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Full text of "The Union army; a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers"

THE 



UNION ARMY 



A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal 
States 1861-65 — Records of the Regi- 
ments IN THE Union Army — Cyclo- 
pedia OF Battles — Memoirs 
OF Commanders and 
Soldiers 



VOLUME VI 

Cyclopedia of Battles — Helena Road to Z 



MADISON, WIS. 
Federal Publishing Company 

1908 



'M3-1 



Copyright, 1908 

BY 

Federal Publishing Company 










CONTENTS 



VOLUME I 



Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Con- 
necticut, Pennsylvania and Delaware. 

VOLUME II 

Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of New York, 
Maryland, West Virginia and Ohio. 

VOLUME HI 

Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of New Jersey, 
Indiana, Illinois and Michigan. 

VOLUME IV 

Military Affairs and Regimental Histories of Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
California, Oregon, The Territories and 
District of Columbia. 

VOLUME V 
Cyclopedia of Battles— A to Helena. 

VOLUME VI 

Cyclopedia of Battles — Helena Road to Z. 

VOLUME VII 
The Navy. 

VOLUME VIII 

Biographical. 



VOLUME VI 

CYCLOPEDIA OF BATTLES, Continued 



Helena Road, Miss., June 21, 1863. Detachment of 3d Michigan Cav- 
alry. During the operations of the left wing of the i6th army corps in 
northwestern Mississippi Co. E of the 3d Mich, was sent across the Cold- 
water river and came upon a considerable force of the enemy on the Helena 
road. The Confederates took refuge in a log house and for a time held the 
Federals in check, but upon discovering a force moving to their rear they 
fled precipitately, leaving i man dead on the field. 

Henderson, Ky., July 18, 1862. A detachment of Morgan's raiders, 
commanded by Adam R. Johnson, made a descent on Henderson, plundered 
some of the stores, etc. There was no force at Henderson to resist the 
operations of the guerrillas, and Gen. Strong, commanding the District 
oi Cairo, called on Gen. Quinby to send a gunboat up the river, but before 
the preparations could be completed Johnson left the town. 

Henderson's Hill, La., March 21, 1864. Expedition under Brig.-Gen. 
Mower. As an incident of the Red River campaign, Brig.-Gen. Joseph A. 
Mower with the ist division, a regiment of infantry and a battery from the 
3d division, i6th corps, and the ist brigade, of the cavalry division, moved 
out from Alexandria to engage the Confederate force at Henderson's hill 
on Bayou Rapides. Leaving three regiments of infantry, a section of the 
artillery and the cavalry to engage the enemy in the front, he took two 
regiments of infantry, another section of the battery and the i6th Ind. 
mounted infantry and made a detour to the left to get in the enemy's rear. 
He captured a courier from Gen. Taylor to the commander of the force and 
obtained the countersign, thus enabling him to capture the whole command 
by detail without a shot being fired. The prisoners, numbering 262, were 
members of the 2nd La. cavalry and Edgar's battery of light artillery. The 
4 guns of the latter were also taken. 

Henderson's Mill, Tenn., Oct. 11, 1863. Cavalry of the Department of 
the Ohio. As an incident of the East Tennessee campaign, while an in- 
fantry division was attacking the Confederate forces under Gen. Williams, 
Col. John W. Foster was sent to the rear of the enemy to cut off his 
retreat. Owing to the condition of the roads Foster did not reach his 
position at Henderson's mill near Rheatown in time to fully carry out the 
plan, and the Confederates passed with but slight resistance. No casualties 
were reported. 

Hendersonville, N. C, April 23, 1865. Cavalry Division, Stoneman's 
Expedition. At daylight Gillem's cavalry entered Hendersonville only to 
find that a Confederate force of 300 which had been there the day before 
had evacuated. Maj. Slater with the nth Ky. was ordered in pursuit and 
at noon he reported that he had captured 4 pieces of the enemy's artillery 
and 70 infantry. Some 400 stands of arms were taken in Hendersonville. 

Henryville, Tenn., Nov. 23, 1864. Capron's Cavalry Brigade. As the 
Federal forces were concentrating at Columbia, Tenn., Col. Capron was 
sent by Gen. Schofield to watch the enemy's movements on the Waynes- 
boro road until Hatch and Croxton could get their commands over Shoal 
creek. Near Henryville Capron was attacked by Chalmers' division of 
Confederate cavalry and lost 25 men, who were captured. Capron fell 
back to Fouche springs, where he made another stand, but was struck in 
rear by Forrest and lost 20 more of his men, most of whom were taken 
prisoners. By skillful management Capron managed to extricate his com- 
mand and fell back toward Mount Pleasant and Columbia. 

Vol. VI— 2 497 



498 The Union Army 

Hernando, Miss., March 15-16, 1863. Brig.-Gen. James R. Chalmers 
of the Confederate army, reporting from Panola under date of March 18, 
says: "A part of my command, under Major (G. L.) Blythe, skirmished 
with the enemy near Hernando on Sunday ; killed i man. Again on Mon- 
day. Enemy's loss reported 8 killed. Our loss, i killed." Federal reports 
make no mention of the affair. 

Hernando, Miss., April 18, 1863. 12th and 33d Wisconsin and 43d 
Illinois Infantry, 15th Ohio Battery, and detachment of 5th Ohio Cavalry. 
As an incident of the expedition to Coldwater, Miss., Col. George E. 
Bryant, with the troops mentioned, reached Hernando at 6 p. m. of the i8th. 
At 6:30 a Confederate force of between 600 and 700 men under Col. W. C. 
Falkner attacked the Federal pickets. The cavalry was sent out to en- 
gage the enemy and the rest of the command was formed in line of battle. 
After half an hour's sharp fighting the Confederates withdrew, having suf- 
fered a loss of 30 in killed and wounded. The Federal loss was 4 wounded. 

Hernando, Miss., June 19, 1863. Detachments of ist Missouri, 2nd 
Illinois and 5th Ohio Cavalry. During the raids of the Federal troops from 
Tennessee into Mississippi, a party of cavalry, commanded by Maj. John 
Henry, was attacked at Dr. Atkins' plantation 3 miles from Coldwater, by 
a Confederate force under Brig.-Gen. James R. Chalmers. The 7th Tenn. 
cavalry led the charge, driving the ist Mo., and in the general attack which 
followed the whole Union command was routed and fled. The Confed- 
erates pursued some 15 miles, capturing Maj. Henry and 87 of his men. 
The Confederate casualties were i man killed and 10 wounded. The Union 
loss in killed and wounded was never officially given, but Chalmers esti- 
mated it at between 20 and 30. 

Herring Creek, Va., July 17, 1864. Sailors and Marines from the U. S. 
Gunboat Parke. Capt. A. L. Fitch, commanding the gunboat, landed at 
the Herring creek wharf at 12:30 a. m. and sent ashore 50 sailors and 3a 
marines to capture a detachment of Confederate cavalry known to be in 
the vicinity. A small skirmishing party of 10 sailors moved in advance 
and when about 800 yards from the river was fired upon by the enemy's 
pickets. The fire was promptly returned and Fitch ordered the marines to 
the right at the double-quick, while with the remainder of his little com- 
mand he charged on the run in front. Meantime the enemy was gradually 
forcing back the skirmish line, but when Fitch came up the Confederates 
retreated down the road. Being well mounted they could not be over- 
taken, and after a short chase the pursuit was discontinued. Fitch had I 
man slightly wounded. 

Hickman, Ky., Sept. 4. 1861. Gunboats Tyler and Lexington. During 
the operations of the Federal army in southeastern Missouri and western 
Kentucky the two gunboats acting in conjunction were sent down the river 
on a reconnaissance. Near Hickman was discovered a Confederate gun- 
boat which immediately opened fire, and one of the enemy's batteries also 
joined. The Federal gunboats fired several shots in return, and then re- 
tired up the river. While passing Columbus and the chalk banks the Con- 
federates again opened fire with artillery and musketry. No casualties 
were reported. 

Hickory Grove, Mo,, Sept. 19, 1862. 6th Kansas Cavalry. 

Hickory Hill, S. C, Feb. i, 1865. ist Brigade, ist Division, 15th Army 
Corps. The corps broke camp at McPhersonville at 7 a. m. and moved 
toward Hickory Hill, the ist division in advance. The road was found to 
be obstructed by fallen timber, and at every swamp a detachment of the 
enemy had to be dislodged from behind rail barricades. At 3 p. m. the 
advance reached the bridge over the Coosawhatchie river opposite Hickory 
Hill. Here a strong force of the enemy was found posted on the opposite 
side of the stream, with outposts thrown forward to guard the causeway 



Cyclopedia of Battles i99 

and approaches to the bridge. Gen. W. B. Woods, commanding the ist 
brigade, deployed the 27th, 31st and 32nd Mo., and the 26th la., and pushed 
them forward in Hne of battle to drive off the enemy and save the bridge. 
The river could not be crossed except by means of the bridge, so the 
skirmishers were ordered to advance along the causeway and if possible 
carry the bridge. Although the skirmish line was pushed forward in the 
face of a sharp fire, not a man was injured, and in a very short time the 
Confederates were driven from their positions on both sides of the river. 
The skirmishers were then supported and the bridge, which had been some- 
what injured by the enemy in an effort to destroy it, was repaired so that 
the entire corps could cross in safety. 

Hickory Station, Ark., April 2, 1865. Detachment of 112th U. S. 
Colored Infantry. Capt. Richard C. Custard, in charge of a train guard of 
19 men, reports that a band of 25 Confederates tore up the rails for some- 
distance and then attacked his command but were repulsed with the loss of 
I wounded. 

High Bridge, Va., April 6, 1865. 4th Massachusetts Cavalry, 54thr 
Pennsylvania and 123d Ohio Infantry. At 4 a. m. of this date this detach- 
ment, under command of Gen. Theodore Read, left Burkeville to destroy 
High bridge over the Appomattox river about 5 miles from Farmville. The 
cavalry advance met the enemy when within about 2 miles of the bridge and 
immediately engaged and drove him almost to Farmville. Here the Con- 
federate artillery opened on the advance, compelling it to fall back to near 
Rice's Station, where the infantry was hotly engaged. Read ordered the 
cavalry to charge into the woods on the left, which it did with great suc- 
cess, but on its return it was surrounded and after a severe fight captured 
by a superior force of the enemy. Some 15 members of the cavalry were 
killed or wounded. The enemy's loss was not reported. 

High Bridge, Va., April 7, 1865. (See Farmville.) 

Hillsboro, Ala., Dec. 29, 1864. Detachment of Steedman's Cavalry. 
Col. W. J. Palmer, of the 15th Pa. cavalry, with his own regiment, and parts 
of the loth, i2th and 13th Ind. and 2nd Tenn., under the command of 
Lieut.-Col. Prosser, were sent out from Decatur by Gen. Steedman to find 
and overcome Roddey's cavalry. Prosser moved by the Courtland road 
and Palmer by the Brown's Ferry road, the object of the latter being to 
get in Roddey's rear, and at the same time be in a position to intercept any 
force coming up from Bainbridge, where Hood's army was crossing the 
Tennessee river on its retreat from Nashville. Prosser encountered the 
enemy at Hillsboro, and after a running skirmish of 5 miles found Roddey's 
main force drawn up in line of battle at Pond springs. Without hesita- 
tion he charged the Confederates, drove them back through Courtland and 
pursued them to Town creek. In making his attack on Roddey, and in the 
pursuit which followed, Prosser moved so rapidly that Palmer did not 
reach the rear of the Confederate position in time to take part in the 
action. Prosser captured 45 prisoners, killed i and wounded 2 of the 
enemy, and reported a loss of i man wounded. 

Hillsboro, Ga., July 30-31, 1864. (See Stoneman's Raid to Macon.) 

Hillsboro, Ky., Oct 8, 1861. Flemingsburg Home Guards. 

Hillsboro, Miss., Feb. 10, 1864. Cavalry of 17th Army Corps. The re- 
port of Col. E. F. Winslow, chief of cavalry of the 17th corps, contains 
the only mention of this affair. The following extract is from Winslow's 
report : "Marched on loth instant 16 miles, passing through Hillsboro, 
where we had a short skirmish." Tlie engagement occurred during the 
Meridian campaign. 

Hillsboro, Tenn., June 29, 1863. ist Brigade, 2nd Division, 14th Army 
Corps. This brigade under Brig.-Gen. John Bcatty was just leaving Hills- 
boro on the Manchester and Winchester road when the head of the column 



500 The Union Army 

was attacked by a detachment of Confederate cavalry. The result was the 
kilHng of I, the wounding of i and the capture of another of the Federals. 

Hill's Gap, Tenn., Oct. 3, 1863. 

Hill's Plantation, Ark., July 7, 1862. Detachments, Army of the South- 
west. Pursuant to orders from Brig.-Gcn. Steele, commanding ist division 
Army of the Southwest, Col. Hovey, commanding 2nd brigade, directed 
Col. Harris of the nth Wis. infantry to take four companies of his own 
regiment and four of the 33d III. with a small steel gun of the ist Ind. 
cavalry, and reconnoitcr in advance of the Federal lines. At Hill's planta- 
tion near Round hill, Harris fell in with Confederate pickets, fired on them 
and passed on toward Bayou de View. He was soon overtaken by Hovey 
and instructed to proceed down the Des Arc road to undertake the rescue 
of a prisoner just taken. At the end of half a mile's rapid marching, he 
fell into an ambush, more than 2,000 Texas troops being in line of battle. 
Two companies were deployed as skirmishers and led the fight. The little 
cannon opened fire from a station near the road and the enemy's advance 
fell back on his main line, which was hidden behind underbrush. Harris 
pushed forward his advance until it came within range, when it staggered 
under a murderous fire and fell back under orders, but in some confusion. 
In resisting a charge which the Texans now made, Harris was severely 
wounded, but kept his saddle. A desperate onslaught was now made on 
the little steel gun in charge of Lieut. Denneman and i man, but it was 
rescued by Capt. Potter and his company. As Capt. Partridge and others 
took the gun up the road, the infantry reformed in a cornfield by the road- 
side. The Confederates charged in great force in pursuit, but were met by 
a steady and well directed fire and the ground was strewn with their dead 
and wounded. The Texans wavered and another volley routed them, but 
they again rallied and tried to gain the Federal rear, where they were re- 
pelled by a force that Hovey had ordered back after the first onset. Then 
they were bafifled by Capt. Elliott's company in an attempt to turn the Fed- 
eral left. They formed on their original line of battle, when the Federals 
bore down upon them and again they gave way. At this juncture Col. 
Wood of the ist Ind. cavalry, with a battalion of his regiment and 2 steel 
guns, came to Hovey's assistance and made the retreat a rout. The fight 
was ended by a cavalry charge led by Maj. Clendenning. Other reinforce- 
ments came, and late in the day Gen. Benton followed the fleeing foe 5 
or 6 miles toward Des Arc, killing several and taking some prisoners. All 
along the route he found the houses crowded with dead and wounded. 
Benton's force consisted of the 8th Ind. infantry ; a section of Manter's 
battery, ist Mo. light artillery; part of the 33d 111. infantry; a howitzer 
from Bowen's battalion; the 13th 111. cavalry; a battalion of the 5th 111. 
cavalry. Federal loss, 6 killed, 57 wounded. After the fight Confederates 
estimated the number of their dead at 200; the Federals found 123 on the 
field. 

Hill's Plantation, Miss., June 22, 1863. Portions of three companies 
of the 4th Iowa Cavalry. 

Hill's Point, Va., April 19, 1863. (See Battery Huger.) 

Hillsville, Va., April 3, 1865. 3d Cavalry Brigade of Stoneman's Ex- 
pedition. After the cavalry division had captured a wagon train of 17 
wagons and a forge near Hillsville, Col. John K. Miller moved out at sun- 
set from Hillsville in the direction of Jacksonville. Shortly after dark he 
came upon a force of Confederates and drove them for several miles. No 
casualties were reported. 

Hinesville, Ga., Dec. 16, 1864. Detachment of the 7th Illinois Mounted 
Infantry. During the investment of Savannah a foraging party was sent 
out from this regiment and when near Hinesville it fell in with a party of 
Confederate cavalry. In the skirmish which ensued i Confederate was 
killed, the Union troops escaping without casualty. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 501 

Hodgevillc, Ky., Oct. 23, 1861. Detachment of 6th Indiana Volunteers. 

Hog Island, Mo., May 18, 1863. Detachment of 9th Kansas Cavalry. 
Two companies of cavalry under Capt. C. F. Coleman made a descent upon 
Hog island in Bates county, and discovered some 300 Confederates in- 
trenched behind light breastworks. Coleman charged and routed the 
enemy, who left 3 dead and 5 wounded. The Federals lost i man killed in 
the attack. 

Hog Jaw Valley, Ala., Feb. 3-4, 1865. (See Ladd's House, same date.) 

Hog Mountain, Ala., April 30, 1863. (See Streight's Raid.) 

Hoke's Run, W. Va., July 2, i86r. (See Falling Waters.) 

Holland House, Va., May 15, 1863. (See Carrsville.) 

Hollow Tree Gap, Tenn., Dec. 17, 1864. ist and 7th Cavalry Divisions, 
Army of the Cumberland. In the pursuit of Hood from Nashville, Ham- 
mond's brigade of the 7th division and Croxton's of the ist came up with 
the enemy just south of Brentwood and drove him back to Hollow Tree 
gap, 4 miles north of Franklin, where he made a stand. While part of the 
Federal force engaged the enemy in front the remainder turned his position 
and struck him in the flank. About 250 prisoners and 5 battle flags were 
captured, and near the Harpeth river Hammond captured a piece of 
artillery. 

Holly River, W. Va., April 17, 1862. loth West Va. Volunteers. 

Holly Springs, Miss., Nov. 13, 1862. Cavalry Corps, Army of the 
Tennessee. During Gen. Grant's expedition against the Mississippi Central 
railroad, the cavalry under Col. Albert L. Lee charged the Confederate 
pickets 2 miles north of Holly Springs and drove them through the town, 
capturing 4 and killing i. Skirmishing was kept up all day, the enemy 
bringing up five regiments of cavalry in an unsuccessful attempt to drive 
Lee from the town. 

Holly Springs, Miss., Dec. 20, 1862. Detachment of the Army of the 
Tennessee. Early on the morning of Dec. 20, the Confederates under Van 
Dorn surprised the town of Holly Springs. Little resistance was made by 
the garrison under Col. R. C. Murphy, of the 8th Wis. infantry, the larger 
portion of the command being in bed when the town was attacked. The 
enemy captured and paroled some 1,500 men and destroyed $400,000 worth 
of property. Col. Murphy was later dismissed from the service of his 
country for neglecting to take the necessary precautions to guard the place. 

Holly Springs, Miss., June 16-17, 1863. - Detachments of 2nd Iowa 
and 3d Michigan Cavalry. During the operations in northwestern Mis- 
sissippi a patrol of the 2nd la. came upon a company of Confederates after 
dark on the i6th. In the skirmish 2 Union men were wounded. Co. F of 
the 3d Mich, was sent out from camp near Holly Springs on the same day 
and on its return on the 17th encountered a company of 20 Confederates, 
but repulsed them with a few shots. 

Holly Springs, Miss., Feb. 12, 1864. 3d Brigade, Cavalry Division, 
i6th Army Corps. Col. Lafayette McCrillis, commanding the brigade, re- 
ports that his command marched at daylight and later passed through Holly 
Springs. In the course of the day considerable skirmishing was done, re- 
sulting in the killing of 3, the wounding of 2 and the capture of i. The 
movement was a part of the Meridian expedition. 

Holly Springs, Miss., May 24, 1864. 4th Missouri Cavalry. 

Holly Springs, Miss., Aug. 27-28, 1864. 14th Iowa and nth U. S. 
Colored Infantry, and loth Missouri Cavalry. 

Holman's Bridge, S. C, Feb. 9, 1865. 2nd Division, isth Army Corps. 
As the division, commanded by Maj.-Gen. W. B. Hazen, was moving to- 
ward Columbia the 55th 111. and 57th Ohio, belonging to Theodore Jones' 
brigade, skirmished all the afternoon with the enemy, driving him back to 
Holman's bridge over the Edisto river. The bridge was found to have been 



502 The Union Army 

burned and the enemy stationed in some force on the opposite bank, but 
troops were crossed on fallen trees late in the evening and the enemy 
evacuated his position during the night. The only casualties reported were 
I man killed and i wounded, both of the 57th Ohio. 

Holston River, Tenn., Feb. 20, 1864. 4th Tennessee Volunteers. 

Homochitto River, Miss., Sept. 20, 1864. (See Buck's Ferry.) 

Honey Creek, Mo., Oct. 19, 1863. Detachment of 5th Missouri Militia. 
Lieut. John A. Devinney while scouting with g men in the Honey creek 
neighborhood came upon a party of 4 guerrillas just finishing a meal. An 
attack on the outlaws resulted in the killing of all 4, and the capture of 
3 horses, equipments, etc. 

Honey Creek, Mo., May 30-31, 1864. (See Mill Creek, same date.) 

Honey Hill, S. C, Nov. 30, 1864. Two Brigades of the Coast Division, 
Department of the South, one Naval Brigade and portions of Three Bat- 
teries of light artillery. On the night of the 28th Brig.-Gen. John P. Hatch 
with 5,500 men left Hilton Head for Boyd's neck. Owing to a heavy fog 
the troops were not disembarked from the transports until late the follow- 
ing afternoon, and Hatch immediately started forward to cut the railroad 
near Grahamville. The maps and guides proved worthless, however, and 
not until the morning of the 30th was he able to proceed on the right road. 
At Honey Hill a few miles from Grahamville, he encountered the enemy 
with a battery of 7 guns across the road. An attack was immediately 
made but the position of the Federal force was such that only one section 
of artillery could be used at a time, and the Confederates were too well in- 
trenched to be dislodged. Fighting was kept up until dark, when Hatch, 
realizing the impossibility of successfully attacking or turning the flank of 
the enemy, withdrew his command, having lost 89 in killed, 629 wounded 
and 28 missing. The Confederate casualties amounted to 8 killed and 42 
wounded. 

Honey Springs, I. T., July 17, 1863. Detachment of the Army of the 
Frontier. At midnight of the 15th Maj.-Gen. James G. Blunt with some 
250 cavalry and 4 pieces of artillery marched 13 miles up the Arkansas 
river, where he drove the enemy from the farther shore with his artillery 
and forded the stream. The picket at the Grand River crossing fled at his 
approach and at this point he was able to bring over his whole force. 
About 10 p. m. of the i6th he started south with about 3,000 men, consist- 
ing of detachments of the 2nd Col., ist, 2nd and 3d Indian Home Guards, 
1st Kas. (colored) infantry, 2nd Kas. battery, Hopkins' Kas. battery, 6th 
Kas. and 3d Wis. cavalry. At daylight he came upon the enemy's advance 
about 5 miles from Elk creek, and with his cavalry drove them rapidly 
back upon their main force, which was formed in a line a mile and a half 
long on the south side of the creek. After a halt for rest the Federal force 
pushed forward in line of battle. After two hours of determined fighting 
the Confederate center gave way and entire force commenced a retreat, 
in which Blunt pushed them hard. They made several determined stands, 
but each time were obliged- to fall back. Rather than have their commis- 
sary stores fall into the hands of the Federal troops they were burned. 
Blunt pursued about 3 miles before he was forced to abandon the chase 
because of the exhausted condition of his animals. About 4 130 p. m. 3,000 
men came to reinforce the Confederates and during the night Blunt with- 
drew. The Confederate loss, by Blunt's estimate, was 150 killed, 400 
wounded and '^'J captured, besides i piece of artillery, a stand of colors, 200 
stands of arms and 15 wagons. The Federal casualties were 17 killed and 
60 wounded. 

Hookerton, N. C, March 31, 1865. 8th Minnesota Infantry, Company 
L, I2th New York Cavalry. In a scout from Wheat swamp toward Hook- 
erton the regiment, commanded by Col. G. A. Camp and accompanied by 



Cyclopedia of Batties 503 

Capt. Hubbard's company of the 12th N. Y. cavalry, met the enemy's 
pickets about half a mile from Hookerton. Hubbard charged, drove the 
pickets through the town, scattering them in all directions and capturing 
4 men, 2 of whom were commissioned officers, without the loss of a man. 

Hoover's Gap, Tenn., June 24-25, 1863. 4th Division, 14th Army 
Corps, Army of the Cumberland. At 4 a. m. of the 24th this division left 
Murfreesboro on the Manchester pike. Two miles out it engaged the 
enemy's picket and drove them back through Hoover's gap on their reserve. 
The 1st brigade, Col. J. T. Wilder, discovering the enemy in force at Fairfield, 
concentrated at the southern terminus of the gap, the other two brigades 
meanwhile moving: into and occupying it. Before the division had 
fairly finished taking position, Wilder was attacked and the other 
two brigades were ordered to his support. Attempts on the part of 
the Confederate commander to turn the Union flanks proved of no 
avail, though heavy skirmishing was continued until dark. During 
the night reinforcements came to the Federal aid, and on the 25th 
an artillery duel was kept up from dawn to dark. That night the 
enemy withdrew, having lost 19 killed, 126 wounded and 40 captured. The 
Union casualties in the two days were 15 killed and 41 wounded. 

Hopewell, Mo., Aug. 26, 1863. ist Missouri State Militia Cavalry. 
Col. B. F. Lazear, in reporting the operations of his command during 
the pursuit of Quantrill in the latter's raid into Kansas, states that on 
the 26th his forces and the enemy's had a picket skirmish in the 
morning and a long chase after a party of 30 of the enemy who dis- 
appeared in the underbrush. 

Hopkinsville, Ky., Dec. 16, 1864. ist Cavalry Division, Division of 
the Mississippi. As an incident of Lyon's raid from Paris, Tenn., 
Brig.-Gen. Edward M. McCook sent Bvt. Brig.-Gen. L. D. Watkins 
to the right with instructions to make a detour and get in the enemy's 
rear while the 2nd brigade under Col. Oscar H. LaGrange attacked 
the front. Had the plan been carried out, Lyon's entire force of 500 
men would have been captured, but for some unaccountable reason 
Watkins had failed to cut off the Confederate retreat by the Green- 
ville road. When LaGrange advanced the enemy fled, abandoning 
their artillery. The Federal troops captured 61 men and killed and 
wounded a number. No casualties were reported on the Union side. 

Hornersville, Mo., May 19, 1862. Detachment of the ist Wiscon- 
sin Cavalry. While stationed near Chalk bluff. Ark., Col. Edward 
Daniels, commanding the regiment, received information that the 
steamer Daniel E. Miller was taking on supplies at Hornersville, 20 
miles below. With 82 picked men and a 6-pounder cannon Daniels 
hurried to Hornersville, surprised the enemy's pickets and reached 
the landing before the boat could get out of rifle range. His ad- 
vance fired a few shots, which called forth a volley from the boat, 
when the cannon was brought up and two shots fired, one ball pass- 
ing through the wheel-house and the other striking below the water 
line. The Miller then hove to and surrendered. In the affair 2 
Confederates were killed, 3 wounded and 30 surrendered. The 
Union troops met with no casualties. Daniels then pressed into ser- 
vice all the teams in the vicinity and moved the stores on the boat 
to Chalk bluff. 

Horn Lake Creek, Tenn., May 18, 1863. Detachment of the 2nd 
Wisconsin Cavalry. This affair was a skirmish between a scouting 
party under Capt. Albert M. Sherman and a Confederate picket. 
The enemy showed fight at first but was driven back to his reserves, 
which were in turn driven. The casualties, if any, were not reported. 

Hornsboro, S. C, March 3, 1865. 4th Brigade, Kilpatrick's Cav- 
alry. The brigade, commanded by Col. William B. Way, had just 



504 The Union Army 

gone into camp 3 miles north of Hornsboro, when the pickets were 
fiercely attacked by some of Wheeler's cavalry, but the attack was 
repulsed with a loss of i man slightly wounded. 

Horse Landing, Fla., May 23, 1864. U. S. S. .Columbine. As the 
steamer was returning down the St. John's river from a trip to 
Volusia, with 2 officers and 25 men of the 35th U. S. colored in- 
lantry on board, in addition to her regular crew, she was fired upon 
at Horse landing by the sharpshooters of the 2nd Fla. cavalry and 
a section of artillery. After an engagement of 45 minutes her rud- 
der was shot away and she became unmanageable. The white flag 
was then run up, the crew and troops surrendered as prisoners of 
war and the vessel was burned. The Confederate casualties were 
not reported. 

Horeshoe Bottom, Ky., May 10, 1863. U. S. Troops under Col. 
R. T. Jacob. At 8 a. m. Maj.-Gen. John H. Morgan with some 5,000 
or 6,000 men attacked the Federal force under Jacob at Horse- 
shoe bottom on Greasy creek. For more than 7 hours heavy skir- 
mishing was continued, when Jacob charged, driving the enemy at 
the point of the bayonet for more than half a mile, at which point 
reinforcements came to Morgan's aid. Jacob then slowly withdrew 
his forces to the Cumberland river and crossed without difficulty. 
The Federal killed, wounded and missing in this engagement and 
that of the day before amounted to 42; the Confederate losses, though 
not reported, were undoubtedly much heavier. The Union command 
consisted of Indiana, Michigan and Kentucky troops. 

Horton's Mills, N. C, April 27, 1862. 103d New York Volunteers. 

Hot Springs, Ark., Feb. 4, 1864. 3d Missouri Cavalry. 

Houlka Swamp, Miss., Feb. 17, 1864. Cavalry of Meridian Expedi- 
tion. While Brig.-Gen. William Sooy Smith, commanding the cav- 
alry, was advancing rapidly on Houston he encountered a body of 
state troops 10 miles out who fled at the first fire. At the crossing 
of a swamp, which could only be passed by a corduroy road a mile 
in length, the enemy was again met and was driven back after some 
sharp fighting. The casualties, if any, were not reported. 

Housatonic, U. S. Steamer, Feb. 17, 1864. For the destruction of 
the Housatonic in Charleston harbor, on this date, see Naval 
volume. 

Houston, Miss., Feb. 19, 1864. Detachment of 2nd Tennessee 
Cavalry. During the Meridian expedition Col. Lafayette McCrillis, 
commanding the 3d cavalry brigade, sent a portion of the 2nd Tenn. 
under Maj. William F. Prosser toward Houston, from Okolona. 
Prosser proceeded to within 6 miles of Houston, where he fell upon 
and engaged the rear-guard of Chalmers' brigade, and then moving 
southward drove them as far as Buena Vista. He then fell back 
on the Pikeville road and rejoined his brigade at midnight. No 
casualties were reported. 

Houston, Mo., Sept. 12, 1863. Detachment of 5th Missouri State 
Militia Cavalry. Capt. S. B. Richardson with 10 men after a pur- 
suit of nearly 70 miles came upon the camp of a band of guerrillas. 
Of the 4 in camp 3 were killed and the other was severely wounded. 
A number of horses, saddles, harness, etc., was captured in the camp. 

Howard County, Mo., Aug. 28, 1862. 4th Missouri Militia Cavalry. 

Howard's Gap, N. C, April 22, 1865. Cavalry Division, Stone- 
man's Expedition. This skirmish was an incident of an expedition 
into southwestern Virginia and western North Carolina. Gillem's 
cavalry passed through Howard's gap of the Blue Ridge mountains 
on the 22nd, the small force of the enemy posted there offering but 
slight resistance. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 505 

Howell's Ferry, Ga., Oct. 19, 1864. (See Turner's Ferry, same 
date.) 

Howe's Ford, Ky., April 28, 1863. ist Kentucky Cavalry. 

Hudnot's Plantation, La., May i, 1864. Cavalry of the 19th 
Corps. 

Hudson, Mo., Dec. 21, 1861. Detachment of 7th Missouri Cavalry. 

Hudson's Crossing, Ind. Ten, June 4, 1864. Detachment of the 
Indian Brigade of Home Guards. Forty bushwhackers attacked the 
detachment, under Capt. Craft, near Hudson's crossing of the 
Neosho river but were easily repulsed. Craft pursued them to their 
camp, which he burned. No casualties were mentioned. 

Hudsonville, Miss., Nov. 8, 1862. 7th Kansas and 2nd Iowa Cav- 
alry. This was an incident of a reconnaissance from La Grange, 
Tenn., toward Holly Springs, Miss. For the result of the movement 
see La Grange. 

Hudsonville, Miss., June 21, 1863. Detachment of 4th Cavalry 
Brigade, i6th Army Corps. A portion of the brigade, while operating 
with the remainder of the left wing in northwestern Mississippi, en- 
countered a considerable Confederate force at Hudsonville, near 
the Coldwater river. Three of the four companies were cut off from 
the main column and after a fight lasting three-quarters of an hour 
it was necessary to charge through the lines of the enemy's greatly 
superior numbers in order to regain the column. In the movement 
I man was killed, 2 were wounded and 26 captured; the rest made 
their way to their command. The Confederates had i killed, 18 
wounded and 2 captured, according to Federal reports, but their own 
make no mention of any casualties. 

Hudsonville, Miss., Feb. 25, 1864. ist Cavalry Brigade, i6th Army 
Corps. On the morning of the 25th Waring's brigade was in the advance 
of Smith's column on its retreat from before West Point and as it neared 
Hudsonville the head of the column was fired into. One man was killed 
and 2 were wounded. 

Huff's Ferry, Tenn., Nov. 14, 1863. 107th Illinois and 13th Kentucky 
Infantry. On the 13th the 2nd brigade, under Col. Marshal W. Chapin, 
was sent to make a reconnaissance in the direction of Huff's ferry near 
Maryville. The next day, when within two and a half miles of his destina- 
tion, Chapin came upon the Confederate pickets. The 107th 111. and the 
13th Ky. were deployed and drove the enemy for 2 miles, where he took 
position on the top of a wooded hill. The enemy's attack was centered on 
the Kentucky regiment, which was in an exposed position in an open field. 
Being unable to dislodge the Confederates by skirmishing, the two regi- 
ments charged up the hill, forcing the enemy to abandon his position. The 
2nd brigade occupied the hill during the night and next day covered the 
retreat of the column toward Loudon. The casualties were not reported 
for this one engagement, but during the three days' reconnaissance the two 
regiments lost 5 killed and 40 wounded. The Confederate loss was not 
reported. 

Humansville, Mo., March 26, 1862. Detachment of Missouri Militia 
Cavalry. On the afternoon of the 26th a Confederate force advanced on 
Humansville from the east. The Federal troops were in position along 
a fence and when the enemy charged he was met by a galling fire which 
forced him to fall back. Capt. Gravely with 25 men followed for some 
distance, but did no more than hasten the Confederate retreat. The Union 
casualties were 12 wounded. The enemy lost 6 killed and 30 wounded. 

Humansville, Mo., Oct. 6, 1863. Missouri State Militia. In the report 
of his raid in Arkansas and Missouri Col. Joseph O. Shelby (Confederate) 
states that a force of militia attempted to dispute the march of his army 



506 The Union Army 

when it reached Humansville, but was driven back without difficulty. No 
mention is made of casualties. 

Humansville, Mo., Oct. 17, 1863. 6th Missouri Militia Cavalry. A 
Confederate account states that during Shelby's raid Col. Shanks en- 
countered a Federal detachment (part of 6th Mo. cavalry) near Humans- 
ville, and lost a lieutenant and several men captured, but soon cut his 
way out. No mention of the affair is to be found in the official records 
of the war. 

Humboldt, Tenn., Dec. 20, 1862. (See Forrest's Expedition into West 
Tennessee.) 

Hundley's Corner, Va., June 26, 1862. (See Seven Days' Battles.) 

Hunnewell, Mo., Aug. 17, 1861. Detachment of i6th Illinois In- 
fantry. The train carrying a detachment of troops to Hudson City was 
fired upon as it left Palmyra and again as it entered Hunnewell. At the 
latter place it was stopped, the troops were disembarked and drove the 
Confederates from the track with a loss of 5 killed. One man of the i6th 
111. was killed and another wounded when the train was fired into. 

Hunnewell, Mo., Jan. 3, 1862. Four Companies of the lOth Missouri 
Cavalry. 

Hunnewell, Mo., April 18, 1864. Three bushwhackers entered Hunne- 
well and started to plunder the town when the citizens resisted. The 
result was the killing of i of the outlaws, the wounding of another and 
the escape of the third. One citizen was killed and 2 others were wounded 
in the affair. 

Hunter's Farm, Mo., Sept. 26, 1861. Detachment 8th Illinois In- 
fantry. A small detachment from the companies of Capts. Stewart, Langen 
and Pfaff, under the command of the first named, met a party of Con- 
federates near the edge of the timber at Hunter's farm, not far from the 
town of Belmont. By a skillful movement the Confederates were sur- 
rounded, 10 or 12 killed and wounded, several men with their horses and 
equipments captured. No casualties reported on the Union side. 

Hunter's Mills, Va., Nov. 26, 1861. 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry. 

Huntersville, W. Va., Jan. 3, 1862. Detachments of 25th Ohio and 
2nd West Virginia Infantry and Bracken's Cavalry. On the morning of 
Jan. 3 Maj. George Webster with about 700 men approached Hunters- 
ville. When about 2 miles from the village the Confederate pickets fired 
upon the Federal advance-guard and a mile farther Webster was con- 
fronted by a body of the enemy and immediately became engaged. Dis- 
covering a movement to turn his flank, the enemy retreated and drew up 
in battle line half a mile nearer the town. Again he retreated when 
attacked upon the right and Webster pursued him through the town. 
Provisions and property amounting to $30,000 were destroyed by the 
Federals, who remained in the place 2 hours and then returned to Edray. 
The number of Confederates is variously estimated at from 250 to 1,000. 
The only Union casualty was i man wounded. The Confederates lost i 
killed and 7 wounded. 

Huntersville, W. Va., Aug. 22, 1863. (See Averell's Raid.) 

Huntingdon, Tenn., Dec. 27, 29 and 30, 1862. (See Forrest's Ex- 
pedition into West Tennessee.) 

Huntsville, Ala., April 11, 1862. 3d Division, Army of the Ohio. 
After a forced march the advance guard of the division entered Hunts- 
ville at 6 a. m. of the nth. Tlie Confederate garrison was completely 
surprised and offered little resistance. About 200 prisoners, 15 loco- 
motives, a number of cars, telegraph instruments, etc., were captured. 
There were no casualties reported. Brig.-Gen. O. M. Mitchel was the 
Union leader. 

Huntsville, Ala., Oct. i, 1864. Detachments of nth and 13th Indiana 



Cyclopedia of Battles 507 

Infantry, and 12th Indiana cavalry. During Forrest's raid into Alabama 
and Tennessee he arrived near Huntsville on Sept. 30. A summons to 
surrender was sent to the garrison, and early next morning a cavalry force 
of 2,000 Confederates was seen on the roads to the north. With this 
force the Union cavalry skirmished for a number of hours, the artillery 
in the garrison also taking a hand. At 2 p. m. the enemy retired in the 
direction of Athens. The only casualties were 2 wounded on the Con- 
federate side. 

Huntsville, Ark., Nov. 9, 1863. ist Arkansas Cavalry. Col. M. La 
Rue Harrison in pursuit of the Confederates under Col. Stirman was 
attacked by a force under Brooks at Huntsville. The Union pickets were 
driven back, when the 2 mountain howizers with Harrison's command 
were opened upon the enemy who, after a few rounds, retreated in dis- 
order, having lost i killed, several wounded and a lieutenant captured. 
The Federals sustained no casualties. 

Huntsville, Mo., July 24, 1864. Detachment of 17th Illinois Cavalry 
and Militia. The day after Lieut. Knapp was attacked at Allen his com- 
mand was again attacked at Huntsville by the same party of guerrillas, 
but after a rather severe tight he succeeded in repulsing the enemy. 
Knapp's loss was 2 men killed and a number of horses killed or lost. 
The enemy's loss was not learned. 

Huntsville, Tenn., Aug. 13, 1862. 7th Tennessee Infantry. The reg- 
iment, about 250 strong and commanded by Col. William Clift, occupied 
a fortified position on an eminence near Huntsville. About 8 a. m. on 
the 13th the pickets were driven in by a force of over 1,500 Confederates. 
Most of Clift's men were raw recruits, and seeing the great odds against 
them left the works in wild confusion. About 50 remained and held the 
works for nearly 2 hours, during which time more than half the gallant 
little band were killed or wounded. When the number was reduced to 
20 able-bodied men Clift ordered a retreat, which was conducted in good 
order and without further loss. 

Huntsville, Tenn., Nov. 11, 1862. Tennessee Home Guards. 

Hupp's Hill, Va., Oct. 14, 1864. 2nd Brigade, ist Cavalry Division, 
Army of the Shenandoah. Brig.-Gen. Thomas C. Devin, commanding the 
brigade, was ordered to cross Cedar creek and make a reconnaissance 
toward Strasburg. Upon reaching Hupp's hill, which overlooked the 
town, he found himself confronted by Conner's brigade of Kershaw's 
division, supported by Simms' brigade. Devin ordered the 6th N. Y. to 
charge a small force of the enemy in the earthwork nearest him, and this 
regiment, supported by the ist N. Y., drove the Confederates from their 
position and back through the town. Two bodies of the enemy then ad- 
vanced against him — one through the woods on his right and the other 
up the pike from the direction of Fisher's hill, where the main body of 
Early's army was intrenched. As Devin had no artillery, and not wish- 
ing to bring on an engagement, he ordered his command to retire to the 
crest of Hupp's hill, but later in the day he again drove the enemy from 
his intrenchment at Strasburg. No casualties reported. 

Hurricane Bridge, W. Va., March 28, 1863. Detachment of the 13th 
West Virginia Infantrj'. At 6 a. m. a summons to surrender was sent in 
under a flag of truce to Capt. J. W. Johnson, commandant of the post at 
Hurricane bridge, by Brig.-Gen. A. G. Jenkins of the Confederate army. 
Johnson refused to surrender and 15 minutes after Jenkins had received 
the negative answer the engagement was begun. For five hours it con- 
tinued, at the end of which time the Confederates withdrew. The F"ederal 
loss was 3 killed and 4 wounded. The Confederate casualties, although 
not reported, were probably about the same. 

Hurricane Creek, Ark., Oct. 23, 1864. Detachments of 3d U. S., 9th 



508 The Union Army 

Kansas and 4th Arkansas Cavalry. Maj.-Gen. Frederick Steele writing from 
Little Rock under date of Oct. 24 states that detachments of the above 
regiments "had a fight with Logan's cavalry 21 miles from here on the 
Benton road yesterday, and with complete success. They found 27 dead 
upon the field, captured 17 — i lieutenant. Our loss, i killed and 8 
wounded." 

Hurricane Creek, Miss., Aug. 9, 1864. (See Tallahatchie river.) 

Hurricane Creek, Miss., Aug. 13, 1864. 3d Brigade, 3d Division, i6th 
Army Corps, and ist Cavalry Division. In the expedition to Oxford the 
pickets of the 3d brigade were attacked early in the morning. The dem- 
onstration was continued until noon, when the 52nd Ind., 117th 111. and 
178th N. Y. infantry and Hatch's cavalry division, all under command of 
Brig.-Gen. J. A. Mower, were ordered out from Abbeville on the Ox- 
ford road to drive the Confederates away. At Hurricane creek, 5 miles 
south of Abbeville, the enemy under Gen. Forrest was found posted 
behind earthworks on the south side of the creek, with 4 pieces of artillery. 
Hatch ordered Col. Starr to move with the 6th and 9th 111. cavalry to a 
crossing about 2 miles below and attack the enemy on the left flank, while 
Col. Herrick was directed to cross with his brigade 2 miles above and 
attack Forrest's right. The 2nd la. cavalry preceded the infantry on the 
main road and drove the Confederate skirmishers across the creek, when 
Mower opened with his artillery. The enemy promptly replied and for 
over an hour the duel was kept up, though no effort was made to force 
a crossing. Herrick and Starr both encountered the enemy before reach- 
ing the creek. The former was met by a heavy artillery fire and could 
not efifect a crossing, but he held his position and engaged the force in 
his front until ordered to fall back. After about 3 hours Starr succeeded 
in crossing and drove the enemy from his works toward Oxford. The 
only casualties reported were 6 killed and 14 wounded in Starr's detach- 
ment. 

Hurricane Creek, Miss., Aug. 19, 1864. ist Cavalry Division, Dis- 
trict of West Tennessee. This affair was an incident of an expedition 
from La Grange, Tenn., to Oxford, Miss., in which Brig.-Gen. Edward 
Hatch's command was engaged. There was only light skirmishing as the 
Federals advanced to where they encamped on the south side of the creek. 
No casualties were reported. 

Hurricane Creek, Miss., Aug. 21-22, 1864. (See College Hill.) 

Hurricane Creek, Miss,, Oct. 23, 1864. ist Iowa and 9th Kansas 
Cavalry. 

Hustonville, Ky., Feb. 9, 1865. Bridgewater's Kentucky Scouts. Capt. 
J. H. Bridgewater went in pursuit of the guerrillas who had robbed the 
train at New Market and attacked them near Hustonville. The result 
was the killing of 4, the dispersal of the remainder and the capture of 
35 horses. 

Hutchinson, Minn., Sept. 3, 4, 1862. Fight with Indians. 

Huttonsville, Va., Aug. 24, 1864. Pickets of the 8th Ohio Cavalry. 
About 100 Confederates, dismounted, came over the mountain and sur- 
prised a picket post of 70 men belonging to the 8th Ohio cavalry. All the 
horses and equipments were captured and about 40 of the men were taken 
prisoners, but were afterward released. One man was seriously wounded. 
Maj. Shaw immediately started in pursuit, but the enemy was not over- 
taken. 

Hydesville, Cal., Oct. 21, 1862. Detachment of the 2nd California In- 
fantry. Capt. Henry Flynn, with his company, left Hydesville at 7:30 a. 
m. for Fort Baker. He had not proceeded far when a Ijand of Indians, 
near Simmons' ranch, fired upon him and then tried to surround the com- 
pany. Flynn returned their fire and fell back down a hill, when he dis- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 509 

covered that some of the Indians had gained his rear and threatened to 
cut him off. A volley was directed against this party, killing one of the 
savages, and the remainder withdrew. Flynn returned to Hydesville. 

Illinois Creek, Ark., Dec. 7, 1862. (See Prairie Grove.) 

Independence, Mo., June 17, 1861. Detachment of Missouri Volun- 
teers. 

Independence, Mo., Nov. 26, 1861. 7th Kansas Cavalry. 

Independence, Mo., Feb. 18, 1862. 2nd Ohio Cavalry. 

Independence, Mo., March 22, 1862. (See Blue Springs.) 

Independence, Mo., Aug. 11, 1862. Detachments of 7th Missouri 
Cavalry and 2nd Battalion Missouri Cavalry (Militia). At daybreak 
this post was attacked by the Confederates under Col. J. T. Hughes, 
numbering from 700 to 800 men. The enemy entered the town by 
two roads, one party attacking the provost guard at the jail and the 
other the headquarters of Lieut. -Col. James T. Buel in the bank 
building. Capt. Thomas' company of the Missouri militia was com- 
pelled to seek cover behind a stone wall running parallel with the 
south side of the camp, the enemy meanwhile occupying a building 
from which he could pour a galling fire into the bank building, and 
at 9 a. m. Buel surrendered, a good part of the town having been 
set on fire. A party of 65 men under Lieut. Herington, which had 
been sent out to open a communication between headquarters and the 
different parts of the camp, managed to cut their way out and escaped 
to Kansas City. The Federal loss was 26 killed and 30 wounded. Of 
the garrison of 213 some 150 were taken prisoners, the others escap- 
ing toward Kansas City. The Confederate casualties were not re- 
ported, but included the leader. Col. Hughes, killed. 

Independence, Mo., Feb. 8, 1863. Detachment of 5th Missouri 
State Militia Cavalry. Col. W. R. Penick, commanding the post of 
Independence, Mo., sent out Lieut. D. A. Colvin with a detachment 
of 50 men from Companies C, D, and F, to break up a guerrilla 
camp not far from the town. About 2 p. m. Colvin surprised the 
enemy and for half an hour a running fight was kept up, the guer- 
rillas losing 8 killed and 2 wounded. The Federals lost but i man. 
All the horses and arms of the bushwhackers were captured. 

Independence, Mo., Aug. 25, 1863. Detachment of nth Kansas 
Cavalry. Lieut. John G. Lindsay of the nth Kan., reporting from 
Independence under date of Aug. 26, says: "I had a fight yesterday 
at sunrise; killed i, wounded 2; had i of my men wounded." 

Independence, Mo., Oct. 22, 1864. Pleasonton's Provisional Cav- 
alry Division. During the pursuit of Price in his Missouri expedi- 
tion the cavalry under Pleasonton reached the Little Blue river at 
10 a. m. and after crossing on a hastily constructed bridge the head 
of the column was opened on by artillery. A steady advance was 
made, however, and the enemy was slowly driven toward Indepen- 
dence, into which town the 13th Mo. cavalry charged. Two guns 
and about 100 prisoners were captured and the enemy left 40 dead 
and wounded. The Union casualties were not reported. 

Independence Station, La., May 9-18, 1863. (See Amite River, 
same date.) 

Indian Bay, Ark., April 13, 1864. 56th U. S. Colored Troops (3d 
Arkansas). 

Indian Bayou, Miss., June 8, 1864. Capt. Perry Evans, of the 
Confederate scouts, in a report dated at Deer creek, June 13, states 
that "On the 8th instant a Federal cavalry force, from 300 to 400 
strong, landed at Greenville, Miss., and marched hastily to Indian 
bayou, which they reached at night and there surprised and captured 
during the night several furloughed soldiers from the Texas cavalry 



510 The Union Army 

brigade." This is the only mention of the affair, so there is no way 
of ascertaining what Federal soldiers participated. 

Indian Hill, Tenn., Nov. 2^,, 1863. (See Chattanooga.) 

Indianola, Tex., Feb. 22, 1864. Twenty-five Mounted Infantry of 
U. S. forces in Texas. Brig.-Gen. F"itz Henry Warren, commanding 
at Indianola, reports that 25 mounted infantrymen of his command, 
who were driving stock 8 miles from camp, were attacked by a well- 
armed and mounted band of 55 Confederates. The horses of the Fed- 
erals were scrubs unaccustomed to fire and at the first volley fired 
by the Union troops 14 of them were thrown and subsequently cap- 
tured. 

Indianola, U. S. S., Capture of, Feb. 24, 1863. The Indianola was 
captured and sunk by the Confederate gunboats Webb and Queen of 
the West near New Carthage, La., about 11 p. m., after a pursuit from the 
mouth of the Red river. For a full account of the action see Naval 
Volume. 

Indian Ridge, La., April 12-14, 1863. This skirmish was a part 
of the operations about Bayou Teche, but no circumstantial report 
of it is found in the official records. 

Indiantown, N, C, Dec. 18, 1863. Detachment of 5th U. S. Col- 
ored Infantry. Four companies of colored infantry while out on a 
reconnaissance were fired upon from a dense thicket of pines about 
400 yards from the road. Two companies were sent out to flank the 
attacking party, but before they reached the pines the Confederates 
had fled. Two of the reconnoitering party were killed and 2 wounded. 

Indian Village, La., Jan. 28, 1863. Detachment of 2nd Louisiana 
Cavalry. Lieut. Perkins with a portion of a company of cavalry and 
a boat's crew from one of the gunboats with a howitzer, while re- 
connoitering near Indian Village on Grosse Tete bayou, was fired 
upon by a body of Confederates in rifle-pits on the opposite side of 
the bayou. Perkins was unable to dislodge the enemy at first, but 
after getting his force across the baj^ou in boats sent down from 
Plaquemine he drove the Confederates out. No casualties were re- 
ported. 

Ingraham's Plantation, Miss., Oct. 10, 1863. 2nd Wisconsin and 
4th Illinois Cavalry. A cavalry expedition across the Big Black river 
under Alaj. Harry E. Eastman of the 2nd Wis. came up with about 
200 of Wirt Adams' Confederate cavalry at the plantation of Alfred 
Ingraham, not far from Port Gibson. The enemy's position was in 
a big yard enclosed by a box hedge, and the Federals entered this 
yard before the enemy was discovered. Eastman dismounted his 
men and deployed them so as to outflank the Confederates on the 
left, but before the disposition was completed the enemy was with- 
drawing on the Port Gibson road. Pursuit was immediately given 
and a running fight kept up to within 3 miles of Port Gibson. East- 
man lost I killed and 2 wounded and though the Confederate loss 
was not reported, they abandoned 9 of their dead and 2 mortally 
wounded. Four prisoners were taken by Eastman's men. 

Ingram's Mill, Miss., Oct. 12. 1863. Detachment of Cavalry Divi- 
sion, i6th Army Corps. During Chalmers' raid the cavalry division 
of the i6th corps came upon the Confederates 3 miles south of 
Byhalia near Ingram's mill. The enemy was strongly posted on 
hills with a swamp in their front and two 6-pounder guns command- 
ing the road. The Confederate skirmishers were driven out of the 
swamp and about 3 p. m., after the Federal troops had opened on the 
log houses, the enemy charged. The attack was repulsed by the 7th 
111. cavalry and' the 9th 111. infantry, and the 7th 111. and 7th Kas. cavalry 
made a countercharge under Lieut. -Col. Phillips. The enemy broke 



Cyclopedia of Battles 511 

and fled and were not rallied until 2 miles from the scene. Phillips 
followed until 9 p. m., fighting an obstinate rear-guard. The losses 
were not reported. 

Irish Bend, La., April 14. 1863. 4th Division, 19th Army Corps. 
At daylight the division, Brig.-Gen. Cuvier Grover commanding, 
moved from Mrs. Porter's plantation, near Centerville, toward Irish 
bend. The 3d brigade under Col. H. W. Birge, with Rodgers' bat- 
tery, had the advance, followed by the ist brigade, under Brig.-Gen. 
William Dwight, with Closson's battery, while the 2nd brigade, under 
Col. W. K. Kimball, brought up the rear. When within 40 rods of 
where the road turned to form a right angle with the bend, Birge's 
skirmishers became engaged, and soon afterward the enemy opened 
with a battery posted in the woods at the angle of the road. In 
ordering up his reserves Birge exposed for a time his right flank, of 
which situation the Confederates were quick to take advantage, a 
force which had been concealed in the thick undergrowth making 
a dashing charge upon the flank and rear of the reserve regiments. 
This unexpected assault was bravely met, but the brigade was finally 
compelled to fall back. In the meantime Dwight had come up and 
he now, with the aid of Rodgers" battery, drove the enemy from 
Birge's flank, after which he attacked and pressed back the force in 
front. Reconnaissances disclosed the fact that the Confederates had 
taken up a still stronger position, where their right was protected 
by the gunboat Diana, thus giving an opportunity for the concentra- 
tion of a greater portion of their strength on the left. For awhile the 
Diana kept up a cross-fire on the front, but the enemy did not attack. 
Grover then ordered a general advance, when the infantry and 
cavalry retired and the Diana dropped down stream, where she was 
blown up and burned. The Union loss was 49 killed, 264 wounded 
and 30 missing. The exact losses of the enemy were not learned, 
but Grover's men buried 21 Confederate dead and carried off 35 of 
their wounded. 

Ironton, Mo., Sept. 26-27, 1864. (See Fort Davidson.) 

Irvine, Ky., July 29, 1863. U. S. Troops under Col. W. P. San- 
ders. On this date Col. Sanders assumed command of all the mounted 
troops in the vicinity of Lexington, and at 3 p. m. with detachments 
of the ist, loth and 14th Ky., 2nd and 7th Ohio, 8th and 9th Mich., 
and 5th East Tenn. cavalry; ist and 2nd East Tenn., 45th Ohio, and 
ii2th 111. mounted infantry, and Crawford's Tenn. battery, started 
from Lexington. After driving the enemy through Winchester, San- 
ders next day followed him closely on the Irvine road, and upon 
arriving at Irvine the Confederates were found in force, drawn up 
in line of battle on the other side of the river. After an hour's fight- 
ing they were driven from their position and forced to abandon a 
number of horses and mules. During the running fight from Win- 
chester to Irvine the Federal troops captured some 100 prisoners 
and killed and wounded a number of the enemy. 

Irwinsville, Ga., May 10, 1865. Detachments of ist Wisconsin and 
4th Michigan Cavalry. These two regiments were sent out by Maj.- 
Gen. J. H. Wilson to follow and capture Jefferson Davis, the presi- 
dent of the Confederacy. It was ascertained that Davis, with a train, 
was encamped on the night of the 9th at Irwinsville. Col. Harnden, 
commanding the Wisconsin detachment, started at 3 a. m. next day, 
and when near Irwinsville his detachment was fired upon by what 
he supposed was a Confederate picket. The Wisconsin men returned 
the fire and advancing captured a prisoner, who proved to be a mem- 
ber of the 4th Mich., which regiment Harnden had left at Abbeville 
the day before. In the meantime part of the Michigan troops had 



512 The Union Army 

surrounded and captured the camp, and with it Davis and his family. 
In the unfortunate skirmish between the two Union detachments 2 
Michigan men were killed and an officer was wounded; 3 Wisconsin 
men were severely and several others slightly wounded. 

Island Mound, Mo., Oct. 27-29, 1862. Detachment of the ist Kan- 
sas Colored Infantry. The detachment, numbering about 240 men 
and commanded by Maj. Richard G. Ward, left camp on the 26th 
and the next day crossed the Osage river at Dickey's ford. Near 
this point the Confederates had a force of about 800 men concen- 
trated on Osage island, and the next two days were spent in desul- 
tory skirmishing. Ward trying to draw the enemy from the island 
and the Confederates trying to draw the Union men from the cover 
of the timber. While Ward's men were at dinner on the 29th his 
pickets were driven in, and suspecting that the enemy was taking 
position behind the eminence known as Island mound, Lieut. Gard- 
ner was sent with 25 men to dislodge him. Gardner succeeded in 
doing this, but on attempting to return to camp was charged by 
about 400 of the enemy and his little band would have been annihi- 
lated but for the timely arrival of Capt. Armstrong with reinforce- 
ments. Even then it was an unequal contest and the remainder of 
the Union troops were speedly brought into action, with the result 
that the Confederates were repulsed. The Federal loss was 8 killed 
and II wounded. The enemy's loss was not ascertained, but it must 
have been considerably more. 

Island No. 10, Siege of, March 15 to April 8, 1862. (See New 
Madrid.) 

Island No. 65, Mississippi River, May — , 1863. Detachments of ist 
Indiana Cavalrj^ 36th Iowa Infantry and 2nd Arkansas Colored In- 
fantry. The steamboat Pike, with a force of troops under Lieut. - 
Col. George W. DeCosta, while proceeding down the Mississippi for 
the purpose of recruiting for the 2nd Ark., was fired into near Island 
No. 65. Brisk fighting ensued for a time, one of the 2 Confederate 
pieces of artillery being silenced by a howitzer on board the vessel. 
Capt. Waters of the Union command was slightly wounded, and 2 
contrabands received death wounds. The Confederates are thought 
to have lost 10 or 15 in killed or wounded. 

Island No. 76, Miss., Jan. 20, 1864. Battery E, 2nd Colored Light 
Artillery. 

Island No. 82, Miss., May 18, 1863. Detachment of 4th Division, 
i6th Army Corps. While proceeding on transports, 15 miles from 
Greenville and near Island No. 82, the advance boat of the transport 
fleet was fired into from the Mississippi side of the river, wounding 
14 men of the 3d la. A force was immediately landed and started 
in pursuit, but the chase was futile. 

Isle of Wight County, Va., Jan. 30-Feb. i, 1864. Naval Brigade 
Expedition. Brig.-Gen. Charles K. Graham, commanding the naval 
brigade, led an expedition to Isle of Wight county for the purpose 
of capturing a detachment of the enemy reported to be on the penin- 
sula formed by Pagan and Chuckatuck creeks and the Nansemond 
river. A reconnaissance was made on the 29th by the gunboats Flora 
Temple and Smith Briggs, the former to Chuckatuck creek and the 
latter up the Nansemond. Owing to a heavy fog on the 30th but little 
was done, but at daylight on the 31st the Smith Briggs, two launches 
from the steamer Foster, and the gunboat Commodore Morris, all 
under command of Lieut. -Com. J. H. Gillis, were ordered to move 
up the Nansemond to Holloway point, where the troops were to land 
and move on the village of Chuckatuck. Graham, with the gunboats 
Flora Temple and General Jesup, and the transport Long Branch, 



Cyclopedia of Battles 513 

was to sail at 10:30 a. m. for Smithfield, on Pagan creek, where his 
men were to land and move to Chuckatuck, where the two detach- 
ments were to form a junction. Shortly after i p. m. a force of 90 
men was landed at Smithfield, under command of Capt. Lee of the 
99th N. Y. infantry, with instructions to push on to Chuckatuck, en- 
gaging any enemy that might be in the way. The gunboats were 
placed in position to command the town and cover the retreat of 
Lee, in case he was compelled to fall back. They remained there 
until about 3 p. m., when the Temple was sent to engage the atten- 
tion of the enemy on Chuckatuck creek in the neighborhood of 
Cherry Grove. An hour later, having heard no firing, Graham moved 
with the Jesup and Long Branch for Holloway point. In the dense 
fog the Temple ran aground at the mouth of Pagan creek, and when 
Graham reached the mouth of the Nansemond the pilot of the Jesup 
stated that it would be impossible to go up the river until the fog lifted. 
The Long Branch, being of light draft, was sent up the river and about 
8 p. m. arrived at Holloway point, where Graham was informed that 
Capt. McLaughlin, with 40 men, had advanced to Chuckatuck and 
remained there until dark without meeting Lee, and had then returned 
to the point with the report that he had heard heavy firing in the 
direction of Smithfield. Reconnaissances were made during the 
night and at 7 a. m. on Feb. i Graham landed with 80 men and 
proceeded to Chuckatuck. Finding no enemy there he went a mile 
farther toward Smithfield, but could get no tidings of the force under 
Lee and returned to the river. About 11:30 a. m. the gunboat Com- 
modore Jones came up with a despatch, stating that Ensign Harris 
had escaped from Smithfield and brought the news that Lee had 
met the enemy at Benn's church and had been driven back to Smith- 
field, where he was then surrounded and short of ammunition. 
Without waiting to hear from Graham, Rear Adm. Lee had sent 
launches with howitzers and ammunition to the assistance of the 
detachment. Upon receiving this despatch Graham at once started 
with the gunboats for Smithfield, but when he reached the mouth 
of Pagan creek he learned that Lee's command and the Smith Briggs 
had been captured, that the gunboat had been blown up by the 
Confederates to prevent recapture, and that the launches sent by 
Rear Adm. Lee had met with such a galling fire that they were 
compelled to retire, the commanding officer and several of his men 
having been wounded. Thus the expedition ended disastrously. The 
exact losses were not reported, but practically all of the detachment 
that landed at Smithfield and the crew of the Briggs were either 
killed, wounded or captured. 

Isle of Wight County, Va., April 13-15, 1864. Expedition led by 
Brig.-Gen. C. K. Graham. Pursuant to orders from Maj.-Gen. B. F. 
Butler, Gen. Graham, commander of the naval brigade, conducted 
an expedition into Isle of Wight county to break up a Confederate 
force that was annoying the gunboats along the James and Nanse- 
mond rivers. At midnight of the 13th the 23d Mass. infantry, Col. 
Andrew Elwell, was embarked on the transport Pentz at Newport 
News, and under convoy of the gunboat Brewster moved up the 
James river, arriving at 4 a. m. at Burwell's bay. 9 miles above 
Smithfield, which was the objective point. The 25th Mass., Col. 
Josiah Pickett, embarked at Portsmouth, at sunset on the 13th, on 
the steamers C. W. Thomas and John Tracy, and arrived at Smith- 
field about 2 p. m. the next day. The ii8th N. Y., Col. Oliver Keese, 
embarked on launches at Sleepy Hole landing, on the Nansemond, 
at 2 a. m. of the 14th and proceeded directly to Holloway's point. 
From there Keese sent a detachment of 100 men to Barrel point 

Vol. VI— 3 



514 The Union Army 

and with the remainder of the regiment marched to Cherry Grove, 
where he arrived at 7 a. m. Graham, with the 9th N. J., left New- 
port News on the flag-ship Chamberlain and the transports Tucker 
and Woodis at 4 a. m., and arrived at Cherry Grove about the same 
time as Keese. The two regiments immediately took up the march 
for Smithfield, but had not proceeded far when the enemy's skir- 
mishers were encountered and the fighting was kept up for a distance 
of 3 or 4 miles, the dense thickets along both sides of the road 
making it impossilale to capture the small force that annoyed the 
advance. At Benn's church the ii8th N. Y. was halted, with orders 
to remain there until 3 p. m. and then push on to Smithfield. Gra- 
ham reached Smithfield about 5 p. m., but was disappointed at not 
finding the 23d Mass. there as he had expected, and made arrange- 
ments to hold the town until the next morning. Shortly afterward 
he was joined by Keese's regiment. 

Immediately after landing at Burwell's bay. Col. Elwell started 
for Smithfield, but soon met the enemy's pickets and drove them 
back for about 2 miles, when he came upon a larger force protected 
by earthworks. After a sharp skirmish the Confederates were dis- 
lodged, but a little farther on they again made a stand at Wren's 
mills. Here they held Elwell in check for an hour, when one com- 
pany charged across the creek and flanked the enemy from posi- 
tion. The enemy's cavalry now came up and Elwell decided to fall 
back to Fort Boykin, where his regiment could be protected by the 
fire of the gunboats in the James. At 8 p. m. he reembarked and 
moved down to Pagan creek, where he anchored until the following 
morning, when he received orders to return to Portsmouth. The 
loss of this regiment during the actions of the 14th was 4 wounded 
and I missing. 

At daylight on the 15th the iiSth N. Y. was sent up Pagan creek 
to destroy all the boats that could be found and feel the enemy. 
No enemy could be found and it soon became apparent that the 
Confederates had withdrawn during the night. The results of the 
expedition were the capture of a few prisoners; the driving away of 
the force in the vicinity of Smithfield and Cherry Grove; and the 
capture of considerable stores, which for want of transportation had 
to be destroyed. Among the property thus taken were 3 carriages, 
a lot of tobacco, several pairs of boots, some sugar, harness, tools, 
etc. Besides the loss of the 23d Mass., already mentioned, the 9th 
N. J. had I man wounded in the skirmish at Cherry Grove. The 
enemy's casualties were not ascertained. 

Isle of Wight Court House, Va., Dec. 22, 1862. Detachment 2nd 
New York Mounted Rifies. 

luka, Miss., Sept. 13. 1862. 8th Wisconsin Infantry. Col. Robert 
C. Murphy of the 8th Wis., commanding the garrison at luka, re- 
ported to Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans that a Confederate cavalry force 
attacked him and were repulsed on the morning of the 13th. Two 
of the attacking party were captured, but no other casualties were 
reported. 

luka. Miss., Sept. 19-20, 1862. Army of the Mississippi. On 
Sept. 15 Gen. J. A. Mower made a reconnaissance with his brigade 
to within 2 miles of luka and ascertained that Maj.-Gen. Sterling 
Price of the Confederate army, with 28 regiments of infantry, 6 
batteries and a considerable force of cavalry, occupied the town. 
Gen. Grant determined upon an attack in two columns, the one 
commanded by Brig.-Gen. W. S. Rosecrans to move to the right of 
the railroad, and the other, under Maj.-Gen. E. O. C. Ord, was to move 
to Burnsville, take the roads to the north of the railroad and move 



Cyclopedia of Battles 515 

upon luka. On the night of the i8th the latter was in position to 
bring on an engagement in an hour, but Rosecrans, because of a 
greater distance to march and a worthless guide, was 20 miles back. 
At daylight of the 19th his command moved, Stanley's division in 
the lead, and by noon had reached Barnett's, a distance of 12 miles, 
the enemy's pickets having been driven for 2 or 3 miles. At this 
point Sanborn's brigade of Hamilton's division took the lead, the 
rest of Hamilton's division following with Stanley's division in the 
rear. The Confederate skirmishers were steadily driven back until 
the head of Rosecrans' column was within 2 miles of luka, near the 
forks of the Jacinto road and the cross-roads leading from it to 
Fulton. Here at 4:30 p. m. the enemy unexpectly took the initia- 
tive. Hamilton deployed his force to the best advantage, his artil- 
lery being posted on the only ground available for the purpose. 
Col. Mizner with a battalion of the 3d Mich, cavalry was sent out 
on the right and Col. Perczel with the loth la. infantry and a section 
of artillery formed the left. The enemy's line moved forward on the 
battery, and although met by a volley from the entire Federal line 
at 100 yards, it succeeded in reaching the battery, but was repulsed. 
A second time the enemy gained the battery and a second time was 
repulsed, but on the third attempt the three regiments sent out for 
the purpose, with the aid of the regiment of Texans which had just 
been repulsed by the 5th la., drove off the gunners and compelled 
the 48th Ind. to fall back upon the 4th Minn. At this time Stanley's 
division was brought into the action. The nth Mo. was placed a 
trifle to the right and rear of the 5th la., where it repulsed with 
loss a last desperate attack of two Miss, brigades. The battle raged 
furiously until darkness put a stop to the fighting, the 2nd brigade 
of Stanley's division having been brought into action. During the 
night Rosecrans deployed his forces to the best advantage, expect- 
ing a renewal of the engagement at daylight, but the Confederate 
forces had withdrawn. Stanley followed, and when within striking 
distance shelled the town, driving out a number of stragglers. He 
pushed on for several miles, but owing to the exhausted condition 
of his troops, his column was badly distanced and he gave up the 
pursuit. Among the ordnance stores abandoned by the enemy and 
taken possession of by Rosecrans were 1,629 stand of arms, a large 
stock of equipments, a quantity of quartermaster and commissary 
stores, and 13,000 rounds of ammunition. The casualties were 141 
killed, 613 wounded and 36 captured or missing on the Federal side 
and the Confederates, according to their own report, lost 86 killed 
and 408 wounded. Rosecrans, however, in his report says they lost 
265 killed; 120 died of wounds; nearly 700 wounded, and 361 taken 
prisoners. The Federal force in the engagement consisted of 9.000 
men. A fresh wind, blowing from Ord's position in the direction 
of luka, prevented the sound of the guns from reaching him, and 
he knew nothing of the engagement until after it was over. 

luka, Miss., July 7, 1863. U. S. Troops under Col. Florence M. 
Cornyn. On the morning of this date Col. Cornyn, with the 7th 
Kas., eight companies of the loth Mo., and a detachment of the 
iSth 111. cavalry, 750 men in all. left Corinth for a reconnaissance 
on the North Farmington road. On reaching the corral on this road 
he learned that 12 companies of mounted Confederates had a short 
time before overpowered the guard and taken all the stock. He 
pursued and when about a mile and a half from luka came upon 
about 1,500 of the enemy posted in an open field on both sides of 
the road. The Illinois troops were deployed as skirmishers while 
the rest of the command, except a portion of the 7th Kas., was dis- 



516 The Union Army 

mounted and formed in line of battle. The mounted howitzers were 
discharged into the enemy's line for some time, when Cornyn ad- 
vanced. He was met by a heavy fire but succeeded in driving the 
Confederates in confusion. Three squadrons of the 7th Kas. under 
Maj. Jenkins was sent in pursuit and followed as far as luka, cap- 
turing a battery wagon and forge. The Federal loss was 4 killed 
and 8 wounded. The Confederate casualties were not reported but 
were undoubtedly heavy, as the Union men found several dead on 
the field. 

Ivey's Farm, Miss., Feb. 22, 1864. (See Okolona, same date.) 

Ivey's Ford, Ark., Jan. 17, 1865. U. S. Transports Chippewa, 
Lotus and Annie Jacobs. While these vessels under Col. Thomas 
M. Bowen were proceeding up the Arkansas river, they were at- 
tacked by a Confederate force on the south bank. The Chippewa, 
which was in the advance, received the worst of the fire and became 
so disabled that it was necessary to run her aground in order to 
save her. The crew and the soldiers on board were disembarked 
and a battery placed in position to fire upon the enemy, but during 
the night the Confederates withdrew. The casualties were not re- 
ported. The other transports received several shots, but were not so 
badly injured as the Chippewa. 

Jacksboro, Tenn,, March 14, 1862. (See Big Creek Gap.) 

Jack's Fork, Mo., Aug. 14, 1863. Detachment of 5th Missouri 
State Militia Cavalry. Sergt. Thomas J. McDowell with 26 men 
started in pursuit of a band of guerrillas who had taken 3 Union 
men prisoners. After a chase of two days the band was overtaken 
and 2 of its members captured, but the captured prisoners were not 
released. 

Jackson, La., Aug. 3, 1863. Detachments of 3d Mass. Cavalry, 
2nd Vt. Battery, ist, 3d and 6th U. S. Colored Infantry. On Sunday, 
Aug. 2, Lieut. M. Hanham with about 325 men left Port Hudson 
for the purpose of collecting negroes for the 12th regiment of 
infantry, Corps d'Afrique, then being mustered. On Monday, after 
collecting about 50, his command was attacked by the Confederates 
under Logan. After several hours of fighting, Hanham started to 
withdraw, but the loss of a guide caused him to take a wrong road 
and he was obliged to abandon his artillery. The enemy followed 
closely for some hours. The Federal loss was 78 in killed, wounded 
and missing, 6 wagons and 24 mules. The enemy lost 12 in killed 
and wounded and 6 prisoners. 

Jackson, La., March 3, 1864. Detachment of 2nd Brigade, Cav- 
alry Division, Department of the Gulf. The record of events for 
this brigade states that on the 3d "a small force went to Jackson; 
had a skirmish at that place; killed i rebel and took i prisoner. In 
the afternoon the same party encountered a superior force, and in 
charging them lost 3 men prisoners." 

Jackson, La., Oct. 5, 1864. (See Thompson's Creek.) 

Jackson, La., Nov. 21, 1864. 

Jackson, Miss., May 14, 1863. 15th and 17th Army Corps. After 
the occupation of Raymond the Federals moved on Jackson, Sher- 
man's corps (the 15th) moving by way of Mississippi Springs and 
McPherson's (the 17th) advancing on the Clinton road. During the 
early morning the rain came down in torrents, making the roads 
heavy and in some places almost impassable. By 10 a. m. Sherman 
was within 3 miles of the city and the sound of McPherson's guns 
was heard on the left. The enemy was discovered in the front of 
Sherman at a small bridge, and as the head of the Federal column 
appeared opened with artillery. The 2nd and 3d brigades of Tuttle's 



Cyclopedia of Battles 517 

division were deployed to the right and left of the road and Water- 
house's and Spoor's batteries, placed on commanding ground, soon 
silenced the enemy's pieces, the whole Confederate force retiring 
about half a mile into a skirt of woods in front of Jackson. Mower's 
brigade (2nd) followed closely until the enemy took refuge in his 
intrenchments. The banks of the stream at this point were high 
bluflfs, and the river could be crossed only at the bridge which the 
enemy did not attempt to destroy. As far as could be seen on 
either side were the Confederate intrenchments and a steady artil- 
lery fire which enfiladed the road was kept up from all points. The 
95th Ohio was taken from the reserve and sent to feel the enemy's 
flanks. It was soon discovered that the intrenchments were aban- 
doned where they crossed the railroad and Steele's division was 
pushed into the city that way, the rest of the column following on 
the main road. McPherson, meantime, had also been fighting 
severely, but entered the city almost simultaneously with Sherman. 
The Federal loss was 42 killed, 251 wounded and 7 captured or miss- 
ing. Brig.-Gen. John Gregg, commanding the Confederate forces 
at Jackson, roughly estimates his loss at 200 killed, wounded and 
missing; Union reports make it over 800. 

Jackson, Miss., July 10-17, 1863. Sherman's Expeditionary Army. 
After the capitulation of Vicksburg, Gen. Grant ordered Maj.-Gen. 
W. T. Sherman to take part of the army and move against Gen. 
J. E. Johnston, who had been marching to Pemberton's relief. 
Sherman's forces consisted of the 9th corps, under Maj.-Gen. John 
G. Parke and composed of the divisions of Welsh and Potter; the 
13th corps, commanded by Maj.-Gen. E. O. C. Ord, including the 
infantry divisions of Osterhaus, A. J. Smith and Hovey, and Fuller- 
ton's cavalry brigade; the 15th corps, under Maj.-Gen. Frederick 
Steele and consisting of the divisions of Thayer, Blair and Tuttle. 
W. S. Smith's division (ist) of the i6th corps and Bussey's cavalry 
brigade were temporarily attached to Parke's command, and Lau- 
man's division (4th) of the same corps was attached to Ord's. 
Sherman marched from Vicksburg on the night of July 4th, crossed 
Big Black river at Messinger's and Birdsong ferries and on the rail- 
road bridge on the 6th, and gradually forced Johnston to take refuge 
in the intrenchments at Jackson. Sherman approached the city in 
three columns, Ord on the right, Steele in the center and Parke on 
the left, and disposed his troops to hold the Confederates in their 
works while detachments could destroy the Great Central railroad. 
At the same time Ord was directed to extend his line across the 
railroad and threaten Pearl river south of the city, while Parke on 
the left extended his line to approach the river on that flank, thus 
threatening the enemy's only line of communication to the rear. 
One brigade of each corps was kept constantly employed in de- 
stroying the railroad; Bussey was dispatched to Canton, 26 miles 
north, to burn cars and tear up the track; and Fullerton was sent 
to the south to burn the railroad bridges for a distance of 15 miles. 
The remainder of the army was set to work constructing parapets 
and rifle-pits, and by the nth the city was fairly invested. In his 
report Sherman says: "It was no part of the plan to assault the 
enemy's works, so that the main bodies of infantry were kept well 
in reserve, under cover, whilst the skirmishers were pushed forward 
as close as possible, leading to many brisk skirmishes, which usually 
resulted in the enemy taking refuge within his works." 

On the morning of the 12th, through some misunderstanding of 
orders, Lauman assaulted the enemy's works with Pugh's brigade 
and one regiment, followed by another regiment and a battery. 



518 The Union Army 

Ord reported that the point of attack was not selected by any recon- 
naissance or previous examination, and that the attack itself was 
unsupported and unknown to the other division commanders until 
after it had been made. Of the 880 men in Push's brigade, 465 were 
killed, wounded or captured, besides nearly all the men and horses 
belonging to the battery, the guns being brought off by hand by 
the 53d Ind. infantry. Ord relieved Lauman and placed the division 
under command of Gen. Ilovey, and a fresh brigade was sent to 
occupy that part of the line. That night two batteries were planted 
on the hill and the position thus made secure. During the 12th and 
13th the batteries of 10 and 20-pounder Parrott guns and 12-pounder 
Napoleons threw about 3,000 rounds into the city, all of which did 
great execution. On the 14th Sherman was reinforced by McAr- 
thur's division of McPherson's corps, the lines were strengthened 
and pushed forward at all points, but the cannonading was lessened, 
owing to the short supply of ammunition. Ord pushed a strong 
party to the river on the morning of the 15th, the Confederates there 
retiring into their works. The trenches and skirmishers were then 
advanced and batteries brought up to hold the new position. Dur- 
ing the day the enemy made sallies against each of Ord's divisions, 
but all were repulsed, and toward evening Osterhaus planted a 
battery of 20-pounder Parrotts which covered his advance and held 
the Confederates to their trenches. The next day Parke advanced 
his whole line with a view of ascertaining the location and strength 
of the Confederate batteries. The movement was executed in gal- 
lant style, but was attended by severe losses, especially in W. S. 
Smith's division. During the night of the i6th it was noticed that 
the enemy was busy with a movement of some sort, and when the 
line again advanced, early on the morning of the 17th, it was dis- 
covered that Johnston had evacuated the city. Ferrero's brigade of 
Potter's division moved into town and established guards and pa- 
trols, capturing a lieutenant and 137 men. By the 19th over 15 
miles of railroad track was rendered totally unfit for service; 20 
platform cars and about 50 box and passenger cars were burned in 
the city, and all the wheels broken; 4,000 bales of cotton were 
burned; 2 heavy rifled-guns and a large quantity of ammunition 
were thrown into Pearl river; Steele moved to Brandon, 13 miles 
east of the city, where he tore up about 3 miles of track; during 
the siege Fullerton made two raids to the south, destroying about 
2 miles of track, 4 locomotives and 52 cars and burning the depots 
at Byram, Byhalia, Crystal Springs, Gallatin and Hazlehurst. Jack- 
son was evacuated just in time, as Sherman's ammunition train 
came up late on the i6th and arrangements were made to open a 
furious cannonade on the city, when it was learned that the Con- 
federates had retired, burning the bridges behind him to avoid pur- 
suit. The Union loss in the operations about Jackson was 129 
killed. 762 wounded and 231 captured or missing. The Confederate 
casualties were not officially reported. 

Jackson, Miss., Feb. 5, 1864. i6th and 17th Army Corps. After 
the 17th corps had driven the Confederates through Clinton, orders 
were received to move by a plantation road on Jackson while the 
i6th corps advanced on the main Jackson and Clinton road. The 
cavalry of the 17th corps, under Winslow, came upon the enemy's 
cavalry flank as it was slowly retiring before Hurlbut's (i6th corps) 
advance. A charge was made by the nth 111. cavalry which resulted 
in the capture of a gun, caisson and limber. A disposition was 
shown by the Confederates to make a stand in the center of the 



Cyclopedia of Battles 519 

town, but a few shots from the artillery supporting the cavalry dis- 
persed them and they retreated across Pearl river. 

Jackson, Miss., July 7, 1864. U. S. Forces of District of Vicks- 
burg. On the 2nd of July Maj.-Gen. Henry W. Slocum with 2,200 
infantry, 600 cavalry and 6 pieces of artillery left Vicksburg for the 
purpose of destroying the bridge over the Pearl river. This was accom- 
plished and Slocum entered Jackson on the 6th. While there the 
enemy took position about 3 miles from Jackson, on the road lead- 
ing to Clinton, and when Slocum left the town next day for Vicks- 
burg he encountered the Confederates at 4 a. m. disputing the pas- 
sage of the road. After a sanguinary engagement which lasted over 
two hours the enemy was compelled to retire and Slocum moved on 
toward Clinton, being unable to pursue the retreating foe because 
of a scarcity of supplies. The Union troops lost 33 men killed, about 
156 wounded and 30 captured or missing. The Confederate loss was 
not reported. 

Jackson, Mo., April 26-27, 1863. 2nd Division, Army of the Fron- 
tier. As the Confederates under Gen. Marmaduke fell back from 
Cape Girardeau after their attack on that place, they were closely 
pursued by the division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. William Van- 
dever. About 9 p. m. on the 26th Vandever came up with the enemy 
near Jackson. The ist la. cavalry charged the camp and drove the 
enemy through the town, killing and wounding several and captur- 
ing a large number of horses and other property, without casualty. 
At 6 o'clock the next morning the division occupied the town and 
soon discovered the enemy in force posted about a mile out on the 
Bloomington road. Vandever opened fire with his artillery, to which 
Marmaduke did not reply, but hastened oflf in the direction of the 
White Water river witli the Federals in close pursuit. (See White 
Water.) 

Jackson, Tenn., Dec. 19, 1862. Detachments of nth Illinois, 5th 
Ohio and 2nd West Tennessee Cavalry, 43d and 6ist Illinois In- 
fantry. On the morning of this day Brig.-Gen. Mason Brayman 
sent out the cavalry detachments to a point about three and a half 
miles from Jackson, where the enemy attacked in force. Col. A. 
Engelmann, commanding, ordered the cavalry to fall back slowly 
toward Jackson. At the Salem cemetery the 43d and 6ist 111. in- 
iantry, under Lieut.-Col. Dengler and Maj. Ohr, were concealed and 
when the Confederates came within close range they were met with 
a deadly fire, which killed and wounded a large number of horses 
and men, threw the column into confusion, and before it could be 
rallied it was driven from the field by the Federal cavalry. The 
losses were not reported. 

Jackson, Tenn., July 13, 1863. (See Forked Deer River, same 
date.) 

Jacksonboro, Ga., Dec. 10, 1864. Detachment of the 8th Indiana 
Cavalry. Lieut. McManaman, with a small foraging party, met and 
charged a detachment of Confederate cavalry near Jacksonboro, 
causing them to seek safety in the swamps. McManaman captured 
12 horses and destroyed 12 stands of arms. The affair was an 
incident of the Federal advance upon Savannah in the march to the 
sea. 

Jackson County, Mo., Sept. 15, 1863. Detachment of 9th Kansas 
Cavalry. Capt. C. F. Coleman, commanding a portion of a Federal 
force scouting in Jackson county, came upon the camp of one of 
Quantrill's bands and attacked it. The result was the dispersal of 
the guerrillas with a loss of 2 men killed, 40 horses and an amount 
of commissary stores captured. 



520 The Union Army 

Jackson Cross Roads, La., June 20, 1863. Detachments of the 6th 
and /th Illinois and 2nd Rhode Island Cavalry, 52nd Massachusetts 
Infantry, and a section of Artillery. 

Jacksonport, Ark., Nov. 21, 1863. Detachment of 3d Missouri 
Cavalry. During a scout of the 3d Missouri cavalry a detachment 
was sent forward to get possession of the ferry-boat at Jacksonport. 
When the Federal troops appeared on the opposite bank of the 
river a fire was immediately opened upon them and a rush was made 
for the boat which was on the Jacksonport side. The fire of the 
Federals kept the enemy away from the boat, however, while two 
non-commissioned officers of Co. C crossed in a yawl and brought 
the boat over. The whole detachment was then crossed and the 
Confederates driven from the town with a loss of 3 wounded. 

Jacksonport, Ark., Dec. 23, 1863. 3d Missouri Cavalry. 

Jacksonport, Ark., April 24, 1864. Squadron M, nth Missouri 
Cavalry. C3n the return of an expedition to Augusta, the nth Mo. 
cavalry, commanded by Capt. George W. Weber, having the advance, 
met a body of Confederates who opened fire on them. A charge led 
by Weber caused the enemy to break and flee, Weber pursuing for 
7 miles and capturing 4 men. The Confederates also lost i man killed. 
The Union force suffered no loss. 

Jackson Ford, Ala., July 13, 1864. 8th Indiana Cavalry. Clan- 
ton's brigade of Confederate cavalry and the 8th Ind. came to- 
gether at Jackson's ford, on the Coosa river, the enemy losing 21 
killed, a number wounded and 25 captured. The affair was an inci- 
dent of the raid on the West Point & Montgomery railroad. The 
Federal loss was not reported. 

Jackson's River, Va., Dec. 19, 1863. Expedition under Brig.-Gen. 
William W. Averell. As an incident of the expedition to destroy 
or cut the line of the Virginia & Tennessee railroad Gen. Averell 
with the 2nd, 3d and 8th West Va. mounted infantry, the 14th Pa. 
and Gibson's battalion of cavalry, and Ewing's battery, attacked the 
Confederate force under Jackson and drove it so rapidly across two 
bridges over Jackson's river, one about 5 miles from Covington and 
the other near that town, that there was no time to set fire to the 
structures. Later the enemy attempted to retake one of the bridges 
but was repulsed. As a measure of safety Averell destroyed the 
bridges, swam his force across the stream and the next day made 
his way across the mountains. Averell's loss was 6 men drowned, 
5 wounded and 93 missing. The prisoners taken by the Confederates 
were mostly the sick in the ambulances. The enemy's loss was not 
reported. 

Jacksonville, Fla., Expedition to, March 23-31, 1863. 8th Maine, 
detachments of 6th Connecticut and Higginson's Colored Troops. 
On March 13 the expedition embarked at Beaufort for Jacksonville 
on board the transports Delaware and Gen. Meigs and ten days 
later landed at Jacksonville, having been delayed by rough weather. 
On their arrival a Confederate battery mounted on a platform car 
was shelling the town, but was soon forced to retire by the gunboat 
Norwich, which accompanied the expedition. The following night 
the enemy again approached with the same battery and shelled the 
city. On Wednesday, the 25th, a portion of the troops made a re- 
connaissance in force for about 4 miles along the railroad, driving 
in the Confederate pickets. On the same day the platform car 
battery appeared a third time and shelled the city, killing 2 men and 
wounding i, the only casualties suffered by the Union troops during^ 
the operations. Col. Montgomery with 120 men, accompanied by 
gunboat Paul Jones, made a successful expedition, 75 miles up the- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 521 

river to Palatka, capturing 15 prisoners and a quantity of cotton, 
rifles, horses, etc., and on the 31st the expedition re-embarked on 
the transports and left Jacksonville. A portion of the city was hred 
before the troops left. 

Jacksonville, Fla., May i, 1864. 7th U. S. Colored Troops. 

Jacksonville, Fla., May 28, 1864. 7th U. S. Colored Troops. 

Jacksonville, N. C., Jan. 20, 1862. 3d New York Cavalry. While 
on a reconnaissance from New Berne to Pollocksville this regiment, 
under Col. Simon H. Mix, found its progress checked at Big North- 
east run, five miles from Jacksonville, by the destruction of the 
bridge. On the opposite side and about 100 yards from the stream 
was a stockade from which the Confederates poured a volley on 
the Federal advance. A howitzer was brought to bear, the stock- 
ade was cleared, the bridge repaired and the command crossed. 
The Union loss in the affair was i killed and i wounded. 

James City, Va., Oct. 10. 1863. (See Russell's Ford, same date.) 

James Creek, Mo., April ij, 1865. Detachment of 15th Missouri 
Cavalry. Lieut. J. P. Boyd with 13 men started in pursuit of 2 guer- 
rillas who had robbed a citizen. Four miles west of James creek 
he located them and after a brisk skirmish killed both of them. 

James Island, S. C, June 3. 1862. (See Legare's Point, same 
date.) 

James Island, S. C, June 10, 1862. Detachments of 97th Penn- 
sylvania, 45th Pennsylvania. 47th New York Infantry and Company 
E, 3d U. S. Artillery. While six companies of the 47th N. Y. were 
doing picket duty on the afternoon of the loth they were attacked 
by a superior force of the enemy and compelled to retire. A few 
minutes later a picket guard consisting of the 97th Pa. and two 
companies of the 47th N. Y. were attacked, but held the enemy in 
check until the arrival of the artillery and reinforcements. The 
Federal loss was 3 killed and 13 wounded. The Confederate casual- 
ties were not reported, but the Union troops buried 16 of their dead 
and captured 6 of their wounded. 

James Island, S. C, June 13, 1862. Organizations not recorded. 

James' Plantation, La., April 6-8, 1863. Portion of the 9th Divi- 
sion, 13th Army Corps. While advancing on New Carthage it be- 
came necessary for the troops under Brig.-Gen. P. J. Osterhaus to 
dislodge the enemy from the gin-house on James' plantation. The 
grounds, 20 acres in all, were the only dry land for several miles out- 
side of the levee, and the levee was commanded by the gin-house. 
An attack was made and in about an hour the building was in Fed- 
eral hands, the enemy leaving i man dead on the field. On the 8th 
at II a. m. the Confederates attacked, bringing two 12-pounder 
howitzers within 800 yards and cannonading for three-quarters of 
an hour, but without inflicting any injury on the Union troops or 
forcing them from their position. 

James River, Va. During the Peninsular campaign of 1862 and 
the siege of Richmond and Petersburg in 1864-5 the Union gunboats 
were frequently engaged, sometimes in cooperation with the land 
forces and sometimes in shelling the Confederate fortifications along 
the river. For a full account of these operations see the Naval 
Volume. 

Jamestown, Ky., June 2, 1863. ist Brigade, ist Division, 9th 
Army Corps. While on a march the brigade had just stacked arms 
to make breakfast, when the cavalry picket was driven in, closely 
pursued by the Confederate cavalry. The infantry was immediately 
put under arms and the enemy, seeing these preparations, broke and 
fled across the Cumberland river. No casualties are mentioned in 
the report. 



522 The Union Army 

Jarratt's Station, Va., May 8, 1864. (See Kautz's raid in Vir- 
ginia, May 5 to 17, 1864.) 

Jasper, Tenn., June 4, 1862. (See Sweeden's Cove.) 

JefFcoat's Bridge, S. C, Feb. 12, 1865. 2nd Division, 20th Army Corps. 
As Sherman's army was advancing upon Columbia the head of the 
20th corps reached Jeffcoat's bridge over the north Edisto river at 
2 p. m. on the 12th and found the bridge destroyed, while on the 
north bank was stationed a force of the enemy with a section of 
a battery, which opened fire as soon as the Federals appeared. The 
2nd division, commanded by Bvt. Maj.-Gen. John W. Geary, was 
in the advance and had been skirmishing with some of the enemy's 
pickets for some distance. Geary now pushed forward the 5th Ohio 
and 147th Pa. as skirmishers, who made their way with great difificulty 
through the dense, swampy thickets, and drove the enemy away 
from the river bank. On the opposite side was a causeway leading 
through a swamp to the bridge, and the Confederates took up a 
position at the farther end of this causeway, from which their 
artillery commanded the bridge, and swept the road with frequent 
discharges of grape and canister. Geary's troops threw up a small 
earthwork at the bridge-site and held their position until after dark, 
when the enemy ceased firing and the ist Mich, engineers went to 
work on a bridge to take the place of the one that had been burned. 
Shortly after midnight this bridge was finished and the skirmishers 
were pushed forward to find that the enemy had evacuated his posi- 
tion and taken up a new one at a bridge across a small mill stream 
about three-fourths of a mile from the river. Here a sharp skir- 
mish ensued, which resulted in the complete defeat of the Confed- 
erates. Geary reported a loss in these two engagements of 3 killed 
and 10 wounded. The enemy's loss was not ascertained. 

Jefferson, Tenn., Dec. 30, 1862. 3d Brigade, ist Division, 14th 
Army Corps. Just as a train of 64 wagons, loaded with camp equip- 
age, stores, officers' baggage, knapsacks, etc., was entering Jeffer- 
son it was attacked in the rear and center by a portion of Wheeler's 
Confederate cavalry, while the remainder advanced on both sides 
of the highway to attack the brigade stationed there under the com- 
mand of Col. John C. Starkweather. The pickets, however, were 
able to hold the enemy in check until Starkweather formed his bri- 
gade in line of battle the 21st Wis. being sent to the front and rear 
of the train and the ist Wis. deploying as skirmishers. The 24th 111. 
moved to the bridge and 79th Pa. with 2 sections of the ist Ky. 
battery was pushed to the front. The 21st Wis. soon became hotly 
engaged and took shelter in a number of log houses on a hill to the 
right. The 2nd Ky. cavalry was advanced to the left to feel the 
enemy and was not long in becoming engaged. After a fight last- 
ing over two hours the enemy was repulsed, the brigade following 
for a mile and a half. The casualties were i killed, 8 wounded and 
113 missing on the Federeal side, most of the missing being captured 
when the rear of the train was attacked. The Confederate loss was 
not reported. 

Jefferson Pike, Tenn., Dec. 27, 1862. Left Wing, Army of the 
Cumberland. As an incident of the Stone's river campaign Gen. 
Crittenden, commanding the left wing, sent Hazen's brigade of 
Palmer's division, supported by a battalion of cavalry and a battery, 
to secure the bridge over Stuart's creek on the Jeflferson pike. Near 
the creek Hazen encountered a force of some 300 Confederates. 
After a slight skirmish the enemy fell back across the bridge, 
closely followed by the cavalry, which turned the retreat into a 
rout. Several of the enemy were killed and wounded and a few- 
were captured. Hazen reported a loss of 3 men missing. 



Cyclopedia of Batties 523 

Jeffersonton, Va., Oct. 12, 1863. 4th and 13th Pennsylvania Cav- 
alry. At 10 a. m. Col. J. Irvin Gregg, commanding the 2nd bri- 
gade, 2nd cavalry division, learned that the picket guard of the 13th 
Pa. cavalry, which had been left at Jeffersonton, was being driven 
back by a superior force of the enemy and the 4th Pa. was imme- 
diately sent to reinforce the retreating regiment. One squadron, 
under command of Maj. Kerwin charged the enemy and reoccupied 
the town. About 3 p. m. Gregg gave the order to retire. On his re- 
treat to the river he was attacked on the flank and rear and it was 
only with great difficulty that the crossing was effected. The casual- 
ties were not reported. 

Jeffersonville, Va., IMay 8, 1864. (See Abb's Valley.) 

Jenkins' Ferry, Ark., April 30, 1864. (See Camden, Ark., Expe- 
dition to.) 

Jenks' Bridge, Ga., Dec. 7, 1864. 15th and 17th Army Corps. 
When the Federal advance on Savannah reached the Ogeechee river 
on Dec. 7, 1864, they found the bridge destroyed and the passage of 
the river disputed by a small force of Confederates on the east bank. 
The 19th 111. infantry was left at the crossing, while the remainder 
of Hazen's division made a diversion in the direction of the Can- 
nouchee river and Bryan Court House. When Gen. Corse arrived at 
the river he found the 19th 111. in a line of rifle-pits keeping up a 
hot fire on the Confederates on the other bank, but the fire was as 
hotly returned and every time a head appeared above the slight earth- 
works it was greeted by a Confederate bullet. Corse ordered up a 
battery and opened fire with artillery. Under protection of the guns 
a pontoon bridge was constructed and in the face of a galling fire 
some of the men made a dash across the bridge and gained the oppo- 
site side. Finding the numbers too strong to cope with, the Confed- 
erates fell back toward Eden and Pooler's Stations. 

Jennie's Creek, Ky., Jan. 7, 1862. Detachment of the 2nd Vir- 
ginia Cavalry. Col. James A. Garfield, in command of the Union 
forces in eastern Kentucky, sent Col. Bolles with 300 of his cavalry to 
attack the enemy on Jennie's creek, while he. with 1,000 men, moved 
against Humphrey Marshall at Paintville. Garfield discovered that 
Marshall had evacuated his camp, and moved to join Bolles, whose 
advance of 60 men had in the meantime attacked and routed 200 Con- 
federate cavalry, killing 6 and wounding several, with a loss to the 
Union forces of 2 killed and i wounded. The whole command then 
went in pursuit of Marshall. (See Middlecreek and Prestonburg.) 

Jericho Bridge, Va., May 25, 1864. (See North Anna River.) 

Jerusalem Plank Road, Va., June 22, 1864. 2nd and 6th Army 
Corps. On the 21st, while thearmywas extending its lines around Pe- 
tersburg, the two corps were moved to the west side of the plank road. 
The next day, in taking a more advanced position, the 6th corps 
failed to move promptly, leaving a gap in the line on the left of 
the 2nd. Into this opening the enemy pushed a considerable force, 
turning the left of Barlow's division and attacking Gibbon's in the 
rear. In the confusion 4 pieces of McKnight's battery and some 
prisoners were captured. The men were quickly rallied, however, 
and Col. Blaidsell was sent forward with his brigade to recapture 
the guns. He was met by a galling fire from behind the breastworks 
lately held by the Union troops, but held his ground and the firing 
continued until 11 p. m. Blaidscll's men lay on their arms until day- 
light, when they advanced upon the works and captured a few pris- 
oners, but found that most of the force had retired to the main line 
of intrenchments during the night, taking the captured guns with 
them. 



524 The Union Army 

Jetersville, Va., April 5, 1865. (See Amelia Springs.) 

John's Island, S. C, July 4-10, 1864. U. S. Troops of the De- 
partment of the South under Brig.-Gen. John P. Hatch. During the 
day of the 4th Hatch moved to a point on Aberpoolie creek. The 
following day he marched to a point opposite Battery Pringle, leav- 
ing four battalions of the 26th U. S. colored infantry at the camp of 
the night before and two companies at the forks of the Bugbee 
bridge and Legareville roads. The last named companies were 
attacked and driven back on the four battalions guarding the camp. On 
the 6th the enemy appeared on the Federal front with 3 guns and 
shelled their camp, but the next day the tables were turned, as Brig.- 
Gen. Rufus Saxton, with the 26th, attacked the enemy's line of rifle- 
pits and drove both the artillery and the infantry from the field. 
The Confederates were strongly reinforced and shelled the Union 
camp with an 8-inch and a lo-inch columbiad during the day of the 
8th. At daylight on Saturday morning (the 9th) the enemy drove 
in the Federal pickets and at 5:45 a. m. attacked the line, but was 
easily repulsed. At 6:30 a. m. he attacked with a larger force, 
but was again repulsed. During the remainder of the day the Con- 
federates kept quiet. The Federal loss was 11 killed and 71 wounded. 
The Confederate casualties amounted to over 100 killed and wounded. 
Hatch withdrew his forces from the island on the loth. 

Johnson County, Mo., April 28, 1864. Detachments of ist Cav- 
alry, Missouri State Militia. A party under Lieut. James E. Couch 
was surprised by a band of guerrillas on the 28th, with the result 
that Couch and 2 of his men were killed and another wounded. Later 
in the day another portion of the same regiment ran upon the guer- 
rillas and after a sharp skirmish dispersed and pursued them, but 
without any signal success. 

Johnson Depot, Tenn., Sept. 22, 1863. 8th Tennessee Volunteers. 

Johnson's Crook, Ga., Feb. 10, 1865. 68th N. Y. Infantry. Col. 
Felix Prince Salm with his regiment surprised Witherspoon's com- 
pany of Confederates in Johnson's crook at 2 a. m., killed 3 of the 
enemy, wounded 5, and captured 16, besides 30 stands of arms and 
2^ horses. The Federals suffered no loss. 

Johnson's Farm, Va., Oct. 7, 1864. (See Darbytown Road, same 
date.) 

Johnson's Farm, Va., Oct. 29, 1864. 3d Brigade, ist Division, loth 
Army Corps, and West's Cavalry. Johnson's farm was on the Darby- 
town road, about 5 miles southeast of Richmond. The Federal 
cavalry had been driven from a line of intrenchments on this farm 
and Gen. Ames, commanding the ist division of the loth corps, 
ordered Col. H. M. Plaisted to move out with his brigade and re- 
capture the works. Plaisted formed his line of battle with the loth 
Conn, on the right, the looth N. Y. in the center and the nth Me. 
on the left. A heavy skirmish line was thrown forward to the edge 
of a piece of woods, diagonal to the line of works, the left being 
about 100 and the right 500 yards distant. Under cover of the sharp- 
shooters the left advanced and the skirmishers carried the works in 
their immediate front, when the entire line swung in on the double- 
quick. Col. West with his cavalry at the same time dashing across 
the farm on the right of the infantry. In his report of the aflfair 
Plaisted says: "The rebels turned their backs and fled, giving the 
boys an opportunity of firing into them, which they improved with 
evident satisfaction. Skirmishing was kept up along the line of 
works and to the right along the Darbytown road, the cavalry taking 
the right until dark. The cavalry pickets having been reestablished 
in their old position, the infantry was withdrawn after dark and re- 
turned to camp." The casualties were slight. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 525 

Johnson's Mills, Tenn., Feb. 22, 1864. Detachment of the 5th 
Tennessee Cavalry; prisoners killed by Champ Ferguson's Guerrillas. 

Johnson's Station, S. C, Feb. lo-ii, 1865. ist Brigade, Kilpatrick's 
Cavalry. Johnson's station was occupied on the loth by the brigade, 
under the command of Bvt. Brig.-Gen. T. J. Jordan, who found him- 
self confronted by Anderson's and Young's divisions of Wheeler's 
cavalry. The ist battalion of the 8th Ind., commanded by Capt. 
Crowell, being the advance guard, engaged the enemy and drove him 
from several barricades back to the main body, when it was recalled 
by order of Jordan, because of the superior strength of the enemy. 
The next day, when the 2nd brigade was compelled to fall back 
from Aiken the brigade held its position until the defeated troops 
could form behind the defenses, when the 8th Ind., 2nd Ky. and 9th 
Pa. met a determined charge of the Confederates, hurling them back 
with a heavy loss in killed and wounded. As the enemy retreated 
he was followed by a hail of grape and canister that greatly added 
to his loss and discomfiture. No report of Federal casualties. 

Johnsonville, Tenn., Sept. 25, 1864. 13th U. S. Colored troops. 

Johnsonville, Tenn., Nov. 2-5, 1864. Detached Troops of Depart- 
ment of the Cumberland and Gunboats. On the afternoon of Nov. 2 
Lieut. -Com. King proceeded down the Tennessee river from John- 
sonville with the gunboats Key West and Tawah. At Davidson's 
ferrj', 5 miles below, the gunboat Undine and the transport Venus, 
both of which had been captured by the Confederates a few days 
before, were discovered moving up the river and loaded with troops. 
The Venus was captured after she had been disabled by a shot from 
the Key West and the Undine returned down stream. On the Venus 
were two 20-pounder Parrott guns, 200 rounds of ammunition for the 
same, 100 boxes of shoes, 2 bales of blankets, 576 boxes of hard 
bread and other materials. On the 3d the Undine steamed up to 
within a mile of Johnsonville, but when the gunboats went out to en- 
gage her she withdrew to the protection of the Confederate batteries 
along the shore. On the morning of the 4th she was discovered lying at 
the head of the island a mile below the town. The 3 Federal gunboats. Key 
West, Elfin and Tawah, engaged her and finally compelled the crew to 
abandon her after she had been set on fire. About 2 p. m. of the same 
day the Confederates were discovered planting batteries opposite the 
town and the three gunboats in attempting to dislodge them were so 
badly disabled that they were fired and abandoned. Fearing that the 
Confederates would cross the river Col. C. R. Thompson ordered the 
transports and barges burned, and these drifting against the wharf set 
fire to that building and the stores piled on the levees. Next morning 
Confederates shelled the warehouse for a few hours and then withdrew. 
The affair was an incident of a raid by Forrest's cavalry into West 
Tennessee. The total money value of the property destroyed was 
$2,200,000. The Federal loss in men during the attack on Johnsonville 
was 8 killed and wounded ; Forrest reported his loss during the whole 
raid as 2 killed and 9 wounded. 

Johnseown, Mo., Nov. 24. 1861. Missouri Home Guard. 

Johnstown, Mo., Oct. 16, 1863. Col. Joseph O. Shelby, (Confed- 
erate) in his report of the raid in Arkansas and Missouri mentions 
that when the command arrived at Johnstown it was met by a body 
of militia opposing an entrance into the town. Shelby soon dispersed 
this command and proceeded on his way. No casualties were men- 
tioned. 

Jonesboro, Ark., Aug. 3, 1862. ist Wisconsin Cavalry. At day- 
light Sunday morning, Aug. 3, a detachment of this regiment, con- 



526 The Union Army 

sisting of about 130 men under Maj. Henry S. Eggleston, was at- 
tacked by some 600 Confederate cavalry led by Col. W. H. Parsons, 
and after a fight of 30 minutes was obliged to take to the woods 
with a loss of 14 killed, 40 wounded and 25 missing. The enemy 
did not report a loss, but Eggleston's report estimates his dead at 
25. Some 7 wagons were taken and the property of value destroyed. 

Jonesboro, Ga., Aug. 19, 1864. (See Lovejoy's Station, Kilpatrick's 
Raid.) 

Jonesboro, Ga., Aug. 31-Sept. i, 1864. Armies of the Tennessee, 
Cumberland and Ohio. The movement of Sherman's armies to the south 
of Atlanta began on Aug. 25. On the morning of the 31st the Army 
of the Tennessee, commanded by Maj. -Gen. O. O. Howard, was in 
position near Jonesboro; the 4th and 14th corps of the Army of the 
Cumberland, commanded by Maj. -Gen. George H. Thomas, and 
the Army of the Ohio, under Maj. -Gen. John M. Schofield, were 
along the line of the Macon & Western railroad between Jonesboro 
and Rough and Ready Station. Hood had learned the position of 
the Federal forces on the 30th, and that night he sent Hardee's 
and S. D. Lee's corps to Jonesboro, with orders to attack Sherman's 
flank the next morning. Hardee was in command of the expedition, 
his corps being temporarily commanded by Gen. Cleburne. Owing 
to the fact that Howard occupied the road on which Hardee wanted 
to move, it was 2 p. m. before the Confederates were in a position 
to attack. Shortly after that hour a heavy artillery fire was opened 
along the entire line and a little later Cleburne advanced to the 
assault. Hardee had formed his line with Cleburne on the left and 
Lee on the right. The former was to turn the Union right and 
Lee was to attack vigorously as soon as he heard the sound of 
Cleburne's guns. Lee mistook the firing of the skirmishers on his 
left for the main attack and advanced his line before Cleburne be- 
came fairly engaged. Hazen's division, which formed the left of 
Logan's line, received the brunt of the attack, the enemj' trying to 
turn the left flank and get between the Union line and the Flint 
river. Bryant's brigade of Blair's corps was first sent to Hazen's 
assistance and later all of Woods' division was moved to that part 
of the line with instructions to charge the Confederates if they at- 
tempted to turn the flank. At the same time Howard called on 
Thomas for reinforcements and Carlin's division of the 14th corps 
was hurried to the scene of action, but before its arrival the enemy 
had been repulsed. 

While the main engagement was in progress Kilpatrick, with 
his cavalry division, was at Anthony's bridge, a mile and a half below 
Howard. Seeing that Howard's right was in danger of being turned, 
Kilpatrick dismounted five regiments, posted them behind barri- 
cades on the flank of Cleburne's column, placed his batteries in good 
positions and directed them to open fire, while the rest of his com- 
mand was ordered to attack. This diversion forced Cleburne to 
forego his attempt to turn Howard's flank and turn his attention to 
Kilpatrick. Twice he attacked the latter, but each time he was re- 
pulsed. A third effort was more successful and Kilpatrick was forced 
to retire across the river. This was done in good order, but with 
the loss of 2 of his cannon. Some of the enemy followed over the 
bridge, but they were met by the 92nd 111. mounted infantry, now 
dismounted, and held in check. To protect his trains and assist Kil- 
patrick Howard ordered Blair to send Giles A. Smith's division to 
the bridge. The arrival of this division turned the tide of battle, 
the enemy was repulsed with heavy loss and the 2 guns were recap- 
tured. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 527 

The fight lasted about an hour and resulted in complete defeat 
for the Confederates at every point. The defeats at Peachtree 
creek, Bald Hill, Ezra church and Utoy creek seemed to have 
dampened the ardor of the Confederate soldiers, as Lee says in his 
report: "The attack was not made by the troops w^ith that spirit 
and inflexible determination that would insure success. Several 
brigades behaved with great gallantry, and in each brigade rnany 
instances of gallant conduct were exhibited by regiments and indi- 
viduals; but generally the troops halted in the charge^ when they 
were much exposed, and within easy range of the enemy's musketry, 
and when they could do but little damage to the enemy behind his 
works, instead of moving directly and promptly against the tem- 
porary and informidable works in their front. The attack was a 
feeble one and a failure, with a loss to my corps of about 1,300 men 
in killed and wounded." 

As soon as Sherman was informed of the result of the action he 
knew that he was in possession of Hood's line of communications, 
and issued orders fof a complete destruction of the railroad, in the 
expectation of forcing Hood to evacuate Atlanta and concentrate 
his forces somewhere near Jonesboro. Lee's corps was recalled 
during the night, leaving Hardee alone at Jonesboro, and upon 
learning this Sherman ordered Thomas and Schofield to unite with 
Howard to surround and capture Hardee before Hood could rein- 
force him. Stanley's corps, which was engaged in destroying the 
railroad near Rough and Ready, was hurried forward to Jonesboro; 
Davis was sent to Howard's left; two divisions of Blair's corps, 
with Kilpatrick's cavalry, were ordered to gain a position on the 
railroad south of town, and Schofield was to continue the work 
of destroying the track, but at the same time follow up Stanley to 
support him in an emergency. Hardee had formed his line to meet 
an attack from Howard on the west, with Cleburne's division on the 
right, sharply refused, Govan holding the angle, Granbury on the 
left of Govan, and Lewis to the right and rear. Davis reached the 
position assigned him about noon on Sept. i, and pushed forward 
Edie's brigade of Carlin's division to reconnoiter the ground to the 
railroad. Edie soon became engaged in a sharp skirmish, but succeeded 
in gaining a ridge that commanded the angle in Hardee's line. Pres- 
cott's battery was placed on this ridge, in a position where it could 
enfilade a portion of the enemy's line, and in a short time disabled a 
number of Hardee's guns. Davis now ordered an assault. Edie struck 
the salient and carried it, but owing to the uneven surface of the 
ground his supports did not come up in time and he was repulsed with 
considerable loss. About 5 p. m. a second advance was made, when 
Este's brigade of Baird's division carried the salient. This time the 
supports were at hand. Morgan's division swept in from the right 
and Carlin's from the left, completely surrounding the Confederates 
and capturing Gen. Govan, with nearly all his command. Lewis and 
Granbury were forced to fall back and form a new line, though the 
Confederate left and center held on to their trenches. Stanley, who 
had reached the field about the time Davis made his second as- 
sault, now deployed on the left of Davis, but before any decisive 
movement could be made darkness put an end to the conflict. 
During the night Hardee abandoned his position and joined the main 
body of Hood's army at Lovejoy Station. The Union loss at Jones- 
boro was about 1,150 men. The enemy acknowledged a loss of 5,000. 

Jonesboro, Ga., Nov. 15, 1864. ist Brigade, Kilpatrick's Cavalry. 
In the concentration of Gen. Sherman's army for the march to the 
sea this brigade, commanded by Col. Eli H. Murray, left camp 4 



528 The Union Army 

miles southwest of Atlanta and moved toward Jonesboro. Shortly 
after crossing the Flint river the 5th Ky. carne upon a small force 
of the enemy on the McDonough road. Lieut. Baker at the head 
of Co. E, made a dashing charge, killed i man, wounded i and scat- 
tered the rest. Later in the day this regiment effected a junction 
with the 8th Ind. and advanced on Jonesboro, where the enemy was 
found in considerable force, occupying the works recently evacuated 
by Gen. Hood. After some sharp skirmishing the two regiments 
charged and drove the Confederates out of town, capturing 3 cais- 
sons filled with ammunition. The Union casualties were 2 men 
wounded. 

Jonesboro, Mo., Aug. 21, 1861. Missouri Home Guards. 

Jonesboro, Mo., Oct. 12-13, 1863. (See Dug Ford.) 

Jonesboro, Tenn., Oct. 10, 1863. 4th Cavalry Division, 23d Army 
Corps. Brig.-Gen. J. M. Shackelford, commanding the division, re- 
ported at 4 p. m. from a point 8 miles from Jonesboro, as follows: 
"After a brisk fight of one hour we drove the enemy from his posi- 
tion. He is retreating rapidly, and we are pursuing as rapidly as 
possible. Captured i caisson, 2 wagons, 6 horses, etc., and some 
rebels." 

Jonesboro, Tenn., Sept. 29, 1864. (See Carter's Station, Sept. 30.) 

Jones' Bridge, Va., June 23, 1864. ist Division, Cavalry Corps, 
Army of the Potomac. As the army was moving toward the James 
river after the battle of Cold Harbor, Torbert's cavalry division 
was sent on the 22nd to secure Jones' bridge over the Chickahominy 
river. The bridge was secured without opposition and Devin's bri- 
gade was thrown forward to picket the Long Bridge and Charles 
City roads. Early on the morning of the 23d the pickets on the 
Long Bridge road were attacked by Chambliss' brigade of Con- 
federate cavalry and driven in. Gen. Getty, who had succeeded 
Gen. Abercrombie in command of the force at White House, sent 
six companies of colored troops to reinforce the pickets and these 
checked the enemy's advance until Devin could bring up the re- 
mainder of his brigade, when Chambliss was driven back to a 
strong position behind some barricades. Devin attacked his works 
and again forced him back with some loss in killed and wounded. 
The Union loss was 6 killed. 9 wounded and i missing. 

Jones' Ferry, Miss., July 6-7, 1863. 4th Brigade, ist Division. De- 
tachment of the i6th Army Corps. On the evening of the 6th the brigade, 
Col. W. W. Sanford commanding, was ordered to Jones' ferry on the 
Big Black river, to effect a crossing in conjunction with the other troops 
of the division, who were to cross higher up. Sanford reached the ferry 
about 9 p. m., but waited for the 6th la., under Col. Corse, which did not 
come up until some two hours later. Owing to the depth of the water 
and the swiftness of the current it was found impossible to wade or swim 
the stream. Two canoes were finally found and lashed together, with 
which a few men started across, but were driven back by the fire of the 
enemy on the opposite bank. Corse was then ordered to picket the river 
for 2 miles up and down and the remainder of the brigade went into 
bivouac. During the night Corse succeeded in getting a few men across, 
but the movement was discovered by the Confederates and again they 
opened fire. Corse managed to recross his men without loss and on the 
7th the brigade kept up a continual skirmish with the enemy, thus enabling 
the troops above to cross and drive the Confederates from Sanford's front, 
after which the brigade crossed the river and joined the main body. The 
6th la. suffered some slight casualties during the maneuvers. 

Jones' Hay Station, Ark., Aug. 24, 1864. (See Devall's Bluff, 
same date.) 



Cyclopedia of Baltics 529 

Jones' Plantation, Ga., Nov. 27-29, 1864. (Sec Waynesboro.) 

Jones' Plantation, Miss., June 22, 1863. Detachment of 4th Iowa 
Cavalry. Maj. A. B. Parkell with a detachment of 130 men was 
sent out to blockade the road leading westward from Birdsong 
ferry on the Big Bhick river. The nearest available point for the 
work was at Jones' plantation, a mile west of the ferry. Pickets 
were sent out to guard against surprise while the rest of the com- 
mand set to work to efTect the blockade. After two hours the 
pickets on the north road were driven in, when the whole command 
formed in line of battle and proceeded to the scene of action. The 
Confederates were in such superior numbers that it was impossible 
for Parkell's men to fall back in order and they separated and re- 
treated. The Federal loss in this engagement was 8 killed, 16 
wounded and 23 captured or missing, while the enemy lost 5 killed, 
16 wounded and i missing. 

Jonesville, Va., Jan. 3-5, 1864. Detachment of the i6th Illinois 
Cavalry and 22nd Ohio Battery. After having driven the Confed- 
erates from Jonesville, Maj. Charles H. Beeres camped in that place 
on Friday and Saturday nights. Early Sunday morning (the 5th) 
his command was surprised by the enemy, under Brig.-Gen. William 
E. Jones, and driven in confusion for some distance. Beeres finally 
rallied his men and fought until 3 p. m., when, having had 31 men 
killed, he surrendered the remainder of his command, which origi- 
nally consisted of about 250 men, a rifled gun and 2 mountain how- 
itzers. The enemy lost 5 killed and 11 wounded. 

Jonesville, Va., Aug. 4, 1864. ist Brigade, 4th Division, 23d 
Army Corps. While scouting in the vicinity of Cumberland gap 
the detachment under Col. William Y. Dillard entered Jonesville 
half an hour after two companies of Morgan's men had left. Dil- 
lard pursued and overtook them a short distance from the town. 
A few shots were exchanged, when the Confederates retired, leav- 
ing 5 of their number as prisoners in Federal hands. No other 
casualties were reported. 

Jonesville Road, Va., Feb. 12, 1864. nth Tennessee Cavalry. 
A foraging train of 23 wagons under escort of a detachment of the 
nth Tenn. cavalry proceeded up the Mulberry road while the re- 
mainder of the Tenn. regiment moved on the Jonesville road, from 
which it was surmised an attack on the train might be made. The 
train was attacked and compelled to retreat and at the same time 
the command on the Jonesville road met with a superior force and 
was compelled to fall back below the fork of the Mulberry road, 
thus throwing the Confederates in the rear of the train, which was 
captured with 25 men. No other losses were reported. 

Jordan's Store, Tenn., May 30, 1863. Detachment of ist East 
Tennessee Cavalry. A scouting party of this regiment encountered 
about 50 Confederate cavalry at Jordan's store on the Chapel Hill 
pike and drove them beyond Riggs' cross-roads. A small Federal 
detachment, while endeavoring to cut off a portion of the retreating 
enemy, came upon three of them who refused to surrender and were 
killed. There were no casualties on the Union side. 

Jornando Del Muerto, Newr Mexico, June 16, 1863. One com- 
pany of the 1st New Mexico Cavalry. 

Jug Tavern, Ga., Aug. 3. 1864. (See Stoneman's Raid to Macon.) 

Julesburg, Colo. Ten, Jan. 7, 1865. One company of the 7th 
Iowa Cavalry. On this date the garrison of Julesburg Station re- 
pulsed an attack by a large body of Indians which liad surrounded the 
place. Tlie troops lost 15 killed and the Indians about 35. Julesburg 
was a station on the Overland route and the garrison was commanded 
Vol. VI— 4 



530 The Union Army 

by Capt. Nicholas J. O'Brien. The Indians went south after their 
repulse. 

Kabletown, W. Va., March lo, 1864. (See Charlestown, same date.) 
Kanawha Valley Campaign, W. Va., Sept. 6-16, 1862. Troops of 
the Kanawha District. Col. j. A. J. Lightburn, of the 4th W. Va. in- 
fantry, was assigned to the command of the Kanawha district on Aug. 
17. His forces consisted of the 4th, 8th and 9th Va., the 34th. 37th, 
44.th and 47th Ohio infantry, the 2nd Va. cavalry, 14 pieces of artillery, 
and was divided into two brigades, commanded by Col. Edward Siber 
and Col. S. A. Gilbert. The 34th and 37th Ohio, with 4 howitzers and 
2 smooth-bore field pieces, were at Raleigh Court House; two com- 
panies of infantry were at Fayetteville to guard trains ; the 44th 
and 47th Ohio were at Camp Ewing, 10 miles from Gauley bridge ; two 
companies of the gth Va. and two companies of cavalry were at Sum- 
merville; and the remainder of the troops were at various places between 
Gauley and Charleston. Learning that the Confederates were massing 
troops at different points for a demonstration on the Valley, Lightburn 
ordered Siber to fall back from Raleigh to Fayetteville, and Gilbert to 
fall back to Gauley mountain, with a view to getting the troops together, 
while Col. Paxton was sent with six companies of cavalry to keep open 
the communications with the Ohio river. Siber reached Fayette on the 
gth and took an intrenched position, determined to hold it until the 
quartermaster's and commissary stores there were removed. About 
, 10 a. m. on the loth he received notice of the approach of a large force 
of the enemy. He threw out four companies to cover his right flank, 
and an hour later sent two companies down the Raleigh pike to recon- 
noiter in front. This detachment soon encountered the enemy's advance 
guard and Siber ordered all his men into the intrenchments. The attack 
in front was repulsed, but the enemy succeeded in getting around to 
the rear, cutting off the line of retreat. The first notice Siber had of 
this was an attack on the trains he had ordered back to Cotton hill. 
Finding himself likely to be surrounded he ordered Col. Toland to take 
six companies of the 34th Ohio and clear the road to Gauley. A fight 
of 3 hours ensued, in which Toland was well supported by the fire of 
4 mountain howitzers, when reinforcements came to Siber and he de- 
cided to hold his position until the rest of the stores could be saved. 
About I a. m. on the nth he withdrew his whole force, unperceived 
by the Confederates, and took up a position at Cotton hill. Here he 
was assailed by six or seven regiments on the forenoon of the nth, but 
a steady fire of artillery and five companies of the 37th repulsed the 
enemy with considerable loss. As Siber withdrew from Cotton hill he 
managed to destroy the magazines opposite Gauley. Late in the after- 
noon his rear-guard, the 47th Ohio, was attacked at Armstrong's creek 
by some of the enemy's cavalry. Siber sent back a force sufficient to 
repulse the assault and then barricaded a narrow defile in a road on 
the left bank of the creek, making further pursuit on that side of the 
stream impossible. As the enemy withdrew the march was resumed 
toward Camp Piatt, where he expected to join the other brigade. 

At 3 p. m. on the loth Gilbert received the instructions to fall back 
to Gauley and immediately issued orders to that effect. Learning of 
the attacks on Siber's brigade, he sent four companies of the 47th Ohio 
and 120 cavalry to Cotton hill in time to assist in guarding the trains, 
and at 8 a. m. on the nth stationed the 44th Ohio and one company of 
the 4th Va., under Maj. Mitchell, opposite the point where the Fayette- 
ville road strikes the Kanawha river, and posted artillery to cover 
Siber's retreat. When the enemy approached they were held in check 
for an hour or more, when Gilbert gave the order to retire. Just above 



Cyclopedia of Battles 531 

Cannelton the Confederate advance struck the rear-guard, but was driven 
off with severe loss. During the night the command moved through 
CanneUon and reached Camp Piatt at 4 p. m. on the 12th. Here the 
two brigades were united and at 2 a. m. on the 13th the whole column 
moved down to Charleston. Col. Elliott, with the 47th, and Lieut. 
Fischer, with 3 howitzers, were ordered to take position in the upper 
part of the town and hold it as long as possible. The remainder of the 
command was formed on the north side of Elk creek. About 9:30 the 
cavalry pickets were driven in and two hours later Elliott's troops were 
actively engaged. He held his position, however, until 3 p. m., when 
he fell back on the main body and the engagement became general. 
The Union forces were outnumbered two to one in front, and Jenkins' 
cavalry, 1,200 to 1,500 strong, had come up on the right and rear. Mat- 
ters looked hopeless for that little band, but by good generalship Light- 
burn held the enemy at bay until night, when he retreated under cover 
of darkness, via of the Ripley road to Point Pleasant, bringing off his 
artillery and trains. The Union loss in the campaign was 25 killed, 95 
w^ounded and 190 missing. The heaviest loss fell on the detachment of 
the 34th Ohio, while trying to clear the road at Fayetteville. The loss 
of the enemy could not be ascertained, but it must have been heavy, as 
they were the assailants, the Federals fighting most of the time from 
sheltered positions. Large quantities of stores were burned to prevent 
their falling into the hands of the enemy. 

Kautz's Raids Near Petersburg, Va., May 5-17, 1864. Cavalry Divi- 
sion, Army of the James. On the morning of May 5, Brig.-Gen. August 
V. Kautz with his cavalry division and a section of the 8th N. Y. bat- 
tery left the Federal camp near Suffolk for the purpose of cutting the 
Peter.sburg & Weldon railroad, and marched ^s miles to Andrews' cor- 
ners. Soon after midnight the march was resumed through Windsor 
and the Isle of Wight Court House to Fearnsville. At Birch Island 
bridge over the Blackwater river there was a slight skirmish between 
the advance guard of the Federal column and a Confederate picket en- 
gaged in destroying the bridge, in which i Union man was wounded. 
On the evening of the 6th the command camped at Wakefield, where 
the Norfolk & Petersburg track was cut and the station house, some 
freight cars and a small amount of stores destroyed. From Wakefield 
Kautz moved via Littleton to Stony Creek station on the Petersburg & 
Weldon railroad. At Littleton 8 Confederate soldiers were captured, 
together with several wagons of commissary stores. At Boiling's bridge, 
a structure for the passage of wagons over the Nottoway river, the Fed- 
eral advance encountered and drove back the enemy's pickets after a 
sharp skirmish, and with a loss of 3 men in killed and wounded, but 
the Confederates surrendered after a sharp resistance. Besides more 
than 40 prisoners, a large quantity of provisions was captured, and a 
frame bridge, 2 wood sheds, 2 water tanks, a quantity of extra bridge 
timber, 3 freight cars, a culvert and a turnpit at Stony Creek station 
near by were destroyed. At daylight of the 8th the nth Pa. under Col. 
Samuel P. Spear took up the line of march toward Jarratt's station. 
On his arrival Spear was met by a portion of Holcombe's Confederate 
legion and after a desperate contest was obliged to fall back. The 5th 
Pa. was brought up and dismounted, charged the enemy and succeeded 
in carrying the place, capturing 37 prisoners. While Spear was fighting 
at Jarratt's station the rest of the division was engaged at Nottoway 
bridge, where it had come upon several hundred men under a Col. Tabb 
of the 59th Va. The ground about the bridge was open and the enemy 
occupied both sides of the stream, holding a redoubt on the farther side. 
Tabb put up a good fight, but was finally driven from the bridge, which 



532 The Union Army 

was set on fire and in 20 minutes was a complete ruin. All of Tabb's 
men might have been captured had not Kautz been hampered with 
prisoners and a lack of provisions. Having accomplished the object of 
the expedition he returned via Allen's bridge and the Jerusalem plank 
road to City Point, burning a culvert on the Petersburg & Norfolk rail- 
road on the way. 

On the nth Kautz drew rations for an expedition against the Rich- 
mond & Danville railroad. About 9 a. m. on the 12th he moved out to 
Chesterfield Junction, continued on to the Chesterfield Court House road 
and then in a northwesterly direction to Coalfield, where the station- 
house, woodsheds, water-tank, some cars loaded with shells, and a sec- 
tion of the track were destroyed. At 9 a. m. on the 13th the command 
reached Powhatan Station, where a supply of forage and bacon was 
obtained, and the railroad buildings, water-tank and 15 cars were de- 
stroyed. At the railroad bridge over the Appomattox, the enemy was 
found in force on the opposite bank. The advance regiment was left 
to keep up a demonstration in front while the main column went down 
the stream and crossed at Goode's bridge. Considerable delay was ex- 
perienced in repairing this bridge and, reinforcements having been sent 
to the Confederates at the railroad bridge, the original design was aban- 
doned. Col. Spear and Maj. Jacobs with portions of their commands 
were then sent up the road to make a demonstration on Flat Creek 
bridge, while the remainder of the command engaged in destroying the 
railroad equipment. The Confederates at the bridge being too strongly 
posted to successfully engage, Kautz proceeded toward Wellville, while 
Spear marched to Wilson's station on the South Side railroad, where 
the buildings were destroyed and some track torn up. The track and 
station at Wellville were destroyed and the march was resumed along 
the South Side road to Blacks and Whites station, where a supply of 
forage and commissary stores was taken and the freight house, wood- 
shed, water-tank, etc., were burned. On the 15th the column moved to 
Lawrenceville, where a number of prisoners and a supply of bacon and 
forage were taken. The next day Kautz started for Belfield, but re- 
ceiving information which led him to believe that the Hicksford bridge 
was too strongly guarded to be successfully attacked, he changed his 
plans and returned to Jarratt's station. The railroad equipment which 
Spears had destroyed the week before had been replaced, and it was 
again destroyed. The railway bridge over the Nottoway had also been 
repaired, but it was too strongly guarded to be charged, and the column 
proceeded to Freeman's, where a body of Confederates attempting to 
destroy the bridge were driven away. Some delay was caused in repair- 
ing this bridge so that the cavalry could cross, but on the 17th the 
command arrived in City Point. The loss in Kautz's command during 
the 2 expeditions was 14 killed, 60 wounded and 27 missing. 

Kearneysville, W. Va., Aug. 23-25, 1864. Army of West Virginia. 
On the 23d, during the operations of Sheridan's army in the Shenandoah 
valley. Gen. Crook was ordered to make a reconnaissance in the direction 
of Kearneysville. In this maneuver several of the enemy were killed 
and wounded and a few prisoners taken. On the same day Maj. Brewer, 
with the 1st and 7th Mich, cavalry, moved down the Smithfield pike 
toward Kearneysville, engaged the enemy's pickets and drove a small 
Confederate force out of the town, after which he returned to camp. 
Another reconnaissance was made on the 24th, which resulted in a sharp 
skirmish, the Union loss being about 30 men in killed and wounded. The 
enemy's loss in killed and wounded was not ascertained, but a number of 
prisoners were brought in. On the 25th Merritt's and Wilson's cavalry divi- 
sions were sent toward Leetown on a reconnaissance. Soon after crossing 



Cyclopedia of Battles 533 

the railroad at Kearneysville the enemy's pickets were met and the com- 
mand formed quickly in line of battle, Merritt's division on the right of the 
pike and Wilson's across the road and to the left of it. Mcintosh's 
brigade of Wilson's division was dismounted and thrown forward to a 
piece of woods on both sides of the pike ; Ranson's battery was stationed 
in the same woods near the road and opened a vigorous fire on the 
enemy's front, while Chapman's brigade with Pennington's battery was 
moved to the left to enfilade the Confederate lines. After a sharp fight 
of about half an hour the enemy began to fall back and was closely 
pressed for nearly a mile, when it was learned from some of the pris- 
oners taken that Early was on his way to Shepherdstown, where he 
intended to cross the Potomac into Maryland. The two divisions were 
therefore ordered back to head off the movement. Breckenridge imme- 
diately followed and when near Shepherdstown made a desperate attack 
on the rear-guard, forcing it from its position and following up with 
great vigor and persistence. Custer's brigade of Merritt's division was 
ordered out to repel the attack, but in doing so was struck on the flank 
by another body of Confederates that had marched across the country 
to join Early. For a time it looked as though Custer would be cut 
off from the main body, and Devin's brigade was directed to engage 
the enemy in order to give Custer a chance to cross the river. As soon 
as Devin's attack was well under way Custer, with his characteristic 
bravery, cut his way through the enemy's lines and crossed the Potomac, 
going into camp that evening near Sharpsburg. Wilson was withdrawn 
to Halltown and Merritt remained at Shepherdstown. The Union loss 
was not reported. The Confederate casualties were given as 250 killed 
and wounded and "a number" captured or missing. Although the with- 
drawal of Merritt and Wilson left the ford open for Early no advantage 
was taken of it. Early contenting himself with the slight victory gained 
over the Federal cavalry in forcing it to retire from his immediate 
vicinity. 

Kearsarge and Alabama, June 19, 1864. For a complete account 
of the sinking of the Confederate cruiser Alabama by the Kearsarge, off 
Cherbourg harbor, France, see Naval Volume. 

Keller's Bridge, Ky., June 11, 1864. 171st Regiment Ohio National 
Guard. About 2 a. m. Brig.-Gen. E. H. Hobson disembarked this regi- 
ment from a train at Keller's bridge, about a mile from Cynthiana. 
Firing was heard in the direction of the town and before very long 
Hobson was attacked. The first and second attacks were repulsed, but 
later it became evident to Hobson that he was surrounded, and he sur- 
rendered his force to Gen. John H. Morgan. The Confederate forces on 
the same day took Cynthiana and its garrison of a company of the i68th 
Ohio. 

Kelley's Plantation, Ala., April 11, 1864. Detachment of the sth 
Ohio Cavalry. As a wagon belonging to Capt. Jessup's company was 
returning from Huntsville to the camp near Sledge's plantation, it was 
attacked near Kelley's, on the Sulphur Springs road, captured and burned 
with all its contents, consisting of ten days' rations, a quantity of ammu- 
nition, clothing, etc. Three of the escort were taken prisoners, and the 
6 mules of the team were driven off by the Confederates. Jessup, imme- 
diately upon hearing of the affair, organized and started a party in 
pursuit, but failed to overtake them that night. The next day he learned 
from citizens that they had been seen on the Fayetteville road, but that 
they had no prisoners with them. The fate of the captured men was 
never reported. 

Kelly's Ford, Va., Aug. 21, 1862. Cavalry of the Army of Virgnia. 
On this morning the Federal cavalry met the advance of Longstreet's 
cavalry on the road leading from the Stevensburg road to Kelly's ford. 



534 The Union Army 

Some skirmish firing was done in a tiold about 1,000 yards from the 
Rappahannock river, when the Confederates withdrew across Mountain 
run, leaving two companies on the farther side as a picket guard. The 
federal cavalry surrounded these two companies and demanded a sur- 
render, but the arrival of another body of the enemy aided them to get 
away. The Federals then charged, but were repulsed, and finally with- 
drew from the fight. Their loss was not reported; the Confederates 
lost 2 killed and 12 wounded. 

Kelly's Ford, Va., March 17, 1863. 2nd Division, Cavalry Corps, 
Army of the Potomac. This command, under Brig.-Gen. William W. 
Averell, crossed the Rappahannock river at Kelly's ford on 
the morning of the 17th, after having driven the enemy's 
sharpshooters from an abatis on the river. Half a mile from 
the ford was a skirt of woods and when the Federals approached 
it the enemy was discovered advancing in force. The 4th Pa. 
and the 4th N. Y. were immediately deployed, with Mcintosh's brigade 
supporting the right and Reno's in reserve. An attempt was made by 
the Confederates to gain a house and outbuildings on Averell's right, 
but it was repulsed by artillery. Gregg's and Mcintosh's brigades then 
advanced on the enemy's left, while Duffie's brigade charged the center, 
driving him in confusion. After half an hour taken to reorganize the 
Federal troops, an advance was again made, but when the column de- 
bouched from the woods it was met by a charge of the Confederate cav- 
alry on both flanks. The assault on the right was handsomely repulsed, 
but the left wing was not formed until after the Union forces had 
cleared the woods and the enemy got to within 400 yards of the battery 
before it could be unlimbered. A fierce and sanguinary cavalry fight 
occurred here, but Averell's men kept advancing until the Confederates 
were compelled to give way. Another attack upon the Union right was 
repulsed and the enemy driven into his intrenchments. Darkness com- 
ing on and the enemy circling to the right, Averell deemed it advisable 
to withdraw across the Rappahannock, which move was made without 
the loss of a man. The Federal loss in this engagement was 6 killed, 50 
wounded and 22 missing. The Confederate forces, which were com- 
manded by Brig.-Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, suffered more heavily, losing n 
killed, 88 wounded and 34 missing. 

Kelly's Ford, Va., Aug. 4, 1863. (See Brandy Station, same date.) 
Kelly's Ford, Va., Nov. 7, 1863. Detachment of 3d Army Corps. 
Shortly after noon the head of the column reached Kelly's ford, when 
a brigade of Confederate infantry was seen to rush out of the woods on 
the opposite bank toward the intrenchments. A cross-fire of artillery 
was brought to bear upon them, the enemy replying with a batten,'. At 
I :30 p. m. the Federals forced the passage of the ford and by 2 o'clock 
the whole of the ist division had crossed. The Confederates, meantime, 
had evacuated their rifle-pits and were in full flight across the field. 
Their casualties were not reported; the Union loss was 6 killed and 36 
wounded. 

Kelly's Island, Va., June 26, 1861. (See Patterson Creek.) 
Kelly's Mill, Miss., July 8, 1864. 3d Iowa Cavalry. While Smith's 
expedition was proceeding to Tupelo the 3d la. was sent on a reconnais- 
sance toward Kelly's mill. The destination was reached without incident, 
but as soon as the regiment began its return it was assailed on the flank 
by a party of Confederates, i of whom was killed, i wounded and an- 
other captured. The Federals suffered no loss. 

Kelly's Store, Va., Jan. 30, 1863. (See Deserted House.) 
Kennesaw Mountain, Ga., June 27, 1864. Armies of the Cumber- 
land, Tennessee and Ohio. When Gen. Sherman transferred his line of 



Cyclopedia of Battles 535 

operations from Pumpkin Vine creek to Allatoona and Acworth on 
June 4th, he rebuilt the railroad bridge over the Etowah river, estab- 
lished a base of supplies at Allatoona, and on the Qth occupied Big 
Shanty, the next railroad station south of Acworth. By that time Gen. 
Johnston, commanding the Confederate forces, had formed a new line 
along Brush, Pine and Lost Mountains, across the railroad in front of 
Marietta and near Kennesaw mountain. Sherman began the investment 
of this position on the loth with McPherson's Army of the Tennessee 
on the left, moving toward Brush mountain and Marietta ; Thomas, with 
the Army of the Cumberland, occupied the center, moving against Pine 
and Kennesaw mountains ; and Schofield, with the Army of the Ohio, 
was on the right, operating against Lost mountain. Stoneman's cavalry 
covered the right flank and Garrard's the left, while McCook's cavalry 
division guarded the communications in the rear and the base at Alla- 
toona. After two weeks of almost constant skirmishing, in which John- 
ston was forced to abandon Pine and Lost mountains and contract his 
lines about Kennesaw, Sherman determined to assault the Confederate 
position. In his report he says : "Upon studying the ground I had no 
alternative in my turn but to assault his lines or turn his position. 
Either course had its difficulties and dangers, and I perceived that the 
enemy and our own officers had settled down to a conviction that I 
would not assault fortified lines. All looked to me to outflank. An 
army to be efficient must not settle down to a single mode of offense, 
but must be prepared to execute any plan which promises success. I 
wanted, therefore, for the moral effect to make a successful assault 
against the enemy behind his breastworks, and resolved to attempt it at 
the point where success would give the largest fruits of victory. The 
general point selected was the left center, because if I could thrust a 
strong head of column through that point by pushing it boldly and 
rapidly two and one-half miles, it would reach the railroad below Ma- 
rietta, cut off the enemy's right and center from its line of retreat, and 
then by turning on either part it could be overwhelmed and destroyed. 
Therefore, on the 24th of June, I ordered that an assault should be made 
at two points south of Kennesaw on the 27th, giving three days' notice 
for preparation and reconnaissance, one to be made near Little Kenne- 
saw by General McPherson's troops, and the other about a mile farther 
south by General Thomas' troops." 

The plan of assault was for Schofield on the right to threaten the 
enemy's extreme flank and at the same time make an attack at some 
point near the Powder Springs road. McPherson was to make a demon- 
stration on his extreme left, then attack on the south and west of Ken- 
nesaw, while strong skirmish lines were to be ready to push forward 
and seize the crest if opportunity offered. In the center Thomas was to 
choose some point for his assault and mask his purpose by suitable dem- 
onstrations. The real points of attack, where Sherman hoped to break 
through the lines, were in front of Thomas and McPherson, Schofield's 
movements being more for the purpose of inducing Johnston to weaken 
his right and center by sending troops to his left, as the action of 
Reilly's and Byrd's brigades along Olley's creek (q. v.) the day before 
had caused Johnston much concern, and it was believed that a vigorous 
demonstration on that part of his line would cause him to reinforce it 
at the expense of other portions. Accordingly at daybreak on the 27th 
Schofield sent Cameron's brigade of Cox's division across the bridge 
built by Byrd the preceding day, while Reilly deployed a portion of his 
brigade as skirmishers along the Sandtown road, planted a battery on 
the Confederate flank and under its fire forded the stream. Just as he 
pushed up the bank on one flank of the Confederate intrenchments 



536 The Union Army 

Cameron came up on the other and after a brief skirmish the enemy 
broke and fled. 

While these movements were in progress on the right Thomas and 
McPherson were perfecting their arrangements for the general assault. 
McPherson's batteries opened a rapid fire on the works at the south 
end of the ridge known as Little Kennesaw, and Thomas' artillery along 
the Burnt Hickory and Marietta road began sending in a storm of shot 
and shell against the intrenchments on Kennesaw. About 9 a. m. M. L. 
Smith's division of Logan's corps moved forward from McPherson's 
lines to the attack. Almost at the same instant Newton's division of 
Howard's corps and Davis' division of Palmer's also advanced on the 
Confederate works. Smith was met by a galling tire from three batteries 
and a line of infantry, but his men moved steadily forward and carried 
two lines of rifle-pits in the face of all opposition. The main line of 
works was found to be located along the crest of a rocky declivity 
that it was impossible to scale and the division fell back to the first line 
of rifle-pits taken, which position was strengthened and held. 

Newton's division was formed in two columns, Harker's brigade on 
the right, Wagner's and Kimball's on the left, and preceded by a strong 
line of skirmishers advanced, driving in the enemy's pickets, through a 
tangled mass of undergrowth and fallen trees up to the very foot of 
the Confederate works, but were unable to carry them. Harker rallied 
his men and made a second assault, but fell mortally wounded. Wagner's 
brigade met with no better success and Kimball was then ordered to 
assault. His command moved forward gallantly to the foot of the 
works, but was met with such a stubborn resistance that it was com- 
pelled to fall back with heavy loss. Newton's pickets continued to hold 
the captured rifle-pits, where they were afterward relieved by Stanley's 
division. 

Davis massed his troops in an open field in the rear of the Federal 
breastworks and about 600 yards from the line of works to be assaulted. 
The intervening ground was exceedingly rough, a good portion of it 
being covered with a dense undergrowth. Morgan's brigade was held 
in the Union trenches as a reserve and at the given signal the brigades 
of McCook and Mitchell sprang forward over their own works and 
dashed across the rough ground in the face of the enemy's fire. They 
reached the enemy's works, but, owing to the intense heat and the stren- 
uous exertions in crossing the broken ground, were too much exhausted 
to mount the parapet to which their impetuous valor had carried them. 
McCook fell, dangerously wounded, and Col. Harmon of the 125th 111. 
assumed command of the brigade, but fell almost immediately. Col. 
Dilworth, of the 85th 111., then took command and heroically led the 
brigade against the enemy, many of the men falling in the trenches on 
the threshold of victory. Mitchell's brigade moved in column parallel 
with McCook's and in its front a similar drama was being enacted. A 
problem iiow presented itself. To withdraw the troops was to receive 
the full effect of the enemy's unrestrained fire ; to attempt a renewal of 
the assault was equally hazardous. Under the circumstances Davis recom- 
mended to Thomas that the position be held and the troops intrenched 
where they were. Thomas ordered this to be done and tools were imme- 
diately sent forward to the men. That night stronger works were 
thrown up and the division occupied a line of trenches only a few yards 
from those of the enemy. The Union losses in the attacks on Kennesaw 
mountain numbered about 2,500 in killed and wounded. Johnston admitted 
a loss of "over 500." The assault had failed of its purpose, but at every 
point of attack the Federal lines had been advanced and made perma- 
nent, proving a constant menace to the Confederate position. On the 



Cyclopedia of Battles 537 

night of the 29th an attempt was made to drive Davis from his position, 
w^hich was the closest to the enemy's lines, but it was repulsed. Under 
the circumstances Johnston had his engineer prepare a new line along 
the north side of the Chattahoochee river, crossing the railroad near 
Smyrna. On the night of the 28th he began the removal of his trains 
and on the night of July 2 the entire Confederate army evacuated 
Kennesaw mountain. 

Kernstown, Va., March 23, 1862. Shields' Division, 5th Army Corps. 
Early in 1862 "Stonewall" Jackson retreated from Winchester up the 
Shenandoah Valley, closely followed by Maj.-Gen. N. B. Banks with 
the 5th army corps. The movement continued until Jackson reached 
New Market and was within easy marching distance of a junction with 
Johnston's army. It was essential to prevent this union and to get Jack- 
son to fight away from any supporting force. Accordingly on March 20 
Banks fell back to Winchester, a distance of 30 miles, giving the move- 
ment all the appearance of a retreat. The ruse worked and Jackson fol- 
lowed. On the morning of the 22nd Banks sent all his force with the 
exception of Shields' division and a small cavalry detachment across 
the Blue Ridge. Jackson learned of this movement and about 5 p. m. 
of the same day Ashby's cavalry was directed to attack and drive in the 
Federal pickets around Winchester. The movement was made, but 
Shields used only two regiments of infantry and a battery in repulsing 
the attack, so that Jackson was deceived as to the strength of the Union 
force. In the skirmish, however. Shields was struck by the fragment 
of a shell, and his arm fractured above the elbow, which incapacitated 
him for active command on the field the following day. In the night 
Col. Nathan Kimball received orders to push forward at daylight on 
the Strasburg road to within a short distance of Kernstown. The Stras- 
burg or Valley pike is the middle or center of three roads leading into 
Winchester from the south, the other two being the Cedar Creek road 
on the west and the Front Royal road on the east. Kimball established 
his headquarters on a ridge which extended across the Valley pike, a 
little west of that thoroughfare and half a mile north of Kernstown. 
The Confederate line of battle was 2 miles long, extending in a semi- 
circle from a ravine near the Front Royal road on the east to near the 
Cedar Creek road on the west. The position was so skilfully concealed, 
however, that when Kimball placed his brigade on an eminence to the 
east of the road no enemy was to be seen except Ashby's cavalry which 
had been repulsed the night before. The Confederates commenced the 
attack, advancing from Kernstown and occupying a position on the 
heights to the east of the Strasburg pike with the batteries, while the 
cavalry and infantry took position on the plain on the other side. The 
8th Ohio was thrown out as skirmishers, and joined by two companies 
of the 67th Ohio, drove back a Confederate battery which had opened a 
heavy fire, and routed five companies of infantry posted behind a stone 
wall. The position thus taken was held for several hours, or as long 
as the Confederates were active in front, and several attempts of Ashby's 
cavalry to turn the Federal left were frustrated by this advance line. 
When Sullivan's brigade came up it was placed at the left of Kimball's, 
forming the extreme left of the line. After several unsuccessful attempts 
to turn the Union left, Jackson moved the bulk of his force to his left 
and took a strong position behind a stone fence running northwest and 
southeast. Tyler was ordered to advance his brigade against the position. 
With a rush he drove the Confederate skirmishers back on their reserves 
behind the fence, but the position was too strong to be carried. It was 
at that point that the most desperate fighting of the day occurred, and 
had not Kimball hurried up portions of Sullivan's and his own brigades 



538 The Union Army 

to reinforce Tyler the result would have been disastrous. For 2 hours 
the battle raged with great fury and then, just as darkness fell, Jackson 
retired. The Federal participants, too exhausted to follow, slept on the 
field. The Union loss in this engagement was ii8 killed, 450 wounded 
and 22 captured or missing. The Confederates lost 80 killed, 375 wounded 
and 263 captured or missing. This affair is also known as the battle of 
Winchester. 

Kernstown, Va., July 2;^, 1864. (See Winchester, same date.) 

Kernstown, Va., Nov. 11-12, 1864. ist and 3d Cavalry Divisions, 
Army of the Shenandoah. Tlie 3d division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. 
G. A. Custer, went into camp near Kernstown on the evening of the 
lOth and the ist Vt., under command of Maj. W. G. Cummings, was 
placed on picket from Newtown to Fawcett's gap. About noon on the 
nth the picket line was attacked by the Confederate cavalry under Rosser, 
which came up on the Middle road. Cummings retired slowly until 
Col. William Wells ordered out the 2nd brigade to the assistance of the 
picket line, when the tables were turned and the enemy driven off. 
Another attack was made on the morning of the 12th and the skirmish- 
ing continued until nearly dark, several charges being made during the 
action. A little while before dark Merritt's division came up and a 
charge by the two divisions completely routed Rosser and drove him 
from the field. The ist Vt. lost 5 killed and 16 wounded, which were 
the only casualties reported. 

Kettle Creek, Ky., June 9, 1863. Detachments of 5th Indiana and 
14th Illinois Cavalry. A Federal expedition from Glasgow, Ky., to 
Burkesville and the Tennessee state line, under Col. Felix W. Graham, 
surprised the camp of Hamilton's battalion of Morgan's Confederate 
cavalry. The result was the rout of the enemy with a loss of several 
in killed, wounded and prisoners, 2 pieces of artillery and a quantity of 
stores. 

Kettle Run, Va., Aug. 26, 1862. (See Bristoe Station.) 

Keytesville, Mo., Feb. 26, 1862. 6th Missouri Cavalry. 

Kickapoo Bottom, Ark., May 29, 1862. Detachment of 3d Iowa 
Cavalry. Maj. William D. Bowen, with some 300 men and 2 mountain 
howitzers, surprised the camp of a band of outlaws in the Kickapoo bot- 
tom, 2 miles from Sylamore. An attempt was made to surround the 
camp, but owing to the extreme darkness it was unsuccessful. When 
the Confederates fled pursuit was made for a number of miles, resulting 
in the capture of 25 men, 40 horses and 40 stands of arms. Two of the 
enemy are known to have been killed, while the Federals suffered casu- 
alties to the extent of i man killed, and 2 wounded. 

Kilpatrick's Expedition, Va., Feb. 28-March 4, 1864. (See Rich- 
mond.) 

Kilpatrick's Raid, Aug. 18-22, 1864. (See Lovejoy's Station, Ga.) 

Kimbrough's Cross-Roads, Tenn., Jan. 16, 1864. (See Dandridge, 
same date.) 

Kimbrough's Mill, Tenn., Dec. 6, 1862. ist and 93d Ohio and 5th 
Kentucky Infantry. Three regiments under Col. Harvey M. Buckley 
acting as escort to a forage train were attacked by a band of Wheeler's 
cavalry at Kimbrough's mill. The attack was repulsed, but when the 
train started to move for camp the Confederates again attacked the rear- 
guard and fighting was continued all the way to camp, the Union force 
losing I man killed and 2 wounded. Eight wagons farther out on the 
same road were captured by the Confederates. 

Kinderhook, Tenn., Aug. 11, 1862. Detachments of the 3d Kentucky 
and 1st Tennessee Cavalry. At 5 a. m. 108 Federal soldiers engaged 175 
Confederates near Kinderhook. The contest was continued for 4 hours. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 539 

resulting: in the defeat of the enemy with a loss of 7 killed, several 
wounded and i"] captured. The Federal loss was 3 killed. 

King and Queen Court House, Va., March 10, 1864. ist New York 
Mounted Rifles and nth Pennsylvania Cavalry. As an incident of an 
expedition into King and Queen county two regiments of cavalry under 
Col. B. F. Onderdonk attacked a force of Confederates estimated at 
1,200 and after a brief engagement routed them. No casualties were 
reported. 

King George Court House, Va., Dec. 2, 1862. (See Leeds' Ferry, 
same date.) 

King George Court House, Va., Aug. 24, 1863. Detachment of 3d 
Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac. Brig.-Gen. George A. 
Custer, commanding the detachment on a reconnaissance in the direction 
of King George Court House, came across a party of Confederates 2 
miles south of that place. In the skirmish which followed Custer forced 
the enemy back to within 2 miles of Port Conway, where he discovered 
a brigade of infantry and 4 pieces of artillery and withdrew. The 
enemy lost 2 killed and several wounded, and a few were taken prisoners. 
There were no casualties in Custer's force. 

King's Creek, Miss., May 5, 1863. loth Missouri, 7th Kansas, isth 
Illinois Cavalry, and 9th Illinois Mounted Infantry. After a successful 
expedition to Courtland, Col. Florence M. Cornyn was sent with four 
regiments to meet and engage the enemy then at Tupelo. When the 
command was within a short distance of the town it was opened upon 
with musketry. Squadrons of the loth Mo. were immediately thrown 
out to the right and left and drove back the enemy, meanwhile securing 
the bridge over Old Town creek. When the command had crossed the 
skirmishers were again deployed and advanced. Two squadrons of the 
7th Kas. (dismounted) attacked the line of the enemy drawn up before 
the town, and two of the loth Mo. followed the move with a saber 
charge, driving the Confederates from their position and out of the 
town. After a short time they returned and charged the Union force, 
which had been drawn up in line of battle on a hill. Two regiments of 
mounted infantry succeeded in getting between the fighting column and 
the reserve, but were compelled to retire in disorder. The mountain 
howitzers then poured charge after charge of canister into the Confed- 
erate ranks, which after a short time forced them to withdraw. The 
Union loss was i killed, 5 wounded and 3 missing. Eighty-one Confed- 
erates were captured, and besides this loss in prisoners they had 5 killed 
and 7 or 8 wounded. 

King's Hill, Ala., Oct. 25, 1864. (See Turkeytown, same date.) 

King's Hill, Tenn., Dec. 25, 1864. 5th and 6th Divisions, Cavalry 
Corps, Military Division of the Mississippi. After destroying all the 
ammunition at Pulaski that Gen. Hood had been unable to remove, 
Gen. Forrest fell back to Devil's gap, a narrow gorge in King's or An- 
thony's hill, 7 miles from Pulaski, leaving Jackson's command to burn 
the bridge over Richland creek and then bring up the rear. The 5th la. 
cavalry charged upon Jackson's men and saved the bridge after it had 
been fired. Col. T. J. Harrison, of the 8th Ind. cavalry, commanding 
the 1st brigade, 6th division, ordered 2 pieces of artillery into position 
and deployed a force along the bank of the creek, compelling the enemy 
to withdraw. He hotly pursued the retreating Confederates, several 
times driving them from strong positions, until he reached the main 
body at King's hill. Here Forrest had selected an admirable position 
en high ground and hidden from view until within a short distance of 
it. Harrison had to halt, and while Hatch's, Hammond's and Croxtop's 
commands were marching through the woods to his support a fire from 



540 The Union Army 

3 masked cannon was poured upon him, followed by a charge in two 
lines of infantry and a column of cavalry, forcing Harrison down the 
road through the ravine and capturing i gun from Battery I, 4th U. S. 
artillery. After falling back for half a mile, Harrison^s skirmishers 
checked the enemy, and receiving support repelled him. Forrest's stand 
at this time was to protect his train, as his rear-guard, consisting of 
seven brigades of infantry and Jackson's cavalry, had been driven sharp 
upon it. Hammond, Croxton and Hatch moving on the flanks of his 
position, he abandoned it hastily, just before nightfall. The Federals 
captured at Pulaski, a hospital containing 150 wounded Confederates 
and afterward that day, i captain, 2 lieutenants and 50 or 60 men. The 
Federal casualties consisted of 3 killed, 18 wounded and 5 missing. Of 
these the 3 were killed and 3 were wounded when the 5th la. charged 
Jackson at the bridge. 

King's House, Mo., Oct. 26, 1863. Detachment of 5th Missouri 
State Militia Cavalry. Lieut. Charles C. Twyford and a detail of men, 
while resting at King's house near Waynesville, were attacked by a party 
of Confederates, 25 or 30 in number. Twyford and his men sought 
shelter in the house, and for several hours held the enemy at bay. 
F'inally after the house had been set on fire the Federals surrendered, 
and were paroled. During the encounter 5 Confederates were killed and 

4 wounded. 

Kingsport, Tenn., Oct. 6, 1864. A report of Brig.-Gen. J. C. Vaughn, 
of the Confederate army, states that a force sent out by him encountered 
the Federals at Kingsport and drove them across the north fork of the 
Holston river at noon. This is the only mention of the afifair in the 
official records of the war. 

Kingsport, Tenn., Dec. 13, 1864. 8th, 9th and 13th Tennessee Cav- 
alry. As an incident of Stoneman's raid into southwestern Virginia 
with the Tennessee cavalry brigade, the Confederates made a stand at 
Kingsport on the north fork of the Holston. The 8th Tenn. was sent 
up the stream to cross at a ford and attack the enemy in flank while 
portions of the 9th and 13th charged across the river and attacked in 
front. Tlie movement was successfully executed and the enemy fled 
after a feeble resistance. Pursuit was given for 7 miles, when the dis- 
organized Confederates took to the woods. Some 18 were killed and 
84 captured. No casualties were reported on the Federal side. 

King's River, Ark., April 19, 1864. Detachment of 2nd Arkansas 
Cavalry. Brig.-Gcn. John B. Sanborn, reporting under date of April 
21, says: "On the 19th instant Maj. Melton, with 200 men, 2nd Ark. 
cavalry, had quite an afl^air with the forces of Col. Sissell and Bailey on 
King's river, and the rebels were driven off with a loss of 25 killed and 
9 captured ; our loss not reported." 

King's School House, Va., June 25, 1862. This engagement is ofl5- 
cially reported as the battle of Oak. Grove, and was the first of the Seven 
Days' battles, (q. v.) 

Kingston, Ark., Oct. 10, 1863. ist Arkansas Cavalry. While pur- 
suing a band of Confederates the ist Ark., under Col. M. La Rue Har- 
rison, moved at daylight and an hour later surprised the enemy at break- 
fast a mile below Kingston. In 25 minutes he had been routed and was 
retreating toward Clarksville. Six miles from the scene of the morn- 
ing's encounter the Confederates were forced to make a stand by the 
pursuing Arkansans, and the cavalry advance kept them busy until the 
howitzers were brought up, when a few shells dispersed them. The 
casualties, if any, were not reported. 

Kingston, Ga., May 19. 1864. ist Division, 4th Army Corps. The 
division, commanded by Maj. -Gen. David S. Stanley, broke camp near 



Cyclopedia of Battles 541 

Adairsville and early on tiie morning of the iQlh moved toward Kings- 
ton. Cavalry pickets were encountered early in the day and driven 
back through Kingston, where the enemy was found in considerable 
force posted beyond the creek. Cruft's and Whitakcr's brigades were 
formed in line in front of the Confederate position, while Grose was sent 
to feel his way down to the left of the railroad to turn the enemy's flank. 
This was accomplished after a severe skirmish and the Confederates fell 
back toward Cassville, stubbornly lighting as they went. 

Kingston, Tenn., Nov. 24, 1863. ist Brigade, 2nd Division, 23d Army 
Corps. At daylight Wheeler's cavalry attacked Col. Samuel R. Mott's 
brigade of the 2nd division. After a brisk engagement of 7 hours the 
Confederates were driven back with a loss of 250 killed, wounded and 
captured. The Federal loss was i killed and 14 wounded. The affair 
was an incident of the Knoxville campaign. 

King's Store, Ala., April 6, 1865. Detachment of ist Brigade, ist 
Cavalry Division, Military Division of the Mississippi. Capt. W. A. 
Sutherland with 25 men was acting as an escort for 2>7 prisoners when 
he was attacked by a superior force of the enemy at King's store and 
was obliged to give up his prisoners. One man of the escort was 
wounded and i taken prisoner. 

Kingsville, Mo., June 12, 1864. Detachment of Company M, ist 
Cavalry, Missouri State Militia. Corp. Joseph V. Parman, with 14 men, 
was ambushed by a party of guerrillas near Kingsville on Sunday morn- 
ing, June 12. The small squad of Union men was cut to pieces, only 
Parman and 2 men escaping with their lives. The bodies of the dead were 
robbed of their clothes and i was scalped. 

Kinney's Farm, Va., May 27, 1862. (See Hanover Court House, 
same date.) 

Kinsale, Va., March 12, 1865. 3d Brigade, 3d Division, 24th Army 
Corps. The brigade, commanded by Col. S. H. Roberts, was on an ex- 
pedition from Fortress Monroe into Westmoreland county, Va. About 
5 a. m. on the 12th the steamers landed near Kinsale and the troops 
began to disembark. No sooner had the first boat-load of cavalry reached 
the bank than it was attacked by a party of the enemy. A second boat 
was hurried ashore, when the Confederates, finding themselves likely to 
be outnumbered, made their escape before the remainder of the troops 
could be landed. 

Kinston, N. C, Dec. 14, 1862. (See Goldsboro, Foster's Expedition.) 

Kinston, N, C, March 8-10, 1865. 23d Army Corps and Provisional 
Division, District of Beaufort. Wilmington was occupied by the Union 
troops under Gen. Schofield on Feb. 22, and steps were immediately 
taken to open railroad communications between the seacoast and Golds- 
boro, in order to get supplies to Sherman's army. It was soon discov- 
ered, however, that communications could be more easily established 
from New Berne and the base of operations was transferred to that point. 
On Feb. 26, Maj.-Gen. J. D. Cox was ordered to assume command of the 
movement. Cox reached New Berne on the last day of February, organ- 
ized his forces into two divisions, commanded by Brig.-Gens. I. N. 
Palmer and S. P. Carter, and at once commenced the work of repairing 
the railroad. A little later he was joined by Ruger's division of the 23d 
corps. The first opposition was met near Kinston, about 30 miles from 
New Berne. About 3 miles from Kinston is a stream cafled Southwest 
creek, along the banks of which some skirmishing occurred on March 7, 
and the enemy was found to be in greater force than had been antici- 
pated. Several roads leading to Kinston crossed Southwest creek. Near 
the mouth of the stream was the Neuse road, running almost parallel 
to the river of that name Between Kinston and Southwest creek two 



542 The Union Army- 

roads — the Upper Trent and Dover — branched off from the Neuse road 
and followed a general southeasterly direction. On the east side of the 
creek, and nearly parallel to it, was the British road, while the Lower 
Trent road left the Neuse road a short distance east of the creek and 
ran for some distance nearly due south, crossing the British and Dover 
roads a little way south of the railroad. The crossing of the British and 
Dover roads was known as "Wise's Forks." After the skirmishing on 
the 7th along Southwest creek (q. v.) Cox placed Upham's brigade of 
Carter's division at this point to cover the left of the Federal position, a 
strong picket line was pushed up to the bank of the creek, and Ruger's 
division was stationed at Gum swamp, where it could move to the sup- 
port of any part of the line at short notice. 

Cox had received information that Hoke's division was at Kinston, 
and that a Confederate ironclad was lying in the Neuse in front of the 
town. He did not know, however, that Gen. J. E. Johnston, who had 
just been assigned to the command of the Confederate forces in North 
Carolina, had ordered Gen. Braxton Bragg to move with his command 
from Goldsboro, unite with the remnant of Hood's army, under Gens. 
Clayton and D. H. Hill, at Smithfield, and strike a decisive blow at the 
Union column comin'g up from New Berne, in the hope of cutting off 
Sherman's supplies, after which his intention was to concentrate the 
entire force at some available point to prevent Sherman from forming 
a junction with Schofield. On the morning of the 8th, while Schofield 
and Cox were in consultation as to what course was best to pursue, the 
enemy suddenly appeared in force between Upham and the rest of the 
division. Upham's troops were principally new recruits and could not be 
rallied after the first attack in time to meet the second. The result was 
that three-fourths of the brigade were captured. Ruger was hurried to 
Carter's support and the two divisions, protected by a light breastwork, 
held their position against the repeated assaults of the Confederates. In 
order to create a diversion Palmer was ordered to make a vigorous 
demonstration in his front, as though he intended to force a crossing. 
Here a few prisoners were taken, from whom it was learned that at 
least three divisions of the enemy were engaged at Wise's Forks, and 
that Bragg was in command. Upon receiving this information Schofield 
directed Cox to act on the defensive, holding his position if possible, 
until the remainder of the 23d corps could be brought up. Skirmishing 
was kept up during the 9th, but no serious attack was made on any part 
of the Union lines. A short time before noon on the loth Hoke's division 
made a desperate assault on Cox's left. McQuiston's brigade of Ruger's 
division was moved on the double-quick to Carter's left, and at the same 
time both Carter's and Ruger's batteries began pouring a perfect shower 
of shrapnel and canister into the Confederate ranks. After an hour 
they broke and fled, closely pursued by McQuiston until the latter was 
recalled to support the center, where the line was too thin to successs- 
fully resist an attack should one be made. At 3 :45 p. m. Bragg sent the 
following despatch to Johnston : "The enemy is strongly intrenched in 
the position to which we drove him. Yesterday and today we have 
moved on his flanks, but without gaining any decided advantage. His 
line is extensive, and prisoners report large reinforcements. Under these 
conditions I deem it best, with the information you give, to join you, 
which I shall proceed to do, unless otherwise directed." 

Tliat night the ironclad was burned and sunk, and Bragg moved to 
Goldsboro to effect a junction with the main body of Johnston's army. 
Kinston was occupied by the Federal forces on the 14th. The Union 
losses in the several engagements about Kinston were 65 killed, 319 
wounded and 953 captured, most of the last being members of Upham's 



Cyclopedia of Battles 543 

brigade, which was surprised on the morning of the 8th. No detailed 
report of the Confederate casualties was made. The number of prisoners 
taken was 266, and as the enemy was the attacking party it is quite 
probable that their loss in killed and wounded was equal to or greater 
than that of the Union army. 

Kirksville, Mo., Aug. 6, 1862. Missouri State Militia Cavalry. After 
pursuing a party of Confederates under Porter for 8 days, Col. John 
McNeil with a detachment of militia discovered them posted in the 
houses and outbuildings of Kirksville. The Union force consisted of 
only 500 men, but notwithstanding the greatly superior numbers of the 
enemy, McNeill dashed into the town and drove them out, capturing 47 
prisoners. About 15 of these were shot for having violated paroles. The 
Federal casualties were 5 killed and 32 wounded. McNeil estimated 
the enemy's killed at 150 and the wounded between 300 and 400. 

Kittredge's, La., Feb. 10, 1865. Detachment of 3d Rhode Island 
Cavalry. A picket of this regiment stationed at Kittredge's sugar-house 
was fired into from behind a fence and i of the number was captured. A 
party was immediately started in pursuit, but after being out all day 
only succeeded in taking i man. 

Knob Gap, Tenn., Dec. 26, 1862. (See Nolensville.) 

Knob Noster, Mo., Jan. 22, 1862. 2nd Missouri Cavalry. 

Knoxville, Tenn., June 19-20, 1863. U. S. Troops under Col. W. P. 
Sanders. About 7 p. m. of the 19th Col. Sanders, during his raid in 
East Tennessee, drove in the Confederate pickets to within a mile of 
Knoxville. After dark a detachment of the ist Ky. cavalry was left in 
the position first taken by the Federals and the remainder of the force 
moved around to the opposite side, driving in pickets and cutting tele- 
graph wires. At daylight the Union troops moved up close to the city, 
but finding it too strongly barricaded and fortified Sanders withdrew. 
Two pieces of artillery were captured, besides a quantity of camp equip- 
age, etc., and a conscription camp was broken up. The Union casualties 
were not reported. A Confederate report states that the loss on that side 
was 4 killed and the same number wounded. 

Knoxville, Tenn., Sept. 10, 1863. This was not an engagement, be- 
ing simply the occupation of the city and its environs by the Army of 
the Ohio, under Maj.-Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside. 

Knoxville, Tenn., Nov. 15, 1863. Cavalry Corps, Army of the Ohio. 
The cavalry of the Army of the Ohio skirmished all day with the ad- 
vancing Confederates around Knoxville. The affair was an incident of 
the Knoxville campaign. The casualties were not reported. 

Knoxville, Tenn., Siege of, Nov. 17-Dec. 4, 1863. Army of the Ohio. 
By Nov. 17 practically all the Union troops about Knoxville had retired 
into the city before the advance of the Confederates. Maj.-Gen. Ambrose 
E. Burnside, commanding the Army of the Ohio, had some 15,000 effec- 
tive men, organized as follows : 9th army corps, Brig.-Gen. Robert B. 
Potter, consisting of two divisions, the ist commanded by Brig.-Gen. 
Edward Ferrero and the 2nd by Col. John F. Hartranft ; part of the 23d 
army corps, Brig.-Gen. Mahlon D. Manson commanding, the 2nd division 
under Brig.-Gen. Julius White and the 3d under Brig.-Gen. Milo S. 
Hascall; the provisional brigade of Col. W. A. Hoskins; the Tennessee 
brigade of Col. J. S. Casement; the cavalry corps of Brig.-Gen. J. M. 
Shackelford, the ist division of which was commanded by Brig.-Gen. 
W. P. Sanders, and after his death by Col. Frank Wolford (only one 
brigade of the 2nd division, under Col. Israel Garrard, was present) ; 
and the reserve artillery under Capt. A. J. Konkle. The Confederate 
army, some 20,000 strong, was under command of Lieut. -Gen. James 
Longstreet, and consisted of Maj.-Gen. Lafayette McLaws' division; 



544 The Union Army 

Hood's division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. Micah Jenkins; eight bat- 
teries of artillery, imder Col. E. P. Alexander; the cavalry corps of Maj.- 
Gen. Joseph Wheeler, whose division commanders were Maj.-Gen. W. T. 
Martin, Brig.-Gen. F. C. Armstrong and Brig.-Gen. John T. Morgan. 
Before the siege was raised Wheeler withdrew with part of his com- 
mand, leaving Martin in charge of the cavalry remaining at Knoxville. 
Between Nov. 26 and 28 Longstrcet was reinforced by Ransom's cavalry 
and Buckner's division, now commanded by Brig.-Gen. Bushrod R. John- 
son. 

During the day of the 17th Burnside kept Sanders' cavalry stationed 
a mile out on the Kingston road, west of the city, to hold the approach- 
ing enemy in check until the infantry could throw up breastworks. Knox- 
ville lies between two streams flowing south. First creek on the east side 
of the town and Second creek on the west. Both empty into the Holston 
river, which is the southern limit of the city. Just north was the East 
Tennessee & Virginia railroad, running southeast and northwest. The 
line of works on the west of the city started about a quarter of a mile 
below the mouth of Second creek, extending in a northwesterly and 
northerly direction across the Kingston road to a point 600 yards beyond. 
Here was constructed a bastioned earthwork, upon an irregular quadri- 
lateral, "the sides of which are respectively 125 yards southern front, 95 
yards western front, 125 yards northern front and 85 yards eastern front. 
The eastern front was entirely open. * * * Each bastion was in- 
tended to have a pan coupe. * * * The ditch of the fort was 12 feet 
in width and in many places as much as 8 feet in depth. The irregularity 
of the site was such that the bastion angles were very heavy, the relief 
of the lightest one being 12 feet." This fortification was named Fort 
Sanders. From this point the breastworks extended in a northerly direc- 
tion to the railroad. 

By the afternoon of the 18th Burnside had so nearly completed his 
works that he ordered Sanders' cavalry to withdraw into the city. The 
order had no sooner been given than Sanders fell, mortally wounded. 
The remainder of his command, however, was safely withdrawn within 
the defenses, and the city was now fairly invested. The ground which 
Sanders' cavalry had occupied was taken possession of by the Confed- 
erates on the 20th and the same day a sortie was made by the 17th 
Mich, to a house from which the enemy's sharpshooters were annoying 
the Federal troops. The Confederates were driven from the structure, 
which was burned. Friday and Saturday (21st and 22nd) were occupied 
by the garrison in strengthening the defenses. On the 23d an assault, 
which was partially successful, was made on the enemy's parallel by the 
2nd Mich., which gained possession of the earthworks, but was obliged 
to fall back for lack of support. Late that night the pickets on Hart- 
ranft's front were driven in, but the line was reestablished next day. but 
not without a struggle which resulted in 22 casualties. On the 24th the 
Federal detachment at Kingston had an encounter w-ith Wheeler's cav- 
alry. (See Kingston.) The same day the enemy commenced crossing a 
portion of his force to the south side of the Holston and on the 25th 
made a desperate attempt to drive Shackelford's cavalry from its posi- 
tion on a hill on that side of the stream, but the attack was repulsed with 
heavy loss to the assailants. Little was done by the Federal garrison on 
the next two days, although on the 27th Longstreet's skirmishers were 
busy on both sides of the river. On the evening of the 28th an artillery 
fire was opened on Fort Sanders from a hill commanding that stronghold, 
and as it became apparent that Longstreet intended to attack in force 
that part of the defenses, Hascall's division was sent during the night 
to reinforce Ferrero there. About 6:30 a. m. of the 29th Longstreet 



Cyclopedia of Battles 545 

opened on Fort Sanders with artillery, but after 20 minutes the guns 
ceased firing, a heavy musketry fire opened along the whole of Long- 
street's line, and at the same time an infantry column moved forward on 
a run toward the bastions of Fort Sanders. Large numbers of men fell 
while getting through the entanglements of wire before the fort, but the 
weight of the column was sufficient to push it forward to the ditch. It 
was here that tlie largest number of the enemy fell, for the Federals had 
not oidy a direct artillery fire upon them, but also a cross-fire of infantry 
from both sides. The few who managed to scale the parapet were 
knocked back or killed. The slaughter was awful. Those who were not 
killed or wounded surrendered, as there was no avenue of retreat. Burn- 
side estimated the enemy's loss in killed and wounded at 1,000, but Long- 
street reported 129 killed, 458 wounded and 226 missing. 

The assault on Fort Sanders was the final effort on the part of Long- 
street. The siege was not raised until Dec. 4, but in the meantime no 
fighting was done, although the skirmishers of the opposing forces had 
frequent encounters. By daylight of Dec. 5 the Confederate rear could 
just be seen crossing the Tazewell road to the northwest of the city. 
Bragg had been defeated at Chattanooga and Grant had despatched 
Sherman and Elliott to Burnside's assistance, so that Longstreet's posi- 
tion was fast becoming untenable. The charge of the 2gth was a last 
desperate attempt of the Confederates to get a foothold in East Ten- 
nessee. 

The Union loss during the siege was 92 killed, 394 wounded and 207 
captured or missing. The Confederate casualties for the siege alone 
were not reported, but for the campaign up to the time of raising the 
siege (Nov. 14 to Dec. 4) were 198 killed, 850 wounded and 246 captured 
or missing. 

Kolb's Farm, Ga., June 22, 1864. Part of the 20th and 23d Army 
Corps. Kolb's farm was on the road from Marietta to Powder Springs. 
On the 2ist, as Sherman was forcing Johnston to contract his lines about 
Kennesaw mountain, Williams' division of Hooker's (20th) corps moved 
forward and took possession of a hill near Kolb's house commanding 
the road. The enemy tried to regain the hill, but were repulsed. John- 
ston became uneasy over the situation and during the night of the 21st 
moved Hood's corps from the right of the army to drive Williams away. 
Although Hood reached Zion church, about a mile east of Kolb's, at an 
early hour on the morning of the 22nd, for some reason he did not attack 
until the afternoon. This gave Hascall's division of Schofield's (23d) 
corps time to come up and take position on Hooker's right. While re- 
connoitering with a view to moving forward to a ridge in front. Hooker 
and Hascall discovered that the enemy was advancing to attack. Has- 
call threw forward a skirmish line supported by the 14th Ky. under Col. 
Gallup, to hold the Confederates in check until the main body of the 
division could throw up barricades. Gallup repulsed three attacks on 
his advanced position, when he was ordered back to the main line. He 
fell back slowly and in good order and when the regiment reached the 
works the Union batteries opened. Williams' line was composed of 
Ruger's brigade on the right next to Hascall, Knipe's in the center and 
Robinson's on the left. Against this line Hood sent Hindman's division, 
while Stevenson's division attacked Hascall. The latter had placed in 
position the batteries of Shields and Paddock and these, with a well- 
directed infantry fire, soon repulsed the attack against that part of the 
Federal lines. On the left of Williams was Geary, the two divisions 
coming together on low ground, and here the enemy succeeded in gain- 
ing some advantage. Hooker called on Howard, who was next on his 
left, for reinforcements. Howard sent Butterfield's division as soon as it 
ol. VI— 5 



546 The Union Army 

could be withdrawn, but before the reinforcements arrived the 13th N. Y. 
battery opened from the liill on Geary's right and Winegar's and Wood- 
bury's batteries joined in the cannonade from WiUiams's front, thus 
subjecting Hindman's forces to a cross-lire and compelling them to 
withdraw in some disorder and with heavy loss. The Union loss in this 
battle of Kolb's farm was less than 300. Johnston admitted a loss of 
"about 1,000." 

Kossuth, Miss., Aug. 2"], 1862. Detachments of 7th Kansas and 2nd 
Iowa Cavalry. A scouting party from the two regiments was tired upon 
from ambush, 5 miles from Kossuth, as it was returning from the Hatchie 
river. On recovering from the confusion incident to the attack the 
Federals charged and drove the enemy from his shelter, scattering the 
force, killing 2 and wounding several. The Union troops lost 4 killed and 
8 wounded. 

Labadieville, La., Oct. 27, 1862. (See Georgia Landing, same date.) 

Lacey's Springs, Va., Dec. 21, 1864. 3d Division of Cavalry, Army 
of the Potomac. At daylight the Confederate cavalry under Rosser at- 
tacked Custer's division while it was preparing to move from its camp 
during an expedition to Lacey's springs. The enemy expected to sur- 
prise a sleeping camp, but found the greater part of the command 
mounted arfd ready to move. The result was a complete defeat of Rosser, 
with a loss of several killed and wounded. The Union casualties were 
22 wounded. Each side took about 30 prisoners. 

Laclede, Mo., June 18-19, 1864. Detachment of Enrolled Missouri 
Militia. A band of 16 guerrillas dashed into Laclede and shot and killed 
2 citizens on the i8th. The following day a pursuing force under Lieut. 
Lewis came upon and skirmished with the band, killing i and wounding 
several others. 

Ladd's House, Ala., Feb. 3-4, 1865. Detachment of 68th New York 
Infantry. A scouting party of the 68th N. Y. met and defeated a gang 
of bushwhackers near Ladd's house in Hog Jaw valley. One of the 
bushwhackers was killed. The affair occurred during the night of the 
3d and 4th. 

Ladiga, Ala., Oct. 28, 1864. Brig.-Gen. Kenner Garrard's Division, 
Army of the Cumberland. 

La Fayette, Ga., June 24, 1864. 4th, 6th and 7th Kentucky Cavalry, 
and 4th Kentucky Mounted Infantry. About 3 a. m. Col. Louis D. Wat- 
kins, commanding a brigade of Kentucky cavalry, was attacked by 2,000 
cavalry under Gen. Pillow, who drove in the pickets and compelled Wat- 
kins' men to take refuge in the public buildings. A summons to sur- 
render was sent to Watkins, who refused to comply with it, and several 
attempts were then made to carry the buildings by assault, but each was 
repulsed with loss to the assailants, who upon the arrival of Col. Croxton 
with the 4th Ky. mounted infantry to reinforce Watkins, fell back in 
confusion. Tlie Federal loss did not exceed 60 in killed and wounded, 
while the loss of the enemy in killed, wounded and prisoners was nearly 
300. 

La Fayette, Ga., Oct. 12, 1864. During Hood's march to the north 
in his attempt to decoy Sherman from Georgia, the Confederate cavalry, 
250 strong, occupied La Fayette. There is no mention of any fight, nor 
does the report state what Union force, if any, was in the town. 

La Fayette, Tenn., May 11, 1863. Detachment of 14th Illinois Cav- 
alry. Brig.-Gen. Edward H. Hobson sent the following despatch on 
May II to Brig.-Gen. Jeremiah T. Boyle, commanding the District of 
Western Kentucky: "Maj. (F. M.) Davidson, 14th 111. cavalry, and loO 
men had a fight with 125 of Morgan's men at La Fayette, Tenn., last 
night. Our loss was i officer and 2 privates wounded, and 4 men taken 
prisoners. Rebel loss, 2 killed, i wounded left behind, and several 
wounded carried off, Davidson falling back to Barren river." 



Cyclopedia of Battles 547 

La Fayette, Tenn., Dec. 27, 1863. Detachments, 89th Indiana and 
117th Ilhnois Infantry and 9th Illinois Cavalry. Learning that the 
enemy was moving westward, Brig.-Gon. B. H. Grierson, commanding 
at La Grange, ordered Col. William H. Morgan, commanding the 3d 
brigade, cavalry division, i6th army corps, then stationed at Grand 
Junction, to embark his troops and move to La Fayette. Maj. Samuel 
Henry, with detachments of the 89th Ind. and 117th 111., was sent from 
Moscow to hold Grisson's bridge until the arrival of Morgan. The lat- 
ter was delayed in getting started, and Henry's skirmishers were already 
engaged with the enemy when he arrived at the bridge. The skirmishers 
were kept out and Morgan's command disembarked and deployed, but 
so much time was consumed in getting the brigade into order that 
Henry's force and 300 men of the 9th 111. cavalry, who had marched by 
wagon road from La Grange, drove the Confederates into and through 
La Fayette before Morgan could become engaged. The casualties were 
not reported. 

La Fayette, Tenn., June 9, 1864. 7th Kansas Cavalry. 
Lafayette, Tenn., June 23, 1864. 3d Brigade, 3d Division, i6th Army 
Corps. While the brigade was on a train between Memphis and Moscow 
it was fired into near La Fayette, and several men were killed or wounded. 
Some of the men who jumped or fell off the train were captured, and 
were afterward murdered. The attacking party was said to have been 
a band of guerrillas. 

La Fayette County, Mo., March 12, 1862. Detachment of ist Iowa 
Cavalry. Lieut. J. D. Jenks with 30 men of Co. D, ist la., came upon a 
party of 25 Confederates posted in the buildings on the farm of one 
Greer and immediately engaged them. After a sharp fight, in which 9 
of the enemy were killed, 3 wounded and i captured, Jenks drove the 
Confederates into the woods. The Union loss was i killed and 4 wounded. 
The afYair occurred 15 miles from Lexington. 

La Fayette County, Mo., Sept. 22-25, 1863. Detachment of ist Mis- 
souri State Militia Cavalry. While scouting in La Fayette county a 
force under Lieut.— Col. Bazel F. Lazear had two skirmishes with Con- 
federates, resulting in the killing of 4, the capture of 6 and the wounding 
of others. Seventeen horses, a quantity of equipment, and some guns 
and ammunition were also taken. The Federal participants suffered but 
one casualty — the killing of the guide. 

La Fayette Road, Ga., Sept. 11, 1863. 3d Brigade, ist Division, 21st 
Army Corps. Col. G. C. Harker, commanding the brigade, was ordered 
to make a reconnaissance with his command on the La Fayette road. He 
had proceeded about three-quarters of a mile from the gap in Missionary 
ridge when his advance commenced skirmishing with the enemy. This was 
kept up lightly until about 3 miles from the gap, where it became more 
spirited, the enemy resisting with dismounted cavalry and 2 pieces of 
artillery. As soon as the Union artillery opened the Confederates with- 
drew. The reconnaissance was an incident of the Chickamauga campaign. 
No casualties were reported. 

La Fayette Road, Ga., Sept. 12, 1863. (See Chattooga River.) 
La Fourche, La., July 12-13, 1863. Portions of Weitzel's and Grover's 
Divisions, 19th Army Corps. At 3 p. m. of the 12th Col. Nathan A. M. 
Dudley with the 3d brigade of Weitzel's division started down the right 
side of Bayou La Fourche. Besides his own command he had two 
sections of the 6th Mass. battery and a company of the ist La. cavalry. 
At the same time that Dudley moved. Col. Joseph S. Morgan with the ist 
brigade of the 4th division advanced down the left side of the bayou. 
The advance skirmishers of Dudley's brigade had not gone more than a 
mile before they were fired upon by the enemy's pickets, who were well 



548 The Union Army 

supported. A section of artillery was used to dislodge them, and the 
column advanced to Cox's plantation, near Donaldsonville, where it 
bivouacked for the night. A simultaneous attack had been made upon 
Morgan, but had also been repulsed. At 4:30 a. m. of the 13th the Con- 
federates advanced in considerable force, compelling the Union pickets 
to fall back a short distance. Observing that the enemy was about to 
flank him, Dudley asked for reinforcements and Paine's brigade, with the ist 
Me. battery was sent to his assistance. There was a lull in the engage- 
ment until I :30 p. m. when the Confederates opened a cross-fire which 
necessitated the retirement of the Federal command after a desperate 
resistance. In the retreat i gun was abandoned, the fire that caused its 
loss coming from a point on the opposite side of the bayou where Morgan 
had been, but who had, apparently without cause, fallen back before a 
smaller force of the enemy. His conduct was the subject of a court- 
martial, which found him guilty of needlessly abandoning his position, 
but the sentence was later suspended by Maj.-Gen. Banks. The Federal 
loss in this engagement was 56 killed, 223 wounded and 186 captured or 
missing. The Confederate loss was equally as large. 

La Fourche Crossing, La., June 20-21, 1863. U. S. Troops under 
Lieut.-Col. Albert Stickney. Early in the morning of the 20th Stickney 
learned that the enemy was advancing in force on La Fourche crossing 
and was ordered to proceed to that place from Brashear City with all 
his available force. He arrived about noon and deployed his men in line 
of battle. His force comprised detachments of the 23d Conn., 176th 
N. Y., 42nd Mass. and 26th Me. infantry, ist La. cavalry and 21st Ind. 
battery. At 5 p. m. the Federal pickets were driven in and the Con- 
federates advanced until checked by a volley from the 23d Conn, and a 
few shots from a 12-pounder gun. During the night and the next morn- 
ing detachments of the 26th Mass. infantry and the 25th N. Y. battery 
arrived to reinforce Stickney and on Sunday morning (the 21st) the 
enemy made several reconnaissances along the Federal line but no organ- 
ized attempt was made to attack. During the afternoon the outposts of 
the opposing forces became engaged. About 6:30 p. m. the Confederates 
again appeared on Stickney's front, this time in force. The Union pickets 
were obliged to fall back, and a 12-pounder howitzer was opened by the 
enemy, to which the 25th N. Y. battery made reply and succeeded in 
silencing the piece. About 7 o'clock a charge was made on the guns, 
and it was only after a hand-to-hand encounter that the Confederates 
were repulsed, withdrawing an hour later toward Thibodeau.x. Stickney 
had 8 men killed and 41 wounded. He estimated the Confederate loss at 
300 killed and wounded. 

La Grange, Ala., Dec. 30, 1864. (See Russellville.) 
La Grange, Ark., Sept. 26, 1862. ist Missouri Cavalry. While on 
a scout from Helena Lieut. William B. Dorsey with two squadrons of 
the 1st Mo. was fired upon from the brush. One of his men was killed 
and another wounded. Dorsey fell back and joined the main column of 
the expedition, composed of detachments of the ist Mo. and the 4th la. 
cavalry under Capt. James T. Drummond. On learning of the attack on 
Dorsey, Drummond proceeded to the point of action. Near the place 
he saw what he supposed was a body of the enemy drawn up in line of 
battle. The flankers and skirmishers of both forces had become engaged 
before it was discovered that the opposing commands were both Fed- 
eral, Drummond's foes being detachments of the 5th Kas. and the 5th 
Mo. cavalry under Maj. Thomas W. Scudder. Scudder lost i man killed 
and I wounded before the mistake was discovered. 

La Grange, Ark., Nov. 8, 1862. (See Marianna, Ark., same date.) 
La Grange, Ark., Jan. 3, 1863. Portion of Gen. Washburn's Cavalry 
Regiment. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 549 

La Grange, Ark., May i, 1863. Detachment of 3d Iowa Cavalry. 
Capt. J. Q. A. DeHuff with 160 men of the 3d la. was sent out from 
Helena to make a reconnaissance in the direction of La Grange. When 
within a mile of the town the enemy was discovered on foot, posted in 
the woods on either side of the road. Firing was opened by DeHuff's 
rrken, the successive volleys made the enemy waver, and De Huff was 
about to follow up his advantage and charge the Confederate line when 
his rear was assaulted. While his men were attempting to repulse this 
attack the enemy in the front rallied and attacked. The Federals became 
confused, but after an effort De Huff rallied them sufficiently to get a 
column formed and retired 3 miles into the timber on his left. The 
Union loss was 3 killed, 8 wounded and 30 captured or missing. The 
Confederate casualties were not reported. 

La Grange, Tenn., Nov. 8, 1862. Cavalry of the Army of the Ten- 
nessee. Maj.-Gen. U. S. Grant reporting on a reconnaissance from La 
Grange toward Holly Springs states that "The cavalry, under Col. Lee 
(Seventh Kansas), had two skirmishes yesterday, in which they took 102 
prisoners and killed 17 that they know of. Our reported loss 2 wounded." 

Lake Bruin, La., April 28, 1863. (See Choctaw Bayou.) 

Lake Chicot, Ark., June 6, 1864. (See Old River Lake.) 

Lake City, Fla., Feb. 11, 1864. 40th Massachusetts Mounted In- 
fantry, Independent Battalion Massachusetts Cavalry and Battery B, 1st 
U. S. Artillery. The advance of the Florida expedition, under Col. Guy 
V. Henry, while pursuing the enemy after his defeat at Barber's planta- 
tion, came upon a strong force of Confederates in good position near 
Lake City. An hour's severe skirmishing ensued, when infantry rein- 
forcements came to the Confederates and Henry retired. No casualties 
were reported. 

Lake Providence, La., May 2^, 1863. 47th U. S. Colored Troops. 

Lake Providence, La., June 9, 1863. ist Kansas Mounted Infantry, 
l6th Wisconsin and 8th Louisiana Colored Infantry. An attack was made 
on the afternoon of the 9th by the Confederates, 600 in number, on the 
post of Providence. The enemy was first met 6 miles from town by 
two companies of the ist Kas., which slowly fell back to within a mile 
of the post, where the whole garrison had been drawn up in support. 
The mounted infantry crossed the bridge and then destroyed it. The 
Confederates brought up a 6-pounder piece and opened fire, but the 
effective fire of the Federal skirmishers soon silenced it. A heavy force 
of skirmishers finally caused the Confederate withdrawal to Floyd at 
dusk. The Federal loss was i man wounded ; the Confederate, 2 killed 
and 5 wounded. 

Lake Providence, La., June 28, 1863. U. S. Forces under Brig.- 
Gen. Hugh T. Reid. C. A. Dana, assistant secretary of war, reporting 
to the head of the department from near Vicksburg says : "A rebel force, 
said to be 6,000 men, with 2 guns, attacked Gen. H. T. Reid at Lake 
Providence on the 28th, and was repulsed. Reid had three regiments of 
white troops." 

Lake Saint Joseph, La., June 4, 1863. Maj.-Gen. Richard Taylor, of 
the Confederate army, reports that a company of his command attacked 
the camp of a company of colored Federal soldiers on the morning of 
the 4th. The white captain and 12 negroes were killed and the remainder 
captured. Union reports make no mention of the affair. 

Lake Verret, La., Jan. 30, 1865. Detachment of ist Louisiana Cav- 
alry. Capt. John H. Alexander reports that his company (K of the ist 
La. cavalry) came upon a party of Confederates just as they were em- 
barking in a fishing boat on Lake Verret. One volley was fired by the 
enemy, wounding a sergeant. It is not known whether any of the Con- 
federates were killed or wounded by the Union fire on the boat. 



550 The Union Army 

Lake Village, Ark., June 6, 1864. (See Old River Lake.) 

Lamar, Miss., Aug. 14, 1864. Detachment of the 7th Indiana Cavalry. 
Lieut. J. W. Skelton, with one company, was started from Hudsonville 
to Lamar, where he was to join a detachment of some 300 Federal in- 
fantry which was reported to be there. About 9 p. m. Skelton saw a 
train of 4 wagons, followed by about a dozen men in their shirtsleeves, 
whom he supposed to be guerrillas trying to capture the wagons, and 
sent a part of liis company to cut them off and capture them. A little 
later he came in sight of some troops, part in line and part in column, 
and, thinking it was the infantry he had been sent to join, rode boldly 
forward until within a short distance of the line before he discovered 
that they were Confederates. Their line swung round and gained his 
rear, but Skelton ordered a charge and cut his way out. His men were 
badly scattered in the darkness, some finding their way to La Grange, 
Skelton and 6 men reached Hudsonville about daylight on the 15th, and 
a few were supposed to have been killed or captured. With a stronger 
force Skelton returned to the scene on the 15th, but the enemy had dis- 
appeared in the direction of Salem, leaving 2 men badly wounded and 
the tools with which he was destroying the track. From a citizen living 
near it was learned that a large number of dead and wounded had been 
carried away. The Confederate troops were the 7th Tenn. and Forrest's 
old regiment, and numbered about 700 men. 

Lamar, Mo., Nov. 5, 1862. Detachment of 8th Missouri Cavalry 
Militia. Capt. Martin Breeden of the 8th Mo. reports that between 200 
and 300 Confederates atacked his men at Lamar on the night of Nov. 5. 
The fight lasted for over two hours, during which time about a third of 
the town was destroyed by fire. Three members of the garrison were 
killed and 3 wounded, while the enemy lost 6 killed. 

Lamar, Mo., May 20, 1864. Missouri Militia. At 4 a. m. a Confed- 
erate force attacked the post at Lamar, garrisoned by 25 men of the 
Missouri militia. The enemy penetrated to the center of the city in a 
short time, but at 10 130 the militia rallied and drove them out. No 
casualties are mentioned. 

Lamb's Creek Church, Va., Sept. 2, 1863. (See Port Conway, same 
date.) 

Lamb's Ferry, Ala., May 13, 1862. (See Rogersville, same date.) 

La Mine Bridge, Mo., Oct. 10, 1863. While Confederate Gen. Shelby 
was raiding in Arkansas and Missouri he despatched a force to burn the 
La Mine bridge. The movement was successfully accomplished, the gar- 
rison being captured after a brief fight. The only mention of the affair 
is in Shelby's report, so there is no way of ascertaining who the Federal 
participants were. 

Lancaster, Ky., Oct. 14, 1862. 19th Brigade, Army of the Ohio. In 
the pursuit of the Confederates from Perryville, after the battle at that 
place on the 8th, Hazen's brigade encountered Wheeler's cavalry near 
Lancaster. Wheeler says that in the fight he "disabled a battery and 
prevented the enemy from approaching nearer than to within 2 or 3 miles 
of the town." The next day Hazen forced Wheeler back through Crab 
Orchard, skirmishing all day and continuing the pursuit to within 2 miles 
of Mount Vernon. No report of casualties. 

Lancaster, Ky., July 31, 1863. U. S. Forces under Col. W. P. 
Sanders. During the pursuit of Scott in his raid in eastern Kentucky 
the mounted force under Sanders, consisting of detachments of the ist, 
loth and 14th Ky.. 2nd and 7th Ohio, 8th and 9th Mich, and 5th East 
Tenn. cavalry and ist and 2nd East Tenn., 45th Ohio and 112th III. 
mounted infantry, came up with the enemy at Lancaster, where he at- 
tempted to make a stand. A charge was made by Maj. J. M. Taylor, 



Cyclopedia of Battles 551 

which completely routed the Confederates and resulted in the capture of 
200 men. Pursuit was continued through Stanford, Scott several times 
attempting to check the pursuers with artillery, but without avail. The 
casualties of tlie affair were not reported. 

Lancaster, Mo., Nov. 24, 1861. 21st Missouri Infantry. 

Lane's Bridge, S. C, Feb. 6, 1865. 3d Division, 15th Army Corps. 
At 6 a. m. the corps broke camp at Moye's plantation and moved toward 
the. Little Salkehatchie river, the 3d division, commanded by Bvt. Maj.- 
Gen. J. E. Smith, in advance, with the mounted infantry at the head of 
the column. About 2 miles from Lane's bridge the Confederate pickets 
were encountered and the skirmishing commenced. Two companies of 
the loth la. were deployed and drove the enemy rapidly to the river, 
where the bridge was found destroyed and the narrow causeway leading 
to it obstructed by fallen timber, while on the north bank was a con- 
siderable Confederate force intrenched in a strong position, their front 
being protected by a swamp that extended for some distance below the 
bridge. Maj.-Gen. J. A. Logan, commanding the corps, ordered Gen. 
Woods to move up his division (the ist) to the support of Smith; the 
29th Mo. mounted infantry was sent to a crossing about 3 miles up the 
river and a detachment of the 7th 111. was directed to move along the 
banks in search of a ford. Smith next ordered Col. Wever, commanding 
the 2nd brigade, to send the loth la. about three-fourths of a mile to 
the left and the 80th Ohio a similar distance to the right to protect the 
flanks, after which he prepared for a direct attack in front. A section 
of artillery was brought up and fired a few shots to develop the enemy's 
guns, but no reply being received the 56th 111. plunged boldly into the 
stream, in places almost up to the armpits of the men, crossed the swamp, 
drove the enemy rapidly to a ridge some half mile from the river, and 
then hastily threw up a barricade of rails and logs to hold the position 
until supports could be brought over. The whole Confederate force 
formed on the ridge, but as soon as a sufficient number of Smith's men 
could be sent across the river skirmishers were deployed, the enemy 
was quickly routed and driven beyond Fishburn's plantation, where the 
division went into camp for the night. 

Lane's Prairie, Mo., near RoUa, July 26, 1861. Missouri Home 
Guards. 

Lane's Prairie, Mo., May 26, 1864. Detachment of 2nd Wisconsin 
Cavalry. A sergeant and 4 men of Co. K, 2nd Wis. cavalry, were led 
into a woods by a band of 15 or 20 guerrillas dressed in Federal uni- 
forms and murdered. The bodies were discovered next day by a party 
of the same company sent out to locate the detachment. 

L'Anguille Ferry, Ark., Aug. 3, 1862. Detachment of ist Wisconsin 
Cavalry. At daylight the encampment of the detachment on L'Anguille 
river was attacked by 600 Texas Rangers under Parsons. The disparity 
in numbers made useless the resistance of the Wisconsin men. Eleven 
were killed, 33 wounded and 30 captured. The Confederates captured 
and burned a number of wagons, an amount of stores, etc. Their loss 
was not reported, but Maj. Henry S. Eggleston, commanding the Union 
force, estimated it at 5 dead and 2 wounded. 

Lanier's Mills, Ala., April 6, 1865. ist Brigade, ist Cavalry Division, 
Military Division of the Mississippi. During the course of operations in 
Wilson's raid Croxton's brigade reached Lanier's mills on Sipsey creek. 
After burning the mills Croxton turned back and had proceeded about 2 
miles toward Tuscaloosa when his rear was attacked and the 6th Ky. 
driven in on the 2nd Mich. Together the two regiments repulsed several 
assaults losing in the movement 34 men and officers. 

Laredo, Tex., March 19, 1864. A Confederate report states that 



552 The Union Army 

about 3 p. m. the town of Laredo was attacked by a force of Federals 
and tliat after several hours' fighting the Union troops were repulsed. 
Latimar's Mill, Ga., June 20, 1864. (See Noonday Creek, same date.) 
Lauderdale Springs, Miss., Feb. 16, 1864. 25th Indiana and 32nd 
Wisconsin Infantry ; Meridian Expedition. 

Laurel Creek Gap, Tenn., Oct. i, 1864. Detachment of U. S. Troops, 
District of Kentucky. This skirmish was between the advance of the 
Federal forces and the Confederates under Col. Giltner during an ex- 
pedition into southwestern Virginia. The Union troops were victorious, 
though the reports do not give a detailed account of the affair. 

Laurel Hill, Va., May 10, 1864. (See Spottsylvania Court House.) 
Laurel Hill, Va., Sept. 29-30, 1864. (See Fort Harrison.) 
Laurel Hill., W. Va., July 8, 1861. (See Belington.) 
Lavaca, Tex., Oct. 31 -Nov. i, 1862. Confederate reports by Gen. 
H. P. Bee and Lieut. G. E. Conklin state that two Federal gunboats ap- 
peared before Lavaca on the 31st and at I p. m. sent a boat ashore to 
demand the surrender of the town. This was refused and the Union 
officer then gave an hour and a half for the removal of the women, 
children and sick persons to a place of safety. At the end of that time 
the vessels opened fire on the town, keeping up the bombardment until 
dark. Early the next morning they again began throwing shells, but 
about II a. m. withdrew, taking a schooner that had been captured a 
few days before. These reports say that the town was considerably 
damaged, but that no lives were lost, and that the gunboats were struck 
several times by shot from the Confederate batteries. Federal reports 
do not mention the incident. 

La Vergne, Tenn., Oct. 7, 1862. U. S. Forces under Brig.-Gen. John 
M. Palmer and Col. John F. Miller. Learning that several Confederate 
generals were concentrating a force at La Vergne, Brig.-Gen. James S. 
Negley, commanding at Nashville, sent Palmer with 400 infantry, 400 
cavalry and 4 pieces of artillery via the Murfreesboro road, and Miller 
with 1,800 infantry to strike the town from the south. For 10 miles on 
both roads skirmishing was kept up with the enemy's pickets and before 
the Federals could reach the town the Confederates were drawn up in 
line and ready to receive them. At a distance of 300 yards the enemy 
opened an artillery fire, which was soon silenced, however, by the Union 
pieces. As the Confederates were preparing to move against Palmer's 
right Miller came in sight and skillfully deployed his men so as to cut 
off any retreat. The enemy held his ground for half an hour and then 
fled in the wildest confusion, having sufifered a loss of 80 in killed and 
wounded and 175 prisoners. The Federal loss was 5 killed, 9 wounded and 
4 missing. 

La Vergne, Tenn., Dec. 9, 1862. (See Dobbin's Ferry.) 
La Vergne, Tenn., Jan. i, 1863. ist Michigan Engineers and Me- 
chanics. A wagon train going north near La Vergne was attacked by 
some 3,000 or 4,000 Confederate cavalry under Wheeler. The guard 
was dispersed and about 30 wagons sacked and burned. The enemy 
then turned his attention to the camp of the ist Mich, engineers and 
mechanics, and seven charges were made upon it but without avail. After 
his unsuccessful attempt to storm this position, Wheeler sent in a flag 
of truce demanding an immediate surrender. When it was refused the 
Confederates withdrew, having sufifered a loss of 40 or 50 killed and 
wounded. The Federals sufifered casualties to the extent of 2 killed, 9 
wounded and 5 missing. 

La Vergne, Tenn., Sept. i, 1864. Rousseau's pursuit of Wheeler. 
Lawrence, Kas., Aug. 21, 1863. About 4:30 a. m. the guerrilla 
leader Quantrill with 300 men entered Lawrence. The town was robbed 



Cyclopedia of Battles 553 

and burned and some 150 citizens murdered in cold blood. No resis- 
tance was offered. There were no Union troops engaged. 

Lawrenceburg, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862. 2nd Division, ist Corps, Army of 
the Ohio. This engagement was a smart skirmish with the Confederate 
cavalry as tlie division was entering Lawrenceburg. The result was the 
driving out of the enemy, the Union force suffering a loss of 3 killed, 12 
wounded and 13 missing. The Confederate loss was not reported, but 
was undoubtedly as heavy. 

Lawrenceburg. O., July 14, 1863. 105th Indiana Minute Men firing 
into each otlier; Morgan's raid. 

Lawrenceburg, Tenn., Nov. 4, 1863. 14th Michigan Mounted In- 
fantry. Owing to some delay the 14th Mich, under Maj. Thomas C. 
Fitz Gibbon was unable to reach Lawrenceburg in time to surprise the 
Confederates there under Cooper. The skirmishers and pickets were 
driven in after a stiff resistance, and part of the Union force broke the 
enemy's right. Tlie front, which had been doing the skirmishing, gave 
way when the right was broken and Fitz Gibbon was left in possession 
of the town. Fearing ambuscade, he immediately commenced to retire 
toward Columbia, and when about 2 miles out from Lawrenceburg the 
rear was attacked. The command was halted, wheeled about, charged 
up a hill upon which the enemy was posted, and after a desperate hand- 
to-hand contest the Confederates were driven from the field. The loss 
on the Confederate side was rather heavy, 8 of their dead being left on 
the hill from which they were driven. The Union casualties were 3 
wounded. 

Lawrenceburg, Tenn., Nov. 22, 1864. 5th Cavalry Division, Mili- 
tary Division of the Mississippi. At noon the enemy's pickets com- 
menced skirmishing with the pickets of the Federal force encamped at 
Lawrenceburg. Capt. Jacob F. Bandy, with a battalion of the 2nd la. 
cavalry, was sent to ascertain their force. He drove their pickets until 
he came upon the main body stationed on bluffs and behind rail barri- 
cades, and after an hour's skirmishing fell back to the picket-line. 
About 2 p. m. the enemy moved up in heavy force and encamped within 
sight of the Federal bivouac. An artillery duel was kept up for an hour 
or more, when the Union troops were ordered to fall back on the Pu- 
laski road. There were no casualties reported. 

Lawrence's Mill, Tenn., Jan. 5, 1864. Detachment of 2nd Cavalry 
Brigade, Department of the Cumberland. Col. O. H. LaGrange, com- 
manding the 2nd brigade, reported that the forage detail of his command 
attacked a Confederate picket at Lawrence's mill, 5 miles east of Mossy 
creek, and captured 12 men with their arms and 9 horses. None of the 
Federals was injured. 

Lawrenceville, Ga., Oct. 27, 1864. (See Trickum's cross-roads. Ex- 
pedition to.) 

Lav/s Landing, Ala., July 28, 1862. (See Guntersville.) 

Lawtonville, S. C, Feb. 2, 1865. 3d Division, 20th Army Corps. 
This engagement was an incident of Sherman's campaign through the 
Carolinas. At 7 a. m. the 3d and part of the ist division broke camp 
at Robertsville and moved toward Lawtonville, Case's brigade of the 3ci 
division having the advance. About 2 130 p. m. a considerable force of 
the enemy was encountered a mile from the town, barricaded in a dense 
swamp and provided with artillery. Maj. -Gen. W. T. Ward, command- 
ing the 3d division, deployed two brigades to support the J05th and 
129th 111. and four companies of the 70th Ind., which were thrown for- 
ward as skirmishers. The whole line was then advanced and after a 
short but sharp skirmish the enemy was dislodged and driven back 
through the town, where the division encamped for the night. The 



554 The Union Army 

Union loss was 2 killed and 12 wounded; that of the enemy 8 killed 
and about 40 wounded. 

Lay's Ferry, Ga., May 14-15, 1864. i6th Army Corps. While 
Sherman was engaging Johnston about Resaca the i6th corps was sent 
to lay a pontoon bridge across the Oostanaula at Lay's ferry and thus 
gain a position in the Confederate rear. On the afternoon of the 14th 
the 2nd division reached the ferry. Battery H, ist Mo. light artillery, 
was planted on a commanding ridge on the north bank of the river and 
opened a brisk fire of solid shot and shell on the Confederate batteries 
on the other side. Under cover of this fire the 66th 111. and 8ist Ohio 
infantry were pushed across the river, drove the enemy from his rifle- 
pits and captured a number of prisoners and a battleflag. The two regi- 
ments remained on the south bank until dark when they were recalled. 
Early on the following morning the ist brigade, 2nd division. Col. E. W. 
Rice commanding, crossed the river, but were hardly in position when 
a furious attack was made by Walker's division of Hardee's corps. 
Rice, by an admirable maneuver, caught the enemy on the flank, while 
the Federal batteries on the north bank poured a direct and deadly fire 
on Walker's front. The 3d brigade was now hurried across the pon- 
toon to Rice's assistance and the enemy was driven from the field, leav- 
ing a large number of dead and wounded. The two brigades immediately 
intrenched their position and held it until the remainder of the command 
could be brought over. The total Federal loss in killed and wounded 
was about 200. This movement was the principal cause of Johnston's 
evacuating Resaca on the night of the 15th. 

Leasburg, Mo., Sept. 29-30, 1864. 14th Iowa Infantry, and detach- 
ments of 47th Missouri Infantry, 3d Missouri Militia Cavalry, and sec- 
tion of Battery H, 2nd Missouri Light Artillery. The command of 
Brig.-Gen. Thomas Ewing, Jr., retreating before Price in the latter's 
Missouri expedition, arrived at Leasburg after several hours' constant 
skirmishing on Thursday morning, Sept. 28. At daybreak next morning 
the Confederates appeared in force and during the day kept up a heavy 
skirmish fire. At night an assault was made on the works the Federal 
troops had thrown up during the day, but owing to the darkness it was 
unsuccessful. Saturday morning the Confederates, reinforced during the 
night, thoroughly reconnoitered the Federal position and all morning 
kept up an incessant fire with the skirmishers. About 2 p. m. Price 
drew off his command. The casualties were not reported. Tliis affair 
is sometimes called Harrison, or Harrison's station. 

Leatherwood, Ky., Nov. 6, 1862. Capt. Ambrose Powell's Company. 

Lebanon, Ala., Feb. 3, 1864. Detachment of the Army of the Cum- 
berland. 

Lebanon, Ky., July 11-12, 1862. 33d Ohio Infantry. As an incident 
of Col. J. H. Morgan's first Kentucky raid, Brig.-Gen. J. T. Boyle, com- 
manding at Louisville, sent the 33d Ohio, under Col. Moore, to intercept 
Morgan's advance on Lebanon. Moore tore up the flooring of the 
bridge over Rolling Fork, about 6 miles from Lebanon, and stationed a 
guard there, while the main body of the regiment was sent some distance 
nearer the town. About 11 p. m. on the nth Morgan reached the bridge, 
attacked and dispersed the guard, and after repairing the bridge pro- 
ceeded on until he encountered the rest of the regiment, about 2 miles 
from Lebanon. Here his forces were routed with a loss of i killed and 
several wounded, but he moved by a roundabout way and reached Leba- 
non the following morning, burning a good portion of the town and then 
moved toward Springfield. 

Lebanon, Ky., July 5, 1863. 20th Kentucky Infantry. Morgan's 
force, during his Ohio raid, approached Lebanon on the forenoon of 



Cyclopedia of Battles 555 

this date, the garrison there consisting of about 380 men, including some 
recruits. About 6:30 a. m. the Confederates deployed, forming a line 2 
miles in length, and after tiring with artillery for a short time Morgan 
sent forward a flag of truce to demand a surrender. This was immedi- 
ately refused, the fighting then cQmmenced in earnest, and until i p. m. 
the battle raged, Morgan twice during that time demanding a surrender. 
Seeing that it was useless to attempt further resistance Lieut. -Col. Charles 
S. Hanson, commanding the garrison, acceded to the last demand. The 
Union loss in the engagement was 4 killed and 15 wounded. The Con- 
federate casualties were not reported, but were estimated by Hanson 
to be 51 killed and 120 wounded. 

Lebanon, Ky., July 30, 1864. One company of the 12th Ohio Cav- 
altry. 

Lebanon, Mo., March 12, 1862. The oflficial report of Maj.-Gen. 
H. W. Halleck mentions a skirmish near Lebanon on this date, but gives 
no information as to troops engaged, casualties, etc. 

Lebanon, Tenn., May 5, 1862. U. S. Forces under Brig.-Gen. Ebe- 
nezer Dumont. At 4 a. m. Gen. Dumont surprised the Confederates 
under Cols. Morgan and Wood. The result was a victory for the Fed- 
eral troops after a hard-fought engagement of an hour and a half and 
a running fight of 15 miles. Some 150 Confederates, 150 horses and 100 
stands of arms were captured. The casualties in Dumont's command 
were 6 killed and 25 wounded. 

Lebanon, Tenn., Nov. 9, 1862. ist Kentucky and 4th Michigan 
Cavalry. 

Lebanon, Tenn., Dec. 6, 1862. 93d Ohio Infantry. 

Leed's Ferry, Va., Dec. 2, 1862. Detachment of the 8th Pennsyl- 
vania Cavalry. A squadron of the regiment, doing outpost duty at 
Leed's ferry on the Rappahannock river, below King George Court 
House, was attacked just before daylight by about 200 dismounted Con- 
federate cavalry. Although resistance was made, the strength of the 
outpost was not sufficient to repulse the enemy, who succeeded in cap- 
turing the reserve of 26 men. The remainder of the squadron was on 
detached duty and escaped. The Confederates lost i man wounded. 

Leesburg, Ala., Oct. 21, 1864. Cavalry of the Army of the Cumber- 
land. According to a Federal report, while the cavalry was operating 
in north Alabama and north Georgia in connection with Sherman's 
campaign, on the 21st "The 2nd division with 3d brigade, ist division, 
marched to Leesburg, Ala., attacked Wheeler, and drove him in disorder 
from his strong and selected position. He left his killed and wounded 
on the field, and threw away many arms in his flight; our loss slight." 

Leesburg, Tenn., Sept. 28, 1864. Detachment of i6th Kentucky 
Cavalry. A battalion of this regiment, the advance of Gillem's East 
Tennessee expedition, found the enemy's scouts at Leesburg and charged 
upon them, severely wounding i and capturing 5. No casualties were 
reported on the Union side. 

Leesburg, Va., Oct. 21, 1861. (See Ball's Bluff.) 

Leesburg, Va., Sept. 16-19, 1862. Detachment of Bayard's Cavalry. 
Lieut. -Col. Judson Kilpatrick, with six companies of the 2nd N. Y., two 
of the 9th Pa., and two of the ist N. J. cavalry, and a section of Buell's 
battery, left Upton's hill on the afternoon of the i6th for a reconnais- 
sance to Leesburg. Dranesville was reached that night and the next 
morning the Confederates were encountered at Goose creek, where they 
had burned the bridge and posted a strong picket. This was driven 
away and, after a difficult crossing, Kilpatrick advanced with caution on 
Lee-sburg. Just outside that town some 200 dismounted cavalry were 
encountered, but Kilpatrick ordered a charge, which sent them flying 



556 The Union Army 

back through the village, while at the same time his artillery routed a 
force of about 500 infantry. The Union loss was 2 killed, 12 wounded 
and I missing. The enemy's loss was not reported, but was much 
heavier. 

Leesburg, Va., Aug. 21, 1864. Loudoun Rangers. Col. Roger E. 
Cook, commanding the Federal forces at Sandy Hook, Md., sent Lieut. 
Atwell with a scouting party across the river into Loudoun county, Va. 
At Leesburg Atwell encountered a detachment of White's battalion, which 
was completely routed witli a loss of 3 men mortally wounded. 

Lee's Cross-Roads, Ga., May 2, 1864. Kilpatrick's Cavalry. During 
Kilpatrick's reconnaissance from Ringgold toward Tunnel Hill the enemy 
made a brief stand at this point, but was soon routed and compelled to 
retire toward Tunnel Hill. (See Stone Church.) 

Lee's House, Tenn., Jan. 28, 1864. Detachment of 8ist Ohio In- 
fantry. A forage train with an escort from the 8ist Ohio was fired 
upon near the house of a Mr. Lee on the Cornersville pike. Two team- 
sters were wounded, the rest were surrounded and captured and the 
wagons burned. 

Lee's House, Va., Jan. 29, 1862. Detachments of 37th New York 
Lifantry and ist New Jersey Cavalry. The only mention of this affair 
in the official records of the war is a congratulatory order of Jan. 31 
from Maj.-Gen. George B. McClellan, which reads as follows: "The 
commanding general thanks Lieut.-Col. John Burke, 37th New York 
volunteers, and the handful of brave men of that regiment and the ist 
New Jersey cavalry, under his command, for their services in the affair 
at Lee's house, or Belmont, on Occoquan bay, on the night of the 28th 
instant." 

Lee's Mill, Va., April 5-7, 1862. 2nd Division, 4th Army Corps. Dur- 
ing the operations at the beginning of the siege of Yorktown, Gen. 
McClellan gave orders on the 4th for Gen. Keyes, commanding the 4th 
corps, to "move forward Smith's division at 6 a. m. via Warwick Court 
House and the road leading near the Half-way House on the Yorktown 
and Williamsburg road." Pursuant to this order Smith moved promptly 
at the designated time from his camp at Young's mill. After advancing 
about 4 miles the enemy's pickets were encountered and driven back, 
and some 2 miles beyond Warwick Court House the advance came 
within sight of the Confederate works at Lee's mill. The 7th Me. was 
thrown forward as skirmishers and the rest of Davidson's brigade was 
ordered to deploy out of sight along the edge of the woods, Hancock's 
brigade supporting his right and Brook's brigade in reserve. Wheeler's 
battery was then brought up and opened fire on the enemy. An attempt 
was made to turn Davidson's left, but it was frustrated by the 49th 
N. Y., which was thrown back at an obtuse angle to the rest of the line. 
The division then remained in this position, under fire a good part of 
the time, until the 7th, when it was withdrawn about a mile to the 
rear. Davidson's brigade lost 3 men killed and 12 wounded. 

Lee's Mill, Va., April 16, 1862. 2nd Division, 4th Army Corps. 
Brig.-Gen. William F. Smith with his division proceeded to Lee's mil! 
(or Burnt Chimneys) at Dam No. i on a reconnaissance. The troops 
were deployed and the infantry to the right opened fire on the Con- 
federates working on their intrenchments. The enemy's artillery at once 
replied, the Union pieces were brought into action, and after an hour the 
Confederate battery was silenced. About 3 p. m. the enemy's muskerty 
fire slackened, when four companies of the 3d Vt. were pushed across 
the stream and up to the works. On arriving at the crest of the parapet 
they were met by the enemy in force, and as their ammunition had been 
dampened in the passage of the stream, they were obliged fall back. Later 



Cyclopedia of Battles 557 

in the day another reconnaissance was made further up the stream, but 
with little success. The Federal loss in this engagement was 35 killed, 
121 wounded and g missing. The Confederate casualties were not re- 
ported. This affair was an incident of the siege of Yorktown. 

Lee's Mill, Va., July 12, 1864. 2nd Cavalry Division, Army of the 
Potomac. In the reports of the Richmond campaign mention is made 
of a skirmish at Lee's mill, near Ream's station, on this date. It was 
probably part of the action at Warwick swamp, (q. v.) 

Lee's Mill, Va., July 30, 1864. 2nd Cavalry Division, Army of the 
Potomac. During the Richmond campaign this division marched from the 
Appomattox river to Lee's mill. On arriving at the latter place the Con- 
federates were found posted in a strong position on the opposite side 
of the stream, but after a short time they w^ere flanked and dislodged. 
Eleven of the Federal conmiand were wounded. 

Lee's Mill, Va., Nov. 16, 1864. Detachment of the 13th Pennsyl- 
vania Cavalry. Capt. O'Reilly, with 50 men, left the reserve on the 
Lee's mill road at 4 :30 a. m. and pushed across Warwick swamp to 
attempt the capture of a scouting party known to be in the vicinity. 
After proceeding about 2 miles he found 14 of the Confederates and 
charged them, killing 3 and wounding i and capturing 12 horses and 
equipments, without casualty. 

Leesville, Va., May 5, 1863. (See Suffolk, siege of.) 

Leetown, W. Va., July 3, 1864. (See Darkesville, same date.) 

Leetown, W. Va., Aug. 2S, 1864. ist Cavalry Division, Army of 
West Virginia. On this date the division, commanded by Bvt. Maj.-Gen. 
Wesley Merritt, moved from Shepherdstown toward Smithfield. At Lee- 
town Lomax's division of Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry was met and a sharp 
skirmish ensued, which resulted in the Confederates being forced back to 
Smithfield and then across the Opequan creek. In reporting this affair 
Gen. Sheridan says: "Our losses were not great; the enemy suffered 
severely. Several handsome cavalry charges were made by Merritt's 
command." 

Leet's Tanyard, Ga., Sept. 12, 1863. ist Brigade, 4th Division, 14th 
Army Corps. While the Union and Confederate armies were maneuver- 
ing for position just before the battle of Chickamauga, Col. John T. 
Wilder's brigade of mounted infantry was making its way from Ring- 
gold to Lafayette, when his advance encountered the enemy's pickets 
near Leet's tanyard. About the same time the rear-guard reported the 
presence of a considerable force of Confederates in the rear. Wilder 
quickly formed the brigade in line of battle and advanced against Pe- 
gram's command, which occupied a strong position on a high, wooded 
hill. The skirmish was short but decisive, Pegram being driven back 
toward Lafayette by two regiments of the brigade, while the other two 
repulsed an attack by Armstrong on the left flank. No casualties re- 
ported. 

Leet's Tanyard, Ga., March 5, 1864. 8th Indiana Cavalry. Wheel- 
er's cavalry came through Nickajack gap and attacked the outpost of 
the Federal camp and then pressed the Union center, while a heavy force 
was sent to get to the rear. Col. T. J. Harrison, commanding the In- 
diana regiment, fell back across a stream and destroyed the bridge. The 
enemy's left had meantime gotten to the rear of Harrison, who immedi- 
ately faced his command about and cut his way out with a loss of I 
killed and 4 missing. The enemy lost 3 killed and 6 or 7 wounded. 

Legate's Point, S. C, June 3, 1862. 28th Massachusetts, 8th Michi- 
gan and looth Pennsylvania Infantry. A reconnaissance in force was 
made by three regiments on the morning of the 3d. When near Legare's 
point, on James island, the Confederate skirmishers were encountered 
and an engagement ensued, the enemy driving the Federals back through 



558 The Union Army 

a strip of timber to Legare's, where they took refuge in the buildings. 
After some firing the Confederates charged across an open field and suc- 
ceeded in capturing 2.2 prisoners. The fire of the gunboats in the river, 
to which they were exposed, was sufficiently strong to prevent them 
holding the position and they withdrew. The enemy lost i killed and 
16 wounded ; the Union loss in killed and wounded was not reported. 

Legareville, S. C, Dec. 25, 1863. U. S. S. Marblehead and Pawnee. 
During the day and night of the 24th the Confederates placed batteries 
on Stono inlet and the Kiawah river and at daylight opened fire on the 
Marblehead lying off Legareville. The firing was continued about an 
hour, the Marblehead replying, but without effect on either side. In the 
meantime the gunboat Pawnee ran up the Kiawah river and opened fire 
on the flank and rear of the lower batteries, killing i, wounding 5 others 
and killing 8 horses. The enemy then withdrew. 

Leggett's Hill, Ga., July 21, 1864. (See Atlanta, Siege of.) 

Leighton, Ala., April 23, 1863. (See Courtland, Expedition to.) 

Leighton, Ala., Dec. 30, 1864. (See Russellville.) 

Leiper's Ferry, Tenn., Oct. 28, 1863. nth and 37th Kentucky and 
ii2th Illinois Infantry. 

Lenoir's Station, Tenn., June 19, 1863. Sanders' East Tennessee 
Raid. While on an expedition into east Tennessee Col. W. P. Sanders 
encountered a detachment of Confederate artillerymen, 65 in number, at 
Lenoir's station and captured the whole party, together with three 6- 
pounder iron guns, 2,500 stands of small arms, a large amount of ammu- 
nition and other military stores, most of which were destroyed. 

Lenoir's Station, Tenn., Nov. 15, 1863. Detachments of 9th and 23d 
Army Corps. After Longstreet's advance on Knoxville had been effectu- 
ally checked on the 14th at Huff's ferry, the Federals fell back to Lenoir's 
station. The move was accomplished in good order, notwithstanding 
the condition of the roads. At Loudon the enemy attacked while the 
artillery was with difficulty being drawn up a hill. The attack was re- 
pulsed with the loss of one caisson. Again at 10 p. m. when the Federal 
forces were in camp at Lenoir's station the Confederates attempted to 
drive in the skirmishers but were repulsed. The losses were not reported. 

Lewinsville, Va., Sept. 10, 1861. Detachments 79th New York and 
5th Wisconsin Infantry. Pursuant to orders from the brigadier-general 
commanding, Capt. David Ireland with 160 men of the 79th N. Y. left 
camp and proceeded in the direction of Lewinsville, where Ireland con- 
cealed his men in the woods on either side of the road. A body of Con- 
federate cavalry coming from the direction of Falls Church was fired 
upon and made to retreat with a loss of 4 killed, 2 wounded and i taken 
prisoner. Ireland's loss was i killed. About the same time Capt. E. C. 
Hibbard with three companies of the 5th Wis. passed to the rear of 
Lewinsville, where his command was discovered by the Confederate 
pickets. Hibbard deployed his force and one company charged, routing 
the enemy, who was pursued for some distance. The loss of the Con- 
federates was 2 wounded and i captured. There were no casualties in 
Hibbard's command. 

Lewinsville, Va., Sept. 11, 1861. Expedition under Col. Isaac L 
Stevens. A reconnaissance under Col. Stevens had been made in and 
around Lewinsville and his command, comprising the 79th N .Y., de- 
tachments of 1st U. S. Chasseurs, 3d Vt., 19th Ind., Griffin's battery, 50 
regular and 50 volunteer cavalry, some 1,800 men, was preparing to 
return to Chain bridge when the enemy's skirmishers attacked. Stevens 
continued his march in good order and after a few miles out turned his 
artillery and shelled the pursuing foe. The Confederates then drew off, 
having suffered a loss of 4 killed. Two of Stevens' men were killed and 
3 wounded at the first fire. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 559 

Lewisburg, Ark., Jan. 17, 1864. Detachment of the 2nd Arkansas 
Cavalry. 

Lewisburg, Ark., Feb. 12, 1865. Col. A. R. Witt, with from 60 to 100 
Confederates, attacked Capt. Jeff Williams, a noted Federal scout, at his 
residence 20 miles north of Lewisburg, and Williams was killed in the 
skirmish. 

Lewisburg, W. Va., May 23, 1862. 3d Provisional Brigade, Mountain 
Department. At 5 a. m. the pickets of the brigade, then encamped at 
Lewisburg, were diiven in by Confederate skirmishers, and the enemy's 
advance was seen soon afterward on the crest of a hill beyond the town. 
Two companies of infantry were sent forward to hold him in check until 
the remainder of the force could be deployed. Meantime the Confederates 
had begun shelling the town and the camp. A steady advance was made up 
the slope where the enemy was posted and when the crest was reached 
he retired in confusion, abandoning 4 of his guns. Pursuit was given by 
the 2nd Va. cavalry, but it was checked by a burned bridge. The Fed- 
eral brigade, commanded by Col. George Crook, captured about 100 men 
and 300 stands of arms and suffered a loss of 11 killed and 54 wounded. 
The Confederates left on the field 38 dead and 66 wounded. 

Lewisburg, W. Va., Nov. 7, 1863. Union Troops under Gens. Averell 
and Duffie. Two expeditions were started for Lewisburg at the same 
time — one under Brig.-Gen. W. W. Averell from Beverly and the other 
under Brig.-Gen. Alfred N. Dufifie from Charleston. Duftie's command, 
which was the first to reach Lewisburg, consisted of the 34th Ohio 
mounted infantry, 2nd W. Va. cavalry, and a section of Simmonds' bat- 
tery, and numbered 970 men. Lewisburg was reached at 9 a. m. on the 
7th, but the enemy had already evacuated the town, leaving only a small 
cavalry detachment to watch Duffie's movements. The rear-guard was 
overtaken and a few prisoners captured, but the destruction of a bridge 
prevented a successful pursuit. Two caissons and no head of cattle 
were also captured, large quantities of quartermaster and commissary 
stores, and a number of tents and knapsacks were destroyed. Later in 
the day Averell arrived at Lewisburg and the pursuit was continued by 
the cavalry down the Greenbrier river. (For the organization of 
Averell's command see Droop Mountain.) 

Lewis' Farm, Va., March 29, 1865. ist Division, 5th Army Corps. 
Early on the morning of the 29th the 2nd and 5th corps broke camp 
near the crossing of the Vaughan road and Hatcher's run, about 5 miles 
southwest of Petersburg, and moved toward Dinwiddle Court House. 
About noon Maj.-Gen. G. K. Warren, commanding the 5th corps, ordered 
Gen. Griffin to move with the ist division down the Quaker road toward 
the Boydton plank road. Upon reaching the little stream called Gravelly 
run the enemy was discovered behind some works on the opposite bank. 
Chamberlain's brigade advanced in order of battle and drove the Con- 
federates back to the Lewis house, where they were reinforced by part 
of Anderson's and Johnson's divisions and an engagement ensued which 
lasted for two hours. Chamberlain gallantly holding his ground against 
a largely .superior force. At the end of that time part of Gregory's and 
Bartlett's brigades, and Battery B, 4th U. S. artillery, came to his sup- 
port and the enemy was driven from the field with a heavy loss in 
killed and wounded and 200 captured. The division then took up a 
position along the Boydton road and intrenched. The Union loss was 
53 killed, 306 wounded and 22 missing. Johnson reported the Confed- 
erate loss in Wise's brigade as 183, which was the only report of casual- 
ties made. Griffin, in his report, mentions the capture of the 200 prison- 
ers above noted, and states that 130 Confederate dead were buried by 
his pioneers. 



560 The Union Army 

Lewis' Mill, Va., Nov. 26, 1862. (See Cold Knob Mountain.) 

Lexington, Ky., Oct. 18, 1862. Detachments of 3d and 4th Ohio 
Cavalry. This engagement was an attack by Morgan's Confederate 
cavalry on portions of the 3d and 4th Ohio cavalry, commanded by 
Maj. Charles 15. Seidel. After returning the Confederate fire for some 
time and suffering a loss of 4 killed and 24 wounded, Seidel was com- 
pelled to surrender to the greatly superior numbers of the enemy. The 
Confederate loss was not reported. 

Lexington, Ky., June 10, 1864. U. S. Forces of District of Ken- 
tucky. Brig.-Gen. S. G. Burbridge, in a despatch reporting his pursuit 
of Morgan in the hitter's raid into Kentucky, says : "By stealing fresh 
horses he reached Lexington at 2 o'clock this a. m. Our forces held 
the fort and rebels did but little damage. He left here (Lexington) at 
7 a. m. for Versailles." Morgan's own report says : "Moved on Lex- 
ington. Attacked the city about 2 a. m. and captured that place, with 
horses enough to mount my entire command. After burning the Gov- 
ernment stables, depot, etc., moved, via Georgetown, to Cynthiana." 

Lexington, Mo., Aug. 29, 1861. Missouri Home Guards. 

Lexington, Mo., Sept. 12-20, 1861. U. S. Forces under Col. James 
A. Mulligan. Maj. -Gen. Sterling Price with the cavalry of his army ap- 
proached Lexington on the 12th and encamped within 2 miles of the city. 
At daylight next morning Col. Mulligan made a sortie from the fortifi- 
cations and drove the Confederates back 2 or 3 miles, at which point 
their infantry and artillery came up and together drove Mulligan back 
within his intrenchments. The artillery was posted in a position to 
sweep the college, but late that night was withdrawn to the fair grounds. 
On the i8th Price again deployed his forces about the Union intrench- 
ments and during the day several charges were made which put the 
Confederates in positions from which they could control the water sup- 
ply. During the 19th and part of the 20th a continuous artillery fire 
was kept up on the Union position and about 2 p. m. of the 20th Mulli- 
gan surrendered, after having suffered a loss of 39 killed and 120 
wounded. The Confederate casualties amounted to 25 killed and 72 
wounded. 

Lexington, Mo., Oct. 16, 1861. Missouri Cavalry under Maj. Frank J. 
White. With 250 men Maj. White reached Lexington early on the morn- 
ing of the i6th, drove in the pickets and took possession of the town. 
From 60 to 70 citizens and soldiers were made prisoners, 60 stands of 
arms, 25 horses, 2 steam ferryboats, a quantity of provisions, etc., were 
seized, and some 10 or 15 Union soldiers then prisoners were released. 

Lexington, Mo., March 12, 1862. (See La Fayette County, same 
date.) 

Lexington, Mo., July 30, 1863. Detachments of ist Missouri Militia 
Cavalry. A detachment of 27 men under Capt. H. F. Peery was attacked 
by about 100 guerrillas. After a sharp skirmish the Confederates were 
repulsed with a loss to them of 3 men mortally wounded. One of 
Peery's men was also mortally wounded. 

Lexington, Mo., Nov. 4, 1863. Detachment of ist Missouri State Militia 
Cavalry. Brig.-Gen. Ebgert B. Brown, reporting from Jefferson City on 
Nov. 12, says : "Lieut. David Groomer on the morning of the 4th in- 
stant, came up with a party of 8 bushwhackers (who had been passing 
themselves as Shelby's men) near the Sedalia road 12 miles east of 
Lexington, killing 2, capturing 4 horses and equipments, 2 guns and a 
lot of clothing. Casualties on our side, i horse wounded." 

Lexington, Mo., June 14, 1864. Detachment ist Missouri Militia 
Cavalry. Companies F and I, returning from Warrensburg, Mo., were 
attacked by 100 guerrillas when 12 miles from Lexington. After a short 



Cyclopedia of Batties 561 

but sharp fight, in which the Federals lost 8 killed and 2 wounded, the 
attack was repulsed. 

Lexington, Mo., Oct. 19. 1864. ist Division, Army of the Border. 
During Price's Missouri expedition his army approached Lexington. 
Maj.-Gen. James G. Blunt had occupied the place on the i8th, driving 
out or capturing the few guerrillas then holding it. On the morning of 
the 19th Blunt's skirmishers and pickets were driven in and Price's army 
appeared before the town. It was useless to bring on a general engage- 
ment, but Blunt skirmished for 5 hours and then slowly fell back to the 
Little Blue river after developing the Confederate strength. The casual- 
ties were not reported. 

Lexington, Mo., Jan. 11, 1865. ist Missouri State Militia Cavalry. A 
band of guerrillas made their appearance on the edge of the town, fired 
into the home of a citizen and then turned and left. A detail of 15 cav- 
alrymen was immediately started in pursuit and came up with them 5 miles 
out. The Confederates charged, but their assault was repulsed and they 
were obliged to fall back for over a mile, when the Federal ammunition 
gave out and the detachment returned to town. No casualties were 
reported. 

Lexington, S. C, Feb. 15. 1865. 2nd Division, 20th Army Corps. On 
this date the corps was moving on the Lexington and Orangeburg road 
toward Columbia, the 2nd division, commanded by Gen. John W. Geary, 
having the advance. .'Kt several points on the march the enemy was en- 
countered and slight skirmishing took place. About 2 miles from Lexing- 
ton, where the Augusta and Columbia road crossed the one on which 
the corps was marching (sometimes called the Two League cross-roads), 
a body of Confederate cavalry made an effort to hold the cross-roads. 
Geary advanced a strong skirmish line, which fired one volley and then 
charged with such impetuosity that the cavalry scattered in confusion, 
most of them retreating toward Columbia. The division then prepared 
to go into camp when Gen. Williams, commanding the corps, ordered 
Geary to move forward at least a part of his division and occupy the 
town. Barnum's brigade and Stephens' Ohio battery were advanced to 
a hill overlooking the town, when a large force of Confederate cavalry 
could be seen moving about the streets and on the outskirts. The battery 
was planted in an advantageous position, and under its fire a heavy 
skirmish line was pushed forward, the enemy retiring without making 
any opposition. Barnum then ordered the approaches to the town bar- 
ricaded and his command went into bivouac for the night. No casual- 
ties reported. 

Lexington, Tenn., Dec. 18. 1862. (See Forrest's Expedition into 
West Tennessee.) 

Lexington, Tenn., June 29, 1863. Detachments of 4th Missouri and 
15th Kentucky Cavalry. Lieut. -Col. Gustav von Helmrich while scout- 
ing in the vicinity of Lexington learned of a considerable Confederate 
force in Lexington and that another detachment was moving from Jack- 
son to attack him in the rear. He accordingly started to fall back to 
Spring creek to avoid being cut off and had proceeded but a short dis- 
tance when his command was fired into from ambush by about 2,000 
Confederates. Being too closely pressed to reach Columbus von Helm- 
rich made a partially successful attempt to get to Fort Heiman. The 
total Union loss in killed, wounded and missing was 62. 

Lexington, Va., June lo-ii, 1864. Detachments of the Army of 
West Virginia. During the advance on Lynchburg the infantry division 
of Brig.-Gen. George Crook and the cavalry of Brig.-Gen. William W. 
Averell were opposed on the Lexington road by McCausland's Confed- 
erate cavalry and a battery. He was easily driven and took refuge in 
the town of Lexington, across the North river. Next day when the 

Vol. VI— 6 



562 The Union Army 

Union forces arrived they found the bridge burned and the passage of 
the river disputed by sharpshooters and artillery, McCausland having 
posted his forces behind dwellings and the college buildings. Rather 
than destroy the town with artillery Maj.-Gen. David Hunter sent 
Averell's cavalry to cross the river farther up and strike the enemy's 
rear and flank. McCausland got wind of the movement, however, and 
withdrew hastily. The casualties were not reported. 

Liberty, La., Nov. 21, 1864. 

Liberty, Mo., Oct. 6, 1862. 5th Missouri Militia Cavalry. 

Liberty, Tenn., March 9, 1863. Brig.-Gen. John H. Morgan in a 
report states that his force was attacked in front and rear by Federal 
cavalry and infantry. The result of the affair is not known, nor are 
the Federal participants, as Morgan's despatch contains the only men- 
tion of the affair. , ^, . ^ , 

Liberty, Tenn., April 3, 1863. Detachment of the 3d Ohio Cavalry. 
Confederate Gen. Wheeler reports that Col. R. M. Gano, commanding 
J. H. Morgan's division, was attacked at Liberty early in the morning 
by 8,000 Federals, and was compelled to fall back 5 miles to Snow Hill. 
As a matter of fact Col. J. W. Paramore, commanding the 2nd cavalry 
brigade, sent one squadron of the 3d Ohio over the river to dislodge 
some Confederate sharpshooters, and upon the appearance of this small 
force Gano fled. 

Liberty, Va., June 19, 1864. 2nd Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of 
West Virginia. While the Army of West Virginia was retiring from 
Lynchburg, Averell's cavalry, constituting the rear-guard, was attacked 
near Liberty by the Confederate cavalry and mounted infantry. For 2 
hours a severe fight was continued, when Averell was compelled to fall 
back behind Crook's infantry division, which was drawn up ready to 
receive an attack. The enemy, however, was apparently satisfied with 
his victory over Averell and did not attack. Averell suffered a loss of 
122 in killed, wounded and missing. 

Liberty Gap, Tenn., June 24-27, 1863. 20th Army Corps. During the 
middle Tennessee campaign Brig.-Gen. Richard W. Johnson, commanding 
the 2nd division, moved with his force from Murfreesboro on June 24. 
The Confederates were not encountered until the ist brigade, having the 
advance, reached Liberty gap, where the enemy was strongly posted and 
his line extended to such a length as to flank the Federal column. The 
39th and 32nd Ind. were sent to reinforce the flanks and the 49th Ohio 
and part of the 32nd Ind. advanced steadily up a steep hill, driving the 
enemy before them. A portion of the 2nd brigade changed direction to 
the left and swept the hillside, after which the entire line was ordered 
forward. When darkness fell the 3d brigade was sent to relieve the 
other two and during the night had some skirmishing with the enemy. 
On the 25th two brigades of the ist division reported to Johnson, but 
aside from heavy skirmishing little was done until 5 p. m., when the ist 
brigade, 2nd division, Brig.-Gen. August Willich commanding, received 
and repulsed an attack of the enemy. Willich's men having exhausted 
their ammunition. Miller's brigade was sent to relieve them and counter- 
charged the Confederates, driving them back across an open field and 
up a steep hill. Later in the day Brig.-Gen. W. P. Carlin, with the two 
brigades of the ist division, charged a Confederate force approaching 
the Federal right flank and drove it in confusion. On the 26th Carlin 
made a demonstration of advancing down Liberty gap, the enemy having 
taken up a strong position half a mile below the one from which he had 
been driven on the day previous. All that was done was to develop the 
Confederate strength with skirmishing, and it was discovered on the 
morning of the 27th that the Confederates had evacuated their lines, 



Cyclopedia of Battles 563 

leaving only a small cavalry force, which was easily driven out. The 
Union casualties for the Liberty gap skirmishes are not reported, but 
from June 23-July 7 amounted to 42 killed, 22 wounded and 364 captured 
or missing. The Confederate loss was not reported. 

Liberty Mills, Va., Dec. 22, 1864. Cavalry Corps, Army of the Mid- 
dle Military Division. During an expedition from Winchester to Gor- 
donsville the Federal advance drove the enemy's cavalry back across 
the bridge over tlie Rapidan river at Liberty Mills, but when the Fed- 
erals approached the structure was fired by an explosion and the enemy 
opened hre from the rifle-pits opposite. No casualties were reported. 

Liberty Postoffice, Ark., April 16, 1864. (See Camden, Ark., Ex- 
pedition to.) 

Lick Creek, Ark., Jan. 12, 1863. Detachment of 2nd Wisconsin Cav- 
alry. As an incident of an expedition which left Helena on the nth, 
Lieut. James B. Bradford with 25 men was detached to convey des- 
patches back to Helena. On reaching Lick creek Bradford discovered 
that the bridge which had been constructed by the Federal troops on the 
nth had been destroyed and he attempted a crossing at a ford farther 
up the stream. With 10 men he had succeeded in making the crossing 
when his command was attacked and a sharp resistance v/as made until 
the ammunition was exhausted, when Bradford started to retreat. While 
rallying his men a short distance from the ford he received a summons 
to surrender from a party of Confederates in ambush. Instead of com- 
plying he made a dash to break the enemy's line, and with 4 men suc- 
ceeded in getting through to Helena. Of the remainder of his command 
I was killed, 2 wounded and 9 or 10 captured. 

Light Prairie, Cal., Aug. 21, 1862. Detachments of Company F, 2nd 
California, Company D, 3d California Infantry, and 30 Citizens. During 
the night of the 20th this party surrounded the camp of about 25 Indians 
on Light prairie near Areata, and at daybreak the 30 citizens attacked. 
The Indians fled, running past the point where the soldiers were con- 
cealed. Several volleys were poured into them, resulting in the killing 
of 6 and the wounding of several others. Of the attacking force i man 
was killed. 

Limestone Creek, Tenn., Sept. 8, 1863. Detachment of looth Ohio 
Infantry. The itinerary of the 23d army corps from Aug. i to Sept. 30, 
during the East Tennessee campaign, states : "Sept. 8. — Lieut.-Col. 
Hayes, looth Ohio, and 300 men had a skirmish at Telford's station with 
1,500 of the enemy, under Gen. Jackson; i killed and 2 wounded. Thirty 
of the enemy killed and wounded. Fell back to Limestone creek, to 
await reinforcements. Fought the enemy, 1,800 strong, for two hours, 
and then surrendered. Loss, killed, wounded, and taken prisoners, 200 
men." 

Limestone Ridge, Va., Sept. 17, 1864. Detachment of the ist Bri- 
gade, 3d Cavalry Division, Army of West Virginia. Brig.-Gen. J. B. 
Mcintosh, with three regiments of his command, left camp near Berry- 
ville at I o'clock in the morning to capture a force at Limestone ridge, 
but the enemy got wind of the movement and the detachment was with- 
drawn, leaving only a small vedette, 2 of whom were captured. 

Limestone Valley, Ark., April 17, 1864. Detachment of 2nd Arkan- 
sas Cavalry. Two diff^erent detachments of the 2nd Ark. cavalry, hunt- 
ing a band of Confederates under Sissell, came upon them in Limestone 
valley. One detachment had just dislodged the enemy from in front 
when the other struck him in the rear. The rout was complete, the 
Federals pursuing for 8 miles. Some 30 Confederates were killed, a 
number wounded and 8 taken prisoners, while 22, horses and 25 stands 
of arms were captured. No casualties occurred on the Union side. 

Linden, Tenn., May 12, 1863. ist West Tennessee Cavalrv. Lieut. 



504 The Union Army 

S. L. Phelps, cominaiuling the Tennessee division of the Mississippi 
squadron, in a telegram to Fleet Capt. A. M. Pennock, states : "Am 
just down from Tennessee river. Have on board prisoners captured at 
Linden, Tenn., on the night of the 12th. Took on board gunboats 55 
men and horses of ist VVcst Tenn. cavalry, under command of Lieut. - 
Col. William K. M. Breckenridge; landed them on the east side of the 
river. Sent gunboats to cover all landings above and below. Col. 
Breckenridge dashed across the country to Linden ; surprised the rebel 
force, more than twice his number, capturing Lieut.-Col. W. Frierson, i 
captain, i surgeon, 4 lieutenants, 30 rebel soldiers, 10 conscripts. 50 horses, 
2 army wagons, etc. The enemy lost 3 killed. Our force none." 

Linden, Va., May 15, 1862. Detachment of 28th Pennsylvania In- 
fantry. A squad of 17 men. guarding a wagon train of a compan}^ of 
the 28th Pa. proceeding to Linden, was attacked by Confederate cavalry 
and I man was killed and all but 2 of the rest captured. The enemy 
was driven away by the approaching company. 

Linn Creek, Mo., Oct. 14, 1861. Fremont Battalion (Missouri) Cav- 
alry. Maj. Clark VVriglu, commanding the battalion, surrounded the 
town of Linn Creek and then marched into it from different directions, 
demanding an unconditional surrender. Several Confederate officers 
made good their escape, a number of shots being fired in the attempt to 
head them off. No casualties were suffered. 

Linn Creek, Mo., Oct. 16, 1861. Detachment of Fremont Battalion 
(Missouri) Cavalry. On learning that a corn team and 2 men had been 
captured by a party of Confederates, Maj. Clark Wright despatched 
Lieut. Jesse C. Kirby with 15 men to overtake the enemy while he fol- 
lowed with a heavier force. Kirby engaged the Confederates, recaptured 
the men and the wagon, killed 5 and wounded several others and 
captured a horse, 2 saddles and 10 guns. The Federal casualties amounted 
to I man slightly wounded. 

Linn Creek, Mo., April 22, 1865. Detachment of Missouri Militia. 
A Confederate band attacked the militia stationed at Linn creek, and 
after killing 7 of the men and wounding the captain, the remainder were 
stampeded. 

Linn Creek, Va., Feb. 8, 1862. Detachment of 5th West Va. In- 
fantry. 

Little Bear Creek, Ala., Dec. 12, 1862. (See Corinth. Miss., Recon- 
naissance from, Dec. 9-14, 1862.) 

Little Black River, Mo., Sept. 20. 1864. (See Pender's Mill, same 
date.) 

Little Blue, Dak. Ter., .Aug. 12, 1864. Detachment of the 7th Iowa 
Cavalry. 

Little Blue, Mo., Nov. ii, 1861. Detachment of the 7th Kansas Cav- 
alry. 

Little Blue River, Mo., April 12, 1862. 

Little Blue River, Mo., Aug. i. 1863. (See Taylor's Farm, same 
date.) 

Lttle Blue River, Mo., July 6, 1864. Detachment of Company C. 2nd 
Colorado Cavalry. Capt. Seymour W. Wagoner and 25 men were sur- 
rounded by 100 guerrillas under Todd while scouting on the Little Blue 
river from Raytown, and Wagoner and 7 of his men were killed. The 
enemy lost 6 killed and a number wounded. 

Little Blue River, Mo., Oct. 21, 1864. Portions of the Army of the 
Border. During Price's Missouri raid, while he was steadily driving the 
Federal troops westward, he came up with Col. Thomas Moonlight's 
division, guarding the Union rear, and gave battle at the Little Blue, the 
crossing of which stream Moonlight was resisting. Maj. -Gen. S. R. Cur- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 565 

tis, with the 2nd Col. cavalry and McLain's battery of Col. light artillery, 
together with a portion of the regular cavalry under Gen. Blunt, ad- 
vanced from Independence to reinforce Moonlight, who by this time had 
developed most of the Confederate force. Hie battery was placed behind 
the crest of a hill and Col. Jennison and Col. Ford, each leading a 
brigade, were placed in advanced positions. The enemy advanced in 
force against Jennison and Ford, who after a desperate resistance re- 
pelled the attack. The Confederates had, in the meantime, begun to get 
to the Federal rear and the latter began to fall slowly back on Inde- 
pendence, skirmishing until long after dark. The casualties were not 
reported. 

Little Blue River, Mo., March u, 1865. Detail of troops from 4th 
Sub-district, Central District of Missouri. Four men were placed on 
the stage leaving Kansas City for Warrcnsburg in order to catch the 
bushwhackers who had been holding it up. An attack was made upon it 
3 miles below the Little Blue and 2 of the band of 5 outlaws were killed 
and I was wounded. The other 2 escaped and brought reinforcements 
enough to make a party of 15 and again attacked the stage, capturing 
the driver and vehicle, the rest of the party escaping into the brush. 

Little Cacapon River, W. Va,, Nov. 30, 1861. Detachment of troops 
of Brig.-Gen. B. F. Kelley's command. Gen. Kelley, reporting to Maj.- 
Gen. George B. McClellan from Romney under date of Nov. 30, says: 
"Nothing new tonight except bushwhackers captured 6 of our horses 
and wounded 3 men today. Teams were out on river road south 
of town after hay. But to offset that, Capt. Dyche met party of secesh 
near mouth of Little Cacapon and captured 4 horses, saddles and bridles, 
one a field officer's." 

Little Cohera Creek, N. C, March 16, 1865. 4th Division, 15th 
Army Corps. As the corps was marching from South river toward 
Bentonville on this date. Corse's division occupied the advance. Shortly 
after leaving camp in the morning a foraging party met and exchanged 
shots with a brigade of Confederate cavalry. The 8ist Ohio, supported 
by the I2th III, was sent forward to dislodge the enemy. The Ohio 
regiment deployed as skirmishers, drove the enemy back slowly for about 
a quarter of a mile, when he took up a strong position where his flanks 
were protected by a swamp, and opened with artillery. The Union skir- 
mish line was then strengthened, and a section of the ist Mo. light 
artillery ordered up to shell the enemy's position. A few shots threw 
the Confederates into consternation, and the skirmishers were pushed 
vigorously forward, giving the enemy no time to halt until after he had 
been driven across the creek. No losses reported. 

Little Compton, Mo., Aug. 11, 1862. (See Grand River.) 

Little Creek, N. C, Nov. 2, 1862. Troops of Department of North 
Carolina. As an incident of an expedition from New Berne, under com-, 
mand of Ma j. -Gen. John G. Foster, the Union force, 5,000 strong, en- 
countered the Confederates strongly posted on Little creek. The 2nd 
brigade was ordered to cross the stream, dislodge the enemy and then 
push on with all haste. After an hour's engagement, in which a Rhode 
Island battery did good service, the Confederates withdrew to Rawle's 
mill, a mile farther on. The artillery was again brought into action and 
after a fight of half an hour succeeded in driving the enemy from their 
works and across a bridge. Foster reported no loss, and the Confed- 
erate reports do not mention the affair. 

Little Harpeth River, Tenn., March 25, 1863. (See Brentwood.) 

Little Missouri, Ark., April 6, 1864. (See Camden, Ark., Expedi- 
tion to.) 

Little Osage Crossing, Kas.. Oct. 25, 1864. (See Marais des 
Cygnes.) 



566 The Union Army 

Little Piney, Mo., May 14, 1865. Detachment of Missouri State 
Militia. Col. John Morrill, commanding the District of Rolla, reports 
under date of May 19: "Capt. Murphy, with detachment of Texas and 
Pulaski County militia, attacked a party of guerrillas on headwaters of 
Little Piney, killing 3 and wounding i. On the 14th instant a detach- 
ment of 10 men of the same company, under a sergeant, attacked a 
party of 35 guerrillas near the same place, killing 2 and wounding 4." 

Little Pond, Tenn., Aug. 30, 1862. U. S. Troops under Col. E. P. 
FyfTe. On his arrival in camp near McMinnville from an expedition 
Brig.-Gen. Thomas J. Wood learned that Forrest was in the vicinity and 
sent Col. FyfTe with three regiments of infantry and 4 pieces of artillery 
to engage him. By a rapid march FyfTe managed to strike Forrest just 
as his column was crossing the McMinnville and Murfreesboro road, 
attacking the center. After a short but sharp engagement the enemy 
was defeated, and the column obliged to take flight in two difTerent 
directions. FyfTe pursued until darkness intervened. The Confederate 
loss was estimated by FyfTe at 18 or 20 killed and wounded. 

Little Red River, Ark., May 17, 1862. Detachment of Missouri 
Troops. A Federal foraging party was attacked by a party of Confed- 
erates 9 miles below the Union camp. Five wagons and 24 mules were 
captured, and the 9 men missing were supposed to have been killed. 

Little Red River, Ark., June 7, 1862. Company L, 3d Illinois Cav- 
alry. This affair was an attack by some Confederate cavalry on a com- 
pany of the 3d 111. cavalry acting as a picket. Tlie result was the re- 
treat of the Federals with a loss of 7 killed, wounded or captured. 

Little Red River, Ark., June 25, 1862. 4th Iowa Cavalry. 

Little River, Ala., Oct. 20, 1864. 2nd Cavalry Division, Army 
of the Cumberland. The report of Brig.-Gen. Kenner Garrard, com- 
manding the division, states : "On the 20th advanced through Gayles- 
ville, skirmishing, and drove the enemy beyond Little river." The afTair 
was an incident of the North Georgia and North Alabama campaign. 

Little River, Va., May 26-27, 1864. (See North Anna River.) 

Little River Turnpike, Va., March 23, 1863. 5th New York Cav- 
alry. At 5 p. m. the pickets of the 5th N. Y. in front of Chantilly were 
attacked by Mosby's men. The reserve was immediately ordered under 
arms and charged the Confederates, driving them for 2 miles into a strip 
of timber, where Mosby turned and countercharged. Reinforcements 
coming to the Federal aid the enemy was again driven until darkness 
stopped the fighting. The Union loss was 5 killed and a number 
wounded, besides 36 prisoners. Mosby reported no casualties. 

Little Rock, Ark., Sept. 10, 1863. Arkansas Expedition. During 
the night of the 9th Brig.-Gen. John W. Davidson threw a pontoon 
bridge across the Arkansas river and at daylight began crossing his 
division to the south side. The 2nd division was put under Davidson's 
command also and the artillery was placed in position to cover the cross- 
ing. Davidson's movement was successfully executed and the two col- 
umns began moving on Little Rock on both sides of the river. No re- 
sistance was met until the column on the south bank (Davidson's) 
arrived at Bayou Fourche. There the Confederates held their position 
obstinately until the Federal artillery on the opposite bank opened upon 
them in flank and rear, when they gave way and were steadily pushed back 
to the city. By the time the Union force arrived the city had been evacu- 
ated, only Marmaduke's cavalry disputing the entrance. A formal sur- 
render by the municipal authorities was received in the evening. The 
Federals lost 7 men killed, 64 wounded and i captured or missing. The 
Confederate casualties were 6 killed, 14 wounded and 13 captured or 
missing. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 567 

Little Rock, Ark., May 28, 1864. 57th U. S. Colored Troops. 

Little Rock Landing, Tenn., April 26, 1863. Mississippi Marine Bri- 
gade. While on a raid along the Tennessee river the boats of the 
brigade, commanded by Brig.-Gen. Alfred W. Ellet, were attacked near 
the landing and Duck River island by 700 Confederate cavalry with 2 
pieces of artillery. The light was spirited, but resulted in the defeat and 
pursuit of the enemy for some 12 miles. The enemy lost 10 killed, while 
the Federal casualties were 2 killed and i wounded. 

Little Rock Road, Ark., April 2, 1863. One company of the 5th 
Kansas Cavalry. 

Little Santa Fe, Mo., Nov. 6, 1861. 4th Missouri and 5th Kansas 
Cavalry, and Kowald's Missouri Battery. 

Little Santa Fe, Mo., March 22, 1862. Detachment of 2nd Kansas 
Cavalry. With 300 men Col. Robert B. Mitchell left the Federal camp 
about 6:30 p. m. and proceeded to Little Santa Fe, reaching there about 
10 p. m. On his arrival he despatched Maj. James M. Pomeroy with a 
number of men to the house of one Tate, said to be in league with the 
guerrilla Quantrill, to arrest the owner. When Pomeroy demanded a 
surrender he was fired upon through the door. The Federal troops 
returned the fire and 2 men came out and surrendered, stating that 
Quantrill and 26 men were within. An attempt to fire the house resulted 
unsuccessfully and Pomeroy was wounded. On the second attempt the 
house was set on fire and the unwounded men within made a break for the 
woods, 2 being shot and killed. The killed and wounded, some 6 or 7, 
within the house were burned with it. The only casualty to the Union 
force besides Pomeroy's wound was i soldier mortally wounded. 

Little Sewell Mountain, W. Va., Nov. 6, 1863. Duffie's Expedition. 
Brig.-Gen. Alfred N. Duffie, commanding an expedition from Charleston 
to Lewisburg, says in his report : "On the 6th the whole command 
marched to Meadow Bluff, 15 miles this side of Lewisburg. We en- 
countered the enemy's pickets on Little Sewell mountain, and drove 
them a distance of 5 miles, capturing 2 of them." 

Littlestown, Pa., June 30, 1863. Cavalry, 2nd Division, 12th Army 
Corps. During the movements before the battle of Gettysburg the cav- 
alry of Geary's division was attacked at Littlestown by Stuart's cavalry, 
which was driven off without much difficulty after half an hours fight. 
No casualties were reported. 

Little Washington, Va., Nov. 15, 1862. (See Fayetteville.) 

Liverpool Heights, Miss., Feb. 3-4, 1864. Detachments of nth Illi- 
nois Infantry, 8th Louisiana Colored Infantry and ist Mississippi Col- 
ored Cavalry. During the Meridian expedition a side expedition, under 
Col. James H. Coates, was sent up the Yazoo river in transports under 
escort of gunboats. On the morning of the 3d the Confederates opened 
on the gunboats with 2 pieces of field artillery and Coates immediately 
landed 250 men of the nth 111., who steadily advanced up the hill and 
drove the enemy from his first position. By the time he had rallied, one 
wing of the 8th La. colored infantry had been thrown to the right of 
the Illinois detachment, but the Federals were hard pressed and it be- 
came necessary for the balance of the nth 111. to go to the assistance of 
the troops already engaged. About this time the Confederates opened 
fire from 2 pieces of artillery and attempted to outflank the Union men, 
a movement which was frustrated by Coates bringing the remainder of 
his force into action. A charge by the first battalion of the nth 111. 
was repulsed and the Confederates in a countercharge were themselves 
repulsed and driven back over the hill on which the contest had been 
waged. The following day as the transports were passing the heights 
the Confederates on the opposite shore opened upon them with musketry. 



568 The Union Army 

'Hie troops on board returned the lire from behind hastily constructed 
barricades of boxes, etc., and the enemy was driven away. The Con- 
federate casuahies were not ascertained ; the losses on the Union side 
were 6 killed, 26 wounded and 8 captured or missing. 

Livingston Road, Miss., Oct. 18, 1863. Part of 15th and 17th Army 
Corps. This was the last engagement of an expedition under Maj.-Gen. 
J. B. McPherson from Messinger's ferry on the Big Black river to the 
vicinity of Canton. After the light at Robinson's mills on the 17th, Mc- 
Pherson learned that a large Confederate force was concentrating at 
Canton, and deemed it advisable to return to the Big Black. That night 
he encamped at the junction of the Vernon and Clinton and the Livingston 
and Brownsville roads, where he was attacked on the morning of the 
i8th by the Confederates under Loring, Adams and Jackson. The Union 
troops fell back in good order, pursued tlirough Clinton by Jackson's 
cavalry, which did no material damage. The Federal loss during the 
entire expedition was 4 killed, 10 wounded and a few stragglers missing. 
The enemy's loss was reported as 5 killed, 20 wounded and 20 captured. 
Among the wounded was Gen. Wirt Adams. 

Livonia, La., May 30, 1864. ( See Atchafalaya River, Expedition to. ) 

Lizzard's, Tenn., Dec. 29, 1862. Cavalry Division, Army of the Cum- 
berland. On this date the cavalry division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. 
D. S. Stanley, was advancing from Triune to Murfrecsboro, with the 3d 
and 4th Ohio deployed as skirmishers. About 6 miles from Murfrecsboro 
the enemy's pickets were met and driven back some 2 miles to Lizzard's 
place, where 2 pieces of artillery, supported by infantry and dismounted 
cavalry, were found posted in the edge of the wood. Both cannon 
opened a tire of grape and canister on the LTnion advance, and Maj. Pugh 
was sent forward to reconnoiter the enemy's position. While thus 
engaged a body of Confederate cavalry tried to gain his flank and rear. 
Pugh ordered his men to change front and charged the flanking party, 
driving them back to the woods. The ist brigade was then formed in 
line of battle and moved forward, when after a sharp skirmish the 
enemy retreated. The Union loss was 2 killed. 7 wounded and 9 missing. 
Seven Confederates were captured, but their loss in killed and wounded 
was not ascertained. 

Lobelville, Tenn., Sept. 27, 1864. 

Locke's Mill, Tenn., Sept. 21, 1863. 6th Tennessee Cavalrj-. A 
scouting party, consisting of a sergeant and 10 men of the 6th Tenn. 
cavalry, encountered a squad of 6 or 7 Confederates at Locke's mill near 
Moscow. The sergeant formed his men across the road and when the 
enemy approached within 60 yards the Federals tired, mortally wounding 
a lieutenant. No casualties on the Union side. 

Locke's Ford, Va., Sept. 13, 1864. Reserve Brigade, ist Division, 
Cavalry Corps, Siienandoah campaign. 'I'his affair was a demonstration 
made at Locke's ford on the Opequan creek, in which 11 Confederates of 
Breckenridge's corps were captured. No casualties were reported in the 
Federal force. 

Lockhart's Mill, Miss., Oct. 6, 1863. 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division, 
i6th Army Corps. This engagement was an incident of Chalmers' raid. 
While the brigade was crossing the Coldwater river Chalmers attacked 
in the rear, but after some sharp fighting was driven off. There was i 
man wounded on each side. 

Lockridge's Mill, Tenn., May 5. 1862. Detachment of 5th Iowa Cav- 
alry. Learning of a trade being carried on between the people of Dres- 
den and Paris and the Confederate troops. Col. William W. Lowe sent 
Maj. Carl Boernstein with about 150 men to break it up. Finding no 
enemy at Paris, Boernstein pushed on to Lockridge's mill on the Obion 



Cyclopedia of Battles 569 

river and bivouacked. The command had not been in camp more than 20 
minutes when it was attacked by about 1,200 Confederate cavalry under 
Col. Thomas Claiborne. The result was the complete dispersion of the 
Union force with a loss of 4 killed, 6 wounded and about 60 captured. 
No casualties were reported on the Confederate side. 

Locust Grove, Va., Nov. 27, 1863. (See Mine Run, Va., Nov. 26- 
Dec. 2, 1863.) 

Logan's Cross Roads, Ky., Jan. 19, 1862. (See Mill Springs.) 

London, Ky., Aug. 17, 1862. Detachment of the 3d Tennessee In- 
fantry. Col. Houk, with five companies of his regiment, was attacked 
by a large force of Confederate cavalry at London and after a gallant 
resistance of an hour was forced to seek shelter in the mountain ridges 
near the town. After 5 days of privations his command reached camp 
at Cumberland gap. In the fight at London the enemy lost a lieutenant- 
colonel and several soldiers killed, and a number wounded. Houk's loss 
was not reported. 

London, Ky., July 26, 1863. 44th Ohio Mounted Infantry. Col. 
John S. Scott, reporting the operations of his Confederate cavalry 
brigade in a raid in eastern Kentucky, states that his force drove the 
44th Ohio mounted infantry from London on the evening of the 26th. 
Scott makes the only mention of the affair to be found in the official 
records of the war, but states no casualties. 

Lone Jack, Mo., Aug. 15-16, 1862. Missouri Militia and 3d Indiana 
Battery. With 800 men Maj. Emory S. Foster of the 7th Mo. cavalry 
(militia) marched on Lone Jack, arriving there about 9 p. m. Col. 
Coffee with about 800 Confederates was driven out in confusion and 
Foster camped in the town. About daylight next morning the Union 
pickets were driven in and half an hour later a desperate assault was 
made on the town by the combined forces of Cockrell, Thompson, Hays 
and Quantrill. about 3,000 strong. The strongest efforts were directed 
against the flanks, but neither were turned. After the fight had been 
in progress about an hour Coffee returned with his command and 
charged the guns, which he succeeded in capturing. Foster was wounded, 
Capt. M. H. Brawner assumed command and withdrew the force to Lex- 
ington. The Federal loss was 43 killed, 154 wounded and 75 captured, 
an aggregate loss of 272. Brawner estimated the enemy's killed at 118. 

Lone Jack, Mo., March 12, 1865. Detachment ist Missouri State 
Militia Cavalry. Maj. A. W. Mullins, commanding the regiment, re- 
ported from Pleasant Hill on the 13th: "My foot scout has just returned. 
Had a fight last night 2 miles east of Lone Jack with 2 bushwhackers. 
The latter escaped, though one of them went off evidently wounded. 
My men captured 2 revolvers." 

Lone Pine, Cal., March 20, 1862. A report from Lieut.-Col. George 
S. Evans of the California infantry states that he learned "there had 
been a fight at the Lone Pine between 20 white men, under command of 
Capt. Anderson of Aurora, and about 40 Indians, in which engagement 
II Indians were killed and 3 white men wounded." 

Long Bridge, Va., June 12, 1864. 3d Cavalry Division, Army of the 
Potomac. In the movement to the James river, after the battle of Cold 
Harbor, the division, Brig.-Gen. James H. Wilson, commanding, was 
assigned to the duty of covering both the front and rear of the army. 
Just after dark on the 12th the advance (Chapman's brigade) reached 
Long Bridge, expecting to find the pontoons in position for crossing. The 
enemy, from a line of rifle-pits on the south bank, prevented the laying 
of the pontoons and the officer in charge had been unable to procure 
assistance from the 5th corps. Col. Chapman halted his brigade until 
Wilson came up with the remainder of the division, and then dismounted 
the 22nd N. Y. and 3d Ind. for action. The former was sent about 50 



570 The Union Army 

yards above the site of the old bridge, which had been destroyed, and 
efl'ected a crossing by means of fallen trees and overhanging limbs. The 
3d Ind. launched some pontoons and pushed across directly in the face 
of a sharp fire. Once on the south side of the river the two regiments 
charged the enemy and drove him from his intrenchments. The bridge was 
then laid and the entire division crossed over, driving the Confederates 
rapidly in the direction of White Oak swamp. No losses reported. 

Long's Mills, Tenn., July 28, 1864. Detachment of ist Brigade, 4th 
Division, 23d Army Corps. Col. W. Y. Dillard, commanding the ist 
brigade, reported from Cumberland gap under date of July 29: "Col. 
(R. A.) Davis has just returned from a scout. He fought the rebels 
at Long's mills yesterday near Mulberry gap, whipping them badly, 
killing and wounding 21, capturing 8 prisoners and 20 horses. No one 
hurt on our side." 

Long View, Ark., March 29, 1864. (See Camden, Ark., Expedition 
to.) 

Lookout Mountain, Tenn., Nov. 24, 1863. (See Chattanooga.) 

Lookout Station, Mo., Aug. 20, 1861. Missouri Militia. A train 
on the Pacilic railroad loaded with militia was fired into by Confederates 
in ambush while passing Lookout Station. The fire was returned by 
the men in the cars, but as no losses were reported on either side the 
casualties are unknown. 

Loper's Cross Roads, S .C, Feb. 2, 1865. 2nd Division, 15th Army 
Corps. The division broke camp at Hickory hill at 6 a. m. and moved 
toward Loper's cross-roads, the ist brigade. Col. Theodore Jones, in 
advance. About 2 p. m. a body of Confederate cavalry was met and the 
skirmishing at once commenced. Jones threw forward the 6th Mo. and 
30th OhiOi and these two regiments, supported by the rest of the brigade, 
slowly forced the enemy back across Duck creek, or Duck branch, the 
fighting continuing until dark. Union loss, 5 men wounded ; enemy's 
loss not ascertained. 

Los Patricios, Tex., March 15, 1864. Maj. Mat. Nolan, of the Con- 
federate army, reports that 62 men under his command were attacked 
by about 125 Federals and that after a hard fight the Union force was 
driven back, leaving 5 dead on the field. The Confederates lost 2 killed 
and as many wounded. 

Lost Mountain, Ga., June 15-17, 1864. (See Gilgal Church.) 

Lost Mountain, Ga., Oct. 4-7, 1864. 2nd Cavalry Division, Army of the 
Cumberland. While Hood's army was moving north toward Tennessee in 
the effort to draw Sherman away from Atlanta, the cavalry of Brig.- 
Gen. Kenner Garrard had almost constant skirmishing for 4 days with 
the cavalry of the enemy in the vicinity of Lost mountain. Neither de- 
tails nor casualties were reported. 

Lotspeich Farm, Mo., July 9, 1862. Detachment of ist Iowa Cav- 
alry. Some 180 men attacked Quantrill's camp on the Lotspeich farm 
at daylight. The first attack was repulsed, but without loss to the as- 
sailants, a second storming party found the Confederate position too 
strong to be easily taken, and the Federals retired with the loss of i 
man killed and 2 wounded. Quantrill lost i man killed. 

Loudon, Tenn., Nov. 15, 1864. (See Lenoir's Station, same date.) 

Loudoun Heights, Va., Jan. 10, 1864. Battalion Maryland Cavalry, 
Potomac Home Brigade. Between 3 and 4 a. m. the Confederates made 
an attack on the camp of this battalion, charging from three sides. Com- 
pany A held the enemy in check long enough for the rest of the gar- 
rison to rally and the enemy was then driven back with a loss of 5 
killed, 2 mortally wounded and i captured. The Union loss was 4 
killed and 17 wounded. 

Louisa, Ky., March 25-26, 1863. Troops of the Eastern District of 



Cyclopedia of Battles 571 

Kentucky. About 3 p. m. of the 25th the enemy in considerable force 
appealed in sight of the Federal encampment at Louisa and after rccon- 
noitering for a time went into camp. Desultory skirmishing was kept 
up until a late hour and it was expected that the Confederates would 
attack in the morning, but it was discovered soon after daylight that they 
had retired during the night. A detachment was immediately sent in 
pursuit, but the enemy had so much the start that he could not be over- 
taken. The Union loss was i killed, 2 wounded and 4 missing; the 
Confederates were reported to have lost 7 killed and more than 20 
wounded. 

Louisa Court House, Va., May 2, 1863. Cavalry Corps, Army of 
the Potomac. The only mention of this engagement is contained in 
Confederate Brig.-Gen. W. H. F. Lee's report of Stoneman's raid, which 
says: "Saturday (2d), reached Gordonsville at 11 a. m. ; heard on my 
arrival that a large body of the enemy was at Trevilian Depot and Louisa 
Court House; sent the gth Va. in that direction; their vedettes were 
driven in by the enemy ; they charged and drove them 3 miles, killing 
and wounding a number and took 32 prisoners — i lieutenant. My loss 
was 3 or 4 wounded. Went to their assistance with 13th Va. and 2 
pieces of artillery; met Col. Reale falling back; took a position and 
awaited their approach ; they did not advance." 

Louisiana Belle (U. S. Steamer), May 22, 1863. (See Barre's Land- 
ing. La.) 

Louisville, Ga., Nov. 29-30, 1864. Detachments and Foraging Parties 
of the 14th and 20th Army Corps. The engagements about Louisville 
on the last two days of November consisted of a series of attacks by 
Wheeler's cavalry on the pickets and foraging parties sent out by the 
different brigades and regiments of the two corps. Of these affairs the 
following were the most important. Capt. Watson, with six companies 
of the 113th N. Y. infantry, was guarding a train, when he was attacked 
by a considerable force of the enemy and compelled to fall back on the 
picket line, losing 2 wagons and 7 men captured. Brig.-Gen. J. D. Mor- 
gan ordered a brigade to Watson's support and the enemy beat a hasty 
and disorderly retreat. Three companies of the loth Mich., while on 
grand guard east of the camp, were attacked by a large force of mounted 
infantry. A charge drove the Confederates across an open field, with a 
loss of 3 killed and several wounded. At the edge of the woods they 
reformed their lines and tried in vain to drive the Michigan men back. 
Reinforcements were ordered to the support of the three companies, but 
before they arrived the enemy gave up the fight and went away. Capt. 
Atkins, commanding a foraging party of the 78th 111., was surrounded 
on the Waynesboro road and 8 of his men were captured. Lieut.-Col. 
Vernon hurried to his assistance and dispersed the attacking party, but 
failed to recapture the prisoners. Six wagons, under charge of Lieut. 
Coe, acting assistant quartermaster, were attacked just outside the picket 
line, and 4 wagons were captured. The other two were hurried inside 
the lines closely followed by the enemy. Capt. Dunphy drew up Co. G, 
loth Mich, infantry, and when the Confederates were within easy range 
delivered a volley, killing 3 men and wounding several others. The 
company then charged and recaptured the wagons, the Confederates 
scattering in all directions. Lieut.-Col. J. O. Martin, commanding the 
17th N. Y. infantry, sent out a foraging party of 40 men under Lieut. 
Magee. This party was cut off by some of the Confederate cavalry and 
a. desperate effort made to capture the men. Martin sent out a detach- 
ment to Magee's rescue, but this was forced back to the picket line. The 
whole regiment was then pushed forward to Magee's relief and the 
enemy was driven off with some loss. The activity of the Confederates 
on the Warrenton and Augusta roads led Lieut.-Col. Langley, command- 



573 The Union Army 

ing the 3d brigade, 2nd division, 14th corps, to deploy the 86th and 125th 
111. as skirmishers, supported by the 52nd Ohio and 22nd Ind., to clear 
the roads and protect the Union foragers. He encountered the enemy 
a short distance from Louisville and after a short but sharp skirmish 
defeated him. The Confederates took shelter behind a gin-house filled 
with cotton bales. Langlcy sent Alaj. Holmes, with part of the 52nd 
Ohio, to destroy the building, whicli was accordingly burned. In this 
afifair Langlcy recaptured a foraging party of the 20th corps. The losses 
in all these skirmishes were comparatively light. 

Louisville, Tenn., Nov. 28, 1863. 6th Illinois Cavalry. 

Louisville & Nashville Railroad, Aug. 20-21, 1862. Morgan's Raid. 
The Confederates under Col. John H. Morgan made a successful raid 
on the Louisville & Nashville railroad between Gallatin and Edgefield 
junction, near Nashville. The only forces opposed to him were small 
detachments guarding the several bridges and trestles along the road. 
These guards were repulsed at Drake's creek, Pilot knob, Manscoe creek 
and Edgefield junction, the total Union loss during the raid being about 
60 in killed and wounded and some 120 captured. 

Lovjoy's Station, Ga., July 29, 1864. (See McCook's Raid.) 

Lovejoy's Station, Ga., Aug. 18-22, 1864. Kilpatrick's Raid. Acting 
under orders from Gen. Sherman the expedition left camp at Sandtown 
on the evening of the 18th, under the command of Brig.-Gen. Judsoii 
Kilpatrick. It consisted of the 3d division, temporarily commanded by 
Col. E. H. Murray, and the Tst and 2nd brigades of the 2nd division, 
respectively commanded by Cols. R. H. G. Minty and Eli Long, with 
two field batteries, the whole command numbering 4,500 men. The object 
of the raid was to cut the enemy's communications on the south of At- 
lanta. Long's brigade, which was in advance, encountered some pickets 
of the 6th Texas near Camp creek, drove them across the creek to their 
camp, about a mile away, where the entire regiment was routed about 
10 p. m. About midnight Ross' brigade of Confederate cavalry ap- 
peared in front to dispute further advance. Lieut.-Col. F. A. Jones, com- 
manding the 2nd brigade, 3d division, threw forward the 8th Ind., dis- 
mounted, and this regiment, with the loth Ohio, quickly dislodged Ross 
and drove him down a cross road toward East Point, where he was 
held until the entire column had passed, when Jones took up a position 
as rear-guard. The West Point railroad was struck at Red Oak about 
daylight on the 19th and a section of track torn up. Here Ross made an 
attack on the Union rear, but it was repulsed and Kilpatrick moved for- 
ward on the Fayetteville road. At Flint river bridge the enemy was 
found posted in a strong position on the opposite bank, and as soon a.s 
the Federal advance appeared opened a brisk fire of artillery and mus- 
ketry. Long's brigade dismounted, deployed as skirmishers and, aided 
by the fire of the two batteries, succeeded in forcing the Confederates 
to retire from the river bank. The brigade then remounted, charged, and 
drove the enemy back to Jonesboro. Minty was ordered to move forward 
with his own and Long's brigades and occupy the town. Minty's brigade 
was dismounted, the 4th Mich, deployed as skirmishers, the 4th U. S. 
and the 1st Ohio regiments formed in line, with a section of artillery 
between them, and pressed forward, closely supported by the 3d and 4th 
Ohio and Long's brigade. The skirmishers soon encountered Ross' and 
Ferguson's cavalry brigades and drove them steadily into the town, where 
they took shelter in the houses and opened fire from the windows. Lieut. 
Robinson was directed to bring up his guns and shell every house from 
which a gun was fired. Five minutes of this warfare was sufficient for 
the Confederates, who hurried out of town and the Union troops took 
possession. The railroad buildings were burned and a section of the 
track destroyed. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 573 

At 9 p. m. Murray was ordered to move down the railroad toward 
Griffin to protect the flanks of the 3d division, which was to tear up the 
track. About half a mile from the town the enemy was found in force, 
posted behind barricades. Murray's advance was first checked and then 
driven back. It was so dark that the Confederate position could be de- 
termined only by the line of fire, which enveloped the front and both 
flanks. Jones was ordered to dismount the 8th Ind. and 2nd Ky. on the 
right of the road, the 3d Ky. on the left, and these regiments, with the 
loth Ohio on the road, mounted, made a gallant charge on the enemy's 
position but failed to dislodge him. Murray then withdrew his com- 
mand and joined the main column about daylight on tlie 20th on the 
McDonough road. An attack was made on the rear-guard but it was 
repulsed by Long's brigade. On the march to Lovejoy's Station Minty's 
and Long's brigades occupied the advance. About a mile from the sta- 
tion the road forked, one branch running through the town and the 
other crossing the railroad a short distance north of it. Minty sent the 
4th Mich., under Maj. Mix, up the latter road, with instructions to reach 
the railroad and destroy as much of it as possible. Mix reached the road 
and began his work of destruction, when a sharp fire was opened on the 
advance. For a little while it looked as if Minty's brigade was to be 
annihilated, but the 2nd brigade quickly formed in line, tlie Chicago 
Board of Trade battery was wheeled into position, and the attack was 
checked. Almost ■iwimediately afterward the enemy rallied and made a 
desperate charge on the battery, which was forced to fall back, leaving 
one gun disabled on the ground and losing several of the men. The gun 
was later recovered. The Confederate cavalry next made an attack on 
the rear and Minty was ordered to withdraw his command, form on 
the right of the road and prepare for a charge. The ground 
over which the charge was ordered was full of gullies and intersected 
by several rail fences, but at the word of command the whole line dashed 
forward with drawn sabers and in the face of a galling fire rode into 
the enemy's lines. The Confederates stood their ground until the cav- 
alry was almost upon them, when they broke and fled in confusion. 
Minty pursued them for about 3 miles, capturing 3 pieces of artillery, 
3 battleflags and several prisoners, while the bloody sabers of his men 
told the story of the large number killed or wounded. Kilpatrick then 
ordered Minty to cover the march to McDonough. Before the head of 
the column got in motion the rear was attacked by Cleburne's infantry 
division and a fight of 3 hours ensued, in which Long was severely 
wounded, the command of his brigade devolving on Col. Eggleston, of 
the 1st Ohio, who was ordered to withdraw his forces behind a new line, 
consisting of the 7th Pa., the 4th Mich, and Bennett's battery. Cleburne 
advanced and attacked this line, which was protected by rail breastworks, 
hastily constructed, but he was effectually checked, and the engagement 
at Lovejoy's Station was at an end. 

While the main body of the expedition was operating in tlie neigh- 
borhood of Jonesboro and Lovejoy's Station a detachment under Lieut. - 
Col. Robert Klein, of the 3d Ind., made a descent on the Macon railroad. 
This detachment of 305 men left the main column at Stevens' farm, 7 
miles from Fairburn. at 11 p. m. on the l8th and moved to Fayetteville, 
where a small force of the enemy was found stationed. This was quickly 
dispersed, a few taken prisoners, 40 mules captured and 20 wagons burned. 
Klein's objective point was Fayette Station, but through a mistake of 
his guide he struck the railroad at Bear Creek Station about 11 a. m. on 
the 19th. From this point he moved toward Lovejoy's, tearing up the 
track at intervals until about 3 miles were destroyed, with the same dis- 
tance of telegraph wire. He captured a train of 9 cars loaded with whis- 
key, meal, lard, etc., ran it into a ditch and applied the torch. About 3 



574 The Union Army 

miles below Lovejoy's he captured a second train, but before he could 
destroy it he was attacked in the front by a considerable body of infantry 
and on the flank by cavalry. Seeing himself outnumbered, he abandoned 
the train and fell back over the road he had come in the morning. Two 
miles from Faycttcville he was attacked in the rear and a brisk fire was 
kept up until the town was reached. Here a force was found drawn up 
in front to intercept him, but a saber charge scattered it in all directions 
and Klein proceeded without further hindrance, reaching Sandtown on 
the 20th. 

The Union losses during the raid were 64 killed, 209 wounded and 
218 missing. The Confederate casualties were reported as being 264 
killed, 664 wounded and 292 missing. Although the expedition did not 
prove as successful as Sherman had hoped, it was not without some good 
results. A large amount of government stores were destroyed at va- 
rious points, 97 horses, 221 mules and 231 wagons captured, and several 
miles of railroad track torn up. The failure of the undertaking to 
accomplish all that was expected led Sherman to move the main body of 
his army around to the right, which movement Hood was unable to meet, 
and thus the Confederates were forced to evacuate Atlanta. 

Lovejoy's Station, Ga., Sept. 2-5, 1864. 4th and 23d Army Corps, 
and Army of the Tennessee. Hardee evacuated his position at Jonesboro 
on the night of the ist and fell back to Lovejoy's Station, about 6 miles 
farther south, where he threw up breastworks and made a stand. On 
the morning of the 2nd he was pursued by the 4th corps, commanded 
by Maj.-Gen. David S. Stanley, the Army of the Tennesse, under Maj.- 
Gen. O. O. Howard, and the Army of the Ohio (the 23d corps), under 
Maj.-Gen. John M. Schofield. Davis' corps of the Army of the Cumber- 
land was left at Jonesboro to bury the dead and collect the captured prop- 
erty. About noon a line of battle was formed, Howard's skirmishers 
drove the enemy from a height on the left of his works, after which the 
whole line advanced close up to the Confederate breastworks, which were 
nearly completed. Part of Stanley's troops gained and carried a part 
of the enemy's intrenchments, but for lack of adequate support was com- 
pelled to retire. That night information reached the Union armies that 
Atlanta had been surrendered to Gen. Slocum, and on the 3d Sherman 
issued orders for all the different commands to return to the city and 
vicinity. Skirmishing continued about Lovejoy's Station until the 5th, 
when the Federal troops were withdrawn and went into camp near the 
city. 

Lovejoy's Station, Ga., Nov. 16, 1864. 3d Cavalry Division, Military 
Division of the Mississippi. Learning on the 15th that part of Wheeler's 
cavalry and the Georgia militia, under Gen. Cobb, were at Lovejoy's 
Station, Brig.-Gen. Judson Kilpatrick, commanding the division, made 
a reconnaissance in that direction the next morning. The advance was 
driven back upon the main body of Wheeler's forces, which were found 
posted in the old trenches thrown up by Gen. Hood's army in its retreat. 
Part of the 8th Ind. was dismounted, and by a courageous charge drove 
the enemy from his works. Murray's entire brigade then charged, com- 
pletely routing the Confederates, killing and wounding a large number 
and capturing 2 fine Rodman guns. No casualties reported on the side 
of the Federals. 

Love's Bridge, S. C, March 8, 1865. 38th Indiana Infantry. During 
the campaign of the Carolinas the 14th army corps approached Lumber 
river on the 8th and Love's or Blue's bridge over the stream was secured 
by Lieut. Benjamin P. Dewey, with a detachment of the 38th Ind., before 
the Confederates guarding it could burn it. No casualties were reported. 

Lovettsville, Va., Aug. 8, 1861. 19th New York Infantry. 

Lovettsville, Va., Oct. 21, 1862. ist and 2nd Brigades, 2nd Division; 



Cyclopedia of Battles 575 

Knap's, Pennsylvania Battery ; Detachment, 6th New York Cavalry. At 
2:30 a. m. this command, under Brig. -Gen. John W. Geary, left Loudoun 
heights and proceeded in tlie direction of Lovettsville to intercept a 
Confederate foraging train. Just beyond Hillsboro several of the enemy's 
scouts were captured and small detachments were sent out on both sides, 
while the main body proceeded to Lovettsville. About a mile and a half 
from Wheatland a portion of White's Confederate cavalry was en- 
countered drawn up in battle line on the edge of the wood with the 
sharpshooters stationed behind some adjacent haystacks. The cavalry 
remaining with the column, about 200 in number, immediately attacked 
and the enemy beat a hasty retreat, closely pursued for 4 or 5 miles. 
Geary's loss was i killed and 2 wounded ; the Confederate casualties were 
2 killed, 12 wounded and 22 captured or missing. 

Lovettsville, "Va., Jan. 18, 1865. 6th New York Cavalry. Col. White, 
of Rosscr's Confederate cavalry, crossed Short hill with a force of 220 
men and surprised the vedettes of the 6th N. Y. on the Harper's Ferry 
road. He then forced back the reserve, but the entire regiment turned 
out and in a few minutes turned White's flank, driving him from the field 
with a loss of 3 killed and 11 wounded. The Union loss was 2 killed 
and 5 wounded. The enemy was pursued to Purcellville, but was not 
overtaken. 

Low Creek, W. Va., June 21, 1863. Organizations not given. 

Lowndesboro, Ala., April 10, 1865. Detachment of ist Wisconsin 
Cavalry. During Wilson's raid the ist Wis. was sent forward to relieve 
the /th Ky., which had been skirmishing with the enemy all the way from 
Selma. Capt. Edward D. Town with Companies A and B, having the 
advance, charged and drove the Confederates into and through Lowndes- 
boro, capturing the commissary of the 7th Ala. cavalry. No casualties 
were reported. 

Lucas Bend, Mo., Sept. 8-10, 1861. Detachment of Forces of South- 
east Missouri. On the 8th the gunboat Lexington started on a recon- 
naissance to Columbus. While attempting to pass the foot of Lucas bend 
a Confederate battery opened upon it but before it could get the range 
the vessel was out of reach. On the loth several gunboats engaged the 
batteries at Lucas bend all day. The Yankee was disabled and i man 
was wounded on board the Conestoga. 

Lucas Bend, Mo., Oct. 7, 1861. Gunboats Lexington and Tyler. 
Pursuant to orders from Brig.-Gen. U. S. Grant, Com. Henry Walke 
with the two gunboats proceeded down the river from Cairo. Near 
Lucas bend the vessels opened fire upon a portion of the defenses and 
developed the fire of five batteries. The object of the reconnaissance hav- 
ing been accomplished, the gunboats returned to Cairo. 

Luce's Plantation, Miss., May 13, 1864. Expedition under Brig.- 
Gen. John McArthur. During an expedition from Vicksburg to Yazoo 
City the Federals drove the enemy steadily from Benton to Luce's planta- 
tion, where the Confederates attempted to test the Union strength but 
were easily driven from their position by artillery and cavalry. The 
casualties were not reported. 

Lumpkin's Station, Ga., Dec. 4, 1864. 3d Brigade, ist Division, 
14th Army Corps. On this date the brigade, commanded by Lieut.-Col. 
Miles, was engaged in destroying the tracks of the Savannah & Augusta 
railroad and acting as rear-guard to the wagon train. A small body of 
Confederate cavalry made a demonstration against that portion tearing 
up the track, but a few shots from the 21st Ohio dispersed them and the 
work proceeded without further interruption. 

Luna Landing, Ark., Feb. 22, 1864. ist Mississippi Marine Brigade 
(Missouri Volunteers). 

Lundy's Lane, Ala., April 17, 1863. (See Courtland, Expedition to.) 



576 The Union Army 

Lusby's Mill, Ky., June 20, 1862. Missouri Home Guards. A party 
of Confederates attacked the camp of about 25 Home Guards about one 
mile east of Lusby's mill. Two Federal soldiers were killed, while the 
enemy suffered a loss of i killed and i wounded. 

Luray, Va., June 30, 1862. Detachments of ist Maine, ist Vermont, 
1st Michigan cavalry. As an incident of a reconnaissance through the 
Luray valley by a detachment of the ist brigade, ist division, Army of 
the Shenandoah, the Confederate cavalry was discovered drawn up in 
line of battle on a hill half a mile out of Luray. The Federal advance 
charged the enemy, who after a slight resistance retreated with a loss 
of 2 men captured. The Union side lost i killed and i wounded. 

Luray, Va., Sept. 24, 1864. ist Cavalry Division. Army of the Shen- 
andoah. In the pursuit of the Confederates from Fisher's hill Custer's 
brigade encountered two brigades of Wickham's cavalry near Luray and 
engaged tliem. Lowell's brigade was hurried to Custer's support, and 
after a brilliant action of 30 minutes the enemy was routed with a loss 
of nearly 100 prisoners and a battleflag belonging to the 6th Va. cavalry. 

Lynchburg, Tenn., Sept. 29, 1864. Detachment of 12th Lidiana Cav- 
alry. A scouting party of the 12th Ind. met Forrest's advance, in his 
raid into Alabama and Tennessee, a short distance from Lynchburg and 
had a sharp skirmish. No casualties are mentioned in the only report 
(Maj.-Gen. R. Tl. Milroy's) there is of the affair. 

Lynchburg, Va., June 18, 1864. Army of West Virginia. After 
Sigel's defeat at New Market, Maj.-Gen. David Hunter was placed in 
command of the Army of West Virginia. To divide Lee's force Gen. 
Grant ordered a movement in the Shenandoah valley, stating his object 
in the following extract from a dispatch to Maj.-Gen. H. W. Halleck: 
"If Hunter can possibly get to Charlottesville and Lynchburg, he should 
do so." Accordingly on May 28 Hunter moved from camp at Cedar creek 
and after fighting at Piedmont. Lexington, Otter creek and New London 
he drove the enemy from Diamond hill on the afternoon of June 17 and 
that night deployed his forces before Lynchburg. Tn the morning two 
divisions of infantry were posted on the Bedford road and Duffie with 
his cavalry was ordered to attack vigorously on tlie Forestville road, the 
extreme left of the Federal line, while two squadrons of Averell's cav- 
alrj' were stationed on the other end of the line on the Campbell Court 
House road. While these dispositions were being made the Confederates 
attacked the center, hoping to be able to cut Hunter's line in two. The 
fight lasted half an hour, when the enemy was repidsed in the center, but 
he renewed with vigor liis attacks on the flanks. In these last efforts he 
was finally entirely foiled and driven back within his works. The Il6th 
Ohio followed closely and even entered the intrenchments, but being un- 
supported was compelled to fall back. During the night Hunter quietly 
withdrew to Liberty because of a contemplated attack of the enemy and 
a shortage of ammunition. The casualties were slight. The Federal 
losses in the whole Lynchburg campaign were 103 killed, 564 wounded 
and 271 captured or missing. 

Lynch Creek. S. C, Feb. 26, 1865. Detachment of 15th Army Corps. 
During Sherman's advance through the Carolinas Logan's corps arrived 
at Lynch creek at two bridges — Tiller's and Kelly's. The strenm was so 
swollen that it was impossible to cross the trains by fording, but Corse's 
division managed to cross the stream and drove Butler's division of 
Confederate cavalry from its position guarding the bridges. The casualties 
were not reported. 

Lynnville, Tenn., Nov. 24, 1864. (See Campbellsville. same date.) 

Lynnville, Tenn., Dec. 24, 1864. Detachment of Wilson's Cavalry. 
During the pursuit of Hood the cavalry came up with the Confederate 
rear-g\iard at Lynnville. The enemy was easily driven with considerable 
loss in killed, wounded and captured. No Union casualties reported. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 577 

Lyon County, Ky., April 29. 1865. Detachments of 153d Indiana In- 
fantry and 17th Kentucky Cavalry. The detachments, sent out to inter- 
cept a guerrilla band crossing the river near Princeton, Ky., were attacked 
and overwhelmed by the enemy in superior numbers, with a loss of 5 
killed, 2 wounded and 5 missing. 

McConnellsburg, Pa., June 25, 1863. Detachment of ist New 
York Cavalry. Maj. Alonzo W. Adams with a detachment of the 
1st N. Y. charged the pickets of the enemy at McConnellsburg and 
drove them into the town, creating a great commotion in a large 
Confederate force there. No casualties were reported. The en- 
gagement was an incident of the Gettysburg campaign. 

McCook's Raid (Near Atlanta), Ga., July 27-31, 1864. ist Cav- 
alry Division, Army of the Cumberland, and Harrison's Cavalry 
Brigade. Pursuant to orders from Gen. Sherman the expedition, 
numbering about 4,000 men and commanded by Brig.-Gen. E. M. 
McCook, left the right of the army at daybreak on the 27th to 
break the railway communications south of Atlanta. In the mean- 
time the enemy had obtained information of the movement and all 
his available forces were concentrated in that quarter to prevent 
the destruction of the railroads. McCook moved down the west 
bank of the Chattahoochee river to a point near Campbellton, 
where he laid a pontoon bridge and crossed on the 28th. Here a 
portion of his command was engaged with a detachment of Ross' 
cavalry, under the command of Col. Harrison, but the Union troops 
drove the enemy out of the way and proceeded on to Palmetto, a 
station on the Atlanta & West Point railroad, where, on the morn- 
ing of the 29th, they tore up about 3 miles of track. The telegraph 
was cut at Palmetto and Fairburn, and a train of wagons was 
burned at Fayetteville, where 250 prisoners were taken. McCook's 
next objective point was Lovejoy's Station, on the Macon & West- 
ern railroad, where nearly 3 miles of track were destroyed and about 
5 miles of telegraph wire torn down. From Lovejoy's McCook 
expected to move to McDonough and form a junction there with 
Gen. Stoneman, who had moved with his cavalry from the left of 
the army on the 27th with instructions to cooperate with McCook. 
(See Stoneman's Raid.) Before starting for McDonough McCook 
learned that Wheeler's cavalry was between him and that place and 
decided to return to the Chattahoochee by way of Newnan. Some 
skirmishing had occurred at the several points where the command 
had been operating, but no serious opposition was met until the 
expedition started back toward the main body of the army. Near 
Newnan the railroad and telegraph w^ere cut in three places. At 
Brown's mill, a short distance west of Newnan. McCook was sur- 
rounded by an overwhelming force, consisting of the cavalry com- 
mands of Wheeler, Jackson and Roddey. besides a large force of in- 
fantry. In the hope of breaking their lines and reaching the 
river McCook ordered a charge against Ross' Texas brigade, which 
was almost completely destroyed. Ross himself being taken pris- 
oner. Fresh troops were hurried to the assistance of the Texans 
and for a little while it looked dark for the Union forces. They 
were all seasoned veterans, however, and knew how to fight. Mc- 
Cook put in every available man, even to his escort, and by a des- 
perate attack succeeded in breaking the line and reaching the 
river, where some of the 2nd and 8th Tnd. took position in a 
stockade to hold the enemy in check until the main body of the 
command was safe. Here they fought until their last cartridge was 
gone, when they fell into the hands of the enemy. Of this action 
McCook says in his report: "They cheerfully sacrificed themselves 

Vol. VI— 7 



578 The Union Army 

to insure the safety of their comrades. History contains no nobler 
example of devotion, or names more worthy to be handed down to 
posterity as heroes." The Federal loss during the raid was about 
500. That of the enemy, according to newspapers published on the 
succeeding day, was between 800 and 900. These newspapers severely 
censured the Confederate generals for permitting any of McCook's 
command to escape from their vastly superior force. The results 
of the expedition were the destruction of about 6 miles of railroad 
track; 5 miles of telegraph destroyed; 1,160 wagons burned; 2,000 
mules killed or disabled; 1,000 bales of cotton burned; and large 
quantities of provisions and tobacco destroyed. 

McDonough Road, Ga., Nov. 6, 1864. Pickets of the 2nd Bri- 
gade. 3d Division, 20th Army Corps. During the day of the 5th the 
2nd brigade marched out from Atlanta on the McDonough road 
and encamped. Before the start to return was made next day the 
pickets were attacked by a force of Confederate cavalry, but the 
enemy was driven back. The Federal pickets suffered the loss of 
I man killed. 

McDowell, Va., May 8, 1862. Milroy's and Schenck's Brigades. 
Brig.-Gen. Robert H. Milroy ascertained that the Confederate forces 
under Gens. Johnson and Jackson had effected a junction on the 
7th and were advancing to attack McDowell. Early on the morning 
of the 8th the enemy was seen upon Bull Pasture mountain, about 2 
miles distant, and Union skirmishers were sent out under cover 
of a heavy artillery fire. About 3 p. m. it was reported that the 
enemy was attempting to plant a battery upon the mountain where 
it would command the whole Federal encampment and Milroy 
ordered the 25th and 75th Ohio to charge up the hill and drive the 
enemy from his position. This was done most gallantly, the Con- 
federates being compelled to fall back to the other side of the 
mountain. The position was maintained until 8 p. m. when Milroy 
ordered a return, and under cover of darkness left the town, the 
ammunition having given out. About 10 a. m. Brig-Gen. Robert C. 
Schenck had arrived with a few reinforcements, but not enough 
to materially alter the difference in the size of the forces engaged. 
Milroy lost 26 killed, 227 wounded and 3 missing; the enemy 75 
killed and 423 wounded. 

McGirt's Creek, Fla., March i, 1864. (See Cedar Creek, same 
date.) 

McGuire's, Ark., Oct. 12. 1863. ist Arkansas Cavalry. Lieut. 
M. J. Patton and 5 men charged the pickets of a Confederate force 
encamped at McGuire's and drove them in. They then charged a 
small church where the headquarters of the enemy's leader were 
supposed to be. The affair was an incident of a demonstration 
against Fayetteville. No casualties were reported. 

McKenzie's Creek, Mo., April 15, 1865. Detachment of 7th 
Kansas Cavalry. Lieut. William W. Crane, with 20 men of the 7th 
Kan., surprised a party of 15 guerrillas in their cam.p on McKenzie's 
creek near Patterson. Four of the enemy were killed and the 
horses of 6 captured, together with a quantity' of stolen goods. 

McLean's Ford, Va., Oct. 15. 1863. 3d Brigade, 2nd Division, 
3d Army Corps, and Battery K, 4th U. S. Artillery. Brig.-Gen. 
Gershom Mott, commanding the brigade, was ordered to hold Mc- 
Lean's ford against any attempt of the Confederates to take it. 
About 2:30 p. m.. before his dispositions had been entirely made, 
the enemy attacked the Federal pickets and skirmishers and drove 
them into the rifle-pits on the north side of Bull run. The Con- 
federate artillery was then brought to bear and covered an attack 



Cyclopedia of Battles 579 

of the dismounted men on the rifle-pits which was repulsed, 
as were several other charges on the same intrenchments. 
When the Union artillery was brought into position it opened a 
heavy tire on the Confederate line and compelled it to retire. The 
fight lasted about 2 hours. Mott reported his loss as 2 killed, 
23 wounded and 3 missing, and that of the enemy at 60 killed and 
wounded. Gen. Lomax, commanding the Confederates, stated that 
he suffered no loss. 

McLemore's Cove, Tenn., Feb. i, 1865. 6th Tennessee Mounted 
Infantry. On learning that Gatewood and his Confederate com- 
mand were in McLemore's cove, Lieut. -Col. George A. Gowin moved 
out on the afternoon of the ist and at 10 p. m. attacked the camp, 
scattering the enemy with a loss of several killed and wounded, 
and a number of horses captured. There were no casualties on the 
Union side. 

McLoath's Ford, Ga,, April 3, 1865. (See Spring Place, same 
date.) 

McMilley's Farm, Ark., Feb. 27, 1865. Detachment of 13th Illi- 
nois Cavalry. A scouting party under Capt. George W. Suesberry 
attacked Capt. Maybery's guerrillas on the McMilley farm, about 25 
miles from Pine Bluff. The result was the killing of 8 of the out- 
laws and the capture of 3. No Federal casualties were reported. 

McMinnville, Tenn., Aug. 30, 1862. (See Little Pond, same 
date.) 

McMinnville, Tenn., April 21, 1863. Detachment of Cavalry Divi- 
sion, Department of the Cumberland. During an expedition to McMinn- 
ville from Murfreesboro, Col. Robert H. G. Minty, commanding the 
cavalry, detached the 4th Mich., a company of the ist Middle Tenn. 
and a mountain howitzerand sent themaround bythe Smithville road. 
As the main column moved in on the old McMinnville pike the 
Confederate pickets were encountered about a mile and a half out. 
Flankers were thrown out and the Federals moved steadily forward. 
When well within the town the advance charged, and, supported 
by the flankers and the detachment from the Smithville road, the 
enemy was driven through the town. The entire Confederate force, 
including the provost guard, was between 600 and 700 men. There 
was no detailed report of casualties. 

McMinnville, Tenn., Sept. 28, 1863. Troops not given. 

McMinnville, Tenn., Oct. 3, 1863. Detachment of 4th Tennessee 
Infantry. During the Confederate raid by Wheeler and Roddey 
their combined forces approached McMinnville about 11 a. m. on 
the 3d. When Maj. M. L. Patterson, commanding the post, learned 
of the Confederate advance he disposed of his small force of 320 
men as best he could, and after skirmishing an hour and a half re- 
ceived a flag of truce from Wheeler demanding an unconditional 
surrender. Thinking it useless to attempt further resistance he sub- 
mitted, and the garrison was turned over to the Confederates. 
Seven men were killed and 23 wounded on the Federal side during 
the skirmishing prior to the surrender, while the Confederates lost 
23 killed and twice that number wounded, according to Patterson's 
estimate. 

McMinnville, Tenn., Feb. 5. 1865. 5th Tennessee Cavalry and 
42nd Missouri Infantry. After pursuing a party of 100 Confederates, 
supposed to be guerrillas under Perdham. the Federals, under Capt. 
H. N. Woley, came up with them at their camp near McMinnville. 
An attack was made up a steep hill with such impetuosity that the 
enemy was compelled to fall back. Three of the attacking party 
were wounded and it is thought 2 of the enemy were killed. 



580 The Union Army 

Mackville, Ky., July 14. 1862. Kentucky Home Guards. After 
Col. J. H. Morgan had burned the town of Lebanon he moved 
through Springfield to Mackville, where lie was attacked on the 
14th by a detachment of home guards and several of his command 
were captured. These were recaptured the next day and Morgan 
moved toward Harrodsburg. 

Macon, Ga., July 30, 1864. (See Stoneman's Raid.) 

Macon, Ga., Nov. 21, 1864. 92nd Illinois Mounted Infantry. 
After the engagement at Walnut creek on the 20th this regiment, 
commanded by Lieut. -Col. Matthew Van Buskirk. was assigned 
to the duty of rear-guard. About daylight on the 21st the pickets 
were attacked by a whole brigade of the enemy's cavalry. Skir- 
mishing continued until about 9 o'clock, when the outpost was 
driven in and immediately afterward the Confederates charged. 
Van Buskirk waited until they were within easy range, when he 
gave the word to fire. The first volley sent them flying in all direc- 
tions and no second attack was made. The Union loss was 2 men 
captured. From a prisoner it was learned that the enemy lost 65 
men in killed and wounded. 

Macon, Ga., April 20, 1865. 2nd Cavalry Division, Military 
Division of Mississippi. This afltair was the last engagement of 
Wilson's raid through Alabama and Georgia. When within 20 miles 
of Macon the advance division encountered a Confederate cavalry 
command of 400 men. By a series of brilliant charges by the 17th 
Ind. the enemj' was driven from behind every barricade where he 
took refuge and was completely routed, throwing away arms and 
ammunition in the haste of his flight. When nine miles out of the 
city a Confederate flag of truce was met announcing an armistice 
between Sherman and Johnston, but Col. Robt. H. G. Minty, com- 
manding the advance, refused to honor it and gave it five minutes 
to get out of the way. The Federals then continued the charge and 
dashed over the works into the city, which was surrendered by Gen. 
Howell Cobb. The results of the capture were 350 commissioned 
officers, 1,995 enlisted men. 60 pieces of artillery, a large amount of 
small arms, and all public works. The casualties were not reported. 

Madison, Ark., March — , 1863. Detachments of 24th Indiana 
Infantry, 3d Iowa Cavalry, and 2nd Ohio Battery. During an expe- 
dition under Col. Powell Clayton up the St. Francis river on the 
steamer Hamilton Belle. Clayton surprised and scattered a Con- 
federate band of 75 men at Madison, capturing some 27 of the 
number. On the return the river was found blockaded by a chain 
stretched across between the piers of the bridge and the enemy 
drawn up to give battle. Clayton disembarked his men and attacked, 
driving the Confederates from the field. The latter left 4 dead, 
while Clayton had but i man wounded. After the passage had been 
cleared and the vessel passed the bridge it was fired into from the 
canebrake along shore. A few shots from the guns on board 
silenced the firing and the enemy withdrew. The expedition took 
from the 5th to the 12th, but from the reports the exact dates of 
the fights at Madison can not be determined. 

Madison, Ark., April 4. 1863. 3d Iowa Cavalry. 

Madison, Ark., Feb. 12, 1865.' Detachment of the 87th Illinois 
Mounted Infantry. On returning toward Madison from a scout 
into the interior, this detachment under Lieut. -Col. John M. Crebs 
had a severe skirmish with the enemy in which 2 of the latter were 
killed and i captured. One Union man wa^ captured by having his 
horse shot under him. 

Madison Court House, Va., Sept. 21. 1863. i^^t Cavalrv Divi- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 581 

sion, Army uf the Potomac. During a reconnaissance across the 
Rapidan river, Kilpatrick's division, having the advance, dashed 
into Madison Court House, surprised a party of 15 Confederate 
cavalry, and captured some 8 or 10 of them without casualty. 

Madison Court House, Va., Dec. 21, 1864. ist Division, Cavalry 
Corps, Army of the Middle Military Division. During an expedi- 
tion from Winchester toward Gordonsville, the ist division went to 
Madison Court House, where it had a skirmish with Jackson's 
brigade of Confederate cavalry and drove it from the town with 
slight loss. 

Madison Station, Ala., May 17, 1864. 13th Illinois Infantry. The 
garrison of Madison, consisting of a detachment of the 13th 111., 
was attacked by two regiments of mounted infantry under Patter- 
son, with 4 pieces of artillery. After a hard fight the Federals were 
obliged to abandon the stockade because of the enemy's heavy 
artillery fire and, with two of the companies which had been de- 
ployed as skirmishers, reformed behind the railroad embankment. 
Outnumbered four to one, the Union troops fell back to the water- 
tank 3 miles east of the stockade, there rallied and attacked the 
pursuing column, driving it back to the outskirts of the town. About 
noon reinforcements arrived and the Confederates were driven from 
the place after they had destroyed all the camp and garrison equipage 
and carried off the provisions. The reinforcements pursued and 
came up with the enemy before his rear had recrossed the river, cap- 
turing 4 prisoners and 40 horses, with a loss of 2 or 3 wounded. 
In the first attack on the garrison some 40 or 50 prisoners were 
taken by the Confederates. 

Madison Station, Ala., Nov. 26, 1864. loist U. S. Colored In- 
fantry. 

Madisonville, Ky., Aug. 25, 1862. Brig.-Gen. J. T. Boyle, re- 
porting to Maj'.-Gen. Wright from Louisville, states: "Forces 
ordered from Henderson attacked rebels under Johnson at Madison- 
ville; killed 6, captured 17, others fled." This is the only mention 
of the affair in the official records, so it is not known what forces 
were engaged. 

Madisonville, Ky., Oct. 5, 1862. 4th Indiana Cavalry. 

Madisonville, Ky., March — , 1863. Detachment of 6sth Indi- 
ana Infantry. Col. John W. Foster of the 65th Ind. infantry re- 
ports that Lieut. G. W. Carey of his regiment with a detail of men 
attacked a party of 50 guerrillas in the vicinity of Madisonville and 
captured 6 of them. The exact date of the affair can not be de- 
termined from Foster's report. 

Madisonville, La., Jan. 3-7, 1864.- Expeditionary forces. The 
occupation of Madisonville, on the north shore of Lake Pontchar- 
train, was for the purpose of obtaining supplies for the army at 
New Orleans. The expedition left that city on Jan. 3, under com- 
mand of Col. W. W. Kimball, of the 12th Me., and consisted of de- 
tachments of the 9th Conn, and 12th Me. infantry, some convales- 
cents of the 13th army corps, Squadron D, 2nd La. cavalry, Bat- 
tery A, 1st U. S. artillery, 4 guns of the 15th Mass. battery, and 
the gunboat Commodore — about 1,000 men in all. Upon the occu- 
pation of Madisonville scouts and patrols were sent out on the 
various roads, some skirmishing occurred, but the enemy was no- 
where found in force and offered but slight resistance to the move- 
ment. 

Madisonville, La., Feb. 11, 1864. Detachment of 3d Maryland 
Cavalry. This detachment under Capt. Adolph Bery was sent to 
the Fleming farm near Madisonville to ascertain the whereabouts 



582 The Union Army 

of a party of Confederates. While searching the woods near the 
river at this point they were fired into by the enemy on the opposite 
side of the stream. Finding it impossible to cross and give pur- 
suit, Bery started back for Madisonville, but had not proceeded 
far when he was attacked on the flank by 75 or 100 of the enemy. 
His men became confused and scattered, about 10 of the number, 
including Bery, being wounded and captured. 

Madisonville, Miss., Feb. 27, 1864. 33d Wisconsin Infantry. 
During the Meridian expedition the 33d Wis. was detached and 
ordered to destroy a bridge across the Pearl river at Madisonville. 
The regiment encountered a small body of the enemy near Smith's 
ferry, but the latter broke and fled after a brief resistance and the 
bridge was eff^ectually destroyed. No casualties reported. 
Mad River, Cal., May 14, 1862. (See Angel's Ranch.) 
Magnolia Hills, Miss., May i, 1863. (See Port Gibson.) 
Magnolia Landing, La., June 16, 1864. U. S. Transport Landis. 
As the Landis was passing Magnolia landing, about 7 miles above 
Port Hudson, she was fired upon by the Confederate batteries. She 
soon signaled her distress and two gunboats dropped down from 
Bayou Sara, 3 miles above, when the Confederates withdrew their 
guns. Confederate reports say that the Landis afterward sank 
near Baton Rouge. (See also naval volume.) 

Mallory's Cross Roads, Va., June 12, 1864. ist Cavalry Division, 
Army of the Potomac. The division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. 
A. T. A. Torbert, with Davies' brigade of Gregg's division, was sent 
from Trevilian Station to make a reconnaissance on the Gordons- 
ville road, and to secure a by-road leading to Mallory's ford on 
the North Anna river. At the junction of the Gordonsville and 
Charlottesville roads Torbert found the enemy strongly intrenched 
across both roads. One regiment and a section of artillery were 
placed in position to hold the Charlottesville road, Custer's brigade 
was advanced toward Gordonsville, and Merritt's brigade was 
thrown to the extreme right with instructions to turn the enemy's 
flank if possible. A general advance was then ordered and the 
Confederates were driven from their first line of intrenchments back 
to a position behind the railroad embankment, from which they 
could not be dislodged without severe loss, as they had been rein- 
forced by two regiments of infantry from Gordonsville. Merritt 
therefore retired to Trevilian Station. 

Malvern Hill, Va., July i, 1862. The battle of Malvern Hill was 
the last of the engagements during the Seven Days' battles (q. v.). 
Malvern Hill, Va., Aug. 5, 1862. Hooker's and Sedgwick's Divi- 
sions, Army of the Potomac. In order to ascertain the enemy's 
strength in the direction of Richmond and to carry out instruc- 
tions from Washington, it was necessary that Malvern hill be taken. 
Accordingly at 5:30 a. m. "of the 5th Maj.-Gen. Joseph Hooker 
with his own division and Sedgwick's attacked a considerable 
Confederate force of artillery and infantry and drove it from the 
hill toward New Market, 4 miles distant, capturing 100 prisoners 
and killing and wounding several. Hooker's loss was 3 killed and 
II wounded. 

Malvern Hill, Va., June 15, 1864. Detachment of the 2nd Bri- 
gade, 3d Cavalry Divison, Army of the Potomac. Col. George H. 
Chapman, commanding the brigade, with the 8th and 22nd N. V., 
the 1st Vt. and a section of Fitzhugh's battery made a reconnais- 
sance to Malvern hill, where he developed a considerable force of 
the enemy and engaged in a sharp skirmish. Finding himself greatly 
outnumbered. Chapman withdrew his men in good order and re- 
turned to his position at Philips' place. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 583 

Mammoth Cave, Ky., Aug. 17, 1862. Kentucky Home Guards. 
A detachment made up of five different companies of home guards 
pursued a party of guerrillas for about 40 miles and overtook them 
at Mammoth cave on the 17th. The entire party, numbering 66 men, 
were either killed or captured, together with their arms and c(iuip- 
ments and 43 horses, most of which had been stolen from Kentucky 
farmers. 

Manassas, Va., July 21, 1861. (See Bull Run.) 

Manassas, Va., Aug. 30, 1862. (See Bull Run, same date.) 

Manassas Gap, Va., Nov. 6, 1862. Averell's Cavalry, Army of 
the Potomac. Maj.-Gen. George B. McClellan, reporting to Presi- 
dent Lincoln, on the operations in Loudoun county, states that 
Gen. Averell encountered "a force of the enemy this morning at the 
mouth of Manassas gap, and drove them back into the pass, where 
they took up a position, supported by artillery." No casualties are 
reported. 

Manassas Gap, Va., July 21-22, 1863. Reserve Brigade Cavalry. 
Army of the Potomac. In the pursuit of Lee after the battle of 
Gettysburg, this brigade was detached from its division at Rector- 
town with orders to occupy Manassas gap. On the 21st the gap was 
taken and the summit held while the ist U. S. cavalry pushed on 
toward Front Royal and engaged the enemy in superior numbers. 
The 5th and 2nd U. S. cavalry were sent to reinforce the ist and in 
the skirmish which followed 27 of the enemy were captured. The 
following day there was continual skirmishing, although no con- 
certed attempt was made to drive the Federals from their position. 
No casualties were reported. 

Manassas Gap, Va., July 23, 1863. (See Wapping Heights.) 

Manassas Junction, Va., Oct. 24, 1862. ist Vermont and 3d 
Virginia Cavalry. This affair was a skirmish between a cavalry 
reconnoitcring party and some Confederate cavalry. Neither de- 
tails nor casualties were reported. 

Manchester, Tenn., March 17, 1864. 5th Tennessee Cavalry. 

Manchester Pike, Tenn., Jan. 5, 1863. Cavalry Corps, Army of 
the Cumberland. During the Stone's River campaign the cavalry 
fn the advance encountered the Confederate pickets a mile out of 
Murfreesboro. After crossing a small creek 2 miles from the town 
the enemy commenced shelling the advancing column and Brig.- 
Gen. D. S. Stanley, commanding the Union cavalry, deployed his 
men and advanced. Skirmishing was kept up for a distance of 6 
miles, where the Confederates were found posted in force, but 
after a sharp fight they were driven from the field and Stanley re- 
turned to within a mile and a half of Murfreesboro to bivouac. 
The casualties were not reported. 

Manchester Pike, Tenn., Feb. 22. 1863. Detachments of ist 
Middle Tennessee and 4th Michigan Cavalry. A picket of 30 men 
of the 1st Middle Tenn. cavalry was about to be relieved by 30 men 
of the 4th Mich, when an attack was made by a considerable force 
of Confederate cavalry. Lieut. D. R. Snelling of the Tennesse 
regiment ordered the Michigan men to act as a reserve while his 
detachment was deployed across the road to check the enemy. The 
disposition had not been made when the Tennessee troops broke 
and fled in confusion, carrying the larger part of the Michigan men 
with them. Corp. John R. Ketchum of the Michigan regiment 
then rode to the front, and calling upon the men who were willing 
to help him, succeeded in rallying 4 from his own regiment and 2 
of the Tennesseeans, with which small force he checked the enemy's 
advance. The enemy had 3 men wounded. No casualties were re- 
ported on the Union side. 



584 The Union Army 

Manscoe Creek, Tenn., Aug. 20, 1862. (See Louisville & Nash- 
ville R. R.) 

Man's Creek, Mo., Oct. 14, 1863. Detachment of 5th Missouri 
State Militia Cavalry. The detachment, under Lieut. M. S. Eddie- 
man, while acting as escort for an enrolling officer had quite a 
skirmish with some 25 or 30 Confederates, the fight lasting about 
10 minutes, during which time 2 of the enemy were killed and 2 
others were badly wounded. 

Mansfield, La., April 8, 1864. (See Sabine Cross Roads.) 

Mansura, La., May 16, 1864. Banks' Red River Expedition. As 
Banks' army was retiring from Alexandria the enemy was encount- 
ered in force at Smith's plantation on Bell prairie, not far from 
Mansura, drawn up in a position covering three roads, one of 
which it was necessary should be cleared so the column could ad- 
vance. The Federals got possession of a wood where a destructive 
fire could be poured into the Confederates, and after a fight of 
four hours, chiefly with artillery, Emory's division broke the enemy's 
line on the right. Soon after this a detachment of the Army of the 
Tennessee under Brig.-Gen. A. J. Smith succeeded in turning the 
left, forcing the enemy from his position and driving him back 
through Moreauville and Simsport. No casualties reported. 

Maple Leaf, U. S. S., June 10, 1863. The steamer left Williams- 
burg, at 1:30 p. m. for Fort Delaware, with 97 Confederate officers 
on board. On the way 67 of the prisoners overpowered the guard, 
took possession of the vessel and landed a little below Cape Henry, 
where they made their escape. The other 30 prisoners refused to 
take part in the affair and were returned to Fort Monroe. Cavalry 
was started in pursuit of those who escaped. The officer in charge 
of the guard was severely censured by Gen. Dix for his negligence. 

Maplesville, Ala., April i. 1865. (See Ebenezer Church.) 

Marais des Cygnes, Mo., Sept. 27, 1863. Detachment of gth 
Kansas Cavalry. While on a scout in Bates county, Capt. G. F. 
Earl with a detail of the 9th Kan., encountered the enemy at the 
crossing of Marais des Cygnes and a brief skirmish ensued, the 
result being the killing of 2 of the Confederates and the wounding of 
2 of Earl's men. 

Marais des Cygnes, Kan., Oct. 25, 1864. Provisional Cavalry 
Division, Department of the Missouri. In the pursuit of Price on 
his Missouri expedition, the cavalry under Brig.-Gen. Alfred Pleas- 
anton, after marching 60 miles, caught up with him at Marais des 
Cygnes late on the 24th. Early the next morning the Confederates 
opened with artillery, but after a sharp fight of 2 hours the enemy 
was routed. A running fight was kept up to the crossing of the 
Little Osage river, or Mine creek, where the Confederates took up 
a strong position. So rapid had been the pursuit that but two bri- 
gades. Philips' and Benteen's, were within range when the enemy 
halted, but without hesitation they charged and routed the Con- 
federates, capturing Gens. Marmaduke and Cabell and i.ooo of their 
men, besides 8 pieces of artillery, a quantity of arms, ammunition, 
etc. The losses in killed and wounded were not reported. 

Marianna, Ark., Nov. 8, 1862. 3d and 4th Iowa and 9th Illinois 
Cavalry. As an incident of the expedition from Helena to Moro, 
Ark., Capt. Marland L. Perkins with 560 men was detached from 
the main column at Moro and directed to proceed to Marianna. 
About 10 miles out from Moro about 100 Confederates fired on the 
party from ambush and at Marianna another band of 100 were 
drawn up across the road, but a charge of four companies easily 
drove them from tlieir position. Near Anderson's plantation 50 of 



Cyclopedia of Battles 585 

the enemy opened fire from the top of a hill, but the 4th la. charged 
and dispersed them. While the Union troops were feeding their 
horses at La Grange 500 mounted Confederates attacked, coming 
within 100 yards of the camp before the howitzers could be brought 
into action, but as soon as the guns opened they retreated in dis- 
order. The Confederate losses for the day were 50 killed and 
wounded, while the Union loss was 23 wounded. 

Marianna, Fla., Sept. 27, 1864. Detachments of 2nd Maine, ist 
Florida cavalry and 82nd and 86th U. S. Colored Infantry. As an 
incident of an expedition from Barrancas the Confederates at Mari- 
anna were drawn up in front of the town to oppose the Federal ad- 
vance. A charge by a battalion of the 2nd Me. was repulsed but .1 
second attempt bj' a larger force succeeded in breaking the enemj's 
line. The Union troops then entered the town, where some 80 pris- 
oners, 95 stands of arms, a considerable quantity of commissary 
stores and 400 head of cattle were taken. The Federal loss was 15 
or 20 killed and wounded. 

Marietta, Ga., June 3-28. 1864. Sherman's Armies. Marietta is 
on the Western & Atlantic railroad, about 25 miles north of Atlanta. 
As Gen. Sherman was driving the Confederate army under Gen. 
J. E. Johnston back to the south side of the Chattahoochee river 
the country around Marietta was the scene of some sharp fighting, 
including the engagements at Gilgal Church, Lost mountain, Kolb's 
farm, Olley's creek. Kennesaw mountain, Smyrna Station, etc. Sev- 
eral cavalry skirmishes occurred near the town, though detailed 
reports of these minor engagements are lacking, from which to- 
compile a full account. 

Marietta, Miss., Aug. 19, 1862. Detachment of 7th Kansas Cav- 
alry. Three hundred men of the 7th Kan. cavalry, under Col. Albert 
L. Lee, came upon the Confederate pickets half a mile from Marietta. 
The enemy fired one volley and then retreated, but were so closely 
pressed that when they were joined by others and attempted to make 
a stand they were again routed. The pursuit continued through 
the town and 3 miles beyond and the Confederate camp was des- 
troyed. None of the Federals were wounded or killed and the 
enemy suffered a loss of but i wounded. The affair was an incident 
of an expedition from Rienzi to Marietta and Bay Springs. 

Marion, Ark., Jan. 20-21, 1865. Expedition under Col. Herman 
Lieb. The advance of the expedition was halted within a mile of 
Marion by two Confederate vedettes, but the latter were both cap- 
tured and the Federals entered the town, skirmishing all the way, 
wounding 2 and capturing i. The following day when the expe- 
dition started to return the enemy became bold and made a demon- 
stration, but aside from a little skirmishing nothing was done. A 
detachment under Capt. Moore joined the main command at 4 p. m., 
reporting a fight in which i of the enemy was killed, i wounded and 
7 were captured. 

Marion, Miss., Feb. 15, 1864. Detachment of 2nd Brigade, 4tii 
Division, i6th Army Corps. The itinerary of this brigade from 
Feb. 3 to March 31, 1864, during the Meridian campaign, states that 
on Feb. 15 "The advance guard, three companies of the 25th Ind., 
under Lieut. -Col. Rheinlander, was fired upon by the enemy's cav- 
alry from the town of Marion in some force. Two companies of the 
25th Ind. and three companies of the 32nd Wis. with battery, were 
ordered up. The enemy were driven out of town rapidly, with loss 
of 4 killed and a number wounded, and the town was occupied." 

Marion, Va., Dec. 16, 1864. (See Wytheville, same date.) 

Marion, Va., Dec. 17-18, 1864. Mounted forces under Maj.-Gen, 



586 The Union Army- 

George Stoneman. During Stoneman's expedition into southwest- 
ern Virginia the reinforced command of Breckenridge was met at 
Marion on the 17th. Gen. Burbridge with two brigades of Ken- 
tucky (Union) troops was in the advance and was obHged to call 
for reinforcements, which were promptly supplied by Stoneman. 
Darkness stopped the fighting for the day, but early the next morn- 
ing, when the Federals attempted to advance, a spirited resistance 
was met, and brisk skirmishing was kept up all day, or until Gen. 
Gillem got to the left of the enemy and cut him off from Saltville. 
That night the Confederates crossed the mountains into North 
Carolina. The casualties were not definitely reported, but were 
rather severe on both sides. 

Markham, Va., Nov. 4, 1862. Detachment of Pleasonton's Cav- 
alry. The detachment, commanded by Brig.-Gen. W. W. Averell, 
was sent out toward Markham, and there became so heavily 
engaged with a superior force of the enemy that Averell was 
obliged to call for reinforcements. Pleasonton despatched Gregg's 
brigade to Averell's assistance and the Confederates were com- 
pelled to withdraw from the contest. The losses were not reported, 
but were severe on both sides. The fighting was continued the next 
day at Barbee's cross-roads. 

Marks' Mills, Ark., April 5, 1864. (See Camden, Ark., Expedi- 
tion to.) 

Marksville, La., May 15, 1864. (See Avoyelles Prairie.) 

Marling's Bottom Bridge, W. Va., Dec. 11, 1863. The only 
mention in the official war records of this affair, which was an inci- 
dent of the Federal raid on the Virginia & Tennessee railroad, is 
contained in the report of Col. William L. Jones of the Confederate 
army, which says, "On the evening of the nth instant, the enemy 
appeared in my front at Marling's Bottom bridge, driving in my 
pickets and scouts, with a force variously estimated from 900 to 
3,000." 

Marmiton, Mo., Oct. 25, 1864. (See Chariot.) 

Marrowbone, Ky., July 3, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 3d Division, 23d 
Army Corps. Brig.-Gen. H. M. Judah, in his report of operations 
during Morgan's Ohio raid, says: "On the 3d instant, a portion of 
Gen. Morgan's forces attempted to force the position at Marrow- 
bone, held by my 2nd brigade, under Brig.-Gen. Hobson, and were 
handsomely repulsed." There is no mention of the casualties on either 
side. 

Marshall, Mo., July 28, 1863. 4th Missouri Militia Cavalry. 

Marshall, Mo., Oct. 12-13, 1863. (See Merrill's Crossing, same 
date.) 

Marshfield, Mo., Feb. 9, 1862. Detachment of troops of South- 
western District of Missouri. Lieut. -Col. Clark Wright with a bat- 
talion of cavalry entered Marshfield at 4 a. m., routing and pursuing 
a small party of the enemy that was running the mill. The pursuit 
resulted in the killing of 2, the wounding of 3 and the capture of 3 
more with equipments, etc. The Federals suffered no casualties. 

Marshfield, Mo., Feb. 14, 1862. 6th Missouri and 3d Illinois Cav- 
alry. 

Marshfield, Mo., Oct. 20, 1862. loth Illinois Cavalry. On learn- 
ing that a party of Confederates was moving uo Niangua creek, 
making for a point 8 miles east of Marshfield, Lieut. -Col. James 
Stuart with 105 men moved at 5 p. m. to intercept them. At 8:3a 
the enemy'.s pickets were driven in and the main body at once at- 
tacked, killing 4, wounding several more and capturing 2"]. The 
loss in Stuart's command was i killed and i wounded. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 587 

Martin Creek, Ky., July lo, 1863. Detachment of 2Sth Michi- 
gan Mounted Infantry. Col. Orlando H. Moore of the 25th Mich, 
infantry reports from Lebanon under date of July 11: — 

"The party of mounted infantry commanded by Capt. George 
W. Drye, ist Ky. cavalry, whom I despatched last night after 
rebels, attacked Lieut. Bullitt and 11 men on Martin creek; cap- 
tured 9 men, horses, arms, etc., and mortally wounded Lieut. Bullitt." 

Martinsburg, Mo., July 17, 1861. ist Missouri Reserves (one 
company). 

Martinsburg, W. Va., July 2, 1861. (See Falling Waters.) 

Martinsburg, W, Va., Sept. 11-12, 1862. (See Harper's Ferry, 
same date.) 

Martinsburg, W. Va., June 14. 1863. Detachments of 126th 
Ohio, io6th New York Infantry, Potomac Home Brigade, ist New 
York and 13th Pennsylvania Cavalry, and Maulsby's West Virginia 
Battery. About 8 a. m. the vedettes at Martinsburg were driven 
in and Col. Benjamin F. Smith, commanding the garrison, took 
position on the Winchester pike, but later changed to higher ground 
near the cemetery. About noon Gen. A. G. Jenkins, commanding 
the Confederates, sent in a demand for a surrender, which was 
immediately refused by Smith. The Federal artillery managed to 
hold the enemy in check until the wagon train was well on the 
road to Williamsport and at sunset the order was given to with- 
draw. Just as the troops commenced to form for the march the 
Confederate guns secured the range and the fire caused some con- 
fusion in the Union ranks, resulting in some 200 men being cap- 
tured. The Confederates lost 7 killed. The afTair was an incident 
of the Gettysburg campaign. 

Martinsburg, W. Va., July 19, 1863. Detachment of 4th Separate 
Brigade, 8th Army Corps. While marching toward Martinsburg 
this brigade, under Brig.-Gen. William W. Averell, came upon and 
engaged the Confederate pickets until they were reinforced about 
noon, when Kelley ordered Averell to retire. The enemy followed 
for some distance but was dispersed by Ewing's battery. Eight 
Union men were wounded, and the enemy lost 5 killed and a few 
prisoners. 

Martinsburg, W. Va., Aug. 19, 1864. One company of Cavalry of 
Averell's command. 

Martinsburg, W. Va., Aug. 31, 1864. 2nd Cavalry Division, 
Army of West Virginia. The division, commanded by Bvt. Maj.- 
Gen. W. W. Averell, was attacked by Rodes division of Brecken- 
ridge's corps and after a spirited skirmish fell back to Falling 
Waters, with a loss of 48 in killed and wounded. The Confederate 
loss was not learned. 

Martinsburg, W. Va., Sept. 18, 1864. 2nd Cavalry Division, Army 
of West Virginia. Concerning this affair Bvt. Maj.-Gen. W. W. 
Averell, commanding the division, says in his report: "The enemy, 
under Early in person, advanced a division of infantry, with a bri- 
gade of cavalry and 16 pieces of artillery, supported by a division of 
infantry at Bunker Hill, to Martinsburg, driving my ist brigade 
across the Opequan after an obstinate resistance, in which several 
of the enemy were killed and captured." 

Martin's Creek, Ark., Jan. 7, 1864. nth Missouri Cavalry. 

Martin's House, Ind. Ter., May 6, 1863. The report of Maj. 
T. R. Livingston, Confederate, states that a force under his com- 
mand, scouting from the Creek agency, met a Federal scouting 
party near the house of Capt. Martin on Cabin creek. The Union 
troops took shelter behind the buildings and all efforts on the part 



588 The Union Army 

of the enemy to draw them out were unavailing and the Confed- 
erates retired at dusk. The Federals had i man killed and i 
wounded; the enemy 3 wounded. 

Martin's Lane, La., Feb. 15, 1865. Detachment of i6th Indiana 
Mounted Infantry. Capt. J. R. S. Cox, commanding a detachment 
of the i6th, reports that with 55 men he "met a party of rebels in 
Dr. Martin's lane. Pursued them until they scattered in the 
swamp." One Confederate captured was the only loss to either 
side. 

Martinsville, N. C, April 8. 1865. ist Brigade, Cavalry Division, 
Stoneman's Expedition. Col. William J. Palmer joined the main 
cavalry division with his brigade on the gth and reported having 
had a skirmish the day before with 300 Confederates at Martins- 
ville. The result was the repulse of the enemy, of whom several 
were killed and wounded, and the capture of 20 horses. Palmer 
had an officer killed and 5 men wounded. 

Maryland Heights, Md., Sept. 12-13, 1862. (See Harper's Ferry, 
same date.) 

Maryville, Tenn., Nov. 14, 1863. (See Huff's Ferry.) 

Mason's Bridge, S. C, Dec. 6-9, 1864. (See Deveaux's Neck.) 

Mason's Neck, Va., Feb. 24, 1862. 37th New York Infantry. 

Matadequin Creek, Va., May 30, 1864. (See Old Church, same 
date.) 

Matagorda Peninsula, Tex., Dec. 29-30, 1863. Detachment 13th 
Maine Infantry and Gunboats. Lieut. -Col. Frank S. Hesseltine, 
with 100 men of the 13th Me., was landed from the gunboat Granite 
City 7 miles from the head of the Peninsula for a reconnaissance. 
Owing to a heavy sea the troops were unable to reembark, and 
were compelled to fortify themselves behind a rough barricade of 
driftwood, sand etc. This work the enemy assaulted but were un- 
able to take it or make any impression upon it. Next day the Con- 
federate gunboat John F. Carr threw some shells into the barricade 
but without effect. When the sea became more quiet the troops 
were taken off by the gunboat Sciota, which had assisted in repuls- 
ing the attacks. There were no casualties on the Union side and 
only 2 of the enemy slightly wounded. 

Mathias Point, Va., June 27. 1861. Col. Daniel Ruggles of the 
Confederate army reports that the Federal steamer Freeborn at- 
tempted to land a detachment of troops on Mathias point under 
cover of the fire of guns on board the vessel. The Confederate 
pickets were driven back, a landing was effected and the Union 
men had begun the building of a sandbag breastwork before the 
Confederates rallied and drove them off. No casualties were re- 
ported. There is no Federal mention of the affair. 

Matthews' Ferry, Miss., June 20, 1863. (See Senatobia, same 
date.) 

Mayfield, Ky., Jan. 12, 1864. 58th Illinois Infantry. 

Mayfield Creek, Ky., Sept. 22, i86t. Pickets of 7th Iowa In- 
fantry. The outposts of the regiment stationed at Elliott's mills 
on Mayfield creek (8 or 10 in number) were attacked by Con- 
federate cavalry, but the enemy were repulsed with a loss of 4 in 
killed and wounded. No casualties among the Union troops. 

Maysville, Ala., Aug. 28, 1863. 4th Kentucky Cavalry. 

Maysville, Ala., Oct. 13, 1863. ist Wisconsin Cavalry. Col. 
Oscar H. La Grange in his report of the pursuit of Wheeler and 
Roddey states that his regiment "marched to Maysville, where the 
advance of the division had a slight skirmish with the advance of 
Roddey's command on the eve of the 13th." No other mention 
is made of the affair in the official records of the war. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 589 

Maysville, Ala., Nov. 17, 1864. Detachments 12th Indiana and 
4th Michigan Cavalry. The Union troops, commanded by Col. 
J. W. Hall, encountered the enemy's pickets about 2 miles from 
Maysville and drove them back to the towrn. skirmishing all the 
way. No casualties were reported, 

Maysville, Ark., Oct. 22, 1862, (See Old Fort Wayne, same 
date.) 

Maysville, Ark., Jan. — , 1863. Detachment of 3d Brigade, ist 
Division, Army of the Frontier. This affair was an attack by a Fed- 
eral detachment under Capt. H. S. Anderson upon some 200 Confed- 
erates, in which the Union force was successful, 25 or 30 of 
the Confederates being killed. No Federal casualties were reported. 

Maysville, Ark., Sept. 5, 1863. Detachments of ist Arkansas and 
2nd Kansas Cavalry. This detachment, acting as an escort for Capt. 
John Gardner, bearing despatches between Federal commanders, 
was attacked in force near Maysville after having driven back several 
small parties of Confederates. At the enemy's charge a portion of 
the Federals turned and ran and the rest, on finding themselves 
about to be flanked, moved back to Hog-Eye and then to Round 
Prairie. It was finally necessary for them to surrender, after losing 
I man killed and 2 wounded. 

Maysville. Ark., May 8, 1864. Detachment of 3d Indian Home 
Guard. Col. C. \V. Blair, commandant of the post of Fort Scott, 
Kan., reports the receipt of the following from Col. William A. 
Phillips of the 3d Indian Home Guard: "Capt. Anderson, with a 
small command from this place, who was out on a reconnaissance 
after Adair, had a fight on the 8th with a portion of the rebel forces 
10 miles northeast of Maysville. The rebels lost 6 killed. Ander- 
son has 2 badly wounded." 

Mazzard's Prairie, Ark.. July 2"], 1864. (See Fort Smith.) 

Meadow Bluff, V/. Va.. Dec. 14. 1863. (See Big Sewell Mountain.) 

Meadow Bridge, Va., May 12, 1864. Detachments of ist Brigade, 
Tst Divison and Reserve Brigade. Cavalry Corps. Army of the Poto- 
mac. During the campaign from the Rapidan to the James the 5th 
Mich, cavalry was ordered at daylight to cross the Chickahominy at 
Meadow bridge. The Confederates destroyed the bridge on the ap- 
proach of the force, but a crossing was effected on the railroad 
bridge and the enemy driveii back half a mile ii-to his intrenchments 
upon a hill. Reinforcements were sent up at this time and after an 
hour's engagement the Confederates were flanked and routed. The 
losses, although not definitel}' reported, were not heavy. 

Mechanicsburg, Miss., May 2Q, 1863. Expeditionary Forces. Mai.- 
Gen. Frank P. Blair, commanding an expedition from Haynes' bluff 
to Mechanicsburg, reported from the latter place on the 2gth as fol- 
lows: "My advance came up with 'jbout 400 or 500 of the enemy 
at this place about 1:30 p. m. today. They were driven back after a. 
slight resistance, and have fled beyond the Big Black river." No 
mention of casualties. 

Mechanicsburg, Miss., June 4. 1863. Kimball's Provisional Divi- 
sion. This was an incident of Blair's expedition from Haynes' bluff. 
Brig.-Gen. Nathan Kimball debarked his troops at Satartia at 11 a. m. 
and immediately moved out on the Mechanicsburg road. On the hills 
just outside of Satartia he encountered the enemy, who fell back, 
skirmishing sharply, until Mechanicsburg was reached. Here Kim- 
ball found the Confederates drawn up in line of battle to offer resist- 
ance. One brigade was ordered to attack, and this force was sufficient 
to dislodge the enemy. Just as the Confederates broke the cavalry 
came up and took up the pursuit, driving the enemj' in confusion 



590 The Union Army 

toward the Big Black river. The casualties were slight on both 
sides. 

Mechanicsville, Va., May 23-24, 1862. 3d Brigade, 2nd Division, 
4th Army Corps. Brig.-Gen. John W. Davidson, commanding the 
brigade, was ordered about noon on the 23d to move his command 
up to Mechanicsville to protect Gen. Stoneman's advance, which was 
to operate on the railroad. Stoneman encountered the enemy near 
Ellison's mill, about a mile from the town, and after an artillery duel 
of half an hour silenced their guns. Davidson then crossed the 
creek, threw out strong pickets and made other preparations to at- 
tack the place early the next morning. The attack was made at day- 
light on the 24th, but was met by a severe tire of artillery and musketry 
from behind the buildings, trees and hedges. Davidson soon had all 
his artillery in action and sent back to Stoneman for more. Stone- 
man sent forward part of Tidball's battery, which, uniting with David- 
son's batteries, concentrated their fire and quickly drove the enemy 
from his cover. Col. McKean, with the 77th N. Y., happened to occupy 
a position favorable to immediate pursuit and entered the town on the 
heels of the retreating Confederates, capturing a few prisoners and a 
stand of colors. The pursuit was continued until the enemy crossed 
the Chickahominy at New Bridge. Davidson's loss was 2 killed and 
II wounded. 

While this engagement was in progress some of the officers and 
attaches of the topographical engineers, escorted by a detachment of 
the 4th Mich, under Col. Woodbury and a squadron of the 2nd U. S. 
cavalry, Capt. Gordon commanding, started out to make a recon- 
naissance of the Chickahominy from New Bridge to a point 2 miles 
above. Near the house of a Mr. Hogan, about half a mile above the 
bridge, a small body of skirmishers were thrown across the river at 
a ford, after which the whole line, forming perpendicular to the river, 
made a dash for the bridge. About 300 yards from the bridge the 
enemy was encountered, but a charge drove him back. Capt. Gordon 
then charged down to the bridge to cut ofif the enemy on the opposite 
side, but on arriving he found the bridge destroyed and the stream 
not fordable for cavalry. The 4th Mich, was sent across the river 
under a severe fire and formed in a ditch on the other bank, holding 
the bridge and driving the Confederates back beyond range of their 
muskets. The enemy then opened with artillery, and soon afterward, 
reinforcements coming up, they charged the Michigan men, only to be 
repulsed with heavy loss. Woodbury held his position in the ditch 
until his ammunition was about exhausted, when he gave the order to 
. recross the river. He reported his loss as i killed and 7 wounded. The 
enemy that charged him was the Louisiana Tigers, and their loss was 
about 150 in killed and wounded and 37 captured. 

Mechanicsville, Va., June 26. 1862. The battle at Mechanicsville 
on this date marks the beginning of McClcllan's change of base to 
the James river and is treated under the head of the Seven Davs' 
Battles, (q. v.) 

Mechanicsville, Va., May 12, 1864. Cavalry Corps, Army of the 
Potomac. At 11 p. m. on the nth the corps, Mai. -Gen. P. H. Sheri- 
dan commanding, moved from Yellow tavern. Wilson's division in 
advance, for the purpose of crossing the Chickahominy and marching 
between that stream and the Richmond defenses to the James river. 
Wilson encountered a small picket soon after crossing the Virginia 
Central railroad, and about daylight on the 12th, while near Me- 
chanicsville, the division was fired on from the inner line of the Rich- 
mond fortifications. Both brigades were dismounted and the batteries 
placed in position to fire on a line of works about 300 yards distant. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 591 

from which the enemy had also opened with artillery. A sharp skir- 
mish was kept up for several hours. Gregg was sent to Wilson's sup- 
port and the two divisions repulsed two sorties from the enemy's 
works, while the ist division forced a crossing above Meadow bridge. 
The whole corps then withdrew to Mechanicsville and from there 
moved down the north bank of the Chickahominy. 

Mechump's Creek, Va., May 31, 1864. 3d Division, Cavalry Corps, 
Army of the Potomac. The division, Brig.-Gen. J. H. Wilson com- 
manding, left Crump's swamp at sunrise and moved toward Hano- 
ver Court House. A body of Confederate cavalry was encountered 
near Dr. Price's house and the skirmishing at once commenced. After 
a sharp fight the enemy was driven across Mechump's creek and 
Wilson posted pickets on the roads, after which he opened comrnu- 
nications with the right of the army at Phillips' mill. Casualties 
slight on both sides. 

Medley, W. Va., Jan. 30, 1864. 23d Illinois Infantry and 4th 
West Virginia Cavalry. Lieut.-Col. James Quirk with the 23d 111., 
forming the advance of a force guarding a wagon train, was attacked 
by the enemy at Medley and compelled to fall slowly back. When 
the 4th W. Va., came up Col. Joseph Snider assumed command and 
succeeded in holding the Confederates in check for an hour and a 
half, but was finally driven back. The teamsters and train-masters 
meantime became alarmed, and cutting the harness of the draft- 
horses used them to make their escape, leaving the wagons vvithout 
means of being moved. The enemy burned about 40 and carried of? 
the remainder. The Federal loss in the engagement was 5 killed, 
34 wounded and 35 captured or missing. The Confederate casual- 
ties were 25 killed and wounded, by Early's report, to whose force the 
attacking party belonged. 

Medon, Tenn., Aug. 13, 1862. Tennessee Home Guards. Brig.- 
Gen. Leonard F. Ross in a despatch to Maj.-Gen. McClernand 
states: "A skirmish took place at i o'clock today between a guer- 
rilla band and a company of 18 Home Guards about 8 miles south- 
east of Medon." One Union man was killed, and the Confederate 
loss was not known. 

Medon, Tenn., Aug. 31, 1862. 45th Illinois and 7th Missouri In- 
fantry. After the repulse of the Confederates at Bolivar they at- 
tacked Federal detachments along the line of the Mississippi Cen- 
tral railroad. These detachments being small concentrated at Me- 
don, where about 3 p. m. of the 31st the enemy attacked in force, 
but was held in check by the 45th 111. until the arrival by train of 
the 7th Mo. The latter regiment charged and drove the Confed- 
erates from the town, killing several and capturing a number of pris- 
oners. No loss was reported on the Federal side. 

Melville, Mo., June 14, 1864. Citizen Guards. A band of 75 bush- 
whackers entered Melville about sunrise, surprised the citizen 
guards and the few militia in the town, and killed several of them. 
After sacking the town the outlaws set fire to the buildings and 
left. 

Memphis, Mo., July 18, 1862. 2nd Missouri Cavalry and nth Mis- 
souri Infantry (Militia). About noon detachments of these two reg- 
iments, under Maj. John Y. Clopper, encountered the combined Con- 
federate forces of Porter and Dunn, and after a desperate fight of 
over 3 hours the enemy was routed. In the pursuit the Federals were 
drawn into an ambush, which resulted in the loss of 83 killed or 
wounded. The enemy's loss was not learned. 

Memphis, Tenn., June 6. 1862. U. S. Gunboats Benton. Caronde- 
let, Louisville, Cairo and St. Louis; Rams Monarch and Queen of the 



592 The Union Army 

West, and Fitch's Brigade. Fort Pillow was evacuated by the Con- 
federates on the 4th and the fleet, commanded by Flag-Officer C. H. 
Davis, accompanied by the rams under command of Col. Charles 
Ellet, Jr.. dropped down the river to Memphis. There the Confed- 
erates had a fleet of 8 vessels, viz: the M. JefT Thompson, Lovell, 
Little Rebel, Sumter, Gen. Price. Gen. Beauregard, Gen. Bragg and 
the Van Dorn, all under the command of Capt. J. E. Montgomery. 
About 5:30 a. m. on the 6th the Thompson and Lovell were encount- 
ered a short distance above the landing. The Union gunboats formed 
for the attack with the rams in advance, and moved on the enemy. 
Both rams struck the Lovell in (juick succession and sunk her with 
most of her crew in the middle of the river. A shell set fire to the 
Thompson, causing her commander to run her to the bank, where 
she burned to the water's edge. The Beauregard, through being 
badly handled, ran into the Price and tore oflF one of her wheels. 
While the two boats were thus tangled up they were both sunk by 
the rams. The Little Rebel, Montgomery's flag-ship, was pierced 
by a solid shot below the water line and another passed throut;h 
her boilers, compelling the crew to take to the water. The Sumter 
and Bragg ran aground and were captured. The Van Dorn and a 
store-boat called the Paul Jones succeeded in making their escape. 
By 7 o'clock the fleet was annihilated and Davis sent a communica- 
tion to the mayor of the city demanding its surrender to the Federal 
authorities. This request was promptly complied with and at 3 p. m. 
Col. Fitch took formal possession of the city. During the engagement 
the banks of the river were lined with spectators, many of whom 
were silently praying for the triumph of the Union fleet. 

Memphis, Tenn., Aug. 21. 1864. Troops of the District of Mem 
phis. About 4 a. m. three brigades of Forrest's cavalry approached 
Memphis after a forced march from Oxford. About a third of the 
force was detached to dash over the pickets and into the city, while 
the remainder engaged the Union troops encamped outside. The pick- 
ets were easily driven back and a body of lOO-days' men was dis- 
persed. An attempt to take the officers of the garrison failed, and 
meantime the provost-guard rallied and drove out the Confederates 
who had entered the city. The fight on the outskirts lasted until 9 
a. m.. when Forrest retired on the Hernando road. The Federal loss 
was 15 killed, 65 wounded and 116 captured or missing. Forrest in a 
telegram placed his loss at 20 killed and wounded. 

Memphis, Tenn., Sept. 12, 1864. Patrol from 2nd Cavalry Division. 
District of West Tennessee. As a patrol from Memphis was ap- 
proaching a bridge 12 miles out it was attacked by some 200 Con- 
federates on both flanks and the front. The Federals soon learned 
that the enemy was too strong for them and broke for the swamp. 
They arrived in camp, having lost 2 men killed. 2 missing and r 
wounded. 

Memphis, Tenn., Oct. 4. 1864. One company 7th Indiana Cav- 
alry. 

Memphis, Tenn., Dec. 14. 1864. (See Germantown Road, same 
date."> 

Memphis, Tenn., Feb. 9, 1865. Detachments of 2nd Arkansas. 2nd 
Missouri, and ist Iowa Cavalry. Lieut. L. N. Garrett, commanding 
the escort of a wood train, was attacked by a superior force of Con- 
federate cavalry as soon as his command reached the woodyard and 
after a fight of a few minutes was driven back, the enemy capturing 
the wagons and mules. Pursuit was made as <|uickly as word reached 
the main camp, but it was of no avail. Garrett reported i man 
killed. 5 wounded and 6 captured in the encounter, while the Con- 
federates were known to have had t man killed. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 593 

Meriwether's Ferry, Tenn., Aug. i6, 1862. Detachment of 2nd 
Illinois Cavalry. One company of the 2nd 111. cavalry, 60 men, under 
Col. Thomas VV. Harris of 54th III. infantry, attacked 150 Confed- 
erates at Meriwether's ferry on the Obion river in Dyer county and 
completely routed them, in a half hour's fight after pursuing them for 
30 miles. Confederate reinforcements attempted to cross the river 
but wrere either killed or compelled to fall back. The enemy's loss 
was estimated at 2>7 killed and drowned, a large number wounded and 
10 captured. The Union loss was 3 killed and 6 wounded. 

Meriwether's Ferry, Tenn., Nov. 19, 1863. Detachment of 2nd 
Illinois Cavalry. Capt. Franklin Moore reporting under date of 
Nov, 20, says: "I attacked the devils at Meriwether's ferry, at noon, 
yesterday. I whipped them and killed 11 men, and took Col. Sol. G. 
Street and 55 men; also one wagon-load of arms and some horses. 
My loss none, except i man wounded." 

Merrill's Crossing, Mo., Oct. 12-13, 1863. U. S. Troops of Dis- 
trict of Central Missouri. After pursuing Shelby in his raid 
through a number of places he was finally compelled to make a 
stand at Merrill's crossing on the Black Water river, on the even- 
ing of the I2th. The action began about 6 p. m. and continued until 
darkness put an end to it. Lieut. -Col. B. F. Lazear, with 900 men, 
moved south at 3 a. m. next day to intercept the enemy at Mar- 
shall. This move was successful, Lazear moving in advance of the 
enemy and occupying Marshall, where he was attacked at 8 a. m. 
by the Confederates. About 9:30 a. m. the remainder of the Federal 
forces came up, but finding the enemy disputing the passage of the 
river a crossing was effected farther down, the rear of the enemy 
was attacked and he soon gave way, retreating in 2 columns, both 
closely pursued by the victorious Union troops. The casualties were 
not reported. 

Mesilla, N. Mex., July 25, 1861. Detachment of 7th U. S. In- 
fantry. Maj. Isaac Lynde, with six companies of the 7th U. S. in- 
fantry moved from Fort Fillmore on Mesilla. When within 2 miles 
of the town he sent a summons to surrender to the commander of 
the garrison, which was immediately refused. The Federals then 
moved forward and threw a few shells into the town, which were re- 
plied to by a volley of musketry from the cornfields on the right of 
the road. After some desultory firing Lynde withdrew, having had 
2 killed and 4 wounded. 

Messinger's Ferry, Miss., June 29, 1863. Detachments of nth 
Iowa Infantry, nth Illinois Cavalry and loth Iowa Battery. On the 
arrival of this command under Maj. Charles Foster at Messinger's 
ferry the enemy's pickets were discovered posted behind an old corn 
crib on the eastern side of the Big Black river. The cavalry and 
one company of infantry were deployed as skirmishers near the 
bank of the river and the artillery planted on a hill a third of a mile 
to the rear. After half an hour's skirmishing the Confederates re- 
tired. The losses were not reported. The affair was an incident of 
the Vicksburg campaign. 

Messinger's Ferry, Miss., July 3, 1863. Detachments of the 15th 
Iowa Cavalry and loth Ohio Battery. This detachment, guarding 
Messinger's ferry, dispersed a squad of Confederate pickets and 
scouts about daylight. No casualties were reported. 

Messinger's Ferry, Miss., July 4, 1863. Detachments of nth 
Illinois Cavalry and i6th Iowa Infantry. This command crossed 
at Messinger's ferry to clear the road on the farther side of Big 
Black river, but had not proceeded far when it encountered the 
enemy's skirmishers. The Confederates were driven until rein- 

Vol. VI— 8 



594 The Union Army 

forcements of artillery, cavalry and infantry came up and compelled 
the Federal force to fall back to the river and later in the day to 
cross it. The casualties were not reported. This incident was at 
the beginning of Sherman's expedition against Jackson, Miss. 

Messinger's Ford, Miss., July 6, 1863. 3d Division, 15th Army 
Corps. This division, under Brig.-Gen. James M. Tuttle, moved 
across the Big Black river on the way from Vicksburg to Jackson. 
From the time of crossing (3 p. m.) there was continuous skirm- 
ishing with the enemy until the Bolton road was reached, where 
the division bivouacked. There were no casualties reported. 

Metamora, Tenn., Oct. 5, 1862. (See Hatchie Bridge.) 

Miami, Mo., April 24, 1865. Detachment 48th Wisconsin In- 
fantry. Col. Chester Harding, Jr., commanding the District of 
Central Missouri, sent the folloing despatch from Warrensburg on 
the 26th: "Capt. Felker, Co. A, 48th Wis., reports that on the 
24th instant he had a skirmish with 13 bushwhackers, killing 7 of 
them and capturing all their horses and horse equipments. Capt. 
Felker's company was one sent to Miami." 

Middlebrook, Va., June 10, 1864. 2nd Infantry Division, Army 
of West Virginia. Brig.-Gen. George Crook in reporting the opera- 
tions of his brigade in the Lynchburg campaign says of the Middle- 
brook affair: "I marched on the morning of the loth on the Lex- 
ington road via Middlebrook; met McCausland's brigade, some 1,500 
strong, 2 miles from Staunton. By skirmishing with my advance 
and occupying strong positions along the road ahead of me, he 
endeavored to retard my march, but his loss of killed and wounded 
that fell into my hands was more than double mine." 

Middleburg, Term., Dec. 24, 1862. Detachments of the 12th 
Michigan Infantry and Grierson's Cavalry. After the Confederate 
force under Van Dorn had been driven from Bolivar, Grierson pur- 
sued to Middleburg. which was at that time garrisoned by 200 men 
of the I2th Mich, infantry under Col. Graves. Van Dorn made a 
desperate attack on the garrison, but Graves resisted stoutly, and 
while the action was going on the Confederates were attacked in the 
rear by Grierson. The enemy was thrown into some confusion and 
retreated on the Van Buren road, a round from Curtis' battery 
serving to accelerate his movement. No casualties reported. 

Middleburg, Va., March 27, 1862. U. S. Troops under Col. John 
W. Geary. When Geary approached Middleburg he learned that 
it was occupied by 400 Confederate infantry and cavalry, but by 
the time he arrived the enemy had fled. Pursuit was immediately 
given, the artillery coming close enough to the rear-guard to fire 
several shells into it which caused great confusion. 

Middleburg, Va., Jan. 27, 1863. (See Fairfax Court House, same 
date.) 

Middleburg, Va., June 17-19, 1863. Cavalry. Army of the Poto- 
mac. On the morning of the 17th Col. A. N. Duffie. commanding the 
1st R. I. cavalry, less than 300 men, was ordered to move with his 
regiment from Manassas Junction by way of Thoroughfare gap to 
Middleburg, thence by way of Union and Snickersville to Noland's 
ferry, where he was to join his brigade. At Thoroughfare gap a 
strong skirmish line of the enemy's was encountered, but by making 
a demonstration on his left Duffie managed to pass through the gap, 
the enemy following on his rear but without making any serious 
attack. About 4 p. m. Duffie reached Middleburg, where he cap- 
tured the first picket and ordered Capt. Allen to charge the Con- 
federate detachment in the town. Allen cut off the rear-guard of 
Stuart's cavalry and after a half-hour's fighting succeeded in driving 



Cyclopedia of Battles 595 

it from the town. Duffie learned that Gen. Stuart, with 2,000 cav- 
alry and 4 pieces of artillery, had left Middleburg but a short time 
before, taking the road to Aldie. Orders were given to barricade the 
roads and Capt. Allen was sent to Aldie, where Gen. Kilpatrick 
was supposed to be, asking that officer for reinforcements. Skir- 
mishing was kept up until 7 p. m., when the enemy appeared in 
great force on the roads from Aldie, Union and Upperville and 
surrounded the town. Duffie was determined not to surrender and 
disposed his little force to the best advantage to repel the assault 
that he now felt certain was to come. Three desperate charges 
were repulsed, in which the Union loss was 5 officers and 27 men 
killed, after which Duffie fell back to Little river, northeast of 
Middleburg and went into bivouac, throwing out a strong picket- 
line along the river to guard against a surprise. A second despatch 
was sent to Kilpatrick asking for reinforcements, but the party 
bearing it was never heard of afterward. At 3:30 a. m. on the i8th 
scouts brought in word that the roads in all directions were full of 
Confederate cavalry and the regiment started immediately for 
Aldie. It was soon met by a heavy fire and a demand for sur- 
render. Instead of complying the fire was returned with vigor and 
for more than an hour the fight was kept up at close range, when 
Duffie reached the road to Hopewell gap. At 1:30 p. m. he reached 
camp near Centerville with 4 officers and 27 men — all that was left 
of his regiment. The colors were destroyed to prevent them falling 
into the hands of the enemy. 

While Duffie was falling back from Middleburg Gen. Pleasonton, 
commanding the cavalry corps, sent Col. J. I. Gregg's brigade to 
make a reconnaissance in that direction and to assist Duffie if pos- 
sible. Gregg reached Middleburg about 3 p. m., took possession 
of the town and held it until evening, when he was ordered to fall 
back toward Aldie. Next morning the brigade again advanced and 
a gallant charge by the 4th Pa. cleared Middleburg of the enemy, 
who took up a strong position on a wooded height about a mile 
from town on the Upperville road. About this time Brig.-Gen. 
D. McM. Gregg arrived with the remainder of the 2nd division and 
immediately disposed his men for an attack. Dismounted skir- 

mishers were thrown to the right and left of the pike, while the 
main body of the division was formed for a charge down the road. 
This charge was stubbornly resisted, but the Confederates were 
finally forced to give way, leaving their dead and wounded on the 
field. A large number were captured and the Union troops re- 
mained in undisputed possession of the field. Gregg's loss was not 
reported. 

Middleburg, Va., Feb. 16, 1865. (See Aldie, same date.) 
Middle Creek, Ky., Jan. 10, 1862. i8th Brigade, Army of the 
Ohio. At 8 p. m. of the 9th this brigade, under Col. James A. Gar- 
field, advanced to Abbott's creek, where it was learned that a force 
of Confederates under Gen. Humphrey Marshall was encamped on 
Middle creek near Prestonburg, 3 miles above. At 4 a. m. ne.xt day 
Garfield started his men in the direction of the enemy but the en- 
gagement did not commence until after noon. A shell from the Con- 
federate artillery showed his position and Garfield deployed his 
skirmishers accordingly. The heaviest skirmishing occurred on the 
Federal left, where the enemy had occupied the crest of a steep 
ridge. At 4 p. m. 700 reinforcements came to Garfield from Paints- 
ville and with the aid of these he slowly drove the enemy from his 
position, notwithstanding his superior strength. The Federal loss 
was 3 killed and 20 wounded. Marshall reported his casualties at 9 



598 The Union Army 

killed and ii wounded, but Garfield states that his force buried 25 
of the Confederate dead. 

• Middle Fork Bridge, Va., July 6-7, 1861. Confederate reports 
state that on the 6tli 100 Federals made an attack on the Confederate 
pickets at the bridge and were repulsed, leaving i dead, while pickets 
had 3 wounded. A large Federal force which appeared later in the 
day compelled the pickets to withdraw. Next day a portion of the 
20th Va. drove in the Federal pickets at the bridge, but found the 
guard too strong to be successfully attacked. 

Middleton, Tenn., Jan. 5, 1862. Cavalry of the Army of the 
Cumberland. 

Middleton, Tenn., Jan. 31, 1863. Capt. L W. Battle of the 51st 
Ala., Confederate cavalry reports that a body of Federal cavalry 
drove in the pickets at Middleton and advanced within 100 yards 
of the camp. The Confederates were ordered to mount, but instead 
of advancing against the Union force turned and fled in wild con- 
fusion, the Federals pursuing. The affair was an incident of an 
expedition to Franklin, Tenn., under Brig.-Gen. Jefferson C. Davis, 
of the 1st division of the 20th army corps The only mention of 
it is in the report of Battle, so there is no way of knowing exactly 
what Union organizations were engaged. It is probable, however, 
that the 2nd and 3d Tenn. cavalry were the Union participants. 

Middleton, Tenn., May 22, 1863. 2nd Division Cavalry, Army 
of the Cumberland, and 39th Indiana Mounted Infantry. As an 
incident of an expedition from Murfreesboro to Middleton the Union 
advance, a srjuadron of the 4th U. S. cavalry, charged into and drove 
the enemy from a camp near Middleton. Most of the Confederates 
took refuge in a second camp, which this squadron, under Lieut. 
William O'Connell, charged and cleared mi turn. Through some 
mistake the remainder of the column failed to support O'Connell 
at once and he was obliged to fall back fighting for a short distance 
until a portion of the 4th Ohio came up. The Federals captured 
some 80 prisoners, destroyed 600 stands of arms and lost 9 men 
killed and wounded. 

Middleton, Tenn., June 24. 1863. ist Cavalry Division, Army of 
the Cumberland. When Brig.-Gen. Robert B. Mitchell's division 
approached Middleton his skirmishers struck those of the enemy 
one mile from the town. The ist Wis. was deployed on the right 
and 2nd Ind. on the left of the road as skirmishers and advanced, 
steadily driving the Confederates into the town and to the hills 
beyond. There their sharpshooters in log houses severely annoyed 
the Union skirmishers, and Mitchell ordered up a section of artillery 
which easily drove them off. About dark, the infantry column which 
Mitchell was waiting for not having arrived, he ordered a charge, 
which .sent the Confederates out of sight. The casualties on the 
Confederate side were said to be 30 killed and more wounded; the 
Union losses were not reported. 

Middleton, Tenn., Jan. 14, 1864. 35th Iowa Volunteers. 

Middletown, Md., Sept. 13. 1862. (See Catoctin Mountain.) 

Middletown, Md., July 7, 1864. (See Hager's Mountain.") 

Middletown, Va., May 24. 1862. Cavalry Corps, Army of the 
Shenandoah. The ist battalion of ist Me. cavalry and two com- 
panies of the 1st Vt. had been directed to make a reconnaissance 
toward Front Royal from Middletown. About 5 miles out they 
encountered a heavy artillery, infantry and cavalry force of the 
enemy and fell back slowly to Middletown, where the rest of the 
cavalry joined the detachment. Through some mistake Maj. Wil- 
liam D. Collins of the ist Vt. charged with the companies of his 



Cyclopedia of Battles 597 

regiment and a portion of the ist Me. which resulted in a large 
number of his men being cut off and either killed or captured. The 
cavalry then attempted to join the main column under Gen. Banks, 
but were repulsed and compelled to fall back to Newtown and eventu- 
ally to Winchester, fighting all the way. The losses, though not 
reported, wore heavy on both sides. 

Middletown, Va., June 12, 1863. (See Winchester, June 13-15.) 
Middletown, Va., Sept. 20, 1864. Wilson's Cavalry Division. 
When the Confederate army was routed at Winchester on the 19th 
Wilson pursued to Kernstown. The next morning the pursuit was 
renewed and the rear-guard was overtaken at Middletown. Devin's 
brigade drove them across Cedar creek and followed to Fisher's 
Hill, while another portion of the command turned toward Front 
Royal and drove the enemy's cavalry to the south side of the 
Shenandoah. No casualties reported. 

Middletown, Va., Oct. 19, 1864. (See Cedar Creek.) 
Middleway, Va., Aug. 21. 1865. Cavalry of the Army of West 
Virginia, and the 6th Army Corps. The Confederates crossed the 
Opequan in force during the forenoon of the 21st and made a vig- 
orous attack on the pickets of Wilson's cavalry division, driving 
them back cm the main body and then trying to interpose between 
the division and the army, which was then located near Charles- 
town. Wilson was ordered to fall back in the direction of Berry- 
ville and join Merritt's division. Gen. Wright, commanding the 
6th corps, upon hearing that the enemy had crossed the Opequan, 
sent orders to his division commanders to hold their men in readi- 
ness to repel an attack. Before these orders were fully delivered 
firing was heard along the picket lines in the direction of Middle- 
way. The sudden attack was almost a surprise, but Ricketts' (3d) 
division was quickly thrown into position on the left, where the 
line was in danger of being driven in, and Wright held his ground 
until reinforced by the ist division of the 19th corps on his right 
and some of Gen. Crook's command on his left. At midnight, pur- 
suant to orders from Gen. Sheridan, the whole force moved to its 
old position at Halltown. The Federal loss at Middleway was 
about 260 in killed, wounded and missing, most of the casualties 
occurring in Getty's (2nd) division. 

Milford, Mo., Dec. 18, 1861. Detachments of ist Iowa and 4th 
U. S. Cavalry. Brig.-Gen. John Pope, coinmanding a large recon- 
noitering party, detached seven companies under Col. J. C. Davis to 
attack the Confederates at Milford. Late on the afternoon of the 
i8th Davis came upon the enemy encamped in a wooded bottom- 
land on the west side of the Blackwater river near Milford. The 
Confederate pickets were driven in across the stream, only passable 
by a small bridge which was held in force by the enemy. Lieut. 
Gordon of Co. D, 4th U. S. charged and carried the bridge, when 
another company of the regulars came across and the Confederates 
were pressed so closely that they were compelled to surrender. 
Some 1,300 men. 1,000 stands of arms, 65 wagons loaded with pow- 
der, and a quantity of tents, etc. fell into Federal hands. Two of 
the attacking party were killed and 8 wounded. 

Milford, Va., June 24, 1862. Detachments of the ist Michigan 
and the ist Maine Cavalry. As a reconnoitering force under Maj. 
Charles H. Town approached Milford it was met by Confederate 
pickets who were driven back through the town upon their main 
column posted in a woods beyond. On ascertaining that the thickness 
of the tress and the underbrush would not allow of a cavalry move- 
ment and that the enemy was attempting to flank him, Town with- 
drew to Bentonville. No casualties reported. 



598 The Union Army 

Milford, Va., April 15, 1864. (See Bristoe Station, same date.) 

Milford, Va., Oct. 26, 1864. 2nd Cavalry Division, Army of the 
Sb.enandoah. On the 25th Brig.-Gen. W. H. Powell, commanding 
the division, moved his entire force, except a small camp-guard, 
to a convenient position for an attack on the enemy's works on the 
north side of Milford creek. At daylight on the 26th he attacked 
the Confederate position on the right flank and front, supporting 
the attack with a vigorous fire of artillery. In this assault Powell 
expected the cooperation of Col. Kidd's brigade, but Kidd missed 
the route and did not arrive in time to strike the enemy on the 
rear as intended. Owing to a lack of adequate force, Powell could 
not drive the Confederates from their works, but he managed to 
keep them in their trenches until late in the day, when he received 
orders to move to Guard hill, where he arrived at 10 p. m. 

Milford Station, Va., May 20, 1864. ist Cavalry Division, Army 
of the Potomac. 

Mill Creek, Mo., May 30-31, 1864. Detachment of 8th Missouri 
State Militia Cavalry. This force under Capt. John R. Kelso, while 
scouting in the direction of Huff's mill in Arkansas, encountered a 
party of guerrillas near Mill creek and in the skirmish succeeded 
in killing 2 of them. The following day another party was attacked 
on Honey creek, 2 more were killed and i wounded. No casualties 
were sustained by the militiamen. 

Mill Creek, N. C, March 22, 1865. (See Bentonville.) 

Mill Creek, Tenn., Jan. 25, 1863. Train Guard and Detach- 
ment of loth Michigan Infantry. A train carrying provisions was 
attacked by a party of Confederate cavalry near the Mill creek 
bridge of the Nashville & Chattanooga railroad. Before the de- 
tachment of 28 men could come up from the bridge the enemy had 
captured 25 of the train-guard and set fire to the cars. The rein- 
forcement succeeded in driving the Confederates away. 

Mill Creek Bridges, Mo., April 24, 1863. Detachments of 24th 
Missouri Infantry and ist Alissouri State Militia. During Marma- 
duke's expedition into Missouri he attacked the guard at Mill creek 
bridges, but after a fight of some time he was repulsed, leaving 3 
dead and 12 wounded on the field. The Federal loss was i kilhid. 

Mill Creek Gap, Ga., May 8-1 1, 1864. (See Rocky Face Ridge.) 

Mill Creek Valley, W. Va., Nov. 13, 1863. ■ Troops not stated. 

Miller, Steamer, Capture of, Aug. 7, 1864. (See Arkansas River.) 

Millerstown, Pa., July 3, 1863. (See Fairfield.) 

Millikcn's Bend, La., Aug. 18, 1862. (See Fair Play, capture of.) 

Milliken's Bend, La., June 7. 1863. African Brigade, 23d Iowa 
Infantry and Gunboats Lexington and Choctaw. At 3 a. m. of the 
7th a large Confederate force under McCulloch advanced upon the 
garrison at Milliken's bend under Col. Herman Lieb. The 
enemv opened upon the Federal left, moving in close column by 
division with no skirmishers, and a strong cavalry force on the 
right flank. When they were within easy musket range Lieb's men 
opened fire, causing a portion of the Confederates to waver and give 
way but the remainder pushed on to the levee with the cry of "no 
quarter." The African regiments were poorly equipped and inex- 
perienced in the handling of arms, so that the enemy was success- 
ful in reaching and getting upon the works before more than one 
or two volleys had been fired. For several minutes a desperate hand- 
to-hand conflict ensued, the negroes using their bayonets and clubbed 
guns, but were at last compelled to fall back when outflanked. 
By the time the Federals reached the river bank the gunboats had 
come up and poured two or three broadsides into the advancing 



Cyclopedia of Battles 599 

Confederate column whicli caused it to fall back precipitately. Lieb 
lost in this affair loi men killed, 285 wounded and 266 captured or 
missing. McCulloch had 44 killed, 131 wounded and 10 captured or 
missing. 

Millen's Grove, Ga., Dec. i, 1864. 5th Kentucky and 8th Indiana 
Cavalry, and 88th Indiana Infantry. While Gen. Sherman's army 
was moving toward Savannah the 5th Ky. became engaged at 
Millen's grove with a detachment of Confederate cavalry. The 
enemy extended his line to envelop the flanks of the regiment, 
which was being slowly forced back when Col. Jones, with the 8th 
Ind. came up and turned the tide of battle, completely routing the 
enemy, after which the two regiments pursued for some distance. 
The Union loss was 2 men killed, 9 wounded, and 20 horses cap- 
tured by the Confederates. Col. Baldwin, commanding the Ken- 
tucky regiment, estimated the enemy's loss in killed and wounded 
as being between 30 and 40. 

Near the same place on the same day a foraging party of the 
88th Ind. infantry met and repulsed a small detachment of Wheeler's 
cavalry, but without serious loss on either side. 

Mill Point, W. Va., Nov. q. 1863. 14th Pennsylvania and 2nd 
3d and 8th West Virginia Cavalry. At daybreak Col. James N. 
Schoonmaker found a Confederate force under Jackson drawn up in 
a strong position opposite his lines and awaiting attack. After 
firing on the Union skirmishers for half an hour without getting 
any reply, the enemy opened with artillery which compelled Schoon- 
maker to seek shelter for his command. This move made Jackson 
think the Federals were retiring and he immediately began to advance. 
Without doubt the Confederates would have driven Schoonmaker 
had not reinforcements (2nd and 8th W. Va.) come to his aid. The 
casualties were not reported. 

Mill Springs, Ky., Jan. 19-20, 1862. ist Division, Army of the 
Ohio. In Sept. 1861, Gen. A. S. Johnston was assigned to the com- 
mand of the Confederate Department of the West, which included 
a large territory west of the Mississippi river and the States of 
Kentucky and Tennessee. One of Johnston's first acts was to es- 
tablish a line of operations from Cumberland gap to the Missis- 
sippi. (See Fort Henry.) Gen. Zollicoffer was ordered to Cum- 
berland gap to guard the right of this line and prevent the Fed- 
erals from crossing the Cumberland river. Zollicoffer was without 
military training or experience, and in November Gen. George B. 
Crittenden was assigned to the command of the district. Early 
in December Brig.-Gen. D. C. Buell, commanding the Federal 
Department of the Ohio, organized the Union forces in Kentucky 
and Tennessee into the Army of the Ohio, the ist division of 
which was placed under command of Brig.-Gen. George H. Thomas, 
with orders to operate in the district east of New Haven, Ky. The 
division was composed of four brigades of four regiments each. 
The 1st was commanded by Brig.-Gen. Albin Schoepf, the 2nd by 
Col. M. D. Manson, the 3d by Col. R. L. McCook, and the 12th by 
Brig.-Gen. S. P. Carter. In addition to these regular organiza- 
tions there were Wolford's ist Ky. cavalry, a squadron of Indiana 
cavalry imder Capt. Graham, and three batteries of light artillery 
unattached. The Confederate forces at the battle of Mill Springs 
consisted of two brigades, commanded by Brig.-Gens. F. K. Zolli- 
coffer and W. H. Carroll, and a battalion of Tennessee cavalry 
under Lieut. -Col. G. R. McClellan. the entire force being com- 
manded by Gen. Crittenden in person. 

Mill Springs is located on the south bank of the Cumberland 



600 The Union Army 

river, about 15 miles south of Somerset. Late in November John- 
ston sent instructions to Zollicoffer that he was merely to watch 
the river, and that he could do so from Mill Springs better than he 
could by crossing to the north side, where he would be "with the 
enemy in front and the river behind" in case of an assault on his 
position. But before these instructions were received ZollicofTer 
had thrown his force across the river and fortified a position at 
Beech Grove, lying in the angle formed by Fishing creek and the 
Cumberland river. This movement led to Crittenden's assuming 
command of the forces there soon after it was made. On Dec. 29 
Buell directed Thomas to move against Zollicoffer's left flank, 
while Schoepf's brigade, then at Somerset, was to attack in front, 
and either drive him back across the river or destroy his com.- 
mand. Thomas left Lebanon on the last day of December with 
Manson's brigade, two regiments of McCook's, a battalion of Wol- 
ford's cavalry and Kenny's battery. Owing to bad roads the march 
was slow, so that it was Jan. 17 before he reached Logan's cross- 
roads, 10 miles from the Confederate camp and about 8 miles from 
Somerset. Here he halted until the rear column could come up, and 
sent word to Schoepf to send to the cross-roads the 12th Ky., ist 
and 2nd Tenn., and Standart's battery. These troops arrived on 
the i8th, as did also the 4th Ky., Wetmore's battery and a bat- 
talion of the Michigan engineers. For several days Crittenden had 
been constructing boats to recross the river, but thej' were not 
ready when he learned that the Unoin forces were concentrating in 
his front. On the 18th he sent the following communication to 
Johnston: "I am threatened bj' a superior force of the enemy in 
front, and finding it impossible to cross the river, I will have to make 
the fight on the ground I now occupy. If j'ou can do so, I would ask 
that a diversion be made in my favor." 

Finding that no diversion was likely to be made, Crittenden re- 
solved to move out and attack Thomas at the cross-roads. Accord- 
ingly he left his camp about midnight that night, his cavalry in ad- 
vance, and about daylight on the 19th struck the Federal pickets 
(Wolford's cavalry) 2 miles from the Union camp. Wolford sent 
word to Manson that the enemy was advancing in force, and then 
fell back slowly on the main body. Manson formed the loth Ind. on 
the road to meet the attack, ordered the 4th Ky. to its support, and 
reported to Thomas, who immediately ordered the other officers to 
form their commands for action. The attack was commenced by 
ZollicoflFer's brigade and was made with such vigor that the loth 
Ind. and Wolford's cavalry were compelled to fall back before the 
supports arrived. Col. Speed S. Fry, commanding the 4th Ky., who 
had formed his regiment quickly in response to Manson's order, 
came up on the left of the loth Ind., took a position along the edge 
of the woods and opened fire. This gave the Indianians an op- 
portunity to rally and the two regiments held the enemy in check 
until other troops could be brought up. The Confederates were shel- 
tered by a ravine and Fry rode a short distance to the right to 
get a better view of their position. About the same time Zollicoffer 
got the impression that the 4th Ky. was a Confederate regiment and 
rode to the front to order his men to stop firing on their friends. 
The two officers met and ZollicolTer asked that the firing be stopped 
as the two commands belonged to the same side. As Zollicoffer 
wore a long waterproof coat over his uniform Fry did not recog- 
nize him as a Confederate officer, and was in the act of riding back 
to his regiment to give the order to cease firing, when a Confederate 
fired and wounded his horse. Fry wheeled suddenly, drew his re- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 601 

volver and shot ZolHcoffer through the heart. The fall of their 
leader threw the Confederates into some confusion, but Crittenden 
rallied them, ordered Carroll to bring up his brigade, and then gave 
orders for a general advance. At this juncture Thomas came upon 
the field and noticed that the enemy wdS moving through a cornfield 
to turn Fry's left flank. To meet this movement he threw Carter's bri- 
gade and a section of Kenny's battery to the left of the 4th Ky. and 
the enemy was driven back. Col. McCook now came up with the 9th 
Ohio and 2nd Minn, and relieved the loth Ind. and 4th Ky., as the 
ammunition of these two regiments was about exhausted. Scarcely 
had McCook's men got into position when the general assault ordered 
by Crittenden was commenced, and for the next half hour a spirited 
fire was maintained by both sides. By the end of that time the In- 
dianans and Kentuckians had replenished their cartridge boxes and 
again took their places in the line. Carter now advanced against 
the enemy on the left, the 2nd Minn, kept up a galling fire in the 
center, the 9th Ohio made a dashing charge with fixed bayonets on 
the right, which completely turned that flank, and soon afterward the 
whole Confederate line broke and fled in disorder. Halting only long 
enough to be sure the troops were supplied with ammunition, Thomas 
pushed on in pursuit. Upon approaching the intrenchments at Beech 
Grove the infantry was deployed in line of battle and steadily ad- 
vanced to the top of the hill overlooking the works, when Wet- 
more's and Standart's batteries were directed to shell the fortifica- 
tions, while Kenny's battery kept up a fire on the ferry to prevent 
the Confederates from crossing. However, Crittenden managed to 
cross during the night, by means of a small stern-wheel steamer 
and two old flatboats, leaving all his camp equipage, etc. behind. 
The morning of the 20th the Union troops moved in and took poses- 
sion of the works, together with 12 pieces of artillery, with their 
caissons filled with ammunition; a large number of small arms, 
mostly flint-lock muskets; about 150 wagons; over 1,000 horses and 
mules, and a large amount of commissary stores. 

As the enemy had burned the boats after crossing the river the 
pursuit ended at the Cumberland. Crittenden's army was completely 
demoralized, the men after crossing the river scattering in all direc- 
tions through the mountains of Kentucky and eastern Tennessee. 
The engagement was called by the Confederates the battle of Fishing 
creek; the Union troops gave it the name of Mill Springs, though 
the hard fighting was really done at Logan's cross-roads, 10 miles 
distant. Thomas reported his loss as being 39 killed and 207 
wounded. Crittenden gave his losses as 125 killed, 309 wounded and 
99 missing. 

Mill Springs, Ky., May — . 1863. Detachment of ist Kentucky 
Cavalry. A report received by Brig.-Gen. Samuel P. Carter from 
Maj. William N. Owens states that the Confederates had been 
driven across the river at Mill Springs, with a loss of 3 killed and 
several wounded, besides several men and horses captured. Nine 
Federals were reported missing. 

Mill Springs, Ky., May 29, 1863. Detachment of 1st Kentucky 
Infantry. Lieut. -Col. Silas Adams with a small party crossed the 
Cumberland river and attacked the Confederates at Mill Springs. 
One of the enemy was wounded and s:i were captured. One Union man 
accidentally shot himself, which was the only casualty on that side. 

Millsville, Mo., July 16, 1861. 

Millwood, Va., Feb. 6, 1863. Detachment of Milroy's Cavalry. 
Some Confederate cavalry captured the stage running between 
Martinsburg and Winchester, taking 2 officers and 2 privates that 



602 The Union Army 

were on tl^e stage, as well as several citizens, prisoners. Gen. Mil- 
roy sent out a company of cavalry, which came up with the enemy 
near Millwood, released the prisoners, recaptured the stage and all 
the plunder that the Confederates had taken, besides killing i, 
wounding i and capturing 2 of the troop. 

Millwood, Va., Dec. 17, 1864. Detachment of 2nd Cavalry Divi- 
sion, Department of West Virginia. Bvt. Brig.-Gen. William B. 
Tibbits in a despatch states that a patrol under Capt. William W. 
Miles was attacked by 300 Confederates near Millwood. The result 
was the killing of Miles and 10 of his men, the wounding of 17 others 
and the capture of 20. 

Milton, Fla., Aug. 29, 1864. Detachments of 2nd Maine Cav- 
alry, 19th Iowa Infantry and ist Florida Battery. An expedition under 
Brig.-Gen. Alexander Asboth started from Barrancas to surprise and 
capture three companies of Confederate cavalry, recruiting at Milton. 
Owing to the low stage of the water in the river the troops were 
obliged to disembark from the steamers before they had anticipated, 
so that all hope of surprising the camp was lost. On arriving at 
Milton a company of cavalry and one of mounted infantry were 
discovered drawn up in battle array, but a charge of the Federal cav- 
alry sent them flying in all directions. The pursuit following re- 
sulted in the capture of 4 men and a number of horses, arms, etc. 
There were no casualties on the Union side. 

Milton, Fla., Oct. 18, 1864. Detachment of 19th Iowa Infantry 
and 1st Florida Battery. This detachment under Lieut. -Col. A. B. 
Spurling of the 2nd Me. cavalry, proceeded up the Blackwater from 
Barrancas to within 9 miles of Milton, where the troops were dis- 
embarked from the steamer Planter and proceeded to gather logs. 
While thus engaged some 300 Confederates attacked. They were 
allowed to come within close range when the battery opened upon 
them and they fell back. Spurling's command lost i killed and 2 
wounded. The Confederate loss was not known. 

Milton, Fla., Oct. 26, 1864. 2nd Maine Cavalry. As an incident 
of an expedition up the Blackwater from Barrancas under Lieut. -Col. 
Andrew B. Spurling. the cavalry drove the Confederates through 
Milton, capturing 8 and killing 5 or 6. No casualties were suffered 
by the Union force. 

Milton, Tenn., Feb. 18, 1863. 2nd Michigan and 3d Ohio Cav- 
alry. 

Milton, Tenn., March 20, 1863. (See Vaught's Hill, same date.) 
Mimm's Mills, Ga., April 20, 1865. (See Spring Hill, same date.) 
Mine Creek, Kas., Oct. 25, 1864. (See Marais des Cygnes.) 
Mine Run, Va., Nov. 26-Dec. 2, 1863. Army of the Potomac. At 
the time of this campaign the army of the Potomac was commanded 
by Maj.-Gen. George G. Meade and consisted of the ist, 2nd, 3d, 
5th and 6th army corps, respectively under Maj.-Gens. John Newton, 
Gouverneur K. Warren, William H. French, George Sykes and John 
Sedgwick. The divisions of Newton's corps were commanded by 
Brig.-Gens. Solomon Meredith, John C. Robinson and John R. 
Kenly; those of Warren's corps were under Brig.-Gens. John C. Cald- 
well, Alexander S. Webb and Alexander Hays; of French's, Maj.- 
Gen. David B. Birney. and Brig.-Gens. Henry Prince and Joseph 
B. Carr; of Sykes', Brig.-Gens. Joseph J. Bartlett, Romeyn B, Ayres 
and Samuel W. Crawford; and of Sedgwick's, Brig.-Gens. Horatio 
G. Wright, _ Albion P. Howe and Henry D. Terry. Kenly's division 
of Newton's corps did not accompany the expedition, being left to 
guard the railroad near Brandy Station. The cavalry corps was under 
Maj.-Gen. Alfred Pleasonton, whose division commanders were Brig.- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 603 

Gens. John Buford, David McM. Gregg and George A. Custer, and the 
artillery was under Brig.-Gen. Henry J. Hunt. 

While Custer's division of cavalry was attracting the attention of 
the enemy in front of his position at Raccoon and Morton's fords 
the rest of the army was to proceed to the lower fords of the Rapi- 
dan river, Jacobs', Germanna and Culpeper Mine, and cross simul- 
taneously. French, with his corps, was to proceed to Jacob's ford 
and his line of march being closest to the then known position of 
the Confederates, was to be followed by Sedgwick as a support. 
Warren was to cross at Germanna ford and Sykes, supported by 
the two divisions of the ist corps, was to proceed by way of Cul- 
peper Mine ford. Pursuant to the above plan the army was put in 
motion at 6 a. m. of the 26th, the heads of the 2nd and 5th corps 
reaching their crossing places between 9 and 10 a. m. For some 
unknown reason the 3d corps did not reach Jacob's ford until noon. 
The crossing was then made at all three fords, but the delay of 
French had so retarded the movement of the whole army that it 
was nightfall before it was all on the south side of the stream, and 
it was impossible for Meade to reach Robertson's tavern that day 
as he had planned. French's artillery could not be crossed at 
Jacob's ford because of the steep banks on the south side and it 
was necessary to wait while it was sent around by way of Ger- 
manna ford 2 miles below. Meantime Custer's division of cavalry 
proceeded from Stevensburg, took position at Raccoon and Morton's 
fords and made a demonstration as if to cross. This movement 
caused the enemy to move a heavy force of infantry into the in- 
trenchments and to open an artillery fire of 30 pieces on Custer, who 
replied with his pieces and until dark the fight was kept up. The 
army bivouacked a few miles south of the Rapidan and 
moved at daylight for Locust Grove or Robertson's tavern, 
the 2nd corps arriving about 10 a. m. Warren's advance had quite 
a skirmish with the enemy, whose pickets were driven in and a 
number of prisoners from Ewell's corps were captured. Meade 
ordered Warren to hold his position until the arrival of French's 
corps, which was momentarily expected. About 11 a. m. Meade 
received a despatch from French stating that his column was on the 
plank road awaiting Warren's and a courier was immediately re- 
turned to inform him that Warren was at Robertson's tavern await- 
ing his arrival. At i p. m. another message was received from 
French to the effect that the Confederates were throwing out a force 
on the right flank of his column on the Raccoon Ford road. Warren 
again ordered him to hurry forward. Prince's division on advancing 
came to a fork in the road and not knowing which to take, waited 
for 2 hours for an order from French. When it came it was for the 
division to take the right hand road and after a time another order 
was given for it to return and take the other fork. As a conse- 
quence the enemy attacked again near Payne's farm, and a severe 
fight ensued. Prince's line fell back and Carr. on the left of Prince, 
had one of his brigades driven back some distance, when the 
enemy was checked by a reinforcement from Birney's division. 
These operations kept Sedgwick from joining Warren, who was 
therefore on the defensive all day. Gregg's cavalry division moving 
past the 5th corps advanced as far as New Hope Church where it 
was briskly engaged for a time, but succeeded in driving the Con- 
federate cavalry until it was reinforced by infantry, when Gregg in 
turn was compelled to retire until relieved by Sykes' division, which 
repulsed the enemy. Sykes had been informed of French's failure 
to reach Robertson's tavern and had been ordered not to advance 



604: The Union Army 

beyond the church, so did not follow up his success. Newton late in 
the afternoon was moved from the plank road to Robertson's tav- 
ern to support Warren and during the night the 5th and 6th corps 
also arrived there. Next morning Meade made his dispositions to 
attack, but on driving in the Confederate jjickets it was found that 
the enemy had abandoned his position. Pursuit was immediately 
ordered and the enemy was discovered in a strongly intrenched 
position on the west bank of Mine run. Convinced that there was 
little possibility of success no attempt was made to assault, but 
Warren's corps and one division of the 6th was sent to demonstrate 
on the Confederate right. It took some time to prepare for the 
movement so that the start was not made until the next morning 
at daylight. Arriving at the position desired the force was deployed 
and Gregg and Warren together reconnoitered the Confederate 
position. About i p. m. an advance was ordered and the enemy was 
driven 3 miles to his intrenchments at the head of Mine run. It 
was dark before the Federals were ready to assault, so the move- 
ment was postponed until next morning, the 30th. During the day 
of the 2gth Gregg's cavalry had a rather heavy fight at Parker's 
store in repulsing a force of Confederates attempting to get at a 
wagon train in Gregg's rear. On the night of the 29th it was agreed 
at a conference of the corps commanders that a simultaneous as- 
sault should be made along the whole Confederate line next morn- 
ing. All the preparations were made, the Union skirmishers having 
even advanced across Mine run and driven in those of the enemy, 
when word was received from Warren that after reconnoitering 
the enemy's position in daylight he had concluded that it would be 
folly to attack. Meade hastened to confer with him, but Warren's 
idea of the matter was imchanged even after he and the commanding 
general had gone over the situation together. 

Admitting the failure of the expedition Meade determined to 
withdraw and the army started on its return on Dec. i and the next 
day reached the points from which it had started a week before. 
The casualties in the Army of the Potomac for the whole cam- 
paign were 173 killed, 1.099 wounded and 381 captured or missing 
The Confederate losses were not reported for the campaign as a 
whole, but Ewell's corps (the 2nd) in the Payne's farm and Mine 
run affairs on the 27th and 28th suflfered to the extent of 83 killed 
and 518 wounded. 

Mingo Swamp, Mo., Feb. 2-13, 1863. 12th Missouri State Militia 
Cavalry. An expedition having for its object the capture of a number 
of guerrillas encountered a band of them near the home of one 
Cato. The fight resulted in the killing of 9. and the wounding of 
23. None of the Federals were injured. 

Mink Springs, Tenn., April 13, 1864. Detachment of ist Wiscon- 
sin Cavalry. An outpost picket of 25 men imder Lieut. Columbus 
Caldwell was attacked at Mink Springs, not far from Cleveland, by 
1,500 Confederate cavalry and all but 6 of the outpost were cap- 
tured, together with their arms, horses and equipments. Two of 
the captured men were wounded. The enemy lost I killed and i 
wounded. 

Missionary Ridge, Tenn., Sept. 22. 1863. 39th Indiana Mounted 
Infantry and 44th Indiana and 13th Ohio Infantry. After the battle of 
Chickamauga the Federals withdrew toward Chattanooga, and on 
the evening of the 21 st Col. T. J. Harrison with the 39th Ind. 
mounted infantry was ordered to take position on Missionary ridge. 
On arriving there he found the 44th Ind. and the T3th Ohio already 
intrenched. At 10 a. m. the next day a Confederate division attacked 



Cyclopedia of Battles 605 

and drove the vedettes back upon the reserve line, where the action 
became general. Twice the enemy was frustrated in his attempts to 
take the position, but about evening by outflanking the Federals 
the Confederates compelled them to retire to Chattanooga. The 
Union casualties in this affair are included in the losses of the battle 
of Chickamauga. The engagement is also called Chattanooga and 
Shallow Ford Gap. 

Missionary Ridge, Tenn., Nov. 24, 1863. (See Chattanooga.) 
Mississippi City, Miss., March 8, 1862. Detachment of troops 
from Department of the Gulf. A reconnoitering party^ landed from 
the steamer Calhoun and was fired into by the enemy's artillery at 
Mississippi City. The party immediately returned to the vessel, 
whose artillery silenced the Confederate guns after a few shots. 
No casualties were reported. 

Mississippi County, Mo., Feb. 13, 1865. Detachment of 2nd Missouri 
State Militia Cavalry. Capt. James W. Edwards of Co. B reported from 
New Madrid under date of ¥eh. 16: "I left here Monday morning with 
ID men in pursuit of a band of bushwhackers I heard of the night before 
going into Mississippi county. I ran onto 8 of them Monday night. 
Killed 2 and captured 6, with their arms, etc. 

Missouri River, Dak. Ten, July 29-30, 1863. The Sioux Expedi- 
tion. Shortly after noon on the 29th the expedition reached the 
timber skirting the Missouri river and Col. William Crooks was 
ordered to take the 6th Minn, infantry and clear it of of the Indians. 
This he did without loss, although fiercely fired on by the savages 
on the farther side of the stream. On the 30th while the same regi- 
ment was destroying some of the property left by the Indians in 
their flight it was fired upon by some 125 Indians concealed in the 
underbrush on the opposite shore of the river. No casualties were 
reported. 

Mitchell's Creek, Fla., Dec. 17, 1864 82nd U. S. Colored In- 
fantry. 

Mitchell's Creek, Fla., March 25, 1865. (See Canoe Creek, same 
date.) 

Moccasin Creek, N. C, March 24, 1865. Foragers of the 102nd 
Illinois Infantry. A small foraging party was attacked about a 
mile and a half from the camp of the regiment by some of Wade 
Hampton's cavalry and driven back with a loss of i mortally wounded 
and 2 captured. 

Moccasin Gap, Va., Dec. 24, 1864. 8th Tennessee Cavalry; Stone- 
man's raid. 

Moccasin Swamp, N. C, April 10, 1865. ist Brigade, ist Divi- 
sion, 20th Army Corps. On this date the corps took up the march 
from Goldsboro toward Smithfield, with Selfridge's brigade in ad- 
vance. About a mile east of Moccasin swamp the enemy's cavalry 
was met, while several hundred of the enemy were concealed in the 
dense thickets on either side of the road, from which position they 
kept up a galling fire on the Union lines. The bridges had been 
destroyed, which made the progress of the army slow and kept the 
main body under fire. Winegar's N. Y. battery was brought forward 
and threw a few shells into the woods, and Selfridge pushed for- 
ward the 123d N. Y. infantry, under Col. J. C. Rogers, as skirmishers, 
closely supporting the skirmish line with the rest of the brigade. 
Rogers' men steadily advanced, forcing the enemy back across the 
swamp, where the brigade formed in line of battle and drove the 
Confederates about a mile and a half, when Selfridge was ordered 
to encamp for the night. The Union loss was i man killed and 3 
wounded. The enemy's loss was not learned. 



G06 The Union Army 

Mocksville, N. C, April ii, 1865. Cavalry Division, Stoneman's 
Expedition. After surprising the guard at Shallow ford, Gillem's 
cavalry proceeded to Mocksville, near which place the advance 
came upon a small party of the enemy. The Confederates were 
immediately charged and dispersed. The affair was an incident of 
the expedition into southwestern Virginia and western North Car- 
olina. 

Moffat's Station, Ark., Sept. 27, 1863. 

Monday Hollow, Mo., Oct. 13, 1861. (See Wet Glaize, same date.) 

Monett's Bluff, La., April 2^, 1864. (See Cane River Crossing, 
same date.) 

Monett's Ferry, La., March 29-30, 1864. Cavalry Division, De- 
partment of the Gulf. The itinerary of the cavalry division for the 
Red River campaign states that the march to Monett's ferry on 
Cane river was made on the 29th and the time until noon of the 30th 
was spent in building a bridge. Several times small parties of Con- 
federate cavalry appeared but were each time driven off. After the 
structure was completed the division moved forward to a short 
distance above Cloutierville, where the river was again bridged. 
Small parties of Confederates were driven before the advance, 
some 2 or 3 being killed and a number wounded. 

Monocacy, Md., July 9, 1864. Middle Department, 8th Army 
Corps, and 3d Division, 6th Army Corps. During the operations in 
the Shenandoah Valley, Maj.-Gen. Lewis Wallace left Frederick on 
the evening of the 8th and by a night march took position on the 
left bank of the Monocacy river. Early on the morning of the 9th 
the Confederates moved out from Frederick City and began the 
fight in skirmish order, a little later bringing their artillery into 
action. The enemy's cavalry and artillery then moved around to 
the Federal left and charged vigorously on the 3d division of the 
6th army corps, but the attack was repulsed and a countercharge 
made, driving the enemy back. A second attack of Confederate 
infantry was repulsed, but with heavy loss to both sides. About 
3:30 p. m. the enemy's batteries were brought into position to enfi- 
lade the Federal line and another assaulting force of four lines of 
infantry was moved into position. When Wallace saw the approach- 
ing column he ordered a retreat on the Baltimore pike, where Brig.- 
Gen. E. B. Tyler had been skirmishing fiercely all day. The retreat 
was made in good order, Tyler forming the rear-guard. The Con- 
federates followed for some distance, but darkness stopped the pur- 
suit. The Federal loss amounted to 123 killed, 603 wounded and 
568 captured or missing. The Confederate loss in killed and wounded 
was reported as being 700. 

Monocacy Aqueduct, Md., Sept. 4, 1862. The report of Maj.- 
Gen. Daniel H. Hill, of the Confederate army, states of the Mar}'- 
land campaign: "We drove away the Yankee forces near the mouth 
of the Monocacy" on the 4th. This is the only mention of the 
affair. 

Monocacy Church, Md., Sept. 9, 1862. (See Barnesville, same 
date.) 

Monocacy River, Md., Oct. 12, 1862. Cavalry of Army of the 
Potomac and 3d and 4th Maine Infantry. On learning that the 
Confederates were moving toward the mouth of the Monocacy river 
Brig.-Gen. Alfred Pleasonton, commanding the cavalry, moved out 
from that place to meet them. About a mile and a half out he en- 
countered Stuart's cavalry and a general engagement ensued. Pleas- 
onton was compelled to fall back to the mouth of the river, whe.-e 
with the assistance of the infantry guard of the place, he held the 



Cyclopedia of Battles 607 

enemy in check until reinforcements came to his aid. Tlie casualties 
were not reported. 

Monogan Springs, Mo., April 25, 1862. Detachment of ist 
Iowa Cavalry. A detail of 6 men under a corporal attacked 10 guer- 
rillas on the north bank of the Osage river. The result was the 
killing of I of the enemy, the wounding of another and the capture 
of 8. Another band of 7 on the south bank of the stream escaped. 

Monroe's Cross-Roads, S. C, March 10, 1865. Cavalry Division, 
Sherman's Army of Invasion. During the campaign of the Caro- 
linas Hampton's Confederate cavalry surprised the Federal camp 
of Brig.-Gen. Judson Kilpatrick at 2 a. m. The Union troops were 
driven back, the artillery captured and the whole command driven 
into a swamp. The enemy, however, failed to follow up his advant- 
age promptly and Kilpatrick rallied his men in the swamp, ordered 
a countercharge, and recaptured the camp after a desperate struggle. 
Later in the day an infantry force came to Kilpatrick's aid. Kil- 
patrick's loss was 19 killed, 68 wounded and 103 captured. His re- 
port states that 80 of the Confederate dead were left on the held. 

Monroe Station, Mo., July 9-1 1, 1861. Detachments of i6th Illi- 
nois. 3d Iowa and Hannibal Home Guards. Col. Robert F. Smith, 
in command of the detachments, moved from Palmyra on the 9th 
and when a few miles from Monroe was fired into from ambush. 
The Union men charged the bushes, but the enemy being mounted 
were enabled to escape. On the loth a few shots were fired from the 
I piece of artillery into a party of Confederates approaching the town 
and quickly dispersed them. On the nth the enemy had the town 
completely surrounded, and opened with 2 pieces of artiiler}-. The 
Federal gun dismounted the smaller of the enemy's guns and later 
in the day reinforcements caused them to withdraw altogether. The 
casualties were not reported. 

Monteith Swamp, Ga., Dec. 9, 1864. ist Division, 20th Army 
Corps. On this date the 20th corps, commanded by Brig.-Gen. A. S. 
Williams, was marching from Eden Station to Monteith on the 
Charleston railroad. At Monteith swamp the road was found ob- 
structed for nearly a mile by fallen timber, while beyond the ob- 
structions the enemy had thrown up two redoubts, where a force 
of some 500 infantry with a piece of artillery was posted to dispute 
the Federal advance. As this gun commanded the road and pre- 
vented the removal of the fallen trees. Brig.-Gen. N. J. Jackson, 
commanding the advance division, determined on a flank movement 
to dislodge the Confederates. He therefore ordered Col. Selfridge. 
with the 1st brigade, to engage the attention of the enem.y m front, 
while Col. Carman, with the 2nd brigade, moved to the right and 
Col. Robinson, with the 3d brigade, to the left, in an endeavor to 
gain the rear of the redoubts. Owing to the character of the ground 
over which he had to move. Carman was unable to reach the desired 
position before the 3d brigade debouched from the woods and 
charged the enemy, who fled after the first volley, leaving their 
knapsacks and camp equipage. Robinson's loss was i killed and 7 
wounded. The Confederate loss in killed and wounded was not 
reported, but 4 were captured. This opened the road for the corps 
to continue its march toward Savannah. 

Monterey, Ky., June 11. 1862. Capt. Blood's Mounted Provost 
Guards and 13th Indiana Battery. 

Monterey, Tenn., April 28, 1862. Scouting party of Pope's com- 
mand. Five companies of cavalry sent out by Maj.-Gen. John Pope 
met a foraging party of 150 Confederate cavalry near Monterey, 
and after a brisk skirmish routed them. The enemy lost 5 killed 
and 19 taken prisoners, while the Union forces suffered no casualties. 



608 The Union Army 

Monterey, Tenn., April 29, 1862. 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division, 
Army of the Mississippi. During the operations incident to the 
siege of Corinth this brigade, forming the head of the column, met 
the enemy's pickets 2 miles from Monterey, rapidly drove them 
through their deserted camp and captured some 20 prisoners. The 
2nd la. was detached to pursue on the Corinth road and while pass- 
ing across a narrow bridge 4 guns were opened on the regiment, 
causing it to fall back with the loss of i killed and several wounded. 

Monterey, Tenn., May 13, 1862. Portion of Brig.-Gen. M. L. Smith's 
Brigade. 

Monterey, Va., April 12, 1862. Brig.-Gen. R. H. Milroy's com- 
mand. A despatch from Gen. Milroy to Maj.-Gen. John C. Fremont 
under date of April 12 says: "The rebels, about 1,000 strong, v/ith 
two cavalry companies and 2 pieces of artillery, attacked my pickets 
this morning about 10 o'clock, and drove them in some 2 miles. I 
sent out reinforcements. The skirmishing was brisk for a short 
time, but the rebels were put to flight with considerable loss. The 
casualties on our side were 3 men badly wounded." 

Monterey Gap, Pa., July 4-5, 1863. Cavalry of the Army of the 
Potomac. During the pursuit of the Confederates after the battle 
of Gettysburg the cavalry under Brig.-Gen. Judson Kilpatrick came 
up with the enemy at Monterey gap, where the pickets were hand- 
somely driven in by the 6th Ohio. Next morning the command came 
up with Ewell's train and after a skirmish captured 150 wagons, 
1,500 prisoners, a large number of horses, mules, etc. When the 
Federals reached Smithburg, Md., shortly after the Confederates 
drove in the pickets and brought artillery to bear but a battery of 
the 3d U. S. light artillery soon effectually silenced the Confederate 
guns and the enemy withdrew, leaving Kilpatrick free to move to 
Hagerstown. The casualties were not reported. 

Montevallo, Ala., March 30-31, 1865. 4th Cavalrj'^ Division, Army 
of the Mi.ssissippi. During Wilson's raid two companies of the 4th 
la. cavalry skirmished with the enemy for several miles before en- 
tering the village of Montevallo, but the only casualty reported was 
I man slightlj' wounded. The next morning Wilson encountered the 
enemy at Six-mile creek, a short distance south of Montevallo, 
where his advance was suddenly atacked on the flank by a con- 
siderable force of Confederate cavalry. ' The attack was quickly re- 
pulsed by the lOth Mo., and the 3d la. charged in turn, driving back 
the enemy and cutting off a portion of the command that had become 
separated from the main body, capturing several prisoners. No re- 
port of killed and wounded. 

Montevallo, Mo., April 14, 1862. Detachments of the ist Iowa 
Cavalry and Missouri Home Guards. Lieut. -Col. Charles E. Moss 
of the 1st la. cavalry, after leaving the greater portion of his com- 
mand at Centerville on the 13th, proceeded with 28 men to Monte- 
vallo, where about 4:30 a. m. the detachment was aroused by a band 
of 50 Confederates who demanded an immediate surrender. A few 
shots from the upper windows of a house where the Union troops 
were stationed sent the enemy back to the shelter of a store 50 
yards away. Moss then formed his men outside, charged and 
drove them from the town. The casualties amounted to 2 killed and 
4 wounded on the Federal side, while the Confederates lost a number 
killed and 7 wounded. 

Montevallo, Mo., Aug. 5. 1862. Detachment of 3d Wisconsin 
Cavalry. Col. William A. Barstow with a portion of the 3d Wis. 
cavalry drove a party of Confederates from Alontevallo and captured 



Cyclopedia of Battles 609 

some horses, arms, the roster and records of Col. Coffee's regi- 
ment, etc. The enemy appearing again in force Barstow was obliged 
to evacuate the town, skirmishing as he fell back. A few of his men 
were captured. 

Montevallo, Mo., June 12, 1864. Detachment of 3d Wisconsin 
Cavalry. A detail of men under Lieut. C. B. Willsey ran into 30 
bushwhackers at Montevallo and after a short but sharp light scat- 
tered them into the brush. One of the enemy was killed. 

Montevallo, Mo., Oct. 19, 1864. Missouri Militia. Lieut. M. M. 
Ehle of the 3d Wis. cavalry, reporting from Fort McKean, Kas., 
states: "The guerrillas had a fight yesterday near Montevallo with 
the Stochler militia, in which i rebel was killed and several wounded." 

Montgomery, Ala., April 12, 1865. (See Columbus Road, same 
date.) 

Monticello, Ark., Jan. 13-14, 1864. Lieut. McCarty and 20 men 
sent out by Col. Powell Clayton from Pine BlufT, captured 6 men 
and 2,000 bushels of corn at Monticello without the loss of a man. 

Monticello, Ark., March 18, 1864. 7th Missouri Cavalry. 

Monticello, Ark., May 24, 1864. Detachment of 13th Illinois 
Cavalry. This afifair was a skirmish between a detachment of the 
13th 111. under Capt. John H. Norris and some Confederates, as 
Norris was entering Monticello. The enemy was driven from the 
town. No casualties were reported. 

Monticello, Ark., Sept. 10, 1864. 13th Illinois, 5th Kansas and 
1st Indiana Cavalry. Col. Albert Erskine with 300 men, during an 
expedition from Pine Bluff toward Monticello, drove in the pickets 
at the latter place at daylight and captured 3 prisoners. 

Monticello, Ky., May i, 1863. Expedition to Monticello. Brig.- 
Gen. Samuel P. Carter, commanding the 4tli division, 9th army corps, 
reporting from Monticello. says: "We drove the enemy through 
the town and beyond it in gallant style. We encountered them again 

4 miles south of Monticello, near forks of road, one party on the 
Albany road and one on the Jamestown road, the latter trying to 
cut off our communication with the rear. We drove the enemy 
about 3 miles on Albanj^ and 5 or 7 on Jamestown roads. Rebel 
loss, as far as discovered, 8 killed, more wounded and number of 
prisoners, and 2 commissioned officers. No loss on our side." 

Monticello, Ky., May 9, 1863. (See Alcorn's Distillery.) 
Monticello, Ky., June 9, 1863. Detachments of 2nd and 7th Ohio 
Cavalry, 45th Ohio Mounted Infantry, Law's Battery and 2nd Ten- 
nessee Mounted Infantr}^ This command under Col. August V. 
Kautz advanced on Monticello on the morning of the 9th. Four or 

5 miles beyond West's, whence the Confederate pickets had been 
driven some time before, the enemy was encountered drawn up in line 
of battle. The battery was brought into action and after a few 
rounds the Confederates were dispersed and pursued, leaving 2 
dead and 10 wounded on the field. Some 20 prisoners were captured 
by the Federals, whose loss was 3 wounded. Between 4 and 5 p. m., 
after Kautz had left the town and had fallen back some distance, 
the rear-guard was attacked by an overpowering force of the enemy. 
A portion of the 2nd Tenn. was sent to reinforce it and found it 
retiring in some disorder. The reinforcements drove the enemy 
back through timber half a mile, where he rallied behind a 
stone wall, and in turn compelled the Federals to fall back out of 
range. An attack was then made by the reinforced Confederates, 
but it was repulsed by another detachment of the 2nd Tenn. and a 
portion of the 7th Ohio. Darkness nut an end to the fighting. The 
total loss of Kautz's force was 7 killed, 34 wounded and 6 missing. 

Vol. VI— 9 



610 The Union Army 

The enemy's loss was not ascertained, but 5 of their dead, 5 wounded 
and 16 prisoners fell into Federal hands. 

Monticello Road, Ark., June 17, 1864. Detachment of 5th Kansas 
Cavalry. About 1 130 p. m. the pickets on the upper Monticello road 
leading to Pine Bluff were driven in by Confederate cavalry. Lieut. 
Col. Wilton A. Jenkins immediately went to the assistance of the 
pickets and attacked, the enemy retreating rapidly. Jenkins followed 
as far as he safely could, killing and wounding a number of the 
fleeing eneni}'. The Federal loss was 2 or 3 slightly wounded. 

Montpelier Springs, Ala., April 20, 1865. (See Spring Hill, Ga., 
same date.) 

Moon's Station, Ga., Oct. 4, 1864. Confederate reports state 
that as Hood was moving northward in an effort to draw Sherman 
from Atlanta, Reynold's brigade of Walthall's division attacked the 
Federal garrison at Moon's station on the Western & Atlantic 
railroad and captured about 80 prisoners, with a loss to Reynolds of 6 
killed or wounded. Federal reports make no mention of the affair. 

Moorefield, Va., Nov. 9, 1862. ist New York, Ringgold and 
Washington Cavalry, and 23d Illinois Infantry. 

Moorefield, W, Va., Dec. 3, 1862. Ringgold Pennsylvania Cav- 
alry, and detachment of ist Virginia Cavalry. This command under 
Lieut. H. A. Myers charged into Moorefield, where two companies 
of Confederate' cavalry were stationed. The result was the rout of 
the enemy with a loss of 2 killed, a number wounded and 10 cap- 
tured. The charging force sustained no loss. 

Moorefield, W. Va., Jan. 3, 1863. Troops of Middle Military 
Division, under Col. James Washburn. The post of Moorefield, 
occupied by Federal troops in an expedition to Moorefield and 
Petersburg, was attacked on the morning of the 3d by the Confederate 
forces under Brig.-Gen. William E. Jones. After 2 hours' fighting, 
chiefly an artillery duel, the enemy withdrew. No casualties were 
reported. 

Moorefield, W. Va., Aug. 6, 1863. (See Averell's Raid.) 

Moorefield, W. Va., Sept. 4, 1863. ist West Virginia Infantry, 
23d Ilinois Infantry and Battery L, ist Illinois Artillery. The 
"Record of Events"of the 5th brigade of the Department of West 
Virginia contains the following: "Sept. 4, the 23d regiment 111. volun- 
teers by order of Col. Mulligan marched (from Petersburg, W. Va.) 
toward Moorefield, to reinforce Maj. Stephens, commanding a de- 
tachment of the 1st W. Va. volunteers and a section of Mulligan's 
battery, which were attacked at that place. When the regiment had 
advanced about 3 miles it was attacked by the enemy in Petersburg 
gap. By order of Col. Mulligan the regiment fell back, and 
marched to the assistance of Maj. Stephens via Williamsport." 

Moorefield, W. Va., Sept. 11, 1863. Detachment of ist West Vir- 
ginia Infantry and Ringgold Cavalry. About 80 men of O'Neill's 
Confederate cavalry surprised the Federal camp of Maj. Edward W. 
Stephens. Jr., and captured practically the whole force. Some 146 
officers and men were taken, besides a quantity of commissary and 
quartermaster's stores. About 30 of the Federals (according to the 
Confederate report) were killed or wounded, while the attacking party 
lost but 3 wounded. 

Moorefield, W. Va., Feb. 4, 1864. Detachment of troops of the De- 
partment of West Virginia. On the morning of the 4th Col. James 
A. Mulligan, with about 1,000 cavalry and 2 pieces of artillery ad- 
vanced upon Moorefield. The artillery was placed in position and 
under its efficient firing the Confederate front was steadih' pressed 
until it gave way, the Federals pursuing through and beyond the 
town. No casualties were reported. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 611 

Moorefield, W. Va., June 6, 1864. Detachment of 22nd Pennsyl- 
vania Cavalry. A scouting party of 80 men of the 22nd Pa. cav- 
alry commanded by Capt. James P. Hart was attacked by 200 Con- 
federates on the Greenland gap road near Moorefield, but succeeded 
in repulsing the enemy and driving them in confusion. The Union 
loss was 4 killed and 6 wounded; the Confederate loss was not re- 
ported. 

Moorefield, W. Va., Nov. 7, 1864. Detachments of the 5th and 6th 
West Virginia Cavalry. Col. George R. Latham, with 225 men of the 
two West Virginia regiments and one gun of Battery L, ist 111., 
left New creek on the 6th to surprise a party of about 100 Con- 
federates known to be at Moorefield. Latham reached Moorefield 
before daylight on the 7th, but could not distinguish the location 
of the enemy's camp. He quietly surrounded the town, however, and 
waited until it was light enough to move with certainty. In the 
meantime the Confederates discovered the presence of the Union 
troops and commenced firing. In the skirmish which ensued I of 
the enemy was wounded and 8 were captured, together with their 
horses, 46 beef cattle and 460 sheep, without casualty. 

Moorefield, W. Va., Feb. 4-6, 1865. Detachment of the ist bri- 
gade, 3d Cavalry Division, Army of the Potomac. Lieut. -Col. E. W. 
Whitaker, of the ist Conn., with 300 men selected from his own 
regiment, the 2nd Ohio, 8th N. Y., ist N. H. and 22nd N. Y. was 
sent out from Winchester to scout through the country toward 
Moorefield and gain information concerning the enemy's move- 
ments. Small parties of Confederates were encountered at various 
places along the road and a few slight skirmishes ensued. At a 
Mr. Randolph's, about 3 miles from Moorefield, Maj. Gilmor was 
found in bed and captured by Maj. Young with a party of his scouts. 
The expedition returned to Winchester on the morning of the 6th, 
having ridden about 140 miles in a little over 48 hours, bringing in 12 
prisoners without the loss of a man. 

Mooresburg, Tenn., Dec. 10, 1863. Cavalry of the Army of the 
Ohio. 

Moore's Ford, Miss., Sept. 29, 1863. Cavalry of the 15th Army 
Corps. Col. Winslow with detachments from the 4th, 5th and iith 
111., 4th la. and loth Mo. cavalry, 900 men in all, with 2 mountain 
howitzers, moved from Messinger's ford on Big Black river to 
Yazoo City. On the 28th he marched to Moore's ford and en- 
camped his command a mile and a half from there in the direction of 
Benton, leaving a detachment with a howitzer to guard the crossing. 
At 4 a. m. on the 29th the enemy vigorously attacked this detach- 
ment with 4 pieces of artillery supported by dismounted cavalry. 
The howitzer was soon disabled and after fighting about an hour, 
the Federals withdrew toward Benton, where they halted for dinner. 
That night they encamped 2 or 3 miles below Yazoo City. 

Moore's Mills, Mo., July 28, 1862. Detachment of Missouri 
Militia Cavalry and 3d Iowa Cavalry. This force, under Col. Odon 
Guitar, came in contact with 900 Confederates during the pursuit 
of Porter. The advance was fired into from ambush but returned 
the fire vigorously after dismounting until the rest of the column 
was deployed and the i gun in the Federal command was brought 
into action. The whole Union line was steadily advanced for some 
distance and then halted. After a short lull the enemy charged, 
making a desperate effort to capture the gun, but this charge and 
two others which followed immediately after were repulsed with loss. 
About 4 p. m. the Federals charged and drove the enemy from the field. 
The Union loss was 13 killed and 55 wounded, while the enemy, by 
Guitar's estimate, had 52 killed and from 125 to 150 wounded. 



612 The Union Army 

Moore's Plantation, La., May 3, 1864. U. S. Troops, Department 
of the Gulf. The report of Confederate Maj.-Gen. Richard Taylor 
of May 4, states : "For two days past the fighting has been principally 
on the Bayou Robert road between the Chambers plantation and 
Alexandria. Last evening the enemy was driven beyond Gov. Moore's 
plantation." This is the only official mention of the place on this 
date. 

Moreau Bottom, Mo., Oct. 7, 1864. 6th and 8th Cavalry, Missouri 
State Militia. This affair occurred during Price's Missouri Expedi- 
tion, when he was approaching Jefferson City. Tiie 6th and 8th regi- 
ments were stationed at the bridge across Moreau creek and annoyed 
the enemy for some time, thereby delaying his advance. The use 
of Confederate artillery compelled the militia to fall back to a strip 
of timber where another detachment of the same two regiments 
was drawn up and repulsed the enemy for the time. Later, how- 
ever, the whole command withdrew within the intrenchments of 
Jefferson City. No casualties were reported. 

Moreauville, La., May 17. 1864. Cavalry and Corps d'Afrique; 
Banks' Red River Expedition. When the Confederates under Gen. 
Dick Taylor were driven from Mansura on the i6th, the cavalry 
pursued to Moreauville, where the 4th brigade was attacked early 
on the next morning. The 5th brigade soon came up and the skir- 
mishing continued throughout the day with slight losses on both sides. 
The Corps d'Afrique also became engaged, but finally repulsed the 
enemy, losing 2 killed, 8 wounded and 2 missing. The Confederate 
loss was not ascertained, but must have been much heavier. 

Morgan County, Tenn., Feb. 2, 1862. This engagement was a 
skirmish between a small Union force and a detachment of a 
Tennessee cavalry regiment, in which the Union captain and 5 of 
his men were killed and others wounded and captiired. The Confed- 
erates suffered no loss. The only official mention of the affair is the 
report of the Confederate lieutenant-colonel, so there is no way of 
knowing what Union troops participated. 

Morganfield, Ky., July 14, 1864. S2nd Kentucky Infantry. While 
scouting in Webster and Union counties Lieut. -Col. Samuel F. 
Johnson encountered 150 Confederates at Morganfield. In the skir- 
mish 5 were killed and 2 captured, the Kentucky regiment suffering 
no casualties. 

Morgan's Ferry, La., Sept. 7, 1863. 2nd Division, 13th Army 
Corps. The division, commanded by Maj.-Gen. F. M. Herron, 
arrived at Morgan's Bend of the Atchafalaya river on the evening 
of the 6th, and learned that the main body of the enemy, some 3,000 
strong, under Gen. Green, was at Morgan's ferry. A portion of one 
brigade, commanded by Col. Day, was sent out to look after a party 
of Confederates in the neighborhood of the bend. Day skirmished 
all afternoon with the enemy, driving the detachment back upon the 
main body. The Union loss was 6 wounded. The enemy lost 2 killed, 
ID or 12 wounded, and about the same number captured. 

Morgan's Ferry Road, La., July 28, 1864. Part of Lawler's Bri- 
gade. Learning that the Confederates were planning an attack on 
Morganza, Gen. Lawler sent out a detachment under Gen. Ullman 
to make a reconnaissance toward the Atchafalaya river on the 
Morgan's Ferry road. Ullman encountered a party of about 200 of the 
enemy and soon engaged them in a skirmish. The enemy scattered, 
losing 5 killed, 2 captured and a number wounded. Ullman then 
pushed on to the Atchafalaya and found a considerable force of the 
enemy on the opposite side, with 3 pieces of artillery in position. 
Owing to the shape of the ground Ullman could not use his artillery 
to advantage and retired to Morganza. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 613 

Morgan's Ferry Road, La., Aug. 25, 1864. Detachments of Law- 
ler's Brigade. Lieut. -Col. Gurney with 50 men, made a reconnais- 
sance to Morgan's ferry on the Atchafalaya river and found Con- 
federates in some force encamped on the other side, with 4 pieces 
of artillery in position. Two miles from the river he encountered a 
picket guard of 6 men under a lieutenant, drove them in and though 
they fought from a protected spot, captured them at the water's 
edge, under the fire of the enemy's cannon. The same day Capt. 
Yeaton of the ist La. cavalry, with 100 men, went to the Atchafalaya 
at the mouth of the Mamie bayou, via the New Texas road. Bayou 
Latenache and Robinson's plantation and on the road captured the 
horses and equipments of 4 Confederates who escaped to the woods. 
At the Mamie bayou they captured a Confederate and by firing 
across the bayou, dispersed a company encamped on the other side. 
Lieut. Emmons and 4 men of the ist La. cavalry crossed over and 
destroyed rifles, saddles and other equipments left by the fleeing 
Confederates. 

Morgan's Mill, Ark., Feb. 9, 1864. Detachments of nth Missouri 
and 1st Nebraska Cavalry. Lieut. -Col. John W. Stephens with about 
no men left Batesville on the 7th to break up a Confederate camp. 
On the morning of the 9th, just after he had detached 40 men of his 
command under Capt. Thomas J. Majors, Stephens encountered a 
large force of Confederates at Morgan's mill and was immediately 
surrounded. After a desperate fight he cut his way out, but was 
followed and harassed for a distance of 8 miles. Majors on hearing 
the firing came to Stephens' assistance, but was also surrounded and 
obliged to cut his way out. The Federal loss was 6 killed, 8 wounded 
and 8 captured. Stephens estimated the enemy's casualties as 22 
killed and as many wounded. 

Morgansville, Ky., Sept. 2, 1862. Detachment of the Army of the 
Ohio, commanded by Col. J. M. Shackelford, of the 8th Kentucky 
Cavalry. 

Morganton, N. C, April 17, 1865. (See Catawba River.) 
Morgantown, Ky., Oct. 31, 1861. Kentucky Cavalry under Col. 
J. H. McHenry, Jr. This affair was a skirmish between about 20 
Union men and some Confederate pickets. The latter were first 
encountered at the outskirts of the town and were driven through it. 
Subsequently the enemy reinforced to about 60 strong, was again 
met a mile beyond Morgantown and was routed. The Federals had i 
man wounded and the Confederates lost 3. 

Morganza, La., May 30-June 5, 1864. (See Atchafalaya River.) 
Moro, Steamer, Feb. 3, 1863. (See A. W. Baker, steamer.) 
Moro Bottom, Ark., April 25-26, 1864. (See Camden, Ark., Ex- 
pedition to.) 

Morris' Ford, Tenn., July 2, 1863. Cavalry of the Army of the 
Cumberland. During the Middle Tennessee campaign Brig.-Gen. 
John B. Turchin's division moved toward Decherd from Hillsboro, 
by way of Morris' ford, 10 miles above Hillsboro. When within a 
mile and a half of the ford the Confederate cavalry pickets were en- 
countered and driven back across the Elk river. Two companies of the 
4th Ohio, who were following closely, were fired into by the Con- 
federate sharpshooters on the opposite bank, which was a steep blufT, 
rendering any attempt to cross under fire an exceedingly hazardous 
undertaking. Another ford, a mile and a half above, was recon- 
noitered by Turchin's escort, but was also found to be well guarded. 
While considering the advisability of sending a mounted force 
across the stream the Federals were opened upon by a battery of 
4 guns just below the ford. Turchin withdrew his battery to a 



614 The Union Army 

more sheltered position and sent word to Stanley that he dared 
not cross. About 2 p. m. Mitchell's division came up and it was 
directed to cross the river at the ford a mile and a half above 
(called Shallow ford) while Turchin's effected a crossing at Morris' 
ford. Long's brigade of Turchin's division, ascertained that the 
enemy had retreated from the ford and crossed, followed by the 
remainder of the division and soon engaged the enemy's cavalry. By 
the time Turchin had advanced 3 miles Mitchell had succeeded in 
crossing at Shallow ford and the two divisions pushed forward, skir- 
mishing until dark, the enemy by that time having brought four regi- 
ments into the action. Turchin lost 2 killed and 8 wounded, and his 
men found and buried over 20 of the enemy's dead. 

Morris Island, S. C, Sept. 7, 1863. On this date the Confed- 
erates evacuated Morris island. For a full account of the event, with 
the preceding bombardment, see Naval Volume. 

Morristown, Mo., Sept. 17, 1861. Detachment of Kansas Bri- 
gade. An expedition of 600 men with 2 mountain howitzers attacked 
a camp of the enemy near Morristown and succeeded in routing 
him with a loss of 7 killed and a number wounded. The entire 
Confederate camp, equipage, etc., was captured. The Federals lost 
2 killed and 6 wounded. 

Morristown, Tenn., Dec. i, 1861. 

Morristown, Tenn., Dec. 10, 1863. Garrard's Brigade, Cavalry 
corps. Army of the Ohio. In the pursuit of Longstreet, after he 
had raised the siege of Knoxville, Gen. Garrard dashed into Morris- 
town, drove the enemy from his fortifications and the town. 
Shackelford's report of the affair says that between 40 and 50 of 
the enemy were killed or wounded, while Garrard lost but 6 wounded. 

Morristown, Tenn., Aug. 2, 1864. Detachment of loth Michigan 
Cavalry. Lieut. -Col. Luther S. Trowbridge with 250 men and a 
mountain howitzer left Strawberry plains on the ist and the following 
day met a party of no Confederates at Morristown. After a short 
fight the enemy retired with the loss of an officer mortally and 5 
men slightly wounded. There were no casualties among the 
Federals. 

Morristown, Tenn., Oct. 28, 1864. 8th, 9th and 13th Tennessee 
Cavalry and Battery E, ist Tennessee Light Artillery. About 9 
a. m. this force, under Brig.-Gen. Alvan C. Gillem, came upon the 
Confederate pickets, which the advance regiment, the 9th Tenn., 
charged and drove back upon their main line drawn up in strong 
position before the town. The battery was brought forward and 
placed on an eminence commanding the enemy's center, which was 
at once charged by one of Gillem's regiments and badly routed. 
Noticing the enemy preparing to charge the right flank, Gillem 
ordered a forward movement by the 8th Tenn. on that part of his 
line. By that time the 9th had been reformed, and simultaneously 
with the charge of the 8th attacked the Confederate right. After 
a short but desperate resistance the Confederates turned and fled, 
leaving (according to Union reports) 85 dead on the field. Some 
224 were captured and a quantity of arms, ammunition, etc. Gillem 
lost 8 killed and 18 wounded. 

Morton, Miss., Feb. 8, 1864. Cavalry of the 17th Army Corps. 
This affair was an incident of the Meridian campaign. After dark 
McPherson, whose corps was 4 miles and a half from Morton, sent 
his cavalry to reconnoiter in the direction of the town. By skirmishing 
a little it was ascertained that the enemy was retiring. No casualties 
were reported. 

Morton's Ford, Va., Oct. 11, 1863. (See Brandy Station, same 
date.) 



Cyclopedia of Battles 615 

Morton's Ford, Va., Nov. 26, 1863. (See Mine Run, Nov. 26- 
Dec. 2, 1863.) 

Morton's Ford, Va., Feb. 6, 1864. 2nd Army Corps. During a 
demonstration along the Rapidan river the 3d division of the 2nd 
corps moved out before daylight for Morton's ford, the remainder 
of the division following. The Confederates had a picket guard 
of about 30 men in rifle-pits on the farther bank and a brigade was 
sent across the river. After some resistance the whole picket was 
captured and the Federal brigade advanced to within three-quarters 
of a mile of the enemy's intrenchments. The other two brigades 
of the division were then pushed across the river and took position 
with the 1st. The Confederates opened with artillery and the Fed- 
erals could neither advance nor withdraw without becoming ex- 
posed to a deadly cross-fire. There was nothing for them to do but 
to get what shelter they could until after dark, when they withdrew 
across the Rapidan. The Union loss was 11 killed, 204 wounded and 
40 captured or missing. The enemy's casualties were not reported. 

Moscow, Ark., April 13, 1864. (See Camden, Ark., Expedition to.) 

Moscow, Tenn., Feb. 9, 1863. Detachment of 53d Illinois In- 
fantry. Acting Lieut. M. Dare with a squad of men while going from 
the reserve picket post to the advance picket was held up by 2 men 
in Federal uniforms, whom he took for members of his own party. 
He ordered his men to fire but before they could do so the 2 men 
fired on the party and fled. Dare and i of his men were wounded. 

Moscow, Tenn., Feb. 18, 1863. Detachments of 3d Iowa, 41st 
and 43d Illinois and 33d Wisconsin Infantry. This command, under 
Maj. Francis M. Long, comprised the escort of a forage train from 
Moscow. When on the return and not more than 3 miles from 
camp, the train was attacked in the center by 150 Confederate cav- 
alry. The front and rear guards were immediately brought into ac- 
tion and succeeded in repulsing the attack after a sharp fight of a 
few minutes. The Federals sustained a loss of i man wounded 
and 16 missing, besides 42 mules and 2 horses,. The Confederate, 
casualties were not ascertained. 

Moscow, Tenn., March 16, 1863. Detachment of 7th Kansas 
Cavalry. Lieut. -Col. Thomas P. Herrick with a portion of his regi- 
ment attacked some Confederates on the Moscow road about 5:30 
p. m. The enemy did not stop to fire even one volley, but fled 
toward the south, leaving i man wounded and 8 prisoners. Herrick's 
party suffered no loss. 

Moscow, Tenn., March 29. 1863. Following is an extract from a 
report of Maj. -Gen. S. A. Hurlbut, dated March 30, at Memphis: 
"The passenger train was seized about 2 miles this side of Moscow 
by 12 guerrillas, although it had on board 25 soldiers, armed, and 
3 or 5 officers, who yet made no attempt to defend themselves and the 
public property. The engineer when he discovered the guerrillas 
started his engine with such suddenness as to break the coupling, 
ran up to Moscow, took down 100 soldiers and saved the train. The 
passengers were robbed, and the officers and soldiers carried off north." 

Moscow, Tenn., Sept. 27, 1863. (See Locke's Mill, same date.) 

Moscow, Tenn., Nov. 4, 1863. Cavalry Brigade, i6th Corps. 

Moscow, Tenn., Dec. 4, 1863. (See Wolf River Bridge.) 

Moscow, Tenn., Dec. 27, 1863. 9th Illinois Cavalry. During the 
Confederate advance from La Fayette, Maj. Henry B. Burgh with 
the 9th 111. was ordered out from La Grange and about a mile and a 
half from Moscow encountered a Confederate force which he en- 
gaged and drove back to La Fayette. No casualties were reported. 

Moscow, Tenn., June 15, 1864. 5Sth U. S. Colored Infantry. 



616 The Union Army 

Mosely's Plantation, Ala., Aug. 7, 1862. Detachment of the 51st 
Illinois Infantry. About 200 men, guarding a convalescent train 
from Tuscumbia, were attacked at Mosely's plantation, near Decatur, 
by about 250 Confederate cavalry. The attack was a complete sur- 
prise and the Union troops were caught at a disadvantage. The loss 
was 2 killed, 2 wounded and about 100 missing. The enemy was 
pursued by Maj. Kochler nearly to the foot of the mountains, but could 
not be overtaken. 

Mossy Creek, Tenn., Dec. 24, 1863. 2nd Brigade, ist Cavalry 
Division, Army of the Cumberland. Col. Oscar H. La Grange, com- 
manding the 2nd brigade, was attacked by two small brigades 
of Confederates under Gen. Armstrong. After a sharp fight the 
enemy was repulsed, leaving 17 dead on the field. La Grange's 
brigade suffered to the extent of 2 killed and 9 wounded. 

Mossy Creek, Tenn., Dec. 26-27, 1863. ist Brigade, ist Division, 
Cavalry Corps, Army of the Ohio. Rain prevented more than slight 
skirmishing at Mossy creek, along which the Federals held a strong 
position, on the 26th. No casualties resulted. Late on the afternoon 
of the 27th the Federals attacked and drove the enemy from every 
position to within a short distance of Talbott's station, when the 
pursuit was stopped by darkness. 

Mossy Creek, Tenn., Dec. 29, 1863. Cavalry Corps, Army of the 
Ohio. During the night of the 28th Brig.-Gen. S. D. Sturgis, com- 
manding the cavalr}', learned that the enemy was advancing on 
Dandridge and immediately sent off the greater part of his com- 
mand to intercept him. About 9 o'clock the next morning the 
combined cavalry of Martin, Morgan and Armstrong, about 6,000 
strong, advanced in line of battle, the main effort being directed 
against the Federal left, but the attack was repulsed by Campbell's 
brigade after a hard fight. During the day an artillery fire was 
kept up by the enemy with a hope of breaking the line so that a 
position could be secured on the bank of the stream. The attempt 
was unsuccessful and later in the day, when the detachments sent 
out during the night to Dandridge returned, the enemy was routed 
and driven off. Sturgis' loss was 17 killed, 87 wounded and 5 
missing while that of the enemy was not reported. 

Mossy Creek, Tenn., Jan. 10 and 12, 1864. Detachments of 2nd 
Brigade, Cavalry Division, Army of the Ohio. Col. Oscar H. La 
Grange, commanding the 2nd brigade, reports under date of Jan. 
10: "I have the honor to report that a scouting party from the 2nd 
brigade today surprised one of the enemy's outposts, on the Dand- 
ridge road about 6 miles from Mossy creek, and killed 4, including 
I lieutenant, besides making 7 prisoners, without loss." 

Again on the 12th La Grange reports: "The forage detail from 
the 2nd brigade to-day drove back one of the enemy's outposts, 
for the purpose of foraging behind it. Killed i and captured 15 
prisoners, without loss." 

Mossy Creek, Tenn., Oct. 15, 1864. A report of Brig.-Gen. John 
C. Vaughn, of the Confederate army, states that 20 men of the 3d 
Tenn. cavalry surprised "the guard at Mossy creek of 30 men on night 
of 15th. killed 5, wounded i and brought in 12 prisoners, and think that 
6 or 7 burned up in the brick store in which they were sleeping, and 
which they had pierced with port-holes for musketry.' This is the 
only mention of the affair, so there is no way of knowing who the 
Federal participants were. 

Mossy Creek, Tenn., Oct. 27, 1864. U. S. Troops under Brig.- 
Gen. Alvan C. Gillem. Gillem marched from New Market in the 
morning, met the Confederate pickets at Mossy creek and drove 



Cyclopedia of Batties 617 

them back to Panther Springs, where a force of 250 opposed his 
further advance. A charge by the 13th Tenn. cavalry routed the 
enemy with a loss of 3 killed and 3 captured. No casualties were 
reported on the Union side. 

Moulton, Ala., March 8, 1864. (See Courtland, same date.) 

Moulton, Ala., May 29, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, 
Army of the Cumberland. At 4 a. m. this command under Col. 
Eli Long was attacked by the Confederate cavalry under Roddey, 
with 4 pieces of artillery. After a severe engagement of 2 hours, 
in which the enemy lost from 12 to 15 killed and a large number 
wounded. Long succeeded in driving him from the field in con- 
fusion. Long captured 16 prisoners and lost 3 killed and 14 wounded. 

Mountain Grove, Mo., March 9, 1862. 4th Missouri Cavalry and 
Detachment of Home Guards. After a march of several miles over 
rough roads this detachment under Col. George E. Waring, Jr., at- 
tempted to surround the camp of a band of Confederates at Moun- 
tain Grove. While the cavalry was moving into position a sharp 
fire was opened on it from a blacksmith shop and the enemy broke 
for the brush and a tavern near by. All who did not reach the 
tavern were killed, and after a sharp fight the building was taken. 
The Federals suffered no casualties, but 13 of the enemy were 
killed, 4 wounded and the rest, 21 in number, taken prisoners. 

Mountain Store, Mo., July 25-26, 1862. Detachment of 3d Missouri 
Cavalry and of Battery L, 2nd Missouri Light Artillery. This com- 
mand was sent out from Houston and came up with a band of Cole- 
man's men on the Big Piney on the afternoon of the 25th. The 
enemy did not stop to return the volley fired by the Federal ad- 
vance, but scattered into the woods and cornfields closely pursued 
by the Union cavalry. Next morning a move was made on Coleman's 
camp, at 6:30 the Confederate pickets were met about 2 miles from 
their camp and steadily driven back by a portion of the cavalry 
until the camp was reached, where a charge was ordered and the 
enemy routed. The remainder of the cavalry and the artillery were 
led to the right and were about to cross Big Piney creek when a fire 
was opened upon them, but after a short skirmish the enemy broke 
and fled. In the three skirmishes the Confederates lost 8 killed, 20 
wounded and 17 captured. The assailants did not lose a man. 

Mount Carmel, Ky., June 16, 1863. Home Guards. Capt. P. M.- 
Everett, reporting his raid into eastern Kentucky, mentions a skir- 
mish with a part}' of home guards at Mount Carmel under Col. 
Charles Marshall numbering 170. No casualties are reported. 

Mount Carmel, Tenn., Nov. 29, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 5th Cavalry 
Division, Military Division of the Mississippi. As Schorield's army 
was falling back toward Franklin Gen. Hatch was ordered to re- 
lieve Croxton's brigade of cavalry, then engaged in the rear. Hatch 
sent Coon's brigade to Mount Carmel, where the men were dis- 
mounted and stationed behind a barricade previouslj- erected by order 
of Col. Capron. Croxton passed to the front with his command and 
Coon engaged the enemy that was in close pursuit. A hot fight of 
an hour now ensued, when Coon was ordered to withdraw slowly, 
which was done by alternate numbers for 2 miles, when the brigade 
was mounted and orders given to withdraw by brigade in line of 
regiments, a small detachment of the 9th 111. acting as rear-guard. 
In accordance with Coon's orders this detachment fell back, drawing 
the enemy between the flanking columns prepared for their recep- 
tion, when a raking fire was poured into their ranks, throwing them 
into confusion and ending the pursuit for the day. 

Mount Crawford, Va., June 5, 1864. (See Piedmont, same date.> 



618 The Union Army 

Mount Crawford, Va,, Oct. 2, 1864. ist Division, Cavalry Corps, 
Shenandoah Valley Campaign. This affair was a skirmish between 
Bvt. Maj.-Gen. Wesley Merritt's division and the advance of the enemy 
during the Shenandoah Valley campaign. No casualties were re- 
ported. 

Mount Crawford, Va., March i, 1865. (See Petersburg, Sheridan's 
Expedition to.) 

Mount Elba, Ark., March 28-30. 1864. (See Camden, Ark., Ex- 
pedition to.) 

Mount Elon, S. C, Feb. 27, 1865. Mounted Men under Capt. 
William Duncan. This detachment, sent out from the garrison at 
Tiller's bridge to destroy the railroad bridge near Simonsville, was 
met by the enemy at Mount Elon and after a hand-to-hand conflict 
of some severity was forced to return without having accomplished 
its object, having suffered a loss of 3 wounded and 3 missing. The 
enemy's casualties were fully as heavy. 

Pilount Ida, Ark., Nov. 13, 1863. Detachment of ist Arkansas 
Infantry. Capts. J. R. Vanderpool and G. W. R. Smith attacked a 
Confederate camp at Mount Ida, killed and wounded several and 
captured 8 or 10. The victory included the capture of 15,000 pounds 
of bacon, 10,000 rounds of ammunition and a quantity of flour, all 
of which was destroyed. The enemy was driven for 5 miles. 

Mount Jackson, Va., Sept. 23-24, 1864. Army of the Shenandoah. 
In the pursuit of the Confederate army from the battlefield of 
Fisher's hill. Gen. Devin's cavalry brigade engaged a detachment 
of the enemy's cavalry at a creek about 3 miles from Edenburg and 
drove it back to Mount Jackson, where a stand was made. Devin 
ordered Taylor's battery to open fire from a hill on the left of the 
pike and advanced the 9th N. Y., supported by the 6th N. Y., as 
skirmishers. About the time the two regiments became actively 
engaged Gen. Averell came up with the 2nd cavalry division and 
assumed command. He deployed one of his brigades on Devin's 
left and the other on the right and in a short time drove the enemy 
from town and back on the main body, which was bivouacked on 
Rude's hill. As Averell advanced his line 5 pieces of artillery com- 
menced firing on him and a division of infantry moved out to meet 
him. Seeing that he was outnumbered, Averell fell back across the 
creek, having taken a few prisoners, among them a Maj. Lady. On 
the morning of the 24th the 6th and 19th corps came up and dis- 
covered the Confederates in line of battle. Gen. Wright ordered 
his batteries to shell the enemy's position and at the same time 
formed his men for an advance. Pursuant to orders from Gen. 
Sheridan. Devin sent Col. Gibbs, with the ist N. Y., across the 
creek to develop the Confederate position on the right. Soon after- 
ward he crossed the stream with his whole brigade and again the 
enemy broke in full retreat toward New Market. No casualties re- 
ported. 

Mount Jackson, Va., Oct. 3, 1864. Detachment of the 14th 
Pennsylv;inia Cavalry. The detachment, numbering 150 men and 
commanded by Capt. Jackson, was on picket duty at the bridge over 
the Shenandoah river near Mount Jackson. About 4 a. m. the post 
was surprised by the 7th Va. cavalry, 6 men were wounded, Jack- 
son and 43 were captured, Lieut. Hague, with 37 men, reported that 
night to Col. Edwards at Winchester, some of the rest came in later, 
and some were never heard of. 

Mount Jackson, Va., Nov. 16, 1863. Expedition from Charles- 
town, W. Va., to near New Market, Va. The expedition comprising 
detachments of the ist N. Y., 6th Mich., ist Conn., and 21st and 



Cyclopedia of Battles 619 

22nd Pa. cavalry, Cole's Potomac home brigade and the ist W. Va. 
light artillery, under command of Col. William H. Boyd, encountered 
Confederate skirmishers when within a mile of Mount Jackson and 
drove them rapidly for three-quarters of a mile to where a piece of 
artillery was planted. After a dozen shots had been fired by this 
piece it was compelled to abandon its position and with the force 
guarding it retired hastily through the town to the bridge. There 
the Confederates made a stand, but were again driven, this time to 
an eminence out of range of the Federal guns. Here the pursuit 
stopped. In his report Boyd mentions only one casualty. 

Mount Jackson, Va., March 7. 1865. Escort under Col. Jolm L. 
Thompson. Some 1,200 men under Col. Thompson convoying about 
1,300 prisoners from Waynesboro to Winchester, arrived at Mount 
Jackson on the north fork of the Shenandoah on the afternoon of 
the 6th. The stream was so swollen that it was impossible to cross 
except at one ford guarded by the enemy. Early the ne.xt morning 
the water had gone down sufficiently to allow the 22nd N. Y. and the 
1st R. I. to cross at a ford farther up stream and these two regi- 
ments drove the enemy from the main ford. In the meantime the 
Confederates attacked Thompson's rear on Rude's hill, but they 
were repulsed. When the crossing was nearly completed Rosser 
again attacked but was again driven back with a loss of 10 killed, 
several wounded and 25 captured. The Union casualties amounted 
to 6 wounded and 2 captured. 

Mount Pleasant, Ala., April 11. 1865. Cavalry Brigade of the 
Army of West Mississippi. Three miles beyond Mount Pleasant 
the cavalry under Brig.-Gen. T. J. Lucas encountered Confederate 
pickets which were driven back to the main line stationed on a 
piece of low ground. Here the enemy pressed the Federal center 
until a charge was ordered. The ist La. executed the movement and 
the Confederates broke and fled in all directions. The casualties in 
Lucas' brigade were 3 killed and 9 wounded, while the enemy lost 2 
killed and 9 wounded. 

Mount Pleasant, Miss., May 22, 1864. Detachment of 4th Mis- 
souri Cavalry. The itinerary of the ist brigade, cavalry division, i6th 
army corps, commanded by Col. George E. Waring, Jr., contains 
the following: "May 22.— One scouting party of the 4th Mo. cav- 
alry was attacked by a large party of rebels while passing over very 
broken ground near Mount Pleasant, Miss.; lost 8 killed and 4 
wounded and prisoners." 

Mount Pleasant, Tenn., Aug. 14, 1862. Brig.-Gen. James S. Neg- 
ley in a despatch from Columbia. Tenn., under date of Aug. 14, 
says: "Maj. (F. H.) Kennedy attacked Williams' guerrillas 8 miles 
south of Mount Pleasant this morning at 7 o'clock, killing 2 and 
taking several prisoners. The enemy fled to the woods after the 
first fire. Our horses were too much exhausted to follow them." 

Mount Pleasant, Tenn., Nov. 23, 1864. Maj. -Gen. Nathan B. 
Forrest (Confederate) reporting the operations of his command 
during the campaign in northern Alabama and middle Tennessee 
states that Col. Edmund W. Rucker captured at Mount Pleasant 
35,000 rounds of ammunition and the force guarding it. There is no 
way of ascertaining what Union troops were engaged. 

Mount Pleasant Landing, La., May 15, 1864. Detachments of 
Ii8th Illinois Cavalry, 67th and 78th U. S. Colored Infantry and 12th 
Massachusetts Battery. The guard of 21 men of the 67th U. S. in- 
fantry was overpowered by a superior Confederate force, which at- 
tacked the stockade at daylight. Upon the alarm being given, por- 
tions of the ii8th 111. cavalry, the 78th U. S. infantry and the 12th 



G20 The Union Army 

Mass. battery immediately started in pursuit and overtook the enemy 
3 miles out. After a sharp fight all but 2 of the prisoners were re- 
captured. The fighting at the stockade and on the road resulted in a 
loss to the Confederates of 6 killed, several wounded and 2 captured. 
The Federal troops had i man killed. 

Mount Sterling, Ky., July 29, 1862. i8th Kentucky Infantry and 
Home Guards. 

Mount Sterling, Ky., March 22, 1863. U. S. Troops under Capt. W. 
D. Ratcliffc. The ineffecti^e men of a command pursuing the Con- 
federate Col. R. S. Cluke, having been left at Mount Sterling, were at- 
tacked by a portion of Cluke's force which had evaded the pursuing 
Federals. A demand for surrender was made, which was at first 
refused but was later conuilied with, and the 200 men were sur- 
rendered to the enemy by Capt. RatclifTe. The enemy lost i man 
killed and 4 wounded. The Federal reports make no mention of 
any casualties, but Cluke in his report states that 10 of the garrison 
were shot and killed and some 8 or 10 were burned to death in the 
houses which the Confederates fired. 

Mount Sterling, Ky., June 9, 1864. Cavalry of District of Ken- 
tucky. During Morgan's raid into Kentucky a portion of the Union 
forces under Brig.-Gen. S. G. Burbridge followed the Confederates 
until they occupied' Mount Sterling on the morning of the 8th. Late 
on the afternoon of the same day Burbridge came up with the main 
body and at 4 a. m. on the 9th attacked. Owing to a misunderstand- 
ing of orders one of the howitzers was run to the front and became 
mired, completely blocking the movement of the troops in the 
center, but the two wings moved forward and charged, while the 
Confederates were enabled to move up and capture the howitzer. A 
charge by a company of the 12th Ohio recaptured the gun and after 
a two hours' fight along the whole line the Confederates were driven 
back. Later they rallied and attacked, but were again repulsed. 
The casualties were not reported. 

Mount Vernon, Ark., May 11, 1863. 5th Kansas and 5th Illinois 
Cavalry, commanded by Col. Powell Clayton. 

Mountville, Va., Oct. 31, 1862. (See Aldie, same date.) 
Mount Washington, Ky., Oct. i, 1862. (See Bardstown Pike.) 
Mount Zion Church, Ky., Aug. 30, 1862. (See Richmond.) 
Mount Zion Church, Mo., Dec. 27-28, 1861. Birge's Sharpshooters 
and Detachment of 3d Missouri Cavalry. Learning that some Con- 
federates were encamped at Hallsville Brig.-Gen. S. M. Prentiss sent 
out a company of cavalry to drive them away. None of the enemy 
were found at Hallsville, but a little beyond were encountered in 
force and the company was compelled to retire after losing its cap- 
tain and a private, captured by the enemy. At 2 a. m. next morning 
Prentiss started with his whole force and at 8 o'clock found a com- 
pany of Confederates drawn up across the road leading from Halls- 
ville to Mount Zion church. The sharpshooters were deploj'ed as 
skirmishers and the enemy steadily retired to the church, where the 
main force was posted. After a fight of half an hour, which became 
a hand-to-hand contest, the Confederates fell back after having 
sufTered a loss of 25 killed and 150 wounded (according to Pren- 
tiss' report) while the casualties sustained by the Union participants 
were 3 killed. 63 wounded and several captured or missing. Pren- 
tiss' men also took about 30 prisoners. 

Mount Zion Church, Va., July 6. 1864. 2nd Massachusetts and 
t3th New York Cavalry. The detachment under Maj. William H. 
Forbes, while scouting in the vicinity of Mount Zion church near 
Aldie was attacked by a superior number of Mosby's men. Through 



Cyclopedia of Battles 621 

some mistake in orders the Union troops became separated and 
Mosby, taking advantage of this, ordered a charge, which resulted 
in the dispersal or capture of Forbes' entire command, 12 being killed 
and many more wounded. Of the 150 men who started out only 34 re- 
turned to the camp. The Confederate loss was not known. 

Mud Creek, Ga., June 17, 1864. Army of the Ohio; ist Division, 
Cavalry Corps. Army of the Cumberland. When the Confederates 
were forced to abandon their line at Lost Mountain and Gilgal 
Church they fell back to an intrenched position behind Mud creek, 
their left resting on the Sandtown road. In their retreat they were 
closely pursued by McCook's cavalry and the army of the Ohio, 
commanded by Maj.-Gen. John M. Schoheld. Schofield planted his 
batteries in advantageous positions and opened fire on the enemy, 
while the infantry made preparations to cross the creek and turn the 
Confederate flank. A heavy rain put a stop to operations, and be- 
fore the weather settled the enemy evacuated his works and fell 
back toward Kennesaw mountain. 

Mud Creek Bottom, Miss., June 20, 1863. Sth Ohio Cavalry and 
9th Illinois Mounted Infantry. The rear-guard of the scouting party 
commanded by Lieut. -Col. Jesse J. Phillips was attacked on the 
Rocky Ford road by a large force of Confederates. The 9th 111. was 
dismounted and sent to support the skirmishers, who were ordered 
to hold the line of the first creek in the bottom until the column had 
moved out of range of the Confederate artillery. This was not done, 
however, without the loss of an ambulance and a caisson. When 
the skirmishers after 3 hours, were withdrawn from the line of 
Mud creek, they took a position before the artillery, which had been 
placed on an eminence, and there awaited an attack, but the enemy 
failed to advance. 

Muddy Creek, Ala., March 26, 1865. 2nd Cavalry Brigade, Lucas' 
Division. When the brigade arrived at Muddy creek, in the course 
of its march to Pollard during the Mobile campaign, some of the 
planks of the bridge were missing and it was necessary to repair the 
structure before it could be used. A portion of the 2nd 111. was dis- 
mounted and sent across the stream to locate the enemy, who fired 
one volley and then fled. No casualties were reported. 

Muddy Run, Va., April 5, 1863. ist Pennsylvania Cavalry. This 
afiFair was a skirmish between the ist Pa., under Col. John P. Tay- 
lor, who was sent out on a reconnaissance toward Culpeper Court 
House, and the Confederates guarding the crossing of Muddy run. 
After an hour's rather severe fighting. Taylor withdrew without 
having lost a man, the enemy in the meantime having been strongly 
reinforced with cavalry, artillery and infantry. 

Muddy Run, Va., Nov. 8, 1863. ist Division, Cavalry Corps. 
Army of the Potomac. 

Mud Lake, Nev., March 14, 1865. Detachment of ist Nevada 
Cavalry. Twenty-nine men of the ist Nev. and 2 citizens, under 
Capt. A. B. Wells, surrounded at daylight the camp of a band of In- 
dians wanted for stealing cattle. The Indians attempted to cut 
their way out, but before the fight was over they had lost 29 killed 
and only i managed to escape. Several of the attacking party were 
slightly wounded. 

Mud Springs, Neb., Feb. 4-6, 1865. 7th and nth Ohio Cavalry. 
On learning that the telegraph station at Mud springs, 105 miles 
from Fort Laramie, had been surrounded and attacked by Indians 
50 men of the nth Ohio were despatched from Camp Mitchell, some 
55 miles distant from the scene of the attack, and 120 of the 7th 
Ohio under Lieut. -Col. William O. Collins started from Fort Laramie. 



622 The Union Army 

The detachment from Camp Mitchell reached the place at daylight 
on the 5th, that from Fort Laramie on the morning of the 6th, and 
about 7 a. m. the Indians began coming over the hills in force. 
Owing to the nature of the ground it was necessary for the men to 
fight in Indian fashion, selecting hillocks, etc., behind which they 
took position and fired at the red men whenever one appeared. A 
charge was made on a point which the Indians had gained and from 
which they were enabled. to shoot arrows into the camp. About 2 
p. m. the enemy began withdrawing into the hills and by dusk all 
had gone. The loss of the white men was 7 wounded, while the 
casualties among the Indians amounted to probably 50 killed and 
wounded. 

Mud Town, Ark., Aug. 24. 1864. 2nd Arkansas Cavalry. A de- 
tachment of this regiment, while guarding and escorting an (jrdnance 
and subsistence train to Fayetteville, was attacked at Mud Town by 
95 guerrillas. The Union loss was 2 men mortally wounded. That 
of the enemy was not learned, as he retreated, taking his dead and 
wounded with him. 

Mulberry Creek, Ga., Aug. 3, 1864. (See Stoneman's Raid to 
Macon.) 

Mulberry Gap, Tenn., Nov. 19, 1863. Detachment of 65th In- 
diana Infantry. Brig.-Gen. Orlando B. Willcox reporting under date 
of Nov. 20, states: "A small scouting party, under command of 
Capt. Hammond, 65th Ind. mounted, charged through the camp of 
a rebel regiment (64th Va.) and scattered it at Mulberry gap last 
night, killing 3, wounding i, capturing i prisoner, some horses and 
arms." 

Mulberry Gap, Tenn., July 28, 1864. (See Long's Mills, same 
date.) 

Mullberry River, Ark., Feb. 3, 1863. Detachment of ist Arkansas 
Cavalry. Seven men of the ist Ark. under Capt. Robert E. Travis 
attacked 30 Confederates in a log house near the mouth of Mulberry 
river and fought them for nearly half an hour, when the enemy re- 
treated, having lost several in killed and wounded. Travis' com- 
mand was so badly crippled that it was unable to take advantage 
of the victory, having had 3 men killed, i wounded and i captured, 
though 12 of the Confederates were made prisoners. 

Mulberry Road, Va., Feb. 12, 1864. (See Jonesville Road.) 

Mulberry Village, Tenn., Dec. 22,, 1863. Five men from post of 
Tullahoma. One wagon of a forage train operating near IVIulberry 
village became separated from the remainder and Lieut. Samuel 
D. Porter of 27th Ind., and 4 men of that regiment, 2 from the 22nd 
Wis. and 2 from the 9th Ohio battery, were captured by guerrillas. 
After marching them several miles through fields and woods the 
men were placed in line and 4 of them shot. Porter broke and 
ran and after wandering in the woods for many hours was picked up 
by a Federal scout. 

Muldraugh's Hill, Ky., Dec. 28, 1862. Brig,-Gen. John H. Mor- 
gan in the report of his second Kentucky raid mentions the shelling 
of a Federal stockade at Muldraugh's hill and subsequently the sur- 
render of the garrison. The casualties were not reported. 

Munford's Station, Ala., April 23, 1865. ist Brigade, ist Division, 
Cavalry Corps, Military Division of the Mississippi. This brigade 
under Brig.-Gen. John T'. Croxton, after being detached from Wil- 
son's main column in the latter's raid, encountered Hill's brigade 
of Confederates, 500 strong with a piece of artillery, at Munford's 
station. Croxton attacked and routed the enemy, capturing his ar- 
tillery and dispersing the men in the woods. The casualties were 
not reported. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 623 

Munfordville, Ky., Dec. 17, 1861. (See Rowlett's Station, same 
date.) 

Munfordville, Ky., Sept. 14-17, 1862. U. S. Forces under Col. 
J. T. Wilder and Col. Cyrus L. Dunham. On Saturday, Sept. 13, 
the Confederates under Brig.-Gen. James R. Chalmers made their 
appearance before Munfordville and at daylight Sunday a furious 
attack was made on the pickets on the south side of the river. A 
company of the 74th Ind. was sent out as a reserve and only fell 
back when the pickets were being flanked. The advance line fought 
stubbornly for over an hour, but fell back when ordered to do so 
by Col. Wilder, commandant of the post. By 5:30 a. m. the fighting 
had become general along the whole line and an hour later it be- 
came apparent that the enemy was about to storm the works. The 
Union troops fixed bayonets as the Confederates with a cheer rushed 
forward. When they were within 30 yards of the intrenchmcnts 
Wilder opened fire from both artillery and infantry and so fierce 
was this volley that the Confederates not killed or wounded turned 
and ran to cover. They recovered promptly, however, and made 
another charge on the redoubts which met the same fate. The enemy 
was then content to remain under cover until about 9:30 a. m., when 
under a flag of truce Chalmers sent in a summons to surrender, which 
was peremptorily refused. Reinforcements in the shape of 6 com- 
panies of the 50th Ind. under Col. Dunham had arrived at 9 a. m. and 
during the rest of the day a desultory firing was kept up by both 
sides. Dunham, being the senior officer, assumed command after 
nightfall, when work was resumed on the intrenchmcnts and the 
next day Col. Richard Owen with about 1,000 men of the 28th Ky., 
60th and 68th Ind. infantry, and the ist Ohio artillery, made his 
way to Munfordville from Lebanon Junction. Nothing more than 
skirmishing was done on this day. About 9:30 a. m. on Tuesday the 
Confederates attacked the pickets on the south side of the town and 
drove them in, but their further advance was resisted gallantly by 
4 companies of Indiana troops, who retired only when about to be 
overcome by superior numbers. The enemy's object seemed to be 
to avoid the works on the Federal left where he had been so severely 
repulsed on Sunday, and to carry the redoubt on the right. This 
attempt was frustrated and by 11 a. m. the entire line had become 
engaged. Between 2 and 3 p. m. the fire slackened and the enemy ap- 
parently withdrew. To make sure of his whereabouts Dunham sent 
a company of the 50th Ind. to a strip of timber a quarter of a mile 
in advance of the works. This company soon became hotly en- 
gaged and with another company of the same regiment sent as a 
support was obliged to fall back. Between 5 and 6 a flag of truce 
was advanced from the Confederate lines with another demand for a 
surrender. Dunham again refused to consider the proposal but 
later asked for a cessation of hostilities while the proposition was 
considered. In the meantime Bragg had come up with his whole 
army and at a council of the Union officers it was decided to agree 
to his terms of surrender. Dunham had been relieved of the com- 
mand during the evening and when on the 17th the Union forces 
surrendered Wilder was again in command. The 4,133 men who 
fell into the hands of the enemy belonged to the 17th, 50th, 60th, 67th, 
68th, 74th, 78th and 89th Ind., 28th, 33d and 34th Ky., and i8th U. S. 
infantry, 13th battery, Ind. light artillery. Battery D, ist Ohio light 
artillery and 141 men from miscellaneous detachments. Fifty-seven 
of the captured were wounded and 15 had been killed before the sur- 
render occurred. The Confederates lost, according to Chalmer's 
report, 35 killed and 253 wounded. 



€24 The Union Army 

Munfordville, Ky., Sept. 21, 1862. The only report of this engage- 
ment is the mention made of it in Brig.-Gen. Joseph Wheeler's re- 
view of the operations of his cavalry in Tennessee and Kentucky. 
During the 20th the Federal commander occupied the whole day in 
deploying his troops and early the next morning advanced on Wheeler's 
pickets. About noon the main Confederate line became engaged 
and the Federals attempted to turn Wheeler's right flank. .\ charge 
of the 1st Ala. from the Confederate right wing was unavailing, and 
"Wheeler was obliged to withdraw across the Green river. Later in 
the day the Union forces cfifected a crossing below and Wheeler 
was again obliged to withdraw. No casualties were reported. 

Munson's Hill, Va., Aug. 31. 1861. Detachment of 3d New Jersey 
Infantry. Col. George W. Taylor of the 3d N. J. infantry, with two 
companies of his regiment, started from his camp to dislodge some 
Confederates near Vanderburg's house, who had been annoying the 
Federal pickets. His course lay through a strip of woods to a 
cornfield, on the opposite side of which was the road which he in- 
tended to take. His men had just entered the cornfield when they 
were fired upon from ambush. The fire was immediately returned 
in the direction from which it kept coming and after a minute Tay- 
lor ordered his men to retire to the cover of the woods. The order 
was misunderstood by the men, who hastily retreated until they had 
gained the road three-quarters of a mile distant, having lost 2 killed 
and 3 wounded. 

Murfreesboro, Tenn., July 13, 1862. 9th Michigan and 3d Minne- 
sota Infantry; Detachments of 4th Kentucky and 7th Pennsylvania 
Cavalry, and Battery B, Kentucky Light Artillery. At daylight on 
the 13th Forrest's Confederate cavalry surrounded and captured the 
pickets stationed just outside of Murfreesboro without firing a shot 
and then rushed into the camp of the 7th Pa. cavalry. After passing 
through this camp they attacked the 9th Mich., which was ready to re- 
ceive them. After 20 minutes of hand-to-hand fighting the Michi- 
gan men charged and drove the enemy out of the camp. A strong posi- 
tion was secured and Lieut. -Col. J. G. Parkhurst. commanding, sent 
word to Col. Henry C. Lester, whose camp was on the other side of 
the town, that with reinforcements he could drive the enemy from 
the town. Lester failed to respond either to this or a second call 
for reinforcements and later in the day surrendered his whole com- 
mand, together with the Kentucky battery, without offering any re- 
sistance. Meantime Forrest surrounded Parkhurst and at 11 a. m. 
the latter surrendered. Another company of the 9th Mich., acting 
as provost guard and stationed in the court-house, kept up a stiflf 
resistance until the building was set on fire about I p. m. and the 
occupants were obliged to surrender. Brig.-Gen. T. T. Crittenden, 
who with a few men had held his headquarters for several hours 
after the surrender at the court-house, was made a prisoner. Aside from 
the number captured the Federals lost 19 killed, 120 wounded and 
143 missing, of an original force of 1,040. Forrest's report states 
that about 25 of his men were killed and from 40 to 60 wounded. 
Col. Lester was dismissed from the service for his disgraceful sur- 
render. 

Murfreesboro, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862, -Jan. 3. 1863. (See Stone's 
River.) 

Murfreesboro, Tenn., Feb. 4-7. 1863. Foraging parties of the 20th 
Army Corps. Confederate cavalry attacked the foraging train of 
the 20th corps on the 4th and again on the 7th and each time it was 
necessary to send out a brigade to drive the enemy away. In the 
first attack 4 of the foraging party were wounded. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 625 

Murfreesboro, Tenn., June 3, 1863. ist Brigade, 2nd Cavalry 
Division, Army of the Cumberland. At i .30 p. m. a corporal from 
the picket on the Manchester pike came to Col. Robert H. G. Minty 
and reported that the enemy was advancing in force on the War- 
trace road. Maj. Frank W. Mix, with 100 men of the 4th Mich., 
was sent out to hold the Confederates in check until the remainder 
of the brigade could be brought up. By the time Minty arrived the 
enemy had opened on Mix with 3 pieces of artillery from the oppo- 
site bank of Stone's river, to which they had been driven. A sec- 
tion of artillery with Minty's brigade soon silenced the enemy's 
guns and caused him to retire. The Federals had I man wounded, 
and the enemy was known to have carried off 4. 

Murfreesboro, Tenn., June 6, 1863. 2nd and 8th Indiana Cavalry. 

Murfreesboro, Tenn., Sept. 3, 1864. looth U. S. Colored In- 
fantry. 

Murfreesboro, Tenn., Dec. 7, 1864. Reconnaissance by Maj. -Gen. 
Robert H. Milroy. Pursuant to orders from Gen. L. H. Rousseau, 
commanding the District of Tennessee, Milroy organized a recon- 
naissance to feel the enemy in the vicinity of Murfreesboro. His 
force was divided into two brigades. The ist, commanded by Col. 
Minor T. Thomas of the 8th Minn, infantry, consisted of that regiment, 
the 6ist 111., 174th and 181st Ohio infantry, and a 6-gun battery 
under Capt. Bundy of the 13th N. Y. artillery. The 2nd brigade, 
commanded by Col. Edward Anderson, of the 12th Ind. cavalry, 
was composed of the 177th and 178th Ohio infantry, the 12th Ind. 
cavalry (dismounted) and a detachment of the 5th Tenn. cavalry, the 
total strength of the expedition being 3,325 men. Milroy moved out 
on the Salem pike about 10 a. m., the cavalry detachment in advance. 
Half a mile from the Union picket line the enemy's cavalry was 
encountered and part of the 6ist 111. was thrown forward to assist 
the Tennesseeans in driving them. At Stone's river, 2 miles out, 
some 300 Confederate cavalry was discovered on the opposite bank 
and a section of artillery was brought up to dislodge them. A few 
shells served to do the work, and Milroy pressed on in pursuit for 2 
miles, when he learned that two brigades of the enemy's cavalry — 
Jackson's and Armstrong's — were at Salem, a mile further on, and 
that Forrest and Bate, with a large force of infantry, cavalry and 
artillery were just north of him on the Wilkinson pike. Milroy 
turned his course in that direction and when within half a mile of the 
pike his skirmishers encountered those of the enemy, who soon after- 
ward opened fire from a 6-gun battery stationed in the edge of a 
wood. Bundy's guns were brought to the front and replied with 
spirit, but his limited supply of ammunition was exhausted in 30 
minutes. Finding that the enemy would not advance across the 
open field to attack, Milroy fell back until he had Fort Rosecrans 
in his rear, and sent the battery back to the fort for a new supply of 
ammunition. He then formed his command in two lines of battle, 
Thomas' brigade in the first and Anderson's in the second, with the 
6ist 111. deployed as skirmishers. The whole force then advanced 
and the skirmishing commenced, the enemy gradually falling back 
about a mile to a strong position in the edge of a wood with a cotton 
field in front. The Union skirmishers now fell back to the flanks of 
the first line of battle, which advanced and soon became engaged 
in a fierce contest for possession of the wood. As the line showed 
signs of wavering. Milroy directed Anderson to send the 178th Ohio 
on the double-quick to the left, and move the remainder of his bri- 
gade up in close support. Thus reinforced the line moved forward 
with a yell and drove the enemy from his position, capturing a 

Vol. VI— 10 



626 The Union Army 

number of prisoners, 2 pieces of artillery (12-pounder Napoleons)^ 
and a battle flag. At this juncture Bundy returned with his battery 
and shelled a body of cavalry that was threatening Milroy's flank, 
causing them to join in the general retreat. The command was now 
halted to replenish ammunition, and while thus engaged an order 
was received from Rousseau, directing Milroy to return to the fort, 
as a large force of Confederates was advancing upon him from the 
north. The Union loss was 22 killed and 186 wounded. No report 
was made of the enemy's casualties, but Milroy reported 197 pris- 
oners, and says: "From the number of dead and wounded observed 
on the field their loss must have been greater than mine." 

Murfreesboro, Tenn., Dec. 15. 1864. 6ist Illinois Infantry, ist 
Michigan Engineers and 12th Indiana Cavalry. A train bearing these 
troops from Stevenson to Murfreesboro was fired into near Christiana 
and it became necessary for the detachment to disembark and re- 
pair the road. Even then the progress of the train was very slow 
and when within 6 miles of Murfreesboro it became apparent that 
it would have to be abandoned and an attempt made to cut a way 
out, as by this time it was wholly surrounded. After a desperate 
fight about 8 p. m. the Federals managed to break through the 
enemy's line, but only after losing 85 men of the 6ist 111., including 
the colonel, the whole detachment of engineers and the larger por- 
tion of the 30 men of the 12th Ind. cavalry. Most of the men were 
captured. 

Murfreesboro, Tenn., Dec. 24, 1864. 12th U. S. Colored In- 
fantry. 

Murfreesboro Pike, Tenn., Dec. 27, 1862. ist Brigade, ist Divi- 
sion, Left Wing, Army of the Cumberland. As the Union forces 
were advancing toward Murfreesboro it was discovered that the 
enemy had planted a battery on the hill overlooking the bridge over 
Stewart's creek on the Murfreesboro pike, and had loaded the bridge 
with combustible materials preparatory to burning it. A section 
of Estep's battery was ordered up to dislodge the enemy, but the fire 
was promptly returned, and during the artillery duel the Confederates 
managed to set fire to the bridge. Gen. Hascall, commanding the 
advance brigade, called for volunteers to save the bridge, and the 
skirmishers of the 3d Ky., with Co. B, 26th Ohio, rushed in and 
threw the burning rails into the stream. Finding that their scheme 
had not worked the enemy withdrew, but a little later attacked 
Hascall on the left flank. The 26th Ohio quickly changed front and 
repulsed the attack. The enemy then tried to cut of¥ Capt. Munger's 
company of the looth 111. which had been stationed to guard the 
left, but Munger turned on them, drove them into a corner and 
captured 24 men, 12 horses and 12 guns, with a loss of 2 men 
wounded. In the action at the bridge the 26th Ohio had 20 men 
wounded. The enemy's loss there was not learned. 

Murfreesboro Road, Tenn., Oct. 4, 1863. Second Cavalry Divi- 
sion, Army of the Cumberland. While pursuing Wheeler and 
Roddey in their raid on Rosecrans' communications, Brig.-Gen. 
George Crook's division caught up with their rear-guard posted in a 
wood some 2 miles beyond McMinnville on the Murfreesboro road. 
The 2nd Ky. made a charge which drove the Confederates back 
upon the main column and compelled the latter to turn and give fight. 
By the time the Union forces had been disposed the enemy was 
drawn up in the edge of a woods. The mounted infantry was dis- 
mounted and drove the Confederates from this strip of timber into 
another a short distance in the rear, where the fight lasted until 
darkness put an end to the hostilities. The casualties were not re- 
ported. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 637 

Murphy, N. C, Aug. 2, 1864. (See Athens, Tenn., Aug. i.) 

Muscle Fork, Mo., Aug. 13, 1862. (See Grand River.) 

Muscle Shoals, Ala., Oct. 30, 1864. U. S. Forces under Gen. John 
T. Croxton. This affair was an attempt on the part of Croxton's 
troops to prevent the Confederates under Gen. S. D. Lee from cross- 
ing the Tennessee river at Raccoon ford, 3 miles above Florence. 
Lee succeeded in attaining his object, with a loss (he states) to the 
Federals of JO in killed, wounded and prisoners. 

Mustang Island, Tex., Nov. 17, 1863. (See Aransas Pass, same 
date.) 

Myerstown, W. Va., Nov. 18. 1864. Detachment of the 91st Ohio 
Infantry. 

Nahunta Station, N. C, April 10, 1865. ist Division, 15th Army 
Corps. The division, commanded by Bvt. Maj.-Gen. C. R. Woods, broke 
camp at Goldsboro at 5 a. m. and moved toward Pikeville, on the Weldon 
railroad. Near Nahunta a small force of Confederate cavalry was met 
and a slight skirmish ensued. Learning that Riddle's division of cavalry 
was encamped at a cross-road a short distance ahead. Woods pushed 
forward as rapidly as possible to engage him, but Riddle had abandoned 
his camp before the Federal advance came within striking distance. 

Namozine Church, Va., April 3, 1865. 3d Cavalry Division, Army of 
the Potomac. In the pursuit of the Confederates after the battle of 
Five Forks, the division, commanded by Bvt. Maj.-Gen. George A. Custer, 
moved out on the morning of the 3d on the road leading to Amelia 
Court House. At Winticomack creek the enemy was found strongly 
posted on the opposite bank and the bridge was destroyed. Under a 
heavy canister fire a dismounted force was thrown across the creek and 
the enemy dislodged from his position. The pursuit was then continued 
to Namozine Church, where a furious charge was made on Wells' 
brigade, which was in advance, but it was repulsed by the gallant con- 
duct of the 8th N. Y. At the church the Confederates divided, Fitzhugh 
Lee taking the road toward Amelia Court House and W. H. Lee moving 
toward Bevill's bridge on the Appomattox. Custer directed Wells' brigade 
to follow the former and Capehart's the latter, while Pennington was 
ordered to send one regiment of his brigade in support of each and to hold 
the remainder of his brigade in reserve at the cross-roads. A running fight 
then ensued on each road, the enemy being driven at the gallop, while 
prisoners, guns, battleflags, etc., were captured all along the route. At 
Sweat House creek the enemy was reinforced and made a stand, tempo- 
rarily checking the Federal advance. Pennington was ordered up, but 
before he arrived the enemy retreated and could not be overtaken. Wells 
captured the greater part of Barringer's brigade. The Union loss was 
comparatively slight. 

Nancy's Creek, Ga., July 18, 1864. (See Buckhead, same date.) 

Nansemond, River, Va., May 3, 1863. During the siege of SuflFolk 
considerable fighting occurred along the Nansemond, the most important 
engagement occurring on the above date. (See Suffolk, siege of.) 

Narrows, Ga., Oct. 11, 1864. Garrard's Cavalry Division, Army of 
the Cumberland. 

Nashville, Tenn., March 8, 1862. 4th Ohio Cavalry. A detachment 
of the 4th Ohio under Maj. John L. Pugh, while in pursuit of Morgan 
after the latter had committed several depredations in the vicinity of 
Nashville, came up with the Confederates near Stone's river. After a 
short but sharp skirmish the enemy was defeated with a loss of 4 killed 
and their prisoners were liberated. The remainder swam the river to 
escape capture. 

Nashville, Tenn., July 21, 1862. Detachment of 2nd Kentucky In- 
fantry. Brig.-Gen. N. B. Forrest, with 700 Confederates, while on a 



628 The Union Army 

reconnaissance in the direction of Nashville attacked the guard at a 
railroad bridge, consisting of a portion of the 2nd Ky., and after kiUing 
2 and wounding i, captured the remainder, 80 in number. Later in the 
day he drove in the Union pickets at Nashville and attempted to draw out 
the garrison, but was unsuccessful. 

Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 20, 1862. Union troops commanded by Col. 
Miller. 

Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 5, 1862. U. S. Forces under Brig.-Gen. James 
S. Negley. At 2 a. m. Forrest's Confederate cavalry, about 3,000 strong 
with 4 pieces of artillery, attacked the Federal pickets to the south of 
Nashville and simultaneously Morgan with 2,500 men and one piece of 
artillery made a dash on the i6th 111. infantry on the north side of the 
river. After a sharp contest Morgan was repulsed with a loss of 5 
killed and 19 wounded. The attack from the south was also repulsed 
and the enemy pursued for a distance of 7 miles, where Forrest made a 
stand and brought his artillery into action. The Federals slowly retired, 
the cavalry in the rear, and the infantry so disposed as to lead an an- 
ticipated attack of the enemy against the 14th Mich. The object was 
accomplished, the cavalry deployed to allow the infantry to pour in a 
fire which drove the Confederates back. Negley lost 26 wounded and 19 
missing. The Confederate loss, according to Forrest's report, was 21 
killed, wounded and missing. 

Nashville, Tenn., May 24, 1864. isth U. S. Colored Infantry. 

Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 15-16, 1864. U. S. Forces commanded by Gen. 
George H. Thomas. After the battle of Franklin on Nov. 30, Maj.-Gen. 
George H. Thomas, commanding at Nashville, ordered Gen. Schofield to 
fall back to that city, where Thomas had been industriously engaged for 
some time in collecting an army of sufficient strength to drive the Con- 
federate forces under Gen. Hood out of the State of Tennessee. Gen. 
A. J. Smith, with three divisions of the Army of the Tennessee, had been 
expected to arrive from Missouri in time to reinforce Schofield at 
Franklin, but he did not reach Nashville until the last day of November. 
At the time of the battle of Nashville Thomas' army numbered altogether 
about 55,000 men, though less than 45,000 were actually engaged. The 
4th corps, temporarily commanded by Brig.-Gen. T. J. Wood, Gen. Stanley 
having been wounded at Franklin, was composed of three divisions com- 
manded respectively by Brig.-Gens. Nathan Kimball, W. L. Elliott and 
Samuel Beatty; the 23d corps, under Maj.-Gen. John M. Schofield, con- 
sisted of two divisions, the 2nd commanded by Maj.-Gen. D. N. Couch 
and the 3d by Brig.-Gen. J. D. Cox; (the ist division of this corps was 
absent on detached duty) ; three divisions of the Army of the Tennessee, 
(Maj.-Gen. A. J. Smith's command) the ist commanded by Brig.-Gen. 
John McArthur, the 2nd by Brig.-Gen. Kenner Garrard, and the 3d by 
Col. J. B. Moore; the provisional detachment of Maj.-Gen. J. B. Steed- 
man, consisting of one division under the immediate command of Brig.- 
Gen. Charles Cruft; the post of Nashville, troops of the 20th corps, under 
command of Brig.-Gen. John F. Miller; the quartermaster's division, 
commanded by Bvt. Brig.-Gen. J. L. Donaldson ; the cavalry corps under 
command of Bvt. Maj.-Gen. J. H. Wilson, consisting of Croxton's brigade 
of the 1st division, the 5th division commanded bv Brig.-Gen. Edward 
Hatch, the 6th division under command of Brig.-Gen. R. W. Johnson, 
and the 7th division under Brig.-Gen. J. F. Knipe. With this force of 
infantry and cavalry were 40 batteries of light artillery. Hood's army 
was organized as follows : Lee's corps, Lieut. -Gen. S. D. Lee, was com- 
posed of the divisions of Johnson, Stevenson and Clayton ; Stew-art's 
corps, Lieut.-Gen. A. P. Stewart, consisted of the divisions of Loring, 
French and Walthall; Cheatham's corps, Lieut.-Gen. B. F. Cheatham, in- 
cluded the infantry divisions of Cleburne and Bate, and the cavalry 



Cyclopedia of Battles 629 

division of Gen. J. R. Chalmers. Gen. Cleburne was killed at the battle 
of Franklin and his division was commanded at Nashville by Brig.-Gen. 
J. A. Smith. The strength of Hood's army has been variously estimated 
at from 30,000 to 39,000 men of all arms. Col. Stone, who went into the 
subject somewhat exhaustively, fixes it at 37,937- 

Nashville is situated on the south side of the Cumberland river. In 
December, 1864, several turnpike roads radiated from the city between the 
southeast and southwest, all running through a country somewhat broken. 
Six miles due south are the Brentwood hills, along the east side of which 
ran the Franklin pike, while the Hillsboro pike ran along the western 
base. Two creeks rise in these hills, their sources being less than a mile 
apart. Brown's creek flows northeast, emptying into the Cumberland 
above the city, and Richland creek flows northwest into the river some 
distance below. Along the ridge between the two streams ran the Granny 
White pike. The Nolensville pike entered the city from the southeast, 
crossing Brown's creek not far from the Chattanooga railroad, while 
north of the railroad, and between it and the river, ran the Murfrees- 
boro. Chicken and Lebanon pikes. Another range of hills near the city 
had been fortified by order of Thomas. Hood followed Schofield from 
Franklin and during the afternoon of Dec. 2 his cavalry engaged the 
Union skirmishers in front of Nashville. The next day the whole Con- 
federate force appeared, the Federal skirmishers were crowded back, 
and Hood proceeded to form his main line on the hills immediately 
south of the Union fortifications. The morning of the 4th found his 
salient on Montgomery hill, within 600 yards of the Union works. 
Cheatham's corps on the right occupied a position behind Brown's creek, 
extending from the railroad to the Franklin pike ; Stewart's corps formed 
the center and lay across the Granny White pike, while Smith's corps on 
the left extended the line to the Hillsboro pike. From there to the river 
below, across the Hardin and Charlotte pikes, and from Cheatham's 
right to the river above the cavalry was posted. Having taken this 
position Hood did not attack the works in front of the city, but spent 
several days in reducing some of the smaller outlying garrisons and block- 
houses along the railroad. This gave Thomas time to complete his 
preparations, to mount and equip his cavalry and thoroughly organize 
his troops. Gen. Grant in Virginia and the authorities at Washington 
grew impatient at the delay, fearing that Hood would eventually elude 
Thomas, pass round Nashville, and invade Kentucky as Bragg had done 
in the summer of 1862. But Thomas was guarding the fords and bridges 
with his cavalry, and the gunboats of Fitch's squadron were patrolling 
the river above and below the city. Gen. Lyon, with a detachment of 
Confederate cavalry, did succeed in crossing at Clarksville on the gth, 
with a view to destroying the Louisville & Nashville railroad, but Thomas 
despatched Gen. E. M. McCook, with two brigades of the i.st cavalry 
division, to look after Lyon, so that the latter's expedition proved fruit- 
less. 

Grant, however, was of the opinion that Thomas should have given 
battle before the enemy had time to recover from the blow received at 
F'ranklin, and on Dec. 2 he telegraphed Thomas to leave the defenses of 
Nashville to Donaldson's division and attack Hood at once. Although 
this telegram was not an official order, its language was scarcely less 
imperative, but Thomas was so anxious to increase his force of cavalry, 
and so certain that he could do so within a few days, he decided to wait 
until he could attack with every assurance of success. In reply to Grant's 
telegrams Thomas said : "I now have infantr>- enough to assume the 
oflfensive, if I had more cavalry; and will take the field anyhow as soon 
as the remainder of Gen. McCook's division of cavalry reaches here, 
which I hope will be in two or three days. We can get neither rein- 



630 The Union Army 

forcements nor equipments at this great distance from the North very 
easily, and it must be remembered that my command was made up of 
the two weakest corps of Gen. Sherman's army, and all the dismounted 
cavalry except one brigade; and the task of reorganizing and equipping 
has met with many delays, which have enabled Hood to take advantage 
of my crippled condition. I earnestly hope, however, in a few more days, 
I shall be able to give him a fight." This explanation was evidently not 
satisfactory, either to Grant or to Sec. of War Stanton, and Thomas 
was again urged to attack the enemy in his front. It was a case of the 
man at the desk a thousand miles away trying to direct the operations 
of the man in the field. The record of Thomas at Mill Springs and 
Chickamauga ought to have been a sufficient guarantee of his ability to 
command an army or to plan a campaign, yet that record availed him 
nothing now, when the secretary of war and the lieutenant-general of 
the Federal armies were "spoiling for a fight." On the 6th Grant sent 
another telegram to Thomas, directing him to attack at once, and to 
wait no longer to remount his cavalry. To this Thomas replied that he 
would make the necessary disposition and attack, "agreeably to your 
orders, though I believe it will be hazardous with the small force of 
cavalry now at my command." This elicited a sarcastic telegram from 
Stanton to Grant, in which he said : "Thomas seems unwilling to attack 
because it is hazardous, as if all war was any but hazardous. If he waits 
for Wilson to get ready, Gabriel will be blowing his last horn." 

To such sneers as this the hero of Chickamauga paid no attention, 
but went quietly ahead completing his arrangements for a battle that was 
to forever destroy the usefulness of Hood's army as a factor in the War 
of the Rebellion. By the Qth he was ready to attack, but a severe storm 
came on, covering the ground with a thick coating of sleet, over which it 
was impossible to move troops with that celerity so essential to success 
in making an assault on an enemy. On the Qth Gen. Halleck telegraphed 
him as follows : "Lieut. -Gen. Grant expresses much dissatisfaction at 
your delay in attacking the enemy." To this Thomas replied : "I feel 
conscious I have done everything in my power, and that the troops could 
not have been gotten ready before this. If Gen. Grant should order me to 
be relieved, I will submit without a murmer." He seems to have had a 
premonition of what was about to occur, for on the same day Grant 
asked the war department to relieve Thomas and turn over the command 
of the army at Nashville to Schofield. When notice of this order was 
received at Nashville, Thomas called a council of his corps commanders 
and asked their advice, informing them that he was ordered to give battle 
immediately or surrender his command. The council was unanimous 
in the opinion that it was impracticable to make any attack until the ice 
should melt. The order relieving Thomas was then suspended, but on 
the 13th Grant again became impatient and ordered Gen. Logan to pro- 
ceed at once to Nashville, and the next day started for that place himself 
to assume command of the army in person. 

By noon on the 14th the ice had melted sufficiently to permit the move- 
ment of troops. At 3 p. m. Thomas called together his corps commanders 
and laid before them his plan of battle for the following morning. 
Steedman was to make a feint against the enemy's right, while Smith, 
with the three divisions of the Army of the Tennessee, was to form his 
troops on the Hardin pike and make a vigorous assault on Hood's left. 
In this movement Smith was to be supported by Wilson, with three 
divisions of cavalry, and one division of cavalry was to be sent out on 
the Charlotte pike to clear that road of the enemy and keep watch on 
Bell's landing. Wood was directed to leave a strong skirmish line in 
his works from Lawrens' hill to his right, form the remainder of the 
4th corps on the Hillsboro road to support Smith's left, and at the same 



Cyclopedia of Battles 631 

time move against the left and rear of the saHent on Montgomery hill. 
Schofield, after leaving a strong line of skirmishers in the trenches from 
Lawrens' hill to Fort Negley, was to move with the rest of the 23d corps 
and cooperate with Wood, protecting his left against any attack by the 
enemy. The troops under Donaldson, Miller and Cruft were to occupy 
the inner line of works and guard the approaches to the city. At 4 a. m. 
on the 15th everyone within the Federal works was awake, and at day- 
light the several commands began to move to their assigned positions. 
A dense fog hung over the field during the early morning hours, com- 
pletely concealing the movements of the Federal troops. Each officer 
seemed to feel the injustice of the imputation cast on Thomas, and all 
now moved as if determined to vindicate the valor of the Army of the 
Cumberland and the honor and judgment of its commander. At 6 
o'clock Steedman moved out on the Murfreesboro pike and 2 hours later 
began his demonstration against Cheatham's right. This demonstration 
was so vigorous that it was virtually an assault. The roar of his artillery 
and the rapid fire of his musketry soon drew Hood's attention to that 
part of his line. Reinforcements were hurried to Cheatham and Steed- 
man withdrew his men after they had carried part of the enemy's in- 
trenchments, as they were subjected to an enfilading fire and the object 
of the feint had been gained, though toward noon Col. Thompson, with 
three regiments of colored troops assaulted and carried the left of the 
front line of Confederate works on the Nolensville pike, holding his 
position there until the next morning. Smith had to move farther than 
anticipated, and the movements of his men were retarded by the fog and 
mud, so that it was 10 o'clock before he reached the first of the detached 
redoubts which Hood had built between his left flank and the river. This 
was between the Hardin and Hillsboro roads and was manned by a 
detachment of Walthall's infantry, with 4 pieces of artillery. Hatch and 
McArthur opened fire on it with their batteries. Coon's cavalry brigade 
dismounted and charged, carrying the redoubt and capturing the guns. 
At the same time McArthur charged from another direction and as the 
enemy was retiring captured 150 prisoners. The captured redoubt was 
under the fire of another and stronger one, and the two commands now 
turned their attention to its reduction. Again Coon's brigade, armed 
with repeating rifles, advanced up the hill, firing as they went, while 
McArthur was in such close support that the Confederates saw they 
were doomed to defeat and made the attempt to abandon the redoubt. 
Just then McArthur ordered a charge, which was successfully made, and 
250 prisoners were added to those already taken. In the meantime Hatch 
had engaged a portion of French's division near Richland creek and 
driven it back beyond the Hardin house, where Col. Spaulding, with the 
I2th Tenn. cavalry made a brilliant charge, capturing 43 prisoners and 
the headquarters train of Chalmers' division. 

As soon as Wood heard the sound of Smith's guns, he moved against 
Montgomery hill, swinging to the left as he advanced in an effort to 
uncover the enemy's flank. At i p. m. Post's brigade of Beatty's di- 
vision dashed up the hill and over the intrenchments. He was promptly 
supported by the rest of the division, and the enemy's salient was in 
possession of the Federals. Wood then threw his reserve brigade of each 
division to his right and engaged the enemy with his entire corps. This 
movement of the 4th corps to the right caused Thomas to order Scho- 
field to the right of Smith. In executing this movement Couch's division 
pushed beyond the second captured redoubt and carried the enemy's line 
on a range of hills parallel to the Granny White pike. Cox's division 
moved still farther to the right, driving the Confederates from the hills 
along Richland creek. As Schofield was thus moving to the right Smith 
bore to the left, assaulted Walthall's division behind a stone wall near 



632 The Union Army 

the Hillsboro road, driving Reynolds' brigade on the left in confusion, 
and finally routed the entire division. At sunset the whole Confederate 
army had been driven from its original line and forced back to the Brent- 
virood hills. During the night Hood formed a new line with his right 
resting on Overton's hill near the Franklin pike and extending from 
there along the base of the Brentwood hills, his left being refused a little 
west of the Granny White pike. The Union forces bivouacked on the 
field, and Thomas gave orders for each corps to move forward at 6 
o'clock the next morning, not halting until the enemy should be met. If 
Hood showed a disposition to accept battle a general attack was to be 
made, but if he should retreat the whole army was to be pushed for- 
ward in pursuit. 

The battle on the i6th was opened by the advance of the 4th corps 
on the Franklin pike. The enemy's skirmishers were driven back and 
Wood pressed forward to the main line of works on Overton's hill. 
Steedman came up on the Nolensville road and formed on Wood's left, 
while Smith connected with Wood's right, forming a continuous line of 
battle. Schofield occupied a position facing east, perpendicular to Smith's 
line, and Wilson, on the right of Schofield, was directed to gain the enemy's 
rear with his cavalry. By noon Wilson had reached the rear and stretched 
his line across the Granny White pike. Thomas then ordered an assault 
on Overton's hill, in the hope of gaining the Franklin road, thereby cut- 
ting off the last avenue of retreat. Morgan's brigade of Steedman's com- 
mand, with the left brigades of the 4th corps, moved forward to the 
assault, advancing in the face of a heavy fire of infantry and artillery 
until near the crest, when a line of reserves arose and opened such a 
destructive fire that the column was compelled to fall back. The heaviest 
losses sustained by the Union army was in this attack on Overton's hill. 
Immediately following Wood's repulse here Smith and Schofield moved 
against the enemy's works in their front, carried everything before them, 
broke the line in a dozen places, captured all the artillery and several 
thousand prisoners. At the same time Wilson attacked the enemy in the 
rear, clinching his possession of the Granny White pike and completely 
shutting off retreat by that road. Wood and Steedman, hearing the 
shouts of victory on their right, now made another assault on Overton's 
hill, and although they were met by the same heavy fire as before, the 
onset was irresistible. As the Federal lines advanced the enemy broke 
in confusion, leaving all his artillery and many prisoners in the hands of 
the victorious assailants. On through Brentwood pass the Confederates 
fled, a disorganized mob, closely pursued by the 4th corps for several 
miles, or until darkness put an end to the chase for that day. The pursuit 
was continued for ten days, but owing to the delays encountered m 
crossing Rutherford's creek and Duck river, both swollen by recent rains 
and the bridges destroyed. Hood got so far in advance that he crossed 
the Tennessee river at Bainbridge on the 26th and the chase was 
abandoned. 

The Union loss in the battle of Nashville was 387 killed, 2,562 wounded, 
and 112 missing. No detailed report of the Confederate losses was made. 
Hood reached Tupelo, Miss., with about 21,000 men. In his report of 
the campaign he says : "The official records will show that my losses, 
including prisoners, during the entire campaign do not exceed 10,000 
men." On the other hand Thomas officially reports the capture of 13.189 
prisoners, and it is known that the Confederate loss in killed and wounded 
at the battle of Franklin alone was about 5,000, to say nothing of Nash- 
ville and the other engagements of the campaign. In addition to the 
prisoners reported by Thomas, the Union army captured "]! pieces of 
artillery, and a large number of battleflags. Notwithstanding Grant's 
severe criticisms of Thomas' delay, he sent a telegram congratulating 



Cyclopedia of Battles 633 

him on his victory, and Sec. Stanton ordered a salute of loo guns to be 
fired on the i6th to celebrate the event. Gen. Cullum, in speaking of the 
battle of Nashville, says: "The best tactical battle of tlie war, so de- 
cisive in results, was the last and crowning glory of Thomas' campaigns; 
but it sufficed to stamp him as one of the foremost soldiers of the great 
civil contest, a general who had never been defeated, and one whose 
victories had placed him among the greatest heroes of the Republic." 

Nashville & Chattanooga R. R., Tenn., Dec. 2-5, 1864. Detachments 
of the Army of the Cumberland. As the Confederates under Gen. Hood 
were advancing upon Nashville, they made several attacks on the garri- 
sons at the various blockhouses along the line of the Nashville & Chat- 
tanooga railroad. Blockhouse No. 2, located 5 miles from Nashville, was 
garrisoned by Lieut. George D. Harter and a small detachment of the 
115th Ohio infantry. On the morning of the 2nd a force of the enemy, 
most of whom wore the Federal uniform, began surrounding the stockade. 
Before the movement was completed a train came up from Murfreesboro, 
having on board the 44th and part of the 14th U. S. colored infantry. 
While the train was still on the Mill creek trestle it was fired upon by the 
Confederate battery, disabling the locomotive and injuring several men. 
Col. Lewis Johnson, commanding the colored troops, hurried his men to 
the blockhouse, where they received ammunition from Harter and joined 
in the defense of the post. From 10 a. m. until dark an incessant fire of 
artillery was kept up by the enemy, nearly 500 rounds of solid shot from 
10 and 20-pounders being discharged against the garrison. Several times 
the fire from the blockhouse compelled the enemy to change the position 
of his guns, but at dark the building was in a state of wreck . The north 
wing was destroyed, the west wing badly damaged, the main support of 
the roof had been shot away and the other supports were much weak- 
ened. Under the circumstances Harter decided to evacuate the stockade, 
and accordingly at 3 a. m. on the 3d quietly withdrew and marched >vith 
his own detachment and the colored troops to Nashville, whtre they 
arrived safely about daylight. The Union loss in this action was 12 
killed, 46 wounded and 57 missing. 

No. I blockhouse, 4 miles from Nashville, garrisoned by a few of 
the 115th Ohio, under Lieut. J. N. Shaffer, was attacked on the morning 
of the 3d by artillery. The firing lasted all dr.y and five times the Con- 
federates sent in a flag of truce to demand a surrender, but each time it 
was refused. Toward evening the ammunition of the garrison was ex- 
hausted and Shaffer was unable to continue the fight, so there was nothing 
left for him but to surrender. 

On the same day blockhouse No. 3, near Antioch, commanded by Capt. 
D. N. Lowrey, was attacked by a large force of the enemy. Artillery 
was brought to bear on the garrison and the cannonade was kept up for 
36 hours, during which time no less than 90 shots from 10 and 20-pounder 
guns struck the .stockade. At the end of that time, as the enemy showed 
no signs of withdrawing, Lowrey surrendered the garrison. 

The blockhouse at Overall's creek, about 4 miles north of Murfrees- 
boro, was attacked on the 4th by Bate's division, with several pieces of 
artillery. Gen. Rousseau sent Gen. Milroy, with the 8th Minn., 6ist 111. 
and 174th Ohio, from Murfreesboro to the relief of the garrison. The 
timely arrival of this reinforcement enabled the garrison to hold its 
position, as Bate was driven off with a loss of several in killed and 
wounded and about 20 prisoners. Milroy stated the total number of his 
casualties as 64, many of whom were only slightly wounded 

Four miles below Murfreesboro was blockhouse No. 7, garrisoned Dy 
Co. E, 115th Ohio, commanded by Lieut. H. H. Glosser. This post was 
attacked on the 4th by Gen. Forrest, with a large force of cavalry and 
artillery. Of the 76 artillery shots fired at the blockhouse, 32 struck it. 



634 The Union Army 

though the structure was but slightly damaged. In his report of the 
affair Glosscr says : "Gen. Forrest sent in a flag of truce four times, 
demanding the surrender of this house, promising to treat me well, and 
threatening to burn me with Greek fire it I refused. I resolved to believe 
nothing but such things as I could see ; and as I could not see the Greek 
fire, I thought I would wait until I did." Forrest finally withdrew, but 
left some sharpshooters, who kept the garrison hemmed in for thirteen 
days. No casualties here, either during the attack or the siege. 

Gen. George H. Thomas, commanding the Army of the Cumberland, 
sent out an order on the 4th to evacuate all the blockhouses between 
Nashville and Murfreesboro. As soon as this order was received at 
Murfreesboro couriers were started to notify the commanders of the 
blockhouses. Sergt. William McKinney, commanding at No. 4, received 
the order on the 5th, and was preparing to carry it out, when he was 
attacked by overwhelming numbers and compelled to surrender. Nos. 5 
and 6, commanded respectively by Capt. W. M. McClure and Lieut. J. S. 
Orr, received the order late on the 4th and evacuated early the next 
morning, just as straggling parties of the enemy had began to make 
their appearance. Both garrisons were compelled to move by circuitous 
routes, but reached Murfreesboro that afternoon without casualty. 

At blockhouse No. 9, near Bellbuckle, the Confederates appeared and 
sent in a flag of truce to Lieut. M. S. Hurd, the commander of the garri- 
son, demanding a surrender. Hurd replied: "If you want this block- 
house, come and take it." The enemy evidently had no artillery here, 
and after firing a few volleys of musketry withdrew. 

Natchez, Miss., July 31, 1863. (See Saint Catherine's creek.) 

Natchez, Miss., Nov. 11, 1863. 58th U. S. Colored Infantry. 

Natchez, Miss., Dec. 7, 1863. Mississippi Marine Brigade. Brig.-Gea. 
Wirt Adams, of the Confederate army, in his report of operations about 
Natchez, states that at about daylight on the 7th he attacked the Union 
pKDsition near the city and after one regiment had skirmished for a short 
time the Federals retired. No casualties were reported. Adams' report 
is the only one found in the official records, so that it is not definitely 
known what Union troops were engaged, but as the Marine brigade was in 
the vicinity at the time it was probably the participant. 

Natchitoches, La., March 31, 1864. Cavalry Division, Department of 
the Gulf. The itinerary of the cavalry division during the Red River 
campaign contains the following: "March 31. — The command moved 
forward at an early hour, and met with no resistance until about i p. m., 
when a small force of rebels was encountered about 6 miles from Natchi- 
toches. The rebels, 1,000 strong, with 4 pieces of artillery, were driven 
rapidly through the town, losing several killed and wounded and 35 
prisoners." 

Natchitoches, La., April 6, 1864. 19th Army Corps. When the 19th 
corps moved out of Natchitoches on the 6th there was slight skirmishing 
in the Federal front with no casualties reported. The movement was 
an incident of the Red River campaign. 

Natchitoches, La., April 19, 1864. 4th Brigade, Cavalry Division, 
Banks' Red River Expedition. During the Red River campaign this 
brigade was commanded by Col. Nathan A. M. Dudley, who made no 
report of his operations. On the 20th he was relieved by the ist brigade, 
1st division, i6th corps. (See article following.) 

Natchitoches, La., April 20-22, 1864. ist Brigade, 3d Division, i6th 
Army Corps. On the 20th this brigade broke camp at Grand Ecore and 
marched 5 miles to Natchitoches, where a line of battle was formed and 
continuous skirmishing kept up until the morning of the 22nd. when the 
balance of the i6th and all of the 17th corps arrived and the enemy was 
forced back across Cane river. No casualties reported on either side. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 635 

Natural Bridge, Fla., March 6, 1865. 2nd and 99th U. S. Infantry, 
Colored. At dayligtit Maj. F>enjamin Lincoln with two companies of the 
2nd U. S. colored infantry drove the advanced pickets of the Confederates 
over the Natural bridge, further pursuit being stopped by a deep slough. 
Learning that there was no other way of crossing it was determined 
to force a passage and while three companies attempted a direct assault 
three others were to attempt to turn the Confederate right. Tlie enemy 
fled from their works on Lincoln's approach, and again the slough stopped 
further progress. No casualties were reported. The affair was one of the 
incidents of the operations about Saint Mark's. 

Nauvoo, Ala., Jan. 2, 1865. Cavalry Detachment, Army of the Cum- 
berland. Col. W. J. Palmer, of the 15th Pa. cavalry, with his own regi- 
ment and detachments of the 2nd Tenn., loth, 12th and 13th Ind. cavalry, 
was in pursuit of the Confederates as they retreated from Tennessee, 
after Hood's decisive defeat at Nashville. The enemy's pontoon train 
was captured near Russellville on Dec. 31, and Palmer pushed on through 
Nauvoo after the supply train. From Nauvoo he turned westward on 
the Aberdeen road and came up with the train about 10 p. m., just 
across the state line in Itawamba county, Miss. The Confederates after 
a slight resistance fled in confusion, leaving no wagons and over 500 
mules as spoils to the victorious pursuers. No casualties reported. (Al- 
though this action is given as Nauvoo, Ala., it really occurred about 40 
miles from that place in a northwesterly direction.) 

Neabsco Creek, Va., Dec. 19, 1862. (See Occoquan, same date.) 

Neal Dow Station, Ga., July 4, 1864. (See Ruff's Station.) 

Neal's Gap, Ala., Sept. i, 1863. 

Negro Head Cut, Ky., April 27, 1863. Detachment, 102nd Illinois 
and I nth Ohio Infantry. This detachment, under command of Col. 
Benjamin J. Sweet of the 21st Wis., acting as guard for a passenger 
train between Franklin and Woodburn, had a rather sharp skirmish in 
Negro Head cut. The engineer noticed a rail removed for the purpose 
of throwing the train off the track and brought the train to a stop. The 
troops on board were at once disembarked and formed under cover of 
the railroad embankment on the opposite side from the Confederates. 
After brisk firing for a few minutes the enemy broke and fled, pursued 
for 2 miles by a company of the iiith Ohio. The casualties were 5 
wounded, 2 mortally, on the Union side ; 4 Confederate dead and 4 
wounded were left on the field. 

Nelson's Bridge, La., Oct. 4, 1863. (See New Iberia.) 

Nelson's Farm, Va., June 30, 1862. This is one of the names given 
to the battle of Glendale, for a full account of which see Seven Davs' 
Battles. 

Neosho, Mo., July 5, 1861. Detachment of 3d Missouri Infantry. 
On hearing cannonading outside the town, Capt. Joseph Conrad, com- 
mandant of the post, despatched a patrol of 20 men to learn the cause. 
About 2 hours later the patrol returned followed by five companies of 
Confederate soldiers, who demanded an unconditional surrender of the 
garrison of 80 men. It was made without the firing of a shot. 

Neosho, Mo., .April 26, 1862. Detachment of ist Missouri Cavalry. 
Lieut. -Col. C. B. Holland reporting from Cassville on May i, says: "Maj. 
Hubbard, commanding ist Mo. cavalry, with 146 of his men, fought and 
routed Cols. Coffee and Stand Watie and 200 Indians at Neosho on the 
26th, killed and wounded 30, and took 62 prisoners and 70 horses and a 
large quantity of arms." Stand Watie's report puts the Confederate loss 
at 2 killed and 5 wounded. 

Neosho, Mo., May 31, 1862. Detachments of 14th Missouri Infantry 
(Militia) and 10th Illinois Cavalry. This force under Col. John M. 
Richardson was attacked about 8 a. m. by Confederates and Indians under 



636 The Union Army 

Cols. Stand Watie and Coffee. Richardson formed his troops and ordered 
a charge, but instead of advancing toward the enemy the men turned and 
fled, followed by the Confederate cavalry for some distance. Richard- 
son's loss was 8 wounded and 3 captured or missing, while the Confed- 
erates had I man killed. 

Neosho, Mo., Aug. 21, 1862. 6th Missouri Cavalry. This affair was 
the driving out of a Confederate detachment in a hasty retreat. The 
Federal cavalry followed until the enemy had passed Pineville. No 
casualties were reported. 

Neosho, Mo., Oct. 4, 1863. Detachments of the 6th and 8th Missouri 
State Militia Cavalry. Capt. Charles B. McAfee, with a detachment of 
the 6th regiment, entered the town of Neosho, just as Capt. Coffee's Con- 
federate company entered it from another. McAfee attacked with such 
vigor that the enemy was soon driven from the town, but he was re- 
inforced by a large detachment of Shelby's cavalry and returned, forc- 
ing the Union men to take shelter in the court-house, which place was 
defended for an hour and a half, when the ammunition was about ex- 
hausted and McAfee surrendered. 

While this was going on a scouting party of the 8th regiment, under 
Capt. Milton Burch, overtook some 30 Confederates at Widow Wheeler's 
place, near Neosho, routed and pursued them for some distance, killing 
10 and capturing 2 without any loss to the Federals. These affairs were 
incidents of Shelby's Missouri raid. 

Neosho, Mo,, Nov. 4-6, 1863. Detachment of 8th Missouri State 
Militia Cavalry. When this detachment entered the town on the 4th it 
skirmished with and drove out a band of bushwhackers, killing i of the 
number and losing i killed. On the 6th about 70 of the Union troops 
attacked 30 bushwhackers on Butler's creek, near Neosho, killing 8 of 
them. The Federals were commanded by Capt. James J. Akard. 

Neosho, Mo., June 3, 1864. Detachment of 8th Missouri State Militia 
Cavalry. A band of 20 bushwhackers fired upon 2 men of Co. L, 8th 
Mo., 3 miles from Neosho. One man was killed and the other captured. 
A rescuing party was immediately sent out from Neosho and overtook 
the guerrillas 10 miles out. In the fight which ensued 4 of the enemy 
were killed and the rest of the band scattered. One of the attacking 
Federals was killed. 

Neuces River, Tex., Aug. 10, 1862. A party of 94 Confederates under 
Lieut. C. D. McRae lay in ambush near the camp of 70 Federal loyalists 
during the night of the 9th and at daylight next morning attacked from 
two "sides. Though the Federal participants put up a stiff resistance they 
were overpowered, and those not killed fled in confusion. Thirty-tw) 
Union men were left dead on the field and the enemy lost 2 killed and 
18 wounded. 

New Albany, Miss., April 18-19, 1863. 6th and 7th Illinois and 2nd 
Iowa Cavalry. As an incident of Col. B. H. Grierson's raid from La 
Grange, Tenn., while a battalion of the 6th 111. was attempting to cross 
the bridge across the Tallahatchie river near New Albany, it was fired 
on by a squad of the enemy stationed on the farther bank. A charge 
across the bridge sent them back toward the town. The next day a de- 
tachment of Grierson's command came upon 200 Confederates near the 
town, and engaged them, killing and wounding several. The Federals 
suffered no loss in either skirmish. 

New Albany, Miss., June 19, 1863. Detachments of 9th Illinois 
Mounted Infantry, i8th Missouri Infantry, 5th Ohiu Cavalry, ist Mis- 
souri Light Artillery. As an incident of operations in northeastern Mis- 
sissippi this command, under Lieut. -Col. Jesse J. Phillips, encountered 
some 200 or 300 Confederates, who attempted to check Phillips' progress, 
but they were driven a mile beyond New Albany, where they were dis- 
persed. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 637 

New Albany, Miss., Oct. 5, 1863. 3d Michigan Infantry. This regi- 
ment under Col. Eugene Moyers formed hne of battle on approaching 
New Albany, but the panic among the Confederates there was so great 
that they were withdrawn without offering any resistance. Moyers 
pursued for several miles, killing 2 and capturing 11. The Union loss 
was I killed. 

New Albany, Miss., Feb. 23, 1864. 3d Illinois and 5th Kentucky Cav- 
alry. When Smith's column on its retreat from before West Point 
during the Meridian expedition was between Pontotoc and New Albany 
the 3d 111. and the 5th Ky. were placed as rear guard. For some distance 
they kept up a running skirmish with the enemy and then at a creek 9 
miles from New Albany put an effectual stop to the Confederate attacks 
by a decisive defeat of the harrassing force. No casualties reported. 

Newark, Mo., July 7, 1862. Detachment of 2nd Missouri Cavalry 
(Militia). Capt. C. A. Lewis with a portion of the 2nd Mo. encountered 
Confederate pickets about 3 miles from Newark. The enemy made an 
attempt to outflank the Federals and cut off their horses, thereby com- 
pelling Lewis to fall back to his camp. A demand for a surrender was 
sent in but it was immediately refused. By the time the remainder of 
the 2nd Mo. arrived to reinforce Lewis the Confederates had withdrawn. 
Lewis reported 2 men wounded. 

Newark, Mo., Aug. i, 1862. -jj) men of the iilh Missouri State Militia. 

New Baltimore, Va., Nov. 5, 1862. 

New Baltimore, Va., Oct. 19, 1863. (See Buckland Mills.) 

New Baltimore, Va., Oct. 26, 1863. Maj. John S. Mosby with 50 
men attacked a Union wagon train and captured the teams of some 40 
or 50 wagons, together with 20 of the guard. The only mention of the 
affair is in I»,Iosby's report, so there is no way of knowing who the 
Union participants were. 

New Berne, N. C, March 14, 1862. Expedition under Maj. -Gen. A. 
E. Burnside. The brigades of Brig.-Gens. John G. Foster, Jesse L. Reno 
and John G. Parke and the unattached commands of the ist N. Y. 
Marine artillery and Co. B, 99th N. Y. infantry, all of the department of 
North Carolina under Maj. -Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside, embarked on 
transports at Roanoke island on the morning of the nth and at daybreak 
on the morning of the 13th landed at the mouth of Slocum's creak on 
the Neuse river. By the time the last of the troops were disembarked the 
head of the column had reached Otter creek, where it was discovered 
the Confederates had deserted their intrenchment. From this point 
Foster proceeded up the main county road and Reno up the railroad to- 
ward New Berne, while Parke followed Foster as a reserve. At 8 p. m. 
the troops bivouacked in the order of march and during the night some 
more of the Federal artillery was landed. At daylight on the 14th Capt. 
Robert S. Williamson of the topographical engineers was sent forward 
with an escort to reconnoiter the Confederate position, while the brigades 
formed for battle. Foster, with Parke in his rear as a reserve, was to 
attack the enemy's front and left from the county road, and Reno was 
to attempt to turn the enemy's right from the railroad. The heads of 
the columns had gone but a short distance before they were within range 
of the Confederate artillery. Foster immediately placed the 24th and 
25th Mass. on the right of the road, 6 navy boat howitzers and 2 other 
naval batteries on the road, and the 23d and 27th Mass. on the left. 
Reno, on arriving near the line of intrenchments, ordered a charge up 
the railroad on a brick-kiln well within the enemy's line. The move 
was successfully executed by part of the 21st Mass., but the Confederate 
right extended some three-quarters of a mile beyond the railroad, so 
that Reno was kept busy and was unable to send support to the advanced 
detachment of the 21st, which was obliged to fall back to the main line of 



638 The Union Army 

the brigade, now disposed with the remainder of the 2ist Mass., the 51st 
N. Y. and the 9th N. J., on the left of the railroad and the 51st Pa. in 
reserve. By this time the engagement had become general. Parke was 
ordered across the railroad to strike the extreme Confederate right from 
a strip of timber. While he was crossing the railroad he was met by 
Lieut. -Col. William S. Clark with the detachment of the 21st Mass. which 
had been compelled to fall back and was informed that by regaining posses- 
sion of the brick-kiln with a sufficient force the Confederate rear could 
be gained. Parke immediately ordered a charge, which was made by the 
4th R. I., supported by his whole brigade, and the Union colors were 
planted on the parapet. The column then turned to the right and while 
it was thus fighting the enemy behind his own intrenchments Foster 
charged, clearing the whole line of the breastworks from the railroad 
to the river of Confederates. Parke then reversed his command and a 
similar movement was executed on the left of the railroad, Reno charg- 
ing in front while Parke attacked the enemy behind his works. By the 
time this coup was completed Foster had succeeded in getting one regi- 
ment to the Confederate rear, cutting ofif the retreat of 200 men who sur- 
rendered unconditionally. Burnside then quietly took possession of the 
city. His loss was 90 killed, 380 wounded and i captured or missing, 
wliile the Confederates suffered casualties to the extent of 64 killed, loi 
wounded and 413 captured or missing. 

New Berne, N. C, May 22, 1862. Company I, 17th Massachusetts In- 
fantry. 

New Berne, N. C, Nov. 11, 1862. 24th and 25th Massachusetts 
Infantry and 3d New York Cavalry. Two detachments of 50 men 
each, under Lieuts. James M. Drennan and Charles F. Tew, were sent 
out from New Berne on foraging expeditions. On the return of Dren- 
nan's party it was followed by a force of Confederates with artillery. 
Drennan made a stand at the Jackson creek bridge, where reinforcements 
reached him and for some time a sharp skirmish fire was kept up, the 
Federals falling back at dark to New Berne with the loss of i wounded. 
Meantime the enemy had attacked two companies of the 24th Mass. at 
the Neuse river bridge, but was driven back by the railroad monitor. 
The Union loss in this latter affair was i killed and 2 wounded. 

New Berne, N. C, Feb. 27, 1863. Detachment of the 3d New York 
Cavalry under Capt. Jacobs. 

New Berne, N. C, March 14, 1863. (See Deep Gully, same date.) 

New Berne, N. C, Feb. 1-3, 1864. Army of North Carolina. New 
Berne is located on the point of land at the junction of the Neuse and 
Trent rivers, and in the winter of 1864 was a place of some strategic 
importance. The Confederate plan of attack on the town and its sur- 
rounding defenses was as follows : Gen. Pickett, with some 6,000 men, 
was to move directly upon the town from the direction of Kinston ; Gen. 
Barton, with about 5,000 men, was to gain possession of the Federal 
works on the south side of the Trent river, beginning at Brice's creek and 
extending westward ; and Gen. Martin, with 4,000 men, was to attack 
Newport, some 20 miles south of New Berne, in the sub-district of 
Beaufort, destroy the railroad, and thus break the communication with 
the coast. The defenses of New Berne were commanded by Brig.-Gen. 
I. N. Palmer, whose effective force numbered less than 4.000 men of all 
arms. On the east side of the Neuse were Forts Chase and Anderson, 
garrisoned by small detachments under the command of Col. Hiram 
Anderson, of the 92nd N. Y. infantry. Col. T. J. C. Amory, of the 17th 
Mass. infantry, had been placed in command of the intrenchments on 
the south side of the Trent, and Col. P. J. Claassen, of the 132nd 
N. Y. infantry, was in command of the outposts along Batchelder's 
creek to the north and west of the town. The sub-district of Beaufort 



Cyclopedia of Battles 639 

was under command of Col. James Jourdan, of the 158th N. Y., whose 
forces consisted of his own regiment, the 9th Vt. and 2nd N. C. infantry, 
part of the 2nd Mass. heavy artillery, and Mi.x"s (23d N. Y.) cavalry 
battalion. 

At 2:30 a. m. on the ist Pickett, with his own division and Hoke's 
brigade of Early's, attacked the outpost at the crossing of the Neuse 
road over Batchelder's creek. This ouptpost was held by 13 men under 
Lieut. Haring, of the 132nd N. Y., but in the darkness the Confederates 
could not determine the strength of the force opposed to them. Haring 
posted his men behind a light breastwork and for over an hour kept 
Pickett's entire army in check. He was then reinforced by Co. D, 
132nd N. Y., composed mostly of Indians, who threw themselves into 
the breastwork and so efYectually did they resist the enemy that he had 
to bring up artillery to continue the attack, at the same time sending 
a detachment across at another place to threaten their flank. At 5 :30 
Claassen sent word to Palmer that the enemy was attacking in force and 
asked for a section of artillery. An hour later, finding himself unable 
to drive the Confederates back, he gave the order to retire toward New 
Berne. In the fog signals could not be used, the order failed to reach 
an outpost at Beech Grove on the Washington road, and it was cut off 
and captured. This detachment, under Lieut. Leith, consisted of 14 men of 
the 132nd N. Y. and Co. F, 2nd N. C. A section of artillery moving to the 
assistance of the post was also captured. Palmer sent a small detachment 
of infantry and a section of artillery, under Lieut. -Col. Fellows of the 
17th Mass. to check the advance of the enemy on Neuse road, and 
also sent out a railroad train from New Berne, which enabled Claassen 
to save his stores. About noon the enemy appeared on all sides of 
New Berne. Barton had crossed the Trent river on pontoon bridges and 
appeared in front of Amory's works on Brice's creek with three bri- 
gades of infantry. Baker's cavalry and several pieces of artillery. The 
fight here was opened by a field battery of the 3d N. Y. light artillery 
and after a short time the Confederates retired beyond the range of 
the guns. Another attack was expected and Amory placed his men in 
the best positions to resist it, but for some reason the enemy did not 
renew the assault. When Pickett appeared in front of the line running^ 
from the Neuse to the Trent the guns of Fort Totten opened fire, the 
I2th N. Y. cavalry, under Col. J. W. Savage, with 2 mountain howitzers, 
remained in front of the line, and this position was maintained until 
sunset, the Confederates making no attempt to assault. Pickett had 
sent three regiments of infantry and 4 pieces of artillery to the east 
side of the Neuse, with instructions to attack Forts Anderson and 
Chase as soon as the assault commenced against Fort Totten, but noth- 
ing was done on that side of the river, further than to assume a 
threatening attitude. About midnight Pickett gave up the fight and 
began to withdraw his forces. 

About 3 a. m. of the 2nd some 250 men of the Confederate navy, 
under Capt. J. T. Wood, embarked in small boats and surprised the 
V. S. gunboat Underwriter lying in the Neuse. The greater part of the 
crew escaped, but the vessel was captured. As soon as this fact became 
known the guns of Fort Stevenson opened on the gunboat, and the 
enemy, finding it impossible to get the steamer away, set fire to her and 
escaped to shore. Six of the attacking party were taken prisoners. 

In the Beaufort district the Confederates led by Martin performed 
their part of the program better. Early on the 2nd the picket station 
at Gales' creek was attacked by infantry, cavalry and artillery. Two 
attacks were repulsed, but the superior numbers of the enemy finally 
compelled the pickets to fall back to Bogue Sound blockhouse. The 
enemy then set fire to the Gales' Creek station and followed the Union 



640 The Union Army 

troops to the blockhouse, which was garrisoned by a company of the 
9th Vt. infantry. This company, reinforced by the pickets from Gales' 
creek, put up a gallant resistance for nearly an hour, when the block- 
house was carried by assault, the garrison retiring to Morehead City. 
Martin then advanced on Newport barracks, throwing his right across 
the railroad to cut off the retreat of the garrison. Here the remainder 
of the gth Vt., commanded by Capt. S. H. Kelley, met the advance of 
the Confederates with well-directed volleys of musketry, while Mix's 
cavalry did effective service by harassing the enemy at various points. 
The fight was maintained with unabated vigor for over an hour, and it 
was not until there was great danger of all retreat being cut off that 
the order was given to burn the stores and abandon the place. The fort 
at Newport village was occupied by a detachment of the 2nd Mass. heavy 
artillery and some infantr>' under Lieut. -Col. Barney, who was also 
commandant at the post. After Kelley was driven from the barracks, 
Barney deemed it inexpedient to try to hold his position, and gave the 
order to retire toward Beaufort under cover of darkness. One of the 
heavy guns was brought off, another stuck in the mud, and the others 
were rendered unlit for service. During the night Jourdan concentrated 
his forces behind a line of intrenchments at Morehead City, where he 
made preparations to resist an attack. All the roads leading to the 
places were barricaded, a line of rifle-pits was thrown up, artillery 
placed in position, etc. During the 3d his cavalry reconnoitered the 
country in front of his works and reported the enemy in force at the 
railroad crossing, 6 miles from Morehead. But no attack was made, 
either because Jourdan's position was deemed too strong to assault, or 
Pickett's failure to carry the works at New Berne led Martin to regard 
it as inexpedient. On the 4th he withdrew and the next day Jourdan 
reoccupied his old positions and reestablished his lines. 

The Union losses in all the operations about New Berne were 13 
killed, 26 wounded and 364 captured or missing. The enemy's casualties 
were not ascertained. Pickett reported "about 45 killed and wounded," 
and promised a more detailed report, but if he ever made one it does 
not appear in the official records of the war. 

New Bridge, Va., May 24, 1862. (See Mechanicsville, same date.) 

New Bridge, Va., June 5, 1862. Battery B, ist Mar>-land Light Ar- 
tillery. This affair was an artillery duel between a Federal force com- 
manded by Capt. Alonzo Snow and four batteries of the enemy, posted 
on the opposite side of the Chickahominy river. After expending 630 
rounds of case shot and shell Snow succeeded in silencing the Confed- 
erate guns. The Union loss was 2 v/ounded, while that of the enemy 
was not reported. 

New Bridge, Va., June 20, 1862. ist New York and 5th U. S. Ar- 
tillery. While Gen. McClellan's army was lying in front of Richmond 
the several camps were annoyed by shells thrown by the enemy. On 
the 20th 3 horses and i man belonging to Battery B, ist N. Y.. were 
killed. Capt. Weed, commanding Battery I, 5th U. S. artillery, placed 
2 guns near New Bridge and replied to the enemy's fire, killing 2 men 
and wounding 4. After 8 rounds had been fired the Confederate guns 
were silenced. Later they commenced again from an enfilading position, 
but their shells went wild and no damage was done. 

Newburg, Ind., July 18, 1862. On this date some of Morgan's raid- 
ers, commanded by Adam R. Johnson, captured Henderson, Ky., and 
some of the guerrillas crossed the Ohio river to Newburg, Ind., where 
they captured a hospital with about 80 wounded and convalescent soldiers. 
The inmates of the hospital were armed and wanted to fight, but the 
surgeon in charge ordered them to lay down their arms. The surgeon 
was arrested by the state authorities. Two citizens of Indiana, who 



Cyclopedia of Battles 641 

brought the Confederates across the river, were killed by citizens of 
Newburg after Johnson's men had left. 

Newby's Cross-Roads, Va., Nov. 9, 1862. Cavalry Division, Army 
of tlie Potomac. During the operations of the cavalry under Brig.-Gen. 
Alfred Pleasonton in Loudoun county, Va., the enemy attacked at 
Newby's cross-roads. The affair resulted in the repulse of the Confed- 
erates. No losses were reported. 

Newby's Cross Roads, Va., July 24, 1863. (See Battle Mountain.) 

Nevir Carthage, La., April 5. 1863. Detachment of 3d Illinois Cav- 
alry. In an effort to secure a flat-boat to cross Bayou Vidal so as to 
get to New Carthage, Brig.-Gen. P. J. Osterhaus sent Capt. Carnahan 
and 20 men of the 3d 111. down the bayou. The boat was secured and 
the party had started back to the main body when the Confederates 
opened fire from the bank. After a few minutes of fighting the enemy 
was driven back, having lost i killed and i badly wounded. The Illinois 
men suffered no losses. 

New Creek, W. Va., June 19. 1861. At 5 a. m. Confederates under 
Col. John C. Vaughn attacked the Federals guarding the bridge across 
the Potomac river. The Union troops withdrew in confusion, firing 
only a few scattering shots. The only mention of the affair is that 
made by Vaughn, so there is no way of ascertaining what Federal troops 
participated. The Confederates had i man wounded. 

New Creek, W. Va., Aug. 4, 1864. U. S. Troops of the Department 
of West Virginia. The garrison of New Creek, under Col. Robert 
Stevenson, and consisting of the iS4th Ohio National Guard, detach- 
ments of the 6th W. Va. infantry, 2nd Md. Potomac Home brigade, ist 
111. light artillery and Battery H, ist W. Va. light artillery, was attacked 
by a large Confederate force under Gens. McCausland and Bradley T. 
Johnson. The fort was subjected to a heavy artillery and musketry fire 
for several hours, but after the arrival of a detachment of the nth W. Va. 
infantry as a reinforcement, the Confederates were driven back. Steven- 
son's command suffered a loss of 8 killed and 29 wounded or missing. 
The Confederate loss was not reported, but was fully as heavy. 

New Creek, W. Va., Nov. 28, 1864. Detachments of 5th and 6th 
West Virginia Cavalry, Battery L, ist Illinois and Battery H, ist 
West Virginia Artillery. About 11:30 a. m. of the 28th the garrison 
of Fort Kelly at New Creek was surprised by about 2,000 Confeder- 
ates under Rosser. The surprise was so complete that no organized 
resistance was made, only a few scattering shots being fired by the 
stampeded troops. Rosser captured 7 pieces of artillery and some 
443 prisoners. 100 of whom later escaped. The Federals also had 4 
men wounded. The enemy's loss, if any, was not reported. 

New Haven, Ky., Aug. 2. 1864. Detachment of 40th Kentucky 
Mounted Infantry. Capt. J. B. Nipp, with Co. C of the 40th Ky., 
came upon a few Confederates while on a scout in the vicinity of 
New Haven. Seven of the enemy were captured, 2 of whom were 
later shot while attempting to escape. 

New Hope, Ky., July 11, 1862. 33d Ohio Infantry. 

New Hope Church, Ga., May 25-26, 1864. (See Dallas.) 

New Hope Church, Va., Nov. 2-j, 1863. (See Mine Run, Va., Nov. 
26-Dec. 2. 1863.) 

New Hope Station. Ky., July 2,:;, 1863. Detachment of 12th Ohio 
Cavalry. Brig.-Gen. Edward H. Hobson sent the following despatch 
from Lebanon on the 25th: "Capt. Dubois, 12th Ohio cavalry, with 
detachment from his company, attacked rebels near New Hope Sta- 
tion. Killed rebel Capt. Alexander, wounded several, and scattered 
the band in every direction. Had i man wounded." 

New Iberia, La., Oct. 4, 1863. The only official mention of an 

Vol. VI— 11 



642 The Union Army 

action at New Iberia on this date is the report of Confederate Geru 
Mouton, who says: "I have the honor to report the enemy at New 
Iberia. We left the town at sundown. Col. Vincent ambuscaded 
them at Nelson's bridge, and their advance driven in, leaving the 
road full of dead and wounded." 

New Kent Court House, Va., May 9, 1862. (See Slatersville.) 

New Kent Court House, Va., Aug. 28, 1863. (See Slatersville, 
same date.) 

New Lisbon, Ohio, July 26, 1863. 9th Kentucky Cavalry and Ohio 
Home Guards. It was near New Lisbon that Brig.-Gen. John H. Morgan, 
with the remnant of his command, surrendered to Maj. Rue with a force 
of home guards and cavalry. It marked the end of his Ohio raid. (See 
Salineville.) 

New London, Va., June 16, 1864. 2nd Cavalry Division, Army of 
West Virginia. Brig.-Gen. William W. Averell, commanding the 2nd 
division, in his report of the operations of the division in the Lynch- 
burg campaign, states: "Attacked McCausland at New London about 
dark. He had been reinforced by Imboden with 400 men and 2 guns, 
but relinquished his position after a short action, in which he lost 
about a dozen men. 

New Madrid, Mo., Feb. 28 to April 8, 1862. Army of the Missis- 
sippi and Foote's Fleet of Gunboats. Immediately upon the fall of 
Fort Donelson Confederate Gen. Polk was ordered to evacuate Co- 
lumbus and fall back down the river to the works on Island No. 10 
and at New Madrid, Mo., the former 25 and the latter 35 miles below 
Columbus. This move was part of the plan to retreat down the river 
step by step, thus preventing Foote from joining Farragut's fleet at 
the mouth of the Mississippi. Earthworks mounting 70 heavy guns 
had been constructed on the island, and at New Madrid two forts 
had been erected. The one about half a mile below the town was a 
bastioned earthwork, with 14 heavy siege guns, and the other, at the 
upper end of the town, was an irregular intrenchment, sheltering a 
battery of 7 guns of various caliber. About the middle of February 
Brig.-Gen. John Pope was summoned to St. Louis and directed to 
organize and take comand of a force to cooperate with Commodore 
Foote's fleet in the reduction of these fortifications. Pope went to 
work and in a few days had the Army of the Mississippi ready to 
move against the enemy. This army was made up as follows: In- 
fantry, — 1st division, Brig.-Gen. David S. Stanley, consisted of the 
brigades of Cols. John Groesbeck and J. L. Kirby Smith; 2nd divi- 
sion, Brig.-Gen. Schuyler Hamilton, included the brigades of Col. 
W. H. Worthington and Col. Nicholas Perczel; 3d division, Brig.- 
Gen. John M. Palmer, included the brigades of Col. James R. Slack 
and Col. G. N. Fitch; 4th division, Brig.-Gen. E. A. Paine, consisted 
of the brigades of Cols. James D. Morgan and G. W. Gumming; 5th 
division, Brig.-Gen. J. B. Plummer, included the brigades of Cols. 
John Bryner and J. M. Loomis. Cavalry, — one division, commanded 
by Col. Gordon Granger. Artillery, — seven batteries under com- 
mand of Maj. W. L. Lothrop. The infantry brigades consisted of 
two regiments each, and the cavalry division of three regiments. 
There were also some organizations that were not assigned to any 
particular command. Notable among these were the 64th 111. sharp- 
shooters and the engineer regiment of the West. In addition to 
these land forces there were the flotilla brigade, commanded by Col. 
N. B. Buford; the gunboats Benton (flag-ship), St. Louis, Cincin- 
nati, Pittsburg, Mound City and Carondelet, under command of Com- 
modore A. H. Foote, and 11 mortar-boats in charge of Capt. H. E. 
Maynadier. The Confederate forces, commanded by Maj. -Gen. John 



Cyclopedia of Battles 643 

P. McCown, consisted of twelve regiments and three battalions of 
infantry, four companies of cavalry; eight companies of heavy artil- 
lery; two light batteries; the engineer corps, and a company of sap- 
pers and miners. The Confederate gunboats, commanded by Flag- 
Officer G. N. Hollins, were the McRae (flagship). Livingston, Polk, 
Pontchartrain, Maurepas, Jackson and New Orleans. 

Pope selected Commerce, 30 miles up the Mississippi from Cairo, 
as a base of operations. Here his command was assembled and or- 
ganized, and on the last day of February the army took up its march 
against New Madrid, which was to be first attacked, as possession of 
this point would give the Union forces control of the river below 
Island No. 10, thus cutting the principal line of supplies for the 
island garrison. On March i Jeflf. Thompson's body of Confederates 
were driven out of Sikeston, and two days later Pope appeared before 
New Madrid. Hamilton, whose division was in advance, deployed 
the 27th and 39th Ohio as skirmishers, drove the enemy's pickets 
back into the works and occupied the town. Hollins came up with the 
gunboats and participated in the action, the water in the river being 
high enough to bring his guns above the bank. This condition of 
affairs showed the necessity of having siege-guns to repel the fleet 
after the intrenchments might be carried by assault, which Hamilton's 
reconnaissance had shown to be feasible. The army therefore re- 
tired about 2 miles from the town and went into camp to wait until 
the heavy guns could be brought down from Cairo. While waiting 
Pope sent Plummer, with three regiments of infantry, three com- 
panies of cavalry, and a battery of lo-pounder rifled and Parrott 
guns, to Point Pleasant, 12 miles below, under instructions to estab- 
lish his artillery in such a position as to cover any steamboat that 
might try to ascend the river, and to line the banks with rifle-pits for 
1,000 men. Plummer moved on the 5th and the morning of the 7th 
found his guns in position, well protected by works thrown up 
during the night. The gunboats shelled him for some time without 
effect, and Plummer held to his position during the entire siege. On 
the I2th the siege-guns arrived and during the night were placed in 
battery within 800 yards of the main Confederate work. At day- 
light the next morning fire was opened on the fort. The enemy's 
batteries and gunboats answered promptly and the cannonading 
lasted all day by the enemy, but without producing any impression 
on the Federals, except the disabling of a 24-pound€r gun. A little 
while after daylight on the morning of the 14th a flag of truce ap- 
proached the Union lines, the bearer bringing the information that 
the enemy had evacuated his works during the night. Hamilton sent 
a detachment to ascertain the truth of this statement and to take 
possession if it turned out to be true. On every hand could be seen 
evidences of a hasty departure. Their dead were left unburied; food 
on the tables appeared to be untouched; private baggage of the 
officers was left behind, and neither provisions nor ammunition had 
been taken away. Tents for 10.000 men. a large number of horses and 
mules, 33 pieces of artillery, several thousand muskets and a large 
number of cartridges fell into the hands of the Federals. The fort 
was occupied in force, the guns being turned on the river. 

New Madrid had been captured more easily than had been antic- 
ipated, but there still remained a way for the garrison on Island No. 10 
to receive supplies from below. The river from Island No. 8 to Tipton- 
ville, Tenn., forms a letter S. Island No. 10 is in the southern bend and 
New Madrid on the northern. Although Tiptonville is 27 miles from 
the island by water it is only 5 miles by land. After the fall of New 
Madrid boats landed at Tiptonville, whence supplies were conveyed 



G44 The Union Army 

across the narrow neck of the peninsula. Just below Tiptonville the 
banks of the river on both sides become so marshy as to be impass- 
able for loaded wagons. By intercepting the navigation of the river 
at the lowest point of solid ground, Pope could cut ofT the resources 
of the garrison and also close the principal avenue of escape. He 
therefore extended his line down the river, his lowest battery being 
just below the little village of Riddles Point, which is nearly oppo- 
site Tiptonville. This battery was established on the night of the 
i6th and mounted two 24-pounder siege-guns and two lo-pounder 
Parrotts, supported by Palmer's division. Rifle-pits for 500 sharp- 
shooters were dug on the flanks of the battery and close to the 
river bank. The battery was discovered at daylight on the 17th and 
was immediately assailed by 5 of the enemy's gunboats, which ran 
up to within 300 yards and opened a fierce cannonade. The fight 
lasted for an hour and a half, in which time one gunboat was sunk, 
others badly damaged, and a number of men were picked of? by the 
sharpshooters. The Union loss was i man killed. That night Mc- 
Cown, with a considerable portion of the forces, left for Fort Pil- 
low, Gen. W. W. Mackall succeeding him in command. 

Pope was now in full possession of the right bank of the river, 
and the river itself, both above and below the island, but in order to 
effect the capture of the garrison it was necessary to cross the river. 
To cross above the island was useless, as the country there was 
under water, the only dry ground being the narrow neck on the 
south, between the enemy's works and Tiptonville. On the 17th 
Pope suggested to Foote that he run the batteries with his gun- 
boats and transfer the land forces to the Tennessee side. Foote re- 
plied that it was impracticable, as the vessels were armored only 
at the bows, and were consequently fitted for fighting up stream. 
Hamilton suggested a canal from near Island No. 8 to connect with 
Wilson's bayou, which entered the Mississippi just above New Mad- 
rid. Col. Bissell, of the engineer regiment, reported this plan feas- 
ible, and Pope sent to Cairo for the necessary tools and light draft 
steamers to convey his command across the river. The canal was 
about 12 miles long and for half its length ran through heavy timber, 
the trees having to be sawed off several feet under water. It was com- 
pleted on April 4, the water continuing at a high stage all the time it 
was under construction, and on the 5th 4 small steam.ers, bringing a 
number of barges for floating batteries, dropped down the bayou to 
New Madrid, but kept out of sight of the river until the floating bat- 
teries, or mortar boats, were ready. On the night of the 4th the 
Carondelet ran the batteries on the island, and the Pittsburg followed 
on the night of the 6th. That day the Carondelet made a reconnais- 
sance down the river, silenced the batteries opposite Point Pleasant, 
a small infantry force going ashore and spiking the guns. During 
this period of three weeks daily bombardments occurred at some 
point in the field of operations. As the enemy's gunboats passed 
Plummer's batteries at Point Pleasant shots were exchanged. On 
March 16 Foote engaged at long range the batteries on Island No. 
10 and the left bank of the river. The next day he advanced a little 
nearer and kept up the bombardment until the redan at the upper 
end of the island was practically destroyed. The cannonading was 
then continued from day to day, keeping the enemy busy in repair- 
ing damages and changing the position of his guns. 

Early on the morning of April 7, Capt. Williams' ist U. S. bat- 
tery and the 2 gunboats opened on the enemy's works at the proposed 
landing place and continued until noon, when the Confederate guns 
were silenced. Paine's division was then sent over and pushed with 



Cyclopedia of Battles 645 

all possible speed toward Tiptonville, word having been brought in 
by a spy that the enemy was retreating in that direction. Morgan's 
brigade occupied the town that evening, and during the night over 
300 prisoners were brought in by the pickets of this brigade. Stan- 
ley's and Hamilton's divisions followed Paine's, but were over- 
taken by darkness and bivouacked a few miles from Tiptonville. 
Col. Elliott, with the 2nd la. cavalry, was sent over soon after dark 
and at daylight on the 8th took possession of the enemy's encamp- 
ments on the mainland opposite the island, together with the de- 
serted stores, all the steamboats in good condition, 6 in number, and 
about 200 prisoners Before Elliott accomplished this the force left 
on the island, 385 officers and men, was surrendered to Foote. 
When Alackall found that Morgan was in the way at Tiptonville, 
and that the island was in possession of the Federals, he surrendered 
at discretion. Pope says in his report: "Three generals, 273 held 
and company officers, 6.700 privates, 123 pieces of heavy artillery, 
35 pieces of field artillery (all of the very best character and latest 
patterns), 7,000 stands of small arms, tents for 12,000 men, several 
wharf-boat loads of provisions, an immense quantity of ammunition 
of all kinds, many hundred horses and mules, with wagons and har- 
ness, etc., are among the spoils." For a movement of such magni- 
tude the losses in killed and wounded were very slight. On the 
Union side, including the two killed and 13 wounded by the bursting 
of a gun on the St. Louis, the total was 17 killed, 34 wounded and 3 
missing. The Confederate loss was estimated at about 30. 

New Madrid, Mo., Aug. 7, 1863. One company of the 24th Mis- 
souri Infantry. 

New Madrid Bend, Tenn., Oct. 22, 1863. 32nd Iowa Infantry. 

New Market, Ala., Aug. 5, 1862. 3d Brigade, Army of the Ohio. 
A portion of the brigade — the 9th and 35th Ohio, and 2nd Minn. — ■ 
was on the march from Athens, Ala., to Winchester, Tenn. Brig.- 
Gen. R. L. McCook, who was in command, was sick and riding in 
an open carriage, accompanied by eleven members of his staff and 
escort, some distance in advance of the main column. When near 
New Market this advance party was fired upon by a party of guer- 
rillas, estimated at from 100 to 200 men. The driver turned his 
horses as soon as possible, but before he could reach the main body 
one of the guerrillas rode alongside the carriage and fired two shots 
at the general. One ball passed through his hat and the other in- 
flicted a mortal wound in the abdomen which produced his death 
some 24 hours afterward. When the troops heard of the dastardly 
murder of their commander they spread themselves over the countr}% 
burned several houses, and shot a Confederate lieutenant who was 
home on furlough before discipline could be restored. 

New Market, Ala., Oct. 12, 1863. ist Cavalry Division, Army of 
the Cumberland. During the pursuit of the Confederates under 
Wheeler and Roddey while they were attempting to cut the line of 
Rosecrans' communication, Brig.-Gen. Robert B. Mitchell's cavalry 
met Roddey about dark near Buckhorn tavern on the road between 
Huntsville and New Market. The fighting, which was done in a 
heavy rainstorm, was desperate for a time and continued until the 
enemy turned and retreated toward New Market. No casualties were 
reported. 

New Market, Ala., Nov. 17, 1864. Detachments of the 12th Indiana 
and 4th ^Tichigan Cavalry. The detachments, commanded by Col. 
J. W. Hall, broke camp near Maysville and started in pursuit of the 
Confederates under Russell, Johnson and Mead. Two miles from 
Maysville the advance met the enemy's pickets to the main body. 



646 The Union Army 

some 500 strong, which was found drawn up in line of battle. In 
a short but sharp skirmish the enemy's lines were broken and he was 
driven from the field, the Union troops pursuing to near New Mar- 
ket. The Confederates were known to have lost 9 killed and 3 
wounded, wliile the Federal loss was nothing. 

New Market, Ky., Feb. 8, 1865. (See Bradfordsville, same date) 

New Market, Va., June 15, 1862. Detachment of the 3d Division, 
4th Army Corps. A reconnaissance sent out by Gen. Casey, com- 
manding the division, encountered a Confederate picket near New 
Market and a slight skirmish ensued, which resulted in the enemy 
being driven from his position. One prisoner, i horse and some 
small arms were captured. 

New Market, Va., May 15, 1864. Portion of the Army of West 
Virginia. The effective force under Maj.-Gen. Franz Sigel at New 
Market was 5,500 men, comprising the ist infantry division under 
Brig.-Gen. Jeremiah C. Sullivan, whose two brigade commanders 
were Cols. Augustus Moor and Joseph Thoburn; the ist cavalry 
division under Maj.-Gen. Julius Stahel, the two brigades of which 
were commanded respectfully by Col. William B. Tibbits and Col. 
John E. Wynkoop; 5 batteries, — Battery B. Md. light artillery, 30th 
battery, N. Y. light artillery. Batteries D and G, ist W. Va. light 
artillery and Battery B, 5th U. S. artillery. About 9 a. m. the Con- 
federates under Breckenridge and Imboden moved on the Federal 
position. Sigel deployed his forces to meet the attack, but at il 
a. m. was compelled to fall back some 800 yards and form a new 
line. Some confusion attended this movement, owing to the mud and 
heavy rain. About 4 p. m. a general retrograde movement of 
the Union command was commenced, and that night the Rappa- 
hannock river was crossed. Sigel estimated the Confederate force at 
between 8,000 and 9,000 men. The Federal loss of the day was about 
600 killed and wounded, and 50 taken prisoners. The enemy's loss in 
killed and wounded was fully as heavy. 

New Market, Va., Sept. 24, 1864. 2nd Brigade, ist Cavalry Divi- 
sion. Army of the Shenandoah. On the forenoon of this date the 
Confederate forces under Early were driven from Rude's hill and 
Devin's cavalry brigade pressed forward in pursuit, overtaking the 
rear-guard at New Market. Taylor's battery was run to a ridge in 
front and opened with shell and case-shot, and the ist N. Y. was 
thrown forward as skirmishers, closely supported by the rest of the 
brigade. The enemy replied with a battery from a hill to the right, 
but Devin charged and drove through the town the force in his front, 
when he was subjected to a heavy infantry fire from the houses and 
garden walls and forced back. He then dismounted part of his 
command and drove the Confederates from their cover, after which 
he again took up the pursuit for some 6 miles until it became too 
dark to act with certainty, when he went into camp. 

New Market Bridge, Va., Nov. 11, 1861. Brig.-Gen. John B. 
Magruder of tlie Confededate army, reporting under date of Nov. 
18, 1861, from near Fort Monroe, states that on the nth a Confed- 
erate scouting party "was fired on by the enemy, and one of our 
men was wounded slightly. The fire was returned and after the 
third discharge from our artillery, the enemy, whose force proved 
to be a regiment, fled. I have reliable information that several of 
them were killed or wounded." The Federal reports make no mention 
of the aflFair. 

New Market Bridge, Va., Dec. 22, 1861. 20th New York Infantry. 
Nothing definite can be gleaned from the official records of the war 
regarding this action, further than that it was at the New Market 
Bridge, near Newport News. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 647 

New Market Cross Roads, Va., June 30, 1862. The battle of New 

Market Cross-roads is known by several otlier names and was one of 
the engaj^'ements cjf tlie Seven Days' Battles, (q. v.) 

New Market Heights, Va., Sept. 29-30, 1864. (See Fort Harrison.) 

New Market Road, Va., Oct. 7, 1864. (See Darbytown Road, same 
date.) 

Newnan, Ga., July 30, 1864. (See McCook's Raid.) 

New Orleans, La., (Capture of) April 18-28, 1862. (See Naval 
Volume.) 

Newport Barracks, N. C, Feb. 2, 1864. (See New Berne, same 
date.) 

Newport Bridge, Fla., March 5-6, 1865. Detachment of 2nd Florida 
Cavalry (Union). As an incident of the operations about St. Mark's, 
Fla., the command of Maj. Edmund C. Weeks arrived at the Newport 
bridge at 11 a. m. to find the structure on fire and the enemy posted 
behind intrcnchments on the opposite side of the stream. A charge 
was unavailing and the Federal artillery was brought to bear, but 
Weeks finally withdrew to the town of Newport, leaving a small 
detachment as a guard, which skirmished with the Confederates prac- 
tically all night and during the morning of the 6th. No casualties 
were reported. 

Newport Cross-Roads, La., June 17, 1864. Col. John S. Scott 
of the 1st La. cavalry (Confederate) in his report of June 19 states: 
"On my march the next day down the Baton Rouge road, at Mrs. 
Newport's cross-roads, within 7 miles of Port Hudson, a force of 
infantry and cavalry from that place was most handsomely repulsed 
by Maj. Ogden." This is the only official mention of the affair. 

Newport News, Va., July 5, 1861. While a party of Federal cav- 
alry was engaged in foraging in the vicinity of Newport News an 
attempt was made by Lieut. -Col. Charles D. Dreux, with a detach- 
ment of Confederate soldiers, to draw the Union troops into an am- 
bush. Although the foragers were dispersed it was with consider- 
able loss to the enemy, 2 men being killed, one of whom was Dreux, 
and their team ran away with the howitzer, which finally fell into 
the hands of the Federals. 

Newport News, Va., July 12, 1861. Detachment of 7th New 
York Infantry. Twenty-two men of Co. E, under Lieuts. Oscar von 
Heringen and Fred Mosebach, while on an expedition from the Fed- 
eral camp for the purpose of obtaining wood, were surprised and 
captured by 80 Confederate cavalry. Little resistance was oflrered, 
but while the fight lasted 2 Union men were killed. The enemy suf- 
fered no casualties. 

New Providence, Tenn., Sept. 6, 1862. (See Clarksville, same 
date.) 

Newtonia, Mo., Sept. 13, 1862. 3d and 6th Missouri Militia Cav- 
alry. 

Newtonia, Mo., Sept. 30, 1862. Detachment of the Army of Kan- 
sas. On the 29th Brig.-Gen. Frederick Salomon sent scouting par- 
ties to Newtonia, Granby and Neosho. The detachment sent to 
Newtonia encountered the enemy in the afternoon and reinforce- 
ments were sent. Early next morning it became apparent from the 
heavy cannonading that the force at Newtonia was heavily engaged 
and Salomon despatched the 6th Kas. cavalry and the 3d Indian 
home guard to the place at a trot, following with the artillery and 
infantry, \yhen he arrived he found the troops already there dis- 
posed in line of battle and the reinforcements were added to 
strengthen the line. From that time until dark the Confederates were 
kept in check by the artillery, when Salomon withdrew, the brigade 



648 The Union Army 

of Missouri militia, which he had been expecting to reinforce him, 
not having arrived. On its coming up later it was used to cover 
Salomon's retreat. The Federal loss was comparatively light, while 
the enemy suffered casualties to the extent of 12 killed, 63 wounded 
and 3 captured or missing. 

Newtonia, Mo., Oct. 28, 1864. Army of the Border. Maj.-Gen. 
James G. Blunt with his division had the advance of the Army of 
the Border in its pursuit of Price's army through Missouri. At 
Newtonia the Confederates had encamped near the Pineville road, 
but upon the appearance of the Federals on the hills to the north- 
west of the town they immediately began to move off, leaving some 
2,000 men to cover the movement. Although Blunt had only two 
brigades with him he immediately attacked, deploying his men under 
cover of an artillery fire. By the fierceness of his attack he un- 
covered the whole of the enemy, and soon learned that he had en- 
gaged Price's whole army, which was four times as large as his own. 
Price pressed the Union flanks until they were compelled to fall 
back about 500 yards. A further withdrawal was about to be ordered 
when the division of Maj.-Gen. John B. Sanborn appeared, took posi- 
tion on Blunt's left, charged the Confederate right, compelling it to 
fall back and at dark to abandon the field. The casualties for this 
single engagement were not reported. 

Newtown, Va., May 24, 1862. Portion of the forces of the De- 
partment of the Shenandoah. During the operations in the Shen- 
andoah valley while the Confederates were advancing, they were 
met near Newtown and a heavy fire opened on their column. The 
Federals then withdrew to a hill to the north of the town, whence an 
artillery fire was kept up for some time. The casualties were not 
reported, but were not very heavy. 

Newtown, Va., Nov. 12, 1864. ist Brigade, ist Division, 19th 
Army Corps. The brigade made a reconnaissance to Newtown, 
where a small detachment of the enemy was stationed. This force 
was driven out, with a loss to the Union brigade of 2 men slightly 
wounded. The enemy's loss was not reported. 

New Ulm, Minn., Aug. 21-23, 1862. Minnesota Troops under 
Gen. H. H. Sibley and Citizens. This was one of the points attacked 
by the Indians of the Sioux nation in their outbreak in 1862. The 
first attack was made on the 21st and on the 23d a more desperate 
and determined assault was repulsed by the citizens under Judge 
Flandrau. On the 24th troops under Gen. Sibley drove the Indians 
off and relieved the besieged garrison. 

Nickajack Creek, Ga., July 3-5, 1864. 14th Army Corps. As the 
Union forces pursued the Confederates in their retreat from Ken- 
nesaw mountain the 14th corps passed through Marietta and on the 
evening of the 3d went into bivouac on Nickajack creek, within 
sight of the enemy's works on the south side of the creek. Early the 
next morning the two batteries of Davis' division opened on the 
enemy and a heavy skirmish line was pushed through the swamp 
and across the creek. Shortly after noon Morgan's brigade crossed 
and after a short skirmish drove the Confederates into their trenches. 
The brigade bivouacked close to the enemy's works and at daylight 
on the 5th discovered that the Confederates had retreated during the 
night in the direction of the Chattahoochee river. The whole corps 
then crossed the Nickajack and the pursuit was continued, the 34th 
111., which was in advance, skirmishing with the enemy's rear-guard 
almost to the Chattahoochee. No casualties reported. 

Nickajack Gap, Ga., March 9, 1864. 8th Indiana Cavalry. Brig.- 
Gen. Absalom Baird reporting from Ringgold, Ga., under date of 



Cyclopedia of Battles 649 

March 9, says: "Col. Thomas J. Harrison skirmished an hour with 
a large force of rebels near Nickajack, and then fell back here; has 
pickets out 4 miles." This is the only mention of the aflfair. 

Nickajack Gap, Ga., May 7, 1864. 3d Cavalry Division, Army 
of the Cumberland. In the advance on Tunnel Hill the division, under 
command of Brig.-Gen. Kilpatrick, moved through Taylor's ridge 
at Nickajack gap, drove back the Confederate cavalry there and 
then spent the day in covering the movements of the 20th army 
corps. No casualties reported. 

Nickajack Trace, Ga., April 23, 1864. Detachment of 92nd Illinois 
Mounted Infantry. Sixty-four men of Co. K, doing picket duty about 
5 miles from Ringgold, were attacked by a regiment of Confederate 
infantry from the north, another from the east, and two regiments 
of cavalry from the south. Rather than surrender the men attempted 
to fight their way out, but 5 were killed, 7 wounded, and 20 reported 
as captured or missing. The others reached camp in a disorganized 
condition. 

Niobrara, Neb., Dec. 4, 1863. Detachment of 7th Iowa Cavalry. 
Because a party of Ponca Indians had made a demonstration upon 2 
white citizens of Niobrara a party of soldiers under a sergeant left 
the town to punish the red men. Upon overtaking the Indians the 
troops opened fire, and wlien the former fled the soldiers followed 
until 7 Indians had been killed. 

Nineveh, Va., Nov. 12, 1864. (See Cedar Creek, same date.) 

Noland's Ferry, Md., July 5, 1864. (See Point of Rocks, same 
date.) 

Nolensville, Tenn., Dec. 26, 1862. ist Division. Right Wing, 
Army of the Cumberland. As the Army of the Cumberland was ad- 
vancing on Murfreesboro Davis' division encountered the enemy's 
pickets near Nolensville and soon afterward saw a force of cavalry 
forming on the hills southwest of the town, as if to flank the Union 
troops. Pinney's battery was ordered forward to dislodge the cav- 
alry, a few shells being suflicient for that purpose, while Carlin's 
brigade engaged some dismounted cavalry and drove them back 
through the town. Two miles beyond Nolensville, where the pike 
ran through Knob gap, the enemy took up a strong position on the 
heights commanding the road and opened on the Federal advance with 
artillery. Pinney's and Hotchkiss' batteries were brought up to re- 
ply to this fire, and Davis ordered Carlin to charge the battery. 
The charge was successfully made, Carlin carrying the heights and 
capturing 2 of the guns. At the same time Post's brigade carried the 
hills on the left of the road. Woodruff's brigade drove back the 
enemy on the right, and the division moved on toward Murfreesboro. 
The casualties in these engagements are included in the official re- 
ports of the battle of Stone's river, (q. v.) 

Nolensville, Tenn., Feb. 15, 1863. Detachment of 3d Division, 
14th Army Corps. A forage train of 10 wagons, with an escort of 
two companies of infantry, was attacked by 150 Confederate cavalry 
about a mile and a half from Nolensville. The Federal troops took 
refuge in some outbuildings and repulsed the attack, wounding 5 
men, (of whom 3 were captured) taking 3 horses, 7 saddles and 3 
guns. 

Nonconnah Creek, Tenn., April 4, 1863. 2nd Wisconsin Cavalry. 
The pickets of the 2nd Wis. near Memphis were struck about day- 
light, 2 of them wounded and 2 captured. Col. Thomas Stephens 
with about 100 men pursued, crossing the Nonconnah and driving a 
Confederate picket a distance of 6 miles to where the enemy was 
found some 600 or 800 strong. Stephens returned and Lauman's 
brigade was ordered out, but failed to come up with the enemy. 



650 The Union Army 

Nonconnah Creek, Tenn., Oct. 29, 1864. Detachment of 7th In- 
diana Cavalry. Twenty-four men of this regiment under Capt. 
Joseph W. Skelton while scouting in the vicinity of Nonconnah 
creek were fired into from the brush on their right flank. At the 
same time the advance guard, which had crossed to the other side 
of the creek, was cut off from the main body. Skelton ordered a 
charge, but the move on horseback was an impossibility and to 
dismount meant capture, so the command retreated up a high em- 
bankment on the left and halted. Part of the horses were unable to 
make the distance and their riders were obliged to dash back through 
the dismounted enemy. Skelton had i man mortally and i severely 
wounded, and 10 captured or missing. 

Noonday Creek, Ga., June 7-18, 1864. Army of the Tennessee. In 
forming his lines about Kennesaw and Lost mountains Gen. John- 
ston extended his right on the 7th across the Marietta and Acworth 
road along the south bank of Noonday creek at the base of Brush 
mountain. Here Hood's corps intrenched itself and from the 7th to 
the i8th there was almost constant skirmishing, the Union troops 
advancing under successive lines of intrenchments, until on the night 
of the i8th Hood was withdrawn. The losses during this time were 
trifling on both sides. 

Noonday Creek, Ga., June 20, 1864. Detachment of 2nd Cavalry 
Division, Army of the Cumberland. Just as Brig.-Gen. Robert H. G. 
Minty was moving across Noonday creek near Latimar's mill to 
camp for the night, he learned that the 7th Pa. cavalry under Maj. 
William H. Jennings had been attacked from the north. Minty 
went to Jennings' relief and found him being slowly driven. He 
ordered Newlin's battalion to charge, which routed the enemy and 
drove him back a quarter of a mile to where Williams' (Confederate) 
brigade was stationed. Williams charged, but was repulsed by a 
countercharge of the 4th Mich. Three times two of the Confederate 
regiments charged, but each time were driven off. when a fresh de- 
tachment of the enemy appeared on the Federal right and Minty was 
obliged to fall back until reinforcements should come up. The 
Union line was in the shape of a horseshoe with the bridge across 
the creek directly in the rear. Upon the arrival of reinforcements 
Minty placed them in position, but before they could be fully dis- 
posed, the enemy charged both flanks. The Union left was easily 
driven back, but when the Confederates came within range of the 
artillery they were checked. The right flank repulsed the attack. 
When darkness came on the enemy retired and left Minty in posses- 
sion of the field. The Federal loss in this engagement was 13 killed, 
38 wounded and 16 captured or missing. The Confederate casualties 
were not reported, but were undoubtedly heavier. 

Norfolk, Mo., Sept. 10, 1861. U. S. Gunboats, and Detail of Cav- 
alry under Capt. Orlando Burrell. Two different reports of Brig.- 
Gen. John A. McClernand state that during a reconnaissance toward 
Norfolk, in which Federal gunboats assisted, an encounter between 
the vessels of the contending forces occurred, the Union fleet being 
successful. Later a squad of 15 cavalry under Capt. Burrell were 
intercepted by 100 Confederate cavalry. In a running fight Burrell 
had 2 men wounded and 3 were lost in the woods, while i of the 
enemy was killed. 

Norfolk, Mo,, Sept. 27, 1861. Detachment of 22nd Illinois In- 
fantry. A force sent out from Norfolk, to sustain some Federal 
cavalry out on a scout, met 400 Confederates at the Beckwith farm, 5 
miles from Norfolk. The enemy fled at the first fire. No casualties 
were mentioned. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 651 

Norristown, Ark., May 19, 1S64. Brig.-Gen. Joseph O. Shelby, 
of the Confederate army, reporting his operations north of the Ar- 
kansas river, states that on the morning after he had occupied Nor- 
ristown his pickets were fired into by Union troops, but upon rein- 
forcements being sent out the Federals retired. No casualties were 
mentioned. 

North Anna River, Va., July 23, 1862. (See Carmel Church.) 

North Anna River, Va., May 23-27, 1864. Army of the Potomac. 
The operations along the North Anna river on these dates constituted 
what is known as the Third epoch of the campaign from the Rapidan 
to the James. (For the organization of the Army of the Potomac at the 
beginning of that campaign see Wilderness.) On May 24, the 9th corps, 
commanded by Maj.-Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside and composed of the 
divisions of Stevenson, Potter, Willcox and Ferrero, joined the Army of 
the Potomac, which was under command of Maj.-Gen. George G. Meade, 
who was accompanied on the campaign by Lieut. -Gen. U. S. Grant. The 
6th corps, which had been commanded by Maj.-Gen. John Sedgwick until 
he was killed at the battle of Spottsylvania Court House, was now under 
command of Maj.-Gen. Horatio G. Wright. 

On the night of May 22 Grant directed Meade to move his arm}'- 
south from Mount Carmel Church at 5 o'clock the next morning, 
and to follow across the North Anna river should it be found that 
the Confederates had crossed. The 2nd corps was to move on the 
Telegraph road to the Chesterfield ford, near where the Fredericks- 
burg & Richmond railroad crossed the river; the 9t;h corps to Jeri- 
cho bridge, or mills, and the 5th corps, with the 6th in reserve, to a 
point west of Jericho mills. The distance between Jericho mills and 
the Chesterfield ford is about 4 miles. Before the orders were exe- 
cuted they were changed, making the destination of the 9th corps the 
Ox ford, about a mile above the Telegraph road bridge at Chester- 
field ford, while the 5th and 6th corps, the former in advance, 
moved toward Jericho mills. At i p. m. Warren had reached the 
mills. No enemy was to be seen on the opposite bank and Bartlett's 
brigade of Grifhn's division was pushed over to secure the crossing. 
By the time the entire division had waded across at the ford the 
bridge train came up and the remainder of the corps crossed on the 
pontoon bridge. Line of battle was formed half a mile beyond the 
river in a strip of timber. At 6 p. m. the Confederates assaulted 
Cutler, who had succeeded to the command of Wadsworth's divi- 
sion after the latter's death in the Wilderness. He was the last of 
the division commanders to cross the river and had not wholly formed 
his line when the enemy attacked. The division fell back in some 
confusion, the Confederates following until they were checked by 
Griffin's artillery and compelled to withdraw to the Virginia Central 
railroad, about a mile and a half south, when Warren intrenched his 
position. The 6th corps was hastened from Mount Carmel church 
at the beginning of the action, but the fighting had about ended when 
it arrived on the north bank of the river at Jericho mills and it was 
not crossed until the next morning. In the meantime Hancock 
formed his corps along the heights a mile north of the river, h's left 
(Gibbon) resting on the Fredericksburg & Richmond railroad and 
his right (Birney) on the Telegraph road. Barlow occupying the 
center. The Confederates were intrenched on a hill on the north 
bank of the river to guard the approach to the Telegraph road 
bridge. Birney was of the opinion that he could capture the posi- 
tion and was ordered to attempt it. Egan's and Pierce's brigades, 
in a brilliant charge up the slope under cover of the 2nd corps artil- 
lery fire, successfully accomplished the movement, driving the 



653 The Union Army 

enemy across the river, though the two brigades lost some 150 men. 
The Confederates still held the south end of the bridge and during 
the night made several attempts to burn it, but each time were 
driven back. Burnside proceeded to Ox ford, but found the enemy 
so strongly intrenched on the south bank he deemed it unwise to 
attempt a crossing. On the morning of the 24th it was found that 
the enemy in Hancock's front had abandoned his advanced works 
on the south side of the river, when the 2nd corps was at once 
crossed and took possession of them. Some reconnoitering was 
done during the day and it was discovered that the Confederate posi- 
tion was strongly intrenched in the shape of a V, the vertex resting 
on the river near Ox ford, one side opposite Hancock's corps, while 
the other faced the 5th and 6th corps to the west. About 6 p. m. Gib- 
bon's division, occupying Hancock's extreme left, became briskly 
engaged and though its outposts were hard pressed no material 
advantage was gained by the enemy. The same day Burnside was 
ordered to seize Ox ford, but finding that it was impossible to make 
a direct attack as tlie salient of the V was directly opposite, he sent 
Crittenden's division (formerly Stevenson's) a mile and a half up the 
river, where it crossed at Quarles' mill. On the south side of the 
stream Crittenden formed a junction with Crawford's division of 
Warren's corps and advanced toward the Confederate position at 
Ox ford with a view of driving the enemy out so that Willcox's 
division could cross, but the enemy was too strongly intrenched. 
On the 25th the 5th and 6th corps with Crittenden's division of the 
pth were thrown forward to within 600 or 800 yards of the Confed- 
erate line which was found to be well intrenched and traversed to 
protect it from the enfilading fire of the 9th corps artillery on the 
north bank of the river. The line extended from Ox ford on the 
North Anna to Anderson's mill on the Little river, a distance of a 
mile and a half. The rest of the 25th and 26th were spent by the Federals 
in tearing up portions of the Fredericksburg & Richmond and Vir- 
ginia Central railroads and on the 26th Wilson's cavalry division 
was sent from the Federal right to demonstrate on the enemy's 
position. This led Lee to think that the Army of the Potomac was 
to be moved by the right flank. At nightfall of the 26th that part 
of the Federal army on the south side of the North Anna was 
started on a northward movement across that stream and by noon 
of the 27th the whole of the Army of the Potomac was north of the 
river. The Federal losses during the 4 days were 223 killed. 1,460 
wounded and 290 missing, though the report of Medical Director 
McParlin of the Army of the Potomac places the wounded at 2,100. 
The Confederate losses were not reported, but it is probable that 
they were somewhat lighter. 

Northeast Ferry, N. C, Feb. 22, 1865. (See Smith's Creek.) 
North Edisto River, S. C, Feb. 12-14. 1865. Sherman's Army. 
In the campaign of the Carolinas the crossing of the North Edisto 
river was one of the incidents connected with the advance on Col- 
umbia. The Confederates had stationed detachments at all the 
bridges and fords and the crossing was effected only by force of 
arms, skirmishing occurring at various points. The 15th corps, com- 
manded by Maj.-Gen. John A. Logan, crossed at Shilling's bridge; 
the 17th, Maj.-Gen. Frank P. Blair, at Orangeburg; the 14th. Bvt. 
Maj.-Gen. Jefif C. Davis, at Hovey's bridge, and the 20th, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. 
A. S. Williams, at Jeffcoat's bridge. The engagements at these several 
bridges are described in detail under their respective heads in this work. 

North Mountain, W. Va., July 3, 1864. Outpost of the 135th Ohio 
Infantry. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 653 

Northport, Ala., April 3, 1865. Detachment of ist Cavalry Divi- 
sion, Military Division of the Mississippi; Wilson's Raid. The ist 
brigade under Brig.-Gen. John T. Croxton moved at daylight from 
the Black Warrior river toward Tuscaloosa. At 9 p. m. the suburb 
Northport was reached, 150 picked men of the 2nd Mich, were 
taken close to the bridge to be hidden in ambush, and at daylight 
were to surprise the picket and capture the structure. As the de- 
tachment came up it was found that the enemy was already at 
work tearing up the planks, guarded by a force behind a barricade 
of cotton bales in the center of the bridge. A charge was ordered, 
the whole guard was either captured or killed and the 2 pieces of 
artillery taken. Several attacks of the Confederate militia and cadets 
upon the bridge during the night were repulsed by the Federals. 
Croxton captured some 60 prisoners, but no Federal casualties were 
reported. 

Norwood's Plantation, La., May 18, 1864. (See Bayou de Glaize.) 

Nottoway Court-House, Va., June 23, 1864. (See Wilson's Raid, 
Petersburg, Va.) 

Noyes' Creek, Ga., June 9-29, 1864. Sherman's Armies. As Gen. 
Johnston fell back before Gen. Sherman's advance on Atlanta, he 
established a line on June 9 with Kennesaw mountain as his salient, 
his right thrown back to cover Marietta and his left behind Noyes' 
(sometimes called Nose's) creek to cover the railroad back to At- 
lanta. While Sherman was flanking him out of his position several 
skirmishes occurred along the creek, but the reports of these opera- 
tions do not give the details as to troops engaged or casualties. 

Noyes' Creek, Ga., Oct. 2-3, 1864. (See Powder Springs, same 
date.) 

Oak Grove, Va., June 25, 1862. The engagement at Oak Grove 
was the beginning of Gen. McClellan's change of base from the 
Chickahominy to the James river. An account of the action is given 
under the head of Seven Days' Battles. 

Oak Hills, Mo., Aug. 10, 1861. (See Wilson's Creek.) 

Obey's River, "iTenn., March 28, 1864. 13th Kentucky Cavalry. 
Capt. Thomas Watson with a detachment of the 13th Ky. cavalry- 
met and routed a Confederate force under Col. John M. Hughs. 
Three of the enemy were killed and 2 captured. 

Obey's River, Tenn., April 18-20, 1864. 13th Kentucky Cavalry. 
Col. J. W. Weatherford of the 13th Ky. cavalry, reporting under date 
of April 20, says: "Capt. Watson just returned; captured 8 pris- 
oners; had a fight at Obey's river; Hughs scattered his men; killed 
and wounded some of them." 

Obion Plank Road Crossing, Tenn., May — , 1863. Detachment 
of 15th Illinois Cavalry. Company E of the 15th 111. cavalry under 
Lieut. William B. Ford surprised the camp of the guerrilla Capt. 
Parks on the Obion plank road, 70 miles from Hickman. In the 
charge 4 of the outlaws were killed and 18 captured. No casualties 
reported on the Union side. 

Obion River, Tenn., April 9, 1863. Detachment of 15th Illinois Cav- 
alry. Capt. William D. Hutchens, with Co. E, 15th 111., crossed the 
Obion river and after a ride of 43 miles reached the plantation of one 
Wright, occupied by the Confederate Capt. Scales for recruiting pur- 
poses. The enemy received Hutchens' command with a volley of mus- 
ketry and the Federals charged. The result was the killing of 4 Con- 
federates, the capture of 26 men and 13 horses and the complete dispersion 
of the band. 

Occoquan, Va., Dec. 19, 1862. 17th Pennsylvania Cavalry. This 
regiment, while marching from Washington, D. C, to join the nth 



654 The Union Army 

army corps, was fired into from the opposite bank of the Occoquan. 
As the ferryboat had been sunk, there was no way of crossing the 
stream at that point and Col. Josiah H. Kellogg with a portion of 
the regiment went to Snyder's ford, where a crossing was effected 
after the enemy's pickets had been driven. A pursuit of 5 miles 
brought the Federal cavalry up with the Confederate rear-guard and 
a skirmish ensued. The enemy's position on the Occoquan was se- 
cured through the capture of the picket at Neabsco creek, consist- 
ing of a lieutenant and 30 men of the loth N. Y. cavalry. 

Occoquan, Va., Dec. 27-28, 1862. Detachments of the 2nd and 
17th Pennsylvania Cavalry. As an incident of a raid by Stuart's 
Confederate cavalry on Dumfries and Fairfax Station, a portion of 
Hampton's command dashed into Occoquan about dark on the 27th 
and drove out a detachment of the 17th Pa. stationed there, cap- 
turing 17 of them and eight wagons. Next morning Capt. Charles 
Chauncey with portions of the 2nd and 17th Pa. cavalry encountered 
the Confederates as they were moving from Occoquan to the river 
of that name. The enemy charged and tlie Federals were forced 
back in some confusion to the ford of the river. Two Federals 
were known to have been killed on the 28th and more than 50 were 
captured. 

Occoquan Bridge, Va., Jan. 29, 1862. (See Lee's House, same 
date.) 

Ocean Pond, Fla., Feb. 20, 1864. (See Olustee.) 

Octorara (U. S. Steamer), Jan. 28, 1865. Maj.-Gen. Dabney H. 
Maury, of the Confederate army, reports that a Confederate torpedo 
boat struck the Octorara on the night of the 28th, but the torpedo 
failed to explode and no damage was done. 

Ogeechee Canal, Ga., Dec. 9, 1864. 4th Division, 15th Army 
Corps. In the advance on Savannah the division, commanded by 
Brig.-Gen. John M. Corse, reached the canal on the 8th ynd learned 
that the enemy was intrenched in force at the junction of the Old 
River and King's Bridge roads, about 3 miles in front. About 9 a. m. 
on the 9th Corse sent forward Adams' and Rice's brigades and Brun- 
ner's battery to clear the road and open communication with the rest 
of the corps via King's bridge. Adams moved in advance, with the 
66th 111. thrown forward as skirmishers and the 7th 111. mounted 
infantry protecting his flanks. The skirmishers drove in the Con- 
federate pickets, after which Adams deployed his regiments and the 
whole brigade advanced. The enemy's artillery swept the road, 
forcing Adams to move through the dense undergrowth on either 
side and for a time he made slow progress. Learning that the enemy 
was moving to his right. Corse ordered Rice to gain the King's 
Bridge road and intercept him. In the meantime Adams had 
reached better ground, where he reinforced his skirmish line with 
two companies and ordered a charge. The charge was successfully 
made and before Rice had reached the road the cheers of Adams' 
men could be heard through the woods announcing a victory. The 
enemy was completely routed with a loss of several in killed and 
wounded and 12 captured, besides a fine 12-pounder rifled gun. 
Adams pursued the flying Confederates to the Little Ogeechee 
river, when he received orders to return to the division. The Union 
casualties were trifling. 

Ogeechee River, Ga., Dec. 7, 1864. (See Jenks' Bridge.) 

Oil Trough Bottom, Ark., March 24, 1864. Detachment of 2nd 
Arkansas Cavalry. Twenty-five men of the 2nd Ark. cavalry charged 
and routed 40 Confederates under one Rutherford. An oflicer and 
3 men were killed and 2 were wounded. No casualties were mentioned 
on the Union side. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 655 

Okolona, Ark., April 3-4, 1S64. (See Camden, Ark., Expedition 
to.) 

Okolona, Miss., Feb. 18, 1864. ist Cavalry Brigade, i6th Army 
Corps. During the Meridian campaign while the brigade under 
Col. George E. Waring. Jr., was proceeding on the Egypt station 
road two miles out of Okolona it was fired upon by a party of Con- 
federates who fled as soon as pursuit was started. No casualties 
were reported. 

Okolona, Miss., Feb. 22, 1864. Cavalry Division, i6th Army 
Corps and 4th U. S. Cavalry. As an incident of the Meridian cam- 
paign, Brig.-Gen. William Sooy Smith left Collierville, Tenn., with a 
cavalry force of 7,000 men, his object being to move by Pontotoc and 
Okolona and join Sherman at Meridian. On reaching Okolona the 
4th regulars drove an entire Confederate brigade out of town three 
different times. A portion of McCrillis' brigade sent to support 
the 4th stampeded when the regulars charged the enemy and gal- 
loping to the rear spread confusion in the ranks of the remainder of 
the division, upsetting into a ditch and rendering useless a battery 
of 6 small mountain howitzers. The division was then compelled to 
fall back to Ivey's farm, where it deployed in a fine position, two regi- 
ments supporting a 6-gun battery and the remainder in position for a 
saber charge. The rear-guard being heavily pressed was called in, 
the battery opened upon the enemy and the dismounted troops sup- 
porting the artillery poured a heavy musketry fire into the ap- 
proaching column, which was finally repulsed. Just as the enemy 
was falling back the 4th Mo. and "th Ind. charged in front and the 
3d Tenn. in flank, turning the withdrawal into a rout. The casual- 
ties for this single engagement were not reported, but for the 
whole .expedition, of which this was the hardest fight, the loss in 
the division was 54 killed, 179 wounded and 153 missing. The loss in 
the Confederate force for the single engagement was not reported, 
but for three days (Feb. 20, 2t and 22) amounted to 2^ killed, 97 
wounded and 20 captured or missing. 

Old Church, Va., June 13, 1862. (See Stuart's Raid.) 

Old Church, Va., March 2, 1864. (See Richmond, Kilpatrick's 
Expedition against.) 

Old Church, Va., May 30, 1864. ist Cavalry Division, Army of 
the Potomac. In the advance of the Army of the Potomac from the 
Rapidan to the James the pickets of the 2nd brigade of this division 
were attacked near Old Church by Confederate cavalry, but man- 
aged to hold their ground until reinforcements arrived and drove 
the enemy back to the south side of the Matadequin creek. The 
stubborn resistance of the enemy made it necessary to bring another 
brigade into action, and finally two regiments of the third, before he 
could be dislodged from his position. The losses in killed and 
wounded were not reported, but in the pursuit of the Confederates 
to Cold Harbor 35 of them were captured. 

Old Church, Va., June 10, 1864. Cavalry Pickets and ist Bri- 
gade, 4th Division, 9th Army Corps. The itinerary of the ist bri- 
gade for the campaign from the Rapidan to the James says: "June 
10. — Union cavalry pickets driven into Old Church by rebel cavalry; 
repulsed and driven back by infantry pickets of this brigade." This 
is the only mention of an affair at Old Church on the loth. 

Oldfields, W. Va., Aug. 7, 1864. Averell's Cavalry, Army of 
West Virginia. Brig.-Gen. W. W. Averell with his division of cav- 
alry surprised and attacked the camp of Gen. McCausland's Confed- 
erate command at Oldfields. 3 miles from Moorefield. The result 
was the rout and dispersal of the whole command, the capture of 



656 The Union Army 

420 officers and men, 4 guns, stores, equipments, etc., and a loss of 
several in killed and wounded. Averell's casualties were 7 killed and 
20 wounded. 

Old Fort Wayne, Ind. Ten, Oct. 22, 1862. ist Division, Army of 
the Frontier. After a severe night march of 30 miles the advance 
of the division, consisting of a portion of the 2nd Kan. cavalry, at- 
tacked the camp of Confederates and Indians near Old Fort Wayne, 
on Beattie's prarie near Maysville, Ark. The enemy consisted of 
between 4,000 and 7,000 men, but after a spirited fight of about an 
hour he was routed, abandoning his battery of 6 pieces and all his 
camp and garrison equipage. The Federal casualties amounted to 
4 killed and 15 wounded, while the enemy lost 3 killed, 25 wounded 
and 35 captured or missing. 

Old Oaks, La., May 18, 1864. (See Bayou de Glaize.) 

Old River, La., Feb. 10, 1863. Detachments of the ist Kansas, 
i6th Wisconsin, 17th and 95th Illinois Infantry, and 3d Louisiana 
Cavalry. This was one of the numerous engagements that occurred 
during the operations along Bayou Teche, but no detailed report 
can be found in the official records of the war. It is sometimes called 
Lake Providence. 

Old River, La., May 22, 1864. 6th Missouri Cavalry. 

Old River Lake, Ark., June 6, 1864. Detachment of i6th Army 
Corps. Brig.-Gen. Joseph A. Mower with the 2nd and 3d brigades 
of the 1st division, embarked at Sunnyside landing on the evening of 
the 5th, and after bivouacking on the bank of the river, took up the 
line of march next morning for Lake Village, 8 miles distant, the 
cavalry in advance. After proceeding 4 miles the main body came 
up with the cavalry which was skirmishing with the enemy. A line 
line of infantry was thrown out by Mower, the cavalry withdrawn, 
and the Confederates were pushed back 2 miles, where a larger force 
was found in position on the opposite side of a bayou. The 3d 
Ind. battery was ordered up and kept up a continuous fire while the 
infantry moved forward and engaged the enemy, who from his 
position in the timber was enabled to pour a galling fire upon the 
Federals. After a time this fire was silenced and the two brigades 
were moved forward across the bridge. The Union loss was 15 
killed, 57 wounded and 2 missing. The Confederate casualties were 
4 killed and 33 wounded. (Also known as Lake Chicot, Ditch 
Bayou, Fish Bayou and Lake Village.) 

Old Town, Md., Aug. 2, 1864. Detachment 153d Ohio Infantry. 
After abandoning the position before Cumberland on the night of 
the 1st the Confederates under McCausland and Bradley T. Johnson 
moved toward Old Town and about 5 a. m. attacked the guard at 
that place. Col. Israel Stough, commanding the post, was finally 
obliged to cross the river (the north branch of the Potomac) to 
Green Spring Depot, W. Va.. where a portion of his troops became 
disorganized and left him, but with the remainder he took position in 
the blockhouse and with the aid of 2 iron-clad cars manned by a de- 
tachment of the 2nd regiment, Potomac home brigade, Md. infantry, he 
kept the enemy at bay until the iron-clads were disabled. Then, in 
response to a summons from Johnson. Stough surrendered, having 
lost 2 killed and 3 wounded. The Federal reports say the Confed- 
erate loss was from 20 to 25 killed and from 40 to 50 wounded.. 

Old Town Creek, Miss., July 15, 1864. (See Harrisburg, July 
I4-I5. 1864.) 

Olive Branch, La., Aug. 25, 1864. Detachment of iiSth Illinois 
Mounted Infantry. Forty men of this regiment under Lieut. E. B. 
Hamilton, acting as an advance guard, came upon the enemy at 2 



Cyclopedia of Battles 657 

a. m. and after a short skirmish the Confederates were routed. The 
Federals lost i man killed and captured 2 prisoners. The affair was 
an incident of an expedition to Clinton, La. 

Olive Branch, La., March 6, 1865. 4th Wisconsin Cavalry. 

Olive Branch, Miss., Sept. 6, 1862. Detachment of 6th Illinois 
Cavalry. While 160 men of the 6th 111. were feeding at Olive Branch 
during a scout in the direction of Holly Springs, under command of 
Col. B. H. Grierson, the pickets were attacked by two companies of 
Confederate cavalry. The Union troops were quickly drawn up in 
line of battle, skirmishers thrown out and after 20 minutes' firing the 
enemy began to give way. Part of the men were immediately 
mounted and charged, driving the Confederates back three-quarters 
of a mile to their reserve, which immediately threw out two com- 
panies to flank the approaching column and compelled it to fall 
back. Just at this juncture reinforcements came to the Federals and 
the enemy was routed completely. According to the Federal re- 
port of the affair 23 of the enemy were killed, between 30 and 40 
wounded and 20 captured. The Union casualties were i killed, 18 
wounded and 2 missing. 

Olive Branch Bayou, La., May 3, 1864. (See Redwood Bayou, 
same date.) 

Olive Branch Church, Va., Feb. 5, 1863. Detachment of 5th Penn- 
sylvania Cavalry. This affair was a skirmish between the Confederate 
cavalry pickets and a Union scouting party under Maj. Christopher 
Kleinz. The Federals drove the pickets back onto their reserve and 
then routed and pursued the whole band for a distance of 2 miles. 
No casualties were reported. 

Olive Hill, Ky., Oct. 2, 1862. Carter County Home Guards. 

Olley's Creek, Ga., June 26, 1864. 3d Division, 23d Army Corps. 
Preparatory to the assault on Kennesaw mountain on the 27th, Gen. 
Schofield ordered Gen. Cox, commanding the division, to push Reilly's 
brigade from Cheney's farm to Olley's creek to make a demonstra- 
tion and feel the enemy's position. Reilly made a determined ad- 
vance, drove the Confederate skirmishers into their works on the 
east side of the creek, and under cover of a brisk cannonade by 
Myers' Ind. battery occupied the ridge close to the stream. On the 
opposite bank was Jackson's cavalry, dismounted and supported by 
artillery, in a strongly intrenched position. Reilly was then ordered 
to move his battery as near the enemy as possible and keep up the 
fire, while Byrd's brigade marched down to the creek about a mile 
above, where it built a bridge, crossed over and took possession of a 
hill to the northeast of the one held by the enemy. Here Byrd in- 
trenched on all sides, connecting his front by a line of pickets with 
Reilly on the right and the rest of the division on the left. In this 
position the division began operations when the attack on Kennesaw 
was made the next morning. 

Olustee, Fla., Feb. 20, 1864. Florida Expedition. About 3 p. m. 
the advance of the expedition. Col. Guy V. Henry's brigade of cav- 
alry, came upon the Confederate pickets somewhat to the east of 
Olustee. They were soon driven back to their supports, which 
opened fire, when a portion of the 7th Conn, cavalry was deployed 
as skirmishers and a battery placed in position to develop the 
Confederate force and position. It was the intention of Brig.-Gen. 
Truman Seymour, commanding, to engage the enemy in front with 
artillery, meanwhile throwing out a brigade to fall upon the Confed- 
erate left. The disposition was accordingly made, the cavalry skir- 
mishers called in and the 7th N. H. deployed in their places, but the 
troops were hardly in position before the New Hampshire regi- 

Vol. VI— 12 



658 The Union Army 

ment broke and fled in confusion. The 8th U. S. colored infantry, 
moving into the same position, also broke and fled after its colonel 
had been killed. The 54th Mass. colored infantry, then occupied the 
position and the fighting continued sharp until dark, the whole 
Federal force except the cavalry being actively engaged. After 
dark Seymour withdrew, abandoning 6 pieces of artillery. His losses 
were 1,800 in killed, wounded and missing, and 39 horses. The Con- 
federate casualties were about 250 killed and wounded. (Sometimes 
called Ocean Pond.) 

Opelika, Ala., April 16, 1865. Detachment of 2nd Indiana Cavalry. 
A battalion of the 2nd Ind. under Capt. J. B. Williams, in the ad- 
vance of the brigade, struck Confederate pickets near Opelika and 
drove them in. The affair was an incident of Wilson's raid. 

Opelousas, La., Oct. 21, 1863. 13th and 19th Army Corps. Maj.- 
Gen. W. B. Franklin, commanding the 19th corps, reporting from Ope- 
lousas under date of Oct. 21, says: "The head of my column has arrived 
here. The enemy made a stand about 3 miles out. They had nine regiments 
of cavalry, two battalions of infantry, and 3 or 4 guns. A little shelling^ 
drove them away. I leave at once for Barre's landing." A Confed- 
erate report of the afYair states that the enemy lost 2 men killed. 
The affair was an incident of the operations in the Teche country. 

Opequan Creek, Va., Aug. 18-21, 1864. 3d Brigade, ist Cavalry 
Division, Army of West Virginia. During the night of the 17th 
the Federal forces fell back from Winchester to Summit Point, with 
the 3d brigade, commanded by Col. C. R. Lowell, guarding the rear. 
On the morning of the i8th the Confederates advanced and the 
skirmishing was kept up for some time, Lowell gradually falling 
back about a mile from the creek to a strong position, which he 
held for the rest of the day. Here he remained in camp during the 
19th, keeping out a strong picket line and late in the afternoon re- 
pelling an attack on his lines. About 4 p. m. on the 20th another 
attack was made on his position, but it was repulsed and the pickets 
extended to connect with the 2nd brigade on the left and the 3d 
division on the right. At 10 o'clock on the morning of the 2ist 
an attack in force was commenced. Lowell held his position until 2 
p. m., when he received orders to fall back to Berryville, which order 
was executed without serious difficulty, although he was closely 
pursued by the enemy. The loss during these engagements was 
slight. 

Opequan Creek, Va., Sept. 19, 1864. (See Winchester, same date.) 

Orangeburg, S. C, Feb. 11-12, 1865. 17th Army Corps. In the 
advance on Orangeburg during the campaign of the Carolinas the 
15th corps, Maj.-Gen. John A. Logan commanding, crossed the 
south fork of the Edisto river at Holman's bridge and moved to- 
Poplar Springs to support the 17th corps, commanded by Maj.-Gen. 
Frank P. Blair, which crossed at Binnaker's bridge and moved 
straight toward the town. Blair's corps moved with Force's divi- 
sion in advance, the 9th 111. mounted infantry forming the head of 
the column. The enemy's pickets were encountered behind a barri- 
cade about 3 miles from Orangeburg, but were quickly driven out 
by the 9th 111. and forced to retreat so rapidly that they had no time 
to burn the bridges through the swamp. At the bridge over the north 
fork of the Edisto the enemy was found intrenched in force — three 
brigades of infantry and some of Young's cavalry — commanded by 
Gen. Stevenson. As soon as the Federals came within range the 
enemy opened a heavy artillery fire, temporarily checking the ad- 
vance. Force pushed a strong skirmish line up to the bank of the 
river, completely covering the bridge so that no one dare approach 



Cyclopedia of Battles 659 

it to set it on fire, and sent parties both up and down the river to 
find some place where a crossing could be made. Col. Wiles, com- 
manding the 2nd brigade, found a narrow place about a mile above 
and felled a tree across the river, over which a small party was 
crossed, thus gaining a foothold on the opposite bank. A foraging 
party reported a road crossing about a mile farther up and a party 
from the 30th 111. found a place about a mile below where pontoons 
could be successfully laid. During the night Force opened a road 
to this crossing and shortly after noon on the I2th the pontoon bridge 
had been completed and the whole division was on the other side. The 
enemy shelled the skirmish line and kept up a feeble musketry fire, but 
the 1st brigade, under Col. Fairchild, steadily advanced, driving the 
Confederates from their trenches and back through the town. Force re- 
ported I man severely wounded. The enemy's loss was known to be 6 
killed, 14 wounded and 26 captured. Soon after the occupation of the 
town a fire broke out in the upper story of a building. It was said to 
have been started by a Jew who was incensed because the Confederates 
had burned his cotton. The Union troops finally succeeded in getting 
the fire under control, but not until a considerable portion of the 
town was destroyed. The 17th corps then turned its attention to 
the destruction of the railroad, tearing up about 15 miles of track 
and burning all the trestles up to the Santee river. 

While the action at Orangeburg was in progress the cavalry was 
sent to the bridge on the road leading to Rowe's station, about 10 
miles below, where a body of Confederate cavalry was met and 
routed and the bridge destroyed. 

Orange Court House, Va., July 26, 1862. Detachment of Brig.- 
Gen. Rufus King's Division. During a reconnaissance from Fred- 
ericksburg toward Orange Court House the detachment under Brig.- 
Gen. John Gibbon moved from its bivouac upon the town. At the 
cross-roads, 5 miles out, the Confederate pickets were encountered and 
driven back to within a mile and a half of the town, when Gibbon 
turned back, the object of the reconnaissance being accomplished. 
The enemy pursued for a short distance and made an attack on the 
Federal rear, but it was easily repulsed. Gibbon sufifered no casual- 
ties, while the enemy had 5 men wounded. 

Orange Court House, Va., Aug. 2. 1862. ist Vermont and 5th 
New York Cavalry. Brig.-Gen. W. S. Crawford was sent out with the 
two regiments to make a reconnaissance in the direction of Orange 
Court House. As he approached the town the enemy's skirmishers 
were encountered, but they were rapidly driven back upon the main 
body, which was found drawn up just outside the town. By a vigor- 
ous charge Crawford routed the enemy, pursuing him through the 
tovvn and for some distance beyond, killing or wounding 10 and cap- 
turing between 40 and 50, his own loss being 4 wounded and 4 
missing. 

Orange Grove, La., July 31, 1864. Detachment of nth New York 
Cavalry. Maj. S. Pierre Remington reporting from Donaldsonville 
under date of July 31: "The guerrillas attacked the picket station 
at Orange Grove again last night between i and 2 a. m. and were 
repulsed witliout loss on either side." 

Orchard Knob, Tenn., Nov. 23, 1863. (See Chattanooga, same 
date.) 

Orton Pond, N. C, Feb. 18, 1865. (See Fort Anderson.) 

Osage Branch, Ark., April 16. 1864. Detachment of 2nd Arkan- 
sas Cavalry. An escort of 36 men guarding a forage train was at- 
tacked by from 200 to 300 Confederates on the Osage branch of 
King's river. After fighting desperately for some time the escort 



660 The Union Army 

was obliged to abandon the train. The Federal loss in this aflFair was 
6 men killed and i missing. 

Osage River, Mo., April 25, 1862. (See Monogan Springs, same 
date.) 

Osceola, Ark., Aug. 2, 1864. Detachment of Missouri State 
Troops. Lieut. -Col. John T. Burris, with the 2nd and 3d militia 
cavalry and portions of the ist, 2nd, 3d and 6th volunteer cavalry, 
while scouting in Arkansas, came upon a Confederate camp near 
Osceola late on the afternoon of the 2nd. The enemy's pickets re- 
tired upon the main body, (Capts. Bowen's and McVeigh's com- 
panies) when Burris ordered a charge. A running fight ensued in 
which the Confederates lost 7 killed, 25 wounded and a few missing, 
while Burris' men came out unscathed. 

Osceola, Mo., Sept. 22, 1861. Kansas Brigade. On the approach 
of the brigade to Osceola the Confederates ambushed the roads but 
were driven from their positions by the advance under Cols. Mont- 
gomery and Weer and took refuge in the houses. To dislodge them 
artillery was freely used, which resulted in reducing the town to 
ashes. The Confederates suffered a loss of 15 or 20 killed and 
wounded, while the Union force, which was commanded by Brig.- 
Gen. James H. Lane, suffered no casualties. 

Osceola, Mo., May 27, 1862. ist Iowa Cavalry. 

Otter Creek, Va., June 16, 1864. Advance of the Army of West 
Virginia. In the advance of the Army of West Virginia in the 
Lynchburg campaign there was constant skirmishing during the i6th, 
McCausland's Confederate command being driven back. The re- 
ports are meager, no casualties being mentioned, nor no detailed 
statement as to what troops were engaged. 

Ouachita River, Ark., April 29, 1864. (See Camden, Ark., Expe- 
dition to.) 

Ouachita River, La., March 2, 1864. (See Harrisonburg, same 
date.) 

Overall's Creek, Tenn., Dec. 4, 1864. (See Nashville & Chatta- 
nooga R. R.) 

Owensboro, Ky., Aug. 27, 1864. io8th U. S. Colored Infantry. 

Owensboro, Ky., Sept. 2, 1864. Lieut. -Col. John C. Moon, of the 
Ii8th U. S. colored infantry, commanding the post of Owensboro, 
reports under date of Sept. 17: "On the second day of the present 
month this town was visited by a band of guerrillas, who murdered 
3 U. S. soldiers after they had surrendered, and i citizen who had 
once been an officer in the Federal army." 

Owensburg, Ky., Sept. 19-20, 1862. 14th Kentucky Cavalry and 
Spencer County (Ind.) Home Guards. 

Owen's Cross Roads, Tenn., Dec. i, 1864. Maj.-Gen. Nathan B. 
Forrest, commanding the Confederate cavalry in the campaign in 
North Alabama and Middle Tennessee, reports that he encountered 
the Federals in strong force at Owen's cross-roads. A battery was 
opened upon them and soon afterward Buford charged with his 
brigade, dislodging the Union command and capturing several pris- 
oners. No casualties were reported. Federal reports do not men- 
tion any such affair. 

Owens' Ford, Ga., Sept. 17, 1863. Pickets of 2nd Division, 21st 
Army Corps. While the opposing armies were maneuvering for 
position just before the battle of Chickamauga, the pickets of Maj.- 
Gen. John M. Palmer's division were attacked at Owens' or Gower's 
ford. The enemy was repulsed with a loss to him of several wounded 
and I captured. 

Owen's Lake, Cal., June 24, 1862. 2nd California Cavalry. After 



Cyclopedia of Battles 661 

a forced march or 35 miles, the regiment surprised a party of Indians 
while they were engaged in digging worms along the shore. In the 
first volley 2 Indians were killed and in the pursuit that followed 2 
braves. 7 squaws and 2 children were captured. 

Owen's Mill, Ga., May 25, 1864. (See Dallas.) 

Owen's River Valley, Cal., April 9, 1862. (See Bishop's Creek, 
same date.) 

Oxford, Kan., Jan. 31, 1865. Detachment of 5th Kansas Cavalry. 
Lieut. W. F. Goble with 18 men came upon a band of 9 guerrillas 2 
miles south of Oxford. His men fired and charged, the enemy taking 
to the timber. No casualties were reported. 

Oxford, Miss., Dec. 4, 1862. Squad from 26th Illinois Infantry. 
Seven men belonging to the hospital corps of the 26th 111. while 
purchasing supplies at the house of one Thompson were attacked by 
Confederates, i being killed and 3 wounded at the first fire, and the 
other 3 were captured. One of these was afterward killed. 

Oxford, Miss., Aug. 9, 1864. (See Tallahatchie River.) 

Oxford, Miss., Aug. 23. 1864. (See Abbeville, same date.) 

Ox Ford, Va., May 24, 1864. (See North Anna River.) 

Oxford Bend, Ark., Oct. 28, 1862. ist Iowa and 7th Missouri 
Cavalry. With these two regiments Brig.-Gen. Herron attacked a 
Confederate camp at Oxford Bend, 4 miles east of Fayetteville, and 
after a sharp engagement of an hour the enemy was completely 
routed, leaving all his camp equipage, etc. The Union loss was 5 
men wounded, i mortally, and the Confederates left 8 dead on the 
field. 

Oxford Hill, Miss., Aug. 21, 1864. (See College Hill, same date.) 

Ox Hill, Va., Sept. i, 1862. (See Chantilly.) 

Oyster Point, Pa., June 28-29, 1863. ist Division, Department 
of the Susquehanna. Brig.-Gen. William F. Smith, commanding the 
1st division, reporting the movements of his command prior to the 
battle of Gettysburg states: "On Sunday, (28th) a rebel cavalry 
force, with a section of artillery came to our picket line near Oyster 
Point, and drove in our cavalry pickets, but did not succeed in 
moving the infantry pickets. 

On Monday, I sent the regular cavalry, under Lieut. Frank 
Stanwood, on the Carlisle road, and he engaged and drove in the 
pickets of the enemy, but was obliged to retire under a fire of artil- 
lery which was opened on him." 

This is the only mention of the affair. 

Ozark, Mo., Aug. i, 1862. Detachment of 14th Missouri State Militia 
Cavalry. About i o'clock on the morning of this date some Con- 
federate cavalry under Col. Robert R. Lawther attacked the Union 
camp at Ozark, thinking to take it by surprise. Capt. Milton Burch, 
commanding the four companies stationed at the post, had been ap- 
prised of the enemy's attack, which was easily repulsed. A second 
charge was also repulsed. The Union casualties were 2 wounded; 
the enemy had 9 wounded, 3 dying before they reached camp. 

Ozark, Mo., July 14-15, 1864. 14th Kansas Cavalry. 

Ozark Mountains, Mo., Dec. 2, 1862. Detachments of 3d and 
6th Missouri Cavalry. As an incident of an expedition from Rolla 
to the Ozark mountains, portions of three companies from the two 
regiments, under Col. John M. Glover, met a band of 130 Confederates 
in the gorges of the Ozarks. The result was the killing of 4 of the 
enemy and the capture of 2, with no loss to the Federal participants. 

Pace's Ferry, Ga., July 12, 1864. (See Chattahoochee River.) 

Pack's Ferry, W. Va., Aug. 6, 1862. Detachment of 23d Ohio In- 
fantry. Four companies of the 23d Ohio under Maj. James M. Comly 



662 The Union Army 

were attacked by 900 men and 2 pieces of artillery early on the morn- 
ing of the 6th. The object of the attack was the destruction of the 
ferry across the New river, but the enemy finally retired without accom- 
plishing his object. No casualties were suffered by Comly's force, and 
while the Union reports state that 2 of the enemy were killed, the 
Confederate statement makes no mention of any loss. 

Paducah, Ky., March 25, 1864. i6th Kentucky Cavalry; ist Kentucky 
Heavy Artillery; Detachment 122nd Illinois Infantry. As an incident 
of Maj.-Gen. N. B. Forrest's expedition into Kentucky, the Federal 
outposts were driven back through Paducah into Fort Anderson by 
Forrest's advance guard and later in the day, when the remainder of 
his force came up, a general attack was made upon the Union troops 
within the fort. Twice the Confederates attempted to storm the works, 
but each time they were repulsed. While preparing for a third attempt, 
Col. A. P. Thompson, leader of the assaulting party, was killed, and 
the design was abandoned. Confederate sharpshooters had in the mean- 
time taken possession of the houses near the fort and were picking off 
the Union gunners. Firing was kept up until 11:30 p. m., when Forrest 
withdrew out of range of the Union guns for the night. In the morning 
the Confederates set fire to the town and withdrew. The Union casual- 
ties were 14 killed and 46 wounded. The Confederate loss was not 
reported, but the estimate of Col. S. G. Hicks, commanding the post, was 
300 killed and wounded. 

Paducah, Ky., April 14, 1864. U. S. Forces under Col. S. G. Hicks. 
At noon Confederate Gen. Buford with three regiments of cavalry 
appeared before Paducah and drove in the pickets. The Federal troops 
withdrew to Fort Anderson and when the enemy appeared in a skirt 
of timber about a mile distant opened fire with artillery. A flag of 
truce was sent in by Buford, demanding the removal of women and 
children within an hour, but before the end of that period the enemy 
commenced sacking a portion of the town. A detachment was sent out 
from the fort to drive the marauders, who returned to the main body, 
which retired on the Mayfield road. The garrison suffered no casualties, 
but 40 government horses were taken. 

Paineville, Va., April 5, 1865. This engagement, sometimes called 
Paine's cross-roads, was one of the minor actions of the Appomattox 
campaign. (See Amelia Springs.) 

Paint Lick Bridge, Ky., July 31, 1863. U. S. Forces imder Col. 
W. P. Sanders. During the pursuit of Scott the troops under Sanders, 
consisting of detachments of the ist. loth and 14th Ky., 2nd and 7th 
Ohio, 8th and 9th Mich, and 15th East Tenn. cavalry, and ist and 2nd 
East Tenn., 45th Ohio and 112th 111. mounted infantry, after fighting 
the Confederate rear-guard all night, came up with the main body in 
position at Paint Lick bridge. After an obstinate fight of an hour a 
charge was made by a portion of the Union troops, which resulted in 
the capture of 30 of the enemy and the wounding of a number. No 
casualties were reported on the Union side. 

Paint Rock Bridge, Ala., April 28, 1862. Detachment of loth Wis- 
consin Infantry. Sergt. Nelson, with 16 men, was detailed to guard 
the bridge over the Paint Rock river. Upon learning that the bridge 
was threatened, Lieut. Harkness sent Sergt. Makimson, with 10 men, to 
reinforce Nelson. No sooner had the latter arrived than 250 dismounted 
Confederate cavalry attacked, and after a little time sent a summons to 
surrender. The demand was refused and for 2 hours the enemy con- 
tinued the fight, finally being compelled to withdraw with a loss of 6 
killed and several wounded. No Federal casualties were reported. 

Paint Rock Bridge, Ala., April 8, 1864. Detachment of 73d In- 
diana Infantry. A squad of 15 men under Corp. William H. H. Reed 



Cyclopedia of Battles 663 

met a party of 40 Confederates near Paint Rock bridge and Reed was 
driven back after a short contest, losing i man killed and i severely 
■wounded. The enemy's loss was thought to be from 2 to 4 killed and 3 
wounded. 

Paint Rock Bridge, Ala., Dec. 7, 1864. 2nd Tennessee Cavalry. 
With this regiment Lieut. -Col. William F. Prosser skirmished all the 
way from Bellefonte to Paint Rock bridge, and on his arrival there 
drove a small force of Confederates across the stream. Half an hour 
afterward the enemy again appeared with an engine and a train of cars, 
but were driven back 2 or 3 miles. Later they brought up the train 
again with some cavalry and skirmishing was continued until dark, 
when the enemy again withdrew. No casualties in' killed and wounded 
were reported, though Prosser captured some prisoners. 

Paint Rock Bridge, Ala., Dec. 31, 1864. U. S. Forces under Lieut. 
Samuel C. Wagoner. The garrison of this post, consisting of a de- 
tachment of the 13th Wis. infantry, 20 cavalry, a piece of artillery and 
a small squad of Kennamer's home scouts, was surprised by 400 Con- 
federates at 4 a. m. Before the camp could be wholly aroused the 
Federals were overpowered and some 40 men, including the command- 
ing officer, captured. The remainder escaped and the enemy recrossed 
the river, burning the bridge behind them. 

Paint Rock River, Ala., Nov. 19, 1864. (See Duckett's Plantation.) 
Paintsville, Ky., April 13, 1864. Kentucky Infantry under Col. 
George W. Gallup. The Confederates under Col. Thomas Johnson, 
operating in eastern Kentucky, attacked a Union force under Gallup 
about ID a. m. The Federal pickets were driven in, but the main body 
repulsed the enemy with a loss of 2 killed, 2 wounded and 7 captured, 
while Gallup lost 2 men captured. 

Palmetto Ranch, Tex., Sept. 6, 1864. (See Brazos Santiago, same 
date.) 

Palmetto Ranch, Tex., May 13, 1865. (See Brownsville, same date.) 
Palmyra, Mo., Aug. 17, 1861. (See Hunnewell, same date.) 
Palmyra, Mo., Nov. 18, 1861. Detachment of 3d Missouri Cavalry. 
Palmyra, Mo., Oct. 18, 1862. Detachment of the 2nd Missouri 
Militia. This incident was the execution of 10 Confederate prisoners. 
For some time prior to this date outrages had been committed by the 
guerrillas in northern Missouri, and Brig.-Gen. John McNeil had tried 
various means to break up the irregular warfare. Andrew Alsman, an 
aged citizen of Palmyra, was carried away from his home and presum- 
ably murdered, his only offense having been that of giving information 
to the Federal authorities. Through the provost-marshal-general, W. R. 
Strachan, for the district of northeastern Missouri, McNeil notified 
Joseph C. Porter, one of the guerrilla leaders, that unless Alsman was 
returned to his home within ten days from that date (Oct. 8th) 10 men 
belonging to Porter's band, and then held in custody, would be executed 
"as a meet reward for their crimes, among which is the illegal restrain- 
ing of said Alsman of his liberty, and, if not returned, presumptively 
aiding in his murder." Alsman was not returned, and about noon on 
the i8th the 10 prisoners, strongly guarded, were taken to the fair 
grounds, where each man was made to stand at the foot of his coffin 
and face a detail of 30 men of the 2nd Mo. militia. A few minutes 
after i o'clock the command was given to fire and the 10 men fell, part 
of them dying instantly, though a few were despatched with revolvers 
after they fell. The Confederate authorities demanded the surrender of 
McNeil, but Gen. Curtis refused to give him up. The affair created 
some excitement and further correspondence ensued, but in the end it 
had a salutary effect, inasmuch as it made the guerrillas more cautious 
about adopting high-handed methods. 



664 The Union Army 

Palmyra, Tenn., Nov. 13, 1863. Brig.-Gen. R. S. Granger, reporting 
to Maj.-Gen. George H. Thomas, commander of the Department of the 
Cumberland, under date of Nov. 13, says: "Capt. Cutler, with one 
company of mounted infantry and a portion of Whittemore's battery 
(mounted), belonging to the garrison of Clarksville, had a fight near 
Palmyra with Capt. Grey's company, killing 2, wounding 5, and taking 
I prisoner; Cutler's loss, i lieutenant and i man wounded." The affair 
was an incident of the Chattanooga-Ringgold campaign and the above 
is the only official mention of it. 

Palo Alto, Miss., April 21, 1863. 2nd Iowa Cavalry. Col. Edward 
Hatch was despatched by Col. Grierson, on the latter's raid from La 
Grange, Tenn., to the vicinity of West Point to destroy the railroad 
there. About noon, when near Palo Alto, Hatch was attacked in the 
rear and on each flank by a considerable force of the enemy under 
Gholson, who managed to cut off one company. Drawing his command 
up in line of battle Hatch charged, broke through the enemy's line and 
recaptured the company. No casualties reported. 

Panola, Miss., June 19-20, 1863. Cavalry Corps, Left Wing i6th 
Army Corps. During operations in northwestern Mississippi Col. J. K. 
Mizner, commanding the Union cavalry, encountered a Confederate out- 
post some 8 miles from Panola. The enemy was easily driven and Miz- 
ner encamped at that point. Early the following morning an advance 
was made on Panola, which was entered without opposition, the enemy 
having evacuated during the night. The casualties, if any, were not 
reported. 

Panther Creek, Mo., Aug. 8, 1862. ist Missouri Militia Cavalry. 
Lieut. -Col. Alexander M. Woolfolk, with a detachment of his regiment, 
400 men in all, attacked Porter's Confederate command where the Han- 
nibal & St. Joseph railroad crosses Panther creek. After 6 hours' fight- 
ing the engagement was stopped by darkness. Porter having lost (accord- 
ing to the Federal report) some 20 killed and 50 wounded, while Wool- 
folk had 2 killed and 10 wounded. 

Panther Gap, W. Va., June 5, 1864. nth West Virginia Infantry. 
Col. Daniel Frost, reporting the movements of his regiment during the 
Lynchburg campaign, says : "June 5, passed through Panther gap, where 
the enemy were posted in some force. A flank movement caused the 
place to be evacuated, with slight skirmishing, when we moved to Goshen 
Station." This is the only mention of the affair. 

Panther Springs, Tenn., March 5, 1864. Detachment of 3d Ten- 
nessee Infantry. Capt. William Cross with 103 men, while on a recon- 
naissance to Panther Springs, was attacked by a superior force of Con- 
federates and after a sharp engagement of 3 hours repulsed the enemy, 
losing 3 killed, i badly wounded and some 20 captured, while the enemy 
suffered to the extent of 9 killed and 2 captured. 

Panther Springs, Tenn., Oct. 27, 1864. (See Mossy Creek, same 
date.) 

Papinsville, Mo., June 23, 1863. Detachment of ist Missouri State 
Militia Cavalry. Maj. Alexander W. Mullins with a portion of the ist 
Mo., while in pursuit of a party of Confederates, encountered them 12 
miles from Papinsville. The skirmish which ensued resulted in the 
killing of I and the wounding of another Confederate, while Mullins 
had I man wounded. 

Paris, Ky., July 19, 1862. Detachments of 9th Pennsylvania and 
S5th Indiana Cavalry, i6th U. S. Infantry and Home Guards. Brig.- 
Gen. G. Clay Smith, in command of the Federals, learning that Morgan 
was in line of battle south of Paris and awaiting his approach, moved 
on that town on the morning of the 19th. Smith pushed back the enemy's^ 
pickets after some rather heavy fighting, but found that the main body 



Cyclopedia of Battles 665 

had withdrawn to Winchester. Morgan lost 8 killed and 29 wounded, 
while the P'ederals did not suffer any casualties. 

Paris, Ky., July 30, 1862. 9th Pennsylvania Cavalry. 

Paris, Ky., March 11, 1863. Wagon-train guard. 

Paris, Ky., July 29, 1863. Garrison of post, under Lieut. -Col. Thomas 
L. Young. About 4 p. m. the Confederate advance drove in the pickets 
at Paris, but were immediately engaged by loo men of the 23d Mich, 
infantry and a gun of Henshaw's 111. battery. Another company of the 
same regiment and a gun of the 15th Ind. battery were sent to rein- 
force the 100 men, and about 6 p. m. the Federal artillery routed the 
Confederates, who withdrew in confusion down the Winchester pike. 
No casualties were reported. The affair was an incident of Scott's raid. 

Paris, Mo., Oct. 15, 1864. Detachments of 70th and 9th Missouri 
Militia. Brig.-Gen. J. B. Douglass, in answer to a request for a report 
as to the number of casualties in the Missouri militia during Price's 
expedition, states that 4 or 5 were wounded "in different skirmishes 
during the time Captain Fowkes, captain of Company C, Seventieth En- 
rolled Missouri Militia, surrendered Paris on the 15th of October. At 
the time of the surrender, he reports 55 men of his own command and 
10 of the Ninth Missouri State Militia." This is the only mention of the 
affair in the official reports. 

Paris, Tenn., March 11, 1862. Detachment of 5th Iowa Cavalry 
and Battery I, ist Missouri Light Artillery. Maj.-Gen. U. S. Grant 
despatched a battalion of the 5th la. cavalry and a battery under Capt. 
John T. Croft, to break up a Confederate conscription camp at Paris. 
Croft arrived in the vicinity about 5 p. m., and after capturing the outer 
pickets made a charge through the town, driving the enemy into their 
intrenchments on a hill a mile and a half beyond. A charge was made 
up the slope by two companies, which fell into an ambuscade, but with 
the aid of the artillery they managed to extricate themselves without 
heavy loss. The Union casualties were 5 killed and 5 wounded ; Grant 
estimated the Confederate loss at 100 killed and wounded, besides the 
8 captured. 

Paris, Tenn., Sept. 13, 1863. Troops not stated. 

Paris, Va., Sept. 16, 1864. (See Snicker's Gap, same date.) 

Paris, Va., Feb. 19, 1865. (See Ashby's Gap, same date.) 

Parker's Cross-Roads, Ga., May 16, 1864. (See Rome Cross- 
Roads.) 

Parker's Cross-Roads, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862. (See Forrest's Expe- 
dition.) 

Parker's Ford, Va., July 18, 1864. (See Snicker's Ferry, same date.) 

Parker's Store, Va., Nov. 29, 1863. (See Mine Run, Va., Nov. 26- 
Dec. 2, 1863.) 

Parker's Store, Va., May 5-7, 1864. (See Wilderness.) 

Park's Gap, Tenn., Sept. 4, 1864. loth Michigan and 9th and 13th 
Tennessee Cavalry. About daylight the loth Mich, and 9th Tenn. under 
Brig.-Gen. Alvan C. Gillem encountered the Confederate vedettes near 
Park's gap. At the gap the enemy was found in considerable force 
and stubbornly resisted the advance of the loth Mich., which fought 
dismounted. The artillery, however, was effective in dispersing the Con- 
federates, who retreated toward Greeneville, only to find that the 13th 
Tenn. cavalry had gained their rear and that retreat through the town 
was impossible. After a resistance of some time they managed to break 
through a portion of the Union line and make their escape, pursued for 
a distance of 8 miles. The 13th Tenn. in getting to the rear surrounded 
the house in which the noted Gen. John H. Morgan was sleeping, and 
on his attempting to escape through the surrounding lines he was shot 
and killed. Gillem estimated the enemy's loss at about 75 killed, more 



66 G The Union Army 

wounded and io6 captured; his own casualties amounted to 9 wounded, 
I mortally. 

Parkville, Mo., July 7, 1864. Detachment of 82nd Missouri Militia. 
A body of guerrillas, headed by the notorious Coon Tliornton, entered 
Parkville and meeting with no resistance from the company of Missouri 
militia stationed there, proceeded to plunder and destroy. One man 
was killed and 2 men and a woman wounded. 

Pascagoula, Miss., April 9, 1863. 74th U. S. Colored Infantry. 
Col. N. W. Daniels, with a detachment of 180 men, embarked on the 
transport General Banks at Ship Island for an attack upon Pascagoula. 
After landing, taking possession of the place and hoisting the American 
flag, Daniels was attacked by some 300 Confederate cavalry and a com- 
pany of infantry, which he repulsed with a loss of but 2 killed and 5 
slightly wounded. The Confederate loss was 20 killed, a large number 
wounded, and 3 taken prisoners. Their colors were also lost. Learn- 
ing of reinforcements coming to the" enemy's aid, Daniels withdrew to 
his transport about 2 o'clock in the afternoon. The gunboat Jackson, 
accompanying the expedition, fired a shell by mistake into the Union 
troops, killing 4 men and seriously wounding 5 others. 

Pasquotank, N. C, Aug. 18, 1863. ist New York Mounted Rifles 
and nth Pennsylvania Cavalry. Col. B. F. Onderdonk, of the New 
York regiment, says in his report of an expedition from Portsmouth, 
Va., to Edenton. N. C. : "From Hertford to Elizabeth City and South 
Mills had a number of skirmishes with the rangers, driving them into 
the swamps, where they have hiding places known only to the initiated." 
One of these skirmishes occurred near Pasquotank. The casualties of 
the entire expedition were i man killed and i wounded by the enemy; 
I man accidentally killed by shooting himself; and 2 horses killed by 
the Confederates. 

Pass Christian, Miss., April 4. 1862. (See Biloxi.) 

Patten, Mo., July 26, 1862. Missouri Militia. 

Patterson, Mo., April 20, 1863. 3d Missouri Militia Cavalry. Marma- 
duke, in his expedition into Missouri, approached Patterson on the 
Doniphan, Van Buren and Pitman's Ferry roads, cutting oflf several 
Union scouting parties. Another scouting party discovered the Con- 
federates 6 miles out, and two companies were immediately sent out 
under Maj. Richard G. Woodson to engage them. While Woodson was 
holding the enemy in check Col. Edwin Smart moved all the commis- 
sary and quartermaster's stores. Woodson held his position until the 
enemy began to outflank him and then fell back through the town. 
When the Confederates began using their artillery the rear-guard was 
reinforced and fought stubbornly against superior numbers until the 
wagon train was across the bridge and out of danger. The Federal loss 
was 50 killed, wounded and missing; the Confederate loss in killed alone 
(according to the Union report) was 28. 

Patterson, Mo., May — , 1863. A Confederate report states that a 
detachment under Capt. Timothy Reves encountered some Federals near 
Patterson ; that the result was a Confederate victory, the Federals los- 
ing I killed and several wounded, and that Reves captured 22 horses, 
saddles, blankets, etc., and some camp equipage. The exact date of 
the affair cannot be gained from the account above referred to, and the 
Union reports do not mention it. 

Patterson, Mo., April 15, 1865. (See McKenzie's Creek.) 

Patterson's Creek, W. Va., June 26, 1861. nth Indiana Infantry. 
A mounted picket of 13 men attacked a company of 41 Confederates 
near Frankfort, routed and pursued them 2 or 3 miles, killing 8 of them 
and capturing 17 horses. While returning from the skirmish they were 
in turn attacked by a reinforced body of the enemy, and obliged to re- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 667 

tire to Kelly's island at the mouth of Patterson's creek, where they 
made a stand and held the enemy at bay until dark, when they scat- 
tered and escaped. Only i member of the Union party was killed, and 
I wounded, while the Confederates lost 31 killed. 

Patterson's Creek, W. Va., Feb. 2, 1864. Detachment of Campbell's 
Brigade, Department of West Virginia. Fifty-seven men under Capt. 
John W. Hibler, stationed at the Baltimore & Ohio railroad bridge over 
Patterson's creek, were surprised while at dinner by some 400 Confed- 
erate cavalry under Rosser. But little resistance was offered, the enemy 
killing I, wounding 4 and capturing 2)1 of the command, besides all the 
camp and garrison equipage and the stores. 

Patterson's Creek Station, W. Va., March 22, 1865. Detachment of 
14th West Virginia Infantry. A scouting party of 11 men under Lieut. 
Zenas Martin was attacked by 60 Confederates at the house of a Mr. 
Baker near Patterson's Creek Station. Three successive charges of the 
enemy were repulsed before they were made to retreat in confusion, 
leaving upon the field 2 dead and 3 wounded. There were no casualties 
in the Federal command. 

Pattersonville, La., March 28, 1863. U. S. Gunboat Diana. The 
Diana was ordered to make a reconnaissance up the Teche by the 
Grand Lake route, but for some reason she went up the Atchafalaya, 
right in the teeth of the enemy. On board were two companies and one 
of Brig.-Gen. Weitzel's aides. When near Pattersonville the vessel was 
assaulted by Confederate Gen. Dick Taylor's whole force and compelled 
to surrender, with all on board. Taylor reported the Union loss in 
killed, wounded and prisoners as 150. The gunboat mounted 5 heavy 
guns, and these also fell into the enemy's hands. 

Pattersonville, La., April 11, 1863. 2nd Brigade, ist Division, 19th 
Army Corps. During Gen. Banks' operations in western Louisiana, 
Weitzel's brigade skirmished all day on the nth and went into bivouac 
in line of battle near Pattersonville. The fighting was continued next 
day in the attack on Fort Bisland. (q. v.) 

Pawnee Agency, Neb., June 23, 1863. Detachment of 2nd Nebraska 
Cavalry. A band of Sioux Indians attacked the Pawnee agency and 
killed several of the red men there. Lieut. Henry Gray with 35 men 
started in pursuit, and after following them some 15 miles came upon 
400 or 500 drawn up in line ready to receive an attack. Receiving 
assurances from the 300 or 400 Pawnees who had accompanied him 
that they would fight, he attacked. The Pawnees fled at the first fire 
and Gray and his small detachment were compelled to fight alone. After 
an hour's heavy firing the Sioux retired. The casualties were not re- 
ported. 

Pawnee Rock, Kan., June 12, 1865. Detachment of 2nd Colorado 
Cavalry. A mule train hauling corn from Fort Leavenworth, with an 
escort of 20 men under command of Lieut. Martin Hennion, was at- 
tacked by a band of Indians near Pawnee rock, 16 miles east of Fort 
Larned. A messenger was immediately despatched to the latter place 
for help, but before it arrived Hennion had driven off the Indians. No 
casualties were reported. 

Payne's Farm, Va., Nov. 27, 1863. (See Mine Run, Va., Nov. 26- 
Dec. 2, 1863.) 

Paw Paw Tunnel, Va., Oct. 4, 1862. Detachment of 54th Pennsyl- 
vania Infantry. Capt. John H. Hite with Co. B, comprising the guard 
at Paw Paw tunnel, was approached by a Confederate force under 
Imboden. Without firing a gun Hite surrendered his whole force of 93 
men and 3 officers. 

Peach Grove, Va., March 12, 1865. Detachment of the 13th New 
York Cavalry. A patrol party of 21 men, under the command of Lieut. 



668 The Union Army 

Freeman, was attacked near the Peach Grove stockade, 2 miles from 
Vienna, and suffered a loss of 2 men killed, 5 wounded and 6 horses 
killed and i wounded. The attacking party numbered about 80 or 100 
men, and in the skirmish lost 2 killed and 7 or 8 wounded. 

Peach Orchard, Va., June 25, 1862. This action was brought on by 
the Union forces with a view to an advance on Richmond. It is also 
called Oak Grove and King's school-house, a full account of the engage- 
ment being given under the head of the Seven Days' Battles. 
Peachtree Creek, Ga., July 20, 1864. (See Atlanta.) 
Pea Ridge, Ark., March 6-8, 1862. Army of the Southwest. About 
the middle of February, 1862, Maj.-Gen. Samuel R. Curtis, after com- 
pleting the organization of the Army of the Southwest, entered Spring- 
field, Mo., to find that it had been evacuated by Maj.-Gen. Sterling Price 
and his Confederate army. Curtis followed by forced marches, skir- 
mishing with Price's rear-guard across the Arkansas line, where the 
enemy took refuge in the Boston mountains. Upon reaching Fayette- 
ville Curtis withdrew to await an attack on ground of his own choosing. 
The army was not widely separated, but it was essential that some divi- 
sion be made of it for purposes of obtaining forage. The location 
of the different portions was as follows: the ist and 2nd divisions, 
jointly under the command of Brig.-Gen. Franz Sigel and individually 
under Col. Peter J. Osterhaus and Brig.-Gen. Alexander Asboth, were 
on Cooper's farm 4 miles southwest of Bentonville; the 3d division, under 
Col. Jefferson C. Davis,, was at Sugar creek, where the preliminary 
arrangements were made for a stand ; the 4th division, under command 
of Col. Eugene A. Carr, was at Cross Timber hollow, 12 miles north 
of Sugar creek. About 2 p. m. of the 5th Curtis learned that the com- 
bined forces of Price and McCulloch, together with some five regiments 
of Indians under Gen. Albert Pike, all under the command of Maj.-Gen. 
Earl Van Dorn, were moving on the Federal position. Orders were 
immediately sent for a concentration on Davis at Sugar creek. Carr's 
division, with the exception of Col. William Vandever's brigade, which 
was out foraging, started its march about 6 p. m. Vandever, however, 
received the news of Van Dorn's movement before Curtis' messenger 
reached him, and by forced marches reached Sugar creek on the 6th. 
Curtis, at the head of Carr's division, arrived at Sugar creek at 2 a. m. 
of the 6th and immediately set about erecting field works and felling 
trees to obstruct the enemy's progress. Early in the morning Davis 
and Carr took position on a hill commanding the creek valley, which at 
that point is from a quarter to a half mile wide. The valley intercepts 
three roads — the Telegraph pike on the east, the Bentonville and Keets- 
ville road on the west, and a branch of the latter road, which is nearly 
parallel to and 3 miles from the Telegraph road. During the morning 
Col. Grenville M. Dodge directed the felling of trees across all three 
roads. About 2 p. m. Asboth and Osterhaus reported with their divi- 
sions and shortly afterward it was learned that Sigel, who had remained 
at Bentonville for two hours with a detachment, had been surrounded 
and attacked at that point by Van Dorn's advance. The ist and 2nd 
divisions were immediately hurried to his assistance. Osterhaus in the 
advance. Four miles from camp Osterhaus met Sigel fighting his way, 
and the artillery of the division was brought into action, which drove 
the enemy back. The divisions then took position along Sugar creek, 
with Asboth forming the right, then Osterhaus, Davis and Carr in order. 
In front of them was the deep valley of Sugar creek and in their rear 
was the broken plateau called Pea ridge. The road from Bentonville 
would have brought Van Dorn's forces in contact with Curtis' extreme 
right, but no assault was made that night. Rather than attack in a 
position which Curtis had chosen Van Dorn moved his force so as to 



Cyclopedia of Battles 669 

outflank the Federals on their right and gain their rear by proceeding 
up the Bentonville and Keetsville pike and coming upon them from 
the direction of Cross Timber hollow and Elkhorn tavern. The trees 
which Dodge had felled on the 6th so effectually delayed the movement 
that Curtis had ample time on the following morning to make a change 
of front. The ist and 2nd divisions became the left of the line with their 
left resting on Sugar creek ; Osterhaus was ordered to take a detach- 
ment of light artillery, some cavalry and an infantry support and open 
the fight against the enemy's center. This force with Davis' division 
formed the Federal center, and Carr's division took the extreme right. 
About 10 so a. m. it was reported that the pickets at Elkhorn tavern 
on the Telegraph road, about three and a half miles above the Sugar 
creek encampment, had been driven in. It was at this point that Carr's 
right was to rest. Osterhaus immediately advanced against the Con- 
federate center, composed of the commands of Mcintosh and Hebert 
and the Indians, and succeeded in breaking the enemy's advancing line. 
A greatly superior force was brought against him, however, and he was 
compelled to retire, losing in the movement his flying battery. His in- 
fantry support after some desperate fighting checked the Confederate ad- 
vance, but Curtis thought the position so strategic that he counter- 
manded an order to Davis to support Carr and sent him to assist Oster- 
haus. It was at the center of the Union line that the fight raged the 
most furiously at first, but Davis' line held like a stone wall and Van 
Dorn was compelled to adopt other tactics. Carr had met some trouble 
in repelling the attacks on him and Van Dorn determined to force that 
part of the line. At the first call for reinforcements from the right 
Curtis sent his body-guard and a detachment of mountain howitzers, but 
notwithstanding this the Confederates still held the advantage. Carr 
again asked for reinforcements, stating that he could not hold out much 
longer, and was sent a battalion of infantry and 3 pieces of artillery. 
Each augmentation of the Union right seemed to result in a still larger 
addition to the Confederate force opposed to it. At 2 p. m. no attack 
had been made on Sigel and Asboth on Sugar creek, and Curtis resolved 
to bring one or both of those divisions into the action. Asboth was 
moved by the direct road to Elkhorn tavern and Sigel with Osterhaus' 
division proceeded by way of Leetown to reinforce Davis, or if not 
needed at that point to come to Carr's assistance. Curtis himself accom- 
panied Asboth and about 5 p. m. came to where Carr was stationed. 
The latter's division after 7 hours of constant fighting was still stub- 
bornly engaging the enemy. Asboth's artillery was planted in the Tele- 
graph road and opened a heavy fire at close range, continuing it until a 
lack of ammunition compelled it to fall back. Darkness closed in while 
the troops were still in the same relative positions. Curtis immediately 
began the formation of a new line of battle. Davis was drawn back 
from his center position and ordered to take the ground at Carr's left. 
About 2 a. m. of the 8th Sigel reported and with Asboth was sent to 
take position on the left. The ist and 2nd divisions under Sigel were 
not yet in position when day broke, but the enemy did not renew the 
attack. Davis' division opened the fight of the third day, but no sooner 
had it done so than the enemy replied from a new line and from new 
batteries established during the night. The Federal right fell back a 
distance to avoid a raking fire, and in the meantime the left took posi- 
tion, the line then extending from the mountain on the left, commanded 
by Sigel's 2nd division, in a southeasterly direction across the Telegraph 
road to where Carr's division, somewhat refused, held the right. On 
the extreme right was a slight eminence some distance in advance of the 
main line, on which Curtis located the Dubuque battery, and had Carr 
move forward his right to support it, thus giving direction for the ad- 



670 The Union Army 

vance of the whole right wing. Other batteries were moved forward in 
the same way all along the line. As each battery sent forward by Sigel's 
two divisions on the right would drive the Confederates back from their 
front they would wheel with deployed infantry support half to the right. 
These tactics, repeated along the whole left, kept the Confederate right 
dropping back, and before many hours the Union line was a huge semi- 
circle, the Dubuque battery its right end, the left of Asboth's division 
the left end, enclosing within it Van Dorn's army. It was next to im- 
possible for the Confederates to withstand the concentrated cross-fire 
of the converging Union line and before noon they had stopped firing. It 
was soon discovered that Van Dorn was fleeing north through the 
gorge where the Telegraph road passes. Pursuit was made by Sigel 
along the Keetsville road to intercept the enemy at the junction of that 
road with the Telegraph, but it was afterwards found that the main 
force of Van Dorn's army after entering the gorge had turned short to 
the right into the ravines and passes that led into the Huntsville road 
in a direction due south. The losses in this engagement were 203 killed, 
980 wounded and 201 captured or missing on the Federal side. The 
Confederate casualties were never definitely ascertained, but were un- 
doubtedly fully as heavy. The affair is called by the Confederates the 
battle of Elkhorn Tavern. 

Pea Ridge, Tenn., April 27, 1862. Cavalry Detachment of Mc- 
Clernand's Division. A cavalry detachment commanded by Lieut. -Col. 
William McCullough encountered some Confederate pickets at Pea ridge. 
Three were killed and the remainder driven back. 

Pea Ridge Prairie, Mo., Feb. 23, 1862. Detachment of Missouri 
Militia. While on a reconnaissance with his company, Capt. Richardson 
sent Sergt. Butcher, with 8 men, to scout along the south side of the 
prairie. After proceeding about a mile and a half Butcher discovered 
a small party of Confederates in a point of timber, charged and routed 
them, and a running fight for three miles followed, in which 3 of the 
enemy were killed, i wounded and 3 men and 3 horses captured. The 
Union loss was i horse killed. 

Pearl River, Miss., July 16, 1863. (See Grant's Ferry.) 

Pearl River, Miss., Feb. 28, 1864. Foraging party of ist Brigade, 
4th Division, 17th Army Corps. This affair was an almost continuous 
skirmish between a Federal foraging party and bands of Confederates. 
When the party returned to the Federal camp it was found that 15 of 
its members were missing, several of whom were known to have been 
wounded. The affair occurred during the Meridian campaign. 

Pea Vine Creek, Ga., Sept. 10, 1863. 2nd Division, 21st Army Corps- 
While the Army of the Cumberland was maneuvering for position just 
before the battle of Chickamauga, this division, Maj.-Gen. John M. Pal- 
mer commanding, left Rossville on the morning of the loth and moved 
on the Dalton road toward Ringgold. At Pea Vine creek, 5 miles from 
Ringgold, a detachment of the enemy was seen in front, and Capt. Norton 
was sent forward with Palmer's escort and part of the 4th Mich, cavalry. 
Norton attacked with great vigor and drove the Confederate cavalry 
for a mile, when, fearing he might be cut off by a larger force if he 
continued the pursuit, he returned to the column. No casualties re- 
ported in this action. A short time later the advance was charged by 
some Confederate cavalry and 58 men belonging to the ist Ky. cavalry 
were captured. 

Pea Vine Creek, Ga., Nov. 26, 1863. Detachment of 2nd Division, 
i2th Army Corps. During the pursuit of the Confederates up the 
Chickamauga valley, while Geary's division was awaiting the construc- 
tion of a foot bridge over Pea Vine creek, the advance made a dash 
upon the rear-guard of Breckenridge's corps and the rest of the division 



Cyclopedia of Battles 671 

was formed in line of battle on both sides of the road and advanced. 
The skirmish resulted in the capture of 3 guns of Ferguson's battery, 
the artillerists and part of the infantry support. The other casualties 
were not reported. 

Pebbly Run, N. C, April 13, 1862. (See Gillett's Farm.) 
Peck's House, Tenn., Dec. 24, 1863. ist Brigade, ist Cavalry Divi- 
sion, Army of the Cumberland. The action at Peck's house on this date 
was part of the operations of Campbell's brigade, in the maneuvers 
about Mossy Creek Station and Dandridge. (See Hay's Ferry.) 

Pecos River, N. M., Jan. 5, 1864. Detachments of 2nd California 
Cavalry and 5th U. S. Mounted Infantry. Lieut. Charles Newbold with 
some men from each of the above regiments and a party of 25 Apache 
Indians started in pursuit of some Navajo Indians who had run off the 
stock of the Apaches. Near the Pecos river, about 12 miles from Fort 
Sumner, the Indians were overtaken and after a sharp skirmish were 
routed. The soldiers pursued and kept up a running fight to the banks 
of the river. The loss to the marauding party was said to be 40 killed 
and at least the same number wounded. The only casualties sustained 
by the attacking party were the wounding of 2 Apaches. 

Pecosin Creek, Va., Jan. 30, 1863. (See Deserted House.) 
Peebles' Farm, Va., Sept. 30, 1864. (See Poplar Spring Church.) 
Pegram's Farm, Va., Sept. 30, 1864. (See Poplar Spring Church.) 
Pekin, Ind., July 11, 1863. A telegram from Thomas W. Fry, a sur- 
geon in the government service, to Brig.-Gen. Jeremiah T. Boyle, from 
New Albany, under date of July 13, says : "A skirmish occurred at Pekin, 
in which we killed i, wounded 5, and took 20 prisoners. The balance 
fled for the river, southwest." This is the only official mention of the 
affair, which was an incident of Morgan's Ohio raid. 

Pemiscot Bayou, Ark., April 6, 1864. Detachment of 2nd Missouri 
Light Artillery. The detachment, under Maj. John W. Rabb, while in 
pursuit of guerrillas in Missouri and Arkansas, was attacked by a band 
of about 100 before daylight near the house of one Mark Walker on 
Pemiscot bayou. After 5 minutes of sharp fighting the enemy retreated, 
carrying off their dead and wounded. The Federals suffered a loss of 
3 killed and 7 wounded. 

Pensacola, Fla., Sept. 14, 1861. Detachment of crew of U. S. 
Steamer Colorado. With a detail of men, Lieut. John H. Russell de- 
scended upon the navy yard at Pensacola at 2 a. m. The steamer 
Judah, with 5 guns, lying at anchor just off the yard, was burned and 
the only gun in the yard was spiked. Three of Russell's men were killed 
and 4 wounded. The Confederates report no casualties. 

Pensacola, Fla., Nov. 22-23, 1861. Troops of the Department of 
Florida, and Steamers Niagara and Richmond. This affair was an ar- 
tillery duel between the U. S. forces in Fort Pickens and the adjacent 
batteries and two vessels in the harbor, and the Confederates under 
Bragg in the town and fortifications. The fighting was kept up for two 
days without much loss to either side, Bragg's casualties amounting to 
I killed and 20 wounded, while the Federals lost i killed and 6 wounded. 
Pensacola, Fla., April 2, 1864. (See Cow Ford Creek, same date.) 
Peralta, N, Mex., April 15, 1862. 19th U. S. and 4th and 5th New 
Mexico Infantry, and 3d U. S. Cavalry. After effecting a junction at 
Tijeras, the forces under command of Col. Edward R. S. Canby, com- 
manding the department of New Mexico, arrived early on the morning 
of the 15th at Peralta, where a wagon train was captured with a loss to 
the enemy of 6 killed, 3 wounded and 22 captured. Canby's movement 
had been kept concealed from the enemy's main body by the New Mexico 
infantry and three companies of regular cavalry, which, after some sharp 
skirmishing, drove the Confederates across the river, losing i man killed 
and 3 wounded. 



672 The Union Army 

Perche Hills, Mo., May 5, 1865. Detachment of 9th Missouri Militia 
Cavalry. Maj. Reeves Leonard, reporting from Sturgeon under date of 
May 5, says : "A scout from this post under Sergt. Tate, of Co. C, had 
a skirmish with a band of guerrillas this morning in Perche Hills. Killed 
I, wounded 2, captured several horses, arms, etc." 

Perkins' Mill, Tenn., Dec. 28, 1862. Detachments of 6th and loth 
Kentucky Cavalry. As an incident of an expedition into east Tennessee, 
the detachment, under Maj. James L. Foley, surprised the camp of some 
350 Confederates at Perkins' mill on Elk fork, capturing the 16 pickets 
without noise and then charging the main body at daylight. Three times 
the enemy attempted to form his line, but was each time unsuccessful, 
and finally gave way in confusion, losing 30 killed, 17 wounded and 51 
captured. No Federal casualties were reported. 

Perry County, Ark., Dec. 3, 1864. Detachment of 3d Arkansas Cav- 
alry. Col. Abraham H. Ryan, reporting from Lewisburg under date of 
Dec. 4, says : "Lieut. Robert W. Wishard has returned from scout 
through Perry county ; killed i lieutenant and 4 men of the enemy. Lost 
I man killed and i wounded badly." 

Perry County, Ky., Nov. 9, 1862. 14th Kentucky Cavalry. 

Perry's Ferry, Miss., April 19, 1863. (See Coldwater, same date.) 

Perryville, Ind. Ten, Aug. 26, 1863. Troops of Southeastern Dis- 
trict of Missouri. After pursuing the Confederates for 40 miles during 
the day the Federal advance under Col. William F. Cloud about 8 p. m. 
came upon their rear-guard behind a light barricade just outside of 
Perryville. A few shells from the Federal howitzers made the enemy 
leave their fortifications in haste and Cloud occupied and burned the 
town. Four Federals were wounded, and during the pursuit and taking 
of the town the enemy lost 4 killed and between 12 and 20 captured. 

Perryville, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862. Army of the Ohio. Early in August, 
1862, the Confederate forces under Gens. Bragg and E. Kirby Smith 
united for an invasion of Kentucky, in the hope of forcing the state to 
secede from the Union. Smith entered Kentucky via of Cumberland 
gap and moved toward Lexington. Bragg's column crossed the Ten- 
nessee river at Chattanooga, moved rapidly through middle Tennessee, 
and on Sept. 13 was at Glasgow, Ky., the objective point being Louisville. 
If Louisville could be seized and held the states north of the Ohio river 
would be in danger of invasion. Leaving a sufficient force to hold Nash- 
ville, Buell pushed forward with the remainder of his army in a race with 
Bragg for Louisville, where the Federal advance arrived on Sept. 25, and 
the rear division four days later. At Louisville Buell found a large num- 
ber of raw recruits from the states of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and 
immediately set about the reorganization of his army by intermixing the 
new troops with the old without changing the old organization. 

When reorganized the Army of the Ohio numbered about 60,000 men. 
It was composed of the ist, 2nd and 3d army corps, respectively com- 
manded by Maj. -Gens. A. McD. McCook, T. L. Crittenden and C. C. 
Gilbert. McCook's corps embraced the 3d and loth divisions, com- 
manded by Brig.-Gen. L. H. Rousseau and Brig.-Gen. J. S. Jackson ; 
Crittenden's corps was composed of the 4th and 6th divisions, com- 
manded by Brig.-Gens. W. S. Smith and T. J. Wood ; Gilbert's corps 
consisted of the ist, 9th and nth divisions, commanded by Brig.-Gens. 
Albert Schoepf, R. B. Mitchell and P. H. Sheridan. Opposed to this 
force was the Confederate Army of the Mississippi under Gen. Braxton 
Bragg, the estimated strength of which was about 68,000 men. The right 
wing, under Maj. -Gen. Leonidas Polk, consisted of Cheatham's division 
and the cavalry brigade of Col. J. A. Wharton. The left wing, com- 
manded by Maj. -Gen. W. J. Hardee, was made up of the infantry divi- 
sions of Brig.-Gen. J. P. Anderson and Maj. -Gen. S. B. Buckner, and 
the cavalry brigade of Col. Joseph Wheeler. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 673 

It was Buell's intention to start from Louisville on the last day of 
September and move against Bragg, who was then at Bardstown, about 
45 miles south, but an order was received relieving him of the command 
of the army and turning it over to Maj.-Gen. George H. Thomas. The 
latter declined to accept, however, and was made second in command. 
This proceeding delayed the movement of the army for one day, and 
on Oct. I, it marched out in five columns. The left moved toward Frank- 
fort to hold in check the Confederates in that vicinity, and the other four 
moved over the roads leading via Shepherdsville, Mount Washington, 
Fairfeld and Bloomfield to Bardstown. Each column encountered Con- 
federate detachments a few miles out from Louisville and the delay oc- 
casioned by the almost constant skirmishing gave Bragg an opportunity 
to get away from Bardstown, the last of his infantry retiring about eight 
hours before Buell's advance entered the town. A sharp skirmish 
occurred between the cavalry and artillery, the pursuit of the Confederate 
rear-guard continuing for some distance in the direction of Springfield. 
BeHeving that the enemy would concentrate his forces abour Danville, 
Buell ordered McCook to move toward that point via Harrodsburg while 
Crittenden proceeded on the Lebanon and Danville road and Gilbert 
took the direct road to Perryville. Shortly after leaving Bardstown 
Buell received information that Kirby Smith had crossed the Kentucky 
river near Salvisa and was moving to effect a junction with Bragg at 
Harrodsburg or Perryville. Orders were therefore sent to McCook to 
move directly to the latter place. Gilbert's corps arrived within 3 miles 
of Perryville on the afternoon of the 7th and was drawn up in line of 
battle, as the enemy appeared to be in considerable force and an attack 
was apprehended. Capt. Gay pushed forward with his brigade of cavalry 
and a battery, driving the Confederate rear-guard back about a mile and 
ueveloping the enemy's position, which was such that it indicated he in- 
tended to make a stand at Perryville. As water had been somewhat 
scarce during the last three days, Buell's first step was to gain possession 
of Doctor's creek, a tributary of the Chaplin river, and to accomplish 
this Col. Daniel McCook's brigade of Sheridan's division was ordered 
to seize and hold a position commanding the creek. The enemy tried to 
prevent this, but McCook carried out the order just before daylight on 
the morning of the 8th. Orders were sent to commanders of the ist and 
2nd corps to move at 3 a. m. on the 8th and take positions on the right 
and left of Gilbert. These orders did not reach McCook and Crittenden 
until after 2 o'clock in the morning. The former marched at 5 o'clock 
and reached the field at 10:30 a. m., and the latter's command was not 
in the engagement at all. 

The battle on the 8th began with the attempt of the Confederates to 
drive McCook from his position covering Doctor's creek, and was opened 
with artillery. McCook ordered Barnett's battery to the right of his line 
to reply, and after about three-fourths of an hour Barnett succeeded in 
silencing the enemy's guns. Buckner then commenced massing his 
troops in the edge of the woods in which McCook had placed his skir- 
mishers. Gay's cavalry started toward Perryville, but was stopped by 
Buckner. Dismounting part of his command. Gay joined the skirmishers 
of the 54th Ohio and soon became engaged with Buckner's force, con- 
sisting of two brigades of infantry. The 2nd Mo. and .44th 111. were 
then sent forward to the support of the skirmish line, driving the enemy 
from the woods and back across an open field. In the meantime the 
divisions of Mitchell and Sheridan had been moved to a position 
where they could come quickly to McCook's support, with orders 
to hold their ground until the army was prepared to attack in force. 
About the time that Buckner was driven back across the field Rous- 
seau's division came up on the Mackville road and formed in an 
Vol. VI— 13 



674 The Union Army 

open field on the left of Gilbert, but with considerable space be- 
tween the two commands. At 2 p. m. the enemy made an attack on 
the skirmishers of the 33d Ohio. The remainder of that regiment and 
the 2nd Ohio were sent to the support of the skirmish line and in 
a short time the action became general, the heaviest assault falling 
on the left of the line, where it was gallantly repulsed by Stark- 
weather's brigade. Gen. Jackson was killed at the first fire, and this 
caused a portion of his division to give way in some confusion. 
Brig.-Gen. W. R. Terrill. commanding the 33d brigade, lost his life 
while trying to rally the men, and 10 pieces of his artillery were left 
on the ground, though 8 of these were afterward recovered. The 
Confederates next took advantage of the gap between Rousseau's 
right and Gilbert's left, pressing the attack at that point with an over- 
whelming force. Rousseau's right was turned and his line was be- 
ing forced back, when Gooding's and Steedman's brigades of Gilbert's 
corps came to his assistance, driving back the enemy and reoc- 
cupying the ground near the Russell house. Steedman posted his 
battery along with that of Finney's near the Russell house and 
opened a terrific fire on the Confederate lines, while the batteries of 
Sheridan's division caught the enemy on the left flank and poured in 
a heavy enfilading fire from that direction. Carlin's brigade of 
Mitchell's division now reinforced Sheridan, a charge was made with 
such intrepidity that the Confederates were completely routed and 
forced back through the town, Sheridan capturing 2 caissons and 
IS wagons loaded with ammunition, as well as the guard with them, 
consisting of 3 officers and 138 men. This ended the battle, though 
the Union commanders spent the greater part of the night in per- 
fecting their plans for a renewal of the fight on the following morn- 
ing. At daylight on the 9th the Federal camps were astir and at 6 
o'clock the corps of Crittenden and Gilbert moved forward to attack 
the enemy's front and left flank. When the advance reached the 
town it was discovered that the enemy had abandoned his position 
during the night and fallen back toward Harrodsburg. 

The Union losses in the battle of Perryville were 845 killed, 2,851 
wounded and 515 missing. Bragg reported his losses as being 510 
killed, 2,635 wounded and 251 missing. This engagement ended the 
Confederate invasion of Kentucky. The effort to force the state to 
secede had failed. On Oct. 12 Bragg made a report from Bryants- 
ville. in which he said: "The campaign here was predicated on a 
belief and the most positive assurances that the people of this coun- 
try would- rise in mass to assert their independence. No people ever 
had so favorable an opportunity, but I am distressed to add there is 
little or no disposition to avail of it. Willing, perhaps, to accept their 
independence, they are neither disposed nor willing to risk their lives 
or their property in its achievement." In the same report he also 
says: "Ascertaining that the enemy was heavily reinforced during 
the night, I withdrew my force early the next morning to Harrods- 
burg and thence to this point. * * * My future movements cannot 
be indicated, as they will depend in a great measure on those of the 
enemy." The only "reinforcement" added to Buell's army on the 
night of the 8th was Crittenden's corps, and this was near enough 
to have been brought into the action at Perryville, had the com- 
manding general deemed it necessary. As "the enemy" showed a 
disposition to act on the aggressive, Bragg hurried to get out of 
Kentucky, retreating via Cumberland gap into Tennessee, the Union 
army continuing the pursuit as far as London, Ky., harassing the 
rear-guard and capturing a number of stragglers. (This engage- 
ment is sometimes called the battle of Chaplin Hills.) 



Cyclopedia of Battles 675 

Pest-House, La., May 28, 1864. (See Port Hudson, same date.) 

Petersburg, Tenn., March 2, 1863. 

Petersburg, Va., June 9, 1864. Detachment, Army of the James. 
Brig.-Gen. August V. Kautz with the cavalry division, in what was 
to be a joint movement on Petersburg, assailed and carried the first 
line of the Confederate intrenchments by dismounting his men and 
slowly advancing until the enemy was obliged to retreat. The men 
were then remounted and started for the city, but before reachmg it a 
large ravine had to be crossed. While Kautz was moving down this 
he was fired on by the Confederate artillery and rnusketry and after 
waiting for some time for the infantry under Maj.-Gen. Q. A. Gill- 
more to come up, he withdrew, having lost 4 killed. 26 wounded and 
6 captured or missing. Gillmore's command, through some misun- 
derstanding did not advance to support Kautz. but during the day 
skirmished with the enemy in his works on another side of town. 
In the fighting there Gillmore lost 25 in killed and wounded. 

Petersburg, Va., June 15, 1864, to April 2, 1865. Army of the 
Potomac and Army of the James. When the Army of the Poto- 
mac began the campaign from the Rapidan to the James on May 4, 
1864, Gen. Butler, with the Army of the James, was directed to 
move against Richmond by the south bank of the James river, and 
Gen. Hunter was to move up the Shenandoah Valley, "destroying, 
as far as practicable, railroads that could be used as lines of supplies 
to the enemy, and also the James river and the Kanawha canal." 
After the battle of Cold Harbor, on June 3, Grant resolved to trans- 
fer the field of operations to the south side of the James, and on the 
5th he sent a despatch to Gen. Halleck, chief of staff, in which he 
stated: "My idea from the start has been to beat Lee's army if 
possible north of Richmond; then after destroying his lines of com- 
munication on the north side of the James river to transfer the arrny 
to the south side and besiege Lee in Richmond, or follow him 
south if he should retreat. * * * Once on the south side of the 
James river, I can cut ofif all sources of supply to the enemy except 
what is furnished by the canal. H Hunter succeeds in reaching 
Lynchburg, that will be lost to him also. Should Hunter not suc- 
ceed, I will still make the effort to destroy the canal by sending cav- 
alry up the south side of the river with a pontoon train to cross 
wherever they can." Grant had now adopted practically the same 
plan that had been proposed by McClellan two years before. In 
June, 1862, McClellan said: "The superiority of the James river 
route as a line of attack and supply is too obvious to need exposition," 
and again in August, when the authorities in Washington were need- 
lessly alarmed for the safety of the national capital, he telegraphed 
Gen. Halleck: "Here is the true defense of Washington. It is here, 
on the banks of the James, that the fate of the Union should be 
decided." In view of the final success of the army under Grant 
these words are prophetic. 

The siege of Petersburg was also the siege of Richmond, for with 
the fall of the former the latter was doomed. From Richmond the 
James river flows south in almost a straight line for 10 miles, when 
it turns toward the southeast and after a sinuous course receives the 
Appomattox at City Point. Petersburg is located on the Appomat- 
tox, 10 miles above its mouth and 22 miles south of Richmond. The 
two cities were connected by the Richmond & Petersburg railway. 
From Petersburg the South Side railroad ran west along the bank 
of the Appomattox to Lynchburg; the Weldon railroad ran south 
and the Norfolk southeast. A short line also connected Petersburg 
with City Point. Directly across the James from Richmond was the 



676 The Union Army 

village of Manchester, from which the Richmond & Danville 
railroad ran west along the south bank of the James river, while 
along the north bank of that stream was the Kanawha canal, men- 
tioned by Grant in his despatch to Halleck. To cut these lines of 
communication was the first object of the Federal commander. About 
half way between Petersburg and City Point are the Point of Rocks 
and Broadway landing on the Appomattox. From this point to the 
Dutch Gap bend on the James tlie distance in a straight line is 
about 3 miles. The peninsula enclosed by the two rivers below this 
line is known as Bermuda Hundred, which had been occupied by 
Butler early in May and a line of works constructed across the neck 
of the peninsula. This position was a strong one for defense, but 
Gen. Beauregard, commanding the defenses of Petersburg, threw 
up a line of works immediately in Butler's front, thus preventing 
his further advance and bottling him up on the peninsula, where 
he remained until the Army of the Potomac moved to the south side 
of the James. On June 9, Kautz charged and carried a portion of the 
Petersburg works, but not being supported by the infantrj^ was un- 
able to hold them, though he brought out 40 prisoners and i piece 
of artillery when he withdrew. 

The withdrawal of troops from Cold Harbor began on the loth. 
Shortly after dark on the 12th the i8th corps, the last to leave the 
trenches, took up the march to White House landing on the Pa- 
munkey river, where the men were embarked on transports, and by 
sunset on the 14th the corps joined Butler at Bermuda Hundred, near 
the junction of the James and Appomattox rivers. The other corps 
crossed the Chickahominy and niarched across the country, striking- 
the James river in the vicinity of Malvern hill. By the 20th of June 
Grant had about 110,000 men in front of the Petersburg and Rich- 
mond intrenchments. His forces were organized as follows: The 
Army of the Potomac, Maj.-Gen. George G. Meade, commanding, 
consisted of the 2nd, 5th, 6th and 9th corps of infantry and the cav- 
alry corps. The 2nd corps was commanded by Maj.-Gen. Winfield S. 
Hancock and was composed of three divisions, the first under com- 
mand of Brig.-Gen. Francis C. Barlow, the 2nd under Maj.-Gen. 
John Gibbon, and the 3d under Maj.-Gen. David B. Birney. The 
5th corps, commanded by Maj.-Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren, em- 
braced four divisions, respectively commanded by Brig.-Gens. Charles 
Grififin, Romeyn B. Ayres, Samuel W. Crawford and Lysander Cutler. 
The 6th corps, Maj.-Gen. Horatio G. Wright commanding, included 
three divisions, the ist commanded by Brig.-Gen. David A. Russell, 
the 2nd by Brig.-Gen. Geoge W. Getty, and the 3d by Brig.-Gen. 
James B. Ricketts. Maj.-Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside was in com- 
mand of the 9th corps, which was composed of four divisions re- 
spectively commanded by Brig.-Gens. James H. Ledlie, Robert H. 
Potter, Orlando B. Willcox and Edward Ferrero, the last named 
being composed of colored troops. The cavalry corps was under 
command of Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan, and was made up of three 
divisions, the ist commanded by Brig.-Gen. Alfred T. A. Torbert, the 
2nd by Brig.-Gen. David McM. Gregg, and the 3d by Brig.-Gen. 
James H. Wilson. With the 2nd corps was the artillery brigade of 
Col. John C. Tidball; Col. Charles S. Wainwright commanded the 
artillery brigade of the 5th corps, and Col. Charles H. Tompkins of 
the 6th, while the artillery of the 9th was distributed among the 
several divisions. Capt. James M. Robertson's brigade of horse 
artillery was attached to Sheridan's command. The Army of the 
James, Maj.-Gen. Benjamin F. Butler commanding, was made up of 
the loth and i8th infantry corps, the cavalry division under Brig.- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 677 

Gen. August V. Kautz, the siege artillery under Col. Henry L. Abbot, 
and the naval brigade under Brig.-Gen. Charles K. Graham. The 
loth corps, commanded by Brig.-Gen. William H. T. Brooks, in- 
cluded the three divisions commanded by Brig.-Gens. Alfred H. Terry, 
John W. Turner and Orris K. F"erry. The i8th corps, commanded 
by Alaj.-Gen. William F. Smith, embraced the three divisions under 
Brig.-Gens. George J. Stannard, John H. Martindale and Edward W. 
Hinks. In addition to the regular organizations named there were 
some unattached troops. 

Early on the morning of June 13 Lee discovered that the Fed- 
eral troops in his front had been withdrawn, and immediately put 
his own army in motion for the Richmond and Petersburg intrench- 
ments. The Confederate works about the two cities are thus de- 
scribed by Hotchkiss in the Virginia volume of the Confederate Mili- 
tary History: "At this time, Beauregard's left rested on the navi- 
gable Appomattox, about one mile north of east from Petersburg.. 
* * * On his right, Anderson, with the First corps, extended the- 
Confederate line for some 3 miles to the southward, in front of 
Petersburg, crossing the Norfolk & Petersburg railroad in the vi- 
cinity of the Jerusalem plank road, thence westward for some 2 
miles ; the Third corps, under A. P. Hill, extended the Confederate 
right, on the south of Petersburg, to the Weldon & Petersburg rail- 
road. Pickett's division took up the hne on the west side of the 
Appomattox and extended it north to the James, at the big bend op- 
posite Dutch gap. The fortifications on the north of the James, 
from Chaffin's bluff northward, along the front of Richmond, were 
held by batteries and by local troops in command of Lieut. -Gen. 
R. S. Ewell. Subsequently the Confederate works were extended 
to the southwest of Petersburg for more than 10 miles to beyond 
Hatcher's run, until Lee's line of defensive works, consisting of forts 
and redoubts connected by breastworks and strengthened by all 
means known to the art of war, extended for nearly 40 miles." 
According to the same authority, "Lee had, in his 40-mile line, for the 
defense of Richmond and Petersburg, some 54,000 men, the remain- 
ing veterans of the Army of Northern Virginia, and of the depart- 
ment of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, Beauregard's army." 
From official sources it is learned that on June 30 Lee's forces num- 
bered 54,751 men, which was gradually increased until on December 
20 he had 66,533. During the same period the Union army had lost 
in killed, wounded and missing 47,554 men, but recruits had been 
brought in until on Dec. 20 Grant had 110,364 men of all arms in 
front of the Confederate works. 

About 4 a. m. on June 15 Smith's corps and Kautz's cavalry 
left Broadway landing for an assault on Beauregard's works. 
Kautz soon met the Confederate skirmishers and at Baylor's farm, 
about 4 miles from Petersburg, a force of infantry and artillery was 
found occupying a line of rifle-pits. Hinks' division of colored troops 
made a vigorous attack, dislodged the enemy and captured i 
piece of artillery. Smith then advanced about a mile and a half to 
the Jordan farm, where his entire front was subjected to an artillery 
fire that drove the Union batteries from their position. Some delay 
was incurred in reconnoitering, but at 7 p. m. the divisions of Brooks 
and Hinks pushed forward and carried the works, capturing over 
200 prisoners, 4 guns, with horses, caissons and ammunition, several 
stands of colors and the intrenching tools. About the same time 
Martindale's division carried the works between Jordan's house and 
the Appomattox, capturing 2 pieces of artillery and equipments 
complete. Hancock was directed on the evening of the 14th to 



578 The Union Army 

hold his corps in readiness to move, but he was delayed in waiting 
for rations from City Point until 10:30 a. rn. on the 15th, when the 
command moved without the rations. Owing to an incorrect map 
he was unable to join Smith until after the action at Jordan's was 
over. At 8 o'clock that evening Burnside started the 9th corps to 
reinforce Smith and Hancock, and at 10 o'clock the next morning his 
command went into position on Hancock's left. Hancock was placed 
in command of all the troops and ordered to make a general assault 
at 6 p. m. Before that hour Egan's brigade of Birney's division 
assaulted and carried a redoubt, known as redan No. 12, on Birney's 
left. In the attack at 6 o'clock redans Nos. 4, 13 and 14, with their 
connecting lines of breastworks, were carried, but with considerable 
loss to the assailants. At dawn on the 17th Potter's division sur- 
prised the enemy in the works on the ridge near the Shand house, 
captured 4 guns, 5 stands of colors, 600 prisoners and 1,500 stands 
of small arms. This was accomplished without a shot being fired, 
the bayonet alone being used. The Confederates were asleep with 
their arms in their hands, but Potter's men moved so quietly, and 
at the same time so swiftly, that they were over the works before the 
alarm could be given. Those captured surrendered without resist- 
ance and the others fled precipitately to an intrenched position along 
the west side of Harrison's creek. Later in the day this line was 
attacked by Willcox, but owing to a heavy enfilading fire of artillery 
from the left, and the lack of proper support, the assault was re- 
pulsed. Hartranft's brigade went into this action with 1,890 men, 
of whom but 1,050 came back. 

In the meantime Warren's corps had come up and taken position 
on the left of Burnside. From prisoners Meade learned the 
character of Beauregard's intrenchments and the strength of his 
force, and ordered an assault by the whole line to be made at day- 
light on the morning of the i8th, hoping to carry the works before 
Lee could send reinforcements. When the line advanced on the 
morning of the 18th it was found that the enemy had evacuated the 
trenches held the day before and now occupied a new line some 
distance farther back toward the city of Petersburg. It was also dis- 
covered that Field's and Kershaw's divisions had arrived during 
the night and were already in position to meet the assault. On 
account of the change in the enemy's position and the nature of the 
ground over which the Federal troops had to advance, the attack 
was postponed until 12 o'clock. The 2nd corps then made two at- 
tacks on the right of the Prince George Court House road, but both 
were repulsed. Burnside encountered some difficulty in driving the 
Confederates from the railroad cut, but finally succeeded and estab- 
lished his corps within a hundred yards of the enemy's main line. 
Warren's assault was also unsuccessful, though some of Griffin's 
men fell within 20 feet of the enemy's works. Martindale's division 
carried a line of rifle-pits, but made no attack on the main line. The 
positions gained by the several commands were then intrenched 
and the siege of Petersburg was begun in earnest. From that time until 
the fall of the city on April 2, 1865. there was almost daily skirmish- 
ing at some point along the lines in front of Petersburg, with more 
serious engagements on the Jerusalem plank road, at Deep Bottom, 
along the Weldon, South Side and Danville railroads. Reams' Sta- 
tion, Yellow Tavern, Globe Tavern, Dinwiddie Court House, Fort 
Harrison, Chaffin's farm. Fair Oaks, Hatcher's run. Five Forks, Sailor's 
creek, and a number of minor skirmishes, each of which is herein treated 
iunder the proper head. 

In Potter's division of the 9th corps was the 48th Pa., a regiment 



Cyclopedia of Battles 679 

made up chiefly of miners from Schuylkill county and commanded by 
Lieut.-Col. Henry Pleasants, who was a practical mining engineer. 
After the assault of the i8th the men of this regiment began dis- 
cussing the feasibility of running a mine under the enemy's works, 
and the plan was finally proposed by Pleasants to Burnside, who 
gave the project his unqualified approval and gained Meade's consent 
to it. The portion of the works to be mined was known as Elliott's 
salient, being occupied by Elliott's brigade of Bushrod Johnson's 
division and was near the center of the line on the east side of the 
city. With no tools but the pick and shovel the Pennsylvanians ex- 
cavated a main gallery 522 feet in length with lateral galleries 37 
and 38 feet long running under and nearly parallel to the enemy's 
works, the earth taken from the tunnel being carried out in cracker 
boxes. The work was commenced on June 25, and on July 27 the 
mine was charged with 8,000 pounds of powder, which was placed in 
eight magazines of 1,000 pounds each. On the 26th Burnside re- 
ported his plan for an assault to follow immediately upon the ex- 
plosion of the mine. This plan contemplated the placing of Fer- 
rero's division in the advance, because his other divisions had been under 
a heavy fire, day and night, for more than a month, while the colored 
troops had been held as a reserve. This selection was not approved 
by Meade and Grant, partly for the reason that it might be charged 
they were willing to sacrifice the negro soldiers by pushing them 
forward and partly because Ferrero's division had never been in 
close contact with the enemy and it was not known how they 
would conduct themselves in such an emergency, though the men 
had been drilling for several weeks for the work, and were not only 
willing but anxious for the undertaking. A division was then 
selected by lot, and it fell to Gen. Ledlie to lead the assault. This 
was Burnside's weakest division and was commanded by a map 
whom Gen. Humphreys, Meade's chief of staflf, characterizes as "an 
officer whose total unfitness for such a duty ought to have been known 
to Gen. Burnside, though it is not possible that it could have been. 
It was not known to Gen. Meade." 

On the 29th an order was issued from headquarters providing that 
"At half-past three in the morning of the 30th, Maj.-Gen. Burnside 
will spring his mine, and his assaulting columns will immediately 
move rapidly upon the breach, seize the crest in the rear and effect 
a lodgment there. He will be followed by Maj.-Gen. Ord (now in 
command of the i8th corps), who will support him on the right, di- 
recting his movement to the crest indicated, and by Maj.-Gen. Warren, 
wiio will support him on the left. Upon the explosion of the mine the 
artillery of all kinds in battery will open upon those points of the 
enemy's works whose fire covers the ground over which our columns 
must move, care being taken to avoid impeding the progress of our 
troops. Special instructions respecting the direction of the fire will be 
issued through the Chief of Artillery." 

At the appointed time Ledlie's division was in position in two 
lines, Marshall's brigade in front and Bartlett's in the rear, ready to 
charge into the breach the moment the mine was sprung. Four 
o'clock came and still no explosion. Officers and men who had been 
in a state of feverish expectancy since shortly after midnight, began 
to grow restless. An officer was sent to Burnside to inquire the 
cause of the delay, and it was learned that the fuse had died out. 
Lieut. Jacob Douty and Sergt. Henry Rees volunteered to enter the 
gallery and reignite the fuse. Their efforts were crowned with suc- 
cess though they had barely emerged from the mouth of the mine at 
4:4s when the explosion took place. A solid mass of earth, mingled 



680 The Union Army 

with timbers, dismantled cannon and human beings, rose 200 feet 
in the air, and where Elliott's salient had stood was a ragged crater 
170 feet long, 60 feet wide and 30 feet deep, filled with dust and 
debris. Immediately the Federal artillery — about 160 guns and 
mortars — opened fire and as soon as the dust had cleared away Mar- 
shall's line advanced, closely followed by Bartlett's, but the men 
could not resist the temptation to crowd forward to look into the 
hole, and the two brigades became hopelessly mixed. When the ex- 
plosion occurred the Confederates hurried away from the intrench- 
ments for 200 or 300 yards on either side of the mine, but the con- 
fusion of Ledlie's men and the delay in restoring something like 
order gave the enemy time to recover from his bewilderment, so that 
when the Union troops attempted to cross the crater they were met 
by a fire of musketry, straggling at first but increasing in efifective- 
ness until at the end of half an hour the two brigades were huddled 
in a confused mass in the hole, unable to advance or withdraw. 
Gen. Humphreys says : "Gen. Ledlie did not accompany, much less 
lead, his division. He remained, according to the testimony before 
the Court of Inquiry that followed, in a bomb-proof about 50 yards 
inside our intrenchments, from which he could see nothing that was 
going on. He could not have given the instructions he received to 
his brigade commanders. Had the division advanced in column of 
attack, led by a resolute, intelligent commander, it would have 
gained the crest in fifteen minutes after the explosion, and before 
any serious opposition could have been made to it." 

Willcox sent in part of a brigade on the left of the mine, halting 
the remainder of his command until Ledlie's men should advance. 
He was criticised by the court of inquiry for not making efforts 
"commensurate with the occasion to carry out Gen. Burnside's 
order to advance to Cemetery Hill." Ferrero moved in the rear of 
Willcox and upon reaching the most advanced line of the Federal 
works was compelled to halt on account of other troops occupying 
the position assigned to him. After some delay he was ordered 
to advance and carry the crest beyond the crater and was moving 
forward for that purpose when he was directed to halt. All seemed 
to be confusion, for in a little while the order to advance was re- 
newed. By this time the enemy had strengthened his position on the 
hill and when Ferrero tried to carry it he failed. His colored troops 
established their valor, however, as in his report Ferrero says: 
"They were repulsed, but veterans could hardly have stood the fire 
to which they were exposed." At 6:30 orders were again sent to the 
division commanders not to halt at the works, but to advance at once 
to the crest without waiting for mutual support. Potter had moved 
his division forward by the fiank soon after Ledlie began his ad- 
vance. Upon reaching the vicinity of the mine Griffin's brigade 
turned to the right, took possession of the intrenchments which the 
Confederates had abandoned and began an attack upon Elliott's 
troops which were forced back after a long and severe contest. The 
other brigade attacked on the right of Griffin but was repulsed. The 
support of Ord and Warren did not come un to the expectations 
and at 9:15, after four hours of desultory fighting. Burnside received 
a peremptory order to withdraw his troops from the enemy's lines 
and cease offensive operations. This order was sent into the crater 
with instructions to the brigade commanders to consult and de- 
termine as to the time and manner of retiring. They sent back a re- 
quest that a heavy fire of artillery and infantry should be opened to 
cover the withdrawal, but before the messenger reached Burnside the 
enemy made another attack and the men fell back in some disorder, 



Cyclopedia of Battles 681 

leaving the wounded to fall into the hands of the Confederates. The 
Union loss on the 30th was 419 killed, 1,679 wounded ancj 1,910 miss- 
ing. Marshall and Bartlett were both captured and 23 regimental 
commanders were reported either killed, wounded or missing. On 
the Confederate side the loss in Elliott's brigade was 677, and as 
Weisinger's brigade lost about as heavily the total casualties among 
the enemy numbered probably not far from 1,000, most of whom 
were killed or wounded, as but few prisoners were taken by the 
Federals. 

On July 5, Gen. Early, commanding the Confederate forces in 
the Shenandoah valley, crossed the Potomac near Shepherdstown 
and moved toward Washington, hoping thereby to compel Grant to 
withdraw troops from in front of Richmond and Petersburg for the 
defense of the national capital and thus giving Lee an opportunity to 
once more assume the offensive. Grant did send Wright with the 
6th corps to Washington and this corps was not with the Army of 
the Potomac again until the early part of December. Soon after 
the mine explosion Lee felt that he could reduce his force at Peters- 
burg and sent Kershaw's division to reinforce Early in the valley. 
Grant met this movement by sending Sheridan with two divisions 
of cavalry early in August to operate against Early. After the 
failure of Burnside's mine no more assaults were made on the Con- 
federate fortifications, the Union army conducting the siege by reg- 
ular approaches, raids against the railroads and various movements 
by detachments. A few days after the battle of Hatcher's run (Oct. 
27) the army went into winter quarters and from that time until the 
next spring the operations were confined to occasional picket firing 
and artillery duels. Late in the summer Butler conceived the idea 
of cutting a canal across the narrow neck of the peninsula known 
as Dutch gap, by means of which the Union gunboats could ascend 
the James river without running the fire of the Confederate batteries. 
The isthmus was less than half a mile in width and by the close of 
the year the canal was completed, except a bulkhead at the upper 
end. This was blown up on New Year's day, but the earth fell back 
in the canal and the enemy immediately planted a battery opposite 
the entrance to the canal, thus preventing its being opened, and the 
whole scheme came to naught. 

By the latter part of March, 1865, numerous changes occurred in 
the Union army. Hancock had been sent north to organize a new 
corps and the 2nd was now commanded by Maj.-Gen. A. A. Humph- 
reys, the divisions being commanded by Miles, Barlow and Mott. 
Cutler's division of the 5th corps was no longer in existence as a 
separate organization. The divisions of the 6th corps were com- 
manded by Wheaton, Getty and Seymour. After the mine explo- 
sion Burnside was, at his own request, granted leave of absence, the 
command of the 9th corps being turned over to Maj.-Gen. John 
G. Parke. Willcox took command of the ist division, Potter of the 
2nd and Brig.-Gen. John F. Hartranft of the 3d. Sheridan still com- 
manded the cavalry of the army, the ist and 3d divisions, commanded 
by Devin and Custer, being known as the Army of the Shenandoah 
under command of Gen. Merritt, and the 2nd division was com- 
manded by Gen. George Crook. Wilson had been sent to Gen. 
Thomas at Nashville, Tenn. The Army of the James, Maj.-Gen. 
E. O. C. Ord commanding, was composed of the 24th and 25th 
corps and some detached troops guarding the defenses of Bermuda 
Hundred and the landings along the James. The 24th corps, under 
Maj.-Gen. John Gibbon, included the divisions of Foster, Devens and 
Turner, and the 25th, Maj.-Gen. Godfrey Weitzel commanding, con- 



682 The Union Army 

sisted of the divisions of Maj.-Gen. August V. Kautz, Brig.-Gen. 
William Birney, and the cavalry division under Brig.-Gen. Ranald 
S. Mackenzie. On the last day of March the total strength of the 
army that was destined to close the war in Virginia was Ii4,335 men. 

On Feb. 27, 1865, Sheridan, with the two divisions of cavalry, 
left Winchester and moved up the Shenandoah valley via Staunton 
and Charlottesville to within a short distance of Lynchburg, destroy- 
ing the James river canal for some distance, and on March 2-j effected 
a junction with Grant's army in front of Petersburg and Richmond. 
A few days before his arrival Lee and Jefferson Davis, president of 
the Confederacy, held a conference in Richmond, at which it was 
decided to abandon the Richmond and Petersburg lines as soon as 
the railroads would admit of it, the purpose being to unite Lee's 
forces with those of Johnston in North Carolina and attack Sherman 
there. Lee knew that Grant was preparing for a movement against 
the Danville and South Side railroads and to counteract this he pro- 
posed a sortie against the works on the east side of Petersburg, which 
he believed would oblige Grant to concentrate there, thus thwarting 
the design on the railroads and postponing the evacuation until the 
weather was more favorable. The point selected for the attack was a 
redoubt known as Fort Stedman, about a mile from the Appomat- 
tox and not more than 150 yards from the Confederate works. This 
part of the line was held by the pth corps, Willcox on the right, 
Potter on the left and Hartranft in reserve, Fort Stedman being 
garrisoned by a detachment of the 14th N. Y. heavy artillery under 
Maj. G. M. Randall. Gordon's corps was chosen to lead the assault, 
in which he was to be supported by portions of Hill's and Long- 
street's commands. At this time Lee's army was in desperate straits 
for food. The capture of Fort Fisher in January had closed the 
port of Wilmington to the Confederacy, thus making it impossible 
to obtain supplies from abroad. It had become a common occur- 
rence for squads of Confederate soldiers, impelled by the hope of 
securing better rations, to desert with their arms in their hands and 
come over to the Union lines. About 4 a. m. on March 25 several 
such squads, claiming to be deserters, left the enemy's works and 
when near enough made a dash and overpowered the Federal pickets. 
Immediately three strong columns emerged from the Confederate 
abatis, one moving straight on Fort Stedman, one on Battery No. 
10, a short distance north of the fort, and the third against Battery 
No. II, about the same distance on the south of it. The second 
column broke the main line between Batteries 9 and 10 and then 
turned toward the fort, taking it on the flank. The garrison was 
soon overpowered and the guns of the fort, as well as those of Bat- 
tery 10, were turned on Willcox's troops. Batteries 11 and 12 were 
quickly captured by the column that had turned to the right, and 
for a little while it looked as though Gordon's attack was to be a 
complete success. When the assault was commenced it was so dark 
that friends and foes could not be distinguished and the artillery of 
the other batteries could not be used. As soon as it was light enough 
Gen. McLaughlin, whose brigade occupied the line near Battery 11 
opened a mortar fire on the enemy there and soon afterward carried 
the battery at the point of the bayonet. He then entered Fort Sted- 
man, not knowing it was in the hands of the enemy, and was taken 
prisoner. Gordon was under the mistaken impression that there 
were some forts in the rear of the main line and the column which 
captured Battery 10 was moving to capture these forts when it came 
in contact with Hartranft's division, which w^as coming up to Will- 
cox's support, and was driven back to the battery and Fort Sted- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 683 

man. Battery 12 was retaken soon after No. 11, and by 7:30 Parke 
had driven the Confederates there into the fort, upon which was 
concentrated the fire of several of the Union batteries on the high 
ground in the rear. A heavy cross-fire of artillery and infantry was 
also brought to bear on the open space between the lines, render- 
ing it almost impossible for the enemy to return to his own works 
or to receive reinforcements. Hartranft then moved against the 
enemy in the fort and recaptured the position with comparatively 
small loss, capturing 1,949 prisoners, most of whom had sought 
shelter in the bomb-proofs, and 9 stands of colors. Many of the 
Confederates were killed or wounded by the murderous cross-fire, 
while endeavoring to get back to their own lines. The Union loss 
was 494 in killed and wounded and 523 missing. The 2nd and 6th 
corps were then directed to make a reconnaissance of the enemy's 
works in front of Fort Fisher on the right of Fort Stedman, and to 
attack if it was found the force there had been sufficiently weakened 
to support Gordon. The intrenched picket line was carried and the 
Union troops advanced close to the main works, when it was found 
that Hill occupied them with a force too strong to be assaulted. The 
enemy tried to recapture the picket line at several points, but every 
attack was repulsed. In this affair the Union loss was about 900 in 
killed and wounded and 177 missing. The Confederate loss in killed 
and wounded was about the same and nearly i.ooo were captured. 

Grant was now in shape to operate against the railroads on Lee's 
right. On April i the Confederate forces under Gen. Pickett were 
defeated in the battle of Five Forks, and on the morning of the 2nd 
the 6th corps broke through the Confederate lines near Hatcher's 
run, about 4 miles southwest of Petersburg. In an attempt to re- 
cover the captured line Gen. A. P. Hill, one of Lee's ablest lieuten- 
ants, was killed. The defeat of Pickett and the breaking of his 
line determined Lee to evacuate the Petersburg fortifications before 
it was too late, and early on Sunday m.orning, April 2, he sent the 
following despatch to Gen. J. C. Breckenridge, Confederate secre- 
tary of war: "I see no prospect of doing more than holding our 
position here till tonight. I am not certain that I can do that. If I 
can I shall withdraw tonight north of the Appomattox, and, if pos- 
sible, it will be better to withdraw the whole line tonight from the 
James river. The brigades on Hatcher's run are cut off from us; 
the enemy has broken through our lines and intercepted between 
us and them, and there is no bridge over which they can cross the 
Appomattox this side of Goode's or Beaver's, which are not very far 
from the Danville railroad. Our only chance, then, of concentrating 
our forces is to do so near the Danville railway, which I shall 
endeavor to do at once. I advise that all preparation be made for 
leaving Richmond tonight. I will advise you later, according to 
circumstances." 

This despatch reached Richmond at 10:40 a. m. and was handed 
to President Davis while in attendance upon the service at St. Paul's 
church. He at once left the church and late in the day, in company 
with the officials of the Confederate States, took a train for Danville. 
That night the Confederate army withdrew from Richmond and 
Petersburg and commenced its last march, the line of which was up 
the Appomattox river toward Amelia Court House. During the winter 
the people of Richmond had been kept in ignorance of the real state 
of affairs and gave themselves up to pleasures, confidently expect- 
ing to hear any moment of a great Confederate victory. Lee's des- 
patch, therefore, created consternation among them and there was a 
mad rush for the railroad stations in the desire to leave the doomed 



684 The Union Army 

city. But transportation was out of the question, as every available 
coach and car were loaded with the officials, attaches and effects of 
the government, and to make matters worse orders had been issued 
that none should be permitted to board the trains without a pass 
from the secretary of war, who could nowhere be found. Ewell's 
command was the last to leave the city, and scarcely had his rear- 
guard departed when a fire broke out near the center of the town and 
the mob took possession. Stores were broken open and plundered, 
private residences were robbed and new fires kindled, until the city 
was a perfect pandemonium. 

At 3 a. m. on the 3d Parke and Wright discovered that the enemy 
had been withdrawn from the trenches in their front, and upon 
advancing ascertained that Petersburg was evacuated. Willcox was 
ordered to occupy the town with his division, while the remainder of 
the gth, with all of the 6th and 2nd corps, pushed on after Lee. 
Weitzel, who commanded the Union forces on the north side of the 
James, was informed by Gen. Devens about 5 o'clock that the Federal 
pickets had possession of the enemy's line. Two staff officers, with 
40 of the headquarters' cavalry, were sent forward to receive the 
surrender of the city, in case the Confederates had evacuated it, and 
soon afterward Weitzel followed with the divisions of Kautz and 
Devens. Entering the city by the Osborn pike, Weitzel rode direct 
to the city hall, where he received the formal surrender of the city at 
8:15 a. m. For several days Lieut. J. L. de Peyster, a son of Maj.- 
Gen. J. W. de Peyster, had carried a United States flag upon the 
pommel of his saddle, ready to raise it over the Confederate capitol 
when the city should fall into the hands of the Union forces. The 
same flag had waved over Butler's headquarters at New Orleans. 
Scarcely had the surrender been made before de Peyster, in company 
with Capt. Langdon, chief of artillery on Weitzel's staff, raised this 
flag over the state house, bringing Virginia once more under the 
realm of the Stars and Stripes. 

Petersburg, Va., Feb. 27-March 28, 1865. Sheridan's Expe- 
dition. On the 27th Maj.-Gen. P. H. Sheridan left Winchester for 
an expedition to the front of Petersburg, the object being the destruc- 
tion of the Virginia Central railroad, the James river canal, and the 
capture of Lynchburg, after which Sheridan was to join Gen. Sher- 
man's army in North Carolina or return to Winchester. His forces 
consisted of the ist and 3d cavalry divisions of the Army of the 
Shenandoah, respectively commanded by Brig.-Gen. T. C. Devin and 
Bvt. Maj.Gen. G. A. Custer; one section of the 2nd and one of the 
4th U. S. artillery, and a pontoon train, the total strength being 
about 10,000 men. Mount Crawford was reached on March i, and 
here about 200 of Rosser's Confederate cavalry were discovered trying 
to burn the bridge over the middle fork of the Shenandoah. Two 
regiments of Capehart's brigade swam the river above the bridge, 
charged and routed Rosser, pursuing him nearly to Staunton, killing 
a few of his men and capturing 30 prisoners, with 20 wagons and 
ambulances, Capehart's loss being 5 men wounded. This caused Gen. 
Early to retreat from Staunton to Waynesboro, where he intrenched 
a position. At Staunton Sheridan detached a part of his command 
for the destruction of some stores at Swoope's station, and pushed on 
with the main column, Custer's division in advance, for Waynesboro. 
At Fisherville. 6 miles from Staunton, Custer's advance encountered 
the enemy's pickets and drove them rapidly to Waynesboro. With- 
out waiting for the ist division to come up, Custer sent the 2nd 
brigade against Early's position, to display the force in the works, 
and directed Lieut. -Col. Whitaker to take three regiments of Pen- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 685 

nington's brigade to the extreme right. The ist Conn., 2nd Ohio and 
3d N. J., all armed with Spencer carbines, were moved to the right 
and dismounted under cover of the woods. When they were in posi- 
tion to attack, Woodruff's section of horse artillery opened fire with 
such vigor that the Confederates were compelled to lie down behind 
their embankment. Wells and Capehart moved their brigades to 
the attack in front, at the charge, and at the same time the three 
regiments on the right caught the enemy on the flank, the whole 
movement being so sudden that Early's men were completely routed 
and fled in all directions, leaving 11 pieces of artillery, with their 
horses and caissons; 200 wagons loaded with subsistence, with their 
teams and harness; a large quantity of ammunition; all the camp 
equipage and officers' baggage; the headquarters' papers; 16 battle 
flags and 1,600 prisoners in the hands of the Federals. 

On the 3d the expedition moved toward Charlottesville, which 
place was reached on the 4th, the bridges, depots, etc., between Staunton 
and Charlottesville having been destroyed during the march. At 
Charlottesville the command divided, the ist division moving to 
Scottsville on the James river, and the 3d, with the wagon 
trains, along the Lynchburg railroad, destroying the bridges and 
culverts as far as Buffalo river. The two divisions came to- 
gether near New Market, where the dam and locks on the canal 
were thoroughly destroyed. At Duguidsville, on the 8th, the Con- 
federates fired on Devin's division from across the river, but the 5th 
U. S. cavalry was dismounted and covered the retirement of the rest 
of the division. All the locks on the canal between Goochland and 
Duguidsville were destroyed, as well as large stores of cotton, to- 
bacco and subsistence. Columbia was reached on the loth, where 
the expedition rested for a day, and on the 12th the march was 
resumed toward the Virginia Central railroad, which was struck at 
Tolersville on the 13th, and several miles of track torn up. The next 
day Custer directed his march toward Ground Squirrel bridge, while 
Devin moved along the railroad to the South Anna. Both bridges 
were destroyed after a slight skirmish with the guards, in which the 
5th U. S. cavalry captured a number of prisoners and 3 pieces of 
artillery. The ist division was here ordered to move toward Han- 
over Court House and the 3d to push south as far as Ashland, but 
upon learning that a considerable force of the enemy under Long- 
street was moving to intercept the expedition, the two divisions were 
united, the whole command recrossed the South Anna and moved 
along the north bank of the Pamunkey to White House landing, 
which was reached on the i8th. Here the expedition rested until the 
25th, when it again took up the march and two days later rejoined 
the Army of the Potomac. During the movement Sheridan's forces 
captured 1.603 prisoners, 2.154 horses and mules, 16 battle flags, 17 
pieces of artillery and over 2,000 stands of small arms. The line of 
inarch was marked by wholesale destruction. Sixteen large mills and 
factories 26 warehouses and 8 railroad depots, together with their 
contents of valuable stores, were laid in ashes; 47 miles of railroad 
track, 30 miles of telegraph, 49 canal locks, 44 railroad and several 
wagon bridges, 10 watertanks, and about 40 canal and flatboats all 
loaded with provisions, etc., were completely destroyed. 

Petersburg, W. Va., Oct, 29, 1862. Detachments of 23d Illi- 
nois and Ringgold Pennsylvania Cavalry and Battery L. ist Illinois 
Artillery. The detachment, under Lieut. -Col. James Quirk, while in 
pursuit of a party of Confederate cavalry, which had run off 200 head 
of cattle in Hardy county, came up with it at daylight 5 miles from 
Petersburg. A few shells quickly dispersed the enemy and the cattle 



686 The Union Army 

were recovered. The Federals suffered no loss, but it was thought 
that the enemy had 3 men killed. Sixteen Confederates were taken 
prisoners. 

Petersburg, W. Va,, March 3, 1864. Detachment of Ring- 
gold Pennsylvania Cavalry. Lieut. Benjamin W. Denny, with 27 
men, was sent out on the Moorefield road from Petersburg on a 
scout. A short distance out he encountered a small force of the 
enemy, which he drove back until it was reinforced, and he in turn 
was obliged to fall back with a loss of 7 men missing. Two Con- 
federates were wounded. 

Petersburg, W. Va., June 19, 1864. Pendleton Home Guards. 
Capt. John Boggs, with 30 men of his company, was returning from 
New Creek with supplies, when he was attacked near Petersburg by 
about 60 of McNeil's men, under command of a Lieut. Dolen. The 
Confederates drove the guards to the woods, captured several horses 
and burned i wagon. Boggs rallied his men and recaptured the 
train. In the fight Dolen was killed, several of his men were wounded 
and the rest driven to the mountains. Boggs lost 6 killed and several 
wounded. 

Petersburg, 'W. Va., Oct. 11, 1864. Pendleton Home Guards. 
Capt. John Boggs, with 198 men, met a detachment of the enemy 
under Harness, 2 miles south of Petersburg, and the fight which 
ensued lasted about 3 hours. The results were not reported. 

Petersburg, W. Va., (Note). Besides the engagements above 
noted, mention is made in the official records of skirmishes in the 
vicinity of Petersburg on Sept. 7 and 12, 1861; Jan. 10 and 15, and 
Sept. 6, 1863, but no circumstantial reports of these affairs can be 
found. 

Petersburg Gap, W. Va., Sept. 4, 1863. (See Moorefield, same 
date.) 

Petersburg & Weldon Railroad, Va., May 5-1 1, 1864. (See Kautz's 
Raid.) 

Petit Jean, Ark., July 10, 1864. Detachment 3d Arkansas 
Cavalry. Capt. John W. Gill, with a company of this regiment, had 
a fight with Capt. Adams' company of Confederates on the Arkansas 
river near Petit Jean, in which 2 of the enemy were killed and sev- 
eral wounded. The Union force suffered no casualties. 

Peyton's Mill, Miss., Sept. 19, 1862. 2nd Iowa Cavalry. Col. 
Edward Hatch, of the 2nd la. cavalry, moved forward from- 
Jacinto toward Peyton's mill. When within 2 miles of that place 
he began skirmishing with the enemy's pickets and drove them into 
the mill. A regiment of dismounted cavalry appearing was immedi- 
ately engaged, but after 20 minutes' fighting was put to rout with a 
loss of 5 killed, 10 wounded, and 6 captured. Hatch reports no 
casualties in his command. 

Phelps' Bayou, La., April 26, 1863. (See Clark's Bayou.) 

Philadelphia, Tenn., Sept. 27, 1863. Gen. H. W. Halleck, 
reporting on the east Tennessee campaign, states that after Rose- 
crans had fallen back to Chattanooga, Burnside " had occupied Phila- 
delphia and other points on the south side of the river with small 
garrisons. The enemy surprised some of these forces, and captured 
6 guns, 50 wagons, and 600 or 700 prisoners. The remainder re- 
treated to Loudon and succeeded in holding the crossing of the 
river." This is the only mention of the affair in the ofificial war rec- 
ords. 

Philadelphia, Tenn., Oct. 15, 1863. 45th Ohio Cavalry. Col. 
Frank Wolford, commanding an unattached cavalry brigade in 
the east Tennessee campaign, reports that about 100 Confederates 



Cyclopedia of Battles 687 

attacked the wagon train of the 45th Ohio 6 miles from Philadelphia 
on the Cotton Port road, but the guard repulsed them, killing 2. 

Philadelphia, Tenn., Oct. 20-22, 1863. Col. Frank Wolford's 
Unattached Cavalry Brigade. At 10 a. m. on the 20th Wol- 
ford learned that between 1,200 and 1,500 Confederates had attacked 
the wagon train of his brigade 6 miles from Philadelphia, and imme- 
diately sent the ist and nth Ky. cavalry to its assistance. These two 
regiments got in the enemy's rear and were cut oflf. Another body 
of the enemy approached from Sweet Water and with the rest of 
his men, about 700, Wolford attacked and drove them back several 
times. Owing to the enemy's superior numbers Wolford was finally 
obliged to fall back, abandoning his 6 pieces of artillery. During the 
following two days the Confederates were again driven out of and 
beyond Philadelphia. The Federal loss, all of which occurred on 
the 20th, was 7 killed, 25 wounded and 447 captured. 

Philadelphia, Tenn., March i. 1865. Detachment 7th Ten- 
nessee Mounted Infantry. Capt. William A. Cochran, reporting from 
Athens under date of March 2, says: "I sent a scout out yesterday 
after the guerrillas that were near Philadelphia. They ran into the 
rear of them and killed 5 or 6, and captured 7 horses and large 
amounts of other property, such as clothing, boots and shoes. We 
took no prisoners." 

Philippi, W. Va., June 3, 1861. U. S. Forces under Brig.-Gen. 
T. A. Morris. Two columns, one under Col. B. F. Kelley and the 
other under Col. Ebenezer Dumont, moved on opposite sides of the 
river against Philippi and at daylight attacked simultaneously. The 
movement was a complete surprise, the enemy being routed without 
difficulty and with little resistance. A force was immediately sent in 
pursuit, during which 6 were killed and a number wounded. The 
only casualty on the Federal side was the wounding of Col. Kelley. 

Philippi, W. Va., March 20, 1862. 

Phillips' Creek, Miss., May 21, 1862. 2nd Division, Right 
Wing, Army of the Tennessee. This action was an incident of the 
siege of Corinth. As the lines were being extended along the ridge 
between Phillips' and Bridge creeks, the pickets of Davies' division 
encountered a brigade of Confederate infantry posted on the Corinth 
side of the former. Davies ordered up a field battery and threw a 
few shells into the enemy's ranks, when they fell back and the whole 
Union line was moved up to the creek, where it intrenched. 

Phillips' Cross Roads, N, C., March 4, 1865. Kilpatrick's 
Cavalry. On the evening of the 3d the cavalry went into camp near 
Phillips' cross-roads, about 10 miles south of Wadesboro, the ist 
brigade being in the rear. As Hampton and Wheeler were both 
known to be in the vicinity, and an attack by their combined forces 
was expected, the 2nd Ky. was sent about three-fourths of a mile 
and the 9th Pa. a mile and a half to the rear, with orders to station 
themselves behind barricades facing to the rear to guard against a 
surprise. About 7 a. m. on the 4th the pickets of the 9th Pa. were 
attacked several times, but each time the enemy was repulsed. Be- 
lieving the attacking party to be a small one, Lieut. -Col. Kimmel, 
commanding the regiment, sent a detail of 100 men under Lieut. 
Bassler to gain the enemy's rear. Bassler gained a hill in the rear 
of the Confederates, but found the attacking force to be Dibrell's 
entire brigade and reported the fact to Kimmel, who was immedi- 
ately afterward ordered to rejoin the brigade. About 11 a. m. the 
enemy changed his tactics and began massing his forces on the right 
of the 1st brigade and the left of the 2nd. The pickets of the 2nd 
brigade were attacked and forced back with slight loss, and the 



688 The Union Army 

loth Ohio, dismounted and behind a barricade, was flanked from its 
position and fell back to the line of battle which Col. Atkins, com- 
manding the brigade, had formed with the rest of his command. The 
1st brigade then passed through the lines of the 2nd and Atkins held 
his position at the cross-roads until all the divisions had passed, 
withdrawing about 5 p. m. and skirmishing with the enemy as he 
rejoined the main body. During the evening there was considerable 
firing along the Federal front, but very few casualties were reported. 

Phillips' Ferry, Ga., July 8, 1864. (See Chattahoochee River.) 

Phillips' Fork, Ky., May 10, 1863. 44th Ohio Infantry. Col. 
Samuel A. Gilbert, reporting to Brig.-Gen. O. B. Willcox, states 
that 100 men of the 44th. under Capt. Alpheus H. Moore, pursued 
300 Confederates up the Red Bird river and attacked them at Phil- 
lios' fork. The enemy fled at the first fire and the Federals fol- 
lowed, capturing some arms, equipments, etc. Several Confederates 
were wounded. 

Philomont, Va., Nov. i, 1862. Pleasonton's Cavalry. The cavalry 
division reached Philomont about noon and drove out some of 
Stuart's Confederate cavalry. A squadron was then sent out to 
reconnoiter the road to Union, but was attacked by a superior force 
of the enemy and forced back. Col. David McM. Gregg, with the 3d 
Ind. and 8th Pa., was sent to the support of the squadron engaged. 
Gregg dismounted part of his men, threw them forward as skirmish- 
ers and drove the enemy from a piece of woods. While this was 
taking place, Pennington's battery opened a vigorous fire on the 
Confederates, forcing them to change the position of their artillery, 
which then began throwing grape and canister into the woods where 
Gregg's skirmishers were. In the meantime their cavalry fell back 
to a position behind the artillery and Gregg retired, having lost 2 
killed and 13 wounded. The enemy's loss was somewhat heavier. 

Philomont, Va., Nov. 9. 1862. Maj. E. V. White, commanding 
a battalion of Virginia (Confederate) cavalry, reported on the 14th 
that 4 of his men "drove out of the town of Philomont 50 Yan- 
kee cavalry, wounding i Yankee, capturing 2 negroes and 3 wagons 
from the rear of a long train, which they brought safely to camp." 
Federal reports make no mention of the affair. 

Pichaco Pass, Ariz., April 15, 1862. ist California Cavalry. 

Pickett's Mill, Ga., May 2-}, 1864. (See Dallas.) 

Piedmont, Va., June 5, 1864. Department of West Virginia. 
Maj. -Gen. David Hunter, commanding the army in the Lynchburg 
campaign, after crossing the Shenandoah river at Port Republic, 
bivouacked his command a mile south of that town and at an early 
hour on the 5th advanced on the Staunton road. About 6 a. m. the 
Confederate skirmishers were encountered and after a sharp skir- 
mish driven back. At the village of Piedmont, not far from Mt. 
Crawford, the enemy was found drawn up in an advantageous posi- 
tion and at 9 a. m. the battle was commenced by artillery firing. An 
hour later the ist infantry brigade, under Col. Augustus Moor, moved 
forward on the right and drove the Confederates from their advanced 
position. Col. Joseph Thoburn occupied the left with the 2nd bri- 
gade on elevated ground. By 11:30 a. m. the Federal artillery silenced 
the enemy's guns. An hour after noon the ist brigade attacked the 
enemy's line in front, and after a hard fight was compelled to fall 
back without carrying it. At 2 p. m. the Confederates made a de- 
termined attack on Moor's front, but with the aid of a cross fire from 
the artillery he was able to hold the position. Thoburn meantime 
moved his brigade across the open space between his own and 
Moor's brigades, and when the Confederates made their attack he 



Cyclopedia of Batties 689 

fell upon tlieir exposed flank. They at once gave way, and Moor, 
quick to follow up the advantage, charged over the breastworks in 
his front and added to the enemy's confusion. Col. John E. Wyn- 
koop's cavalry brigade next assaulted the Confederate right and the 
rout was complete. This affair cost the Federal forces little less 
than 500 men in killed, wounded and missing. Hunter captured 1,000 
men, and estimated the Confederate loss in killed and wounded at 600. 

Piedmont, W. Va., Nov. 28, 1864. Company A, 6th West 
Virginia Infantry. A force of some 300 Confederates, under the 
command of Maj. McDonald, approached the town about 2 p. m. on 
the New Creek road. Capt. Fisher, commanding the company of 
Union soldiers, commenced skirmishing with the enemy some dis- 
tance from the town, but as he had but 35 men he decided to fall 
back across the river and take a position on a hill which would give 
him a good command of the town and its approaches. Here he 
repulsed two attempts to cross the river, keeping up the fight for 3 
hours, when the Confederates retreated in the direction of Elk Gar- 
•den, leaving i man dead on the field and i mortally wounded. Teh 
or 15 wounded were carried away. Fisher's company met with no 
•casualties whatever. 

Piedmont Station, Va., May 16, 1863. Detachment of Vir- 
ginia and Pennsylvania Cavalry. Capt. Summer's company of Mary- 
land cavalry was surprised at Charlestown about I a. m. and the 
greater part of the command taken prisoners, together with some 75 
horses. Capt. Utt, with about 120 men, started in pursuit and came 
up with the Confederates near Piedmont Station in Fauquier county, 
and a sharp skirmish ensued, in which all the Union prisoners and 
horses were recaptured, as well as 40 of the Confederates, with their 
horses and equipments. Capt. Utt and a sergeant were killed. The 
enemy lost 2 men killed and a number wounded. 

Pierson's Farm, Va., June 16-17, 1864. Detachment, 36th U. 
S. Colored Infantry; 2nd and 5th U. S. Cavalry. While on an expe- 
dition from Point Lookout, Md., to Pope's creek, Va., the detach- 
ment. Col. Alonzo G. Draper commanding, encountered the enemy 
at Pierson's farm on the afternoon of the i6th. Draper ordered a 
charge and started himself to lead it. but when within a few hundred 
yards of the enemy's lines he discovered that he was accompanied 
by only his staff and part of his escort, the main body having failed 
to obey the order to charge. Under the circumstances he hastily 
withdrew, but the next morning he again advanced with 200 infantry 
and 36 cavalry and found the Confederates, estimated at 600 strong, 
"busily engaged in constructing a barricade across the road. Conceal- 
ing the cavalry and 50 of the infantry at the bend of the road, Draper 
advanced with the remainder of the infantry and opened fire at 500 
yards range, directing his men to fire at the bottom of the barricade. 
After a few volleys the enemy hastily withdrew, taking several killed 
and wounded with him. No Federal casualties were reported. 

Pigeon Mountain, Ga., Sept. 14-18, 1863. (See Catlett's Gap.) 

Pigeon's Ranch, N. M., March 28, 1862. (See Glorieta, same date.) 

Piggot's Mill, W. Va., Aug. 25. 1861. Brig.-Gen. Henry A. 
Wise (Confederate) reported that his command was ambushed near 
Piggot's mill while going to the assistance of another detachment. 
Wise's loss was i man killed and 5 wounded, but he does not state the 
loss of the Federals. His report is the only mention of the affair in 
the official records of the war. 

Pig Point, Va., June 5, 1861. Steamer Harriet Lane. This 
vessel came within a mile and a half of the Confederate battery on 
Pig Point and opened fire. After firing, using some 33 shots from her 
Vol. VI— 14 



690 The Union Army 

II- and 32-pounder guns, she withdrew out of range, having had 6- 
men wounded by the return fire of the battery. The only report of 
the affair is a Confederate report, which states that no one in the 
garrison was killed, although one of the big guns was disabled. 

Pike Creek, Mo., Oct. 25, 1862. Detachment of 12th Missouri 
Cavalry. Maj. Bazel F. Lazear, reporting to Brig.-Gen. J. W. David- 
son from east of Thomasville, says: "Yesterday, at 12 m., we drove 
Boone out of his camp on a high hill on the divide between the waters 
of Pike creek and Eleven Points river. We chased him over the hills 
all the evening, killing 8, taking 18 prisoners, 25 stand of arms, and 
12 horses. They are completely broken up." 

Piketon, Ky., Nov. 9, 1861. 33d and part of 2nd and 59th- 
Ohio Infantry and 142 Mounted Men. This detachment, under Col. 
Joshua W. Sill, advanced on Piketon from Prestonburg. The mounted 
men encountered a Confederate reconnoitering party on the farther 
side of the west fork of the Big Sandy river and drove it back. After 
deploying skirmishers it was found that the town was deserted, ex- 
cept for a few mounted men who were driven out by a few shots from 
the artillery. The cavalry then occupied the place. On the way to 
Piketon several minor skirmishes occurred with scouting parties of 
the enemy. The casualties of the affair were i killed and 3 wounded 
on the Confederate side and i killed on the Federal side. 

Piketon, Ky., April 15, 1863. Detachment of 39th Kentucky- 
Mounted Infantry. Col. John Dils with 200 men of the 39th attacked 
the Confederates at Piketon at daylight. After sharp skirmishing for 
over an hour the enemy was obliged to surrender the town, the 87 
members of the garrison becoming prisoners. All the stores in the 
place fell into the hands of the attacking party. No casualties were 
reported. 

Pikeville, Ark., June 26, 1864. (See Clarendon, same date.) 

Pikeville, N. C, April 11, 1865. Portion of Hospital Train of 
Army of the Tennessee. Asst. Surg. S. C. Rogers, with 23 convales- 
cents and hospital attendants, proceeded from Goldsboro the day after 
the army moved. When near Pikeville the train was attacked by 
Confederates, thought to have been bushwhackers, and the escort was 
compelled to take to the woods. Rogers and another man were the 
only Union men who escaped. 

Pillowville, Tenn., Nov. 15, 1863. Detachment of 4th Mis- 
souri Cavalry. Capt. Theodore W. Hencke, with 100 men, surprised 
a conscripting party of the enemy, 34 strong, at 10 a. m. The Con- 
federates fled at the first fire, Hencke and his men pursuing for 3. 
miles, during which time they killed 5 and captured 3. There were 
no casualties on the Federal side. 

Pilot Knob, Mo., Sept. 26-27, 1864. (See Fort Davidson.) 

Pilot Knob, Tenn., Aug. 20, 1862. (See Louisville & Nashville R. R.) 

Pinckney Island, S. C, Aug. 21, 1862. Detachment of 3d 
New Hampshire Infantry. A party of 100 Confederates surprised 
the camp of a company of the 3d N. H. infantry just before daylight. 
The result was the complete rout of the Federals, with a loss of 4 
killed. 2 wounded and 36 captured or missing. The enemy had 8 
wounded. 

Pine Barren Bridge, Fla., Nov. 17, 1864. Detachments of 
2nd Maine and ist Florida Cavalry. Lieut. -Col. Andrew B. Spurling, 
with 450 men, while on an expedition from Barrancas to Pine Barren 
bridge, captured the Confederate picket at the bridge, then charged 
across, surprised and captured the entire guard, 38 in number, with 
47 horses, 3 miles and 75 stands of arms, without firing a shot. 

Pine Barren Creek, Ala., Dec 17-19, 1864. (See Pollard, Dec. 13-19,. 
1864.) 



Cyclopedia of Battles 691 

Pincbcrry Battery, S. C, April 29, 1862. Crew of Gunboat Hale. 
Capt. Alexander C. Rhind attacked the Confederate battery at Pine- 
berry and after a spirited engagement succeeded in landing and des- 
troying the 2 guns. While returning with the gunboat he was twice 
attacked, near Willstovvn and White Point, but got his command off 
without a casualty. The Confederate report makes no mention of 
any loss. 

Pine Bluff, Ark., Oct. 25, 1863. 5th Kansas and ist Indiana Cav- 
alry. Brig.-Gen. John S. Marmaduke, with some 2,500 Confederates, 
approached Pine Bluff on the morning of the 25th and after a demand 
to surrender had been refused drove in the Federal pickets. About 
9 o'clock he approached the works, hastily formed by throwing up 
barricades of cotton-bales, but the Federal artillery was planted so as 
to command every street leading into the square, where Col. Powell 
Clayton, commanding the post, had disposed his men to the best 
advantage. From 9 a. m. until 2 p. m. the fighting continued, the 
enemy meantime setting fire to some buildings in the vicinity, hoping 
to drive the Federals out. but the fire was quickly extinguished by 
a bucket brigade formed of the negroes in the town. Later in the 
day Marmaduke retired, having lost 40 killed and wounded. Clay- 
ton's casualties amounted to 16 killed, 39 wounded and i missing 
among the troops, and S negroes killed and 12 wounded. 

Pine Bluff, Ark., June 17, 1864. (See Monticello Road, same date.) 

Pine Bluff, Ark., June 21, 1864. 27th Wisconsin. 

Pine Bluff, Ark,, July 2, 1864. 64th U. S. Colored Troops. 

Pine Bluff, Ark., July 22. 1864. 9th Kansas Cavalry. Maj.-Gen. 
Frederick Steele, commanding the Department of Arkansas, in his 
report of operations for the month of July, states that on the 12th 
"Maj. L. K. Thacher. 9th Kan. cavalry, while on a scout 15 miles 
northwest of Pine Bluff, surprised the camp of Capt. Lightfoot, of 
Cabell's command, wounding i man, capturing 2 horses, 3 guns, and 
a large amount of provisions and medical stores, which he de- 
stroyed." 

Pine Bluff, Ark., July 30, 1864. Detachment of 13th Illinois Cav- 
alry. A detail of 40 men, under Lieut. James E. Teale, left Pine 
Bluff on the 29th to repair a break in the telegraph line between that 
place and Little Rock. The next day when about 10 miles from Pine 
Bluff, the advance, across a bayou from the main force, was fired 
upon from the woods. Teale immediately ordered his men to mount 
and follow him across the bridge. A heavy fire was poured into the 
column as it approached the bridge and when Teale reached the 
other side he discovered that only 2 men had crossed with him, the 
remainder having broken and fled. In attempting to recross, Teale 
found he was cut off and made for the woods, finally reaching Pine 
Bluff. A detachment was immediately sent to the scene of the ac- 
tion, where 2 Union men were found dead, and 3 wounded. Of those 
not killed or wounded all but 5 succeeded in reaching Pine Bluff. 

Pine Bluff, Ark., Sept. 11, 1864. Detachment of the ist Indiana 
Cavalry. This action was a part of the operations of an expedition 
sent out from Pine Bluff by Gen. Powell Clayton. (See Brewer's 
Lane and Monticello.) 

Pine Bluff, Ark., Jan. 9, 1865. Detachment of 7th Missouri Cav- 
alry. As an incident of an expedition in the vicinity of Pine Bluff, 
a detachment under Lieut. Sanders came upon a band of guerrillas 
and immediately attacked. The enemy was forced back some dis- 
tance to his reserves, which were in turn driven until reinforced, when 
the Union advance was for a time effectually checked. Subsequently, 
however, the Confederates were routed and driven for more than a 



€92 The Union Army 

mile, losing 4 dead and 4 wounded. Sanders had i man slightly- 
wounded. 

Pine Bluff, Ark., March 4, 1865. Detachment of 13th Illinois Cav- 
alry. The detachment, under Capt. John H. Norris, was sent out to 
repair the telegraph line near Pine Bluff. Norris learned the where- 
abouts of a band of guerrillas and when within a short distance of 
the place he and 14 men dismounted, moved stealthily toward the 
camp and fired a volley into it. It was Norris' plan to draw the 
enemy's fire and then retreat to the main body, but the Confederates 
became so confused at the fire that he and his men charged and 
drove them out of the camp. None of the Union men were killed, 
while the guerrillas lost 5 killed and a number wounded. 

Pine Bluff, Tenn., Aug. 20, 1864. Detachment of 83d Illinois 
Mounted Infantry. Capt. William W. Turnbull with 11 men pursued 
6 Confederates, said to be guerrillas, and captured from them a horse 
and a gun, when he was attacked by no men under the Confederate 
Gen. Woodward. The enemy fired a volley at 20 yards and then 
charged, overpowering the Federals and killing Turnbull and 7 of 
his men. Of the others 2 were captured and 2 escaped through the 
timber. 

Pine Island, S. C, May 10. 1864. Lieut. -Col. J. Welsman Brown, 
commanding the Confederates at Secessionville, reported that 16 Fed- 
erals landed on Pine island and immediately went to work cutting an 
opening in the timber. The Confederate batteries opened upon them, 
and the Federal artillery on Folly, Morris and Long islands replied. 
The firing was kept up until well along in the night. This report, 
which is the only official mention of the the affair, says nothing of 
any casualties. 

Pine Mountain, Ga., June 9-14, 1864. Army of the Cumberland. Pine 
mountain, sometimes called Pine hill and Pine knob, is about 3 miles north- 
west of Kennesaw mountain. It was near the center of the Confederate 
line after Gen. Johnston fell back from his position at Dallas and New 
Hope Church, and was occupied by Bate's division of Hardee's corps. 
On the gth Gen. Thomas began closing up his lines on the mountain 
and for the next three days there was almost constant skirmishing. 
On the morning of the 14th Thomas pushed Palmer's corps and the 
left of Howard's into the re-entrant angle between Pine mountain 
and the Confederate works farther east. Hardee, fearing that Bate 
was about to be cut off, asked Gens. Johnston and Polk to go with 
him to reconnoiter the position. The Federal batteries had been 
ordered to open fire on any parties that might be seen on the heights 
overlooking the Union camps, and when the three Confederate gen- 
erals were discovered on the summit of Pine mountain the 5th Ind. 
battery began shelling them. The second shot from one of the rifled 
gims killed Gen. Polk, and Johnston, finding the position too 
exposed, ordered Bate to withdraw, the movement being executed the 
following night under cover of darkness. 

Pine Mountain, Tenn., Aug. 17, 1862. Detachment of the 6th 
Kentucky Cavalry. Gen. G. W. Morgan, commanding the Union 
forces at Cumberland gap, sent Capt. Martin to make a reconnais- 
sance toward Big creek and Rogers' gap. Martin left camp 
on the night of the i6th and the next day encountered Kirby Smith's 
advance near Pine mountain. In the skirmish which ensued Martin 
was routed and returned to camp with 60 of his men missing. The 
force opposed to him was Ashby's cavalry, and was estimated at 600 
strong. The Confederate loss was not learned. 

Pine Mountain, Tenn., Sept. 8. 1862. Detachment of the 25th Bri- 
gade, Army of the Ohio. Col. J. A. Cooper, with 400 men belonging 



Cyclopedia of Batties 693 

to the 3d, 4th, 5th and 6th East Tennessee volunteers, left camp at 
Cumberland gap on the morning of the 6th for a reconnaissance in 
the direction of Pine mountain. Early on the morning of the 8th he 
learned that some Confederate cavalry were moving by way of Big 
Creek gap toward Kentucky. Lieut. Smith with 25 men was sent to 
Stinking creek; Lieut. Dunn with 25 to the base of Pine mountain; 
Lieut. Crudgington to a position near Archer's place on the north 
side of the mountain, while Cooper with the remainder of the detach- 
ment moved along the top of the mountain to where the Big Creek gap road 
crossed it. Smith became engaged with the Confederates about 10:30 a.m. 
and succeeded in forcing them back toward the mountain until he was 
joined by Dunn, when they were driven rapidly back upon the main 
body under Cooper. Here they were met by a destructive fire and 
fled in confusion down the mountain, only to be captured by Crudg- 
ington and his men near Camp Pine Knot. In this action not a 
single Union man was hurt. The enemy lost 7 killed, 13 wounded 
and 95 captured, together with 83 horses, 2>7 stands of arms, a num- 
ber of saddles and equipments and a Confederate mail containing im- 
portant letters. Cooper was congratulated by Gen. Shields, com- 
manding the brigade, for the masterly manner in which he handled his 
men and the success of the expedition. 

Pineville, Mo., June 23, 1862. Detachment of 2nd Wisconsin Cav- 
alry. Brig.-Gen. W. Scott Ketchum, acting inspector general of the 
department of the Mississippi, reporting from St. Louis on June 24, ■ 
says: "Maj. Miller, 2nd Wis. cavalry, routed rebels under Maj. Rus- 
sell at Pineville yesterday morning at 6 :30, taking several prisoners, 
horses, mules, and other property. 

Pineville, Mo., Aug. 9, 1863. (See Garden Hollow, same date.) 
Pineville, Mo., Aug. 13, 1863. 6th Missouri State Militia Cavalry and 
1st Arkansas Cavalry. Col. Edwin C. Catherwood, reporting his opera- 
tions in the pursuit of the Confederate leader Cofifee, states that on the 
13th he met the enemy at Pineville in McDonald county, and completely 
routed him, with a loss in killed and wounded of between 60 and 70 men. 
Piney Branch Church, Va., May 15, 1864. (See Spottsylvania.) 
Piney Factory, Tenn., Oct. 29, 1863. (See Centerville.) 
Piney River, Mo., Feb. 18, 1864. 8th Missouri State Militia Cav- 
alrj'. Lieut. W. T. Chitwood with a detail from the 8tli Mo. militia was 
ordered to pursue a baiid of guerrillas which had robbed a stage. On his 
way to the guerrilla camp he overtook and killed 2 of the party, and 
upon arriving at the camp, containing 10 men, he attacked, killing 2 and 
wounding i. 

Piney River, Va., June 12, 1864. (See Amherst Court House.) 
Pin Hook, La., May 10, 1863. (See Caledonia, same date.) 
Pink Hill, Mo., March 31, 1862. Detachment of ist Missouri Cav- 
alry. Capt. Albert P. Peabody with 30 men. while in pursuit of some 
guerrillas under Quantrill, scouted the country in the vicinity of Pink 
hill. While passing a double log house his command was fired upon. 
He immediately dismounted his men, deployed them and after firing 
at the house for an hour or more a charge was made which drove 
the enemy from cover. Six of the guerrillas were then killed, while 
but 3 of Peabody's men were wounded. 

Pink Hill, Mo., June 11, 1862. 7th Missouri Cavalry Militia. A 
mail escort of 24 men under Capt. J. F. Cochran was attacked near 
Pink hill by a band of Quantrill's men and 2 of the men were killed 
by the first volley. The remainder then charged the brush, driving 
the enemy from cover and either killing or wounding several. 
Besides the 2 Federals killed 3 were wounded later in the action. 
Finos Altos, Ariz., Feb. 25, 1864. Detachment of 5th California 



694 The Union Army 

Infantry. Learning that a band of Indians was about to return to 
Pinos Altos, Capt. James H. Whitlock with a detail of men started 
for that place and about dusk of the 25th entered the town. The 
troops killed 13 of the 19 Indians present, without suffering any 
casualties themselves. 

Pinos Altos Mines, N. Mex., Jan. 29, 1863. Detachment of 5th 
California Infantry. Indians attacked two companies of the regi- 
ment while hunting in the vicinity of the Pinos Altos mines. One 
soldier was killed and i wounded, while the Indians were driven ofT 
with a loss of 20 killed and 15 wounded. 

Pisgah, Mo., Sept. 10, 1864. Detachment of 4th Missouri State 
Militia Cavalry. Maj. George W. Kelly, reporting from Boonville, 
under date of Sept. 11, says: "Lieut. Kerr, with detachment 4th 
Mo. state militia, had a skirmish with 60 guerrillas, under Capt. Tay- 
lor, some 5 miles northeast of Pisgah yesterday evening, killing 4 
and wounding several; our horses being fatigued was all that saved 
the entire band from being broken." 

Pitman's Cross-Roads, Ky., Oct. 19, 1862. 19th Brigade, Army of 
the Ohio. During the pursuit of the Confederates from Perryville 
to London, the 19th brigade, under Col. William B. Hazen, after re- 
moving fallen trees from the road for some distance reached a point 
within half a mile of the cross-roads before dark. A sharp skirmish was 
there engaged in, but no casualties were reported. 

Pitman's Ferry, Ark., Oct. 27, 1862. Detached Troops. At 6 a. m. 
on the 25th Col. William Dewey, of the 23d la. infantry, with part of 
his own regiment, portions of the 24th and 25th Mo. infantry, ist 
Mo. state militia infantry and Stange's battery, left Camp Patterson 
under instructions to march to Pitman's ferry on the Current river. 
A few miles out he was joined by part of the 12th Mo. cavalry and 
about 8:30 a. m. on the 27th, when within a mile of the ferry, learned 
that the enemy was forming line of battle on the other side of the 
river. The artillery was sent forward at the gallop, the infantry 
followed on the double-quick and went into line of battle on each 
side of the road about 100 yards from the ferry. A few shots from 
the battery served to start the enemy in retreat, followed by Lieut. 
Millar's company of the 25th Mo., supported by Capt. Houston with 
Co. A of the 23d la. These two companies returned about noon with 
the information that the Confederates had outrun them and could not be 
overtaken. No casualties were reported. 

Pitman's Ferry, Ark., Nov. 25. 1862. 

Pitt River, Cal,, Aug. 5. 1861. ist U. S. Dragoons. As an inci- 
dent of a scout from Fort Crook, Cal., a detail under Lieut. John 
Feilner came upon a party of Indians driving stolen cattle in the 
Upper Pitt river valley, Feilner at once attacked, i Indian was killed 
and 3 wounded, while the soldiers had but i man, Feilner, wounded. 

Pittsburg, Tenn., March i, 1862. U. S. Gunboats Lexington and 
Tyler and Illinois Sharpshooters. Under cover of the fire from the 
gunboats some sailors and two companies of the sharpshooters 
landed near Pittsburg and destroyed a house where a Confederate 
battery was stationed. The enemy received reinforcements and 
compelled the Federals to return to the gunboats with a loss of 2 killed, 
6 wounded and 3 missing. No Confederate casualties were reported. 

Pittsburg Landing, Tenn., March 16, 1862. 5th Ohio Cavalry. 
A cavalry detachment sent out on a reconnaissance from Pittsburg 
landing by Gen. W. T. Sherman, returned about i a. m. of the 17th 
and reported the Memphis road occupied by the enemy. A skirmish 
had resulted in driving back the enemy about a mile, taking 2 of them 
prisoners. Four of the cavalrymen were wounded. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 695 

Pittsburg Landing, Tenn., April 6-7, 1862. (See Shiloh.) 
Plains Store, La., May 21, 1863. Portion of the ist Division, 19th 
Army Corps. At the start of the campaign against Port Hudson 
Maj.-Gen. Christopher C. Augur's division proceeded from camp on 
Merritt's plantation on the 20th. The next day his advance en- 
-countered the enemy some three-quarters of a mile from Plains store, 
and drove him back to that place, where the Confederates were found 
in force and a severe engagement opened. It was not until after 
•dark that the enemy was driven from the field with a loss in killed 
wounded and missing of 89. The Union casualties were 15 killed, 
71 wounded and 14 captured or missing. 

Plains Store, La., April 7, 1864. (See Port Hudson, same date.) 
Plaquemine, La., June 18, 1863. Detachments of 28th Maine, 
131st New York infantry and crews of steamers Lasykes and Anglo- 
American. About 6 :30 a. m. the guard at Plaquemine was attacked 
by some 300 Confederates. Lieut. Witham and 22 men of the 28th 
Me. were captured, but Capt. Albert Stearns and 13 of his men suc- 
ceeded in making their escape. After gaining possession of the town 
the enemy immediately proceeded to Bayou Plaquemine, firing upon 
.the crew of the steamer Lasykes, killing r man and then burning the 
vessel, as well as the steamer Anglo-American. The Confederates 
had I man killed and 2 wounded in this aflfair. 

Plaquemine, La., Aug. 6, 1864. Troops of District of Baton Rouge. 
About 100 Confederate mounted infantry drove in the Federal pick- 
ets at Plaquemine and part of them succeeded in penetrating to the 
streets of the town, when the Union pickets were reinforced and 
drove the Confederates out. Three Federals were killed or wounded, 
.and 4 were captured. The Confederate loss was supposed to have been 
about the same. 

Platte County, Mo., July 3, 1864. Detachment of 9th Missouri 
Militia Cavalry. A report from Brig.-Gen. Clinton B. Fisk under 
date of July 4, 1864, from St. Joseph, Mo., says: "Lieut. -Col. Daniel 
M. Draper, with a detachment of the 9th cavalry Missouri state 
militia, attacked a band of guerrillas in Platte county yesterday, 
killing 6 and wounding 3 of the villains. We captured 15 horses and 
many revolvers. Two of our men were wounded." 

Platte Valley, Steamer, Nov. 18, 1861. (See Price's Landing, Mo.) 
Plattsburg, Mo., Oct. 27, 1861. Organization not recorded. Confed- 
erate loss, 8 killed and 12 captured. 

Plattsburg^ Mo., July 21, 1864. Detachment of the 89th Enrolled 
Missouri Militia. About 9 a. m. Capt. Turney with 26 men went out 
from Plattsburg to reconnoiter. An hour later the Confederates 
appeared in force before the town and under a flag of truce demanded 
a surrender. Befofe a reply could be made Turney was cut off while on 
his way back, and Capt. Benjamin F. Poe, commanding the garrison, 
ordered a retreat, but before the post could be evacuated Turney cut 
"his way through the enemy's lines and the combined force repulsed 
the attack. The Confederate loss was not reported. The garrison 
lost I man, Turney, killed and i wounded. 

Pleasant Grove, La., April 8, 1864. (See Sabine Cross-Roads.) 
Pleasant Grove, Utah Ter., April 12. 1863. Detachment of 3d Cal- 
ifornia Infantry. Five men under Lieut. Francis Honeyman, the 
advance of an expedition against hostile Indians, reached Pleasant 
Grove on the 12th and about 6 p. m. a band of 100 Indians attacked, 
forcing Honeyman and his men to take refuge in an adobe house, 
which the Indians besieged, hoping to capture some horses. They 
finally retired without doing any damage further than taking with 
them all the stores, horses, etc., in the town. 



696 The Union Army 

Pleasant Hill, Ga., April i8, 1865. 4th Michigan Cavalry. During 
Wilson's raid this regiment under Lieut.-Col. B. D. Pritchard came 
upon a refugee train and several Confederate soldiers at Pleasant 
Hill. The enemy showed tight but after a sharp skirmish was de- 
feated with a loss of 2 killed, i mortally wounded and 3 captured. 

Pleasant Hill, La., April 7, 1864. (See Bayou de Paul.) 

Pleasant Hill, La., April 9, 1864. Banks' Red River Expedition. 
During the night of the 8th and gth of April, Banks' command after 
its decisive repulse at Sabine cross-roads on the 8th, retired to 
Pleasant Hill, 15 miles distant. As it was almost a certainty that the 
Confederates would follow up their advantage of the day before, the 
Federal troops were drawn up in line of battle to await the attack. 
The ist brigade of the 19th corps formed the right, resting on a ra- 
vine, the 2nd brigade was in the center and the 3d brigade on the 
left. The Confederates moved toward the Federal right. Only light 
skirmishing occurred during the afternoon but at 5 o'clock the at- 
tack was increased, the Federal skirmishers being driven in. The 
left flank received the heaviest onset, the enemy advancing in two 
oblique lines extending well over to the right of the 3d brigade. 
This part of the line gave way and fell back on the reserves, thus ex- 
posing the front, right and rear of the ist and 2nd brigades. The 
Confederates pressed their advantage until they approached the re- 
serves, when a countercharge, led by Gen. Mower in person, checked 
the enemy. All of the reserves were then ordered up and the Con- 
federates were driven from the field. The Federal casualties in this 
day's engagement were 93 killed, 655 wounded and 293 captured or 
missing; the Confederate losses as a whole are not known, but in 
Parsons' division of Missouri infantry alone were 33 killed and 288 
wounded. 

Pleasant Hill, Mo., July 11, 1862. Detachment, ist Missouri Cav- 
alry. Capt. Kehoc, acting without orders, took 61 men and went in 
pursuit of some of Quantrill's guerrillas. About 10 a. m. he came 
up with them at Sears' farm, 3 miles west of Pleasant Hill. The 
enemy fired and the 6 men acting as PCehoe's advance guard were all 
killed in the first volley. In the skirmish that followed 9 others were 
wounded and the remainder of the detachment was compelled to retire^ 
The enemy's loss was not learned. (See Big Creek Blufifs, same date.) 

Pleasant Hill, Mo., May 15, 1863. (See Big Creek, Mo., same date.) 

Pleasant Hill, Mo., Sept. 5, 1863. Detachments of 5th and 9th 
Kansas Cavalry. This force, under Lieut.-Col. Charles S. Clark, 
encountered a gang of guerrillas while on a scout from Coldwater 
grove and killed 6 of them. Subsequently another party of bush- 
whackers was surprised on Big creek by a portion of the same de- 
tachment and routed. 4 being killed and as many wounded. Clark 
also captured 8 horses with saddles and bridles. 

Pleasant Hill, Mo., Aug. 26, 1864. Detachment of 2nd Colorado 
Cavalry. Col. James H. Ford, reporting from Kansas City, under date 
of Aug. 27, says: "Fourteen foot-scouts, under Corporal Shaw, had a 
fight with not less than 60 bushwhackers yesterday morning, 8 miles east 
of Pleasant Hill, killing 2 and also wounding 2, and disabling some horses.. 
No one hurt on our side." 

Pleasant Hill Landing, La., April 12-13, 1864. (See Blair's Land- 
ing, same date.) 

Pleasureville, Ky., June 9, 1864. Kentucky State Guards. During 
Morgan's Kentucky raid a train containing the state property was 
started from Frankfort under guard of citizens, militia, and clerks. 
When it arrived near Pleasureville the road was discovered to be on 
fire and the engine was immediately reversed. Confederates in the 



Cyclopedia of Battles 697 

bushes at once opened a fire on the train, but notwithstanding that 
every 200 or 300 yard.> it had to be stopped to remove obstructions 
from the track, it reached Frankfort without a man of the guard 
being killed or wounded. 

Plum Butte, Kan., June 12, 1865. A report from Bvt. Brig.-Gen. 
James H. Ford, commanding the district of upper Arkansas, states 
that on the same day that the Indians attacked a train at Cow creek 
station, they also attacked one at Plum Butte, but were driven off 
without loss. This is the only official mention of the affair. 

Plum Creek, Neb., Dec. 8, 1864. Troops of Eastern Sub-district 
of Nebraska. The itinerary of the sub-district states that on the 8th 
a small body of Cheyennes attacked a train and its escort of 18 men 
at Plum creek but were repulsed. In their attack the Indians lost 3 
killed, and killed i of the escort. 

Plum Point, Tenn., May 10, 1862. U. S. Gunboats. Brig.-Gen. 
W. K. Strong, reported from Cairo, 111., on the nth, as follows: 
"The rebel gunboats and rams made an attack on our flotilla j-ester- 
day morning. Two of their gunboats were blown up and one sunk. 
The remainder returned with all possible haste to the protection of 
Fort Pillow." The attack was made at Plum Point, 4 miles above 
Fort Pillow, and according to Confederate reports none of their 
vessels was seriously injured, though they admit a loss of 3 killed 
and 10 or 12 wounded. 

Plymouth, N. C, Sept. 2, 1862. Company F, 9th New York, and 
1st North Carolina Infantry. 

Plymouth, N. C, Dec. 10, 1862. 3d Massachusetts and ist North 
Carolina Infantry. At 4:30 a. m. the Federal pickets of the post of 
Plymouth were driven in by a considerable force of the enemy. 
The garrison took refuge in the custom-house and after the Confed- 
erates had succeeded in burning a large part of the town they were 
driven away. The Union gunboat Southfield was disabled by the 
enemy's first fire, and was unable to render the garrison any assist- 
ance. The roll-call of the next morning showed 30 Federals missing, 
I of whom was undoubtedly killed. Tlie Confederates had 7 men 
wounded. 

Plymouth, N. C, April 17-20, 1864. U. S. Forces commanded by 
Brig.-Gen. Henry W. Wessells. Plymouth is situated on the right 
bank of the Roanoke river, about 8 miles from Albemarle sound. In 
April, 1864, it was held by Gen. Wessells with a force composed of 
the i6th Conn., 8sth N. Y., loist and 103d Pa., and two companies 
of North Carolina volunteer infantry; two companies of the 12th 
N. Y. cavalry; two companies of the 2nd Mass. heavy artillery, and 
the 24th N. Y. independent battery of 6 guns. The line of defenses 
extended from 2 miles above the town to half a mile below, the 
three principal redoubts being known as Forts Gray, Wessells and 
Williams. Along the river in front of the line were the gunboats 
Miami, Southfield and Ceres and the picket-boats Bombshell and 
Whitehead, all under command of Capt. Charles W. Flusser of the 
U. S. navy. The total strength of the garrison was about 3,000 men. 
About 4 p. m. on the 17th the enemy — Hoke's, Ransom's and Kem- 
per's brigades — advanced on the Washington road and drove in the 
pickets, the skirmishing continuing until dark. At daylight on the 
i8th the Confederates opened a heavy artillery fire on Fort Gray, 
at the upper end of the line of intrenchments, but the garrison there 
held out and effectively replied to the enemy's cannonade. During 
the day the Bombshell, while communicating with Fort Gray, re- 
ceived several shots below her water line, but managed to reach the 
town, when she sank at the wharf. The Ceres, which was above Fort 



698 The Union Army 

Gray when the attack commenced, passed down under a heavy fire 
and joined the squadron in front of the town, losing 9 men in killed and 
wounded on the trip. Early on the morning of the 19th the Confed- 
erate ram Albemarle came down the river and engaged the Southfield 
and Miami, sinking the former and disabling the latter, and causing the 
other vessels to drop down the river to the sound for safety. The 
Confederate land forces then surrounded the town and with the 
assistance of the Albemarle succeeded in capturing Fort Wessells, 
but at all other points they were repulsed with heavy loss. At day- 
light on the 20th the attack was again renewed. Fort Gray was 
captured after a desperate fight, in which the enemy lost heavily, and 
Wessells withdrew all his men to Fort Williams, which was an en- 
closed work near the center of the line. This gave the enemy pos- 
session of the town and in a short time an artillery fire was opened 
upon the fort from four different directions. An infantry assault 
on the redoubt was repulsed, but the steady cannonade from the 
ram and the land batteries soon began to tell and at 10 a. m. Wessells 
displayed a flag of truce, asking for a conference with the Confed- 
erate commander. The surrender gave the Confederates possession 
of the government stores at Plymouth and all the Union troops be- 
came prisoners of war. The total loss in killed, wounded and cap- 
tured was 2,834 men. On the 13th Wessells had asked for reinforce- 
ments, but Gen. Butler declined to send additional troops. Maj.-Gen. 
John J. Peck, commanding the District of North Carolina, directed 
Gen. Palmer to send all his available infantry to Wessells' assistance, 
and these troops had reached the mouth of the Roanoke, when news 
of the surrender was received. Had Wessells received reinforcements 
when he asked for them there is no doubt that the Confederates would 
have met with an ignominious defeat. As it was he held out for 
more than three days against a force that outnumbered his own at 
least five to one. 

Plymouth, N. C, Oct. 31, 1864. (See Naval Volume.) 
Pocahontas, Ark., April 21, 1862. Army of the Southwest. Con- 
federate accounts (unofficial) mention a skirmish with Gen. Curtis' 
advance at Pocahontas on this date, but do not state what Confederate 
troops were engaged nor give any results of the action. 

Pocahontas, Tenn., Sept. 25, 1862. (See Davis' Bridge, same date.) 
Pocahontas County, W. Va., Jan. 22, 1863. 2nd West Virginia 
Infantry and ist West Virginia Cavalry. As an incident of a scout 
in this county the detachment under Maj. Henry C. Flesher, stopped 
for the night at Gibson's, where the Confederates, who had been 
pursuing from Cockleytown, attacked the rear, killing 2 men and 
capturing 15. Owing to the exhausted condition of the horses the 
Federals were unable to pursue when the enemy withdrew. 

Pocotaligo, S. C, May 29, 1862. 50th Pennsylvania, Detach- 
ments of 8th Michigan and 79th New York Infantry and rst Massa- 
chusetts Cavalry. Col. Benjamin C. Christ, commanding the detach- 
ment, left Beaufort on the night of the 28th to make a demonstration 
on the railroad. The command was on the main-land by day- 
light and the march was at once begun to Port Royal ferry. Two 
miles from the ferry the enemy's pickets were encountered and 
steadily driven back until the column reached the causeway leading 
into Pocotaligo. This was taken after some rather severe fighting, and 
one company advanced over the bridge, all of which had been re- 
moved except the string pieces. Although it took considerable time 
some 300 more men were sent over in this way and the Confederates 
retreated to the woods. The obiect of tl^e expedition having been 
accomplished Christ withdrew to Garden's corners, the enemv's cav- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 699 

airy following for some distance. The casualties were 2 killed and 
9 wounded on the Federal side and 2 killed, 6 wounded and i miss- 
ing of the enemy. 

Pocotaligo, S. C, Oct. 22, 1862. The operations about Pocotaligo 
on this date included the skirmishes at Caston's and Frampton's 
plantations, an account of which is given under the title of "Bran- 
nan's Expedition from Hilton Head." 

Pocotaligo, S. C, Jan. 14-16, 1865. 17th Army Corps. Pursuant 
to orders from Maj.-Gen. O. O. Howard, commanding the right wing 
of Sherman's army in the campaign of the Carolinas, Maj.-Gen. F. P. 
Blair moved from Beaufort with the 17th corps to establish a depot 
of supplies at the mouth of Pocotaligo creek, where easy water com- 
munication could be had with Hilton Head. Blair moved via Port 
Royal ferry, where a pontoon was laid, and about 5 miles from the 
ferry the enemy was encountered, strongly intrenched. One brigade 
of the 3d division turned the position, driving the Confederates back 
toward Pocotaligo. At Stony creek another detachment was found 
•drawn up behind a barricade, but it was flanked out by Gen. 
Leggett with a part of the 3d division, and this body also fell back 
toward Pocotaligo. On the 14th the main force of the enemy was 
found in a strong position at Pocotaligo, and as soon as Blair's ad- 
vance appeared, fire was opened with both artillery and musketry. 
Skirmishers were thrown forward through a flooded rice field to 
within musket range, but before any decisive movement could be 
carried out darkness fell and put a stop to operations. Early the next 
morning it was discovered that the enemy had evacuated his works 
and Blair moved on to Pocotaligo. On the i6th an expedition was 
sent out to open communications with the 15th corps, but a strong 
force of Confederate cavalry was encountered and the expedition 
returned without having accomplished its purpose. During the en- 
gagements in this movement the losses were slight on both sides. 

Pocotaligo, S. C, Jan. 26, 1865. The only official mention of an 
affair on this date is that of Confederate Gen. Joseph Wheeler, who 
stated in a despatch to Gen. McLaws that his pickets were driven 
in by a large force of the Federals. 

Pocotaligo Bridge, S. C, Oct. 21-23, 1862. (See Brannan's Expe- 
dition from Hilton Head.) 

Pocotaligo Road, S. C, Dec. 20, 1864. Detachment of the 33d 
U. S. Colored Infantry. Lieut. -Col. Trowbridge left camp at 3:30 
p. m. with 300 men, and when near Stewart's plantation, some 3 miles 
beyond the Union picket line, he encountered a strong cavalry picket 
line of the enemy, posted with their left on the Pocotaligo river and 
the right on a swamp on the west side of the road. Trowbridge 
sent two companies, under Maj. Whitney, to get between the Con- 
federates and the swamp with a view to cutting oflf their retreat, 
but the movement was discovered, the enemy opening fire on Whit- 
ney's men and then falling back on the reserves, some 300 strong. 
Trowbridge then formed line of battle and charged, when the enemy 
broke and fled, leaving i man dead on the field. A number of 
abandoned haversacks, guns, blankets, etc., indicated a more severe loss. 
The Union casualties were 7 men wounded. 

Pohick Church, Va., Aug. t8, i86t. Detachment of ist New 
York Cavalry. A company sent out from Alexandria under Capt. 
William H. Boyd met a party of 20 Confederate cavalry at Pohick 
Church. Boyd charged, routing the enemy completely and wound- 
ing 2 of them. One Federal soldier was killed and 2 more were re- 
ported missing. 

Pohick Church, Va., Dec. 18, 1861. 115th Pennsylvania Infantry 



700 The Union Army 

and 1st New Jersey Cavalry. This affair was a skirmish between 
some Confederate pickets, 6 or 8 in number, and a Federal recon- 
noitering party. The enemy fled at the lirst volley. No casualties 
were reported. 

Pohick Church, Va., March 5, 1862. Detachment of 63d Penn- 
sylvania Infantry. A detachment of this regiment, under Lieut. -Col. 
A. S. M. Morgan, was fired into from ambush by Confederates and 
before reinforcements could arrive the enemy had escaped in the 
thick underbrush. Three of the Union party, 2 of them officers, were 
killed and i man wounded. 

Poindexter's Farm, Va., July i, 1862. The Poindexter farm lay 
adjacent to Malvern hill, where was fought the last of the Seven 
Days" battles in McClellan's Peninsular campaign of 1862. (See 
Seven Days' Battles.) 

Point Isabel, Tex., Aug. 9, 1864. Fatigue party of 81 st Corps 
d'Afrique Engineers. Seventy-five men were sent from Brazos San- 
tiago to Point Isabel under Capt. Jordan for the purpose of pro- 
curing lumber. About noon they were attacked by 150 Confederate 
cavalry and some sharp skirmishing ensued, during which the enemy 
lost 2 killed and several wounded. Fearing for the safety of the 
steamer in which they had been transported, Jordan withdrew and 
returned to Brazos Santiago. 

Point Lookout, Va., May 13, 1864. Detachment of the 36th U. S. 
Colored Infantry and Seamen from the Potomac Flotilla. 

Point Mountain Turnpike, W. Va., Sept. 11, 1861. Detachment 
of 15th Indiana Infantry. Companies D and F, under Capt. William 
J. Templeton, were sent to take position at the junction of the 
Point Mountain and the Huntersville pikes. On the morning of the 
nth Templeton's pickets were driven in and Templeton, unable to effectu- 
ally check the enemy's advance, sent for reinforcements. Another por- 
tion of the 15th Ind. was sent him, but learning soon afterward that 
a larger force was on its way to flank him he retired, having lost 2 
killed, 3 wounded and i captured. The Confederate loss was not 
reported. 

Point of Rocks, Kan., Jan. 20, 1865. 

Point of Rocks, Md., Aug. 5, 1861. 28th New York Infantry. 

Point of Rocks, Md., Sept. 24, 1861. 28th Pennsylvania Infantry, 
About 9:30 a. m. between 100 and 200 Confederates attacked the 
camp of the 28th Pa. from the ruins of the bridge across the Poto- 
mac at Point of Rocks. The firing was from musketry but the Fed- 
erals replied with artillery, which soon drove the enemy from his 
position. No casualties were reported. 

Point of Rocks, Md., Dec. 19, i86r. 28th Pennsylvania Infantry. 
About 10 a. m. a Confederate 2-gun battery opened upon the camp 
of the .28th Pa. The Federal infantry were deployed and placed in 
positions of safety, while the artillery replied with such vigor and 
accuracy that in half an hour the Confederates retired. There were 
no casualties in the Union camp and if the enemy sufT^ered any the 
fact was not reported. 

Point of Rocks, Md., Sept. 7, 1862. Russell's Company, ist Mary- 
land Cavalry. While the Confederate army was crossing the Poto- 
mac Capt. Russell, notwithstanding the vastly superior numbers of 
the enemy, made a dashing attack, killed 3 men, captured 17 pris- 
oners and made his escape without casualty. The affair was of slight 
importance, but it was one of the most gallant actions of the war. 

Point of Rocks, Md., June 17, 1863. Detachment, 2nd Maryland 
Potomac Home Brigade. Capts. Summers and Vernon were sent 
with their companies to seize and hold Point of Rocks until further 



Cyclopedia of Battles 701 

orders. When near their destination they were overpowered by 
White's battalion of cavalry, which greatly outnumbered their force. 
Summers states the Union casualties as I killed, 3 wounded and 4 
missing. White's report of the same affair says he killed 4, wounded 
20 and captured 53, without the loss of a man. 

Point of Rocks, Md., June 9, 1864. 2nd U. S. Colored Cavalry. 

Point of Rocks, Md., July 5. 1864. 8th Illinois Cavalry. Lieut. - 
Col. David B. Clendenin with his regiment arrived at Point of Rocks 
from Washington at 2 p. m. to find Mosby, with 2 pieces of artillery 
and 200 men, posted on the south bank of the Potomac. A skirmish 
of half an hour ensued, during which Clendenin lost no men and the 
enemy i killed and 2 wounded. Later in the evening the same regi- 
ment frustrated an attempt on the part of Mosby to cross the river 
at Noland's ferry. 

Point Pleasant, La., June 25, 1864. 64th U. S. Colored Infantry. 

Point Pleasant, Mo., March 6-18, i8i62. (See New Madrid, same 
date.) 

Point Pleasant, W, Va., March 30, 1863. One company under Capt. 
John D. Carter. The reports of this affair are meager. Confederates 
attacked the garrison and forced it to take refuge in the court-hpuse. 
After some hours of fighting (whether with or without the aid of 
reinforcements is not recorded) the enemy was repulsed, having lost 
72 in killed, wounded and missing. The Federal loss was 2 killed, 3 
wounded and 6 captured. 

Point Washington, Fla., Feb. 9, 1864. 7th Vermont Infantry. 
Some 32 refugees, under Capt. James L. Galloway, and Lieut. George 
Ross' company of the 7th Vt., left camp at Point Washington to 
move on the camp of Floyd's company of Confederates. The camp 
was surrounded and 52 men captured without difficulty. At noon 
next day, while the Federals were eating, they were attacked by 100 
Confederate cavalry and after a brief skirmish were overpowered 
and the 2 officers and 16 men captured. 

Poison Spring, Ark., April 18, 1864. (See Camden, Ark., Expedi- 
tion to.) 

Polk County, Mo., Aug. 28, 1864. 6th Provisional Enrolled Mis- 
souri Militia. Capt. Pace and 7 Confederate cavalrymen were at- 
tacked by Capt. Samuel W. Headlee and 15 men of the Missouri regi- 
ment. Pace and i man were killed, i was wounded and i captured. The 
Federal squad did not suflfer any loss. 

Polk's Plantation, Ark., May 25. 1863. 3d Iowa and 5th Kansas 
Cavalry. Detachments of the two regiments under Maj. Samuel 
Walker, while on a reconnaissance from Helena, were attacked at 
Polk's plantation by a superior force of Confederates and compelled 
to fall slowly back. On reaching a bridge a stand was made and a 
line of battle formed ready to meet a Confederate charge, but the 
enemy withdrew without assaulting. The loss of the 3d la. was 5 
wounded, while the enemy was known to have had 2 killed. 

Pollard, Ala., July 23, 1864. Detachment of 14th New York Cav- 
alry. As an incident of an expedition from Barrancas, Fla., the ad- 
vance of the expedition, Co. M, 14th N. Y. cavalry, met a small 
force of Confederate cavalry at the junction of the Pollard and 
Perdido Station roads. The Federals were successful in the brief 
encounter, capturing 3 members of the 7th Ala. cavalry. 

Pollard, Ala., Dec. 13-19, 1864. 82nd, 86th and 97th Xj. S. Colored 
Infantry. An expedition under Col. George D. Robinson from Bar- 
rancas, Fla., reached Pollard on the i6th. After burning some Con- 
federate stores a return march was begun and severe fighting oc- 
curred at all the streams which Robinson had to cross from the 



702 The Union Army 

Little Escambia to Pine Barren creek, where the enemy was de- 
cisively repulsed. The Federal loss during the expedition was \J 
killed and 64 wounded, Robinson among the latter. 

Pollard's Farm, Va., May 27, 1864. This is but another name for 
the engagement at Dabney's ferry in the campaign from the Rapidan 
to the James. (See Dabney's Ferry.) 

Pollock's Mill Creek, Va., April 29-May 2, 1863. (See Fitzhugh's 
Crossing.) 

Pollocksville, N. C, May 16, 1862. 2nd Maryland Infantry. About 
noon the advanced pickets of the 2nd Md. were attacked and driven 
in by a considerable force of Confederates. The outposts withstood 
the attack and in the sharp skirmish which followed the enemy lost 
2 or 3 killed, a number wounded and 2 captured. The regiment was 
drawn up to receive an attack, but it was not made and before night- 
fall, pursuant to orders, Col. J. Eugene Duryee, commanding, ordered 
the regiment to withdraw. 

Pollocksville, N. C, Jan. 19, 1863. (See White Oak Creek.) 

Pomme De Terre, Mo., Oct. 13, 1861. A party of 7 Confederates,, 
while foraging for wheat on the Pomme de Terre, were fired into 
by a squad of Federals in ambush and 2 of the enemy were wounded. 
A larger detachment of the enemy started in pursuit, but failed to 
come up with the Federals. The only official mention of the affair 
is a Confederate report, so there is no way of ascertaining what 
Union troops participated. 

Ponchatoula, La., Sept. 15, 1862. Detachments of 12th Maine^ 
13th Connecticut and 26th Massachusetts Infantry. Owing to the 
heavy draft of the boats in which the expedition embarked it was 
impossible to surprise Ponchatoula as had been planned, but not- 
withstanding this the attack was made. Maj. George C. Strong, at 
the head of 112 men. made a march of 10 miles and when within a 
mile of the village the whistle of a locomotive gave the enemy notice 
of his approach. On entering the place his column was met by a 
discharge of canister from a Confederate light battery. Strong de- 
ployed his men and poured in such a destructive fire that the enemy 
was obliged to retreat. Strong lost 21 men killed, wounded and miss- 
ing while the enemy's killed alone numbered 20. 

Ponchatoula, La., March 24-26, 1863. Detachment of Sherman's 
Division, Department of the Gulf. Brig.-Gen. T. W. Sherman, com- 
manding the defenses of New Orleans, sent out an expedition to 
drive the Confederates out of Ponchatoula and destroy the bridges 
on the Jackson railroad. The expedition consisted of the 6th Mich., 
9th Conn., 14th and 24th Me., 165th and 177th N. Y. infantry, and 
was commanded by Col. Thomas S. Clark, of the Michigan regiment. 
Upon arriving at North pass, Clark left Lieut.-Col. Smith with the 
i6sth N. Y. to move up the railroad to within 3 miles of Ponchatoula,. 
while the main body proceeded by water up the Ponchatoula river 
to Wadesboro landing, the same distance from the town on the west. 
Smith was instructed to hold his position on the lailroad until he 
heard the signal to advance given from the landing. Clark's men 
disembarked at noon on the 24th, the signal gun was fired and both 
detachments moved on the town, driving the enemy before them. 
Clark reached the town first, drove out the Confederates and took 
possession. Smith became engaged with the enemy in a sharp skir- 
mish, in which he had 3 men wounded, and did not reach Poncha- 
toula until 3 p. m. The next day the detachment destroyed two 
bridges, after which the main body retired 3 miles south of town, 
leaving six companies of the 6th Mich., under Maj. Clark as a picket 
and provost guard, with instructions to fall back on the main body 



Cyclopedia of Battles 703 

in case of attack. On the evening of the 26th the pickets were at- 
tacked, and pursuant to orders fell back, but the Confederates de- 
clined to pursue. The Union loss during the movement was 9 men 
wounded. The enemy lost 3 killed and 11 wounded. 

Ponchatoula, La., May 9-18, 1863. (See Amite river, same date.) 
Pond Creek, Ky., July 6, 1863. 39th Kentucky Mounted Infantry 
and 65th Illinois Infantry. The detachment, under Col. Daniel Cam- 
eron, in an expedition from Beaver creek, Ky., into southwestern 
Virginia was attacked at Pond creek by a superior force of the 
enemy. The Federals charged up a steep hill completely routing 
the Confederates, who left 5 dead and a number wounded on the 
field and some 20 were taken prisoners. Cameron sustained no loss. 
Pond Creek, Ky., May 16, 1864. 39th Kentucky Mounted Infantry. 
Pender's Mill, Mo., Sept. 20. 1864. Detachment of 3d Missouri 
State Militia Cavalry. During Price's Missouri raid a scouting party 
sent out by order of Brig.-Gen. Thomas Ewing, was surrounded 
at Ponder's mill on Little Black river, and all but 10 were either 
captured or killed. 

Pond Springs, Ala., May 27, 1864. Detachment of the 3d Brigade, 
4th Division, i6th Army Corps, and Long's Cavalry. Col. J. H. 
Howe, of the 32nd Wis. infantry, was ordered to march from De- 
catur to Courtland with his own regiment, the 25th Ind., the 17th 
N. Y., and 2 pieces of Battery D, 2nd 111. light artillery, the ob- 
ject being to develop the enemy and if possible bring him to an en- 
gagement. As the command emerged from the woods about a mile 
from Confederate Gen. Roddey's camp at Pond Springs, and 5 miles 
from Courtland, they found the enemy drawn up in line of battle 
about 1,500 strong, with a battery of 4 guns in position com- 
manding the road. Long dismounted one regiment of cavalry as 
skirmishers and Howe placed his artillery in position supported by 
his infantry. A few rounds served to silence the enemy's guns and 
the appearance of the two regiments of cavalry drove the Confed- 
erates in a panic toward Courtland closely pursued by Howe's 
whole force, the pursuit being kept up until 8 p. m. Howe's casual- 
ties were 5 men slightly wounded. The enemy's loss was not ascer- 
tained. 

Pond Springs, Ala., June 29, 1864. Detachments of 9th Ohio Cav- 
alry and Infantry from post of Decatur. The report of Col. Charles 
C. Doolittle, commandant of the post of Decatur, contains the fol- 
lowing: "June 29, two companies of the 9th Ohio cavalry and about 
800 infantry, under Col. Grower, of the 17th N. Y. veteran volunteers, 
attacked and partially surprised the camp of Col. Patterson at Pond 
Springs, captured i lieutenant and 9 men, his wagons, ambulances, 
camp and garrison equipage, officers' baggage, and a lot of horses 
and mules; killed and wounded several of the enemy; no loss on our 
side." 

Pond Springs, Ala., Aug. 9, 1864. Detachment of ist Brigade. 4th 
Cavalry Division, Army of the Cumberland. Lieut. -Col. William F. 
Prosser moved out on the Moulton road from Decatur to Pond 
Springs with 500 cavalry on the 8th. At daylight of the 9th he came 
upon the retreating Confederates and attacked, capturing 12 men, 
250 head of cattle, 225 sheep, 75 horses and mules and a number of 
contrabands. The casualties, if any, were not reported. 

Pond Springs, Ala., Dec. 29, 1864. (See Hillsboro, same date.) 
Pontotoc, Miss., April 19, 1863. (See Grierson's Raid.) 
Pontotoc, Miss., Feb. 17, 1864. 3d Illinois Cavalry. During the 
Meridian expedition Capt. Andrew B. Kirkbride with the 3d 111. 
charged into Pontotoc and finding no Confederates there proceeded 



704 The Union Army 

2 miles on the Houston road, where some pickets were encountered and 
driven back. Then Gholson's command was met and by the charge 
of two companies was driven into a swamp immediately in the Federal 
front. Kirkbride found that if he advanced he would be Hanked, so 
accordingly ordered one company to flank on the Red Land road, 
and another on the road leading to the right while two companies 
skirmished in the swamp. On orders from the brigade cornmander 
the regiment was withdrawn, the object of the reconnaissance having been 
accomplished. Seven of the enemy were killed. 

Pontotoc, Miss., Julv ii, 1864. Advance of Right Wing, i6th 
Army Corps. During the expedition to Tupelo, under Maj.-Gen. 
Andrew J. Smith, it was learned on nearing Pontotoc that McCul- 
loch's brigade of Confederate cavalry occupied the town. The 7th 
Kan. was deployed as skirmishers, driving back the enemy's advance 
line, and at the same time Grierson's cavalry attacked upon their 
right flank. The outcome was the retreat of the Confederates, leav- 
ing their dead and wounded (number not reported) in the hands of 
the Federals. 

Pony Mountain, Va., Sept. 13, 1863. Cavalry Corps, Army of the 
Potomac. In the advance of the Union forces from the Rappa- 
hannock to the Rapidan. the movements of the army could be ob- 
served from the Confederate signal station on Pony mountain, about 

3 miles southeast of Culpeper. Brig.-Gen. Alfred Pleasonton, com- 
manding the cavalry corps, sent a brigade to the left, while with the 
main body he engaged the enemy in front. The Confederates were 
well posted behind trees and fences, but the ist Mich, made a gallant 
charge up the slope of the mountain, drove them from their position 
and pursued to Raccoon ford, a distance of 2 miles. A signal station 
was then established on the mountain and communication opened 
with the headquarters of the 2nd corps. The ist Mich, captured a 
few prisoners, which were the only casualties reported on either side. 

Pooler's Station, Ga., Dec. 7-9, 1864. (See Jenks' Bridge.) 
- Poolesville, Md., Sept. 5, 1862. Maj.-Gen. James E. B. Stuart, com- 
manding the cavalry of Lee's army in the invasion of Maryland, reports 
that after crossing the Potomac river his advance brigade (Lee's) moved 
to Poolesville, where it encountered a body of Federal cavalry-. An at- 
tack was made, in which the greater portion of the Union command was 
captured. 

Poolesville, Md., Sept. 7-8, 1862. Detachments of 3d Indiana and 
8th Illinois Cavalry. On the 7th two squadrons of each of the above 
regiments made a dash into Poolesville and captured the cavalry 
vedettes, the only Confederates in the town. The next day the regiments, 
with a section of artillery, were ordered to occupj^ the town. As they 
approached some Confederate cavalry were seen moving in retreat 
down the Barnesville road and a portion of the 3d Ind. pushed after 
them. They had not proceeded far before the Confederates opened upon 
them with 2 pieces of artillery. The Union artillery was then brought 
into action and soon silenced the enemy's guns. The Confederates 
were then charged and driven from the town and its vicinity. The 
losses were i killed and 12 wounded on the Union side and 10 killed, 
wounded and missing on the Confederate. 

Poolesville, Md., Nov. 25, 1S62. A Confederate report states that 
Capt. George W. Chiswell, of the Confederate army, with 46 men of 
the 35th Va. cavalry battalion, surprised and captured 16 Union 
soldiers and a telegraph operator at Poolesville. This is the only 
ofhcial mention of the aflfair, so it is not known who the Federal 
participants were. 

Poolesville, Md., Dec. 14. 1862. The report of Maj. Elijah V. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 705 

White, 35th Va. cavalry battalion (Confederate), states that his 
command crossed the Potomac river at Conrad's ferry and arrived 
at Poolesville about 8 p. m. A demand was made upon the Federals 
quartered in the town hall to surrender, and upon its being refused 
the building was fired upon and the occupants, after losing 2 killed 
and 8 wounded, capitulated. Twenty-one prisoners were taken. 
White lost I man killed. As the only official mention of the affair is 
a Confederate report, there is no way of ascertaining what Union 
troops were engaged. 

Poplar Bluff, Mo., Feb. 27. 1864. Detachment of 3d Missouri 
.State Militia Cavalry. Capt. Abijah Johns, reporting from Patterson 
under date of Feb. 28, says: "My scout in from below Poplar Bluff. 
Captured and burned rebel train, destroying a great many shotguns 
.and rifles and corn. Killed 2 jayhawkers; had i man slightly wounded 
in finger." 

Poplar Spring Church, Va., Sept. 30-Oct. 2, 1864. Parts of the 
5th, 9th and 2nd Army Corps and Gregg's Cavalry Division. Poplar 
Spring Church was about 5 miles southwest of Petersburg, 2 miles 
west of the Weldon railroad at Globe tavern, and near the right of 
the Confederate line. The capture of Fort Harrison, on the 
north side of the James, by the Union forces on the 29th forced Gen. 
Lee to send reinforcements to that side of the river, and Gen. Grant 
determined upon a reconnaissance toward the enemy's right with a 
view of attacking the works if it was found that the force there had 
been sufficiently weakened by the withdrawal of troops. In any 
event the demonstration was to be made sufficiently vigorous to pre- 
vent further detachments being sent to Fort Harrison. Gen. Warren, 
commanding the 5th corps, moved on the morning of the 30th, with 
the divisions of Griffin and Ayres, from the left of the Union line 
toward the church. He was followed by Gen. Parke, with the divi- 
sions of Willcox and Potter of the 9th corps, while Gregg's cavalry 
■was sent farther to the left and rear. Griffin found the enemy in an 
intrenched position on the Peebles farm and immediately attacked 
his works, carrying a redoubt and a line of rifle-pits, taking i gun and 
about 100 prisoners. In the afternoon, as Parke was moving to War- 
ren's left. Potter's division met the enemy near the Pegram house. 
Understanding that Griffin's division was to support his right, Potter 
disposed his forces for an attack. The skirmishers were gradually 
forced back to about a quarter of a mile beyond the Pegram house, 
where the enemy was encountered in force, with a battery in posi- 
tion to enfilade the road. Griffin had failed to make connection with 
Potter's right and it was soon discovered that the enemy's line over- 
lapped that flank. Fearing that he would be cut ofif. Potter issued 
orders for a change in the disposition of his men, but before the 
change could be effected the Confederates made a determined attack 
•on the exposed flank, forcing back the Union ranks in some confusion. 
The 7th R. I., which had been held in reserve, was directed to form 
a new line near the Pegram house and stop all who were falling to 
the rear. Curtin's brigade was drawn back to the new line, the 
enemy was checked for the time being, and Griffin's division came 
up in time to aid in repelling the next assault. The Federals then 
took up a position along the line of the works captured from the 
-enemy earlier in the day, the 9th corps connecting with the 5th on 
the right, the left refused to cover the Squirrel Level road, and 
during the night this line was intrenched. 

But little fighting was done on Oct. i. Gregg, who had. moved on 
the Vaughan road to the LTnion left, was attacked, but the attack 
Avas repulsed. Warren was also attacked, but held his position and 

Vol. VI— 15 



706 The Union Army 

drove back the Confederates with slight loss on both sides. In the after- 
noon Mott's division of the 2nd corps reported to Parke and was 
massed in the rear of the gth corps. On the 2nd Parke advanced, 
and after some sharp skirmishing established a line of intrenchments 
about a mile from that of the enemy. This line was connected with 
the works on the Wcldon railroad and later was extended to the 
rear on the left, through the Pegram farm, to cover the Squirrel 
Level road. 

The Union casualties in the several engagements about Poplar 
Spring Church were 187 killed, 900 wounded and 1,802 missing. The 
Confederate loss was not ascertained. 

Po River, Va., May 10. 1864. The engagement along the Pa 
river on this date was part of the operations about Spottsylvania 
Court House in the campaign from the Rapidan to the James. (See 
Spottsylvania.) 

Port Conway, Va., Sept. 1-3. 1863. 3d Cavalry Division, Army of 
the Potomac. The gunboats Satellite and Reliance were captured 
by the Confederates on the night of Aug. 22, and were kept stationed 
at Port Conway, on the Rappahannock river, about 10 miles south 
of King George Court House. On Sept. i Brig. -Gen. Judson Kil- 
patrick was ordered to proceed to Port Conway with his cavalry 
division and Battery E, 4th U. S. artillery, under command of Capt. 
S. S. Elder, and either" recapture or destroy the two vessels. That 
same day he drove in the Confederate pickets near King George 
Court House, and from that point advanced on three roads tO' 
Port Conway, driving the enemy across the river late in the evening. 
About 6 o'clock the next morning Elder planted his guns both above 
and below the gunboats, opened fire at a range of 700 yards and soon 
drove the enemy from the boats. By 8 o'clock the Satellite was so- 
badly riddled that she commenced sinking and all the guns were 
turned upon the Reliance. The ironclads that were to cooperate 
failed to put in an appearance, and after keeping up the fire until II 
a. m., Kilpatrick withdrew to Lamb's Creek Church, where he had a 
slight skirmish with the enemy, after which he went into camp. 
The Confederates took advantage of the opportunity to remove the 
machinery and guns from the gunboats, but the hulks were so badly 
damaged by Elder's fire that they were abandoned as useless. Had 
the ironclads come up both vessels could have been easily recaptured. 
Kilpatrick's loss was 3 killed and 3 wounded. The enemy's loss was not 
reported. 

Port Gibson, Miss., May i, 1863. 13th Army Corps, and 3d Divi- 
sion of the 17th Corps. Port Gibson is a small village a few miles 
southeast of Grand Gulf. The engagement here was the beginning 
of Grant's active campaign against Vicksburg. The 13th corps, 
Maj.-Gen. John A. McClernand commanding, left Bruinsburg about 
4 p. m. on April 30, with Carr's division in advance, followed irr 
order by Osterhaus, Hovey and A. J. Smith, and moved toward Port 
Gibson. That same afternoon Confederate Gen. J. S. Bowen, com- 
manding the garrison at Grand Gulf, learning that Grant had crossed 
the Mississippi at Bruinsburg, sent a portion of Green's brigade to 
guard the approaches to Port Gibson, and at the same time tele- 
graphed to Pemberton that the Union army was on the east side of 
the river. Pemberton became alarmed and ordered Tracy's and 
Baldwin's brigades, of Stevenson's division, to reinforce Grand Gulf. 
About an hour after midnight Carr came in contact with Green's 
brigade, posted across the road about 3 miles west of Port Gibson. 
A slight skirmish ensued, which resulted in the withdrawal of the- 
Confederates, and the Union troops rested on their arms until day- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 707 

light. At this point the road from Bruinsburg to Port Gibson di- 
vides. When daylight came Green's brigade was drawn up across 
the southern and Tracy's across the northern road. McClernand 
ordered Ostcrhaus forward on the right hand road to attack Tracy, 
and Carr on the left hand road against Green. At 5:30 Osterhaus 
was engaged, and met with such a stubborn resistance that he was 
unable to make any further advance until late in the afternoon. Carr 
formed his line with Benton's brigade on the right of the road and 
Stone's on the left, and moved forward against Green, who was 
strongly posted on a ridge. In the advance the two brigades be- 
came separated, leaving a gap in the line, which was closed by Ho- 
vey's division about 7 o'clock, when a determined assault was made, 
the ridge was carried, 2 cannon, 3 caissons and about 400 prisoners 
being captured. Green fell back toward Port Gibson, closely pressed 
by Hovey and Carr. Near the village they encountered Baldwin's 
brigade coming up to Green's support, and a severe contest of an 
hour and a half followed. Bowen in the meantime had ordered 
Cockrell to send three regiments to Port Gibson. These arrived 
about noon and two regiments were sent to the assistance of Bald- 
win and one to Tracy. Green's brigade was withdrawn from the 
southern road and sent to Tracy also. Bowen himself arrived on the 
field about this time and led two of Cockrell's regiments in a des- 
perate effort to turn the Union right, but Burbridge's brigade, of 
A. J. Smith's division, came up at this juncture and was thrown 
forward to meet the movement. At the same time Hovey brought 
four batteries into position to enfilade Bowen's line, forcing him to 
retire in some confusion. Not knowing the strength of the enemy 
opposed to him, McClernand sent back for reinforcements. Mc- 
Pherson sent Stevenson's brigade to the support of Carr and Ho- 
vey and J. E. Smith's to Osterhaus. About 5 p. m. the latter got into 
position to strike the enemy on the right flank, while Osterhaus re- 
newed the attack in front. Tracy had been killed early in the engage- 
ment and Green, who was now in command, hurriedly retreated in the 
direction of Grand Gulf, burning the bridge over Bayou Pierre be- 
hind him, thus checking pursuit. Before Stevenson's brigade reached 
the scene of action Baldwin was driven from his position, falling back 
through Port Gibson and destroying the bridge over the south fork 
of Bayou Pierre. Sunset found the Federals in possession of the 
field, with a loss of 131 killed. 719 wounded and 25 missing. Bowen's 
entire force numbered about 8,500 men, but he was able to hold the 
whole 13th corps in check the greater part of the day, owing chiefly 
to his advantageous positions. He reported his loss as being 68 
killed, 380 wounded and 384 missing. This action is also known as 
"Anderson's Hill," "Thompson's Hill' and "Magnolia Hills." 

Port Gibson, Miss., Oct. 10, 1863. (See Ingraham's Plantation, 
same date.) 

Port Gibson, Miss., Dec. 26, 1863. ^Mississippi Marine Brigade, 
and Cavalry. 

Port Gibson, Miss., July 14, 1864. ist Division, 17th Army Corps. 
The itinerary of the ist brigade, ist division, 17th army corps of an 
expedition from Vicksburg to Grand Gulf says : "July 14. — Marched 
to Port Gibson; skirmished with the enemy during the forenoon." 
This is the only official mention of the affair. On the same day, 
the 2nd N. J. cavalry, acting as rear-guard for the main column of another 
expedition, from Memphis, Tenn., to Grand Gulf, Miss., was several times 
attacked, but each time succeeded in repulsing the Confederates, although 
a foraging party of 26 men of the regiment was cut off and captured near 
Port Gibson. 



708 The Union Army 

Port Gibson, Miss., Sept. 30, 1864. Detachments of 2nd Wiscon- 
sin Infantry, 5th and nth Illinois and 3d U. S. Colored Cavalry and 
26th Ohio Battery. As an incident of an expedition from Vicksburg 
to Rodney and Fayette, Miss., the detachment, under Col. Embury 
D. Osband, reached Port Gibson at 4 p. m. Thirty of Cobb's Black 
river scouts congregated in the town were charged and driven with 
a loss of 2 killed. Osband had i man killed. 

Port Gibson, Miss., May 3-4, 1865. 9th Indiana Cavalry. Col. 
George W. Jackson with his regiment, while on an expedition from 
Rodney, charged into Port Gibson on the 3d. One of the enemy 
was killed and 2 were captured. Next morning 125 Federals met 
and drove a number of Owen scouts several miles on the Gallatin road, 
but without taking any prisoners. 

Port Hudson, La., March 13-14, 1863. 19th Army Corps and 
Farragut's Fleet. This was a demonstration by Gen. Banks in the 
rear of Port Hudson, to enable Farragut's gunboats to pass the 
Confederate batteries for the purpose of ascending the Mississippi 
river to assist in the reduction of Vicksburg. On the 13th Gen. 
Grover's division of the 19th corps left Baton Rouge for Port Hud- 
son. The divisions of Gens. Emory and Augur followed at day- 
break on the 14th, and by 2 p. m. communication was established 
with the fleet, which was then lying at Prophet's island, 5 miles 
below Port Hudson. The enemy's pickets on the roads to the rear 
of the Confederate works were driven in and the infantry lines 
were pushed up to within 600 yards of the enemy's intrenchments, 
though it was impossible for Banks to repair the bridges and bring 
up his artillery in time to cooperate with the fleet by a concen- 
trated fire from his batteries. Farragut had to pass a line of batteries 
about 4 miles in length. In the afternoon the mortars and two of 
the gunboats opened on the batteries, continuing the bombardment 
until 9:30 p. m., when the signal to advance was given from the 
flag-ship Hartford. The flag-ship took the lead, with the gunboat 
Albatross lashed to her side. Then followed the Richmond and 
Monongahela, the Genesee lashed to the former and the Kineo to 
the latter, the Mississippi bringing up the rear. The Hartford and 
Albatross ran the gauntlet successfully; the Monongahela, when 
opposite the center of the batteries, received a shot that disabled her 
machinery and was compelled to drop back out of range of the fire; 
the Richmond was disabled by a shot through her steam drum and 
followed the Monongahela; the Mississippi ran aground when about 
half way past the batteries, where she sustained a heavy fire for 
half an hour, when she was fired and abandoned, the crew escaping 
to the shore opposite Port Hudson. The vessel drifted down a 
short distance and exploded. One cause for the failure of the un- 
dertaking was that the smoke from the guns of the Hartford and 
Albatross hung low over the water and obscured the surface of the river, 
making it difficult for the vessels in the rear to follow their correct 
course. So accurate was the aim of the Confederate gunners that at 
one time it looked as if the entire fleet was doomed to annihilation. The 
total Union loss was about 70, the greater portion of which occurred on 
the Mississippi. The Confederate reports state their loss as i killed and 
19 wounded. (For a description of Confederate fortifications about Port 
Hudson see the following article.) 

Port Hudson, La., Siege of. May 25-July 9, 1863. 19th Army Corps, 
Department of the Gulf. The village of Port Hudson, located on a bend 
of the Mississippi river, 25 miles above Baton Rouge and about 150 
miles from New Orleans, was fortified by the Confederates in the sum- 
mer and fall of 1862. The works were of great strength, the parapets 



Cyclopedia of Battles 709 

having an average thickness of 20 feet and rising to a height of 15 feet 
above the bottom of the ditch in front. The batteries were about 80 
feet above the water and mounted 20 heavy siege guns, which com- 
manded the river for some distance in either direction. Beginning at 
Ross' landing, about a mile below the village, a line of earthworks of 
strong profile ran eastward for about a mile, thence northward and 
finally turned to the west, coming to the bank of the river at the mouth 
of Thompson's creek, half a mile north of the town. Near Ross' landing 
was an enclosed bastioned work; at the southeast salient, where the line 
turned northward, was another strong redoubt known as "the Citadel;" 
a third work stood nearly east of the village, not far from the Baton 
Rouge road, and a fourth was at the upper end of the line facing Thomp- 
son's creek. Altogether the line was over 3 miles in length, and on 
April I, 1863, was manned by something over 16,000 men, with 30 pieces 
of field artillery, under command of Maj.-Gen. Frank Gardner, but by 
the middle of May this force had been reduced to about 7,000 men iri 
order to reinforce Gen. Pemberton at Vicksburg. The reduction of Port 
Hudson was necessary for the opening of the Mississippi river, and 
when Gen. Grant began the siege of Vicksburg Gen. Banks, command- 
ing the Department of the Gulf, concentrated his army against Port 
Hudson. At that time the 19th corps consisted of four divisions. The 
1st division, under Maj.-Gen. C. C. Augur, was composed of the bri- 
gades of Chapin, Weitzel and Dudley; the 2nd division, Brig.-Gen. T. W. 
Sherman commanding, consisted of the brigades of Dow, Farr and Nicker- 
son; the 3d division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. W. H. Emory, included 
the brigades of Ingraham, Paine and Gooding ; the 4th division, com- 
manded by Brig.-Gen. Cuvier Grover, was made up of the brigades of 
Dwight, Kimball and Birge. At the beginning of operations against 
Port Hudson, Banks brought with him from the Red river country the 
divisions of Grover and Emory and Weitzel's brigade. The remainder 
of Augur's division and that of Sherman, stationed at Baton Rouge, 
joined Banks a few miles east of Port Hudson on May 25, the 
Confederate outposts were driven in, and the next day the place was 
fairly invested. On the 19th Gen. J. E. Johnston sent an order to 
Gardner to evacuate the post and join him at Jackson. This order did 
not reach Port Hudson until late on the 24th, and before it could be 
carried out Banks' army of nearly 40,000 men was in front of the in- 
trenchments. 

Banks formed his line with Grover on the right; next Emory's divi- 
sion, temporarily commanded by Gen. Dwight ; Augur occupied the center, 
and Sherman was on the left. As soon as the troops were in position 
orders were issued for an assault and between 5 and 6 a. m. on the 
26tli the artillery opened a sharp fire on the Confederate works. This 
continued until 10 o'clock, when Grover moved forward to the attack. 
The ground in his front was broken and the troops moved with diffi- 
culty, though they gallantly pushed up close to the works and continued 
the fighting until 4 p. m. Tlie attack in the center and on the left was 
delayed and did not commence until 2 p. m., when the whole line moved 
forward with determination, reaching the ditch, but the parapet proved 
too formidable and at dark the troops were withdrawn. During the 
next few days there was almost constant skirmishing, while the Federals 
advanced their position as much as possible and intrenched. Siege guns 
were brought up and placed in position, and on June 13 Banks made a 
demand for the surrender of the garrison. This was refused and 
another assault was ordered to be made at daylight on the 14th. Dwight 
moved forward under cover of a ravine and attacked the Citadel, while 
the main assault was made by Grover and Weitzel on the right. Neither 
column was successful, though the Federal lines were advanced and the 



yiQ The Union Army , •' 

ground thus gained was intrenched and held during the remainder of the 
siege. Dwight gained an eminence from which an approach was run to 
the Citadel; a mine was prepared and charged with 30 barrels of powder, 
but just as it was about ready to spring, the garrison capitulated. The 
Union loss in the two assaults was 496 killed, 2,945 wounded and 358 miss- 
ing. Among the wounded was Gen. Sherman, who lost a leg. The Con- 
federate loss was comparatively small. 

On July 7 Banks received a letter from Grant, announcing the fall 
of Vicksburg. Salutes were fired and the vociferous cheering of the 
Union troops told the Confederates that something out of the ordinary 
had occurred. That afternoon a rumor of Pemberton's surrender be- 
came current among the besieged and Gardner asked Banks to give him 
some official assurance that the report was correct. In reply Banks sent 
the Confederate commander a copy of Grant's letter, upon the receipt 
of which Gardner proposed the appointment of commissioners to arrange 
the details of a surrender. This was assented to and the commissioners 
met at 9 a. m. on the 8th. By the terms agreed upon the entire garrison 
was surrendered as prisoners of war, and all arms, munitions, public 
funds and materials of war passed into the hands of the victorious army. 
The Confederate troops laid down their arms on the morning of the 
9th and the Mississippi river was open for the passage of Union vessels 
for its entire navigable length. Of the prisoners 5,593 were paroled and 
some 500 sick and wounded were retained in the hospitals. The Con- 
federates lost while the siege was in progress about 800 men. Over 
5,000 stands of small arms, 51 pieces of artillery, large quantities of am- 
munition, etc., fell into Banks' hands. The commissary stores were 
small, practically everything having been consumed during the siege, in 
the last days of which it is said the Confederates had no meat except 
that of mules and rats. 

Port Hudson, La., April 7, 1864. Detachment of ii8th Illinois 
Mounted Infantry. Capt. Joseph Shaw, with 100 cavalry and a gun of 
the 25th N. Y. battery, was sent out to protect a telegraph line repairer. 
About 8 miles out, near Plains store, this escort was attacked by a 
superior force of the enemy and compelled to fall back, which they did 
in good order until within a mile and a half of the town, when another 
Confederate detachment came up on the Springfield landing road and 
attacked on the flank. In the fight which ensued the enemy captured 
the piece of artillery, together with 16 men and 8 horses. Five of 
Shaw's men were wounded. 

Port Hudson, La., May 28, 1864. A small force of Confederates 
attacked and plundered the pest-house of the post of Port Hudson, situ- 
ated on the opposite bank of the river. The medicines were destroyed 
and the hospital supplies taken. The surgeon in charge, John W. Mason, 
was taken prisoner. 

Portland, Mo., Oct. 16, 1862. ist Battalion Missouri Cavalry Militia. 
A party of Porter's Confederate troops having occupied Portland, a 
Federal battalion, 120 strong, started in pursuit. At Jackson's mill the 
enemy's pickets were first discovered. They were driven in, one por- 
tion of them making for the town and the other toward the left. Both 
were pursued, but the latter was lost in the thickets. When the 
Federals arrived in the town the larger portion of the enemy had already 
been ferried across the river, but the 40 or 50 left were charged and 
dispersed up the river. The Confederates lost 7 killed in this encounter. 

Port Republic, Va., June 8-9, 1862. ist Division, Department of the 
Rappahannock. Port Republic is a town situated at the confluence of 
the North and South rivers where they form the south fork of the 
Shenandoah river. The South river is easily fordable and at the time of 
the operations in the Shenandoah valley in 1862 it was spanned by a 



Cyclopedia of Battles 71X 

wooden bridge. During the pursuit of Jackson in the valley Brig.-Gen. 
James Shields, commanding the ist division of the Department of the 
Rappahannock, learned that the Confederates were awaiting a lowering of 
the waters of the river. Accordingly he ordered the 3d and 4th brigades 
and 14 pieces of artillery, all under Col. Samuel S. Carroll, to proceed 
to Port Republic and guard the crossing, hoping thus to get Jackson 
between himself and Fremont. At 6 a. m. on Sunday, June 8, Carroll's 
advance approached the town, which was occupied by a small cavalry 
force, and in a brilliant dash across the south stream the Federal cav- 
alry drove the enemy out and across the bridge spanning the north 
stream. Two pieces of artillery were immediately brought forward 
and placed so as to command the bridge and the infantry was brought 
into the town. Before the latter could be deployed the Confederates 
returned in force and the Federal cavalry fell back in disorder without 
offering any resistance. Seeing that it was impossible to hold his posi- 
tion, Carroll ordered a retreat toward Conrad's store, 15 miles down the 
river. The Union loss on the 8th was 9 killed, 20 wounded and i miss- 
ing. On the same day the battle of Cross Keys was fought and during 
the night Ewell's division joined the Confederates at Port Republic. 
Early the next morning the enemy was seen massing his infantry and 
cavalry on Carroll's left, and before long was attacking in force on the 
right, held by the 7th Ind. under Col. James Gavin. Carroll with rein- 
forcements went to Gavin's aid and succeeded in repulsing the attack, 
but in the meantime the left gave way and the batteries were captured. 
The order to retreat was then given, the 5th Ohio infantry bringing up 
the rear. The Confederates turned the captured guns on the retiring 
Federals, which created some confusion, but after falling back for some 
4 or 5 miles reinforcements came up under Shields and repulsed the 
pursuing enemy. The Federal losses on the 9th were 67 killed, 393 
wounded and 558 captured or missing. The Confederate casualties were 
92 killed, 693 wounded and 36 missing. 

Port Republic, Va., Sept. 26-28, 1864. Cavalry of the Army of the 
Shenandoah. On the 26th, while the main body of the Union army 
was near Harrisonburg, Sheridan sent Gen. Torbert, with Wilson's divi- 
sion and Lowell's brigade of Merritt's, to destroy the Virginia Central 
railroad bridge at Waynesboro, and, as a diversion to cover this move- 
ment, directed Merritt to move with the rest of his division to Port 
Republic. When within 2 miles of Port Republic Devin's brigade, which 
was in advance, encountered some of McCausland's cavalry, drove them 
across the river to Weyer's cave, not far from Brown's gap, when a 
division of Confederate infantry attacked Devin on his right and rear, 
forcing him to fall back toward the river and take a position where he 
liad an open field in his front. Here he was joined by the other brigade, 
Taylor's battery was thrown into position and opened a vigorous fire 
on the Confederates, forcing them to fall back to the woods. Merritt 
then sent word to Gen. Powell at Piedmont to bring up his division, 
with a view to capturing Early's train. The 6th and 7th Mich., com- 
manded by Col. Deane and Maj. Darling, had made one attempt to 
capture the train, but had been compelled to give up the undertaking by 
the superior strength of the guard. When Powell came up he quickly drove 
"back a body of the enemy's cavalry, but in doing so developed a large 
force of infantry and artillery and was forced to retire across the South 
river, where he went into camp for the night. The next morning he again 
advanced, leaving the 2nd W. Va. and two squadrons to guard the camp 
and train. About the same time Fitzhugh Lee crossed the river 2 miles 
above and suddenly attacked Powell's camp, driving back the small force 
in charge. Powell changed front, recalled that portion of his division 
that had already crossed the river, and attacked Lee with such vigor that 



713 The Union Army 

he was forced to retreat somewhat precipitately. Powell started to pursue, 
but a heavy column of infantry, cavalry and artillery was discovered mov- 
ing out from Brown's gap, evidently intent in cutting off the division, but 
Powell prevented the success of the maneuver by slowly falling back to- 
Cross Keys, where he joined Merritt's command and formed in line of 
battle. Instead of attacking the Federal cavalry at Cross Keys the Con- 
federates moved off to Port Republic, which place they evacuated on the 
morning of the 28th, the rear-guard being attacked by Kidd's and Schoon- 
maker's brigades and driven in the direction of Waynesboro. No report 
of casualties during these engagements. 

Port Royal, S. C, Nov. 7, 1861. Com. Dupont's Fleet. Port Royal 
harbor was defended by two forts. Walker and Beauregard, the former 
on Hilton Head island and the latter on Bay point opposite and about 
3 miles distant. Fort Walker was garrisoned by a Confederate force- 
under Gen. Drayton and mounted 20 guns, only 13 of which could be 
directed against an attack by the fleet in front. The garrison at Fort 
Beauregard was commanded by Col. Dunovant. This fort mounted 19- 
guns, but only 7 were in positions to be used against an attack by water. 
At 9 a. m. 19 Union battleships moved up into the harbor in close order, 
firing upon Fort Beauregard as they passed, then circling to the left 
poured a broadside into Fort Walker. This circuit was made three 
times, when some of the vessels took a flanking position, from which they 
could rake the parapet of Fort Walker, and in a short time most of the 
guns of that work were disabled. Meantime the bombardment was kept 
up against Fort Beauregard with like result. Early in the action a 
caisson was exploded by a shell from one of the gimboats, and the burst- 
ing of a rifled 24-pounder killed or wounded several men. The incessant 
and well aimed fire of the battleships finally compelled the evacuation of 
both forts and Port Royal fell into the hands of the national forces, thus 
affording a camping ground and base of operations for the army com- 
manded by Brig.-Gen. T. W. Sherman. (See also naval volume.) 
Port Royal, Va., April 26, 1865. (See Garrett's farm, same date.) 
Port Royal Ferry, S. C, Jan. i. 1862. Part of Expeditionary Corps. 
The Confederates had established batteries at Port Royal ferry on the 
Coosaw river, to obstruct the navigation of that stream, and Brig.-Gen. 
Thomas W. Sherman, commanding the expeditionary corps on Beaufort 
island, determined to dislodge them. This work was intrusted to Brig.- 
Gen. Isaac I. Stevens, whose force consisted of the 8th Mich., 47th, 48th 
and 79th N. Y., 50th and looth Pa. infantry, about 3,000 men, while five 
gunboats of Com. Dupont's fleet, under command of Capt. C. R. P. 
Rodgers of the U. S. navy, were directed to cooperate with the land 
forces. The plan was for Stevens to cross over from Brick-yard point 
on Port Royal island at daylight on the ist, the crossing to be covered 
by the gunboats, two of which were to take position in the Coosaw for 
that purpose, while the other three were to enter Whale branch as soon 
as it was light enough to see and move up toward the ferry. Considerable 
delay occurred in crossing, so that it was noon before Stevens was ready 
to begin his attack. The 79th N. Y. was in advance, with two companies 
thrown forward as skirmishers. Immediately following this regiment 
were 2 howitzers that had been sent up from one of the gunboats, sup- 
ported by the 8th Mich, and 50th Pa., with the 47th and 48th N. Y. in 
reserve and the looth Pa. guarding the flatboats and keeping open a line 
of retreat in case it became necessary. As the line advanced the enemy 
opened a vigorous fire from a masked battery on the right, and Col. 
Fenton, commanding the 8th Mich., was ordered to dislodge it. Fenton 
deployed his regiment as skirmishers and, protected by the thickets and' 
ridges in the ground, advanced against the battery, but soon developed a 
large force of infantry in support. The reserves were then pushed out 



Cyclopedia of Battles 713 

to the right, while Col. Christ sent part of the 50th Pa. to the left, under 
instructions to gain the rear of the enemy if possible. The movements 
were well executed and the Confederates were pressed back at all points. 
As soon as the line began to move forward the gunboats commenced 
throwing shells over the heads of the Union troops into the fort, which 
created considerable consternation in the enemy's ranks. In the mean- 
time Col. Leasure, commanding the looth Pa., who was under orders to 
cross over and assist in the assault on the fort if circumstances favored 
such a movement, saw from his point of observation that the Confed- 
erates were about ready to evacuate their works, and threw over a de- 
tachment under Lieut.-Col. Armstrong, which reached the fort just as 
the enemy was leaving it and the skirmishers of the 79th N. Y. were tak- 
ing possession. Armstrong then made a reconnaissance to the northward 
and found that the enemy was in full retreat. The Union loss in this 
engagement was 2 killed, 12 wounded and i missing. The Confederates 
reported a loss of 8 killed and 24 wounded. 

Port Walthall Junction, Va., May 7, 1864. Detachments of loth 
and i8th Army Corps. Early in the morning the brigades commanded by 
H. M. Plaisted, William B. Barton and J. C. Drake of the loth corps and 
Hiram Burnham's brigade of the i8th corps, all under Brig.-Gen. W. H. 
T. Brooks, moved on the Bermuda Hundred road to cut the Petersburg 
& Richmond railroad from Chester Station to Port Walthall junction and 
farther south if practicable. Shortly after starting a small force of the 
enemy was discovered at the opposite end of a causeway leading through 
a marsh. The 8th Conn, was thrown forward as skirmishers, supported 
by the rest of Burnham's brigade, and the cavalry was sent to the turn- 
pike. Plaisted's brigade was thrown to the right, where it proceeded 
down a ravine under cover to the railroad and at once started to destroy 
it. Barton's brigade moved to the left of Plaisted's. but it was with some 
difficulty and rather heavy loss that the Confederates were driven back 
and the railroad gained. After some hours spent in tearing up tracks 
and destroying buildings, etc.. Brooks withdrew, having sufifered a loss 
of 20 killed, 229 wounded and 40 captured or missing. One of the 2 
Confederate brigades engaged lost 22 killed, 142 wounded and 13 missing. 
The casualties in the other were not reported. 

Post Oak Creek, Mo., March 26, 1862. Missouri State Militia Cav- 
alry. After driving a band of guerrillas from a position 3 miles south 
of Warrensburg, Maj. Emory S. Foster with 40 men came upon them 
again strongly posted behind logs and fence rails on the bank of the 
Post Oak creek. Foster dismounted his men and after maintaining a 
vigorous fire for some time a charge was ordered, which drove the Con- 
federates from their position and into the brush. Foster lost 2 killed and 
9 wounded, while the Confederate loss was reported at 5 killed and a 
number wounded. 

Potecasi Creek, N. C, July 26, 1863. Troops under Maj. -Gen. John 
G. Foster. As an incident of an expedition from New Berne to Winton, 
under Gen. Foster, the Confederates were driven in such haste from the 
bridge over the Potecasi creek that they did not have time to destroy it. 
No casualties were reported. 

Potomac Creek, Va., Aug. 23, 1861. U. S. Steamers Yankee and 
Release. Col. R. M. Gary, commanding the Confederate batteries at the 
mouth of Potomac creek, reported that on the afternoon of the 23d 
the Federal gunboats Yankee and Release opened fire on the batteries ; 
that for 40 minutes the firing was kept up, when the Union participants 
drew off. The Confederates suffered no losses. The Federal vessels 
were struck a number of times, but it is not known whether their crews 
suffered any casualties. 

Potosi, Mo., Aug. 10, 1861. Missouri Home Guards. About 150 



714 The Union Army 

Confederate cavalry attacked the home guards at Potosi at 6 p. m., but 
after a few minutes' fighting they were driven from the town with a 
loss of 5 men wounded. The home guards also had 5 wounded. 

Potts' Hill, Ark., Feb. i6, 1862. (See Sugar Creek.) 

Pound Gap, Ky., March 16, 1862. 40th and 42nd Ohio and 22nd 
Kentucky Infantry, and 100 Cavalry. Brig.-Gen. James A. Garfield, with 
600 infantry and 100 cavalry, left Piketon on the 14th and by the night 
of the 15th was within a few miles of Maj. John B. Thompson's Con- 
federate camp of 500 men at Pound gap. The Federal cavalry under 
Maj. McLaughlin advanced directly up the main road the next morning 
while the infantry took a circuitous route and got to the rear of the 
enemy's camp. Attacks on both sides were to be simultaneous, but the 
infantry was delayed and the cavalry attack was repulsed. It had the 
effect, however, of allowing the infantry to get close to the camp with- 
out being noticed. After receiving a half dozen volleys at long range 
the Confederates broke and fled, leaving i dead and a number wounded. 
Garfield's force did not suffer any casualties. 

Pound Gap, Ky., May 9, 1864. Col. George W. Gallup, of the 14th 
Ky. infantry, reporting from Louisa, Ky., says: "Maj. Wise, lith Mich., 
left this morning with three squadrons for the vicinity of Pound gap. 
Scouts just came in; had a skirmish with one of Morgan's scouts; cap- 
tured 6 horses, his telegraph operator and instruments, and i private; 
killed 2." 

Pound Gap, Ky., June i, 1864. Brig.-Gen. John H. Morgan (Con- 
federate), in his report of his raid into Kentucky, states that he entered 
the state via Pound gap, driving in a Federal force of 500 at that point. 
This is tlie only official mention of the affair. 

Powder Springs, Ga., June 20, 1864. Detachment ist Division, Cav- 
alry Corps, Army of the Cumberland. Scouting parties were sent out 
daily by Gen. E. M. McCook, commanding the division, to discover the 
movements of the enemy and develop his position. On the 20th one of 
these parties fell in with a small body of Confederate cavalry and drove 
it back on the picket post at Powder Springs, afterward forcing the 
picket to retire along the road to Atlanta. These cavalry movements and 
the engagement at Cheney's farm on the 22nd aided materially in driving 
the enemy from Kcnnesaw mountain. 

Powder Springs, Ga,, Oct. 2-3, 1864. Gen. John B. Hood, reporting 
his operations in an effort to draw Sherman away from the vicinity of 
Atlanta, says that his skirmishers had brushes with the Federal skirmishers 
on the 2nd and 3d at Noyes' and Sweet Water creeks near Powder 
Springs. No casualties were reported. 

Powder Springs Gap, Tenn., June 21. 1863. U. S. Troops under 
Col. W. P. Sanders. As an incident of Sanders' raid in east Tennessee, 
with detachments of ist East Tenn., 44th Ohio, and 112th 111. mounted 
infantry, 2nd and 7th Ohio and ist Ky. cavalry and the ist Ohio artillery, 
he was opposed at Powder Springs gap by a large force directly in its 
front, while another detachment came up and began skirmishing with the 
rear, but by taking country roads the gap was occupied without trouble 
or serious loss. 

Powell County, Ky., Dec. 26, 1862. Detachment of 14th Kentucky 
Cavalry. Maj. Joseph W. Stivers, with 150 men, while on a scout in 
Powell county, came upon the camp of a band of guerrillas on the morn- 
ing of the 26th, dashed into the camp and utterly routed them, captur- 
ing 12 of the outlaws, beside a quantity of clothing, blankets, arms, etc. 

Powell's Bridge, Tenn., Feb. 22, 1864. Detachment of 34th Ken- 
tucky Infantry. Simultaneously with the Confederate attack on Wyer- 
man's mill another Confederate force attacked the 50 men of the 34th 
Ky. comprising the outpost at Powell's bridge and the block-house was 



Cyclopedia of Battles 715 

assaulted three times but without success. No casualties were reported. 

Powell's River, Va., Dec. 13, 1863. Col. Wilson C. Lemert, com- 
manding the Union forces at Cumberland gap, reported that his cavalry 
came upon the encampment of a Virginia Confederate regiment at 
Hickory flat, 7 miles beyond Joncsville ; that the enemy fired one volley 
and fled to Powell's river where he was reinforced by another Virginia 
regiment. The Federals then opened with artillery and the cavalry charged 
and drove the enemy in confusion to Stickleyville. The Confederates lost 
5 killed and 26 captured. 

Powell Valley, Tenn., June 22, 1863. This was an incident of Col. 
W. P. Sanders' raid into east Tennessee, but in his report of the expe- 
dition he makes no specific mention of the action at Powell's valley. 
(See Rogers' gap and Powder Springs gap.) 

Powers' Ferry, Ga., July 12, 1864. (See Chattahoochee River.) 

Powhatan, Va., Jan. 25, 1865. ist U. S. Colored Cavalry. 

Prairie D'Ane, Ark., April 9-12, 1864. (See Camden, Ark., Expedi- 
tion to.) 

Prairie Du Rocher, 111., April 6, 1864. Detachment 3d Missouri State 
Militia Cavalry. Capt. Henry B. Milks with 18 men, sent out from 
Farmington, Mo., to capture or drive out a band of guerrillas, captured 
5 before reaching Prairie Du Rocher. The place was charged and the 
guerrillas stationed there were driven to the bluffs for shelter. After 
a short but spirited fight the enemy was compelled to abandon his posi- 
tion on the bluffs and take to the woods, leaving 3 dead on the field. 
Another of the guerrillas was shot while attempting to escape from his 
captors. Milks had i man wounded. 

Prairie Grove, Ark., Dec. 7, 1862. Army of the Frontier. After the 
battle of Cane Hill on Nov. 28, the Confederate forces under Gen. T. C. 
Hindman united with the command of Brig.-Gen. J. S. Marmaduke at 
Lee's creek, where the latter had retreated. On Dec. 2, Brig.-Gen. J. G. 
Blunt, commanding the Army of the Frontier, sent for Brig.-Gen. F. J. 
Herron to bring up his command, consisting of the 2nd and 3d divisions, 
to reinforce the Union army at Cane Hill. Herron at once started from 
Elkhorn and his advance reached Blunt about 10 p. m. on the 6th. This 
advance consisted of detachments of the 2nd Wis., ist la., loth 111., and 
8th Mo. cavalry regiments, about 1,600 men in all. During the night, 
owing to the negligence of an officer sent to watch the Cove Creek road, 
Hindman was able to move part of his troops north, passing to the east 
of Blunt's position on the Fayetteville road. His object was to get be- 
tween Blunt and Herron and prevent them from forming a junction. 
Blunt irrimediately came to Herron's aid over a road leading to Cane Hill 
mills, east of the Fayetteville road. Herron, with but six regiments of 
infantry, three batteries and about 500 cavalry, had been attacked by the 
entire Confederate force at 7 a. m., but managed to drive it back across 
Illinois creek to Prairie Grove, where he planted his batteries and opened 
fire. Between i and 2 p. m. Blunt came in on Herron's right and stationed 
liis artillery so as to sweep the woods from which the Confederate in- 
fantry was firing. From 3 p. m. until dark the musketry firing was un- 
interrupted. Twice the Union infantry charged the enemy's battery and 
captured it, but both times the guns were recaptured by the superiority 
of numbers. When darkness fell, the firing ceased on both sides. The 
Union troops slept on their arms, expecting a renewal of the engagement 
in the morning, but during the night the Confederates stealthily retreated 
southwest across the Boston mountains, leaving Blunt and Herron in 
possession of the field. The Union casualties were 175 killed, 813 wounded 
and 263 captured or missing. The Confederate loss was 164 killed, 817 
wounded and 336 captured or missing. Blunt's forces in the battle num- 
bered 7,000; those of the enemy 28,000. 



716 The Union Army 

Prairie Grove, Ark., April 7, 1864. Detachment of ist Arkansas Cav- 
alry. Col. M. La Rue Harrison, reporting from Fayetteville on April 8, 
stated that a gang of Confederates, 22 strong, charged upon the Federal 
corral keepers, 9 in number, near Prairie Grove and killed all of them. 

Prairie Station, Miss., Feb. 21, 1864. ist Cavalry Brigade, i6th Army 
Corps. During Smith's withdrawal from before West Point during the 
Meridian expedition a portion of Waring's brigade made a demonstration 
on the right of the retiring column, thereby checking an attempted flank 
movement of the Confederates on the railroad. No casualties reported. 

Prentiss, Miss., Sept. 19, 1862. 

Presidio Del Norte, N. Mex., April 15, 1864. (See Spencer's Ranch, 
same date.) 

Presidio Del Norte, N. Mex., Jan. 21, 1865. The only report of this 
affair is that of Capt. H. Kennedy, a Confederate recruiting officer, whose 
command was attacked by 130 Federals on the Cibolo river. Kennedy 
made a desperate dash and cut his way through the surrounding lines, 
losing 4 killed, 7 wounded and 8 missing, besides all his transportation. 
The Union loss was not reported. 

Presto, Destruction of, Feb. 1-6, 1864. Batteries about Charleston 
Harbor. The Presto was a Confederate blockade-runner that succeeded 
in passing the fleet in front of Charleston Harbor on the night of the ist 
and ran aground on a bar on the shore of Sullivan's island. She was 
discovered at dawn on the 2nd, when the three 30-pounder Parrotts in 
Fort Putnam opened on her at a range of 2,600 yards. Tlie first three 
shells burst directly over her, driving away the Confederates who were 
trying to unload the cargo. At 8 o'clock the 300-pounder Parrott in 
Battery Chatfield opened up with accurate aim at a range of 2,700 yards, 
one shell going through the furnaces of the stranded vessel. Fort Strong 
opened soon after at a range of 3,600 yards, firing a shell from a 200- 
pounder Parrott every 15 minutes until dark. A lOO-pounder Parrott was 
fired at intervals from this fort during the night, and on the morning of 
the 2nd the 200-pounder sent in 15 shells, 5 of which struck the hull. The 
vessel was set on fire by the shells on the 2nd but for some cause the fire 
went out. On the afternoon she was again set on fire and burned until 
dark, when the fire again went out of its own accord. During the 2nd,. 
3d and 4th two monitors joined in the bombardment but most of their 
shots went wild and they finally withdrew. Altogether about 1,000 shells 
were thrown at the unfortunate vessel and on the morning of the 6th 
she was a complete wreck. The Confederate batteries on Sullivan's and 
James islands replied with about 400 shells, but the only casualties re- 
ported as a result of their fire were the wounding of 2 men of the 3d R. I. 
artillery at Fort Putnam. The effect of the bombardment was to keep 
the enemy from getting possession of the cargo of supplies, which would 
no doubt have been gladly received. 

Preston, Mo., June 16, 1864. (See Big North fork, same date.) 

Prestonburg, Ky., Jan. 10, 1862. (See Middle Creek, same date.) 

Prestonburg, Ky., Dec. 4, 1862. Detachment of the 39th Kentucky 
Infantry. The detachment, numbering about 200 men, while guarding 
some pushboats loaded with supplies, on the way up the west fork of the 
Big Sandy river to Piketon, was attacked by 800 mounted Confederates 
under Capt. Clarkson about 4 miles below Prestonburg. The Kentuckians 
put up a spirited resistance, but were finally overpowered and the boats 
fell into the hands of the enemy, who thus captured about 100 stands of 
arms, 300 uniforms, 7,000 rounds of ammunition and some commissary 
stores. The Union report says that the Federal loss was 2 men killed, 
and placed the enemy's loss at 14 or 15 killed, but Clarkson stated his 
casualties as 2 killed and 7 wounded. 

Price's Landing, Mo., Nov. 18, 1861. Steamer Platte Valley. About 



Cyclopedia of Battles 717 

200 Confederates, under the leadership of Brig.-Gen. M. Jeff. Thompson, 
captured the steamboat Platte Valley at Price's landing about 4 o'clock 
in the afternoon. Two officers of the 2nd U. S. cavalry were also captured 
and paroled, one of whom carried news of the event to Gen. Grant at 
Cairo, 111., who immediately ordered out all the available cavalry and 
sent some 700 or 800 infantry by rail to Charleston, Mo., in an effort to 
■cut off and capture Thompson, but that wily officer succeeded in making 
his escape. No casualties were reported. 

Prim's Shop, Tenn., Dec. 25, 1862. Marker's Brigade of Wood's 
Division. While this brigade was foraging on the Edmondson pike it 
was attacked on front and tlank near Prim's blacksmith shop by about 
600 Confederates. The enemy was driven off, but not until he had suc- 
ceeded in killing i and wounding 2 of the foraging party. The Confed- 
erates had 3 men wounded. 

Prince Edward Court House, Va., April 7, 1865. Cavalry Division, 
Army of the James. In the pursuit of Gen. Lee's army from Richmond 
and Petersburg, the division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. Ranald S. Mac- 
kenzie, was sent to Prince Edward Court House (now Hampden-Sidney) 
to cut off the Confederate line of retreat to Danville. At the Court House 
was a small force of the enemy, which was charged by Mackenzie's ad- 
vance, 38 captured and the remainder driven precipitately from the town. 
The Union loss was slight. Here Mackenzie was joined by the cavalry 
of the Army of the Potomac, under Gen. Merritt, and the entire force 
moved to Appomattox Court House. 

Prince George Court House, Va., Nov. 24, 1864. Pickets of ist 
Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Army of the Potomac. Thirty dismounted 
Confederates attacked the Union picket line near Prince George Court 
House about i a. m., killed 2 of the pickets, wounded 4 and captured 
another, besides 18 horses with equipments. The enemy had i man killed 
and I wounded. 

Prince's Shoals, Mo., Oct. 6, 1864. Detachments of the ist and 7th 
Missouri Cavalry. When Gen. Sterling Price, in his Missouri expedi- 
tion, reached Prince's shoals on the Osage river he found there a small 
giaard, which was at once attacked and driven away from the crossing. 
Portions of the ist and 7th Mo. cavalry were hurried to the assistance 
of the guard and the lost position was regained. A request was sent for 
more troops, but before they could be brought up the main body of Price's 
army arrived and the Federals were compelled to abandon the crossing. 
In this affair the Confederates lost 2 killed and 7 wounded. The Union 
loss was not reported. 

Princeton, Ark., Dec. 8, 1863. Detachments of ist, 2nd and 7th Mis- 
souri and 1st and 3d Iowa Cavalry and Hadley's Battery. As an inci- 
dent of a reconnaissance from Little Rock the detachment, under Col. 
Lewis Merrill, surprised a Confederate camp 2 miles from Princeton. 
The enemy, 600 strong, was completely routed, losing 8 killed, 18 wounded 
and 28 captured. No loss was reported on the Union side. 

Princeton, Ark., April 28, 1864. (See Camden, Ark., Expedition to.) 

Princeton, Ark., Oct. 21, 1864. gth Kansas and ist Missouri Cavalry. 
The advance of an expedition encountered the Confederate pickets 12 
miles from Princeton, drove them back and entered the town to find 
some 75 Confederates drawn up in line of battle. Upon seeing the size 
of the Federal force the enemy broke and fled. No casualties were re- 
ported. 

Princeton, Ky., June 10, 1864. 

Princeton, W. Va., May 16-17, 1862. Troops of the District of the 
Kanawha. While Brig.-Gen. J. D. Cox was concentrating his forces on 
the Pearisburg road on the i6th, Humphrey Marshall, with some 2,000 
Confederates and 3 pieces of artillery, attacked and drove out the de- 



718 The Union Army 

tachment at Princeton. That night Cox, with the 2nd provisional brigade 
under Col. Augustus Moor, moved back and at daylight attacked Mar- 
shall, who retired to a wooded hill west of town and there took up a 
strong position. Cox again attacked and forced the Confederates back 
to the junction of the Wytheville and Wyoming roads, where Marshall 
was joined by Williams and Heth, bringing the enemy's strength up to 
12,000 or 15,000 men. Some fighting occurred during the afternoon^ 
though no serious assaults were made by either side. Late in the day 
Cox was joined by the ist brigade under Col. Scammon, and at 3 a. m. 
on the i8th fell back about 10 miles to prevent the enemy from getting 
in his rear. The Union loss at Princeton was 23 killed, 69 wounded and 
21 missing. Cox estimated the Confederate loss at from two to three 
times that number, but Marshall says he had 2 killed and 12 or 14 
wounded. 

Princeton, W. Va., May 6, 1864. 2nd Division, Department of West 
Virginia. This affair was an incident of Crook's expedition against the 
Virginia & Tennessee railroad. As his advance approached Prince- 
ton it encountered a small body of Confederate cavalry, which after 
skirmishing for a few minutes fled hastily in the direction of Rocky gap. 
No casualties were reported. 

Pritchard's Mill, Va., Sept. 15, 1861. Detachment of the 13th Massa- 
chusetts Infantry. In order to learn something of the strength and 
intentions of the emeny operating along the Potomac river, Col. John 
W. Geary, commanding the post at Point of Rocks, Md., sent Lieut 
Brown, with 7 men of the 13th Mass., to reconnoiter along the river as 
far as Antietam ford. As the party was returning it was fired upon by 
about 50 Confederates concealed in the bushes about Pritchard's mill on 
the Virginia side of the river, and i man was instantly killed. Brown 
placed his men in a sheltered position, from which he was unable to 
withdraw until dark, on account of the continuous fire from the mill. 

Proctor's Creek, Va., May 12-16, 1864. (See Drewry's Bluff.) 

Prophet Bridge, Miss., Dec. 3, 1862. (See Water Valley.) 

Prosperity Church, Tenn., April 3, 1863. ist Cavalry Brigade, Army 
of the Cumberland. As an incident of an expedition from Murfrees- 
boro to Auburn, the Federal advance encountered a small force of the 
enemy at Prosperity Church but soon routed and drove it back to Liberty. 
The Confederates lost i man killed and 2 or 3 wounded. 

Providence Church, Va., Nov. 12, 1862. Detachment of New York 
Mounted Rifles. This affair was a skirmish between 300 Confederates 
and the Federal picket stationed at Providence Church. The enemy was 
repulsed, retiring to the Blackwater river. 

Providence Church, Va., Dec. 28, 1862. Pickets of forces under 
Brig.-Gcn. Orris S. Ferry. Gen. Ferry reports that an attack was made 
on the Federal vedettes at 4 p. m. and that they were driven in. The 
reserve, however, checked the Confederate advance, then routed and 
pursued it until the main body, 300 strong, was encountered. No casualties 
were reported. 

Providence Church, Va., Jan. 9. 1863. New York Mounted Rifles. 
Ma j. -Gen. John J. Peck reporting to Maj.-Gen. John A. Dix, command- 
ing at Fort Monroe, says : "The enemy crossed the Blackwater in con- 
siderable force and attempted, yesterday to drive in our right at Provi- 
dence Church. Infantry, cavalry and artillery were employed by the 
rebels, but they were repulsed by Maj. Wheelan's New York mounted 
rifles. At dusk the enemy's advance was charged and driven back upon 
his support. At intervals through the night shells were thrown from 
rebel batteries." 

Providence Church, Va., May 17, 1863. Troops of the Department 
of Virginia. While a reconnoitering party under Brig.-Gen. Charles C 



Cyclopedia of Battles 719 

Dodge was returning from Scott's mill his rear, under Maj. Alexander 
C. Patton, was attacked by Confederates, i rnan captured and 3 wounded. 

Providence Church Road, Va., April 12-13, 1863. The skirmishing 
on this road was an incident of the beginning of the siege of Suffolk by 
the Confederates under Gen. Longstrect. (See Suffolk.) 

Pueblo Colorado, New Mexico, Aug. 18, 1863. Three companies of 
the 1st New Mexico Cavalry. 

Pulaski, Tenn., May i, 1862. Detachment i8th Ohio Infantry, Re- 
cruits and Convalescents. Capt. John Jumper, with no men forming a 
guard for a lot of Confederate prisoners, was proceeding from Hunts- 
ville to Nashville when he learned that 15 or 20 Confederates had attacked 
a Union telegraph party. Jumper immediately took a portion of his 
command and proceeded in pursuit. When about 4 or 5 miles from 
Pulaski the enemy was met and driven back until the remainder of 
Morgan's force came into the fight. After two hours of desultory fight- 
ing the Confederates charged and Jumper and his men were compelled 
to surrender, having lost i man killed and i wounded. Jumper reports 
6 of the Confederates killed and 3 wounded, but Morgan makes no men- 
tion of any casualties. 

Pulaski, Tenn., Dec. i, 1863. 7th and gth Illinois Mounted Infantry. 
Col. Rowett, with the 7th 111., while on a trip to Eastport, encountered 
the 4th Ala. cavalry, belonging to Roddey's command, and routed it, 
taking 25 prisoners. On the same day Lieut. -Col. Phillips, with the 9th 
111., attacked some Confederate cavalry on the Florence road and drove 
them across the river, capturing 40 prisoners, 5 of whom were com- 
missioned officers, one being Gen. Bragg's inspector-general of cavalry. 
No Union casualties were reported. 

Pulaski, Tenn., Dec. 15, 1863. Portion of the Army of the Cumber- 
land. Maj. -Gen. George H. Thomas, commanding the army of the Cum- 
berland in the Chattanooga-Ringgold campaign, reports: "Dec. 15, a 
small party of rebels, under Maj. Joe Fontaine, Roddey's adjutant, was 
captured by Gen. Dodge near Pulaski. They had been on a recon- 
naissance along the Nashville & Chattanooga railroad and the Nashville 
& Decatur railroad." 

Pulaski, Tenn., Sept. 26-27, 1864. Troops of the District of Ten- 
nessee. As an incident of Forrest's raid into Alabama and Tennessee 
his cavalry approached Richland creek near Pulaski on the 26th. The 
troops defending the bridge were driven back into the block-house and 
after being surrounded surrendered. The following day the Confederates 
advanced on the town. Six miles out they encountered some Union 
cavalry and continually drove it until the Federals took position in the 
block-houses and fortifications of Pulaski. There skirmishing was kept up 
all day, and toward evening the enemy advanced a heavy skirmish line 
to within a short distance of the Federal line. During the night the 
Confederates withdrew. The Union loss was 80 killed and wounded; 
Forrest did not report his casualties. 

Pulaski, Tenn., Dec. 25, 1864. (See King's Hill, same date.) 

Pulaski, Tenn. (Note.) During the war Pulaski lay directly in the 
path of armies moving between Tennessee on the north and Alabama 
or Mississippi on the south. Consequently there were frequent collisions 
in the vicinity between the contending forces. In addition to the engage- 
ments above described, the official records of the war mention skirmishes 
on May 4 and 11, and Aug. 27, 1862; July 15 and Oct. 27, 1863; and May 
13, 1864. No circumstantial reports of these affairs were made, however, 
and nothing can be gleaned concerning them, except that the Union troops 
engaged on July 15, 1863, were the 3d Ohio and 5th Tenn. cavalry, and 
those on May 13, 1864, were the nth U. S. colored infantry. 

Pulliam's, Mo., Dec. 25, 1863. Detachment of 3d Missouri State 



720 The Union Army 

Militia Cavalry. Upon learning of the capture of a company of the 3d 
Mo. militia cavalry at Centerville, Maj. James Wilson started in pursuit. 
At 3 p. m.. Christmas day, he overtook and attacked Reves (who had 
made the Centerville attack) in his camp. The Confederates, with the 
exception of 30 or 35, turned and fled into the brush. Those who stayed 
and fought were either riddled with bullets or killed by the saber and all 
the Federals taken at Centerville were recaptured. Wilson had i man 
killed and 8 wounded; the Confederate casualties, by the Union report, 
were 30 killed, 3 mortally and 2 slightly wounded. 

Pumpkin Vine Creek, Ga., May 25 to June 5, 1864. (See Dallas.) 
Pungo Landing, N. C, Oct. 16, 1863. Steamer Fawn. While the 
steamer Fawn was proceeding to Cornjack, Currituck Court House, it 
was fired into from the shore at Pungo landing. The volley, which was 
from 30 muskets, severely wounded the captain of the vessel. On board 
the steamer was Lieut. -Col. William Lewis of the 5th Pa. cavalry. On 
the return trip the ist battalion of this regiment was taken on board at 
Cornjack and disembarked at the landing to search for the enemy, but 
he had made his escape. 

Purcellville, Va., July 16, 1864. ist Brigade, ist Cavalry Division, 
Army of West Virginia. The brigade, commanded by Col. W. B. Tib- 
bitts, attacked the enemy's w^agon train at the junction of the Purcell- 
ville road with the Leesburg pike, and captured 150 prisoners and 200 
wagons. A large Confederate force came up before he could get away 
with his captures and he was compelled to relinquish all but 54 of his 
prisoners and 80 wagons. Of these he burned 43 and succeeded in bring- 
ing off the remainder. He also captured and brought off 100 horses and 
50 mules. No report of casualties. 

Purgitsville, W. Va., April 7, 1863. Detachment of 4th Brigade, ist 
Division, 8th Army Corps. Upon learning that a small foraging party 
had become separated from its guard and had been attacked and captured, 
Col. Jacob M. Campbell, commanding the brigade, despatched all his 
available cavalry under Capt. Work in pursuit. Near Purgitsville, Work 
came up with the guard of the captured foraging party, being slowly 
driven by a superior force of Confederates. A charge threw the enemy 
into confusion, killing 3, capturing 3 and woutiding 14. Three of the 
Federals were wounded. 

Purdy Road, Tenn., March 31, 1862. (See Adamsville.) 
Quaker Road, Va., March 29, 1865. ist Division, 5th Army Corps. 
When Gen. Grant began, on the morning of March 29, to extend his 
lines to the left, to envelop the right of the Confederate works in front 
of Petersburg, the 5th corps, Maj. -Gen. G. K. Warren commanding, 
moved out at 3 a. m. to the junction of the Vaughan and Quaker roads, 
where a junction was to be effected with the left of the 2nd corps. 
About 5 o'clock the enemy's skirmishers were driven away from the 
crossing of Rowanty creek, and at 8 o'clock the head of Warren's 
column reached the cross-roads. About noon he received an order 
from headquarters to move up the Quaker road to the little creek called 
Gravelly run. Griffin's division (ist) was at once started, but upon 
arriving at the creek found the bridge gone and a small force on the 
opposite bank to resist the crossing of the stream. Although difficult 
to ford, a skirmish line succeeded in getting over, when the Confederates 
retired after firing a few shots, thus giving the pioneers an opportunity to 
rebuild the bridge. A pontoon bridge was also thrown across the creek. 
Griffin's division crossed over, followed by Crawford's, the latter taking 
position on Griffin's left. The line then advanced, the resistance of the 
enemy gradually increasing until between 3 and 4 p. m., when a heavy 
force was found drawn up in line of battle near Arnold's old sawmill. 
The fight was opened by Chamberlain's brigade, which moved forward 



Cyclopedia of Battles 721 

under a heavy fire, driving the enemy from a piece of woods and ad- 
vancing his hne to the edge of the timber. A few minutes later the 
Confederates returned to the attack, the greater part of Anderson's and 
Johnson's divisions being hurled against Chamberlain. The brigade was 
being slowly forced back, when Griffin brought up Battery B, 4th U. S. 
artillery, which opened an effective fire on the enemy, and at the same 
time parts of Gregory's and Bartlett's brigades were sent to Chamber- 
lain's assistance. The timely arrival of these reinforcements, and the 
continuous firing of the battery, soon forced the Confederates to beat 
a hasty retreat, leaving about 200 prisoners in the hands of the Federals. 
Warren reported the loss of Griffin's division as 370 killed and wounded. 
Among the latter were Gen. Chamberlain and Gen. Sickel. The enemy's 
losses were not definitely learned, but Griffin states in his report that 
130 of their dead were buried by his pioneers. After the Confederates 
were driven back the line was advanced to the Boydton plank road and 
intrenched. (See Five Forks for further information of this flank 
movement.) 

Quallatown, N. C, Jan. 31-Feb. 7, 1864. Troops of the Depart- 
ment of the Ohio. Maj.-Gen. John G. Foster, commanding the De- 
partment of the Ohio, reported to Gen. Grant from Maryville, Tenn., on 
Feb. 7 : "An expedition against Col. Thomas and his band of Indians 
and whites at Quallatown has returned completely successful. They 
surprised the town, killed and wounded 215, took 50 prisoners, and dis- 
persed the remainder of the gang in the mountains. Our loss, 2 killed 
and 6 wounded." 

Quarles' Mill, Va., May 23, 1864. (See North Anna River.) 

Queen City, U. S. S., Capture of, June 24, 1864. (See Clarendon, 
same date.) 

Queen of the West, Attack on, Sept. 19, 1862. (See Bolivar.) 

Queen's Hill, Miss., Feb. 4, 1864. Meridian Expedition. Confed- 
erate reports of the Meridian expedition made mention of an affair on 
Queen's hill on the 4th as the Federals were moving on Clinton. The 
result was a victory for the Union command, the enemy being com- 
pelled to give way before the vigorous and determined advance of the 
Federals. The casualties were not reported. 

Quincy, Mo., Sept. 4, 1863. Details from i8th Iowa Infantry and 
8th Missouri Militia Cavalry. A band of guerrillas under Rafter dashed 
into Quincy on the 4th, shot and killed a citizen, and captured 4 men 
of the i8th la., after one of the latter had shot and killed Rafter. The 
guerrillas were about to fire the town when a detachment of the 8th Mo. 
militia cavalry attacked and drove them out. One of the militiamen 
was mortally wounded. The lifeless bodies of the 4 la. men were found 
next morning. 

Quincy, Mo., Nov. 1-2, 1864. Detachment of 8th Missouri State 
Militia Cavalry. Capt. Jacob Cassairt, with 30 men of Co. I, 8th Mo. 
militia cavalry and some citizens, came up with 100 Confederates about 
10 miles from Quincy. A charge was ordered and the enemy broke 
and fled. The pursuit resulted in 6 of the enemy being killed and 3 
wounded. The following day Cassairt attacked another party of the 
enemy, cutting off 100 men in the rear and driving them into the brush. 
Some 25 of the enemy were killed or wounded. The Federals sustained 
no loss in either engagement. 

Quinn's Mills, Miss., June 16, 1863. ist Cavalry Brigade, Left Wing, 
i6th Army Corps. At the beginning of the operations of the left wing 
of Hurlbut's corps in northwestern Mississippi, the ist cavalry brigade 
found the bridge across the Coldwater river at Quinn's mills destroyed 
and the advance encountered a Confederate picket of 20 men. While 
the men were making preparations to cross a volley was fired at them 

Vol. VI— 16 



722 The Union Array 

from a few outbuildings within a few feet of the bank, wounding 3 of 
the Federal force. 

Quinn & Jackson's Mill, Miss., Oct. 9, 1863. Cavalry Division, 
i6th Army Corps. Maj.-Gen. S. A. Hurlbut, commanding the corps, 
reported from Memphis, Tenn., on the 12th, as follows: "On Friday 
last the enemy's cavalry under Lee moved in three columns. Two 
which crossed the Coldwater, one at Lumpkin's mill, one at Quinn & 
Jackson's, were met and repulsed ; they fell back and joined the main 
body." The affair was an incident of the Chalmers raid in north Mis- 
sissippi and west Tennessee. 

Quinn & Jackson's Mill, Miss., Nov. 3, 1863. (See Collierville, 
same date.) 

Quicksand Creek, Ky., April 5, 1864. U. S. Troops, District of 
Eastern Kentucky. The itinerary of this district from March 28-April 
14 states that at 11 p. m. on the 5th a portion of the Federal troops 
surprised the camp of 85 Confederates on the Quicksand river in 
Breathitt county. The enemy had 8 killed and wounded, and 3 men 
and 24 horses captured. 

Quitman, Ark., Sept. 2, 1864. Detachment 3d Arkansas Cavalry. 
Col. Abraham H. Ryan, reporting from Lewisburg, on Sept. 7, says : "On 
the 2nd instant Capt. Napier and Lieut. Carr had a skirmish with Col. 
Witt, 8 miles from Quitman, killed 7, and captured Capt. Livingston 
and 4 men of Witt's command." 

Raccoon Ford, Ala., Oct. 30, 1864. (See Muscle Shoals, same date.) 

Raccoon Ford, Va., Aug. 20, 1862. Cavalry Brigade, 3d Army 
Corps. This affair was a rather severe skirmish between the cavalry 
under Brig.-Gen. George H. Bayard and the Confederate cavalry under 
Gen. Robertson. Union reconnoitering parties encountered the enemy 
first, and fell back upon the main column. As the enemy came up 
Bayard was executing a maneuver, and the Confederates, seizing their 
advantage, charged the Federals on the flank and routed them. The 
Union loss for this single engagement is not given, but for this affair 
and the battle of Cedar mountain on the 9th of the same month Bayard 
lost 10 killed, 45 wounded and 6 captured or missing. The Confederates 
suffered to the extent of 3 killed and 13 wounded at Raccoon ford. 

Raccoon Ford, Va., April 30, 1863. Cavalry Corps, Army of the Po- 
tomac. At the start of Stoneman's raid in 1863 it was thought probable 
by the general commanding that Raccoon ford would be guarded, and 
accordingly he sent a portion of Gen. Buford's brigade across 6 miles 
below. This party, under Capt. Peter Penn Gaskell, made a dash for 
the ford, and cleared it of the Confederates guarding it, capturing 7 
men. No other casualties were reported. 

Raccoon Ford, Va., Sept. 15. 1863. Cavalry Corps, Army of the 
Potomac. In the advance of the army, from the Rappahannock to the 
Rapidan the cavalry division of Gen. Buford was stationed at Raccoon 
ford. During the day the Confederates increased their force on the 
opposite bank and shelled Buford's position, compelling him to with- 
draw to the woods for shelter. No casualties were reported. 

Raccoon Ford, Va., Sept. 19, 1863. ist Cavalry Division, Army of 
the Potomac. While the division was engaged in making a reconnais- 
sance it encountered the enemy at Raccoon ford and some slight skir- 
mishing ensued, but no detailed report of the action was made. 

Raccoon Ford, Va., Oct. 10, 1863. ist Brigade, ist Cavalry Division, 
Army of the Potomac. As the Army of the Potomac was falling back 
toward the Rappahannock river in the Bristoe campaign, a considerable 
body of the enemy's cavalry crossed the Rapidan at Raccoon ford, in- 
tending to strike the Union cavalry on the flank. Brig.-Gen. Pleasonton, 



Cyclopedia of Batties 733 

commanding the cavalry corps, sent Col. Chapman with his brigade to 
meet this force. Chapman found the enemy formed and ready to 
charge. He speedily disposed his men and, although vastly outnumbered, 
gave the Confederates such a warm reception that they were hurled 
back in confusion, severely punished. The infantry supports came up 
just at this time, however, the cavalry was rallied, and Chapman, deem- 
ing the odds too great to contend against, withdrew slowly in the direc- 
tion of Stevensburg. No casualties reported. 

Raccoon Ford, Va., Nov. 26-27, 1863. (See Mine Run, Va., Nov. 
26-Dec. 2, 1863.) 

Raccourci, La., Nov. 25, 1864. A Lieut. Thatcher of the U. S. navy 
and 2 of his men were murdered while ashore at Raccourci, near 
Williamsport, La., by a band of guerrillas. 

Raceland, La., June 22, 1862. 8th Vermont Volunteers. 

Ragland Mills, Ky., Jan. 13, 1864. Detachment of 45th Kentucky 
Infantry. Twelve enlisted men of the 45th Ky., under Lieut. Robert 
H. Wilson, surprised a party of 35 guerrillas encamped at Ragland 
mills, Bath county, and captured 13 of the number. The Federals lost 
a horse killed, which was the only casualty on their side. 

Raiford's Plantation, Miss,, Feb. 11, 1864. 3d Cavalry Brigade, 
Meridian Expedition. TTiis affair was a fight between the pickets of 
McCrillis' brigade encamped at Raiford's plantation, 4 miles east of 
Byhalia, and the pickets of the enemy. The Federals lost 2 killed and 
2 wounded and captured 4 prisoners. 

Raleigh, Tenn., April 3-9, 1864. Detachment of ist Cavalry Brigade, 
i6th Army Corps. Pursuant to orders the ist brigade under Col. George 
E. Waring, Jr., proceeded from Raleigh to reconnoiter on the Somer- 
ville road. At Leake's, a few miles out, a Confederate picket was 
encountered and driven to where a force of 700 or 800 was stationed. 
This latter command withdrew rather rapidly and when the Federals 
ascertained that the Confederates were retiring on their main body they 
retired to Raleigh. The Federals lost i killed, 3 wounded and i miss- 
ing; the Confederates, by their own account, 2 wounded. On the Qth 
Capt. John C. Febles with 75 men of the 7th Ind. cavalry moved on a 
reconnaissance toward Raleigh and when 4 miles from the town his 
command was fired into by some 15 or 20 men, who were at once 
charged and scattered. Two miles out a picket of 4 men was scattered 
and Febles charged into the town to find it deserted save for a rear- 
guard of 10 men, 2 of whom were captured. Both these affairs were 
incidents of Forrest's expedition into West Tennessee and Kentucky. 

Rally Hill, Tenn., Nov. 29, 1864. Detachment of 12th Tennessee 
Cavalry. Three companies doing picket duty near Rally Hill were 
attacked by the Confederate Gen. Buford's cavalry division and com- 
pelled to fall back. The affair was an incident of the campaign in north 
Alabama and middle Tennessee. No casualties were reported. 

Ramer's Crossing, Miss., Oct. 2, 1862. Detachment of 17th Wis- 
consin Infantry. About 6 p. m. a regiment of Confederate cavalry ap- 
peared at the switch of the Mobile & Ohio railroad near Ramer's cross- 
ing and commenced tearing up the track. Company A, 17th Wis., sta- 
tioned at Ramer's crossing, approached stealthily and attacked before 
the Confederates were aware of their presence. The result of the half- 
hour's fight which followed was the complete rout of the enemy with 
probably 11 killed and 13 wounded (the report of a disinterested citizen), 
while the Federals lost none. 

Rancho Las Rinas, Tex., June 25, 1864. U. S. Pickets on the Rio 
Grande. The Federal pickets, belonging to Maj.-Gen. F. J. Herron's 
command, were attacked and driven in at Rancho Las Rinas, 30 miles 



724 The Union Army 

above Brownsville, by Confederates under Col. John S. Ford. The total 
Union loss was 2 killed, 5 wounded and 23 captured. Ford reported his 
casualties at .3 killed and 4 wounded. 

Randolph, Ala., April i, 1865. (See Ebenezer Church, same date,) 

Rankin's Ferry, Tenn., June 21, 1862. 

Rapidan Station, Va., May i, 1863. 2nd Cavalry Division, Army of 
the Potomac. Brig.-Gen. William W. Averell, commanding the 2nd divi- 
sion, received orders at 6 130 p. m., April 30, to push the enemy in the 
direction of Rapidan Station. The division approached the station be- 
tween 7 :30 and 8 p. m. and was opened upon by artillery. Early the 
next morning Averell reconnoitered the Confederate position and then 
attacked, almost turning their left. As it was the enemy lost his position 
of the night, several killed and wounded, and a number captured. 

Rapidan Station, Va., Sept. 15, 1863. Detachments of 6th Ohio, ist 
Rhode Island and ist Massachusetts Cavalry. During the Union advance 
from the Rappahannock to the Rapidan Col. Horace B. Sargent was 
directed to make a reconnaissance in force in the direction of Rapidan 
Station. With about 600 men he proceeded toward the river, and when 
the open country was reached a heavy line of skirmishers was established 
and supported, leaving only the detachment of the ist Mass. in reserve. 
Dismounted men were pressed forward and some sharp skirmishing en- 
sued, in which the Confederates brought into action 7 pieces of artillery. 
An hour before sunset the enemy charged twice in rapid succession, but 
both times was repulsed. At nightfall the ist Md. cavalry relieved the 
6th Ohio and a strong picket line was established. The Federal casual- 
ties were 3 killed, 22 wounded and 4 missing. Three Confederates were 
captured, but aside from that their loss is not known. 

Rappahannock River, Va., June 24, 1861. Confederate sources re- 
port that a party landed from a Federal steamer. Star of New York, in 
search of forage and provisions, was driven back to their boats by a 
company of Lancaster troops. The Star of New York fired about 30 
shells into the pursuing Confederate ranks, but without effect, while 4 
of the Union party were killed. 

Rappahannock River, Va., April 2, 1862. 8th Illinois Cavalry. While 
this regiment was on a reconnaissance its advance came upon 10 mounted 
Confederate pickets concealed in the brush. Immediately after firing 
the enemy fled and were pursued for some distance. At least i of them 
was wounded. 

Rappahannock River, Va., April 16, 1862. Detachment of ist Rhode 
Island Cavalry. This affair was an incident of a reconnaissance from 
Warrenton Junction, a portion of the Union detachment having a rather 
severe skirmish with the enemy's pickets. No casualties were reported. 

Rappahannock River, Va., April 18, 1862. Detachments of 12th 
Massachusetts, 9th New York, 12th Indiana Infantry, and details of cav- 
alry and artillery. As an incident of a reconnaissance to the Rappa- 
hannock river from Warrenton Junction, under Lieut.-Col. Timothy M. 
Bryan, Jr., the Federals got into position during the night and at day- 
light opened upon the Confederate camp. The enemy immediately re- 
plied and after he had fully developed his force the Federals withdrew, 
having suffered no loss. 

Rappahannock River, Va., May 13, 1862. ist New Jersey and ist 
Pennsylvania Cavalry. A sloop under guard of several members of the 
1st N. J. was proceeding up the river to Falmouth, when it was fired 
upon from the shore and 2 of the men on board were wounded. When 
an effort was made to remove the wounded men the vessel was fired 
upon again, but the enemy was repulsed with some loss by a detail of 
the 1st Pa. which had been hurried to the scene. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 725 

Rappahannock River, Va., April i, 1864. Patrol of the ist Con- 
necticut Cavalry. 

Rappahannock Station, Va., March 29, 1862. (See Bealeton Station, 
same date.) 

Rappahannock Station, Va., Aug. 23, 1862. 2nd Division, 2nd 
Corps, Army of Virginia. On the 20th Pope's pickets at Rappahannock 
Station had been driven in and during the next two days Lee made 
several attempts to cross the river. Pope, in expectations of reinforce- 
ments, made his arrangements to cross on the morning of the 23d and 
fling his whole force upon Lee's rear. Early on the morning of the 23d 
the Confederates, possibly in anticipation of such a movement on the 
part of Pope, occupied a hill overlooking Beverly ford and station with 
six 3-inch rifles and 4 Napoleons of the First company of the Washing- 
ton artillery under Capt. C. W. Squires, supported by Evans' brigade. 
A heavy fire was opened on the Union batteries across the river, which 
was vigorously returned, and after a day of cannonading, in which the 
loss on both sides was slight, the positions of both armies were changed. 

Rappahannock Station, Va., Nov. 7-8, 1862. Battery C, 3d U. S. 
Artillery. In the operations preliminary to the battle of Fredericksburg 
Battery C arrived with the 1st Pa. cavalry at Rappahannock Station on 
night of Nov. 7, and immediately opened upon the Confederate camp 
at the opposite end of the bridge. The enemy, leaving everything, with- 
drew in haste. Next morning 3 or 4 Confederate guns opened on the 
Union artillery, which replied, and firing was kept up for 2 hours without 
doing any material damage on either side. 

Rappahannock Station, Va., Aug. i, 1863. (See Brandy Station, 
same date.) 

Rappahannock Station, Va., Nov. 7, 1863. Right Column of the 
Army of the Potomac. While the Army of the Potomac was attempting 
to force a passage of the Rappahannock river the position assigned to 
the right of the column, then under command of Maj.-Gen. John Sedg- 
wick, was at Rappahannock Station. Sedgwick was ordered to push the 
Confederates across the river before dark if possible, while another por- 
tion of the army was attempting a passage at Kellj^s ford. The 5th 
corps (Sykes) and Sedgwick's own (the 6th), then commanded by Brig.- 
Gen. VVright, took positions on the right and left of the railroad and by 
3 p. m. had pushed forward their skirmishers and driven the Confeder- 
ates to their rifle-pits. The enemy's works were two redoubts, both on 
the left of the railroad, connected by a double line of rifle-pits, extending 
1,000 yards along the river. All afternoon the Federal artillery kept up 
a vigorous fire upon the works, but apparently without eff^ect, as the 
Confederates replied just as vigorously. Just at dusk Sedgwick ordered 
an assault. Brig.-Gen. David A. Russell with two brigades of his divi- 
sion executed the movement under a galling fire, the works were cap- 
tured and the whole garrison cut oflf and taken prisoners. The assault 
was acknowledged to be one of the most gallant in history. The Federal 
loss in the affair was 83 killed, 330 wounded and 6 missing; the Con- 
federates lost 6 killed, 39 wounded and 1,629 captured, besides 8 colors, 
a battery, 2,000 stands of small arms and a pontoon train. 

Ratliff's Landing, La., June 15, 1864. U. S. Gunboat No. 53. Col. 
John S. Scott of the ist La. Confederate cavalry reports that during the 
night of the 14th he moved two 12-pounder howitzers and a 3-inch gun 
to Ratliff's landing and at daylight opened on gunboat No. 53, a tin- 
clad, which was so badly injured as to necessitate her being run ashore 
to prevent sinking. No casualties were reported. 

Rav^hide, Tenn., Dec. i, 1863. Detachment of 9th Illinois Cavalry. 
Lieut. John W. Barnes, acting assistant adjutant-general to Brig.-Gen. 



726 The Union Army 

Grenville M. Dodge, reporting from Pulaski, says: "Lieut. Roberts 
has returned from Eastport. Had a fight with some guerrillas at Raw- 
hide. Brought in 20 prisoners." This is the only official mention of 
the affair. 

Rawle's Mill, N. C, Nov. 2, 1862. (See Little Creek, same date.) 

Rawlingson, Ala., Sept. 5, 1863. ist Brigade, ist Division, Cavalry 
Corps, Army of the Cumberland. This incident was the destruction of 
the salt works. The Confederate guard, finding itself too small to cope 
with the brigade, retired as the Union troops came up, and the works 
were destroyed without opposition. 

Rajrmond, Miss., May 12-13, 1863. 17th Army Corps. While Grant 
was maneuvering for position around Vicksburg he sent Maj.-Gen. James 
B. McPherson with the 17th corps in the direction of Raymond. About 
3 miles west of the town the advance of Logan's division encountered the 
enemy at 11 a. m. on the 12th. Brig.-Gen. John E. Smith's division was 
deployed as skirmishers and held the Confederates in check until the 
rest of the corps could be formed for action. After 3 hours of sharp and 
determined fighting, during which the Confederates made several desper- 
ate assaults, McPherson ordered Stevenson's brigade to charge. This 
movement was executed with vigor, the brigade picking up the skirmish- 
ers as it advanced and driving the enemy into and through Raymond. 
The nature of the country prevented anything like an orderly pursuit, 
so that the Confederates were enabled to get away easily. McPherson 
lost 66 killed, 339 wounded and Zl missing, and the enemy ^2) killed, 251 
wounded and 190 captured or missing. On the following morning Boom- 
er's brigade of Crocker's division was ordered to clear the road north 
of Raymond. The 5th and loth la. were deployed as skirmishers, and 
the 93d 111. and 26th Mo. were placed in reserve. The Confederate force 
was found to be nothing more than a heavy line of skirmishers, which 
was easily driven back. No casualties were reported in this latter affair, 
which was part of the operations just preceding the battle of Champion's 
Hill. 

Raymond, Miss., May 24, 1863. Convalescents of Grant's Army. 
Brig.-Gen. P. J. Osterhaus, commanding the 9th division, 13th army 
corps, during the Vicksburg campaign, reports that the town of Raymond, 
where a number of Federal sick and wounded were being cared for, was 
captured by two Confederate regiments. The sick, wounded and nurses 
were paroled. This is the only official mention of the affair. 

Raytown, Mo., June 23, 1862. Detachment of 7th Missouri Cavalry. 
Thirty men under Capt. James Breckenridge, in search of guerrillas, fired 
upon a man near the edge of a strip of timber on Lowe's farm. The fire 
was returned with vigor from the timber, and the Federals retired after 
losing I man. Breckenridge thought he killed 2 of the Confederates. 

Readsville, Mo., May 8, 1865. Missouri Militia. A band of bush- 
whackers, dressed in Federal uniform and passing themselves off as Union 
militia, fell in with 5 Union soldiers under Corp. Gentry and after pro- 
ceeding with them some distance turned and fired upon them, killing 
2, and wounding all the others but one, who was captured and obliged to 
act as guide for some distance, but finally managed to make his escape. 

Readyville, Tenn., June 7, 1862. 7th Pennsylvania and 4th Ken- 
tucky Cavalry. Col. J. W. Starnes of the 3d Tennessee cavalry reported 
overtaking some Federal cavalry at Readyville, killing 8, wounding a 
number and capturing 68. He stated that the force was composed of 
portions of 7th Pa. and 4th Ky. regiments. 

Readyville, Tenn., Oct. 5, 1863. 2nd Cavalry Division, Army of the 
Cumberland. Brig.-Gen. George Crook, while in pursuit of Wheeler and 
Roddey in their raid, crossed over to the Liberty pike at Readyville and 



Cyclopedia of Battles 707 

by that move drove the Confederates in the direction of Shelbyville. He 
makes no mention of casualties. 

Readyville, Tenn., Sept. 6, 1864 Detachment of 9th Pennsylvania 
Cavalry. Col. Thomas J. Jordan, with 550 men, started from Murfrees- 
boro to ascertain the whereabouts of a Confederate detachrnent under 
Dibrell. About daylight the enemy was discovered encamped at Ready- 
ville, and as soon as it was sufficiently light a charge was made. In 10 
minutes Dibrell's whole force was flying in confusion. Jordan lost i 
killed, 6 wounded and 5 missing. The Confederate casualties amounted 
to 2 killed, 2 seriously wounded and 130 captured or missing. Some 200 
horses and as many saddles were captured by Jordan's men. 

Reams' Station, Va., June 22-29, 1864. (See Wilson's Raid, Peters- 
burg, Va.) 

Reams' Station, Va., Aug. 22-25, 1864. 2nd Army Corps, Gregg's 
and Kautz's Cavalry. The battle of Reams' station was a part of the 
operations about Petersburg during the siege. After Gen. Warren's 
expedition against the Weldon railroad on Aug. 18-21, the Federal in- 
trenchments were extended from the Jerusalem plank road to connect 
with Warren's new position on the railroad. This railroad was the chief 
line of supply for the Confederate army, and although Warren held it 
at Globe tavern, it was still open on his left, so that supplies could be 
transported by wagon in a day's time to Petersburg. Gen. Grant there- 
fore determined to destroy the track as far as Rowanty creek, about 20 
miles south of Petersburg, which would force the enemy to haul his 
supplies from Stony Creek station by way of Dinwiddie Court House, a 
much greater distance. Maj.-Gen. W. S. Hancock, with the ist and 2nd 
divisions of the 2nd corps, Gregg's cavalry division and Spear's brigade 
of Kautz's cavalry, was charged with the work and received his orders 
to that effect on the morning of the 21st, just after his command had 
returned from Deep Bottom. He at once took up the march toward 
Reams' station, Spear's cavalry having the advance and engaging in a 
slight skirmish with the enemy on the Vaughan road. The cavalry cov- 
ered the roads leading to the railroad and by the evening of the 24th 
the railroad was destroyed to Malone's crossing, 3 miles south of Reams' 
station. About 11 o'clock that night Hancock received a despatch from 
headquarters notifying him that a Confederate force, estimated at from 
8,000 to 10,000 men, was moving from the intrenchments by the Vaughan 
and Halifax roads. This was Gen. A. P. Hill's corps, part of Longstreet's 
command and Hampton's cavalry, all under the command of Hill. Slight 
intrenchments had been thrown up at Reams' station during Wilson's 
raid in June. These were now occupied by Hancock, Gibbon's division 
on the left and Miles' (Barlow's) on the right, the cavalry being sent out 
on a reconnaissance to locate the enemy and develop his strength. About 
noon on the 25th Miles' pickets on the Dinwiddie road were driven in 
and at 2 p. m. two spirited attacks were made in quick succession on his 
front, but both were repulsed, some of the Confederates falling within a 
few yards of the works. In the meantime Gen. Meade had ordered Gen. 
Mott to send all of his available force down the plank road to the assis- 
tance of Hancock, and about 2 :30 directed Willcox's division of the 9th 
corps to follow Mott. These reinforcements did not reach Hancock in 
time to be of any material service. At 5 p. m. Hill opened a heavy fire 
of artillery, taking part of the Union line in reverse. After about 15 
minutes of this cannonade an assault was made on Miles' front. The 
attack was bravely met and the enemy thrown into some confusion, when 
the 7th, 39th and 52nd N. Y., composed chiefly of new recruits, broke in 
disorder. A small brigade, under Lieut.-Col. Rugg, which had been sta- 
tioned in reserve, was ordered up to fill the gap in the line, but Hancock 



728 The Union Army 

says in his report: "the brigade could neither be made to go forward 
nor fire." McKnight's battery was then ordered to direct its fire into 
the opening, but the enemy, by advancing along the rifle-pits, gained 
possession of the battery and turned one of the guns on the Union troops. 
Gibbon was ordered forward with his division to recapture the guns, 
but the men seemed to be panic-stricken, "falling back to their breast- 
works on receiving a slight fire from the enemy." Gibbon was now ex- 
posed to an attack in reverse and on the flank, forcing his men to occupy 
the outside of their works, and for a moment it looked as though the 
gallant 2nd corps, that had proved its valor on so many battlefields, was 
doomed to utter annihilation. In this critical moment Miles rallied a 
small force, formed a line at right angles to the intrenchments, swept off 
the enemy and recaptured the battery. Had Gibbon's officers been able 
to rally the men at this juncture, the story of Reams' station might have 
been differently told. But while the effort was being made to bring up 
the division an attack was made upon it by the enemy's dismounted cav- 
alry and the whole command was driven from the breastworks. Elated 
by this success the Confederates advanced with the "rebel yell" against 
Miles, when they were met by a severe fire from the dismounted cavalry 
on the extreme left and their advance summarily checked. Gibbon had 
finally succeeded in forming a new line a short distance in the rear of 
the rifle-pits, and to this line Gregg and Spear now retired, Woerner's 
battery covering the movement and dealing havoc in the enemy's ranks 
by its well-directed fire. This battery and the troops under Miles held 
the road leading to the plank road until dark, when the order was issued 
to withdraw. Willcox's division was then within a mile and a half of 
the field, where it was formed in line of battle, and after Hancock's 
men had passed became the rear-guard. In his report Hancock says : 
"Had my troops behaved as well as heretofore, I would have been able 
to defeat the enemy on this occasion. * * * j attribute the bad con- 
duct of some of my troops to their great fatigue, owing to the heavy 
labor exacted of them and to their enormous losses during the campaign, 
especially in officers." This was doubtless true. There is a limit to 
human endurance and the men of Gibbon's division had reached the 
limit. Marching all night of the 20th and all day on the 22nd, tearing up' 
railroad track through the day and standing picket at night from that 
time until they were engaged on the 25th, the men were so completely 
worn out that they had lost both ambition and patriotism. The Union 
loss was 140 killed, 529 wounded and 2,073 missing. Hill reported his 
total loss at 720, and claimed to have captured 2,150 prisoners, 9 cannon, 
12 colors and over 3,000 stands of small arms. 

Rectortown, Va., Jan. i, 1864. Maj. John S. Mosby (Confederate) 
states in a report that a portion of his command under Capt. William R. 
Smith attacked and routed 78 Federals, killing, wounding or capturing 
57 of the number. As this is the only official mention of the affair, there 
is no way of ascertaining what Federal troops were thus defeated. 

Red Bank Creek, S. C, Feb. 15, 1865. 3d Division, 20th Army 
Corps. The corps was moving toward Columbia on the Lexington road, 
with the 3d division, commanded by Maj. -Gen. John W. Geary, in ad- 
vance. Upon reaching Red Bank creek the enemy was found engaged in 
the destruction of the bridge. Pardee's brigade was moved forward and 
opened such a vigorous fire on the Confederates that they were com- 
pelled to abandon the bridge before the work of destruction was com- 
plete. The bridge was quickly repaired and the whole corps continued 
its march on Columbia. No casualties reported. 

Red Bone, Miss., April 21, 1864. 2nd Wisconsin Cavalry. 

Red Clay, Ga., May 3, 1864. 2nd Brigade, ist Cavalry Division, Army 



Cyclopedia of Battles 729 

of the Cumberland. Col. H. P. Lamson, commanding the brigade, re- 
ported that as the command was about to go into camp at Red Clay, 
while on its march from Cleveland, a scout of the ist Wis. cavalry was 
killed by a shot from a small party in ambush, being at the time a short 
distance in advance with a few of his comrades. 

Red Hill, Ala., Jan. 14, 1865. 15th Pennsylvania Cavalry. 

Red Mound, Ark., April 17, 1864. (See Camden, Ark., Expedition to.) 

Red Mound, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862. (See Forrest's Expedition into 
West Tennessee.) 

Red Mountain, Cal., March 17 to 28, 1864. Detachment 2nd Cali- 
fornia Infantry. Capt. Hull, with a scouting party, routed a band of In- 
dians at Red mountain, a few miles southwest of Blue Rock Station, on 
the 17th, pursued them to Eel river, where they were overtaken on the 
evening of the 19th. In the skirmish which ensued 2 braves were killed 
and 2 squaws captured. On the 22nd at Bald Spring Canon, they killed 
2 more braves. Continuing the pursuit until the morning of the 27th, 
Sergt. Maguire with a corporal and 3 privates reached and attacked a 
large encampment of Indians, killing 5 braves and capturing 3 women 
and 2 children. On the 28th, Hull with the main body of his detach- 
ment, came upon a considerable party of Indians on Eel river, killed 16 
men and captured 2 women. 

Red Oak, Ga., Aug. 19, 1864. (See Lovejoy's Station, Kilpatrick's 
Raid.) 

Red River, La., Oct. 14, 1863. Detachment of 46th Illinois Infantry. 
Twenty men under Capt. Ramsey crossed the Red river during an expedi- 
tion from Natchez and Fort Adams, Miss., and captured 15 Confederate 
soldiers and 2 transports. 

Red River, La., April 26, 1864. (See De Loach's Bluff, same date.) 

Red River, N. Mex., Dec. i, 1864. ist New Mexico Cavalry. This 
affair was a slight skirmish between a band of Indians and a body of 
soldiers under Maj. E. W. Eaton. The Indians managed to get away 
into the timber before the troops got very close, but in the pursuit i 
was killed. No soldiers were injured. 

Redwrood, Minn., Aug. 18, 1862. One company 5th Minnesota Vol- 
unteers massacred by Indians. 

Redwood Bayou, La., May 3, 1864. U. S. forces under Col. L. A. 
Sheldon. Brig.-Gen. Henry W. Birge, reporting from Baton Rouge un- 
der date of May 3, says : "Col. Sheldon came upon the enemy about 
6:30 this morning between Bayous Redwood and Olive Branch, he thinks 
about 1,500 strong; at 11 a. m. had driven them to within 5 miles of 
Clinton. Sheldon's loss thus far, 2 men." 

Redwood Creek, Cal., Sept. 8, 1862. Detachment of 2nd California 
Infantry. This was an affair between a detachment of the 2nd Cal. and 
a band of Indians. The soldiers, under Lieut. William H. Noyes, were 
climbing a steep hillside when they were fired upon from the brush and 
compelled to fall back to cover of the woods. Here Noyes awaited an 
attack, but finding that the red men were attempting to flank him, he 
ordered a retreat and withdrew to Camp Anderson. One soldier was 
wounded. 

Redwood Creek, Cal., July 9, 1863. California Mountaineers. This 
affair was an attack by a band of Indians upon the escort of a supply 
train. The result was the repulse of the Indians, after 10 of the 18 
men constituting the escort had been wounded. The fight lasted 8 hours. 

Redwood Creek, Cal., Feb. 29, 1864. Detachment of ist Battalion, 
California Mountaineers. At 5 130 a. m. a detail of troops under Lieut. 
Knyphausen Geer attacked the Indians in their camp at Redwood creek. 
Three Indians were killed, several badly wounded and 5 women and 
children were taken prisoners. One of the attacking party was wounded. 



730 The Union Army 

Reed's Bridge, Ark., Aug. 27, 1863. (See Bayou Meto, same date.) 

Reed's Ferry, Va., May 3, 186.3. (See Suffolk, Siege of.) 

Reed's Mountain, Ark., Dec. 6, 1862. 2nd Kansas Cavalry and nth 
Kansas Infantry. As an incident of the operations about Cane Hill, 
Ark., the picket guard of the cavalry was attacked by some Confederate 
cavalry. The remainder of the Federals drew up in line at the foot of 
the bluff and when the pickets had retired to that point a charge was 
ordered and the lost ground regained. The enemy then assaulted three 
times, but each time unsuccessfully. Later, when the Confederates had 
executed a flank movement, the Federals were compelled to change their 
position. The Union reports, the only mention of the affair, state that 
the Confederate loss was 25 killed, and that the Union troops only suffered 
to the extent of 4 wounded. 

Reedy Creek, W. Va., May 13, 1862. Troops under Brig.-Gen. B. F. 
Kelley. Maj.-Gcn. J. C. Fremont, reporting to the secretary of war, 
says : "Gen. Kelley, commanding the Railroad District, reports * * * 
that he was attacked in a narrow pass at Reedy creek day before yester- 
day by guerrillas, who fired upon him from the mountain-top. His men 
dismounted and charged up the mountain, but were unable to kill any 
of the rebels. Kelley suffered no loss." 

Reeves' Mill, Ark., Nov. 19, 1864. Missouri Militia. This affair was 
one of a number in an expedition from Cape Girardeau to Patterson. At 
Reeves' mill a notorious guerrilla named Ely Garbert was killed. 

Reliance, U. S. Gunboat, Aug. 22-Sept. 2, 1863. The gunboat Re- 
liance was captured by the Confederates on the night of Aug. 22, and 
was destroyed by the Union forces under Gen. Kilpatrick on Sept. 2. 
(See Port Conway, Va.) 

Remount Camp, Ark., Aug. 5, 1864. Detachment of 3d Michigan 
Cavalry. Capt. Frederick C. Adamson, a corporal and a private of a 
herd guard of 80 men, having become separated from the remainder of 
the guard, were attacked by 5 guerrillas. The captain and the corporal 
were both wounded and the private was taken prisoner. 

Renick, Mo., Nov. i, i86i.' 

Rerock, Ariz., March 24, 1865. ist New Mexico Cavalry. 

Resaca, Ga., May 8-15, 1864. Armies of the Cumberland, Tennessee 
and Ohio. Resaca is located at the point where the Western & Atlantic 
railroad crosses the Oostanaula river and is about 15 miles south of Dalton. 
It is on the west side of a peninsula formed by a bend in the Oostanaula 
and the Connesauga river, and across this peninsula the Confederates had 
constructed a line of rifle-pits with strong earthworks near the town. 
The movement against this place was commenced on the 8th by McPher- 
son's demonstration via Snake Creek gap. (See Rocky Face Ridge.) On 
the nth and 12th Sherman moved the main body of his army west of 
Rocky Face ridge through Snake Creek gap and on Friday, the 13th, a 
general advance was ordered. McPherson occupied the right, his line 
extending from the Oostanaula to the Sugar Valley road ; Hooker's 
corps moved forward on that road preceded by Kilpatrick's cavalry ; Pal- 
mer's corps took a position on Hooker's left with orders to proceed in a 
course parallel to the road as far as the railroad, and Schofield. with 
the Army of the Ohio, formed the left. Howard's corps and McCook's 
cavalry had been left to keep up the demonstration against Dalton and 
Rocky Face ridge. At Smith's cross-roads, about 2 miles from Resaca, 
Kilpatrick encountered a considerable force of the enemy's cavalry and 
a sharp skirmish ensued, in which Kilpatrick was severely wounded, the 
command of the division devolving on Col. E. H. Murray. On reaching 
the neighborhood of the railroad Palmer's skirmishers encountered those 
of the enemy and kept up a sharp skirmish until dark. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 731 

Johnston learned on the 12th of Sherman's movement and that night 
withdrew all his troops from the vicinity of Dalton toward Resaca. Al- 
though Sherman had a whole day's start Johnston's shorter line of march 
enabled him to reach Resaca with his entire force before the Federal 
lines could be drawn around the town. As the Confederates retreated 
from Dalton they were pursued along the railroad by Howard, who suc- 
ceeded in capturing a number of prisoners. During the night of the 
13th the enemy strengthened his works and the morning of the 14th 
found him in position with Hardee on the right, Hood in the center 
and Polk on the left. About noon Schofield and Palmer advanced against 
the hills bordering on the railroad, but met with a stubborn resistance. 
Cox's division on the left carried and held the intrenchments in its front. 
Judah's division was compelled to advance over uneven ground and being 
subjected to an enfilading fire from the right was compelled to fall back 
with considerable loss. Palmer endeavored to drive the enemy from 
an elevated position in his front. In order to do this he had to descend 
a hill within point-blank range of several Confederate batteries, ford 
Camp creek, the banks of which were thickly bordered with bushes and 
vines, and then ascend the uneven surface of the opposite hill in the face 
of a murderous fire of both artillery and infantry. The troops charged 
down the hill and crossed the creek, where they became entangled in the 
dense mass of shrubbery, lost their formation and were in the end re- 
pulsed with heavy loss. The enemy now attempted to turn Schofield's 
left, but Thomas sent Newton's division, which had just arrived from 
Dalton, to Cox's support. The other divisions of Howard's corps took 
position on the left of Schofield as fast as they came upon the field and 
the Confederates in front of this portion of the line were finally forced 
to retire within their works. 

That night the Union lines were so readjusted that at daylight on the 
15th Palmer's corps joined McPherson's left, then came Schofield, 
Howard and Hooker in the order named, with McCook's cavalry on the 
extreme left. Sweeny's division of the i6th corps was ordered to cross 
the Oostanaula at Lay's ferry on a pontoon bridge and threaten Calhoun. 
Garrard was instructed to move with his cavalry division from Villanow 
toward Rome, cross the Oostanaula at some convenient point and break 
the railroad between Calhoun and Kingston. About 11 a. m. on the 15th 
Hooker attacked and carried some hills occupied by the enemy on 
the eastern road from Resaca to Tilton, drove the Confederates back 
about a mile and a half, captured a 4-gun Ijattery and about 200 prisoners. 
McPherson crossed Camp creek near its mouth and secured a position 
where his artillery commanded the railroad bridge. About 3 p. m. Hood 
made a determined eflfort to recover the guns taken by Hooker, but was 
repulsed. Hood was again ordered to advance, but the order was counter- 
manded when Johnston learned that the Federals had crossed the Oosta- 
naula in his rear, and that night the whole Confederate army retreated 
toward Calhoun. 

Resaca, Ga., Oct. 12, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 3d Division, 15th Army 
Corps. In the course of his northward march Hood appeared with his 
army before Resaca and after throwing out a strong skirmish line sent 
in a demand for a surrender. Col. Clark R. Wever, commanding the 
garrison of 700 men, refused to accede and the fighting began. About 
5 p. m. 500 cavalry arrived to reinforce the garrison. The Confederates 
made no attempt to assault, but after dark, leaving the skirmish line to 
keep up the fire on the garrison, the main body moved off toward Tilton, 
where at daylight next morning the garrison was overpowered and the 
railroad cut. The casualties were not reported. 

Resolute, U. S. S., Oct. n, 1864. (See Clarendon, Ark., same date.) 



732 The Union Army 

Resolute, C. S. S., Capture of, Dec. ii, 1864. (See Savannah, Siege 
of.) 

Reynoldsburg, Tenn., March 21, 1864. Detachment of Major Hardy's 
Battalion. Maj. Hardy and 50 men of his battalion, stationed at Rey- 
noldsburg, were attacked by a party of from 100 to 150 Confederates and 
were probably all captured. There is no official designation for these 
troops. 

Reynolds' Plantation, Ga., Nov. 28, 1864. Kilpatrick's Cavalry Divi- 
sion. After the defeat of the Confederates at Buck creek, Wheeler 
crossed that stream at another place and followed Kilpatrick. The latter 
had halted at Reynolds' place to feed, when information reached him 
that Wheeler was advancing with his entire force. Kilpatrick determined 
to give the enemy a decisive repulse and stop the annoyance to which 
he had been subjected for several days. He accordingly took up a 
strong position behind a long barricade of rails, with his flanks thrown 
well to the rear, placed his artillery and deployed a portion of his com- 
mand as skirmishers about 400 yards in advance of his position. These 
arrangements were barely completed when the enemy came in sight and 
immediately charged. The first assault was repulsed by the skirmish line, 
which slowly retired to the barricade. Wheeler then charged directly on 
the center, but was met by the murderous fire of 6 pieces of artillery, 
double shotted with canister and a steady fire from the carbines of the 
dismounted cavalry. Failing to break the center, Wheeler next charged 
against Atkins' brigade on the right of the road. Here he was met by 
the 9th Mich., dismounted, and the loth Ohio, and again his line was 
hurled back. He now turned his attention to the left flank, where Mur- 
ray's veterans met the onset with such a galling fire that the Confederates 
broke in confusion, many of them seeking shelter in the woods close by. 
This ended the fight and Kilpatrick moved on to Louisville without fur- 
ther molestation. No detailed statement of the Union loss was made, 
but it was slight. Wheeler confessed a loss of "about 70," though it 
was probably much greater. 

Rhea's Mills, Ark., Nov. 7, 1862. 3d Arkansas Home Guard. 

Rheatown, Tenn., Oct. 11, 1863. (See Henderson's Mill.) 

Rheatown, Tenn., Sept. 28, 1864. (See Carter's Station, Sept. 30.) 

Richards' Ford, Va., Sept. 26, 1863. Detachment of ist Vermont 
Cavalry. The picket post at Richards' ford was attacked by Confeder- 
ates at 4 a. m. of the 26th. One of the Federals was killed, and the 
lieutenant commanding and 13 men were captured, only 2 of the post 
escaping. 

Richfield, Mo., May 19, 1863. Detachment of Missouri Militia. 
Five men of the Mo. militia were decoyed into ambush by guerrillas 
near Richfield, in Clay county, and one killed and another wounded at 
the first fire. Another surrendered and was murdered after his arms 
had been taken from him. The other 2 escaped. 

Richland Creek, Ark., April 13-14, 1864. Detachment of 6th Mis- 
souri State Militia Cavalry. Capt. Samuel E. Turner, with a portion 
of the regiment, attacked the camp of 63 Confederates on the 13th and 
routed them completely, killing 5, wounding several and capturing i. 
The next day a joint party of Love's and Cordelle's guerrillas was at- 
tacked and again Turner was victorious, killing i and wounding 2. No 
casualties were reported on the Union side. 

Richland Creek, Ark., May 3-5, 1864. Detachments of 2nd Arkansas 
Cavalry. While escorting a wagon train 100 men of the 2nd Ark. were 
suddenly assailed by mounted guerrillas near the mouth of Richland 
creek. The advance guard of the escort was cut off' and surrounded 
and then the main body of the escort was cut off from the rear-guard 



Cyclopedia of Battles 733 

and the train. The result was the kilHng of yj Union men, the wound- 
ing of II and the capture and destruction of the train. The following 
day Col. John E. Phelps started in pursuit of the guerrillas and on the 
5th came upon their camp. It was immediately charged and the enemy 
routed after he had twice attempted to make a stand. Phelps had 7 
men wounded in the affair. The Confederate casualties, if any, were 
not reported. 

Richland Creek, Ark., Aug. i6, 1864. 6th Missouri and ist Arkan- 
sas Cavalry. A detachment of these regiments, under Capt. Hughes, at- 
tacked a party of 125 guerrillas, commanded by a Lieut. Smith, on Rich- 
land creek, completely routed them, killing 4 and wounding 9, with a 
loss of I man slightly wounded. Fifty horses and equipments were 
captured. 

Richland Creek, Tenn., Sept. 26, 1864. (See Pulaski, same date.) 

Richland Creek, Tenn., Dec. 24-25, 1864. Cavalry, Army of the 
Cumberland. In the pursuit of the Confederates under Hood, Croxton's 
brigade of McCook's division, came up with the rear-guard late on the 
afternoon of the 24th and drove the enemy across the creek, capturing a 
few prisoners and a battleflag. Coon's brigade of Hatch's division was 
sent to the left to get in the rear, but struck the creek where it could 
not be forded. Dismounting his men he engaged the enemy across the 
stream, keeping up the fight for about half an hour. In this action Con- 
federate Gen. Buford was wounded. The next day Harrison's brigade 
of Johnson's division struck the enemy near Pulaski. A charge was 
made by the 5th la., saving the bridge across Richland creek, which the 
enemy was trying to destroy. Harrison placed 2 guns in position and 
deployed a force along the creek, compelling the Confederates to with- 
draw. He then pursued for about 7 miles when the enemy made a stand 
on a hill behind a barricade. The 7th Ohio, i6th 111., and 5th la. were 
deployed, dismounted, and moved upon the enemy's position, when he 
opened fire from a masked battery, at the same time charging over the 
works in force. The three regiments were compelled to fall back about 
half a mile, when Harrison's supports coming up, the Confederates were 
driven from their position. In the charge made by the enemy he cap- 
tured I gun of the 4th U. S. artillery, which had to be abandoned in 
the retreat. Harrison reported a loss of 6 killed, 21 wounded and 5 
missing, and captured about 200 prisoners during the day. 

Richland Plantation, La., Jan. 30, 1865. Detachment of 80th U. S. 
Colored Infantry. Maj. William A. Hatch, with a portion of the 8oth 
colored infantry, while on a scout from Bayou Goula came upon a party 
of 20 or more guerrillas at the Richland plantation and drove them into 
the dense swamp surrounding, where pursuit was futile. Hatch en- 
camped at the plantation and during the night the guerrillas attempted 
to break through the picket lines, but were unsuccessful. No casualties 
were reported. 

Richland Station, Tenn., March 19, 1863. Detachment of 129th Illi- 
nois Infantry. A band of 60 or 75 guerrillas derailed a passenger train 
on the Louisville & Nashville railroad and then proceeded to rifle the 
mail and express cars and rob the passengers. Just as they were about 
to parole a number of officers that were on the train a detachment of 
troops from the 29th 111. appeared on the scene and after a brief skir- 
mish completely routed the outlaws, i of whom was killed, 18 wounded 
and 4 captured, besides a number of horses and guns. Most of the 
stolen property was recovered. 

Richmond, Ky., Aug. 29-30, 1862. ist and 2nd Brigades, Army of 
Kentucky. The battle of Richmond was one of the incidents of Bragg's 
invasion of Kentucky. When it was known that Bragg was moving 



734 The Union Army 

northward a force of men had been hurriedly collected at Louisville and 
organized into the Army of Kentucky, under the command of Maj.-Gen. 
WiUiam Nelson. The Union forces at Richmond consisted of the 1st 
and 2nd brigades of this army, respectively commanded by Brig.-Gen. 
M. D. Manson and Brig.-Gen. Charles Cruft. Manson's brigade was 
composed of the i6th, 55th, 69th and 71st Ind. infantry, and Lanphere's 
battery. Cruft's was made up of the 12th and 66th Ind., i8th Ky. and 
95th Ohio infantry and Andrews' battery. Many of the men were 
new recruits, unused to army discipline and unskilled in the arts of 
war. In the absence of Gen. Nelson the command of the two brigades 
devolved on Manson, who had established his headquarters about 2 miles 
from the town of Richmond. Here he received word at 11 a. m. on 
the 29th that Munday's cavalry had encountered the enemy, some 5,000 
strong, in the vicinity of Kingston. Manson sent word to Munday to 
hold the Confederates in check as long as possible, and ordered his whole 
brigade under arms. Reinforcements were sent out to the pickets, but 
about 2 p. m. the entire picket line was compelled to fall back toward 
the main body. South of Manson's camp were some high hills that com- 
pletely commanded his position, and he determined to move out and oc- 
cupy these, to prevent their falling into possession of the enemy. When 
he had advanced about three-fourths of a mile a heavy column of Con- 
federate cavalry was discovered some distance east of the road. Lieut. 
Lanphere was directed to open fire with the artillery, and a few well- 
directed shots scattered the enemy in all directions. The brigade then 
moved forward and took up a position where the artillery commanded 
the road as far south as Rogersville, and awaited the appearance of the 
enemy. Again the battery opened fire and after a skirmish of about an 
hour the Confederates were forced to retire from the field, with a loss 
of a number of captured, together with several horses and a piece of ar- 
tillery. Manson then moved his command to Rogersville, where the 
men bivouacked for the night, with orders to sleep on their arms. Col. 
Metcalfe, with his cavalry, was sent out to pursue the retreating enemy. 
After following them for some 6 miles he encountered a cavalry picket, 
who after a slight skirmish retired. Metcalfe lost 2 men killed and 2 
wounded. 

That evening Gen. Kirby Smith, commanding the Confederates, was 
reinforced by the arrival of Churchill's division, and decided to move to 
Richmond the next day, "even at the cost of a battle with the whole force 
of the enemy." Manson had sent word to maintain a strong picket on 
the Lancaster road, and to hold his command in readiness to move at a 
moment's notice. At 6 o'clock a. m. on the 30th he found that the Con- 
federates were advancing. He at once sent an order to Cruft to bring 
up his command as soon as possible, and placing himself at the head of 
the 55th Ind., moved out with his brigade to meet the Confederate 
column. About half a mile beyond Rogersville, near Mt. Zion church,' 
the enemy's advance was encountered and after a sharp skirmish was 
driven back. Manson then took possession of some woods and high 
ground on the left of the road and formed a line of battle. Skirmishers 
were thrown to the front and the enemy was held in check over an hour, 
when it was discovered that a movement was under way to turn the left 
of the skirmish line. This was McCray's brigade of Churchill's division, 
which had almost gained a position on the flank before its presence there 
was discovered. At this juncture Cruft's brigade came on the field and 
Manson ordered him to send the 95th Ohio to the support of the 
skirmishers, while the 69th Ohio was sent against a battery that the 
enemy was trying to plant on a hill a short distance to the front and 
right. In attempting to take the hill the regiment was subjected to an 



Cyclopedia of Battles 735 

enfilading fire that threw it into some confusion, and the enemy, prompt 
to take advantage of this circumstance, pressed forward with a heavy 
force, driving the right of the Hne from the field. At the same time the 
left was turned and for a short time it looked as if the Union troops 
were hopelessly defeated. But Manson, who was a veteran of the Mex- 
ican war, inspired confidence in his men by his heroic example, and after 
falling back for about a mile a new line of battle was formed on White's 
farm, with Cruft's brigade on a ridge to the right of the road, the ist 
brigade being formed some distance to the rear on the left of the road, 
with its battery in front. Tlie first attack on this position was made 
against Cruft's left, but it was repulsed by the gsth Ohio and 66th Ind., 
which formed that part of the line. The enemy now moved up through 
the woods and attacked the right of the brigade. Here the i8th Ky. 
and 1 2th Ind., who had not been engaged in the first fight, stood their 
ground for some time, but finally yielded to overpowering numbers and 
fell back in disorder. The ist brigade had already been driven from the 
field, and in a short time the whole army was flying toward Richmond. 
Manson and Cruft both rode to the front and tried to rally the men, but 
in vain. At Richmond Gen. Nelson was met and he assumed command. 
Most of the men had fled through the town, but about 2,500 were rallied 
and a third line formed, the left resting on the state road near the toll- 
gate, occupying the cemetery and thence running back into the woods on 
the right. The line was scarcely formed when the Confederates, elated 
by their first victory, again advanced to the attack. For a time the enemy 
was held in check by the skirmishers, but in a little while the attack 
became general and the Union lines broke and fled in confusion. It was 
now a case of "every fellow for himself." Before the attack was made at 
the cemetery the Confederate cavalry had gained a position in the Fed- 
eral rear and as the fugitives rushed back into this enemy they were 
either killed or captured in large numbers. Gen. Cruft in his report 
says : "The account of the whole battle may be summed up in a few 
words. It was an attack by at least 15,000 well disciplined troops, under 
experienced officers, upon 6,250 citizens, ignorant of war, without officers 
of experience. The wonder is that the latter fought so well for a whole 
day, could be twice rallied after being panic-stricken, and that any 
escaped slaughter or capture." 

The Union loss at Richmond was 206 killed, 844 wounded and 4,303 
captured or missing. Gen. Manson himself was among the captured, 
and all the artillery fell into the hands of the enemy. Kirby Smith re- 
ported his losses as being 98 killed, 492 wounded and 12 missing. 

Richmond, Ky., July 28, 1863. Detachments of loth Kentucky Cav- 
alry and ii2th Illinois and 2nd and 7th Ohio Mounted Infantry. After 
skirmishing heavily on the 27th with the Federals at Rogersville, 5 miles 
from Richmond. Col. John S. Scott in his raid in eastern Kentucky ap- 
proached Richmond on the 28th. At daylight Col. W. P. Sanders, com- 
manding the garrison at Richmond, moved out to meet the enemy and 
after skirmishing for 3 hours he found that he was about to be sur- 
rounded by a superior force. Accordingly an orderly retreat was started 
and continued through the town of Richmond. Just as the rear-guard 
was leaving the place it was thrown into confusion by an attack of the 
enemy and rushed back upon the main column, creating confusion there. 
The retreat then became a rout, the efforts of Sanders and his officers 
to rally the men proving unavailing. It was not until the command 
arrived at Clay ferry that it was momentarily rallied, and then only long 
enough to be crossed in order. Sanders says he had 4 or 5 men killed, 
several wounded and 75 taken prisoners and paroled. Scott had 3 killed 
and ID wounded in the Rogersville and Richmond encounters. 



736 The Union Army 

Richmond, La., March 31, 1863. 69th Indiana Infantry and detach- 
ment of 2nd Illinois Cavalry. Col. Thomas W. Bennett with his own 
regiment and a detachment of the 2nd 111. was sent out to examine the 
practicability of a road between New Carthage and Richmond. At 2 p. 
m. his column arrived at Roundaway bayou opposite Richmond and 
discovered the enemy's pickets in town. While the infantry maintained 
a steady fire on them the cavalry crossed the bayou in skiffs and boldly 
attacked the Confederates, compelling them to beat a hasty retreat. The 
casualties were 9 of the enemy wounded; the Federals sustained no 
losses. 

Richmond, La., June 6, 1863. Louisiana African Brigade. CoL 
Herman Lieb with the African brigade advanced to the railroad within 
3 miles of Richmond on the 6th and easily drove in the outer pickets. 
Fearing a return of the enemy in force he did not press his advantage 
but retired to Milliken's bend. No casualties are mentioned. 

Richmond, La., June 15, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 3d Division, 15th Army 
Corps and Marine Brigade. The brigade of Brig.-Gen. Joseph A. Mower 
met the marine brigade under Brig.-Gen. Alfred W. EUet and together 
they proceeded toward Richmond. At the junction of the Duckport and 
Milliken's Bend roads the Confederate pickets were encountered, but 
were driven back with little trouble. Two miles from Richmond the 
enemy was found in position. The advance regiment, the 5th Minn., was 
deployed as skirmishers, the artillery was brought into action, and in a 
short time the Confederates were driven from their first and second 
positions and Mower advanced his line to the willow hedge and ditch, 
where it remained for an hour during a desultory artillery duel. He 
then made a flank movement and reached a position three-quarters of a 
mile west of Richmond, only to find that the enemy had burned the 
bridge and evacuated the town. The cavalry forded the bayou and pur- 
sued 6 miles, capturing 25 men. Mower's casualties were i killed and 
8 wounded ; the enemy's loss was not ascertained. 

Richmond, Mo., July 8, 1864. Detachment of Enrolled Missouri 
Militia. Lieut. John D. Page with a portion of a company fell in with 
a party of guerrillas near Richmond and immediately ordered a charge, 
but a volley from the enemy, which killed Page, checked the Federal 
advance for the moment. The men were rallied by Sergt. Good and 
finally succeeded in dispersing the guerrillas. Three Union men were 
wounded. The Confederate casualties were not reported. 

Richmond, Va. (Kilpatrick's Expedition), Feb. 28-March 4, 1864. 
Detachments of the Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac. Ascertaining 
that Richmond was very poorly garrisoned and that it might be taken by 
a bold movement, Maj.-Gen. George G. Meade, commanding the Army 
of the Potomac, ordered Brig.-Gen. Judson Kilpatrick, commanding the 
3d cavalry division, to increase his force to 4,000 effective men by ad- 
ditions from the other divisions, move on Richmond and liberate the 
Union prisoners there. The president, also, was anxious that his amnesty 
proclamation be distributed within the Confederate lines and thought this 
a good way to have it done. Accordingly at 7 p. m. of Sunday, Feb. 28, 
Kilpatrick moved out southwest from Stevensburg with 3,582 cavalry and 
Ransom's 6-gun battery. At 11 p. m. his advance under Col. Ulric Dahl- 
gren crossed the Rappahannock river at Ely's ford, surprised and captured 
the Confederate picket of an officer and 14 men. From this point Dahl- 
gren, with 500 men, comprising detachments of the ist Me., ist Vt., 5th 
Mich., and 5th and 2nd N. Y. cavalry, pushed on rapidly to Spottsyl- 
vania Court House, thence to Frederick's Hall Station and from there to 
a point above Goochland on the James river. His orders were to cross 
that stream and be ready to seize at 10 a. m. on Tuesday, March i, the 



Cyclopedia of Battles 737 

main bridge on the road that led to Richmond. Kilpatrick at the same 
time despatched Capt. Boice of the 5th N. Y. with a portion of that regi- 
ment to strike the Fredericksburg railroad below Guiney's station and 
destroy it. The main column passed through Spottsylvania Court House 
at daylight on the 29th on the way to Beaver Dam Station, arriving at 
the latter place after dark. A small force of Confederates appeared as 
the advance was coming up, but their resistance was not strong enough 
to effectually hinder the Federal movement. The encampment of Kil- 
patrick on Monday night was 9 miles from Ground Squirrel bridge over 
the South Anna river and at i a. m. Tuesday the column was on the 
move. Through ignorance the guide led the expedition in the direction 
of Ashland and Kilpatrick, learning that a force of 2,000 infantry with 
6 pieces of artillery garrisoned the town, directed Maj. William P. Hall 
with 450 men of the ist division to make a demonstration toward the 
town, drive in the enemy's pickets and attack. The idea was to cover 
the movement of the main body, which struck across the country and at 
daylight crossed the South Anna river 3 miles above Ashland. Hall's 
attack was entirely successful, the Confederates sending all their available 
forces in the vicinity to protect the bridge across the South Anna river 
at Ashland. At 10 a. m. Kilpatrick reached the Brook pike 5 miles from 
Richmond, where he surprised and captured the picket and a small de- 
tachment of infantry in some rifle-pits. Reinforcements came out from 
the city to oppose Kilpatrick's advance, but they were driven back to 
within a mile of their starting place, where a considerable force of artillery 
and infantry effectually checked the Federals at i p. m. (See Brook 
Turnpike.) Reinforcements were again brought to the Confederates, and 
Kilpatrick, feeling almost confident that Dahlgren had failed to cross the 
river, withdrew at dark across the Chickahominy and went into camp 
near Mechanicsville. At 10 p. m. he decided to make another attempt to 
enter the Confederate capital by way of the Mechanicsville road, 
having learned from spies and scouts that the better part of the 
garrison was still concentrated on the Brook pike. Majs. Preston 
of the 1st Vt. and Taylor of the ist Me. with 500 men each were 
ordered to lead two separate detachments. Just as they were about to 
move Kilpatrick heard that his rear was being attacked and it became 
necessary to use all the troops to repel the assault. The 7th Mich, 
was forced back in confusion and it was some time before the men 
could be rallied sufficiently to move out on the Hanover Court House 
road, where, after considerable hard fighting in the dark, they suc- 
ceeded in driving off the enemy. At 8 a. m. of the 2nd the column 
moved east to Old Church, where it awaited Dahlgren until i p. m., 
when the rear-guard was attacked, but the Confederates were re- 
pulsed and pursued by the ist Me., who captured a large number of 
prisoners. At Tunstall's station the command went into camp on 
Wednesday night and there Capt. J. F. B. Mitchell with the remnant 
of Dahlgren's command joined the main column. He reported that 
either through the ignorance or maliciousness of their guide they 
had been unable to cross the James river, but had pushed on down 
the canal, destroying Confederate property as they went along. They 
reached the vicinity of Richmond at 4 p. m., when they attacked, the fight- 
ing continuing until dark, when the enemy received reinforcements and 
Dahlgren retired. In the retrograde movement Dahlgren himself and 100 
of his men became separated from the rest of the detachment and Mitchell, 
being the senior officer, assumed command and hastened to join Kilpatrick, 
skirmishing practically all the way, the strongest opposition he received be- 
ing at Atlee's station. Dahlgren also started to join Kilpatrick, crossing 
the Pamunkey at Hanovertown and the Mattapony at Aylett's, skirmishing 
Vol. VI— 17 



738 The Union Army 

at the latter place. When within 3 miles of King and Queen Court 
House the party was fired upon from ambush, Dahlgren being killed 
by the first volley and the rest of his men (except 22 who escaped 
on foot to Gloucester Point) being captured. At New Court House 
Kilpatrick met reinforcements sent out from Fort Magruder by Maj. 
Gen. B. F. Butler, and moved to King and Queen county to punish 
the slayers of Dahlgren, after which the expedition returned to 
Stevensburg by transport. Kilpatrick's loss in killed, wounded and 
missing was 430. The killed and wounded numbered about 150. The 
Confederate casualties, although not reported for the expedition, were 
probably fully as heavy. At the time of the start of the expedition 
Gen. George A. Custer was sent out to make a demonstration in 
Albermarle county and cover the movement of the raiding party. 
(See Albermarle County, Custer's Raid.) 

Rich Mountain, Va., July 11, 1861, U. S. Volunteers commanded by 
Brig.-Gen. W. S. Rosecrans. Gen. Rosecrans, with the 8th, 9th and 
13th Ind. and 19th Ohio infantry, and Burdsal's cavalry, moved against 
the Confederate position on Rich mountain, the skirmishes of the 
loth Ind. being the first to encounter the enemy's pickets. Owing to 
the dense thickets it was sometime before Rosecrans could properly 
deploy his troops. While he was forming his men in an open space 
the enemy opened a vigorous fire of both artillery and musketry, but 
as soon as the line was formed the Federals advanced steadily, 
causing the Confederates to show signs of wavering, when a charge 
put them to flight, leaving several of the dead and wounded on the 
field. The Union loss was 11 killed and 35 wounded. The enemy's 
casualties were not learned. 

Richwoods, Mo., Oct. 4, 1864. Detachment of 6th Missouri Caval- 
ry. A scouting party from this regiment, under Capt. Russell, came 
upon 3 Confederates in a house near Richwoods and killed 2 and 
captured i. Later another band of 80 was encountered, and a charge 
made, which resulted in the rout of the enemy with a loss of 10 
killed, several more wounded, 3 captured, and the remainder pursued 3 
miles beyond Richwoods. No casualties were reported on the Union side. 

Riddell's Shop, Va., June 13, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 3d Cavalry Division, 
Army of the Potomac. The cavalry division was first engaged on this date 
at White Oak swamp, and after it was relieved there by Crawford's 
division of the 5th corps the 2nd brigade, Col. George H. Chapman 
commanding, moved out on the main road to Richmond. When he 
had proceeded about a mile Chapman came upon the enemy strongly 
posted in a belt of timber in front of Riddell's shop. A brigade of 
Confederate cavalry, dismounted and armed with rifled muskets, held 
the position and showed a disposition to contest it with great ob- 
stinacy. Chapman dismounted the 3d Ind. and 8th N. Y., formed 
them in line of battle and gave the order to charge on the works at 
the double-quick. The enemy did not wait to receive the charge, 
but decamped, leaving a number of dead and wounded on the field. 
Riddell's shop was an important point as it was at the junction of 
the Quaker, Charles City and Long Bridge roads. By holding his 
position here Chapman could cover the Quaker road, over which 
the army was moving to the James river. He therefore formed 
the 1st Vt., 3d Ind. and 8th N. Y. in line of battle, supported by the 
1st N. H., 22nd N. Y. and Fitzhugh's battery. About 6 p. m. the 
enemy advanced in strong line of battle and heavy column down the 
bridge road, and in a short time Chapman's whole line was engaged. 
In the fighting earlier in the day Chapman's men had nearly ex- 
hausted their supply of ammunition and the first line was slowly 



Cyclopedia of Battles 739 

drawn back to the position occupied by the second, where the bri- 
gade was reinforced by three regiments of infantry, which were 
brought up and disposed without Chapman's directions. About dark 
the Confederates made an attack on the right of the line and one of 
the infantry regiments gave way with but slight resistance, throwing 
that part of the line in confusion. The left held firm, however, and 
the battery was brought off in a walk. Some confusion occurred 
in getting through a line of battle in the rear, consisting of Craw- 
ford's division of the 5th corps, which had come up and formed there 
during the engagement. The cavalry finally succeeded in passing to 
the rear of Crawford's line, and the enemy retired toward Rich- 
mond. No detailed report of losses was made by either side. 

Riddle's Point, Mo., March 17, 1862. (See New Madrid.) 

Ridgely, Mo,, June n, 1864. Detachment of Missouri State 
Militia. A band of guerrillas attacked a detachment of militia at 
Ridgely and a rather severe skirmish ensued, but the Confederates 
were repulsed with the loss of their leader killed, the second in com- 
mand wounded and taken prisoner and subsequently shot. The 
Federals had i man killed and 4 wounded. 

Ridgely, Mo., Oct. 16, 1864. The only official mention of this affair, 
a despatch from Lieut. A. J. Harding, an aide-de-camp on the staff of 
Gen. Rosecrans, contains the following. "Ridgely, Platte county, Mo., 
was captured and plundered by guerrillas on the night of the i6th." 

Rienzi, Miss., June 2, 1862. Detachment of 42nd Illinois Infantry. 
Thirty men of the 42nd 111. were sent out from the Federal camp for 
the purpose of reconnoitering and encamped within one mile of 
Rienzi. At 10 p. m. they were attacked by Confederate infantry, who, 
after firing 2 volleys, charged and captured most of the party, the 
remainder scattering in all directions. 

Rienzi, Miss., Aug. 26, 1862. 2nd Cavalry Brigade, Army of the 
Mississippi. At 2 p. m. a Confederate cavalry command drove in 
the Federal pickets on the Ripley road. Col. Edward Hatch with 
the 2nd la., supported by Col. A. L. Lee with the 7th Kans. attacked 
and drove the enemy for several miles, the latter part of the pursuit 
being a rout. Six Federals were wounded and 5 were missing. Aside 
from the 11 captured the Confederate loss was not ascertained. 

Riggin's Hill, Tenn., Sept. 7. 1862. (See Clarkesville, same date.) 

Ringgold, Ga., Sept. 11, 1863. ist Brigade, 4th Division, 14th Anny 
Corps, and 3d Division, 21st Corps. During the Chickamauga cam- 
paign the brigade of mounted infantry under Col. John T. Wilder of 
the 17th Ind. started forward at daylight and when 2 miles from 
Ringgold Scott's brigade of Confederate cavalry was encountered. 
The 92nd 111. being in the advance dismounted, formed line, and at- 
tacked, the 17th Ind. being sent to the right to flank the enemy, who 
soon gave way, leaving 13 dead on the field. Pursuit was immediately 
started, but before the retreat through the gap could be cut off Van 
Cleve's division of the 2ist corps coining up from Rossville drove 
the enemy in confusion through the gap. Wilder again took the 
lead and 3 miles beyond Ringgold the Confederates made another 
stand in a strong position, but a flanking movement again succeeded 
in dislodging them. At Tunnel hill the next stand was made, the 
Confederates having been reinforced meantime by Armstrong's bri- 
gade. After routing them at this point Wilder pursued to within 
4 miles of Dalton and then went into camp at Tunnel hill. 

Ringgold, Ga., March 20, 1865. U. S. Forces under Achilles 
Chiniquy. A despatch to Brig.-Gen. H. M. Judah from Chiniquy at Ring- 
gold contains the following: "My pickets have been attacked. Guerrillas 
have withdrawn; expect an attack before daylight in the morning." 



740 The Union Army 

Ringgold Gap, Ga., Nov. 27, 1863. Detachments of 12th and 15th 
Army Corps. During the pursuit of the Confederates up the Chick- 
amauga valley the troops under Gen. Hooker drove the enemy from the 
bridge and ford over the east fork of the Chickamauga river and 
entered Ringgold. Back of the village is a gap in Taylor's ridge 
through which the river flowed and the railroad and the pike passed. 
It was through this gap that Bragg's army had to move to get out of 
the valley. A strong position was taken on the ridge and in the 
gap by the Confederates. Osterhaus' division, which had the Fed- 
eral advance, threw out skirmishers who immediately became en- 
gaged with those of the enemy. Woods' brigade was deployed un- 
der cover of the railroad embankment and the 13th 111. was advanced 
to a house from which they could pick off the Confederate artil- 
lerists. Apprehensive for their artillery the Confederates advanced 
on this house in greatly superior numbers and the Illinois men were 
compelled to fall back. Williamson sent four regiments of his brigade 
to turn the enemy's right, but on finding that the Confederate line 
extended beyond where Williamson was advancing, Hooker ordered 
Geary to throw Creighton's brigade still farther to the left. Both 
brigades proceeded up the slope under a most harassing and murder- 
ous fire, and two regiments of each brigade actually reached the 
crest of the ridge and the enemy's position, when the superior forces 
thrown against them compelled them to withdraw — Geary to the 
shelter of a depression in the side of the ridge and Williamson be- 
hind the railroad embankment. Woods' brigade was then made the 
objective point of an attack by the Confederates, but with the assist- 
ance of Ireland's brigade of Geary's division, which was hurried up as a 
reinforcement, the attack was repulsed. About noon the artillery, 
which had been delayed in the passage of Chickamauga creek, came 
up and was deployed in position to sweep the gap, the Confederate 
batteries playing on Hooker's left, and the force massed in front of 
Geary. It was not long before this cannonade had the desired effect 
and the Confederates withdrew, followed over the ridge by William- 
son and through the gap by the skirmishers of the 6oth and 102nd 
N. Y. infantry. The Federal losses in this fight were 65 killed, 424 
wounded and 20 captured or missing. The Confederate casualties 
were not reported. 

Ringgold Gap, Ga., May 2, 1864. Kilpatrick's Cavalry. During a 
reconnaissance from his camp at Ringgold Gen. Kilpatrick came up 
with a detachment of the enemy near Stone Church and drove them 
from one stand to another in the direction of Tunnel Hill. One of 
these slight skirmishes occurred near Ringgold gap. 

Rio Bonito, N. Max., March 27, 1863. (See Bonito Rio.) 

Rio Hondo, N. Mex., July 18, 1863. One company of the ist 
New Mexico Cavalry; Indian fight. 

Ripley, Miss., June 7, 1863. Cavalry Division, i6th Army Corps. 
As an incident of an expedition into Mississippi the cavalry under 
Brig.-Gen. Benjamin H. Grierson encountered a small party of Con- 
federates at Ripley. They were easily driven back some 3 miles on 
the New Albany road to their reserve, which consisted of a brigade 
strongly posted. Portions of the two Federal brigades were deployed 
and for about 2 hours the skirmishing was brisk. The troops under 
Grierson succeeded in driving the enemy until night came on. when 
they fell back in a southerly direction. One Union man was killed 
and 3 _ were wounded, while the Confederates suffered to the extent 
of 6 killed and 15 wounded. 

Riplev, Miss., June 11, 1863. Infantry Division, Sturgis' Expedi- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 741 

tion. As the command of Col. W. L. McMillen was moving out of 
Ripley, the day after its disastrous defeat at Brice's cross-roads, the 
Confederates under Forrest made a furious attack upon the place, 
gaining possession of the road on which the Federals were moving 
and cutting the division in two. The troops cut off were finally over- 
powered by superior numbers and obliged to move out on a road 
leading north from Ripley, making their way thence to Memphis. 
The casualties in the affair were not reported. 

Ripley, Miss., Dec. i, 1863. ist Cavalry Brigade, 16th Army 
Corps. Col. J. K. Mizner, commanding the brigade, reported that 
while his command was scouting on the New Albany road the 3rd 
111. struck the enemy's advance at 10 a. m. 5 miles south of Ripley, 
and was obliged to fall back to where Mizner had disposed the re- 
mainder of his forces on three roads. This position the Confederates 
struck with overwhelming force, advancing in three columns, one 
dismounted, rendering it almost impossible for the dismounted Union 
troops to regain their horses. Pursuit was soon given up by the 
enemy on all but the Pocahontas road, on which the 3rd Mich, was 
driven until a last desperate and successful stand was made at 
Ruckersville at sunset. The casualties were not reported. 

Ripley, Miss., July 7, 1864. 2nd Iowa Cavalr>'. The advance 
regiment of Smith's expedition to Tupelo encountered the Confederates 
near Ripley, posted in a strong position on a hill covered with thick 
underbrush. The regiment was dismounted and after a few minutes of 
sharp firing a charge was ordered, which was made across an open field 
and up a steep hill, carrying the enemy's position and driving him from 
the field. The Confederates left 10 dead on the ground, but carried off 
their wounded. The Iowa regiment had 4 men slightly wounded. 

Ripley, Miss., Oct. 7, 1864. 2nd Cavalry Brigade, Army of the 
Mississippi. During the pursuit of the Confederates after the battle 
of Corinth, the advance under Col. Albert L. Lee encountered and 
fought the enemy's pickets at Ripley at 11 p. m. The enemy re- 
tired after a short resistance. The casualties, if any, were not re- 
ported 

Ripley, Tenn., Jan. 8, 1863. 2nd Illinois Cavalry. 

Rising Sun, Tenn., June 30, 1862. 57th Ohio Infantry. The wagon 
train of Gen. Sherman's division, consisting of 67 wagons and 
guarded by the 57th Ohio under Col. William Munger, was at- 
tacked at Rising Sun between 5 and 6 p. m. The Confederates were 
driven off after a spirited skirmish, during which 6 wagons were lost 
by the mules becoming frightened and running away. The Union 
casualties amounted to 3 men wounded and 8 teamsters and a wagon- 
master captured. The Confederate loss was not accurately ascertained. 
Munger reported it as being 9 killed and 18 wounded, but a citizen 
reported that 21 dead were found on the field the next day. Mun« 
ger killed or disabled 6 of the enemy's horses and captured 5 more. 

Rivers' Bridge, S. C, Feb. 3-4, 1865. (See Salkehatchie River.) 

Rixesrville Ford, Va., Aug. 5, 1863. Detachments of ist Mas- 
sachusetts, 1st Pennsylvania and ist New Jersey Cavalry. Under an ordef 
to scout over the Aestham river in the direction of Culpeper, CoL 
H. B. Sargent took 300 men and moved from camp near Amissville. 
About dark his advance reached the fork of Gourd Vine creek and 
the Hazel river, when it became engaged with the enemy's pickets, 
and later he encountered a small Confederate cavalry picket 3 miles 
south of Rixeyville ford. Rather than run the chance of engaging a 
large reserve Sargent withdrew. One Confederate was reported 
killed. 



742 The Union Army 

Rixeyville Ford, Va., Sept. 2, 1863. Pickets of 2nd Cavalry Divi- 
sion, Army of the Potomac. Col. J. Irwin Gregg in reporting cav- 
alry operations in Virginia, stated tliat his pickets at or near Rixey- 
ville ford were attacked by some 200 Confederates. The pickets 
were all captured, but the reserve, which was also attacked, suc- 
ceeded in repulsing the enemy. 

Roanoke, Mo., Sept. 6, 1862. Detachment of Enrolled Missouri 
Militia. Brig.-Gen. Lewis Merrill reported from Hudson, Mo. as 
follows: "Capt. J. W. Baird, with a few of Merrill's horse and some 
Enrolled militia attacked guerrilla camp south of Roanoke yesterday, 
dispersing them, killing 4, wounding several, capturing 3 prisoners, 
some horses, arms, etc. Our loss is Capt. Baird, Merrill's horse, 
mortally wounded, since dead. No other casualties." 

Roanoke, Mo., Sept. 10, 1864. Detachment of 6th Missouri State 
Militia Cavalry. Maj. Austin A. King, Jr., commanding the detach- 
ment, came upon Holtzclaw's command east of Roanoke. The 
guerrillas, who numbered about 60, were soon put to flight and in the 
running fight of 5 miles which followed 6 of them were killed and a 
Slumber of their horses captured. The militia detachment had 2 
men wounded. 

Roanoke Island, N. C, Feb. 8, 1862. Part of Gen. Burnside's 
Army and Goldsborough's Fleet. Roanoke island is bounded by the four 
sounds, Albemarle on the north, Roanoke on the east, Pamlico on the 
south and Croatan on the west, the last named separating it from 
the mainland. In the early part of 1862 it was held by the Con- 
federates, who had erected three forts on the western side of the 
island to guard Croatan sound. Near the north end, at Weir's point, 
was Fort Huger, mounting 12 guns ; about 2 miles below on Pork point 
was Fort Bartow mounting 9 guns; some 1,200 yards south of Fort 
Huger was Fort Blanchard with 4 guns. All the guns were 32- 
pounders, except one 68-pounder at Fort Bartow and 2 of the same 
caliber at Huger. At Ballast point, on the east side of the island 
was a 2-gun battery, known as Fort Ellis, to prevent the landing of 
troops in the vicinity of Shallowbag bay, and near the center of the 
island was a 3-gun battery, stationed across the road, facing southward 
and flanked by earthworks for a quarter of a mile on each side. 
At Redstone point, on the mainland opposite Fort - Huger, was another 
fortification called Fort Forrest, which mounted seven 24-pounders. 
A post report, made ten days before the attack, stated that the de- 
fense of the island was forty 32-pounders, 7 rifled guns, and five days' 
ammunition. According to Confederate reports the effective force on 
the island numbered 1.434 nien of the 8th, 17th and 31st N. C. and 
46th and 59th Va., under command of Col. H. M. Shaw. Brig.-Gen. 
Ambrose E. Burnside, commanding the Department of North Caro- 
lina, selected for the expedition against the island his ist. 2nd and 
3d brigades, respectively commanded by Brig.-Gens. John G. Foster, 
Jesse L. Reno and John G. Parke. This force, with the ist N. Y. 
marine artillery and Co. B, 99th N. Y., was embarked on transports 
at Hatteras inlet on the morning of the 5th and started for the 
island. The transports were accompanied by the gunboats Picket, 
Huzzar, Pioneer, Vidette, Ranger, Lancer and Chasseur, and were 
preceded by the fleet under Flag-Officer L. M. Goldsborough, consist- 
ing of the gunboats Stars and Stripes, Louisiana, Hetzel, Under- 
writer, Delaware, Commodore Perry. Valley City. Commodore Bar- 
ney, Hunchback, Southfield, Morse, Whitehead, Lockwood, Brincker, 
Seymour, Ceres, Putman. Shawsheen and Granite. At the south end 
of Croatan sound is a group of small islands known as the Marshes. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 743 

This point was reached on the forenoon of the 6th, but owing 
to a heavy fog the attempt to pass through the narrow channel was 
postponed until the next morning. At 9 a. m. on the 7th the fleet got 
under way and passed through the channel, closely followed by the 
transports and army gunboats. An hour and a half later the fore- 
most of the vessels came within sight of 8 Confederate gunboats 
drawn up in line behind a double row of piles and sunken vessels 
stretching across the main channel of the sound on a line running 
from Fort Forrest toward Fort Bartow, and by 11 o'clock the leading 
gunboats, the Confederate fleet and the guns of Fort Bartow were 
engaged in a spirited bombardment. This continued until after 4 
p. m., when 5 of the enemy's vessels, apparently seriously injured, 
withdrew behind Fort Huger, where the troops on board of them 
were landed. About 5 o'clock the Confederate batteries and boats 
again opened fire, but in a short time the gun boats were forced to 
retire, one of them, the Forrest, in a disabled condition, taking refuge 
under the guns at Redstone point. At the beginning of the action 
the transports anchored some 3 miles in the rear of the fleet and 
preparations were made for landing. Ashby's landing, the place which 
had been selected, was found to be in possession of a detachment of 
the enemy, and Gen. Foster, who had charge of this part of the 
operations, directed his course toward the Hammond house. Here 
some of his men were put ashore and moved against the enemy at 
Ashby's. At the same time the Delaware drew up and sent a few 11- 
inch shrapnel into the Confederates at that point, causing them 
to withdraw in some haste. By 10 p. m. the greater portion of the 
12,000 land forces were on the island, bivouacked about a mile and a 
half from the 3-gun battery, which was to be the first point of at- 
tack. Early on the morning of the 8th the troops moved forward 
in three columns — Foster in the center, with the 23d, 25th and 27th Mass. 
and loth Conn.; Reno on the left, with the 51st N. Y., gth N. J. and 51st 
Pa., and Parke on the right with the 4th and 5th R. I. and 9th N. Y. In 
front of the battery the road was a narrow causeway through an al- 
most impassable swamp, the trees having been cut down for a distance 
of 700 yards to give a clear sweep to the guns. Foster's advance, the 
25th Mass., drove in the enemy's pickets and followed them on the 
run to the edge of the clearing. Foster then deployed his brigade in 
line of battle and brought up 6 light Dahlgren howitzers to reply to 
the guns of the battery. As soon as these dispositions were made 
the brigade advanced directly upon the enemy's works. Simultan- 
eously Reno worked his way through the swamp and the mass of 
fallen trees on the left until he reached a point where he could take 
the enemy in flank, Parke executing a similar movement on the right 
of the road. Here the obstacles were so great as to cause serious 
delay, and seeing that the enemy was beginning to waver under 
Reno's attack, the order was given for the 9th N. Y. to turn to the 
left and charge directly up the road. "Fix bayonets and charge!" 
rang out the voice of Col. Rush C. Hawkins as soon as he received 
the order, and with a yell the regiment rushed up the road directly 
in the face of the enemy's fire. But the Confederates did not wait 
for the charge. Before the New Yorkers could reach the intrench- 
ments they abandoned everything and fled in confusion toward the 
north end of the island. Just at this juncture the 24th Mass. arrived 
fresh on the field and took up the pursuit. The 4th R. T. and loth 
Conn, were sent to attack Fort Bartow on the rear, but it was found 
evacuated, the garrison having joined in the retreat. Fort Huger 
was also abandoned and the entire Confederate force was concen- 
trated in two camps near the north end of the island, where, after a 



744 The Union Army 

slight resistance, it surrendered. Burnside reported the number of 
prisoners as 159 officers and over 2,500 men. In addition to these 
Shaw reported a loss of 23 killed, 58 wounded and 62 missing. Dur- 
ing the action reinforcements came to the enemy, arriving just in 
time to become prisoners of war. The Union loss in the land forces 
was 2)7 killed, 214 wounded and 12 missing; in the navy, 6 killed, \J 
wounded and 2 missing. Winter quarters for 4,000 men, 42 pieces of 
artillery, a large amount of ammunition for the same, 3,000 stands of 
small arms, and a large quantity of lumber, utensils, etc.. fell into 
Federal hands. But the greatest advantage gained by the capture 
of Roanoke island was its strategic importance as a coaling station 
and a base from which to operate against the rest of the coast. 

Roanoke Station, Va., June 25, 1864. (See Wilson's Raid, Peters- 
burg, Va.) 

Roan's Tan- Yard, Mo., Jan. 8, 1862. Detachment of the ist Iowa, 
1st and 2nd Missouri and 4th Ohio Cavalry. The detachment, num- 
bering about 500 men and commanded by Maj. Torrence of the ist 
la., was engaged in scouting in the vicinity of Silver creek. Learning 
that a Confederate recruiting camp had been established at Roan's 
tan-yard by Col. Poindexter, Torrence determined to break it up. 
The camp was in a strong position, protected by ravines and thick 
underbrush. When within 4 miles of the tan-yard the following dis- 
positions were made: Maj. Hubbard, with his battalion of the 2nd 
Mo. and Capt. Foster's company of the 4th Ohio, was to lead the 
attack and draw the enemy's fire, when the ist la. and part of the 
1st Mo. were to charge the camp, mounted if possible, and if not, on 
foot with the revolver and saber. At the same time Maj. Hunt, with 
three companies of the 2nd Mo. armed with carbines, was to attack 
from another direction. Tlie plan worked successfully, the pickets were 
rapidly driven in and after a iight of 40 minutes the enemy was com- 
pletely routed and driven from his camp, with a loss in killed and 
wounded estimated by Torrence at 80 to 100, and 28 captured. The 
Union loss was 4 killed. In the camp were captured 60 wagons, 160 
horses, 105 tents. 200 stands of arms, 80 kegs of powder, and a large 
quantity of clothing, blankets, etc. The strength of Poindexter's force 
was estimated at from 900 to 1,000 men. 

Roberts' Ford, La., May 2, 1863. (See Grierson's Raid.) 

Robertson's Ford, Va., Sept. 15. 1863. ist Brigade, 3d Cavalry 
Division, Army of the Potomac. This affair was an incident of the 
Federal advance from the Rapidan to the Rappahannock. The pick- 
ets of Col. H. E. Davies' brigade were driven back at Robertson's 
ford and the Confederates succeeded in making a crossing. Rein- 
forcements were brought up and the enemy was compelled to retire 
across the stream. No casualties were reported. 

Robertson's Ford, Va., Sept. 22,. 1863. ist and 5th Michigan Cav- 
alry. While Buford's cavalry division was returning from a recon- 
naissance to the south side of the Rapidan river, the ist Mich, under 
Lieut. -Col. Peter Stagg acted as rear-guard, skirmishing with the 
enemy all the way from Culpeper Court House until the division 
halted at Robertson's ford, when Stagg, who was some distance be- 
hind the main body, was subjected to several sharp attacks in quick 
succession. Each direct attack was repulsed and the enemy then 
tried a flank movement, when Stagg was informed that the column 
had moved and started to follow. He had scarcely put his men in 
motion when the enemy charged out of the woods on his right. 
The 1st and 2nd squadrons formed in line on the right of the road 
and checked the assault, but the rear-guard, consisting of a lieutenant 
and 13 men, was cut off and captured. The two squadrons then fell 



Cyclopedia of Battles 745 

back slowly, skirmishing with the enemy through the woods until 
within sight of the ford, when part of the 5th Mich, came to Stagg's 
support and the artillery began shelling the woods, which caused the 
Confederates to retire. The enemy's loss was not learned. Besides 
the 14 men captured Stagg had 3 men wounded. 

Robertson's River, Va., Oct. i, 1863. A Confederate report tells 
of an attack by 44 men under a lieutenant upon a camp of a Federal 
picket, in which i of the 10 Union soldiers was killed, i wounded 
and I captured, besides 8 horses, 9 saddles and bridles, 4 sabers and 
4 pistols. Federal reports make no mention of the affair. 

Robertson's Tavern, Va., Nov. 2T, 1863. (See Mine .Run, Va., 
Nov. 26-Dec. 2, 1863.) 

Robertsville, S. C, Jan. 29, 1865. 2nd Brigade, ist Division, 20th 
Army Corps. During the march through the Carolinas the 20th corps 
approached Robertsville on this date to find the place occupied by a 
considerable body of Confederate cavalry. Jackson's division was 
in advance, and Gen. Hawley, commanding the 2nd brigade, was 
orered to dislodge the enemy. Hawley deployed the 3d Wis. infantry 
as skirmishers and after a sharp skirmish succeeded in driving the 
Confederates back to and through the town. The Wisconsin regiment 
had 3 men wounded. The enemy's casualties were not learned. 

Robinson's Mills, Miss., Oct. 17, 1863. Part of the isth and 17th 
Army Corps. After the Confederates had been driven from Bogue 
Chitto creek, in Gen. McPherson's expedition from Messinger's ferry 
on the Big Black river toward Canton, Col. E. F. Winslow pursued 
them on the Vernon road with his cavalry. At Robinson's mills the 
enemy was encountered in force, with 2 pieces of artillery in position. 
McPherson hurried Leggett's brigade to the assistance of Winslow, 
the enemy was driven back and the mills destroyed. (See Livingston 
Road.) 

Rocheport, Mo., June i, 1863. 9th Missouri State Militia Cavalry. 
Two companies of this regiment, under Capt. Reeves Leonard, came 
upon a band of guerrillas posted in a pasture on the farm of one 
Jones 3 miles northeast of Rocheport. Leonard attacked and in 20 
minutes had routed and driven the enemy, who had 2 men killed and 
a number wounded. 

Rocheport, Mo., June 18, 1863. Detachment of 9th Missouri State 
Militia Cavalry. This affair was a skirmish between 100 guerrillas 
under Jackman and Rucker and 40 men of the 9th Mo. The Federals 
were victorious, killing and wounding several of the enemy and 
routing the remainder. 

Rocheport, Mo., Aug. 28, 1864. Detachment of 4th Missouri State 
Militia Cavalry. Capt. Joseph Parke, with 44 men, crossed the river 
at Boonville in an expedition against the outlaw Holtzclaw and his 
men. Four miles from Rocheport 2 of the guerrillas were met, i of 
whom was wounded, and a mile farther on Parke was attacked in 
the rear by 100 guerrillas. After a fight of 15 minutes the Federals 
were compelled to withdraw, leaving 7 dead on the field. In addi- 
tion to those killed 2 were wounded and 3 missing. Of the killed 4 
were scalped and i was hanged and scalped. The outlaws had 6 
killed and 2 wounded. 

Rocheport, Mo., Sept. 3, 1864. Missouri State Militia. Brig.-Gen. 
Clinton B. Fisk, commanding the District of North Missouri, report- 
ing from Glasgow under date of Sept. 4, says: "Twelve of the 3d 
cavalry. Mo. state militia, were surprised and killed near Rocheport 
yesterday. Maj. Leonard killed 6 of Anderson's gang, taking from 
their dead bodies 30 revolvers and capturing 7 horses. Another party 
killed 4 of the same gang and captured 25 horses." 



746 The Union Army 

Rocheport, Mo., Sept. 23-24, 1864. 3d Missouri State Militia. One 
hundred men of the 3d Mo. were attacked 8 miles north of Rocheport 
by 300 Confederates, under the guerrilla leader Anderson, and 12 
Union men were killed after they had surrendered. The enemy cap- 
tured all the camp and garrison equipage, quartermaster's supplies, etc 

Rockcastle Hills, Ky., Oct. 21, 1861. Brig.-Gen. A. Schoepf's Bri- 
gade, Department of the Cumberland. On the morning of the 21st 
7,000 Confederates, under Brig.-Gen. F. K. Zollicoffer, attacked 
Schoepf's brigade at Camp Wildcat, on Rockcastle hills. The fight 
was severe for a time, but the enemy was finally repulsed after having 
sustained a loss of 11 in killed and missing and 42 wounded. The 
Federal loss was 4 killed and 20 wounded. 

Rock Creek Ford, Tenn., July 2, 1863. (See Elk River, same 
date.) 

Rock Creek Station, Dak. Ter., June 24-30. 1864. (See Seven- 
Mile Creek.) 

Rock Cut, Ala., April 22, 1863. (See Courtland, Expedition to.) 

Rocklish Gap, Va., Sept. 28, 1864. 3d Brigade, ist Cavalry Divi- 
sion, Army of the Shenandoah. The brigade, commanded by Col. 
Charles R. Lowell, was on picket duty from Rockfish gap to New 
Hope. At 5 p. m. the line was attacked at both points with infantry, 
cavalry and artillery. Finding himself outnumbered, Lowell fell back 
in good order to Waynesboro, where he joined the main body of the 
division. No casualties reported. 

Rock House, W. Va., Feb. 12, 1864. 14th Kentucky Infantry. 

Rockingham, N. C, March 7, 1865. Foragers of the 14th and 24th 
Army Corps and Kilpatrick's Cavalry. As the foraging parties ap- 
proached Rockingham they became engaged with Butler division of 
Hampton's cavalry. While the action was in progress Kilpatrick's 
advance arrived on the scene, and a portion of the 2nd Ky. and 9th 
Pa. cavalry, under Capt. Boyle, joined the infantry, driving the Con- 
federates from the town, which was occupied by the Union forces 
about 10 a. m. No losses reported. 

Rockport, Ark., March 25, 1864. (See Camden, Ark., Expedition to.) 

Rockville, Md., June 28, 1863. Wagon train of the Army of the 
Potomac. As an incident of the Gettysburg campaign Fitzhugh Lee 
captured a Federal train of 150 wagons at Rockville. Two brigades 
of Federal cavalry were immediately sent in pursuit, but without 
result. 

Rockville, Md., Sept. 22, 1863. nth New York Cavalry. 

Rockville, Md., July 10, 1864. Detachments of i6th Pennsylvania 
and 8th Illinois Cavalry. Some 500 men of these two regiments, 
under Maj. William H. Fry, passed through Rockville at 11 a. m. 
Three miles from Rockville, at a small village called Gerrardsville, 
the Federal advance came upon the Confederate skirmishers and 
firing commenced at once. Seeing a long line of Confederate cavalry 
approaching. Fry slowly withdrew through Rockville to a hill a mile 
beyond the town, where he formed a skirmish line and held the 
enemy in check until they brought a battery to bear, when he was 
again compelled to withdraw. The casualties were not reported. 
The affair was an incident of operations in the Shenandoah valley. 

Rockville, Md., July 13, 1864. Cavalry of Hardin's Division, 22nd 
Army Corps. A little after noon the Confederate rear-guard passed 
through Rockville with the Union cavalry under Col. C. R. Lowell 
in close pursuit. The 2nd Mass. charged the town, but was over- 
powered and driven back. Lowell then established a strong dis- 
mounted skirmish line and checked a fierce charge of the Confeder- 
ates, holding them until they were reinforced, when he fell back 



Cyclopedia of Battles 747 

dbout 2 miles from Rockville, where he took up a strong position and 
held it until the next day when the pursuit was renewed. No casual- 
ties reported. 

Rockville, Ohio, July 23, 1863. A despatch from Gov. David Tod, 
of Ohio, to Gen. Burnside, during Morgan's Ohio raid, contains the 
following extract from a despatch from the military committee at 
Zanesville: "Our forces have been fighting Morgan at Rockville, in 
this county, and since 2 o'clock, with success." 

Rocky Bluff, Mo., Aug. 7, 1862. Detached Troops, Department of 
Kansas. Late on the 3d Lieut. -Col. John T. Burris left Leavenworth, 
with two companies of the 8th Kan. infantry, part of the 3d Wis. 
cavalry and two sections of the post battery, for a reconnaissance 
into Platte county. Mo. When near Platte City on the evening of 
the 6th he learned of a guerrilla camp at Rocky bluff, 5 miles above 
on the south side of the Platte river. At 11 o'clock that night he 
sent the cavalry up the north side of the river to seize the bridge and 
thus cut off retreat, while at 3 a. m. on the 7th the infantry and bat- 
tery moved up the south side. The camp was attacked at snnrise 
and was a complete surprise to the guerrillas, who fled in all directions 
after firing a few desultory shots. Two Union men were wounded, 
and the enemy lost 3 or more killed, several wounded and 6 captured. 
Burris then burned three houses in the vicinity, together with all the 
equipage of the camp, and returned to Leavenworth. 

Rocky Creek, Miss., June 26, 1863. Detachment of 5th Illinois 
Cavalry. Confederate reports tell of a raid on Brookhaven by the 
Federals and the pursuit by a party of 35 Confederates under Lieut. 
W. M. Wilson. The latter managed to get in advance of the Union 
raiders near Ellisville and waited to receive them. When they were 
within a few paces the Confederates opened fire and 4 were instantly 
killed and 5 wounded. The rest scattered, but later returned and sur- 
rendered. There were yj men in the Federal command. Union re- 
ports do not mention the affair. 

Rocky Creek Bridge, Ga., April 20, 1865. (See Spring Hill.) 
Rocky Creek Church, Ga., Dec. 2, 1864. 2nd Division, 14th Army 
Corps, and Kilpatrick's Cavalry. The infantry division, commanded 
by Brig.-Gen. Absalom Baird and preceded by the cavalry, moved 
on the Waynesboro road, the object being to cover the movements of 
the Union troops then marching in several columns on Millen. 
Rocky creek was reached about 10 a. m. and the enemy found posted 
in considerable force behind barricades on the opposite side of the 
stream. Kilpatrick halted until Baird came up, when a charge of the 
74th Ind. infantry and the 3d Ky. and 5th Ohio cavalry routed the 
enemy, driving him toward Waynesboro. The cavalry kept up the 
pursuit for some distance. No losses reported. 

Rocky Face Ridge, Ga., Feb. 24-26, 1864. (See Dalton. same date.) 
Rocky Face Ridge, Ga., May 8-1 1, 1864. Armies of the Cumber- 
land, Tennessee and Ohio. Rocky Face ridge is an elevation running 
north and south about 2 miles west of Dalton. Northwest of the 
town is a break in the ridge known as Buzzard Roost or Mill Creek 
gap, through which runs the Western & Atlantic railroad. Near the 
south end of the ridge is Dug gap, so called from the excavations 
made in the construction of the Lafayette and Dalton road. South 
of Rocky Face, running in the same general direction, is Chattoo- 
gata mountain, and between a western spur of this range and Horn 
mountain is a long, narrow valley known as Snake Creek gap, the 
southern end of which is almost west of Resaca. After the Federal 
occupation of Tunnel Hill Sherman decided it was impracticable to 
strike Dalton in front, as it was covered by Rocky Face, where John- 



748 The Union Army 

ston had a force strongly intrenched in Buzzard Roost gap and 
Hood's corps occupied the crest. Sherman therefore ordered Mc- 
Pherson to move rapidly from his position at Lee & Gordon's mills 
via Ship's gap and Villanow through Snake Creek gap on Resaca, or 
some point on the railroad below Dalton. After breaking the rail- 
road he was to take a strong defensive position at Snake Creek gap 
and be ready to strike the enemy on the flank as he retreated. To 
cover this movement Geary was ordered to make a demonstration 
against Dug gap and Thomas was ordered to threaten the enemy in 
front. Accordingly Howard and Palmer were directed to make a 
demonstration against the Confederate works in Mill Creek gap and 
at the same time endeavor to put a force on the ridge. 

Early on the morning of the 8th Newton sent Harker's brigade 
up the north end of Rocky Face, forcing back the enemy about 
three-fourths of a mile during the day, and establishing a signal sta- 
tion. Stanley's division of the 4th corps advanced in line of battle 
on the west side of the ridge to within 500 yards of it, but was seri- 
ously annoyed by a flank fire from the enemy's intrenchments on 
some hills at the entrance to Buzzard Roost gap. In the afternoon 
Davis' division of the 14th corps joined with Stanley to attack these 
works, and under cover of a well-directed fire from Simonson's bat- 
teries charged the hills, driving the enemy back to his main line of 
intrenchments. In the meantime Wood had pushed a strong skirmish 
line, well supported, as far as possible up the western slope and kept 
up his demonstration there until noon of the 12th, but failed to 
drive the enemy from his position on the crest. Geary reached the 
valley west of Dug gap and placed McGill's battery of 3-inch Rod- 
man guns in a position to command the crest, left three regiments 
in support, and formed the rest of his command for the advance. 
The 119th N. Y. was deployed as skirmishers, Buschbeck's brigade 
occupied the right and Candy's the left, each in two lines of battle, 
and at 3 p. m. the lines moved forward. The ascent would have 
been difficult under the most favorable circumstances. Now Con- 
federate skirmishers were thickly posted behind rocks and trees on 
the steep slope and kept up an incessant and destructive fire on the 
advancing Federals. Geary's lines pressed steadily forward until the 
foot of the palisades was reached, where a halt of a few minutes was 
made to give the men opportunity to regain their breath, and then 
charged up to the summit. Here they were met by a galling fire 
from a second line of works, which had hitherto been invisible, and 
to save themselves fell back out of range of the guns. Another 
assault was made, but with no better success. Geary then ordered 
McGill to move his battery to a cleared knoll near the base of the 
ridge and keep up a steady fire on the enemy's position. Under 
cover of this fire the 33d N. J. was ordered to ascend the ridge about 
half a mile to the right and strike the enemy on the flank. The 
attempt was gallantly made, but owing to the precipitous formation 
the regiment was forced to move obliquely to the left, where a few 
crevices were found that would admit two or three men abreast, and 
through these the advance managed to reach the summit. Their 
loud cheers were the signal for another assault, but so few could 
gain the crest at a time that they were easily overwhelmed and 
driven back. 

McPherson reached Snake Creek gap, where he surprised a bri- 
gade of cavalry, then moved on to within a mile of Resaca, which place 
he found too strong to be carried by direct assault, and fell back to 
the gap. News of this reached Geary just after his last assault. It 
was then dusk and, as the object of the demonstration had been 



Cyclopedia of Battles 749 

gained, Geary withdrew to a safe position in the valley and in- 
trenched. He reported his losses in this action as being 49 killed, 
257 wounded and 51 missing. 

During the night of the 8th Newton sent one gun of Battery M, 
1st 111. artillery, to the top of the ridge and pushed the remainder of 
his command to the crest to reinforce Marker. The summit was so 
narrow, however, that the men could never move more than four 
abreast, often in single file, and the way was so obstructed by bowl- 
ders, etc., that the advance was necessarily slow. At daybreak 
Harker opened fire with his piece of artillery and followed this by a 
charge, driving back the enemy about a mile to his main line of in- 
trenchments. In the meantime Schofield had arrived on the ground 
and on the 9th made a strong demonstration against Johnston's 
right as a diversion in favor of the operations at Snake Creek gap. 
Schofield's line was formed with Judah on the right. Cox on the left, 
and Hovey in reserve covering Cox. In this order the corps moved 
steadily forward, forced back the Confederate skirmish lines, captured 
several lines of barricades and finally drove the enemy into his main 
intrenchments. To assist this movement Newton sent Wagner's 
brigade to attack the enemy's position on the eastern slope of the 
ridge. Wagner advanced until he found himself confronted by an 
impassable chasm, on the opposite side of which was a strong line 
of fortifications, from which a galling fire was poured into his lines, 
compelling him to fall back. In the afternoon McCook's cavalry 
division became hotly engaged on Schofield's left and Hovey was 
sent to his support, routing the Confederates and ending all danger 
from that quarter. Heavy skirmishing was kept up all day on the 
west side of the ridge, in which a number of men were wounded, but 
few were killed. On the loth Thomas sent Hooker's corps and 
Kilpatrick's cavalry to the support of McPherson at Snake Creek 
gap. Skirmishing was continued at all points during the day, but 
with less vigor than on the day previous. Sherman now decided to 
move his main body to the rear of Johnston. Leaving Howard's 
corps and some cavalry to watch Dalton the remainder of the army 
took up its march on the nth via Snake Creek gap on Resaca (q.v.). 
The custom of the different commanders of Sherman's army of 
making returns of their casualties for a given time renders returns of 
losses at Rocky Face ridge unavailable. 

Rocky Ford, Miss., June 20, 1863. (See Mud Creek Bottom, same 
date.) 

Rocky Gap, W. Va., Aug. 26-27, 1863. 4th Separate Brigade, 8th 
Army Corps. This affair was the last and the most sanguinary of 
the engagements incident to the raid of Brig.-Gen. William W. 
Averell in West Virginia. On the morning of the 26th the column 
advanced on White Sulphur Springs with four companies, two each 
of the 2nd and 8th W. Va. mounted infantry, under Capt. von Koenig, 
in advance and the 14th Pa. cavalry and the 3d W. Va. mounted 
infantry in the rear. It was necessary for the column to proceed 
through a narrow pass which debouched into a valley a mile long, on 
each side of which were rugged bluffs. When the opening of the 
pass was reached the enemy's artillery opened upon the head of the 
column. A portion of the 8th W. Va. was thrown to the left and a 
part of the 2nd to the right, both dismounted, and Ewing's battery 
was placed in position. The enemy advanced upon the battery, 
which, supported only by the advance guard, repulsed the attack 
and actually moved forward to obtain better position. When the 
fight commenced the rear was 4 miles back, but it was hurr'ed up, 
the 14th Pa. was deployed to the right and 3d W. Va. to the left The 



750 The Union Army 

Confederates then gave way and attempted to assume another posi- 
tion half a mile to the rear, with their right resting upon a rugged 
prominence and the center and left protected by a hastily constructed 
barricade of fence rails. Ewing lost one of his guns through its 
bursting, but the other five were brought to within 600 yards of the 
barricade and Averell advanced his whole line. Gibson's battalion 
was thrown into a house and the surrounding enclosures, in 
order to rake the enemy's center, but a regiment advancing 
upon the place compelled them to abandon it, setting fire to 
it so that it could not afford further protection. The Con- 
federates clung like grim death to the hill on the Federal right and 
it was only by the hardest kind of fighting that any advance at all 
could be made. The fight developed into a sharpshooters' battle at 
100 yards. About 4 p. m. Averell resolved to make another attempt 
to dislodge the enemy and sent word to both wings to advance 
when a charge should be made in the center. Capt. Bird, with a de- 
tachment of the 14th Pa., made the charge, advancing in gallant 
style until he came to the barricade, but for some reason the order 
had been misunderstood and only 100 men advanced on the right 
and none came up on the left. The result was the ultimate repulse 
of those who did go in, though the assault on the right drove the 
enemy from that part of the barricade. Ammunition had run low 
by this time and darkness was coming on, but Averell was expecting 
Scammon to reinforce him from the west and was reluctant to with- 
draw. The lines remained the same all night, but in the morning 
it was apparent that the Confederates had been reinforced, and as 
Scammon had not yet arrived, Averell immediately began his prepa- 
rations to withdraw. By 10:30 a. m. everything was in readiness, the 
command to retire was given and witiiin three-quarters of an hour 
the column was moving off in good order, the rear-guard at the bar- 
ricades erected during the night repulsing two attempts of the enemy 
to pursue. Averell's loss in this affair was 26 killed, 125 wounded and 
67 captured or missing. Fifty-seven of the wounded were captured. 
The Confederate casualties amounted to 20 killed, 129 wounded and 13 
missing. The affair is called White Sulphur Springs in the Confederate 
reports. 

Rocky Hock Creek, N. C, March 24, 1863. (See Winfield, March 
23) 

Rocky Mount, N. C, July 18-24, 1863. Potter's Expedition. Brig.- 
Gen. Edward E. Potter commanded the expedition, in the initial por- 
tion of which he had cooperation on the part of the brigade of Col. 
James Jourdan. who had command of the 25th and 27th Mass. and 
158th N. Y. infantry. New Berne was the base of the expedition 
and Jourdan crossed the Neuse with orders to proceed to Swift 
creek. The following morning Potter crossed with his forces, con- 
sisting of the 3d N. Y. cavalry, three companies of the 12th N. Y. 
cavalry, one company of North Carolina cavalry, two companies of 
Mix's new regiment, and two sections of mountain howitzers. Jour- 
dan was overtaken at Swift creek, and when Potter moved with 
the cavalry of Greenville, at daybreak of July 19, Jourdan was in- 
structed to return to New Berne after making a feint of an advance on 
Kinston. Within 12 miles of Greenville Potter captured a picket post 
of 15 men, whose tents and stores were destroyed. Upon arriving 
at Greenville the bridge across Tar river was destroyed. A detach- 
ment under Maj. Ferris Jacobs, Jr., was sent forward, July 20, to 
Rocky Mount, where he captured and burned a locomotive and train, 
destroyed the railroad bridge and trestlework, the county bridge, a 
large cotton mill, a government flour mill, 4 stores, a machine shop 



Cyclopedia of Battles 751 

filled with ordnance stores, 2 trains of government wagons and 
various other supplies and stores. The main column in the mean- 
while moved on to Tarboro and charged into the town about 8 a. m., 
July 20. Here were destroyed a substantial iron-clad which was in 
process of construction, 2 steamboats, some railroad cars, and a con- 
siderable amount of stores of varied order. In the meanwhile Maj. 
Floyd Clarkson had made a charge down the road to Plamilton and 
received a volley from the enemy posted in the wood. He returned 
with a loss of about 35 in killed, wounded and missing. At 5 p. m. 
the bridge over the Tar river was burned, and the entire column 
commenced the return by the same road, as the enemy was in con- 
siderable force on the opposite side of the river. From Sparta 
onward for a distance of about 4 miles a running skirmish was kept 
up, and a detour was made at Tyson's creek, where the enemy had 
secured a stronghold whose dislodgment would occasion great delay. 
At dusk on the 21st the command charged into Scupperton, where a 
do^en prisoners were captured. Street's ferry was reached at noon 
of the 22d, and here the outposts were repeatedly attacked by the 
enemy during the afternoon and evening. Potter made requisition 
to New Berne for pontoons and light-draught steamers, shortly after 
the arrival of which the bridge was completed, enabling the command 
to cross the river and proceed to the respective camps. The prisoners 
and captured property were taken down the river by the steamers. 
In the expedition the total casualties were 2 killed, 19 wounded, and 
43 missing. 

Rocky Mount, S. C, Feb. 28, 1865. ist Brigade, ist Division, 14th 
Army Corps. The brigade, commanded by Bvt. Brig.-Gen. H. C. 
Hobart, reached Rocky Mount, on the Catawba river, on the 26th, 
but was compelled to wait for several days for the swollen waters 
to subside before a crossing could be effected During this time But- 
ler's Confederate cavalry in considerable force was constantly scout- 
ing about the camp, cutting off foraging: parties, etc. On the 28th 
a sharp attack was made on the Union pickets, just as the command 
commenced crossing the river. Hobart threw the 94th Ohio and 
104th Illinois to the rear to cover the crossing, and these two regi- 
ments held the enemy in check until ordered to withdraw and join 
the main body of the brigade on the opposite bank. No casualties 
reported. 

Rocky Run, N. C, Nov. 4, 1863. Detachment of 12th New York 
Cavalry. A lieutenant and 3 men returning from a picket post near 
Rocky run were ordered to halt by a band of about 20 Confederates. 
The Federals made a dash, and cut their way through the enemy's line 
and escaped, the lieutenant being wounded in the breast. Parties sent out 
in pursuit of the Confederates were unable to locate them. 

Rodgers' Crossing, Ark., Sept. 14, 1864. Detachment of ist Ar- 
kansas Cavalry. A detail of 99 men under Capt. John I. Worthing- 
ton was sent as escort to a mail train. On the 14th they left the 
train at Sugar creek and marched to Rodgers' crossing of the White 
river, where the Confederates were concentrating to attack the train. 
Worthington charged and dispersed the enemy, killing 5, wounding 
several and capturing a lieutenant. 

Rodgers' Plantation, Ark., April 25, 1865. Detachment of 13th 
Illinois Cavalry. This affair was a slight skirmish between 26 men 
of the 13th 111. and a Confederate squad under Lieut. Dixon. It 
resulted in the capture of 2 Confederates, the serious wounding of 
another and the dispersal of the remainder of the party. 

Rodney, Miss., Dec. 17 and 24, 1863. ist Mississippi Marine Bri- 
gade, Cavalry and Infantry. 



753 The Union Army 

Rodney, Miss., March 4, 1864. Cavalry and Infantry, Mississippi 
Marine Brigade. 

Rodman's Point, N. C, April 1-5, 1863. Union Gunboats. The 
bombardment of the Confederate batteries on Rodman's point on 
these dates was part of the operations during the siege of Wash- 
ington. (See Washington.) 

Rogers' Gap, Tenn., June 10, 1862. 7th Division, Army of the 
Ohio. Brig.-Gen. George W. Morgan, commanding the division, 
reported from Parrott's, Tenn., as follows : "My advance g^ard occupies 
Rogers' gap, and will probably descend into the valley tomorrow. 
Today our pickets had two skirmishes with those of the enemy, in 
which he sustained some loss in killed and wounded. On our side 
there were no casualties." 

Rogers' Gap, Tenn., Aug. 31, 1862. Detachment of the ist Ten- 
nessee Infantry. Capt. Myers and Lieut. Rogers, with 60 picked men, 
left the Federal works at Cumberland gap on the 29th, under orders 
to harass the enemy and if possible intercept despatches. At day- 
light on the morning of the 31st the detachment struck Capt. Rhodes' 
company of Confederate cavalry on the south side of Rogers' gap, 
killed 6, wounded 6, and captured 19, together with 30 horses and 
equipments and a number of carbines. After this exploit the com- 
mand returned to Cumberland gap, where it arrived that evening without 
the loss of a man. 

Rogers' Gap, Tenn., Sept. 10, 1862. (See Big Creek Gap, same 
date.) 

Rogersville, Ala., May 13, 1862. Expedition under Brig.-Gen. 
James S. Negley. The expedition, consisting of the 79th and de- 
tachments of the 78th Pa., the ist Wis., the 35th and 38th Ind. in- 
fantry, and the 7th Pa., 5th Ky. and Maj. Owsley's battalion of 
cavalry, together with some artillery, left Pulaski on the 12th. On 
the afternoon of the 13th the enemy's pickets at Rogersville were 
driven in and gave the alarm to the Confederates in the town. The 
Federal cavalry followed to the river, where the enemy was crossing 
at Lamb's ferry, and fired upon a boat load of cavalry. The enemy 
on the opposite bank responded, keeping up a fire from some log 
buildings until a section of artillery drove them from their position. 
Negley had i man wounded, and, while the enemy's loss was not 
reported, it was undoubtedly heavier. 

Rogersville, Ky., Aug. 29, 1862. (See Richmond.) 

Rogersville, Ky., July 27, 1863. (See Richmond, Ky., July 28.) 

Rogersville, Tenn., Nov. 6, 1863. Detachments of 7th Ohio Cav- 
alry. 2nd Tennessee Mounted Infantry and 2nd Illinois Battery. The 
garrison of Rogersville was attacked about sunrise of the 6th, an 
advance picket having been previously routed by the approaching 
Confederates, so that Col. Israel Garrard knew of their proximity 
and had made preparations to withdraw, but before he could do so 
the enemy surrounded him. After fighting for some time the larger 
part of the garrison was captured. Union reports are rather indefi- 
nite as to numbers, but Maj. -Gen. E. Ransom, Jr., commanding 
the Confederates, states that he took 850 prisoners, 4 pieces of artil- 
lery, 2 stands of colors, 60 wagons and about 1,000 animals, and had 
2 men killed and 6 or 8 wounded. 

Rogersville, Tenn., Aug. 21, 1864. 13th Tennessee Cavalry. Col. 
William H. Ingerton. with his regiment, surprised a Confederate 
detachment at Rogersville at daylight, and the result of the fight 
which ensued was the killing of 23 of the enemy and the capture 
of 35- 

Rogersville, Tenn., Oct. 8. 1864. A report of Brig.-Gen. J. C. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 753 

Vaughn, of the Confederate army, states that a portion of his com- 
mand met a Federal detachment at Rogersville, killed lo of them 
and wounded several. Union reports do not mention the affair. 

Rogersville, Tenn., Dec. 21, 1864. (See Big Creek.) 

Rolla, Mo., Aug. i, 1864. 5th Missouri Militia Cavalry. 

Rolla, Mo., March 24, 1865. Detachment of 5th Missouri State 
Militia Cavalry. Seven men of the 5th Mo. were detailed as an 
escort for a government train from Waynesville to Rolla. When 7 
miles west of the latter place 3 of them went into a house for some 
purpose and the other 4 were surprised and compelled to surrender. 
The 3 in the house put up a stiff resistance when called upon to 
give themselves up and finally compelled the enemy to fly, releasing 
the 4 prisoners. 2 of whom were wounded in getting away. 

Rolling Fork, Miss., Sept. 22-23, 1864. Detachment of 3d U. S. 
Colored Cavalry. Maj. J. B. Cook with 330 men of the 3d U. S. 
colored cavalry, on the 22nd attacked the Confederate commands of 
Bradford and Montgomery, about 150 strong, near Rolling fork. The 
enemy was routed and pursued 15 miles to where they crossed the 
Sunflower river. Next day Cook met Capt. Sutton, a Confederate 
commissary, with 12 men driving 300 head of cattle. Eight of the 
escort were killed and Sutton and the other 4 captured. Two hun- 
dred of the cattle were brought into the Federal camp. Both affairs 
are incidents of an expedition from Vicksburg to Deer creek. 

Rolling Fork, Miss., Nov. 22, 1864. 3d U. S. or ist Mississippi 
Colored Cavalry. 

Rolling Prairie, Ark., Jan. 23, 1864. Detachment of nth Missouri 
Cavalry. Orderly Sergt. Isaac T. Jones and 24 men while carrying 
despatches were suddenly attacked on Rolling prairie by 60 guerrillas. 
Jones and 6 men were killed, 5 captured, who were afterward shot, 
and the balance escaped. 

Rolling Prairie, Ark., Feb. 4, 1864. 8th Missouri Militia Cavalry. 

Rome, Ga., May 15, 1864. (See Armuchee Creek.) 

Rome, Ga., May 17, 1864. 2nd Division, 14th Army Corps. When 
it was discovered on the morning of the i6th that the Confederates 
had evacuated Resaca, Gen. Sherman ordered Brig.-Gen. J. C. Davis 
to move with his division down the west bank of the Oostanaula to 
the mouth of Armuchee creek and cooperate with the cavalry in that 
vicinity. Davis reached the mouth of the creek, but finding no 
bridge across the river at that point, as had been supposed, decided 
to push on to Rome and try to secure the bridge there. Notifying 
Gen. Thomas of his intention, he moved toward Rome early on the 
17th. French's division had arrived in Rome on the i6th, and when 
he learned of Davis' approach sent Ector's brigade across the river, 
part of the command being placed in the works and the remainder 
thrown forward as skirmishers. Davis parked his trains about 8 
miles from the town, left two regiments as a guard and with the 
rest of the division pressed on in the hope of getting possession of 
the bridge. Mitchell's brigade, which was in the advance, drove in 
the enemy's cavalry until within range of the cannon on De Soto 
hill on the west side of the river. Davis made preparations for 
driving in the outposts in order to reconnoiter the enemy's works, 
but before his disposition of troops was fully made the enemy 
opened with a battery and at the same time a brigade of infantry 
advanced to attack. Dan McCook was ordered to move his brigade 
to the front and occupy a ridge to the left of Resaca road. Just in 
front of this was another ridge, offering advantages for a better and 
more extended line of battle, and McCook was ordered to advance 
and take possession of it. This movement was executed just in time 
Vol. VI— 18 



754 The Union Army 

to meet the enemy in about equal force ascending the opposite slope. 
Mitchell's brigade was promptly deployed on the right of the road, 
in supporting distance of McCook, and Morgan's was moved to 
the right to head off a tiank movement. Morgan moved promptly, 
drove back the Confederate skirmishers and formed his line along 
the Alabama road, close to the enemy's works. McCook and Mitchell 
soon repulsed the attack on their fronts and at dark the enemy was 
compelled to seek the shelter of his intrenchments. Davis now estab- 
lished his line with his right resting on the Coosa river and the left 
on the Oostanaula, to prevent either flank from being turned, and 
waited for daylight to renew the contest. During the night the Con- 
federates withdrew toward Cassville. The next morning Davis occu- 
pied the town, captured a large amount of commissary and quarter- 
master stores, hospital supplies, etc., and all sorts of ammunition — 
enough to last his command for two weeks. The Union loss at Rome 
was about 150 in killed and wounded. French reported his casualties 
as being about 100. 

Rome, Ga., Oct. lo-ii, 1864. 2nd Cavalry Division, Army of the 
Cumberland. During Hood's march northward he feinted on Rome 
and then turned to cross the Coosa river 11 miles below the town, on 
the loth. On the nth Brig.-Gen. Kenner Garrard with his cavalry 
division was hurried by Sherman across the Oostanaula to threaten 
Hood's flanks as he passed north. Garrard drove a Confederate cav- 
alry brigade into and beyond the Narrows leading into the Chattooga 
valley, capturing 2 field pieces and taking some prisoners. No other 
casualties were reported. 

Rome Cross Roads, Ga., May 16, 1864. i6th Army Corps. Pur- 
suant to orders from Brig.-Gen. Dodge, commanding the corps, the 
2nd division moved from Lay's ferry toward Calhoun on the morn- 
ing of the i6th, the 3d brigade in advance, the 2nd in the center and 
the 1st in the rear, each brigade being equipped with a battery. 
When near the Rome cross-roads the skirmishers of the advanced 
brigade came upon the enemy in some force and, although they were 
compelled to fall back in the face of superior numbers, they suc- 
ceeded in holding the enemy in check until the troops were placed in 
line with the 3d brigade on the right, the 2nd in the center (holding 
the road), and the ist on the left. A strong skirmish line was then 
pushed forward, supported by one regiment from each brigade, and 
took possession of a hill commanding the cross-roads, upon which a 
section of Battery B, ist Mich., and Battery I, ist Mo., were placed 
and opened fire on the enemy's skirmishers. Capt. Taylor was sent 
forward on the left with four companies of the 66th 111., with orders 
to move cautiously to the Rome road, which he was to seize and 
hold, if possible. He reached the road without opposition, but, either 
through misunderstanding his orders or his impetuosity, charged be- 
yond it. where he unmasked a considerable force of the enemy and 
was driven back across the road. The remainder of the 66th 111. and 
the 8ist Ohio were hurried forward to his support and the Confed- 
erates repulsed. The position was then held until 4 p. m. when the 
division was ordered to fall back a short distance and take position 
on the left of the 4th division, which had come up in the meantime, 
and here the corps remained until the following day, when it was 
ordered to move toward Adairsville. 

Romney, W. Va., June 13. t86i. nth Indiana Infantry. Col. Lew 
Wallace, commanding the regiment, entered report under date of 
June 14, from Camp McGinnis, stating that he had learned of the 
impressing of Union men and other oppression of loyal citizens by 
several hundred rebel troops quartered at Romney. To disperse 



Cyclopedia of Battles 755 

these troops he left Cumberhind on the night of the 12th, witli eight 
companies, about 500 men in all, and from New Creek Station 
marched over a fatiguing mountain route, arriving in the vicinity of 
Romney about 8 a. m. on the 13th. The chief obstacle in effecting 
entrance to the town was the crossing of a bridge over the south 
branch of the Potomac. The advance guard crossed the bridge on a 
run and was assaulted from a large house. The firing continued sev- 
eral minutes, when Wallace led a second company over the bridge 
and soon drove the enemy from the house mentioned. A battery sta- 
tioned on a hill near fled when the Union troops appeared, and the 
town was entirely deserted by its inhabitants, except a "legion of 
negroes." A number of tents, some surgical stores, etc., were secured 
and Maj. Isaac Vandever was captured. After thoroughly searching 
the town Wallace returned to Cumberland. He says of this action: 
"My return was forced, owing to the fact that there was not a mile on 
the road that did not ofifcr half a dozen positions for the ruin or 
rout of my regiment by a much smaller force." 

Romney, W. Va., Sept. 23-25, 1861. Confederate reports make men- 
tion of a Federal descent upon Romney commencing about 11 p. m. 
of the 23d, with demonstrations at both Hanging Rock pass and 
Mechanicsburg gap, 6 miles apart. Hanging Rock pass was forced 
on the 24th and the Union troops approached within a mile and a 
half of Romney. The Confederates retired to Hanging Rock and 
the Federals started in the direction of the enemy's train. At 8 a. m. 
of the 25th it was learned that they had occupied Romney and a 
Confederate force was immediately sent to drive them out. The 
movement was successfully executed and the Federals were followed 
for some distance. Confederate losses amounted to 5 men wounded, 
and their opponents to 50 or 80 killed and wounded. Union reports 
make no mention of the affair. 

Romney, W. Va., Oct. 26, 1861. Federal Troops under Brig.-Gen. 
B. F. Kelley. Gen. Kelley reported to Lieut. -Gen. Winfield Scott, 
under date of Oct. 28, from Camp Keys, Romney, stating that he 
had forthwith followed instructions to concentrate the available forces 
of his command on the line of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad at New 
Creek Station, 26 miles from Romney. This force consisted of a 
portion of the 7th, one company each of the 3d and 4th Va. infantry, 
nine companies of the 8th Ohio, and Ordnance Sergt. Nixon and 10 
men, who had volunteered for the occasion, with a 6-pounder gun. 
This detachment left New Creek Station at midnight of Friday, the 
25th, and were joined by nine companies of the 4th Ohio infantry, 
with a detachment of infantry, who had volunteered to man 2 guns, 
the whole being concentrated near the junction of the New Creek 
and Northwestern roads on the morning of the 2gth and thence 
moved toward Romney along the latter road. Col. Johns' regiment 
of the Maryland brigade was ordered to move from the mouth of 
Patterson's creek, by way of Frankfort and Springfield, and to occupy 
the Winchester road at 3 p. m., the hour at which Kelley with the 
main body was to attack in front, cutting the enemy off from retreat 
to Winchester. Johns, however, was repulsed at Wire bridge and 
was thus unable to get into position. At 2:15 p. m., when Kelley 
was within 6 miles of Romney, the enemy opened fire upon the head 
of the column, and the artillery was ordered forward to reply. Fur- 
ther movements are thus described in Kelley's report: "We then 
continued our march, with the artillery in front, to the mouth of 
Mechanicsburg gap, distant 3 miles from Romney, a position the 
natural strength of which is unsurpassed by any other in the country. 
Skirmishers having been thrown out on the right and left, the column 



756 The Union Army 

■was moved through the gap, without, however, receiving a shot. 
When the head of the column emerged from the pass it was found 
that the artillery of the enemy was strongly posted on the east side 
of the river, in a cemetery lot, on an eminence commanding the 
■entire western approaches to the town, and the infantry and dis- 
mounted cavalry occupied intrcnchments on the heights, commanding 
the bridge and the ford. Our artillery was then ordered to open 
fire upon them, which was promptly replied to by the rebels, and for 
about an hour a severe cannonade took place between the artillery." 
Kelley found that the enemy's guns could not be silenced and gave 
orders for the whole column of infantry to move forward, charge 
through the bridge and attack the Confederates in their intrcnch- 
ments. At the same time the cavalry was ordered to charge through 
the ford and under the bridge. Both movements were brilliantly 
executed and the enemy fled, after firing a few shots, the infantry 
throwing down their arms and dispersing in the woods and moun- 
tains. The cavalry and artillery were pursued by the Federal cavalry 
through the town and toward Winchester. They attempted to make 
a rally, but failed and were pursued along the Winchester road until 
all their artillery and baggage trains were captured. They were 
unable to even discharge or spike their pieces, which fell into the 
hands of their pursuers. The spoils of this raid included about 300 
stands of small arms, a large quantity of ammunition, camp equip- 
age, the entire baggage train and about 100 horses and mules. The 
Federal loss was i killed and about 20 wounded. 

Romney, W. Va., Feb. 16, 1863. ii6th Ohio Infantry. Col. James 
Washburn, commanding the regiment, under date of Feb. 17, sent a 
despatch to Brig.-Gen. Benjamin F. Kelley, in which he made the 
following statement: "Through the negligence and carelessness of 
the officer in command, we had a forage train and guard captured 
yesterday by a body of rebel cavalry. I have officially reported to 
Gen. Milroy." 

Rosedale, La., Sept. 15. 1864. Detacliment of 2nd New York Vet- 
eran Cavalry. This affair was an incident of an expedition from 
Morganza to the Fausse river under Lieut. -Col. Asa L. Gurney. 
Sixty Confederates were encountered at Rosedale, and after a short 
skirmish they fled to the woods to escape a Federal charge. No casualties 
were reported. 

Roseville, Ark., Nov. 12, 1863. Two companies 2nd Kansas Cav- 
alry. 

Roseville, Ark., March 29 to April 5, 1864. Troops of the District 
of the Frontier. These engagements were a series of skirmishes with 
guerrillas. On March 29, a body of Confederate cavalry attacked 
the small guard at Roseville, but were repulsed after a sharp fight, 
though they succeeded in burning 133 bales of government cotton. 
On Sunday, April 3, about 800 Confederates, under Col. Battle, ap- 
proached the town, and on the morning of the 4th about half of 
the force made an attack on the detachment guarding the cotton. 
Again they were driven off. The garrison at Roseville numbered 
120 men, but Col. W. R. Judson, commanding the district, sent 25 
cavalry to reinforce the post, and another attack was repulsed on 
the morning of the 5th. In these actions the Union loss was 4 killed 
and 10 wounded. The known loss of the enemy was 16 killed and 35 
wounded, but it was thought to be heavier. 

Ross Landing, Ark., Feb. 14, 1864. Sist U. S. Colored Infantry. 

Rossville, Ga., Sept. 21, 1864. Detachments of 14th Army Corps 
and Cavalry of Army of the Cumberland. After the battle of Chicka- 
mauga Thomas' army fell back to Rossville, on Missionary ridge. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 757 

and on the night of the 20th the ist and 2nd divisions of the 14th 
corps, under Baird and Negley, respectively, were posted to guard 
the main approaches to the position. McCook's cavalry division, in 
Dry Valley, connected with Thomas' right and during the 21st, 
although many times hard pressed, succeeded in repulsing every 
attack of the enemy. Minty's brigade of Crook's division found itself 
at daylight directly in front of Thomas' line of battle and for 2 
hours skirmished with the enemy while the disposition of the troops 
was being completed. Then Minty retired to Rossville, and the Con- 
federates following found Baird and Negley too strongly posted to 
be dislodged. Later in the day an attempt to dislodge them by the 
use of artillery proved futile, and at dark the enemy withdrew. The 
total casualties were not reported, though Baird reported S of his 
men killed and Minty lost 10 killed and 14 wounded. 
. Roswell, Ga., July 5-9, 1864. (See Chattahoochee River.) 
Rottenwood Creek, Ga., July 4, 1864. (See Ruff's Station.) 
Rough and Ready, Ga., Aug. 31, 1864. (See Jonesboro, same date.) 
Rough and Ready, Ga., Nov. 15, 1864. (See Stockbridge.) 
Round Away Bayou, La., March 31, 1863. (See Richmond.) 
Round Hill, Ark., July 7, 1862. (See Hill's Plantation.) 
Roimd Mountain, Tenn., Aug. 27, 1862. loth Brigade, 2nd Army- 
Corps. The brigade, commanded by Col. William Grose, was en- 
gaged in escorting a train toward Murfreesboro. About 4 p. m. on 
the 27th the rear-guard was attacked by Forrest's cavalry at Round 
mountain, near Woodbury. Forrest's object was to capture the train, 
but instead he struck the 23d Ky., under Col. Mundy, and was hand- 
somely repulsed. Mundy, with his regiment, part of the 36th Ind., 
and Mendenhall's battery, pursued Forrest for about 2 miles and 
scattered his command in all directions, killing and wounding sev- 
eral, though the exact number was not learned. The Federal loss 
was 5 men wounded. 

Round Ponds, Mo., Aug. i, 1863. Detachment of 2nd Missouri 
State Militia Cavalry. A train of 30 wagons with an escort of 20 
men was surprised at Round Ponds, near Castor river, on the night 
of the 1st. Ten of the guard were killed outright and others were 
mortally wounded. The horses were all lost, but the mules were re- 
covered after the guerrillas had burned the train and left. 

Rousseau's Raid, July 10-22, 1864. Detached Troops, Army of 
the Cumberland. In the Atlanta campaign Gen. Sherman ordered 
Maj.-Gen. Lovell H. Rousseau to undertake the destruction of the 
West Point & Montgomery railroad, which was one of the principal 
lines of Confederate supply. Rousseau selected parts of the 8th Ind., 
Sth la., 9th Ohio, 2nd Ky., and 4th Tenn. cavalry, and Battery E, 
1st Mich, artillery, for the expedition, and started on his mission on 
July loth. During the movements skirmishes occurred at Auburn, 
Ala.. Chehaw Station, Jackson's ford on the Coosa river, and at Ten 
Island ford, each of which is described under the appropriate head. 

Rover, Tenn., Jan. 31, 1863. ist Cavalry Brigade, 20th Army 
Corps. The cavalry advance of an expedition from Murfreesboro to 
Franklin encountered Confederate pickets about a mile and a half 
from Rover. They were driven in by a portion of the 3d Ky. for 
over a mile, when the enemy was discovered in force drawn up in 
line of battle. The 7th Pa. cavalry was ordered to charge and led by 
Capt. W. H. Jennings, it executed the movement in fine order, driv- 
ing the Confederates a mile beyond the town to Unionville. Six 
officers and 43 men were captured, and 49 wounded by the saber in 
the charge. No casualties were sustained by the Union participants. 
Rover, Tenn., Feb. 13, 1863. ist Cavalry Brigade, 20th Army 



758 The Union Army 

Corps. On the return of an expedition from Murfreesboro to Frank- 
lin Col. Robert H. G. Minty learned that some 500 Confederate cav- 
alry were encamped near Rover. He pressed forward to within 3 
miles of the town and then sent the 3d Ky. to get to the rear, but, the 
movement taking more time than anticipated, Minty had attacked 
and driven the enemy before the Kentucky regiment had reached its 
position. The casualties were not reported. 

Rover, Tenn., Feb. 19, 1863. The only official mention of this 
afTair is a ccnnmunication from Brig.-Gcn. E. C. Walthall, of the 
Confederate army, which states that Lieut.-Col. Prather had a skir- 
mish late in the afternoon with two or three regiments, with artillery, 
and had sent back for reinforcements. No casualties were mentioned, 
but from the tone of the despatch it is evident that the Confederates 
got the worst of the engagement. 

Rover, Tenn., March 4, 1863. Cavalry Detachment, Army of the 
Cumberland. Col. Robert H. G. Minty during an expedition from 
Murfreesboro toward Columbia was ordered to drive the enemy from 
Rover. A mile and a half from the town the pickets were met and 
driven in to where 400 more were posted, apparently determined to 
make a stand. The 4th Mich, cavalry was detached and ordered to 
gain the Shelbyville pike in order to shut ofif the Confederate retreat, 
but the enemy anticipating the movement had started to retire, when 
they were charged by the 7th Pa. and the 4th U. S. cavalry and com- 
pletely routed. 

Rover, Tenn., March 13, 1863. Brig.-Gen. John A. Wharton (Con- 
federate) reports that Federal cavalry engaged his pickets near 
Rover on the 13th, and while the pickets were engaged in front an- 
other Confederate force attacked on the flank, completely routing 
the Federals. Wharton's report is the only official mention of the 
afifair, so there is no way of knowing what Union troops partici- 
pated. 

Rover, Tenn., May 5, 1863. Detachment of ist Tennessee Cav- 
alry. Brig.-Gen. J. M. Schofield sent the following despatch from 
Triune on May 6: "Lieut.-Col. Brownlow, while on a reconnaissance 
yesterday, charged through a rebel cavalry camp at Rover; lost 2 men 
and captured 4." 

Rover, Tenn., June 23, 1863. ist Cavalry Division, Department of 
the Cumberland. This affair was an incident of the Middle Ten- 
nessee campaign. The cavalry under Brig.-Gen. Robert B. Mitchell 
struck the enemy's pickets first near Eagleville, forcing them back 
upon their reserves, which were rapidly concentrating. The Federal 
troopers continued to drive the Confederates until their encampment 
at Rover was reached. There a brief stand was made, but the enemy- 
was easily driven from his encampment and the town and a few 
stores were burned. From Rover the Confederates fell back to a 
strong elevated position, the advanced picket line of the force at 
Unionville, and opened on the Union advance with artillery. By 
some unknown way they were enabled to bring 2 pieces to bear on 
the Federal right. The 4th Ky., with the aid of the ist East Tenn. 
and the ist Wis., repulsed the attack, and the enemy was driven to 
his reserves at Unionville. The casualties were not reported. 

Rowanty Creek, Va., March 29, 1865. (See Quaker Road.) 

Rowe's Station, S. C, Feb. 12. 1865. (See Orangeburg.) ■ 

Rowlesburg, W. Va., April 26. 1863. The Confederate reports of 
Jones' raid on the Northwestern railroad mention an attack made by 
Jones on the_ Federal garrison of 300 at Rowlesburg after the pickets 
had been driven in. The attack was repulsed. No casualties were 
reported. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 759 

Rowlett's Station, Ky., Dec. 17, 1861. 32nd Indiana Infantry. At 

noon of the 17th slcirniishers began to annoy four companies of the 
32nd Ind. doing outpost duty at Rowlett's station, or Woodsonville, 
near Munfordville. Company B was sent out and drove them off, 
discovering while doing so the approach of a considerable body of 
Confederate infantry. Company C, out reconnoitering in a southerly 
direction, ran upon a company of Texas Rangers, and drove it back. 
The alarm was sounded in the camp, and the whole regiment placed 
in position. Three times the enemy charged unsuccessfully, the con- 
flict becoming a hand-to-hand fight before they withdrew, believing 
that reinforcements had come to the Union command, and the Indi- 
anians also withdrew, fearing that they would be unable to hold 
their position against another charge. The Union loss was 11 killed, 
22 wounded and 5 missing, while the enemy suffered to the extent of 
4 killed and 9 wounded. 

Ruckersville, Miss., Oct. i, 1862. Cavalry Detachment of the 
Army of the Mississippi. In a despatch to Gen. Grant on Oct. 2, 
Maj.-Gen. W. S. Rosecrans says: "The cavalry took 50 privates, i 
captain, and chaplain prisoners at Ruckersville yesterday, after kill- 
ing I and wounding several. Captured an ambulance and mules with 
sick olTicer. A rebel picket was killed at Duncan's mill." 

Ruckersville, Miss., Oct. 7, 1862. McPherson's Provisional Divi- 
sion. During the pursuit of the Confederates after the battle of 
Corinth the advance of the division came up with the enemy, mostly 
cavalry, well posted, about a mile and a half north of Ruckersville. 
For a time an effectual check was put to the Federal skirmishers, but 
a few shells from Powell's battery routed the Confederates and the 
town was entered without further molestation. No casualties were 
reported. 

Rude's Hill, Va., May 14, 1864. Detachment of Cavalry Division 
of Army of West Virginia. Maj. Timothy Quinn, with some 450 
cavalry, while on a reconnaissance came upon the Confederates 
posted on Rude's hill. Quinn masked his main force behind a hill 
and sent out two parties of 50 and 60 men, respectively, which both 
succeeded in dislodging the enemy. About i p. m. the Confederates 
charged, but they were repulsed and driven until after 5 p. m., the 
pursuit continuing through New Market. The Union command had 
I man killed and 3 wounded. 

Rude's Hill, Va., Sept. 24, 1864. (See Mount Jackson, same date.) 

Rude's Hill, Va., Nov. 22, 1864. 2nd and 3d Cavalry Divisions, 
Army of the Shenandoah. Maj.-Gen. A. T. A. Torbert, commanding 
the cavalry corps, was ordered to make a reconnaissance up the 
valley, and proceeded with the two divisions as far as Rude's hill, 
where he encountered and drove back the Confederate cavalry some 
distance, when a large force of infantry and artillery was developed 
in line of battle. Torbert directed Gen. Powell to form the 2nd divi- 
.sion to attack the enemy, and supported him with Pennington's bri- 
gade of Custer's division, but finding the Confederates too strong to 
assault, Pennington was ordered to take three regiments of his com- 
mand back to Mount Jackson and form a new line to cover the retreat 
of the main body. Through this line Torbert retired with the com- 
mand, Pennington bringing up the rear and repelling several attacks 
of the enemy, who pursued as far as Edenburg. The Union loss was 
about 40 in killed, wounded and missing. The Confederate loss. was 
not learne^. , ' 

Ruff's Station, Ga., July 3-4, . 1864. Army of the Cumberlancl. 
When it was discovered on the morning of July 3 that the Confed- 
erates had. evacuated their works on Kennesaw mountain,, Sherma'n 



760 The Union Army 

ordered an immediate pursuit by different routes. The Army of the 
Cumberland, commanded by Maj.-Gen. George H. Thomas, moved 
from Marietta about 9 a. m.. with Palmer's corps in the center, on 
the main road to Atlanta, Hooker s on the right and Howard's on 
the left. About 4 miles from Marietta the enemy's rear-guard was 
overtaken and skirmishing continued until the main body of Con- 
federates was encountered in the works previously constructed at 
Ruff's (or Neal Dow) station. This line of Confederate works ex- 
tended from Rottenwood creek east of the railroad to Nickajack 
creek on the west. When the enemy made his stand here Howard 
was brought in front of the extreme right of the Confederate posi- 
tion, extending from Ruff's station to Rottenwood creek. Stanley's 
division was deployed with the right resting on the railroad and 
the other two divisions were massed in reserve. The main line of 
works near the railroad was a little south of the station, at a place 
called Smyrna camp-ground. Early on the morning of the 4th New- 
ton's and Wood's divisions were moved up into line with Stanley's 
and about 9 o'clock Stanley was ordered to assault the enemy's skir- 
mish line, which was an unusually strong one, intrenched in rifle- 
pits. At the same time Newton and Wood were directed to move 
forward with Stanley. In the face of heavy fire of artillery and mus- 
ketry the line advanced. Stanley forced the skirmishers to retire 
within the main works, while Wood and Newton in the direction of 
Rottenwood creek bent back the Confederate line toward the railroad. 
That night the enemy evacuated his works and fell back toward the 
Chattahoochee river. 

Rural Hill, Tenn., Nov. 18, 1862. 8th Kentucky Cavalry. 

Rural Hill, Tenn., Dec. 20, 1862. Detachment of 4th Michigan 
Cavalry. Col. Robert H. G. Minty, with his regiment, while on a 
reconnaissance to Rural hill, encountered a small squad of Confed- 
erate cavalry, who fired and retreated at a gallop. No casualties 
were reported. 

Rush Creek, Neb., Feb. 8-9. 1865. Detachments of nth Ohio and 
7th Iowa Cavalry. As an incident of the operations against the In- 
dians on the North Platte river, a detachment under Lieut. -Col. Will- 
iam O. Collins was attacked by about 2,000 warriors. The Indians 
charged furiously at first, but were repulsed, and then began their 
fighting from behind hillocks and ravines. This continued all day. 
At one time it became necessary to dislodge a group of Indians near 
enough to effectually annoy the men. Fifteen men under Lieut. 
Patton performed the task, losing 2 men killed. By dark the red 
men had withdrawn out of range. Next morning they returned, but 
after some futile skirmishing withdrew into the bluffs. Besides the 
2 men killed the white men lost 9 wounded. 

Russell's Ford, Va., Oct. 10, 1863. ist Brigade, 3d Cavalry Divi- 
sion, Army of the Potomac. During the Bristoe campaign the Con- 
federate cavalry in force crossed Robertson's river at Russell's ford 
on the morning of the loth and attacked the 5th N. Y. cavalry picket- 
ing that place. The pickets fell back slowly toward James City, 
fighting all the way. Brig.-Gen. Henry E. Davies, Jr., commanding 
the brigade, formed a line of battle near the town and threw out a 
strong skirmish line. The Confederates advanced in heavy column 
until they reached a point commanded by Davies' artillery, when 
they were compelled to fall back. Their skirmishers, however, kept 
up a spirited fire all day and at one time they brought a battery into 
position, but it was soon driven off by Elder's guns. The casualties 
were not reported. 

RusseU'g House, Mitt., May 17. 1862. ist Brigade, 5th Division, 



Cyclopedia of Battles 761 

Army of the Tennessee. As part of the siege of Corinth, Gen. Sher- 
man ordered Morgan L. Smith's brigade to occupy a position at 
Russell's house. On reaching the causeway before the house Smith 
halted and deployed his skirmishers, one company of the 8th Mo. on 
each side of the road. As they advanced they were fired on from 
the flanks and other troops were sent to deploy and extend the line 
until ten companies, eight of the 8th Mo. and two of the SSth 111., 
were engaged. As soon as opportunity offered a battery was brought 
to bear and in a short time the Confederates began to retreat, though 
contesting every foot of the ground. Thirteen of their dead were 
left on the field. Smith had lo men killed and 31 wounded. 

Russellville, Ala., July 3. 1862. Detachment, ist Ohio Cavalry. 
Companies B and G were sent out on a scouting expedition toward 
Russellville. About 3 a. m. on the 3d their camp was attacked by 
Roddey's Confederate cavalry, estimated at 250. Capt. Emery of 
Co. B was severely wounded and 4 men were killed. The enemy lost 
4 killed and i captured. 

Russellville, Ala., Dec. 31. 1864. Detachment of Steedman's Cav- 
alry. The detachment, consisting of the 15th Pa., parts of the loth, 
I2th and 13th Ind. and 2nd Tenn., commanded by Col. W. J. Palmer, 
was in pursuit of Roddey's cavalry. Palmer reached Leighton, 13 
miles west of Courtland about i p. m. on the 30th. having skirmished 
with Roddey all the way from Town creek. While at Leighton 
Palmer learned that Hood's pontoon train, guarded by a detachment 
of Armstrong's cavalry, had passed through that town the day before 
and was then encamped at La Grange. He decided to follow and 
capture the train. Starting before daylight on the 31st he took a 
road that would enable him to avoid Armstrong's men, but upon 
reaching La Grange he encountered part of Roddey's command, and 
learned that the train had gone on toward Russellville. After driving 
the Confederates out of La Grange, Palmer hastened on to Russell- 
ville, where he met another party of Roddey's cavalry that had just 
arrived from Tuscumbia and engaged them, driving them from the 
town and capturing a few prisoners. He then pushed on after the 
train, which was overtaken late in the day about 10 miles from 
Russellville. The pontoniers cut loose part of the mules, mounted 
them and made their escape, leaving the rest of the animals hitched 
to the wagons. The train, consisting of 200 wagons, 78 pontoon 
boats, engineering instruments, several mules and oxen, and a few 
prisoners, were captured without the loss of a man. 

Russellville, Ky., July 29, 1862. 26th Kentucky Infantry. An at- 
tack was made upon the camp of the 26th Ky. by a body of guerrillas 
and Lieut. Burgher was killed and Capt. Morrow badly wounded. 

Russellville, Ky., Sept. 30, 1862. Detachments of the 70th Indiana 
and 8th Kentucky Infantry. Col. Sanders D. Bruce, of the 20th Ky. 
infantry, reported from Bowling Green on Oct. i, as follows: "Rebels 
burnt bridge at Black Lick, near Auburn. Monday night. I sent 
70th Ind. and part of 8th Ky. down, rebuilt the bridge, surprised the 
enemy at Russellville, and routed them completely, killing and 
wounding 50, taking 15 prisoners and 40 horses and saddles. Also 
routed a party at Glasgow yesterday, taking 10 prisoners; among- 
them Lieut. Crews, Capt. J. M. Brown and Lieut. Thomas." 

Russellville, Ky., June 28. 1863. Detachment of 3d Kentucky 
Cavalry. A portion of the regiment in pursuit of a hand of guerrillas 
thought to be aiming for the railroad near Russellville attacked and 
defeated them, several of the enemy being wounded and some cap- 
tured. A Union sergeant was wounded, which was the only casualty 
on that side. 



762 The Union Army 

Russellville, Mo., Oct. 9, 1864. Detachment of the Cavalry Corps, 
Department of Missouri. During the pursuit of Price in his Mis- 
souri expedition the Federal advance had such heavy skirmishing 
with his rear-guard that it was twice necessary near Russellville to 
bring the artillery into action before further progress could be made. 
No casualties were reported. 

Russellville, Tenn., July i, 1862. ist Ohio Cavalry. 

Russellville, Tenn., Dec. 10, 1863. Detachment of Cavalry Corps, 
Army of the Oliio. While in pursuit of Longstreet, after his retire- 
ment fron^ before Knoxville, a detachment of Shackelford's cavalry 
under Col. Pennebaker came upon the enemy's pickets beyond :Mor- 
ristown on the Russellville road and drove them in. No casualties 
were reported. 

Russellville, Tenn., Oct. 28, 1864. The report of Confederate Col. 
John B. Palmer of the operations in Tennessee states that his com- 
mand effectually checked some Federal cavalry which was driving 
Vaughn's cavalry through Russellville. This is the only official men- 
tion of the affair and contains no report of casualties. 

Russellville, Tenn., Nov. 11, 1864. A despatch from Maj. Sam 
Tool to Brig.-Gen. J. C. Vaughn (Confederate), dated at Warrens- 
burg, Va., on the 12th, contains the following: "I struck the Yankees 
at Russellville. 210 strong, at 10 o'clock last night. Drove them to- 
ward the gap." Union reports make no mention of this affair. 

Russellville, Tenn., Nov. 14, 1864. (See Bull's Gap, Nov. 11-13, 
1864.) 

Rutherford Creek, Tenn., March lo-ii, 1863. -Detachment of Cav- 
alry Division of the Army of the Cumberland. The cavalry under 
Col. Robert H. G. Minty in an expedition from Murfreesboro toward 
Columbia came to Rutherford creek on the loth. The bridge had 
been destroyed and an order was received to try the ford a mile and 
a half above. While examining the place the detachment was under 
a heavy fire from the Confederates posted behind a stone fence on 
the opposite bank of the creek, 2 Federals being killed and 3 severely 
wounded. Next morning Forrest appeared on the opposite bank of 
the stream, but a sharp artillery and musketry fire was opened upon 
him and he was compelled to retire. Minty then crossed, and while 
forming on the south bank a dismounted detachment of the enemy 
advanced toward him. The Union troops were deployed so as to get 
to the Confederate rear, and the enemy upon seeing this movement 
immediately remounted and fled. The casualties on the nth, if any, 
were not reported. 

Rutherford Creek, Tenn., Dec. 19, 1864. Detachment of Cavalry of 
the Army of the Cumberland. In the pursuit of Hood from Nash- 
ville Wilson's cavalry came to Rutherford's creek on the 19th and 
found it too high to ford. Hazen managed to get 2 regiments over 
on the remains of the railroad bridge, and after some skirmishing 
retired at dark across the stream. No casualties were reported. 

Rutherford's Station, Tenn., Dec. 21, 1862. (See Forrest's Expedi- 
tion into West Tennessee.) 

Rutledge, Mo., Aug. 4, 1864. Detachment of 8th Missouri State 
Militia Cavalry. The itinerary of the district of southwest Missouri 
contains the following for Aug. 4: "Lieut. Hunter, 8th Mo. State 
Militia Cavalry, in command of 60 men. same regiment, on a scout 
in the direction of McDonald county. Mo., encountered the enemy 
300 strong near Rutledge; had a sharp skirmish, in which he lost 3 
men killed and i man wounded: the enemy's loss. 3 killed and several 
wounded." 

Rutledge, Tenn., Dec. 7. 1863. Cavalry of the Army of the Ohio. 



Cyclopedia of Battles 763 

Brig.-Gen. J. M. Shackleford, with a cavalry detachment, while in 
pursuit of Longstreet after the latter had raised the siege of Knox- 
ville, skirmished with the enemy on the Rutledge road. No casualties 
were reported. 

Rutledge, Tenn., Dec. i6, 1863. (See Bean's Station.) 

Sabine Cross-Roads, La., April 8, 1864. Banks' Red River Expe- 
dition. On the morning of the 8th the infantry of the expedition moved 
from its position at Pleasant Hill toward Mansfield and at Sabine cross- 
roads the skirmishers became sharply engaged, the main body of the 
enemy being posted on a hill on both sides of the road, protected by a 
heavy growth of timber. The cavalry under Gen. Albert L. Lee was 
thrown forward to hold the enemy in check until the 19th corps (Frank- 
lin) could take position. For some hours the opposing forces were 
stationary, but at 4:30 p. m. the enemy made a general attack, the heaviest 
assault being on the Federal right flank. Banks' report states that over- 
whelming numbers compelled the Union troops to fall back, several at- 
tempts to get to the rear being repulsed. At the edge of a strip of 
timber the 3d division of the 13th corps formed the basis of a new line. 
This second line was attacked with great impetuosity and the Federals 
again gave way, 10 pieces of artillery falling into the enemy's possession. 
The ground was badly obstructed by the supply train of the cavalry di- 
vision, which rendered the movements of the infantry extremely difficult. 
Meanwhile Emory's division (ist of the 19th corps) had been pushed 
forward through the confused and fleeing Union troops to Pleasant 
Grove, 3 miles from the cross-roads, where the i6ist N. Y. was thrown 
out as skirmishers at the foot of the hill, on the crest of which the rest 
of the division was deployed, the ist brigade to the front, the 3d to 
the left and the 2nd in reserve. The line had scarcely been formed when 
the skirmishers were driven in and the right of the position was seriously 
threatened. The 2nd brigade was hurried to its assistance, however, and 
the enemy was repulsed. This action lasted an hour and a half. During 
the night after the Federals had been rallied on Emory's line, a desperate 
attempt was made to turn the left flank, but it was defeated. This en- 
gagement marked the turning point of the Red River campaign. Banks' 
movement from this time on being backward instead of forward. The 
Union casualties in the affair were 74 killed, 331 wounded and 1,397 
captured or missing. The Confederate losses were not definitely re- 
ported, but were probably not so heavy. 

Sabine Pass, Tex., Sept. 24-25, 1862. For an account of the bombard- 
ment of the Confederate works at Sabine pass on this date see operations 
of the Gulf blockading squadron in the Naval volume. 

Sabine Pass, Tex., Oct. 29, 1862. U. S. Steamer Dan. According 
to Confederate reports the Dan came up through the channel with a 
schooner in tow, when she was fired upon by a battalion of cavalry, 
which then withdrew before the vessel could get her guns trained upon 
the shore. The Dan then shelled the town for awhile, but without doing 
any material damage. No exact report of casualties was made, but the 
Confederate captain in command of the cavalry estimated that 25 or 30 
on the boat were either killed or wounded by the fire from his carbines. 

Sabine Pass, Tex., April 18, 1863. Details from Gunboats Cayuga 
and New London. On the 17th a detail of 7 men from one of the gim- 
boats lying off Sabine pass was landed on the Louisiana shore to make 
observations about the light-house. That night Lieut.-Col. Griffin, the 
Confederate commander at the pass, stationed 30 men. of the 21st Tex. 
infantry at the light-house and another house close by to prevent further 
maneuvers of that character. About 11 a. m. on the i8th two small boats, 
containing 13 men, left the gunboats and landed about 600 yards from 



764 The Union Army 

the light-house. The Confederates immediately attacked and the boat 
from the Cayuga, with 8 men, was captured, the captain of the boat being 
mortally wounded. The boat from the New London managed to escape, 
though every man on board but one was wounded. One of the enemy 
was known to have been killed. 

Sabine Pass, Tex., Sept. 8, 1863. Detachment of the 19th Army 
Corps. The expedition to Sabine Pass was led by Maj.-Gen. W. B. 
Franklin, accompanied by the gunboats Clifton, Sachem, Arizona and 
Granite City. It was intended to surprise the Confederate fort, just 
inside the pass, but the fleet of transports arrived some time before the 
gunboats, and the Confederates were thus apprised of the intended attack. 
After consultation with Capt. Crocker, commanding the gunboats, Frank- 
lin decided on the following plan of assault : Three of the gunboats 
were to move up the channel to the point of separation, where the Sachem 
and Arizona were to take the right hand channel and pass the fort, draw- 
ing its fire; the Clifton was to take the left hand channel and move up 
slowly until within a half a mile of the fort, when she was to go for- 
ward at full speed and engage the enemy at close range with grape and 
canister; Gen. Weitzel was to keep near the Clifton with a boat carry- 
ing 500 infantry, who were to land as soon as the Clifton began to go at 
full speed and advance upon the enemy's works deployed as skirmishers. 
The Granite City was held in the rear to support the movements of 
Weitzel's skirmish line. At 3 p. m. the gunboats moved forward and 
within 30 minutes were under the fire of the fort. It had been reported 
that the Confederate battery mounted but 2 guns, but instead of that it 
carried 6, all of heavy caliber. Early in the action the Sachem received 
a shot through her boilers, killing and wounding a number of her men, 
and she hoisted the white flag. The Arizona ran aground and for a time 
was wholly useless. The Clifton carried out her part of the plan, but 
had barely turned her broadside to the fort to deliver her fire when she 
received a shot through her steam-pipe, which disabled her, though the 
crew fought gallantly for about 10 minutes, when the vessel was com- 
pelled to surrender. When Weitzel attempted to land his men the shore 
was found to be too marshy, and the landing place designated was under 
the direct fire of the enemy. After the surrender of the Clifton and 
Sachem the other two vessels withdrew to the outside of the bar. Be- 
sides the loss of the two gunboats, Gen. Weitzel reported a loss of 97 
men in killed, wounded and missing. Of the 2 officers and 75 men of 
the 75th N. Y. on board the Clifton as sharpshooters, only 6 escaped, 
The Confederate loss was not ascertained, but it was comparatively light. 

Sacramento, Ky„ Dec. 28, 1861. Detachment of the 3d Kentucky 
Cavalry. Maj. Eli H. Murray, with 168 men, was sent out from Cal- 
houn to make a reconnaissance toward South Carrollton and as he was 
returning he was attacked near Sacramento by 400 or 500 of Forrest's 
cavalry. The vanguard was driven back and the Confederates pursued 
for some distance, when Murray rallied his men and engaged the enemy 
in a hand-to-hand conflict, with a fair prospect of repelling the whole 
force, until some one unauthorized called out "Retreat to Sacramento!" 
TTiis threw the men into confusion and they could not again be rallied. 
Murray lost 8 killed and 13 captured or missing. The enemy took away 
three wagon loads of dead and wounded. Col. J. S. Jackson, command- 
ing the regiment, went out with 500 men for the purpose of punishing- 
the Confederates, but they had hastily left the neighborhood. 

Sacramento Mountains, N. Mex., Aug. 25, 1864. ist New Mexico^ 
Cavalry. On Aug. 6, Capt. Francis McCabe, commanding a detachment 
of the 1st N. Mex. cavalry, with several Navajo Indians as guides and 
spies, started in pursuit of a band of Apache Indians who had recently 
committed various murders and robberies. A long and weary march was 



Cyclopedia of Battles 765 

made to the Sacramento mountains, and on the 26th a detachment of 
20 men, under Lieut. Gilbert, encountered the Apaches near Rio Milagro. 
Gilbert was killed, 2 others were mortally, and 3 severely wounded. 

Sage Creek, Dak. Ter., April 22, 1865. Detachment of nth Kansas 
Cavalry. A party of 35 men under Maj. Nathaniel A. Adams while in 
pursuit of a band of marauding Indians, was attacked about 9 p. m. by 
75 or 100 Cheyennes and Sioux. After a brisk fight the Indians were 
repulsed, without loss to the troops. The Indians' casualties were not 
ascertained. 

Sailor's Creek, Va., April 6, 1865. 2nd and 6th Army Corps and 
Cavalry, Army of the Potomac. The battle of Sailor's creek was an 
incident of the pursuit of the Confederate army under Gen. Lee, after 
it had evacuated the trenches in front of Richmond and Petersburg. 
On the evening of the 5th the greater part of the Army of the Potomac 
encamped at Jetersville and early on the morning of the 6th moved out 
in the direction of Amelia Court House, where it was believed the Con- 
federate forces were concentrating. After proceeding about 3 miles Gen. 
Meade learned that Lee was moving toward Farmville. The direcflon of 
his march was therefore changed, the 6th corps, under Gen. Wright, was 
thrown to the left of the army, the 2nd, under Gen. Humphreys, was 
directed to move toward Deatonsville, and the 5th, under Gen. Griffin, 
took the Pridesville road to the right of the army. Between 5 and 6 
o'clock that morning Gen. Sheridan had ordered Crook's division to move 
to Deatonsville, Gen. Merritt to follow. Both Crook and Merritt moved 
parallel to Lee's column, attacking it and the wagon train whenever op- 
portunity presented itself. At the forks of the road near the Atkinson 
farm. Crook tried to cut out the train, but found it too strongly guarded, 
after which he moved to Merritt's left and continued to harass the re- 
treating Confederates. Near Harper's farm, on Sailor's creek, Custer's 
division routed the train guard and captured over 300 wagons. Custer 
was soon afterward attacked by two divisions of infantry and a severe 
fight ensued, in which Custer was several times driven back. Devin's 
division was sent to Custer's assistance, arriving just as Capehart's 
brigade, supported by Pennington's, made a brilliant charge, capturing 
several hundred prisoners on the spot and more in the pursuit which 
followed. In the running fight the cavalry captured 15 pieces of artillery 
and 31 battleflags. 

In the meantime Seymour's division of the 6th corps had driven the 
enemy from Deatonsville and then, with Wheaton's division on the left, 
advanced down the road for about 2 miles to Sailor's creek, where Ewell's 
command was found strongly posted on the opposite bank. Anderson's 
corps lay across the road in the rear of Ewell, and Pickett occupied the 
road leading to Rice's station. Wright ordered his artillery into position 
and while it was coming up Seymour and Wheaton readjusted their lines 
on the north side of the creek for an assault. Getty's division was com- 
ing up at the double-quick, but without waiting for its arrival the other 
two divisions advanced under cover of a destructive artillery fire, the men 
wading the marsh and creek, the water in places coming above their 
waists. When the opposite bank was reached the line was in some dis- 
order, but without waiting to reform the men rushed forward upon the 
enemy's slight intrenchments. In this advance not a shot was fired by 
the Union troops until they were within a few yards of the enemy's 
works. Then they opened a withering fire that caused Ewell's advance 
to give way, but he massed his troops and made a desperate charge upon 
the center of Wright's line, which gave way and the head of the Con- 
federate column came pouring through the break. For a moment it 
looked as though the gallant 6th corps, that had won renown on so 



766 The Union Army 

many victorious fields, was to be cut to pieces. But only for a moment. 
Wright concentrated his artillery fire on the advancing column in the 
center, which with Getty's division, now in front, checked Ewell's further 
advance in that direction, while each wing, ignoring the disaster to the 
center, drove back the enemy in its front, and then wheeling on a pivot 
toward the center caught the enemy on both flanks. 

When the sound of Wright's guns was heard at the beginning of the 
action, Sheridan ordered the cavalry to attack on the right and rear. 
Stagg's brigade of Devin's division had been operating with the 6th corps 
and now struck Ewell's right flank, capturing about 300 prisoners. Crook 
dismounted the brigades of Gregg and Smith and ordered Davies to 
charge the works. In his report Crook says : "Davies made one of the 
finest charges of the war, riding over and capturing their works and its 
defenders." As the lines were closing around Ewell a countercharge was 
made by the marine brigade, 2,000 strong under command of Commo- 
dore Tucker. The Federals were already looking upon the entire Con- 
federate force as prisoners, when Tucker made such a terrific onset that 
a large part of the 6th corps was driven back across the creek. There 
was some desperate hand-to-hand fighting and Tucker's men were over- 
powered, surrendering to Keifer's brigade of Seymour's division. The 
losses at Sailor's creek are somewhat problematical. In the tabulated 
statement in the official records of the war the Union losses from March 
29 to April 9 are included, no detailed reports of the various engage- 
ments of the campaign being made. Gen. Humphreys places the Con- 
federate loss at Sailor's creek at 6,000 in killed, wounded and captured, 
and states the loss of the 6th corps as ..142. Ewell, Kershaw, Custis Lee, 
DuBose, Barton and Corse, all generals, were among the prisoners, and 
only about 250 of Kershaw's division escaped. 

About 9 a. m. Humphreys discovered a column of the enemy's in- 
fantry (Gordon's corps) moving westward near Flat creek. Gen. Mott, 
commanding the 3d division, was directed to send a brigade across the 
creek to develop the force, and Gen. Miles, commanding the ist division, 
brought up some artillery and opened fire. A little later the whole corps 
was put in pursuit of Gordon, Mott on the left. Miles on the right, and 
Barlow close in the latter's rear. For 14 miles a running fight was kept 
up, a number of prisoners being taken from time to time as the enemy 
attempted to make a stand. A little while before sunset Gordon made 
his last stand at Sailor's creek, a short distance above its mouth, taking 
position on a ridge that commanded the crossing of the stream. Miles 
ordered Scott's brigade to charge the enemy's line, which was admirably 
done, the Confederates being driven into and across the creek. Mac- 
Dougall's brigade moved forward on Scott's right, crossed the creek, 
routed the enemy from his position, and took possession of the ridge. 
Darkness put an end to further pursuit. During the day the corps took 
1,700 prisoners, 13 flags, 4 pieces of artillery, 300 wagons and 70 am- 
bulances, with a total loss of 55 killed, 256 wounded and 85 missing. 
The enemy's loss in killed and wounded was doubtless equal to that of the 
2nd corps, so that Gordon lost on this day at least 2,000 men. 

Saint Augustine, Fla.. March 9, 1863. 7th New Hampshire Infantry. 
Some 80 Confederate cavalry, under Capt. Dickison, drove in the Union 
pickets about 2 miles north of town and Lieut. -Col. J. C. Abbott, with 
120 men, started in pursuit. He came within sight of the enemy about 
3 miles from the Confederate camp, but was unable to bring them to a 
stand. A sergeant and 4 men were sent to reconnoiter the house of a 
man named Carrero, and this party was cut off and captured, which were 
the only casualties reported. 

Saint Augustine, Fla., Dec. 30, 1863. Detachment of 24th Massa- 



Cyclopedia of Battles 767 

chusetts Infantry. A squad of 20 armed wood cutters and an escort of 
30 men were attacked 2 miles outside of the Federal lines by Confed- 
erates concealed in the palmetto brush on the front and right flank. 
The men were being brought into line to face the enemy when a volley 
was poured into them from their left, wounding the officer in command. 
This and a movement of the enemy to get to their rear threw the Fed- 
erals into some confusion and they started to retreat toward Saint Augus- 
tine. Before they reached the Union lines they had become well scat- 
tered and 24 of thom were captured. 

Saint Catherine's Creek, Miss., July 31, 1863. Detachment of 17th 
Army Corps. Learning tiiat some 1,500 Confederates were approaching 
Natchez, Brig.-Gen. T. E. G. Ransom, commanding the post, doubled his 
pickets and sent out a cavalry force under I\Iaj. Asa Worden to recon- 
noitcr. Worden encountered the enemy's pickets near Saint Catherine's 
creek and continued to drive them slowly until noon, when they made a 
stand and formed line of battle. Deeming the position too strong to 
attack, Worden fell back 3 miles, meeting and defeating a detachment 
that had been sent to his rear. Tlie enemy lost i killed, 15 wounded and 
45 taken prisoners, while the Federal casualties amounted to 2 wounded.' 

Saint Charles, Ark., June 17, 1862. U. S. Gunboats St. Louis, 
Conestoga, Lexington and Mound City and 46th Indiana Infantry. As 
an incident of an expedition up the White river the 46th Ind., under Col. 
G. N. Fitch, was landed below the town and the gunboats moved up the 
river to silence the batteries. The tirst battery was silenced by the 
vessels, but a shot from the second exploded the boiler on the Mound 
City, compelling the crew to jump into the river to avoid being scalded 
to death. The Confederates immediately commenced firing upon the men 
in the water, and Fitch, seeing the treatment being accorded the sailors, 
stormed and captured the battery. The losses were not definitely ascer- 
tained, although 8 or 9 of the enemy's dead were buried by the Federals, 
and more than half the crew of the Mound City lost their lives. 

Saint Charles, Ark., Sept. 12, 1862. Detachment of 2nd Brigade, 2nd 
Division, Army of the Southwest. An expedition under Col. William 
Vandever came to the bank of the White river a mile above Saint Charles 
about noon. A party of Confederate soldiers at work unloading a flat- 
boat on the opposite bank of the stream was dispersed by a shell from 
a howitzer and took refuge in a large mill. A few shells dropped into 
the mill drove the enemy from it, when 2 soldiers swam the river and 
destroyed the flatboat. No casualties were reported. 

Saint Charles, Ark., Jan. 13, 1863. (See White River, Gorman's Ex- 
pedition.) 

Saint Charles, Ark., Oct. 22, 1864. 53d U. S. Colored Infantry. 
While the regiment was proceeding down the White river on board 
transports it was fired upon near Saint Charles from tlic south bank 
of the stream. Three of the men were killed and 17 wounded. 

Saint Charles Court House, La., Aug. 29, 1862. Detachment of the 
8th Vermont Infantry and 2nd Massachusetts Cavalry. Col. Stephen 
Thomas, with two companies of infantry, one of cavalry and a section 
of the battery belonging to the 8th Vt., started from Algiers on the 28th 
on a reconnaissance. That night he encamped at St. Charles and early 
the next morning moved out on the road toward Bonnet Carre point, 
where it was reported there were some 300 to 500 of the enemy. A 
few miles from the court-house the cavalry advance encountered a 
small detachment of the enemy, who speedily withdrew out of rifle range. 
The artillery then threw a few shells and the cavalry charged, capturing 
5 prisoners. One of the Confederates was known to have been wounded. 
No casualties on the Union side. 



768 The Union Army 

Saint Francis County, Ark., April 8, 1863. Detachment of 4th Iowa 
Cavalry, and some other Troops. 

Saint Francis Road, Ark., Dec. 23, 1862. Outpost Picket of the 
District of Eastern Arkansas. The Confederate cavalry operating in the 
vicinity of Helena attacked and ambushed a Federal outpost on the Saint 
T"rancis road. Ahhough none of the guard was captured, 2 were killed 
and 16 wounded. 

Saint Francisville, Mo., Feb. 25, 1862. Reconnaissance from Green- 
ville. Maj. Clendcnning, of the ist Ind. cavalry, with two companies of 
his regiment, and two of Missouri volunteers and militia, left Greenville 
on the 23d. On the 25th, when near St. Francisville, they were surprised 
by a party of Confederates, variously estimated from 200 to 2,000 men. 
All the Union troops stampeded except Capt. Leeper's company of militia, 
which dismounted and fought the Confederates until they were compelled 
to retire, having lost i killed, several wounded and 6 captured. Leeper's 
loss was I killed and 2 wounded. 

Saint James, Mo., June 10, 1864. Detachment of 3d Missouri State 
Militia Cavalry. Capt. George L. Herring and Lieut. James M. Roberts 
while riding out near their camp at St. James were attacked by 25 Con- 
federates and the captain was mortally wounded. The enemy was pursued 
and scattered. 

Saint John, C. S. S., April 18, 1863. Brig.-Gen. J. H. Trapier, of 
the Confederate army, stated in a report from Fort Moultrie, S. C, on 
the 19th that the steamer St. John was chased ashore at 6 a. m. the day 
before at Light House island, where she was abandoned by officers and 
crew, and was then "taken possession of by the Yankees and towed off at 
high tide." 

Saint John's Bluff, Fla. Sept. 11, 1862. Union Gunboats. According 
to the reports of Brig.-Gen. Joseph Finnegan, of the Confederate army, 
he placed a battery of 6 guns on St. John's bluff, the action not being 
discovered by the Federals until the battery was completed. On the nth 
two gunboats (names not given) shelled the position for over 4 hours. 
Finnegan says one of the boats was crippled and both were driven off, 
the Confederate loss being i killed and 8 wounded. 

Saint John's Bluff, Fla., Sept. 17, 1862. Union Gunboats. On this 
date, according to the reports of Brig.-Gen. Finnegan, of the Confederate 
army, five gunboats shelled the battery on St. John's bluff for 5 hours, 
when they withdrew. The Confederate loss was 2 killed and 3 wounded. 

Saint John's Bluff, Fla., Oct. 3-4, 1862. Expeditionary Forces. 
After the engagements at St. John's bluff on Sept. 11 and 17, an expe- 
dition was sent out from Hilton Head, S. C, for the purpose of reducing 
the Confederate batteries on the bluff. This expedition was commanded 
by Brig.-Gen. J. M. Brannan, and consisted of the 7th Conn, and 47th 
Pa. infantry, a detachment of the ist Mass. cavalry, and a section of the 
1st Conn, light battery, about 1,600 men in all. On the afternoon of 
Sept. 30 Brannan embarked his men on transports at Hilton Head, and 
accompanied by the gunboats Paul Jones. Cimarron, Water Witch, Hale, 
Uncas and Patroon, under command of Capt. Charles Steedman, set 
sail for the St. John's river. The troops were landed on the night of 
Oct. I at Mayport mills, a short distance above the mouth of the river, 
and with great difficulty made their way through the 40 miles of swamps 
to the bluff. On the afternoon of Friday, the 3d, the infantry and artillery 
were in position about 2 miles from the enemy's works. Three of the 
gunboats were then sent up the river to feel the enemy, when the bat- 
teries were found to be evacuated. The next day Brannan removed all 
the guns, ammunition and equipage of the abandoned position on board 
the transports, the gunboats in the meantime moving on up the river, 



Cyclopedia of Battles 769 

dispersing several small detachments of the enemy and capturing the 
steamer Milton, which was concealed in a creek near the town of Enter- 
prise. The expedition then returned to Hilton Head without having lost 
a man. 

Saint Louis, Mo., May ii, 1861. Some newly organized Union 
troops, under command of Capt. Callender and Lieut. Saxton, were 
marching through the streets toward the U. S. Arsenal, when they were 
fired on by a mob and 2 of the soldiers were killed. The fire was re- 
turned by the troops, killing and wounding 10 citizens, when the mob 
dispersed. 

Saint Mary's Church, Va., June 24, 1864. 2nd Cavalry Division, 
Army of the Potomac. While the Army of the Potomac was moving 
to the James river, Maj.-Gen. Sheridan, commanding the cavalry corps, 
ordered Gen. Gregg to move with his division to St. Mary's church 
and there take position. About a mile from the church Gregg's advance 
found a small mounted force of the enemy, which was driven away and 
the lines of the division established, the batteries being placed in com- 
manding positions. Skirmishing was kept up all morning and during 
the early hours of the afternoon. Between 3 and 4 p. m. the Confeder- 
ates in great force made an attack on the right of the line, extending it 
to the left. The two batteries — Randol's and Dennison's — met the en- 
emy's advance with heavy charges of canister, staggering his lines, but 
without completely repulsing the attack. Again and again they assaulted 
until every one of Gregg's men was engaged, while the Confederates 
were constantly receiving reinforcements. After 2 hours of this contest 
it became evident that the forces were too unequal to continue it longer 
and Gregg gave the order to withdraw. The wounded, the led horses 
and the caissons were sent forward on the road to Charles City Court 
House, followed by the division, the men dismounting from time to 
time and fighting on foot to repel the attacks on the rear-guard. Gregg 
reported his loss in killed, wounded and missing at 357. Some of the 
■wounded fell into the hands of the enemy, but a portion of them were 
afterward recovered. The