both covering the retreat of the other 
sections over a narrow bridge, holding a heavy infantry force in check 
by rapid discharges of grape and canister until the bridge was passed 
and a position taken on the other side. The Federals did not advance 
further, but retired during the night to a position about 7 miles from 
Alexandria, on a small bayou leading from Bayou Rapides to Bayou Boeuf, 
and remained there until about the time of the evacuation of Alexandria. 

Bayou Bonfouca, La., Nov. 21, 1862. The U. S. steamer, G. Brown, 
carrying 2 guns, while attempting to ascend the Bayou Bonfouca, was 
attacked at a point 60 miles from Ponchatoula and 10 miles from Fort 
Pike. Lieut. Evans reported that 2 men were killed and i mortally 
wounded on the boat and that "after the first fire she backed down the 
river, shelling the woods as she went." 

Bayou Bonfouca, La., Jan. 31, 1865. 74th LT. S. Colored Troops. A 
party of g guerrillas boarded the schooner Perseverance engaged in carry- 
ing wood to New Orleans, robbed her crew of money and clothing and 
threatened to burn her unless the owner, Raymond Terence, gave them 
$1,000, with which demand he was unable to comply. The timely arrival 
of the sloop Rosetta from Fort Pike, with a corporal and 13 privates of 
the 74th U. S. colored troops, under Lieut. Gallagher on board, brought 



92 The Union Army 

about an engagement between the troops and the guerrillas, resulting in 
the routing of the latter and the saving of the Perseverance from 
destruction. 

Bayou Bontecar, La., Nov. 21, 1862. 31st Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Bayou Bourbeau, La., Nov. 3, 1863. Troops of the 13th Army Corps. 
The position of the Federal troops in the morning was as follows : Brig.- 
Gen. Burbridge with i brigade of the 4th division, about 1,200 strong, a 
6-gun battery of lo-poundcr Parrotts, and Col. Fonda, with about 500 
mounted infantry and a section of Nim's battery, on the south of Aluddy 
bayou ; the 3d division under Gen. Cameron, and Col. Slack, 3,000 
strong with a battery, at Carrion Crow bayou, 3 miles in the rear of Bur- 
bridge. The two bayous run easterly, nearly parallel, and between the 
two is a smooth, level plain called Buzzard's prairie. Along Muddy Bayou 
was a belt of timber about 150 yards wide. To the right of Burbridge's 
position was a large, dense wood, while before and to the left of it was 
high open prairie. Early in the morning Burbridge's outposts were driven 
in and the Confederates appeared in heavy force on his front and left, 
rie formed his lines and a few well directed shots from his artillery 
caused the enemy to retire. At 10 a. m. few Confederates were in sight 
and Burbridge's troops retired to camp, though holding themselves in 
readiness to fall in ranks at an instant's notice. Maj.-Gen. Washburn, 
commanding the corps, when informed of the attack, had ordered out the 
3d division, but by the time it was in hne word came that the enemy 
had withdrawn. Leaving the division under arms Washburn rode to the 
front for a conference with Gen. Burbridge. As he was returning to his 
headquarters he heard a rapid cannonade and soon learned that Burbridge 
was assailed with terrible energy by an overwhelming force in front and 
on both flanks. The troops were broken and scattered and utter destruc- 
tion or capture of the whole force seemed imminent. The Confederate 
infantry had approached through a ravine from the direction of Opelousas, 
while upon the left across the prairie, a heavy column of cavalry had 
moved forward in line of battle. Burbridge had placed in position on his 
left the 67th Ind. about 260 strong, a section of Nim's battery, a section 
of the 17th Ohio battery and 150 cavalry, directing the whole to guard 
against an attack on the rear and left. The 6oth Ind., 96th Ohio, 23d 
Wis. and 4 pieces of the 17th Ohio battery w'erc posted so as to meet the 
Confederate infantry advance in the ravine. The 118th 111. mounted 
infantry was posted to protect his right and the trains were moved to the 
rear. The Confederates pressed Burbridge so hard that he soon despaired 
of holding his position until he could be reinforced. After engaging the 
enemy a short time in front he saw that they were moving on his right 
flank and their cavalry was bearing down on his left. The Confederate 
line was about 3 times as long as his own, and to guard against being 
surrounded he had to extend his line to the right. He gave Col. Buehler 
of the 67th Ind. charge of a movement to guard his left while he himself 
advanced his right. Buehler was delayed in the execution of the required 
movement with the result that he and his command were surrounded by 
Confederate cavalry and surrendered without a man being killed. The 
artillery played on the enemy until it was almost surrounded, but suc- 
ceeded in withdrawing save one lo-pounder Parrott gun and caisson of 
the 17th Ohio battery, which were taken only after the horses had been 
killed. The 23d Wis., 96th Ohio, fioth Ind., and 17th Ohio battery fought 
with remarkable determination, liolding the enemy in check for some time 
and protecting the Federal train and artillery from capture. The bringing 
oflf of the section of Nim's battery, after the surrender of the regiment 
sent to its support, won the admiration of every beholder. When Bur- 
bridge's left was gone and the enemy's cavalry in great force was charg- 
ing through the narrow belt of timber and coming down on his rear, he 



Cyclopedia of Battles 93 

gradually fell back through the ravine in order to cover his train. The 
3d division had come up on the double-quick, but by the time it was in 
the middle of the prairie a mile and a half from the scene of action, 
Burbridge's command had been driven out of the woods. Burbridge had 
noted its approach, which with the arrival of the 83d Ohio, ordered back 
from a foraging expedition, gave him renewed hope. He was now just 
abandoning the ravine. To secure his left he placed the 83d on the 
plain, where he soon rallied his shattered forces, his artillery on the right, 
the cavalry on tlie left. By this time the 3d division had come within 
range. It formed in line and by shelling the Confederates, checked their 
advance, when Burbridge began to rake them with his artillery and they 
retreated to the cover of the woods. The whole Federal force was then 
deployed in line of battle and pressed the enemy rapidly through the 
woods. Cameron with the ist brigade of the 3d division sent cavalry 
to charge the Confederates through the ravine and nearly 100 prisoners 
were taken. Washburn moved the division upon the Confederate line of 
retreat about a mile and a half, but the men, having been brought up at a 
double-quick, were too nearly exhausted to pursue further. The cavalry 
pursued them about 3 miles. Federal loss, 25 killed, 123 wounded, 536 
captured or missing. Total Confederate loss 181. 

Bayou Cache, Ark., July 6, 1862. 3d Iowa Cavalry. On the march 
from Augusta to Clarendon this regiment was in advance of the Army 
of the Southwest, and on this date the vanguard of the regiment was 
Co. I. At Bayou Cache, the company was brought to a halt by a barricade 
of felled trees constructed by Confederates to impede the Federal advance. 
Twelve men of the company dismounted, reconnoitered the timber, got 
in the rear of a squad of 18 Confederates, engaged them and killed 7 
without casualty. The remainder of the Confederate detachment escaped 
across the river. 

Bayou de Glaize, La., May 17, 1864. Detachment 7th and i6th Army 
Corps. In Banks' Red River campaign. Gen. Mower commanding the 
detachment was pressed by Gen. Wharton. On this day Gen. Steele joined 
Wharton and their combined forces harried the Federals, skirmishing 
and fighting until almost dark, when Mower drove them back with artillery 
at Bayou de Glaize. 

Bayou de Glaize, La., May 18, 1864. ist and 3d Divisions, i6th Army 
Corps. This was the last engagement of a series conducted by Gen. 
Mower and participated in exclusively by troops of the i6th corps. "From 
the action of Yellow bayou to the close of the war," wrote Gen. Dick 
Taylor, 12 years after the surrender of Louisiana, "not a gun was fired 
in the trans-Mississippi department." Mower was instructed in case he 
should be pursued, to attack and drive back the enemy. Being pressed 
in the rear he recrossed Yellow bayou, about II a. m., with Hill's, Lynch's 
and Shaw's brigades, Lieut. Tiemeyer's battery of rifled guns, the 3d 
Ind. battery, and 4 smooth bore guns of the 9th Ind. battery. After ad- 
vancing about 2 miles, skirmishing with the enemy, the advance penetrated 
a dense thicket and discovered a large force of Confederates on the op- 
posite side of a field on Norwood's plantation. This force immediately 
opened on the Federal line with 12 pieces of rifled artillery. Mower put 
Tiemeyer's battery in position on the right of his line and the 9th Ind. 
battery near the left with two regiments on the left of it for support. 
The enemy immediately advanced in two columns in mass, drove back 
the Federal cavalry and got in the rear of Mower's left flank. At the same 
time the Federals drove the enemy in front. The Indiana battery and the 
two regiments supporting it were brought to a position nearly at right 
angles with the main Federal line and facing the enemy menacing the 
Federal flank ; the remainder of the line fell back to connect with the 
right of the line just mentioned and the troops on the left were formed 



94 The Union Army 

facing the woods. Two regiments of Shaw's brigade, which had been 
held in reserve, now arrived and were put into position on the left. 
Mower ordered the battery double-shotted with canister and the enemy 
on the left were soon driven back with awful slaughter. Then after a 
few minutes' pause to replenish ammunition, the Federal line advanced. 
The Confederates had taken position in a thicket, through which Mower's 
main line must pass. A short desperate encounter here resulted in the 
rout of the Confederates and their retreat part of the way across the open 
field beyond, with great loss in killed and wounded and about i6o prisoners. 
In the meantime the enemy had again driven back the Federal cavalry 
and exposed the left. He was now swept from his menacing position, the 
Federals fell back to their original position and the Confederates did not 
attempt another attack. Hearing the cannonading, incident to the begin- 
ning of the engagement, Col. Lynch, who had gone to the Union boats on 
the Atchafalaya, hastened to the field and was almost immediately carried 
off wounded. Col. Kinney, who was in command of Lynch's brigade, had 
his horse shot under him, falling under the horse so that he was disabled 
and the command of the brigade fell temporarily on Lieut.-Col. Craven 
of the 89th Ind. In one of the charges Col. Hill, commanding the 3d 
brigade, ist division, was wounded and his son who was acting as orderly 
was killed. (Also known as Old Oaks and Yellow Bayou.) 

Bayou de Large, La., May 27, 1865. Detachment 3d Rhode Island 
and 1st Louisiana Cavalry. This party, under the command of Lieut. 
Pomponeau, of the Louisiana regiment, surprised Lieut. Boudreaux and il 
men in their camp on Bayou de Large. The Confederates managed to 
escape, half-dressed, leaving their arms, ammunition, and other belongings. 
The Confederate lieutenant was wounded and one man was captured. 

Bayou de Paul, La., April 7-8, 1864. 13th Army Corps and Cavalry 
Division, Department of the Gulf. In the advance of Gen. Banks' forces 
up the Red river, the 3d cavalry brigade. Col. Harai Robinson command- 
ing, drove some 200 Confederate cavalry through Pleasant Hill on the 7th, 
pursuing them to Wilson's farm, where Green's Texans. 3,000 strong, were 
encountered. Robinson at once engaged the enemy, but finding himself 
outnumbered withdrew his command a short distance, when he was re- 
inforced by Col. Lucas, with three regiments of the ist brigade and the 
contest was renewed. After a sharp fight Green was driven from his 
position and rapidly retreated to Carroll's mill on Bayou de Paul, where 
the fighting was continued until dark. That evening Col. Landram, com- 
manding the 4th division of the 13th corps, ordered Emerson's brigade to 
the assistance of the cavalry. Emerson arrived at the bayou at daylight 
and the fight was commenced. Again the enemy was forced from his 
position, gradually falling back toward Sabine cross-roads. The Union 
loss was II killed. 42 wounded and 9 missing. The number of the Con- 
federates killed and wounded was not reported, but 23 were captured. 

Bayou des AUemands, La., June 20-22, 1862. 

Bayou des AUemands, La., Sept. 4, 1862. Troops belonging to the 
Army of the Gulf. A dct^chment of the 8th Vt. w-as at Bayou des AUemands 
as Gen. B. F. Butler's advance pickets. On the morning of the 4th a 
detail was sent to Algiers for provisions. This detail was ambushed by 
a regiment of Texas Rangers, a number wounded and the rest captured. 
The Rangers then proceeded to the bayou, where, by seizing the bearers 
of a flag of truce and using them as a shield, they succeeded in capturing 
the entire detachment. In pursuance of Butler's orders Col. McMillan, 
with the 2ist Ind. and 9th Conn., and Col. Paine, with the 14th Me. and 
the 4th Wis., supported by Commodore Morris' gimboats. surrounded the 
guerrillas on the west bank of the river, about 30 miles above New Orleans, 
killing 8 and capturing 40 prisoners and 250 horses. This affair put an 
end to guerrilla warfare in the vicinity of New Orleans. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 95 

Bayou des Arc, Ark., July 14, 1864. A force of 1,000 men was sent 
out by Confederate Gen. Jo. O. Shelby on the 12th to destroy the rail- 
road communications in the neighborhood of Brownsville and Searcy. 
This force, at 4 130 o'clock on the morning of the 14th, surrounded the 
camp of the loth 111. cavalry, commanded by Col. D. H. Wilson, at 
Bayou Des Arc and made an attack from three sides at the same time. 
The attacked defended themselves valiantly for half an hour, but were de- 
feated by the superior numbers of the enemy, losing 20 killed, 87 captured, 
one 6-mule team and supply wagon and the ambulance. At that time the 
lOth consisted of 214 men and 7 officers. The remainder cut their way 
through the Confederate lines and escaped without being pursued. 

Bayou Fordoche Road, La., May 29, 1864. 4th Cavalry Brigade, 19th 
Army Corps. The brigade, under the command of Col. Chrysler of the 
2nd N. Y. veteran cavalry, moved just before sunrise, and when about 
5 miles from Morganza on the Bayou Fordoche road, came upon the Con- 
federate advance. Chrysler immediately formed his men and drove the 
enemy back until he uncovered Morgan's ferry road. The force in his 
immediate front numbered about 300, but as it retired it so increased 
in numbers as to require the placing of half of Chrysler's force on the 
skirmish line. He learned that during the past two days, the Confederates 
had crossed from 3,000 to 7,000 mounted infantry and 2 pieces of artillery, 
I apparently a heavy gun swung under a cotton carriage. Their infantry 
was crossing at Bayou Grossetete marching toward La Fourche, and their 
cavalry at Morgan's ferry. At a conservative estimate their forces out- 
numbered his 3 to I. Consequently he withdrew his command, the enemy 
following closely for 3 miles, and arrived in camp about 2 p. m. with a 
loss of 2 wounded. 

Bayou Fourche, Ark., Sept. 10, 1863. (See Little Rock, same date.) 

Bayou Goula, La., June 19, 1863. A body of Confederate cavalry 
under Col. James P. Major, commander of a cavalry brigade in the army 
of Gen. Dick Taylor, took commissary and quartermaster's stores, destroyed 
Federal plantations and recaptured 1,000 negroes that had been taken by 
Gen. Banks from planters in Saint Landry and Rapides parishes. He 
added the adult male negroes to his command and left the women and 
children at Bayou Goula. 

Bayou Goula, La., Jan. 24, 1865. Detachment 3d Rhode Island 
Cavalry. A party of 13 men stationed at Donaldsonville undertook to 
return from Plaquemine. Col. Fiske sent a lieutenant and 20 men up to 
Bayou Goula to meet them and escort them through, but before the 
escort arrived at Bayou Goula the party of 13 was attacked by 24 Con- 
federates under Col. Williams. Two were wounded at the first fire and 
the other 11 surrendered without firing a gun. The lieutenant and his 
command soon came up and pursued the Confederates 3 miles, but re- 
captured nothing. 

Bayou Goula, La., May 9, 1865. Detachment of 3d Rhode Island 
Cavalry. Maj. Burt with 17 men, on a scout through Bayou Goula to 
Donaldsonville, skirmished with about a dozen of Capt. Brown's rnen at 
the plantation of a Mr. Gilbert, dispersing them and taking i prisoner. 
Later in the day Burt's men chased squads of Brown's men, who found 
safety in swamps. 

Bayou Grossetete, La., June 19, 1864. Detachment of the T9th Army 
Corps. The detachment under command of Col. Crebs. 87th 111. infantry, 
returned to Morganza, where Crebs reported to Gen. Emory the capture 
of 5 prisoners and of Richard McCall, one of several persons whom he 
had been sent to bring in. He had also driven in 100 head of cattle and 
a few horses and mules. 

Bayou la Fourche, La., Nov. 19, 1864. nth Wisconsin Volunteers, 
and 93d U. S. Colored Troops. 



96 The Union Army 

Bayou Lamourie, La., May 7, 1864. 89th Indiana Infantry. During 
Banks' Red river expedition, the regiment under Lieut.-Col. Craven en- 
gaged in a skirmish with the enemy at Bayou Lamourie and under a severe 
fire, charged and repulsed the Confederates with a loss of 4 killed, 11 
wounded and i missing. 

Bayou Liddell, La., Oct. 15, 1864. 52nd U. S. Colored Troops, 2nd 
Mississippi. 

Bayou Macon, La., Aug. 24, 1863. 3d Division, and 3d Brigade, 6th 
Division,' 17th Army Corps. As an incident of Stoneman's expedition from 
Vicksburg, Miss., to Monroe, La., the Confederates attempted to make a 
stand at Bayou Macon, but were driven from their position by Osband's 
cavalry, which held the ford of the bayou until the arrival of the advance 
guard of the infantry. 

Bayou Meto, Ark., Aug. 26, 1863. Steele's Little Rock Expedition. 
Col. Glover, commanding the 2nd brigade in the cavalry division of Gen. 
Davidson, was ordered to reconnoiter and push the enemy as far toward 
Bayou Meto as possible without bringing on a general engagement. Early 
in the morning the 1st la. cavalry was in advance and four squadrons 
under the command of Capt. Jenks were sent forward as skirmishers, 
which soon after passing the Federal outposts came upon the enemy's 
pickets. The Iowa regiment supported by the 3d Mo. cavalry and a 
section of artillery, advanced steadily, driving the Confederates 4 miles, 
toward their rifle-pits, killing a Confederate captain, 2 privates and taking 
I prisoner. When the retreating Confederates reached their main body 
they made a stand. After a considerable artillery duel, Glover ordered 
Lieut. Lovejoy to advance his section of artillery, and while the men were 
doing this one of the cannoneers fell, pierced through the body by a solid 
shot. Recognizing the enemy's superior strength and fearing to pre- 
cipitate a general engagement by continuing the fight, Glover masked the 
removal of his infantry with cavalry, and by covering his rear, abandoned 
the field in good order. Gen. Walker directed the Confederate operations, 
with Gen. Marmaduke in immediate command. (See same Aug. 27.) 

Bayou Meto, Ark., Aug. 27, 1863. Davidson's Cavalry Division, De- 
partment of the Missouri. The entire division moved out on the road 
leading to Bayou Meto (or Reed's) bridge at sunrise on the 27th, leaving 
its baggage packed in a depot camp at Brownsville in charge of Lieut.- 
Col. Chandler, with his own regiment, the 7th Mo. cavalry, and Lovejoy's 
battery. The enemy was found posted in the position of the previous 
day. The ground not admitting the display of more troops, Gen. Davidson 
brought his 2nd brigade into action, in command of Col. Glover, while 
the 1st and reserve brigades held themselves in readiness to move up to 
support other troops as occasion demanded. Bayou Meto was a shallow, 
sluggish stream with a miry bed, abrupt banks, and heavy timber along 
its sides. It was spanned by a substantial bridge, which had been prepared 
for destruction by the Confederates. The advance skirmishers of the 2nd 
brigade met those of the enemy about S miles from the bridge. Before 
a brisk fire the Confederates fell back about 2 miles and made another 
stand, but were again sharply encountered by the skirmish line of the loth 
111. Here the whole brigade was formed for action with 2 battalions of 
the 3d Mo. cavalry, dismounted to fight on foot, on the right of the road 
in order of battle; i battalion of the 32nd la. infantry on the left of the 
road in order of battle; on the left of this the 3d battalion of the 3d 
Mo. cavalry (dismounted), the artillery being in the center. The ist la. 
cavalry and 4 squadrons of loth 111. cavalry were formed in the rear and 6 
squadrons of the loth 111. on the right flank. In this order, the whole front 
covered by a heavy skirmish line, the brigade moved forward. The Con- 
federates fought desperately with small arms and artillery, but before this 
steady onslaught, made more destructive by the timely use of artillery, 



Cyclopedia of Battles 97 

they were driven from ridge to ridge through the thick brush on either 
side of the road, back to a high, strong position covered on the left with 
extended rifle-pits. Tlierc they checked the Federal advance and briefly 
held the ground. The 3d Mo. cavalry charged on the right, drove back 
the Confederates in its front and a simultaneous charge was made on the 
left. Flanked, beaten back in front, the enemy gave way and fled in dis- 
order toward Bayou Mcto, his columns being pursued for about a half 
an hour by a terrible bombardment of artillery. When they had been 
driven from their position at the bridge, the Confederates set it on fire. 
Davidson ordered the ist la. cavalry to charge with drawn sabers and 
save it if possible. In making this charge the regiment was exposed to 
a terrible fire from the Confederate artillery and sharpshooters. The 
bridge was doomed. The regiment arrived on foot and skirmished half 
an hour, developing the enemy in a strong position in the rifle-pits, with 
his batteries efi^ective, when it withdrew under the hill out of range of 
his guns. Meantime artillery had been brought to the support of the regi- 
ment and after a brisk cannonade silenced the enemy's guns and drove 
them from their position. It now became evident that the enemy in con- 
siderable force hung about the Federal right flank, and they were driven 
across the bayou by the loth 111. By this time the evening was far 
advanced. Federal loss, 7 killed, 38 wounded. 

Bayou Meto, Ark., Sept. i, 1863. Rice's Division, Department of 
Arkansas. 

Bayou Meto, Ark., Feb. 17, 1865. Scout of the 13th Illinois Cavalry. 
The scouting party under command of Capt. Norris reached Baj'ou Meto, 
5 miles from the Arkansas river, where a platoon under command of 
Lieut. Curlee was detailed to scout in the vicinity. Near the house of 
Thomas Farrelly, Curlee's men had a running skirmish with a party of 
supposed guerrillas, dispersing them, killing i and capturing i. The 
prisoner escaped while the Federals were seaching Farrelly's house. 
Farrelly was brought in a prisoner and his house was burned. 

Bayou Meto, Ark., Feb. 24, 1865. 13th Illinois Cavalry. Capt. G. 
W. Suesberry with a scouting detachment, arrived at Bayou Meto at 
9 a. m., where he had a skirmish with Maj. Watkins' command, repulsing 
it. Lieut. Temple of Co. M. led a platoon in a gallant charge. He ordered 
each of his men to pick his Confederate and capture him, promising to 
make Maj. Watkins his prisoner. He chased that officer three and a half 
miles, captured him in Bayou Meto in water of swimming depth, and 6 
of Watkins' men were taken prisoners. 

Bayou Meto Bridge, Ark., Sept. 23, 1863. 

Bayou Pierre, Miss., May 2-3, 1863. 17th Army Corps. At daylight 
Gen. Stevenson, vmder orders from Gen. Logan, moved his command on 
the main road to a point within a mile of Port Gibson. He then changed 
his line of march to a point on Bayou Pierre, where the enemy in force 
and prepared to resist the Federal advance were destroying road and rail- 
road bridges. The 7th Mo. deployed as skirmishers, advanced to the edge 
of the bayou and developed a large force of Confederates protected by 
rifle-pits, with 12 pieces of artillery in position. After a lively fire had 
demonstrated the enemy's strength, De Golyer's battery was posted on the 
right of the Federal line and a battery of 20-pounder Parrotts on the left 
commanding the Confederate position. There was a: half hour's brisk 
cannonading, which kept the Confederates busy, while the Federals com- 
pleted a bridge at Port Gibson. Then the skirmishers and the batteries 
were withdrawn and the Federal army crossed over and pressed forward 
in pursuit of tlie enemy. Lieut.-Col. Oliver of the 7th Mo. infantry was 
wounded. The 3d division bivouacked on the night of May 2 
near the Grindstone ford, on the north fork of the Bayou 
Pierre. The suspension bridge at that point, which had been partially 

Vol. V— 7 



98 The Union Army 

burned by the enenij', was promptly repaired by men of the 3d brigade 
and was ready for the crossing of troops by 4 a. m. on the 3d. The 
1st brigade, 3d division (Gen. Smith) having the advance, crossed 
and moved by flank up the opposite slope till informed by a planter that 
there had been no Confederates in the vicinity since the previous day. 
Only a little further progress had been made before the advance, the Spth 
Ind. infantry, moving forward with Companies A and K, deployed as 
skirmishers, found the enemy in a strong position, his line of skirmishers 
thrown forward 200 yards, his reserves and artillery support formed im- 
mediately in the rear of 2 guns posted in a commanding position and 
masked by heavy woods at the summit of a hill. Col. Alexander of the 
59th Ind. deployed the remaining eight companies of his regiment as 
skirmishers, his line crossing the road at right angles and covering a 
front of 1,500 yards. This line, in the face of an artillery fire, advanced 
steadily and drove the Confederates from their first, second and third 
positions. The lOth Mo. infantry, after the enemy had withdrawn his 
forces, turned to the left toward Black river and after marching about a 
mile at the head of the column, was checked by the ist Mo. (Confederate) 
battery, with infantry supports. The regiment was formed on the road in 
support of the ist Mo. battery (Federal) and a brisk artillery skirmish 
ensued. About 2:30 p. m. the regiment was deployed as skirmishers to 
the left of the road across a creek and through a heavily timbered ravine. 
It was supported by the i8th Ohio and 17th la. in line of battle 150 yards 
to the rear, llie skirmish line was cautiously advanced until the right 
rested on the left of the skirmish line of the ist brigade, not more than 
300 yards from the Confederate battery. The enemy soon retired and in 
half an hour the regiment reformed and marched about 6 miles with the 
division in pursuit. At Black river it bivouacked for the night. Meantime 
Gen. Smith, while resting his troops after the repulse of the Confederates 
and the withdrawal of their battery from the crest of the hill, learned that 
his pickets near Prof. Ingraham's residence had been attacked and ordered 
the 31st 111., under Col. McCook, to their support. A sharp engagement 
followed in a wood where it was impossible to estimate the enemy's 
strength, the 45th 111. was ordered to the left and the 23d Ind. to the 
right of McCook's command, and after a rather hot skirmish the enemy 
was dislodged and hastily retreated on the Grand Gulf and Vicksburg 
road, leaving his dead on the field. 

Bayou Portage, La., Nov. 23, 1863. Brig.-Gen. Lee, chief of cavalry, 
Department of the Gulf, on the night of the 22nd, sent detachments of 
the 1st, 2nd and 3d brigades of his command, 650 men, to capture a de- 
tachment of the 1st La. mounted zouaves (Confederate) imder command 
of Maj. Dupeire, Col. Lucas, commanding the ist brigade, being in charge 
of the expedition. Leaving camp near New Iberia with about 200 of his 
brigade at 10 p. m., Lucas was joined about 6 miles out on the Saint 
Martinsville road by the 2nd 111. cavalry under Col. Mudd. At the road 
leading to Dauterive's landing he halted, waiting for Col. Paine to join 
him with 250 of the 3d brigade. Meantime he sent Mudd down the road 
leading to Dauterive's landing with instructions to strengthen his lines 
along the left skirting the road. In the fog Mudd missed the road and 
failed to cooperate with him. A little more time was consumed by Lucas 
in reaching a wayside plantation, where he hoped to capture Dupeire and 
Capt. Neville. The two Confederate officers had been there earh' in the 
evening but had escaped. Upon being joined by Paine and his command 
and 20 men under a lieutenant from Mudd's command. Lucas went on 
down the road and halted his force near the Bayou, while Paine took a 
road leading to the Confederate camp. After sending a lieutenant with 
20 men to raid a plantation near by, in which 4 prisoners were taken, 
Lucas took a road to the right of the camp, crossing the bayou on a sub- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 99 

merged bridge. Slowly and carefully beating the fields on both sides with 
flankers under Capt. Carey of the ist Ind. cavalry, Paine marched to the 
bridge over Bayou Portage, just beyond which he captured 6 soldiers 
who were acting as a fatigue party with a forage train. Thence he pro- 
ceeded down the bayou about 5 miles and came on the enemy's pickets. 
His advance guard charged them and took some prisoners, the others 
escaping. Then reinforced to 50 men, commanded by Maj. Montgomery 
of the 6th Mo., the guard galloped into the enemy's camp half a mile 
farther on and captured 25 enlisted men, i officer and the colors of 
Dupeire's battalion, 2 officers of the i8th La., and killed 2 Confederates 
without the loss of a man. 

Bayou Rapides, La., March 21, 1864. (See Henderson's Hill.) 

Bayou Rapides Bridge, La., April 26, 1864. According to Confed- 
erate authorities there was a skirmish here on this date between un- 
identified organizations of Banks' command and the Confederate troops 
of Bagby, Parsons, Bee and Major. Maj. -Gen. Dick Taylor reported: 
"At daylight Bagby and Parsons attacked the rear of the enemy on the 
Rapides road and drove him rapidly down the bayou. Major attacked 
his flank at James' store and Bee at McNutt's Hill. The pursuit and 
fighting continued until night in the direction of Alexandria and close 
into that place." 

Bayou Sara, La., Aug. 10, 1862. Union Gunboat Essex. Under pro- 
tection of the U. S. iron-clad gunboat Essex, a transport came to Bayou 
Sara ferry and removed a large quantity of sugar. The Essex had 
intimidated the small Confederate force in the vicinity by throwing a few 
shells into the lower part of the town. 

Bayou Sara, La., Aug. 23, 1862. The U. S. gunboat Essex and a trans- 
port arrived off Bayou Sara and the Essex threw some shells into the 
town, doing little or no damage. 

Bayou Sara, La., Nov. 9, 1863. Maj .-Gen. Maury reported that Col. 
Maury with the 15th Confederate cavalry regiment, dashed in above 
Bayou Sara on this date and drove 300 Federal foragers to their iron- 
clads, "with great slaughter. We brought ofT their wagon train and 25 
prisoners from under the broadsides of their gunboats," he concluded, 
"only 3 wounded of ours." 

Bayou Sara, La., Oct. 9-10, 1864. Col. Scott of the ist La. cavalry, 
reported to Brig.-Gen. Hodge, of the Confederate army, commanding the 
District of Southwest Mississippi and East Louisiana, that on the 9th and 
loth, between Bayou Sara and Woodville, he skirmished with Federals 
whom he drove to their boats at Bayou Sara. "In my engagements around 
Bayou Sara," he concluded, "the enemy lost 65 killed and wounded ; we 
buried 11. My loss was i man killed and 4 wounded." 

Bayou Teche, La., Nov. 3, 1862. Union gunboats. Kinsman, Estrella, 
St. Mary's, Calhoun and Diana and 21st Indiana Volunteers. Lieut.-Com. 
Buchanan, who was sent to the Atchafalaya river to act in concert with 
a land force under Gen. Weitzel, arrived off Brashear City Nov. r, too 
late to prevent a crossing of the Confederates, which he had hoped to 
intercept, and had difficulty in getting his heavy draught vessels over the 
bay. On the arrival of the Kinsman he crossed in her and grounded the 
Estrella in trying to get her over. Next day the Estrella and St. Mary's 
were got over the bay and the day after that the Calhoun came up with 
the Diana. On the night of the ist Buchanan chased the Confederate 
gunboat Cotton up the bay and captured the Confederate steamer A. B. 
Seger. On the 3d he took his gunboats up Bayou Teche and found the 
enemy posted above obstructions sunk in the bayou 14 miles from Brashear 
City. He engaged and drove him off and again repulsed the Cotton. The 
Confederates numbered between 3,000 and 4,000 men, of Gen. Taylor's 
command, with 70 field pieces. The Kinsman under the fire of the artillery 



100 The Union Army 

on shore and played upon by the guns on board the Cotton received 54 
shots. The Estrella received 3, the Diana 3, and the Calhoun 8. Loss 
3 killed, 6 wounded. 

Bayou Teche, La., Jan. 14, 1863. Gunboats Calhoun, Diana, Estrella 
and Kinsman, and land forces under General Weitzel. The object of this 
movement was the destruction of the Confederate gunboat Cotton. Gen. 
Weitzel's forces consisted of the 21st Ind., 6th Midi., 75th and i6oth X. 
Y., I2th and 23d Conn., and 8th Vt. infantry, part of the 8th N. H. cavalry, 
one company of a Louisiana cavalry regiment, and several pieces of artillery 
belonging to the ist and 5th U. S. artillery, ist Ale., and 4th and 6th 
Mass. batteries. The fleet carried Weitzel's forces over Berwick bay, 
covering both his advance and return. They were disembarked on the 13th 
and formed in line of battle at Pattersonville. Lieut.-Com. Buchanan made 
a reconnaissance and Weitzel advanced his force to Lynch's Point, where 
he bivouacked for the night under cover of the gunboats. Next morning, 
while the 8th Vt. moved to clear the east bank of Bayou Teche of rifle- 
men or other land forces that the Confederates might have stationed there, 
he advanced his line on the west bank to attack the Cotton. Sixty volun- 
teers from the 8th Vt. undertook to attack the vessel from the east bank 
and shoot down her gunners. A like number of the 75th N. Y. volunteered 
for similar service on the west bank and as soon as they were in sup- 
porting distance of the Cotton, which had now been engaged by the gun- 
boats, the volunteers and a part of the regular line of skirmishers shot 
down every one in sight on the vessel and silenced her. At the same time 
Capt. Bainbridge, with the 4th Mass. battery, was enfilading her from 
the main road, while the ist Me. and 6th Mass. batteries, under Capt. 
Carruth and Lieut. Bradbury, stationed on plantation roads parallel to 
the main road, were firing at her broadside. The 8th Vt. marched rapidly 
up the east bank, drove the Confederates from their rifle-pits and routed 
the cavalry that supported them, taking 41 prisoners. The skirmishers of 
the 75th N. Y. and Weitzel's light batteries drove back the enemy's 
artillery, with its infantry and cavalry support, on the west bank. Mean- 
time the Federal gunboats were storming the Cotton with a rapid fire. 
Under this onslaught she soon began slowly retreating, but came back 
once after getting out of range and was again repulsed. After that there 
was no fighting that day except slight skirmishing among the land forces. 
Early next morning the Cotton was swung across the channel and burned, 
her hull still further obstructing the bayou. The object of the expedition 
being accomplished, Weitzel immediately returned with his force to Fort 
Stevens. The union loss in this aflfair was i lieutenant and 5 privates 
killed, 2 non-commissioned officers and 25 privates wounded. 
Bayou Teche, La., April 12-13, 1863. (See Fort Bisland.) 
Bayou Teche, La., Oct. 3, 1863. Cavalry of Department of the Gulf. 
Maj.-Gen. N. P. Banks, commanding the Department of the Gulf, reported 
from New Orleans on Oct. 4 that "A skirmish took place yesterday be- 
tween the advanced cavalrj' on the line of the Teche, under Col. Davis, and 
about 200 of the enemy's cavalrj-. The enemy was quickly repulsed, losing 
I gun, which was captured by us, and the loss of the officer in charge of 
the gun, who was killed." 

Bayou Teche, La., March 2r, T865. Detachment of 93d U. S. Colored 
Infantry. During an expedition from Brashear City to Bayou Pigeon, 
La., a detachment of troops encountered a body of Confederates on Bayou 
Teche. The enemy, 25 or 30 in number, rode down to the bank and fired 
a number of shots at the Federals and then attempted to cross, but were 
prevented by a sharp musketry fire. No casualties were reported. 

Bayou Tensas, La., June 30. 1863. Mississippi Brigade of Infantry 
and Cavalry, commanded by Col. C. R. Ellet. 

Bayou Tensas, La., Aug. 26, 1864. 51st U. S. Colored Infantry and 
3d \J. S. Colored Cavalrj-. Early on the morning of the 26th some 200 



Cyclopedia of Battles 101 

Confederates made a raid on the plantations near Goodrich's landing on 
Bayou Tensas, capturing two scouts who were killed after they sur- 
rendered. They also killed several colored people and 4 white men. A 
detachment of cavalry was sent in pursuit, but the enemy was not over- 
taken. 

Bayou Two Prairies, Ark., Aug. 25, 1863. Steele's Little Rock Ex- 
pedition. In the Federal advance on Little Rock, Gen. Davidson's cavalry 
forces were confronted just west of Bayou Two Prairies by Marmaduke's 
and Walker's Confederate cavalry. "On the morning of the 24th," re- 
ported Marmaduke, 'T reported to Gen. Walker, who ordered Shelby's 
brigade to report to me and ordered me to hold my force in the vicinity 
of Brownsville to guard the main approach (Wire Road) to Little Rock. 
The next morning at sunrise the enemy was reported advancing in force. 
I moved my two brigades, about 1,300 effective men, with 2 pieces of 
artillery, forward to engage the enemy, Shelby being in advance. At this 
time Walker's brigade, commanded by Col. Archibald S. Dobbin, was en- 
camped some 10 miles south of Brownsville, guarding another important 
approach from Devall's Bluff to Little Rock (Shallow Ford Road). A 
sharp engagement ensued between the Federal force and my division. The 
Federals consisted of about 6,000 cavalry and 16 pieces of artillery. Being 
unable to meet the enemy's forces in a general engagement, I withdrew 
my command, retiring slowly through Brownsville toward Little Rock. 
The Yankees were exceedingly cautious in their pursuit." Only David- 
son's 1st brigade. Col. Geiger, was engaged. The pursuit covered about 
9 miles. Col. Burbridge commanding a Confederate brigade, was captured 
with other prisoners. 

Bayou Vermillion, La., April 17, 1863. 4th Division, 19th Army Corps. 
The division, with the exception of the 2nd brigade, with one brigade and 
a battery from Gen. Emory's division, the whole commanded by Brig.-- 
Gen. Grover, marched from New Iberia directly toward the Vermillion 
river in pursuit of the retreating Confederates, while the other divisions 
of the corps moved by way of Saint Martinville. About 3 p. m. Grover's 
advance came within sight of the rear of the Confederate column near 
the bridge over the Vermillion river, but lack of cavalry prevented him 
from pressing the enemy's rear hard enough to save the bridge. The 
Confederates fired it and then with dismounted cavalry and two 12- 
pounder field-pieces took up a position to dispute the Federal approach to 
the river. Skirmishers were sent out on the right and left from the ist 
brigade, Closson's and Nim's batteries were placed in the center, and a 
section of Closson's battery under Lieut. Taylor on the extreme left. The 
roads were so raked by shells and so effectually covered by the Federal 
skirmishers that the enemy soon abandoned his position, leaving only a 
few sharpshooters, who remained until nightfall. Grover's command en- 
camped that night on Vermillion river and next day rebuilt the bridge. 
Loss, I killed, 5 wounded. (See also Vermillion Bayou.) 

Bay Saint Louis, Miss., Nov. 17, 1863. 

Bay Springs, Miss., Oct. 26, 1863. (See Vincent's Cross Roads.) 

Beach Fork, Ky., Oct. 6, 1862. Gen. Wheeler's Confederate cavalry 
brigade was encamped at Springfield. About 8 a. m. his pickets were 
driven in by Federals whom he engaged with artille.ry and small arms, 
retarding their advance and frequently compelling them to deploy their 
infantry. When the Federal infantry fire was too heavy, the Confederates 
fell back slowly, making stands at the Springfield fair-grounds. Burnt 
cross-roads. Beach fork and Grassy mound, fighting so stubbornly that 
at dark their pursuers had advanced only about 4 miles. Several attempts 
on the part of the Federals to turn the enemy's flank were frustrated. 

Bealer's Ferry, Ark., June 6, i86j. 25 Men of the 8th Missouri 
Cavalry. This company in the evening skirmished with 40 of Shelby's 



102 The Union Army 

cavalry at this ferry on Little Red river, routing and pursuing the enemy 
4 miles. Federal loss, i killed, 2 wounded; Confederate, i killed, 5 
captured. 

Bealeton, Va., Oct. 26, 1863. 3d Brigade, 3d Division, 3d Army 
Corps, and 2nd Brigade, ist Division, Cavalry Corps, y\rmy of the Potomac. 
The infantry, commanded by Col. B. F. Smith, was ordered to the sup- 
port of the cavalry, which was engaged in tearing up the railroad between 
Bealeton and Rappahannock station. On the morning of the 26th the 
whole force was attacked by two brigades of infantry, a battery of artillery 
and a brigade of cavalry, the object of the Confederates being to carry 
off the iron of the torn up track. Gen. Buford came on the ground soon 
after the Federal pickets were driven in and took command. The cavalry 
did all the skirmishing, falling back slowly with the intention of drawing 
the enemy into ambush. This design was not accomplished. For several 
hours Capt. Recce's battery. Carter's battalion, fired at random in the gen- 
eral direction of the 3d brigade, injuring no one. At sunset the Confed- 
erate infantry ceased firing and disappeared. 

Bealeton, Va., Oct. 24, 1863. ist Division Cavalry Corps, Army of 
the Potomac. 

Bealeton, Va., Jan. 14, 1864. One company 9th Massachusetts Vol- 
unteers. 

Bealeton Station, Va., March 28, 1862. Detachment of Howard's and 
Meagher's Brigades. Brig.-Gen. Howard with a force consisting of 3 
regiments of infantry, 2 of cavalry and a battery, reconnoitered from camp 
near Warrenton Junction toward the Rappahannock. He drove the enemy 
across the Rappahannock bridge, which was destroyed by the Confederates 
in their retreat. Tliere was skirmishing during the march and a few shots 
were exchanged by artillery without Federal loss. After the Federal 
troops reached the river, where they camped, 2 brigades under Gen. Ewell, 
on the opposite shore, were driven off by an artillery attack. The Sth 
N. H. and 6ist N. Y. infantry. 8th 111. cavalry and Battery G, ist N. Y. 
artillery, were the only troops exposed to the enemy's fire. 

Bealeton Station, Va., March 17, 1863. ist Massachusetts Cavalry. 
Lieut.-Col. Curtis, with detachments at different points, held the roads 
from the north to Rappahannock and Kelly's fords. The guard at Bealeton 
Station was attacked by a small party of guerrillas, but drove them off. 
No casualties reported. 

Bealeton Station, Va., Oct. 22, 1863. 

Bean's Station, Tenn., Dec. 9-13, 1863. Cavalry Corps. Army of 
the Ohio. Brig.-Gen. J. M. Shackelford, commanding the corps. 
while in pursuit of Longstreet, reached Bean's station about noon 
of the 9th and found the enemy in position with artillery planted. 
As the Federals approached the Confederates hastily withdrew. Later 
in the day Lieut.-Col. Ward skirmished with the enemy on the Mor- 
ristown road and drove him across the river. For several days de- 
tachments of Shackelford's cavalry were engaged in skirmishes with 
bodies of the enemy at points in the vicinity. On the loth a part 
of a brigade took the Russellville branch and found the enemy at 
the opposite side of Moore's ferry in force too strong to be dis- 
lodged. Six miles from Bean's station there was an encounter be- 
tween a Federal cavalry company and 100 of the enemy's cavalry. 
No reports of casualties during the operations. 

Bean's Station, Tenn., Dec. 15, 1863. Shackelford's Cavalry. Gen. 
Shackelford's command engaged Lieut. -Gen. Longstreet's "Troops in 
East Tennessee." On the 12th it had been reported to Longstreet 
that Federal reiforcemcnts at Bean's station had returned to Chatta- 
nooga, whence they had come, and that the force at the station con- 
sisted of 3 cavalry brigades and i brigade of infantry, the main body 



Cyclopedia of Battles 103 

of Shackelford's command being between Rutledge and Blain's cross- 
roads. Longstreet planned a surprise for the Federals for the 14th. 
His main force was to move from Rogersville directly down to Bean's 
station with the hope of capturing the forces there; Gen. Martin, 
with 4 cavalry brigades, was to go down the south side of the Holston 
and cross the river at or below the station, while Gen. Jones with 
2 cavalry brigades, was to go down on the north side of Clinch 
mountain to cut off the Federal retreat at Bean's station gap. Heavy 
rains day and night on the 13th made marching slow. The timely 
arrival of the Confederate infantry column surprised the Federals 
completely. Jones arrived on time and captured several Federal 
wagons. Then, not understanding orders to cooperate with other 
troops, he withdrew from the gap. Not until nearly night was Mar- 
tin able to cross a part of his command, and that he soon withdrew. 
Federals stood their ground against an attack by infantry and artillery, 
but before an onslaught by Buckner's division, they fell back to build- 
ings at Bean's station, where they made a determined stand. Next 
morning they were in a new position 3 miles below the station, 
protected by rail defenses. During the day there was much planning 
and demonstrating, but little fighting. A little after nightfall the 
Federal forces retreated toward Rutledge and the enemy occupied 
the defenses. At Blain's cross-roads they made a successful stand 
against Armstrong's Confederate cavalry. 

Bean's Station, Tenn., June 14, 1864. 

Bean's Station, Tenn., Oct. 10, 1864. (See Thorn Hill, same date.) 

Bear Creek, Ala., Oct. 26, 1863. (See Cane Creek.) 

Bear Creek, Miss., June 22, 1863. 

Bear Creek, Miss,, July 12, 1863. (See Canton, same date.) 

Bear Creek, Miss., July 17, 1863. (See Canton.) 

Bear Creek, Mo., Feb. 5, 1863. 40th Missouri Enrolled Militia. 

Bear Creek, Tenn., March 3, 1863. 

Bear Creek, Tenn., Oct. 3, 1863. 

Bear Creek Station, Ga., Aug. 19, 1864. (See Lovejoy's Station, 
Kilpatrick's Raid.) 

Bear Creek Station, Ga., Nov. 16, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 3d Cavalry 
Division, Army of the Cumberland. This brigade consisted of the 
93d 111. mounted infantry, 3d Ind., 9th Mich., 5th, 9th and loth Ohio 
and McLaughlin's Ohio squadron. It marched from camp 4 miles west 
of Jonesboro at 7 a. m., took the advance at noon and encountered 
Wheeler's cavalry near Bear Creek station. The loth Ohio 
made a gallant saber charge on the Confederates who were posted 
behind rail barricades, then dismounted and drove them in confusion, 
killing and wounding many with thejr sabers and capturing 20 prison- 
ers, including 3 commissioned officerdfl Union loss, 4 killed, 7 
wounded, 4 prisoners. 

Beardstown, Tenn., Sept. 27, 1864. 

Bear Quarter Road, Va., March i, 1864. (See Ballahock.) 

Bear River, Utah Ten, Jan. 29, 1863. Detachment of California 
Troops. Col. Connor of the 3d Cal. infantry, commanding the 
District of Utah with a detachment of 220 men, in charge of a train 
of IS wagons was opposed by a band of about 300 hostile Indians, 
encamped on Bear river, in a strong position with natural defenses, 
almost inaccessible to troops and in which the Indians evidently 
believed themselves safe. They were in a dry ravine, 6 to 12 feet 
deep and 30 to 40 feet wide, with abrupt banks along which they 
had constructed steps from which they could deliver their fire across 
the level table land without exposing themselves. In addition to the 
natural embankments they had artificial covers of willows from be- 



104 The Union Army 

hind which they could fire without being observed. It was midwinter, 
bitterly cold and the snow was deep. Early in the morning Connor 
approached this place with his cavalry and reached the opposite bank 
of the river soon after daylight, in full viev/ of the encampment 
now only a mile distant. Maj. McGarry advanced with the cavalry 
and engaged the Indians, who sallied out of their hiding places both 
on foot and on horseback. With fiendish malignity they waved the 
scalps of white women and challenged the troops to battle, at the 
same time attacking. After about 20 minutes, Connor discovered that 
it was impossible to surround them and ordered McGarry to turn 
their left flank, which rested on the ravine where it entered the 
mountain. Capt. Hoyt arrived at the ford, three-fourths of a mile 
away, and found the icy water too deep and too rapid to cross in- 
fantry, though some of the soldiers plunged boldly in and tried to 
make the passage. Infantry were helped over by a detachment of 
cavalry with led horses and reinforced McGarry's flanking party, 
which soon turned the enemy's flank. The soldiers now gained the 
bluffs and advancing down them poured an enfilading fire into the 
Indian stronghold. A few Indians fled north along the ravine, but as 
they ran out of it were shot by soldiers who were in waiting for them. 
Cavalry across the mouth of the ravine cut off escape there, but most 
of the Indians remained fighting like demons hand-to-hand till they 
were killed. The soldiers found 224 bodies on the field, among them 
those of Chiefs Bear Hunter, Sagwich and Leight, captured 175 horses, 
some rifles and other arms, and destroyed large quantities of wheat 
and other provisions which Mormons had exchanged for property of 
massacred emigrants. Out of the 200 white men engaged 15 were 
killed, and 54 wounded 

Bear Skin Lake, Mo., Sept. 7, 1863. 2nd Missouri Cavalry. 

Bear Wallow, Ky., Sept. 19, 1862. Incidental to fighting between 
Federal forces and Wheeler's cavalry at Horse Cave and near by 
points there was slight skirmishing at Bear Wallow, no detailed re- 
port of which is to be found. 

Bear Wallow, Ky., Dec. 25, 1862. 2 Battalions of the 12th Ken- 
tucky Cavalry. At 5 a. m. Col. Hobson, commanding the post at 
Munfordville, ordered the two battalions under Col. Shanks, to Cave 
City and Bear Wallow with instructions to give battle and if over- 
powered to skirmish back to Woodsonville. Shanks attacked Mor- 
gan's rear-guard at Bear Wallow, while another detachment of 
Federal troops attacked his advance guard at Green's chapel. Shank's 
command killed i, wounded 2 and took 12 prisoners, with no loss. 

Beattie's Prairie, Ark., Oct. 22, 1862. (See Old Fort Wayne, same 
date.) 

Beatty's Mill, Ark., Sept. i. 1864. 3d Arkansas Cavalry. A de- 
tachment of 65 men of this regiment, under Capt. Hamilton, met 
Conley's bushwhackers, 160 strong, charged them and put them to 
flight, killing 2, wounding several and releasing a Federal surgeon 
and soldier whom they held as prisoners. Among the effects of the 
bushwhackers which fell into Hamilton's hands was a quantity of 
Spanish brown which they had procured to aid in disguising them- 
selves as Indians. 

Beaufort, S. C, April 9, 1863. Destruction of the Steamship George 
Washington. Soon after daylight the vessel, attempting to follow 
the U. S. Steamer Hale from a point off Brick Yard Point on Broad 
river, was fired on by a Confederate battery and wrecked, her maga- 
zine being destroyed and one gun dismounted. Capt. Briggs of the 
3d R. I. artillery, commanding an expedition in which she was en- 
gaged, soon learned that she was burning and ran up the white 



Cyclopedia of Battles 105 

flag to save the lives of those on board. The men got on shore and 
were there subjected to an artillery fire. Two were killed, lo badly 
wounded, 2 were missing. 

Beaver Creek, Floyd Co., Ky., June 27, 1863. 39th Kentucky Vol- 
unteers. 

Beaver Creek, Md., July 9, 1863. ist Division, Cavalry of the 
Army of the Potomac. The Confederates had been driven on the 
preceding day to a position on the north side of Beaver creek, on the 
Funkstown road. Early on the morning of the 9th the entire division 
renewed the pursuit and took up a position on the south side of the 
creek, about two and a half miles from Boonsboro. Skirmishing was 
kept up all day. About 5 o'clock in the afternoon an advance was 
ordered. The 2nd brigade, commanded by Col. Thomas C. Devin, 
on the extreme left, deployed as skirmishers, and Vincent's battery was 
placed so as to cover Devin's movements. Two squadrons of cavalry 
were dismounted and advanced and a sharp skirmish ensued, the 
Confederates concentrating their entire strength on the crest of the 
ridge north of the creek. The division line was now advanced and a 
charge made which carried the crest and started the enemy on the 
retreat. Devin's brigade and the battery pursued for about two miles, 
when darkness prevented further chase, and bivouacked on the field 
ready for the morrow. This affair is sometimes called the battle of 
Benevola. (For losses see Funkstown, Md., July 10, where the fight 
was continued.) 

Beaver Creek, Mo., Nov. 24, 1862. 3d Missouri Cavalry and 21st 
Iowa Volunteers. 

Beaver Creek, N. C, April 17, 1864. Detachment of 22 men of 
the I2th New York Cavalry. With this detachment, Capt. Horn and 
Lieut. Watkins, under general instructions to ascertain if there was 
a Confederate force at Trenton or any considerable force on the 
Kingston road, left regimental headquarters at noon on the i6th. 
On the 17th it was attacked by Confederate infantry and cavalry in 
considerable force and fought until completely surrounded. However, 
all of the detachment but 4 returned to camp, a wounded sergeant 
being the only casualty reported. 

Beaver Dam Church, Va., Dec. i, 1862. 

Beaver Dam Creek, Va., June 26, 1862. The action at Beaver Dam ' 
creek on this date was the second of the Seven Days' battles. It is 
officially reported as Mechanicsville. (See Seven Days' Battles.) 

Beaver Dam Lake, Miss., May 23, 1863. Mississippi Marine Bri- 
gade of Cavalry and Infantry. 

Beaver Dam Station, Va., Feb. 29, 1864. ist Brigade, 3d Division, 
Cavalry Corps. The brigade consisting of the 3d and Sth N. Y. and 
i8th Penn., under the command of Brig.-Gen. Davies, moved forward 
through Mount Pleasant, New Market and Chilesburg to the North 
Anna river, crossed at Anderson's ford and reached Beaver Dam Sta- 
tion between 3 and 4 p. m. Here the railroad depot, water tanks, 
storehouse, switches, turnouts and track were destroyed, the telegraph 
wires cut, the poles razed for a considerable distance, and an unsuccessful 
attempt was made to capture an approaching train which backed 
off before the cavalry could get to it. A slight 'skirmish between 
Davies' advance guard and about 25 of the enemy resulted in the 
rout of the latter after the first volley. 

Beaver Dam Station, Va., May 9, 1864. ist Brigade, ist Cavalry 
Division, Army of the Potomac. At daylight on this date Gen. 
Sheridan's cavalry was detached from the army for the purpose of 
opening up communications with Gen. Butler on the James river. 
Just before reaching the North Anna river the advance guard reported 



106 The Union Army 

a Confederate ambulance train to be in sight, and that it was moving 
toward Beaver Dam Station on the Virginia Central railroad. Brig.- 
Gen. George A. Custer, commanding the ist brigade, ist division, 
sent forward Maj. Brewer with the ist Mich., to capture the train, 
after which he was to push on to Beaver Dam Station, the remainder 
of the brigade following closely in support. Before reaching the 
station Brewer encountered a force of the enemy, conducting to 
Richmond about 400 Union prisoners, who had been captured in the 
battle of the Wilderness. Without waiting for the rest of the brigade 
to come up he charged, recaptured all the Federal prisoners and a 
number of the enemy, and put the rest to flight. At the station the 
brigade captured 2 locomotives, 3 trains of cars loaded with supplies 
for the Confederate army, 90 wagons, a large number of hospital 
tents and several hundred stand of arms. After supplying the men 
with all the provisions they could carry, Custer ordered the remainder, 
' amounting to about 1,500,000 rations, to be destroyed, as were also 
the wagons, 100 cars, the railroad station, 8 miles of track and tele- 
graph wire, and nearly all the medical stores of Lee's army which 
had been recently moved from Orange Court House. 

Beaver Dam Station, Va., March 13, 1865. 8th New York Cavalry. 
As the regiment under Maj. Compson was marching from Frederick's 
Hall Station to Beaver Dam it encountered and repulsed 300 Confed- 
erates under Col. Morgan. At Beaver Dam Station it destroyed the 
railroad track, a mile of telegraph, 3 water tanks, 3 force-pumps, 
a steam sawmill, 100,000 feet of sawed bridge timber and 400 cords of 
wood. 

Beaver Dam Swamp, Va., June 26, 1862. For an account of this 
action see Seven Days' Battles, particularly that portion relating to 
the battle of Mechanicsville. 

Beaver Pond Creek, Va., April 4, 1865. (See Tabernacle Church.) 
Beckwith's Farm, Mo., Oct. 14, 1861. (See Bird's Point.) 
Bee Creek, Mo., May 2, 1864. 8th Missouri State Militia Cavalry. 
A detachment of 40 men, under Lieut. McElhanon, while scouting, 
crossed the White river at Forsyth and went down to near the mouth 
of Bee creek, where they surprised and killed 3 guerrillas, captured 
their horses and destroyed their camp. A little further on they dis- 
persed a larger party of guerrillas without bloodshed. 

Beech Creek, S. C, April 19, 1865. Provisional Division, District 
of Beaufort. The operations of Gen. Potter's command, the ist bri- 
gade, had for their object the destruction of locomotives and rolling 
stock on the railroad between Sumterville and Camden, S. C. On 
the 19th, the 107th Ohio infantry was ordered to march along the 
railroad, destroy all bridges, culverts and rolling stock and make the 
track impassable. The remainder of the brigade resumed the march, 
but when it had advanced a short distance it was confronted by the 
enemy in line on both sides of the road. The 157th N. Y. was de- 
ployed across the road and advanced until it was met by the fire 
of the enemy's artillery. Then the 25th Ohio was deployed on the 
right and in support of the skirmishers and the whole force moved 
forward, driving the Confederates to Rafting creek, where they 
made a stand from which it was found impossible to dislodge them 
without heavy loss. The brigade halted and the skirmishers kept up 
a desultory fire until the enemy was driven by a flanking party of the 
2nd brigade. The ist then crossed Big and Little Rafting' creeks 
and halted for rest and dinner. In the afternoon the 157th N. Y. 
was placed in line of battle on the right of the road, the 25th Ohio 
on the left, and they advanced with a strong skirmish line, meeting 
no serious opposition until they reached Beech creek, near States- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 107 

burg, where the enemy was encountered in force, but was routed 
by the determined action of the 2 regiments. The brigade encamped 
on Swighton's plantation. Loss during the day, 5 men wounded. 

Beech Creek, Ya., Aug. 6, 1862. 4th Va. Volunteers. A detach- 
ment of this regiment had a brief engagement with Straton and 
Witcher's Confederate cavalry companies and Beckley's and Cham- 
bers' gangs of bushwhackers. The major of the 4th Va. fell pierced 
by 4 balls, Straton was mortally and Witcher dangerously wounded, 
and a few were killed. 

Beech Fork, W. Va., Sept 8, 1863. 

Beersheba, Tenn., Oct. 3, 1863. 

Beersheeba Springs, Tenn., Nov. 26, 1863. Alabama and Tennessee 
Scouts. 

Beersheba Springs, Tenn., March 18, 1864. 5th Tennessee Cavalry. 
A detachment of 200 men of this regiment attacked the camp of Col. 
Hughes, 25th Tenn. (Confederate) infantry, at the foot of the Cum- 
berland mountains, 2 miles from Beersheba Springs, killing 7, rout- 
ing the remainder of the Confederate force, and capturing some 
property including Hughes' portfolio of private papers and some 
Federal clothing. 

Belcher's Mills, Va., Sept 17, 1864. Kautz's Cavalry of the Army 
of the James and 2nd Cavalry Division Army of the Potomac. 

Belfield, Va., Dec. 9, 1864. Part of 2nd and 5th Army Corps, and 
Gregg's Cavalry, with 4 batteries of Artillery. This body of troops, 
commanded by Maj.-Gen. Warren, was sent by Gen. Meade to destroy 
the Weldon railroad and interrupt the enemy's communications. 
Warren formed his command in line of battle on the railroad, and 
each division tore up all the track in its front, then moved to the 
left, until the road had been wrecked to within about 16 miles of 
Belfield. Confederates hastened cavalry, attended by 3 batteries, to 
arrest these operations and an infantry column attended by 4 bat- 
teries followed. Gen. Gregg cleared the enemy out of the way 
southward and picketed the country north and east, while Gen. Griffin, 
with his division, took charge of the train. At Three Creeks Gregg 
met the enemy in force, with artillery, found the wagon bridge de- 
stroyed and the railroad bridge on fire. He drove back the enemy, 
saved the railroad bridge, dismounted some of his men and crossed 
over. He then lowered the water in the river bed by opening the 
gates in a dam. crossed the rest of his force by fording and by means 
of pontoons. By 4 p. m. he had driven the enemy across the Meherrin 
river and was in possession of Belfield. The railroad bridge, 60 feet 
long, over a branch of Three Creeks and the one 100 feet long, over 
the main stream, were burned. The destruction of the bridge across 
the Meherrin could not be accomplished without first gaining the 
other shore, and there the enemy had 3 forts or batteries connected 
by rifle-pits, armed with artillery and manned in considerable force. 
Warren having accomplished his work, withdrew his forces toward 
Sussex Court House. A cavalry brigade under Gen. Irwin Gregg 
went ahead to clear the way and watch the side roads. Griffin guarded 
the train, Mott's and Ayers' divisions followed in the order mentioned 
and Crawford's brought up the rear. Confederate cavalry and artil- 
lery followed Gregg to the point where the main column left the 
Halifax road and then followed the main column, but were held in 
check by Crawford. Gregg protected the left flank of the infantry 
column up the Halifax road, but was harassed by cavalry and artillery 
which he forced back without loss. The head of the column reached 
Sussex Court House at dark and the command bivouacked along the 
route. 



208 '^he Union Army 

Belington, W. Va., July 18, 18G1. Maj.-Gcn. McClellan had directed 
a movement 'in force up the Great Kanawha and other movements 
of troops covering nearly all of West Virginia. Incidental to this 
general advance, Brig.-Gen. Morris of the Indiana militia, with nearly 
4000 troops, charged with the defense of Philippi, was ordered to 
advance on the morning of the 7th to Elliott's farm, leaving his train 
at Philippi, to occupy Belington by a strong advance guard, and to 
cover the paths leading from the Confederate camp to his own left 
flank. He was further ordered to make extended reconnaissances calcu- 
lated to convey the impression that the main attack would be made 
by him. McClellan proposed sending a strong advance guard forward 
from Buckhannon, on the 7th, to occupy the Middle Fork bridge on 
the 8th and to occupy Beverly on the 8th or 9th, thus cuttmg off the 
enemy effectually. Morris occupied Elliott farm, his advanced po- 
sition being behind Belington some 200 yards. The cleared ground 
extended about that distance beyond Belington, to a body of timber 
occupied by the enemy in large force. Morris' advance consisted 
of the 14th Ohio, 7th and 9th Ind. infantry and Barnett's artillery. 
Skirmishing began immediately after its arrival. On the 8th the 
enemy appeared in such force that Morris threw several shells into 
the woods and attempted to establish a picket line there, but was re- 
pulsed with a loss of 2 killed and 3 wounded. This action is also 
known as Laurel Hill. 

Belle Prairie, La., May 16, 1864. (See Mansura, same date.) 

Bailer's Mills, Va., Sept. 2, 1861. 13th Massachusetts Infantry. 

Belle St. Louis, Attack on, Oct. 27, 1864. (See Fort Randolph, 
Tenn.) 

Bell Mines, Ky., July 13, 1864. 

Bell Spring, Gal., June 4, 1861. 14 men of the 7th U. S. Infantry. 
At daylight this party came upon some Indians on Eel River, nearly 
opposite Bell Spring, attacked them, killed 16 and wounded i. Among 
the number killed were three squaws, but owing to the hour of the 
attack it was impossible for the soldiers to distinguish these from 
the braves. 

Belmont, Miss., June 18, 1863. 3d Michigan Cavalry. In con- 
nection with the military operations in Northeastern Mississippi, the 
3d Mich, cavalry on this date came upon an outpost of the enemy 
at Belmont. A charge was ordered and 6 of the enemy captured, the 
others scattering in confusion. The regiment camped that night at 
Belmont. 

Belmont, Mc, Sept. 26, 1861. (See Hunter's Farm.) 

Belmont, Mo., Nov. 7, 1861. McClernand's and Dougherty's Bri- 
gades, District of Southeast Missouri. Columbus, Ky., across the 
Mississippi river from Belmont, was occupied by Confederate Gen. 
Polk with 21 regiments of infantry, 8 field batteries, a battery 
of siege guns, 2 battalions and 6 unattached companies of cavalry, 
all in three divisions, commanded by Gens. Pillow, Cheatham and 
Bowen. The latter was at Camp Beauregard, 15 miles distant. The 
13th Ark. (Col. Tappan) Beltzhoover's La. battery of 6 guns and two 
troops of Miss, cavalry under Col. Miller, had been stationed at 
Belmont, a hamlet of 3 houses. Grant had sent Col. Oglesby in pur- 
suit of Jeff. Thompson, with subsequent orders to change his course 
and march toward New Madrid, halting to communicate with Grant 
at Belmont from the nearest point on the road; and he had sent a 
small force under Col. W. H. L. Wallace, 8th 111., to Charleston. Mo., 
to ultimately join Oglesby. On tlie evening of the 6th Grant left 
Cairo in steamers with McClernand's and Dougherty's brigades to 
make a demonstration against Columbus. Early on the morning of 



Cyclopedia of Battles 109 

the 7th he was informed by Col. Wallace that the enemy had, the 
day before, crossed troops from Columbus to Belmont, with a view 
to cutting off Oglesby. To save the troops under Oglesby and Wal- 
lace and prevent the reinforcement of Gen. Price, Grant changed 
his immediate purpose, and, instead of making a demonstration on 
Columbus, attacked Belmont with great vigor, knowing that should 
he be repulsed he could easily reembark his troops under protection 
of the gunboats. He disembarked his troops (3,114 men) on the Mis- 
souri shore, just out of range of the Confederate batteries at Colum- 
bus, marched beyond some cornlields in front of the landing and 
awaited the moment for advance. It was now about 8:30 a. m. 
The cavalry scoured the woods along the road to Belmont and re- 
ported frequently to Gen. McClernand. Polk was advised of the land- 
ing of the forces under Grant and ordered Pillow to cross the river 
with the I2th and 22nd Tenn. He was soon reinforced by the 2nd 
and 15th Tenn., which with Tappan's regiment, Beltzhoover's battery 
and two cavalry companies, gave Pillow a force slightly greater than 
that of Grant. The remainder of McClernand's command followed 
his cavalry, the 27th III. in front; the 30th 111. next, supported by a 
section of Taylor's battery; the 31st 111. and the remainder of Taylor's 
battery next; then the 7th la. and the 22nd 111. When the rear of 
the column had reached a road a mile and a half from the abatis 
surrounding Tappan's camp, the line of battle was formed on ground 
which McClernand had previously selected. The 27th and 30th 
111. constituted the right wing; a section of Taylor's battery was 
placed on the left of the 30th and 200 feet in the rear of the line; 
the 31st 111. constituted the center; the 7th la. and the 22nd 111. the 
left wing, masking two sections of artillery. To the right and in ad- 
vance of the Federal line, DoUins' cavalry early skirmished with the 
enemy's pickets. The heavy fire of the Confederate batteries at Co- 
lumbus, which had been directed upon the Federal gunboats, was now 
turned almost harmlessly upon Grant's advancing line. Two com- 
panies of each regiment of both McClernand's and Dougherty's 
brigades were advanced to develop the enemy's position. The 
skirmishers of the 30th and 31st 111. soon became sharply engaged 
and troops were sent forward to their support. McClernand chose a 
new position and ordered an advance of the remainder of his command. 
In his front lay a depression parallel to the river, the bed of a chain 
of sloughs. Most of these sloughs were dry, but the 27th 111., the 
right of the front line, had to make a detour to pass around a slough 
that contained much water and thus made an opening in the line 
that Dougherty's brigade advanced and filled. Thus the attack was 
made in a single line. Pillow's line of battle was on open ground 
behind the timber. The troops of both armies were undisciplined and 
new to the battlefield and the engagement was in the simplest form, 
that of two forces of about equal numerical strength facing each 
other in parallel lines. The 30th and 31st 111. and the artillery ad- 
vanced promptly, relieved the skirmishers and were soon fighting a 
heavy force of Confederate infantry and cavalry. The combat was 
fierce and obstinate and in half an hour the Federal ranks fell into 
temporary disorder, but the men were rallied and pressed the enemy 
back, the Confederate cavalry leaving this part of the field and not 
reappearing until later when Dollins attacked it on the river bank 
and drove it out of sight. After advancing a quarter of a mile fur- 
ther the line came up with the enemy, reinforced by three infantry 
regiments and a company of cavalry and again ready to fight. An 
attempt to turn the Federal left flank was frustrated by the extension 
of the line by a flank movement of Logan's regiment, the place of 



110 The Union Army 

which in the line was filled by a section of Taylor's battery. Now a 
deadly lire from both infantry and artillery assailed the Confederates. 
They put up a desperate resistance, but were a third time driven 
back and forced to seek cover in the woods under the protection 
of the heavy guns at Columbus. Meanwhile, the 27th 111. skillfully 
guided by Col. Buford, approached the abatis on the right and rear of 
Tappan's tents and began a terrific attack on his camp in which 
the 7th la. and 22nd 111. soon joined. A combined movement was 
made upon three sides of the enemy's defenses; he was driven 
across them and followed into the clear space round his camp and 
soon the entire Federal force was within the enclosure. Taylor and 
Schwartz now brought their battery up to within 300 yards of the 
camp and open fire, driving the enemy out of the tents to the shel- 
ter of buildings near the river and into the woods above the camp, 
under protection of the artillery at Columbus. 

The Federal lines on the right and left pressed up to the line 
of fire of the battery, which now became silent, and then the bluecoats 
rushed among the tents and chased the fleeing Confederates to their 
hiding places by the river. The Confederate flag was hauled down; 
the United States flag was run up ; under the fire of the Confederate 
guns across the river the Federals destroyed the captured camp, after 
which the order was given to retire to the landing. ]\Ieantime the 
enemy had been reinforced by seven regiments and now interposed 
a line of battle between the Federals and their transports. But 
Grant's men, who had fought their way in, were able to fight their 
way out. Taylor reversed his guns and opened fire on the enemy 
in his new position. Col. Logan ordered his flag in front of his 
regiment, which moved toward the enemy followed by the whole force 
except Dollins' cavalry and the 27th 111., which had set out to return 
by the route over which they had come. On passing ino the wood 
the 30th and 22nd 111. and 7th la. encountered a heavy fire on their 
right and left successively, which threw the 7th and 22nd into tem- 
porary disorder, but they were soon rallied and the fire was so vigor- 
ously and effectively returned as to drive back the superior force 
of the enemy and silence his firing. Forcing the Confederates back 
on either side, the Federals moved on toward the transports, oc- 
casionally exchanging shots with straggling parties of the enemy. 
At this stage of the contest, as admitted by Confederate officers, 
reinforcements had given the enemy more than 13 regiments 
of infantry and about 2 squadrons of cavalry, exclusive of his 
artillery. Four of his guns were in Federal possession; 2 were 
brought off the field and 2 were spiked and, with a part of a Federal 
caisson, left on the field for lack of horses. At the landing, McCler- 
and noted the absence of the 27th 111., Dollins' cavalry and of detach- 
ments of the 7th la. and 22nd 111., which had been left to guard the 
boats, and ordered Delano's cavalry to the rear to watch the enemy. 
Within an hour all the troops which had arrived had embarked. 
Soon afterward the enemy in strong force came within range of 
the Federal musketry, and a terrible fire was opened upon him by 
the gunboats, Taylor's battery and the infantry on the decks of 
the transports. In this closing scene of the 6-hours' battle many 
Confederates were killed and wounded. The 27th 111. and Dollins' 
cavalry arrived after the fleet was in motion, but arrangements for 
their embarkation had been made. During the engagement the gun- 
boats Tyler and Lexington several times took part. Losses: Federal, 
80 killed, 322 wounded; Confederate. 105 killed, 419 wounded. 

Belmont, Tenn., March 29-30, 1863. 6th Illinois Cavalry. A de- 
tachment of 250 men under Col. Loomis, started at noon on the 28th 



Cyclopedia of Battles 111 

in pursuit of some guerrillas, who had that morning temporarily cap- 
tured a train on the Memphis & Charleston railroad, between Lafay- 
ette and Moscow. Understanding that the 7th 111. cavalry would 
follow the marauders' trail from the scene of the railroad incident, 
Loomis went to Summerville, where he killed i and captured some 
15 soldiers and suspicious persons. He camped that night 5 miles 
further on the Memphis road. About 50 of his men, some of them 
sick and fatigued, returned to camp with the prisoners. Learning 
that the prisoners captured from the train the night before had 
passed through Oakland, Loomis with the remainder of his com- 
mand, pursued the guerrillas through that place and north to Murray's 
bridge, on the Loosahatchie, where he found 15 Confederates of Col. 
Richardson's command, trying to destroy the bridge. He charged 
on them and drove them off before they had done any damage and 
after chasing them 5 miles captured 7 of them. About 2 miles further 
in the direction of Richardson's camp, he came upon a large part of 
Richardson's command, drawn up in line of battle; but upon the 
approach of the Union advance guard the Confederates fled. After 
a tiresome pursuit Loomis captured Capt. Burrow and several men 
and wounded others. He then destroyed the buildings and everything 
of value at Richardson's camp. Still hoping for the appearance of 
the 7th 111., Loomis camped that night 2 miles southeast of Belmont, 
where at midnight he was surprised by Richardson with 400 to 600 
of his men. The Confederates dismounted, approached through a 
ravine and poured a murderous fire upon the sleeping Federals at 
close range, but within 5 minutes Loomis repulsed them with heavy 
loss. Richardson was wounded, his major was wounded and captured, 
his adjutant and several other officers were killed, wounded or cap- 
tured. Federal loss, i officer and 12 men killed, 4 officers and 34 men 
wounded, i man missing. 

Belmont, Va., Jan. 29, 1862. (See Lee's House, same date.) 
Bend of Chucky Road, Tenn., Jan. 16, 1864. (See Dandridge, same 
date.) 

Benevola, Md., July 9, 1863. (See Beaver Creek.) 
Bennett's Bayou, Mo., Aug. 23, 1863. Enrolled Missouri Militia. 
Col. Sheppard with a detachment of the 6th provisional regiment, 
Scouted along Bennett's bayou from its headwaters to its mouth, send- 
ing a detachment under Lieut. Faught to meet him at the mouth of 
the bayou. On the march Sheppard captured 8 Confederates, killed 
5, wounded 2 and captured some horses. Faught's scout killed a 
Confederate lieutenant and Federal pickets captured a member of 
the Missouri legislature of 1860-61. The Confederates having moved 
south from the bayou, Sheppard advanced toward Big North fork 
and soon engaged Vanzoot's band, killing 2 of its men and capturing 
its outfit. Union loss on the expedition, 2 wounded. 

Bennett's Bayou, Ark., March 2, 1864. 6th Missouri State Militia 
Cavalry. Under orders from Brig.-Gen. Sanborn, commanding the 
District of Southwest Missouri, Capt. Eli Hughes, with about 100 men 
of this regiment, reconnoitered and operated against guerrillas in 
Arkansas. On March i he sent a detachment under. Lieut. Overman, 
of Company H, down an affluent of the White river; with 40 men 
under his personal command Hughes encountered a band of guer- 
rillas not far from Buffalo City, killed an alleged desperado named 
Cain, and Lieut. Smith of the 8th Mo. (Confederate) infantry. About 
the same time and not far distant Overman met and defeated a de- 
tachment of Tracy's Confederate cavalry, killing 2 men, one of 
whom was a Baptist preacher. On the morning of the 2nd, Hughes 
crossed the mountain to Bennett's baj'ou on the north fork of 



112 The Union Army 

White river and there engaged about 50 Confederates under Tracy's 
immediate command. Tracy dispersed his men among the bluffs 
and for some time they kept up an ineffectual fire on the Federals 
from behind rocks and trees. 

Benn's Church, Va., Jan. 29-Feb. i, 1864. (See Isle of Wight 
County.) 

Bennight's Mills, Mo., Sept. i, 1861. Missouri Home Guards. 

Benson's Bridge, Ky., June 10, 1864. Kentucky State Guards. 
Some of Morgan's men in a stockade near Benson's bridge were 
attacked and routed by detachments of militia and the ist Ky. scouts, 
of the state guard, under Lieut. -Col. Craig. Loss, i wounded, 3 
missing. 

Bent Creek, Tenn., March 14, 1864. 

Benton, Ala., April 10, 1865. 2nd Indiana Cavalry. A battalion 
of the regiment participated in Wilson's raid in Alabama and Georgia. 
Under command of Capt. Hill it left Selma on the 9th, crossed the 
Alabama river, and on the loth moved out on the Montgomery road. 
Near Benton, a charge was made down the road after a body of 
Confederates, but the pursuers lost the way and many of them plunged 
into a swampy creek, in which Capt. Goulding was drowned. 

Benton, Ark., Dec. i, 1863. 3d Iowa and ist Missouri Cavalry. 
At 3 a. m. Col. Bussey of the 3d la. sent a patrol of 40 men under 
Lieut. Mills of the ist Mo. cavalry to scout 25 miles out on the 
Hot Springs road. While returning the detachment was attacked 
by 400 Confederates and came near being captured in a body. Two 
men were killed and 2 were wounded, but got into camp. 

Benton, Ark., July 6, 1864. 

Benton, Ark., July 25, 1864. 3d Missouri Cavalry. A scouting 
party from this regiment under Capt. Ing, charged into_ Benton and 
killed Brig.-Gen. Holt of the Arkansas (Confederate) militia. 

Benton, Ark., Aug. 18, 1864. Troops of 3d Brigade, ist Division, 
7th Army Corps. Capt. Kehoe, with the detachment, arrived at 
Benton at 4:30 p. m., and his command was fired on by a body of 
about 100 Confederates, which immediately retreated across the 
Saline river. No casualties reported. 

Benton, Miss, May 7, 1864. Mcx^rthur's Yazoo Expedition. In- 
cidental to this movement a march was made via Hebron and Mechan- 
icsburg to Benton, where the Confederates made a stand and resisted 
the efforts of the Federal cavalry to dislodge them until the arrival 
of the infantry. The ist brigade, consisting of the 46th and 76th 111., 
under Col. Dornblaser, came up and formed in a field east of the 
town in the rear of the 124 111. infantry under Col. Coats. After a 
brief but spirited skirmish the Confederates retreated north from 
Benton, closely followed for 6 miles. 

Benton County, Ark., Oct. 20, 1864. ist Arkansas Cavalry. As 
an incident of Price's Missouri expedition. Col. Harrison, commanding 
this regiment, was passing with a train from Cassville. Mo., through 
Benton county. His force, consisting of 170 men, met and attacked 
600 Confederates under Buck Brown, who were awaiting an encounter. 
After more than two hours' fighting the enemy was routed with con- 
siderable loss. 

Benton Road. Ark., March 23-24, 1864. (See Camden, Ark., Ex- 
pedition to.) 

Benton Road, Ark., July 19, 1864. 3d Missouri Cavalry. While 
the regiment was stationed near Little Rock, Lieut.-Col. Black had 
patrols posted on the Benton road about 4 miles from his camp. These 
were fired on by Confederates from an ambush and i was killed and 2 
wounded. Black sent out a reconnoitering party, but no enemy v/as 
found. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 113 

Benton Road, Ark,, Jan. 22, 1865. Troops of the 2nd Brigade, 
Cavalry Division, 7th Army Corps. Capt. Hawley, field officer of the 
day, reported that he went out from Little Rock and learned that the 
patrol on the Benton road, consisting of 15 men and an officer, had 
been fired on from ambush by a party of some 25 or 30 Confederates. 
The affair occurred within a mile and a half of the picket post. The 
patrol lost 7 men in killed, wounded and missing. 

Benton's Cross-Roads, N. C, March 18, 1865. 4th Brigade, 3d 
Cavalry Division, 20th Army Corps. In the campaign of the Caro- 
linas this brigade, which was in advance, approached Benton's cross- 
roads, skirmished with the enemy's pickets and drove them in. About 
noon, after crossing a bad swamp, it met the enemy in considerable 
force posted behind barricades. The brigade was composed of three 
regiments designated as the ist, 2nd and 3d, Col. Way commanding. 
Way ordered the 2nd regiment to deploy as skirmishers, then formed 
the remainder of his command in line of battle and advanced. He 
soon learned that the enemy was moving in force on his right and 
rear and by changing front, moved to meet him. The enemy charged, 
striking the 3d brigade which was partly across the swamp. Way 
swung his command around to the left and with a raking fire across 
the enemy's left flank drove him off. There was no Federal loss. 

Benton's Ferry, La,, July 25, 1864. (See Amite River.) 

Bentonville, Ark, Feb. 18, 1862. Brig.-Gen. Alexander Asboth, 
with a detachment of cavalry and 2 pieces of artillery, while on 
a reconnoitering expedition, came in contact with a small force of 
Confederate pickets 4 milbs from the town. After a short skirmish, 
in which the enemy lost several horses and all their saddles and 
bridles, the Union force marched into Bentonville at 20 minutes 
past 12 o'clock to find it deserted. But a few hours before it had 
been occupied by a portion of Col. Rector's regiment of Arkansas 
infantry, which fled at Asboth's approach. Within an hour or so 
60 men were captured hiding in the bushes near the town. In their 
flight the Confederates left a large amount of provisions, arms, ac- 
coutrements, clothing, etc., and 36 horses. No loss on either side. 

Bentonville, Ark,, Aug. 15, Sept. 4-5, 1863. 

Bentonville, Ark., Jan. i, 1865. 

Bentonville, Mo,, May 22, 1863. 2nd Kansas Cavalry. The regi- 
ment, commanded by Col. W. F. Cloud, left Cassville the day before 
and early on the morning of the 22nd surprised a small force of Con- 
federates at Bentonville and defeated them, taking 14 prisoners, re- 
capturing 3 Union men who had been captured a few days before, 
and killing i of the enemy. No Federal loss reported. 

Bentonville, N. C, March 19-21, 1865. 14th and 20th Corps, left 
wing; 15th and 17th Corps, right wing; and Cavalry Division, Sher- 
man's Army. After the fight at Averasboro on the i6th the army 
pushed forward in the direction of Goldsboro, Sherman's object be- 
ing to form a union with Gens. Schofield and Terry, who were then 
on their way from New Berne and Wilmington. On the morning of 
the 19th the 14th corps was on Mill creek, about 8 miles from 
Bentonville, the 20th corps being about 5 miles further to the rear. 
Howard, with four divisions of the right wing in Tight marching 
order, was further to the south on roads running parallel to the 
general line of march. Kilpatrick, with his cavalry, who had pursued 
Hardee in his retreat northward from Averasboro, was still in the 
rear and slightly to the left of the 20th corps. Johnston, the Con- 
federate commander, was in telegraphic communication with the 
different divisions of his army and knew better than Sherman what 
progress Schofield and Terry were making. He also understood 
Vol. V— 8 



114 The Union Army 

that the movement of Sherman toward Raleigh was merely a feint 
and had massed his forces at Bentonville, determined to strike a 
blow at Sherman before Schofield and Terry could arrive. When 
the march began on the morning of the 19th Carlin's division, being 
the advance column, found itself confronted by a division of Confed- 
erate cavalry, supported by a few pieces of artillery, under Gen. 
Dibrell. A little later it was discovered that the entire Confederate 
army, numbering 40,000 men, was in front. As soon as Gen. Slocum 
found this out he took a defensive position and communicated with 
the commanding general. Meantime Robinson's brigade of the 20th 
corps had reached the field and Kilpatrick, hearing the sound of the 
cannonading, hurried to the assistance of Slocum, massing his forces 
on left of the line, which was made up of two divisions of the 14th 
corps under Gen. Davis and two divisions of the 20th under Gen. 
Williams. Thus arranged, his line, protected by such barricades as 
could be hastily constructed, withstood six attacks by the combined 
forces of Hoke, Hardee and Cheatham, directed by Johnston him- 
self, the enemy each time being repulsed with considerable loss. 
Owing to bad roads Howard could not bring up the right wing in 
time to be of any assistance. Late in the evening Slocum sent a mes- 
senger to Sherman, who was with Howard, apprising him of the 
gravity of the situation. This message was received at 2 o'clock on 
the morning of the 20th and Sherman ordered Logan to send Hazen's 
division to Slocum's relief by the shortest possible route. Hazen 
reached the scene of action at dawn and during the morning two 
more divisions, guarding the wagon train, also arrived. The morning 
of the 20th found the whole situation changed, for during the night 
Johnston had moved swiftly from his position, intending a flank 
movement but was disappointed when he discovered that Slocum 
had received reinforcements. He then took up a position with Mill 
creek in his rear and his left covered by a swamp. By 4 p. m. How- 
ard's whole force had joined Slocum, forming a complete line of 
battle in front of the Confederate position, and Johnston, instead of 
making his flank movement a success, was compelled to act upon the 
defensive. But little fighting was done on the 20th, except by skir- 
mishers and artillery. On the morning of the 21st Gen. Mower, 
who was on the extreme right, succeeded in finding a way through 
the swamp in the endeavor to reach Mill creek bridge and cut of! 
Johnston's retreat. To protect this movement Sherman ordered 
a general attack by the skirmish line to draw the enemy's attention. 
Mower was discovered, however, and repulsed by the reserves, but 
succeeded in regaining connection with his own corps without 
serious loss. That night Johnston retreated on Smithfield, leaving 
his dead upon the field, 100 of whom were buried by Howard the 
next day. The enemy was pursued for a few miles beyond Mill 
creek but was stopped by Sherman's order. The Federal loss was 
194 killed, 1,112 wounded and 221 missing. Johnston reported his 
wounded as being 1,467 and 876 as killed and missing, but as a 
matter of fact 267 dead and 1.625 prisoners fell into Sherman's hands. 

Bent's Old Fork, Texas, Nov. 24, 1864. ist California Cavalry. 

Berlin, Md., Sept. 18-29, 1861. 

Berlin, Md., Sept. 4-5, 1862. 

Berlin, Ohio, July 17, 1863. Ohio Militia. In the raid of Morgan 
through the states north of the Ohio river, Col. Ben. P. Runkle 
with some of the state militia was attacked by superior numbers at 
Berlin, but the enemy was repulsed with a loss of 2 killed, and it 
'vas thought several were wounded. The Confederates were rein- 
forced by a large detachment of cavalry and several pieces of artil- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 115 

lery and renewed the attack, finally forcing Runkle to retire from 
the town. The engagement detained Morgan for over 3 hours and 
in the second assault 4 more of the enemy were killed. The guer- 
rillas then burned the furnaces and moved toward Pomeroy, Runkle 
joining in the pursuit. No Union casualties were reported. 

Bermuda Hundred, Va., May 16-30, 1864. loth and i8th Corps, 
Army of the James. Throughout the month of May there was more 
or less fighting in the vicinity. About 4 o'clock on the morning of 
the i6th the Confederates attacked the rifle-pits, about 400 yards 
from their works, occupied by the 3d N. H. and 7th Conn., but were 
driven back. The line of rifle-pits was then reinforced by Col. 
Henry with the 40th Mass. Later in the day the enemy attacked 
in force and the Union lines were driven back with a loss of 13 
killed, 17 wounded and 74 missing. On the 26th, while reconnoiter- 
ing with his brigade, Col. A. H. Button was mortally wounded 
and died on June 5. 

Bermuda Hundred, Va., June 2, 1864. loth Corps, Army of the 
James. Cannonading was begun by the Confederates on the morn- 
ing of the 1st and kept up the greater part of the day. Early on the 
morning of the 2nd the picket-lines, consisting of the nth Me., 39th 
111. and 7th Conn., were attacked and driven back, the enemy oc- 
cupying the rifle-pits in which the pickets had been intrenched. 
Simultaneously the redoubt Button, occupied by a portion of the 
1st Conn, artillery, was attacked, but the enemy was driven back 
by a shower of canister with heavy loss. Col. Bantzler of the 22nd 
S. C. was among the killed, and 23 surrendered rather than attempt 
to retreat under such a fire. The defeated pickets were reinforced 
by the 3d N. H., under Lieut.-Col. J. I. Plimpton, and the rifle-pits 
were retaken. Union loss: 10 killed. 72 wounded and no captured and 
missing. The Confederate loss is not clearly known. 

Bermuda Hundred, Va., June 16, 1864. ist Brigade, 2nd Bivision, 
loth Corps, Army of the James. The operations of this date centered 
about Ware Bottom church. Col. J. B. Howell of the 85th Penn., 
commanding the ist brigade, consisting of the 39th 111., 67th Ohio, 
133d Ohio volunteer national guard, and his own regiment, moved 
to the front in pursuance of orders from Gen. R. S. Foster command- 
ing the division. Near the Clay house he was joined by Lieut. James 
Gillen with the 5th N. J. battery. The artillery opened fire on the 
enemy's intrenchments, drove him out and took possession of a 
line of rifle-pits which were held under a lively fire until about 4 
p. m., when Foster ordered the men to fall back to the 
church. There the enemy attacked about sunset but accomplished 
nothing. The losses of the day were slight. About 80 Confederates 
were captured. 

On the same date the 3d N. H. moved out on the left of Howell's 
brigade and engaged the enemy in a skirmish, losing 6 killed, 32 
wounded and i missing. The 7th N. H. and the 3d brigade of the 
1st division, consisting of the 24th Mass., loth Conn, and nth Me., 
made an assault on the line of works extending from the church 
to the James river, driving the enemy from his intrenchments and 
capturing 36 prisoners, after which three companies were sent to the 
aid of Howell's brigade. These latter troops suffered but few casu- 
alties. 

Bermuda Hundred, Va., June 17, 1864. The advantages gained 
by the Union army of the day preceding were partly lost on this 
date by the unexpected arrival of the 38th Va. infantry (Confederate), 
under Col. George H. Griggs, which gave the enemy suflicient strength 
to recapture some of the intrenchments won by the Federals the 
day before. 



116 The Union Army 

Bermuda Hundred, Va., Aug. 24-25, 1864. loth Corps, Army of the 
James. 

Bermuda Hundred, Va., Nov. 30 to Dec. 4, 1864. Pickets of the 20th 
Colored troops. 

Berry County, Tenn., April 29, 1864. 

Berry's Ferry, Va., May 16, 1863. Detachment of ist New York 
Cavalry. Lieut. Vermilyea, with an advance guard of 16 men, fell 
into an ambush of 22 Confederate cavalry, who fired a volley and im- 
mediately formed in the rear. Vermilyea wheeled and charged, kill- 
ing 2, wounding 5 and capturing 10. The Union loss was 2 men and 
several horses wounded. 

Berrjr's Ford, Va., July 19, 1864. ist Cavalry Division, Army of 
the Potomac. The division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. Alfred N. 
Duffie, reached Ashby's gap about 10 a. m. and drove out a small 
force of the enemy, after which Duffie pushed on to Berry's ford 
on the Shenandoah river. Part of the division was crossed, when the 
enemy opened fire with 2 pieces of artillery and also a heavy musketry 
fire from behind a stone wall. Middleton's brigade gave way in some 
confusion in trying to get out of range of the Confederate cannon, 
leaving Maj. Anderson, with part of the 20th Pa. cavalry, to contend 
with a vastly superior force. He managed to extricate his command, 
however, and recrossed the river some distance below the ford. One 
regiment of Tibbitts' brigade was dismounted and deployed along the 
bank of the river as skirmishers, but they were unable to dislodge 
the Confederate riflemen behind the stone fence. Keeper's battery 
was then brought up and the wall was vigorouslj^ shelled, compelling 
the enemy to change the position of his artillery. The firing was 
kept up until 5 p. m., when Duffie ordered the 21st N. Y. to charge 
across the ford and endeavor to dislodge the Confederates. The 
charge was gallantly made, but the regiment was met by a destructive 
fire and forced to fall back, losing a number in killed and wounded. 
Six regiments of infantry and 4 pieces of artillery now came up to 
reinforce the enemy, though he made no attempt to cross the river. 
Duffie then placed a strong guard at the ford and the main body 
of the division fell back to Ashby's gap, where it went into bivouac. 
The Union loss at the ford was 12 killed, 44 wounded and 68 missing; 
that of the enemy was about 100. During the night a squadron of the 
20th Pa., under Capt. Montgomery, engaged in picketing the rear of 
the gap, was cut off by some of Mosby's men, 52 men and 55 horses 
being captured by the enemy. 

Berry's Ford Gap, Va., Nov. i, 1S62. 

Berryville, Va., May 24, 1862. 

Berryville, Va., Nov. 29, 1862. 4th New York Cavalry. Beginning 
on the 28th a reconnaissance was made from Chantilly. The cavalry, 
under Brig.-Gen. Stahel, came up with a detachment of the 12th Va. 
cavalry; commanded by Maj. White, at Snicker's Ferry; pursued 
to Berryville; carried the town by assault, capturing 40 men and 
horses and killing and wounding about 50. The Confederates fled in 
all directions. A wagon load of pistols and carbines was picked up 
along the line of their retreat, having been thrown away to lighten 
their loads in the flight. Owing to the condition of the horses the 
enemy was not pursued. 

Berryville, Va., Dec. 2, 1862. 2nd Division, 12th Army Corps. 
On the evening of the ist Brig.-Gen. John W. Geary, commanding 
the division, was ordered to make a reconnaissance in the direction 
of Winchester, to learn the strength and position of the enemy. At 
6:30 a. m. on the 2nd he left Harper's Ferry and in about two hours 
arrived at Charlestown. where he encountered two companies of 



Cyclopedia of Battles 117 

Confederate cavalry. After a slight skirmish these companies re- 
treated on the Berryville road, closely pursued by Geary's advance. 
When within a mile of Berryville two regiments were found drawn 
up on a hill. Knap's battery was brought up and a few well aimed 
shells dislodged the enemy, Geary taking possession of the hill. 
He then advanced the 7th Ohio and a section of Knap's battery 
about a mile under cover of the woods, and sent forward a detach- 
ment of cavalry to feel the enemy. After proceeding for a mile 
beyond the battery this cavalry force came suddenly upon the 12th 
Va. (Confederate) cavalry, several hundred strong, who immediately 
charged upon the Union cavalry in three parallel columns, firing and 
yelling as they came. Pursuant to Geary's instructions his cavalry 
retired, bringing the pursuers within 100 yards of the 7th Ohio and the 
guns concealed in the skirt of woods. Then both infantry and 
artillery opened with deadly effect, killing 4, wounding about 20, and 
scattering the rest in confusion. Several horses were also killed or 
wounded. The lateness of the hour prevented pursuit and the division 
bivouacked for the night on the scene of the encounter. 

Berryville, Va., June 6, 1863. 67th Pennsylvania Infantry. 

Berryville, Va., June 13, 1863. 3d Brigade, Milroy's Division. 
Scouts brought in word early in the morning that the enemy was 
approaching in force. In obedience to instructions from Gen Milroy, 
Col. McReynolds, commanding the brigade, evacuated the town and 
fell back toward Winchester, the retreat being covered by the ist 
N. Y. cavalry and Alexander's Baltimore battery. The fighting was 
carried on all day on the Winchester road, the most severe portion 
of it being at Opequan creek, where the battery inflicted heavy loss 
upon the Confederates by the use of canister. The Union loss was 
2 killed and 10 wounded. 

Berryville, Va., June 14. 1863. Capt. George D. Summers, of the 
Maryland Potomac Home Brigade, while out scouting, ran into a large 
body of cavalry near Berryville and was compelled to fall back with a 
loss of I man wounded and 2 captured. There was also some skirmish- 
ing on the Berryville and Winchester road — a continuation of the 
fight of the day previous. 

Berryville, Va., Oct. 18, 1863. (See Charlestown, W. Va., same 
date.) 

Berryville, Va, July 20, 1864. (See Carter's Farm.) 

Berryville, Va., Aug. 13, 1864. 6th New York Cavalry and the 
Reserve Brigade. The Union forces were attacked at daylight by 
Mosby, who was on his way to Winchester. The train guard of the 
reserve brigade was a battalion of 100 days' men, who became panic- 
stricken, resulting in the destruction of the train and the capture or 
stampeding of the mules. Part of the train of the 6th N. Y. cavalry 
was also lost, 5 men killed, several wounded and a large number 
taken prisoners. 

Berryville, Va., Aug. 18-21, 1864. ist Cavalry Division. Army of 
West Virginia. On these dates the division, under command of 
Gen. Wesley Merritt, was engaged in devastating the country in the 
neighborhood of Berryville. In this work the pickets and foraging 
parties were almost daily attacked by guerrillas and several men were 
killed, though no regular engagement ensued. 

Berryville, Va., Sept. 3-4, 1864. ist Cavalry Division, Army of the 
Potomac; 8th and 19th Corps, Army of West Virginia. The ist 
brigade and 2 regiments of the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, engaged 
Gen. Kershaw's division of Early's army, at 4 130 p. m. on the 3d, 
about a half mile from Berryville on the Winchester pike. About 
5 o'clock the 15th W. Va. infantry came up from Charlestown and 



118 The Union Army 

the fighting continued until about 8 o'clock, when the enemy with- 
drew to an intrenched position, having lost heavily in killed and 
wounded and about 75 prisoners. The Union loss was 15 killed, 98 
wounded and 5 missing. On Sunday morning, the 4th, the fighting 
was commenced between the 6th Mich, cavalry and the Confederates 
under Anderson and Ramseur, whose lines were extended clear across 
the Union front. After desultory fighting all day the enemy again 
withdrew, leaving a number of dead unburied upon the field. 

Berryville, Va., Sept. 14. 1864. Army of West Virginia. The only 
report to be found in the official records of this affair is the itinerary 
of the 2nd cavalry brigade under Brig.-Gen. W. W. Averell, which 
says: "Broke camp near Charlestown and marched toward Berry- 
ville. About 6 p. m. formed line of battle in support of Gen. Crook's 
command, which had engaged the enemy." 

Berryville, Va., April 17, 1865. This was the surrender of the 
Confederate Gen. John S. Mosby to Maj.-Gen. Winfield S. Hancock. 
Gen. Grant had instructed Hancock to give Mosby the same terms 
that had been granted to Gen. Lee, so the famous Partisan Rangers 
were paroled and returned to their homes. 

Berryville Pike, Va., Aug. 10, 1864. Reserve Brigade and ist 
Cavalry Division, Army of the Potomac. 

Bertrand, Mo., Dec. 11, 1861. 2nd Illinois Cavalry. 

Berwick, La., March 13, 1863. i6oth New York Volunteers. 

Berwick, La., June i, 1863. A small force of troops under Lieut.- 
Col. C. W. Wordin, was attacked about 10 a. m. by a body of 200 
guerrillas belonging to the army of Gen. Alfred Mouton. Reinforce- 
ments were hurried across the bay and a few rounds from the 12- 
pounder howitzers repelled the assailants. 

Berwick, La., April 26, 1864. 

Berwick, La., May i, 1864. 131st New York Infantry. A de- 
tachment of Confederate cavalry, with a field piece, attacked the 
Federal pickets, but were driven oflf by the gunboats. This aflfair 
was one of the constant petty annoyances in this district. No blood- 
shed on either side. 

Berwick Bay, C. S. S., Feb. 2, 1863. Queen of the West. The 
Confederate steamer "Berwick Bay" was captured by the United 
States steam ram "Queen of the West" at the mouth of Red river 
while carrying supplies to the forces at Port Hudson. Her cargo 
consisted of 200 barrels of molasses, 10 hogsheads of sugar, 30,000 
pounds of flour and 40 bales of cotton. 

Berwick Bay, La., June 23, 1863. The small force of men under 
Lieut. -Col. Wordin, guarding stores and caring for a number of con- 
valescents, was attacked at dawn on the morning of the 23d by 
a considerable force under Dick Taylor. The garrison, taken by 
surprise, soon capitulated and there fell into Taylor's hands 12 pieces 
of artillery, a large amount of stores, including a supply of medicines, 
over 1,000 prisoners, and 5,000 stands of arms. 

Bethel Church, Va., June 10. 1861. (See Big Bethel.) 

Bethpage Bridge, Tenn., July 1-2, 1863. 14th .A.rmy Corps. As 
the Confederates were retreating from Tullahoma, Negley's and 
Rousseau's divisions came up with the rear guard under Gen. B. R. 
Johnson, at Bethpage bridge over Elk river. The enemy fell back to 
a strong position in the bend of the river about 2 miles from _ the 
bridge. Negley sent out the i8th Ohio and 19th 111. to reconnoiter. 
This detachment was engaged by Wheeler's cavalry _ and a sharp 
skirmish ensued. On the morning of the 2nd it was discovered that 
the Confederates had recrossed the river during the night, set fire 
to the bridge and placed artillery to guard the ford. While Negley 



Cyclopedia of Battles 119 

attracted the enemy's attention by a heavy tire, Rousseau, Reynolds 
and Brannan crossed tlieir divisions at a ford above and attacked 
from the rear. The enemy then retreated, the skirmisliers took pos- 
session of the bridge and extinguished the flames which had done 
but little damage. The engagement, however, stopped further pursuit 
for the time. 

Bethsaida Church, Va., Oct. lo, 1863. A Union force, consisting 
of a regiment of infantry and a small body of cavalry, was attacked 
by Gordon's brigade and Butler's cavalry. A sharp skirmish followed 
but owing to their vastly superior numbers the Confederates were 
victorious, killing and wounding a large number and taking 87 
prisoners. The Confederate loss was not learned. 

Beulah, N. C, April 11, 1865. 15th Army Corps. On leaving 
camp early in the morning the ist division, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. Charles 
R. Woods commanding, came upon a body of Confederate cavalry 
on the Beulah road, and pursued them to Folk's bridge, skirmishing 
all the way. At the bridge the enemy received reinforcements, tore 
up the bridge, which impeded further pursuit, and decamped, taking 
the road leading up the river on the east side. The loss was incon- 
siderable on both sides. 

Beverly, W. Va., July 12, 1861. No engagement on this date, 
the town being occupied by a detachment of Gen. George B. McClel- 
lan's army as a strategic movement without a shot being fired on 
either side. 

Beverly, W. Va., April 24, 1863. Col. George R. Latham, of the 
2nd W. Va. infantry, with 400 men of his own regiment, 289 of the 
8th W. Va. infantry, 98 of Frank Smith's independent company of 
Ohio cavalry; 59 of Hagan's Co. A, ist W. Va. cavalry, and 
a section of Ewing's battery — 32 men and two guns — was in garrison 
at Beverly when he learned that the enemy was in force at Huttons- 
ville, II miles distant. Taking two companies of cavalry he started 
out to reconnoiter, but owing to a heavy fog nothing definite could 
be ascertained. About 5 miles from Beverly he came upon the advance 
guard of the Confederate column, and not knowing how strong a 
force he had to meet, fell back toward Beverly. About noon the fog 
cleared, showing a force of approximately 5,000 in front of the gar- 
rison. At 2 p. m. artillery fire was opened and two hours later the 
skirmishing was general. The enemy got possession of the Buck- 
hannon road with a view to cutting off Latham's retreat. About 5 
o'clock Gen. B. S. Roberts ordered Latham to destroy his stores at 
Beverly and fall back on Philippi if the enemy became too strong 
for him. Toward' evening the order was obeyed, the Confederates 
following for about 6 miles, though the retreat was orderly and suc- 
cessfully conducted, the Union loss being but i killed, 2 wounded and 
15 captured. The Confederates were commanded Dy Jackson and 
Imboden. Their losses were not reported. 

Beverly, W. Va., July 2, 1863. loth W. Va. Volunteers, and Battery 
G, W. Va. Artillery. Col. William L. Jackson of the 19th Va. cavalry, 
at the head of 1,700 Confederates, made a terrific assault on the 
Union forces under Col. Thomas M. Harris, at Beverly, about 2 p. 
m. Harris held out until the next morning, when he was reinforced 
by Brig.-Gen. W. W. Averell with three regiments of mounted in- 
fantry, and when the attack was renewed the anticipated Confederate 
victory was changed into a signal repulse, the enemy being pursued 
as far as Huttonsville, though the loss on either side was comparative- 
ly slight. 

Beverly, W. Va., Oct. 29, 1864. 8th Ohio Cavalry. About day- 
light Maj. Hall, with a force of about 300 Confederates, made an at- 



120 The Union Army 

tack, expecting to surprise the camp. In tliis he was mistaken 
for the 8th Ohio cavalry happened to be in line for reveille roll-call, 
and as soon as they heard the "rebel yell" they broke ranks and hur- 
ried into their huts for their arms without waiting for orders. The 
Confederates divided and attacked from two sides. In the semi- 
darkness it was some time Jaefore the Union forces could be organized, 
but as soon as the lines were properly formed Lieut.-Col. Youart 
charged the force in his rear and put them to flight. He then turned 
on those in front and quickly routed them, winning a decisive 
victory over a force nearly twice as large as his own, having but 
200 men in action. The Confederate loss was 20 killed, 25 wounded 
and 95 captured. Among the wounded and captured was Hall, who 
had led the attack. The Union loss was 9 killed, 23 wounded and 14 
missing. 

Beverly, W. Va., Jan. 11, 1865. 34th Ohio Infantry and 8th Ohio 
Cavalry. After the attempt of Maj. Hall to surprise this post in 
Oct., 1864, a camp guard was maintained for some time, but was 
finally discontinued on account of cold weather. Before daylight 
on the morning of the nth about 700 Confederates, wearing Federal 
overcoats and commanded by Gen. Rosser, made an attack upon the 
camp, which was a short distance north of the town on the Philippi 
road. The whole scheme had been well planned and was admirably 
executed, the Union forces sustaining a loss of 6 killed, 2^ wounded 
and 580 captured. Over 10,000 rations, 100 horses, a small stock of 
quartermaster's stores, and about 700 stand of arms and their equip- 
ments fell into the hands of the enemy. 

Beverly Ford, Va., Aug. 23, 1862. (See Rappahannock Station, 
same date.) 

Beverly Ford, Va., June 9, 1863. (See Brandy Station.) 

Beverly Ford, Va., Oct. 22, 1863. 2nd Pennsylvania and ist I\Iaine 
Cavalry. 

Big Bar, Cal., Nov. 13-14, 1863. Detachment of the ist Battalion, 
California Mountaineers. The detachment, commanded by Captain Mil- 
ler, while on a scouting expedition to Big Bar and the South fork 
of Trinity river, unexpectedly came upon a small party of Indians 
dressing a beef they had killed. Two Indians were killed and the 
others made their escape. The next morning Miller's company, while 
crossing South fork, was fired upon by a small partj^ of Indians. 
Two men were slightly wounded and the pack animals stampeded. 
All these were recovered except 3 but the delay in doing so, and the 
loss of supplies, prevented pursuit of the Indians and the scouting 
party returned to Fort Gaston. 

Big Beaver Creek, Mo., Nov. 7, 1862. loth Illinois and two 
companies Missouri ^.Tilitia Cavalry. 

Big Bend, Eel River, Cal., April 28, 1864. Scouts from 2nd In- 
fantry, California Volunteers. A detachment of Co. D, under 
Sergeant Wheeler, came up with a party of Indians at Big Bend, 
killed 8 warriors, captured 11 women and i child without the loss of 
a man. Several of the Indians flung themselves into the river in their 
efforts to escape, and it is believed that some were drowned. 

Big Bend, W. Va., June 4-7, 1862. 

Big Bethel, Va., June 10, i86i. ist, 2nd, 3d, 5th and 7th New 
York, 1st Vermont, and 4th Massachusetts Infantry, and 2nd United 
States Artillery. About 8 miles from Newport News were two 
churches known as Big and Little Bethel. At the former there was 
a considerable force of Confederates, under Col. J. B. Magruder, and 
works of more or less strength were in process of construction, while 
at the latter there was a Confederate outpost, from which a squad 



Cyclopedia of Battles 121 

of cavalry was nightly sent out to annoy the Federal pickets, im- 
press Union men into the Confederate army, carry away slaves who 
had been left in charge of farms, and' take them to Yorktown and 
Williamsburg to work on the fortii'ications. Gen. B. F. Butler, there- 
fore, determined to destroy the outpost and drive the enemy from 
his position at Big Bethel. An expedition, under the command of 
Brig.-Gen. E. W. Pierce, was planned on the evening of the 9th and 
at I o'clock on the morning of the loth the 7th N. Y.(Duryea's zouaves) 
was ferried across the creek and ordered to march to New Market 
bridge in the enemy's rear. At 2 o'clock the 3d N. Y. under Col. 
Townsend, and the 7th N. Y., with the Massachusetts and Vermont 
troops under Col. Bendix, marched by different roads, intending to 
effect a junction at the forks of the road about a mile and a half 
from Little Bethel, the purpose being to attack that place at day- , 
break. Bendix reached the rendezvous tirst and his men, mistaking 
Townsend's force, as it approached in the dim light of the early 
dawn, for Confederates, fired upon them, killing 2 and wounding 21. 
The sound of the firing made it impossible to surprise the enemy 
and some of the officers favored a return to Camp Hamilton, but 
Pierce, knowing that reinforcements were coming to his assistance, 
pushed on to find Little Bethel deserted. The church was burned, 
the artillery, under Lieut. Greble, was brought to the front and the 
whole column advanced on Big Bethel. By a peculiar coincidence 
Col. Magruder had planned an attack on Camp Hamilton for that 
morning, had aroused his men- at 3 a. m., and when the first firing 
was heard was three and a half miles from his works. He returned 
to his position at Big Bethel and disposed his forces to resist any 
assault likely to be made. When Pierce came up about 9 o'clock he 
found the ford on the Hampton road guarded by two companies of 
North Carolina sharpshooters, while on the opposite side of the 
road, protected by earthworks, were Stuart's cavalry and the 3d 
Va. infantry with a howitzer commanding the road. Beyond the 
creek were two more howitzers, well supported, trained on the ford. 
After some skirmishing Pierce, seeing the strength of the Confed- 
erate position, withdrew his forces with a loss of 18 killed, 53 
wounded and 5 missing. Among the killed were Maj. Theodore 
Winthrop, of Butler's staff, and Lieut. John T. Greble, commanding 
the artillery. 

Big Black Creek, S. C, March 3, 1865. A detachment of 20 Con- 
federate soldiers, clad in the Federal uniform, made a dash on the 
flank of Gen. John E. Smith's division, while the army was on the 
march, killed i man and captured Col. James Isaminger of the 63d 
111. infantry and one private. 

Big Black River, Miss., May 3. 1863. (See Hankinson's Ferry.) 
Big Black River, Miss., June 18, 1863. (See Birdsong Ferry.) 
Big Black River, Miss., Oct. 13, 1863. Reconnaissance of Infantry, 
and Cavalry commanded by Maj. -Gen. McPherson. 

Big Black River, Miss., Feb. 4, 1864. (See Champion's Hill.) 
Big Black River Bridge, Miss., Nov. 27, 1863. Detachment of 
troops under Col. E. D. Osband, 3d U. S. Cavalry. For some time 
the Mississippi Central railroad had been the main line of com- 
munication between Hood and his depots of supplies in Mississippi 
and Alabama. Several ineffectual attempts had been made to burn 
the bridge on this line near Canton, but the Confederates, recognizing 
its importance, had thrown up works about it and kept a strong 
force of men constantly on guard. When Col. Osband's expedition 
reached the bridge, I\Iaj. J. B. Cook with a portion of the 3rd U. S. 
colored cavalry, dismounted, charged over a trestle work 25 feet high. 



123 The Union Army 

with nothing but the ties for a footing, in the face of a withering 
fire, and captured a stockade containing the main body of the guard. 
The bridge was burned and several miles of track in the vicinity 
destroyed. Cook received a promotion to the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel for his bravery. 

Big Black River Bridge, Miss., May 17, 1864. gth, loth, 12th and 
14th Divisions, 13th Army Corps. While the battle of Champion's 
Hill was in progress on the i6th Gen. Pemberton sent the 1st and 
2nd Missouri brigades, Vaughn's Tennessee brigade and Bowen's ar- 
tillery to guard the railroad bridge to his rear to keep open a line 
of retreat. The bridge was on a bend in the river shaped something 
like a horseshoe, across the neck of which the Confederates had 
previously constructed a line of rifle-pits. The bridge had been 
floored for the passage of artillery and wagons and everything made 
ready for an easy flight if it became necessary. During the night of 
the i6th Pemberton with his entire army crossed the river but the 
guard was still maintained at the bridge, with Col. Cockrell's brigade 
on the right. Green's on the left and Vaughn in the center, their 
position being covered by 2 pieces of artillery. About 3:30 a. m. on 
the 17th the Union forces began their march toward Vicksburg, Gen. 
Carr with the 14th division being in advance, closely followed by the 
gth division commanded by Gen. Osterhaus. In front of the line 
of rifle-pits was a bayou, and on the opposite side of this bayou 
from the Confederate lines was a piece of woods where Carr un- 
masked the enemy's pickets and after a sharp skirmish drove them in. 
The Union artillery then commenced a heavy fire upon the works, 
Osterhaus came up and took a position to the right of Carr, and a 
little after daylight the fighting became general. Cockrell's forces 
were the first to meet the assault, and drove back the Federals with 
a heavy fire. Next an attack was made upon Green's position but 
with no better success. At this juncture, for some unaccountable 
reason, the men under Vaughn became panic stricken and broke from 
their position. The Union troops were not slow to take advantage 
of the situation thus offered and quickly occupied the trenches de- 
serted by the Tennesseeans. The IMissourians, seeing that they were 
about to be cut off, started for the bridge, in good order at first, but 
the retreat soon became a rout. The Confederates lost 276 in killed 
and wounded and 1.767 prisoners, besides 18 of the 20 cannon and a 
large supply of ammunition. The Union loss was 29 killed, 242 
wounded and 2 missing. 

Big Blue, Mo., Oct. 22, 1864. Army of the Border, Price's Raid. 
Early on the morning of the 22nd Gen. Blunt sent his ist brigade, un- 
der Col. Charles R. Jennison, to Byram's ford and the 2nd brigade, 
under Col. Thomas Moonlight, to Hinkle's ford, to prevent Price from 
crossing the river. Jennison was afterward joined by a detachment 
of the Kansas state militia under Col. McCain. Price sent a small 
body of men out on the road running from Independence to Kansas 
City in the effort to draw the forces from Byram's ford, but the 
feint was not successful. He then attacked Jennison in considerable 
force about 11 a. m. Blunt, upon hearing the firing, ordered the 
2nd brigade to Jennison's aid, but before its arrival the enemy had 
effected a crossing both above and below the ford and Jennison, fear- 
ing a flank attack, fell back in good order toward Westport, where 
the fight was continued the next day. Losses on both sides were 
slight. 

Big Bushes, Kan., ]\Iay 16, 1864. McLain's Colorado Battery. A 
detachment of the battery under Lieut. George S. Eayre, was attacked 
3 miles from Smoky Hill river, between Fort Lyon and Fort Larned, 



Cyclopedia of Battles 123 

by about 400 Cheyenne Indians. After a persistent fight of seven and 
one-half hours the Indians were repulsed with a loss of 25 or 30 
killed and a number wounded. Among the killed were the chiefs 
Black Kettle, Good-Eye and Tut-Tut. Eayre's loss was 4 killed and 
3 wounded. He also lost a number of horses which were either 
killed or stampeded during the engagement. 

Big Cacapon, W. Va., Jan. 5, 1862. (See Bath.) 

Big Cacapon Bridge, W. Va., July 6, 1864. 

Big Cove Valley, Ala., June 27, 1864. 12th Indiana Cavalry. Capt. 
Robert S. Richart was sent with a detachment of 41 men to break 
up a camp of Johnson's guerrillas. Leaving camp at Huntsville about 
5 p. m. on the 26th he crossed the mountain by Franklin's path, went 
into camp about 10 o'clock that night, and at daylight next morn- 
ing proceeded to the creek some three-quarters of a mile in advance. 
There he came upon the guerrillas preparing breakfast. Richart 
at once attacked and notwithstanding their strong position soon 
routed them, wounding several and capturing 5 horses and equip- 
ments. After pursuing them for 2 miles the chase was given up. 
The party then returned to the creek, ate the breakfast the enemy 
had prepared, and returned to Huntsville. The Union loss was 11 
wounded, i mortally. The guerrilla force was estimated at 15, com- 
manded by Johnson in person. 

Big Creek, Ark., July 10, 1S63. Organizations not stated. 

Big Creek, Ark., July 26, 1864. (See Wallace's Ferry.) 

Big Creek, Mo., March 9, 1862. ist Battalion Missouri Militia 
Cavalry. Capt. Henry Windmueller, while doing scout duty with his 
battalion, learned from a negro boy that a number of persons were 
assembled at the house of a man named Hill. As the cavalry ap- 
proached these persons tried to make their escape. They were fired 
on and 3 killed, one of whom was the notorious Tid Sharp. 

Big Creek, Mo., Sept. 9, 1862. 

Big Creek, Mo., March 8, 1863. U. S. Troops of District of Eastern 
Arkansas. During an expedition from Helena two portions of the 
Federal command came upon bodies of the enemy at different cross- 
ings of Big creek. The result was a Union victory with a loss of I 
wounded and 2 captured. The Confederates had i man killed and 
I captured. 

Big Creek, Mo., May 14-16, 1863. ist Battalion, 6th Kansas Cav- 
alry. This was a series of skirmishes between Maj. W. C. Ransom, 
with 60 men of his battalion, and guerrillas under Quantrill and 
"Colonel" Parker. The first of these skirmishes was late in the after- 
noon of the 14th. That night a considerable body of the guerrillas 
passed to Ransom's rear, burned 3 houses and then retreated eastward. 
Ransom pursued and on the 15th a sharp skirmish occurred near 
Pleasant Hill. Two slight skirmishes followed on the i6th, in the 
latter of which the guerrillas were reinforced to the number of 150 
and Ransom gave up further pursuit. In the series of engagements 
the Confederates lost 12 men killed and 18 horses captured, as well 
as a considerable amount of camp equipage, arms, provisions, etc. 
The Union loss was i man killed. 

Big Creek, Mo., Aug. 22, 1863. Missouri State Militia. On the 
20th Col. Bazel F. Lazear, with 100 men of Companies C, I and K, 
1st cavalry, started froin Warrensburg after some guerrillas that were 
committing depredations north of that place. At Chapel Hill he was 
joined by Maj. Mullins with 130 men of Companies B, F, G and H, 
of the 1st cavalry and Col. Neill with 50 men of the Sth Provisional 
infantry. On the 22nd they came upon Quantrill's trail and followed 
him to Big creek, 5 miles northwest of Pleasant Hill, where the 



124 The Union Army 

guerrillas were overtaken. In the first brush 5 of them were killed 
and several wounded. They were pursued for several days, their 
course being marked by all sorts of goods thrown away in their 
flight. During the pursuit ii of the enemy were killed, a number 
wounded and several horses were captured. The Missouri troops 
did not lose a man. 

Big Creek, Mo., Sept. 5, 1863. (See Pleasant Hill, same date.) 

Big Creek, Mo., July 28, 1864. 7th Missouri State Militia Cavalry. 
Capt. M. U. Foster, with a portion of the regiment, was sent out on a 
scouting expedition on the 21st. On the 27th Corporal Hisey and 4 
men were attacked on Blackwater creek while looking for a stray 
horse, by Dick Yeager and 20 of his men. Notwithstanding they 
were outnumbered five to one, Hisey and his men bravely stood 
their ground, wounding Yeager and capturing a horse. The next 
day Sergt. Allen and 20 men were sent to drive the Confederates 
out of the woods where they were concealed, while Foster with a 
similar force took a position to head ofif their retreat. After a sharp 
skirmish Yeager and his men fled precipitately, having lost 2 killed, 
4 wounded, and 3 horses. Foster's loss was 2 horses. 

Big Creek, Tenn., Dec. 12, 1864. Governor's Guards of Tennessee. 
A movement against the Confederates in eastern Tennessee and south- 
western Virginia by Gen. Stoneman and Brig.-Gen. A. C. Gillem of 
the United States army, the latter at that time in command of the 
Governor's guards. In pursuance of this arrangement Gillem left 
Knoxville on the lOth with 1.500 picked men and horses to join 
Stoneman. When about 10 miles from Rogersville, on the 12th, 
this force came upon the Confederate pickets belonging to Duke's 
brigade and drove them back 4 miles, where the main body was 
found guarding the Big creek bridge. Gillem sent one battalion of 
the 8th Tenn. cavalry to make a feint of crossing some distance 
above the bridge, part of the 13th cavalry went down to a ford 
where they efifected a crossing and the remainder of the force attacked 
in front. This assault from different directions disconcerted the enemy 
and he fled in confusion toward Kingsport, to which place Gillem 
pursued, marching 44 miles in 24 hours. (See Kingsport.) 

Big Creek Bluffs, Mo., July 11, 1862. ist Iowa, ist and 7th 
Missouri cavalry. For several days prior to this date the Federal 
troops had been in search of a body of guerrillas under Quantrill, 
Houx and Hays, known to be in Big creek timber. Shots had been 
exchanged, a smart brush occurring on the 9th in which each side 
lost I killed and several wounded. On the morning of the nth Capt. 
Kehoe, with three companies of the ist Mo., left camp at daybreak 
in advance of the main body, and when about 4 miles west of 
Pleasant Hill came upon the enemy in the act of burning a Union 
man's house. Supposing this to be but a part of the force Kehoe 
at once attacked and in a short time was surrounded by the entire 
gang. Maj. Gower coming up with the remainder of the Union forces 
saved Kehoe's men from utter annihilation and turned defeat into 
victory. The guerrillas broke up into small squads and fled in all 
directions. Although pursued many of them escaped in the dense 
underbrush. The Union loss was 11 killed and 21 wounded. The 
Confederate loss was known to be 18 killed and a number wounded. 

Big Creek Gap, Tenn., March 14, 1862. ist and 2nd Tennessee 
and 49th Indiana Infantry, and a Battalion of Kentucky Cavalry. 
Confederate cavalry was engaged in blockading the roads in the 
neighborhood of Jacksboro, and Col. J. P. T. Carter, of the 2nd Tenn. 
was sent in command of the Union forces to drive them out or cap- 
ture them, and open up communications. Arriving at the foot of 



Cyclopedia of Battles 125 

the Cumberland mountain late in the afternoon of the 13th Carter 
learned that two companies of the ist Tenn. Confederate cavalry were 
at Big Creek Gap and planned a surprise. Procuring a guide he 
divided his forces, placing one division in command of Lieut-Col. 
James Keigwin of the 49th Ind. and marched over the mountain. 
At 6 o'clock the next morning they were at the enemy's camp. In 
the skirmish which ensued the Confederates lost 5 killed, 15 wounded 
and 15 prisoners, 86 horses and several wagons loaded with stores. 
The fugitives were pursued as far as Jacksboro, where i was killed 
and I captured. A saltpeter factory there was destroyed with all 
its stores. Union loss, nothing. 

Big Creek Gap, Tenn., June 11-15, 1862. 25th Brigade, Army of 
the Ohio. Brig.-Gen. James G. Spears, with the brigade, consisting 
of the 3d, 5th and 6th Tenn. infantry, while marching through Big 
Creek gap to join Gen. Morgan at Speedwell, was ambushed by Con- 
federate pickets late on the afternoon of the nth. Advancing in the 
face of a galling fire the Union forces drove the enemy from his 
position with a loss of 2 killed and several wounded. Spears then 
marched through the gap and camped for the night, the men sleep- 
ing on their arms. Early the next morning the skirmish was renewed 
and lasted until noon with slight casualties on both sides. After 
proceeding about 4 miles a messenger overtook Spears with orders 
to return to the gap. He reoccupied his old camp of the preceding 
night and the next morning ambushed his forces so as to command 
the ford. He continued to hold this position until the iSth, when 
his pickets were driven in, but the Confederates declined to follow 
into the ambuscade. Spears then moved out, attacked in force and 
drove the enemy across the Clinch river in the direction of Knoxville, 
capturing a number of prisoners, 60 tents, and destroying stores 
amounting in value to several hundred dollars. 

Big Creek Gap, Tenn., Sept. 4, 1862. Detachment of the 6th Ten- 
nessee Volunteers. 

Big Creek Gap, Tenn., Sept. 10, 1862. Detachment of Spear's 
Brigade. Col. Cooper, with 400 picked men, blockaded Big Creek 
gap and attacked a body of McAfee's cavalry on the way to join 
Kirby Smith's command. McAfee and 95 of his men were captured 
and about 10 or 12 were left dead on the field, among them being one 
of Kirby Smith's aides-de-camp. At the same time Lieut. -Col. M. L. 
Phillips, with 200 picked men from the 1st and 2nd Tenn. infantry, 
blocked Rogers' gap and operated on Cooper's flank. In the 
afifairs at the two gaps the enemy lost over 30 killed and 230 captured. 
The Union loss was not reported. 

Big Flat, Cal., May 28, 1864. Scout from ist Battalion Moun- 
taineers. An insignificant affair between a small scouting party and 
a few Indians in which 2 of the latter were killed. 

Big Gravois, Mo., April 22, 1865. i6th Missouri Cavalry. Maj. 
Small, with a detachment of the 16th Cavalry, overtook a party of 50 
guerrillas on the Osage river, opposite the mouth of the Big Gravois, 
killed 10, including Capts. Rountree and Martin, and wounded several 
others. The remainder escaped across the river in skiflfs. Small took 
a number of horses and some side arms. 

Big Hatchie, Tenn., Oct. 5, 1862. (See Hatchie Bridge.) 

Big Hill, Ky., Aug. 23, 1862. 7th Kentucky Cavalry and 3d 
Tennessee Volunteers. Col. Leonidas Metcalfe, in command of the 
Union forces, was attacked in his works at Big hill by the Kirby 
Smith brigade under Col. J. S. Scott. Early in the action the 7th 
Kentucky broke in confusion. The Tennessee troops stood their 
ground but were finally forced to fall back toward Richmond. Gen. 



126 The Union Army 

Lew Wallace sent Link's brigade with 3 field pieces to Metcalfe's 
assistance and he arrived in time to rescue Metcalfe and Lieut. -Col. 
Oden, both of whom refused to surrender. Link occupied the hill 
and remained in possession. Metcalfe reported his loss as being 
about 50, though the Confederate commander claimed that 120 dead 
and wounded were left upon the field. The enemy lost 4 killed and 
12 wounded. 

Big Hill, Ky., Aug. 29, 1862. While the Union and Confederate 
armies were maneuvering for position just before the battle of 
Richmond, a slight skirmish occurred near Big Hill between two 
outlying detachments, but no detailed report of the affair was made 
by either side. 

Big Hill, Tenn,, Oct. 5, 1862. Gen. McPherson's Provisional Di- 
vision. This was one of the skirmishes growing out of the pursuit 
of the Confederates in their retreat from Corinth after the battle 
there on the 3d and 4th. The enemy's rear guard, consisting of three 
brigades of infantry and a 6-gun battery, was overtaken near Chewalla, 
but before preparations for an attack could be completed they re- 
treated to the top of Big hill, on the east side of the Tuscumbia 
river, where they were well sheltered by a heavy growth of timber. The 
Union infantry charged up the hill in the face of a shower of grape 
and canister, while Powell's battery rendered efficient aid in shelling 
the Confederate position. The hill was carried and the men rested 
there all night on their arms in line of battle, ready to repel an attack 
at daylight, should one be made. During the night the enemy quietly 
fell back across the Tuscumbia, burning the bridge, which checked 
further pursuit for the time. Casualties not reported. 

Big Hurricane Creek, Mo., Oct. 19, 1861. i8th Missouri Volunteers. 

Big Indian Creek, Ark., May 27, 1862. ist Missouri Cavalry. 
Lieut.-Col. Lewis, while escorting a forage train, met a small force 
of Confederates on Big Indian creek about 10 miles above Searcy. 
In the skirmish which followed the Union loss was 2 wounded, i 
mortally. The enemy lost 23 in killed, wounded and captured. 

Big Lake, Ark., Sept. 8-30, 1863. Missouri State Troops. Maj. 
F. R. Poole, of the 2nd Mo. state cavalry, was ordered by Col. J. B. 
Rogers, commanding the post at Cape Girardeau, to scour the country 
as far as Big Lake in quest of guerrillas. Starting with 200 men of his 
own regiment he was reinforced at New Madrid by 50 men from the 
2nd and 50 from the 8th Mo., and at Osceola he received further re- 
inforcements from Col. Harding of the 25th infantry. From that time 
until the last of the month he carried on a vigorous warfare in north- 
eastern Arkansas and southeastern Missouri, killing 13 noted guer- 
rillas and capturing 30 others, as well as taking a number of horses, 
mules and guns, and a quantity of ammunition. 

Big Laramie, Dak. Ten, Aug. i, 1865. About 200 Cheyenne 
Indians attacked the station at Big Laramie, killed 4 men and I 
woman and carried into captivity 2 girls, one 15 and the other 2 years 
old. All the cavalry in that section was sent in pursuit. 

Big Mound, Dak. Ten, July 24, 1863. ist Minnesota Cavalry, 3d 
Minnesota Battery, and 6th, 7th, and loth Minnesota Infantry. The 
troops, under command of Gen. H. H. Sibley, had been in pursuit 
of some Sioux Indians for several days, when about i p. m. on the 
24th, some of Sibley's scouts brought the information that a large 
body of Indians were just in advance. The Indians sent out a party 
to ask a council, intending to murder Sibley and his officers and then 
attack the camp, but Sibley, having been warned by a half-breed 
scout, declined. Dr. J. L. Weiser, surgeon of the ist Minnesota, was 
treacherously shot by one of those sent out to urge a council, and 



Cyclopedia of Battles 127 

this wanton deed precipitated a conflict. By order of Sibley Lieut. 
J. C. Whipple planted his artillery on a hill opposite Big Mound and in 
a short time drove them from their position to the open prairie 
where the cavalry could get at them. After two or three futile at- 
tempts to make a stand the Indians fled in the direction of Dead 
Buffalo lake. 

Big North Fork, Mo., June i6, 1864. 14th Kansas and 3d Wis- 
consin Cavalry. Thirty men of Company C, 3d Wis., under Scrgt. 
Smith, while returning to camp with a herd of cattle for which they 
had been sent out, were attacked near Preston by a force of 46 Con- 
federates, well mounted and armed. Smith's men were scattered look- 
ing after the cattle. As soon as they could be got together Smith 
withdrew to the open prairie, hoping to draw the enemy from the 
woods, but failed to do so. The Union loss was i man killed, and the 
cattle, which ran into the timber and were probably captured. The 
Confederates lost 2 killed and 3 wounded. 

Big Pigeon River, Tenn., Nov. 5-6, 1864. 3d North Carolina 
Mounted Infantry. 

Big Piney, Mo. July 25-26, 1862. (See Mountain Store.) 

Big Piney, Mo., Nov. 25, 1863. 

Big Piney, Mo., Nov. i, 1864. 34th Enrolled Missouri Militia. 
Lieut. D. W. Carroll, with a small scouting party, found 4 bush- 
whackers at the house of a man named Black, near the mouth of 
Big Piney, wounded 2, took i prisoner and captured 2 horses without 
the loss of a man 

Big Piney, Mo., Dec. 2, 1864. Scout of sth Missouri State Militia 
Cavalry. An expedition sent out by Maj. John B. Kaiser of Waynes- 
ville post, killed 3 of Campbell's guerrillas, who had formerly been 
members of the 48th Mo. Union volunteers. Another expedition the day 
before reported the killing of a guerrilla in the same vicinity. 

Big Piney, Mo., Jan. 16-22, 1865. Scout of ist Missouri State 
Militia Cavalry. During the week ending on the 22nd several scout- 
ing parties were sent out from Waynesville. One of these reported 
the killing of 2 guerrillas and the wounding of another in a skirmish 
near Courtney's mills on the Big Piney. 

Big Point, Va., June 5, 1861. United States Steamer "Harriet 
Lane." About 9 a. m. the steamer opened her guns on the Confed- 
erate battery recently established on Big Point opposite Newport 
News. After firing about 30 shots, which were warmly answered 
from the battery, the vessel withdrew. The only damage done was 
the dismantling of one 8-inch gun in the Confederate works. 

Big River, Mo., Oct. 7. 1864. (See Tyler's Mills.) 

Big River Bridge, Mo., Oct. 15, 1861. Missouri State Guards. 
Brig.-Gen. M. Jeff Thompson, with 500 dragoons, marched from 
Piketown to destroy the bridge near Potosi. Dividing his forces, part 
attacked a redoubt on the north side of the bridge and the reinainder 
attacked from the south. The skirmish lasted for ten minutes, at the 
end of which time Thompson was in full possession of both bridge 
and redoubt. A quantity of clothing and 66 muskets were captured 
and taken to Blackwell's station. While it was being divided among 
the men an attack was made by the Federals a,nd a bushwhacking 
fight followed. In the two skirmishes Thompson lost 6 killed and 
several wounded. All the Confederate officers were either killed or 
captured. Thompson reported the capture of 55 Union men. 

Big Rockcastle Creek, Ky., Oct 16. 1862. 2nd and 9th Indiana and 
6th Kentucky Cavalry. The Union troops in this engagement were 
part of the 19th brigade, Army of the Ohio, commanded by Col. W. 
B. Hazen. While marching from Perryville to London the brigade 



128 The Union Army 

occupied u place in the advance. About 2 miles from Mount Vernon 
the enemy was discovered drawn up in line of battle. The 6th Ky. 
was advanced as skirmishers and with a few shots from Cockerill's 
battery soon drove the Confederates back. Four miles further on 
they made another stand on Rockcastle creek, when the Indiana 
troops were brought into action in support of the Kentucky regi- 
ment and again the enemy was put to flight. The Union losses in 
the two skirmishes were i killed and a number wounded. The enemy 
left II dead upon the field, and between 30 and 40 were taken 
prisoners. 

Big Sandy, Col. Ter., Nov. 29, 1864. ist and 3d Colorado Cavalry. 

Big Sandy Creek, Miss,, May 5, 1863. 2nd Illinois Cavalry. 
While the army was on the march from Port Gibson to 
Champion's Hill, with Gen. Osterhaus' division in advance, a detach- 
ment of the enemy disputed the passage of the Big Sandy at Hall's 
ferry. Lieut. Stickel, with a company of the 2nd 111. cavalry, made 
a dash and routed the Confederates, killing 12 men and taking 30 
prisoners without the loss of a man. Another slight skirmish oc- 
curred on this creek three days later. 

Big Sewell Mountain, W. Va., Dec. 12. 1863. Scouts in advance 
of Scammon's Brigade. These were small skirmishes in connection with 
Averell's raid on the Virginia & Tennessee railroad. On the 12th 
a band of Thurmond's guerrillas met the advance pickets on Big 
Sewell mountain and harassed them all the way to Greenbrier river, 
wounding 2 and capturing 4 men. Of the guerrillas i was killed, 
4 wounded and about a dozen captured, among whom was the ord- 
nance officer of Gen. Echols' staff. On the 14th the pickets on the 
Blue Sulphur road, near Meadow Bluff, under Lieut. H. G. Otis, of 
the I2th Ohio infantry, were attacked by some of the same band. The 
Confederates were driven back but the Union troops lost 2 killed and 
4 wounded. The guerrillas left i dead and i wounded man upon the 
field, the latter being Lieut. J. T. Ross, one of Capt. Thurmond's 
most trusted officers. 

Big Shanty, Ga., June 9, 1864. Minty's and Wilder's Brigades. 
This was one of the minor skirmishes of the Atlanta campaign. Being 
desirous of learning whether the enemy's line crossed the railroad 
Gen. Sherman ordered Brig.-Gen. Kenner Garrard to make a recon- 
naissance in front of Big Shanty for that purpose. Just beyond 
Acworth the Confederate pickets were encountered and driven back. 
Wilder's brigade, consisting of the 17th and 72nd Indiana and the 
23d and 98th Illinois mounted infantry, under Col. A. O. Miller, and 
a section of artillery under Lieut. Bennett, made three direct attacks 
upon the enemy, each time driving him back to a line of works further 
in the rear, until he finally retired into his works at the base of Kenne- 
saw mountain. Minty's brigade supported Miller's flanks and held the 
works gained in each of the assaults. The Union loss was 13 
wounded. The Confederate loss was not ascertained. 

Big Shanty, Ga., Sept. 2, 1864. 9th Ohio Cavalry, on a railroad 
train. 

Big Shanty, Ga., Oct. 3, 1864. Signal Officer Fish, from the top 
of Kennesaw mountain, reported late in the afternoon Confederate 
cavalry along the railroad and moving toward Big Shanty, where a 
small force of Federal troops were stationed to guard the railroad. 
A little later Stewart's whole corps attacked the little detachment, 
which took refuge in the railroad station and defended itself as long 
as possible, but was finally forced to surrender to the vastly superior 
numbers. The loss in killed and wounded was slight on both sides, 
but 175 Union troops were captured. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 129 

Big Spring Branch, Tenn., June 24, 1863. 17th and 72nd Indiana 

Infantry. About 7 miles from Murfreesboro, while the army was on 
the march, scouts brought in word that Confederate pickets were but 
a short distance in advance. Col. John T. Wilder of the 17th Ind., 
commanding the advance brigade, sent his own regiment and the 
72nd ahead to dislodge the enemy. Lieut. -Col. Kirkpatrick, in com- 
mand of this advance party, soon came upon the pickets, who retired 
to where the Confederate reserves were drawn up under cover of a 
hill. Kirkpatrick, suspecting an ambuscade, deployed one company 
on each side of the road, while the main body advanced toward the 
hill, firing as they went. The Confederates soon abandoned their po- 
sition and tied toward their fortifications at Hoover's gap. Wilder 
then ordered Kirkpatrick to cut them off if possible, and the latter, 
pushing forward with all speed, made a complete success of the 
movement, having possession of the works when the flying cohorts 
of the enemy arrived. Among the effects found in the Confederate 
fortifications was a beautiful stand of embroidered colors, presented 
to the 71st Ky. by a sister of Gen. Ben. Hardin Helm. A number of 
prisoners were taken during the day and a few on each side were 
wounded. 

Big Springs, Tenn., Jan. 19, 1864. 6th Indiana Cavalry. Capt. 
Jackson Stepp. with about 100 men of the 6th Ind., was stationed at 
Big Springs, on the Morristown road, about 6 miles from Tazewell. 
At daybreak he was surprised by a larger force of Confederates, 
under Maj. G. W. Day, and before Stepp could rally or form his 
men 6 were killed or wounded and 45 were prisoners in the hands 
of the enemy, who also captured 53 horses and a small supply of 
arms and ammunition. Lieut. -Col. Matson of the same regiment, 
was sent in pursuit and after following the enemy as far as Evans' 
ford on the Clinch river, returned without having accomplished any- 
thing, either in the way of chastising the Confederates or releasing 
the prisoners. 

Big Swift Creek, N. C, April 19, 1863. ist Brigade, 5th Division, 
i8th Army Corps. This engagement was a very slight affair. During 
the siege of Washington, N. C, a Confederate outpost on Swift 
creek was driven in by a detachment of Spinola's brigade, without 
casualties on either side. 

Biloxi, Miss., April 1-4, 1862. 9th Connecticut, Everett's battery, 
and the Naval forces. A flag of truce had been sent on an errand 
of humanity to Biloxi on the ist, but had been fired on by the people 
of that town and the Confederate forces there. The next day Gen. 
Butler ordered Maj. George C. Strong to take the 9th Conn, and 
Everett's battery, and proceed on board the steamer "Lewis," to 
Biloxi to demand a suitable and ample apology for the act. At the 
same time arrangements were made for the cooperation of the naval 
vessels in the immediate vicinity. Strong made the demand in 
strong English, which so incensed the Confederates that Gen. Lovell 
ordered up the steamers Carondelet, Pamlico and Oregon, under 
Commodore Whittle, with a view of capturing Strong's whole force. 
But Strong quickly reembarked and hurried to Pass Christian, where, 
in conformity to Butler's orders, he landed his cirtire force, with 
several pieces of artillery, quickly overcame the Confederate post 
there, killing and wounding a number and destroying the stores. 

Binnaker's Bridge, S. C, Feb. 9, 1865. 17th Army Corps. About 
noon the advance of the army reached Binnaker's bridge over the 
South Edisto river, to find it destroyed and Gen. Stevenson's division 
intrenched in rifle-pits, with a battery of artillery on the opposite 
side. Skirmishing was commenced by the 9th 111. mounted infantry, 
Vol. v-9 



130 The Union Army 

but upon the arrival of Gen. Mower they were relieved by a force of 
infantry. A swamp lay between the Confederates and the river so 
that the arms of the infantry were at a disadvantage, owing to the 
long range. Mower ordered up his artillery and in a short time 
drove the enemy from his position. A raft was then sent across 
and about 500 yards below the old bridge a solid anchorage was 
found on the other side; a pontoon was soon constructed, over which 
the infantry marched, and at 9 o'clock that evening, after wading 
through three feet of water, attacked the Confederate works, driving 
Stevenson toward the North branch of the Edisto. The Union loss 
was 3 killed and 7 wounded. The number of killed and wounded 
on the other side could not be learned. One caisson and a number 
of prisoners were taken by Mower's men. 

Birch Coolie, Minn., Sept. 1-2, 1862. Minnesota Volunteers. The 
affair at Birch Coolie was an incident growing out of the Sioux 
uprising. Maj. Brown, with a detachment of the 6th infantry, was 
sent to the Lower Agency to bury the bodies of those massacred by 
the Indians. As he was returning to Fort Ridgely he encamped on 
the evening of Aug. 31 near the long ravine known as Birch Coolie. 
Here he was stirrounded during the night by a large body of Indians 
and kept in a state of siege until relieved by Gen. Sibley on the 3d. 
The whites lost 25 killed and a number wounded. The Indian loss 
was much larger. 

Birch Island Bridge, Va., May 6, 1864. (See Kautz's Raid, May 
5-17, 1864.) 

Birdsong Ferry, Miss., June 12, 1863. 9 men of the 13th Army 
Corps. Sergt. T. B. Robinson, with a squad of 9 men, was sent to in- 
vestigate a rumor of a blockade in the road a few miles from Bridge- 
port and as he was returning to his command he ran into a small 
company of Confederates at the ferry. A slight skirmish ensued in 
which 2 of the enemy were captured and i of Robinson's men was 
slightly wounded. The two prisoners gave valuable information con- 
cerning the movements of Gen. Forrest. 

Birdsong Ferry, Miss., June 18, 1863. 4th Iowa Cavalry. While 
one company of the regiment was stationed at the ferry, over Big 
Black river, about one company of Confederates came from the 
swamp above and engaged them in a skirmish. Maj. C. F. Spearman, 
the senior cavalry officer, ordered a charge from a favorable position 
on the enemy's right flank. The yell and rush from an unexpected 
quarter disconcerted the Confederates, who fled in disorder, thinking 
a large attacking party was at hand. They were pursued for some 
distance, but owing to the rough surface of the country and the dense 
growth of timber in places, were not overtaken. A large number of 
cattle and sheep were taken by the Union troops as they were return- 
ing to the ford. No losses reported. 

Birdsong Ferry, Miss., July 5, 1863. i6th Army Corps. While 
Sherman's Expeditionary Army was on the march against Johnston 
a small force of Confederates disputed the passage of the Big Black 
river at Birdsong ferry on the 5th. Being strongly intrenched on the 
opposite side of the river, in a position to fully command the crossing, 
the Union troops waited until nightfall, when they raised and repaired 
the old ferry boat, and sent over Cockerill's brigade, which drove the 
enemy from his position and allowed the march to proceed. 

Bird's Point, Mo., Aug. 19, 1861. (See Charleston.) 

Bird's Point, Mo., Oct. 14, 1861. Detachment of the ist Illinois 
Cavalry. Lieut. S. P. Tufts, with 25 men of his company, was sent 
down the Rushes Ridge road to observe the movements of the enemy. 
About 2 p. m. he reached the vicinity of the Underwood farm, some 



Cyclopedia of Battles 131 

9 miles from Bird's Point, and there came in contact with Co. A, 
1st Miss, cavalry battalion, under Capt. Montgomery. A skirmish 
was at once commenced, but owing to the larger force of the enemy 
and the advantageous position he occupied, being protected by tim- 
ber, Tufts was forced to retire with a loss of i man mortally and 
several slightly wounded and 4 horses killed. A number of the enemy 
were seen to fall, but the exact loss was not learned. (Also known 
as Underwood's Farm and Beckwith's Farm.) 

Birmingham, Miss., April 24, 1863. 2nd Iowa Cavalry. While Col. 
Edward Hatch, with the 2nd la., was doing scout duty he was attacked 
from the rear about 10 a. m. on the 24th, by a detachment of Chal- 
mers' forces, consisting of the 2nd Tennessee, Inge's battalion, Smith's 
regiment, and four companies under Capt. Ham. The larger force 
of the enemy and scarcity of ammunition forced Hatch to retire, 
but his retreat was successfully conducted. Concealing his men at 
favorable points, and firing upon the enemy at close range, he inflicted 
heavy loss, a 2-pounder he had with him being especially effective. 
After 6 miles of this running fight the Confederates withdrew. Hatch 
reached La Grange on the 26th with 50 prisoners and reported about 
100 of the enemy, killed and wounded, 300 rifles and shot-guns de- 
stroyed, and a number of horses and mules taken. His own loss 
was 10 men killed, wounded or missing. The affair was an incident 
of Grierson's raid. 

Bishop's Creek, Gal., April 9, 1862. 2nd California Cavalry. During 
operations in the Owen's River valley the scouts were fired upon 
by Indians from a cafion. Col. Evans divided the regiment and at- 
tacked from two directions simultaneously in the hope of driving the 
Indians from their position. After futile endeavors for several hours 
he was forced to withdraw with a loss of 2 men killed and a number 
wounded. The Indians numbered about 700. 

Black Bayou Expedition, Miss., April 5-10, 1863. ist Division, 
15th Corps, commanded by Brig.-Gen. Frederick Steele. Steele left 
Greenville and pursued the Confederates under Col. Ferguson over 
40 miles down Deer creek. Ferguson's force numbered about 1,000 
cavalry and infantry, with 8 pieces of artillery, 2 of which were 10- 
pounder Parrott guns. At Thomas' plantation they received reinforce- 
ments from Rolling Fork and made a stand, opening fire with their 
artillery. Steele replied and advanced upon them across an open 
field, when Ferguson fell back to Rolling Fork, where a larger body 
of the enemy was stationed. Steele occupied the Confederate camp 
that night and the next morning, learning of the reinforcements 
that Ferguson had met at Rolling Fork, fell back to Greenville after 
destroying about 500,000 bushels of corn, capturing 1,000 head of 
stock of different kinds, and a number of vehicles. The Union loss 
on the expedition was i killed and I wounded, the man killed being 
one of Steele's escort. 

Blackburn's Ford, Va., July 18, 1861. Richardson's Brigade of 
Tyler's Division. The skinnish at Blackburn's ford was the prelim- 
inary engagement of the greater battle of Manassas on the 21st. After 
occupying Centerville, about 9 a. m. Gen. Tyler .determined on a 
reconnaissance in the direction of the ford. Upon arriving at Bull 
Run he could see the enemy upon the opposite slope, which was 
well wooded and- afforded excellent opportunities for concealment. 
Although distinctly ordered by Gen. McDowell to do nothing to pre- 
cipitate an engagement, Tyler ordered up a battery and Richardson's 
brigade — "to demonstrate the enemy's line." Richardson's brigade 
was composed of the ist Mass., 2nd and 3d Mich, and 12th N. Y. 
infantry; Brackett's squadron of the 2nd U. S. cavalry and Co. D, 



132 The Union Army 

5th U. S. artillery. After a few shots from the battery, the Confed- 
erate artillery responding with right good will, the I2th N. Y. fell 
into confusion and Sherman's brigade, consisting of the 13th, 69th, 
and 79th N. Y. and 2nd Wis. infantry, and Co. E, 3d U. S. artillery, 
was ordered forward as a reserve, but did not become engaged. The 
Confederate forces at the ford consisted of five regiments under 
command of Gen. Longstreet. and in developing the line Tyler 
brought on an engagement of no inconsiderable proportions. Agree- 
able to Beauregard's tactics, the infantry fell back gradually to the 
stronger position at Manassas Junction, while the artillery continued 
the duel for some time longer. In' this action the Union loss was 
19 killed, 38 wounded and 26 missing. The skirmish was not without 
its benefit to both sides. It confirmed Beauregard m the belief that 
the general attack upon his position would be made somewhere near 
the center of his line, and caused McDowell to change his tactics 
to an attack on the Confederate left by way of Sudley ford. (See 
Bull Run, July 21, 1861.) 

Blackburn's Ford, Va., Oct. 15. 1863. Portion of the 2nd Corps, 
Army of the Potomac. The corps, under command of Maj.-Gen. 
G. K. Warren, had been actively engaged in the skirmishing for 
several days preceding, in what is known as the Bristoe campaign. 
The arrival of night on the 13th was all that prevented Warren's 
men from an attack from a much larger force of Lee's army. During 
the night Warren withdrew across the ford, where he took a position 
better calculated for defense, and at daylight received reinforcements 
of three rifled batteries which greatly strengthened his forces. Skir- 
mishing was continued all day in the vicinity but neither side gained 
an}' decided advantage. The loss of the 2nd corps for the entire 
Bristoe campaign was 50 killed, 335 wounded and 161 missing, but 
only a few fell at Blackburn's ford. 

Black Creek, Ala., Mav 2. 1863. (See Streight's Raid.) 

Black Creek, N. C, March 22, 1865. 

Black Creek, Va., June 21, 1864. 2nd Cavalry Division, Army of 
the Potomac. Early in the morning the Confederate cavalry under 
Gen. Wade Hampton was driven from the White House landing on 
the Pamunkey river and was pursued toward Tunstall's station by the 
2nd division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. David McM. Gregg. At 
Black creek Hampton made a stand and Gregg tried to drive him 
from his position but failed, and during the night retired toward the 
Chickahominy. No report of losses. 

Blackford's Ford, Va., Sept. 19-20, 1862. Part of ist and 2nd 
Divisions, 5th Army Corps. The action was begun on the afternoon 
of the 19th by the ist U. S. sharpshooters and Porter's heavy artillery. 
Weed's and Benjamin's batteries drove the enemy away from the 
ford and the sharpshooters crossed under the protection of the 4th 
Mich, infantry. The Michigan regiment then crossed in the face of 
a galling fire and captured 6 of the Confederate guns. As it was 
almost dark the troops were ordered to recross to the Maryland side, 
rather than risk remaining in the exposed position during the night. 
Early on the morning of the 20th Col. Barnes and Gen. Grifiin, with 
the 1st and 2nd brigades of the ist division, and Gen. Sykes, division 
commander, with about 800 men, crossed and made a reconnaissance 
in the direction of Shepherdstown. About 2 miles from the river 
they were met by the Confederates under Gen. A. P. Hill and driven 
back with a loss of 92 killed, 131 wounded and 103 missing. The 
enemy's loss was reported as 30 killed and 231 wounded. (Also called 
Boteler's and Shepherdstown ford.) 

Black Fork Hills, Mo., July 4, 1863. 9th Cavalry, Missouri En- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 133 

rolled Militia. A detachment of this regiment under Lieut. D. M. 
Draper came up with a party of Confederates, commanded by an 
officer named Pulliam, in the Black Fork hills, and a skirmish ensued 
in which the Confederates were routed, losing 21 of their number, 
who were taken prisoners. Draper pursued them for some distance 
but without accomplishing further results. 

Black Jack Church, N. C, March 26, 1864. Cavalry of the ist N. 
C. Union Volunteers. Capt. G. W. Graham was sent toward Green- 
ville upon a reconnaissance, surprised the Confederate reserves and 
pickets near the church and routed them with a loss of 9 men killed, 
several wounded and a number captured, the Union casualties being 
confined to a few wounded horses. 

Black Jack Forest, Tenn., March 16, 1862. Detachments of 4th 
Illinois and 5th Ohio Cavalry. 

Blackland, Miss., June 3, 1862. ist Ohio Cavalr}^ Lieut. -Col. 
Smith, with seven companies of his regiment, while reconnoitering in 
the direction of Ripley, met a force of 100 Confederates at Blackland, 
engaged them and drove them back, wounding a number and taking 
one prisoner. He also captured their live stock and wagons, and 
gathered up a number of guns dropped by the enemy in his flight. 

Blackland, Miss., June 7, 1862. A small force of Union cavalry, 
guided by a negro, succeeded in cutting off an outpost from the main 
body of Lay's cavalry and then made a dash upon the post, killing 
I man. The others in their hurry to get away crowded upon a bridge, 
which broke down and 10 were taken prisoners. A number of horses 
were also captured and the Federals escaped without the loss of a 
man. 

Blackland, Miss., June 28, 1862. 7th Illinois and 3d Michigan 
Cavalry. A cavalry picket, under Maj. Gilbert Moyers, of the 3d 
Mich., was attacked a little after sunrise by about 70 Confederate 
troopers, who wounded a corporal and captured a private. The horses 
belonging to Co. K, 7th 111., being saddled, Moyers ordered the 
company to mount and go with him in pursuit. He followed the 
enemy about 20 miles, killing i, capturing 2 and wounding several 
others. In their flight the Confederates threw away arms, blankets 
and articles of clothing. 

Black River, La., Nov. i, 1864. 6th U. S. Colored Heavy Artillery. 

Black River, Miss., July 1-4, 1863. (See Messinger's Ferry.) 

Black River, Mo., Sept. 12, 1861. Three Companies of ist Indiana 
Cavalry. Maj. Gavitt, who was sent out to reconnoiter Hardee's po- 
sition at Greenville, attacked Talbot's camp on Black river, near 
Ironton, killed 2 men, took 3 prisoners and captured 60 muskets and 
25 horses without suffering any casualties. 

Black River, Mo., July 8, 1862. 5th Kansas Cavalry. 

Black River, N. C, March 14, 1865. 3d Brigade, 3d Division, 
20th Army Corps. _ In the advance on Goldsboro the brigade, com- 
manded by Bvt. Brig.-Gen. William Coggswell, was ordered to make 
a reconnaissance on the Goldsboro road as far as Black river. The 
55th and 73d Ohio were moved forward in advance and encountered 
the enemy in considerable force at the river. Seven companies of the 
55th were deployed as skirmishers and engaged' the Confederates 
for about 20 minutes, after which the two regiments were withdrawn, 
as the object of the reconnaissance had been accomplished. The 
Union loss was i man killed and i wounded. The Confederate casu- 
alties were not ascertained. 

Black River, S. C, Aug. 14, 1862. Union gunboats landed in Win- 
yaw bay in front of Georgetown about noon on the 13th. The next day 
they moved slowly up the river for about 20 miles, where they landed 



134 The Union Army 

and captured a battery. Maj. Emanuel, with a detachment of :he 
4th S. C. cavalry, was hurried to the assistance of the battery, but 
arrived too late to be of service. He engaged the Union forces, how- 
ever, and drove them back to the boats. One of the vessels got 
aground and two hours were .spent in getting it off, the Confederates 
keeping up an incessant fire during the time. The enemy continued 
to harass the boats as they passed down the river, but without doing 
serious damage, as the casualties were slight on both sides. 

Blacksburg, Va., May ii, 1864. 3d Pennsylvania 'Reserves. Capt. 
La Rue, with Companies I, C and H, was sent out on picket duty. 
Learning of the proximity of a body of guerrillas he deployed his 
men as skirmishers to drive them from their position. The enemy 
captured i man but La Rue afterward recaptured him. He also cap- 
tured 9 of the horses belonging to the guerrillas. 

Black's Mill, Ark., Feb. 17. 1864. 

Blackville, S. C, Feb. 7, 1865. 3d Cavalry Division, Miltiary Divi- 
sion of the Mississippi. The division charged Wheeler's pickets 
and occupied the town of Blackville. Dibrell's Tennessee brigade in 
turn charged the Union troops, driving them back into the town, 
after which the entire Confederate force in the vicinity withdrew 
across the Edisto at Holman's bridge. 

Black Walnut Creek (near Sedalia), Mo., Nov. 29, i86r. ist 
souri Militia Cavalry. 

Black Warrior River, Ala., May i, 1863. (See Streight's Raid.) 

Blackwater, Mo., Oct. 12-13, 1863. (See Merrill's Crossing.) 

Blackwater, Mo., Sept. 23. 1864. One Battalion of the ist Mis- 
souri Cavalry. 

Blackwater, Va., Sept. 28, 1862. ist New York Mounted Rifles. 

Blackwater, Va., Oct. 26. 1862. ist New York Mounted Rifles, 
39th Illinois, and 62nd Ohio Infantry. An expedition under Gen. Terry 
was sent out from Suffolk to the Blackwater, where it arrived at 
daybreak on the 26th. Near Zuni the cavalry swam the river and the 
howitzers were sent over in canoes. The enemy retired from the river 
bank after a slight resistance, with a loss of several killed or 
wounded, and 5 captured. The only Union casualty was the death 
of Lieut. William Wheelan, of the mounted rifles. 

Blackwater, Va., March 17. 1863. nth Pennsylvania Cavalry. 

Blackwater Bridge, Va., Nov. 14, 1862. Detachment of Troops, 
Department of Virgina, under Col. C. C. Dodge. Maj. -Gen. John J. 
Peck, commanding the post of Suffolk, reports that a portion of his 
force under Col. Dodge, reconnoitering in the vicinity of Windsor, 
had a brisk skirmish at Blackwater bridge at daylight. Tlie Confederate 
guard was driven away, and the camp equipage, etc., captured. Later 
the same day at Zuni a guard of Confederates offered some stiff 
resistance and w'ere only driven away when howitzers were brought 
to bear. Five Federals were wounded in the two affairs. 

Blackwater Creek, Mo., Dec. 18, 1861. (See Milford, same date.) 

Blackwater Creek, Mo., March 29, 1862. ist Iowa Cavalry. Capt. 
J. D. Thomi)son, with Campanies A, F and G, and 2 pieces of the 
1st Mo. artillery, was sent on a scouting expedition from Sedalia to 
Warrensburg. About 4 p. m. on the 29th, the party came upon some 
60 or 70 of Parker's guerrillas. A charge was at once ordered and 
successfully executed, which finally became a running fight for 4 
miles through the woods and thickets. The Confederates lost about 
ID wounded, and left a similar number dead upon the field, and 15 
were captured. The Union loss was i man killed and 2 wounded, 
I dangerously. The company of guerrillas was completely broken 
up. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 135 

Blackwater Creek, Mo., April i6, 1862. ist Iowa Cavalry. A 
scouting party, under Maj. Thomas ■Curley, came upon a party of 
bushwhackers and iircd upon them, wounding 2, i mortally. The 
guerrillas scattered in such a way as to render pursuit futile. 

Blackwater Creek, Mo., July 23, 1862. A Detachment of the 7th 
Missouri Cavalry. The detachment, under Lieut. Dewolf, encountered 
one of the numerous bands of guerrillas that infested the country, 
near Columbus, and engaged them in a skirmish. The bushwhackers 
lost 4 killed, 8 or 10 wounded, 13 horses, 10 guns, 6 pistols and a 
quantity of ammunition. The Union loss was i man slightly wounded, 
I horse killed and 3 wounded. 

Blackwater Creek, Mo., July 27, 1864. (See Big Creek, Mo., same 
date.) 

Blackwater Creek, Mo., May 20, 1865. Scouts from Pettis County 
Militia. The scouting party, under Capt. H. C. Donohue, struck the 
trail of some bushwhackers and followed it to the Blackwater, where 
he came upon a small party dismounted in the brush. The men 
fled, leaving their horses and equipments to fall into Donohue's 
hands. 

Blackwater River, Ky., March 29, 1865. 

Blackwater River, Va., Oct. 3, 1862. Expeditionary Forces. Pur- 
suant to an order from Gen. Dix, commanding the Department of 
Virginia, Maj. -Gen. John J. Peck, commanding at Suffolk, sent 2,000 
men, under command of Col. S. P. Spear of the nth Pa. cavalry, to 
destroy the floating bridge over the Blackwater river at Franklin, ex- 
pecting the cooperation of gunboats from Albemarle sound. The 
vessels failed to arrive and Spear held a large force of the enemy at 
bay for several hours while waiting for the boats to come up. In 
the action the Confederates lost over 200 in killed and wounded. 
Spear's loss being but i killed and 6 wounded and missing. 

Blackwater River, Va., Oct. 29, 1862. 

Blackwater River, Va., Dec. 2, 1862. (See Franklin.) 

Blackwater River, Va., May 6, 1864. The action on Blackwater 
river on this date was at Birch Island bridge, and was one of the 
incidents of Kautz's raid during the siege of Petersburg. (See 
Kautz's raid.) 

Blackwater River, Va., Oct. 16, 1864. 20th New York Cavalry. 
Companies D, K and I, under the command of Capt. Carroll, of the 
last named, was sent on an expedition from Bernard's mills to Mur- 
free's station, to ascertain the movements of the enemy. Upon reach- 
ing the Blackwater part of the command were dismounted and thrown 
forward as skirmishers. At the bank of the river they were met 
with a sharp fire from a line of rifle-pits p_n the opposite side, where 
the ferryboat was also moored. Private Joseph Lonsway, of Co. D, 
swam the river and brought the boat over, having performed a similar 
feat once before, and a detachment of 25 men, all the boat would 
carry safely, was sent over to charge the works. This movement was 
successfully executed, the enemj^ flying in all directions. Carroll de- 
stroyed 55 bales of cotton, 39 boxes of tobacco, 4 barrels of apple 
brandy, 6 bags of salt, 36 barrels of pork, a lot of cotton cloth, a 
quantity of bacon, 100 stands of small arms, burfied the railroad 
station and culvert, and the post office, several bushels of Confederate 
mail being taken back to Bernard's mills for examination, and all 
this without losing a man. 

Blackwell Station, Mo., Oct. 15, 1861. (See Big River Bridge, same 
date.) 

Blain's Cross Roads, Tenn., Dec. 16, 1863. Army of the Ohio. 
Longstreet's advance attacked Gen. Parke's cavalry and drove it 
back to Blain's cross-roads. No losses reported on either side. 



136 The Union Army 

Blair's Landing, La., April 12-13. 1864. Ironclads Osage and Lex- 
ington and Provisional Division, 17th Army Corps. After the defeat 
of the Federals at Sabine cross-roads, and the return march 
to Grand Ecore had begun, the division of Brig.-Gen. T. Kilby Smith, 
then on transports in the river, was ordered to return at once. On 
the I2th the transport fleet, under convoy of the Osage and Lexing- 
ton, was tired upon by Confederate sharpshooters and later in the day, 
near Blair's landing, a considerable force with 4 pieces of artillery 
opened upon the fleet. The troops on board were well protected be- 
hind barricades of cotton and hay bales and suffered little loss. On 
the 13th, when the grounding of the leading transport delayed the 
passage of the rest of the boats, the Confederates again opened a 
heavy fire of artillery and musketry, but were driven off by the iron- 
clads and the artillery on board the other vessels. (Also called 
Pleasant Hill landing.) 

Blakely, Ala., April i, 1865. 2nd Cavalry Brigade, 13th Corps. 
Spurling's cavalry was sent ahead to ascertain the best route to 
Holyoke and to open up communications with Gen. Canby, who was 
operating against Spanish Fort and Blakely. He left Stockton at 
5 a. m. on the ist, and when about 5 miles from Blakely encountered 
a considerable force of the enemy. Dismounting the 2nd Me. and 
deploying the men as skirmishers, he soon determined the strength 
and position of the Confederates. Then charging with the 2nd 111. 
the Confederates were routed from their position and two companies 
followed to within a mile of their works at Blakely. Most of the 
Confederate force belonged to the 46th Miss. The battle flag of 
that regiment was captured, together with 74 men, 8 horses and mules, 
and 70 stands of arms. The Union loss was i man mortally and i 
slightly wounded, the latter having his foot injured by the explosion 
of a torpedo buried in the road. The prisoners were made to dig 
up the other torpedoes that had been placed there. 

Blakeny's, S. C, March 3, 1865. 

Blake's Farm, W. Va., Nov. lo-ii, 1861. nth Ohio and ist and 
2nd Kentucky Infantry. Blake's farm lay on the left bank of the 
New river, about a mile from where that stream enters the Great 
Kanawha. Acting under orders from Gen. J. D. Cox. Col. De Villiers, 
with 200 of the nth Ohio, and Lieut-Col. Enyart, with 200 
of the 1st Ky., crossed the Kanawha at different points on 
the loth, the object being to occupy and hold the crest of the hills 
to prevent the enemj' from obtaining a position from which he could 
destroy the ferry. Skirting the hills along the New River De Villiers 
surprised some 50 or 60 Confederates at Blake's and drove them 
back into the woods on the hills with some loss. Shortly after dark 
that evening six companies of the 2nd Ky., under Maj. Coleman, 
were sent over as reinforcements, the enemy also receiving a rein- 
forcement of 200 from the camp near Huddleston. At daj^break on 
the nth the action was commenced by driving in the enemy's pickets, 
and forcing the main body, several hundred in number, up the New 
river in the direction of Cotton hill. When that point was reached 
the Confederate baggage train could be seen moving along the 
Fayette pike and in a little while the whole force was in a retreat. A party 
imder Maj. Lieper followed them up the pike and took up a position 
at Laurel Hill, holding the position until reinforced by Ben- 
ham's brigade the following day, when the pursuit was renewed. In 
the skirmishing around Blake's farm the Union loss was 2 killed, 
I wounded, and 6 missing, all belonging to the nth Ohio. Of the 
Confederates from 25 to 30 were seen carried off the field either dead 
or wounded, and i found dead the next day was buried by the Union 
troops. 



Cyclopedia of Battles loT 

Blick's Station, Va., Aug. 19, 1864. The action at Blick's station 
on this date was a part of the operations of the 3th and 9th corps 
against the railroad. (See Weldon Railroad.) 

Blockhouses, N. & C. R. R., Tenn., Dec. 2-4, 1864. (See Nash- 
ville & Chattanooga R. R. 

Blood's, Tenn., Jan. 3, 1863. (See Cox's Hill.) 

Bloomery Gap, W. Va., Feb. 14, 1862. 5th Ohio Infantry and 
Virginia Militia. With the evacuation of Romney by the Confederates 
on Feb. 7, the Union forces in the valley district assumed the aggres- 
sive and skirmishes were of daily occurrence, the purpose being to 
keep the enemy from interfering with the reopening of the Baltimore 
& Ohio railroad. One of the most dashing of these affairs was the 
charge of the Federal troops under Brig.-Gen. F. W. Lander, on 
the Confederate post at Bloomery gap, where 13 Confederates were 
killed and 65 captured, 17 of the prisoners being commissioned offi- 
cers. Lander's loss was 2 men and 6 horses. 

Bloomery Gap, W. Va., March 28, 1864. 

Bloomfield, Ky., Oct. 18, 1862. 

Bloomfield, Ky., Nov. 5, 1864. 37th Kentucky Infantry. Capt. 
Borrell's company, of the 37th Ky., surprised a squad of guerrillas at 
Bloomfield, where they were having their horses shod, after having 
pillaged the town. Borrell's men opened fire on them and 2 fell 
mortally wounded. The volley was followed by a charge and 3 more 
of the bushwhackers were captured. The next day while the prisoners 
were being escorted to Bardstown they tried to escape and were 
killed by the guards. 

Bloomfield, Mo., May 11, 1862. ist Wisconsin Cavalry. The Wis- 
consin troops, under Col. Daniels, fell upon Col. Phelan's camp about 
ID miles from Bloomfield, killed i, captured 11, and scattered the rest 
through the swamp. There fell into Daniel's hands a number of 
horses and oxen, a considerable quantity of camp equipage, arms, 
ammunition, etc., and Phelan's chest, containing his private papers. 

Bloomfield, Mo., July 29, 1862. 

Bloomfield, Mo., Aug. 24, 1862. Detachment 13th Illinois Cavalr3^ 
Under an order of Gen. John M. Schofield, to kill, capture or disperse 
a body of Confederates operating between Bloomfield and the Cape, 
Maj. Lippert, with 200 men, made an attack on the Confederate 
camp, killed 30, wounded several more, took 16 prisoners, and cap- 
tured a number of wagons and horses, several stand of arms 
and a quantity of camp equipage. No casualties on the Federal side. 

Bloomfield, Mo., Aug. 29, 1862. 

Bloomfield, Mo., Sept. 11, 1862. 2nd Missouri Light Artillerj'. 
Maj. Urban with a battery drove the enemy from Bloomfield in 
the direction of Holcomb's island, losing 4 men killed and a 24- 
pounder howitzer. The Confederate loss was not ascertained. 

Bloomfield, Mo., Jan. 27, 1863. 68th Enrolled Missouri State 
Militia. Col. Lindsay, with 250 men of his regiment and 2 small 
cannon, provided at private expense, dashed into the town of Bloom- 
field, captured a number of the enemy, with all the horses, equipments, 
arms and stores, belonging to the band of guerrilla.s that had for some 
time been committing depredations in the neighborhood. For his 
gallant action Lindsay received the congratulations of Gen. Carr, 
commanding the St. Louis district. 

Bloomfield, Mo., March 1-2, 1863. 2nd Missouri State Militia Cav- 
alry. Lieut. F. R. Poole, with a detachment of the regiment, swam 
the Castor river during the night, surprised the town of Bloomfield 
at daylight, capturing the Confederate provost-marshal with all his 
official documents, 20 Confederate soldiers, a number of horses and 



138 The Union Army 

guns and a quantity of ammunition. Later in the day he sent a party 
of 20 to surprise another camp about 15 miles down the Arkansas 
road. The movement was successfully executed, 2 pickets being killed 
and the main body flying at the noise of the first firing, leaving their 
arms, provisions, etc., to fall into Poole's hands. 

Bloomfield, Mo., April 20, 1863. 

Bloomfield, Mo., April 29-30, 1863. Marmaduke's Missouri Ex- 
pedition. After the repulse of Marmaduke at Cape Girardeau on 
the 26th he was pursued by the Federal forces under Gens. McNeil 
and Vandever. On the morning of the 29th a slight skirmish, at- 
tended by a few casualties, occurred at the Castor river, between 
the Federal advance and the Confederate rear. That afternoon, when 
within a few miles of Bloomfield, Col. LaGrange, who led the ad- 
vance with the 1st Wis. cavalry, again commenced skirmishing with 
the enemy's rear guard, which retreated rapidly toward the town. 
McNeil, hearing the firing, hurried the artillery to the front, posted 
his guns on Walker's hill, within 1,000 yards of the enemy, re- 
called the skirmishers and opened fire. In a short time the Con- 
federate guns were silenced. That night the men lay in line of 
battle and at 4 a. m. on the 30th LaGrange advanced and attacked 
the enemy in his camp. An hour later the artillery was brought into 
play, driving the enemy from the town in a precipitate retreat on 
the Chalk Bluff road. The entire Union column occupied Bloomfield 
by II o'clock, where it was halted for further orders. 

Bloomfield, Mo., May 12, 1863. 

Bloomfield, Mo., Nov. 29-30, 1863. ist, 2nd, and 6th Missouri Cav- 
alry. A force of about 500 Confederates, with 2 pieces of artillery, 
under the command of Lee Crandall, surrounded Bloomfield on the 
morning of the 29th and demanded the surrender of the town. Capt. 
Preuitt, who was guarding the post with 250 of the ist Mo. cavalry, 
declined and put the court-house square in a state of barricade. The 
Confederates, being more intent upon plunder than fight, delayed 
operations until reinforcements could be received from McRae. who 
was near Pocahontas. At daylight on the morning of the 30th 
Preuitt was reinforced by Maj. Robbins, with 400 men of the 2nd 
Mo. cavalry and 2 cannon, and by Maj. Montgomery, with a de- 
tachment of the 6th Mo. cavalry. The Union troops now took the 
offensive. The Confederates were driven from their position and 
pursued as far as the St. Francis river, several of their number be- 
ing killed or wounded and 5 captured. 

Bloomfield, Mo., April i, 1864. 2nd Missouri State Militia Cav- 
alry. A squad of men sent out under Capt. Shibley came upon a 
small party of guerrillas in the act of robbing a Union man's house, 
killed I and captured the rest. They belonged to Kitchen's band. 

Bloomfield, Mo., May 6, 1864. Scouts from 2nd Missouri State 
Militia Cavalry. The scouting party fell in with 6 guerrillas about 
25 miles south of Bloomfield and immediately gave chase, killing 2 
of the number. One of those killed had in his pocket a parole given 
him by the provost-marshal of the New Madrid district in December 
previous. 

Bloomfield, Mo., July 14. 1864. 2nd Cavalry, Missouri State Militia, 
and Enrolled Militia. During a skirmish between the Missouri troops 
and a band of bushwhackers, i man of the enrolled militia was killed 
and I of the 2nd cavalry slightly wounded. Of the guerrillas l was 
mortally wounded, 2 others slightly wounded, and 2 fine horses with 
their equipments were captured. 

Bloomfield, Mo., March ^7, 1865. 50 men of the 7th Kansas and 
2nd Missouri State Militia. Capt. Campbell was sent with the de- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 139 

tachment into Dunklin county. About 25 miles below Bloomfield they 
ran across a company of Confederates and killed 6, I of whom was 
Capt. Howard, the leader of the band. Campbell had 2 men wounded. 
On the 7th they came upon Bolin's gang of guerrillas and a skirmish 
ensued in whicli 2 of Bolin's men were killed and several wounded 
without casualties on the Union side. 

Blooming Gap, Va., Feb. 13, 1862. ist West Va. Cavalry, 8th Ohio 
and "th West Va. Infantry. 

Bloomington, Tenn., Feb. 27, 1863. Detachment 2nd Illinois Cav- 
alry. Capt. Moore was sent with the detachment to surprise the 
camp of Col. Richardson on the Hatchie river near Bloomington. 
He reached the camp at daybreak to find it deserted, except for 8 
men left to guard the stores and collect conscripts, the main body 
having marched the day before in a southeasterly direction. The 
guard and stores were captured without resistance and several build- 
ings destroyed. 

Blount County, Tenn., July 20, 1864. 

Blount's Creek, N. C, April 9, 1863. ist Brigade, 5th Division, 
i8th Corps. The brigade, under command of Brig.-Gen. F. B. Spinola, 
was engaged in the military operations growing out of the siege of 
Washington, N. C. In pursuance of Gen. Palmer's orders Spinola 
marched from Fort Anderson by the Swift creek road. A bridge 
was constructed over Little Swift creek during the night of the 8th 
and at daylight the next morning the whole brigade was moved 15 
miles to Ruff's mill, near the head of Blount's creek. For the last 
two miles of that march a running fire had been kept up with the 
enemy's pickets, who gradually fell back to Rufif's mill, where a 
force of some 2,000 Confederates were strongly intrenched. Behind 
the first line of fortifications, at a distance of half a mile, lay a 
reserve force of 3,000, the whole body being commanded by Gen. 
Pettigrew. The bridge had been destroyed and on the north side 
of the creek, opposite the works of the enemy, was an almost impene- 
trable swamp. Lieut. Burke, of the 3d N. Y. cavalry, was ordered 
up with a mountain howitzer to open the engagement. The 17th and 
43d Mass. infantry, two sections of Capt. Belger's battery, one sec- 
tion of the 32-pounder howitzers, and the 3d N. Y. cavalry were all 
that could be used to advantage, owing to the condition of the 
ground. After a short time Spinola. succeeded in silencing the enemy's 
guns, but was unable to bring a sufficient force to bear to drive them 
from their position. Several vain attempts were made to cross the 
stream in order to secure a position where the Confederates could 
be subjected to an enfilading fire. At 5 p. m. Spinola ordered the 
troops engaged to withdraw from the field and soon after began the 
retreat toward New Berne. Notwithstanding the heavy fire to which 
the forces had been exposed the casualties were very slight, only 
9 men being wounded and of those only 3 severely. 

Blount's Creek, N. C, April 5, 1864. Detachment of the 58th Pennsyl- 
vania and 2ist Connecticut Infantry. Capts. Clay and Stanton, who 
led the Union troops, moved from the garrison at Hill's point and 
near Blount's creek surprised Whitford's battalion of the 67th N. C, 
capturing Lieut. Taylor and 6 men. The two Ufiion captains re- 
ceived the congratulations of Gen. Peck for their successful conduct 
of the expedition. 

Blount's Plantation, Ala., May 2, 1863. (See Streight's Raid.) 

Blountsville, Ala., May i. 1863. (See Streight's Raid.) 

Blountsville, Tenn., Sept. 22, 1863. Part of the 23d Army Corps. 
After the fight at Zollicoflfer on the 20th the main body of the Union 
forces, under Gen. John W. Foster, withdrew to Blountsville, where 



140 The Union Army 

they were engaged on the 22nd by about 3,600 of the enemy. The 
Confederates were defeated after a sharp tight, losing 50 prisoners 
and I piece of artillery. The Union loss was 6 killed and 14 wounded. 

Blountsville, Tenn., Oct. 13, 1863. Part of the 3d Brigade, 4th Divi- 
sion, 23d Corps. About a mile from Blountsville a regiment of 
Confederate cavalry, with 2 pieces of artillery, were engaged by 
some of Gen. Shackelford's command. The Confederates, under the 
command of Gen. W. E. Jones, fell back slowly toward Zollicoffer, 
where they were reinforced by Wharton's brigade of infantry. No 
casualties reported on either side. 

Bluebird Gap, Ga., Sept. 11, 1863. 

Blue Creek, W. 'Va., Sept. i, 1861. 

Blue Earth River, Minn., May 2, 1865. A party of hostile Sioux 
Indians massacred a family of 5 or 6 persons on the Blue Earth 
river, and were pursued for some distance toward the Dakota line 
by a body of Gen. Sibley's troops, but succeeded in making their 
escape. 

Blue Island (near Leavenworth), Ind., June 19, 1863. Home 
Guards, commanded by Major Glendenin. 

Blue Mills, Mo., July 24, 1861. 5th Missouri Reserves. 

Blue Mills Landing, Mo., Sept. 17, 1861. 3d Iowa Infantry. The Iowa 
troops, commanded by Lieut. -Col. John Scott, left Centerville at 2 
a. m. for Liberty, 10 miles distant, where they hoped to intercept 
a body of Missourians marching to the assistance of Gen. Price. 
Upon arriving at Liberty, about 7 o'clock, Scott learned that the enemy 
to the number of about 4,000, had passed through the town on the 
afternoon preceding and taken the road to Blue ^^lills landing. While 
the troops were resting at Liberty firing was heard in the direction 
of the landing, and about the same time a rumor came that a Union 
force there was disputing the passage over the river. The firing 
was really a slight skirmish in which a party of Federal scouts lost 
4 killed and 2 wounded. Scott moved his forces toward the landing, 
marching rapidly until near the river, when he proceeded with more 
caution to ascertain the enemy's position. The Confederates, under 
Atchison and Patton, were concealed in the bed of a dry slough, on 
both sides of the road, from which position a heavy fire was opened, 
driving back the skirmishers, and at the same time attacking parties 
were sent against the Union front and right. Notwithstanding the 
overpowering force — the Confederates having 4,400 and Scott about 
700 men — the Federals bravely stood their ground, until ordered 
to fall back and then the retreat was conducted in an orderly manner. 
The Union loss was 20 killed and 80 wounded, that of the enemy 
being about 160 in killed and wounded. 

Blue Pond, Ala., Oct. 20, 1864. 

Blue River, Mo., May 21, 1864. 2nd Colorado Cavalry. A party 
of 9 men of the 2nd Col. was escorting a prisoner to Kansas Cit}-, and 
when within half a mile of Blue River was attacked by about 35 
guerrillas, having i man killed, i wounded and i missing. The Con- 
federate loss was not learned. 

Blue Rock Station, Gal., March 17, 1864. (See Red Mountain.) • 

Blue's Bridge, S. C., March 8, 1865. (See Love's Bridge, same date.) 

Blue's Gap, Va., Jan. 7, 1862. Detachment of Kelley's Division, 
Army of Western Virginia. Gen. B. F. Kelley, who was in command 
of the posts along the different lines of railroad in the Department 
of Western Virginia, being desirous of diverting Stonewall Jackson's 
attention from Hancock, planned an expedition against the force 
of Confederates stationed at Blue's gap, or Hanging Rock pass. On 
the 6th he ordered Col. S. H. Dunning, of the 5th Ohio infantry, to 



Cyclopedia of Battles 141 

make a detail of six companies from each of the following regiments: 
4th, 5th, 7th and 8th Ohio, ist W. Va., and 14th Ind. infantry. To this 
infantry force there were added the Ringgold, Washington, and three 
companies of the ist W. Va., cavalry, Daum's battery and Baker's 
Parrott guns. The expedition left Romney at 11 o'clock on the 
night of the 6th and, notwithstanding the cold weather and recent 
fall of snow, marched the 15 intervening miles between that point 
and the gap before daylight. Selecting a hill overlooking the gap 
the Parrott guns were soon placed in position to command the pass. 
About the same time the Confederates could be seen making prepara- 
tions to burn the bridge. Dunning ordered the 5th Ohio to advance 
at the double-quick to save it, and in a few minutes the regiment 
was on a blufif, where, with a well directed volley, they put a stop 
to further proceedings. Additional troops were now deployed to 
the right and left up the mountain, driving the enemy from covert 
to covert until a final stand was made in the rifle-pits near the 
summit. A charge was then ordered but before the men had time 
to fix their bayonets the Confederates left the pits and fled precipi- 
tately down the mountain, only to run into the remainder of the in- 
fantry force, who clinched the victory. The cavalry was ordered 
to charge but the fugitives scattered so that the charge was of no 
avail. The Confederates lost 7 men killed, a number wounded and 
7 captured; besides 2 6-pounder connon, a number of wagons, a 
quantity of ammunition, camp equipage, provisions, etc.. 10 horses 
and a number of tents. The Union loss was nothing. This expedition 
had the desired effect. Jackson, thinking an attack was about to 
be made on Winchester, withdrew from Hancock and hurried to the 
relief of Winchester. 

Blue's House, W. Va., Aug. 26, 1861. 

Blue Springs, Mo., March 22, 1863. 5th Missouri State Militia Cav- 
alry. A detachment of 50 men of the 5th cavalry, with an artillery 
company, under the command of Capt. H. B. Johnson, met with a 
much larger force of guerrillas at Blue springs, about 12 miles from 
Independence, and in a skirmish lost 9 killed, 3 wounded and 6 
missing. The Confederate loss was not ascertained. According to 
their custom the guerrillas broke up into small parties and scattered 
in all directions, killing, plundering and destroying as they went, 
and at the same time rendering pursuit impossible. 

Blue Springs, Tenn., near, Oct. 5, 1863. Portion of Gen. Burn- 
side's forces. A reconnaissance, under Col. James P. T. Carter, 
drove back the enemy's skirmishers, but finding the main body too 
large for him to attack. Carter withdrew, after a loss of 4 wounded 
and 7 missing, reporting 15 of the Confederates left dead on the 
field, most of whom were armed as infantry but wore the spurs 
of cavalrymen. 

Blue Springs, Tenn., Oct. 10, 1863. Shackelford's Cavalry Division, 
and Infantry of the 9th Corps, Army of the Ohio. The cavalry ad- 
vanced to Blue Springs, near Independence, early in the day, where 
they found a strong force of Confederates, under Cols. Carter and 
Giltner. who put up a stubborn resistance. Skirmishing was kept 
up until the arrival of the infantry, about 5 p. m., when the tide 
of battle was turned in favor of the Union forces. From that time 
until dark the fight was waged with unceasing vigor, and during the 
night the enemy quietly abandoned the field and retreated in the 
direction of Henderson. The Union loss was 9 killed, 61 wounded 
and I missing. No authentic report of the Confederate loss could be 
obtained, but it was known to be much heavier in killed and wounded, 
besides 150 being captured. 



143 The Union Army 

Blue Springs, Tenn., Aug. 2^, 1864. loth Michigan and gth Tennes- 
see Cavalry. Gen. Gillem broke camp, near Russellville, at 6:30 a. 
m. on the 23d, and marched toward Greenville. After dispersing a 
small force of the enemy at Bull's gap and routing the pickets at 
Blue springs he came upon a larger body 2 miles further on. They 
occupied a strong position on a ridge to the south of the road. The 
loth Mich, cavalry were ordered to dismount and move forward, while 
2 pieces of artillery were placed in position. An attempt was made 
by the Confederates to charge one of the guns, but they were met 
by the loth Mich, and repulsed with considerable loss. Two com- 
panies of the gth Tenn. were then ordered to turn the enemy's left 
flank and this movement was successful through the assistance of a 
small boy — William Brown — who showed Col. Miller a by-road, and 
although but a mere child, kept with Miller through the fight. As 
soon as the flank movement was made the Confederates began to 
retreat. Lieut. -Col. Brownlow was then ordered to take five com- 
panies of the gth Tenn. and charge the enemy in front. Then com- 
menced a running fight which was continued to 2 miles beyond 
Greenville. The Confederate loss was 57 killed and the Union loss 
28 wounded, 2 of whom afterward died. 

Blue Stone, W. Va., Aug. 13-14. 1862. 

Blue Stone, W. Va., Feb. 8, 1864. A Confederate report states 
that a Federal force drove in the pickets of the 45th Va. Infantry on. the 
8th. Rather than take chances of being defeated in his camp at 
the mouth of the Blue Stone, Lieut.-Col. W. E. Peters of the Con- 
federate force withdrew to a better position 5 miles away. There 
he awaited the Union attack, and w^hen it was made it was signally 
repulsed. Federal reports do not mention the afifair, in which there 
were no casualties in the Confederate command and none definitely 
known in the Union force. 

Blue Sulphur Road, W. Va., Dec. 14, 1863. (See Big Sewell 
Mountain.) 

Bluff Springs, Fla., March 25, 1865. (See Canoe Creek.) 

Bluffton, S. C, June 4, 1863. According to Confederate reports, 
Lieut.-Col. T. H. Johnson, with about 240 men of the _ 3d, 4th and 
nth S. C. cavalry, made an expedition from Fort Pulaski to BlufTton. 
At the outskirts of the town he encountered a body of Federal troops, 
which had just been landed from two gunboats and were advancing 
to meet him. An attempt was made to cut off the Union soldiers from 
the boats, but it failed. As Johnson followed them the gunboats opened 
a vigorous fire and he was compelled to fall back. The Federals then 
fired the town and fell back down the river. Johnson was investigated 
by a court of inquiry for his inefficient management of the affair. No 
casualties reported. 

Blythe's Ferry, Tenn., Nov. 13. 1863. 

Bobo's Cross-Roads, Tenn., July i, 1863. 2nd Division. 14th 
Corps. In order to take advantage of the situation made by the 
evacuation of Tullahoma by the Confederates, Gen. George H. 
Thomas ordered Gen. Negley to march with his division to Heffner's 
mill. (Negley in his reports says Hale's Mill.) The order was 
received about 11 o'clock on the morning of the ist and was promptly 
executed. When about 3 miles from Bobo's cross-roads Gen. Beatty's 
brigade, which was in advance, encountered the enemy's pickets, 
consisting of a force of cavalry and 2 pieces of artillery, and a 
skirmish was at once commenced. Several times Negley tried to 
flank the Confederates and capture their artillery, but owing to the 
broken surface of the ground was unable to succeed. The enemy 
was gradually forced back to a position on Elk River, beyond the 



Cyclopedia of Battles 143 

mill, where Negley, supported by Rosseau's division, went into camp. 
(See Bethpage Bridge.) 

Bob's Creek, Mo., March 7, 1862. A detachment of the ist Bat- 
talion, Missouri Cavalry Militia. Learning that a camp of guerrillas 
was located at the Chain of Rocks, near Flint hill, and that its 
occupants were making forays into the surrounding country, dis- 
arming the citizens and plundering their homes, Lieut. -Col. Arnold 
Krekel, commanding the battalion, sent 120 men under Officers 
Windmueller and Heyn to break it up. The camp was found on Bob's 
creek, in Lincoln county, about 5 miles from where it was reported 
to be, and the men reached it too late in the morning to surprise it 
as had been intended. The Union troops ran into an ambush while 
approaching the camp and lost 3 men wounded. A rush was then 
made and the bushwhackers driven out before they had time to 
gather any of their camp equipage, which was all captured, including a 
large tent, 3 horses and a lot of blankets. About a dozen of the 
guerrillas were killed. 

Boca Chica Pass, Tex., Oct. 14, 1864. 91st Illinois Infantry. A 
small body of Confederates appeared before the fortifications com- 
manded by Col. Henry M. Day, of the 91st 111., but a few shots from 
one of the 20-pounders quickly dispersed them. No casualties re- 
ported on either side. 

Boggs' Mills, Ark., Jan. 24, 1865. nth U. S. Colored Infantry, and 
a Detachment of the 3d Arkansas. On the night of the 24th Col. 
Newton's regiment (Confederate) took possession of Boggs' mills, 
12 miles from Dardanelle, the purpose being to grind a lot of flour 
and get away before daylight. About midnight Lieut.-Col. Steele, in 
command of the Union troops, effected a complete surprise, capturing 
all the flour, Newton's papers, 18 horses and 20 stands of arms. 

Boggy Depot, Ind. Ten, April 24, 1865. Scouts from the 7th Army 
Corps. A party of 20 Confederates, going north from Boggy Depot, 
were attacked by Gen. Bussey's scouts; 3 were killed and a small 
mail was captured, the letters giving information of a proposed raid 
in Missouri. 

Bogler's Creek, Ala., April i, 1865. (See Ebenezer Church.) 

Bogue Chitto Creek, Miss., Oct 17, 1863. Portion of the 15th 
and 17th Army Corps. An expedition was sent from Messinger's 
ferry, on the Big Black river, to Canton, under the command of 
Gen. McPherson, the object being to divert the enemy's attention 
from the movements going on in the vicinity of Vicksburg. Upon 
reaching Bogue Chitto creek on the afternoon of the i6th Col. 
Winslow, being in advance with the 4th la. cavalry, found Whitfield's 
brigade, with 2 pieces of artillery, drawn up on the opposite side to 
oppose further advance. Force's brigade of infantry was sent across 
and deployed ready to attack, when night came on. Early the next 
morning Leggett's brigade was sent to the support of Force, while 
two batteries and three regiments of cavalry were sent across to 
turn the enemy's right flank. Mower's brigade being stationed at 
the bridge as a reserve. During the night Cosby's and Logan's 
brigades came up from Maltby to reinforce Whitfield, and when the 
morning of the 17th dawned there were two formidable forces op- 
posed to each other at the bridge. The fight was opened by a battery 
of rifled guns, Force and Leggett at the same time advancing upon 
the works. The Confederates, seeing the force they had to meet, 
did not wait to receive the attack but left suddenly, part going to- 
ward Vernon and the rest, with the artillery, taking the road to 
Canton. Winslow's cavalry was started in pursuit on the Vernon 
road and Leggett was ordered to push on toward Canton. (See 
Robinson's Mills.) 



144 The Union Army 

Bogue Sound Blockhouse, N. C, Feb. 2, 1864. (See New Berne, 
same date.) 

Boiling Fork, Tenn., July 3, 1863. Part of the 2nd and 3d Divisions, 
20th Corps. Sheridan advanced on Winchester at 4 a. m., driving the 
enemy's pickets before him. About 200 Confederate cavalry were 
drawn up in front of the town and Sheridan ordered a charge. The 
Confederates did not wait for the charge, but as soon as they saw 
it forming fled pell mell through the town, several of their number 
who were unable to keep up being captured. After crossing Boiling 
Fork, a small stream about a mile and a half from town, they made 
a stand, fired on the 39th Ind.. which was in close pursuit, and 
wounded 4 men. Gen. Lytle's brigade was then sent forward to 
drive the enemy from the stream, which was easily done, the Con- 
federates retiring in the direction of Cowan. The only Union loss 
sustained was the 4 men already mentioned, and 7 horses killed. 

Boiling Springs, Tenn., April 19, 1864. Scouts from the 2nd Indi- 
ana Cavalry. The scouting party came upon a small force of 
Confederates at Boiling springs, on the Charleston and Spring Place 
road, about 8 o'clock in the evening, and drove them back, killing 
2 of their horses. 

Boiling Springs, Tenn., April 22, 1864. Scouts from the ist Wis- 
consin Cavalry. At Waterhouse's mill the party of scouts was di- 
vided into 2 parties, one, under Lieut. -Col. Stewart, was to proceed 
down the Spring Place road, and the other was to march by a 
different route, the object being to efifect the capture or dispersion 
of a Confederate scouting party known to be in the vicinity of 
Boiling springs. Owing to a miscalculation in the distance the 
second party did not arrive in time to be of service to Stewart's 
men, who made the attack at daylight and succeeded in capturing 
14 prisoners, 2 of whom were commissioned officers. Had the other 
party reached the enemy's rear according to the plan, not one would 
have escaped. The Union troops did not sufifer any loss. 

Boles' Farm, Mo., July 22, 1862. Detachment of the 3d Iowa 
Cavalry. The skirmish at Boles' farm was part of a running fight 
as the lowans retreated from Florida to Paris before a force that 
outnumbered them at least five to one. (See Florida.) 

Bolivar, Ala., April 28, 1862. 

Bolivar, Miss., Aug. 25, 1862. Bowen's Battalion of Missouri Cav- 
alry; part of Hoffman's battery. When the expedition from Helena, 
Ark., to the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers reached Bolivar, Col. Woods 
ordered the men on shore. The infantry landed at the town but 
owing to the steep bank the boat proceeded on up the river for 
about half a mile to a place where the horses could be disembarked. 
A force of Confederates was soon discovered advancing from the 
front and left at the same time. Col. Bowen ordered Lieut. Crabtree 
to hold in check those in front and Capt. Benteen those on the river 
road. The howitzers belonging to the battalion were placed in posi- 
tion and did good service until the ammunition was exhausted. A sec- 
tion of Hoffman's battery was then ordered up and opened a destruc- 
tive fire on the Confederates, driving them back into the timber. 
The cavalry was then sent in pursuit and followed the enemy for 
about 2 miles, losing i man killed and 2 wounded by a fire from an 
ambush in a cornfield. The Confederate loss in killed and wounded 
was not learned, but a number of prisoners were taken, besides 
horses, arms, equipments, etc. 

Bolivar, Miss., Sept. 19. 1862. U. S Ram, Queen of the West. As 
the ram was returning from Eunice Landing with the transports 
latan and Alhambra she was fired upon by some 700 infantry and 3 



Cyclopedia of Battles 145 

pieces of artillery in the bend above Bolivar, where the channel 
made it necessary to run close to the Mississippi shore. The boats 
were lashed together and proceeded on their way, Lieut. Callahan 
working the guns of the ram with great skill and bravery, silencing 
one of the enemy's cannon, while the sharpshooters on board returned 
the musketry fire with great vigor. The Queen was badly riddled 
by shells and minie balls and the loss on board was 3 killed, i severely 
and several slightly wounded. The Confederate loss was much 
heavier, as several of Callahan's shells burst in their midst, killing 
and wounding a large number, while the sharpshooters did not waste 
much ammunition by bad marksmanship. 

Bolivar, Miss., July 6, 1864. A detachment of the ist Brigade 
Cavalry Division, i6th Army Corps. This skirmish occurred during 
an expedition from Memphis, Tenn., to Grand Gulf, Miss. The 
troops on board the steamers J. D. Perry, J. C. Snow, Silver Wave, 
Madison, Sunny South, Rose Hambleton, Tycoon and Shenango, were 
passing Bolivar about 11 o'clock on the night of the 6th, when they 
were tired upon by a considerable body of Confederates from the 
Mississippi shore. The fire was promptly returned, though in the 
darkness it was impossible to determine the effect. The only casualty 
to the Union troops was the wounding of one man of the 19th Pa., 
and that but slightly. 

Bolivar, Mo., Feb. 8, 1862. 

Bolivar, Tenn., Aug. 30, 1862. 2nd and nth Illinois Cavalry, 20th and 
78th Ohio, 20th, 30th and 45th Illinois, and 7th Missouri Infantry, and 
9th Indiana Battery. Col. M.M.Crocker, commanding the post at Bolivar, 
learning that a large force of Confederates was advancing against him 
from the south, sent out the two Ohio regiments, four companies 
of the 2nd and two companies of the nth 111. cavalry, and a section 
of artillery, under Col. Leggett on the Grand Junction road, to hold 
the enemy in check. The first appearance of the enemy was a small 
force of cavalry about 4 miles south of Bolivar. Maj. Fry, with two 
companies of the 20th Ohio, and 45 mounted infantry, followed rapidly 
by the whole of Leggett's force, made an attempt to drive the Con- 
federates from their position. About noon it was discovered that 
the enemy was trying to flank the Federal forces. Leggett in person 
took two companies of the nth 111. and some of the mounted infantry 
and crossed over toward the Middleburg road to head ofif the move- 
ment. This movement disclosed the Confederates in large numbers 
advancing over the Middleburg road, and Leggett sent to Bolivar 
for reinforcements. The remainder of the Union forces was hurried 
to his assistance by Crocker, who at the same time notified 
Brig.-Gen. L. F. Ross, at Jackson, of the impending attack. Ross 
hastened to Bolivar to find that after a skirmish of seven hours the 
Union troops had been beaten back by the superior numbers to a 
position inside the Federal lines. During the night the Confederates 
withdrew and Ross, fearing an attack on Jackson, returned to that 
place. The Union loss at Bolivar was 5 killed, 18 wounded and 64 
missing. Among the killed was Lieut. -Col. Hogg, of the 2nd 111. 
cavalr}^, who was pierced by nine balls while leading a charge. The 
Confederate loss was reported to be over 200, which was probably 
correct, as 179 killed and wounded were left upon the field. 

Bolivar, Tenn., Dec. 24. 1862. Detachment of Grierson's Cavalry. 
Col. B. H. Grierson, who was ordered by Gen. Grant to follow and 
capture Jackson, or destroy the resources of West Tennessee so that 
it would be incapable of supporting an army, learned at Grand 
Junction that Van Dorn was in the vicinity of Bolivar. Pushing for- 
ward he reached Bolivar about 11 o'clock on the night of the 23d. 

Vol. V-lo 



146 The Union Army 

About 6 miles soutlieast of Bolivar he saw the camp fires of the 
enemy and waited for daylight before making any demonstration. 
In the meantime the Confederates made a detour to the west and 
at daylight attacked the town from that quarter, cajitured some of the 
pickets belonging to the ist Tenn. cavalry and 5 men belonging to the 
,?d Mich. Lieut. Hall was sent out with a small force and drove the enemy 
back for about 2 miles on the Brownsville road, killing 2 men. The Con- 
federates then retreated in the direction of Middleburg and Ball returned 
to Bolivar. (Sec Middleburg.) 

Bolivar, Tenn., Feb. 13, 1863. Cavalry Detachment. 

Bolivar, Tenn., March 9, 1863. Troops not specified. 

Bolivar, Tenn., March 21, 1863. 43d and i6oth Illinois Infantry 
and 1st West Tennessee Cavalry. Guerrillas had planned an attack 
on the pay train on the Illinois Central railroad between Bolivar 
and Grand Junction. It happened that a wood train passed down 
the line directly in advance of the pay train. About 3 miles from 
Grand Junction a rail had been removed, so that the engine, tender 
and 5 of the wood cars were thrown from the track. The accident 
occurred in a cut and almost instantly the banks were lined with 
guerrillas. The engineer of the pay train reversed his engine and in 
the midst of a hot fire started for Bolivar. He succeeded in taking 
his train back to that point, though he was struck by several bullets. 
Brig.-Gen. Mason Brayman sent troops to the scene of the wreck 
and despatched the cavalry in pursuit of the guerrillas. At White- 
ville one man was captured who said the attacking party belonged 
to Forrest's command. No further casualties on either side. 

Bolivar, Tenn., July 10, 1863. nth Illinois Cavalry. A detach- 
ment of cavalry was sent out under Maj. Funke and at Bolivar about 80 
Confederate cavalry were encountered. A brisk skirmish ensued in 
which the enemy was driven across the Hatchie river with a loss of 
I killed, several wounded, and a captain and several privates captured. 
The Union forces sustained no losses whatever. 

Bolivar, Tenn., Feb. 7, 1864. Detachment of the 7th Indiana Cav- 
alry. Lieut. Kennedy, with a foraging party, was sent out on the 
Pocahontas road. When about 2 miles from Bolivar he came up 
with a party of guerrillas, which at once attacked. After a sharp 
skirmish the bushwhackers were repulsed with a loss of 9 men cap- 
tured, together with 8 horses, i mule, and 7 guns and carbines. The 
Union force did not lose a man. 

Bolivar, Tenn., March 29. 1864. 6th Tennessee Cavalry. The 
Union forces, under the command of Col. Hurst, were guarding a 
wagon train on the road from Somerville to Bolivar. En route they 
were attacked by Neely's brigade of Forrest's cavalrj\ The wagon 
train with all its supplies fell into the hands of the enemy, Capt. 
Moore and a number of men were killed, the surgeon captured, and a 
number reported missing. According to the report of Gen. Forrest, 
four days later, the number of prisoners taken was 35. The Confed- 
erate loss was not ascertained. 

Bolivar, Tenn., May 2. 1864. 2nd New Jersey Cavalry. Col. 
Joseph Karge of the 2nd N. J., was sent forward from Somerville, 
with 700 picked men and 2 pieces of artillery from Waring's division, 
by Gen. Sturgis, to reconnoiter Forrest's position at Bolivar. Seven 
miles west of Bolivar this force came upon the enemy's pickets and 
drove them back, capturing 2 men. Proceeding on to Bolivar Karge 
found a Confederate force of about 1,000 men. After 2 hours' sharp 
fighting the Confederates were driven from their position and re- 
treated in the direction of Pocahontns, pausing long enough to burn 
the bridge over the Hatchie river. The Union loss was 2 killed and 
10 wounded. The enemy lost 7 killed, 20 wounded, and 2 captured. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 147 

Bolivar Heights, West Va., Oct. 16, 1861. Detachments of the 
3d Wisconsin, 131I1 Massachusetts and 28th Pennsylvania Infantry, 
and parts of the 9th New York and Tompkins' Rhode Island Bat- 
teries. An expedition was sent out by Gen. Banks on the 8th, under 
the command of Maj. J. P. Gould, of the 13th Mass., for the purpose 
of removing a quantity of wheat the Confederates had stored at 
Harper's Ferry. On the 13th. Col. J. W. Geary was sent with rein- 
forcements to assist Gould. The wheat was all removed on the 
15th and the Union forces were preparing to recross the river the 
following morning. About daybreak the pickets on Bolivar heights 
were attacked and driven into the town of Bolivar by a considerable 
Confederate force, which approached from the west. The enemy's 
force was soon found to consist of infantry, cavalry and artillery. 
Part of his cannon were stationed on the heights from which the 
pickets had been driven, and another battery was in place on Loudoun 
heights so as to annoy any attempt to cross the river at the ferry. 
Geary assumed command, sent part of the 13th Mass., under Capt. 
Shriber, to prevent the Confederates from crossing the Shenandoah, 
while the rest of the troops were used in repelling the fierce charges 
of the Confederate cavalry, the infantry and artillery on the heights 
pouring an incessant hre into the town. After meeting three charges 
Geary assumed the aggressive, pushed forward his right and turned 
the enemy's left flank near the Potomac, which enabled him to get 
possession of a portion of the heights. In the meantime Tompkins' 
had succeeded in silencing the guns on Loudoun heights, which gave 
him an opportunity to assist Lieut. Martin of the 9th N. Y. battery 
in his fire upon the cannon on Bolivar heights, against which the 
combined strength of the Union forces was now directed. Geary 
ordered a charge and in a few minutes the Federals were in posses- 
sion of the heights, capturing one 32-pounder columbiad and one 
13-pounder steel rifled gun. Immediately after the capture of the 
heights Maj. Tyndale arrived with five companies of the 28th Pa. from 
the Point of Rocks. Two companies were sent to Gould at Sandy 
Hook and the others joined Geary. The captured cannon were now 
turned on the battery on Loudoun heights and did such effective 
service that every gun was soon silenced. The enemy then made a 
rapid retreat, having lost 150 men in killed and wounded, 4 prisoners, 
and, besides the 2 cannon already mentioned, a large quantity of 
ammunition. The Union loss was 4 killed, 7 wounded and 2 cap- 
tured. 

Bolivar Heights, W. Va., Sept. 14-15, 1862. (See Harper's Ferry, 
same date.) 

Bolivar Heights, W. "Va., July 14, 1863. ist Connecticut Cavalry. 
Maj. Farnsworth, with 50 men of the ist Conn, cavalry, was sent 
out by Brig.-Gen. Henry M. Naglee, to reconnoiter the enemy's 
position and picket the roads leading to Harper's Ferry. About 2 
miles from the ferry this expedition came up with about 30 Confed- 
erate pickets, charged them and drove them back upon their reserve, 
a force of some 200 men. A sharp skirmish followed, which soon 
became a hand-to-hand light, and as the Confederatjcs outnumbered 
the Union forces four to one the latter were repulsed. Farnsworth 
and 24 of his men were captured. Captain Blakeslee assumed the 
command and conducted the retreat in good order, bringing with him 
I captain, i second lieutenant and 2 privates as prisoners. Col. A. 
W. Harman, of the 12th Va. (Confederate) cavalry, was severely 
wounded and was afterward found and brought in as a prisoner. 

Bolivar and Maryland Heights, W. Va., July 4-7, 1864. Reserve 
Division of the Army of West Virginia. 



148 The Union Army 

Bollinger County, Mo., Jan. 14, 1864. 

Bollinger's Mill, Mo., July 28, 1862. Two companies of the 12th 
Missouri Cavalry. Capt. Whybark, with 50 men of Co. F, left Green- 
ville on the 26th on a scouting expedition. On the Castor river he 
was reinforced by Capt. Hagan and Lieut. Hummel with 80 men 
of the regiment. Early on the morning of the 28th the pickets were 
tired on by some strolling Confederates. A skirmish followed which 
lasted some 20 minutes, the pickets gradually falling back to the en- 
campment of the main body near Bollinger's mill. Whybark, with 
his entire force, immediately started in pursuit. After traveling 
about 15 miles on the Fredericktown road he came upon a consider- 
able force of the enemy and after a battle of half an hour drove it 
back with a loss of 15 in killed and wounded, capturing 2 prisoners 
and 4 horses, without the loss of a man. 

Bolton Depot, Miss., May 16, 1863. (See Champion's Hill.) 

Bolton Depot, Miss., Feb. 4, 1864. (See Champion's Hill.) 

Bone Yard, Tenn., Feb. 10, 1863. 18th Missouri Volunteers. 

Bonfouca, La., Nov. 26, 1863. 31st Massachusetts Volunteers and 
4th Massachusetts Battery. 

Benito Rio, N. Max., March 27, 1863. Detachment of the ist 
California Cavalry. The detachment, under Maj. William McCleave, 
in pursuit of some Apache Indians who had run off about 60 horses 
from Fort West, came up with them about daylight on the 27th. 
McCleave dismounted part of his men and surrounded the Indian 
camp. In the light that ensued, and which lasted but 20 minutes, 
25 of the Apaches were killed, all the horses taken from the fort and 
a number belonging to the Indians were taken, the camp was de- 
stroyed and the band completely dispersed. The only casualty in the 
troop was i man slightly wounded. 

Bonnet Carre, La., Oct. 19, 1862. 

Boone, N. C, March 28, 1865. Detachment of the 12th Kentucky 
Cavalr3^ This was one of the incidents of the raid of Gen. George 
Stoneman into southwestern Virginia and western North Carolina. 
On approaching the town of Boone it was learned that a company of 
home guards was to meet there on the 28th. The detachment of 
cavalry, under Maj. Keogh, was sent forward to surprise the Con- 
federates. The movement was entirely successful, 9 of the home 
guards being killed and 68 captured. Keogh's loss, nothing. 

Boone County, Mo., Sept. 10, 1862. 9th Missouri State Militia 
and Merrill's Horse Detachment. The Union troops, under the com- 
mand of Gen. Guitar, met a body of the enemy at daylight, routed him, 
killing 4, wounding several, capturing 5 prisoners, 9 horses and mules, 
16 guns, 200 pounds of lead, 15 pounds of powder and considerable 
camp equipage, etc. The Confederates fled in all directions through 
the thick brush under a murderous tire, and it is likely that their 
loss was greater than that reported. 

Boone County, Mo., Sept. 7-8, 1864. ist Iowa Cavalry. A force of 
200 men belonging to the ist la. cavalry was divided into 3 squads 
and marched from Mexico, Mo., into Boone county. At the county line 
the men were united for the encampment at night and separated the 
following morning. One squad soon came upon a camp of some 25 
Confederates, routed them and scattered them in all directions, but 
without casualties on either side. That was on the morning of the 
7th. The next day, the whole body of cavalry being divided into 2 
columns and scouring the country between them, covering some 10 
miles in extent, stirred up Capt. Todd's company of guerrillas, number- 
ing 50 men. A skirmish followed in which the guerrillas lost 4 or 5 
wounded, t horse killed, i captured, and 14 guns. No Union loss 
was reported. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 149 

Boone Court House, W. Va., Sept. i, 1861. ist Kentucky Volun- 
teers. 

Booneville, Ky., April 14, 1864. Citizens of Booncville. A partj' 
of P'red Gray's guerrillas, numbering 75 men, raided the town of 
Booneville. About 40 of the citizens hurriedly organized a company 
and thoroughly routed the raiders. The affair was reported to the 
department cojnmandcr by Brig.-Gen. E. H. Hobson. 

Booneville, Miss., May 30, 1862. 2nd Iowa and 2nd Michigan Cavalry. 
Col. W. L. Elliott, in command of the cavalry brigade, left camp 
near Farmington at midnight, on the 27th, with instructions to pro- 
ceed to the Mobile & Ohio railroad near Booneville and destroy 
it. About 2 o'clock on the morning of the 30th the command reached 
Booneville, after a circuitous route, via luka. Elliott found in and 
about the town some 2,000 sick and convalescent Confederate soldiers, 
with a guard of 700 infantry and 250 cavalry. The railroad depot 
was found to be filled with arms and ammunition, and a train loaded 
with both cannon and small arms, and a supply of ammunition, was 
standing on the track. After removing the sick to a safe distance 
Elliott ordered the train and depot both burned, and remained to see 
that the fire was not extinguished by the Confederates. More than 
100,000 rounds of ammunition, several pieces of ordnance, with about 
10,000 stand of small arms, were destroyed, the explosions being heard 
for two or three hours. The railroad was effectually destroyed on 
both sides of the town. The value of the property was estimated 
by Elliott to be from a quarter to a half million dollars. While the 
destruction was going on the movements of the Union forces were 
harassed by a detachment of Confederate cavalry. About 2,500 prison- 
ers, including the sick, were taken, but as only about 40 or 50 were 
mounted, the rest were paroled for want of transportation. The 
Union loss was i killed, 2 wounded, and 6 missing. 

Booneville, Miss., June 4, 1862. 2nd Iowa Cavalr}^. This was one 
of the skirmishes that occurred during the operations of Col. Elliott's 
cavalry brigade in that vicinity. While on the march from Booneville 
to Blackland a considerable force of the enemy was found guarding 
the bridge over Twenty-Mile creek, about 8 miles from Booneville, 
with a section of artillery. The 2nd la. was in advance and at once 
engaged the Confederates in a sharp skirmish, which resulted in the 
withdrawal of the guns. The regiment then fell back to Booneville 
to wait for the main body of the brigade before proceeding further. 
The Union loss was 3 killed and 9 wounded. 

Booneville, Miss., June 11, 1862. 

Booneville, Miss., July i, 1862. 2nd Iowa and 2nd Michigan Cav- 
alry. The two cavalry regiments engaged belonged to the 2nd brigade 
of Granger's division, and were under the command of Col. P. H. 
Sheridan. Early on the morning of the ist the pickets on the Black- 
land road were attacked and driven back by Chalmers' cavalry, num- 
bering between 4,000 and 5,000 men. Sheridan hurried forward rein- 
forcements and at the same time successfully directed a movement to 
turn the enemy's flank. Capt. Alger, of the 2nd Mich., gained their rear 
with four companies, and Lieut. -Col. Hatch of the 2nd la. took 
a position on the left of the Confederate position. Simultaneously 
the charge was made on the left and rear, the enemy became panic 
stricken and retired in disorder. Notwithstanding thej^ outnumbered 
the Union forces more than four to one they were pursued for about 
4 miles. The Union loss was i killed, 24 wounded, and 16 missing. 
The enemy's loss was much heavier, as the Union troops fought 
from cover most of the time while the Confederates occupied an 
open field. Over 50 Confederate dead and wounded were left on the 
field. 



150 The Union Army 

Boonesboro, Ark-, Nov. 7, 1862. 

Boonesboro, Ark., Nov. 28, 1862. (See Cane Hill.) 

Boonsboro, Md., Sept. 10, 1862. 3d Regiment, Potomac Home 
Brigade. Col. S. W. Downey, commanding the regiment, encountered 
a large force of the enemy near Boonsboro while on a reconnaissance. 
He made a dash with a small cavalry detachment, which caused some 
confusion among the Confederates, but produced no decisive results. 
Casualties, if any, were not reported. 

Boonsboro, Md., Sept. 14, 1862. (See South Mountain.) 

Boonsboro, Md., Sept. 15, 1862. (See Antietam.) 

Boonsboro, Md., July 7-8, 1863. ist and 3d Divisions, Cavalry 
Corps, Army of the Potomac. The only action on the 7th was the 
shelling of the Union rear-guard by the Confederate batteries. On 
the morning of the 8th the enemy was reported to be advancing in 
force on the Hagerstown road. Gen. Buford ordered Col. William 
Gamble, commanding the ist brigade, to take a position on the ridge 
on the right of the road, about a mile and a half from the town, to 
check the advance and at the same time ordered part of the 2nd 
U. S. artillery to support Gamble's position. As the Confederates ap- 
proached the artillery opened fire, which was promptly responded to 
by the Confederate batteries. A sharp skirmish then followed but 
Gamble maintained his position until the enemy worked around to 
his left toward the Williamsport pike, when he was ordered to fall 
back to Boonsboro. The enemy immediately occupied the ridge, placed 
some sharpshooters in a stone barn, commanding the road, and as- 
sumed the defensive. Gens. Buford and Kilpatrick then went to the 
front to recapture the ridge. The first attempt was unsuccessful and 
Gamble was ordered to dismount a portion of his command and charge 
the woods. This drove the Confederates from their position and they 
were pursued for three miles, across Beaver creek, on the Williamsport 
or Funkstown road. At Williamsport Buford captured a small wagon 
train and about 40 mules. (For losses in this action see Funkstown, 
Md., July 10, 1863.) 

Boonville, Mo., June 17, 1861. Missouri Volunteers, Totten's Bat- 
tery, and Three Companies of Infantry. The Union troops, under the 
command of Brig.-Gen. Nathaniel Lyon, of the U. S. Army, had gone 
to Jefferson City to engage the state troops led by Gov. Jackson. 
Upon arriving at the capital Lyon was informed that Jackson had re- 
treated in the direction of Boonville. Leaving three companies of Col. 
Boernstein's regiment at Jefferson City he proceeded by boat up the 
river to within about 6 miles of Boonville, where he disembarked the 
greater part of his force, leaving one company of Blair's regiment 
and a small detachment of artillery to continue by water, while he, 
with about 1,700 men, inarched against the town by land. When 
within 2 miles of the town Lyon found his further progress disputed 
by a body of state troops under the command of Col. Marinaduke. 
The force of Marmaduke was not strong enough, however, to offer 
serious resistance, and after a short skirmish fell back to the town. 
The entire Confederate force there was then driven out and Lyon oc- 
cupied the place. The Union loss was 2 killed, g wounded, and J5 
missing, and the Confederate loss 25 killed, 50 wounded and 20 cap- 
tured. This occurrence ended the power of Gov. Jackson in the state. 

Boonville, Mo., Sept. 13, i86t. Missouri Home Guards. A body of 
home guards, commanded by Maj. Eppstein, was intrenched at Boon- 
ville, when the place was invested b}'- a detachment of Price's army. 
Col. Jeff C. Davis, of the 22nd Ind. infantry, commanding at Jefferson 
City, hurried 1,200 men to Eppstein's relief and the enemy gave up 



Cyclopedia of Battles 151 

the contest. They had been expecting reinforcements from Gen. 
Green, but Green was attacked by a detachment of Federal troops 
while crossing the river at Glasgow and was therefore unable to send 
assistance to Boonville. At Boonville the Union loss was i killed and 
4 wounded; that of the enemy was 12 killed and 40 wounded. No casu- 
alties were reported on the Federal side at Glasgow, but a number of 
Confederates were known to have been killed. 

Boonville, Mo., Oct. 11-12, 1863. 9th Missouri State Militia Cav- 
alry. This was a trivial affair, consisting of desultory firing across the 
Missouri river at long range, the only casualty reported being the 
killing of a horse in the Union encampment by a shot from a Parrott 
gun. 

Boonville, Mo., Oct. 9, 1864. Missouri State Militia, Cavalry and 
Light Artillery, United States Volunteer Cavalry in pursuit of Price. 
The Confederates evacuated JefTerson City on the 8th and early the 
next morning the Union troops started in pursuit. The rear guard 
was overtaken before noon and skirmishing continued throughout the 
day. At Boonville the enemy made a stand and a sharp engagement 
ensued, though with slight losses on both sides. 

Boonville, Mo., Oct. 11-12, 1864. 2nd Arkansas Cavalry, and 6th 
Provisional Enrolled Missouri State Militia. The 2nd Ark. and 6th 
Mo. cavalry, with i squadron of the 8th Mo., were sent to the west 
of Boonville, on the Georgetown road to ascertain the movements of 
the enemy, drive in his pickets and learn if the main body had left 
Boonville for the west. About 3 miles south of Boonville the Ar- 
kansas troops under Col. Phelps encountered a strong Confederate 
outpost and a fight was immediately commenced. The Missouri regi- 
ment hurried forward and the pickets were driven back toward the 
town, until reinforced by a section of artillery, when the Union forces 
retired beyond Saline creek, where they waited for the enemy to 
make some demonstration. At 5 o'clock the Federals again assumed 
the aggressive and drove the lines back until the artillery was again 
brought into service. Shortness of rations then compelled them to 
retire to California, Mo., for a supply. The loss on each side was in- 
significant. 

Boonville, Mo., May 3, 1865. 50th Wisconsin Infantry. Capt. Ar- 
nold of the Wisconsin regiment attacked a party of bushwhackers 
in the act of crossing the Missouri river a few miles below Boon- 
ville, killing 3, wounding 2, and capturing 9 horses and their equip- 
ments. On the same day Capt. Putnam, with 17 men of Capt. Miller's 
company, followed a party of 9 men belonging to Weaver's company 
of guerrillas, who had crossed the river at a large island about 16 
miles below Boonville. Two miles from the river he overtook them, 
when the bushwhackers abandoned their horses and took to the 
woods. Deeming his force insufiicient to follow into the underbrush, 
Putnam returned, taking with him the 9 horses and the citizen who 
aided tlie Confederates to cross the river. 

Boonville, N. C, April 10. 1865. 2nd Division. 14th Army Corps. 
In the campaign of the Carolinas the itinerary of the division for this 
date says: "Left Goldsboro for Raleigh, N. C. Skirmished with the 
enemy from Boonville to Moccasin swamp; distance 6 miles." This 
is the only official mention of the occurrence. 

Booth's Run, Cal., May 2, 1864. Detachment of Company E, 6th 
California Infantry. Lieut. Taylor, commanding the detachment, found 
on May i a trail of hostile Indians near Kneeland's prairie. He sent 
2 privates, Mills and Berry, to the trail, with instructions to wait 
for the wagon train from Humboldt and accompany it to the post 
at Camp laqua. At Booth's run the two men came upon the Indians 



152 The Union Army 

and Private Mills was shot from ambush. Taylor, with the rest of 
his men, started in pursuit and came up with the Indians about sun- 
set. Concluding it best to wait for daylight he attacked the camp 
early on the morning of the 2nd, killed 7, wounded i, and captured 
2 squaws and 2 children. The rest tied so precipitately that they left 
all their plunder behind, which was taken to the camp and turned over 
to Maj. Wright, commandant of the post. 

Borgne Lake, La., Nov. 22, 1863. 

Boston, U. S. Transport, May 26, 1864. (See Chapman's Fort, 
S. C.) 

Boston Mountains, Ark., Nov. 9, 1862. 

Boteler's Ford, Va., Sept. 20, 1862. (See Blackford's Ford.) 

Bottom's Bridge, Va., May 19-23, 1862. 4th Army Corps. In Gen. 
McClellan's advance on Richmond the 4th corps, commanded by Brig.- 
Gen. E. D. Keyes, struck the Chickahominy river at Bottom's bridge. 
On the 19th some of Casey's batteries threw a few shells to develop 
the enemy's position on the opposite side of the river. The next 
day a detachment of the 7th Mass. made a reconnaissance toward the 
bridge and was fired upon from the rifle-pits on the south bank, i 
man being wounded. On the same day Gen. Barnard reconnoitered the 
river for some distance below the bridge, finding the stream well 
picketed at the crossings by the enemy. Keyes then ordered Gen. 
Naglee to make a reconnaissance with his entire brigade on the 21st 
and ascertain the strength and position of the enemy at the railroad 
bridge a short distance above Bottom's bridge. Deploying his men 
behind the railroad embankment, his flanks well supported, Naglee 
advanced through a swamp, his men wading through water up to 
their waists at times and drove the pickets from the railroad 
bridge. In front of Bottom's bridge the brigade was subjected to 
a heavy fire, but Gen. Casey sent 4 guns of Bailey's battery to 
its support, and a few well directed shots drove the enemy from 
the bank of the river. The next day the headquarters of the army 
were removed to Cold Harbor, and on the 23d Naglee, and Col. 
Gregg, with the 8th Pa., cavalry, made reconnaissances on the roads 
leading from Bottom's bridge to within 10 miles of Richmond. 
Gregg encountered a regiment of infantry and about 400 cavalry 
and after a sharp skirmish routed them, but would not pursue for 
fear of being led into an ambush in the woods through which the 
enemy retreated. 

Bottom's Bridge, Va., July 2, 1863. (See Baltimore Cross-Roads.) 

Bottom's Bridge, Va., Aug. 27, 1863. ist New York Mounted 
Rifles and 5th Pennsylvania Cavalry. The expedition, consisting of 
about 900 men of the two regiments, under the command of Col. 
B. F. Onderdonk, left Williamsburg shortly after noon on the 26th, 
its purpose being to learn the strength of the enemy along the 
Chickahominy river. After slight skirmishes with the enemy at 
Ball's farm, Slatersville, New Kent Court House, Baltimore Store 
and Crump's cross-roads the expedition reached Bqttom's bridge 
on the 27th to find it guarded by a considerable force of Confeder- 
ates in rifle-pits. Dismounting part of his men and deploying them 
as skirmishers, Onderdonk drove the men out of the pits and across 
the river to a stronger earthwork, guarded by a force of infantry 
and a squadron of cavalry. By this time it was dark and having 
learned the approximate strength of the Confederates along the 
river, and that the main body was only 2 miles below the bridge, 
Onderdonk withdrew to Baltimore Store and bivouacked for the night. 
(For losses see Slatersville, Va., Aug. 28.) 

Bottom's Bridge, Va., Feb. 7, 1864. 4,000 Tnfantrj-, 2,200 Cavalry, 



Cyclopedia of Battles 153 

Hunt's and Belger's Batteries. This was an expedition planned by 
Gen. B. F. Butler, and placed under the command of Brig.-Gen. I. J. 
Wistar, the object being the surprise and capture of Richmond and 
the liberation of Union prisoners there. For two months prior to this 
time there had been no guard at Bottom's bridge and the aim was to 
reach that point at 3 o'clock on Sunday mornmg, Feb. 7, and from 
there make a rapid march into the Confederate capital before resist- 
ance could be organized. The undertaking failed because of one of 
those unforeseen events that sway the destinies of mankind. Private 
William Boyle, who was under sentence of death for the murder of a 
lieutenant, was allowed to escape on the 3d. He made his way to 
Richmond and gave the Confederates information of the proposed at- 
tack. Consequently when Wistar reached Bottom's bridge on the 
morning of the 7th he found it guarded by a strong force of infantry, 
cavalry and artillery. The floor had been torn from the bridge and 
both fords in the immediate neighborhood were strongly guarded. 
Maj. Whelan, of the New York mounted rifles, made a gallant charge 
on one of the fords but was repulsed. Realizing that the expedition 
had failed of its purpose, Wistar withdrew with a loss of 9 men and 
10 horses killed, being harassed on his retreat by the enemy. 

Bott's Farm, Mo., July 24, 1862. 3d Iowa Cavalry. 

Bough's Ford, Ala., Nov. 9-1 1, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 5th Cavalry 
Division, Military Division of the Mississippi. Brig.-Gen. Hatch or- 
dered Col. Coon to make a demonstration with his brigade at Bough's 
ford across Shoal creek on the 9th, but the stream was found too high 
to ford, and another demonstration was ordered on the nth. This 
time Maj. Horton, commanding the 2nd la., found a ford about a 
quarter of a mile below the main crossing and sent over the ist bat- 
talion under Maj. Schnitzer, when the banks became so miry that it 
was deemed unsafe to try to cross any more troops. Coon then or- 
dered Schnitzer's recall, and directed Horton to dismount the rest of 
his men and push them up to the bank of the creek to cover Schnit- 
zer's retreat. Meantime the enemy was keeping up an incessant fire 
from a barricade on the blufif about 300 yards distant. Capt. Black- 
burn, with a detachment of the 9th 111., crossed the creek above the 
mill and made a flank movement to the right of this position, driving 
in the pickets, which threw the enemy into such consternation that 
Schnitzer was enabled to recross the stream. No losses reported. 

Boutte Station, La., Sept. 4, 1862. Detachment of the 8th Ver- 
mont Infantry. On this date Capt. Hall, commanding the Federal 
outposts at Bayou des Allemands, despatched Capt. Clark of Co. K, 
8th Vt., with a detail of infantry and a 12-pounder howitzer manned 
by 12 men on a train of cars to meet and protect the upper train 
which was supposed to be without escort. At a point nearly opposite 
Boutte Station, the train was fired into by about 1,000 mounted Texas 
rangers under Col. Waller. The artillerymen and many of the infan- 
try, who were riding on open cars, were killed or wounded. The Con- 
federates had opened a switch leading to a side-track, on which the 
train collided with an empty passenger car with such force as to hurl 
many men from the platform cars to the ground, ,but went on at re- 
duced speed. One of the soldiers hurried to the forward end of the 
switch and adjusted it so that the train ran out upon the main track 
instead of into the ditch as the Confederates had planned. Clark soon 
met the upper train, but, deeming it unwise to try to pass so large a 
force, ran both trains to Algiers. The Confederates robbed the dead, 
the dying and the wounded, slashed disabled men in their heads with 
sabers and in other waj'S treated them outrageouslv, then moved on 



154 The Union Army 

toward the bayou. Halting, they raised a flag of truce and Hall sent 
some men to learn its import. The latter did not return, and he sent 
others to inquire concerning them. Both parties were seized and 
placed in front of the Confederate column and obliged to march 
toward the bayou. Confronted by a greatly superior force and ob- 
liged to fire at his own men, if he fired at all, Hall surrendered. Casu- 
alties — killed 9; wounded and missing 182. 

Bowers' Mill, Mo., Oct. 4, 1863. Col. J. O. Shelby (Confederate), 
in his report of his raid through Missouri and Arkansas, says of his move- 
ments on this date: "Passed through the blackened and desolated 
town of Sarcoxie, * * * then to Oregon, or Bowers' mill, a noto- 
rious pest spot for the militia, which was sacked and then swept from the 
face of the earth." This is the only mention of the affair in the 
official records of the war. 

Bowling Green, Ky., Feb. i, 1862. One Company of the 2nd Indi- 
ana Cavalry. 

Bowling Green, Ky., Feb. 15, 1S62. Occupied by troops of Brig.- 
Gen. D. C. Buell's army. During the night of the 14th the advance 
guard, consisting of Col. Turchin's brigade, under cover of artillery, 
effected a passage of the river b}^ means of a large flatboat taken from 
a flour-mill some 4 miles below the town. At 5 o'clock on the morn- 
ing of the 15th the troops marched into the town to find that the Con- 
federates had decamped, leaving a large suppl}^ of clothing, provisions, 
harness, saddles, etc., to fall into Union hands. Before evacuating 
they set fire to the railroad buildings and several public edifices. No 
casualties occurred on either side and the capture of Bowling Green 
was a bloodless victor^^ 

Bowling Green Road, Ky., Sept. 17, 1862. 

Bowling Green Road, Va., May 11, 1862. Harris' Light Cavalry. 
An advancing body of Confederates were checked and finally repulsed 
by a detachment of the Harris light cavalry. Maj. Duffie succeeded in 
cutting off and capturing a lieutenant and 10 men. No other casual- 
ties reported. 

Bowman's Place, W. Va., June 29. 186 1. 

Box Ford, Miss., Oct. 7, 1862. 22nd Ohio Infantry. A detachment 
of three companies, under the command of Capt. George R. French, 
encountered the enemy's pickets at Box ford, over the Hatchie river, 
and drove them to Ruckersville. No losses reported on cither side. 

Boyce's Bridge, La., May 14, 1863. Cavalry of Weitzel's Brigade, 
75th New York and 4th Wisconsin Infantry, and Nims' Battery. Gen. 
Weitzel, learning that a force of Confederates was at Boyce's bridge 
over Cotile bayou, constructing breastworks of cotton bales, sent two 
companies of cavalry to reconnoiter. This detachment engaged the 
enemy but finding him too strong fell back, being pursued for a short 
distance by the Confederates, when the cavalry turned and charged 
them, driving them back to their w-orks. The Union loss was I man 
and several horses killed. That of the enemy was greater, as three 
dead bodies were found and buried by the Union troops. That was 
on the 13th. The next day Weitzel sent the infantry and artillery by 
the gunboat "Switzerland" to drive the Confederates from their posi- 
tion. As soon as the Federal forces appeared the enemy fled in three 
directions, closely pursued by cavalry, and took up a position behind 
Cane river. 

Boyce's Plantation, La.. May 6. 1864. Provisional Division, 17th 
Army Corps. Brig.-Gen. T. Kiiby Smith, commanding a detachment 
of the 17th corps, in giving the battles and affairs in which his com- 
mand was in part or as a whole engaged, states that on the 6th it was 



Cyclopedia of Battles 155 

in the fight at Boyce's plantation. This is the only mention of the 
affair. 

Boyd's Neck, S. C, Nov. 29, 1864. Marine Brigade. (See Honey 
Hill, Nov. 30, 1864.) 

Boyd's Station, Ala., March 10, 1865. loist U. S. Colored Troops. 
About 4 p. m. Lieut. Becker at Boyd's station heard firing in the direc- 
tion of Woodville Station. A small detachment of Co. E was sent 
out in charge of Scrgt. Bell to learn the cause. He found 5 men from 
Woodville, surrounded in a cut by guerrillas, resisting capture. The 
colored troops charged the guerrillas and drove them back and then 
with the assistance of the 5 men kept up a skirmish until night, but 
as the enemy were mounted it was not easy to get in fair range. One 
guerrilla was seen to fall from his horse and one of the colored sol- 
diers was captured. 

Boyd's Station, Ala., March 15-18, 1865. loist U. S. Colored 
Troops. The garrison at Boyd's station, near Stevenson's gap, was 
in command of Lieut. Frederick Becker, of the loist colored infantry. 
The Confederate Col. Mead, with about 300 cavalry, kept in the neigh- 
borhood and never lost an opportunity to annoy the garrison and pre- 
vent the men from working on the stockade and guarding the rail- 
road. On the 15th the men were driven in; on the night of the i6th 
they surrounded the stockade but left after two hours' brisk fighting, 
and on the i8th they made another attack and captured 9 of the col- 
ored troops. Lieut. -Col. Wade then sent reinforcements to the gar- 
rison, thus giving Becker a force sufficiently strong to repel the 
attacks. 

Boydton Plank Road, "Va., Oct. 27-28, 1864. (See Hatcher's Run, 
same date.) 

Boykin's Mill, S. C, April 18, 1865. Provisional Division, Depart- 
ment of the South. The afifair at Boykin's mill, or Swift creek, as it 
is sometimes called, was one of a number of skirmishes that occurred 
on an expedition from Georgetown to Camden. The provisional 
division, under the command of Brig.-Gen. E. E. Potter, reached Cam- 
den on the 17th, to learn that the locomotives and trains had been 
removed to Boykin's mill, on Swift creek, 8 miles below, and that the 
Confederates, reinforced by two brigades of cavalry, were there throw- 
ing up intrenchments. On the morning of the i8th the division ad- 
vanced on the enemy's position. Upon arriving near the mill it was 
discovered that the enemy had cut the dam and flooded the road, torn 
up the bridges and were strongly intrenched on the opposite side of 
the creek. On both sides of the railroad at this point there were 
swamps. The 32nd U. S. colored troops was pushed forward into 
the swamp toward the creek but were compelled to retrace on ac- 
count of the mud and water. An attempt was then made by the 107th 
Ohio to turn the enemy's right, but it had to be abandoned for the 
same reason. The attention was then turned to the other direction. 
The 54th Mass. found the remains of a bridge, which appeared to offer 
a crossing, so that the Confederates could be taken on the left, but 
while in the act of crossing the creek were fired on and lost several 
men. Further to the left the 102nd colored infantry', guided by one of 
their own race, effected a crossing, while the 25th Ohio, supported by 
the 1st brigade, was pushed forward to the center, ready to charge 
across the railroad bridge. As soon as the firing of the colored troops 
on the left was beard the charge was made across the railroad bridge 
and the enemy driven from his position, retreating toward the south. 
One locomotive and some flat-cars were then destroyed by the Union 
forces, together with a large quantity of cotton and the station build- 



156 The Union Army 

ings. The pursuit was continued next day. (See Dcnkins' Mill, 
April 19.) 

Boynton's Prairie, Cal., May 6, 1864. 6tli California Infantry. 
Corporal J. D. Barnes, while engaged in taking supplies to the camp 
at Boynton's prairie, was shot by the Indians and died a few hours 
later. Lieut. John Oaks, with 22 men, was sent in pursuit. He de- 
stroyed an Indian ranch, composed of huts, but found nothing of the 
Indians themselves. 

Brackett's Ford, Va., June 30, 1862. As McClelland was changing 
his base to the James river a skirmish occurred on this date at Brack- 
ett's ford over White Oak creek, a detailed account of which is given 
under the head of the Seven Days' battles. 

Braddock's Farm, Fla., Feb. 5, 1865. (See Welaka.) 

Bradfordsville, Ky., Feb. 8, 1865. 30th Kentucky Infantry. A 
band of about 50 guerrillas burned a railway train at New Market and 
then moved in the direction of Bradfordsville. Maj. Mahoney, with 
35 men, most of whom belonged to the invalid corps, went in pursuit. 
Near Bradfordsville the guerrillas made a stand. Mahoney dis- 
mounted his men, who let their horses get away when the Confed- 
erates charged and were compelled to retreat. The guerrillas cap- 
tured several of the horses. No casualties reported on either side. 

Bradyville, Tenn., Feb. 16, 1863. 

Bradyville, Tenn., March i, 1863. ist Tennessee and 3d and 4th 
Ohio Cavalry. A foraging expedition, under Brig.-Gen. David S. 
Stanley, was sent out on the Bradyville pike from Murfreesboro. 
When within about 2 miles of the town of Bradyville the ist Tenn., 
which was in advance, came up with the enemy's pickets and drove 
them b'ack. Upon arriving at the town a considerable force of Con- 
federates was found strongly posted and disposed to resist the further 
progress of the foragers. The Tennessee troops, after a short skir- 
mish, were driven back in some confusion. Col. James W. Paramore, 
commanding the brigade, ordered up the 3d and 4th Ohio, and while 
the main body of the two regiments was stationed in front, detach- 
ments were sent to both the right and left. The enemy offered a 
stubborn resistance until the enfilading fire of the flanking parties 
commenced, when he broke and fled in confusion, being pursued for 
2 or 3 miles. The Union loss was 2 killed and 7 wounded. The Con- 
federates left 5 dead upon the field, about 20 or 30 were wounded and 
83 captured. In addition to this they lost 70 horses and mules, 2 wagon- 
loads of new saddles, i wagon-load of picket rope, and a large quan- 
tity of commissary stores. 

Bradyville, Tenn., June 24, 1863. Part of 2nd Division, 21st Army 
Corps. The division, commanded by Maj. -Gen. John M. Palmer, 
was ordered to march from Murfreesboro to the vicinity of Brady- 
ville, the advance brigade to occupy the ridge at the commencement 
of the Barrens. At 3 o'clock that afternoon, the iioth 111., which was 
in advance, encountered a small Confederate force, near Welles' 
church, on Browley's fork. Palmer's personal escort, part of Co. C, 
7th 111. cavalry, was ordered to the assistance of the adva.nce guard 
and in a short time the enemy was at full speed in retreat. One man 
of the escort was killed and another slightly wounded, which were the 
only casualties on the Union side. 

Bradyville Pike, Tenn., Jan. 23, 1863. 

Bradyville Pike, Tenn., May 17. 1863. Part of 2nd Division 21st 
Army Corps. While Gen. Palmer was encamped with his division at 
Cripple creek, the Confederates were in the habit of making daily ex- 
cursions to Youry's, three and a half rniles from the camp, telling the 



Cyclopedia of Battles 15? 

people how anxious they were "to see the Yanks." On the i6th Palmer 
rode to Youry's with a small escort of 20 men. Knowledge of this was 
conveyed to the Confederate camp at Dug Hollow and a detail was made 
to watch for a second visit on the part of the Union officer. Palmer went 
out again on the 17th, but this time he had about 100 men in his escort. 
At Youry's he learned that a detachment of the 3d Ga. cavalry had just 
left there a short time before. Taking a side road he managed to get 
between them and their camp, charged them in the face of a quick lire, 
killing and wounding several of their number and capturing 18 prisoners. 
The enemy fell back when Palmer's men came within 100 yards, but after 
reaching a piece of timber made a stand. The Union force, after a short 
skirmish, returned to Cripple creek, having had 5 men wounded and losing 
3 horses, though they captured a number of horses in return. 

Bragg's Farm, Mo., Sept. 13, 1862. 2nd Missouri State Militia. The 
Missouri state troops, under the command of Brig.-Gen. John McNeil, 
struck Porter's camp at Bragg's farm, near Whaley's mill, at 5 p. m. The 
2nd regiment was pushed forward as an attacking party and in a few 
minutes had the Confederates in full flight. Two were left dead on the 
field and it was known that several were wounded, besides 20 men, a 
number of horses and a quantity of clothing and provisions captured. 
McNeil's loss was i killed and 2 wounded. Porter's force numbered 
about 500 men, and was pursued until dark. 

Branchville, Ark., Jan. 19, 1864. ist Indiana, 5th Kansas, and 7th 
]\Iissouri Cavalry. About midnight on the l8th Col. Powell Clayton, with 
the three cavalry regiments and 4 pieces of light artillery, left the post 
at Pine Bluflf in the direction of Monticello. At daylight he encountered 
a Confederate picket at Bayou Bartholomew, 12 miles from Pine Bluff, 
and about 5 miles further on the advance commenced skirmishing with 
the pickets, driving them back for 5 miles in the direction of Branchville, 
when the Confederates were found in line of battle in some thick timber. 
Clayton deployed the Indiana and Kansas regiments to the right and left, 
holding the Missouri troops in the rear as a reserve in support of the 
artillery. After 2 hours the Missouri men were dismounted and pushed 
forward to the relief of the skirmishers. Going into the fight at a double- 
quick they struck consternation to the enemy, who fled to Branchville, 
where he was pursued and completely routed. Owing to scarcity of am- 
munition Clayton withdrew the pursuit and fell back to Pine Bluff. 
Clayton lost 2 men killed and several slightly wounded. Commanders of 
the different regiments reported 16 Confederates killed and 9 severely, 
besides a number slightly wounded. 

Branchville, Ark., March 27, 1864. (See Camden, Ark., Expedition to.) 

Branchville, Ark., May 27, 1864. 

Brandenburg, Ky., Sept. 12, 1862. 

Brandenburg, Ky., July 8, 1863. United States Steamer Springfield. 
The Brandenburg skirmish was an incident of the celebrated Morgan raid. 
While the noted guerrilla chieftain was crossing his forces into Indiana, 
the Springfield, commanded by Acting Ensign James Watson, kept up a 
fire from his vessel on the Confederate troops. Morgan finally planted 
three batteries in such a way as to command the river for some distance 
and the steamer was compelled to withdraw for lack of adequate support. 

Brandon, Miss., July IQ, 1863. Portion of 3d Division, 15th Army 
Corps. On the morning of the i8th, while the advance was debouching 
from a piece of timber, the Confederates opened fire from a battery of 
3 guns planted directly in the road, and at the same time the cavalry of 
the enemy began making demonstrations on the flanks. Col. J. L. Geddes, 
commanding • the advance brigade, immediately formed the 12th la. on 
the right, the 8th and 14th la. on the left of the road, the 72nd Ohio in 
close support, and ordered an advance, at the same time deploying a strong 



158 The Union Army 

line of skirmishers well to the front. Just as the forward movement was 
commenced 2 guns of Waterhouse's battery were brought up, one placed 
in the road and the other in a cornfield on the right, and at once began 
to shell the enemy's position. The Confederates fell back, contesting 
every inch of the way to Brandon, 3 miles to their rear, 2 hours being ' 
consumed in the running fight. When the Union troops entered Brandon 
the town was practically deserted. The Union loss was reported as being 
8 men killed, wounded and missing; that of the enemy as 31 killed and 
40 prisoners, tlic number of wounded not being ascertained. 

Brandon, Miss., Feb. 7, 1864. Part of j6th and 17th Army Corps. 
The advance had a spirited skirmish with some Confederate cavalry, but 
succeeded in driving the enemy from the town, chasing him for some 6 
miles. No casualties were reported on either side but the post adjutant 
w^as captured by the Union forces. During the day the rear-guard was 
annoyed by the Confederate cavalry under Gen. W. H. Jackson, but 
little damage was done. At Brandon 2 miles of railroad, a bridge and 
about 450 feet of trestle work were destroyed. The affair was an inci- 
dent of the Meridian exposition. 

Brandon Bridge, Va., May 9, 1864. 3d New Hampshire Infantry. 
The regiment, under the command of Col. J. I. Plimpton, was stationed 
by Gen. Terry to guard the bridge, which was on the road from Peters- 
burg to Richmond, instructed to let no troops pass, and to reconnoiter 
the position of the enemy. It was after dark when Plimpton reached the 
bridge. Halting his men about 700 yards from the river he advanced with 
150 men deployed as skirmishers and met the enemy about 150 yards from 
the bridge. Firing commenced immediately on both sides, the Confederates 
using grape and canister from a battery on the opposite side of the river. 
Owing to the darkness but little damage was done to either side and in 
a short time the firing ceased. The skirmish was renewed the next 
morning, but Plimpton held his position until about 10 o'clock, when he 
was ordered to fall back, his casualties being 2 men slightly and i 
severely wounded. 

Brandy Station, Va., Aug. 20, 1862. Brig.-Gen. Beverly H. Robert- 
son in his report of the campaign in northern Virginia in 1862 says that 
a portion of his Confederate cavalry brigade attacked a Federal force 
guarding the railroad between Stevensburg and Brandy Station. The 
Federals were driven back to Brandy Station where for some time they 
offered a determined resistance to the approaching enemy, who finally 
charged and routed them. The losses were 3 killed and 13 wounded on 
the Confederate side and 64 of the Union participants captured, besides 
a number killed and wounded. Federal reports make no mention of the 
affair. 

Brandy Station, Va., April 29, 1863. Two squadrons of the 5th U. S. 
Cavalry. The two squadrons of cavalry were sent out by Gen. Stoneman 
to effect a junction with Gen. Averell's division at Brandy Station. They 
were commanded by Capt. Drummond and Lieut. Walker. Before reach- 
ing the station they came in contact with a detachment of Confederate 
cavalry, supported by a battery of artillery. This force they drove back 
to the station, losing i man, but failed to see or hear anything of Avercll. 
That night they rejoined the main body near Kelly's ford. 

Brandy Station, Va., June 9, 1863. 3d Brigade, ist Division, 6th 
Corps; 2nd Brigade, ist Division, nth Corps; and Pleasonton's Cavalrj% 
Army of the Potomac. Preparatory to the invasion of Pennsylvania, Lee 
concentrated his army at Culpeper, Va. In order to learn something of 
the enemy's strength and proposed movements Gen. Hooker, then in com- 
mand of the Army of the Potomac, sent Gen. Pleasonton. with his three 
divisions of cavalry, supported by Ames' and Russell's brigades of infantry 
and six light batteries, about 11,000 men in all, to beat up the camps of 



Cyclopedia of Battles 159 

Stuart's cavalry in the neighborhood of Brandy Station and, if possible, 
gain tiie desired information. On the 8th Pleasonton moved from Fal- 
mouth up the north bank of the Rappahannock without being discovered. 
That night Buford's division of cavalry and Ames' infantry lay at Beverly 
ford, waiting for daylight to cross the river. At Kelly's ford, 6 miles 
below, were Duffie's and Gregg's cavalry divisions and Russell's brigade 
of infantry. No camp fires were lighted and at dawn the whole force 
crossed the river and moved toward Brandy Station, where the command 
was to unite and march on toward Culpcper. Duffie was to move via the 
Stevensburg road and the infantry was to be used to keep open the line 
of retreat if the enemy proved too strong to overcome. Buford's division 
encountered the Confederate cavalry between the ford and Brandy 
Station. This unexpected appearance of Stuart in his front somewhat 
disarranged Pleasonton's plans. A sharp engagement was fought at St. 
James' Church, in which Buford had to contend with five brigades of 
cavalry and about 20 pieces of artillery. Finding that he was unable to 
break the enemy's line Buford fell back to avoid being fianked out of his 
position and cut off from the ford. In the meantime Gregg had succeeded 
in getting to the rear of Stuart without being observed and began his 
attack just as Buford retired. For some time he engaged the whole Con- 
federate force on Fleetwood hill, finally being compelled to withdraw, 
leaving 3 of his guns in the hands of the enemy, as most of the horses 
belonging to the battery had been killed during the action. Duffie came 
up as rapidly as possible, but owing to the distance he had to march, did 
not reach the field until the fight was over. Learning that a large body of 
infantry was coming from Culpeper to the assistance of Stuart, and hav- 
ing accomplished the object for which he was sent out, Pleasonton ordered 
his command to recross the Rappahannock, which was accomplished with- 
out any interference from the enemy, who had no desire for further 
combat. 

The Federal loss at Brandy Station was 81 killed, 403 wounded and 
382 captured or missing. Stuart reported his casualties as being 51 killed, 
250 wounded and 132 missing, but Pleasonton reported the capture of over 
200 prisoners. One important result of this engagement was the capture 
at Stuart's headquarters of a desk containing a number of despatches, by 
which Hooker learned of the projected invasion of Pennsylvania, and was 
enabled to thwart Lee's original plans, compelling him to move through 
the Shenandoah valley instead of along the eastern base of the Blue Ridge 
as he had intended. (See Stevensburg, same date.) 

Brandy Station, "Va., Aug. i, 1863. ist Cavalry Division, Army of 
the Potomac. The division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. John Buford, 
crossed the Rappahannock river at Rappahannock Station about 11 a. m. 
for the purpose of reconnoitering the Confederate position. Soon after 
crossing, Buford encountered two cavalry brigades under command of 
Gen. Stuart and drove them back to within a mile and a half of Culpeper 
Court House, where he met A. P. Hill's corps of infantry, with three 
batteries of artillery. Unable to cope with this force, Buford fell back 
to Brandy Station, closely pressed by the enemy. There were several 
brilliant charges and some hand-to-hand fighting in which sabers were 
used with great effect. Buford's loss was 21 killed, 104 wounded and 20 
captured or missing. The Confederate loss was not r,eported but was 
much heavier. 

Brandy Station, "Va., Aug. 4, 1863. ist Cavalry Division, Army of the 
Potomac. In the morning Col. Thomas C. Devin, commanding the 2nd 
brigade, sent out two parties to reconnoiter on the roads leading to 
Stevensburg. The one on the Kelly's Ford road encountered a strong 
picket at the ford across Mountain run, with a considerable force in 
reserve. The detachment of Devin's brigade had been instructed to go 



160 The Union Army 

no farther than the ford and remained there watching the enemy. In the 
afternoon some 2,000 Confederate cavalry, with a battery of 6 guns, 
attacked Gen. Buford's position, drove back the pickets for about 1,500 
yards and threatened a general assault. Buford ordered the entire division 
under arms, repulsed the enemy with considerable loss, and that evening 
advanced his picket line 800 yards in advance of where it had been prior 
to the attack. Buford's loss was slight — not more than 8 or 10 wounded. 

Brandy Station, Va., Aug. 9, 1863. 

Brandy Station, Va., Sept. 6, 1863. Cavalry, Army of the Potomac. 

Brandy Station, Va., Sept. 8, 1863. 

Brandy Station, Va., Sept. 13, 1863. Kilpatrick's Cavalry. On the 
evening of the 12th Kilpatrick's division was massed at Kelly's ford, where 
he received orders to march early the next morning to Brandy Station 
and effect a junction with Gen. Buford's division. In pursuance of this 
order he crossed the Rappahannock a little after daylight, captured the 
enemy's pickets and drove his reserves back upon Stevensburg, closely fol- 
lowed by the ist Mich, cavalry. At Brandy Station the whole division 
engaged the Confederates, forcing them back to the ridge west of the 
station, where they had a battery stationed, which opened on Kilpatrick's 
forces. The junction was then made with Buford and Kilpatrick was 
ordered to move his forces to the left for the purpose of attacking the 
enemy's right and rear. (See Culpeper of same date.) 

Brandy Station, Va., Oct. 11, 1863. Pleasonton's Cavalry, Army of 
the Potomac. The 2nd brigade of Kilpatrick's division, commanded by 
Brig.-Gen. George A. Custer, was almost surrounded by the enemy's 
cavalry near Brandy Station. Gen. Birney, from his position at Welford's 
ford, saw the attack from three sides, and formed Ward's brigade in line 
of battle, at the same time sending an aide-de-camp to Gen. Pleasonton 
with the offer of assistance. This Pleasonton declined and Custer asked 
permission to cut his way through the enemy's lines. This was granted 
and Custer, leaving the 6th and 7th Mich, to hold the enemy in the rear 
in check, ordered the band to play "Yankee Doodle." and informed his men 
that they must cut their way to liberty with their sabers. Tlie men 
responded with a cheer and with the ist and 5th Mich, regiments in ad- 
vance Custer led one of his characteristic charges, before which the Con- 
federates scattered in all directions, thus opening a way for the entire 
corps. About the same time the ist Md. cavalry, belonging to the ist 
brigade of Gen. Gregg's division, was having a tilt with the enemy's 
cavalry at Morton's ford, Stevensburg, and on the road to Brandy Station. 
The Union troops were dismounted and deployed as skirmishers until the 
Confederates began to fall back, when they followed at the double-quick, 
driving the enemy all the way to the station. The losses in these skirmishes 
are included in the report for the entire Bristoe campaign. 

Brandy Station, Va., Oct. 12, 1863. (See Fleetwood.) 

Brandy Station, Va., Nov. 8, 1863. 6th Maryland, iioth and 122nd 
Ohio, and 138th Pennsylvania Infantrj', and ist New Hampshire Battery. 
The aft'air at Brandy Station on this date was one of the skirmishes that 
occurred during the advance of the army to the Rappahannock. When 
within about 2 miles of Brandy Station, Gen. Keifer's brigade, which 
formed the advance, met with a considerable force of the enemy — prin- 
cipally cavalry and horse artillery — occupying a strong position overlook- 
ing the Orange & Alexandria railroad. Deploying his forces and throw- 
ing forward skirmishers, supported bj^ the main body of the brigade, as 
well as the ist brigade, Keifer ordered an advance. The movement was 
well executed and the Confederates driven from their works, which had 
in the meantime been shelled by more than 50 rounds from the ist N. H. 
battery. The enemy was pursued beyond Brandy Station, when the chase 
was ended bv order of Gen. Carr. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 161 

Brannan's E-xpedition from Hilton Head, S. C, Oct. 21-23, 1862. 
]n accordance with instructions from headquarters. Department of the 
South, Brig.-Gen. John Al. Brannan led an expedition to destroy the 
bridges on the Charleston & Savannah railroad. His forces consisted of 
a portion of the ist and 2nd brigades, loth corps; 300 of the 3d R. I. 
infantry; 300 of the 48th N. Y. ; 108 of the ist Mass.; one section each 
of the 1st and 3d U. S. artillery, and 250 of the N. Y. volunteer engi- 
neers, making a total of 4,448 men. The expedition left Hilton Head on 
transports and gunboats on the evening of the 21st and proceeded up the 
Broad river. At 4:30 the next morning the transport Ben De Ford and 
the gunboat Paul Jones arrived off Pocotaligo creek, whence a detachment 
was sent to destroy the Coosawhatchie river bridges. The other vessels 
did not arrive until late in the day, when Brannan landed his artillery and 
infantry at Mackay's point and sent two of the transports to Port Royal 
for some cavalry. An advance was commenced in the direction of Poco- 
taligo bridge, which was to be the first point of attack. 

At Caston's plantation, some 5 or 6 miles from the river, the enemy was 
found in considerable force. The ist brigade, which was in advance, had 
no sooner debouched upon an open field than fire was opened on it from 
a field battery stationed in a thick wood. The brigade was deployed, the 
artillery ordered to the front, and the Confederates were soon driven 
from their position. In their retreat they managed to destroy a number 
of small bridges, which had to be rebuilt by the engineers, causing con- 
siderable delay in bringing up the artillery. 

A mile and a half further on the enemy made a stand at Frampton's 
plantation. Here he had the advantage of the ground, the battery being 
posted in a wood, in front of which was an almost impassable swamp. 
Across this swamp was a narrow causeway, the bridge of which had been 
destroyed. Brannan took a position in a thicket on the edge of the swamp, 
but his men were twice driven back by the terrific fire of grape, canister 
and shell from the enemy's battery. Seeing a flank movement impossible 
on account of the ground, Brannan advanced the ist brigade to the verge 
of the swamp and sent a section of the ist U. S. artillery to the broken 
causeway. This bold move caused the Confederates to again abandon their 
position. The infantry waded the swamp and started in pursuit, pressing 
the enemy so elosely that he had no time to reform his lines. In the 
retreat the Confederates abandoned a caisson filled with ammunition, 
which fortunately fitted the boat howitzers, thus enabling Brannan to keep 
up an artillery fire after his other ammunition was exhausted. 

Brannan followed to the junction of the Coosawhatchie and Mackay's 
point roads, at a point where the former runs through the swamp to 
Pocotaligo bridge. Here the enemy had constructed a line of rifle pits 
and earthworks and massed a considerable force, evidently having in- 
formation of the intentions of the expedition. The Union forces were 
here met by a murderous fire from a long line of batteries, to which no 
response could be made for lack of ammunition. The skirmish line was 
advanced to the edge of the swamp, however, and did good execution for 
a time, but without artillery Brannan deemed it inexpedient to continue 
the fight and sounded the retreat. This last skirmish is known as the 
battle of Coosawhatchie. 

In the meantime Col. Barton, with the 48th N. Y- ^nd 3d R. I. 
battery, had been sent up the Coosawhatchie, with instructions to approach 
as near to the town of that name as practicable, and, under cover of the 
gunboats, destroy the railroad bridge if possible. He was also instructed 
not to hazard too much, but, if attacked by a superior force, to fall back 
to the fleet. Barton drove in the pickets and was approaching the town, 
but when within a mile of the place a train of 8 cars, loaded with troops 
and bearing 2 pieces of artillery, was sent out to resist his further advance. 

Vol. V-n 



162 The Union Army 

This train was greeted with a destructive fire of grape, canister and 
musketry, and several were seen to fall, among them the engineer. The 
survivors jumped from the train and took to the woods. Barton here 
captured several stand of arms, the silk colors of the Whippy Swamp 
Guards, and was engaged in tearing up the track when advised that 
Brannan had ordered a retreat. 

The Union casualties on the expedition were 43 killed, 294 wounded 
and 3 missing. Tlie enemy's losses could not be ascertained. Brannan 
attributed the failure of the expedition to the information the Confederates 
had obtained in some way in advance of the movement. 

Brashear City, La., March 18, 1863. ist Louisiana Cavalry. 

Brashear City, La., June 21, 1863. (See La Fourche Crossing, same 
date.) 

Brashear City, La., June 23, 1863. Detached forces under command of 
Maj. Robert C. Anthony of the 2nd Rhode Island Cavalry. For some 
time the enemy had been threatening the post at Brashear City. When 
Lieut. -Col. Albert Stickney, of the 47th Mass. infantrj-, withdrew the 
greater part of the forces there on the 20th for the action at La Fourche 
Crossing, it gave the Confederates an opportunity too good to be over- 
looked. On the evening of the 22nd Maj. Hunter, with about 325 men of 
Baylor's Texas cavalry, rowed in skiffs from the mouth of Bayou Teche 
to a position in the rear of the city. About 5 :30 on the morning of the 
23d he was within 800 yards of the Union lines. About the same time 
the Confederates commenced a spirited bombardment of the place from 
the Valverde battery across the bay. The attack from both sides seems 
to have disconcerted Maj. Anthony, who doubtless believed the land forces 
in the rear to be much larger than they really were, and he surrendered 
without offering any resistance. Some of the ist Ind. heavy artillery 
stationed there acted without orders and put up a gallant fight until 
notified that the place had surrendered. The number of prisoners taken 
was about 1,000 (accounts differ) and there fell into the hands of the 
enemy 11 heavy guns, about 2,500 stands of small arms, a large number 
of wagons and tents, and a supply of ammunition. The prisoners were 
paroled. In killed and wounded the Union forces lost about 75 and the 
Confederates 21. 

Brawley Forks, Tenn., IMarch 25, 1865. 

Braxton Court House, W. Va., Dec. 29, 1861. (See Suttonville, 
same date.) 

Brazil Creek, Ind. Ter., Oct. 11, 1863. 

Brazos Santiago, Tex., Nov. 2, 1863. Banks' Expedition to the Rio 
Grande. The fleet bearing the expedition left New Orleans on Oct. 26. 
After being scattered by a severe gale the vessels got together and on 
the morning of the 2nd arrived off Brazos island (Brazos Santiago), near 
the mouth of the Rio Grande. The place was occupied by a small force 
of Confederate cavalry, which fled as they saw about 3,500 troops under 
Gen. Dana in the act of disembarking. Just at noon the stars and stripes 
were hoisted on Texas soil. 

Brazos Santiago, Tex., Sept. 6, 1864. ist Texas Cavalry. The action 
was really at the Palmetto ranch, about 16 miles up the Rio Grande from 
Brazos Santiago. Col. H. M. Day of the 91st 111. infantry, commanding 
the Union forces in the district, learned that the Confederates had col- 
lected a large lot of cattle in a bend of the river near the Palmetto ranch, 
sent out a squadron of the ist Tex. cavalry and a piece of artillery, to 
drive back the enemy and if possible capture the cattle. The Confederates 
slowly retired until the Palmetto ranch was reached, when they made a 
stand and a brisk skirmish ensued. The Confederates were constantly 
receiving reinforcements from up the river, when the piece of artillery 
arrived and opened an effective fire on the ranch, which drove the enemy 



Cyclopedia of Battles 163 

flying in the direction of Brownsville. The expedition was a success, the 
enemy being driven from the neighborhood and a large lot of cattle 
brought to the Union camp. 

Breaker, Schooner, Aug. 12, 1862. (See Naval Volume.) 

Breckenridge, Mo., June 9, 1864. Detachment of the 6sth Missouri 
Enrolled ]\lilitia. Ten men were sent out by the colonel of the regiment 
to secure an escaped prisoner named Weldon. Five of the party went 
to the house of the prisoner and the other 5 to the house of his mother. 
Secreting themselves about the houses they waited for the arrival of the 
prisoner, witii a party who was engaged in guarding him. They arrived 
about daylight on the morning of the 9th and a sharp fight ensued in 
which 2 of the Union men were slightly wounded, i was killed and 2 of 
the citizens were severely wounded. 

Brentsville, Va., Jan. 9, 1863. ist Michigan Cavalry. One officer and 
7 men belonging to the ist Mich, cavalry were surprised by a much larger 
force about noon. Not expecting an attack the men were all dismounted 
except one. Two were killed, i mortally wounded and 4 captured. The 
one who was mounted made his escape. 

Brentsville, Va., Oct. 14-15, 1863. ist and 2nd Cavalry Divisions, 
Bristoe Campaign. The 1st division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. John 
Buford, was assigned to the duty of guarding the rear and flank of the wagon 
trains on the march to Centerville. At Brentsville the trains were delayed 
on the 14th, which made it necessary to keep in motion all that night, 
frequent dashes being made by the enemy's cavalry, but every time they 
were repulsed by Buford's men. During the night march the 2nd division, 
under Brig.-Gen. D. McM. Gregg, was sent to Buford's assistance until 
the danger point was considered passed. At daylight on the 15th the 
wagons were all safely over Broad run. From there to Cedar run they 
were followed by a small force of Confederate cavalry, though no attack 
was made. After crossing Cedar run the wagons, through confusion as 
to route, recrossed the stream to the enemy's side. A strong force of the 
enemy's cavalry made a brisk advance, doubtless with the intention of 
capturing or destroying some of the train, but instead of striking the train 
on the flank, he struck Buford's force, which was well prepared to receive 
him. By an adroit movement the 17th Pa. turned the Confederate flank, 
forcing him to give way long enough to afl'ord the main body of the 
Union forces to take a strong position, which was maintained until the 
train was well on the way to Fairfax Station. 

Brentsville, Va., Nov. 26, 29, 1863. 

Brentsville, Va., Feb. 14, 1864. Detachment, 13th Pennsylvania Cav- 
alry. A party of 25 men was sent out from the camp at Bristoe Station, 
under Lieut. Patrick S. Farley, to scout through the country for a mile 
or two be3-ond Brentsville. While passing through that town one man, 
who was somewhat in advance, saw 3 Confederate soldiers run into a 
thicket of pines in the direction of Cedar run. Four men were dismounted 
and sent into the thicket while the rest of the party proceeded on across 
a narrow bridge. Scarcely had this bridge been crossed when several 
shots were fired from a thicket on the right of the road. The formation 
of the ground made it easier to go forward than back and all those in 
advance dashed forward toward the thicket. Another ,volley came from 
the ambush and Maj. Larrimer, who accompanied the expedition, and 3 
men were killed and 4 were wounded. Capt. Carle, division provost- 
marshal, wanted to pursue but the other officers disagreed with him as 
they were unacquainted with the country and did not know the strength 
of the enemy. Some of the men reluctantly went with Carle to the place 
where Larrimer fell to recover his body. Several pools of blood were 
found on the ground, indicating that some punishment had been inflicted 
on the Confederates, but the loss could not be ascertained. 



mi The Union Army 

Brentwood, Tenn., Sept. 19-20, 18O2. 

Brentwood, Tenn., Ucc. 9, 1862. 25th Illinois, 8th Kansas, and 8ist 
Indiana Volunteers, and 8lh Wisconsin Battery. 1 he Illinois and Kansas 
troops were sent out from the camp near Nashville on a reconnaissance in 
the direction of Franklin. Near the junction of the Liberty and Nolens- 
ville pikes they met with a detachment of Confederate cavalry under Gen. 
Wharton. The Indiana regiment and the Wisconsin battery were then 
ordered up as reinforcements and the enemy retired, being pursued beyond 
Brentwood, both sides keeping up a desultory firing, which could hardly 
be dignilied by the name of a running fight. About 5 miles beyond Brent- 
wood a considerable body of the enemy's cavalry was seen blocking the 
road some distance in advance. The battery was ordered to the front 
and with two or three well directed shots dispersed them. The Union 
force remained there until sunset, when it returned to the camp. One man 
of tlie 25th 111. was slightly wounded, which was the only casualty reported. 

Brentwood, Tenn., March 25, 1863. Detached troops of the 22nd 
Wisconsin, 33d' Indiana, 19th Michigan infantry, and 4th Cavalry Brigade. 
The detachment, numbering 300 men, under the command of Lieut.-Col. 
Edward Bloodgood, of the 22nd Wis., surrendered to a force of Confed- 
erate cavalry early on the morning of the 25th. The story of the whole 
affair is perhaps best told in the following report from Gen. Rosecrans : 
"The force at Brentwood was captured early this morning by two or 
three brigades of rebel cavalry. They crossed the Harpeth, 12 miles below, 
near Tank, and destroyed the railroad bridge and telegraph. Pickets 
were attacked early and vigorously on all approaches to this place, on the 
south side of the river. I immediately dispatched cavalry under Gen. 
Smith, to save railroad train and Brentwood. The rebels had completed 
work; were moving westward; pursued and overtook them 6 miles out; 
sharp engagement; recaptured wagons, ambulances, and arms (one hun- 
dred) taken from us. and two hundred stands in addition. When success 
seemed certain, Forrest came up with a strong force on the left. We 
were compelled to fall back to Brentwood, burning a portion of the wagons 
and destroying such arms as we could not bring away. Smith reports 
350 to 400 of the enemy killed. Brought in 40 prisoners. Our loss did 
not exceed 50." 

Brentwood, Tenn., Dec. 15-16, 1864. (See Nashville, Tenn.) 

Brewer's Lane, Ark.., Sept. 11, 1864. 13th llllinois, Sth Kan- 
sas and 1st Indiana Cavalry. The skirmish at Brewer's lane was one 
of the incidents of an expedition sent out from Pine Bluff by Gen. Clay- 
ton. On the return trip the forces were divided. Co. G, of the Kansas 
regiment, was some distance in advance and when about 18 miles from 
Pine Bluff met the enemy and forced him to retire slowly. A little later 
the Union force was attacked on the right flank, but the enemy was again 
driven back. The column moved on a short distance, when another attack 
was made, this time on both the flank and rear. The men were thrown 
into confusion for a little while, but were finally rallied and held the 
enemy in check. Capt. Kyler of the ist Ind., who was acting as rear- 
guard, was cut oft' from the main body but managed to cut his way out. 
For the next 4 miles repeated attacks were made on the rear, and the 
march was practically a running fight. At Warren's cross-roads the Union 
troops found Col. Erskine, with the 13th 111. drawn up in line of battle, 
and the retreat was turned into a victory. The Confederates were beaten 
back and after waiting for some time for them to reappear the expedition 
returned to Pine Bluff. The losses were i killed, 8 wounded, and 2 miss- 
ing. Four of the ist Ind. who were wounded in the fight when cut oft', 
were left on the field. (See Monticello, Ark., Sept. 10.) 

Briar, Mo., March 26, 1862. (See Warrensburg.) 

Brice's Cross-Roads, Miss., June 10, 1864. Expedition under Brig.- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 165 

Gen. S. D. Sturgis. On June 2, 1863, Gen. Stiirgis marched from camp 
near La Fayette witli about 8,000 men of the AliHtary District of West 
Tennessee. The force comprised a division of cavalry under Brig.-Gen. 
B. H. Grierson — the two brigades of which were commanded respectively 
by Col. G. E. Waring, Jr., and Col. E. F. Winslow — and a division of 
infantry under Col. William L. McMillen, whose brigade commanders were 
Cols. A. Wilkin, G. B. Hoge and E. Bouton, the latter leading a colored 
brigade. With the cavalry were a 6-gun battery and 4 mountain how- 
itzers, while the infantry had 12 pieces of artillery. On the morning of 
the loth the cavalry, Waring's brigade in advance, left camp at 5 130 a. m. 
When it arrived at Brice's cross-roads the Confederates, commanded by 
Gen. Forrest, were first encountered. Grierson halted his column and sent 
heavy patrols out on all of the four roads. The force proceeding on the 
Baldwyn road had gone about a mile when it encountered the enemy in 
great strength and Waring's whole brigade was brought into the action 
to develop the enemy's force. A portion of Winslow's brigade was thrown 
out on the Fulton road connecting with Waring's right, holding about 600 
men in reserve. The Confederates advanced upon Grierson's position with 
double line of skirmishers and line of battle, but the Union line held. 
As soon as the infantry arrived Grierson asked permission to withdraw 
the cavalry as the men were exhausted and almost out of ammunition. 
Sturgis oversaw the placing of the artillery, which had no sooner opened 
than the enemy replied. The right of the line seemed to be bearing the 
brunt of the attack and Grierson was directed to send some cavalry to 
support it, but the pressure was too great and the exhausted cavalry began 
to give way. At the same time the enemy showed more strength on the 
left and the center was badly in need of reinforcements. Sturgis was 
making for the head of the colored brigade guarding the train, to bring 
it into action, when the whole line gave way, and at 5 p. m., after 7 hours 
of sharp fighting, the Union troops fell back. Part of them became con- 
fused and the result was a panic, but by hard work Grierson and Sturgis 
succeeded in rallying 1,200 or 1,500 men, who for a time formed a rear- 
guard and held the enemy in check. The road became jammed with 
wagons and men, and 14 pieces of artillery and 200 wagons were captured 
by the enemy. It was not until the Federal column reached Stubbs' 
plantation, 10 miles from the scene of action, that a halt was made and 
something like order restored. Early the next morning a complete re- 
organization was effected at Ripley and the retreat was continued in an 
orderly manner. The Union loss was 223 killed, 394 wounded and 1,623 
captured or missing. Forrest reported his loss as 96 killed, 396 wounded 
and none missing. This engagement is called in the Confederate reports 
the battle of Tishomingo creek, and is also sometimes referred to as the 
battle of Guntown, as it occurred near that place. 

Bridge Creek, Miss., May 28, 1862. 22nd Brigade, 4th Division, Army 
of the Ohio. Bridge creek is a small stream to the east of Corinth and 
flows a southwesterly direction into the Tuscumbia river. On this date, 
as the Union army was drawing its lines around Corinth, Gen. Nelson, 
commanding the 4th division, ordered Col. Thomas D. Sedgewick to 
move his brigade to the advance of the division. Upon gaining a point 
about three-fourths of a mile in front of the Federal intrenchments, 
Sedgewick disposed his command with the 2nd and 20th Ky. in the first 
line, the ist Ky. in a second line about 70 yards in the rear of the first, 
and the 31st Ind. in double column 100 yards behind the ist Ky. In 
this order the brigade advanced, two companies of each regiment being 
thrown forward as skirmishers. The skirmish line soon drew the fire of 
the enemy's pickets, posted in a thicket on the left and some woods and 
a swamp on the right. Those on the left were quickly driven back to the 
main road from Farmington to Corinth, where a larger force was en- 



166 The Union Army 

countered at the bridge. This point was of great importance to the Con- 
federates, who held on to it tenaciously, but after a stubborn fight of half 
an hour the skirmishers of the 2nd and 20th Ky. succeeded in forcing 
them back about 50 yards beyond the creek and gaining possession of the 
end of the bridge. Sedgewick requested the men at the bridge to hold on 
at all hazards and immediately took steps to reinforce them. Reinforce- 
ments came to the enemy also, his line was reformed and he advanced, 
fully intent on regaining possession of the bridge. To meet this movement 
part of the 20th Ky. was thrown to the left and the remainder of that 
regiment to some woods across a small open field on the right, while 
Capt. Mendenhall's battery was brought up to shell the enemy in front. 
At the same time part of the 31st Ind. was ordered to reinforce the line 
on the left. The well directed fire of the battery, with the cross fire of 
the infantry on both flanks, soon caused the enemy to beat a hasty and 
disorderly retreat, leaving the Federals in possession of the bridge. In 
this engagement Sedgewick was opposed by fully 6,000 of the best troops 
in the Confederate army, and his victory was a tribute to his generalship 
and the bravery of his men. He reported his loss as 3 killed and 20 
wounded. The enemy's loss in killed and wounded was not ascertained, 
but in the retreat a number of prisoners were taken, one company of the 
2ist La. being cut off and nearly all captured. 

Bridgeport, Ala., April 23-27, 1862. 

Bridgeport, Ala., April 29, 1862. (See West Bridge, same date.) 

Bridgeport, Ala., Aug. 27, 1862. (See Battle Creek, Tenn., same date.) 

Bridgeport, Ala., July 29, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 3d Division, 20th Army 
Corps. The brigade, commanded by Col. Bernard Laiboldt, reached 
Bridgeport at 6 a. m. and was fired upon by Confederate pickets from the 
opposite bank of the Tennessee river. The pickets were driven off by the 
fire of the Union sharpshooters, but they took refuge in the middle bridge 
and a house from which they continued to annoy the Federals. Laiboldt 
then ordered a battery to dislodge them and a few shells caused them to 
beat a hasty retreat out of range. No casualties were reported. 

Bridgeport, Miss., May 17, 1863. 6th Missouri Cavalry. Three miles 
from Bridgeport the Union troops, commanded by Col. Clark Wright, 
engaged the Confederate Gen. Reynolds, with a brigade and 2 batteries, 
and notwithstanding the difference in numbers charged so impetuously 
that the Confederate lines broke and retreated toward Bridgeport. Clark 
followed and kept up the fight for 3 hours when he was relieved by 
Gen. Blair. 

Bridgeport, W. Va., April 30, 1863. Two companies of Federal troops 
and 1st IMaryland Battalion, Confederate Cavalry. The two Union com- 
panies, one of cavalry and one of infantry, were stationed as a garrison 
at Bridgeport when the town was charged by the Confederate cavalry, 
led by Maj. Brown, and almost the entire garrison killed or captured. 
The enemy lost i killed and 2 wounded. 

Bridgewater, Va., Oct. 2, T864. 3d New Jersey and 2nd New York 
Cavalry. The 3d N. J., on picket duty, was attacked by a division of 
Lomax's cavalry and driven back across the North river and through the 
town in some confusion. The 2nd N. Y. formed quickly, charged the 
enemy and drove him back across the river, recapturing nearly all the 
prisoners and killing and wounding several of the assailants. During the 
brief but spirited action the Confederates used artillery freely, but without 
doing much damage. 

Brier Creek, Ga., Dec. 4, 1864. (See Waynesboro, same date.) 

Brier Fork, Mo., July 5, 1861. 

Brimstone Creek, Tenn., Sept. 10, 1863. nth Kentucky Mounted 
Volunteers. Col. Love, in command of the Union troops, came up with a 
detachment of Hamilton's guerrillas at Brimstone creek, engaged them, 



Cyclopedia of Battles 167 

killed 4, wounded 7 and captured 2, with a loss of I horse killed, 
After the engagement Love withdrew to Rose's cross-roads. 

Bristoe Station, Va., Aug. 26, 1862. 2nd Division, 3d Army Corps. 
When Stonewall Jackson started on his raid around Gen. Pope, just 
before the second battle of Bull Run, he left Ewell's division at Bristoe 
Station, while with the rest of his command he pushed on to Manassas 
Junction. Pope was then concentrating his forces in the neighborhood of 
Gainesville, and on the afternoon of the 26th the 3d corps reached Bristoe 
Station to find its further progress disputed by Ewell, who occupied a 
strong position along the little stream called Kettle run. Hooker sent 
forward Taylor's and Carr's brigades to engage the enemy and some sharp 
skirmishing occurred, neither side gaining any material advantage. Hooker 
then ordered Grover's brigade to form in line of battle, throw out 
skirmishers, and advance in front and on the right. Ewell's lines, which 
had been somewhat broken in the first attack, now fell back across Cedar 
run and later to Manassas. Casualties not reported. 

Bristoe Station, Va., Aug. 18, Sept. 12, 24, 1863. 

Bristoe Station, Va., Oct. 14, 1863. 2nd Army Corps. On this date 
the corps was under the temporary command of Brig.-Gen. John C. Cald- 
well, Gen. Warren being absent. After the engagement at Catlett's station 
in the morning, the command pushed forward to Bristoe, the object being 
to get possession of the Orange & Alexandria railroad, the line of which 
afforded a strong position for defense. As the advance approached the 
station Caldwell learned that the Confederates were advancing in line of 
battle to attack his flank. He gained the railroad and formed his line of 
battle with his own division (the ist) on the left, Webb's (2nd) division 
on the right, and Hays' (3d) division in the center, the batteries being 
planted in the rear in such a position that they could fire over the heads 
of the infantry. Against this line Gen. A. P. Hill sent Cooke's North 
Carolina brigade without taking the customary precaution to advance a 
skirmish line to develop the Federal position. As Cooke advanced he was 
met by a withering fire of musketry, while the batteries in the rear poured 
a rapid fire of canister into his line, causing it to break in disorder, leav- 
ing 5 pieces of artillery and 2 stands of colors in Union hands. The loss 
of the 2nd corps for the day, including the actions at Auburn and Catlett's 
station, was 50 killed, 335 wounded and 161 missing. A Confederate 
account says that their loss was 1,400 in killed and wounded. This 
decisive repulse checked Lee's advance and enabled the Army of the 
Potomac to take a strong position at Centerville. 

Bristoe Station, Va., Oct. 18, 1863. ist Maryland Cavalry. Lieut.- 
Col. Ridgely Brown, who commanded the regiment on this date, reported 
as follows : "Tlie brigade being in position at Bristoe to resist the enemy, 
my command had position on the left of the railroad, and poured a volley 
into the enemy's ranks ; but they retired so quickly we could not tell the 
efifect of our fire." 

Bristoe Station, Va., Feb. i, March 16, 1864. 

Bristoe Station, Va., April 15, 1864. Troops of the 3d Division, 
5th Army Corps. The division, constituted mainly of the Pennsylvania 
reserves, was engaged in guarding the line of railroad above Manassas 
Junction, and was subjected to numerous petty attacks from the roving 
bands of guerrillas in that locality. The affair of the 'I5th was a trivial 
one, but characteristic of these annoyances. Three mounted guerrillas 
passed along the north side of the railroad and shot 2 men belonging 
to the loth Pa. infantrj% who had been sent out with a squad to obtain 
wood. The same guerrillas then crossed Broad run near Milford, 
surprised a vedette of 4 men belonging to the 13th Pa. cavalry and killed 
I of the number. The other 3 fled, leaving their horses and dead com- 
panion to the enemy. 



168 The Union Army 

Bristol, Tenn., Sept. 19, u%3. 2nd Brigade, 4tli Division, 23d Army 
Corps. Col. John W. Foster, commanding the brigade, reported as fol- 
lows : "I arrived at Bristol today and occupied the town without re- 
sistance, except by a force of 400 cavalry, which were driven out of the 
town after a severe skirmish. I tore up the railroad and burned the 
bridges, 2 miles above town." Foster also destroyed a large amount of 
subsistence stores and then returned to Blountsville. No casualties re- 
ported. 

Bristol, Tenn., Sept. 21, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 4th Division, 23d Army 
Corps. 

Bristol, Tenn., Oct. 15, 1863. 3d Brigade, 4th Division, 23d Army 
Corps. Brig.-Gen. J. M. Shackelford, commanding the brigade, reported 
from Bristol at 2:30 p. m. on the 15th: "I have the honor to report that, 
with the blessing of Providence, we have succeeded in driving the enemy 
out of East Tennessee, and are still pursuing him. Our forces now occupy 
Zollicoffer and this place." 

Bristol, Tenn., Dec. 14, 1864. Cavalry commanded by Gen. Burbridge. 
After the engagement at Kingsport on the 13th Burbridge's cavalry pur- 
sued Duke's brigade to Bristol, where the nth Ky. made a dashing charge 
into the town at 3 o'clock in the morning, routed the enemy and drove 
him from the place in confusion. About 200 were captured, together with 
2 trains of cars, 5 locomotives and a large quantity of stores and 
munitions of war. Col. Boyle of the nth was warmly commended by his 
superiors for his gallant action. The engagement was an incident of 
Stoneman's raid. 

Britton's Lane, Tenn., Sept. i, 1862. Detached Troops from the Post 
of Jackson. After the skirmish at Bolivar on Aug. 30, Col. E. S. Dennis, 
stationed at Esttmaula, was ordered to leave that place and return to 
Jackson. His command consisted of the 20th and 30th 111. infantry, two 
companies of cavalry and a section of Battery A, 2nd 111. artillery. Early 
on the morning of the 31st Dennis destroyed all the stores he was unable 
to take away, and started for Jackson, but before he proceeded far he re- 
ceived an order to march to Medon Station to intercept the enemy near 
that point. About 10 a. m. on Sept. i, his scouts brought word that a 
large Confederate force was at Britton's lane, near the junction of the 
Denmark and Medon roads. This force numbered about 5,000 men, while 
Dennis had but about 800. In the face of these odds Dennis did the 
wisest thing possible in selecting a strong defensive position in a grove 
on an elevated piece of ground, surrounded by open fields. Soon after 
taking this position the enemy appeared in sufficient force to completely 
surround Dennis, the fight being waged on all sides at the same time. 
The Confederates, dismounting part of tlieir men, attacked as both infantry 
and cavalry. Early in the action they succeeded in capturing the wagon 
train, with the teamsters and a number of sick soldiers, and the 2 pieces 
of artillery, but the wagons and guns were later recaptured, except 4 
wagons that were burned. The fight lasted for 4 hours, during which 
time several fierce cavalry charges were met and repulsed. Finally the 
enemy withdrew, leaving 179 of his dead upon the field, as well as a large 
number of wounded. The total Confederate loss was reported as being 
over 400. Dennis' loss was 5 killed and 55 wounded. 

Broad Run, "Va., April i, 1863. Detachments of the ist Vermont and 
5th New York Cavalry. The Confederate Gen. Mosby was known to be 
in the vicinity with a small force of men and Capt. Flint was sent out at 
the head of the detachment to rout or capture him. They came upon 
Mosby and about 65 of his men at a house on Broad run. not far from the 
Leesburg and Alexandria road, and before the Confederates knew that 
any Union men were in the immediate neighborhood they received a volley 
that wounded 4 of their number. Owing to the arrangement of the fences 



Cyclopedia of Battles 169 

a charge was impossible, and while Flint's men were crowded about a 
narrow gate in their efforts to get through they were subjected to a galling 
fire from the enemy. This increased the confusion, the men became panic 
stricken and fled in disorder. The Union loss was 25 killed and wounded 
and about 80 prisoners, stragglers picked up in squads of 3 or 4. Mosby's 
loss was the 4 wounded at the first fire. 

Brock Road, Va., May 5-7, 1864. (See Wilderness.) 

Brock's Gap, Va., Oct. 6, 1864. 3d Cavalry Division, Army of the 
Shenandoah. As Custer's division was going into camp near Brock's 
gap the 5th N. Y. and 18th Pa. were attacked by the Confederate cavalry 
under Rosser and 75 men of the New York regiment were cut off from 
the main body, but succeeded in getting away from the enemy and came 
in later. Custer ordered out enough of his command to repulse the attack. 

Brook Church, Va., May 11, 1864. (Same as Ground Squirrel Church, 
q. V.) 

Brookhaven, Miss., April 29, 1863. Part of Grierson's Brigade of 
Cavalry. The main body of the brigade bivouacked at Union Church 
on the night of the 28th and early the next morning made a demonstra- 
tion on Fayette, to create the impression that Port Gibson was the ob- 
jective point, and then suddenly turned and took the road to Brookhaven. 
Before reaching the town Gen. Grierson learned that a force of some 500 
conscripts and citizens was organized to resist his further progress. The 
Union forces charged into the town, when the enemy fled in all direc- 
tions. Grierson captured over 200 prisoners, several hundred tents, and a 
large amount of quartermaster's and commissary stores. This engagement 
occurred during Grierson's raid. 

Brookhaven, Miss., July 18, 1863. Fullerton's Cavalry Brigade, 13th 
Army Corps. Maj. Fullerton's brigade consisted of three companies of 
the 2nd 111., three companies of the 3d III, one company of the 4th Ind. 
and seven companies of the 6th Mo. On the 17th he was ordered to go 
down the New Orleans & Jackson railroad as far as Brookhaven. That 
town was reached on the i8th and a small Confederate picket found there. 
This was driven back with a loss of 45 prisoners. The expedition lasted 
four days, during which time 4 railroad depots, a number of switches, 
40 or 50 cars, 4 locomotives and a large amount of public stores were 
destroyed. 

Brooklyn, Kan., Aug. 21, 1863. Troops belonging to the Army of the 
Border. The Brooklyn skirmish was one growing out of Quantrill's raid 
into Kansas. After sacking the town of Lawrence, Quantrill turned east- 
ward toward the Missouri border. All the available troops were sum- 
moned for pursuit and he was overtaken near Brooklyn. A slight skirmish 
ensued there and from that time on he was so closely followed to the state 
line that he had no time for further depredations. In his flight much of 
the plunder taken from the Lawrence stores was abandoned. Several of 
his men were killed and the rest scattered through the timber upon reach- 
ing Missouri, where they were acquainted, many of tliem forsaking their 
horses to save their lives. 

Brooks' Mill, Ark., March 27. 1864. (See Camden, Ark., Ex- 
pedition to.") 

Brook Turnpike, Va., March i, 1864. Cavalry, Army of the Potomac. 
The skirmishing on this date was a part of the famous Kilpatrick raid. 
The 1st brigade, 3d division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. Henry Davies, 
crossed the Chickahominy, struck the Brook turnpike and advanced on 
Richmond. After proceeding some distance he encountered numerous 
small parties of the enemy's pickets, several of whom were captured. No 
serious resistance was met, however, until about i p. m. when a consider- 
able force of the enemy was found intrenched in a line of earthworks. 
That portion of the works directly in front was commanded by Lieut.- 



170 The Union Army 

Col. James Howard, who ordered Rives' battery to engage the Union 
troops. Davies deployed the 5th N. Y. as skirmishers on the right and 
left, while an attacking force of 500 men was placed in charge of Maj. 
Patton of the 3d Ind., with instructions to keep well to the left until he 
obtained a position where he could bring his fire to bear on the battery 
and then make a determined assault on the works. The main body of the 
brigade was held ready to charge as soon as Patton made this attack. 
What the ultimate success of the plan would have been is problemati- 
cal, as Davies was recalled before he had time to execute the move- 
ment. 

Brookville, Ky., Sept. 28, 1862. 44th Ohio Infantry, 14th Kentucky 
Cavalry, and Kentucky Home Guards. Col. Basil W. Duke, with about 
700 of Morgan's guerrillas, while making a demonstration against Cin- 
cinnati, made a descent on the towns of Augusta and Brookville. The 
greater part of the town of Augusta was burned on the 27th. Lieut.-Col. 
H. B. Wilson, commanding the Union forces at Maysville, gathered to- 
gether all his available force — about 325 infantry and 100 cavalry — and 
started for Augusta. Learning that Duke had retired to Brookville he 
changed his course and reached the latter place about 8 a. m. on the 28th. 
The 44th Ohio charged at double-quick into the town, while the remainder 
of the force was used to support the charge. Duke was in the court 
house, engaged in paroling prisoners. He rushed out, mounted his horse 
and with his body-guard of about 25 men dashed off down the Falmouth 
road, whither the main body had preceded him. Wilson then ordered up 
his one piece of artillery and commenced shelling them. The third shot 
exploded in their midst, killing 6, wounding i, and scattering the rest. 
About 40 were captured. The Union loss was i man killed. 

Brown Hill, Ky., Oct. 7, 1862. Confederate Gen. Joseph Wheeler 
reported that his cavalry ambushed some Federal troops, fired upon them 
at a range of 200 yards, when they stampeded, leaving 8 men as prisoners, 
together with 50 stands of arms, a number of blankets, etc., in Wheeler's 
hands. Union reports do not mention the affair. 

Brownsburg, Va., June 10, 1864. 

Brown's Ferry, Tenn., Oct. 27, 1863. Troops of the Army of the 
Cumberland. The battle of Chickamauga was fought on the 19th and 20th 
of September. After the battle the Union forces occupied Chattanooga, 
where they were practically in a state of siege, the Confederate forces 
being so placed that the only route open for the transportation of supplies 
lay through the Sequatchie valley, and even there everything would have 
to be hauled in wagons over rough mountain roads a distance of 60 miles. 
To supply an army of 40,000 men by this means was an impossibility and 
no one knew it better than the Confederate Gen. Bragg, who was now 
playing a waiting game, confident that it was only a question of time when 
the whole Army of the Cumberland would capitulate. But there was one 
point that he had overlooked. The Tennessee river was open and in pos- 
session of the Union forces to within a few miles of Chattanooga. To 
establish communication by this route with a base of supplies it was neces- 
sary to force a passage across the narrow neck of land known as IMoccasin 
Point and secure possession of Brown's ferry, almost directly west of 
Chattanooga. From there to Kelley's ferry was but a short distance across 
another bend in the river, and from Kelley's ferry the river was open. 
This plan was worked out by Gen. Rosecrans, but before he had time to 
complete his designs he was superseded by Gen. Grant in command of the 
Department of the Cumberland. Hooker, with the iith and 12th corps, 
had been added to the army, and had taken possession of the Chattanooga 
railroad to keep it from falling into the hands of the enemy. Grant 
assumed command on the 23d and the next day, in company with Gen. 
George H. Thomas and Brig.-Gen. W. F. Smith, chief engineer of the de- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 171 

partment, made an examination of the ground on the opposite side of the 
river. He approved Rosecrans' plan for the capture and occupancy of 
Brown's ferry, and as the army had now been on half rations for almost 
a month, took steps to insure its immediate execution. The capture of 
the ferry was left to Smith, who had thoroughly rcconnoitered the ground 
for Rosecrans. At 3 o'clock on the morning of Oct. 27, about i,Coo men 
belonging to Turchin's and Hazen's brigades, under the command of Col. 
T. R. Stanley, of the i8th Ohio infantry, embarked at Chattanooga in 
52 pontoons and 2 large tlatboats and drifted silently down the river. A 
slight fog aided the expedition to escape the notice of the enemy's pickets 
stationed along the banks, and at 5 o'clock the first boat reached the ferry. 
In the meantime the remainder of the two brigades had marched across 
the neck and were waiting to be ferried across, while three batteries of 
artillery, under Maj. Mendcnhall, had been stationed in the woods opposite 
the ferry to cover the retirement of the troops in case a retreat became 
necessary. As soon as the first boat landed it was greeted by a volley 
from the Confederate pickets stationed near. The men were disembarked 
quickly and in order. Hazen formed his men, marched forward and occu- 
pied the crest of the ridge, threw out a skirmish line under Lieut. -Col. 
James C. Foy, of the 23d Ky., and set the rest of his force to work with 
axes felling trees to form an abatis. Just beyond the crest was a body of 
Confederates numbering about 1,000 men, with 3 pieces of artillery. 
Alarmed by the firing of the pickets, this force was hurried to the front 
and in a short time was engaged with the skirmishers under Foy. The 
men with axes were compelled to desist from their work and take up their 
guns against this assault. Just as Hazen's right flank was about to be 
turned by the enemy the men who had marched across the neck reached 
the scene of action, having been ferried across as soon as the boats were 
emptied, and turned the defeat into victory. By the middle of the after- 
noon a pontoon bridge was thrown across the river, works constructed 
on the ridge, a road opened from the bridge in the direction of Kelley's 
ferry, additional troops brought over and the siege of Chattanooga was 
broken. In this engagement the Union loss was 6 killed, 23 wounded and 
9 missing. Of the enemy 6 were buried by the Union troops, several were 
known to have been wounded, among them the colonel of the 15th Ala. 
Twenty beeves, 6 pontoons and about 2,000 bushels of corn fell into the 
hands of Hazen. 

Brown's Ferry, Va., May 12, 1864. Expedition against the Virginia 
& Tennessee Railroad. The expedition, imder the command of Brig.-Gen. 
George Crook, was composed of the 2nd infantry division of the Depart- 
ment of West Virginia and Averell's cavalry. For several days prior 
to this date Averell had been engaged in skirmishing with detachments of 
Confederate cavalry belonging to the commands of Gens. Morgan and 
Jones. On the morning of the I2tli he crossed New river, much swollen 
by recent rains and still rising. Soon after he had crossed a considerable 
body of the enemy appeared upon the bank he had just left. The Confed- 
erates, unwilling to undertake the crossing, fired a few shots at long range 
and then stood helplessly by while Averell's men destroyed the railroad 
bridge and tore up a long stretch of the track. About the same time the 
17th and 19th Va. Confederate cavalry, under French and Jackson, were 
making an effort to obtain possession of Gap mounta^in. They reached 
the vicinity too late, for they found the gap in possession of Crook, whose 
forces drove the two regiments back to Brown's ferry, not far from where 
Averell had crossed the stream. In their retreat they came between 
Averell and the main body of the expedition, and Averell fell back over 
the Catawba route. 

Brown's Gap, Va., Sept. 26, 1864. (See Port Republic.) 

Brown's Landing, Fla., May 22, 1864. United States Gunboat Ottawa. 



IT'^ The Union Army 

The Ottawa was acting as convoy for the transports Columbine and 
Charles Houghton, engaged in conveying Gen. Gordon's troops up the St. 
John's river to Palatka and Volusia. Palatka was reached about 4 o'clock 
in the afternoon and after landing the troops there the vessels continued 
on up the river. The Columbine being the fastest was allowed to go on 
ahead, the object being to reach Volusia as soon as possible. Owing to 
the narrowness of the river above Brown's landing the pilot declined to 
proceed any further with the Ottawa, as it would be ditificult to turn such 
a long vessel in the narrow stream. While the gunboat and the Houghton, 
which had come along for protection, were lying at Brown's landing wait- 
ing for the Columbine to return, they were fired into by a battery of 6 
and i2-pounders from the woods on the bank. Lieut.-Commander Breese 
responded with his 150-pounder rifle, aiming in the darkness at the flash 
of the enemy's guns, and after the third shot the Confederates ceased 
firing. No one was hurt on either side and the damage to the gunboat 
was comparatively slight. It was afterward learned that the battery was 
that of Lieut. Mortimer Bates, one of the best in the Confederate service. 

Brown's Mill, Ga., July 30, 1864. (See McCook's Raid.) 

Brown's Plantation, La., May 11, 1865. Scout from the i6th Indiana 
Mounted Infantry. Maj. Hildreth. who commanded the scouting party, 
ported coming in contact with a small company of Brown's guerrillas 
near Andrews' plantation. After firing one round they fled in the direc- 
tion of Brown's plantation. No casualties on either side. 

Brown's Plantation, Miss., Aug. 11, 1862. 

Brown's Spring, Mo., July 27, 1862. Detachment of gth Missouri and 
3d Iowa Cavalry. Col. Guitar of the 9th Mo. led the detachment, number- 
ing 186 men against a force of some 600 or 700 under Cobb, Porter and 
others, at Brown's spring, intending to surprise them. Upon approaching 
the camp the enemy fled in such haste as to leave uneaten a dinner already 
prepared. A party of 10 or 15 men on their way to the Confederate camp 
was fired on by Capt. Cook's company and 3 men unhorsed. It was after- 
ward learned that one of these men was mortally wounded and another 
seriously. Aside from this the afifair was a bloodless battle. 

Brownsville, Ala., Oct. 30, 1864. 7th Iowa and nth Missouri Cavalry. 

Brownsville, Ark., July 25, 1863. 

Brownsville, Ark., Aug. 25, 1863. Davidson's Cavalry Division, De- 
partment of Missouri. The expedition against Little Rock, under command 
of Maj. -Gen. Frederick Steele, left Helena early in August. When Devall's 
bluff was reached Gen. Davidson was sent with his cavalry division to 
Deadman's lake, with instructions to reconnoiter the enemy's position at 
Brownsville. At that time the Confederates occupied Brownsville with 
two brigades (Shelby's and Marmaduke's) under command of Brig.-Gen. 
John S. Marmaduke. About sunrise the Confederate pickets reported 
Davidson advancing in force, and the two brigades moved out to meet 
him. A line of battle was formed on the prairie east of town, with 
Bledsoe's battery occupying and commanding the road and Elliott's battery 
over a mile in advance as skirmishers. As the Union lines approached 
Elliott opened fire. His first volley was met by Davidson's buglers sound- 
ing a charge and the Federal cavalry came rushing like a whirlwind across 
the prairie. Unable to resist the force of such an onset, Marmaduke 
retired through the town to another prairie some 5 or 6 miles west, where 
he again formed his men in line of battle in a more advantageous position 
than the one formerly occupied. Here the skirmishing continued until 
nightfall, when the entire Confederate force withdrew beyond the Bayou 
Meto, where the fi,ght was continued the next day. In the first engage- 
ment the Confederates lost i killed and 4 captured, among them Col. 
John Q. Burbridge, of the 4th Mo. Confederate cavalry. 

Brownsville, Ark., Sept. 14-16, 1863. 5th Kansas Cavalry. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 173 

Brownsville, Ark., July 13, 1864. 22nd Ohio Infantry. A force of 
Confederates estimated at 150 men attacked the Union pickets at Browns- 
ville. Col. Wood sent a detachment in pursuit and they were followed for 
about 15 miles, when they divided into small squads and took different 
directions. One of the pickets lost his horse and equipments, and 5 guns 
were captured from the enemy. 

Brownsville, Ark., July 30, 1864. (See Hay Station No. 3.) 

Brownsville, Ark., Sept. 4, 1864. 

Brownsville, Ky., Nov. 20, 1861. Detachment of the 3d Kentucky 
Cavalry. Brig.-Gen. T. C. Hindman, of the Confederate army, in a report 
of an expedition to Brownsville, states that he entered the town with 50 
mounted men and a piece of artillery and opened fire from the public 
square upon a "party of Yankees" belonging to the 3d Ky. cavalry, killed 
6, wounded several and captured 2 pickets and a stand of colors with 
a loss of I man wounded. Union reports make no mention of the affair. 

Brownsville, Md., July 7, 1864. 

Brownsville, Miss., Sept. 28, 1863. Parts of 4th, 5th and nth Illinois, 
4th Iowa and loth Missouri Cavalry. The expedition, numbering some 
900 men, was sent out from Messinger's ford under command of Col. 
E. F. Winslow, of the 4th la. cavalry. At Brownsville they were feebly 
resisted by a force of about 50 of Whitfield's cavalry, who were soon driven 
from the town. 

Brownsville, Miss., Oct. 15-16, 1863. Portion of the 15th and 17th 
Corps. An expedition comprising Logan's division of the 17th corps 
(3,500 men), Tuttle's division of the 15th (3,000), and Winslow's cavalry 
brigade (1,500), was sent out from Messinger's ferry, under the command 
of Maj.-Gen. J. B. McPherson, against Canton. The command left the 
ferry early on the morning of the 15th. At Queen's hill church, on the 
Brownsville road. Col. Winslow was ordered to take his cavalry down the 
Clinton road, making a detour to the south, and join the main body that 
same evening at Brownsville. He proceeded down the Clinton road for 
7 or 8 miles without hearing anything of the enemy, and then turned in the 
direction of Brownsville, which place he reached about 2 hours ahead of 
the infantry. There he found a small force of Confederate cavalr3^ This 
force was soon driven from the town but was not pursued, Winslow wait- 
ing for further orders from the commanding officer. As soon as Mc- 
Pherson arrived Winslow was sent in pursuit and at the forks of the road 
about a mile east of town found a portion of Cosby's brigade drawn up in 
line awaiting the attack. A brisk skirmish was carried on until dark 
and the Union forces bivouacked on the ground to be ready to renew 
hostilities early the next morning. In the morning the march was con- 
tinued, the cavalry taking the right hand road and the infantry the direct 
road. Winslow had gone but a short distance when the enemy w-as found 
in a strong position, with 4 pieces of artillery commanding the road. He 
sent word to McPherson that he was unable to drive them back and Gen. 
Maltby's brigade was sent to his aid, while three regiments of Leggett's 
brigade were moved across on a by-road to the right and rear of the 
enemy. The Confederate commander, seeing that he was about to be sur- 
rounded, retired to the opposite side of Bogue Chitto creek. (See Bogue 
Chitto, Oct. 17, 1863.) 

Brownsville, Miss., Oct. 22, 1863. 

Brownsville, Miss., March 3, 1864. ist Brigade, Leggett's Division, 
17th Army Corps. The Union forces left Canton on the 2nd. on the 
Meridian expedition sent out from Vicksburg, and the rear was pursued 
and harassed by Jackson's cavalry under Gen. Ferguson and Col. P. B. 
Starke. When within about 4 miles of Brownsville Starke came up with 
the wagon train and prepared to strike on both the flank and rear with a 
view to capturing or destroying it. Before the movement could be exe- 



174 The Union Army 

cuted, however, the rear guard, consisting of Force's brigade of Leggett's 
division, formed and held the Confederates in check until the train was 
safely across Bogue Chitto creek. Slight casualties on both sides. 

Brownsville, Miss., March 7-8, 1864. 

Brow^nsville, Miss., Sept. 28, 1864. 

Brownsville, Tenn., July 25, 1862. Cavalry commanded by Mai. 
Wallace. 

Brownsville, Tenn., July 29, 1862. One company of the istli Illinois 
Cavalry. 

Brownsville, Tex., May 13, 1865. 62nd U. S. Colored Troops, 2nd 
Texas Cavalry, and 34th Indiana Infantry. Col. T. H. Barrett command- 
ing the Union forces at Brazos Santiago, sent 250 men of the 62nd colored 
infantry and 50 of the 2nd Texas cavalry, not mounted, under the com- 
mand of Lieut. -Col. David Branson, against a strong Confederate out- 
post at the Palmetto ranch on the Rio Grande. After an all night march 
the attack was made early on the morning of the 12th. The enemy was 
driven from his position in confusion, all his camp equipage, stores and 
a number of horses and cattle falling into Branson's hands. Branson took 
advantage of the situation to rest and refresh his men after their long 
night's march and remained in possession of the ranch. About 3 o'clock 
that afternoon a considerable body of the enemy put in an appearance, 
Capt. Robinson, the commandant of the outpost, having received rein- 
forcements from Col. Ford. Deeming his position unsafe, Branson hur- 
riedly destroyed such of the stores as he could and fell back to White's 
ranch, skirmishing on the way. At daylight the next morning he w^as re- 
inforced by 200 men of the 34'th Ind. under Lieut-Col. Robert G. Morrison. 
A little later Barrett arrived and assumed the command. An advance upon 
Palmetto ranch was ordered, the pickets driven in and about 8 o'clock the 
Confederates were again driven from their post. Such of the stores as 
escaped destruction the day before were now destroyed and the ranch 
buildings burned. Again the enemy was reinforced and Barrett slowly 
retired toward Brazos Santiago, fighting as he went. In his report of the 
affair Barrett says : "The last volley of the war, it is believed, was fired 
by the 62nd U. S. colored infantry about sunset of the 13th of Maj', 1865, 
between White's ranch and the Boca Chica, Tex." 

Broxton's Bridge, S. C, Feb. 2, 1865. (See Salkehatchie River.) 

Broylesville, Tenn., June — , 1864. Detachment 3d North Carolina 
Volunteer Infantry. The detachment, commanded by Capt. G. W. Kirk, 
while on an expedition from Morristown, Tenn., into North Carolina, was 
met at Broylesville by a small force of Confederates, but they were routed 
and scattered with a loss of il killed and a number wounded. (The exact 
date of the affair is not given in the official records of the war.) 

Brucetown, Va., Sept. 7, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 3d Cavalry Division, 
Army of West Virginia. The brigade, under the command of Brig.-Gen. 
George H. Chapman, made a reconnaissance on the Berryville and Win- 
chester pikes toward Brucetown as far as Opequan creek, where the 
enemy's pickets were encountered and driven back about 2 miles upon the 
infantry lines, when, finding the Confederate force too strong to engage, 
Chapman ordered his command back to Berryville. No casualties reported. 

Bruinsburg Landing, Miss., May 6, 1863. Troops belonging to 3d 
Brigade, 7th Division, 17th Army Corps. A detachment of the brigade 
was guarding a train from Bruinsburg landing to the camp on the Big 
Black river. A short distance from the landing a Confederate picket was 
discovered occupying the road. Lieut. McElrea deployed his men and ad- 
vanced, but soon discovered a larger force with 2 howitzers and sent back 
for reinforcements. When they arrived he again advanced. The right 
of the line fired and one man was seen to fall from his horse. The rest 
of the force retreated rapidly closely followed by McElrea's men for about 



Cyclopedia of Battles 175 

3 miles, when he met the 6th Mo. cavalry, who continued the chase, but 
without accomplishing anytlung in the way of capturing the enemy. 

Bruneau Valley, Ind. Ten, Feb. 15, 1865. ist Washington Territory 
Infantry. A party of Indian marauders had stolen 8 cattle in the vicinity 
of the camp on the 13th and a detachment was sent out under command of 
Sergt. John Storan, of Co. I, to catch the Indians and recover the cattle 
if possible. On the evening of the 15th the Indians were found encamped 
in a canon about 8 miles from Bruneau valley. They numbered about 
80 warriors and at the time they were first discovered were engaged in 
dressing the carcasses of the stolen cattle. Storan immediately attacked 
the savages and after a sharp fight of an hour and a half, 30 of them were 
killed, several wounded and the rest driven from the field. Not a single 
white man was hurt during the skirmish. 

Brunswick, Ga., June 8, 1863. Confederate accounts state that on 
this date two U. S. gunboats and a transport towing two large boats loaded 
with troops left St. Simon's island and started in the direction of Bruns- 
wick, where the landing was successfully disputed by the Brunswick 
pickets. Capt. Hazzard, of Co. G, 4th Ga. cavalry, upon seeing two of the 
boats ascend the river, sent Lieut. Grant with 30 men to protect the salt 
works some 7 miles up the river. Grant found one boat lying at the mouth 
of the creek near the works and the other going back toward Brunswick. 
After firing about fifty shots he compelled the boat at the landing to cast 
off and drop down the river. The Federals fired the railroad bridge near 
the salt works, but Grant compelled them to retreat to their barge, upon 
which he fired at a range of 100 yards, killing 2 officers and wounding 
3 of the oarsmen. Union reports do not mention the affair. 

Brunswick, Mo., Aug. 17, 1861. sth Missouri Reserves. 

Brunswick, Mo., Sept. 6, 1864. 3Sth Infantry Enrolled Missouri Militia. 
Sergt. Henry Shrader and a small squad of men belonging to the 35th 
were sent out to get clean clothes and notify absent men to come to the 
camp. The squad was delayed by a severe storm and a band of bush- 
whackers, learning of their whereabouts, surrounded and captured them. 
Shrader and his men were subjected to the indignity of being stripped and 
disarmed. 

Brunswick, Mo., Oct. 11, 1864. 43d Missouri Infantry. Col. Chester 
Harding commanding the 43d Mo., with six companies of his regiment, left 
Fort Leavenworth on the 7th on the steamboats Benton and West Wind, 
for Jefferson City. They reached Brunswick on the morning of the nth 
and found the town occupied by Capt. Kennedy, of Price's army, with 
about 80 men, most of whom he had recruited in the town the day before. 
This force was well posted in a log and earth work. Harding landed a 
portion of his men under Lieut. Simmonds at the mouth of Grand river, 
with instructions to deploy as skirmishers and attack the works. _ At the 
first fire Kennedy and his men vacated their position, mounted their horses 
and made for the timber, taking with them 2 of their number seriously 
wounded. The boats then landed, Harding took possession of all the 
horses he could find, mounted about 50 of his men and sent them in 
pursuit. These men returned the next morning without having overtaken 
Kennedy, and the boats proceeded on their way. 

Brush Mountain, Ga., June 10-27, 1864. Sherman's Arm3^ While 
Gen. Sherman's forces were gradually driving the. Confederates under 
Johnson back toward Atlanta, a position was taken by the Federals about 
Kennesaw and Brush mountains on the loth, and from that time until 
the enemy evacuated his lines about the two mountains there was almost 
constant skirmishing. Brush mountain is east of Kennesaw mountain and 
the enemy here was confronted by the Army of the Tennessee under 
Gen. McPherson. (See Kennesaw mountain and Atlanta.) 

Bryan Court House, Ga., Dec. 8, 1864. Detachment 15th Army Corps. 



1;G The Union Army 

In the advance on Savannah the 15th corps, commanded by Maj.-Gen. 
P. J. Osterhaus, reached the Cannouchee river near Bryan Court House on 
the 8th and found tlie approach to the bridge guarded by a strong force 
of infantry and artillery, well protected by earthworks. The ground on 
either side of the road was too swampy to permit an assault, but Oster- 
haus found an old ferry some distance below the bridge and that night 
sent over troops in a boat. This detachment drove in the Confederate 
picket,s and created such alarm in the enemy's camp that it was evacuated 
shortly after midnight. No casualties reported. 

Bryant's Plantation, Fla., Oct. 21, 1864. 

Buchanan, Va., June 13, 1864. Averell's Cavalry Division, Army of 
West Virginia. During the Lynchburg campaign the Confederate cavalry 
under Gen. McCausland had been forced back for several days prior to the 
13th. On that date the skirmishing commenced some 10 or 12 miles from 
Buchanan on the opposite side of the James river. About 8 miles from the 
town AlcCausland's forces broke in confusion and were followed to 
Buchanan at a gallop. Averell's advance tried to save the bridge but the 
retreating enemy had paused long enough to set it on fire before Mc- 
Causland himself had crossed, so that he was compelled to ford the river 
to escape capture. Two brigades were hurried across the river and sent 
in pursuit, but without avail. Several bateaux loaded with provisions 
and stores were captured near the town. 

Buck Creek, Ga., Dec. 7, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 3d Division, 20th Army 
Corps. (Kilpatrick's Cavalry.) On this date, while the army was on the 
march during the Savannah campaign, the 9th Mich, cavalry was assigned 
to the position of rear-guard. The army had scarcely broken camp at 
Buck creek when the enemy made a determined attack on the rear. The 
9th Ohio was sent to the assistance of the Michigan regiment and the 
Confederates were driven back. The attacking party belonged to Wheeler's 
cavalry. 

Buckhannon, W. Va., July 26, 1862. Unofficial accounts state that on 
this date Confederate Gen. Jenkins attacked Buckhannon; that the few- 
Union troops at the place made a gallant resistance, losing a number of 
killed and wounded, but were finally overpowered. The town was captured 
and over $100,000 worth of government stores were destroyed. 

Buckhannon, W. Va., Aug. 30, 1862. Detachment of the loth West 
Virginia Infantry. Brig.-Gen. A. G. Jenkins, of the Confederate army, 
reported that during his raid in West Virginia and Ohio he was fired 
on at Buckhannon by some 200 men stationed behind haystacks and fences, 
but that they were soon routed with a loss of 12 or 15 killed and wounded 
and about 20 captured, his own casualties being 3 men wounded. Jenkins 
also stated that he found large quantities of commissary and ordnance 
stores and 5,000 stands of arms, with which he rearmed his command. All 
the stores that could not be carried away were destroyed. The Union 
troops were commanded by Capt. L. M. Marsh, who was among those 
captured. No Federal report of the affair was made. 

Buckhannon, W. Va., Sept. 27, 1864. One Company 6th Virginia 
Cavalry. The company, under command of Maj. T. F. Lang, was engaged 
in guarding stores at Buckhannon. About daylight on the morning of the 
27th the town was surrounded by the Confederate cavalry under Witcher, 
the entire garrison captured, and the stores, consisting of a large supply 
of quartermaster's, commissary and medical stores, besides 1,000 stands 
of small arms, were destroyed. 

Buckhead, Ga., July 18, 1864. 2nd Division, 4th Army Corps. The 
division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. John Newton, crossed the Chatta- 
hoochee river at Powers' ferry on the T3th and on the i8th began the 
march to Atlanta on the Buckhead road. At Nancy's creek the bridge 
was found destroyed, and a considerable force of the enemy, with several 



Cyclopedia of Battles 177 

pieces of artillery, intrenched on the opposite bank. The Union batteries 
were brought up and in a short time succeeded in driving the Confed- 
erates from their position. After some difficulty the creek was crossed 
and Newton's advance skirmished with the enemy's cavalry all the way to 
Buckhead, where the division went into camp. 

Buckhead Church, Ga., Nov. 28, 1864. Detachment of the 8th Indiana 
Cavalry. While Kilpatrick's cavalry command was marching from Waynes- 
boro to Louisville the rear-guard was attacked near Buckhead church. Maj. 
Graham, with Companies E and G of the 8th Ind., made a gallant charge 
and drove back the enemy, thus enabling the rear-guard to join the main 
body. 

Buckhead Creek, Ga., Nov. 28, 1864. Kilpatrick's Cavalry Division. 
On the march from Waynesboro to Louisville Murray's brigade, which 
was in the rear, was closely pressed by Wheeler's cavalry at the crossing 
of Buckhead creek, the Confederates trying to cut off part of the command. 
Col. Atkins, commanding the 2nd brigade, sent the 5th Ohio, under Col. 
T. T. Heath, to protect the crossing. Heath hurriedly threw up a barricade 
of rails, planted his 2 howitzers and sent a discharge of canister into the 
Confederate ranks. This checked the pursuit, and after the main body 
had crossed Heath withdrew his regiment, burning the bridge behind him. 

Buckhead Creek, Ga., Dec. 2, 1864. 2nd Division, 20th Army Corps. 
The division, which formed the advance of the army, reached Buckhead 
creek a little while before noon and found the bridge destroyed. The ad- 
vance was fired on by a Confederate picket on the opposite side of the 
stream. The 29th Ohio, Maj. Myron T. Wright commanding, was sent 
over to dislodge the enemy. Three companies were deployed to the left 
of the road, another line of skirmishers was deployed further to the left, 
and four companies under Capt. Schoonover were sent to cover two 
roads leading from the main road. The Confederates soon abandoned 
their position, Wright advanced to the top of the ridge, where he threw 
up some works in order to hold the position while the Michigan engineers 
constructed a new bridge. The bridge was completed by 3 o'clock in the 
afternoon, the whole division was moved across the stream and encamped 
that night at Buckhead Church. 

Buckhead Station, Ga., Nov. 19, 1864. 2nd Division, 20th Army Corps. 
This was one of the minor skirmishes of the Savannah campaign. Geary's 
division was detached from the main body and sent down the road parallel 
to the Georgia railroad to destroy the track, etc. While his men were 
engaged in destroying the water-tank, engine and railroad buildings at 
Buckhead Station about noon, they were fired on by Confederate scouts. 
These scouts were driven back across the Oconee river and the bridge 
across that stream burned. 

Buck Horn, Ark., May 25, 1864. According to the report of Col. J. 
O. Shelby, of the Confederate army, his advance encountered Capt. 
Williams' company at Buck Horn on this date and routed it with a loss 
of 47 killed, 2 captured, who were shot the next day, and the rest of the 
company scattered. Union reports do not give any account of such an 
occurrence. 

Buckhorn Tavern, Ala., Oct. 12, 1863. (See New Market, same date.) 

Buckingham, S. C, March 20, 1862. 3d New Hampshire Infantry. 
Four Confederate pickets were captured near Baynard's plantation and 
taken to Buckingham's ferry, Hilton Head island, where they were turned 
over to an officer of the 45th Pa. infantry. 

Buckland Bridge, Va., Aug. 27, 1862. (See Bull Run Bridge, same 
date.) 

Buckland Mills, Va., Oct. 19, 1863. 3d Division Cavalry Corps, 
Army of the Potomac. At daybreak the division left Gainesville with 
Custer's brigade in the advance. Skirmishing was almost immediately 

Vol. V-12 



178 The Union Army 

commenced and continued until the advance reached Buckhmd. There 
the Confederate forces, under Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, made a stand on the 
south side of Broad run. Stuart's artillery was so well stationed that it 
kept Custer from crossing the stream in his front, but by turning his left 
flank Custer compelled him to give up his position and fall back toward 
Warrcnton. Custer's flank movement was executed with such celerity 
that the dinner already prepared for Stuart was left untouched and fell 
into the hands of the Union forces. At Buckland Gen. Davies' brigade 
took the advance, with orders to move forward to New Baltimore and 
hold that place, from which he was to proceed as far as practicable in the 
direction of Warrenton. A mile from Buckland Davies came up with the 
enemy's vedettes, who slowly retired before the skirmishers. The Con- 
federates were driven through New Baltimore and Davies occupied the 
hills overlooking the town. Here an officer of Kilpatrick's staff brought 
orders to wait for further instructions, as Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry had 
struck Custer on the flank and rear. In a little while heavy tiring was 
heard in the direction of Buckland, and Davies took the responsibility 
of ordering his command to Custer's assistance. When within a mile of 
Buckland he learned that Custer had been driven back across Broad run 
and that the enemy's infantry held the bridge and fords. Davies sent for- 
ward his wagons, artillery, and his main column to the left, with orders 
to cross the run and make toward Hay Market. Then taking the ist 
W. Va. and 2nd N. Y. he attacked and drove back the enemy that was 
charging his rear. The 5th N. Y. was engaged with a column of infantry 
that was trying to turn the right flank of the brigade. After these two 
attacks had been repulsed the whole command crossed the stream and 
moved through the fields and woods toward Hay Market, striking the 
pike about a mile below that place just in time to check Lee's cavalry 
that was trying to cut off the brigade. Meantime, when Custer was struck 
on the flank by Lee, Pennington's battery, of the 2nd U. S. artillery, 
opened on the Confederates, the 6th Mich, cavalry was thrown forward 
and deployed as skirmishers, the 5th and 7th Mich, were engaged in the 
woods on the right, while the ist Mich, was held as a reserve and a 
support for the battery. Lee made a desperate efifort to capture the guns 
of the battery, his men being within 20 yards of them when they were 
met by a destructive shower of grape and canister, after which Penning- 
ton gave the order to limber up and retire to the north side of the run. 
The entire brigade followed, the ist Mich, covering the rear, and the com- 
mand then fell back to Gainesville. 

Buck Lodge, Tenn., June 30, 1863. (See Butler's Mill.) 

Buck's Ferry, Miss., Sept. 19-22, 1864. Detachments of the 4th 
lUinois Cavalry, 29th Illinois and 70th and 71st U. S. Colored Infantry. 
This was a foraging expedition sent out by Brig.-Gen. Brayman, under 
the command of Col. Loren Kent, of the 29th 111. On the 19th and 20th 
the cavalry collected 185 head of fat cattle ; 700 bushels of corn were taken 
from Helm's plantation; and on the return to Natchez enough cattle were 
added to make 203 turned over to the commissary. At Buck's ferry on 
the Homochitto river a small force of Confederates was encountered, but 
was driven back by a few men from the 29th. 

Buckskull, Ark., Nov. 20. 1864. Detachment of the 2nd and 56th 
Enrolled Missouri Militia. The detachment was sent out to open up 
communication between Cape Girardeau and Pilot Knob. About 6 miles 
from Buckskull a squad of guerrillas approached the advance, when the 
2nd Mo. fired instantly, killing 2 of them and capturing 6 horses. The 
balance scattered through the brush and made their escape. On the body 
of one of those killed was found a pass showing that his name was. 
French, and that he belonged to the Reves gang. 

Buckton, Va., July 3, 1864. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 179 

Buckton Station, Va., May 23, 1862. Detached troops guarding tlic 
railroad. Five companies, viz : one from the 3d Wis., one from the 2nd 
Mass., one from the 27th Ind. and two from the 29lh Pa., were detailed 
by Gen. Banks to guard the railroad bridges between Strasburg and Front 
Royal. This guard was under the command of Lieut.-Col. Charles Parham 
of the 29th Pa. Companies were stationed at ditiferent points along the 
line, the strongest guard being at Buckton. A little while after noon on 
hte 23d a force of some 3,000 Confederate cavalry, commanded by Gen. 
Ashby, made a descent on the place. Parham, who was not yet fully re- 
covered from an illness, put up the best defense he could with the small 
force at his disposal but the superior numbers of the enemy forced him to 
retire in the direction of Winchester. (See Front Royal.) 

Budd's Ferry, Md., Oct. 22, 1861. 72nd New York Infantry. Col. 
Nelson Taylor was sent with his regiment, the 72nd N. Y., to accompany 
Capt. R. S. Williamson of the Topographical Engineers, on a recon- 
naissance to Budd's ferry on the Potomac river in order to ascertain the 
number and strength of the Confederate batteries there. No fighting 
occurred during the movement except a few shots from the enemy's bat- 
teries and these were ineffectual. An embankment was thrown up by 
order of Capt. Williamson opposite Evansport and Shipping Point. 

Budd's Ferry, Md., Oct. 28, 1861. On this date a steamer ascending 
the Potomac was fired upon by the Confederate batteries in the neighbor- 
hood of Budd's ferry. Gen. Joseph Hooker, who reported the incident, 
stated that he was unable to learn the name of the vessel or whether she 
was damaged. 

Buell's Ford, Tenn., Sept. 28, 1863. 

Buffalo, West Va., Sept. 27, 1862. 34th Ohio Infantry. 

Buffalo City, Ark., March 2, 1864. (See Bennett's Bayou.) 

Buffalo Creek, Ga., Nov. 25, 1864. 3d Brigade, ist Division, 20th 
Army Corps. In the march to Sandersville the brigade, commanded by 
Col. J. S. Robinson, reached Buffalo creek about 9 a. m. and found the 
bridges destroyed. The loist 111. was detailed to assist in rebuilding the 
bridges, and while the work was going on the enemy made a demonstra- 
tion on the opposite side of the stream. Five companies of the Illinois 
regiment were thrown forward to reinforce the picket line and the Con- 
federates hastily withdrew. About 3 p. m. the whole command crossed 
the creek and proceeded toward Sandersville, skirmishing as they went 
along, until ordered into camp by Gen. Williams, commanding the division. 

Buffalo Creek, Mo., Aug. 7, 1864. 8th Cavalry Missouri State Militia. 
Maj. Milton Burch, with about 175 men. left Neosho early in the morning 
in search of a party of Confederates that had attacked Lieut. Hunter on 
the 5th. About i p. m. they reached Enterprise, drove in the enemy's 
pickets, and found the main body in a strong position near the mouth of 
Patterson's creek. After nearly 2 hours' skirmishing the Confederates 
fell back toward Buffalo creek, leaving a small party in ambuscade which 
Burch's advance encountered. Burch then dismounted his entire force 
and deployed as skirmishers in hope of finding the main body. Finding 
that they had moved on toward the creek he proceeded cautiously until 
the ford was reached. While the men were watering their horses the 
enemy fired upon them, wounding 4 men and 4 horses. The enemy was 
part of Pickler's command, with some of Rusk's bushwhackers, and num- 
bered about 300. 

Buffalo Gap, W. Va., June 6, 1864. General Hayes' Brigade, 2nd 
Division, Army of West Virginia. 

Buffalo, Hill, Ky., Oct. 4, 1861. Organization not recorded; Union 
loss, 20 killed ; Confederate loss, 50 killed. 

Buffalo Mills, Mo., Oct. 22, 1861. Organizations not recorded. 

Buffalo Mountain, Ark., Oct. 24-26, 1863. McNeil's Volunteer 



180 The Union Army 

Brigade. The skirmishing about Buffalo mountain was an incident of 
Shelby's raid through Arkansas and Missouri, with McNeil in close 
pursuit. On the 24th McNeil marched over the mountain and found the 
Confederates snugly encamped in a valley on the other side. A few shells 
routed him, but owing to the character of the country pursuit was post- 
poned until the following morning. All day on the 25th the ist Ark. 
cavalry, which constituted McNeil's advance, skirmished with the rear 
guard of the enemy. On the 26th the same regiment made a determined 
attack on Shelby's rear at a narrow pass and Lieut. Robinson was mortally 
wounded, this being the only casualty reported. 

Buffalo River, Ark., Dec. 25, 1863. ist Arkansas Cavalry. Col. Worth- 
ington, with 112 men of his regiment and a piece of artillery, was sent 
out from Fayetteville on the 15th to scout the counties of Carroll, Marion 
and Searcy. While encamped on Buffalo river on the 25th he was attacked 
by a considerable force under Maj. Gunning. Two foraging parties were 
driven in with a loss of 4 killed and 4 wounded. Worthington consented 
to a truce of one and a half hours, during which the wounded were brought 
into camp and the dead interred. Learning that a large force of the enemy 
was in the neighborhood and likely to attack him on the following morn- 
ing he assumed the offensive and about 8 o'clock that evening made an 
attack upon Gunning's camp, completely routing him, killing 14 and wound- 
ing about 40 of his men. This determined assault drove the Confederates 
from the vicinity and the next day they fell back to Clapper's mill. Worth- 
ington then returned to Fayetteville. 

Buffalo Shoals, W. Va., Nov. 5, 1864. U. S. Steamers Barnum and 
Fawn. Lieut.-Col. Witcher, conmianding a body of Confederate cavalry 
which was operating in the Kanawha valley, captured and burned, at 
Buffalo shoals on the Big Sandy river, the armed U. S. steamers Barnum 
and Fawn. All on board the two vessels escaped except 7 men, 2 of whom 
were killed and 5 captured. Some small arms fell into the hands of the 
enemy. 

Buffington Island, Ohio, July 19, 1863. Cavalry: ist, 3d, 8th. gth, 
nth and 12th Kentucky; 8th, 9th and 12th Michigan; 2nd and 7th Ohio, 
and 5th Indiana. Infantry : 45th Ohio, 2nd Mounted Tennessee and 
militia. Land forces assisted by Union gunboats. Capture of Morgan's 
raiders. Morgan reached Portland, nearly opposite the island, about 8 
p. m. on the i8th. Finding the entrance to the ford guarded by a little 
earthwork, of whose strength he was not advised, he decided to wait until 
morning before attempting to cross. That delay was fatal. Gen. Henry 
M. Judah was then at Pomeroy, 30 miles below. He sent word to Gen. 
Hobson, who had been in close pursuit of Morgan for two weeks, to 
push on via Chester and then started for Buffington island, reaching there 
about 5 :30 on the morning of the 19th. While making a reconnaissance 
Judah and escort were assailed on three sides by three regiments led by 
Col. Basil W. Duke, that had been sent out to storm the earthwork. Two 
of Judah's men were killed and about 30 captured. The reconnoitering 
party fell back upon the main body, which was rapidly brought into position 
and a rapid fire opened by the guns of the 5th Ind. battery. In a short 
time the enemy's lines were broken, when a cavalry charge, led by Lieut. 
O'Neil of the 5th Ind., completely routed Duke's forces. He succeeded 
in rallying his men and reforming his line, in hope of holding Judah in 
check until the main body could cross the river. But just at this juncture 
Hobson arrived over the Chester road and struck the Confederates in the 
rear. To add to Morgan's discomfiture the tin-clad gunboats steamed up 
and opened fire on those who were trying to cross the river. Morgan 
then made a desperate effort to save his men and trains, meantime keep- 
ing up such resistance as he could. For some distance the withdrawal 
was made in fairly good order, when a charge by the 8th and 9th Mich. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 181 

cavalry drove the enemy into confusion. It was then every man for him- 
self. As they fled they threw away the plunder accumulated along the 
line of march. The pursuit was continued until the main body was sur- 
rounded in the woods, where nearly 600 men, among whom were Cols. 
Duke, Huffman, Morgan and Smith, were surrendered. About 200 had 
been captured earlier in the action. Gen. Morgan, with about 1,000 men, 
succeeded in making his escape, only to be captured at New Lisbon a few 
days later. 

Buford's (or Beaufort's) Bridge, S. C, Feb. 4, 1865. 2nd Division, 
15th Army Corps. On the march through the Carolinas there was almost 
constant skirmishing. As Woods' division was approaching Buford's 
bridge, over the Salkehatchie river, a skirmish occurred in which i of the 
enemy was killed and i wounded. Before the bridge could be reached, 
owing to obstructions placed in the road, it was destroyed by the Confed- 
erates, who evacuated their works there upon the approach of the Federal 
forces. (See Salkehatchie River.) 

Buford's Gap, Va., June 20, 1864. ist Cavalry Division, Department 
of West Virginia. While the division was encamped some 4 miles from 
Liberty, Gen. Duffie received orders to move forward and occupy Buford's 
gap at once. About i o'clock on the morning of the 20th, Wyncoop's 
brigade, which was in the advance, reached the gap and found a small 
force of the enemy guarding the pass. This was swept out of the way 
without loss or difficulty and at daybreak the entire division encamped at 
the gap. The railroad was then destroyed for a distance of 10 miles. 

Buford's Station, Tenn., Dec. 23, 1864. Cavalry of the Army of the 
Cumberland. This was one of the numerous skirmishes that occurred 
between detached troops of the two armies as Gen. Thomas' forces were 
in pursuit of the Confederates under Gen. Hood, after the battle of Nash- 
ville. No detailed report of the affair appears in the official records of 
the war. 

Bugbee Bridge, S. C, Feb. 9-1 1, 1864. 

Bull Bayou, Ark., Aug. 7, 1864. Cavalry of the 7th Army Corps. An 
expedition, under the command of Brig.-Gen. Joseph R. West, left Little 
Rock for Little Red river on the 6th. As the 3d Wis. cavalry, commanded 
by Lieut.-Col. Calkins, approached Bull bayou some sliots were exchanged 
with the Confederate pickets. The enemy then tried to destroy the bridge 
over the bayou, but were so closely pressed that they failed in the attempt. 

Bull Bayou, Ark., Aug. 26, 1864. 9th Kansas and 3d Wisconsin 
Cavalry. 

Bull Creek, Mo., March 28, 1865. 

Bull Island, S. C, Jan. 31. 1863. On the 30th Capt. Haskell, com- 
manding the Confederate post on Sullivan's island, with a small party of 
men, made a visit to Bull island to reconnoiter the position of the Union 
gunboat Flambeau. Finding two of the crew of the gunboat hunting on 
the island he took them prisoners, sent them to the west end of the island, 
and at the same time sent to the post for 50 men. Late that afternoon 
about 100 men were landed from the Flambeau, the next morning the two 
parties came together and a few shots were exchanged, after which the 
Confederates hurriedly left the island. The Union loss was i man killed. 

Bullitt's Bayou, La., Aug. 25, 1864. Brig.-Gen. Mason Brayman, com- 
manding the Union forces at Natchez, learning that some 200 of the enemy 
were encamped at Bullitt's bayou, sent out three detachments, hoping to 
surprise and capture the entire force. Owing to incorrect information 
regarding the location of the camp the object of the movement was not 
attained, though the Confederates were completely routed with a loss of 
2 men killed, 9 captured, 35 horses. 40 stands of arms, a number of pistols 
and a large amount of camp equipage. No loss was sustained by the 
Union side. 



182 The Union Army 

Bullitt's Bayou, La., Sept. 14, 1864. 63d U. S. Colored Infantry. 
About 8 a. m. a small party of Confederates tired upon the Union pickets 
and killed 2 men. Capt. Elliott pursued them for about a mile and a 
half, but the enemy being mounted could not be overtaken and the pursuers 
returned to camp. 

Bull Pasture Mountain, Va., May 8, 1862. (See McDowell.) 

Bull Run, Va., July 21, 1861. U. S. Forces under Gen. McDowell. 
The battle of Bull run was the first engagement of consequence in the war. 
The seizure of Gosport and Harper's Ferry by the Virginia state troops; 
the destruction of the Norfolk navy yard ; the Baltimore riots, and the 
threatening attitude of the Confederates toward the national capital had 
aroused general indignation at the North, and public sentiment clamored 
for a battle which would crush the rebellion in its incipiency. "Forward to 
Richmond " was the slogan of the Northern newspapers and members of 
Congress urged the president and Gen. Scott, the latter being in command 
of the Union army, to strike a decisive blow. Virginia, by popular vote, 
ratified a secession ordinance on May 23, and the next day Union troops 
crossed the Potomac and occupied Arlington Heights and Alexandria. 
But this movement was not sufficiently aggressive to satisfy the general 
demand for a fight, and when a train of soldiers belonging to Gen. Schenck's 
command was ambushed at Vienna Station, and a detachment of Gen. 
Butler's forces was defeated at Big Bethel, the fires of patriotism blazed 
with a fiercer intensity. When the Federals occupied Alexandria and 
Arlington the Confederates fell back to Manassas Junction, about 35 miles 
from Washington, where Beauregard was assigned to the command on 
June I. Beauregard immediately issued his famous proclamation, declaring 
the war cry of the Union army to be "Beauty and Booty," and called on 
the surrounding farmers to join his own forces. Some responded in person, 
others sent their slaves, and the work of fortifying a position was com- 
menced. At that time the Confederate Army of the Shenandoah, com- 
manded by Gen. J. E. Johnston and numbering about 10.000 men, was 
at Harper's Ferry, threatened by the Union forces under Gen. Pat- 
terson. To favor Patterson's attack on Johnston, by preventing 
Beauregard from sending reinforcements to Harper's Ferry, a move- 
ment was planned against the later at Manassas, and on June 3 Scott 
called on Gen. McDowell, who was in command of the troops south 
of the Potomac, to give an estimate of the number of men necessary 
for the undertaking. Before the movement could be carried out John- 
ston evacuated Harper's Ferry and the order was recalled for the time 
being. This action again awakened the public demand for an advance 
on the enemy at some point and on the 24th McDowell submitted his 
plan for an attack on Beauregard. Five days later this plan was thor- 
oughly reviewed by a council of war at the Executive Mansion, and 
was finally approved by the president and his cabinet, as well as the 
principal military officers present. Scott was opposed to assuming the 
aggressive just then, for the reason that most of the troops were three- 
months men, whose terms would expire before any movement of an 
extensive nature could be carried through. Notwithstanding these 
objections it was decided to make the attack and McDowell was or- 
dered to have his troops in readiness to begin the advance on July 8. 

In proposing his plan of campaign McDowell estimated the Confed- 
erate strength at Manassas at 25,000 men, and asked for 30,000 to take 
into action, with a reserve of 10,000 more. His greatest fear seems to 
have been that Beauregard would be reinforced, for in presenting his 
plan he said: "If Gen. J. E. Johnston's force is kept engaged by Maj.- 
Gen. Patterson, and Maj.-Gen. Butler occupies the force now in his vicin- 
ity, I think they will not be able to bring up more than 10,000 men, so we 
may calculate upon having to do with about 35,000 men." Scott assured 



Cyclopedia of Battles 183 

him that Patterson would keep Johnston too busy to permit him to join 
Beauregard, and added : "If Johnston joins Beauregard, he shall iiave 
Patterson on his heels." Events proved, however, that Scott was mis- 
taken in his estimate of Patterson as a military commander. Johnston 
did join Beauregard, just in the nick of time, and Patterson was no- 
where near his heels. Some delay occurred in the preparations, so that 
it was the i6th before McDowell was ready to move. His army was 
composed of hve divisions. The ist division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. 
Daniel Tyler, consisted of four brigades, the ist commanded by Col. E. D. 
Keyes, the 2nd by Brig.-Gen. R. C. Schenck, the 3d by Col. W. T. Sher- 
man, and the 4th by Col. I. B. Richardson. The 2nd division was under 
the command of Col. David Hunter, and was made up of two brigades, 
commanded by Cols. Andrew Porter and A. E. Burnside. The 3d divi- 
sion, under Col. S. P. Heintzelman, consisted of three brigades, com- 
manded by Cols. W. B. Franklin, O. B. Willcox and O. O. Howard. The 
4th division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. Theodore Runyon, was held in 
reserve and took no part in the engagement. The 5th division, com- 
manded by Col. S. D. Miles, was also in reserve at Centerville, and was 
not in the battle proper, though it was engaged in skirmishing during 
the 2ist and in covering the retreat of the army. It was composed of the 
brigades of Cols. Louis Blenker and T. A. Davies. With the army were 
49 pieces of artillery. 

The Confederate Army of the Potomac, commanded by Brig.-Gen. 
G. T. Beauregard, consisted of six brigades of Bonham, Ewell, D. R. 
Jones, Longstreet, Cocke and Early ; the reserve brigade of Holmes ; 
Evans' command, temporarily organized ; two regiments of unattached 
infantry ; the 30th Va. ; ten independent companies of cavalry ; and 27 
field guns. The Army of the Shenandoah, commanded by Gen. J. E. 
Johnston, was composed of four brigades, respectively commanded by Jack- 
son, Bartow, Bee and E. K. Smith; the ist Va. cavalry, under J. E. B. 
Stuart; and 17 pieces of artillery. 

As above stated, McDowell marched on the i6th, the men carrying 
three days' rations. The next day he drove in the enemy's outposts at 
Fairfax C. H., and on the 18th halted at Centerville for his supply train 
to come up, so that more rations could be issued. On that day Tyler 
made a reconnaissance (see Blackburn's Ford) that developed the Con- 
federate position and demonstrated that the enemy was in force. The 
Confederate line of battle lay along the west side of Bull run and ex- 
tended from Manassas Junction to the stone bridge on the Warrenton 
turnpike, a distance of about 8 miles. Between the railroad and the 
stone bridge were five fords, viz. : Lewis', Ball's Mitchell's, Black- 
burn's and McLean's, from north to south in the order named. Up 
to the time of the afifair at Blackburn's ford it had been McDowell's 
intention to turn the enemy's right, then cross at one of the fords and 
attack the center. The roads south of the junction were found to be un- 
suitable for a flank movement in that direction, and Tyler's reconnais- 
sance showed the enemy to be too strong at the fords for the Union 
troops to force a passage without suffering heavy losses. McDowell, 
therefore, turned his attention to the Confederate left. During the 19th 
and 20th he caused his engineers to make a careful examination of the 
ground between the two armies, and to gain as much information as 
possible of the enemy's position. Two fords were found above the stone 
bridge, Sudley ford, the one farthest north, being unguarded. On Satur- 
day evening, the 20th, McDowell called his officers together at Center- 
ville and explained his plans for battle on the succeeding day. Miles 
was to remain at Centerville with his division and construct defensive 
works there to be used in case of emergency ; Richardson's brigade was 
to be detached from Tyler's division for the purpose of making a dem- 



184 The Union Army 

onstration against Blackburn's ford, to engage the enemy's attention in the 
center; the rest of Tyler's division was to march out on the pike to the 
stone bridge and threaten the enemy at that point, while l^iunter and 
Heintzelman were to march with their divisions to Sudley ford, cross 
the run and then, turning to the left, force away the guard from the 
other ford and the bridge, thus clearing the way for Tyler to cross and 
join in the attack on Beauregard's left. Tyler was instructed to move at 
2:30 a. m. and to be in position to open fire on the bridge at daybreak. 
His demonstration was to be sufificiently vigorous to divert attention from 
Hunter and Heintzelman. Unfortunately Tyler started behind time and 
his march was so slow as to hold back Hunter and Heintzelman for some 
time. Then ■ the distance to Sudley ford was about twice as great as 
had been reported, so that the run was not crossed until 9 130 instead of 
6 o'clock, according to the original schedule. 

The stone bridge was guarded by Evans, who had about a regiment 
and a half of infantry and 4 pieces of artillery. Tyler's demonstration 
was so feeble that Evans was soon convinced it was only a feint and that 
the real attack was to come from some other quarter. About 8 o'clock 
he heard of the column moving toward Sudley ford. Withdrawing all 
his force from the bridge, with the exception of four companies and 2 guns, 
he moved to the Sudley road to intercept the flank movement. This 
movement of Evans was made without the knowledge or the orders of 
his superior officers, but it displayed good military judgment, and no 
doubt changed the whole current of battle. He took up a position 
north of the Warrenton pike, on a ridge north of Young's branch, his 
left resting on the Sudley road. At 10 a. m. the head of Hunter's 
column emerged from the woods about a mile north of the pike and the 
battle of Bull run was commenced by Burnside's brigade and Evans' line. 

Johnston arrived at Manassas about noon on the 20th with the first 
detachment of the Army of the Shenandoah, and, being the ranking 
officer, assumed command. Patterson was not "on his heels," as Scott 
had promised, but he might arrive at any time, and it was decided to 
crush McDowell before Patterson could reinforce him. Beauregard, who 
was well acquainted with the ground, proposed a plan of battle, which 
was approved by Johnston, and that was to cross Bull run at the fords 
below the stone bridge with the whole strength of the combined armies 
and attack McDowell at Centerville. The troops were posted with this 
view and early on Sunday morning Johnston had written the orders 
for an advance, but before tliey could be carried out the sound of artil- 
lery firing was heard in the direction of the stone bridge. It was then de- 
cided to attack on the right from Blackburn's ford and assume the 
defensive on the left. Accordingly orders were given for Ewell, on the 
extreme right, to begin the flank movement on Centerville, the other com- 
mands to follow in order to the left, while the commands of Bee and 
Bartow were to support Evans. The reserves were to move without 
further orders to where the sound of the firing was heaviest. 

When the fighting on the left began, Burnside formed his brigade in 
line of battle and moved forward to the support of a battery in the open 
field east of the Sudley road. Prompt action on his part would doubtless 
have forced Evans from his position, but Evans was quickly reinforced 
by part of Bee's command and the opportunity was lost. Evans was also 
reinforced by Bartow's brigade and Imboden's battery. Porter's brigade 
came to the assistance of Burnside and formed to the right of the Sudley 
road, where Griffin's battery of 6 guns could be brought to bear on the 
enemy's artillery. Heintzelman also hurried up his advance regiment 
and Ricketts' battery, and under the attack of these combined forces the 
Confederate line broke and fell back in some confusion about half a mile 
across Young's branch. The Sudley road crosses the Warrenton pike 



Cyclopedia of Battles 185 

about three-fourths of a mile west of the stone bridge. At the junction 
of the two roads was a stone house. About half a mile east, on the 
south side of the pike, was the Robinson house, and about the same 
distance west of the cross-roads on the north side of the pike was the 
Dogan house, while further south, on the east side of the Sudley road, 
was another dwelling, known as the Henry house. South of this last 
was a semicircular wood, extending from the Sudley road to Young's 
branch, and between the wood and the pike was a plateau, over which 
the Confederates retreated. It was at this point that Gen. T. J. Jackson 
received the sobriquet of "Stonewall." His brigade was in line near the 
edge of the wood, waiting for the command to go in, when Bee's men 
came flying back across the plateau. "Look !" called out Bee in an at- 
tempt to rally his forces, "Here is Jackson standing like a stone wall! 
Rally behind the Virginians !" From that time forth the famous Con- 
federate general was known as "Stonewall" Jackson, and there are prob- 
ably thousands of people who know him by no other name. 

This hrst repulse of the Confederates came about 11:30 a. m. Some 
time before this Johnston and Beauregard realized that McDowell's dem- 
onstration on their left was a real attack, the order for the flank move- 
ment on Centerville was recalled, and the troops ordered to the scene of 
the conflict. McDowell, who was early on the field, also ordered up all 
his available forces to the support of those engaged. Tyler sent the 
brigades of Sherman and Keyes across the run at the ford above the 
stone bridge, Keyes joining Hunter on the left, while Sherman moved to 
the right to the support of Porter, who was still pressing the enemy down 
the Sudley road. Along the crest in front of the wood Jackson, with his five 
regiments and two batteries, formed a new line, extending from the Robin- 
son to the Henry house, and behind this the defeated Confederates were 
partially rallied. Hampton's battalion, which had arrived from Rich- 
mond that morning, formed on Jackson's right. Franklin and Willcox 
joined the Union line on the right a little after noon, and Griffin's and 
Ricketts' batteries secured a position near the Dogan house, where they 
could enfilade Hampton's line. About 2 p. m. Keyes made a dashing 
charge up the hill, driving Hampton from his position, but was repulsed 
by the fire of some batteries which had just been planted farther to the 
rear. The whole Federal line now swung around toward the pike, 
striking Jackson on the left and forcing him back to the shelter of the 
woods, where he concentrated his artillery so as to sweep by a cross 
fire the whole open plateau in his front. To counteract this fire Griffin 
and Ricketts pushed their batteries forward to the Henry hill, with two 
regiments in support. For a brief period there was a lull in the battle, 
but before the Union guns were fairly in position men and horses com- 
menced to fall under a well-directed fire from the Confederate sharp- 
shooters concealed in the thicket of pines at short range. The guns were 
placed, however, and fire opened on the enemy's lines, driving the sharp- 
shooters from their place of concealment. Here a mistake occurred that 
proved to be one of the prime factors in the defeat of McDovyell's army. 
A regiment approached the batteries from the right in plain view. Grif- 
fin charged his guns with canister and trained them on the advancing 
line, when Maj. Barry, chief of artillery, assured him that it was a regi- 
ment coming to his support. Griffin ordered the gunners to withhold their 
fire, the regiment continued to advance until within short musket range, 
when they leveled their pieces and with one volley almost annihilated the 
batteries. Most of the horses were killed, and those that were left broke 
away and went tearing down the hill through the Union lines, scattering con- 
fusion among the troops. The nth N. Y. (Ellsworth's zouaves), supporting 
the batteries, fired one volley and fled, upon which the Confederates swarmed 
out of the woods and cliarged the batteries, which now became the center 



186 , The Union Army 

of the fight. Jackson's men seized the guns and tried to drag them away, 
but were foiled in the attempt. Arnold's battery was brought to the 
assistance of Griffin and Ricketts, but was compelled to withdraw. The 
Rhode Island battery poured in a heavy fire from the hill north of 
Young's branch, fresh troops on either side were thrown forward and 
for an hour the battle raged around the two batteries. Three times the 
guns were taken and recaptured and just as victory was about to perch 
on the Union banner the remainder of the Confederate Army of the 
Shenandoah arrived on the field. Kirby Smith's brigade marched up 
the Sudley road from Manassas. Smith was wounded, but Col. Arnold 
Elzey assumed command and led the brigade to the left of the Confed- 
erate line. About the same time four regiments from Cocke's and Bonham's 
brigades came up nearer Bull run, thus extending the enemy's line in 
both directions until it overlapped McDowell's at either end. No more fresh 
troops could be brought up by McDowell, while the enemy was now con- 
stantly receiving accessions to his ranks. The guns of Griffin's and 
Ricketts' batteries were in Jackson's hands, Ricketts was wounded and 
a prisoner, many of the Union regiments had exhausted their ammunition, 
and now at 4 130 p. m. there was nothing left but to retreat. McDowell 
made the best disposition he could to cover the retreat of the army and 
the word was passed a-long the lines to fall back to the old position at 
Centerville. The disorder which had been growing in the Federal lines 
all the afternoon now reached its climax. Although the Warrenton road 
was open to Centerville, a distance of about 4 miles, most of the troops 
went back by the same route they had come upon the field in the morn- 
ing, and made the long detour by way of Sudley ford. With few ex- 
ceptions all regimental and brigade formations were entirely lost, every 
man being intent on getting to Centerville as soon as possible. Fortun- 
ately for the panic-stricken army of raw troops Johnston and Beaure- 
gard did not press the pursuit to the extent they might have done. 
Stuart's cavalry followed, but the rear of the army was fairly well pro- 
tected and all the Confederates could do was to pick up a straggler here 
and there. Bonham was ordered to move against the retreating army, 
but the brigades of Sherman, Schenck and Keyes, which went by the pike, 
presented too formidable an appearance and the pursuit was a tame 
affair. Bonham followed, however, nearly to Centerville, where he_ en- 
countered the brigades of Blenker, Richardson and Davies, and hurriedly 
fell back across Bull run. 

While the main battle was taking place near the crossing of the War- 
renton pike and the Sudley road a considerable skirmish occurred at 
Blackburn's ford. It will be remembered that Richardson was sent here 
to make a demonstration to divert attention from McDowell's real 
purpose. In the afternoon the Confederates became aware of the char- 
acter of this movement and Johnston sent word to D. R. Jones to cross 
the run and attack Richardson, in the hope that McDowell would weaken 
his forces on the right to strengthen his position at the ford. Davies 
was sent to the support of Richardson, and with him was Hunt's bat- 
tery. About 4 o'clock Jones crossed at McLean's ford, a short distance 
below Blackburn's, with three regiments, and by a flank movement tried 
to capture this battery. Davies, from a strong position, watched the 
movement until the regiments were beginning to deploy in line of battle, 
when he ordered the 6 guns shotted with canister, and at a distance of 
500 yards opened on the advancing Confederates. One volley was 
sufficient. The enemy broke and fled, not stopping until he was safely 
on the other side of the run. Jones reported his loss here as 14 killed 
and 62 wounded. No further demonstration was made at this point and 
the Union troops retired toward Centerville. 

The Union losses at Bull run were 460 killed, 1,124 wounded and 



Cyclopedia of Battles 187 

1,312 captured or missing. The Confederates lost 387 killed, 1,582 wound- 
ed and 13 missing. 

Bull Run, Va., Aug. 30, 1862. Army of Virginia and Army of the 
Potomac. In tliis battle, known as the second Bull run, is included the 
action at Gainesville late on the afternoon of the 28th, and the battle of 
Groveton on the 29th. Gen. Pope's forces at this time consisted of the 
Army of Virginia and the Army of the Potomac. The former was made 
up of three corps: the ist, commanded by Maj.-Gen. Franz Sigel, in- 
cluded the divisions of Schcnck, Von Steinwehr and Schurz, the inde- 
pendent brigade of Gen. Robert H. Milroy, and the cavalry brigade of 
Col. John Beardsley. The 2nd corps, under the command of Maj.-Gen. 
N. P. Banks, was composed of the divisions of Williams and Greene, 
and the cavalry brigade of Gen. John Buford. The 3d corps, commanded 
by Maj.-Gen. Irvin McDowell, consisted of the two divisions of King 
and Ricketts, the cavalry brigade of Gen. George D. Bayard, and the re- 
serve corps under Brig.-Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis. Reynolds' division 
was temporarily attached to this corps. In the Army of the Potomac 
there were also three corps, the 3d, 5th and 9th. The 3d was com- 
manded by Maj.-Gen. S. P. Heintzelman and consisted of the divisions of 
Kearny and Hooker. The 5th was commanded by Maj.-Gen. Fitz John 
Porter and embraced the divisions of Morell and Sykes. The 9th corps, 
commanded by Maj.-Gen. Jesse L. Reno, included two divisions, the ist 
commanded by Maj.-Gen. Isaac Stevens, and the 2nd by Reno in person. 
With this corps was also the ist provisional brigade of the Kanawha divi- 
sion, commanded by Col. E. P. Scammon. The ist brigade, ist division 
of the 6th corps, Brig.-Gen. George W. Taylor, was engaged at Bull 
run bridge toward the close of the battle, and there were some unat- 
tached organizations. 

The Confederate forces — known as the Army of Northern Virginia — 
were under the command of Gen. Robert E. Lee, and consisted of the 
right and left wings. The former, commanded by Maj. Gen. James Long- 
street, included the divisions of Anderson, D. R. Jones, Wilcox, Hood 
and Kemper. The left wing, commanded by Maj.-Gen. Thomas J. Jack- 
son, was composed of the divisions of Taliaferro, A. P. Hill, Ewell, and 
the cavalry division of Stuart. Authorities differ as to the strength of the 
two armies, but it is probable that Pope had about 63,000 men of all arms 
and Lee 54.000. 

By Stuart's dash upon Pope's headquarters at Catlett's station on the 
night of Aug. 22, the despatch book of the Federal commander fell into 
the hands of Lee, who learned from it the position and approximate 
strength of the Union forces in his front, and determined to send part of 
his army to the right and rear of Pope, with a view to capturing or de- 
stroying his command, which was then in the vicinity of Rappahannock 
Station at the point where the Orange & Alexandria railroad crosses the 
Rappahannock river. On the 25th Jackson was sent via Thoroughfare gap 
to strike Pope in the rear, while Longstreet kept up a show of force in 
front. The next day the latter took up his march to join Jackson, and 
Pope got wind of the movement. At sunset on the 26th his forces were 
somewhat scattered. Reno, Kearny and Hooker were at Warrenton 
Junction ; Sigel was at Warrenton ; McDowell was confronting Longstreet 
at Waterloo bridge ; Banks was at Fayetteville ; Sykes" was south of Beale- 
ton, and Morell was at Kelly's ford, below Rappahannock Station. Or- 
ders were sent to the different commands to move toward Gainesville and 
Manassas Junction, with a view to concentration. Jackson had by this 
time gained the Federal rear and occupied the road from Gainesville to 
Bristoe Station. Shortly after midnight Stuart's cavalry assaulted the 
Union garrison at the junction and captured the place, together with the 
commissary and quartermaster stores collected there. About 7 a. m. on 



188 The Union Army 

the 28th Taylor's brigade of the 6th corps came up from Alexandria and 
made a gallant effort to recapture the stores. In the skirmish Taylor was 
mortally wounded. Jackson was now in imminent danger of capture or 
annihilation. In one respect, however, he had the advantage of his op- 
ponent. He was aware of the positions of the various detachments of 
the Union forces, and could at least hazard a shrewd guess at Pope's in- 
tentions, while the latter was puzzled as to what Jackson might do. The 
general opinion of the Federal officers seems to have been that Jackson 
would move to the southward, fall on the wagon trains under Banks, then 
near Warrenton Junction, and join Longstreet near Warrenton. To 
imite with Longstreet was of paramount importance, and in order to do this 
Jackson resolved to move northward to the old battle-field of 13 months 
before, where he was well acquainted with the ground, and secure a strong 
position where he could hold out until Longstreet's arrival. Accordingly 
on the night of the 27th Taliaferro moved by the Sudley road and at day- 
light on the 28th was north of the Warrenton pike. At i a. m. on the 
28th A. P. Hill moved to Centerville, and at 10 o'clock joined Taliaferro. 
Ewell crossed Bull run at Blackburn's ford, proceeded up the east side of 
the stream to the stone bridge, where he recrossed and by noon the whole 
command was together. 

When Jackson began this movement McDowell and Sigcl were in the 
neighborhood of Gainesville, directly between the two wings of the Con- 
federate army. As an evidence that Pope had no intimation of Jackson's 
purpose, he sent an order to McDowell at 9 p. m. on the 27th to move 
at daylight the next morning for Manassas. In this report he said: 
"If you will move promptly and rapidly at the earliest dawn of day 
upon Manassas Junction we shall bag the whole crowd." This order 
caused McDowell and Sigel to waste the greater part of the 28th in a 
useless march to Manassas under the impression that Jackson would 
wait there to be surrounded. McDowell appears to have had better judg- 
ment than Pope, for in his report he says : "I varied from your 
orders to march with 'my whole force' only so far as concerned Gen. 
Ricketts' division and the cavalry of Buford and Bayard. Knowing 
that Longstreet would be coming through Thoroughfare, I sent early 
in the morning Col. Wyndham's ist New Jersey regiment of cavalry 
to the gap, and sent up other cavalry as fast as I could get hold of 
it, and on receiving word the enemy was coming through T detached 
Ricketts' division to hold him in check. This departure from your 
orders to move with 'my whole force' on Manassas I felt called upon 
to make to carry out the spirit of your plan of crushing the enemy 
at that place before his reinforcements, of whose position I had just 
received positive intelligence, could join, as those reinforcements, I 
thought, could be better held in check at the gap than this side 
of it." 

Before his advance reached Manassas McDowell received another 
despatch from headquarters, stating that the enemy was east of Bull 
run, and directing him to march his command toward that place. 
King's division, which had formed the rear in the march of the fore- 
noon, now became the advance. As this division was marchin<jr east 
on the Warrenton pike about 5 p. m. Jackson, thinking the Union 
army was in retreat, sent Taliaferro's division and two brigades of 
Ewell's against King. The latter met the attack bravely by throwing 
forward a strong skirmish line, supported by the infantry in force, 
while the batteries were placed where they could enfilade those of the 
enemy, compelling them to change their position. For over two hours 
the two lines doggedly held on amidst an incessant fire of artillery 
and musketry, after which the fight waned somewhat, but was contin- 
ued until 9 p. m., when the enemy retreated from the field. About 



Cyclopedia of Battles 189 

the time that this action commenced Jackson sent a body of cavalry 
down the Sudley road, to harass the rear of a retreating army as he 
thought, and this detachment ran into Sigel's troops marching north- 
ward to strike the pike. Here another sharp skirmish ensued in 
which the Federals were victorious. These two affairs are known as 
the battle of Gainesville. Reynolds, hearing the firing, from his posi- 
tion near Bethlehem Church, at once put his troops in motion and 
late in the evening encamped near Sigel, about a mile from Groveton. 
King took steps to hold his position, but late that night he learned 
that Ricketts, who had checked Longstrcet at Thoroughfare gap, was 
falling back toward Gainesville to avoid being cut off by a flank move- 
ment through Hopewell gap, and after consulting his brigade com- 
manders decided to fall back to Manassas. At i a. m. on the 29th 
Ricketts also fell back toward Manassas, moving via Bristoe Station. 

At daylight on the 29th Reynolds occupied a position on the south 
side of the Warrenton pike near Groveton. Sigel's corps lay farther 
east, near the crossing of the Sudley road. Reno and Heintzelman 
were farther east, toward Centerville, while McDowell and Porter 
were near Manassas Junction. Jackson occupied the ridge north of 
the pike, behind the line of the unfinished railroad, his left resting on 
Catharpin run near Sudley springs, and his right on the heights not far 
from Groveton. Pope proceeded on the theory that, because Jackson 
had left Manassas so suddenly, the enemy was retreating, and pre- 
pared to strike with his whole force. McDowell and Porter were 
ordered to move toward Gainesville early on the 29th in order to gain 
the Confederate rear; Sigel was to attack the enemy's right, and Reno 
and Heintzelman were to move forward and engage him in front. 
Sigel carried out his part of the program and opened the battle of 
Groveton by a vigorous attack about 6 a. m. The batteries began 
shelling the woods and under cover of this artillery fire Schurz and 
Milroy advanced, the enemy falling back to the embankment formed 
by the railroad cut, where a fierce conflict ensued. The Federals 
charged the embankment twice, but each time were repulsed. The 
Confederates then sallied out in pursuit, but were checked by the fire 
from the Union batteries. Meantime Reynolds had pushed Meade's 
brigade across the pike in an effort to turn the enemy's right, but the 
movement failed because Schenck, who was supporting it, was com- 
pelled to withdraw Stahel's brigade and send it to the assistance of 
Milroy. In the advance on the railroad a gap was left between Schurz 
and Milroy. This was closed by the latter, but at the expense of 
weakening his line. Seeing this the Confederates made a vicious 
charge against Schurz and succeeded in breaking his line. The men 
were rallied without difficulty, however, the enemy driven back to tHe 
railroad, Schimmelfennig's brigade gaining possession of a part of the 
embankment and holding it against repeated assaults until relieved by 
fresh troops in the afternoon. A little while before noon the divisions 
of Hooker, Kearny, Reno and Stevens arrived on the field. Some of 
the troops belonging to these commands were used to relieve those 
who had been engaged all morning, but aside from some skirmishing 
and artillery firing there was no more aggressive action until about 4 p. m.. 
Pope deciding to wait for McDowell and Porter to'come up. 

These two officers, pursuant to Pope's order of the preceding even- 
ing, moved at an early hour on the Gainesville road. At 11:30 the 
advance was at iJawkins' branch, about 2 miles northwest of Beth- 
lehem Church, where the enemy was encountered. This proved to be 
a portion of Longstreet's corps. Skirmishers were thrown forward 
across the branch and a few shots exchanged, but a general engage- 
ment at this point was not desirable. King's division, then near the 



190 The Union Army 

church, was ordered to march up the Sudley road and join Reynolds, 
Ricketts being directed to move in the same direction soon afterward. 
Later McDowell advised Porter to attack the enemy in front, while 
with his own command he would move up the Sudley road and join 
the forces there on the left. Porter assumed that he was to wait until 
he heard from McDowell before beginning the attack and remained 
idle all the afternoon. This conduct on his part was made the sub- 
ject of a court of inquiry. Late in the day Pope ordered Heintzelman 
to attack simultaneously at two points on the enemy's line. Heintzel- 
man sent in Hooker's and Kearny's divisions, the former against the 
center of the line and the latter farther to the right against Hill's 
division. Grover's brigade led the assault made by Hooker and the 
charge has been described as "one of the most gallant and determined 
of the war." With loaded pieces and fixed bayonets they advanced 
slowly until the enemy's fire was drawn, when they fired a volley 
and rushed forward to carry the position with the bayonet. The rail- 
road embankment was carried in a desperate hand-to-hand conflict 
in which bayonets and clubbed muskets were the principal weapons. 
The center of Jackson's line was broken by this terrific onslaught, 
but Grover was not supported and the advantage thus gained was 
of short duration as the Confederates came rushing into the breach, 
forcing Grover to retire. Kearny's attack was delayed until after 
Grover's repulse and was made with the same bravery and determina- 
tion. It was successful at first and for a short time it looked as 
though Jackson's left had been turned. Gregg's brigade of Hill's 
division held on with the bayonet until the brigades of Lawton and 
Early could come to his relief, and these reinforcements drove Kearny 
back. 

On the march up the Sudley road King was suddenly taken ill 
and the command of the division fell on Brig.-Gen. John P. Hatch, 
who arrived on the field, accompanied by McDowell, between 5 and 
6 p. m. At that moment the Confederates could be seen readjusting 
their line and the impression was gained by the Union generals that 
they were retreating. Hatch was ordered _ along the pike toward 
Groveton to convert the retreat into a rout if possible. Hatch made 
a dashing assault on what he believed to be the retreating army of 
Jackson, and encountered Hood and Evans of Longstreet's command 
advancing to meet him. After a sharp action of nearly an hour 
Hatch was compelled to fall back, leaving one piece of artillery in 
the hands of the enemy. About the same time Reynolds undertook 
to renew the attack on the extreme left, but was repulsed by the 
severe artillery fire of the Confederates and withdrew. The battle 
cjf Groveton was over. 

Not until the repulse of Hatch by Hood and Evans did Pope know 
that Longstreet had joined Jackson. Even then he was inclined to 
believe that only a small portion of the Confederate right wing had 
reached the scene of action. Porter arrived at headquarters early on 
the morning of the 30th and tried to convince the commanding 
general that all of Longstreet's forces had been on the field since 
noon of the preceding day. This statement Pope regarded as an ex- 
cuse on the part of Porter for not obeying orders, and, although it 
was corroborated by other officers, he still clung to his cherished 
opinion that Longstreet had not come up. The battle of the 29th 
he considered a great victory, and sent a despatch to that effect to 
Gen. Halleck at 5 a. m. on the 30th. Flushed with this notion of 
victory, and believing the Confederates to be in full retreat, he re- 
solved to continue on the offensive. Accordingly, at noon on Satur- 
day, the 30th, he issued the following order: 



Cyclopedia of Battles 191 

"The following forces will be immediately thrown forward in pur- 
suit of the enemy, and press him vigorously during the whole day. 
Maj.-Gen. McDowell is assigned to the command of the pursuit. 
Maj.-Gen. Porter's corps will push forward on the Warrenton turn- 
pike, followed by the divisions of Brig.-Gens. King and Reynolds. 
The division of Brig.-Gen. Rickctts will pursue the Haymarket road, 
followed by the corps of Maj.-Gen. Heintzelman; the necessary cavalry 
will be assigned to these columns by Maj.-Gen. McDowell, to whom regu- 
lar and frequent reports will be made. The General Headquarters will be 
somewhere on the Warrenton turnpike." 

Jackson still held his position along the line of the unfinished rail- 
road. To reach the Haymarket road in his rear Ricketts must march 
some 5 miles via Sudley springs. Had Jackson been inclined to re- 
treat by that route he could have struck the road far in advance of 
Ricketts before that officer could have reached a point to intercept 
him. But Jackson had no intention of retreating. He knew that 
Longstreet, during the night, had moved forward to a position south 
of the Warrenton pike, from which he could call reinforcements if 
it became necessary. Hood lay across the pike a short distance 
west of Groveton, ready to move to the assistance of the right or 
left, or to hold in check any movement down the pike toward Gaines- 
ville. Behind him were Wilcox and Anderson. D. R. Jones and 
Kemper lay farther south, extending the line almost to the Manassas 
Gap railroad. This part of the line was effectually concealed by the 
woods and its existence was unknown to the Union officers. The 
engagement was opened by a fierce artillery fire and Porter pushed 
forward Morell's division, supported by Sykes, against Jackson's line, 
under the impression that the Confederates were in retreat. Farther 
to the right Hatch made a determined assault on the embankment, 
receiving a slight wound as he led his command to the charge. 
Both attacks were gallantly made and Jackson was so sorely pressed 
that he sent for reinforcements to Lee, who ordered Longstreet to 
send the required aid. But Longstreet knew that reinforcements 
were unnecessary. He had planted his batteries in a position to 
enfilade the Federal lines as they advanced, and now opened fire. 
In less than ten minutes the Union troops were compelled to retire, 
suffering heavy losses. A large part of the forces of Reno, Heintzel- 
man and Ricketts were thrown against Jackson, but all failed to ac- 
complish any permanent advantage. To advance against a sheltered 
foe, while at the same time subjected to an enfilading fire of artillery, 
was too great an undertaking. 

Meantime Reynolds, to whom had been assigned the duty of 
guarding the left against a flank movement, had discovered Jones 
and Kemper advancing from that direction and reported it to head- 
quarters. He was first ordered to form his division to resist an 
attack, but was later directed to cross the pike and support Porter. 
This gave Longstreet the opportunity, of which he was not slow to 
avail himself, to strike the assailants on the left flank, and he 
hurriedly massed his unemployed forces south of the pike for that 
purpose. Sykes sent Warren's brigade to hold the movement in 
check, but it was swept aside by overwhelming nuntbers. All thought 
of "pursuit" was now abandoned by the Union commanders and the 
struggle became one for the possession of the pike. Longstreet 
advanced his whole line with a rush. Hood in advance supported 
by Evans, while Kemper, Jones and Anderson swung farther to the 
Confederate right until the line extended east of the Sudley road. 
West of this road was an eminence known as Bald hill, and on the 
east side of it, near the Henry house, was another elevation. Both 



192 The Union Army 

had been occupied by the Federal batteries early in the morning, and 
these guns now did effective service in checking the impetuous ad- 
vance of the enemy. The possession of these two hills was now the 
key to the situation. Sigel was hurried to the support of the batteries; 
two brigades of Ricketts' division under Gen. Tower and two more 
batteries were also sent forward to Bald hill, and two brigades of 
Sykes' division to the Henry hill, where they were soon afterward 
reinforced by heavy detachments from the commands of Reynolds 
and Meade. The battle was thus transferred to the south side of the 
pike, and the Federal army suddenly thrown on the defensive. 

Jackson, as soon as he saw that Longstreet's advance was likely 
to be a success, sallied out of his works and advanced toward the 
pike, but was met and turned back by Reno and Heintzelman. The 
fight now centered around Bald hill. McLean's brigade of Schenck's 
division was sent to the support of the troops there engaged in a 
stubborn defense, and held the hill against several attacks from dif- 
ferent directions. Schenck was severely wounded while bringing up 
reinforcements. Schurz' division was then sent in and for a time held 
the Confederates back. In the fight here Gen. Tower was wounded 
and Col. Fletcher Webster, a son of Daniel Webster, was killed while 
leading his regiment, the 12th Mass., into action. Longstreet massed 
his forces for a final assault and by main force of superior numbers 
carried the hill, but not without paying a severe penalty in killed 
and wounded. 

At the Henry hill a similar scene was being enacted. Here 
Sykes' regulars stood in readiness to receive the onset. The two 
brigades were commanded by Buchanan and Chapman, veterans of 
the Mexican war, who had stood together at Molino del Rey. Behind 
them were all the troops it was possible to bring to their support, 
as this was the last stand that could be made west of Bull run. 
If it were lost the Union army was doomed to utter defeat. Already 
most of the troops were falling back toward the stone bridge, and 
the possession of Henry hill was absolutely necessary to cover 
the retreat. The Confederates had exhausted most of their energies 
in the capture of Bald hill, but they charged Sykes with a show of 
courage and enthusiasm only to be repulsed with severe loss. Again 
they advanced and again the invincible line of regulars stood the 
shock. Before the third attack could be made darkness fell with the 
hill still in the hands of the Unionists. During the night the rem- 
nant of the army fell back to Centerville. 

The losses of the Union army from the 25th to the 30th, including 
the engagements at Bristoe Station, Gainesville, Groveton and Bull 
run. amounted to i,747 killed, 8,452 wounded and 4,263 captured or 
missing. Lee claims to have captured 7,000 prisoners and 30 pieces 
of artillery, but the facts do not bear out the statement. The reports 
regarding the Confederate loss are somewhat conflicting. Taking the 
figures of the different division and brigade commanders they had, 
in the battles of the 28th to 30th, inclusive, 1,553 killed, 7,812 wounded 
and 109 missing. The probabilities are that the losses on both sides 
have been understated. 

Bull Run Bridge, Va., Aug. 27, 1862. ist, 2nd, 3d and 4th New 
Jersey, and nth and 12th Ohio Infantry. Early on the morn- 
ing of the 27th the ist N. J. brigade, commanded by Gen. 
George W. Taylor, and the two Ohio regiments, under the command 
of Col. E. P. Scammon, left Alexandria with orders to hold the 
bridge over Bull run at all hazards. The New Jersey troops reached 
the bridge first, took up a position on the west side of the stream and 
were soon engaged by four brigades of A. P. Hill's division. About 8 



Cyclopedia of Battles 193 

o'clock the Ohio men arrived on the scene. The 12th regiment was 
ordered to lie down behind the railroad embankment, while the nth 
was sent to the left to prevent a flank movement of the enemy by 
a ford in that direction. About this time, Taylor, seeing that he was 
greatly outnumbered, issued an order to fall back to the east side, 
bat in carrying out the order the men became panic stricken and 
continued the retreat in disorder. Taylor was wounded and at his 
request Scammon assumed command. While he was endeavoring to 
rally the New Jersey troops the 12th regiment at the bridge was 
almost surrounded. In the meantime the nth had crossed the stream 
and was advancing to the assistance of Taylor, unaware of his order 
to fall back, when the situation of the 12th was discovered and the 
regiment was moved along the hill to its rescue. The two regiments, 
with about 200 of the New Jersey brigade, then fell back to the brow 
of the hill where a new line was formed and the fight renewed. The 
Confederates made several unsuccessful attempts to reach the rear of 
the Union forces and cut ofif the retreat, the Federals gradually falling 
back to the next ridge, where another stand was made. The fight 
lasted until about 3 p. m., and the retreat was harassed by small 
detachments of the enemy's cavalry all the way to Fairfax station. 
The Union loss in killed, wounded and missing was reported as 
being 433. The Confederate loss was not ascertained. 

The 1st N. Y. heavy artillery reached this same bridge about 10 
o'clock the evening before. After an hour's rest and seeing the 
supply train of Banks' division safely on the road. Col. Waagner 
ordered the regiment to march to Manassas, where it was reported a 
party of guerrillas were committing depredations. They reached 
Manassas about daybreak on the 27th. A considerable force of Con- 
federate cavalry was found stationed about a barn and a shell was 
thrown into their midst, causing them to flee in all directions. They 
finally sought shelter in the woods near by, which were then shelled 
until a considerable body of Confederate infantry appeared on the 
Union left, when Waagner gave orders to retreat toward Bull run. 
Pursuit was given by the enemy's cavalry and continued for several 
miles, the New Yorkers keeping in a body to Centerville and repelling 
several attacks. But having marched all day the day previous, and 
having been up all night, the fatigue began to tell upon them and after 
Centerville was passed there was some disorder. Near Fairfax 
the 14th Mass. came to the relief and checked the pursuit. 

Bull's Gap, Tenn., March 15, 1864. 

Bull's Gap, Tenn., Sept. 24, 1864. Cavalry and Mounted Infantry. 

Bull's Gap, Tenn., Oct. 16, 1864. A scout of 30 Cavalry. No ac- 
count of this affair is to be found in any of the Federal officers' 
reports, but Confederate Gen. John C. Vaughn, in a letter to Gen. 
Breckenridge, mentions that one Capt. Bushong, with a scout of 
30 men attacked and stampeded 70 Union soldiers near Bull's gap, 
with a loss of one man mortally wounded. 

Bull's Gap, Tenn., Nov. 11-13, 1864. 8th, 9th and loth Tennessee 
Cavalry — Governor's Guard. The 3 regiments, under the command 
of Brig.-Gen. Alvan C. Gillem, reached Bull's gap early on the morn- 
ing of the loth. Learning that the Confederate force imder Gen. 
Vaughn was moving around by Warrensburg to attack him in the 
rear, while Breckenridge was preparing to attack in front, Gillem 
spent all that day in strengthening his position. The attack was 
made in front on the morning of the ilth, but was handsomely re- 
pulsed. That night the Union troops lay upon their arms and were 
in line of battle at 4 o'clock the next morning. Just at daybreak the 

Vol. V-13 



194 The Union Army 

enemy opened with his artillery and a little later Gillem was attacked 
from three sides; the artillery and some dismounted men in front, 
Vaughn in the rear, while Breckenridge, with Duke's cavalry and a 
strong detachment of dismounted men assailed the left. Gillem ar- 
ranged his force to meet all these assaults and again the enemy was 
repulsed, though some of Breckenridge's men actually got inside of 
the rude works behind which the Federals were posted. No 
further attempt was made that day to carry Gillem's position, but 
early on the next morning the firing was commenced all along the front 
and continued throughout the day, though no assault was made. 
During the night of the 13th Gillem evacuated the gap, passed the enemy 
without interruption, and marched in the direction of Russellville, where 
he hoped to receive supplies and reinforcements. His men had fought 
for four days without bread or salt and his stock of ammunition was 
almost completely exhausted. While Gillem was marching toward Rus- 
sellville the enemy passed through Taylor's gap and also marched toward 
the same point on a road running parallel about 2 miles distant. About 
1 o'clock on the morning of the 14th the entire Confederate strength 
struck Gillem at Russellville with such force that his men were thrown 
into confusion. Here many of the Union men fired their last cartridge 
and the artillery was without ammunition. The cannon, ambulance and 
wagon trains fell into the hands of the Confederates. Gillem reported 
his loss as 150 in killed, wounded and missing, 6 pieces of artillery, 61 
wagons, 71 ambulances and 300 horses. He retired to Morristown, where 
he was joined by Col. Miller, who had been left to guard the gap until 
the main body was well under way, and where he reassembled his force, 
stragglers coming in all the next day. 

Bulltown, W. Va., Oct. 13, 1863. Detachment of the 6th and nth 
West Virginia Infantry. The detachment, commanded by Capt. W. H. 
Mattingly, stationed in a fortification, was attacked about 4:30 a. m. by 
1,000 of Col. William L. Jackson's force, with 2 pieces of artillerj'. A 
charge was made on the northeast side of the works, causing Mattingly 
and his men to fall back to the main line of defenses. The enemy pursued, 
but received a volley that killed and wounded about 50 and checked the 
remainder. The Confederate commander then sent in a flag of truce de- 
manding the surrender of the works. This demand was refused and the 
fighting continued until about the middle of the afternoon, when the 
enemy withdrew toward Sutton, leaving 4 men as prisoners, 2 of whom 
were wounded. The only casualty reported on the Union side was in 
the case of Mattingly, whose thigh was shattered early in the action. 

Bulltown, W. Va., Aug. 20, 1864. 

Bunker Hill, Va., July 15, 1861. Command of Gen. Robert Patterson. 
As Gen. Patterson was marching from Martinsburg to Bunker Hill his 
advance was opposed by a body of some 600 Confederate cavalry. In the 
skirmishing i of the enemy was killed and S were captured. Patterson's 
loss was not reported. 

Bunker Hill, Va., March 5, 1862. 3d Brigade. The brigade arrived 
at Bunker Hill in the afternoon and found the place guarded bj^ a 
small picket of cavalry and a few infantry. Most of this force was cap- 
tured and sent to Provost-Marshal Andrews. No casualties were re- 
ported. 

Bunker Hill, Va., Sept. 4-5, 1862. Detachment of the 12th Illinois 
Cavalry. The detachment, consisting of 95 men, under the command of 
Lieut. -Col. Davis, was stationed about 3 miles south of IMartinsburg, 
on the Winchester road. On the morning of the 4th Lieut. Charles 
Roden, with 10 men, was sent on a reconnoitering tour. At Bunker Hill 



Cyclopedia of Battles 195 

he suddenly came upon a party of 12 mounted Confederates, charged them 
and drove them about 3 miles south of the town, wounding i man and 
I horse. 

The next day about half the detachment met some 40 of the enemy 
a short distance north of Bunker Hill and drove them back to the 
town. Here they dismounted, took shelter in some old buildings on 
the bank of the creek, and opened fire upon the advancing Federals. 
Davis quickly led his men across the creek, charged up the hill and drove 
them from cover. He then pursued them for 6 miles^ wounding 2 and 
capturing 6, all of Ashby's cavalry. No one was hurt on the Union 
side. 

Bunker Hill, W. Va., June 13, 1863. Part of 2nd Division, 8th Army 
Corps. The only official mention of an action at Bunker Hill on this date 
is in the report of Brig.-Gen. Daniel Tyler, commanding the ist division, 
8th corps, who says: "About this time (11 o'clock), information was 
received that the enemy had captured a portion of Gen. Milroy's forces 
at Bunker Hill, 6 to 8 miles on the Winchester pike." 

Bunker Hill, W. Va., Jan. i, 1864. Scouts of the 12th Pennsylvania 
Cavalry. The scouting party reported that about 4 o'clock in the morn- 
ing they captured 4 of the enemy 4 miles north of Winchester, that 
they were afterward pursued by 30 Confederate cavalry to Bunker Hill, 
where the prisoners were recaptured, but the report was subsequently dis- 
credited by both Gen. Averell and Gen. Kelley. 

Bunker Hill, W. Va., July 19, 1864. 

Bunker Hill, W. Va., July 25, 1864. Crook's Division, Army of West 
Virginia. As Gen. Crook was retiring from Winchester toward Martins- 
burg, closely pressed by a large Confederate force, he encamped for the 
night of the 24th at Bunker Hill, reaching that place about 9 p. m. Next 
morning the enemy's cavalry made an attack in front and also made 
an effort to turn the flanks of the Union position. Crook gradually re- 
tired toward Martinsburg, skirmishing all the way, and repulsing several 
flank movements on the part of the enemy. 

Bunker Hill, W. Va., Sept. 2-3, 1864. Averell's Division of Sheri- 
dan's Cavalry. On the 2nd Averell moved from Falling Waters toward 
Winchester. At Bunker Hill he attacked and routed three brigades of the 
enemy, capturing 2 battle flags, 55 prisoners, 20 wagons, a battery forge, 
a herd of cattle and a quantity of small arms. On the 3d the Confederates 
attacked in turn, but were repulsed and driven to within 5 miles of Win- 
chester. No casualties reported. 

Bunker Hill, W. Va., Sept. 13, 1864. Averell's Cavalry Division. 
On this date Gen. Averell made a reconnaissance to Bunker Hill, 
Gerrardstown and Pughtown. After driving the enemy's cavalry be- 
yond Bunker Hill a considerable force of Confederate infantry was found 
in position. The object of the reconnaissance having been accomplished, 
Averell returned to his former position. 

Bunker Hill, W. Va., Sept. 19, 1864. Averell's Cavalry Division. 
At 5 a. m. Gen. Averell advanced across the Opequan to Darkesville, 
thence to Bunker Hill, where the Confederate cavalry made a determined 
stand, and resisted the advance of the division from that point to 
Stephenson's depot, 5 miles north of Winchester. Here heavy firing 
could be heard on the Union left and rear, caused by Gen. Torbert 
trying to cross the Opequan with Merritt's cavalry. A rear attack on 
the Confederate position enabled Custer to cross tne stream and take 
a position on Averell's left, the latter then shifting his division to the 
west side of the pike. A new line was thus formed and made a successful 
advance upon the enemy, driving him from his position toward Win- 



196 The Union Army 

Chester. When within a mile of the town another stand was made, 
but again the enemy was routed and a piece of artillery captured. This 
was about half past two. Shortly afterward Custer's cavalry gave way, 
which exposed Avcrell's left. The enemy was prompt to take advantage 
of the opportunity and attacked with both infantry and artillery, but 
without forcing the Union position. About 3 p. m. the infantry of the 
Army of West Virginia made a vigorous assault upon the Confederate 
lines and saved the day, as the ground was too broken for the cavalry 
to be of much use. The Union loss was 250 in killed, wounded and miss- 
ing. The number of Confederates killed and wounded was not ascertained. 
Prisoners to the number of 83 were taken, and i gun and 2 ambulances 
fell into Averell's hands as spoils of war. 

Burden's Causeway, S. C, July 9, 1864. In the operations about 
John's island, from the 4th to the loth, the Confederate reports refer 
to the skirmish of the Qth as the battle of Burden's Causeway. (See 
John's Island.) 

Burgess' Farm, Va., Oct. 27-28, 1864. Burgess' farm and Burgess' 
mill are evidently one and the same place. The operations here on this 
date were a part of the general movement of the Union troops along 
Hatcher's run in extending the Federal lines to the left in the siege of 
Petersburg. (See Hatcher's run, same date.) 

Burke's Station, Va., Dec. 4, 1861. 3d New Jersey Infantry. This 
affair was somewhat out of the ordinary course of warfare. On the night 
of the 4th Col. George W. Taylor, with 50 of his men, went out on the 
old Braddock road to intercept the enemy's cavalry patrols. About 2 miles 
from Burke's station two telegraph wires were stretched across the road 
and the men stationed in an advantageous position to await results. 
In a little while a Confederate scouting party of some 25 men, led by 
Capt. J. F. Waring of the 6th Va. cavalry, rode up to the wire. Taylor's 
men fired, each of their pieces being loaded with fifteen buck-shot, and 
several saddles were emptied. The fire was returned, after which the 
enemy galloped ofi^ down the road beyond the range of the guns. Waring, 
who was acting without orders from his superior ofiicers, reported his 
loss as 8 missing and 3 wounded. Taylor's loss was 4 or 5 wounded 
and I missing. 

Burke's Station, Va., March 9, 1862. At an early hour in the 
morning, while a detachment of the 6th Md. cavalry (Confederate), was 
relieving the pickets of the 13th Va. at Burke's station, the Union skir- 
mishers appeared on the opposite line of hills. The fight was com- 
menced by a squadron of the 8th 111. cavalry, which charged a company 
of pickets that were slightly in advance of the others, and the main line 
of skirmishers quickly followed up the attack. The enemy fought braveljs 
but were forced from the field, 10 of their men being captured. 

Burke's Station, Va., March 10, 1862. One Company ist New York 
Cavalry. 

Burke's Station, Va., Aug. 7, 1863. Late in the afternoon an attack 
was made by a small body of Confederate cavalry upon some Union 
men engaged in cutting wood about a mile east of the station. The 
wood-cutters were provided with 25 four-horse teams, and were ac- 
companied by a guard of 60 men. The prompt action of this guard re- 
pulsed the assailants and saved the teams, the capture of which was 
doubtless the object of the attack. No casualties were reported on 
either side. 

Burke's Station, Va., April 10, 1865. Cavalry from the post at 
Fairfax Station. Early on the morning of the loth Col. Charles 
Albright, commanding the post at Fairfax Station, received in- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 197 

formation that a body of the enemy's cavalry was south of 
the station and moving toward Burke's station for the pur- 
pose of capturing the trains at work there. Ordering out all his 
cavalry he immediately went in pursuit. Near Burke's station Co. K, 
8th 111. cavalry, which was in advance, came up with the enemy and a 
few shots were exchanged. The Confederates retreated to the woods, 
but were quickly followed, and at Arundel's place they were discovered 
in line behind the fences and buildings. Albright formed his men for 
a charge, which was made with such impetuosity that the enemy broke 
and fled. They were pursued to Wolf run shoals, where they crossed 
the stream, when Albright withdrew his men and returned to Fairfax. 
He reported his casualties as 2 men slightly wounded, 5 horses killed 
and 4 injured. Several of the enemy were killed or wounded and a 
number of horses killed. Five prisoners were taken, from one of whom 
it was learned that the Confederates belonged to Mosby's command. 

Burkesville, Ky., Nov. 8, 1862. 

Burkesville Road, Ky., Dec. 25, 1862. (See Green's Chapel.) 

Burlington, W. Va., April 6, 1863. Part of Ringgold's Cavalry 
Battalion. A foraging party of 40 men, under the command of Lieut. 
Speer, of the Lafayette cavalry, was attacked near Burlington by a 
largely superior force of Confederate cavalry, commanded by Capt. 
McNeil. Speer, with 11 of his men and 5 teams, were captured. (See 
Purgitsville.) 

Burlington, W. Va., April 26, 1863. 

Burlington, W. Va., Aug. 4, 1863. 

Burlington, W. Va., Oct. 13, 1863. 

Burlington, W. Va., Nov. 16, 1863. Detachment of the 14th West 
Virginia and the 2nd Maryland Infantry. On the isth a train of 80 
wagons, loaded with quartermaster and commissary stores, intended 
for Gen. Averell's command at Petersburg, left New Creek station on 
the Baltimore & Ohio railroad. The train was in charge of Capt. Clinton 
Jeffers, of the 14th W. Va., his guard consisting of a lieutenant and 
50 men of his own regiment, and a lieutenant and 40 men of the 2nd 
Md. That evening they encamped near Burlington. About 9 o'clock 
the next morning, as the train was making a short turn in the road, 
some 4 miles south of Burlington, the advance was fired upon by a 
party of Confederates concealed in the woods. Lieut. George H. Hard- 
man, commanding the advance, was instantly killed and his men thrown 
into confusion. They were rallied, however, by a sergeant, fell back 
from the road a short distance, at the same time skirmishing with the 
enemy, who now charged in considerable strength. Jeffers, who was near 
the center of the train, started to bring up the rear guard, when the 
center was fired upon from an old house opposite. About the same time 
a body of cavalry attacked the rear guard, which fell back and took a 
position in the edge of the woods. The Confederates now interested 
themselves in unhitching the horses and getting away with them, at the 
same time setting fire to the wagons. The advance guard had in the 
meantime taken shelter behind a fence, from which position they kept 
up a telling fire, so that the attempt to burn the wagons was abandoned, 
only 5 being destroyed and 2 others injured. The Union loss was 2 
killed, 12 wounded, 5 missing, 245 horses captured, and the 7 wagons 
already mentioned. The loss of the enemy was not learned, but it must 
have been considerable. The Confederates were part of Imboden's cav- 
alry, commanded by Capt. John H. McNeill. Their number was esti- 
mated all the way from 250 to 500, though Gen. Imboden says in his 
report of the affair that there were but loo of them. 



198 The Union Army 

Burned Church, Ga., May 26, 1864. Cavalry of the ist Division, 

Army of the Cumberland. 

Burnsville, Miss., Sept 14, 1862. 

Burnsville, Miss., Jan. 3, 1863. 

Burnsville, Miss., June 11, 1863. 

Burnt Bridge, Tenn., Sept. 5, 1863, About 4 a. m., the guard at the 
bridge, consisting of 28 men in charge of a lieutenant, was attacked 
by a force of 200 Confederate cavalry, the object being to capture a 
through freight train then almost due. The guard vi'as driven off, with 
a loss of I killed and 8 wounded, after which the enemy set fire to 
the bridge and waited for the approach of the train. Two negroes notified 
Col. Bryant, who reached the bridge with his mounted infantry just in 
time to save the train. The bridge, which was near Humboldt, had 
been burned once before. 

Burnt Chimneys, Va., April 16, 1862. (See Lee's Mill, same date.) 

Burnt Cross-Roads, Ky., Oct. 6, 1862. The action at Burnt Cross- 
roads on this date was an incident of the Pcrryville campaign, Wheeler's 
cavalry making a stand at this point, while Bragg's army was falling back 
toward the Tennessee line. (See Beach Fork.) 

Burnt Hickory, Ga., May 24, 1864. ist Cavalry Division, Army of 
the Cumberland. The division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. E. M. McCook, 
reached Burnt Hickory about 2 p. m., after skirmishing with the enemy 
for a distance of some 4 miles. Tlie most important feature of the 
action was the capture of a Confederate courier, bearing a despatch 
from Gen. Johnston to Gen. Jackson, showing that the Confederate 
commander intended to make a stand in the vicinity of Dallas. This 
information proved very valuable to Sherman in directing the move- 
ments of his forces. 

Burnt Ordinary, Va., Jan. 19, 1863. Detachment 5th Pennsylvania 
Cavalry. Maj. W. G. McCandless, with 150 men, left camp at Yorktown 
about 9 a. m. on a scouting expedition on the Richmond road. Nine 
miles from Williamsburg 3 mounted Confederates were seen and a 
short distance further on a party of 16 men was discovered. The Union 
advance, commanded by Lieut. Vezin, immediately gave chase and pur- 
sued the enemy to Burnt Ordinary. Here a large force of Confederate 
cavalry came up on the Centerville road, made a dash and captured 4 
of Vezin's men who were about 300 yards ahead of the others. Vezin, 
seeing the fate of his men if the enemy had time to form, gave the order 
to "draw saber and charge." The movement was executed in a gallant 
manner, and, notwithstanding the vastly superior strength of the enemy, 
they fled precipitately after firing a volley which did little or no 
damage. About 20 returned up the road toward Centerville and a larger 
party took the Diascund road. McCandless coming up with the main 
body, the latter was pursued for some distance and 3 of the 4 prisoners 
recaptured. Three miles beyond Burnt Ordinary the chase was abandoned, 
as the fresher condition of the enemy's horses made it impossible to keep 
up with them. The Union loss was i man seriously wounded and i 
captured. Four prisoners were taken and at least i man was wounded. 

Burrowsville, Ark., Jan. 23, 1864. ist Arkansas Cavalry. On the 
loth, Capt. Charles Galloway, with 150 men, left Fayetteville for the 
purpose of scouting and foraging. The party reached Burrowsville, the 
county seat of Searcy county, on the 23d. As they approached the town 
a few shots were fired by some straggling bushwhackers, but no damage 
was done, and the town was occupied without resistance. 

Burton's Ford, Va., March i, 1864. (See Albemarle County, Custer's 
Expedition.) 

Bush Creek, Mo., May 26, 1863. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 199 

Bushy Creek, Ark., Dec. g, 1861. Union Indians under Opothley- 
holo. 

Bushy Creek, Ky., April 7, 1864. Detachment of 14th and 39th 
Kentucky Infantry. The detachment, under the command of Col. Mims, 
came upon Prentice at Bushy creek and a sharp skirmish ensued, but 
the enemy, being mounted, escaped with the loss of a few men wounded, 
some horses and stolen goods. 

Bushy Creek (or Little Black River), Mo., May 28, 1863. 13th 
Illinois Cavalry. 

Bushy Knob, Tenn., Nov. 2^, 1863. This is but another name for 
Orchard knob or Indian hill, a slight eminence near the City of Chatta- 
nooga, and is mentioned in connection with the battles of Chattanooga, 
Lookout mountain and Missionary ridge. 

Bushy Swamp, N. C, March 18, 1865. 2nd Division, 14th Army 
Corps. The division broke camp on Black river at 5 -.30 a. m. and 
marched forward on the Goldsboro road. At Bushy Swamp the foragers 
of the command came upon a body of Confederates, which retired across 
the swamp, where they took up a strong position and opened fire with 
their artillery. The ist and 2nd brigades were deployed in two lines, 
with a regiment from each thrown forward as skirmishers, and an ad- 
vance ordered. As the infantry approached the enemy abandoned his 
position and beat a retreat. No casualties reported. 

Butler, Mo., Nov. 20, 1861. 

Butler, Mo., May 15, 1862. ist Iowa Cavalry. 

Butler Creek, Ala., Nov. 17-19, 1864. (See Aberdeen.) 

Butler's Mill, Tenn., June 30, 1863. Detachment io6th Ohio Infantry. 
About 8 p. m. on the 29th information reached the Federal camp at 
Buck Lodge that a party of guerrillas were robbing the house of a Union 
man not far away. Lieut. -Col. Tafel immediately ordered all his mounted 
men, 11 in number, to proceed to the place, under command of Lieut. 
Berthold, and endeavor to capture the depredators. After pursuing them 
for several hours Berthold was directed to a house that the guerrillas 
were known to frequent and there lay in wait for them. They ap- 
proached the house, but in some way discovered the presence of the Union 
troops and made their escape. On the morning of the 30th the pursuit 
was renewed and as Berthold and his little party were passing Butler's 
old mill they were fired upon from ambush by a force numbering about 
100 men. Berthold was killed instantly, i man was overtaken and killed 
later, and 3 were wounded. Of the enemy i was known to have been 
killed and several wounded, but the number could not be ascertained. 

Butte a La Rose, La., April 20, 1863. Union Gunboats Arizona, 
Calhoun, Clifton and Estrella. Butte a la Rose was a fortified mound 
at the junction of the Atchafalaya river and Cow bayou. At the time 
of its capture it was garrisoned by a force of 60 men. An attempt had 
been made to reduce it by land forces, but this was unsuccessful owing 
to the flooded condition of the lowlands surrounding it. On the morn- 
ing of the 20th the gunboats, under the command of Lieut. A. R. Cooke, 
of the U. S. navy, with four companies of infantry, succeeded in capturing 
the place with all the garrison, 2 large cannon and a large quantity of 
ammunition, thus opening communications on the Atchafalaya. 

Buzzard Roost, Ga., April 22, 1865. 

Buzzard Roost Blockhouse, Ga., Oct. 13, 1864. One company of 
the 115th Illinois Volunteers. 

Buzzard Roost Gap, Ga., Feb. 24-26, 1864. (See Dalton, same date.) 

Buzzard Roost Gap, Ga., May 8-1 1, 1864. (See Rocky Face Ridge.) 

Buzzard's Prairie, La., Nov. 3, 1863. (See Bayou Bourbeau.) 

Byhalia, Miss., Oct. 12, 1863. (See Ingram's Mills.) 



200 The Union Army 

Byhalia, Miss., Feb. ii, 1864. (Sec Raiford's Plantation.) 
Byhalia Road, Miss., July 2, 1864. Detachment of the 7th Indiana 
Cavalry. Col. D. B. Henderson commanding the post at Collierville, 
sent out a reconnoitering party of 20 men on the Byhalia road. When 
about 10 miles from Collierville this party was attacked by some 200 
cavalry and driven back toward the camp. Henderson, on being informed 
of the enemy's approach, stationed 250 men at a bridge about a mile and 
a half from the town and sent forward a small body of cavalry to draw 
the Confederates into the ambuscade, but upon the advance of this second 
party the Confederates, thinking that the scouting party was receiving 
reinforcements, beat a hasty retreat toward Byhalia. No casualties 
reported. 

Byram's Ford, Mo., Oct. 22, 1864. (See Big Blue.) 
Cabin Creek, Ind. Ten, July 1-2, 1863. Detachment of the 3d Wis- 
consin, 2nd Colorado, gth and 14th Kansas Cavalry, ist Kansas (Colored) 
Infantry, 3d Indian Home Guards and the 2nd Kansas Battery. On 
June 26 the detachment, under the command of Col. J. M. Williams, 
of the colored regiment, left Baxter Springs, Kan., with a supply train 
for Fort Blunt, in the Indian Territory. Upon reaching Cabin creek, 
about noon on July i, the enemy was found strongly posted in a thicket 
on the opposite side of the stream in a position commanding the ap- 
proach to the ford. This force, consisting of Mcintosh's and Stand 
Watie's Cherokee and Creek regiments, with about 600 Texas rangers, 
numbered from 1,600 to 1,800 men. One of the howitzers was ordered 
forward and a brisk fire of shell and canister poured into the thicket, 
but without effect. Owing to recent rains the creek was too high to 
risk crossing with the train, and Williams withdrew a short distance to 
wait until the next morning. The plan of attack on the 2nd was to 
place 2 pieces of artillery on the extreme left, 2 in the center and i on 
the right, and attempt to cross under the fire of the guns. The Indian 
home guards were deployed on the right and left of the ford and the 
main body placed in the center. For a half hour the artillery shelled 
the woods on the opposite bank, the enemy at first responding with a 
brisk fire, which gradually grew less, when the main column moved for- 
ward across the creek, quickly formed on the other side and by a vig- 
orous charge drove the enemy from his position. The Kansas cavalry, 
under Capt. Stewart, followed for some distance and succeeded in taking 
9 prisoners. The Union loss was 3 killed and 30 wounded. The loss 
of the enemv in killed and wounded was not learned. 
Cabin Creek, Ind. Ter., July 20, 1863. 

Cabin Creek, Ind. Ten, Sept. 19, 1864. 2nd, 6th and 14th Kansas 
Cavalry and ist and 3d Indian Home Guards. On the 12th a supply 
train left Fort Scott, Kan., with an escort of 260 men, commanded by 
Maj. Henry Hopkins, of the 2nd Kansas cavalry. The train consisted 
of 205 government wagons, 91 sutler wagons and 4 ambulances, the des- 
tination being Fort Gibson, Ind. Ter. On the afternoon of the iSth 
Cabin creek was reached and Hopkins halted, having received a dis- 
patch from the commander at Fort Gibson instructing him to wait 
there for further orders to move the train. A scout of 25 men was 
sent out to ascertain the position and strength of the enemy, which was 
known to be in the vicinity. About 3 miles south of the station at 
Cabin creek a large body of the enemy was found in a hollow in the 
prairie. In the meantime the escort had received reinforcements that 
brought the number up to about 600 men. Hopkins placed a strong 
picket and arranged his train in the best possible position to resist an 
attack. About midnight the pickets were driven in and an hour later 
the enemy, about 2.000 or 2,500 strong, opened fire with his artillery in 
front and on the right. Tlie escort put up a brave resistance and held 



Cyclopedia of Battles 201 

them in check until after daylight, when the artillery was moved up to 
within 100 yards of the Union position and Hopkins ordered a retreat. 
At the iirst fire the teamsters stampeded, taking one or more mules 
from each team, which made it impossible to save the train, except a 
few wagons and an ambulance. The rest of the train fell into tlie hands 
of the enemy, who took over 1,200 mules and about 100 wagon , and de- 
stroyed the rest. The Union loss was about 35 men in killed, wounded 
and missing. Tliat of the enemy was not learned. 

Cabin Point, Va., Aug. 5, 1864. ist U. S. Colored Cavalry. 

Cacapon Bridge, Va., Sept. 6, 1862. ist New York Cavalry. 

Cacapon Mountain, W. Va., Aug. 6, 1863. 

Cache River Bridge, Ark., May 28, 1862. 9th Illinois Cavalry. Five 
companies of the regiment were sent out on a scouting expedition, under 
the command of Lieut.-Col. H. F. Sickles. At Cach'.- river he came 
upon a considerable force of Confederates and was soon engaged in a 
hvely skirmish. The enemy had partially destroyed the bridge, which 
made it difficult for a time to cross the stream. But some worked while 
others held the enemy at bay and in time the bridge was sufficiently 
repaired for the troops to cross. In this skirmish the Union loss was 

2 men wounded. That of the Confederates was 3 killed, 4 wounded 
and I captured. 

Cache Valley, Utah Ten, Nov. 23, 1862. 2nd Cavalry California 
Volunteers. A detachment of the regiment, under Maj. Edward Mc- 
Garry, left Camp Douglas on the 20th for Cache valley, to rescue a 
prisoner from the hands of the Indians. Upon arriving in the valley 
late on the evening of the 22nd, McGarry learned the location of the 
Indian camp and disposed his forces for a surprise and attack at day- 
break. During the night the Indians all left, with the exception of two 
squaws and one man, who were captured. About 8 o'clock some 30 or 
40 mounted Indians appeared at the mouth of a cafion and began to 
make warlike demonstrations. McGarry accepted the challenge, divided 
his men into three parties for an attack on both flanks and in the 
center, and issued orders to kill every Indian that could be seen. After 
about two hours' fighting Chief Bear Hunter raised a flag of truce and 
a little while later surrendered over 20 of his men. The Indians lost 

3 men killed and i wounded. The prisoner was recovered. 

Cackleytown, W. Va., Nov. 4-5, 1864. 14th Pennsylvania cavalry, 
2nd, 3d and 8th West Virginia Mounted Infantry, and Ewing's Battery. 
The 14th Pa. and the 3d W. Va., commanded by Col. J. N. Schoon- 
maker of the former, left Huntersville a little while before noon, with 
instructions to intercept a Confederate force K'ing at Marling's bottom. 
The enemy got wind of the arrival of the Federal troops at Hunters- 
ville. however, and moved out on the Lewisbu^g pike. At the junction 
of that road and the one leading to Cackleytown a strong picket was 
posted to blockade the latter and check any pursuit likely to be made. 
When Schoonmaker reached this point he took in the situation, skir- 
mished with the enemy until he secured an advantageous position and 
then cleared the road, which he held until the next morning, sending up 
rockets to announce the result of his action. At the break of day on 
the 5th the Confederates, reinforced by 2 piece? of artillery, returned 
to the attack. Seeing that he was greatly outnumbered. Schoonmaker 
ordered his men to fall back to a more sheltered position. The enemy, 
thinking this was a retreat, began a charge with his infantry, but just 
at this juncture Oley arrived on the scene with the 8th W. Va. mounted 
infantry and a section of Ewing's battery. The Union lines were 
quickly reformed and a general advance made, which forced the Con- 
federates to abandon the fight and retire toward Lewisburg. No report 
of the casualties on either side. 



203 The Union Army 

Caddo Gap, Ark., Nov. ii, 1863. Detachment First Brigade, Cav- 
alry Division. The detachment left Benton, Ark., on the morning of 
tlie loth, under the command of Lieut. -Col. Henry C. Caldwell, of the 
3d la. cavalry, and marched through Clark county to Murfrecsboro. 
Here Caldwell learned tliat Maj. Witherspoon, with part of his com- 
mand, was encamped at Caddo gap. Selecting 125 men of the ist Mo. 
cavalry Caldwell sent them forward, with orders to charge the camp 
before the enemy had time to form or offer any resistance. The orders 
were carried out, the pickets run down and, guided by the camp fires, 
the men charged right into the camp, capturing Witherspoon with 13 
of his men, all the horses and camp equipage, arms, equipments, etc. 
The attack was so sudden and unexpected that many of the Confederates 
took to the woods with nothing on but their shirts, but the darkness 
and underbrush precluded pursuit. 

Caddo Gap and Scott's Farm, Ark., Feb. 12, 1864. 2nd Kansas 
Cavalrv. 

Caddo Mill, Ark., Dec. 14, 1863. Scout of the 2nd Kansas Cavalry. 
The scouting party of 40 men was sent out from Waldron on the 13th, 
under Lieuts. Cosgrove and Mitchell. About sunset on the 14th they 
reached Farrar's mill and there learned that a party of Confederates 
was at Caddo mill, 7 miles distant. Pushing on they came upon the 
camp about half a mile from the mill. A charge was ordered and the 
enemy was completely routed, with a loss of 2 killed and several 
wounded. One man was taken prisoner, with 8 negroes, 3 wagons, 6 
mules and 6 horses. 

Cahawba River, Ala., April 7, 1865. (See Fike's Ferry.) 

Cainsville, Tenn., Feb. 15, 1863. 123d Illinois Volunteers and part 
of the 5th Tennessee Cavalry. Col. James Monroe left Murfrecsboro 
on the I2th with 240 infantry and 20 cavalry for a scouting expedition 
between Lebanon and Sparta turnpikes. On the 15th. when about 3 
miles from Cainsville, he discovered that he was being followed _ by 
from 300 to 500 of Col. Adam Johnson's cavalry. Turning to the right 
he gained the top of an elevation known as Pierce's hill, where he took 
a position overlooking a narrow, muddy lane. A few mounted men 
were sent out into the valley as decoys. In a short time they were 
fired upon and retreated toward the hill, hotly pursued by the whole 
force of the enemy. When they were within about 60 yards of the 
infantry the latter opened fire. The Confederates whirled their horses 
and in endeavoring to retreat became jammed in the lane, where a mur- 
derous fire was poured in upon their flanks. In a little while muskets, 
carbines, saddles, blankets and loose horses were everywhere. Some of 
the Confederates spurred over the hills toward Cainsville. The loss of 
the enemy was estimated at 50 in killed and wounded and 6 men were 
taken prisoners, together with 22 horses, 5 mules, 17 saddles and bridles, 
10 carbines and 5 muskets. The casualties on the Union side were 3 
men slightlv wounded. 

Cairo Station, W. Va., May 7, 1863. This was an incident of the 
raid made by Brig.-Gen. W. E. Jones, of the Confederate army, on the 
Northwestern railroad. Part of his command, under Lieut. -Col. White, 
reached Cairo on the 7th to find a small guard of Federal soldiers. 
White surrounded the town and was niaking preparations to charge, 
when the guard surrendered without resistance. 

Cajoude Arivaypo, N. Mex., May 7, 1863. 

Caledonia, La., May 10, 1863. Detachment i6th Wisconsin Infantry 
and I St Kansas Mounted Infantry. On the 8th Capt. Zesch, with six 
companies of the ist Kan., made a reconnaissance to Bayou Macon and 
sent about 20 men across on a raft near Caledonia. These shortly re- 
turned with the report that the enemy was too strongly posted to risk 



Cyclopedia of Battles 203 

an attack, and Zesch fell back to Old river to wait for reinforcements. 
Maj. Roberts, of the ist Kan., was then sent to Zesch's assistance with 
loo men of the ist Wis. During the day and night of the pth a bridge 
was thrown across the bayou and on the morning of the loth the 
entire force crossed over, charged the enemy, drove them from their 
position and pursued them to Pin Hook, where they found shelter in 
some log houses. Seeing that they could not be dislodged without artil- 
lery Roberts withdrew his forces, recrossed the bayou and destroyed 
the bridge. The Union loss was i killed, 8 wounded and 3 missing. 
One man was drowned while trying to cross a bayou as a bearer of 
despatches. Of the enemy 4 were left dead on the field and it is known 
that a number were wounded. 

Caledonia, Mo., Sept. 12, 1864. 14 men from the 3d Missouri State 
Militia Cavalry. The squad, commanded by Sergt. Warfield, was at- 
tacked by some 30 or 40 guerrillas, but they were repulsed with a loss 
of I man killed and several wounded. Warfield had 2 men wounded. 

Caledonia, Mo., Sept. 28, 1864. Ewing's Brigade, 2nd Division, i6th 
Army Corps. During Price's Missouri expedition Capt. Hills of the 
loth Kan. was sent with 10 men from the Potosi road to Mineral 
Point, to notify the command there of Gen. Ewing's approach. At 
Caledonia a party of 25 Confederates was encountered by Hills, charged 
and routed with a loss of i man killed. 

Caledonia Iron Works, Pa., July 5, 1863. The skirmish at Caledonia 
irons works (or Stevens' furnace) on this date was an incident of the 
pursuit of the Confederate army from Gettysburg. No detailed report 
of the action appears in the official records of the war. 

Calf killer Creek, Tenn., Aug. 17, 1863. ist Brigade, 2nd Cavalry 
Division. Col. Robert G. Minty, commanding the brigade, after driving 
in the enemy's pickets near Sparta, sent the 7th Pa. and 4th Mich, up 
the east side of Calfkiller creek to Sperry's mill, where they met Dibrell's 
brigade of Confederate cavalry and after a spirited skirmish drove it 
across the creek. Minty, with the 3d Ind. and 4th regulars, moved up 
the west side of the creek with the intention of cutting off the retreat, 
but owing to the uneven surface of the ground was unable to accomplish 
his purpose. No casualties reported. 

Calfkiller Creek, Tenn., Feb. 22, 1864. Two Companies 5th Ten- 
nessee Cavalry. The two companies, which had been on a scouting 
expedition, were returning to camp at Sparta, when they were attacked 
by about 300 Confederates on Calfkiller creek, and after fighting for 
some time were surrounded and overwhelmed. The officers, with 45 
men, managed to cut their way through the lines and finally reached 
camp by a circuitous route through the hills. 

Calfkiller Creek, Tenn., March 11, 1864. Detachment 5th, Tennessee 
Cavalry. Col. William B. Stokes, commanding the regiment, learning 
that the enemy was on Calfkiller creek, sent out a scout of 80 men under 
Capts. Blackburn and Waters to ascertain the strength and position 
of the party. About 10 miles from Sparta they came upon 150 Con- 
federates in a strong position. A skirmish ensued, which lasted one 
hour, at the end of which time the enemy was driven into the mountains 
with a loss of i killed and several wounded. The Federal loss was i 
killed and 4 wounded. 

Calhoun, Ga., May 16, 1864. 4th Army Corps. After the evacua- 
tion of Resaca by the Confederates there was a general southward 
movement by the Army of the Tennessee, with almost constant skirmish- 
ing. As the 4th corps approached Calhoun on the i6th a deserter came 
into the Union lines with the information that the enemy was drawn 
up in line of battle about one and a half miles in front, and that the 
force consisted of three brigades of infantry. The advance proceeded 



204 The Union Army 

with some caution and reached a point about half a mile from Calhoun 
a little before 7 o'clock in the evening. Here a sharp skirmish occurred 
with a regiment of infantry and the rear-guard of cavalry, the Confed- 
erate retreat having already begun. After the enemy was driven ofif the 
corps went into bivouac for the night. Newton's division lost 2 men 
killed and 5 or 6 wounded in the skirmish. No other casualties reported. 

Calhoun, Ga., June 10, 1864. Detachment, 3d Cavalry Division, 
Army of the Cumberland. A small patrol guard of cavalry belonging 
to the 3d division was attacked by about 300 Confederate cavalry, who 
succeeded in throwing a train from the track and burning 6 cars. Col. 
W. W. Lowe, commanding the division, immediately sent reinforce- 
ments, reopened traffic on the railroad and pursued the attacking party 
for some distance, but without overtaking it. 

Calhoun, Ky., Nov. 25, 1862. 

Calhoun, Miss., July 12, 1863. Bussey's Cavalry Division, 9th Army 
Corps, 'riiis was an incident of the Jackson campaign. Bussey reached 
Calhoun about 6 a. m., burned 2 locomotives, 25 cars, the depot, which 
contained 100 bales of cotton, and destroyed the track for about half a 
mile, afterward moving on toward Canton, skirmishing with the enemy 
along the road. 

Calhoun, Mo., Jan. 4, 1862. Organization not recorded. 

Calhoun, Mo., June 12, 1864. Citizens' Guard. Brig.-Gen. Egbert 
B. Brown, commanding the district of central Missouri, reports under 
date of June 15 : "* * * qj^ t|-,g evening of the 12th instant a party 
of 20 guerrillas made a dash into Calhoun, burnt one church, one tavern, 
two dwelling-houses, and robbed two stores. The leader. Dr. Beck, a 
notorious character, was killed by Lieut. Sallee, of the citizens' guard ; 
3 of the guards were wounded." 

Calhoun, Tenn,, Sept. 18, 1863. 

Calhoun, Tenn., Sept. 25, 1863. ist Brigade, 4th Division, 23d Army 
Corps. Col. Robert K. Byrd, commanding the brigade, sent out scout- 
ing parties on the Cleveland, Dalton and Chatata roads, to learn the 
strength and position of the enemy. About 9 a. m. Capt. Humphrey, 
who had gone out on the Cleveland road, reported that he had been 
attacked by a large force and compelled to fall back. Byrd immediately 
sent part of the 112th 111. mounted infantry to the assistance of Hum- 
phrey and began taking measures to defend the town against an attack. 
About this time word came from the Dalton road that the enemy was 
advancing in force from that direction. The remainder of the 112th 
was hurried to the ford to occupy some rifle-pits there, and the battery 
was placed to command the approach to the ford. Hardly had these 
arrangements been made when a despatch was received that a large 
force was approaching over the Chatata road. Byrd then recalled all 
his pickets on the opposite side of the river to prevent their being cut 
off, sent the 8th Mich, cavalry, dismounted, to the bank of the river, 
and placed the ist East Tenn. to support the battery. As soon as the 
enemy made his appearance Byrd opened with his artillery, which checked 
the advance for a time, but the Confederates soon got some heavy 
rifled guns on a bluff overlooking Byrd's position and began shelling. 
The fight lasted for two hours, when the enemy succeeded in getting 
flanking parties across the river, both above and below, and Byrd was 
forced to retire toward Athens, which he did in good order, the 8th 
Mich, cavalry acting as rear-guard and holding the enemy in check. 
The Union forces in this engagement numbered about 1,200 men, while 
the strength of the enemy was estimated at 8,000. 

Calhoun, or Haguewood Prairie, Tenn., Sept. 26, j86,^. 

Calhoun, Tenn., Nov. 26, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, 
Army of the Cumberland. In connection with the Chattanooga-Ring- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 205 

gold campaign this brigade, commanded by Col. Eli Long, of the 4th 
Ohio cavalry, made a raid on the East Tennessee & Georgia railroad. 
On the 26th, while the command was at Cleveland, Long sent out a 
detachment, under Col. Seidel of the 3d Ohio, with instructions to pro- 
ceed as far as the Hiawassee river if possible, learn the strength of the 
enemy at Charleston, and tear up the railroad. At Calhoun Seidel 
encountered Kelly's brigade, with several pieces of artillery, but suc- 
ceeded in driving the Confederates across the river. The 98th 111. 
mounted infantry then tore up the track at several points between Cal- 
houn and Cleveland. Seidel lost i man wounded. 

Calhoun, Tenn., Dec. 28, 1863. (See Charleston, same date.) 

Calhoun County, W. Va., Sept. 8, 1863. 

Calico Rock, Ark., May 26, 1862. 

California, Mo., Oct. 9, 1864. Sanborn's Cavalry Division and Bat- 
teries H and L, 2nd Missouri Artillery. This was an incident of Price's 
Missouri expedition. When the head of the Federal column emerged 
from the timber upon the open prairie, a mile from California, about 5 
p. m., Marmaduke's division was found drawn up to dispute entrance 
to the town, while a large force was engaged in tearing up the railroad. 
The 1st brigade, consisting of the ist, 4th, and 7th Mo. and the ist la. 
cavalry and commanded by Col. John F. Philips, was in the advance. 
The 4th was immediately dismounted and deployed ; the 7th was also 
dismounted and moved rapidly to the left, with instructions to charge 
the enemy's right ; the other Missouri regiment formed the center, and 
the 1st la. was stationed in reserve. The enemy opened with his artillery. 
Wachsman's battery was ordered up and soon began a telling fire upon 
the Confederate center, the whole line advancing under the fire. The 
7th Mo. moved at the double-quick, drove in the skirmishers, and with 
a yell charged the enemy's right with such impetuosity that it gave way. 
The center, which had begun to waver under the shelling of Wachsman's 
battery, also broke and retreated to the north side of the railroad, leaving 
their artillery unprotected. The ofiicer in charge of the battery saw 
this, however, in time to withdraw his guns and save them from being 
captured. The 7th Mo. was the first to enter the town, and soon swept 
it of the last straggling Confederates. Pagan's division formed Price's 
advance and commenced to retreat as soon as the fight began. The 
ammunition train was placed between this and Marmaduke's division, 
thus preventing its capture or destruction. Tlie Union loss was reported 
as 3 men wounded. That of the enemy was much greater, as the citizens 
told Philips that large numbers of wounded were carried away. 

California House, Mo., Aug. 29, 1862. 13th Missouri Militia Cavalry. 
A body of Confederates, about 300 strong, while moving through Pulaski 
county, was fired upon by Federal pickets at the California House, 7 
miles from Waynesville. The firing was unexpected and the enemy, not 
knowing the size of the party who did it, scattered in different directions. 
The pickets brought in 2 prisoners, 9 horses and several guns that some 
of the men threw away in their flight. Capts. Long and Murphy went 
in pursuit, killed 7 and wounded several, with a loss of i man killed 
and 3 wounded. Murphy continued the chase for about 18 miles, forcing 
29 of them to surrender to a militia company in Osage county. He also 
sent 9 prisoners to Jefferson City and destroyed all the skiffs at McKerk 
landing, where the party intended to cross the river. 

California House, Mo., Oct. 18, 1862. 13th Missouri Militia Cavalry. 
Col. Albert Sigel, commanding the post at Waynesville, received word 
on the evening of the 17th that a force of 200 Confederates had crossed 
the Missouri river at Portland the night before. He sent out Capt. 
Murphy with 75 men, toward the Gasconade river, and held a larger 
party in readiness to strike, whenever the enemy could be located. 



206 The Union Army 

About 10 o'clock on the i8th a report was received from Murphy that 
he was in hot pursuit, and that the Confederates were going in a south- 
westerly direction. Sigel immediately started for the California House, 
7 miles west, and upon arriving there had barely time to get into posi- 
tion when his advance guard was driven in. The Union forces were so 
disposed that the attack was made from all sides and in a few minutes 
the enemy broke and fled. Sigel had i man slightly wounded. The 
number of the enemy killed was estimated at 20, about as many more 
were wounded and 3 captured. 

California House, Mo., P"eb. 12, 1864. Detachment 8th Cavalry, 
Missouri State Militia. The westbound stage, escorted by 9 men of the 
8th regiment, was attached about 4 miles west of the California House 
by a company of bushwhackers early in the morning. About 20 of the 
attacking party were killed, the escort losing but l man. 

Callaghan's Station, Va., May 4, 1864. 

Callaway County, Mo., Aug. 28, 1863. Detachment, ist Provisional 
Missouri Enrolled Militia. A scouting party, commanded by Maj. Lewis 
P. Miller, came up with a party of Confederates near the old Morse 
mill and in a skirmish killed i and wounded another, without loss. 
Miller then pursued them for some distance in the direction of Portland. 

Camargo Cross-Roads, Miss., July 13, 1864. Part of the i6th Army 
Corps. On the 5th an expedition was started from LaGrange, Tenn., to 
Tupelo, Miss. It consisted of the ist and 3d divisions of the i6th corps, 
Grierson's cavalry division, the ist brigade of U. S. colored troops 
and 7 batteries of artillery, and was under the command of Maj. -Gen. 
Andrew J. Smith. The expedition broke camp at Pontotoc on the 
morning of the 13th and marched toward Tupelo, 18 miles distant, with 
Col. Winslow's cavalry brigade in the front and the colored troops and 
the /th Kan. cavalry in the rear. Winslow kept up a running skirmish 
for nearly 10 miles, with a detachment of the enemy's cavalry, killing 
7 and wounding a large number. During this time the rear-guard was 
called on to repulse three attacks from that quarter. When within 
about six miles of Tupelo the enemy opened a heavy fire of musketry 
from ambush at short range. Two guns of Battery E, ist 111. light ar- 
tillery, were quickly wheeled into position and began pouring a rapid 
fire of canister into the Confederate ranks. About this time a charge 
was made upon the train by four brigades of cavalry. Col. Ward's 
brigade, which had been marching on the right flank, repulsed the 
attack and captured a stand of colors. The enemy quickly rallied and 
again attacked the train, this time a short distance from the rear. This 
attack was promptly met by the ist brigade of the ist division, com- 
manded by Col. W. L. McMillen, ■ who ordered a charge, when the 
enemy was routed in confusion with severe loss, which put an end to 
the hostilities for the day. 

Cambridge, Mo., Sept. 26, 1862. Company E, 9th Missouri Militia 
Cavalry. While on a scout near Cambridge, the company, commanded 
by Lieut. Pinhard, was iired i:pon from ambush. Pinhard and 2 others 
were killed, and 2 were seriously wounded. The remainder of the com- 
pany immediately gave chase, but the enemy made his escape, leaving 
2 horses and 2 guns behind. 

Camden, Ark. (Expedition to), March 23-May 3, 1864. Maj. -Gen. 
Frederick Steele, commanding the U. S. forces in the Department of 
Arkansas, left Little Rock with his command on March 23, 1864. His 
plan was to cooperate with the forces under Maj. -Gen. Banks for an 
expedition against Shreveport. Brig.-Gen. John M. Thayer, command- 
ing the Department of the Frontier, was to move from Fort Smith at 
the same time and unite with Steele on the march. Steele's command 
consisted of the 3d division, 13th army corps, 5,127 strong; Thayer had 



Cyclopedia of Battles 207 

5,082 infantry and the cavalry strength of the expedition was 3,428 — a 
total of 13,754 nien. The 3d division was directly under Brig.-Gen. 
Frederick Salomon, whose brigade commanders were Brig.-Gen. Samuel 
A. Rice and Cols. William E. McLean and Adolph Engelmann. The 
artillery of the division under Capt. Gustave Stange comprised Battery E, 
Mo. light artillery, Vaughn's 111. battery and a Wis. battery manned by 
Co. F, gth Wis. infantry. The brigade commanders of the Frontier 
(Thayer's) division were Col. John Edwards of the ist, Col. Charles W. 
Adams of the 2nd, and Lieut. -Col. Owen A. Bassett of the 3d or cavalry 
brigade. Brig.-Gen. Eugene A. Carr's cavalry division comprised 2 
brigades, commanded by Cols. John F. Ritter and Daniel Anderson. 
The Pine Bluff garrison, under Col. Clayton Powell, which moved in 
conjunction with Steele, consisted of the i8th 111. and 28th Wis. in- 
fantry, the 7th Mo. and detachments of the 5th Kan. and 1st Ind. cav- 
alry — 2,435 men. 

On the day that Steele left Little Rock his pickets, members of the 
3d Ark. cavalry, were attacked on the Benton road and 2 captured, the 
remainder being driven back until the 2nd Mo. cavalry came to reinforce 
them. When the column moved into Benton next day, the advance 
having been fired upon from ambush several times, a few of the enemy's 
cavalry were encountered and driven out. On the way to Rockport 
continual skirmishing was done. At sunset on the 27th Powell started 
with an expedition from Pine Bluff for Mount Elba and Longview, a 
cavalry force under Lieuts. Young and Greathouse in the meantime 
being sent to make a feint in the direction of Monticello. When near 
Branchville these two encountered and skirmished with a Confederate 
picket. After a skirmish at Brooks' mill the lieutenants built a great 
number of camp-fires so as to mislead the Confederates as to the loca- 
tion of their main force. Late in the evening of the 28tli they rejoined 
Powell at IMount Elba, which the latter had occupied after driving away 
a force of the enemy. During the night the bridge over the Saline was 
repaired and early next morning Powell, leaving Lieut.-Col. Marks with 
the infantry, 3 pieces of artillery and a squadron of cavalry to guard 
the bridge, crossed the river and moved in the direction of Camden. 
Eight miles from the river the roads from Camden, Princeton and 
Long View and one from up the river converge. Making this point 
the base of operations Young and Greathouse with 50 picked men were 
sent out to destroy the enemy's train at Long View, parties being sent 
out on the other roads to cover the movement. All these returned the 
same day except that under Young and Greathouse, who reported at 
9:30 a. m. next day (30th) with 260 prisoners, 300 horses and mules, 
and an amount of arms and ammunition, having destroyed the bridge 
and the enemy's train. Powell then hastened back to Mount Elba, 
where the Confederates had attacked Marks. The latter had repulsed 
them, however, and had driven them back about a mile. Powell fol- 
lowed with all the available cavalry and found the enemy— two brigades 
under Dockery — posted in strong position. A spirited charge was 
made, resulting in the complete rout of the enemy, the Federal cavalry 
pursuing to Big creek, 5 miles distant. The next day (31st) Powell 
returned to Pine Bluff. 

Meantime, on the 29th, Steele had occupied Arkadelphia, his advance 
skirmishing with the enemy all the way. Thayer was to have joined 
him here, but the lack of forage had made it necessary for the latter 
to take another and longer route. On the 31st the Confederate forces 
under Lawther attacked the Federal advance 14 miles from Arkadelphia, 
compelling it, after a skirmish of an hour, to fall back some distance. 
Next day (April i) Steele's advance and a party of the enemy's scouts 
became engaged near Arkadelphia, the Confederates being forced to 



208 The Union Army 

withdraw after a brief conflict. Steele encamped that night at Spoon- 
ville, advancing from there on the 2nd. While a train of 200 wagons 
with its escort was passing a narrow, miry defile at a small stream, a 
mile east of Terre Noir creek and near Antoinc, about 1,200 of Shelby's 
cavalry made a dash on the rear-guard. The charge was checked long 
enough for the train to get through the defile and the artillery to get 
into position, when, after a few shots, the enemy retired. While Col. 
Benton with the 29th la. was crossing Terre Noir creek the action was 
recommenced. Before he could gain an clevutiou near the crossing his 
rear was charged, but the skirmishers held tlie enemy in check until the 
forces were disposed. After a brisk fight of an hour the attack was 
discontinued. On the same day, while the 50th Ind. was acting as a 
rear-guard for the whole column, it was hotly pressed by Confederate 
cavalry. Salomon, with four companies of the 9th Wis. and 2 pieces of 
artillery, was ordered to take the rear. As soon as the main column 
was again in motion he was beaten back by a strong cavalry force, but 
fought his way to a hill half a mile distant, which he held until rein- 
forced by the 50th Ind. The enemy kept up a harassing fire until dark, 
but did not again charge. Earlier in the day, when the 3d brigade had 
reached the forks of the Camden and Washington roads, a detachment 
of 200 men of the ist la. cavalry under Capt. Mclntj^re, was sent down 
the Washington road while the main column moved down the Camden 
pike. Mclntyre had gone but a short distance when he encountered a 
force much larger than his own, but after some spirited fighting defeated 
it and drove it back 3 miles to Wolf creek. On a hill beyond that 
stream the Confederates made a stand and opened artillery on the 
advancing column. Finding that it was impossible to dislodge them, 
Mclntyre retired and rejoined his brigade at Okolona. 

Thayer had not yet come up and Steele was beginning to grow 
anxious. About noon of the 2nd a force of 1,500 Confederates under 
Shelby attacked the rear-guard of the 3d division near Okolona. After 
a sharp skirmish,' in which the 50th Ind. and the 29th la. participated, 
the enemy was repulsed and Rice withdrew his brigade to Okolona, 
but before he arrived there it was necessary to repulse another of 
Shelby's charges. When the division moved forward on the 3d Engel- 
mann's brigade, with 6 pieces of Vaughn's battery, was left at Okolona 
to await the arrival of Ritter's cavalry brigade, when the two commands 
were to move back to Hollywood and if possible ascertain the where- 
abouts of Thayer. Before the cavalry arrived Engelmann was attacked. 
After a sharp but sanguinary fight the attacking force was driven back, 
and on Ritter's arrival the two brigades moved in the direction of 
Hollywood. 

Late in the evening of the 2nd McLean's brigade, by a forced march, 
took position at Elkin's ferry or ford on the Little Missouri river. On 
the morning of the 3d Maj. W. W. Norris, commanding the 43d Ind.. 
proceeded to the front with four companies of his regiment for the purpose 
of supporting the pickets of the ist la. cavalry already thrown out. The 
Confederate pickets were soon located and driven back for some dis- 
tance, 16 of them being captured. During the night three companies of 
the 36th la. and three of the 43d Ind., Lieut. -Col. F. M. Drake of the la. 
regiment commanding, deployed to the right and left of the road leading 
from the ford, and a section of artillery under Lieut. Charles Peetz 
was placed in a position to sweep the road. At 6 a. m. of the 4th the 
Confederate force (Cabell's brigade, 1,600 strong) attacked Drake, who 
with the support of the artillery held his position for 2 hours, and then 
after a charge of the enemy's cavalry, was forced to slowly fall back 
on his reserves. Before the reinforcements sent for, consisting of the 
29th la. and the 9th Wis. infantry under Gen. Rice, had arrived, Drake's 
command, with the rest of the 36th la., had repulsed the enemy. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 209 

On the 5th Ritter and Engchnann returned without having learned 
anything of the whereabouts of Thaj'er. Some skirmishing was done 
that day at Marks' mills which did not in the least retard the movement 
of the column. After ascertaining that the Confederates were fortify- 
ing in his front, Steele determined to move at once and early on the 
morning of the 6th the expedition started, skirmishing in the vicinity 
of the Little Missouri river, where the enemy abandoned a mile of has- 
tily constructed breastworks of timber and earth which crowned the 
hills overlooking the river bottom. That night a messenger arriving 
at Steele's headquarters reported having passed Thayer at Rockport, and 
it was decided to await his coming where the Federal force was now 
encamped. A heavy rain fell during the night and by the next morning 
the river had risen 3 feet. It was dark before the pioneer corps reached 
the stream, by which time the head of Thayer's column had encamped 
on the hills at the farther side. By the evening of the 9th a bridge had 
been constructed, Thayer's column crossed without delay and joined 
Steele. On the loth the joint command moved for Prairie D'Ane. At 
the intersection of the Spring Hill and Camden roads Price had posted 
all his available force. The skirmish which ensued was brief, the Con- 
federates using artillery freely, but the Federals succeeded in occupying 
and holding the ground. The following afternoon Rice's brigade was 
ordered forward and drew the enemy's fire, but it was too late to bring 
on a general engagement and a halt was ordered. On the 12th the skir- 
mishers became heavily engaged, but the enemy perceiving an attempt 
of Rice's brigade to flank him abandoned his works. More skirmishing 
occurred at Moscow on the 13th, and on the 14th a portion of Thayer's 
colored troops were engaged at Dutch mills. The 3d division encamped 
at White Oak creek, 18 miles from Camden, after driving the enemy 
from the place, and on the morning of the 15th moved forward with 
Rice's brigade and the artillery in advance. There was constant skirmish- 
ing with the Confederate rear-guard until the Washington and Camden 
road was reached, where the enemy opened fire with 5 pieces of artillery. 
Stange ordered his guns forward and after a spirited engagement of 
nearly 2 hours succeeded in dislodging the enemy's battery. The in- 
fantry was then sent forward, the 33d and 29th la. being deployed on 
the right and left respectively, while the 9th Wis. successfully turned 
the enemy's left flank. The Confederates were followed closely to Cam- 
den, skirmishing all the way, and Rice occupied the town shortly after 
sunset. 

From the i6th to the i8th inclusive foraging parties sent out from 
Camden encountered bands of Confederates who had been sent to burn 
the supplies of corn at Liberty postoffice, Red Mound and other places. 
A party of Federal cavalry captured a boat on the Ouachita river 30 
miles below Camden with 3,000 bushels of corn and brought it to the 
Federal encampment on the i6th. A detachment of the Frontier divi- 
sion, with cavalry and artillery, while escorting a foraging train, was 
attacked near Poison spring by Price. Col. James M. Williams, com- 
manding, formed his men in battle array and repulsed, with heavy loss 
both to himself and the enemy, two dashing charges, but after a 4-hours' 
fight he was overwhelmed and obliged to withdraw, abandoning the train 
of 198 wagons. The wounded negro soldiers were ki.lled in cold blood 
after the Confederates had won the field. On the 20th a slight skirmish 
occurred near Camden and in the evening of the 23d Price opened an 
artillery fire on the outposts of the town, following it up on the 24th. 
On the 23d, also, there was a small affair at Swan lake, not far distant 
from Camden. 

On the 22nd the supply train, comprising 240 wagons, was sept out, 
McLean's brigade and 400 cavalry acting as escort. When it arrived at 

Vol V-14 



210 The Union Army 

Marks' mills on the 25th Pagan's cavalry, 5,000 strong, made a dashing 
charge and a fight lasting 3 hours ensued, in which the enemy over- 
whelmed the Federal command, McLean was wounded, and the train, 
with the larger part of the escort captured. A cavalry force sent from 
Pine Bluff arrived just in time to participate in the finish of the engage- 
ment. Another portion of the Union command did some skirmishing 
at Moro bottoms on the 25th and 26th. 

Banks' movement against Shreveport had failed and he had fallen 
back behind intrenchments at Grand Ecore because of a severe defeat 
at Pleasant hill. From Grand Ecore he sent a messenger to Steele ask- 
ing that reinforcements be sent him, but Steele replied that such a 
move was an impossibility owing to the lack of forage in the country 
to be passed through and the superior force of the enemy, who had been 
reinforced by 8,000 of Kirby Smith's men on the 22nd. The loss of the 
wagon train, however, necessitated a move of some kind and on the 
evening of the 25th Steele announced his intention of withdrawing from 
Camden. Accordingly on the night of the 26th the Federal column 
moved quietly out and commenced the retrograde movement to Little 
Rock on the Jenkins' Ferry road via Princeton. The latter place was 
reached on the 28th and some sharp skirmishing was done with the 
advance of the pursuing enemy, whose cavalry attempted unavailingly 
to break the Union line. On the 29th the Saline river was reached at 
Jenkins' ferry, where there was some skirmishing with the enemy's 
advance on that day and early next morning. The river bottom at this 
point is 2 miles wide and while the expedition was crossing the stream 
Salomon's brigade was called upon to repulse a heavy attack. Again 
at 10 .30 a. m. another desperate assault was made on the LInion line, 
but again the enemy was repulsed and driven for some distance, losing 
2 guns and a number of prisoners. Steele then crossed without further 
interruption, but found it necessary to abandon several wagons because 
of the condition of the roads. A scouting party was routed on the same 
day at Whitmore's mill by a force of Confederate cavalry. Steele pro- 
ceeded to Little Rock, which he entered on the 3d of May. 

The Federal losses in this expedition were in the neighborhood of 
700. A large number of men were captured, Shelby alone claiming to 
have taken over 1,000. The Confederate casualties in killed and wounded 
were about the same. 

Camden, S. C, Feb. 24, 1865. Detachment 2nd Brigade, 4th Divi- 
sion, 15th Army Corps. Tlie brigade, commanded by Col. Robert N. 
Adams, of the 8ist Ohio infantry, marched from the Wateree river on 
the Young's Point road toward Camden. When within 5 miles of the 
town a foraging party fell in with some of the enemy's cavalry. A skir- 
mish ensued, in which 14 of the Federals were captured. Adams left 
the main body of his command, and with the 12th 111. and four com- 
panies of the 66th Til. moved toward Camden. Upon entering the town 
he had a slight skirmish with a small force of Confederates, but suc- 
ceeded in releasing the 14 prisoners and capturing 6 of the enemy. He 
then destroyed the public property, consisting of two depots, an engine 
house and a commissary building containing 300 boxes of soap, 200 
barrels of meat, 2,000 sacks of flour and corn meal, 20 hogsheads of rice, 
and 300 horse collars, also a large quantity of cotton, a large flour mill, 
containing several thousand bushels of wheat and corn, after which he 
rejoined his brigade. 

Camden Court-House, N. C, Oct. 17, 1863. Detachment 5th Penn- 
sylvania Cavalry. The detachment, numbering 40 men, under the com- 
mand of Maj. W. G. McCandless, was returning to camp from a scout 
to Camden Court-House, when, in passing through a swamp about 4 
miles from the court-house, the rear was fired on by some guerrillas 



Cyclopedia of Battles 211 

from ambush. Two men were killed and one wounded. Pursuit was 
made, but the guerrillas were not overtaken, owing to their better 
knowledge of the country. 

Camden Point, Mo., July 13, 1863. 2nd Colorado Cavalry. A detach- 
ment of the regiment, under command of Lieut. Parsons, returning from 
Kansas City, reached Camden Point about 4 p. m. on the 13th. There 
they found a small force of Confederates and a skirmish ensued, in which 
the enemy was completely routed with a loss of several in killed and 
wounded. The Union loss was i man killed and i wounded. Parsons 
pursued them for about a mile, but was unable to inflict further punish- 
ment. 

Camden Point, Mo., July 22, 1864. Home Guards. Some of Cox's 
home guards pursued a body of bushwhackers and overtook them about 
4 miles north of Camden Point and 3 miles west of Union Mills. There 
the guerrillas concealed themselves in the brush and tired from ambush 
on the advance as it approached. Cox dismounted part of his men, 
went in and after two or three attempts drove them from cover and 
scattered them in all directions, killing 2 and wounding 16. The Union 
loss was I killed, 3 severely and several slightly wounded. 

Cameron, Mo., Oct. 12, 1861. Maj. James' Cavalry. 

Cameron, Va., Jan. 27, 1864. Train on the Orange and Alexandria 
Railroad. 

Camp Advance, Va., Sept. 29, 1861. 69th and 71st Pennsylvania 
Infantry. The two regiments, belonging to Baker's brigade, were or- 
dered to make a night march from Camp Advance to Poolesville. About 
midnight, when near Vanderburgh's house on Munson's hill, the 71st 
encountered the pickets of the 4th Mich, and a New York regiment, 
and in the darkness each side mistook the other for the enemy and 
began firing without orders. Col. I. J. Wistar, commanding the 71st, 
rode between the lines and by heroic efforts finally restored something 
like order. In this affair the 71st lost 4 killed and 14 wounded. The 
skirmishers of the 69th were also engaged in the firing, but no casualties 
were reported in that regiment. 

Camp Alleghany, Va., Dec. 13, 1861. Detachment 2nd Brigade, 
Cheat Mountain Division. The detachment left Cheat mountain on the 
afternoon of the 12th, the object being to attack the Confederate force 
at Camp Alleghany at daybreak the next morning. It was commanded 
by Brig.-Gen. Robert H. Milroy, and consisted of 700 of the 9th Ind., 
400 of the 2Sth Ohio, 250 of the 2nd Va., 300 of the 13th Ind., 130 of 
the 32nd Ohio, all infantry, and 30 of Capt. Bracken's cavalry. Two 
companies of the 9th Ind. had been sent in the morning to take posses- 
sion of the old Confederate Camp Bartow at Greenbrier and hold it 
until the arrival of the expedition. This point was reached a little while 
after dark. After a few hours' rest Milroy divided his forces for an 
attack on the left, where the enemy's artillery was known to be stationed, 
and also on the right and rear. Col. Moody, with the men of the 9th 
Ind. and 2nd Va., was sent around by the Greenbank road to make the 
attack on the left, while the remaining force, under Milroy, advanced 
by the Staunton road to carry out the rest of the plan. When within 
about 2 miles of the camp Milroy's advance was fired upon by the 
enemy's pickets. A mile further on another picket was encountered 
and a portion of it captured. Those who escaped started for the camp, 
followed at the double-quick by the Federals, who were desirous of 
getting into position before the alarm was given. But upon arriving 
at the edge of the timber the entire Confederate force, numbering about 
1,500 men, was seen advancing in line of battle. At Milroy's request 
Col. Jones, of the 25th Ohio, assumed command of the force, with the 
exception of two corripanies held in reserve, and that officer quickly 



213 The Union Army 

deployed his men to meet the attack. In a Httle while the Confederates 
were forced back to their tents and houses, leaving several dead and 
wounded upon the held. They soon rallied, however, and returned to 
the attack in greater force. Jones' men now began to waver and a large 
number broke to the rear in confusion. The officers rallied most of 
them, but valuable time had been lost, in which the enemy had been 
able to secure an advantageous position. At the point of the bayonet 
they were again driven back to their trenches, where the struggle 
became desperate. Several times the enemy rallied but was each time 
repulsed, but having the advantage of shelter from the houses and 
tents, as well as superior numbers, the Union troops were finally forced 
to give way. Moody did not reach his position until after the whole 
affair was over. Had he reached the left in time to open the attack as 
planned, the history of this engagement might have been differently writ- 
ten. The Union loss was 20 killed, 107 wounded and 10 missing. Col. 
Johnson, commanding the Confederates, reported his loss as 20 killed, 
98 wounded and 28 missing. 

Camp Babcock, Ark., Nov. 25, 1862. 3d Kansas Indian Home 
Guards. 

Campbell's Station, Term., Nov. 16, 1863. 9th and 23d Army Corps 
and Shackelford's Cavalry. In the advance of Gen. Burnside on Knox- 
ville the army encamped on the night of the 15th at Lenoir's station, 
but before daylight the next morning it was again on the move. The 
2nd division (Hartranft's) of the 9th corps was sent out in advance 
to seize and hold the forks of the road at Campbell's station, to prevent 
the enemy from cutting off the direct approach to Knoxville. The move- 
ment was successfully executed and the roads leading to Kingston, 
Chnton and Concord were all occupied by the Federal troops. Col. Lor- 
ing, of Burnside's staff, was sent forward to reconnoiter the ground near 
Campbell's station, so that troops could be so disposed as to hold the 
enemy in check until the trains could reach Knoxville. By 11 a. m. the 
main column had passed the forks of the road held by Hartranft and were 
being placed in position, when Humphrey's brigade was attacked on the 
lower road, but he succeeded in driving off his assailants and held his 
position until relieved by Gen. Christ. Gen. Potter, commanding the 
9th corps, arranged his forces with Ferrero's division on the right of 
the road, Hartranft's on the left. White's in the center, and the artillery 
behind the first line of troops. About noon the Confederates opened the 
fight by attacking Ferrero. Christ's brigade, which occupied the ex- 
treme right, was so sorely pressed that it was compelled to change front 
in order to repulse the assault. Demonstrations were now made against 
several points of the Federal line, the enemy maneuvering to get pos- 
session of an elevation on the left, which Would have placed him in 
in a commanding position. Not having sufficient force to extend his 
line to prevent this movement, Burnside withdrew to a ridge some 
three-quarters of a mile to the rear and formed a new line, the change 
being effected under a heavy artillery fire, but without confusion. 
Scarcely had the new line been formed when the enemy made a deter- 
mined attack on Hartranft's division on the extreme left, but it was 
repulsed. That ended the fighting for the day. After dark Burnside 
issued orders for Potter and White, the corps commanders, to with- 
draw to Knoxville, as the trains had been rendered secure. The last 
of the army entered Knoxville early the following morning. The casu- 
alties in the engagement at Campbell's station were 31 killed, 211 
wounded and 76 missing. No report of the enemy's loss was obtained, 
but it must have been much greater, as they were the attacking force. 

Campbellsville, Term., Sept. 5, 1864. Rousseau's Cavalry in pur- 
suit of Wheeler. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 213 

Campbellsville, Tenn., Nov. 24, 1864, sth Division, Cavalry Corps, 
Military Division of the Mississippi. Upon reaching Campbellsville on 
the morning of the 24th the division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. Edward 
Hatch, became engaged with three divisions of Confederate cavalry — 
Jackson's, Chalmers' and Buford's — and after some severe fighting was 
getting the best of it, when a considerable force of Confederate in- 
fantry appeared on the scene and Hatch was compelled to fall back 
in the direction of Lynnville. In executing this movement the 9th 111. 
cavalry was left to hold the gorge in the hills. The regiment, under 
the command of Capt. Harper, repulsed several attacks, the last one 
being met with butts of the carbines, because the supply of ammunition 
was completely exhausted. In this encounter one company lost 14 of 
its 25 men engaged. The gallant action of Harper and his men gave 
Hatch time to throw his command in position at Lynnville, where the 
enemy's attacks were repulsed and he was finally forced to retire about 
8 o'clock in the evening. 

Campbellton, Ga., July 28, 1864. (See McCook's Raid.) 

Campbellton, Ga., Sept. 9, 1864. Detachment of Kilpatrick's Cav- 
alry. A wagon train, guarded by 70 mounted and dismounted men, 
was attacked near Campbellton by about 100 of the enemy's scouts. 
The lieutenant commanding the guard, with 10 of his men, deserted at 
the first fire. The remainder fought bravely, and, though half their 
number were either killed, wounded or captured, succeeded in saving 
3 of the 4 wagons. One wagon, with 4 mules and a number of repeat- 
ing rifles, fell into the hands of the Confederates. 

Camp Cole, Mo., June 18, 1861. Union Home Guards (800 men). 

Camp Cole, Mo., Oct. 5, 1862, and June 8, 1863. 

Camp Cole, Mo., Oct. 9, 1863. Detachment 7th Missouri State 
Militia. This detachment, under Maj. Emory S. Foster, moved out on 
the Sedalia road to the Cole Camp road, encountering and driving in 
the enemy's pickets along the route. Within 4 miles of Camp Cole a 
skirmish with a scouting party resulted in the wounding of 2 and the 
capture of 3 of the enemy. This engagement was an incident of Shelby's 
raid in Arkansas and Missouri. 

Camp Cooper, Fla., Feb. 10, 1864. Detachment of the 97th Penn- 
sylvania Infantry. Eight companies of the regiment, numbering 290 
men, under the command of Maj. Galusha Pennypacker. moved from 
Fernandina on the 9th, the object being the capture of Camp Cooper. 
Remaining concealed near the drawbridge until dark, the men were then 
ferried over the river in a scow and about 3 o'clock the next morning 
halted in the immediate neighborhood of the camp. Scouts soon 
located it definitely and the troops were placed in a position to attack 
at daylight, but when daylight came it was discovered that the camp 
was almost deserted. Two. men and two horses were captured, the 
main body having left on >the Sth, and the public property and stores 
were destroyed. 

Camp Creek, Ga., Aug. 18, 1864. (See Lovejoy's Station, Kilpat- 
rick's Raid.) 

Camp Creek, Ga., Sept. 30, 1864. Detachment, of Kilpatrick's Cav- 
alry. This was one of the skirmishes that were constantly taking place 
in that section of the state just after the fall of Atlanta. On this occa- 
sion the enemy's cavalry was driven beyond the Sweetwater. The Union 
loss was 2 men killed and 5 wounded and several horses. 

Camp Creek, W. Va., May i, 1862. Advance Guard, Scammon's 
Brigade. At daylight the advance guard, consisting of one company 
of the 23d Ohio infantry, commanded by Lieut. Bottsford, was sur- 
rounded and attacked at Camp creek by a Confederate force, number- 
ing about 200 men, which had been stationed there to delay the Federal 



214 The Union Army 

advance until the stores at Princeton could be removed. Bottsford and 
his men were some 6 miles in advance of the main column. Knowing 
that they were unsupported they fought with the bravery of desperation, 
finally driving the enemy from the field with a loss of 6 killed, a number 
wounded and 6 captured. The Union loss was i killed and 20 wounded, 
most of the injuries being of a trivial nature. 

Camp Davies, Miss., Nov. 22, 1863. ist Alabama Cavalry. A 
force of 150 Confederates, commanded by Maj. T. W. Ham, was at- 
tacked on the Ripley road, 5 miles from Camp Davies by Maj. Cramer, 
with 70 men of the ist Ala. cavalry, and after a sharp skirmish was 
driven toward Rienzi, with a loss of 4 killed and several wounded. 
Cramer's casualties were 2 men severely wounded. 

Camp Dennison, Ohio, July 14, 1863. Volunteers and Militia. — 
Morgan Raid. At 5 a. m. Morgan was reported to be within 5 miles 
of the camp. Col. George W. Neff, of the 2nd Ky. infantry, military 
commander, ordered out 100 militiamen to obstruct the road by felling 
trees. These obstructions had hardly been completed when Morgan's 
force made its appearance and commenced shelling the rifle-pits, but 
without doing any damage. The fallen trees compelled the raiders to 
make a circuit of some 10 miles. In the meantime Lieut. Smith arrived 
with the 21 st Ohio volunteer battery, which was stationed, supported 
by two companies of militia, to guard the railroad bridge. Here the 
enemy was driven back, and Capt. Proctor, who had been closely fol- 
lowing Morgan's rear-guard, saved the bridge on the Madisonville pike. 
In the skirmishing the Federal loss was i man killed and 4 captured. 
The number of Confederate killed and wounded was not learned, but 
5 were taken prisoners. 

Camp Finegan, Fla., Feb. 8, 1864. (See Ten Mile Run.) 
Camp Finegan, Fla., May 25, 1864. A detachment, made up of 300 
of the /th U. S. colored infantry, 100 white infantry, a few mounted 
men and two sections of artillery, was sent out from Jacksonville in the 
direction of Baldwin, under the command of Col. James Shaw. When 
near Camp Finegan they were met by a force of infantry and cavalry, 
estimated by Shaw to have been 500 men. A brisk fire was maintained 
for a little while, when the artillery was brought into action and the 
Confederates retired from the field, as they had no cannon. No casu- 
alties reported. 

Camp Gonzales, Fla., July 22, 1864. An expedition, led by Brig.- 
Gen. Alexander Asboth, left Barrancas on the 21st and marched in the 
direction of Pollard, Ala. At daybreak the next morning they reached 
Camp Gonzales, on the Pensacola railroad, 15 miles above Pensacola. 
A new fort named Fort Hodgson had just been completed there, and 
was garrisoned by three companies of the 7th Ala. cavalry, numbering 
about 120 men each. After half an hour's fighting, in which the well- 
aimed shells of the ist Fla. battery did considerable damage, the 7th 
Vt. infantry, 82nd U. S. colored infantry, ist Fla. cavalry, dismounted, 
and part of the 14th N. Y. cavalry made a dash on the works, when 
the Confederates beat a hasty retreat. A regimental flag, all the official 
papers of the post, 8 prisoners, 17 horses with equipments, a number 
of guns and salaers, 23 head of cattle and a large quantity of ammuni- 
tion fell into Asboth's hands. The fort and buildings were destroyed. 
Camp Jackson, Mo., May 10, 1861. Missouri Reserve Corps and 
3d Missouri Volunteers. Camp Jackson was located in the^ western 
part of the city of St. Louis, in what was known as Lindell's grove, 
between Olive street and Laclede avenue. Here Brig.-Gen. Daniel M. 
Frost, of the state militia, had assembled about 700 men, under pre- 
tense of instructing them in accordance with the laws of the United 
States and the State of Missouri, but was really preparing to seize the 



Cyclopedia of Battles 315 

St. Louis arsenal, which at the time contained about 60,000 stand of 
arms, a number of cannon and a large supply of the munitions of war. At 
the beginning of the year the arsenal was under the command of Maj. 
Bell, a North Carolinian, and P'rank P. Blair, who had busied himself 
in the organization of the Missouri home guards, tried to have him 
removed and some one appointed who would arm and equip his troops 
from the supplies stored there. When President Buchanan declined 
to act in the matter, Blair appealed to Gen. Scott, with the result that 
Bell was relieved by Maj. Hagncr, and at the same time a detachment 
of 40 men was sent to guard the arsenal. But Hagner, like his prede- 
cessor, refused to issue arms to the home guards. On the last day 
of January Capt. Nathaniel Lyon, of the 2nd U. S. infantry, was sent 
with his company to St. Louis, and soon after President Lincoln's 
inauguration was appointed commandant at the arsenal. He soon 
learned that Frost had made application to the Confederate govern- 
ment for cannon, etc., and on the last day of April accepted, mustered 
in and armed about 3,500 of the home guards as a "reserve corps." On 
the night of May 8th the steamer J. C. Swan arrived at St. Louis, with 
a large supply of military stores intended for Frost, most of which 
was conveyed to Camp Jackson before daylight the following morning. 
This determined Lyon to act, and accordingly on the afternoon of the 
loth he marched with his entire force to the camp and demanded its 
immediate surrender. This Frost did under protest, claiming that his 
men were under oath to support the constitutions of the United States 
and the State of Missouri. The prisoners were marched to the arsenal, 
where they were required to take the oath of allegiance to the United 
States, after which they were released. Besides the usual camp equipage, 
tents, blankets, etc., the camp contained 6 brass field pieces, 1,200 
muskets, about 40 horses and a large quantity of ammunition, all of 
which was taken possession of by the Union troops and transported 
to the arsenal. As the prisoners were being taken to the arsenal the 
troops were assaulted with stones, etc., by the citizens assembled along 
the line of march, and some of the soldiers discharged their guns into 
the mob, with the result that about 25 citizens were killed or wounded. 
This was the only bloodshed. 

Camp Moore, La., May 15, 1863. Expedition commanded by Col. 
Davis. 

Camp Pratt, La., Nov. 20, 1863. Cavalry Division, 19th Army 
Corps, and ist Brigade, 3d Division, 13th Army Corps. Brig.-Gen. 
Albert L. Lee with his cavalry division and a brigade of infantry sur- 
prised the 7th Tex. cavalry while it was encamped at Camp Pratt, near 
Iberia. The skirmish which ensued resulted in the killing of i, the 
wounding of 3, and the capture of loi Confederates, besides loo horses 
and equipments and 100 stands of arms. The Federal force suffered 
no casualties. 

Camp Sheldon, Miss., Feb. 8, 1863. Scout from i8th Missouri In- 
fantry. The scouting party fell in with a company of Confederate con- 
scripts and soon put them to Alight, capturing i gun and a quantity of 
provisions. Several of the enemy were wounded; but no casualties 
reported on the Federal side. 

Camp Sheldon, Miss., Feb. 10, 1863. Scout from i8th Missouri 
Infantry. In his report of this date Lieut. -Col. Charles S. Sheldon said : 
"Had another skirmish today, capturing 6 guns, overcoats, blankets, &c. 
Chased the enemy 3 miles, but they beat us running. One man wounded 
on our side." 

Campti, La., April 4, 1864. Detachment 5th Brigade, Cavalry Divi- 
sion, 19th Army Corps, and part of the ist Division, i6th Army Corps. 
On the 3d the cavalry detachment, Col. O. P. Gooding commanding, 



216 The Union Army 

marched to the village of Grand Ecore, on the Red river. The next 
morning, pursuant to the orders of Brig.-Gen. A. J. Smith, Gooding 
advanced to Campti to drive the enemy from the town. As they ap- 
proached the place the advance was fired upon from the shelter of the 
houses. Maj. Davis was sent with a detachment to the rear of the 
town, with instructions to burn the enemy out and intercept his retreat, 
but the movement was prevented by the fire of one of the Union gun- 
boats lying in the river below. After some sharp firing the Confederates 
withdrew from the town and attempted to form on a hill in the rear, 
but were so closely pressed that they rapidly retreated across the bayou, 
destroying the bridge as they went, and took shelter in the timber on the 
opposite bank. The destruction of the bridge rendered the cavalry use- 
less. The men were dismounted and Capt. Bushee, with a squadron 
of the 3d R. I. cavalry, was sent to turn the right flank of the enemy, 
the remainder of the command being held in reserve. In the mean- 
time the 5th Minn, and 35th la. infantry, stationed on a bayou some 
distance below the village, were ordered to the relief of the cavalry. 
Advancing on the double-quick, the 5th Minn, was deployed on the 
right and left of the road and moved rapidly to the bayou. A crossing 
was soon effected, when the Confederates withdrew, leaving their dead 
and wounded on the field. The Union loss was 4 killed and 18 wounded. 
The loss of the enemy was reported as being 8 killed, 18 wounded and 
3 captured. 

Camp Vance, N. C, June 28, 1864. Detachment 3d North Carolina 
Volunteer Infantry. The detachment, numbering 130 men and com- 
manded by Capt. G. W. Kirk, was sent out from Morristown, Tenn., 
the object being the destruction of the railroad bridge over the Yadkin 
river, about 6 miles from Morganton, N. C. At Camp Vance he over- 
came a force superior in numbers to his own, captured 277 prisoners, 
132 of whom he brought to Knoxville, destroyed a locomotive, 3 cars, 
the depot, commissary buildings, 1,200 stands of arms, a quantity of 
ammunition and 3,000 bushels of grain. He also brought into Knoxville 
32 negroes, 48 horses and mules and 40 recruits for his own regiment, 
but failed in the destruction of the bridge, it being too well guarded. His 
casualties were i man killed, l mortally and 5 slightly wounded. 

Camp Wild Cat, Ky., Oct. 21, 1861. (See Rockcastle Hills.) 

Camp Wild Cat, Ky., Oct. 17, 1862. 4th Division, Army of the Ohio. 
In the morning Brig.-Gen. W. S. Smith, commanding the division, 
pressed a reconnaissance to Camp Wild Cat, but found it deserted and 
the road badly obstructed. At noon his advanced brigade had a skir- 
mish with a detachment of the enemy's cavalry, killing one and wound- 
ing several others. Late in the afternoon Cruft's brigade engaged a 
force of Confederates on the Madison road and drove them in such 
haste that they left their rations cooking. He captured 11 prisoners 
and reported 2 men slightly wounded. 

Cafiada Alamosa, N. Mex., Sept. 25, 1861. Capt. Minks with the 
greater part of his company of New Mexico cavalry attempted to estab- 
lish a camp at Caiiada Alamosa, 40 miles south of Fort Craig, but they 
were surprised by a detachment of 114 Confederates under command of 
Capt. Coopwood and a skirmish ensued in which 4 Federals were killed, 
6 wounded, and Minks, Lieut. Medina, 23 privates and non-commissioned 
officers were captured. 

Cane Creek, Ala., Oct. 20, 1863. (See Barton's and Dickson's Sta- 
tions same date.) 

Cane Creek, Ala., Oct. 26, 1863. ist Division, 15th Army Corps. 
For several days after their defeat at Cherokee station on the 21st the 
Confederates remained quiet, though they were by no means idle. 
Large reinforcements were received and a strong position taken on 



Cyclopedia of Battles 217 

both sides of Cane creek, just east of Barton's station. At 3 o'clock 
on the morning of the 26th, in compliance with orders from the corps 
commander, Gen. Osterhaus moved the division in the lightest possible 
marching order toward the enemy's lines. An hour and a half later 
the advance reached the cemetery near Barton's station, the Confederate 
pickets there retreating hastily, giving the alarm in their camp. As soon 
as it was light enough to move with certainty the ist brigade, com- 
manded by Brig.-Gen. Charles R. Woods, was deployed behind a slight 
elevation to the right and left, the ist Mo. horse artillery being sta- 
tioned in the cemetery in the center, while the 2nd brigade (William- 
son's) was kept in reserve. Scarcely had this formation been com- 
pleted when the enemy opened with his artillery directly in front, and 
at the same time deployed a large force of cavalry on the Union right. 
It soon became evident that the artillery in the cemetery was too light 
to be effective and Osterhaus ordered up a section of the 4th Ohio 
battery with 20-pounder Parrott guns. Under cover of these guns 
Woods' line was ordered to advance. The movement had to be executed 
on open ground, while the enemy was sheltered by the timber. Taking 
advantage of the undulations in the surface the whole line moved for- 
ward, Landgraeber's battery, that had been relieved at the cemetery, 
closely following the infantry. The guns of this battery were soon 
brought into action on the right, thus exposing the enemy to a cross- 
fire of artillery. In the meantime Smith's division had come up to 
Barton's station, where it acted as a reserve, allowing the 2nd brigade 
of the 1st division to be brought forward and deployed on the left. 
The 5th Ohio cavalry now forced the enemy's right back into the tim- 
ber, bringing him under the guns of the batteries. Following up this 
advantage the skirmishers pressed steadily forward and drove the Con- 
federates across Cane creek. Here they had the benefit of high ground, 
while that on the west side of the stream was a level, swampy bottom, 
over which the Union troops must pass in order to continue the attack. 
As soon as the infantry debouched from the timber on the right it 
was opened on by a battery of five rifled guns at short range, but the 
Federals rushed forward, forded the creek and charged up the bank 
with such impetuosity that the battery was compelled to seek safety in 
flight, while the dismounted cavalry hurried to their saddles. Osterhaus 
now ordered a general advance and defeat became almost a rout. At 
Bear creek, 4 miles from Tuscumbia, the Confederates made a stand, 
forming their line of battle on the high prairie on the west bank. The 
Federal advance was met by a fire of artillery. Skirmishers were imme- 
diately thrown across the creek on the right, supported by the 3d and 
27th Mo. infantry, occupying the narrow skirt of timber along Little 
Bear creek, and the artillery was hurried forward to reply to the 
enemy's guns. A brigade of Forrest's cavalry made a determined 
charge upon the skirmishers, but it was met by a withering fire from 
the 3d Mo. and repulsed. This ended hostilities for the day. The fight- 
ing had been going on almost without intermission since early in the 
morning and the men on both sides were exhausted. Osterhaus retired 
a short distance, after placing strong pickets to hold his position, and 
bivouacked for the night. (See Tuscumbia.) 

Cane Creek, Ala., June 10, 1864. io6th Ohio Volunteers; skirmish 
with Guerrillas. 

Cane Hill, Ark., Nov. 9, 1862. Detachment of the 2nd Kansas Cav- 
alry. Col. W. F. Cloud, with a detachment of his regiment, was sent 
out from Camp Bowen toward Cane hill. On the road between that 
place and Fayetteville he came upon a force of some 300 provost guards, 
under Emmett MacDonald. They fled across the Boston mountains, 
but were pursued to within 18 miles of Van Buren. Their color bearer 



218 The Union Army 

was killed and the flag fell into Cloud's hands, as well as all their trans- 
portation and commissary stores, which were destroyed. 

Cane Hill, Ark., Nov. 25, 1862. Detachment of ist Division, Army 
of the Frontier. A report of Brig.-Gen. James G. Blmit states that a 
detachment of troops from his command attacked and scattered a large 
reconnoitering party of Confederates from the camp at Cane hill. No 
casualties are mentioned. 

Cane Hill, Ark., Nov. 28, 1862. ist Division, Army of the Frontier. 
On the 26th the division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. James G. Blunt, 
was encamped at Lindsey's prairie, 15 miles south of Maysville. Thirty- 
five miles further south at Cane hill was the Confederate Gen. Marma- 
duke, with a force of some 8,000 men, waiting for Gen. Hindman's 
army to join him for an incursion into Missouri. Blunt determined to 
strike Marmaduke before the arrival of the reinforcements. Leaving 
Lindsey's prairie early on the morning of the 27th, with about 5,000 
men and 30 pieces of artillery, he marched 25 miles that day. During 
the night scouts were sent forward to ascertain the enemy's position. 
These came back and reported the road strongly picketed and that it 
could be easily defended. This information led Blunt to change his 
plans. On leaving camp at 5 o'clock the next morning he made a detour 
to the left, struck an obscure road that was not picketed, and entered 
Cane hill from the north, meeting with no resistance until within half 
a mile of the enemy's camp. While passing through a defile the advance 
guard, consisting of about 200 of the 2nd Kan. cavalry and 2 howitzers 
under Lieut. Stover, encountered a considerable force. The cavalry 
made a dash and drove this detachment back upon the main body, 
which was now brought into view, posted on the right of the road, on 
elevated ground about half a mile from Boonsboro. guns in battery, 
from which a brisk fire was immediately opened. Rabb's battery and 
the 2 howitzers were at once hurried forward and for the next half-hour 
the engagement consisted of an artillery duel. Blunt maneuvering for 
time until the arrival of his main column, which had been delayed on 
the road. The nth Kan. and Hopkins' battery were brought up on the 
double-quick and the enemy was twice compelled to retire under the 
destructive fire of the artillery. The third stand was made on a hill 
near the south side of the town, but the main body of the Union troops 
having by this time arrived on the scene, the Confederates were again 
routed and for 3 miles on the road toward Van Buren a running fight 
followed. As the pursuers emerged from a narrow valley, a little below 
the intersection of the Cove creek road, they were met by a destructive 
fire that caused them to recoil. The men were rallied and Blunt deter- 
mined to make an effort to capture the artillery, but before the charge 
for that purpose could be ordered a flag of truce came from the enemy, 
requesting permission to care for the dead and wounded. The request 
was granted and, as it was then almost dark, Blunt returned to Cane 
hill. Tlie loss was 8 killed and 32 wounded. The Confederates lost 
75 killed, but the number of wounded could not be ascertained, as most 
of them were carried away. 

Cane Hill, Ark., Dec. 20, 1862, and Jan. 2, 1863. 

Cane Hill, Ark., Nov. 6, 1864. Army of the Border. After Price 
had been driven from Missouri and Kansas he halted at Cane hill, 
where he collected a large number of cattle and commenced the erection 
of huts, as if he intended to remain there for the winter. On the 6th the 
Union forces left Prairie grove early in the morning, marched to Cane 
hill, scattered the Confederates, captured and paroled a number who 
were too ill to retreat, confiscated the supplies and destroyed the huts. 
Later in the day Benteen's scouts skirmished with the enemy's rear- 
guard, killing 2 or 3, with a similar loss among his own men, and re- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 219 

capturing Blunt's old flag, which had been taken by Price at the battle 
of Baxter Springs. 

Cane River, La., April 26-27, 1864. 

Cane River Crossing, La., April 23, 1864. Detachments of the 13th 
and 19th Army Corps. During the Red river campaign Brig.-Gen. 
W. H. Emory was ordered to drive the enemy from the Cane river 
crossing. The head of the infantry column encountered the enemy's 
pickets 3 miles beyond Cloutierville and drove them in until the Con- 
federate line of battle was reached. Here the enemy was strongly 
posted, two batteries of 8 guns each having a cross-fire on a field which 
it was necessary for the Federal forces to cross before they could reach 
the river. The ground occupied by the enemy was Monett's bluff, 100 
feet higher than that which Emory's command was compelled to traverse. 
It was apparently futile for the Federals to take the crossing in front, 
so Brig.-Gen. Henry W. Birge, with his command supported by a de- 
tachment of the 13th corps, was sent 3 miles up the river to cross a 
ford and turn the Confederate left. Meantime the artillery was brought 
forward to shell the enemy's position, the cavalry was sent down the 
river to cross and threaten the enemy's right and rear, and if Birge 
succeeded in his movement to pursue the foe. Part of the Confederate 
force made an attempt to take the Federal battery, but was repulsed 
by the Ii6th N. Y. infantry and the 2nd N. Y. cavalry. Birge on gaining 
the enemy's flank charged with a portion of his command and drove the 
Confederates from a strongly intrenched position. When the left gave 
way the rest of the Confederate force was obliged to withdraw, the 
Federal cavalry pursuing. The Federal force suffered a loss of 200 in 
killed and wounded; the Confederate casualties, although not reported, 
were heavy. 

Caney Bayou, Tex,, Jan. 8-9, 1864. A Confederate report states 
that at II a. m. of the 8th a Federal gunboat came close in shore and 
commenced shelling the enemy's work at the mouth of the Caney. The 
firing continued all day and was reopened next morning. One Con- 
federate was killed by the fire. 

Caney Bayou, Tex., Feb. 7, 1864. The only mention of this affair 
in the official records of the war is a report from Confederate Gen. Bee, 
to the effect that the Federals fired sixty-six shots at the fort located 
at the mouth of the bayou, wounding 3 men and 3 horses. 

Caney Fork, Tenn., May 9, 1863. Scouts. A scouting party sent 
out by Brig.-Gen. George Crook crossed Caney fork, during the night 
and surprised the camp of Col. Baxter Smith, who was also on a scout. 
Smith, his adjutant, a lieutenant and 2 privates were captured without 
loss to the Union side. Later the Federal scouts were attacked, but the 
enemy was repulsed with a loss of 2 killed and i wounded. 

Cannelton, W. Va., Sept. 11, 1862. (See Kanawha Valley Cam- 
paign.) 

Cannon's Bridge, S. C, Feb. 8, 1865. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 
15th Army Corps. In pursuance of orders from headquarters Gen. 
Hazen sent his brigade, commanded by Col. W. S. Jones, of the 53d 
Ohio, to make a reconnaissance in the neighborhood, of Cannon's bridge 
on the Edisto river. Jones found the enemy intrenched on the north 
side of the river and deployed four companies under Maj. Kill to 
skirmish with him and develop his strength. The skirmishers approached 
to within a few rods of the works, wading through water that came 
above their knees. The object of the reconnaissance having been accom- 
plished, Jones fell back to camp with his brigade. No casualties reported. 

Canoe Creek, Fla., March 25, 1865. Cavalry of Lucas' Brigade. The 
engagement here designated as "Canoe Creek" was really a series of 
skirmishes, extending from Cotton creek to the Escambia river. About 



220 The Union Army 

lo a. m. the ist La. 'cavalry, which was in the advance, encountered 
the enemy's videttes and took 4 prisoners. At Cotton creek, which was 
reached a httle later, a force of about 100 was found strongly posted 
behind breastworks and inclined to dispute the crossing. Three com- 
panies of the 1st La. were dismounted and advanced over the creek, 
in spite of the opposition. The Confederates retired to Mitchell's creek, 
where they fired the bridge and made another stand, but were again 
routed. Shortly before noon Canoe creek was reached at Bluff Springs 
and here Gen. Clanton's brigade, about 600 strong, was found drawn up 
in line of battle, in a strong position on the north bank, and commanded 
by Clanton in person. Col. Badger, commanding the ist La., made a 
gallant charge with his regiment under a heavy fire, and drove the 
enemy from his position. The main column pressed closely behind 
Badger, giving him strong support, and the Confederates broke in con- 
fusion. The pursuit was continued for some 4 miles, giving the enemy 
no time to reform his lines. A number of prisoners were taken along 
the line of retreat, among them being Clanton, who was severely 
wounded. Many of the men abandoned their horses and took to the 
woods and swamps. At the Escambia a party of Confederates on the 
opposite bank opened upon the Federals with artillery, but Lucas ordered 
forward the 2nd Mass. light artillery and soon silenced the enemy's 
guns. A detachment of the 31st Mass. was sent across, took possession 
of the works and held them until relieved. The Federal loss during the 
day was 3 killed, 3 wounded, and 26 horses either killed or captured. 
The enemy's loss was much larger; as 129 were captured in the flight 
from Canoe creek to the Escambia. 

Cafion de Chelly, Jan. — , 1864. Troops commanded by Gen. Kit 
Carson ; fight with Indians. 

Caiion Station, Nev. Ten, June 23, 1863. A few men of the 3d 
California Infantry. A small squad was stationed at Caiion station as a 
guard. Three men went with a cart for a supply of water and the rest 
went hunting, leaving the station temporarily unguarded. A party of 
Indians took advantage of the situation to ambush themselves near the 
station and as the water cart was returning fired, killing Corp. Hervey 
and wounding Private Abbott. Abbott and the driver of the cart de- 
fended themselves and finally reached the station. The bodies of the 
two men who had gone hunting were afterward found mutilated and 
scalped. 

Canton, Ky., Aug. 22, 1864. ist Brigade, ist Division, District of 
Kentucky. The brigade, commanded by Brig.-Gen. E. H. Hobson. pur- 
sued a body of Confederates to Canton, where Col. Johnson, with the 
52nd Ky., attacked their rear at daylight, killing 15, wounded several 
more, captured 50 prisoners and 100 mules and horses. About 300 suc- 
ceeded in getting across the river, but were pursued by Cols. True and 
Burge, the main body following and picking tip stragglers. 

Canton, Miss., July 12. 1863. Cavalry with the 9th Army Corps. 
Col. Cyrus Bussey, commanding the cavalry with the 9th corps, report- 
ing the operations of his command during the Jackson campaign, states 
that when within 2 miles of Canton the enemy was encountered posted 
in a thick woods near Bear creek. After a sharp skirmish, during which 
several prisoners were captured, Bussey learned that the Confederate 
force was larger than his own and he gave up the attempt to enter the 
town. No casualties were reported. 

Canton, Miss., July 17, 1863. 2nd Brigade, ist Division, 15th Army 
Corps, and Bussey's Cavalry Division, 9th Army Corps. For several 
days prior to this date the cavalry, commanded by Col. Bussey, had been 
operating in the vicinity of Jackson and toward Canton. A demonstra- 
tion was made against the place on the 12th. but finding the enemy too 



Cyclopedia of Battles 221 

strong the Federals withdrew to wait for a better day. About 5 a. m. 
on the 17th the troops left Calhoun. When within 2 miles of Canton 
the advance guard, commanded by Col. Stephens, of the 2nd Wis. cav- 
alry, found the enemy in force, the line extending from Bear creek 
west on the Beattie's Bluff road as far as could be seen. Two regiments 
of infantry and a section of artillery of the 2nd brigade were ordered 
forward, but before they could be' thrown into position Bussey discovered 
a large force of Confederates moving to his left, evidently bent on getting 
to his rear and capturing his wagon train, which had not yet been 
parked. A piece of artillery was sent to the support of the train guard; 
Maj. Farnan, with a battalion' of the Sth III. cavalry, was sent forward 
on the Livingston road to check the enemy's advance from that direction, 
a movement he executed with success ; the 3d and 4th la. cavalry formed 
in line and moved through an open field to the left, while a piece of 
artillery was posted in the road and supported by the 76th Ohio and 
2Sth la. This gun opened fire at short range with shell, and a few 
well-directed shots scattered the Confederates in confusion. Bussey 
now ordered a general advance, the artillery and infantry occupying 
the field on the left of the Livingston road. Skirmishers were thrown 
forward and soon encountered the enemy, but a few shots from the 
gun, and the advance of the cavalry on the left, soon had him in motion 
again. In the meantime the entire 2nd brigade, commanded by Col. 
C. R. Woods, was advanced to the road, cutting off the Confederate 
communication with a force posted on Bear creek, and the enemy began 
a rapid retreat toward Canton. Bussey now sent the 4th la. to the sup- 
port of Woods and at the same time moved one battalion on the main 
road. When the head of the column reached the Bear creek bridge the 
enemy opened fire with 2 pieces of artillery. The infantry was advanced 
as skirmishers, and Woods soon drove them from a strong position. 
This force also retired toward Canton, destroying several bridges as 
they went. That night the Federals camped within a mile of the town 
and the next morning entered it without opposition, the Confederates 
having retreated to Pearl river during the night. 

Canton, Miss., Oct. 15, 1863. (See Brownsville.) 

Canton, Miss., Feb. 27-29, 1864. 3d Division, 17th Army Corps. The 
division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. M. D. Leggett, while on the Meridian 
expedition, reached Canton on the 26th. During the two days' stay at 
that place the 20th, 45th and 124th 111. infantry tore up over 2 miles of 
railroad and about 200 feet of trestle work. Every rail was bent so 
that relaying the track would be an impossibility. Gen. Wirt Adams, 
of the Confederate army, reported that on the 29th he killed and captured 
about 60 Federals, S3 horses, 2 wagons and teams and a number of small 
arms at Canton, but the Federal reports contain no mention of such an 
affair. 

Canton, Miss., March 2, 1864. (See Brownsville.) 

Cape Fear River, N. C, Oct. 11, 1862. U. S. Gunboat Maratanza. 

Cape Girardeau, Mo., April 26, 1863. Marmaduke's Missouri Expe- 
dition. On the morning of the 24th scouts brought the word to Cape 
Girardeau that Gen. Marmaduke was approaching with a force of about 
8,000 men. The garrison there at that time consisted of 
350 men of the ist Neb. infantry, one company of the 
1st Wis. cavalry. Battery D, 2nd Mo. and Welfley's battery. That 
evening Brig.-Gen. John McNeil arrived with reinforcements, and as- 
sumed command. Col. Baumer, commanding the garrison, had made 
preparations to meet the advancing enemy outside the works and when 
overpowered to fall back to fort B, thence to fort A, which was strong 
enough to withstand almost any attack that could be made. McNeil 
approved this plan and accordingly two companies of the ist Neb., three 



222 The Union Army 

of the 32ncl la., and 2 guns of Welfley's battery were stationed on the 
Perryville road north of the fort; five companies of the Nebraska regi- 
ment, with 4 guns of Welfley's battery, were placed on a hill between 
the Bloomfield and Jackson roads commanding all approaches from the 
west. The main attack was made about 10 a. m. on the 26th on the 
Jackson road. The enemy was checked by the fire of the pickets, who, 
in obedience to orders, immediately fell back upon the skirmish line. 
The battery on the Perryville road opened, then the guns on the hill, 
and finally the guns from fort B. The position of the different batteries 
subjected the enemy to a cross-fire of artillery, so well directed that to 
advance in the face of it was impossible. They then tried to attack the 
Union right flank on the Perryville road, when Baumer hurried 2 pieces 
of artillery to a hill commanding the ground over which they must pass, 
opened a destructive fire and checked that movement. The Confederates 
tlien turned their attention to the left flank, where the Wisconsin troops 
dismounted and fought the enemy on foot, while a battery of mountain 
howitzers did excellent service in dislodging a battery of the enemy's. 
The enemy now fell back all along the line, but the Federals remained 
in position, momentarily expecting another attack. Cannonading was 
continued from the hill and fort B until 3 p. m., when small detachments, 
sent out for the purpose, reported that the Confederates had disappeared. 
Meantime Gen. Curtis sent down two steamers from St. Louis with rein- 
forcements and McNeil, expecting another attack next day, called on 
Gen. Asboth at Columbus, Ky., for two regiments of infantry and a field 
battery, which were sent to him on the morning of the 27th, but the Con- 
federates made no further attempt on the place. 

Cape Girardeau, Mo., Feb. 5, 1864. 2nd Missouri Militia Cavalry. 
Cape Girardeau, Mo., Dec. 14, 1864. (See Cypress Swamp.) 
Cape Henry, Va., June 11, 1863. (See Maple Leaf, U. S. S.) 
Cape Lookout Light, April 2, 1864. A secret expedition was planned 
by the Confederates for the destruction of the two lighthouses at Cape 
Lookout. Men were selected from the 67th N. C. infantry and L. C. 
Harland was placed in command of the expedition. On Saturday night, 
April 2, they managed to get to the lighthouses, placed charges of powder 
under the walls and exploded them by means of fuse. The smaller 
building, 90 feet high, was totally destroyed, and the larger, 160 feet 
high, was badly damaged. The loss of the lights proved a great incon- 
venience to the Federal vessels along that part of the coast. 

Caperton's Ferry, Ala., Aug. 29, 1863. ist Division, 20th Army 
Corps. The operations about Caperton's ferry on this date comprised 
the laying of a pontoon bridge across the Tennessee river. Heg's brigade 
was sent across the river in boats and drove away the enemy's pickets 
with some slight skirmishing, attended by few casualties. By i p. m. 
the bridge was completed and was then guarded by Carlin's brigade and 
about 100 pioneers. 

Caperton's Ferry, Ala., March 29, 1864. Detachment of the 66th 
Ohio Infantry. Four companies of the regiment were stationed at the 
ferry, which is on the Tennessee river, about 4 miles from Stevenson, 
at a point where refugees were continually crossing the stream. About 
I p. m. on the 29th, while Capt. Morgan, Lieut. Organ and 4 men were 
assisting a refugee to get his family and goods across the river a party 
of guerrillas suddenly appeared on the bank and demanded a surrender. 
The two oflScers gave the boat a vigorous shove, threw themselves into 
the bottom of it, when the guerrillas fired, wounding Morgan in the 
thigh and Organ in the hand. The 4 men were some distance from the 
boat at the time and 3 of them were captured, the other escaping by 
hiding under the river bank. Capt. Dye immediately crossed the river 
with 40 men and started in pursuit, but the guerrillas being mounted 
made their escape. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 233 

Carlisle, Pa., July i, 1863. ist Division, Department of the Susque- 
hanna. Ewen's command occupied Carlisle early in the day. Capt. 
Boyd, with the ist N. Y. cavalry, and Col. Brisbane, with the Pennsyl- 
vania brigade, came in during the forenoon, but the main body of the 
division, under Brig.-Gen. W. F. Smith, did not reach the town until 
about sunset. Soon after Smith's arrival P'itzhugh Lee's brigade of Con- 
federate cavalry appeared before the town and demanded an uncondi- 
tional surrender. This was twice refused, and a battery began shelling 
the place. Tlie bombardment was continued until about i a. m., when 
the Confederates withdrew and marched in the direction of Gettysburg, 
where Lee was concentrating his forces. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, in his 
report says : "Our rations were entirely out. * * * j disliked to 
subject the town to the consequences of an attack; at the same time it 
was essential to us to procure rations." As it turned out his attempt to 
secure rations by the means of the bombardment was a failure. 

Carmel Church, Va., July 23, 1862. Detachment of Kilpatrick's 
Cavalry. Gen. Kilpatrick, with 390 men of the 3d Ind., 14th Brooklyn, 
and Harris light cavalry, left Fredericksburg at 4 p. m. on the 22nd, 
his object being the breaking up of a Confederate camp, supposed to be 
in the neighborhood of Carmel Church. By a night march he reached 
the church at daybreak, to find that the enemy had left a day or two 
before. Learning that a scouting party was in the habit of coming to 
the church every morning, he placed Capt. Seymour with his company 
in ambush and withdrew a short distance to await developments. Sey- 
mour sent out as a decoy a few of his men, who were attacked by about 
50 of the enemy. Kilpatrick moved to Seymour's assistance and drove 
the attacking party back across the river. Lieut. Kimball, with a small 
detachment, crossed the river in pursuit, but soon returned and reported 
the camp in sight on the other side, with the Confederates in position. 
Kilpatrick then ordered up his reserves and reconnoitered the Confed- 
erate position, after which he decided to attack. Leaving part of his 
forces to guard the ford, he deployed the Harris light cavalry on both 
sides of the road, and ordered Maj. Chapman to proceed up the road 
in column of platoons and charge. At the same time the skirmishers 
were rapidly advanced, forcing the enemy back to avoid being struck 
on the right flank. Under Chapman's charge the Confederates broke and 
fled, and were pursued about five miles. The tents, stores, 7 carloads of 
grain and all the camp equipage were burned. About this time a large force 
of Stuart's cavalry suddenly apepared on the right. Kilpatrick quickly 
formed his men, who had been marching and fighting almost constantly 
for 24 hours, and repulsed this force, although superior to his own. He 
then recrossed the river (the North Anna), took up a strong position 
near the church, and went into camp for the night. Next day he returned 
to Fredericksburg. Not a man was hurt, though several horses were 
killed or wounded. The Confederate loss was not ascertained. 

Carnifix Ferry, Va., Sept. 10, i86r. Rosecrans' Army of Occupation. 
The Confederate forces at Carnifix ferry, on the Gaulcy river, were 
under the command of Brig.-Gen. John B. Floyd and numbered, accord- 
ing to an estimate of Gen. Wise, 5,800 men, with several pieces of artil- 
lery. Anticipating an attack from Rosecrans, Floyd had intrenched him- 
self in a strong position, so shielded by dense timber that his works 
could not be seen more than 300 yards. The attack was commenced 
about 3 p. m. by Bcnham's brigade and soon became general. A series 
of charges were made, but the enemy could not be driven from his posi- 
tion. The fight lasted until dark, when the Federal forces withdrew 
behind some ridges, directly in front of the Confederate works, and there 
bivouacked for the night, resting on their arms. During the night Floyd 
abandoned his works, crossed the Gauley, destroyed the bridge and ferry- 



224 The Union Army 

boat, and retired in the direction of Dogwood gap. Next morning the 
Union troops took possession of the abandoned camp, capturing a few 
prisoners, 2 stands of colors, a considerable quantity of arms, quarter- 
master's stores and camp equipage. In the engagement on the loth the 
Federal loss was 17 killed and 141 wounded. Col. Lowe, of the 12th 
Ohio, was among the killed, and Col. Lytle, of the loth Ohio, was 
severely wounded, gaining promotion for his gallantry. Floyd himself 
was slightly wounded. He reported his total casualties at 20 wounded. 

Carrick's Ford, W. Va., July 13, 1861. U. S. Forces under Gen. 
T. A. Morris. As the Confederates under Gen. Garnett retreated from 
Laurel mountain they were closely pursued by the Federals. About 
4 a. m. on the 13th the advance guard left camp near Leadsville and 
moved toward the Cheat river, but a few hours behind Garnett. This 
advance consisted of the 7th and 9th Ind. and 14th Ohio Infantry and 3 
guns of Barnett's battery, under the command of Capt. H. W. Benham, 
chief engineer of the Department of the Ohio. Garnett reached Car- 
rick's ford on the Cheat river about noon to find the stream very much 
swollen by recent rains. This caused seme delay in crossing the train, 
which enabled Benham to close up and attack. Taliaferro's regiment, 
the 27th Va., had already crossed and was posted on a high bank on 
the opposite side. This regiment, with a section of artillery, opened a 
lively hre on Benham's advancing forces. Barnett was ordered up with 
his guns and commenced shelling the Confederate position. Seeing a good 
opportunity to turn the enemy's left, Benham ordered six companies of 
Col. Dumont's regiment, the 7th Ind., to cross the river some 300 yards 
above, pass obliquely up the hill and strike Taliaferro in the rear. 
Dumont was compelled to go further up the stream to find a good cross- 
ing place, which caused some delay in the execution of the movement. 
As this flanking party reached the road, having passed along the entire 
Confederate front under the river bank, the firing ceased and the enemy 
fled in some confusion, closely followed by Dumont, who skirmished 
with the rear-guard for about a half a mile. There another ford was 
reached, and while Garnett was personally directing the location of 
skirmishers he was instantly killed by a rifle ball. The loss of their 
leader somewhat disconcerted the Confederates and the retreat was 
hastened. Col. Ramsey taking command. Owing to the tired condition 
of his men Benham did not press the pursuit further. He reported his 
loss as 2 killed and 6 or 7 wounded, i dangerously. Besides Gen. Gar- 
nett the Confederates lost about 20 in killed and wounded and nearly 50 
prisoners. About 40 loaded wagons and teams were captured, being the 
greater part of their baggage train, including a large supply of clothing, 
camp equipage and stores, 2 stands of colors, headquarters papers, etc. A 
fine piece of rifled artillery was also taken. 

Carrion Crow Bayou, La., Oct. 15, 1863. 19th Army Corps. The 
itinerary of the corps for this date says : "Enemy deployed on our 
front at daylight ; skirmish ; enemy driven from the grounds. Our loss 
was 7 killed and wounded." 

Carrion Crow Bayou, La., Oct. 18, 1863. ist Cavalry Brigade, 19th 
Army Corps. The "Record of Events" of the cavalry division during 
the operations of the corps in the Teche country, says: "The ist Texas 
and 1st La. cavalry, then composing the ist brigade. Col. E. J. Davis 
commanding, and a portion of the 2nd brigade, formed the advance 
under Maj.-Gen. Franklin, moving up Bayou Teche to Bayou Bourbeau. 
At Vermillion bayou and Carrion Crow bayou sharp engagements took 
place between the cavalry force of the enemy, numerically much superior 
to Col. Davis' command, resulting in slight loss to our force. Forty 
prisoners were captured in these affairs." This is the only official men- 
tion of the actions. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 235 

Carrion Crow Bayou, La., Nov. 2, 1863. Cavalry, 13th Army- 
Corps. Maj.-Gen. Washburn reported a determined attack on 
his cavalry at Carrion Crow bayou, in which i man 
was killed and 2 wounded. Brig.-Gen. Burbridge, of the 
4th division, immediately went in pursuit, and soon overtook a force of 
some 1,000 Confederates. The enemy formed in line of battle, but was 
soon driven from his position and compelled to seek shelter in an adja- 
cent woods. After maneuvering for some time to draw them out, Bur- 
bridge began to fall back. Then the enemy, who had been reinforced 
by about 500 additional troops, formed on the Federal left and tried to 
charge, but was beaten back by an effectual artillery fire. A second at- 
tempt was defeated in the same way, and the enemy withdrew. Wash- 
burn, believing the attack was merely a demonstration to develop his 
strength, exposed no more of his force than was necessary. 

Carrion Crow Bayou, La., Nov. 3, 1863. (See Bayou Bourbeau.) 

Carrion Crow Bayou, La., Nov. 11, 1863. ist Brigade, 3d Division, 
and Cavalry Division, 19th Army Corps. Pursuant to orders from Gen. 
Franklin, the cavalry division, Brig.-Gen. A. L. Lee commanding, moved 
out at daylight on the Opelousas road north of Vermillion, Fonda's 
brigade in advance. A squadron of the 2nd 111. was sent forward as an 
advance guard and another squadron of the same regiment was thrown 
to the right, with orders to move on that flank about half a mile from 
the main column. The enemy's pickets were soon encountered and the 
skirmishing continued to within 2 miles of Carrion Crow bayou, when 
Fonda was directed to halt, and soon afterward was ordered to fall 
back. Tlie movement was scarcely under way when the Confederates 
appeared in force on Fonda's rear and Col. Lew Benedict, commanding 
the 1st brigade, 3d division, was ordered to the support of the cavalry. 
He selected a good position, where his men were concealed, and waited. 
The cavalry fell back through his line, and when the enemy advanced 
to the mouth of a road opening on the plain Benedict opened with his 
artillery. This effectually checked the pursuit and in 20 minutes not a 
Confederate was in sight. The Union loss was 5 killed, 12 wounded 
and 31 missing. The enemy's loss was not learned. 

Carrion Crow Bayou, La., Nov. 18, 1863. 6th Missouri Cavalry. 

Carroll County, Mo., April 1-2, 1863. Detachment of the ist Ar- 
kansas Cavalry. Two companies of this regiment, under Capt. Worth- 
ington, made a scout through Carroll county and returned to Fayette- 
ville. Ark., on the 3d, having dispersed McFarlane's band of bushwhackers, 
killing 22 of them and taking 7 prisoners. McFarlane himself was 
reported as being among those killed. Worthington's loss was i man 
slightly wounded. 

Carroll's Mill, La., April 7-8, 1864. (See Bayou de Paul.) 

Carroll Station, Tenn., Dec. 19, 1862. (See Forrest's Expedition 
into West Tennessee.) 

Carrollton, Ark., Jan. 10, 1863. 

Carrollton, Ark., March 13, 1864. 

Carrollton, Ark., Aug. 15, 1864. Arkansas Militia. Capt. Edy's 
company attacked Wilson's guerrillas, 50 strong, at, Carrollton, and 
killed Wilson and 3 of his men. Edy's loss was i man mortally 
wounded. 

Carrollton, Mo., Aug. i, 1862. 

Carrollton, Mo., Oct. 17, 1864. Detachment of Enrolled Missouri 
Militia. This affair was the surrender of the garrison at Carrollton, 
commanded by Maj. George Deagle, of the 65th regiment. Early on the 
morning of the 17th the pickets north of town retired before they had 
been relieved and Deagle ordered out new pickets. Before they had 
reached their posts a considerable force of the enemy made its appear- 

Vol. V— 15 



226 The Union Army 

ance and an unconditional surrender of the town was demanded. This 
was refused and about this time the pickets south of the town came in 
with the report that a large force of the enemy was approaching from 
that direction. A consultation was then held, in which Deagle agreed 
to surrender, provided that his men were paroled and allowed to return 
to their homes; the officers to retain their horses and side arms; and 
all private property was to be protected. After the terms had been 
agreed upon the Union men were marched to the court-house, where 
the officers were paroled, but Maj. Cravens, the Confederate paroling 
officer, informed Deagle that the men would have to be marched to 
Shelby's headquarters at Waverly before they could be paroled. Nor 
was this the only feature of the agreement that was violated by the 
Confederates. The town was plundered, the officers deprived of their 
horses and side arms and several private citizens were arrested. Deagle 
went with the enemy to Waverly to see that the men were paroled, but 
Shelby had left that place before Cravens' party arrived. Cravens then 
paroled all the men except 6, who were turned over to Anderson's guer- 
rilla gang and were shot. At the time the attack was made on Carrollton 
the garrison numbered i6o men and was short of ammunition. The 
strength of the enemy was estimated at 800. 

Carrolton Store, Va., March 13, 1864. ist New York Mounted 
Rifles and nth Pennsylvania Cavalry. 

Carrsville, Va., Oct. 15, 1862. One company of the 7th Pennsylvania 
Cavalry. 

Carrsville, Va., Nov. 17, 1862. Maj. -Gen. John J. Peck reported 
that Maj. Wetherill, with 150 men, came upon 400 Confederate cavalry 
about noon, half-way between Carrsville and Holland's corners, but re- 
tired fighting toward the former place. No casualties reported. 

Carrsville, Va., Jan. 30 1863. (See Deserted House.) 

Carrsville, Va., May 15, 1863. Detachment of the 7th Army Corps. 
Col. R. S. Foster was sent out with a body of troops to cover the work 
of constructing a railroad from Suffolk to Blackwater. On the 15th a 
sharp skirmish occurred at Holland's house, near Carrsville, in w^hich the 
Union loss was 9 men wounded, i horse killed, and a caisson belonging 
to Davis' battery riddled. The enemy tried to force the picket line, but 
failed to do so. Between 5 and 7 p. m. he fired about sixty shot and 
shell down the railroad.' He then advanced within canister range, when 
he was driven back with heavy loss. Foster remained on duty from the 
I2th to the 26th, during which time 36 miles of railroad were completed. 

Carrsville, Va., May 18, 1863. 170th New York Volunteers. 

Carter County, Ky., Aug. 27, 1863. 

Carter Creek Pike, Tenn., April 2, 1863. Cavalry, Army of Ken- 
tucky. Maj. -Gen. Gordon Granger, commanding the Army of Kentucky, 
reported to Gen. Rosecrans on this date the capture of 2 lieutenants 
and 8 privates killed by a scouting party sent out on the Carter creek 
pike. Union loss 2 killed. 

Carter Creek Pike, Tenn., April 27, 1863. Detachment of Granger's 
Cavalry. About i a. m. Gen. Granger, who was encamped at Franklin, 
pushed out his cavalry between the Columbia and Carter creek pikes 
to surprise and capture the Texas legion, camped about 8 miles from 
the town. The camp was reached and surrounded about daN'break, cap- 
turing the entire force, consisting of 9 commissioned officers and 112 
men, together with 300 horses and mules, 8 wagons, all their arms, am- 
munition, camp and garrison equipments, etc. The capture was made 
within a mile of Gen. Van Dorn's main body. Several of the enemy 
were killed and wounded in the encounter, but the Union force did not 
meet with any casualty. 

Carter's Depot, Tenn., Sept. 21-23, 1863. (See Carter's Station.) 



Cyclopedia of Battles 227 

Carter's Farm, Va., July 20, 1864. Detached Troops, Army of West 
Virginia. Brig.-Gen. W. W. Averell, commanding the 2nd cavalry divi- 
sion, with 1,000 cavalry, Duval's infantry brigade, 1,350 strong, and two 
batteries, left Parkcrsburg, W. Va., on the 15th for Martinsburg. On 
the morning of the 20th he sent all the 14th Pa. cavalry but 200 men to 
attack the enemy at Berryville. About the same time he was joined by 
some 300 cavalry from Alartinsburg, and with his whole force moved 
forward. At Carter's farm, about 3 miles north of Winchester, the 
enemy opened fire from 4 guns concealed in the timber, and at the 
same time moved a brigade of cavalry on each of Averell's flanks. 
Averell hurried his artillery into position and the infantry was formed 
in line of battle, the cavalry being thrown to the flanks to repel the 
attacks there. The concentrated fire from 12 guns and the steady ad- 
vance of the infantry proved too much for the Confederates, who were 
thrown into confusion, when the Union troops pressed forward and 
drove them toward Winchester. Averell's loss was 53 killed, 155 
wounded and 6 missing. Tlie enemy lost Ti killed, 130 wounded and 
250 captured. Four cannon were abandoned by the Confederates in their 
flight. 

Carter's Run, Va., Sept. 6, 1863. 2nd Division Cavalry Corps. The 
pickets of the ist brigade were attacked about 10 a. m. The sentinel 
left his post without giving any notice, thus giving the enemy an oppor- 
tunity to surprise the picket. In the skirmish the Federals lost 2 men 
killed and 5 captured, together with 20 horses and 3 mules. The officer 
in charge was Lieut. Lyon, of the ist Pa. cavalry. 

Carter's Station, Tenn., Sept. 21-23, 1863. 3d and 4th Divisions, 
23d Army Corps. \\\ the East Tennessee campaign Cameron's brigade — 
2nd brigade, 3d division — moved on the 21st from Jonesboro to Carter's 
station, or depot, skirmishing with the enemy along the line of march. 
The next day he was joined by Col. Gilbert with the ist brigade. Gen. 
S. P. Carter, commanding the 4th division, also arrived on the ground 
that day after a four hours' fight with the Confederate forces under 
Milton A. Haynes. On the 23d the enemy evacuated Carter's station and 
the 3d division moved back to Jonesboro, followed by the 4th on the 
24th. 

Carter's Station, Tenn., Sept. 30, 1864. 4th Division, 23d Army 
Corps. This was an incident of the raid into southwestern Virginia. 
The division, under command of Brig.-Gen. Jacob Ammen, left Bull's 
gap, Tenn., with 2,450 inen on the 27th and marched to Greeneville. 
The next day the advance met a small body of Confederates near Rhea- 
town and killed 3 of them in a skirmish. On the 29th a small force was 
encountered at Jonesboro and another skirmish followed. Later in the 
day the 15th Penn. cavalry met another party and drove them over 
the Watauga river on the Duvall's ferry road, and on the 30th the 
division marched to Carter's station. Here the enemy was found in 
some force and driven across the river, where he took up a strong posi- 
tion. Night coming on before the artillery could be brought into 
position to dislodge him, further operations were postponed until next 
morning. On Oct. i, the guns were placed and by naon the Confederates 
were shelled from their position, retreating in the direction of ZoUicoffer. 

Cartersville, Ga., May 20, 1864. 3d Division, 23d Army Corps. In 
the Atlanta campaign the division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. J. D. Cox, 
on this date advanced from Cassville to Cartersville, meeting stubborn 
resistance all the way. Reilly's brigade was deployed on the left of the 
road. Hurt's on the right, and the rest of the command followed in 
column. The Confederates were driven through Cartersville and across 
the Etowah river, but they managed to destroy the railroad bridge in 
their retreat. As an act of retaliation the Federals destroyed the Etowah 
mills a day or two later. No casualties reported. 



228 The Union Army 

Cartersville, Ga., July 24, 1864. 

Cartersville, Ga., Sept. 20, 1864. 

Carthage, Ark., Nov. 2"], 1862. 2nd Kansas Cavalry. 

Carthage, Mo., July 5, 1861. Missouri State Troops. All the men 
engaged in this tight, on both sides, were Missourians. The Union forces, 
commanded by Gen. Franz Sigel, consisted of 550 men of the 3d regi- 
ment, 400 of the 5th, and two batteries of 4 guns each, numbering in 
all about 1,500 men. Opposed to this force were about 4,000 infantry 
and cavalry and two batteries, under the command of Gov. Jackson. 
On the evening of the 4th Sigel encamped on Spring river southeast 
of Carthage. Tlie next morning he resumed his march and about half- 
way between Dry Fork creek and Carthage he found the enemy drawn 
up in line of battle — probably 3,500 men — with a strong reserve in the 
rear. The Union advance was soon engaged and Sigel disposed his 
forces as follows : Two companies of the 3d regiment and 2 pieces of 
artillery were sent to the assistance of the advance guard ; one company 
of the same regiment and a piece of artillery were left to guard the 
train; the 2nd battalion of the 3d was placed on the left; next to this 
were 4 pieces of artillery; the 5th regiment, in two battalions, in the 
center; then the remaining three guns, and on the right the ist battalion 
of the 3d regiment. When his line was thus formed the entire body 
was advanced a few hundred yards, when the whole seven pieces of 
artillery opened on the Confederate center. Under this direct attack 
the enemy's lines began to waver, but before Sigel could press his ad- 
vantage he discovered that two detachments of mounted troops were 
making efforts to gain both his right and left flanks, which caused him 
to change his tactics and assume the defensive in order to save his train. 
Part of the troops were therefore ordered behind Dry Fork creek, 
while two battalions and the 4 guns of Wilkin's battery were hurried 
to the defense of the train. At Dry Fork Essig's battery took a position 
behind the ford, where, assisted by one company of the Sth and two 
companies of the 3d regiment, he held the enemy in check for two hours 
and inflicted severe losses. This enabled Sigel to reach Carthage, where 
he sent the train safely out of the way of capture and took a position 
on the heights north of the town. Sending detachments to keep open 
his communication with Springfield and Mount Vernon, Sigel now took 
possession of the town long enough to give his troops a brief rest, 
after which he commenced his retreat toward Sarcoxie, under protection 
of the artillery, pausing now and then long enough to fire a few shots 
at the advancing enemy. The Confederates soon tired of the sport and 
withdrew the pursuit. The Union loss for the day was 13 killed and 
31 wounded. The Confederates reported a loss of 40 or 50 killed and 
120 wounded, but it was probably greater. This engagement brought 
Sigel into notice as a master in conducting a running fight against almost 
overwhelming odds. 

Carthage, Mo., March 19-20, 1862. 5th Kansas Cavalry. The expe- 
dition against Carthage, commanded by Lieut.-Col. Powell Clayton, left 
camp at Dry Wood about 2 p. m. on the 19th and marched 8 miles, 
when Clayton sent Capt. Creitz, with a portion of his company, to occup}' 
Lamar and march to Carthage on the following day. The main body 
moved to Carthage on the 20th by a diff'erent route. Creitz reached 
the place first, dashed into town, captured 15 or 20 of the leading Con- 
federate sympathizers, and took possession of Johnson's mill with a 
large quantity of wheat. While on the march the main body's advance 
was fired upon by some guerrillas from ambush and 3 men were wounded. 

Carthage, Mo., Nov. 27, 1862, Jan. 13, May 16, June 27-28, and Oct. 
2, 1863. 

Carthage, Mo., May 26, 1863. 2nd Kansas Cavalry. A scouting party 



Cyclopedia of Battles 2-29 

of this regiment, under command of Col. W. F. Cloud, over- 
took a party of some loo Confederates near Carthage and attacked 
them about dayhght. The enemy Hed at the first fire and Cloud spent 
some time in scouring the woods in pursuit. No casualties reported. 

Carthage, Mo., July 21, 1864. Detachment of the 7th Enrolled Mis- 
souri Militia. Lieut. Henry, with 25 men, was attacked within a short 
distance of Carthage by about 125 Confederates under Capt. Rusk. 
Henry and 8 of his men were killed at the first fire and several others 
were missing. The company in the fort at Carthage offered Henry no 
assistance, deeming the enemy too strong. 

Carthage, Mo., Sept. 22, 1864. Missouri State Militia. Maj. Milton 
Burch, commanding the post at Neosho, reported to Gen. Sanborn on 
the 23d that the town of Carthage had been burned by guerrillas the 
day before. Troops sent from Neosho had a fight with the guerrillas, 
but at the time Burch made his report the particulars of the engagement 
had not been learned, except that the enemy had been driven from the 
town. No further mention of the affair occurs in the official reports of 
the war. 

Carthage, Tenn., Jan. 23, 1863. 

Carthage, Tenn., March 8, 1863. Detachment, nth Ohio Infantry. 
Capt. George Johnson, with 55 men, was escorting a forage train to 
Carthage. When near his destination he was attacked by 140 Confed- 
erate cavalry, surrounded and captured, with his entire company. The 
enemy fired but once, wounding 3 men slightly and i seriously. 

Carthage Road, Tenn., Nov. 28, 1862. 2nd Indiana Cavalry. On 
the morning of the 28th a forage train of 10 wagons was sent out from 
the camp under an escort of 40 men, in charge of Lieut. Brush. When 
about 2 miles from Hartsville, on the Carthage road, the train was 
attacked in both front and rear by some 200 Confederates, commanded 
by Col. Bennett, and the train was surrendered without resistance. A 
few of the men escaped and brought the news to Maj. Hill, who promptly 
ordered out the regiment and started in pursuit. At the Cumberland 
river, near Rome, he found Bennett's party encamped. Hill halted to 
wait for the main body of his men to come up, but the Confederates 
beginning to make demonstrations, he ordered a charge with the 90 men 
at hand. The charge was successfully executed, the men firing their 
revolvers at the enemy at short range and throwing him into confusion. 
The Confederates then massed at the farther end of the bridge to dispute 
the passage. Hill dismounted some of his men, the main body having 
in the meantime arrived on the scene, and opened fire on the enemy, 
who again broke in confusion. A charge was then made across the 
bridge, those in the camp dispersed, 7 of the wagons and 8 of the pris- 
oners recaptured. Hill then pursued the fleeing Confederates for 10 or 
12 miles, when they were reinforced and he returned to camp, bringing 
off the recaptured property and a wagon belonging to Bennett. The 
Federal loss in the affair was 2il nien missing and 3 men who were 
killed while prisoners. The loss of the enemy was not definitely learned, 
though 12 were seen lying dead in the road near the bridge. 

Caruthersville, Mo., July 8, 1864. Detachment, -ist Missouri State 
Militia and i8th U. S. Colored Infantry. Capt. Kelling, with 75 men, 
embarked on board the gunboat Huntress, No. 58, at New Madrid on 
the 6th, to go in pursuit of a party of guerrillas. Leaving the boat at 
Quigley's, near the Arkansas line, the next morning, Kelling marched 
into what was known as the Cowskin Settlement, where he had a skirmish 
with a small party. On the next day he moved northeast, having several 
brushes with the enemy during the day and encamped that night at 
Caruthersville. Kelling reported 8 of the enemy killed in the various 
skirmishes of the day. 



230 The Union Army 

Caruthersville, Mo., Dec. 30, 1864. Detachment of the 2nd Missouri 
State Militia Cavalry. A party of guerrillas made their appearance in 
the vicinity of Caruthersville on this date and were pursued by a de- 
tachment from that place. The guerrillas lost i man killed and 2 horses 
captured. The noise of the horses' hoofs on the frozen ground, as the 
Union force approached at a rapid gait, gave the alarm or the entire 
party could have been captured. 

Cass Station, Ga., May 24th, 1864. ist and nth Kentucky Cavalry 
and 50th Ohio Infantry. Wheeler's cavalry made an attack on a wagon 
train between Cass station and Cassville, capturing about half the wagons 
and burning the rest. The Union loss was 20 men killed and wounded; 
Confederate loss not ascertained. Wheeler's force reported at 5,000 to 
7,000. 

Cassville, Ga., May 19-22, 1864. 4th, 14th and 20th Army Corps. 
Stanley's division of the 4th corps (Howard's) reached Kingston at 
8 a. m. and moved from there in the direction of Cassville. When about 
half-way to that place the enemy was found posted on high ground 
at Two-Run creek, and as soon as the head of the Federal column 
appeared opened fire from a 6-gun batterj'. Stanley ordered up his 
artillery, which quickly silenced the enemy's guns, when the division 
again moved forward some 4 miles to an old mill, where the Confederate 
infantry was discovered drawn up in two lines and advancing. Three 
divisions were here formed for action; Wood's on the right, Newton's 
on the left, and Stanley's in the center. The engagement was opened 
by artillery from different points, and the enemy again gave way, falling 
back toward Cassville. The 4th corps then occupied the works abandoned 
by the Confederates and formed a junction with the 20th corps (Hook- 
er's), but almost immediately the order was received to move at once, 
straight on to Cassville. Palmer's corps (the 14th) now came up on 
Howard's right and there was skirmishing all along the line. Johnston's 
army occupied a strong position at Cassville. Hood's, Polk's and half 
of Hardee's corps were formed in double lines extending from north to 
south, while the rest of Hardee's corps was drawn up beyond the rail- 
road and extending toward the river. For several days he had been 
maneuvering for a position where he could successfully give battle to 
the advancing Federal forces. His men confidently expected the battle 
at Cassville. Hood and Polk expressed their opinion very positively on 
the night of the 19th that neither of them could hold their position 
next day, because a part of each was enfiladed by artillery. Hardee was 
for making a stand and giving battle. During the night Johnston with- 
drew his forces across the Etowah, destroying the railroad bridge in 
his retreat. The Federal army rested at Cassville until the 23d, an 
occasional skirmish taking place between detachments of the two armies. 

Cassville, Mo., Sept. 21, 1862. ist Arkansas Cavalry. 

Cassville, Mo., June 11, 1862. 37th Illinois Volunteers. Two wagons 
belonging to this regiment, accompanied by 5 men, were fired on from 
ambush about 7 miles from Cassville, with the result that i man was 
killed and 2 wounded. The bushwhackers captured i prisoner and 4 
horses. The number of the attacking party was not ascertained. 

Cassville, Mo., July 27, 1863. Detachment of the 2nd Missouri In- 
fantry. A scouting party encountered about 20 Confederates southeast 
of Cassville, killed 4 and wounded 4, with a loss of 3 men missing. 

Cassville, W. Va., Sept. 23, 1861. 

Castleman's Ferry, Va., Nov. 2, 1862. Confederate Gen. McGowan 
reported that as McClellan was pursuing Lee, after the battle of Antie- 
tam, Gregg's and Thomas' brigades, with a battery of artillery, were 
thrown forward to Castleman's ferry to prevent the Federals from 
crossing the Shenandoah river at that point. He says: "Gregg's 



Cyclopedia of Battles 231 

brigade took position, and, under a light fire of artillery, awaited the 
approach of the enemy, who never reached our side of the ford. In this 
affair the brigade lost 3 wounded, i mortally." Union reports do not 
mention the engagement. 

Caston's Plantation, S. C, Oct. 22, 1862. (See Brannan's Expedition 
from Hilton Head.) 

Castor River, Mo., April 29, 1863. (See Bloomfield, same date.) 
Castor River, Mo., Aug. i, 1863. (See Round Ponds.) 
Catawba Mountain, Va., June 21, 1864. Army of West Virginia. 
In the Lynchburg campaign there was considerable skirmishing on this 
date in the vicinity of Catawba mountain and on the New Castle road. 
Early in the morning Brig.-Gen. Duffie, commanding the division, was 
ordered to proceed to Catawba Mountain gap, clear out the blockade 
there, and hold the pass until the train had passed through. Duffie 
executed the order successfully, and after the train had passed sent a 
regiment to the summit of the mountain to assist the artillery under 
Capt. Carlin, but it arrived too late to be of service, two Ijatteries 
having already been captured, the guns spiked and the carriages dis- 
abled. The cavalry dispersed the enemy, killing and wounding about 
30 of them, and the guns were recaptured, but owing to the lack of 
horses to transport them they were abandoned. Meantime the 2nd 
division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. Averell, had been attacked by the 
Confederate cavalry on the Fincastle road, but the attack was repulsed. 
That night the army moved to New Castle, and the next day pro- 
ceeded in the direction of Lewisburg. 

Catawba River, N. C, April 17, 1865. Cavalry Division, District of 
East Tennessee. This engagement was an incident of the expedition 
planned by Maj.-Gen. Stoneman, commanding the district, into western 
North Carolina. When the division reached the Catawba, a short dis- 
tance east of Morganton, the floor of the bridge was found to be gone 
and the ford guarded by Gen. McCown, with about 300 men and I 
piece of artillery. Gen. Gillem, commanding the division, sent a detach- 
ment of the 8th Tenn. cavalry, under Maj. Kenner, to cross the river 
some distance above and gain McCown's rear. Another battalion of the 
same regiment was dismounted and pushed forward toward the bridge 
as far as shelter could be found, with orders to engage the enemy until 
Kenner could get into position. The Confederates opened fire with their 
cannon. Gillem brought up his battery of 4 guns and replied. The 
second shot disabled the enemy's gun, and a few more shells drove them 
from their rifle-pits. The dismounted Tennesseeans then charged over 
on the sleepers of the bridge and drove the enemy from the ford, killing 
several and capturing about 50 prisoners. The disabled gun was repaired 
and brought off. 

Catlett's Gap, Ga., Sept. 14-18, 1863. 4th Division, 14th Army Corps. 
Just before the battle of Chickamauga Maj.-Gen. George H. Thomas, 
commanding the 14th corps, was maneuvering for position and sending 
out reconnaissances to develop the enemy's strength. On the 14th Gen. 
Turchin, commanding the 3d brigade, 4th division, sent the 97th III. 
mounted infantry on a reconnaissance to Catlett's gap in Pigeon moun- 
tain. The regiment met with some opposition frorfi the Confederate 
pickets all the way from Chickamauga creek to the mouth of the gap, 
where the reserve was found drawn up and a long line of skirmishers 
deployed to the right of the road. Turchin's orders were to avoid 
bringing on an engagement and the regiment was withdrawn. On the 
i6th another reconnaissance was made and Cleburne's division (Con- 
federate) was found posted in the road with a battery of artillery in 
position. The next day Gen. Reynolds, commanding the 4th division, 
sent. Co. E, 92nd 111., from the camp at Pond Spring to open communi- 



232 The Union Army- 

cation with Turchin's brigade. This company skirmished with the enemy, 
losing I man killed, i wounded, and i missing. Gen. Wlieeler, in his 
report for this date, mentions a fight of several hours, in which he 
drove the Federals back some distance, developing too large a force to 
attack, etc. This was probably the skirmish with the company above 
mentioned, and which was a slight affair. Turchin was relieved at the 
gap on the 17th and the following day the entire corps moved along 
Chickamauga creek to Crawfish Spring, and during the night took up a 
position at Kelly's farm, where it remained until the beginning of the 
battle of Chickamauga on the 19th. 

Catlett's Station, Va., Aug. 22, 1862. ist Pennsylvania Reserve 
Rifles, Purnell Legion. An attempt was made by a detachment of 
Stuart's cavalry (Confederate), under cover of darkness and a severe 
storm, to capture Gen. Pope and his staff and destroy the railroad 
bridge over Cedar creek at Catlett's station. The Federal pickets were 
overpowered without alarm, and, guided by a negro, the Confederates 
made a dash for Pope's headquarters. The general escaped capture, 
though several prisoners and considerable property fell into the hands 
of the enemy. They next attacked the Purnell legion, which was guard- 
ing the railroad bridge, and the train belonging to Gen. McDowell's 
command, but were driven off by Col. Kane, with his rifle regiment. 
Kane's loss was 5 wounded and his picket guard captured. 

Catlett's Station, Va., Oct. 24, 1862. Detachment of 3d W. Va. 
Cavalry. 

Catlett's Station, Va., Jan. 10, 1863. Organizations not specified. 

Catlett's Station, Va., Oct. 6, 1863. 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry. A 
patrol of this regiment was attacked by a party of about 20 mounted 
Confederates, who wounded i man and carried 2 into captivity. Gen. 
Terry sent a party in pursuit and the enemy was chased as far as 
Bristoe Station, but without being overtaken. 

Catlett's Station, Va., Oct. 14, 1863. 3d Division, 2nd Army Corps. 
In the Bristoe campaign the division, Brig.-Gen. Alexander Hays com- 
manding, crossed Kettle run at Auburn at daybreak and took the road 
to Catlett's station, on the Orange & Alexandria railroad. Soon after 
crossing the stream, Owen's brigade, which was in advance, was attacked 
by a strong force of cavalry and artillery. A light skirmish line was 
thrown forward, but it was quickly repulsed. The skirmishers were 
reinforced by the 126th N. Y., supported by the 12th N. J., of Smyth's 
brigade. Seeing that the Confederates were not disposed to attack, 
Owen then advanced his whole brigade, when the enemy retired pre- 
cipitately, leaving 28 prisoners and 7 horses in the hands of the Federals. 
Among the prisoners was Col. Ruffin, of the ist N. C. cavalry, mortally 
wounded. Owen's loss was 7 killed and 17 wounded. 

Catlett's Station, Va., Oct. 19, 30; Nov. i, 27, 1863. 

Catlett's Station, Va., Nov. 3, 1863. Detachment of Kilpatrick's 
Cavalry. Maj. John S. Mosby, of the Confederate army, in a report 
dated Nov. 6, says : "I returned yesterday from a scout in the neighbor- 
hood of Catlett's. I was accompanied by Capt. Smith and 2 men of 
my command. We killed Kilpatrick's division commissary, captured an 
adjutant, 4 men, 6 horses, etc." The commissary mentioned by Mosby 
was Lieut. Timothy Hedges, of the 2nd N. Y. cavalry, but he was only 
wounded, and this was the only casualty mentioned in the Federal reports. 

Catlett's Station, Va., Dec. 14, 1863. Pennsylvania Reserves. Brig.- 
Gen. Crawford reported that a small party of guerrillas, wearing Fed- 
eral uniforms, made an attack on this date on Col. M. D. Hardin and 
some of his officers, while they were examining the vicinity of their 
camp at Catlett's station for means of additional defense. Hardin was 
shot through the arm and his horse killed. Col. Gustin was shot in the 



Cyclopedia of Battles 233 

hand and his horse wounded. The guerrillas fled in the direction of 
Warrenton, with a detachment of cavalry in hot pursuit. 

Catlett's Station, Va., April i6, 1864. Confederate Gen. Stuart, in 
a report dated April 20, states that a scout of the 4th Va. cavalry at- 
tacked 5 Federals near Catlett's station on the i6th, killing 4, the other 
escaping. Federal reports make no mention of such an affair. 

Cato, Kan., Nov. 8, 1862. 

Catoctin Mountain, Md., Sept. 13, 1862. Pleasonton's Cavalry Divi- 
sion, Army of the Potomac. The main body of the division moved at 
daylight from Frederick on the Hagerstown turnpike. Upon arriving 
at the Catoctin range of the Blue Ridge the Confederates under Wade 
Hampton opened hre on the advance with artillery. Pleasanton ordered 
up 2 sections of Robertson's and Hains' batteries, dismounted the 3d Ind. 
and 8th 111. and sent them up the mountain to the right as skirmishers, 
holding the rest of his command in readiness to advance as soon as the 
enemy showed signs of weakening. After some sharp fighting with 
both carbines and artillery the Confederates retreated hastily toward 
Middletown. On the east side of that town they made another stand, 
when Gibson's battery was brought up and by a few well-directed shots 
again drove them from their position. Farnsworth's brigade pursued, 
but a short distance from the town they again took up a position to 
defend. Gibson's battery routed them again and they fled precipitately 
to Turner's gap of South mountain, blowing up the bridge over Catoctin 
creek as they went. Farnsworth followed, but at the foot of the mountain 
found the enemy in too strong a position to be carried. (See South 
Mountain.) 

Catoctin Mountain, Md., July 7, 1864. (See Hager's Mountain.) 

Catoosa Station, Ga., Feb. 23, 1864. ist Brigade, ist Division, 14th 
Army Corps, and 39th Indiana Amounted Infantry. The corps left Ring- 
gold in the morning with the 39th Ind., commanded by Col. T. J. Har- 
rison, in advance. A feeble stand was made by the Confederate cavalry 
at Catoosa station, but were driven in the direction of Tunnel Hill, 
Harrison pursuing. About 2 miles beyond the station the enemy was 
reinforced by a large body of cavalry under Wheeler, and Harrison was 
compelled to retire. At this juncture the ist brigade, commanded by 
Brig.-Gen. W. P. Carlin, was hurried to Harrison's support. Finding 
himself thus supported Harrison reformed his line and attacked the 
enemy directly in front, while Carlin deployed his command on both 
sides of the road and steadily advanced. In a little while the Confed- 
erates began to fall back and were closely pressed for about 2 miles, 
when they made a stand behind a barricade of rails. Col. Briant, with 
the 88th Ind., was sent to occupy a hill to the right and rear of the 
enemy and thus cut off his retreat. The movement was discovered by 
Wheeler, who abandoned his position and fled precipitately toward Tun- 
nel Hill. 

Catoosa Springs, Ga., May 3, 1864. McCook's Cavalry. As the 
4th corps, under I\Iaj.-Gen. O. O. Howard, moved from Cleveland to 
Catoosa Springs the left wing was covered by McCook's cavalry. A 
short distance east of the springs a detachment of McCook's command 
met and routed a body of Confederate cavalry in a slight skirmish. No 
casualties reported. 

Cave City, Ky., May 11, 1862. Col. John Morgan (Confederate) 
held up a train on the Louisville & Nashville railroad, and captured 
Maj. CofTee, of the ist Ky. cavalry, and 6 other soldiers, burned 45 
freight cars and blew up a locomotive. The passengers were released 
and they returned to Louisville. Morgan's object was to capture a 
train loaded with Confederate prisoners on its way northward, but the 
train was stopped before it reached Cave City and returned to Nashville. 



234 The Union Army 

Cave City, Ky., Sept. i8, 1862. The only official mention of an 
engagement at Cave City on this date is in the report of Confederate 
Gen. Wheeler, who says : "About daylight the enemy's cavalry in large 
force moved up rapidly in good order toward Cave City, followed by 
infantry. * * * After resisting the enemy's advance until late in the 
day, we finally moved toward Glasgow to collect all detachments on 
the lower roads and protect some trains at that point." 

Cave Spring Road, Ga., Oct. 13, 1864. 3d Brigade, 4th Division, 
15th Army Corps. On the morning of the 13th the brigade crossed the 
Etowah river and began the march toward Rome, Co. E, 7th 111. infantry, 
in advance. After marching about 4 miles the advance drove in a Con- 
federate picket in a slight skirmish, and Lieut. -Col. Hurlbut, command- 
ing the brigade, sent forward two more companies of the 7th 111. armed 
with Henry rifles. Near the five-mile post skirmishing became very 
brisk, the rest of the regiment was thrown forward and drove the 
enemy some distance, when he took up a strong position on the crest of 
a hill behind a barricade of rails. One section of Battery B, ist Mich, 
artillery, was brought up and after three or four rounds the Confederates 
entirely disappeared. Near the junction of the Cave Spring and Coosa- 
ville roads they made another stand in some force, with 2 pieces of 
artillery. The 7th 111. and 39th la. were deployed as skirmishers, sup- 
ported by the 50th and 57th 111. Here the most severe fighting of the 
day occurred, the skirmishers having to cross an open field, in some 
places quite swampy, the enemy all the time pouring a galling fire into 
their ranks. Tlie men advanced steadily, however, and in a little while 
forced the enemy to abandon his position. Another stand was made a short 
distance further on, when Col. Spencer was moved around to the right to 
cut off the retreat, but before the movement could be carried out Hurlbut 
received orders to return to Rome. Casualties 6 men wounded. That 
of the enemy was much greater, but was not definitely learned. 

Cedar Bayou, Tex., Nov. 23, 1863. 3d Brigade, 2nd Division, De- 
partment of the Gulf. On the night of the 22nd the brigade, commanded 
by Brig.-Gen. Ransom, encamped at St. Joseph's island. The next 
morning it resumed the march and about noon reached Cedar bayou to 
find it guarded by a detachment of the 8th Tex. infantry under Maj. Hill. 
The advance guard at once engaged the Confederates and in the skirmish 
Hill was killed and several of his men wounded. The enemy beat a 
hasty retreat in the direction of Fort Esperanza. The Union loss was 
I sergeant slightlv wounded. 

Cedar Bluff, Ala., May 3, 1863. (See Streight's Raid.) 

Cedar Bluffs, Col., May 3, 1864. One company of the ist Colorado 
Cavalry. Maj. Downing, with the detachment, attacked a camp of 
Cheyenne Indians at daybreak, killed about 25 and wounded probably 
35 or 40 more, captured 100 head of horses and all their camp equipage, 
etc. His loss was i killed and i wounded. 

Cedar Church, Ky., Oct. 3, 1862. ist Ohio Cavalry. Pursuant to in- 
structions, Col. Minor Milliken, commanding the regiment, moved out from 
Shepherdsville on the Bardstown road early in the morning. When near 
Cedar Church, 5 miles from Shepherdsville, he found evidences that a party 
of the enemy had encamped there the night before. He made a recon- 
naissance in the direction of Woodbridge and on his return learned 
that a body of cavalry was following him. Dividing his command he 
sent one part to intercept the enemy and with the rest took up a position at 
the church. Firing was soon heard and he hastened to the assistance of 
the intercepting party to find them driving the Confederates toward 
the church. This placed the enemy between two fires and thej^ sur- 
rendered. The company consisted of 2 captains, i lieutenant and 19 men. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 235 

Milliken also captured 23 stand of arms and 22 horses and equipments 
without the loss of a man. 

Cedar County, Mo., Oct. 17, 1863. 5th Provisional Enrolled Mis- 
souri Militia. Maj. A. J. Pugh, with a detachment of the regiment, at- 
tacked a band of guerrillas, killing 5, wounding 2 and capturing 3, with 
a number of horses, equipments, arms, etc. No casualties reported. 

Cedar Creek, Fla., March i, 1864. Henry's Light Brigade. On this 
date the light brigade, consisting of the 40th Mass. mounted infantry, 
4th Mass. cavalry and Battery B, ist U. S. artillery, was stationed at 
Camp Moody, a short distance from Jacksonville, Col. G. V. Henry 
commanding. Henry sent out a reconnoitering party, made up of i bat- 
talion of the 4th, a squadron of the 40th, and i piece of artillery, under 
command of Maj. Stevens, to ascertain the enemy's position at Ten- 
mile Station. Before reaching his destination Stevens was attacked by 
about 100 cavalry and 2 pieces of artillery. They were driven back some 
distance, when they were reinforced by a regiment of infantry and 
another gun. Stevens then fell back, fighting as he went, to Cedar 
creek, where he was reinforced by all the brigade except one squadron 
of the 40th regiment. Henry assumed command and had scarcely formed 
his lines when the enemy charged, but in passing a swamp a number of 
the horses mired down. The men dismounted and fought on foot, pour- 
ing a heavy fire into the Union ranks as they advanced. Another party 
effected a crossing on the right and attacked Henry on the flank with 
three regiments of infantry and some 300 cavalry. Henry fell back to 
Three-Mile run, where he took a strong position and the enemy retired. 
The fight commenced at McGirt's creek, about 10 a. m. and lasted until 
3 p. m. The Union loss was i killed, 4 wounded and 5 missing. The 
Confederates acknowledged a loss of 40 or 50 in killed and wounded. 

Cedar Creek, Fla., April 2, 1864. Henry's Light Brigade. Tlie cav- 
alry of the brigade, supported by the 7Sth Ohio and the 169th N. Y. 
infantry and 4 pieces of artillery, made a reconnaissance in the direction 
of Cedar creek. The enemy's pickets were driven in and at the creek 
was found a considerable force, estimated at two regiments of cavalry 
and two of infantry. The 7Sth Ohio was thrown forward as skirmishers 
and soon developed the fact that the enemy occupied a strong position. 
To attack Henry's men would have to cross an open country, which 
would have entailed a heavy loss of life. Skirmishing continued for 
some time, the Union loss being 8 men wounded. The enemy's loss was 
estimated at 20 or 30 killed and wounded, as that number was seen to 
lall during the engagement. 

Cedar Creek, Va., Aug. 13, 1864. 3d Brigade, ist Division, Sheri- 
dan's Cavalry. In the Shenandoah Valley campaign the ist cavalry divi- 
sion marched via Newtown and Middletown to Cedar creek. Upon 
arriving there the 3d brigade had a slight skirmish with an outlying 
detachment of the enemy, in which 14 prisoners were taken. 

Cedar Creek, Va., Oct. 13, 1864. ist and 3d Brigades, ist Division, 
Army of West Virginia. The two brigades made a reconnaissance on 
the turnpike between Cedar creek and Strasburg to develop the strength 
and position of the Confederates. At the bridge oven Cedar creek the 
enemy was found posted in considerable force. Crossing the creek below 
the bridge the Union troops formed under cover of a wood, the ist 
brigade on the left of the pike and the 3d on the right, and moved rapidly 
forward. As soon as the advance appeared at the top of the hill it was 
greeted by a discharge of artillery, aimed with great accuracy. The 3d 
brigade was then moved to the right to get out of line of the fire. 
Meantime the ist was moved up under shelter of the wood, made a dash 
across an open field, and took a position behind a stone wall within a 
few hundred yards of the enemy. A continuous line was now formed 



236 The Union Army 

with the other brigade and the whole body was soon engaged in a spirited 
conflict with the Confederate infantry, when the two brigades were 
ordered to retire. Col. Wells, commanding the ist, did not receive the 
order and continued fighting after the other brigade had retired, which 
gave the enemy an opportunity to pour an enfilading fire into his ranks, 
compelling him to fall back without orders. On the retreat the Con- 
federates pressed his lines so closely as to throw them into some con- 
fusion, but by skillful management he managed to extricate his command 
from a very hazardous position. The Union loss in this engagement was 
22 killed, no wounded and 'j'] missing; Confederate casualties not ascer- 
tained. 

Cedar Creek, Va., Oct. 19, 1864. 6th and 19th Army Corps and 
Army of West Virginia. On the evening of the i8th the Confederate 
forces under Early occupied a position at Fisher's hill, a short distance 
south of Strasburg. The Union army was encamped about 5 miles 
north, on the north bank of Cedar creek, in the vicinity of Middletown. 
The Army of West Virginia, commanded by Gen. George Crook, lay 
west of the pike running from Middletown to Strasburg, probably a 
mile and a half north of the former, Thoburn's division (the ist) occupy- 
ing the extreme left. Along the pike and extending west from it lay 
the 19th corps, Gen. William H. Emory commanding, and still further 
up the creek was the 6th corps, under command of Maj.-Gen. Horatio G. 
Wright, who, in the absence of Gen. Sheridan, was the ranking officer. 
Still farther to the right and up the creek was Torbert's cavalry in three 
divisions, commanded by Gens. Merritt, Powell and Custer, respectively. 

The Federals had destroyed all the supplies between Cedar creek 
and Staunton, making it necessary for Early to transport all his rations, 
feed, etc., from the latter place by wagons — a somewhat difficult task — 
and for several days the Confederates had been expected to either attack 
or fall back for supplies. Reconnaissances on the i8th showed no enemy 
in the immediate front, and it was generally believed that they had 
retreated up the valley. To make sure, however, Wright issued orders 
that evening for two brigades to make another reconnaissance the next 
morning. One of these was to move up the Strasburg pike and the other 
was to take the Back road, some 3 miles west and nearly parallel to 
the pike. Both were to move at dawn and to go forward until the 
enemy was found and strongly felt, in order to learn his intentions. 

From the signal station at the end of Three-top mountain, which 
overlooked all of Sheridan's camps, Capt. Hotchkiss had on the 17th 
made a map of the Federal position, and it was from this map that Early 
planned his attack. At midnight, on the i8th, Kershaw and Wharton 
marched from Fisher's hill to Strasburg, where they separated, Wharton 
continuing on up the pike to Hupp's hill, while Kershaw turned to the 
west along a by-road leading to Bowman's mill. Gordon, Pegram and 
Ramseur had marched several hours before, moving along the base of 
Three-top mountain to the North Fork of the Shenandoah at Bowman's 
ford, where they crossed and gained position on the Union left. Rosser's 
command was moved by the Back road to attack the cavalry. 

At the first blush of dawn on the 19th the Federals were aroused from 
their slumbers by the roar of artillery and the rattle of musketry. Tlie 
attack was commenced by Kershaw and fell upon Thoburn's division. 
Before the men had time to form, the Confederates, fired by the pros- 
pects of victory, were among them. The division was swept from its 
position, many of the men and 7 guns being captured. These were 
immediately turned upon the retreating troops. The corps commanders, 
Wright, Emory and Crook, exerted themselves to form a line, with 
Hayes' and Kitching's divisions as a base, west of the pike for the de- 
fence of the road. Pursuant to the order of the evening before 



Cyclopedia of Battles 237 

Molineux's brigade was in line, ready to start upon its reconnaissance. 
This brigade was ordered by Emory to cross the pike and take position 
on a wooded ridge, in order to support Crook, while Wright ordered 
two more brigades to the same locality. Had this movement been car- 
ried out it would no doubt have checked the advance of the enemy in 
the beginning of the engagement. But before the line could be formed 
Gordon and Ramseur suddenly debouched from the woods west of the 
pike and struck the divisions of Hayes and Kitching on the fiank. These 
divisions were without intrenchments of any kind and the men, already 
demoralized by the retreat of Thoburn's division, could not withstand 
the sudden and unexpected assault. The line broke, thus exposing the 
19th corps to an enfilading fire for its entire length. Under the circum- 
stances Wright issued the order for the 6th and 19th corps to fall back. 
A dense fog prevailed and some confusion resulted in the execution of 
the movement, but the batteries of the 6th corps finally took a position 
on the ridge near the cemetery west of Middletown, where they did such 
effective work that the enemy was compelled to halt and strengthen his 
lines. About the same time Ramseur and Pegram sent word to Early 
that they' must have reinforcements on the Union left or they would be 
unable to break through. Wharton's division, the men of which were 
busy in plundering the evacuated camp of the 19th corps, was rallied 
and sent to their assistance. Wharton was met by a destructive fire 
from the infantry of Getty's division, now commanded by Brig.-Gen. 
L. A. Grant, before which the whole line recoiled, and while the con- 
fusion existed Grant charged and drove Wharton back down the hill. 
The charge was met by a discharge of artillery, all the enemy's guns 
being concentrated on the division, which was compelled to fall back. 
It was in this charge that Brig.-Gen. Bidwell fell mortally wounded. 

A little after 8 o'clock the fog lifted and the movement of troops 
could be directed with more intelligence. In the early part of the en- 
gagement the general movement of the Union forces had been toward 
the left, to confront the enemy in his attack on that portion of the line. 
In falling back they had maintained a position en echelon, each corps 
being farther north than the one on its left, and the charge of the 6th 
corps was well to the Confederate right. To make matters worse for 
the Confederates the attack of Rosser on the Union cavalry had not 
been so successful as that of the infantry on the left. Here the order 
of the previous evening redounded to the advantage of the Federal arms. 
The 1st and 3d divisions were both stirring before daylight, preparing 
to send men on the reconnaissance, and when Custer's pickets were 
driven in the men were promptly ordered into the saddle to repulse the 
attack that they felt sure was coming. Forming the cavalry on the right 
of the infantry Torbert sent his trains to the rear, and when Rosser 
advanced far enough for the cavalry batteries to open on his line he 
was greeted by a fire that drove him to the shelter of the woods near by, 
where he remained until the tide of battle was turned in favor of the 
Union side. In the meantime Powell's division was holding Lomax's 
cavalry in check at Front Royal, so that the cavalry attack might be 
characterized as a failure. After the fog lifted Wright ordered all the 
cavalry to the left. Leaving three regiments to hold Rosser in check, 
Torbert promptly made the transfer. The ist brigade, 2nd division, 
under Col. Moore, which had been stationed at Burton's ford as a picket, 
was cut off by Gordon, but rejoined the main body at Middletown, 
having made a detour around the Confederate right. Seeing the Federals 
massing their strength in this quarter, Early crowded his troops farther 
to the eastward to prevent his right wing from becoming enveloped. 

When the fight commenced Gen. Sheridan was at Winchester, where 
he had paused on his return from Washington. Reports of the can- 



238 The Union Army 

nonading reached him early in the morning, but not attaching much 
importance to it he remained at Winchester until two hours later, when 
it became certain that a battle was in progress. Mounting his horse he 
started for the scene. On the way he met and turned back many of his 
men who were straggling to the rear. Inspired by the example of their 
intrepid commander they hurried back to the front and took their places 
in line with a determination to do or die. Under Sheridan's orders the 
line of battle was formed on the prolongation of Getty's line and a tem- 
porary breastwork of logs, rails, etc., hastily constructed. Early ad- 
vanced and attacked, the assault falling principally on the 19th corps, 
which bravely withstood the shock and after some severe fighting the 
Confederates were driven back. At 4 p. m. Sheridan ordered a general 
advance. Early's promised victory became a defeat and the defeat be- 
came a rout. Custer's gallant charge with his division of cavalry was 
closely followed by a combined movement of all the Federal forces and 
the enemy was forced back across Cedar creek. The difficulties in cross- 
ing added to the confusion and all efforts to rally the men were vain. 
Custer's division and Devin's brigade of Merritt's pursued the routed 
mass to Fisher's hill, a distance of over 3 miles, the road all the way 
being covered with abandoned artillery, wagons, caissons and ambu- 
lances. The Federal loss was 644 killed, 3,430 wounded and 1,591 missing. 
Most of the missing men belonged to Thoburn's division and were cap- 
tured in the first attack. Early stated his casualties as being "about 
1,860 killed and wounded, and something over 1,000 prisoners." The 
24 cannon lost by the Union troops in the morning we»re all recaptured, 
together with 24 pieces that had belonged to the enemy. Scores of 
wagons were piled up and burned by the Federal cavalry and 56 ambu- 
lances fell into 'Sheridan's hands. This battle broke the Confederate 
hold upon the Shenandoah Valley. Although Early remained for some 
time in that part of the state he did not again assume the aggressive, 
imtil Sheridan withdrew to Kernstown. (See Cedar Creek, Nov. 12, 
1864.) 

Cedar Creek, Va., Nov. 12, 1864. Sheridan Cavalry Corps. After 
the battle of Cedar creek on Oct. 19 the Confederate forces under Early 
retreated to New Market, where they remained inactive for about three 
weeks. On Nov. 9 Sheridan withdrew to Kernstown and the next day 
Early advanced down the pike, crossed Cedar creek and took up a posi- 
tion at Middletown. On the 12th Sheridan ordered Powell's division 
of cavalry to move out on the Winchester and Front Royal pike, while 
Custer moved via the Middle and Back roads and Merritt on the Valley 
pike to learn the enemy's intentions. At Nineveh Powell met and routed 
Lomax's division of cavalry, capturing their 2 pieces of artillery 3 wagons, 
SO horses, 2 battle flags and i6r prisoners. The Confederates here lost 
20 killed and 35 wounded, Powell's loss being 2 killed and 15 wounded. 

Custer struck Rosser's cavalry about 4 miles north of Cedar creek and 
drove him back to the other side with severe losses, several being killed 
and wounded and 16 captured. Merritt engaged a body of Confederate 
infantry about dark and skirmished with them until 10 p. m., when he 
returned to camp. Meantime detachments of infantry were sent out to 
the support of the cavalry, as it looked like an engagement was imminent 
the next day, but when morning came it was found that Early had re- 
treated during the night and taken up his old quarters at New Market. 

Cedar Fort, Utah, April i, 1863. Detachment of the 2nd California 
Cavalry. Lieut. Ethier, with 25 men of Co. A, was in pursuit of some 
Indians, overtook them at Cedar Fort on the afternoon of the ist, and 
through false information given him by some Mormons as to the numbers 
of the savages, attacked them in a strong position. After a volley or two, 
in which one chief was seen to fall, Ethier was fired on by a large body 



Cyclopedia of Battles 239 

concealed in ambush, but managed to extricate his men from an un- 
pleasant position without loss. 

Cedar Glade, Ark., March i, 1864. 

Cedar Keys, Fla., Feb. 16, 18155. 2nd U. S. Colored troops. 

Cedar Mountain, Va., Aug. 9, 1862. Parts of the 2nd and 3d Army 
Corps. Jackson crossed the Rapidan at Barnett's ford on Thursday, 
Aug. 7, and advanced in heavy force toward Culpeper Court House. 
At that time the Union forces under Pope occupied the turnpike between 
Culpeper and Spcrryville, ready to concentrate at either place when the 
enemy's plans became apparent. Brig.-Gen. Bayard, with part of the 
cavalry of the 3d corps (McDowell's), was in advance near the Rapidan 
at the time the Confederates crossed that river. He fell back slowly, 
harassing the advance all he could and taking some prisoners. On Fri- 
day the 1st and 2nd corps, commanded by Sigel and Banks, respectively, 
and part of the 3d corps were massed at Culpeper, and Crawford's brigade 
of the 2nd was sent to the support of Bayard. The next day Crawford re- 
ported to Pope that the enemy had advanced to Cedar mountain and occu- 
pied its slopes. Banks was ordered to move out with his command and 
occupy the position then held by Crawford. There has been some dispute 
as to whether Pope's intention was to bring on an engagement, but there 
is no doubt that Banks obeyed the order, as he understood it. He moved 
out on the road running to Robertson's ford on the Rapidan, and arrived 
at the little creek known as Cedar run, about a mile and a half from 
the mountain, between i and 2 p. m., one brigade of Williams' division 
having reached the field about noon. This brigade (Gordon's) remained 
on the north side of the run, all the rest of the troops crossing the stream 
and taking up a position on the plateau on the south side. On the right 
of the road was Crawford, forming the right of the line; next to him 
was Geary's. Prince's and Greene's brigades of Augur's division, in the 
order named. Bayard's cavalry was on the extreme right and the artil- 
lery was stationed at advantageous points on the plateau in front of the 
infantry. The total number of Union troops engaged, including the re- 
inforcements from the 3d corps, which arrived on the field late in the 
action, has been variously stated, but was probably between 17,000 and 
18,000. Jackson's army consisted of his own division, commanded now 
by Gen. Winder, and the divisions of A. P. Hill and Ewell, numbering 
in the neighborhood of 25,000 men. In the formation of his line Camp- 
bell's brigade confronted Crawford, Taliaferro was in front of Geary, 
Early in front of Prince, and Hays and Trimble in front of and extend- 
ing beyond the Union left under Greene. Hill's division, consisting of 
the brigades of Thomas, Archer, Stafford, Pender, Field and Branch, 
and the famous "Stonewall" Brigade, commanded by Col. Ronald, were 
held in reserve. 

About noon an artillery duel was commenced and it continued with- 
out intermission until 3 p. m. The Confederate line advanced, but they 
moved very cautiously. Bayard was gradually forced back and about 4 
o'clock a lively fire was begun on the skirmish lines. At 4:50 Banks 
wrote a message to Pope, saying: "One regiment of rebel infantry 
advancing now deployed as skirmishers. I have ordered a regiment on 
the right, Williams' division, to meet them, and one from the left ; Augur 
to advance on the left and in front." Ten minutes later he added. "They 
are now approaching each other." This movement was somewhat un- 
expected by the Confederates and caught them at a temporary disad- 
vantage. Geary and Prince moved forward rapidly, delivering an effec- 
tive fire as they marched along. The front line of Early's and Taliaferro's 
brigades broke, and the Federals, sweeping round in the wide gap 
between those commands and the enemy's right, reached the rear line, 
which also retired in confusion. A few minutes later Crawford struck 



240 T^he Union Army 

Campbell and Taliaferro's left, and for the time it looked as though 
victory for. the Union arms was certain. But just at this juncture 
Ronald's brigade reached the field. His men, fresh and hungry for the 
fray, fell upon the exhausted troops of Crawford, but were at first met 
with such a withering fire that they were forced back. Hill's division 
also entered the contest, the broken lines of Campbell's and Taliaferro's 
brigades were reformed, and a steady advance forced the P^derals back 
across the run. Meantime Ricketts' division of McDowell's corps had 
arrived and formed on Crawford's right. The appearance of reinforce- 
ments checked the Confederate advance. Jackson undertook to drive 
them from their position by artillery, but the Union batteries replied 
with such vigor that he gave it up. The 2nd and 5th Maine batteries 
especially did effective work, continuing their fire until a late hour. Both 
armies rested on their arms during the night, but at daylight the Con- 
federates fell back about 2 miles and took a position higher up the 
mountain. The Federal pickets advanced and occupied the ground, but 
the battle was not renewed. The Union loss in this engagement was 
314 killed, 1,445 wounded and 622 missing. The Confederates lost 241 
killed, 1,120 wounded and 4 missing. (Also called Cedar Run and 
Slaughter's Mountain.) 

Cedar Point, N. C, Dec. i, 1863. 

Cedar Run, Va., Aug. 9, 1862. (See Cedar Mountain.) 
Cedar Run Church, Va., Oct. 17, 1864. Picket of Custer's CavalrJ^ 
Gen. Rosser (Confederate) left the camp at Fisher's hill on the evening 
of the i6th with three brigades of cavalry and one brigade of mounted 
infantry, and by a night march of over 30 miles gained the rear of the 
Federal cavalry. Just before daylight he surprised one of the pickets 
and captured Maj. Marcy and 35 men belonging to the ist Conn, cavalry. 
It was no doubt his intention to attack the camp, but after capturing 
the picket he became alarmed and fell back rapidly. 

Cedars, Tenn., Dec. 7, 1864. U. S. Troops under Gen. Milroy. 
Owing to the dense growth of cedars about Murfreesboro, where Gen. 
Milroy's command was operating in the early part of December, this 
name is sometimes given to the engagement which occurred near that 
town on the 7th. (See Murfreesboro.) 

Cedarville, Va., June 12, 1863. (See Winchester, June 13-15.) 
Cedarville, Va., Aug. 16, 1864. ist Cavalry Division, Army of West 
Virginia. The division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. Wesley Merritt, and 
consisting of the ist, 2nd and reserve brigades, moved on the morning 
of the 15th to the Front Royal and Winchester pike. The reserve brigade 
was posted at Stony Point, some 3 miles north of Cedarville, the 1st 
brigade on the left of the pike at Cedarville, with the 2nd on the opposite 
side of the road. About 2 p. m. on the i6th the pickets of the 2nd 
brigade were driven in and almost immediately a strong skirmish line 
of the enemy appeared advancing toward the camp. The attack was 
made by Lomax's and Wickham's brigades of cavalry and Kershaw's 
division of infantry, with 3 pieces of artillery. Merritt ordered the 2nd 
brigade, commanded by Col. Devin, to the front and posted the ist, 
under Col. Kidd, in front of the camp to be ready for any emergency. 
Soon a brigade of infantry was seen trying to gain the left flank. One 
regiment was dismounted and thrown forward to a hill overlooking the 
river. The Confederates waded the river and advanced boldly until they 
were within short carbine range, when they were met by a murderous 
fire and fell into confusion. A charge was immediately ordered and 
the would-be flanking party scattered in all directions. In the charge 2 
stands of colors and 290 prisoners were taken. Merritt reported his 
loss as 60 in killed and wounded and estimated that of the enemy as 
being nearly 600, including the 290 prisoners already mentioned. (This 
action is sometimes referred to as Front Ro3^al and Guard Hill.) 



Cyclopedia of Battles 241 

Cedarville, Va., Sept. 20, 1864. 2nd Cavalry Division, Army of the 
Shenandoah. The battle of Winchester was fought on the 19th. The 
next day the 2nd cavalry division, commanded by Gen. Avcrell, pursued 
the retreating Confederates across Cedar creek and for 4 miles beyond, 
driving in their pickets and forming a junction with Torbert's cavalry 
near Cedarville on the Strasburg pike. The movement was attended by 
more or less skirmishing, but no casualties were reported. 

Celeste, U. S. Steamer, Sept. 4, 1864. (See Gregory's Landing, 
Ark.) _ 

Celina, Ky., April 20, 1863. 5th Indiana Cavalry. The regiment, 
commanded by Col. F. W. Graham, was sent to Celina to break up the 
Confederate camp there and destroy certain stores. He attacked the 
camp at 4 p. m., routed Hamilton's men with a loss of 7 killed, and took 
possession of the town. Graham then destroyed about 100,000 pounds 
of bacon, 10,000 bushels of wheat, the same quantity of corn, 100 barrels 
of flour, 100 barrels of whisky, considerable quantities of sugar, coffee, 
tea, etc., and about 40 boats used in transporting supplies from points on 
the Cumberland river. Graham's loss was i wounded and i missing. 

Celina, Tenn., Dec. 7, 1863. Detachment of the 13th Kentucky Cav- 
alry. 

Celina, Tenn., March 19-22, 1865. 

Centerville, Ala., April 1-2, 1865, 2nd Brigade, ist Division Cavalry 
Corps, Division of the Mississippi. On the ist the brigade, commanded 
by Col. O. H. LaGrange, was ordered to march from Randolph 10 
Scottsville, via Centerville, for the purpose of forming a junction with 
the 1st brigade, which had been ordered to Tuscaloosa two days before. 
A battalion of the ist Wis. cavalry, under Maj. Shipman, was in the 
advance. At Centerville this battalion encountered a force of about 150 
Confederates. They were driven out, 15 being captured, and Shipman 
was left with his battalion to guard the bridge, while the rest of the 
brigade moved on to Scottsville. 

From prisoners taken between Scottsville and Trion it was learned 
that the ist brigade, after a sharp skirmish with the enemy, had fallen 
back to Elyton and that a considerable force of Confederates was in 
the vicinity of Trion. Gen. McCook, who accompanied the 2nd brigade, 
ordered that command back via Centerville to join the main column. 
On the morning of the 2nd the enemy was encountered near Centerville. 
A demonstration made by the 2nd and 4th Ind. cavalry developed a 
force estimated at 3,000, while the entire strength of the brigade did not 
exceed 1,200 men. In the demonstration the 2nd Ind. became actively 
engaged and from a strong position inflicted severe punishment on the 
Confederates. The regiment lost i man killed and 8 wounded, 6 of 
whom fell into the hands of the enemy. 

Centerville, W. Va., Sept. 14, 1864, Detachment of the ist West 
Virginia CavalrJ^ Capt. Hagans, with 16 men, pursued and overtook a 
party of 30 bushwhackers who had been stealing horses in the vicinity. 
Near Centerville he attacked them, killed 4, wounded several and put 
the rest to flight. Hagan reported his loss as i man wounded and 2 
horses killed. 

Centerville, La., April 12-14, 1863. (See Irish Bend.) 

Centerville, La., May 25, 1863. 

Centerville, Mo., Dec. 23, 1863. (See Pulliam's, Dec. 25.) 

Centerville, Mo., Nov. 12, 1864. Company K, 5th Missouri State 
Militia Cavalry. The company, commanded by Lieut. Storz, engaged in 
a skirmish with a gang of bushwhackers 12 miles north of the town, 
killing 3, wounding 3, and capturing 11 horses and 2 rifles. Storz had 
I man killed and i slightly wounded. 

Centerville, Tenn., Oct. 29, 1863. Detachment, 5th Tennessee Cav- 

Vol. V— 16 



242 The Union Army 

airy. Gen. R. S. Granger sent Lieut. -Col. Shelly, with a detachment of 
his regiment, in pursuit of Hawkins and other guerrilla chiefs that were 
infesting the country around Centerville. Shelly came up with Hawkins 
at Piney Factory and skirmished with him for a little while, when he 
fled toward Centerville. There he made a stand, but was routed and 
pursued until his gang was entirely dispersed. Hawkins lost 15 or 20 
killed and 66 captured. The Union loss was i man severely and several 
slightly wounded. 

Centerville, Tenn., Sept. 29, 1864. 2nd Tennessee Mounted Infantry. 

Centerville, Va., Aug. 28, 1862. 

Centerville, Va., Oct. 14, 1863. 

Centerville, Va., June 23-24, 1864. (See Falls Church.) 

Centralia, Mo., Sept. 27-28, 1864. Detachment 39th Missouri Vol- 
unteers. On the 27th a party of guerrillas, headed by the notorious 
W. T. Anderson, after terrorizing the citizens of the town held up a 
train on the North Missouri railroad, robbed the passengers, took 21 
soldiers from the train and shot them, then set fire to the coaches and 
started the train toward Allen. Several detachments from different 
points were started in pursuit. Anderson left pickets to watch the 
town and fell back some 2 miles to the timber. The next day Maj. 
Johnston, with about 150 men of the 39th, went to Anderson's camp. 
When within sight his men dismounted, each man holding his own horse. 
The guerrillas approached and when about 150 yards distant Johnston 
ordered his men to fire. The volley checked the bushwhackers for a 
moment, but they rallied and came on. When they were within about 
100 yards Johnston's men became panic-stricken and broke. The scene 
that followed beggars description. The retreating soldiers were shot 
down as they fled, the bodies afterward being robbed and mutilated.. 
Seventeen were found scalped. 

Centre, Ala., May 2, 1863. (See Streight's Raid.) 

Centre Creek, Mo., May 14, 1862. Detachment, 7th and 8th Missouri 
State Militia Cavalry. Maj. Edward B. Eno, with about 200 men, left 
Newtonia on the 13th for a scout in the direction of Centre creek, in 
quest of Livingston's guerrillas. After proceeding a few miles Capt. 
Ballew, with 50 men, was sent toward Shoal creek, with instructions 
to follow down that stream for 15 miles, then cross over to Turkey 
creek and encamp that night at the old mines. The next morning the 
detachment was again divided. Capt. Cassairt, with 40 men, was sent 
down the south side of Centre creek, Capt. Henslee, with 35 men, took 
the north side, each being directed to scour the country some distance 
from the stream, while Eno was to keep close to it with the remainder 
of the force. About 3 p. m. the pickets on each side of the stream were 
driven in and soon afterward Livingston was found strongly posted 
behind an old log shop in the dense timber near the Centre creek lead 
mines. The guerrillas were dressed in Federal uniforms, vi'hich caused 
Cassairt's men to mistake them for one of the other parties of Union 
troops and they were right among the enemy before the mistake was 
discovered. Capt. Henslee's horse became immanageable and he was 
carried through the Confederate lines. Tliis left his men without a 
commander and some confusion resulted, during which the men fell 
back. Cassairt rallied them and returned to the attack, with the result 
that Livingston was forced to retreat carrying his dead and wounded 
with him. Eno did not arrive on the scene until the conflict was over. 
The Union loss was 4 killed and 2 wounded. The enemy's loss was 
not definitely ascertained. Parties present at the burial of the dead 
reported the number killed as being 15 and a number were wounded. 
Cassairt was sent to Newtonia the next morning with the dead and 
wounded and Eno followed up the pursuit toward Spring river, finally 
dispersing the gang. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 243 

Centre Creek, Mo., May 15, 1863. Detachment of Missouri Militia. 
A report of T. R. Livingston, a major in the Confederate army, states 
that a scouting party under his command encountered a party of 125 
Newtonia mihtia while passing through the timber near Centre creek. 
In the skirmish the Confederates were victorious, scattering the Federals 
after killing 13, wounding 8 (4 of them mortally) and capturing 4. The 
Confederates had 2 men wounded. (See the preceding article, which 
gives an idea of what the Federal report of this affair would state.) 

Centre Creek, Mo., Feb. 20, 1865. 

Centre Star, Ala., May 15, 1864. 7th Illinois and 9th Ohio Cavalry. 
The two regiments, commanded by Col. Richard Rowett of the former, 
were sent by Gen. Gresham from Athens to Florence on a reconnais- 
sance. At Centre Star they encountered a considerable force of the 
enemy, under Col. W. A. Johnson, and drove them across the Tennessee 
river, capturing 35 prisoners. Johnson had crossed the river to strike 
the railroad, but hearing of Gresham's approach abandoned the attempt. 

Chacahoula, La., May 3, 1865. 12 men from 3d Rhode Island Cav- 
alry. 

Chacahoula Station, La., June 24, 1863. Detachment of the 9th Con- 
necticut Infantry. Lieut.-Col. Fitz Gibbons, with five companies of the 
regiment, left La Fourche crossing at 8 a. m. to guard a train while repair- 
ing the New Orleans, Opelousa & Great Western railroad. About a 
mile from Chacahoula Station he found a bridge on fire. Capt. Wright 
was sent with Co. G, to skirmish toward the station, supported by the 
greater part of the detachment, while the rest extinguished the flames 
and repaired the bridge. As the skirmishers approached the station 
they were fired on by a considerable force of the enemy. The fire was 
promptly returned, when the Confederates took shelter behind some 
small buildings and fences, with an open field in front, and as Fitz 
Gibbons was ordered to confine his operations to the line of railroad, he 
withdrew his forces after a desultory engagement of about an hour. 
The Union loss was 3 men wounded ; that of the enemy was not learned. 

Chaffin's Bluff, Va., July 28, 1864. (See Deep Bottom, same date.) 

Chaffin's Farm, Va., Sept. 29-30, 1864. (See Fort Harrison.) 

Chalk Bluff, Ark., May 15, 1862. Detachment of the ist Wisconsin 
Cavalry. Col. Daniels, learning that a force of Confederates under Col. 
Jeffers was at Chalk Bluff, impressing men and collecting supplies, 
marched from Bloomfield with 300 men for the purpose of dispersing 
them. He arrived at his destination about daylight, seized the ferry, 
dismounted his men and crossed under a heavy fire from the enemy, 
attacked, routed and pursued him for about 6 miles, killing ir and 
wounding 17. All the wounded were captured. Daniels lost i man 
killed and 8 wounded, i mortally. 

Chalk Bluff, Ark., March 10, 1863. 2nd Missouri State Militia Cav- 
alry. This affair was an incident of an expedition from Bloomfield, Mo. 
The advance arrived too late to secure the ferryboat and was exchanging 
shots with the enemy across the river when the main column arrived. 
The Confederates could not be dislodged from their position on the 
opposite bank until the howitzers were brought to bear. The casualties 
in the Union force were 2 men wounded. 

Chalk Bluff, Ark., April i, 1863. One company of the 2nd Missouri 
Militia Cavalry. 

Chalk Bluff, Ark., May i, 1863. Army of the Frontier; Pursuit of 
Marmaduke. Marmaduke left Bloomfield, Mo., on April 30, and a few 
hours later was pursued by the Union forces under McNeil and Van- 
dever. For 20 miles on May i, his rear-guard skirmished with McNeil's 
advance, being driven from one position after another. In his report of 
the expedition Marmaduke says : "When I commenced my retreat, I 



S44 The Union Army 

ordered details of the unarmed and non-effective to proceed rapidly to 
Chalk Bluff, under charge of my division quartermaster, to construct 
rafts for crossing. * * * My division reached Chalk Bluff the even- 
ing of May I. I dismounted the greater part of my command, selected 
a strong position about 4 miles from the crossing, where I formed line 
of battle to resist the advance of the enemy till my wagons, horses and 
artillery had crossed. A little before day I quietly withdrew the men, 
and by sun-up my whole command was across." 

In a letter to Gen. Herron, under date of May 4, Vandever says he 
followed Marmaduke to the St. Francis river "and drove him across, 
with heavy loss of men, though he contrived to save his guns." The 
crossing of the St. Francis was the end of the pursuit. 

Chalk Bluff, Ark., May 11, 1865. There was no fighting at Chalk 
Bluff on this date, the incident being merely the surrender of the Con- 
federate forces imdcr Gen. M. Jeff Thompson to Gen. Dodge. 

Chamberlain's Creek, Va., March 31, 1865. While Sheridan's cav- 
alry and the Sth corps were concentrating against the Confederate force 
•at Five Forks some sharp skirmishing occurred at the crossings of 
Chamberlain's creek. (See Five Forks.) 

Chambersburg, Pa., July 2, 1863. 

Charnbersburg, Pa, (Burning of), July 30, 1864. Lieut. H. T. Mc- 
Lean, with a small force of infantry and cavalry, and i piece of artillery, 
was stationed about 2 miles from the town on the morning of the 30th, 
to "keep up the appearance of defending it," until Averell's force of some 
2,000 men, which was encamped a few miles away, could come to the 
defense of the place if it should be threatened by the enemy in any con- 
siderable force. About 5 a. m. McLean was compelled to fall back 
before the brigades of McCausland and Johnson, numbering about 2,600 
men. A detachment of some 400 mounted and dismounted men. com- 
manded by Maj. Gilmor and accompanied by both Johnson and McCaus- 
land, entered the town at 5 130, the main body halting at the fair grounds, 
about a mile and a half out on the Pittsburg pike. At the Franklin 
Hotel was W. S. Kocherspcrger, a clerk at the headquarters of the 
Department of the Susquehanna. At the time he was dressed in citizens' 
clothes, and was taken by the two Confederate generals for one of the 
residents of the town. McCausland handed him the order for the de- 
struction of the town, the general purport of which was that, in retalia- 
tion for the depredations committed by Maj. -Gen. Hunter, during his 
recent raid, "it is ordered that the citizens of Chambersburg pay to the 
Confederate States by Gen. McCausland the sum of $100,000 in gold, or 
in lieu thereof $500,000 in greenbacks or national currency," otherwise 
the town would be laid in ashes within three hours. This order was 
signed by Gen. Early. The citizens refused to pay the ransom and 
Gilmor's men were ordered to apply the torch. Houses, stores, etc.. 
were broken into and plundered. Johnson tried to persuade McCausland 
not to carry out the order, but his efforts in that direction were futile. 
The court-house was one of the first buildings fired, then followed the 
town hall and commissary store-house (empty at the time), after which 
private buildings received the attention of the incendiaries. In a little 
•while the town was in flames. In looting the hotel Kochersperger's uni- 
form was found in his trunk and he was arrested as a prisoner of war. 
He was confined in a tin store adjoining until the flames attacked the 
next building, when he managed to make his escape. The Confederates 
retreated in the direction of McConnellsville closely followed by Averell. 

Chambers' Creek, Tenn., Jan. 13. 1863. 

Champion's Hill, Miss., May 16. 1863. Parts of the 13th. 15th and 
17th Army Corps. On the 13th Gen. Johnston reached Jackson. His 
idea was that the Confederate forces east of Vicksburg should be united 



Cyclopedia of Battles 245 

and a battle fought which would decide the fate of that city. To this 
end he sent a despatch to Gen. Pemberton, then at Bovina, directing him 
to attack the Federals at Clinton (about lo miles west of Jackson), and 
promised to cooperate in tlie movement. Pemberton's idea was that he 
should remain near Vicksburg, in order to defend the place and at the 
same time be near his base, lie therefore called a council of war and 
laid Johnston's suggestion — it could hardly be called an order — before 
his officers. A majority expressed themselves in favor of it and Pember- 
ton sent a reply to Johnston, closing with these words : "In directing 
this move, I do not think you fully comprehend the position that Vicks- 
burg will be left in, but I comply at once with your order." Subse- 
quently he sent another despatch, announcing his intention to move on 
the morning of the 15th, via Dillon, on the Raymond and Port Gibson 
road, in an effort to cut off the Federal communications, and added: 
"I do not consider my force sufficient to justify an attack on the enemy 
in position or to attempt to cut my way to Jackson." Although an order 
was promulgated on the evening of the 14th for the troops to be ready 
to move early the next morning, it was i p. m. before the advance guard 
left Edwards' station, near the point where the Vicksburg & Jackson 
railroad crosses the Big Black river. This delay of more than 24 hours 
prevented the successful culmination of Johnston's plans, for on the 
14th he was compelled to evacuate Jackson and fall back on the Canton 
road. 

Having driven Johnston from Jackson, Grant disposed his forces so 
as to prevent his forming a junction with Pemberton, and at the same 
time made preparations to attack the latter. From the Bolton and Ray- 
mond road three roads led to Edwards' station. On the 15th the troops 
were moved westward to occupy these roads. At 6 a. m. on the i6th 
Hovey's division of McClernand's corps (the 13th) was at the cross- 
roads just south of Bolton, with Logan's and Crocker's divisions of 
McPherson's corps (the 17th) a short distance in the rear. These 
three divisions were to move on the north road to Champion's hill. On 
the middle road were Osterhaus' and Carr's divisions of the 13th corps, 
and on the south road was A. J. Smith's division of the same, supported 
by Blair's division of the 15th. Thus arranged the whole army moved 
forward, ready to assume either the offensive or defensive as circum- 
stances might require. 

Pemberton's forces encamped on the night of the 15th on a cross- 
road south of Champion's hill. About 6:30 a. m. on the i6th a courier 
arrived with a despatch from Johnston, in which he said : "Our being 
compelled to leave Jackson makes your plan impracticable. The only 
mode by which we can unite is by your moving directly to Clinton, and 
informing me that we may move to that point with about six thousand." 
Having wasted over a day in trying to get to the Federal rear to cut 
off communications, Pemberton now decided to follow Johnston's sug- 
gestions. Accordingly orders were issued for the trains to clear the 
road so that the troops could countermarch to Edwards' station, from 
which place they were to move over the Brownsville road to join John- 
ston. But it was too late. Before the movement could be executed 
Smith's advance was driving Loring's pickets on "the Raymond road. 
Pemberton selected a strong position on the hills along the right bank 
of Baker's creek with Loring's division forming his right, Bowen's the 
center and Stevenson's on the left. His line was hardly formed before 
Hovey's skirmishers had engaged those of Stevenson near the foot of 
the hill on Champion's plantation, from which the battle takes its name. 
About 10 o'clock Grant joined Hovey, who was then forming his men for 
an assault on Stevenson's position, but the commanding general directed 
him to wait until word was received that McClernand was ready. Mc- 



246 The Union Army 

Clernand had been delayed in driving in the enemy pickets and artillery. 
At 9:45 a. m. he sent a messenger to Grant to inquire whether he should 
bring on an engagement. That despatch was not received until noon. 
Grant promptly sent back orders for him to attack in force, and later 
sent word to "push forward with all rapidity." Tlie attack was not made 
until 2 p. m., and was not then as vigorous as it might have been. 

Meantime McPherson's men had reached the field and Hovey's two bri- 
gades were deployed on the left of the road, Logan's division being formed 
on the right. At 10 .30 Hovey's skirmishers advanced steadily up the slope, 
followed by McGinnis and Slack with the two brigades, and in a little 
while the engagerrtent became general. Stevenson was forced back for 
over 600 yards, losing 11 pieces of artillery and about 300 prisoners. 
The Confederates were rallied under cover of the woods and in turn 
advanced, forcing the Federals back down the hill. Boomer's brigade 
of Quinby's (Crocker's) division and two regiments, the loth Mo. and 
17th la., were now sent to Hovey's assistance, but the whole line, rein- 
forcements and all, was forced back to a point near the brow of the 
hill. Up to this time the irregularity of the Union lines prevented the 
use of artillery in enfilading the enemy's, but when the retreat was 
checked Hovey ordered the ist Mo. and part of the i6th Ohio batteries 
in position on his right; two sections of the latter and the 6th Wis. 
battery on the left, and for a little while poured an incessant shower of 
shot and shell into the enemy, not only checking his advance, but also 
turning it into a retreat. With a cheer the Union forces advanced and 
this time held the position that had been so hotly contested three times 
within as many hours. 

While these events were transpiring on the hill Smith's and Leggett's 
brigades of Logan's division had advanced against the northern slope 
of the hill on the right of Hovey. As they advanced the 3d brigade, 
under Gen. Stevenson, was thrown still further to the right, made a 
quick march across a ravine, cut off Barton's and Lee's brigades from 
the main body of the Confederate left and captured 7 pieces of artillery. 
This action turned the tide of battle. Barton's brigade was driven 
across Baker's creek, while Lee's and Cumming's fell back in disorder 
toward the Raymond road. In the heat of the engagement on the hill 
Pemberton ordered Loring to send reinforcements to Bowen and Steven- 
son. Buford'* brigade was first moved to the left, closely followed by 
that of Featherston, but neither reached the scene in time to prevent 
the disaster. Loring was then ordered to form his men between the 
Clinton and Raymond roads to cover the retreat. The two brigades 
were recalled to join Tilghman's, which was resisting the attacks of 
Osterhaus and Smith, in which Tilghman was killed. The whole division 
was cut off from the main body and compelled to make a long, circuitous 
detour to the south, and the next day reported to Johnston his arrival 
at Crystal Springs, "without baggage, wagons or cooking utensils." The 
next day part of Pemberton's command made a feeble stand at Big 
Black river (q. v.), after which the remnants of his shattered army 
retired to Vicksburg and the siege commenced. In this engagement at 
Champion's the Union losses were 410 killed, 1,844 wounded and 187 
missing. The Confederates lost 380 killed, 1,018 wounded and 2,441 
missing. In his report Pemberton says he had 17,500 men engaged at 
Champion's hill, though subsequent estimates place the strength of his 
army at nearly 24,000. The Union forces numbered about 32.000, though 
all were not actively engaged, the brunt of the battle being borne by 
Hovey and Logan. This engagement was the turning point of the Vicks- 
burg campaign, and had Pemberton promptly obeyed Johnston's order 
of the 13th, thus effecting a union of the two armies, the history of that 
campaign might have been differently written. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 247 

Champion's Hill, Miss., Feb. 4, 1864. Part of the 17th Army Corps. 
This action was an incident of the Meridian expedition, which left 
Vicksburg on the ist. The corps, commanded by Maj.-Gen. James B. 
McPherson, moved out across Big Black river and on the night of 
the 3d bivouacked at Edwards' station. At an early hour the next morn- 
ing the whole command moved forward with the 2nd brigade of Crock- 
er's division, under the command of Col. Cyrus Hall, in the advance. 
Near Champion's hill two brigades of Confederate cavalry (Wirt Adams' 
and Ferguson's), with 2 pieces of artillery, were found drawn up to dis- 
pute the progress of the Federals. Hall deployed the 15th 111. as skir- 
mishers and formed the other two regiments of the brigade, the 14th 
and 76th 111., on the right and left of the Clinton road, in easy support- 
ing distance. In this order the brigade moved forward to Raker's creek, 
where the enemy opened with his artillery with great accuracy. The 15th 
Wis., of Gresham's brigade, was now sent forward to the support of 
Hall and in a short time the skirmishing became general. Winslow's 
cavalry, the 5th and nth 111., 4th la. and loth Mo., was ordered to move 
on the flanks of the enemy's position and this movement, in connection 
with the steady advance in front, forced him to abandon his position and 
fall back toward Bolton depot. There was more or less skirmishing all 
day, the Union loss being about 30 in killed and wounded. At Champion's 
hill the Confederates left 4 dead on the field and a major mortally 
wounded. Others were seen to fall during the fight. 

Chancellorsville, Va., May 1-4, 1863. Army of the Potomac. Gen. 
Hooker superseded Gen. Burnside in command of the Army of the Po- 
tomac on Jan. 26, 1863. As nothing in the way of active operations 
could be undertaken in the dead of winter, more than two months were 
spent in getting the army in good condition. During that time it re- 
mained in its winter quarters on the left bank of the Rappahannock 
river opposite Fredericksburg. It consisted of the ist, 2nd, 3d, 5th, 6th, 
iith and 12th army corps, respectively commanded by Maj.-Gens. John 
F. Reynolds, Darius N. Couch, Daniel E. Sickles, George G. Meade, 
John Sedgwick, Ohver O. Howard and Henry W. Slocum, and the 
cavalry corps, commanded by Brig.-Gen. George Stoneman. In round 
numbers Hooker had 111,000 infantry, 11,000 cavalry, and 8,000 artillery, 
with 404 guns. Opposed to this force was Lee's army, the Army of 
Northern Virginia, made up of the ist and 2nd army corps. The former 
was commanded by Gen. James Longstreet and the latter by Gen. 
Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson. Longstreet, with two divisions and 
two battalions of artillery, was absent in southeastern Virginia, so the 
troops with Lee numbered about 57,000 infantry, 3,000 cavalry, and prob- 
ably 170 pieces of artillery. This force lay at Fredericksburg, on the 
south side of the Rappahannock, where all winter Lee had been watch- 
ing the movements of the Federals. 

Early in April Hooker advised his officers of his plan of campaign. 
Stoneman, with the main body of the cavalry, was to move up the Rappa- 
hannock, cross at the upper fords and cut Lee's communication with his 
base of supplies at Richmond. After crossing the river the cavalry was 
to divide into two columns ; one, under Gen. Averell, was to attack 
Gordonsville and Culpeper, and the other, command,ed by Gen. Buford, 
was to reach the Fredericksburg railroad via Louisa Court House. The 
two divisions were then to unite south of the Pamunkey river to harass 
Lee's retreat from Fredericksburg, which all felt was sure to come. 
Stoneman started on his mission on April 13, but heavy rains had made 
the river unfordable and he was compelled to wait until the 28th before 
he could effect a crossing. This delay interfered somewhat with the 
original plans, but on the evening of the 26th Hooker issued orders for 
the corps of Meade. Howard and Slocum to move the next morning in 



248 The Union Army 

light marching order for Kelly's ford, 27 miles above Fredericksbvirg, 
where they were to cross, then press rapidly forward, cross the Rapi- 
dan, sweep down the southern bank and strike the Confederate army on 
the left flank. Couch, with two of his divisions, was to proceed to the 
United States ford and be in readiness to cross as soon as the Confed- 
erate force there should be driven away by the Federal advance. Gib- 
bon's division of this corps was left in camp at Falmouth, where it was 
in plain view of the Confederates, and to move it might give Lee some 
idea of Hooker's intentions. To further confuse the enemy demonstra- 
tions had been made for several days at various points along the river. 
To prevent Lee from sending a strong force against the four corps 
operating above Fredericksburg Sedgwick, with his own corps and those 
of Reynolds and Sickles, was to cross below the town and make a dem- 
onstration to draw the attention of the enemy in that direction. 

On Monday morning, April 27, the troops moved according to 
instructions, and reached Kelly's ford late in the afternoon next day. 
A detachment was sent across in boats to drive away the picket guard, 
and by daylight the next morning all were over and on the way to the 
Rapidan. Stoneman crossed his cavalry at the same time. Pleasonton's 
brigade of cavalry, with two batteries, was attached to Slocum's corps, 
and this was all of that arm that participated in the battles of Chancel- 
lorsville, the rest of Stoneman's command moving toward Culpeper. 
Meade crossed the Rapidan at Ely's ford and the other two corps at 
Germanna ford, 10 miles above. As soon as Meade's column appeared 
on the south side of the Rappahannock opposite the United States ford 
Couch threw the pontoons across and passed his two divisions over. 
On the afternoon of the 30th the four corps were concentrated at Chan- 
cellorsville. Sedgwick waited until the 28th, to give the other division 
of the army time to reach Kelly's ford, and then moved down the river 
with the 1st, 3d and 6th corps to a point near the old Franklin crossing, 
where they bivouacked for the night. Early the next morning the ist 
and 6th corps were crossed over, leaving Sickles' corps on the north 
side as a reserve and to cover the advance with his artillery. A small 
force of the enemy in rifle pits disputed the passage of the river, but a 
detachment sent over in boats soon drove them from their position. 
The Confederates then contented themselves with shelling the advancing 
troops from the batteries on the heights. When it became evident that 
no serious attack was to be made on Sedgwick, Sickles' corps was ordered 
to join the forces at Chancellorsville and moved on the 30th. Sedgwick 
then disposed his forces in such a way as to lead Lee to think a large 
body of troops was below the town, and that an attack was likely to 
come from that quarter. Had the feint succeeded the story of Chan- 
cellorsville might have been dili'erently told. In his report Lee says : 
"No demonstration was made opposite any other part of our lines at 
Fredericksburg, and the strength of the force that had crossed and its 
apparent indisposition to attack indicated that the principal effort of the 
enemy would be made in some other quarter. This impression was 
confirmed by intelligence received from Gen. Stuart that a large body of 
infantry and artillery was passing up the river. During the forenoon 
of the 29th, that officer reported that the enemy had crossed in force 
near Kelly's ford on the preceding evening. Later in the day he an- 
nounced that a heavy column was moving from Kelly's toward Germanna 
ford, on the Rapidan, and another toward Ely's ford on that river. The 
routes they were pursuing after crossing the Rapidan converge near 
Chancellorsville, whence several roads lead to the rear of our position at 
Fredericksburg." 

This was the first intimation Lee had of Hooker's real purpose. 
Upon receipt of this information he sent a despatch to Gen. Anderson, 



Cyclopedia of Battles 249 

as follows : "I have received reliable intelligence that the enemy have 
crossed the river in force. Why have you not kept me informed? I 
wish to see you at my headquarters at once." The bearer of that 
despatch was captured by some of the Union cavalry. The cavalry had 
also captured a picket, among whom was an engineer officer belonging 
to Stuart's staff, and who had in his possession a diary containing the 
record of a council, held by the Confederate generals some weeks before, 
in which it was decided that the next battle was likely to be fought in 
the vicinity of Chancellorsville, and that it would be well to seize and 
prepare a position there. This diary and Lee's despatch were turned 
over to Hooker by Pleasonton, who suggested that, as Lee was now 
advised of the movements of the Union forces and was expecting a fight 
at Chancellorsville, it might be good tactics to forestall him by moving 
on toward Fredericksburg and selecting a new position. Here was 
Hooker's golden opportunity, but he allowed it to pass. Lee remained 
in Fredericksburg until the 30th, still uncertain as to Sedgwick's motives, 
and fearing to move in either direction until he had a better understand- 
ing of the situation. Hooker on the 29th had over 45,000 men, and 
Sickles had orders to join him the next day with his corps, numbering 
18,000 more. Failing to receive Lee's despatch ordering him to head- 
quarters, Anderson retired to Tabernacle Church and commenced in- 
trenching. This was the only force to prevent Hooker from pressing 
forward, seizing Banks' ford, thus shortening the distance between him- 
self and Sedgwick by at least 10 miles, and forcing Lee to meet him at 
a disadvantage on ground where the superior numbers of the Federals 
meant certain victory. 

Late on the 30th Lee became fully convinced that Sedgwick did not 
intend to attack. Leaving Early's division and Barksdale's brigade to 
hold Fredericksburg, the remainder of the Confederate forces were con- 
centrated in front of Hooker. A little after sunrise on May i McLaws' 
division joined Anderson, and three divisions of Jackson's corps arrived 
on the field about 8 o'clock. Three hours later Hooker began his ad- 
vance in four columns, each preceded by a detachment of cavalry. 
Howard and Slocum moved on the plank road to the right; Sykes' 
division of Meade's corps and Hancock's division of Couch's took the 
turnpike; the other two divisions of Meade's corps (Humphreys' and 
Griffin's) took the river road toward Banks' ford; French's division 
was to march south to Todd's tavern, while Sickles' corps was held at 
Chancellorsville and Dowdall's tavern as a reserve and to guard the 
ford against Fitz Hugh Lee's cavalry. Hooker's object was to form a line 
of battle with his left resting on Banks' ford and his right on Tabernacle 
Church, which was to be his headquarters. But the ground, which might 
have been occupied the day before almost without a struggle, was now 
in possession of the enemy. When Jackson reached Tabernacle 
Church, he stopped the work of intrenching and moved forward 
to meet Hooker. Sykes, therefore, had not proceeded more than a 
mile before he encountered McLaws' division deployed on both sides of 
the pike. McLaws fell back steadily for a mile, when he was reinforced 
by Anderson and Ramseur, and the Confederates now assumed the 
offensive. Sykes tried to connect his line with Slocufn by throwing out 
a regiment as skirmishers, but the movement failed. Anderson suc- 
ceeded in getting on his flank, and he was compelled to fall back behind 
Hancock, whose command then came to the front and engaged the 
enemy. Sykes then secured a strong position, which he was preparing 
to hold, when the orders came for all to fall back to the positions they 
held early in the morning. Couch and Hancock protested against any- 
thing like a retreat. The general position was a good one. The in- 
fantry was almost clear of the woods and thickets, and there was plenty 



■250 The Union Army 

of open space in which the artillery could be used eflFectively. Gen. 
Warren, chief engineer on Hooker's staflf, urged Couch and Hancock 
to hold their positions until he could consult Hooker, but the latter 
would not rescind the order to retire. Subsequently he countermanded 
the order and directed the troops to return to their positions, but it was 
too late, as the enemy was already in possession of the ridge. 

Meantime Meade's column had come within sight of Banks' ford 
without seeing anything of the enemy when the order was received to 
fall back to Chanccllorsville. Both divisions started to return, but 
Grififin was ordered to form on Hancock's left, where about 6 p. m. 
he aided in repulsing the enemy in an advance on Sykes' position, after 
which they went into bivouac for the night. Humphreys was sent to 
the extreme left of the line to guard the approaches to the United States 
ford. French, who had moved in the morning via Todd's tavern, came 
within sight of the Confederates, but was ordered to fall back before 
he could engage them. During the afternoon a new line was formed 
with Meade on the left toward Fredericksburg facing east; Slocum in 
the center facing south, Howard on the right facing west, with Couch 
and Sickles in reserve, except one brigade from each division, which 
occupied positions in the front line. The left and center were protected 
in front by ravines, through which ran small brooks, but on the right 
there was nothing but the thickets to hinder a near approach of the 
enemy in an attack on Howard. As thus formed the line covered all 
the roads passing through Chancellorsville. Late in the day an assault 
was made by Wright and Stuart on the advance portion of Slocum's 
corps and it was driven back on the main body. Artillery was then 
brought up and a heavy fire directed against Slocum, but he held his 
position. An artillery fire was also opened on Hancock's line, when 
Knap's battery replied with such effectiveness that the Confederates 
gave up the attempt to drive the Union troops back by this method. 
Owing to the thickets, which screened the Federal army, Lee was at a 
loss where to direct his attacks, and the waning hours of the day were 
spent in a number of pretended assaults at various points to ascertain, 
if possible, just how Hooker's forces were posted. These demonstra- 
tions developed the fact that the lines in front of Chancellorsville were 
impregnable. Lee and Jackson held a consultation about dark to deter- 
mine the course they should pursue on the following day. Stuart had 
learned the weakness of the Union right and had communicated his 
knowledge to Jackson, who now advised a flank movement against that 
part of the line. 

During the night the roads were picketed by the Federal cavalry, 
while within the lines of both armies could be heard the sound of the 
ax as the contending forces engaged in strengthening their fronts by 
log breastworks, etc. In some places along the Union line this work 
was continued far into the next day. Long before daylight on the 
morning of the 3d Jack.son was up and studying a rough map of the 
country to find a route to the right and rear of the Union army. An 
old resident was found, who pointed out a way, and at sunrise Jackson, 
with his three divisions, was on the march. For some distance the 
movement was hidden by the dense forest, and then a point was 
reached where the by-road ran over a hill in plain view of Sickles' posi- 
tion. It was readily seen that it was a movement in force, but as the 
road here ran due south and directly away from the Federals, it was 
thought the Confederate retreat was begun. Gen. Birney reported the 
matter to Sickles and at the same time directed a section of Clark's 
rifled battery to fire a few shots at the moving column. The range was 
easily found and Birney ordered the rest of the battery to the same 
position. The artillery fire was so effective that the column was ap- 



Cyclopedia of Battles ^51 

parently thrown into confusion, hurrying forward to get out of range 
of the guns. This fact added to the belief that the enemy was in full 
retreat. This was about 8 a. m. Hooker was at once notified of the 
affair and was inclined to believe that the Confederates were retiring. 
Realizing, however, that it might be one of the flank movements for 
which Jackson was noted, he issued orders to Slocum and Howard to 
strengthen their lines as much as possible and advance their pickets "to 
obtain timely information of their approach." 

At noon Sickles received orders to follow Jackson and harass his 
movements. Birney's division, with two battalions of Berdan's sharp- 
shooters and Randolph's battery, were hurried forward, supported by 
Whipple's division. Birney's advance was checked by a i2-pounder bat- 
tery at the iron foundry near Welford's house, but Livingston's battery 
was brought up and soon silenced the enemy's guns. Pleasonton's cav- 
alry was also brought up as a reinforcement, but the woods being too 
thick to permit its use to advantage, Sickles advised Pleasonton to return 
to the open space near Scott's run. Sickles wanted to cut off the divi- 
sions of Anderson and McLaws and capture them, and sent for rein- 
forcements for that purpose. He was promised the rest of his own 
corps, as well as support from Slocum and Howard, and was preparing 
to attack, when Hooker changed his mind and recalled the reinforce- 
ments. About 300 prisoners were taken, however, and from these it 
was learned that Jackson's purpose was to strike a blow on the right. 
But the information came too late to be of service. 

All day Lee had been keeping up a demonstration against the Union 
left and center; now directing a heavy cannonade against Meade; now 
a musketry fire against Couch and Slocum ; followed by an attack on 
Hancock, who occupied a position in advance of the main line. These 
movements were intended to create the impression that the principal 
assault was to be made in that quarter, and to draw attention from 
Jackson. By 3 p. m. Jackson had reached the plank road, within 2 
miles of Howard's corps. Howard had neglected to observe Hooker's 
order of the morning to advance his pickets in order to guard against 
a surprise. Even when informed by Capt. Farmer, of Pleasonton's staff, 
that a Confederate battery was posted directly on his flank he did not 
believe that any attack was intended against his corps. The Confederate 
pickets, therefore, crept through the thickets unmolested and accurately 
reported Howard's position. Jackson formed his forces in three lines, 
Rodes in front, then Colston, then A. P. Hill, his formation reaching 
some distance on either side of the road and completely enveloping the 
front, flank and rear of the nth corps. Anderson and McLaws had 
orders, as soon as the sound of Jackson's guns was heard, to make a 
feint of attacking the Union left to prevent aid being sent to Howard, 
and at the same time to press gradually to their left until they connected 
with Jackson's right, when the whole force was to close on the Federal 
center. It was 5 p. m. when Jackson formed his lines for the final 
attack. Howard's men had stacked their arms and were preparing their 
suppers. Some were playing cards, and all were unprepared for the 
assault that was soon to arouse them from their fancied security. In- 
trenchments had been thrown up but they were not rrianned. Not even 
the shot of a solitary picket alarmed the corps. With a yell and a volley 
of musketry the Confederates dashed out of the woods upon the defense- 
less Federals, who fled in confusion without firing a shot. A few made 
an attempt to withstand the advance, but they were swept from their 
position and joined their comrades now streaming throueh the woods 
toward Chancellorsville. The wild rush of the fugitives aroused 
Hooker to action. His staff vainly tried to rally the panic-stricken 
troops, making it necessary to form a new line immediately to prevent 



252 The Union Army 

Jackson from sweeping everything before him. But it was not an easy 
matter to find men for the formation of this new line, for as soon as 
Lee heard the sound of Jackson's attack he immediately engaged the 
whole line to prevent any aid being sent to Howard. Berry's division 
happened to be in reserve at a convenient distance. He was ordered 
to move at once, form across the plank road and drive the Confederates 
back, or at least hold them in check until reinforcements could be sent 
to him. But the check to Jackson's impetuous onslaught came from a 
different and somewhat unexpected quarter. When Pleasonton left 
Sickles at the iron foundry he proceeded leisurely back to Hazel grove 
with the 8th and 17th Penn. cavalry and Martin's battery of horse 
artillery. Upon reaching the open space he had left a short time before 
he found it filled with a confused mass of men, guns, caissons and 
ambulances, all bent on getting out of the way as soon as possible. 
Charging upon this disorderly aggregation he cleared the space for 
action. To gain time, for the enemy was already forming for another 
attack, he ordered Maj. Keenan of the 8th Penn. to charge the Con- 
federate lines. This was bravely done, though Keenan and 32 of his 
men never returned. Pleasonton next ordered Martin to bring his 
guns into battery, load them with double charges of canister, and aim so 
that the shot would strike the ground some distance in advance of 
the approaching enemy, but not to fire until orders were given. Just 
at this juncture Lieut. Crosby, of the 4th U. S. artillery, reported to 
Pleasonton that he had a battery of 6 guns at hand. This was placed 
by the side of Martin's battery, giving Pleasonton 12 guns, and to get 
more a detachment of the 17th Penn. charged on the stragglers and took 
possession of 10 pieces, which were brought quickly into line. It was 
now dusk. Keenan's charge, although disastrous to himself, had gained 
for Pleasonton a valuable quarter of an hour. The Confederate line 
emerged from the woods bearing a Union flag which had been dropped 
by some of the flying troops. They called out not to shoot as they 
were friends, but a moment later discharged a volley directly at the 
men behind the guns. Pleasonton then gave the order to fire. The 
whole line of guns, double-shotted and aimed low, belched forth a mur- 
derous discharge of iron hail that swept the advancing Confederates 
off their feet. Before the line could be reformed the guns were again 
loaded and again that shower of death-dealing missiles was sent hurtling 
through the ranks of the enemy. The cannonade continued for fully 20 
minutes, when the Confederates gave up the attempt to storm the battery 
and retired to the woods. 

When Berry received the order to move out and recapture the works 
of the routed nth corps he promptly obeyed, but found a large force of 
the enemy in possession. He then formed his line in the valley in front 
and held his position there to await developments. Warren had stopped 
several of the retreating batteries and now formed them across the 
plank road in the rear of the infantry. When Pleasonton opened fire 
on the enemy Warren's guns were also brought into action and rendered 
effective service, while Berry steadily advanced his line, meanwhile 
keeping up an incessant fire of musketry up the road and into the woods. 
About 8:30 the firing began to decrease and half an hour later ceased 
altogether. Jackson ordered A. P. Hill's division to the front for the 
purpose of continuing the fight, and with his staff rode forward to 
examine the position. He had not proceeded far when a fire from 
Berry's pickets warned him that the Federals were on the alert. As 
he rode back to his lines Hill's men were just taking position. Mistaking 
Jackson and his staff for Union cavalry some of them fired. Half of 
his escort were killed or wounded. He was struck by three balls, being 
wounded in both hands and his left arm. He was taken to Guiney's 



Cyclopedia of Battles 353 

station, to keep him from being captured, pneumonia set in and he died 
on May lo. 

In the Union line of battle on Sunday morning the position of the 
left and center remained the same, except Howard's corps was moved 
to the extreme left, where no attack was likely to be made. The left 
was held by Hancock, the center by Slocum, and the right, facing west, 
by Sickles and French's division of Couch's corps. Sickles' extreme 
left (Birney's division) occupied the little plateau of Hazel grove, 
which commanded the Union center, and if won by the enemy he could 
pour an enfilading tire into Slocum's ranks. During the night Reynolds' 
corps had come up. It was placed so as to guard the roads to Ely's 
and the United States fords, and occupied the position which had beea 
Jackson's objective point. After Jackson was wounded the command of 
the corps fell on Stuart, who was busy all night reorganizing his forces. 
At dawn he swung his right through the woods toward Hazel grove, 
from which all the Union troops had been withdrawn with the exception 
of Graham's brigade. Graham mistook the movement for an attack and 
a sharp skirmish ensued, which resulted in the Federals evacuating the 
hill and retiring to Fairview. Stuart was quick to see the advantage he 
had gained. He immediately occupied the hill with 30 pieces of artillery 
and opened fire on Chancellorsville. His next move was to attack Sickles 
on the Fairview ridge. Sickles obstinately defended his position for 
over two hours, repulsing several assaults, and then sent for reinforce- 
ments. Just as the request reached headquarters Hooker was knocked 
senseless by a cannon ball from Hazel grove, which struck the pillar 
against which he was leaning. There was no one with authority to 
send Sickles the desired assistance, though Meade and Reynolds were 
both disengaged and either corps would have been sufficient to enable 
Sickles to hold his position, or even to assume the offensive and secure 
a victory. Sickles fought on until his ammunition was exhausted, when 
he withdrew his useless artillery, fell back to a second line, only par- 
tially fortified, and prepared to hold that by bayonet. Just then French 
made a determined attack on the Confederate left and forced it back. 
This was the only offensive movement of the Union forces that day, and 
Stuart rushed reinforcements to the spot, quickly repelling the assault. 
Had half of Reynolds' corps, lying idle a short distance away, been 
ordered up Stuart's army might have been destroyed. During this time 
Slocum's line had been subjected to a heavy fire from the artillery ar 
Hazel grove, and Hancock was threatened. By 10 a. m. Lee and 
Stuart had succeeded in effecting a junction of their forces, and witli 
40,000 men began pressing on toward Chancellorsville, opposed by prob- 
ably 30,000 under Sickles, French and Slocum. The 42,000 of Meade, 
Howard and Reynolds, all within easy call, remained inactive. Again 
the assault fell on Sickles, who was without ammunition. Five times 
he repulsed the enemy with bayonets. Then the overwhelming numbers 
of the enemy hurled against him compelled him to give way and the 
army fell back to a line which had been mapped out the evening before. 

Here was a strong position. Tlie left was protected by the ravine 
of Mineral Spring run, the right by the ravines of the Big and Little 
Hunting runs, leaving only a narrow front open to atfack, and this was 
not easy to approach by a line of any extent. Hooker had here over 
70,000 men, while Lee's strength was barely 40,000. Notwithstanding 
this disparity of numbers he was preparing to renew the fight vvhen he 
received the news that Sedgwick and Gibbon were between him and 
Fredericksburg, ready to fall on his rear or overpower Early and cut 
the Confederate communications. At 11 p. m. on Saturday, the 2nd. 
Sedgwick received the order to join Hooker. It was daylight before 
his advance reached the left and rear of Fredericksburg. Marye's hill 



254 The Union Army 

was carried by assault at ii o'clock, and Sedgwick was between Lee 
and Early with his corps of 22,000 men. Gibbon, with his division of 
5,000, had crossed over from Falmouth as soon as the town had been 
taken, and moved to the right, but was checked by the artillery fire and 
held at the canal until after the storming of the heights. Gibbon was 
left to hold the town and cover the bridges and Sedgwick sent back for 
Brooks' division, which had been left 3 miles below the town, to come 
forward and take the advance. This delayed Sedgwick's movements 
until 3 p. m., giving Lee time to send four brigades to check the Federal 
advance. At Salem Church this detachment met the Confederates that 
had been driven from Marye's heights, and a stand was made on a low 
ridge covered with timber. An attack by Brooks and Newton drove 
the Confederates from this position, but reinforcements coming up the 
Union forces were in turn compelled to fall back, closely pressed by 
the enemy until he was checked by the artillery. Both armies lay that 
night on the field. 

On Monday morning. May 4, Lee's army was in an extremely haz- 
ardous position. His entire strength was less than 50,000 men and this 
force was scattered. Stuart's corps, with the greater part of Anderson's 
division, was in front of Hooker at Chancellorsville ; McLaws, with 
about 10,000, was at Salem Church, holding Sedgwick in check; and 
Early, with 8,000, was 3 miles farther south. Thus divided the Con- 
federate army ought to have fallen an easy prey to the superior force 
of the Federals. But it was saved by the good generalship of Lee and 
the inactivity of Hooker. The remainder of Anderson's division was 
quietly withdrawn from Stuart and sent against Sedgwick. Early re- 
captured Marye's hill, forcing Gibbon to abandon Fredericksburg and 
recross the river, and then moved to join Anderson. At 11 a. m. Sedg- 
wick found himself encompassed on three sides by the enemy. He 
reported the situation to Hooker and asked the active support of the 
main army. In reply he was directed not to attack unless the main 
body at Chancellorsville did so. This order placed him on the defensive. 
At 4 p. m. he formed his corps — now less than 20,000 men — with Howe 
facing Early on the east, Newton, with Russell's brigade of Brooks' 
division, facing west against McLaws, while Brooks' other two brigades 
were facing Anderson on the south. Within the three sides of this 
square, both flanks of which rested on the river, was Banks' ford, his 
line of retreat in case he was compelled to abandon his position. His 
entire line was thin and was confronted by a superior force. He realized 
that his position was precarious, but he determined to hold it until dark, 
as an attempt to cross the river in the daytime would sacrifice a large 
part of his command. About 6 p. m. three guns were fired in quick 
succession from one of the Confederate batteries. This was the signal 
for the attack and the whole line began to advance. The assault fell 
the heaviest on Howe in an effort to cut off the Federals from the ford. 
Newton was not assailed and Brooks easily repulsed the attack on his 
line. Howe's artillery did effective work on Early's column and threw 
it into confusion. Taking advantage of the situation Howe advanced 
his right and captured the greater part of the 8th La. regiment, but the 
movement exposed his left and he was compelled to fall back to a posi- 
tion previously selected. The enemy took this for a retreat and charged, 
bringing his flank opposite the Vermont brigade stationed in a little 
piece of woods. This brigade opened a galling fire and Early beat a 
precipitate retreat. After the attack on his lines in the morning Sedg- 
wick sent word to Hooker that he could hold his position. Before 
Hooker received that despatch he had sent Sedgwick an order to cross 
the river. After receiving it he countermanded the order, but Sedgwick 
did not receive the countermand in time. Gen. Benham, of the engineers. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 255. 

had thrown a bridge across at Scott's dam, about a mile below Banks' 
ford, on the 3d. While the attack on Sedgwick was in progress he 
threw over another, and this precaution enabled Sedgwick to save his 
corps. Soon after dark the order was issued to fall back to the north 
bank of the Rappahannock and by daylight the next morning the entire 
command was encamped on the Falmouth road a mile from the ford. 

On Sunday night Hooker called a council of war, at which it was 
decided to recross the Rappahannock. Some difficulty was encountered 
in crossing, owing to a sudden rise in the river, but by the 6th the entire 
army was on the north side, and the diastrous Chancellorsville campaign 
was ended. In the several engagements the Union army lost 1,606 
killed, 9,762 wounded, and 5,919 missing. The Confederate losses, as 
given by brigade and division commanders, aggregated 1,649 killed, 9,106 
wounded, and 1,708 captured or missing. 

Chantilly, Va., Sept. i, 1862. 3d Corps, Army of Virginia; 3d and 
gth Corps, Army of the Potomac. After the battle of Manassas, on 
Aug. 30, Pope fell back to Centerville. His forces there on the morning 
of Sept. I numbered about 62,000 men. They were made up of the ist,. 
2nd and 3d corps of the Army of Virginia, commanded by Sigel, Banks 
and McDowell, and the 2nd, 3d, 5th, 6th and 9th corps of the Army of 
the Potomac, commanded by Sumner, Heintzelman, Porter, Frankhn and 
Reno. (The 9th corps was temporarily commanded by Brig.-Gen. Isaac I. 
Stevens.) The last day of August was rainy, but Lee decided to push 
his advantage in spite of the weather. To this end Jackson's corps, 
closely followed by Longstreet's. was moved to Sudley ford, where they 
crossed Bull run, and early on the morning of the ist Jackson started 
for the Little River turnpike, intending to reach Fairfax Court House, 7 
miles in the rear of Pope, and cut off his retreat. At 3 o'clock that 
morning Pope ordered Sumner to make a reconnaissance in the direction 
of the pike, and the detachments sent out for that purpose discovered 
Jackson's column. Pope ordered McDowell to move back toward Fair- 
fax. Hooker's division of Heintzelman's corps was to take a position 
on the right of McDowell, while Stevens was directed to push forward 
north of the road from Fairfax to Centerville in the direction of Chan- 
tilly to intercept Jackson's advance. The remainder of Heintzelman's 
corps was posted on the road between Centerville and Fairfax in sup- 
port of Stevens ; Franklin was placed on the left of McDowell ; Sumner, 
Sigel and Porter, in the order named, were to form on the left of Heint- 
zelman. Banks' corps was sent with the trains by the old Braddock road" 
to strike the Alexandria pike beyond Fairfax. Stevens was unable to 
reach the pike in advance of Jackson, but became engaged with the Con- 
federate skirmishers south of the road. Without waiting for support 
he determined to attack. Seizing the colors of the 79th N. Y. High- 
landers — his old regiment — he led the advance in person. His division, 
numbering about 2,000 men, every one of whom was inspired by the 
heroic conduct of their commander, charged impetuously upon the Con- 
federate column, effectively checking its further progress. Stevens fell 
in the charge. Gen. Kenrnv, commanding the ist divi'^ion of Heintzel- 
man's corps, moved promptly to the assistance of Stevens and was also 
killed. The fighting continued for an hour or more. - Ricketts' division 
of McDowell's corps was drawn up across the road in the valley of 
Difficult creek and attacked Jackson in front while the fighting on his 
flank was going on. This assault from two directions forced the enemy 
to retire and Pope's army was saved. The engagement is also known 
as the battle of Ox hill. The official statement of the Union loss here 
is included in the report of the operations from Aug. 16 to Sept. 2. The 
Confederate reports give 44 killed, 151 wounded and 5 missing. 

Chantilly, Va., Dec. 29, 1862. Detachment of the ist New Jersey 



256 The Union Army 

Cavalry. This was an incident of Stuart's cavalry raid to Dumfries 
and Fairfax Court House. Col. Wyndham, with 500 men of his regi- 
ment, fell on the enemy's rear about 10 a. m., and although the Con- 
federates numbered over 3,000 his attack was so vigorous that they were 
compelled to halt and deploy their forces, by which means Wyndham 
discovered their strength. Seeing himself outnumbered he withdrew a 
short distance, but when the enemy again resumed the march he pur- 
sued them to Pleasant Valley, harassing their rear at every opportunity. 
Xo casualties reported. 

Chantilly, Va., Feb. 10, 25-26, 1863. 

Chantilly, Va., March 23, 1863. (See Little River Turnpike.) 

Chantilly, Va., Oct. 17, 1863. 

Chapel Hill, Mo., July 30, 1864. Detachment of the 7th Missouri 
State Militia Cavalry. Lieut. Horn, with 93 men, set out from Camp 
Grover, near Warrensburg, on the evening of the 27th for the north- 
west part of Johnson county, for the purpose of breaking up a band of 
bushwhackers that was operating in that vicinity. From Wagon knob 
he discovered a party of the enemy in a grove near Chapel hill. Deploy- 
ing his men so as to cover the grove he ordered a charge, killed i man 
and wounded another, and captured 2 horses and 5 rifles and shotguns 
without loss. 

Chapel Hill, N. C, April 15, 1865. Gen. Joseph Wheeler, of the 
Confederate army, in one of his reports states that Federal troops ap- 
proached his position at Chapel Hill, fired a few shots, and then retired. 
No mention of the affair is found in any of the Union reports or com- 
munications. 

Chapel Hill, Tenn., March 5, 1863. 3d Division, 14th Army Corps. 
Brig.-Gen. James B. Steedman, commanding the corps, sent out a detach- 
ment from Triune to make a reconnaissance to the Confederate camp near 
Chapel Hill. The reconnoitering party encountered two regiments of Rod- 
dey's cavalry and drove them across Duck river, wounding 7 and capturing 
60, with their horses and equipments, without casualty. 

Chapel Hill, Tenn., April 13, 1863. Detachment of Cavalry of the 
14th Army Corps. Gen. Steedman sent Lieut. -Col. J. P. Brownlow, 
with two companies, to capture a forage train near Chapel Hill. Two 
miles from the town Brownlow attacked the train, killed i man and dis- 
persed the guard, but before the train could be destroyed the enemy was 
reinforced and the Federals were forced to retire, which they did in 
good order and without loss. 

Chaplin Hills, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862. (See Perryville.) 

Chaplintown, Ky., Jan. 30, 1865. Detachment of the 30th Kentucky 
Infantry. Capt. Searcy's company had a running fight with Clarke's 
guerrillas 3 miles east of Chaplintown and wounded i man. The guer- 
rillas were better mounted than the Federals and succeeded in making 
their escape. 

Chapman's Fort, S. C, May 26, 1864. U. S. Transport Boston. An 
expedition was sent out by Gen Hatch, under command of Brig.-Gen. 
William Birney, to destroy the bridges on the line of the Charleston & 
Savannah railroad. Of the transports conveying the expedition two — 
the Boston and the Edwin Lewis — made a mistake, and, instead of stopping 
at the point designated, proceeded on up the Ashepoo river until they 
came within range of the Confederate guns at Chapman's fort. There 
the Boston ran aground, in such a position that she was subjected to a 
raking fire, and was soon disabled. The men on board saved their lives 
by swimming to the Lewis, though they were compelled to lose their 
arms and equipments. The loss was 13 killed, drowned and missing. 
The steamer fell into the hands of the enemy and was burned, with 
about 100 horses that were on board. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 257 

Chapmanville, W. Va., Sept. 25, 1861. ist Kentucky and 34th Ohio 
Volunteers. 

Chapmanville, W. Va., April 18, 1862. 

Chappell House, Va., Sept. 27-Oct. 2, 1864. 

Chariton Bridge, Mo., Aug. 3, 1862. 6th Mis.souri Cavalry. 

Chariton County, Mo., April 11, 1864. Detachment of the 9th Mis- 
souri State Militia Cavalry. Sergt. T. J. Westly, with a small force of 
men, was sent in pursuit of a gang of guerrillas that had been com- 
mitting depredations around Brookfield and Porche's prairie. About 
9 a. m. on the nth he came up with them in Chariton county, captured 
3 prisoners, 5 horses, 6 double-barreled shotguns, 3 revolvers and a quan- 
tity of clothing. Two of the bushwhackers were run into Elk creek, and 
were thought to have been drowned. 

Chariton County, Mo., May 27, 1865. Detachments of the 62nd 
Missouri Militia. For some time after the close of hostilities, this part 
of Missouri was infested by bands of guerrillas. On the 27th Capt. Dol- 
man's company had a skirmish with one of these gangs, led by one Jack- 
son. In the skirmish Jackson's horse was shot from under him, but he 
managed to escape, although pursued for some distance. On the same 
day Lieut. Wright, with part of Capt. Denny's company, surrounded 
Rider's gang at Switzler's mill, at 3 o'clock in the morning. One guer- 
rilla was severely wounded ; several in trying to escape ran into the 
millpond and at least one was drowned. In both these affairs the Union 
forces suffered no casualties. 

Chariton Road, Mo., July 30, 1864. Detachment 35th Enrolled Mis- 
souri Militia Infantry. Lieut. Benecke, with 44 men of Capt. Stanley's 
company, was sent to Union Church to disperse Holtzclaw's band of 
guerrillas. Finding the trail at the church, Benecke pursued to the forks 
of the Chariton, where he attacked, killing 4 and wounding about a 
dozen. The rest of the gang, after a spirited fight of a few minutes' 
duration, sought safety in flight. The Union loss was i man slightly 
wounded. 

Charles City Court House, Va., Dec. 12-14, 1863. Detachments, 
139th New York and 6th U. S. Colored Infantry and New York Mounted 
Rifles. The expedition against Charles City Court House was sent out 
by Gen. Wistar, under the command of Col. R. M. West, the object 
being to capture the enemy's cavalry at that point. On the 12th 200 men 
of the 139th N. Y. were started from Williamsburg, under Col. Roberts, 
with instructions to reach the Forge bridge by 5 a. m. the next day and 
hold it. Roberts made a detour to the rear of the enemy's pickets and 
reached the bridge on time. At 7 o'clock that evening 275 men of the 
N. Y. mounted rifles, under Col. Onderdonk, and accompanied by West, 
moved by the direct road to the bridge. At 4 o'clock on the morning 
of the 13th the 6th Colored infantry, under Col. Ames, was ordered to 
move to Twelve-mile Ordinary, with ambulances and a wagon loaded 
with rations, and picket the roads there. When the mounted rifles reached 
the bridge they were divided into two parties, one under Onderdonk and 
the other under Maj. Wheelan, and advanced on the enemy's two camps, 
which were near together. Wheelan surprised his camp completely, the 
Confederates firing a straggling volley from their houses and then sur- 
rendering. The camp attacked by Onderdonk received notice of his 
approach and for a short time the enemy put up a spirited resistance 
from the houses, but in the end they were overpowered and compelled 
to surrender. The Union loss was 2 killed, 4 wounded, and i man be- 
longing to the Colored regiment captured. The enemy lost 8 officers 
and 82 men captured, with 55 horses, 3 mules, 100 carbines, 100 sabers, 
100 sets of horse equipments, 20 new tents and a quantity of ammunition 
and provisions. Several horses that were unserviceable were shot. 

Vol. V— 17 



258 The Union Army 

Charles City Cross-Roads, Va., June 30, 1862. This is o!ic of the 
names given to the battle of Glendale, a full account of which is given 
under the head of the Seven Days' battles. 

Charles City Cross-Roads, Va., Nov. 16, 1863. Cavalry Expedition, 
commanded by Col. West. 

Charles City Road, Va., June 19, 1862. 20th Indiana Infantry. The 
regiment was engaged in picketing the Charles City road near Riclnnond. 
About 4 130 a. m. a force of Confederate infantry and cavalry, number- 
ing probably 300, made an attack on the left of the line. Col. Brown 
ordered Capt. Dick and Lieut. Andrew to take 50 sharpshooters, who 
were under arms at the time, and assist in repelling the attack. After 
being driven from the left the enemy showed himself in front, where 
Lieut. Carr, with a small squad, occupied a position slightly in advance. 
Carr and one of his men were wounded, but the enemy was repulsed. 
Next the center of tlie line was assailed and again the Confederates 
were driven off. No further demonstration was made. The Union 
casualties were 3 men wounded, i fatally. Brown reported several of 
the enemy wounded, some perhaps killed. 

Charles City Road, Va., Aug. 16, 1864. (See Deep Bottom, same 
date.) 

Charleston, Mo., Aug. 19, 1861. Detachment of the 22nd Illinois 
Infantry. Col. Dougherty, commanding the regiment, which was sta- 
tioned at Bird's Point, took 250 men and went by train over the Cairo 
& Fulton railroad to Charleston, where a force of Confederate infantry 
and cavalry belonging to the Missouri state troops was stationed. When 
near the city the troops were divided into two parties, one commanded 
by Dougherty in person and the other by Lieut. -Col. Hart. About 100 
yards from the public square the cavalry, numbering about 200, was 
drawn up to dispute the further progress of the Federals. One volley 
was sufficient to drive them into a convenient cornfield. Dougherty then 
ordered the men forward at the double-quick to the public square, where 
the main body of the infantry was encountered. The enemy took shel- 
ter behind the houses and poured a heavy fire on the Union troops, who 
stood like veterans and answered shot for shot. In the meantime the 
cavalry had been rallied and attacked Hart, who faced his men both 
ways and finally succeeded in dispersing them. Col. J. H. Hunter, com- 
manding the Confederates, then beat a precipitate retreat and was after- 
ward placed under arrest, charged with ignorance and cowardice. The 
LTnion loss was i man killed and 7 wounded, among whom was Col. 
Dougherty. The loss of the enemy was not learned, but it must have 
been considerable. 

Charleston, Mo., Dec. 13, 1861. 

Charleston, Mo., Jan. 8, 1862. loth Iowa Volunteers. The regi- 
ment, commanded by Col. Perczel, left Bird's Point at 9 p. m. to break 
up a Confederate camp in the neighborhood of Charleston. Two hours 
later they left the train and proceeded on foot to surprise the camp. 
But the guide lost his way and the regiment wandered around until 
nearly daylight. Perczel, then seeing a light in a farmhouse, sent some 
of his men to inquire if there were any Confederate soldiers in the 
vicinity. The farmer, whose name was Rodan, replied that he had not 
seen a soldier for two weeks. Again the Union troops moved forward, 
but had not proceeded far until they were fired on from ambush, while 
passing through a narrow lane, with the result that 5 were killed, 2 
mortally and 15 slightly wounded. For a few minutes confusion pre- 
vailed, but the men were rallied and started in pursuit. The enemy, 
however, made his escape. Rodan was arrested and charged with a 
capital crime. 

Charleston, Mo., Feb. 15, 1861. Detachments of the 2nd Missouri 



Cyclopedia of Battles 259 

State Militia Cavalry. Capt. Ewing sent Corp. T. M. Philliber, with 
20 men and 2 guides, to look for some guerrillas that were operating 
west of the town. They surrounded the house of one Vernon, in which 
some of the guerrillas were concealed, and as they approached were 
fired on, i man being killed and another mortally wounded. The bush- 
whackers then made a dash for the brush and a spirited fight of several 
minutes followed. Philliber sent back to Charleston for assistance and 
for a wagon to take care of the dead and wounded. Lieut. Calvert, 
with about 20 men, hurried to the scene and started in pursuit of the 
enemy. He was fired on from ambush with the result that Philliber and 
a citizen who had volunteered fell severely wounded, after which the 
guerrillas made their escape. Ewing went to the house the next morn- 
ing, found 4 horses tied in the brush near by, but no trace of the bush- 
whackers. The house was burned. 

Charleston, Mo., April 19-20. 1864. Detachment of the 2nd Mis- 
souri State Militia Cavalry. Col. J. B. Rogers, commanding the regi- 
ment, reported a fight on the 19th in which 4 guerrillas were killed. The 
next day a detachment came upon a party in a house and anotlier fight 
ensued in which 8 were killed, among them Philip Davis, one of the 
guerrilla leaders. The house was then burned. 

Charleston, Mo., Nov. 5, 1864. Detachment of the 2nd Missouri 
State Militia Cavalrj'. While Capt. Diehl and his men were at break- 
fast a party of guerrillas made a dash into the town, wounded Diehl 
seriously, i man slightly and took 8 prisoners. Most of Diehl's com- 
pany were on a scout at the time and he had not sufficient force at 
hand to pursue the guerrillas, who numbered about 60. (See Sikeston.) 

Charleston, S. C, Aug. 21-Dec. 31, 1863. — In most of the operations 
about Charleston during the year 1863 the navy played an important 
part, and a detailed account of these operations will be found in the 
volume on the navy, with the exception of some attacks on individual 
fortifications where the land forces participated. 

Charleston, S. C, Feb. 17-18, 1865. 21st U. S. Colored Troops. No 
engagement was fought at Charleston on this date. The Confederates 
evacuated their works on the night of the 17th and the early morning 
hours of the i8th, and about 10 a. m. Lieut. -Col. A. G. Bennett, com- 
manding the United States forces about Charleston, landed at Mills' 
wharf with about 30 men, demanded of the mayor and received a formal 
surrender of the city. The retreating Confederates had set fire to a 
number of public buildings, among them the commissary depot. This 
was blown up at a time when about 200 persons, mostly women and 
children were engaged in procuring food there by permission from the 
Confederate authorities. Nearly all these people were killed, many of 
them being blown to atoms, which were the only casualties reported. 

Charleston, Tenn., Sept. 25, 1863. ist Brigade, 4th Division. 23d 
Army Corps. Charleston is just across the Hiawassee river from Cal- 
houn. In the skirmishing about the latter place on this date, and on 
the Dalton, Cleveland and Chatata roads, some of the fighting occurred 
about Charleston, though no specific report was made of that part of 
the action. (See Calhoun, same date.) 

Charleston, Tenn., Nov. 30, 1863. 

Charleston, Tenn., Dec. 28, 1863. Escort from Sheridan's Division, 
and part of the 2nd Brigade. 2nd Cavalry Division. Army of the Cum- 
berland. Col. Laiboldt. of the 2nd Mo. infantry, with an escort of con- 
valescents from Sheridan's command, was taking a wagon train from 
Chattanooga to Knoxville. Near Charleston he was attacked by about 
1,500 of Wheeler's cavalry. Col. Eli Long happened to be at Calhoun, 
just across the Hiawassee river, with about 150 men of his brigade. He 
moved out with this force and vigorously assaulted the enemy. The 



260 The Union Army 

Confederates, not knowing how strong the attacking party might be, 
retreated. As soon as the train was across the river Long and Laiboldt 
both started in pursuit and followed the enemy to Chatata creek, killing 
and wounding a number and taking 121 prisoners and several stands of 
arms. No Union loss was reported. 

Charleston, Tenn., Aug. 18-19, 1864. 2nd Ohio Heavy Artillery. 
Lieut. -Col. M. B. Ewing reported that Humes' Confederate brigade, 
about 1,400 strong, undertook to destroy the railroad near Charleston, 
but that he drove them off with seven shots from his guns. A deserter 
brought the information that the last shell, a lo-pounder Parrott, ex- 
ploded in the midst of the Confederates and wounded 6 men. 

Charleston, W. Va., Sept. 13, 1862. (See Kanawha Valley Cam- 
paign.) 

Charleston Harbor, S. C, April 7, 1863. Naval attack on Fort Sum- 
ter. (See Naval Volume.) 

Charlestown, Ark., April 4, 1864. 

Charlestown, W. Va., May 28, 1862. Confederate Gens. Jackson 
and Winder mention a demonstration toward Harper's Ferry. In his 
report Winder says : "On emerging from the woods, some three-quarters 
of a mile from Charlestown, I discovered the enemy in line of battle, 
some 1,500 strong, and decided to attack him. As soon as we were dis- 
covered he opened upon us with two pieces of artillery. Carpenter's 
battery was placed in position, the 33d regiment being ordered to sup- 
port it. This battery was admirably worked, and in twenty minutes the 
enemy retired in great disorder, throwing away arms, blankets, haver- 
sacks, &c." No account of this affair is to be found in any of the Fed- 
eral reports. 

Charlestown, W. Va., Dec. 2, 1862. (See Berry ville.) 

Charlestown, W. Va., Feb. 12, 1863. Scouts, 12th Pennsylvania 
Cavalry. A party of 12 men was attacked near Smithfield by some of 
Baylor's Confederate cavalry, about an hour after noon, i man being 
killed, 2 wounded, and 4 men and several horses captured. Another 
scouting party came up with the Confederates about 4 p. m., a short 
distance south of Charlestown, and engaged them. A running fight 
followed, in which the prisoners taken near Smithfield were recaptured, 
Baylor and 2 of his men being taken prisoners, and the remainder of 
his command scattered in all directions. 

Charlestown, W. Va., May 16, 1863. (See Piedmont Station, same 
date.) 

Charlestown, W. Va., July 75, 1863. 2nd Cavalry Division, Army 
of the Potomac. Brig.-Gen. D. McM. Gregg, commanding the division, 
reported from Shepherdstown at 3 p. m. as follows : '"This morning 
had a skirmish with the enemy's cavalry near Charlestown. The enemy 
used artillery. Have taken 100 prisoners, including sick." The affair 
was an incident of the pursuit of Lee's army from Gettysburg, Pa. 

Charlestown, W. Va., Oct. 7, 1863. Col. B. L. Simpson, command- 
ing the post at Charlestown, sent out a party of 20 cavalry to scout on 
the Berryville road. Hearing soon after their departure that they were 
likely to be cut off by the enemy, he sent Capt. Summers, with 43 men, 
to their assistance. The first party dodged the Confederates and came 
in by another road, but Summers was cut off at Summit Point. He 
was leading the advance, when, upon turning a bend in the road, he 
saw some of the enemy drawn up in line of battle. A charge was ordered 
and as it was being made Summers' men received a fire on the flank 
from a squad concealed behind a stone wall. Summers and i man were 
instantly killed and 4 men were wounded. The Confederates then retired 
toward Winchester and Martinsburg. 

Charlestown, W. Va., Oct. 18, 1863. 9th Maryland and 34th Massachu- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 261 

setts Infantry; Detachment of the ist Connecticut Cavalry; and 17th In- 
diana Battery. Col. B. L. Simpson, with the 9th Md., was surprised by a 
superior force under Gen. Imboden about 7 a. m. A few of the officers 
made their escape, but most of the regiment was surrendered. Almost 
immediately after the affair information was received at Harper's Ferr)'. 
Col. George D. Wells, with the other troops, hurried to Charlestown, 
drove the Confederates out of the place and pursued them nearly to 
Berryville, when Gen. Sullivan sent an order to Wells to return. The 
Union loss was 6 killed, 43 wounded and about 375 of the 9th Md. cap- 
tured. The loss of the enemy was not definitely learned. Wells re- 
ported seeing about 25 dead along the line of the pursuit. Imboden's 
force numbered about 1,500. 

Charlestown, W. Va., March 10, 1864. ist New York Veteran Cav- 
alry. The pickets at the crossing of the Keys' Ferry and Kabletown roads 
were attacked about 6 a. m. by a detachment of Mosby's command. The 
Confederates wore the Federal uniform and the picket mistook them 
for a reserve from Charlestown. When within about 10 rods of the 
outpost they suddenly fired, killing i and wounding 4 others. They 
then made a dash and captured 13 prisoners. Although the enemy num- 
bered some 60 men, Maj. Sullivan followed with only 9 and overtook 
them at Kabletown, where they fired from ambush and killed Sullivan 
and 2 privates. A reserve under Lieut. Conway arrived soon after this 
unfortunate affair and gave chase, but failed to overtake them. 

Charlestown, W. Va., May 24, 1864. The only official mention of 
this engagement is in a report of Brig.-Gen. Max Weber, from Harper's 
Ferry. He says : "One of my scouting parties had a fight with some 
of Mosby's men this afternoon near Charlestown, * * * The number 
of Mosby's men is reported to be between 200 and 300." 

Charlestown, W. Va., June 29, 1864. Part of Sigel's Division, x\rniy 
of West Virginia. About i p. m. a body of some 500 Confederate cav- 
alry broke through the Union lines at Charlestown and after a skirmish 
with the cavalry attacked a company of infantry at Duffield's station, 
where they took about 25 prisoners. They also destroyed a storehouse 
and cut the telegraph wires, but did not succeed in tearing up the rail- 
road track, as they were too closely pressed by troops from Martinsburg 
and Harper's Ferry. They escaped by way of Berry's ferry. 

Charlestown, W. Va., Aug. 21-22, 1864. 6th Army Corps. In the 
Shenandoah Valley campaign the corps reached Flowing Spring, about 
2 miles west of Charlestown. on the i8th. Detachments were thrown 
out toward Berryville, Summit Point and Smithfield, skirmishing at 
various points with the enemy. On the 21st the Confederates crossed 
the Opequan at Smithfield in considerable force, and the corps fell back 
to Charlestown. That night the main body fell back to Halltown, leav- 
ing Lowell's brigade to bring up the rear. Early the next morning 
Lowell moved toward Halltown, the 2nd Mass. cavalry, which formed 
the rear-guard, skirmishing with the enemy all the way. (See Hall- 
town.) 

Charlestown, W. Va., Aug. 26, 1864. In the Shenandoah Valley 
campaign there was almost constant skirmishing , around Charlestown 
during the latter part of August. The Confederate reports mention 
that Anderson's division was engaged on the afternoon of the 26th near 
the town, but no detailed report of the affair was made by either side. 

Charlestown, W. Va., Aug. 29, 1864. 3d Division, 6th Army Corps. 
The Confederates drove in the Union pickets and the 3d division was 
ordered to the front. The order was promptly obeyed and the enemy 
was repulsed, the division following for several miles. 

Charlestown, W. Va., Nov. 29, 1864. 12th Pennsylvania Cavalry. 
A short time before midnight the reserve post was attacked, 2 men. 



263 The Union Army 

killed, I wounded, and 5 men and 19 horses captured. The Confederates 
lost I killed and 3 wounded. They numbered about 200, while the pojt 
numbered less than 30. 

Charlestown, W. Va., April 6, 1865. Loudoun County Rangers. 
Some of Mosby's guerrillas made a descent on the camp of the rangers, 
capturing several men and nearly all the horses. No report of killed and 
wounded. 

Charlestown, W. Va. (Note.) The location of Charlestown, in the 
Shenandoah Valley and on the direct road from Harper's Ferry to Win- 
chester, made it the theater of numerous reconnaissances and skirmishes. 
In addition to those above described the official records of the war men- 
tion actions at or near Charlestown on July 21, 1861 ; Oct. 6. Nov. :o 
and 26, and Dec. 25, 1862; July 19 and Aug. 15, 1864; and March 13, 1865. 

Chariot, Mo., Oct. 25, 1864. Curtis' and Pleasonton's Cavalry. The 
-engagement at Chariot on this date was an incident of Price's Missouri 
expedition. After the defeat of the Confederate forces at the Osage 
river in the morning they beat a rapid retreat until the Marmiton river 
was reached, where they made another stand to protect the crossing of 
their train. McNeil's brigade of Pleasonton's division was in advance 
and soon became actively engaged. Benteen's brigade was hurried for- 
ward to McNeil's assistance. As it came on the field Benteen noticed 
the position of the enemy's artillery, which was practically unsupported, 
made a dashing charge and captured the guns. The Federal line was 
then advanced until the conflict assumed the nature of a hand-to-hand 
fight, when the Confederates gave way and fell back across the river, 
leaving 8 pieces of artillery and over 1,000 prisoners in the hands of the 
Union forces. Losses in killed and wounded not stated in the reports of 
the officers engaged. (Sometimes called the battle of the Marmiton.) 

Charlotte, Tenn., March 13-14, 1863. Cavalry under Col. Bruce. A 
scouting party sent out by Col. Bruce captured 13 Confederates with 
their horses. Five of the prisoners claimed to be Union men who had 
been drafted into the Confederate service. 

Charlottesville, Va., Feb. 29, 1864. (See Albemarle County, Cus- 
ter's Expedition.) 

Chattahoochee River, Ga., July 5-17, 1864. Armies of the Cumber- 
land, Tennessee and Ohio. From May 7 to July 4 the Confederate 
army under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston had been constantly falling bac'tc 
before the LTnion forces commanded by Ma j. -Gen. William T. Sherman. 
On the night of July 4 Johnston withdrew to a strong line of fortifica- 
tions along the right bank of the Chattahoochee river, covering the 
Western & Atlantic railroad and some of the principal wagon roads 
leading to Atlanta, and sent his cavalry to the left bank of the river. 
Jackson on his left to guard the crossings below the railroad and 
"Wheeler on the right to protect those above. On the 5th Sherman 
moved the Armies of the Tennessee and Cumberland, respectively com- 
manded by Maj.-Gen. J. B. McPherson and Maj.-Gen. George H. 
Thomas, up to the Chattahoochee, forming a line from the mouth of 
the Nickajack to a short distance above the railroad bridge, while 
Schofield, with the Army of the Ohio, was posted near Smyrna as a 
reserve. Along the river were several fords and ferries, viz : Howell's 
ferry, about a mile above the railroad bridge; Pace's ferry, some 3 
miles farther up the stream; Phillips' ferry, sometimes called 
Isham's ford, at the mouth of Soap creek, about 6 or 7 miles above 
Pace's; Johnson's ferry, 3 miles above Phillips'; Powers' ford, 3 or 4 
miles farther up and some 6 miles below the village of Roswell ; Turner's 
ferry, about 4 miles below the railroad bridge, and Green's ferry still 
farther down. The nearest bridge was at Roswell, some 20 miles above 
the railroad. Garrard's cavalry division was sent to seize and hold this 



Cyclopedia of Battles 2G3 

bridge, but it was burned by Wheeler before the Union troops could 
reach it. Garrard destroyed several cotton and woolen factories, and a 
large paper mill at Roswell, the products of which were being turned 
over to the Confederate government, and sent to the owners under 
guard to Marietta. 

After examining the ground in both directions, Sherman decided to 
make a feint down the river, then push his forces across at the several 
passages above the railroad, turn Johnston's left and flank him out of 
his position. Accordingly Stoneman's cavalry was sent down the river 
to make active demonstrations as far as Campbellton, with instructions 
to cross at that place if practicable and cut the railroad communications 
to the southwest of Atlanta. On the 7th Schofield made a personal 
reconnaissance of the river from Pace's ferry to Roswell and determined 
on Phillips' ferry as the best place to effect a crossing. His command 
(the 23d corps) was moved up near the mouth of Soap creek and massed 
behind the ridge between that stream and the Chattahoochee. Cox's 
division, which was in advance, took position as close to the river as 
possible without exposing its presence there, and that night the men 
bivouacked without campfires. The pickets along the bank were care- 
fully concealed from any force that might be on the opposite side. About 
half a mile above the mouth of the creek was a fish-dam, where Cam- 
eron's brigade was stationed, with instructions to cross on the dam when 
the signal should be given the next day. Early on the morning of the 
8th canvas pontoons were launched in Soap creek, above a bend where 
they could not be seen from the south side of the river, and at 3 p. m. 
the signal to advance was given. Twenty white pontoons, manned by 
the I2th Ky. infantry, shot out of the mouth of Soap creek and headed 
for the opposite bank, where a small cavalry force with a piece of artil- 
lery was guarding the ford. At the same time Byrd's brigade, which 
had been concealed in the woods along the ridge, rushed forward to the 
edge of the bluff and opened such a vigorous fire on the Confederates 
that no one could aim or fire the cannon after the first shot. Cameron's 
men clambered over the slippery rocks of the fish-dam and hastened 
down on the south side, reaching the point opposite to the mouth of Soap 
creek almost as soon as the men who were ferried over in the pontoons. 
Tlie cavalry fled at the approach of the Federals and the one gun was 
captured without the loss of a man. All of Byrd's brigade was then 
ferried over, after which a pontoon bridge was laid, and by daylight on 
the 9th Cox's and Hascall's divisions occupied a strong position on the 
south side of the river. The Chattahoochee was crossed. 

On the 9th the i6th corps and Newton's division of Howard's (4th) 
corps were sent to Roswell to support Garrard in effecting a crossing 
there. Garrard crossed under the protection of the infantry and found 
that Wheeler's cavalry had disappeared during the night. These move- 
ments alarmed Johnston and on the night of the 9th he withdrew his 
infantry across the Chattahoochee, burning the bridges behind him. 
Sherman ordered McPherson to keep up his demonstrations at Turner's 
ferry for two or three days, as if he intended to force -a crossing there. 
Stanley's and Wood's divisions of the 4th corps were moved on the loth 
to a position near Phillips' ferr>'. where they could support Schofield, 
who was now busy in building a bridge in order that the pontoons might 
be used elsewhere. The next day Sherman ordered Howard to secure 
the heights on the south side of the Chattahoochee opposite Powers' 
ferry. Stanley's division crossed on Schofield's bridge early on the 
morning of the 12th and moved up to Powers' ferry, where the remainder 
of the corps crossed later in the day on a pontoon laid by Col. Buell. 
McPherson was now ordered to cross at Roswell. move against the 
Augusta railroad and destroy it to prevent reinforcements coming to 



264 The Union Army 

Johnston by that route from the Shenandoah valley. In this movement 
he was to have the cooperation of Schofield and Garrard. McPherson 
crossed on the 14th and with the other commands moved in the direction 
of Decatur. Pahner's (14th) and Hooker's (20th) corps were concen- 
trated at Pace's ferry, where pontoons were thrown across the river, and 
at dusk on the 17th Geary's division of the latter passed over the bridge. 
The whole Union army was on the south side of the Chattahoochee 
ready to move against Atlanta. During the movement of crossing the 
river there was considerable skirmishing at all the fords and ferries, but 
the casualties were comparatively light. 

Chattanooga, Tenn., June 7-8, 1862. Union Forces under Gen. J. S. 
Negley. As Negley was returning from an expedition into East Ten- 
nessee he found Gen. Adams and Col. Morgan, with about 3,000 Con- 
federate troops, occupying Chattanooga. The enemy had 10 pieces of 
artillery and as soon as the Federals appeared before the city these guns 
opened a steady fire. Negley placed his artillery in position and after a 
fierce duel of three hours the Confederate guns were silenced. At 9 
o'clock the next morning the cannonading was again commenced on 
the town and rifle-pits and continued for 6 hours, when the enemy aban- 
doned his works and evacuated the city. No casualties reported. 

Chattanooga, Tenn., Sept. 22, 1863. (See Missionary Ridge, same 
date.) 

Chattanooga, Tenn., Sept. 24, 1863. 22nd Indiana and 74th Illinois 
Infantry. The two regiments were sent across a small creek, about a 
mile from Chattanooga, for the purpose of making a reconnaissance. 
A strong skirmish line was thrown forward, the enemy's pickets driven 
back for about half a mile, when the main line of the Confederates was 
encountered concealed behind a fence. When the Union skirmishers 
were within about 200 yards the enemy rose and poured in a vollej- that 
forced the skirmishers to retire to the edge of the woods, bringing 3 
wounded men with them. The Confederates then advanced a regiment 
of infantry and a battery on the Union right flank, when the reconnoiter- 
ing party received orders to retire to the original position behind the 
creek. 

Chattanooga, Tenn., Oct. 2-8, 1863. 

Chattanooga, Tenn., Nov. 23-25, 1863. Army of the Cumberland; 
Army of the Tennessee. After the battle of Chickamauga the Union 
forces retired to Chattanooga, where for some time they were virtually 
in a state of siege. Although rifle-pits and earthworks were constructed 
to keep the Confederates from getting into the city, Bragg promptly 
moved up and constructed rifle-pits and earthworks to keep the Federals 
from getting out. The Confederate lines were gradually extended until 
they reached from the Chickamauga river above the city to the valley 
west of Lookout mountain, where Longstreet's corps cut oflf communi- 
cation with Bridgeport. This made it extremely difficult to obtain sup- 
plies, the only route open being through the Sequatchie valley, and there 
they must be brought 60 miles in wagons, over rough roads. The situa- 
tion was made worse, when, on Oct. i, Wheeler's cavalry made a raid 
upon the line of supplies at Anderson's cross-roads, where he captured a 
number of trains loaded with rations for the army, killed most of the 
mules and burned over 300 wagons. The loss of these supplies, and the 
coming of bad roads with the fall season, reduced the daily rations until 
the smallest fragments of crackers and grains of corn were eagerly 
seized by the soldiers to stay the pangs of hunger. This unhappy condi- 
tion of affairs was relieved by the capture of Brown's ferry on Oct. 27, 
and the opening of a road to Kellcy's ferry. (See Brown's ferr>'.) 

During this time a number of changes were made in the army. 
McCook and Crittenden, who had commanded the 20th and 21st corps at 



Cyclopedia of Battles 365 

the battle of Chickamauga, were relieved from their commands and 
ordered north to appear before a court of inquiry upon tlieir conduct 
in that engagement. The two corps were then united to form the 4th army 
corps, which was placed under the command of Maj.-Gen. Gordon Granger. 
By an order of the war department, under date of Oct. 16, the depart- 
ments of the Cumberland, the Ohio and the Tennessee were consoli- 
dated into the Military Division of the Mississippi, and Maj.-Gen. U. S. 
Grant was assigned to the command of the new division. By the same 
order Ihomas succeeded Rosecrans in command of the Army of the 
Cumberland. This army was made up of the 4th corps (Granger's), 
consisting of Cruft's, Sheridan's and Wood's divisions; the nth corps, 
Maj.-Gen. O. O. Howard, consisting of the divisions of Von Steinwehr 
and Schurz; Geary's division of the 12th corps; the 14th corps, Maj.- 
Gen. John M. Palmer, embracing the divisions of Johnson, Davis and 
Baird; the engineer troops, under command of Brig.-Gen. \V. F. bmith; 
the artillery reserve, commanded by Brig.-Gen. J. ^i.. Brannan; the cav- 
alry, under Col. Eli Long, and the post of Chattanooga (three regi- 
ments), under Col. John VV. Parkhurst. 

That portion of the Army of the Tennessee which participated in 
the operations around Chattanooga consisted of the 15th corps, com- 
manded by Maj.-Gen. Frank P. Blair, including the divisions of Oster- 
haus, Morgan L. Smith and Ewing, and John E. Smith's division of 
the 17th corps, the whole being under the command of Maj.-Gen. W. i'. 
Sherman. Owing to changes, however, Sherman's immediate command 
at Chattanooga consisted of the nth corps, Davis' division of the 14th, 
the 2nd and 4th divisions of the 15th, and the 2nd division of the 17th. 
Maj.-Gen. Joseph Hooker, commanding the nth and 12th corps, had 
under his immediate command the divisions of Cruft, Geary and Oster- 
haus, and detachments from the 14th corps. The effective strength 
of the Union forces at Chattanooga was from 60,000 to 70,000 men. 

The Confederate army had also undergone some reorganization. 
Although Bragg had received reinforcements after the battle of Chicka- 
mauga, he depleted his forces almost on the eve of battle by sending 
Longstreet's corps, some 12,000 strong, and about 5,000 cavalry under 
Wheeler, against the Army of the Ohio, under Gen. Burnside, at Knox- 
ville. On Nov. 2^ the Confederate troops around Chattanooga were 
Hardee's corps, consisting of the divisions of Cheatham, Stevenson, Cle- 
burne and Walker; Breckenridge's corps, including Hindman's and 
Breckenridge's divisions, the latter now commanded by Brig.-Gen. W. B. 
Bate; the reserve artillery, under Capt. F. H. Robertson, and about 
seven regiments of cavalry, the entire force numbering in the neighbor- 
hood of 45,000 men of all arms. 

After the opening of the road to Kelley's ferry, by which supplies 
were assured. Grant turned his attention to the work of driving the 
enemy from his works in front. The Confederates had four lines of 
breastworks. The first was along the crest of Orchard knob, or Indian hill. 
Half a mile in the rear of this, near the foot of Missionary ridge, was 
the second line. The third was about half-way up the slope, while the 
fourth and heaviest was along the crest of Missionary ridge. The total 
length of the line was about 12 miles, with the right resting on the north 
end of Missionary ridge and the left on Lookout mountain. The Federal 
line of intrenchments was about a mile from the town, extending from 
the mouth of Citico creek above to the bank of the river near the mouth 
of Chattanooga creek below. All the elevations along the line were 
strongly fortified and well supplied with artillery. One of the strongest 
of these was called Fort Wood, which was almost in front of the enemy's 
strongest position on the ridge. It was equipped with 22 pieces of ar- 
tillery, most of which were capable of throwing shells to the enemy's 
second line. 



2G6 The Union Army 

Late in October Grant ordered Sherman, then at Eastport, Miss., to 
move at once to Bridgeport, Tenn., and then push on to Chattanooga. 
Sherman reported in person on Nov. 15, and with him and Thomas the 
plan of battle was arranged. Sherman was to move his troops via 
Brown's ferry, keeping under cover of the woods, to a point opposite 
the mouth of the Chickamauga, where he was to cross and on the 21st 
assault the enemy's works on the north end of the ridge. Hooker, who 
had recently come from the Army of the Potomac with about 20,000 
men, was to hold his position on the right, in Lookout valley, vy-ith 
Geary's and part of Graft's divisions, to prevent the Confederate left 
from reinforcing the troops on the ridge. Thomas was to concentrate 
his troops in the valley well to the left, leaving one division to make a 
show of attacking the Confederate force in the upper part of the valley 
and men enough to defend the fortifications. As soon as Sherman began 
his assault Thomas was to move forward with his left, effect a junction 
with Sherman, and sweep the Confederates from the ridge. Howard 
was ordered to take a position on the 20th on the north bank of the 
Tennessee river, opposite the town and near the pontoon bridge, from 
which point he could move to the support of either Thomas or Sherman. 
Long's cavalry was to protect Sherman's left flank as far as might be 
necessary, then cross the Chickamauga and damage the enemy's line 
of communication as much as possible. It was expected that Sherman 
would be in position on the 19th, but heavy roads and floods retarded 
his movements. The breaking of the bridge at Brown's ferry cut off 
Osterhaus' division, which was then ordered to report to Hooker, and 
Davis' division was ordered to join Sherman in its stead. Sherman's 
movements across Lookout valley had been discovered by the enemy on 
Sunday, the 22nd, and upon learning this Thomas ordered Howard to 
cross over into the town, in order to give the Confederates the impres- 
sion that his command was Sherman, coming to reinforce Chattanooga. 
The ruse worked successfully. Howard crossed in full view of the 
enemy stationed on Lookout mountain and took a position in the rear 
of Thomas. This little trick enabled Sherman to proceed according to 
the original program, and late on the 23d he reached the position from 
which he was to cross the river. W. F. Smith had prepared a number 
of pontoons in the north Chickamauga creek, where they were kept con- 
cealed from the enemy until the time came to use them. Giles A. Smith's 
brigade was quietly ferried over, captured the pickets, and by daylight 
on the 24th Sherman had about 8,000 men intrenched on the east side 
of the Tennessee. A pontoon bridge was then thrown across the river 
and by i p. m. his whole force was over, prepared for the attack on 
Missionary ridge. 

On the 20th Grant received the following communication from Bragg: 
"As there may still be some non-combatants in Chattanooga, I deem it 
proper to notify you that prudence would dictate their early withdrawal." 
This was doubtless intended to convey the impression that an attack 
was contemplated. Two days later a deserter came into the Union lines, 
bringing the information that Bragg was falling back. He was mistaken, 
however, having formed his conclusions from the fact that Buckner's 
division was that day sent to reinforce Longstreet. In order to test 
the truth of the report Grant directed Thomas to move out early on the 
23d, drive in the Confederate pickets and make the enemy develop his 
lines. Accordingly Granger and Palmer, supported by Howard, moved 
out directly in front of Fort Wood and drove in the pickets from Chat- 
tanooga to Citico creeks. About i p. m. Sheridan's and P. M. Wood's 
divisions advanced at a double-quick, drove in the reserves and carried 
the line of works on Orchard knob before the Confederates were fully 
aware of their intentions. In this assault about 200 prisoners were taken. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 207 

Granger immediately occupied the ridge, with Pahner in a threatening 
position on the right and Howard on the left, and the first line of the 
enemy's works was permanently in the possession of the Federals. The 
hill was fortified, the guns from Orchard knob assisting materially in 
the attack on Missionary ridge the following day. 

Shortly after noon on the 24th Sherman formed his column for an 
advance on Missionary ridge, with M. L. Smith on the left, J. E. Smith 
in the center and Ewing on the right. A drizzling rain was falling and 
the clouds hung low over the valley, concealing the movement from 
the enemy's tower of observation on Lookout mountain. Tlic three divi- 
sions, en echelon, each preceded by a strong line of skirmishers, soon 
gained the foothills. Then the skirmishers, closely followed by their 
supports, crept up the face of the hill, and by 3 130 p. m. the north end 
of Missionary ridge was in possession of the Union troops. Up to this 
time Sherman had been under the impression that the ridge was one 
continuous elevation, but he now found himself on two high points with 
a deep gorge between his position and the hill over the tunnel on the 
Chattanooga & Cleveland railroad, which was his main objective point. 
The two hills had been carried without loss, as but a small force of the 
enemy had been stationed there, and this force had retired after a slight 
skirmish as the Federals swept up the hill. About 4 p. m. the enemy 
made a demonstration on Sherman's left and a sharp engagement fol- 
lowed with artillery and musketry, the Confederates finally being re- 
pulsed. In this skirmish Gen. Giles A. Smith was severely wounded 
and the command of his brigade fell on Col. Tupper. During the night 
the hills taken by Sherman were intrenched and held by one brigade 
from each of his three divisions, ready for the assault on the opposite 
hill the next morning. 

While these events were transpiring at Orchard knob and the 
north end of Missionary ridge Hooker had not been idle on the right. 
Late on the 23d he received orders to make a strong demonstration the 
next morning against the Confederate forces on Lookout mountain, to 
draw Bragg's attention in that direction, in order to enable Sherman 
to gain his position unobserved. Later he was directed by Thomas to 
carry the point of the mountain if the demonstration should develop 
the practicability of such a movement. The Confederate force on the 
mountain consisted of six brigades under Stevenson, the greater portion 
being posted on the northern slope, about half-way between the palisades 
and the Tennessee river, where a line of earthworks had been thrown 
up, while lower down was a line of rifle-pits, redoubts, etc., constructed 
with a view of repelling any assault from the town or from Lookout 
valley. Early on the morning of the 24th Geary's division and Whita- 
ker's brigade of Cruft's division moved up Lookout creek to Wau- 
hatchie, where a crossing was eft'ected, and then marched down the right 
bank, sweeping the enemy's pickets before them. As soon as Geary 
was well under way Grose's brigade advanced upon the Confederates at 
the bridge near the railroad, drove them away, and commenced repairing 
the bridge. The skirmishing at this point alarmed tire enemy on the 
mountain, and soon lines of men could be seen filing down the slope to 
man the rifle-pits and intrenchments. The skirmish at the bridge, 
and a heavy mist which overhung the mountain, concealed Geary's 
movements until he was on the enemy's flank and threatening their rear. 
Meantime artillery had been placed by Hooker's orders to cover the 
Confederate works. Wood's brigade went about 800 yards up the 
stream and built a second bridge, which was completed by the time 
Geary had reached his position on the enemy's flank. At ii a. m. Wood 
and Grose crossed, joined Geary's left and moved down the valley. .A.t 
noon the advance had driven the Confederates around the peak of the 



268 The Union Army 

mountain. Geary was ordered to halt and reform his Hnes at this 
point, but his men, intent on nothing but victory, pursued the panic- 
stricken enemy on up the mountain. On the high ground to the right was 
Cobham's brigade, between the main hue of the enemy's defense and 
the paHsades, pouring an incessant fire into the Confederates, while 
Ireland's brigade was closely pressing them on the flank. Close behind 
these two brigades came Whitaker and Creighton making the success 
of the Union arms certain and irresistible. Reinforcements were rushed 
forward to the enemy only to meet the fate of those who had preceded 
them, and after two or three sharp engagements the plateau was cleared. 
The last stand was made at the Craven house, where another body of 
reinforcements was added, but they were driven from this position and 
fled in confusion down to the valley. It was now 2 p. m. The clouds, 
which had hung over the mountain top in the morning, had settled down 
until the valley was veiled from view. Those below could hear the 
rattle of musketry and the shouts of victory as the Federal forces 
pressed on toward the summit, but they could see nothing of what was 
taking place. This was the "Battle above the Clouds," which has since 
become famous in song and story. Hooker immediately fortified his 
position and about 4 o'clock sent word to Thomas that it was impreg- 
nable. Carlin's brigade was sent to relieve Geary, whose troops were 
almost exhausted, and during the night repulsed an attempt to break the 
lines on the right. At sunrise on the 25th the Stars and Stripes were 
unfurled by the 8th Ky. on the summit of the mountain. During the 
night the Confederates had abandoned the mountain, leaving behind 
them about 20,000 rations, all the camp and garrison equipage of three 
brigades, etc. 

On the 24th Grant established his headquarters on Orchard knob 
and about midnight sent word to Sherman to begin the attack at day- 
light. At the same time Hooker was ordered to push forward toward 
Rossville, take possession of the pass, and then move against Bragg's 
left and rear. On the morning of the 25th Bragg's entire army was 
posted along Missionary ridge, extending from Tunnel hill to Rossville, 
Lookout mountain and the valley being abandoned. Sherman began 
his attack with Corse's brigade of Ewing's division, while Cockerill, 
Alexander and Lightburn were to hold the hill taken on the 24th. 
Lightburn was to send one regiment to cooperate with Corse, Mor- 
gan L. Smith was to move along the east base of the ridge, his right 
connecting with Corse, and Col. Loomis was to move along the west 
base, supported by two reserve brigades of J. E. Smith's division. At 
sunrise Corse began his forward movement and advanced to a sec- 
ondary crest about 80 yards from the enemy's intrenchments. This 
crest he held by calling up his reserves, and sent for reinforcements. 
Owing to the narrowness of the crest and the fact that it was covered 
by the enemy's fire a large force there was deemed unadvisable. Corse 
assaulted vigorously, maintaining a heavy contest for over an hour, but 
continued to hold the ground he had taken in his first attack. On the 
east side of the ridge M. L. Smith gained ground, while on the west 
Loomis managed to secure a position abreast of the tunnel, from which 
he could harass the Confederates, thus relieving the pressure at the 
north end of the ridge. The batteries of Callender and Wood, on the 
hills held by Ewing and Lightburn, and 2 pieces of Dillon's battery with 
Alexander's brigade, did all they could to clear the hill, but were com- 
pelled to direct their fire with great care to avoid endangering the Fed- 
eral troops. About 10 a. m. the fight raged furiously and Corse was 
severely wounded, the command of the brigade devolving on Col. 
Walcutt of the 46th Ohio. The fight was continued at the north end 
by Sherman's troops, with varying results, until about 3 p. m. In his . 



Cyclopedia of Battles 269 

report he says : "I had watched for the attack of General Thomas 
'early in the day.' Column after column of the enemy was streaming 
toward me. Gun after gun poured its concentric shot on us from every 
hill and spur that gave a view of any part of the ground held by us." 

In carrying out his part of the order of the day, Hooker was delayed 
for several hours at Chattanooga creek, where the enemy had destroyed 
the bridge. As soon as the stringers of a new bridge were in position 
Osterhaus crossed with his infantry. The 27th Mo., deployed as skir- 
mishers, pushed forward to the gorge in Missionary ridge, where they 
developed a considerable force of the enemy. This regiment was 
directed to keep the Confederates engaged in front, while Woods' 
brigade moved to the right of the ridge and four regiments of William- 
son's to the left. Two regiments of the latter brigade were posted on 
the road to Chattanooga to guard against a surprise from that direction. 
The Confederates, finding that the flanks were turned, hastily evacuated 
the gap, leaving large quantities of ammunition, a house full of com- 
missary stores, several wagons, ambulances, etc. By this time the bridge 
was completed and the remainder of the troops had crossed the creek. 
Osterhaus was ordered to move with his division along the east side of 
the ridge, Cruft along the crest, and Geary in the valley on the west 
side. In ascending the ridge Cruft encountered the enemy's skirmish- 
ers. The 9th and 36th Ind. were thrown forward, charged and drove 
them back, while the rest of the column formed in support. Ilien all 
three divisions, Osterhaus, Cruft and Geary advanced, driving every- 
thing before them and capturing a number of prisoners, Osterhaus alone 
taking 2,000. 

Grant was waiting for Hooker to reach the Confederate left at 
Rossville before moving against the center. From an early hour the 
divisions of Wood and Sheridan had been under arms, the men anx- 
iously waiting for the order to move forward. The destruction of the 
bridge had not only delayed Hooker, but had also delayed the attack 
of Thomas for which Sherman had looked "early in the day." The 
signal for the advance was six cannon-shots, to be fired in quick suc- 
cession from headquarters on Orchard knob. At 2:30 p. m. Baird's 
division was sent out from the right of Orchard knob to reinforce 
Sherman. A half-hour later Grant saw that Sherman's condition was 
growing more critical and decided to wait no longer to hear from 
Hooker. The six gims boomed out and with a cheer Wood's and 
Sheridan's men swept across the valley carrying the enemy's first line 
of works. Here they were supposed to stop and reform, but like Hooker's 
men at Lookout mountain the day before, they rushed on over the 
second line. In his account of the engagement in "Battles and Leaders," 
Grant thus describes this charge : "Without awaiting further orders 
or stopping to reform, on our troops went to the second line of works ; 
over that and on for the crest — thus effectually carrying out my orders 
of the i8th for the battle and of the 24th for this charge. I watched 
their progress with intense interest. The fire along the rebel line was 
terrific. Cannon and musket balls filled the air; but the damage done 
was in small proportion to the ammunition used. Tlie pursuit continued 
until the crest was reached, and soon our men were ,seen climbing over 
the Confederate barrier at different points in front of both Sheridan's 
and Wood's divisions. The retreat of the enemy along most of his line 
was precipitate, and the panic so great that Bragg and his officers lost 
all control over their men. Many were captured and thousands threw 
away their arms in their flight." 

Thus ended the battle of Missionary ridge and the siege of Chatta- 
nooga. The broken and shattered Confederate army was pursued 
into Georgia, being routed at various points and more prisoners taken. 



270 The Union Army 

The Union loss in the several engagements about Chattanooga was 7S3 
killed, 4,722 wounded and 349 missing. The Confederate loss was 361 
killed, 2,180 wounded and 6,142 captured, 239 of whom were commis- 
sioned officers. 

Chattooga River, Ga., Sept. 12, 1863. ist Cavalry Division, Army 
of the Cumberland. The itinerary of the division, commanded by Brig.- 
Gen. E. M. McCook, for this date, says : "Marched at daylight, return- 
ing to Alpine; received orders to proceed at once on the La Fayette 
road ; marched as far as and across the Chattooga river ; encountered 
Wheeler's cavalry command, drove tliem for some distance. Returned 
to Summerville and bivouacked." 

Chavis Creek, Kan., June 9. 1865. Detachment 2nd Colorado Cav- 
alry. On this date four trains, of 12 wagons each, were attacked by 
Indians while en route to Fort Union. At a point about 2 or 3 miles 
east of Chavis creek they succeeded in capturing one train of mules 
and one train of cattle and getting off with both. Lieut. R. W. Jenkins, 
with 60 men, started from Cow creek in pursuit and followed to the 
Arkansas river, when the chase was abandoned. One man belonging 
to the escort was killed. 

Cheat Mountain Pass, Va., Sept. 12-14, 1^61. (See Elk Water.) 

Cheat River, W. Va., Jan. 8, 1862. and Dec. 6, 1863. 

Cheat River, W. Va., Sept. 25. 1863. (See Seneca Trace Crossing.) 

Cheat Summit, Va., Sept. 12-14, 1861. (See Elk Water.) 

Cheek's Cross-Roads, Tenn., Dec. 12, 1863. Cavalry under Col. 
Garrard. Brig.-Gen. J. M. Shackelford, commanding at Bean's station, 
sent out Col. Garrard with his brigade of cavalry to make a reconnais- 
sance on the Morristown road. At Cheek's cross-roads he fell in with 
about 2,500 of the enemy and a heavy skirmish ensued. Garrard 
reported a loss of 4 killed and several wounded. The enemy's loss was 
not learned. Some skirmishing occurred on the Morristown and Rogers- 
ville roads the next day, but without important results. 

Cheek's Cross-Roads, Tenn., March 13-14, 1864. 7th Ohio Cavalry. 

Chehaw Station, Ala., July 18, 1864. Cavalry, Army of the Cumber- 
land. In the raid on the West Point & Montgomery railroad Gen. Lovell 
H. Rousseau, commanding the expedition, sent Maj. Baird with part of the 
5th la. and 4th Tenn. to begin the work of destro^'ing the railroad at Che- 
haw Station and work back toward Notasulga to meet another party under 
Lieut.-Col. Watts. Baird encountered a considerable force of the enemy 
near Chehaw and sent back for reinforcements. Col. Harrison, with the 
8th Ind., moved to his support and a sharp skirmish followed. The 
enemy stubbornly contested the ground, but were driven back to a 
ravine, where they made a stand and all efforts to dislodge them were 
futile until Harrison turned the left flank, when they were routed and 
fled in confusion, leaving 40 dead and a number wounded on the field. 
The Union loss was 3 killed and some 8 or 10 wounded. 

Cheney's Farm, Ga., June 22, 1864. 3d Division, 23d Army Corps. 
Cheney's farm was at the crossing of the Sandtown and Powder Springs 
roads, about 6 miles southwest of Marietta. On the 22nd, while Sher- 
man was drawing his lines about Kennesaw mountain, Schofield sent Cox's 
division to hold the road. A sharp skirmish occurred with a body of 
Confederate cavalry, but the enemy was driven off and a position cover- 
ing the two roads intrenched. That afternoon Reilly's brigade and the 
23d Ind. battery were left to hold the works and the rest of the division 
moved up toward Marietta and took position on the right of Hascall's 
division near Kolb's house. 

Cheney's Farm, Ga., June 27, 1864. 3d Division, 23d Army Corps. 
Cameron's brigade crossed Olley's creek at daybreak and moved down 
the ridge to turn the enemy's position in front of Reilly, who with his 



Cyclopedia of Battles 2T1 

brigade occupied an intrenched position at Cheney's farm, and who was 
ordered to attack upon Cameron's approach. Rcilly opcncl itc v.ith 
the 15th and 23d Ind. batteries, after which he sent the looth and 104th 
Ohio forward on the Atlanta road and the 112th 111. and i6th Ky. on a 
farm road across the creek and drove the Confederates out of tlicir 
works. No casualties reported. 

Cheneyville, La., May 18, 1863. Detachment of Weitzel's Cavalry. 
Brig.-Gen. Godfrey Weitzel, commanding the U. S. forces at Murdock's 
plantation, reported that he sent out two companies of cavalrj' against 
the pickets of Lane's Texans below Cheneyville and drove the outpost 
back upon the main body, capturing 2 prisoners without loss. 

Cheneyville, La., May 20, 1863. U. S. Troops under Gen. Weitzel. 
Early in the morning the Confederates attacked Weitzel's pickets near 
Murdock's plantation and drove them in. Col. Bean, with the advance 
guard of infantry and cavalry, repulsed the attack and pursued the enemy 
some distance. About 2 miles from Cheneyville Maj. Robinson, who was 
in command of the cavalry in front, gave the order to halt, but Capt. 
Barrett, with 17 men, continued to advance. After passing an old sugar 
house a party of about 150 of the enemy sprang out from the buildings 
and cut him off from the main body. Barrett made a dash for the 
Cheneyville bridge, intending to cross and come down the opposite bank, 
but at the bridge he ran into some 600 of the enemy and was compelled 
to surrender after 2 of his men were killed. This was the on!y Federal 
loss. The enemy lost 2 killed, 2 wounded and 2 captured. 

Cheraw, S. C., Feb. 28, 1865. ist Division, 14th Army Corps. In 
the campaign of the Carolinas, when the army reached the Great Pedee 
river at Cheraw, it was found necessary to construct a pontoon bridge 
and build a mile or so of corduroy road before a crossing could be made. 
The road was built by a detail of the S3d Ind., the men being protected 
while at the work by the ist brigade of the division. When the bridge 
was completed the army crossed, the ist division bringing up the rear 
and covering the movement. Butler's Confederate cavalry made a dash 
on the rear-guard about noon, but were held at bay until the guard was 
ordered to retire across the river and join the main column. A battery 
on the east side covered the crossing and kept back the enemy. No 
casualties reported. 

Cheraw, S. C, March 3, 1865. 17th Army Corps. Incidental to the 
campaign in the Carolinas the corps entered Cheraw about noon on this 
date, the enemy retreating after a slight resistance across the Pedee 
river. A large number of guns and a quantity of ammunition were 
found here, having been sent from Charleston on the evacuation of that 
city. These were destroyed, as were the railroad trestles and bridges 
as far as Darlington. 

Cheraw, S. C, March 5, 1865. Detachment of the iSth and 17th 
Army Corps. The detachment, commanded by Col. Williams, of the 
I2th Ind., was sent on an expedition to Florence. On the west side 
of Thompson's creek the enemy was encountered in considerable force, 
protected by a strong earthwork. By skilfully deploying his men 
Williams soon drove them from their position and succeeded in saving 
the bridge, which they fired in their retreat. He then drove them rap- 
idly through Cheraw, using his artillery with splendid effect, and continued 
the pursuit to the Pedee river, capturing 25 pieces of -field artillery, 16 cais- 
sons, 5.000 rounds of artillery ammunition, 20,000 rounds of infantry 
ammunition, 2,000 stands of small arms, 1,000 sabers, a locomotive, and 
stores of various kinds. Several thousand bales of cotton, etc., were 
destroyed. The enemy burned the bridge over the Pedee, having thor- 
oughly saturated it with turpentine in anticipation of his being compelled 
to retreat. No casualties reported. 



272 The Union Army 

Cherokee Bay, Ark., May 8, 1864. 3d Missouri State Militia Cav- 
alry. Capt. Abijah Johns made a scout from Patterson, Mo., in the 
direction of Poplar Bluff. Near Cherokee bay his advance discovered 
75 or 80 of the enemy drawn up along the roadside in the brush and 
fired upon them. A return volley came promptly, but fortunately did no 
damage. Johns then charged with his main body, scattering them in 
all directions, killing 12 and wounding several others. The Union casu- 
alties were i man missing and 2 horses killed. The enemy was pursued 
for some time, but owing to the nature of the ground could not be 
overtaken. 

Cherokee County, Ind. Ter., Jan. 18, 1863. 

Cherokee County, Ind. Ter., Dec. 4-12, 1863. Chief Stand Waitie, 
commanding the ist Cherokee regiment (Confederate), in reporting an 
expedition he made through Cherokee county, mentions a skirmish 
with some Pin Indians at Manus on the loth, and says that during the 
raid he killed 10 Pins and captured 3. Federal reports do not mention 
the affair. 

Cherokee County, N. C, Oct. 27, 1863. Bryson's Tennessee Cav- 
alry. According to the reports of Confederate Gen. C. L. Stevenson 
Gen. Burnside sent Capt. Goldman Bryson, with his company of cavalry 
belonging to the Tennessee national guard, to get in the Confederate rear. 
Stevenson says he sent Gen. Vaughn, with a detachment of mounted 
men, to intercept him, and that in a skirmish near Murphy, N. C, Bryson 
was killed, 17 of his company captured, and the rest dispersed. The 
Federal reports make no mention of the affair. 

Cherokee Station, Ala., Dec. 12, 1862. (See Corinth, Miss., Recon- 
naissance from, Dec. 9-14, 1862.) 

Cherokee Station, Ala., April 17, 1863. (See Courtland, Expedi- 
tion to.) 

Cherokee Station, Ala., Oct. 21, 1863. ist Division, 15th Army 
Corps. After the engagement at Barton's station on the 20th two com- 
panies of cavalry were left at Cane creek on picket duty, while the 
main body of the division, under Brig.-Gen. P. J. Osterhaus, occupied 
Cherokee Station. About noon on the 21st the officer commanding the 
picket notified Gen. Osterhaus that he was hard pressed by a large 
mounted force of Confederates. The division was ordered to fall in at 
once, and part of the 2nd brigade and one section of the Missouri horse 
artillery were advanced to the support of the picket. One battalion of 
infantry was deployed on each side of the main road, while the remainder 
of the brigade was to follow in supporting distance. Simultaneously 
the 1st brigade and batteries were so placed that they could be thrown 
forward on either flank. When the advance had driven the enemy from 
the timber into an open field the entire 2nd brigade was ordered up, but 
while it was being formed the enemy made a desperate charge and re- 
gained the edge of the woods. The advantage was only temporary, 
however, as the brigade soon forced them again into the open. Thus 
forced back in front the Confederates now made an effort to turn the 
Union left, but it was promptly met by the 1st brigade, the 29th, 31st 
and part of the 12th Mo. infantry being quickly thrown into position 
to check the movement. The artillery was now called into action and 
soon dislodged the enemy from their position. Osterhaus then ordered 
a general advance, when the enemy retreated, followed for 5 miles by 
the Federals, who returned to camp when it became too dark to continue 
the pursuit. Casualties reported : 7 killed and 28 wounded. 

Cherokee Station, Ala., Oct. 29, 1863. ist Division, 15th Corps. On 
the 28th the division left Tuscumbia and marched toward Cherokee 
Station, Col. Heath advancing toward the enemy's position, but finding 
that the Confederates had moved during the night, followed the com- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 273 

mand. The enemy, discovering that they were not to be pursued, turned 
round, and on the 29lh appeared in considerable force near Cherokee 
Station. Gen. Osterhaus, commanding the division, protected his camp 
en echelon and tried to draw the Confederates within range, but was 
unable to do so. Desultory firing occurred at intervals during the day 
and toward evening the enemy fell back. No casualties reported. 

Cherry Creek, Miss., July lo, 1864. 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division, 
i6th Army Corps. On the Tupelo expedition the brigade, commanded 
by Col. E. F. Winslow, was assigned to the advance on the morning of 
the loth and moved out from New Albany at an early hour. Col. 
Peters, with the 4th la., was in front and near Cherry creek became 
engaged in a skirmish with some of the enemy's cavalry. He was 
promptly supported by the rest of the brigade and the enemy retired 
with a loss of i man killed, 3 wounded, 1 horse captured and 10 stands 
of arms taken. No losses reported on the Union side. 

Cherry Grove, Mo., June 26, 1862. 

Cherry Grove, Mo., July i, 1862. Detachments Missouri Cavalry 
(Militia). Maj. F. W. Reeder, with the greater portion of the troops 
stationed at Hudson, Maj. Benjamin's battalion, and a part of Col. Mc- 
Neil's regiment, made a scout through Schuyler county. Near Cherry 
Grove the expedition came upon Porter's and Dunn's guerrillas and 
immediately gave chase. The pursuit continued to within 6 miles of the 
Iowa line, where they were overtaken and attacked. The guerrillas lost 
some 10 or 12 killed and about 25 wounded. Some of their horses, arms 
and equipments fell into the hands of the Federals. The Union loss 
was I severely and 2 slightly wounded, and 6 horses so badly disabled 
as to be unserviceable. 

Cherry Grove, Va., April 14, 1864. (See Isle of Wight County.) 

Cherry Run, W. Va., Dec. 25, 1861. 

Cheshire, Ohio, July 20, 1863. This was an incident of the Morgan 
raid. After Morgan's defeat at Buffington island on the 19th his com- 
mand broke up into small parties and separated in an effort to reach 
the Ohio river. It was with one of these detachments that the skirmish 
occurred at Cheshire the following day. No detailed report of the action 
is to be found in the official records of the war. 

Chesser's Store, Ky., Oct. 9, 1862. (See Dog Walk, same date.) 

Chesterfield, S. C, March 2, 1865. ist Division, 20th Army Corps. 
Gen. Williams, commanding the 20th corps, ordered Brig.-Gen. N. J. 
Jackson to push forward with his division at 6 a. m. on the 2nd, for the 
purpose of securing two bridges across Thompson's creek near Chester- 
field. Two miles from the town Jackson's advance was arrested by a 
strong line of skirmishers behind a barricade of rails. The 5th Conn, 
and 141st N. Y. were deployed and advanced on the double-quick, driving 
the Confederates from their position and back through the town, which 
was occupied by the entire corps that afternoon. No casualties reported. 

Chesterfield, Steamer, Aug. 2, 1863. (See Naval Volume.) 

Chester Gap, Va., Nov. 16, 1862. 

Chester Gap, Va., July 21-22, 1863. ist Brigade, ist Division, Cav- 
alry Corps, Army of the Potomac. In the Gettysburg campaign the 
brigade, commanded by Col. Gamble, was ordered to move to Chester 
gap and occupy it, if not already in possession of the enemy. Leaving 
Rectortown in the morning he covered the 20 miles with his command 
and at 3 :30 was within a mile of the gap. Here he encountered the 
Confederate pickets, dismounted six squadrons as skirmishers, and forced 
the pickets back on the reserves at the crest. This reserve force proved 
to be Pickett's entire division, and as Gamble had no supports nearer than 
Rectortown, he fell back about a mile and a half to a position covering 
both roads leading from the gap, planted the guns of Heaton's battery 

Vol. V— 18 



274 The Union Army 

in position and threw out a strong line of pickets. At 8 a. m. the next 
day the pickets on the Sperryville road reported the enemy approaching 
in force. Dismounting part of his men and deploying them along the 
sides of the road, Gamble waited for the appearance of the enemy. 
When the head of the column came in sight the cannon and carbines 
opened fire so effectually that the enemy halted and then fell back out 
of range. Gamble held his position until 6 p. m., when the Confederates 
succeeded in getting a force of five regiments around to his left flank 
and drove in his skirmishers. He then fell back to Barbee's cross-roads. 
On the 2ist Gamble captured 23 prisoners, 84 horses, 12 mules, 654 beef 
cattle and 602 sheep. His loss during the two days was i killed, 8 
wounded and 16 missing. The enemy's casualties were not ascertained. 
Chester Station, Va., May 6-7, 1864. (See Port Walthall, Junction.) 
Chester Station, Va., May 10, 1864. Expedition against the Rich- 
mond & Petersburg Railroad. The expedition was made up of detach- 
ments of the 1st and 2nd brigades, ist division, loth corps; part of the 
2nd brigade, ist division, i8th corps, and consisted of the 6th and 7th 
Conn., 13th Ind., 67th Ohio, and 169th N. Y. infantry, and the ist Conn, 
and 4th N. J. batteries. The object was to destroy the railroad, and 
when the troops reached the vicinity of Chester Station they were divided 
into two wings. The left wing, commanded by Maj. O. S. Sanford of 
the 7th Conn., moved up the railroad toward Chester Station, where the 
6th Conn, was engaged in tearing up the track, and remained there for 
about an hour, when orders came to join the other column on the turn- 
pike below. Here the right wing, commanded by Col. C. J. Dobbs of 
the 13th Ind., had encountered a force of the enemy too large to over- 
come, and Dobbs sent back for reinforcements. In the meantime he 
formed line of battle with his own regiment on the left, the 169th N. Y. 
on the right, one section of the ist Conn, battery in front, supported 
by a detachment of the 67th Ohio, and awaited the onset. The enemy, 
with infantry, cavalry and artillery, advanced, and when they were within 
easy range Dobbs gave the command to fire. A tremendous volley from 
his entire line checked the Confederate advance and a second threw 
them into confusion, compelling them to retire for the purpose of reform- 
ing their lines. At this juncture Sanford arrived with the left wing and 
went into position with the 6th Conn, on the right of the road and the 
7th on the left as supports to the advanced lines. Two companies of the 
7th were sent forward to support a battery and the remainder of the 
regiment moved up to the top of the hill and opened fire on the enemy's 
left, driving them back to the woods. One of the guns of the 4th N. J. 
battery was abandoned by the men and an effort to capture this piece 
was thwarted by this regiment, Sanford sending Lieut. Barker with Co. 
K to bring in the gun, which he did in the face of a galling fire. The 
7th N. H. came up and went into position just as the enemy advanced 
again, having been reinforced, and again they were allowed to come 
within easy range, when they were greeted with a murderous fire from 
both artillery and infantry. This settled the contest. After a vain en- 
deavor to rally the shattered ranks the Confederate officers gave up the 
attempt and sought the cover of the woods. Gen. A. H. Terry, com- 
manding the 1st division, loth corps, arrived on the field after the action 
had begun, and during the latter part of the engagement directed the 
movements of the troops. He reported the Union loss as being 280 in 
killed, wounded and missing, and estimated that of the enemy as at 
least twice that number, some 50 prisoners remaining in the hands of 
the Federals. The number of Union troops engaged was about 3,400. 
The Confederate force consisted of Barton's, Grade's and Johnson's 
brigades of Ransom's division, and was estimated at 6,000. 

Chester Station, Va., Nov. 17, 1864. 209th Pennsylvania Volunteers. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 275 

Chewalla, Tenn., Oct. 3, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 6th Division, Army of 
West Tennessee. The division, commanded by Col. John M. Oliver, 
was sent out from Corinth by Gen. Rosecrans, to gather information 
regarding the movements of the enemy. On the morning of the 3d 
Oliver encountered the Confederate advance at Chewalla and fell back 
lighting all the way to Corinth. This action uncovered the position of 
the enemy and gave Rosecrans an opportunity to place his troops in 
position for the battle which followed. 

Chewalla, Tenn., Oct. 5, 1862. (See Big Hill.) 

Chicamicomico, N. C, Oct. 1-4, 1861. 20th Indiana Infantry and 
Transport Fanny. In the operations about Hatteras Inlet the 20th Ind. 
was stationed at Chicamicomico, or Loggerhead Inlet, some 40 miles 
north of Fort Hatteras. On the ist the transport Fanny left the fort 
with supplies for the regiment. About 2 :3o p. m. she came to anchor 
near her destination, a large flatboat came alongside and took oflF a 
load of supplies, tents, provisions, etc. Soon after this 3 Confederate 
vessels approached from the westward and opened fire at long range. 
Most of the crew went ashore in a boat, a white flag was run up and 
the vessel with the remainder of the stores was surrendered. The Con- 
federates claim to have taken 50 prisoners. On the 4th an attack was 
made on the 20th Ind. Of this affair Maj.-Gen. John E. Wool said in 
his report : "In an attempt on the part of the rebels at Hatteras Inlet 
to cut off and capture the Indiana regiment, out of place, the enemy 
were completely defeated, and many killed and wounded." 

Chickahominy River, Va., June 27, 1862. This was the name given 
by the Confederates to the battle of Gaines' mill, one of the Seven Days' 
battles during the Peninsular campaign. (See Seven Days' Battles.) 

Chickamauga, Ga., Sept. 19-20, 1863. Army of the Cumberland. At the 
battle of Chickamauga the Union forces, commanded by Maj.-Gen. William 
S. Rosecrans, were organized as follows: the 14th corps, Maj.-Gen. George 
H. Thomas, was made up of the four divisions of Baird, Negley, Brannan 
and Reynolds; the 20th corps, Maj.-Gen. Alexander D. McCook, con- 
sisted of the three divisions of Davis, Johnson and Sheridan ; the 21st corps, 
Maj.-Gen. Thomas L. Crittenden, included the divisions of Wood, Pal- 
mer and Van Cleve; the reserve corps, Maj.-Gen. Gordon Granger, was 
made up of the divisions of Steedman and Daniel McCook; the cavalry 
corps, Brig.-Gen. Robert B. Mitchell, embraced the divisions of Col. 
Edward M. McCook and Brig.-Gen. George Crook. The effective strength 
of the entire Army of the Cumberland was slightly less than 60,000 men 
of all arms. 

The Confederate army, commanded by Gen. Braxton Bragg, was 
divided into the right and left wings. The right, commanded by Lieut- 
Gen. Leonidas Polk, was composed of Cheatham's division of Polk's 
corps ; Lieut. -Gen. D. H. Hill's corps, consisting of Cleburne's and Breck- 
enridge's divisions; the reserve corps, Maj.-Gen. W. H. T. Walker, 
including the divisions of Walker and Liddell. The left, commanded 
by Lieut.-Gen. James Longstreet, embraced Hindman's division of Polk's 
corps; Longstreet's corps, commanded by Maj.-Gen. John B. Hood, and 
consisting of the divisions of Hood and McLaws ; Buckner's corps, Maj.- 
Gen. Simon B. Buckner, including the divisions of Stewart, Preston and 
Biishrod Johnson ; Wheeler's cavalry, including the divisions of Wharton 
and Martin; and Forrest's cavalry, consisting of the divisions of Arm- 
strong and Pegram. The total strength of the army was not far from 
72,000 men. 

For several days prior to the engagement both armies had been 
maneuvering for position. Several attempts had been made by Bragg 
to cut off and destroy detachments of the Union army, but they had 
failed, either because of the tardiness of his officers in executing his 



276 The Union Army 

orders, or because the movements were discovered by the Federal com- 
manders in time to thvifart the designs. On the 17th McCook's corps 
was in McLemore's cove, between Stevens' and Dug gaps, with the 
remainder of the army in easy supporting distance. For the first time 
since the crossing of the Tennessee river the Federal forces were in 
position where they could be quickly concentrated. And it was well that 
such was the case, for Bragg, having failed to strike the army in detail, 
was contemplating a movement in force against Rosecrans. The 17th was 
occupied by him in getting his troops in position along the east bank of 
the Chickamauga. Wheeler, with his two divisions of cavalry, was to 
make a feint against the troops at McLemore's cove, while Forrest was 
to cover the right and front to prevent the Federals from gaining knowl- 
edge of Bragg's intentions and preparations. Bushrod Johnson's brigade 
came up from Ringgold and was assigned to a position at Reed's bridge, 
on the extreme right of the line. Walker's corps, about 6,000 strong, 
took position at Alexander's bridge on Johnson's left. Ne.xt in order 
came Buckner's corps, which was stationed near Tedford's ford. Then 
came Polk's corps, drawn up opposite Lee & Gordon's mills, with Hill 
on the extreme left. Late in the day two brigades came up from Mis- 
sissippi and were united with Johnson's, thus forming a division of three 
brigades at Reed's bridge. That evening Bragg issued his orders for 
the whole line to move at 6 o'clock the next morning, cross the Chicka- 
mauga, and advance on the Federal position. His plan was for Johnson 
to cross at Reed's bridge, strike the Union left and force it back toward 
Lee & Gordon's mills, the other portions of the line to cross in succession 
and continue the assault from right to left, constantly pressing the Fed- 
erals on the left and rear. 

The plan was well conceived, but, as frequently happens in war, a 
series of unforeseen occurrences prevented its successful execution. 
When Johnson began his forward movement on the morning of the 
l8th he was so delayed by the stubborn resistance of Minty's and Wilder's 
cavalry that it was 3 p. m. before he gained possession of the bridge. 
In the meantime Hood had arrived on the field and was assigned to 
command the division, which was further strengthened by the addition 
of three brigades belonging to Longstreet's corps. As soon as the bridge 
was gained Hood rushed his troops across and swept southward to the 
point where Walker was to cross and resume the assault. The Federal 
cavalry had been engaged throughout the forenoon in making an ex- 
tended reconnaissance along the entire front and had developed the 
enemy's position. Finding Walker about to cross at Alexander's bridge. 
Wilder massed his brigade of mounted infantry at that point and, after 
a sharp skirmish, succeeded in destroying the bridge. This compelled 
Walker to cross at Byram's ford several hours behind schedule time. 
It was 5 p. m. before Hood had reached a position where he could 
menace Wilder's flank, and the latter retired toward Gordon's niills. 
Night fell with only about one-tenth of Bragg's army across the Chicka- 
mauga, and again his plans had failed. 

The fighting at the two bridges, in connection with the reconnaissance, 
had so far indicated the Confederate plan of operations as to cause a 
radical change in the position of the Union troops. At 4 p. m. Thomas 
concentrated his corps at Crawfish Spring, where he received orders to 
move northward to the Chattanooga and Lafayette road and take up a 
position at or near Kelly's farm. He arrived there about daylight on 
the 19th and stationed his command to cover the roads leading to Reed's 
and Alexander's bridges. The morning of the 19th. therefore, found the 
Union army with its right resting at Crawfish Spring, where the left 
had been on the preceding day, while the left was several miles north, 
prepared to contest the possession of the road, which Bragg had hoped 



Cyclopedia of Battles 277 

to occupy without opposition, thus giving him an easy hne of march 
to the Federal rear. The battle was opened on the 19th by Thomas. 
Col. Daniel McCook, whose brigade had been stationed during the night 
on the road leading to Reed's bridge, reported the destruction of the 
bridge about 4 a. m., and that the only force of the enemy he could dis- 
cover on the west side of the stream was one brigade, which might be 
cut off. Thomas ordered Brannan to send forward two brigades for 
this purpose, and to support Baird with the rest of his division. About 
ID a. m. Croxton's brigade became engaged with Forrest's cavalry, grad- 
ually forcing him back for about half a mile upon two brigades of in- 
fantry — Wilson's and Ector's — who raised the "rebel yell" and in turn 
forced Croxton to retire until Baird came to his support, when the Con- 
federates were again driven for some distance, a number of prisoners 
being taken. This action of Croxton's brought on the battle of Chicka- 
mauga before the Confederate troops were in the positions assigned 
them. It also gave Bragg the lirst knowledge of the fact that his right 
was overlapped by the Union left, and that his flank was in danger of 
being turned by Thomas. Hurriedly changing his plans he halted Walker, 
who w-as marching toward Lee & Gordon's mills, and ordered him to 
make all possible speed to the relief of the right wing. Croxton's men 
had almost exhausted their ammunition and were moved to the rear to 
renew the supply. Baird's and Brannan's divisions were then united 
and after some severe fighting drove Walker from their front. Baird 
had halted to readjust his line, when he was struck on the flank by 
Liddell's division, and two brigades — Scribner's and King's — were thrown 
into disorder and their batteries captured by the enemy. Just at tHis 
juncture R. W. Johnson's and Reynolds' divisions arrived and were 
immediately formed on the right of Baird. As soon as they were in 
position the line advanced, attacking Liddell on the flank and rear, 
driving him back for a mile and a half, while Brannan's men met him in 
front and recaptured the guns taken from Baird's brigades, the recapture 
being effected by the 9th Ohio at the point of the bayonet. Cheatham's 
division was then rushed to the support of Liddell, but Thomas had 
also been strongly reinforced and the Confederates were driven back 
upon their reserves, now posted along the west bank of the Chickamauga 
between Reed's and Alexander's bridges. This was followed by a lull 
of about an hour in which Brannan and Baird were posted in a position 
on the road leading from Reed's bridge to the Lafayette road north of 
Kelly's and ordered to hold it to the last extremity. About 3 p. m. a 
furious assault was made on Reynolds' right and Brannan's division was 
sent to his assistance, Croxton's brigade arriving just in time to check 
the enemy in an effort to turn Reynolds' flank and gain his rear. Again 
Thomas reformed his line and about 5 o'clock the enemy assaulted first 
Johnson and then Baird, but both attacks were repulsed with consid- 
erable loss to the assailants. This ended the fighting for the day. 

On the evening of the 19th Rosecrans met his corps commanders in 
council at the house of Mrs. Glenn, and the plans for the next day's 
battle were arranged. Thomas was to maintain his present position, 
holding the road to Rossville, with Brannan's division in reserve. Davis' 
division of the 20th corps was to close on Thomas' right, and Sheridan's 
division was to form the extreme right of the line. Crittenden was to 
have two divisions in reserve near the junction of Thomas' and McCook's 
lines, ready to reinforce either as circumstances might require. Davis 
and Sheridan were to maintain their pickets until they were driven in 
by the enemy. The reserve corps, under Granger, and the cavalry were 
to keep open the line of communications to Chattanooga. The Con- 
federate line was also somewhat rearranged. Beginning at the right it 
was made up of the divisions of Breckenridge, Cleburne, Cheatham and 



2T8 The Union Army 

Walker, the last two being in reserve. The left wing began with Stewart's 
division, which touched Cleburne' left, followed in order by Johnson and 
Hindman. Hood was in reserve behind Johnson, Preston was in reserve 
on the extreme left, and Humphrey and Kershaw, who had come up 
during the night, were also held in reserve. Longstreet arrived about 
II p. m. on the 19th and assumed command of the left wing. 

Although Bragg had failed to accomplish his ends on the i8th and 
19th, he still adhered to his original plan of successive attacks from 
right to left, in an effort to force the Union army up the valley. Orders 
were accordingly issued for Breckenridge's division to attack at dawn on 
the 20th, his assault to be followed rapidly by the other divisions through- 
out the entire length of the line, but constantly forcing back the Federal 
left until the road to Chattanooga was in possession of the Confederates. 
Before daylight Bragg was in the saddle near the center of his line, 
anxiously waiting for the sound of Breckenridge's guns. The morning 
dawned red and sultry, with a dense fog hanging over the battle-field. 
During the night the Union troops had thrown up temporary breast- 
works of rails, logs, etc., behind which a line of determined men awaited 
the onset. Eight o'clock came and still no attack. Bragg then rode to 
the right and found the troops unprepared for an advance. All the 
energy possible was exerted to begin the action, but it was 9 -.30 before 
Breckenridge moved. Cleburne followed fifteen minutes later and the 
fight was on. 

At 2 a. m. Thomas had received word from Baird that his left did 
not rest on the road to Reed's bridge, as it was intended to do, and 
that to reach the road he would have to weaken his line. Thomas imme- 
diately sent a request to headquarters for Negley's division to be sent 
to the left to extend the line to the road, and received the assurance 
that the request would be granted. At 7 a. tn. Negley was not in position 
and Thomas sent one of his staff to hasten him forward and to point 
out the ground he was to occupy. About the same time Rosecrans 
rode along the line and personally ordered Negley to lose no time in 
joining Thomas, at the same time directing McCook to relieve Negley 
and close up his line more compactly. Upon reaching the left of the line 
Rosecrans became convinced that the attack would begin on that flank, 
saw the importance of holding the road, and again rode back to hurry 
Negley's movements. The division then moved to the left with Beatty's 
brigade in advance, and Rosecrans directed Crittenden to move Wood's 
division to the front to fill the gap in the line caused by Negley's removal. 

The assault of Breckenridge fell mainly on Beatty's brigade soon 
after it was in position on the left, and it was driven back in confusion. 
Several regiments of Johnson's division, with Vanderveer's and Stan- 
ley's brigades, hurled themselves into the breach, checked the advance 
of the enemy and finally drove him entirely from Baird's flank and rear. 
Immediately following the opening attack the Confederate line ad- 
vanced, striking Johnson, Palmer and Reynolds in quick succession. 
But, from behind their improvised fortifications, the Federals met the 
assaults with a bravery and determination seldom equalled on the field 
of battle. Fresh troops were hurried forward by Bragg, who now 
made a desperate effort to drive in the center and turn Thomas' right. 
Again and again the Confederates advanced in the face of that merci- 
less fire and each time they were repulsed with fearful slaughter. 
Finding all his efforts in this direction futile, Bragg fell back to his 
old position. 

About II a. m. Wood received an order from headquarters to "close 
up on Reynolds as fast as possible, and support him." In the execution 
of this order a gap was left in the line, which Davis undertook to close 
with his reserve brigade. But Longstreet had observed the break in the 



Cyclopedia of Battles 279 

line and was quick to take advantage of it. Before Davis could get his 
reserves into position the divisions of Stewart, Hood, Kershaw, Johnson 
and Hindman came rushing through the opening, sweeping everything 
before them, while Preston's division pressed forward to the support of 
the assailants. McCook vainly endeavored to check the impetuous 
charge of Longstrect's men with the three brigades of Heg, Carlin and 
Laiboldt, but they were as chaff before the wind. He then ordered 
Walworth and Lytle to change front and assist in repelling the assault. 
For a time these two contended against an overwhelming force, tem- 
porarily checking the enemy in their immediate front. But the Con- 
federates, constantly increasing in numbers, succeeded in turning the left 
of these two brigades and they were forced to retire to avoid being sur- 
rounded. In this part of the engagement Gen. Lytle was killed and 
Hood seriously wounded. Wilder and Harrison joined their commands 
with that of Sheridan to aid in resisting the fierce attack, but a long line 
of the enemy was advancing on Sheridan's right and he was compelled 
to withdraw to the Dry Valley road in order to save his command. 
Subsequently he moved toward Rossville and effected a junction with 
Thomas' left on the Lafayette road. In his report Rosecrans says : 
"Thus Davis' two brigades, one of Van Cleve's, and Sheridan's entire 
division were swept from the field, and the remainder, consisting of the 
divisions of Baird, Johnson, Reynolds, Brannan, and Wood, two of Neg- 
ley's brigades and one of Van Cleve's, were left to sustain the conflict 
against the whole power of the rebel army, which, desisting from pursuit 
on the right, concentrated their whole efforts to destroy them." 

This tells the situation. Not only were the troops on the right 
driven from the field, but several thousand men were made prisoners, 
40 pieces of artillery and a large number of wagon trains fell into the 
hands of the enemy. When McCook's forces were compelled to fall 
back in confusion they were not pursued. Instead, Longstreet reversed 
the order of battle, and when Stewart's division reached the Lafayette 
road it became the pivot upon which the left wing turned to the right 
instead of to the left, with the intention of crushing the forces under 
Thomas. 

At II a. m. Granger and his chief of stafif were seated on the top of 
a hay-rick at Rossville. Through his glass Granger could see the clouds 
of smoke, constantly increasing in volume, while the sounds of the battle 
grew louder every moment. Scanning the road to the south he saw 
that no attack was likely to be made on his position, and rightly sur- 
mising that the whole Confederate strength was being massed against 
Thomas, he said to his chief: "I am going to Thomas, orders or no 
orders." Sliding off the hay-rick he hurriedly directed Dan McCook 
to station his brigade at McAfee Church, to cover the Ringgold and 
Lafayette roads, then went to Steedman and ordered him to take his 
c'immand "over there." pointinof toward "Horseshoe Ridge." where 
Thomas was making his last stand. Along the crest of this ridge 
Thomas had placed Wood's and Brannan's divisions, while on the spurs 
to the rear was posted his artillery. If Wood had inadvertently brought 
about the disaster by the withdrawal of his division, causing the gap in 
the line, he now retrieved himself. From i p. m. until nightfall he 
bravely held his portion of the ridge, repulsing several obstinate and 
deterrnined attacks of the enemy. One of these attacks was made by 
Brshrod Johnson, who reformed his line on a ridge running nearly at 
right angles to the one on which Brannan and Wood were posted. 
Longstreet reinforced Johnson with the divisions of Hindman and Ker- 
shaw, the object being a movement in force against the Federal right 
and rear. Just at this critical moment Granger and Steedman arrived 
and reported to Thomas, who ordered them into position on Brannan's 



280 The Union Army 

right. Granger then ordered a charge on the Confederate lines. Steed- 
man seized the colors of a regiment and led the way. Inspired by the 
example of their commander the men hurled themselves upon the ene .y 
and after twenty minutes of hot fighting drove him from the ridge, 
■which was held by Steedman until 6 p. m., when he fell back under orders. 
The arrival of Granger's troops was a great advantage to Thomas in 
another way. By some mistake the latter's ammunition train had been 
ordered back to Chattanooga at the time the Union right was routed, 
and the supply was running low, when the arrival of Granger with about 
100,000 rounds put new courage into the men as it was distributed 
among them. To add to the supply the troops went among the dead 
and gathered all they could from the cartridge boxes of their fallen 
comrades and foes alike. Toward the close of the day the order was 
given to husband the ammunition and use the bayonet as much as pos- 
sible. Some of the late charges of the Confederates were repulsed with 
the "cold steel" alone. The gallant stand of Thomas, and the general- 
ship he displayed in holding Horseshoe ridge in the face of superior 
numbers, won for him the significant sobriquet of the "Rock of Chicka- 
mauga." 

When Longstreet broke the Union line at noon Rosecrans himself 
was caught in the rout. Believing that his army was doomed to certain 
defeat, he went to Chattanooga to provide for the security of his bridges 
and, as he says in his report, "to make preliminary dispositions either to 
forward ammunition and supplies, should we hold our ground, or to with- 
draw the troops into good position." The first official intelligence that 
Thomas had of the unfortunate occurrence on the right was about 4 p. m., 
when Gen. Garfield, Rosecrans' chief of staff, arrived from Rossville. 
Notwithstanding the disheartening news, Thomas decided to hold his 
position until nightfall, if possible. The remaining ammunition was dis- 
tributed and instructions given to his division commanders to be ready 
to move promptly when orders to that effect were issued. At 5 130 Rey- 
nolds received the order to begin the movement. Thomas himself went 
forward to point out the ground he wanted Reynolds to occupy and 
form a line to cover the withdrawal of the other troops. While passing 
through a strip of timber bordering the Lafayette road Thomas met two 
soldiers, who had been in search of water, and who informed him that a 
large body of the enemy was drawn up in line in the woods just in front, 
advancing toward the Union lines. Reynolds was ordered to change the 
head of his column to the left, with his right resting on the road, and 
charge the enemy. At the same time the artillery opened a converging 
fire from both right and left, while Turchin made a dashing charge with 
his brigade, utterly routing the Confederates and driving them clear 
beyond Baird's position on the left, capturing over 200 prisoners. Robin- 
son's and Willich's brigades were then posted in positions to cover the 
retirement of the troops, the former on the road leading through the 
ridge, and the latter on the ridge to the right. Wood. Brannan and 
Granger fell back without molestation, but Baird, Johnson and Palmer 
were attacked as they were drawing back to their lines. This attack was 
made by L. E. Polk's division, but by this time it had become too dark 
to move with certainty, and in advancing the Confederate line was 
changed so that it formed an acute angle, the troops firing into each 
other. The withdrawal from the field was accomplished with such pre- 
cision and quietness that it was not discovered by Bragg until after sun- 
rise the following morning. Thomas took up a position in the vicinity 
of Rossville and remained there during the 21st. retiring to Chattanooga 
that night. Bragg's army had been so severely punished in the two days' 
fighting that he was disinclined to continue the conflict. Some desul- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 281 

tory skirmishing occurred on the 2ist, but no general movement was 
undertaken. 

The Union losses in the battle of Chickamauga, according to the offi- 
cial reports, were 1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, and 4.757 missing. The 
Confederate losses, as given in "Battles and Leaders of the Civil War," 
amounted to 2,389 killed, 13,412 wounded, and 2,003 missing. 

Chickamauga Creek, Ga., Jan. 30 and May 3, 1864. 

Chickamauga Station, Ga., Nov. 26, 1863. 15th Army Corps, and 
2nd Division of the 14th Army Corps. The Confederate army under 
Bragg was routed at Missionary ridge on the 25th. At 5 o'clock the 
next morning the 15th corps, commanded by Gen. O. O. Howard, 
crossed Chickamauga creek near its mouth and started in pursuit. Two 
hours later he was joined by Davis' division of the 14th corps, which 
took the advance. About noon Davis' advance began skirmishing 
with the enemy's rear-guard near Chickamauga Station. The 15th corps 
promptly moved up and the Confederates beat a hasty retreat. No report 
of killed and wounded was made, but the Federals captured 2 large siege 
guns, 1,000 bushels of corn, 10 pontoons and a large quantity of flour. 
Gen. Sherman joined the command at this point and the pursuit was 
continued. 

Chickasaw Bayou, Miss., Dec. 27-28, 1862. (See Chickasaw Bluffs.) 

Chickasaw Bluffs, Miss., Dec. 27-29, 1862. Right Wing, Army of 
the Tennessee. Early in the war the Federal administration took steps 
to seize and keep open the Mississippi river. Island No. 10 on the 
north. New Orleans, with Forts Philip and Jackson, on the south had 
been taken by the Union forces in the spring of 1862, and toward the 
close of that year an expedition was planned against Vicksburg, which 
was the key-point to the possession of the river. The movement against 
Chickasaw bluffs, with the preliminary skirmishes around Chickasaw 
bayou, was a part of this expedition, and was under command of Maj.- 
Gen. W. T. Sherman. His forces, the right wing of the Army of the 
Tennessee, consisted of the divisions of A. J. Smith, Morgan L. Smith, 
George W. Morgan and Frederick Steele, numbering about 32,000 men, 
with ten batteries. The first three divisions left Memphis on transports 
on the 20th, and were joined by Steele at Helena, Ark. Milliken's bend 
was reached on the 25th, and here Burbridge's brigade of A. J. Smith's 
division was sent to destroy the Vicksburg & Shreveport railroad, in 
order to cut the line of supplies to Vicksburg. This work was well done, 
and Burbridge rejoined the main body on the 27th. Meantime the 
transports proceeded on to the mouth of the Yazoo river and ascended 
that stream for some 13 miles, where a landing was made at Johnson's 
plantation, opposite the mouth of Steele's bayou, on the 26th. 

Sherman's object was to move so rapidly and quietly as to surprise 
the Confederates at Vicksburg, carry Walnut hills, or Chickasaw bluffs, 
and establish a base of supplies near Haynes' bluff. Then he would 
either take Vicksburg. or, if not strong enough for that, cut the railroad 
communications between Vicksburg and Jackson and hold his position 
on the Yazoo until Grant coul